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Syntax. Of the Use of the Nominative. 



xliVERY proposition, even the simplest, must contain two prin- 
cipal ideas : namely, that of the Subject, a thing or person of 
which anything is asserted in the proposition ; and that of the 
Predicate, that which is asserted of that person or thing. 

In propositions which are independent of any other, the Sub- 
ject is always in the nominative, except in the construction of 
the accusative with the infinitive. Sometimes the subject, as 
in Latin, is not expressed, either because it is implied in the 
form of the verb (as in <^iXw, <^tXeic, <|)tXeT ^ I love, thou lovest, 
he loves*, except when an emphasis is thrown upon it), or be- 
cause it is easily seen from the context. Thus it is omitted in the 
termination of the third person plural, if there be no determinate 
subject, Xe-youo-t, <^aai, dicunt, ' they say'*. Frequently also from 
the nature of the verb a subject is inadmissible, as in verbs im- 
personal, e. g. \pr]y Set, e^ecm, and in verbs which are used im- 
personally, as (j)aiverai, eoiKe, ei/coc eari ; in verbals also in the 
neuter, ireov ecrri, eundum est, Tro\efxr\Tka eari, hellandum est. 

In the same manner the proper subject is omitted, when a 
proposition follows which begins with the relative pronoun oq, 
5, o, or a relative conjunction, eV0a, oirovj ore, and these words 
refer to the subject which is kept in mind. See §. 298, 2. The 
nominative of the subject also is attracted to the relative fol- 

* Fisch. 3 a. p. 347. Duker ad Thuc. 7. 69. Comp. Heind. ad Plat. Crat. p. 17. 

VOL. 11. B 

506 Syntax. Of the Use of the Nominative, 

lowing in the same case, as ttXoutoi' S' ov fxev ^wai deoi, irapa- 
yiyverai av^pl ejuire^oQ Solon. EL in Brunck's Poet, Gnomic, 
p, 74. V, 9. See §. 474. 

Obs. Of ecTTiv o'l, eoTiv ovs, &c. which united make an adjective equi- 
295. "Valcnt to 'ivLoi, eviovs, see §. 482. 

(294) 'pj^g following are some particular cases : 

1. When the verb indicates the occupation of a definite 
person, whose appellation in this case is often derived from the 
verb itself, the subject is not expressed particularly : Herod, 
2, 47. Ovairi ^e rjde twv vtiyv rp ^eXr^vy Troieerai' eireav Bvay 
(sc. o Ovrrip), Trjv ovp^v uKpr\v Kai tov (nrXrjva /cat tov eTTt- 

ttXoov ovvOeic Ojjiov Kar lov eKaXv\pe ry Tri/iieXy. lb. 70. 

e7rea»^ vuirov voc, SeXeaa^ {sc. o aypevc, from the preceding 
aypai) irepi ayKicrrpov, /uCTiei ec, fjLeaov tov irora^ov. comp, 
6, 15. Xen. Anah. 3, 4, 36. eTrei Se eyiyvayctKov avrovQ oi 
' EXXr^i'ec l^ovXoiLievovc airievai Kai SiayyeXXojLievovc, eKrfpv^e 
{sc, o Kr)pv^) ToTc EXXt/^ti irapacrKevaaaaOai. lb. 6, 5, 25, 
TrapriyyeXXero 8e ra juei' ^opara em tov ^e^iov (v/ulov ey^eiVj ewe 
(jrjjULaivoi ry aaXinyyi {sc, o GaXiriKTric). Comp. Hur, Heracl. 833. 
Demosth. in Lept. p. 465, 1 4. o/lkdc, Se Kai tov vofj-ov v/uuv avrov 
avayvLjaerai sc. o ypafifxaTevc Comp. jEtSch. p. 403. ed, Reiske, 

Sometimes the subject nomin. is taken from a preceding 
verb of kindred meaning, as Herod, 9, 8. toi' '\adfjLov kreiyeov 
Kai a(l>L ^v TTpoQ TcXet sc, to TelyoQ, Xen, Cyr, 2, 4, 24. 
TTOpevaoiJiai evOvc irpoc, to. paatXeia, Koi r)v /uiev avSiaTriTai sc, o 
f^aoiXevQ. Comp. Anab. 3, 3, 5. Often, however, third per- 
sons are found without a subject, consequently impersonally, 
vei ' it rains', for which in a fragment of Alcseus we find vei fjiev 
o Zeuc, as Theocr. 4, 43. Theogn, 25. Herod. 3, 117. So vl(J)€i 
'it snows' Aristoph. Ach, 138 seq. j3povTa, aaTpa-KTei 'it 
thunders, it lightens' Arist. Anag. Fr, 7, to which the poets 
often add Zevc or arjp, Soph, CEd. C, 1456, 1606. eVeiffe 
' there was an earthquake' Thuc. 4, 52. avaKOTatei ' it grows 
dark' Xen. Cyr. 4, 5, 5.^ It is not improbable that the Greeks, 
who referred all natural phgenomena to the Deity, originally 
supplied 0eoc in the mind, but in common life this was hardly 

"" Valck. ad Herod. 4, 151. Toup Lamb. Bos. p. 167. 185. Elmsl. ad 
ad Suid. T. 1. p. 397. Schaef. ad Eur. Heracl. 830. 

Si/ntax, Of the Use of the Nominative, 507 

thought of; but vei, vK^ei, (^povra were used quite imperson- 
ally, as in Latin pliiitj ningit, 

2. So the third person sing, is often found without a sub- 
ject when anything is expressed generally and indefinitely. 
//. v', 287. (v. 276. €1 yap vvv irapa vr\vcn Xeyoi/^eOa TraVrec 

apKTTOi €Q X6j(^ov ) ovde Kev evOa reov ye jnevoc /cat '^elpaQ 

ovoiTo, where ov^e'u; or tiq or avrjp may be supplied. 

In the other passages, however, which are generally referred 
to this head, the third person refers to a word before men- 
tioned^. Soph, (Ed. T. 611. (piXov yap etjOXov efcjSaXelv 'i(tov 
Xeyo), Kal rov Trap' avTM (5ioTOv, ov TrXelarov <^iXeI, <^tAei is 
sufficiently introduced by avri^. Id. Trach. 93. the subj. of 
TTvOoiTo is supplied by iKrrepii), which precedes. Id. Aj. 154. 
the subject of ajuapToi is in leic (see §. 271. Ohs.), as Msch, 
Ag. 69. the subject of irapaOeX^ei in viroKXeitjju, &c. Arist. 
Nub. 9 SS. Eur. Orest. 907 . orav yap r}^vc role Xoyoic, ^poviov 
KaKujc, ireiOy to ttXtJOog, ry iroXei KaKov fieya, in ricvQ roTq A. 
'one who speaks agreeably' §. 269. Id. Androm. 423. in 
PpOTolc, as §. 475. Plat. Criton. p. 49. ovre apa avra^iKeiv 
Se?, ovT€ KaK(j)c, TTOielv ov^eva avOpiltmov ouS au oriovv Tracryij 
vir auTwr, 7ra<T^^ refers to the indefinite subject of the inf. av- 
ra^iKelv, as Menon. p. 97 A. In Xeu. Mem, S, 1, 2, 55, the 
subject of discourse from §. 54. onwards is eKacTTon, 

Ohs. In many passages of this kind the second person is taken in- 
stead of the third, e. g. Soph. Tr. 2. eKfxaOois for €Kf.indoi, Eurip. Or. 

308. voays Zolai^ris for voay Zola'Cr}. Eurip. Ion, 1387. it now 

stands vTrepl^aliji' for vTrepfjair]'^. 

So the third person sing, alone is used of indefinite things, 
where the Latin inserts res, Eur, Troad, 405. ei S eiq toB' 
kXOoi. Ion. 1196. €7ret § ec, avXov r]Kev. in the phrase ovrttyc 
e^ei, e. g. Plat. Prot. p. 340 E. comp. Soph. Aj. 684. Bei^ei 
Bri rd^a Arist. Ran. 1261. 'it will soon show itself, comp. 
Plat, Phileb, p,45J). with Stallbaum's note p. 139. e^jjAwce 

^ Soph. (Ed. T. 314 seq., which *^ Besides the remarks of Porson, 

Pors. ad Eur. Or.308. Herm. adVig. Hermann and Schaefer, quoted in the 

p. 730, 1 11. Schaef. ad L. Bos. p. 476. preceding note, see Heind. ad Plat, 

referred to this head, has ])een more Gorg. p. 34. Dobree ad Arist. Plut. 

correctly explained by Erfurdt ad 505. p. 116. ed. Lips. Bornem. ad 

loc. Add. ed. rain, and Herm. ibid. Xen. Symp. p. 51. 

B 2 

508 Syntax. Of the Use of the Nominative. 

^e * it showed itself Xen, Cyr. 7, 1, 30. Trpay/j-a or ra wpay- 
fiara is commonly supplied, as Thuc. 1, 109. d>c Se avrto 
irpovyfopei. ttoAXov Set ' far from it', &c. Herod. 9, 44. wc Se 
Trpoait) Trie, vvktoq irpoeXrjXaro ' when it was far on in the 
night*, where y^povoc is usually added. 

The subject of a third person must often be supplied from 
an oblique case which precedes, as Plat. Phadon. ^. 72 B. 
oiau oTi reXevrwvra iravra Xrjpov rov Ev^u^iwva aTTOoei^ece, 
Kai ov^a/uLOV av (j}aivoiro, sc» o EvSu/iiwv. Gorg. p. 464 A.* 
Comp. §. 428, 2. 

296. 3. In dependent propositions the subject is often wanting, 

(293) because by an attraction it is construed with the verb of the 

preceding proposition. //. /3', 409. y^ee yap Kara 0u^ov aSeX- 

i^eov, u)C, €7roveiTOy for u)c, eirovelro a^e\(^6c,. comp. v, 

310 seq. Od. T, 219. &c. Pind. Pyth. 4, 6 sqq. evQa ttotg 

'^pvaetjv Atoc opviyjbjv irape^poa lepea '^prjcrev oiKicTTripa 

BoTTO*/ KapTTO<p6pov Ai(3vaQy lepav vaaov cLc r/Sij XittCjv ktkt- 

ffeiev evapjuarov iroXiv. comp. ib. 9, 195. JEschyl. Agam. 500. 

Ttt^ eiaofxeaOa Xa/unra^ojv ^aeaC^opijjv (j)pvKrwpi(i)v re Kai irvpoc 

TrapaXXayac, eir ovv aXrjOela (eitrtV), e'lre &c. Soph. CEd. 

T. 224. oaric nod Vfx^v Aaiov tov AajSSa/cov Karoi^ev, av- 

^poQ e/c TivoQ otwXeTO, rovTOv KeXevto iravra (jr)fxaiveiv efxoi. 

comp. CEd. C. 571. Aj, 118. Eur. Iph. T. 341. Herod. 7, 

139. Ti7»^ yap u)(p€Xirjv Tr]v twv Teiyetov ov cvvajjiai 

'TTvOeaOaiy riric, av riv. comp. 8, 112. &c. Thuc. 1, 72. Kai afxa 

TT7V aK^erepav iroXiv ej^ovXovro ar^fxaiveiVy oat] eir/ ^vvafjLiv, 

Plat. Lys. p. 206 B. Kairoi oi/ eyoj, av^pa Troirjcrei pXa~ 

TTTOPra eavrov ovk av ere eOeXeiv o/uioXoyritTai, wc ayadoc, ttot 

ecTTt 7roiY)rriCj jSXajSfjOoc wv eavrio. Xen. Hist. Or. 2, 2, 1 6. 

Otipafxevrjc ev eKKXr}aia eiTrev, ort, ei (^ovXovrai avrov Tre/u^ai 

napa Aixrav^poVj etSwq rj^ei AaKe^aifnovlovc, norepov e^av- 

^paTro^icTacrOai rijv ttoXiv povXo/nevoi avreyovai irepi rwif reiyfjv, 

17 TTtcrrewc eveKa. comp. Cyrop. 4, I, 3. Anah. 1, 2, 21. Isocr, 

de Pace, p. 178 A. pa^iov ecm Kara/naOelv Kai ttjv '^tjpav 

rjjLKjJV, OTI, ^vvaTai Tpe^eiv avcpac a/j.eivovc tcov aXXtov, Kai 

T17V KaXovinevrtv pev ap'^rjv, ovcrav ce <Jvp(popav, oti 

* Heind. ad Plat. Gorg. §. 43. p. 57. §. 29. p. 503. 
ad Phaedon. §. 45. p. 72. ad Protag. 

Si/ntax. Of the Use of the Nominative, 509 

ne(j)vK€ -^eipovQ airavTac iroieiv rove y^piojuevovc, avry. The 
subject also is constructed with the preceding verb in other 
cases besides the accusative: Thuc. 1, 68. twv Xeyovriov 
/uaAAov vTTOvoeiTe, tlx; evcKa rwv avrolc loia ciaCpoptou Xeyoixxc. 
C. 61. riXOe evOvc rj ayyeXia ruiv iroXewv, on aCpearaai. 
lb. 97, rrjc ap-^rjc, airoSei^iv e^ei rrja t(j)v AOrjvaiwVj eu o'im 
TpoTTii) Karearr), Comp. Soph. Trach. 1122. Xen. Mem. S. 1, 
4, 13. Isocr. ad Phil. p. 1 1 1 E. Thuc. 1, 119. 138. »» 

Obs. The article is sometimes separated from its noun. Sojyh. Trach. 
98."A\top aiTui rovTO, Kapv^at tov 'AXK/ii'iiaSf ttoQl fxonrodi Trals vaUt 
TTore, for Kapv^ai, ttoBl 6 'AXkjjl. Trals vaiei. Eur. Here. F. 842. yvy 
fieu Toy "Upas olos €<tt avrS '^(oXos ^. The noun is sometimes repeated, 
at least in sense, //. y', 192. e'lir aye fxot koX rov^e^ <f>i\ov tckosj oam 
6 h^ early. Pind. Pyth. 4,430. hepjia eyyeirey, eyda viy cKrayvaay 
<bpilov fxa-)^aipai. Both propositions are intermixed with each other 
Eur. Ion. 1326. r>}v arjv onov col ^r}Tep eart yovderei for vovd. birov aoi 
y'(T)] fxvrrjp effTt. and in a different way Plat. Gorg. p. 4G0 A. d7ro*:a- 
Xuxpas rfjs prjropiKrjs elne ris iroff // hvvapis kariy. 

Many verbs, which are used impersonally in other languages, 297^ 
followed by a proposition dependent upon them, particularly in (296) 
construction of the accusative with the infinitive, in Greek usually 
take the chief word of the following proposition as a subject, 
which is also a case of attraction. The expressions SrJXor/ eari, 
^'iKaiov €(TTi * it is clear, reasonable', &c. are most usually thus 
constructed. Thuc. 1, 93. kqi ^ijXrj ri oiKo^oju'ia en /cat vvv 
etTTii^, on Kara (T7rov^i)v eyevero. Xen. M. S. 2, 6, 7. Kai 
avcpa St) Xeyeic, oq av rove (jyiXovc touc wpoaOev ev ttokjjv (^ai^ 
vrirai, BrjXov elvai Ka\ tovq varepov evepyen^cjovra. Dem. pro 
Cor, p. 231, 16. ot G»jj3a7ot (pavepoi iraaiv r\(Tav avayKaaSri- 
Go/Lievoi Kara^evyeiv ecj) vjnac, for (j)av€pov ?)v, touc O. avayKa- 
(Tdr](T€CTOaL^. Of the participle see §, 549, 5. Similar to 
this is Dem. in Macart. in. Ka\ ovtol ctt iSei^^OncrovTaiy oioi 
etcrii' avOpojiroi, as Cicero Or, 20. §. 68. Fin. 4, 6, 14. Comp. 
Isocr, p. 180 B. Aristot, Eth. 10, 8. p. 183 E. ol Oeol 
■yeXotoi (j)avovi'Tai ovvaXXaTTOVTec,. Herod. 2, 119. wq 

^ Wesseling ad Herod, p. 78. 87. Theocr. 25, 179. Erf. ad Soph. 

KoenadGreg.p.(53) 128s€q.Brunck Ant. 212. 

ad Arist. Eccl. 1125. Nub. 145. " Pors. ad Eiirip. Hec. 1030. 

Heusde Spec, in Plat. p. 51 sq. '^ Fisch. ad Well. 3 a. p.313. Ilia- Eur. Med. 452. Sch»f. ad denb. ad Xen. M. S. 3, 5, 24. 

510 Syntax. Of the Use of the Nominative. 

eTraiaroQ eyevero rovro ep-yaofxevoc,. Thus also ^iKaioc, ei/LU, 
for ^'iKaiov ecTTiv, ejiie. with an infin. according to §.530, 1 . 53 1 . 
Herod. 1, 32 extr. oc, S av avrewv irXelcjTa eywv diareXeyy Kai 
eireira reXevrrfcrrj ev^apiaTwc, Toy j3ioi^, ovtoq irap Cjuoi to 
bvo/LLa TOVTO, w paaiXeVy ^iKaioc, eari (jyepeoOaiy for Si/catoj/ ecTTt, 
TOVTOv (pepeadai. Soph. Antig. 399 sq. eyCj ^' eXevOepoc di- 
Kaioc ei/Lii TWvS cnrtiXXa^Oai kqkwv^. It is used impersonally 
Herod, 1, 39. e/ue rot ^ikqiov eo-ri (ppat^eiv. Eurip. Suppf, 
1055. Ti S ; ov ^iKaiov irarepa tov gov el^evai; Xen, Ci/r, 
6, 4, 19. ' Af tot /LievTOi ye eajxev tov yeyevrifuievov irpayfxaroc 
TOVTOV airoXavaai Tt ayaOou, for a^iov eaTiVy y\fxac anoXavaai. 
A similar expression is, TiVeq 7]fjuv twv vewv cTriSofot -yeve- 
adai eirieiKeiQ Plat. Theat. p. J 43 D. ' from which young men 
can we expect, that they', &c.^ IloXXov, oXt-you, to(jovtov Sew 
iroielv Tt *I am very far from, very near to, so far from doing it'. 
Isocr. Busir. p, 222 B. to(tovtov (not to(tovt(i>) Seetc ovtw 
Ke-^prjaOai to?c Xoyoic, locTTe, tantum abest, ut hanc rationem in 
dicendo secutus sis, ut. Plataic. p. 297 D. toctoutou Slo^ev tljv 

'i<T(M)v a^iovaOai TOtc aXXotc ' EXX>/(7ti^, w(TTe ih, p. 300 A. 

0»?j3a?oi TOCTOVTOU okovai /unjuelaOai ttjv TrpaoTtjTa Tr\v vf^ieTepav, 
GXTTe &c. Demosth. p. 191, 28. oXiyov Se Sew Xe-yetv. Plat. 
Hipp. Maj. p. 283 C. TToXXou -ye Sew (touc STrapTtaTwi^ vteTq 
ajmeivovQ TroirjcraL). Otherwise ttoXXou, oX'iyov Se? or Se?v, e.g. 
Thuc. 2, 77. Tovc nXaTateac TctXXa BiaCpvyovTac; eXa- 
^to-TOv eSer/o-e Sta ^0eT/o a t ^. Thus Thuc. 7, 70. ^payy 
yap aTreXiTTou ^waitiipoTepai (vijeq) Sta/cocriat yeveaOai * they 
wanted very little of being'. 

Hence are derived the following constructions : Soph. Ant. 
547. apKecrio dvrjcTKova eyto. Aj. 80. ei^Soi^ apK€iT(o fxevtov, 
for apKeaei epe Ovr}aK€iv, apKciTU) avTOV ev^ov jneveiv. Plat, 
Gorg. p. 475 C. Comp. Soph. Aj. 7 6. CEd. C. 498. Eur. Or, 
1625. Iph. A, 1427. Hel. 1294. Troad. 654.^ So also aXtc 
voGovcT eyw (Ed. 2'. 1061. II. (j) ,482. '^aXenr] toi eyw pevoQ 
ai>Ti(f)ep€aOaiy for ^aXerroi^ etiTti^ e^oi avTiCJ). comp. §. 534, b. 

* Markl. ad Eurip. Suppl. 186. see Lobeck ad Phryn. p. 133. 

Brunck ad Arist. Plut. 1030. Wes- <^ Dorv. ad Charit. p. 558. Bibl. 

sel. ad Herod, p. 720, 55. Jacobs ad Crit. 3, 2. p. 15. 

Athen. p. 64. '^ Musgr. ad Eur. Iph. A. I.e. 

^ Wessel. et Valck. ad Herod. Matthiae ad Suppl. 511. 
p. 285, 88. For examples of ctt/^o^os 

Sj/ntax. Of the Use of the Nominative, 511 

Find. Isthm. 4, 85. Soph. El. 1254. Thuc. 1, 132. 'Apyi- 

Xioc \vei TttC eTTKJToXaCj ev aic, VTrovorjcrac ri roiovrov 

7rpo(Te7re(JTa\0ai, kol avrov evpev ey yey pa /n/Lievov kt€LV€iv, 
where the construction is 'ApylXioc kveyeypairro Kreiveiv, for 
eveyeyp., 'ApyiXiov Kreiveiv 'it was in the letter, that Artabazus 
should put to death A.' Hence in Isocr, Trapezit, p. 363 C. 
should be read evpeOrf yap ev rw ypajm/uareKf) yey paf.ifxkvoQ 
a<pei/LievoQ arravTOJU tcuv ffv/nfioXa'KjJU vir Cjuov, not yey pa fx~ 
fikevov. Demosth. in Nea?'. p. 1347, 17. e/neWev eyypa<p7](Tea6ai 
AiroWoSijjpOQ rpiciKovra raXavra o(j>ei\(i)v tw Sr/^iiocriw. He- 
rod. 1, 155 extr. ov^eu ^eivoi roi eaourai /uri aTTOtJTewaiy for ov 
oeivov earai, imrj eKel.voi aTrocTT. Xen. Hist. Gr. 6, 4, 6. twi/ 

Gijj3attt>v ol jTpoearijJTeQ eXoy'itovro ei jlit} e^oi o o??/uo<; o 

Orff3aL(i>v TcnriTij^eia, on Kiv^vvevaoi Kai rj iroXic avrolc evavria 
yeveaOai, as Thuci/d. 8, 91. (^doKijjv (o Or\pafxevr]c,) Kiv^vvevaeiv 
TO relyor^ tovto Kai tiV ttoXiv ^ia(pBe7paiy for on Kivovvevaoi, 
KivcvvoQ ecoiTO, /Lirj rj iroXic evavria yevonOy /lItj to tci^^^oc touto 
'-'dia(()eeipeie. Plat. Gorg. p. 449 A. Soph. p. 242 B. Leg. I. 
p, 643 C. Phadon. p. 67 C. KaOapGic ^e elvai dpa ov tovto 
Gvpf3aivei, for avp,(5. KaOapariv elvai. Soph. Aj. 635. Kpeiaaujv 
yap a^a KevOwv, for Kpelaaov r\v avTOv KevOeiv {KevOeaOai). See 
Lobeck's note, p. 315. And so is probably to be explained 
Eiirip. Or. 771. ov Trpo(jr]KOfxev KoXaZ,eiv Tola^e, ^ijjKeiov ^e y^j 
for ov 7rpo<jr}Kei Tolade, KoXateii^ rjpaQ 'it does not become them 
to punish us'. Iphig. T. 453. oveipaai (jvpj3air}u o'lkoiq noXei 
TC TruTpioa Tepirvuiv v/tivojif awoXaveiVy for avppairi, epe awo- 
Xaveiv, where, however, Musgrave reads avpj^airi *v o'ikoic, 

Ohs. 1. Hence also the constructions, 6 Kvpos Xeyerai yeveadai used 
as well as Xeyerai Kvpoy yevkaQai §. 5'd7, Tap kv vp.iv kariy fi KaXuis 
e^eti', &c. i. e. ey vplv eari to Tctpa rj Ka\u)s e^eiv, &c. 

Obs. 2, On the other hand, the verb, which should be referred to a 
subject, is changed into the passive, and is used impersonally, with the 
dative of the subject, e. g. Thuc. 7, 77. iKara to7s noXepiois evTv^rjTaij 
for tfcavcJs oi noXepioi evTv^YiKaaiv. Plat. Gorg. p. 453 D. KaXws ay 
(TOi arreKeKpiTo for axeKCKpiffo. See Heind. not. p. 25. Otherwise the 
third pers. pass, is used without a subject in the same manner as in Latin, 
itur. Thuc. 1, 93. vTrrjpKro tov Ueipaiuis. To this may be referred 
Herod. 6, 112. cTrei ^e tr^t ^lereTaKTo. Thuc. 1, 46. eirei^ avTols 
napEffKeunaTo, unless it be better to supply in the first t6 ffTpaToiredoy, 

512 Syntax. Of the Use of the 'Nominative. 

and in the second to vavriKovt in which case both would belong to 
§. 294, 1. ih. ad Jin. a<fiKro ventum esset, Herod. 9, 100. has the plur. 
Cjs Ze apa TrapeaKevatraTO rolai "FXXrjffi. 

Obs. 3. That 6 for ovtos, and eyw, av are often repeated by the old 
writers, see §. 466, 5. 468. 

298. Instead of the nominative we have sometimes, 


1. Another case with a preposition. Xen. Cyrop. 8, 3, 9. 
' E<TTa(rav Se irpwrov fxev t(jjv ^opv^optjv etc TerpaKiay^i- 
AiovQy e/uTrpocrOev de Tuiv ttuXwi^, etc Terrapac, cKy^iXioi 
Se eKarepwOev rtjv irvXwv, and thus generally in numbers which 
are given roundly. Thus also Kara with an accusative : Thuc. 

1,3. ^oicet /mot Kara eOvri aWa re Ka\ to IleXacT'yt/coi' 

CTTi irXe?(TTOv a(p eavrtHv Trjv eTrcjvv/uiav irapeyjeaQai, singulos 
populos. ibid. KaO eKaffrova i]^tj Ty o/miXia /maXXov KaXel- 
oOai ' EXXrjvao. comp, 7, 75,* eiri Lysias in Agorat. p. 130, 
25. €7ri ^eKa ara^ia, 

2. A whole proposition : Eurip. Hipp. 429. ^ov\o7yap av^pa, 
Kav OpaavaTrXayyvoc, tic, ->7, orav ^vvei^y fxr)Tpoc, rj irarpoQ 
KaKCLy i. e. ^ovXol to l^vvei^kvai. Herod. 9, 68. ZriXol €p,oi on 
iravra ra Trp^yjuaTa twv (3ap(3ap(jjv TiprriVTO €K Uepaewv, et 
Kai Tore ovtoi eCpevyov, i. e. to tovtovc ipevyeiv ^rjXol. e/moi, 
where however ^riXo7 may also be taken for ^rjXov eon* So 
(TrjjLielov §e, reK/nrjpioif ^e, SrjXov Be, without a subject, the place 
of which is supplied by a proposition beginning with yapy §. 432, 
615. A following proposition with the relative also frequently 
contains the subject of the verb, as Hei^od. 1, 202 extr, 

3. What is called the accusative absolute, which is explained 
hy quod attinet ad, e.g. Od. a, 275. iuir}Tepa B, e'l oi Ovjulog 
e^opfxarai yafxkeaQai, a\p Wb) ec fxeyapov, is founded on an 
anacoluthia, the poet having had in his mind airo-nrefx^ov, airi" 
evai KcXeve. See §. 631. The genitive, in the same sense: 
Plat. Phcedon. jp. 78 D, E. ruiv ttoXXwv KaXwv, oiov avOptJTrojv, 
77 nnrwv-'^ apa Kara ra avra e^^ei ; oee <^. o4-^. 

299. The Predicate expresses the action or the quality, the con- 
(*^98) dition, which is ascribed to the subject. The Copula, as it is 

* Schaef. ad Dion. II. p. 44 seq. 358. 

Syntax. Of the Use of the 'Nominative. 513 

called, serves to connect this with the subject, by which means 
the simple ideas (in the subject and predicate) are converted 
into a proposition. This is always a verb. For this copula, 
either a proper verb is assigned, — and this is chiefly the case 
with eifxi ' I am*, and other verbs which of themselves convey 
no complete idea, but require the addition of another definition 
in a substantive, adjective, or adverb ; — or the copula and pre- 
dicate are united in one verb, which takes place in those verbs 
which perfectly express a condition of themselves, e. g. Kv/ooc 
rkQvr\Ke ' Cyrus is dead'. Frequently the condition, or action, 
expressed by the verb, requires besides that the relation should 
be determined in which it stands to a person or thing ; hence 
arises the determination of the oblique cases, which are governed 
by the verb. 

The verb, whether it be the copula alone, or a copula with 
the predicate, is determined by the subject, with respect to 
person and number. Of the persons, the first and second, in 
the singular, dual, and plural, can only be used when the sub- 
ject is a personal pronoun, either expressed or merely understood 
for these persons, e. g. eyw juev aaOevcj, av ^e eppwcrai ' I am ill, 
but you are well'. e'lQ offac o tXyi/lkjjv eKXTreTrrw/ca avfx(popac, 'into 
what misfortunes have I, wretched man, fallen'. Xen. H. Gr. 2, 

4, 14. ^eiTTvovvrec ^vveXafi^avofxe^a and so also when the 

speaker names himself, as Ge/ut(TTQfcXrJq Tj/ca> 7ra|oa ak Thuc. 1, 
137. 4>o7j3oc (t' o AriTovc -iratQ oS' eyyvc wv KaXS Eur. Or. 
1659.^ Both persons are united Thuc. 1, 128. riauo-aviaq--- 
aTTOirefxTrei — Kai yvcjjuriv tto coujuat . So after the relative is found 
the person to which the pronoun refers : Herod. 2, 115. eyw 

av ff€ eTKTa^rjv, be epyacrao &C. Li/s. p. 109, 31. aTTO- 

(j)7)vaiiLii, OQ TrpwTov jULev e^eKOTTTOv. In all other cases the third 
person is used. 

When several subjects, of different grammatical persons, are 
put together, the verb in the predicate agrees with the chief 
person ; which is the first, with relation to the second or third ; 
and the second, with relation to the third, as in Latin. Hesiod. 
Th. 646. r\ ^ri yap /naXa ^rfpov evavTioi aWrjXoKTi viKt^c Kai 

^ Valck. ad Eur. Hipp. 1285. 

514 Syntax. Of the Use of the 'Nominative. 

KpareoG irepi juapva/xeO' T^fxara iravra, Ttrrjvec re Oeoi Kai ocroi 
Kpovov eKyevofxeaQa. Eurip. ap. j^Esch. c. Tim. p. 254. Kayw 
^lei^ ovTU) ywcTTir, ear avr]p troCpoQ AoyiCo/Jiai TaAriuec, etc avopoc 
(pvcriv. Plat. Tim. p. 29 C. ayairav y^prj fue/dvrjfxevoVj mc o 
Aeywi' v^€?c re o'l Kpnai (pvcriv avQp(i)invr]v eyofxev. Xen. Hist. 
Gr. 2, 3, 15. enei Kai eyu) kql (tv TroXXa ^ri rov apkaKeiv kveKa 
Ty TToXei Kai eiirofiev Koi eTTpa^afxev. Eurip. Or. 86. av c rj 
(jLaKapia fxaKapioc o aoQ iroaic, ijKerov e(j) r]fxac, ad\'i(»)C^ we- 
irpayorac, ^. 

Ohs. There are some apparent exceptions to this rule, the verb being 
often referred to the nearest subject. Xen. Mem. S. 4, 4, 7. Trept tov 
diKaiuv Trayv olfxai vvv eyjeiv eiTrelv, Trpos a ovre av ovr ay ^iXXos ovocls 
BvvaiT aprenreh'f for hvyaifrde, but properly for ovr dv av dvvato, ovr 
aXXos ^vvaiTO. Herod. 3, 68. Also the singular of two, Soph. (Ed. 2\ 
1136. Eur. Hipp. 667. ttws vlv Trpocro-^ei kol (tv koX letj-jroiva (rrj ; 
Comp. Plat. Phcedon. p. 77 D. The verb appears to stand in the 
person of the nearest subject and yet in the plural Eur. Ale. 672. 
%upiv Toidy^e koi (tv -yji TCKova yjXXa^aTqy, if >/X\. be not here the 2nd 
person. See §. 195. Obs. 1. Plat. Symp. p. 189 C. ctXXr; ye irri tv v^ 
e^io XeyetVi >} r] av re Kai Havaayias elxerrjyf Bekker reads eiTrerov (r). 
Soph. El. 622. (jj Qpkjip avaiheSf rj a eyoj Kai rafx eirri Ka\ rapya rapcL 
TToXX' aya»/ Xeyeiv Trotei, where different persons are not meant, but the 
words TCLjx e-KYi KaX rapya ra/xa are an illustration of ey w ' I ', that is, my 
words and actions, * make you speak so much', and the predicate is 
referred to the explanation. 

300. With regard to the number, the natural construction is, that 
(^^^) the verb is put in the singular, dual, or plural, according to the 
number of the subject. In Greek, hov^ever, an exception takes 
place, which again has the force of a rule, viz. that the nomi- 
native of the neuter plural has the verb in the singular, e. g. 
Twv ovTwv Ttt pkv ear IV ecj) rjpiv, ra Be ovk e(j) rjjuLiv. 

This usage, however, is more observed by the Attics than by 
the older writers in the Ionic and Doric dialects, and is fre- 
quently neglected by the Attics themselves, e. g. //. )(', 266. 
ovre ri I'wii^ opKia eaaovrai. X , 310. aprj^ava kpya yevovro, 
where the scholiasts observe, that this is constructed apyaiKwc,. 
Comp. H. j3', 87. 89. 135. 459. 462. 464. 489. Eur. El. 
507. pQv rapa ^la '^povov a avepvrjaav /ca/ca ; Thuc. 6, 72. 

* Person ad Eurip. Or. 1. c. • 

Sj/ntax. Of the Use of the Nominative, 515 

eyevovTO efc ruiv avSparroBiov e'lKoai Kai eKarov raXavra, Xen. 
Allah. 1, 7, 17. (pavepa riaav Kai 'iwiruyv kul avOpujirwv \yvLa 
TToXXa. The Attics also sometimes join the verb in the plural 
with the neuter plural, especially in two cases : 1. when the 
neuter plural signifies living persons, e. g. Thuc. 1, 58. ra reXr] 
(magistratus) twv AaKe^aijuoviwv virkayovro avrolc, 7, 57. 
TocFa^e /uLCV [xera AOrjvaiiov eOvrj effrparevov. Xen, Anab, 1, 
2extr. TO. ^e T^piraafxeva av^pairo^a, hv ttou evrvy^avioaiv, airo' 
\ajui(5aveiv, Eurip. Hec. 1149. reKv ev yepolv eiraWov, wc 
7rp6(j(jj Trarpoc yevoivro (Pors. yevoiro). 2. when the abstract 
is put for the concrete, and living creatures, not things, are 
to be understood. Eur. Cycl. 206. irwe, fxai Kar avrpa veo- 
yova f3\a(yTii jLtara ; t) ttjOoc ye jUOffroTq eicri . 

Frequently the plural of the verb is put with the dual of the 301. 
subject: //. e', 275. tlj Se ray^ e-yyu^ei/ -nXdov, eXavvovr (300) 
cL/ceac 'iTTTTovQ. Comp. tt', 337. g, 605. Eurip. Fhan. 69. tw 
^e <^v/Lij5avT eral^av^. 

In the same manner the verb in the dual is put with the 
plural of the subject, when no more than two persons or things 
are meant. //. e', 10. Sutu Be ol vleec, rjarifv. Plat. Rep, 5. 
p. 478 A. BvvaiLieiQ a/uKporepai earov. Thus in II. S', 452. wc S' 
ore y^eifxappoi iroxafjioi Kar op€<y(j)i peovrec, ec jLuayayKeiav 
o-u^/3aXXeTov o^pifxov vBwp two streams are to be under- 
stood ^. 

Hence the plural is often interchanged with the dual of the 
verb. Soph, (Ed. C. 1435. <t(J)mv (Ismene and Antigone) S' 
evoBoirj Zeuc, raB' ei TeXelre juoi Bavovr ' eirei ov juoi ^wvti 
y avOiQ e^erov. /j-eOecrOe S iiSr], y^aiperov re. Comp. 
1112 seq. Aristoph. ^.u. 641. (Epops to Pisthetserus and 
Euelpides, see V. 644 59^.) etdeX^er' etc veorriav ye rrjv e/uriv 

Kai rovvofx r]jxiv (ppaaarov. id. Plut.75. (Plutus 

to Carion and Chremylus) fxedeade vvv jliov -n-pwrov 

cLKOveTOv Br]. Plat. Phcsdr. p. 256 C. rw a/coXao-TW 

•* Fisch. 3 a. p. 342 sq. Pors. ad Porson and Dobree ad Arist. Plut. 

Eurip. Or. 596. Add. Hec. v. 1141. 145. 

p. 95 seq. Heind. ad Plat. Cratyl. <= Eur. Iph. T.777.(Mus. 

p. 137. Ast ad Pht. Rep. p. 386. Crit. Cant. 6. p. 294.) 

Leg. p. 46. llerm. ad Soph. El. 430. ^ Fisch. 3 a. p. 305. 

516 Syntax, Of the Use of the Nominative. 

auToTv UTTO^wyiw \a(56vTe rac, ipv^ac a(ppovpovCy avvaya- 
yovre eic ravrov, tyiv vtto tijjv ttoXXwv fxaKaftKTrrjv aipeaiv 
elXefrOriv re kul ^lenpal^avTo, /cat ^laTr pa^a/tievu) to 
XoiTTOv ri^ri '^piovrai /mev avry, airavia oe. 

Obs. This variable use of the dual and plural appears to have been 
the cause, that sometimes, though seldom, the dual of the verb is put 
with the plural of the subject, even when more than two persons are 
signified (r). //. 0', 185. lHavde re Koi (tv, Ilo^ajoye, Kai A'iSuJv Aafxire 

re o?e, rvr fioi r^v KOiJ.idt)y arrorl verov (v. 191.) aW e<^o- 

fxuprelrov Kai aTrevBerov. Comp. II. e, 487. i, 182. Horn. H. in 
y4poll.2,277. (v. 273. w ^elt'ot, riyes care',) ri^& ovrtos i)crdov rerirj- 
ores. 307. aXX aye0', (Its av eywv e'liroj, Treidea-de ra)^t<rra* laria /uev 
Trpoirov KciOerov Xvaavre ftoelas. comp. v. 322. In an oracle Herod. 
7, 140. 'iroy H ahvroio, where however only two OeoTrpoTroi may be meant. 
Pind. 01. 2j 156. fiaOopres he Xa/3f)oi TruyyXwffa/^, KopaKes &s, uKpavra 
yapverov Aids Trpos opv<x« OeloVf perhaps with reference to Simonides 
and Bacchylides (see Boeckh), where however Heyne after Dawes has 
received from the scholiast the less natural reading yapve/jLev, \a/3(00t 
elal yapveiv. In the tragedians and prose writers this usage is not found ; 
£or XevaffcToyjEsch. Eum. 256. if the true reading, may be explained of two 
(see Wellauer); and Plat. Thecet. p. 152 E. Kai Trepi rovrov irayres e^rjs 
01 <TO(^o\y irXrjV TLapfievidoVi ^v/j.({>€p€<Tdoyf Upwrayopas re Kai HpuKXeiros 
KOI 'EfjnrehKXrjs, Stobaeus Eel. Phys. p. 42. has ^v/w^ejooirai : Bekker 
from three MSS. ^vfjKpepeaOoji'. The later poets, imitating the epic 
style, revived the usage, e. g. Aral. Diosem. 291 . Krai di//e ftoCyrre koXoioi *. 

302. With words of number in the singular the verb is very often 
(301) put in the plural, because in such words the idea of several 

subjects is always included. //. i3 , 278. wc (pacrav rj ttXijOvc. 

o , 305. t; irXvOvQ ewi vrjac A^auov airoveovro. Herod. 9, 23. 

loQ ad)L TO TrXrJ^oc eTref^oriOijaav. ^E,sch. Agam. 588. Tpoir)v 

* Dawes's Misc. Cr. p. 49. Heyne to be an abbreviated form of the plur. 

ad Pind. 1. c. (ad Iliad, a, 567.) hold Blomfield (Remarks, p. xliv.) denies 

that the passages out of the older that the dual is used when more than 

writersarc corrupt, or think that they two are spoken of: li. 6', 185. he 

must be explained differently. On the says, two pairs are spoken of, and 

contrary side, see Em. ad II. a', 506. each pair must be regarded as an 

Koen ad Gregor. p. (98) 218. Fisch. unit; II. e', 487. is evidently cor- 

3 b. p. 59. who, however, produces nipt; and in the Hymn, in Apoll. 277. 

some instances which do not belong he proposes to read ^ordai, 307. ku- 

to this head. Buttm. L. Gr. p. 135. dep.ev, and Arat. 291. Ka\ 6\p€ Pouiy 

347 sq. considers the dual generally re KoXotos. 

Syntax. Of the Use of the Nominative. 517 

eXovTec orjTTOT Afjyeiuyv cftoXoq Geo i c Xa^u^oa raura toTc 
KaO EXXaSa So/Lioic eTrafftraXevcrav. Thtic. \, 20. AOr}vai(i)v 
TO nX^Ooc; ' linrap^ov o'lovrai v(p Ap/uio^iov /cat Apiaro- 
yeiTovoQ Tvpavvov ovra aTroOaveiv. ib. 89. AO-qvaiojv oe to 

Koivov BieKOfULL^ovTO evOvQ, oOev vTrel^eOevTO, iralSac 

Kai yvvaiKaQ, 2, 4. to ^e 7rXeT<TTOv Kai oaov juaXttxTa i5v 
c,vve(JTpa}jLfjLevov, eoiriirTOvaiv ec, oiKr)fxa, 4, 43. to ^eftov 

Kepac T(t»v AOrjvaitov Kai Kapv(TTt(t)v eoe^avTO Te tovc 

KopivOiovc Kai ewaavTo /moXic. Xen. Mem. S. 4,3, 10. ttoXu 
oe yevoQ avOpioniov toTc fiev €k rrjc, yrjc (j)vo/nevoi(; etc Tpo(^r\v 
ov "^ptjvrai, ano ^e f3o(TKr}/jiaTWV ^[wtri . 

This is especially the case with eKaoroCy and in the formula 
aXXo^ev oXXoc. 

a, Od. a, ult. pav S' 'i/Lievai Kciovrec ea irpoc ^uj/jiad' 
e/cacTOC. Herod. 3, 158. ejuevov ev ry etjjvrov ral^i e/ca- 
(TTOO. 7, 144. kjuieXXov Xa^eaBai op-^ri^ov eKacrroc SeKa 
^pa'^/jiaQ. comp. 9, 59. Xen. R. L. 6, 1. ev fxev yap tqTc oX- 
XaiQ TToXeai t<jjv eavTOv eKaaroc Kai nai^iov Kai oik€T(jjv 
Kai y^pr]fxarb)v apy^ovaiv. Plat. Leg. 7. p. 789 C. Xa jSovTec 
VTTO /.laXriQ € KaffTOQ TTOpevovTai^, 

Ohs. Elsewhere cKaaros in the singiilar_is added to a noun or pro- 
noun plur. as an apposition, or a more exact definition. //. »;', 175. ol 
he KXrjpoy €<Tr)jji]vayTO cKaaros. comp. 185. &c. Herod. 9, 11. ev v6u) 
Zri ey^ovres a7ra\\a<TO'ea'0at Kai avTol cttl rrjs eojvrov cKaaros. and 
before the subj. in the plur. Pind. Pyth. 9, 173. a^(t)voi & ws eKaara 
(f>i\TaToy TrapdcpiKai iroaLV >) vlov ev\ovr enfiey. The verb some- 
times follows in the singular, referred to eKaaros or some word equiva- 
lent to it, although the proper subject is in the plural. //. tt', 264. ol 
ce (o'0i7»ces) oKKifiov ^Top e')(OVTes irpofrau) Tras Trercroi, jcat a/jivpei 
olai reKecrai. jEsch. Pers. 133 seq. Her. 7, 104. fxaxoi/irjy ay ttuv- 
TU)y ijhicrra eyl Tovrewy rojy avdptijy, ot 'EXXijyojy eKoaros (^riffi 
Tpiuiy d^ios elvaL. Comp. 8, 86. Thuc. 7, 77. comp. 1, 141. Plat. 
Rep. 1. p. 346 D. Hence the transition from the plural to the singu- 
lar Plat. Gorg, p. 503 E. ol ciXXoi Trajres hrj/Aiovpyoli jjXe- 
irovres irpos to eavrwy epyov e/caoros, ovk cIktJ cKXeyopevos 
7rpoff<l>epei a 7rpo<T(f>€pei irpoi to epyov to avTOv, aXX ottws av el^os tl 

>> Moeris p. 2. Dorv. ad Charit. *^ Brunck ad Arist. Plut. 785. 

p. 380, 565. Lips. Bibl. Crit. 3, 2. Heind. ad Plat. Gorg. p. 197. Fisch. 
p. 35. 3 b. p. 59 sq. 

518 Syntax, Of the Use of the 'Nominative, 

avT^ aXV TovrOf 9 epydi^cTai. Arist. Plut. 785. vvrrovm yap koi 
(pXuiffL TapTiKt'ij/jiiaf 'Ey^eiKvvfxevos eKaaros {Pors. ad Eur, Or, 1263.). 
Analogous to this is the construction in Xen. Hist, Gr. 2, 2, 3. ovZe\& 

eKOifjLrjdrj, ov jjioyov TrevdovvTes, aXKa vofxi^oyres . Comp. JEltan, 

V. H. 10, 16. 

h, II, *', 311. u)C iiY] fxoi rpvtvTe irapr]fx€voi aWodev 
aXXoc. jEsch, Ag. 606. oXoXvy/uLOv aXXoc aXXoOev Kara 
TTToXiv eXacTKov €v(j)r}/uiovvTec. comp. 323. Eurip. Ph. 
1263. TTape^iovreQ ^ aXXoc aXXoOev (piXwy, Xoyoiai Oap- 
Gvvovrec, e^riv^iov raSe. Plat. Charm, in. Kai /j,€ wc eiSov 
€L(Ti6vTa e^ airpoG^oKiirov evOvQ iroppwQev r)aTr dZ^ovro aXXoc 
ciXXodev. Thus also ripioruiv ^e aXXoq aXXo id. ih. p, 153 D, 
Comp. Xen. H. Gr. 2, 3, 23.^ 

Obs. In a similar manner, according to the sense, is constructed the 
following: TroXvreXws 'A^wvta ayovc' eraipa fxed' irepiou Tropyuiv 
X^^V^ Diphil. ap. A then. 7. p. 292 D. as in Liv. 21, 60. ipse dux 
cum aliquot principibus capiuntur. Thus also Luc'ian. D, D. 12, 1. kol 

vvv CKeiyrj (^ 'Pea) irapaXaf^ovaa Kai tovs Kopv(^avTas dyu) Kal 

Kciro) T^y "I^riv TrepnroXovffiy' ?/ /xey oXoXv^ovffa Itti ria " Atti^ oi 
KopvjjavTes ^e, &c. Such a construction would probably not be found 
in the older classics. 

303. Besides these regular deviations from the proper construction, 
(302) |-|^g following occur, though more rarely : 

1. With the plural of the subject masculine and feminine 
the verb is put in the singular, as with the neuters. Pind, 01, 
11,4. fxeXiyapvec, vfxvoi varepwv apyjai Xoyiov reXXeraf, 
and Fragm. Pind. p. 6S. v. 23. ed. H. a^eTrai t 6iu(j)ai 
jueXewv (Tvv avXolcj a^eTrai ^efj-eXav eXiKd/j^irvKa '^opoi . 
Horn, H, in Cer, 279. ^avOai Se KOfxai KarevrtvoOev Ijfxovc 
The grammarians call this schema Pindaricum and Baotium. 
In the Attics this takes place only when the verb precedes, in 
which case probably the author had the whole in his mind and 
explained or defined it afterwards by the subst. plur. JEwr. 

* Valck. ad Eur. Ph. 1254. p. 423. H. in Cer. 493. must probably be 

Wolf Praif. ad II. p. 58. read Trpocppojy, for crelo follows. See 

** Heyne has altered these pas- Ruhnk. ad H. in Cer. p. 74 seq. 

sages: but see Herm. de Metr. P. Dorv. ad Char. p. 364 Lips. Fisch. 

p. 299 sqq. Bceckh ad 01. 8, 8. Horn. 3 a. p. 345. 

Syntax, Of the Use of the Nominative, 519 

Bacch, 1303. ^k^oKrai r\r]fxoveQ (j)vyai, which makes Hipp, 
1269.KeKpavTai crvfxcpopa] ve(jjv kukwv not appear extraordinary. 
This was especially common with eWi and rjv, Hesiod, Theog, 
321. tyJq ^ riv Tpeic K€(j)aXai, Epigr, in Anal, Briinck, T, 3. 
p, 180. CLV. t)v apa KciKelvoi raXaKapSioi. Especially in the 
Doric dialect in the fragments of Epicharmus in Athenaeus, 
e. g. 7, p. 288 B. 30G A. &c. In Attic for the most part in 
the choral Songs only, or in passages where the Doric dialect 
occurs. Soph. Trach, 520. tjv ^' a/uL(j>i7rX€KToi /cX/^a/cec. Ari- 
stoph. Lys, 1260. r]v yap rlov^pec ovk eXacrcrtjjci rac, xpajLLjiLac, 
Toi Tlep(Tai, Yet also in iambics Eurip. Ion, 1146. evrjv 8* 
vc^avrai ypaf.Lfxaoiv TOcai'S v(j>ai^. So Herod, 1, 26. Plat. 
Euthyd. p. 302 C. Thuc, 3, 36. irpoa^vve^aXero at rieXoTrov- 
vi)(ji(s)v vi]€c,, in Bekker. But Herod, 5, 12. i\v Hiyprja kqI Mav- 
rvTiQ belongs to §. 304. and Plat, Leg. 5. p. 732 E. eWt ^17 
(j)va€i avOpujireiov paXicrra rf^ovai, and Jsocr, Paneg. p. 54 B. 
to §. 305. Thuc, 2, 3. ajual^ac; en rac oBovc KaQ'iaraaav, 'iv* 
avri rel-^ovc ^, the author had probably apfxara in his mind. 

The passage in Hesiod. Th. 790. (ef lepov ttoto^oTo peei 
cia vvKTU /meXaivav, Q/ceavoTo Kepac,' ^eKarr] S' ctti fxolpa Se- 
oa(TTat.) Eivvka p.ev {sc. polpai) irepi yrjv re /cat evpea vivra 
OaXacrarjG S'lvyc apyvpeijQ elXiy juievoc; e'la (iXa TrtTrrei* r} ^e 
fit e/c 7r€Tpr}Q irpopeei is merely constructed according to the 
sense, because the evrea fxolpai are what is properly called 

2. With the dual of the subject the verb is put in the sin- 
gular. Aristoph. Vesp. 58. i^^uTv yap ovk eoT ovre Kapv €K 
(l)oplbiiboQ covXio irapappiTTTovvre TolcQeijjfxkvoic Plat. Gorg, 

p. 500 D. \ais)c, ovv f^eXncTTOv ecfriv, ^leXo^evouc Kai 0^0X0- 

yrjaavrac aXXrjXoic, ei e<TTL tovtu) Slttlj tlj jSiw, <jk€- 
\liaadaij ri ^lacpeperov dXXr)Xoiv. Eustathius on //. \p' , 380, 
says, this is A(i)piKojTepov. But in avrap ol oortre lateral Od. t! , 
131 seq. oorcre is considered as neuter, as //.v', 435. See §.436. 
Of the sing, referring to a preceding plur. see §. 293. 

<= Her. p. 376, 21. Wolf Eust. ad Od. ^', p. 1759, 32. con- 
ad Hesiod. Th. 321. sidered ^v as abbreviated from ^ovj 
** Heind. ad Plat. Euthyd. p. 403. others from ^aav. 

520 Syntax. Of the Use of the Nominative. 

304. When several subjects are united by a conjunctive particle, 
(303) ^Y^Q verb, which belongs to all, should properly be in the plural; 
but it is frequently governed in its number by one substantive, 
and mostly by that which is nearest to it, and is in the singular 
if that be a singular, or neuter plural. //. e', 703. evOa riva 
irptJTOv, Tiva ^ vffTarov e^evapi^ev ' ^KTtJp re IT/oca^oto 
TTtttc Kal ^tiX/ceoq Aprjc; IL rj , 386. rjvuyei Tlpia/uLOG re 
/cat aXXoi Tptjec ayavoi e'nrelv. ir' , 844. <tol yap e^tJKe viKriv 
Zi€VG Kpovi^rjc Kai'AiroXXtjJV, Herod. 5, 21. e'lTrero yap 
crj a(^i Kai oyr]jj.ara Kai QepairovTec, Kai r) naaa TroXXri irapaaKevr), 
Eur. Suppl. 146. Tv^euc p.ayr]v ^vvrjxpe UoXvveLKrjC 
a/jLo. Thuc, 1, 29. ecTT parriyei Se t<jjv vewv Api<TT€VQ o 
UeXXiKov Kai KaXXi/cparijo o KaXXiou Kai T ifxaviop o 
Tifxavdovc. comp. 7, 43. Plat. Theag. p. 124 E. riva eTrtu- 
vvp'iav e^^ei 'iTTTTiac Kai IlepiavSpoc; and before this rtva 
€7rtovv/iiiav e^et BaKrtc re Kai 2cj3t»XXa Kai o rj/meSairoc 
A/ji(j)iXvTOG ; ib. p. 129 B. ore aviararo e/c tow avp.- 
TToaiov o T ip.ap'^oc Kai ^iXrj/ntJv o ^iXrj/uKjJvi^ov, airoKre- 
vovvrec Nt/ctav. To this head belong also the passages quoted 
§. 299. Obs. Eur. Hipp. 667. P/at. Phadou. p. 77 D.^ 

Obs. 1 . The singular also is used when the more remote subject is 
in the singular, or is a neuter plural. //. p\ 387. yovvara re Kvrjfiai re 
TTOccs 6* virevepBev cKciarov \e7pes t otpQaXfioi re vaXdaaero fiapyafxevo'iy, 
ib. xj/'j 380. Tryoiy ^' Euyuir/Xoio fi€Ta.(j>p€yoy evpee t w/xw depfiero^. 

Obs. 2. Homer joins two verbs of different numbers Od. fx, 43. r^ 
5' ovTL yvrri Koi vr}iria reKya, oinade voffriiaayri, TrapiaraTai, ov3e ya- 

Obs. 3. When two or more substantives are united by y ' or', which 
reciprocally exclude each other, the verb is in the singular if that 
which is said applies to one only of these, not to both alike ; in the 
plural if it belongs equally to both, and it is indifferent to which 
it is ascribed. //. v', 158. et ^e k "Aprjs apx(offi fidxvs rj ^ol{3os 'AttoXXwi/. 
Eur. Hec. 83 seq. irod ttote deiav 'EXevov \pvx(iy y Kaadp^pas e(riS(o, 
Tpwa^es, tos fioi Kpivwffiv oveipovs;'' as in Cicero Or. 2, 4, 16. we Sul- 
picius — aut Cotla plus quam ego apud te valere videantur. Heusing. 

* Dorvill. ad Charit. p. 364. 497. Fisch. 3 b. p. 61. 
Lips. Heind. ad Plat. Theaet. p. 411. «» Wolf ad Hes. Theog. 321. 

Syntax. Of the Use of the Nominative. 52 1 

ad Cic. de Off, 1, 41. The sing, however is sometimes used in this 
case, as Plat. Euthyphr. p. Q IL. u)v av y av f/ aXXos tis Trpctrrr/. So 
after ovre, if the verb is represented as applying to both substantives : 
Bacchyl. in Brunck. Anal. T.l.p. 149. 1. Eur. Ale, 367. Kal /x' ovd' 6 
nXourwros Kvtoy ov0' ovtti Kwirrj -^vypTro^Tros av yep(i)p"Ra\oy. 

Ohs. 4. In the poets the verb plur. with two subjects sometimes 
stands between the two, as in //. v', 218. Od. k, 513. eyOa ^ky els 

'Aykpovra Iivpi(f)\€y€d(i)y re peovffiy Kwkvtos 6'--- //. e', 744. ^;^t 

pocii StjLioets ffviAjSaWeToy y)he ^KajjLay^pos. The grammarians call this 
the Schema Alcman'icum^. 

Sometimes the verb is governed in its number not by the 30.5. 
subject, but by the substantive, which stands with the verb as (304) 
the predicate, if this is the nearest. Herod. 6, 1 12. vaav ^e 
GTa^ioi ovK eXaacTOveQ to jLierai'^iuLiov avrwv, ij oktoj, for »jy 
referred to ^terat^/u to v. 2, 16. to 3 aJv iraXai al Qrjj3ai A'tyvirroQ 
CKaXeero. comp. 1,93. 160. 8,46. Thitc. 3y 112. iarov ^e Bvo 
\6(j)(jj 7) '\^ojj.evr\ v'^vXu), comp. 1, 110. Aristoph. Thesm. 21. 
oiov Tt TTOu GTiv Qi GoCpQi l^vvovaiai ! Isoc?\ Paneg. p. 54 B. 
(c. 18.) ecTTi yap ap'^iKtoTara tujv eOvuiv Kai /neyiffTac, cvvadTeiac 
e'^ovra ^KvOai Kai QpuKec, Kal Ylepcrai^. Similarly Xen. Mem. 
S. 1,4, 13. Ti (pvXov aXXoj 7] 01 avOpcjiroi, OeovQ depairevovffiv ; 
for Oepairevei. This, however, may belong also to §. 301. 

Very often the verb e'l/uLi is omitted with adjectives and sub- <^qq 
stantives, if it be merely a copula, but not when it contains the (305) 
predicate, as in ecxTt OeoQ ' there is a God'. This is most com- 
mon with eToi/Lioc, ccttl or e'lcri being omitted : Eur. Troad. 74. 
eroifj. , a f3ovX€if rair e/nov {sc. earl). Plat. Phcedr. p. 252 A. 
{t) "ipv^ri) ^ovXeveiv eTOi/nrj^. With cj)pov^oQ: Eur. Hec. 163. 
(jypov^oa 7rpe(TJ3vc,, (j)povdoi 7ra7Sec. &c. but Soph. Ant. 1 5. (ppov- 
^6q eariv Apye'iujv arparoQ. eiKoc, for e'lKOQ eari Isocr. tt. avr. 
\.3'3\.ed.Bekk. rip^v §' 'A^iXXeuc a^ioc ri/nrjc Eur. Hec. 309. 
Plat. Phil, p, 16 B. riv ^rjXtJcrai pev ov iravv '^aXenou, '^prjaOai 
Se irayy^aXeTTOV. 

«= Schol. Ven. ad II. v', 138. Eu- « Dorv. ad Charit. p. 228. Valck. 

stath. ad Od. k, p. 1667, 33. Od. ^', ad Eur. Ph. p. 355. Pors. ad Eurip. 

216. p. 1762, 32. Lesbonax p. 179. Phoen. 983. Plat. Phaedr. 

0. n. Valck. p. 267. Schsef. Melet. in Dion. 11. 

** Dorv. ad Charit. p. 565. Heind. 1, 1. p. 43 seq. 114. ad Lamb. Bos. 

ad Plat. Parm. p. ^43 seq. p. 604 seq. 


522 Syntax. Of the Use of the Nominative. 

Thus also with verbals. Xen. Mem. S. 1,7, 2. et tcc, /ti7 
u}V ayadoc auXriTrjc, ^ok€lv jSovXocto, ti ai/ avTM iroiriTeov eiij ; 
ayo 00 Ta ejw Tifc re^i^r^C fxifxiirkov tovq ay aOov q av\r}T ac; 

Kai 7rpii)TOV fjiev--- Kai tovt(o ravra Trotrjreov* eireira 

Kai rovTM iroWovc eiraiveraG wapaGKevaareov. aXAa 

firiv epyov ye ouSa^ou X?j7rT€oi/. ecrri, however, is often used r 
Isocr, TT. avT. §. 299. (r7rovSa(TTeov eari. 

Other persons are also omitted, as Eur. Hel. 1543. ei^evai 
npoOvjuoc sc. e'l/iu. Soph. (Ed. T. 92. eroifioc, enrelv. and in the 
plur. Soph. Ant. 634. r] aoi fxev -njLieic wavrayj^ ^pu)VT€Q (plXoi ; 
sc. eafxev. Od. <t , 125. toiov yap Kai TrarpoQ sc. eic,^. 

ecjTi, r)v are also generally omitted after ov^eic, where the 
relative oc, oo-rtc follows with a negation. Herod. 5, 97. Kai 
ov^ev {eariv) o ri ovk virkayero. Soph. (Ed. T. 372. gv S* 
auAioc ye, ravr oveicil,u)v , a ctoi ovceiQ oc, ouvt twvo oi^eiotet 
Ta)(^a. * there is no one of these who will not immediately re- 
proach you with the same', nemo non tibi exprohrabit. Plat. 
Menon. p. 1\ A. ei yovif riva eOeXeiQ outwc epeaQai tiHv evda^e, 
ov^eiQ odTiQ ov yeXaaerai. It occurs at full length Xen. Cyr. 
7, 6, 61. ovoetc yap i\Vy oaric, ovk av a^iwtretei^. This phrase, 
however, is usually considered as one word, in the sense of the 
Latin nemo non, 'everyone'. Plat. Hipp. Maj. p. 299 A. Kara- 
•yeXw av r)fx(jjv ov^eic, oanc, ov. In this case ov^e'ic, is put in the 
samecase as]the relative pronoun following. Plat. Menon. p.70C. 
are Kai avTOQ Trapeyjjjv avrov epcorav rtjv EXX^vwi^ tw (^ovXo- 
fxevi^ OTi av tic, povXrjrai, Kai ovSevi ot(o ovk cnroKpivofxevoc. 

id. Ph(zdo?i, J9. 117 D. AttoXXoSwjooc ov^eva ovriva ov Kare- 

KXavae t(jjv irapovrwv. id. Alcib. \. p. 105 E. eXTri^ac €.yeic 
ev Ty TToXei evoei^aaOai, on avri^ iravroQ ajtoc ei, ev^ei^afjievoc 
ce OTi, ovSev o ti ov irapavTiKa SvvricreaOai. Xenoph. Cyrop. 
1,4, 26. ov^eva e(j)a(7av ovtiv ovk a7ro(TTpe(j)eaOai^ . e^Tiv is 
often found with ov for ov^elc: Eur. Ale. 860. ovk e^Tiv ocrric 
avTOv e^aipriaeTai. also with ov^eiQ, id. EL 907. ovk eaTiv ov- 
Seto, o<TTiQ av fxejXipaiTo aoi. In these and other cases, however, 
there is often an emphasis on eaTiv, Eur. Hec, 864. ovk ecm 
OvrjTtJv offTic eoT eXevOepoc 'there exists no mortal'*^. 

* Schaef. ad Lamb. Bos. I.e. Seidl. ad Xen. Cyrop. 1. c. 
ad Eur. El. 37. ^ .See the passages in Elmsl. ad 

'* Herm. ad Vig. p. 709, 29. Schneid. Eur. Med. 775. 

Sj/ntax. Of the Use of the Nominative. 523 

So €<TTi as a copula is omitted with subst. Soph. Phil. 855. 
ovpoQ Toc, reKvoVy ovpoc. Eur. Andr. 86. k'iv^vvoc Plat. Leg. 
10. p. 907 D, dXXa eXnic. Kaipoc, ' it is time', is often so 
used, and lopa almost always, wpa rJSrj airicvai. 

early elai are also often omitted after the relative pronoun : 
Od. V , 298. ot Kara SiofxaT OSvaarjoQ Oeioio. JEur. Ale. 168. 
Travrac Se jSw^ouc, ot Kar' AS/uLrjrov ^o/ulovc irpoarjXOey comp. 
Plat. Leg. 10. p. 891 E. also after oc aV, if ij or wo-i should 
have followed, J/, f , 376.^ oc Se k avrjp fxeveyapfioc so. y, 
comp. a', 547. rj', 286. especially after oo-tcc 'whosoever it 
be': Eur. Here. F. 1266. Zeuc ^, oaric o Zeuc, TToXejuiov /jl 
eyeivaToHpa. Ores^. 4 18. at full length, ^ovXevoinev Oeolc, 
o Ti TTOT eiaiv ol Oeoi. e'ljLii is also wanting after conj unctions : 
//. 0', 230. OTTOT ev Ai]/nvu) sc. lire or tifiev. Eur. Hipp, 664. 
€<TT av eK^r)fxoc yQovoc, QrjaevQ sc. y. Here, F. 1122. ei /nrjKeb 
' AiSov (^ciKyoc, (sc. etc) €K(j)pa<Taiiu€v av . 

Obs. Other verbs also are omitted, but only when they are found 
near at hand, in the chief or subordinate proposition, e. g. Eur. Med. 
11G2. (ptXovs vofxt^ova\ ouaTrep ay Truffis oeBev sc. vojjii^rf. Soph. 
Track. 461. where erey/catro is to be supplied from i)vkyKaro, as in the 
case of waire^} av ei §. 523, 2. Thuc. 1, 82. 6(tol iStnrep Kai tifiels vtt' 
^Adrjyaiiov entPovXevofieda, for oaoi enifjovXeuoPTai, wcnrep Kal r]fjie7s cttl- 
/3ov\evo/i€0a. Xen. Cyr. 4, 1, 3. So with the imperat. Eur. Or. 1043. 
ai) vvv fjL, a^eX(f>e, jj.rj Tis'Apyeitoy ktcut}, for av vvv fie Kretve. See §. 511. 
This is the same attraction, of which other examples are given §. 634. 

The verb e^r/, like inquit in Latin, is commonly separated from its 
subject by some of the words quoted. The subject either precedes, as 
Xen. Mem. S. 2, 1, 26. Kal 6 'llpaKXrjs aKovaas ravra, w yvyat, e(pr}t 
opofxa 5e (Toi ri kariv ; or follows, Plat. Phcedon.p. 11 C. ev Xeyets, e^?;, 
w Iiijifjiia, 6 Kefjris^. Not unfrequently, however, the subject and the 

verb are found together, as Xen. I. c. 1 . Kal 6 'Aplffrnnros €((>r) - - 

10. Kal 6 2wfcparr?s e^r; ^ or in the opposite order ib. 8. eywy*, 

€(j>ri 6 'AplffTLTTTros. It has been already observed, §. 215. Obs. 2. that 
etj)!] is used even when a word of similar signification precedes. 

The verbs which in themselves do not constitute a complete 307. 

'^ Schzef. ad Lamb. B. 1. c. ad ^ Heind. Cic. de Nat. D. 1, 7, 17. 

Brunck. Gnom. p. '22. is in error in regard to this. 

• Heind. ad Phaedon. §. 61. p. 97. 

524 Syntax. Of the Use of the Nominative, 

predicate, but require another word, are, with the exception of 
verbs signifying ' being or becoming' (et^ti, vTrapyu), -ytVo/uai), 
or those in which this idea is included, as /nevw, 7re<^v/ca, kqt- 
€(TTY}v &c. chiefly the passives, which signify 'to be called' 
{KaXovfuai, ouojua^ojuai &c.), ' to be named or chosen for any- 
thing' {aipovjuai, -^eipoTOifov/dai 8cc.), ^ to appear, to be consi- 
dered as anything, to be acknowledged' {(j)aivojuai, eoiKa, vo- 
fxiCof^iai). They have also the additional word in the nomina- 
tive. This usage belongs to the Latin as well as the Greek. 

To this belongs also aKoveiv, signifying 'to be called'. Soph. 
CEd. C. 988. comp. CEd. T. 903 seq. Cor. p. 24 1 . 
avTi yap (piXtJV Kai ^evu)v, a rore LJVOfjLa^ovrOy r}viKa e^aypo- 
^OKOvVj vvv icoXa/cer, kql Oeo'iQ ey^dpoi Kai TaWay a irpooriKei, 
TravT aKOvovaiv. Theocr. 29, 21. a\ ycip w^e Trorjc,, ay aOuQ 
/tev aKovdeai e^ aartJt^. ^vvaadai ' to mean' //eroc/. 2, 30. 
cvvaxai Se touto to cttoc /caret t77^' EXXt/vwp y\(jj(j<Tav ol e^ 
apicyrepiJQ y^eipoQ 7rapi(jruf.ievoi (iaaiXei. Thuc. 7, 58. adds alvai 
after Zvvaraij as after KaXeiaSai §. 420. Obs. 1. 

508. With ovofxa eari and the dative of the person or thing, and 
ovo/iia ^x^'f which refers to a subject, the name is put in the 
nominative, as with ovojud^eaOaiy with which both phrases ac- 
cord in signification ; and not, as in Latin, in the genitive or 
dative, est ei nomen TuUii or TuUio. Od, rj', 54. AprjTri K 
ovof-L eanv eTTiovvjuov. Herod. 2, 17. tolcti ovvofxara Keerai 
race* t<^ fiev ^airiKov avTtjji'j tw oe IS/levcrjtriou. 7,216. 
ovvoj^ia ^e tio ovpei tovtm kui Ty arpaTTM tu)vto AceTrai Av6- 
iraia. Eur! Troad. 1241. Plaf. Theag! p. 124 D. E. EiVotc 
ovv av juoi, Tiva eTTiouviniav e^et Ba/ctc Te Kai 2tj3uXXa Kai 
o TjjueOaTTOC Ain<pi\vTOC ; GE. Tiva yap aXXr^Vj (o ^wKparec, 

ttXijv ye ■^ p rj cr/i w^ot ; riva eTriovvfxiav e^et linriac, Ka\ 

TlepiavSpoc; GE. o\fxai fxev, Tvpavvoi. de Leg. 12. p. 956 C. 
diKaGTrjpLOjv Se to jueu TrpcjTOv aipCTOi ^iKaarai yiyvoiVT av, 
ovc, av o (pevy(i)v re Kai o ciojKtov eXtovrai koiv^, 3i a it »/ Tat 
^LKadTwv rovvoiua fxaXXov Trpenov exovrec Plato once joins 
the one name, in the case of ovojxa as an accusative, to the other 
in the nominative. Si/mp. p. 205 D. oi Se Kara ev ri ei^oc lovrec 
Kai eaTTov^aKorec to tou oXov ovofxa ey^ovoiv, epujTa re Kai 
epav Kai epaorai. Crat7/I. p. 384 C ov (prjai <joi l^pjuoyevei 

Syntax. Of the Use of the Nominative. 525 

ovo/ua elvai Bekker reads ^Rp/moyevrj, as Thecet. p, 150 A. 77 Srj 
TTpoayijjyeia ivofxa, for Trpoaytjjyeia^. Hes. Theog. 144. Ku- 
/cXwTrec S' ovofjL r\aav eir^ovvf^iov is a combination of this construc- 
tion with that §. 305. where i]<jav, being attracted to Ku/cXa>7rec, 
is instead of r^v. 

The words which in the predicate are added to eifjiL and soD. 
other such verbs, are mostly adjectives, though sometimes also (307) 
substantives and adverbs. 

a. The adjectives are sometimes put in the gender and 
number of the subject, sometimes in the neuter sing, number, 
with subjects in the masculine and feminine, or plural. See 
§. 437 seq. 

h. Examples of substantives in the predicate are already 
given, §. 264. Obs. In this case, however, a noun is often 
used which indicates an employment or thing in general, instead 
of a word that properly belongs to the case in question, abs- 
tractum pro co?icretOf §. 429, 1. Herod. 6, 112. rkioc, ^e riv 
Tolai EAXr/(Te Kai to ovvof^ia to M77^(t)v (p6(3oQ aKovcraij stronger 
than (pof3ep6v. Comp. Eurip. Troad. 242. //. p , 38. -q Ke 
(y(piv ^eiXolcTL yoov KaraTrav/Lia\Vy for KaTaTravariKoc,, 
The substantive in the predicate then often expresses its object 
or that which is produced in the subject by the substantive, 
w^here in Latin esse with the dative of the person and the thing 
is used, a construction which is not in use in Greek. //. tt', 
498. aoi yap eytjj Kai eireira /caTrj^et^j /cat uveiooc eaaofiai, 

probro tibi ero. p , 636. oirtoQ yapfia (piXoiQ erapoKri ye- 

vtj/LieBa vo(jrr}aavTec;, as a god, e. g. Bacchus, is often named 
with the apposition '^ap/ua (3poTol(Ti. Herod. 3, 156. comp. 
1, 6. Xen. Mem, S. 2, 3, 6. Q^aip€(pijjv) cjuoi Zj) /uaWov rj 
io(j)e\€id €(7Tiv, magis detrimetito qiiam utilitati est. Similar 
to this is JEiUr. Phcen. 733. kgl fxi)v to viKav eari irav eujSou- 
X/a, i. e. ev evj^ovXia etjriu ' depends on prudence', where the 
substantive could not be replaced by ev^ovXov. 

This substantive in the predicate is often different in gender 
and number from the subject. //. V, 98. r) {.lev ^17 Xw/Srj Ta^e 
y 'iaaerai aivoQev aivuic,. Eur. Sitppl. 552. waXalaf-iaO i^wv o 

* Ileind. ad Plat. Theaet. p. 307. ad Cratyl. p. 6. 

526 Sj/ntax. Of the Use of the Nominative, 

(iioQ 'our life is a struggle'. Med. 54. BaccL 1029. Thuc, 
2, 44. icia yap Tijjv ovk ovtljv \r]dr] oi eiriyiyvofxevoi (TraT^ec) 
Tiaiv eaovrai. Plat. Merion. p. 91 C. ovro'i ye (ot ao(f)i(TTai) 
(pavepa eari Awpr? re Kai Sia(p6opa t(jjv avyyiyvofxevdyv y i. e. 
\wp<ji}VTai T€ Kai SiaCpBeipovdi rove avyyiyu. Ill the same way 
are to be explained the passages in Thuc. 4, 26. ainov ^e riv 
oi AaKe^ai/uLovioi TrpoenrovTec, for airioL riaav. 8, 9. aWiov o 
eyevero ttJc u7ro<TTo\rjG rwu vewv oi f^ev TroXXot t(jJV Xiwi' ovk 
eicorec to. irpaaaofxevaj oi ^e oXiyoi )^vvei^6rec,, where the par- 
ticiple with the subject in the nominative is not put instead of 
the accusative with the infinitive, according to the opinion of 
the Scholiast, although it might also be ainov Se i]v or eyevero, 
on ol AaKe^ai/uL. TrpoeiTTov, oti o\ pev ttoXXoi j^Setrav, and this 
is the only construction admitted in Latin. In the same manner 
Thucydides began the construction 3, 93. alriov ^e riv oi re 
OecrcFaXoi, ep oui^a^ei bvrec rtjjv ravry -vtopitov Kai wv eiri ry 
yy GKriterOj (popovpevoi, jurj (rcpiai /ueyaXp kt^vi TrapoiKfjUai, 
(pOe'ipovrec Kai iroXepovvrec,, but from the distance of 
the principal verbs from their nominative, being separated by 
other participles, he was led to consider the last part as an in- 
dependent proposition, and therefore altered the construction, 
e<pQeipov Kui eiroXepovv, and thus the words a'lriov Se riv are 
similar to the phrase reKpr^piov Se, arjpelov Se, except that yap 
could not follow (ot re yap G.), because properly ol OeacraXoi 
should be the subject to a'lnov riv. 

Sometimes a substantive serves at once both for subject and 
predicate. Soph. Phil. 81. aXX ri^v yap roi Krrjpa rrja viKtic 
\af3e7v, for to Kr. r. v. ri^v Krrjpa eariVj though this may also 
be construed, ri^v eari Xaf3elv Krrj/ua rrJQ vikyig, i. e. ri^v eari 
KraaBai viKriv ' to acquire a victory'. Eur. Andr. 181. eiric^Oo- 
vov ri y^p-qpa OriXei(i)V e(^u, for y^pripa OriX. eTTiCpOovov ri -^prjpa 
eari^. Comp. Herod. 1, 160. rov ^e Arapveoc rovrov (y^wpoc) 
eari ywpOQ rrJQ Mufftrjc. 

In the tragic and lyric writers substantives and adjectives 
often stand in the predicate for an adjective alone. Soph. Aj, 
79. ovKovv yeX(s)Q ri^itrroQ eiQ e^OpovQ yeXai^, for ri^iarov eariv 

^ llerm. ad Phil. 1. c. Matthiie ad Eur. Andr. 1. c. 

Syntax. Of the U&e of the Nominative, 527 

e'lc, e. y. Eur. Iph. T. 1128. to yap fxer evrvyiac, KaKovaOat 
BvaroLC ^apvQ a'liov, for j3a/ou €<TTt. El. 69 seq. jiieyaXrj ^e Oifti" 
ToTc juLolpa <Tv/.i(j)opaQ KaKrjc larpov evpeiv, for /tieya eariv, it is 
of great value'. Find. Pyth. 2, 173 seq. ttoti Kevrpov Se rot 
AaKTiCejuLCv reXedei oXiaOrjpoc; oIjuloq . 

c. Adverbs in the predicate. I/. I', 130. ouSe AvKoopyoa (308) 
^J7i/ ^1/, for ^TjifaioQ. comp. a', 416. ij', 424. ^(aXeTrcuc riv. 
Herod. 6, 109. roTo-i 2e *A9r}vaL(jjv arparvyo^ai eyivovro St^a 
al yvwfxai. Thucyd. 4, 61. ov yap role eOveaiv, on oi^a ttI- 
(j)VKe, Tov erepov e'^Bei irpocjiaaiv. Aristot. Polit. 6, 3.fn. eav 

^L\a 7) eKK\r\(jia yevrirai. Xenoph. Cyrop. 4, 1, 18. ei fxa- 

6r](J0VTaij 'y^wpic yevofxevoiy rifiiv evavriovaOai. Herod. 8, 60. 
tv ^aXa/jAvi r^jLUV Kal Xoyiov ktrri t(jjv eyQptjJV KarvirepOe 
yeveaOai. Eurip. Iphig. T. 1014. aXic to Keivric alfuia (ccttO* 
as Or. 1037. aXic to fxrirpoc, aifx' cyto 3e (t ov ktcvio (where 
the opposition is, aXX' avroy^eipl OvrjaKe, and on this account 
an emphasis is thrown on e-yw). comp. Ale. 684. Eur. Ion. 
285. /narriv Xoyoc, for fxaraioCy as hocr. Paneg. parrfv elvai 
TO peimvrjaBai, nepi avrtjjv^. 

Obs. The ipassage in Plat.Euthyphr. p. 2 C.T>. belongs not to this class, 
(MeXiros) fjLol ^aiverai. Tuiv TroXiriKuiy fxovos ap-)(^eadaL 6pd(os' opduis yap 
can rojy veioy icpiSrov eTnfJieXridrjpai, ottws ecovrai ort apicTTot. For here 
djoOws can is not for opOoy ctrrt, but it would be fully, opduis yap ruiy 
TToXiriKijjy apyeddat earl ruiy veojy eTTiiieXrjdfjyat, * the care of youth is 
the proper commencement of state affairs', as ib. p. 14 D. dp' ovy to 
ye opOois alrely ay e'lrj, <5y deofieda Trap' tK:€Lyu)y, ravra avrovs alreiy. 
Thus also Leg. 3. p. 697 B. ^et Kal ayayKaloy Tifids re Kat arifiias ha- 
ye/jieiy. KA. 'Opduis. A9. "Eort he opOuis (^mve/uetv TifJ. Kal ar.), ri/ui- 
wrara pkv Kal Trpwra ra Trepl Trjy "ip^x^^ ayada KelaBai. lb. p. 709 E. 
Ti ixera tovt elire^y opdios eariy (elirely) ; and in the passages which 
Heusde SIpec. in Plat. p. 6. adduces, viz. Cratyl. p. 388 C. Hipparch. 
p. 227 C. 

With verbs also which have a complete signification of them- 310. 
selves, a second nominative case is put as a predicate, v^^hich is (309) 
to be explained by ojq 'as', Soph. El. 130. -ye^eOXa yevvaiujv 

^ Matthias not. ad Bacch. 960. Ant. 633. Stallb. ad Euthyphr. p. 10. 

•^ Valck. ad Ph. v. 1241. Schaef. Schaefer ad Greg. p. 83. 
ad Dionys. Ilal. p. 76. Erf. ad Soph. 

528 Sj/ntax. Of the Use of the Nominalive, 

roK^wv, i]K€t' €/iitJv KainaTU)v Trapafuvdiov * as a comfort, as com- 
forters', ib. 1141. aXX ev l^evycn \ep(JL Kri^evdeic, raXaQ, a/uLiKpoc 
TTpoarjKeiQ oyKOQ €v ajJUKpt^ kvt€l^. See §. 428, 1. 

Of the construction 'EXXr^vora^itai KaTearrj apy^ri, see 
§. 433. O^^s. 4. 

31 1. Sometimes also a nominative is put without a verb following, 

(310) iiominativus absolutus. These are avaKoXovOiai, where the writer 
considers the thing of which he is about to speak, absolutely, 
or as a subject, but is led, in consequence of a parenthesis, to 
change the construction. Soph. CEd, C. 1239. ev (^ (^yrjpa) 
tXti/ukov o^e, ovK eyw fxovoc,j TravroOev popeioc wc tiq aKra 
Kv/j.aT07rXri^ ^ei^iepm /cXoveTrac, luc kql rov^e KaraKpac ^eivai 
Kv/naroayelc arai KXaveovcriv aei ^vvovijai, for tXii/uwv ode 
araic fcXoveirai. Plat. The^dt. p. 173 D. (nrovdai de eraipeiuiv apyaQ r\ ovvodoi Kai deiTrva Kai avv avXrjTpi(Ji K(ji)/j.oi, ovde 
ovap TTparreiv irpomararai avroiQ. Xeti. Hier, 4, 6. waTrep oi 
aOXrjrai ou^^, orav iScwtwv yefwifrai Kpeirrovc,, tovto avrovQ 
evcppaiuei, aXX , orav rwv avrayiovKJTijJV tittovq, tovt avrovc 

avia, for TOVTio evcjypalvovrai aviuivraif as soon afterwards 

ovTw Kai o rvpavvoc, €v(ppaiv€rai tovtio Xvireirai. Comp. 

6, 16, Thus also Cicero de Fin. 2, 33, 107. hac leviora, 

poema, orationem cum aut scribis aut legis, signum, tabula, 

locus amanus, ludi, venatio, villa Luculli {nam si tuam dicerem, 
latebram haberes ; ad corpus diceres pertinere) sed ea, qucd dixi, 
ad corpusne refers?^ Comp. §. 562. 

(311) The nominative is used also in exclamations. Soph. Track, 
1046. (i) TToXXa S17 Kai Qepfxa Kai Xoyio KaKo. kui \epGi Kai 
vC)roi(ji fjLoydnaac, eyw/ Furip. Iph. A, 1305. w ^varaXaiva 
eyC>! Comp. Msch. Pers. 515. Eur. Iph. T. 560. 

" Koen ad Gregor. p. (153) 331. 24, 3. ad Cicer. Tusc. 3, 8. Heind. 

* Kuster ad Arist. Plut. 277. ad Plat. Theaet. p. 389. ad Cratyl. 

Hemstcrh. ad Lucian. 3. p. 377. p. 68. Koen ad Greg. p. 87. ed. 

Brunck ad Soph. Antig. 260. ad Schaef. Ast ad Plat. Leg. p. 145. 
Arist. Ran. 1137. Davis ad Max. Tvr. 


Of the Vocative. 

The vocative is used, as in English and Latin, in addresses. 312. 
With respect to the Greek language the following remarks will 
be sufficient : 

1. For the vocative the nominative is often used. //. 7 , 

277. Zeu 7raT€|0 HeXioc , be iravr ecpopac. So in 

energetic addresses, w ouroc, heus tu, and without cJ, outoc, 
Ti S/oac ; Arist, Plut. 439. avrt] av, ttol arpec^ei ; id. Thesm, 
610. Soph. Aj. 71. ouTOC, ae~- -irpoGixoXelv KoXbi, and 89. a> 
OUTGO Atac. This is the address commonly of superiors to in- 
feriors, or of elder to younger persons ^. Plat. Symp. p. 1 72 A. 
o ^a\r)pe\)c ovroc Air o\Xo S (vp or, j ov irepifxeveiQ ; With 
the vocative we sometimes find an apposition with the article 
which characterizes a person in himself without reference to him 
who addresses him. Xen. Cyr. 6, 3,33. koi av^e/o apy^uyv ruiv 
€7rt TOLQ Ka/u)i\oiQ av^p(jjVj oTTiaOev tu)V apfxafxa^ttiv eKruTTOV . 

On the other hand the vocative is sometimes used instead of 
the nominative, an attraction taking place by means of which 
the address is blended with the designation which is annexed 
to it. Soph. Phil. 760 seq. lu) ^vffrrjve gv, ^ixTrr^ve ^rjra ^la 
TToi/wv irdvTwv (paveiCf from ^ucrrr^i/e and ^vaTrjvoQ (paveic;. 

Aj. 695. (jj Yiav, Hav aX'nrXayKTe KuXXai^iaq otto ^ei- 

pddoc (jydvrjOi, that which properly belongs only to CJxivriOi, aXi- 
irXayKTOG (j)avT}Oi i. e. virep dXa (l)avr}9i, is considered as an ob- 
jective designation, a quality belonging independently to Pan. 
£wr. Troad. 1229. Callim. Fr. 213. Bentl. dvrl ydp eKX^OriQ 
'I^j3|oaff€ UapOevioVf from' I^ij3pa<Te and* I/Li(3paG0c; eKXi^OrjQ. In 
Theocr. 1 7, 66. oXj3(€ /cw^e yevoiOj the attraction is obliterated®. 

2. The vocative is often put in the singular when the verb 

*= Heind. ad Plat. Prot. p. 460. Soph. Aj. 89. Fisch. 3 a. p. 319 sq. 

Blomfield p. li. quotes /Esch. Pers. Lennep ad Phal. p. 94 seq. 
161. where two constructions are ^ Schaef. ad Apoll. Rh. p. 193. ad 

mixed according to him, J fxrJTep Theocr. ]. c. Seidl. ad Eur. Troad. 

S^eplov ^nd yj jiTirrjp ovffa S. 1229. Herm. ad Soph. Aj. 680. 

*• Gregor. p. 47. et Koen. V^alck. Buttm. ad Soph. Phil. 761. Comp. 

ad Eurip. Ph. 5, 1332. 1434. Musgr. Heind. ad Hor. Sat. p. 385. 
ad Eurip. Ipli. T. 1234. Brunck ad 

530 Syntax, Of the Vocative. 

is in the dual or plural. Od. j3', 310. ' Avtlvo , outtwc karlv 
v7rep(j)iaXoi<n fxeO* v/uuv ^aii^vaOai, Comp. Od. a , 130.* On the 
other hand, the verb is found in the singular with the vocative 
plural in the oracle Herod. 7, 140. and the verb in the singu- 
lar with two vocatives Plat. Prot. p. 31 1 D. enrk /uLOiy oJ 2w- 
Kparec re Kai lirTroKparec;. Comp. Huthyd. p. 283 B." Soph. 
(Ed. C. 1102. lo TEKvov, ri irapecrrov i 1104. TrpoeXOer eJ 
7ra7, irarpij where (Edipus points out Antigone alone, who has 
addressed him, but means Ismene also. Comp. Phil. 369. with 
Hermann's note on Eur. Iph. A. 1378. 

3. When a person turns suddenly from a narration, &c. to 
an address, or passes in an address from one person to an- 
other, the vocative is commonly put first. Hesiod.''Epy. 210. 

\lc, ecpar ioKvirerriQ iprj^j ravvcjiTrrepOQ opvic \l lieptjr}, av o 
aKovediKYic. Comp.246.272. //.Z;', 86. <|)',448. Od.y\247. 
Soph. El. 507. yuypolp! av ec, to^' . 'Avriyovr], av o evdaBe 
<^uXa(T(Te irarkpa rov'^e. Plat. Theag. p. 127 C. Haw Ka^tjjQ 
XeyeiQ. 'Q ^bJKparec;, Trpoc, ae ^' av ri^rj e'lr} o juera tovtov 
Aoyoc*^ (r) : and before the possessive pronoun Pind. Pyth. 7, 
10, 15. Also with adversative particles II, t\ 429. ''E/cto/o, 
aTap (TV fioi ear\ narrip. Soph. (Ed. C. 237. (o ^evoi atSo- 

(ppoveQj aXX e/xe rav jueXeau OLKTicrare. The vocative, 

however, is not unfrequently placed after the pronoun, e. g. 
Eur. Or. 1 676. ra /meif KaO' 'FAevrjv wS* ^X^*'' ^^ ^ "^ XP^^^> 
Opeara, oiKelv. 

4. Generally, but not necessarily, J precedes this vocative. 
Of its position see §. 277, b. 

5. Instead of the vocative an oblique case is often found in 
the apposition: Soph. (Ed. T. 1119. ae irpwr epwrw, tov 
KopivOiov ^evov. Eur. Phan. 702. Ka\ <re, roi^ Trpo/uiaTopoQ 

'love nor cKyovov ''FiTra(j)ov eKaXecra. Comp. Hel. 355. 

1116. where 1120. eX^e follows. El. 155. Theocr. l\, 39.^ 
A transition is also sometimes made from the vocative to the 
construction with a verb active, e. g. KaXtS. Msch. Prom. 9 1 . w 

* Brunck ad Arist. Ran. 1479. *" Porson et Schaef. ad Eurip. Or. 

Soph. Phil. 369. Lob. ad Aj. 191. 614. Herin. ad Soph. El. 147. 
Schief. ad Soph. CEd. C. 1102. ^ Markl. ad Eur. Iph. A. 791. 

^ Schaf. App. Demosth. p. 331. 

Sj/ntax. Of the Vocative. 531 

Aioc aiBrtp, TTafXfxrJTop re ya, Kai toi^ TravoTrrriv kvkXov tjXiov 

KaXu). Soph. Aj. 856. or connected with the active verb, which 
precedes the vocative, (Ed. T. 159. (e/CTera^ai) irpwra <re /ce- 
nXofxevoc,, Ovyarep Atoc, afxppor AOava, yaiaoyjov r aBeXcbeav 
' Apre/nLVj Kal^olfdov eKaf36Xov. comp. 203 seq. Some- 
times when the person addressed is not distinguished by a per- 
sonal pronomi, CEd. C. 1090. ae/uva re ttoiq IJaXXac AOava, 

Kai Kaaiyvrirav arepyu) ^nrXac, apoyyac /moXelv, for Kai 

<re, (jejixva AOavaj Kai . On the other hand, a trans- 
ition is made from the accusative, which is defined by an active 
verb, to the vocative : Soph. Trach. 96 seq. '' AXiov aiTw tovto, 

Kapv^ai (i)Xain7rpa arepoira (j)Xeye6u)v . (v. 102.) 

eiTT , (jj KpaTiaT€V(jjv Kar ofxjxa, Eur, Ion. 925. In all these 
forms the active verb is sometimes left out, see §. 427, a. So 
with the vocative or the personal pronoun the name of the person 
addressed is often added in the accusative with Xe-ya>. Msch. Ag. 
1044. eiGtt) KOfxiCov Kai av, Kaaav^pav Xe-yw. Soph. Phil, 
1261. Comp. §.432, 4. 

Obs. In the lyrical and tragic writers we often find an invocation not 
followed by anything said in relation to that which is invoked. Thus 
Pind. Pyth. 1. -^pvaea (popfjiiyl is invoked, but it is not till v. 112. that 
the poet mentions the purpose for which he has invoked the lyre — to 
celebrate Hiero. Nem. 8. nothing at all is mentioned that has any 
reference to the invocation "Q,pa Trorvta. This may be the result of lyric 
impetuosity; but several tragedies of Euripides begin with similar invo- 
cations, though in a quite unimpassioned mood, viz. Alcestis, Andro- 
mache, and Electra. Comp. El. 432.* The passages are of a different 
kind in which a proposition with yap follows immediately upon the ad- 
dress ; for in these the purpose of the address is not mentioned till after- 
wards, and the causal proposition is placed first, after the manner of the 
Greeks, explained in §. 615. //.?/', 327. 'ArpeiBrjTe Kai aXXoi apiarrjes Tla- 

yaxatcJv TToWol yap redydffi : and that to which Nestor invites 

Agamemnon and the Greeks is not mentioned till v. 331. rw <re xpn 
TTokeixov fxey afx* ijoi Travo-ai 'Aj^atw. Comp. Od. k', 174. 176. v', 70. 
73. Pi7id. 01. 4. V. 1. 10. 8. v. 1. 12. In other passages, that on ac- 
count of which any one is addressed is implicated with subordinate pro- 
positions, which contain designations of the person addressed, as Horn, 

H. in .^poll. 4>75 seq. where we ought to read ^eTvoi, roi afxcpiye/jLetrde 

TO irply, vvv fxey ovKed' viroTpOTroL avdis eaeade &c. according to §. 632, 

« Seidl. ad Eur. El. 1. 

532 Suutax. Of the Genitive, 

Oblique Cases. 

313. The remaining relations, which the verb in the predicate re- 
quires to be adjoined, either according to its nature, or in par- 
ticular combinations, are expressed by what are called the ob- 
lique cases (i. e. those which must always be dependent upon 
other words), the genitive, dative, and accusative. The most 
extensive range among these cases belongs to 

The Genitive, 

which may stand not only with the predicate, but with any 
word of the proposition. Its chief purpose is to express that 
in which something else is found, whether as a propertt/, a qua- 
liti/, an action, or generally as a more precise definition. 

SI k I. The genitive is used in Greek, as in all other languages, 
to express, of two substantives placed in juxtaposition and re- 
ciprocal relation, that one to which the other in any way belongs, 
e. g. aperrj av^poCy kclXXoc; yvvaiKoc,, TToXe/xoc AOrivattov Kal 
TleXoTrovvYia iu)v, vioq, yvvi]^ 7rarr]p Qe/jnaroKXeovQ, inasmuch as 
Themistocles may be considered as the subject, to which his 
son, his wife, his father, are conceived to belong as an accident. 
Nothing here depends on the objective relation of the things 
described, but only on the manner in which the speaker at the 
time subjectively considers their relation. On this use it is not 
necessary to enlarge. 

315^ 11. The genitive is used to denote the person or thing in which: 
anything is found, whether as a property or a quality, a custom, 
a duty, &c. ; and also that from which anything originates. 

(371) 1. Property. o'lKeioCy 'l^ioq nvoc Isocr. ad Nicocl. p. 19 B. 
anavra to. twv oiKovvr<jJV rriv noXiv oiKela ruiv KaXtJc; j3a(7i- 
XevovTtJv ear I. So the article only is used with the genitive, ra 
TWV oiKovvTijJv rrjif iroXiv 'the property of the citizens'. Hence 
lepoQ with a genitive Herod. 2, 72. IpovQ Se tovtovc, rod Nei- 
Xov (j)a<TL Plat. Phadon. p. 85 B. Eur. Ale. 76. So in the 
tragic writers, ''At^ov /itoXTrai Eur. SuppL 775. Here. F. 1028. 

Syntax. Of the Genitive. 533 

El. 143. (j)6iinevu}v evdvra Here. jP. 441. 'songs, garments con- 
secrated to Hades, to the dead'. 

eT»^at and yiyveffOai especially denote with the genitive 'to be- 
long*. Herod. 3,1 17. touto to neSiov r)v fxkv Kore^opaafJLicjv, 

eTrei re ^e Uepcrai e^ovai to Kparoc, ecTTt tov paai- 

Xeoq*. id. 2, 134. A'/(TW7roc '\a^^ovoQ eyeuero, sc. ^ovXoc; . 
Hence Soph. CEd. 2'. 411. ov Kfreovroc irpoGTarov y€ypa\lo^ai 
' a client of Creon, belonging to Cr. as my patron', eavrov elvai 
* to be one's own master, free'. Dem. Olynth. p. 26. 27. v/xljv 
avrujv yevofjLevovQ. Comp. p. 42, 10. 1456, 9. Isocr. de Pac. 
jy. 185B. Plat.Gorg. p. 50SD. el/LilSe eirlri^ (5ov\o/iievit),ii)(nrep 
oi aTijuLoi Tov eOeXovTOQy av re rvirreiv (^ovXrjrai 'am in the 
power of any one who chooses'. Politic, p. 307 E. o»^Tec aei 
Tojv eTririQ€p.ev(jjv 'a prey to those who attack them', as »Sop/f. 
(Ed. C. 752. TouTTioi^Toc ' a prey to the first comer'. Soph. (Ed. 
T. 917. aXX ear I rov Xeyovroc, »V (p6(^ovc Xeyij 'he gives him- 
self up to any one who relates alarming things'. Xeyoi^Tt iravri 
neiOerai, as it is explained by the grammarians in Bekk. Anecd, 
p. 65. Id. Antig. 737. ttoXiq yap ovk ccjB' j tjtcc av^poc, eaO 
evoG. Demosth. c. Pantan. p. 982, 3. (.irire (rvyy vio/LirjCj /itr/T 
aXXov juYj^evoQ eKTiv, aXX' r) rov nXeiovoc, where eial properly 
belongs only to TrXeiovoc, 'are devoted to gain, aggrandizement', 
but by a zeugma is referred to the other also. 

To this class also, in some measure, belongs Soph. Antig. 
1205. avBiG Trpoc, XiOoarptjJTOv KoprjG vv in(pe7ov ' Aicov koI- 
Xov et(T6j3atVo^ev, where vv/n(pe7ov a^ov is the tomb of Antigone, 
sentenced to death, and thus destined to be the bride of Pluto, 
vv/Li(l)ri''Ai^ov, as his property. 

Ohs. The idea of property was often kept in view in the construction 
of KOLyus with the genitive, .§. 389, i. 

' Quality, power, custom, duty'. Here eivai may be trans- o-^q^ 
lated different ways. a. Soph. Electr, 1054. ttoXA^c auoiaa (372) 
(€(TTt) Kai TO OrjpaaOai Keva ' it partakes of great folly, it is very 
foolish', as in Latin magnce stultitice est. Eurip. Phan. 731. 
aXXa TOvO' optjj TToXXov ttovov {ov) ' a matter of great labour, I 
see that it is attended with great labour', in which there is no 

* Valck. atl Herod. 1. c. p. 255, 67. ^ Valck. ad Uerod. I.e. p. 168, 55. 

534 Syntax. Of the Genitive, 

need to supply ^eofxevov with Valckenaer. Plat. ApoL S. /?. 28 A. 
Comp. Herod. 2, 148. Thuc. I, 83. eariv o iroXe^oc ovy^ 
OTTAtjJv TO TrXeov, aXXa SaTravrjc 5, 9. vOjUto'aTe elvai 
Tov KaXwc iroXe/JLelv to eOeXeiv Kai to aiayvveaQai 'that 
alacrity and a love of honour are necessary to fight well'. Plat. 
Go7'g. p. 46 1 A. ovK oXiyrjc avvovffiac ear'i ' it requires no short 
conversation', as Leg. A. p. 708 D. ttoXXou y^povov etjTi. comp. 
ib. 5. p. 735 C. Eur. Jph. A, 1151. avro to ai-yav o/uloXo- 
yovvTor, eari <jov ' betrays that you confess'. Lysias, Epitaph, 
p. 191, 42. uses (rrj/uLelov with this genitive. 

So the gen. also expresses that in which anything is found 
as a predicate. Eur. Hel. 201 . l^acrropoc, re avyyovov 

re ^i^v/iioyeveci ay aX/ma TrarpiBoQ XeXoiTre, where apposition 

might have been used ; or the relation of the species to the 
genus, Eur, Suppl. 716. OTrXto-^a Kopvvr)c 

b. In other cases eivai may be rendered by ' to be able', re- 
ferred to the Greek genitive as the subject. Soph. (Ed. T. 393. 
KaiTOi Toy aiviyfx ovyj. tovttiovtoc, i?v av^poc, dienrelv 'it 
was not a riddle for the first comer to solve*. Thuc. 6, 22. 
TToXXrj yap ovaa (J) OTpaTia) ov TradrjQ eo'Tai ttoXcwc vtto- 
^el^aaOai ' not every city will be able to receive the army' ; where, 
at the same time, it is to be observed that the verb is referred 

to (TTpaTia, as its subject, instead of to 7roXX?}i' ovaav vtto- 

^e^aaOaij as in the passage adduced from Sophocles to aiviyfia 
was the nominative. Plat. Gorg. p. 500 A. dp' ovv wavToc 
av^poG ecfTiv e/cXe^acrOai, TroTa ayaOa tujv ijceojv ecTi Kai 
OTTola KaKa, r) TeyviKov ^et eic eKaaTov ; and in the proverbial 
expression ov iravTOQ av^poc, eic, KopivSov eaO o ttXouc ^. 

c. 'must': Soph. (Ed. C. 1429. o-TpaTijXaTOu ^jorjcTOv to, 
Kpeiaau) jmri^e Tav^ea Xeyeiv. 

d. 'to be w^ont' : Thuc. 3, 39. airoaTaaiQ Ttjjv f^iaiov ti 
TracTy^ovTiov eaTiv 'they who are treated with violence are 
wont to revolt'. Plat. Rep. 1. p. 335 B. edTiv apa SiKaiov 
av^pOQ jSXaTTTeiv Kai ovtivovv dvOputTriov, ' it is to be expected 
from a just man, a just man is accustomed', &c. Xen. Anab, 

"" Valcken. ad Herod. 7, 153. (p. 575, 97.) 

Sj/fitax. Of the Genitioe. 535 

2, 5, 21. TravTcnraffi Se diropiov e<Trl /cat a/uij^ai'wi^ /cat 
aVa-y/c^ evojuevwi' /cat tovtljv ttovtjjOwi/, o'trii^ec e^eXovtrt 
§1* eTTiopKiac, re irpoc Oeovc Kal dirKTriac irpoQ avdpwirovQ irpar- 
T€iv Tt, where the construction is changed, for to eOeXeiv. See 
§. 633. Xen, Mem. S. 2, 1, 5. rr/Xi/couTwi' e-mKeip.evoyv tw 

fXOi\evovri KaKtjJv Ofxijjc, etc ra cTrt/ctV^ui^a (pepetjOai, dp ou/c 

^Sr/' TOUTO Trai^raTrao't /ca/coSa tjuoi^wi^roc ecrrt ; * is not that 
the action of a madman?' 

Obs. irpos often accompanies these genitives : jEscIi. A gam. QOS. 
17 Kupra TTpos yvvaLKos aipeadai Keap ' the custom, the characteristic of a 
woman'. 1647. to yap BoXuiaaL irpos yvvaiKos ijy aacjxvs. Herod. 7, 153. 
ra TOiavTa epya oh irpos airavTOS avdpos veyofiiKa yeveffdai ' that not 
every one can do such things'. Soph. Aj. 319. itpos yap kukov re 
Kal (3 apyxpyxov yoovs Toiovah'' aei rror ar^pos e4 i/y etr' e)(etv ' that 
it is cowardly' ^ or Isocr. de Pac. 177 C. rwv apyovTOJv epyov eari rovs 
ap')^onevovs rals eavrojy CTrificXeiais TroieTv evlai^oveaTarovs. comp. 
p. 1C7 B. In Thuc. 2, 39. rJ d^' Ij^kop avrwy €v\pvx<i> the quahty is 
considered as something that proceeds from any one. 

e. In all these cases the subject of ecTTi or eia'i is a thing. 
Sometimes however a person possessing something constitutes 
the subject. Find. Pi/th. 3, 108. yvojvai, o'lac eapev aicrac 
'what lot we have', as Soph. CEd. C. 144. where CEdipus says 
of himself, ov iravv p,o[pac ev^aifioviaai wpoJTac sc. eijui. Herod. 
1, 107. (i 373.) Piat. Gorg. p. 482 A. aXXore aXXwv icrrl 
\6yu)v ' he holds now one language now another*. To this head 
is to be referred also the phrase eti^ai eTijju rpiaKovra Plat. Leg. 
4. p. 721 A. B. (comp. Li/s. in Theomn. p. 119, 37.) 'to be 
thirty years old', where Isocrates^g. j9. 388 E. puts the accusa- 
tive, dSeX(priv Koprjv rerrapa Kai 8e/c errj yeyovviaVj §. 425, 3, b. 
Also rrJQ avrrjc yvw/LLY}c elvaiy ejusdem sententice esse, 'to be of the 
same opinion', Thuc. 1, 1 13. Comp. Xen. H. Gr. 2, 4, 36. 
o Tou fxeyiGTOVj tov ^evrepov, rov rpirov, TiiJ.rjiLiaTOQ Plat. 
Leg. 12. p. 948 B. The phrase is more peculiar in Herod. 4, 
138. Tfaav ^e ovroi ol ^ia(j)epovTeG re rrju \f^rj(j)ov Kai eovrec 
\6yov irpoc, j3a(TiXrjoc, which elsewhere is ev Xo-yw eu'ai, aliquo 
numero haberi. id. 5, 92, 7. toiovtmv epytov eari rj Tvpavvic, 
for TOt. ep. e^epydt^rai. 1, 186. Tifc TroXioc eovGtjQ Bvo (j)ap' 

•» Brunck ad Arist. Ran. 355. 

536 Sj/ntax. Of the Genitive. 

aeu)u, i.e. e'^ov^iic ^vo (^apaea. These very closely resemble 
the Latin idiom Titus erat summcE facilitatis, though it is only 
in the later Greek writers that phrases exactly corresponding 
occur ^. 

f. Closely allied to this is the practice of poets to express 
qualities of persons and things by genitives of substantives, 
with or without an adjective, in the sense of adjectives : Eur. 
Phosn. 1529. gtoXic Tpv(j)ac, i. e. trr. rpv(j)epa, 1567. /ua- 
crroi yaXaKTOCf i.e. jU. yaXaKTOvyoi. 1616. TpavjLiara a'l- 
fxaroQ, i. e. Tp. aifiaroevTa. Bacc/i. 388. o tuq r]<jv^iac jS/oToc, 
i.e. j3ioc rjcTV^OQ, Soph.AJ, 1003. oi ^vcrOearov ofxfxa Kai toX- 
lurjQ TTiKpaQj equivalent to /cat Trt/CjOoroX^iov . Q^d. jT. 533. r) 
Toaov^ ^X^'^ ToXfi?7C 7rpo(T(jj7rov, for irp. ovru) roX/tiripov. Antig, 
114. \evKric, ^loVoc irrepv^ ' a snow-white wing'. Similar to 
this is Herod. 7, 40. apjia 'iiririov ^laaidyv, the genitive here 
also denoting a quality of the chariot, which in English can 
only be expressed by a circumlocution, ' a chariot drawn by 
Nissean horses'. So Euripides Hel. 1330. says, ore t,vyiovQ 
Z^ev^aaa 6ea ffarivac, where dr]pu)v belongs to aarivaCj but must 
properly be construed after tevl^aauj Orjpal t^v^. So is proba- 
bly to be explained Eur. Iph. T. 1113. irapBeuoQ evdoKijuijjv 
yafjutyv * a maiden destined to a noble marriage'. 

g^y Thus the genitive is used, particularly with demonstrative 
(373) pronouns, which are explained, in order to show in whom a 
certain quality is found. Eur. Iph. A. 28. ovk ayajxai ravr 
av^poQ dpicFTeoQ ^ I do not approve this in a prince'. Plat. 
Apol. S. p. 17 B. Xen. Ages. 2, 7. aXXa /naXXov ra^ av~ 
Tov ayafxaij on TrXr^Ooc re ov^ev fxeiov, rj to rijjv TroXe/uiojv, 
irapeaKevaaaro &c. 'I admire this in him'. ib. 1, 8. evdvQ 
fiev ovv TToXXoi irauv rjyacjOrjaau avrov {vulg. avro) rovro, 
TO eiriOvidrjaai 8lc.*^ Plat, Thectt. p. 161 B. oIgO ovv, o] Beo- 
^uype, o Oau^a^w tov eraipov aov Tl piorayopov ^. Me- 
wex.j5.24IB. TOUTO ^ri al^iov eTraive^v rwv av^ptjv twv 
TOTe vav/Lia'vrjaavrwv, on rov eyofxevov (popov cieXvaav twv 
'EXXr)i/wi/. Je i^ep. 2.p. 367 D. TOVT oui^ auTO eiraivecFov 

* Lobeck ad Phryn. p. 215. Seidl. ad Eur. El. 651. 

'' Ilerm. ad Vig. p. 890 seq. ad " lluhnk. ad Tim. p. 8. 

Soph. (Ed. T. 826. ad Soph. El. 19. "* Heind. ad Plat. Theat. p. 317. 

syntax. Of the Genitive. 537 

^iKaioavv^]Qj o avrri Si avrriv rov e^ovra ovivrtcrif Kai aSiKiav, 
o jSAaVree. Xen. Ages, 8. 4. eyio ovv Kai tovto eiraivw 
'AyrjcTiXdov, to irpoc to apeoKeiv roTc ' EXXrjcrii^ virepicelv 
rriv j3a(T(Xewc ^ev'iav, Thiic. 1, 84. Ka\ to j5paSv Kai jueXAov, 
o fX€iuL(j)6vTai fnaXiffTa rifxiov, ^77 aiayvveade. Xen. Q^con, 
16, 3. ovACowi/ /cat aWoTpiac, yrjc tovto e(TTi -yi/wi^at, o 
Ti T€ Svvarat (j)epeiv Kai o rt ^77 Suvarat, optJVTa tovc KapirovQ 
Kai Ta Sevdpa. Without a demonstrative pronoun A}iab. 3, 1, 

19. eyw juiev ovnoTC eiravo/Jiriv /SacrtXea Kai tovc ovv 

avTio fxaKapiCfi)V, SiaQeiop.€voc, avTiijv, oar]V fxev \iopav Kai oiav 
eyoiev, wo Se a(^Qova tcl eniTrideia &c. So rt is also used 
Soph. (Ed. r. 991. Ti S' eW eK€ivT}Q vjluv etc (p6(3ov (^epov; 
In Xen. Mein. S. 1, 1, 12. ou^eic ^e TrwTrore ^(OKpaTOvc ovSev 
ao-ejSec ov^e ai'oo'top ovt€ irpaTTOVTOQ elSev ovt€ XeyovTOC tjkov- 
aev, two modes of expression are blended together, ovSeic ttljit. 

^wKpcLTOvc ovSev aVejSec elSev &C., and 2w/c/oaT»j ovSev a(Te/3ec 

irpcLTTOVTa eiSev &c. Xew. Cyrop. 8, 1, 40. KaTafxadelv Se 
Tou Kvpov SoKOv/mev, wc ov tovt^) /liovio evofuLite -^prjvai tovc 
apyovTac tu)v apyop.kv(i)v Sia(j)€peiv, tio /BeXriovac avTUJV eivai, 
aXXa Kai KaTayorjTeveiv (^€to y^prjvai avTOvc. ' we think we have 
observed in Cyrus'. 

Obs. The above-mentioned construction of aya/iai and Qavp.a'Cu) ap- 
pears to have been the cause of the construction of both verbs with a 
genitive of the object, the genitive being unaccompanied by another 
word, denoting a quahty, &c. ; its place, however, being supplied by 
the following preposition with on, ottios, &c. These verbs, with this con- 
struction, usually signify * to wonder at any one, or any thing', the idea 
of disapprobation, of blame, of contempt, being implied. Isocr. NicocL 
jp. 27 A. B. 0av/xa^w Tuiv ravrrfy rriv yvu)^r]v ej^dvrwv, oirios oh Kai 
Tov ttKovtov kukms \kyov(TLV. Comp. tt. avn^. p. 313 E. Archid, 
p. 128 E. 135 B. de Pac. p. 161 A. also, * to admire, to approve', 
ironically, in ridicule. Herod. 6, 76. ayatrOai €<pTj rov 'Epaffivov 
ov Trpodidovros Toiis iroXiriras. Plat. Hipp. Maj. p. 291 E. Kai vrj rrju 
"Hpav ciyajjLaL cov, oti fxoi ^oKcts evpotKios (ioriQeiv. Frequently, how- 
ever, it signifies * to admire' in a good sense. Plat. Criton. p. 4i3 B. 
dXXa Kai aov TzaXai 0avyua^w, aladarofievos ws rideujs Kadevdeis. T^eg. 
12. p. 948 B. 'P a^aiiapdvos ^e Trepl rrjy Xeyofxevriv Kpitny Tuiy ^iKuiy 
clIlov ayacrdai, dioTi Karel^e rovs Tore aydputTrovs riyovfjieyovs kvapyws 
elvai Qeovs. Demosth. pro Cor. p. 296, 4. rls yap ovk ay ayaffairo 
rdjy ay^pcjy eKCivioy rrjs aperrjsy &c. Herod. 9, 79. to p.ey evyoely re 

538 Sj/?itax. Of the Genitive, 

Kal Tvpoopciy liyafxai aev, where aev is governed by to evy. k. vrp. comp. 
ib, 58, Xen, Cyr. 3, 1, 15. ayacai tov Trarpos uaa jGe/SouXeirat, an 
attraction for ciy. oaa 6 Trar^jp ^efi. Otherwise aya/xai and davfxd^u) 
usually stand with the accusative '^ 

318. Ill, Another relation which is expressed by the genitive, is 
i^^V that of a whole to its parts, i. e. the genitive is put partitively. 
This use is common to the Greek, the Latin, and other languages, 
as eiQ TovTw»^, U7ius horum or ex his, &c., only that in Greek 
this use has a much more extensive range. Exceptions to this, 
where the whole is in the same case with its parts, are peculiar to 
the Greek language, and are only imitated in Latin ; but in En- 
glish and other languages are not admitted. The following are 
the cases which are chiefly to be noticed in Greek : 

1. When the article stands as a partitive pronoun o /nev — o 
Se (§. 289), the whole, which is thus divided into parts, is added 
in the genitive, e. g. rwv ovtu)u to. f.ikv eariv e(j) i^/iTv, 
TCL B* ovK €(p> r^jiiiv. Epictet. Etichir. in, as in Lat, eorum 
qua sunt, alia in potestate nostra sunt, alia non sunt, 

2, In the same manner with participles accompanied by the 
article in the sense is qui {%, 270.), the whole is in the genitive, 
whilst in Latin it is put in the same case as the demonstrative 
pronoun is {%. 278.). The genitive frequently precedes: Herod. 
6, 108. eav GrjjSaiouc BottuTwv rove p.r\ ^ov\ofxkvovQ id 
HoiioTOVG reXeeiv, Baotios eos, qui nollent, Thuc, 1, 111. 2i- 
Kvtjvicjv Tovc IT poff/uLil^avTaG jua^p eKparr}(Tav. ib.89, eirei- 

Br\^?\BoiaveyJopr)aav €K t»Jo Eu^wtti/c, Kai ol Kara(j)vyov- 

rec avTtJV toiq vavaiv ec M.vKa\rtv Bie^Oapr\aav, Ke(i)rvyjLBr\Q 

^gj; aireyjiop-qaev eir oikov, Isocr, ad Nie. p. IS A, ^, tu)v 

TTpoaray/uLaTiov Kal twv CTriTrj^evjuarwi' Kivei Kai /uera- 
riOei TO, fxri /caXwc fca^effTwra. Jd. de Pac, p, 181 C. ctti- 
Setfetev av tic ttoWovq -y^aipovraQ Kai rtjjv eSecF/jiariov Kai 
Twi/ eTTiTiiSevjuarwi' toTg koi to (TtjjLia Kai rriv \pvyj\v 
/SXaTTTOUffty. With this genitive e/c is used: Plat. Menex, 
p. 242 A. ttJc TToXewc TiiJL(i)fxevr]C, riXBev ew' avrrivy o Bri ^iXeT eK 
Twv avOp<l)7rwv role ev irparTOvai TrpoairiTTTeiv, irpwrov 
/Liev 25Xoc, OTTO ^r)\ov Se (j)OovoG, 

Thus also with the neuter of the participle with the article, 
* Piers, ad Moer. p. 1 sq. Riihnk. ad Tim. 1. c. 

Sj/ntax, Of the Genitive, 53d 

which stands as a substantive : Eur, Phan. 1113. tw voaovvn 
Tciyetjjv 'the weak part of the wall', and with adjectives. Isocr, 
Paneg, c, 42. twv /jlvOwv ri^iara (Tw^iaTpij^ofxev toIq TpioiKola 
Kal UepaiKolc, See §. 442, 2. 

Obs, The whole is sometimes in the same case as the parts, e. g. Od, 310. 
fXf 73. 01 ^e ^vu) (TKOireXoi, 6 fiev ovpavov evpvv iKaveC — (v. 101.) tov ^' (358) 
erepov (TKOireXov ')(dafjLa\wT€poy o\l>€i. Thuc. 1, 89. oiKiai at /lev ttoX- 
Xal kireTTTutKeaaVi oXiyai ^e Trepirjaay. Plat. Rep. 6. p. 495 C. ol ^v- 
yovres avrrj (^(l>tXo(ro({>ig^ ol fxev ovdevos, ol Be ttoXXoI ttoXXwv KaKiZv a^iot 
elffi. comp. Eur. Rhes. 413. Isocr, de Pac. p. 1 82 A. See §. 289. Ohs. 8. 
So the second ol hk is sometimes again divided : Thuc. 7, 13. koL ol ^evoi 
ol fxev avayKa<7To\ effj^ayres evdvs icarct rets TroXeis cnroyjiopovaiv, ol Be 

VTTO fjieyaXov fitadov to Trpwrov eirapBevTes ol fxev kirX XidoXoyias 

Trpo^tKTeL aTrepxoyTai, ol Be, o)S eKaaroL Bvpnvrai, elffl S' 6t Koi afrjprjvrai. 
Herodotus 6, 111. unites both constructions, rd arpaTOTzeoov — to 
fxkv avrov fxeffoy eyiveTO eirl ra^ias oXi'yas, to Be Kepas eKarepoy eppwro 

This construction takes place wherever a whole or its parts are men- 
tioned: Thuc. 2, 47. HeXoTToyyricrioi Kai ^vfifia^oi to. Bvo fieprj etrej^aXoy 
€5 T^y ^ATTiKtiy, instead of UeXoiroyyrjffiojy Kai l^vjifia.'^ijjy. 3, 92. M//- 
Xtets ol ^vfiirayres elal fiey rpia fiepij, for Mr}XieMy Ttjjy ^v/dTravTioy. 
Comp. 7.80. Eur.Phoen.'\32l. Xen.Anah. 5, 5, 11. Thus also etcaaTos 
II, V ,^4. Tpuias BeTpofiosalyosvTrrjXvOeyvia eKatrrov. Comp. §.302.0^5. 

3. With adjectives, as in h^itm pauci, multi, pleriqite, &c., 320. 
oXiyoi, TToWoi, ol TroXAoi, ol irXelaTOi, &c. Here also the (353) 
same rule obtains as in Latin, that these adjectives are put in 
the same case as the substantives, when the adjectives do not 
express merely a part of the idea contained in the substantives : 
Plat, Symp, p. 203 A. ovroi ol ^a'lfxovec, iroWoi kol TravToSa- 
iroi eiaiv * these deities are many'. 

Hence when a substantive is joined with an adjective or pro- 
noun, where both should be in the same case, the Greeks consider 
the substantive as the whole, and the adjective as a part of it, 
and put the former in the genitive, as ol 'y^pricTTol twv avOpujTriov 
Arist. Plut. 490. 'good men', o rj^ttruc tov y^povov, ' half the 
time', Demosth. in Lept, 7. rrJQ yrJQ rn^ TroWrjv Thuc. 2, 57. 
* the greatest part of the country', ev iravrl kukov Plat, Rep. 9, 
p, 579 B. See §. 442. and of Superlatives %. 459, 1. 

To this head belong ^a ywaiKwVf ^ai/uovi au^ptitu, 8cc. in 

D 2 

540 Si/ntax. Of the Genitive. 

Homer, TaXaiva TrapOevuyv Eur. HeracL 568. comp. Ale. 467. 
(i) (Ty^erXi av^pu)v Arist. Ran. 1081. Thus the forms rt'c Oewi/, 
and TIC, Oeoc, can hardly be different in signification ; but the 
former seems more frequent in the tragic writers, though the 
latter also occurs, e.g. En?-. Andr. 1182 seq. e'lc, r'lva Ar) <^t- 
Xov avyac, ^aWwv Tep\, where (p'lXtov, the reading of seve- 
ral MSS., which is at variance with the metre, only shows how 
familiar the construction with the genitive was even in common 
life^ Euripides combines both constructions Hec. 164 seq. 
Without TIG Soph. El. 199. etV ovv Beoc, eiVe PpOTWv vi* o 
TavTa TTpa^aQ. Eur. Hel. 1242 seq. 

4. With demonstrative pronouns : Herod. 7, 2 17. KaTci tovto 
Tov ovpeoc, e^vXaaaov ^ijjkcijjv yjiXioi OTrXTxai, 'on this side the 
mountain'. But in the phrases etc, tovto avayK-qCy ec, o Bvva/j.ioc, 
the genitive appears to denote the reference §. 341. kutu tovto 
Kaipov Thuc. 7, 2. ev rw toioutw tov Kaipov if). 69. may be ex- 
plained in either way ^. 

321. 5. With relatives: Thuc. 2, 65. ^leXovTea tov Tei^ovG 

(354) y TrpoaeiriwTe to yjbjfxay eaecpopovv t?V JV^' qua parte muri 

agger imminehat, earn interciderunt &c. Id. 7, 36. toTc Se 

ABr)vaioiG ovK ecreaOai (xt^wv cv (TT€voyb)pLa ovtc irepiirXovv 

ovTC cieKirXovVj loirep Trjc T€'^vr}Q /uaXiorxa eiriffTevoVy 'in which 

manoeuvre of their tactics', properly, ' in which part of their art'. 

Plat. Rep. 10. in. irepi Trotrjcrewc Xeyw to fjiri^ajLiri irapa^ 

Be-^eaOai avTrJQ o<Tri fjufjLYiTiKr]. and passim. Dem. pro Cor. 
p. 266, 12. Thus Liv. 1, 14. vastatur agri quod inter urbem 
et Fidenas est» Xen. Cyr. 6, 1, 28. e^o^e S' ovtm, o KpixTiaTOv 
eiKOG riv elvai ttJc cvvajULewCj ovTutv tojv j^eXTiaTWV eiri toTc 
apfxaaiVj tovto ev aKpo^oXiaTUiv /iiepei elvai, even where the 
relative might stand in the same case with the substantive. He- 
rod. 7, 205. 7rapaXaj3ojv Se airiKeTO Kal Orif3aio)v tovq (for ova) 
ec TOV apidp.ov Xoyiaa/nevoc cittov. Xen. Anab. 1,7, 13. fiexa 
TTjv /Lia'^rfv ot VGTepov eXrjCpBricjav twv TroXejuitJVj TavTci 
-nyyeXXov, for tovq Qr](5aiovc,f ovq. oi TroXe^tot. oi eX. Eurip, 
Hec. 858. ovk e<STi 6vr}T(jJV ogtic, eW eXevOepoQ, in which 
a comma must not follow dvr}T(ji)v. 

* See Matthias ad Eur. Ale. 121. (Ed. C. 243. 
and Add. to p. 122. ad Andr. 1157. ** Lob. ad Phryn. p. 279 seq. 

Comp. Reisig Comni. Crit. in Soph. 

Syntax. Of the Genitive. 541 

6. With substantives it is especially to be noticed, that where 
the names of cities or other places are accompanied by the name 
of the country in which they lie, the latter, as the whole, is in 
the genitive, and generally placed first. Herod. 5, 100. aTri- . 
KOfxevoi ^e rw gtoXco tovtoj 'luyveQ ea ' ^(pecrov, TrAoTa /j,ev 
KareXiTTOv ev Kopri(Tcr(i) ttiq 'E<|)e(Ti rye. 6, 101. oi Se ITe^- 
aai TrXeovrec KarecT'^ov rac vkac, Tr\c, RperpiKric "^ujprjQ 
Kara Ta/nvvac Kai Xotjoeaq Kal AlyiXia. ib. 47. to. oe 
fxeraWa ra ^oivikiko. ravra eari Trie, Oaaov fxerac^v Ai- 
vvpwv re ica\eofxevu)v Kai J^oivvpivv. Thuci/d. 2, 18. o de 
arpaTOQ t(m)V YleXoTTOVvrjcTnov irponjjv a<pLK€TO rrjc; Attikv C 
ea Olvoriv. comp. c. 21. Xen. Hist. Gr. 2, 1, 20. 01 Se 

AOrjvaloi uypfxiaavTO rric, yLeppoviiaov ev EXatovi/re. 
With a different turn Lysias says Epit. p. 191, 25. eOa-ipau ev 
ry avTiov 'RXevfflvi, where Herodotus 9, 27. said 6a\pai rrjc 
rijLierepric ev KXevcrl^vi, 

Also with names of persons: Herod. 6, 114. airo S* edave 
T(i)v <TT partly (l)v 2Trj(TiXea>c o OpacrvXed), 

7. With verbs; and a. with elvai, Thuc. 1, Q5. Ka\ avroc, 322. 
rJ^eXe ruiv ij,ev6vr(i)v elvai ' one of those who remained at home*. (355) 
3, 70. ervy^ave yap Kai j5ovXrjc lov (o UeiOiac) ' a member of 

the council'. Plat, Euthi/d. p. 277 C. rixiv XajufSavovrixJV ap 
eiGiv oi ^av^avovrec * belong to those who take', id. Menon. 
JO. 81 A. ot ficv Xkyovrec, ei<n twv lepetov re kul lepeKxiv, ocroiQ 
jLie/iieXTjKe, irepi wv jueray^eipitovrai Xoyov oioic, r elvai ^loovac. 
Phcedon, p. 68 D. olaOaj on rov Oavarov rjyovvrai navrec ot 
aXXot rcjv iLi€yi(Tr(i)v KaKiov elvai. Rep. 2. p. 360 A. (rov 
Tvyrjv) cia7rpa^a(j9ai rtjjv ayyeXwv. yeveodai r(jjv irepi rov 
^aaiXea. Aristoph. Pint. 869. i] nZv irovrjpwv ri(jOa Kai 
Toi^wpu^wv. Xen. Anah. 1, 2, 3. i?v Se Kai o ^tJKparric 
Twv aju^i MiXr/Toi^ (Trparevo/LLeviov, Similarly Isocr. in 
Callim. p. 380 D. war avrw (KaXXt^a^^^w) TrpodrjKei /mera 
rtjjv avrojuoXwv avayeypa(j)Oai ttoXv fLiaXXoVj rj rwv (pevyov- 
ru)v ovoiuLat,eaOai. Hence Plat. Rep. 5. p. 462 E. 17 roiavrrf 
TToXtc juaXiara (prjaei iavrrjc; elvai ro Tratr^ov 'to belong to her 
as a part' ^. 

'^ Heins. Lect. Theocr. p. 361. ad Plat. Gorg. p. 271. Fisch. 3 a. 
Markl. ad Eurip. Suppl. 292. Heind. p. 263. 355. Ast ad Flat. Leg. p. 284. 

542 Syntax, Of the Genitive. 

Obs. 1. This genitive is frequently accompanied by els : Isocr, in 
Callim. p. 283 A. wy els eyw (pavr](io}iai yey evqfxevos. Plat, Gorg. 
p. 525 D. wv eyw <pr)jjLi epa kol 'Apj^eXaoi/ eaeadai. also rts, Aristoph, 
Pint. 826. d^XoVf oTi Ttjjy ')(^p'qaTbiv ris^ ws eoiKaSf el. Sometimes 
€K is joined with the genitive : Xeti. Mem. S. 3, 6, 17. evpriaeis kv irdaLV 
epyois Tovs fiey evdoKifxovyTas re Kot dav/ia^ofjL^vovs ck Tiav fxaXtaTa 
€7r iffTajiepiop ovras, tovs ^e KaKo^o^ovyras re kqI Kara^povovy-kvovs eK 
Twy cifiadeararioy^. More rarely axo : Thuc, 1, 116. IlepiKXrjs Xajjwy 
e^rjKoyra yavs a no rdv eipopfiovawy, 

Obs. 2. Upon this construction also is founded the phrase eari rojy 
ala')(pu)y Demosth. p. 18, 13. can rwv XvaiTcXovyrioy id. p. 57, 24. for 
early al(T-)(p6y, XvcriTeXovy. Plat. Rep. 7. p. 525 A. riSy ayioyijjy ay elr] 
KoX fieTacTrpeTTTtKiSy, where however the genitive is always accompanied 
by the article''. Isocrates adds els Archid, p. 136 B. earLy ey rwy 
al(T)(p(jjy, Plat. Rep, 10. p. 603 A. ruiy ^avXioyav tl eirj ev fifxly, Comp. 
Eur, Phcen, 1611. also ck Eur. El. 820. €k Twy KaXwy KOfiirovaL rolcri 
OecTffaXoU elyai ro^e. See Musgr. not. and Pors. Advers. ^5. (273)241. 
Hence an adjective in the genitive plural sometimes accompanies sub- 
stantives of all kinds, in order to mark the class to which the thing or 
person mentioned belongs. Xen, Symp. 7, 2. el(Te(^epeTo ry 6p-)(rj(Trpidi 
rpoxos Twv KcpafieiKbiy *a wheel of the class of those used by 
potters', i. e. a potter's wheel, rpoxos KepapeiKos. Theophr, Ch, 5, 
QvpiaKas rwy arpoyyvXioy Xr]Kvdovs Kal (iaKrrjpias rtvy (tko- 
Xidjy etc AaKcdaifjioyos. Lucian. D, Mort. 10, 9. MeviTTTros ovToai, 
Xal3ojy TreXcKvy ruiy vavKtiyiKwy, anoKoxpei rov Trwywva, Comp. 
Plat. Hipp, min, p. 368 C 

Obs. 3. In the same manner the genitive is put as an apposition to 
the nominative : Xe7i. Hell. 5, 4, 2. rovT(o B' a^iy/xev^ 'Adi'iya^e Kara 
Trpa^y Tiya koI irpoaQey yvojpifjios Cjy MeXXwv, rwy 'Adrjya^e 7re0eu- 
yoTwy QrjPai(oy, On the Other hand, id. Cyrop. 2, 3,5. Xpvaayras, 
els Twy ofiOTtfiwy. 

S23, h. The genitive is used with verbs of all kinds, even with 
(35C) those which govern the accusative, when the action does not 
refer to the whole object, but to a part only : //. i , 214. iraaae 
S' aXoc, Oeioio ' he sprinkled salt over it'. Od. o', 98. oirrricrai 
Kpewv, ib. 1 , 225. rvpijjv aivu/xevouc, see Emt. ad U.v , 1213, 
55. Herod, 7, 6. (Ovo^iaKpiroc,) o/cwc airiKoiro (* as often as') 
ec o]//iv rrjv jSaffiXrJoc, KiareAe-ye twv -^prjGaujv C pro- 

* Heind. Fisch. 11. cc. '^ llemsterh. ad Lucian. t. 2. 

»> Wolf ad Demosth. Lept. p. 217. p. 453. 

Si/ntax» Of the Genitive. 543 

pbecies*). ci /*€>' ti iueoi o-^aAjua (j>epov tw (japf^dptf), rwv 
fxev eXeye ov^ev, o ^e ra evTvyearara e/cXeyofievoc, eXeye, &c. 
comp. 4, 172 extr, Thuc. 2, 56. t^c yrjc erefiov 'laid waste 
a part of the country*. Plat, Theag, p, 128 C. e-yw olSa tcJv 
e/iwi/ TjXifctWTwi' Kal oXiyw Trpeffj^vreptov (' some of those of the 
same age as, or older than, myself*) ot nplv /uev rovrt^ crvvelvai 
oXiyov a^ioi ricrav. Symp. p, 213 E. /cat a^tta avTov Xaj3oi/Ta 
T<jjif raivKJju ava^elv rov ^(jjKparr) 'some of the fillets', just 
before which occurs fxera^oQ riju raiviuiv. Soph. (Ed. T, 709. 
l^iaO , ovvcK ecTTL (Toi ^poreiov ov^ev (i. e. f^poroc, ou^e/q) pavri- 
Kijc e^ov re^vriQ ' possessing any of the art of divination' ; 
which Toup in Suid. 2. p. 118 not. and Brunck ad Arist, Lys. 
173. incorrectly compare with ttwc e-^ei rd^ovc Eurip. Iph. T, 
1216. aijjv re poi avf-nrefxir OTraSijJv. Arist. Pac, 30. rr}^i 
napoi^ac rrfc Ovpac ^ ' opening the door a little*. Xen, Ages, 
1, 22. Kai Tfjjv Kara Kparoc, avaXwrwv Teiyetov Ty (biXavOpto- 
TTia VTTO xeT/oa ciroieiro. Thus the genitive is put as the sub- 
ject Xen. Anab, 3, 5, 16. oirore pevroi npoc, tou aaTpanriv 
TOI/ ev Ti^ ne^Lio (nrelfjaivro, Kai empiyvvGOai a(j)tjjv re ('some 
of them*) TTpoQ eKeivovc Kai eKcivtJv irpoQ avrovQ, Comp, 
Thuc, 1,115. €K also accompanies this genitive Plut. Cim,5, 
Kiptjv Xa^wv eK rtjv irepi tou vaov Kpe/JLafievtjv cKnri^iov, 

Obs. 1. The genitive is to be explained in the same manner in Od, 
fx, C4. aXXa re koi tiSv alel a^atpeirai Xis irerprj (* one of these doves') 
aW aXKr}v erirjtTi TruTrjp, k.vapidp.iov eivai. II. l!, 121. of Tydeus : 
^A^pijfTTOLO ^' eyrffie Bvyarpoiv * one of the daughters of Adrastus' : ex- 
cept that here a definite thing or person is signified, whilst in the fore- 
going, and indeed all the other examples, the part is only expressed 
generally*. Soph, El. 1322. tQv 'iv^oQev x(it)povvToSi for tlvos t. eyd, 
(Ed, C. 640. 

Obs. 2. Of the phrase Kareaya, ^vveTpi^r]Vj rrjs KeipaXijsy which some, 
as Gregor. p. (50 sq.) 123 seq., refer to this class, see §. 338. Obs, 

8. With adverbs of place: Od, j3', 131. irarrip §' e^oc 3^4. 
ctXXo^i yai-nQ Cwee oy tj Te6vr}Ke, Soph, Phil, 204. 17 ttou (357) 
ry^ Tf) ry^e rondyv; Eur, Hec, 1275. ov-^ oaov ravoc 

"^ Thorn. M. p. 693. McEr. p. 315. Heind. ad Plat. Gorg. p. 232. Scheef. 

* Dawes IVIisc. Crit. p. 310. Pier- ad Lamb. Bos. p. 687. Erf. ad Soph, 

son ad Moer. p. 165. Koen ad Greg. Ant. 1056. ed. min. Ast ad Plat, 

p. (50) 123. Hemst. ad Arist. Plut. Leg. p. 298. 
840. Fisch. 3 a. p. 263. 356. 376. 

544 Syntax. Of the Genitive. 

VTjcFtJv epri/Li(ov avTov CKJ^aXeire ttoi; Plat. Rep^Q.p.SSSB. 
evravOa \6yov. Xen. Cyrop. 6, 1, 42. e^^aXeiv ttou t^c 
eKeivijjv y^wpac 7, 2, 8. 'O ^e Kvjooc Karaarparoire^exxjac, 
TOVQ eavTOVy ottov e^o/cet eniTri^eiOTaTOV elvai rrjc TroXewc, 
where however the genitive may also be governed of the super- 
lative. Herod 2, 172. aya\/j.a ^ai/uLOvoQ 'i^pvcre ttJq ttoXioq 
oKov riv eTTiTr^devjTarov. id. 1, 35. KoOev rrjc ^pvyirtc. Soph. 
Philoct. 255. ou juirjde kX^^wv coS' c^ovtoc o'lKaSe, jur}^* EX- 
Xa^oQ yrJQ jurj^a julov, ^irjXOe ttov. Also when the relation is 
not strictly local : Pind. 01. 10. in. rov * OXvfXTTioviKav avayvuyrk 
/J.01 Apyearparov Trai^a, iroOi (jypevoQ efxac, yeypaiTTai, 
properly, 'in what part of my mind'. Soph. Aj. 386. ovy 
opaCf 'iv el KaKov. Eur. Ion, 1271. cV el rvyriQ. Soph. (Ed. 
C.'l70.310. £/. 390. Eur. Hipp. 1025. ovSa^iou ^/oe»/wv ^i/. 
where after tic might be used with the same case ev rivi kukm, 
Tu^r;, &c.^ Hence the Latin phrases ubi terrarum, ubi gentium. 

In the same manner the genitive is used with adverbs of 
time, e. g. oxpe rrjc rjfxepaQ 'late in the day', TrrjviKa tyJq rifxepaQ 
Aristoph. Av. 1498, though here the genitive may mean 'with 
respect to' ^. 

325. For the same reason a genitive is used with many other 
(359) verbs, which signify participation, or in which at least this 
idea is implied. 

1. jnereyeiVj iuL€raXapj3av€iv, /neraXayyaveiv, Koivtjjvelv rivoc 
&c. ' to participate in anything', the impersonal fxereari. not 
TivoQ : Pind. P. 2, 153. ov ol fuereyw dpaaeoQ. Isocr. 
NicocL p. 35 D. rrjc av^piacKai ttJq BeivorriTOQ iiopuyv 
Kai Tfjjv KaKijJv avdp(jjv noXXovc juere^ovTaq. Xen. Rep. 
Lac. 1,9. ai re yap yvvalKec ^ittovq o'ikovq (^ovXavrai Kareyeiv, 
Ol re avSpec a^eXcpovQ to7q iraiai 7rpO(yXa/j.(3aif€iVy ot tov /mev 
yevovQ Kai Trjc ^vva/uieijJCi Koiviovovffi, t(jjv de yprj/uarwv 
ovK avTiiroiovvrai. Thuc. 4, 10. avopec ol ^vvapajuevoi TOvSe 
TOV Kivdvvov. Eur. Med. 942. ^yXXriipoiaai Be TovSe 
cot Kciyd) irovov. and in the active Iphig, A. 160. o-uAXajSe 
fxoydijjv^. Soph. (Ed. C. 567. e^oiB avnp tJVj yj^Ti Trie ec 
avpiov ovdev ttXIgv juoi <tov fxeTeoTiv rifiepaQ. II. (j),360. 

^ Valck. ad Herod. 2, 133. (p. 167, ^ Fisch. 3 b. p. 72. 

37.) ad Eurip. Hipp. 1012. Fisch. " Brunck Herm. ad Soph. Phil. 

3 b. p. 71sq. 281. Fisch. 3 a. p. 414. 

Sj/ntax. Of the Genitive. 545 

Ti f.i6i epi^oc, Koi dpojyrJQ, sc, /Liereffri ; Hence with substantives 
and adjectives derived from these verbs: Xen, Mem, S. 2, 2, 32. 
ayaOrj (jvWrfTrT pia t(jjv ev eiprjvg irovcov, j3ej3aia oe tcov 
ev iroXe/uLM avfxfxa'^oc, kpytov, apiarr] 3e (piXiaQ koivojvoc;, 

Ohs, 1. /ierexetv is often accompanied by yuepos : j^sch. Agam. 51S, 
oh yap TTOT rfv-^ovv daviov fxed e^eiy <j>iXTa.rov TCKpov jjiepos, Herod. 4, 
145. f.iolpav Tiiiewy ii€Ti\ovTes. Eur, Suppl. 1080. fxeriXax^s 
TV')^as Ol^LTTudaj yepor, fjiepos, Kot trv, iroXis e/xa rXayuwv. comp. Arist, 
Plut. 226. Isocr. Archid. p. 116 B. riyovfJLai, wepl tov TroXe/ieTv, f/ jxri, 
7rpoa{]K€ip fJiaXtffTa TOVTOis avjjf^ovXeveiyy o'lTrep Kal tijjv KtvBvycoy irXeiffToy 
p. epos pede^ovffiy. Thus also with pereffTi. Eur, Iph. T. 1310, 
fiercffTiy vjiiy rojy TreTrpayneytoy pepos. Isocr, Nicocl. p, S5 D. 
KaXXiffToy v7r€Xaf3oyf e't ris Zvyatro ravrais tois aperdis Trpoa-e'yety Toy 
vovyy TcHy iiXXioy acbeXopeyos, wy pr}dey pipos toIs TroyijpoTs pereariy, 
comp. Archid. p, 135 B. Xen. Cyr, 7, 5, 44.'' pereffTi also is put with 
a nominative as the subject, Thuc. 2, 37, pereari irdai to 'iaoy^, 

Ohs, 2, pcTeyeiy is also found with the accusative of the thing in 
which one participates : Soph. (Ed. C. 1482. kyaiaiov he avvTv-^^pipi, 
pilh\ dXaffToy (iydp' Idioyy aKcpdrj -^dpiy perciff^oipl ttoss. Aristoph, 
Plut. 1144. ov yap pereixes rets 'iff as TrXrjyas Ipoi. The dative 
points out the person with whom any one partakes (§. 405.), or that by 
means of which one partakes. Thuc, 2, 16. t^ ovy eTrnroXv Kara Trjv 
\u»pav avToyop^ olKiiaei p€r€i\oy oi 'A0/;vaTot, where with p£ret')(pv 
it seems the genitive rris xu}pas or rwy aypdjy is to be understood. Plat, 
Hep. 5, p. 452 extr. Bvyar)) (^vais >/ diiXeia rrj tov appeyos yevovs KOiyo)- 
vrjffat els airayra to. epya^ where otTrarrwv T^iy epywy might also have 
been said, but els more distinctly expresses the direction and the object. 

2. TTpoariKei pot rivoc, ' anything becomes me, concerns 32Q, 
me*: Xen, C^/rop, 4, 2, 40. evvorjaare, tjc, el pri^* CKeiyovQ (3G0) 
aiffyyvreov riv, ov^ Ijq r)p7v vvv irpoar]Kei ovre TrXrjcrpovric; 
TTb), ovre peOrjc, ib, 8, 1, 37. ovk loero TrpoGrjKeiy ov^evi 
ap'^rJQj offTiG prj (^eXritJV e\r) r (jj v apyo/mev ojv. Aristoph, Av, 
970. Ti §e iTpoar)Kei SJJt epoi KopivOioyv ; ^ what are the 
Corinthians to me ? ' properly, it seems to mean the same as 
pereGTi poi, Xen, Mem, S, 4, 5, 10. aTro tov paOelu n KaXov 

Kai ayaOov ri^ovai peyiarai yiyvovrai, wv oi pev eyKpa- 

Teia cLTToXavovcTL TTpaTTOvreQ avTci, ol Se aKparela ovBevoc 

^ Fisch. 3 a. p. 411. Heind. ad Plat. * Thorn. M. p. 606. 

Soph. p. 338. Protag. p. 536 seq. 

546 Sj/ntax. Of the Genitive. 

fxerey^ovai, tw yap av tittov ^rjaaifLiev Ttjjv toiovt(m)V 
7rpoar}K€iv &c. and §.11. ^oKeiQ /ioi Xeyeiv, wc av^pl yittovi 
Twv cia Tou (Tw/ittTOG Ti^ovwv TTaf^iirav ov^ejLLiaa aperrja irpoa- 

3. ' to impart', jueraSiSoi^ai Ttvi Tii^oc : Xen, Mem. S. 2,7 , I, 
eoiKac papetvQ (pepeiv Ti, ^^i) ^e rov (iapovQ fmera^i^ovai 
Tolc ^iXotq. id. Cyrop. 1 , 5,1^,19. OclXttovc juieu Kai \pv- 
\ovc Kai (TiTO)v Kai TTor wv Kai vttvov avayKt) kql tolc, ^ovXoiq 

/aeraSi^ovai TroXe^iKrfc S' eirKTrij (jltjc Kai /.leXerrjc 

TravTairacriv ov juLeraSoreov toutoic&c. In the same manner 
Plat. Leg. 1 I. ^;. 906 C. eiai avyyviofxovec, aei Qeoi role rwv 
avOpdjTTwv a^iKOiQ Kai d^iKovaiv, av avrolc t<j)v d^iKrjfxaTtJV 
TiQ airove/jLij. 

Hence perhaps Eur. Med. 288. l^v/j-j^aXXerai ^e TroXAa 
TovBe ^eifiiaToc * contributes to this fear'. Lysias at least says, 
c. Nicom. p. 184, 31. rod fjiev yap vfxaQ (j)vy€iv pepoQ n Kai 
ovTOC (Tvve(5aXeT0, 

Ohs. ix€Talih6vai occurs with the accusative Herod. 8, 5. 9, 34. 
Arist. Vesp. 917. Xen. An, 4, 5, 5.*^ In the same manner ^leratrctv is 
put with the genitive of the object Herod. 4, 146. Tr)s ^a(n\ri'Cr]s 
fi€TaiT€oyr€s * desiring a part in the government* : to which Aristophanes 
adds fxepos, Vesp. 972. rovrojy fieraiTei to fxepos. 

327. 4. 'to enjoy': eiravpoiiat, eiravpelvj airoXaveiv, ovaaOai, 

(^^V II. Oj 17. ov pav oi^* €1 avre KaKoppa(j)ir}Q dXeyeivrjc 

TTpuyr-i) eiravprjai, 'whether you will first enjoy the fruits of 

your artifices'. Hesiod.' E^-y. 240. TroXXafct Kai ^vpnaffa ttoXic 

KaKov av^poQ airrtvpa. Xen. Mem. S. 4, 3, 1 1. to Be 

TTpoaBeivai toTc avOpioiroic aiaOrjaeiQ apporrovaaQ irpoQ eKacrra, 
Bi wv airoXavopev iravrtov t(jjv ayaOijJV, to Se Kai Xo- 

yiffpov itpAV ep(^v(sai, to jroXXa pr\yavu)peQa, Bi (ov rwv re 

ayadoiv airoXavofxev Kai ra KaKa aXe^ofieda, Isocr. Paneg. 
p. 41 B. evoc avBpoc, ev (ppovrj^avroQ diravTec av diroXaV' 
aeiav oi l3ovXop€voL Koivtjjvelv ttJq eKeivov Biavoiac. Arist, 
Tkesm, 469. Kavrrj yap eywy , outwc ovaipr}V rtHv tc/c- 

* Thom. M. p. 751. Valcken. ad Eur. Suppl. 53. 
Diatr. p. 123. not. 87. «= Schaefer Meletem. Crit. 1. p. 20 

** Fisch. 3 a. p. 41 1 seq. Mark!. seq. 

Syntax. Of the Genitive, 547 

Vbjv (jLiau) TOP av^p* eKcivov, ' so may I find comfort in my 

children*. Soph. Trach. 569. nai yepovroc Oivetjc, toctovS 
ovriaei twv efiuiv, eav iriOy, nopOptJif, Thus yeveaOai has 
always the genitive: for in Herod. 2, 14. instead of prjTe 
yevaerai i) X^P^ '^^ ^'^^ Awe, is now read fULrire ye vaerai ri 
X^pV' KapTTovcrOai however takes the accusative. 

It is evident that the genitive was intended to imply a part, 
from Isocr, c. Soph. p. 293 B. ovk av eXax^ttrrov p,epoQ aire- 
\avGaiJLev avrrjc. Also e/c or dwo is found with the genitive, 
e.g. Plat. Rep. 3. p. 395 C. 10. p. 606 B. Apol. S. p. 31 B.^ 

Obs, The accusative also is often put with uTroXavew, but in order to 
mark another reference, besides that which the genitive implies. The 
accusative expresses the nature of the consequence, either good or 
bad, resulting from the object which is enjoyed, or to whose influence 
one is exposed ; the genitive on the other hand points out the object 
itself: hence the genitive and accusative often stand together. Isocr, 
Pac. p. 175 B. ^e^oiKUf fji^y TTCipojiJieyos if fids evepyerelv, aTroXavo-w 
Ti <l>\avpov. Xen. Mem. S. 1, 6, 2. eyio ^lev ^i^trjy rovs (juXocrofovyTai 
evhaijjioyetTTepovs ')Q)^vai yiyveadai. <tv ^e p.oi ^oKeis ravavT ia rrji 
<ro(J>tas cnroXeXavKcvai. Id. Hier. 7, 9. cnroXaveLP rtvos dya0a. 
So Plat. Rep. 3. p. 395 C. it should be read tva p.r} ck rrjs fxipriaeujs to 
elvai (not tov elyai) cnroXavacjoriy. Plutarch T. II. p. 521 E. puts the 
consequence in the genitive, ypriaTov jov^evos airoXavffeiSf for "ypr^aTov 

5. The construction of the verbs which signify 'to partici- 32s. 
pate, to receive, to give', with the genitive, appears to have been (363) 
the cause of other verbals also, which signify ' to obtain, to re- 
ceive', having the same construction, although this too may have 
arisen from the cause mentioned in §. 350. note. Of this kind 
are rvyxc^veiv, Xayx^veiv tivoc, and avTiav, Kvpeiv tivoq, 
Isocr. ad Nicocl. p. 22 B. C. Ovt}tov (rw^aroa ervx^C, 
dOavarov ^e i//v^rfc. Id. Nicocl. p. 39 B. o'iuyvirep ovo~ 
fxcLTuyv EKaara twv Trpay/uLarcjv Tervx^i^^y TOiavraQ rjyeLGUe 
Kal rac ^vvdiueiQ avrtjv elvai : and with a double genitive Xen, 
An. 5, 5, 15. epbjra ^e avrovc, oiroiojv rivtJju rj/JLtJV ervxov, 
' what kind of men they found us'. Soph. Phil. 552. El, 1463. ; 

^ lens, et Ilemst. ad Luc. T. 1. p. 326 sqq. Fisch. 3 a. p. 367. 

548 Syntax, Of the Genitive. 

and with a double genitive of the thing and the person Soph. 
1315. wv ^e <Tov Tvyelv e^te/uat aKovaov. II. to, 76. ljq k€v 
A^tXXeuc ^toptjjv CK TlpiaiuLOio Xa'^rf, airo 6 ' E/CTO/^a Xvcf^. 
Soph. CEd. C. 450. aW ovn jult) Xa^wcrt rov^e dVju/xa^ov. 
Thuc. 2, 44. TO 3' evTvyeCy o't av (§. 633.) ttJc evirpeire- 
Grarrjc Xd^(jj(TiVf iocnrep o'/Se fiev vvv, reXevTrjc;, v/nelc; oe 
XvTrric. Thus also the active form II. r} ,79 seq. o(j)pa irvpoa 
fxe Tptjec KaiTpujLJv aXoy^oi XeXa^wci Oavovra. comp. o, 
350. ^', 342. xp'y 76. — //. a, 66. aiKev ttwc apvwv Kvi(T(Tr}C 
aiytjv re reXeiujv (^ovXerai avriacrac; rj/juv airo Xoiyov ajjLvvai. 
Comp. Od. TT , 254, JEsch. Suppl.35. dyplaQ oXoq avriacFavreQ, 
savum mare nacti. Soph. El. 868. (ei ^evoc; arep e/mav '^eptjjv) 
KEKevOeUy ovre rov raipov avTiatrac, ovre yotov nap rijjLWV, 

Herod. 2, 1 19. dTnK6p.evoQ o MeveXewc ec, ttjv Kiyvirrov 

l^eivi(M}v r]VTr\ae (xeyaXijjv. Pind. 01. 10, 49. aXwcrioc av- 
Ti](Tac, Soph. Phil. 719. dv^pwv ayaOajv TraidoQ viravTrjaaa 
'meeting with'*. Herod. 1, 31. al'Apyelai (e/uLaKapitov) Trjv 
fxr\Tepa avruiv {rwv verjvietjv), o'ltjv reKviov eKvpr)ae, 'that 
such children were her lot*. Eur. Iph. A. 1614. vre^Trei S 
Ayafie/uLVtJv p, , locrre <toi (fypacrai ra^e, Xeyeii^ B oiroiaQ e/c 
Oetjjv poipac Kvpei. comp. id. Med. 23. Ion, 1288. eaOXov 
S eKvpcra ^aipovoQ . 

Obs. These verbs are also very often constructed with the accusa- 
tive. With Tvyxnyeiv in the sense of ' obtain', the accusative is always 
that of a pronoun or adjective of the neuter gender, or an infin. with the 
article t6^. 54^3. Obs. 3. Soph. CEd, T. 598. Eurip. Or. G^7. Med. 756.'' 
It has an accus. in the sense of * to hit', //. e', 582. ay Kiava rv^wv peaovf 
where, however, the case seems to have been determined by ^aXe, 
v. 580. * to meet with, to find'. Plat. Rep. 4. p. 431 C. ras Ze ye airXds 
T€ KOI per pi as (^eTTidvpias), at d^ peTct vov re Kai ^o^rjs opd^s Xoyiap^ 
ayovraiy ev oXlyois re eTrtrcv^?;, Kal toIs (^eXrifrra pev <l>vcri, /3e\rtoTa 
^e TraidevdeTffiy. which seems rather a continuation of the preceding 
construction, ras ye TroXXas Kal iravTO^aTras kinQvpias - - - av tls evpoij 
the construction being changed by the parenthetical proposition *\ 

» Reisig Enarr. (Ed. C. 1440. '' Fisch. 3 a. p. 367 seq. 

Buttm. Lexilog. 1. p. 9 seq. 300. I *^ Brunck ad Or. 686. Med. 759. 

do not understand how the idea of Elmsl, ad Med. 741. Herm. ad Vig. 

something intentional should be con- p. 762. 
tained in the genitive. "^ Herm. ad Vig. p. 744. 

Syntax, Of the Genitive. 549 

kvrvy^^avetvt * to meet with*, takes the dative ; also when it signifies the 
same as ' to obtain', e. g. evrev^eo-Qai (f)povriaeL Plat. Phcedon. p. 68 A. 
With Xay)(ai/eiv the accusative is rather more common than the geni- 
tive : Soph. El. 751. arparSs ai'wXoXv^e top veaviay, oV epya ^pacras 

ola Xay')^aveL KaKO.", — Kvpeii) : yEsch. Sept. c. Th, 700. kokos ov 
K€K\rj(Trj jjioy €v Kvprjffas. especially in the sense of * to meet with, 
to find' Eurip, Hec. QOS. Rhes. 113. 697. 'to touch' Horn. H. in Fen. 
174. in Cer. 189. in which sense it elsewhere takes the dative also^ 
avrdy^ dvriaj^ in the sense 'become partaker in, acquire', is probably 
not found with the accusative ; for Soph. Ant'ig. 982 seq. a le anepfxa 
fxey apya.Loy6vu}v ayraa 'Epex^et^a*' it seems that avTaae ought to be 
connected with the genitive, ' belonged to, had part in the (nrepfia of 
the Erechthidae as a scion' §. 428. and //. a', 31. efiop \ix^^ avnowo-av 
is more correctly explained evrjOeTrt^ovcav, Troptrvvovcrav. In this sense 
it is joined with the dative by Pindar, Isthm. 6, 21. TOLaiaiv opyals av- 
Tiaaas. Homer joins avrdv with the genitive §. 383. in the sense of 
* encounter', exchanging the proper and the derivative meaning. 

Ill the same manner with KXripovofxeiv the thing which is in- 329. 
herited is in the genitive: Demosth. in Aristocr. p. 690, 14. (364) 
€iO ovTOi kXy] povo/JLOV(Ti T rj Q VfJierepaQ coc,r)c, Kai t(x)u 
v/uereptjjv dyaOtjJv. in Aristog. p. 800, 8. riQo ttiq tovtov 
Trovrjpiac /mer dpaQ /cat KaKfjc ^o^rjC kXt) povop-e^v pouXrj- 
aopevoQ. The person also of whom one inherits, is in the ge- 
nitive : Demosth. in Eubul. p. 1311, 17. CTrt/cXrljOou KXi^povo- 
prjaaQ eviropov. Otherwise the genitive of the person is gene- 
rally dependent on the genitive of the thing : Dem. pro Cor. 
p. 329. l4.inMacart.p. 1065,25. TrpocrriKei ov^evoQ KXtipovopelv 
rwv 'Ayviov. The thing is rarely put in the accusative : Lycurg. 
in Leocr. p. 197. {T. 4. Reisk.) ravTrjv eKXrjpovopovv' other- 
wise only in later authors, as Lucian. D. Mort. 11, 3. ovre, 
oipai, (TV, (jj KpcLTYjCy eTreBvpeiQ KXrjpovofjie7v aTToOavouroQ 

epov TO, KTTjpara, Kai rov iriOov Kai rriv irr]pav. 

a yap ey^prjv, av re ' Avt icQevovQ eKXi)povopr)(Tac, Kai eytj 

ffov, TroXXw pe'i'C(ii Kai aepvorepa Trie Tlepaiov ap'^riQ, 

---(yo<piaVj avrdpKeiav &c. where just before in the phrase wq 
KXr]povopy]Gaipi tyjc (^aKTrtpiac avrov, the genitive of the person 
was governed by the genitive of the thing. 

« Brunck ad Soph. El. 364. Valcken. ad Eur. Hippol. 744. 

^ Ruhnk. ad H. in Cer. 1. c. Brunck ad Eur. Hec. 1. c. 

550 Sj/ntax. Of the Genitive. 

Ohs. Later authors construct K\r)povojX£lv even with the accusative 
of the person, as well as with the accusative of the thing, without the ge- 
nitive of the person. Plut. SulL 2, kK\r)pov6nr}<Te le Ka\ rrjv ixr)Tpviay\ 

330. 6. The construction of the verbs 'to take hold of, with the 
(305) genitive, appears to have arisen from the same cause. Yet 
these are for the most part only middle verbs. XafufSaveaOai 
and the compounds CTriXa^jS. ^parTecrOaiy aiTTeaOat. Arist, 
Lys. 1121. OX) S av ^i^wai, irpocraye tovtovc, Xaf^ofievri, 
Vesp. 434. Xaj3ecr0e rovrovi. Li/s, JLpit. p. 196,13. erepiov i^ye- 
fjioviov Xaj3ojue»/oc, for erepovc riyejuovac \af3u)v. Xen. Cyrop. 
7, I, 31. OTOv 8e €7riXaj3oiTO tcl ^pkirava, iravra (3ia Ste- 
/coTTTero, Kai OTrXa /cat atjjuiaTa. Arist. Lys. 596. rrjc ^e yv- 
vaiKOQ fxiKpoc, o Kaipoc' Kav tovtov /litj iriXaf^TjTai, ov^eiQ 
eOeXei yrifxai ravrr^v. Plat. Phadon. p. 79 A. rtjv Kara ravra 
€'yovT(jJV ovK eariv oto) ttot av aXXt^) eTTiXapoio, ?j no rrja ^la^ 
voiac Xoyicfpi^, The same construction remains in the other 
meanings^: 'to blame*, Xeii. Hist. Gr. 2, 1, 32. e^o^ev dno' 
Krelvai rwv aiy^fiiaXioTUJV oaoi riaav A9r}vaioi, irXriv ASei/j.avTOV, 
OTi fxovoc eTreXajSero ev t^ eKKXrjoia tov nepi rrja anoToprjc; 
Twv yeiptjjv xpr}(j>i(TiJ,ar OQ. — avriXapfiaveoOai. Demosth. 
p. 15, 5. ewe e<7Ti /caijooc, avTiXapeaOe tijjv Trpay/maTwv. com- 
pare Xen. Cyr. 2, 3, 6. Isocr. Arch. p. 136 D. E. 'to blame*. 
Plat. Thecet. p. 189 C. ovk av, oi/mai, crot ^ok<jj tov aXrjOtJC 
xpev^ovc avTiXa^ecrOai. 'to catch, to make an impression*. 
Plat. Phadon. p. 88 D. davfxaGrwc, yap fxov o XoyoQ ovtoc 
avTiXafx^avexai, to apfxoviav Tiva tjjukjjv eivai ttjv \pvyr]v. 
— eyeodaiy avTkyeaQai tivoc. Xen. Anab. 7, 6, 41. r\v ovv 
(T(jj<ppovwp,€v, e^6/j,eOa avTOv 'we shall keep hold of him*. 
ib. 6, 3, 17. Koivy ttJq aii)Tr)piac, ey^eoQai, in saliitem in- 
cumbere, ' to be earnestly attentive to his safety*. Herod. 1, 93, 
Xtpvri Se e'^CTai tov o^fxaToc. fxeyaXr) ' borders upon*. Thuc. 
1, 140. rrfq yv<l)prjG ttjQ avTrJQ e^^o^ai ' persevere in*. Eur. 
Hec. 402. ofioia J KiaaoQ Bpvoc, ottwc, ttJct^ efojuat. — Thuc. 
1, 93. Ttjc; 6aXa<T(yYjc tt^wtoc (GejUKTroKXr^q) €ToX^i»?o"e»^ etTreTv 
u)c dvOeKTsa effTiv. Xen. Cyrop. 5, 1, 14. oi KaXoi KayaOoi, 
e7ridvjj.ovvTeQ Kai '^pvcnov Kai 'iTTTrtJV ayadtjjv Kai yvvaiKwv KaXijjv, 

» Moeris p. 149. Thorn. M. p. 637. Fisch. 3 a. p. 368. 

Syntax. Of the Genitive, 551 

Ofjujjc, airavTUV tovtojp paciu)Q Bvvavrai ane'^eaOai, ware /m? 
aTrreaOai avrtvv irapa to ^iKaiov, 

Many verbs are constructed like aTrro^iai, which signify the 
same; as ipaveiv, Oiyelv, Oiyyaveiv. Eur. Hec. 609. ^r) 0i-y- 
ydveiv fnov /mri^ev , dXX* e'lpyeiv o^^ov Ttjc TraiSoc . 

Obs. Pindar joins these verbs also with the dative, e. g. Pyth. 4, 528, 
aavxiq. Oiyefiey. comp. 8, 33. 9, 75. 213. further Isthm. 4, 20. or^- 
Xaiaiv airroyd' 'llpaKXeiais, which 01. 3, 79. is expressed arrfKav 'Hpa- 
k\€os aTTTeadai. comp. Pyth. 10, 44. OiyeTu is found with the accusa- 
tive Soph. Antig. 546. //>)5' a p.ri "diyes ttolov aeavTrjs. But Eur, 
Here. F. 965. 7rar?)p ^e viv 0iywv Kparaids xeipos is constructed ac- 
cording to §. 331. Both constructions appear to be united Soph. Ant. 
857 seq. expavaas aXy eiv or ar as efxol fiepijuyaSf irarpos TpnroXiaTou 
olToy. KadiKyeicrdaL in Homer takes the accusative, e. g. //. ^', 104. 
fj.n\a TTws fie KaQiKeo dvjxoy eynrrj. Od. a', 342. eirei fie paXiara KaOiKCTO 
Treydos aXaaroyf also Soph. (Ed. T. 809. fieaoy Kupa jiov Kadli^ero. 
which in later writers takes a genitive, as Eustathius ad II, ^', p, 969, 
52, observes. 

Upon this is founded the construction by which, with the 331. 
verbs ' to take, to seize, to touch, to carry', &c. the part by (36G) 
which any thing is taken is put in the genitive, whilst the whole 
is put in the accusative. Xen. Anab, 1, 6, 10. fxerd Tavra, 
KeXevovTOQ Kvjoou, €\a(5oifTO ttJq t^^^ic tov OpovTtjv enl 
Oavario airavrec avaarayrec Kai ol avyyeveic, ' took him by the 
girdle*. Find, Nem. 1, 67. avykvtjjv fxdp^paic, ocpiac,. Eur, Andr, 
/I J. r]v 06 e^ r^iLHOv yeywc eAa ot oikiov rriab eTriGiraaaa 
Kifivc. comp. ^sch. S. c. 7%. 430. Eur. Troad. 888. Iphig. 
A, 1376. KAY. al^ei S ohy^ eKovaav apirdcrac; AXIA. S»/- 
Xa§?) l^avdrJQ eSeiprjc;. Antiphan.ap. Stob. Tit, 120. j9. 608. 
Gesn, TOVQ yXi^OjuievovQ ^e trjv Karaaira tov (TKeXovQ clkov- 
TUQ o ^ap(*)v. Hence //. w, 515. ykpovra ^e yeipoc, dvLGrr\, 
II, \p', 854.*^ ireXeiav ^elv TrodoQ, Aristoph. Pint. 315. rwu 
opyk(i)v Kpepiofxev, So also verbal adjectives are constructed 
Soph, Ant, 1221. yvvaiKa Kpefxaarriv av'j^evoQ. 

Obs, It is seldom that an active verb is constructed as in §. 330. II.t]\ 
56. fxetTffov ^ovpos eXijjy. The probable explanation of tt', 406. cXkc H 

•» Fisch. 3 a. p. 363. 366. ^ Valck. ad Theocr. 10. Id. 4, 35. 

552 Syntax. Of the Genitive. 

Zovpos kXiov virep ayrvyos (comp. 409. &s cXk ck dlippoio Ke-^^vora ^ovpi 
^aetvw) is, cXkc ^t avrov dovpos, eXtop ro 3 op v. Lucian savs 
Asin. p. 158. Xafxj3ay€Tai fjiov eic Trjs ovpds, 

332. ^' ^^^^ same construction is retained also with the verbs 
(367) which signify the opposite of ' to take, to seize', viz. ' to let go, 
to loose, not to obtain anything, to miss', &c. Here too they 
are mostly middle verbs, which take the genitive. 

juedieGBai ' to let go', takes only the genitive ; fxeQikvai on the 
contrary, in the same sense, usually takes the accusative : Sop 
CEd. C. 830. fuLeOec yepolv Trjv na^da Oaaaov. Eur. He, 
404. (Lc TrjaB eKOvaa iraiSoc ov fxedriaoixai. Aristopti. 
Plut. 42. OT(^ ^vvavTYiaaipi irpijJTOV eftwj^, eKeXevae tovtov 
/ur) jjieOiecjOai fx en. Eur. Med. 734. ayovffiv ov ueOel av €K 
ya'iric, Ifxk is governed of ayovaiVy and with fieOelo must be sup- 
plied efiov. Yet Herodotus has the genitive with the active 
9, 33. ^irapTirJTai ^e, wpbira fxev aKovGavreCy ^eiva eiroievvTO 
Kai fjLeT lecrav ttiq y^pr]<y i.ioavvr]c, ronapaTrav in the sense of 
'to lose sight of (r), as //. X, 841. aW ouS' wc nep o-eTo 
jneOrjffu) reipop.kvoLo, and /ueOieGOai ' to let go', is found with 
the accus. Eur. Phoe?i, 633. eKelvo S ou^ eKuyv /jiedriao/uiai in all 
theMSS. Comp. ^sch. Suppl. 856.* 

d^ieaOai tivoq: Plat. Lack. p. 181 A. fnii aCJ)ie(To ye row 
dv^poQ. ih. p. 184 A. a(j)ieTaL rov ^oparoQ 'lets go the spear* 
(on the contrary, u(j)ievai Sopv 'to hurl the spear'), ib. p. 186 D. 
KaOanep apri Aayjf\c, fxr\ aipieaOai ae e/uov ote/ceXeueTO, aAXa 
epwrav, Kai eyu) vvv TrapaKeXevo/jiai coi firj aCpieoOai Aa- 
^ijTOC, fJLri^e Ni/ciov, aXXa epujTciv. Isocr. ir. avrid. p.3\8 D. 
eKeivMG vpac Tjyovpai raj^iar av a^€i(T0at rrja Sofjjc Tav- 
TtjQ. p. 333 A. aC^e.pevoQ rov (3ori9e7v to?c elprjpevoic, 
Comp. Archid. p. 133 B. C. Eur. Hel. 1650. ovk a(j>i^(joiuiai 
TreTrXwi^ (twv. On the other hand dcj)iepai is constructed regu- 
larly with the accusative. 

* Schol. Arist. Plut. 4-2. Dawes Me(1.734. etSchaefer. In the passage 

Misc. Cr. p. 236. Valcken. ad Eur. of Herodotus Blomfield recommends 

Ph. p. 189. Hipp. V. 326. On the (Remarks) Tas yjprjrr^oavvas 'they 

contrary, Brunck ad Eur. Med. 737. laid aside their entreaties*, which 

Arist. Vesp. 416. Comp. Herm. ad certainly is not the meaning of ^pj/o"- 

Soph. El. 1269. Porson ad Eur. poavyrj. 

Sj/?itax. Of the Geiiitive, 553 

a/ia/OTttVeti/ and its compounds. Herod. 1, 43. tvQa Srj 

' A^prfcTTOCf aKOVTt^wi' to»/ ffui^, rod jjcev a/JLapTavei, Tvyya- 
vei ^e Tov Kpoiaov irai^oc: and in a metaphorical sense 1, 207. 
riv yap ey(o yvCjfxr)C, prj afiaprcj, Kelvoi ico/mevoi ayaOa 
TToXXa rpexpovTai irpoc avra. Isocr. ad Phil, p. 87 A. w^oXo- 
yovv ^e jULTtBeuoQ TrwTrore toctouto Trpayp-aTOC oiaimapreiv. 
comp. Archid. p. 123 C. D. In the latter metaphorical sense 
it very nearly agrees with \pevd€<T6al tivoq (§. 337. )> as acpdX- 
\j£aOaL rivoQ 'to miss of anything', §. 337. accords with a/LLap- 
ivetv Tivoc, as opposed to rv-^eiv^. The same construction 
"^mains in ^la/napTaveiv tivoc, ' to be mistaken in any one*. 
Plat. Epist. 1. p. 3 10 B. Comp. Xen. Mem. S. 3, 9, 6. 

Obs. TTpoieadai seems to be constructed like fxedieaOai Demosth. (368) 
p. 18, 13. ws €(TTL Tioy al(T')(pu)y, fjidWou ^k ruiv ataj^/orwv, ^^7 p.6vov 
TToXewv Kcu roTTOjy, (vy -q^ev ttotc Kvpioif <pai%'€adai Trpoicfievovs, 
dXXot Kal Thiv i/TTO Trji rv\r]S TrapaaKevaaQeyriov (tv ixp.a.'^tjjv re fcal 
Kuipuiy. This is the only place, however, where it occurs with the 
genitive, and some explain it differently. See §. 474. Schcef. App. 
Demosih. p. 233. 

8. From this idea of partition, which is implied in the geni- 333, 
tive, in the superlative also that substantive which marks the (^Q9) 
class from which the superlative distinguishes the chiefest (as 
parts) is put in the genitive, as in Latin, e. g. //. a, 176. 
e^OicTTOc; ^€ poi e<j(n ^ioTpe(j)e(i)v jSao-iXrituv. Herodotus adds 
CK 1, 196. rriv €vei^€<TTaTiiv eK iraaewv, as in Latin different 
prepositions are used for the genitive ^, 

Hence the genitive is put also with verbs, adjectives and ad* 304 
verbs, which are derived from superlatives, or in which merely (37o) 
the idea of preferableness is implied. 

a. Verbs. //. t' » 460.''E/CTOpoc h^e yvvrj, oc apiarevecFKe 
payeaOai T/owtuv nnro^apwVy i. e. 'apiaroc, r)v Tp^tov. Pind. 
Nem. 1, 20. apiarevoiGav evKapnov -^Oovoc 2t/ceXiav. Eurip» 
Hipp. 1009. irorepa TO Trjode a<jjp eKaWiar eveTO iraawv 
yvvaiKtJV 'y Med. 943. cwp , a /caX XttTTeverai tijjv vvv 
ev avOpujiroiaiVy otS eyw, TroXu. Afc. 653. jjt apa iravrwv 
^lairpeireic, a^livyia, to which Pindar O/. \.in. adds e^oya: o 

^ Fisch. 3 a. p. 368. *= Fisch. 3 a. p. 352. 

VOL. 11. E 

554 Syntax. Of the Genitive. 

yjpvaoc aiOojuevov irvp are ^lair peirei vvkti fuieyavopoG 
e^o^a TrXovrov. Xen. Mem. S, 3, 5, 10. Xeyu) Traprac 

(rovQ 7^o\ef^ovc) ev olc, iraaiv eKelvoi {ol ' Adrjvaloi) ^rjXoi ye- 

yovaai t(3v kuO eavrovc, avQ pu)Tru)v apiGTevaavrec. 

h. Adjectives. Unr. Snppl. 843. noOev ttoB* o'l^e ^lairpe- 
nelc eui/zu^ia Ovrjrwv e(pvaav ; Thus also efo^oc //. 1^,499. 
and passim; which however Od. (j)', 266. is constructed with 
the dative, ' amongst', for ev iraaiv anroXioiaiv. 

c. Adverbs, tfo^a //. ^,257. e^e ^' efo^a iravrwv 
^rirei. Find. 01. 9, 104. via ^ ' hKropoc, efo^wc rifxaaev 
eiro'iKtJV AiyivaQ re MevoiVtov. 

3S5. 9. The genitive is also put with the verbs ' to begin', ap- 
C"^^^) X^'^' apyeadai, virapyjciVy KarapyeiVy properly, ' to make a be- 
, ginning in, or with anything'. Theocr. 1, 70. ap-^ere /3a)- 

jtA^ KoXiKaCf JVItuffai (j)iXaiy apyjer aoidac. JEscIiin. Socr, 

f _L Axioch. 7. ou Kara Tr]v TTjOwrrjv yeve(nv to vtittiov /cXatei tou 
2»?v airo Xvirric ap^opevov; Xen. Mem. S. 2, 3, 11. ei riva 
Twv yvtjjpipiov j3ouXoio KarepyaaaaOai, oirore Ovoi fcaXeTi' ce 
ewi ^elwvouy ti au iroioiric ', XAIP. ^rJXoi/ on Karapy^oipi av 
Tov avroc, ore Ovoi/mi, KaXe7v eKeivov. virapyeiv signifies es- 
pecially auctorem esse, ' to do anything first, to give occasion 
to', e. g. virapyeiv yeipijjv a^iKtJv, aSt/ctac, ' to cause outrages 
first'; which also virap^ai alone denotes. Eur. Androm. 274. 
rl pey aAijjv a-y^eiov ap virrj pc,€v, or ioaiav ec vairav rtAU 
o Trie Matac re Kai Atoc yovoQ. Plat. Menex. p. 237 B. rrjc 
evyeveiac irpwrov virrip^e Toia^e rj rwv Trpoyoviov ykveaiQ, 
Andocid. p. 7 I, ed. R. AaKedaipovioi eyvioaav trcoZ^eiv rriv ttoXiv 
• ^ta Toq €Keivu)v Twv av^pivv aperac, oi vTrrjpl^av rrjc; eXev- 
OepiaQ airaa^ ry EXXa^i*. Thus also KaBrjyeiaOai, rivoQ 'to 
be the first, to make a beginning'. Plat. Lack. p. 1 82 C. 

33g Obs. 1. These verbs are also found with the accusative. Plat. 
Euthyd. p, 283 B. Bavpaffruy riyaf w KpiTioy, avrip Karfjpx^ \6yoy. 
Eurip. Hec. 685. Karap'^opai vopov (DaK^eiov. Or. 949. Karap- 
'^opai arevayfjiov^. Demosth. tt. Tvapairp. p. 431. (^Appodcov Kat'Api- 
aroyeiTOVos) ovs vopw ha ras ehepyealaSf as vxrjp^av ets vpds, kv 

* Valck.adEur.Ph.p.l576. Diatr. ad Soph. El. 522. Heind. ad Plat, 
p. 241. Euthyd. p. 336. Dissen ad Find. 

^ Musgr. ad Eur. Hec. 1 . c. Brunck p. 365. 

Syntax. Of the Genitive. 555 

airaffL rois lepoJs tTrt rdis dvariais ffirovdoiv Kai kparripojy koiviovovs ttc- 
'7r()ir](;rde. Isocr. Plat. p. 307 D. ^iKaicjs civ rtjy avriju evepyealav airo- 
\a(^oi{xeVf rjyirep. avTOt Tvy^avofJiey els vfxds vTrdp^arres. 

Obs. 2. The construction of the verb ap-^eaQai with diro and the ge- 
nitive is different from this ; the genitive only, without a preposition, 
marks the action or condition itself, which is commencing ; but the ge- 
nitive with ctTTo marks the individual point which is the first in a con- 
tinued action or condition, as to. ftpe<pr} tov i^rju cnro \vTn]s upj^erat, 
where tov ^rjv marks the permanent condition which is commencing, 
oLTTo Xv7rT]s tlic fccling which is the first in the condition thus commen- 
cing, * the children begin life with sorrow'. Xen. Mem. S. 2, \,\. povXei 
OKOTTtjJiiev, dp^dfievoL dirb Trjs Tpo(f)rjSf uiffTrep dizo Tuiv oroi^e/wv, where 
Tpo<pf) and ffroixeirt mark the point whence the inquiry commences : the 
whole however which is commenced, is the inquiry how two youths 
are to be educated for different ends, the one to govern, the other for 
the tranquillity of private life, dwo with the genitive answers to ad- 
verbs in -oQev. Xcn. Cyr. 8, 7, 14. fitilaf-iod^v irporepov dpypv ?) dno 
TOV ojjiodey yevojjiepov. comp. 1, 2, 2, 8, 7, 26. Of a similar reference 
in the construction with the participle, see §.551. 

IV. To words of all kinds other words are added in the ge- (315) 
nitive, which show the respect in which the sense of those words 
must be taken ; in which case the genitive properly signifies 
' with regard to'. 

1 . With verbs : in the phrases a>c, oirwc, ntoQ, outwc e^^et 337. 
* to be qualified or endowed in any manner whatever', se habere. 
Herod. 6, 116. A^^jvaTot ^e, vjq tto^cju eiyoVj rayjLara ej^orjOeov 
ec TO aarv, ut sese habehant quoad pedes, i. e. quantum pedibus 
valebant, 'as fast as they could run'. Thus also 9, 59. and 
Plat, Gorg.p. 507 D. and elliptically JLsch. Suppl. 849. aova& 
eiri f3apiv ottcjc tto^ojv. Herod. 9, 66. okijjg av avrov opeujai 
Girov^rJQ e-^ovTa. 5, 20. KaXtjQ e^eiv /meOifQ * to be pretty drunk'. 
(See Schaf. ad Soph. CEd. T. 1 008.) 1, 30. fxerpitiyc, '^yeiv j3iov. 
Eurip. Hipp. 462. ev e-^eiv (ppevLJv. Soph. CEd, T. 345. wc 
opyrJQ h^to. Thuc. 1, 22. wc eKarepoQ tic evvoiac; r] fivri/nriQ eyoi, 
' as each wished well to a party, or remembered the past'. 
2, 90. (Lc et)(e rayovc, eKaaroQ. Thus also Plat. Gorg. p. 45 1 C. 
TTtJC Ttt aaxpa irpoQ aWr]\a rayovQ e^et, and before, Tr^oc avra 
Kai TTpoQ aWriXa ttwc eyei irXriOovQ, ' how^ they stand in relation 
to each other with regard to number'. Protag. p. 32 1 C. Rep. 2. 

E 2 

556 Syntax. Of the Genitive. 

p. 365 A. TOffavra Xeyo/aeva aperrjc nepi Kal KaKiaQ, u)Q avOpu)- 
TTOi Kai Oeoi irepi avra e^outTi Tt/urjc, rt oio/meOa aKOVovffac veu)v 
xf^v^aQ woielv, i. e. u)Q a. koI 0. avra Tifxuyai. 3. p. 389 C. ottwc 
irpa^eojc ^'X^i, i- ^. oirwc, irparrei. Gorg. p. 470 E. ov yap oiBa, 
irai^eiac, onwc €y^ei Kal ^iKaioavvnc, ignoro, quamsit doctus, quam 
bonus vir Cic. Tusc. Qu. 5, 12. Plat. Rep. 9. p. 571 D. orav 
vyieiv(ji)Q TIC e-^tj avroc avrov kol aojcppovwQ. Leg. 4. p. 705 C. 
vavTrr)yr]aiixr]c, v\r)C, o tottoc ttcuc e)(^6i ; ' how is the place with 
respect to timber for ship-building?' Xen. Cyrop, 7, 5, bQ. 
ovrtx) TpoTTov €y(^eiVj eo ingenio esse^. In Thuc. 1 , bl . this 
construction is varied with Kara : u)C e/cao-TOic ttjc ^vvrvyjLaQ r) 
Kara to ^vjuCpepov r] avayKy (al. avayKYjc) ea-^ev. Plat. Rep. 8. 
p. 545 A. is different: ttwc ttotc 17 aKparoc SiKaioavvrt irpOQ 
a^iKiav rr\v aKparov e^et ev^aifLioviaG t€ irepi tov eyovTOQ Kai 
aOXiorrjToCy for here e^^ei is used in an absolute sense. 

In the same manner Tjfcw also is used with an adverb. Herod. 

1, 30. TeXXo) TOV j3tou ei) t^kovtl TeXevTrj tov j3tov Xa/j,- 

irpOTaTT] eireyeveTO. comp. ih. 102. 149. 8, 111. Eur. El, 
756. TTLJC ayojvoc, rjKo^ei^; id, Heracl, 214. •yei'ouc fmev rj/cetc oi^e 
ToTff^e, Ar)ino(f)tJif, properly, ' with respect to kindred, thou 
art thus circumstanced in relation to them', for oJ^e irpoariKeiQ 
relate ykvei, comp. Ale, 298.^ 

SS^, With other verbs also the genitive is used on the same 
(316) ground, e. g. eireiyecfdai^'ApeoQ II. t\ 142. 'to be in haste 
with respect to the battle' (or on account of) eir. oSo7o ' with 
respect to the setting out', Od. a', 309. unless here, as Od. v , 
30. e, 399. e-rreiyeadai signifies ' to long after anything', as 
XiXaiofxevoc, irep o^oto Od. a', 315. — Hesiod.''F,py. 577. tJwc 
Toi IT po(^epei fxev oSov, irpo^kpei ^e Kai epyov 'furthers 
in respect of a journey and of work.' — Tyrt. 3, 40. {Brunck, 
Gnom. p. 63.) ov^k tic, avrov pXcnrreiv ovr alcove ovre 
St/crjc eOkXei 'to injure him neither with respect to reverence', by 

* Hemsterh. ad Lucian. 1. 1. p. 228. p. 200. Lob. ad Phryn. p. 280. mix 

Valck. ad Herod. 3, 139. p. 263, 33. constructions of different kinds to 

ad Eur. Hippol. 462. Wessel. ad gether. Phil. p. 208. 
Her. p. 722, 36. Fisch. 3 b. p. 72. 85. '' Valck. ad Herod. 7, 157. p. 577, 

ToupEm.inSuid.t.3. p. 12. Brunck 96. ad Eurip. Ph. 364. Monk ad 

ad Arist. Lysistr. 173. Ast ad Leg. Ale. 302. 

Syntax. Of the Genitive, 557 

denying it to him, ' nor to justice', (r.) jSAccTrreev riva KeXevdov 
Od. a , 195. ' to injure in respect to his return, to hinder*. Msch, 
Agam. 121. Theogn. 200, voov j^ej^XajuLfxeuoc eaOXov, which in 
^sch, Agam. 489, is (ppevijjv KeKo/jL/mevoc, Hence <ppevof3\a(3ric, 
TrapaTrXrjKTOC. Theogn. 983. Br. (1009. Bekk.) Kreuvojv ev Tratr- 
yefiev'. perhaps also 723. {Brunch Solon. No. 12.) In the same 
manner Soph. Antig. 22. ov yap Ta(pov vi^v tw Kacriyviiru) 
Kpeijjv rov p,€v it poTiaac, (for the simple riaao) rov S ari- 
pcKTaaeyei', ' honouring him, in giving him interment'; where 
the sense of ' depriving' might be given to the verb arifjiaC(»y, as 
to the verb ^Xairrd) in the former example ; but this very con- 
struction of the verb ' to deprive' seems to be derived from 
that which is here explained. See §. 353. Soph. (Ed. C. 49. 

fjLr) /LL arifxaariQ wv ae TrpoaTpeirb) (^paaai, for ixr) p, ar, 

CKeivijjv a ae irp. (pp. Comp. CEd. T. 789. Hence Plat, Hip- 
parch, p. 229 C. Xeyerai ^e vtto t(jjv yapietjrepwv avOptJiruyv 
Kai o Oavaroc avrov {rov linrapyov) yeveaOai ov, ^i a ol 
TToXXoi wrjOriaav, ^m rrjv Trja aceXcprjc aripiav rr/c Kavr\- 
(j}opiac, * because Hipparchus had refused to the sister of Har- 
modius the honour of bearing the basket', i. e. of being one of 
the Kapr}(j)6poi, where the substantive retains the construction 
of the verb. Of the double genitive, see §. 380. Obs. 1. Thuc. 
3, 92. Tov npoQ AOrivaiovQ noXe pov KaXwQ avTolc, e^oKei 
ri TToXiQ {rj Tpa-^iv) KadiGracrOai' em re yap ry EujSota 
vavTiKov irapaaKevaaOrivai av, (jjgt ck ppay^eoc Trjv diaf^acriv 
yiyveaQai, rrjc re ein GpaKriQ napo^ov '^prjaipwc e^eiv, 
' the city appeared to be favourably circumstanced with respect 
to war', &c. id. 1, 36. /caXwq napairXov KelaOai, comp. ib. 
44. Hippocr. p. 281, 29. ed. lots. KelaOai KaXujc rov r]Xiov 
Kai r(jjv TTvevparwv. Thus Musgrave explains the passage in 
Eurip. Med. 288. ^vpfSaXXerai 3e TroXAa rov^e ^eiparoc, 
where, as in y^pr)Gipi»)c, eyeiv or y^pr]aifxov eXvai, the construction 
TTpoc, Ti is more usual ; see, however, §.326. peOieuai iroXepov 
IL B\ 234. 240. t, 330. &c. 'to relax in war', not 'to desist 
from war*, ixpievai opyrja ' to remit one's anger', Herod. 1, 156. 
3, 52. where the middle is more usual, avievai opyrjc Arist. 
Ran. 700. e^aveU opyr\c, Eur. Hipp. 913. comp. ib. 287.*^ 

* Valck. ad Her. 7, 162. p. 580, 87. 

558 Sj/ntax. Of the Genitive, 

avievai rrjc eipo^ov ' to slacken in one's approach*, Thuc. 7, 43. 
-^-Xen, liier. 4, 1. Kai iriarewc, oaric, ekayjiarov fxeTeyjEi, ttwc 
ovyji /iieyaXov aya^ov juetoi^e/cre? ; 'does he not fall short, in 
respect of a great good V &c. Isocr. ad Phil. p. 86 D. tov drj 

TOiovTOV Kai TrjXiKavra diaireTrpayiLievov ovk o'lei ttoXu (ce) 

^lexpevcrOai vof^iielv rrjc re t^jjv \6y(s)v Zvva^euyc, Km ttJc 
avTov ^lavoiac * to be mistaken with respect to the effect of 
his speech', comp. Archid. p. 13 1 A. 138 B. de Pace 165 A. 
expevaac cj)pevit)v Hepffac JEsch. Pers, 470. tov ttXtjOovq xpev- 
aOevrec Li/s. Epit. p. 193. Thus also cycpaWeadal tivoq 'to 
be deceived with respect to a thing', e. g. (rcfydWeoOai eXiri^oG 
Herod. 2. as iPev^eaOai cXtt. id. 1, 141. Eur. Med. 1006. 
^o^rjQ ea(pa\riv evayyeXov. id. Ph. 770. eav ti t»jc Tvyr]C, e-yw 
<j(paXw. Hence Soph. Q^d. C. 1165. acr^aXwc rrJQ ^evp' oSou, 
i. e. jLir) acj)aXevTa Trjc ^. o. In a derivative sense, Eur. Or. 
1076. ydfLitjjv ^e Trjc juiev ^vcnroT/nov rrjao ecjipaXrjv, it is the 
same with aixapraveiv tivoq §. 332. (rcpaXXeaOai tivoq 'to be 
mistaken in any one' Xeri. Mem. S. 4, 2, 26. opposed to e'lSevai, 
comp. [socr. w. dvT. §. 182. Soph. Trach. 942. iop(^avi(jp.kvoQ 

To this belongs the phrase KaTeaya ttJq KecpaXrjc, ^vveTpiftrjv 
TrJQ K€(paXr]Qj Jractus sum (quod attinet ad) caput, instead of 
caput fr actum est, according to the Gisecism, by which the verb 
is not referred to its proper noun, but to that of which the noun 
is a part ; in which case the proper noun of the verb usually is 
put in the accusative, as in the Latin poets, e. g. jam multo 
fractus membra lahore, for cujus membra fracta sunt. Plat. 
Gorg. p. 469 D. Kciv Tiva 3o^^ /moi ttJq K€(paXr}Q avTwv KaTea-^ 
yevai {vulg. KUTeayrivai) 8eiv, KaTeaywQ ecrrat avTiKa fiaXa, 
Aristoph, Vesp. 1428. KaTeayt) ttIq /ce^aXf/q yueya acjio^pa. 
id. Acharn. 1180. The person is also found in the genitive 
governed by rrfc /ce(^aXrf<:. ib. 1166. /carafeie Tfc avTov rrfc 
K€(baXrJQ. id, Pac. 71. ewe ^vveTpij3r} ttJq K€(f)aXr)Q. Lucian. 
Contempl. p. 37 . I^wt pi(5evTeQ twv Kpaviwv. In Isocr. in Cal- 
lim. ». 381 A. y^TiwvTO KpaTlvov (TVVTpixpai tyJq K€(paXr]Q avTtJQ^. 
Also with the construction §. 424, 3. in Lysias p. 99, 43. 
KaTayeiQ ttiv K€(j)aXr]V, 

* Piers, ad Moer. p. 233. Thorn. M. p. 499. liemsterh. ad Luc, t.l, p. 419. 

Syntax, Of the Genitive. 559 

2. With adjectives, the more exact definition of the idea 339, 
contained in the adjective is put in this manner in the genitive. (317) 

Herod. 1, 155. iroXiv avafxapTr]TOv eovaav riov re irpore- 

pov Kai Tijjv vvv e<JT€(l)T(i)v. Plat. Leg. 1. p. 643 D. reXeioc, 
rrJQ aperrjc;. Xen. Cyr. 6, 1,37. cruy-yvw^wv twv avOpioTrivtjJv 
ajLiapTTjiLLaTijJv ' forgiving vs^ith respect to human errors'. Herod, 
1, 107. irapOevoQ avdpoQ iopaix], or 1, 196. yaf.LOV wp. comp. 
Xen. Cyr. 4, 6, 9. ' mature with respect to marriage'. Herod. 
7, 61. airaiG epaevoc yovov, or, as Xen. Cyrop. 4, 6, 2. Isocr, 
Panath. p. 258 D. airaic, appeviov iraidiov ' childless with respect 
to sons'. Thuc. 2, Q5. of Pericles '^pti/ndruyv ^La(j)av(jj(; a^w- 
poraTOQ yev6/uL€voc. Plat. Leg. 6. p. 774 D. rijuirjc; Se irapa 
T(ji)v v€(jjTep(jjv aripoc, Traarir, ecrrw, ' let all respect be denied 
him'. 8. p. 841 E. arifxcQ twv ev r'^ iroXei eiraivtjjv ' un- , 
honoured with respect to the customary panegyrics', expers 
laudum. Comp. Mhch. S. c. Th, 1026. Soph. CEd. T. 657. 
788. So the tragedians especially use adjectives compounded 
with a priv. in which the idea is implied generally, which is more 
specifically expressed by the subjoined genitive. Soph, El. 36. 
a(TK€V0Q acTTrtdijJVy i. e. avev aair. CEd, C. 677 , aviive/uoQ iravrtju 
'^^eipioviov. 786. avaroQ KaKwv. S65. a(j)(jjvoc apac. ^.321. 
a\po(j)r}roc KuyKVjLiaTUJV. Eurip. Ph. 334. cnreTrXoQ (j)apewv. 
Med, 671. ovK etjfxev euvrjc a^vyec yaf.ivtXiov. Iphig. A. 988. 
avo(Toc KttKwv. This also seems to be the origin of the following 
phrases: Soph. Trach. 247. -^povoc dvrfpiOinoc rifxepwv 'with 
respect to days', where properly it should be r^fxepai dvripiQfxoi. 
CEd. T, 179. (jjv TToXiQ avapiOjuoQ oXXvTai, for 01 ev rip TroXei 
avapiOfxoi oXXvvrai. El. 231. ouScttot ck Ka/nartov dTTOiravao- 
jnai avapiQfxoQ w^e Oprjvtjv". 

This appears also to be the proper sense of the genitive with 
the words ' near, to draw near to'. Soph. Antig. 580. cj)€v- 
yovai yap rot ^ot Opaaelc, orav TreXac rj^i] tov a^ijv e'laopiijai 
Tov (5iov. Thus also ey-yuc, irpocnreXd^eaOaiy ep.TreXdZ,€adai. 
Soph. CEd. T. 1100. riai^oc opea<jif3aTa TrpoGTreXacrOeicTa, id. 
Tr. 17. Trpiv Tijo^e koityiq e/JLireXaaOrivai Trore. In other cases 
such verbs take the dative after them. In e^rjc with the geni- 

*» SchiEif. Melet, in Dion. H. 1. p. 137. 

5G0 Syntax. Of the Genitive. 

tive {Arist, Ran. 765.) besides this the construction e-^eaOai 
TivoQ remahis, ' to touch upon, to border upon*. 

The expression Opaavc el ttoXXov Arist. Nub. 916. is sin- 
gular ; 'thou art very audacious' (properly, by much). 

Note. Hence appears to have arisen the observation, that adjectives 
compounded with a priv. govern the genitive : Fisch. 3 a. p. 353. But 
a priv. cannot well determine the use of either the genitive, or any other 

540. 3. In the same manner, it appears, is to be explained the ge- 
>• / nitive, which often accompanies adverbs, to determine their 

signification by adding the respect in which they are to be 
taken. Herod, 7, 237. npocni) dperrja dvrjKeiv 'to carry it far 
with respect to virtue'. Xen. Cyrop. 1, 6, 39. irpoffu) eXdaai 
ttJq nXeove^iaQ. Anab. 4, 3, 28. /u?) irpoaio tov Trora/uLOv ^la- 
(5aitf€iv. (r.) Hence the abbreviated phrase Herod. 3, 154. 
Kapra cv TOiai Ylepai^Gi ai ayaOoepyiai €Q to Trpoau) /bieyaOeoQ 
Tifxtjvrai, i. e. tc^wj/toi, wo-re avrovc, (toi»c ayaOoepyovc) ec to 
Trpoau) jiieyaOeoQ av7]Keiv. Plat. Euthyphr. p. 4 A. 7ropp(jj ao" 
i^'iac, eXavveiVy or Euthyd. p. 294 E. tt. a. r}Keiv. Comp. Gorg, 
p. 486 A. Lys. p. 204 B. Tropptjj iropeveadai tov epcoTOQ ' to 
make great progress in love'. Gorg, p. 484 C. Troppts) tyJc 
rjXiKiaQ <|)iXoc7o(^eiv * far in years* (properly, far advanced with 
respect to years), ib. p. 310 C. Xiav iroppto e^ofe tijv vvktcHv 
eivai, as Symp. p. 217 D. Protag. p. 326 C. TrpcjiaiTaTa Trjc 
rjXiKiaQ 'very early with respect to age'. Herod. 9, 101. tt/owi 
TTfQ r]p.epr]c, 'early in the day'. Hence Aristoph. Nub. 138. 
TTiXov yap otfcw twv dypwv ' far from here in the country'. 
So also eKcic, y^povov 'long in respect to time' Herod, 8, 144. 
eKadTCLTd) Trjc FiVpwwrjQ ' furthest in Europe' id, 9, 1 4. Eur, 
Hec, 961. €iQ TTpoaBev KaKwv, Plat, Phcedon. J9. 1 13 B. KaTw- 
Tepu) TOV TapTapov ' deeper in Tartarus'. Plat. Menon. p. 84 A. 
evvoeK cLVf a) Mei^wi^, ov ecTTiv rJSr/ (3a^i^(s)v o^e tov avafxifi- 
v)](TKe(TOai ' to what point of reminiscence he has arrived'. Thus 

also might be explained Eurip, Ph. 37 2. ovtoj Tap^ovc, a^i- 

Kofiriv ' to such a pitch of fear am I arrived', if ovtu) could be 
united with verbs of motion, and it should not rather be Tap- 
/3oc, i. e. e'lQ Tap^oQ. See §. 595, 4. 

541. 4. In the same manner the neuters row to, toctouto, ToSe 


Si/ntax. Of the Genitive, 56 1 

with a preposition, often take a genitive as a definition. Thuc. 
1, 49. l^vveTreaov ec tovto dvayKric 'they came to this, with 
respect to necessity', i. e. into such necessity. Isocr, de Pac, 
p. 165 C. e'lG TOVTO yap rirec avoiac e\ri\vOa<nVf oj(tt€ &c. ib, 
p. 174 D. e'lQ ToaovTO fxitjovc, KaTeaTrjaev, oxttc &c. where in 
Latin eo with the genitive is used, eo necessitatis adducti sunt, 
eo dementia progressi sunt, &c. Thus also in the dative with ev. 
Thuc, 2, 17. 01 fxev ev tovtoj irapacTKevrjc; jjtrav ' in this degree 
of preparation*. Xenoph. Anab. 1, 7, 5. ^la to ev toiovtm 
elvai Tov Kiv^vifov, Thus also Thuc. 1, 118. oi AOr}ifaioi em 
fieya eyjujpriaav dwd/jietjc, where €7ri fjieya is put adverbially, the 
same as iroppu), Mschin. Axioch, 9. aXXoi {eiri) ttoXu yrjpujQ 
aK/uLa^ovviv. In point of sense it is the same as ec TavTtiv ttiv 
avayKTjv, avoiav, etc ToaouTO fjuaoQ, ev TavTy tiJ irapaaKev^, ev 
ToiovTO) Kiv^vvo), and hence this syntax often serves only as a 
circumlocution, e.g. etc to^' r^/mepaQ Eurip, Phcen. 428. Ale. 9. 
for etc TavTTjv ttjv rifxepav. 

Hence the genitive is sometimes put with substantives or f^^\ 
verbs, or absolutely, where otherwise irep'i with the genitive is 

1. With substantives : Soph. Antig. 632. tS iroTi, TeXeiav 
\pri(l)ov dpa jurj kXvijjv rryc fuLeWovvp-Cpov, iraTpi Xvaaaivwv 
Trdpei ; ' the decree with respect to, on account of, thy bride'; 
where however the genitive may be connected with Xuacr. as 
627 seq. Aj. 998. ofeTa yap (TOV jSa^tc, wc 0eou Tti^oc, ^irjXO* 
A^aiovc Travrac, wc oi^^ Bavujv, ' the fame of you, with respect 

to you, as the annunciation of a god', comp. Trach. 1 69 seq. 
Eur, Iph. A. 499. Thuc. 8, 15. dyyeXia rrjc Xtou ' the rela- 
tion concerning Chios', ib. 39. dyyeXiav ewepTrov eirl rac ev 
Ty MtXrjTO) vavc tov ^vpirapaKopKjOrjvai ' concerning the con- 
voying, in order to be convoyed by them'. 1, 140. to Meya- 
peijjv \pr](j)i(Tpa, for which ib. c. 139. we have to Tre^ot M. xp, 
Xen, Mem. 2, 7, 13. o tov kvvog Xoyoc, 

2. With verbs : Od. X , 1 73. eiTre Se pot iraTpoc, Te koi vleoQ, 
ov KaTeXeiTTOv. Soph. (Ed, C, 355. pavTcla, a tovS ey^pr)adr\ 
aCypaTOQ, i. e. Tre^t Tov^e a^paTOc, nepl epov. ib. 307. kXvcov 
GOV Sevp* d(l>il^€Tai Ta^v, Comp. ib. 662. (Ed. T. 701. An- 
tig, 1182. Trach, 1122. tSc pr^Tpoc, tiku) ttJc eprJQ cjypaawv, 

5G2 Syntax. Of the Genitive, 

ev oic, vvv €(TTiv. de matre mea (comp. ib, 928. 934.), as JEwr. ' 
Iph. A. 1123. (r). See §. 296. Thuc. 1, 52. tou ge oiKa^e 
ttXou /iiaXXoi^ ^tetrfcoTTovv, otti; Kojxiadr]aovTai. Plat. Hep. 2. 
p. 364 D. 01 ^e tjJc twv Oewv vir' avOpCjirbyv TrapayioyrJQ rov 
' Ojurjpov fxapTvpovrai, 

3. Sometimes such genitives stand to point out the object 
of the following proposition, as genitives absolute. Eurip. Andr. 
361. ri/ueiQ fxev ovv roioi^e' rrjc; ^e (rrjc; (^pevoQ, ev gov Se- 
^oiKa * as to what regards your turn of mind'. Plat. Leg. 7. 
J9.794A. Tiov Se TpoCJXjjv avrtxiv Kai Trjc; ayeXr^Q ^^i^*" 
naarjCf tljv owoefca yvvaiKwv /uiiav eCp eKaary TerayQai. 
Comp. Pep. 5. p. 470 A. Phcedon. p. 78 D. E. Xen. QLcon. 3, 
1 1. T)7c ^e yvvaiKOQ, ei fiev ^i^affKO/iievrf vno tou av^poQ rayaOa 
KaKOTTOiel (-oT), idcuc ciKaiwQ av 7] yvvr\ Tr\v an'iav ^^yoi. Mem. 
S, 1, 3, 8. TOiavra /uev nepi tovtwv eiraiZ^ev afxa <T7rouSa^fui^, 
a<ppo^i(TL(t)v Se, Trapyvei t(jjv KaXtov layvpiZc, aTrkyeaQai. Isocr. 
TT. avri^. p, 317 D. TOU oe koXijjc, kqi p-eTpiwc, Ke^prjaOai ry • 
(j)vaei, ^iKaKVQ av iravrec rov rponov tov efxov eiraiveGeiav. id. 
de Pig. p. 347 E. eiSoTec Se ttjv ttoXiv tw v juev irepi tovq 
OeovQ (in iisj qua ad deos spectant) fxaXiar av opyiaQeiaaVj ei 
TIC e(C TO. jLivanipia (paivoiro e^afiapTaviov, tijjv ^ aXAwv, et 
TIC, ToXpiori rov ^?]fxov KaraXveiv^. Comp. §. 298, 3. Hero- 
dotus adds irep'ij 7, 102. apiO/jiov ^e irkpi, furj irvOiri, ocoi rivec 

eovrec ravra noieeiv oioi re e'lai , 

343, In the same manner also, it seems, we must explain the ge- 
(321) nitive which serves to illustrate single words or entire propo- 
sitions. Thuc. 7, 42. ToTq ^vpaKovaioiQ KarairXri^iQ eyevero, 
e'i irepac,^ev earai (7(|)t<Ti tou airaXXayrivai rov Kiv^v- 
vov *' if there was to be no end', viz. with respect to deliverance 
from danger, where, at the same time, is to be remarked the 
pleonasm irepac rov airaXXayrivaij just as in Plato Leg. 2. 
p. 657 B. 17 rrJQ riSovrjc Kai Xvtttjq 2^tt;(TIC tou Kaivy Zv~ 
, re7v ael jiiovaiKy "^prjaOai, a^e^ov ov [JieyaXi]v riva ^vvainiv 
eyet irpoc to Sia(j)9el.pai rrjv KaOiepwOelcrav yopeiaVy eiriKaXov(Ta 
apyai6rr]ra. Leg. 12. p. ^bl C. iravnov fxadr)jj.arti)v Kvpiu)- 
TttTtt, TOU TOV p,avOavovra (^eXriu) yiyveadaij ra nepi rovQ 
vop^ovQ Keipeva ' the chief of all sciences, with regard to the im- 

* lleind. ad Charm, p. 89. ad Phaedon. I.e. p. 100 seq. Forster 

'' lleind. ad Gorg. §. 139. p. 217. ad Phaedon. p. 376. 

Syntax, Of the Genitive. 563 

provement of the learner, is that of the laws'. Thus also Soph, 
Track, 55. ttwc av^poc, Kara Z>r]rr]aiv ov irefxireic, Tiva, fxaXiara 
^ oviref} e'lKOC, 'YXXoVj e'l irarpoc, vkfxei (not vejuioi) tiv lopav, 
Tov KaXtjjQ TTpaaaeiv ^OKelv; 'if he cares about his father, 
viz. that he is thought to be in prosperity', properly an attrac- 
tion for e'l vefjLei t'iv ojpav tov tov naTepa KaX. np. cok. Plat, 
Leg. 4. p. 714 D. Demosth. Olynth. 2. /;. 19, 3. wv ovv eKel- 
voQ fxev oCpe'iXei toTc vwep avTOv TreTroXtrev^ei^oic yjapiVj vfuuv Se 
^1/071/ Trpoai]KeL Xaj3e7i/, toutwv ovyjt vxjv opui toi/ Kaipov tov 
Xeyeiv, where tov Xeyeiv is an explanation of tovtwv. It might 
also have been tou tuvtu Xeyeiv, had it not been necessary that 
TovTwv should precede, on account of its reference to what goes 

Hence all words expressing ideas of relation, which are not 314. 
complete without the addition of another word as the object of \^'^V 
this relation, take this object (which however must not be 
passive, &c.) in the genitive. To this belong, 

1. Adjectives which have an active sense, and are mostly 
derived from active verbs, or correspond to them. In the case 
of these, their relation to an object which with the verbs would 
be in the accusative, is expressed by the genitive. Herod. 2, 
74. ipoi o(piec, avOp^TTijJv ov^a/nuic ^rjXij/iioveQ (from ^ijXelaOai 
Tiva) 'which do not harm men'. Comp. 3, 109. Find. Pyth. 
9, 103. ^^oi^rt ayvb)Ta dr]piov (yiyvioffKeiv Tt), comp. Isthm. 
2, 44. Pyth. 3, 9. ^schyl. Agam. 1 167. 'Iw ya^oi UapiSoQ 
oXeOpioL(j)iXwv (from oXeOpoc, oXw) ' which have proved de- 
structive to friends'. Soph. CEd. T. 1437. pi\pov /ne -yijc eK 
Trjac ocrov to.'^ktO , ottou dvrjTtov (pavov/mai /urjoevoc Trpoay^yopoc, 
' where I shall converse with no mortal', although with the scho- 
liast we may take Trpocrriyopoc as passive for Trpoaayopevo/uievoc, 
like TTpocjcpOeyKToc, §. 345. Soph. Antig. 1 184. IlaXXa^oq deaa 
OTTwc iKoi/mriv evyjLiaTwv npoariyopoc, nt ad Palladem preces face- 
rem. See §. 367. Trach. 538. XioJ^yitov ttjc ^i^vg (ppevoc. CEd, 
C. 150. (j)vTaXiuioG aXatJvojLifxaTUJv ' born blind'. See Hermann's 
note. Eurip. Hec. 239. Kap^iac, ^rjKTripia {duKveiv ttjv Kap^iav) 
' that afflict the heart', KepTOfxa, ih. 687. apTifiaBric, fca/ccJv ' who 
has but lately been acquainted with misfortune', ih, 1125. 
vTTOTTToq i)v Si} T|Ootfc»}r, aXdxrewa {vTroTTTeveiv ti) ' as he guessed 

564 Syntax, Of the Genitive. 

the capture of Troy', id. Androm, ] 197. ro^oavva (j>6vioG 
iraTpoQ. Hipp. 30. y?}c, Trja^e Karoxpioc. Plat. Leg. 4. p. 7 I I B. 
^vvifKooi Twi/ \6yo)v. Thus Eur. Phcen. 216. ire^ia wepippvTa 
St/ceX/ac, for a irepippel ^iKeXiav. See Musgrave and Porson 
on this passage. Med. 735. avio/noToa Qewv, because ofjivvvai 
OeovG was said for ^la Oeovc. Hence (svvepyoQ tou koivov ayaOov 
Xen. Cyrop. 3, 3, 10. KaKovpyoa jnev twv aXXwv, eavrov Se 
TToXv KaKovpyorepOG (from epyaCeaQairiva kokci.) vTroTeXrjc (j)6- 
pov Thuc. 1, 56. 7, 57. from reKelv (popov. aXirrjpioi ttJq Beov 
Tkuc. 1, 126. from aXirelu Tiva. Hence yi]c, a^eia Soph. Q^d. 
C. 447. from a^em rivoc. Xen. Si/mp. 4, 12. rvipXoc awavTiov, 
because in tv(J)X6c; the idea of ou^ opwv is implied. 

In this place are to be reckoned especially adjectives in -ikoc. 
Plat. Eiithyphr. p. 3 C. ^i^aaKaXiKOc rrjc; avrov (ToCpiac ' who 
can teach his wisdom to others', id. Rep. 3. p. 389 D. ava- 
TpeTTTiKOQ TToXewc. Xen. Mem. 5. 3, 1, 6. /cat yap irapacTKev- 
aariKOv rwv etc tov iroXepov rov orpaT-qyov eivai )(/oi7 Kai 
TTopiGTiKov Twi' eTrLTr}dei(jjv TOiG arpaTiu)TaiG. id. Rep. Laced, 
2, 8. pi^'^aviKoc T(i)v eTTiTr^Seiwv, where prj^avaaOai rriv Tpo(j)riv 
went before*. Add to these, various adjectives compounded 
with a priv. e. g. Herod. 1, 32. Lysias p. 107, 24. aTra- 
OiiQ KaKtJU, from iracr^eiv /ca/ca. Soph. QLd. T. 885. AtAcat; 
a(j)6j3rfToc, i.e. prj (fyof^ovpevoc Aia:»;v. 969. aypavaroc, ey^ouc. 
Xen. Mem. S. 2, 1, 31. rov iravrdyv ridiffrov a/covtr/uaToc, 
enaiifov (reavrriQ, aprjKooc ei, Kai tov Travrtjv "n^iarov Oea- 
/uaTOC, aOeuTOC' ow^ei' yap TrwTTOTe (reavTrjc epyov KaXov 
TeQkaaai. Comp. Hier. I, 14.^ 

Participles are also constructed in the same manner, e. g. Od. 
a' y 18. 01/^' evOa irecpvypevoc yjev aeOXtvv, which in other cases 
is put with the accusative. //. 2, 488. polpav S o'vnva (j>r}(jii 
Trecpvyp-kvov epfievai av^pwv. II. y^, 219. Hom. H. Ven. 36. 
Od. a', 202. oiwi^wv aa(pa eiSwc. 11. f3 ,7\S. to^wv ev et^wc. 
611. eTTiarafxevoi TroXep.oio^. Yet the verb ei^kvai is found 
even with the genitive //. /, 229. o', 411. See §. 346. Obs. 

345^ Ohs. Various relations of adjectives also in a passive or neuter sense 
(3'23) are expressed by the genitive, which denotes that from which anything 

» Fisch. 3 a. p. 352 sq. * Hemst. ad Thorn. M. p. 183 sq. 

^ Fisch. 3 a. p. 353. 

Syntax. Of the Genitive, ^^^ 

originates, or by which it is produced, §. 374 seq. In tTrtorc^j'/s o'lvov 
Od. /3', 431. and eTrww/xos tlvo^ Plat, Leg, 8. p. 828 B. this is the less 
remarkable, as kireaTe-^avTO ttotoIo 11. i\ 175. and eTrovofxal^effdai tlvos 
are also found. In the same way TroXvore^jys dai^vris * shaded with 
laurel' Soph. (Ed. Tyr. 83. Trepiarecpris dv0ew»^ id. El. 895. Anacr, 
ap. Athen. 1. p. 12 A. Karrjpcipris Trayroiwv ayadojy'^, were also said. So 
Soph. (Ed. C. 1519. eyw liCaS,u)^ tekvov Aiyews, a coi yripojs aXvwa 
TyBe K€i(T€rai TroXei, ' uninjured by age', ib. 1722. KaKuiy ovSels Ev 
<raX WT OS. yEsch. S. c. Th. 877. KaK(Zv arpv/jLores. Eur. Hipp. 962. 
KUKioy aKyjpaTos. Soph. (Ed. C. 1521. adiKros yiyrjTrjooSf like aKrTvos 
dep/jirjs aOiKTOv. Trach. 686. (comp. Eur. Hipp. 1015.) aXa/uTres ifkiov. 
EL 343. aTravra yap troi ra/na rovderi] fxara Kciyris didaKra, Kohdey 
€K aavrrjs Xeyeis, 'all thy lessons which thou givest me are suggested by 
her'. Antig. 847. (j)i\wy aKXavaros. Philoct. 1067. (pioprjs TrpocrcpdeyKTOs. 
Eur, Andr. 460. adu)7revTos yXwffarjs. Demosth. pro Cor. p. 275, 5. 
avov-qros ayaOwy ^. These are different from the cases quoted, §. 339. 
the genitive there denoting that by which the adjective is produced ; 
while here it might be resolved by vtto, Tvpos or irapa with the genitive. 
So adoHos TrXrjyuiy Arist. Nub, 1413. means ov KoXa^ofieyos TrXrjyals, 
but aOtios T^s ^tX/TTTTOu dvyafrreias Dem. pro Cor, p. 316, 17. is equi- 
valent to oh KoX, VTTO TTJs Bvy. — €TriaTpo(l>os aydpwTTOjy Od. a', 177. is 
used in the neuter sense * much conversant with men', from eTriarpe- 
ipecrdai aydpwirovs, 

2. Words which represent a condition or operation of the 346. 
mind, a judgement of the understanding, which is directed to (324) 
an object, but w^ithout affecting it. Such are the adjectives 
'experienced, ignorant, remembering, desirous*; and the verbs 
' to remember, to forget, to concern oneself about anything, to 
neglect' ; ' to consider, to reflect, to understand' ; ' to be desirous 

a. Adjectives : 'experienced', e^nreipoc, eTrio-Trijuwv, rp'i^wv, 
and the opposite ' inexperienced', aSa^c, atopic, aneipoc, as in 
h^tin peritus and imperitus, Herod, 2, 49. t»?c Qvaiac, ravr-qc 
ovK elvai a^arjcj aX\* efXTreipoc JEschi/l, Suppl, 468, BeXuj 
o aiSpLC p-aWov rj ao<poQ KaKtJU eivai, Xen, Cyrop, 3, 
3, 55. TOVQ airai^evTOvc TravTanaaiv apeTtjc OavjuLa^oiiJ. 
av, ei Ti TrXeoi^ av vjcfieXrjaeie \6yoc; KaXtjjQ prjOeic, etc avcpaya' 
Biav, T} Touc cnrai^evrovQ luovaiKrJQ aa^a KaXuyQ aaOev etc 

'^ See Matthias ad Eur. Hipp. 468. * Schgef. Melet. p. ISf. 

5G6 Syntax. Of the Genitive, 

fxovffiKTiv. Aristoph. Vesp. 1429. ervy-^avev ov rpif^cjv 

wv iTnriKrjc;. Isocr. ad Dem. p. 13 B. -^prj tovq iraideiac ope- 
yo/j.evovQ /LiY}oevoc; /j.ev aTre'iptJQ eyeii', navTa'^oOev oe xa 
y^pr]aifia avWeyeiv. Plat. Tim. p. 20 A. Kpiriav Se ttov 
Travrec; oi rye 'lafxev ov^evoQ i^itortiv ovra wv XeyojuLev. id, 
Apol. 5. p. 17 D. ^evijjQ e'x,'^ '^^^ evOa^e Xefewc *. 

Obs. 1. In the old poets, verbs, especially participles which agree 
in sense with these adjectives, follow the same construction : as el^evat 
II. fi, 229. o', 411. /3', 823. fxaxrjs ev ei^are iraar^s. ib. 720. to^ojv 
€v el^oTes. p'i 5. yvvr) ov TrpXv el^vla TOKoto, and passim, el^ws as fre- 
quently occurs with the accusative, e. g. rreirw^eva fxyhea eldujs II. tt', 
811. ^i^aaKOf-ievos TroXefioio Hesiod. "^py. 648. ov re rt vavTtXiris 
(T€cro(l>ian€vos, ov re tl ptjwv. This was imitated by the Sophists 
particularly, e. g. ^vviels ^pct/zaros, yeyvixvacr/jLevos daXaTTrjs in Philo- 
stratus**. Hence also i)das, 'accustomed', is constructed with the ge- 
nitive. Soph. El. 373. oxj^ifjiadtjs Twy irXeoveU'^v Xen. Cyrop. 1, 6, 35. 
comp. 3, 3, 37. although this belongs more properly to §. 344, 1.*^ 

Obs. 2. Sometimes Trepi with a genitive is found with adjectives of 
this kind. Plat. Hipparch. p. 225 C. ov^i ofxoXoyels tuv <j>iXoK€phr} 
€7r I (TT }j /Jioy a eivat Trepi Trjs a^tas tovtov, oQev KcpZaiveiv d^toT ; Hipp. 
Min. p. 368 D. Trepl ruiy re)(vwv eTrLcrrrjfxojy. jEschin. Socr. 2, 9. /cat- 
rot ovK av apadeffrepos ye ofxoXoyijaais ay eiyai Trepl ovdeyos Tbiy 
peyiffTOjyf dXXa ao^iinepos. Plat. Amat. p. 132 D. efXTreipos Trepi, as 
Isocr. ad Phil. p. 86 A. ei koI Trepi njjv aXXu)y cnreipios e^ovciv. 

Obs. 3. Sometimes also adjectives of this kind are joined with the 
case of their verbs, the accusative. Plat. Ep'inom. p. 979 D. 6 ravr 
eTTKTTtiiJiOjy. Xen. Cyrop. 3,3,9. eTTLori] /xoyes rjaay to. Trpoafi- 
Kovra Ttj eavTbiy eKuaros oTrXiaeL, where Aristotle Polit. 1, 7. adds 
Trepl: — to Trepl to. KTrjuara epireipoy elyai. Plat. I'im. p. 21. 
Tovs fjLoXiaTa Trepl tuvtu Tuiy lepeojy efiireipovs. comp. Amat, 
p. 137 A. See §. 422. So also rpijjojy with the accusative, Eur. Med, 
681. Rhes, 625. Bacch. 717. Arist. Nub. 867.'^ 

347 ^' ^^^bs : ' to recollect, to forget', pvaadai, pvncrOrjvaij pvr}- 

(325) (raaOaij XavOaveaOaiy XndeaOai, and their compounds, as pv7]<jaade 

^e Oovpi^oQ aXfcrfq. Isocr. ad Demon, p. 12 C. ev airaai role 

epyoic, ov^ ovro) rrjc, apyrJQ pvtipovevojuev, loc rrjc reXevrrjc 

aiaOriffiv Xap(5avopev. OeriQ S' ov Xr]9er ec^erpewv irai^oQ eov 

* Fisch. 3 a. p. 356 sq. *^ Fisch. 3 a. p. 356 seq. 

^ liemst. ad Ihom. M. p. 183 seq. ** Heind. ad Plat. Fret. p. 552 seq. 

Syntax. Of the Genitive. 5G7 

//. a', 495. and elsewhere regularly. Thus also the active fivau, 
VTTOfxvav, ^ to remind'. Od. a, 321. virkfxvricjkv re c irarpoc;. 
11. a, 407. T(2v vvv imiv ixvy]aaaa irapeZ^eo. Eur. Alc.\0Q6. 
jLiT) fx dvainvr)(j\K KaKwv. Od. g', 168. 170. Thus too the active 
XrjOeiv ' to make to forget', and the derivative and compound 
verbs: Od. r\ , 221. Ik Se fxe iravrijjv \r]Qaveiy oa<j eiraOov. 

Od. ^'j 221. (^apfxaKov, KaKwv eiriXridov cnravTOJV. IL 

o , 60. XeXaQri S' o^vvawv. Hymn, in Ven. 40. ''HprjQ eKXeXa- 
Oovcja KatJiyvrjTrjQ aXo^ov re. 

Obs. 1. /ivdffdat, *to make mention of, is sometimes joined with 
Trepi. Herod. 1, 36. Trat^os fxev Trepi rov ejxov fx)) fxvrjffdijre en. Plat. 
Lach.p. 181 A. Xeyere fjioi, o3' earl ^lOKparrjs, Trepi ov eKaarore e/ue- 
fxvrjffde; Menex. p. 239 C. rovriov irepi fxoi doi^el: XPV^^'- cTnjxi^ricrdTJvai. 
Xen. Cyrop. 1,6, 1)2. ovF bnovv irepl tovtov eTrefiyrjadr], as virep Demosth. 
pro Cor. p. 232. 8. where other MSS. have wepi. 

Obs. 2. These verbs are also constructed with the accusative. //. 
4", 222. Tv^ea S' ov fxefxprifjiai. Herod. 8, 66. tQv CTre/i^-Z/o-Qr/v Trporepov 
TO. ovv6p,aTa. Plat. Cratyl. p. 396 C. ei ^' efxeixvii^-qv riju 'liaiodov 
yeveaXoyiny. Demosth. Phil. 2. p. 73, 9. ravra yap airavra to. 
eirX Tov (Hjjjiaroi evravQn jjivTjfioi'ever eu oi8' on prjOeyra, Kainep hvres 
ov ^eiyol Tovs adiKovPras pejjivrjadai. Comp. Xen. Cyrop. 6, 1, 21. 
The active is also found with a double accusative, Herod. 6, 140. Mt\- 
TLoZris -'■•' Trpo-qyopeve e^ieyai €K rrjs vi'iffov {Arjfxj'ov) rutai UeXaffyoTai, 
avajjiifivijiTKioy afeas to yj>r]aTi]pLOv. Thuc. 6, 6. ol 'Eyeffraloi i,vp.yiayjav 
avap.ifxvii&KovTes tovs 'Adr}vaiovs, eMovTO a^iai vavs 7r€[x\pavTas (not -t€S^ 
eirapvrai. Plat. Rep. 6. p. 507 A. (Ae^w)<xas vfxds to. re ev 
To7s ep.Trpo(jQey prjOeyra Kal aXXore TroWaKis i]^r) elprip.eva. Xen. H. Gr. 
2, 3, 30. dyafjLrijffu) vjjids to. tovtio TreTrpayfxeya. Myij/JLoyevio, a/j-yrjiJio- 
rely are more commonly used with an accusative, Isocr. adNic. p. 22 A. 
ehy ret TrapeXrjXvduTa pyrjpovevrfs, ufxeivoy koX Trepi Twy fxeXXoyTijjy (iov- 

Thus also eTTtXadeadcu tl. Lysias, p. 106, 12. pij yap oieade, w 
aydpes ^tfcaorat, el vfjiels (iovXecrQe ra tovtm 7r€7roi?;/xeva eTTiXaOeardat, Kal 
tovs deovs eTTiXyjaeadai. Eurip. Hel. 271. Kal tcls Tvyjns pey tcls KoXas, 
as vvy ex'^i "EXXrjves cTreXadoyTo. Homer says in the active //. /3', 
600. Kal eKXeXaduy KidapiaTvy ^. 

'To concern oneself about anything, to neglect, to be care- 318. 
less about anything', eiriiJ-eXcLCjOai, Kr}^€<ydai, 0/)oi/Tt^eiv, aXeyi- (•^'^G) 

^ Musgr. ad Eurip. Ale. 196. 

568 Si/titax. Of the Genitive. 

t^ii^j the impers. /ueXety afxeXelv, oXiytvpelv* IL Z,, 55. riri Be 
av Ktjceai avrtjjc avSpijjv, a, 160. t(jjv ovti /uLeraTpeTry, 
ovS aXeylZeiQ. Od. i ,215. ov yap KvKXwwec Aioc a'lyw- 
'^ov aXeyovaiv, ov^e Oedjv fxaKaptjv : but in II. tt , 388. Hesiod, 
' Ejo-y. 249. Beujv oTTiv ovk aXeyovrec Xen. Cyrop. 1, 2, 2. oi 
Wepcjuiv vofjLoi coKovaiv apyeaOai tou koivov ayadov enifxeXov- 
/jievoL OVK evOeVf bdevirep raTq irXeKTraic; woXeffiv apyovrai. 
Isocr. de Pac. p, 177 D. E, ei tiq rj/nac e/owTTjcretev, et Be^ai/ueO 
av TOCTOVTOV '^povov ap^avrec TOiavra Traa'^ovcraif ti/v iroXiv 

€7ric€iVy TIG av o /j.oXoy rjcreie irXriv ei fxi] tic, fxr]B leptJVf jtirjTe 

yovewvy p.r}Te rralBtoVy ixr]T aXXou jurj^evoQ (j) povT i^oi ; Id, 
Nicocl. p, 30 B. oi yuev (acot eviavTOv etc rac apyjic; eiaiovTec) 
TToXXtJv /caTa^ieXoutriv, oi ^e {ati toTc avTOiQ eTTiaTaTovvTec) 
ovcevoQ oXiytjpovaiv. Thus also irpovoiav iroieiaQai tivoq, 
Isocr. ad Phil. p. 88 D. ' Apyoc kcJTi aoi waTpic' rjc B'lKaiov 
T0(TauTJ7v (T€ TTOielaQai irpovoiav, odrjvirep twv yoveu}v tijjv aav- 
Tov. So also Trapa/jLeXelv tivoc Xen, Anab. 2, 5, 7. Mem, 
S, 2, 2, 14. av ovv, ii) TTcUy av awCppovyQ, tovq Oeovc TrapaiTrjay 
avyyvtjjfxovac, aoi elvai, et ti irapri/neXriKac; Trjc, priTpoQ, 
a(j)povTiaT€iv Tivoc Plat, Leg. 10. p. 885 B, irapievai tivoq 
id. Phcedr. p. 234 extr. MeXei has, besides the genitive of the 
thing, the person in the dative, e. g. yvfxvacriujv re veoic, avXwv 
T€ Kai KLjjLKov iLieXei Bacchyl. Fr. Anal, \.p, 150. 9. fxeTajueXei, 
panitet. Isocr, tt. avTiB. p. 314 B. t^ TroXei iroXXaKic ry^jj 
jneTe/uLeXrjae tQv Kpiaeivv twv fxer opyrJQ Kai fxri jxeT eXey- 
^ov yevo/uevijjv^. Thus also avaKijJC e-^eiv tivoq, Herod, 8, 
109. Kai TLQ oiKiriv re avaTrXaaaaOoj Kai airopov avaKWQ 
ey^eTijj ' attend to the sowing*, comp. Thucyd. S, 102. Eur, 
Ale. 770, o juev {'UpaKXrJQ) yap y^e, twv ev A^^rjTou kukwv 
ov^ev TT poTifJuov, nihil curans mala, qua in domo Admeti erant, 
where however the genitive may be governed by ov^ev. Soph, 
(Ed. C. 1211. OQ TIC rov TrXeovoQ fxkpovQ \pyZ,ei, tou fxerpiov 
irapeic (negligens) t^oeiv {utaTC ^.), cTKaioavvav (pvXaacruyp ev 
ifxoi KOTaSiiXoa ecTTai. For the same reason also cj)€iBe<jOai, 
*to spare', Isocr, Archid. p. 137 C. D. (in which is contained 
the idea, 'to be concerned about anything') takes the genitive, 
also (pvXaGcreGOai in the sense of (j)eiSea9ai, Thuc. 4,11. B^a- 

" Fisch. 3 a. p. 415. 

Si/ntax. Of the Genitive, 5G9 

oi^aQ opwv Tovc Tpir)papyovc, kol Kvpepviirac </)v- 

\a<y<yoiLL€vovG twv vewv, /jltj ^vvrpiipuxriv, epoOj XeytLW, wc 
ovK eiKLC eiT] l^v\(i)v (pei^ojULevovc rove TroXe/miovQ ev ry X^P^ 
irepiiSelu reT^oc TreTroir/^evoKC. where, however, the scholiast 
supplies rivar, t<jjv v€U)v. 

Obs. 1 . The adjectives and substantives corresponding to these verbs 
have the same construction. Xen. Mem. S. 1, 4, 16. al (ppovifxijTaTai 
rjXiKtai Oeiov ctti fxeXecrTar ai. Thuc. 7, li5. rfjs arpaTeias 6 /xera- 
fieXos * repentance on account of the expedition'. 

Obs. 2. Another construction also obtains with some of these verbs. 
Herod. G, 101. tovtov o-^i e^eXe Trepi. Xen. Hier. 9, 10. orav ye ttoX- 
\ois ire pi Twv u)(^€\ip(i)v fxeXr}, livayKr] evplffKetrOai re fxdXXoy Kai ctti- 
reXeladai, Comp. Isocr. de Pac. p. 181 C. — Soph. El. 237. irujs ctti to7s 
(pQLfievois afxeXely KaXoy, Soph. Phil. 621. ei Titles KijEei irepi. Isocr, 
Pan. p. 52 B. Thuc. 7, 56. The person who cares is also found as the 
subject : Eur. Her. F. 773. deol tQv ahiKiov ^eXovai. Comp. Soph. Aj, 
Q^9 seq.^ Xen. Mem, S. 1, 4, 17. Trepi tiHv evddle Ka\ wepl ruiv ev 
AlyvTTTo) Kai ev ^iKeXiq. Bvvaadai (f>povri^eLV. Dem. Olynth. p. 9, 13. 
T(jiiv irpayfiaTOiv vfxiv eKelvoJv avTiXriTrTiov tortv, eV Trep virep (rujrrjpias 
avrojv (^povri^ere. With {xeXei the thing is also put in the nominative 
or accusative as a subject : //. e', 490. <roi ^e ^p/) raZe iravra peXeiv 
vvKras re kol rjjjLap, jEschyl. Prom. 3. "H^aiore, arol de -yprj fieXeiv 
eTTioToXcts, as rroi irarrip ec^elTO. Eurip. Htppol. 104. aXXoimv ixXXos 
detjjv T€ KavdpioTr(ov ixeXei. and passim*^. So also fxeXeadaii Eur, Phocn. 

785, ydfiovs ffol yjpfi jjieXeaOai. Comp. Soph. El. 1436. This also 

is referred to a person Eur. Heracl. 355. erepoi (tov ttXcov oh ^eXovrai, 
comp. Hipp. 109. Soph. (Ed. C. 1466.'' Thus also Herod. 6, 63, 
Api(TTii)vi TO eiprjfievov perefieXe. id. 9, 1. ctpeXelv is also found with 
the accusative : Eurip. Ion. 448. I'ovQeTTjTeos de poi ^olj3os, ri Tzdayjav 
--- Tral^as eKreKvovpevos Xddpa drt] a-Kovras dpeXel. v. Musgr.^ 
<ppovTi^eiv with the accusative of the article or a neuter adjective : Eur, 
Troad. 1242. ra ^' ev veKpoltn ^povriaei 7raT})p aeQev. Plat. Gorg, 
p. 501 E. aX\o ^' ovdev (jipnvTii^eiv. Theocr. 10, 52. oh peXedaivei tov 
TO Trrelv ey^evvTU. See Bceckh Corp. Inscr, 1. p. 20. Thus ctBepi^eiv 
*to sHght', in Homer (//. a', 261. Od. d\ 212. if/', 174.), has the ac- 
cusative, but elsewhere the genitive, e. g. Jpoll. Rh. 1, 123. 2, 477. 

*To consider, reflect, understand', evOvpelaOai, (rwievai, Xen, 349. 

** Matthia? ad Here. F. 763. ^ Valck. ad Phoen. 764. 

*^ Thorn. M. p. 606. Fisch.3a.p.415. ^ Heind. ad Phaedon. p. 184. 


570 Syntax. Of the Genitive, 

Mgw. 3, 6, 17. evdv/JLOv Se /cat ruiv ei^ortoVj o rl re Xeyovcri 
Kai o Ti TTOiovaiu. Thuc. 1,3. oaoi aXXrjXwi' l^vvieaav. How- 
ever, these verbs take also the accusative : Time. 5, 32. ev0u- 
fxovfxevoi TCLQ ev toic, jxayaic, ^vfx^opaQ. Isocr. ad Nicocl. 
p. 15 D. eirei^av evOvjuriOujaL rove (j)6j5ovci Ka\ kiv^vvovq. 

Ohs. 1. A different construction, Ivdv/jie'iadai Tvepi rivosy * to reflect 
on something', is found. Isocr. Ep. 9. p. 614. §. 9. Behk. evdvfjiridrjvaL 
irepl Tt^v KOLVOiv Trpay jjLciTbjy. Comp. Lysias in Erat. p. 124, 21. 

Ohs. 2. In the same manner also the verbs ato-0av€<70at, TrvvOaveffdai, 
yiyojaKeiy, are sometimes found with the genitive instead of the accusa- 
tive, which otherwise is the more usual case with them, e. g. Thicc. 5, 83. 
ws ^crOovTO retx«<^o»TWv. Plat. ^pol. S. p. 22 C kqI d/jia yad6fxr)v 
avTiiiiy ^la t))v Tzoir)(nv oloy.ev())v koX raXXa ffo0a>rarw)/ elvai avdpojrrojyy 
for avTovs TeL^^i^oyras, olofjievovs * that they were erecting a wall', 'that 
they thought'. Xen. Mem. aS. 1, 4, 13. rivos yap aWov ^wov ^/v^rj 
Trpwra f-iey Qe.uiy Tuiy to. jxeyiaTa koX KaWiffra avvTai,ayTii}y rjadrirai 
on elffi ; On the other hand Plat. Phcedon. p. 89 A. /y/xw^' ws 6^eu)s 
rjffdero o TreTroydeifxev is to be explained according to §.317. Thuc. 4, 
6. ws eirvdoyro Trjs IIvXov KaTeikrjjjifxeyrjs. II. 3', 357. (jjs yytj) ■yioo- 
lievoLO, comp. ;//', 450. Pind. Pyth. 4, 497. lireyyio diKaidy AafAO<pi\ov 
TTpaTri^iuy. Plat. Apol. 2^' 27 A. apa yyiixrerai Sw/cpctrr/s 6 ao(\>os ^rj 
efiov ')(apLevTL(!loixeyov ; 

Ohs. 3. Here also seems to lie the reason why some verbs which in- 
dicate an operation of the external senses, when the object of them is 
not represented as affected by them, are constructed with the genitive 
case, as ctKoveiv, a^podadai, ocrcppaiyeffdai. Herod. 1, 47. in an oracular 
response: Kal Kunpov avylrjiJi Kal ov <bo)y€vvTOS aKovoj. Plat. ApoL 

«. 23 C. ol yeoL yaipovaiy ciKovoyres e^eXeyj^o/i e vw v rojv 

aydpojTrcjy. Soph. Aj. 1161. kcljiol aiax^aToy, KXveiy dydpos 
fiaraiov, 0Xav|o' eTri; fjLvdovfxeyov ^ to listen to'; and elsewhere very 
frequently, e. g. in the oath of the Athenian judges, aKpodaofxai rov 
re KaTTjy opov Kal rov cnroXoyovfJieyov ojjloiojs dfi^oiv Demosth. 
p. 226. Hence the poets sometimes unite both cases : Eur. Suppl. 86. 
Tiyiiiy yoiov ijKovara ?} riya KrvToy. El. 198.^ Herod. 1, 80. d)S ^e 
Kal (Tvyrjeffay es rriv fxd-)(r)y, eyOavra ws 6(T(f)payT0 Ta'^Lara rdy /ca- 
uriXioy ol 'lttttoi, Kal el^oy auras, ott'ktio dy€(rrpe(j)oyj having just before 
said rriv odfxrjy oacppaiyofieyos. We must not confound this with the 
construction aKoveLV^ Trvvddyeadai ri Tiyos * to hear anything from any 
one'. See §. 373. But Plat. Rep. 8. p. 558 A. ^ ovttio elhes, ky tol- 

» Brunck ad iF,sch. S. c. Th. 205. Matthiae ad Eur. Suppl. 1. c. 

Syntax. Of the Genitive, 571 

avrrf TroXiTeiq. avBpi}TT(t)v Kara\pr}(f)L<TdevTU}p BavaTov rj cpv-yfjs, ov^ey r/rroi' 
avTuiy fxevo vriov re Kai aj/aorpe^o/ievwv ey fieao) j is either 
more probably an avaicoXovBia caused by the genii, consequ. ayBp. 
karaxp., or with Reisig Enarr. Soph. (Ed. C. 243. we must mentally 
connect with el^es, eKeivr^v r^y irp^oTriTa, which preceded, in which 
case it comes very near to the construction explained §. 317. 

' To long for anything', eiriOvfxeLv, opeyeaOai, yXi^eaOaif e(j)i- 350. 
ecrOaiy e. g. Isocr. de Pac. p. 1 59 E. /xt] fxeyaXojv SeT eniOv/jLeiv irapa (♦^^8) 
TO ^iKaiov. Xen. Mem. S. 1, 2, 15. iroTepov tic Kpiriav kqi 
AXKif3iaSr]v (py rod j3iou tou ^(OKparovQ eTTiOvfxrjrravTe, 
ope^acrOai TrJQ opiXiac, avrovy rj vofi'iaavre yeveaOai av iKavu}- 
Tario Xeyeiv re Kai irparreiv ; Isocr. ad Demon, p. 12 B. p,a- 
AtCTTa av Trapo^vvOeirjQ ope-^Orivai rtjjv /caXwv epyioVy ei 
KarapaOoiCf ioc Kai rac ri^ovaG raQ e/c rovriov fxaXiara yvrfaiaQ 
(vulg. yvrfCTiwc) eyopev. Tlieophr. Char. 29 in. (ed. Schti.) 
co^eiev av elyai rj oXiyapy^ia (piXap-^la riQ KjyypwQ KparovQ 
yXiy^o fjikvY], Eiirip. Phccn. 541. ri rric KaKiarriQ daipovwv 
€(pi€(yai, (piXoripiac, TraT ; uvrnroielaOaL apyjic, Xen. Mem. 
S. 2, 1, 1. jEsch. Axioch. 5. rj ^u^r) rov ovpavov irodel Kai ^vfX' 
(j>vXov aiOepa Kai ^i\pa, rrjc eKelcre Biairr}Q Kai '^opeiac 
opiyvii)fxevr\. So also afx(pia^r\reiv rivoc,, ' to lay claim to 
something', Isocr. ad Phil. p. 98 C. comp. Archid. p. 131 C. 
(also ap(p. irep'i rivoc, Isocr. Epist. 9. §. 8. p. 614. Bekk. which 
usually means ^ dispute about something which one claims', as 
yXiyeadai nepi eXevBepirjQ Herod. 2, 102. 'to fight for freedom 
through love of it'). SixLrjv rivoc Pind. Nem. 3, 1 0. Plat. Rep. 8. 
p. 562 C. ayepeOiaOrjvai rrjc apyaiac aperrjc ' to be inflamed 
with a desire of virtue'. Xen. Mem.S.3, 5, 7. See Schaf\ ad 
Lamb. Bos. p. 750. Thus also epav, epaaQai : II. i , 63. d(ppri- 
riopy aOefxiaroCy avecrrioc eariv eKeivoc, oc iroXe/Liov eparai 
eiri^rilLLiovy oKpvoevroc. Hence also in the sense of ' to love* 
(with the collateral idea of ' to wish to possess, to aim at', as 
on the other hand (j)iX€iv, ayairav, arepyeiv govern only the 
accusative : see Schaf, ad Long. p. 358.), and other words, 
which signify ' to love', e. g. KviaOrjyai rivoc Theocr. 4, 59. 
KaieaOai rivoc. Mifxyepimoc Kaiero Navvovc Hermesian. ap. Athen. 
13. p, 598 A.^ To this class also belong eweiyofxevoCr XtXai- 

•' Hemsterh. Obss. Misc. C. p. 30-2. Dorv. ad Charit. p. 452. 
* F 2 

572 Syntax. Of the Genitive. 

o^evoc, o^olo §.338. cX^eaOai ne^ioio Il.xP', 23. €(T(Tu^Ivoc ttoXI- 
Hov 11, &> , 404. em^aWeadai has the same construction in the 
sense of ' to set one's mind upon' (animum appellere ad allqnid), 
II. t, 68. fiirjTic, vvv evdpwv eiri^aWofxevoc, fieTOirKrOe 
ixifiverd). comp. Demosth. j9. 282, 14, 27. opeyeaOai ' to reach 
the hand to anything, in order to take it'. //. t, 466. 'in order 
to kiir. Tyrt. 3, 12. (but opeyeaOai ri Eur. Or. 303. 'to 
reach anything, to take it'. //. ^', 828. ope'^ajjievoc, \p6a Ka- 
Aov. TT , 314. 323. (JKeXoQ, to/mov. opeyeaOai is the same as 
ope^afieuov /BaXXetv.) Isocr. ad Dem. p. 12 E. ei Set Ovrirov 
ovra Trjc t(jjv Oetjju aroy^aa aaQai ^lavoiac Hence U.^', 
37. oipeiovrec pa^rjc ' desirous to behold the battle'. 

It is common in Greek to ascribe feeling's and desires to in- 
animate beings (as in Homer, ^ovpa XiXaiofieva y^pooQ aaai)^ 
and therefore to conceive of a feeling as accompanying an ac- 
tion. So with verbs of motion, the place or the object towards 
which the motion is directed or strives is expressed in the geni- 
tive, as (TToy^at^aOaij TirixTKeadai rivoc ' to aim at something'. 
Tol^eveiv Tivoc, II. S , 100. ip , 853 seq. aKovritetv rivoc II. 0', 
118. eTrdicFcreiv 'nnrtjjv II. e , 263. as opoveiv tivoc Find. Pyth. 
10, 95. Soph. Aj. 154. /meyaXwv ^pvyjov leic, ovk av afxaproi. 
JEur. Bacch. 1096 seq. wpQrov pev avrov yepfxa^ac, eppnrTov 
' threw at him'. Comp. Cycl. 51.^ Hence -Ewr. Iph. T. 363. 
otrac, yeveiov -yeipac, el^rjKovricTa. So evOv, or according to an- 
other form lOvCf 'straight to anything', takes the genitive: 
Arist. Nub. 162. evOv rovppoTrvyiov. Av. 1421. evOv ITeX- 
Xrivric. Elsewhere etc with the accusative accompanies it : 
Ham. H. in Merc. 342. evOv HvXovS eXacjv. 355, etc 
HuXoi^ lOvQ eXwvra {vulg. evOvc) ^. Perhaps from this is de- 
rived the construction levai rov irpoata 'to struggle forward, to 
advance', Xen. Anah. 1, 3, 1. Xriyei 5 epic, ^papovaa rov 
7rpo(T(t)TaT(jj Soph. Aj. 731.*^ 

Note. In Soph. (Ed. T. 58. Ipelpio is found with the accusative : 

* Schaef. ad Lamb. Bos. p. 715. idiom may be deduced with Herm. 

Elmsl. ad Bacch. I.e. Ell. et Pleon. p. 160. (ad 

'' Ruhnk. ad Tim. p. 127. Viger. p. 881.) from the construction 

*^ Schaef. ad Lamb. Bos. p. 800. explained §. 330. 
Lobeck ad Soph. Aj. 730. This 

Syntax. Of the Genitive. 573 

yvbiTo. KovK ayvioTa fjioi TrpocrriXBed' l^eipovTes. But ib. 766. Trpos ri tovt* 
ecpleaai, e^/e<70ai means mandare. Comp. v. 1052. 1055. Herod. 1,43. 

(IKOVTl^iOV Toy (TVl'j foY TOV ffVOS. 

3. Words which indicate ' fuHness, to be full, defect, empti- 351. 
ness' : because the word which expresses of what anything is (3'-^9) 
full, or empty, indicates the respect in which the signification 
of the governing word is taken. 

a. Adjectives. ttXIoc 'full', e.g. Hesiod.* Epy. 102. TrXetij 
fnev yap jaia KaKtJv, nXeir} Se QaXaaaa. fxeoTOc, 'full'. Isocr, 

de Pac. p. 163 C. {rjv tiJv eipr]vr]v 7rotTjaw/ue0a, oxpofxeOa 

TTiv TToXiv ) fxearriv yevoiikvriv e/uLTropwv Kai ^evfjjv Kai 

jjieToiK(i)v. Comp. Xen. Cyrop. 4, 1, 9. Menand. ttoWijjv 

JueCTTOV €(TTt TO Z^V (j) p OVT l^ (x)V. JEll?'ip. El. 386. OV jU?7 

(ppovriaeO , ot Kevujv ^o^a(TjLiaTit)v TrXi^jOetq TrXavaaOe. 
Thus also irXovcrioCf a(j)v€i6c, are constructed with the genitive 
//. e, 544. aCpveioQ (iioTOio. Eurip. Or. 388. o ^a'lfxijjv ec 
ejue irXovaioc, KaKuiv. Id. Ion. 593. 7roXvKTTj^(jt)v |3/ou 'rich 
with respect to the means of livelihood', as dives agrz in Virgil. 
Plat. Rep. 7 . p. 521 A. ev fxovrj yap avry {iroXei) ap^ovcriv ol 
Tip ovTi TrXoucrtot, ov "^pvaiov, aXX ov eel rov evcai/^iova ttXou- 
reTv, ^w»}c ayaOrjc re Kai ep(j)povoQ. 

Obs. irXiiprjs is found also with the dative Eur'ip. Bacch. 18 sq. 
CTreXdioy ^Aaiav Trdtrav, ij Trap' aXixupay iiXa Kelraij piyaaiv ^XXr^crt 

(japl3apois 0' ofxov TrXijpeis e^ovca naXXtTrvpyu)? ovs iroXeis - -•* es 

Tyfy^e Trpuiroy TjXOoy 'T^XXrjyojy TroXiy. as TcXripovv^ TrXijdeiy with the da- 
tive §. 352, So also with a^veios, when that is mentioned in or by means 
of which anyone is rich, ayijp <ppevas acpveios Hesiod. "Epy, 453. *'E«rrt 

Tis *EXXo7riri d^veir/ fxr'iXoKTL Koi elXnroheaaL (iueaaiy id. Fragm, ap, 

Schol. Soph. Tr. 1174. 

' Want', as Kevoc, 'empty'. Soph. El. 390. ai Se aapKec, at 
Kevai (ppevijjv ayaX/uLar ayopac, eiGiv, Id.Aj.bW, gov fxovoQ, 

Eur. Med. 518. (piXiov eprifxoc Id. Hec. 1146. aXXai 

yvjuvov fx eOrjKav ^tTTTv^ov aToXtcrjuaToq {?iS Pind. Nem. 
1,80. fcoXeou yvfxvov (^a<jyavov. Comp. Isocr. ad Phil. §. 353 a.) 
Id. El. 37. y^pr)fxaT(jjv irevnrec, even where not a deficiency so 
much as the entire absence of anything is meant, as ayvoQ ya- 
fitjjv Plat. Leg. 8. p. 840 D. Id. Cratyl. p. 403 E. to (ruyyt- 
ve<j0at, CTretSav i^ ^v^t) KaOapa y TrdvTtJV rtov irepi to 

574 Sj/ritax. Of the Genitive, 

aijjfxa KUKtjjv KttL eTTiOvjuiuiv, ov <pL\6(T0(j)6v (TOi ^oKel eivai ; 
Id. Tim. p. 47 D. pvOfioc ^la rrjv aixerpov ev -n/juv Kai y^apirwv 
eiri^ea yiyvoixevriv ev toIc, irXe'iaroic, eftv eiriKovpoa em ravra 
VTTO TU)v avrwv (twv M.ov(T(jjv) e^oOrj, Eurip. Hipp. 1468. rt 
^yjq ; aCprjaeiQ ai/jiaTOQ fx eXevOepop ; Corap. §. 353 j3.* 

Obs. This relation is expressed also by prepositions, as Kadapos airo 
Demosth. p. 1371. eyhetjs tov pioy Menand. ap. Stoh. 122. means ov b 
(jios ev^eris can §. 424. 

352. b. Verbs. ttX^Ow, nXripou), Trt^tTrXij^i. Xen. Cyrop. 2,2, 27. 

(330) Q^ TOUTO fxovov u)(j)e\r](Tov(nv oi KaKoi a(j)aip€9evT€Cy on KaKoi 
aTreaovTOiy aXXa Kai, rtjv KaTafxevovTUJV oaoi aveTri/LiirXavTO 
rjSri /ca/ciac, avaKaOapovvrai iraXiv avrrjv. Isocr. Areop.p. 150 A. 
T)7c (^ovXrJQ (rfjc ev Ape'uo irayuj) eTncyTarovcrric;, ov SiKtjJVj ouoe 
eyKXri/jiaTtjJV, ouoe eia(popu)Vy ovde ireviac;, ov^e TroXejuLOv rj iroXic 
eye/mev. comp. ad Phil. p. 104 C. Bacchyl. Fr. {Brunch 
Anal. T. 1. p. 151,9.) avfxiroa'njjv eparwu f^piOovr ayviai. 
Soph. CEd. C. 16. ywpoc, (3pv(jt)V ^aCpvric, eXaiac, a^TreXov. 
Conip. ^sch. Choeph. 68. Hence also adrjv eXaav KaKorriroc 
Od. e'f 290. Eur. Ion. 994. KopeaaaOai tivoc, ^to satiate one- 
self with anything' (to fill oneself with anything) //. t, 167. 'to 
have enough* Hesiod. * E/jy. 33. Kopeaai riva rivoc, Soph. Phil, 
1156. TrdffacrOai tivoc, 'to enjoy anything' //. t', 160. rep- 
TreaOai rivoQ 'to have enough of anything' Od. r , 213. as 
elsewhere TrXritTOijvaij acraaSai yoov yavvfxai ^airoc rjjSrjc Eur, 
Oycl. 503. Perhaps also eariav Tiva Xoytov KaXwv Kai oKe- 
\peii)u Plat. Rep. 9. p. 571 D. as euw^eTi^ riva Kaivuiv Xoywv 
Theophr. Char. c. 8. Comp. Plat. Gorg. p. 518 E. Hence 
also aXic, with the genitive, but not in Homer, Dawes Misc. Cr, 
p. 45. 

Obs. TrXtjadrivaL is also found with a dative Soph. Phil. 520. orav ^k 
TrXrjadfjs Trjs voaov t,vvov(7ig. ^ (where however the genitive may be go- 
verned of TrXrjad^s, and ^vy. stand alone); TrXrjpovv Eur. Here. F. 372. 
trevKaiGiv '^epas TrXrjpovvTes. (ipveiy has more frequently a dative than 
a genitive *^. 

'Want'. ^e7(jBai, airopelv tivoc Her. 3, 127. evda (To(j)iriQ 

» Fisch. 3 a. p.357sqq. Valck. ad * Elmsl. ad Soph. CEd. C. 16. 

Eur. Hipp. 1450. Blomf. Gl. Again. 163. 

^ Schaef. ad Long. p. 410. 

Syntax. Of the Genitive. 575 

^eet, /3/nc cf}yov ov^ev. Xen. Cyrop. 2, 2, 26. oIkoc, ei^^eo- 
fxevoc, oiKGTWV, lirroi^ ffC^aXXerat, 17 viro a^iKwv Taparrofxevoc . 
jE?/r. SuppL 242. 01 S' ou/c e-^ovreQ koI GTravitovrec, ^lov, 

e'lQ rove e^ovrac Kevrp dcpiaaiv KUKa. Here. F. 360. 

(HpaKXrJQ) Atoc aX(TOC riprifjUiyae XkovroQ. Thus also yjipov- 
(rOai TivoQ Herod. 6, 83. Kevovv ri rivoc, JEschyl. SuppL 667. 

Herod. 8, 62. rj/melc; p-ev KopievpeOa ec, ^ipiv rriv ev IraXi^, 

vpelc, ^e (svppayjij)v roiwif^e povvwOevreCy pepv7\(jeade rwv 
eptjjv \6y(t)v. Plat. Menon. p.l \ ^. (yvixnevopai toig iroXi- 
raiQ TOVTOv rov irpayparoc as irevecrOaL tu)v oo^wv Mschyl. 

Eum. 434. Id. Rep. 2. p. 371 G, o -yew/o-yoc apyrjaei 

ttJq avTOv ^-npiovpyiaCy KaOrjpevoc; ev ayopa ', Ovoapu)Q, 

Hence the following verbs also take the genitive of the thing : 353. 


1 . 'To bereave', arepelv, cnrocTTepelv riva rivoQ. Isocr. ad 

Phil. p. 87 C. D. enei^av o Xo-yoc a7ro(TTepr}9y ttJq re 

^o^riQ rov XeyovTOQ Kai rijc, (j)(i)vrj(;, Kai pri^ev y ro 

(TvvayuwiZopevov Kal ffvpirelSov, aWa t(jjv pev TTpoeip-npe' 
Vijjv airavTWV epr^poc, ykvr)rai Kai yvpvoc, avayivtxxJKri ce ric, 

avTOV airiOavojQ el/coTWC, olpaiy CJ)av\oQ ^oKel to7q aKov- 

ov(7ip. Thus also voo-^t^w. Soph. Phil. 1426. Uapiv ro^- 

01(71 TO?c epolai vo(7(j)i€l.Q j3tou. Od. a, 69. o(f)Oa\pov aXa- 
(jjoev. further apapraveiv, apirXaKeiif rivoc. Od. i , 512. apap- 
T'n<y€aOaL o7rw7r»?c. also in its other significations ' not attain, 
not hit'. If the thing and the person are mentioned together, 
the thing is in the accusative, the person in the genitive. Soph. 
Infill. zoU. ov yap eiKOQ ovr epe vpujv apapreiv tomto y ovu 
vpaQ epov, Eur. Alc.A25.^ yvvaiKOQ eoBXrJQ rtpirXaKec; ' ha^t 
lost'. V/f • 

Obs. airoarepeiv takes also a double accusative. 

2. 'To deliver, to rescue'. Herod. 5,62. rvpavvwv eXev 
OepojOr^ffav 01 *A0r}vaLOi. Eur. Plipp. 1467. ae rovS' eXev- 
Oepuj (povov 'I clear you'. Od. e, 397. aairaaiov § apa 
rovye Oeoi KaKorrfroc eXvaav. Hesiod. Th. 528. ('H/oafcX^c 
UpopYjOea) eXvaaro ^vcKppoffvvatJv. Eur. Med. 1007. 
Comp. Isocr. Trapez. p. 363 C. Eur. Phan. 1028. vooov 
Ty]v^' awaXXa^di) ydova. diwdi passim : and when aTraXX. signi- 

^ Fisch. 3 a. p. 413. 

576 Syntax. Of the Genitive. 

fies 'to remove', with the genitive of the person, id. Hec. 1187. 

oc (prjc Ay^aKjjv irovov aTraXXacrtrwv SittXouv TraTS e^uov /cto- 

veiv. Soph. A?itig. 1162. aioteiv eyQptZv, and Eur. Or. 779. 
ffcoOrjvai KttKijjv. Hence acjTiip KaKtHv * deliverer from calamity* 
Eur. Med. 364. auyrrip ^Xa^ric, id. Heracl. 641. Kara(j)vyri 
KuKijjv Eur. Or. 449. {ib. 724. Karacj^vyi) (TtoTrjpiac, Q.S Cic. pro 
L. Man. 13, 39. hiemis, non avaritice perfugium.) Plat. Rep. 9. 
p. 573 B. ewe, av KaOrjpri <j(i)(ppo(Jvvric. 

Thus also 'to escape*. Xen. Anah. 1, 3, 2. KXeap-^oa Se 
Tore ^€1^ fxiKpov €^e<pvye rov pr] KaTaweTptvOrivai, Soph. 
Phil. 1044. Trie voaov ireipevykvai. Antig. 488. avxr] te yr\ 
^vvatpoc ovK aXv^erov popov kuk icttov. Id. El. 627. 
Opaffovc Tov^* OVK dXv^eiQ ' thou wilt not escape the punishment 
of this daring* \ 

Ohs. These verbs are also constructed with e/c or utto. Eur'ip. Here. 
F. 1012. kXevQepovvres ck dparrpuiy xo^a. Thuc. 2, 71. eXevOepwcras 
Tijy 'EXXa^a aTro rwv M//^a;»'. comp. 8, 46. Isocr. ad Phil. p. 108 C. 
JEsch. Prom. 509. evekirLs elpi rwi'fe (r ck Zecrptov ert Xvdevra ptj^ey 
peiov Iff^vffeiv Atos. comp. Thuc. 2, 71. Plat. Gorg. p. 511 C. D. tK 
Kivlvvuiv au)'Ceiv, Plat. Phcedon. p. 62 B. Soph. El. 291. e/c yoiav aTraX- 
\aTT€iv. comp. 8, 46. Plat. Rep. 9. p. 571 C. olffQ' on Trdp-a kv r^ 
TOiovTo) To\p^ TTOieTyy u)S OLTTO TTciirr/s XeXvpeyoy re kul avrj^XXay- 
peyoy ala-xyyrjs re koi fpoyiicreios. Comp. Phcedon. p. G5 A. Xen. 
Cyr. 3, 2, 23. jEsch. Ax. 17. poywQels ek rrjff^e rrjs elpKrfjs. Eur. 
Iph. A. Q7S. povioBeia utto Trarpos. 

3. 'To keep off, to hinder*; ' to desist from anything', KwXueti', 
epr)T\)eiVy eyeiv riva TivoCy eipyeaOaij e. g. Antiph. p. 145, 29. 
o vopoc, ovTWC e^^t, eTreiSav rie airoypaCp^ (l)6vov SiAcrji^, e'lpye- 
(rOai Ttjv vopipwv^. Plat. Cratyl. p. 416 B. to yap epiro- 
^itov Kal iffy^ov rrjc porjc. Xen. Anal). 3, 5, 11. o aaKoe 
Zvo av^pac ef ei rov prj Kara^vvai. In the middle e-^eaOai 
Tivoc for aTre-^eaOaif and ey^eiv. Thuc. 1, 112. EXXriviKov no- 
Xepov ecryov ol 'A9r}va7oi. (Herod. 7, 237. the genitive koko- 
XoyiriG is to be explained as §. 342, 3. ' what relates to ca- 

* Hermann ad Soph. El. 1033. El. ferently. 
617. explains this construction dif- *» Miscall. Phi lol. vol. 1. p. 161 note. 

Syntax, Of the Genitive, bll 

Hence generally the genitive appears to be put in order to 354. 
express a distance, which otherwise is marked by the preposition 
airo. This takes place principally in the verbs 

a. 'To be distant*, ^leyeiv, Xen. Anab. 1, 10, 4. ^ikay^ov 
aWi^\(x)V ^aaiXevc, re Koi ol 'EXXr/ver, wc rpiaKOvra crra^ia. 
Id. Vectig. 4, 46. dire^ei rtjv afjyvpeicjv 7} eyyvrara 
TToXcc Meyojoa ttoXu ttXcTov twv irevTaKocTiwv aracidw, where 
§.43. it was aTre^ei 3e ravra an aWrjXiov. Isocr, Archid. 
p. 130 C. ToaovTov aTre-^w tou iroirjcrai ti twv irpocjrarrofxevwv, 

/3. 'To separate', e.^. yjujpiCeiv. e7ri(jTti jut} -^wpiZo/nevrj ^t/cato- 
avvrjQ Plat. Meriex. p. 246 E. comp. PhcEdon. p. 69 B. ^lovpl- 

Z,€iv. Herod. 2, 16. Ne7Xoo o rriv Adi'i/v ^lovpiCiov ttJg 

Aij3vYjQ. See Schccf. Melet. in Dion. H. 1. p. 95 note. On the 
other hand. Plat. Phccdon. p. 61 C. yjii)piCeiv airo tov aw/Liaroc 
rriv ■divyr)v. Isocr. Archid. p. 133 D. ^Wjot^etv tovq oiKeiora- 
TOVQ a(p r]fx(jjv avrixiv. 

y. 'To repel', as afxvveiv, aXaXKeiv. II. ju , 402. aXXa Zeuc 
KrjpaQ a/iivve irai^oQ eov, which elsewhere stands with diro, 
as in TT , 80. vetxiv awo Xoiyov ajxvvai. Sometimes afuLvveiv is 
put alone with the genitive : ll.v ,109. a /ji we /nev ovk eOeXovffi 
vrjtjv wKviropwv ' they are not willing to defend the ships', 
properly, 'to avert destruction from them', //. /u', 155. a/uuvo- 
^evoi G(j)(3v r avTtJv Kai kXigichov. and with Trepi ' to fight for 
defence', //. p , 182. ap-wefxevai nepi YlarpoKXoio Oavovroc, as 
payeaQai nepi tivoq^. II. (j) , 539. Tpwwi/ 'iva Xoiyov aXaX/cot, 

which in V. 138. was T^owecxdi Xoiyov clXclXkoi. //. /c', 288. 

o Kev Toi Kparoc, aXaXKriaei kqkov rijuiap. Hence nXavav 
Tiva o^ou ' to mislead any one'^. 

Hence KaXvirrpr) vKJyeTOv in Callim. Fr. 142. 7rp6^Xr]jjLa 
KaKtJv Aristoph. Vesp. 613. Eur. Suppl. 209. eTriKovpr]}jia ttJg 
y^iovoc Xen. An. 4, 5, 13. 'help, protection against the snow'. 
e7riKovpr}(nc kqkwv Eur. Andr. 28. as eniKovpoa \fjvyovc, (tkotov 
id. Mem. S. 4, 3, 7. 'serviceable against the cold, darkness'. 
TTvpyoQ 0a varwi^ ' protection against death'. Soph. (Ed. T. 1200.® 

* Heyne Obss. ad 11. tt', 522. * Valck.adCallim. Eleg.Fr.p.291. 

** Abresch ad N. T. p. 547. Lect. comp. Valck. ad Eur, Phcen. 786. 
Aristaen. p. 276. p. 291 seq. 

578 Syntax, Of the Genitive, 

Z, 'To retire from a place'. //. jj! y 406. yjoprjaev ^' apa 
rvrOov CTraXfioc. Herod. 2, 80. oi vetorepoi avTetjv (Aa^eSai- 
fiiovitjv) rolai TrpeapvTepoiai avvrvyyavovrec, e'lKOvai Ttjo 
ocov. Arist. Ran. 790. KaKeivoQ VTre^ioprtaev avr(^ tov 
Opovov. ib. 174. vwayeO* v/xeTc ttJq o^ov. Xen. Symp. 
4,31. viraviGTavTai ^e fJLOi rj^r} Kai OaKiov Kai oSu)V 
e^KTTavrai oi irXovaioi. On the other hand id. Hier. 7, 2, 

Kai vfxeiQj irpoTrerwc, (^epeaOe etc, avrr\v {rriv Tvpavvi^a), 

OTTtjQ VTraviffTtJVTai Travrec airo tu)U uaKwVy ootJV 

re irapay^iopu}(ji. Tyrt, 3, 41. {Br. Gnom. p. 63.) iravreQ 

€V UtJKOKTlV 0/LlU)Q VeOl OL T€ KUT aVTOV eiKOVCX CK yw|0r/c, 

01 T€ 7ra\ai6repoL^. Hence also (Tvy^fjjpeiv, 'to resign', or 'give 

up to', takes the genitive of the thing instead of the accusative. 
Herod. 7, 161. fiaTrjv yap av w^e arparov TrXeicTTOv e\r]fxev 
eKTY^jJievoi, ei ^vpaizovaioiai (Tvy^w prjcTtojuLev Tr\c, rjy ef-iovirjCf 
properly, ' to retire from the command'. Demosth. pro Cor. 
p. 24:1 y 24. Tr]c, T(x)v EXXijt'wv eXevOepiaQ irapayMprjaai Oi- 
Ai7r7r(^. Plat. Prot.p.336 B.C. 

e. Among the adverbs, yjnipic, and iropptj in particular take 
the genitive : Plat. Phadon. p. 96 E. ri (toi So/ceT nepl avrwv; 
TToppio TTOu, vr) Aia, efxe eXvai tou o\eaQai irepi tovtwv rrjv 
aiTiav e'l^evai, ' I am far from thinking*. Thus also cactto^wv, 
which otherwise takes the dative. 

t. With many other verbs also the genitive is used to express 
a removal from something, where otherwise dwo and €k are used : 
Pind. 01. 1, 93. XiOov /Lievoivijjv Ke(f)aXac (^aXelv. Soph. CEd. 
T. 142. Vfielc fxev (^aOpcJv 'laraaOe rovad apavrec, iKrrjpciC KXa- 
Souc, where apavrec (5d6pii)v, as it seems, should be taken to- 
gether. So ib. 808. o)(ou KaOiKero must be taken together, 
'down from the chariot'. El. 324. ^o/lkjjv opu) rriu gyiv ojuat- 

^oi' evrd(j)ia "^epolv (^epovaav, i. e. eK ^Ofitjv . Phil. 

613. €1 fJLrj rov^e ayoivro vrjtjov rrj(T^e. Eur. Andr. 1063. 

aywv "^Oovoc. comp. El. 1294. Id. Hec. 1104. ooauyv dcj)ievai 
avycLQ. Id. Ion. 471. OXv/nirov irrafxeva for ej OXv/tTrou. 
Hence ro ovpavov Treo-ijjua Eur. Iph. T, 1395. 'the palladium 
which fell from heaven' ^. 

"^ Valck. ad Herod. 2, 80. p. 140, 84. "" Lobeck ad Soph. Aj. 9. (p. 222) 

^Elmsl. ad Eur. Bacch.636. p.92. 370. Herm. de Ellips, p. 146. 
Musgr. ad Eur. Tread. 839. 

Syntax. Of the Genitive, 579 

V' Hence, as it seems, iieaoe, and fxeaovvj as well as the ad- 
verb /neral^v, take the genitive, e.g. Eur. Hh, 531. fieaa S 
aieroc ovpavov iroraTai. Herod. 1, 181. jLieaovvn ce 
Kov rrjc ai/aj3ao-ioc ecrri Karayuyyri, At least Sophocles, 
CEd. C. 1595. joins diro with them : d(j)' ov fxeaoQ arac,, rov 
re OopiKiov TTCTfJov /cotXrjc t ayepcov Kairo Xdivov Ta(pov 
*KaQeCeTo. There is also evidently the idea of an equal distance 
from two or more places conveyed in it. Yet the genitive, in 
cases where two or more places cannot be supposed, e. g. in 
Herodotus /. c, must be resolved by the expression ' with re- 
spect to\ 

4. Hence the words 'to cease, to make to cease', Traveiv, nav- 355, 

eaOai, Xrjyeiv. II. j3 , 595. Moutrat QajuLvpiv navaav aoi- 

Brjc. 2 > 107. 'A|0-ye?oi ^ vTrey^topriaaVj Xrj^av Se (j)ovoio. Xen. 

Mem. S. 1, 2, 64. ^uKparrjc (pavepoQ rju twu CFVvovrijJV rove 

TTOvripac, eiriOvpiac e^ovTac toutwv Trauwv. Thus also 
Thuc. 2, 65. o IlepiKXiJQ eireiparo tovq AOrjvaLOVQ ttJq eir 
avrov opyrJQ irapaXveiv. Xen. Ci/r. 8, 5, 24. Herod. 6, 9. 
KaraXveiv Tiva rrjc apy^rjc, as Traveiu nva rfiQ apyjlc II. p , 
539. Ktjp d'y^eoc, tueOerjKa, i. e. eTravaa . In the same manner 
reXevTciv rivoc, Thuc. 3, 59. 104. Xen. Cj/r. 8, 7, 17. vcbieaOai 
rivoc Xen. Cyrop. 7, 5, 62. 01 ravpoi eKrepvoitievoi tov fieya 
(ppovelv Kai aTreiOelu v(f)L€VTai. Plat. Phcsdoti. p. 117 E. 
eTTk(jyof.iev tou ^aKpveiv. comp. Thuc. 8, 31. Xen, II. Gr. 7, 
5, 19. TTovdiv d7roKd(.iveiv ' through weariness to desist from 
labour'. Hence Li/s. Epit. p. 195, 7. aTroyvwvai rrja eXevOepiaQ 
' through despair to abandon freedom'. Hence also, perhaps, 
f-ieOieaOaiy a(f)[€a6aL rivoc; §. 332. 

Obs. 1 . Traveiv is also constructed with e/c or utto : in the sense * to 
deliver, to repose'. Soph. El. 987. Travaoy ck kukuj^ eyue. Eur. Hec. 
911. fioXirdv 3' ctTTO KoX "^apoTTOiuiv dvffidy KaraTravaas iroais kv daXajjiois 
eKciTO. Thuc. 7, 73. dvdpwTTOvs diro vav^iayjias jjieydXris draTreTrav- 

Obs. 2. The construction, which, according to the foregoing obser- 
vations, was admitted by verbs in their proper signification, is some- 
times retained in their derivative senses, although the same reference is 
no longer applicable. Thus deu), deofxaL in their proper signification * to 

'' Fisch. 3 a. p. 372 seq. 

580 Si/ntax. Of the Genitive. 

want', and hence * to stand in need of, to require', take the genitive ; 
and this construction remains also, 1. In the impersonal ^el, e. g. Eur. 
Here. F. WIS. ei Ti heX r] y^eipos vyids rrjs efxrjs i) crv ^iici')^tt)v *if 
you stand in need of my hand', ^sch. Prom. 874. ravra ^el /laKpov 
\6yov etTreii'*. 2, In the phrase oXiyov ^et, ttoXXou 3et, or (§. 297.) 
oXiyov deu) ' it wants but little, a great deal of. Thucyd. 2, 77. to irvp 
IXa^itrrov e^erjae ^lacpdelpai rovs UXarateas. The compound aTro- 
^ew, on the contrary, takes the neuter of these adjectives in the accu- 
sative, with another noun in the genitive. Mschin. Ax, 6. eyw he 
ev^atfiTjv ur ra KOiva ravra elhevai' roaovroy cnroheio T(ov TrepiTTiav. 
comp. 22.^ ^ei is often wanting with the genitive, especially with oXiyov^ 
which then is used entirely as an adverb, ' nearly'. Plat. Phcedr. 
p. 2-58 E. rlrus eveK av tls^ ws elirelp, ^<^r}, dXX i) rtjjy roiovrioy ijhoyuiy 
eycKa ; ov yap ttov cKelyioy ye, loy TrpoXvTrrjdrjvai hel y firjhe tjcrdrjyat' o 
hrj oXiyov irdaaL al irepl to orwyua i}hoyu\ eypvoiy'^. More fully in 
Isocr. ad Phil. p. 92 C. 'Apyeloi, 6X1 yov hely Kad' cKaaroy eriavrov 
T€^yofie.yr]v Ka\ Tropdovjieyrjy Ti)y ^(^ujpay TrepiopioaLV. Comp. Xen. Mem, 
/S. 3, 10, 13. 3. In the sense of ' to entreat, to desire', e. g. Herod, 
1, SQ. TrpoadeujJieOd aev. Xen. Cyrop. 1,5, 4. Kva^dprjs eTrefnre Kal irpos 
KvpoVf heajjieyos avrov TreipdaQai ap^oyra kXdeiy Tuiy dyhpojy. And 
with the double genitive : Herod. 5, 40. Trjs jxey yvyaiKos, rrjs e-^eis, ov 
Trpoffheo fiedd aev ttjs e^iffios. comp. 8,144. If the thing is ex- 
pressed by a pronoun neuter it is also in the accusative, as tovto vfiuiv 
heofiat Plat. Apol. S. p. \7 C 18 A. So -xp^'^u), and with double ge- 
nitive Herod. 7, 53. rwvc' eyw vfxeioy •^prj^ijjy avveXe^a. The other 
verbs, which signify * to entreat', are joined with the accusative. 

(333) C' Substantives ; partly, such as are derived from the ad- 
jectives above mentioned, as Plat. Rep. 1. p. 329 C. irai/ra- 
Traai twv ye toiovtwv (twv a<ppoci(n(i)v) ev tw y^ipo- TroXXrj 
e'lprjvr) yiverai Kal eXevOepia 'freedom from such passions', 
Phadon, p. 69 B. partly also others, e. g. those vt^hich signify 
a vessel, &c. and take the genitive of that with vvhich they are 
filled, e. g. ^eTrac oivov Od. t, 196. {Schcef. ad Long. p. 386.) 
vairoc, TreraXijjv Eurip. Ph. 814. 'a glass (full) of wine, a wood 
full of leaves, a leafy wood', comp. §. 316. 

d. Adverbs. aXtc, a^vv, satis. Eurip. Hec. 282. twv TcOvri- 
KOTdyv aXiQ. Or. 234. aXic e^(t) tov ^varv^elv. JEsch. Ax. 13. 
eytjjye aXic ea^ov tov jS^juaroq. Mschyl. Ag. 837. a^r]v eXet^ev 

* Porson ad Eurip. Or. 659. 3 a. p. 413 seq. 

^ Dorv. ad Charit. p. 558. Fisch. "" ad Thuc. 8, 35. 

Syntax, Of the Genitive. 58 1 

ai/naroG rvpavviKov. Homer uses aXic as indeclinable in the 
same case with the substantive, e. g. Od. rj , 295. rj fxoi gItov 
ecujKev aAiQ rjo aiuona oivov, 

4. The same signification of the genitive appears to be the 356. 
basis of the construction of the comparative with the genitive ; (^34) 
for instance, ineit(i>v irarpoc, properly signified * greater with 
respect to his father'. From this construction all words which 
involved a comparison, took the object of this comparison in 
the genitive. 

The genitive is therefore put with the comparative of adjec- 
tives and adverbs (see below, §. 450.), and hence with all words 
which imply the idea of a comparative, e. g. ^nrXaaioQ. Isocr. 
Panath, p. 268 B. (ti ovv €<tti to (xu^tjSejSrj/coc ayaOov e/c tov 

TToXe/LLOV TOV 776/01 TCLQ aTTOlKiaC ;) To7c, QITIOIC TOVTCJV jejev)]' 

fxkvoiCj ev^oKifxelv Koi ^nrXacTiav Treiroir^Kevai tt]v EXXaoa tiJc 
ej up-^rJQ (TU(TTa(T?/c. Herod. 7, 48. to EXXi7V(koi/ arpaTtzVfxa 
(paiveTai TvoXXairX^aiov eaeaQai tov y\f.ieT e pov. Plat. 
Tim. p. 35 B. C. jmiav a(^eTXe to irpwrov ano iravroc (xolpav' 
/uLeTCL Se TavTY^v aCp^pei ^inXacriav TavTijc' tt)»/ o av Tp'iTriv 
riiJ,ioXiav /mev ttJc ^evTepac, t pnrXaaiav Se t^c npijj- 
TtiQ' T€T apTTjv ^e ttJ a ^€VT€paQ SiTrXrjv' Tre fULTTTr^v ^e Tpi- 

TtX^V Trja TpLTTfC' TTIV S EKTYiV T rj Q TT p bJ T YJ G OKTaTrXtt- 

aiav' €^^6fjLr]v ^e kirTaKaieiKoaairXaaiav ttJq TrpiOTr)Q, 
Xen. Cj/rop. 8, 2, 21. ot /mev irXelaToi, cTreiSav twi^ apKovv^ 
T(t)v TrepiTTo. ('more than they want') KTrjcFtovTai, tu /Liev 

avT(jt)v KaTopvTTOvaif to. oe KaTaar]7rov(TL * eyw oe 

CTretoav KTr]awfxai, a av lotj nepiTTU ovtu tijjv ejuoi ap- 
KovvT (i)v, TOVTOic, Tac, tzv^eiac, Ttjjv (piXwv e^aKOVjuai. So also 
^evTepoc, v(JT€poc. Herod. 6, 46. ^evTepoj ^e eVei TovTeojVy for 
fXETa TQVTa \ as vGTepov TovTewv id. 7, 214. Plat. Tim. 
p. 20 A. ovaia Kai yevei ov^evoc, vcjTepoc, lov, as Herod. 

1, 23. Ap'iova KiOapoj^ou T(x)v t6t€ eovTtov ov^evoc cev- 

Tepov. comp. Plat. Phadou» p. 87 C. D. Hence t^ v(tt€- 
pcLia (rj/uL€pa) ttJg jua^rjQ Plat. Menex. p. 240 C. 

Note. The rest of the adjectives, which are derived from verbs, are 
found below, after those verbs. 

Thus the genitive is put also with verbs which are derived S57, 


582 Syntax, Of the Genitive. 

from comparatives, as riTTaaOai tivoc, e. g. tjttoj elvai tivoq, 

inferior em esse a liquo. Isocr. Nicocl. p, 34 B. eiopwv, tijjv 

eiriOv/LLKjJv T(jjv irepi tovq ircu^aQ Kai tclq yvvaiKaQ Kai tovq 
^ekriarovQ r)Tr(t)/j.eifovQ ' that even the best were overcome 
by means of these affections'*. Following the same analogy, 
Eurip. Iph. A. 1367. eviKtofAriv K€Kpay/jLOv, as Troad. 23. Cycl. 
454. ifer«cZ. 234. Soph. Aj.\MO, Find. Nem. 9, 5. Arist. 
Nub. 1078.^ Xen. Anab. 1, 7, 12. * Ai^poKOfxac, vtTTeprjae 
ttJq p.o.yjf]c, ' came after the battle\ Isocr. Nicocl. p. 30 D. ol 
peu (ev ToiG oXiyapyiaic, Kai toiq ^rjjULOKpaTiaiQ) varepovai 

Tijtiv Trpay/uLarcjv' oi Se ev toig jiovapyjiaiQ bvrec, 

ovK aTToXeiTrovTai rwy KaipuyVj aXX eKaarov ev r(^ ^eovri 
irparrovaiv. ' do not miss the right opportunity'. Since the 
idea of 'to lose' is related to this, Eurip, Iph, A. 1213. says, 
irai^oc, v(7Teprj(To/jiai ' I shall lose my daughter'*^. Xen. Mem. S, 
1, 3, 3. 9v(Tiac ce Qv(i)v piKpac, airo /niKptJV ov^ev i^yeiTO jLiei- 
ovcrOai TCJV otto ttoXXwv Kai f-if.yaXtjJv TToXXa Kai /neyaXa 
0v6vT(ov. Other words of this kind are compounded with 
irpo, and are found below. 

358. In the same manner the genitive is put with verbs in which 
(336) the idea of a comparative is included. Such are: 

1. Those which signify 'to surpass', or the contrary, ' to be 
surpassed, to be inferior to another', (as -naaaaOai) irepiyeveaQai, 
Isocr, ad Phil, p, 103 B. ra^ior av irepiyevoio rrjc rov 
/3a(TtXea>c ^vvapetoQ. Xen. Cyrop, 8, 2, 20. eyu) yap, o) 
KpolaCj o jnev oi Oeoi ^ovrec; etc Tac, "(pvyaQ to?c avOpioTroic; 
eiroirjffav o/lloiwc irevrirac, iravrac, tovtov /uiev ouSe avroc cv- 
vajuiai Trepiyevkodai, irepieivai Od. <r, 247. eTret Trepieatri 
yvvaiKcjv el^oc re /JieyeOoQ re tSe (ppkvac, evSov eiaaQ. comp. 
II. a , 258. Xen. Mem, S, 3, 7, 7. Id. Cyr. 8, 2, 7. ttoX^ 
^levey Kijjv dvO pujirtov tio TrXeitrraq TrpocrocovQ Xappaveiv, 
TToXv en TrXeov ^irjveyKe tw TrXeTcrra avOptJTrtJv ctjpelaOai, 
corap. Isocr. ad Phil, p, 105 A. de Pac, p. 176 A. (with ge- 
nitive of person and dative of thing Plat. Leg. 4. p. 7 1 1 E. 
T^ Tou Xe-yeii' /owjU^ Travruyv ^ia(j)epeiv dvBpujTrtJV.) virepf^aXXeiv 
' to be stronger, to excel'. Mschyl. Prom, 930. oc, Sr) Kepavvov 

* Valck. ad Eur. Hipp. 724. *= Fisch. 3 a. p. 369. 

*» Valck. ad Eurip. Hipp. 458. 

syntax. Of the Genitive, 583 

Kpeiaoov evpr](T€i <^Xo-ya, fBpovrrjc vnepfiaWovra Kap- 
repov KTVTTOV. Plat, Gorg, p, 475 B. cjKexpijJiuieOa, dpa Xviry 
VTrepjSa XXei to a^iKelv tov aot/ceTcrOat, kql aXyovtri /uaX- 
Xov ol adiKovvrec, rj oi d^iKov/mevoi , (also in the sense of ' going 
over', Eur, Ion, 1341. OpiyKov tov^ vTrepl^aXXu) ttoSi.) virep- 
e")(^eiv Tipocj irpokyeiv Soph. Phil. 137. virepcpepeiu Soph, (Ed, 
T. 381. Herod, S, 138, 9,96. Thud, SI, irpocpepeiv Eur, 
Med, 1 100. enrapafxevoerai aXXwv Pind. Nem. 11,17. whence 
d/LieiPeiv a/Lieif^ecTOai always has an accusative. diroXeiTreaOai 
Tivoc 'to come short of any one', Isocr. ad Phil, p, 107 D. as 
Twv (jjv TeKvtjv XiTTOiTo Soph, Trach. 267 , and with double ge- 
nitive Mschin. in Ctes. p, 74, 41. ei tivoc (person) aTroXeKp- 
driaerai t»Jc ^uipo^oKiac, (in respect to). So also eiri^eveaOai 
TIVOC, ' to be inferior to any one'. See Not. ad H, Homer, p. 30, 
Also with a genitive of the thing, II. \p', 670. /naxnG eTrideuojuai, 
'in the fight', as j3tr/c emdevtia Od. (f>\ 253. 

To this head should, perhaps, be referred also dve^eaOai 
Ttvor, Eur, Troad. 101. Plat. Rep. 8. p. 564 C. JEsch, Axioch, 
15. 'to bear any thing'.; the opposite to iiTrddOai rivoc, sue- 
cumbere, which, however, is often joined with an accusative, as 
Xen. Cyr. 1, 2, 10. probably also the active Soph, GLd, T. 174. 
ouTe roKoiaw i-qiiou Ka/narwu ave'yovai yvvaiKec. 

Ohs, Some of diese verbs are also constructed with an accusative, as 
viKciv always; vwepPaWeffdai Tiva Herod, 5,124. 6, 9. 13. 7, 163, 
vTrepexeiy Eur. Hipp. 1381. Plat. Phcedon. p. 102 D. (see Heind,) 
TTpoeyeiv Xen. Anab. 3, 2, 19. 

3. Those which signify 'to rule' (the contrary to r](^(jdaBai), 359. 

or the opposite, dvdaaciv -. //. a', 38. oc Teve3otoI(^i (337) 

dvd(7(T€ic. Herod, 1, 206. 'Q jSacriXei? Mr)Sw»/* |3a- 

GiXeve Twi^ aetjJVTOVy Kai ri/neac avey^ev opeiov apYOvrac t(jjv- 
irep ap-^ofiev, //. f', 84. aiO' wCpeXXec; deiKeXiov Grparov 
aXXov GTifxaiveiv, Xen, Cyrop. 1, 1, 2. dvBpojiroi eir ov^evaa 
fiaXXov GwiGTavrai, rj €7ri tovtovc, ovq av aiaOwvrai ap\eiv 
avT(i)v eTTiyeipovvrac §. 3. eyiyvioaKOfxev, ujq difOptJiro) irecpv- 
KOTi TravTOJV Twi' aXXwi^ ^wwv e'lri paov, rj dvOpuyTrtjv, 
ap^eiv. Soph. Aj. 1050. Kpaiveiv (rrparov. ib, 1100. ttov 

^ Heind. ad Plat. Gorg. p. 97. 

584 Syntax. Of the Genitive. 

av (TTpaTTjyelc TouSe ; (comp. Herod. 1, 211.) nov Se <Toe 
ewi/ e^e<TT avaatreiv, wv oo rfyeiT oiKouev ; Z>napTrjc 
ava<T<T(t)v TiXOec, ov-^ r)in(i}v Kparwu. Archyt.ap. Gale, p. 677. 
(Trparev/naToc i^iev ayeirai aTparayoc,, likwTripwv oe o Kvpep- 
vaTfiQj T(x) Se Koajuno OeoCy rac "^vyac, Se vooq, tclq Se TrejOt tov 
piov ev^aifxoavvac, (ppovacric 

The following verbs, for the same reason, and because they 
are derived from substantives, take the genitive after them : 
Kvpieveiv Xen. Mem. -S. 3, 5, 11. i. e. Kvpiou eluai. Koipavelv 
(Koipavov elvai) ^schyl. Pers. 214. eTriTpoireveiv 'to admi- 
nister a government', Herod. 7, 7. (in the sense ' to be a 
guardian', usually with the accusative ^. 413, b'.*), rvpavveveiv 
Herod, 1, 15. 23. 59. arpar-nyeiv Herod. 1, 211. Soph. Aj. 
1100. ^e(jTr6teiv Tsocr. ad Phil. p. 91 D. Eur. Ale. 486.^ 

According to the same analogy enKTraTelu rivoc is con- 
structed, which otherwise takes the dative, Isocr. ad Phil. 
p, 101 E. J^Xeapyov Tov e7ricrTaT?^cra vra tvjv rore irpay- 
fjLarvjv. comp. id. p. 92 B. Xen. Mem. S. 2, 8, 3. Eurip. 
Andr. 1100. otroi 0cou y^prifxariov e(j)e(TTa(Tav. 

Obs. 1. Kpareiv is the same as Kpeiatrio elyai. Eur. Hipp. 250. aXXa 
Kparel, fit) yiyvojaicovT cfKoKeaQai, i. e. Kpe'irraov kari or KpuTLVTov eori. 
Eur. Fr. Pel. 5. einreipia rrjs aireipias KpareT. Thuc, 1, 69. b'Xuyos tov 
epyov €KpnT€i Jama potior erat re ipsa. Like comparatives it takes ttoXv 
or TToXXw, to express the degree, e. g. Thuc. 7, 60. Hence is perhaps 
to be explained Thuc. 7, 49. rats yovv vavalv y Trporepoy OaparjffCL 
KpaTTideis, i. e. judWov dapauiv rats vavaiv >} Trporepoy. 

360. ^^*' ^' Some of these verbs are also constructed with a dative or 
(338) accusative, provided the relation which is implied in them may be con- 
sidered at the same time as a reference either to a personal object the 
consideration of which defines the action, or to an object which is ex- 
posed to the operation of the action, and subjected to it. 

a. With the dative. avaTcpiV, arjiiaiveiv. II. a', 288. iravTwv pey 
Kpareeiy e6eXet, TrayreaffL 8' avacceiv. Tract he ffrjfxaiyeLy' a riy' ov 
Treiaeadai oils). Comp. //. a', 180. f, 86. Orf. a', 117. 402. 419. /3', 234. 
avdcraeLy is joined with both cases Eur. Iph. T. 31. ov yrjs draaaei 
(iapl^apoLCTi. II. v\ 180 seq. but see Ohs. 3. With arjfAaiyeiv the da- 

* Thorn. M. p. 360. Mcer. p. 149. " Fisch. 3 a. p. 369. 

Si/ntax. Of the Genitive. 585 

tive is more common ; and Kparelv, Od. tt', 2G5. (Zci/s icai 'AQi]vr)) dire 
Kai aWois ay^pdai re KpareovffL <cat adavcLTOiffL OeolffLV. 
ap^eiy. ^sch. Prom. 948. (Zeus) })apov ovk ap^ei deo'is, where the 
Scholiast calls this an Ionic construction. So apyeveiv II. e, 200. /3a- 
atXevetu Od. r]\ 59. Find. Pyth. 10, 3. iiyelnQai 11. /3', 864. UrfocrLv 
av MeadXris Kai''Avri(l>os tiyrjaatrdrjy. ib. ft', 816. T pu) at fxkv //ye- 
/i6p€v€ fxeyas Kopv6aio\os"EKru)p, which otherwise takes the genitive. 
ib. 563. 601. 627. 650. 698. 740. 759. arparriyely. Eur. Andr. 325. 
ftaaiXeveiv Tirt. Od. t/', 59. 'llye'iaOai, especially in the sense of * to 
lead', takes the dative after it: Herod. 8, 215. MrfXieei Q etrffaXolai 
KaTTtyijaavro eni ^(OKeas. Plat. Rep. 9. ^9. 573 E. ovk avayKT], wffTrep 
VTTO K£vrpu)v eXavvofxevovs raiy re a.X\(ov eTridvfiiuiy, Kal ^ia(p€p6i'Tit)S vtt 
avTOv rov "Rpo)Tos, Trdaais rats aWats, uiaTrep dopvipopois, ?/yov- 
fiepov, olarpdy^. 

b. With the accusative. Od. y', 245. dvd^arrdai yeve' dv^puiv. Kpa- 
Tely, Soph. CEd. C. 1380. TOiyap to crbv ddKrffia Kai rovs aovs 
dpovovs KparovffLV * shall possess'. Eurip. Ph. 600. aKriizTpa Kpareiv 
* to hold firmly', quod teneas, mordicus relinere, as Valckenaer renders 
if*. Especially in the sense ' to conquer' : Euripid. Ale. 501. Aristoph. 
Av. 418. Thuc. 1, 109. 111. 2, 39. 6, 2. 7, 11. &-c. Plat. Phileb. 
p. \\ extr. Symp. p. 220 A. Isocr. ad Phil. p. 100 E. k-paiyeiv n, 
Soph. Trach. 127. ava\yi;ra ydp ovl' b ndvra Kpalycov ftaffiXevs cTreftaXe 
dyarols Kpovi^as. dea-rro^eiy ri^ Eurip. Here. F. 28. Avkos ryjv eTrra- 
TTVpyov Ti]vd€ leano^tjy iroXty, e^rjyeladai, Thuc. 1, 71. 6, 85. a-, 
iiyeicrdai 1, 19. In this passage dp^eiv nyos is put in opposition, and 
in e^riy. >/y. the idea of proper dominion does not seem to be implied, 
but only the command, or leading of nations who are otherwise repre- 
sented as free. 

Obs. 3. Homer joins dydvaeiv also with fierd and the dative Od. 7/'> 
23. or with ev ib. 62. So may the passages quoted §. 387. Eur. Iph. 
T. 31. U. v'j 180. be explained. 

Hence also adjectives and substantives, in which the same 361. 
idea of governing is implied, and which are mostly derived (339) 
from such verbs, have a genitive after them : 

a. Adjectives. eyKparrjc, aKparrjc Xeri. Mem. S. 2, 1, 7. 
oi eyKpareiQ rovriov airavruyv, opposed to a^vvaTOic ravra 
noieiv, Isocr. ad Phil. p. 86 C. <l>iXi7r7roc rov 'l\\vpiu)v 

'^ Fisch. 3 a. p. 371. Eustath, ad ^ Brunck ad Eur. Ph. 600. 

Tl. p. 51, 25. 


586 Si/}iiax. Of the Genitive. 

TrXriOovc, eyKparric Kai Kvpioc, yeyove. especially when 

transferred to mastery over the soul : (as Kpareiv (pof^ov kqi 
OvfjLOv Plat. Tim. p. 42 B.) Xeu. Ci/rop. 4, 1, 14. e.fxoi SoKei, 
TYjc jmeyicTT-nQ rj^ovrjc; noXv /j.aXXou (rvjuCpepeiv ey Kparii eivai 
' master over pleasure, inasmuch as one moderates his enjoy- 
ment*, is opposed to §. 15. cnrXriaTwc y^prjaOat. Mem. S. 2, 
1, 3. VTTvov eyKparrj elvaij ware ^vvaaOai Kai o'^e KOijurjOrjvaL 
Kai irpiiji avacJTVvai Kai aypvirvrjaaiy et rt Seoi. Ci/rop. 5, 1, 14. 
Ta /LiO'^Oripa avOpioTTia Tracrwi^, olpai, tujv eTTiOv f^iiu) v aKparrj 
ea"Ti, KaweiTa epiora aiTnovTai. Both adjectives may be trans- 
lated ' moderate, immoderate in anything' ; but the construction 
is determined by their signifying ' to be master over anything, 
to have in one's power'. In the same manner ii(T(tu)v is used, 
e. g. rjTTivv TTovov, VTTVOV, rfdovwu Xeri. Mem. «S. 1, 5, 1. 4, 
5, 1 1 . apyeiv vttvov ib. 2, 6, 1. Kpareiv rjdovfvv ib. 1, 5, 6. 
Thus also Kaprepoc : Theocr. 15, 94. pn (f)vir}, MeXirw^ec, be, 
upwv KaprepoQ e'lrj, nXav ivoc, ' one who shall rule over us', as 
in Horace diva pofens Cj/pri.^ 

h. Substantives. Pht. Leg. \. p. 648 E. rirra rov wo/uLaroc 
' defeat by means of drinking', i. e. ' intemperance in drinking'. 
ib, 10. p. 902 A. TjTTai riSovuiv ?/ Xuttwi'. ib. p. 908 C. UKpa- 
TCiGi TiBo-vij:' Kui Avnwv. Xeti. Mem. S.2f\, 1 . (2wK'jOaT»J0) 
€^6k€i ^ot Trporpeweiv tovc, (twovtoc aoKeiv eyKpareiav npoQ 
eiriOvpiav ^pisjrov Kai ttotou Kai XayveiaQ Kai vttvov, koi piyovc 
Kai ^aXTTouc Kai ttovov, where the three last genitives are 
governed by eyKpareiav, not by eTTiOvpiav, ' mastery over cold, 
heat, labour', i. e. ' power, not to be overcome by them, but to 
bear them' ; and even in the former part the words wpoc eiTi- 
Ov/iiiav might be omitted. Isocr. ad Demon, p. 6 C. v(p>' wv 
KpareiaBai rriv \pvynr}v aKy^pov, rovrwv eyKpareiav aoKci 
7Tavru)v, Kep^ovc, opyijc, riSovijc, Xvtttic. 

Thus also adjectives, which are used as substantives in this 
sense. //. tt', 470. TTorvia 6r}puju ' mistress over the wild beasts'. 
Pifid. P. 4, 380. TTOTvia o^vrariov [5eXe(i)v of Venus. Hence 
noTvi eprj Eur. El. 490. 

62. 4. ^ To obey*, as the opposite of 'to command'. aKoveiv 

^ Valck. ad Theocr. Adon. p. 386. 


Sijnlax. Of the Genitive. 587 

TivoQ Od. r; , 1 1 . Oeov S L)c, ^iif.ioc, aKovev ' listened to him'. 
^sch. A gam. 965. Id. Prom. 40. avr]K0vaTe7v Se twv 
TraTpoQ \oy(i)v olov re ttcJc ; 'not to obey'. viraKoveiv, Thuc. 
2, 62. eiKOC, yvtjvai eXevOepiav /iier, rjv avTiXa/iiljavo/Lievoi avrrjc; 
tiaauja(i)}JL€Vy pacicjc TavTa avaXrfipo/nevrjv, aWu)v o viraKov- 
traai Kai to. TrpoaKeKrrtf.iei'a (piXeiv eXaatrovcrOai. comp.6,82. 
8,5. Xenoph.C^/r. 4,1,3. 8,1,4.20.^ Thus also Tret^ecr^at 
Tivoc: Herod. 1, 126. vvv ojv efxeo TreiOo/nevoi, yiveaOe eXeu- 
Oepoi. comp. 5, 33. Thuc. 7, 73. Eur. Iph. id. 731. ireiQeaOai 
yap eidiajxai aedev.^ But in Plat. Rep. 3. p. 391 A. ov^* oaiov 
Tavra ye Kara AyCXXeu)Q (pavai, Kai aXXwv Xeyovrtju 
TreiOeaOaiy aXXcov Xey6vTU)v may be the ge/iit. cotisequ. ' nor 
to believe it on the assertion of others'. Sop/i. El. 411. is dif- 
ferent : eK Tov (j)iX(i)if TreiaOelaa, for vno rov ' by whom per- 
suaded*. amOelvy aTreiOelv tivoq * not to obey*. Ilom. H. in 
Cer. 448. ovS aTriOyicre 6ea ^locayyeXiatov. Xen. Cyrop. 
4, 5, 19. TTwr, y^77 KaXovvroc, aTreiOelv. 

Obs. 1 . Hence the adjectives derived from these verbs often govern 
the genitive, as KuriiKocs twos Herod. 1, 143. 171. especially vttijkoos 
riros. Plat. Rep. 3. p. 389 D. Leg. 9. p. 875 C. Thuc. 6, 20. Xeii. 
Cyr. 4, 2, 1.** evTreLdiis T(oy vo^ior Plat. Leg. \. p. 632 B. 

Obs. 2. The dative is frequently found with these verbs, e. g. ayr)- 
KovffTeiy Herod. 6, 14. xnvaKoveiv Xen. Cyr. 4, 5, 19. 8, 1, 18. 7, 16. 
But //. TT , 531. OTTi 01 tM)K ijKOvae jjieyas Oeos ev^afjieyoio, ot is to be 
taken according to §. 389 seq. as Herod. 1,214. 6, 86. where, however, 
01 is wanting in some MSS. So k-ariiKoos has a dative: Herod. 1, 141. 
Plat. Rep. 6. p. 499 B. vrrriKoos Plat. Leg. 9. p. 856 B. Eur. Heracl. 
287. Xen. Cyr. 2, 4, 22. Hence Plat. Phileb. p. 25 B. av Trep ye e/iau 
€v^a7s cTTi'iKoos yiyvrjTai ris dewr, * listens to them'. 

5. Words which imply a comparison with respect to value, 363. 
or require a definition of value. To these belong : (341 ) 

a. a^ioCy ava^ioQ, properly ' equivalent', e. g. Callin. El. 
V. 19. {Brunck Gnom. p. 58.) Xato yap avf^nravri ttoOoc Kpa- 
Tep6(ppovoc avSpoc, 6vi}<tkovtoc,' ^ujdjv S' a^ioG r]fxiBeiov * he 
is to be esteemed as equal to the demi-gods'. v. 2 1 . ep^ei yap 
moXXdjv ajta jhovvoq evjv ' actions which are equivalent to 

'' Scliaef. App. Dem. 1. p. 671. ^ Elmsl. ad Eur. Heracl. 287. 

*= Wessel. ad Herod, p. 63, 59. 

G 2 

588 Syntax, Of the Genitive. 

those of many'. Herod. 1, 32. where Croesus says to Solon, 
ov^ i^iwrewv avopfjjv a^iov c v/neac cTro'irjcTaQ. In this sense 
avra^ioc elsewhere occurs : //. X , 514. itjTpoc yap avr\p ttoX- 
\ij)v avralc^iOQ aWwv. Plat. Leg. 5. p. 728 A. irac o t ctti yrjc 
Kai VTTO yi]Q y^pvaoc, aperrjc ovk avrd^ioc. Thus also in the 
sense * worth, worthy' : Isocr. Nicocl. p. 37 E. vopiZere Ttjc 
avTrjc eivai Cvpi-ctc a^iovc, tovq avyKpvTrrovTac toIq e^a- 

In the same manner is constructed the adverb a^itvc (e. g. 
Thiic. 3, 39. Ko\aaQ7]Tijjaav a^iwc. Tr\c, a^iKiac,), and a^iovVy 
a^iovaOai: Xen. Cyrop, 2, 2, 17. eywye ov^ev avia^repov vo- 
pi(^(s) eiuai Tou Tijjv i(Twi/ rov re kukov kqi tov ayaOov a^i- 
ov aOat. 

Ohs. The dative, which is often found with a^ios, expresses a different 
relation, namely the person for or in reference to whom value is attri- 
buted to an object. Herod. 7, 5. // T^vpcjirr] fiaoriXei povv^ dyrjruif a^irj 
cKTrjadai. comp. Xen. Mem. jS. 1, 1. below §. 387. 

364. b. All words in which a determination of value is contained, 
{^"^V as ' to buy, to sell, to exchange', &c. Herod. 5, 6. (ol GjOTjiAcec) 
LJveovTai Tac, yvvaiKaQ y^pr]fjLaT (i)V fjieyaXuv, ' for a great 
deal of money'. F^picharm. ap. Xen. Mem. S. 2, 1, 20. twv 
TTOvcjv 7ru)\ov(Tiv i]ixiv iravra rayaO oi Oeoi. Plat. Leg. 5, 
p. 728 A. ov^e ye, onorav y^pi)paTa ric, epa KraoOai prj /caAwc, 
7] p-q ^vay^epijjc (P^py Krtjpevoc, ^djpoic apa Tipa t6t€ ttiv eavrov 
ipv^rjv' iravTOC pev ovv XetTrei* to yap avrrjc ripiov Kai KaXov 
aTTO^idorai apiKpov ^pvaiov. Iliad. Z, , 235. (TAau/co)) 
be irpoc, Tvdei^r^i' ^loprj^ea reu^e apei^e., y^pvaea -^aXKeiiov, 
eKaropj^OL evveal^oiwv. JEschyl. Prom. 974. ttJc orjc Xa- 
Tpeiac TTJi' eprjv cvairpa^iaVj (raCpwc eTriaracr , ovk av a X- 
Xa^ai/i ey(o. JLurip. Med. 963. twi/ eptHv irai^iov (()vya(; 
xpvy^rJQ av aXXa^aipeO , ov y^pvaov povov. Xen. Cyr, 3, 
1, 36. av Se, tu T^iypavr\, Xe^ov poi, iroaov av irpiaiOy ware 
rriv yvvalKa airoXapelv ('for how much would you buy?') — 
eyd) pev, e(j)r]y o) Ku^oc, Kav Trjc; xpv^rjc ir piaipriv, ware 
py]Trore Xarpevaai ravrrfv. Id. Mem. S. 1,2, 60. ^WKparrjc 

ov^eva 7rw7roT€ piaOov Trjc (Tvvovaiac eirpa^aTO, aXXa iraaiv 

a(j)66v(i)c enripKei twi^ eavrov' (jjv rivec piKpa peptf, nap eKeivov 
vpolKa Xaf36vT€Cf TroXXov to7q aXXoic e7r(l)Xovv. Hence the 

Syntax. Of the Genitive, 589 

genitive is used also in the following combinations : IL\ , 106. 

X vie ^v(i) npia/uLOio, w ttot ' A-^iWevc' l^riQ ev Kvrjfxoicn 

^i^rj /uLocry^oKTi Xvyoicri, TTOi/uiaivovT eir oeaai \aj3ijju, Kai eXvaev 
cnroLVdjv, delivered up for a ransom'. Od. X', 326. 'Epi- 
(pvX-qv, ri y^pvaov (piXov av^poc eBe^aro rtjuijei/ra. Herod. 
7, 144. QejULiaroKXeriQ dveyuuxje 'AOrivaiovCj veac rovrewv 
Tijjv '^pr)jxar i)jv Troirjaaadai ^irfKOGiac;. Soph, Track. 560, 
fiKrdov TTopeve ' ferried for hire*. Thuc, 7, 25. tovg aravpovQ 
KoXvfx^rirai ^v6f.iev(ji e^eir piov /jiktOov. Plat, Rep. 9. 
p. 575 B. juLicrdov eiriKovpelv. Gorg. 51 1 D. Tavrrjc; rrjc evep- 

yecTiac; ^vo dpa^iLiac eirpa^aro. comp. Xen. Mem. S. 

1, 6, 11. Aristoph. Nub. 21. (j)ep* tSw, ti iXpeiXu); ddj^eKa 
fxvoLQ ITacTta* tou ^wSefca jxvac IlatTm ; Xen, Gyrop. 3, 3, 3. 
vfieiQ epe ov Troirtaere piaOov irepuovra evepyeTelv, De- 
mosth, Phil. 2. p, 68. KeKpiaOe eK tovtiov tijjv epytjjv /novoi 
Tw»^ aTravTtjv prjdevoQ av KepdovQ ra Koiva ciKaia twv EX- 
Xriv(i}v irpoeaOai, /liii^' avTaXXal^aaOai prj^epiac "^apiTOQ 
fiijS w^eXetac Tr)v etc touc ' EAXr/i^ac ehvoiav. Eurip, Ale, 

/ 1046. TToXXtuv Be po^OtJv riXOe ^eTjoac €ic, epaQ^, 

Hence also adjectives. Isocr. ad Nicocl. j9. 21 B. Bo^rj pev 
•^prjpaTa KTr]Tay Bo^a Be '^ptf parojv ovk ojvrjTih 

Ohs. In Lys.c. Epicr. p. 178. 16. pepei rujv a^iKrjpdrioy tov Kiv^vrov 
e^eTrpiavro, fxepos rioy a^. * the abstracted money*, is the means by which 
they purchased immunity from the danger. 

c. For the same reason the genitive is used in the phrase 
Tipav or TipacfOai rivl rivoc,. Plat. Apol. S, p, 36 A. rt- 
paral poi o avrjp OavaTov. ib. E. ei ovv otT pe Kara to 
ciKaiov ttJq a^iac TipaaOai, tovtov Tiptjjpai, Trja ev VlpvTaveLiiJ 
GiTi]aeu)Q. because the punishment was considered as an esti- 
mate of the crime, a price as it were, as is evident also from 
the form ri eariv a^ioc iraQelv ij airoricfai. 

Obs. 1. The preposition avri, with the genitive, sometimes accom- SG5, 
panies the verbs signifying ' to exchange'. Isocr. ArcMd. p. 138 B. (343) 
avrl Qvr]TOv <TU)paTos aQavarov Zo^av avT iKaTaWa^aadai. Id. ad 
Phil. p. 109 C. 't'^ois av kai Tuiy l^iioruiy tovs eTrieiKearaTOvs virep aWov 
pkv ovZevos av to ^rjy avriKaraWa^apevovSf virep ^e rov rv)(^eiy 

^ Fisch. 3 a. p. 378 seq. 

590 Syntax. Of the Genitive. 

KaXrjs d6t,r)S airodvijaKeiy kv rots noXefJiois cBeXoyTus. Comp. Plat. Phce- 
don. p. 69 A. B. Also with Trpos and the accusative : Plat. Phcedon. 
p. 69 A. ft)) ou'^ avTY] ^ ij opd^] TTjOos apeTrjy, y^ovas tt/oos ii^ovas koI 
XvTras Trpos XvTras Kal <^6(^ov Trpos <p6^ov KaTaXXarreadai. 

Obs. 2. Instead of the genitive the dative is also used: //. 77', 472. 
eyOep up' olvi^ovTO KaprjKOfjiocjyTes 'A^^atot, aWoi juey ^a\/C6>, aXXoi S' 
a'iOojyi aih'ipi^ &c. the datives point out the means by which they 
procure the wine, as in §. 564. Obs. Enr'ip. Tread. 355. cciKpva r avr- 
aXXaaaere toIs rrjtr^e fieXeai, Tptoa^es, yajjLtjXiois. Androm. 1028. 
aurci r (KXvTaLfxviiaTpa) kvaXXaL,aaa (^ovoy Qayarw Trpos reicywv 
aTTTjvpa. comp. Hel. 385. With this dative ky is used Soph. Ant. 945. 
aXXd^ai kv "^aXKoleTOis avXais, 

SQtQ, d. A comparison is also implied in words which express a 
(344) difference. diaCJyopoQ, erepoc, aWoCy aXXoToc, aWorpioc. 

Thiic. 1, 28. (fylXovQ 7roiel(jOai erepovc, twv vvv ovtwv juaX- 

Xov. Plat. Chann. p. 166 A. rtVoc cariv €7rt<7T?;/ur/ eKaarri 
rovTuyv twp e7ri(yrr}/ntJVy o rvyyavei ov aWo avrrjc rric 
eiTKTTriiJ.'nc' oiovy 7] XoyKTTiKri e(TTi irov tov apriov kql tov 
irepiTTOV irXvOovCy ottwc e^€i {kg. TrepiTTOv, oirwc ey^ei ttXtj- 
Oovc) irpoQ avra Kai irpoc, aXXriXa. r) yap ; Hayv ye, e(j)r}. 
OvKOvif krepov ovroc, tov Trepirrov Kai apriov avrrjc rrja 
XoyicrriKric. comp. Leg. 4. p. 70S C. Soph. Antig. 218. 
Thuc. 1, 139. Plat. Menon. p. 87 C. irorepov eariv eTn(Trr]fxr\ 
1) dperri, rj dXXo^ov eirKTrvjuLVC,^- Dem. pro Cor. p. 2S9, 14. 
ovdev dXXorpioif noiuiif ovre rrjc eavrov TrarpiSoQ ovre rov 


Thus also the verb ^ia(j)€peiv. Xen. Hier. 7, 3. So/ceT yuot 
TOUTO) ^ia(j)ep€iv dvrip twv dXXwv tiotjv, rf rifirjc ope- 
yeaOai. Plat. Rep. 8. p. 550 E. irXovrov dperr) diecrrvKev, 
also accordino- to §. 354. o. dXXoiovaOai rivoc Plat. Parm. 
p. 138 C. also lia(^ep6vrh)c Plat. Leg. 3. p. 685 D. 

Obs. 1. Instead of the simple genitive, Euripides Here. F. 519. uses 
ayri with the genitive after dXXos. ovk ead" oh' aXXos ayrl aov Truthosy 
yepoy. Comp. Hel. 582. Soph. (Ed. C. 488. Arist. Nub. G53. 

Obs. 2. Upon the same principle kvavrios seems sometimes to be 
constructed with the genitive, although the dative is more usual : 

"' Toup ad Suid. 2. p. 450. Schcpf. ad Grcgor. Cor. p. 582 f- 

Syntax. Of the Genitive, 591 

Herod. 6, 86. aizolihovrei iroUeTe oaria, Koi firi ciTro^i^ovres, to. cvavrt'a 
Tovreojy. Plat. Euthyphr. p. 5 D. to apoaioy rov fiep vffiov iravTOS 
evavTiovy avro le avrto o^oiov. Comp. Thecet. p. 184 C. Xen. Mem. 
S. 3, 12, 7. In the same manner avTiarpocpos nvos Isocr. ad Phil, 
p. 94 C. On the other hand )') is found after kvavrios Xen. Mem. 4, 
5, 8. after dia<pep€iv Hellen. 3, 4, 14. Anah. 3, 4, SS. after ^lafpeporrojs 
Plat. Phcedon. 85 B. See Heind. §. 77. 

Obs. 3. hiKpopos with the dative means ' varying from, not corre- 
sponding with', Eur. Med. 584. rj ttoXXo. ttoWoIs eifji ^idcpopos (ipoTuiy. 
aXXoTpios nil * opposite, contradictory' Isocr. tt. arTid. §. 3, 289. Bekk. 

B. The genitive expresses the object of an action or feeling SQ7. 
expressed in another noun, and is used objectively, as in Latin ; 
a relation which in English is expressed by prepositions, e. g. 
TToOoq viov, desiderium Jilii, not ' thy son's regret', i. e. which 
the son has, but ' regret for the son', like <joc, ttoOog Od. X', 
202. Soph. CEd. C. 631. t<c ^rJT av avS/aoc evfxkveiav eK(5a\oi 
Toiov^e ; * good-will towards such a man'. Eurip. Phari. 1757. 
^vyy ovov vj3pi(T/j,aTa ' insults offered to the brother*, injuria 
fratris. Id. Androm. 1060. yvvaiKoc ai^/uaXwr/^oc (j)6(5oc 
* fear of the slave'. e^0oc KopivBiuyv, eyOpa AaKeSai/iiovLwUf 
^/Xia AriiuLoaOei>ovGf evvoia AOr^vaiiov ' hatred towards the Co- 
rinthians', &c. Thuc, 7, 57. Comp. Xen. Anab. 4, 7, 20. 
§. 371, c. Passages also occur, where substantives which are 
derived from verbs, or correspond to verbs which take the ob- 
ject in the dative, are constructed with the genitive : Eurip. 
Or. 123. veprep(M)v ^uyprfinaTa 'offerings of the dead', i. e. 
'things offered to the dead'. Plat. Leg. 1 . p. 799 A. ev (toTc?) 
TLJv Oe(i)v Ov/uiaaiv. Id. Apol. p. 23 C. ri rov Oeov XuTpeia, 
Thuc. 1, 8. r/ Tijjv Kpeiaaovtjv SovXeia, from ^ovXeveiv toTc 
Kp€i(7(TO(nv. Soph. Antig. 1185. evy/mara FlaAXaSoq 'prayers 
to Pallas', like e^xal Oewi^ Eur. Troad. 895,^ Thuc. 2, 79. 
r\ T(jjv nXaraiewv eiriarpareia 'the march against the Pla- 
tseans', as arpare'ia rwv (3apf3apcov Isocr, tt. avri^. p. 321 D. 
Ep. 9. §. 20. Bekk. Id. 1, 108. ev a-rro^aaei rrjc; yi?c 'in the 
act of landing on the coast', from a7ro(5aiv€iv etc yrjv. 

5. The genitive expresses the object and also the cause of sgs. 

*» Seidi. ad Eur. Iph. T. 443. 

592 Si/ntax, Of the Genitive. 

a feeling ; in which case it is to be rendered by * on account 
of, for which reason evcKa, vircfj govern the genitive. 

a. With verbs. //. 7r , 545. (.irj a€iKi<j(j(jj(n veKpov M.vp- 

fiudovec, ^avatjv Key^oXoj/nevoi, baaoi oXovro. jEsch. A gam. 
582. Ti Tovc, avoKiodevTac ev \pri<pu) Xeyeiv, toi/ ^tJVTa t aX- 
yelv \pri "^^X^^ naXiy kotov. Xen. Cyrop. 5, 2, 7. tt^v 
Ovyareptty TrevOiKU) q exovcrav tou a^eXcjyov reQvrjKOTOQ, 
€^ay(i)v ra^e elnev, ' melancholy on account of the death of her 
brother*. Thuc, 2, 62. ov Kara rr}v ruiu oiKiuiv Kat rrjc yrJQ 
XP^^'^o.^ (<«^v fueyaXtov vop-'i^ere earepriadai) avrr] r] Svva/uiiQ <^ai- 
verai, ouS eiKoc \aXe7r(jj c (jyepeiv avrtjv /j,aXXoVj rj ou 
KYfTTiov Kai eyKaXXioTrKr/LLa irXovrov irpoc, TavTrjv vo/j.i.(TavTaQ 
oXiyu}pif(yai, \\here x^^* ^^p^^^ is used absolutely ' to be in- 
dignant^ as 1, 77. although elsewhere it more usually takes 
an accusative. Soph. Atitig. 1177. jui/i^to-ac (povov. comp. 
627. but Trach. 274. epyov d eKari rov^e pr)vi<TaG ava^. 
Eur. Iph. A. 370. 'EXXa^oa crrkvu. Eur. Here, F. 529. ^a- 
Kpveiv Tivoc dei^eiv tivoq Soph. (Ed. T. 233 seq. Soph. El. 
1027. 2*?^ ft* ^^ TOU VOX), rrjc ^e ^eiXiac; (rrvyw. Isocr. 
Eivag. p. 197 C. ovTb) OeoCpiXijJG Kat (j)iXavOpioTr(s)Q Simkei rriv 
TToXiVf ware tovc acfyiKvovfxevovQ /ulyj fxaXXov Evayopav ttJq 
Qjov^c ^rjXovv, T) TOVQ apyofxkvovc, Tr\Q vir eKeivov jSaori- 
Xe'iaQ. Plat. Rep. 4. p. 426 D. tovc OeXovrac OepaTreveiv rac 
Toiavrac rroXeic; ovk ayaaai rrjc av^peiac re Kat evy^e- 
pe'iac, {aya/Liai with the genitive of the object is different, for 
which see §. 317. Obs.) Plat. Si/mp. p. 194 C ^oKovai poi 

7ravT€C ol TTpoadev eipv^orec; Touq avOptJTTovc evdaijuo- 

viZ^iv Twv ayaOwvj wi^ o 0eoc auToTc airioc. comp. Rep. 6. 
j9. 516 C. 518 B. Eurip. Iph. A. 1381. t6v jueu ovv ^evov 
^iKaiov aivearai ir podv^iiac,. comp. Phoen. 1697. Id. Or. 
427. TlaXapri^ovQ ae ri/nwpel ^ovov (Oiaf.) comp. Xen. 
Cyr. 4, 6, 8. with Poppo's note. Herod. 3, 145. crtpeac eyw 
Tifiwprfaof.iai Ttjc evOa^e a(j)i^ioc. comp. Plat. Symp. 
p. 213 D. //. y, 366. VT €(j)ap,riv r laaadai AXe^av^pov 
KaKOT 11 TO c — Thus also (pOovelv tivl tivoc, e. g. ty{c tro^iac 
Plat. Hipp. p. 228 C. Xen. Ages. 1, 4. ?] ttoXiq ou^eTrwTroTe, 
d)Oovr}(Ta(Ta tou tt poT€T i/jiricrOai avTOVQ, {tovc irpoyovovc 
Tov ' Ayt](7iXdov) e'neyjEipriae KaToXvaai ttjv apyy\v avTwv. 

Syntax. Of the Genitive. 593 

Isocr, Plat. p. 300 C. rip v^erepa TroXei rrjc ySc ttJc vtt 
Qp(i)7ri(ov 8e8ojU€yj]q (pOovovffiv {ol Gnj3a7ot). Hence Thucyd. 
1, 75. djo' {^ nonne.' v. Herm. ad Vig. p. 823, 488. Schaf. 
Melet. in Dion. H, p. 89.) afiot eaj^iev ap-^rjc ye 17c e)(^0juc»' 
T0?o' EXXrjai jur) ovtuj^q ayav €7ri(j)96v(jjc; BiaKelcrOai. Hence 
also in the sense ' to deny one anything' ; jEschyl. Prom. 588. 
fxri efxoi (pSovrtcryc evy/marwu, ava^. 631. ov fxeyaiptjj 
Tov^k GDI ^(opri/LiaTOQ. Plat. Menex. p. 238 A. tovtov 
KapTTOv ovK efpOovrjcrev, aXX eveifxe Kai role, aXXotc^. — 
Herod. 1, 90. KpoTtroc Kare^aive avric irapaiTeo/uevoc, eireivai 
01 T(u Sew TovT(x)i> ovei^'icjai. JEschyl. S. c. Th. 653. outtot 
av^pi Tw8e Kr)pvKeifxarii)v /j-e/miprj. comp. Soph. Track. 122. 
Xe?i. Cyrop. 5, 4, 32. o Kujooc uKovaac, rov juep naOovQ wk- 
Teipev avTOif, Id. Anab. 2, 4, 1. jmrj p.vr)aiKaKr]aeiv jSatriXea 
avToTc T?fc (jvv KvpM eTTicTTpaTeiaQj jurjSe aXXov fJLridevoc 
T(jjv TTapoiyofjLevijjv, 

Hence the genitive also is put with the verbs ' to accuse, to 369. 
criminate', as €7ref levat, ^twfceti/, a'lTiaaOai, (pevyeiv, * to be (^^^) 
accused'; alpeiv, ' to cause the condemnation of any one, to gain 
one's suit'; aXwuai, ' to be condemned, to lose one's suit'. Plat. 
Leg. 9. p. 873 ^. eTrel^iruxyav ol TTpo(jr]KovT€Q rov ^ovov 
Tw Kreivavri ' should accuse him (on account) of the murder*, 
comp. Euthyphr. p. 9 A. Her. 6, 104. (MiXna^ea) 01 eyBpol 
e^icj^ap Tvpavvi^oQ t»}c e»^ Xejoo-ov^crw * prosecuted him on 
account of the tyranny'. Aristoph. Equ. 367. 8iwfo^ai ere 
^eiXiac Demosth. in Near. p. 1347, 2. ypacpeaOai irapa- 
voixtjjv ^ to accuse'. Id. in Mid. p. 554, 4. oiofxai (povov av 
eiKOTojQ e/LiavTi^ Xa\€7v. Lys. p. 148, 21. Xen. Ages. 1, 33. 
Dem. in Mid. j). 548, 20. "^ptifxara vTrKj-^veLTo ^waetv, ei rov 
Trpay/naroG aiTHovro e^e. p, 552. eTraiTiaaajuevoc /me 

(jyovov ^. Plat. Apol. S. p. 35 D. atref^eiac (pevyovra. 

ib. p. 26 A. €1 ^e aKu)v dia<pd€ip(i) {rove i^eouc), rtjv toiovtojv 
Kai aKOvcFiojv anapTr]fxaT(i}v ov ^evpo vofioQ eioayeiv {in 

judicium adducere) ecjriv. Aristoph. Nub. 591. rjv KXeojva 

cijjptjjv eXovTCQ KttL /cXoTTijq elra (pifxuxj-nre tovtov tw 
^vXi^ Tov avy^kva. Xen. Mem. S. 1,2, 49. aXXa ^(OKpaTYjQ 

* Fisch. 3 a. p. 41 2 sq. '' Valck. ad Eurip. Ph. p. 239. 

594 Si/ntax. Of the Genitive. 

y\ €(l>r} o KaTYiyopoQy tovc, warepac, TrpoirriKaKiCeiv e^i^aaKe 

(^a(JK(s)V, Kara vofxov e^elvai napavoiac iXovTi Kai tou va- 
Tepa ^rjaai. Dernosth. in Timocr. p. 732, 17. Xeyovrityv twj^ 

vofxwVf eav tic, aXw KXairrjc Kai jjlt) TiurjOy Oavarov, 

TrpoGTifxav avTtt) oetr^iov, Kai eav tic aAovQ t>/c KaKtjjcretoc 
Ttiiv yove.isiv etc TTjv ayopav e/upaAr/, ceceauaif Kav a<JT paT eiac 

TiQ oipXy Kai TOVTOV ce^eaOai' Ti/uoKpaTrjc airaoi tovtoic 

a^eiav TToiel. Comp. Plat. Leg. 9. p. 874 B. Arist. Av. 1046. 
KaXov /Liai HeiaOeTaipov v(5p€ii)Q. Thus also SiKat^iv Xen. 
Cyrop. 1, 2, 7. ^iKal[,ov(ji ^e Kai e-y/cX^^aroc, ov eveKa 
avOptoiroi /LUCTOvai /Liev aXXr}Xovt /naXitTTay ciKa^oVTai 8e Tj/ccrrra, 
a '^apKTTiac. 

370. Obs. 1. This genitive is besides often accompanied by other substan- 
(347) tives, or prepositions, on which it depends, e.g. 0euyeiv t7r' uiTta. 
<l>6vov Dernosth. hi Aristocr. p. QSZ^ 10. eypaxparo (yite) tovtiov avT(dy 
€V€Ka Plat. Euthyphr. p. 3 B. comp. Herod. C, 136. see Obs. 3. ypa- 
(beaOai Tiva ypacpyjv <p6vov, rpavfiaros j^schin. tt. izapairp. p. 270. in 
Ctesiph. JJ.QOB. anoypacpeffdaL <p6vov Hkyiv Antiph. p. 145,31. Xayelv 
TLVL hLKi)v eTTiTpoTrris Dernosth. in Aphob. p. 853, 18. 

Obs. 2, Other verbs of the same signification are, on account of the 
nature of their composition, differently constructed ; those compounded 
with /cara take the person in the genitive, and the crime, or the punish- 
ment, in the accusative, e. g. Kan^yopely ri nros. See §. 378. Yet with 
Kari]yop€7y tlvos the crime also is put in the genitive : Dernosth. in Mid, 
p. 515, 27. et fxev ovv irapavofiiov iifieWoy nvrov KaT-qyopelv, ovZev av 
vjAuiv i]i,iovv celadai. eyKaXelv has the person in the dative, and the 
crime in the accusative, e. g. Soph. El. 778. eyKuXuiy h' f/xot (povovs va- 
rpwovSf ^etV eirr^TreiXei reXely *. but also eyKaXely ti Kara riros id. Phil. 
328. and eTriKuXeTy riyi ti Thuc. 1, 139. 

Obs. 3. The punishment also is sometimes in the genitive, yet only 
davarov : Herod. 6, 136. Saydnnros u *Api<f)poyos Qavarov aynywy 
VTTO Toy Irifiov MtXrm^ea eBiojKe Trjs ^Adrjyaiioy airarris eivcKaf ' accusing 
capitally'. Xen. Cyrop. 1, 2, 14. Ka\ duvuTov te ovtol Kpivovai. Thuc. 
3, hi. dayaTOv ^Ur] KplyeaOai. Xen. H. Gr. 2, 3, 12. vTrayeiy da- 
rarov. Hence also Plat. Rep. 8. p. 558 A. avdpuiTrojy KaTa\Lri<pi(jdiyTU}v 
dayuTOv 1] (f)vyrjs. 

* Fisch. S a. p. 381 sq. 

Si/ntax. Of the Genitive. 595 

Ohs, 4. ei'oxosi which properly is constructed with the dative {De- 
mosth. in Timocr. p. 755, 11. lepoavKLq. kol aae/Se/^ Kal kXotc^ kol irdai 
Tols ^eu'OTa-ois elffli^ evoypi. Isocr. de Pac. p. 160 A.), sometimes takes 
the genitive : Lysias, p. 140 in. roXfjuoai rives Xeyeiy, ws ovcels eyoxos 
tart XenroTci^iov ovce deiXlas. and immediately after oXw rw vofju) 
ei'oxoy elvat. ]). 140, 20. Also the genitive of the punishment Demosth. 
p. 12:^9, 11. eyo-xpt ^eafiov yeyoyaai^. 

b. With adjectives. Eur. Ale. 753. w tr^erAta toX/litjq, 371. 
Iphig. A. 1287. Oi e-yw, Oavarov rov aov /meXea. Thus Porson (348) 
explains Eurip. Or. 219. w ^oorpvyjov TrivwSec aQXiov Kapa: 
but it seems to stand for (^oaTpv^oic Trivw^eo-i * filthy with re- 
spect to the hair', as §. 339. Plat. Phcedon. p. 58 E.*^ ev^ai- 
pu)v fxoi o avrjp ecpaivero Kai rov rpoirov Kai ru)v Xoytov. jEsch. 
Pers. 689. apefXTrroc '^povov. JEschin. in Ctesiph. p. 419. 
VTrevOvvoc, apvrjc,. 

Hence the genitive stands alone in exclamations, with and 
without an interjection or a word that expresses admiration, 
indignation, compassion, &c. Aristoph. Av. 61.' AttoXXov aTro- 
Tpoiraie, tov y^acjpripaToc, \ 'what a swallow!' Nnb. 153. w 
Zeu jSacTtXfcu, riJQ XeTTTorrjTOC rtjv (jypeuuyyl 'O Jupiter, the 
acuteness of his mind!' JE$ch. S. c. Th. 599. with c^eu. Also 
with the addition of a nominative: Eurip. Ph. 384. oipoi twv 
epujv eyu) kukcovI Xen. Cyrop. 3, 1, 39. <^eu rov dySpocl 
' alas ! what a man !' 2, 2, 3. rrjc; ru^rjc, to epe vvv KXrjOe.vra 
^evpo Tu^eTv ! * the misfortune ! that I should have now been 
summoned hither!' Theocr. 4, 40. alaX tw oKXripw fxaXa Saipo- 
voQ ! 10,40. o) jdoi T(o TTOjytovoQ. Thc article usually accompanies 
the substantive in the genitive, because the exclamation gene- 
rally refers to a determinate case, not however in all cases**. 
^sch. Pers. 114. oa, UepcnKov (TTparevfiaTOG row^e ! 728. a> 
TTOTToi, Kevtjc apajyTJc KmriKovpiaQ arpaTOv \ 924. al at at ai, 
Ke^vac aX/cac ! Soph. Aj. 908. lo /noi e/Liac arac I Eur. Ale. 
400. id) fxoi Tvyac,\ Arist. Nub. 1476. ot/uoi irapavoiacl 
Plut. 1 127. oipoi irXaicovvTOC, row Terpahi Treireppevov ! Plat. 
Rep. 6. p. 509 C. ''AiroXXov, ^aipoviac uTrejOjSoX^c! and without 

*> Markl. ad Lys. p. 520. ed. R. ** Toup adSuid. 1. p. 11. lays down 

'^ Ehnsl. ad Med. 996. this as a rule. 

596 Syntax. Of the Genitive. 

an interjection Xen. Cyr, 2, 2, 3. Theocr. 15, 75. '^pr}<jTU} k 
oiKTipfxovoQ av^poQ I The grammarians supply eveKa^, 

(349) c. With substantives. Od. o, 8. Tr^Xe/jLayoQ vvKra ^i a/u- 
f3po(jiriv peXe^t] /LLttTa Trarpoc eyetpev ' grief on account of 
his father'. //. o', 25. o^vvy) 'H^a/cXrJoc Beioio, Thuc, 7, 73. 
TO irepiyapec, {r\ yapa) rrja viKr}Q ' joy for the victory'. Soph, 
Trach. 41. irXiiv e/uot iriKpaQ wSTvac avrov TrpoajJaXivv airoi- 
Xerai 'anxiety on his account', comp. ib. 108. rjdovai re/cvwv 
Eur. Troad. 426. 'joy in his children'. Eur, Or. 426. to 
Tpoiaa iJU(TOQ 'hatred on account of Troy'. 452. Kovpa re 
OvyaTpoG nevBifiio KeKapfxkvoc, . Comp. ^.367. 

S72. With verbs of praying, the genitive is often used of the per- 

(350) gQn or thing, which the person entreated is to take into con- 
sideration, and from this consideration to grant the entreaty. 
Od. f3 , 6S, Xicraofxai rjjjiev Tjiivoq OXvfULTriov rj^e Ge/ii- 
aroG 'I entreat you by Jupiter, for Jove's sake', yovviov yov- 
va^ecrOai II, ^, 345. Herod. 6, 68. aJ fxrirep, Betov oe rtjv 
T€ a\\(x)v KaBairTOfJLevoQ iKCTevd) Kai rov Ep/ceiou Atoc 
Tou^e. Eur. Hec. 746. iKerevtJ ae ro)v^e yovvaTiov 
Kai (Tov yeveiov de^iaQ t ev^aijULOVOQ. Or. 663. Tav- 
Tr)Q (Ba/jiapTOc) iKvov jnai oe^. In other cases virep, at>TL, 
TTpoQ accompany this genitive, as Od. X , 66 seq. vvv de ae tcJv 
oTTiBev yovvaCoi-iaij ov irapeovT wv, irpoG t aXo^ov Kai 
rrar poQ. 

Hence the genitive with Xit^ ' the prayer' : Eur, Or. 284. 

oi/uLai ^€ narepa TOP e/uLov ttoXXoc yeveiov rov^ av eKrei- 

vai XiTttc. Id. Or. 244. Xirai BetSv 'entreaties by the gods', 
i. e. which are addressed whilst the suppliant takes hold of the 
altar of the deity (as in the first instance the chin of the person 
entreated), as XiTat TreTrXwi^ /cat (rrecpetjv jEschi/l. S, c. Th, 
101 seq. But it may also be, the prayers which we address to 

" Greg. Cor. p. (58) 137. gives this ^ Misc. Philol. vol. ii. t. 1. p, 48. 

genitive without an interjection as note. Erf. ad Soph. CEd. T. 313. ed. 

Attic. See the notes ad loc. Comp. min. 

Hemst. ad Arist. Pint, p.425. Heind. *= Brunck ad Eurip. Med. 326. 

ad Prot. p. 575. Fisch. 3 a. p. 348. Hec. 742. Pors. ad Eur. Or. 663. 

Syntax, Of the Genitive, 597 

the gods whilst we implore their protection. Soph, (Ed, C. 
1308. aoL irpocTTpoiraiovQf w irarep, Xirac e^wi^, avroQ t 
e/uavTov, ^i»/i/ua^wi/ re twi/ eimojv (which is followed by 
V. 1326. o'l (T avTi TTaiSiov ToJy^e Kai xpv^rjc, narep, iKerevo/jiev) 
' entreaties on my own account, and on that of my auxiliaries', 
where the idea of the cause is quite clear. 

3. In other places the genitive expresses the person or thing 373, 
from which anything proceeds, and is to be rendered by the (374) 
preposition ab, ex, ' from*. This is the case particularly with 
the verbs ' to hear, to get information, to learn'. Xen, Cyrop, 
3, 1, 1. o ' KpfxkvioCy (Lc ht^ovae rov ayyeXov ra irapa tov 
Kvpov, e^eirXayri, Herod. 2, 3. w^e juiev yeveaOai tijjv ipecov 
TOV 'll(paL(TTOv ev MefK^i r}Kovov. Eur. Ale. 378. w naicec, 
avTOL ^rj ra^ €i<jrjKov(jaT€ tt a r /ooc X e yo i' to c, which however 
may also be explained according to §. 349. Obs. 3.^ Plat. 
Euthyphr. p. 4 C. av^pa irevao/jievov rov e^riynrov, o ti 
-^prj TToieiv, instead of which ib. p, 9 A. we have irapa tijjv 
e^r}yr}TU)v TrvOeaOai, Eur. Rhes. 129. p-aOovrec eyBp(jjv 
pr]yavac KaraaKOTTOv ^ovXevaopeaOai. Comp. Soph. Antig. 
723. 1031. Again, in a somewhat different sense. Soph, Aj, 
1235. TavT ovK aKoveiv peyaXa irpoc, dovXoJV kqku ; 1320. 
ov yap KXvovTec; eafxev aiaylarovci Aoyouc, ava^ O^vaaev, touo 
vir dv^poQ apritJQ ', Thucyd, 1, 125. eweL^r} a(p airavrwv 
r}K0V(jav yvijjpr\v. 

Obs, The foundation of the construction aKoveiv tlvos Xeyovros, * to 
hear any one say', rests partly on this idiom, and partly on the remark 
§. 349. Ohs. 3, In a similar manner appears to have arisen the expres- 
sion anodexecrdai tivos * to assent to any one, to listen to him', properly 
uTToL ri Tivos * to approve something that another has said or done'. 
Plat. Prot. p. 324 C. ws pev ovv cIkotios airo^e-)(ovTaL ol aoi TroXlrai Kal 

)^aXfcews koi (rKVToropov avfJifiovXevovTOs ret TroXtrt/ca, otTTO- 

^edeiKral aroi, comp. Phcedon. p. 92 E. Isocr. c. Euth. p. 403 B. evQv 
fxeladai de Xf"7> ^^ O7ro^e^e<70e rw v ra roiavra XeyorTioVf on vopov 
dt](T€T€, TTias XPV cidiKeTy. comp. Lys. c. Nicom. in. 

In the same relation stand, a. eivaif yiyveaOai, with the ge- 374. 

«* Fisch. 3 a. p. 362 sq. 

598 Syntax, Of the Gemtive. 

nitive : Xen. Oyr. 1, 2, 1. narpoc jmeu ^ri Xeyerai Kvfjoc 
yeveadai Ka^pvcou, ixr]Tpoc, Se ojuLoXoyeiTai MavSavrjc 
yeveaOaij Jiatus esse diet tur pat re Camh. — Eurip. Hec. 383. 
^eivor, yjapaKTYip Kairia-quoc ev ^poroic, ecrOXtJV yeveaOai, 
Thus also iroTafxov (Kara) ykvoc, eivaiy ^loc, eivai yeverjv 11. (j) , 
186. Soph. Ant. 486. with Kvpel. ib. 38. with necjyvKaQ. For 
lov, Tpa(j)€ic is found Soph. Phil. 3. Comp. Msch. S. c. Th. 794. 
On the other hand, Eur. Iphig. A. 407. ^ei^eic ^e ttov p.oi na- 
Tpoc e/c Tavrov -ye-ywc ; Soph. Phil. 384. npoc rov KaKiarov 
KaK KQKwv O^vaakwc This genitive is used even with verbs 
of begetting: Eurip. Med. 800. ovre rrjc veotyyov vvp- 
(j>ric T€Kvio(J€i nai^a. Ion. 3. piac, Oeuiv e^utre Malav. with 
which otherwise e/c is put. 

b. The genitive often expresses the material of which any- 
thing is made, with verbs, substantives, and adjectives : l/e^ 
rod. 5, 82. eTreipdireov oi ^TriSavpioi, Korepa -j^aX/cou iroie- 
ovrai Ta ayaX/naTa, rj XiOov' ri Se Yivdir] ovSerepa Tovrewv 
ea, aXXa ^vXov riiu€pr}C eXalrjc 2, 138. ear pujjLievr) earl 
o^oc XiOov eiri aTaS'iovc Tpeic. ^laXttrra ktj. Xen. Qyr. 7, 5, 
22. €v(l>XeKTa ^e ra irpoQvpa avrwv, cJ)olvikoc, /mev al Ovpai 
TreTTOiri/j.evai, &c. (JTe(j)avoc Troiac Pind. P. 4, 426. ar. 
avBe/unov Arist. Ach. 991. <rT. XevKoiijjv Theocr. 7, 64. (rj^e^iai 
^i(j)9eptjv Xen. Anab. 2, 4, 28.* In yapiCofxevi] irapeovTUJV Od. 
a, 140. 'kindly communicating of what was at hand', the 
genitive seems to express at once the whole of which a part is 
meant, and the source from which anything proceeds. So 
Pind. Nem. 1, 46. (kpainai) eovrioVy ev re iradeiv Kai aKovcraiy 
^iXoic, e^apKetJv, to which Isocrates adds e/c, Areop. p. 144 C. 
€K Twv vTTapyovTwv eirapKelv. Thuc. 6, 33. airo tijjv virap- 
yovTii)v. The same is the case with oZ,eiv %. 376. 

Ohs, €K often accompanies this genitive : Herod. 2, 96. ra ^e ^^ 

TrXoTa (T(f)i effri ck* rfjs aKavdT]s -KOievfieva. And again, eVrt efc pv- 

piKTjs Tre-KOLYjiievr] Ovprj. Theocr. 17, 21. e^pa Tervyfxeva e^ a^d- 

pavTOS, or oltto : Her. 7, 65. e'ipara aTro E,vXo)v Treiroiripeva. The 

dative also is used for the genitive when the stuff of which anything is 
made may be considered also as the means by which it is made : Od. r', 

* Heind. ad Plat. Crat. p. 79. 

Syntax. Of the Genitive. 599 

563. ul fxkv yap KepaecrffL Terevy^araLy at ^' eX^^am. Comp. i^So. 
See §. 396. Obs.^ 

c. A genitive is put with substantives of all sorts, to express ^75. 
the author of a thing implied in the substantive, so that the 
genitive is taken in an active sense. //. j3', 396. Kvuara irav- 
Toiwv avejjiijjv ' waves excited by many winds'. JEsck. Prom. 908. 
''H/oao aXarelat ' the wanderings of lo caused by Juno'. Id. 
S. c. Th. 119. ^aiwv uXiiXTLQ. Eur. Or. 610. oveipar ayyeX- 
Xoutra rayafxeiixvovoQ ^ the dreams sent by Agamemnon from 
the shades below'. Suppl. 1038. rfKU), ^iirXovv wevOoc ye ^ai- 
/Lioviov e)(wi/, liictum a diis imrnissum, if the reading is correct. 
So TTOTjitoc ^aifxovujv Soph. PhiL 1116. comp. Eur. Phan. 1300. 
ai roju ve(jjv ri^ai Xen. Mem. 2, 1, 33. ' honours shown by the 
young men'. So ktiKlc ^vfx^opac, Soph. GEd. T. 833. a circum- 
locution for ^v/Li(j)opa, the stain originating in misfortune. 

Obs. 1. Even with passives, though rarely, the person from whom the 
effect proceeds is found in the genitive, instead of the genitive with vtto: 
Eur. Or. 491. TrXrjyeif: dvyarpos Trjs eixrjs. El. 123. Kelaui, ads aXo- 
5^ov ffcjxiyels Alyiadov t ^Ayd^ep.vov, But Thuc. 2, 19. to. ev 
UXarai^ n^v kaeKOoi'Tiov QrjjSaiwv yeyofxeya, the participle is used, after 
the manner of this historian, as a substantive, and so takes a genitive. 
The phrases viKciaOai riros §. 357. Xeiireadai riros §. 358. naTpos rpa- 
(pels §. 374 a. are different from this. ^sch. Agam. 82Q. t<3 ^' etmy- 
t'ko Kvrei 'EXttJs Trpoarjei yeipos oh TrXrjpovjJLepio, yeip appears to denote 
the \pfj<f)oi introduced by the hand *^. 

Obs. 2. There is a still wider deviation in the use of the genitive to 
express the instrument of an action, consequently for the dative. Yet 

this is done only in the Ionic poets : //. />', 415. Trpiv fie Trprjffai ttv- 

pos ^r)'iOLO duperpa. ^',331. uXX' aya, fj.ij Td\a aarv Tvvpos ^rjioio de- 
prjTQi. comp. i, 242. and //. ?;', 410. {vcKvas) Tcvpos fj-eiXiaaefjiey, for irvpi. 

Even Plato says, Phced. p. 113 A. Xifxvrjv i^eovaav vdaros /coi ttijXov, 

which, however, is probably to be rendered ' a lake of water and mud', 
^.355. Hence however the phrase fjuds -x^eipos, *at a single stroke', 
seems to have remained in the Attic language, e. g. Here. F. 940. But 
in the passage Eur. Hel. 1590. irXiicracra KXifjiaKrrjpas evffcpvpov tto^o's, 
the proper meaning and construction of TrifnrXr^fXL seems to have been 
kept in view along with the idiom illustrated by Porson ad Eur. Or. 54. 

^ Fisch. 3 a. p, 374 sq. S jhaef ad «= Scheef. ad Lamb. B. p. 750. 

Lamb. B. p. 693. 

600 Syntax. Of the Gejiiiive, 

Similar to this is \ovcadai rivos II. Ct 508. comp. e', 6. <p', 560. Hesiod. 
Theog. 5. So also Hesiod. Fr. 19. v. 3. Gaisf. vi\paro Xi^xv-qs. Hymn. 
Horn. 'iTTTTOvs apaaaa ftaQvayoivoio MeX^^ros. Elsewhere po^ai. {II. tt', 
669), ttTTo {Hymn. Horn. 32, 7.), and other turns of expression, Jpoll. 
Rh. 5, 876. are used with this genitive \ The genitive appears here 
also to express origin, §. 374 b. and consequently that by which any- 
thing is effected. Comp. §. 377, 1. Hence perhaps also Kovpoi he Kprj- 
rfjpas e7r€ffT€\pavT0 ttotoio II. a, 470. &c. 

Obs. 3. In the phrase kirovoixa'CeaQaL tlvus^ * to be called after some 
one'. Plat. Leg. 4. p. 713 A. 5. p. 738 B. the genitive does not express 
that by which anything is effected, but that by which it is occasioned, 
as kiri is used with the genitive, KaXeiardaL erri tlvos Herod. 4, 45. See 
§. 584 a. Hence cttw wnos riyosy e. g. Eur. Phoen. 650. i/ei/ccwv cttw- 

VVjJlOV *•. 

370. A similar idiom obtains in the verbs o^eiv ' to smelP, wveeiv 
(362) ' tQ breathe', when that of which anything smells, or which it 
breathes, is put in the genitive ; the quality of the smell being 
expressed by a neuter adjective. Af^ist. Lys. 616. rj§>; yap 
ol[,eiv ye TaSi fuiei^ovuyv Kai irXeiovMV tt pay fxar lov fxot 
^oKel. Theocr. 7, 143. iravr uya^ev Oepeoc fxaXa ttiovoq, 
wff^e ^' o7rw/o)K. Lys. p. 103, 18. The part also which 
emits the smell is at the same time in the genitive, §. 318. 
§. 374 b. to which Pherecrates Athen. 14. p. 648 C. adds e/c. 
Aristoph. Acharn. 852. Aprkfjuov o^iov KaKov twv pacr'y^a- 
Xu)v Trarpoc Tpayacraiov. Eccl. 524. ttJc /ce^aXr/c o^a> 
fivpov. The verb is also put impersonally : Aristoph. Vesp. 
1058. vjjuv ^i erovG rtjv l/jtaritjv o^r7(Tei ^efiOT)?TOC * there will 
be a smell of dexterity from your clothes'. Comp. Pac. 529 sgq. 
Herodotus 3, 23. adds otto to the genitive : o^eiv ^e air* avrrjc 
(KprjvTiG) tjaei 'itjv ' the spring smells as of violets' ^. More fully 

in Hermipp. ap. Athen. 1. p. 29 E. ov Kai dwo <TT0juaT0C 

oc,€L i(i)v oafxr] xJeGirecfia, 

In the same manner irveiv, Anacr. 9, 3. iroOeu pvpwv 
TOtTOVTwr, €7r TjepoG Oeovaa, irveeiG re Kai xpeKat^iQ. Ari- 
stoph. Equ. 437. u)C ovTOQ r)^i] Kaifcmq Kai avKOipavriat; 

'•" Musgr. ad Eur. Iph. A. 1078. Arist. Plut. 1020. Schweigh. ad 

Lamb. B. p. 502. ed. Schaef. Athen. t. 7. p. 681. Person et Do- 

^ Schaef. ad ApoU. Rh. p. 168. bree ad Arist. Plut. p. 186. Lips. 

" Thorn. M. p. 521. Brunck ad Schaef. ad Long. p. 392. 

Sj/utax. Of the Genitive. 001 

TTveT. Epigr. Lucill. in AnalL Br, T. 2. p, 366. oi» /novou 
avTJi wvei ^r\fxo<JTpaTic,, aWa Kai avrrjc touq oafxr](sa^kvovQ 
TTvetv ir€7roir}K€ rpayov. 

Also 7r/oo(Tj3aXXecv juvpov : Aristoph. Pac, 180. noOeu j3poTOv 
fie TTpocrejSaXe, where it is put impersonally. Athen. 1 3. jo. 566 E. 
Tovc luvpov TTpoajSaXXovTaQ, For 7rpo(y(5aX\eiv oa/j,iiu instead 
of ojetv, 7rpo<y(5a\\eiv was concisely said, which was then con- 
strued hke o^eiv, with which it agreed in sense. The same 
seems to be the origin of \i6oi dnocTTiXf^ovrec d\ei(j)aTOc;, 
'shining with oil', Od, y , 408. and ai^ur/C aVeXa/tTre //. ^', 

V. The genitive serves also to determine place and time, in 377. 
answer to the question ' where ? when? ' Sec. : for place and time (^78) 
may be considered as the whole of which each event constitutes 
a part. 

1. 'Where?' Od, y, 251. ^ ovk*' Apyeoc, r^ev 'A'^auKov ; 
for ev ' Apyei, (j) , 108 sq. o\r] vuif ovk €<TTt yvvrj Kar A-^au^a 
ycuaVy ovre 11 vXou leprjc, out ' ApyeoQ, ovre Mv/crj v»jc. 
a, 24. Thus also JEsch. Prom. 720. AaiaQ Se y^eipoc ot 
ai^ijporeKTOvcc, oiKovai XaXujSec ' on the left hand', for eirl 

X. ^. as Xen, Anab, 4, 8, 15. rov evtjjvvpov tov Se^iov, 

Soph, El, 900. eo-^arr/c opui nvpac vewpr] ^oarpvyov TeT- 
/mrfjuevov. Eur, Suppl, 499. Karrai^ewc Kepavviov Se/xac Kairvov- 
Tai KXi/uLaKiov opdoaraTtjjv. Hence the adverbs ovy ttov, 
oTTov, 'where?' So eTri takes a genitive, and sometimes the 
genitive is used with ctt/, sometimes alone : Od. /ii, 27. tj ciXoq 
V enl yrJG' The expressions XeXov/tievoQ Q/ceai^oTo 'in the ocean', 
§. 375. 0^5. 2. might be referred to this head. 

In Homer the genitive often expresses, not a definite place, 
but a place in its whole extent, e. g. //. 0', 106 seq, Tre^ioio 
Kpaiirva jmaX evOa Kai evOa ^icoKepev 7]Se (j>€peaOai ' through the 
plain', where we might also join evOa Kai evOa ire^ioio, eireaav- 
pevov ire^ioio -^ , 26, irapel^eXOelv TreSioto k , 344. eXKepevai 
v€io7o j^aOeirjQ aporpov ib, 353. 

2. With definitions of time, a. 'when?* //. X', 690. eXBtjif 

•* Koen ad Greg. p. 36. ed. Schaef. Schweigh. ad Athen. t. 7. p. 47. 
Schtcf ad Lamb. Bcs. p. 361 seq. 

602 Syntax, Of the Genitive, 

yap CKaKioae pit) \{paK\r\eir) tvHv w porepuyv erewv 'in the 
former years'. 0', 470. comp. 525. (perhaps also </)', 111. Kai 
efxoL Bauaroc Kai fxoipa KpaTairj eaaerai rj r}ovc, v oeiXijc, V 
p,e(sov r\fxap. ' in the afternoon'.) jEsch. Ag. 289. tjJc vvv reKov- 
arjQ (piOQ TO^ €v(ppovr}c. Soph. Q^d. C 396. Kai /ultiv Kpeovra 
y 'laSi aoi tovtiou ^upiv rj^ovra (3aiov kov-^i fnvpiov \po- 
vov. Aj. 141. T»/c vvv (pOi/nevrjc; vvktoq. (comp. Trach. 173.) — 
285. aKpac, vvKTOC. Thuc. 3y 104. tov avrov '^ei/mtxivoQ. Isocr. 
de Pac. p. 1 70 A. t»Jc avrrjc -nixepac* Thus the genitives vvktoc, 
Oepovc, -^ei/uLijjvoCj eapoc, ' in summer, winter, spring', are very 
frequent, accompanied sometimes by ouar^c, ovtoc^. With this 
genitive e/c is found Soph. El. 780. ovre vvktoq, ovt' ej r]/j.epac„ 
Comp. Eur. Rhes. 13. 

b. The genitive is often to be rendered by ' within, in the 
space of : Her. 2, 115. avrov ^e ae Kai tovq (jovc, av/nirXoovQ 
Tpitjv r)im€p€(i)v irpoayopevd) ek rrjc e/nrjc yrjc ec aWrjv riva 
fxerop/jiiteaOai. Plat. Alcib. 1. p. 105 A. hy^y com Oarrov eia 

TOV AOrjvaiojv ^r/^iov Tra^oeX^^C towto ^e ecreaOai /maXa rijxe'- 

ptjv oXiyijjv, wapeXBCjv Se ev^eil^aaOai, Scc. comp. Leg. 1, 
p. 642 E. 11. p. 915 B. r piaKovra i^jjieptov awo ravTrjc 
Ttjc rj/nepac \apu)v aTriTd) ra eavrov. Gorg. p. 516 D. Isocr. 
de Pac. p. 177 D. This genitive is accompanied by evroc Plat. 
Ale. I. p. 106 C. evTOQ ov TToWov '^povov. Isocr. JEg. p, 38S1^. 
evroc rpiaKovO' r)iJiepwv. Evag, p. 201 E. evroQ rpiwv ertjv". 

c. * Since'. JEsch. Agam. 288. iro'iov y^povov ^e Kai ire- 
TTopOrjrai iroXiQ. Comp. Eur. Or. 41. Arist. Lys. 280. ej 
erd^v aXovroc, * for six years, during six years'. Plat.Phcedon. 
in. ovre ric ^evoQ a(p7KraL ypovov Gv^^vov eKelOev. Symp. 
p. \1'2 C. ovK o\aO y on ttoXXwu erivv Aya9u)V evOa^e ovk 
eTTide^rijULriKev ; 

378. Prepositions govern the genitive, not of themselves, but be- 
cause they express some one or more of the relations which have 
been already given as peculiar to the genitive; as dvri §§. 357. 
364. aTTo §§.368.374. e/c§. 318. tt/oo §§. 364. 366. eve/ca, 

* Thorn. M. p. 630 sq. Miisgr. ad art CEd. C.397. Heind. ad Plat. Gorg. 
Eur, Iph A. 1608. p. 7. 

^ Schaef. ad Soph. El. 478. Elmsl. 

Syntax. Of the Genitive. 603 

^la §. 368. It is therefore absurd to have recourse in all cases 
to prepositions for the explanation of constructions, since the con- 
struction itself is determined by the original meaning of the case; 
and when opyiteaOai tivoq is explained by ev€Ka, the question 
still remains. Why does evcKa govern a genitive ? To the original 
signification of the prepositions are added others nearly allied, 
which are not included in the use of the case, and which show 
themselves chiefly in words compounded with prepositions. 
Hence the genitive is put with verbs compounded with prepo- 
sitions which govern the genitive, when these prepositions may 
be separated from the verb, and placed immediately before the 
case, without altering the signification of the verb : e. g. avri- 
TTupky^eiv r'l tivoq for irape^eiv xi avTi rtvoc. aTTOTrr)^av apjua- 
Toq for 7rr}Sav a(j) apfnaTOQ. e^epyeaQai oiKiac, for epyeaQai e^ 
oiKiaQy &c. but not avrtXeyecv rtvoc * to contradict any one', for 
Tivi, because \kyeiv avr'i rivoc would give an entirely different 
sense, ' to speak in the place of any one'. Frequently also a 
verb compounded with a preposition which requires a genitive, 
governs the genitive, though the preposition cannot be sepa- 
rated from the verb, e. g. avrnroielaOai rii'oq, eCpieGOal rivoc, 
anoXaveiv tivoq. Here then the genitive does not arise from 
the preposition, but from the relation which the verb expresses. 
From the same kind of reference to themselves and to the 
preposition with which they are compounded, and which ex- 
presses this reference more definitely, the verbs compounded 
with KuTo. ('against', with a genitive), which represent an action 
as tending to the disadvantage of a person or thing, take the 
genitive of the person or thing against which the action is di- 
rected, together with the accusative of the thing which is the 
passive object of the verb, e. g. KaTrjyopelv ri tivoq, properly, 
' to utter, to assert anything to the disadvantage of a person', 
i. e. * to accuse one of anything'. Xen. Mem. S. 1, 3, 4. twv 
aAAwv fjnopiav KaTr\y6pei, oiTiveQ irapa to. irapa tujv deujv av]- 
fxaivofxeva ttoiovgl ti. (Hence in the passive the verb, as the 
predicate, is referred to the thing or the object, as the subject : 
Thiic. 1, 95. Kai yap a^iKia ttoXXt) KaTT)yop€LTO avTOv 

(TLavaavLOv) vtto twv EXXrjvwv tiuv a(pLKvoviJ,ev(x>v. /ca- 

TrjyopeLTo Se avTOv ov^ r}Ki(jTa M.r]di(j /jio q. Pausanias accu- 
sabatur injustiticB, studii partium Persicarum. comp. Xen. 

H 2 

G04 Syntax. Of the Genitive, 

Cyrop. 5, 2, 27. On the other hand Herod. 7, 205. ^e-yaXwc 
<T(j)€(jjv KOTTiyopriTO uri^iCeiv,) Euripides HeracL 4 iS. uses the 
accusative of the thing alone, twv fxwpiav ejjLriv Kartiyopovvrtjjv, 
which is the less wonderful as the genitive of the personal pro- 
noun agrees entirely in signification with the possessive pronoun, 
iu(jt)p. e/uiov Karr^y. For the accusative of the thing we have nepi 
with the genitive Li/s. ^. 139, 37. So also KarayiyviocTKeiv : 
Plat. Apol. S. p. 25 A. Tro\\i)V ye /liov KareyvtDKaQ arv^iav, 
* thou pronouncest that I am very unliappy'. Leg. I. p. 625 E. 
avoiav ^rj ^oi ^oKel Karayvuivai tiov TroWujv. Isocr. c. Loch. 
J9. 396 D. optjj d vjiiac, oTav rov KaTayvtHre lepocrvXiav 
r) KXoirriVy ov irpoc, to f.ikyeQoc u)v av Xa(3(jjcn tyjv Ti/nuypiav 
Troiovfuievovc, a\X ujliokjjc, awavTajv OavaTov KaraKpivovraCy 
'judge that any one has committed sacrilege or theft ; condemn 
him of sacrilege or theft*. Comp. zc?. p. 17 B. 35 A. Thnc.3, 
81. Kareyviixrav airavTtJv ^avaroi' * declared death against all, 
condemned them to death*. The person is sometimes attracted 
in its case to the infinitive : Plat. Theat. ^. 206 E. /ulyj toivvv 
paSitJC KaTayivio(TKU)i.iev to ^trj^ev eiprjKevai toi' a7ro(pi]vaiJLevov 
eTTKrTrjjLiTfv. Thus KaraKpiveiv airavTwv Oavarov ib. KaraciKa- 
l[,€iv Tivoc, Oavarov Herod. 1, 45. Kara'ipriCJyiZeaOai tivog ^ei- 
Xiav LysiaSf p. 140, 30. 'to pronounce that one is guilty of 
cowardice*^. ^schin. Axioch. 12. oi Se irepi OrjpafuLevriv Kai 

KaAX/^evov KaT€'^€ipoT6vr}(Tav twv av^ptjv aKpiTOv 

Oavarov. — Plat. Pep. 3. p. 392 E. toi^ ^e (\pvar)v) Karev- 
"^eaOai r(jjv A-^auov irpoQ rov Oeov. — Kareinelv ri rivoc* 
jEsch. Axioch. 7. roaaBe rov 'Cr^v Kareiirev 'said thus much 
against life'. Xeti. Cyrop. 1, 4, 8. oi ^e (pvXaKcc npoae- 

Xa<javrec, eCpacrav Karepe^v avrov no irainno ' that they 

would accuse him to his grandfather'. Plat. Phaedon. p. 85 A. 

oi avOp(jJ7roi rojv kvkviov KaraxpevSovrai, Kai (paaiv 

avrovc OprivovvraQ rov Oavarov vtto XvTrrfQ e^a^eiv. 

This meaning of the words compounded with Kara is derived 
from the circumstance, that this preposition with the genitive 
properly denotes 'down', and expresses a motion downward; 
and this sense is found in some verbs with the same con- 
struction, e. g. KaraaKeBa^eiv, Kara^eiVy KaravrXelv, in their 
proper and figurative sense. Xen. Anab. 7. p. 3, 32. avaarar, 

* Fisch. 3 a. p. 381. 

Sj/ntax. Of the Genitive. 605 

o 2ev0»/q Gwe^eirie Kai avyKareffKeSaae twu ^er avrov to 
KepaQ ' poured out the drinking-vessel over them*. Demosth. 
pro Cor, p. 242, 12. aiVtoc ^e ovroc, wGirep ewXoKpaaiav 
Tiva jjiov Trie TTOvr^piac ttJq eavTOv Kai rtiiv aci/ci?^aTwv Kara- 
GKe^acrac,^, Aristoph. Equ, 100. Plat. Leg. 7 . p. 800 D. 
iraaav ^Xaa^tif^iiav rwv le pijjv KaTa^eouat. //. \p , 408. /xtj 
(T(j)LjLV eXey-^eirjv Kara^evy Aidy. Plat. Rep. 7 . p. 536^. 
^iAo<TO<^tac en TrAetw -yeXwra Karai'TXTjfdo^ei'. 2^. 9. 
p. 587 E. KaTa(pop€7v. Li/s. p. 204 D. erretSav to. Troi7]f.iara 
r)fx(j)v eTnyeipi]ay^ KaravrXelv^. Hence KaraC^povelv tivoq 'to 
think meanly of a person as one's inferior, to despise', with an 
accusative of the thing imputed. Thuc. 8,8. toi^ itXovv Tavrrf 
€K Tov TTpoclyavovG eiroiovvTO, KaTa(j)povr)(TavT€(; t(jjv AOt]- 
vaiijjv a^vvaaiav 'thought that the Athenians were unable*. 
KaTayeXav tivog, Plat. Lack, in, eiai yap rivec o'l t<jjv toi- 
ovTCJv KarayeXuiaij as the simple yeXav Soph. Phil. 1125. 
These compounds are sometimes found in a good sense, e. g. 
Plat. Pep, 6. p. 508 D. orav fueu, ov KaraXa/uTrei aXrtSeia re 
Kai TO ov, etc TOVTO uTrepe'iariTai Mie whom truth enlightens*. 
Apoll. Rh, 4, 25. fxera d r]ye iraXioavTOQ aOpoa koXttmu (e/c 
KoXiroyv) (pap/naKa iravr afxv^iQ Kare'^evaTO (jxjjpiapolo 
for etc (fxjjpiajuov, 

Ohs. 1. These verbs have not always the two cases, the genitive and 
accusative ; only one is often used, if the thing or person which is ex- 
pressed by the other is easily understood : Plat. Thecet, p. 206 E. ^^ 
To'ivvv p(^liii)s KaTayiyvdaKiiHiev to \it]}iev elprjKepai ray awocpTjyajjLeyov 
€7ri(TTiifjir]y, o vvv (TKOKovfiey, the object only, or matter of the judge- 
ment, is expressed ; and since this is an infinitive, the person is referred, 
as the subject, to this, for fxfi KaTayiyyu)(TK(i)fX€y rod aizo<pr]yafxeyov to 
elpi^Kcyai or otl firidky e'iprjKey. 

Ohs, 2, The genitive, according to the analogy of KuraippoveiVy also 
accompanies TrepK^poyeiv^ v7r€p(ppove'iy, ' to despise' : jEsch. Axioch. 22, 
i]dr} 7r€pi(f)poy(ij tov i^rjy, a.T€ els afxeiyu) aiiKoy ixeTaarrjcroixeyos. Arist, 

Nub, 1400. (ws t]^v ) Tfjiy Kadearijjrtjy vofjLCjy virepibpovelv 

^vyaadai ! Yet this is often put with the accusative also, as Thuc. 3, 39. 
Arist. Nuh. 22G. So also birepopdv Tiyos Xen. Symp. 8. 22. which ih, 
8,3. Mem. aS'. 1, 3, 4. Thuc. 6, 18. is constructed with the accusative. 
So KaraXoyeiy tl Herod. 1, 144. 3, 121. though aXoyelv takes only the 

*» Piers, ad Moer. p. 2 16 sqq. Toup. «= Heusde Spec. PI. p. 127 sq. 

Em. in Suid. 1. 1. p. 319 sq. 

006 Sj/ntax. Of the Genitive. 

genitive. So we find KaraKepTOfxely rivoSf rivi and rird. Schcef. ad 
Long, p. 366 sq. Even Kara^poveiy riva, Eurip. Bacch. 503. Kara^povel 
fxe Koi 0///3as oce. Time. 6, 43. 8, 82. Elsewhere Kara(j>p. has an ac- 
cusative of the thing without a genitive of the person : Herod. 1, 59. 
KaTa<l)poin)fTas rtjy Tvpavvida ' thinking of the tyranny with contempt 
for his opponents', ib. 66. KaracppovriaavTes ^ApKa^ojy Kpiaaoves elvai. 
Comp. 8, 10. 

Ohs. 3. Some of the verbs compounded with Kara are found also with 
the dative : Od. \', 433. kut alayos eyeve koI k(Tao^evr\aiv OTriaaiJi Brj- 
\vT€pr](Ji yvvai^t, II, v\ 282. ko.}) V ayos o\ yyro fivpiov d<pQa\^oi(Tiv 
(on the other hand 421. Kap pa ol 6(f>0a\}iQv k^^vt ayXvs)'. in the oracle 
Herod. 7, 140, Soph, Aj. 153. toIs aols cixeTtv KaQvj^pi^oiv, Herod, 
7, 9. KUTayeXuaaL i}piv, comp. 3, 155. 7, 14G. rolci /itev KaraKeKpiTO 
davaros. Others are found with the accusative : Eur. Suppl. 588 seq, 
ffTopa cK^pw KnTarTTa'CovTa, for aTOfxaros a(^pov tear, and with double 
accusative Soph. Phil, 823. i^pojs ye roi viv nay KaraffTu^ei ^epas. as 
Pind. Pijth. 5, 13. ev^iay as yvy KaraiBvaaf.L reav jjiaKaipay eariay, for 
reds paKaipas earias ' who pours out serenity on thy happy house'. Even 
the place from which one descends is found with Kara/3atVeiv in the 
accusative : Od. ;//', 85. ws (^apeyrf Karefiaty vTrepwVa. Herod, 6, 134. 
KaradpujaKCL Trjy aifjiaairjy. id. 7, 218. ol ^e Kar^jSaiyoy ro ovpos, for rov 
ovpeos, Od. a'y 330. KXlpaKa 2' v\l/r)Xrjy »care/3//o'aro. The two last in- 
stances denote the way, as §. 409, 4. Arist, Acharn. 711. Karef^oriae 
2' av KcKpayios To^(')Tas rpKr^iXiovs *he would have outbawled'. Comp. 
Equ, 286 seq. 

oyo The same is the case with tt/oo in composition : Thiicyd, 3, 

(377) 39. TToXe^oi' ripavTOf layyv a^toxravTeq rou ciKaiov irpo- 

Oelvai ' to set higher', (§. 358.) Herod, 5, 39. ei roi av ye 

(T€(i)VTov prj irpoopac, 'to care for', (§. 348.) Xen, Hier, 

6, 10. avT(jjv {t(jjv ipvXaKiov) 7rpo(l)vXar rover iv oi vopoi, 

io(TT€ Trepl eavTujv (po(^ovvTai Kai virep vpwv, Ib, 1 1, 5, 7. 

npoffrareveiv rivoc Isocr.p. 108 A. Trpoarrjvai tivog, Xen, 

Hier. 10, 8. npovoelv kui tt poKiv^vveveiv toju TroXiTtJv. 

(§. 348.) On the other hand Flat. Lys. p. 219 D. o ti ai/ ric, 

Trepl TToXXou TTOtrJrai,-- - a VTi Trayrwu tijjv aWwv y^pripaTWV 

TT poTipa. Leg. 5, p, 727 D. ovde pr)V, irpo aperrjc ottotuv 

av TTpOTifJLa TIC /caXXoc, tout ccttiv ovy^ krepov, 17 tj ttiq xpvyrJQ 

ovTtuc Kai Trai'TWC aripia. 

Words compounded with €7rt also govern the genitive under 
the condition laid down in §. 378. as eTrif^aiveiv -yijc, e.g. Eur, 

Syntax. Of the Genitive. 607 

Or. 626. €7rt/3a revet 1/ rivoc, Herod. 3, 63. (but also the accu- 
sative.) veKpovc, cLfxal^cnov eiraeipav IL r! , 426. veKpovc irvp^ 
KaiiJQ eirevrfveov ib. 428. 31. 

Ohs. 1. Sometimes, in these compound verbs, no regard is paid to 
the preposition, and another case is put for the genitive, as the sense 
and reference of the verb admit ; as aTroffrpecpeaOai riva, properly * to 
turn oneself away from any one, to abhor him', (comp. §. 393.) Eur. 
Swppl. 159. aversari aliquem. aTrorpenecrdai tl Iph. A. 136. a-jreivai 
TivL id. Troad. 393. * to be distant with respect to any one', id. Troad. 
393. eKTrXelp tov 'EWi'iffTrovrov Herod. 5, 103. (which 7, 58. is e^w rov 
'EXXyaTTOVToy TrXely) eirel e^ijXOoy riiv llepaiZa '^oj prjv id. 7, 29. 
comp. Aristot. Polit. 3, 14. p. 475 D. kK(^aiv€iv ra rpiaKOyra err} 
Plat. Rep. 7. p. 537 D.'' Sometimes also some verbs compounded 
with €fc are constructed with the dative: //. ^', 115. Hopdel yap rpeis 
Trai^es afivfioves e'^eyevorro. H. h% Ven. 197. TraT^es TraiZeaai 
^LOfjiTrepes e Kyeydovrat. Herod. 1, 30. vat (r<pi elde an a at reKva 
eKyevofjieva. Eur. Iph. T. 814. Similarly Eur. Iph. A. 1226. 
iKerrjpiay ^e yoyaaiy e^aTmo aedey (r). 

Obs, 2. On the other hand, verbs which are compounded with pre- 
positions governing a dative or accusative, sometimes take the genitive : 
Soph.Aj. 1292. TCL^Eijjy eyKeKXeia/jLeyovs, according to §. 377, l.** Eur. 
Phcen.^54:. royV eto-e^e^w reix^wv. Soph. (Ed. T. 236. where how- 
ever the genitive yjjs may perhaps be caused by ^s, which follows 
§. 474.*^ Arhtoph. Lys. 272. oh yap, p.a rijy Ar]fjriTp\ kfjLOv ^uiyros 
kyyavovyTaLy equivalent to KaTayeXaaovTai. Soph. (Ed. T. 825. e/x- 
(3aT€V€iy 7raTpi()ds. Soph. (Ed. C, 400. €p(DaiyeLV opojy yfjs, c. n. Schcef. 
ButPhil. 648. ri TOvd\ o prj veojs ye rrjs eprjs e»'t; (eVeori) Xa/^elv 
is to be supplied from Xa/3wv v. 645. 

Words compounded with avv and ofiov especially often take 
the genitive instead of the dative, e. g. cyvvTv^elv or evrvy^e^v 
Tivoc. Herod. 4, 140. Soph. (Ed. C. 1482. Phil. 321. 1333.** 
7} ^vvoiKoc rijjv Kard) Oeuiv Alki] id. Ant. 45\. Aa/ceSa ijuovoc 
yala ^vvwvv jlloq Eur. Hel. 503. as o /li u) vv /jl o v rrjc TraTpiooQ 
Isocr. Ev. p. 192 C. a) (piXrarr), opveiov J^vvo^e, t(jjv 
e.fjujjv vfxvijjv ^vvr po(pi' ar/^o7 Arist. Av. 676. ra ipv-^^rjc 
(Tvyyeurj Plat. Leg. 10. p. 892 A. avoiac airaar\ci ^vyyevrja ih, 

" Valck. ad Herod. 5,103. p. 429, 86. p. 8 13, 392. 

^ Lob. ad Aj. 1261. '' Toup ad Suid. 1. p.l71. Brunck 

*= Valck. ad E.Ph. 454. Brunck ad ad Soph. 11. cc. Buttm. ad Phil. 321. 
Soph. (Ed. T. 825. Ilerm. ad Vig. 

608 Si/titax. Of the Genitive. 

p, 898 B. comp. p. 897 A. Phccdon. p. 86 A. Phil. p. 19 D. 
46 B. 66 B. yevoQ avOpwntjJv l^v/ui(j)v€C rod navroc, '^povov 
Leg. 4. p. 721 C. rov yevovc tovtov ^^vjuCpivva Phil. jt>. 1 1 B. 
TOVTOv ^v/nCfyvTOvc Yi^ovuc CTTOjiievac ib. p. 51 D. 7rap(j>a(TiG ai- 
^luXwi^ fxvQijjv ojuLo^oiToc Pi/id. Nem. 8, 55. 

380. 06^. 1. A substantive sometimes governs two different genitives in 
different relations : Pind. Isthm. 6, 79. Xauiv kv irovois eKirayXov 'Ei/v- 
aXiov, where irvyoi 'EvvaXlov along with tt. XaiSy are 'the labours 
allotted by Mars, consecrated to him', as epya"ApT)os in Homer, j^sch. 
Agam. 1253. T))y /ley Qveff rov Balra Traideiwy Kpeuiv '^vvrJKa (Ov- 
earrjs t^atyvTO tcpea Tratleia). Soj)h, Aj. 53. ^vfj-fjiiKTa Xeias d^atrra 
fiovKoXu) V (ppovpt'ifMaTa, from ^vjj/iiKTa Xeias for ^vfifxiKToy Xe/av, accord- 
ing to §. 442. 3. and L,viJ.fx. (ppovpli/xara /3ov»coXwi', i. e. ayeXot, as ^pov' 
povffiy o't (3ovk6Xoi. it. 618. rci Trpiy epya ■)(^€po'iy /xeyiffras aperas, 
where epya fxeylffrris ap. are ' deeds characterized by the greatest valour' 
§. 316. id. (Ed. C. 729. opw t«V v^as 6 jj. fiariov eiXr](f>6Tas ^ofiov 
vewprj rrjs .€ fjLTJ s ctt eiaoBoVf because o^yuara (pol^elTai may be said 
for ' betray fear', ttjs efxrjs eireKTo^ov according to §. 368. Eur. Androm. 
148. aroXfiuv ^pcjrds tto iKtXwv tt cTrXojy, from xpios areXXeraL 7re- 
ttXovs, Suppl. 55. ovTC Tu^u>y j^w/xara yalas eaopu), from ^(loyyvyai 

TCKpovs and )(. yatai^. Her. 6, 2. 'loriatos vireZwe tiop *l<jjyu)y 

rrjy iiye/xoyiriv tov irpos Aapeloy ttoXc^ov, 'the command ofthelonians 
in the war against Darius*. Thuc. 3, 12. TrpoairoaTavTes lia rrjy eKei- 
v(t)y fjieXXrjffiy ruiy els iifias ^eiyuiy * on account of their delay in re- 
spect to the calamities'. Plat. Rep. 1. p. 329 B. rhs ruiy otKeitoy 
'TrpoTnjXaKitreis tov y»/pws 'affronts which relations offer to old age'. 
Comp. Hipparch. in the passage quoted §. S3S. Isocr. Panath.p. 249 A. 
Tt^y H eXoTTOs fiey aircKTrjs JleXoTroyyii aov K'araX»/\//iv, Aayaov 
he TTJs TToXetos rrjs 'Apyeiwy Ka3/xov hk Qrij^oiy. Other examples 
occur in the preceding sections, 

Obs. 2. Sometimes two genitives of the same number are found to- 
gether, one of which governs the other, which occasions harshness and 
obscurity : Thuc. 1, 45. ?)i/ fi^ eTrl KepKvpay TrXewct Kal jjLeXXojaiy arro- 
f3aiyeiy, fj e^ riSy eKciyojy tl ^wjo/wi^, from ra eKeiyioy -^^ijjpLa. comp. ib. 
53 extr. ib. 141. cnro ruiy avruiy ha-rrayuiyrfs. Xen. Anab. 5, 5, 18. 
/8/^ ovhey eXajjiftuyoiJiey rioy eKeiyioy. Cyrop. 6, 1, 15. Toiy p.ey eKei- 
vioy 6')^vpuiy u)s TrXelara irapaipelv. and so perhaps the reading is cor- 
rect Hist. Gr. 2, 2, 9. oaoi rQy avruiy earepoyTO, where some have rwi/ 
ai/roJj', others Ti]s avrwy. ol eKelyoi is contrary to the rules of the lan- 

Obs. 3. In many other cases genitives are found with substantives 

Syntax. Of the Genitive. 609 

instead of prepositions with their cases, though of themselves and without 
substantives they would not be so used, e. g. yrjs Trarp^as roffros, for 
€is yrjv TT. Eur. Iph. T. 1073. comp, Horn. Od. e, 344. Hence, as a 
genitive in such cases is equivalent to an adjective, Eurip. tb. 1119. 

voffTov l3apl3apoy ijXdop for evoarovv, i.e. rjXdov eis jjapfjapovs^, e^pa 

yrjs Trjcr^e Soph, (Ed. C. 45. for ev y^ rr/^e, as iiXiov iv6aKr}(TLS Soph. 
Phil. 17. TTvpyoL hdv/jLioy irora^wy for cTri di^vfiois TroTafiols Eur.Phcen. 
852. as Pind. 01. 2, 16. lepbiv Trora/iwv ttoXls Eur. Med. 851.'' Hence 
two genitives {Ohs. 1.) Soph. Phil. 489. to. XaXKw^ovros Ev(3oias oTadfxd 
' the place of Chalcodon in Euboea*. id, Trach. 1191. roy Otriys Zripos 
vxpirrroy irayoy. Pind. Isthm, 4, 45. ev 'A^paareiois adXois ^iKvoHyos. 
Eur. Ion. 12. UaXXdhs vtt' oxdu) rrjs 'Adrjyaitoy xQoyos 'in the country 
of the Athenians'. 

Obs. 4. Instead of the genitive alone is sometimes found a preposition 
Avith the genitive or another case : Plat. Phcedon. p. 95 extr. irepl yevk" 
'trecjs Kal <pdopds rrjy ahiay ^laTrpayfiaTevaaadat. p. 96 E. Trep'i rovrioy 
TYiv aiTiay el^eyai the preposition with its case might be united with 
the verb, which however cannot be done de Leg. 4. p. 720 E. rrjy vepi 
yeyeaeujs dpj^rjy. 12. p. 951 E. 6 nepl rrjs Traideias Trdarjs tTrt/KeXr/nys 
(see §. 348. Obs. 2.). Polit. p. 329 D. aWa Kal tovtuv Tripi fiia tis 
atria ecmy *^. Soph. (Ed. C. 423. ey 3' eixol reXos avTo^y yeyoiTO rav- 
rr}s Ttjs pa\fjs nepi. id. (Ed. T. 283. Trpuyoiay \ff\eiy Tov^e tov ycKpov 
TTCjOt. Lys. c. Alcib.p. 142, S5. TrapadeiyfxaTi nepl rrjs eavrov Troyrjpias. 
p. 171, 42. ras Trepl rovTwy rifKtjplas. Sometimes instead of the geni- 
tive irepi is joined with the accusative ; Eur. Troad, 430. oi irepl rvpay- 

vovs Kal TToXeis vTrrjpcTai. Xen. Hist. Gr. 5, 4, 2. rrjy irepl *ApyJ.av 

rvpayyila'^. Other prepositions are used in the same way: Soph, (Ed, 
T. 612. Toy irap avT<3 fiioroy eKJSaXely for roy avrov (j. Phil. 611. tcittI 
Tpoiif. TTcpyai^a. 806. raTri aol KaKci, Lysias Olymp. p. 914. ed, Reisk. 
Other cases in which a preposition stands for the genitive have been 
quoted in the preceding paragraphs. The difference of the construc- 
tions does not affect the sense, as Isocr. Paneg. p. 70 B. (c. 39.) t/x- 
TreipoTaTos ruiv npos ruy TroXefxov Ktyhvyojy entirely agrees in sense with 
ruiy TOV TroXefjiov Kiy^,vyu)y. 

Obs. 5. The word which governs the genitive is often wanting. These (379) 
words are, besides vlos, e.g. QovKv^i^rjs 6 'OXopov, MiXTidBrjs 6 Kif-noyos, 
yvyi] Eur. Or. 1719.* especially oikos or ^w/za : e. g. Od. /3', 195. ixt)- 

'^Schasf. Melet. p. 90. ad Soph. Ast ad Leg. p. 138 seq. 471. 
Phil. 43. Seidl. ad Eur. El. 161. ^ Schaf. ad Julian. Or. p. 6. ad 

^ Seidl. ad Eur. Iph. T. 132. Dionys. Hal. p. '23. 
• Plat. Phsedon.p.l71 seq. *= Schsef. ad Lamb. B. p. 93. 

610 Syntax, Of the Dative. 

repa ^v ts Trarpos aytoycTU) aTroveeadai. Her. 5, 51. cs tov KXeo- 
fieveos. id. 1, 35. iy Kpoiaov. Theocr. 24, 89. kv Atos, instead of 
which he says 17, 17. iv Aios oe^-w*. Particularly e/s ^^ov and kv ^lov 
' to the shades below, in the shades below'. Fully in Homer Od. k\ 
512. eh 'AUeio ^o/uo»/ (comp. ;//', 322. II. y', 322. ^', 457. f, 74. &c.) 
and Hesiod "Epy. 153. h ^ofiop Kpvepov 'Aidao. Homer has even 
"A'i^oa^e II. r}', 330. i/', 294. and passim. Thus els ^i^aaKuXov lepai or 
ipoirdv Xen. Cyr. 2, 3, 9. 'to go to a teacher', properly * to the house 
of a teacher': els opxwTpi^os Uyai Arist. Nub. 992. ' to go to a dancer'''. 
According to this analogy is constructed Od. 3', 581. els AlyvTrroio, Bi'i- 
Trereos Trorajjiolo, arijaa yeas, and els ijfierepov Od. 13' y 55. for els fifxere- 
poy. comp. §. 489. In a single passage a verb compounded with els is 
joined with this genitive, Eur.Bacch. 610. etVeTre/xTro/ii^v Ueyd^ojs, where 
however Hermann more correctly refers Ueydeojs to opKavas, which 

The Dative. 

381. The Dative expresses the remoter object to which an action 
(380) or quality refers, without affecting it so as to render it passive. 
Thus in the construction ^i^ovai ri rivi ' to give anything to 
any one', ri is the passive object of the verb, riA the person 
in reference to whom the action takes place. Hence the different 
constructions Xocoo|oe7v Tiva and Xoi^opeLGOai rivi, ^lo-^eiv Tiva 
and ^lo^Xeiadai nvi, because the middle voice denotes rather 
an immanent state, i. e. one which does not pass on to and affect 
anything else. 

This reference may be of various kinds : 

1. Relation to the object, the dative denoting the person in 
respect to or for whom the action takes place, e. g. 'to benefit, 
to help, to injure', &c. and the corresponding adjectives ; 'to 
obey, to yield'. Dat. commodi §.393. 

In this kind of relation the subject who acts appears to stand 
in a subordinate condition in respect to the person for whom the 
action is performed : hence passives are constructed with the 

=» Lob. ad Phryn. p. 100. Valck. in N. T. p. 386. Brunck ad 

'' Koen ad Greg. p. (18, 36.) 45, 81. Arist. Lys. 407. Fisch. 3 a. p. 253. 

Syntax. Of the Dative. 6 1 1 

dative, which denotes the person by whom the action is per- 
formed, and who in the active would be the subject. 

There is a similar relation when an action is effected or brought 
to pass by means of certain things, and therefore the dative is 
used to express the instrument or means. As A^iavri e^a/urj was 
said for vtt' Amvroc, so Homer says yepaiv viro YlarpoKkoio 
^ajLirivai II. tt', 420. instead of which the dative alone is com- 
monly used. 

The instrument and means may be considered on the one 
hand as the cause (§§. 396. 397.), on the other as the manner, 
in which an action takes place. 

2. The other kind of relation is the direction which an action 
takes, and which properly expresses a movement in space. 
Hence the Greeks construed the verbs of following with a da- 
tive, and those of discoursing, contending ; in the two latter 
cases the relation being made more evident by irpoQ with the 
accusative. These verbs however admit also the idea of asso- 
ciation, as the Greeks often say eireadai a^a, avv, 8cc. §. 402. 
and hence arose the usage of expressing every kind of company 
or association by the dative, §§. 404. 405. 

Ohs. 1. The difference between the dative and accusative thus defined 
is sufficiently great, but not equally evident in all cases. Sometimes the 
dative appears to denote the person or thing on which the effect of the 
action contained in the verb manifests itself, e. g. TrpoaraTreiv tlvL * to 
command'. This relation coincides with that of the accusative ; and 
hence of the verbs of commanding, exhorting, advising, some take a 
dative, some an accusative. 

Ohs. 2. In other cases it depends on the subjective view of the speaker, 
how he will represent the relation between the verb and its object. Hence 
there are several verbs which are as frequently construed with the dative 
as with the accusative ; and hence the person or thing which was put in 
the dative with the active verb, with the passive becomes the subject in 
the nominative. 

I. Relation generally : The words which in Greek are con- 382. 
strued with the dative, are almost the same as in Latin, 'to tell, 
advise, command, obey, aid, meet, yield, give, give up, object, 
happen'; the adjectives ' useful, injurious, similar, equal, plea- 

GJ2 Syntax. 0/ the Dative. 

sant, unpleasant, hostile, easy, difficult'. Some only of these 
require special remark. 

1. The verbs 'to order, to exhort*, as irpo^raTreiv, eTrireX- 
XeaOaij irapaivelvy napeyyvaUy wapaKeXeveaBai, viroTiOeaOai, &c. 
regularly take the dative : KeXeveiv however takes not only the 
dative in the sense of ' to exhort', but also the accusative with 
the infinitive : //. /3 , 50. avrap o Kr)pvK€(jai Xiyv(j)06y- 
yoi(Ti KeXevffe K-qpvaaeiv ayoprjv^e Kapr]K0fx6wvrac, Kyjaiovc 
and 28. Owprj^ai ae KeXevae Kapr)Kop6wvraQ AyaiovQ. Thuc, 
1, 44. €1 yap em KopivOov CKeXevov aCpLtriv oi KepKvpaioi 
^v/LiirXetv, eXvovT av avroic al npoQ UeXoirovvricjiovc airov^ai. 
So eCpieaOai Soph. Phil. 618. Kapa re/Liveiv e(peiTO tio OeXovrt, 
but Theocr. 25, 205. with an accusative. Thus also -rrpocrraT- 
T€iv '. Demosth. in Macart. p. 1070, 1. ravra irdvO', oaa ot 
vofxoL TrpodTaTTOvcn noieiv tovq npocr-qKovTaCf r]/ii7v irpoa- 
TaTTOvcTi Kai avayKa^ovcTi TTOtelv. So enrelv, (ppat^iv, &c. take 
both constructions when they involve the idea of /ceXeueiv*. On 
the other hand vovOeTCiVy irapaKaXelv, irporpeTreiVy irapo^vveiv, 
irapopfjLaVj &,c. take only the accusative, eiruyrpwov iinrevaiv II. 
o', 258. and oTpwov depairovreoaiv Find. Pi/th, 4, 71. follow 
the analogy of KeXeveiv, Trpoaraaaeiv. 

Ohs. From this analogy the verbs * to rule, to govern' also take the 
dative for the genitive. See §. 360, a, 

39^3. 2. The verbs ' to happen of, to meet any one', take the da- 
tive, as in Latin, avrav, evrvyyaveiv tivi, avvTvy yjoLveiv tivl : 
Arist. Pan. 198. o'/^toi KaKo^aipijJV, no ^vverv^ov e^itjv. and 
in the derivative sense * to fall into anything'; Soph. Philoct. 
681. aXXov ^ ovTiv eyioy olca kXvijjv, ovo eaicov juLOipa touS 
e'vOiovi (Twrvy^ovra OvaTijjv, Nevertheless euTvy^, aw- 
Tvy^. are found also with the genitive, in which case the com- 
pound is put instead of the simple verb. See §. 379. Obs. 2. 
avrav in the sense of ' to meet' is found in Homer with the 
dative generally^ ; but in the sense of ' to encounter', with the 
genitive //. tt', 423. avTidt^iv * to go against', with the colla- 
teral idea ' to attack, to repel', is constructed in Herodotus with 

* Fisch. 3 a. p. 40 A. Brunck ad Theocr. 25, 47. 
Apoll. Rh. 4, 1593. Schsef. ad '' Buttm. Lexil. 1. p. 9 seq. 300. 

Sj/?itax. Of the Dative, 613 

the accusative, 4, 1 1 8 . aVrtaZ^wjuev tov eniovTa. ib* 121. 
ot ^KvOai virtivTiatov ttjv Aa^etou ar par ir]v, Pind, Pi/th. 

5, 59. TOV evepyerav viravTiaaai vou), vir, is equivalent to ajxei- 
jBeaOai, and takes its construction. In the sense of ' go against', 
avrav and the derivative verbs are not found with the accusa- 
tive *^. Comp. §. 328. Obs, — eiriKvpeiv is joined by Pindar 01, 

6, 1 1. with e^'. 

3. The verbs 'to reproach one with anything, to censure, to 384. 
reprimand, to rebuke', take the dative of the person or thing 
against which the reproof is directed, often with the accusative 
of the thing in which the reproof consists, eiriTifxav ri rivi, /ne/ui- 
cj)€(76ai Ti Tivt, eyKaXelv ri rivi, as in Latin exprobare alicui 
aliquid. Isocr, ad Dem. p. 5 C. /laXiorra av evEoKi/noiric, e'l 
<l)aivoio ravra juii 7rparr(i)v, a toTc aAXotc av irparrovGiv 
e TTtTt/LK^iyc. Xen. OLcon. 2, 15. ei v^wp irap e/mov airovvri 
aoiy avroQ ju?) e^wv, aWoae Kai em rovro iiyayov (an ava/co- 
XovSia, where the writer had the preceding -hyrjaapr^v in his 
mind in the dative airovvri goi, but afterwards took riyayov 
instead of it ; yet perhaps Kai ewl rovro rjyr^Gapriv is more 
correct, and hyayov before) ol^ on ouS av rovro poi 
eiJLefx(^ov. These verbs, however, frequently are used with 
the dative alone: Fjur. HeL 1314 seq. ov^e /ne/nxperai ttogig 
TTore y)fxiv, Isocr. Areop, p. 149 E. locrre ovk av eiKorwc; rov- 
roic eiririiutorifxevj oXXa nnXv av ^iKaiorepov toTc oXiyat 

TTpO TI/LKjJV Ti)v TToXlV ^ lO I Kll (J aff I V, HvOg. p. 197 B. C. 

Thuc.4y6l, ov ToTc apyjeiv (5ovXo/nevoic jue^(|)o^ia£, aXXa 
ToTc viraKoveiv eroi/uLorepoic ovaiv. Isocr. Paiieg. p, 77 C 
{rtjv TToXewi^) at eK^eSo/uievai role, ^ap^apoic, /iiaXiara fxev Aa- 
Ke^aifjLovioiQ eyKaXovcriv, eireira Se /cat role aXXoic 
T0?c filer e'^ovGL rrjc eipr]vr]c, wc, virep rovrujv SovXeveiv 
rjvayKaajLievai. — veiKeva aXXrjXycri II. v , 254. belongs to §. 404. 

Obs. 1. Me/i0eo-0at is found also with the accusative : Thuc. 7, 77, 
(ov j(pri) KaTafX€fx\pa(TOai vfids ciyay avTOVs firfre raTs ^v/x0opats, py'ire 
rats Trapa rijy a^iav vvv KaKoiradciais (* on account of your misfortunes', 
§. 403, 4, b.) Comp. Isocr. Panath. p. :^34 C. Areop. p. 154 C. Also 
eiriTrXZ/rretv tlvo. : Plat. Protag. p. 327 A. el prj olop t ^v tzoKlv elvai, ei 
jjiri nuPTes avXriTol rjiJiey, ottoTos rts khvvaTo cKaaroSf Kai tovto ihia. Koi 

« Comp. Lob. ad Aj. p. 340. 

614 Si/ntax. Of the Dative. 

Criy.oai(f. irds rravra Kai edi^aaKC kui cTr^TrXT/rre tuv jjiij KaXuis av- 

Xov PT Of otet civ n fjidWoy twv dyadiJUv avXrjTuiy dyadovs 

avXr^ras rovs vlels yeyecrdai, y TtHv <f)avXojv * ; 

Obs. 2. Aoi^opely is usually constructed with the accusative, but the 
middle Xoidope'iadai with the dative: Herod. 2, 121, 4. Toy ^e haXoi- 
SopeecrOaL Trdaiy, Xen. Cyrop. 1, 4, 8. oi he ^vXa/ces eXoL^upovy avroy. 
to. 9. eyravda fxeyroL r]dr} Kal 6 Oelos ai/rw eXoiBopeiTOf rijy Opaav- 
TTfra opdJy. Aristoph. Pac. 57. whl K€X]iy^s XoidopelraL t^ Au*'. 

385. The words which signify ' equality, suitableness, resem- 
(386) blance', or the contrary, as OjuoToc, 'laoc, Scc.*^ govern the da- 
tive, as similis in Latin ; but this idiom is more extended than 
in Latin. Thus the foUowin"; in Greek take the dative : 

1. o avTOCj idem : Herod. 3, 48. u/3|0t(T/ua Kara Sri 

Tov avTOv '^povov Tov KprfTTipoc Ttj apTrayrf yeyoi^oc 'at 
the same time that the cup was carried off'. Thus also 7, 206. 
iqv yap KaTa twuto (i. e. Kara toi^ avrov y^povov) OXvpiriac 
TovToicTi To7(Ti IT pi] y jxao I avfiireoovaa. Comp. 7, 3. Id. 
4, 132. fxvQ ev yy yiverai, Kapirov tov avrov avOpioTrio ai- 

T€o/nevoQ. Thiic. 7, 77. Kayu) roc vvv ev tio avrw 

KivSvvuj Tolc (pavXoTaTOic atwjooujuac. Plat. Leg. 12. 
p. 955 B. TOV ai»TOV (piXov re Kai eyOpov vopit^Tit) ttclq Ty 
iroXei. Comp. Rep. 2. p. 371 C, Instead of which Herodo- 
tus says 5, 69. iva pt] a<piai ai avrai eaxrt (j)v\ai Kai (as) * Iwtri. 
Plato says elliptically, Gorg. p. 493 D. (j)ep€ ^t) aWrjv aoi 
eiKova Xeyit) e/c tou outoG yvpvaaiov ry vuv, for €K tov avrov y. 
€^ ov rrjv vvv e'Ae^o. Eur. Ilel. 495. ovopa Se r avrov rrjc eprjc 
e-^ovaa ric, Sapaproc ciXXri roKXiB kvvaUi SopoiQ : the genitive 
is defined by ovopa, and toutov stands absolutely. In the 
same manner as o avroQy etc also is constructed with the dative : 
JEiUr. Ph. 157. oc epoi piac, eykver €k parepoc. 

Note. Of the imitation of this in Latin, see Burm. ad Ovid. Am. 1, 
4, 1. Cort. ad Sallust. Catil. 20, 3.^ 

2. In the same manner as in this construction the dative is 

■ Valck. ad Hipp. 1402. Heind. * Fisch. 3 a. p. 395 Fqq. 

ad Prot. p. 526. ** Schaefer has more correctly ex- 

*• Hemsterh. ad Arist. Plut. p. 131. plained Eur. Or. 905. r&J Kara/cret- 

Heind. ad Plat. Gorg. p. 128. Fisch. voyri roiovrovs Xeyeiy, in Person's 

3 a. p. 403. edition. 

Syntax. Of the Dative, 615 

to be rendered by an entire proposition beginning with a par- 
ticle of comparison, so also other adjectives, whose construc- 
tion in other respects agrees with that of the equivalent adjec- 
tive in Latin, take the dative of the principal word only in the 
proposition which contains the member of the comparison, 
whilst in Latin and English a proposition with quaruy atqiie, ac, 
'as, than', must follow: Herod. 7, 165. 'IvrTro/c/jaTea rvpav- 
vevaavra '[(ra erea tw a^eXcpeS KXeav^po) KareXape 
uTToOavelv, totidem annos, quot f rater regnaverat, Arist. 
Ran. 649. ov Kal (jv Tvirrei rac; itrac 7rX»/yac e^iot; 'as 
many strokes as l\ 

3. The adverbs ofxoiwc,, 'icftjQ (e^ 'icfov)^ Tra/ottTrXrjatwc, uxrav- 38C. 
Tdjc : Herod. 2, 172. rj^»? a)v ecprj Xe-ywi' o/lioiioq avroc t(^ 
no^avnrrrjpi' Treirpriyevai ' that he had fared the same as the 
foot-bath' (of which a statue of a god was made, as Amasis, 
who being formerly a private individual, was now a king). 
Xen. Hier. 6, 3. (leOrfv kqI virvov o/noiujc eveSpa (pvXarro- 

fxai^. — //. y, 454. I(TOv (j(piv 7ra<nv aTTijyOero Ktjpi fxe- 

Xalvi^y 'as death*. Soph. Antig. 644. (toutou ovveK avcpec 

evyovTai yovac, eyeiv) wc tov (^'iXov ti/jlwgiv e<^ 'laov tto- 

Tpi. — Herod. 2, 67. wc ^' avr(jjc; ttJcti kv<tl ol i^vevrai 
OaTTTovTai ' in the same manner as the dogs'. Soph. Trach. 
371. Kal ravra ttoXXol irpoc /uiecyy Tpa^iviwv ayopa fuvejr?- 
KOVOV W(TaVTU)Q e/.ioi. 

4. In the same manner the verbs ' to accommodate oneself 
to, to become', TrpeweiVf ap/j-OTreiv, eoiKevaiy govern the dative; 
and hence the adverb e'lKorioc also takes this case : Msch. Ag. 
924. 'A7rou(Tia ^ev etTrac eiKOTwq e/t^ ' thou hast spoken 
with propriety, considering my long absence*, cikoq even takes 
a dative when an infinitive follows: Eur. Hipp. 1451 seq. av- 
6pu)7roi(Tiv eiKoc; k^afjLaprdveiv . 

Ohs, 1. TTpcTreiv is found also with the genitive : Soph. Aj. 534. Trpe- 
TTOV ye r rjv civ Zaifiovos tov '/xou ro^e. Plat. Rep. 3. p. 400 B. 
dXXa ravra fxey Kal fxera Aa[i(i)vos (^ovXevaofieda, rives re aveXevBe- 
pias Kal vjSpeojSf ij fiavias Kal aWrjs KaKias TrpeirovaaL paaeis. 
In the latter passage, however, the genitive may also be governed of 

* Pors. Adv. p. (^19) 192. Monk ^Heind. ad Plat. Phsedon. p. 10. 

ad Eur. Ale. 1017. 

616 Syntax. Of the Dative. 

(3aa€is, and irpkirovtrat. be put absolutely, * which are the appropriate 
proceedings of; and in the former the participle may be put substan- 
tively. TTpeTrei also is accompanied by an accusative with an infinitive : 
Eur. Iph. A. 1114. Isocr. Evag. j^' 191 C. Trpwrov /xev ovv irepl rrjs 
(ftvaeojs Trjs ^vayopov, cot rtvojv jjy airoyovos, -- - - - - ^ok€7 /joi TrpiireiVf 

Kal €fA€ Tuiy aWtjjy evcKn ^leXOely Treplavruty. apf.i6TT€iy in found also 
with Trpos and the accusative, e. g. in Isocrates, >/ aiocppoavyri irpbs 
Tcis avyovffias apfiorreij with eiri and the accusative Soph. Ant. 1317. 

Obs. 2. ofjotos is also constructed with the genitive : Herod. 3, 37. 
ean ^e Kal ravra ofxoia tov 'll^a/orov *, like Trpoa^epiis Eur. Here. 
F, 130. also with Kara and the accusative Plat. Rep. 8. p. 555 A. 

5. Like o/uotoc are constructed all adjectives of a similar 
meaning, e. g. ude\(()6c 'akin, conformable to' : Soph. (Ed. C, 
1262. a^eXcjya ^ , loc coikCj tovtoktiv (fyopei to. rrje, ra- 

XaivqQ vrj^voQ OpeTrrvpia, Plat. Leg.3. p, 6S7 E. rraTrip ev 

iradrifxaaiv aoeX^oTc u)V toiq yeyofnevoic Orjael irpoQ tov 
^varvyjjjQ reXevTrjaavra IttttoXvtoi^. However, it is found 
with the genitive also : Piat. Phil. p. 21 B. opa Brj, rov (ppo- 
veiv Kai i^oetv Ka\ Xoyi^ecrdai to. ^eovra, Kai oaa tovtljv aS€X(f)a 

(irpoa^elv av aoi riyolo.) Isoci^. Paneg. p. 55 A. adeXcjia rtjjv 

* ' b 
eiprj/iievijju . 

^vvio^oc is similar, Eur. Med. 1004. raS' ou fuvwSa rolaiv 
e^riyyeX/iievoiQ^; npoawBoQ, Eurip. Ion. 371. Trpoaio^oc rj 
Tv-^ri T(opt3 waOei. See §. 402 B. 

6. So also the words which signify ' near', eyyva, ireXac;, ay^ov, 
7rXi/(Ttoc, irXrjcjiaZeiv, are constructed with the dative as well as 
the genitive, §. 339. Eur. Suppl. 1024. y^pwra -^piorl neXac 
OejULcva. comp. 1061. Phan. 873. jEsch. Suppl. 223. Pind. 
Nem, 9, 94. ^Ko/Jiav^pov -^evpaaiv ay^ov. ih. 10, 124. Tvp,- 
f5(i) a\€^ov TraTptjJioj, Soph. Ant, 761. irapovTi TrXrjcria tw 
wjucpit^. Id. Trach. 748. row ^ epir^Xa'Ceic,. Since the idea 
of conformity and agreement is expressed by the dative, //. 
<r, 312. 'E/CT0/)i ^e»^ yap eirrfvriaav Kara fxr]Ti6tt)vr i, the 
sense is 'agreed with him'. Eur, Med. 1166. aXX' ^Ve<r* 

I iravra 


* Thom. M. p. 649. ^ On this whole section see Fisch. 

•> Schaef. ad Greg. p. 569. 3 a. p. 395 sqq. 

•= Heath ad Eurip. Suppl. 73. 

Sj/tUax, Of the Dative. 617 

Generally a reference to a person or thing may be considered 387. 
as implied in verbs of almost all kinds, in which such a refer- \^^y 
ence is admissible : this then is expressed by the dative, which 
is rendered in various modes. Xen. Mem. S. \, I. in. on a^toc 
€<TTi OavcLTov Ty iroXei 'with regard to the state', i. e. ' de- 
serves that the state should condemn him to death'. See 
§. 363. Obs. Soph. Gild. C. 1446. ava^iai yap naaiv ecrre 
^vcTTvy^etv, i. e. in the judgement of all. See Hermann. Ly- 
sias c. ErgocLp. 1 80, 27. ovk a^iov u/uv rrjc toutwv napaffKevrjc 
-nrraadaij where in another view vfxuyv might have stood. Xen, 
Agesil. 2, 9. el^e ^e o ' Ay rj a iXaoc fnev to ^el^iov rov ^leB eau- 
Too, Opvo/uevtot Se eayaTOi ricFav avT(^ rov ewwrujuov* ot o av 
Qrij3aioi avTOi jneu ^e^ioi ri<^aify A/o-y^toi ^ avrolc to euwvu- 
fiiov elyov. Mschyl. Prom. 12. K/oaTOC, Bm re, <r(j)wv juev 
evToXrj A(oc e^6i TeXoc ^17, Kov^ev e/^nro^MV en' eyio oe, 8cc. 'as 
far as concerns you, for you*. Soph. Aj. 1 128. 0eoc yap eKrtrw- 
tei fJLe, TwSe (Ai'avTt) S' oiyo^iai * with regard to Ajax', i. e. 'as 
much as lay in him'. Xen. Cyrop. 1, 2, 2. ^okovglv 01 vopoi 
apyj^adai ovk evQev, oOevirep raic, TrXetCTair, iroXeaiVy 'with 
respect to most of the cities', i. e. ' in most of the cities'. Flat. 
Pheedon. p. 79 B. id. Leg. 4. p. 706 D. 'O^vaaevc, avrio 
CO/uripio) XoiSopel tov 'Aya/iejui/oi^a, 'in Homer'. Hipp. Min, 
p. 364 E. o A^iXXeuc ov ttoXvt ponoQ tm O /j,r}pu) TreTroirjrai; 
the dative may be explained thus, but it may also be referred 
to the passive TreTro/rjTac, for utto tou *0/i. ttctt. The passive in 
Plat. Thecct. p. 192 D. may be explained in the same way, 
eiriarapai avrijc ijnavrto ' I know it for myself ; where Hein- 
dorf reads ev ipavnp. Soph. QLd. T. 380. w irXovre Kai rv- 
pavvi Kai T€^i^»; Teyvr]C virep^epovaa rto TroXv^rjXw (dlo), ad 
vitcE felicitatem, as Brunck renders it. Hence 11. a , 284. av- 
Tap eyioye Xiaao^i , 'A^iXXrji /meOefxev '^oXov, as Od. (^ , 377. 
peB'iev -^aXeirolo '^6X010 Ti;Xe^a^w, H. in Cer. 350. o(ppa e 
pVTTjp 6(j)0aXpo7aiv l^ovaa ^oXou Ka\ /urji'ioc aivrjc aOavaroic 
iravaeiev ' to suffer the anger with respect to Achilles to sub- 
side', i. e. 'against Achilles' ^ Thus also fxip-veiv tivi, manere 
aliquem, 'to await any one': Mschyl. Ag. 1160. kp,o\ Se 
jui/uvet ayj.ap,oc, a/iKpriKei ^opi. In the same manner the dative 

® On these passages of Homer, see ad Eurip. Or. 663. 
Brunck ad Arist. Ran. 851. Person • 

VOL. n. I 

6 1 8 Syntax. Of the Dative, 

seems to be put for the accusative Plat. Phileb. p. 33 A. tw 
TOP Tov (jypovelv eXojULevto j3toi/ oiaO* wc toutoi^ toi' Tpoirov 
ov^ev aTTOKuyXvei tvv 'there is no obstacle to him who — has 
chosen'; where airoKtoXvei is used in a neuter sense. Accord- 
ing to this principle may be explained the passages II. v, 180. 
Eur, Iph, T. 31. quoted in §. 360, a. The dative, which 
expresses a reference to be made to something, is often found 
where ' among, with', apud, might have been used : Herod, 8, 
98, ^te^e/o^erat napa^eSoimeva, Kardirep ''EXXijtri r] Xa/uTra^Tf 
KpopiT). Eur. Hec. 595. avOpioiroiai §e o /uiev Trovripoc ovdev 
aXXo irXrjv kukoq. Thuc, 1, 6, Kai ol npeafivrepoi avrolc 

Twv ev^ai/iioviov ewavaavro (j)opovvr€Q. Xen. Ci/r. 1, 2, 2. 

See above. Sometimes there is even a second dative : Eur, Hel, 
1268. Tt (Toi irapaayjio Srjra rw reOvriKOTi', 'for the deceased*. 
Dem, 01, \, p, 15, 23. av Se rovrtov airocTTeprjO-^ tw»^ '^prj/na.'- 
TioVy €iQ arevov ko/jli^^ to. rrjc Tpo(()rJQ rolq ^evoic (' for the 
foreigners') avn^ KaraGn^aerai, 

Thus the dative is found with verbs and adjectives, where in 
English the preposition ybr is used : with pa^ioc 'easy', yaXeiroc 
'difficult'; ayaOoCf ev-^pr^crroc, KaXoc 'good, serviceable, useful, 
handsome*, aia-^poQ ' disgraceful', tj^vq ' pleasant', and others, 
with which the dative expresses the person or thing with refer- 
ence to which one of those predicates is applied to an object. 
Thus also ' E/CTO^, arap av p,oi eaoi irarrtp Kai iroTVia fx-qrripy 
ri^e Kaaiyvr)Toc. ^ndpassim, as in Latin. Plat. Phadon. p. 65 B. 
a pa €)(^ei aXrjOeiav Tiva o\piQ re Kai aKorj toTc avOpwiroiQ, 
Plat. Prot.p, 334 C. toTc fxev e^wQev tou aiopaTOC ayaOov eari 
Tw avOptJirtf), where t. ej. denotes that for which anything is 
immediately good, but r. avO, that which is general, ' is good 
for man, for the external parts of the body*. 

Obs, Sometimes such adjectives are considered as substantives, and 
construed with the genitive, as av^pa dvafj-errj ')(doy6s Soph, Ant. 187. 
ToU €K€l exOpols vfiwv Thuc. 6, 18. Plat. Rep. 10. p. 620 B. 

(389) . Hence various phrases are to be explained : 

388. a. The dative is often put, especially with tLc, in order to 
show that a proposition is affirmed, not as generally true, but 
vahd only with respect to a certain person, consequently rela- 

Siftitax, Of the Dative, 619 

lively and subjectively. Soph, (Ed, C, 20. /naKpav yap, wq 
yepovTi, TrpovaraXiiQ o^ov, ' for an old man*, ih, 76. eirenrep 
€1 yevvoLoc, a>c i^ovri ' for one w^ho sees thee', in appearance. 
Plat. Soph, p, 226 C. rayjfiav Jic ejuot <JKe\piv eiriraTreiQ, 
Hep, 3. p, 389 D. a(i)(^poavvr]c, Se <Lc TrXrj^et ov to. roiaoe 
fieyiara ; for the people ^. (^aiverai or et/cao-at might be sup- 
plied. Instead of which Plat. Soph. p. 237 C. '^aXewov ripov 
Kai, a^eSov eiTretv, oitf) ye e/moi, iravTairaaiv airopov. Hence 
U)Q ^e (TvveXovTi eiireiv ^. 544. 

Thus the dative expresses the opinion or judgement of a 
person. Soph, Ant. 904. Kal toi g e-yw 'ri/nricTa to?c (ppovovaiv 
€v * according to the judgement of those who understand'. See 
the Scholiast. Hence the phrase cLc efxoi, or wc y efioi, ' ac- 
cording to my judgement' : Soph. Antig. 1161. Kpetov yap rjv 
^jjAwTOC, (Lq i/uLol, irore, Aj. 395. epe^oQ (o fjyaevvoTaTOVf 
wc efxoi. Plat, Pep. 1 . p. 536 C. ayavaKT^aac, p.oi Sokvj Kal 
Lj<T7r€p 6v/Li(D0e\c TOtc aiTLOiQ, (nrov^aiOTcpov eiireiv a elirov. Ov 
fuia TOI/ Zai , eCpi], ovKovVy wc y efXOL aKpoarri, AAA a>c 
ejuoi, iji/ S' eyCj, prjTOpi, Instead of which Eurip, -4/c.810. 
it)Q y efxoL y^pr\adai Kpiry, Plat, Soph, p, 234 E. wq "yovv epoi, 
rriXiKio^e ovri, Kplvai, (where Kplvai is retained from another 
construction, as enrel.v in (I>c Se (rvveXovri eiTrelv.) Xen. Vectig, 
5, 2. vjQ cfj.^ ^oj^. Soph, Trach. 718, ^ojp yovi/ e/i^, Herod, 
3, 160. Tra/oa ^apeuo Kpiry . 

h. In the definition of a property, distance, situation of a (390) 
place, &c. a participle is often put in the dative, which ex- 
presses the action with respect to which that definition is ap- 
plied. It may be resolved by a conditional proposition. Herod. 
2y\\. apl^afxev(s) ck (jlv^ov ^leKnXwffai eq rrjv evperjv OaXaff- 
cav Tipepai avaKTifiovvrai T€(T<Tepr}KovTa, eipeaiy '^petvpevoj, 
'if one begins'. Id. ib. 29. airo 'EXe<^aPTtV??c ttoXioc avu) 
loVTi avavrea ecTTi y^(jjpiov. comp. 1, 14. 181. 4,25. 7, 143. 
Thiic. 1, 24. — 2, 49. to fxev e^tjjBev aTrrofxevb) a^pa ovk 
ayav Oep/nov rjv. Plat. Rep, 9. p. 589 C. irpoQ re -n^ov^v 
Kai TTpoQ evdo^iav /cat w(j)eX€iav a KOTrovpevo) o ^lev eTraiverric 

* Heusde Spec. Crit. in Plat. p. 52. p. 744. Heind. ad Plat. Soph. p. 336. 
^ Valck. ad Hipp. 3'24. Toup ad Ast ad Leg. p. 479. 
Suid. 1. p. 454. Brunck Lex. Soph. 

1 2 

620 Sj/fitax, Of the Dative. 

Tou ciKaiov aArjuevei, o oe ipeKrric, ouoei' vyiec^ ovo eiowc \peyei 
b Ti ipeyoi (r). 

c. The same takes place in definitions of time, when it is to 
be expressed that an action has taken place since a certain 
person has done this or that. //.j3', 295. 17 //Tv S' eivaroa ean 
TrepiTpoTreujv eviavroc JLvBa^e /ui/nvovreaai ' since we have 
been here\ w,413. ^utuSe/carij Se 01 tJwc Keifxevo). comp. 
Od. t', 192. Instead of which //. <^', 155. ri§e Ze /not vvv 
7?wo ev^eKCLTi], OT €c ' lAtov e'lXriXovOa. to, 765. tJSj? ya^o 
I'vi' /HOI ToS eeiKoarov eroQ €i<Ti, e^ ou KclOev cf^rjv. comp. 
Od. (t) , 308. Herod. 9, 41. wc ^e ei^^eKarT; eyeyovee avTi- 
KarriiLLevoKTi ev YlXaraiycTi. comp. 1, 84. 2, 2. 9, 10. 
2, 124. "^fjovov ^€ cyyeveoOai r pif^o/iievio r (^ ^ow Seica 
/iiei' €T€a rrja ooou, icara rrjv elAKiov touc Xt^ouc, tiiv e^ei/iiav, 
&c. 'whilst the people were tormented'. Soph. Phil. 354. ^v 
^ r\jJLap i]^r] ^evrepov irXeovri /tioi. Eiirip. Ion. 353. "^povoc 
Se tU no Trai^L ^laireTTpayiievo); Xen. Hell. 2, 1,27. e7re£ 
T)pepa rjv TrefnTTTrj, eTTiirXeovai toTc AOrjvaioic and with- 
out a participle Soph. (Ed. T. 735. koi tic y^povoc rola^' ear\v 
ov^eXr]Xvdu)C; J Herod. 2, 145. HjoaKrAei pev ^e otra avroi 
AiyvTTTioi (paai eivai erea ec ' Apaaiv jSacriXea, ^e^rjXtoTai poi 
TrpoaQe, 'from Hercules', or 'since the death of Hercules'*; 
and frequently in what follows. 

(391) d. Also, when the reference of an action to some one, with 
respect to feeling, is expressed, the person is put, especially with 
the verbs ' to come', in the dative, with the participle or adjec- 
tive, which expresses the feeling. Od. (j)', 209. yiyvujaKto ^', 
wc <T(l)(jJiv eeX^opevoiaiv iKavu) o'loiai dpijjwv 'that you 
alone longed for my arrival'. Soph. (Ed. C 1505. ttoOovvti 
TTpovcpavriQ ' thou comest, as I wished'. Trach. 18. xpovto S' 
€v voTepu) pev, aa pevy ^ epoi, o KXeivoc riXOe Zjjvog AXKprj- 
v>?c T€ TraTc, 'he came, to my delight'. Eurip. Phan. 1061. 

ej3a OiStTTouc Qrfj3aiav ravde yav tot aape- 

voic, iraXiv S' "X*?^- Comp. §. 401. 

e. In a similar manner the verbs elvai and y'lyveaOai are often 

* Valck. ad Herod. ^2, 1. p. 104, 29. Brunck ad Soph. Trach. 18. 
'• Musgr. et Pors. ad Eur. F^li. I.e. 

Syntax. Of the Dative. 621 

accompanied by a participle of the verb ' to wish* &c. in the 
dative ; in which case the participle only, as the leading idea, 
is translated by the finite verb. Od. y , 228. ovk av e/noiye 
eXno^evo) ra yevotro, ' I had not hoped this*. Herod. 9, 
46. eTret S* Ji' avroi ef.ivr](jdY\Te Koi r\^ofxkvoi(Jiv 7]fxl.v oi 
Xoyoi yeyovacTi, Kai crolfioi eiiLiev iroieeiv TavTa, 'since we 
are pleased with your discourse*. Tfiuc. 6, 46. tw Ni/cia 
TTpocT^e-^oinevM rjv TCLirepl Twv RyeaTaiwv. ' Nicias expected 
the events in Segesta*. 7, 35. ol KpoTtoviarai etTrov, ovk av 
<T({)iai /3ovXo/xe voic elvai, ^la rrjc yrjc o(pu)v rov arparov 
tevai. comp. 2, 3. Soph. (Ed. T. 1356. OeXovri /ca^iot 
TOUT av riv. Kur. Ion. 654. o S cvktov avOptsJiroKTi, Kav aKov- 
aiv y, ^iKaiov elvai /jl o vo/uog i? (jivcTiQ a/Lia irapeiye tw vew. 
Plat. Gorg. p. 448 D. et avrio ye aoi ^ovXofxkvis) eanv 
aTTOKpivecfOai. Comp. Phccdon. p. 78 B. Lach, p, 187 C. 
Crati/L p. 384 A. Rep. \. p. 358 J).'' Similarly, T^mc. 5, 1 1 1. 
TOVT<jJv juev KOI ireTreipapevoiQ av ti yevoiro Kai Vfjiiv Kai 
OVK ave'Kiar\]f.LoaiVj i.e. according to the Schol. tovtcov /.lev 
Kai vp-eia TreTreipaaBej Kai ovk aveiriaTrj/uLOvec, ecrre. 

An imitation of this in Latin occurs Sallust. Jug.. 100* uti 
militibus excequatus cum imperatove labos volentibus esset. Ta- 
cit, Agr. 18. quibus bellum volentibus erat. 

f. Hence verbs of all kinds are accompanied by the dative 389. 
of the personal pronouns, which represent the action with re- (392) 
ference to a person, but might also have been omitted without 
injury to the sense ; a pleonasm which is very common in 
Latin, and is sometimes used in colloquial English. //. ^', 50 1 . 
enrepevai juot, Tyowec, ayavov WiovrjoQ irarpi (j)i\(i) Kai pr\Tpi, 
yor]{xevai ev juieyapoiGiv, as Herod, 8, 68, ]. eiirai poi irpoQ 
^aaiXrja, Map^ovie, Od. ^, 569. Kai (T(j)iv yafx^poc, Atoc 
efftrt. //. e', 116. comp. S', 219. Soph, (Ed. C. 82. w tckvov, 
rj /3ej3)7/cei/ ijjuti' o f evoc ; Plat, Rep. I, p, 343 A. (17 riOri) 
G€ Kopvl^tSvra irepiopa Ka\ ovk airofxvTrei Seo/mevov' be ye avTy 
ovSe TTpo^ara ov^e Troi/neva yivujtTKeiQ . To this head may 

*= Valck. ad Herod. 8, 101. p. 666,3. Wcssel. ad Herod. 8, 68. p. 649, 91. 

Dorv. ad Charit. p. 467. ed L. Koen Taylor Ind. Lys. p. 9J6. ed. R. Fisch. 

ad Greg. p. (173) 376. 2. p. 232. Reisig Cumm. Crit. in 

** Hemsterh. ad Luc. t. 1. p. 432. GBd. C. p. 369. 

622 Syntax. Of the Dative. 

perhaps be referred the passage Plat. Theat. p. 143 D. rivec 
r]fx1v Twv veu)v em^o^oi yeveaOai eirieiKelc, and olio vfxlv twv 
TToXiTtJv fxeipaKiw evreTvyr)Kay where Hemdorf ad Theat, 
p, 287. supposes the dative to be put instead of the genitive. 

g. Partly from this idiom, and partly because generally in 
the dative the idea of respect or reference to a person or thing 
is implied, the dative is often put in Greek, where, in other 
languages, the genitive is used ; for this reason, that the Greeks 
understand a person or thing in relation to the action expressed 
in the verb, or to an adjective ; whereas others, the Latins for 
instance, conceive of it with relation to a substantive. Hence 
this exchange of cases takes place mostly in verbs only. 

1. The dative for a genitive in reference to a verb. Herod. 
2, 17. 7] ^e ^rj lOerj tcuv oSwv tw NetXw ecrxt rjde. Thuc. 5, 
70. iva jUT] ^lacTiraffOeir) auroTq r/ ral^ic,. 6,31. TrpoOv/uirjOevroQ 
evoc eKacTTOV, ottwq avTi^ rivi tvirpeTreia re r} vavQ Trpoe^ei. 
1, 89. 'A6r}vai(ov to koivov, eireidrj avTO^Q ol f5apf5apoi eK rrjc; 

\fl)paQ airrjXOov, ^leKo/mitovTo wal^ac, &c. These three cases 

may also be explained in the same manner as f. Comp. 1, 6. 
Thus also Eurip. Ph. 1563. ovKeri aoi reKva Xevaaei (paoa, 
i. q. reKva aov, or like N°y. Eur. Hec. 664. ev KaKolai ^e ov 
paBiov, j3poTo7(Tiv ev^Tfifxelv aro/Lia. Comp. Xen. Cyr. 3, 2, 
4, 7. Plat. Hipp. Min. in, tov aov TrarpoQ KTr'K)p,avrov riKovov, 
on 7] 'IXiac KaWiov e'lrj 7roi>;^a tm Oiiripio, r] r) OBv<y(T€ia. 
Thus in Thuc. 5, 46. (eAceXeuov) rrju Botwrwv ^vp./j.ay^iav avel- 
vai, with reference to the substantive ; but immediately after- 
wards with reference to the verb, ei jurj rriv ^vp-jua-^iav avqtJovGi 
B ot WTO Tc, Trjv jj,ev ^viuijuayjiau ol AaKe^ai/uLovioi BoiwtoTc ovk 
eipaaav avr)aeiv. Thus also Plat. Phcedon. p. 62 B. dXXa ro^e 

ye fiioi ^OK€L €v XeyeaOai, to T?)uac tovq av6pu)7rovQ ev twv 

KT-nfiariov Totq 0eo?c elvai, which just afterwards, D. is gx- 
pressed euXoywq €)(^et, T7f*«t; eKeivov Krrifxara eXvai''^. 

2. With adjectives. Plat. Charm, p. 157 E. rj Te yap ira- 
rptia vfxiv oiKia, Ka\ vno AvaKpkovroc, Kai vno ^oXiovoc Kai 
VTT aXXwv TToXXwp noiriTtJv eyKeKuyfxiaGrai. where however the 

« Wolf ad Dcm. Lept. p. 274. 

Sj/ntax, Of the Dative, 623 

dative v/Lnv may be referred to eyfce/cw^u. and then would belong 
toy. or g. 1. 

3. Substantives are often accompanied also by a dative, 
vi^hich is to be explained by a genitive, but not without limi- 
tation. For it signifies properly ' for any one', or the substan- 
tives are allied to verbs or adjectives which govern the dative, 
which then refers not so much to the substantive as to the verb 
or the whole proposition. Eur, Phan, 17, tJ Orj^ai<yiu ev- 
iTTTTotq ava(^, because the expression avaacreiv rivl is used. 
lb. 86. w KXeivov o'lKOiQ, 'AvTiyovY}, OaXoQ irarpi, where the 
dative irarpi belongs to kXgivov OaXoc (not to one of them 
alone), ' illustrious offspring to the father', and oikoiq is for ev 
oiKoic. Hippol, 189. ^epfftv TTovoG 'labour for the hands'. 
Plat, Rep. 5, p, 464 A. tj twv TraiSojv Kat yvvaiKwv kol- 
vtjjvia ToTc (l>vXa^i, on account of the construction role (j)vXal[i 
Koivoi elcTi Trainee,, comp. B. p. 466 C. Eur, Hec, 1267. o 
G^^Jt fxavTiQ {^avreveiv rivi), comp. Or, 363. Herod, 6, 103. 
o fxev S?) Trp€<j(5vT€poc T(jjv TraiSwv t(j> Ki^wvt ^TYiaayoptiQ riv 
TtiviKavra irapa tw irarpij^ MiXxtaSy Tpe(^op,evoQ is said with 
relation to the verb riv rpe<p6ixevoc. Xen, Anah, 4, 4, 2. jSadi- 
Xeiov elye tw aarpairy signifies properly, ' had a palace for 
the satrap' ; which, according to the sense, is indeed the same 
as 'had a palace of the satrap'. Pind, 01, 9, 24. av Be^tc 
Ovyarrip re ol awreipa XeXoy^ev /uLeyaXodo^oQ Evvojum, ot 
is probably to be explained according to f, and is not for 
Ovyarrjp avrrjc, Pind, 01, 1, 91. rav ol irariip VTrepKpefjiaae 
Kaprepov avrw XiOov, ot is governed by virepKpkfiaae, and 
avT(^ belongs to Kaprepov^, Soph, Antig, 857. eipavaaa aX- 
yeivoTciTaQ epoi fxepifxvaciy irarpoQ TpiTToXiarov olrov (Xeyujv), 
Tov TC irpoTravTOc; ajxerepov iroTfxov /cXeii^o ic hap^aKi^aKJiv, 
where kX, Aaj3§. has the same relation to e^pavaao, ttot/ulov, as 
ejLLOL has to t^pavGaa jnepi/mvaQ, Eur, Iph, T, 388. ra TavraXov 
BeolGiv koTiafxara ' for the gods', ear, irapaayedevra 0, Plat, 
Leg, 9, p, 869 D. b Se irepl rrja ac^ecrewq ef/orjrai (fyovov irarpi, 
Trarpi is governed by eiprirai, as p, 868 E. Thucyd. 6, 18. 
Koi fJLTi vpac, rj Ntfciou tijjv X6y(jjv airpaypoavvi] Kai ciaarama 

•* The other passages brought for- Boeckh ad 01. 2, 16. are explained 
ward by Hermann ad 01. 1, 191. under h. 

624 Syntax. Of the Dative. 

rote veoic, €c rove, irpea^vrepovQ airoarpkypy^ is the same as 
ot NtActov Aoyoi OL aTTpayiJLoavvriv iroiovvreG Kai ^lacJTaaiu Cju- 

TToiovvreQ roic, veoic^. 

h. The poets in particular often add to the dative, especially 
of a pronoun, another dative, for explanation or more exact 
definition, which in other languages is put in the genitive, in 
the same manner as the Greeks also add to the article as a 
pronoun §. 264. or to personal pronouns §. 468, b. the name 
itself, to the genus the species §. 432. and to an accusative 
another accusative of a pronoun in the place of the genitive; 
See §. 421. Ohs. 3. Herod. 2, 18. fiaprvpeei de fxoi ry 
•yi/wjup, where t^ yvu)iuy seems to be a more precise expla- 
nation of jLioi. Pind. 01. 8, 109. Koafxov, ov (j(^iv lltiraaev 
Zevc yevei. ' to them', viz. ' to their race', for yevei <r(p<x)v, 
as 2, 27. Pi/th. 1, 13. Nem.7,32. iirel ^Pev^eecralv ol 
irorava fxayava Ge/mvou eTreffri ri. Soph. Phil. 747 . Eur. He- 
racL 63. This is more rare in Attic. Plat. Hipp. Min. 
p. 364 B. (jjKvovv eiravepeaSaif fxti <Joi €jU7ro^wv eirjv epiorwv 
Ty ewiSei^ei ' to thee', i. e. ' to thy exposition'. As regards 
the sense it is indifferent whether the pronoun in this case 
be in the dative or genitive, but in respect to grammar it is 
not the same thing whether the genitive be used for the da- 
tive unconditionally or under certain conditions ; one of these 
conditions is, if the second dative can be regarded as an ex- 
planation or more exact definition of the first. Two datives of 
substantives are sometimes found together: II. X, 11. 'A^ai- 
o7(Tiv ^e peya adevoQ efA.(3a\ eKacFTtf) KapSiy. Pind. Isthm, 
1, 86. 0(T aytjvioc, ^AppaQ Upo^OTi*) eiropev 'iTrwoic, ^ toUe" 
rodotus (not himself immediately) but his horses', where how- 
ever 'iiriroiQ may be used as §. 396. Hur. Here. F. 177. 
Rhes. 266. Plat. Leg. II. p. 918 C. iraaiv eiriKovplav rate 
y^peiaiQ e^evrropelv Kai opaXoTrtra Talc; ovcriaiG, 'to all 
(masc.) viz. for their wants and their property' **. 

i. The same relation seems to be the basis of the construc- 

* Fisch. 3 a. p. 420. p. 287. Soph. p. 272. Ast ad Plat. 

•Schaef. ad Soph. Phil. 747. Elmsl. Leg. p. 9. belong to cases e.\plained 

ad Eur. Med. 961. Bacch. 619. The above, 
passages quoted bylleindorf adThe«t. 

Sj/ntax. Of the Dative. 625 

tioii of the verbs elvai, yiyvecrOai, virapyeiv * to be*, with the 

a. eivai &c. Eurip. HeracL 298. ovk eari rouSe Troicrt 
KaWiov yepac, ri rrarpoQ ggOXov KciyaOov ireCpvKevai, * there is 
no nobler privilege to children'. It is usually translated ' to 
have', as in Latin esse with the dative, e. g. TeXXw Trainee 
^o-ai/ KaXoi KciyaOoi ' Tellus had good children'. Hence also 
/Jiereari fxoi TivoQ^. 

Hence koivoq is also constructed with the dative, and from 
this construction and that of eli^ai with the dative arose the 
phrases: Herod. 5, 84. ol ^e AlyivrJTai ecpacrav (Tipitri re /cat 
*A6r}vaioi(Ti elvai ov^ev irpayiia, * had nothing to do with 
each other' ih, 33. Demosth. pro Cor. p. 320. jurj^ev elvai <toi 
Kai ^tXtTTTTw TTpayfxa, Hence the abbreviated phrase ri aoi 
Kai epo'i ; Demosth. in Aphob. p. 855. ri vo/ulu) Kal r^ /3a<Tavw ;** 
Instead of this we have Eur, Ion. 1303. ri ^' eari <I>ot/3a> 
fTol T€ Koivov ev fiieati) ; ' What has Phoebus to do with thee ? 
what art thou to Phoebus?' Heraclid. 185. 7)ixlv Se Kai tw8 
ovZev eariv ev fxeau). Eur. Iph. T. 254. Comicus apud Stob, 
p. 501, 4. Tic yap KaroTTTpti) Ka\ rvCpXto Koiifittvia ; where, 
in Latin, one dative is put with the ablative and cum: quid 
Phcebo tecum rei est, 

Obs. Koipos is also constructed with eiri and the dative : Plat. Thec^t, 
p. 185 C. )/ ^e Eiii vivos ^vvafiis to t ctti irdai kolvuv Ka\ to cTri tovtois 
^rjXoT <roi ; and with the genitive Plat. Men. p. 241 C. epyov koivov 
AaKe^atfiovttjjy re Kal 'Adrjyaiujy §. 315. Obs. whence Koivwyi a with. gen. 
£ur. Iph. T. I. c. 

This reference or respect to a person or thing can properly 390. 
take place only with verbs, because it is only conceivable where (396) 
there is an action ; but the dative often accompanies substan- 
tives also, which are derived from or allied to verbs governing 
the dative. Ilesiod. Th. 93. Toir\ toi Moutretuv lepr) ^ocrtc av 
6p(l)7roiaiv, instead of which Plat. Phileb. p. 16 C. Qet^v etc 
avOptjjfrovG ^6(TiCy as Plato himself varies the construction, 
Phccdon. p. 88 C. cnriaria ov inovuv role, ir poeipn^^^voiQ 

*^ Fisch. 3 a. p. 414. ad Eur. Uippol. 2'24. Tibch. 3 a. 

** Valck.adilerocl.5,33.p.387 5cq. p. 419. 

626 Syntax. Of the Dative, 

AoyoiQ, aWa kqi etq to, vffrepa fxeWovra pr\Bi]aeadai, jEsch, 
Prom. 617. Herod. 7, 169. w viittioi, e7rtjueju<|)6<T0e oaavfiiv 
e/c Twv MeveXe^ TiiJUoprjfiaTOJU MiV&^c eirejuLipe /atjviwi^ Sa- 
Kpvfxara ' on account of the assistance which you afforded to 
Menelaus', because they said njuKtypeiv rivi. Eurip. Phan. 948. 
(oet Tovce) (j)oviov a'ljua yy ^ovvai "^pac;, Ka^juw rraXacwv 
Apeoc €K fxrjvifiaTWV, oq yrjyevel ^paKovri rifxijjpel ^ovov. 
from juiYivieiv rivi. Thuc. 1, 73. 17 ;itev irpka^evaic, tiijlwv ovk ec 
ai/TiXoyiai^ toTc vjULerepoiQ ^^vju/jid'^oiG eyevero. from 
avTiXeyeti' rtvi. 6, 76. ov nepl t?c eXevOepiac avrkarriaav, 
irepL ce 01 fuiev a<piGiVy aXXa fi-q eKeivto Kara^ovXioGetoc, 
ot 0€ CTTt ^e(T7roTOu pera^oX^. from /cara^ouXovi/ rii^a rti^t. 
Plat. Ale. 1. p. 116 A. Trjv ev tw TroXeyxw roTc ^iXotc 
(ioriOeiav. Charm, p. 166 B. ffv ^e o/iotoT»}Ta Ttva tvreiQ 
avrrjci rate aXXacc. J^^g. 9. p. 860 E. t( avp^oi)\eveiQ ripiv 
irepi TTfc vopoOecriaQ ry twi/ 'EXXrJi^wv TroXei; Aristot. 
Polit. 3. ^. 473 E. TOVQ ^pkyovraQ riju Tvpavpi^a Kai t^u 
Ilepiavcpov GyoacrvpovXy avp(5ov\iav ou^ airXwc oiririotf 
opdwc, liTiTipav^. 

391. A relation is more distinctly expressed 1. in the verbs, 
(384) vvhich signify ' to assist, help, to injure*, and govern the da- 
tive and accusative, apriyeiv, apvveiv, aXel^elv, jSor^^eTi', CTrt- 
Kovpelv, XvaireXelv, govern only the dative, like auxiliari, 
opitulari: tj(j)€\e1v however is used with both cases. With the 
dative: AUsch. Pers. 839. tJC toIq 6avov<Ti ttXovtoc ov^ev 
u)CJ)eXe7, nil juvat mortuos. Prom. 342. pdrriv yap, ov^ev 
io(f)eX(i)v epoiy 7rovrj(7€iCf e'l ri Kai wovelv OeXeic Soph. Ajitig. 
560. 17 e/i77 "ipvyrj waXai TeOvr^Kev, wcrre to7c, cjyiXoiaiv ucpe- 
XeTi'. Eur, Or. 658. tovq (j>iXovi; ev to?c kqkoIq 'y^prj toTc 
<I)lXoi<tiv tjtpeXelv. comp. 673. Aristoph. Av. 420. Herod. 

9, 103. rojp ^apiu)v 01 arparevopevoi --ep^ov ocrou eBv- 

vearo, 'n'po(T(i)(j)eXeeiv eOeXovrec Totfft 'EXXr^tri^. Hence 
vnepkyew X^ipa rivi, i. e. apvveiv II. e, 433. See in §. 41 1, 4. 

* Duker ad Thuc. 5, 46. 8, 21. p. 5? 13 seq. Ast ad Plat. Leg. p. 36. 

Valck. ad Herod. 7, 16. p. 517, 100. Schaef. App. Dem. 1. p. 562. 875. 

Valck. et Pors. ad Eurip. Ph. 1. c. Stallb. ad Phil. p. 30. ad Euthyphr. 

IIerm.adViger.p.714,47. Fisch.3a. p. 101. 
p. 336. Heind. ad Plat. Gorg. p. 229. '' Fisch. 3 a. p. 406. 

Phad. p. 142. Wyttenb. ad Plut. 

St/ntax, Of the Dative, 627 

examples of the construction of this verb with the accusative. 
Thus also Xv^aivcaQai rivi Herod, 1, 214. Xv/Liatvojuevtj Se tw 
v€Kp(^ eneXeye roid^e, ' maltreating\ 8, \5, veac ovtu (7<^t 
oAiyaq Xvfxaiveadaij 'to injure*. Xen, Hell, 2, 3, 26. So/cet ^i- 
Kaiov eivai, ei tig rifx(jjv avrwv \vfxaiveTai Tavrrf Ty Kara- 
GTacrei, Siktjv avrov ^i^ovai, 7, 5, 18. O ^irafxivwv^aQ evOv- 

fiovfjievoQy OTi--- auToq XeXv^aofxevoc, TravTairaai ry 

iavTOv Sof|7 eaoiTO, Arist, ^ub. 925. Xvfxaivofievov to?c 
lieipaKioiQ, With the accusative §. 415, 1. a. a. Both 
constructions are united Herod, 3, 16. w Xvfxaivofxevoi Ylepaai 
e^oKeov ' A/LiacTiv XvinaiveaOai^, Thus also Xtjf^aaBai tivi. 
Plat, Crit, p. 47 E. AX Act fxer CKeivov eariv rffjuv (iiurov Ste- 
(jyOapfievoVf (o to a^iKov inev Xtjjf^arai, to 8e St/caiov ovivrjGiv, 
On the other hand, ovivrjui, (^Xdirru) are constructed w^ith the 
accusative only. 

Obs, 1. To this class belongs the phrase ri irXioy €<tt\v ejioi ; * what 
advantage have I from it ? what good is it to me V Xen. Cyrop. 5, 
5, 34. Ti yap cfAoi izXeoy to Tt)y yrju irXaTvyeadatf avroy dk artfxd' 
^eadai ; Soph. Antig. 268. or ovhev ^v kpevvta ai ttXcov, * as we made 
nothing out of our inquiries''*. 

Ohs, 2, The verbs and adjectives which signify * useful, injurious, 
inimical', &c. are properly constructed with the dative*, but sometimes 
with the genitive also. Plat. Polit. p. 296 E. worircp u KvfiepvrjTTjs, to 

Trjs veojs kuI yavTUV aei ^vjjKpepoy Tropcj 0v\arrw»', cw^ei rovs 

avyyavras. Rep. 1. p. 338 C. ^Vfi eyw elrai to ^iKaioy ovk aWo rt, y 
TO Tov tcpeiTToyos '^vp(f)epoy, Comp. Dem. j^ro Cor. p. 267, 15. Eur. 
Hel. 516. TCL 'Kp6a<^opa Trjs vvv irapovcrrjs avfJKpopds, Of €-)(dp6s see 
§. 387, Obs. of evavn'os §. 366, Obs, 2. 

2. The impersonal Set is constructed with the dative and 
accusative (r). With the dative: JEsch^l, Again, 857. otu) 
Se icai SeT (papfxaKOJV iraiiovKjjv, ?/toi Keavrec, v Te/novreQ ev- 
(f}p6vu)Q TveipaGOfxeada Trrj/LiaTOC, Tpexpai voctop, Eur. Med, 565. 
cot Tra'i^tjv Ti oeT; Suppl, 596. ev Set fxovov /not, tovq OeovQ 
e^eci', oaoL Si/crji/ <ye|3ovTat. Plat, Menon. p, 79 E. Se? owi^ trot 

*^ Gronov. ad Herod. I.e. VVesscl- p. 406. 
ingad Iler.S, 15. p. 625, 94. Lcnnep *' Valck. Diatr. p. 150. 

ad Phal. p. 47 seq. Enicsti ad * I'isch. 3 a. p. 1599. 

Xcnoph. Mem. S. 1, 3, 6. Fibcli. 3 a. 

628 Si/ntax. Of the Dative, 

iraXiv €^ apyriQ, ioc, e/uol 8o/ceT, rtja avTrja epwri/jewc, Ti eariv 
aperi}^. Of the accusative see §. 412. 

y^pi] is rarely found with the dative. Soph, Antig. 736. 
a\\(x> yap rj juloi \pr] ye Ttjcr^ apyeiv yOovoc; Eurip, Ion, 
1337. rolcTt B iv^iKoic lepa Kadl^eiv, ogtic iJStfceTr , i-^pvv, 

392. 3. Of the verbs signifying 'to obey, to disobey', TreiOeaOai, 
C^^v QTrei^elv take regularly the dative. viraKoveiv, /cara/coueiv take 

the genitive and dative. Of the Genitive see §. 362. The fol- 
lowing are some instances of the construction with the dative. 
Xen. Ci/7\ 2, 4, 6, (r-^oXy aaXeuwi^ virriKovov aoi, Arist. Nub, 
360. ov yap av aWto y viraKovaaifxev twv vvv fierewpoo-o- 
(j)t(Tr(vUj TrXrju rj Upo^iKio, Plat. Leg. 6, p. 774 B. jmri^eiQ 
VTraKoverio prj^ev avrw eKiov t(jjv vewv. Comp. Xen, Mem, S. 
2, 3, 16. — Herod, 3, 88. Apal^ioi ovSa/xa KarrfKOvaav ewi 
^ovXoavvy Tie pcrytri. 

To this class viroTrrrjaffciv rivi also seems to belong, ' to lose 
one's courage against any one, to be afraid of any one, to re- 
verence one'. Xen, Cyr, 1, 5, 1. evravOa Sij iraXiv vire- 
7rrr]<T(Tov ol tjXikcc aurw (tw Kvpto) opposed to the foregoing 
(TKojTrreiv riva. The same author ib. 6, 8. joins the accusative 
with it, Travv jjloi ^oKei aiay^pov eivai to toiovtovq avrovQ 
ovraQ vTTOTrrrj^ai , which is rendered 'to fear'. 

Obs, Xarpeveiy * to serve, to pay honour to the gods by offerings', in 
the first sense takes the dative ; and on account of the latter, though 
rarely, the accusative. Eurip. El, 1S2. riva ttoXip, riva ^' otK'or, 
(J rXdfxor avyyove, Xarpeveis ; * implore'. It is found however Iphig. 
T. 1122. evda ras eXa<poKr6rov Beds ciji^IttoXov Kovpav, TraiS' 
'AyafjienvoviaVf Xa-joeuw, in the first sense with the accusative also. 

393. 4. The verbs ' to yield', eUeiif, vireiKeiv &c. govern the da- 
(382) tive, as in Latin. See the passages §. 354. Soph, Aj. 669 sqq. 

Kai yap to. Beiva /cat ra KapTepu}Tara TijLialc, vireiKei' tovto 
pev vi(j)o(Tripei(; ^eijuwvec eK'^io povcriv evKapTrt:o BepeC 
e^KTrarai ^e vvktoc aiavrjc kvkXog ry XevKornlyXif) (jyeyyor, 
r]fxepa (j)Xey€iv. But Tl. o, 227. vTrocife -^elpaa e/xaq, i. e. 
?iXu^€. But vneKaTrjvai is put with the accusative of the thing 

* Fisch. 3 a. p. 413. Elmsl. ad Kur. Med. 5o2. p. (168 seq.) 174. 

Syntax. Of the Dative. 629 

Plat. Phileb. p. 43 A. aXXri yafy vTreKffrrjvai tov Xoyoi' eTrt- 
<^e/oo/tevoi/ toutoi^ jSouXo^at. as Soph. Aj. 82. (^povovvra 
yap viv ovK av t'^ecTTT^v okvw. Comp. Demosth. in Lept. 
p. 460, 1. in Androt. p. 617, 15. where, on account of the 
preposition efc, the genitive should be put. So in Apollon. Rh. 
2, 92. it should probably be o ^' ai^avroc vireKart], not xjirecm}. 
So also vireKTpeTreaOai riva Plat. Phcedon. p. 108 B. 

Hence also eKiro^wv is often put with the dative, though 
elsewhere accompanied by the genitive. Eur. Or. 541. aTreX- 
Oeru) ^r/ toTc Xoyniaiv eKiro^ujv to yrjpac v/li^v to aov. Phan. 
40. oJ ^eve, rvpavvoic, CKiro^wv ueOicTraao . 

Obs. 1. The poets add sometimes ev to didovaif with the dative, 
instead of the dative alone. Eurip. Med. 629. epojTCSf virep fxev ayay 
eXdopres, ovk ei/^o^tai^, ov2' aperav irapeBtjJKav kv aydpaaip'^. 

Obs. 2. Thus efox^cTi' also, incommodare, molestum esse alicuif * to 
be troublesome to any one', governs the dative. Isocr. Paneg. p. 42 C. 
evox^ely toU uKovovaiv. ad Phil. p. 84 E. rais iravriyvpemv €i'0)(\€2v ; 
but lb. J). 92 seq. Qr](jcdoi rivu)-)(\ovv ras iroXeis ras ev UeXoiroyi^ricr^^, 
On the contrary kixiroli^io governs properly the accusative, * to hinder 
any one', e. g. Xen. Mem. S. 4, 3, 9. but on account of the construction 
of ejUTTo^o/i/ TLvi, the dative also, impedimento alicui esse. Isocr. tt. airid. 
p. 321 E. vvy 8e fxoi to yrjpns efixo^O^ei, and in Aristotle. See Steph. 

5. dpecTKeiv ' to please*, takes the dative, as in Latin; P/at. (383) 
Menon. p. 76 E. r? airoKpiaic, apeaKei aoi /naWov, though fre- 
quently the accusative also, as deleclare. See §. 412. 

The dative is put with transitive and intransitive verbs, to 394. 
show that an action takes place with reference to a person or (387) 
thing; particularly 1. ' for the advantage of any one, for the 
pleasure of any one' {dativus commodi). Herod. 8, 6 I. TauTa 
Xe-yoi'Toq QepiGTOKXeovCy avnc, o KopivOioc Aceipavroc eTre- 

(peperOy Eu/JvjSia^ea ovk eiov e7n\pT}(l)'i(!,eiv a tt o X i av- 

3/0 /, ' dissuading him from collecting the votes to oblige a man 
without a country'. Soph, Aj. 1045. MeveXaoc, lo S>) rov^e 

•> Thorn. M. p. 288. Brunck ad ed. Lips. 
Eur. Bacch. 1137. *' Schaef. App. Dem. 1. p. 519. 

•■■ Purs, ad Eur. M^d. 1. c. p. 404. 

630 Syntax, Of the Dative, 

ttXovv eareiXafievj which Homer expresses //. a , 159. ti^i71' 
apvvfjLevoi MeveXaw^. J^nr, SuppL 15. ovg {septem duces) ttot* 
''ASpa<TTOG rjyay', Oi^'nrov TrayKXrjpiac jxepoc. Karaayelv (j)v 
ya^i UoXvveiKei OeXvjv yafx^pi^ * for Polynices'. 

Hence the expressions : airoXoyelaOai rivi Lys. p, 177, 19. 
TijLKjjpeLV r'l Tivi, Plat. Apol, S, p, 28 C. ei Tifxu)pr](TeiQ Tla- 
T/oo/cXw Tw eraipM tov (()ovov, a/Livveiv ri rivi. Od. 6 , 525. 
for aVo TivoQ, See §. 353, 3. JEsch, S.c, Theb, 4 iS, e'lpyeiv 
TCKovff'y ixr\rp\ TroXejuiiov ^opv, Eur, Troad. 77 , Traidi t ov 
^vvai/uieO* av Oavarov dprj^ai^. Homer adds eiri 11. (j)', 374, 
Trepi^ei^eiv rivi II. o , 123. vrrepappijjdeeiv rivi Herod, 8, 72. 
timere alicui, which also is ^ci/uiaiveiv irepl rivi in Herod, 8, 74. 
So KXvdi fuLoi for ^ou 11. €, 115.*^ Hence perhaps also (l>iXo- 
(ppoveiaOai rim ' to receive any one kindly', {({)iXa (ppoveiv rivi) 
Xen. Cyr, 3, 1, 8. Flat, Leg, II, p. 935 C. Ov/llm <^(Xo^/oo- 
vovp,evovc, i. e. y^apiZoinevovc, as ib. A, more commonly with 
the accusative. 

2. ' In honour of any one*. Herod. 4, 34. TiJ<ri irap- 
devoKTi Tavrycn TeXevrrjcraaycn ei' ArjAw Keipovrai Kai al 
Kopat Kal ol Trainee rvjv Ar/Xiwv. Ai'istoph, Lysistr, 1277. o/o- 
y^riaafxevoi Oeol-ffiv, evXa(jio/j,eBa to Xoiirov avOic prj ^afiap- 
Taveiv en , 

3. Hence the dative is sometimes used for diro with the ge- 
nitive. //. o', 87. 0€/u£(rTi ^e icaXXtTrap^w ^ckto ^eirac, 
* from Themis', or ' took it off Themis'. Od, tt, 40. wc apa 
(fxjjprfGaQ, Ol e^el^aro '^clXkcov eyyoQ, Find, P. 4, 35. opvic 
(augurium) ov ttotc Tpirwvl^oQ ev irpoyoalc; Xl/jLvac 0eaT avepi 
eiSo^evw, yalav ^l^ovti ^eivia, TrpujpaOev Eu<|)ajUOC KaTa(5aQ 
^e Jaro. Soph. El, 442. aKexpai yap, ei ffoi Trpo(T(f)iXu)G avry 
So/ce? ye pa rd^' ovv ra^OKTi ^e^aaOai veKVQ. Similar to this 

is Soph, El. 226. rivi yap ttot av Trp6a<^opov clkov- 

aaijji eVoc ; rivi (fypovovvr i Kaipia ; for irapa tivoq^, 

* Valcken. ad Eurip. Ph. 1742. Arist. Lys. 1. c. Lucian. 

p. 582. t. l.p.291. Musgr.adEur.Troad.332. 

" Elmsl. ad Soph. (Ed. T. 892. « Pors. ad Eur. Hec. 533. Schajf. 

•^Schief.adDionys.deComp.p.TS. ad Soph. Aj. 661. Herm. ad Pind. 

•^ Valck.adHerod.2,61.p.l32, 19. Pyth. 4, 37. ad Soph. EI. 431. 

ad Phoen. 1742. p. 582. Brunck ad Abresch Dilue. Thuc. 1. p. 95. 

Syntax, Of the Dative, 631 

On account of the resemblance mentioned §. 382. the dative 395. 
is sometimes used for viro with the genitive. //. tt , 326. wr, 
TU) fxev Soiotcrt Kaai'yvy]TOi(Ji ^ufxevre prjrrjv etc ' EyoejSoc, 
^apTrrjSovoc eaOXol eraipoi. Find, OL 12, 3. to the goddess 
Fortune: t\v yap ey irovrto Kvf^epvtJVTai Ooai vaec, ev 
yepab) re \ai\prjpoi TroXejJiOi Kayopai jSouXa^OjOOt. Soph, Aj, 
639. Kai furiv ireXac ye ir pocnroXoic (pvXaGfferai 'by his at- 
tendants'. Xen, Cyr, 3, 2, 16. a viri(jyvov iroirfffeiv ayaOa 
rj^aQ airoTereXeGTai goi T/Sr?, and elsewhere in abund- 
ance in the prose writers and poets ^ Hence the dative with 
verbals. See §. 447, 4. and Karoyov ' Apei yevoc Eur, Hec. 
1090. i. e. Karey^o^evov vir '^Apetoc, Soph, Aiitig, 44. Eur, 
Phcen. 1711. airoppriTov iroXei, i.e. uirriyopevjuLevov viro rife 

Obs, The dative frequently stands in this sense with vtto, especially 
in Homer, although this preposition in the sense of a, ah governs the 
genitive, vtto with the dative signifies properly * under', and is put in 
this construction with passives, in order to express the subordinate re- 
lation in which the subject of the passage stands to the person, by 
means of which it suffers the effect. //. tt', 420. eraipovi x^P^' ^""^ 
UarpoKXoio Mevoiria^ao ^afxerTas for the simple dative. Thus also ib, 
708. oh vv TOi aT<ra, (Tw vtto dovpl ttoXiv Trepdai Tpwwv ayepw^ioy, 
ib. 384. ws ^' VTTO XaiXaTri rrdaa KeXaiv)] fiejjpide xQu)v. Hesiod, 2'h, 
862. triiKerOj Kaorairepos &s Te')(^vrf vtt' ali^rjuiy vtto t evrpijTOv xoa." 

voio daXcpdeiSf rje. ai^tjpoSf TriKerai ev x'^ovl ^ly v^' *H0at- 

(TTOv TraXdfirjffiv. Eurip. Suppl. 404^. 'EreoKXeovs davoyros --- 

uEeXi^ov X^*P' noXvveiKOvs vtto. Iphig. A, 1284. eXevdepap yap ^el viv 
(rijp 'EXXdSa^f oaov ev cot, tckvov, Kcinolf yeveadaif /jirj^e l3ap(3dpois 
VTTO, "EXXi^vas ovTas, XcKrpa crvXaffdai j3i<f. On the other hand Plat, 
Lack. p. 184 E. oans Tvy')(av€i viro Traihorp l(iri dyaB<3 TreTrat^eu- 
fievoSf for vtto TraLdoTpil3ov, Rep. 3. p. 391 C. vtto t^ (roipurdraf 
Xeiptovi Tedpafifievos. ib. 8. p. 558 D. vios vtto Tt3 Trarpi redpafi' 
fxevos. Comp. 9. p. 572 C. Isocr. de Big. p. 352 C. tiyovfiai yap Kal 
TOVT elvai Ti2v KaXwVf ck toiovtwv yevofxevov vtto tolovtols ijdeaiv 
eTTiTpoTrevdrjvaiy 'under a man of such a character'^'. The dative has 
the same signification in the active, //. o-', 432. Ik pev dXXdiov dXidtoy 
dv^pl IdfiaaaeVf * made me submissive to him as his wife'. 

' Fisch. 3 a. p. 399 seq. Blomf. ad iEsch. Pcrs. 58. 

^ Lennep ad Phalar. p. 242. 

632 Si/ntax. Of the Dative, 

S96. Since in these cases the dative expresses that by which 
("^^0 something is produced, it was used to express a mean or in- 
strument, in answer to the questions ' wherewith ? whereby ? ' 
as in Latin, e. g. //. j3 , 199. rov (tkyittt pu) eXaaaoKev, Ojuo- 
KXriaaGKe re fxvOw. Xen. Cyr, 4, 3, 21. "^voiv o(pOa\iLioiv opav. 
Also with persons: Eur. HeracL 391. Xen. Cyr. 3, 2, 11. 
eiri fiev otj top Ap/neviov loyero ay-yeAoc o oe Kvpoc toiq 
irapovaiv {reKroai kul XiOodo/uLOic) eret^c^ev. Anab, 1, 8, 1. 
eXavveiv ISpovvri tw itttto). So to verbs of ' throwing', the 
missile is joined in the dative, as jSaXXeii^ "^ep/uia^ioiQ Od. k, 
121. or XiOoic Thuc. 4, 43. Xen. Cyr. 2, 3, 18. aKovrtteiv 
aiy^fxaic Pind. Isthm. 1, 33. ec^opfiadeic, ukovti 6o(^ Find. Nem» 
10, 130. So vi(^eiv xpva(^ id. Isthm. 7, 6.^ In this sense 
the dative is used also with substantives : Plat. Leg. 1 .p. 63 1 C. 
Kivri(T€ic Tw (Tio/jLari ' .motions made with the body*. 4. p. 7 1 7 A. 
T} ToTc j^eXecriv eCJ)€<Tic 'the shooting with arrows'. Rep. 3. 
J9. 397 A. ^la jLiiinriaeux; (j)(t)vaiQ re Kai (r^riinadiu . Hence 
laOpiau iinroKn v'lKav Pind. Isthm, 2, 20. ^o^av apixaai ih. 3, 
25. comp. 1,17, 86. KaXkiviKoc, ap/naai Pyth. 1, 63. 

1 . Hence seems to arise the construction of the verb \pri- 
dOai with the dative, as in Latin uti with the ablative {Soph. 
Antig. 24. (xvv ^iKy y^priaOeiQ ^iKaia Kai vo/ulw, should be 
'XprjaOelc St/cam. See Herm.). With two datives it is rendered 
(as in Latin uti aliquo monitore) ' for' or * as'. Xen. Cyrop, 
8, 1, 11. Kai TToXeojv ^e Kai oXiov eOvijjv (pvXa^i Kai (jaTpa- 
Traic, ^/^ei on tovtivv tktiv e'lrj y^prjaTeov ' that some of these 
must be made use of as guardians of the city'. y^priaBai is used 
with the accusative Xen. Hier. 11, 11. Ka\ to fieyaXocppov 
Ov avif vppeij aXXa (Tvv yvwjULy expTJTO, 

2. In this sense the dative is also used with some verbs, 
with which, in Latin and English, no instrument or mean is 
signified, e. g. TeKfxaipeadai toIc TrpoaOev tjjuoXoyrj/uieuoiQ 
' to conclude, to infer from what was granted'. Plat. Euthyd. 
p. 289 B. which is elsewhere expressed reKfi. awo rivoc 

•' Dissen ad Pind. Nem. 1, 18. ad Plat. Leg. p. 34. Stallb. ad Plat. 

•» Heind. ad Plat. Cratyl. p. 131. Phikb. p. 110 seq. 
Boeckh ad Plat. Min. p. 101. Ast 

Syntax. Of the Dative, 633 

Plat. Rep. 6. p. 501 B. or ck rivoc Plat. Crit. p. 44 A. 
Xen. Mem. S. 4, 1, 2. So also ol S/cuOat pavrevovrai pa- 
/3Sot(Tt iTe'LvirfdL TToWycjiy ^ hj the assistance of many wil- 
low rods', Herod. 4, 67. (TTaQfxacfdai r'l tivl ' to judge of from 
anything', Herod. 7, 237. whence Plat. Charm, p. 154 B. 
epoi pev ov (rTaOprjrou. So yiyvojffKeiv tivl Thuc. 1,8. eiKuC^iv 
Tivi ib. 9. which ib. 10. is ei/ca^eiv ctTro tivoc Xen. Cyr. 8, 
1, 37. Tolc, 'iTpoeipr]pkvoic ^riXov^. The matter also is some- 
times expressed by the dative: Herod. 3, 57. rolai ^K^vioiai 
Tore r\v rj ayoprj Kai to TrpvTavriiov Ylapiitj \id(o r}aKr}peva, 
Theocr. 1, 52. Comp. §. 374. Obs. 

Ohs. 1 . Another mode of espressing the mean or instrument, is by 
Zlcl with the genitive ; but these two modes appear to have this distinc- 
tion, that the dative marks the proper and more important instrument, 
hia with the genitive the subordinate but immediate, by means of which 
the use of the former becomes practicable. The chief passage is Plat. 
Thecet. p. 184 C. cMOTret, cnroKpiais irorepa opdorepa, <J bpuipeVf rovro 
elyai ocpdaXjjiovs, f/ 2i' ov opojfiey* Kal w aKovofier, wTa, rj ^i ov aKOV" 
opey ; 0EAI. At' tjy eKaara alaSavofjLeda, efiotye ^oKet, tJ Sw/cjoarey, 
fidXXoy r/ ols. Sil. Aeivoy yap ttov, (J TraT, el iroXXai rives ev ijpivt 
waxep kv Zovpeiois 'iTrwots, alaOijcreLS eyKddrjvrai, dA\a pri els fxiav tlvcl 
ideay, e"iTe \pv)(i]Uf eire o del icaXel^', Trd^ra ravra ^vvTeiyei, ?) Zlcl 
TovTCjy, oloy 6pydy(i}y, aladayojieda oaa aladrjrn. the sense of which 
is expressed by Cicero Tusc. Qu. 1, 20, 46. The dative maybe ex- 
pressed as a subject by the nominative, as // \pvxf) ^ict noy ocjtdaXfidjv 
dp^, and so Sojok. Ant, 916. Koi vvy dyei p.e Zia yep(s)y ovto) Xajjojyf not 
his own hands, but those of his servants. Plat, Apol, S. p. 17 C. edv 
dta TiZv avrwy Xoywy iiKovrfTk pov dTzoXoyovpevov, 

Ohs, 2, Sometimes instead of the simple dative, prepositions with 
that or other cases are used, as eyj ey ocpdaXpoTaiy opwyuai in Homer. 
JEur, Or, 1018. a>s cr' Idova ey opfxacri TrayvcrTdTtjy Trpoaoxpiy e^eorr/i/ 
(ppevwy. Comp. Soph. Ant. 764. Trach. 241. Soph. (Ed. T. 821. Xex^ 
^e Tov davoyTos ey '^^epoly efiaiy ^(paiyu), (* since they are in my hands') 
^t' (Lyrrep uiXero. Antig. 962. Xen. Cyr. 1, 6, 2. on ol deol t'Xew re Kcd 
evfj-eyeis TrejjLTrovffi ce, Kal ey lepols ^fjXoy Kal ev ovpayiois arjfxeioLS, 
Antig, 696. 1229, Phil. 60. So diroXXvaQaL ey Qaydrf Eur. Ale. 1011. 
Piatt Phcedon. p. 95 D. Comp. Eur. Hel, 1135. where ey ravry rj 
Ivyd^ei means * by the possession of this power'. Plat, Menex. p, 240 

«= Heind. ad Plat. Soph. p. 351. 

634 Syntax. Of the Dative. 

C. D. expresses the precise force of this kv : ev tovt(d li] &v us yevo- 
fxevos yvoii]*. Especially with ^ew ' to bind': Plat. Rep. 8. p. 567 C. D. 
ey jxaKapiq. apa ayayKrj hederai (6 rvpavvos). 

cLTTo with the genitive, properly denoting that from which anything 
proceeds. Soph. (Ed. C. 936. ravra croi rw rJ 0' ofxolios kcltto ttjs 
y\u)ffffr}s Xeyu). Hence the expressions uTro aTojJiaTos eiireiv 'to tell 
orally', or aTro yXwo-o-^s Thuc. 7, 10. ciTro tiZv apiffrepuiv (j^eipuiv) 
pax^crdaL Plat. Leg. 7. p. 795 B. citto yvu)nr)!, ao({)rjs Eur. Ion. 1313. 
KaWiffTioy o/jpdriov citto Eur. Troad. 774. see Hec. 442. Comp. 
Thuc. 2, 77. 3, 11. 64. aTro (TfiiKpas Zairavris * with little expense', 
1, 91. 8, 87. o^vrris aojpaTos fj utto tojv tto^wv Plat. Leg. S. p. 832 E.'* 

^id with the genitive. Soph. (Ed. C. 470. Bi ba'nov ^J^ipiav diywv. 
See Obs. 1. 

€K. Eur. Hec. 573. U x^P'^^ ^vWols e/3aXXov. Soph. El. 398. e| 
aj3ov'Mas Treaelv, which V. 429. is ajSovXi^ 'ireaeTv, Theocr. 7, 6. os €k 
TTohos awe Kpdvav^. 

ffvvt accompaniment, instead of the instrument. Pind. Pyth. 10, 88. 
avv doihdis Oarjroy Tiva riOevai. Soph. (Ed. T. 17. (tvv yrip<} (oapvs' 
comp. 124. Theogn. 231. Br. avv irrepois 7ro)TdffdaL^» 

vxo. II. /3', 374. TToXts X'^P^'-^ ^f* ypereprjffiv aXouffa. Soph. (Ed. T, 
202. VTTO <T(3 (^Qiauv Kcpavrtpf according to §. 395. Obs. 

397. 3. Hence the dative is also found in answer to the question 
(402) * from what?' 'whence?' when the cause proceeding from an 
affection or disposition of the mind, or a subjective quality, is 
assigned, as the motive of an action. //. o', 363. iralc, oar, 
eirei ovv noiriay aOvpiuaTa vri7rieri<TLVf a\p avTic cruve^eue ' from 
childishness*. Soph. EL 233. aXX' ovv evvo'ia y' avSu) 'from 
good wiir. Aj. 531. kqi fxy]v CJ)6(5oi<ri y avrov efeXutra^r^i/ 
' from fear'. Thuc. 1, 80. axxre jUTjre aireipia eTriOvjurjcTai nva 

Tov kpyov, jLirjre ayaOov Kai aCT(|)aXeq vofjiiaavra 'neither 

from inexperience, nor from conjecture, that', &c. Comp. ib. 
81 extr. 4, 19. 6,33. (j) povrj /mar i ^ horn pride'. Plat. ApoL 

*Hemsterh.adLuc.T.2.p.522seq. •» Hemsterh. ad Luc. T. 3. p. 380. 

Brunck ad Soph. (Ed. T. 1112. Pliil. « Schaf. ad Dionys. p. 296. Erf. 

60. Tyrwhitt ad Arist. de Poet. ad Soph. Aj. 27. 

p. 120. Person ad Eur. Or. 1. c. •* Schasf. ad Lamb. B. p. 743. Lob. 

Dissen ad Pind. p. 487. Ast ad ad Phryn. p. 100. 
Plat. Leg. p. 81. 

Si/ntax. Of the Dative. 635 

S, p. 26 E. MeXiTOC ^o/ceT T17V ypaCprjv TavTrjv vj3pei tivl Kal 
aKoXatria kul veorr^Ti ypaxpaaOai. Xen. Cyr, 8, 1, 16. ot 
ce jiiri TrapeieVy tovtovc, riyeiro ri aKpare ia tivi 17 aSi/cia tj 
ajLieAeia aweivai, 

Ohs. 1. Here also the dative expresses the nearer and immediate, 
Zia. with the accusative tlie more remote motive. Plat. Rep. 9. p. 586 C. 
T« c>e TTfjOt TO dvjLioetdes ; ov)( erepa roiavra avayKrj yiyveadai, os ay 
avTO Tovro Bia7rpdTTi]raij rj (pdovo) hi a (^lXot Lfiiav, ri ^i(jl hia 
<l>i\oyeiKiay, 7} 6v/jiwBia hvffKoXiarf TrXrjfffuoyijy riiJ.rjs re Kai vi.Krjs 
KcilOvfiov ^iwKOjy ciyev Xoyifffiov re Kal yov ; Time. 4, SQ. 01 Aa/ce^at- 
/xoriOL affdev eiq. ait)iiaT<i)v h La rijy fftro^etay vTrej^WjOovj^*'. Both 
constructions are used as synonymous Plat. Gorg. p. 508 B. a UuiXoy 
ala^vi'T) u)ov avy^wpely, and C. o av Topyiay e^rj IluiXos ^t' alay^vvrjy 

Ohs. 2. The poets often add to this dative a/y0t or TrepL II. p\ 22. 
Trepi adeve'i fiXefjieairei, which i\ 237, p.', 42. p', 135. is merely adevei 
PXepeaiyeiy. P'lnd. Pyth. 5, 1'^. Trepl deipari. JEsch. Choeph. 545. 
ap(p\ rapfSei. Pers. 693. Trepi rapfjet. Choeph. 33. irepl 0o/^a> ' from 
fear'. Soph. ap. A then. 1, 17 D. apcpl dvp^ *from indignation' (which 
Toup. /. c. explains wrongly. See BrunckFr. Soph. p. 605.y Instead 
of this also vtto with the genitive is found: Horn. H. in Cer. 411. vtto 
j^dpparos. j^sch. Eum. 178. vk aXyovs. Thuc. 2, 8. yeorris ovk clkov- 
aiojs VTTO cnretpias iJTrrero rov TroXepov. very rarely vTrep. Eur. Andr» 
490. epihos virep 'through enmity'. Suppl. 1129. dXyeiay virep *for 

4. The dative expresses also every external cause, a. w^ith 398. 
passives, the cause, and not the person, by w^hich the action (403) 
is effected, being put in the dative, as in Latin in the ablative, 
so that in the active the dative might be the subject, e. g. 
Soph. Antig. 955. Z^vyOrj S o^v-^oXoic iralc o ApvavTOC Plat. 
Leg. 4. p. 716 A. y^pr]paaiv eiraipopevoQ rj Ti/nalc rj Kal 
adjparoc €vpop(pia, opibus, honoribus, pulchritudine elatus. 
Hep. 10. p. 608 B. oxttc cure Ttju^ eirapOevra, oure Y/orj- 
paaiv, ovre ctpxp ov^epia, ov^e ye Troir}TiKy a^iov apeXtjaai 
^iKatoavvTfQ. This eTraipeaOai is accompanied also by ctt/, in 
which case the construction belongs to c. Xen. Mem. S. 1,2, 25. 

^ Toup ad Suid. 2. p. 32. Ilgen ad Horn. H. Cer. p. 560. Herm. 

• Brunck ad Apoll. Rh 2, 96. ad Vig. p. 862. n. 4] 6. 

K 2 

G36 Sj/ntax. Of the Dative. 

of Critias and Alcibiades : wy/cw^evw /uev ctti yevei, eTr-np/nevu) 
^ em ttXovtw, Trec^utrrj/iej^w Se eirl ^vvajuei, Glared pvfxfxkvu) Se 

VTTO TToWttyv avOpujTTUJU, Tt OavfuLacFTOv, €1 V7ref)rj(j)avu) 

eyeveaOrju ; 

Hence also dpeffKeaOal tlvl (inasmuch as apeaKeiv is a 
transitive verb §. 412. Obs, 2.) delectari aliqua re. Herod, 

4, 78. o SkuXt^c SiaiT'^ ^€1/ ov^ajULtoG ripeaKero Sfcv- 

OiKy. The phrase too dpKeiadai rivi, contentum esse aliqua re, 
seems to belong to this head: Herod, 9, 33. ouS' outw e^rj eVt 
apKeeaOai toutoio'i jjlovvoigi. JEschin. Axioch. 15. ra 7ra- 
Or]/j.aTa aocpia/naTcov ovk cti^e^erai, juovoiq ^e a pKel.Tai role 
BvvaimevoiQ KaOiKeaOai rrjc; ipvyrJQ^. 

The dative is also used w^ith neuter verbs, e. g. Eur, Ion. 84. 
acTTpa de (j)evyei irvpi twS' aWepoc, which in Homer is (pevyeiv 
VTTO TivoQ, and also with active verbs when the action is pro- 
duced by means of the substantive. Herod. 1, 87. eyw ravra 
eirpa^a Ty ay /uev evcaiimovLy, Ty e/netovTOv ce KaKooai- 
jtioviy 'urged by thy good fortune and my own ill fortune\ 
Eur, Bacch, 368. fiavriKy jLiev ov Xeyw ' in virtue of the art of 

b. With verbs of all kinds, when the dative is rendered by 
' on account of. Soph. Ant. 390. (^XoXy ttoO rjfeii/ ^evp' av 
e^Tjv'xovv eyd) raTq aalc aTreiXaic Comp. Eur. Hec. 1167. 
Andr. 247. El. 149. Thuc. 3, 98. extr, ArtiaoaOevric, Se wept 
Nai/Tra/CTOv Kai ra yjjjpia ravTa vTreXeKpOrj, to7q TreTrpa- 
y/mevoic ^o^ovixevoc, tovq AOrjvaiovQ, as Eurip. Or. 455. Tuv- 
^apewc oSe <TT€iyet irpoc viuaQ, ov itiaXiGT aictoQ p. eyei etc, 
oppaT eXOeiv, to1.(tiv e^eipyacr pevoiQ, Thuc, 4, 35. oi 
AOrjvaloi eTTiaTriopevoi (eTricnropevoi) Trepiocov pev avrujv Kal 
KVKXdxTiv y^wpiov i(T^vt OVK et^ov ' on account of the strength 
of the place'. 6, 33. AOrivaloi €(j> rjpac ttoXX^ arparia wp- 
prjvrai Kai vavriKy Kai Tre^t/cy, Trpo<^aGLV pev l^yedTaitJV ^vp- 
pay^'ia Kai AeovTivwv KaTOiKiaei, ro ^e aXrjOeCf ^iKeXiac 
eTTiOvpia ' on account of the alHance with the inhabitants of 
Segesta, and in order to re-establish the Leontines'. 1, 84. 
povoL di avTo evirpayiaiG re ovk e^vf^pitopev Kai ^vpipopa^Q 

^ Valcken. et Wessel. ad Herod. 7, ICO. p. 579, 58. Fisch. 3 a. p. 409. 

Syntax. Of the Dative. G37 

riffcrov erepijjv eiKo/jiev ' we alone are not insolent on account of 
our success*. Comp. 7, 77. JEsch. Choeph. 51. avi}\ioi j3/oo- 
TO(TTfye?r, ^v6(^oi KoXvirrovai ^ofxovc, ^eairoruyv OavaTOKTi, 
Plat. Menex. p. 238 D. ovts cKjOeveia, ovre irevia, out 
ayv(x)(Tia wareptoif aTreXrjXarai ov^eiCf ovSe roTq evavrioiQ 

Teri/uLriTai. Rep. 2. p. 359 B. to Se dtKaiov ayairaadai, 

ou^ wc ayaOov, aXX wc apptJCTTia tov abiKelv Ti/uLiofxevov, 
Leg. 1. p. 627 A. eu OTrotratc ol d/neivoveQ viKiocn to TrXrjOoG Kai 
TOVQ -^elpovQ, opQ(jjQ av avrri Kpe'iTTiov Te avTrJQ XeyoiB ri ttoXiq, 
eiraivoLTO re av BiKaioraTa ry roiavrij v'lKy . 

c. Hence the dative is put with many passives and neuters, 399. 
where it also expresses the cause, occasion, or object of the 
action. Thuc, 4, 85. 0av/ia2tt» t^ awoicXeiaeL f.iov rtjjv 
7rvX<x)v. 7, 63. rrJQ Te (jxjjvrjc Ty eTTitTTrj^p /cat t(jjv tjOottwv 
Ty fxifxr)aei edavfxaZ,eaQe Kara Tr\v EAXa^a. 3, 97. Atj- 

/uoaOevTic ry Tu^p eXniffaQ on ovSev avrio rjvavriovTO, 

eyC}pei eirl A'lyiTiov. Plat. Hipp. Maj. p. 285 extr, 

eiKOTtoQ (TO I '^aipovcriv oi AaKe^aijuovioi, are TToXXa eiooTt, 
'rejoice on your account, are pleased with you'. Si/mp. p. 179 C, 
Kai Trjv eK€Lvr}Q {'AXkiicjtl^oq 'ipvyjiv) avelffav (oi Oeoi), aya- 
(jOeurec; tm epyo). Pac. p. 159 extr. y]avyjiav eyeiv 
eel, Kai )UT7 fxeyaXoyv eTTidvfxeiv irapa to ^iKaiov, aXXa Grepyeiv 
TOLQ irapovGiv. ib. p. 163 D. opijjcnv r\fxaQ ov arepyovraQ 
oic, av eyjbJfjLev. eiri is joined with this dative ib. p. 177 A. 
(Trepyovrai eiri toIg vtto tov irXriOovQ StSo^ei^atc o(i)pea7(;, 
Comp. Panath. p. 242 A.^ ayairatx) is constructed like 
(TTepytj in the same sense : Lysias Epitaph. j9. 192, 26. o ttjq 
Adtac jSadtXeuq, ou/c ayaTTW V ToTc virap'^ovcyiv ayaOolc, 

kffTeiXe irevTriKOVTa juvpia^ac, GTpaTiav, Comp. p. 194, 39. 

Demosth. p. 13, 11. Xen. Anab. 1, 3, 3. avdpec GTpaTiiJjTai, 
fXT) OavjLiaZeTe oti ^aXeTTwc (j>ep(t) toTc Trap overt npa- 
y fxaai, which otherwise is accompanied by eir'i, as Xen. Hell, 
7, 4, 21. yaXeTTtjjQ i) t(jjv AaKedai/novltov ttoXig (pepovrra eiri Ty 
TToXiopKia^, as Cicer. Verr. 4, 30, 68. interverso dono regali 

^ Markl. ad Eiirip. Suppl. 304. *^ Fisch. 3 a. ]). 409 seq. 

Briinck ad Soph. AiUig. 1219. Ileind. '^ Wesseling ad Diod. Sic. 3, 59. 

ad Plat. Gorg. p. 146. Fisch. 3 a. Bibl. Crit. 3, 2. p. 17. 
p. 408. 

638 Syntax, Of the Dative. 

graviter ferre. Tsocr, Panath. p. 275 A. e^va^epave fiev 
ovSevL Tfjjv yeypafxfxkviiyv. Plat, Gorg. p. 450 E. ^vcT'^epaiveiv 
role, XoyoiQ. Id. Phcedon, p. 63 B. ovk ayavaKrwv tm Oa- 
varoj, a(Ty^a\av tivi Eur. Iph. T. 925. ^vaCpopelv tivi id. 
Andr. 1238. ye\av tivi id. Iph. T. 276.^ yavpiav tivi De- 
mosth. p. 308, 6. Xen. Mem. S. 2, 1,31. toTc TreirpaypevoiG 
ai(T'^vv6jj,evoi. Comp. Eur. Heracl. 542. 

To these also Trtcrreveiv tivl ' to rely upon anything', seems 
to belong, as far as the dative expresses the ground of the re- 

Obs. 1. It is more usual to find cttI with this dative. Plat. Menon. 
in. QettoXol edav/jiu^ovTO e^' iTnriKfj re /cat rrXovTO). (rrepyit) is also found 
with the accusative in the sense of ' to be content with anything'. 
Herod. 9, 117. ovt<o ^)) earepyov to. Trapeovra. Soph. Fr. p. 677. 28. 
ed. Br. arepyeiv ^e t a^irecTOVT a Kev deadai TrpeTrei go^ov Kv/jevrrjVf 
aWa fiij ffTevetv Tv^rfy^. Thus also ayuTrdy * to be content with any 
thing'. Isocr. Paneg. p. 69 D. ovrios atcxjows otTD^XXay/^o-av, wore revs 
a^eoTwras fxrjKevL rr/v eXevdepiav ayaTrdv. Comp. Thuc, 6, 18. 
Plat. Menex. p. 240 C. Demosth. Phil. 2. p. 70, 19. 

Obs. 2. This dative often signifies ' according to, in consequence of. 
II. o, 194. rw joa Kal ovtl Aids (^eojjiai (ppeffiv. Eur. Phcen. 6Q7. 
(KddjJios dpciKovra loXeae) dias aixdropos IlaXXaSos 0pa^als yanerels di' 
Kiov odovras, as //. a', 412. v7rodr)fjio(Tvyrj(Tiv 'Adt]yr]s. Horn. H. in ^ poll. 
1, 98. "Hprjs (ppadpoavvT]. Eur. Phoen. 1058. XP^^'V ^' ^'/^" HvdiaLs 
aTTOcrroXalffiy OISittovs 6 rXa/xwv Qr](3aiay rdyde ydy. Plat. Apol. 
S. p. 28 C. rw ye cw Xoyw. Xen. Cyr. 1, 2, 4. pon^ els rots eavTuiv 
Xyypas e/caoToi Trcipeiaiv'^. Eur. Bacch. 350. comp. §. 398. a. Similarly 
Herod. 4, 16. aKoy ri Xeyeiy 'from hearsay', which Plat. Phcedon. 
p. 61 D. calls ki, cLKo^s Xeyeiy. Thus also Kpiyeiy Tiyd apery Kal KaKig., 
Ka\ evdaijJLoyi^ Kal t^ kvavrif Plat. Rep. 10. p. 580 B, Comp.^. 582 D. 

400. 5. For the same reason the dative besides expresses the 

(404) manner of an action. Xen. Cyrop. 1 , 2, 2. j3 1 a eiq o'lKiav irapievai 

' with violence'. Thuc. 4, 1 9. j3/a ^taipvyeiv. However, this may 

be the mean by which the action is effected, as Soph. Phil. 563. 

€K j3tac. Herod. 3, 127. (3ly re Kai o^tAy €7riTeXeT»/ ti, as j5oy 

» Elmsl. ad Eur. Bacch. 840. •= Heind. ad Plat. Gorg. p. 230. ad 

•» Gatak. ad M. Anton. 6, 44. Cratyl. p. 29. 
Fisch. 3 a. p. 409 seq. 

Sj/ntax. Of the Dative. 639 

T€ Kal oiLiiXoj 9, 59. Hence the datives of substantives are 
often put adverbially : Xe7i. Cyr. 5, 3, 47. Ku/ooq eiri/j-e- 
\eia TovTO e-rroiei ' with carefulness' (a consequence of §.397.) 
^iKy ' with justice*, which is also expressed avv ^lkyj. Herod, 
6, 1 12. o( 'AOrjvaioi ^poLiio 'levro ec tovc. j^appafJovQ, Eur, 

Ion. 914. etc avrpov Ko'iTac jj, dyec avaL^eia , In the 

same manner the datives of adjectives are often put as adverbs, 
especially in the feminine. ^rjjuLoaia, public e ; i^ia, privatim ; 
irety ' on foot* ; tw ovri * in reality'. Thuc. 4, 62. et tic )3e- 
(5ai(OQ ri 7) no Si/caiw (Si/cr/) r] j3ia irpa^eiv oieTai. oXo) rivl 
'entirely, altogether', omnino, Plat. Lys. p, 215 C.^ 

Hence also as it would seem with verbs of punishing, the 
punishment is put in the dative, as in Latin, capite plectcre, 
multare pecunia. Herod. 6, 21. 'AOr^valoi eCvidLitiyaav jjnv {^pv- 
viyov)y u)Q avafxvr)aavTa oiKriia kqkq, ^tXi^ai Bpa^fjiyari, 
^Tj/uiovv Tiva 9avaT(^, (pvy^ , 

6. The dative often signifies ' with respect to', as in ttocfi 
Ttt^vq 8cc. Soph. CEd. T, 557 , Kai vvv kO ujutoq eifxi tco (5ov- 
XevfxaTi. Plat. Leg. 10. p. 908 C. to ^ev p.ri vop,iZ€iv OeovQ, 
ajjL^oiv av virapyoi koivov iraOoc, ry ^e t(jjp aWtJU avQpioirisJV 

(upp, TO fxev eAaTTO), to oe TrAeiw KaKa epyal^oir av. Isocr, 
Hel. Erie. p. 215 C. of Theseus : ry jmev e^ovGia rvpavvujVy 
Tate ^ evepyeaiaic, ^rifxaytoyuiv. Eur. Iph. A. 338. tw 
^OKelp /jtev oi»^t y^pyt^v, tw Se (iovXeaOai SeXwv ' in appear- 
ance — in reality'. So in the poets when the subject denotes 
something general, the particular thing which is found in or 
connected with it, is put in the dative. //. /3', 141. Xrj'lov 
Tfifxvei acjTayveaaiv, for aarayyec, tjiuvovctiv ev Xr)ico. Soph. (Ed. 
T. 25. TToXiQ (pOivovGa juev KaXv^iv eyKapTroiQ -ydovoQ, (bOiuovcfa 
S' ayeXaiQ j3oui/o^oic. Similar to this is Herod. 8, 60, 1. kiv- 
cvvexxjeiQ aTraa^ ry EXXaSt, for r) E. Kiv^vvevcrei ev <yoi. 

Of the dative with passive verbs see §. 424, 4. Obs. 1. 

7. Hence the dative in answer to the question Svherein?' 
v7r€p|3aXXet»/, irpoey^eiv, diaCpepeiv (j)povrj(j€i, a^uc'ia &c. ' to dis- 

** Fisch. 3 a. p. 221 seq. p. 57. 

* Fisch. ib. p. 220. Hoog. ad Vig. ^ Fisch. 3 a. p. 382. 

640 Sj/ntax. Of the Dative, 

tinguish one's self in intelligence, injustice'. Herod, 1, 1. 
comp. 1,91. Xen, Mem, 2, 7, 7. Kj^veip roTq (jw^acrt. ib. 3, 
5, 18. avYiKearif) irovr^pia voaeiv. Sometimes the accusative with 
Kara is put for the dative. Isocr. Hel. Enc. p. 217 A. role, 
Kara avveaiv rj Kar aWo ti TTjOoe^^ovort (^Oovovfixeu, 67ri with the 
dative Xen. Mem, 4, 2, 1. 

Ohs. This dative is sometimes accompanied hy ev. Soph. (Ed. T, 
1112. eV re yap fxaKpw yi]pq. ^vyc^dei, rw5e r' av^pt l,v}j.jieTpos * with re- 
spect to age, he coincides with this man', properly kv /JiaKp^ yhp^ <*'>'• 

(405) 8. The dative expresses the relation of the measure, de- 
gree, &c. with the comparative. Herod, 1, 184. ^e/jLipajULiQ 
y€vey(Ji irevre irporepov eyevero rrJQ Nirw/c^ioq. Id.Qy 106. 
TToAi \oyifXio 7] FiWac; yeyove aaOevearepT}, Aristoph, Ran, 
18. eviavrto irpea^vrepoc,. Plat. Phcsdon. p, 100 E. K€(j)aXy 
/iiet^wv ^a head taller', but immediately afterwards p. 101 A. 
ov^evl aWbj pei^ou eariVy 77 jneyeOei ' by means of nothing else*. 
Hence the datives ttoXXw, oXtyw, ^payel with comparatives. 
(^payel. rivi TrXeiw Plat, Rep, 1. p, 330 B. Sec. 

401. III. The dative expresses also the direction of an action 
(393) towards an object, whether this direction be proper and obvious 
to the senses, or an improper one, which is only imagined to 
accompany an action in conformity with a sensible mode of 
conception, e. g. //. 2, 301. at ^ oXoXvyi^ naaai AOrjvy 
y^el.pac, avecry^ov Mifted up their hands to Minerva'. Pind. 
Isthm, 6, 60. o ^* avareivac, ovpavi2 yelpaa au^acc. So with 
the verb 'to come': II. jn , 374. eireiyofxevoiai S 'iKovro. JEsch. 
Prom, 358. aXX' ?}X0ev avri^ Zrjvoq aypvirvov (3eXoc, Soph, 
Ant, 233. Hence 1. the verbs ' to pray' : //. y', 296. eS^ovro 
OeoTc ai€iyeP€rij(Tiv ^ prayed to the gods', because in praying 
the countenance or hands were lifted up. Il,y, 318. V, 177. 
XaoL 3' r)pr]Gavro 0€o7q iSe '^elpac, aveayov, Xen. Cyr. 5, 
2, 12. ev^ovrai iraai Oeolc; yeveaOai irore (otoi re) Kai 
eavrovQ eiridel^ai, on niaroi eiaiv, Comp. 7, 1, 1. Plat, 
Rep, 3. p, 394 A. Aristoph, Vesp, 862. Soph, Aj, 509. /Livrnp 
ff€ TToXXa/ctc 0eoTc a par at "Cfjiyvra irpoQ Softouc fxoXelv, Thus 
also irpoaevyeaQa'i rivi, though irpoc by itself, in the sense of 
'to, towards', governs the accusative: Xen. Cyr. 2, 1, 1. 
TTpoffev^apevoi Oeolc, Kai rypwtrt. but Aristoph, Pint. 959. iva 

syntax. Of the Dative. 641 

TTpOGev^y Tov Oeov, Flat. Rep. 1 in. Karej^rjv yOec eic Ueipaia 

7rpoG€v^6/j,€voc T>J € w . EuTip. Atidr. 1 107. w veaviai, ti 

aoiOew Karev^ofJiedOa; Plat. Leg.3. p. 6S7 D. Kai /uriV) (*fv 
y o iraic ev^erai eavno yiyveauaiy iroAAa o irarr^p airev^aiT 
au To7c Oeolc; juri^ainwc Kara rac rou vletJG ev^aQ yiyvecrOai, 
Hence the dative with t/ceatoc : Eur, Heracl. 108. iKeaiav^ 
TToXei ^eva)v irpoorpoirav. But t/cerevet*^, irpoaKvveiv take the 

2. Thus also aj^ajSXeTreiv rivi ' to look up to any one'. Eur. 
Suppl. 323. opaCp a(3ov\oQ wc, KeK€proixr)f.ikvi] ('who is ridi- 
culed as inconsiderate*) toIc, KeprofxovGi yopyov wc ava^ 
j3Xe7ret <t?] iraTpic; Ion. 1486. avi](5a S 'Eipe-^OevCy o re yrj- 
yeverac 3o^toc ovkgti vvKrac, ^kpKerai, AXiov d avapAeirei 
\af.nTa(Ji. Bacch. 1307. r^q Gr)C to^ epvoc,, a) raXaiva, 
vrjdvoQ aidyjLGTa Kai KUKiaTa KarOavovB opio, tj owft ave- 
f^Xeirev, where, however, Brunck reads ov. Plat. Charm, 
p. 155 C. aite(5\e\pe re /moi toIq o(pOa\fnoLQ cifjiriyavov ri oiov. 
Similarly €jUj3Xe7reti^Tii/i: Plat. Rep. \0.p. 608 D. avTt/3Xe7retv 
riv'i j^schin. in Ctesiph. p. 539. Xen. Cyr. 3, 1, 23. 

Of this kind seems to be also the construction ava<5rr\vai 
TivL ' to stand up against any one, in order to fight with him*. 
11. \p', 635. Qi»>pi^(JG€aQai nvi //. rj , 101. noXepov avaipelaOai 
Tivi Herod. 5, 36. 

3. The dative sometimes stands alone in this sense, instead 
of the preposition -n-poQ, etc;, ew'i, with the accusative, (as 
perhaps xctpjurj irpoKaXelaOai for eic ycippr]v IL r? , 218. 285.) 
Find. 01. 6, 97. 'AX(peio jmeGGM KaTaj3ac. comp. Isthm. 6, 60. 

Herod. 2, 62. ec ^aiv eneav o-uXXe^^eoxri ryai OvcrirjGi. 

for elc rac OvGiaQ. 3, 61. Soph. Trach.597. ovttot aKryvvt^ 
Trecrel, as El. 747. iriTrreiv Tre^w. El. 1193. Eurip. Or. 1429. 
a oe Kivov ii\haKQ.Ta caKTvAoic, eAiaae, vr)fxaTa u lero nectt). 
Hel. 1291. wc p.ri iraXiv yy Xv/mar efcjSaXXp KXvdu)^. Tlius 
too Aristoph. Thesm. 1055. aloXa veKVGiv em Tropeia, for wpoQ 
veKvaQ^. So perhaps is to be explained Find. Isthm. 7, 10. 

"Abresch Diluc.Thuc. i.p.92sqq. ad Dion. U. p. 306. 
Musgr. ad Eurip. rha3n. 310. Schaf. 

642 Syntax, Of the Dative. 

Zevc Afx^ir pvwvoci aXoyov fxerrfKBe ^UpaKXeioic, yovalc, for 
ewi Tr]v yovr]v Hjoa/cXeovq. 

4. The same appears to be the ground of the construction 
v7ro(TTrjvai rivi * to await an enemy, not to give ground*, ex- 

cipere. Xen. Anab, 3, 2, 11. e\Q6vT(t)v Ylepauiv viroaTrivai 

auToTc AOrjvaloi ToX/uLricfavTeQ eviKtfaav avrovQ. Helle.n. 7, 
5, 12. e^etrn Xeyeiv, wq toTc a7rovevor}fievoic, ovSeic; av 

VTTOtJTaii]. Thuc. 2, 61. TToXiv fxeyaXrjv oikovvtuq y^pewv 

Kai ^vficpo pale tqIq fxeyictraic, eOeXeiv v(pL(TTa<jOai, Kai 
TTfiv a^iioaiv jurj dcjyaviZeiv, as dvadrrjvaL rivi supra 2. It more 
commonly takes the accusative. 

402. Hence those verbs govern a dative, which are compounded 
^ / with the preposition €7ri, or npoG, serving to mark more pre- 
cisely the idea of the direction of an object, although these 
prepositions by themselves, in that sense, govern the accusa- 

a. eiri, eintJTpareveaQai : Eur. Med. 1182. ^tTrXoui^ yap 
avTy TrrjfJL eTreaTparevero. Arist. Av. 1522. ot Se (5apj3apoi 

Beoi eTTicTTparevaeiv <pa</ dvtjOev r(o Ait. Comp. Vesp. 

11. Xen. Cyr. 8, 5, 25. eire\ikvai rivi. Dem. in Mid. p. 583, 
23. OTTWC eTreJet no /aiapM, eiri^eipelv rivi, properly, 'to 
lay hands on anything, to undertake' : Isocr. de Pac. p» 180 C. 
Talc TT paqecFi rale; avralc e7reyjcipr](jav. eire p'^eaOai tivi : 
Isocr. Pan. p. 252 C. eire\r]\vBe fxoi to TrapprjcnacyaaOai^, 
Comp. Xen. M. S. 4, 2, 4. Plat. Rep. 8. p. 557 E. Thus 
also CTre-yyeXai^ Tivt : Soph. Aj. 9S9. to7q Oavovai Toi<pi\ovcn 
iravrec, Keifxevoia eireyyeXav. (on the other hand t6. 969. 
TTwq ^rjra touS eTreyyeXwei^ av Acara;) Xen. Cyr. 5, 5, 9. 
eireyy eXijjuraQ epoi. 

Obs. 1. These verbs are also found with the accusative whenever 
regard is had, not to the direction of an action, but to its effective re- 
lation, or where the preposition is considered as separate. SopJi, Track. 
74. E{//3oi^a ^ojpav ^aaty, Evjovrou ttoXiv, eTriffTpareveiv avToy. 
Comp. 362. Eur. Suppl. 648. " A^paaros - - - eTreorrparevore Ka^fxeicjy 
TToXir. Thuc. 4, 92. elwdarri re ol (not o^) La')(vos ttov Opacrei rols 
TceXas, (xKrirep 'AGiyvatoi vvy, eTnovres top jjiey itav\aloyTa Ka\ ey t^ 

* Valck. ad Her. 7, 46. p. 531, 64. Ast ad Plat. Leg. p. 581. 

Syntax, Of the Dative, G43 

kavTov fjLoyov a^vvo^evov a^eiffrepoy cTrior/oarevei v**) — Demosth. 
in Mid. p. 549, 24. CTre^jf ei/xe v tov ij>6vov top ^Apiarapy^ov^. — 
PlaL, Phcedon. p. 88 C/ eirieuai has in Homer an accusative, e. g. 
//. a', 29. elsewhere a dative, e. g. Thuc. 4, 92. See Eust. ad II. I. c, 
p, 30, 14. Eur. Here. F. 34. eTreiaTreawy ttoXiv. 

Obs. 2. In Herodotus the construction of eTreyyeXai^ is followed in 
KUTayeXdy 3, 37. TroWa TOjydXfMaTi KareyeXaae. 38. oh yap dv 
tpolai T€ Kal yofj,aioL<TL eTre-yeiprjae KarayeXdy. Comp. ib. 155. 4, 79. 

b. npoQ. as Trpoakyeiv tov vovv tolc, irpaypacri. irpocryeXau 
Tivi. Liician D. D. 7 in. ir poa^aWeiv tivl * to attack', e. g. 
rt^ re'iyei Xen. Hell. 1, 2, 2. also in the sense of ^ to smell 
of anything'^. upoaepyeaQai rivi. Xen. Cyr. 1, 4, 27. — 
Herod. 7, 6. VleiGiarpari^kwv ol avaf3e(3iiK6r€Q ec Soutra--- 

€Ti TrXeov TTpofftjpeyovTO oi (rw Sljof^) which shortly 

afterwards is expressed irpoac^kpeaQai and 1, 123. irpoGKeiGQai 
rivi. Xen. Mem. S. 3, 11, 11. ttoXv diacpepei to kutcl (fyvcnv 
T€ Kai opOwc avO puyirio TrpOGC^epeadai. Herod. 2, 2. 
avoiyovTi ttiv Ovpriv to. irai^ia TrpoairiirTOVTa (ieKOQ eCJXoveov, 
Plat. Leg. 6. p. Ill extr. irpoGTvaiZ.eiv oiKeTaic. comp. Eu- 
thyd. p. 278 B.^ Soph. Antig. 1237. irapQkvi^ TrpoanTixTaeTai 
with Hermann's note, where the accusative is more common. 

Obs. These verbs too are often constructed with the accusative, e. g. 
7rpo(rev-)(€(Tdai Tiva ^. 401. Eur. Med. 1159. d\pv')(oy cIkoj irpoayeXijJtTa 
aw/jaros^. Trpoaf^aXXeiy * to seize', often takes the preposition also sepa- 
rately. Xen. Anah. 5, 2, 4. Cyrop. 5, 3, 12. Aristoph. Pac. 180. icoQev 
(ipoTOv fxe TrpoaejSaXe^. II. ?;', 421. r)eXios pey tTreira yeoy TrpoaelSaXXey 
dpovpas * shone upon'. So Trpoa-KiTveiy tl Eur. Andr. 165. Suppl. 10. 
Here. F. 1382. TrpoaoiKcly tl Thuc. 1, 24. irpoGKaQe^eaQai r^v ttoXlv 
ib. 26. for TroXwpKeiy. irpoaKvyeiy takes the dative only in later writers*. 
TT/ooo-etTreTv, Trpocr^wvetv, &c. govern only the accusative, so that in this 
whole matter it must be carefully observed what is the usage of the 

c. Even verbs compounded with prepositions, which never 

'' Valck. ad Eur. Ph. p. 292. Ilipp. ^ Keen ad Greg. p. (14 seq.) 36. 

526. Duker ad Thuc. 4, 60. f Lob. ad Phryn. p. 463. 

<= Perizon. ad ISA. V. H. 7, 13. ? Schweigh. ad Athen. t. 3. p. 307. 

Reiske ad Dion. Chrys. p. 14. Valck. '' Keen ad Greg. p. ( 14) 36. 

ad Herod. 5, 46. p. 393, 99. • Lobeck ad Phryn. p. 463. 

^ Ast ad Plat. Leg. p. 393. 

644 Syntax, Of the Dative, 

govern a dative, take the dative when they express such a 
direction to an object, as eiaepyeadai tivi. Soph. (Ed, C. 372. 
eKTtjXOe To7v rpiffaOXloLv epic KaKX], Herod. 1, 24. icat 
Tolai e<je\Oelv yap -q^ouriVj ei fxeXXoiev aKovcFecrOai tov 
apiarov avOpujiroju aoi^ov ava-y^toprjcrai eK tyJc Trpv/uLvrjc; €Q /uLecrr}v 
vea. 3, 14. avTM re Kafj.j3v(Ty eaeXOelv oIktov Tiva, 
Plat, Hep. 1. p. 330 D. eireidav tig eyyvc, y tov oieoQai 
TeXevTr](jeiv, eiaepy^eTai avTw SeoQ Kai (^povTic,, Phcdd, 
p. 59 A. ^la drj Tavra ov^ev iravv jjloi ^Xeeivov eiar^et. on the 
other hand ^. 58 E. oure yap u)C OavaTio irapovTa fxe av^poQ 
eTTiTYideiov eXeoQ eicrijei. Eur. Iphig. A. 1589. e^ot ^e t 
aXyoc, ov jULiKpov eicrr^et cj^pevi (§. 389, h.). Soph, Trach, 
298. (Ed. Col. 422. to»/ v/uLevaiov, ov ^o/uloig avopfxov eitre- 
TrXevcfac, Herod. 1,1. ^oiviKac Ty re aXX^ X*^PV ctraTrt/cve- 
eaOai Kal ^rj Kai ec' AjO-yoc, as with dieTreiunre 3, 61. See §, 401, 3. 
Eur. Here, F, 241. Ion, 1215. Yet the accusative is also 
usual ^: Eur. Hipp. 770. Moui^u^ou a/CTattrtv e/c^^cravTO 
Tr^iGfxaTaj which is generally e/c tivoc, ^i](jaadai. 

Thus Sophocles says Aj, 153. toTc coTc aycaiv Ka0v(5piZ(ov, 
JEsch. Choeph. 564. ^ofxoic, irapacFTeiyovTa. Arist. Av. 501. 
Kai KaTedei^ev irpijJTOQ y ovtog fSaaiXevcjv TTpoKyXivdelaOai 
ToTc iKTivoiQ, which elsewhere is joined with a genitive. 
Soph, Phil. 1111. aXXa fxoi affKOwa KpvTTTa t eirr] ^oXepac; 
vneSv (j)pev6c, as Isocr, Panath, p, 244 A. vvv S ov^ev virep- 
\€Tai juot ToiovTo, whcrc however Valckenaer ad Herod, 
p. 531, 64. reads lirepyeTai, adopted by Bekker from MSS. 

d. Otherwise verbs, compounded with prepositions which by 
themselves require the dative, govern the same case, if the pre- 
position may be separated from the verb without affecting the 
sense, as evopav ti tivi. Also eiriGTaTeiv tivi Plat, Crat, 
p, 390 B. C. Isocr, p,9\ B. although oTaTelv does not exist 
out of composition, on account of §. 382. a /uL(j)if3dXX€iv ti tivi. 
Verbs also compounded with irepi are constructed with the 
dative, where the preposition appears to have no influence 
upon this construction : Isocr, Paneg, p. 67 B. 7re/oij3aXXeev 

* Hcmst.adLuc. t.l.p.206. Dorv. Thorn. M. p. 272 sq. 
ad Charit. p. 50 1. Valck. ad Ph. p. 464. 

Syntax, Of the Dative, G45 

Tate fieyiffraiQ avfx(^opalQ, like ^iSoi^ai riva avjuCpopaLC, oSvvaiG 
IL e, 397. Plat, P/icsdr. p. 254 E> Isocr. de Pac. p. 176 A. 
nXeioffi KQL jneiZom kukoIc; irepieneaov. Thuc. 1, 55. tj fiev 
ovu ¥iepKvpa ovrto irepiyiyverai no TroXe/uo) tijjv K.opiv- 
6i(i)v, emersit e bello. ih. 76. r]fx1v Se koi Ik tou eirieiKovc, (e/c 
Tijc eirieiKeiac,) adol^ia to TrXeoi^ rj kiraivoc ovk eiKorwc irepi- 
effrri (as 7, 70. Lys. c, Erat. p. 126, 4. Dem, pro Cor, 
p. 288, 12. 291, 12. 301, 7. 306, 27.)^, where the accusa- 
tive is more usual, e. g. Thuc, 8, 15. 

Ohs, Hence probably comes the construction €7ri\pr]({)t^€iv riyi * to (395) 
permit one to vote', in suffragia mitteref Luc, Tim. p. 113. eTrex/zr/^to-e 
r^ €KKXr)(Ti^ Tifxoju. instead of which Thuc. 1, 87. e7re\p//0t<^ei' avros 
€5 TTjv €KK\r)fTiar TtZv AaKc^aifjioyiioy. The construction seems to 
arise from this, that €Tri\prj(f)i^€iy is the same as xprjcpoy Trpodeivai, k-Kaya- 
yeiy tlvi. Plato, on the other hand, uses it actively, Gorg. p. 474 A. 
p.ri ovy fjirjde yvy fie KeXeve €7ri\pi]({)i^€iy tovs tt apoyras. Comp. 
p. 475 E.'' Another sense of eTrii//. nyi, see §. 394. 

6. The idea of direction lies at the foundation of the use of 403. 
the dative, 

a. with the verbs 'to follow', eVetr^at, uKoXovOelvy oTrrj^eiv. (398) 
Hence Xen,Cyr. 8, 6, 18. t(^ r)fX€pivLo ayyeXio ((j)a(Ji) tov 
vvKTcpivov ^laSe-^etjOai in the sense of eVea^at. Plat, Leg, 
6, p, 758 B. Otherwise ^la^. is a transitive verb, as the Latin 
excipere. Thus the adjectives also, and adverbs, derived from 
those verbs, aKoXovOoc, clkoXovQwc,, iTro/nevcjc, or agreeing with 
them in signification, are constructed with the dative like ^la- 
^0)(^0G : Eurip. Androm. 803. wc kukov KaKi2 ^la^oy^ov ev 
ry^' rj/jiepa iropcjvverai, also the substantive ^la^oyji, Xeit, 
Cyrop, 1, 4, 17. r) ^la^oyji ry npoaOev (j)vXaKy epyeTai, 
Hence cac ^la^oyjic with the dative^. Yet ^la^oyoc, is often 
found with the genitive also : Soph, Philoct, 867. J (peyyoc 
virvov ^la^o'^ov. Eurip. Suppl. 71. dy(l)v ciS' aXAoc t'px^' 
Tai yotov, y6u)v Sia^o^oc. So e^ijc, e^ef^C with the dative, 

'' Dorv. ad Char. p. 598. Valcken. ad Herod. 8, 61. p. 645, 83. 

«= Schref. A pp. Dem. p. 859. * \' Fhocn.374. Scha^fer 

** Hemsterli. ad Luc. t. 1. p. 425. Meletem in Dion. H. 1. p. 17.83. 

646 Syntax. Of the Dative. 

Plat. Crat. p. 399 D. comp. Arist. Li/s. 633. Plat. Leg. 6, 
p. 755 E. p. 780 C* 

Since these verbs may also express a companionship, they 
are often constructed with juera, gvvj afxa, &c. Soph. Trach, 
bQ'^. i]viKa ^vv H|oa/cXeT TO TTjOWTOM evviQ eairo^riv. Xen, 
Hier. 9, 8. 17 (jiii(^po(Jvvri ttoXv fnaXXov aw t^ aa^oXia avfx- 
irapofxa prei. Cyrop. 5, 2, 36. avv roTc vikojcfi, aaCJ) 'i<jOi, 

• Oappovvrec Kai 01 aKoXovOoi eTrovrai. Hes. ' E^oy. 228. 

ouSe ttot' lOvdiKaKJi /llst avcpacri Aijuoc OTrrjcel. Plat. Phi- 
leb. p. 30 C. fxer eKeivov rov \6yov eiropevoi". II. y , 143. 
ajua ryye Kai ap-CJy'nroXoL ^v eirovro. We find also Od.a, 
278. oaaa eoi/ce (piXrtc eiri Trai^oc eTreaOai. Xen. Cyr. 5, 5, 
37. en I fxev rw Kua^apet 01 Mr/Soi e'lTTOVTO, eiri ^e tw Kv/ow 
ol Tlep(7ai, eTTi ce tovtoiq 01 aXXoi, 

Obs. To this class, perhaps, belongs the idiom, by which, of two 
substantives, one is put in the dative, in order to express the long con- 
tinuance of a condition, in which one thing is succeeded by another of 
the same kind Hesiod. Th. 742. aXXa kev evQa koL evQa <l>epoi 7rp6 
OveWa 0ve\Xw, * storm upon storm'. Soph. OSd. T. 175. aWov 

^' av aXXw TTpoai^ois opfieyov olktclv irpos effirepov Qeov. EL 236, 

aXX' ovi^ evvoiq. y avZui, fxr] riKreiv a ixrav arais. Eur. Ph. 1510. 

aXXa ^ovw (j)6ros OldiTroEa ^o/jlov wXeaev'^. Elsewhere eTrt, 'upon', 
is found with the dative, e. g. Soph. Ant. 595. 

(399) b. ' to converse', ^laXeyecrOai, also XaXelv tlvl Demosth. 
j9. 41 1. Theophr. Ch. 3, 5, 20, 1.^ Thus too fxiywaOai rivi, 
in all senses. /caraXXarreo-^ai rivi Plat. Rep. 8. J9. 566 E. 'to 
be reconciled'. 

Ohs. Instead of this dative of the person in p-iywadal tlvi, &c. if 
another dative of the mean, instrument, manner, &c. follow, a genitive 
is sometimes put, governed of this dative. Hesiod. Sc. Here. 35. Taw 
(Tcbvpov 'llXe KTpvu)vr}s evvy kul (j)i\6rr)TL /xiyrj. Horn. H. in Merc. 4>. 
Moia, Aios ev (piXorriTi jjLiyelffa *. Thus too oiKeiovadai : Plat. Parm. 
p. 128 A. Zi]yojv oBe oh jj-oyov ry aXKr} aov (pCKiq. (^ovKeraL ^KCLuiadait 
aXXa Kai r J avyypafxfxari. for cot. 

» Schsef. ad Dion. 11. p. 142. ' Seidler de Vers. Dochm. p. 324. 

^ Markl. ad Lysiam, p. 92. ed. R. •* Fisch. 3 a. p. 405. 

Duker ad Thuc. 7, 57. Heind. ad ' Animadv. ad H. Horn. p. 209. 
Plat. Phaedr. p. 262. 

Syntax. Of the Dative, 647 

c. ' to contend', epiteiv, fxayeadai (and the comp. Sea- 404. 
fxay^eaQai), wnXefxelv : Xen. Mem. S. 3, 9, 2. ^ijXov jxev yap, 
OTi ^KvOai KQL OpaKCQ ovK civ ToXp-ijcyeiaVy aaTTiSaQ Kai Sopara 
\aj3ovTec,, AaK€^aiiJ,ovioic ^la ua^eaBai' (j)aP€pov Se, *6ti 
Kai AaKeSat/Lioi^toi ovt av Qpa^iv ev TreXraic kui ukovtioiq, 
cure ^KvOaic ev to^oic, eOeXoiev av ^laywviteaOai. i/e- 
siod. ' Fjpy. 413. a/j,j3oXi€py(JC uvvp ary^i naXaiei. Pittd. 
Nem. 1, 37. \pri S' ev evOeiaiQ oSoiq aTeL-^ovTa papvaaOai 
(jyva {cum indole certare, i. e. parem ad iugenium industriam 
et studium affej're). Eur. Hipp. 431. luovov Se tovto (j)d<T 
ainiXXaaOai j3/aj, yvtoprjv SiKaiav KayaOrjv 'to vie with life, 
that it is as great a good as life itself. Theocr. 1. 136. /cr)f 
opeu)v Toi GKtJTrec, arjdocri yapvffaiVTO (leg. ^apicraivro. See Anal. 
Br. T. 3. p. 250. Virg. Eel. 8, 55.) diKaleaOal tivl ' to ^o to 
law with any one, to accuse*. Plat. Euthyphr. p. 4 E. Hence 
verbs compounded with ^la, ^lanvKreveiv tivl, certare cum alt' 
guo luctay Xen. Cyr, 7, 5, 53. ^laOpvirreaOal rivi Theocr. 6, 
15. ^laeideiv rivi id, 5, 22. 

Hence arises the construction TreipriOrjvai tivl II. (p>', 225. 
'to try one's strength against any one'. Thuc, \, 73. (j)afxev 
^apad(jjvi fxovoi ir poKivSwevaai tw (5ap(5ap(o, 

Obs. 1. Instead of TroXeyueTv ripi we find too Trpos riva : Isocr. Paneg. 
p. 66 C. (c. 34.) rots (iap(ja.pois avrovs {tovs "Iwvas) k^e^otraVy --- --- 

irpos ovs ovceTTWTTOTe eTravaavro TroXefxavyres' and passim. Also pa)(€' 
<T0ai eiri tlvi II. e', 124, 244. v\ 2Q. 

Obs. 2. TToXefieTy is also constructed with the accusative in the sense 
of *to attack': Dinarch. adv. Demosth. p. 29. ed. R, tolovtidv (tv/ijSov- 
\(t)y Kai i]ye^6v(i)v HxpeXoy tv\€7v ol TroXe^T/travres rijv iroXiv^. 

In consequence of the idea of companionship given to the 405. 
dative, it was used particularly with words which are com- v^^U 
pounded with <tvv, fxera ('with'), o/ttou, e.g. av'Criv tivi, vivere 
cum aliquo, viz. when the preposition may, without injury to 
the sense, be separated from the verb, and be placed imme- 
diately before the dative, or, where this division cannot take 
place, maybe repeated. Thus in adjectives, avvrpof^oc {Herod. 

'Hemst. Obss. Misc. 4. p. 292. ad Diod. S. 1. p. 305. 
Dorville ad Char. p. 576. Wessel. 

648 Syntax, Of the Dative. 

7, 102. Tp EXXa^t ireviT) aiei /core avvrpoc^oQ ecrri), (Tv/LKpio- 
voc, (TVfx(j)(jt)V€iv, &c.^ ixercLj indeed, in the sense of ' with', by 
itself, takes the genitive ; but in composition the dative, e. g. 
fiereyeiv rivoc tivi, ' to partake of anything with some one', 
fieraLTLOC, tivi, (But in jueraSiSovat tivl, fiereaTi fxoi, fxeraixkXei 
fioiy the dative does not express a companionship, but merely 
the personal object of the verb, as in the simple verbs ^t^ovat 
Tivt, €(TTt fxoi, fxekei fxoi.) 0/LLOv, e. g. o/ioXoye?v tivl ' to agree 
with any one', properly, ' to speak with him'. o^oyXwo-croc tivi 
^speaking the same language with any one*, o/ulujvv/aog tivi 'of 
the same name with any one, a namesake of any one', ojnorpo- 
<j)6c, Tivi ' brought up with any one, living with any one'. oij,o- 
poQ (Ion. ofjLOvpoo) ' who has a common boundary (ojooc, ovpoc,) 
with any one' ^. Thus also ofxiXelv tivl (which is a lengthened 
form from ojxov) 'to associate with any one'*^. 

Ohs, 1. That adjectives compounded with avv or o^ov are often found 
with the genitive, has been observed §. 399. Obs. 2. Herod. 2, 134. 

'PoBioTTis rjy (Tvv^ovXos Alautirov tov XoyoTTOiov' koi yap 

ovTOS 'lahfjiovos kyevero (hovXos). Plat. Phcedon. p. 85 B. eyw dk Kal 
avTOS TjyovjjiaL 6fx6dov\6s ye eivai nop kvkvojv koi lepos tov avrov 
Beov, For ^vvoLKely tlvl Euripides Hipp. 1233. says ^vyoiKely ky. 

(400) Ohs, 2. The words arparos, (ttoXos, ' an army, a fleet', (rrpaTiujTai, 
and the different classes of soldiers, as 7re<^o/, iTnreTSf oTrXlrai, ;//iXo<, 
TreXraorra/, also yrjes, &c. are generally accompanied by the dative only, 
without (Tvyf when they constitute an accompaniment. Herod. 5^ 99. 
knei^ri oi 'AOriyaiOL cnriKeaTO e'lKOffi yrjvai. 100. ctTriKUfjieyoL ce r<^ 
ffroXw TovTO) (cur)i hac classe) "Iwves es "E(j)€aoy ayejjatvoy x^'^P'- 
TroWi] (cum magna manu). Thuc, 1, 102. 'A0i?ratot rjXdoy, Kifnoyos 

tTTpaTrjyovyros, 7rXr}dei ovk 6\iy<^. 107. ol AaKe^atjuoyioi e/3o?;- 

drjaay To7s Aiopievaiy eavrojy re ttc yr aicoffioLS Kal ^iXtots OTrXt- 
rais Kai Tuiy i,vfip.axuiy fivpiois. 2, 21. eafiaXioy rrjs 'AttiktJs is 
'EXevtrii/a koi Gptw^e arpart^ neXoTToyyTjaiwy. 3, 96. avXicrdjieyos 3e 

rw arparip ky tov J^ios tov l^^cfieiov rw lepip kiropevero. Hence 

Thuc. 2, 12 extr. Boiwrot toTs XetTrojuerots es IlXaraiaj' eXdoyres T))y 
yrjy ed^ovy. avy however is sometimes added, e. g. Xen. Hist. Gr. 2, 
2, 7. Anah. 1, 8, 1. So the datives Kpavyy, ijx^y f^oy, &c. //. /3', 209. 
Herod. 3, 14. 9, 59. ^sch. S. c. Th. 89. Xen, Anah. 1, 7, 4. 

'^ Fisch. 3 a. p.394. «^ Fisch. 3 a. p. 401. 

»» Fisch. 3 a. p. 394. 

Syntax, Of the Dative. 649 

Ohs. 3. When a word which expresses accompaniment has avros with 
it, both are put in the dative, without <tvv, II. \p', 8. aW avTols 
'iTTTTOiffL Kal (ip^aaiv daaov lovres Jla.TpoK\ov KXatio^xev. Herod. 2, 
47. i'jv Tis \l>av(Tri avT(jJV (^AlyvTrriiov^ Traptioy vos, avToltri ifiarioKTi 
cLTt tvy e/3a"*//e eojvToy. 3, 45. vTroTrpfjaai avrolaL vetoaoiKo lai, 
Eurip. Suppl. 929. kuI /z»)v top OIkXcovs ye yevvalov tokov deot, 
avapircLaavTes els fiv^oiis ^dupos a v rots TeOpiTnrois, evXoyovaty cfi- 
(}>civais. Isocr. de Pac. p. \7G B. Tpnjpeis avroTs TrXr^pw^ao-t ^i€<p8a- 
prjaav'^. (ruv however is sometimes added : II. fi\ 112. ^', 498. Od. 
v\ 118. Horn. H. in Apoll. 1, 146. evQa tol eXKextrojpes 'Idoves ^ye- 
peOovTUL avTols avv iraiheaoL kul aldotris a\6)(0i(Tiv. Herod.2,\\\. 
Eur. Hipp. 1203. Cycl. 705. Ion. 32. Plat. Rep. 8. p. 564 C. 

Lastly, the dative is used in definitions of time and place, 406. 
in answer to the questions ' when?' and ' where?' both chiefly 
in the poets. 

a. *When?' Soph. EI. 783. r]fxkpa yap ryS a7rr}XXayiuai 
(j)6j3ov. Eur. Phan. 4. wc ^varv^rj Qr]j3aiai ry toO rifjikpa 
cLKTiv e(j)rJKac. Li/sias, p. 192, 10. 01 Se Traldec, avrov §ta 
TJivSe Triv TToXiv Ty avry eiSov rijuepa Tr\v 6 iavrtxiv (TO)- 
Ttjpiav Kai Tiiu Twv eyOptjjv Tifxuyp'iav. Comp. Xen. Cyr. 3, 3, 
29. At other times it is accompanied by ev : Eur. Hec. 44. ri 
TreTrpiofjLevr] S ccyei 6av€7v a^€\(j)riv tmS eiJ,riv ev r]/j,ari ^. 111 
the same manner i/uf, ^^y, eToc, &c. are put in the dative, r^ 
avry vvKTi, TpiGi fxr)(jiy iroWoic, eTeai. Also /maKpto -^povio, 
'during a long time' Soph. Trach. 599. 'after a long time 
Eur. Iph. A. 642. as ^eKaanopM xpovo) Troad. 20. 'after ten 
years'. But v^kpa Tre/uLirrtj Xen. Hist. Gr. 2, 4, 13. is 'five 
days before'. deKart^ eVec TrapadKevaaa/mevoc, Lys. Epitaph, 
p. 193, 16. ' for twelve years'. 

b. 'Where?' with the names of places, where sometimes eV 
is used. Soph. Trach. 171. wc ti|m naXaiav (I)r}y6v avSrjffai 
TTOTe Aw^cJvi 3((T<ra»v e/c rieXeta^wv ec^r/, ' at Dodona'. Eur, 
Ph(£n.6\7. MvKTjvaiGf p,ri vOa^' avaKaXei Beovc Aristoph. 
ilcA. 697. avcp ayaOov ovra ^apa9(j)vi irepi rrji/ ttoXiv. cltu 
Ma^a^fu VI fnev ot iijuev, e^iioKop^ev. Plat. Menev. p. 245 A. 
pacTiXel. Se avrrj pev ovk eroXpr^cre ^orjOrjcrai, aKjyyvopefT) ra 

'^ Wessel. ad Herod. 2, 47. p. 126, Lob. ad Phryn. p. 99. 
20. Herm. ad Vig. p. 861. n. 409. * Brunck ad Eur. Hec. I.e. Mark- 
Lamb. B. p. 745. Elmsl. ad Med. 160. land ad Lys. 1. c, Fisch. 3 a. p. 384. 

650 Syntax, Of the Accusative, 

TpoTraia ra re yiapaOojvi Kai 2aXa^7vi Kai UXaraialc,. 
comp. Isocr. tt. avri^, §.328. So ayp(^ Od. \' , 188. oSoTc 
Soph, Ant, 226. Kpari id, (Ed, C, 313. oikoiq Trach, 730. 
irovTii) Eur, Hec, 1261.* 

(y^^e Accusative. 

407. The accusative denotes the proper object of an action, either 
that which is effected or produced by the action, e. g. TroieTi' 
fxvOovQ rj Aoyovc, or that in which the proper effect of the action 
manifests itself, that which is brought by it into a passive state, 
and is conceived of as under its influence, e. g. rvirreiVy a^iKelv 
Tiva, &c. Much here is arbitrary, and depends upon the view 
with which a nation regards the relation between the verb and 
its object. 

The accusative stands throughout in a certain analogy to the 
nominative, inasmuch as every noun, which with an active verb 
is in the accusative, must be in the nominative, as subject of 
the same verb, when passive. The rule of the Latin language, 
however, that every noun which can be the subject of the pas- 
sive verb in the nominative must be in the accusative with the 
active verb, is not the rule of the Greek language. See §. 490. 

The verbs which in Greek govern the accusative are chiefly 
those which do so in Latin. 

According to the explanation given above, the accusative has 
the following significations : 

I, The result of the action. Here the following Grecisms 
are to be remarked : 

408. 1 . The verb active frequently takes a substantive of the same 
(415) derivation, or of kindred signification, in the accusative. //. v, 

220. TTOv Tot uTreiXai oi'^ovrai, rac Tpioaiu aneiXeov vlec 
Ay atw»^ ; Eurip. Ph, 65, apaQ aparai iraiaiv avoaKOTaraQ, 
Plat. Rep, 10, p. 603 C. irparrovraQ avOpujirovc /ui^eTxai 

■ Bentl. ad Callim. Lav. V, 18. adArist. Lys. 1299. Schaef. ad Lamb. 
Valck. ad Eur. Hipp. 545. Wessel. Bos. p. 697. Monk ad Eur. Hipp, 
ad Herod. 2, 54. p. 130, 34. Brunck 547. 

Syntax. Of the Accusative. 651 

17 fxi/mrjriKri f3iaiovG rj eKovaiac, npa^eic;. ib. p. 608 A. €7ra- 
^ovTeQ ravrrjv Trjv e7rti)dr]V. Apol, S, p. 28 B. roiovrov eiri- 
TTj^ev/LLa eniTri^evcraQ. Phcedon. p. 98 B. ovSe rivac airtaq 
eiraiTuoiJL€vou. Without adj. Demosth. de Ilalon. p, 80, 20. 
aiTOdroXovc, airoaTeWeiv jSouXerat. Hence the verb some- 
times takes also the accusative of the object, and the substantive 
with the adjective answers to an adverb. See §. 421. Obs. 3. 

This takes place still more frequently with intransitive verbs, 
generally in order to subjoin a new definition, which might often 
also be expressed by an adverb, or the dative case, but in Greek 
is considered as something produced by the verb. II, i , 74. t(^ 
ireiaeai, oq k€V dplcTTrjv (5ov\riv (^ovXevcry, i. e, apiGra 
(BovXevcyy. {hut Lt/s. p. 131, 30. Trjv varepav [5ov\riv €j3ou- 
Xevov 'were members of the subsequent senate\) Soph. Phil. 
173. voffel voaov dypiav. whence Eur. Ion. 632. aTraiSiav 

vocrelv. ib. 276. woiav /u dva(TTa(Tiv SoAceTc ef vttvov 

(TTrjvai Tore; for ttwc jue avacTTrjvai doKe^Q. 1038. ovttgt 
av aroXov enXevaaT civ Tovde. jEschyl. Prom. 926. ovSev 
yap avT(2 ravr eirapKeaei, to fxt] ov ireGelv arifjajjc, tttu) fxaT 
ovK avacT^era. Pers. 303. iry)^r]fxa Kov(j)ov e/c vetoQ a(j)r]~ 
Xaro, when also 7r»jS?7)uaTi Kov(p(i) or merely Kovc^tjjQ might be 
put. Comp. Agam. 835. Eurip. Ion. 1287. oOgv irer palov 
dXfxa ^K^KevBrjcreTai, for oOev eK ireTpac, S. Comp. Troad, 756. 
Siippl. 550. Hence TroXep-ov TroXepelv, as Thucyd. 1, 112. 
AaK€^aip6vioi per a Tavra tov lepov KaXovpevov noXepov 
earparevcjav. Plat. Leg. 3.J9. 680E. jSacriXetav Traawv 
^iKaiorarr\v fSacnXevopevoi. Alcib. 2. p. 142 A. vno rwv 
<TVKo(pavT(jJV iroXiopKovpeuoi iroXiopKiav ovdev eXuTTtJ rr/c 
VTTO TToXepiwp. Protag. p, 325 C. enipeXovvrai naaav ctti- 
peXeiav. Comp. Rep. 9. p. 591 D. 5. p. 451 A. in Bekker 
TOVTO ovv TO KivSvvevpa Kiv^vveveiv ev eyBpolc KpcLTTOv 
r) (j)iXoiQ ^. The defining adjective is seldom wanting : //. o', 
673. TjS o(T(70i irapa ur)val fjLay^rtv epa-^ovro 0oiJ(Ttv, for the 
simple epayovro. Comp. Od. i , 54. where however fxayriv is 
governed by arr^aapevoi. II. r\ , 449. reT^oc It eiy[a a avro. 
Soph. Ant. 551. yeXojTa yeXu). Herod. 4, 145. ydpovc eyt}- 
^av. Eur. Andr. 869. ^eip o ^eipaiveic ayav, where the more 

^ Fisch. 3 a. p. 4.22 sqq. — 128. 
L 2 

652 Syntax. Of the Accusative. 

exact definition is contained in ayav. In airai^iav voaelv Eu- 
ripides, and Plat. Leg. 9. p. 811 B. aei(^vyiav (^euyerw, the 
definition is contained in the compound substantive, as if it 
were airai^a vogov vocjelv, a'i^iov (pvyriv (jyevyeiv. Pind. Nem. 
5,9. ITuOeaq J^i/cp Ne^e/oic TrayKpor'iov (Tre(j)avoVf crrecj!)., which 
is the symbol of victory, stands for viKrjv, whence vikclv (rrecj), 
obtains the idea of ' acquiring the prize'. 

Obs, Instead of the accusative the dative is sometimes found. Soph. 
Track. 544. vocrovvn Keivo) ttoWci rrjde rrj vocro). hke avr)Ke(TT(o tto- 
VTjpt^ voae'iy Xen. Mem. S. 3, 5, 18. Plat. Leg. 3. p. 695 C. Aapetos 
Trai^eia ov StaTpv({)u)(Tri Tedpaixfxevos. and D. which ibid. A. is expressed 
ciecpdapfievrjy TraiBeiay TrepLclde TraidevQevras avrov tovs vle^s. 

In the same manner the accusative is put with adjectives. 

Plat. Rep. 9. p. 579 D. earriv apa r^ aXrjOe'ia o tw ovti 

TvpavvoQ Tio bvri ^ovXoq tciq jueyiGTac Ou)7r€iac Kai cov- 
Xeiac lb. 6. p. 490 D. KaKovQ naaav KaKiav ^ utterly bad*. 
ApoL S. p. 22 E. <To(pOQ rrjv eKe'iviov ao(^iaVf /jLTfre a/biaOrJG ttjv 
afxaQiav, Pur. Here. F. 398. ^paKovra, oq airXarov afx^e- 

XlKTOQ eXlK G(ppOVp€l. 

Hence also the following phrases, in which Kara is usually 
supplied with the accusative, inasmuch as it expresses the kind 
and mode of the action : Soph. Aj. 42. ri drjra TroifuLvaiQ ttji^S* 
€7re/ui7riTveL jSatrii/, i.e. wSe, ovtcdq. Purip. Or. 1018. wq, (J 
ioov(T ev ofxfxaoi Travvar arr]v tt poaoxpiv e^ecTTrfv (ppevwv. 
i. e. iSova-a iravvaTarov. ib. 1041. repirov Kevr\v ovrjcnv. Phcen. 
1394. y^av ^ po/LLTtfxa SeiMov aXXr)Xoic eiri. Soph. CEd. C. 
1 166. Ttq ^rjr av eir; tyiv^ o irporjQaKiijv eSpav, for o xyde (eAcei) 
OaKwv i.e. i/cerei/wv. Purip. Phocn. '^00. y own erelc, e^pac 
npocnriTvu) <re. (v. Porson.) where -yovvirerelc, e^pac stands for 
ewi yovv tt/tttwv (or, if there were such a word, yovvTreTUJC,). 
In the passage *So^ A. Trach. 49. ^eairoiva Ai7aVet/oa, iroXXa fiev 
cr eyijj Karei^ov h^ri TrapdaKpvr o^vpjLiara rriv UpaKXeiov e^o- 
cov yotj/xeiffjVf the construction of irav^aKpvr o^vp/uara yoaadai 
belongs to this place, but yoaadai efoSov to §. 414. 

409. 2. With j3Xe7reti^ ' to look', intransitive, the expression of the 
look is often marked by a substantive, adjective, or participle, 
in the accusative, in the poets. Od. x , 446. irvp SeSo^/ca»c. 
Msch. S. c. Th. 500. <^o/3ov (^Xeiretp 'to look fearful', id. 

Sj/fiiax. Of the Accusative. 653 

Pers. 79. Kvaveov 3 o/mjuLacji Xevacjijov (^oviov ^epy/Jia ^paKovroc,. 
Eurip. Ion. 1282. ^paKijjv aual^keTitDU (f)oviau (f)Xoya 'with 
fiery bloodthirsty look'. Aristoph. Flat. 328. (^Xeweiv '' Apr]v 
' to look martial', as SepKeaOai ''Apr^v JEsch. S. c. Th. 53. hpav 
aXKav Pitid. 01. 9, 165. TreippovriKoc f^Xeweiv Eur. Ale. 785. 
KXeiTToif (3X. Arist. Vesp. 900. (^Qovepa (5X. Find. Nem. 4, 64. 
eXeivoif opav Soph. Phil. 1130.* 

3. Thus in consequence of the phrase /ua^ed^at iulw^iiv, the 
words fxayr]y vavfxayia, iroXepoc,, &c. with vikclv, ' to conquer', 
intransitive, and, if a victory in a solemn public contest is 
signified, the place of the conquest, or the nature of the 
combat, are put in the accusative. Isocr. Panath. p. 286 E. 

AaKe^aifxovioi aTravnov twv EXX^i^wi' i^yejuLOvec KarecrTrjaav 

Ota TO, /ua-^ac 7TOir}(Ta[j.ei>OL irXeicTTaG ruju avQpojTvwv /car 

€Kelvov Tov y^povoVj fxr^^efxiav r\TTr]Qr\vai tovtcjv, r)yovpevov j3a- 
cnXe(jjQ, aXXa veviKriKevai Tratrac Hence iravra ev'iKa II. e, 
807. Comp. Xen.Anab. 1, 10, 4. 2, 1 , 1. Mem. S. 2, 6,26. 
— Thuc. 7, 66. rac fxev veviKi}KaTe h^r] vavfxayjLac Isocr. Ep. ad 
Phil. j9. 415 D. viKciv Touq (JT€(j)aviTac a-ywvac. Thuc. 1, 126. 
OXvjuLTTia veviKT^KOTi. Hcrod. 6, 103. OXu^tTrmoa aveXeaQai. 
Plat. Ion. in. Epigr. Simonid. in Brunck Anal. 1. p. 140. 
I(T0/uia Kai TlvOol ^io(p(jt)u o ^iXcjvoq eviKa aXp,a, tto^oi- 
Keir)if, ^i<yKOV, aKovra, TraXrjv. Hence viKav yvwprjv Plat. 
Gorg. p. 456 A. with Heindorf's note p. 32. Comp. Wesselifig 
ad Herod. 1,61. Eur. Hipp. 1029. aytjvac Kparelv. Comp. 
Pind. Pi/th. 10, 37. Cor. p. 292, 21. Isocr. Paneg. 
JO. 7 1 E. (c. 40 extr.) iroXXaQ fxayjac, r]Trr]VTai. An accusative 
of the person conquered is sometimes added : Mscliin. in Ctes. 
p. 570. MiXTtaS»7C o Triv ev ^apaOu)vi payjjv tovq pap^apovc, 
viKt]aac.. According to this analogy is constructed Eur. Andr. 
337. (ji) Tov§ aywviel (povov. Yet the dative is very fre- 
quently used here: Isocr. p. 351 C. 'ittttwv tevyei npioTOQ 
AXKpaiwu rwv noXiTijJv O^v jULiriacriv eviKricFe. Plat. Apol. 
S. p. 36 D. ei T(C vjuuyv 'imruj tj ^uvw/o^tSi -q ^euyet veviKrjKev 
OXv/XTTiaGiv . 

» Bergl. ad Arist. Ach. 665. Pint. Gloss. IF.?.ch. Th. 53. 
328. Brunck ad Arist. Av. 1169. *• Hemsterh. ad Lnc. 1. 1. p. 338. 

Schaef. ad Lamb. B. p. 63. Blomf. 

654 Syntax. Of the Accusative, 

4. According to the same analogy, the accusative of the way 
in which one goes is used after verbs of motion. Horn, H, in 
Merc, 547. a\ir]v o^ov elaiv, as in English, * he goes a fruitless 
road'. Soph. Antig. 877. ayo/mai ravb eroiixav o^ov. Aj, 287. 
eixaier e^o^ovc, epneiv KevuQ, — TA?/c. 3, 64. juera AOrjvaitav, 
a^iKov oSov lovTOJV, e^ioprjaaTe. as Eurip. Andr. 1128. eu- 
ae^eiQ o^ovc ni^ovra, Comp. Plat, Hep, 6. p. 506 C. Hence 
/cXZ/ia/ca S* v\pr}\r)v Karef^riCTaro Od. a', 330. * she descended the 
ladder\ comp. Herod. 7, 218. Thus also Soph. Aj, 30. kcl- 
fxoi TIC, OTTTTip avTov €L(ji^(jjv fxovov TTr]^(jt)vra Tre^itt avv veop- 
pavTto ^[(jyei. 845. cu S , cJ roy aiirvv ovpavov ^i(ppri\a~ 
Tijjv/'UXie. Eur, Andr. 1013. ^i(j)p€V€iv aXiov ireXayoc. Hel, 
1130. oc, e^pajne poBca. comp. Iph. T. 425. iropOimovc, aXaaOai 
fxvpiovQ Eur. Hel. 540. 

a. Hence the accusative is used with verbs of going, of the 
place whither, or the person to whom one ' goes, comes', for 
etc. Od. a, 332. j] o ore ^7) jLivqGTripac, a(piK€TO dla yv- 
vatfcwv. for irpoc jjlv. Comp. Od. cj) , 25. Find. Pyth. 11, 52. 
o ^ apa ykpovra ^evov ^rpocpiov el^iKeTO. (^aiveiv ^ifppov for 
etc ^ilppov II, y, 262. 312. Soph. El, 1349. o^ to ^ujKetov 
7re8oy V7refe7re^i^0)?v, a^ irpoinrjOeia, y^epolv, Antig. 805. 
Trach. 159. Eur. Ph. 110. ov yap n cpavXwQ riXOe UoXvvei- 
KYjQ -^Oova. Comp. Iph. A. 1553. Bacch, 5. Ion. 1299. 
Troad. 899. Pind. 01. 2, 173. alvov ejSa KopoQ, So also 
-nyijaaaOai rivi ttoXiv Od,t', 114. Hence TreXa^ee^ with the 
accusative Eur. Andr. 1170. ^(jjp,a ireXaZei^. 

b. In the poets the verbs ' to stand, to sit', have an accusa- 
tive of the place. jEsch. Agam. 190. ^aijmovtjv ^e ttov yapiCy 
f3iaiwc aeXjua aefxvov rjjuevtjjv, Eurip. Andr, \\1 , tj yvvai, 
a 0€TiSoc ccLTTe^ov Kai avaKTopa Oaffaeic ^apov. Or. 861. 
op(i) S o^Xoy (JT€t\^ovTa Kai OaGcrovT aKpav. 943. r]v yeveia 
^e ov^ev a k7ru)(p€Xrja€V, oi>S o TlvOioc r piTToSa KaBi^tJV ^61- 
(3oc,. So also the compounds with irpoc : jEsch. Agam. 843. 
toe Kap^iav TTpoarifxevoc. Soph. (Ed. C. 1166. tiq ^rjT av 
€17) rrjvB o wpoaOaKtov eBpav; Eurip. Or. 1248. arriff al 
fjLev vfxiSv Tr\v^ a/na^rjpr) rpi^ov. Elsewhere €7ri also ac- 

'"' Misc. Obss. t. 5. p. 2r8. Musgr. 1. c. Valck. ad Phoen. 110. 
ad Eur. Suppl. 254. Herm. ad Pind. 

Syntax, Of the Accusative, Q5S 

companies the accusative, e. g. Thuc, 1, 126. KaBltovaiv eirl 
Tov piofiov iKerai. and irpoc,, Thuc. 3, 70. avrwu irpoQ tol lepa 
iKerwv KaBeCofxevwv, Xen. Mem. S, 4, 2, 1. k, etc r]vio'rroieLov, 
where in KaOet* ' going and sitting' is implied. 

5. With many adjectives which express ability or capacity, 
substantives are used in the accusative, to express that the 
quahty which they denote is to be regarded as produced by 
those adjectives, in the same cases in which the infinitive also 
is joined with them. Plat. Prot. p, 323 A. eaV nc (py ayaOoc 
avXriTTJc eivai rj aXXrji/ r}VTivovv re'^vriv tjv /liti €<ttiv, rj Kara- 
yeXwcriv, &c. (like ayaSoc Trpdrreiv), Comp. Alcib. I. p. 124E. 
Xefi. Cyr. 1, 3, 15. (ieXruov Plat, Prot. p. 318 C.—Xen, 
Mem, S, 4, 2,6. o nav (^ovXcovrai dvvaroi yeveaOai (like Su- 
varoc Xeyeiv re kul irparreiv, ^vvaroi ravra iroielv, which 
immediately follow). Plat. Prot. p. 335 C. eyw Se ra p.aKpa 
ravTa aSvvaroc. See Heindorf p. 552 seq. Agreeably to this 
Plat, Alcib. l.p. 1 1 8 C. rj^rj riva etSec coc^oi^ oriovv aSvva- 
Tovvra Troirjcyai aXXoi^ <70(pov arrep avTOC, (different from the 
construction §. 408.). Lysias c. Phil, in, ov-^ eV ri julovov, 
aXXa TToXXa ToXfxr^poc, eariv. So also iKavoQ Ti (as ik, with 
infin. §. 532.) Xen. Mem, S, 4, 2, 6. Xe?i, Cyr. 8, 4, 18. 
^eivoG ei/ii ravrriv rriv Te'^vrjv. Generally, however, these 
are accusatives neuter of adjectives and pronouns, as also XP^' 
aifjiOQ Xen, Aiiab, 2, 5, 23. (ppovip.oc, Plat, Alcib, \, p. 125 A. 
are construed, and etc or Trpoc, is as often added, in the same 
way as with ayaQoa and (pp6vip,0Q Plat, I, c, yjpr](yip.0Q Prot, 
p, 326 B. 

Obs, 1. The poets, especially the tragic poets, sometimes employ, 
instead of the general words Trotelv, x"*>'> &c., verbs which express at 
the same time the effect contained in the noun, or a collateral circum- 
stance belonging to the agent: e.g. Soph. Aj. S7Q. al/i' e^ei/o-a, i.e. al/ia 
Zevov exea, as Trach. 853. reyyei SaKpvcjy a^^vav. Eur, Iph. T, 405. 
Kovpa ^laTcyyet alfxa (iporeioy. Soph. Aj, 55. cKCipe <p6yoyf i. e. Kcipiay 
kiroiei (^ovoy, Antig. 792 seq. cXkos rv0\w0e»/, i. e. cXkos Troirjdey rw 
rv(f)\ovy. Eur. SuppL 1211. TtrpuxTKeLv (pdyoy, for <p6i'oy TroLely t<^ tl- 

TpuKTKeiy •*. 

Obs. 2. In Soph. El, 1377. //' tre noWa 3//, 09' wv €)(pifjih XiTrapel 


Lob. ad Soph. Aj. 374. Of the see Ruhnk. Praef. ad Schell. Lex. 
similar phrase raparrciv noXefxoyy extr. 

656 Syntax. Of the Accusative. 

7rpovffTr}v X^P*» ^^® accusative seems to be used mofe, because in 
TrpovffTriv X. X. the idea of iKerevtra are dvovtra, a(f l^v €')(oifjLi, is con- 
tained, than that Trpoarfjyai (fcara) riva was put for Trpoarrrjpai. tivos. 

6. The accusative of the thing serves to express the result 
of the action in aTroKpivecjOai ti ' to answ^er to anything*, for 
irpoG Ti. Thuc. 3, 61. TOVQ /aep XoyovQ ovk au r^rriaafxeQa eiirelv, 
€L Kai avroi jSpa-^eioc to epwrrjOev aireKpivavTO, Plat. Al- 
cib. i. p. 106 B. €1 ^aXcTTOv ^0Ke7 to aTroKpivaaBai ra epit)- 
T(jjjj.€va. Id. Phil. p. 19 A. TTorepoQ rj/uLUJV aTroKpiveirai to 

vvv epu)T (jj fxevov. to fxr] ^vvaadai to vvv epioTtj- 

Oev airoKpivaadai. Comp. Leg. \0.p. 897 D. Crit. p. 48 extr. 
The full construction is found ib. p. 50 A. ovk e^^w, a> 2a>/c/oa- 
T€Qy aiTOKpivaaQai irpoc, o epioTcic,^. 

y^priaQai Tiv'i ti ' to make use of anything for anything', for 
etc Ti. but only with the accusative of neuter pronouns or ad- 
jectives. Thuc. 2, 15. Kai Tp Kpr]v^ e-yyvc oixttj 

Ta TTAQiGTOv at, I a ey^puivTO* Koi vvv eVi airo tov apyji'iov wpo 
T€ yafxiKUJv Kai ec aXXa tcjv lepuyv vofxi^eTui t(^ h^aTi '^prjaOai. 
Plat, Phileb. p. 36 C. TavTy ^rj Ty crxexpei tovt(jjv twv iraOrt- 
fxaTbiv ro^e y^pr](yC)fieBa, 'to this end'. ib.p,A^ D. tovtoic 
fxev ovv TavTa av Trpoay^prjaaio. With ctti, Demosth. in 
Aristog. />. 779, 18. e<p' a K av koi y^pyiaaiTO tic, toiovto) Qr\- 
pLOj (TttVTtt 3ei), aTrev^eaOai toIq BeoiQ fir] yeveaOai. Plat, 
Rep. 5. p. 451 E. ei apa Talc yvvail^iv eiri TavTo. '^ptjao/deOa 
Kai ToTq av^paaij TavTa Ka\ ^i^aKTeov avTac,. Hence the phrases 
OVK eyu), o ti (for e^ o ti) -^prjatofxai avTio or k/uiavTio (Plat. 
Theag. p. 126 D. Lt/s. p. 213 C. 222 D. Crit. p. 45 B. 
Xen, Cyr. 1, 6, 2.) 'I know not what I shall do with him', 
non habeOf quid eo faciam, quid agam. Frequently, however, 
Ti or o Ti in this phrase signifies nothing more than ttwc or 
OTTwc : Xen. Cyr, 1,4, 13. riv tic airo^paay Tuiv olk€T(jjv ere, 
Kai Xaprjc avTOVy ti avTW \py ', 

So also Od. ^, 49. outoc yap eirirjXev Ta^e epya. Soph. 
El. 299. ^vu c eiroTpvvei ireXac o K\eivoc avTrj TavTa vv/j,(l>ioc 
7rap(jjv, tor em Tace epya, em TavTa . 

410. c. Hence the accusative is used as an apposition to an entire 
* Heind. ad Plat. Hipp. p. 138. •» Lob. ad Phryn. p. 439. 

Si/ntax. Of the Accusative. 657 

proposition. Eurip. Or. 1103. 'EXevrjp /cravw^uev, Mei'eXeaj 
\virr]v TTiKpav, i. e. o (to Kreiveiv EX.) Mei^. Xvirri niKpa 
ecrrai. ib. 1495. o ^e XiaaojievoQ^ davarov 7rpo)3oXav, quod, 
nempe to XiaaeaOai, munimentum esset contra mortem, ib. 1598. 
apvel KaraKraQj Kacf) v^pei XeyeiQ Ta^e' Xvypav ye ttjv 
apvr)aiv. See of Apposition §. 432, 5. 

The accusative may in many of these cases be regarded as an (427) 
expression of feeling, which appears to be the reason why it is 
used in exclamation, as o) e/ue ^e'lXaiov Eurip. Troad. 138. 
although this cannot be regarded as an effect of the preceding 
action. Thus in exclamations of indignation, Arist. Av. 1269. 
oecvov ye tov KrfpvKa, tov irapa tovc, pporovc oi^o^ei^ov, ei /ulyi- 
^eirore voarrjaei ndXiVf ' Oh for the herald ! * ^. 

II. The accusative expresses the object of the action in 411, 
which its effect manifests itself, as rvirreiv riva, (piXe^Vf viKai>, 
in which the Greek coincides with other languages. The fol- 
lowing cases deserve notice : 

1. ireiOeiv ' to persuade', e. g. iroXXaKiQ eOavfxaaa, tlcti irore 
Xoyoic AOrivaiovG eTreicrav 01 ypaxpap.€voi ^(jJKparriv, wc 
a^LOQ e'lt) Oavarov t^ noXei Xeji. Mem. S. in, quanam oratione 
Atheniensibus persuaserint accusatores Socratis. 

2. v(5piteiv Tivd ' to insult, to maltreat any one'. Isocr. 
p. 169 B. vj^pi^ov rac vr](jovc,. Lysias, p. 92, 10. Tovq TralBac 
TOVQ e/uLOVQ ya-^vve, Kai e/mc avrov vf5pL(T€, 

Obs. v(ipi'CfAP €is TLva is frequently found, which is distinguished 
from the foregoing in this, that the former relates to oneself, e. g. to 
any maltreatment of the person, but v(3pii^€iv eis nva * to insult any 
person connected with one', e. g. Eur. Andr. 996. tov 'A)(iX\ews 
y.r}hev (f)ol3r)dr}s ttcu^' 6a els efx v(^pL(Tev * by taking from Orestes Her- 
mione who was destined for him'. Isocr. Pan, p. 64 A. els ras avrtHu 
TTUTpiBas vf^pii^eiy. Comp. p. 72 B. but ibid, E. tovs peGf eavriSv els 
Kvnpop arparevda^evovs juaWov, i) tovs at^^aXwrovs vfipil^ov. This dis- 
tinction, however, is not always observed **. 

*= Gregor. p. (57) 136 seq. Spanh. vius ct Reitz ad Luc. 1. c. p. 496. 

ad Arist. Nub. 1113. 1147. Kuster llemsterh. ad Luc. 1. 1. p. 280. Kus- 

ad Arist. Plut. p. 55. Dorville ad ter ad Aristoph. Pint. 900. MarkL 

Charit. p. 642. ad Lys. p. 17. ed. Ueisk. 

^ Lucian. Solcec. t. 9. p. 232. Grar- 

658 Syntax. Of the Accusative, 

3. a^iKelv, Xen, Anab. 1, 4, 9. rove, [yQvQ oi Svjooi QeovQ 
evofjLiCov Kai a^iKelv ovk eiiov, ovSe rac; ire p iff tc pa a, 

4. Several verbs which signify 'to assist, profit, injure*, as 
it)(j>€Xe7v Tiva. JEsch. Prom. 507 . julyj vvv j^porovc /nev w^eXei 
Kaipov Trepa. Eurip, Here, F. 584. AiKaia tovq TeKovrac 
wCpeXelv TCKva it are pa re Trpka^vv, rr/v re Koiv(i)vov 
ya/LKtjv, v^^here reKva is the accusative of the subject. Xe?i, 
Ci/rop. 2, 2, 20. aiay^pov eariv avriXeyeiv, fxr] ovyj. rov irXelara 
(jj(pe\ovvTa TO koivov tovtov kqi fxeyiGTijjv a^tovaOai. 
ib. 8, 4, 32. TO, TToXXa So/couvra e^eiv, jurj /car a^iav Trjc; 
ovaiaQ (^a'lveadai wCpeXovvTa tovc C^iXovc, aveXevOepiav 
e/uLOiye ^ok€l Trepianreiv^, Thus also ovtV»jyUt : //. a , 394. ei 
TTore ^yj ri r) eTret (ovrjaac Kpa^irjv Aioc, ^e Kal epyto, Eurip, 
Fr. inc. CLI, 1.2. ov^e/uLiav lovr^cre KaXXoQ etc, iroaiv l^vvao- 
pov* T} perri S lovrftre TroXXac. Even Xveiv in the sense of 
Xv(7iTeXeTv is constructed with the accusative by Sophocles EL 
1005. Xvei yap rj/uac ovdev ovS eTTw^eXe?, (5a^iu KaXrjv Xa- 
(36vre, ^vGKXeijjQ Oavelv, unless the accusative is governed of the 
word eTTox^cXe?, which follows. See Hermann's note. So Eur, 
Or. 803. €t ae /Lirj v Seivolffiv ovra avfx^opcuc, errapKecTW, though 
elsewhere apKelv and eirapKelv are constructed with a dative. 

Ohs. For dxpeXelp with the dative also, see §. 391. 

5. a/jivveiv Ti Tivi, aXe^eiv see §.394. So also y^paicjiJieiv 
TLvi oXeOpov II. v', 296. X', 120. rj', 143 seq. and thence TL 

a', 566. fiiri vv TOi ov y^pai<T^(s)<Jiv aaaov lovra (e/xe) 'not 

keep me off from thee, not protect thee against me*. Also 
a/neij^ecrOai, aVra/ie/jSetr^at, ' to remunerate', is constructed with 
the accusative of the person or thing remunerated : Eurip. Or. 
1045. Kal a afieiipaaOai OeXu) (^tXorrjTt yeiptjjv. Xen, Mem, S, 

4, 3, 15. eKelvo clOvjuka), on fxoi ^oKel Tac, twv Oewv evepye- 
aiac ovS' av etq ttotc avOpwirtov al^iaiQ yapiaiv afxe'i^eadai. 
Also in the sense of 'to answer', Hesiod. Theog. 654. Herod. 

5, 93. 7, 136. Eur. Or. 608. Suppl. 519. Tph. A. 12 J 6. 
Thus too Ti/jKjjpelaBai riva ' to avenge oneself on any one*. 

Ohs, 1. Many other verbs are found with the accusative, which ac- 
cording to their grammatical nature require another case, because the 
Greeks not only transfer the construction which a verb has in one sig- 

* 1 horn. M. p. 935. 

Si/ntax. Of the Accusative, 659 

ni6cation to another signification, e. g. that of d/ie//3e(T0at * to remune- 
rate', to afi. * to answer', but also in many words regard not so much 
their grammatical nature as tlie sense contained in them. So Herodotus 
constructs ai'Tiai^eiv, V7ravrta<^etv, in the sense of * attack', Pindar in 
the sense of a/ie//3eo-0ai, with the accusative §. 383, 2. ; and Plato Phi- 
leb. p. 42 C. uses a-navruyixev for evpuyfxev with an accusative. fiKrOoBo' 
TcTu, from its derivation from 3/^w/xt, should govern a dative ; but inas- 
much as the sense of iiiadovaBaL is contained in it, Demosthenes joins 
it with the accusative |)ro Cor. jp, 2Q5, 12. Instead of virepexeiv rivos 
§. 358, 2. Euripides says Hipp. 1381. o^' 6 crMippoavvr) Travras vTrep- 
e)(^u)v. See Valckenaer's note. Comp. §.411,4. So Demosthenes tt. 
Trapanp. p. 418, 13. says elaievai tovs rvpai'yovs in the sense of vTroKpi' 
veadai. See Schcef. App. 2. p. 661 seq. 

Ohs, 2, Many verbs take an accusative or a dative, according to the 
different relations of which they are capable ; as, 

ape(TK€Lv with the dative §. 393, 5. with the accusative on account of 
its derivation from dpeo-at * to win', conciliare. Plat. Thecet. p. 172 D. 
eav avTOvs 6 CTreXOojy (Xoyos) apeffy. ib. 202 C. ctpeaKei ovv ce koX 
rldeadai tuvtyj ; ib. p. 202 D. ey fievroi ri fie (nrapetTKei. Comp. 
Rep. 8. p. 550 B.^ Hence upeffKeadal tivl ' to find pleasure in some- 
thing', delectari aliqua re, Herod. 3, 34f. 4, 78, 9, 66. Thuc. 2, 68. 
8, 84.*^ So Herod. 1, 48. ohhey Trpoariero fiiy, i. e. i'jpeaKe. 

Like apeaKeiy riva is also constructed Soph. El. 174. dXX' e/ie y a 

(TToyoecra apapey (ppeyas opyis, whereas Od. 3', 777. it is fjLvOoy, o 

^j) Kai Traaiy. eye (ppenrly ijpapey yifily. This analogy may defend 
Theogn. 26. ovre yap 6 Zeus ovd^ vcjy Travras avZayei, ovr aye\<»)y, 
as Theocr. 27, 22. yooy l' ejjLoy ovris eade (perf.). The metrical diffi- 
culty may be removed by §. 18 seq. p. 51. especially if ayddyay had 
the digamma. 

^€1 with the dative, see §. 391, 2. with the accusative Od. a', 124. 

IxvBrifreai, orreu ae XP^'l' "/'> ^^* ^^^^/^"X' ®^ H^^^ ^^ XP^ ^^' <*^^ous 
ovK ^l3ai6y. y^schyl. Prom. 86. avrov yap ae Bel Upofxrjdeios. Eur. 
Here. F. 1173. rjKdoy, ei n ^et, yepoy, i) j^eipus v/jids Trjs efjirjs, f; ^vji- 
fxdyjLoy^. Xenophon combines both constructions Anab. 3, 4, 35, With 
X|f»'/ the accusative is more common. 

*» Moeris p. 175. Greg. p. (27) 67. Ast ad Plat. Leg. p." 196. 

Spanhem. Brunck ad Arist. Pint. 69. " Valck. ad Herod. 7, 160. p. 579, 

353. Toup ad Suid. l.p. 83. Valck. 58. But Herod. 1,8. apeaKOfxeyos 

ad Hipp. 106. 184. Berglerad Arist. stands for dpeoKiov, as 9, 79. 

Plut. 353. Diiker ad I hue. 1, 128. ^ Valck. ad Hipp. 23. Pors. ad 

Fisch. 3 a. p. 410. Heind. ad Plat. Or. 659. 
Cratyl. p. '19. Monk ad Hipp. 181. 

660 Si/ntax. Of the Accusative. 

The substantives XP^*** (XP^*'*')' XP^^"» ^^® often used with errrt and the 
accusative, especially in Homer, after the analogy of ^et and xio>/> XP^^ 
earn being equivalent to xP^j. II. X', 650. ri he ae XP^^ efxelo ; Od. ^', 
634. e/jie he XP^^ ylyverat avrrjs. Eur. Hec. 970. dXXa tLs xpem a 
e/jLov ; Instead of which Od. /3', 28. riya XP^iw rocrov 'Uei; e', 189. 
ore /Lte XP^*-^ t6<tov 'lkoi. Soph. Phil. 64)6. eydodey Xa(3ojy, otov ae 
Xpeta Aral nodos jjiaXicrr exei * ; 

efiTTohi^eiy * to hinder', see §. 393. Obs. 2. evoxXelv * to annoy', 
ibid. €7ri(TrpaT€veadai, and other compounds of cTrt, §. 402. Xarpev- 
€iv * to serve', with the dative, §. 392. Obs. Xoidope7v and XoLdopelaOaif 
§. 384. Obs. 2. Xv/jLaiveadai tlvl and Ttvay §. 391. 415. 1. a. a. 
H€/i({)€ffdai, §. 384. vTToarrjvai tlvl and tlvci, §. 401. uxbeXeh't 

Obs. 3. Some verbs take a dative of the person with the accusative 
of the thing, as well as an accusative of the person with a dative of the 
thing : e. g. Eur. Hec. 537. alyu' 6 aoL hiopov^xeQa, but Or. 117. 'EXev?? (t 
aCeX(j)ri rdiffhe ^wpelrai "^^oaTs. So Helen. 1403. XovrpoTs XP^^ ehojKaf 
but Or. 42. Xovrp' e^w/ce XP^'^'- **• ^^ instead of /caXvTrretv tlvo. tlvl 'to 
cover one with something', we find KaXvnTeLv ti tlvl * to spread some- 
thing as a covering over one', as kui ol (tclkos aix<peKCLKv\\^e II. 6', 331. &c. 
comp. II. x', 313. Plat. Tim. p. 34 B. to cw/xa avTy TrepieKoXyxpe. — 
Pind. Pyth. 8, 80. 'AXfcynava aTefdvoicrL /3aXXw, and 9, 219. ttoXXol /xlv 
KelvoL BiKOv <pvXX eiTL KOL aTe(j)avov5. Herod. 2, 107. TrepLvr^rjffai e^ojdev 
Tqv oiKiTjv vXy, but 4, 164. vXrjv Trepiviicras. 

Obs. 4. With some verbs which are followed by an infinitive it is in- 
different whether the subject of the infinitive be expressed by the accu- 
sative or by the dative, in reference to the governing verb. Of KeXeveLv 
see §. 382, 1. of eUos cctti §. 386, 4. The same thing takes place with 
^ei : Soph. (Ed. Col. 721. vvv aoL to. XajXTvpa Tavra de2 (f)atyeiv eTrrjf 
for ere ^eZ ^aiveLV. Plat. Phileb. p. 33 B. epprjdr} nov Tore ey ry rrapa- 
jjoXrj Tojy (3i(i)y, iJ.r]hey Beiy fxrire peya fxijTC crfiLKpuv -y^aipeLV r<3 tov 
Tov voe7y kol (l)poyely joiov eXo/jLevti). Rep. 10. p. 608 C. o'iei adavaT^ 
TrpayixaTL vwep toctovtov hetv 'ypoyov ecnrovhaKevaL. Both con- 
structions are united Aristoph. Plut, 912. oh yap TzpoariKeL ttiv e/jtavrov 
fjLOL ttoXlv evepyeTeXy fie. 

412. Many verbs have an accusative, which does not mark the 
(407) passive object of the action, but the object to whicli an action 

» Valck.adEur.Hipp.23. Brunck Of. 659. Advers. p. (239) 210. 
ad Arist. Lys. 605. Pors. ad Eur. '' Seidler ad Eur. Troad. 1180. 

Syntax. Of the Accusative. . 661 

has only generally an immediate reference: e. g. 1. irpoaKv 
ve7v Tiva. Herod. 2, 121. Kai rov jj-ev KaXeovcri OepoCj tovtov 
juiev 7rpo(TKvveov(Ti re koi ev Troieovai. 7 , 136. ou yap (x(j)i ev 
vofjLio eivai av6p(j)TTov ir poaKvvkeiv, Aristoph. Plut. 771. 
Kai 7rpo(TKvv(jj ye TT/ocora fjiev tov 'HXiov, eireiTa (re/uLvric; YlaX- 
Xa^oc /cXecvov nedov, '^wpav re iraoav J^eKpowoQ, rj /i 
eSel^aro. Comp. Vesp. 516. Plat. Rep. 3. p. 398 A. avSpa 
c^f LJQ eot/ce, ^vvajLievov viro aoCpiaQ TravrooaTrov yiyveadai Kai 

fjufiXeiaQai navra y^prifxara, ei i^^Tv a<pLKoirOy irpocfKV- 

volfxev av avrov. In the writers of the New Testament it is 
joined with the dative. 

2. Sopv(j)op€7v Tivay i. e. Sopv(f)6pov eivai rivoc, Thuc, 1 
130. ^la Ttjc QpaKTic TTopevofxevov avTOv (Tlaviraviav) Mijoo 
Kai AiyviTTioi edopvCpopovv. Xen.Iiier. 3, 12. iroXl-Tai {f. o 
TToXlrai) yap So pvcl)opov(Tiv aWrjXovQ avev (jligOov eir 
Tovc SovXovCf and metaphorically Plat. Rep. 9. p. 574 D. a 
vewari Ik SovXeiac XeXv/jLevai So^aij Sopv(j)opov crai tov 
' E,p(t)Ta, Kparrjaovai liier CKeivov. p. 57 51^. aXXov riva do- 
pvC^opovcn rvpavvov. 

3. The verbs which signify ' to flatter'. JEsch. Prom. 945. 
(Te/3ov, TTpoaevyov, OwTTTe tov KpaTovvT aei. JEschi?i. in 
Ctes. p. 618. TiQ av eirj Sr/^ayw-yoq toiovtoq, ogtiq tom fxev 
SrJiLLOv OojTT evaai SvvaiTO, tovq Se KaipovQ, ev oiQ rjv (Tw^etr^ai 
Trjv TToXiv, airoSoiTo. Comp. Plat. Rep. 9. p. 578 extr. Xen. 
Hist. Gr, 5, 1, 17. ti yap ri^ioVj rj fxrideva avOp<l)7r(i)V KoXa~ 
Keveiv, priTe ' ^XXriva, pr)Te ^ap^apov, eiveKa piaOov ; 
But the following passage is quoted from Plutarch : ottojq 
VTre^aviGTa/uevoi to7q nXova ioiq KoXaKevwcri. 

4. (j>Oav€iv ' to come before, to anticipate', as in the letter of 
Agesilaus Plutarch. T. 8. p. 181. ed. Hutt. eiropai to. ctti- 
(TToXa, ayeSov S avTav Ka\ (pOaau^^. Especially with the 
participle, of which hereafter. 

5. XavOaveiv. Pind. 01. 1, 103. ei Se Oeov avrjp tic eXneTai 
TC Xaokpev epStov, apapTavei. 

* Valck. ad Eur. Phoen. 98?. 

662 Syntax. Of the Accusative, 

6. eiriTpoireveiv riva ' to be a tutor or guardian to any one'. 
Thuc, 1, 132, YWeiaTap'^ov tov Aewy/^ov, ave\jjioc, u)v, 
eirerpoireve (JJavcraviac). Aristoph, Equ. 212. tov ^ri/Liov oioq 
T eifx eTTiTpoireveiu eyw. Plat, Prot. p. 320 A. ¥.\eivLav 
TOI^ AXKipiaOOV TOVTOVl V€UJT€pOV o.^ cX (j) 6v eTTLTpoTreviov 
o avTOQ ovTOQ avTip UepiKXrjc,' -•' KaTade/ixevoc ev Api^povoc, 
eiraiBeve, Also, in the sense of 'to govern'; Plat. Rep. 6. 
p. 516 B. 519 B. ' to superintend' Leg. 8. p. 846 E.^ But 
in the sense of ' to be regent or governor', it has more usually 
the genitive, §. 359.^ 

7. eTTiXeiTreiv 'to be wanting', dejicere. Xen. Cyr. 8, 1, 1. 
oi Trarepec; irpovoovai tu)v iraiduyv, ottcjq /mrjirore avrovc, tol- 
yaOa eiriXeixf/ei^, 

8. The verbs of ^ seeing' take the accusative only, when an 
accidental, not intentional, seeing is meant. The accusative 
with etc or tt/ooc when they are used of * looking with conscious- 
ness and premeditation to any thing or persons having regard 
to any one, expecting aid from him'. Eurip. Phan. 1402. 
(^Xeipac; ^ ec/ Apyoc rjKS UoXvveiKrjQ apac,. 1410. Ereo/cAejjc 
Se riaXXaSoc y^pvaaairi^oc, pXk^pac, irpoc, oIkov ev)^aTO. Ilec. 
585. Suppl.8.^ — Eur. Iph. A. 1633. arpaToc, irpocirXovv opa. 
Troad. 1015. ec T171/ rvyjnv opuiaa tout r^aKeia * having a view 
to fortune'. Both constructions are interchanged by Sophocles, 
Antig. 1231 . TOV S aypioiQ otjaoKJi Trairrrivac o ttoig for eia ^e 

TOV . Both constructions are combined by Euripides 

Hel. 349. TTOTepa ^epKCTai ^aoc, TeOpiinra t aeXiov ecKeXevBa 
T acsTkphiv, unless kc, be supplied with (^aoc, and TeOpimra, 
according to §. 595, 4. 

9. airo^i^pacTKeiv Tiva ' to run away from any one'. Plat. 

Rep. 8. p. 548 B. (piXavaXioTai (vawep Trainee TraTcpa 

TOV vopov aTTodidpaaKovTec Xen. Cyrop. 1,4, 13. -qv tiq 
anodpacry twv o'ik€T(jjv <tc, ti uvtm )(/oJ ; and povXevoinai ottwc 
ae airoSpi^. Comp. Thuc. 1, 128. In Xen. Mem. S. 2, 10, 1. 
av TLQ (7 0L T<jjv o'lKeTtjJV aTTO^pu, eiTifjieXy oirujQ avaKopicry; aoi 
is not governed by dirodpa, but has the same construction as in 

» Stallb. ad Plat. Phil. p. 76. *= Thorn. M. p. 349. 

•» Thom. M. p. 360. •* Heind. ad Plat. Soph. p. 330. 

Syntax. Of the Accusative. 663 

§. 389.y. for immediately after comes eav tic, aoi fca/uvp twv 


10. With the verbs * to swear'j the deity or person by whom 413. 
one swears is put in the accusative. Herod. 4, 172. ofjLvvovai \^^^/ 
TOVQ irapa (jCpicTi avBpac ^iKaioraTOvc Xeyo/Jievovc yeveaOai. 
Arist. Nub. 245. /nidOov, o»/Tt»^ av irpaTry /u , Ofxovfxai aoi 
KaraOrjcreiv tovq OeovQ. j^sch. S. c. Th. 45. opKov is some- 
times added : Eur. TIel. 844. aXX ayvov opKov aov Kapa Ka- 
TiofxoGa. Hence ZevG 6inifvp.€voc Arist. Nub. 1241. Thus also 
einopKelv riva Xeu. Anab, 3, 1, 22.^ 

The accusative in this case sometimes stands absolutely. 
Soph, Antig. 758. a XX ov, tovS OXv/ulttov, t(T0 on yjaipijjv 
eiri ipoyoiai cevvaffeiQ €fjie . 

1 1 . acref^elv. Plat. Leg. 12 in. ypa(j)aL Kara tovtljv eartjjv, 
(I>C E/Oyuov Kai Atoc ayyeXiac Kai eir ira^eic irapa vo/jlov 
a(Tepr)aavT ijjv for aaef^, eic ayy. Kai eiriT. Comp. Lys. 
p. 63 J 1. But eutrejSeTv riva is suspicious in the older writers, 
according to Valckenaer, who proposes to read eu aejSeip, 
though it is defended by the analogy of dcref^eiv, and ever, riva 
seems to stand in the same relation to eva. eic, riva, as v^pi'Ceiv 
Tiva to vjSjO. e'U riva §. 41 l.S 

Similar to this is aXireiv with the accusative. Od. S', 378. 
aXXa vv /LieXXo) aOavarovQ aXirecrBai. II. t, 265. €/uoi Qeoi 
aXyea ^olev, noXXa /^dX' , oacra ^i^ovaiv, otic <t(J)' dXirriTai 
ofjLOdaaQ. (i) , 586. ^loc aXiTYirai ecper fuiac Hesiod. Sc. H. 

80.?) Ti fxky aOavarovQ fxaKapaQ ---T/Xtrcy Afx(bi- 


12. Thus many verbs which signify an emotion, a feeling 414. 
with regard to an object, as ' to be ashamed, afraid, to com- (408) 
passionate any one*, are accompanied by an accusative, which 
expresses the object, and at the same time the efficient cause 
of this emotion. £Mr. /ow. 1093. aiay^vvofjiai tov iroXvvfivov 
Beov. Comp. 952. also ' to be ashamed of a thing' Ion. 353. 

* Fisch. 3 a. p. 439 seq. « Valcken. Musgr. ad Eurip. Ph. 

'Greg. p. (117 seq.) ^ST. Brunck 1340. 
ad Soph. CEd. T. 660. 

664 Syntax, Of the Accusative, 

av^poc aZiKiav aiayyveTau comp. 379. Xen. R. Lac. 2, 1 1, 
ov^ev ovTijJC ai^ovvrai wc tovq ap'^ovrac,. Eur. Hipp. 946. 
ai^ovfJLeOa yap to. XeXey/jLeva fxoi. Soph. Aj. 121. eTTOiKTeiptj 
^e viv ^vcFTrfvov efxiraCj Ka'nvep ovra ^vcr/uLevrjy od ovveK 
ariri (jvyKareZevKrai KaKy. Plat. Symp. p. 173 C. v^ac rove 
eraipovc eXew, on oieaOe ti TroieT^, ov^ev TroiovvreQ. Herod. 
5, 4. Tov juLev yivofxevov irepivCofxevoi oi 'irpoar)KOVTeQ oXo- 
(pvpovTai, ocra /jliv Se?, eTrei re eyevero, avaTrXrjdai /ca/ca. 

The same takes place with some neuter verbs, which ex- 
press an emotion, although, even without indicating the object, 
they convey a complete idea : e. g. aXyelv ti* Soph. Aj, 
789 seq. TovS' eKraKove rdv^poQ, wc r)K€i (peptjv A'lavroc rifjuv 
irpa^iv {fortunamj as 792.), ^»^ riXyrj^r* e-yw. Comp. 276. 
Trach. 1068. Xirjv aydofxai eX/coc U. e, 361. ayvvaQai tC 
Soph. Antig, 627. lo^ivovaa avfx(popac, (3apoQ id. Trach. 325, 
dyavaKreiv Ti' Heind. ad Plat, Phcedon. §.21. ^vdavacr-^e' 
Tovvrec ra yiyvofxeva Thuc. 7, 71. II. i , 11 . ric, av race 
yr\Br]aeiev ; Soph, Aj. 136. ae fiev ev irpdaaovr eTriyaipb), 
Eurip. Hipp, \o55.Tovc yap ei;(re|3eTc Oeoi OvrjcrKovraQ 
ov '^aipov(nv. Soph. Philoct, 1314. riCfOrjv narepa re toi^ e/iov 
evXoyovvrd ae avroif re pe. Eur. Ion. 553. TepCpOeiQrovro, 
Some supply optjv, aKovvJv &c. with this accusative, which is 
found with it Eur, Ale, 827. ov yap ri Kiopdtovr av riyd6pr]v 
a opwu^. Thus also 6appe7v ti ' to take courage with regard 
to anything' : Od. 0' , 197. av ^e Oapaei rov^e y deOXou, 
Phcedon. p. 88 B. ouSevt irpoaiiKei OavaTOV Oappovvri urj ovk 
avorirvjc Bappelv, Comp. Euthyd.p. 275 C. Xen, Cyr, 5, 5, 42. 
ei TiveQ ae ripwaiv, avTaanaCov Kai euw^ei avrovc, 'iva ae Kai 
dapphaioaiv, Comp. Demosth. p. 30, 15. — KarairXayrivaL 
Tiva Demosth, p, 290, 9. — ^va-^epaiveiv Tt* Plat, Leg, 10. 
p, 900 A. ov ^vva/uLevoc ^vay^epaiveiv Oeovc, ih. p. 908 B. 
^vayepaiveiv ttiv a^iKiav. Rep. 2. p. 362 B. Bvay^epaiveiv to 
a^iKelv. Isocr. Plat, p, 305 C. ttjv EXXaSa Trepiifxev, naaac 
Svawepalvovrec; rac, o'lKriaeic;, Plato joins Tre/oi with this verb, 
Rep, 5. p, 475 B. top irepl ra paOrjpara Bva-^epaivovTa . 

* Valcken. ad Eur. Hippol. 1339. 136.790. Monk ad Eur. Hipp 1335. 
Br. ad Arist. Equ. 783. ad Soph. Aj. •• Heind. ad Plat. Gorg. p. 16. 

Syntax Of the Accusative, 665 

1 3. Hence with the middle verbs rvirreadai, KoirrecrBaif pro- 
perly ' to strike one's self, to bewail', as in Latin plangi, the ob- 
ject of the grief is put in the accusative. Herod. 2, 132. erreav 
TvirrwvTai oi AiyvirTioi rov ovk ovofxaZ^ofxevov ueov vir 

e/ueu . Eurip. Troad. 628. cKpvxpa neirXoiQ KaTreKo- 

xpajULrfv veKpov. Hence also //. o/, 711. irpQrai tov y aXo^oc 
re (j)iXri kql irorvia fxrirrip TiXXeaOrjv. 

14. So with neuter verbs which denote a species of ado- 
ration, as with Oepaireveiv itself, the name of the divinity is 
put in the accusative. Pind. Isthm. 1, 8. tov ciKeipeKo^iav 
<I>o?j3ov y^opev(i)v. Soph. Antig. 1 150 seq. <je paivofievat 
navvv-^oi 'y^opevovffi, tov r ajULiav ' laKy^ov, Eur. Iph. A, 
1489. eXicrcrer cijucj)! ^(jjjjlov'' Apreixiv, saltaiites celebrate. Here. 
F, 690. TOV Aarovc e'viraiSa yovov eiXiaaovaai. 

15. With QveiVj that on account of which the offering is made 
is put in the accusative : e. g. dveiv yapov * to sacrifice on ac- 
count of the marriage'^, Oveiv evayyeXia 'on account of the 
good news' Xeu. H. Gr. 1, 7, 38. or (3ov9vTeiv evayy. ib. 4, 
3, 14. So also Saicjeiv ya/nov 11. t, 299. irai^oQ ^aiGOfiev 
v/uevaiovc Eurip. Iph. A. 123. 'to celebrate the marriage by a 
feast': also evayyeXia avaSeTi/, are^avovv riva Arist. Plut. 765. 
Equ. 647. In Bveiv ra ^iaj5arr)pia Xen. Hist, Gr, 3, 4, 3. 
and passim, 6, 4, 19. eirl ry ^laj^aaei Bveiv, Siaf^arripia de- 
notes that the sacrifice was for the passage, as eiriviKia Oveiv 
Plat, Si/mp. p. 173 A. an offering for victory**. yeveOXia Oveiv 
Eur. Iph. T, QQb. 

Ohs. With many verbs the accusative neuter plural of an adjective 
or pronoun is put, while substantives are added to it in the genitive or 
dative, e, g. Eur. Hel. 269. ra Zk to koKKos atnov, for tiov ^k, where 
in atrtoV ecrri the idea t^epya^erat is also contained. So Eur. Suppl, 
596. we have ev ^ei fxovov fioiy ev being the subject of ^et, for kvbs 
jjLoiov, as Iph. T. 1059. kvos povov ^et. To this head belong the con- 
structions Tvy\aveLv tl §. 328. Obs. (l)poyTt^€iv n §. 348. Obs. 2. 
^eofxai Tl §. S55. Obs. 2. to peya\6<^pov exprjro §. 296, 1. alridadai 
TLvcLTL §.421. Obs. 2. 

Many verbs have an accusative not only of the nearer and 415. 

*= Musgr. ad Eur. El. 1127. ** Taylor ad Lys. p. 517. ed. Ileisk. 

VOL. U, M 

666 Syntax. Of the Accusative, 

more immediate object of the action, but also of the more re- 
mote object, i. e. the person or thing to which the action with 
its immediate object passes, which in English is generally ex- 
pressed by the dative, e. g. ev or kukljc Troielv riva Mo do 
good, harm, to any one', ev or KaKuic, Xeyeiv riva Mo speak 
well, ill, of any one*. The relations above mentioned are the 
foundation of this usage also. Either the accusative of the 
thing denotes the result, and the accusative of the person the 
passive object; or the one accusative denotes the passive, the 
other only the immediate object; or the one denotes the result, 
and the other the immediate object. 

1. Result and passive object of the action. 

a, TTOielvy TTparretv, ^pav, ep^eiv, ' to do*. 

a. With one accusative and the adverb ev or KaKtJc,. Soph. 
Aj. 1154. avdp(i)irey jui) ^pa tovc TeOvrjKorac; KaKMQ. Xen. 

Mem. S. 2, 1, 19. tovg Trovovvraa, 'Iva ---^vvaTOi yevo- 

fuevoL Tovc (f)i\ovQ ev Trottudc, kql tt)v Trarpida evepyeruiai, 
TTCJQ ovK o'leaOai '^prj tovtovq Kai TroveTv ri^etoQ eiQ to. roiavra, 
Kai ^rju evcppaivojuLeuovQ ; Also without these adverbs : Herod. 
7, 88. Tov oe 'iTTTTOv avTiKu KttT apyac e7T0iY]<Tav 01 oiKerai, 
u)c eKeXeve, ' they did with the horse', where the proposition wc 
eKeXeve supplies the place of those adverbs*. 

Ill the same manner are constructed evepyerelv and KaKovp- 
yelv. Xen. Mem. S. 2, 1, 19. the passage just quoted, id.ib. 
4, 4, 24. ovy^ oi fjLev ev iroiovvrec, tovq y^ptofxevovc, iavroic 
ayaOoi (piXoi eiaiv, oi Se jurj avTevepyerovvrec, tovq tol- 
ovTOvc ^la Trjv ayapi(jTiav fxioovvrai vir avrtjjv \ Aristoph. 
PI. 912. ov yap iTpo(7i]Kei rriv e/aavTov /iioi ttoAii/ evepyerelv 
fxe. KttKovpyelv tovg cl>iXovG Xen. Cyr. 1, 6, 29. k. rove, evav- 
riovG ih. 6, 3, 24. comp. 4, 3, 5. rr^v ^aaiXedJC, yjLopav koko- 
iroielv id. Mem. S. 3, 5, 26.^ 

Hence also Xv/LiaiveaOai riva. Isocr. de Pac. p. 179 B. eXv- 
fjiaivovTO rriv TleXorrovvrjcrov. Evag. p. 183 D. oA»;i^ rrfv ttoXiv 
XvjuaiveaOai. Comp. Panatlt. p. 235 C. 236 C. which else- 
where is constructed with the dative, §. 412. 

• Fisch. 3 a. p. 4'^9-43^2. *• Fisch. 3 a. p. 43?. 

Syntax, Of the Accusative, 667 

j3. With two accusatives. Herod, 1, 137. aivkd) koi rov^e 

TOP vo/Liov, TO r(x)V aXXwi^ Uepffetjjv fxtf^eva t(jjv ewvrov 

oiKeretjjv eirl ^nj aLTirf avi^Kearov waOoQ ep^eiv. 4, 166. 
ApvavdiiQ Tapyvpiov tiovto tovto eiroiee. Xen. Cyrop, 
3, 2, 15. ouSeTTWTTOTe eiravovro TroXXa KaKa rj/nac; Trot- 
oui/Tec. ifj. §. 16. a vttkt'^vov noirjaeiv ayaOa rijjLaQ, 
Plat. Hep. 6. p. 495 B. eK rovT(s)v Brj t(jjv axf^ptjv Kai oi to, 
jueyicTTa KaKci epya'Cofxevoi TaQ TroXeic yiyvovrai Kai 
TOVQ iSiujTac, Kai ol rayaOa, ot av Tavry Tvyjujcn pvkvrec* 
GfxiKpa ce (pvaic ovoei^ fxeya ovceiroTe ovoeva ovre lonjJTrfv 
ovT€ TToXiv ^/oa*^. Hence Thuc, 3, 56. G»]j3a7oi ^e TroXXa 
fuev Kai aWa r)fxaQ r)^iKr}(rav. Isocr, Panath, p. 271 B. o 


oiKerwu offiov eari /xiai^oi/eTi^. 

Obs. 1. The remoter object is also sometimes in the dative. Od. ^, 
289. ^o7vi^ ^^^Pi rpojKTrjs, as drj TroXXa kuk avdpojTroLcriv ewpyei. 
Plat, Apol, S, p. 30 A. ravra Ka\ veurep^ Kai 7rp€(T(3vT ip^ Troa/o"<i> 
Koi ^€V(^ Kai ciffrtpf fidWoy he rols aorois. Charm, p. 157 C, ovk 
CLP e-)(OL^eVi o tl Troiotfjiev ffoi, Xen. Hier, 7, 2. TOiavra yap h) TroiovffL 
Tols rvpdyvois oi ap^^o/xevoi. Isocr. de Big. p. 357 B. ayayaKrtJj, 

el Tiorias fjLrjdey ayadoy 7roir](ras r^ TrdXet Kai kv Zri^oKpaTiq. 

Kai ev oXiyap^i^ jieya hvyrifferai. Both cases are joined Xen, Anab, 
5, 8, 24. av ovv <rw(j)pov^Te, tovt^ ravavr/a TroiJ/cere, rj tovs Kvvas 


Obs, 2. els and Trpvs are also found with the accusative of the 
person. Soph. (Ed. C. 976. firj^eu ^vnets wv ehpiov^ els ovs t elpioy. 
Herod. 1, 41. 6(f>€i\eiSf e/xeu irpoirouiaavTOS -yjiricTra es ae, "^^priarolai jjie 
a^elf^etrdai. Xen, Mem, S. 4, 2, 16. Trpos rovs iroXefjiiovs diKaioy elyai 
ra roiavra TTOiely. — Eur. Ipk, A, 1110. * Ay a fx^jjivajy errl toIs avrov 
TCKyois ayoaia 7rpd(r(T(oy avri^ evpedtffrerai * towards his children*. 

Obs. 3, According to the analogy of Troiely riya KaKa, the verbs 
(u^eXeiv, (^Xcnrreiy and others, in which the idea of * doing' is implied, 
take besides the accusative of the person another accusative neuter 
plural of an adjective, where the English uses the adverbs * more*, 
* very*. Plat. Hipp, Maj. p. 281 B. av yap Kai I^I^l kayos el, frapa ti^v 
r^ojy TToWa xpyjfxaTaXa^fidyioy, en TrXelio dxpeXely uy Xa/jipdyeis, 

^ Fisch. 1. c. construction. Fisch. 3 a. p. 429. 

"> Dawes Misc. Crit. p. 184. 334. Zeune ad Vig. p. 289. 
Dorv. ad Char. p. 316. question this 

M 2 

668 Syntax, Of the Accusative, 

Dem. pro Cor, p, 255, 7. liXUa ravra uxpkXr^aev airavras ". Plat. Apol, 
S. p. 30 C. cap kfxe aTroKreivrjTe toiovtov ovra o\ov eyoj Xeyw, ovk cfxe 
jue/^w (3Xa.\p€T€ rj vfjids avTovs. So Xen. Mem. S.1,2,7. ra /ueyiora 
evepyeriicravTL, ib. 4, 1, 1. fiiKpa (v^eXeTy. Cyrop, 5, 5, 4. opoiy Kai 
TovTOvs TToXXa ffirofjieyovs rijy MrjdiKijy. Dem, pro Cor. p, 25Sf 21 , 
AaKedaifioyiovSf TroWa t^v TroXLvijfjiojy "^^iKrjKoras kuI fxeyaXa. Comp. 
Xen. Anah. 1, 6, 7, 8. So ^iifiiovaQat jmeyaXa Xen, Cyr, 3, 1, 16. 
Xvirety riyd ri Plat. Apol. S. p. 41 E. ji-qyayoTroios dXXov ovEeyos 
eXcLTTO) eviore Ivvarai aw^eiy Plat. Gorg. p. 512 B. 

(410) b» Xeyeiv, eiirelv, ayopeveiv Tiva. 

416. "• With an accusative and the adverbs eS or KaKujc;, Xen. 
Mem. S. 2, 3, 8. ttwc S av eyu) aveTnarj)fxt)v eiriv a^eXcfx^ 
'^prjaOai, eirKTrajLievoQ ye Kai ev Xeyeii^ tov ev Xeyovra ('to 
treat with fair words', opp, Xoyw aviav), Kai ev 7roie7v rov ev 
TTOLOvvra j toi^ fxevroi Kai Xoyw /cat e^oyw ireipw/aevov efie 
aviav OVK av cvvaifxriv ovt ev Xeyeti^, our ev rroielv, a AX 
ov^e ireipaGOfiai, Plat. Euthyd. p, 284 D. KaKWQ apa \eyov(nv 
oi ayauoi ra KaKa, eiirep, u)Q e^ei, Ae-yov^tv. IN at /ua lAi , 17 o 
he, <T(p6Spa ye tovg youv KaKovQ avO ptJirovc' lov av, eav 
fioi TreiOyj evXaf^riay elvai, iva fxr] ae 0/ ayaOoi KaKtoQ Xeyii)aiv, 
WQ ev olcrO , on KaKtjJC, Xkyovaiv 01 ayaOoi rove KaKovc* 
Herod, 5, 83. kukioc ^ rtyopevov 01 yopoi av^pa fiev ovdeva, 
Tad B' eTTi^wpiaQ yvva7Kac, Also in the sense of 'to 
speak well of any one, to praise': Od. a, 302. aXKipoQ eacr\ 
tva Ttc tre Kai oipiyovwv ev €nry , 

Thus also evXoye7v and KaKoXoyelu, Isocr, Areop, /). 276 B. 
OUTWC ei/crj Ka\ Trapavofxuyc, ovc, av tu^-^c, eTraivtHv, otc ^e CTrt- 
TifLiav ^koVy evXoycov avrovQ, {leg. ovq av Tv^rjCy eiriTifxav 
Beov, evXoywv avrovC')^ 

Of the different constructions of Xoidopelv and XoiSopelaOai 
see §. 384. Obs, 2. 

Obs, 1. The following construction is more rare: Soph. Aj. 764. 6 
uey yap avToy eyveireC rcKyov, ^opl ftovXov Kparely jjiey, ^vy de^ 5' del 

Kpareiy' 6 ^' rjfxei-\paTO ' his father said to him'. II. p, 237, kuI tot* 

up' Mas et TTC (3oriy dyadoy MeyeXaoy, Comp. r', 725. v, 375. 

» Sclictf. App. Dem. p. 253. " Fisch. 3 a. p. 433. 

*> Fisch. 3 a. p. 429. 

Syntax. Of the Accusative. 669 

Ohs. 2. Instead of KUKuis ^schylus S. c. Th. 573. has the dative> 
KQKoTai (3u.^€i TToWa Tv^€(t)S (^lav, 

j3. With two accusatives. Herod. 8, 61. rore Se §17 o Ge- 
IhgtokXhyiq Kelvov re Kat tovq J^opivOiovc; TroXXa re Kai 
KaKa eXeye, ' he abused him and the Corinthians very much*. 
Xeri. Mem. S. 2, 2, 9. oiei ^aXeTrwrejOov eivai goi uKoveiu wv 
avTTf (77 fxr]Tr]p) Xeyee, 17 toTc VTroKpiralc,, orav ev raiQ rpayio- 
^laic aXXyXovQ ra ecF'^ara Xeytoaiv ; Also ' to say anything 
to one', for 7rp6c Tiva : Aristoph. Ach. 593. ravrl Xeyeic; av 
rov (TTparriyovy tttijo^oq lov ; ^ to say anything of one': 
Soph. El. 620. Kai TToXXa irpoQ ttoXXovq jme ^r) e^elTrac, ojq 
vpaaela Kai irkpa ^iKrfQ "/^X^ KaOvf^pitovcra Kai ae Kai to, aa, 
ib. 984. TOiavTOL TOi vu) nac rtc e^€pe7 f^poTwv, ^tjcfaiv 
Oavovaaiv 6 (jjgtc jurj KXnrelv KXeoQ. Ant. 1057. Plat. Phced. 
p. 75 A. Thus is to be explained the passage in //. t' » 479. 
Kai TTOTe TIC enrrjai, Trarpoc, ^ oye iroXXov a/ueiviov, eK TToXejuov 
auiovTOy ' will say of him when he returns from the war'. But 
Plat. Phced. p. 94 D. ov Xe-yet top OSvcycTea^ ^rrjOoc de TrXrjfac 
Kpa^iTjv riviiraire fxvOfo appears to be an anacoluthon for irX^^^avra 
ev'nrreiv^. According to this analogy we find jEsch. Agam. 
181. Xrjva ^e tig irpocfypovioc eiriviKia kXcl^cjv Tev^eTai (j)p€vii)v 
TO nav, ' raising a triumphal song to Jupiter as victor', con- 
sequently ascribing to him the victory. 

Obs. 1 . On this idiom is founded the attraction in the passages which 
Dawes {Misc. Crit. p. 149.) cites: Pi7id. 01. 14, 31. KXeo^a^ov 6<ppa 

iZola vlov eiTTTjSf on ol veav kcTecpavioae Kv^ifxioy aedXioy Trrepolcn 

')(aiTay. Arist. Nub. 1147. Kai fjioi top vIop, el /lefiaOriKe rou \6yov 
eKcTvoyf €l(p\ hv apriujs elariyayes' instead of 6(f)pa eliTrj/s, on 6 vios jol 
€ffT€<f)dyii)a€. etVe, et 6 vlos fxe/jiadrjKe according to §. 295. Thus too 
Eurip. Andr. 646. Iph. T. 341. « In Plat. Menon. p. 17 A. KaX-navcrai 
TToAXa TTOioiy €K tov eyoSf oirep (paai tovs avyrpi^oyTus n cKCLffTore oi 
(TKutTTToyTeSf TTOietv is to be understood, oirep 0a(7t Troiely tovs avyrp^ 

Obs. 2. In the phrase x^^P^f-^ Xeyeiy Tiya, properly, < to bid farewell 
to any one', i. e. * to leave out of consideration', nan curare^ nan morari^, 
Ttyu seems to belong to xatpeiy as the subject, and Xeyeiy to be put in 
the sense of KeXeveiy, since this word is also used, e. g. ■^^aipeiv KcXevwy 

*" Wolf Opusc. Lat. p. 100 seq. " Schzef. App. Dem. p. 530. 

Hehid. ad Plat. Gorg. p. 252. Schief. ' Valck.adIIerod.9,41. p. 712,46, 

ad Theocr. 25, 179. ad Greg. p. 128. Ilcind. ad Plat. Theat. p. 441. 

670 Si/ntax, Of the Accusative. 

TToXXct Tovs 'A)(ajOj/eas Aristojph, Ach. 200. and yai^^^iv kav rtva. 
Hence So'ph. Track. 227. x«t'f>eiv top KrjpvKa TrpovvveTru}, and Theocr. 
14 m. \aipeiv ttoWci tov aydpa Qvu)vi')(ov, as Jubeo Chremetem in 
Terence, xalpeip etTretv riva is also used: Soph. El. 1456. for Iceta 
alicui nunciare. Elsewhere x««'p€tv elirely or Xeyetv or (ppa^eiv tivL 
is used. P^a^. Phileb, p. 36 D. y^aipeiv to'lvvv leWeyetv toIs clWols 
fxijKeaiv. Phcedr, p. 372 E. ro ekos ^tw/creo^- eli/at, TroXXa eiTrovra 
\aip€Lv rw ctXr/Oet. 

417. c. eptorav or epeaOai riva ti 'to ask one about anything*, 
^ ^ (because not only epturav avOptjirov is used, but also eptorav 
Ti, ' to ask after anything'. Herod. 3,22. Plat. Euthyd. in. 
and j9. 271 C. Min. in.) Find. 01. 6, 81. airavraQ ev oUm 
eipero iral^a, tov l^va^va tckoi, ' inquired of all after the 
child'. Herod. 1, 32. eKelvo ^e, to eipeo jne, ov/ca> ae eyw 
Xeyw, TTpiv av KaXwQ reXevrrjcjavTa rov aitova irvduyfxai. Plat. 
Prot. p, 315 C. e(j)aivovro Se irepi (pvaetoQ re Kai /uLeretjpwv 
a(jr povofJLiKa arTa ^L€p(i)rav toi^ 'linriav.. Comp. Sj/mp. 
p. 173 B. Eurip. Iph. T. 667 seq. 670. Xen. Cyrop. 3, 3, 48. 
o Kv^oq riptjra tovq avrofjioXovc ra eK t(jju 7roXe/it(u»^. 
Thus also epeeiveiVy laropelv, aviGropelv riva n. Also epioTav 
&c. Tiva TT€pi rivoc is used: Herod. 1, 32. eTreiptorac pe av- 
6pu)7rr]'iu)v wprjypaTijJV irepi^. 

The construction is analogous to this in Plat, Each, p, 1 89 D. 
t(7a)C oi» KaK(jjQ e^ei e^CTa^^eii' Kai ra roiavra rtpaQ avrovQ. 
Comp. Gorg. p. 615 B. 

d. The verbs ' to require, to desire', alrelv, airairelv, 
irpaTTeaOai riva ti. Herod. 3, 1. 7rep\pac }^ap(3var}r, €q Ai- 
yuTTTOi' KTjpvKa, airee * Apaaiv Ovyarepa. comp. 4, 164. 
Plat. Rep. 8. p. 566 B. to S*) rvpawiKov aimpa to ttoAu- 
6pvWr}Tov eiri rovrto iravrec oi etc tovto 7rpof5ej3r}K6TeG 
€^€vpi(TKov(Jiv, aire^v rov ^lipov (j)vXaKac; Tivac tov 
GiopaToc comp. 10. p. 599 B. Eur. Suppl. 122. toutouc 
OavovTac ri\9ov e^aiTWv ttoXii^. Plat. Apol. S. p. 27. ojrep kut 
apyac vpac, TrapyTriaapr^v. So aiTelaSai with two accusatives 
Xen. Cyr. 5, 2, 13. irpaTTeaQai and npaTTeiv in the sense of 
'to require': Pind. 01. 3, 10. yja.iTai(ji pev Z,evy^kvT€c, eiri 

• Fisch. 3 a. p. 436. 

Sj/ntax. Of the Accusative. G71 

aTe(pavoi irpaaaovri fxe rovro OeoS/mar ov y^peoc, to which 
Pyth. 9, 181. he adds eyelpai. 10, 34. wq Avyeav Xarpiov 
aeKovO €Ktt)v fLiiaOov v7repj3iov tt pct<j(Toiro. Xen. Mem. S. 
1, 6, 11. ovdeva T>7c (TwovcFiaQ a pyv piov nparrij. Isocr. 

ad Phil. p. Ill E. rrju ttoXiv rjjuiwv ov^eic; av eTraiveaeiev, 

OTi T0<J0VT0 nXriOoc, twv '^prj/mariov eiGir pa^aaa rove 

crvfXfiia'Y^ovc, etc, rrju aKpoiroXiv avrjvejKeu. Thus also jEsch, 

in Ctesiph. p. 504. ed. R. ol AoKpoi ol ' ApcfyicraelQ reXt) 

Tovc KarairXeovraQ e^eXeyov. Isocr. Paneg. p. 68 A. 
(c. 36.) TOVC vrididjTaQ daG/uioXoyelv. Hence Soph. Aj. 831. 
TOffavra g , oi Zei», irpodTpkirw . 

Obs. With airetj^ the person is also found in the genitive Eur. Med. 
947. 1163. 

e. 'To take anything from one*, a(^aipeiaOai tivol ti. II. a , 418. 
275. fxri^e Gv t6v^\ ayaOoc irep eu)Vj airoaipeo KOvpr}v. Xen. \^^^) 
Cyr. 3, 1, 39. oi rale, kavrdv yvvai^i Xapj^avovrec avvovrac 

aXXorp'iovc av^paQ vojunt^ovrec; (avrovc;) ai^aipeiadai 

avTCLC, Tr)v irpoc, eavrovc, (j)iXiaVj ^la tovto toe noXe/dioic 
avTOLQ -^ptovrai. ib. 4, 6,4, rov fxovov fioi Kai (J)lXov TraTSa 
a(f)eiX€ro tyju \pvyj]v. Eur, Ale. 69. /3ia yvvcuKa rriv^e g 

Thus also other verbs which are used in the same sense : 
//. o , 462. (Zeuc) TevKpovlieXafxioviov evyoc aTrrjvpa. Od. a, 
203. /Lirj yap oy eXOoi avrip, ogtic g acKOvra j3/^<^i KTr^fxar 
airoppaiGeij instead of which lies. Theog. 393. jurj nv 
airoppaiGciv yepaijjv. II. (j) , 451. Tore vfsii (^irjGaTO /higOov 
uiravTa Aaop€^u)v eKirayXoc;. Soph, CEd, C, 866. oq fie xpiXov 
of^ifx airoGircLGaQ e^oiyjg, Eurip. Iph. A. 796. tiq apa jit 

euTrXofcajuovc Kofxac aTToXwreet. Pind, Pyth, 3, 173. 

Tov f.iev o^eiaiGL OvyaTpea epr^fxdyGav TraOaic, evCppoGvuaQ jnepoQ 
al TpeiQ. Demosth. in Androt, p. 616, 19. Tr]v Oeov tovq 
areipavovQ GeGvXr}KaGi, as 11. t\ 71. Eur. Iph, A. 158. 

Thus also airoGTepelv riva ri. Xen. Cyrop. 5, 3, 39. ov 
juImtoi to ye ^iXouc KTCLGdai ^vvaGOai Ge (o AGGvpioc) 

»» Fisch. 3 a. p. 433. 436 seq. p. (39, 68) 94, 40. Thorn. M. p. 130 

*= Valcken. ad Her. 8, 3. p. 620, 38. ct Oudend. Elmsl. ad Ileracl. 977. 
Diatrib. p. 203. Keen ad Gregor. 

672 Syntax. Of the Accusative, 

airearepriaev. Anah, 6, 6, 23. rove, Tjoarre^ovvT touc 
airearepj^Kafxev rriv irevT-nKovTOpov, Isocrat. Archid, p. 1 19 
A. B. TOUT?;!' vixac, Tr}v y^iopav aTroarepeiv eni'^eipov (Jiv. 
Hence Horn. H. in Cer, 311. yepatjv epiKv^ea rifxriv /cat Ovaiuiv 
hp^Gpaev OXv/uLTTia ^Wjuar eyovrac^. 

Obs, cKpaipeTv is also constructed with the dative of the person. 
Od. a'f 9. Toiaiv a^eiKeTO voaTi^ov ^/Jiap. Xen. Cyr. 7, 1, 44. oi 
AlyvTTTioi TO fxev tTrt Kpoiaov avcrrpaTCveiv CKpeKeiv acpioriv kZev]Br]<Tav. 
ih. 2, 26. fjia-x^as ffoi Ka\ ttoXc/xovs a^atjow. II. ^', 296. also with the 
genitive of the person, which is governed of the accusative of the thing. 
Plat. Rep. 5. p. 470 D. /iCTpioy elvai rovs Kupirovs cKpaipeXaQai Tins 
KpaTovari TiSy KpaTov jjiiyutv. Dem. p. 1098. ovZe^iav ovaiav Aew- 
oTpuTov, Xen. H. Gr. 2, 3, 41. comp. ib. 20. Herod. 5, 67. even 
without a substantive on which the genitive depends Herod. 5, 83. 
TCI ityaXfiaTU Tavra viraipeovTai avTiav. Eur, Iph. T. 25. comp. j4n- 
drom. 523. Also with a preposition Eur. Troad. 1041. cKpeXov Trp6$ 
'EXXaBos xpoyoy to drjXv re. In the later writers also with the accusative 
of the thing, analogously to airoarepeiv tlvo. tlvos^. 

f, ' to teach*, ^i^acrKeiv riva ri, as in Latin docere aliquem 
aliquid, Eur, Hipp. 254. TroXXa ^idaoKei fi o ttoXvq (^iotoq, 
Herod, 1, 136, iraidevovcri tovq nal^aa rpia fiovva^. 

g. ' to put on, to put off*, eK^vaai, ev^vcrai, ap.(j>i€vvvvai. 
Xen. Cyr. 1, 3, 17. ttoTc jue-yaq, iLUKpov ey^ujv yjiruyva^ erepov 
iralSa ^iiKpoVy jueyav e'^ovra yjLTfjJva, eK^vaac, avrov, tov 
pev eavTOv eKelvov r]p^[eae, rov 8e eKcivov avroc eve^v^. 
Aristoph. Lys. 1 156. dp(j)i€vvvvai also with the dative of the 
thing Plat. Prot. p. 320 E. a pev yap avrcjv apiKporrfTi 
ripiriax^, ib. p. 321 A. Pind, Nem, 10, 82. 

419. h. According to the same analogy the following construc- 
tions are to be explained : 

TTpoKaXelcrdai rtva (object) ti (result.) Thnc. 2, 72. airep 
Kal TO TTporepov t/S); irpovKaXeaapeOa. Plat. Eulhyphr. p. 5 A. 
ap* ovv poL Kpariarov eari, irpo rrjc ypacjyrjc rrja npoc, MeXirou 
avra Tavra irpoKaXelaOai avrov, 'require that he should 

* Fisch. 3 a. p. 434. *^ Scha?f ad Dionys. H. p. 412 seq, 

^ Koen ad Greg. 1. c. Fisch. 3 a. ^ Fisch. 3 a. p. 435. 

p. 434 seq. 

Si/ntax, Of the Accusative, 673 

give me an answer upon this subject', i. e. ' to make use of this 
against him', comp. p. 5 B. Hence ^'iktiv irpoKaXecraaOai Lys, 
p. 163, 24. Plat. Charm, p. 169 D. ^leXetrOat, a irpovKa- 

Xov/uiiv avTov. Arist, Equ. 792. rac wpeaj^eiaQ at rac 

(jTTOU^ac TTpoKaXovVTai. Ach. 652. rriv eipr]vr\v irpoKaXovvTai. 
Hence Soph. Trach. 1208. ola fx eKKaXel. Instead of this 
Thuc. 4, 19. KaKe^aifxovioi Se vfxac, irpoKaXovvrai ec (TTrovcac. 
and 5, 43. em rriv ^vpfxayjLav irpoKaXovpevovG^. 

avayKa^eiv riva ti ' to compel to anything'. Plat. Rep. 5. 
p. 473 A. TOUTO pev ^ri pri avajKate pe. Phadr. p. 254 A. 
T(jJ §e Kar' apyac pev upTiTeiveroUy ayavaKTOvvre wc ceiva 
KQL napavopa avayKatopevu) . So o vopoc, iroXXa (jia^erai 
Plat. Prot. p. 337 D. Comp. Soph. Ant. 66. 

2. The verbs of dividing especially are constructed with a 
double accusative, with one of which etc is often found. He- 
rodotus, though he says, 4, 148. a(j)eac, avrovc ec e^ polpaa 
^LeiXovj (coTmp.jEschin. in Ctes. p. 587. Plat. Rep. 9. p. 580 D. 
TToAtc ^lypr^rai Kara rpia eiSii,) says 7, 121. without the pre- 
position, Tpela poLpac, o aep^rjc ^acfapevoc iravra rov neZov 
arparov. Plat. Leg. 5. p. IZl E. yrj Se Kai oiKriaeic Tfi avra 
pepri BiavepijOriTU). ib, p. 738 A. o Se TiZv TerrapaKovTa Kai 

irevTaKKTyjXitJV apiOpoQ ov TrXeiovc piac Seovcruyu 

e^r^Kovra ^vvair av repveadai Topwv. id. Polit. p. 283 D. 
^ikXuypev ro'ivvv avrriv Svo pkpr]. Par men, p. 144 B. Kara^ 
KeKeppariarai apa ioc o'lov re apiKporara Kai peyi<Tra, 
Comp. Rep. 6. p. 509 D. Xen. Cyrop. 7, 5, 13. aKovoac, §e 
ravra o Kupoc ro arparevpa Kareveipe Sw^e/ca pepri^. 

Instead of this the whole, which is divided, is also put in 
the genitive, and the word pepoa, polpa &c. referred imme- 
diately to the verb. Herod. 1, 94. Suo poipac ^leXovra AvBujv 
7ravr(»)Vy KXrtptJcrai, for Au^ovc iravrac, (etc) ^vo poipac ^leX. 
Plat. Leg. 5. p. 737 E. ^vo pev St) peprj rov navroQ a piOpoxi 
veprjOrtTW. ib. \2. p. 956 B, ore Ze pkpr) SurjpYirai rrjc noXetoQ 

« Duker ad Thuc. 4, 19. 5, 7. AbreschDUuc.Thuc. p.61?. Auctar. 

Al)reschDiluc.Thuc.ad8, 90. p. 802. p. 366. Fisch.3 a. p. 444 seq. Heind. 

Mieind. ad Plat. Phaedr. p. 235. ad Plat. Phsedr. p 272. Schitf. ad 

f Valck. ad Iler.r, 121. p. 568, 60. Lamb. B. p. 683. 

674 Syntax. Of the Accusative, •• 

^v^nraaric. id. Soph. p. 264 C. ^letXojttc^a rrjc; eiSwXo- 
TToiiKrjc e'lSr} Svo. Xen. Cyrop. 1, 2, 5. SwSeica Fle/oo-wi/ 
(pvXai ^iypi]vrai. id. Rep. Lac. 11, 4. fxopac, ^leiXev ej Ka\ 
iTTTrecjv Kai ottXitwv. In Xenophoii Hellen. 1, 7, 27. should 
be read : ^lyprijuevcjv rrjc, ripepac rpaZv /nepijjv. Thus Cicero 
says {de Orat. 1, 42, 190.), deinde eorum generum quasi 
qucadam memhra dispertiat. 

420. 1^' Other verbs, besides the accusative of the person, take 
(414) also an accusative of an adjective or substantive, which is a 
predicate, and expresses a quality or property, which is attri- 
buted to the object by the verb. These verbs are, as in Latin, 
those which signify ^ to call or name, to make, to choose', and 
when in the passive, take a double nominative. §. 307. Here 
is to be remarked : 

1. All these verbs frequently take, with the predicate, the 
infinitive eivai, from which, however, it does not follow that this 
word is to be supplied where it does not appear. 

a. ^ to call or name'. Plat. Protag. p. 311 E. ao(j)i<TTriv % 
TOi ovo/LiaZovGi ye to»^ av^pa elvai. Lach, p. 192 A. ri Xeyen; 
TOVTOf o €v nacTiv ovofxaZ^eic, TayvrriTa eivai. Ilipparch. 
p. 226 D. aXX tyw, oi ^{oKparcQ, f3ov\opai Xeyeiv tovtovq 
(piXoKep^eic; elvai^. Plat. Phccdon. p. 102 C. o ^ifxfxiac, eTrii)- 
vvpiav €"^€1 GfiiiKpoc, re Kai fxeyaa elvai. Instead of the predi- 
cate u)Q is used Soph. CEd. T. 780. avr]p pe KaXel nap o\v(^, 
irXaaroc; wc e'lriv irarpi. 

So after mriaaOai Plat. Gorg. p. 508 D. rove ecrritJifraa 
airiacTOvrai r(t)v vocriov airiovc eivai . 

b. * to make*. Herod. 7, 129. eireav Se crvpiLuyOetocn rd- 
y^iaraj evOevrev r/S»7 o TLriveiOQ r<^ ovvopari KaraKparewv, 
avwvvpovQ rovQ aXXovQ Troieei elvai. Comp. 1, 210. 

c. ' to choose, to nominate to an office'. Herod. 7, 154. 
fiera ou iroXXov -^povov (Aiv)](Tior?^oc) aire^e'^Ori Tracrrjc rrjc, 
'iTTTTOV elvai iinTapyoc,. 8, 134. oi ^e avppayoi piv e'lXovro 

» Heind. ad Plat. Theaet. p. 344. p. 2 25. 
Schaef. ad Dion. H. p. 141. Ilerm. ^ Hcind. ad Gorg. I.e. p. 247. Ast 

ad Vig. p. 750 scq. Jacobs ad Athen. ad Leg. p. 471. Slallb.adrhil. p. 55. 

Syntax, Of the Accusative, 675 

So with the verbs of ' giving, requiring', an infinitive e'xeiv, 
eivai, Xa^elv &c. is found : Find. Pyth. 9, 100. 'iva oi ydovoQ 
alcrav avTiKa crvvreXeOeiv evvoiJ,ov ^wprjfferai. Soph. Aj. 825. 
Comp. Vind. Fyth. 9, 181. 

2. In the verbs ' to calF, the following is to be observed : 

a. The predicate is sometimes the neuter singular of a pro- 
noun, although the proper object of the verb be masculine or 
plural. ILur. Bacch. 629. avaCpavcj g€ to^', oj Ba/c^^^e, Or](3aic 
ovo/iaZeiv. Plat. Rep. 1 . p. 340 E. to S olinai, eKaaroc, tovtcov, 
Kadoaov TOVT eariv o irpocjayopevofxev avrov, ov^eirore a/uap" 
Tavei. Cratyl. p. 390 C. tov ^e epiorav Kai airoKpiveaOai 
eTrKTra/mevov aWo t i <yv KoXelc; rj ^laXeKTiKov ; Gorg. p. 4H9 T). 
aWa TraXiv e^ a^o^f^c enre, t i irore XeyeiQ tovq (jeXr KTTOVQf 
' whom do you understand by the best V Plat. Rep, 5. p. 463 A. 
Ti o €v Toic aXXaiQ dii/j-OQ tovq apyovraQ npoaayopevei ; and 
in the passive id. Rep. 10. p. 597 E. tov to e^oiye ^o/cet 
peTpiijJTaT aVTTpoGa-yopeveaQai, pifxi\Tr]C,,o\) eKeivoi drfjuiovpyoL 
Thus it should be Gorg. p. 448 B. ei eTvyy^ave Topy'iaQ 
€TricrTrjiLi(t)v wv Trie, Tkyyr]c,y riairep o a^eXcpoQ avTOv Upo^iKOC, 
Ti av avTOv ujvo/iiaZofjLev ^iKaitoc;; ov^ oirep eKelvov. as it 
is also in the Zeitz MS. (See Chr. Gottfr. Mailer notitia et 
recensio Codd. MSS. qui in Bibl. Episc. Numhurgo-Cizensi 
asservanttir. Lips. 1806. p. \l seq.) for rtva*^. 

b. This is often accompanied by ovofxa. Od. & , 550. eiir 
ovofx J OTTi (T€ KeWi KaXfov fxriTiip T€ TraTrjp re. Bur ip. Ion. 
269. ovofxa Ti (T€ KaXeiv r]fxac y^peujv \ 'what are we to call 
you?' ib. 813. ovoj^ia ^e ttoIov avTOV ovo/utatei TraTrjp; 
Plat, Cratyl. in, ov tovto elvai ovofxa, o ti av TiveQ (rvvBe/uLevoi 
KaXeiv KaX(jj(Ji, id. Soph, p, 224 B. ovkovv /cat tov fxaQrjfjLaTa 

^vv(i)vovp,€vov TauTOi^ npoaepeiQ ovofxa, Xe7i. Mem. S, 

2, 2, 1. KaTape/uiaOrjKaQ ovv, tovc, ti TTOiovvTaQ to ovofxa 
TOVTO (ayapiGTOVQ) aTTO/caXoudtv. id. Q^con. 7, 3. ei jueu, 
OTav (701 ^laXeyijjVTai nepi ejuLOv Tivec, KaXovcri p.€ tovto to 
uvojxa, ovK o\^a, and in the passive according to Obs. 1. a. 
Plat, Apol. S, p. 23 A. ioaTe ovoj^ia tovto XeyeaOai, GOCpoc, 

«= Heind. ad Plat. Gorg. p. 8, 145. p. 369. Bast. Lettre Crit. p. 30. 
Auctar. p. 507. SchsRf. ad Long. 

676 Sj/ntax. Of the Accusative. 

elvai. Ill this case also the person or thing which is named is 
in the dative : Plat. Cratyl. p. 385 D. erepov elvai KoXeiv 

eKaGTii) ovo/LLa, Polit, p. 279 E. tovtokji ^ri toiq 

a/uLvvTrjpioiG Kai aKeiracrfxaai to fxev ovofxa ijuana eKaXecTajmev, 
Soph. p. 229 C. TOVT(i) ye olfxai l^ovio ttJc, ayvoiac ajuaOiav 
Tuvvofia irpocrprjOrivai. Comp. Rep. 5. p. 471 D.^ So Eur. 

Hec. 127*1. Tv/uf^io S ovofxa era? /ce/cXrjcrerai kvvoq 

ToXaivric, arjjLiaf i. e. TVfxpoQ aoQ kskX. arjjua. 

Thus is said KaXelv, ovo/LiaZeiv, eTrovojii. rivi ri. Plat. Theat. 
oo C r) oe cia tivoq cvvafxic, to t eiri iraai Koivov Kai to 

CTTl TOVrOlG Sri\oL (701, W TO eCTTlV €1T0P0^at>€lC Kai TO OVK 

eariv. Plat. Phadr. p. 238 A. eTnQvjxiac, t^ ^PXV 

v(3piQ e7r(j)voimd(T0ri^. The construction is similar in Thuc. 
4, 98. Trapavofxiav IttI toiq jui) avayKy KaKo^c ovo/tiaffOrjvai. 
Plat. Parm. p. 147 D. CKaarov tcjv ovofxarijjv ovk eiri riui 
KaXelc; Comp. Plat. Soph. p. 218 C. Rep. 5. p. 470 B. 

This construction seems to have arisen from the phrase 
TiOeaOai rivi bvofxa. See c. 

c. As in the phrase ovoaa can the name itself is always in 
the same case as ovo/uLa (§.308.), so the phrases compounded 
with an active verb, riOeaOai ovop.a &c. take an accusative : 
e. g. Plat. Rep. 2. p. 369 C. ravry ry l^vvoiKia eSe/deOa iroXiv 
ovojLia. Leg. 5. p. 736 A. ocrot 3ia tt]v rpo(j)rjc; airopiav toT^ 
riyeiLioGiv eiri ra tcjv e^ourojv pt} ey^ovrec eroipovc, avrovc ev- 
Se'iKPvvrai irapeaKevaKorec eireaOai, tovtoic, ioq voarfpari 
TToXewQ epTreCJyvKOTif Bt €v(j>Y}plav awaXXayrjc; ovopa airoiKiav 
TiOepevoQ, evpevfjjQ on paXiara e^eirepxpaTO. Thus also tl- 
OeaOai alone, omitting ovopa: Plat. Thecet. p. 157 B. (^ ^rj 
adpoiapari avOpojirov re TiOevrai Kai XiOov Kai eKaaTOU 
tu)6v re Kai el.^oi;^. Of the passage Leg. 12. jo. 956 C. see 
§. 308. 

3. The construction of the verbs 'to make' is followed by 
di^acFKeiv, iraideveiv, Tpe(j)eiv, ' to educate one, to bring one up 
to anything'. Eiirip. El. 379. aXX c'xei voaov irevia* ^i^aaKei 

* Ileind.adPlat.Cratyl.p. 11. 163. ad Eur. Hipp. 33. 
^ Hcind. ad Plat. Phaedr. p. 222. *= Heind. ad Plat. Theset. p. 334. 

ad Cratyl. in. Comp. Matthiae not. 

Sj/htax, Of the Accusative. 677 

S' ai'^pa -^y) \peia Go(p6v, 'makes him wise'. HeracL 576. 
SiSacr/ce jlloi roiova^e rova^e nal^ac, etc to irav <TO(j)ovc, 
wairep av. Comp. Med. 297. Plat. Menon. p. 93 D. ovk aKt}- 
KoaQ, on QeiuLiaroKXrJQ K\e6(j)avrov toi^ vlov linrea /j.ev eoi- 
^a^aro ayaOov; 'made him be brought up a good rider'. 
ib. p. 94 B. TovrovQ {YlapaXov Ka\ AavOnnrov) 'iTTTreac eSiSa- 
^€v ou^evoc )(6/pouc 'AOYivai(i)v, Rep. 4. p. 421 E. rove vielc, 
rj aXXovc, ovQ av SiSa^^, '^eipovc ^rj/uLiovpyov q ^ida^erai. 
Soph. (Ed. C. 919. Kai roL (re Or/jSat ovk ewai^evffav kqkov. 
Plat. Rep. 8. p. 546 IB. ovq riye/uLovaQ iroXetjJv inai^evcraaOe, 
Epist. 7. p. 333 B. ravrov irpoc /^iwva ^vpaKovaioi totc eTra- 
Oov, oirep Kai ^lovvaioc, ore avrov eireyjiipei irai^evaai Kai 
Opexpai (5a(TiXea rrjc apyrjc; a^iov. Thus Thuc, 1, 84. eu- 
j3ouAot yiyvo/LieOa, afxadearepoi rtju vofxwv t^c virepotpiaQ 
irai^evofxevoi (i. e. ap,. r) "oare tovq vopova virepopav) °. 

Thus also av^eiv riva peyav Plat. Rep. 8. p. 565 C. 

Ohs. From these are to be distinguished the phrases in which the 
second accusative is an apposition of the first, and is determined only 
by means of the verb, of which see §. 428, 1. Isocr. ad Dem. p. 2 B. 
cLTT^araXKa aoi rov^e tov \6yov ^wpor, 'as a present'. Xen. Cyr.5f 2, 14. 
Tou Tit)(3puay avvceiirvov TrapeXaf^er *". 

II. The thing acted upon, and the immediate object of the 421. 
action in KpvTrreiv riva ri, as in Latin celare aliquem aliquid. 

Herod. 7, 28. oJ (^a<TiXev, ov ae airoKpvxpu) rrjv epewvrov 

ovairiv. Soph. EL 957. ov^ev yap tre ^et Kpvirreiv p en, 
Eur. Hippol. 927. ov prjv ^iXouc ye Kan paXXov r] (^iXovc 
Kpvirreiv diKaiov (rac, irarep, ^vtrirpa^iac* On the other 
hand Kpvirreiv irpoc, riva Soph. Phil. 588. With the simple 
accusative of the person Plat. Theat. p. 180 C. rwv apy^aidjv 
pera irouiaeoJG airoKpvirropevwv rove iroXXovCf (oc rj yevecriQ 
riHv aXXu)v iravrtjjv QKeavoQ re Kai TrjBvc pevpara rvyyavei . 

Ohs. 1. Several other verbs are found besides with two accusatives, (413) 
other constructions, however, being equally or more common. It is 

•^ Bentl. Epist. ad Mill. p. 470. ^ Hemsterh. in Obss. Misc. 6. 

Toup ad Suid. 2. p.383. Hemsterh. p. 340. Dorv. ad Charit. p. 219. 

ad Aristoph. Plut. p. 4. Koppiers ^ Brunck ad iEsch. Prom. 631. 

Obss. Philol. p. 82. Schaf. ad Lamb. Arist. Thesm. 74. in Add. 
B. p. 862. ad Dion. p. 412 seq. 

G78 Syntax. Of the Accusative, 

cliiefly grounded on this, that many verbs may be referred sometimes 
to a person, and sometimes to a thing, and we may say kojXvciv dyOpu)- 
TTov and also fcwXveii^ npdyfxa. 

afxetf^ecrdai. Pind. Pyth. 9, Q5. rov ^e Yi^evravpos i^afxeyijs jjirjriv eay 
evdvs ajjiellJero, from afxeif^etTQai tlvo. §. 411, 5. and that which is im- 
plied according to the sense in a/ie//3. * to say, announce, set forth'. 
Soph, (Ed, C, 991. ev yap fx a.iJL€i\pai y.ovvov, 

ava^eiv. Arist. Plut. 764. avatrjauL /3ovXo/zat evayyeXia ce, 
according to §. 414, 14. So also Equ. 647. elr kcrret^avovv /x' evay- 
y eXta. 

avayivdv. Xen, Anah, 3, 2, 11. dvafxvijffio v^as koI rovs rujy irpo- 
yovojp T<jjy vjj.eT€pu)v klv^vvovs^ for rwv KiyBvyojv. See §. 347. Obs. 
Thus also Thuc, 7, 64. rovs 'Adr^vaiovs koi ra^e virofxifJivriffKOJ. 

cnroXoveiy. II. cr ^ 345. o<ppa rd'yj.aTa TLdTpoKXoy Xovaeiav cltto 
(3p6rov aljiaToevra, for YiarpoKXov or IlarpoicXw, because drroXovety 
dy6p(jj7roy was said, and also cdjia. So vi^ecrOaif Od. ^', 224. avrap 6 
€K TTOTafjLOv XP ^ ^ yt^cro B2os 'O^vaa-evs dXfxrjy (^t',356. ere ttoEus yi\p€i. 
comp. 376. belongs to Obs. 3. of this §.). Hence II, tt', 667. KeXaiy€<f>€s 
aifxa Kadrjpoy --- j^apirrj^oya, 

dwo^vpeiy. Herod. 5, S5. rov TnaTOTarov cLTro^vpt'iffas rrjy K€<paX{jy, 

yeveiy, * to cause to taste', Eur. Cycl. 149. ^ovXei ae yevau) Trpwroy 
uKparoy fxedv; yeveiy with the accusative of the thing only, Herod, 
7, 46. The accusative of the person points out the object of the action. 
Comp. euw)(ei^'. 

ypa^etv. Eur, Troad. 1196. ri kul irore ypdxpeiey ixv (re ^ovctottolos 
ey rdij)^] from ypacpeiy rtyd * to inscribe any one's name', and ypd^eiy ri. 

^larpifteLy. Od. j3', 204. o^pa Key f/'ye ^taTpifjriaiy 'A^atovs oy yd/moy. 
^larp. ydfioy * to delay', is found Od. v', 341. ^larp. riyd would signify 
* to put him off'. 

edy. Soph, Ant, 538. dXX' ovk edtrei tovto y I] diKrj ore, i. e. yrpdrreiy. 

eTratpeiy. Eur. Orest. 286. Ao^iq, oaris fx* e-n-dpas epyov dyoaiu)raroy 
vols fxky Xoyois eu^joave. See ireideiyt and comp. §. 419, h. 

eTTiffKjjTrreiy. Soph. Trach. 1221. Toaovroy h) a eTrt^KV/Trrw, rkKVoy, 

evwyeli'. Plat. Gorg. p. 522 A. Sffirep eyuj ttoXXci kul ijdea koi Tray- 
Todaird evwxpvy v/jids. evioX' with the accusative of the person * to feast, 
to furnish food', evwxelordai ri points to the accusative of the thing. So 
also Herod. 1, 129. eipero piy, irpos to eavrov delTryoy, to ftiv eKelyos 
aapQ. rov TraiZos edoiyiffe. 

Syntax. Of the Accusative. G79 

doivi^eiy. See €vio)(^ely. 

Kadaipety, See airoXoveiy. 

K(t)\v€iy. Soph. Phil. 1241 seq. eariy ris, eanyi os tre /cwXvo-ei to 
^pdy. NEO. Ti (pyjs ] ris earai ju' bvniKioXvaojy raZe ; So also e'ipyeiy 
Tiya Ti. Ariit. Vesp. 334. ris yap eV0' 6 ravra a ^'[pyi^y \^ 

fxerepx^frdcii. See Tiffaadai. 

vi^ety. See airoXovety. 

weldeiy. Herod. 1, 163. ms tovto ovk eireide tovs ^cjKaiea.s, 
Xen. Hier. 1, 16. eKeivo ye ovk ay en Treiaais aydpojTTUjy ov^eyu. 
Hence TrelSeardai tl : Herod. 8, 81. ol TrXevyes ruiy (rrparqycjy ovk kirei- 
dovro ra c^ayyeXdeyra. Thuc. 2, 21. ^i6 Btj (vulg. le) koX rj 0vy») 
avVw (n\et<7roavafc,Ti) ey^vero eK ^iruprriSj ^o^ayri ')(p)]iiaorL TreLadrjyaL 
rijy aya')(^o)pr](Tty. comp. 7, 73. 

irieiyy TnTriaKciy. Pind. Isthm. 6, 18. Trioro) <T0e AipKas hyyby vdojp. 

TTopeveiy. Soph. Trach. 559 seq. os ray (jadvppovy Trorafioy 'Evrjyoy 
Pporovs fxiadov 'iropeve ^epaiy. Eur, Ale, 449. yvyaiK apiaray Xifxyay 
^A-yepovTiay iropevaas eXciTg.. 

aTe<f>ayovy. See ayadeiy, 

riaaadai. Od. o', 236. Kai eTiffaro epyov aeiKcs ayrideoy N;/\i7a, 
analogous to Trparretv, Troiely riyci tl. Eur. Heracl. 855. cnroriaaffdai 
diicrjy exOpovs. Comp. 885. So /iert^vat, fieTepx^ffdai Eur. Orest. 423. 
Cycl. 280. 

Ohs. 2. Some verbs take, besides the accusative of the person, an 
accusative also of an adjective or pronoun in the neuter plural, which 
however is not sufficient to permit us to assume that the verb governs 
a double accusative generally, or of substantives. See §. 414, 13. Obs. 
So alndffdat Antiph. p. 609. ed. Reisk. (7". 7.) a eTraiTico/jiai r/)v yv- 
vaT/ca TavTijy. Xen. Cyr. 7, 2, 22. ovk alTi<jjfxai rdde Toy Oeuyf for TioyEcf 
as it is Plat. Soph. p. 218 B. Hence Xen. Hist. Gr. 7, 5, 12. to ye fxiiy 
eyrevdey yeyo/jeyoy escort ^ey roy deoy aiTLdadai. e^eXeyxeiy Tiyd tl, 
Plat. Lys. p. 2i2 D. aXXix ii))y Kai tovto ye ^ofxeda e^eXey^ai ^jj-ds 
avTovs, ' we think we have refuted ourselves in this'. Comp. Apol. S. 
p. 23 A.'' For not only cXey)(etv rnd was said, but also kXeyxeiy ti, 
e. g. Eur. Heracl. 405. jjnneladai, Herod. 5, 67, Tindy, id. ib. extr. 
The following cases are especially to be remarked : 

a. The verbs ' to say, to do, to become', are often not expressed, but 

* Thom. M. p. 272. Heind. ad " Heind. ad Plat. Lys. p. 51. 

Plat. Soph. p. 303. 

G80 Sj/ntai\ Of the Accusative. 

only those which denote the kind of saying and doing, and in which a 
verb 'to say, to do' is supphed by the mind. Soph. Aj. 1107. koX to. 
tre/ny eirr) KoXa^ kneivovs, i. e. KoXaCiov eKeivovs Xeye. CEd. T, 339. 
Tis yap ToiavT av ovk ay opyii^oiT eTrrj tcXvioy, a (Xeyojy^ vvv av rrjvdi' 
arifxa'Ceis ttoXlv. CEd. Col. 1145. ojy yap &ixo(T ovk €%pevadfjLi]v ov^ev are, 
for ovdki/ ojxvviDv €\p. ere. Thiw. 4, 12. <cat 6 fjiev tovs re aXXovs roiavra 
c7reo-7rejO)(e, for roiavTa Xeytjv eireaTr. *by means of such words', not 'to 
such deeds', as in eTrorpvyeiv tlvcl tl. and Herod. 1, 31. ra Kara rov 
TeXXov {Xeyit)v) Trpoerpe^aTO 6 IloXojv rov Kpolaoy. 6, 11. oirep ol 
^"EyearaloL jjidXicrra ffjids €K(f)ol^ovcn, i. e. oirep Xeyoyres. Plat. Rep. 2, 
p. 363 D. ravra ^e Kai dXXa roiavra (Xeyovres) eyKiOfiid^ovcri diKaioffv- 
yrjy. The dative might be used in all these places instead of the accu- 
sative, but it would be a very superficial explanation to say that the 
accusative was put for the dative, without pointing out how this has 

h. Hence such accusatives of pronouns are often used in the sense 
of adverbs. Eur. Bacch. 616. ravra /cat KaBbfipirr avrov, for ovrws, 
properly ravra TroiiHiy. Heracl. 949 seq. vs xoXXa p.ev rov 6yd* 
OTTOv^arl vvv efxov Trat^' T/H/wcas, w irayovpy €(j)vf3pi(rai. ri yap crv 
Keivov OVK erXrjs Kadvfipiaai ; for ri ov iroiuiv ovk erXrjs. Plat. Symp. 
p. 181 E. ^p^) Ka\ rovrovs rovs Traycijfiovs epaaras TrpoffavayKa^eiy ro 
roiovrov (i.e. oKraurws), Sanep Kal eXevdeptov yvvaiKutv tt porr av ay ko.- 
^ojjev avrovs, KaOoaov ^vvajue0a, fjirj epdv, not for irpoaav. Trpos ro roiov' 
rov, as §, 419. 

c. Sometimes two constructions of one verb appear to be united, 
as //. a'f 485. ev de ra reipea iravra ra r ovpavos effrecpdvojrai, because 
(xre^avovy signifies not only * to put a garland around something', * to 
crown', but also ' to put something on, in the manner of a garland', as 
yfjaov Trept Trovros €ar€(f>dyu)rai Od. k\ 195. comp. II. e', 739. X', SQ. 
o, 153. therefore darepes eareipdviovrai rrepi ovpavoVf consequently 
crr€(f)ayovy ovpavov and or. darepas. Herod. 4, 75. ro fcarao-w)^©- 
fievov rovro Tra^v eov KarairXdaaovrai irdv ro <TiS fia Ka\ ro irpoau- 
TToVf from KarairXdffcreiv ri rivos ' to smear something upon it', and 
KaranX. ri rivi ' to smear it with something'. 

Ohs. 3. If a verb active is joined with a substantive from the same 
primitive in the accusative, in order to give an additional definition, 
§. 408. the accusative also of the person to which the verb is referred 
is added to it. Od. o', 245. 'Afj.(l)idpr}oy, ov irepi Krjpi (piXei Zevs r 
alyio\os Kal^AnoXXwy Travroirjv <piX6rr]ray instead of which //. ?« 
Merc. 572. etpiXrjde Travroir) <l)iX6rT]ri. Od. X', 544. Herod. 2, 1. Psavi-^ 

Sj/ntax, Of the Accusative, 681 

metichus irai^ia ^vo Bi^oi xot/deyi Tpi<pei v t po^r]V nva rou) v^e, 

i. e. (jj^e. 3, 154. ewvrov \u;/3drai XwfSrjy avffKearoy. 7> 233. rovs 
TrXevpas avreojy eaTi^oy ar iy fiara ftaaikii'la. Soph, EL 1034. 
ov5' av TOffovToy €\dos ixOalpu} a eyw. Antig. 1201. Eur, Iph.A. 
1190. e^' |) (t' eyw koX Trai^es at XeXet/it/zevat ^e^o jieda de^iv, ijy ae 
^e^acrdai 'yjpeojy. Comp. Soph. Phil. 59. Thuc. 8, 75. uipKOjaay 
trdyras rovs arpar LU)Tas rovs fieyiarov s opKovs. Plat. Leg. 3. 
p. 605 A. See §. 408. Obs, Phcedon. p. 115 D. eyyvi]aaaQe ovy jie 
rrjy kvavriav eyy vrjy, Xen. Cyrop. 8, 3, ST. kfik 6 Trarijp rrjv 
rOtv Traidojy irai^eiay, cTraidevey. jEschin. Ctesiph. p. 537. 6 
^lOKtKos TToXefios ieKaer))s yeyorios aeL^vri<jToy iraiZelav avrovs 
cTral^evtre. Hence also the phrase, ypa^eadai riya ypa<f>rjyt e, g. 
Xen, Mem, S, 4, 8, 4. 

Sometimes the substantive, which is added for the purpose of defi- 
nition, is related to the verb only in signification. Eur. Troad. 42. 

Ku<rav5pav - - yufjiel jSiatojs ffKor toy ^ Ay a/jLCfxywy Xe^^os. ib. 

361. 'FXevrjs yafiel fxe ^vffrv)(^e(rT€poy ycifxoy. In all these cases the 
dative might be put for the accusative, or, omitting the substantive in 
the accusative, an adverb instead of the adjective. 

Obs. 4. Instead of a verb active a circumlocution is often used, the 
substantive derived from that verb active being joined with 7rote7<70at, 
e. g. T^y fjLcidrfcriy izoieiaQat, for fjLayddyeiy, Thuc. 1, 68. vTrofjyrjaiy 
TzoieitrQai id. ib. 72. for vwofxydy. The object of this verb, which with 
the simple verb would have been in the accusative, and in the circum- 
locution properly in the genitive, is sometimes in the accusative also, 
inasmuch as the circumlocution answers in its signification to a verb 
active ; and in this case the verb TroteXaQai has a double accusative. 
Herod. 1, 68. rvyyaveis dojvfxa Trotevfjieyos rijy epyaairjy rov 
ffidrjpov. 8, 74. OwvjjLa iroieviieyoi rijy Ei/pi//3m^ew ul3ov\i7jyj 
for davfid^oyres. Thuc. 8, 41. rijv j^wpav Kara^pojials Xeiay kiroL- 
elro, for eXe^Xaret. ib.Q^, oKevri koX dyhpcnroha dpTrayijy ttoii]- 
aajjieyos, i. e. upird^ioy. Similarly 4, 15. edo^ey avroTs (nroyBixs 
7roiT](Tafx^yovs to. Trepl IIuXov, cLTroarelXai is ras 'Ad)]vas TrpearfieiSf 
for (TTrey^eadaL in the sense of * making up', as in Eurip. Med. 1140.* 
Thus the passage in Plato may be defended, Phcedon. p. 99 C. roy 
Bevrepoy irXovy cttI ri)y rrjs alrias i^Tirrjaty, fjy TreTrpayixdrevfiaiy 
(iovXet (701 f €(f>rff eTriBei^iv iroiijffojfiai, i. e. kiriZei^o). 

With other circumlocutions the same thing occurs. //. 0', 171. <T^/ia 

* Comp. Hoogev. ad Viger. p. 285. 

682 St/ntax. Of the Accusative. 

TiOeh (i. e. ffr^fjuuviov) Tpwe/T/ri }JLa\Yis erepaXKia ptKtjr. Herod. 4, 88. 
^loa ypa\pa^€yos rriv <^ev4o', i. e. ^(oypacprjtras. jEsch. A gam. 823 seq. 

Beol 'IXiov (pdopas - - • \p}](l)ovs cdevrOf i. e. €\pr](j)i(Tavro. Soph. El. 

123. riv aeX tcikcis wo' aKoperop iraXai e/c ^oXepds adewraras jxaTpos 
iiXovT hiraraLS 'Ay afi^ fxioy a, i.e. Tt loh' UKOpiarojs olfxw^eis 'Aya- 
fx^/xvova. (Ed. C. 583. ra ^' eu ^ikaiD Xrjcrriv 'iarxet-s. comp. 223. ib. 
1120. reKV el (papei'T aeXTrra fxrfKvno Xoyoyf i.e. rcKPa fiaKpa Xeyw, 
fxaKpriyopM, in the sense of 'speak to some one*, §. 416, 6, (3, Eur. Or. 
1075. €P fjikv irpuira aot fiojj.<l>i)v e^w, for ey fi€fj.<poiJiai. Herc.F,7\\» a 
XP^^ ^^ fiCTpiioSf Kel Kparels, (nrovd^p ^x^ty) for (nrev^eiy. Still bolder 
is the phrase Iph. T. 225. aluoppavrioy hvcr(p6piXLyya ^eiyojv al/jiaa- 
crova' dray (3o)fxovs, which however does not belong to this head, 
being compounded of the two phrases al/icKraeiy ^evovs (instead of 
which alfji. ^eyioy arav is here used) and aifx. (du)hovs, and one of them 
is not used instead of an active verb. See §. 633,^^ 

Obs. 5. Sometimes the poets in particular join an accusative with an 
active verb, besides the proper object, commonly the accusative of a 
pronoun, which indicates the whole, of which the proper object is a 
part, II. a'f 73. reKvoy, tL fcXa/ets ; ri he ae <pp^yas 'Ikcto ireydos ; 
where the proper object is <ppeyas ; but <re, according to the common 
construction, should be aov. v\ 406. and elsewhere in innumerable 
places. Find. 01, 1, 110. Trpds evaydefxay B* ore ^vav Xaj^voi viy 
fji^Xay yeveioy epecpoy. Comp. Nem. 3, QQ seq. Isthm. 5, 10 seq. 
JEsch. Pers. 159. Soph. QHd. 7". 718. Kai yiy apQpa Kelyos ey^ev^as 
TToBoTy €ppi\pey aXXojy ^^CjOcrtj/ els a(3aToy opos. (Ed, Col. 113. triyiiffofxai 
T€f Kal (TV fx e^ ohov TToha Kpvxpoy Kar aXcros. Comp. ib, 314. El. 147. 
Phil. 1301. Eur. Phcen. 41. Troad. 1240. Aristoph. Pac. 1099. ^pa^leo 
hr], fjiri TTWS ce ^oXw (ftpevas e'^airarriffas 'iKriyos fiapil/ri*^ . The pronoun also 
is sometimes wanting, and only the participle which refers to it is found : 
//. /, 615. 6 ^e TTpoffioyTu fxcTcoTToy rfXaaey. Frequently not a pronoun 
but a second substantive is found in the accusative : //. ri\ 1 1 seq. "Ektojp 
^"ll'iovfja /3aX' avx^»^a. comp. 15 seq. 119. with 121. Hesiod. Sc, 
Here. 41. toIos yap Kpahitjy iroOos aiyvro iroifxiya Xaciiy. Three 
accusatives are thus joined //.?;', 215. v', 44. Tpioas Bk rpajjios alyos 
vTrr]XvQe yvta eico or roi/, where Tpwas ^'fcaffroi' are to be taken together 
according to §. 302. Obs, 

Homer sometimes joins Kara to the word which denotes the part : 

^ Ilerm. ap. Seidl. ad Eur. Troad. Hipp. 571. Brunck ad iEsch. S. c. 

1 2!J. ad Viger. 899. Th. 836. Soph. QLdi. T. I.e. CEd. C. 

*» Valck. ad Her. 1, 47. p. 22, 26. 1. c. ad Arist. Pac. 1. c. Pcrs. ad Eur. 

ad Theocr. 10 Id. 1, 56. ad Eur. Ilec. 806. 

Si/ntax, Of the Accusative. 683 

//. o, 6\ . ul vvy fjiiy T9tpov(ri Kara (^pevas. Conip. r', 125. v', 80. or 
TTjOos It, o\ 250. <l>\ 4^24<. and Kara with the gen. //. r't 580. rbv Ik Kar 
6(^da\}iu)v epef^evvii vvl cKaXvxpey. But it does not follow that Kara is 
always to be supplied ; it is much more probable that this construction 
is to be explained by a kind of apposition, which is particularly frequent 
in Homer §. 432, S. which gave rise to the similar use of the double 
dative §. 389^ 2, /i.« 

Adjectives also, which are derived from active verbs, and 422. 
retain an active sense, sometimes take the accusative. jEschi/l. (41G) 
Aga?n. 1098. (nfjoc rriv Arpei^tov Greyrfv riyayop ae) KA2. 
/uiKToOeov fxev ovv, iroWa ^vvioTopa avTOC^ova kuko. 
KapravaCj for iroWwv KaKwu. ib. 103. eXirlc, cifxvvei 
(PpovTic aizXriGroVj rriv Ovfxopopov (ppeva XvTrrjv. S.c. Th. 

365. ^juKv'iSea rXrljuoyec evvav at^inaXojTOv. Comp. Prom. 

912. and Schiitz p. 154. Soph. Antig. 1^1. Ka'i a ovt' ISa- 
vaT(s)v (pv^i/j,oG ov^eic, ovO a/uepicov err avSptJTriov. Eur. 
Iph. A. 1265. eyw TO. r oiKTpa avveroG eifxi Kai ra fxr]. Plat. 
Charm, p. 15S C. e^^apvto eXvai to. epbJTbjjjLeva. Alcib.2. 
p. 141 D. oXfxai ffe ovK avriKoov eivai evia ye \QiCa re Koi 
irpijjiCa yeyevrifxeva. Xe?i. Cyrop. 3, 3, 9. ot crrpari(jJTai, 

eir KTTrjimoveQ rfcrav to. it pocrrj Kovra tt) eavrisiv 

€Ka<jToc, owXi(Tei, &c. Thus rpifttvv 'experienced, skilled', 
sometimes takes the accusative instead of the genitive. Eur. 
Med. 684, Tpif3(t)v to. roiaSe. Even r)yefjLOviKo\ to. Trovrjpa Xen. 
Cyr. 2, 2, 5. See §. 346. Ohs. 2. Of substantives, p.avTic is 
so constructed Eur. Heracl. 65. /navriQ tjctO' ap' ov KaXoc ra^e, 
and TrpoTTOjjLiToc, (which is rather an adjective) uEsch. Choeph. 
2 1 . yoaQ irpoTrofXTTOc. tcl ^erew/oa (ppovTKTriiQ Plat. Apol. S. 
p. 1 8 B. which Xen. Symp. 6, 6. is rwv jjLereuypwv (f>p.^ 

Several intransitive verbs are used by the poets as transitive, 423. 
and take an accusative of the object, e. g. 0^^) 

a'iaats). Soph. Aj. 40. Kai npoc ti SvaXoyicrTOv u)S* y^ev 
X^pcL ; {a'Cdaeiv eiro'iriae). Eurip. Hec. 1062. ira 7ro3' eira^ac 
aapKojv oarecjv t epirXriaOix) ', Apollon. Rh. 1, 1253. cvO' 

^ SoEustathius explains this idiom Reisig Comni. Crit. in Soph. CEd. C. 

ad II. a, p. 93, 22. p. 325. 
•* Musgr. ad Soph. Antig. 798. 

N 2 

684 Syntax. Of the Accusative, 

avTi2 \vfxi^\r)ro Kara orTijSoi^ H/oaicXrJt, yvfivov e7rai(T(ju)v 
TToXafxy ^i(poc;^. 

/SaiVo). Eurip. Ph(£n, 1450. irpofBac Se KtjjXov Se^ioi/ 
{7rpo(3r]vai TrotrjtTac). Heracl. 805. eK(5aQ reOp'nrTrtjjv 'YXXoc 
apfxar(i)v TTO^a, Arist. EccL 163. eKK^ijaiarTova ovk av tt/oo- 
^air\v Tov TTO^a top erepoUf ei p-rj ravr aKpipcvOriaeTai . 

Zed), Mschyl. Prom. 370. roiov^e Tv(j)wQ e^avatevei 
^oXov. Eurip. Cycl. 391. y^aXKeov XejSrjr eireCeaev 
TTvpi, ApolL Rh. 3, 273. toi §e Xoerpa irvpi Z.eov^, 

Xapireiv. Eurip. Hel, 1145. Aiyaiaic t evaXiaic aKralc; 
ooXiov acrrepa \afx\paQ, Ion. 83. appara pev Ta^e 
Xapirpa Tedplmrtov rjXior, h^ri Xapirei Kara yrjv . 

irXeiv, Eur, Iph. T. 410. eirXevtrav vaiov oyj)pa {irXelv 

pkireiv. Soph. Ant. 1 158. rvyjn Karappeirei rov evrv^ovvra. 

pkd). Horn. H. in ApolL 2, 202. irpopeeiv KaXXippoov 
v^ijjp, Eurip. Hec. 531. eppei \etjOt ttcuq A^tXXea>c y^oaQ 
Qavovri irarpi^, 

Girev^eiv 'to urge, to pursue'. Soph. EL 251. to aov 
(TTrev^ovar* apa, Kai rovpov avrrjc Eur. Phan. 591. Svo 
KaKa airev^eiCf reKvov. Also in the prose writers : Herod. 1, 
206. navGai (Tirevdtjv ra Girev^eiQ. Thuc. 6, 39. ei pri pav- 
Oavere KaKa (nrev^ovreQ , 

yopeveiv. Eur. Here. F. 688. KarairavGopev Movo-ac at ^' 
eyopevuav. ib, 873. raya a eyw yopevcftt)^, 

Ohs. Sometimes, especially in the poets, verbs which of themselves 
cannot govern an accusative, are joined with that case on account of the 
active sense which is implied in them. Soph. El. 55Q. el l' ep J^' aei 
\6yoLS e^jyp^^es, i.e. el r/px°^ ^^^ H-^ Xeyeiy. Eur. Andr. 1201. Bavovra 

' Brunck Lobeck. ad Soph. I.e. ® Musgr. ad Eur. 1. c. Brunck I.e. 

Person ad Eur. Or. 1427. Reisig et ad ApoU. Rh. 3, 225. Jacobs ad 

Enarr. Exeg. in Soph. (Ed. C. 1267. Anthol. Br. 1, 1. p. 163. 

^ Person 1. c. ' Valck. ad Herod. 7, 53. p. 535, 93. 

' Brunck 1. c. Musgr. ad Eur. Suppl. 161. 

«* Brunck 1. c. « Brunck ad Soph. Ant. 1151. 

Sj/?itax, Of the Accusative. 685 

^cffKoray yuois vofj.^ rw veprepijjy (carap^w, i. e. deffTT. yodadai apt,ofiai. 
Ion. 584. T0V70 Kajx e'xet ttoOos, i. e. tovto Krai eyw iroddj. So De- 
mosthenes P/ii/. I. p. 53 f 10. says, ot ^e avfi/jLaxoL redydtri t<^ Seei rovs 
ToiovTovs cLTTocrToXovs, (wlierc Reiske has inserted ^ai from two MSS. be- 
fore roiovrovs rovs), for ovtu) ^eblatriv, ware redydvai. Comp. p. 366, 25. ' 
Soph. Aj. ^S5. Tu Trpiora KraXXioret' dpLarevaas (TTparov^ i.e. r^ dptcTTevaai 
Xajjwy, See Herm. ad v. 430. Eur. Phcen. 1590. a iro^a aby TV(p\6irovv 
OepaTrevjxaaiy aley k^o'^Bet, for Tro^a aoy aei edepaweve. The con- 
struction is very harsh in Soph. Antig. 212. <to\ ravr cipeaKei — 

Toy rrj^e dvaryovy Kai Toy evfieyrj TroXei' where (rol Tavr cipeaKeL agrees 
in sense with av tuvtu Troiely lOeXeis. In Eur. Ion. 708. which Erfurdt 
compares with this, ttociv belongs to yeyo)yr]<Toiiey as an active verb, 
and TtoaLy evrvxeiv should have followed. Sometimes the wrong word 
is put in the accusative : Pind. Nem.lOj 132. Zeus 3' ctt' "Io^ Trvpcpopoy 
TrXa^e \poX6eyra Kepavyoy, for fjaXioy Kep. errXrj^ey "I^ay, as Eur. Or. 
1488. "Kaieiy Xaifxoy e/jieXXey ecrio fxeXay i,i(pos. 

Passives also, if they retain their passive sense, are often 424. 
accompanied by the accusative in the following cases : (420) 

1. With verbs which govern a double accusative in the 
active, the thing is put in the accusative in the passive also. 
Thuc, 8, 5. VTTO |3a<TiXea)q Treir pay fxevoQ tovc (popovc (§ 417, 
d.), Herod. 3, 137. e^aipeOevrec re tov Ar^poKrj^ea Kai to»/ 
yavXov airaipedevTec. Iliuc. 6,24. to fxeu eiTidvfxovv tov 
ttXov ovk €l^ripe9r}(Tav {Dion. aCpypeOi^crav) viro tov 0"x\ujdovQ 
Trie TrapaGKevrJQ. Plat, Gorg. J9. 519 D. avOptJirovQ ayaOovc 
Kai ^iKaiovQ yevofxevovc, e^aipeOevTac jULev a oik lav vno xou 
ci^a(TKaXov, (T^oPTac ^e ^iKaiocrvvriv, aSiKelv toutw, o ovk C'^ov- 
aiv;^ — Ajlsch. Prom. 171. to I'eoi' jSouXeu^i , iKJ) otov aKfj- 
TTTpov Tifjicic, T awocTvXaTai. Isocr. Archid. p. 119 D. av 

XrjOeiQ HpaKXriQ tclg (5ovq utto NjjXcwc Kai twv irai^tjv 

tovc a^iKTjaavTaQ ancKTeivev. — Soph. El. 960. (e/moi) 

napeffTi (TTSveiv, ttXovtov TraTpwov KTr]Giv eoTeprfjULevri. Eu- 
rip. Troad. 379. ov yric opi aTroaTepovfxevoi. Bacch. 1371. 
Ilel. 95. Thuc, 6, 91. tcLq irpocTo^ovQ a7rocFT€pr}<TovTai 
(§. 418, e.). — Solon, ap, Plut, Sol, 31. yiipa<TK(jj S' aiei TroXXa 
^i^affKo/iievoQ. Plat. Menex, p, 236 A. /cat odTtc epov KaKiov 
€7rai^€vOiff pov(TiKrjv pev viro Aapirpov naidevOeic, pr]TopiKr)v 


'• Schccf. App. Dem. I. p. 375. * Valck. Diatr. p. 203. 

686 Sj/ntax. Of the Accusative. 

AOrivaiovQ ye ev 'AOrjvaioic; ewaivuiv ev^oKiinelv (§. 418, f.). — 
Plat. Rep. 5. p. 456 D. (ai yvvaiKec) dperrjv avri limar'iwv 
afxC^ieGOvrai. Demosth. in Con. p. 1266, 28. juejLiapTVprjKamv 
opav VTTO Kovtovoc TVTTTo^eyov ejue, Kai Ooi/maTiov eK^vofxevov 
{lb. 7.). Thus in Homer eirieifxevoc dXKr^v. — Xen. Cyrop. 5, 
5, 16. eyw e7r€ia9r)v ravra vtto o-ov (§. 421. Obs,l.). So 
in consequence of the construction §. 421. Obs. 3. Eur. Hipp. 
1160. avTOC, o o tXtjjUwi^ Se.a/Liov Sv(Tel^Y}vv(XTOV eXKcrai 
^eOeiQ. Phain. 1469. rerpwfikvovc, Kaipiac, acjyaydc. Plat. 
Gorg. p. 476 C. D. T^r\jj.a rk^verai. p. ^11 A. wC^eXelrai 
io(f)e\eiavi p. 497 C. to. fxeyaXa (fivariipia) ye pefxvr](7ai wpiv 
ra apiKpa. 

In the same manner, from the phrase ovojjiateiv riva ovo/ia 
is constructed Thuc. \, 122. r/ KaTa(pp6vt]GiQ ('contempt of the 
enemy', and, because this is connected with an advantageous 
opinion of oneself, ' self-conceit') eK rov ttoXXovq a(pdXXeiv, to 
evavTLOV ovojua acppoavvr] fxeruyvofxaaTai. 

(421) 2. As moreover, by a peculiar Grsecism (§. 490.), verbs 
which in the active take a dative of the person, can be re- 
ferred to this person as a subject in the passive, these verbs 
in the passive have also the thing in the accusative, whilst, in 
other languages, only that which is the object of the active 
becomes the subject in the passive. Thuc. 1, 126. oi twv 
KQr}vai(i)v eiTiTeTpafxpevoi rriv (jyvXaKYiv, for oIq t) (pvXaKri 
Hirer erpaiTTO. Aristoph. Eccl. 517. KeyeipoTOVi]i.iai dpyr]Vy for 
f^pyj] jiioi Kej^eipoTovYiTai. comp. Mschin. in Ctes. p. 4 1 6. Soph. 
Antig. 408. irpoc (tov to. ^eiv e/cetv eirrjTreiXrjineifoij for oic 
Ta ceiva cfceTva eTTJjTretAr/TO. 

Hence the phrases, Herod. 7, 69. AlOioTrec irapSaXeac re 
Kai Xeovreac evapjuevoi (for evrif^ifjievoi). Arist. Nub. 72. §i- 
(pOepav evjj^i^ievoc, because in the active the construction 
would have been eva-n-reiv rivi TrapdaXrjvj Xeovrrjv, ^i- 
(pOepav^, Soph, Trach. 157. XetVei naXaidv ^eXrov eyye- 
ypafJLfievriv ^vvBrj/naTa, from €yypa(j)eii> avv9r}iiiaTa ^eXro)' 
as Virg. Eel. 3, 106. inscripti nomi/ia regum flores. Xen, 

"" Valck.adHerod.7,69.p. 541,68. Markl. ad Suppl. 715. 
Ilcmsterh. ad Lucian. t. 1. p. 345. 

Si/ntax, Of the Accusative. 687 

Cj/rop. 6, 3, 24. Tr/oo/Se/SXij^tei/ot Se roue Qit)paKo<popovc 
fxevovai. In point of sense it is the same as irap^aXkaQ Kai 
XeovriaQ cvajujueifac, eyovrec, ^iC^Oepav €vr]fjLfxevr]v eyjiov, t^vvdr)- 
fxara iyyeypajLiineva e^ovcrav, and it is thus in a fragment of 
Machon in Athen. 13. /?. 582 C. Aat8a Xeyovai rriv KopivOiav 
TTore KvpiTTi^riv iSovaav ev fc^Try Ttvi irivaKi^a Kai ypa(j)€iov 
e^rjpTYfiJievov k'^ovra. 

After this analogy is formed Kvifrjv, effOrJTa TrepiKeifxevoc, 
because nepiKeiaOai is the same as irepiredeiaOaiy and in the 
active it would be irepiridevai rivi Kvvrjv, Herod. 1 , 171. rewc 

oe avev oyavii)v ecpopeov rac^ aanioac , nepi roiai 

ai»)(^e(Ti re kqi toi<ji apiarepolGi lofioiai irepiKeiuevoi, viz. rac 
aaTTi^ar,. Eur. Suppl. 718. See Markl. Comp. Theocr. 20, 14.^ 

3. As such a dative is often placed in relation to the verb, (122) 
instead of a genitive governed by the substantive, e. g. emSelv 
Tivi rpavfxa for CTrtS. Tpav/na tivoq, the dative is here made the 
subject of the passive, and the accusative of the thing remains : 
6' S' (^7^) eiri^eofiai ro Tpavixa' as Xenoph. Cyr, 5, 2, 32. 
Soph. Aj, 1178. yevovQ airavTOQ piZ,av e^rjjj,r}/uievoQ. Eurlp. 
Hec. 114. Tad TTOVTOTTOpovc T co'^.c (jye^iac,, \ai(pri wpo- 
TovoiQ eTrepei^oiLievac, for oic, (tuv) ra Xaicpt) eTrepci^erai irpo 
TovoiQ. ib. 904. aiTo §e aT€(^avav KeKapaai irvpytjjv, for are- 
(pavr) irvpytjjv cfoi (ortuv) airoKeKapTai. Plat. Rep. 2. p. 361 E. 
o ^iKaioG eKKavOrjGerai tcu (fyOaX/nuj, for no diKaiifi (tou 
^iKaiov) ru) o(pO. eKKavOr}G€TOV. A7'ist. Nub. 24. eiO' el^eKOTrtjv 
TTporepov Tov o^0aX^iov Xi^w. Xen, Ariab. 4, 5, 12. 01 re 
SiecfiOapiLievoi vtto ttJc, 'y^iovoQ rove o<^0aX/uouc, oire viro rov 
\pvyovQ rovG ^aKrvXovQ rtjjv ttoSwv aTroaecrrjirorec. for olq 
(wv) ol o<pOa\iuioi di€(f>9apiJ,evoi rjaav --- Kai ol Sa/CTuXoi ctTre- 
(T€(Ti}7re<Tav. id. Mem. ^S. 2, 1, 17. eytjj fxkv ovk olS' o ri ^la- 
(f)ep€t TO avro ^epp.a eKOvra rj uKOvra /maariyovaOai, n oXcuc 
TO auTO atjjuia naai to?c toioutoic eKovra rj aKOvra noXiop' 
KeiaSai. Demosth. pro Cor. p. 241 j 1 1. kuypuyv rov <^i\nnTOv 

-j-ov oC^OaXjuLOv eKKeKOfi/jievoVy rriv kXclv Kareayora, rr^v 

yelpa, ro (tkcXoc, TreTTYipbyfxevov. and elsewhere very frequently. 
Similarly Arist. Nub. 241. ra -^pri/nar evc^vpal^o/Liai, for ra 

*> Dorvill. ad Chavit. p. 240. 

688 Syntax. Of the Accusative, 

y^prjfuLaTa /uloi (fiou) eve-^vpaterai, Eur. Andr. 662. Kravelv 
6e\(x)V rriv^ eK yepijjv upira^ofjiai from apirat^iv ti Tivt*. 

(423) 4^ Xn all these combinations the accusative stands in the 
same relation to the subject of the verb as the part to the 
whole, and expresses that part of the subject in which the 
quality expressed by the verb is more particularly found, and 
thus gradually the usage was extended ; and that to which the 
quality particularly belongs was put in the accusative with 
verbs of all kinds, as §. 421. Obs. 3. Od. a, 208. alvtjQ yap 
Ke<pa\7iv T€ Kai ofxiiaTa Ka\a eoiKac Keivio, for Ke^aXrj Kal 
oju/dara aov eoi/ce tolq eKeivov. Instead of which in //. y , 158. 
alv(jt)C dOavaTy(n Oeyc €iq wTra eoiKev. Soph. Phil. 7. 41. 
avrjp vocTOJV kwXov. Aj. 9 seq. Kapa crra^tov i^pcjri Kai ykpac 
Herod. 2, 111. Ka/nveiv tovc, oCpOaX/uLOVQ. 3, 33. raq (j)p€vaQ 
vyiaiveiv. — Plat. Rep. 5. p. 462 D. o avOpiDwoG rov ^aKrvXov 
aXyei, (comp. Theocr. 8, 23.) where before it was expressed 
orav TTOV -n/uLwv ^aKTvXoc rov 7r\r}yy. Xen. Mem. -S. 4, 1, 2. 
Comp. Cyr. 3, 3,9. II. a ^ 114. eirei ov edkv eari y^epelwv ov 
^efxac, ov^e (pvrivy ovr ap (^pevac, ovre ti epya. Thus 
TTo^ac wKVG 'A'^iXXevQ in Homer. Theocr. 23, 2. ijpaT e(()aj3(o 
Tav popcpav ayaOcjf tov ^e rpoTTOV ovk eO ofxoid), for w 
{ov) ri fxev /mopcpr] ayaOri rjVy o ^e rpoTTOG ov'^ o^otoc . Some- 
times Kara is found with this accusative : Soph. Trach. 379. 
ij Kapra Xafxirpa Kai Kar ofxp,a Kai cj)v(yiv. Qhd, T, 1087. Kara 
yvu)fxr]v 'i^pic. Plat. Crat. p. 405 B. KaOapov irapkyjciv rov 
avOpioTrov Kai Kara to aujfxa Kai Kara rr]V \pvyjr\v. 

Obs. 1 . Instead of the accusative the dative is sometimes used, e. g. 
Eur. Bacch. 683. evdov ^e Trdaai (7w/ia<rtv Trapeijxevai (aw/^ara Trdorais 
Trapeifieya'), different from Xen. Mem. S. 2, 1, 19. ^vputol Kai ro7s crit- 
fiaai KOI rah \pvxdis, where the dative expresses the means by whicli 
men become BvvaTol tov kavnav oIkov KaXcjs olKe^y. But 4, 1,4. av- 
6po)7rovs Tovs €fjfi(i}fjL€V€(TrdTOvs Tttls i//i/)(ais might also be tus ypv^as. 
Plat. Leg. 6. p. 773 C. Odrrovs i'lOeffij though commonly i'ldr] or ^dos is 
found with adjectives, e, g. Phcedr. p. 243 C. Xen. Cyr, 8, 3, 21. 

* This explanation of the accusa- Gods, 1. Note b. 
tive with the passive is derived from '' Fisch. 3 a. p. 420 sq. The ex- 

Buttm. Gr. Gr. §. 121, 7. and is also planation of Hermann ad Vig. p. 895. 

given by Poppo Lucian's Dial, of the appears to be rather too artificial. 

Sj/ntax. Of the Accusative, 689 

croXoiKorepos r^ rporrw, elsewhere roy rpoTrov as Dem. p. 1283.* Xen. 
Cyr, 4, 1, 8. ^ie00ap0ai ehoKei raXs yywjiais, without var. r. Soph. 
Antig.l20seq. e^rj. irply ttoO' ajjieTepwy alfiaTiur yevvaiv TrXrfcrdrjvai for 
yeyvas, Eur, Or. 706. koI yavs yap kyraQelffa irpos (Diay tto^I epat^eVf 
^ar-q 3' avdis^ i\y x^^9^ Truda, ttous, not vavs, is that to which eyreiyeffdai 
properly refers, rrj yrj'i roy Tru^a eyreiyovaiy ol yavrai. Similar to this 
is Soph. (Ed. T, 3. iKr-npioLS Kkaloiaiy e^effTefXfxiyot. for it is not the 
suppliants who are crowned with garlands, but the Ikttipioi kXcl^oi are 
wreathed with wool ; it is therefore instead of hrrfpiovs KXadovs e^etrr, 
which in sense is equivalent to Ikt. KXad. k^earefifikyovs 'i^oyTes, Similar 
to this are also the passages quoted above, §. 400, 6. II. /3', 141. Soph, 
(Ed. T. 25, 

Obs. 2. With the accusative is sometimes found also the possessive 
pronoun of the person which is contained in the verb. Soph. Phil, 
1456. ov TToXXuKi ^^ rovfidv eTey^drjy Kpdr ky^o^vyoy TrXrjy^ai votov, 
Eur. Phcen. SS5. o6ey e/xav re XeuKo^poa Keipo^iai. Med. 1398. KarBa- 

vet 'Apyovs Kcipa erov Xeixpdyo) TreTrXrjy fxeyos. Helen. 1212. Xvirrj 

fTcts ciecpOapTai <()p€yas **. 

5. Since in these cases the accusative often contains a defi- 4^5^ 
nition which is usually expressed by an adverb or the dative, 
an occasion was furnished for the use of the accusative as an 
adverb. In this way especially iravra is used (neut. pi.) ' in 
all points, in every respect'. Soph. (Ed. T. 1197. eKparri- 
aac rov ttclvt ev^ai/uLOvoc 6X/3ov. Ei(r, Sihenob. Fr. 1. ovk 
eariv octtiq ttclvt avrip evdai/uLovelj instead of which Alex. Fr. 
16. it is etc airayr ev^aiiuovel^, and Trao'ti' is probably never 
found in this sense. So navra rpowov, ov rpoirov, &c. ; per- 
haps also Find. Isthm. 1, 58. el S' apera KaraKeiTai iraaav 
opyav, omni studio. Flat, Leg. 2. p. Q5Q seq. ttjv avrriv 
re-^vriv aireipyaafxeva * with the same art*. The following words 
are especially used in this way : rl, as ovre ri KaXXiova in the 
passage of Plato ; ri ^ia(j)€peL (also riVt ^) ovdev ' in nothing, 
in no respect', as Soph. Fhil. 6Q. and afx(p6repovy e. g. II. y', 
179. aiLi(j)oTepoVj (5a(Ti\evc t ayaOoQ Kparepoc t ai^^r/Tjjc. 
apt^orepa ' in both respects', which is used even after datives, 
as Plat. Gorg. p, 524 B. (^vaei r) rpocpy r) ap.(^6repa^. Hence 

* Lobeck ad Phryn. p. 364 seq. B. p. 717, 

* Hcrm. ad Phil. 1442. ^ Lob. ad Phryn. p.S9 1. 

* Valck. ad Phoen. 624. Lobeck » Heind. ad Plat. Charm, p. 57. 
ad Ajac. p. 1402. Spohn Lect. Stallb. ad Euth. p. 61. 

Theocr. 1. p. 40. Schctf. ad Lamb. 

690 Sj/ntax. Of the Accusative. 

Kaipov 'at the right time' Soph, Aj. 34. rriv rw^iarnv Xen. 
Hist. Gr. 2, 1, 28. for ra^tcTTa. r-nv 7rpioTY\v Herod. 3, 134. 
Xen. Mem. -S. 3, 6, 1 0. ' at first, in the beginning*, rriv evOelav 
* straight', tt^v apyy]v, or only ap^nv, * altogether*, yapiv * on 
account of*. ^iKr)v ' after the manner of*, rayoc * speedily*. 
reXoQ ' finally**. So also ovo/na ' by name* (eiriKXriGiv * by 
surname' //. ic', 29.). yevoc 'by birth*. 7rp6(pa(nif ' in pretence, 
ostensibly*, to which to ^' aX-nOea is opposed Lysias c. Agorat. 
p. 130, 39. In the last-mentioned cases Kara seems to have 
been supplied by the mind, as Kara rov avrov rpoirov Herod. 
2, 176. 

The accusative is more especially used as an adverb in the 
following cases, or instead of the dative : 

1. In order to determine the measure, 

a. With comparatives : iroXv pei^oiv 'much greater*. ttoXAov 
afieivMV II, 2', 479. ttoXAov eyOicov Soph. Antig. 86. //. j3', 
239. fiey aixeivova (pwra. Hence Xenoph. Anah. 1, 7, 12. 
varepricre t^'c fta^rjc v/mepac irevre. Of the dative in this sense 
see §. 400, 8. 

b. In answer to the questions, ' how far ? how deep ? ' 
Herod. 1,31. crradiovc; Se irevre xai reaaepaKovTa diaKo- 
/miffavrec airiKovro ec to ipov. So the accusatives evpoc, j3a^oc, 
TrXttToc, in breadth, in depth, in thickness, vipoQ in height, 
irXridoQ in number, Xen. Anah, 4, 2, 2. In Herodotus also 
/meyeOoc, e. g. 2, 132. also with ec, and interchangeably with 
the dative areivorriTi fcei/, /u»Jk:oc ^e id, 4, 85. The measure is 
often in the genitive which depends on evpoc &,c. Xen. Anah. 
2, 5, 1. TO evpoc, rerrapijjv irXkOpuiv. comp. 3, 4, 7. Plato 
Critia, j). 117 C. adds e'^MV : tTTTro^/oo/ioa (rra^lov to TrXaTor, 

2. With definitions of time, in answer to the following 
questions : 

a. ' When V 11. <^', 111. aXX eiri roi kcii e/noi Oavaroc, /cat 
l^ioipa Kparan) eaaeTai, h »?wc (»70ur, ?), h ^e(X>/r,, rj /teaov 

■^ Fisch. 3 a. p. 224 scq. 

Si/ntax. Of the Accusative. 691 

tf/Liap. Herod. 2, 2. rrjv u)pr]v eirayivkeiv G(j)iai alyac ' at the 
appointed, appropriate time'. Hence vi^ap * by day', interdiu, 
Hesiod."Epy.]75. Apoll. Rh. 2y 406. 3^ ]079. vvKTa,noctu, 
'by night', Herod. .1, 181.'' 

b. * How long V with cardinal and ordinal numbers. Heiiod, 
Th. 635. efxayovro SeKa irXeiovc eviavTOvc. Hence 
"^povou ' a long time', din, Herod. I, 175. and the accusative 
with eiuaiy in answer to the question ' how old V Xen. Mem. S. 
3,6, 1 . ovSentJ e'lK offiv ert] yeyovwc,^. comp. Herod. 3, 3 extr. 
Plat. Apol. S. p. 17 D. Hence to Xonrov ' in future', when an 
action going on without interruption in future time is spoken 
of, Tov XoiTTov when particular cases are intended, in which an 
action takes place, consequently when it is repeated^. 

c. 'since', commonly with ordinal numbers. lliuc. 8, 23. 
rpiTr}v r}p.€pav avrov tikovtoq ' the third day after he arrived'. 
Eurip, Rhes. 444. av fiev yap r)^r] ^eKarov at^^ia^etq eroc 
* for ten years, ten years long', as a/mnrn jam tertium et vice- 
simum regnat. Plat. Apol. S, 1 8 B. e/ttou yap iroWoi Karriyopoi 
yey ovaai irpoc vfiac,, Kai iraXai TroXAa rJSi; €t»?. Leg. 2. 
p. Q5Q E. GKOirfjJv Z €vpr)(j€ic avToOi (in Egypt) ra fivpioarov 

€TOC yey pa /Lijiieva i] reruTrw/ieva t(jjv vvv S€^r]/niovpyi]p.eifiov 

ovre Tt KaWiova, ovt aKJ^ioj. Xeti. Anab.A, 5, 24. Kara- 
XafjLJjavei rrji/ Bvyarepa tov Kiofjiapyov evvarr]v r]f.iepau 
yeyaiuirj/nevrjv. JEsch. in Ctes. p. 468. Lucian. D. M. 13. €v 
Baj3vXwvL Kelfiai Tpimv ravrrjv rj/nepav. Also with car- 
dinal numbers : Eur. Hel. 1 1 1 seq. kirra aye^ov ti KapTri/Liovc 
eriov kvkXovc (TreiropOriTai woXic). Lys. p. 109, 12. reOvrjKe 
ravra rpia eVrj * three years ago', rpirou eTOC tout/ Lys. 
p. 168, 33. 

d. 'before*. Xen. Cyrop. 6,3, 11. /cat \0ec ^e Ka\ rpirriv 
r)pepav to outo tovto eTrparrov 'three days ago'^. De- 
mosth. Olynth. p. 29, 21. dni^yycXOt] ^iXnnroc v/luu ev GpaKy 
TpLTOv rj Tcraprov kroc, touti, \ipalov rclyoc, iroXiopKwv. 

** Musgr. ad Eur. Hipp. 1131. MIcrm. ad Vig. p. 700, '26. 

Racch. 7'23. * Iluhuk. Diss^ dc Antiph. p. 82i. 

" Thoin. M. p. 183. in Rcisk. Orat. Gr. T. 7. 

C92 Syntax, Of the Accusative. 

Plat. Rep, 10, p. 615 C. Ap^ialoQ TvpavvoQ eyeyovei ri^rj 

'^iXlOCTTOV CTOQ eiQ €K€lVOV TO|/ "^poVOV, 

426. ■ 3. Lastly, the accusative is used on account of the preposition 
(425) vvith which a verb is compounded, if the preposition of itself, 
in the same sense, governs the accusative. Eur. Andr, 985. 
et(T7re(Te7v ^vfx^opav, Xen. Cyr. 3, 1, 5. TrepiiaraaBai ri, Comp. 
§. 402 d. Hence the double accusative ; one depending on 
the. verb, the other on the preposition : Herod. 5, 34. nape- 
aKeva<javTO Kai alra Kai irora, Kai reT^oc eaa^avro, Herod. 
1, 163, TcT^oc 7repi(3a\eaBai ttiv ttoXiv, 7, 24. tov ktO/jlov 
rac veac Sieipvcrai. Thuc. 3, 81. 8, 7. virepeveyKovreQ rac vavc 
TOV KjO/dov. Eur. Hel. 1586. Phcen. 1432, KvrijuLriv ^leirepaaev 
'Apyelov ^opv. 1435. comp. 26. Iph. T. 261. top el(TpeovTa 
^la ^vjHTiXriya^tJif j3ovG v\o(j)op(BoL irovrov eiae^aWofxev. But 
with the exception of irepiicrTaaQai, it is more common for the 
preposition to be repeated with these verbs. On the other 
hand, the following verbs are more frequently constructed with 
the dative : ajuLtpif^aWeiv ri tlvi §. 402, d. : but Eurip. An- 
drom. 110. ^ovXoavvav crrvyepav a/mCpif^aXovcTa Kapa. — eiaievai 
TivL §. 402, c, and nva : Thuc. 4, 30. ov^ riKiGra avTOV 
ravra ecryei. 6, 31. fJiaXXov avrovQ ecFyei ra ceiva, Comp. 
Herod. 7, 46.* — ewitelv rivi ' to be warm upon any subject' : 
Herod. 7, 13. but Eurip, Iph. T, 994. deivri tic opyrj Sai- 
p,6viov err €t,€(T€V TO T avTaXeiov (nrepfxa, in the sense of 'to 
break forth against*. — eiriaTpaTeveiv : see §. 402. Obs, \. — 
npocFJ^aXXeiv Tivi and Tiva, §. 402, h. Obs. Eurip. Or. 1280. 
Ta-^a TIG 'Apyeitov evoirXoc opfxyiaac, TroSt porj^po/iiu) (JieXaOpa 
TTpoafxi^et. — irpoaoiKelv tivi : but Thuc, 1, 24. npocroiKovcn S 
avTrjv TavXavTioi, Eurip, Andr, 165. Trpocnreaeiv ep.ov 
yovv^j §. 402, b, Obs. These are different: irepnTTvcraeiv 
yjfipac, Tivi Eur, Ale, 357. Andr, 418. and irepi-KTvaaeiv ti 
* to embrace, surround' Eur, Hec. 737. Soph, A, 998.*^ 

Even verbs which are compounded with prepositions, which 
do not govern an accusative, take an accusative sometimes, as 

* Valck. ad Her. f, 46. p. 531, 64. the verbs compounded with irpos see 
•* Brunck ad Eurip. Or. 1. c. Lob. ad Soph. Aj. p. 249. 

" Porson ad Eur. Med. 1203. Of 

Sj/ntax. Of the Accusative, 693 

eicTrXeti/, e^eXOeiv, eK(5aiv€iv ri, %, 378. Obs. 1. Eurip, Ion. 
311. Gr]KovQ S' e»/(rT/o€</)ei T/oo<|)a)viou, where however others 
read o-r/fcoTc. evarpkc^ei for evcjr peeper ai, i. e. avacyrpecperai 
Kara arjKovc Tp.^ JEsch. Pers. 447. ejjL^areveiv ti, Eur. 
Heracl. 848. epf^rjcrai viv 'iinreiov Si(f)pov. ejjLiriTTTeiv riva Soph. 
(Ed. C. 942. Eur. Iph. A. 808. is doubtful. 

4. Sometimes the accusative is determined by a verb which 427. 
is omitted. 

a. The accusative of the pronoun is sometimes put in em- 
phatic addresses, with the omission of the verb Xeyw or /caXcJ. 
Soph. Antig, 441. <re ^77, <je rriv vevovaau ec Tre^ov Kapa, 
ipT^Q T) Karapvy /nrj ^e^paKevai ra^e ; Aristoph, Av. 274. ovroc, 
u) ae Toi. Eurip. Hel. 554. rre, ttjv opey/na ^eivov t^^iXXt/- 
fiievrjv TVfJL^ov in KptiTriS' ep,Trvpovc t opdoararaQ. More 
fully in Eurip. Bacch. 912. ere, rov irpodvp.ov ovff, a jurj ^petjv, 
opav, (TTrev^ovra t cicnrov^acrTa j Flet^^ea Xeyw, e^iOi napoiOe 
^(jjfxaTijjv. Here. F. 1217. tre tov OaaGOvra Bvctttjvovq e^paa 

The same is the case with entreaties, fxri irpoc, ae yovariov 
viz. iKerevu). §. 465, 3. especially in prohibitions accompanied 
with emotion, jutj rpi^ac, sc. iroieire Soph. Ant. 577. See Brunck 
and Musgr. juiri ^toi irpocpacjiv sc. Xeye Arist. Ach. 344. Comp. 
Vesp. 1174. 

b. In some writers accusatives are put which may be ex- 
plained by supplying e^wi^. Pind. Pyth. 6, 14. (paei de ttjOoct- 
lOTTOv ev KaOapio {k'^wv) airayyeXel. Herod. 2, 41. tovq epaevac 
(f^ovc) Karopvaaovcnj to Kepac, to erepov rj Kai ajuCporepa 
VTrepe'^ovTa, sc. e-^ovraQ. ib. 134. irvpafxi^a oe Kai ovtoq 

aTreXiTTCTO, KuiXov eKaarov Tpiwv TrXedpiov, sc. 

ej^ovtrav. 4, 71. ai^aXa;i(/3ai^ov(Tt toi^ veKpov, KaTaKeKtipw/nevov TO aiUfxa, ttjv ^e vrj^vv avaay^iaOe^crav Kai KaBap- 

Oelcrav, TrXerjv KVirepov KeKOfXfievov, Gvveppafxf.ievr]v 

oTTiau), sc. e^oi/Ta. Comp. 2, 48. Xen. Anab. 4, 5, 25. Es- 
pecially in later authors, e. g. Lucian. D. M. 10, 4. o Se ttji/ 
TTOpCpvpi^a ovTOGi Kai to Sia8i7/ta, o pXoavpoc, ric; wu 

•* Reisig Comm. Crit. in Soph. * Brunck ad Soph. 1. c. Musgr. 

CEd. C. p. 319. T. 2. p. 446. 

694 Syntax. Of the Accusative, 

rvyyaveic, ;* Hence also ot ^e/co a<^' r]^r]c ' those wlio are thirty 
years old', i. e. ot WeKa {errj) a(p' rjj3»;q (e-^ovrec) among^ the 
Lacedaemonians. Of oVo^ua ^ by name', jhoc, see §. 425, 1, b. 

Obs. 1. In parenthetical propositions an accusative is sometimes 
found, referring to a preceding accusative instead of the nominative 

with its own verb. Soph. (Ed, C, 868. tre r ahrbv koX yevos to arov 

"HXtos ^oiri l^iov Toiovrovy oiop Kafik, yrjpdval Trore, for oiov Kctyui yrjpaffKO). 
comp. 733.^ This is attraction, and according to this mode of con- 
struction another case is sometimes found instead of the accusative 
which preceded, as Plat, Gorg. p, 478 B. ri ovu tovt(jjv KaWiffrop earip 
tor \eyeii ; — Tiviou \eyeis ; XprjfiariffTiKrjs &c. for ripa Xeyeis ; XP^' 
fxaritTTiKyjv. or the accusative is attracted by the preceding substantive 
and put in the genitive, as Eur. Androm. 94. ejjnreipvKe yap yvvat^l 
T€p\pis T(ijv TrapearojTCJV kukojp avix arofx aet ^la y\<jj<Tar)s e^eiV) for to. 
TrapeaTOJTa kuku --- t^eip, 

Obs, 2, As Kara with the accusative is often found instead of the 
nominative of the subject, to express the Latin distributives, so it is 
also found instead of the accusative only in the same sense. Herod, 
1, 9. CTTt TovTov (joy Bpopoy) T(op [jxar'nav Kara ey EKaarov eK^vyovffa 
df]<T€i, singulas vestes, 3, 11. ayivkovres Kara eya eKatrroy Twy Tra/^wv, 
singulos pueros,'^ 

Obs. 3, What has been said of an accusative absolute which has no 
connection with the proposition, and is to be explained by quod attinet 
ad^f rests on inaccurate explanations of the passages quoted. Such ac- 
cusatives are generally occasioned by the circumstance, that in propo- 
sitions which are divided by a parenthesis, the writer after the paren- 
thesis quits the construction which was begun before it, and follows 
another. Od. a', 275. has been already explained §. 298, 2, others 
§. 422. Obs, 2. Comp. §. 631, 1 seq, Herod, 5, 103. Kal yap rrjy 
Ys^avyoVf Trporepoy ov fiovXofjLeyrjy avyuyLtaj^eeti/, ws eycTrprjcray ras ^aphsy 
rore <r<pL Kal avrr} TrpoaeyeyeTO, where Ti}y Kavyoy properly should be 
followed by TrpoacKTriaayTO, Xen, H, Gr. 5, 4, 1, tovs rdjy TroXinSy 
eiaayayoyras els rr/y aKpoiroXiy avTovs (^AaKedai/xoyiovs) Kal ftovXrj- 

deyras AaKe^ai/ioylois T})y TroXty ^ovXeveiyy Ti)y rovrtov &pxw 

CKTCL fjLoyov Tioy (pvyopTOjy i'jpKcaay KaraXvaai. combined from rovs eiaay, 

* Jens, et Hemsterh. ad Lucian. Wessel. ad Her. 2, 106. p. 151,31. 

ad Eurip. Hel. 1. c. Brunck ad Arist. Pac. 1099. Soph. 

*» Ileind. ad Hor. Sat. 1, 4, 25. (Ed. T. 717. Pors. ad Eur. Or. 1645. 

<= Schffif. ad Dion. 11. p. 41. 358. Davis, ad Cic. Tusc. 1, 24. Heind. 

•^ Hemst. ad Lucian. 1. p. 452. ad Plat. Thea?t. p. 288. 

Sj/titax. Of the Accusative, 695 

KaroXucot, and ri^v rwr elaayaydvTuyv ^ipxH^ KaToXvffai. Comp. ib. 6, 
4,2. wliere properly it should be : KXeofiftpoTop ^e, e^ovra to ey 

*Pu}t:€V(Ti aTparev^at kcu ewepojTwt^Ta to. o'ikol re\>/, rl ypri iroielv" -- 

cKkXevffav fjit) haXveiu to errpaTevfjia, but on account of the parenthesis 

TIpodoov Xe^avTos to Z(np.6vL0V ijyey there follows en^cTTeiXay ^e rui 

KXeofiftpoT^. Isocr. Panath. p. 264 C. ro ^xkv ovv (rvvTay fxa ttjs t6t€ 
TToXiTetas Kai top -^pdvovy baov avry \pwfxevoL ZieTeXeaafieVf e^ap- 
KovyTOJS ^eh)Xu)Tai. Soph, (Ed. T, 717. iraitos ^k (jXa crTcts oh 
^i€ar)(0V yfj-epai TpeTs, Kai viv ixpQpa kcTvos kv^ev^as iroZoIVy eppty^ev aXXojv 
yepfnu eh ciftaToi' opos^ (iXaaras ^e is governed of ^leff^ou * not three 
days separated the birth of the boy from that which now took place*, 
i. e. *not yet three days from the birth'. Xen. Cyrop. 2, 1, 5. tovs 
/jiefTOi "EXXrf yas tovs ev tij 'Ao-/^ oi icov it as, ov^ev ttoj aa(j)es XeycToif 
el eirorTaiy instead of rows "EXXt^j'os oiKovyTas ovdev ttov (racbes Xeyovffirf 
el eTTovTaiy an attraction for el ol- - - oIkovvtcs 'e-K. Isocr. Panath. 
p. 253 B. Tas TLJV TToXiTeiQv fieTcipoXaSj ekelyoL fjiey ay 0ave7ei/ (ev 
Tois TToXeffiy cfjnreTroirjKOTes should have followed instead of) anaaas 
Tos TToXeis, 7rX})y oXiycjy, /.leffras neTroiriKOTes Twy TOiovTOjy crvi.i(l>o- 
puiy Kal yo(TT)fxaTojy, Xen, Cyr. 2, 3, 2. the subject adXa is repeated 
at the close with the predicate TrpoKetrat, and it should properly have 

been to. hk dOXa Ttjs viktjs TrpoKenai at re TroXefxioi Kal to. Tojy 

TToXefjLiojy ddXa xpoK. The connection, however, is broken by the inter- 
position of SijXoy on o'i re TroXe/j,^, 

In other cases the accusative is determined by a relative pronoun 
following in the accusative; see §. 474, c. Herod, 2, 106. Tas de 
otZ/Xos Tas 'laTa tcaTO. Tds yjbjpas o AlyvTTTOv ftaartXevs ^eacj^Tpts, al 
fiey TrXevyes ovk^ti cpaiyovTai Trepieovaai, where no comma should follow 

ffTt'iXas, for it should properly be Its ^k crTijXas lara, TOVTtoy at 

fiky ttX. 

Frequently an accusative after a parenthesis is repeated by means of 
the demonstrative pronoun in the same gender or in the neuter, or another 
equivalent substantive; as Isocr. Panath. p. 241 C. Kal TrpdjToy uey 
Tas KvKXdSas yficrovs, irepl as eyeyoyTO TroXXal Trpayyuaretai Kora 
Ttjy Miyb) Tov KpriTos hvyaaTeiaVi TavTas to TeXevTatoy vvb Kapuiy 
KarexofJL^ras, cKpaXoyTes eKeiyovSy ovk e^ihuiffairdai Tas )^a/|oas ctoX- 
fjiri/ray, Comp. §. 468. 

* The reading which Poppo has ginated from some one who could 
adopted appears to me to have ori- not understand the common readin^^. 


Remarks on the Oblique Cases generally, 

428. 1 . Two substantives are often found together in one case, 
of which the one contains an explanation or more exact defini- 
tion, as it were a predicate, so that the participle wv, &c. may 
be supplied by the mind. Hes. Th. 788. ef lepov irorafxoLo 
peei Sia vvKra /meXaivav QK€avo7o Kepaa' ^eKaTrj o eiri /Jiolpa 
^edacrrai ' as an arm of the ocean'. 'Q/c. Kepac, ov ' as a tenth 
part*. According to the usual expression in prose, instead of 
^k^aarai the auxiliary eiixi should have been used, ^eKarr] jiiolpd 

ecTTiv. See §. 310. JEsch, Ag. 81. to virepyrjptov 

iraidoc; ov^ev apeiov ovap r\fxepo<pavTOv aXaivei ' as a 
dream'. ILur, Here. Fur. 494. Kai aKia (^avr}di /xot ' as a 
shadow'. Herod. 2, 155. to §e KaraaTeyaafxa tSc" opocfyrja 
aXXoQ ewiKeeTai \i6oq, for to Se KaTaar. ecrriv aXXoc, XlOoq 
eiriKeifxevoQ. So also in the other cases : Plat. Leg. 1 0. p. 903 E. 
CTroj^wv Trpoa^eiaBai fxoi ^OKel Xoytjjv en tivijjv ' as lenitives'. 
id. Protag. p. 316 E. Also in a different number Lysias in 
Alcib. p. 142, 35. ToiQ vfxerepaic, aperaiQ y^prJTai irapa- 
^eiy fxari irepl rrja eavrov TrovrfpiaQ^. Comp. ^. 420. Obs. 3. 

Hence this junction often expresses a comparison, or the 
thing compared is blended with that with which it is compared. 
Eur. Or. 545. (tt) §* eriKre ttuTc, to a-rrepfx apovpa 7rapaXaj3ovcy' 
aXXov irapa. Iph. A. 1226. iKerrjpiav ^e youaaiv e^anroj aeQev 
TO au)p,a TovfAov. Rhcs. 56. So in Horace Rusticus exspectat, 
dum dejluat amnis^. 

(428) 2. When two verbs governing different cases are joined with 
one substantive, the substantive properly should stand with 
each verb in the case required, or at least be repeated once by 
means of a pronoun. Frequently, however, the substantive is 
put only once, and is governed in its case by the verb which 
stands next to it : i/es?oc?. ''E^oy. 166. toTc ^e ^^X ^^^p^"^^^ 
jSiOTOV Kal rJOe' oiraaaaQ Zeuc Kpovidrjc Karevaaae {so. avrovQ) 
TTarrip eic ireipara yairjc. Soph. Ant. 901. Oavovraa v/j^aa eyu) 
eXovaa /caTTiTu^ijSiovq ypac eSwfca, so. vffiv. Thuc. 6,71. {irpiv 

'* Sch«f. App. Dem. 1. p. 868. ^ Dobree ad Arist. Plut. 314. 

Syntax. Remarks on the Oblique Cases, 697 

uv) ^pi^jutara cijua avroOev t€ ^vXXe^tjJvrai kg i nap AOrj- 
vaiijjv eXOy. Plat. Gorg. p. 460 C. D. fxkfivriaai Xeywv oXiyo} 
npoTepoVj on ov 3e7 toIc nai^oTpipaic ey/caXeiv ov^ 
e/c/3aXXetv €k twv noXetjJV, eav o irvKTrjc, ry irvKTiKy /nrj fcaXaTq 
"^piJTai T€ Kai aSiK^ ; ioaavnoQ oe Kai eav o prjTtop ry prjropiKy 
aSiK(t}Q "^prjrai, prj t(o ^iSa^avr i eyKaXelv /uLVi^e efe- 
Xavveiv e/c t5c TToXewc, aXXa tw adiKovvri Kai ovk opOejc; 
y^pwfxevM ry prjTopiKy. Rep, 5. p. 465 A. irpeapvrepu) juei/ 
veu)Tepu)v navTiov apy^eiv re Kai KoXaZ,eiv irpoareTa^erai. 
Isocr, Pariath. p. 267 C. ou^ r^yrjcravro ^eiv tovq ajueivov tojv 
aXXiov (jypovovvrac ajueXeiv ovSe nepiopav rac; rrjc avrrJQ 
Gvyy eveiac fxere^ovGac, aTroXXv/mevac;^. }ience the anacolutho7i 
Eu7\ Anclr. 669 seq. e'l av iral^a ar\v Sovc no noXinjJp, elx 

fcTrao-^e roia^e, aiyy KaOrjcr' ap, for €i ^ouc roidde 

naa-^ovaav elSec 

Sometimes the case is determined by the remoter verb. 
Od. K ,531, krapoiaiv eTrorpuvai Kai avto^ai. Soph, Antig, 537. 
Kail^vp.iJLeria'^d) Kai fpeptj) rrjc aiTiac;, Plat. Gorg, p. 94 D, 
Ta fxev arreiXovaa, ra ^c vovBerovaa rcuQ eTnOvjulaiG &c. Isocr, 
Areop. p, 149 C. oi vetorepoi iv toTc eTrirrj^evjuacTiv ejuevou, ev 
o\q erayOrjcraVy OaviJ,atovT€C Kai o^iXoui/req roue iu 
TovroiQ iTp(j)TevovTaQ, where, however, Bekker has adopted 
from a MS. ^rjXouvrec for 0|UtX. Comp. ^. 441. Sometimes 
words which belong to one another are separated, as Eur. Hec. 
1224. Kai fjLrju Tpe(p(jjv fxev, wc ere iraT^ e^rfi/ Tpk(peiv, (TLjcraQ 
T€ Tov ejuou, Orest, 578. e^i/jUiwcre irarepa KaireKTeiv ejjiov is 
less remarkable. The second word is also sometimes con- 
structed according to the verb which is nearest to it : Eur, Hec. 
1045. 1? yap KaOeiXer, SpyKa Kai KpareiQ ^kvov\ for r\ yap Kad, 
OpyKa ^evov Kai KpareiQ avrov. Comp. Soph, Trach, 98.^ 

In the same manner oc, ^, o are often put once with verbs 
of different government. Eurip, Suppl, 863. <J j3toc f^iev r\v 
iroXvQy ?7K:((TTa S' oX)3w yavpoc, r\v. Plat, Rep. 5. p, 465 E. 
oiQ e^ov e^etv ovoev e'^oieVy tor oic, e^eirf e^eiv Kai oi &c. or 
oi, e^ov auToTc ^X^i^, ov^ev eyoiev, Comp. Gorg, p. 492 B. 

*^ Schaef. ad Poet. Gnom. p. 235. ^ Pors. (ct Scha-f.) ad E:ir. Ileci 

'' Pors. ad Eur. Med. 734. Fisch. 1030. and Add. p. 93 seq. 
3 a. p. 448. Matth. ad Eur. Bacch. 697. 

698 Syntax. Remarks on the Oblique Cases. 

Symp, p. 201 B. WjWoXo-yrjrai, ou Iv^eric, eon Ka\ fjcri £"^€1, 
rovTov epav, Comp. id. Phadon. p. Q5 Ay 82 D. Rep. 8. 
p. 559 A. Qorg.i>. 496 B, Thuc. 7, 62.* ; .^ 

In a similar manner a verb in the third person sometimes 
refers to a substantive as its subject, which preceded in the 
accusative. Plat. Gorg. p. 464 A. to toiovtov Xeytt), Kai ev 
(TUfiari elvai Kai ev "^^v^y on iroiei fxev ev eyeiv to atjjua Kai 
TTji^ xpv^Tiv, €)^et ^e ov^ev julciXXov, viz. to awjULa Kai r] "(pvxrj. 
quum tamen nihilo magis bene valeant. ib. p. 468 D. riv tiq 
arroKTeivy nva --- oiojuievoc eivai avrit) ajxeivovy Ti»-y^avp oe ov 
KcLKioVy qmim tamen sit pejus}*. 

So a finite verb is often accompanied by a participle, with 
which the preceding substantive must be supplied in a different 
case. //. TT , 406. e\Ke §e ^ovpoc, (according to §. 331.) eXwv, 
sc. TO ^opv. Soph. EL 47. a-yyeXXe ^' opK(x) irpocrnOeic, viz. 
opKov. Thuc. If 5. Twv aKovri(TT(jJV rrjv w^eXetai/ ry Tafet 
ei^TOC \iav Ta)(^a>v Troi^o-ac a(f)e\€aOai (sc. rriv ral^iv). Xen. 
Cyr. 2, 3, 17. to?c § erepoic elTrev, on jSaXXeii^ ^erjooi avai- 
povfxkvovQ rcuQ ^CjXoiq, for jSaXXeii^ TaTc jSwXotq avaipovfxevovQ 


3. Compounds frequently take, especially in the poets, the 
case which the simple verb governs. Soph. (Ed. C. 1482. 
evaicTLOv ^e (^atjuoi/oc) (JvvTvyoifxi. Phil, 320. (tvvtu)(^wv KaKtjjv 
aifdpojv Arpei^Sv, rrjc t 'O^vffcrewc j3taq. Herod, 7, 208. 
aXoyti^c eveKvpr\<se ttoXXjJc**. The poets also add another pre- 
position with compound verbs, as e-yyeXa*/ fcaTa Ttvoq Soph. 
(Ed. C, 1339.^ 

4. In the poets an oblique case which belongs to two words 
or clauses is sometimes inserted only in the second, as if it be- 
longed exclusively to this. jEsch. Prom. 21. tV owTe (ptjovriv, 
ovTe Tov iuLop(j)riv jSpoTw v o\p€i. Comp. Agam, 600. Soph. 
El, 929. r}dvQ ov^e imrjrpi Bvay^epYia, for jurjrpi i^Suc ov^e B. or 

* Ruhnk. ad Horn. H. in Cer. 151. <= Wunderlich Obss. ad JEsch. p. 84. 

Herm. ad Viger. p. 707. Heind. ad ** Brunck ad Eur. Or. 1291. Phil. 

Phaedon. §. 25. 98. Schaef. ad Soph. 1. c. 

Aj. 98. « Lobeck ad Soph. Aj, 957. 

** Ileind. ad Gorg. 1. c. p. 57. 

syntax, Hemarhs on the Oblique Cases* 699 

TjS. /nYfTpi ovSe 3. or r)^vQ ov^e ^vo\' fLirjTpi. Eur. Orest, 406. 
ITuXaSijC o ovv^pijjv ai/jia Kai priTpoQ (pouov. Med, 1377, aXX' 
vj3pic, oi re ao\ veo^/uriT€G ya/moi, for vfipiQ ij art. Troad. 1209. 

cJ TeKVOV, OU^ tTTTTOlCri VlKTiaaVTO. (7€f ov^ hXiKaQ To^otcri. Ill 

Latin such arrangements as qui necem et matris cadem mecum 
exsecutus est, for matris necem et ccRdem, or necem et cadem matris, 
or necem matris et cademy would be faulty. The arrangement 
of the prepositions is similar §. 595, 4. 

In the same way a corresponding word from the second clause 
must sometimes be supplied with the first. Eur, Or, 742. 
ovK eKelvoc, aXX eKeivrj Kelvov evOad r?ya"yei^, for ovk eKeivoc 
eKeifYiv, Hipp. 1055. et yap <tu /xcp ttoIq riad , e-yw Se goq Trarrip, 
for el (TV pev epoQ ttuIq ri . 

5, With words which express a genus, class, or general de- 
finition, the words which define it more exactly are often put 
in the same case without a copula, whereas in other languages 
the latter are in the genitive. Herod, 3, 60. to pev prJKOQ 
Tov opvyparoc eirTa crTa^ioi eitrc, to Se vxpOQ Kai evpoc 
oKTil) cKarepov TroSec. comp. 2, 124. 175. In the latter 
passage the nouns are first of all in the same case, and imme- 
diately afterwards the second is in the genitive, comp. 138. 
4, 123. Id. 2, 158. tt/c ^tw/ou^oc prJKoc pkv ean ttXooc rjpepat 
Teaaepec, : and even the place of which the length is given is 
in the nominative 2, 29. to §e ^cu/oiov touto ean eiri i)pepac 
Te(T(7epac ttXooc,. Comp. 4, 85. 3, 5. em rpelc, r^pepac odov, 
trium dierum iter, but 4, 101. ^€Ka rjpepe(t)v o^oq. id, 1, 14. 
trraOpov eyovreQ rptr^Kovra raXavra, Thuc. 1, 96. EX- 
XrjvoraiuLiaL rore TrptHrov AOrjva'ioiG Karecrrri apyj\, ot e^kyovro 

Tov (popov. Tjv oe o TT^wTOC (popoQ TayOeiQ rerpaKoaia 

raXavra Kai i^rjKovra, magistratus quastorum Grcscicc, tri~ 
hutum quadringentorum talentorum, Xen. Vect. 3, 9. Se/ca pval. 
€ia(popa. 4, 23. ib, 24. but 3, 10. Svolv pvalv npocroSoc. 
Comp. Anab. 3, 4, 7. — So also Herod. 8,4. eVt piaOo) rpiriKovTa 

TaXavTOKJi. Thuc. 3, 104. rriv irevTerripi^a t« Ar/Xm, as 

Liv. 2, 21. Saturnalia institut us f est us dies. — Herod. 7, 60. to 
TrXiJOoq e(j)dvri e(5dopY}KovTa Kai eKarov pvpia^ec, as Li/s, Epit, 

' Elmsl. ad Eur. Heracl. 131. et Add. ad Med. 1118. 

o 2 

700 Syntax. Interchange of Substantives, S^c. 

p. 192. 27. 7r€ifTi]KovTa juLvpia^ac aTpariav. — Plat. Soph, 
p. 229 C. a^adia Tovvojua, nomen insciticd. Rep. 5. p. 474 E. 
fie\ayy\u)povc, Tovvo^a. Comp. Charm, 175 B. Xen. Cyr. 2, 
2, 12. Comp. §. 420. Obs, 2, h. 

Interchange of Substantives amongst one another and 
with Adjectives: Circumlocution. 

429. 1. Substantives of different classes are often interchanged : 
substantives especially w^hich express a general idea of kind, are 
put for the definite person or thing in which that idea, as in one 
single case, is exemplified : abstractum pro concreto. II. J, 20 1. 
302. *Q.Keav6v re, 0ewv ykvecjiv, Kai fxr)repa TrjOvv, for yev- 
v/jTOjOa. So the epic poets used yevoc, and yeverj for vIoq. 
jEsch. Choeph. 1025. prfrepa, Oetjjv crrvyoQ 'object of the 
hatred'. Eurip. Phoen. 1506. ay efxovevixa veKpolcji iroXv- 
(JTOVOV, for riyefjLLjv. Troad. 420. vviJi(pevfxaf for vvjiKprj, Here. 
F. 459. vf^pifffxa Kai ^ia(f)9opav, i. e. ovq vj^piZovai, ^laCpOeipovai,^ 
olc einyciipovai. Soph. Aj. 381. (TTparov aXtj/Lia, for aXijrijc. 
Thuc. 2, 41. rY}v iroXiv Trai^evcriv elvai ttJq 'EXXaSoc, for 
Trai^evrpiav^. Such substantives often stand for those which 
denote the effects produced by them : Soph. Ant, 533. rpecjyojv 
^v ara KairavaaTaffeiQ Bpoviov, of the two daughters of 
CEdipus, who seemed to wish to ruin Creon, and overturn his 
government. Comp. §. 309. 

In prose npeff^eia for 7r/oeo-j3etc, ' embassies' for ' embas- 
sadors', is very common, even in connection with KripvKeQ, 
Thuc. 2, 12. iqv TiepiKXeovc yvCjfxr] irporepov veviKtjKvla, KrjpvKa 
Kai irpecrfSelav jllt] 7rpo(T^e'^€(T9ai AaKe^aipoviiov efeo-T/oareu- 
pevtov. Comp. 4, 118. Plat, Leg. 12. p, 950 D. Isocr, Panath. 
p. 268 D. E. Thus in Eur. Suppl, 173. irpeG^evpara is used^. 
Thus also 1^ ^vppay[a for oi ^vppayoL Herod. 1, 82. Thuc. 1, 
118. 119. 130. vTrYjpeaia, (or virrj per ai Thuc. 1, 143. Isocrat. 

a Casaub. ad Athen. p. 11. Valck. (Ed. T. 1244. Lob. ad Phryn. p. 469. 
ad Eur, Hipp. v. 406. ad Ph. 1498. ^ Casaub. ad Athen. p. 30. Mis- 

Brunck ad Soph. CEd. T. 85. Philoct. cell. Philol. 1. p. 256. 
259. Antig. 756. Musgr. ad Soph. 

Syntax, Interchange of Substantives, 3^c. 701 

Paneg. c. 39. Also with the genitive Eur. Here. K 547. 
opcpavevjj. kfxuiv reKvcov, for op(f)ava rtvcva efia. 

2. Words which signify the inhabitants of a country are 
sometimes put for the name of the country. Thuc. 1, 107. 
^ix)KkMV arparevaavTWV ec, Atopiac, rriv AaKe^ai/uovitJV iAi]Tp6- 
TToXiv &c. Thus 1, 52. optUvrec, ir pocryeyevniiievac; vavc, e/c twv 

AOr)vaL(jJv aKpai(pvelc,j for ef AOriv(jjv, according to the ma- 
jority of the MSS. ib. 110. e/c ^e rtjv 'AOrivaiwv Kal rrjc 
aXXric ^vjuijuayj^oc; nevrriKovTa rpirtpeic; dia^o^oi TrXeovaai eq 
AiyviTTov e'd^ov Kara to M.€u^r}(Tiov KepaQ, where Bekker reads 
'AOrjvtjv, without MS. authority. Thus some national appel- 
lations in Latin ; in Sequanos, in Mduos. 

3. Patronymics are often used for the proper name from 
which the patronymic is derived, e. g. ' Ayv(jovi^r]c, for ''Ayvwv, 
A»7^o/cX€t^»?c for Ai/jUOfcX^c. See §. 101. Obs. 2.^ 

4. Frequently two substantives are put for adjectives. //. 
w , 58. ' Ektwjo (jiev OvriTOQ re, yvva^Ka re Orjaaro jLia^ov, for 
yvvaiKelov. Hesiod.' 191. /maWov §e KaKtJv peKrrjpa Kai 
vf3piv avepa Tiiuir]<Jovaiu. Herod, 4, 78. EXXa^a y\u)(j(7au, for 
which he puts 4, 108. yX. 'EXXi/i/tfcrji/. 7, 22. 2aV>7, ttoXic 
*EXXaq. Soph, Phil. 223. 'EXXac (ttoX^. Eurip. Ph. 609. 
Ko/unroQ €L^. Plato often uses XrjpoCy nugce, for nugator, 'a 
trifler'% and \pevdoc for xp^v^eQ Apol, S. p, 34 extr. 

Properly both substantives in this case should be of the same 
gender ; but a masculine is often joined with a feminine. Msch. 
Agam.675. rvy^r) Se Gtjjrrip vavvQeXov<j e(f>et€TO,fov(TtjT€tpa. 
Comp. id. S.c. Th. 226. Soph, (Ed, T, 80. Phil, 1471. Eur, 
MeJ.364. 'EXXr)vy^Iph,T,2A2. (jroXr)''EXXr,v Heracl.lSl, 
ov^i rrjv €f.iriv (povea vo/uLil^ijjv yel-pa id, Iph. T, 589 seq,^ 

«= Koen ad Greg. p. (133) 290. ad Cratyl. p. 11. 
Ruhnk. Hist. Grit. Orat. Gr. p. 90. ' Stanley, Brunck, Blomf. ad ^sch. 

^ Eur. Ph. 103. Ernesti S. c. Th. 1. c. Markl. ad Eur. Iph.T. 

adCallim. p. 138. Abresch ad /Esch. 341. Lob. ad Aj. 323. Musgr. ad 

2. p. 71. Koen ad Greg. p. (45) Ion. 1252. Blomf. Gloss. Agam. 647. 

108 seq. Musgr. ad Eur. Ph. ]. c. IleisigadSoph.CEd.C.(Comm.Exeg.) 

Brunck ad Soph. (Ed. T. 80. ad Phil. 1582. Of'EXXi^v Elmsl. ad E. Suppl. 

1- c. Quart. Rev. 14. p. 492 seq. (in the 

• Heind. ad Plat. Theajt. p. 402. Leipzig ed. of Markl. Suppl.) 

702 Syntax. Interchange of Substantives, S^c. 

430. 6. Hence sometimes a substantive is put with another in 
the genitive, instead of an adjective. Aristoph, Plut, 268. c5 
y^pvaov ayyeiXaQ eTTwv, for eTrrj y^pvaa, Eurip, Bacch, 388. 
o Trie r)(jvj^iaQ jStoToc, for j3/oc rjavyoQ. ^o flammcB siderum, 
Cic, N. D. 2, 36, 92. for sidera flammea. Similar to this is 
the usage of the poets, who join two substantives, of which that 
which governs the other denotes a property which belongs to it, 
as in epKOQ oSovtwj/, not ' an inclosure for the teeth', but the 
teeth themselves, inclosing the mouth and palate. Find, Nem. 
10, 67, ev ayyewv epKeaiv irajULTroiKiXoiG, the ayytj themselves 
are epKrj inclosing the oil. lb. 78. KoplvOov ev /iu^oTq, not ' the 
inmost recesses of Corinth', but ' Corinth which lies in the re 
cesses of the Isthmus'. The tragic and lyric poets use a sub- 
stantive and an adjective for the adjective alone : Find. Pyth. 
2 extr. hXiadripoc, oifxoc, for o\i(sdr\p6v. Eur. Iph. T. 1128. 
jjier evTV^iaa KaKOvaOai 6vt}toIg f^apvc aitjv, for f3apv ecrrc*. 

The same substantive is put twice, once in the genitive, in 
order to express a kind of superlative, e. g. ava^ avaKroyv 
uEsch. Suppl. 533. for 'the greatest king'. Adjectives espe- 
cially are used in this manner, of which hereafter^. 

The following substantives in particular are used with an- 
other in the genitive instead of adjectives : 

j3ia, ic, fJ-evoQ, GOevoQ, 'strength', e. g. (^irj 'Hyoa/cXr/et?/, Aiveiao 
j3tr?, in Homer, KacrrojOOG j3/a Find. Pyth. 1 1, 93. TvSeoq j3ia 
jEsch. S. c. Th. 77. YloXweiKeoc j3ia Eurip. Ph. 56. for 
HjOa/cXiJo, AivelaCf Kacrrayp, TuSewc, HoXweiKr^c, but with the 
collateral idea of 'strength' or 'power', as in Latin, perrupit 
Acheronta He rculeus labor : Catonis virtus incaluit mero. 
Thus ic, TrjXe^a^oto, tc ave^ov (even to /3ir/c 'HjoaK:X>/et»?c Hes. 
Theog. 332.), as odor a canum vis. fxevoc AXkivoolo, ''Apr]oc,, 
ave/uLOv, r]e\iov ^c. ffOevoc; H er/wvoc //.;//, 81 7. adevoQ'iinrdyv, 
rtfiiovivv Pind. OL 6, 38.*^ \rj/jLa Kopijjvi^oQ Pind. Pyth, 3, 43. 
' aspiring Coronis'. 

Kr\p, II, ^ y 851. Wa^Xayovtjjv S 7)ye1ro YlvXaifxkveoCy 

* Matthiae ad Eur. Bacch. 960. •= Monk ad Eur. Hipp. 794. has 

•• Fisch. 2. p. 123. other examples. 

Syntax, Interchange of Substantives, 8^c, 703 

Xaffiov Kr\p 'Pylaeraenes with hairy heart', i. e. the brave Pylse- 

(^o^oc Hes, Sc, H, 144. ev fxkaot^ ^e ^paKovroc erjv 
(f>6l3o(; {^paKU)v (^o^epoo), 

TTcipac, reXoQ, reXevrv, especially in the epic poets. Li. ty 
143. u)c, Kev Oaaaov oXeOpov neipaB 'iKrjai, for oXeOpov, 
Thus davaroio reXoQ in Homer and Hesiod, reXevrrj Oavaroio 
He$. Sc. H. 357. not 'the end of death', but 'the end which 
death causes to men'. So tovto rov '^^popov reXoc Soph. 
Trach, 167. reppa t?<; <T<x)Tr}piaQ id. CEd. C. 725. or * the 
completion of deliverance', as Eur. Suppl. 617. 

In the tragic and the lyric writers the following circumlo- 
cutions chiefly occur : 

^epaQ ' a body'. jEsch. Eumen. 84. Kraveiv pi]rp^ov ^ifxac, 
for TTJv fjLrjTepa. Soph. CEd. C, 1550, vvv Z eciyarov gov 
Tovfiov airrerai ^epac, for eyw. Comp. CEd. T. 1208. 
Trach. 908. (j)iX(ov ol/cerwv Bepac, for (j)iXovQ oiKerac. Eurip. 
Hec. 718. aXX' eiaopw yap Tov^e Secnrorov ^epaQ Aya- 
pepvovoQ, &c. In Soph. El. 1177. ?} <tov to kXcivov elSoc 
'HXeKTpaa rode ; there is something more than mere circum- 
locution, viz. *HXe#CT/t>a ri rtf kXcivi^ eiBei BiaCJ)epov<Ta. So 
apercLQ irpoffwirov Eur. Iph, A. 1096. ^av^iac; irpoG. Arist. 
Av. 1322. denote the dignified and calm expression of virtue. 

Kapa. Soph. CEd. T. 960. w (fyiXrarov yvvaiKon IoKa<rTijc 
KCLpa. 1235. redvTjKC Oelov ^loKaarriG Kapa. Eurip. Or, 
470. (t) ycupe irpeff^v, Xrivoa opoXcKrpov Kapa. 476. 7r/oo<r- 

eyyei viv avoGiov Kapa. 

Thus the epic poets use Kapr\vov and KeCpaXri. II. i, 407. 
XrjKTTOi pev yap re (56eQ Kai 'i(l)ia prjXa, KTrjroi Be rpiiroBeG re 
Kai nnrtov l^avOa Kaprjva. Hesiod, Sc. H. 104. ripa <yriv 
K€(paXrjv. Thus also Pindar 01. 6, 102. ea K€(j)aXa, for oT. 
Pyth. 11, 52. i^e^ K€(j>aX^, for veoc. So ^iXri K€(j)aXri in Homer 
and elsewhere as a form of address. Plat. Ion. p. 531 J), 

* Reisig ad CEd. Col. (Comm. Excg.) 716. 

704 Syntax, Interchange of Substantives y S^c, 

So the tragedians use yelp and ttouc Soph. Ant. 43. et toi^ 
vcKpov l^vv rp^e Kov(f)ie7Q x^pi instead of ^vv Tyde alone, i. e. 
^vv ijnoL §. 472, 6. inasmuch as she must lift the corpse with 
the hand. Eur. Hipp. 666. Geaaofxai Se avv irarpoc, fnoXiov ttoBi 
' with my father returning'. 

bfifia and ovofxa. Msch. Prom. 659. to S?oi/ ofxfxa, for Zeuq. 
Soph. Tr. 527. to § aiLi^iveiKriTOV o}xp,a vvfxt^aQ eXeeivov 
ajxjjLevei. Eurip. Ph. 313. y^povis) <tov ofifxa fxvpimc, ev afiepaic 
7rpo(7eidov. Or. 1088. w TroOeivov ovofx o/uLiXiac fcTi^Jc, ycupe, 
for w TTodeivri ofiiXla and this for o/ntXrjrric. Ion. 1280. oJ 
Tavpofxop^ov ofxfxa 1^t}(J)i(tov Trarpoc, oiav ey^idvav t^i^S 
e(pv(jac,. The two words, however, are often confounded^. 
ovopa seems to be used when the thing which is put in the ge- 
nitive exists not in reality but in name, being transient and 
perishable, as Eur. Or, I, c. Hec. 435. w (J)(jjq- -"Trpoaenrelv 
yap GOV ovop. e^ear'i poi, 

ae(3aQ. Msch. Prom. 1099. aJ prirpoQ eprjc <yej3ac. Soph. 
Phil. 1289. cnrtjpocF ayvov Ziji/oc v\pi(rTOV crejSaq, i. e. Xrjva 

In prose, circumlocutions with Trainee, viol, and XpvP'CL es- 
pecially occur. Herod. 1, 27. iXdeiv eirl AvSwv TratSac, 
for em Av^ovq, and passim. Thus Homer vlec *A')(ai(x>v, as 
Kovpoi 'A')(^aiu)v. Comp, Pind, Isthm. 4, 62.** 

y^pripa, Herod. 1, 36. cruoc y^pr\pa peya, for peyac gvc 
Eurip, Ph. 205. y^prifxa OriXeitjjv. Arist. Nub. 2. to y^prjpa 
tQv vvktSv. Xen. Cyrop. 2, 1,5. a(^ev^ovr\T(jJV irapiroXv ri 

So (j)v(TiG also is used to show that that which is attributed 
to anything belongs to it by nature. Soph. CEd. T. 869. ou3e 

* Valck. ad Eurip. Ph. 415. Pors. to a whole community, 
ad Eur. Or. 1080. Seidl. ad Eur. «= Valck. ad Eur. Ph. p. 70. More 

Iph. T. 875. instances of circumlocution (which, 

•* Comp. Stallb. ad Plat. Phil. however, are not all circumlocutions, 

p. 107. Wachsmuth (Hellen. Al- inasmuch as they express more than 

terth. p. 321.) explains this usage as the proper substantive) are collected 

an extension of the custom of nam- by Fisch. 3 a. p. 269-290. 
ing the father in honour of the son, 

Syntax. Interchange of Substantives, S^c. 705 

vw Ovara (j)v(nQ avepwv eriKrev. Plat. Phil. p. SOB. jue^r/^^a- 
vrjaOai rrjif Ttsiv KaXkiardyv Kai TtjuttuTaTWv (jyvaiv, as in Latin 

The tragedians in the use of these combinations often attend 
only to the meaning of the whole, not of the word which serves 
for the circumlocution. Pind. Pyth. 1, 140. o Tv/ocrai/(Jv aXa- 
\ar oc 'iZdiv. Soph. CEd. C. 794. to (j6v K aCpTiKrai devp' viro- 
(BXtfTOv arojjiay iro\\r\v eyov (TTojuioffiv, though a(j)iKV€lGOai does 
not properly suit aroiua, but instead of ait acjnl^ai vttojSX. 
arofxa eyjjjv. ib. 863. oJ (jyOeyiii avai^ec, ri gv yap xpavaeic e^iov, 

as Aj. 14. (J (pdeyij: 'AOavaQ So Eur. Ion. 1280. 

o/j,luia e(j)v(T€v e^^idvav could not properly have been said, nor 
Hec. 435. 7r/ooo-€(7re7v ovo/iia, any more than irpocr. ofxfxa (J)(jjtoc, 
nor Soph, CEd. T. 1375. r) reKvwv b\piQ (^Xaarovcr ottcjq ej3X. 
Hence it appears that the poets regarded these combinations 
as properly circumlocutions, as if only the word in the genitive 
had preceded, which is elsewhere the case also with Scjuac, GWfxa, 
KCLpa, and thus we may defend the reading of all the MSS. 
Eur. Hec. 293. to S' al^iw/ma, Kav fca/cwc Xey^, to gov ireiGei^. 

6. Another circumlocution is, where a personal denomi- 
nation which expresses an office or business, a situation, &c. 
is accompanied by the substantives avrjpy avOptDiroc, in the same 
case. avOptJiroQ here expresses mostly contempt ; avrip, on the 
other hand, respect; e. g. Lysias in Nicom. p. 186, 6. ol 
fxev Trpoyovoi vofuLoBeraQ ypovvro ^oXiova kul Ge/itaTO/cXeo /cat 

TlepiKXea . vfxeLQ ^e TiGafxevov tov M.Tiy^avi(t)voQ Kai 

Ni/co^a^ov Kai erepovc,, avOpdJirovQ vrroy paixfxaTeaQ. Plat. 
Gorg. p. 518 C. ^laKovovQ jjloi Xeyetc €7nOviuii(jjv irapa- 
GKevaGTOLQ dvOpujirovc* On the other hand, in addresses, 
av^pec St/ca<TTai, av^pea Grpantorai, av^pec AOrivaioi are com- 
monly used as respectful expressions. Such an expression of 
respect appears to be conveyed in the passages quoted by 
Hermann ad Soph. El. 45. //. e, 649. avepoc d(j)pa^iriGiv 
ayavov Aao/me^ovTOQ (but //. X, 738. av^pa MovXtov ai)^- 

* It should seem therefore that wc ibid, doubted, ahhough Stallb. ad 
must limit Porson's rule ad loc. of Plat, Phileb. p. 140. assented to it. 
the universality of which Schaefcr 

706 Syntax. Of Apposition, 

fUL-nrriv * a man, namely, Mulios'. tt', 7 16. * a young strong man, 
namely, Asius'). Soph, El. 45. l^evoc, fxev el ^wfceuc, Trap* dv^poQ 
^avoretoQ yikiov (where Hermann's explanation * a viro quodam, 
nomine Phanoteo\ introduces an indefinite denomination where 
a definite one is required). So (pujQ II, §', 193. (p' , 545. 
Od, (j)', 26. Elsewhere avr]p is put with these personal de- 
nominations when the class or rank only is to be indicated to 
which he belongs, as j3owv e7rij3ov/coXoc avrjp, in Homer. Plat, 
Ion. p. 539 extr, pa\pb)^ov av^pa. ib, p. 540 D. av^pi arpa- 
TJj-yw*. Thus too Thuc, 1, 74. avdpa crpar-nyov ^vve- 
TWTOTOv TTdpecf^opeda, 

Of Apposition. 

4S1. Apposition is, when a substantive or personal pronoun is 
accompanied by another substantive without a conjunctive par- 
ticle in the same case, serving to explain the former, or to 
supply some definition for the sake of emphasis or clearness. 
It may be resolved by the relative pronoun with eari, e'laiy and 
hence many of the cases which came under the head of Pre- 
dicate, are found also under that of Apposition. 

The substantive which is added should properly be in the 
same case and number as the first; but they often vary from 
each other in this respect, especially if the apposition contains 
an abstractum pro concreto (§. 429, 1.) lies, Th, 792. r) ^e pi 
{polpa) €K TrerpvQ npopeei, fieya irriixa Oeoloiv, Herod, 1, 205. 
yexbvpac ^ew-yvvwv eTrt tow Trorapov diapaaiv t<^ arpart^, as 
Mscht/l, Agam, 953. virai tlq apfivXac Xvoi rayoc,, irpodovXov 
efi^aaiv ttoSoc. Soph, CEd. C, 472. KparvpeQ elcriv, av^poQ 
evyeipoG revvij. Eurip, Ph, 829. oi prj vopi^iov toi Trainee, 
parpWoy^evpa, piadixa t€ irarpoQ. id, Troad. 429. aire- 
j/Orfpa TrajKoivov (3porolQ ol irepi Tvpavvovc Kai iroXeia virri- 
perai. The apposition is often in the plural, whilst the sub- 
stantive is in the singular : Hes. Sc, H, 312 seq, t/octtoc xpv- 
(Teioc, fcXvra epya irep'Kppovoc, 'H<|)ai(rToeo. Eur, Hipp. 11. 

^ Valck. in N. T. p. 336 seq. don. p.l35. ButtmannGr.Gr.p.352. 
Ilcind. ad Plat. Gorg. p. 247. Phs- 

Syntax, Of Apposition, 707 

IttttoXutoc, ayi'ou ITtTOewc iraiSeujiiaTa. Or. 1050. ttwc 
av ^i(j)OQ voj ravTOv, ei ^ejuic, /crayoi, icat ^pij/xa Se^aiO ev, 
Ke^pov Te^vatr/xara. PhaN, 819 s^. fti]§€ (w<|)eXe) to Tra/o- 
^ei^tov nrepov ovpeiop rkpnc, eXOelv, nevOea yaiac, S^i-yyoc. 
Comp. Ale. 728. /pA. T. 263. Thus it stood Soph. Phil. 36. 
correctly before the edition of Brunck : avro^vXov y eKirwfia^ 
(pXavpovpyov Tivoi; re'^vtifiaT oo^^poq . Both numbers are 
united Eur, Andr. 468. ouS a/uLCpi/uiaToptiQ Kopovc, epiv j^eu 
oiKijjv SiKTjueveic re Xvirac. Comp. Suppl, 1210. An adjective 
neuter plural is also found in apposition to a feminine Eur, El, 

1009, eyw Se raa^ey Tpt^a^oQ yBovoQ e^^alpCT , avrt wmBoQ 


It has been remarked §. 274. that the substantive in the 
apposition commonly has the article, and that the apposition 
marks contempt and indignation §. 276. The following cases 
are more especially to be noticed : 

1 . When the apposition refers to a possessive pronoun, it is 
put in the genitive. Aristoph, Plut, 33. rov e/ioi^ jnev avrov 
Tov TaXanrtjpov ay^e^ov rj^ri vofiitio eKTerol^evaOai (3iov. 
See more examples in the Possessive Pronouns, §. 466, 1. 

Thus also in adjectives which are derived from proper names, 
if the proper name contained in it is designed to include a defi- 
nition. //. p , 54, Ne(TTOjoep Trapa vrji, YlvXrjyeveoc jSatrt- 
Xrjoc. € , 741 . ev ^e re Topyeirj KeCpaXrj SetvoTo 7reX(U|00v. 
Plat, Apol. S. p. 29 D. AOrivaloc wv, TroXewc r^q /tie- 
yiffTTiQ Kai ev^oKifiibJTaTYjQ etc <TO(j!)(ai/ Kai lo-^vv, y^pr\jxar(»)V 
ovK aKT-^vvrj €7rt/ieXo/u€voc ; ^ Herodotus adds the proper sub- 
stantive 9, 92. Ar?i(^oi/ov, av^pOQ ATToXXwi^trjTew, 'ATroXXwvt?;^; 

rrJQ ev tw loviu) koXttio. 

' t t I 

2. Apposition also is used, though the word, which by these 
means is to be defined more accurately, does not stand with it, 
Xeu, H. Gr. 2, 3, 42, ewe /oaSiwc ol apyovreQ eixkXXop.ev 
Twv apyofxkvii)v Kparr](Teiv, where oi apyovrec is an apposition 
to vfieiQ, contained in e/xeXXo/j^ev. Luc. D. £). 24, 2. o Se 
Maiac ttJc, ArXavTor, ^iaKovovf.iai avrolQ. 

^ Pors. ad Eur. Or. 1. c. App. ad 550. 
Toup Em. p. 502. Markl. ad Suppl. « Brunck ad Soph. OSd. T. 267. 

708 Si/ntax, Of Apposition. 

^^32. 3. Apposition is also used in order to determine more accu* 
rately a whole or a general idea, by subjoining the parts 
or the ideas of its component parts which are really meant*. 
//. 0, 48. ^, 283, ' Idrjv K 'iKavev TroXvTTiSaKa, jULrjTepa 
Oijpuiv, Fapyapov, i. e. 'to Gargarus', a summit of Ida. 
Comp. Od, t, 39. //. (f), 37. o S* epiveov o^et '^uXki^ 
Tapve, veovQ opirriKaQ, II. v, 44. Tpwac ^e rpo/moQ aivoG 
VTTtjXvOe yvTa eKaarov. Thuc. 1, 107. Ow/cewi^ GrparevGav- 
T(jjv ec, Aw/r)iao, ttjm KaKe^aifxoviijJV firirpoTroXtv, Boeoi/ Kai 

KuTiviov Kai EjOiveov, ot Aa/ceSai/uovtoi 

€J3or}9ri(jav to?c Awpievaiv. Plat, Rep. 10./?. 615 E. tov ^e 
'ApBialov Kai aWovQ (svfJLTrodiGavreQf y^elpac; re Kai iro^ac, 
Kai Ke^aXrjv, elXKov. For determining a general idea by 
means of the ideas of its component parts, //. e', 122. yv7a 
^' eOrjKev eXaCJypa, Tro^ac /cat '^elpac virepOev. To this head 
belong also the cases §. 389, h. 421. Obs. 3. 

4. When a proper name is joined in the apposition to a 
general designation (e. g. /uLrjTrjp, Ovyar-np), by way of explana- 
tion, the tragedians often use Aeyw with the accusative. Soph. 
Aj. 569. TeXojutJvt Seijei /uLTjrpL r, EjOtjSotav Xeyw. zW. P/ie/. 
1261. <7v S', w TToiavToq 7ra?, OtXofCT»jTr/»/ Xeyw. Comp. 

5. Frequently also a substantive commonly with an adjective 
is subjoined in apposition to an entire proposition, at least to 
several words of it, in order to express an opinion or sentence 
upon the contents of the proposition. This substantive is ge- 
nerally in the accusative, probably because Troielv was supplied 
by the mind in the foregoing words. //. w', 735. rj tlq 'Ayaiojv 
pi^pei, \eipoQ eXwv, airo irvpyov, Xvypov oXeOpov. i. e. oq 
ear I Xvypoc, oXeOpoc Msch. Agam. 233. erXri Ovrrip yevkadai 
Ovyarpoc, yvvaiKOiroivoJv TroXljUWi/ aptjjyav Kai vacov npo- 
TeXeia, i. e. o, viz. to Bvrrjpa yeveaOai or Oveiv, eii? av aptjyrj. 
Soph. (Ed. T. 603. Kai rtov^ cXeyy^ov, rovro juev TlvOtj^' 
lu)V nevOov, ra "y^prjaOevr ei <ja(^(i}C ryy-yeiXa aoC tout aXX , 
kav, &c. i. e. o, to irevOeaOai UvOoi, eXey-^oc, rwv^e earai. 

* Eiist. II. 0', p.69r, 24. Lobeck ad Soph. Aj. 570. et Add. 

*» Schaef. ad Lamb. Bos. p. 628. p. 443. llerm. ib. 

Syntax, Of Apposition, 709 

Eurip. Hec. 1168. to XoiaOiov Se, Tri]^a Trr/juaroq ttXIov, 

eqeipyacravTO oeiv ' e/ncov yap ofXfiaTiov TaQ TaAanruj- 

povc Kopac KevTOvaiv. Or, 1111. EXevijv Kravivpev, M.eve\€(o 
XuTTijv TTiKpav, where not Helen, but to Kreiveiv EX. is the 
XvTTJ/ TT. if), 1506. 6 Se \iGa6fxevoQ, Oavarov irpo^aXav, quod, 
TO XiaaeaQaij munimentum esset contra mortem, ib, 1614. 
EL 231., and so probably Here, F. 59. is to be explained. 
Phan. 1234. tw ttcu^q tw au) jxeWerov, roX/nri/uLaT a a'l- 
(T^tcTTa, yuypiQ fiovofxayelv iravroQ arpaTOv, where the plural 
is put for the singular, as Bacch. 30, 71. Heracl, 403. Comp. 
§.431. Plat. Gorg. p. 507 D. E. ovToq efxaiye BoKel o (tkottoq 
elvai, irpoQ ov jSXeTTOVTa Set ZSiv, ottwo ^iKaioavvt) irapeGTai Kai 
Git)^poavvr\ TM fiaKapiit) fxkWovn eGeaOai, ovtm irpaTTeiv, ovk 
emdvfjLLaQ etjjvra aKoXaarovc, eivai Kat Tavrac eiriyjeipovvTa 
TrXrjpovv, dvrjvvTOV KaKOv, Xycyrov (5iov l^tovra. Thus also 
in Latin, e. g. Cic, de Orat, 2, 19, 79. Or, 16, 52.*^ o^e is 
also found with it Eur, Hipp, 796. e/cTe/voi^Tec a^Xtov veKvv, 
TTiKpov To^ o'lKovpTfiJia BeGTTOTaic; efxoLQ, Comp. Soph. El, 450. 
An adjective without a substantive is found in this sense Eur, 
Med. 1041. Kai KarOavovffav yepaiv eu TrepiffreXelv, ZvXwtou 
avOpioiroiaiv, instead of o triX, ecrriv. Comp. Suppl, 1073. 
Soph. Ant. 44. and with touto Plat, Gorg. p. 508 D. av re 
Tvirreiv jBovXrirai, to veaviKov ^rj tovto tov gov Xoyov, eirl 
KoppijQ, On the other hand, a substantive is also found without 
an adjective Eur. Bacch. 30. To this class belongs the phrase 
TovO o €L7rec, e.g. Plat. Rep. 5. p. 462 D. tovto o iptoTciQ, 
Gorg. p, 461 B. tovO* o Srj ayairac, as in Latin id quod refers 
to a whole proposition ^, 

The nominative is found in this apposition Eur, Troad, 493. 
TO XolgOlov ^e, OpiyKOC aBXiiov KaKwv, SovXyj yvvrj ypavc 'EX- 
XaS €iGa(j)'i^oijiai. Heracl. 71. GTe(j)T] juiaiveTai, noXei t ovei- 
Soc Kai Oetjv aTifxia. Hel. 994. KeiaofxeaOa ^e veKpu) ^v i^rjc 
TWO eni ^€GT(o Ta(p(i), aOavaTOV aXyoQ aoi, \p6yoc ^e at^ TraTpi, 
if the verb of the principal proposition is a passive or intransitive. 
On the other hand, in Od. a, 51. the nominative appears to 

*^ Misc. Philol. vol.2. 1. p. 7 seq. p. 210. 
where however different cases are ** Ileind. ad Plat. Gorg. 1. c. p. 49. 

intermixed. Heind. ad Plat. Gorg. 

710 Si/ntax, Of Apposition. 

be determined by the preceding 6ju<^oXoc, as in //. Z'y 395. by 
or,, which follows (§.474.). 

Sometimes this apposition precedes the principal proposition, 
as in the passages quoted above, Soph. CEd, T, 603. EL 450, 
Eur. Hec. 1168. Troad. 493. id. Here. F. 193. ocroi Se 
Tojoec X^TjO e)(^ovo'ii^ evffToyoVf ev juev to Xw<ttoi^ fxvpiovQ 
oiGTOvc a(j)eiQ aWoiQ, to awfia pverai fit] KarOaveiv. So is to be 
explained Find, Isthm. 3, 1 1 . See Dissen, p, 501. Eur, 
Fh(£n, 1027. a'la'^pov yap, ot juev * - - -^ - - ou/c oKvrjcrovffiv 

Oavelvf eyw Se • e^w yOovoc aireifxi, where aity^pov is an 

apposition to the following propositions, or rather to the con- 
trast implied in them. In a similar way Herodotus often makes 
that which should be contained in the apposition the principal 
proposition, and joins to it the proper principal proposition as an 

explanation, e.g. 6, 43. wc ^e irapairXkuyv Tr\v Ka'nf]v aTr'i- 

K€TO o MttjoSovcoc €G TTiv Iw^tT/v, cvOavTa fieyicTTOv OtJVfjia epecj 
ToTffi jULYJ aTrod€KoiJ.evoi<Ti Tvjv ^Wr}V(i)V, YLepffewv toIgi eirra 
'Oravf^a yvbjjxriv airo^e^aoQai, u)C y^peu)V eir) Zr]iJLOKpaTk€adai 
TVepaaQ* tovc, yap rvpavvovc, rtjv l(jjv(i)v KarairavcraQ, &c. in- 
stead of €C T17V 'Iwvif^v, evdavra tovq rvp. twv I. ACOTaTr. o 
MojO^. ^rjfxOKpaTiac KariGTa eq raa TToXiaq* b pky. dcjvfxa 
ccToi ToTcri p-rj airo^. 8cc. 

Hence are to be explained the phrases in which a participle 
or adjective without a substantive with the article is introduced 
into a proposition, e. g. Plat. Alcib, 2. p. 143 B. \e\rjOapev 
rjpaa avTOVQ §1 ayvoiav Kai irparrovTeCj Kai to -ye etr'^^arov, 
evyopevoi y]fXLV avrolc ra KaKiara, ' what is the worst'. id. 
Epist. 8. p. 355 D. to -ye peyiarov. Xenoph. Hier, 9, 7. to 
7ravT(i)v ye yjpr\aipujraTOv, 'what is most useful'. Comp. Cyr. 5, 
5, 24. Eur. Med. 564. Thuc. 2, Qb. Flat. Theat. p. 190 B. 
Kai to ttclvtwv KeCpaXaiov, GKoirei. Comp. Gorg. p. 494 E. 
Demosth. p. 299, 7.* In all these cases the words to e(jyarov 
&c. are in apposition to the proposition in which they are intro- 
duced, and must be resolved Uke the substantive quoted above, 
o eGvcLTov eari &c. The article is sometimes omitted with such 
a substantive or adjective, e.g. Thuc. 1, 142. pkyiarov Se, t^ 

* Schcef. App. Dem. 2. p. 286. 

Syntax, Of Apposition. 711 

TWM '^pfijudrtov (Tirdvei KvjXvaovrai. Plat, Phcedon. p. 96 E. 
Kat en ye tovtojv evapyetrrepaf ra ^eKa jjloi eoo/cei twv ofcrw 
nXeiova eivat. id* Gorg. p. 494 E. Kai, rovrtov toiovtoji^ ovtiov 
K€(l)dXaiov ^. 

So TO Xeyojuievov, e. g. Plat, Rep, 6. p. 492 E. ev S17 t&> 
TOtouT^ Tov veoVf TO Xeyo^evov, TiVa o'let Kap^lav ler^eiv, i. e. b 
AeyeTot, quod vulgo dicitur, instead of which elsewhere ojGirep 
Xeyerai is used. id. Soph, p, 261 B. to Kara rriv 7rapoip,lav 
Xeyofievov, and with tovto Plat, Gorg, p. 514 E, So to 
TeXeuTttToi', e. g. Isocr, Panath, p, 253 D. irav rovvavriov 
Plat, Gorg, 515 E. Xen, Mem, S, 1,2, 60. The following 
are appositions of the same kind : Plat, Alcib, 1. p, 121 D. 
TO TOV Kio/uLio^oTToiov ^ as the comic writer says'. See §. 280. 
id. Theat. p. 183 E. to tou *Op,r)pov 'as Homer says', id. 
Rep, 4. j9. 422 E. to riov iraitovrisyv * as they say in jest*, id. 
Lack, p. 191 B. TO rijjv ^kvOwv, 

The first-mentioned kind of apposition is also used in propo- 
sitions followed by oTt or yap, with an entirely new proposition : 
Plat. PhcddoJi. p, 66 J), to S* etr^aTOV navTiov, on 66pvj5ov 
irapeyei Kai Tapayr]v, Isocr, ad Phil, p, 109 D. to Se fxeyiorov 

Twv eipr)jxevwv, on avfjL^aivei . Isocr, de Pac. p, 1 70 B. 

TO ^e iravrwv ay^erXiijJTaTOv' ouc yap oiuLoXoyrj(Taip,ev av, 8cc. 
The relative is used in the same way : Plat, Euthi/d. p. 304 C. 
o Se Kai <roi paXicrra 7rp0(Tr}Kei aKOvffai, on ov^e to ^jOrjjiiaTt- 
tecrOai (j)aTov ^laKtoXveiv ov^ev, Comp. Li/s, p. 204: D, Isocr, 
IT. avn^, §. 228. Bekk, Also with other particles: eirei^r] Plat. 
Hipp, Min, p, 368 C. ei Isocr, Arch, p. 127 D. oTai^ id, n. 
auTi^, p. 314 E. Comp. Archid, p, 132 C. Isocr, Trapezit, 
p. 361 C. b Se TrdvTijJv ^eivoTaTOv' ^leyyvujvTOQ yap Mer^e^e- 

1,0V . Comp. p. 364 E. in Euthyn, p. 402 A. avTiS. 

§. 266. In both cases we might supply tovto eo-Tt* to ^e 
eaycLTov iravTdyv tovto ecTtv, oti . as indeed Plato ex- 
presses himself, Menexen, p, 244 D. Ka\ to ye deioTaTOv nav- 

TOiV (ecTTt) TO Kai (^acTiXea etc; tovto airopiaQ aCpiKeaSai . 

but in reality the parenthetical proposition appears to be con- 

^ Viger. p. 15. Fisch. p. 342. 

712 Syntax. Of Apposition. 

nected with the continuation of the leading proposition, as in 
the cases §. 632. On the other hand Arist. Vesp. 605. o ^e 
y r)Si<TTOV TOVT(t)v ecTTi, iraVTijJV ov yio wiXeXycTfxrjv, orav oi/caS 
\(t) Tov fxiaBov e'^(t)Vf where we must regard rovroicnv eyw yaw- 
fjLaiy which does not occur till v. 612., as the apodosis ; and to 
the proposition thus completed, the words o ^e y ri§. form a 
very common apposition, as in Latin quod vero jucundissimum 
est, qtium domum redeo, omnes me amariter excipiunt, 

433. Obs, 1. The words BvoTv OaTepoy also form an apposition, being in- 
troduced into a proposition with ij — //, without having any other con- 
nection with it. Isoer. ad Phil. p. 99 C ^ei yap /irj^ey irpoTcpov Trpar- 
reiVi irpiv ay \a(3r) ris tovs "EXXiyvas dvoly Barepoy rj trvvaywyi^ofjievovs 
fi TToWriv evvoiay eypyras toIs TrparrofieyoiSi which may be made clearer 
by supplying ^vo7y Odrepoy Troiovyras, rj &c. according to §. 630, 3. 
but properly ^voly Oarepoy seems to be an apposition to the two cases 
mentioned with >/ — r/. 

(433) Obs. 2. It is a kind of apposition when a substantive is repeated with 
an addition, e. g. //. ^', 85. Aaodorj, dvyarrip "AXrao yepovTOSy " A\- 
rew, OS AeXeyecct (piXoTTToXefioLffiy aydaraei. Comp. the passages quoted 
above, //. Ci 395. Od. a', 51. 

Obs. 3. Frequently the substantive which is put in apposition to an- 
other, contains not so much an explanation or more exact determination 
of the former, as the operation or design of it. II. d', 155. Odyaroy 
vv roi opKL erajiyoy, where in English we should say * for thy death'. 
So Pindar Pyth. 10, J 5. calls the head of Gorgo XiOiyoy Odyaroy, be- 
cause it killed the beholders, turning them to stone. JEsch. Ag, 200. 
202. Tvyoal fDporcjy aXat, * storms, which cause men to wander over the 
deep'. Eur'ip. Or. 802. b-Kore ^pvcreias epis dpyos ijXvOe TayraXiBaiSy 
olKTpoTara dotvdfjLura Kai crtpdyia yeyyaiioy rcKeioy. id. Phcen. 
1372. (J TXrjfAoy, OLoy r€pjjLoy\ ^loKdcrrrj, filov ydjjioy re ruiy auiy, 
'St(j)iyy6s aiytyfjiovs, erXrfs. See Person's note. Comp. §. 429, 1.** 
Also besides the apposition, the accusative is put in this sense Soph. 

(Ed. C. 91. eXe^ey evravQa Kdfixpeiy Toy raXaiiruypoy (iiov, 

Kephrf jxkv olKljaayra toIs dedeyfieyois, cirijy Be rois Trifjixpaariy, where 
Kep^rjf drr)y are represented as the effect of the residence of (Edipus 
there. Comp. Eur. Or. 382. 

Obs. 4. Of the construction 'EXXrjyoTafxlai KareffTtj dp)(f}, and others, 
§. 428, 5. 

* See Matthiae ad Eur. Hel. 172. 

Si/ntax. Co7nhimtwn oj Adjectives, S^c. 713 

Of the Combination of Adjectives, Adjective- Pronouns 
and Participles, with Substantives, 

^ Adjectives, adjective-pronouns (as the possessive pronouns 434 
ovToc, avTT,, rovTo. Z^e, &c. ahT6c oc, ^, o.) and participles, 
conform themselves properly, in gender and number, to the 
substantives with which they are put as epithets or predicates, 
or to which they refer. An adjective stands as an epithet when 
with Its substantive it constitutes one whole, so that the sub- 
stantive, without the determination conveyed in the adjective, 
would be incomplete ; as a predicate, when a new determi' 
nation is subjoined to a substantive considered as complete. 
From this rule there are many deviations in Greek writers : 

1. They refer an adjective, &c. to the substantive only in 
itsjense, and put it in the gender which is impliecThnhe 
substantive, though this last has a different grammatical 

a. Adject, and partic. //. /, 84. <^/Xe tI/ci^ov, of Hec- 
tor, and ver. 87. (i>i\ov OaXoQ, ov re/cov alr^, II. tt', 280. 
\Kivr)Qev ^6 ^aXayyec eXirofxevoi, because the </)aA. are an 
aggregate of men. Herod, 5, 1 15. kvrecjy^e y^povov eirl ttXcT- 
yrov TToXiopKevfikvY) SoAot, r^v, ir^inTio fxrjvl elXov ol 
Hepcjai. J^sch. Agam. 120. (^ocTKoinevoi Xayivav epiKv^cova 
pep^ari yevvav,^^Xa(3evTa XoiaOiiov Sp6i^u>p, Plat, Phcedr, ^jZ^u^ 
?. 239 A. oure §77 KpeiTTw ovre [(jov^evov UCov kpaarm :,rj 9^ 
rai^iKa kvel^erai, ^irro^ ^e /cat t»7ro^ee(TTe^oi^ aet airep- ^^7 ^ 
mcrerm.^ p. 240 A. eVt rotWv aya^ov, airai^a, aoiKov 
Ti TrXeTcrroi/ xpoi'OM rrai^iKa epacrr^Q ev^airo av yevkaSai, 
cistead of which Akib. 2. p. 141 D. it is 'A^x^Xao. ra nai- 
iKa epaoOcvra t?c Tvpavv'i^oc --- aweKreive^. Xen. Cyr. 1, 

^ 12.^ al ixkvoxiaai (j)vXai Siayiovito/Lievoi ravra 

•poQ aXXriXovc ^lareXovaiv'^. This is especially the case 

! Lob ad Phryn. p. 425. Markl. ad Eur. Suppl. 45. Fisch. 

Valck. ad Eunp. Phcen. 1295. 3 a. p. 306, 317 sq. Ilerm. ad Vis. 
.ocn ad Grng. p. (29) 71. (38) 93. p. 715, 49. Bceckh ad Find. Nem. 
lemst. ad Luc. 2. p. 489 seq. ed. Bip. 5, 43. 
VOL. II. p 

714 Syntax. Combination of Adjectives y i^c, 

when there is a circumlocution of the subject, e. g. TL X', 690. 
eXQCjv yap p eKaKiove |3t»7 'H/oafcXijeir/. JEsch, Choeph. S93, 
(l>i\TaT Aiyi<T0ov j3/a *. So, when a plural is used for a sin- 
gular, it takes the participle in the singular : Eur. Here. F. 
1209. iKeTevo/LLev ajuL(j>i oav yeveia^a Kal yovv kql \^pa 
npoairiTvtJv. See §. 293. Generally adjectives and parti- 
ciples are put in the masculine with persons when they are de- 
signated merely as human beings ; in the feminine when they 
are defined by any occupation belonging to a particular sex, as 
especially in Xen. Mem. S. 2, 7. See Schneider on §. 8. 

b. Pronoun. JEliir. Suppl. 12. Bavovrtov kirra yevvauov 

TEKVijjv, ovc TTOT Apy€i(i)v cLval^ ' A^patTTOQ ijyayev, 

Comp. Andr. 571. and the passages quoted Il-x, 87. Herod, 
5, J 15. So when, after the mention of a place, its inhabitants 
are referred to : Herod. 7, 8, 2. Trvpuxru) raa 'AOrjvac, oi ye cfxe 
VTrrip^av a^iKa iroievvrec Thuc. 6, 80. airo UeXoirovvrjcrov 
wapeaofjLevTf^c, a>(^eXetac, o't rtjjv^e Kpeltraovc, eiai. Comp. Backh 
Inscr. Gr. I. p. 109. 

2. Hence a collective noun in the singular and feminine, or 

neuter, is often accompanied by the adjective in the plural and 

masculine. Mschyl. Agam. 588. Tpoirjv eXovTec 8^ wot 

Apyeicjv aroXoc &c. Thuci/d. 1, 143. Kvf^epvriTaQ e^oimev 

TToXtVac Kai rrjv aXXijv virripeffiav nXeiovc Kai apeivovQ. 

Xen. Hist. Gr. 2, 3, 55. rj Se j^ovXrj i^cru^iav el-yev ovk 

ayvoovvrec, on ey^eipi^ia e^ovrec napriaav . In both respects 
Thucyd. 3, 79. rip S' varepaia em /nev rrjv noXiv ov^ev /maX- 
Xov ewewXeov, Kainep ev ttoXX^ '^^P^XV '^"^ ^^(^H^ ovrac. 

h. With pronouns. //. it, 368. (' E/ctw^) XelTre Xaov 
T pMiKov, ovQ aeKovrac opvKrrj ra(j)poc epvKe. Isocr. Plat. 
p. 299 B. rrjXiKovTOV aTparevfxaroc ovroc, Oeairiacriv, v<p 
wv ov fxovov OVK aif eXarrov tj viro Or^f^aiiov ^ie(f)OapYip.ev, aXXa 
Kal ^iKaiorepov. Panath. p. 270 A. to rpirov fxepOQ av- 
rwVf ovG KaXovfxev vvv AaKe^aifxoviovCj araaiaaai jueu (paaiu 
avTOvc ol TO. eKelviov aKpi(5ovvTec. In the same manner Xen. 

■ Pors. ad Eur. Hec.293. et Schaef. 3 a. p. 306, 317 seq. Bibl.Crit. 3,2,35. 
*• Dorville ad Char. p. 415. Fisch. Ast ad Plat. Leg. p. 103 seq. 

Si/ntax. Combination of Adjectives J &ic. 715 

Mem, S. 2, 1, 31. t/c av eu (ppovijjv rov aov Oiaaov toX/hii- 
aecev eivai, o i, veoi /nev ovrec rote aiofxaaiv a^vvaroi eicrtv 8cc. 

Thus the relative also often stands in the plural after a sin- 
gular antecedent, when it does not refer to the definite indi- 
vidual person or thing, but to the whole class ; as if for oloc. 
Eurip, Or. 908. av^peloc avrjp, oXiyaKic affrv Kayopac '^patviov 
KVKXoVy avrovpyoCf o'lirep Kai fxovoi cnoCovai yrju, cujus generis 
homines. See Porson's note. Plat. Rep. 8. p. 554 B. avyjit]- 
poQ ye TIC (jjv, Kai airo rravTOC irepiovaiav iroiov^ievoc,, dr]aavpo- 
iroioc avr]p' ovq Sr) Kai eiraivel to TrXrjOoc. So Soph, Trach. 
547 seq. optjj yap Sj3»/v ri^v fjiev epirovcrav irpoau), Tr\v ce (pOi- 
vovcrav' (jjv a(j)apira^€iv (j)i\el o(j)Oa\iLioc avOoCf tcov S vireKrpe- 
TTtiv TToSa, where lov — tojv seem to refer not to ^/3r/c, but to 
Tijjv rjjSr/v TTJv epTTOvaav irp6(T(Oy (fyO'iifovaav e-^ovrivv. On the 
contrary ckttiq is used in reference to a substantive plural 
§. 475, a, or when a preceding plural is used for the singular 

Eur. Iph, ^.991 seq. oiKrpa yap ireTrovdafxev, rj oirfdelffa 

KevTiv Kareff-^ov eXmSa. See §. 293.*^ 

Obs, Similar to this is the construction, when an adjective or par- 
ticiple conforms in gender to the substantive which is in the geni- 
tive, but in case to the substantive which governs that genitive. //. 

/3', 459. rcJj/ 3', war opvidwv Trcrerivuiv edvea TroWa •■ •■ erOa 

Kai eySa TroTuivraL ayaWo fieyai Trrepvyeffaiy. Soph. Antig. 1001. 
ayytor aKovoj ^0dyyov opviOufyf KaK^ KXai^ovras o'lcrTptD Kai /3e- 
(iapfiapojfxcyip. Aj. 1G8. irrrivtoy ayiXai fxeyay alyvinoy virohei- 

In the same manner a singular in a collective sense is used, 
to which a participle in the plural refers. Soph. Antig, 
1021. ouo opvic, evarifjLovc airoppoi^^ei (5oac, aySpo<p06pov 
/3e/3/owT€q ai/maTOcXiiroc. Thus too the relative: Plat, liep. 6. 
p. 485 B. (.ladrifxaroQ aei epuiaiv (oi (j)iX6cro<poi) oaa av avrolc 
^riXol. &c. Isocr, Paneg, J9. 67 E. (c. 36.) ov^ev roiovrov 
KaTa<TK€vatov(7iVy ej wv earai avrolc;. 

Hence ric is often referred to by another pronoun in the 
plural. Od. A, 502. t^^ Ke reio (jTv^ai/uii uevoc, Kai y^eipac 

•^ Scha-f. ad Dion. Hal. p. 1 1 seq. «* Fisch. 3 a. p. 314. 

ad Theoc. 25, 121. 

p 2 

716 Si/ntax\ Combination of Adjectives, S^c 

aaiTTOvc, o't Kcivov j^iowvTai, Xen. Mem, S. 1,2, 62. edv tic 

(j)av€poc yevrjrai KXeirTiov tovtoiq OavaroQ eariv r) 2[r/^tia. 

Comp. Thuc, 4, 85. Plat, Leg. 12. p, 943 D. Xen. Cyr, 7, 
4, 5. 8, 8, 4. So ocTTtc and outoc answer to each other 
%. 475.^ Comp. §.487, 1. 

Ohs. It is a somewhat different case when the writer, instead of 
the word actually used, has in his mind another equivalent to it indeed, 
but of a different gender, and refers to this the adjective or participle. 
Od. fi'f 74. pe({)€\r] ^e fxiv afji(f)il3ej3r]K€ Kvarerj' to fxey ovttot epoJcT, 
where to jiev v€(pos is alluded to. Thuc, 2, 47. i) vocros vrpuiToy 
ijp^aro yeveaBuL Tots ^ABrjvaioiSy Xeyo fxevov jjiev Kal TrpoTcpop TroXXa- 
Xoae eyKaTci(TKrj\paif as if ro voari^a preceded. See Duker's note on the 
passage ''. 

435. Adjectives and demonstrative pronouns are often referred, in 
respect of gender, to vi^ords which are implied in a preceding- 
one from the sense or the composition. 11. i , 383. 0»f/3at, at 
^ CKaTO^iTTvAoi e/(T(, ^tr/zcodtot ^' av eKaffTYjv {irvXriv) 
avepec eiaoiyvevai, Herod, 4, 110. evTvyovGai Se Trpioro* 
nnro(^oppni)j tovto ciYipjraaav' Kai eiri Tovnov {'iTTTrtjjv) nTira- 
to/Jievai eXrii^ovTO ra rtjv ^KvOetov. Soph. Track. 260. CjO^erai 
TToAiv TYiv ^iVpvreiav' rovde yap ^erairtov /liovov j^portHv 
h(^aGKe Tov^ elvai waOovc;. Eurip, Hec. 22. irarpioa 
ecrta /ca t €(7/c a <j!) 17, avroc ^e (viz. irarrjp) (^(o/uio irpoc Oeo^fxriTOJ 
•TTiTvei, Phan. 12. KaXovtri S' Iokcktttjv jue' rovro (bvajLia) 
yap Trarrip eOero, Plat. Leg. 1. p. 644 D. Oavf^ia pev eKaarov 
rjyriaojpeOa ruiv ^wwt' Qe^ov, eire u)C, iraiyviov eKCivtJv {tu)U 
6eu)v), e'lre ioc cnrov^y rivi fui^etTTrj/coc. 9. p. 864 D. TraiSia 
j^piopevoc, ov^ev irw t(jjv TOtot'Twi' ^lacpepojv, viz. iraidujv^. 

This takes place in the relative pronoun oc, v, o, Hesiod. 
Theog, 450. ^ij/ce 8e piv Kpov'i^YfQ Kovpor p6(pov, 0*1 (Kovpoi) 
per BKeivYiv o(j)Ba\po7<nv ISovro (j)aoc TroXvdepKeoc Houc. 
Thuc. 6, 80. QTro TieXoirovvrjffov irapecropevr^c w^eXetac, 01 

'^ Stallb. ad Phil. p. 138. Schzef. Pors. ad Eur. Hec. 22. Fisch. Prjef. 

App. Dem. 1. p. 62'i. ad Well. Gr. p. 9 sq. 3 a. p. 268. 

** Gregor. p.(37sq.) 93. et Keen. Ilerm. ad Vig. p. 714, 44. Heind. 

" Hemsterh. ad Arist. Plut. 5C6. ad Plat. Theaet. p. 369. Seidl. ad 

Valck. ad Phoen. 12. ad Herod. 1, 36. Eur. El. 582. 
Wessel. ad Diod. S. t. 1. p. 378, 81. 

Syntax. Combination of Adjectives, S^c. 717 

(TleXoiroifvnoioi or oi djCpeXeiav (pepovrecy i. e. avfxf^inyoi) rtjjv^e 
KpeiaaovQ e'lal to irapaiTuv. Soph, Antig. 1 130. /cat ae Nu(t/wv 
ope(jJv Ki(Tai]p€iG ^x'^ai yXiopa t a/cra 7rouXv(TTa(|)uXoc Tre/xTrei, 

Orff3aiac eiricTKOTrovvT ayviaCj rav (Orjpriv) e/c iraaav 

TifxaQ vireprarav 7roAea>v f-iarpi aw Kepavvia. Cornp. ?7y. 1035. 
(Ed, C. 730. Eurip, Ilec. 420. awincpoc, awpkvaioQ, u)v 
(viu€vai(x)v) fjL ey^p?]v Tv^elv. Iphig. A. 1418. to Oeof^iay^elv 
yap uTroXnrovcT f o (^eToi') gov Kparel, e^eXoyiaiJi) Ta -^prjara. 
Xen. Cyrop. 5, 2, 15. /cat ot/cia ye ttoXv /uLei^MV rj vfxerepa 
Ti/q eprJQy o'l ye oiKia /uev '^pijaOe yy re Kai ovpavt^ &C. 

Thus also the article as a pronoun. Od. ^', 434. /cat tq ^tei^ 
eTTTQ-^^a TTa^'Ta ^le/noiparo ^a'iC(ov' Tr]v pev 'lav Nvp(pYj(n 
Kai ILppy, MaiaSoc vh, OrJKev eTrev^apevoQj rac aXXac 
veipev cKaorw, where in t-iju pev \av Sec, from CTTTa^a (i.e. eic 
kirra po'ipac,), must be understood polpav. 

Even where this reference to the sense only cannot be sup- 436. 
posed to be the cause, adjectives, pronouns, and participles 
often differ in gender and number from the substantive to 
which they refer. 

1. The feminine in the dual is often accompanied by the 
masculine. Thuc. 5, 23. apcpu) tw iroXee. Plat. Gorg.p. 524 A , 
TO* o^u). Leg. 10. J?. 898 A. toutoii^ toTi^ Kivrjaeoiv. Rep. 5. 
p, 452 A. TouTO) Tw rkyva. Comp. Soph, p. 228 E. Xen. 
Cyr, 1, 2, 11. Kai /tiiau ap(j)(jj tovtu) tw ripepa Xoyi'Cov- 
Tat. Mem. S. 2, 3, 1 8. outwc ^laKeiaOov, tjcFirep et tw '^elpe, 
UQ o OeoQ em to avXXappaveiv aXXi]Xaiv eTToiriaeVj ac^epevio 
TOVTOV TpairoivTO irpoc, to §ia /ca»Xi;eti^ aXXi]X(x). 2'heocr, 21, 
48. Tw X^pe reivopevoQ irepi KvCj^aXov, evpov ayQva, See 
Part I. §. 63. Obs, 2. 

Thus also the participle. //. B' , 455. Jupiter says to Minerva 
and Juno, ovk av ecj) i^perepiov oA^ewi^, TrXriyevre Kepavvio, 
u\p ec ' OXvpirov iKeaBov, Ilesiod, ' E/?-y. 195. /cat totc Bri irpoQ 
' OXvpTTOV OTTO yOovijc, evpvoSeirjQf XevKo7aiv (papeecrai KaXv- 
xpapevio \p6a kuXoVj ciOavaTbJV pera <^uXoi/ iToy Tr^oXtTroi'T 
dvOpu)7rovQ A'lBioQ Kai ^epeaic {Soph. EL 977. where 
Electra speaks of herself and Chrysothemis : *iSeo6e roj^e no 
Kacfiyi>i]Tio, (plXoi, lo rov naTptfJov oiKov tfedwjoTiji', w Toiatv 


7 ] 8 Sj/ntax. Combination of Adjectives, S^c. 

cyfipol-C, ev /3€j3»//co(Jtv ttotc, xpv^rjci dc[>ei^r}(TavT€, irpovoTn- 
Tr]v <^6vov. does not properly belong to this place, since the 
substantive is masculine, only that it is put for the feminine 
substantive ra Kaaiyvr)ra.) Plat, Phad, p, 237 D. -njj.wv iv 
€Ka(TT(^ ^vo Tive e<TTOv iSea apy^ovre Kai ayovre, olv 
eirojJL^da, ^ av ayrfrov, rj /nev efx<^VTOC ovaa eiridv/bila rj^ovcov, 
aAAtf oe eTrt/crr/Toq oo^a, ecpiejuevri rov apiaTOV. tovt(o oe ev 
rj/ulv TOT€ fiev oixovoeirov, &c.* The masculine is even mixed 
with the feminine Soph, (Ed. C, 1676. Trapoiaop,ev iZovre Koi 

2. Sometimes even with nouns feminine in the singular and 
plural the adjective &c. is put in the masculine. //. k, 216. 
oiu jueXaivav, SrjXvv, as BrjXvQ eepari in Homer. 11. t, 97. 
'Hprj OrjXvQ eovcra. OrjXvv airopav Eiirip. Hec. 659. Of the 
same class are tj^vq avTjU?/, rumixTeoG y)fjLepaQ, &c. which are ad- 
duced §. 119, b. Obs. 4. Probably in the old language these 
were adjectives of two terminations, communia. To this head 
may also be referred aXoc; ttoXcoTo in Homer. So Sophocles 
uses rrjXiKovTOC for rrjXiKavTYi EL 614. (Ed. C. 751. and 
Philemon (p. 63. ed. Osann.) quotes from Hesiod daitofxevov 

{-void) TToXriOQ. 

In 6(ja€ (j)a€iva IL v, 435. oaae aifmaroevra ib. 617. the 
dual oaae (§. 91, 3.) is regarded as a neuter plural, whence 
the construction oaae lateral Od. 2? 131. So aXKi/ma dovpe 
II. ir\ 139. with Heyne's note in the Observations. 

So participles in the masculine singular and plural are fre- 
quently found with substantives of the feminine gender. In 
Pind. 01. 6, 23. eirra S eireira irvpav veKpuiv reXeaOev- 
T(jjv, l^aXawvi^ac eXirev 8cc. veKpwv TeXeadkvnov go together, 
' the corpses of seven pyres*. In Eur. Troad. 1121. /uri^e yaidv 


XOoi AaKa 


cvaya/uiov ala'yoQ eX(jJv EAXa^i 
ra fueydXa. eXwv refers to Menelaus. Electr. 1023. toElectra: 
TO IT pay /ma Se jULaOovra a' , r}v /uev a^iwc /iuaelv e-^yc, aTvye7v 
^iKaiov, the reading should be paOovrac. See below 4. fyhig. 

>» Valck. ad Eur. Hipp. 386. Koen 
ad Greggr. p. (304) 631. Duker ad 
Thuc. 5,79. Fisch. 1. p. 316, 370. 3 a. 

p. 308. llerm. ad Orph. II. 78, 4. 

^ Tliom. M. 448 sq. Ruhiik. Ep. 
Crit p. 101. 

Syntax. Combination of Adjectives, Sfc, 719 

I, 844. a> KpelaaoVy rj XoyoKTiv, evTv^tJv efiov rpv^a, tI 
<j}tjj ; may be compared with Xen. Cyr, 7, 3, 8. eS ayadrj Kal 
TTio-TTj '/'V)(i7, 01^^ Brj anoXnrLJv rj/uiac, according to §. 434, 

1, a. But ^schylus Agam, 573. has Xeifxioviai ^poffoi ti- 

Bevrec, evOripou rplya. This is more frequent in the later 
poets, KaraipvyOevTOQ aKavOrjQ Nicand, Ther, 329. and other 
passages quoted by Boeckh I, c. This interchange of gender 
seems to have taken place when nothing particular depended 
on the determination of the gender, but only a person generally 
was meant. Thus too Xen. Mem, S. 2, 7, 2. (rvveXr^XvOaaw 
WQ €p.e KaraXeXei/miuLevai aSeX<|)at re Kai a^eX^t^at Kal 
avexpiai Toaavrai, uktt el vat ei^ ry oiKia reacrapaaKaiSeKa 
TovQ eXevdepovc^. 

3. On the other hand the adjective or verb is used in the 
plural with a substantive or pronoun dual, as §. 301. Od. X', 
211. o(ppa Kai eiv Ai^ao, (j)lXaQ 7re.p1 ^eT^oe jBaXovre d/m- 
(porepu) Kpv€po7o reTapirwfxeGda yooio. Plat. Phadr. 

p. 278 B. on vlj Karaf^avreQ rjKovaafiev. Euthyd. 

p. 273 D. eyeXa(TaTr}v ovv ap.(f>(jj f^XexpavTCQ. and both 
numbers conjoined id. Protag. ^. 317 E. ev §e rovrt^ KaX- 
XiaQ re Kai AA/ctjStaSr/c tj/ccti/v ayovre rov HpoBiKov dva- 
aTYi(TavTeQ eK t^c fcXtvi/q **. 

On the contrary the participle is also found in the dual, with 
the substantive in the plural, if only two persons are meant. 
//. 7r,429. ot S, w(TT aiyvirioi yaimxpujvv^eCy dyKvXoyelXai, 
TTCTpy €(j) v\prtX^ fjieydXa KXdtovre /nd-^ovrai. Plat. Rep. 10. 
p.6[4C. ev (^ T»7c yrjc ^vo elvai y^dafxara e^o/iei/w aXXr/Xotv. 
as the verb, though referring to a subject in the plural, is often 
found in the dual (§. 301.) if no more than two persons or 
things are meant. 

The dual Svo is often joined with a plural substantive : e. g. 
Soph. Aj. 237. ouo apyiTTo^ar, Kpiovc aVeXwi^. even in the 

«= Heath ad Eur. Med. 805. Valck. Find. Ol. 6. p. 155. 
Diatr. p. 175 A. Musgr. ad Eur, Iph. '^ Ueind. ad Plat. Prot. §. US. 

T. 844. Cycl. 32(i. Boeckh Explic. 

720 Syntax, Combination of Adjectives, S^c. 

genitive and dative Msch. Ag. 1395. Kav ^vdlv oifjLtoy^aaiv. 
Hum, 597. ^voLv inia(jjLiaTU)v^. 

Obs. Masculine substantives are also found in an adjective sense with 
feminines, as ttjs iraTpo^ovrov fjirjrpos Soph. Track. 1125. with Schaefer's 
note. See §.112. Obs. 2. 

4. The tragedians use the masculine for the feminine, espe- 
cially in two cases : 

a. When the plural instead of the singular is used of a fe- 
male, and this indeed is commonly the case. Soph. El. 399. 
TreaovjuLeO , ei ^prjy irarpi Tifxijjpovfxevoi, of Electra and 
Chrysothemis. Eiirip. Flee. 515. ovk ap' wc Oavovfxepovci 
jmerriXOec rip,ac Iphig. A. 828. ot» Oav/na cf 'hjuac, ayvoelvf 
ovQ jurj wdpoc Karel^ec, dcnd passim . 

b. When a chorus of women is speaking of themselves. Eu- 
rip. Hippol. 1119 seq. fvi'ea-ii^ ^e riv eXTii^i KevOtjJv XeiVo/iat 
kv T€ Tv^aiQ 6vaT(jJu Kat. ev epy^iaai Xevcraojv. Andr. 422. 
loKTeip' aKovGac,, where others have aKovaaa .^ 

Obs. The comparatives and superlatives of adjectives which are com- 
mon, or of those which are used as common, have usually three termi- 
nations. But here also the termination of the masculine sometimes 
stands for the feminine. Thuc. 3, 101. ^vo-e^/3oA.a;raros // AoKpis. 
5, 110. Tojy KparovyridV dTToptjjrepos ij XrjxpLS. See §. 117, 11. Obs,*^ 

437. 4. The adjective as a predicate (not as an epithet) of things 
and persons, often stands in the neuter singular, although the 
subject is masculine or feminine or in the plural. II. /3', 204. 
OVK ayaOov TroXvKoipavir}' elc; Koipavoc, eario. Herod. 3, 36. 
aodiov ^e r] Trpof-iriOir}. Eurip. Med. 1090. oi fxev y areKvoi, 
oi aireipoavvav, eiu tjou pporoiQ, eir aviapov naioec 
TeXeOovcT , ov\l rvvovreCf ttoXXwv fxoydvjv aireyovTai. Here, 
F, 1295. K€KXrif.ievM ^e <^WTt ixaKapii^ irore a I ^erajSoXat 

* Ehnsley ad Eur. Med. 798. ad Soph. El. 977. Antig. 926. Arist. 

Sophocles (Ed. C. 631. considers Eccl. 31. Eur. Med. 316. Pors. ad 

^volv 7raiS(t)p as ungrammatical. On Eur. Hec. 615. Herm. ad Vig. 

the other side, see Osann Syll. In- p. 715, 50. 

script, p. 86. not. 47. Gbttling ad ^ Dorv.adChar. p.292. Herm. I.e. 

Aristot. Polit. p. 367 seq. *" Misc. Obss. 3. p, 303. Dorv. ad 

^ Dawes's Misc. Cr. p. 310. Brunck Char. p. 347. 

Sj/tUax. Comhmation of Adjectives y Si c, 721 

\vTrr]pov. Plat. Leg, 4. p, 707 A, KaKov ev OaXarryj rpirj' 
peiQ onXiToiQ 7rap€(JT(jJGai /ua^o^evoic. and also according to 
§. 303. lb. 5, p. 732 E. ean 8t) (fyvaei avOptj-rr eiov fna- 
Xi(TTa ri^ovai Kai Xvnai /cat eiriOv fjiiai. jRe/). 5. p. 455 E. 
daOevearepov yvvrj avdpoQ. Comp. Fhadon. p. 87 D. Thus 
too the participle with an adjective : Plat. Rep. 4. p. 420 C. 
oi o(^0aX/iot, KaWiGTOV oVj ovk oarpeKi) ei'aXrjXtjUjuei'oi elev. 
The difference of the construction of the adjective as an epithet, 
and as a predicate, is strongly marked in these expressions 
Plat. Hipp. Maj. p. 288 B. OrjXeia 'ittttoc koXyi ov koXov ; ib. C. 
\vpa KaXrj ov KaXov ; yvrpa KaXr\ ov KaXov ; 

This predicate in the neuter is often accompanied by xpril^a 
or KTrjpa. Herod. 3, 80. Kwr, S av e'lrj y^prjima KarrjpTi]- 
fikvov f^iovvapy^iT] ', Eurip. Iphig. A. 334. vovq Se y ov 
(5e(5aioc, a^iKov Krrjpa, kov a a (pec (piXoic Plat. Theag, 
p, 122^. (TV p(5ovXri lepov '^prj/na. A\so n pay fjia : Demosth. 
TT. irapairp. p. 383, 5. Mena/id. ap. Stob. Tit. 10. wc ttoik'iXov 
Trpayfx eon /cat irXavov rvyjn. Or these substantives are put 
in the genitive, with the superlative of the adjective : Herod. 5, 
24. Krr)fJLaTiov iravrwu rifiiujTarov avrip (j)iXoc,. Isocr, ad Ni- 
cod. p. 25 B. av/d^ovXoQ ayaOoc; xpr}<7ifX(l)TaT0v Kal rvpavviKU)- 
Tarov arravTiov KTrif.iaT(jJV eari ®. 

Ohs. 1. ovley, firjdev are often used in a similar manner with the 
verb elpif earlyf elai in the i:redicate, or in apposition with subjects of 

all genders. Eurip. Or. 717. to ttXtju yvyaiKos ouveka arparrfXaTelyf 

TctXA.' ov^ey * thou who art fit for nothing but', &c. Phcen. 4^17. 

TCI (piXioy h' ovdey, ijy ris Zvarvx^' See §. 284. Androm. 50. TraiU 
T ovlev eW airojy ' is of no avail', ih. 1080. ovhey eifx, air oXofxay *I 
am lost'. Plat. Rep. 8. p. 556 D. ay^pes oi ijfxeTepoL TrXovatoi elaly 
ovhiy. Apol. S. p. 41 E. ecti^ doicuiai tl elyai, /jLrjhey oyres^ oyetdi- 

'Cere auroTs, otl ovk eTrifxeXovyrai wv ^ei koI o'loyrai tl elyai, oyres 

ov^eyos a^ioi. and with the article in the neuter Soph. Track. 1107. kclv 
TO fXTjhey uJ. Comp. Jj. 1275. Eur. Rhes. 821. ?} Toy "Eicropa to 
fxri^ey eJyai Kal kukov yopi^cTe * of no consequence*: also in the 
masculine Eur. Phcen. 612. npos Toy ovUy. Soph.Aj. 767. Kay 6 firj^ey 
&y. ovcey, firj^ey are also used as indeclinables : Soj^h. Aj. 12i31. ot 
ovhky ojy tov furf^ey ajreoTJ/s virep. Eur. Heracl. 168. yepoyTos to 

« \'cilck. ad Eur. Ph. '4O6. Brunckad Arist. Ran. MJi?. Fisch. 3 a. p. 238. 310. 

722 Si/ritax, Combination of Adjectives, 8^c. 

fjLTfSky ovTOii. Troad. 415. drop to. aefxva koX ^oKijfjiaaiy aocfta ov^ey ri 
Kpeiaau) riSv to jJLijdey -qv apa. 

Instead of this the masculine is used Artst, Equ, 158. w vvv fiky 
oh^eiSf avpLoy B' virepfjiyas, and in the oblique cases Soph. (Ed, C. 918. 
K&jJL "taoy T(f fjLTiheyi. Antig. 1325. tov ovk oyra fidXXoy */ jjirjdeyaf qui 
potius extinctus sum quam nullo numero habendus. and ovdeyes also in 
the "plural Herod. 9, 58. ovSeyes apa eovrcs ey ovBajJioiai eovai "EX- 
Xrjfft eyaire^eiKyvaTOi ' men of no consideration'. Soph. Aj. 1114. oh 
yap ri^iov tovs fitideyas. Eurip. Androm, 700. arefjiyol ^' ey ap^au 
yfieyot Kara irroXiy (ppoyovtTi Brjuov fxei^oyj oyTCS oh B eyes. Iphig, A, 
371. Commonly the masculine is used for *of no value*, the neuter in 
this sense and also in that of 'destroyed'. (See Eur. Or. 717. Phoen, 
417. Andr. 60.) Eurip. Ion. 606. 6 (ro) fjirj^ky wy Kal ohd^yioy kcK' 
Xriffofjiai will be the only exception, if this reading be correct*. 

Obs. 2. The comparatives * more, less', irXeicjy, /xe/wv, &c. are often 
put as epithets with substantives of the masculine and feminine gender 
and plural number, in the neuter singular or plural, and in the ac- 
cusative, although the substantive be in the nominative, genitive, or 
dative. Xen. Cyrop. 2, 1, 5. '/ttttovs ^ey d^ei ov fieToy Biafivpiioy. 
§. 6. tTTTreas jj-ey fi/xiy elyai fxeloy rj to rphoy fjL^poSf &c. ibid. 7re\- 
raoTTas Kai To^oras irXioy rj e'lKoari fivpia^as, instead of which §. 5. it 
is TO^OTUS TrXeiovs Ti TeTpaKiafxvpiovSt Xoy\o({>6povs od fxeiovs rerpa- 
Kifffjivpitoyf TreXraaTas ov fxeiovs TpicrfjLvplcjy. This, as the grammarians 
observe, e. g. Thorn. M. p.Tld. Mcerisy p, 294. is a more Attic construc- 
tion than trXeiovSt irXeioyioyf irXeiocrL T] rp. Thus also the neuter plural 
is used Plat. Menex. p. 235 B. avrr} fi treixyorrjs Trapafxeyei rifiepas 
nXeib) rj rpels. And in Xen. Anab. 5, 6, 9. one MS. gives "AXvy ov 
fie I to Zvolv arahioiyt for ov fxeJoy. 

Obs. 3. It seems to be a different case when ravra has an adjective 
or participle with it, as ravra aCvyaroy. Plat. Parm. p. 160 A. ravra 
Bk advyaroy e^dj/j/. Id. Prot, p. 314; C. ho^ay rjfxly ravraf eTropevofxeda, 
comp. Xen. Anab. 4, 1, 13. Here the predicate in the singular seems 
to be joined to the neuter plural, just in the same way as the neuter 
plural regularly takes the verb in the singular §. 300. In Plat. Soph, 
p. 251 E. /cat fxfjy to. ye Bvo iiZvyaroy ehpeOrjy ra Bvo is considered as a 
whole, unless the proposition in its complete form ought to stand thus, 
Kai fj^y TO, ye Bvo Troteti/, or v7ro\a^/3di/ci^ ahvyarov evpeOrj. SoAlcib. 1. 

* Dorv. ad Charit. p. 218. ed.Lips. Lob. ad Soph. Aj. 1218. Elmsl. ad 
Valcken. ad Ilerod. 9, 58. p. 7 19, 19. Eur. Heracl. 168. 

Si^ntax, Combination of Adjectives y S^c, 723 

p. 129 C. ovKoov &XKo fxkv u Tifxvu>v koX o yjpuifxevoSf AXXo ^e ols b 
TCfxyojy XjO^rat, where ciXXot fjt^y — aXXa ^^ would give quite a false 
meaning. There is a similar construction in W yap earl ravra; §.488,2. 
and Herod. 1, 89. Kujoy ^k eirtfxeXks eyiveTo rh Kpolaos eiTre '*. 

In the phrases 6.irayTa hvaxepeia * nothing but disagreeableness' Soph. 
Phil, 902. &7rav pviros Theocr. 15, 20. ^Trav, dirayra appear to be the 
subject and the substantive which is subjoined to be the predicate, which 
is stronger than Unayra dvax'^PV- Similar to this is nay ayaGov, ndy 
KaKoy Plat. Phil. p. 28 A. nil nisi bonum. On the other hand Herod. 
1, 32. Tray earl aydptanos avfu^opiiy ■Kciy appears to be used adverbially. 

Obs. 4. In Herodotus 4, 17. we have Neujowi/ Ik to xpos (Soprjy dycfjioy 
eprjfjios 6.vdpoj7ro)y. Comp. ib. 20, 191. '^ But here to irpos /3. ay. seems 
not to be the subject to eprjfjLos, but the accusative in the sense /cara 
TO TTpos /3. a. and with eprjiios^ X^P^ ^^ 7^ must be understood, and 
the genitive also must depend upon to irpos (5. ay. as 4, 185. v-nkp Ik 
TTJs 6<ppvri$ TavTTjs, TO TTpos voToy »cat ^earoyaiay Trjs Ai(3vt)s eprjfios Kal 
ayvBpos Kai adijpos Kal ayofx(3pos Kai a^vXos kart, rj X^P^' ^^ Thucyd. 
7, 62. Kal yap ro^orai TroXXot Koi CLKoyTioTal eTrt/^i/aovrat Kai oxXoSy y, 
vav/Lcax'av fJ-ky Troiovfxeyoi ey TreXayet, ovk ay exp^^cda, Cia to jGXaTrretv 
ay TO Trjs tmcTrifxris ttJ (3apvTriTi TcHy vecJv, ey ^k Trj "qyayKaar/Ji^yrj airo 
Tiiy veuiy Tre^o/zax^^ irpoatpopa eWac, it should be properly, os 
(©xXos) irp6a<popos eoTau But the proposition kv ^k rrj r/ynyK. &c. does 
not depend upon the relative, and trpotr^opa i'orai is put for Trp6(T(f>opoy 
eoTTai (see §. 443.), where we must understand r^ ox^^ xp^aOai. 

5. Proper names in the singular are often accompanied by 438. 
the adjectives tt/owtoc, naQ, and others, in the neuter plural, as 
predicates, or in apposition. Herod. 6, 100. Aicr^iV?/c o NoOw- 
voc, ewv Twv EipeTpieojv ra ir pojTa. 2,11 . Aa/uLirwu o Ylvdeu), 
A'lyivrfreayv to irpojra. princeps Eretrieiisium, Mginetarum. 
Eurip. Med. 912. yap vfxaQ rrjade yrjc, KopivOiac to 
TTpojT ecreaOai. Comp. Or. 1245. In signification, Eur. Iph. 
A. b\. agrees with this, ot to irpojr' wAj3i<7/ievoi. Herod. 3, 
157. wavra Sri r)v [ei*] toTcti BajSuXwvtoKJi Xionvpoc, 'was 
everything to them'. 7, 156. o Se {TeXiov) rac ^vprjKovffac 
eKparvve, Kai ecrav airavra oi at ^vprjKovaai. Thuc. 8,95. 
EujSoto yap avTolc anoK€K\y<y/j.evrjQ TrJQ ArTiKrjc navra iiv, 
Comp. Demosth. de Cor. p. 240, 11. In these phrases, npwra 

•' Ileind. ad Plat. Farm. p. '^80. Ast ad Plat. Leg. p. 176 scq. 
Bast et Scha:t'. ad Grcgor. p. 130. *= See Wesscling's Note. 

724 Si/ntax, Combination of Adjectives, S^c. 

is commonly put with, und navra without, the article ; yet 
Eurip. Hec. 794. Trpoira rwv e/LKjUv (jy'iXwv, where, however, 
Brunck reads ra irpwra twv e. (^. Porsoii TTjOwroq i)v e/uLwv 
cj}i\(i>i^. Herod. 1, 122. riv re ol eu tw Xoyw ra Travra r) Kvvio 
' Cyno was everything in his story ; he talked of nothing but 
Cyno' : where navra without the article would have meant 
' Cyno was dear to him above everything'. Perhaps the singu- 
lar is so used Soph. Ant. 487. eW ofxaifiovearkpa rov wavroc 
rijuLiv ZrjvoQ 'EpKe'iov Kvpel ' than Jupiter, who is above all others 
honoured by us' ^, 

Similar to this is ra (ptXrarUj by which everything is desig- 
nated which is especially dear to a man, wife, children, &c. an 
only son. Soph. Phil. 435. YlarpoKXoQ oc, gov irarpoc nv ra 

(j)i\rara, 'the favourite'. Eur. Troad. 375. o arpartjyoQ 

ra (j)i\rar' wXecre, 'his daughter'. Soph. (Ed. C. 915. ra 
rrjdSe rrja yrJQ Kvpia, for rov Kvpiov, Theocr. 15, 142. ' Ajoyeoc 
aKpa rfeXatryot. So ^sch. Pers. 1. ra^e /uev Tlepaijjv •■-' 
TTiGra KaXelrai Kai (j)vXaK€Q . 

Demonstrative pronouns are often not in the gender of the 
substantive to which they refer, but in the neuter, provided the 
idea of the substantive in the abstract be considered generally 
as a thing or matter. Plat. Alcih. 1. p. 115 D. ttoJc ovv 
XeyeiQ irepl av^plac;; eirl ttootw av avrov (rrfc dv^piaQ) Se^aio 
arkpeadai ; Each. p. 1 85 E. ei tic apa -nptjv rey^viKOC irepi ^pv-^rja 
BepairelaVf Kai oloc, re KaXooc rovro {ryiv '^^v^riv) Qepairevaai \ 
Comp. Phadon. p. 88 A. Eurip. Suppl. 597. Xen. Cyrop. 
1, 6, 28. XkovGi Ka\ apKroic, Kai TrapSaXeaiv ovk eic, ro icjov 
KaOKTra/iievoi efxayeaQe, ctXXa fxera irXeove^iaQ rivoc, aei eTret- 
paaSe ayioviteadai irpoQ avrd. Aristot. Polit. 7. p. 589 C. 
SeT Kai yopriyiac, rivoc, ro 'Cv^ KaXuic, rov rov Ce eXarrovoc 
p.€if role, a/Lieivou ^laKei/nevoiQ, irXeiovoc; 3e toTc y^elpoi'. Thus 
too Plat. Rep. 4. p. 421 seq. irXovroc re Kai irevia, wc rov pev 
(rrXovrov) rpv^y]v re Kai apyiav Kai vetxyrepiapov epiroiovvroCy 
rov Se (rrJQ Treviao) dveXevOepiav Kai KaKoepyiav irpoc, tw veu)- 

=* Of ra Trpwra see Hemst. ad Luc. Ran. 42 1 . Of 7ravra,Valck. ad Herod, 

t. 1. p. 400. Obss. Misc. 5. p. 30. 7, 156. p. 576, 6Q. Dukcr ad Thuc. 

Wessel. ad Her. 6, 100. p. 484, 47. 8,95. llerm. ad Vig. p. 727,95. 10. 
Brunckad Eurip. Or. 1251. Aristoph. ^ Blomf. Gloss. Pers. 1. 

Sj/ntax. Combination of Adjectives, &;c. 725 

T€f)i(yiLiw. Comp. §. 468. c,^ Thus even the pronoun is some- 
times found in the singular in reference to a substantive plural. 

Time. 1, 80 extr. r'lvi TnarevaavTac, y^pr] e7reiyd?]vai\ toTc 

y^pr]f.La(Tiv ; aXXa ttoXXw en TrXetw toutou eWeiirofiev, 

These pronouns are even put sometimes in the neuter plural, 
although the word to w^hich they refer is in the singjular. Plat, 
Menon. p, 78 D. y^pvaiov ^rj Kai apyvpiov iropiCeaQai aperrj 

e<TTiv, u)C, (f)ri(n Met^wi^. irorepov Trpo<TTiOr]C ri tovtm 

Tio TTopWy TO ^t/caituc KQi ocTiwc ; v 01/061^ (TOi ciaCpepci ; aXXa 
Kav a^'iKUJC, T(C avra TTOpitvTai, o/jloicjcgv avra (to 7ropite(j9ai) 
dperrfv /caXeTc ; Phileb. p. 1 1 E. p.(jjv ovk, av fiev ij^ovy fjiaWov 
(jyaivr^raL ^vyyevriQ (e^K ^u)(»?c) iirrtofxeOa p,€v afx^OTepoi rov 
TavTa {rriv e^iv) e^oi'TOC |3cj3aiwc j3tou, Kparel oe o ttJq 
i]^ovr]Q rov rr)C, cfypovrjaeioc ; Leg, 1. p. 647 A. dp ovv ovk av 
vojuoOerric rovrov rdv (p6j3ov ev rijiiy /neyicTTirf (repoif Kai KaXtjJV 
ai^Wj TO Tovrcov ((|)oj3ou) OappoQ evavriov ava'iceiav irpoaa- 
yopevoi; Comp. Xen, Anab, 1, 7, 4.^ So TciSe, ravra refer 
to an infinitive Eur. Andr, 371. /neyaXa yap Kpivu) raSe, 
Xe^ouc GrepeaOai^, 

The neuter is used also when the pronouns refer to persons 
and not merely to things. Nicocl, p. 34 B. Touq iral^ac 
TOVQ eavTuyv Kai raQ yvvcuKac, toIq etc TawTa e^afxapTavovai. 

Thus the relative pronoun is put in the neuter, when it re- 
fers to a thing generally, whether masculine or feminine. Soph. 
CEd. T. 542. dp ovyj. /uiopov cctti T0vyy€ipY]iJ.a crov, avev re 
TrXriOovt; Kai CJ)iXwv rvpavvi^a Qr)pdv, o irXriOei '^prjjjiaaiv 0' 
aXi(TK€rai ; Thuc. 1, 122. ttjv i]aGav, ei Kai ^eivov rio a/coucrat, 
'kttu} ovk aXXo Tt (^epovoav, rj avriKpvc covXeiav' o Kai Xoy(^» 
evdoiaaOrjvai aid'^pov ry IleXoTrovi^rjo-w. 7, 62. evprjrai ^ viluv, 
offa \pv avTivavTT-qyeicfdaif Kai irpoc, rdc, rwv eTTWTi^wv auToTc 
7rayvTr)TaCj ioirep {qua re) /naXKrra efSXawToiLieOa. Plat, 
Symp. p. 196 A. (jvfXfJLerpov Kai vypda i^kac, fxkya reK^ir^piov r\ 
ev(Tyjr]f.ioavvr], o ^r\ Kai ciaCpepovTtJQ e/c TravrMv o/uoXoyovuevcoc 
''EptjQ e>(^ei*^. On the other hand Xenoph. Mem. S. 3, 9, 8. 

' Mark), ad Eiirip. Suppl. 432. ** Jacobs ad Athcn. p,85. Schrpf. 

Schaef. ad Soph. El. 136G. Heind. App. Dcm. 1. p. '23i. 
ad Phaed. p. 139 seq. Ast ad Plat. « Schaef. ad Dion. Hal. p. 80 scq. 

Leg. p. 80. Stallb. ad Phil. p. 207. ' Heind. ad Plat. Gorg. p. 47. 

726 S^/ritax. Comhmation of Adjectives, 8fc. 

(j>96vov ^e (TKoirwv, o ti €*iyi &c. is regular, as in Latin quid sit 
invidia, which refers to the determination of the class of ob- 
jects to which anything belongs, whereas on the contrary in 
(jyOovov (TKOTTwv, Off TIC, €17] the class is considered as already 
determined, and the question only is put, what other qualities 
besides the thing has, as Flat. Gorg. p. 462 D. tic re^^vij 

oipOTTOiia OuSe^ta, to IlwXe. - --*AXXa ti, (l)a9i. ^ti/uli ^rj 

efxireipia ric. This distinction is marked in Cicero Tusc. Qu. 1, 
22, 51. animi, quid aut qualis esset, intelligentia. So also the 
plural; Hur. Andr. 271. a S* iffr k'^i^tfrjc, Kal irvpoc nepai- 
T€p(jj, ovceic yvvaiKOQ ^apfxaK €^evpT}Ke ttoj KaKrja, Comp. Iph. 
A. 938. In Troad. 396. aei Kar tijuap avv ^ajuapri Kai tckvoic 
iOKovVj Ayaio7c wv airrjaav r)^ova'i, wv may refer to ^ajmaproQ 
Kai TeKvcjVy but also to rov o'lKelv ovv S. koi t. as Thuc. 1, 69. 
Kairoi eXeyeaOe oKx^aXeTc elvaiy wv (tov acrCJ). elvai) apa o Xoyoc 
Tov epyov eKparei. Xen. Anah, 1, 9, 24. Comp. §. 475, a, 

Obs. 1. In a similar manner an adjective is sometimes put, as well 
as a demonstrative or relative pronoun, in the neuter, which either de- 
signates a thing generally, or refers to a verb preceding, or to an entire 
proposition, and is afterwards explained by masculine or feminine sub- 
stantives {per epexegesin). 

a. Adjective. Thuc, 2 f 63. eiKos ^17 vofxltxai Trcpi kvos 

poyoVf ^ovXeias &vr eXevdepiaSf ayojvii^eadai, 

h, Demonstr. pr. Eur. Suppl. 512. kqI tovto roi raylpeToy, y Trpoiirjdia. 
Plat. Rep. 2. p. 207. Xeyovai ttov koi TrapaKeXevopraL irarkpes re vleeriy 
**>s xpri liKaiov eivaLy ovk avroy ZiKato<Tvvr}Vf kiraivovvTCSf aXXct rets 
otTT* avrris ev^oKifititreis. Comp. Phcedon. p. 93 E. Gorg. p. 449 C. 
Apol. S. p. 24 E.* 

c. Relative pr. Thuc. 3, 12. S roTs &XXois iiaXitrray evvoia, iricrriv 
/3e/3a(Ot, rj/juv tovto (rj)v Tr/ortv) 6 <^6(ios €')(ypbv "Kapei^e. Plat. Rep. 9. 
p. 583 E. o pera^v Upa vvv drj ap(f)0T^p(Ov €<f>afj€v eipaif rrfv y]ffv\laVf 
TOVTO TTOTC ufjiiltoTepa cffTuif Xvirff T€ k'a\ rj^oy}). Comp. Prot. p. 313 A. 
Leg. 1. p. 631 C* Hence may be explained the involved passage 
m Thuc, 2, 40. haipepovTus yap ^fj Kal ro^e ej^o/io^, ukxtc ToXfxdv re oi 
avTOt fiaXiffTUf Kal irepl lov eTrij^eipiiffOfiey eKXoyi^eadai' o {sc. to €kXo- 
yi^e/rdai) tois tiXXois, apadia pey OpaffOSy Xoytapos ^e oKyoy 0epe«, 

" Heind. ad Plat. Theaet. p. 'HO? seq. Cratyl. p. 97. Parmen. p. 2Q6. 
'' Heind. ad Plat. Gorg. p. 121. ad 

Si/ntax. CombhwHon of Adjectives, S^c, 727 

where only the opposition, cifiaOia fjey Qpaaos, interrupts the con- 
struction, instead of o rois ciXXots, a^adlas dpatros (pepovarfs^ oKvoy 0^pe(, 
namely 6 \oyt(riJ.6s. See §. 622. 

Obs. 2. Thus also the adjectives Trds, aWos, especially when they 
are referred to a substantive which is not in the same case with them, 
are used in the masculine or neuter, though the substantive is feminine. 
Soph. Tr. 121G. npuffyeifxai ^' e/iot X^piv ftpa-yeiav irpos fiaKpoXs 
(iWois ^idovs. Plat. Tim. p. 41 E. 'ivvTrjaas hk to ttuv, ^telXc xpvxas 

iaapidfjiovs rols iiurpois, eretfie 0' cKaffrriv npos e^raorov, - vofjiovs 

T€ rovs elfiapfxeyovs elnep avrms' 6ri ycvecis fiky earoLTO rerayfiiyrj fxia 
traffiy (;//vxat«)*« 

6. As the predicate verb is sometimes referred to the sub- 440, 
stantive in the predicate, instead of that in the subject, so the 
participle sometimes conforms not to the subject, but the 
predicate. Plat. Leg. 6. p. 735 E. rove /ulyKxra e^r;jua/3Tij- 
Korac, aviarovc Se ovrac, /ucyccrTni^ ^e ovtrav pXafjiiv iroXetJC, 
(for ovrac) cnraWaTTeiif eiwOev. Protag. p. 359 D. Parmeii. 

p. 134 C. travray a ^rj (I>c iSeac avrac ovcrac virokafji^avo^ev, 
for avra ovra, where aura after the relative is superfluous. 
See §.471.^ 

In the same manner the relative, as in Latin, sometimes 
takes, not the gender and number of the substantive to which 
it refers, but that of the following one. Herod. 5, 108. rriv 
aKpr\v, cu KoXexivrai KX»/VSec tiJc KuTrpov. ILur, Hel. 290. o S 
ay\aiafxa Sio/jiartju Cfjiov t eCpv, Ovyarrjp avav^poc TroXm 
napOeveverai. Comp. Io?i. 955. Plat. Leg. 3. p. 699 C. o 

^o|3oc, ov ^ovXevovrec toTc npoaOev vo/j-oic eK€KTr}VTO, r]v 

a'l^tj TToXAa/ccc ev toTc avio Xoyoic etTro^e*'. Id. Leg. 1. 
p. 629 D. Hence Eur. Andr. 862. Kvavoirrepoc opvic ei& 
e'lfjv, 1? nevKaev (TKa^oc, h ^ici Kvaveac, eirepaa aKrac Trpu- 
TOTrXouc TrXara®. 

7. When the demonstrative pronoun is the subject, and has 
a substantive for the predicate, it is put, as in Latin, in the 
gender of the predicate. Plat. Crat. p. 433 E. to awOrjinaTa 

<= Dorv. ad Char. p. 551 seq. p.212. Prot p.637. Jacobs ad Athen. 

llemsterh. ad Luc. T. 1. p. 447 seq. p. 7. 
ed. Bip. • Ilerni. ad Vig. p. 708. Heind. ad 

'• Heind. ad Plat. Hipp. 1 09. Parm. Plat. Plutdr. p. 279. ad Cratyl. 75. 

728 Si/ntax. Combination of Adjectives, <%*c. 

eivai ra ovofxaTa --- KaL eivai Tavrr)v opOorrira ovo/nuroCf 
Gvv6riKr}v. Euthi/phr. in. ovtoi S17 AOriuaiol ye ^iKr^v avr^v 
KaXovffiv, aWa ypa(j)Y}V. Eur. EL 762. (jCpayrjv avrelc Trjv^e 
juot ' this is murder which thou announcest to me'*. Often how- 
ever also in the neuter: Plat. Ph^edr. p. 245 C. povov ^77 to 
a\)ro Kivovv - - - ovirore Xrjyei Kivovfxevov, aXXa /cat T0I.C, aWoic,, 
ocfa Kiveiraif tovto Trrfyrj Kai dpyji yeve<7eii)c,, which Cicero 
Tusc. Disp, 1,23, 53. renders, hicfons, hoc principium est mo- 
vendi. Plat. Phadon. p,73 D. rovro ^' earlv dva/j,vY}(TiQ. Comp. 
Apol. S. p. 29 A. Isocr. c. Soph. p. 293 D. Lysias p. 98, 45. 
and combined with the remark §. 439. Plat. Gorg. p. 492 C. 
The neuter seems to be used when the word to which the pro- 
noun refers is to be emphatically distinguished; the gender of 
the predicate substantive when this is to be distinguished. The 
case is the same with the relative : Plat. Leg. 1 . p. 629 D. to 
/.tev, o KaAovixev airavrec, UTaaiv. 

On the other hand, especially in the poets, ra^e is often 
found as a substantive followed by a noun masculine or femi- 
nine in the predicate. Soph. (Ed. T. 1329. 'AttoXXwi^ ra^ j)m 
' that was Apollo', especially in negative propositions, as Thuc. 
6y 77. ovK ''Itovea ra^e e'laiv. Eur. Troad. 99. ou/ccti T^ooia 
T«^e. Andr. 168. ov yap e(jO"'FjKTO}p ra^e . 

If an adjective, participle, or pronoun refers to two or more 
substantives, then 

1. If all the substantives are of the same gender, the adjec- 
tive Sec. is properly in this gender and in the plural. Yet here, if 
the substantives signify inanimate objects, the neuter is often 
used : Xen. Cyr, 1,3, 2. o/owv avrov KeKocfjUYijULei/ov /cat 6(j)0a\- 
fjujjv VTToypaipy Kai y^pu)f.iaroc evrpiipei Kai KojuLaiQ TrpoaOe- 
TOiG, a hrj vofxijLia rjv ev Mr/3otc. Isocr. Panath. p. 278 B. 
TauTa ^* eiirov, ov irpoc, Tr\v evae^eiav, ov^e npoc, rrjv St/cato- 
avifrfVj ov^e irpoQ rriv (ppovrjtjiif a7ro/3Xe^//ac, a av ^irjXOec. 

2. If the substantives are of different genders, then 

a. If inanimate objects are signified, the neuter plural is com- 
monly used. Herod. 2, 132. tov av-^eva Kai rrjv K€(j)a\i)v 

a Hcind. ad Plat. Soph. p. 313. ^ Mattbiae ad Eur. Troad. 99. 

Sj/?itax. Combination of Adjectives, S^c, 729 

(paivei Key^pvattyjxkva. Plat, Menex. p. 246 E. ovre yap 

ttXovtoc, kclWoq (pepei no KeKTr\fxevu) fxer avavcpiaQ ovre 

oio/Liaroc KaWoQ /cat kt^^vc, ^eiXto /cat KaK(^ ^vvoiKOvvTa 
TTpeirovTa (jiaiverai, aW airpeTrrj. Xen. Mem. S. 3, 1, 7. 
Xi^ot re Kai irXivOoi Kal ^vXa /cat KepafxoQ araKrujQ eppippeva 
ovoev ^prjaijuLCL ecrTti/. 

Thus also the relative. Isocr. de Pac. p, 159 A. rj/co^ev 
eKKXriaicKTovTeG nepi re TroXe/uLOv Kai €ipr}vrjQ, a peyicrriiv e^ei 
cvvafxiv ev rt^ /3iw Tioi> avOpto7r(x)P. 

b. With animated beings the adjective is put in the mascu- 
line, if one of the substantives is of the masculine gender. 
Herod. 3, 119. Trarpoc, Kar prjr poc, ovKeri fxov 2[woi/Ta>i', 
a^eX(peoQ av aXXoc ov^evl Tpoirw yevoiro. Pind. 01. 9, Q6, 
Tlvppa Aeu/caXiwv re Ylapvaaov Karaf^avTe. Plat.Menon. 
p. 73 B. Twi/ avT(x)v apa a fx^ ore pot ^kovrai, e'lirep fjieXXovdiu 
ayaOoi elvai, kql t] yvvrj Kai o avripf oiKaiOGVvr^Q Kai (T(x)(ppo- 
ovvrfQ. Xen. Cyrop. 3, 1, 7. wc 3e eibe iraTepa re Kai]Tepa 
Kai adeX(f)ovG Kal rrfv eavTOv yvvalKa ai^i^aXtJTOVQ 
yeyevYi/uievovc, e^aKpvcrev, iocnrep ei/coc. 

c. Also the adjective conforms in gender and number to one 
only of the substantives. //. e , 891. aiei yap toi epic re 
(f)iXri TToXe/JLOL re payai re. j3', 136. at Se ttou r]fxerepai r 
aXoy^oi Ka\ vr)iria reKva eiar evi /neyapoiQ nor i^eyiJ,eva i. 
o, 193. yaia ^* en ^vvrj iravrijjv Kai paKpoQ 'OXv^ttoc. 
Xen. Cyrop. 7, 5, 60. rove e'^ovrac TraiSac ^7 yvvalKac 
cvvapfjLo'CovoaQ tj irai^iKa eyvio (pvaei (TvuYjvayKaGOai ravra 
/taXtcTTO (l)iXe7v^. 

So also the relative. Isocr. de Pac. p. 163 A. B. /nera 
noXXtjc; aG(f)aXeiac riiv iroXiv oiKr]aopev, airaXXayevrec, iroXe/jiujv 
Kai Kiv^vuu)v Kai rapa'^^c, etc rjv vvv irpoQ aXXrlXouq Kare<jrr]p.ev. 

In this case sometimes the adjective &c. conforms itself not 
to the nearest, but to one of the remoter substantives. Od. i , 
222 seq. vaov S opw ayyea iravra, yavXoi re ffKaCpicec re, 
Tervyfxeva, roTq evapeXyev, where "yavXoi and aKaCpidec stand 

* Fisch. 3 a. P.3U-S17. 

730 Si/ntax. Combination of Adjectives, Si^c, 

in the same relation to ayyea, as the species to the genus. Hes. 
Ejoy. 403. o\kov fxev Trpu)TiaTa yvvalKa re, ^ovv r apoTrjpa, 
KrijTrjv, ov yafLLerrjv. Comp. Theog. 972 seq. Eur. Bacch, 
740. eicec, B av rj nXevp , rj Si^r/Xov e/Li^acyiVf piiTTO/nev avu) 
re Kal Karu), Compare, however, §. 304. Obs, 3. Here, F. 
776, o ^pvfTOQ a T evTv^ia (j)pove7v (5poTOvc el^ayerai, Su- 
vaaiv €(j)e\K(i}v, Thuc. 8, 63. TrvdofjievoQ rov ^TpoiLLJ3i^i^nv 
Kai rac vavc aTreXriXvOora. In Eur. Ion. 712. vvv ^' r) fxev 
^ppei ^v]Li(j)opalc, o B' evrv^el, iroXiov eKyneffovda yrjpac the 
construction §. 622. also takes place. 

Obs. 1 . In the lyric poets a participle which refers to two nouns 
sometimes stands in the middle between them, which is called by the 
grammarians erxniJia 'AXiCjuayt/coV. Pind. Pyth. 4, 318. Tre^uTrc S' 'Ep/jds 

^i^vfjiovs vlovs Toy fxev 'Ej^/o»^a, K€j(\aCoyras i}j3^f tov 3' "Epiroi', 

where, however, there is a reference to the preceding accusative plural. 
Comp. §. 304. Ohs. ^.'^ 

Obs. 2. Sometimes an adjective which refers to two substantives is 
found only with the second. Soph. (Ed. C. 1399. o'ipoi KcXevOov t^s 
r* eprjs dvcnrpa^ias, where ttjs ep^s belongs also to KeXevdov. Eurip. 
Suppl. 23. TO T eyyos tyjv re ^v(rTV')(^e<TTaTr]V (Tt^viov orparemi^', i. e. to 
re ^v(TTvx€(TTaToy ey^os. Comp. (Ed. T, 417. See above, §. 428, 4. 

442. Instead of the adjectives being considered, as in other lan- 
guages, as epithets of the substantives, and put in the same 
case with them, in Greek the substantive is often considered 
as the whole, and the adjective as the part ; and then the sub- 
stantive is put in the genitive. The adjective has then the 
gender of the substantive. 

1. The cases are very common in which the substantive is 
put with the adjective in the plural, ^sch. SuppLSlO. ravra 
Ttjjv TTaWaypaTiov. Soph. (Ed. T. 18. oi ^e r yOeiov Xcktoi, 
for Ae/CTOt yOeoi. Arist. Plut. 490. ot y^pr]<jTOL twv avQptJiruyv, 
Eurip. Hec. 194. /marep, ttwc (j)Oeyy€i apeyapra KaK(Sv ; Isocr, 
ad Nicocl. p. 24 B. Be7 tovc jSouXo/uevouc rj iroielv 17 ypa(j)€iv 
Ti Keyapiapevov to7c ttoXXoTc pr) rove, loCpeXiptjJTaTOvc 
T(s}v Xoytjv ^rirelif, aXXa tovc pvOtvBeoTaTovQ, for tovc a>^. 
Xoyovc. ib.D.ra (TWOvBala twv irpayparuyv. ib. tovq 

* Valck, ad Lesbon. p. 179. 

Syntax, Combination of Adjectives, S^c. 731 

cv (j)pnvovvTac twv avQpioTTu)v, de Pac, p, 181 C. tu}U 
ececT/uLarutu kqi tijjv eiririioeviJiaTtov toiq Kai to (Tdyfxa 
Kai rrjv \pv^^r]l' (3Xa'7TTOv<^iv, Comp. ^. 320 seq. To this 
class belonfy also Sla Oeatov, api^e'iKeroQ av^pwv 11. X , 248. 
oi fxiap av^pdjv Arist. Vesp. 396. See §. 320.** and Oeuju tig, 
(f>i\(jjv TIG is even more usual than Oeoc tig, though this also is 
found, e. g. Eur. Andr. 1 182se5'. so that sometimes both con- 
structions are found together, as Eur. EL 1242.*^ 

2. This construction takes place also in the singular, espe- 
cially in Attic. Herod. 1, 24. tov ttoWov tov y^povov 
^laTpijBovTa irapa Tlepiavdpo), for tov ttoXXov {TrXeicTTOv) 
"^povov. Thuc. ], 2. fxaXiGTa ^e ttJg yrjc t} apiaTrj del tug 
/ieTa|3oXac rwv oiKYiTopiov el^ev ' the best countries', id. 5, 3 1 . 
eiri Ty rj/uLiaeta rrfc -yrJc. Plat. Phcedon. p. 1 04 A. o »)/i«Tuc tov 
apiOfiov anaG. Xen. Ci/r, 4, 5, 1. trkfxireTe r]fXLv tov ireiroirifxkvov 
ffiTOV TOV ri]LU<TVV^. — Tkuc. 7, 3. T^ ixTTepaio. ay(t)v T-qv rrXel- 
<rTr\v ttIg (TTpaTiaG napeTa^e irpoG to. rei^i? tcjv 'AOr)vai(ov, 
' the greater part of the array'. Arist. Ach. 350. t^jq imapiXrjG 
(Tv^vrjv ' many glowing embers'. Xe7i. Cyrop. 3, 2, 2. (tkottljv 
KUTevoei TToXXriv ttJg y^CjpaG toIg AppevioiG eprj/iiov kqi 
dpyov ovaavy ' a great part of the country'. Comp. ib. 6, 2, 26. 
— Thuc. 7, 25. -^aXeirwTaTri S ijv rrjc GTavpujGeijJG r) 
Kpv<pioG- Plat. Rep. 3. p. 416 B. tt/v /ueyio-rr?!/ ttJg 
evXa(ieiaG irapeoKevaafxevoi av e\ev. Prot. p. 329 A. SoXtvov 
KaTaTe'ivovai tov Xo-you, for SoXt^oi/ Xoyov^, 

3. The neuter of the adjective or participle is also common 
here. //. v , 178. ti av, togoov ofxiXov ttoXXoi^ kireXQwv, 
e<JTrtG; Herod. 8, 100. to ttoXXov ttJg (TT/oaTi?a. 6, 113. to 
reTpa/n/Lievov t(jjv ^ap^apu)v, Thuc. \, 118. ctti fxkya Svvd/jieLJG. 
Comp. §. 320,4. 341. Xen. Anab. 1, 8, 8. /^e<jov v/nepac. 

^ Dobree ad Aristoph. Vesp. 1. c. * Wolf ad Demosth. Lept. p. 223. 

Erf. ad Soph. (Ed. T. 1186. Monk * Hemsterh. ad Luc. T. 1. p. 356. 

ad Alcest. 472. Dorv. ad Charit. p. 281. Wesscl. ad 

« Elmsl. ad Soph. Aj. 1 188. and Died. S. T. 1. p. 606. Fisch. 3 a. 

on the other side Herm. ad Aj. 977. p. 296 sqq. Heind. ad Plat. Cratyl. 

Reisig Comm.Crit. in Soph. (Ed. C. p. 28. Kiister et Brunck ad Arist. 

p. 223. Comp. Matthias ad Eur. Ach. 350. 
Andr. 1157. 


732 Syntax. Combination of Adjectives, S^c. 

Cyr, 5, 3, 52. ev fxeait) vvktwv. ih. 4, 4, 1. e^w fxeaov riimcpaa, 
which the grammarians allege to be more Attic than /ieo-rj rf/j-epa. 
To this belong also the passages quoted vol. 1. p. 207. 1, 4. 
To this place belongs the expression ev navTi kukov elvai Plat, 
Rep. 9. p. 579 B. ev navTi aOv/miaQ Thncyd. 7, 55. * alto- 
gether unhappy, quite spiritless, without courage\ Herod, 
ly 118. etc, wav KaKov aCJyiKvelaOai. Eur. Ale. 613. Travra 
(7o([)iaQ for TTcicra Gocpia. So Andr. 1175. etc ev poipac;, for 
/Liiav poipav. 

In the same manner the neuter of tic ' who?' and rtc ' any 
one', is used. Soph. Aj. 314. avrjpeT ev tw tt p ay fxar o q 
Kvpel wore, i. e. ev rivi TrpayjuaTi. Ant. 1229. ev tw ^vp- 
CJ)opaQ ^ie<pOapr]Q ; as ti ^vp([)opac Eur. Or. 1464. tl ayye- 
Xtac Soph. El. 169 seg. Comp. Eur. Hel. 1215. Herod, 
6, 133. 01 Tlapioif OKtoG pev ti dtocrovcri tw MtXria^^ apyv- 
piov, ov^ev ^levoevvTO. Thuc. 4, 130. r)v ti kgl <jTa- 
aiaa pov ev Ty TToXei, for tic aTaaiaapoQ. 7, 69. \ap7rp6~ 


4. It rarely happens that the genitive of a substantive mas- 
culine or feminine is accompanied by the adjective in the neuter 
plural. Soph. Antig. 1209 . tw S' aOXiac acFtjpa Trepij^aivei (jorjc 
epTTOvTi paWov aaaov, for j3oi7 aaripoc. CEd. C. 923. ib. 1693. 
Eurip. Ph(£n. 1500. ov irpoKokvirTopeva ^otJTpvyjLo^eoc, 0.(5 pa 
Traprji^oc, for naprji^a a(5pav JDocfTpv^to^ri. Hel. 985. a (xoe 
irapeXnrev ri§e twv Xo-ywv, ^pa(Hst)y for ovc, \oyovc, where one 
MS. has Tw Xoyw. Xen. Cyrop. 8, 3, 41. i?/cet ^e tic f] tcjv 
7rpoj3aT(DV XeXvKujpeva (^epwv, 17 twv (^owv KaTaKeKprj- 
pvKspeva. This accords with the strata viarum of Virgil. 
It seems to have been occasioned by the circumstance that the 
neuter plural is elsewhere used for persons, as §. 438. as it 
were abst. pro concr. Soph. (Ed. !/\261. /coivwvTe rrai^wv 
KOLV av, ei Ke'ivb) yevoQ p)j ^ucTTV^r/crev, 17V av e/CTre^v/coTa, is 
pleonastically said for kolvoi nal^ec vaav av e/CTre^uKroTec*. 

Obs. As far as relates to the use of the neuter of persons, the fol- 
lowing phrases may be compared with these. Arist. Eccl. 52. opoj 

» Schaef. ad Apoll. Rh. Schol. min. Heind. ad Her. Sat. p. 258. 
p. 235. Erf. ad Soph. Ant. 355. ed. 

syntax. 0/ the Adjective in particular. 733 

irpoaiovaas '^(aTepas iroWas -Kavv yvvaiKas 6 ri irep ear' 6<p€\os ey rfj 
TToXet ' the principal women'. Xe7i. Hist. Gr. 5, 3, 6. TrainrXrjdcTs 
UTreKTeivay ayOpwirovSy Kai 6 ti nep 6<ptXoi rjv tov roiovrov ffTparev/xaros. 
— Herod. 9, 31. o ri fxev avrov ^vyarojTaTOP Tray cnroXe^as earrjac. 
Thuc. 4, 133. 6 T ^ avruiy aVOos, oiTroXwXet. — Theocr. 7, 5. e'lri irep 
eadXoy x«wv ruiy er aywdey. Apollon. Rh. 3, 347. Hor. Serm. 1, 6, 1. 
Lydorum quicquid Etruscos incoluit Jines^\ Comp. §. 445, a. 

Of the Adjective in particular. 

The following observations still remain to be made upon the 443. 
usage of the adjective : 

1. When an adjective is put with an auxiliary verb, as pre- 
dicate, without referring to a proper subject, consisting of one 
word, it is properly in the neuter singular ; the Greeks, how- 
ever, often put the neuter plural. Herod. 1, 91. rriv TreTrpio- 
juevrjv fxolpav acvvar a eari anoCpvyeetv /cat Set^. Comp. Thuc. 
1, 125. 3, 88. 8ic. Herod. 3, 109. ovk av riv ^itoaifxa av- 
OptoTTOKTi. 9, 2. ^aXeTTa eivai nepiyiveaOai Kai airacri avOptl)- 
TTOKTi. Soph. Antig. 576. ^eSoy /neu , wq eoiKe, rriv^e KarOaveiv, 
for ^e^oyjuievov eaTi. Philoct. 524. aXX aKj-^pa jnevroi, gov 
y efx ev^eearepov ^^vu) (pavrjvai Trpoc, to Kaipiov novelv. 
Eurip. Hec. 1230. a-^Oeiva fxev fJLOi, raXXorpia Kpiveiv KaKa, 
Plat. Rep. 8. p. 562 A. Xoittu av eirf^. 

This is particularly the case with verbals. Herod. 3, 6 1. (o 
fjiayoc, Y\aTiZ,€'Sr]c,) KripvKac dicire/JLire Ty t€ aXX^ Kai Brj /cat ec 
A'lyvTTTov, irpoepeovTa (applies merely to the one who was sent 
to Egypt. See c. 62 i?i.) riv (TTparto, wc ^pep^ioc rov Kvpov 
aKovGTea e'lri tov Xoittov, aXX ov Ka^jSucreo). Thuc. 1, 86. 
ri/.iiv ei(Ti ^vpjj.a'^oi ayaOoiy ovc ov napacoTea to7c AOrfvaioic 

e(TTiy, ouoe St/catc /cat Xoyoic SiaK pirea * aXXa ti/jlo)- 

prjrea ev ra^ei /cat Trai^rt crOeuei. Comp. 2^. 88.93. &c. Soph, 

•» Hemst. ad Lucian. T. 1. p. 436. «= V^alck. ad Eurip. Hipp. 370. 

cd. Bip. Kiister ad Arist. Eccl. oS. Keen ad Greg. p. (53 seq.) ISO, 
Valck. ad Theocr. 10. Idyll, p. 102. Herni. ad Vig. p. 739, 139-. 

734 Syntax, Of the Adjective in particular. 

Antig, 677. ovTioc djutwre earl to?c Koa/jLOVfjievoic, Kovroi 
yvvaiKOC ovBa/LKVQ riacrrjrea. Aristoph, Plut, 1085. ^vvcK- 
IT ore etJTt <70t Kai rii*' Tpvya^. 

2. When a relative pronoun is referred to the substantive, 
the adjective, instead of standing as it properly should with its 
substantive, is often separated from the substantive, and, as 
in Latin, put with the relative. //. v', 340. e([)pi^€u ^e fJiayji 
(j)6i<7ifif3pOTOQ ey^etyai fxaKp^c, uq ^^yov rafxeaiy^poac, 
Eiirip, Or, 844. 'HXeKrpa, Xoyovc aKovaov, ovq aoi cvarv- 
^eTc r}K(Jt> (pepwv. Thuc, 7, 43. Kai dia(pvy6vT€c; evdvc; irpoc; 

TO. OTpaTOire^a^ a ?)v em tcjv EttittoXo^v r/ota ay- 

yeWovai ti)v e(j)o^ov, where just above the genitive was put 
in the same manner : TrpoafSavrec, ro reiy^icrfjia, o y}v avroOi 
Twv ^vpaKov<ri(jJV, alpovai, 

444. 3. Two or more adjectives (and participles also) are often 
added to one substantive without a conjunctive particle. This 
juxtaposition of adjectives, without a copulative, facilitates the 
combination of these different ideas into one image and one 
whole, whereas the frequent repetition of the copulative repre- 
sents them as continuing in a separate state. , 221. yjn^ov 
OTTO Trw^' dveb)ye KaXrjc, ^aiSaXerja. 428. aiyvwioi ya^-^piovvyec, 
dyKvXoyjfiXai, 802. eyyoc, ^pidv, fxeya, arif^apov, KeKopvO/Lie- 
vov, a J 275. vxprjXai re ttvAoc, (ravi^ec t eiri rye, apapviai, 
fiaKpa], ei^earoi, e^evypevai elpvaovrai , An adjective or par- 
ticiple, and its substantives, often constitute together a prin- 
cipal idea, and to this principal idea another adjective refers : 
Herod. 7, 23. <tTtoc ^e a(j)iai ttoXAoc ecpoira eK tjjc AairfQ 
dXrjXearjuevoQ 'much ground corn', i. e. *rauch meal*; where 
much and ground corn, would be a solecism in English 

4. On the other hand the Greeks regularly join ttoXuc with 
another adjective, expressing praise or blame, e. g. ayaOoc, 
KaKOQ, by means of the copulative. Herod. 8,61. roue Ko/oiv0/ouc 
TroXXci re Ka\ KaKo. eXeye, Arist, Lys, 1159. ri ^rj^ , 

* Ilemsterh. ad Arist. Pint. p. 408. ^ Comp. Herm. ad Orph. Lith.81. 

Brunck ib.5. 1085. Valck. ad Herod. Elmsl. ad Eur. Med. 807. 
8, 61. p. aar, 21. Koen I. c. 

Syntax. Of the Adjective in particular, 735 

vwrfpyjuievtjv T€ noWdjp KayaOwVyi^iayeaOe. Xen, Mem, S. 

2, 9, 6. (Tvi'€i^u)Q avTio TToXXa Kai TTOvrj pa^. Sometimes re 
Kai, Herod. 4, 167. P/at. Rep. 10. p. 615 D. noXXd re Kal 
avooia e'lpyaa/nepoc or re repeated, Od. rj' , 167. //. /3', 213. 
— TToXX ayaOa, ttoXXo KaKa are also found Arist. Eccl. 435. 
Plat. Leg. I. p. 629 B. 

5. Two adjectives also are frequently put together, one of 
which negatively expresses the sense of the others. Herod. 

3, 25. e/ufxavrfc re eiov Kai ov (ppevrj ptic- Soph. (Ed. T. 58. 
yv(i)ra kovk ayvtora ^oi^. 

6. Adjectives also are often expressed by circumlocution : 445. 

a. The adjective, in order to determine more accurately the 
substantive, and to express this determination better, is sub- 
joined with the relative and the verb et/x/. //. V, 50. avroa 
§e irpoKoXeaaai Ayaiuiv oar ic apiaroc, for rov apiarov 

A'^aKjjv. p ,6\ . wq ore tic re Xewv ^oaKopevrjc a-yeXrjc 

j3ouv apiraay, f/ric apiarr). 509. r)roi fxev rov vcKpov CTTt- 
r paired y diirep apiaroi, afx^ avrif f^ej^a/uev. according to which 
//. //, 13. must be pointed. Eurip. Ph. 755. irpoKpivac o'lirep 
aXKi/iAijjraroi. Soph. (Ed. T. 663. on Trv/marov oXoi/nav, for ry 
TTv/ndriif oXeOpo^). Plat. Rep. 5. p. 466 E. Comp. §. 442. Obs.^ 

b. The adjective is accompanied by oloc. Arist. Vesp, 970. 
o S erepoQ oloc, eariv oiKovpoQ jjlovov. Dem.Olj/nth. p. 23,7 . 
'ei /neu yap ric avrjp eariv ev avrolc oloc efxweipoc Plat. 

Apol, S. p. 23 A. TToXXai aireydeiai Kai olai yaXeiruirarai. 

Theocr. 14, 59. Xenophon says fully Mem. S. 4, 8 extr. 
e^oKei roiovroc elvai, oloc av e'lrj apiaroc ye avrjp Kai 

This oloc is also put after an adjective. Herod. 4, 28. evOa 

' Brunck ad Arist. Thcsm. 351. for \vhich reason we have Plat. 

Nub. 1S29. Sluiter Lect. Andoc. in Phaedon. j). 58 D. irapriffav rirki 

Plat. Min. p. 89. Blomf. ad D^^ch. kuX iroXXoi ye. 

Pers. 249. Poppo ad Xen. Cyr. 7, ^ \' Her.S, ^3. p. 206, 52. 

1, 11. So also rives icul noWoi. Bnmck ad Soph. 1. c. Pint, de Sera Num. Vind. • X'alck. adTheocr. 10. Id. p. 102. 

p. 125. only that here something more Comp. Heync ad II. n', 272. 
is added, * some and indeed many', 

736 Syntax, Of the Adjective in particular. 

TOVQ fxep OKTh) rwv fJLTjvtjjv aC^opYjroQ oioQ -yiyveTai KpVjULOC. 
Plat, Charm, p. 155 C. dve(5\€\pe /uot tolq o^0aX/uo?c a /xyj- 

"^aVOV Tl OLOV. 

c. In the same manner also otroc is used, only that this 
usually follows its adjective, and is put at the end of the pro- 
position. It accompanies adjectives which express a distinction 
generally, or with respect to magnitude and number (r). Herod. 
4, 194. ol Se (TTiOrjKoi) aCpi a<p9ovoL oaoi ev Tolai ovpeai 
ylvovTai. Plat. Hipp. Maj. p. 282 C. y^pr]ijiara eXajSe Bav- 
fxa(TTa oaa. Leg. 6. p. 782 A. a/mri^avov av -^povov oaov 
yeyoj/oc av eir}. Arist. Nub, 750. 17 V ire pi avrov oyXoc, vnep- 
(j)vYi Q odoQ. This phrase seems originally to have been formed 
from two propositions referring to each other, as Oav/matrTov 
eoTiv, oaa y^pr]fxara eXajSe, instead of davp,aaTa e<JTi ^yo^/uara, 
ocra e'Aa/Se. By usage, however, otroc has been referred to the 
adjective, and both put in the same case, as Plat. Rep. 9. 
p. 588 A. ei ToaovTOV t;^ovi^ viKa o ayaQoc re /cat ZiKaioc tov 
KaKov re Kai aciKOVf afxr)y^avio 017 ocw Tr\elov viKrjaei eutr^?]- 
fxoavvy re j3iov Kai KaWei Kai apery. The construction is similar 
in the phrase ov^eva ovriv ovk a7roarpa(f)rivai e<j)a(Tav §. 306. 
Bavfxaarisyc, ujc, \. 628. An unusual position is found Herod, 
1, 14. aXX oaa fxev apyvpov avaBrjjuiaTa etrri 01 TrXeTcTra ev 
A€\(po7(Ti. but here two clauses appear to have been combined, 
aXX offa pev apy. avaOrjpaTa eari, tovtu)v etrri 01 ttX, 

d. The neuters of many adjectives, in connection with the 
article, express a whole, which might also be denoted by the 
plural, as to eifavriov 'the enemies'. Thuc. 7, 44. Kai irav to 
€^ evavTiac Kai e'l (piXiov e'lri twv ti^yj iraXiv (^evyovrioVf noXepiov 
epo/uiZov. id. 6, 69. to vtttjkoov 'subjects' collectively, avri- 
TraXov Tl Xen. Hell. 2, 3, 30. ' a hostile party', to OrjXv, to 
SudTu^ec Eur. Here. F. 537, 562. cariv ri poi Kar ' Apyoc 
evpevec, (j)iX(i)v ; Eur. El. 605. This happens especially with 
adverbs in -ikoc: to TroXiTtfcov Herod. 7, 103. 'the citizens' 
collectively, to 'EXXr^i^t/cov lliuc. 1,1. to Aw^ot/cov id. 7, 44. 
TO (3apf3apiK6v, TO tTTTTifCov, TO OTrXtTt/coi^, TO l^vp/j.a'^iKov. To 
this class belong the phrases oti a(j)eXoc &c. §. 442. Obs, 
There is a difference in to koivov ' the community, the state', 
which does indeed also express a whole, but for which the 

Sj/ntax. Of the Adjective in particular, 737 

plural masculine genitive cannot be substituted : and to 
vavTiKov ' the fleet', comprises not only rac vijac, but also the 

So also are participles used. Herod. 1, 97. TrAeuvoc aei 
yiyvofxevov rov €7ri(poiT€OVTOC, for TrAeuvtuv yiyvofxevwv twv 
eTTKpoiTeoPTVJv. Id. 7, 209. to vTrojLievov for tovc vTrofxevovraQ, 
Id. 9, 61. TO TTpoaKei/devov. comp. 63. Thiic, 7, 48. -nv yap ti 
Kai ev ^vpahovaaic, ^ovKofxevov tolc, AOr^vaioiQ ra irpay/iLaTa 
ev^ovvai. Comp. c. 49. id. 8, 66. opiZv ttoAu to ^vveari^KOQ, 
which was shortly before ol ^vveartjUrec Xen. Mem, S. 1, 
2, 43. TO Kparovv ttJq ttoAcwc. 

In the plural the adjectives in-ifcoc denote some circumstance, 
which the context determines, relating to the noun which is the 
root, or the history of a people, as ra TpijjiKa Thuc. 1,3. ' the 
Trojan war', ra 'EAAijvt/ca ' the Grecian history', Ta vauTi/ca 
' the naval war, naval affairs'. 

Neuter adjectives are used in other circumstances also for 
masculines, as Eur. Suppl. oil . ogoi y v^piarai' y^pr\(TTa S 
ou KoXaZfiaeVy for y^priarovQ. 

7. Adjectives are very often put in the neuter singular and 446. 
plural, with and without an article, for adverbs, e. g. npuyrov 
' in the first place', to irptJTOv ' at first'. eirLTri^ec * on purpose^ 
consulto &)C, a'lva for a[v(^c 7/. a , 414. aKiyrira 11. p , 75. tto- 
repa, utrum, Xen. Mem. S. 2, 3, 6. 8cc. Soph. EL 961. aAe/c- 
Tpa yrfpaaKovaav avvpevaia re, instead of which aAe/CT/ooc 
Kai avv/nevaioc ynpaaKei is more common. So Eur. Hel. 291. 
TToAta irapOeveverai. Eur. Ion. 1391. KpvCpaia vvfjL^evBeLGa, 
for Kpv(j)aLwc, Kpv(j)a. Soph. QLd. C. 319. (j)ai^pa youv air' 
ofii/naTwv (Taivei pe. Xen, Cyr. 3, 2, 1 4. TroAAa ' frequently'. 
Sometimes a substantive which in sense is contained in the verb 
may be suppHed, as Soph. (Ed. T. 1300 seq. tic o Trrj^ijcrac 
/iiettoua (7rridr)inaTa, as §. 408.) with Erfurdt*s note. So with 
io(j)eX€Lv, /SAaTTTeiv, Zvp^t-ovv adjectives in the neuter plural are 
used in the sense of adverbs. See §. 415. Obs. 3. and with 
ojetv the adjective in the neuter, not the adverb, is used. See 
§. 376. The neuter singular with the article is found Theocr, 

738 Syntax, Of the Adjective in particular. 

1,41. Kafxvovri ro Kaprepov av^pi eoiKiJC 3, 3. and in other 
later writers*. But ov^ev, /mri^cv, are not used, merely to 
strengthen the negation, for oi) and jufi, for they may always be 
rendered 'in no respect' : Eur, Andr. 88. juLY^^ev tovt ovei^icr'^Q 
cjuoi, and in the other passages quoted by Elmsley ad Soph, CEd, 
C. 779. and Matthiae Eur. Orest, 1 82. Comp. Herm, ad Soph. 
Antig, 610. Comparatives of adverbs especially are expressed 
by the neuter singular of adjectives, and superlatives by the 
neuter plural. See §. 260.^ 

8. Adjectives also, referred to substantives, are in the same 
way put in the masculine or feminine, for adverbs,or prepositions 
with their case. //. p , 361. rot 8 ay^rjcxTtvoi eimrTov, for 
ay^i aXAr/Xwv. a , 334. cev varepoQ eifx vno 'yaiav ' as the 
second to you'. Msch, Ag, 50. viraroi \eykwv, iov virep X. 
Soph, Phil. 808. ofeta, ra-^ela, for of ewe, ra^ewc. So Eur. 
Jon. 439, airac /aeu ov yevoiT av etc i^^uac (j)iXoCf for airavra 
' in all respects'. Adjectives of this kind are also used instead 
of datives taken adverbially : Soph, (Ed, C, 441 . rfXawe /x' eic 
yrJQ '^poviov, for -^povt^ ' after a time', as it is v. 437. Soib, 
1637, opKioc for op Kij), So in Homer II, a, 497. ?7€/oti? 5' 
avej3ri fxkyav ovpavovy for rj pi, mane^, )3 , 2. eu^ov iravpv'^ioij 
for vvKTi. More particularly adjectives marking a time, and 
derived from substantives or adverbs, are thus used, e. g. //. a, 
423 seq. Zeuc \OitoQ e/3>; Kara ^alra, for yfiec. Adjectives 
in -aloe, chiefly derived from ordinal numerals, are put thus, 
e. g. ^evT€pa7oc a(j)iK€TO, for t^ ^evrepa -nfiepa. See §. 144. 
also in other senses aKoriaiovc ^leXOeiu to ne^iov Xen. Anab, 
4, 1, 5. 'in the darkness, twihght'. Ideas of space are also 
expressed in this way : Soph. (Ed, 7'. 1 4 1 1 . OaXaaGiov eKpiipare, 
for etc OaXaaaav. Comp. Eur. Hec. 782. especially adverbs 
compounded with prepositions, as 11. 0, 630. v7r»/o?ot Owpij- 
'^Oevrec, for vtto ttJv r}<jj. Soph. (Ed. T, 32. e(j)eaTioi eCofxeda, 
for cttJ tiJ iffria. id. (Ed. C. 119. eKToirioQ avOeic, for eK 
{rovTov) TQv TOTTOv. th, 234. where aKpopfxoc, is used for airo. 
See Ohs. 3, a. Antig. 785. (^oirac, vnepirovnou. Instead of 
a substantive with an adjective Soph. El, 841. iraf.i\PvyoQ aVaa- 

* \'alck. ad Theocr. 10. id. p. C8. •• Fisch. 3 a. p. 216 sqq. 

Herm. ad Soph. CEd. C. 16S6. * BuUmann Lcxil. p. 118 seq. 

Sj/titax\ Of the Adjectica in particular. 739 

vei, for ira(T(jjv r. \p. In prose vTroanov^oc is particularly com- 
mon, e. g. viroaTTOvdovQ avWaf^elv rivac, iov viro (TTTOvSatc , 5cc. 

9. Adjectives also are often used in the sense of substantives, 
and then take another substantive in the genitive, or another 
adjective or pronoun possessive. Xen. H. Or, 6, 2, 33. rote 
vfxerkpoiQ ^vcrfxevkai. Apol. S, 27. roiq e^uoTq evifoiQ. Plat. 
Theat. p. 147 C. tw at^ ofxiovvfxif)^ . 

10. In the poets adjectives derived from proper names are 
often used instead of the genitives of these names. Od. y, 190. 
riotaWioi' vlov, for YloiavToc Comp. ib, 264. tj , 324. Find. 
Pyth. 2, 34. (J ^civofikveie iral. Eur. Iph. T. 5. rrjc, Tvv^apeiaQ 
Ovyarpoc. Comp. Iphig. A. 1541. Here. F. 136. roxf 'H|oa- 
Kkeiov irarepa. also Herod. 7, 105. toT<ti Ma<T/ca^eioi(Ji eK- 
yovoiai. Iq Theocr. 26, 35. the daughters of Cadmus and 
sisters of Semele are called a^e\(pea\ avrac, KaSfxelai, as Tihull. 
3, 6, 24. Cadmea mater, the daughter of Cadmus, mother of 
Pentheus. See Huschke's note. 

Obs. The following circumstances are to be remarked respecting the 
usage of the tragic and lyric writers: 

1. If a substantive connected with a genitive has an adjective with it, 
the adjective often refers not to the genitive but to the governing word, 
provided the nominative and genitive together make up one principal 
idea ; as 7rar;)p Trarjoos, equivalent to TraTTTros * grandfather', TraTs irat^os, 
i. e. viijjyos 'grandson'; whence ovfjos ncus Trai^os Eur. Andr. 585. 
Tov e/jLoy Cjliv(i)v ttojov id. Plicen. 30. because u)liru)v ttuvos denotes 
' parturition, the child born', id. Here. F. 449. ypalat otTGOJv Trrjyai, 
i. e. yepaia ^citcpva, or ^. yepatds. id. Ale. 549. ^iyiov Trpos aXXriv kariav 

* to another house of hospitality*. Soph. (Ed. T. 1400. rov^oy alfua 
Trarpos * the blood of my father shed by me'. In other cases the geni- 
tive is an addition, in itself unnecessary, but serving poetically to de- 
fine, as Eur. Here. F, 468. eyKXripa Tredia Tajjia yrjs KeKT-qfievos. Ion. 
1357. 'X^pos vn ayvuXats efxals, (with which Lobeck ad Soph. Aj. 308. 
compares Pmrf. 01. 8, 55. reals x^P^^ epyaaiais.) Soph. Ant. 79S. yeUos 
aycpujy ^vyaifioyf where yelKos l^vvaifxov 'kindred strife', is used for 

* strife of kinsmen', as Obs, 3, c. Sometimes the genitive is the prin- 
cipal word, which receives a more extended, more exact, or strength- 

^ Dorv. ad Char. p. 389. Valck. • Schaef. ad Schol. Apoll. Rh. 

ad Theocr. (lO. id.)7, 21. Fisch. 3 a. p. 168 seq. 
p. 331 seq. 

740 Syntax. Of the Adjective in particular. 

ening definition, as Pi7id. 01. 8, 90. er Terpdai irailwv yviois, for ev 
TCTpaai Traiah, because, in wrestling, the limbs, and especially the arms, 
are exerted. Pyth. 4, 4^53. vfjierepas aKrlvas 6X(dov, for vjuerepop oX/3ov, 
with the collateral idea of splendour. Eur. Or. 991. to Trravoy ^itoyfia 
TTwXwv, for rovs irravovs 'ittttovs ^noKofievovs, to which the reading of 
Brunck Soph. Trach. 508. vxpiKepio Terpaopov (pafffxa ravpov, for ravpos 
reTpaopoSf belongs. From this usage it seems to have arisen, that in 
other places the adjective is added to the wrong noun, but still to one 
which stands in connection with the principal noun, as ^sch. Ag. 49. 
etCTrariois aXyern Ttai^iov, for eKTrariwv TraiSojy. Soph. Aj. 11.^3. TroXias 
TTovTov QivoSf for TToXiov TTOPTov. Eur. Ion. 292. ^aafia aov ^Oovos, for 
X. (rrjs x^.^ So (Ed. T. 1375. for aXX' ?; rcKvtjp hfJT 6-^ is ^v k^'iyieposy 
fiXaffTova oTTtos efiXaarer, fiXaarovrojv referring to refcvwv would have 
been more exact. 

2. The adjective often contains not a definition in itself belonging to 
the substantive, but an extension of the idea contained in the verb, or it 
may be considered as the consequence and effect of the verb. //. /3', 
416. RKTopeoy de ^iT^ya rrepl crrfjdecrari Bai^ai ^oXk:^ pcjyaXeov. 
I', 6. elffOKc dep/ia Xoerpu depfxrfvri. ^sch. Ag. 1258. ev^rifioVf <J 
TfxXaLva, Koijir]ffov arojua, i. e. koijjl. (tt. wore evipYifiov elvai. Soph. (Ed. 
C. 1200. TO))/ (Tijjp ad epKTiop 6fifxa.TU)y ttjtu) fxevos. Aj. 69. eyw yap 
ofjLfxaTUjp a7roaTp6(l>ovs avyas aTreip^o). comp. 430. El. 741. Ant. 791. 
ffv Kai diKaicjp adiKovs (ppevas tt apaawq.s e7rtXa>/3^, i. e. TrapaaTruiy 

adf.K. TTOieis. Eur. Bacch. 1055. Bvpaov Kiaa^ KOfxiiTrjv avdis e^a- 

ve<TT€<pov. So Soph. Ant. 1010. KaTappveis jjirjpol KaXvTTTrjs e^cKeiPTO 
TnfxeXrjSf the adjective /carap. expresses not an independent quality of 
the prjpoiy but belongs to the verb, KaTuppveis e^cKeivTO, for KareppvYiaaVy 

also Soph. (Ed. 7\ 57. ttuXis epr] /jlos av^ipwv /jirj ^vvo ikovptojp 

€(T0J. jEsch. Pers. 151. Ka\ 7rpo(Ti}>d6yyois he ■^(^peojp avrrjp TrdpTUS 
fjLvdoiai irpoaavZdp. Soph. Trach. 262. avTOP eXOoPT es 36}xovs 
k<pe(TT LOP. Eur. Hec. 927. eTridefivios los Treffoip.' is evVav, which 
belong to Pleonasms ''. 

3. Compound adjectives in particular are used in a great variety of 

a. They are often employed only to make the language more sonorous, 
only one part of the compound being regarded : e. g. 7raXa/0aros ttjoo- 

* Brunck ad Soph. Trach. 508. Seidl. ad Eur. El. 412. Schaf. ad 

Musgr. ad (E(\. T. 1273. Lob. ad Soph. Aj. 402. ad Greg. p. 533. 

Aj. 9. App. Dcm. 1. p. 239. 

" Lob. ad Soph. Aj. p. 299. 353. 

Syntax. Of the Adjective in particular. 741 

voia for TtaXaia Soph. Trach. 823. So is explained ftojfioi TravreXeu 
Soph. Antig. 1016. and upQo-Kovs irayos ib. 985. is probably for opOos^. 

b. They are found as an apposition, instead of the nouns contained 
in the compound adjectives, as jEsch, Prom. 301. crL^rjpofiiiTwp ala, 
i. e. (nh)pov fx^rrjo, Pind. Nem. 1, 92. opdofiavTiv Teipeaiav for opQov 
pavTiv Teip. as Soj)h. Phil. 1338. "RXevos apiarvnayTis, i. e. "EX. apiaTos 
pavTLS. CEd. T. 556. Tuy aefivoiJLavTtv aydpa. Soj)h. Antig. 1283. 
rov^e Trafxfxtjrtop veKpov for Travrws, Kara izavTa, ^rjTrjp. 

c. They are found instead of the genitive of the substantive con- 
tained in the compound, as Eur. Phoen. 845. avvaifxoy \eyos for X. avy- 
aifjLov ' bed of a relation by blood', i. e. ' the son'. Comp. Soph. Ant. 
793. supra 1. Eur. Here. F, 395. Kapirov fxr]\o(j)6poy for Kapiroy ^ifKiav. 
Iph. T. 412. ^CKoTrXovrov afjLiWay av^oyTcs for iifxiW. ttXovtov, only 
that the adjective expresses more forcibly the striving for wealth. Id. 
El. 126. TToXvdatcpvy iiEoyar for IjB. Zatcpvioy. Soph. CEd. T. 26. ay^Xai 
fiovyojuoi for ayeXai jSouiy. Commonly, however, the compounded ad- 
jective is found instead of the substantive with an adjective, participle, 
or second substantive in the genitive : e. g. jEsch. Agam. 272. evayye- 
Xoitny eXwicriy OvrjTroXels for kXiriaiv ayadrjs ayyeXias. Comp. Eur. 
Med. 1017. Pind. Pyth. 5, 39 seq. apiadap/jiaToy yepas for y. apiffreias 
appcLTwy. Nem. 10, 71. ei/dyoiv ripa for Tipa €vrv)(Ovs ayioyos, 01. 3, 4. 
Qrjpoyos oXvpinoyiKav vpyoy for v. yiKrjs ^OXvp-rriKfjs. and with a genitive 
Pyth. 6, 4. HvdioyiKos vpywy Brjaavpos for YlvdioriKioy vpy. drjff. accord- 
ing to No. 1. i. e. vpyujv yiKuiy YlvdiKuiy. Sojih. Antig. 1022. ay^po- 
<pQ6pov alpa, for al^a ay^pos <pdapeyTOS. Aj. 935. api<Tr6\^eLp ayojy for 
ay. apiffTijjy j^etpw^', i. e. ay^puiy. CEd. C. 1002. pipcpapparoi apiXXai 
for dp. appciTOjy pipcpa (pevyoyrwy. Eur. Here. F. 384. yap^oval aydpo- 
fipuires for ^. tov fJtftpioaKeLy aydp<i)7rovs. Hipp. 67 . eviraTepeia avXd 
for avXa ayaOou irarpoSj as evTrarpidai oIkoi ib. 1092. Iph. T. 1090. 

^ _- deiyrjs p ecioaas en TrarpoKToyov ^epos^ for €k j^. Trarpos Krei- 

voyros. and where the adjective has a passive signification Soph. Ant. 
1022. dy^po(f)d6poy aipa. Eurip. Or. 833. 1683. al^a prjTpoKroyoy for 
alpa fjL. KTayOeiarjs ''. Sometimes the meaning which already exists ac- 
cording to the sense in the substantive contained in the compound adjec- 
tive, is pleonastically repeated, with or without a new definition : Soph. 
Ant. 848 5e^. eppa rvp(i6-)(^uj(TToy (i. e. e. ri'^/3oi> ^^worov) ra0ov Troraiyiov, 
Eur. Phoen. 1370. Xev<co7r//^eis ktvttol •y^epoTy for XevKuiy Trrj-^^eioy kt. 
where xepoly is added as No. 1. One part of the compound adjective 
refers to the governing substantive, and the other is instead of the ge- 

*^ llerm. ad Soph. Aj. 221. "* Elmsl. ad Eur. Bacch. 139. 

742 Syntax, Of the Verbals in -reoQ. 

nitive jtEsch. Choeph, 21. 6lv\€ip KTvirosy instead of d^vs '^eiptav ktvttos. 
There is also sometimes found with the governing substantive an adjec- 
tive or pronoun, which properly refers to a part of the compound ad- 
jective : Eur. Here. F. 1383 seq. rifxas e^^ets TraidoKTovovs rrovs, where 
crovs refers properly to iraT^as, implied in the compound : and so perhaps 
we should explain Soph. Trach. 824 seq. reXeo^irivos hioleicaros apoTOs, 
I. e. apoTos ^. TeXeiiHy fjii^vtov. at least this explanation seems to be esta- 
blished by the above examples. Id. El. 858. eXTri^es koivotokol evira^ 
rpilai for e\. kolvov tokov (tov Koiyrj €p.oi reyBevTOs aZeXi^ov) evnarpiZov. 

4. With substantives or adjectives which are used in a metaphorical 
sense, adjectives contradictory to them are often used to show that they 
are not to be taken literally, e.g. jSisch. Pers, 64. (ioq. yap Kvjjia x^i*~ 
tratov arparov 'the waves of the army', not waves in the strict sense, 
but terrestrial waves. Eur. Or, 319. afjaKyevrov Biaaov^ because Bia- 
(Tos is properly a company of Bacchanals, ib. 1513. Orestes and Py- 
lades are called aBvpaoi Bafc^at. Phcen, 221. a/capTrtora Tre^t'a ' of the 
sea*, ib. kiH^os avavXoTaros * the tumult of war*. Here, F. 1136. to- 
Xe/xos cnroXejjios * the murder of the children* *. 

In a similar way they often add to a substantive an adjective com- 
pounded with a priv. of the same root or similar signification, to ex- 
press that that substantive does not properly belong to the object 
designated, on account of the misfortune connected with it. Eur. 
Hec, 612. Polyxena is called vv^i<pr] t avvn^os irapBevos t anapBeyos 
* the unhappy bride and virgin*. Hel. 698. yafxos iiyafios (innuptce 
nupticB Cie. de Orat. 3, 5^.) 'the unhappy marriage' ^ 

To this class belong the forms AvffTrapts, alt'oirupis, Eur, Hec, 945. 
only that they do not stand for SvffTvxhft alpos Uapis, but 'Paris born 
for (his own and others') misfortune*. ZvcreXeva Eur, Or, 1395. Iph, 
A, 1326. Jjrarep aXvoizcvrep Msch, Choeph, 312. 

5. Two adjectives are often placed together, one in the genitive, to 
denote the highest degree : Soph, (Ed. T. 465. fipprjT afipijrwr. Phil. 65, 

Of the Verbals in -reoc. 

447. The Verbals in -reoc (§. 220.) are used either impersonally, 
as the Latin gerunds, e. g. irkov eor'iVy eundum est, * one must 

» Blomf. Gloss. Agam. 81. •» Matthias ad Etir. Hec. 608. 

Sj/ntax. Of the Verbals in -t^oq. 743 

go' ; or are referred to a subject, like the Latin participles fut, 

1. When they are put impersonally, the neuter plural is 
often put for the neuter singular, particularly in Attic. See 
§. 443. 

2. Verbals, though passive in derivation, govern the cases 
of the verbs from which they are derived, like actives : e. g, 
eiriOviiiriTeov ecrriif eipr]vr]Cy eiri'^eiprjTeov €<tti t a> epyo), 
a<TKr)Teov €<TTt rr}if aperrjv. This case usually expresses the 
object of the action ; so that the verbal may be resolved by del 
with the infinitive active or middle, as eiriOv/ne^v 3eT, /a^teT(T0ai, 
napaaKevaffatrOai SeT 3 a. As these middle verbs have often an 
intransitive signification, their verbals also are so used ; as Plat» 
Gorg. p. 507 D. TTapaaKevaarkov fxaXiara fxev juridev ^elaOai tov 
KoXa^ecfOal, i. e. TrapaaKevaaacfQai SeT, ' we must put ourselves 
into that state of mind', id. Rep. 7. p. 520 C. avvedLarkov 
for (jvvediteiv eavrov 8e?. It is seldom that a verbal of a passive 
verb keeps its passive sense and is joined with the word by 
which it is determined ; Soph. Aiitig. 678. ovre yvvaiKOQ 
ovSa/uKjjQ rjffffrjrea, Arist, Lys. 450. ov yvvaiKijJv ouSe- 
TTOT ecrO r]TTriTea r]fxiv. 

3. When the verbals take an accusative, two constructions, 
equally common, are made use of. Either 

a. The verbal remains in the neuter impersonally, and 
retains as an active its object in the accusative. Eurip. Or. 
759. ol(TT€ov TQ^e. Phafi. 724. e^OKrreov y' ap oirXa 
Ka^/Lieiojv TToXei. Plat. Gorg. J9. 487 C. Kai ttotc vpwu eyut 
vTn]Kovaa ^ov\f.vofxkvu)v, pky^piQ ottol rrjv cro(l)iav clgk^)- 
reoi/ eiT). ib. p. 507 D. (Ttjcjypoavvrjif pev Scw/creov Kai 
atTKrireov, aKo\a(Tiav Se (pevKreov. ibid. eTriOereov SiKtju, 
Kai Ko\a<TT€ov, €1 peXXei ev^aipujv elvai. Comp. Leg. 4. 
J9. 715 E. Xeti. Mem. 1, 7, 2. ei no, prj lov ayaOoc avXrjTrJG, 

coKeiv (jovXoiTO, ap ov ra efw Ttjc TS'^vrjQ fxipr^rkov 

TOVQ ayaOovG avX^irac; and the same, troXXovc CTrac- 
verac irapaiTKevaaTeoVf epyov ovSapov XrjTrTeov. Comp. 
2,1,28. Or 

b. The object becomes the subject, and the verbal is re- 

744 Syntax, Of the Use of the Comparative, 

ferred to it as a passive, in the same gender, number, and 
case, like the Latin participle in dus. Herod. 7, 168. ou ac^t 
TrepioTTTeri eaTi ri EXXac aTToXXu^evj?, for ov Trepioirreov 
eari rriv EXXaSa. Xen. Mem. S. 3,6, 3. tovto ^rjXov, on, 
eiirep Tifxacrdai povkei, loCpeXriTea <70t 17 ttoXic eariv^, 
Plato unites both constructions Phad. p. 107 B. aXXa Kal tclq 
ye vTToOeaeiG tuq tt p<l)Tac, Kai ei iriGrai rijLuu eiaiv, op,it)Q 
€7ri<TK€7rTeai (racpearepov, owing to the preceding niaTai, 

4. When a person accompanies the verbal as the subject of 
the action, it is put in the dative, as in Latin with the gerund 
and the participle in dus: e. g. u)(j)e\rjrea a 01 ri ttoXic etTTiv. 

Sometimes, however, the person is put in the accusative, 
provided the construction of the verbal is the same with that 
of the impersonal ^ei with the infinitive and accusative, as 
irapaaKevaaTeov eari Te-^urjv tw avd pioirtOy the same as ttu- 
paaKevaaaadai ^et tc^. tqv avO. Thiic. 8, 65, Xoyoc eic 
Tov (pavepov npoeipyacFTO avTolc, wc ovre jUKjOoCpoprfTeov e'lrj 
aWovG rj Touc <jt paxevofxevovc,, ovre f-iedeicreov tojv 
irpayfxarijjv Tr\eioaiv 77 irevTaKiay^iXioiQ, Plat. Rep, 7. 
p, 620 D. KarajBareov ev fxkpei eKaarov eic ttjv twv aWtjJv 
^vvoiKtjaiv, Comp. 3, p, 400 D. Leg. 8. p, 833 D. ib. I, 
p, 643 A. ^la ravrrjc (rrfc TratSeiac) ^a/jiev ireov elvai tov 
IT poKey^eipi<j fxevov ev tw vvv \oyov vCJ) rj/iwv. ib, 7. 
p, 808 D. avev TroijuevoQ ovre irpopara ovre aWo ovoev 
TTU) j3i(jJTeov. Isocr, Evag. p. 190 B. oi> fjiriv ^ovXevreov tovq 
ye vovv e^ovrac toTc ovtw kqkwq (ppovovcnv. The two con- 
structions are united in Plat. Rep. 5, p. 453 D. ovkovv kqi 
ij/uTi' vevareov eXTTiSovrac. Comp. Thuc. 1, 72. 

Of the Use of the Comparative. 

448, The Comparative compares two things or propositions with 
each other, in respect to the degree in which a quality is pos- 

" Fisch. 3 a. p. 416 sqq. Dem. p. 319. calls the latter con- 

^ Ern. ad Xen. Mem. S. 3, 9, 1. struction the more common.) Ast 

Heind.adPlat.Pha;dr.p.335. Schaef. ad Plat. Leg. p. 70. Wyttenb. Phi- 

Melet. in Dion. H. p. 89. (who App. lom. 2. p. 1.'^. 

Syntax. Of the Use of the Comparative. 745 

sessed, attributing to the one a higher degree than to the other, 
either by means of the conjunction rj, quam, ' than', or, instead 
of this, by changing the second substantive into the genitive. 

1. a. In the construction with tJ, the word with which an- 
other is compared is usually put in the same case with the 
word compared (subject of the comparison). //. a , 260. rj^jj 
"^ap WOT eyu) Koi apeioaiv, rjeirep vjulIv, avopaaiv tJ/u'iXrjcTa, 
i. e. 17 v/jielc eare. Herod. 7, 10, \. av ^e {xkWeic, eir avSpac 
(TTpareveaOai TToXv ajueluovac, 17 ^KvOac. Thtic. 7 ,77 . ri^rt 

TIV€Q Kai eK ^€lVOT€p(x)Vf T) TOKjJvSe, €Git}Qri(TaV. Plat. 

Leg. 1 0. p. 892 B. apa ovk e^ avajKriQ ra \pvyrJQ (Tvyy evrj tt/oo- 
repa av eir] yeyovora t(jjv atjjfxari Trpoar]Kovr(jJV, ovar]c; tovtyic 
TTpeafSvTepac, rj au)p,aT0C. Xen. Cyrop. 8, 3, 32. aXAa 
Tr\ov<Ti(jJTepii> pep av, 17 epoi, ecioovQ. 

Sometimes however, after rJ, the nominative is used, if eipi or 
another word can be supplied. Xen. Mem. S. 1,6, 4. Treireiapai, 
ae paWov a7roOavel.v av eXeaOai, rj ^tJv ioairep eyw, for wcFTrep 
eyw 2<«>. Isocr. Pac. extr. toTc veiorepoic, Kai paWov aKpa- 
"Covaiv, 7) eyu) (aKpat(i>), irapaivw. Demosth. p. 287, 27. 
rjptjv apeivovy rj eKeivoi, to ^eXXoi/ irpoopwpevwv ^, 

b. When it is an entire proposition with which the subject 
is compared, and the comparative expresses that a quality 
exists in too high a degree to allow something mentioned to 
follow, tJ has after it the infinitive with toare. Herod. 3, 14. 
w Tral Kvpov, ra pev oiKi]ia »)v pe'Cti) KaKa, 17 u)(Tt€ avaKXaieiv, 
graviora mala, quam ut fere possem. Simonid. ap. Pint, de 
Aud. Poet. p. 15 D. (c. 1. p. 59. ed. H.) apadeaTepoi yap ei<nv, 
rj wc vir epov e^anaracjOai, 

utQ or LJCTTe is very often omitted. Soph. (Ed. T. 1293. to 
yap voarfpa ij,e7Zov rj cj)epeiv. Eur, Hec. 1107. ^vyyvaycrO , 
orav TIC, Kpei(T(TOv , i\ (pepeiv, KaKa naOij, TaXaivrfC e^airaX- 
Xa^ai totjc id. Ale. 230. afca Kai a^ayaQ TaZe, Kai irXeov 
T] ^poyu) Bepriv ovpavii^ ireXaZ^eiv^. 

* Of a similar change in the case ** Valck. ad Her. 3, 14. p. 200, 60. 

after Coawep see Heind. ad Plat. Markl. ad Eur. Suppl. 844. 
Phsedon. §. 137. p. 235. 


746 Syntax. Of the Use of the Comparative. 

The positive is very frequently, in this case, used with the 
infinitive w^ithout ^. Herod, 6, 109. oXt-youc yap eivai 
arpari^ r^ Mrj^wp (jvjjL^aXeeiv * too few to come to action 
with', &c. comp. 7, 207. Thuc. 1, 50. — Thuc. 2, 61. ra- 
neivrj vfxt^v 17 ^lavoia eyKaprepelv a eyvtjre. Plat* Menex. 
p, 239 E. o '^povoQ (jpa'^vQ a^'itJG ^ir^yriffaffOai, Xen, 
CEcon. 16, 10. (TKXripa earai 1) yrj Kivelv t(^ Z^evyei. 

Properly speaking, the positive is not here used instead of 
the comparative, but the infinitive expresses either the respect 
in which the adjective is to be taken, as §. 534. 'ye are too 
few in respect to the battle with the Medes', or the effect and 
consequence of the obstacle included in the adjective ; so that 
the infinitive is to be taken in a negative sense, ' ye are few so 
as to be prevented from fighting', or ' so that ye cannot fight*. 
The latter explanation is confirmed by the circumstance, that 
ware is often joined with the infinitive : and so Cicero says, 
Tial, 17, 63. imhecilla enim natura est ad contemnendam poten- 
tiam. The sense is the same whether I say imbecilla est nat, 
ad cont, pot. or imhecillior quam ut contemnat pot. (nimis imbe- 
cilia would be English-Latin). So we should understand Eur. 
Heracl. 747. eTrei toi kui fca/coc [xeveiv ^opv, where cowardice 
(KaKoo) is the cause why Eurystheus does not await the foe. 

In this case ware also accompanies the infinitive, and must 
be taken in a negative sense. Plat. Protag. p. 314 B. rjpeln 
en veoi, ware roaovrov irpayfxa dieXeaOai. Xen. Ci/r. 

4, 5, 15. oXiyoi eapev, ware eyKparelc elvai. id. Mem. 

5, 3, 13, 3. aXXa xpv^poVj ware XovaaaOaiy eariv. En-* 
rip. Androm. 80. yepwv eKelvoc, ware a' w^eXe^v napwv. 
Id. Phan. 1395. ov jmaKpav yap reiy^ewv Trepnrrvyai, war 
ovv airavra a eioevai ra cpwjxeva , 

For other modes see below §. 451. 

449. c. When it is not a substantive that is compared with an- 
other, but the quality of a thing expressed by an adjective that 
is considered in its proportion to another quality, and compared 
in degree with it (where in Latin quam pro is used), then rj Kara 

* Wyttenb. in Bibl. Crit. 3, 2. p. 64. Heind. ad. Plat Prot. p. 478. 

Sj/ntax. Of the Use of the Comparative. 747 

or rt Trpoc is put after the comparative. Herod. 4, 95. tov 
ZaX/io^iv TOVTOV eTri(TTa/j.evov ^'laiTav xe laoa Kai hOea fjaOv- 
T€pa 77 Kara Qpr^iKciCy i. e. i] o'la Qpr]iK€c e-^ovcriif 'than can 
be expected from the Thracians, than one meets with among the 
Thracians*. Soph. (Ed, C. 598. ri yap to pel.tov, ri Kar av- 
6pu)Trov, voaeic; ' worse than man can bear*. Comp. J.w^. 768. 
Track. 1019. Tkuc. 2, 50. to eiSoc Tr\c, vocrov ra re aWa 
•^aXeircjTeptoc,, rj Kara rriv avOpojireiav (j)v(yiif, irpocjeTrnrrev 
eKaarts), Kai 8cc. id. 6, 15. 'AXfCtjSiaSrjc toTc eTriOv/LuaiCf fxe'i- 
Z,o(Tiv 7} KaTCL TTiv virapyovcTav ovaiau e^prJTO * had more 
wants than he had abiUty to satisfy', id. 7, 45. oTrAa irXeco 
7) Kara rove veKpovc, eXijcpBr} ' more arms than the number 
of the dead led one to expect'. Plat. Rep. 2. p. 359 D. i^eiv 
evovra veKpov fxeitto V Kar av6 piowov ' greater than a man 
usually is'. Comp. PhcEdon. p. 94 E. Xen. Mem. S. 4, 4, 24. 
to rovQ vopovG avrovG role irapapaivovcji rac, ri/uLOjpiac e^eti/, 
peXriovoc rj Kar avOpionov vopoOerov So/ceT poi eivai 
' more sagacious than can be looked for from man'. Comp. 
Aristot. Poet. 2, 1.^ In this manner also the relation explained 
in the preceding section is expressed. Tkuc. 7, 75. pei^io, r) 
Kara SaKpva, ra imev ireTrovBorac rjorj, ra Se iJieXXovrac;, which 
in Herod. 3, 14. is ^te^w kuko,, rj wcrre avaKXaieiv. Both con- 
structions are united jEwrip. Med. 673. aoc^iorep ,t) Kar av^pa 
(Tv/uipaXe7v, eTTYiy i.e. rj Kar' avSpa Kai tj (ucttc avdpa <Tu^ij3a- 
Xeiv. Thus too Plat. Crat. p. 392 A. ravra pei^u) ecrriv rj 
Kar e/iie Kai (re e^evpelu. 

In the same manner ri irpoc, is used. Thuc. 4, 39. o yap 
apyu)v ETTiTa^aa ev^eearepioc, eKaario irapeiyev 77 irpoQ 
rrjv ef ouo-tai/ *^. Instead of 77 Kara or 77 irpoCy irapa is used, 
which is generally the opposite o^ Kara. See §. 588, c. y. 

2. The omission of the conjunction 77 is very common, in 450. 
which case the substantive following is put in the genitive. //. 
|0 , 446. ov fxev yap ri ttgu ecrriv oi^v ptjjrepov avSpoc 
Travrtjjv, ocraa re ycuav eiri irveiei re Kai epirei. Od. a , 27. ov 
Tt eywye »7C yairic ^vvafJiai yXvKept^repov aXXo i^eaOai^. 

* Wess. et Valcken. ad Herod. 8, * Valck.inOratt.IIemst.etV.p.30. 

38. p. 636, 100. ** Fisch. 3 a. p. 350. 

R 2 

748 Syntax. Of the Use of the Comparative. 

Hence Isocr. Fauath. p. 287 C. So/ceTc yap jjloi Jwv [nev XtJ- 
xpeaOai ^o^av, ov jue/^w §e, r/c ci^iOQ el. for juei'^w efceiVrjq i]c, 
unless it should be rj ^ic a. el. 

OJ5. 1. The prepositions vpS and avrt are sometimes placed before 
these genitives. Herod. 1, 62. olaiv rj rvpavvls 7rp6 eXevdepirjs rjy 
affiratTTOTepov. Plat. Phcedon. p. 99 A. Soph. Antig. 182. fiei'Cov 
offTLS avrl Trjs avrov Trarpas <j)i\ou vofil^ei, tovtov ovBafiov \eyuj, 
Comp. Track. 577. Eurip. Suppl. 421. 6 yap ypovos fiadriaiv avrl 
Tov raypvs Kpeicrcrio didu)(TL. where, however, Kpelffffio may also stand 
by itself. Arist. Vesp. 210. 57 fioi Kpelrroy ■qu rrjpely l^Kiwyrjv ayrl 
TovTov TOV Trarpos. comp. Av. 209.* 

Obs. 2. Whether this genitive is accompanied by a redundant ij is 
very doubtful. Herod. 7, 26. iva Trrjyal ava^L^ovai Maidp^pov Trora/jiovf 
Kot eripov ovk eXaccovos, 17 Matav^pov. Thuc. 2, 13. ovk eXaffaopos -qv 
i\ TrevTtjKOpra raXavrdJP. ib. 7, 77. ridr} ripes Kat ck ^eivorepiov rj roiojvde 
effu)dr)ffayy is agreeable to the common construction mentioned §. 448, 
1, a. though the nominative might also have been used. Thuc. 8, 94. 
ol 3' av 'Adrjvaloi evdvs dpo/JLO) es rov TLeipaid 7ray^r)/j.ei k-^^uypovv^ ws rov 
idiov TroXefxov fieii^ovos rj oltto rojy TroXepiioyy ov^ ckcis dXXa Trpos t<3 
XipevL oyros, means, ' reflecting that a war in their own country was 
more dangerous than one which proceeded from the enemy', &c. Plat. 
Leg. 6. p. 765 A. jurj eXarroy rj TpiaKovra yeyovihs erojy. and ib. D. 
the phrase yiyyetrdai eruiy rp. is independent of the comparative §.316. 
though rj rp. err) might also have been said, or rp. eruiy without ?/, 
as it is p. 7G4 extr. Theocr. 15, 36. the genitive would be required as 
the price §. 364. independently of the comparative. The following 
passages, on the other hand, cause doubt : Lys. tt. 'Aptor. XP- P- 1^6, 5, 
Sre0av6) Se r^ GaWou eXeyero elvai TrXeoy rj ireyrriKOvra raXdvrtaVy 
dvodavovros 3e rj ovala efdyr} Trept evBcKa raXayraj unless ovaia be the 
subject of eXeye7-o. Isocr, Archid. p. 131 A. Kal yap e^ayyeXdrjyai ro7s 
"KXXrjffL KaXXiiO ravr earl Kal fxdXXoy dpfxorroyra rols rjfieTepois (ppoyrj- 
pafft^f rj <oy eyiol rives fjfxlv av\x(iovXevov(n. where however Coray has 
struck out r/ as being added in his MS. by a later hand. Bekker quotes 
no various reading. Xen, Hell. 2, 1, 8. rj le Koprj earl fxuKporepov rj 
yeipos. 4ff 6, 5. ov Trpojjet nXeov rrjs rj/j-epas rj hwdeKa (rraBiiov. where, 
however, or. may be governed of o^ov understood from npoyei. Theocr. 
20, 26. €K (TTOjjidTioy ^e eppee jxoi (fxtjvd yXvKepiorepa, rj fxeXiKrjpcjf where 

» Markl. ad Eur. Suppl. 419. Fisch. 1. c. 

Syntax, Of the Use of the Comparative, 740 

some read r) ^leXi Kijpu). Virg. jEn. 4, 501. has been more correctly 
explained by Wunderlich, and Quint. 11, 1, 21. by Gesner''. 

On the other hand the genitives rovrov, ov, which are governed by a 
comparative, are often followed by an explanation with ij, instead of 
the infinitive with the article. Od. ^', 182. ov fikv yap rov ye KpeTaaov 
Kal apeioi', y oO' 6/j.o(l)poy€oyr€ voi]fxa(nv oIkov e')(r]TOV avrtp rfZe yvvrj, for 
Tov €)(^eiy ay^pa Kal yvyalKa, JEurip. Heracl. 298. ovk ccttl rov^e 
Traiai KuWioy yepas, ij Trarpos eadXov KayaQov TrecpvKeyaL. Comp. 
Med. 55S seq. Plat. Theag. p. 127 A. ovk ead' 6 tl tovtov fxeil^oy av 
epfjLaioy iiyrffraifiriyf yj el ovros apeffKoiro ry try (Tvyov<Ti<^. Comp. Criton, 
p. 44 C. Gorg. p. 500 C. So also Soph. Antig. 1090. (iVa yvw Tpeipeiy) 
Toy vovv ajjielvu} ruiv <f)pey(Sy, rj vvy (^epeiy with Erfurdt's note *'. Some- 
times ?/ is wanting with the explanatory infinitive, as elsewhere a de- 
monstrative pronoun is explained by an infinitive alone, §. 468, h, 

j^sch. Ag. 613. TL yap yvyaiKi tovtov (j)eyyos ^^loy dpuKely 

TTvXas ayol^atf for tovtov, y 7rv\as ay. Plat. Gorg. p. 519 D. Some- 
times, although very rarely, tovtov which introduces the infinitive is 
omitted. Eur, Ale, 896. W yap ardpl KaKoy fxel^oy, aiiapTelv 7n<TTrjs 
aX6-)(0v ; Thuc. 1, 33. (TK€\paade, tIs evTrpu^ia (nrayKorepa, i) tLs toIs 
TToXcfjiiois XvTrypoTepa, el yy vfjiets ay Trpo TroXXuiy yjiYifxarijjy Kal x^piTOS 
eTifxriaacrOe ovyafxiy vfxty TrpoffyeyeaQai, avTY] irapeaTLV avTeirayyeXTOS, 
Perhaps, however, it would be more correct to suppose that the con- 
struction is here adapted to the sense only. The interrogation is equi- 
valent to a negation, ovley ayBpl KaKoy fxel^oy, ovSefxia evnpa^ia (nrayno- 
repa Kal XvTrrjpoTepa. and this again is the same as /leyiffToy KaKov 
ay^pl, avTt} i] evirpa^ia (TTraviojTaTrj Kal XvTrrjpoTaTrj, From the con- 
struction with the comparative, a transition seems to have been made 
to the similar construction with the superlative ''. 

^ Keen and Schaef. ad Gregor. Matthiae ad Ale. 899. The other pas- 

p. (36) 89. Valck. ad Theocr. 10. sages, in which the editors suppose 

Id. p. 162. 340. Fisch. 3 a. p. 331. that r/ is to be supplied, appear to admit 

Toup ad Theocr. 15, 36. maintain another explanation, as 7Esch. From, 

the pleonastic use of »/. Comp. lierm. 634. should probably, with the Scho- 

ad Soph. Antig. 1266. liast, be pointed thus: fxri fxov Trpo- 

*^ Toup ad Longin. p. 321. Markl. kij^ov juaaraoy (sc. y ^el)* ws euol 

ad Lys. p. 370 K. Heind. ad Plat. yXvKv sc. ^laQely. For the usage of 

Gorg. p. 183. For similar passages ws explained Obs. 3. c. according to 

from Latin authors, see Misc. Philol. which Hermann ad Vig. p. 720. ex- 

2, 1. p. 99. 3. p. 85. plains this passage, is not applicable 

** Hermann has tacitly abandoned, here, since ovVws cannot be supplied, 

ad Eur. Med. 633. (ed. Eimsl. Lips. fiy jjlov -rrpoKyBov ovtws, dts euol 

p. 368.) ad Ale. 560. the explanation yXvKv. — Plat. Phaedon. p. 112 D. Kal 

which he gave ad Vig. p. 884. Comp. eyia fiey KaTavTtKpv y eiffpel ^^e- 

750 Syntax, Of the Use of the Comparative, 

451. If »? ought to be followed by an entire proposition (a substan- 
tive or an infinitive with earl), the substantive only of this is 
often put in the genitive, or the infinitive changed into the 
kindred substantive in the genitive. Herod. 2, 35. r] Ai-yuTrroc 
epya Xoyov /ae^o) irapkyerai irpoc, iraaav yCjpiqVf for epya 
fieiCu) rj Xeyecv earlv, e^eariv, ' greater curiosities than can be 
expressed'. Thus Thuc, 2, 50. yevopevov Kpelaaov Xoyov 
TO eX^oc, Tjfc voaov. Comp, Xen. Mem, S, 3, 11, 1. — Thuc. 
2, 64. 7] voaoQ, irpaypa povov ^ri twv iravTCov eXiri^oQ Kpel.a- 
aov yeyevrjpevov * worse than one could expect', ^sch. Agam, 
276, Trevorr/ ^e yap pa pel^ov eXiri^oQ kXvciv, — Xen, Hell, 
2, 3, 24. 61 TIC vpwv vopitei TrXeovac, tov Kaipov otto- 
OvqcTKeiv, i. e. ttX. rj Kaipoc, eari, plures, quam par est. Id, 
ib, 7, 5, 13. e^uo^av iroppuTepu) tov Kaipov. — Xen, 
Diem, S. 1, 6, 11. eXoTToi^ tyJq ajtac. — Herod. 2, 18. to 
eyu) TtJQ eprjc yv^prjc vcrrepov nepi Ai-yviTTOU eirvOopriv, 
i. e. varepov 17 eyu eyvuyv. The finite verb is put in the genitive 
of the participle Plat. Gorg. p. 484 C. Trepairepti) tou ^eovTOc, 
i. e. wep. V ^e7. comp. p. 497 B. Xen. Mem. S. 2, 1, 22. 
epvOporepa tou oi^too, i. e. ep. r) tw ovri riv *. Sophocles says 
with still greater abbreviation OEd. T, 1374. epya Kpeiaaov 
ayy6vr]c, graviora quam quce suspendio lui possint. 

Some phrases of this kind are equivalent to the construction 
of the comparative and infinitive with wtrTc, e. g. Kpeiaawv 
Xoyov, the same as Kpeiaawv rj ware Xeyeiv. Kpeia<yu)v eXiri^oc, 
for KpeiGGwv 7} tu(TTe eXiriteiv, Hence Thuc, 1, 84. apaBearepoi 
TU)v vopu)v ttJg virepoxpiaQ irai^evopevoi, for ap. rj ware vire- 
popav Touc vo^ouc. Dem. de Cor. p. 275, 9. (j)o(5ovpai /litJ 
riov eipyacrpeviov avT(p KaKwv ovtoq eXuTTijJv v7roXri(l>0y, 

TTCO-cv, where rj elapel is equivalent §. 450. Obs.2. Ib. p. 109, 21. riyov- 

to Trjs elffporis before §. 481. Obs. 'i. peios pdWoy Xeyetrdui His pot 

Soph. p. 267 B. KairoL riva pei^o) TrpoarjKe, ovru)s is to be siipphed, as 

^lalpemy ayvu)alas re Ka\ yroxxews Obs.3.c. and Demosth. adv. Macart. 

dijffopeyt the construction is riva p. 666 E. (p. 1071. 2. Reisk.) ck- 

Siat'p. ayy. kqI yv. pei^io dijff, sc. <})€p€iy ^e roy cnroOayoyra tjj varre- 

?) TavTTjyi rijy TOV el^eyai Kairov pi) paig. tj ay Trpoduiyrai, ravTtjs is to 

eidiyai. Lys. p. 177 init. Tuiy enl be supplied. 

^iXiTTTToy eXdoyTLjy is an explana- * Valck. ad Eur. Ph. 896. Hipp, 

tion o( TvvTioyf which precedes, as in 1216. 

syntax, 0/ the Use of the Comparative, 751 

By a similar usage, the comparative is followed by the geni- 452, 
tive of the reciprocal pronouns e^aurou, txeavTov, eavrov, and 
the same subject is compared to itself with regard to its dif- 
ferent circumstances at different times. Thuc, 3, 11. ^vva- 
TUJTepoi avTOi avTwv eyiyvovTO. Plat. Rep, 4. p. 421 D. 
7r\ovTn<TaQ yyrpevQ apyoQ /cat a/ieXi^c yevrjaerai /xaXXoi/ avroQ 
iavTOv, i. e. ^aXXoi^ 17 irporepov rjv, Comp. Rep, 3, p. 41 1 C. 
Leg, 7, p, 797 D. juec2;[ovwc avrov aKovawfxev rjfjiwv avrtjv. 
Lach. p, 1 82 C. iravra avdpa ev iroXe/jLO) /cat BappaXeujrepov 
Kai dv^peiorepov av iroiricyeiev avrov avrov ovk oXiyio avrrj 17 
eTTKTT^jur/. Instead of which ib, p, 184 B. €7rt<^ai/e<TTe/ooq t/ 
oloc riu, and Protag, p. 350 A. /cat auroi eavrtjjv OappaXeu)- 
repOL eicTti', eirei^av fxaBitxriVy rj irpiv fxaBelv, Thus too otTrXa- 
(Ttoq : Herod. Sy 137. SiTrX^o-toa eykvero avroQ ewurou 'as 
great again as it was'. Thus Herodotus 2, 25. explains this 

genitive by an additional proposition with rj : 6 ^e NeTXoc 

TOVTOv Tov y^povov auToq ku)VTOv peei woXXt^ uTTOoeeo'Te- 
poQ rj TOV OepeoCy where 17 row OepeoQ is a kind of explanation 
of iwvTOv, for VTro^eecrrepoQ rj oioQ avroQ tov Oepeoc peei, 
8, 86. eyevovTO TavT-qv Trjv 7]p.kpr]v p,aKp(3 a/neivoveQ avTOi 
€(ovT(jjv, rj trpoc, EvjSot^. and Thuc, 7, QQ. av^pec, ewei- 
Sav, (^ al^iovai irpovyeiv, KoXovaOwai, Toy VTToXotTroi/ avTiov 
Tria ^o^rjQ a<jO€Pe(7T€pov avTO eavTOv e<TTiv, rj ei firiB i^ridri- 
Gav TO irpvjTOv. Plat, Protag. p, 350 A.^ 

When the substantive which is compared, and that with which 453. 
it is compared, are the same word, and the genitive of the com- 
parison is accompanied by another genitive, then the word which 
should be repeated in the genitive is sometimes omitted. //. 
(f> , 191. Kpeiaatov S' auTC Atoc yever) XloTajitoTo TeTU/CTat, 
for yeveria YloTap., Herod, 2, 134. irvpap.i^a ^e Kai ovtoq 
aireXiireTO ttoXXoi' eXa^ffU) tov iraTpoQ, for t»Jc TrvpajULiooQ tov tt. 
Soph, Phil, 682. ouS* eai^ov fxoipa touS eyBlovi GvvTvyovTa 
OvaTtJv, for Ttjc fiioipac Tov^e. Xen. Cyr, 3, 3, 41. yjopav 
e)(^€Te ov^ev ^ttov i^/Lt(u»/ evTip,ov, for Ttjc yojpaQ rifxijjv. 
Theocr. 2, 15. \alp\ 'EfcaTa ^aanXriTi, Ka\ ec tcXoc afxfxw 
vwa^ei, ^ap/maKd TavO' ep^oiaa -^epeiova ^irir ti KipKaCj /t?;T 

^ Ast ad Plat. Leg. p. 83. 334. 

752 Syntax. Of the Use of the Comparative, 

Ti M); Setae, /urjTe ^avQaQ Uepi/jLTj^aQ, for rtjv KipKac 
(j)apjuaK(i)v, &c.* 

Obs, 1. This takes place not merely in comparatives, but also in 
other comparisons, e. g. //. p', 51. aifiarl ol devorro KOfxai XapiTeaariv 
ofjioiaij for rals Kojiais tQv XaptTOJv. Callin. El. extr. epBet yap TroWdjv 
a^ia, fiovvos eu)v ' deeds which are to be prized like many' ; i. e. as the 
deeds of many. Plat. Alcib. 1 extr, vreXapyov apa 6 e/zos epios ovHv 
hoiaei, for tov eptoros rrreXapyov, Thus also in Latin Cic, Or, 1, 4, 15. 
6, 23, 44, 197. Fin. 5, 12, 34. &c. 

A similar abbreviation occurs in Soph. (Ed. T. 1507. /u)?^' e^iaojarjs 
Tciff^e Tols e/xols kukois, for ra rwv^e KaKci. Plat. Phcedr. p. 279 A, 

ov^ey av yevoiTO davjuaffTOPy el Trepl avrovs tovs Xuyovs, oTs vvv 

kiTLyeipelj nXeov rj 7raid(t)v ^leveyKOt tojp Trojirore axj^afxcyojy Xoytoy, for 
rj ardpes Tvaidajy^. Theophr. ch. 5, 

454, Ohs. 2, This genitive generally follows the comparative instead of ^, 
as in Latin the ablative for quamy only when the substantive with which 
another is compared would be in the nominative, when rendered by ^, 
or in the accusative in the oblique construction of the accusative with 
the infinitive as the subject, or as the object in the accusative. Pas- 
sages, however, are found, in which the genitive is put for ri with the 
dative: Thiic. 1, 85. e^ecm 3' fijMy fxdXXoy erepcjy (/ca6' iiav^iay j3ov- 
Xeveiy) for fxaXXoy i) erepots. 2, 60. ei jiol koi jjiearus rjyovjjieyoi fjidXXoy 
erepioy TrpoffelyaL avrd. TroXefieiy eTreiadrjTe, 7, 63. Kal ravra toIs 
OTrXirais ovx rjffffoy rwy yavruiy Trapa/ceXevo/xat, for rj toIs yavrais, 
Eurip, Or, 548. €XoyL<jdy.r]v ovy rw yevovs up'^riyeTT^ ficiXXoy j/ dfxvyai 
Trjs vTroffrdaijs rpo^as, for ?) rfj vTroaraffr}. Isocr. Pac. p. 176 A. 
p,ei^oaL KUKoTs Trepieireffoy ctti tyjs dp-^rjs ravTrjs ruiy ey airayTi rw yjpoyt^ 
Ttj TToXet yeyeyrifxiyuyf where properly rj rdis yeyeyrjfxeyais could not 
stand for the genitive, but f/ yeyeyrjyrai'^. 

Sometimes even the genitive is used, when, in the resolution with 77, 
the word after the particle would stand in a different case from that in 
which that word stands which has the comparative as an epithet, and 
which properly is compared with another. Soph. Antig. 75. eirel irXeluy 
jdpoyoSj oy del fx apiaKeiy Tois Karu) Twy e^'0a^e, for ^^Xei^^)y -^ovos 

* Schaef. Melet. p. 57. 127 not. ad Jacobs ad Anthol. Palat. p. 63. 
Lamb. B. p. 3. ad Apoll. Uh. Schol. *= Poppo ad Xen. Cyr. 11, 1, 17. 

p. 164. Herm. ad Vig. p. 717, 55. Reisig Soph. (Ed. C. 

J Heind. ad Plat. Phaedr. p. 355. 561. 

Syntax. Of the Use of the Comparative. 753 

cKelroVf By del fx apecxKety toIs eydade, Aristoph. Plut. 55S. tov 
nXovTov Trapi^w l3eXrioyas av^pas, for y 6 UXovrus, not 17 ray TlXovToy. 

Obs. 3. For these common kinds of construction of the comparative, 455. 
others more rare occur : 

a. €7rt with a dative. Od. 7/', 216. ov yap tl (rrvyep^ cttI yarrrepi 
Kuyrepoy aXXo eirXcTOf for 7) (TTvyeprj yaor/'/p, or (rrvyeprjs yaarepos, 
Herod, 4ff 118. vfiiy de ovhey cTrt tovt^ earai €Xa(pp6T€poy, for tovtov. 

irpos with an accusative. Herod. 2, 35, A'iyvnros epya Xoyov 

fjii^ti) TrapeyeTai rrpos ndaay x^P^^t where Trpos signifies ' in comparison 
with'. Comp. Thuc. 7, 58 extr, 

Tvapa, prceter^ with an accusative. Thuc. 1, 23. >/X/ov eKXeixj^eis ttvk- 
vorepaL irapU ra €K tov rrply ^poyov fxyrifxayevofjieya ^vyeftrjaay, 

TrXrjy is also found for ij Eur. Heracl. 233. aTzayra yap tqvt earl 
KpeiacriOf TrXijy vw 'Apyeiots Tveaely, For ov irporepoy i] Lysias, _p. 174, 
says ov wporepoy kiravaayro eu)s, 

h. In particular, various constructions occur with fidXXoy, TrXioy : 
e. g. a Wet for rj. Thuc. 1, 83. eariy b iroXejins ov^ orrXwy to TrXeor, 
ciXXa BaTrdyijs. Isocr. ad NicocL p. 23 B. fidXXoy aipovvrai avyeiyai 
Tols e^afiaprayovaiyf aXX' ov toIs cnroTpeTrovffi. Plat. Prot. p. 354 B. 
e^CTe TL AXXo tcXos Xeyeiv, els o a7ro/3Xei//arres avra dyada KaXelrCf 
ciXX' ii^oyds re Kal XvxaSf where H. Stephan. and Bekker have aXX' Tj 
ijd. See Heind. p. 622. kuI ov follows, Thuc. 1, 74. e^e/crare unkp vfiwy 
Kal ovx vf^fiiiy TO irXeoy. ib. 120. These anacolutha take their origin 
from the circumstance, that a comparison with ' more' implies at the 
same time an opposition, and two modes of speech are combined : eVnv 
6 TToX. ovx OTrXwy, aXXa SaTrdyrjs, and oirX. fxdXXoy y danaytjs &c. 

c, A union of two kinds of construction occurs in Plat. Apol. S, 
p, 36 D. ovK ead\ 6 tl fidXXoy TrpeircL ovTCJSy ms Toy TOiovToy dydpa 
ey UpvTavei^ atTclcrdai, from the expression ovcey fidXXoy Trpeirei, y 
Toy dy^pa (tit. and also ovEey Trpeirei ovtojs &c. ib. p. 30 A. and without 
ovTws Theocr. 9, 33. ovtc yap vttvos, ovt cap e^aTriyas yXvKepojTepoy, 
0VT€ peXtaaais av0ea, ocraoy kfxiy Moiaai <piXaL. Lys. p. 109, 21. 
yyovfxeyos jAdXXoy Xeyeadai (ovtws) ws /jloi TrpoarJKe. Eur. Hipp. 536. 
ovTe yap Trvpos ovt d(TTpu)y vTrcprepoy j3eXoSj oloy to Tds 'A^po^tVas 'irjffiy 
€K xepijiy "Epws, for eKeiyov tov fieXovs, oloy. Similarly Plat. Mill. 
23.318 E. OVK eaO\ 6 ti tovtov daefieffTepoy eaTiy^ ov3' oir w XP^ fJidXXov 
evXafoeladaiy TrXyy els deovs Kai Xoyo) Kal epyto e^afxaprdyeLyy where nXyy 
is for >; : Bekker, however, has ov5' 6' rt for ov5* ovtu). 

754 Syntax. Of the Vae of the Comparative. 

d. Since the proposition after fjLciXXoy is negative in sense, ov is 
sometimes used after ij. Herod. 4, 118. rJKei yap 6 HipaTjs ov^ey n 
fjiaXXoy kir fjfxeas, 77 ov Kai eiri vfxeas in Schweighaeuser and Gaisford. 
Thuc. 2f 62. ovh* elKos ^^aXeTrws ^epeiv avrtSy [idXXor, rj ovj Kt'iTrioy 
Ka\ eyKaXXwiriafJia ttXovtov Trpos Tavrr]y rofxitravTas, oXiyioprjcrai^. and 
without a negative before fuaXXoy : Thuc. 3, 36. djjjLdy to /3ovXev/ia, 
TToXiy oXriy ^ta00eTpa(, f.idXXoy rj ov rovs alriovs. 

Ohs. 4. When eXarroy, ttX^oi^, ttXc/w are followed by a numeral, »; 
is often omitted. Thuc. 6, 95, 1;' Xela eTrpadr) raXayrcjy ovk eXarroy 
Treyre koi e'lKoai. Plat. Apol. S, p. 17 D. vvy eyio Trpwrov cttj ZiKaaTiipi.ov 
ayal3€(jr)Kaf err] yeyoyojs ttXc/w el^^ofjiiiKoyra. as in Latin, amplius, 
TrXeoy, eXavToy are then often used as indeclinable, as in the passage in 
Thucydides. Comp, Lys. p. 155, 33. 156, 6.^ 

Ohs. 5. The measure by how much one thing exceeds another, or is 
exceeded by it, is put either in the dative, fxaKp<pf oXiyt^, ttoXXw*^. see 
§. 400, 8. or in the accusative, oXiyoy, ttoXv, fieya. see §. 425, 1, a. 
These words are sometimes separated from the comparative : Plat. 
Euthyphr, p. 14 B. -q ttoXv fxoi dia flpa')(yT^pu)y ~ - ^ elires ay, for ^la 

TToXv ftpayvTepioy. Xen, Cyr. 6, 4, 8. vTrea^ofirjy ai»rw rj^eiy avVy 

<re 9roXv 'ApacTra dy^pa Kal TrierTorepoy Kai dfxeiyoya^. Thus also Cic. 
de Orat. 2, 57 in. multo in eo studio magis ipse elaborat. 

Ohs, 6. The comparative is strengthened by eVt, Lat. etiam. Soph. 
(Ed. C. 5. Tov (TfJiiicpov 3' en ^Leioy (pepoyra, and passim. This also is 
sometimes separated from the comparative by other words, as Herod. 
5, 87. ^Adrjyai'oicrL dk en tov irddeos deiydrepoy ti ^o^at elyai to ruiy 
yvyaiKuiy epyoy. Comp. ih. 92, 6. 

Ohs, 7, In this manner especially are compared two comparatives in 
two propositions by means of oVw — Toaovrt^, oaoy — tocovto (roaoy^ 
as in Latin, quo — eo. Sometimes these words are omitted, and the 
two propositions contracted into one, e. g. Xen. Hier. 5, 5. ky^eearepois 
yap ovai Taireiyorepois avTols o'loyraL yjprjuQaii for oV^ eyZeeaTcpoL elatf 
TotTovr^ raTT. fidXXoy is sometimes wanting with oa^ Xen, Hier, 10,2. 
unless we ought to read there 6(t<o ay ttXcw. The cases are different 
in which oa^ is used without a comparative for oti §. 480. e. g. Plat, 
Euthyphr, j^. 11 D. ^eiyoTcpos Tt)y t^x^'V^ Toaovrit), oaid fjiey tU avrov 

* Diiker ad Thuc. 3, 36. Bast ad ^ Hcind. ad Plat. Cratyl. p. 101. 

Greg, p 102. Herm. ad Vig. p. 801. ad Pha.don. p. 232. Bornem. ad 

^ Lob. ad Phryn. p. 410. Xen. Symp. 1. §. 4. p. 46. Schaf. 

*^ lleind. ad Plat. Ph?edon. p. 108. App. Dem. 1. p. ii. p. 377. 

S^tiiax. Of the Use of the Comparative, 755 

juoi'a cTTotft ov fxh'ovTa, illo prcestantior eo, quod &c. Comp. Herod, 
6, 137, 8, IS.*' See §. 480, c. 

Obs. 8. With PovXofiai, fjiaWoy is sometimes omitted. //. a', 117. 
(dovXo n* eyw Xaop aoov €.\xp.e.vo.i i\ ctTroXecOat, vo/o instead of Twa/o. Comp. 
Od. /z', 3-50. Kur. Andr, 351. Trocras 3' ctv ehvhs dvyarep* i)^iKr]p.evr\v 
fiovXoL ay ei/|oeTr, 57 TraQetv d'yw Xeyw ; 

Obs. 9. The poets sometimes omit the proposition with r;, and give a 
different turn to the expression. Soph. Antig. 637. e/uoi yctjo ovleU 
a^iu)S ccTTat ya^os fiei^ioy (pepeadai, aov kaXws iiyovfierov, for /Jici^toy 
(pipeadai, rj cKeTvos oy av ay fjyy. where, however, instead of the latter, the 
genitive absolute has been chosen : si tu connubium, quod jungarrif mihi 
demon st raver is f nullum mihi potius erit, i. e. eo quod tu demonstraveris. 
Comp. 701, 703. The passage Eur. Med. 655. is still more remarkable : 
dayaTijJ, dayar^ irapos da/jelrjyy a/jepay rdy^* k^ayvaaaa^ if the sense be 
Trapos dafjielrjy, rj (^irpiy^ rrjy^e rrjy ijnepay e^ayvcrai. But hoc die per- 
functa, prius moriar, involves a contradiction in itself, and therefore pro- 
bably after Trapos ^afdeiriy we should supply from the preceding, ^ uiroXis 

When two adjectives or adverbs are compared with each 456. 
other, so as to signify that any one property or quality is found 
in a higher degree in one thing than in another, both adjectives 
or adverbs are put in the comparative. Od. a, 164. navrec k 
apr]aaiar eXacPporepoi tto^qq elvai, r) cKpveiOTepoi YPv- 
aoio T€ eaOrJTOQ re. Herod. 3, 65. e7roir}(ja ray^vrepa 77 
aocpiorepa. Hence id. 2, 37. 01 AiyvTrrioi irepirapvovrai, 
TrpoTifxwvrec, KaOapoi elvai 17 evirpeneaTepoi, where the first 
comparative lies in irpoTtpwvrec, i. e. f5ov\6p€voi f.iaX\ov KaOa- 
poi, KaOapujTepoi, eivai. Thuc, 1, 21. ioc, XoyoypaCpoi ^vve- 
ueGav eiri TO tr poGayuyyorepov tiJ uKpoaaei r) aXr^^etrre- 
pov. Arhtoph. Ach. 1078. ia> arpari^yoi TrXeovec, 77 /3eA- 
TioveQ. Plat. Thecet. p. 144 A. ol ofeTc /cai ay-^lvoi Kai 

luvi]pov€G fxaviKtsjrepoL 17 av^peiorepoi (pvovrai, 

Isocr. Epist, p. 407 B. ov^elc yap eariv, ogtiq ov Kareyvint 
IT poTTerearepov oe Kiu^weveiv, r/ jSacrtXt/cwTepop . 

The comparative is also used without an expressed object of i57, 

« Schaf. ad Soph. CEd.C. 744. mixes p. 74. 
both conbtructions ; but not App. ^ llerni. ad Vig. p.719, 60. lleind. 

Dem. 1. p. 866. Stallb. ad Euthyphr. ad Plat. Thca-t. p. 289. 

756 Si/ntax. Of the Use of the Comparative. 

comparison, where we may easily supply 'than is just, than is 
usual, than might have been expected, than at present', or 'than 
formerly'. As it attributes a quality only under a certain rela- 
tion, it expresses a lower degree of that which the adjective 
imputes to the substantive than is expressed by the positive, 
which attributes it without limitation. In Latin p«w/o is used, 
in English 'somewhat, rather'. Herod. 3, 145. M.aiav^pL(^ 
ce Tw Tvpavvii) i\v aSeXc^eoc vTrofiapyorepoQ. 6, 107. oia 
Be ol 7rpe(jj3vT€pu> ovri. Sometimes rt also is added: 
Thuc, 8, 84. o Se avda^karepov re ti aireKpivaro. Comp. 
2, ll.a 

In other cases a comparison is understood with something 
which is prevented or weakened by the adjective, as in §.448, 
l,b. 451. 452. Herod. 6, 108. li^ueTc e/cao-repw oiKeo/mev, sc. 
rj ware v/aaQ Ee^effdai, as Theocr. 15, 7. Herod. 4, 198. 17 AifSvn 

ouT€ av'^/nov (ppovTitovaa ouoev, ovre ofx^pov ttXccj 

TTiovffa Be^rjXrjTaif sc. TrXew tov Beovroc Herodotus says 
at full length, 7, ] 3. wcrre aeinkarepa airoppLxpai eirea ec avBpa 
irped^vrepoVf rj ■^petjv. Xen. Mem. S. 2, 9, 4. (jyiXo^prjfrroc 
re Kal evc^vearepoc, tov, sc. rj (jjcrre airo iravroc, Kcp^aiveiv. Here 
the comparative expresses a higher degree, in reference to that 
which would otherwise have taken place ^. 

So the comparative seems sometimes to be used for the posi- 
tive ; but then, too, it expresses a quality with reference to an 
additional circumstance in the mind, as //. a, 32. a AX' Wi, jllti 
jii' epeOite, aawrepoc, wQKe verbal ' that thou mayest return more 
securely than thou otherwise wouldest', where Plato Rep. 3. 
p. 393 E. says, amevai Be eKeXeve /cat /nrf epediCeiv, 'iva awQ 
oUaBe eXOoi. Comp. //. </)', 101. J, 52. Herod. 2, 46. oS 
/uot rjBiov eari Xeyeiv, i.e. 'than not to say it'. Find. Nem. 
5, 30. ov roi airaaa K€pd'iu)v (paivoiaa Trpoawirov aXaOei 
arpeKTiQ (77 p.r\ (^aiv. irpoa.) Thus 01 af.ieivovec, optimates 
('better than the multitude'). Eur. Suppl. 420. veiorepoa 
especially is used in this manner, e. g. et ri eii) vetorepov wepl 

'^ H.Steph. App. de Dial. p.39sq. '' Musgr. ad Eur. Ale. 706. Of 

Nitzsch Conini. de Comp. Gr. Ling. fidWoy so used see lleind. ad Plat. 

Modis (at the end of his edition of Phaedon. §. 50. p. S3. 
Plato's Ion), p. 57 seq. 

Syntax. Of the Use of the Comparative, Ibl 

rrjv 'EXXaSa, ' anything new' (i. e. * tlian has yet happened'). 
Herod, ], 27. but usually Kaivov, not Kaivorepov^, afxeivou 
(e. g. Twc yap ajieivov in Homer). oi» jSeXnov {Xen, Cyr, 5, 
1, 12.). ov Xa>o»^, ov Kpelrrov, ov KaWiov Od. rj , 159. ov 
yflpov Plat. Phadon. p. 105 A. &c.** The sense is the same 
as if the positive were used. 

Ohs. 1. On the other hand, the positive is sometimes put for the 
comparative. Herod. 9, 26. rjfieas ^iKatoy e^eii/ ro erepov Kcpas r/Vep 
*AQr]vaiovs. Thuc. 6, 21. alcr^ov Ze f^iaaOevras aTreXdelyj V vcTTepov 
CTTifjieTaTreiJiTreadat, to TrptjJToy aaKeirrios (^ovXevaa^evovs ®. Here the 
comparative appears to be omitted : hiKaiov e^. to er. «c. ^iKaioTcpoy rj 
*Adr\v, al(T-)(p6y j3. cnr, Koi atcj^iov rj --- ---. 

Ohs. 2. The comparative also is put for the superlative : e. g. Od. ?/', 
156. 'E^e^-T/os, OS ^rj ^airjKtjjy ay^puiy izpoyey ear epos rjey, ' older than the 

other Phaeacians', as Isocr. de Pac. p. 173 D. TrpoffijKei tovs 

ctt' a>0eXe/^ yovdcTOvyTas eiraiyely Kai (ScXtIovs Tuiy TroXiTwy yofiii^eiy, 
Comp. |J. 183 C 

The positive is often put with fmaXXov for the comparative. 4,53. 
But this adverb also is often put with the comparative. Herod, 
1, 31. u)G afxeivov eir) avOpdjiroj reOvavai iJ,aWov rj Z,^eiv, 
ib, 32. juiaWov oXj^KjjTepoG eari. even in Homer, //. tj', 
203. pYjirepoi inaXXov. JEsch. S. c. Th, 675. ric aXXoc fxaX- 
Xov e.v^iKLjTepoQ', Eurip. Hec. 377. Oavivv S av eir] juaX- 
Xov €vrv^e<TT€poQ ri Jwv. P/a^. Gorg. p. 487 B. a icr^^v i/- 
T^}porkp(j) fxaXXov rov ^kovroc Leg. 6, p. 781 A. yei^oc 
rijUKjjv Tuiv av9p<l)7r(jJV XaOpaioTCpov /ulclXXov Kai eTTi/cXoTrw- 
repov e(pv to OriXv Sia to aaOevec, Phadon. j[>. 79 E. Isocr, 
Archid. p, 138 B. C. TroXv aaXXov Kpe^TTOVj /neyaXov Kai- 
pov Tifxriv avTaXXa^aaOaif rj fjLiKpov y^povov peyaXaiQ a[(T^vvaiQ 
rifxcLQ avTovG Trepif^aXelv, Comp. lb, p, 134 C. Enc, Hel, 
p. 218 C.g 

*= Ast ad Plat. Rep. p. 538. Stallb. ' Fisch. 2. p. 149. 3 a. p. 327. 

ad Plat. Euth. in. Herm. ad Vig. p. 717, 56. 

«• Keen ad Greg. p. (46) 112 seq. ^ Wetsten. ad Phil. 1,23. Valcken. 

Valck. ad Ilerod. 2, 46. p. 126, 10. ad nerod.2, 138. (p. 171, 36.) 7,143. 

Musgr. ad Eur. Ale. 763. Fiscli. 3 a. (p. 569, 33.) Brunck ad Arist. Eccl. 

p. 327. Herm. ad Viger. p. 719, 58. 1131. Heusdc Spec. Cr. in Plat, 

■where the remark of Reiz furnishes p. 118. Fisch. 2. p. 237 sq. Herm. 

the best solution. Nitzsch p. 56. ad Vig. p. 716, 60. Ast ad Plat. Leg. 

• Wesseling ad Her. 9, 26. p. 703, p. 224 seq. Monk ad Hipp. 487. 

50. Fisch. 3 a. p. 325. Blomf. ad iEsch. Theb. 670. 


Of the Use of the Superlative. 

459. The Superlative is used to show that the quality implied is 
found in its highest degree in the subject defined. When the 
class of objects from which the defined substantive is in this 
manner taken, is expressed at the same time, then the superla- 
tive is used also in Eng^lish. If this class be not expressed, 
the superlative is usually rendered by * very, extremely', with 
the positive : e. g. Xen, Mem. S. 4, 1, 3. eire^eiKvvev tlju 

'iTTTrcjv Tovc evCJyveaTarovc, ei €K vewv Sojuacr^eTev, eu- 

'^pY}(TTOTaTovc Kai a piarova yiyvo/xevovc, ' in the greatest 
degree, very, useful, good', &c. 

1. When the class from which the substantive to which the 
superlative belongs is taken, is mentioned at the same time, the 
genitive is usually in the plural, e. g. ^iKaioraroQ Kevravpuw 
II. X', 83 1 . which is often accompanied by iravriov, e.g. Herod. 
4, 142. KaKiGTOvc, T€ Kai a V avS p o T ciT ov Q Kpivovaiv eXvai 
airavTOJV avOptjJTTtJV. or avOpioTrtjJv Plat. Euthi/phr p. 13. E. 
or aWuyv II. a, 505. (jjKVjuLopioraToc, aXXwv^. In the poets 
this genitive is often the positive of the adjective, which is in the 
superlative. Mschyl. Suppl. 540. juaKaptjv fiaKaprare Kai reXewi/ 
reXeioraTov Kparoc Soph. CEd. T. 334. w kqkoju KaKicrre. 
Aristoph. Pac. 183. w fiiapdiv f-uapwrare . Comp. §.333. 

2. The superlative is commonly in the gender of the substan- 
tive which is in the genitive case, e.g. ovpavoc, h^KJTOV T(jjvQea- 
fxarwv, not rlSttxTOO. Isocr. ad NicocL cxtr. avfx^ovXoc, ayaOoc, 
\pr\<TijJiU)TaTOv Kai rv pavviKisjraTOV airavrtuv Krr)fxa- 
Tutv etrri. Instances however are found in which the super- 
lative is in the gender of its subject, and not of the genitive, 
e. g. //. (j> f 353. OG a/na KapTiaroc, Kai eXaippoTaroc, Trere- 
tjvcjv. Comp. "^ , 139. Theocr. 12, 7. ar]^Cjv (Jv/jLTravrcjv Xiyu- 
<bu)voo doi^OTarrj neretivuiu. Herod, 4, 85. o TIovtoq TreXayecuv 
a7ravT(i)v necbvKe Oojv/uLaaKjjTaToc {Cod. Saner, -rov), Antiphon 
op. Suid. V. OeaidecrraTOv' avOpwiroc, he cj)t](Ti pev 7ravT(»jv 

* Blomf. ad iEsch. Pers. 189. " Fisch. 2. p. 146 sq. 3 a. p. 35^. 

Syntax, Of the Use of the Superlative, 759 

Orjpitjv Oeai^etTTaroG yeveoOai, Meiiand, ap. Luciau. 
Amor. T, 5. p. 306. voffcjv y^aXeirioTaroQ (jyOovoQ ^, 

Ohs. Sometimes the genitive does not mark the class of objects to 
which the substantive accompanied by the superlative belongs, but the 
class of the subject of the verb. Herod. 7, 70. ol ck tjjs Ai/3ur;$ A(- 
dioTres ovXorarou rpi-^iOjia e^ovTi Travrwv avdpojTrwv. Comp. Xen. 
Mem. /S*. 4, 5, 1. 8, 11. The superlative and the genitive also relate 
to an oblique case: Herod. 7, 2,38. tSep^ris vavTOJu 3*) jJiaXicrra av^poHy 
edvfjLwdri AeioviBr}. Xen. Mem. aS*. 4, 5, 1. 

The superlative is frequently accompanied, not by the geni- 460. 
tive plural of a class of objects, but by the genitive of the re- 
flective pronoun, by which, in this case, is expressed the highest 
degree to which a thing or person attains. Herod. 1, 193. 
CTreai' Se a ft iff r a avrrj ewurrfc eveiK'^y eiri rpirjKOffia e/c^e^et 
* at the very best, when it produces most'. 1, 203. *H Kao-Triij 

evpoc €<TTi, TiJ evpvTarri ean avTrj itjvTrjc, oktvj 

^}p,epeu)v, Eurip. ap. Plat. Gorg, p, 484 E. Aa/unrpoQ ecrriv 
€Ka(TTOC ev TOUT0>, iv avTOQ avTOv Tvy^avtj peXrio'TOC (ov. 
Plat. Leg. 4. p. 715 D. veoc wi^ nac, aifOpioiroc to. TOiavra 
apf^XifTara avroci avrov opa. Xen. Mem. S. 1, 2, 46. e'lOe 
(Toi, (o IlepiKXeiCf rare ffvveyevo/Lirjv, ore SeivoraTOQ <r avrov 
Tavra riaOa I ^ 

In order to strengthen the signification of the superlative, 461. 
particles &c. are often added to it, as ttoXXw, fjiaKptv, noXv, 
napa ttoXv, Herod. 1, 143. ttoXXw aadeveararoVf multo in- 
firmissimum. Thuc. 4,92. ttoXXm paXiara. H. a, 91. ttoXXou 
apicrroc. /3', 769. ttoXu (pepraTOQ. Aristoph. Pint. 445. 
ceivorarov epyov irapa ttoXv. Herod. 1, 193, paKp(3 apiarti, 
longe optima. Arist. Pac. 672. paKpt^ evvovaraToc. 

In the Ionic poets o^^Uy e^oy^a, peya are often joined with 
it, e. g. o^^' apKTTOc //. a, 69. efo^' apiaroi Od. B', 629. 
fieya (^eprare Od. X' , All . 

Kai : e. g. Kai paXiara Xen. Cyr. 2, 1, 5. vel maxime. 

^ Dorv. ad Charit. p. 347. Person Menandr. p. 193. 
(et Schaef.) adEur.Ph. 1730. Schaef. ** Stephan. App. de Dial. p. 41. 

ad Dion. H. p. 236. and Ind. p. 163. Wessel. ad Herod, p. 91, 18. Hoog. 

Ind. Greg. p. 1064 seq. Meinekead ad Vig. p. 68. Fisch. 2. p. 148. 

760 Syntax, Of the Use of the Superlative, 

The particles wc, ottwc, ^ especially are often joined with 
the superlative, in the sense of (I>c, with words signifying 
* ability, possibility'. Xen, Mem, S, 2, 2, 6. eTrif^ieXovvrai ot 
yovelcy OTTwc oi ircucec, avroic ykvtjJVTai loc, ^vvaTOV (5e\Ti<TT0i, 

4, 5, 2. dpa KaXov Kai fieyaXelov vojui^eic elvai av^pi Kai iroXei 
Krrj/jia eXevBepiav, Qc oiov re juaXicfray e<^r;. Thuc, 7, 21. 
h(^r\ y^pr\vai 7rXr]povv vavc ioq dvvavrai TrXeiVrac. Xen, Mem, 

5, 4, 5, 9. wc evi (licet) h^K^ra. id. Cyr, 7, 1, 9. p av 
ouvwjuat Ta^t(7Ta. 1, 4, 14. ^layujvi^ecjOaiy ottwc eKaaroc tol 
Kpanara ^vvaiTO, id. Rep, Lac, 1, 3. <TiTa> p upvcftov 
fmerp HOT aril), Thuc, 7, 21. a-ytov (TTpariav, ocrrfv eKatjTayoQev 
irXeiarriv e^vvaTO, Herod. 6, 44. ev vow e'^ovrec, otrac av 
TrXeiaTac ^vvaiVTO Karacrrpe^eaOai twv EiXXrjviSwv iroXiiov, 
7, 60. Gvval^avreG pvpiada avOpujiriov oic juaXttrra el^^ov, 
Xen, Hell, 2, 2, 9. oo-ouq -ndvpaTO TrXeiGTOVG aQpolaac,^. 
oaoQ is also used as an adjective Herod, 1 , 223. ai^e^eiKwyro 
ptj/ir}Q oaov €L')(^ov fxeyKTrov, Still more diffusely Plato says 
Rep, 9. p, 586 D. ai eTriQvfxiai tclc, aXriOeaTUTaQ rj^ovaQ 
Xri^povrai, toe; oloif re avroic aXrfOelQ Xaj^eiu, 

These relative particles also stand alone, where ^vvaaOai, 
^vvarou ecrrt is supplied by the mind. Xen, Cyr, 1, 6, 26. cjc 
TayjLara, quam celerrime, ottijjc apicrra Ailsch, Ag, 611. ottwc 
TayjLara Arist, Vesp. 168. 365. r? apiarov Xen. Cyr, 2,4, 32. 
7, 5, 82. oaov rayjLara Soph. El. 1457. also ort for o t£, as 
Xen, Cyrop. 6, 1, 43. on TrXeTo-TOi/ ^jooi^oi^. Oc?. e, 1 12. otti 
Ta^tcrra. Eurip, Androm. 924. ire/uLXpov /me yCypac rrja^ ottoi 
irpoatsJTaru), with reference to irefxxpov for e/ceTcre ottou irpoaoj- 
Taru) e(jTiv, Sometimes these conjunctions are separated from 
the superlative by other words, especially prepositions : Thuc, 
3, 46. on ev ^payvTarit), Xen. Cyr, 1, 6, 26. wc ev e'^vpoj' 
Tarto, Demosth, de Cor, p, 321, 26. wc Trojo' oI/ceiOTarw ^. 
Of oTi see §. 624, 3, a. The use of wc, ottwc, *»?, has probably 
originated from ovrtoc being supplied by the mind, as rodovro 
with oaov. This is particularly evident when av comes between 
loQ and the superlative, in which case the principal verb must 
be supplied in the optative : Thuc.6y57 , Kai evditc aTrepiaKeirTuyc 
'irepnreaovreQ Kai wc av /maXicTTa di opyrJQ sc, Trepnrkaoiev, Dem, 

* Fisch. 2. p. 142-151. ^ Schaef. App. Dem. 2. p. 362. 

Sj/ntax. Of the Use of the Superlative. 7G1 

01. \. p, 15, 8. ovre yap evrrpeirwc ov^' ljq av KaWitrr (e)(ot) 
avTw Tci irapovT e-^ei^. The following passages, however, are 
not to be referred to this head : Soph. Trach. 330. nopeveaOu) 
(Treyac, ovtwq oirtJQ rj^KTra. Dem. 01. 2. p. 21, 10. ottwc rtc 
\eyei KaWicrra Kai ra^iara, ovtwc dpecTKei poi : for here ovtojq 
07r(t)c, do not serve to strengthen the superlative, but belong to 
the verb, ovtojc ottwc v^KTra iropeveaOai, ovtojc ottcoc tic Ae-yet 
KaW. Kai Ta^. yiyveaOai celv, 

Obs. These particles are also used without the superlative. Thuc. 
1, 22. offoy dvyaroy avpt/Be/^, for aKpifDearara. Plat. Prot. p. 314 D. 
Xen. Anah. 1, 8, 11. Thus also ws Kokws es ^vvatuv Crat'in. ap. Suid. 
s, V. TO irapov ev QeaQai. See Hemst. ad Luc. T. 3. p. ^QQ. for ws koX- 
Xtara Bvvaroy, ws or orroy ra)(os, quant celerrime. 

OLOQ also is used with the superlative. Plat. Apol. S. p. 22 E. 
airkydeiai, o'lai y^aXeir^rar ai Kai ^apvrarai. Sj/mp. 
J9. 220B. Trayou o'lov SeivoraTOV. Xen.A7iab.4yH,2. y^uypiov 
olov y^aX€7ru)rarov. Aristot. Eth. 9, 3.^. 155 D. avrip oioc 
KpariaroQ. In Xenophon it is fully expressed : Mem. S. 4, 

8 extr, o ^ojKparrfQ eSo/cei toiovtoc eivat, oioc av e'lv 

apiaroc ye dvr)p Kai ev^ai/iiovecTTaTOC. Comp. §. 445, h. 

etc also is used with the superlative. Herod. 6, 127. S^(v- 

^vpi^rjC €7rt TrXeTo-TOi' ^rj ^Xt^rfc etc avrjp aniKero. Soph. 

Q^d. T. 1380. o TrayrXr/juwv eyu) KaWicTT avrjp etc cv ye 
TaTc O^jSaic Tpa(j)eiG. Thuc. 8, 68. roue dyajvitopevovc 
7rXe7(TTa eic avrjp ^vvaiaevoc; tj(f)e\e7v. Xen. Anah. 1, 9, 22. 
^lijpa TrXelara etc ye dvrip ljv eXajujSave, as in Latin unus 

omnium maxime^. 

Sometimes too the superlative is accompanied by an adverb 
or adjective in the superlative, for the positive. Soph. (Ed. C. 
743. 7r\e7(JTOv avOpioircjv KaKKTTOC, for ttoXu KaKicrroQ. id. 
Phil. 631. rrjc TrXelarov e-^OiGrrjc e/noi ey^i^vrjc Eur. Ale. 
802. rriv nXelcTTOv r;^t<TTT/v 6ewv KvTrpiv. Thus also jtia- 
Xiara eydiaroc, II. j3', 220. fxakiara epcfyepecyrara Herod. 
2, 76. comp. 1, 171. pdXiara ^eivoraroc Thuc. 7, 42.*^ 

' Schaef. App. Dem. p. 268. 487. Person applied this incorrectly 

^ Herod. 6, 127. (p. 497, Eur. Ilec. G20. Sec Matthiac ad v. 

51.) Lob. ad Soph. Aj. 1328. Blomf. 615. Reisig Comm. Crit. in Soph. 

Gloss. Pers. 333. (£d. C. p. 342. 
* Fisch. 2. p. 144. Monk ad Hipp. 


762 Si/Htax\ Of the Use of the Superlative. 

It is different Plat. Epin. p. 992 B. tovtov Xeyw rov aXi]- 
Oearara <jo(j)(l)Tarov ' a man whom with the greatest truth one 
may call the wisest'. So we must understand Soph. (Ed. C. 
1190. if we adopt the reading proposed by Toup, ra rwv 

Obs, Circumlocutions are frequently found with the superlative. 
jEschin. Eryx. 1. vtto ^e Tuiv afjLiKpiov tovtisjv av ^dWov opyi^oirTOf 
ovrios u)s ay fxaXiara ^aXeirojTaroL e'lriaaVi for opyliioivTO ay yaXeTTUjTaTa. 
X,en. Cyr. 7, 5, 58, on ?) TroXtv ovtcjs €')(ol avr^, ws ay TroXe/xtwrar?/ 
yeyoLTO ay^pl ttoXis^, 

462. Sometimes two superlatives in two different propositions are 
compared with each other by the words togovtm — oo-w, in 
order to show that a quality exists in the highest degree in one 
subject, in the same measure as it is possessed by another in 
the highest degree. In this case comparatives also may be put 
for superlatives. Thuc. 8, 84. otrw fxaXiara Kal eXevOepoi 
T](jav oi vavrai, toctovtio Kai d paavTUTa TrpoaTreaovrec, rov 
fxiadov amriTOvv, as in Latin, nautce, ut liberrimi era)it, ita auda- 
cissime, only with this difference, that in Latin ita — ut are 
usually the particles of comparison instead of eo — quOy but in 
Greek these remain the same as with the comparative. The 
indefinite subject also, which in Latin with this construction is 
expressed by qmsquej is expressed in Greek by rcc as with the 
comparative. Plat. Rep. 2. p. 374 D. ocrio f^ieyiaTov ro tmv 
^vXaKwv epyoVf toctovtu) (T'^oXtJc re T(i)V aXXtJV TrXeicfTrjc, 
av e'ltf KOL av re^vijc re Kai eTrijueXeiac /LieyiaTriQ ceojuevov. 
Sometimes, especially when the proposition with octm follows, 
roaovrii) is omitted : Thuc. 1, 68. TrpofftiKei r]fiaQ ov)(^ r)Ki(JTa 
{i.e.fxaXiara. See §. 466.)et7reTv, ocrw Kai fxeyicrra eyKXri/uiara 
eyofjiev ^ we have the greater right to speak, in proportion as 
we have the greater charges to make'. 2, 47. avroi /naXiaTa 
e9vt]<TK0V, oaw Kai juaXiara npoayeGav. Herod. 5, 29. aXyoc 
fieyiarov fJLev avroicn vp-^^y ^'ti- ce t(jjv Xonrtjv viluVj octoj ttjOo- 
eo-Tare rijc EXAa^or,, where oau) is for on. The compara- 
tive is also intermixed with the superlative : Demosth. Olj//Uh. 
p. 21, 22. oc7 0> yap eroiiJLOTar' avrto SoKov/nev -y^prjcjOai, 
TO(TovTit) juaXXov cnriaTOvai Travrec avr(^. In Soph. Trach. 

* Comp. Reisig Comm. Crit. lul CEd. C. 1070. 

Syntax. Of the Use of the Superlative. 7G3 

312 seq. CTrei viv rtov^e TrXtidrov wfCTiora, BXeTroutr , oaio irep 
Kai (j>pov€iv ol^ev iliovt}, it is not necessary to supply /naXiara 
with offfci, since oo-oi may stand for on. See §. 480. Obs. 2. 
§. 455. W. 4. 

This kind of construction too, as in Latin, is abbreviated by 
the omission of toctoutw — oaiOy and the two propositions are 
contracted into one. Herod. 7, 203. elvai Ovt}t(i)v ovSeva ov^e 
eaeaQaiy t(v KaKov ej OjO^^c yivofjievb) ov avve/JiL'^Orj, roiai §e 
fieytCTOKTi avrktjjv fxeyicFTa, i. e. ocrto f.ieyiaTOi rjcraVy tocfovtm 
fxeyiara. Soph. Antig. 1327. ^pay^iGTa yap Kpanara rav 
TTOolv KaKa 'the shorter the better'. Xen. Mem. S. 4, 1, 3. al 
apiarai SoKOvaai elvai (pvaeic imaXiara TraiSeiac Seovrai. id. 
Hier. 1, 21. tov eKacrro) rjSopevov paXiara tovtov o'lei Kai 
epMTLKioTara ^Yeiv tov epyov tovtov; 

The superlative of negative adjectives or adverbs is often 4G3. 
put with ov for the positive without ov, especially ou^^ rJ/cio-Ta, 
for^aXto-ra. Thuc. 1,68. See §. 465. Plat. Phcedon. p. 1 17 D. 
eyijj ou^ 'r]KiaTa tovtov eveKn Tac, yvvcuicac, aneTrepxpa, iva pi} 
TOiavTa TrXr^ppeXolev. Herod. 2, 43. oi»^ f/fCKTra, «XXa pa- 
Xierra. Time. 7, 44. peyiGTOv Se Kai oi»^ f/fCKTra ef^Xaipev 
o Traitovicrpoc. Thus also //. o , 1 1 . eirei ov piv aipavpoTaTor, 
/3aX' 'A^aiwi'f i. e. [(T'^vpoTaTOC,. and with the aiiti thesis Od. 
p,4.\5. ov yap poi SoKeeic o kukkttoc A-yauov eppevaij aXX 
topicTTOc. Herod. 4y9o. {XaXpo^ic <l>plXi]ae) F.XXi^vcov ov tco 
aa9ev€aTaT(x> (TO(pi(7Ty VlvOayopy. Thuc. 1, 5. i^yovpevMV 
av^pijjv ov T(ji)v advvaT(t*TaT(i)V, Comp. 8, 100. Xeu. Hist. 
Or. 6, 4, 18. ot ovK eXa^KTTOv ^vvapevoi ev t^ noXei . 

As the comparative is put for the superlative, in the same 4(j.|. 
manner the superlative is sometimes put for the comparative. 
Od.X ,481. (Tt'To §, A^eXXeu, ovtiq avrjp TrpoTrapoiOe paKap' 
Taroc, ovT ap oTTiaau). Herod. 2, 103. ec tovtovc, Se poi 
coKeei Kai ov irpoaCjTaTa aTriKeaOai o AiyviTTioc, oTpaTOQ. 
Comp. 3, 119. Unrip. Iphig. A. 1603. TavTr]v pdXicFTa 
Trjc Koprjc cKTiraZ^Tai, where Musgrave quotes Apoll. Ilh. 
3, 91. Aristoph. Av. 823. XtofiTov, Tj to ^]^X€ypnc, -rre^iov. 

" Gatak. Advcrs. Misc. 1. c. 7. 98 scq. Comp. N'alck. ad ller. 3, 25. 

p. 215 V. Vjilck. ad llor. 4, 93. p. 20G, Ci. Brunck ad Soph. (Ed. 

p. 324, 95. Korn ad Greg. p. (4l) T. 58. 

s 2 

764 Syntax. Use of the Personal and Possessive Pronouns. 

This superlative is even followed by r), Herod. 2, 35. AiyuTrroc 
7r\ei(TTa dojvfjLaaia eyei r\ ctXXr? ywpr], (where, however, some 
MSS. have TrXew,) as it is followed by the genitive //. X', 481. 

Ohs. Of w 0/X' avlpuiv &c. where Person Prcef. Hec. p. 54. Monk 
ad Eur. Ale. 472. consider the positive to be used for the superlative, 
see §. 320, 3.=' 

Of the Use of the Pronouns. 

I. Personal and Possessive Pronouns. 

4:65. 1 . The nominative of the personal pronoun is usually omitted 
w^ith the personal terminations of verbs, as in Latin, except 
where there is an emphasis, e. g. in an opposition, whether ex- 
pressed or understood, e. g. aXXa iravrwc; Kal av oxpei avrriv 
Xen. Cyr. 5, 1, 7. 

2. In dialogues the personal pronoun is often used without 
the verb, if it has occurred in the speech of the other party. 
In this case it is mostly accompanied by -ye (§. 602.). Plat. 
Gorg. p. 454 C. /caXeTc ti ireTricFTevKevai ; FOPF. ' E-ywye, 
i. e. 'yes', ib. p. 462 D. BouXet oi)v, eirei^ri rifiac to yapi- 
^eaBai, afxiKpov ti fjLOi yjapiGaadai \ IIQA. ' E-ywye. id. Rep. 
3 in. r)yy Tiva ttot av yeveaOai avSpelov, e-^ovTU ev avTco 
TOVTO TO ^eljua; Ma Aia, tj S, oCj ovk e'-ywye, 'no'. Comp. 
Xen. Cyr. 5, 1, 4. Mem. 4, 2, 10.'' Thus too in the dative : 
Plat. Gorg. p. 510 B. (j)iXoc fioi ^ok€l eKaaTOC, eKacTTOJ elvai 

wc oto»^ re juaXiGTa, o o^oioq tw ofioiio. ov Kai (TOI , 

KAA. e/uLoiye. 

This is founded upon the general usage, by which, in an- 
swers, the leading word of the question is repeated. 

When any one wishes to dissuade another from anything by 
entreaties, jmrj gv ye is very commonly used with the omission 
of the verb preceding. Soph. (Ed. Col. 1441. DOA. et \pri, 

"" Wessel. ad Her. 7, 16. p. 517, 16. ad Athen. T. 7. p. 12 seq. Ast ad 

Valck. ad Phcen. 1589. Musgr. ad Plat. Leg. p. 107. 
Soph. Ant. 1349. Fisch. 3 a. p. 329. '' 'J horn. M. p. 264. 

Herm. ad Viger. p. 7 1 8, 57 . Schweigh. 

Syntax. Use of the Personal and Possessive Pronouns, 765 

davovfxai, ANTIF. jurj av y , aXX i/mot ttiOov. Eurip. Hec. 412, 

{povXei Trecrelv irpoc ovcac acT'^rj/jiovrjcTai t', e/c veov (^po." 

'^lovoQ Giraddela :) a iteiaei. juri crv y ' ov yap a^ioc. Phan. 
641. TL rrJQ KaKiaTTjc ^aijLLOVwv e(j)i€(rai, (piXorip-iaCy nal ; ^?7 
av y ' a^iKOQ r\ Beoc. So jlit] /lioi ov (ravTa eiVrjc) Med. 769.*^ 

3. In the forms of entreaty, irpoc Oetov, irpoc ^e^iac, and the 
like, the accusative of the pronoun, being governed of Ikc- 
revoj &c. which is often omitted, is commonly put between the 
preposition and the genitive. Soph. CEd. Col. 1333. irpoc vvv 
<T€ Kprivb)v, irpoc OeijJif o/uoyviiov airtx) iriBeoOai. Eurip. Med. 
325. fXT) irpoc (xe yovi/(t>i/, ttjc re veoyajuLOV KoprjC. Ale. 281. /xr), 
irpoc o"e OetjJVy rXyc fxe irpo^ovvai. Comp, Andr. 893.*^ Thus 
also in Latin, Per te deos oro. 

4. The personal pronouns are sometimes put twice in the 
same proposition, when in the first instance they were separated 
too far from the verb ; Pleonasm. Eur. Phan. 507, ejxol fxev, 
€1 Kai firj KaO RXXrjvcjv ydova reBpafXjxeB , a AX ovv l^vvera jjloi 
ZoKeIc Xeyeiv. Xenoph. Cyr. 6, 4,7. Kat Kvpw ^e ^o/cw p.eyaXi]v 
Tiva 7]fJLac X^ipiv o(p€iXeLVf on fie, ai^fuiaXtJTOv yevojULevr^v Kai 
e^aipeOeiaav eavri^, ovre jxe (uq ^ovXr]v r}^'i(x)<j€ KeKrrjcjOai, ovre 
tjc eXevOepav ev ari/uLOj ovofxari, where Schneider omits the 
second fxe. ib, 4, 5, 29. cFKeipai ^e kql, o'tifj ovri fxoi irep'i ae 
oioc wv irepL epe eireira poi juie/Li(py. CEcon. 10, 4. ov yap av 
eywye ere cvvaiprfv, ei toiovtoc e'/r/q, aairdaaoOai ae eK Trjc 
xpv^rjcy where Zeune erases the second ere. It is found the se- 
cond time pleonastically Arist. Pint. 912. oi> yap irpoarjKei 

r7\v efxavTOv fJLOi iroXiv €vepy€Te7v p , w /ceTT^e ; This 

is different from the case where the same pronoun is put twice 
with two different verbs ^. 

The possessive pronouns are equivalent in signification to 466. 
the genitive of the personal pronouns : e. g. a) irarep rj/nerepe, 
vioc epoc is the same as irarep ripijjv, vloc pov. Hence Soph. 
Trach. 485. Keivov re Kai arfv e^ 'icrov Koivriv yapiv. 

" Valcken. ad Phoen. 534. p. 196. Brunck ad Eiir. Med. 1. c. Apoll. 

'' Valcken. ad Eurip. Ph. 1659. Rh. 3, 985. Monk ad Eur. Hipp. 603. 
Pors. ad Eurip. Med. 325. Markl. ^ Valck. ad Eur. Phoen. v. 500. 

ad Eur. Suppl. 277. Iph. A. 1233. Wopkens Lect. TuU. p. 271. 

766 Si/ntax. Use of the Personal and Possessive Pronouns. 

1. A more precise definition of the person indicated by the 
possessive pronoun is put in the genitive, as an apposition to 
the pronoun possessive. //. 7', 180. darjp avr e/aoc eWe 
Kvvu)7ri^oc. Soph. CEd. C. 344. acfxl) 3 avr e.Keiviov rafiia 
^var-nvov KUKa vTrepirovelrov. Comp. Trach. 775. Pht, 

Si/mp, p. 194: A. eiri\r](Tiii(x)v fxevr av eirjv, oJ AyaOiov, ei 

L^wv TTJv (Triv av^plav Kai /xeyaXo(ppoGvvr}v ava(^aivovTOC e-ni 
Tov oKpipavra jnera t(jjv VTroKpiTtJVf Kal j5\€ipaPT0Q evavriov 

roaovTOv OearpoVy vvv oi?;0eirjv ae 9opv(5r}0riaeaBai &c. 

Aristoph. Ach. 93. e/c/co^ete ye Kopa^ naTa^ac tov ye gov 
(ocpOaX/uov) TOV TTjoecrjSewc, as nomen meum absentisy meas 
prasentis preces, Cic. Plane. 10, 26. Comp. §. 431, 1.^ So 
an adjective is defined by a personal pronoun Eur. Med. 1320. 
TTalcec reOvacfi X^ipi jurirpioa aeOev. 

In the same manner the pronoun avroc, ' self is added to 
the pronoun possessive in the genitive, as in Latin, mea ipsius 
culpa. II. o y39. vbyirepov \eyoQ avTtov. /c , 204. ew aurou 
dvjLKo. Od. a ,1 . avrwv yap (T(j)eTepr)<Jiv araaOaXlriaiv oXovto. 
Herod. 6, 97. airire ewi tcl Vfxerepa avrewv. jEsch. Ag. 
1333. airac^ ex etTreTv prjaiv rj Oprjvov OeXu) e/uov to»/ avrrjc. 
Comp. ib. 1308. and passim^. 

2. As the genitive is sometimes put objectively (§. 367.), 
the possessive pronouns too are used, though rarely, in the 
same sense, e. g. coc iroOoc Od. X', 201. not 'thy regret', 
but 'ray regret for thee\ Msch. Pers. 696. ttjv i/nrju ai^u) 
/meOeiQ 'fear of me'. Soph. Q^d. C. 332. tckvov, ti ^' r\XQec; 

I2M. (jyjy irarepf irpo/uirjOia ' from anxiety on thy account'. 
id. El. 343. To/Lia vov6ert)f.iara 'the lessons which thou givest 
me'. (Ed. C. 1413. 17 efxr) virovpyia ' the service rendered 
to me*. So xpeia tju/i Eur. Suppl. 20. is the same as Y/oem 
/iiov, and Flel. 1178. e^ov SiopOtoaai Xo'yo(C aav epiv ' the dis- 
pute about thee\ Plat. Gorg. p. 486 A. evvoi<jf. yap t'^w ry 

* V'alck. ad Phan. UIH. <" Vigor . p. 101. Ilerm, p. T3'2. 

^ Fisch. 2, p. TSi: scq. Astad Plat. 121. Poppo ad Xeu. Cyr. b, 3, 32, 
Log. p. 12. p. 600. 

Sj/nlax. Of the Use of the Demonstrative Pronouns, 767 

3. The possessive pronoun in the neuter with the article is 
sometimes put for the personal pronoun, as the article with the 
genitive, as a circumlocution, §. 285. Herod. 8, 140, 1. to 
v/n€T€pov for v/Lie'iQ, Plat. Rep. 7. p. 533 A. to y* e/uiov ov^ev 
av wpodviniac aTroXeiTToi, for eyio. Eur. Or. 296. orav §e to/li* 
uQvfxi]GavT 'iSycj for e^ue. Comp. Andr. 235. Ion. 803.^ Else- 
where TO efiiovj TO GTov, signify 'my, thy advantage'®. 

Ohs. 1. It has been already mentioned that the unemphatic enclitic 
cases /xov, aov often precede the words by which they are governed, 
§. 58. These enclitic cases are sometimes found where the acuted 
should stand. See §. 145. Obs. 1. Comp. //. Q\ 175. Eur. Phoen.4-51. 
TTcivaai TToviov jue koX ak koX Trda'av ttoXiv. 

Obs. 2. In propositions consisting of two clauses, which have a pro- 
noun in common, in Homer and Herodotus the pronoun is sometimes 
not given till the second clause, though it belongs also to the first. 
//. ^', 46. ^wypei, ^Arpeos v/e, cu 3' a^ia ^et,ai UTroLva. Herod. 1, 206. 

IJi6\Qoy fxey, oy e^ets i^evyyvs Toy TTOTci/idy, acpes, av ^e ^lajoaiye 

€s rriv 7]fi€T€prjy. This is the same usage as has been explained §. 289. 
Obs. 9. of the Article. So II. k, 237» fxriM av y alBo/jLeyos arjai (^peaX 
Toy fjiey apeiio KaWeiTreiy, av ^e '^eipoya^ for Toy ^iky apeiu), yeipoya 3e. 
In other poets also in propositions with >; — ^, ovhe — ov^e, the pronoun 
is repeated, as Soph. Phil, 1116. TroTfios ae daijjioyujy ra3e, ovde ae ye 
^oXos eorx'. See Buttmann's note. Comp. §. 272 seq. 

Obs. 3. The possessive pronouns express sometimes that which has 
been mentioned by the person designated, as Soph. Ant. 572. to aov 
Xe^oSj i. e. TO VTTO aov oyonai^ofieyoy Xe^^os, as explained by the Scholiast. 
id. Phil. 1251 . ^vy t^ diKato) Toy ady ov Tapj-^w (^ofioy * the threat which 
thou usest in order to frighten me*. Eur. HeracL 285. 

II. Demonstrative Pronouns avroQ, eKelvoc, ovtoq, 

I. auTOC. 

The pronoun avroc has three significations: — 1. When 467. 

in the nominative with a finite verb, or in the oblique cases 

with another noun, before or after the article, it signifies ' self, 

ipse, e. g. //. a , 133. 17 eOeXeic, o(j)p avroc e^^pc yepac, avrap 

** Valck. ad Herod. 8, 140. p. C87, Lamb. Bos. p. 171, 228. 
52. Boisson. ad Philostr. p. 296. * Valck. ad Eur. Hipp. 48. Ileind. 

Ast ad Plat. Leg. p. 70. neind. ad ad Plat. Gorg. §. 23. 
Plat. Phad. 99. p. 107. Schccf. ad 

768 Syntax. Of the Use of the De?nonstrative Pronouns. 

kill avTii)C rjadai ^evo/j-evov; * that you yourself may have the 
prize' ^. If the noun has the article with it, avroc in this sig- 
nification stands either before the substantive with the article, 
or after both, the latter when * self is to be emphatically dis- 
tinguished and more connected with the verb. II. t\ 450. aXX* 
ou /Lioi Tpu)(i)V t6(T(jov /neXei aXyoc OTriGtrio, ovr avrrjc, 'E/caj3)jc 
'even Hecuba', v, 614. r/rot o fiev KopvOoc (j)a\ov riXaaev 
iTTTrooaaeiric, aKpov viro \6<pov avrov, and so avro tovto or 
tout' avro ' this very thing'''. In the phrases §. 405. Obs. 3. 
it marks the accompanying substantive as something not usually 
found in conjunction with the action. It also implies that a 
thing or person is to be considered without regard to any other, 
as Plat. Rep. 5. p. 479 E, avro to KaXou, avro to ^iKaiov 
' decorum, justice itself (by itself) in the abstract, opposed to 
the individual things which have those attributes. Comp. Gorg. 
p. 496 C. The article also is wanting id. Rep. 5. p. 478 extr. 
o ^jOr/(7TOC, oc avTO fxev KaXoVj Kai iBeav Tiva avTOV kuXXovq 
ILLri^€/j.Lav Yiyelrai. In the same manner when a person or thing 
is to be opposed to its attributes or accidental qualities : Hesiod. 
Sc. Here. 251. rtjv kqi i^vyai fxev ydova ^vvovar aiBor, elcFU) 

avTtJV, o (TT ea ^e (T(j)L KeXaivy TrvOerai airj. //. ^', 18. 

aXX aix<^(s) Qvfiiov arr^jvpa, avrov Kai Oepairovra KaXrycrioi^. 
Pind. 01. 6, 21.*^ Kara yai avrov re viv Kai (l)ai^LfxaQ Ittttovc 
e/nap^ev, and so, with re, passim, avroc sometimes precedes : 
Plat. Gorg. p. 511 E. auyaaaa Kai avrov Kai TraT^aq. The 
pronoun is then in the same case with the substantive opposed 
to it, the opposition being expressed by a participle referred to 
the pronoun : Xen. Gyr. 1,3, 1. avrr\ re Kai rov vlov eyovaa. 
Plat. Rep. 3. p. 398 A. ei rtjulv a(piKoiro etc ttjv ttoXiv avroQ 
T€ Kai ra Troirj/nara (5ovX6jLievoc CTri^el^ai. Similar to this is 
Isocr. Epist. I. p. 404 in. ovk av eirKTroX-qv eVe/iTTOv, aXX 
avToc av aoi SieXeyOriv 'byword of mouth'. As denoting 
here the principal person, in opposition to what surrounds him, 
avroc signifies also * the master, the teacher', in opposition to 
his servants or disciples, without these being expressly named. 

* So must be understood the pas- ^ Valck. ad Herod. S, 71. ad lo. 

sages adduced by lleusde Sp. Crit. Chrysost. p. 6. Ast ad Plat. Leg. 

in Plat. p. 96. in which avTos does p. 467. 
not stand for cu. *^ Ruhnk. ad Horn. H. in Cer. 2. 

Syntax. Of the Use of the Demonstrative Pronouns, 769 

Arist. Nub, 218. tic ovtoc, ovttI Kpe/maOfjac avrtp ; Avtoq, 

Tic, avToc ; ^(jjKpaTr\c. So avroc €.(pr} ' the master said 

it'**. Elsewhere the opposition is only conceived by the mind : 
Eur. Phan. 497. e^^ei rvpavvi^' avroc, in opposition toPolynices, 
whom he had excluded, ib. 1805. vvv arifxoc avroc, whereas 
on other occasions he has made others, e. g. the Sphinx, ari- 
p-ovQ^. Soph. Phil. 316. olc 'OXv/uLTTioi Oeoi ^oTev ttot avro^c 
avriTTOiv e/mov iraOelv, 'to themselves', whereas they were 
accustomed to indulge their violence against others. Comp. 
275. 430. So Isocr. Plat. p. 302 D. ov^ev av e/cwXve roOc 
airacTi role '^Wrjcriv a'lriovc rrjc ffiorripiac yevofjievovc avrovc 
viro ruiv 'EXX^i^wv e^avSpairo^KrOrjvai. It is also in the nom. 
as pron. of the third person, only in opposition, where we 
distinguish it by the emphasis: //. y, 282. avroc eVeid 
FiXevriv e^erto /cat Krrjimara navra' rjinelc ^ €v vqeacn veCjfxeQa, 
Comp. Xen. Mem. S. 4, 5, 9. where avrr], i. e. aKpaaia, is 
opposed to eyKpdreia, which follows ^. 

2. If the oblique cases follow the verb, then it signifies 
merely ' to him, him, her, it', &c. e. g. avra fft-yw Msch. Pr. 440. 

3. If it has the article before it, it signifies ' the same*, idem. 
See §§. 146. 266. 

4. So avroc is used to express that one has done something 468. 
from his own impulse, as in Latin ipse is used for sponte, II, p, 
254. aWd ric avroc *irio. and elsewhere. 

5. It frequently stands for /llovoc, which sense is connected 
with that of 'of itself. //. v, 729. aXX ovirojc dp-a iravra 
^vvrjaeai avroc eXeaOai. Xen, Mem. S, 3, 14, 3. auev rov 
iTirov ro o\pov avro eaOieiv. Hence avroi yap eapev ' we are 
by ourselves', Plat. Parm. p. 137 A. Ijc y ev avrolc vplv 
e'lpiiaOai id. Prot. in. ' between ourselves'. Comp. Xen, Symp. 
4, 25.S 

6. When in a proposition the reflective pronoun eavrov &c. 
is found in the genitive, dative, or accusative, avroc is frequently 

•* Theophr. Char. p. 34. plains both passages differently, 
ed. Fisch, ' Herni. ad Vig. p. 734, 6. 

« Valckenaer ad Phoen. 1235. ex- ^ Ilerm. ad Vig. p. 733. III. 

770 Sj/ntax. Of the Use of the Demonstrative Pronouns. 

added to the subject for the sake of emphasis, as in Latin se ipse. 
The subject of the verb as an agent is then opposed to itself as 
the passive object, and in this way any other agent is excluded. 
Thus Od, a , 33. oi ^e /cat avroi acpyaiu araaOaXiyaLV vwep 
fjiopov aXye e^ovcriv. (On the other hand ib, 7. avrwv yap 
fT(j)eTeprfaiv ara(j9a\Ly(nv vXovro. conip. 409.) JEsch. S. c, 
Th, 408. avTOQ KaO' avrov rrju vj^piv jxavrevaeraiy 'against 
himself. Soph, Ant. 1177. Comp. Trach. 910, 1132. even 
where eavTov stands for aeavrov Trach. 451. ei Z avroc, avrov 

(i. e. GcavTov) w^e irai^eveiQ . Plat. Phccd.. p. 94 E. 

oure yap av Ofx-qpit) oixoXoyolfxev, ovre avroi 7]p.LV avrolc,, comp, 
ib. p. 6 1 E. 62 C. Also in the oblique cases Isocr. Paneg. 
c. 35. Tac, fjLeyKJTac, r(jjv iroXewv fxr) avraQ eavrdjv eav eivai 
Kvplac. So also avroQ eavrov viro^eearepoc. %%. 452. 460. If 
the article or a preposition belongs to the reflective pronoun, 
avroc stands between them. Msch. Agam. 845. toTc avroc 
avrov TTi^paaiv ^apvverai. Prom. 929. roLov Tra\ai(jrriv vvv 
irapaaKevaCerai ctt avroc, avrto. Soph. CEd. C. 930. ib. 1356. 
Plat. Alcib. 2. p. 144 C. The later sophists especially imitated 
this even in prose *. 

The position of avroc ' self, before eKaaroc, is also to be 
remarked. Herod, 7, 19. OeXoyv avroc eKacrroc ra irpoK^ifxeva 
^u)pa Xaf^elv ' each wished himself to take', excluding others. 
Comp. 8, 123. Thuc, 7, 70. So of two parties avroi eKarepoi 
Herod. 9, 26. and combined with the preceding construc- 
tion Demosth, p. 182, 6. ocra avroc eKaaroc eavrt^ irpoariKeiv 

' ' b 

riyr]Garo , 

"IGO. 7. avroc is often used alone in the sense of is ipse. Plat, 

(472; Lys, p, 204 A. avrov irpuyrov rj^ewc anovaaifx av, eiri r^ Kai 

eiaeifxi, for avrov rovrov. Rep, 2. p. 362 D. avro ovk eipr]- 

raiy o paXiora e^et prjOrivai. Alcib. \. p. 134 C. Dem, de Cor, 

p, 270, 19. Thus ipse is often put for is ipse, e.g. Cic, Fin. 

1,5, 13. See Misc. Phil. 2, \. p. 96.« 

8. Sometimes avroc stands for ovroc or e/ceTvoc, and has the 

» Bast Lettre Crit. p. 170. Elmsl. '' Valck. ad Phoen. 497. Matthiae 

ad Ilcracl. 814. Reisig Comm. Crit. ad Eur. lice. 1'203. 
in Soph. (Ed. C. p. 3tl. *" Ueind. ad Plat. Lys. p. 4 sq. 

syntax. Of the Use of the Demonstrative Pronouns. 771 

relative after it. Eiir. Troad. 668. aTremva avTrjVj ijtiq 
iwopa Tov napoQ Kaivo7(Ti XeKTfJOiQ aTTojSaXoucr uXXov (ptXel, 
comp. Iph. A. 1031. Flat. Theag. p. 123 D. dp ovk avrrij 
y irXoiwv eTTKJTci LieOa apyjEiv. In Thuc. 2, 37. ov Trapavofxov- 

fxev aKpoaaei Ttsiv vo/licov kgi fxaXiffra avTWVj oaoi en 

ujipeXeia twv ti^iKov/j.ev(i)v Kelvrai, the demonstrative pronoun 
is omitted, and avrtjv (ex Us) governed of ^a'AicxTa, et ex Us 
maxime earum, where the comma after avrwif should be struck 

9. avToc is often used after ordinal numbers, to show that 
one person with several others, whose number is less by one 
than the number mentioned, has done something. Thuc. 1, 46. 
KopivOiit)v arparrjyoQ r)v Hei'OAcXe/^r^c o EuOuAcXeovc, TrejUTrroc 
avToc, 'with four others'. Xen. Hist. Gr. 2, 2, 17. /uera 
ravra ypeOrj TrpeafjevrriQ ec AaKe^al/uova avTOKparwp,^kKaTOC, 
avTOQ, with nine others'. Instead of which Thuc. I, 57. julet 
aXXioif evvea ^. avroQ is omitted Plat. Leg. 3. p. 695 C. (Aa- 
peloc) cXOijJV eiG Trji/ ap^rjv /cat Xaj3Cov avrriv €j3^o^oc, Biei- 

Xero * . Dem. de Cor. p. 261, 3. o ttJc (hiciq eWoq Kai 

^eKUTOQ irporepov GvvreXriQ. 

10. Homer often puts ov, ol, e, which he uses as a pronoun 
of the third person (§. 147. Obs. 1 .), and makes the noun itself 
follow these. //. v, 600. w apa oi Bepairuyv eye, iroifievi 
Xau)v. (f) , 249. iva f.Liv iravaeie ttovoio, B7ov 'A^iXX»/a. 
Od. t J 48. avTiKa ^ Hcjc tfXOev evQpovoQ, t) fxiv eyeipe, 
^ avGiKaav evneirXov. Comp. a, 194. This is the same 
idiom which obtains in regard to the article also, as a demon- 
strative pronoun, §. 263. Obs. 

1 1 . Of the reflective pronouns ejiavTov, aeavrovy eavrov, 
see §. 148. Obs. 2. as also of the distinction between avrov 
and avTovy ib. Obs. 3. 

2. ouToc and o^e. 

1 . These demonstratives are generally distinguished in this 470. 
way, that ovroc refers to that which immediately precedes, o^e 
to that which immediately follows. //. 1', 527. ineinvr)f.iai roSe 

** Wasse ad Thuc, 2, 13. Dorv. ad Charit. p. 262. Iloog. ad Vig. p. 73 a. 

772 Syntax. Of the Use of the Demonstrative Pronouns. 

epyov eyu) TraXat, followed by this epyov 529. Kovprjrec r e/xa- 
yovro Kai A'ltwXoi. Herod. 1, 206. irkfx^acja r} TojuvpiQ kyj- 

pvKa eXeye TaSe' to jSaciXev MrjSwv but after the 

completion of the speech, Tavra Se a/coucrac o Kvpoc 

and so c.207. compared with 208. Comp. ib, 140. 149. 6, 53. 
Tavra (what was related c. 52.) ^ei^ AaKe^ai/movioi Xeyovcn 

fjLovvoi 'EXX^i^wv* ra^e ^e e-yw ypa(p(t), 'what follows'. 

comp. 58. 7, 5. Plat. Menon. p. 90 C. 93 B.^ This usage 
however is not without exceptions: Soph. Ant. 449, 51 . TovcrSe 
voinovQ refers to to. Kr)pvy^kvTa v. 447. Eur. Or. 898. €7rt 
Tw^e (after Talthybius v. 888.) ^ -nyopeve Ato/iii^»?q ava^, 
as 887. cTTt Tw^e, after the herald v. 885. comp. 902. Phan, 
582. (Tot pev ToS au^w (what follows v. 542.) cot ^e IToXv- 
veiKeQ, Xeyo). comp. 806. Herod. 1, 137. aiveu) rov^e tov 
vopov. (c. 136.) alvett) Se Kal rov^e, 'the following*, comp. 
c. 141. (§. 4.) 214 extr. — ovtoc is also referred to what fol- 
lows Eur. Hipp. 43 1 . fxovov Be rovro (jyaa apiXXaaOai I3l(i), 
yvtjjLLtiif BiKaiav Kaya6r}v. Ale. 568. Herod. 1, 125. (j)poV' 
Tit(t)v Be evpiGKerai (Kvpoo) ravra Kaipuorara elvai' enoiee 
Be raBe, where ravra like raBe refers to what follows, comp. 
216 extr, and so Soph. Ant. 296 seq. 673. ovtoq and oBe are 
quite synonymous ^. 

Ohs. The same holds good of roioade and toiovtos, J^e and ovtios, He- 
rod. 6, 37 in. rpoTra roiovro) (Schw. and Gaisf.) refers to what precedes; 
but c. 39. rpoTTfo ToiS^e to that which was related c, 38. as 1, 180. 
whereas c. 111. roiov^e tl refers to what follows, as 1, 178. J^e Herod. 
6, 111 in, refers to what follows, but immediately after we have 6 yap 
vufjios TOTE ei^e ovvh) roiiai 'AdrjvcUOLcrtf ray iroXcfxap-^ov e^^eiv Kcpas ro 
^e^wv. comp. 140, 1. 9, 31. J^e 8, 139. refers the first time to the 
genealogy which follows ; but a second J^e refers back again to this. 
5, 2. J^e refers to what precedes, and 9, 51. ovtoj to what follows. 

2. There is no better foundation for the opinion that oBe 
cannot refer to oq following ^. These passages admit of no doubt : 
II. ^ J 346. TOvaBe B ea (pdivvOeiVj eva Kal Bvo toi k€v 
'A^atwv v6ff(j)iv (^ovXevoj(Ti. Comp. Od. a , 403. Soph. CEd. T. 

* Erf. et Herm. ad Soph. (Ed. T. ''Corap.Schaef. App. Dem.2.p.280. 

101. ed. min. Ileind. ad Cic. de Nat. *= Biittm. ad Soph. Fliil.87. comp. 

D. 2, 50 in. Herm. ib. 

Syntax. Of the Use of the Demonstrative Pronouns. 773 

1130. TTolov av^pa Kai Xeyeic ; rov^' be irapetjriv, 

Antig.4:Q'^. Off TIC. yap e.u ttoXAoTctci^, <uc e-yw kukoIq ^p, ttwc oS 
ov^i KarOavbJif Kep^oc (j)epei ; Trach. 283. Com p. Aj. 255 seq, 
Eur. Or. 896. Plat. Leg. 1. p. 627 E. Trorepoc oi)v dfjieivtjjv ; 

ooTic Trpoara^eiev, rj o^e or, ai^ touc ^/oijcttouc apyeiv ttoi- 

rio-ete; Elsewhere outoc and o^e are thus discriminated, that 
the former refers to the more remote, the latter to the nearer 
noun : as //. 0', 109. rovTd) ^lev Oepairovre KOfxeiTwv' rwSe ^e 
voj\ TptJGiv €(j) linro^a/LioKJiv lOvvopev, where tovtg) refers to 
the horses of Nestor mentioned ver. 104. rw^e to the horses of 
iEneas, carried off by Diomed, who is speaking. And so the 
difference between ovtog and o^e consists in this, that oBe 
points out the object more distinctly, as if with the finger. 

3. Of ovTOQ as an address see §. 150. Obs. 2. 312, 1.^ 
and ofrouTOjuei^ — rovro Se §. 288. Obs, 2. 

4. Frequently ovroc denotes not a really present or just 
mentioned person or thing, but what is known and obvious to 
all, or circumstances common to all. Plat. Phadon. p. 75 E. 
€1 ^e -ye, ol/aai, XafSovreQ irpiv yeveaOai, yLvojuevoi airioXetrafxev, 
varepov ce raiQ aKJuijaecn y^pijjpevoi nepi tout a eKeivac ava- 
Xa/nj^dvo/uLev, where ravra means earthly sensible objects (see 
Heindorf's note p. 88. and Stallb. ad Phileb. p. 194.), as hcec 
in Latin, e. g. qui non hczc stare capiat Cic. CatiL Plat. Pha- 
don.p. 69 C. 01 rdc reXerdc lijuTv ovroi KaracjrrjffavTeG* those 
well-known men'®. Hence it also denotes something particu- 
larly harsh and disagreeable, already known as such : Pind, 
Nem, 9, 68. irelpav fxev ayavopa ^oivikogtoXijjv eyykdiv Tav- 

rav ava^aXXojjLai wc iropaicfra ' that well known dreadful 

battle'. So is probably to be taken Eur. Iph. T. 205. vvktoq 
Keiuac * that unfortunate night', in which Iph. was conceived ; 
and Troad. 1 196. virvoi r eKelvoi . 

5. In dialogues, tovto, ravra are found with affirmative 

^ Comp. Apoll. TT. avrwv. p. 285 B. (quoted there) means the day of the 

Heind. ad Prot. p. 460. murder previously mentioned by the 

<= Heind.adPhaedon. p. 60. Boeckh chorus, and Eit. Troad. 207. vv^ 

ad Plat. Min. p. 65. uvra is ev y XeKrpois 'EWijiujy av 

^ See Matthine not. ad Eur. Troad. nXadeiiji-. 
1 178. But Kcira cifxepa Soph. El. 201. 

774 Syntax. Of the Use of the Demonstrative Pronouns. 

answers, €<Tri being omitted, Mt is so, be it so, yes'. Aris/. 

Vesp. 1008. aXX eia'ib)}jL€v. Tavra ye, vvv e'lTrep SoKreT. 

P/at. Rep. 4. p. 422 B.^ So also roiavTa Eur. El. 648. 

VTroTTTOC, ovaa jiyvijjffKei TToAei. roiavra fxiaenai yap avo- 

aioc yvvti, 

6. ovToc, is frequently pat with Kai, in the same manner as 
the Latin et is, isque, in the sense ' and indeed, and that too'. 
Herod. 1, 147. ovroi yap julovvoi liovatp ovk ayovaiv Attutov- 
pia' Kai ovTOi Kara <^oi^oi» Tiva (JKrj\l/iv. id. 6, 1 1 . em ^vpoo 
ciKfxric, eyjzTai vfjuv to. TTjO/jy^ara, av^pec, ' Iwvec, r) eivai e\ev- 
OepoLCTi T] BovXoKJi, Kai TOVTOia I (Lc hpaTrerycn. Comp. 
Xen. Anah. 2, 5, 21. quoted §. 315, d. More frequently, 
however, the pronoun is put in the neuter plural, Kai ravra, 
inasmuch as generally the more accurate definition of an entire 
proposition, at least of several words, or of one verb, and not 
of a single noun, is to be thereby introduced. It is commonly 
translated ' although' and ^ especially' ; but this signification 
is not contained in the words Kai ravraf but in the participle 
following, or generally in the nature of what is subjoined ; 
since this, for the most part, contains a chief motive of an 
action, an important though only apparent obstacle, or gene- 
rally a main consideration. Plat. Rep. 3. p. 404 ^.''0 pr)poc 

ev TttTc TLJV 7)pu)U)P e(TTia<T€GL\f ovr€ lyQvaiv avTOVc, 

etrrta, Kai Tavra ewi OaXarryj ev EXArjcrTTOi'TW oi^rao, where 
the * although', which is required by the sense, lies in the par- 
ticiple. Soph. El. 633. rjTiQ TOiavra tt)v reKovaav v(3pi(je, 
Kai ravra rtiXiKovroCy et quidcm, quod iudignius etiam est, 
etsi tantilla atate sit^. Kai ravra is rarely found after the 
participle: Plat. Rep. \.p, 341 C. vvv -your, e^i^, eirey^eipriaac, 

ov^ev (i)if Kai ravra. 

7. rovro and ravra are often put for ^la ravra ^ on this 
account'. Soph, (Ed. T. 1005. Kai lurjv juaXicrra rovr aCJHKo- 
fir]u, OTTtoG ev iTpalc,aifxi ri. Plat. Symp. p. 174 A. ravra S 
eKaXXtoTn(jafxr\Vy 'iva KaXoc wapa KaXoviu). Prolag. p. 310 E. 

* Heind. ad Plat. Phaedoii. §. Gl. adGnom. p. '27^sq. Dobrce ad Arist. 
p. 98. Pint. 516. Add. 

^ lioogev. ad Vig. p. 17C. Schsf. 

Si/utax. Oj' the Use of the Demonstrative Pronouns. 11 o 

a\X avra ravra vvv r}K(jit wapa (xe. Comp. Eur, Andr. 212. 
Iph. T. 939/ 

8. The neuter of the demonstrative pronouns ovtoc. and oSe 
is also used with adverbs of time and place for more exact defi- 
nition. Herod. 7, 104. wc, eyw rvyy^avtv Tavvv raSe 
ecTTOpyioc. tKeivovc, ovtoq juaXiara e^enioTeai, 'at this very 
time', as nufic ipsum Cic. ad Att. 7, 3. 12, 16. 40. Eurip. 
Ion. 566. TOUT €Kel. vvv ecriraprjfxev 'at that very time'. 
avrov T^^e is used with definitions of place, as Herod, 9, 11.*^ 

9. These pronouns also are often put for the personal pro- ("i^O 
nouns eyw, cv. Eurip. Ale. 690. ^117 Ovrja^ virep rouS' av- 
^poc' ou3 eyw irpo aou, for vircp e/iuw. Comp. JEsch. S. c. 

Th, 653. Soph. Trach. 305. Plat. Gorg. p. 489 B. ovtoctI 
avrjp ov 7rav(J€TaL (jyXvapwv. enrk /lloi, w ^(jjKparec, ovk (ti(T\mn] 
&c. for av ov iravcnj. Comp. ib. j), 505 C. These pronouns 
are put for the second person mostly in a contemptuous sensed 

10. eKelvoc, like ille, refers properly to a remote or absent 471. 
thing or person, but often it refers to that which immediately 
precedes. So Soph. Trach. 244. eKelvoc, refers, as a mere pro- 
noun of the third person, to Hercules, who has been just men- 
tioned ; 'he'. So also Q^d. T, 259. 261. 263. to Laius, men- 
tioned ver. 257. In Flat. Protag. p. 3 10 D. it is quite synony- 
mous with uvTOQ which precedes. It would refer back to the 
subject of the proposition were Monk's conjecture correct, 
Soph. Aj. 1039. Keivoc ra Keivov GrepyeTto, for to. eavrovy 
where the MSS. have fceTvoc t eKe'iva gt.^ 

1 1. A common expression is tovt eKelvo or toS' eKelvo, in 
which cKelvo refers to something before mentioned, or to a 
proverb or well known sentiment, and touto points out that 
the saying is a fact here. This phrase usually stands without 
any connection with the rest of the construction, so that what 

*= KoenadGreg. p.(ll)30. Brunck Sp. Crit. in Plat. p. 3 sq. ScluTf. in 

ad Arist. Nub. 319. Ast ad Plat. Dion. Hal. J. p. 114, G'2. lleind. ad 

Leg. p. 2 14. and of rouro p. 1G3. 160. Plat. Gorg. p. 143. 

** See Matthiae not. ad Horn. II. in ^ Ileind. ad Plat. Pl)a:don. §. 138. 

Merc. IGO. p. 62. p. 236. Schneider ad Xcn. Cyr. 5, 

^ Musgr. ad Soph. Aj. ?8. Heiisde 2, 28. Scha^f. App. Dcm. 2. p. 2i:». 

776 Syntax, Of the Use of the Demonstrative Pronouns. 

follows is joined to it without any copulative particle. lE,ur. Or, 
804. TOUT eKelvo, ktclgB eraipovc,, fxri to avyyevec; juoi^oi^. 
JMed. 98. ToS eKelvOy (pWoi Trainee, ixi]Tr)p Kivei Kpa^'iav. Plat. 
Phcsdr, p. 241 D. where eKelvo refers to the verse previously- 
quoted. Aristophanes Ach. 41. says at full length, tout 
CKelv ovyu) ''Xeyov, So also Plat. Si/mp. p. 223 A. TauTa 
€Kelva TO. eivjBoTa. Soph, Ant. 384. rJS ear e/ceiVr; rovpyov tj 
'^eipyaapkvrif rj^e refers to Antigone as being present, eKe'ivi) 
to her as previously spoken of. Similar to this is avro rovro 
Eur. Or. 665. e^eTc a^vvarov. avro touto, tovc (piXovQ ev 
To7c kukoIq '^pri ToTc (j)'i\oL<nv loCJyeXelv, ' this is just that', 
where touto refers to the following sentence. Arist. Pac. 64. 
TOVT eari tovto to kukov avO ov yw ' Xeyoi^. Comp. Lys. c. 
Andoc.p. 106, 23. Xen. Anab. 1, 9, 21.^ 

12. These demonstrative pronouns are often used instead 
of the adverbs ' here, there', the speaker pointing as it were 
with the finger. //. <p' , 532 sq. ri yap 'A-^^iWeva eyyuc oSe 
KXoveojv ' for Achilles rages there near the tumult'. Comp. 
Od. ^', 26. w, 307. Soph. (Ed. cm. where Brunck has 
adopted the gloss wSe. Eur. Androm. 1232. ^at^uwi^ o^e tic 

XevKYJv alOepa TropOfxevo/Lievoc; ire^'iiov eTTi^aivei. Ale. 24. 

rj^i? Se Tov^e OavaTOV e'lcjopu) ireXac;. 134. aXX rjo oTracijjv 
e/c ^o/inov TIC, epyerai SaKpvppoovaa. Iphig. A. 6. tic, ttot ap 
acfTrip oSe TropOjuevei. Aristoph. Nub. 214. aXX r] AaKe- 
^ai/uLwv irov ''gtiv; MAG. ottou '(ttiv; avTrji. In the genitive 
Eur. Plec. 712. e'laopu) yap Tov^e ^ecnroTOv ^ep-ac AyajJLefxvovoQ. 
— eipi, &c. are often omitted : Soph. Ant. 526. Kai prjv npo ttu- 
Xwv riS' 'lapr]vrf ^. — eKeivoQ is used in the same way //. e', 604. 
Kai vvv oi irapa Kelvoc, ' Apr\Q. 

o^e is often put thus with the personal pronoun, Vv^ith or 
without ^'ipi, in the sense of the Latin en ! adsum. Od. (j)', 
207. ev^ov pev ^17 o^ auTOC eyw KaKci TroXXa poyrjaaCy rjXv- 
Oov. Comp. tt', 205. Pind. 01. 4, 37. outoc eyw to^u- 

TaTt. Eurip. Suppl. 1048. rjS eytj ireTpac, eiri ^vaTri- 

vov aL(jjpr]i.ia Kov(j)it(i)y TTUTep. Also without the personal pro- 

* Hcind. ad Ph^edr. p. 234. Elmsl. ^ Monk ad Hipp. 170. Blomf. ad 

ad Eur, Med. 97. S. c. Th. 368. 

Syntax, Of the Use of the Demonstrative Pronouns. 777 

noun Eur. Or. 374. oS' et/u' 'Opearm, Mei/eXect»c, ov IcrrO' 

Hence the phrase //. t, 140. Suipa §* eywi/ oSe iravra 
irapaayyivf ad%um, ut dem. as Eurip, Iphig. A. 1487. irXoKa- 
fjLoc, o3e KaracTTefpeiv, ecce comam, quam coronetis. Of the 
infinitive see §. 535. Similar to this is ro^e No. 12. 

13. As adjectives are used for adverbs (§. 446, 8.), so 
ravra, ra^e, ro^e sometimes stand for ovtwc, wSe. //. e , 185. 
ov-^ oy avevOe Oeov ra^e imaiverai. comp. 827. Soph. CEd. 

T, 264. av0 (jjv eyu) rad vTrep^ayovfxai, as Aj. 1346. 

Eur. Med. 158.^ So roiavra, Soph. (Ed. T. 1327. nwQ erXijc 
TOiavra craq o\p€ic fxapavai ; ® 

So To^e is used in Homer adverbially 'hither' //. 5', 298. 
309. Od. dy 409. T, 407. 

Of the Demonstrative Pronouns generally/. 

1 . Properly the demonstrative pronouns are used only when 472. 
they refer to a noun which has preceded in another proposition ; 
frequently, however, they are put also w^hen the noun goes be- 
fore in the same proposition, a. This especially takes place 
when the case governed of the verb is separated from it by a 
parenthesis, commonly considered as the accusative absolute. 
Od. TT y 78. aXX' r\roi rov Jetvov, eirei reov 'iKero ^ui^ia, 
eaaio fxiv '^\a7vav re ^irwvct re, e'lfiaTa KaXa, comp. o , 652. 
Herod. 7, 221. tov [jiavTiVj oc e'lTrero Ty (TTpariy Tavriu, 
M.€yiaTir}v rov * KKapvava, Xeyofxevov eXvai to. aveKaBev 

airo MeXa^TTO^oc, toutoi^ (j>av€p6Q ecrri Aewi/tSr^q aTTOirkfx- 

iruyv. comp. 6, 46. Soph. QLd. T. 246. Karevyofxai ^e rov 
^e^paKOT , eiTC tic elc u)V XeXr/^ev, elre nXeiovwv fiera, kqkov 
KaKujQ VI V a/ioipov eKTpixpai (5iov. Comp. v. 269 seq. El. 1364 
seq.Trach.287, Eur.Bacch.20\seq. Thuc.2,62. Plat.ApoL 
S, p, 40 D. id. Rep, 3. p. 398 A. av^pa ^i), wo eoi/ce, ^wd- 

* ToupadSuid.l.p.429sq. Schaef. « So Hermann ad Soph. Aj. 448. 

in Dion. Hal. 1. p. 77. note. takes rowah in the passage from 

** See Matthi^e Not. ad Eur. Med. Soph. ^Esch. Prom. 112. Choeph. 40. 

158. Erf. ad Soph. (Ed. T. 265. ed. for J^c, but there is no reason why 

min. The passages quoted l)y Elms- we should not take the word in its 

ley ad Eur. Med. 49. 672. admit an- proper meaning, 
other explanation. 


778 Sy7itax\ Of the Use of the Demonstrative Pronouns, 

fxevov VTTO (TO(f)iaQ TravToSanov yiyvecFOai Kai fxifxelauai iravra 

y^pr\fjiara, ei y)ixlv a(j)lKoiTO etc rrjv woXiv irpOGKV- 

volfxev av avrov. Xan. Anah. 2, 4,7 , eyio jiiev ovv fdaaiXea, 
w TToXXa ovT(i)Q e<TTL TO. cvfjifxayay eiirep Trpodv^elrai "n/uiaQ aTTO- 
Xe(Tai, ovK oi^a, o rt ^el avrov ofioaai. id, Cyrop, 1, 3, 15. 
id. Mem. 2, 3, 9. davfxaara ye Xeyeic, ei Kvva juev, ei crot »}v 
eiri TTpo^aroiG eTrirri^etoc, Kal rove jnev iroifxkvaQ, riairatero, aoi 
Se TTpocnovTi e'^^aXenaivev, a/meXriijac av tou opyit,eadai eweipuj 
€v iroiridac irpavveiv avrov, where Schlitz and Schneider throw 
out auToi^ improperly. Comp. Isocr. Evag. p. 191 C. Nicocl. 
p. 28 B. Panath. p. 241 C. and with attraction Herod. 1, 34. 
Tovrov drj tjv rov ' Arvv ar^jULaivei rw Kpoiao) o oveipoc,, wq 
airoXkei juiv. See §. 296. When to has preceded as a demon- 
strative pronoun, it is repeated by eKelvo, Plat. Phil. p. 54 C. 
The pronoun is frequently used thus after a proposition begin- 
ning with the relative, although the word itself to which the 
demonstrative pronoun refers has gone before : Herod. 4, 44. 
Aa|oeToc f3ovX6jUL€Voc Iv^ov irorafxov, oc, KpOKo^eiXovQ dev- 
repoQ ovroQ norafxojv Travrwv irapeyerai, rov rov rov irora- 
fxov ei^evai rp ec OaXaGtjav eK^i^ol, &c. Comp. 11. y , 4 seq, 
Eur. Troad. 1 144 seq. Plat. Phcedon. p. 99 B. 107 D. Isocr. 
Panath. in the passages quoted §. 434, 2, b.^ 

b. The following passages are somewhat different : Herod. 
2, 124. e/c Twv XiOorofjiikitiv rtjv ev rio Apa(5i(t) ovpei, 
€/c rovreiov eXKeiv XiOovc, which is a pleonasm originating 
in the ancient inartificial simplicity of the language. A 
similar simplicity is observable in Pind. 01. 1, 91. rav ol ira- 
rrjp virepKpejuaae Kaprepov avrt^ XiOov. §. 389, h. The 
demonstrative pronoun also serves to express emphasis, Thuc. 
4. 69. at OLKiai rov irpoaareiov eiraX^eic Xafxpavovaai, au- 
ra t VTrrjpyov epvfxa. Xen. Cyrop. 6, 1, 17. vjueic, ^e ra 
irpoaopa vfjuv avroiQ rrJQ Aaavpiac,, eKe7va KraaQe Kat 
epyateaOe. The demonstrative is often repeated also for the 
sake of emphasis in the second member of a comparison : Xen. 

Mem. S. 1, 2, 24. AX ki (5 la^rjc S av wcnrep ol rtjjv 

yvfJLViKwv ayu}vu)v aOXrirai pa^iojc; irpuyrevovrec afuieXovai rrjc 

* Pors. Praef. Hcc. p. 12. Heind. in Plat. p. 51. Bornem. ad Xen. 
ad Gorg. §. 84. Wyttenb. ad Plat. Symp. p. 154. 
Phaedon. p. 311. Ileusde Spec. Crit. 

Sj/ntax. Of the Use oj^ the Demonstrative Pronouns. 779 

aaKr]<T€(t)Cj ovtu) KaKe^voQ rt/uieXricTev avrov. Xen. Cyr. 1,4, 19. 
Comp. Hist. Gr. 2, 4, 41. Rep. Laced, 10, 4. even where the 
comparison is not in the pronoun. Plat. Apol. S, p. 19 A. 
€7rt^et/or;Teov v/lkjjv e^eXeaOai ttJv ^taj3oX?7v, rju v/melQ ev ttoXXoj 
\p6vM eyere, Tavrriu eu ovrtoaiv oXiyo) 'vpovco^, 

2. The demonstrative pronoun is very frequently redundant 
before and after participles or infinitives with the article, with- 
out a parenthesis. Plat. ThecBt, p. 172 B. to koiv^ ^o^au 
TovTo yiyverai aXriOec,. Xen. Cyrop. 4, 2, 39. et §e r(jjv vvvl 
ciwKovTUJv /cat KaTUKaivovTUJV TOVQ rjfxeTepovn TroXe/Liiovc 
KQL fxay^ofxkvuyVf ei tiq evavriovrdi, tovtiov ^o^o/uev ovtwq 
ajueXelv. id. Ages. 4, 4. oi irpolKa ev TreirovOoTec, ovroi 
aei i^^ewQ v7rr)peT0V(n tw evepyerrj. Comp. Herod. 9,67. Isocr. 
Paneg. in. The passage in Herod. 4, 172. is more peculiar: 
o/uvvovcTi fueu tovg Trapa G<pi(Ti av^puQ diKaiOTurovc; Kai apiaTOVQ 
XeyofxkvovQ yeveaOai tovtovq, twi/ rvfjiptjv aiTTOfxevoi^, 
Before the participle Plat. Leg. 3. p. 680 D. /ucjv ovk ck 
TOVTiov, T(jjv Kara jmiav OLKXiaiv Kai Kara yevoc, ^(e<77rapjue- 
vtjjv (roiavrai TroXirelai yiyvovrai), Comp. Isocr, Areop, 
p, 145 A. So Herod. 8, 68. a participle with the article ex- 
plains the preceding pronoun, ouTe avrovc o'ikoq drpefjuelu 

Tovc eKclOeu avTuiv r)KovTaG, Before or after the infinitive 
Soph. Trach. 458. to /nij nvOeaOai tovto /li aXyvifciev av. Xen, 
Cyr, 8, 7, 9. to ^e Trpof^ovXeveiv Kai to riyeladaij ed> 
o Ti av KaipoQ SoKy eivai, touto irpoaraTTio no Trporeph) ye- 
vofjikvio, and in the neuter plural ib. 12. to ^e ^voKaraTrpaKro- 
repiov re epav, Kai to TroXAa /mepijuvav Kai to juri ^vvaaOai 
rjav^iav e^eiv, Kevrpitojuevov vno ttJq npoc rajLia epya (piXovet- 
KiaQj Kai TO €7rtj3ouXeuetv Kai to ewipovXeveaOai ravra no 
(jacTiXevovTi avayKri crov juaXXov avfjiirapof-iapreiv. Eur, Ph, 
545. Keivo KoXXioVf reKvov, KJorrtTa Ti/mav . 

b. If the demonstrative precedes the infinitive, it serves to 
increase the attention to what follows. The infinitive has then 
frequently no article. Eur, Hipp, 471. ev ao(pol(n yap raS' 

'' JensiusadLucian. t. '2.p.365scq. •= Jensius 1. c. Morus ad Isocr. 

Dorvill. ad Charit. p. 288. Schaefer Paneg. p. 9. c. Plat.Theect. 
in Dionys. Ilal. 1. p. 83 seq. not. p. 382. Ast ad Plat. Leg. p. 10. 
Melet. p. 84. «* Fisch. 2. p. 235 seq. 

T 2 

780 Syntax\ Of the Use of the Demonstrative Pronouns, 

korl OprjTtJif, XavOaveiv to, /urj Ka\a, Comp. 480. Plat. Apol, 
S. p, 38 C. airo rov avrofiarov av vfxiv touto eyevero, e/me 
reSvavai drj. Comp. p. 39 A. Phesdr. p. 68 B. and in the ac- 
cusative Soph. Trach. 96.'AXiov airw tovto, Kapvl^ai rov 
'A\Kixr]vac; &c. where rovro cannot belong to Kap. because tov 
'AXk. is governed by it. Eur, Hipp. 1313. Comp. Ale. 36. 
Andr. 37 1. fxeyaXa yap Kpivtj ra^e, Xeyovc; orepeaQai. Heracl, 
352. Plat. Phced. p. 74 A. Comp. p. 72 C. 78 C. Homer 
uses the article in this way Od. v , 52. clvly} kui to (for tovto) 
cjyvXaffdeiv iravvv^ov eyprtcjaovTa. Also in the genitive Plat. 
Gorg. p. 474 E. ov drj ttov c/ctoc tovtwv eari ra KaXciy rov 
u)(l)eXijuLa elvai rj r}dea t) aii(p6repa, and without the article ib. 
|}. 519 D. Kai TOVTOv TOV Xoyov Ti av aXoytJTepov eiri irpayfxa, 
avdp^TTovc, a^iKelv, for tov avQ. aS. or ?] avQp. aS. ac- 
cording to §. 450. Obs. 2. Comp. Symp, p, 192 D. Also 
with repeated preposition Plat. Leg. 2. p. 670 D. jue^/ot ye 
TOffOVTOv TreTTai^evaOai c^eSov avayKaLOV, fxe-^pi tov ^vvaTOV 
elvai, Comp. Xen. Mem. 4, 7, 5. with Schneider's note. 
In the dative Eur, Or, 1168. jSapoc n kuv tio^' eariv, 
alvelaOai Xiav, where Plato uses the article with repetition of 
the preposition Apol. S. p. 35 C. ov yap ein tovtw KaOrjrai 
o diKaarriQf ewi tm KaTayupit^eoQai to, tiKaia, Both propo- 
sitions are blended in one Od. i, 3. ijtoi /xev Tode KaXov 
aKovefxev €(jtiv aoi^ov, for i}toi jm. t. k, eariv, oKovefxev aoiSov. 

c. TouTO, To8e prepares the way for an entire proposition 
Plat. Gorg. p. 515 E. aXXa TO^e uoi eine eiri tovtio, ei 
XeyovTai* KQr)val.0i ^la TiepiKXea l3eXTiovQ yeyovevai. Ale, 1. 
p, 130 A. Xen. Mem. 4, 5, 9. Plat. Soph. p. 234 B. oIkovv 
TOV y vKicjyyovfievov ^vvaTOv eivai /una reyvy iravTa iroielv 
yiyvwffKOjLiev irov touto oti ^vvaToc earai, where is an example 
of attraction for yiyv, tovto oti o y v-Kiayvovjiievoc. So also 
if a verb requires the participle after it, where oti also might 
stand Soph. Phil. 1355. ttwc tovt e^ava(jyj]GeaQej toIgiv 
Arpecoc e/ne ^vvovtu Traiaiv ; Arist. Nub. 380. tovti ju eXe- 

XriOrj o Zevc oufc wv, aXX avT avTOv ATi'oc vvvi (^acriXevtjJV, for 
OTI o Leva ovk eoTi. 

d. This preparatory tovto, To^e is often followed by an in- 
dependent proposition not connected with the preceding either 

Syntax. Of the Use of the Demonstrative Pronouns, 781 

by an infinitive, or a particle, or a conjunction. Herod, 7, 32. 
Twvde Se eiv€Ka to ^evrepov a7re7re/i7re em yijv te kql uSwp* 
0(Tot irporepov ovk e^oaav Aa^etw Trefxipavri, tovtovq irayyy 
e^oKce Tore ^ettravrac ^ujaeiv, Plat, Gorg. p. 476 B. aKoirei 

oe /cat To^e* a^a ei tic ti Trote?, avayKrj ti eii^ac ; 

Comp. ib. p. 474 D. Pro^ p. 356 C.^ The same thing takes 
place with roiovroc and Tototr^e Herod. 9, 107. P/a^. Apol, 
S. p, 22 A. eTraOov ti toiovtov' ot /uei' /taXto-Ta ev^oKipovurec 
e^oftiv juoi Sec. See §. 630, 3. Generally yap follows in the 
proposition which is to be explained. See §. 615. 

e. A similar case is when the neuter of the demonstrative 
pronoun is used in order to announce a noun which follows, 
whether in the masculine or feminine. Od. a, 159. TouTOtcriv 
pev TQUTtt peXei, KiOapiQ Kai aoidri. Soph. CEd. C. 787 seq. 
Eur. Hipp. 431. povov Se touto (pacr upiXXaaOai jStw, 
yvu)pr]v ^iKa'iav KayaOriv, 'ot(o irapy. So adjectives are in- 
troduced by TauTtt Flat. Gorg. p. 515 E. toutI yap eywye 
aKovti) TIepiKXea TreiroirjKevai A6r}vaiovQ apyovc Plat. Pep. 3. 
p. 407 A. r)pac, avTOvc, ^iSa^iopeVj irorepov peXerrfreov tov to 
tw TrXoucrtoj /cat ap'iiOTOv tw prj peXcTtjJVTij i) vo(jot po(^ia. 
Protag. p. 360 E. ti ttot egtiv avTO, r} apeTr). Phced.p. 67 D. 
Comp. p. 91 D. which is particularly frequent in Plato. So 
Cicero says Tusc. Qu. 1, 34, 83. iliud angit vel potius ex- 
cruciat, discessus ab omnibus iis, qua sunt bona in vifa^. 

Ohs. In a similar manner cKelvo often announces an entire propo- 
sition. Plat. Hipp. Maj. p. 283 D. aW efcei*/©, puiy jj.}) AaKe^aiporioi 
aov jSeXrioy ay Trai^evaeiay rovs avTuiy TraT^as ; See Heindorf 's note, 
p. 129. 

f With the double i?, oye is sometimes used pleonastically 
in Homer and Herodotus. Od. j3, 327. rj Tt^ac e/c FluXou afet 
apvuTOpac rj/maToevTOQ, rj bye Kai ^irapTrfOey. Herod. 2, 173. 
also in other propositions consisting^ of two members //. 2', 191. 
aXX OTi ^r\ yiyv(i}(TK€ Oeov yovov r]vv kovTUy avTOv piv KaTepvKC, 
^l^ov S bye OvyaTepa riv^, 

* Hcind. ad Plat. Thea^t. §. 72. ad Leg. p 35. 131. 
p. 379 seq. " Clarke ad 11. y, 109. Robinson 

•^ Heind. ad Plat. Hipp. p. 138. ad ad Hesiod. "Epy. 3iG. Ernest, ad 

Cratyl, p. 134. ad Prot. p. 474. Ast Callini. 11. in Dian. 160. 

782 Sj/fitax. Of the Use of the Demonstrative Pronouns. 

(468) 3 . The demonstrative pronoun is not unfrequently used for the 
relative pronoun in the continuation of a proposition beginning 
with a relative, usually where this is to be repeated, but in a 
different case from that in the first instance. II. a, 78. o a 
jue-ya rravTWv ' Apyeiuyv Kpareei Kai ol Tre'iOovrai A)^aioi, for fcai 
J TT. 'Ax- Comp. Od. a, 70. //. V, 171. Herod. 3, 34. 
IljorjfaaTrea, top er'ifxa re juaXidTa, Koi oi tclq ayyeXiaQ eCpepe 
ovTOG. Comp. 2*6. 120. 2,40. 8, 62. Plat. Euth7/d. p. SOiE. 
dp' ovv ravra r)yy (ja elvai, (ov av ap^yCj Kai e^^ (joi avroic 
y^prjaOai, o ri av jSovX^, for Kai oh e^y ffoi. Comp. ThecEt, 
p. 192 A. Rep. 6. p. 505 D. Menex. p. 241 E. Xen. Cyr. 3, 
3, 38. TTOv 3t? eKeivoc, eariv o avrjp, OQ GvveOrjpa i)ju7v, Kai <tv 
fioi fxaXa e'^oKeic, davp^aCeiv avrov. Comp. Isocr. Panath. 
p. 278 B. uEschin. in Ctesiph. p. 510. Also in the same case 
with the relative Herod. 9, 21. ^ to eirifjLayjbJTaTov r]v rov 
ywpiov iravTOCf Kanrpoffodoc fxaXiara ravry eyiveroTrj tTTTrw*. 
So a transition is made from the relative to a personal pronoun, 
Od. I, 20. OQ iraai ^oXoiaiv avdpujiroiGi /leXw, Kai p,ev fcXeoc 
ovpavov 'iK€i. Soph. Aj. 457. 

Obs. Other demonstratives are interchanged in the same way with 
relatives. Herod. 5, 49, 11. evda is followed by Kai eyOavTa. Arist. 
Av. 1709 seq. dlos by ovre tolovtov. 

Sometimes the demonstrative pronoun is wanting. //. y , 
235. ovc Kev ev yvoiriv Kai r ovi^o^a fxvdr)(jaif.iriv {ovvopa avT(jJVy 
i. e. (Sv ovv.) Plat. Phcsdon. p. 82 D. eKeivoi, o\c, ri p,eXei rrJQ 
avTWV xpyvrjc, aWa firi atojuara TrXarrovTec t^J^ai (sc. avroi), 
unless in such cases we prefer to supply the relative in an- 
other case^. 

The demonstrative pronoun follows the relative even in the 
same proposition. Herod. 4, 44. Ii'Soi^ iroTafxoVy oc, KpoKo- 
SeiXouc ^evrepoc, ovroc irorafxuyv wavrwif Trapeyerai. Enrip. 
Andr. 651. {yvva^Ka ^ap^apov) r]v Xprjv a eXavueiv rr/vS 
virep NeiXou podc Plat. Phcedon. p. 99 B. o ^rj jmoi cjiaivovrai 

*Musgr.aH Eur.Andr.66J. Herm. »» jieind. ad Plat. Gorg. p. 248. 

ad Vig. p, 707 seq. Ast ad Plat. Leg. (which passage, however, does not 

p. 449. Stallb. ad Phil. p. 29. ad come under this head.) Hipp. p. 145. 
Euthyphr. p. 43. 

Si/ntax. Of the Use of the Demonstrative Pronouns. 783 

xpYfXaCptjjVTec 01 ttoXXoi ioc, aWiov avTO irpoaayopeveiv, avro 

is added for the sake of perspicuity, as the words o irpocray. 
are separated. So the personal pronoun is added after the re- 
lative Eur. Phan. 1640 seq. ov /cat trplv ec (pwc prjrpoc eK 
yoptjc fnoXeiv, ayovov AttoXXwv Aaioj fx eOeairiaev (povea yeve- 
aOai narpoQ. In Xenophon R. Lac. 10, 4. oc (AvKovpyoi;) 
CTretor) KarejuaOeu, on ol /urj jSouXo/xei'oi eTri/meXeiaOai ttJq apeTrjc 
ov^ iKavoi eiai TCLQ irarpiSaG av^eiv, eKelvoc ev ry ^waprrj 
rivdyKacre &c. this construction is occasioned by the antithesis 
contained in the parenthesis. Comp. §.472, 1,6. To this 
head belongs wv o /mep avruivj which occurs in the later writers, 
e. g. CalUm. Epigr. 44. See Herm, ad Vig. p, 709.^ 

Note, The case where the noun itself with the article follows the 
relative, is similar to the foregoing. See §. 474. 

4. By means of the demonstrative pronoun also, propo- (469) 
sitions, the first of which contains the verb ei/i/, and the second 
the relative pronoun, are contracted into one. //. X', 611. 
NecTTO^ epetOf ovriva tovtov ayei jSejSXr/^iei'oi^ eK iroXeinoio, 
for ocTTic ouToc ecTTiv, OP ayei. Od. i, 348. o(f)p ei^yc, 
o'lov Tt TroTOi^ ToSe VTjvQ CKeKevOei r)fxerepr\f for olov ti to 
TTOTov To^e eoTiVy o i) V. eK. jEschyl. Prom. 251. fxey 
u)^e\r]fxa tout e^wprjcrtx) ^porolc Eyrip. Ion. 1281. o'lav 
eyjL^vav Tr\v^ e(f)v(Tac;\ Plat, Proi. p, SIS B. 'Q Ylpiorayopa, 
TOVTO /Lieu ovbev Savpaarov XeyeiQ, for ovcev Oav/uLaffrov ecFTi 
TooTo, o Xeyeic. Phcedon, p. 61 C. Comp. §. 255, 4. Obs. 
and §. 267.^ Thus apparently is to be explained Theocr. 1,7. 
a^iov, (jj TTOifxaVy to reov fxeXoc, rf to KaTa-^ec rrjv aTTO Tcic 
TveTpac KaTaXelpeTai vxpoBev v^wpf for ri to KaTay^eQ Ttjvo vccjp 
ecTTiv, o KaTaXe'ij^eTai. 

Obs. The following are similar abbreviations, in which, however, 
there is no demonstrative pronoun to be supplied : Eur. Iph. T. 27S. 
eiT ovy kir ciKTiua daaaeTOV Aiorrtcopu), for eir ovv AioffKopu) earov, uj 
daafferop. T/iuc. 7, 38. ov^ei^ drjXovvTeSf vnoiov ri to peWov noiyiffovaip, 
for airowy ti tu peWov errrai, u Trou'fa. further P'md. Ncni. 9, 97. eV0' 
'Apeias Tropov (udpdjrroi KctXeoitn, for eV0a nupos etrriv, ov 'Ap. -nopov 6.. 

*= Brunck ad Soph. Phil. 316. the passage from Sophocles, more 
Ilerm. ad Vigcr. 1. c. Schaef. ad correctly as I think, above. 
Lamb. 13. p. 23. I have explained ^ llcind. ad Plat. Gorg. p. 193. 

784 Syntax. Of the Use of the Relative Pronoun, 

KoK. Plat. Phcedon. p. 107 C. virep tov ')^p6j'ov tovtov jjiovoyt kv t^ 
KaXov/iey TO ^rju, which Wyttenbach, p. 285. explains ev J ro koXov' 
fievov ^rjv cffTi. Comp. Soph. Track. 648. Xen. H, Gr. 5, 1, 10. 

5. As adjectives are often used in the neuter plural, though 
they refer only to one thing, so raZe, ravra are often used for 
the singular. Examples have been already given §.472, 2, b. 
Eur. Hipp. All. Andr. 371. Plat. Gorg. p. 474 E. ib. C. 
Soph. Phil. 1355. Xen.Anab. 1,9,24. Plat. Phcedon. p. 68 B. 
(T(j)6^pa yap avTto ravra ^o^ei, [iiYt^aiuiov aWoBi KaOapwQ ev- 
T€v^e(jBai (j)povri(jei, a\\ r] e/ce?^. 

Of the Relative Pronoun. 

473. The case of the relative pronoun is properly determined by 
the verb of the proposition in which it stands : but it is a pe- 
culiarity of the Greek language, that v^^hen it should be put in 
the accusative, on account of the verb active following, it is put 
in the genitive or dative, according to the case of the foregoing 
noun or pronoun, to which it refers, by a kind of attraction, and 
consequently conforms to this noun or pronoun preceding not 
only in gender and number, but in case also. 

a. When the noun or pronoun precedes Herod. 1, 23. 
Apiova ^lOvpajULpov Trpwrov avOptljinov t(jjv i^^eTc 

\^luLev 7roir}(TavTa. Thuc. 7, 21. aywv airo tijjv iroXecjv, wv 
eTreiae arpariav. Eurip, Ale. 501. »? "^prj jne iraKJiv oIq' ApriQ 
eyeivaro jua'^riv ovvaipai. Isocr. de Pac. p. 162 B. <^»;/t( y^prjvaL 

y^prjaOai Talc avvOijKatCy jurj ravraiQ ale vvv rivec 

yeypacjyaaiv, ciXXa Sec. Plat. Gorg. p. 451 seq. ol Sri/miovpyoi 
Tovriiiv it)v eiryveaev o to aKoXiov Troirjaac Comp. j/Esch. S. c. 
Th. 310 seq. Soph. Trach. 421. 680S2. Plat. Phadon. 
p. 60 D. 76 B. 

b. If the word to which the relative refers be a demon- 
strative pronoun, this pronoun is generally omitted, and the 
relative takes its case. Isocr. Paneg. p. 46 B. C. r) ttoXig 
r)iuLU)Vf wv eXaj^eVj airaffi jULCTe^wKe, for /uereSwAcey eKeivojv, a 
e'A. Plat. Gorg. p. 457 E. e/uioi SoKelc av ov irdvv aKoXovOa 

* Schaf. ad Dion. II. dc Comp. p. 80. 

Si/ntax. Of the Use of the Relative Pronoun. 785 

Aeyeiv ouSe avfx^{i)va old to tt/owtov eXeyec, for e/ceivotc, a. 
-Y^ew. Anab. 1,9, 25. avv olc juaXto^Ta (^iXelc,, and in connection 
with the observation §. 480, c, Demosthenes iri Mid. p. 515, 
10. says EiKTfv (3ovX6iJ.evoi Xafjelvj tjv eiri Ttjv aWiov €TeSeavTO 
Opaavv ovTQy for eKeivujv, a eTeO. Opaavv, i. e. on ireO. Plat. 
Phadon.p. 6 1 C. and with §.477. ib. D. Soph. (Ed. T.78S. Kal 
/uL o <I>oT/3oq ijv iuL€v t/cojUTjv arifjiov e^eTre/JLipev, for ar. €KeiPU)v 
a (i. e. ^i' a) lK6iJ.rjv. Sometimes the construction, by these 
means, becomes involved : Soph. (Ed. T. 862. ou^ei^ yap au 
TTpa^aip av, (jjv ov <toi (plXov, for ov^ev avirpa^aip, av eKcivuv, 
a pe TTpa^ai ov aoi (plXov lari. See Erfurdt's note, sm. ed.^ 

If another noun follows the relative which refers to it, it is 
naturally put also in the case of the relative, as Demosth. pro 

Cor. 325, 10. epe ovre Kaipoc, irporjyayeTO (ov eKpiva 

ciKai(i)v KttL avp<pep6vT(jjv ry Trarpi^i ov^ev irpocovuai. In 
Plat. Phadon. p. 104 A. /cat no tov irepirrov, ovtoq ou)^ 
oirep Trie rpia^oQ. Bekker after Heindorf reads ou7re/o without 
MS. authority. Elmsley ad Arist. Ach. 608. defends the com- 
mon reading by Arist. Ach. 601. Xen. Hist. Gr. 1, 4, 16. 
See 0^5. 2. otoc. which, however, cannot avail for its defence, 
unless the reading were ovtoq ov-^ ovirep r) rpiac;. 

Obs. 1 . The relative, even when it should be in the nominative, very 
seldom conforms in case to the preceding noun or pronoun. Herod. 
1, 68. ov^ev KU) elhoTes Toiy -qv Trepi 'Siuphis re Kal avroy KpoTffoy. Thuc, 
7, 67. TToWat (vr\€s) p^arai es to /3Xa7rreo-0ai a0' wy iipTy TrapeerKevatrrat, 
for utt' €K€iyii)Vj a Trap. But Plat. Phcedon. p. 69 A. tovto 3' opoioy 
eariy J yvy ^r) eXcyero should be, at full length, w vpoioy elyai eXeyero. 

Obs. 2. This is imitated also by other relatives : odey. Soph. Track. 
701. €K he yrjs, 66 ey TrpovKeir, aya^eovai dpopjowdeis a<ppoi, for cKcldey, 
OTTov. Com^. Eur. Hipp. 1005. Thuc. 1, 89. hieKopi^oyro evdvs^ oBey 
vTreUQcyrOi Trat^as, for eKeWeyj oirov. Plat. Polit. p. 263 C. Comp. 
§. 496. 

o\os. Plat. Rep. 8. p. 55Q B. cXarrw <j>voivTO rwy roiovrwy KOKMy, 
otiDv yvy hrl eiirupey, Comp. 4. p. 444 B. Isocrat. jEg. p. 392 B. 
a. This, even when it should be in the nominative, with the substantive 
belonging to it, and have kari or cto-t after it, takes the case of the word 

»> Brunck ad Arist. Thesm. 835. Pkit. 1128. 

786 Syntax, Of the Use of the Relative Pronoun, 

to which it refers, in which case eort or elm is omitted. Thuc. 7, 21. 
TTjOos ay^pas ToXfirfpovSj o'lovs koX ^Adrjvai ovs, for o'loi ^Adrjvdloi 
elcriv. Soph. Track. 4'4'3 seq. o'ias y efxov, for o'ia eyw ei/Jt. Plat. 
Soph, p. 237 C, o(w ye efxol iravTaTraaiv ottojOOv, for olos tyw e///i. Xen. 
JMem. S, \f 9, 3. ttoXXw ^'ctov eort, ')(a.pi'(6p.evov o'lo) cot av^|0£ ?) 
aTreyddojjiepoVi uxpeXeTadai, for av^pt, otos cu el. Hence Plat. Euthyd. 

p. 272 A. KpaTioTio K'ot aXXoj^ ^i^a^ai Xeyeiv re Rat (jvyypcKpeaQai 

\6yovs o'lovs els ra ^iKa(TTi]pia. properly oiol els to. hiK. av apfxoTTOLev. 
See Heind. p. 302 seq. Also when olos stands for wore. Demosth. 
p, 23, IG. TOiovTOvs aydpwTTOvSf o'lovs fxedvadeuras op^elffdai. Even 
when the subject of this olos is in the nominative Ar'ist. Ach. 601. 
veavias ^' o'iovs av dia^e^paKoras. Xen, Hist. Gr. 1, 4, 16. — h. If the 
word to which olos should refer is omitted, the article is put with olos 
in the case of the word omitted : Xen. Hist. Gr. 2, 3, 25. yvovres ro7s 
o'lo IS y}fxiv re koX v/jIp ^aXe7r>7v TroXtretav elpai BrjjjiOKpariay, for roiov- 
Tois, o'loi ^jueTs re koI vfxels kafxev'^. oios is also omitted, and only the 
demonstrative tolovtos used, which never takes place with other rela- 
tives : Plat. Rep. 1. p. 349 D. tolovtos apa earlv eKciTcpos avTuiv olcnrep 
eoLKeVf for tolovtos, oToi ckfIvol, olairep eoiKev. Phcedon. p. 92 B. ov yap 
dr/ apfiovia ye tolovtov €(ttlv w cnreLKa^eLs, with Heind. note, ^j. 158. 

riXiKos. Arist. Ach, 703. elKos drdpa kvc^ov, fjXiKov QovKv^i^Tjv, 
e^oXeadai, Eccl, 465. eKelvo })eLVOv toIglv riXiKOiaL vwv, for -qXlKOs 
G. eaTL, TrfXLKOVTOis, -qXiKoi V(o eafiev. 

Obs. 3, Even when the relative remains in the right case, it serves 
to contract two propositions into one, by omitting the demonstrative 
pronoun. Xen, Mem. S. 2, 6, 34. e/xot eyy/y»^erai evvoLa irpos ovs 
av viToXal3(t) evvd'iKLsis e^eLi^ Trpos ejie, for Trpos eKeivovs ovs av vttoX. 

Obs. 4. The following passages must not be referred to this head : 
Plat. Rep. 7 , p. 533 E. eori ^' ov Trepl ovo^aTOS rj afjKpLafDrjTrjaLS, oTs 
ToaovTiov TrepL crKexpis offcjv t^jjIv irpoKeiTaL, i. e. aKe\pLs Trep) ToaovTOJv 
TrpoKeiTai, irepi oaiov rjfxiv aK€\pLS TrpoKeiTUL. Leg. 2. p. 671 C. tovtov 
h' elvai Tov •nXadTT^v tov uvtov, ovrrep totc, tov ayadov vofiodeTrjv, 
Here the accusative of the relative is determined by the oratio obliqua, 

474. In the above instances the relative takes the case of the pre- 
ceding substantive ; but sometimes instead of this the substan- 
tive takes, even when it stands first, the case of the relative 
which follows. //. (T , 192. aWov ^ ov rev ol^a, rev av 
kXvto. revyea §vw. Od. 0', 74. The nominative is so used in 

* Reiz de Ace. Incl. p. 79. 

Si/ntax. Of the Use of the Relative Pronoun. 787 

//. t', 396. quoted §.431. Herod. 2, 106. rac Be ffrrjXac 
TaQ t(TTa Kara rac y^tjpac o AiyvTrrov paaiXevc, ^eaaxTTpiQ, ai 
jnev TrXeui^ec ovkcti (j)aivouTaL irepieovaai. Comp. 1, 108. 5, 87, 

Soph. JEi, 653. (j)i\oi(yi T€ l^vvovaav /cat reKvwv oaiov 

e/uot Bvavoia /uri irpoaeaTiv for reKvoic Comp. Trach, 283. 
Ghd. T. 449. Arist. Lysistr. 408. Plat. Menon. p. 96 A. 
^\eic ovv enrelv aWov orovovv ir pd-y fiaTOC ov oi /uev 
(j)a(TKOvrec Bi^affKaXoi elvai, - - ' oiuLoXoyovvrai novripoi elvai, 
ib. C. wfioXoyriKafxev 8e ye, ir pay /uaroQ ov fxrire cioaaKoXoi 
l^irire fxaOrjrai eiev, touto BiBaKTOv jmrj elvai. In this manner 
we may explain Dem. 01. p. 18, 13. p.ri fxovov iroXevjv Kai 
TOTTwv (jjv r)fjLcv TTOxe Kvpioij (paiveaOai irpoiepevovc,, whence also 
the following genitives. So Virg. ^En. 1, 577. urbem, quam 
statuo, vestra est^. Hence ouSeva ovtiv ov KareKXavae §. 306. 
The same thing takes place with adverbs, e. g. Sopli. CEd. C. 
1227. jSrJvat KelQev oOev irep riKei, for Kelcre oOev. 

There are other methods in which the relative serves to blend 
the two members of a proposition. 

a. Sometimes the relative has the noun to which it should (474) 
refer in the same case after it, as in Latin. Herod. 5, 106. 
firj fiiev TTporepov eK^vcraaOai toi^ ^X^*' KiOijJva KaTa^r]GOfxai 
ec \iM)vir)Vy TTpLV &c. Soph. Trach. 674seq. a> yap tov evSvrripa 
TreirXov apritJQ k'^piov apyrjr oioQ evepov tto/cw, tout rjipavi- 
(TTttt. Xen. Anab. 1, 9, 19. ei Tiva opwri KaracTKeva^ovra »iq 
apyoi y^u)pac,y for ti]v yu)pav, r]i, apyoi. Eur. El. 860.*^ Eur. 
Hel. 314.^ jEsch. S. c, Th. 555. eariv Be Kai rioB' ov XeyeiQ 
TOV 'ApKaBttj av})p cLKOfxTToc Soph. Antig. 1156. To this 
class belong the passages quoted by Seidler rt^ Eur, Iph. T. 
146. €v Kr]BeioiQ oiKTOiQf ai jnoi (jv/upaivova drai. Soph. El. 
203. €v Beiirvtov appi^rwv eKirayX a^Orj, tovq efxoc \Be irarrip 
davarovc, at/ceTc, where arai, Oavaroi ought to stand in appo- 
sition to o'lKToic, o.ydr\, but are constructed according to the 
relative. This takes place most frequently when the propo- 
sition with the relative precedes, because the principal thought 

•* Heind. ad Plat. Lys. p. 47 sq. Vig. p. 711, 3a. Ileind. ad Plat. 

Dorville ad Char. p. 593. 609. Charm. §. 43. Gorg. §. 85. Prot. 

•^ Valck. ad Herod. 7, 151. p. 571, §; 80. Ehnsl. ad Eur. Ilcracl. GOl. 
86. Fisch. 3 a. p. 310. Ilcrm. ud '' Porson ad Eur. Or. 1615. 

788 Syntax. Of the Use of the Relative Pronoun. 

is contained in it (§. 478), as Soph. CEd. Col. 907. vvv S' 
ovairep ovtog tovq vojulovc eiarjXO k'^wv, tovtoictiv, ovk 
aWoiaiv, apjULoaOriaerai. Eur. Or. 63. Comp. Hipp. 900. In 
both cases the noun frequently has the article : Soph. A7it. 
404. Tavrrjv y i^<jjv Qairrovaav ov av rov veKpov aireiTrac. 
Plat.Crit.p.ASC. Phad.p.GlB. Polit.p.269'B. Rep. 5, 
JO. 477 C. So adjectives which should stand with their sub- 
stantives are separated from them, and attracted to the propo- 
sition which begins with the relative, e. g. Eur, Or. 854. 
XoyovQ aKovaov, ovq croi SucrTu^eTq hi^f^ (^eptjjv. 

b. Hence the nouns which should precede the relative, in 
conjunction with a demonstrative pronoun or adjective in the 
same case with these, are frequently referred to the relative. 
//. r?', 186. aXX* ore ^rj rov 'Uaue, (pepuyv av opiXov airavrr), 
OQ piv emypa^paQ Kvvey jjaXe (pai^ifxac Aiac comp. i, 
131 seq. Herod. 9, 71. Plat. Hipp. Maj. p. 281 C. ri nore 
TO aiTioVj on o\ iraXaioi eKelvoi, wv ovopara peyaXa 

Xeyerai eiri (T0(pia, YliTraKov re Kai Biai^roc wc V 

7ravT€Q 7) 01 TToXXoL avTwu (j)aivovTai aire^opevoi rtjv noXiTiKtjJv 
Trpa^etDv ; Phcedon. jo. 66 E. Apol. S. p. 41 A. sometimes 
after tJ. Plat. Symp. p. 205 extr. ov^ev ye aXXo eariv ov 
eptjaiv av9p(i)7roij rj rov ayaOov. also with the article. De- 
mosth. in Leptin. p. 462, 16. twv eiGCpopLjv Kai rpir\papyjnj)v 

--ouSelc ear areXy]Ci eK rtjv iraXaiijJV v6pu)v, ovce ova 

ovr OQ eypaxpe rov a a(j) Appo^lov Kai Apiaroyeirovoc,^. 

c. This construction is also combined with the preceding 
§. 473. Soph CEd. Col. 334. {-nXOov) ^vv (oirep ei-^ov oiKertSv 
TTio-Tw povb). Eurip. Or. 1406. oi Se wpoc, Opovovc eaio poXovreQ 
CLQ eyrjp' o Toforac Ylapic yvvaiKoc Thuc. 7, 54. A0r}va7oi 
^e (rpOTralov effrrjaav) ijc oi Tvparjvoi rpoirrJQ eiroirjaavro rivv 
Tre^wv, for rrjc rpoTrrja rwv Tre^wv, r/v oi Tvpa. en. Comp. Plat. 
Hipp. Maj. p. 291 C. Xen. Mem. 2, 7, J 3. Herod. 9, 26. So 
ocrai rjpepai, so. e'lai, Od. ^ , 93. oaaai vvKrec re Kai rtpepai eK 
Atoc ei(7tv, which Horace translates quotquot eunt dies, whence 
afterwards came an adverb oar)pepai. Theocr. 1, 42. (^airic 
K€v yvmv viv oaov crOevoQ eXXonieveiv, for iravri rtf yviwv aOevei 

oaov ecrri. 

» Wolf, ad Dem. Lept. p. 236. 

Syntax, Of the Use of the Relative Pronoun, 789 

d. If there are two verbs of different regimen in the propo- 
sition which begins with the relative, with each of which there- 
fore the relative should be m a different case, it is commonly 
found only once, and in the case required by the nearest verb. 
Ot/. j3', 1 14. ai/(t»)(^0i ^e juiv yafxeecrOai rw, oreti) re irarrip AceXe- 
Tai Kai av^avei avryy i. e. kul oq avdavei avry. Plat. Phcodon, 
J9. 81 B. TO (TWjuaToeiSec, ov tiq av axpairo Kai iSot 8cc. See 
§. 428, 2. 

On the other hand, clauses of propositions which should be 
joined to the proposition by a relative, are often treated as in- 
dependent propositions. Plat. Leg. 12. p. 944 A. oiroijoi Kara 

KprjjULVWv piCpevreQ aTrwXecrav OTrXa r) tavpi av tiq e^oi 

Toiavra irapafxvdovixevoc, eira^eiv, for oia fxvpi av ric, ^yoi Trap, 
€7r. Euthi/phr.p, 6 B. C. even where no relative precedes Apol. S, 

J9. 41 B. eiri TToo-o) S' av tiq Se^atro eferacai O^vcToea 

rj ^L(yv(j)ov rj aWovQ jtivpiovQ av tiq enrol, for olovq aXX. /uLvp. 
This resembles the usage explained §. 472, 3. So after a 
conjunction an independent proposition is introduced : Plat, 
Phad. p. 90 D. Tavry juiev ov^ oimoioi oi Xoyoi toIq avOpujiroiQ 

eiaiv aXX* eKeivy t?, errei^av tiq iriGrexxyy^ ^oy*^ '''*'^* 

aXridei eivai Kaireira oXlyov vcrrepov avT(^ ^o^ri ipev^rJQ 

elvai Kai fxaXicrra ^rj oi irepi tovq avriXoyiKOVQ XoyovQ 

^larpixpavreQ olaO on TeXevTtjJvreQ o'tovrac, 8cc. 

e. Prepositions are often omitted with the relative when 
they have been already used with the noun to which it refers : 
e. g. Plat. Gorg. p. 516 C. aypiiorepovQ ye avrovQ aTreCpi^vev rj 
o'lovQ irapkXa^e, Ka\ ravr eiQ avTov ov tjkktt av r/jSouXero, for 
€iQ ov. See §. 595. 

Obs. 1. Soph. (Ed. C. 1106. alrels a revEet is translated by Brunck 
quod petis consequeris^ as if it were for & atVets, a collocation of which 
there is no other example, a is rather governed of reu^et, and stands 
for wv. See §. 328. Ohs, 

Obs. 2. The expression os povXei *any one', is not strictly gramma- 
tical for oy fiovXeit as in Latin quivis for quemvis. Plat. Gorg. p,527 A, 
epya Toiavra --- --- 61a tovtiov us (iovXei eipyaarai. Crat.p. 432 A. 

ai/ra ra ^efca T] 6<ttis (iovXet aWos apidixos. 

»» Heusde Spec. Crit. in Plat. p. ISseq. Heind. ad Plat. Gorg. §.86. 

790 Syntax, Of the Use of the Relative Pronoun, 

475. a. The relative often differs in number from the word to 
which it is referred, and is in the singular when that is in the 
plural, when some one, without determining which, of the pre- 
ceding number, consequently any one at pleasure, is to be dis- 
tinguished. Hence also in this case ogtic, or oc, av is commonly 

put: J/, tt', 621. ^aXeTTOv ce iravriiiv avOpujiriov apetr- 

aai fxevoQ, oc /ce <rev avra eXOy a/xwo/uLevoQ. Comp. t, 260. 
)( , 73. Od. (f)', 293. olvoQ ae rpwei jLieXirj^riG, ogtc kqi 
aXXovQ jSAttTrrei, oq av jutv '^av^ov eXy. Comp. ib, 313. 
Soph. Antig. 707. oo-riq yap avroQ rj (ppoveiv fxovoQ So/ce?, rj 
yXwaGaVy r)v ovk aXXoc;, v tpvyr]v eyeiv, ovroi ^lanTV^OevTec, 
w(j)en(Tav KaKoi. Eur, El, 939. Comp. Med. 224. Andr. 180. 
Pind. 01. 3, 18 seq. Aristoph. Nub. 348. yiyvourai navO* 
o ri ^ovXovrai. Simonid. ap. Plat. Protag.p. 345 D. wdurac 
§e eTraivolfLii {eiraivrfjuLil) Kai ^iXeto eKtJv, octtic; epSy jmrtdev 
aiay^pov. Plat. Pep. 8. p. 5(^Q D. TrpocryeXa re Kai atTTra^erai 
iravTaQ, to av irepiTvyyavy^^, So also Soph, AJ. 758. ra 

irepKJcra GWfxaTa oariQ jurj /car avOpioTTOv (jypovel. and 

so o and ravra refer to each other, e. g. Eur, Iph. T. 695 seq, 
Xen, Cyr. 1, 6, 11. 8, 3, 46. The case is similar when the 
masculine o<jtiq is found after the neuter of a collective, as 
Pind, Pyth. 3, 36 seq. etrri ^e (f)vXov ev avOptJiroicFi juaraio- 
TaTOV, o(JTic TraiTTaivei ra Tropaw, But Eur. Hec. 363. CTreir 
itrwc av SetriroTwv wjuwv (ppevaQ rvyoifx av, ogtiq apyvpov 
fi u)vr}(j€Tai, the plural is used in the sense of the singular 
§. 293. 

On the other hand the relative is in the plural, in reference 
to a singular, both when it refers to a whole class of objects 
§. 434, 2. and in some other cases. Tl. ^', 410. '^ep/uadio), 

Ttt pa TToXXa Trap iroai papvafxkvijjv eKvXiv^ero, Eur. 

Here. F. 193. oaoi ^e to^oiq yflp h.yovaiv evaroypv 

pvpiovc, oiarovQ a<p€i(; aXXoio, to atj^fxa pverai jurj KaTdavelv. 
a is also found in reference to a feminine singular Eur. Andr. 
271. a §' e<JT ey[^vr\Q Kai irvpoc, irepairepii), ov^eic, yvvaiKoc 
(bapfiaK e^evpriKe ttw KaKijc, where however a apparently does 
not refer so much to ywaiKOQ KaKrJQ as to that which is suggested 

* Brunckad Soph. Aj.760. Heind. Leg. p. 63. Elmsl. ad Soph. (Ed. T. 
ad Plat. Prot. p. 593. Ast ad Plat. 713. Monk ad Eur. Hipp. 78. 

Syntax. Of the Use of the Relative Pronoun. 791 

to the mind by yvvrj kukyj, viz. yvv, KaKrJQ ToX/irljuaTo. But a 
and ToSe refer to one another Eur. Ion. 963. tout' riv a vvv 
aoi (pavepa tnjjuaiVw /ca/ca. Comp. Hec. 998 seq.^ (Med. 552. 
will probably be better explained according to §. 478.) 

b. The person which follows the relative is determined by 
the word to which the relative refers. If it refers to the subject 
of the first person, expressed or to be supplied, the first person 
also follows the relative; if it refers to a vocative, or the subject 
of the second person or the pronoun of the second person, this 
follows the relative. Eur. Suppl. 1094 seq. ovk av ttot cIq toS* 
riXOov,€iQ o vvv KUKov' o(7TiQ <pvT€V(jac; Kai veaviav r€K(ov apicrrov, 
elra rov^e vvv orepiaKOfxai. Plat. Crit. p. 4:5 E. avav^pia 
Ty 7]p,eT£pa Sia7r€(j)evyevai rijxac, ^okcIv, o'lTivea ae ov Sietrw- 
Gafxev. Eur. Hec. 258. ^urjSe yiyvioGKoiaO eij,ol, ot tovc cbi- 
XovG jSXaTTTOMTec ov (ppovrit^Te. A deviation occurs //. d', 
248. w (J)lXoi, Apyelwv r)yr]TOpec, ri^e p,€^ovT€C, oiVe irap* 
ArpeiSyc; Aya/uiejxvovL Kai Mei^eXaw, ^^juca irivovcriv Kai ar)fxai- 
vovaiv eKaaroi XaoiQ ^, 

c. If, besides the noun to which the relative refers, it has 
another of different gender or number, as an explanation or 
definition of the former, the relative is often in the number and 
gender of the preceding noun : e. g. Plat. Symp. p. 187 C. D. 
CTretSav ^ep Karay^prjcrBai pvdfxio re Koi apfxovia rj TTOiovvra, o 
^T] /ueXoTrouav KaXovGiVj &c. Comp. p. 191 B. but more fre- 
quently in that of the following noun. See §. 440. 

Similar to the usage explained in §. 474, 6. is that in which 476. 
the relative is followed by the proper noun, with the article, as 
if for explanation in the apposition. Herod. 1, 39. to ^e ov 
fxavOaveiQ, aXXa XeXvOe o-e, to oveipov, e^ue toi ^iKaiov eari 
(ppaZeiv. Plat. Theat. p. 167 B. erepa roiavra, a ^rj rivec 
Ttt (^avTaGfxara vwo aneipiac aXrjOrj KaXovaiv. Hipp. Maj. 
p. 294 A. B. 7)fxeiQ yap irov eKelvo to iravra ra KaXa 
irpayixaTa KoXa eariv, lotrirep w iravra to. /neyaXa earl /j.eyaXa, 
Tt^ virepky^ovri. Rep. 9. p. 579 C. Euthyd. p. 271 C.** 
Comp. §.439. Obs. 

^ Reiz ad Lucian. t. 3. p. 403. * Hiischke ad Tib. 1. 6, 39. 

Herm. ad Find. Pyth. 6, 19. Schaef, ^ Heind. ad Plat. Gorg. p. 121. ad 

ad Eur. Orest. 910. ed. Pors. Crat.p.97. Parm.p. 22G. Prot.p.579. 

792 Syntax, Of the Use of the Relative "Pronoun, 

In a similar manner the relative is explained by an infinitive 
or an entire proposition, which in sense repeats that to which 
the relative referred. Eur, Med, 13 seq. avrrt re iravra avfj,- 
€J)epov(r Ia(Tovi, rjTrep jneyicfrri yiyverai (Ttjrrjpia, orav yvvri 
Trpoc avopa /ultj ci'^ocTTaTy, I hue. o, o. ujare ovk av eAauev 
avTOuev opfxu)p,evoQ o KXewi/ tw arpaTiZ' oirep irpocjeckyeTO 
7roiri<j€iv avTOVf ewi rr]v A/x^ittoXiv, virepiZovra acpwv to ttX^- 
doQ, ava^r](re(jdai. Isocr, it, avr, p, 314 A. Comp. de Pac, 
p. 159 C. 160 A. Plat, Phileh. p. 15 B. with Stallbaum*s 
note. Thus the genitive of the relative after a comparative is 
explained by a supplement with ^ : Isocr, Panath, p. 249 B. 
tjjv TIC aXXoc <pavri(T€Tai TrpovorjOeiQ rj tic, ejUTTO^wv Karaarac, 
Tou fxvi^ev en yeveaOai toiovto, Comp. de Pac, p, 161 D. 
See §- 450. Obs, 2. 

477^ The relative serves also, as in Latin, to connect propositions 
instead of the demonstrative : e. g. Kpovoc KareTriev 'Eo-t/ov, 
eira ^yifxriTpav Kai ' Upav' peO ac IIXouTwva Kai UocreiStjjifa, 
This takes place also in combinations which do not occur in 

a. After a parenthesis, when the discourse reverts to what 
preceded. //. X, 221. (t/g drj tt/owtoc Ayapepvovoc avrioc 
riXdev ;) 'l(f)i^apaQ AvTr}Vopi^r]C, rjifc tc peyac, t£, oc, Tpa(j>ri ev 
OpyKy, &c. to V. 230. oc pa tot ATpei^eu) AyapepvovoQ 
avrioc rjXOev, hie, inquam, obviam processit, or hie igitur &c. 
Comp. Herod. 7, 205. Soph. (Ed. C, 1308—1326. Eur. 
Or. 892 — 904.* So aiv juloi peXeaSai Soph. (Ed. T, 1466. is 
the correct reading. 

h. In addresses. Soph. (Ed. C, 1354. vvu ^* al^iwOeic cTcri 
KaKovcraQ y epov roiavO , a pri rove ovTror evcjypavel piov. oc 

y , <u KCLKiare, aKrJTrrpa Kai Opovovc ey^ujv, tov avTOC 

avTOv irarepa rov^ air^Xaaao, where properly av y , to kcik, 
should have been used. Thus too with the imperative: Soph, 
(Ed, T, 723. TOiauTa (j)rjpaL pavriKai ^itjpiaav. wv evrpkirov 
av pr)^evj for aXXa rovrtjv evrpkirov av p. id. (Ed. C. 731. 
{optjj riv vpaQ opparijjv eiX??(|)OTac (f)6(5ov vetJprj rrjc eprJQ eweia- 

a Animadv. in H. Horn. p. 176. Horn. Hymni et Batrachom. p. 31. 

Syntax. Of the Use of the Relative Profiotin. 793 

o6ov') ov ixi]T 0KveLT€f fjiif]T a^y\T GTToo KaKov. where ov is re- 
ferred to the personal pronoun contained in e^^c, for aWa fxri 
oKvelre i/uL Comp. 282. Eur. Andr. 111. Iphig. A. 394. 

c. In interrogations. Eur. Or. 746. OP. \pr)(^ov a/ucj)' -njLLtJv 
TToXirac enL (fyovu) OeaOai y^pewv. IIYA. r) Kpivel tl XpVM'O. ; 
for Tt ^e ^. ahrr) Kpivel ; 

d. For the demonstrative with yap. Eurip. Hec. 409. /Sov- 
Xei Treaelv npoc ovSac, eX/cwcrat re <jov yepovra y^puyray irpoc, 
(jiav wOovfxevr], aa'^Yi/uLOvrjcjai t , €K veov ppa'^iovoc cjiraadelij ', 
a 7rei(T€i, 'since all this thou wilt be obliged to suffer', id. Ale. 
669. ov /uLTJu epelc, ye /.t , wq arifxa^ovra gov yripac, 6avel.v irpov- 
SujKaQ. ocTTic aL^6(j)piov TTpoc, <j i]v fxaXiara. Here the propo- 
sition with oQ contains at the same time the antithesis of the 
preceding negative proposition, as in the following passage it 
expresses the antithesis of ah interrogation, which also has a 
negative sense : Xen, Mem. S, 3, 5, 15 seq. irore yap ourwc 

AOrjvaloij locnrep AaKe^ai/uLOVioif rj irpeapvrepovc, ai^eaovrai \ 

ot aTTO T<j)v TraTCptjjv apyovrai KaTa(j)pove7v t<jjv yepai- 

T€p(t)v' 17 cf(i}fxaaKr](Tovaiv ovtwc ; ot ov fxovov avroi ev- 

e^iac a/uieXovGiv, aXXa /cat twv eTri^ueXou/Ltevajv\(jJ<jij 8cc. 
where the proposition with 01 may be rendered by ' nay' ; 'nay 
they begin, nay they neglect'. 

e. o especially often stands at the beginning of a proposition, 
i. e. St o for dia tovto, guare for itaque. Eurip. Hec. 13. rew- 
TUTOC S vv Ylpia/uL^wv' o Kai fxe yrjc VTre^^eirefji-^ev (r). Comp. 
Ph. 156, 270.^ Thus also a for St' a: Soph. Trach. 186. a 
Kai ae rav avaaaav eXniaiv Xeyu) raS aiev t(Tvetv. Comp. (Ed. 
C. 1287. 

The relative with its proposition often stands first, as in Latin, 473, 
when the leading idea of the whole period, the emphasis, is 
contained in it. Soph. Phil. 86. eyu) /jiev, ovq av rujv Xoyojv 
aXyw kXvwVj TOuaSe /cat irpacfaeiv arvyfjj. 

It precedes also when there is no demonstrative pronoun 
following, but an entire complete proposition to which it re- 

'' Valck. ad Phoen. 157. Musgr. rip. Hec. 1. c. Phoen. 270. Arist. 
ad Eurip. Ph. 270. Brunck ad Eu- Eccl.338. Herm. ad Vig. p. 706, 27. 

794 Syntax, Of the Use of the Relative Pronoun, 

fers. JEurip. Ion. 654. o S cvktov avOpujiroicji kuv ukov^iv 

Tg, B'lKaiov elvai fx o vo/uloq rj (j)vaiQ 0' afxa Trapeiy^e tw 06^, 

where o refers to the following BiKaiov elvai, ib, 183. EL 943. 

b o riirara ae TrXeiarov ovk eyvojKora, r^v^etc tig elvai, Tolai 

'^^prjjmaai cOevijjv, Hence the neuter o, referring to what 

follows, stands at the beginning of a proposition, in order 

to carry back the thoughts to a preceding assertion : Xen, 

Hier, 6, 12. o S' e^riXtuffac vj^ac, wc rove fiev (j)i\ovQ p.a\i(TTa 

ev TTOielv ^vvajiieOa, rouo ^ e'^Opovc navTtJV iJiaXiara yeipov- 

jiieOa, ov^e ravO ovT(i)Q e'xei. Here o refers to the entire 

proposition which follows, wc rovQ jLiev (J)l\ovq, &c. but this 

proposition is joined to the proposition with the relative, as 

depending on it (§. 632.), for to ^e 17/uac tovq )uev <^tXouc 

f-iaXiffra ev 7roie7v ^vvatrOai, tovq § ^X^P' \^^P^^<^^^^ (o e^rJX. 

rifxac) ov^e tovO' ovtivq e\eij where in Latin we should say 

quod vero nos heatos prcedicasti, which is explained by quod 

attinet ad. Usage however, departing from the original form 

of the expression, made the proposition with o the protasis, 

where oti also might have stood: as Xen. Anab, 6, 1, 29. o 

c vfie^Q evvoeTre, ort ?Jtto»^ av CTaaiQ eir) evoc, apyovTOQ, ev 

lo-re, oTiy 8cc. and in the plural Hell. 2, 3, 45. Eur. Or, 

564, e(j> OLQ § aTreiXelc wq ireTpivBrivai ^e SeT, aKOv<jov. The 

proposition to which the relative should refer is sometimes 

omitted, or included in the proposition with the relative : Eur, 

Med. 552 seq, a S etc ya/uLovG jxoi ^aaiXiKovG iovei^iaaCy ev 

Tw^e (in the following part ver. bb^ seq.) ^e/^w, for a ^e ^01 

wvei^iffaQ, OTi yajnovQ jSactX. eyrjfxa, or a substantive follows in 

an epexegesis of the o, according to §. 439. Obs. 1. as in 

Plat, Euthyd. p. 271 C. b ^e ctv e/owrac, tiJv ao^iav avTo7v, 

davfxaai , w K^itwv, iravao^oi are^vwc (probably wc ttolvcj, qt, 

as in Eurip. Iph. A. 948.). The relative and the proposition 

to which it should refer are contracted into one in Herod 3, 81. 

Ta S ec TO irXrjOoQ aucoye ^epeiv to KpaTOQ, yvhifxr\Q Trie apiaTr\G 

7]fxapTr\Ke, quod verojussit, 'with respect, however, to his desire, 

that the supreme power should be given up to the people', 8cc. 

So probably the passages are to be explained in which a 
new proposition with a conjunction follows the proposition 
with o, §. 432, 4. 

Si/ntax. Oj the Use of the Relative Pronoun. 795 

The relative is put also for various conjunctions, which would 479. 
refer to a demonstrative pronoun preceding or to be supplied : 

a, for ware : e. g. in the form e<^* wre ' upon condition that*. 
This should be properly eiri tovtm, (Jjare, as Thucydides 3, 114. 

says, (TTTOv^ac Kal l^vfi/JLa^iav kTroir)aavTO €7ri ToTtrSe, war re 

/irjre A/jLirpaKitoraQ juera KKapvavbiv (TTparcveiv eiri FleXoTroi/- 
ptiffiovG, fuLrjTe, &c. Thus loffre Thuc, 3, 34. 75. 114. 5, 94. 
7, 82. But because the relative properly refers to the demon- 
strative, so according to §.473. they said cttI toi'tw, to or wre, 
or with the preposition repeated lirl tovtu), €<^' wre, as Plat. 
ApoL S.p. 29 C. (Herodotus says 7, 154. em rolaSe, eir tore.) 
The demonstrative is then omitted by §.473. e(j)', w, as Xen. 
Hist, Gr\ 2, 2, 20. and e(^' wre. Hence on account of w<tt6, 
which according to the sense is contained in this expression, 
the infinitive usually follows in this place, though the fut. ind. 
also frequently follows, e. g. Thuc, 1, 103. 1 13. 

Ohs. 1 . There are also other cases where the relative os, oans is put 
for &aT€y especially after ovroi or w^e, rrjXiKovros, toiovtoSj where, how- 
ever, the finite verb and not the infinitive follows : Herod. 4, 52, Kpy'iyij 
mKprjf ovToi dri tl kovaa TriKprj^ >}, fjieyadet fffXLKprj eovaa, Kipvq. tov "Yttu- 
vLVy *so bitter that', comp. 1, 87. Soph. Ant, 220. Eur. Andr. 170. 
Plat, Rep, ^. p. 360 B. ohZeis ap yeyoiTO ovrws ula^avrwoSf os at^ 
fieiyeiey ev rrj diicaioffuvri, Xen, Anab, 2, 5, 12. r/s ovtoj yuatVerai, 
ofTTis ov (Toi (jovXerai (l>i\os elyai ; Isocr. Epist, p. 408 D. \pi) ctti- 

Qvfxciy 36^r)s TrjXiKavrriS ro fxeyedoSf fjy fioyos h.y <tv rtoy pvy 

oyrcjy tcTrjaaaQaL dvyrjdeiris *. 

Obs. 2. Other relatives also are put for conjunctions, especially ohs 
and 6(Tos. Plat, Gorg, p, 467 D. aKovrravres irepl tri^uiv avTuiy Toiavraf 
ola Kal Tovs Trapovaas ii^deadai. Eur. Heracl, 745. avixpa-^^os yevoto 
fioi TOiovTOSf o\os av Tpoirrjy Ei/pvcQews deirfy, 

a, olos in the expression olos et/xi or vlos r elfxi with the infinitive, 
which is properly toiovtos elfxif wore, * I am of such a kind as', which 
may have three significations: 1. *I am able'. 2. 'I am wont'. 3. 'I 
am ready, willing*. Od. 0', 172. ov yap toi ae ye roloy eyeiyaro 
voryia fiiiTt^p, oloy re pvrrjpa (^lov t e/jeyai Kal oiffruiy. Soph, (Ed. T, 
1295. deafxa ^' elaro^pei Ta-)(a roLOvrovy o\oy Kal arvyovyr eiroiKrlaai, 
Plat. Cratyl. p. 395 A. Kiydvyevei roiovrds ris elyat 6 *Ayafiefiy<ay, 

* Wyttenb. Bibl. Crit. 3, Q, 03. Schajf. in Dion Ilal. Melet. Crit. p. 71 note. 

u 2 

796 Syntax. Of the Use of the Relative Pronoun, 

oTos, av ^d^eiev avT(3, ^laTroyeTrrdaL koi KaprepeiVi 'Agamemnon seems 
to be able to persevere in difficulties'. Comp. id. Criton. p. 46 B. 
Rep. I. p. 351 E. 3. p. 415 E. Menon. p. 100 A. Jmat. p. 136 A. 
Xen. Cyrop. 1, 2, 3. 8, 4, 31. Mem, 2, 1, 15. roiovrosy olos XvaireXelp, 
comp. 2, 6, 37. Demosth. 01. 1. p. 23.^ The abbreviated forms o\6s 
elfji and olos t eljii are more common, which have usually this distinc- 
tion, viz. that olos cI/jll signifies ' I am wont', and olos t elfii * I am 
able' ^ But although this distinction almost always holds good, it 
is not universally confirmed by usage : e. g. oTo's et^t signifies ' I am 
able', Plat. Rep. 3 in. el fxeWovatv elvai av^peloi, a/)' ov ravra re 
\eKT60Ui Kot oTa avTovs Troirjaai yiCKTra rov davarov BeOievai, talia, quae 
ejfficere 2^ossint, 'things which are calculated to diminish fear', id. 
Theag. p. 127 C. iraw (l)oftovfxaL virep rovrov, fj-r} tlvi aXKto ki>Tv\rf 
o'lo) TovTov ^la^delpat 'who may, or is able, to mislead him'. Thuc. 
6, 12 extr. koI to Trjoayyua fxeya elvai Kal jjirj olov veiorepw SovXev- 
craadai re koI o^eios ixeTayeipiaai^ * such as a young man would be able'. 
Xen. Mem. *S'. 4, 6, 11. where it is interchanged with ^wayievos : 'Aya- 
Oovs ^e TTjOos ra roiavra pofji^eis uXXovs riyas, rj rovs Bvv a fj evovs 
avTols KoXws ')(^prj(r6ai ; Ovk, aXXa tovtovs, e<pr). KaKovs ^e apa rovs 
o'lovs Tovrois KOLKios yjprjadaL. id. ib. 1,4, 6. rovs fxev irpoadev 6^6v~ 
Tas Trdffi ^cooLS o'lovs rejivetv eij/ai, rovs he yofK^iovs o'lovs Trapa tov- 
Tb)v de^ajjievovs Xeaiveiv, * are adapted to cutting, to bruising'. In 
general, the idea of being accustomed, able, is not contained in this 
phrase independently, but in the whole import of the proposition; 
since sometimes Bvpafiai, Bvvaros is added: e.g. Plat. Charm, p. 156 B. 
eoTi yctjo TOiavrr] (^ hvyujjLis) o'ta firi Bvvaadai tyjv kc^oX^v fiovov 
vyid TTOieTy. Hipp. Maj. p. 295 C. tolovtoi eXyai o\ol jjlyi hvvarol 
opdv. comp. Phcedon. p. 101 E. The idea of must is often contained in 
the proposition, as Thuc. 7, 42. * to be inclined', as Xen. Ages. 8, 2. 
Demosth. p. 1086, 21. Plat. Rep. 2. p. 365 E. (where, however, it 
may signify ' to be accustomed or able', as eOeXeiy also has these three 
meanings). The principal idea, * to be so constituted as', nearly the 
same as irecpvKevai, is throughout the basis, and is differently modified, 
according to the different relations of the proposition. 

I), offos after Toaovros, Herod. 6, 137. ki>)VTovs he yeveaBai rovovro 

* Xen. Cyr. 7, 5, 84. ovk eariv if a man himself is virtuous*. 

6XXr} <pvXaKf] Toiavrrjy o'la avroy ■* Harpocr. et Suid. v. olosel. Valck. 

riya KaXov K^yaOov vTrdpx^iy, does ad Herod. 8, 68, '2. Reiz de Pros, 

not belong to this place, being equi- Gr. Inch p. 79 sqq. Fisch. 3 b. p. 15 

valent to o'la <pvXaKri ean ro avrov sqq. 
*mm vTrdp'^^eLv ' the best defence is 

Syntax, Of the Use of the Relative Pronoun, 797 

€K€ivu)v avdpai afieit'ovaSy otrt^y irapeov avTolffi airoKTeivat tovs neXao"- 
yovs, cTret acjteas e\o/3oi/ einfiovXevopTas, ovk edeXrjaaif for ware ovk e0e- 
Xrjorai. Thucyd. 3, 49. // fjiev ei^daae ToaovroVi oaov Ha^j/ra ave- 
yvu}Kevni to xpt'icpifrfjia. Xen. Anah. 4, 8, 12. Isocr. de Pac. p. 178 D. 
Toaovroy yap vTrepejjdXoyro tovs iifierepovs toIs els TOvs"EjXXrivas afiap- 
TT]fia<TiVf Off OP Trpos ToTs TTpOTcpop v7rap\ovffi ff(j)ayas Kal OTaaeis ev Tois 
TToXeffiy kwoiriffavTo. Comp. Epist. p. 409 A. Xen. H. Gr. 2, 3, 29. 
Hence the following phrases seem to have arisen: Thucyd. 1, 2. vcfio- 
fievoL TCI avTiov cKaaTOi, oaov airoi^rjv (eTrt TOffovTO, ulaTe oltt.), quantum 
satis esset ad vitam sustentandam. Plat. Prot. p. 334 C. Zia tovto ol 
larpoi travTes airayopevovai to7s aadeyovfft /u>) "^prjffdaL kXaliOf aW if on 

fffjUKpoTUTO) oaoy fiovoy ti)v Bvffj^^epeiay Karafffleffat. Comp. 

Xen. Jnab. 7, 3, 22. CEcon. 11, 18. Evenus in Anal, Br. T,\.p. 165. 
7. coll. Ovid. Fast. 1, 357. We might also supply e^apKcl, which 
Arrian de Exp. Alex. 7. c. 1. adds : Kal ovy oXlyoy vGTepov airodaywy 
TOffovToy Kade^eis ttjs yrjsy offoy e^apKel €yr€rd<j)dai rto o-w/xan. 

h, for particles of time. Isocr, Pan. p. 69 C. D. (c. 39 in,) 480. 
OVK e.K TOVT(i)v ^LKaiov €(TTt (TKOTTelv Trju (5aai\eu)Q cvva/uLiv, e^ 
(ov imeO eKarepiov ykyovev, aXX ef tov avroQ vnep iavTov 
7reTro\ep,r\Kev, where e^ oJv stands the first time for ore, but 
for the sake of concinnity, that it might answer better to the 
second e? Jv (a TreTroX.). This is especially common in jxey^piQ 
ov * until that', donee j for jue^/oi tovtov (tou -y^povov), ore, for 
which Thucydides 1, 90. says i^k\pi roaovrov ewe, av. comp. 
Xen, Mem. 4, 7, 22. and Xen. Anah. 1, 7, 6. it stands for 
fxey^pic, €K€ivov (tov tottou) ottov, a similar origin may pro- 
bably be assigned to the Homeric eicroKe (etc o /ce), i. e. etc 
e/ceivo (tov '^povov), or' av (etc on K€v Od. j3 , 99.), of an 
event to be waited for, shortened by the Attics into ecrre, 
Herodotus 9, 55. says of an event actually happening, ec o ec 
veiKea airiKearo. 

Ohs. Herodotus uses ^eypL ov or orov instead o^ p.e')(pL alone : e. g'. 
2, 173. l^€-)(pi. OTOv 7rXrjdu)pr)s dyoprjs. 3, 104. fjte^pi ov dyopfjs ^taXv^ 
ffios, where the Ionic idiom has obliterated the origin and primary 
meaning of the particles. 

c. for oTi 'that' or 'because*. Plat, Rep, 2, p, 367 D. 
TOUT ovv avTO eTralifeaov SiKaioavvric, o avrrj St avrrjv toi/ 
e^ovTa ovivTjaiVf for oti 6yivri<Tiv, but with reference to the 

798 Syntax. Of the Use of the Relative Pronoun, 

construction omviii^i riva ti §. 415. Obs» 3. so that it is equi- 
valent to Ti^i' tjCJyeXeiav, rjv tov e'^, d>(|)eXeT. The Homeric 6, 
which is used without a demonstrative preceding or to be sup- 
plied, and stands for on §. 486, 3. is different from this. To 
this belong also the passages quoted §.473 B. Plat. Phcedon, 
p. 61 C. Dem. in Mid. p. 515, 10. Dem. pro Megalop. 
p. 205, 13. irpoariKei SrjTrou irXeno yapiv avrovG ^X^'*' *^^ 
eau)9riaav v^ r)p(jjv - - - ^ tov a^iKeiv KwXvovrai vvv opyi^eaOai 
for eK€iv(x)v, oTi. This is especially the case in the formula avO' 
OTOV, avO ii)v, for avri tovtov or toutwi', oti * inasmuch as', 
as Theocr. JEpigr. 17. ejet rav \apiv a yvm avri niviav, wv 
TOV Kuypov e9f>€(p€. or 'because' Soph. Ant. 1066. avO' a>v 
^y€iQ pev TtHv av(jj pa\u)v Karwy &c. Comp. GEid. C. 967. 
Arist. Ach. 293. is different : ai^rl S* wv ecFTreicraprjv, ovk '[(rre 
ye, for avri ojv riviov §. 485. ' for what', pro qua mercede,Virg. 
Geo. 4, 1 50. and when it serves to unite propositions instead of 
dpTi TovTiov (§.477.) ' on which account', quare, as Soph. (Ed. 
T. 264.* 

Hence also ^ Plat. Phc^don. p. 90 B. aXX* evravOa pev ov-^ 

o/iAOioi 01 Xoyot ToTc avOpioTTOiQ eialv aXX eKeivy y 

to which TeXevTwvreQ oiovrai should have been referred, but 
is added by an anacoluthon in an independent proposition after 
the parenthesis. Hence y has the sense of * inasmuch as'. 
Xen. Mem. 2, 1, 18. ov So/cei ffot ^ia(j)ep€iv ra eKovaia twv 
q,Kov(Ti(t)v, y o pev eKtJV Treivuyv, 8cc. for Tavry dia(j)ep€iv oti. 

In a similar way the relative stands for wc, 'as'. Isocr. 
TT.avTiZ. \. 155. \e\eiTOvpyy]KaTe KaWiov wv oi vopoi irpooTaT- 
Toxiaiv, tor r] wq oi v. irp. 

Ohs. 1. It is a different case when the masculine or feminine of o« is 
put where we use 'because', and the Latins qui. Herod. 1, 33. (Kpoiaos 
^oXwya) cLTTOTrepTreTaif Kcipra ^oLas cifxadea elvat, os, ra Trapeoyra ayada 
fXCTeU, T^y TeXevTrjv Travros xp{i pares opdy cKeXeve. Comp. Eurip. Iph. 
Aul. 912. Xen. Mem. 2, 7, 13. 

Ohs. 2. In the same manner ocros is used after Toaovros. Herod. 8, 
13. r} avTif TTtp kovaa vv| ttoKKov rjy €ti aypiiorepr], toctovtm u(to) ty 
TreXayet (jjepoperoiari kTriizLnTe. Xen. Cyrop. 8, 1, 4. roaovTOv hia- 

" Ilerm. ad Vig. p. 710. Schaef. App. Dcnio^th. 1. p. 846. 

Syntax. Of the Use of the Relative Pronoun, 799 

iftepeiy j/yuas 2ee rwy ^ouXw^', off op oi fx^v ZovXol aKovres rots ^eairorais 
vTrrfpeTovaiVf &c, Comp. Isocr. de Pac. p. 1G8 A. D. 170 C* and 
without TOffovTos Soph. Track. 312. comp. §. 4.55. Ohs. 4. 

Ohs, 3. The relatives olos and offos are often put for 6tl toiovtos, on 
TOffovTOs. II, e', 757. Zev Trctrep, ov v€fi€ffi^r]"Apei ra^e Kaprepa epya, 
iffffCLTLOv re *fat olov aTrajXece Xaov *A)^aicJ»', for 6Vt tooovtov kol toiov- 
Toy. comp. ^', 95. Herod. 1, 31. at 'Apye^ai efxaKapi^oy rr^v firjrepaf 
o'lcjy T€Kvu)v €Kvprjff€f for on roiovrtjjy TCKViav €K. Thuc. 2, 41. fjioyrj 
ovTC rw TToXe/i/w e7reX0oVri ay ay aKTrjaiy ej^et, vcf o'iwv KaKOTradel. Of 
a similar nature is the Homeric oV ayopeveis, ola /i' eopyas, for ort 
TOiavTa ayopeveis, on roiavTo, jjl eopyas, which refers to an entire pro- 
position, the import of which is inferred from the speech of the other, 
pro Us quce dixisti, fecisti, quantum conjicere licet ex its, quce, ^c. e. g. 
II. a', 95. x'» 34.7. Od. a', 611. JEsch. Prom, 915. ^ fiijy 'en Zevs, 
Kaiirep avdadr]s (ppeyuiy, effrai raTreiyos, olop e^apTverat yafxoy yajueiv. 
Eur, Iph. T, 150. olay idojjirjy 6\piy * according to the dream which I 
saw'. So may Eur. Ion. 628. be explained*^. Thus Homer employs a 
relative proposition, in which olos refers to a noun following in the same 
proposition, in order to give the ground of explanation of another sen- 
tence. //. ff, 262. olos eKeiyov Ovfjibs virep^ios, ovk ede\i)ffet fxi^yeiv 
ky ireliiD, for on toiovtos ck. 6. virepfi. which is the same as pro sua 
atrocitate nolet, and may be compared with the Latin quce ejus est atrO" 
citas, qua est atrocitate. Comp. //. 6', 450. Od, 0, 211. 

So u)s is used for 6ti ovtios. Eur. Iph. T. 1188. ao(f)i]y cr' edpexpey 
'EXXas, ws rjffdov KaXojs. Comp. Troad. 895. Plat. Phcedon. p. 4:8^, 

evdaifKoy fJLOL avrjp €(j)alyeTO ws a^ews Kat yeyyaiios ereXevTU. So 

Homer uses oloy, i. e. on Toiovroy for 6ti ovtios II. </>', 471, 587.*^ Also 
u'tt Soph, (Ed. T, 1442. iV effrafxey xpetas, for on eyravda yj). ear. 

Obs, 4. 6s is also used for olos, e. g. Plat. Gorg. p. 473 E. oTav 
TOiavTa Xeyrjs & ovSels ay <l>r)ffei€y ayOpwirwy. Isocr. tt. avT, p. 230 C. 
Eur. Suppl. 737. hpwfiey re TOiavd\ 6lV av Tvy\ayr}s deXcjy. Without 
TotovTOs Plat. Euthyd. p. 283 D. os fxev ovk eort, (iovXeTai avToy yeye- 
ffdai, OS c effTi yvy, firfKeTi eJyai^. 

The relative also is frequently put for 'Iva, in order to ex- 431 

^ Wasse ad Thucyd. 6, 89. That 6's is not used for vn ovros, as 

* Wyttenb. ad Eel. Hist. p. 347. I have maintained ad Eur. Or. 1114. 

Jen. Litt. Z. 1800. n. 245. p. W2. Iph. T. 117. Hcl. 9v24. Ion. 130. is 

Scbajf. ad Lamb. Bos. p. 252 seq. shown by Schaifcr ibid 1119. 

Ileind. ad Phccd. p. 2G2. ^ Pors. ad Eur. Or. 910. Adv. 

^ Schaf. ad Eur. Or. 130. ed. Tors. p. 209. Ileind. ad Plat. Phccdr.p.240. 

800 Syntax. Of the Use of the Relative Pronoun. 

press a purpose, as in Latin qui for ut is. II. i\ 165. a\X 
ay ere, kXyitovc OTpvvojmeVj o'l /ce Ta^iara eXOtja ec kXkjiyiv 
TlYiXrjia^eiJi) A-^iXrjoQ. Thuc. 7, 25. Kal twv ve(j)V fULia eic HeXo- 
TTovurjcTOV (hy^ero, irpeaf^eic ayovaa, o'lirep ra a^krepa (j)pa<T(i)' 
aiv. Xen. Mem. S. 2, 1, 14. oTrXa Knovrai, oIq a/btwovvrai 
ToifQ a^iKovvraQ. Eurip. Iphig. T. 1217. Kal iroXei Trejuxpov 
TiV , 0<JTIQ CFTj/Liavel. 

Obs. 1 . Frequently no demonstrative precedes the relative, especially 
in the poets, where instead of it el, e'i tls would have been expected. 
Hesiod. Theog. 783. Kai p oaris xpev^rjraL 'OXuyuTria ^w^ar' kyovrioVf 
Zevs ^e T€ "^Ipiv cTrefixpe is an anacoluthon, in which what should have 
followed clffTis, viz. Kelrai rijvrfxos ver. 795. is delayed, in order first to 
relate the preceding circumstances. Herod. 2, 65. to B' au ns ruiv 
drjplcjy TOVTOjy KaraKTeivy, r} jjiey efcwi', OcipaTos ^ ^^r^fiir], as though kirX 
rovr<p or avrl rovrov Qav. ij ^. Od. |', 402 seq. ^eiv, ovtio yap Kev fxoL 

evKXeitj T aperf] re eV?; ctt' avOpujirovs 6s a CTret e\s KXiffirfv t 

ayayop avns de KTeivaip.i, &c. where 6s is referred to jioi, in- 
stead of evKXeirj eir] fxotf et ce KTeiyaifxi. Soph. Track. 905 seq. Plat. 
Euthyphr. p. 3 C. where eKeiv(o is omitted with dvjjLovyraii as Xen. Cyr, 
1,5, 13. 6 Ti yap jur) toiovtov aTrofjiiaeraL Trap' vfxuiv, els e/ue to eWeiTrov 
e^e<, for rovro to eXX. and Lys. p. 109, 19. So Soph. (Ed. C. 263. 
Kapoiye ttov ravT eoriv, o'lrtves (3adp(oy ck rwv3e fx e^dpavTCs elr eXav- 
yere, where we should have expected Kafjioiye-Trov ravr' eortv, ore vficls 

eXavyere, but it is expressed as if preceded by Kafjioiye ttov ravr' 

earl Trap* vpojy ". 

For OS, offTiSf et tis is often used. See §. 617. 

Obs. 2. Sometimes the relative is put with a finite verb, instead of 
the substantive related to the verb. Soph. (Ed. C. 1411. ols Troyelroy 
is used for rots vp-erepois Troyois. Comp. Eur. Orest. 564. Plat. Phcedon. 
p. 112 D. KaTavTLKpv y elapel, for Trjs elaporjs. I'huc, 7, 48. Lys. c. 
Pol. p. 158, 37. loy vpiv evyoi ^aay, for t^s els vfjids evyolas. Demosth. 
pro Cor. p. 231, 4. ols evTV)^r]Keaav ey AevKrpois, for rots ei/rvx^- 
jiaaiy. Comp. ^j. 270, 19. 310, 16 seq. So Plat. Phcedon. p. 94 C. 
eyavTia ^Beiy (rjjv ^v)(r/v) ols cTriTeiyoiTo Kal yaXi^TO KaX tcoXXolto, 
Both idioms have arisen from the use of the relative for ws. 

Obs. 3. Of such turns of expression as Thuc. 4, 18. aitxppovtoy he 

* Schaefer ad Soph. Trach. 905. to §. 475, a. and Brunck does not 
quotes Arist. Equ. 1'275. ibique explain ocns by et ns. 
Brunck. But the passage belongs 

Sj/ntax. Of the Use of the Relative Pronoun, 801 

dv^jOtuv, o'lTiyes Tuyada es ajK^i^okov aa<^aXuis edevrOy for to ray. --- 
diadaiy see §, 6S3. 

The noun also or pronoun to which the relative refers is 482. 
often wanting, if the former be either a general word, or one 
which may be easily supplied from the context : e. g. Xen. 
Ci/r. 3, 1, 29. Bvvaio av evpeiv, ot(^ uv yjapicjaiOf for evpelv 
riva. Comp. ib, 4, 5, 49. 5, 4, 30.' Plat. Rep. 9. p. 577 B. 
Xen. Anab. 2, 4, 5. nptoTOv fiev ayopav ov^eic v/juv irape^ei, 
ovc , OTToOev eTTKnTiovfueOa, for ov^ earai ou^ev, or t£, oOev, or 
ouSetc Tra^efet tottov, o06»/. ib,3, 1, 20. otou u)vr]a6peQa, rj^eiv 
en oXiyovc e^^ovraQ. Hence eiaiv ot Xeyovcriv Plat. Gorg. 
p. 503 A. which is imitated in the Latin sunt qui dicant; instead 
of this, however, the Greeks prefer e'laiv o\ Xeyovrec. 

Similar to this is ovk eariv, oq or otrrtc, where the propo- 
sition with the relative may be considered as the subject of the 
verb eari, e. g. //. y^, 348. Ijq ovk eaO , oc ctJq ye Kvvac Ke- 
(paXrJQ anaXaXKoi ' no one will keep off'. ov^eiQ eoTiv ogtiq, 
Eur. m. 908. OVK ecTTiv ov^eiQ ocjtig av pefULXpairo <toi. Med. 
798. ovTiQ effTiv offTiQ e^aipi](jeTai. See §. 483, 

Hence the construction eariv (with the accent thrown back) 
01, ecTTLv (jjv, e<TTiv oic, appears to have arisen. For the verb 
elpi seems at first to have been referred to a subject preceding, 
and to have been in the same number as the relative following. 
But commonly, 1 . It stands in the third person sing. pres. 
ecTTi, not e'lai or 171/, riaavy though the relative following be in 
the plural, and the chief verb of the proposition in the imperf. 
aorist, or future. 2. ecrrw 01 does not connect itself with the con- 
struction of the proposition, but stands by itself in an adjective 
sense evioi, eviai, evia, Thuc. 1,12. neXoTrovi^rjcriot lOKiaav rrjc 
aXXrjc, EXXaSoc ecFriv a yu)pia, \. e. evia ywpia. 2, 26. 3, 92, 
AaKecaipovioi tcuv aXX(i)v ^XXr]V(jJV eKeXevov tov povXofxevov 
eireaOaiy nXriv Iwviov Kai A'^qkjjv Kai eariv tov aXXuyv eOvojv, 
7, 1 1. riXde TvXnnroQ AaKe^aipovioc (rrpanav e^tou airo t<jjv ev 
^iKeXia iroXeiiJv eanv wv. Plat. Alcib. p. 143 C. ei ye fXT) 
IT poGQe[r]p.ev Tr\v eanv tjv re ayvoiav Kai ccttiv oic, Kai 

^ Elmsl. ad Eur. Ilcracl. 977. ad Med. 775. 

802 Syntax. Of the Use of the Relative Pronoun, 

eyovGi 7J-WC ayaOov, ixjirep eKeivoiQ kukov. Comp. p, 144 C. 
Ph(Edon. p.\\\T>, Xen, Cyrop. 2, 3, 18. evravOa ol pev 
€j3aXXov raiQ f3oj\oiCj Kai eariv ot ervy-^avov Kai BcopaKtov 
Kal yef)pu)v, ol ^e /cat /jLtjpov Kai Kvrjjuu^oQ, Hellen. 2, 4, 6. /cat 
ear I pev ovc avrwv KareXaf^ov. Memor, S, 3, 5, 3. irpoyovcjv 
KaXa epya ovk eariv olc peiC(s) Kai TrXetw virapyeiy r} AOrjvaioiQ, 
Thus Propert, 3, 7, 17. Est qui bus Elece concurrit palma 
quadriga, Est qui bus in celeres gloria nata pedes, for sunt. 
For eari, evi also was used, and hence the adjective evioi, non- 
nulli. Thus also in interrogations, where, however, oanc is 
generally put. Plat. Menon. p. 85 B. eariv rjvriva dol^av 
ov^ avTOv ovTOQ aireKpivaro ; Xen. Mem. S. 1, 4, 6. eariv 
ouffTii'ac av0pu)7rii)V reOavpaKaQ ewi ao(j)ia; Comp. Plat. ApoL 
S.p. 27 B. Rep, I. p. 352 E. 353 D.*' 

Obs. 1 . Yet elpl is sometimes put in the plural or imperfect. Thuc, 
7,44. ol vfTTcpov fJKOires elcrip ot diapapTOPTes Tuiv odoiy Kara rrjv 
^wpav cTrXavridrjaav. comp. ibid. 57. Plat. Leg. 11. ^. 934 D. pal- 
vovrai pep ovv iroXKoi ttoWovs rpoTrovs, ovs pev vvv eiirofxep, viro voaioy, 
ctci ^k ot Sia dvfjov KaKtiv (^vtriv afia Kal rpoc^^v yevofiivrjv, Xen. 
Anab, 2, 5, 18. elaX V avroiy (tiop Trora/xwy), ovs ovB* ay irayTciTraai 
^lafjairjTe. id, Hellen. 7, 5, 17. raJv TroXefJiiojy rjy ovs viroaTzovZovs 
aTTc^offay, Cyrop. 5, 3, 16. ^y Ik Kal o e\a/3e "^oypioy. 

Obs. 2. In the same manner eVn is often used with a relative adverb 
following, in which case the two are put for an adverb, eany 'iya or 
oTToVf est ubi, est quandOf 'many times'. Eur. Iph, A. 929. eany pev 
ovy, 'ly tJ^v, pij Xiay (^tpoyeivt eariy U xui-rrov xpriaiiiioy yywprjy exeiy. 
Thus also cffTiy ov Eurip. Or. 630. ovk eoQ" ottov ' in no case'. Soph. 

(Ed. T. 448. Eur. Here. F. 186 'ead" otttj Plat. Rep. 6. p. 486 B. 

interrogatively ' in any way ?' jEsch. in Ctes. p. 83. ult. ovk eorriy oirri 
ayaTrrriffOfiai * to no place' ''. — eVnv eyOa * in many places' Xen. Cyr. 
7, 4, 15. 8, 2, 5. — ecTTLy ^ * in a certain degree' Eur. Hec. 851. — eariy 
oTTbJs *it is possible'; interrogatively ^wrtp. -^/c. 53. ear ovy ottios 
"AXKrjffTLs €s yfjpas /xoXoi ; * is it possible that' &c. Comp. Plat. Rep. 5. 
p, 453 B. or with a negative preceding, ovk eany onun * by no means, 
in no case'. Herod. 7, 10^. Eur. Med. 172.^ ovk eariy oxios ov * by 

* Jens, ad Luc. T. 1. p. 188. ad Phryn. p. 271. does not belong to 

Fisch. 1. p. 343. Abresch Diluc. this head. 

Thuc. p. 410. *" Valck. ad Eur. Ilipp. 604. 

'' -ZEsch. Ag. 07. quoted by Lob. 

St/jilax, Of the Use of the Relative Pronoun, 803 

all means', * in every case' Plat. A'pol, S, p, 27 E. also ovk ead' Cjs 
Soph, Antig, 750, — eaTiy ore * sometimes'*'. 

Other particlea besides are put with the relative pronoun, as 483. 
re and tiq, 

a, oQ re occurs, w^ith the exception of Homer, only in the 
lyric poets and choruses, and appears in sense not to differ 
from oc, re being added, as with almost all the conjunctions, 
to show that oq (originally the same with the demonstrative 
§. 65. Obs. 3. §. 153.) is taken relatively. II. e, 467. /ceTrac 
auripf ov r icrov €Tio/ici^''E/CTO^t ^ta>. Hymn. Horn. 4, 189. ov 
^lo^aKjxioc avrip yiyverai, oc re OeaiQ evvaterai aOavar'^aiv, 
II. ^', 115. Kriifxara Travra /uaX , oaaa r AXe^av^poQ rfya- 
yero Tpoiriv^e^, 

b, *6aric, is different from oc, inasmuch as it applies to an 
object in general, in the sense o( quisquis, quicunque; in which 
case iraa often goes before, e. g. //. t', 260. avOpioirovQ 
riwvvrai, o ric, k emopKov ofxoacnj, ' every one who swears 
falsely'. Here it is to be observed, that after iraa it is used 
only in the singular ; in the plural they said iravrec, oaoi, not 
oirivec,. Hence ' whoever it may be*. Horn, H. in Merc, 277. 
Ptur, Or, 418. ^ov\evof.iev Oeolc, o ri nor e'lcriv ol Oeoi^, oariQ 
is also frequently joined with ouv, %, ^rjTrore, but in the case of 
the substantive which accompanies it, for octtic av y or e'lrj. 
Plat, Rep, 1. p. 335 B. eariv apa ^Kaiov av^poQ f3Xa7rreiv Kal 
ovrivovv dvOpioirtov ; 'any man whoever he may he\ Comp. 
p, 350 A. Alcib.2, p. 144 C. Also separately Isocr, ir, dvr. 
§. 89. Bekk. o pa^Lcoc oariQ av ovv fjovXrjOeic iroirjaeie, He- 
rodotus has frequently on ^rj, e. g. 6, 134. levai eirl to jue- 
yapovy o Ti St) 'iroir]aovra evroc Sturz Lex, Xen, 3. p, 349, a, 
quotes two passages from Xenophon. Demosthenes, and es- 
pecially the later writers, use oariQ dri nor ovv^. So ocrriQ 
alone, after ou and firj, ov^e, fxri^e. Plat. Leg, 11. p. 919 D. 
MayvrjTCUi/ - - - ^Tjre KairriXoQ eKwv /i?;^ aKiov /jLTjBeic yiyveaOio, 
pr}^ epiropoc, prjTe ^laKOvlav /ir/S' rivriva KeKrrjpevoQ, Comp. 

^ Acta Monac. 1, 2. p. 206. Erfiirdt. 

* Herm. ad Orph. Lith. 299. 6s ^ Scha'f. ad Lamb. Bos. p. COl. 

r€ is differently explained by Soph. ^ Lob. ad Phryn. p. 373. 

(Ed.T. 088. in the smaller edition ut" 

804 Syntax. Of the Use of the Relative Pronoun. 

ib. 2. p. 674 C. Hipp. Maj. p. 282 D. Phadon. p. 78 D.* 
Lysias even repeats oaric; c. Erat. p. 127 extr, as Callim. H. 
in Dian. 18. 

Elsewhere octtio denotes tbe class to which any one belongs, 
*one who'. So //. p!, 334. oariQ refers not to a definite leader, 
but to any one, be he who he may. Od. a , 403. prj yap tiS' 
SXOoi avrjp, ocjTiQ cieKovra JDiy(piv Krrjpar aTroppaia£i ' any man 
who', &c. Soph. Antig. 1025. /ceTvoc ovk er eVr av^p af3ov\oc 
ov^' avoX(3oQj odTiG ec KaKov weaiov aKelrai. Comp. Isocr. Soph, 
p. 293 B. de Big. p. 335 B. ap. Btkker, where before it was 
read oq av and o>. Od, /3 , 113. avto^Oi Be piv yafjieecjOai tw, 
OT€U) re Trarrjp KeXeraij Kai avSavei avry, the person to whom 
she was to be married is left in himself undefined, but the de- 
monstrative points out that he is determined by the pleasure 
of the father. In the following passages: Soph. Aj. 1299 seq. 
oc eK Trarpoc pev eipi TeXa/iwvoc yeywc, ckttiq arparov ra 

TTpWT apKjrevaac, epr]v layei prjTepa. Trach.6, JE,ur. Hipp. 

1073. comp. 956. Ale. 244. 669. Androm. 592 seq. o^tiq 
does indeed add a definition to the preceding noun, but one 
which is not exclusively appropriate to it, but denotes a class 
to which the person mentioned belongs, and means ' one who'. 
Soph, (Ed. T. 1054. yvvai, voelc, eKeivoVj ovriv apriwc poXeiv 
eCJyiepecfOa, roi^ 9 ovtoq Aeyei is equivalent to v. eKeivov, ou €(j), 
ocrrici TTOT ecri quisquis sit. Herod. 1, 7. 3, 1 15. air orev is 
a conjecture of Reiz for airo rev, the reading of the MSS. 
(perhaps airo tov, as 1, 145. in the MSS.) Eur. Hipp. 916. 
Bacch. 115. are suspicious, on account of the variations of the 
MSS. We find, however, oo-tcc for oq II. \p', 43. ov pa Zrjv 
ocTTiQ T€ Oewu vTTaTOc KQi apiGTOQ. Herod. 2, 151. ev voo) Xa- 
jSoi/rec TO yjpriarripiov o ti eKe'^prfro G(f)i", In Lysias^. 160 
extr, the parts are separated by av. oc av ric, vpac ev iroiy. 

Hence ouSetq oanc (and oa Plat, Ale. p. 103 B.*^) ou^, 

» Ast ad Plat. Leg. p. 78. Schasf. Coinp. ad Eur. Med. 775. p. 373. 

App. Dem. p. 858. " Herm. ad Eur. Med. 775. 

^ SeeMatthiae adHom.H. in Ven. •^ Not prj. See Heind. ad Plat. 

157. Hermann, who opposed the PhiEd. p. 233. Ast ad PJat. Ale. 1. 

doctrine there laid down, teaches the p. 805. Schneider ad Xen. Cyr. 1, 

same thing ad Soph. (Ed. T. 688. 4, 25. 

Sj/ntax. Of the Use of the Relative Fronoun. 805 

'everyone'. Herod, 5, 97. Kai ov^ev o tl ovk vTrid^ero 'he 
promised everything'. Thuc. 7, 87. /cat Tre^oo Kai vifcc Kai 
ov^ev o TC OVK antjXero. Comp. 2, 88. 3, 81. — o<TTtc conforms 
usually in case to tlie preceding ov^eU, or this to oariQ : Plat. 
Prot.p. 317 C. ovSevoc otov ov ttuvtiov av Vfxttiv KaO rjXiKiav 
narrip eir]v, Comp. ib. p, 323 B. Thus also in interrogations 
after tiq: Thuc. 3, 39. r'lva o'leaOe ovriva ov ^pay^e'ia npo- 
<^aaei cnroaTTjaeaOai ; Comp. ib. 46. Comp. §. 306. 445, c. 

In the same manner oc av seems to be used, as referring also 

to something in general, quicunque. Thuc. 7, 7. irpea^eiQ 

aTretSTakriaaVj ottwc arpaTia en irepaiwdy rpoirij) (^ av, ev 
oXkclgiv, 7) irXoioic ?/ aWijjCy ottcuc av npo-y^iopy, where Tponto (^ 
av stands for offric av y o Tpoiroc, as quocunque tandem modo, 
and is explained by ottwc av irpo-^wpy which follows*^. 

Of oc y€f oairepy see §. 602. 

The relative is often used in Homer for the article o, which 484. 
in him stands for the demonstrative pronoun. //. ^', 201. a>c 
o Tov ov ^vvaro juapxpai iroaiVy ov^ oc aXv^ai. Comp. 2^', 59. 
especially in the neuter. //. ^', 9. o yap yepac €<tti Oavovriov, 
Comp. /uL , 357. The later writers use also oq pev — oc, SL See 
§. 289. Obs. 7. 

In the Attics only the following cases occur : 

a. oc Kai oc ' this or that person', speaking indeterminately. 
Herod. 4, 68. XeyovGi ovroi wc roeTrnrav paXicTTa ra^e, (I*c 
rac ^aaiXtfiac iffTiaQ eiriopKriKe oc Kai oc. In the oblique cases 
the article is used, tov Kai tov. §. 286. 

h. Kai 6c for Kai outoc. Herod. 7, 18. Kai oc, ap^ioaac 
peya, avaOpwcxKCi. Plat. Theag. p. 129 B. Kaibc €7re<T^e. and 
in the feminine id. Symp. p. 201 E. koi rj, Ovk ev(^r)pr](7€ic 'y 
eipii. Comp. p. 202 B. Xen. Cyrop. 5, 4, 4. icat oc efa- 
7raTr]deic Siw/cei ava KpaToc. Comp. ib. 5, 36. Here also in 
the oblique cases the article is used §.286. 

• See Schaefer App. Dem. J . p. 813 note. 

806 Syntax, Of the Use of the Relative Pronowi, 

Thus also ^ S' o c ' said he', which is very frequent in Plato. 
Comp. §.215. Obs, 3.* 

485. The relative often stands also for tic, ' who V but only in de- 
pendent propositions. Soph. CEd, Col, 1171. e^oi^ aKovojv 
rwvK, oc eaO* o 'irpoararr)Q, Thiic, 1, 137. of Themistocles : 
Kal deiaac, (^pa^ei tw vavKXripu), octtiq eariy qiiis sit, aperit. 
Plat, Menon, p, 80 C. ire pi dperrjc, o effriv, eytj juev ovk olda. 
Rep, 8. p. 559 A. TTjOoeXwjueOa ^r} ri TTapa^€iyiJ.a eKarepwv, a\ 
e'laiv, Xen. Cyr. 6, 1, 46. M.em. S, 2, 6, 29. )utj ax) q\}v diro- 
KpvTTTOv jU€, ola av jSovXoio (j>iXoQ yeveaOai . 

Obs. Of the use of oorts in indirect interrogations see §. 488, 1. 

Instead of the relative the poets, especially Homer, often use 
wc. II. ^', 44. /uri ^rj fxoi TeXe<T^ eVoq o/3/ot^oq' EktcojO, wc ttot 

€7r»?7retXij(T€v. t// , 50. orpvvov v\r\v t a^kfxevai, irapa 

re (Tyeiv, ljq cTTietfceo veKpov e^ovra veeaOai vno Zo(f>ov rjepoevra. 
Comp. V, 407. \//', 50. Soph, (Ed, C, 1124. /cat aot 0€oi 
iropoiev, ioG eyo) 6e\u), avT(^ re fcai "yij ryce. So loawep Plat, 
Phadon, p, 100 E. eav <to1 ^uvSofcip wGircp Ifxoi^. The following 
passages, however, which Wyttenbach «c? Ed, Hist, p, 358. 
quotes, do not belong to this place: Herod, 2, 1 16."0^??/ooc 

CTTOtrjae ei' 'IXiaSt 7rXav»?M tiJv AXe^ai^S/oov, wc airriveL'yOr) 

aywv 'EXevr^v. Thuc, 1,1. GoufcuS. 'A0. ^vveypaxpe rov iroXeinov 
TtJV Tl€\o7rovvr}ai(jt)V Kat ABrjvaiwv, wc eiroXefirjcrav irpoc aX- 
X^Xovc. For here the sense of the preceding substantive is ex- 
tended by another turn of the sentence, and wc signifies how, 

486. Some parts of the relative have a peculiar signification, viz. 

1. The genitive ov stands adverbially in the sense ' where*, 
ubi, also 'whither', as Xen, H, Gr, 2, 3, 54. 

2. The dative feminine signifies, a, ' where', as the Latin 

• Koen ad Greg. p. (61, 5) 144. to be correct, ovtc ol^a ere os el to be 

Heind. adPlat. Charm, p.78. Hoog. incorrect. See Herm. ad Soph. Aj. 

ad Vig. p. 25. Herm. ib. p. 706, 28. 1238. 

*» Elmsl. ad Iph. T. 766. considers " Animadv. ad Horn. 11. p. 373. 

OS in this case as a solecism; ad Schaef. ad Soph. (Ed. C. 1124. Of 

Med. 1086. he declares oUa ae vs el wcrirep Ileind. ad Pliaedun. p. 129. 

Sj/Htax. Of the Use of the Relative Pronoun, 807 

qua ; or ' whither'. Hesiod. ''Ejoy. 206. t^ S' etc, rj a av eyu) 
nefj ayoj. Comp. Herod. 9, 64. Flat. Phad. p. 82 A. D. 

b. ' so far as, inasmuch as*, quatenus. Xen, Mem. S. 2, 

1, 18. ov ^oAceT (joi Tijjv TOiovTiov ^lacjyepeiu to. eKovaia ruiv 
aKovai(t)v, y o jnev eKU)v ttciixjjv (^ayoi av, OTrore jSovAotro &c. 

c. 'how, in what manner*, quemadmodum. Xen. Cyr. 1, 

2, 5. (Lc ^aAXov ^rJAov yevrirai, rj eTTijuieXovTai, wc av jSeXTtCTOC 
etei/ 01 TToXiTai^. 

d. with comparatives. 

e. with superlatives for wq. y ra'^iGra, quam celerrime. 

3. o often stands, «. for ^i o, quare. See §. 477, J. 

^. In Homer for on 'that*, e.g. //. B\ 140. comp. o', 248. 

4. a also stands sometimes for §i' a. are and a ^r\ mean 

a. 'as*, quemadmodum, sicut. ILy^y\21. are TrapBevoc riiOeoQ 
T€. Herod, 1, 123. are Orjpevry. See. So KaOd (Herodotus 
Kara) KaOairep. 

b. utpote, to assign an objective reason, 'since*. Herod. 
1, 123. povXofxeviiQ o ' ApirayoQ ^r^Xtocrai tiV icjvrov yvtjfxriv, 

a\\u)Q fxev ov^a]UL(jjQ ^'f^e, are t(jjv octjv ^uXatroro^evwv 

and frequently. Soph. Aj. 1043. a Brj Kaicovpyoc avrip ' as a 
malefactor, since he is a malefactor*. Comp. Plat. Pheedr, 
p, 244 E. Leg. 6. p, 778 A. Si/mpos, p. 183 E. &c. 

Obs. 1. In many cases daos is used in a similar manner to the rela- 
tive uSf e. g. in indefinite statements of magnitude. Herod. 1, 99. to 
^e apyvpiov fxeyados kari oaoy wy, pecunia quantulacunque. 1, 160. eirl 
piad^ u(T<l) Bfi * for hire, however great or small it might be'. Comp. 

3, 52. 159. 4, 151. id. 1, 157. 6V»?v ^fj kotc, as clans ovy §. 483, h. Of 
oaos with adjectives see §. 445, c. Of 6(ro), 6aov with comparatives 
§. 455. Obs. 4. With superlatives §. 401. 462. instead o£ (Hare §.479. 
Obs. 2, b. for on §. 480. Obs. 2. for on roaovros tb. Obs. 3. 

offov and Sffa are also used adverbially in limiting propositions, e. g. 
Saov y ep.* el^evaif quantum equidem sciam. oaov kuO' tJ/uos * as far as 
lies in our power', where Euripides Bacch. 183. says oaov Kad' ripds 
dvvaTuy. Hence with adverbs, to soften the expression, oaoy avrUa 

A \T 

Valck. ad Phoen. p. 902. Hipp. 276. p. 193, b. C. 

808 Syntax, Of the Use of the Indefinite Pronouns. 

* (as much as) immediately', 6(tov oy, oaor ovttw, or ovde-n-o). Eur. Hec. 
143. i'l^et S' ^Olvaevs oaov ovk r'l^r} ' as much as not yet, i. e. presently'*. 
Hence 'only', //. i, 354. aW oaov is Djcaias re TrvXas cat ^r]yov 
iKavey. (cttl rocr. oaov karlv es 2a:.) Theocr. 1, 45. tvtQov otraop a7rw0ev 

* only a short way off'. In this sense it is doubled Arist. Vesp. 213. 
Ti ovK cnreKoifxiidrjiiep oaov ocrov ariXrju (from roff. oaov (XTiXr} tor/V''). 
and in indefinite statements of quantity and magnitude : oaov re ttv- 
yovaiov, oaov t* opyviav in Homer, ' about, nearly'. 

Obs. 2. Several of the relatives are used with a repetition of the pre- 
ceding verb, in order to leave the expression indefinite, because its 
more exact definition would be unpleasant, and generally to point out 
something as disagreeable. JEur. Med. 1018. ijyyeiXas oV ijyyetXas' ov 
ae iJ.€fJ(f), ib. 894. aXX* eajxev olov eajjieVf ovic kpw KaKov, yvvciiKes, 
Soph. (Ed. C. 376. e'la' ovrrep elai. So also ha ib. 273, iKOfjirjv 'tv 
iKOfjrjv, especially with (hs or ottios Ailsch. Ag. 1297. cTrei to Trpcorov 
el^ov 'IXiov TToXiv Trpa^aaav ws eirpa^ev. Soph. (Ed. T. 1376. (^Xaarova* 
OTTios ef^Xaarey. Eur. Or. 78 seq. e-n-el Trpos'lXiov eVXevrr' ottojs eirXevaa 
deofjiavel TroTfjKo. So also in regard to future events, which we wish not 
to describe clearly, Eur. Hec. 873. Traa^ovTos av^pds QprjKos ola 

The Indefinite Pronouns: I. tIc, re. 

487. '^^^ is properly added to a substantive, which is left unde- 
termined, where in English ' a, an, a certain one, any one' is 
used. Soph. (Ed. T. 106. eTriaTeWei (ja(j)u)c tovq avroevTac; 
y^ipi TifXiopeiv TivaCy for t. out. o'lnveQ ovv eiai. etc t(c is 
sometimes found Plat. Ion. p. 531 D. or ric, elc, as Soph. Ant. 
269. for TIG CEd. T. 246 seq, for elc. It has, however, three 
other significations besides : 

] . It is used in a collective sense, as the English ' many a 
one*. //. <|) , 126. OpiocrKtov tig /cara kv/lIU ficXaivav <^p'i\ 
viraXv^ei lydvGy og Ke (jyayyai Avkqovog apyeTa ^r^juov. Archil, 
in Brunck Anal. T. 1. p. 45. 30. ri/uLTrXaKov, /cat ttov tiv aWov 
T)^ cLTTj /ct^Tjaaro. Time. 7, 61. ?;v KpaTrjcroj/ieu vvv tqTc 
vavaiv, ecTTt tm T171' virapyovaav irov o'lKeiaif ttoXlv eiri^elv . 

* Dorville ad Charit. p. 602. Crit. in Soph. CEd. C. p. 235. 

•* Herm. ad Vig. p. 726, 95. *^ Duker. ad Thuc. 3, 111. Ani- 

• Markl. ad Eur. Iph. A. 649. madv. ad H. Horn. p. 407. ad Ba- 
Schaef. ad Soph. CEd. C. 273. Blomf. trach. p. 123. 

Gloss. Agam. 66. Reisig Comm. 

Si/ntax. Of the Use of the Indejinite Fronoum, 809 

Hence a plural often refers to ric in the singular §. 434. and 
TiQ is used with the imperative §. 511, 1. 

2. It expresses the English ' one' (the French ow), and in- 
dicates any person whatever ; also ' several', or all who are 
present, 'every one*. Il.(5',3S2seq. eu /nev tiq ^o/ov Ort^acrOit) &c. 
Herod, 8, 109. /cat tiq oiKirjv re avairXaacKjOoj ' let them build 
up the houses again', or ' let every one build his house'. Xen. 
Ci/r. 6, 1, 6. Xeyeru) tiq nepl avTOv tovtov, y yiy vuxjKei. 
Comp. 3, 3, 61.^ 

3. Hence it stands often for the personal pronoun e-yw, as 

we use 'one'. Soph, Aj. 245. u)pa tlv rJSry Kapa Ka\vp.fxa(Si 

Kpv\fjap.evov iro^olv K^oirav apeoOai. Aristoph. Thesm, 603. ttoT 

TIQ Tpe\p€Tai; Plat, Alcib, 2 in, 2Q. <^aiV^ -ye rt eaKvOpajna- 

Kevai re Kai eiQ yrjv f^Xeireiv, wq tl avvvoovjuLevoc. AAK. /cat ti 
»/ '^ f 

av TIQ avifvooLTo; 

Thus also it is put for av. Soph, Aj, 1138. tout etc aviav 
TovTTOQ epyeTai tivi, Arist. Ran, 552. 554. kukov rj/cet tivi, 

^(l)(T€l TIQ ^lKr}V, 

4. Ttc is often put with adjectives of quality, quantity, mag- 
nitude, especially when these stand alone, without a substan- 
tive, or in the predicate. Herod, 4, 198. ^o/ceet ^oi ouS apcTriv 
elva'i TIQ T) AtjSurj aTrovBairj, Plat, Rep, 2. p, 358 B. eyto Ttc, 

U)Q €01K€, Sva[jiaOf]Q. 4.J9.432C. ^vafSaTOQ TIQ O TOTTOQ (f)ail'€TaL 

Kai KaTCLOKioQ, Aristoph. Plut. 726. wc ^iXottoXic Ttc ead o 
^aiptjjv Kai aoCpoc. Herod, 1, 181. TeT^^oc ov iroWio Teoi 
aadevetjTepov, Thuc.6, 1. ov noWto tlvi vTrooeeffTepov iroXepoif 
avypovvTO 7] Toi^ irpoQ Y\eXoTrovvi]csLovQ. So TToToc Ttc {Plat, 
Gorg, p, 4:87 extr,) iroaoQ tiq. Also with the adjective as an 
epithet: Soph, Aj, 1266. tov BavovTOQ wc Ta^ela tiq ppOTO^Q 
\apiQ ^lappei^. Sometimes Ttc is found before the adjective, 
as in Herod, 4, 198. Plat, Rep. 2. p. 358. Soph, Phil, 519. 

« Valok. ad Herod. 8, 109. Toup ad Suid. 2. p. 335. Elmsl. ad 
(p. 671 a.) Med. 807. not. r. Ast ad Plat. Leg. 

' Brunck ad Soph. Aj. 245. Ilerm. p. 153. Of ttoWoi rives Wyttenb. 
ad Vig. p. 731, 114. ad Flat. Pha?clon. p. IIG. Of wows 

e Wessel. ad Herod. 4,198. p. 368. ris Blomf. ad lEsch. Pers. 340. 

810 Syntax. Of the Use of the Indefinite Pronouns. 

opa (TV J fxy\ vvv fxev tic evy^ep-nc irapyc. Plat. Symp. p. 210 E. 
Karoxperai tl Qavfxaarov rrjv (j>v(nv KaXov. 

With numerals also: Thuc. 3, 111. ec BiaKOGiovc Tivaa 
avTuiv aireKreivav. 7, 87. i)fxepaQ ejS^Ojurj/coi^ra rivac, outw 
^iiTfTriOriaav dOpooi. Here it is the English ' about, nearly'*. 

a(T(ja, arra especially are thus used, which are rarely found 
by themselves without an adjective. Od. t ,218. otttto? aaaa. 
Plat. Phadon, p. 60 E. p. 112 C. rerrap arra pevp,ara. 
and separately Amat. p. 135 A. Troia Be paXivra roTra^ojuev 

./ "^ b 

arra eivai . 

The neuter ti is put with adverbs especially, or neuter ad- 
jectives standing as adverbs, e. g. a'^e^oif ti, ttclvv ti, ttoXu ti, 
ovBev Ti^. naXai ti Plat. Gorg. p. 499 B. BiaCpepovrioQ ri 
Thuc. 1, 138. ovTw Br} ri Herod. 8, 99. 4, 52. ti sometimes 

precedes, P/a^. Prot. p. 327 B. otec av ti, €<^>?, paXXov 

yet'ecT^at. See Heind. note, p. 527 . ti is frequently subjoined 
to ov^. In all these cases tcc seems to temper the expression 
by referring a person or thing to the whole class to which it 
belongs. It is also found with substantives Plat. Symp. 
p, 175 B. WoQ Tl tout* ex,€i. Gorg. p. 522 D. avrri t(c 

5. In other cases tic without an additional adjective has 
the sense of ' eminent, distinguished'. Theocr, 11,79. BriXovoT 
ev Ta ya Krjytjv tlq (j)aivoiJ,ai ripec 'a man of consideration'. 
Plat. Amat. p. 133 C. Kai. poi to peu nptorov eSo^e ri enrelv. 
Phcddon. p. 63 C. eveXTrtc eipi elvai ri toTc TeT€XeuT»?/co(7i. 
Comp. Gorg. p. 472 A. Thus the Latin aliquis: e. g. est all* 
quid^, 'it is something to the purpose'. 

6. It has been observed, N" 4, that tJc is frequently placed 
before the word to which it belongs. Such collocations as 

Soph. Ant. 158. (aXX oBe yap Br) (BaaiXevc ytjpac ) 

ywpel, Tiva Brj urjriv epecrffiov. Theocr. 1,32. euroaOev Be yvva, 

=» Keen ad Gregor. p. (3 b.) 7. ct ^ Valck. ad Eur. Hipp. 792. 

Schaf. * Ast ad Plat. Leg. p. 71. 

»» Heind. ad Plat. Theaet. p. 338. ' ad Viger. p. 15?. Herm. p. 731. 

•= Dorv. ad Charit. p. 477. Comp. Markl. ad Eur. Suppl. 288. 

Sj/niax. Of the Use of the ludefitiite Pronouns, 811 

Tt detov ^ai^aXjua, rervKrai, are to be explained by the punc- 
tuation of the ancients §. 58., according to which it would be 
more correct to efface the comma after \wjoeT and yvva even 
in our editions. Whether this tIc can stand at the very be- 
ginning of a proposition is doubtful, from the circumstance that 
no other enclitic can, and no decisive instance has yet been 
produced, ^sch. Choeph. 111. nv ovv er ctAXoi^ r^^e TrpocmOu) 
araaei, the 107th line, rivac; Se tovtovq twu <^iXa)v Trpoaevveirtj) ; 
with the answer TrptJTOv fxev avrrjv '^wcttiq A'lyiaOov arvyel., 
which leads us to expect the mention of another, shows that 
riva is the interrogative pronoun riva, ib. 650. tic, evSov, w irai, 
TTOL /uLaX' avOic,. Eur. Phan. 1097. the interrogative sense is not 
inadmissible, as it might be presumed that some one would be 
in the palace, at least a servant ; wherefore Orestes JEsch. 649. C Lu^y^ 
immediately exclaims, ttoT, itai, Ovpac, aKovaov avXeiaa ktvttov. 
See Blomf. ad v. 642. and in Euripides what follows shows 
that the messenger had no doubt that some one was in the 
house. Hur. Bacch. 69. tcc o^w ; ria oSa> ; tic, Se /neXaOpoic,; 
would be strange if rendered ' is there a7ij/ bodj/ in the street 
or in the houses ? implying the possibility that there was no 
one whom the following proclamation could concern, cktottoc. 
eoTii) &c. Eur. Suppl. 1186. ti S^ ttoO v/uuv aXX vTrovpyrjaai 
fxe ^e? ; Theseus combines in one the two questions ' can I do 
anything', and 'what is it?' In the only passage where tic is 
clearly the indefinite. Soph. Trach. 865. ti (j)vini; comp. (Ed. 
T. 1475. Afc-yw T«, t\ means ' something true and worthy of 
attention'. See Herm. ad Vig. p. 731, 113. 

7. Sometimes adjectives or participles stand alone, though 
only something of that which is named is meant, where 
usually Tt is added. Msch. Ag. 271. gv S' eiVe Ke^vov, etVe ^ri 
ireTrvGi^ievr) 'something good'. Plat. Soph. p. 237 C. Comp. 
p. 87 C. Soph. Ant. 687. yeuoiTO pevTav yaTGpu) KaXwQ e^ov. 
Comp. (Ed. T. 515. §. 570. s 

In the poets, on the other hand, tIq is sometimes doubled. 
Soph. Trach. 945. w^tt e'l tiq ^vo t] kqi irXeovQ tic r^pepaQ 

« Boeckh in Plat. Min. p. 11'2. §. 76. p. 673. ad Euthyd. §. CI. Ast 
llcind. ad Plat. Gorg. § 47. Protag. ad Plat. Leg. p. 89. 573. 

X 2 

812 Si/ntax, Of the Use of the Indefinite Pronouns. 

Xoyiterai Eur, Andr. 734. eari yap tiq ov irpoab) 

^ircipTYjc TToXiG TIC. Coinp. Orest. 1224 seq. Of o /nev tic 

see §. 288.^ 

8. The form rj tig v ov^eU is negative, yet with the ex- 
pression of doubt, ' next to none'. Herod. 3, 140. di^aj3ej3?;K:e 
o T) TIC T) ov^eic Kit) Trap rj/jLeac avTijjv. Xen. Cyr, 1 y 5, 45. 
TOVTiov Tijjv TrepieaTYiKOTWV rJ Tiva rj oi/Se»/a ol^a . 

Obs. In later Alexandrian writers ris is sometimes put for oariSf 
but not in the old classic authors*^. 

9. aXXoTt, properly aX\6 ti, is used in interrogations 
when an affirmative answer may naturally be expected, nonne 
a) with rJ following: Herod. 1, 109. aXXo ti (aXXoTi) r\ Xei- 
ireTai to ev^evTev efxoi kiv^vviov o fjieyicTTOc ; nonne superest? 
Plat. Apol. S, p. 24 D. aXXoTt 17 TrejOi TrXettTTOu Trotip, ottojc o)C 
j3eXTi(TT0i 01 vetJTepoi earovTai; Originally it seems that ttokjo, 

y'lyvBTaij aWo ti 7rote?c, 17 Trot^, was understood, which is 

often omitted after aXXoc, as in Latin, inhil, nisi de cade cogitat, 
(Comp. §. 488, 1 1 .) Hence Plat. Phcedon. p. 79 A. B. (^epe 
crfy 7} o oCy a A AG ti rjuijju avTuyv rj to juey (xcu/ta eaTi, to oe 
xf^vy^T] \ Ov^ev aXXo, ecprj. This, however, soon received the 
sense of a simple interrogation, and hence b) rJ also is omitted : 

Plat. Charm, p. 167 B. aXXoTi ovv iravTa tovtu av e'lri 

fji'ia TIC eiriaTYijjLr] ', Hipparch. p. 226 E. aXXoTi ovv o'lye 
ipiXoKep^eic (f)i\ovGi to Kep^oc; 'what? do not the greedy 
love gain?'** 

II. o SeTva differs in this respect from tic, as it refers not to 
an indefinite person or thing, but a definite one, whose name 
we either do not know, or do not choose to mention*. 

Interrogative Pronoun tic 
488. 1 . The interrogative pronoun tic is used in direct and in- 

* Pors. Add. ad Hec. p. 100. *• Herm. ad Viger. p.7S0, 109. 110. 
Schaef. ad Soph. Trach. 945. Elmsl. Comp. Heusde Spec, in Plat. p. 59. 
ad Arist. Ach. 574. Erf. ad Soph. Sluiter Lect. Andoc. p. 140. Stallb. 
Ant. 685. ed. min. ad Eutliyphr. p. 104. 

•' Valck ad Herod, p. 270, 35. ' Herm. ad Viger. p. 704, 24. 

* Wolf, ad Demosth. Lept. p. 230. 

Si/ntax. Of the Use of the bidejinite Pronouns. 813 

direct interrogation Soph. Aj. 794. in the latter oanc, also. 
Thus Soph. CEd. T. 71 seq. both are used : ujq irvOoiO' o tl 
cf)tjv 7) Tl (pwvtjv TTjv^e pvtraijULTjv TToXiv. — aacra is used like 
OffTtc //. K , 206. a(T(Ta T€ fxr)Tio(i)(Ji fxera (t(J)i(tiv. But if the 
person who is interrogated repeats the question before the 
answer, then otrrtc is used : Arist. Ran. 198. XAP. outoc, ti 
TTOteTc ; AION. o ri ttoiw; tl S aXXo y rj. Av. 698. <tu § el 
t/c avSptjjv ; 'OcTTiQ eifx eyto ; M^erojv. Plat. Huthyphr. 
p. 2 B. aAXa ^?7 TLva ypa(priv ere yey pawrai; 2Q. rjvTii^a ; 
ou/c ayevvri, e^oiye So/ceT. as ottoic answers to ttwc in the sauie 
case §. 611, 4.^ 

Obs. This ris appears to be used for the relative oans Soph. El. 
316. ujs vvv cLTTovTosy IffTopei Tl (Toi 0/'\oi^, if it be not a false reading for 

TO ffOl 0. 

2. It is often not at the beginning of the interrogation. Eur. 
Hipp. 524. Sei/naiveic Se ri; as Troad. 74. Here. F. 1249. 
Spaaeic ^e tl; comp. 330. Iph. J.. 671. aiTelc rl ; comp. 704, 
1459. Ion. 1031. ti rw^e ^prjaOe ; ^vvacjiv eK(j)epei r'lva ; 

3. Sometimes an interrogative proposition with r'l follows 
words which do not express a question but involve it, as Soph, 
Aj. 794. (oare p,* to^iveivri ({>ric, ut anxius expectem quid dicas^, 

4. t/c is sometimes used of two, consequently for Trore/ooc. 
Plat. Phileb. p. 52 D. ti ttote y^pr) (pavai irpoc, aXifieiav eivaiy 
TO KaOapov T€ Kai eiXiKpivec, n to aC^o^pa tc Kai to ttoXv &c. 
See Stallh. note, p. 168. 

5. Respecting the difference between t/c etiTt and ri. ecTt 
see §. 439. Hence also Soph. Trach. 311. riQ ttot el ve- 
avi^ijjv; avav^poc v reKovffa ; where the inquiry relates not to 
the class, vedvi^ea, but a subordinate division. Hence ti 
yev(jjpaij e. g. Msch. S. c, Th. 299. comp. 156. Eum. 791. 
821. Thuc. 2, 52. means 'what is to become of me?'** 

6. Sometimes this interrogative has the article : Aristoph. 

' Brunck ad Arist. Thesm. 630. *• Valck. ad Theocr. Adoniaz. 51. 

Heind. ad Plat. Hipp. p. 153. p. 360. Schaef. Melet. p. 98. Henn. 

» Erf. ad Soph. (Ed. T. 74. ed. inin. ad Vig. p. 730, 108. 

814 Sj/ntax, Of the Use of the Indefinite Pronouns, 

Nub, 776. aye ^rj ra^ewc tovti ^vvaprraaov. STPE"*!^. to ti ; 
Av, 1039. v6iJ,ovG i^eovc TjKw Trap v/maG ^evpo 7r(jj\r}(T0)v, IlEI. 
TO Tt; Comp. §. 265, 4. 

7. Sometimes ti as predicate, with eo-Ti following, is ac- 
companied by the subject in the neuter plural. Plat. Thec^t, 
p. 154 E. Tt TTOT eariv, a ^lavoovfieOa. ib. p. 155 C. Qavfxat,(s), 
Ti TTOT* loTi ravra. Plat. Phcadon. p. 58 C. Comp. j?. 93 C* 

8. Tt is often put for ^ta ti ; Svhat?' quid? for 'where- 
fore?' quare? Xen. Mem. S. 4, 2, 6. 0avjj,a(TT6v, ti irore ol 

j3ovXo/ierot KiOapi^eiv iKavoi yeveaOai Treiptjvrai ioq avve- 

vecTTaTa Troielv o ti av povXiouTai ayaOoi yeveaOai, So 6 ti 
for ^(OTi Thuc. 1, 90. In the poets ti xprjl^a is also used in 
this sense Eur. Heracl. 634. 647. 710. In this sense ti, es- 
pecially Tt ovVf is frequent, with a negative, in animated exhor- 
tations, e. g. Arist, Lysistr, 1103. ti ov KaXovfxev ^rjra Trjv 
AvffKTT parriv; ' why do we not call?' i. e. 'let us call imme- 
diately*. Plat. Phileb. p. 54 B.^ So ti §i; quid tandem? in 
the sense 'why not?' Xen. Mem. S. 4, 4, 20. 

9. Tt is found in many other combinations, especially with 
particles, to give greater animation to discourse, e. g. 

Tt yap ; quid enim ? * what then, what further?' to express 
that there is nothing wonderful in what has been said, often 
equivalent to ti yap ov ; Eur. Or. 482 seq. MeveXae, irpoG- 

(j)9eyyei viv, avoaiov Kapa ; ti yap ; (j)i\ov fxoi irarpoc, eariv 

eKyovoQ^. 'and further', in the continuation of questions, as 
Xen. Mem. S. 2, 6, 2. 3. 

Tt Se ; is used in interrogations expressive of wonder, ' how 
then?'^ partly in a transition to another subject §. 630, 2. or 
when questions are continued, as ti yap; Xen. Mem. S. 2, 1, 
3. 6, 4. 

" Heind. ad Plat. Gorg. p. 212. ad Stallb. ad Phil. p. 173 seq. Comp. 

Phaedon. in. Scliaef. ad Soph. El. 766. Jacobs ad Anth. Gr. p. 76. 

App. Dem. p. 276. Stallb. ad Eu- "^ Blomf. ad iKsch. Ag.263. Ilcrm. 

thyplir. p. 101. ad Vig. p. 729, 108. 

'' Ileind. ad Plat. Charm. §. 5. ** Valck. ad Eur. Hipp. 1109. 
Soph. p. 328. ad llor. Sat. p. 5. 

syntax. Of the Use of the Indejiiiite Pronouns. 815 

ri fJir]v; (properly 'and what else V qiiidaliud?) ' why not?' 
i. e. ' certainly'^. Plat. Phcedr. p. 229 A. B. opac ouv eKeivriv 
Trjv v\pr}\oraTr}v irXaravov ; Ti iJ,r]v ; Comp. Phileh. p. 17 B. 
An affirmative answer commonly follows, but not always, e. g. 
Plat, Phil p. 44 B. C. 

Ti ovv ^T] ; ' what do you mean by that ? how do you un- 
derstand that ?' P/a^ Gorg. j9. 453 B. 515 E. Me/2ow. ;?. 89 D. 

Tt OVV Bii ; wpoQ TI (^Xeirwv ^va^epaiveiQ avro ; also 

when the reason of a statement is inquired after, Gorg, j9. 497 D . 

1 0. Thus in Plato rl oleij ri oiojue0a are often found where 
ri does not connect itself with any other part of the proposition, 
but according to the construction is superfluous. Symp. 
j;. 2 1 1 E. ri SrJTa, e^ij, oiofmeOa, ei T(>j yevoiro avro to kuXov 
ISelv e'lXiKpiveQ dp oiei, e<|)?j, (j)avXov (5lov yiyveaOai; 

11. A negation is often more strongly expressed by a ques- 
tion, and thus ri is found in the same proposition with a ne- 
gative. Dem, pro Cor» p, 241, 29. eXavvoimeviov kqI v^piCofxkvii)v 
Kai Ti KaKOv ov^i iraa'^ovTijJV iraaa rj oiKov/neuri jxeoTii} 
yeyove Trpo^orcjv, for ovBev KaKov b ti ov tt. nihil non mali, i. e. 
omnia mala, perferentium. So JLur, Phoen, 906. riv ov ^pwv, 
TTOta S' oif Xeyijjv eVi?. See Matthia ad v. 878. 

So Ti aXXo ye, rJ or ei jU)) is used with a finite verb following 
for ov^ev aXXo, where we must not repeat the preceding or fol- 
lowing verb with ti aXAo, but supply in the mind a general verb 
y'lyverai, Trotw, Traff^u). Arist. Nub. 1495. avBpioire, ti ttoccTc; 

' O Tt TTottJ ; Tt S aXXoy t) ^laXeTTToXoyovfiai; Comp. Thuc. 

3, 52. Xen. Mem. S. 2, 3, 17.S So ov^ev aXXo rJ is used Plat, 
Crit, p, 50 A. Menon. p.76B. 80 A. 84 D. Comp. §. 487, 9. 

12. TIC with the word belonging to it is often used after 
the article, or the relative, or the conjunction, independently of 
the rest of the proposition, which cannot be the case in Latin 
or English, e. g. Plat, Prot, ^.312 C. D. eiric epoiro ii/tac, 

' Schaef. ad Soph. Trach. 390. pro S. Rose. §. 49. 

'Heind. ad Plat. Phaedr. p. 214. ^ Dcvar. dc Partic. p. 343. ed. 

Of a similar phrase Quid censes in Ueusinann Hcind. ad Plat. Phaedon. 

Cic. see Matlhiae Not. ad Cic. Or. §. ?0. p. 32. 


816 Sj/ntax. Of the Use of the Indejinite Pronouns. 

T(j^v Ti ffo(j)(jJv eiaiv oi ^wypac^oi €7ri<Trr)iuov€Q, eiiroifxev av ttov 

avTi^f on Tijjv irpoQ rriv cnrepyatTiav ttjv rtSv eiKOPtJV. o oe 

<jo(j)i(TTric T(jjv Ti aocptjv €(7Ti; Theag. p, 125 B. ei ovv epoiro 
TIC Tov ^vpiTTidrfv, Twv Tt GO<p(jjv (Twovaio. (priQ ao(j)ovG eivai 
TOVG Tvpavvovc; 'in what must their wisdom consist, from 
whose society tyrants learn wisdom?' Sj/mp. p. 206 A. B. 
Ttijv Tiva rpoTTOv ^itJKovrtJV avTOv Kai ev tivi npd^ei i) (nrov^rj 
Kai Tj avaraGiQ epiDc av Ka\o7ro ; Comp. Xen. Mem. S. 2, 2, 1. 
After the relative P/fl^. Theag. p. 123 D. ri ffocpia ric, eanvy 
if Tivoc eirKTrafieOa apyeiv ; ' and what do we understand how 
to govern by its means V Comp. ih. E. Also after conjunctions : 
Plat. Hipp. Maj. p. 288 A. (according to the correction of 
Schleiermacher) Tavra iravra, a ^riQ KaXa eivai, ei tl ecrriv 
avTO TO KaXov, ravr av eir\ KoXa ; * what must beauty itself 
be, in order that these may be beautiful?' Xen. Mem. S. 1, 
4, 14. oravTi 7roir}(7(jj(Tif vojuLielci avTOvc (tov (ppovri^eiv ; es- 
pecially with the participle. So also Soph. Aj. 77. ti prj 
yevriTai; with Schaefer's note, ib, 107. Plat. Gorg. /?. 488 C. 
with Heind. note. Comp. Ale. 1. p. 106 C. After conjunctions 
and the relative Plat. Phcsd. p. 105 B. lo av ri auyfjLari e-yye- 
vriraiy Oepfjiov eorai ; ' what must there be in the body in order 
that it may be warm?' Also twice in the same proposition in 
different cases. Plat. Rep. 1. p. 332 C. D. Dem. pro Cor. 
p. 249, 8. eJcTa^eo-Oat, tic tivoq a'lrioQ eari; ' who is guilty, 
and of what? ' — Of interrogatives in the participial construction 
see §. 567. 

Ohs. 1 . Other interrogatives and relatives are used in the same way, 
when they have the sense of interrogatives. Herod. 3, 42. ypacpei es 
(3ift\ivy iravTOi ra (1. e. a) iroir^aavTa /j-iv oia KaraXeXaftijKee. Soph. 
CEd. T. 1401. ctjoa juov p.efxvqaG' 6 ri, oV epya dpciffas vfxiv elra ^evp' Itjy 
oTToV eirpaacroy avdis; Track, 1044.*^ Comp. ^j. 503. Hence Soph, 

QUid. T. 1526 seq. octtis ets oaov K\v^u}va avjx^opds kXi]\vdev (where 

the words els oaov k\. a, eX. should properly depend on XevVo-erc 
ver. ]524. but have been attracted to the proposition with octtis). So 
two interrogatives are found together Plat. Phil. p. 54 A. irorepov ovv 
TovTioy €V€Ka TTOTcpov ; with Stallbaum's note p. 1 72. 

* lleind. ad Plat. Hipp. M. p. I'lO. Schneider ad Xen. 1. c. 

»' Reiz ad Viger. p. 731, 112. ' Monk ad Eur. Ale. U5. 

syntax. Interchange of the Pronouns. 817 

Obs. 2. ris is also united in one proposition with other interrogatives, 
as in the Homeric formula ris iroQev eaai, where a point is usually 
placed after tIs. Eur. Heracl. 662. Plat. Ion. p. 530 A. tto/s tL vyu)- 
viau) ; and vice versa Phileb. p. 58. av Be ri ttws ^la/cpiVois av"*. 

Of the 

Rejiective Pronoun 

see §. 147. Obs.]. 

T 9 tt 

OV, 01, € 

Interchange of the Pronouns. 

I. Personal and possessive pronouns. Of reo to for aelo see 

§. 145, 3. So Od. /3', b5. r{ , 301. Horn. if. in Merc. 370. 489. 
€C v/jLerepov for ec vpertpov^, eoQ is sometimes used for the 
pronoun of the first and second person in the poets, epoc, (toc, 
&c. : Od. V, 320. aXX aiei (ppeaiv igcriv e.yu)v ^eSaiypevov 
r)rop r]\u)pr\Vj for efxal.c,. Od, a, 320. ^wjuacrti' oicriv avaffCTOiQ, 

for (ToTc. //. fc , 398. rj <pvl^iv j^ovXevoiTe pera rT(^iaiVy 

for fxed vjuuv. eoc for Gi^erepoQ Hesiod, ' E/Qy. 58. w /cei^ otTrai/rec 
TepTTiovrai Kara Ovpou, iov kokov afx(payaTrijJVTec and vice 
versa acperepoc for eoc id. Scut, Here. 90. oq wpoXiTriov ^(pe- 
T€p6v re ^opov (T^erejoouc re ro/c^aq w^ero . 

II. The reflective pronoun eavrov for the other personal pro- 
nouns compounded with auroc- Soph. OEd, C. 853. comp. 1356. 
Plat. Phadon. p, 91 C. avrireivere evXa^ovfjLevoiy ottwc jxr) eyw 

UTTO irpodv^iac, apa eavrov re Kai vpac e^aTrarrjcjaQ 

oiyr)(joiJiai, for efxavrov, Thuc. 1, 82. Ta avrSv apa eKiropi' 
^wjiteOa, for 7]p<jjv avT(s)v. Plat, Phcsdon. p. 78 B. ^et Tj/xac 
avepeaSai eavrovc, where 17/uaq is the accusative of the subject 
to avepecrOat. ^sch, Agam, 1308. ei ^ errjTVfxujG fxopov rov 
avTrjc olGBa, ttwc wpoQ (^(jjpov evroXpioc narelc; for aav- 

^ Of TTws tI Heind. ad Plat. Hipp. p. 306. 
Maj. p. 166. Stallb. ad Phil. p. 191. * Jen. A. L. Z. 1809. n. 247. 

On the whole Obs. Seidl. ap. Herm. p. 159 note. 

ad Ant. 2. Herm. ad Soph. A j. 1164. ' Wolf Proleg. ad Horn. p. 247 sqq. 

Reisig Comm. Crit. ad .'5oph. CEd. C. Fisth. 2. p.TM ^q. 

818 Syntax, Of the Verb. 

Tr\Q, Plat, Protag. p. 3 1 2 A. gv ^e ovk av aiGyyvoio etc rove 
' ¥iWr]vac avrov (to0«7t?7»^ 7ra/oe)(a)v; Comp. Amat. p. 136 D. 
Alcib. 2. p. 143 C. Xen, Cyr, 6, 3, 27. Mschin. in Ctesiph, 
p. 551. Demosth. Olynth, p. 9, 13. avrtjv for vjuitjv avrojv^, 

Ohs. Where avros seems to be put for eyw, cv, ///leTs, &c. the truth 
is rather that these pronouns are omitted. See §. 470. 

III. The reflective pronoun iavrtjv and the reciprocal pronoun 
a\\r}X(i)v. Soph. Antig. 145. KaO avrolv ^iKparelc Xoyvac 
(TrriffavT , e^erov koivov Oavarov ^epoc, aix^u), for /car' aWy]- 
\oiv. Plat. Par men. p. 134 A. aura avrtjjv Kai irpoQ avra 
eKelva eari, for aXXqXcjv Kai irpoQ aWrjXa. On the other hand^ 
the reciprocal pronoun is put for the reflective Thuc. 3, 81. oi 

TToXXoi Tcuv iKerwv Si€(f)0€ipav avrov ev tw lept^ aXX^- 


Of the Yerb, 

490. By transitive verbs are here meant, according to the distri- 
bution §. 156. in contradistinction to neuter diud deponent werhs, 
those which are capable of determining various relations of the 
subject, to which the action belongs, to an object or person. 
These have three kinds, the active, passive, and middle. As 
the effect of the active consists in determining the case which 
it governs, what has been said of the use of the cases is suffi- 
cient to illustrate the active. The Greeks often use the active 
of objects which are not produced by the activity of any agent, 
but come by nature, as (j)v€iv o^ovrac, Trwywva, (ppevaQ, 'to get 
teeth', &c. Hence Soph. CEd. C. 150. aXatJv ojLijuaTtjjv dpa 
Kai riaOa ^uraXfiioc, i. e. ap aXaa ofxfxara k(f)V(TaQ or ap aXaoQ 
7re<^u/cac; See Herm. ad loc. So Eur. Hipp. 1327. ei fxri rac, 
cbpevac ^ie(j)Oop€V Ovrjrijjv offoiaiv av^avei ixovapyia^ for ei /u?) 
(ppkvcQ Si€(j)9apfuievai elaiv. Comp. Med. 99. 

The passive, if we follow the analogy of other languages, 
takes properly as its subject the immediate object of the active, 

" Dorv. ad Char. p. 296. ^ Ilcmstcrh. in Obbs. Mijc. 10. }>. 209. 

Si/Jitax\ Of the Verb, 819 

which with this voice was in the accusative : the subject of the 
active, on the contrary, is joined with the passive by means of 
the preposition vno with the genitive (rarely otto, e. g. Time, 
3, 36. aXXai yv^fxai acj) eKaariov eXeyovro, Comp. Herod. 2, 
54. 5, 17.), or irpoc, with the genitive. Frequently, however, 
it stands in the dative also, with or without vtto (§. 395.), as 
with the verbals in -reoc, e. g. 'A^iXXeuq Kreivei tov ''Eacto/oo. 
' EiKT(M)p Kreiverai utto (Trpoc,) 'A^iXXewc, in the poets ' A^tXXrji 
(vir' 'Ay^.) e3a/i>/. The dative is very frequently put with the 
perf. pass, of verbs whose perf. act. is not much used, e. g. 
l^i^Xpi TOVTOv vijuv TreTTaiaOu). ravra XeXc/crat vfjuv, for XeXe^^a 


In Greek, however, the object also, which was in the geni- 
tive or dative with the active, may become the subject of the 
passive. Plat. Rep, S. p» 558 A. avOpujTrojv KaTa\pri(l}iGBevr(x}v 
Oavarov ri (j)vyrj c, from KaTa\pr}(j)it€aOai tivoq Oavarov. Xen, 
Hist. Gr, 5, 2, 36. Kal eKelvoa /j,ev KarexprjCpiaOrt, — Plat. 
IHii^mp. p, 196 C. eXvai o/noXoyeLTai (JU)(ppoavvr] to KpaTel.v 
r}covtJif Kai eiriOvinKjJv/ EjOwtoc ^e /nrj^einiav Yi^ovrjv Kpeirruj 
elvai' ei 8e tjttouo, Kparolur av utto tou ' E/owtoc, o ^e Kpa- 
rol, Comp. Xen, H. Gr. 5, 4, 1. — Plat, Euthyd, p, 273 C. 
eiTTiov OX) V ravra Kare(^povi}dr\v vir avrov. Comp. Rep, 8. 
p, 556 D. Isocr, ad Phil, p. 1 1 B. — Thuc, 1, 68. pkyiara 
eyKXrjiiiara ey^opeifj vtto jnev AOrjvaitJv v^piCofxevoi, viro ^e 
v/Liwv a/ueXovjuLevoi, Plat, Rep, 8. p. 551 A. Comp. ib. 10. 
p. 613 A. — Thuc, 3, 61. ovk r)^tovv ovroi riyeinoveveaOai 
v(p ri/uLU)v. — Herod. 7, 144. at ^e vrj^c, ec ro ij.ev efroiriOrjffav, 
OVK ky^pr](jdr]Gav, from 'y^prjaOal rivi. — Thuc. 1, 82. aveiri' 
(j)0ovovj Off 01 lijcnrep Kai "npelc; vir' *AOr}ifai(i)v eiri^ovXev- 

6/.ie0a ^laawOrjvai, comp. 4, 61. Plat. Alcib. 2. p, \4:\ D, 

Thuc. 6, 54. TO Apiaroyeirovoc, Kai ApfxoSiov roXjurf/na ^i 
epijjriKriv ^vvrvy^iav eTre^eiprjOri, id. 7, 70. ^vvervyyave 
ra pev aXXotc CjUjSejSXrjfcevat, ra ^e avrovQ e^j3ej3X^- 
auai, Xen, H, Gr, 2, 3, 35. e/ceTi/oi e(j)acrav, wpocrra- 
')^Oevra pe v(p>' eavr tjv ovk aveXeaOai, &c. Comp. Soph, 
Antig, 670. Thuc, 5, 75. 7, 70,— Xen. Mem. S, 4, 2, 33. 
rfaXa/Ltijoni/ Travrec, vpvovaiv, Hjc, cia <To(l>iav (jyOovr^Oelc vtto 
rov O^vaaewQ cnrwX^ro. Isocr. ad Dem. />. 8 C. fii<j€i mvr. 

820 Sifutax. Of the Verb, 

KoXaKevovrac,, uxnrep rove e^airarwvraQ' a/ui^oTepoi yap 
TTicTTevOevTeQ Tovc TTKTTevffavrac (vulg, iriffTevovrac) a^iKov- 
aiv, id, ad Phil. p. 92 A. oi Aa/ceSacjUoi^toi aTriffrovvTai 
VTTo 7ravT(ov Tle\o7rovvrfGL(jt)v, Xen. Mem. S. 2, 6, 11. Comp. 
Soph. (Ed. C. 1193.^ Pindar even says 01. 1, 154 seq. ra- 
'^rac, TTo^tJiv epiCerai, although in epiCeiv Tayyrriri the dative 
only answers to the question Mn what? ' §. 400. Xen. Mem. S. 
2, 6, 8. 

It has been noticed before, §. 424 seq. that the passive takes 
an accusative also. From a union of this idiom with the fore- 
going arise the phrases explained in §. 424, 3. e. g. Eur. 
Rhes. 539. tlq eKripv^drj 7rpu)Tr]v (j)v\aKr}v ; from Kripvacreiv 
Tivi (f)vXaKriv. Thuc. 5, 37. ol KopivOioi ravra CTreo-TaX- 
fxevoi. Plat. Tim. p. 60 C. to ^e vtto irvpoQ irayovc, to vore- 
pov irav e^apiraaOeVj for w to vorepov e^rjpTraaOri. Xen, Hier, 
I, 19. o Traparidefxevoc, TroXXa, unless TrapariOefjievoQ be rather 
the middle voice in this place. 

491. The proper signification of the middle is most evident in the 
aorists, particularly the aor. 1 . In the present and imperfect 
the distinction between the passive and middle is often indeter- 
minate in the signification, as the form in both is exactly the 
same. The fut. middle has usually the sense of the active, 
also of the passive ; and what is called the perf. middle, more 
properly the perf. 2. active, never has the signification of the 

The peculiar signification of the middle is the reflective, where 
the action returns upon the subject of it. 

a. The chief characteristic consists in the subject of the 
action being at the same time the proper immediate object of 
it, so that the middle is exactly equivalent in signification to 
the active, joined with the corresponding reflective personal 
pronoun : e. g. Xouw ' I wash another', Xovo/uai, i. q. \ovlo 
efxavToVf ' I wash myself, airkyeiv ' to withhold another', 
mid. aireyeadaij airocry^eaOai, i. q. aire^eiv eavrov. 

Many middle verbs receive a genuine intransitive significa- 

* Dorv. ad Charit. p. 576. 

Syntax. Of the Verb. 821 

tion, e. g. naveiv riva rivoQ, avocare alium, iraveaOai, se ipsum 
avocarCj ' to make oneself abstain', i. e. ' to desist'. Thus ark\- 
Xetv ' to send', arkWeadai ' to travel*, e. g. Herod. 4, 147. TrXa- 
teiv ' to make another wander', irXaC^aQai ' to wander', &c. 
(j)o(5eLV ' to put to flight, to terrify', (j>ol^elaOai ' to fly, to be 

Of these verbs, some are referred to an object, and are 
transitive, either because the active may take a double accu- 
sative, as nepaiovv riva irorafxov ' to convey one over a river', 
mid. irepaiovadai nora/jLov ' to pass a river' ; or when the action, 
which is properly intransitive, is considered in relation to an 
object (§. 411.), e. g. <poj3el(T9ai riva 'to fear any one'. 

h. More frequently, however, the subject of the action is 492. 
the remote object of it, with reference to which it takes place ; 
so that the middle is equivalent to the active, with the dative 
of the reflective pronoun ejUauTw, aeavrio, eavno, e. g. aipeiv 
* to take up anything for another, in order to transfer it to an- 
other', aipeadai ' to take up, in order to keep it oneself, to 
transfer to oneself'^. a(j)atpe7v 'to take anything from an- 
other', a(f)aip€7(jOai ' to take anything for oneself, in order to 
retain or use it' ^. ^ovXovVy KaradovXovVj ' to subject anything 
to another', e. g. JEsch. S. c. Th. 256. aur?? av SouXoTq Kai /ne 
Ka\ iraaav ttoXiv, KaTa^ovXovaQai 'to subject oneself'^, ev^veiv 
' to put anything on another', ev^veaOai ' to put on oneself '. 
Xen. Cyr. 6, 4, 2. of Abradatas ; eTret S' e/ueXAe tov Xivovv 
6u)paKa evSvecrOaiy 7rpo<T<pep€i avrw r; UavOeia '^pvaovv, Kpa- 
voQ &c. §.3. ravra §e Xeyoutra aiaa eve^ve to. oirXa^. c[)v- 
Xarreiv 'to watch any one, to observe', (j)vXaTTe(TOai 'to ob- 
serve anything to one's advantage (dat. commodi), in order to 
avoid it'^ So oirov^ac,, eipi]vr)v iroielaOai (§. 421. Obs. 2.) 
when the action concerns the subject, iroieiv Arist. Pac. 212. 
1 199. ' to make a peace for others' 5. 

•• Dawes Misc. Crit. p. 235. s Poppo ad Xen. Cyr. 2, 3, 1. 3, 

<= Brunck ad Arist. Piut. 1140. 1, 4. Stallb. ad Plat. Phil. p. 177. 

** Hemsterh. ad Thorn. M. p. 249. Comp. Matthiae ad II. Ilom. in 

• Brunck ad Arist. Thesm. 252. Merc. 77. 
' Dorv. ad Charit. p. 469. 

822 Syntax. Of the Verb, 

Hence the middle is used when the passive object is any- 
thing belonging to the subject of the verb ; generally, for 
almost any relation which the object bears to the subject of 
the action : e. g. Trepipprj^ai '^irtjva signifies * to tear the gar- 
ment of another', Trepippri^aaOai '^, ' to tear one's own gar- 
ment* ^. Soph. Olid. T. 1021. a\X avTL rov ^rj Trai^a jn' tjvo^ 
fxaCero, * called me his son'. Xveiv, ' to return anything to any 
one for a ransom' ; XveoOai, ' to receive back anything that 
belongs to one'. //. a, 13, 19, 29. Plat. Menex. p. 243 C. 
Thus OeaOai voimovc is said of a legislator who submits himself 
to the laws which he has made, or of a free state which enacts 
laws for itself. Xen. Mem. S. 4, 4, 19. Comp. Plat. Leg. 7. 
p. 820 E.^ The same distinction obtains between ypatpeiv and 
ypaxpacjOai vofxovc Xen. Mem. S. 1,2, 45. oaoi oi oXiyoi toTc 
TToXXoTc jmrj 7reiaavT€Cf aWa Kparovvrec ypat^ovaiy irorepov 
j3mv (^wjxev r) fxi] <p(S/uL€v eivai. On the other hand CEcon. 9, 14. 
ovK apKCLv ^oKel ToTc TToXtVaic, 17V vofAOvc, KaXoijQ y paxptovrai. 

c. The middle often expresses an action which took place at 
the command of the subject, consequently with regard to it, 
which is expressed in English by 'to cause'. Herod. 1, 31. 
Apyeioi (T(^ett»»/ eiKovac Troir\aaixevoi avkQeaav er, AeX<|)ovc 
' caused statues to be made'. Xen. Cyr. 6, 4, 2. of Panthea : 

e7roir?(TaTO OTrXa. ih. §. 3. Herod. 7, 100. 'Bep^riQ ^te^e- 

\avv(t)v eir apfxaroQ wap eOvoQ ev e/cacrTOP, eirvvOavero, Kai 

direypaCpov ol ypafifxariarai. ev^avra o Se/o^ijc, 

TrapeirXee irapa rai; irpwpac tujv veuyv, €7reipu)T(x)v re eKaoraa 
ofioiwc, Koi rov ireCov kql a7roypa(j)6p.€voCy 'causing them to 
be registered' (comp. Xen. Hist. Gr. 6, 3, 19.), a distinction 
which Plutarch Themist, 13. does not observe. Hence ypa- 
(peadai riva ' to accuse', properly ' to cause the name, as of an 
accused person, to be taken down in writing by the magistrate 
before whom the process is carried', nomen deferre. Si^a<TK€iv 
' to teach', Si^aaKecrOai * to cause to be taught'. Eur. Med. 
296 sq. wprj S' ovTToO' , oariQ apTi(j)p(x}v ttc^v/c avi)p, nalSac 

"" Hemsterh. Obss. Misc. 5. 3. ^ Wolf ad Dem.Lept. Prol. p. 127 

p. 64. Valck. et Wessel. ad Herod. note. Baeckh in Plat. Min. p. 94. 
3, 66. p. 230, 37. 

Si^ntax. Of the Verb. 823 

7repi(Ta(jJC eK^i^acTKeaOai GO(j)ovc^. Thuc, 1, ISO.of Pau- 
sanias : rpairetav Tl€p(TiKriv irapeTiOero, as Xen. Ilier. 1, 19, 
20. So yapeiv nva * to marry' of the man ; yrjiuLaGOai, literally 
' to cause oneself to be married' of the, woman. 

d. The perf. pass, is used as a perf. mid. in verbs which do 493. 
not occur merely in the middle form, but have in this form only 
the sense required for the occasion. Soph, Antig. 363. voowv 
a/mri^avwv (jyvyaQ ^v/uTre^^aara (. Xen, Anab, 5, 2, 9. oi 
fxavreiQ airo^e^eiy fikvoi r)Gav, on P'O.yj] f^^v e\r], to oe 
TcXoc KoXov rrjc €(^6dov. Isocr, Areop, p, 147 B. rrJQ evKoap'iaQ 

olov T r\v ixeraayjEiv roTq ttoXXtjv apeTrjv Kai <yu)(j)p0'- 

avvrjv ev rw j3tw ev^e^eiy jULevoiQ. Plat, Euthi/phr. in. ypa- 
(j)r}v ae tic,, wc eoiKe, yeypanTai. Thuc. 3, 90. eTvyov cvo 

(l)v\ai Tiva Kal eve^pav Treiroiripevai, Comp. Plat, 

Prot, p. 328 B. Rep. 8, p. 556 C. Dem. pro Cor. p. 259, 23. 
Xen. Cyr. 7, 2, 12. ^laireTrpayimai irapa (tov pr] iroirjaai 
apirayy]v, Isocr. ad Phil. p. 86 B. Herod. 3, 136. irape' 
aK€va(TjLievoi iravTu eVXeov ec, ttji/ EXXci^a. Xen. Mem. S» 
4, 2, 1. KaTapaOu)v EuOuSr/^oi/ ypaj-ifxaTa TroXXa avveiXeype- 
vov woiriTOJV. id. Anab. 4, 7, 1. \(i)pia iokovv layypa oi Tao- 
\oi, ev oiQ KQL TO. eTTiTrjdeia iravTa ei^ov avaKeKOfxiajjievoi. 
ih. 5, 6, 12. 01 fxev av^pec ypriVTaL iropeiav, riv vpelc, avppov- 
Xevere. I}emosth. in Phorm. p. 958, 13. tyiv juev \e\vaai, 
Tr}v S eK^e^ioKac eTaipav. Thuc. 6, 36. ovk avTOvc eiKoc, tou 
€K€L iroXepov priirio /3ej3aiwc KaTaXeXvfjievovc, en aXXoi' 
TToXe/iiov eXOetv. Eurip. Iph. A, 1279. Ou Mei'eXewc fxe /cara- 
oeSouXwrac, t^kvov^. 

The aor. pass, is used as a middle perhaps only in eTpriOr^v 
Eur. Troad. 484. 

Of the Perf 2. (Perf. Middle) and Put. Middle. 

I. The perf. 2. has, 1. in some verbs a sense entirely transi- 494'. 
live, e. g. eKTOva {aneKTOva), aKr]Koa {r}K0VKa is merely Doric), 

« Thorn. M. p. 265. Kiister ad ad Plat. Prot. p. 517. Elnisl. ad Med. 

Aristoph. Nub. 1341. Valc.k. ad 299. 

Amm. p. 70. Ruhnk. ad Tim. •* Musgr. ad Eur. Med. 1139. 

p. 83 sq. Ast ad Plat. Leg. p. 428. Fisch. 3 b. p. 6'2 sq. Viger. p. 216. 

Schaef. ad Theocr. p. 223. 229. Of ubi v. Z. et Herm. p. 748, 166. 

?<Sa(r*:€ivand3i^a<r»c€(y0atseeHeind. Blomf. Gl. Agara. 252. 

824 Sifutax, Of the Verb. 

etTTTOpa, XeXonra, ire(f>€vya IL (j)', 609. Od. a, 12. &c. ol^a, 
TreTTOfBa, reroKa, ecrropya Herod. 7, 104. and the poetic 
OTTWTTa, 7re(j)paSe, Se^opKa, eopya, 7re7r\r}ya, XeXoy^a, The 
perf. act. of these verbs are not in use, probably on account of 

2. In most verbs, however, this perf. 2. has an intransitive 
signification. This is self-evident in verbs which are of them- 
selves intransitive or neuter, as epyofxai, eXriXvOa, eO(jj, eiwOa, 
e'lKU)^ eoiKa, KpaZ^d), KeKpaya, o^w, b^tu^a, &c. But in many 
verbs also which have a transitive signification in the active, 
the intransitive is substituted in the perf. 2. as, 

ayvvfiL * I break', perf. 2. eaya ' I am broken' *. 
eyeipix) ' I wake another', eyprjyopa ' I awake'. 
eXnu) ' I give hope', Od. j3', 91. eoXira ' I hope'. 

oXXvjUi 'I destroy, lose', perf. 1. oXwAe/ca. perf. 2. oXwXa 
' I am undone, lost', peril. 

ireiOu) 'I persuade', perf. act. TreTreifca. perf. 2. ireiroiOa, 'I 

rely upon, trust, believe'. 

Tn)yvvfxi * I affix', ireirriya ' I am fixed', irifixus sum. 

irpdcTffu), perf. 1. irkirpaya * I have done', perf. 2. weTrpaya, 
e. g. eu, KaKdjQ, ^ I have been fortunate, unfortunate' ^, 

prjyvviJLi ' I break, rend', eppwya * I fall to pieces', intrans. 
Flat. Fhadon. p. 86 A. 

(T^TTw * I corrupt, make putrid', ^ovpa ako-qTre vetjv II. j3', 135. 
* are rotten'. 

TriK(i) ' I liquefy, melt', to Kai KXaiovaa rerriKa IL y , 176. 
consumta sum. 

^aivu) ' I show', irecprjva ' I have appeared'. Eurip. Iph. A. 
973. Troad. 615. 

* From avoiyu) ' I open', the Attics an intransitive sense, * standing open', 

have perf. 1. a^^ewx"? avewy/xat, See Thorn. M. p. 71. Graev. ad Luc. 

imperf. aveayyovy kveoyyofiriy Plat. T. 9. p. 486. Lob. ad Phryn. 

Phaedon. p.*59 D. Xen. H. Gr. 6, p. 157 sq. Meineke ad Menandr. 

4, 7. only later Atticists and un-Attic p. 77. 
writers used the perf. 2. avc^yws in *" Buttm. L. Gr. 2. p. 222. 

Syntax, Of the Verb. 825 

To this class also belongs Od. \p', 237. ttoXXt/ Be wepl Xpo\ 
TeTpo(j)€v aA^r/, 'has accumulated, condensed itself. In 
some verbs the perf. 2. has both a transitive and intransitive 
or passive sense, as in SiecpOopa, which the older Attics use 
for Sie(j)6apKa, the un-Attic writers, as Hippocrates, and even 
Homer 11. o', 128. and the Attics, for Bie(j)9apiuLai^. Sophocles 
EL 1120. uses KEKevOe transitively; (Ed. C. 1523. A7it. 911. 
intransitively. In others the two perfects are distinguished in 
a different manner in the signification. Thus jnevu) has ixefxk- 
vrjKa in the perf. 1. 'I have remained'; in the perf. 2. fxep,ova 
(poet.) * I persevere, am zealous in anything' ; also transitive, 
/Liejuiove B oye Iffa OeoiGiVj molitur, 

II. What are called the fut. mid. are properly simpler forms 
of the fut. pass. Hence they are found commonly, a. as fut. 

pass, as //. V , 100. Bavfia o ovttot eyioye reXevTrjffe- 

(jOai €(pa(JKov, Soph. Ant. 210. Ti/Lirifferai. ib. (S90. crrepr]- 
(jerai. El. 1248. kokov ov irore X}](j6ili€vov. Eur. Hipp.95]. 
€<^oyKw(T€Tai. Suppl. 523. eTTira^ojueaOa Brj. Herod, 5, 35. 
/ieT77(Te<T0at. Thuc» 1, 142. K<jj\v(TOVTai, eaaofxevoi. 

h. As futures of deponents, as Li/s. c. Erat. p. 124, 21. kol 
v/uLaQ rjyovvTO nepi tu)v fueWovruyu ovk ev6vp.rj(7€<T6ai. As many 
perfects of deponents have both passive and active meaning, 
a(^aipr]ao^ai has commonly an active, but also a passive mean- 
ing. Herod. 5, 35. Eur. Troad. 1288. w Tpola, to k\€ivov 
ovofx a^aipr](jei raya. 

c. Several verbs take in the fut. the form of deponents, and 
their fut. mid. is used as a fut. act. §. 184. Obs. 1. Comp. 
§. 495, d. These are also sometimes used passively, as iroXiop^ 

It is rarely that deponents have in the fut. the common form 
of the passive, as eirip.eXr^Oriffoiuievoc; Xen. Mem. S, 2, 7, 8. See 
§. 495, b. 

Obs. It was noticed §. 181. Obs. that the fut. 1. mid. is very often 
found for the active, and is the only fut. in use in some active verbs. It 
is often put also for the passive, of which hereafter. 

<^ Thom. M. p. Q30 sqq. et Interpr. ad Luc. t. 9. p. 452 sq. Markl. ad Eur. 
Mueris, p.l27. Amnion. p.41. Graev. Iph.T.719. Lob. ad Phryn. p.l60sq. 


826 Syntax. Of the Verb. 

495. The deponent verbs are to be distinguished from the middle; 
the former having the form of passives but the sense of actives 
or neuters, e. g. aiaQavofxai, 8e^o/xai, yiyvojuiai, Seoftat, ^vva/mai, 
epya^ofxai, epyojxai, i)yeojuiai, juaiVo^iai, fxayofxaiy ^pao/iat, and 

a. These have commonly in the perf. the form of the passive, 
in the aorist that of the middle : as aiGQavofxai, yaOriimai, yaOo- 
fxr\v. aiTTOfxaij -qix^ai, rixpa/Liriv, ^e'^ojuaiy ^e^ey/naif eSe^ajUi/v 
(but virodeyOeiQ Eur. HeracL 760.). yiyvofxai, yeyevrf/xai and 
yeyova, eyevojuvv. ^eoiJLai, e^erjOrjv. eTricr/ceTTTOjuai -eo-zceju^ai 
'eaKexpafiriv. epya'Cofxai, e\ (also pass. §.493. Obs.), etp- 
yaaa^riv. Tiyeofxaiy r)yr\fxaiy r]yr\<jafxr]v. f^iayofxai, fxefxayi^fxai, 
e/LLtt'^ecTafiriv. fxr]yavii)fxaiy fxefiy)yjoivr]fxai, eiir)yj[xvr]aajJL7]v , GKeirro- 
fxaij eaKefjLfjLaiy eGKeipa/nrjv. TeKfiaipojuai, TereKfxapraij ercKfxripa- 
fXYiv, yapiZpfjLaiy Keyjapia^aij eyapiaafjir\v. '^prjcjOai, Key^pr]fxai, 
ey^priGa/j.rjv (^(jOTjo-^rJvat only in the sense 'obtain an oracle'; 
once pass. Herod. 7 . 144. Soph. Q^d. C. 355.^) epyofxai, eXrj- 
\v6a has an aor. of the active form, riXOov, as oiyoiiai, a perf. 
oiyjjJKa. fnaivo/nai, fxefxr^va, ifxavriv. Of ^vva/naij ^€^vvifiJ,ai, r}^v- 
vr}6rtif, the aor. 1. mid. eSwriGa/nYiv is less common. 

According to this analogy Homer says for €j3»i, e^v, ef^rjaaro, 
e^vffaro II. k, 513, 517,^ 

b. Other verbs, many of which have also an active form, but 
occur in particular senses only in the passive, consequently as 
deponents, have generally along with the perf. pass, also the 
aor. pass, as aicryyveaOai, ycryyvOriv. ajuiWaaOai, riiLn\Xr}Oj]v in 
Euripides. airaWarTO/jiai, cnrrjWayiuaiy airriWaj^Oriv and cnrrjX- 
XayY]Vy not airr]XXai^afxr]v . ayOecrOai, riydkadr\v, SiaXeyeaOai, 
^leXeYOriv {^leXe^afxrjv only in Homer). ^lavoeiaOai, ^lavcvotjjiiai 
Xen. Mem. S. 3, 3, 7. Sievoi]Oriv. evavnovaOai, rjvavruoOrjv. 
evOviLielaOai, evredvfxrifxaij eveOvjmr^Otjv. eireiyeaOai, eirei-^OeiQ 
Thuc.3,3, ewip-eXeicFOai, eTrefjLeXrjOr^v, fut. eTrijuLeXriOriaoiuievoi Xen. 
Mem. S. 2, 7, 8. €uw)(^eTa0at, evto'^'nOiiv. KaraKXiveaOai, Kare- 
kXiOtiv and KareKXivriv {Arist. Nub. 694. Plat. Symp. p. 2 13 

^ Herm. ad Soph. Ant. 24. ed. sec. supposes, a difference between the 

but XP^^^V Dem. Mid. p. 519, 29. forms kftiiaaro and efViaero, edv- 

seems to be from XP"^ ' ^^ lend'. aaTO and e^vccro. 

'' Buttmann L. Gr. 1. p. 418 note. 

Syntax. Of the Verb. 827 

C. E. 219 B. 222 E.). KaTaTrXriTrecrOai, intrans. KareirXayriv. 
KoifxaaQai, eKoi/j,i)9r}u (in Homer also efcot^ijo-a/urjv, e. g. /c , 99.). 
jLivao/iiai, iAkfjLvr)f.Lai, e/uvijaOr^v (in Homer also eixvr)Gafxr]v). oio- 
fxai, loiiOriv. opf^iaaQai (in Homer also op/LLricraaOai, e. g. //. , 
511.). TreiOeaOai ^ ohey\ e.ireiaQr]v. TreipaaOai, eTreiprjOrjv (in 
Homer also netpvaaaOat, e. g. //. ^', 435. Herod. 3, 152. 
7, 106. 135.). irepaiovaOai, errepauoOriv. 7r\a^€(j9ai, ewXay- 
y9r]v, TTOpeveaOaij enopevOriv. irpodvp-eiadai, TrporeOvjuriinai, 
npovOvfiriOrjv. (j)of3€la6aij e(j)of3r}0r]v. y^aXeiraiveaOai, e^aXe- 
TrdvSrjv. The reason is, that most of these verbs denote a passive 
state, and some, as evityyeladai, irepaiovaOai, (^ojSetcr^at, are 
really passives. 

Some other verbs imitate this : e. g. (j)pdtea9ai has commonly 
ecppaffdixr^v, but Od. e, 183. Eiir. Hec. 550. e(^pdaOr]v. ein- 
vorjOrjvai Herod. 6, 115. ajueif^eaOai, commonly rj/neixpafiriv, 
but Pifid. Pyth. 4, 180. a/ui€i(j)Ori. fxefxC^eGBai, commonly e^e^- 
\pdfxy]Vy but efxejuiCJyOrj Pind. Isthm. 2, 30. ae(^eaOai, eaecpOriv 
Sophocles (Br. Lex. Soph. s. h. v.) Plat. Phcsdr. p. 254 B. 
So eGTpaT€v9r}v Pind. Pyth. 1, 98. From airoKpiveadai, ano- 
KeKpifxai, dneKpivafxriv, the later winters formed an aor. pass, 

c. Many verbs have, even in the present, the active and 
passive form in the same sense ; as opdaOai in Homer and 
the tragic writers, vrj^eiv and vr^y^eaOai. Xa^Trero in Homer. 
voov/j.€voQ Soph. CEd. T, 1487. as (rvwoovjuevoc; Eur. Or. 634. 
Ion. 656. evvoovfxevoc, Lys. p. 115 extr. iroOovfiieva (jypevi Soph, 
Trach. 103. ri7ropovp,rjv Lys. c. Sim. p, 97, 16. (TKOirelaOai 
id.ih.p.QSexir. Xew. Mem. 5. 2, 2, 4. 6, 39. but in 2, 1,22. 
fTKoireitjOai is 'to consider oneself (comp. Eur. Med. 1 175.), 
different from (TKoirelv. e^ayyeWopai Eur. Ion. 1627.*^ Of 
K:Xaiw, K€K\av/jievoc is used, ' wet with tears*, ' one who has wept 
and retains the traces of it', Msch. Choeph. 454. 727. Soph, 
Qhd. T, 1490. Of ^oAcew, ^e^o/cToi 'it is decreed* is common, 
as ^ofceT, e^o^e r^ (iovXy. also *to appear' Herod. 8, 110. 

d. Several deponents have in the perf. both active and 

" Erf. ad Soph. CEd. T. 1014. Eust. ad II. 6', p, 694, 52. II. k, 
Valck. ad Nov. T. p. 326. Comp. p. 806, 52. 

Y 2 

828 Si^ntax. Of the Verb, 

passive signification, as eipyaafxai act. Thuc. 1, 142. Xen, 
Mem. S. 2, 6, 6. pass. ib. 3, 10, 9. Plat. Rep. 8. p. 566 A. 
Comp. Herod. 4, 27. 7, 102.* aireKeKpiao act. Plat. Hipp, 
My.p. 289D. Comp. Leg. 2. j9. 673 B. pass. Gorg. p. 453 D. 
See Heind. p. 25 seq. evTeOvfuLrjaOai is generally active, but 
PZflf^. Crat. p. 404 5^5'. A. pass, fxefxtiyavrirai generally active, 
but Soph. Track, 586. pass. ewv^aOai act. and pass. Xen, 
Mem. S. 2, 7, 12. etovriOrj is used passively. eWe/u/xai act. 
Dem. in Mid. p, 576, 15. pass. X^0o/uai 'forget', but Xj;(to- 
jxevoc, Soph. El. 1248. oblivione obriiendus. So airnyvf^^voa 
pass. Herod. 1, 207. 9, 26. T^najuei^oc pass. Thuc. 3, 61. 
KeKTYijuevoG id. 7, 70. pass. Kara^ep-^^Orivai Soph. Trach. 1000. 
which Aj. 425. is active. ^paKeic aor. 2. active, Pind. Pyth, 
2, 38. passive Nem. 7, 4. i^eXioj^vOnv Soph. Phil. 330. eScu- 
/oiJ0r^ Aj. 1029. even the pres. Xvfxaivofjiai is used passively 
Lys. p. 180, 42.^ So ev^eadai is probably passive Soph. (Ed, 
T, 1512. and eiaerai Msch. Choeph. 302. Eur. Phan. 266. 
comp. Iph. 975.*^ Others have, for the active signification, 
the passive form in the perf., the middle in the aorist ; for the 
passive signification, a 1st aor. pass, as Kraofxai, KeKrr\fxai, 
eKTTjadiuLrjv act. eKTr}Or}v pass. Eur, Hec. 449. — iocpOriv, visus 
sum, has a passive sense only. 

496. The different kinds of verbs, hovi^ever, are often interchanged 
with each other. Thus we find 

1. Transitives in the active for neuters, where eavTov may 
generally be supplied. This is most common with ayeiu, f3aX- 
Aetv, ^i^ovaif eXavveiv, ^X^^^^ levai, and their compounds. Xen. 
Anab, 4, 2, 15. eTrei ^ ey-yOc riyov ol ' EtWrjvec, sc. ttJv arpa- 
Tiav, which accompanies it, 7, 5, 9. avayeiv ' to retreat', Xen. 
Cyr. 1, 4, 24. 7, 1, 45. ^layeiv almost entirely as a neuter, 
persistere. j3aXX eic KopaKac,, abi in malam rem. irpoaayeiv 
' march towards', — eia^aWeiv, €jLi(^dWeiv, * to make an irrup- 
tion*, of a river ' to disembogue'. emf^dWeiv, in to em(5d\- 
Xov fxepoc, ' the quota'. npoGJiaWeiv, sc. rw rei^eiy ' attack'. 

» Valck. ad Eur. Phoen. 1069. Ast found in Elmsl. ad Eur. IIeracl.767. 

ad Plat. Leg. p. 448. Elmsl. ad Eur. Fisch. 3 b. p. 62 seq. 
Heracl. 701. '^ MatthicC ad Eur. Phceji. 253. 

^ Other examples of the aorist are 

Si/ntax. Of the Verb. 829 

Plat, Leg. 9. p. 878 B. (rv/uL^aXXeiv 'engage*. Xeti. Cyr, 7, 
1, 20. eK^i^ovai, of a river, 'to disembogue'. CTri^i^ovat 'to 
make progress'. avraTro^i^ovai Plat. Phadon. p. 72 B. 'to 
correspond'. StSovai 'to sacrifice oneself, Eur. Phcen. 21. 
^Xavveiv Xen. Mem. 3, 3, 1. ^leXavveiv or ^le^eXavveiv 'to 
ride or drive through', Herod. 1, 100. eireXavveiv, irpoae- 
Xavueiv, Xen. 1, 4, 8. &c. ''K^eiv, in KaXwc e'xeiv, ioq GirovStjc 
€i')(ov §. 337, 1. 'to bring to land' (sc. rac vauc), Herod. 6, 
92. 'to hold your course towards'. Taa ec rov irorafiov ttu- 
Ai'^ac eyovaac, Herod. 1, 191. ^leyeiv 'to penetrate, to be 
pre-eminent', in Homer //. e', 100. ' to be distant', e^eyeiv 
' to rise', of the sun. eireyeiv 'to pause, to withhold assent'. 
Karcy^eiv {rriv vavv) * to bring to land', irapkyei impers. licet, 
TTpokyeiv 'to be conspicuous'. irpoaeyjEiv {rov vovv) 'to attend'. 
Xen. Mem. S. 4, 5, 6. — e^ievai, sc. o TroraiuLOC e^irjaiv etc BaXatr- 
aav. ai/(ei/at 'to remit', &c.^ (rvvairTeiv* to en^age^, Hur.Phan. 
1419. where }J>.a)(r)v or a similar w^ord is often added; 'to come 
together' ib. 730. etc Xo'yovc,(Jvvri\pa JloXui/eiAcet. airaXXarTeiv 
* to come off', Xen. Mem. S. 3, 13, 6. avvapfxoC^iv 'to suit', 
ib. 2, 6, 20. comp. ib. 24. irpoGp-iyvvvai -jULiayeiv ' to engage', 
Thuc. 7, 70. also ' to be adjacent' Plat. Leg. p. 878 B. The 
following are more rare: Herod. 7, 221. o ^e airoTrefXTvofxevoQ 
auTOC ixev ovk oTreXtTre, 'did not depart'. Thuc. 3, 10. i^/iTv 
oe Kai AOr}vaioic ^v/uL/jia'^ia eyevcTO irpujTOV, cnroXiTrovTcov 
vfjLwv Ik toxj Mr/St/cou TToXe^ou. Plat. Phcedon. p. 78 B. 
AiroaTiicravTec for airoaTavTec Herod. 9, 23. Examples are 
frequent in the poets: Soph. Trach. 130. fcuAcXoudiv for kvk- 
Xovvrai. Eur, El. 1243. (j)aivov<7i for cjyaivovrai^. 

2. Neuters for actives, as attTo-w, pew, Xa/unru), &c. See §. 423. 
Eur. Ph. 233. to Xafxirovaa irerpa nvpoQ ^iK6pv(j)ov ceXac. 
ib. 248. ' Apric ai/ua Baiov (j)Xey€i ra^e noXei . id. El, 94. 
Paivto TToSa with Seidler's note. Comp. Hipp. 1306. Arist, 
Eccl. 161. Pind. Pj/th. 4, 268. /coil p.e irovei ravra. 

3. Neuters for passives. //. t'y 73. Tpujec ' AprjicpiXwv vtt 

^ Lob. ad Soph. Aj. 248. ^ Burgess ad Dawes p. 495. Vech- 

* Hoog. ad Viger. p. 181 sq. Bur- ner Ilellenol. p.Qlsq. ed. Heusinger. 

gcss ad Dawes Misc. Crit. p. 493 sq. Abrcsch ad Thom. M. p. 298. Zeune 

Comp. Schaef. ad Lamb. B. p. 127 sq. ad Viger. p. 194 sq. 

830 Syntax. Of the Verb. 

AyaiiJdv ' IXtov eiGavk^r]aaVf avaXKeiycri ^a/nevrec where, 
nevertheless, the passive construction v^^ith vtto may have been 
determined by ^a^evreq. JI.g, 149. 'Ayaiol v(j) ''E/cropoc 
av^po(j)6voio (pevyovreQ. With (pevyeiv, accusatum esse, this 
construction is regularly used, as o^pXelv viro tivoq Plat. Apol. 
S. p. 39 B. 'to be condemned*. SiaKeiaOai viro rivoc Xen. H, 
Gr. 4, 1, 32. KelaOai generally being equivalent to reOelaOai, 
Thuc. 1, 130. o UavaaviaG, iov kql Trporepov ev /meyaXio a^iw- 
/uari VTTO Twv EXX^»/wv (comp. 6, 15.), as Cic. pro Mil. 35, 
96. beatos esse, quibus ea res honori f tier it a suis civibus, 
Earip. Ph. 729. €)(et tiv oyKov rapyoQ FaWi}V(jjv irapa. id. 
Med. 101 1. Karei roi Kal gv wpoc, reKvtjjv en. Plat. Apol. S. 
J9.30E. ov paoicjc, aXXov toiovtov evprjtrere arevvwc ir poaKei* 

ixevov ry TroXet vtto tov Oeov. Vectig.5, 6. ov 

VTTO Twv vriaicjTwv eK0VT(t)v irpofyraTai TOV vavriKOv eyevo- 
fxeQa ; This usage is particularly common in the phrase Ovr\^ 
aK€iv, iriTrreiv Herod. 9, 67. vtto tivoq^. 

Neuters acquire in the poets, along with the sense, also the 
form of the passive, as in avXelrai Se nav fmeXaOpov ' resounds 
with the flute' ^. 

4. Actives for passives. Soph. (Ed. T. 967. KevOei Kartj 
yrjc, for KevOerai. comp. Aj. 634. Eurip. Med. 106. ^rjXov 
S ap'^rjc e^aipofjievov ve<poQ oijULtjjyrjc, wc t^X ^^^"4^^^ jnei^ovi 
Ovfxt^ {Pind. Pyth. 4, 33. eKreXevTuaei is active, Qrjpav 
yevecrdai k. t. X. being the object)*^. Thus eaXwfca, eaXwv are 
always passive, and Homer uses II. e', 555. €rpa(pkTr]Vy II. rj', 
199. o'',436. Od. y j2S. rpa(j)eiJL€V, for eTpa(l){]TYiVjrpa(j)rjvai, 

5. Actives for middle verbs (r). Eur. Hec. 911. Kara- 
tavaaCf for KaTairavaap^evoa. Arist. Ran. 580. irave rov 
Xoyov, for Travffai . Eurip. Or, 288. avaKaXvirr , (jj Kaaiyvrj- 
tov Kapa. Phan. 21. o S r}^ovy Sovq^. JEsch. Pers. 197. 
TTCTrXouc prjyvvGiv ap(j)i (Tcujuan (comp. 466. 1024. 1052.), 

* Valck. ad Herod. 6, 45. p. 457, 99. Charit. p. 435. Fisch. 3 b. p. 61 sq. 

ad Eur. Hipp. p. 1162. Fisch. 3 a. Erf. ad Soph. (Ed. T. 153. ed. min. 
p. 441. '^ Brimck ad Arist. Kan. 269. ad 

^ Elmsl. ad Soph. (Ed. T. 1094. Soph. Phil. 1275. Heind. ad Plat. 

" Abresch ad TEsch. 1. p. 86. Phaedr. §. 5. 
Brunck ad Soph. QM. C. 74. ad Eur. ^ Valck. Diatr. p. 233 B. C. Pors. 

Bacch. 1011. ad Or. 296. Dorville ad ad Eur. Or. 1. c. 

Syntax. Of the Verb. 831 

which elsewhere is Trepippr]^aaQai irktrXovc,. So KOf^iiCeiv for 
KOfiiteaOai, recuperare, Find. Pyth. 4, 188. piTrreiv for p. eav- 
Toif Eur. Cycl. 166. Hel. 1345. Te/aeiv r) KavGai TTapaayjfiv 
Tto larpio Plat. Gorg. p. 456 B. with Heindorf 's note p. 33. 
(j>epeiv viKrjv &c. for (pepeaOai Pind. 01. 8, 85. Soph. G^d. C. 
651. A?it. 460. El. 1088. &c. Xen. Mem. S. 3, 14, 1. oxpov 
(jyepeiv. and immediately after, (^kpeadai ^. 

6. Passives for active verbs, or neuters, as oi/c?/^evoc for 
oiKwv Herod. \, 27, 7,21. ot Tre^ot to»^ 'A^wv KaTOiKti/uevoi. 
and immediately afterwards, in a passive sense, o -ya^ ''A6o)c, 

ear I opoQ pkya oiK7]fjLkvov viro avOpioTrtjjv, Thuc. 5, 83. 

Eur. Iph. J.. 7 10. Thus in Homer, irec^vyfxkvov elvai, for necpev- 
ykvai. But the cases in which the perf. pass, is at the same 
time the perf. mid. do not belong to this place. See §. 493, 

7. Middle verbs for active. //. a, 501. aWa av rou y 
eXBovcxaf Oea, vireXixrao oeffp,(i)V. ^, 235. Tijui^craGOai, for 
Ti/x^o-ai (re. Herod. 2, 121, 4, irpoayaykaOai, for Trpoayd- 
yeiv. Soph. (Ed. T. 287. lir pa^afx-nvy for eirpa^a. Aj, 647. 
KpvTrrerai, for Kpvirrei. comp. Trach. 474. id. Tiach.dSO. 
irpov^i^a^aro, for npovd'i^a^e, as Pind. 01. 8, 77. So in 
prose, TrpoTpkireaOai riva, e. g. Xen. Mem. -S. 1, 2, 32. 3, 3, 8. 
4, 5, 1. for irpoTpkireiv. ibid. 2, 1, 1. 3, 3, 15, But Plat, 
Gorg. p. 484 B. HpaKXrjc riXacraro raQ (5ovq means ' as his 
spoil', as Soph. QHd. T. 1021. Tral^a p. wvopa'Cero 'his son*. 

Of the fut. mid. used for the fut. act. see §. 184. Obs. 1. 

8. Middle verbs for passives in the aor. 2. Od. X' , 334. 
V , 2. KrjXrjOpt^ S' eff'^ovTo, suavitate retinebantur. Pind. Pyth. 
1, 16. o ^e {aieTOQ) KVfjjffawv vypov vtjjrov aiuypei, realc; pnraiffi 
Karaff-^o/iievoc. Eurip. Hipp. 27. Plat. Phacdr. p. 244 E. 
id. Thecct. p. 165 B. ev (ppkari ovayopevoc. But Karkcryero 
Od. y, 284. means 'he held back', as //. rj' , 248. ^aX/coq ev 
pivw (Tykrtj, impetum suum repressit. Od. y, 196. XiirkaOai 
is used as a passive, as Herod. 4, 84. eXinovTo is used in 
the same sense as fcaraXeK^^r/i/at just before. Herod. 8,90. 

' Misc. Obss. 5, 3. p. 63. Dorv. ad (rai for7ropt<ra<T0atSchaGf. App. Dem. 
Char. p. 411. Lob. ad Soph. Aj. 129. l.p. 254. Of ^uXarreti/ ib. 2. p. 215. 
Elmsl. ad Eur. Med. 709. Of nopi- 

832 Syntax, Of the Tenses, 

al vrjec ^laipOapearo {-(pdapovro. See §. 204, 7, b.) we 
should read with Hermann ^ie(j)9apaTo. Eur. Hel. 42. wpov- 
OejLiriVj for TTpovreOriv. Also the aor. 1. Od. 0', 35. Kovpu) Se 
ouoi Kai irevrrjKovTa KpivaaOojv Kara ^tJ/ulov. 4S, Kovpto ce 
K pivOevre, Hes.Sc. H. 173. Kawpoi ^oiol airovpap,evoi \fjvyja.Q. 
Find, Pyth, 4, 432. irpd'^aoQai irovov. Find. 01. 7, 27. 
o(j)pa 7r€Xu}piov av^pa Trap AX^etw (JTecpavcjaa/devov aiveaijj, 
where, however, o-Te(^. may be taken m its proper signification, 
inasmuch as he gained himself the prize by his own strength. 
Soph. Anlig. 354. /cat ^Oeyiua Kai rjvefioev (ppovrjua kqi aarv- 
vojLLOvc, opyac, eSi^a^aro, where, according to the common 
usage, e^iSa-^Ori should be put. But e^i^ayOri signifies, * he 
learnt, passively, from others', e^iSa^aro ' he learnt by his own 
agency'* ('taught himself). 

Obs. The form of the aor. 1. mid. is found in Homer in the verbs 
ftijvai, dvyai, 6/3//(7aro, edvaaro, for eforj^ e^v, e. g. II. k, 513. 517. 

Of tlie Tenses. 

497. The signification of the Tenses has already been given ge- 
nerally §. 158 seq. According to the remarks there made, the 
Present, as in all languages, designates an action present, and 
still incomplete : and of the three tenses of past time, the aorist 
marks a past action in itself, without any reference to another 
action, at the same or a different time. Hence it is used in 
narrations ; and so far answers entirely to the perfect of the 

The Perfect, on the contrary, expresses an action which has 
taken place, indeed, at a previous time, but which is connected 
either in itself or its consequences, or its acxiompanying cir- 
cumstances, with the present time. Thus eypaxpa signifies, 
indeed, the completion of the action, but it does not determine 
whether the consequences of it, viz. the writing which I have 

* Hernst. Obss. Misc. 10. p. 216. Em. Or. Gr. p. 28(3. Schaf. ad P. 
Comp. Markl. ad Lys. p. 650. ed. R. Gnoin. p. 166. Phryri. p. 319. 
Dorv. ad Charit. p. 353. Ilerm. de 

Sj/tiiax. Of the Tenses, 833 

written, be still existing or not. Teypacjyaj on the contrary, 
not only signifies ' I have written', but shows also the con- 
tinued existence of the writing. In the same manner yeyaftrjfca 
* I am married' ; on the contrary, eyctjurjaa (e-yr/^ua) ' I mar- 
ried'; -n TToXic €a\(i)K6 * the city is taken, conquered', 17 TroAiq 
idXu) * the city was taken' ^. Isocr. de Pac. p, 163 A. o /uev 
iroXe/moc cnravTiov ri/Liac, rwv eifir\^kv(x)v aTreffreprjKe (con- 
tinued privation)* Kai yap toi TrevearepovG TreiroiriKe (con- 
tinued poverty) kql ttoXXovc kiv^vvovc vTcofxeveiv rjvajKaGe 
(transient), Kal irpoc rovc'EXXr^vaQ Sia(5e^XrfK€, Kai iravra 
TpoTTOv TeTaXanriopr]Kev ri/nac. Thus immediately after- 
wards : rapayric eic, r]v vvv irpOQ aXXrjAouc KaOkaTaixev ' into 
which our counsels have driven us, and in which we still find 
ourselves', not KareGrrifxevj according to the reading of Hier. 
Wolf. Comp. Xen, Hellen. 5,3, 27. Hence KCKTrj/mai signifies 
' I possess', properly * I have acquired to myself {Kraopai), 
so that the acquisition is still mine'. 

The Plusquamperfectum denotes a past action, but one 
which still continued, either by itself or in its consequences 
and accompanying circumstances during another past action. 
Herod. 8,61. ravra be 01 irpoeCpepe, on rjXujKeaav re Kai 
KaTei'^ovTO ai AOrjvai, Thuc. 2, 18. tj Olvoy], ovaa £V 
fjLeOopioic Trjc, ArriKric Kai Botwriac, eTerei^tdTO, Kai avri^ 
(j)povpi(o 01 AOrjvaloi ey^pisivTO, 

The Imperfect expresses a. an action continuing during an- 
other action which is past, the accompanying circumstances of 
an action, or of a situation in past time, whether the main action 
be expressly stated, or be inferred from the context. It differs 
from the aorist in this, that the aorist marks an action past but 
transient; the imperfect, an action past but at that time con- 
tinuinfj. Xen. Anab. 5, 4, 24. rove, ireXraarac, e^e.l^avr o oi 
pappapoi Kai efxay^ovTO' eirei ^' eyyvc, jjtrav ol ottXItoi, 

er paTTOVTO. Kai 01 /uicv TreXraarai evdvG e'lirovro ol ^e 

OTrATrai ev ra^ei e'lirovro, 

b. An action continued by being frequently repeated. Isocr, 
TT. avTt§. j3. 349 B. ov KaraXaf^ovreQ tov Ilei^aia /cat roif alrov 

^ Priniisscr, p. 62. 

834 Syntax. Of the Tenses. 

rov ev ry X^P^ Bi€CJ)Oeip€r€ Kai Tr)v yrjv erejui^ere Kai ra 
TTpoaareia eveirpriaare Kai reXevTtJvreQ tolq rei^^ecri Trpoae- 

c. An action begun or contemplated but not completed, an 
attempt not brought to a successful conclusion. Herod. 1,68. 
efxiadovro ('he wished to hire') Trap ovk e/cSiSo vtoc ttji^ avXrjv* 
y^povii) Se (jjQ aveyvo)(T€, evoiKiGBr}. Eu7'. Here. F. 538. rafi 
e6utj(TKe reKV, inrivWvimriv §' eyw ' were on the point of being 
killed', as 551. Kai irpoQ j3iay eOv7)(TKeTe. So Iph. T. 26. 

Obs, It is often optional whether a writer will express or not the 
continuance of the state produced by a past action, because this may 
be self-evident, or it may have been his design to direct attention chiefly 
to the action itself. Hence the aorist is often found where properly the 
perfect should have been used ; but very rarely, perhaps never in the 
Attics, is the perfect used instead of the aorist. Thus Plato says 

Tim. p. 47 D. f] apfioria els KaTUKoafxrjffiv Kai ^v/jKptjJviay eavrrj 

'^vfxfjia')(os vTTo Movorwy ^ e^orai. but immediately after pvdfxos ctti- 

Kovpos €7rl Tavra viro tujv avrdjv e^odrfy for ^e^orai. Nor is it always 
necessary, in speaking of past actions, to express that one continues 
while the other takes place, and therefore the aorist is found frequently 
instead of the plusq. perf. in narration, e. g. Thuc. 1, 102. oi 'Adrjvaloi 
" - evdvSf cTrei^^ d ve)(wp»/a'a v ------ ^u/z/io^oi eyevovTO. "The 

essential character of the aorist is therefore entirely negative, i. e. the 
use of the other prseterites is limited to definite cases, and the aorist 
comes in, wherever it is impossible, or is not in the purpose of the 
writer, distinctly to mark this relation *." 

498. Of the several forms of the Future, which, as belonging to 
one kind of verb, are as little to be distinguished in signification 
as the two aorists, the 3d fut. pass., or as it is called the Paulo 
post futurum, marks a. a future action, the beginning of 
which, however, falls in a time which, relatively to the action 
itself, is already past ; and therefore an action, the consequences 
of which, or the state resulting from it, will be permanent in 
future time. Thus it bears the same relation to the other fu- 
tures, as, among the tenses of past time, the perfect does to the 
aorist. //. w', 742. e/uot Se XeXei^erai aXyea Xvypd * will re- 

* Buttm. Gr. Gr. p. 314. Obs. 1. 3rd ed. 

Syntax, Of the Tenses, 835 

main to me*. Hesiod. ^^py* 177. a\X e/nirriQ Kai roiai /ue- 
fiL^erai ioOXa KOKolaiv * will be mingled' (a permanent state, 
mista eruntf not miscebuntur), Thtic, 2, 64. 'y*^^'''^ ^^ ovofxa 

lxeyt(TTOV avrr\v {rY\v ttoXiv) eyovaav ev iraaiv avdpioiroic,, 

Kai ^vva/Liiv juey'KTTTjv ^t) fue^pi rov^e KeKTij/nevriv, riQ eQ at^iov 

ToTc eTTiyiyvo/uevoic,, fxvrifxr) KaraXeXei^erai, 'will 

remain*. Flat. Rep, 6. p, 506 A. ovkovu rjfxiv -q TroXireia 
reXetJC K€Ko<Tiuii](T€Tai, eav o toiovtoq avTiiv eniGKOTry (pvXa^ 
o TovTU)v e7n(JTr]/j,(t)v, ' will be completely organized', ib, 5, 
p, 465 A. TTpea^vrepij) fjiev vewrcjowv Travrwv ap^eiv re /cat 
KoXa^eiv irpoGrera^eraiy ' will be ordered', i. q, vo/j-oc earai. 
Aristoph. Ecju. 1369.e7ret0' o ttoXIttic; ev KaraXoyi^ ov^elc, Kara 
ffTTov^ac i.i€T€yypa(})ii(T€Tai (' will or shall become enrolled 
in another class'), aXX\loa7rep v^ to irpwrov, eyyeypaxperai 
(' will remain enrolled in that in which he was'). Plat, Epist, 2, 
^.31] B. oi Xoyoi <jeaiyr)aovTai, Hence of those verbs 
whose present marks only the beginning of an action, but the 
perf. the complete action, as iJL€^vr]ixaiy KeKTrj/nai, Sec. the fut. 3. 
is used, in order to show that the perfect action is to happen 
in future : KeKrriaofxai * I shall possess', but Krr]aofxai ' I shall 
acquire for myself. Thus too the futures ^e^Yiaoixai, ireirav^ 
aopai, Tren pdaojuai, &c. express not so much the simple fut. 
pass, a future transient action, as a future permanent con- 
dition, which will have arisen from a transient action^. 

Hence this future is often used, in order to express the ra- 
pidity of an action, by taking not the beginning of it, but its 
completion, and the state resulting from it. Soph. Tr, 586. 
fA€^r]yavr)rai rovpyov, el ri pii ^oko) irpaaaeiv /uaraiov' ei ^e fni), 
ireTravaerai, Arist. Plut, 1027. ri yap Trotrjcree, cj)pate, Kat 
Treirpa^erai. Comp. 1200. Plat. Gorg. p. 469 D, Instead 
of this simple form a circumlocutory future is also used, which 
consists of the future of eljui and the partic. perf. pass. Isocr, 
IT, avTiS. §. 317. (^aveptjQ etreaOe Kare'^r)(^i(Tixevoi Tr\v 
TOiavrr]v adiKiav, Kai ir enoirjKOT ec o/uloiov, viz. ei rovrwv 
KarayvLxreaOe, decreveritisy feceritis. Xen. Cyr. 7, 2, 13. i]v 8e 

•* See the instances in Piers, ad 1303. To this future is applicable 
Mcerid. r^3.'^93.294. Conip.Brunck what Schacfer maintains of 1, fut. 
adiEsch.Prom.816.8C5. Eur.Bacch. pass. Appar. Dem. 1. p. 500. 

836 St/ntax, Of the Tenses. 

^lapiraayc, Kai al re-^vai aoi, ac Trr/yac ^aai ruiv KaXu)v eivai, 
BieipOap/aevai ecrovTai, Anab. 7, 6, 36. r]v ^e TrotrJdJjTe a 
Xeyere, iff re, on av^pa KaraKavovTec eGeaOe, &c. Hellen. 

7, 5, 18. o E7ra^(j/(oi^3ac evOvjULOVfuievoc, on avroc 

XeXyjULaffjuevoQ iravTanaffi ry eavrov ^ofp eaoiro. This 
answers to they^^. exactum of the Latins. Comp. Lys. p. 139, 
20. 166,7. 178,24. 185,29. Of a similar use'of the per- 
fect see §. 500. 

b. The remaining futures express not simply a future action, 
but one which is considered as predetermined by circumstances 
and the state of affairs. Xen, Mem. S. 2, 1, 17. ol elc rrju 
paaiXiKrjv re'^vrjv 7ra(Seuojuet'Oi - - - Tt ^ia(j)€pov(Ji t(x)V e^ avay- 
Kr]C, KaK07ra6ovvT(i)v, ei ye ireivriffovcTi, Kai Sixpriffovtrif 'if 
they are destined to hunger and thirst'. So when the purpose 
is spoken of: Plat. Gorg. p. 491 E. tov opBojc ^noaoixevov 
' he who means to live rightly*. Plat. Rep. 2. p. 375 A. Comp. 
Phcedon. j9. 73 C. Also with the partic. Rep. 3 in» roiavr 
arra aKovareov ro'ic rriv aXXr}X(jJV (j>iXLav jut) Trepi a/miKpov 
TToiriffOfxevoiCy 'whom we do not wish slightly to value it'. Plat. 
Rep. 5. p. 459 E. ei av rj ayeXri twi/ CJ)vXaKU)v on /uaXttrra 
aaraaiaaToc earai, 'is to be', where just before it was ex- 
pressed, ei ^eXXei to iroifxviov on aKporarov elvai. Hence 
also in questions, mixed with the conj. Eur. Ion. 771. eiirwjjLev 
7) aiyuifxev\ rj ri ^paaoiLiev ', ' what are we to do?' i. e. 'what 
do you wish that we should do?' 

The participle future is used in imprecations. Arist. Ach. 
865. TToOev TTpoaeTTTav oi KaKU)c aTroXov/neuoiy not properly as a 
wish, though expressed in Latin by qui utinam male pereant, 
but as a prediction of the fate which we regard as inevitable. 
Comp. Eur. Heracl. 872. C^cl. 474. Luc. D. D. 14, 2. 

c. The future is used with ov and an interrogation in the first 
person, in earnest exhortations to oneself; in the second person, 
for the imperative. 

a. Eur. Andr. 1212. ov airapa^ofjiai Ko/xav ; Med. 883. ovk 
airaXXayOriCToinai Ovfiov ; Hel. 551. Comp. Here. F. 1151.*'^ 

''ElmsI.Class.Journ.n. 15.p.216. (Eur. Iph.c. n. Markl. Lips. 1822. p.296.) 

Syntax. Of the Tenses. 837 

/3. Soph. Phil. 975. ovk el /neBe^a ra ro^a tout e/noi TraAtv; 
for ctTTt^t, but with an expression of quickness. Comp. Soph. (Ed. 
T. 638. Aj. 75. Track. 1183. ^w^ 244. 885. Plat. Gorg. 
p. 466 E. 26?. Sj/mp. p. 201 E. ovk evcpYi/Lir^aeic ; for €v(J)i]ili€l^. 
In propositions of two members ov is sometimes found in the 
first, and jutj in the second. Soph. Aj. 75. ov aiy ave^ei, /uijSe 
^eiX'iav apelc; Trach. 1 1 83. /xr/^e belongs then only to the second 
member. (See Elmsl. ad Med. 1 120. where they are found to- 
gether.) So that /biri^e SeiXlav apeic is equivalent to Kai uXkijuoq 
etrei, and this referred to ov in the first member (' will you not be 
brave ?0 is equivalent to ' be brave !' Soph. (Ed. T. 637. ovk 
el av T otfcouc, ffu re, K^eov, Kara areyaCj Kai fxri to /uri^ev 
aXyoc eiQ fxey oiaere ; where f^ir] to ju. oiaere is nearly equi- 
valent to eacrere, ovk eaaere ; i. e. eare^. 

The future without an interrogation is used for the impera- 
tive. //. K, 88. yvLjffeai ATpei^rfv Aya/me/uiifova, i. e. yvuiOi, 
Comp. Eur. Ion. 1377. Med. 1 1 60. Here. F. 794. Xen. Cyr. 
8, 3, 47. aXXa av [xev irXovrtov oikol /ueveTc. The force of an 
imperative exists also in Xen. Hist. Gr. 2, 3, 34. v^eTc ovv, eav 
<T(i)(j)povrJTe, ov tovtov, aXX vfx(jjv ^eiaeade. Of Aristoph. Plut. 
488. p,aXaKov S' ev^Cjaere jm-n^ev see Herm. ad Eur. Med. ed. 
Elmsl. p. 37 6. Lips. Of ov prj with future or aorist see §.516. 

d. Besides the simple forms of the future, there is also a 
periphrastic future, made up of /ueXXtj and the infinitive of the 
present, the aorist, or the future (not the perfect, for reOvavai 
Plat. Apol. p. 30 C. is a present, according to the sense, and 
Horn. Hymn, in Cer.AbQ. we should read ^i^eaQai for Se^eaOai), 
and corresponds with the Latin periphrastic future of the par- 
ticiple in -urus, and the verb sum. It expresses the future re- 
motely {Soph. El. 318. h^ouToc r] peXXovToc) in relation to 
another time, which is marked by the tense in which /LieXXcj 
stands, e. g. /neXXb), epeXXov, ep.eXXr](Ta ypacpeiv, scripturus 
sum, eram, fui. In English this is expressed sometimes by 
' about to do anything, intending, is to be', 8cc. Plat. Rep. 2. 
JO. 370 C. o yap yewpyoQ ovk avTOQ iroii^derai eavrio to apOTpov, 

^ Herm. ad Vig. p. 740, 145. Elmsley, points and explains these 
Elmsl, ad Soph. (E(\. C. 897. passages differently. See §. 516, b. 

* Ilerm. ad Soph. Aj. 75. following 

838 Syntax. Of the Tenses. 

e\ fieWei koSXiov eivaiy ' if the plough is to be good', i. e. 'if 
he intends that it should be good'. Comp. Aristot. Pott. 1 in. 
Plat. Rep. 6. p. 488 D. ib. p. 491 A. Trac vf-uv OjUoXcyrJo'et, 
ToiavTTiv (pvcTiv Kui TTavTa evovcrav, oaa irpocera^ajJLev vvv crj, ei 
reXecjG /neXXei (according to tlie Cod. Reg. vulg. /ueXXot*) 
<^eXo(ro<|)oc yevecfOai, ' if one wishes', ib. 8. p. 567 B. urre^- 
aipelv TOUTOuc Travraa 8eT tov rvpavvov, ei fxeXXei ap^eiv, 
which immediately afterwards is expressed €i7re|0 apl^ei. 

The infinitive is often wanting, when it can be easily sup- 
plied either from the context or otherwise. Msch. Pers. 810. 
Comp. Soph. Trach. 75. Isocr. Enc. Hel. p. 213 B. rac pev 
eiTopOovv, TttQ 3e e^eXXov, tolq ^e -nneiXovv rfHv TroXeiov, 
sc. iropOelv. Comp. Paneg. p. 68 D. (C. 37.) Plat. Theat. 
p. 148 E.^ Sometimes there is an accusative with peXXeiv, 
which, however, is determined by the infinitive to be supplied, 
as Eur. IpJi. A. 1124. olaQa yap irarpoc iravrwc a /ueXXei ye 
sc. TToieiv. Or. 1188. dyaOd is the subject accusative, to to. 
dyaOd fxeXXeiv caeaBai^. Hence /ueXXwv ' future', and the ex- 
pression ri ov jueXXec ; Plat, Hipp. Min. p. 365 C. eSoAcei dpa, 
U)C eoiKCV, ^OjULTipio erepoc fiev elvai avr\p aXr\dr]Qy erepoc, ^e 
xpev^rjc, dXX* ov^, ^ avroc. 11111. Ilwc yap ov peXXei, a> 2wfC/oa- 
t€q; sc, ^oKelv, 'how should it not appear thus to him', i. e. 
' without doubt'. Rep. 6. p. 494 B. Ti B' ov peXXei ; Comp. 
ibid. 8. p. 568 A. Phadon. p. 78 B.^ 

As the simple future is used (No. b.) so peXXo) with the in- 
finitive, where we should say 'shall, must' &c. Od. i{ , 270. 
r\ yap epeXXov en ^vue<T€aOai oi^vT ttoXX^, ' I was to do it', i. e. 
' it was appointed me by fate'. Od, v , 293. ovk ap e^eXXec 
Xr)^€iv dirardijjv ' you were never going to give over'. Plat, 
Rep, 5. p. 459 E. ei av r\ ayeXrj ruiv ^uXa/cwv on paXiara 
dffTaffiaaroQ eorai 'is to be', where just before it was ex- 
pressed, et ^eXXet to noipviov on aKporarov elvai. Hence 
of that which according to probability is the consequence of 
the circumstances and the state of things : Od. ^', 200. fieXXetc 
^€ cFv 'i^fjLevai, where we also say ' you will probably know'. //. 

» Heind. ad Plat. Farm. p.291seq. ^ Heind. ad Plat. Theaet. p. 304. 

^ Hemsterh. ad Lucian. 2. p. 546. ad Crat. p. 67. Hipp. p. 139. Wyt- 
^ Matthias ad Eur. Or. 1175. tenb. ad Pint. p. 50 C. 

Syntax. Of the Tenses, 839 

^', 83. Plat, Leg, 3. p. 679 D. yeveai ^ia(3iov(Tai TroWai 


vvif areyvoTepoi /neWovcriv eivai, ' are likely to be' ^. Some- 
times it is found after conditional propositions, to express the 
future consequence of this condition. Herod, 2, 43. et ye trap 
EXXr/vwv eXapov ovvofxa rev caifiovoc, tovtwv ovk riKLffra 
ejneXXov iJLvr]]v e^eiv, as a necessary consequence of Xaj3e?v. 
Eur. Jph, A, 1414 seq. 

This peculiar signification of the tenses is most clearly marked 499, 
in the indicative and participle, e. g. Demosth, in Mid. p, 576,18, 
Kai yap av aOXioc v^j €:i roiavra iraOwv Kai Tratr^wp, rJjtteXouv 
wv irepl TovTUiv epelu rj/jieWov irpoc, vfiac Hence the participles 
of the aor. act. can only be rendered in Latin by the participle 
of an active verb, making the object of the Greek participle 
the subject, rendering the verb active by a passive, and referring 
it to that subject, e. g. ravTa TroiT/crac, e'nrijjv, his Jactis, dictis, 
Tov irarepa iSwv, patre viso. 

The remaining moods of the present, however, serve at the 
same time for the imperfect, and thus especially the infinitive 
present is used, in order to express the continuance of the ac- 
companying circumstances of an action, or a past action fre- 
quently repeated. Herod, 8, 69. of Xerxes : Ojutuc ^e toTcti 
TrXeodi TTeiOeaOai e/reXeue, raSe Kara^o^ac' TrpoQ jnev EujSo/r; 
a(j)eaG eOeXoKUKeeiv, ' had fought badly*, where in the oratio 
recta the imperf. r]QeXoKaKovv would be used. 6, 1 17. 'Ett/^jjXov 
Tijjv ofxfxartjjv arepr\Qrivai, ovre 7rXr\yevra ov^ev tov GUjjLiaTOQ 
ouT€ (3Xi]0euTay Kai to Xoittov rrja ^orjc SiareXeeiv (conti- 
nuing) ttTTO Tovrov TOV "^povov eovTa TvCpXou. Xe-yeiv (repeat- 
ed, and therefore continuing) ^e avrov riKovaa irepl tou irdOeoc 
Toiov^e Tiva Xoyov' avcpa 01 coKeeiv OTrXirriu avTicrrrjuai jneyav, 
TOV TO yeveiov TTJv aanica iraaav <JKia^eiv' to ^e d)a<jfxa tovto 
etjJVTOV fxcv Trapei^eXOe^if, tov oe cojvtov irapaaTaTriv airo' 
KTelvai. Comp. 1, 1. 8, 109. Xen. Mem. S. 2, 6, 31. Plat. 
Rep, 10. p. 614 C. ^iKacTTac Se /neTa^v tovtwv KaSrif^Oai' 
ouc, eTrecSr) ^la^iKaaeiav, tovq /jiev ^iKaiovc KeXeveiv iropeveaOai 
Trjv eic, ^e^iav t€ Kai avu) Eia tov ovpavov. opav Zr) 

• Clarke ad Od. a', 23'2. Passow's Lexicon. 

840 Syntax, Of the Tenses, 

TavT"^ fxev KaO eKarepov to yj[Xa^a rov ovpavov re Kai rric yrjc 
aiTiovaaQ tuq xpvy^dc, * had sat down, had ordered him, that he 
had seen'; and thus in the whole following passage ; avievai, 
KarapaiveiVf KaTacrKrjvaaOaij aaira^eaOai, TrxfuOaveaOai, ^trj- 
yelaQai, &c. all actions which are continued in their frequent 
repetition. Comp. ib. 2. p. 359 D. 360 B. Si/mp. p, 213 B. 
Soph, Trach. 70. Arist, Av. 472. Demosth, p. 46, 19. 
So also in the optative (in the or. ohliqua) : Xeti. Mem. S. 2, 
6, 13. yKovcra, on YlepiKXrjc ttoXXciq (eTTwSac) eir'KJTaiTO, 
where also r^TricrraTo might stand, but not eTridraTai. So lov 
JEur. Troad. 1225. fxeyac, ep,oi ttot wv avaKrwp ttoXcwc, for 
oc h^a, not el. Comp. ib. 1229. Andr. 968. Hel. 1457. 
Ion, 1327. Kreivovaa, for on e/creivec The part. pres. de- 
notes a repeated action, Xen. Hist. Gr, 2, 4, 25. irpovofxac, ^e 
TTOiov/uLevoi Kai Xa/uj3a vo vrec l^vXa Kai owtopav eKaOev^ov 
TTiiXiv ev Yleipaiei' and an action undertaken but not yet com- 
pleted, after a verb of motion. Find, Pyth. 4, 188. iKofiau 
KoiLiiL,(*iv irarpoQ e/nou Ti/uau. Comp. §. 566, 6. But since in 
Herodotus, as well as Homer, the imperfect and the aorist are 
not distinguished accurately enough in signification from each 
other, the former often puts the infinitive imperfect for the 
aorist, e. g. 2, 121, 5. ^ 

500. Since in the perfect the chief regard is paid to the perma- 
nence of the consequences of an action (see §. 497.), and the 
action itself is almost left out of view, it is also used to express 
the rapid execution of an action. Soph. Trach. 83. ovk el 
^vvepl^ijJVf rivLK rj cetraxTjue^a, /ceivov p'lov auxyavroCy which re- 
presents the consequence as immediate, whereas <jio0r]a6fxeda 
would have led us to conceive of it as taking place later. So 
also Phil, 75. et fxe to^wi^ ejKparric aiaOrjaeTai, oXu)Xa, 
stronger than oXov/xai. Comp. Q^d. T. 1166. Eur, Iph, T. 
992. Eur, Or, 940. ei 8e ^t] KaraKreveiTe fxe, o vo/uloq avelrai, 
' will be annulled in that moment'. El, 690. Comp. Rhes, 482. 
Ilerod, 9, 78. Dem, tt. (tvjuju. p. 178, 17. irac o irapuyv ^o^oq 
XeXuToi*. In most of these cases the perfect answers to the 
fut, exact, of the Latins in the apodosis. 

» See Matthias Not. ad Eur. Or. 929. Med. 1053. 

Syntax. Of the Tenses. 841 

The perfect keeps these, its proper significations, through all 

its moods. Herod, 7, 20S. uKrjKoei ^e wc aXio^evr] e'lrj 

TavTT) (TTparirj oXtyrj. 3, 75. eXeye o(ja, ayaOa Kvpoc Tlepcrac 
ireTToirjKoi. Xen. Cyr. 6, 2, 9 seq. eXeyov, on K^ooTctoc fxev 
riyefjuov Kai aTpaTr\yoc, iravT(s)v rj p-q/depoa e'lrj twv TroXe/niiou, 
oeooypevov o eir? Traai toTc'^oic (jacnXevffi ttcktyj Ty 
^vvajLiei eKaarov irapeivai &c. Corap. 2, 4, 17. Arist. Av. 1350. 
avcpeiov ye naw vo/mitoiJiev oq av TTCTrXr/yp irarepa, veorroc 
wv. Equ. 1148. eVeiT avayKa^u) naXiv e^ejuielv, arr av 

ICe/cXo^OXTt (JLOV, 

Hence the perfect is used in the rest of the moods, when the 
writer wishes to show that the condition mentioned is to be con- 
tinued. Plat. Rep. 8. p. 564 C. w (fcr^c^rjve) ^ri ^et rov ayaOov 

iQTpov re KttL vojuoSerr^v TroXewq nopptjOev evXapelaOai, 

jmaXiara /nev, ottwc /it? eyyevrjadov, av oe eyykvr\adov j ottwc oti 
TayjiOTa avv avrolc toTc Kripioic eKTerfxrjaOov. Xen, Hell. 5, 
4, 7. e^iovrec Be eiirov, rrj^^ dvpav /ce/cXei(T0at ' that the door 
should remain shut'. Thus reOvaOi II. y^, 365. does not signify 
'die', but is the same as Kelao Oavwv. TeOvairiv, ore /not fxriKeTi 
TovTo peXoi, Mimnerm. not 'may I die!' but 'would I were 
dead !' Thuc. 8, 74. 'Iva, rjv prj viraKovatjai, TeOvrjKtjcri ' may be 
dead', i. e. ' be put to death without delay*. Soph. Phil. 1 280. 
ireTrav/uLai ' 1 cease instantly'. This is the case particularly in 
the imperative perfect, the use of which is by no means con- 
fined to verbs whose perfect has the sense of the present, nor 
does it occur only in the poets, but is used especially to denote 
the complete termination of an action, its results being per- 
manent: Plat. Euthyd. p. 278 D. ravra /tiev ovVj vj EuOuSrjjue 
re Kai ^lovvaoBtJpe, 7re7rai(T0tt» re vplv, Kai 'ktijjc iKavuiG e)(^€£, 
with the implied idea that there should be no more sport, id. 
JRep. 6. p. 503 B. vvv Be tovto pev TeToXpriaOio eiTreTv, on 
TOVQ aKpif3e<TTaT0VG (j>vXaKac, (f>iXoG6(povc c^eT KaOi<yravai, id. 
Rep. 8. p. 561 seq. reTayOto riplv Kara Br^poKpariav o roi" 
ovroc, avr)p. ib. 553 A. aireipyaaOio 817 17/iTv /cat avrrj r\ 
iroXireia, r)v oXiyapyiav KaXovcnv. id. Leg. 4. p.7 \2 A. ib. 9. 
^. 874 D. 2^ 10. p. 893 B. aye Brj, Oeov ei irore Trapa- 
KXrjreov iiplv, vvv ear 10 tovto ovt(jj y evopevovy eiri ye otto- 
Bei^iv, loQ elai, ttjv avTU)v airovdy irapaKCKXiiadtov. Lucian, 

VOL. II. z 

842 Syntax. Of the Tenses. 

jD. Mort. 10, 10. TO ajKvpiov aveGwaaOu) 'let the anchor be 
weighed, and remain so' : especially id. ib. 30, 1. o fxev Xr^o-rric 
ouTOC ^(oarparoc eo to»^ Y\vpi^\eykQovTa e/uLf^ej^XrjfrOct)' (to 
remain there) o S lepoGvXoQ vno ttjc ^i/nalpac BLacriraaOrtTO} 
(an action passing by, and leaving no remarkable consequences), 
o ^e Tvpavvoc, oJ ^Eip/nij, irapa rov Tituov aiforadeic;, vwo rtjv 
yvTTMV Keipeadb) (continued action) /cat avroc to riirap. Comp. 
Thuc. 1,71. In particular elprjffOu) is used at the close of a 
discourse of a topic : Xen. Mem. S.4,2,19. o/lkjoc, ^e eiprj^Ow 
jjLOi, a^iKiorepov elvai rov eKovra xpev^o/uievov rov aKovroc, as 
eiprjaSai Eur, Hec. 236. Comp. Isocr. Paneg. p. 43 D.* 

Further, it is to be remarked, that it is as little necessary in 
the rest of the moods as in the indicative, always to show de- 
terminately this continuance of an action, or its consequences, 
by the form ; and that hence the aorist is sometimes used where, 
accurately speaking, the perfect should be put. Thus De- 
mosthenes in Midiam, p. 576, 23. ov"^ o ecTKejuLjULevoQ ov^' o 
fxepifxvYiaaQ to, ^iKaia Xeyeiv vvv, for ime/LiepijuvriKtJG. for the 
consequences of pepifivav are continued as well as those of 
(TKeirreaOai, and he had said just before, /. 16. eyw ^e y 
e(TKe(j)Oai fxev ^r)ixiy Kai ovk av apvr\deir]Vf Kai jLLefieXeTrjKevai 
y (Lc evriv iJidXiffra e^oi^. But it does not hence follow that the 
perfect and the aorist have exactly the same signification. 

501. The aorist in all the moods, except the indicative and the 
participle, is usually expressed in Latin and English by the 
present. But in Greek this distinction between the imperative, 
optative, conjunctive, infinitive of the aorist, and the same 
moods of the present, appears to obtain, — that the aorist de- 
signates an action transient, and considered independently in its 
completion, but the present a continued and frequently re- 
peated action, or one in which the beginning only is considered. 
Thus Plato Rep. 9. p. 572 D. Oec tolwv waXiv rov toiovtov 
h^t] 7rpea(5vrepov yeyovoroQ veov vio*/ ev to?c tovtow av r]Oe<Ji 
reOpafx/iievov. Tt0r;/it. TiOet toivvv kqi to. avra cKelva nepi 
avTov yiyvofxevoy because the first shows the admission of a 
proposition, which can only be instantaneous and transient, 

* Musgr. et Brunck ad E. Hec. 1. c. Phoen. 68. 
^ Schaeferon Porson's note ad Eur. 

Sj/Htax. Of the Tenses, 843 

although the proposition or the supposition itself be continuing; 
but in Ti0et every new point of comparison requires the repe- 
tition of the admission. Xen. Cyrop. 5, 1, 2. KoXeaac o 
Kuyooc 'A^oatTTTTjv Mij^oi/, TOUTOi' eKeXcvcTC ^ia(pvXa^ai avT(3 
Tr]v re yvvaiKa koi rr\v aKr\vr]v^ where he refers only to the ac- 
tion as one concluded in itself; on the contrary, §. 3. ravrr^v 
ovv eKeXevaev o Kvpoc ^ia(f>v\aTT€iv tov ApcKTirrjv, etuc av 
avToc Xa/3^, because the addition ewe av &c. requires the con- 
tinuance of the same action, id, Mem, S. 1, 1, 14. toTc juev 
aei KivelcrOai iravra {^OKelv), to?c Se ov^ev av wore KivrfOrj- 
vai, Kai ToTc fJ-Gv iravra yiyveffOai re Kai airoWvaOai, toTc 
^ ovT av yeveaOai Trore ouSev, oure anoXeGOat, where the 
infin. aor. with av in the oratio obliqua answers completely to 
the optat. aor. with av in the oratio recta (see of the Infinitive), 
and designates an action abstractedly, without reference to its 
continuance or frequent repetition : but the infinitive present 
marks distinctly continuance or frequent repetition of the action. 
Comp. Xen, IL Gr, 2, 2, 4. Xen. Cyr, 2, 4, \^,—ih, 1, 4, 1, 
^lairpal^aaOai is used of the fulfilment of each separate solicita- 
tion, but immediately afterwards o Se Kvpoc o ri ^eoivro avrov 
oi 7ra?^ec, nepi navroc eTroielro ^lanpaTTeffOai of the repeated 
fulfilment. Lucian. D. Mort, 10, 10. ojare Xve to. airoyeia (be- 
ginning of the action), rrjv airoj5a0pav aveXw/tieOa, to ayKvpiov 
aveffiraaOd)' ireraaov to lariov, evQvve, aJ iropQfXizVj to ttij- 
^aXiov (continuance), ib. 9. the Philosopher says to Menippus, 
ovKovv Kui (TV airoOov Trjv eXevOep'iav, but Mercury answers, 
jAYi^a/uKVQ' aXXa Kai e^e TavTo, because the latter shows a con- 
tinued action, the former, one confined to a particular time. In 
the same way we must take the following passages : Demosth, 
Phil, 1. p, 44, 2. eireicav cnravTa aKovarire, Kpivare Kai /ni) 
TTporepov irpoXafx^aveTe, inasmuch as the previous judgment 
has a continued influence upon the decision of the auditors, and 
is repeated at every single point of the speech ; but the judg- 
ment and the sentence, Kpiveiv, is complete in itself in the con- 
clusion of the whole, ih. L 16. irpwrov jmev toivvv rpir^peic irev- 
TriKovra irapaaKeva<jacTdai (Pr]f.u celv, elr avTOVQ outcu rac 

yvu)f.iac e^eii'. " - - wpoc ^e toutoic, toTc ii/Lilffeai tujv lir- 

netjv imrayatyovQ rpiripeiQ fcoi vrXoia i/cava euTjoeTricrai KeXevto. 

ravra fiev o'lo/iiai ^eiv vnap^eiv em tqc e^at^i/i/q arpa' 

z 2 

844 Syntax. Of the Tenses* 

T€tac. where the regular change of the aorist and the present 
leads us to suspect a difference also of meaning : rac yvbjfxac, 
eyeiv and virap^eiv are, from their nature, necessarily perma- 
nent : the ships, however, are not to be prepared during the 
whole time, but only at first (opposed to elra), which if it 
cannot be immediately accomplished, yet appears to the speaker 
and hearer only as a single point of time complete in itself. See 

45, 2. £v ?; ha rov (jyof^ov ricrv^iav e-^y (permanent) rj 

irapi^iov Tavra a<pv\aKToc, \r}(j)6y (transient). The cases in 
which an action confined to a moment is referred to, are 
naturally much more frequent than those in which a continued 
action is marked, or where merely the beginning of it is to be 
considered; and hence the imper. opt. conj. and infinitive of 
the aorist are more frequent than the same moods of the pre- 
sent. It is often indifferent also, whether these accessory sig- 
nifications be marked at the same time. Plat. Cratyl. p. 387 A. 
TTorepov r)fjuv rjuriTeov eKaffrov wc av yifxeic, (3ovXco/uie0a Kai lo av 
^ov\r\dwjjLev, ^ovXuyfieQa might have been used in both cases, 
since the will must accompany the whole duration of the action, 
or (3ov\Y]0u)iueVy since the will must have preceded its com- 
mencement, as in Latin, si voluero. See Matthiae Exc. ad Cic. 
Or. 7. p. 243. but regard is had to this circumstance, that the 
manner of cutting {wc, av (^ovXtjj/tieOa) must be present to the 
person cutting during the whole operation, but the instrument 
is determined once for all at the beginning. Id. Leg. 6. p. 767 E, 
TTpOGTifxav TOVQ KpivavTaQ TrfV ^iKriv b Tt y^prj irpoQ rovT(i) 
TraOelv r) cnroriveiv ref koivw (comp. ib. 12. p, 941 D. 943 B. 
946 D. &c.), in which phrase the aorist is more common, the 
present is thought to express the periodical payment of the 
fine. JEtUr. Iph. A. 482. Kai aoi Trapaivtjj ju>;t aTro/creii^eci^ 
TCKvov, jULtiT avOeXeaOai T0vp,6v, a7ro/CTeT»^oi might also have 
been used, but the aorist expresses that the action of killing 
was undertaken only, not completed, which it was less necessary 
to remark in the case of the following word, because avSeXeaOai 
rovfjLov (to choose my advantage instead of thy child, i. e. sa- 
crifice thy child for my advantage) is an action completed as 
soon as airoKre'iveiv takes place. Thus it is often optional 
whether an action shall be described in reference to its com- 
pletion (aorist), or its duration, repetition, &c. be indicated at 

Spitax. Of the Tenses. 845 

the same time. Comp. Xen. Cyr, 6, 1, 23. with §. 46. 1, 2, 7. 
4, 5, bb. b, 5, 13. 8, 1, 21. Comp. §. 527. Obs, 1. 

The infinitive of the aorist is often found where we should 
have expected that of the future, because the action is con- 
sidered in itself as concluded, and its future occurrence is suf- 
ficiently expressed by the governing verb. Thuc. 4,70, Aeywi/ 
ev eXiriSi elvai avaXaj3e7v Nto-aiav, of which just before 
KaTa\r]\pe(j9aL is used. Id, 5, 9. eXirlc avrovc ovrti) (j)oj3ri6rj- 
vai, Comp. Pifid.Pyth, 4,432 seq. Eur. Here. F. 747 .^ Plat. 
Alcih. 1. p. 105 A.'* So the inf. pres. is found Soph. Trach. 
1 69. TOiavT e(j)paZe npoc Oeojv eifxapixkva t(jju HpaKXeiuv 
eKTeXevraGOai irovtov. See Reisig /. c. So Herod. 7, 220. and 
generally in oracles the inf. aor. is used^. The same thing 
takes place even when the idea of futurity is not contained in 
the governing verb : II. v , 666 seq. ttoXXclki yap oi eeiTre 
•yepwv ayaOoQ YloXvicoc, vovgio vtt apyaXerj (j)0 icrOai olc, ev 

fieyapoiaiVy rj ^ainrjvai. Eur. Iph. T. 463. oifxai yap viv 

iKerevaai ra^e. Soph. El. 442.^ So jULeXXeiv when it forms 
with the infinitive a circumlocution of the future has often the 
infin. aor. % rarely when it means ' to delay', if the infinitive 
expresses an action concluded in itself and not prolonged 
through successive points of time, or if at least its prolongation 
is not contemplated by the mind : Eur, Rhes. 67 b. tl p-eXXere, 
(Ttjffai plovj i.e. Ta^ewQ aioffare (5lov, id. Phcen, 310. tl 
peXXeiG v7r(jjpo(pa jueXaOpa irepav, Oiyelv t loXevaiQ reKvov, 
where Oiyeiv is considered as immediately following wepav, and 
concluded in itself ^ 

■ Of k\'rril,eLv with the inf. aor. Lobeck ad Phryn. p. 749. Coray ad 

see Elmsl. ad Med. 750. Heind. ad Isocr. p. 277, 15. Reisig Comm. 

Plat. Pha^don. §. 32. p. 48. Bremi Crit. in Soph. (Ed. C. p. 191. 
apud Schaff. App. Dem. 1. p. 205. <^ Boeckh ad Pind. Pyth. 4,55 seq. 

Poppo ad Xen. Cyr. 2,4, 15. Stallb. «* Bninck ad ^Esch. Pers. 738. ad 

ad Plat. Phil. p. 158. Matlhiae ad Eur. Phcen. 899. Ileind. Plat. Prot. 

Eur. Hec. 280. Monk ad Eur. Ale. p. 487. Of this infin. after eTrido^os 

147. Of the difference between the see Lobeck ad Phryn. p. 133. 
aor. pres. and fut. see Herm. ad Soph. *= Dorv. ad Char. p. 221. ed. Lips. 

Aj. 1061. ad Eur. Med. 750. Porson ad Eur. Or. 929. Elmsl. ad 

••Obss. Misc. 4. p. 286. Interp. Eur.Heracl.7 10. Boeckh ad Pind. Ol. 

ad Luc. T. 3. p. 478. Wesseling ad 8, 32. Lob. ad Phryn. p. 745 seq. 
Diod. 14,14. Comp.Thom.M.p. 167. ^ Elmsl. ad Eur. Med. 1209. not.r. 

Heind. ad Plat. Euthyd. p. 323. Comp. Herm. ib. p. 394. 

846 Syntax, Of the Tenses. 

Sometimes the optat. aor. is thus used in the oratio ohliqua. 
Xen. Hellen. 2, 3, 56. wc enrev o ^arvpoa, on oijuw^eie*', ee 
^r) (Ti(i)7rrj(J€i€v, eirripero' av ^e gkjjttu), ovk apa, e(f)r}, oifiiw^oiiai ; 
ib, 5, 4, 13. ou fxkvTOi rovTOV ye ^veKev Karefxeivevj aX\ eu 
ei^LOQy OTi, €1 ffrpaTTjyoirj, Xefeiav oi TroXirat, wq AyrjcriXaoc 

TTpayiiara ry iroXei irapeyei. unless av be omitted in both 

cases, OTt otjuw^eiev av, Xe^eiav av ol TToXTrat. jEsch, Pers. 
355 se^. both pres. and aor. opt. are used: wc ei jueXaivr^c 

vvKTOQ (ferai Kvef^ac,, ' EXXrjvec ou fxevoiev aXXa 

P'lOTov eKawaaiaro, where, however, Blomfield has adopted 
from conjecture uevoiev, eKGtJGoiaro* 

Besides this, the infinitive and part. aor. are generally used 
if the principal verb is in the aor. Plat, Phced. p. 60 C. eu y' 
eiroLTjaaG avapvncraQ jne, Xen. Anah, 5, 8, 14. But if one of 
the two verbs expresses an action in its own nature continuing, 
they will not be in the same tense, as Thuc, 7, 38. irapaaKeva- 
toimevoi ^lereXeffav, So e)(w crr/^r/yac §. 559. ^X^ aTro^ei^ai 
Plat. Phcedon, p, 88 B. comp. Menon. p. 81 E. 82 A. 

In the oratio ohliqua the optative sometimes has the sense 
of time past, e. g. Herod. 1, 31. eireipfjjTa, riva Sevrepov /jlct 
eKeivov tSoi * had seen*. It has oftener, however, along with 
the above explained indication of a completed action, the sense 
also of an indefinite time, where in Latin the conjunctive of the 
perfect is used, e. g. Demosth, p. 576, 16. ovk au dpvr)0€iTiv, 
non negaverim, * I will not deny it*. Xen. Mem. S, 4, 2, 5. 
apfxoaeie 8' ai^ ouro) irpooifxiaC,eadai * it might suit' . 

The conjunctive with particles of time, *6TaVy enei^av, often 
corresponds to the Latin futiir urn exactum. II. t, 412. ou 
yap er' aWri earai OaXTrioprjf CTret av av ye irorfxov eTTtcTTrr^c, 
and passim^. Yet the leading idea of an action complete and 
concluded always remains. 

Ohs. With respect to the two aorists in the passive, it is to be ob- 
served further, that the lonians and older Attics mostly use the aor. 1, 
the later Attics, on the other hand, the aor. 2, as the softer form''. 

» Comp. Herm. ad Soph. El. 47. '^ Valck. ad Eur. Phoen. 979. 

^ Fisch. 2. p. 268. Picrson ad Moerid. p. 208. 

*> Fisch. 2. p. 270 scq. 

Sj/ntax. Of the Tenses, 847 

However, the aor. 2. is not unfrequent even in the tragedians*. The 
case is the same with the fut. 1. and 2. pass/ 

The future retains in the optative and infinitive the sense of (502) 
a future action s. 

Besides this proper signification, the tenses have also, a. that 502. 
of an action frequently repeated, * to be wont', for v^^hich the (^^^) 
present also might be used. 

1. Imperfect, when the action may be conceived as con- 
tinuing or repeated. //. o , 218. oq kc Ocoiq eirnreiOrjTai, /naXa 

T ckXvov aVTOV, &C." 

2. Perfect, with reference to the complete fulfilment, suc- 
ceeded by a state analogous to it. Herod. 2, 63. eTriTeXeoudi, 
TTOteutTc, followed by TreTrovearac. Plat, Phadon, p. 80 D. 
avTt) ^e Sr) ^fxiv r} TOiavrrf Kai ovtw ireC^vKvia, airaWaTTO/uievrt 
Tov (Tw/uLaTOC, evOvQ ^ia7re<^v(yi7Tai Kai airoXioXei^, Prot, 
p, 328 B. Xeji, Cyr, 4, 2, 26. ovhkv ecrri K€p^aX€U)Tepov rov 
viKav' o yap Kparwv afxa iravra avvripTraKe, 8cc.* 

3. Aorist, an action being considered as a case which has 
once occurred. //. rj , 4. toe ^e Oeoc vavrycriv eeX^o/neuoKTiv 

e^(i)K€v ovpov tjc, apa T<jjTpu)€G(Jiv eeXSo/uLevoKTi (bavri- 

rrjv, Comp. Herod. 1, 194. Eurip. Or. 706. Kai vavc y^p, 
CKraOelffa irpoc j^iav no^i, e(5a\pev, earrj S avOic, r}v yaXa 
TTo^a, Comp. Suppl, 227. Troad. 53. 713. Plat, Rep, 6, 
p. 495 C. ouTOt pev Brj outwc eKTr'nTTOvrec, avro'i re j3iov ov 
TTpoarfKOVTa ov^ aXrjOrj 2<t»(Ti, rriv ^e, wcnrep 6p<pavriu ^vyyeuwv, 
aXXoi e7r€i(TeX9ovT€(; ava^ioi rjcr^vvau re Kai ovci^t) irepirj- 
xf^av, Comp. ib, 5, p, 462 D, S. p. 560 A, 9. p. 586 A. 
10, p. 609 A. Leg. 4. p. 716 B. 9. p. 854 E. Phoidon, 
p, 73 D. Xen. Cyr, 1, 2, 2. r^v t(C tovtu)v ti napaf^aivyy 
2^r;^tai/ eneOeGai'^. 

« Herm. ad Eurip. Hec. 333. •* Hemst. ad Lucian. t. 3. p. 402. 

' Valck. ad Eur. Hipp. 354. Valcken. Diatr. p. 163 A. Toup ad 

8 Dawes Misc. Crit. p. 105. Brunck Longin. p. 275. Ileind. ad Plat, 

ad Soph. CEd. Tyr. 792. El. 34. Phaidr. p 275. rhccdon. p. 78. 

" llcind. ad Plat. Thea;t. p. 328. Fisch. 2. p. 260 sqq. lloo^^. ad Vig. 

Fisch. 2. p. 258. p. 210. Stallb. ad Plat. Euthyphr. 

* Fisch. 2. p. 258. p. 59. 

848 Syntax. Of the Tenses. 

4. Future, as a case of probable occurrence. Herod. 1, 173. 
KoXeovai airo t(jjv fxr}Tepo)v ewvrouc, Kai ovk cltto twv irarepiov. 
eipofxevov oe krepov rov erepov, tic et»7, KaraXe^ei iivvrov 
jtirfTpoOev Kai rrjc fiiriTpoG avavefxeer ai rac; /mrjrepaQ. Pind, 
01. 7 in. (j)iaXav ^iopr](TeTai, followed ver. 10. by OrJKe iluv 2[a- 
XwToi/. Soph. Antig. 348. Kpare^ ^e /mri^avalc dr]poc, opeaai- 
paTa,\ 'iinrov vira^eTai ap(j)'iXo<pov ^^uyoi^, which 
is followed ver. 356. by e^i^a^aro^. 

Hence the different tenses with this signification are often 
interchanged. Thus in the passages cited from Plato, N® 2. 
the perfect with the aorist; in the same, N^ 3. the present and 
the aorist ; in Sophocles, N® 4. the present, future, and aorist; 
and in Herodotus, ib, the present and future. Comp. Hesiod, 
"Epy. 240 sq. 244 sq. Theog. 748. Callin. El. 14. 

^^^» b. The aorist is used when an action has been undertaken, 
but, owing to circumstances beyond the controul of the person 
undertaking it, not completed. Eur. Andr. 811. prj KarOavy 
KT€iva(Ta TovQ ov \pT]v Kravelv, Hermione having been prevented 
from committing the murder only by the arrival of Peleus, it is 
attributed to her as if committed. So Ion. 1310. eKreiva 
B' ovra TToXefiiov ^ojhoiq e/uLolc,. ib. 1520. eKreiva a aKrouca^. 

c. After Ti ov the aorist often follows where the present would 
have been expected ; the action, which is the subject of the in- 
terrogation, being thus represented as one which should already 
have taken place. Soph. CEd. T. 1002. ti ^rjr eytjjy ov rov^e 

Tov (f)6(5ov <s , ava^f ef eXutra^rjv ; Arist. Lys. 181. Plat. 

Menex. p. 236 C. ti ovv ov ^irjXOeQ ; The present is used in 
the same way; the future probably only Eur. Hipp. 1073. tl 
Srjra tov/uov ov Avtrw (rrofxa, where an action is spoken of which 
must necessarily take place, and which Hippolytus, /. 1075. 
himself refuses to perform ^. 

504. Besides these cases the tenses are put for each other also, 
e. g. 

" Fisch. 2. p. 263. Zeune ad Vig. *= Heind. ad Plat. Gorg. p. 118. 

p. 212. Prot. p. 459 seq. Stallb. ad Phil. 

•' I-Ierm. ad Soph. Aj. 1105. Mat- p. 173. Poppo ad Xen. Cyr. 2, 1, 4. 

thiae ad Eur. Andr. 794. Elmsl. ad Eur. Heracl. 805. 

Syntax. Of the Tenses. 849 

1. The present is put, 1. for the aoiist, in an animated nar- 
ration, which represents what took place as present, as in Latin 
the prcEsens historicum. Eurip. Suppl. G52. Kairavewc yap riu 
Aarpic, oi^ Zeuo Kcpavvio TrvpiroXio KaraiOaXol. ib. 893. 
e\du)v ^ eir Ivay^ov poaCj Trai^euerac Kar ' ApyoQ, Even 
with TTore Euj-. Bacch. 2. Also with the collateral circum- 
stances of a past action, e.g. after the relative: Eur. EL 419. 
Z,^vT e'i(TaKov(Tac, irai^' , ov e/crxw^ei ttotI. comp. ih. 544." Even 
when a definition of time in the aorist follows : Eur. Hec. 963. 
Tvy^avLj yap ev fxkaoic, QprfKrjc opoic, airwv, or vXOeQ cevpo. 
Hence the present and aorist are often used in the same sen- 
tence. Thuc. 1, 95. of Pausanias : eXOujv S etc AaKeSaijuLOva 
Tfjjv jnev i^ia npoQ nva a^iKrifULaroyv evOvvOt}, ra ce fieyiara 
airoXverai /mrj d^iKelv. ib. 46 extr. 7,83. Kai avaXafx^a- 
vovai re TO. OTrXa, Kai ot ^vpaKovaioi aKjOavovTai Kal 
eTraivjvKTav. Comp. Soph. Ant. 406. Xen. H. Gr. 2, 3, 23. 
7,5, 12. The perf. is also used with thepres. Soph. (Ed. C. 376. 
aTTOffrepitTKei Ka^eXrtXaKev. Trach. 676. 698. //. k, 199 seq. 
oOi 3r) veKvtjjv ^i€(j)aLV€TO ywpoQ TrnrrovTwv, for Treaovrtjjv or o'i 
eTTlTTTOV §. 499.^ 

2. r/fcw has regularly the signification of a past action, of 
the perfect, not ' I come, am in the act of coming', but ' I am 
come, I am here', adsum, as eXriXvQa, and the imperf. riicov 

answers to the plusq. perf. Herod. 6, 100. A^ioylvric, <^/oa- 

^ei ToTdt r]KOvai rwv AOyjvqkov navTa ra irapeovTa aCpi 
irpriyfxara, 'to those who were come'. Comp. 104. 8, 50. 68. 
Thus Aristophanes Plat. 284. uses ri/cei along with a(^lKTaiy 
ver. 265.^ In this manner aKovu) is often used for aKrjKoa. 
Od. y , 193. At pei^r^v ^e Kai avTOi aKovere voG<piv eovra, 
cue vXOe, &C. o , 402. vrjffOG tic ^vpirj KiKXr](7K€Tai, e't ttou 
aKoveiQ, Plat.Gorg. p.503C. Oe/uLiaTOKXea ovk aKoveic avSpa 
ayadov yeyovoTa, Kai Ki/jLwva Kai MiXrcaoi?!^ Kai TIepiKXea 
TOVTOi/i Toy v€U)aTi TereXeuTTj/coTa, ov Kai av a/cr^/coaqS. So 

^ Buttm. Soph. Phil. Heind. ad Plat. Phaedon. §. 77. 

371. Seidl. ad Eur. El. 414. quotes ' Dawes Misc. Crit. p.48sq. Dorv. 

inapplicable passages. ad Charit. p. 221. Valck. ad Eur. 

« Valcken. ad Eurip. Hipp. 34. Phcen. 383. Musgr. ad Eur. Heel. 

Brunck ad Eurip. Hec. 21. Schaif. ^ Heind. ad Plat. Gorg. p. 193. 

in Dionys. Hal. 1. p. 116 note. Conip. Dorv. ad Charit. p. 562. 

850 Syntax. Of the Tenses, 

kXv(o Soph, Track, 68. and oiyo/mai ih. 41. e^ot iriKpac, wSti/ac 
avTOv 7rpoapa\u)v aTroij^eTai, Herod. 9, 58. wq ewvOero tovq 
''EWrjvaQ d7roi')(Ofievov(;. Comp. Msch. Pers, 176. Ag. 180. 

3. The present is sometimes used instead of the future, as 
fxcveiy XeiVeTac, TreXet, in an oracle Herod. 7, 140. and Homer 
//. X', 365. e^avvd). So in the infinitive. Soph, Trach. 170. 
TOiavT e(^paZ,e irpoc, Oetjjv eifxapfxeva twp HjOa/cXetwv eKreXev' 
racrOai novwv. Comp. Eur. Heracl. 494. Thuc. 7, 56.^ also 
partic. pres. for the fut. as Eur. Hec. 1197. diraWdcFaayv for 
arraXXa^wi/. Xen. Hell. 2, 1, 29. ?j IlapaXoG ec rac, ABrtvaa 
hirXevarev, aTrayyeXXovda to. yeyovora, for airayyeXovda. So an 
action intended is spoken of as if performed, e. g. Od. tt', 442. 
oiKov drifxov e^eiQ /nvaa Se yvvaiKa, Tralda t airoKrelveiQ, ' wish- 
est to kiir. 

The verb el^i in particular in the present has regularly the 
signification of the future. Herod. 8, 60. ^i^ Be ye Kai ra 
eyti) eXiriCii) yevr\Tai, ovre riplv ec tov IctO/ulov irapeGOvrai oi 
^apj3apoi, ovre 7rpo^r]GovTai eKaarepio t?Jc Atti/ctJc, aTTt- 
a(Ti T€ ovBevi KocFpio^. Thus the participle also is used Thuc, 
5, 65. ecfTpaTOireBevaavTO, (Lc lovrec eiri tovc iroXefAiovQ, 
and the infinitive Plat. Phadon. p. 103 D. koi to irvp ye au, 
irpoaiovroQ tov ypvyjpov avTio, rj VTre^ievai 7) airoXeladai, 
el/ut however often occurs as a present Msch, S. c, Th, 375. 
Eumen, 237. Thuc. 4, 61. 

505. 11. The imperfect is sometimes put, 1. for the aorist, espe- 
cially in Homer and Herodotus ; the narrator representing the 
action as if he had been present during its passing : e. g. Plat. 
Hep. 10 in. ttuvtoc apa fxaWov opOoJC (fyKitofjLev rrji' iroXiv. 
Comp. Herod, 8, 61 sqq. Plat. Tim, p, 35 B. oXov touto 

* The case of adiKelv is different, '' Reisig Comm. Crit. in (Ed. C. 

which denotes not a single transient p. 190. Elms), ad Med. 888. Seidl. 

action, but a permanent state, the ad Iph. T. 1284. Comp. Miscell. 

same as ahKOv elvai : and of ^eu- Phil. 2, 2. p. 89. 

yeiv *to be in exile', not * to go into " Duker ad Thuc. 2, 44. Piers, ad 

exile*, which Heindorf (ad Plat. Pro- Moer. p. 16 sq. Valck. ad Hipp, 

tag. p. 463.) has not sufficiently ad- 1065. 
verted to. 

Syntax, Of the Tenses. 851 

fnoipac offaQ irpOGrJKe ^teveiyuev. rip-^ero ce maipeiv wSe' 

fiiav aCpelXe to irpijJTOv cltto iravroc, p.oipav' imera ce Tavrrjv 
d(j)ypei ^nrXaaiav ravrrjc;, where y/py^ero, acjyypei stand for 
Vp^aro, aCpelXe. 

2. The imperf. tJv is often used where other languages em- 
ploy the present, either when a conclusion is drawn from the 
present state that something is not as it once seemed to be (in 
which case riv is generally accompanied by apa, e.g. Eur, Hipp, 
362. KvirpiQ ovK ap r]v deoc,, Troad, 415 seq,), or when refer- 
ence is made to something said before, as Plat, Crat.p, 387 C. 
ovKovv Kai TO 6vo/j,at€iv TTpd^U TIC, e<jTiv, eiirep Kai to Xeyeti' 
wpdl^iQ TIG Tjv irepi to. wpay/uLaTa ; with reference to ib, B. dp' 
ovv ov Kai TO Xeyeiv juia tU ecxTt twv irpa^etjv ". The imperf. 
seems also to be used in this way in other cases : Plat. Crit. 
p, 47 D, o T<^ jueu ^iKai(o jScXtcov eyiyveTO, &c. i. e. yiyveaOat 


Obs, The imperf. xP^v, e^et, TrpocrrJKey are often used, not for the 
presents, but, like the Latin oportebat, debebam, to denote that something 
should be, or should have been, which is not. Soph. Phil. 136S. XPV^ y^p 
ae firjT avroy ttot els Tpolay p-oXelyf yfids t aweipyeiy ' thou shouldest 
not have gone*. Eur. Hipp. 299. {Heracl. 450. ■xpriv signifies ' it was 
allotted to us'.) So dxpeXoy §. 513. Obs, 3. Herod. 1, 39. el fiey yap 

VTTO o^oyros tol elire Te\evTi](Teiv pe ''"XP^^ ^^ ^^ iroieeiy to. 

TToieeis. Plat, Charm, p. 158 B. Demosthenes ^'''o Cor, p, 293, 14. 
uses it of a supposition or condition, without any such accessory idea : 
Ti ay, et irov Trjs xoitpas ravTO rovro TrdOos (rvyefirj, TrpoadoKfjaat XP'7*'*» 
XPVt ^^^i Trpoarjicei, on the other hand, are used of things which yet 
may and should be done. See §. 510, 6. 

3. Sometimes the imperf. for the pres. in the annunciations 
of messengers, e. g. Arist, Ach, 1073. levai a eKcXevov ol 
GTpaTTjyoi TTjpepov Ta^ewc Xaj^ovra tovq X6\ovq ^. 

III. The perf. for the pres., especially in verbs whose present 
tense shows the commencement of the action, e. g. ^e^oiKa, ne- 

* Eur. Hipp.359. Schaf. Epist. Socr. ed. Orell. p. 322 seq. 

ad Dion. Ilal. p. 126. ad Theocr. 19, Stallb. ad Plat. Phil. p. 60. 
8. ad Soph. (Ed. C. 1697. Mcineke " See Matthias ad Eur. Ilec. 2dQ. 

ad Menandr. and especially lleind. Hipp. 296. 344. Androm. 424. 
ad Plia:don. p. 51 scq. Bremi ad ' lleind. ad llorat. Sat. p. 388. 

852 Syntax. Of the Tenses. 

(()6(5r)^ai, K€K\T}/Liaif ireiroiOa, In this case the plusq. perf. has 
the sense of the imperf.* The Greeks also use in letters the 
' perf. for the pres. in transient actions, as Isocr. ad Dem. in, 
a7re<7TaX/ca goi Tov^e tov \6yov dtvpov . 

IV. The plusq. perf. is also used, especially in Homer and 
Herodotus, for the imperf. or aor. //. e, 65. tov ^itei^ MrjpiovriQ 
ore Sr) Karefxapirre StwKiwv, fSejSXrjKet, for ej^aXe. comp. 73. 
661. ib. 696. So ^et§e)(aTo is used as an aorist //. t', 671. as 
an imperf. //. S', 4. kf^e^mei a\ 221. t, 495. 513. X', 296. 
&c. ireiraXaKro ib. 98. eXeXtKTO ib. 39. v, 558. opdypcyaro 
X', 26. e\y]\aro v , 595. TreTrovrjro o', 447. aVefCTaro p , 472. 
— Herod. 1, 79. eXr?Xu0ee for rfXOe, as it should probably be 
8, 50. for eX^Xu0e. ib. 83. op^xearo. comp. 158. 7, 215. 218. 
219. napeaKeva^aro 9, 61. 102. as at the end of the chapter 
eTreiravvTO. 84 extr. ScijoSteq riXvjKeaav. unless this expresses 
the relation of the earlier action to the later eiropOeero, as just 
before, o avroc re difa(5e(5r}Kee Kai Kar avrov aXXot IIep(T€(ov 

dvej3aivov, equivalent to tou avrov avajSejSnfcoroc, avi- 

(5aivov, and 5, 86. comp. 1, 189. 7, 206. 8, 38. 114. 9, 

10 extr. So Thuc. 7, 86. /cat o fiev (NiKiac) eredfriKei 

TOVG S' ev TttTq XiOoTO/uLLaiQ ol ^vpaKoaioL ^aXeTrwc juere- 


506. V. The aorist is used, 1 . in the sense of the present, even 
where it cannot be rendered ' to be wont', especially in the tra- 
gedians. Soph. Aj. 536. eiryvea epyov Kai irpovoiav riv eOov, 
Phil. 1433. comp. 1289. El. 668. eSe^d/uvv to pvOeV eidevai 
^e GOV TTpLoriara XPV^^f '^'^^ ^' "'''^ty'reiXe jBportJV. Eurip. Or. 
1687 sq. i^ov fxed'irifx '^.pfxi6vr\v dno trc^ayfjc, kol XeKTp' eiry- 
veff, i)viK av St^w irarrip- id. Iph. A. 510. aTreirrvGa roi- 
dv^e Gvyyeveiav aXXTjXwi^ iriKpav. id. Med. 273. ae, mv gkv- 
Bpioirov Kai TToaei Ovpov/uLevTiv Mrj^eiav, cIttov Ttja^e yrjc, e^oi 
irepav. comp. Andr. 412. 1238. In Latin and English the 
present must be used here ; but in Greek the aorist seems here 
also to retain a sense very nearly related to its proper one, of 
an action completely finished, in which no alteration can be 
made, and to be used in order to express the action quite 

» Thorn. M. p. 264. •• Wyttenb. ad Plut. p. 306. 

Syntax, Of the Tenses. 853 

determinately, every doubt as to its truth and unalterableness 
being removed, as in Latin hoc tibi dictum volo ^. 

2. As the perf. is used of future actions to denote their 
sudden appearance and rapid completion (§. 500.), so is the aor. 
Eur. Med. 78. aTnoXofjLeaQ ap , ei kukov TrpoaoKro/nev vkov ira- 
Xauoy * we are undone if. So Homer says //. ^', 158. ov jxev 
Trwc aAiov TreAet opKiov aijua re apvwVj airovcai t aKpr^roi /cat 
^e^iaiy yc eireTriO/biev. enrep yap re fcai qvt'ik OXv/j.7rioc ovk 
ereXeaaeVf eK re Kai o\pe reXei' aw re /neyaXu) aTreTiaav avv 
acpycjiv KeCpaXyaif yvvai^l re Kai TeKeeaaiv. comp. t, 412 seq. 
Soph. Ant. 302. odoi 3e juiaOapvovprec h^vcrav raSej y^povio ttot 
e^eTrpa^av wo dovvai CLKr}Vy the scholiasts explain avri rou d)a- 
vepoi e<TovTai Kai Ti/uidyprfOrjaovTai. but the sense seems to be, 
hoc ipso (tw avvcjai ravTa) effecerunt ut post aliquod tempus 
panas dent. But Plat. Gorg. p. 484 A. kTravaarac, 
^€(T7r6rr]C TifxeTepoQ o ^ouXoc appears to belong to this head. So 
Livy 21, 43. si tales animos in prcElio habehitiSy quales hie osten- 
ditis, vicimus, veviKr^Ka/jiev or eviKriaajxev, So Cicero Verr, 
2, 23, 61. 3, 62, 145. 95 in. 

VI. Sometimes the fut. seems to be used for the pres. Soph, 
CEd, T. 1076. Tovfxov Z eyw, kei afxiKpov effri, Girepp, iSelv 
(3ovXr}(Top,aij where however the point of time is indicated at 
which the present wish passes into accomplishment. Comp. 
CEd. C. 1289. Eur. Med. 263. Euripides often uses tl Xe^eia 
in the expression of surprise at news received, e. g. Hel. 788. 
naif, (pric ; tl Xe^eic ; wq fx airCiXeaaQy yvvai\ y probably to ex- 
press the fear of still worse details. 

The infin. fut. in particular is often found instead of the 
pres. e.g. after jSouXo^at Isocr. c. Soph. p. 291 C. i^^Ti^ ev- 
^ei^eaOai (^ovXojULevoQ. after ev^o/xai Soph. (Ed. T. 269. after 
^vvapai Soph. Phil. 1394. after TTapacTKevateaOai Xen. Oyr. 
7, 5, 1 2. and several other verbs, which Schoefer ad Poet. Gnom. 
p.\(i seq. and Lobeck ad Phryn. p. 14:1 . have collected. In 
all these cases the object of the wish &c. is something future, 

«= Ilerm. de Em. Gr. Gr. p. 194 sq. ** Valck. ad Eur. Hipp. 353. Elmsl. 

ad Vig. p. 74G. n. 162. who has how- ad Eur. Med. 1277. Comp. Herm. 

ever explained this idiom somewhat ad Vig. p. 747. n. 164. 
differently. Elmsl. ad Med. 266. 

854 Syntax. Of the Moods. 

though conceived of as present in the act of wishing. On the 
other hand Soph. Phil. 597. ovtog yap rrXeov to Oapaoc el'^^e 
Oarepov ^paaeiv Tci^e, ^pav could not have been used, as 
something future is necessarily implied. After viri(TyveiaBai 
the fut. is the tense regularly used. 

Of the Moods. 

507. I. The indicative is used in Greek w^hen anything is to be 
represented as actually existing or happening, and as something 
independent of the thought and conception of the speaker. 
Hence it is put in very many cases where in Latin the con- 
junctive must be used. 

1. After relatives, both pronouns and particles, where in 
Latin the dependence of this clause is expressed by the 
conj., the fut. indie, is often used in Greek, whether the pre- 
ceding verb be past or present, to denote what shall or will 
happen, not what is merely conceived as such. Plat. Gorg. 
p. 509 B. dpa ov ravTr}V (ttjv (5ori9eiav) tjtic aTTorpe^pei Trjv 
peyicfrrjv rifxtsiv f3\a(5r}v ', ib. p. 513 A. ei oe av olei ovrivovv 
av9pu)7r(i)V 7rapa^<l}(T€iv r€yvr}V riva TOiaurijv, rjnq tre Troirjcrei 

peya ^vvaaOai . if). p. 52\ B. Comip. Meriex. p. 23 SB. 

Xen. H. Gr. 2, 3, 2. eSo^e tw Siijuw rpiaKovra av^pac eXeaOat, 
ot Tovc TrarpiovQ vopovc l^vyy paiPovcri. Soph. Phil. 303. ov 
yap TIC, op/Lioc earlv, ouS oiroi TrXeiov, ef^^iTroXr/trei Kepdoc, rj 
^€v<l)(Terai. So after negative propositions with the relative, 
e. g. Xen. Hist. Gr. 6, 1,4. Trap e/aol ov^elc pitjOocfyopei , oartt; 
urj i/cavoc €<Triv 'iffa irovelv e/moi' qui non possit. id. Mem. 
S, 2, 2, 8. ov^eir ioirore avry]v ovt elira ovt eTroirjtra ov^ev, €(j> 
<J rJ(Tvuv0r;, propter quod ernbesceret. The optative eir\ av, 
ai(7\yvdeir\ av would represent the thing merely as possible or 
probable ; whereas here, on the contrary, something is only to 
be simply denied. 

2. In indirect interrogations. Herod. 8, 79. vjuieac aTaaia- 

t^iv \p€U)V eo-Ti irepl rov OKorepoQ ?i/Liewv irXecj ayaOa rriv 

narpi^a epyaaeraiy as Isocr. Paneg. p. 56 D. Thuc. 2, 4. 
oi nXaTaipc e^ovXevovro, elre KaraKavcrovaiv, (oairep eyov- 
aiv, epirpYjaavrec to oiKv/na, etVe ti aXXo y^py)<fovTai, utrum 

Syntax. Of the Mooch. 855 

eos concremarenty an aliud quid illis facerent. Xen. 
Mem. S. 2, 6, 4, ayoXriv TroceiTat, onoOev avTOC Kep^avel. comp. 
§. 528. Plat, Euthyphr. p. 2 C. eKelvoc, yap, wc, (j)rj<nv, ol^e, 
riva Tpoirov ol veoi BiaCJyOeipovrai, 'are actually destroyed'; 
^ia(l)0€Lpoivro a »/ would imply, 'might have been destroyed'. 
Thus opare, ri. Trotov/uei^, signifies, ' you see what we are 
actually doing'; but Plat. Leg, 1. p. 642 A. opare, ri ttoiw- 
fiev 'see what we are to do'. Comp. Herod. 5, 13. 9, 64. 
Thuc. 3, 113. Xen. Cyr. 4, 4, 4.* 

3. In the oratio obliqua, the indicative in Greek is much 
more used than in Latin ; for all single propositions or mem- 
bers of a proposition, which are not necessarily to be considered 
as uttered in the person of another, may be expressed in Greek 
by the indicative. Xen. Cyr. 1, 4, 27. Xeyerai, ore KvpoG 
airyei Kai aTrriWarrovro air aXXrjAwv (here the optative would 
be faulty, because an action is determinately expressed to 

have taken place at a definite time) avSpa riva rijv 

MrjSwv, juaXa KaXov KayaOov ovra, eKTreTrXtj-^Oai ttoXvv riva 
y^povov eiri rio KoXXei rov J^vpov' riviKa de itjpa rove, 
flruyyei'eTc (j)iXovvraQ avrov, v7roXei(()0rjvai' ewei §e ol aXXoi 
aTrrjXOov, irpoaeXQelv rto Kvpi^ Kai enrelv, &c. The indicative, 
however, is very frequently used in single propositions, which 
are connected with the speech of another: Herod. 1, 163. 
eKeXeve t?c eavrov yjiopr]Q oiKelv okov (iovXovrai. id, 9, 44. 
01 ^vXaKec eXOovrec eXeyov, wc avOpioTTOQ rj/cot ctt ittttov e/c rov 
arparoTrecov rov MrJ^cui', bo aXXo /ueu ov^ev Trapayvfxvol. 
eTTOCf (Trparrjyovc ce ovofxaCdyv eOeXeiv (pr]ai ec Xoyovc eXOelv. 
Xen, Cyr, 4, 2, 3. evpor]Qe.vrec, oe, ota re Tratry outrii/ vtto 
rojv A(T(Tvpi(t)v, Kai on vvv reOvairj fiev o apywv avrojv, &c. 
ib. 36.^ See §. 529. 

4. In conditional propositions the indicative is used properly jqs. 

a. when the relation of the condition to the consequences is 
supposed as actual, without any expression of uncertainty, 
e. g. ei eiai (Suy/noi, e'lal Kai OeoL In this the Greek entirely 
coincides with the Latin idiom. 

* Heind. ad Plat. Hipp. p. 162. •» Ileind. ad Plat. Soph. p. 439 3eq. 

856 Syntax, Of the Moods, 

b. When the condition and consequence are both past actions, 
whose relation to each other shows that any action would have 
taken place if another had happened, the indicative of past 
time is used twice, in the protasis with ei alone, and in the 
apodosis with av, where in Latin the plusq. perf. conj. is used in 
both cases. Here too the aor. expresses an action confined to 
a single case and completed in a single moment, the imperf, 
an action continuing through several moments or frequently 
repeated. //. (j) , 211. /cat vv k en irXeovac Krave Ylaiovaa 
tJKVQ A-^iWevGj ei jLir] yjjjaafxevoQ irpoaeCprj iroTafjiOC, j3a0u- 
^ivriQ. comp. 544. Od.d', 363. Eurip. Troad. 401. ei S' ricrav 
oiKoi {A-^aioi), y^priGTOc, u)v eXavQav av' sidomi mansissent 
GrcBci, Hectoris virtus non i n notuisse t. In Greek however 
both conditions are represented as continuing, as indeed they 
are in their nature. Plat» Gorg, jd. 5 16 E. KaiToi ovroi (Cimon, 
Themistocles, Miltiades) ei riaav av^pec; ayaOol, ovk av irore 
Tavra ewacT'^ov (repeated as being applicable to several). 
Comp. Herod, 1,4. ei jmrj avrai ej^ovXearOy ovk av 7]piraCovTO, 
Thuc. 1, 4. of Agamemnon: ovk. av ovv vy]<ju)v eKparei, el 
JULY} Tt Ka\ vavTiKov el'^ev, both actions continuing together. 
Hence the aorist is often exchanged for the imperf. in the con- 
tinuation of the proposition, or an aorist answers in another 
clause to the imperf., or vice versa. Plat. Apol. S. p. 32 E. 
dp ovv av fxe o'leaOe rodaoe €tjj ^layevecrOai, ei ewpaTTOV, 

ef^oTfOovv, eiroiovfxy\v, Thuc. 1, 74. ei ^e tt/ooo"- 

e\is) priaafxev irporepov tw MrjSw, r/ ^17 eTo\ix7]aafxev 
varepov eaf^rjvai eq rac vavc, ojq ^ie(f)6apimevoi, ovcev a v en 
eSet (repeated) v/ulcic, /llv e-^ovrac, vavQ iKavaQ, vavfj.a'^elv, aWa 
Kad riav^iav av avrio tt poey^u) pi]ae to. irpayfxaTa, -^ e/3ou- 
\eT0. Xen. Mem. S. 1, 1, 5. tic, ovk av ojnoXoyrjaeiev, avrov 
fiovXeaOai jultjt r}XiOiov /utit aXa^ova (paivecrOai to7q avvovaiv ; 
e^oKei (continuing) S av afx(p6Tepa Tavra, ei npoayopevuv 
u)Q VTTO Oeov (paivof^ieva eWa ipev^ofxevoc ec^aivero. ^fjXov 
ovv, on OVK av ir poeXeyev (repeated), ei firi eiriaTevdev 
(each time) aXtjOevtreiv. Comp. Anab, 5, 8, 13. Soph, Trach, 
86. Traprjv is equivalent to riXOov^. 

* Brunck ad Arist. Lys. 149. Plut. Dion. Hal. 1. p. 55 sq. Stallb. ad 
583. ad Eurip. Hipp. 705. Comp. Plat. Euthyphr. p. 81 seq. 
Herm. ad Vig. p. 821. Schaefer in 

Si^ntax. Of the Moods, 857 

c. Since the imperf. expresses the continuance of an action 
or a state, it is used of present actions, but only when they 
properly belong to the past, and extend from this into the 
present ; while those which belong to the present only, or the 
present and the future, are put in the optative. The past being 
incapable of change, the imperfect is used of actions which are 
represented as not having happened, or with a negative as 
having happened. Herod. 1, 187. e'l /xr? ciTrXr^crToc re eac 
-y^prjjj.arwv Kai aiay^poKep^riQ, ovk av vcKpuiv OrjKaG aveojyeQ, 
nisi esses, non aperires {at eras; ergo aperiebas), where the 
opening of graves is represented as a practice, a characteristic 
trait of the person who opened them, not as a thing frequently 
happening. Soph. (Ed. T, 83. (et /j-rj v^vg i}v) ovk av wS' elpTre, 
where eipire represents the action, not as merely present (in 
that case epiroi av would have been used), but as having taken 
place even at an earlier time {-n^vc ecrriv' epirei ovv). Eur. 

Bacch. 258. ei jlit) ere yripac iroXiov e^eppvero, KaOrja av 

jamdudum sederes. Plat. Phcedon. p. 73 A. e'l /mrj ervy^a- 
vev avTolc e7n(TTrjp,ri €»/ou(Ta Kai opOoQ Xoyoc, ovk av oloi t 

in(yav TovTO TToieTv, nisi inesset non possent. Comp. 

Alcib. 1. p. 1 1 1 E. Hipp. Maj. p. 294 D. Trpoarjv ^* av (to 
(j)aiveG6ai KaXa), enrep to irpeirov KaXov iqv, Kai /liyj jjlovov KaXa 
eiroiei eivai, aXXa Kai (j)alveaOai. Comp. ]>, 299 E. Prot. 
p. 322 B. Xeri. Mem. S. 1, 6, 12. ^rjXov ^rj, on, e'l Kai ttjv 
^vvovcTiav wov Tii^oc a^iav elvai, Kai Tavrrjv av ovk eXarTOv 
rrJQ a^iac apyvpiov eirparrov. Comp. 2, 6, 26. 4, 3, 3. 
Alexis ap. Athen. 10. p. 71. ed. Schw. ei rov fxedvcjKeadai irpo- 
Tepov TO KpaiiraXav irapey iveO i^juiv, ouo av elc, oivov nore 
irpoaieTO irXeiv rov fxerp'iov. So also the plusq. perf. in the 
protasis Plat. Phadon. p. 1 06. ^ei tovto lo/aoXoytfTO i7/u?v, paSitoc 
av Bie/Lia'^ofxeOa. The difference between the indie, with av and 
the optative is seen Plat. Prot. p. 311 B. C. where of actions 
which belong equally to past and present time it is said ei 

€7r€vo€ic et TIG oe rjpero ti av aneK pivto; but of 

the present only ib. D. napa 3e S17 Tlpwrayopav vvv aCpiKo/nevoi 

ft 01) V TIG rifJiaG epoiTO ti av avT(o aneK pivai- 

liieOa ; id. Phccdon. p. 1 08 A. But Meuon. p. 74 B. ei tig (re 
avepoiTO TOVTO, ti €(tti (Tyji/Lia, lo Mt:»'a)v ; ei avT(^ eiTTCG, 
oil GTpoyyvXoTtjGy e'l (Toi eiTrei^ o7re^ cyw, noTcpov tr^T/^m 17 

VOL. 11. 2 a 

858 Syntax. Of the Moods. 

GrpoyyvXorrjQ ecrriv rj (ry^rjina ti, eiTreQ cijirov av ort (jyi]fxa 
Tt, ei TIC avepoiTO is not used for e't tiq avriperoy but the case is 
considered first as possible and to be expected, afterwards as 
existing at an indefinite past or present time. Soph. (Ed. T. 
1511. a(j)(j)U ^ , w rCKV , el fxev e[y^err)v h^r] ^pkvac,, ttoXX av 
Trapyvovv* vvv ^e tovt e'v^ecrOe fxoi, that which might have 
happened at an indefinite time is opposed to that which is to 
happen now, not before also. 

Even of actions still present, the aorist is sometimes used if, 
rapidly passing, they are limited to a single point of time. Plat. 
Phadon. p. 106 A. ovkovv et kgi to aOep/xov avayKoiov riv avio- 
XeOpov eivai,OTTOT€ ric, em yjLova depfxov eTrayayoiy vTrefpei av 
7) yjLiiiv ovaa GWQ Kai arrj/croc ; ov yap av aTTioXero -ye, ov^ av 
VTTOjJLkvov(ja e^efaro av rrfv OepjuoT-nra. where uTrefrjei must 
be the aorist, because the yielding of the unmelted snow can 
only be momentary, like the being destroyed and the reception 
of the warmth. So Gorg. p. 447 E. and the passages there pro- 
duced by Heindorf §.3. p. 6. the aorist is used, not of a con- 
tinued or repeated, but single act. Soph. Ant. 755. et ^77 Trarrip 
V(tO y elirov av (as an act) <j ovk ev (ppovelv. Comp. Plat. Eu- 
thyd. p. 2S3 E. Prot. p. 3\\E,^ 

Instead of et with the indicative, the participle only is used. 
Xen. Mem. S. 1,4, 14. ovre yap jSooq av e^wv aij^fxaj avOpoj- 
TTOv oe yv(jjjiir)v, r^ovvar av Trparreiv a epovKero, Comp. 
§. 5Q(^, 4. Also avev with the gen. of the infin. Plat. Phadon. 
p. 99 A. avev Tov ra TOiavra e^eiv ovk av oioq t riv, i. e. et p,ri 
TCI TOtauTa elyev. 

Ohs. 1. The optative in the apodosis is irregular, as //. e', 388. kqi 
vv Key eV0' utt 6\o iro "AprfSf dros TroXe/xoio, el prj jjirjTpvt^f TrepiKaW^s 
'Hep//3oia, 'Epfxeg. e^iiyyeiXev, for aTrwXero. Comp. 311 seq. p, 70. 
evda Ke pela cpepoL kXvtci revyea YlavQoihao 'Arpei^rjs, el pi] 01 dyac- 
o-aro <!>o'ij3os 'AttoXXwi^. So also Ke is joined with ei II. ;//', 526. in an 
oracle Herod. 1, 174. and an epigram of Erinna, Brunck Anal. 1. p. 58, 
It is a different case §. 524, 2. 

Ohs. 2. Sometimes av is omitted in the apodosis with the imperf. or 
aorist of xP^^f ^^' ^® must separate from this the use of xP^i^, 

* Stallb. ad Plat. Euthyphr. p. 51. Matth. ad Eur. Bacch. V19Q. 
81. Nitzscb ad Ion. p. 27. Comp. 

Si/fitax. Of the Moods. 859 

e^et, &c. mentioned §. 505. Obs. Soph. (Ed. T, 255, ovh' el yap ijv to 
Trpdyfia fiij deyjXaroyj uKadaprov vfids eiKos r} v ovtcjs edv, 7ion dece- 
hat vos scelus inexpiatum relinquercy nearly resembles the use of these 
words, the indie, without av expressing the impropriety more defi- 
nitely than if by means of dy it had been made to depend on the 
supposed condition. Comp. Isocr. Paneg. in. The same thing takes 
place whenever 'must, should' is expressed : Xen. Mem. S. 2, 7, 10. el 
fiey Tolvvv alcryjpov tl cfxeWoy epydaaffdai, Qdvarov clvt avTOV Trpoaipe- 
reoy ijy, as in Latin, prceferenda erat mors. Dem. de Cor, p, 294 extr, 

el yap ^y airatn Trpo^rjXa ov^' ovtujs dTroarareov rjyf not only 

in the case supposed, but in every case ; so that el expresses not so 
much a conceivable supposition as a case assumed to be real ; as 

Plat. Gorg. p. 514: Q, el ^k fxyre di^dffKaXoy e'i\o^ey ovrto Ze 

ayorjToy -qy. 0£ ^y dpa see §. 505. So ^y is found without dv in defi- 
nite statements not dependent on any supposition, as Eur. Iph, A. 1209. 
ey 'icru) yap r]y roZe. Xcn, Anal). 7, 7, 40. alayjpoy yap rjy ru fiey efjd 
ZiaTreTrpd^dai, ra Ze CKeiyioy nepiopdy ejjie KaKuis eyoyra. Soph. (Ed. T. 
1368. Xen. Hell. 2, 3, 41. Herod. 1, 75 extr, k<Ss yap ott/cw Tropev 
vpeyoi Zi€(3rj(Tay avrvy; expresses the impossibility more definitely than 
K(iis yap ay. Soph. El. 914. ovre Zpdja eXdvQayey means, not 'she 
would not, or she could not have done it unobserved', but ' she did not 
do it secretly' ; the word * secretly' being emphatic. Msch. Agam, 
875. /cat rpavfJ-aTioy fxey el Toaioy ervy^ayey dyrjp o5', <l)s Trpos oXkov 
uy-^erevero 0arts, TerpujTai diKvvov irXeio Xeyeiy 'if he has been (not 
'had been') so often wounded, he has (not 'would have had') more 
wounds', &c. As in Latin, the indie, is often found with a clause 
answering to it, in which is the conj. with si or nisi (^Ramshorris Lat, 
Gram, p. 584. ZumpVs Lat. Gram. §. 76, 4.), so also in Greek. 
Theocr, 16, 42, 54. 21iuc. 8, 86. lopprj/ji^yajy rioy ey ^dp.(D ^Adrjyaiioy 
TrXeTy €ki (Tcpds avrovs, ey w aa(f)€araTa 'lojyiay Kal ^RXXiiaTroyToy evdvs 
elj^pyj where the result is represented as certain, tenebant loniam, si co 
profecti essent. Plat. Symp. /;. 190 C. //. ^', 348. where eyQa fie kvjx 
aTToepae expresses, with the liveliness of the speaker's feeling, the effect 
as real. And so perhaps Eur. Ale. 921. Bvo ^' dyrl fiids "AiZris '^^v^ds 
Tuf TTiarTordTas ye avy€a-)(ey ofxov. See Matth. ad 923. In all these cases 
dy properly speaking is not omitted, any more than in e^w elnely Plat, 
Apol. S. p. 34 A. possum dicere ' I could say', longum est * it would be 
tedious* ; though it would in English be expressed conditionally. 

Sometimes an abbreviation takes place, as Plat. Apol. S. p. 20 C. oh 
yap h'fTToVf aov ye ovley ruiy dXXioy TrepiTTorepoy trpayfiaTevojieyoVf 
eireira ToaavTrj <l>yjiJir] re Kal Xoyos yeyovey^ el /u// ri enparres dXXoioy »/ 

2 A 2 

860 Syntax. Of the Moods. 

ul TToXXo/, where with el fjiri we may supply ts ovk eyevero dv before the 
clause which repeats the participial construction (see §. 636.) : as 
perhaps Eur. Phcen. 1382. war eKdaKpvaai y ei (ppovovvr ervyxai'ey, 
which in orat. recta would be ^aKpvei rh cwfiaTa^ i) /jidWov e^aKpveu 
cii^, el (ppopovvT er. (comp. 1602. with Matth. adv. 1561.) or Cic, de 
Legg. 1, 19 extr. et labebar longius (et lapsus essem longius) nisi me 
retinuissem. Where on the contrary an action cannot be conceived as 
really existing, but only in a supposed case, dv can hardly be omitted, 
as in the passages collected by Schsefer Melel. Crit. p. 129 f 85. Thus 
Soph. El. 1022. we should read with Brunck, after several MSS. ttov 
yap ay KUTeipyatrii). And Eur, Hel. 1678. TrctXat 3' a.^€\(f)t)v Kal Trplv 
ki,eau}(Taixev^ the conjecture kuv Trplv e^. is probably correct. Comp. 
Eur. Troad. 401. 403.* 

509. 5. The indicative also of all tenses is frequently used with 
avy without any condition implied, where in Latin the conjunc- 
tive is used. 

a. Imperf. Thuc. 7, bb. ov ^wa/uLevoi eneveyKelv ovre e/c 
TToXiTeiac Ti /ueTOjSoX^G to ^ta^opop auroTc, ^ irpocrriyovTO 
av, quo sibi eos adjunxisseiity where the imperf. shows an 
incident then happening, and accompanying the circumstances 
of that time. Xen, Hie?'. 1, 9. ei yap rovO ovtwq e^ec, ttwc 
av TToWoi fxev eireOv/jLOvv Tvpavvelv --- ', Trwq Se TravreQ 
eZh^ovv av tovq rvpavvovc, ; quare concupiscerent, inviderent, 
a continuation to the present time of an action begun in past 
time. Thus especially €^ov\6fxr)v av, rjOeXov av is used, ' I 
could have wished', not only now, but also previously, vellem, 
whence it follows that as being passed it can no longer be 
effected. Plat. Phcedr. p. 228 A. Kairoi e(3ovX6iur]v y av 
ftaXXov (aTTOjuvYiiuioveveiv ra Avcriov) rj fioi ttoXu y^pvaiov yeve- 
(rOai. On the other hand, /3ouXo(ju»ji/ av Plat. Lys. J9. 211 E. 
'I now could wish', as something present and future, conse- 
quently still possible, velim ^. Without such a reference, as a 
real wish we find €l5ov\6iiir)v without av JEsch. in Ctes. p. 383. 

ej8ouXo/i»jv ouv rrjv (3ovXi]v opOwc ^loiKelaOai. So after the 

relative Plat. Phtsdon. in. See Heindorf's note, p. 4. 

b. Plusquamp. Demosth. pro Cor. p. 235, 29. rrJQ e'lpijvrjG 

" Comp. Poppo Obs. in Thuc. p. 14, are here commonly intermixed. 
142. Sch^f. App. Dem. 2. p. 324. '' Dawes Misc. Crit. p. 237. Scha?f. 

Passages of different kinds however in Dion. Hal. 1. p. 124 sq. 

syntax. (y the Imperative. 8G1 

av ^tr/jUayOTT/Kei Kai ovk av afx(^6Tepa et^e, Kai r^v eip)^vv\v 
KOI TO. yuypia. id. ibid. p. 242, 9. id. in Arislocr. p. 680, 25. 
^pr](f>iapa toiovtou tl nap' v/lkjjv evpCTO, ef ov KvpwQevroc, av, 
vSiKtiVTO /Liev (^avepijjQ ol ^vo t(jov (iaaiXetvv, ricrv^iav c av 
Tiyov ol orpaTriyovvrec avroiQ. The plusq. perf. here retains 
its signification. 

c. Aorist. Plat. Leg. 3. p, 679 B. irXov^ioi ovk av ttot 
eykvovTO, a^pvaoi re Kai avapyvpoi ovrec;. Xen. Anab, 4, 
2, 10. Kai avTol peu av eTropevOrjcraVy yirep oi aWoi, to. S 
V7roZ,vyia ovk i?v aXXp ?/ Tavrrj eV-j3?vat, projecti esseut or profi- 
cisci potuissent. Isocr. in Soph. p. 293 B. e-yw ^e wpo noXXuiv 
av y^pr]p.aTU)V erijur^cra^j]!/ tyiKikovtov cvvaaOai rrjv (piXoao- 
<^LaVy baov ovroi XeyovGiv (^i(J(s}Q yap out av rj/melQ TrXeTcTTOV 
a7r€Xei(j>0ri/Li€v, ovS av eXa^tarov /nepoc aireXavaapev 
avTtjc). Thus also ^/ctcrr' av rjBeXrjaa, minime voluissem^. 

6. Of the imperfects XpV^y e^ei, TrpocrrJKev, see §. 505. Obs. 510. 

7. Sometimes also the indicative is used in suppositions, 
when something which any one has said is assumed as real, 
and its possibility is not further to be inquired into, where in 
every other language the conjunctive would be used. Eur, A?i' 
drom. 335. TeOv-qKa Ty ay Ovyarpi, Kai fx a7rwXe(re* fxiai- 
(j)6vov fxev OVK €t' av (pvyoi jxvgoq * admitting that I had been 
slain by thy daughter, and that she had made an end of me\ 
id. Suppl. 252. r}fxapTev' ev vkoiai S avOptJirtov ro^e eveariv 
' grantingthat he has erred', id. Hel. 1068. Ka\ ^17 irape^Kev' 
eira iruic, avev veCjQ atoOriaoineaOa ' supposing that he yielded'^. 

Of the Impeuative. 

The Imperative is used in Greek, as in other languages, in 511, 
addresses, entreaties, commands, &c. The personal pronouns, 
as in other languages, are omitted except when they serve for 

«= Schaef. 1. c. ad Vigcr. p. 839. n. 33J . 

•* Markl. ad Eur. Suppl. I.e. Ilcrm. 

862 Si/titax. Of the Imperative. 

distinction or have an emphasis. With respect to the Greek 
idiom, it is to be observed : 

1. The second person sometimes receives an indefinite sub- 
ject, and thus stands for the third. Eur, Rhes. 687 sqq. ireXctQ 

TiQ lOi. TToie, irale ttclq tic, av, '^X^ irac, tic, '^'^X^ 

Trac ^opv. epire ttclc, kut 'i^voq avroiv. Arist, Av, 1186. 

'yjujpei ^evpo nac vTrtj peTrjc' To^eve irac tic,, ib. 1191. 
aXXa (pvXaTTe irac, tic, aepa irepiveCJyeXov, Comp. Eur. Bacch. 
173. A transition is made from the third person to the second 
ih, 346. (TTei-^eTtu tic, wc TayoCy eXOtjjv Se Ocikovq Tova^ , 'iv 
oiijjvocjKoireLj fxoyXolc, Tpiaivov KavaTpexpov kfunraXiVj Kai 
/ii eOec,, 

2. Sometimes the phiral of the imperative is used though 
only one person be addressed. Soph, OEd, Col. 1104. irpocr- 
eXOeTf w TraT, Trarpt. comp. 1112. Arist. Ran, 1479. ^w- 
/oeTre toivvVj w Atovutr, eato. But in Hesiod. Sc. H. 327. 
Xai^oere, Au-y/cr/oc -yeveij, -yeve^ according to the sense is plural. 
On the other hand, the imperative is also put in the singu- 
lar, though more than one person is mentioned : Plat, Prot, 
p. 311 D. eiTrk jnoi, cJ ^(.oKpuTec; k€ Kai iTnroKpaTeQ. See 
§. 312, 2.^ 

3. In prohibitions with firj, the imperative of the present is 
commonly used, but the conjunctive of the aorists. II. i , 33. 
(Tu ^e iiy\ Ti y^oXii)^^c, Od, ir , 168. py}d eTriKevOe, but o, 263. 
/U17S eTTiKevcnjc. Herod, 1, 155. crv fxkvTOi fxr] iravTa Ov/lho y^petj, 
p,Yl^e e^avaaTTjarjc. See §.517, 5. Lt/s. c. Eratosth.p, 127, 30. 
Plat. Gorg. p, 500 E. rj (jvpCpaOi rj imrj avf.i(pyjc„ Yet some- 
times in Homer the imperative of the aorist is found in the 
second person : //. ^ , 4 10. tw pr] poi iraTepaa ttoO opoiy evOeo 
Tipr). Od, w , 248. av §e pi) -yoXov kvOeo Ovpt^, M17 ipevcFov is 
once found in Aristophanes, Thesm, 877. and prj vopiaov is 
cited from Sophocles. The third person imp. of the aor. 1 . is 
frequently found : Od. tt ,301. ftr/nc CTreir Odvarjoc aKovaaTU) 
evdov eovTOQ, JEsch, Prom. 332. pr^Se <toi peXrjcraTio. S. c, 
Th, 1038. pr] ^oKtjaaTU) rev/. Soph. Aj. 1180 seq. pi}^e ae 

* Brunck ad Arist. Ran. 1479. p. 41. Acta Monac. 1. p. 36 seq. 
Soph. Phil. 369. Comp. ad H. Horn. 

syntax. Of the I/fiperalive. 8G3 

Kivr)(yaT<») riQ, zT*. 1334. Plat.ApoI. S. in. iJ.T}^eic; TTpoa^oKYicraTd). 
Xeri. Cyr. 7, 5, 73. Venat. 2, 3. and the aor. 1. pass. Soph. Q^d. 
T. 1449. i/uov ^e /ur) ttot a^itjjOijTd) Tooe irarpi^ov aarv 
ttovroc o'lKrfTov Tvy^elv. We find in Plat. Leg. 9. p. 861 E. ^tj 
TiQ o'lrjrai. and St/mp. p. 213 E. jut] /uol jnejLKprjrai **. 

The second person future is sometimes found with this /urj. 
j^Esch. S. c. Th. 252. ov a7yaj fjirj^eu rwi^S ipeiQ Kara tttoXii^, 
which is not to be confounded with fxr^^e following ov in an 
interrogation §. 498, c. /3. Arist. Eccl. 1145. kqI /mi) irapa- 
\ei\peiQ jiiri^eva {eXeiipa, Xeixf^yc, from XeiVw, is not in use, at 
least among the genuine Attic writers. Schaf. ad P. Gtiom, 
p. 148.). Soph, A?it. 84. aXX oui^ irpo^rjvvaeic, ye rovTO prj- 
Beifi TovpyoVj with the v. r, 7rpop.r]vvay)c ^. 

Ov fxi) with the future is more common §. 516. 

4. The imperative is used not unfrequently by the Attic 
poets in a dependent proposition after olad' o. Soph. CEd. T. 
543. olaO' ojQ TToirj (Tov ; ' knowest thou what thou must do?' 
Eur.Hec, 229. olaO' ovu o Spaaov; Heracl. 452. aXX* otaO' 
o fxoi avfjLirpa^ovy Thus also in the third person Eur. Iph. T. 
1211. o\ada vvv a ^oi yevkcjQii) ; The fut. is found Eur, Med. 
605. Cycl. 131. The imperative here cannot be rendered by 
any other tense or mood ; for the future does not properly con- 
tain the sense of ' must'. The phrase seems to have arisen from 
a transposition, for iroi^aov, oI<j9 o ; yevcaOa) juoiy oiaO' o ; as 
Plaut. Rud. 3, 5, 18. Tange, sed sci?i' quomodo?^ 

5, The use of the Greek imperative varies in some other 
respects from that of other languages. 

a. It sometimes expresses not so much a command, as a de- 

•* Thorn. M. p. 611. Herodian. *^ Elmsley ad Med. 804. will not 

Piers, p. 479. Interpr. ad Greg. admit this. See however Schaf. ad 

p. (G) 15. Brunck ad Arist. Thesm. P. Gnom. p. 318. 
870. Lysistr. 1036. Soph. (Ed. C. ** Menandr. p. 107. Bergl. 

731. Phil. 582. Pors. ad Eur. Ilec. ad Arist. Eqii. J 155. Koen ad Greg. 

1174. llcrm. de Pra3C. Att. p. 4—8. p. (7 sq.) 18. Brunck ad Arist. Av. 

ad Vig. p. 809. Bast et Schaef. and 54. Eur. Hec. 1. c. Soph. CEd. T. 

Ind. Gr. Greg. s. v. fit). Schaef. ad 1. c. Ilerm. ad Viger, p. 7 40, 143. 

Gnom. p. 155. 364. The reason of de El lips, p. 103. Pisci). 3 b. p. 52. 

this idiom is pointed out by Hermann Elmsl. ad Soph. O-^d. T. 513. 
ad Soph. Aj. 1064. 


864 Syntax, Of the Optative and Conjunctive. 

claration of what is proper to be done, according to the situation 
in which a person is placed. Eur. Iph. T. 337. ev^ov Se romS*, 
u) veavif (Toi ^evojv (j(f)dyia irapeivai, ^ thou shouldest wish*. 
JEsch. Prom. 713. (rrei'^ dvvporovQ yvac, 'thou must go'*. 

h. Hence the imperative is found also in interrogations, after 
particles or the relative. Plat. Leg. 7. p. 801 D. tl ovv \ o 
TToAAa/cic epujTu), kc'ktOio v6/jiog r]jjiLV Koi tvttoc, eKfxayelov re 
Tp'irov TovTo; 'shall a law exist?' lb. p. 800 E. Herod. 

1, 89. KaTKTov (^vKaKovc, ot XeyovTiov, &c. a transition from 

the orat. ohliqua into the recta. 

c. The imperative is sometimes used to express what should 
properly be expressed by a conditional or limiting proposition, 
as in Latin, Da mihi te facilem ; dederis in carmina vires, for 
si mihi te facilem dederis. See Excurs. ad Cic. Oratt. 7. 
p. 239 seq. Soph. Antig. 1168. TrXovrei yap Kar oIkov, el 
(3ov\ei, p-eya, Kal tv S^C. for Kaiwep irXovryQ Kal tyQ* 

Of the Optative and Conjunctive. 

The Optative and Conjunctive express, according to its dif- 
ferent modifications and shades of meaning, that which in 
Latin can only be signified by the Conjunctive. Both represent 
an action, not as something real, but rather as something only 
conceived of. That which is conceived of, however, is either 
something merely possible, probable, desirable, consequently 
uncertain, or something which, as it depends on external cir- 
cumstances, may be expected with some definiteness. The 
former is expressed by the optative, the latter by the conjunc- 
tive. Hence the optative is used to express a wish, something 
merely possible or probable, and therefore in the orat, obliqua ; 
and for the same reason it especially accompanies past actions. 

Although these moods, logically considered, always denote 
something dependent upon a conception, yet in treating of them 
grammatically this conception is not always expressed ; and 

* Markl. ad Eur. Iph. A. 734. 

Syntax, Of the Optative and Conjunctive. vS65 

therefore in grammar we may separate their use in independent 
propositions from their use in those which are dependent. 
Each has its proper rules, although they coincide in the main 
principle just mentioned. 

I, The Optative and Conjunctive in independent Propositions. 

A. The Optative, as the mood which expresses the speaker's 513. 
own thought, is used I. in the expression of a wish, and then 
is put without av, or the poetic /ce^. //. a\ 42. ri<jeiav 
Aa^aoi €/ua SaKpva aoloi ^eXeaaiv ' may the Greeks atone for*. 
J/. 'X^ , 304. fJLTfi fxav aairov^ei ye Kai aKXeitJQ aTToXoijurji/ ! 
Herod. 7, 5. Soph. Aj. 550. a) iral, yevoio Trarpoc evrv- 
yk(JTepoCy ra S aXX Ofxoioc,' Kai yevoi av ov fca/coq ' mayest 
thou be more fortunate than thy father ! — then (with av) thou 
wilt not be bad*. Hence Eur. Med. 759. tl 8' opKto rw^e juLrj 
* fjLfxkviov TraOoic, i. e. ti iraBelv €vy^'^ ; Soph. Phil. 895. ti ^rjra 
^ptop,' eyu) ; 'what should I wish to do?' Arist. Pint. 438. 
TToi TIC (pvyoL ; ' whither should a man wish to flee?' instead 
of which Eur. Or. 598. it is 'whither could a man flee?' and 
Soph. Aj. 503. TTo? TIC ovv (pvyy ; ' whither should a man flee?' 
jEsch. Suppl. 20. r'lva -youi/ y^^pav €v(ppova paWov TiferS 
ac^iKoipeda I 'could we wish to come to?' which passage, 
however, is suspicious, on account of yovv. In negative pro- 
positions /I?), not OX), is used §. b'08, 4, a. 

In this case eJ, ei yap, e'/0e, utinam^, are often used, or wc, 
TTwc av^ with the optative. Od.y, 205. ei ycip epoi roffar^vde 
Oeol ^vvafjLiv irapaOelev. Eur. Hec. 830. e'l julol ykvoiro 
(f)06yyoQ ev ^payioai &c. Horn. H. in Merc. 309. cJ ttottoi, 
e'lO' airoXoiTO j3oa>v yevoc ! which Callimachus Fr. 7, ex- 
presses XaXuj3a>»^ (Lc airoXoiTO yevoc, ! Comp. Soph. El. 126. 

Soph. Aj. 388. (M) Zev, TTWC av tov aipv\(jJTaTOV 

oXeatxac TcXoc Bavoipi kovtoqI 

Obs. 1. In this sense it is often accompanied by Key II. Ct 281. ws 
Key oi avdi ydla ^(^dyoi. 

'' BrunckadEurip.Ph. 514. Arist. p. 757 seq. who makes a difterence 

Equ. 400. between et, el yap and e'iOe. 

*= Valck. ad Eur. Ph. 761. Zeune '' Valck. and Monk ad Eur. Hipp, 

ad Viger.p. 503scq. Herm. ad Vigcr. '-^08.345. Markl. ad Eiir. Suppl. 796. 

866 Syntax, Of the Optative and Conjunctive 

Obs, 2. If the wish relates to anything past, the indicative aorist is 
used with el yap, eWe, without av, Eur. Or. 1613. el yap Kareayov, fifj 
QciZv K\€<l>d€\s vTTo. Comp. Andr. 294. 1185. Suppl. 823 seq. Xen. 
Mem. S. 1, 2, 46. e'iOe aoi rare avveyev6ixr}v, ore BeipOTaros aavrov 
ravra ^aOa ! Also the imperfect is used in an action which is continued 
from the past to the present, as §. 508, c. Eurip. Iph. A. QQQ. e'lff ^v 
Ka\6v fxoL aoi r ayeiv (TvfJLTrXovy e/xe. Comp. Hipp. 1091. Heracl. 733, 
EL 1068. 

Obs. 3, Another mode of expressing a wish is eW w^eXoi/, w^eXes, 
-e, especially in the poets ; with the infinitive present of actions which 
should have taken place but have not. //. a', 415. aW o0eXes Trajoa 
VT}vatv aBaKpyros /cat airiifUjiv rjo-0ai, debebas sedere, ' thou shouldst sit', 
i. e. utinam sederes. Comp. Arist. Vesp. 730. Plat. Rep. 4. p. 432 C, 
opa ovv /cat TcpoQvjxov Kariheiv, eav ttws Trporepov eyuov 'i^rjs Kal efxoX 
^paays. Et yap wcpeXoy, €((>r]. Comp. Criton. p. 44 D. With the infin. 
aor. of past actions: II, (p', 269. dos /it' o^eX' "E/crtup Kreti^ai. Eurip, 

Med, in. et0' ut^eX" Apyovs fjij diaTrraadaL aKacpos Kvayeas SvjuttX?/- 

ya^os. Also w0eXe, loipetXe stand alone jEsch. Prom. 48. Soph. Phil. 
969. Eur. l2oh. A. 1303. /u/yTror' w^eiXe (^Priarmcs) rov ajicpl fjoval 
[^ovKoKov Tpa(peyr 'AXe^av^pou oiKiaai ap(j)l ro XevKoy vBiop, Comp, 
Herod. 1, 111. Demosth. in Aristog. p. 783, 23. &(p€Xe yap uri^els 
aXXos 'ApiGToyeiTovL xa'peu'. Respecting Soph. CEd. C. 539. e^e'iajjLrjy 
Boipoyf o firiTTOT eyw raXaKapdios e7rit)<j)eXr]<Ta TroXeos e^eXecQat, see 
Vol. I. p. 426, Later writers use uxpeXoyf uxpeXe, as conjunctions, 
Callim. Epigr. 18. ijc^eXe fAijB' eyeyoyro doal yees. Arrian. Diss. 2, 18. 
tlxpeXoy Tis yuera ravrris €KOLfit]dr)^, 

Obs. 4. Thus also the optative with ovtojs is used in entreaties, when, 
in order to render the other party propitious to the suppliant, the latter 
wishes him something pleasing or profitable, as //. a', 1 8. Eur. Med. 712, 
OVTOJS epios aoL irpus deuiy reXecripvpos y eye ltd Tra/^tu)-', Kavros oX(3lo5 
6 aye IS. as Sic te diva potens Cypri regat. Or in protestations : Arist, 
Thesm. 469, Kavrt) yap eytoy, ovtojs 6yaifir]y Twy rcKyojy, pi<Tio tov 
ay})p cKelroy, * I hate him, as truly as I wish to have joy in my children'. 
Nub. 520. ovTO) viKi) aaiiuLi y eyoj /cat yoixi^oiiJLrjy credos, ojs - - - 
wpojTOvs i)^ioj(j ayayeva vfxds. 

514. 2, Otherwise the optative is used, but in connection with av 
or K€j in order to give to a proposition an expression of a mere 

'^ Thorn. M. p. 2G9. 665. Interpr. 3 a. p. 147 seq. Ilerm. ad Viger. 
ad Moer. p. '285 seq. Graev. etileitz p. 756 seq. Blomf. ad iEsch. Pers. 
ad Luc. Soloec. t. 9. p. 448. Eisch. 912. 

in independent Propositions. 8G7 

conjecture, a bare possibility, and thence of uncertainty and 
doubt, or in expressions of wishing, in order to declare any- 
thing, not as a fixed purpose, but only as an inclination, which 
may not be gratified, where in English, ' I would that, wish, 
could', are used. a. Herod, 1, 70 extr. rayja, Se av Kai ol 
oTroSojuevot Xeyoiev aniKo/uievoi ec ^7rapTr}v, wc airaipeOeiriCjav 
VTTO ^a/mitov. Comp. 8, 136, hocr. Areop. 146 E. 'igwq av 
ovv Ttvec e7riT(/iTi(T€ia»^ TO?c eipr)ixkvoic Herod. 3, 23. to ^e 
v^ijjp TOVTO €1 a(^i €<TTi aXr?0ea>c o\6v t£ Xkyerai, cia rovro av 
etev, TovTix) Tct TTavra y^peuy^evoi, {xaKpo^ioi 'they are perhaps'. 
Comp. 1, 2. 70. 9, 71. Hence Flat. Leg. 3. p. 677 B. ol 
Tore 7repi(pvy6vT€C tt)v (pBopav o'^e^ov bpeioi rivec av eiev 
vofxelc ' they were, perhaps, probably, shepherds'. So with 
negatives to express what is improbable : Herod. 2, 41. ovt 
avrjp AiyvTmoCj ovre yvvrj av^pa ' EXXi?va (l)i\r}a€i€ av ry 
(TTOjuaTi, ouSe /nay^aipy av^poQ' KXXrivoc ^/orjcreraj, ' will hardly 
kiss', where the future expresses what Herodotus knew for 
certain, ih, 47. ra Se aXXa Kpea cnreovrai ev ry iravGeXrivto* 
ev aWrj de rifxepirf ovk av en yevaaiaro ' they will hardly 
taste it'. Soph. Track. 196. to yap iroOovv eKaaroQ eK/naOelv 
BeXtov OVK av jjieOe^ro, irpiv KaO r}^ovr]v KXveiv. Xen. Cyr. 1, 
2, 11. Kai 6r]pu)VT€Q i^iev OVK av api<jTi}<yaiev 'they hardly 
ever breakfast'. Thus it is used in a rough estimate Xen. 
Cyr. 1,2, 13. lireiZav Se to. irevre kui e'lKocriv ert] ^lareXeatJcriv, 
e'lrjcrav fxev av ovtoi irXelov ti t? TrevTrjKovra er?? yeyovorec 
airo yeveac 

h. The optative may therefore be frequently rendered by ' to 
be able'. Od. /c,269. en yap kev aXv^aij^iev kokov yj/map. ib. 
jn , \37 seq. Tac ei jxev k acnveac, eaac, vocttou Te jue^r/at, r) t av 
€T eic, lOctfcrjv, kuko. irep Trad^ovreQ, 'iKoicrOe ' it is possible that 
you may come'. Herod. 5, 9. -yevoiTo ^* av wav ev no ^laKptS 
y^povM. Comp. 6, 63. Thuc. 2, 89. ouTe yap av eKnXevaeie 
Ttc, (jJC XPV} ^iC ep,poAr}v, ovTe av ava'^u) prjcreiev ev oeovTC, 

Plat. Phtedon. p.S] B. eav ^e ye (t/ 4'^xri) tou trw/ittToc 

ttTraXXaTTT^Tai, yeyorirev/uievri vir auTOu, tuorre iLirj^ev 

aXXo coKelv elvai aXr]Oec, aXX ri to aioparoei^ec, ov nc, av 
axpaiTO Kai iSot Kai wioi Ka\ (f>ayoi &.C. Pace, 
p. 183 C. av)\p aaep^c, Kai iroviipoQ rvy^ov av (j)Oaaeie 

868 Syntax, Of the Optative and Conjunctive 

r€\evrr](jaQj irpiv Sovvai ^iKtjv tvjp -n/mapTViJievcjp, ' it is pos- 
sible, it may be, that he may die before*. 

c. An inclination, the indulgence of which depends on cir- 
cumstances, and which is therefore only possible and con- 
tingent, is expressed by the optative with av, especially (3ov- 
Xoijuw av Od, X, 489. Plat, Lys. p. 211 E. Xen. Mem. S. 
3, 5, 1. (see §. 509 a.) Plat. Crat. p. 411 A. ri^eo)G ap Oea- 
craipTjv Tavra to. KaXa ovofxara. 

Hence the optative in interrogations. //. y', 52. ovk av §?) 
/uetWtac ' ApYiiCJyiXov M-eveXaov ; ' couldstthou not stand against 
him?* K, 204. Plat, Gorg. in. dXX* dpa eOeXricreLev av 
rjfMv diaXeyOrivai ; ' would he be willing V ib. p. 449 B. The 
optative is also put in a negative interrogation for the impera- 
tive : //. e, 456. OVK av ^rj rovd avdpa jua^?jr, epixraio 
jULereXOiov ; where the optative softens, ' thou wouldst not drag 
him away?* Thus in entreaties Od. r{ , 22. 2', 57. Comp. ib, 
^, 132. //. fc , 303. TIG av jiioi TeXe<jeie', for TeXeaaTd) tig. 
Sometimes, however, this turn gives the command more em- 
phasis : II, (t) f 263. OVK av ^rj juot a/mal^av e(j>07rXi(T(TaiT€ 
TayjLCfTa, TavTO. re ttclvt e7ri0e?Te, 'iva 'irpr]a(S(i)jjLev oooTo ; — • 
ei also with the optative is used thus : //. w. 74. ei tig KaXeaeie, 
for fcaXctrarw tig. So after ttwc av, tig av Soph,Aj. 388. 
cJ Zev, TTwc av tov aijuivXujTaTOv oXecrac TeXoG Odvoi/mi KavTOG 
' how could I manage to destroy him ? I would then die will- 
ingly*, id. CEd. C. 1100. TIG dv Oetjv cot tov^* dpiaTOV av^p 
IBelv ^oirj ; ' what god could afford thee a sight of him ?* which 
are only different turns given to the expression of a wish, 
' would that I could destroy him !* &c. 

515. d- Very often, however, the optative serves to express even 
the most definite assertions with modesty and politeness, as a 
mere conjecture : a moderation which, in consequence of their 
political equality, was peculiar to all Greeks, but particularly 
the Athenians, and very seldom occurring in modern languages. 
Aristoph, Plut. 284. ovkct dv Kpvipaijui ' I will no longer con- 
ceal it from you*. Xen, Cyr. 1, 4, 13. lopa av irapaaKevdZ,eadai 
<T0L e'lrj, oT(^ iLLacTTiyuxreiG fxe. Comp. ib. 28. 3, 1, 43. 7,5,25. 
OVK dv dfieXelv ^eoi, e(^r\ o Kupoc, dXX levai. Thus the op- 
tative is often used : 

in independent Propositions. 869 

a. In conclusions. Plat. Euthyphr. p. 13 D. aXXa tic Si? 
Oe^v Oepane'ia e'tr? av rj oaioTrjQ ; EYG. rivrrep, o) Sw/c/oarec, ot 
covXoi Tovc SeffTTOTaq Qepairevovoi. 2Q. Mav^ai^w. virrjperiKri 
TIC av, WQ eoiKev, e'lrj Oeo^c, ib. p. 14 C. eTrttrTrjjUij a^oa ai- 
Tr/cewq Kai ^oaewQ Oeolc r] offiorrja av e'lri. Gorg. p. 502 D. 

/3. The optative frequently softens the future. //. /3', 158. 
ovTU) 017 oiKov^e, (pi\r}v ea Trarpi^a yaiaVf Apye7oi (jyev^ovrai 
eir evpea vtjra 6a\a<jar}G ; Ka^^e Kev ev'^ioXriv UpiafiM Kai Traicri 
Xiiroiev'Apyeirjv'EXevriv ; Comp. OJ. ^', 2 1 8. e',34. i',277. 
II. 0,70. Herod. 4, 97 , e\p op, a i Toi Kai ovK a V XeKJyOeirjv, 
Thuc. 3, 13. ovT€ yap aTrocTTrjo-eTat aXXoq, ra re r^perepa 
Trpo<Tyevr}(J€Tai, iraQoifxkv t avceiv6repar]onrpivcovXevovT€Q, 
Soph. Phil. 1302. ovk av peOeiriv, for ov peOriffoj. Eur, Iphig, 
A, 310. OVK. av peOeipriv. FIPESB. ouS eyijjy a(pi]ffopai. 
Plat. Rep. 10. p. 615 D. ov-^ 7]Kei, ovS* ai/ n^oi Bevpo. 
Xen. H. Gr. 2, 3, 29.* 

y. In the same manner the optative gives a softening turn 
instead of the imperative. Od. a ,2S7 . el fxev Kev irarpoc, (3i6tov 
Kat voarov a/coucrr/q, ri t av, TpvyopevoQ irep, en rXairjc eviav- 
Tov, for tXtjOi, or 'then thou canst yet endure'. Soph. Phil. 67 4, 
El. 1491. '^(jjpo^c av eiaii), more as a request. Antig. 444, 
El. 1451. Pind. Pyth. 1 0, 95. twv S eKaaroc, opovei, tuvwv Kev 
apiraXeav cr^eOoi (ppovTiBa Tav nap ttoSoc as a precept. Plat. 
Leg. 7 . p. 813 B. toiq pev toivvv iraKriv op^r^dral, rale Se op- 

'^tldTpiSec av elev KA. eorio Br] ravr^^. Parmen. 

j9. 126 A. Arist. Vesp. 725. The optative is also used without av, 
and consequently a wish, not a command expressed. //. v, 1 20 
seq. h TiQ eireira Kai rjpeiojv A^iXrji Trapcrralri Soirj Be KparoQ 
peya, prjIBe TiQvpw Beveaduj. Od.o ,24. Comp.eZ*. §', 193. 735. 
Pind. 01. 9, 61. (j)epoic Be Tlpioroyeve'iac aorei yXijjaaav. 
^sch. Agam. 953. virai tic ap(5vXac Xvoi ra^or,, for XveToj. 
Soph. Trach. 1225. Eur. Iph. T. 1492. 'iTdJcrav ec <t»jv avv 
Oeac ayaXpaTi yalav, KaOiBpvcraivTO t evTvy^ijJC j3peTac, where 
the imperative denotes what depends on the pleasure and de- 
cree of Thoas, the optative what depends on circumstances. 

** Brunck ad Soph. El. 1491. '' Brunck ad Soph. El. 1491. 

Aj. 88. Ueind. ad Plat. Farm. p. 188. 

870 Syntax. Of the Optative and Conjunctive 

Xen. Anah, 3, 2, 37. XeijOio-oc^oc fiev -nyolro "--rtjv ^e 

TrAeujOwv eKareptjJu Suo twv TrpecrpvTardyv (TrpaTrjyu) €7rtjue- 
Xo'ktOtjv. Plat, Euthi/d. p. 273 E. et 3e vu»^ aXrj^wc TavT7]v 
TYjv eTnaTr]jur}v ey^erov, iXeu) e'lriTOV, Leg, 5 init, clkovoi ^rj 
irac Comp. Leg, 11 in. Arist, Vesp, 572. 

OI)s. When regularly constructed, the optative in this case is accom^ 
panied by ay or kcp. Yet these particles are sometimes wanting. //. e', 
303. o ov Bvo y av^pe (pepoiev (as Xen. Anah, 5, 4, 25. where two 
MSS. have av (pepoi). ib. r}', 48. 17 /o a vv fxai ri Tridoio] (on the other 

hand, Od. 0', 13G. 1} pa kev kv Zenfiois edeXois ev^eiv ; Comp. 

Od. o\ 430. a\ S5Q.) Comp. Od. \', 612. v, 248. ^', 122. ^Sop/*. (ZJf^. 
C 42. Tas TravGi' vpojcras ILvfieyi^as 6 y €V0a^' &y (^Br, ay^ eiTroi Xews 
viy. 205. Tiya {Br. and others rtV civ) o-ov iraTpil" kKTrvBoi.p.av\ 1172. 
KcCi Tis TTOT eorlv, 01/ y eyw (o»/ av eyw Br.^ ■^e^aifii ri. Comp. Phiioct. 
694. Eurip. Ipk. A. 1220. ovZeis Trpos ra^' avTeiTroL (Sporwy. Hipp. 

473. ovde aTeyrjv yap /caXws aKpi(3u)ff€iay. Andr. 931. 7r(us ovy 

TaZ\ u>s eiiroL riSf e^rjfiapTaves ; Plat. Cratyl. p. 397 A. irayv yap r}^€(jjs 
ra €7riXoi7ra irepl riSy oyopaTiav a fcovffatjut, as Isocr. Panath. p, 253 C. 
ov yap aTroKpv-ipaifXL ra\r]des. So too Eur. Hipp. 1200. Kal Bdatroy y 
Xeyot (al. Aeyei) tis. Bacch. 747. Odaaoy ?/ arv ^vydxpais. and in com- 
parisons Soph. Track. 113. wot' aKanayros i) Norou >} Bopea tls kv/xut 
€v evpei Trorrw ^dyr kiriovra t 'idoi, where perhaps we should read 
Kiffiar ay evp. tt. as ib. 700. Xen. Hier. IJ, 13. drjaavpovs ye prjv 
€')(^ois ndyras rovs Trajoci rols (l)i\ois TrXovrovs, Isocr. Panath. p. 241 D. 
rovs "JLXXrivas k^iZa^av oy rpoTToy dioiKOvires tus avruiy Trarpidas 
peydXriy r^y 'EXXdda Troirjffeiay, So also in interrogations : yEsch. 

Ag. 1385 seq. irws yap tls TrrjfJLoyijy dpicvffTaToy (j)pa^€t€y ; Choeph, 

590. Of Suppl. 20. see §.513. Soph. (Ed. T. 72. Cjs irvdoiff on 
^pijjy) 7] TL (J>(i)y(jjy Trjy^e pvaaifxr^y. TToXiy, Soph. (Ed. C, 1418. ttios yap 
avdis av TraXiv crrpaTevp,' dyoifii Tavroy, eiffctTra^ Tpetras ', 'how should 
I be able V id. Antig. 604. recti', Zev, Bvyaaiy tis dydpojy V7repj3aai^ 
KaTaayoL ; * who could check it?' tls KaTacr^rj, the reading of Brunck, 
would mean * who should check it?' Eur.Iph.A.523. oy fx)) av (ppd^cLs, 
xws v7roXdj3oLp€y Xoyoy; ' how could we guess ?' Comp. §. 528. 

It is not probable that iiy should have been omitted by the oversight 
of transcribers in all the passages above quoted, nor yet tliat the Greeks 
should have arbitrarily inserted or omitted it. From considering the 
cases in which ay is regularly omitted, as in wishing, in the oratio ob- 
liqua after lis and other relatives, it becomes probable that the proper 
force of Hy is to express the hypothetical relation of one member of a 

in independent Propositions, 87 I 

proposition to another, either expressed or present to the mind. Tlius 
TTuis TavToy oTpareviia ciyotjut, and ttws civ r. <t. cty. express one and the 
same principal thought; but the latter also implies a supposition, * if 1 
wished, if opportunity again offered', &c. ; and as such a supposition 
may in most cases be supplied by the mind, the construction of the 
optative with uv was chosen in preference, for this reason also that 
the expression of something conditional and hypothetical points out the 
bare possibility or probability more strongly than ' can, may', &c. This 
explanation is confirmed on the one hand by the circumstance that 
after conditional propositions with et the optative will hardly be found 
in the apodosis without av, and on the other that with the particles sig- 
nifying ' perhaps', 'iffios, rctxa, the optative is often found with, but 
often without ayj though we cannot rationally say that 'tews, ra^a 
supply the place of ay, as JEsch, Suppl. 741. icws yap ij Krjpv^ ris i/ 
Trpeafjvs fxaXoi. Soph, El. 800. eTreirrep ovt kjxov KaTa^iu}s Trpa^eias, is 
probably a corruption for kara'^t' ay, since we must necessarily supply 
in the mind et a-KOffTeiyoLs, Eur. Iph. A. 419. wore repcpdeirjs t^wv, for 
los TL T€p(()d, ut delectareris, as Ion. 1396. because Ihojy is the same as 
et 'idois. 

There is a difference between these cases and those where, in two 
clauses standing in similar relations, ay is used only once with the op- 
tative, as ^Esch. Ag. 1058. TveidoC ay, et ireidoL, aireLOoirjs 3' tews. 
Plat, Phcedon. p. 87 D. Tr^y avr^v Tavrr^y, olyuat, ehoya de^aiT ay // 
\pv)(ri Trpos TO (Toj/jia, kuI tis Xeycoy avra ravra vepi avTuiy fjierpid fioi 
(paiyoLTo Xeyeiy, where the ay belongs to (paly, as well as ^t^. ib. E. 
Xe7i. Mem. 6*. 2, 1, 18. 6 fxey ckojv TreLVUjy (pdyoi ay oTrore (oovXoiro, 
K-at 6 €Ku)y ^L\pojy ttioi. id. Cyr. b, 1, 20. Even in propositions with 
yap, and when another turn is chosen, as Xen. A nab. 4, 6, 13. cokov- 

ficy 3' ay fjioi eprffiOTepo) ay t^ aXX(^ opei ■yj)r)adai.' fiivoiey yap 

avTov iJ.dXXoy dOpooi ol TroXejjioi, because the preceding words have the 
meaning eprmorepw ay t. a. op. xpw'/ieOa* jdeyoiey yap. Also in paren- 
thetical propositions : Plat. Rep, 2. p. 360 B. ov^els ay yeyoiTo, ws 
Su^eiey, ovTtos dSafidyrivos and in the continuation of the con- 
struction interrupted by a parenthesis Herod, 3, 127. w Ilepaat, ris ay 

fjioi TOVTO vfxkwy viroffTas tTTireXeffeie - - ; (eV0a yap ao(f>iri<i ^eet, 

ftirjs epyov ovMy.) vfieioy ^/) wy ris poi 'OpotVea ij ^woyTa aydyoi y 

B, The conjunctive is used when anything ought to take 516. 
place. Thus 1. without av or fee, in exhortations in the first (^^^) 

* Ilcrm. ad Vig. p. 945. ad Elmsl. Med. p. 353. 

872 Syntax, Of the Optative and Conjunctive 

person plural, ' let us do this or that*, e. g. iw^ev ' let us go*, 
fxayJo^eQa ' let us fight'. But in the second and third person 
the optative is used, as §.513, 1. //. v\ 119. a\X ayeB', 
•qjjieiQ irep fxiv air or piiJTrwfxev oiriffffo) avToOev, rj ric eireiTa 
Kai r]fxeiii)v A^iX^i irapffTalri, ^o'lrjde KparoQ jneya, for which, 
in the following verse, the imperative is used. Od, )(^', 77. 
kXOtJimev S* ai>a acrrv, /3or) ^' (oKicTra yevoiTO. Soph. Ant. 
152.^ So the 1st person singular is found in Homer: 11. y^, 
450. tSwfi' o riv epya rervKTai, 'let me see, I wish to see', as 
ib. 418. Xt<T(y(t>^ avepa rovroif, Od, t, 37. 2, 340. aXX aye 
vvu ewifLieivov 'Aprjia rev'^ea Suw 'I wish to put on'. 2', 126. 
In the following passages only after (pepe, aye, or similar 
words: Herod. I, II. 7,103. Soph. Phil. 1452. Eur. Hipp. 
877. Here. F. 530. El. 875.^ Arist. Ach. 1120. Comp. 
£^w. 113. Plat.Phadon.p.GSB. Dem. pro Cor. p. 315,20. 
This use coincides very much with that of the future, as indeed 
both are united //. /, 60. f', 129, 131. 

The 1 st person singular of neuter and passive verbs seems 
to be used in the same way Soph. Trach. 801. aXXd jjl ck ye 
TTJcrde yrjQ iropOpevcrov wq Ta^iara, pri^ avrov davu), as Eur. 
Heracl. 560. ^rj Tpeayc fjnaaparoc, rovfxov fxeraayelvy aXX 
eXevOepwc Oavo), ' I wish not to die here, I wish to die free'. 
Eur. Troad. 173. firi vvv /moi ttju jSa/c^evouaav Kaaav^pav 
w€in\pr]<ju e^d), aKT-yyvav Apyeioiaiv fjiaivao eir aAyeai o 
aXyvvdio, i. e. jxri eir. aXy. ' I wish not to suffer new sorrows'. 
Perhaps also Qi,d. C. 174. cJ l^elvoiy fxri ^rjr' a SiAcrjOw, though it 
seems more suitable to supply here Zk^oiKa or opa, as 11, a , 26. 
(p\ 475.'' 

Such exhortations addressed to oneself are sometimes 
strengthened by a question with ov and the future. Eur. Med. 
883. ovK a7raXXa'^9r]<J0iLiai Ovjuov ', i. e. aye a7raXXayd(jj dvp,ov. 
Andr. 1212. 

Ohs. Homer and other epic poets use here a form similar to the in- 

* Valcken. ad Her. 4, 118. Harm. passages which Hermann ad Soph, 

ad Viger. p. 743. Phil. 1081. p. 196 seq. quotes, belong 

'' Elmsl. ad Eur. Heracl. 559. ad to §. 516, 3. 
Med. Vi\2. ad Bacch. 341. Comp. *^ Elmsl. ad Heracl. 1. c. ad Soph. 

Dobree ad Arist. Plut. 965. But the (Ed. C. 1. c. 

in independent Propositions. 873 

dicatlve, 'iofiey. See §. 201, 9. But Eurip, Iphig, J. 16. for (TTeixof^ev 
eiaio we should read (jTeixajJiiev eato. 

2. In questions of indecision or doubt, when a person asks 
himself or another what he is to do, also without av, and with 
or without an interrogative particle. 11, k, 62. avOi /nevw jneTu 
TOicTif ^eSey/LievoG elaoKCv eXOyc, r]e OetJ /nera <t avTic}, Eur. 
Plian. 740. a\X aficpl ^elirvov ovai ir po(jj5aX(i) 8opu ; Thus 
Eurip. Here. Fur, 1111. must be taken as an interrogation : 
ykpovreQj eXOu) rwv e./LLOJv KaKiov neXaQ; ' am I to approach?' 
id. Hec. 1249. comp. ib. 84. Thus r'l (j)(v ; ri ^/ow; ^ what 
am I to say? do?' Aristoph. Flut. 1198. eyw Se r'l ttocw; 
Plat. Gorg. p. 447 D. ri epw^ai; //. V, 404. ri naOu) ; 
Svhatamltodo?' Comp. /ferocf. 4, 1 18. Piat. Prot. p. 322C, 
TTorepov, ix)C ai Teyvai vevefxrivrai, ourw Kai Tavrac, veifxd)', 
ib. 334 E. TTorepa ovv, oaa ep-oi So/cet ^eTv aTroKpiveaOai, to(t- 
avrd (joi cnroKpiv<jjp,ai ; where just before it was expressed : 
^ j5payvT€pd (Toi inroKplvijjjuai, rj del; Comp. Hipparch, 
p. 229 A. seq. 

3. Other questions, direct as well as indirect, with the idea 
'should', are so expressed. //. ir , 648. [Zeuc (\)pdtero Qvfuo,^ 
7} r}drj Kai Kelvov evl Kparep^ utr^tVp avTOV en avTiueo) ^ap- 
Trrjdovi (paidi/Lioc ' FtKT(t)p y^aXKi^ drjtocry, airo t Ij/lKjjv rev^e 
eXrfrai (whether he should), rj en Kai irXeoveacnv oCpeXXeiev 
(which he would most willingly do) irovov alirvv. Comp. Od. 
IT, 74. Herod. 1, 53. Kjooio-oq v/jieac eireipiora, ei arpa- 
TevrjTai em YlepcFaQj Kai e'l Tiva arparov avdpttiif it poadeoiro 
(al. TTpoaOeriTai) avfxfxayjiv ; where npoaOeriTai seems more 
correct, if it signifies ' whether he is to take any army as his 
auxiliaries' ; but TrpoaQeoiroj if the sense be * whether he can 

take it'. Thuc.6,25. e(pri ^prfvai evavriov airavTtJv h^ri 

Xeyeiv, rjif Tiva avTM irapaaKevriv AOrjvaloi xprjcj) i(TU)VTai, 
Dem. pro Cor. p. 268, 27. in Androt. p. 613, 3. Plat. Prot. 
p. 348 D. Trepiidyv tvTe7 orot eTTide'i^r^rai Kai /j.eO otou 
/36j3ai(ucT»/Tai. Xe)i. Mem. S. 2, I, 21. HpaKXea el^eXOovra 
€LQ TfCTvy^iav KaOrjaOaiy airopovura oworepav TtHu oSwv Tpa- 
TT-nrai, The conjunctive is found in the sense of the future 

^ Valck. ad Eurip. llipp. v. 782. ad Viger. p. 731. 
ad Eur. Ph. 735. Porson ib. llerm. 
VOL. II. 2 Jl 

874 Syntax. Of the Optative and Conjunctive 

11. o, 16. ou i^iav oiS , €1 avre KaKoppa^n]C, aXe-y^'v^q irptort] 
eiravptiai Kai (re irXriyycru^ i/Liaaaijj. 

Ohs, 1. The rule which Dawes MisCs Cr. p. 207. Brunck ad Arist. 
Plut. 438. Av. 164. Soph. Aj. 403. Antig. 605. Phil 1393. (comp. 
Schaefer in Dion. H. \. p. 97 seq. Heind. ad Plat. Prot. p. 497.) 
establish, that in interrogations the conjunctive is put without ay, but 
the optative with ay, is true in general ; only a difference of signifi- 
cation is the origin of this idiom. With the conjunctive a person asks, 
wishing to be informed, what he is to do (except in some cases, which 
are explained from what follows, and occur hereafter) ; but with the 
optative, when he considers what may be done. In those cases where 
the conjunctive expresses * should', it does not take a»^, which, how- 
ever, may be added to it in the cases about to be explained below. 
The optative has here the same signification as in §. 514, and therefore 
regularly takes ay as it does there ; which sometimes, as there also, is 
omitted. See Herm. ad Viger, p. 729, 108. 

Ohs. 2. Instead of the conjunctive the future also is used. Plat. Crit. 
p. 50 B. ?7 epovfiey irpos avrovs, on rjBiKet yap tj/jlcls 7; ttoXis, kui ovk 
opduis Trjy oiKrjv eVjOive ; ravra ?} ri epov fiey j Gorg. p. 5213. oi/)( e'^et, 
o Ti •yjp^aeTaL avrois^. Parm. p. 137 B. Comp. Apol. S. p. 37 B. C. and 
hence the conjunctive and future are found together Soph. Track. 972. 
ri Tradix); ri Ee fxi] <to fia i ; Comp. Ale. 214. 216. The indicative 
also is put in this case for the conjunctive, e. g. ttws Xeyofjiey ; Plat, 
Gorg. p. 480. ri dr) ovy Xeyofxey Trepl rov bcriov ; id. Euthyphr. p. lO.'* 
Eur. Ion, 771. etTrw/xev, i] (xiyuifxey rj ri ^paaofiey. 

3. In a similar manner the conjunctive is used without a con- 
junction and without av after jSouXei in interrogations. Soph. 
Phil. 762. jSouXei XajSw/mai Srjra Kai Oiyu) ti (tou ; Plat. 
Go7'g. p.454 C. jSovXei ovv ^vo ei^rj QiOfxev TreiOovQ; Comp, 
p. 479 C. The conjunctive stands also first Plat. Phcddon, 
p, 79 A. dfjjfxev ovv /3ovXei ^vo ei^Y) twv ovtojv ; The second 
or third person is in the infinitive Eur. Iph. A. 998. jSouXet viv 
Ik€tiv ctov TrepiTTTv^ai yovv ; Without a question id. Rep. 2. 
j9. 372 E. ei S' au f^ovXeaOe Kai (j)\eyitiaiyovGav ttoXiv 6e(t)pri~ 
aii)p,ev, ov^ev anoKtoXveif for Bewprjdai riinac. Ph^sdon. p.95^, 
e'lre ti jSouXet irpoaOy q r\ aCpeXyc, for irpoadelvai rj a(j)eXeiv, 
— OeXeiQ is used for jSovXet, e. g. Soph. (Ed. T, 651. 

* Ileind. ad Plat. Gorg. p. 63. 

»• Heind. ad Plat. Gorg p. 109. ad Theaet. p. 441. 

in independent Propositions. 875 

Ohs. It is doubtful whether the future here stands for the conjunc- 
tive {Stallh. ad Phil. p. 77.), the MSS. varying between o and w ; but 
it is more probable tliat the transcribers should have changed the future 
into the conjunctive than vice versa. The indie, pres. (^Schcef, ad L. 
Bos. p. 765.) is found only in later writers. 

4. The conjunctive also is used in questions of indignation, 
with which a preceding command is repeated. Arist. Ran, 
1132. AXON. AityyvXe, Trapaivu) aoi aiuyirav. AI2X. e-yw 
aiwiru) TwSe ; ' am I to be silent before this man V Comp. id. 
Ijys. 530. Ltuc. D. D. \, \vg6v pe, w Zeu ZEY2. Avcw 

In negative propositions the conjunctive is used after pri 517. 
or ov pii for the future, but usually only the conj. aor. 1. 
pass, or aor. 2. act. and middle ; instead of the aor. 1. act. the 
future is used. Msch, S, c. Th. 201. Xevarrjpa Srjuov S' ovri 
prj (j)vy\i popov, i. e. ov (fyev^erai. Comp. 283. Soph. El. 42. 
ov yap ere jitrj 717/301 t€ Kai y^povio paKpi^ yvtocr ov^ viroTrreV' 
<7ovGiv (i)S r]v9i<Tpevov, as (Ed. C. 450. and with the conjunc- 
tive after the future Arist. Vesp. 394. Soph. Phil. 1 03. ov prj 
TTiBriTai, i. e. ov ire'icreTai. Comp. Trach. 621. 1190. Plat, 
Charm, p. 168 D. a^ptjjv oxpic ovSev av pi) irore i^y, for ovk 
o-^erai. Rep. 5. p. 473 D. Comp. ib. 10. p. 597 C. ib. 6. 
p. 492 E. oure yiyverai, ovre yeyovev, ov^e ovv prj yevrfTat 
aXXoTov i^BoG rrpoQ aperriv, irapa ttju tovtojv irai^eiav TreTrot- 
Sevpevov^. Hipp. Maj. p. 300 D. ou yap juri nore evprjc;, 
/urjTroT eyio TreirovOa pqre av, tout apcporepovc, vpaQ Trerrov- 
Oorac Also the conj. present: Soph. CEd. C. 1023. cue ou 
priTTore y^tjpaa (j)vyovT€c rrjcr^ €7reu^wvTat Oeolc,. Plat. 
Rep. \.p. 341 C. aXX ou pri oioc t rjc Xen. Hier. 11, 15. 
eav Tovc, (j)i\ovc; Kpar^c, ev ttokjjv, ov pr] aoi ^vviovrai avreveiv 
01 TToXepioi. Comp. Anab. 2, 2, 12. And with the aor. 1. pass. 
^sch. S. c. Th. 38. ourt prj Xr|<|)0w ^oXw, i. e. ov Xr^cbOriaopat. 
Plat. Si/mp. p. 214 A. oTroffov av KeXevarj tic, to<tovtov 
eKTTKjjv, ovoev fnaXXov pr] irore pcBvaOy^. Also ov alone is 
found : Od. Z,, 201. ovk eaS ovtoq avrjp ^lepoQ (^poToc, ovSe 

*= Dawes Misc. Crit. p. 78. Comp. Stallb. ad Plat. Phil. p. 52. 
Valck. Diatrib. p. 211. * To this head belong thepassages 

•* Of the latter construction see quoted Wyttenb. ad Eel. Hist. p. 343. 

2 n 2 

876 Sj/ntax. Of the Optative and Conjunctive 

•yev»?Tat &c. Comp. 7r',437. Thus the passages Xewop^. Awaft. 
7, 7, 24. must be explained: oi av (()avepoi (Saiv dXriOeiav 
a(TKOvvr€Cf tovtiov oi Xoyot, r]v ti ^eojvrai, ovdev fxelov ^vvtjjv- 
rai avv(Ta(70aiy r) aXXwv i) j3(a, unless this be rather an error 
of the transcriber, for ^vuaprai caused by ^eiovToi. For jueTov 
can hardly stand instead of ^^. Instead of the former negative 
ov, the negative /ua used in an oath is found with the accusative 
Arist. Lys. 916. fxa tov AttoXXw /irj tr e-ya», Ka'nrep toiovtov 
ovra, KaraKXivh) \^afjiai. Corap. Eccl. 99\. Av, 194. according 
to which Ran. 511. ov after 'AttoXXw should be struck out^. 

This construction has probably arisen from ov SeSot/ca jultj 
yvfjjffi ' I am not afraid that they should know thee', i. e. 'they 
certainly will not know thee'^. This being stronger than ov 
yvvjGovrai, this ov fxr) was also prefixed, for the sake of a 
stronger negation, to the future Soph. (Ed. C, 450 seq. El, 42. 
Perhaps, too, the Homeric usage (see 0^5. 4.) may have had 
some influence*^. 

Ohs, 1. Dawes Misc. Crit. p. 221 seq. laid down the rule, which has 
been adopted by Brunck (ad Arist. Lys. 704. &c.) and most subsequent 
critics, that after ov fxi] the conj. aor. 1. act. is never found, and un- 
dertook to alter the passages which opposed this rule. It is true the 
alteration consists generally in changing an -q into an e, or an o> into an 
o, and that in many passages the MSS. vary, as Plat. Polit. p. 308 D. 
Leg. 5. p. 725 B. Xen. Cyr. 8, 2, 8. The transcribers, too, have some- 
times introduced manifest faults into the text, as Eur. Hipp. 611. ov 
fi^ Trpoffot<Tr}s x^'paj for Trpoffoiaeis. But many passages are also found 
where such a change is inadmissible, as Soph. Phil. 381. where Brunck's 
conjecture eKirXevaeis is a solecism, as the Greeks said not irXevaio but 
'TrXevcrovfiai. Aj. 560. the Attic future is vf^ptei, as Eur. Iph. T. 18. 
cKpopfxtel:. Arist. Vesp. 394. ovprjau) can be nothing but the conj. aor. 1., 
as the fut. would be ovpriffofxai. See Arist. Pac. 1266. — Plat. Rep. 10. 
p. 609 B. aTToXet, not airoXeaei (a rarer form), would be the future. 
See Vol. I. §. 181, 2, b. Xen. Anab. 4, 8, 13. ovdels fxrjKeTL fxeivri. 
Therefore although with ov fiy the fut. instead of the aor. 1. act. is 
most common, the rule is not certain, and it is safest to keep to the 

»Elmsl. ad Soph. (Ed. C. 177. Elmsl. Med. p. 390. ad (Ed. C. 1028, 

p. 117. Lips. El. 1041. 

^ Elmsl. ad (Ed. C. 177 extr. Ast ' Werfer in Act. Monac. 1, Q. 

ad Plat. Rep. p. 364 seq. Ilerm. ad p. 228. 

in Independent Propositions. 877 

MSS. even where a change would be easy, especially as Relsig Comm. 
Crit. in Soph. (Ed. C. p. 250 scq. appears correctly to have remarked, 
that here also the aorist appears to denote a completed or transient, 
the future a continuing action**. 

Ohs. 2. Elmsley ad Eur. Med. 1120. Soph. (Ed. C. 177. distin- 
guishes from this construction a similar one of the particles ov fxri with 
the future for the imperative, which he considers universally as ques- 
tions, according to the remark quoted §. 498, c, a. Thus Ew. Med. 1 1 60. 
ov fx}) Bv(rfxept)s eorri (f)i\ois, Travaet le dvfiov &c. is according to him to 
be taken as a question, /jrj hv(T^evi]s being equivalent to 0t\r/, and ov 
only belonging to Tzavaei, arpeipeis &c. ov (f>i\r) eari ; i. e. <pi\ri 'iadii or 
prj ^vafieviis 'iadi. Soph. Trach. 980. ov fxi] '^eyepeTs is equivalent to 
ovV ev^eiy eacreis, i. e. fxri e^eyeipe &c. This explanation is applicable 
to many passages, e. g. Eur, El, 386. where ov firi (ppoyijaed' is equi- 
valent to ' be humble ! ' but its universal admission is opposed by the 
union of the aor. with the fut. after ov /irj, as in the passages quoted 
Soph. El. 4)2, (Ed. C.450. Arist. Vesp.2d4!. since e.g. ov tl jjl^ Xa^^wct 
must be the same as ov Xij^oyraif and jiijre 7/^ei, which immediately 
follows, as p{]Te ijKeru). It is also opposed by some passages which 
must be altered to suit the rule, as Soph, (Ed, C, 176. where Elmsley 
would read cipr] for a^ei, id. El. 1052. where he prefers the reading ov 
(TOL fj-Yi fled expo fxa If as if fi)) txed, were not a solecism for ov /ueQ. That 
the proper sense of the future remains after ov /jl)) is shown by Eur. 
Phoen. 1633. <ra0(Js yap eiTre TeipeataS) ov fiy) Trore, aov riiv^e yrjv 
oiKovvTosy ev irpa^eiv ttoXlv, This explanation therefore, as Hermann 
observes, ad Elmsl. Med. p. 390. ed, Lips.^ only suits those passages 
in which the 2nd person is found, which gives the prohibitive force to 
that phrase, in interrogations. 

Ohs. 3. The optative after ov /i?y is very suspicious. See Schcef, App. 
Dem, 2. p. 321 seq. except in the orat. obliquUf as Soph. Phil, 611. 
kQeanideVf tclttI Tpoi^ irepyajx ws ov fxt) Trore irepaoLev or nepaeiav, 

Ohs. 4. From this case we must distinguish fx^ ov with the conjunc- 
tive, in which also Be^oiKu is omitted. Plat.Phcudon. p. 67 B. /u?) Kadap^ 
yap Kudapov ecfx'iTTTeadai fit) ov Oefxiruy ^, vereor ne nefas sit^ which is in 
Latin also a milder expression for nefas est. Comp. Gorg. p. 462 E. 
Leg. 9. p. 861 E. Parrn. p. 130 D.* 

Ohs. 5. Elsewhere in Homer the conjunctive is sometimes found 

^ Heind. ad Plat. Phadon. p. 44. declare against the rule of Dawes, 
llerm. ad Soph. Aj 557. Ast ad Plat. * llcind. ad Paiin. p. 214. 

Leg. p. 495. Poppo ad Cyr. 3, 2, B. 


878 Syntax, Of the Optative and Conjunctive 

instead of the future. 1. with av or kg, II. a, 184. rrjv filv eyw 

7rifi\pio, kyib he k ayw ^piarfiha KaXknraprjov, for a^u). comp. 137. 205. 
ib, y', 54. \', 431. Od. Xi 3^5. ovk av 3») Trpo^vyytrda. 

2. without civ, II. a', 262. vv yap ttw roiovs 'ihov avepas ovhe 
'ihtofjiai. ^',459. Kai Trore ris e'lTrrjcii/, followed v. 462. by ws ttote 
Tis epeeL. Comp. y', 287. i?', 87^ 91. 197. i', 121. o', 350. Od. e\ 
9,QQ. &c. So the conjunctive is intermixed with the future Od. ^, 
240. \', 328. where, however, /ivOi^cofiai is probably the Homeric form 
of the conjunctive §. 201, 9. 

Ohs. 6. The use of the conjunctive in these cases in the older lan- 
guage instead of the optative with av, — oXecreie av, e'nroL av &c., which 
is more common, and almost the only form used by the Attics, — appears 
to have originated from the circumstance that the conjunctive and future 
differed only by the long and short vowel, and were often interchanged 
in signification. The future is intermixed with the optative Herod. 
2, 41. quoted in §. 514. as the conjunctive is used for the future Ohs. 5. 
The conjunctive appears to stand exactly as the optative Od. a\ S^Q. 
TtJV K€V TIS rod' e'^rjaiv cttcI Oave hlos ^Ohvcffevs, for e)(Oi av 'may 
have, has perhaps', for even the future e^ei would here be too definite. 
And so the conjunctive and optative are intermixed Od. ^', 692. and 
thus Horn. H. in Ajpoll. 339. dXX' oye (peprepos jj, oaaov Kpovov evpvoTra 
Zevs may be defended. 

In three places the conjunctive is found with eide instead of the op- 
tative. Soph. Phil. 1092. ei6' eXwort /^e. Eur. Suppl. 1028 seq, 

eide 0avwo-iv. Hel. 269. et0' Xa/3w. Hermann Elem. Doctr. M, 

p. 535. endeavoured to defend these passages, recognizing in them the 
expression of a wish. But in Hel. 269. Xafju) would stand not for 
\al3oifJLif but, as the wish relates to something past, for eXafiov, a thing 
unheard of; and some MSS. have Xa/3eTv. The other passages are 
suspicious, from the metre as well as the sense, though no satisfactory 
emendation of them has been suggested*. 

n. Of the Optative and Conjunctive in dependent Propositions, 

or after Conjunctions. 

The use of the Optative and Conjunctive after Conjunctions 
is distinguished in this v^^ay, — that the former is used when the 

* Phil. 1092. we might read eV Suppl. 1028. Even Hermann ad 

at©', aid) eXwfft /ue; i. e. eXa- Phil. p. 195. seems to have aban- 

trovffi. See Matthiae ad Eur. Hec.424. doned his former opinion. 

in dependent Propositions^ or after Conjunctions. 879 

chief verb of the whole proposition, or the verb of the propo- 
sition upon which the conjunction depends, expresses an action 
of past time, and the verb which depends upon the conjunction 
belongs determinately to past time, a consequence of the use 
of the optative in orat. obliqua. The conjunctive on the other 
hand is used if the preceding verb expresses anything present 
or future, in which case the verb which is governed of the con- 
junction necessarily belongs to the same time. Thus that which 
in Latin is the rule of succession of the tenses, in Greek is the 
rule of succession of the moods ; and where in Latin, after con- 
junctions, the imperfect should be put, in Greek the optative 
is used ; and where in the former language the conj. present is 
employed, in the latter the conjunctive is put. Here, however, 
appears again the peculiarity of the Greek language in narration, 
mentioned §. 529, — that the narrator often puts himself in the 
situation of the person of whom he relates anything, and con- 
siders a thing as present or future, which is indeed present or 
future with respect to that person, but which in the relation 
should be represented as past. Besides this, the two moods 
are sometimes placed after conjunctions also, for the same 
reason which determined the use of them in independent pro- 

The conjunctions after which these moods are put, are 

1. those which express a purpose, iVa, ocppa, wc, OTrwr,, and /nrj. 

2. particles of time, as eirei, eTrei^rJ, ore, wc ctt/jv, eTreidau, 
orav, TTplv, ewe &c. 3. conditional particles, el and eav, riv, 
4. relatives, oc, oioc, ococ, onov, oOeu, evOa, ottoi &c. 

1. Of the Optative and Conjunctive after 'iva, o(j>pa, 

Here particularly the rule just mentioned holds good, ac- 
cording to which the optative is put after verbs of past time, 
and the conjunctive after verbs of present or future time, and 
without au, e. g. //. X, 289 seq. dW lOvc eXavvere jLuovv^aci 
'nnrovQ KpOif^idJU Aavawu, 'iv vrreprepov evyoc aprjcrOe, but 
//. e, in. evO av Tv^el^ij Acoyurj^ei flaXXac AOi}vii ^cJ/ce fievoc 
Kai Oapaoc, iv eK^rjXoc /nera iTa<nv Apyeioiai yevoiro, i^e 
K'Xeoc etrOXoi/ apoiro. Thus in Homer //. a, 26. /ni] tre. 

880 Syntax, Of the Optative and Conjunctive 

yepov, KoiXy(nv eytlt rrapa vrjvai fct^eiw /jltj vv toi ov 

y^paicTfiy^ oKrJTTTpov Kai aTejUjua Oeoilo, 32. d\X Wi, fur] fi 
epeOite, aaCyrepoc, loc kc verjai: but Plato relates the same 
event thus; Rep. 3. p. 393 E. o Se ' A.yafxe^vwv riypiaivev, 
evreWo/mevoc vvv re airikvai /cat avdiQ fxi) eXOelv, firi avrio to 

T€ (TKrjTTrpov KQL Ttt Tou Oeov GrkfXfxaTa fAT] eTrapKetJOi. 

anievai ^e e/ceXeue Kal jurj epeOi^eiu, 'iva gwc, oiKa^e eXOoi^, 
There are, however, several deviations from this rule, founded 
on the relation of the propositions. 

1. The conjunctive is frequently used, although the pre- 
ceding verb be in the time past, when the verb which depends 
upon the conjunction denotes an action which is continued to 
the present time. e. g. ILe, 127. d-^Xvv S' av toi air* 6(j)0aXiJiwv 
€Aor^, rj Trpiv enriev, o(pp ev yiviocTK'^Q rifxev ueov Tjoe kul 
avSpa, because at the time at which Minerva is speaking, 
yivu)(jKeiv is a consequence still continuing of the past action 
cKpaipeiv dyXvv. But Plato Alcib, 2 extr. could no longer re- 
present this as present : loanep tw AtOjurJSei (prial ttjv ' Adr^vav 
' OfxtfpoQ airo rtjjv o^0aXjua>v aCpeXelv rr}v a'^Xvv, o(pp ev 
yivCjoKoi riimev Oeov ri^e Kai av^pa. Comp. ^sch. Prom. 462. 
Choeph. 730. Eurip. Hec. 27. Kxavbjv etc ol^p aXoc, fxeOrj^', 
IV avroQ y^pvaov ev ^ofxoiQ e^^. Plat. Leg. 2. p. 653 seq. Oeoi 

ce oiKTeipavTec to twv avOp(l}Tr(t)v eTriirovov Tre^v/coc yevoc, 

Mouo-ac AiToXXiova re ixova7]yeTr)V Kai l^iovvaov ^vveopTadrdc, 
e^otjav, Lv eTravop9(x)VTai raQ yevojuevaQ Tpo(f)aQ ev tolq 
eopralc fuera 6eu)v^. On the other hand, the optative is found 
after the present when the verb which follows the conjunctive 
really indicates a past action, as Herod. 7, 1 03. opa, fxr) jmarriv 
KojuLTTOQ o Xoyoq o eipr]fxevoc, e'lrj, vide, nefuerit ostentatio, i. e. 

2. Sometimes it is indifferent whether one will express de- 
terminately that the consequence of a past action is continued 
on to the time of the relation, or not. Hence, in such cases, 
the conjunctive is sometimes interchanged with the optative. 

"" Dawes Misc. Cr. p. 85. Brunck Heind. ad Plat. Prot. §. 29. has col- 
ad Arist. Kan. 24. Equ. 893. Ilerni. lected deviations from tliis rule, 
ad Vig. )). 790 seq. 2.59. 809, 2G8. '' Misccll. Philol. 2, 1. p. 31 seq. 
850. Schafer in Dion. 11. 1 . p. 109 seq. Heind. ad Plat. Thesl. p. 439. 

after iVa, o(j)pa, ottwc, o»c. 881 

Thus it is in Eurip. Ilec. 697. EK. e^oc f^voc, OpaKioa itttto- 
Tac (e/cretve i/tv). XOP. lofuioi, ri Xef etc ; ^(outrov ojq exoc 
icTavwv, although 27>. 27. he had used €)(p in the same combi- 
nation. Comp. Eurip. Suppl. 201 5^^.^ 

3. On the contrary, the optative in certain combinations is 
put after verbs of the present time, e. g. when the present 
{historicum) is put for the aorist, as in Latin also, the conj. 
imperf. follows the present: e. g. Eurip. Ilec. 10. noXvu ^e 
(jvv efxoi y^pvaov e/CTrefiTrei XaOpa iraTrip, iv , eiiroT 'W'lov 
Teiyj) neaoij toiq ^(jjgiv e't>/ TraicTi /jltj ffiraviQ j3iou. 

4. Since the optative expresses an action as merely possible 
or probable, or desirable (§. 514.), but the conjunctive as what 
depends on the will of the speaker or another, the optative 
sometimes stands even after verbs of the present or future time, 
following the conjunction 'lua, &c. when the action which follows 
the conjunction is to be marked only as presumptive and pro- 
bable, and the conjunctive after verbs of the past time, when 
the consequence is considered as one which is to be obtained. 
It is clear that the use of the one or the other is not arbitrary, 
from the passages in which they are intermixed : Od. y, 77. 
avTrj yap evi (j)pe(TL Oapaoc A9i}vr] Orj^ , 'iva /luv irepi narpoc; 
airoiyofxevoio epoiTOj rtd' iva fxiv /cXeoc eadXov ev avdpbjiroiaiv 

ey^ri(jiv. Comp. Od. p! , 156 sq.' , 5S4. pri o pev 

ovK epvaairo. opivOeit) Ka'i e KaraKTeiveie, 

AioQ ^ aXirtirai ecperpac, as a necessary consequence of 
KaraKTeiveiv considered merely as possible, as Herod. 1, 185. 
id. 9, 51. €Q rovTov ^rj toi/ yjjjpov ej^ovXevaavro peTaarrivai, 
iva Kai v^uTL e^wtri y^paaQai a(p96v(i), Kai ol Imreec aCpeac 
pi) Givoiaro. Eur. Ion. 1623. where e^ovo-' eirfQ expresses 
something which the Pythia wishes but does not venture to 
promise, as //. -j^', 244. may be explained, unless ^apriijf not 
dapeir}, be the true reading there. Eur. Hel. 56. wc vj3piv 

oei^tjpev yoovc T acpelrjv, 'if opportunity ofrers\ Thuc. 

6, 96, eiTTaKoaiovc, Xoya^ac, t(jjv ottXitcuv e^eKpivav irpoTepov, 

OTTwc rtjjv T€ KTriTToXwif e'tJjcTav (j>vXaK€Q, Kai, r)v eq aAXo 

Tt oe^, Ta'^v ^vveaTtjrec, irapayiyptJVTai, for the former may 

^ Misc. rhil. 2, 1. p. 36. 

882 Syntax, Of the Optative and Conjunctive 

be made sure of, the latter not so well. Comp. Plat. Phadon. 
p. 88 C. In a similar way we may justify Od. y^, 391. Ttj- 
Xkfxay^ ei 8, aye /not KaXeaov rpocpov ^vpvK\eiav, oCppa 
kiroG e'nroijULij to juloi KaraOv^iov etjriv, as something which he 
wishes, where otherwise ocjyp* eiirw is used. Wolf conjectured 

eiTTWjUt. Od. p, 52. fxvr]aTr]pec, iraTpoc, fxev ec oikov airep- 

piyacTi veecrOai iKapiov, (jjq k avroc ee^vtljcTaLTO OvyaTpa, 
Boiri S (^ K edeXoi Kai oi KeyapiofxevoQ eXOoi, 'that he may, 
perhaps, give some dowry'. Soph. Qhd. C. 11. crrriaov jue 
Ko^'i^pvaov, wc TTvdo'meQa, the reading of all the MSS. equivalent 
to u)Q TrvQC)fxeda. eide Se irvOoipeOa. El. 760. (ev jSpa^e? "^oXkio 
fieyicFTOV awfxa SeiXaiac ctto^ou (pepovaiv av^pec; ^loKeijjv re- 
TayjLievoij) OTT(t)C Trarpioac Tvi^if^ov eKXay^oi '^Oovoq. Eurip, 

Iphig. T. 1217. Koi TToXei nepxpov riv , oariQ aripave^ 

ev ^ofxoiG p'lpveiv cnravrac. GO. prj GvvavTioev (^oi^o) ; 'lest 
they meet?' ib. 1223. the MSS. read poXyc, though it might 
also be poXoic^. Arist. Ran. 23. the optative seems to express 
that Dionysius had this intention when first he let Xenias 
mount. See Reisig Comm. Crit. in Soph. (Ed. C, p, 169.^ 

The following constructions must be distinguished from these, 
in which <I>c does not signify 'that', but 'as': Plat. Phadr. 
p, 230 B. Koi u)C, CLKpriv e^€i Tr]C, avSrfC, wq av evtjjoeffrarov 
Trapevoi tov tottovI ib. p. 231 A. ov yap vn avayKr\c,j aXX 
eKovrec, <1)C av apiara irepi t(jjv oik€1(jjv povXevaaivrOy irpoQ 
Tr]v ^vvapiv rrjv avrtjv ev 7roiov<jiv. Gorg. p. 453 C.*^ 

Conjunctive for the optative. Herod. 1, 29. 2oXa)i^ aTre^rj- 
pri(Te eVea BeKa, iva Brj pr) Tiva twv v6pu)v avayKaaOy Xv(Tai 
Twve^ero. Comp. 1, 34. 3, 150. 7, 206. 221. 8, 141. &c. 
Isocr. Areop. p. 145 C. eKelvo povov eTripovv, ottwc pv^ev 
uYfTe Twv TTarpiuiV KaraXvaovai, pr}T efo) twv vopiZ,opevwv 
TTpodOriaovaiv, Q.nd passim. Thucydides especially, in narra- 
tion, almost regularly puts the conjunctive for the optative, 
not through negligence, which is foreign from his character, 
but probably to represent the purpose as one the attainment of 
which was not doubted of by the actor, or {in orat. obliqua) the 

* See Ileind. ad Plat. Prot. §. 29. Herm. ad Soph. Aj, 1200. ad El. 57. 
p. 502. ad G£d. C. 1 1. Reisig 1. c. 

^ See different explanations in *= Comp. Heind. ad Gorg. p. 25. 

after tVa, ocfypa^ oirvjc, wc 883 

speaker ; while he seems, on the other hand, to use the optative 
when he intends to mark a purpose of uncertain accomphsh- 
ment (see 7, 25.). Often too the use of the conjunctive for 
the optative may be explained by the kind of representation 
used by the Greeks, in which, even when they mark an action 
as passed, yet, in the relation of the accompanying circum- 
stances of it, they transport themselves to the time in which it 
happened, and represent it as present*^. See §. 529. 5. 

5. The optative seems often to stand after propositions which 
express a wish, continuing as it were the form of wishing : e. g. 
JEsch. JLum. 297. eXQoi {KXvei 3e kqi irpocnoOev wv Oeoc) ott(oq 
yevoiTO TwvEe jLLOi Xvnipioc. Soph. Aj, 1217. Philoct, 324. 
Ovfjit^ yevoiTO X^lpa TrXrjptSaai Trore, tv al MuAcffi/ai yvoieu, &C. 
The purpose of the wish is also its object^. 

6. (W, tl/c, /utJ, (more rarely ottwc,) are found very frequently 519. 
with the indicative of a past tense of actions which should have 
happened but have not, as §. 508. e.g. with the imperf. Soph, 
CEid, T, 1389. '/v »}v TV^Xoc re Kai k\v(jjv jurj^eif. Eurip. 

Hipp. 645. \priv a(p6oyya avralQ {raiQ yvvai^i) ffvyKaroi- 

Ki^eiu ^QKn 6r]p(vv, t V el'^ov pr^^e npoacfxjovelv riva, &c. (which 
conditionally expressed would have been ei avyKarioKt'Copev, ovk 

av eiyov.) Comp. hocr. p. 189 D. So after a wish concern- 
ing something conceived of as past (§. 513. Obs. 2.) Msch, 

Prom. 152. ei yap p vtto yrjv rjKev d>c prire Oeoc, pr^re 

TIC aXXoQ ToTffS' eTreyrjOei. Comp. Theocr. 7, 86. 11, 55. 

With the aorist Msch. Prom. 753. ti ovk ev rayei eppitp* 

epavTTJv rrja^ airo (TTV(p\ov ireTpac,, ottwc ttc^w aKyjipacra, rSv 
7ravTU)v TTOviov aTTtjWayrjv, Soph. Q^d. T. 1392. ti p' ov 
Xapcjju eKxeivac evOvc, ujq eoeiqa piiTTore epavrov dv9pio7roi(Tiv, 
evOeif riv yeyujc ', Eurip. Phcen. 213. (Tvpiov ol^/Lia Xiirovcr' 

e(3uv ^oi(3(jj ^ovXa jULeXaOpwv,) iv vtto Seipacri vi(j)0' 

fjoXoiQ Uapvaaov KarevaaOrjv. Iphig. T. 358. 'iv avrovQ 
avreripijjpr]aapr)v. Comp. Plat, Euthyd. p. 304 E. Prot, 
p. 335 C.*^ The proper signification of each tense remains 

^ Heind. ad Prot. p. 504. ad Soph. CEd. T. 1392. Zeune ad 

* Herm. ad Aj. 1. c. Schitf. App. Viger. p. 557. Herm. ib. p. 851 seq. 

Dem. 1. p. 4:JC. IJeind. ad Plat. Theat. p. 347 sq. 

' Valck. ad Eur. Hipp. 928. Diatr. Elmsl. ad Soph. (Ed. T. 1389. Monk 

p. 149 A. Brunck ad Arist. Ran. 919. ad Hipp. 643. 

884 Syntax. Of the Optative and Conjunctive 

here as explained §. 508. Sometimes after the same particle 
we find the indicative with the optative or conjunctive : Plat, 
Menon. p. 89 B. twv veiov tovq ayaOovQ tuq (pvcreic o.v irapa' 

Xaj3oi>Tec e(pv\arrofjLev ev afcpoTroXei, 'iva jULti^eiQ avrovc 

^leCpOeipev dXX eneidrj atp'iKOivro etc, Trjv riXiKiau, y^pr]aifxoi 
yiyvoivTO (of the future). 

7. The future is often used instead of the conjunctive. 11. 9', 

111. T(t)de de vt^L Tp(jj(Jiv e<p iTrTroSa/uotctv idvvo/j,€v, o(ppa Kai 
''FiKTwp €'i(jeTai. v',301. Od.p\7. especially after the verbs 

' to fear', after jultj : Aristoph, EccL 486. ku/cXw TrepKTKOTrov/mevr} 
KCLKelae Koi to. ry^ e/c ^e^itjv, /jltj l^viJ.(popa yevrjcTerai to 
TTpayfxa. Plat. Hep. 5. p. 450 seq. (jyof^epov re fcai G(j)a\€p6v, 

juri, cy^aXeiG Ttja a\r}9eiaQ, KeiffOjuiai. Xen, Cyr, 4, 

1, 18.^ In these and other passages the future expresses a 
state that continues, or something that will occur at an indefi- 
nite future time ; the conj. aor., a transient state occurring in 
particular cases, and then completely concluded, as in the pas- 
sage quoted from Xen. Cyr. §. 15. it is opa fjirj TraOfjjjuiev, not 
Tteiaoiieda, though §. 18. it is opa p.r\ ^erjo-ei^. So Msch. Pers. 

112. Tavra fxoi fJieXayyiriov (^pr\v a/uLvaaerai ^oj3w ^17 

TToXtq TTvOrjrai Kevav^pov fxey aarv ^ovai^oc, Kai to Ktorcrci'ov 
TToXicrfx avTL^ovTTOv e(T<j€Tai. Aj'ist. Eccles. 494. The read- 
ing cj)v\aTT€ yapf p,Tf] 7rp irapaKpovadyfiai ae is not correct P/cf^. 
Cratyl. p. 393 C. since Try shows that several cases are spoken 
of. M^ is also an interrogative particle ' whether*, and hence 
probably was used to express a doubt, a merely possible, pro- 
bable, and to be apprehended event. Thus Plat. Lack. p. 1 8 7 B. 
(TKOwelv \pVj pv ov ev tw Ko^oi vpiv o KivdwoQ Kivcvveverai, 'to 
consider whether not'. Eur. Phan. 92. eiriay^ec,, cue av irpov- 
l^epevvritJO) cttijSoi^, jurj tlq ttoXitwv ev rp'i^M (pavraZerai, 
Kcipo] pev eXOr] (j)avXoc;,tJC ^ovXtj,-ipoyoc,j /t^ signifies 'whether', 
and the two constructions prj tig (pavraZerai, num quis conspi- 
ciatur, and pn tic (pavra^rirai Kai eXOrjj are blended together. 
With the indie, pres. pr] is probably always ' whether', 

* Hemsterh. ad Arist. Plut. p. 203. ad Med. 357. Stallb. ad Plat. Phil. 

Heind. ad Plat. Crat. p. 36. Observ. p.l3.— Elmsley ad Soph.CEd. C.1725. 

Misc. Nov. 3. p. 14. Dorv. ad Charit. shows that in the passages there 

p. 541. Elmsl. ad Eur. Heracl. 250. quoted by Brunck, its with the fut. 

'' See Herni. ad Soph. El. 992. id. means not ut but eirei. 

after iva, o(f>pa, ottwq, wq. 885 

In particular, this is almost the regular construction after 
OTTOJQ, which indeed takes the pres., the aor. 1. pass, and aor. 2. 
in the conjunctive, but instead of the aor. 1. act. and mid. the 
future commonly, and this, whether it be governed by a verb 
preceding, or that opa, cave, is omitted, (e. g. Plat. Menon, 
p. 77A. M6wex.p.236C. 249E. Xew. Cj/r. 4, 2, 39.) The 
fut. andconj. are both found together Plat, Tim»p, 18E. ''Ottwc 
however is also found with the conj. aor. 1. not only when all 
the MSS. have this mood, as Herod. 2, 120 extr. ottujc, noirjffujai. 
Thuc. 1, 72. 4, 66. Lys.p. 138 extr, — since in these passages 
the future Troi^croixri &c. might be the true reading, as in Plat. 
Ale. 2 in. where ottwc fxri \y](jig should be Xrjcree. Dem. 01. 3. 
^. 28, 6. Isocr. Evag. p. 189. — but also where the future can- 
not be substituted by a change of a letter, as Soph. El. 1 122. 
OTTwc KXavau). (where the fut. is /cXaucrou/iat.) Xen. Anab. 5, 6, 
21. (fut. eiCTrXevaerai.) Comp. Hist. Or. 5, 1, 18. Mem. S. 2, 
10, 1. (fut. dvaKoimeL.) Ci/r. 7, 5, 82. (fut. airoXavcro/uieOa.) 
Plat. Leg. 1. p. 632 C. ottujq iravra dirotpr^vg. Eur. Phari. 
1358. OTTioc \oi)(Tij TrpoOrtrai re, the aorist hinders the change 
of XoucT^ into \ov<j€i. Comp. Hec. 613. Troad. 449. arely^, 
07ra)c Tavidr' ec a^ov vv^c^'nt) 'yr]jjLU)fxeda, where however we might 
put a colon after Tdyj.<JT' Herod. 2, 121,2. TrpocraTroXeei, not 
Tr/ootraTroX^trei, would be the form usual in Herodotus. Arist.Eccl. 
117. the metre does not allow to read TrpOfxe\eTr]aop.ev, unless 
with Brunck we read wc dv for ottwc. By such passages others 
are justified, in which the MSS. have the conj. aor. 1. Properly 
oTTwc means 'how', as Eur. Med. 1109. jueXer^ Kararpvyo- 
fikvovc, (/ueXerwinevovc) irpfjjrov fxev ottwq Ope\pov<n /caXct><;, j3to- 
rov 0' oTToOev Xei^povcri reKvoiQ. and it was used in this sense 
especially after verbs of caring, providing, guarding, with the 
fut. §. 507, 2. and after the phrases fxri eXXiV^c, juri ^eiayc, 
&c.*^ But since caring how a thing might be brought about, 
presumes care that it should be brought about, and the two 
phrases easily pass into one another, ottwc came to be used with 
a future even when it was equivalent to i'va, though here the 
conj. aor. 1. was also admissible. Regard also seems to have 
been paid to the different sense of the future and aorist; the 
former signifying a continuing, the latter a transient, action ^. 

' Elmsl. acl Eur. Heracl. 250. who maintains only of oVws fjn) what 

•* Dawes Misc. Crit. p. 927, 459. i» true of Hxuts generally. Wolf ad 

88G Sj/ntax. Of the Optative and Conjunctive 

8. To this head belongs the construction of hk^oiKa jultj with 
opt. and conj. ; the fear suggesting naturally to the mind the 
purpose of avoiding the object of fear. The opt. and conj. fol- 
low in the main according to the principal rule already laid 
down. Eur. Andr. 722. 17 fxr] ^i(j)oQ XajSouo-' djuvvdOoiro ae, 
e^eiaac EL 30. The conj. however is often found after the 
preterite : Herod. 7, 118. Y^apvi]c, Karappiv^ricraQ jultj ol ^(OKeec 
eoxTi Aa K€^ a I fiov 10 1, comp. 9, 46 extr. Eur. Phan. 70. tw 
o etc, (p6j3ov 7rea6vr€j inrj T€Xea(j)6povc ev^ac Oeoi Kpaiva)- 
Gip, oiKovvTwv o/LLOv, l^v/ufiavT era^av. Hipp. 1311. Comp. 
A?idr. 627. 1059. Plat. Euthi/d'p. 288 B. Kal eyw <|)oj3i,- 
OeiGy fH7 Xoicopia yevrfrai, iraXiv Kareirpavvov TOuJ^rrjcrnrTrov. 
and passim. For the object of the fear is mostly considered as 
determinately future, although it may sometimes be represented 
as merely possible. Euripides Hec. 1138 seq. combines the 
conjunctive and optative; by the conjunctive designating an 
event which he thinks will certainly happen, the re-establish- 
ment of Troy ; by the optative that which is possible only or 
probable, the renewed invasion by the Greeks. Of the future 
after ^e^oiKa jjlt] see N** 7. A preterite indicative sometimes 
follows ^e^oiKa with /i^, to express more mildly an unfavourable 
opinion, now first formed, respecting a past transaction, as in 
Latin, vereor, ne erraverim, vide ne lapsus sis. Od. e , 300. ^etSw, 
fxi) ^rj iravra Bed vtifieprea etTrev, 'that she has spoken'. Thuc, 
3, 53. vvv ce (j)oj3ovin€6aj julyi ajmCJiOTepcjjv rjjULapTrjKa/uiev. 
Isocr. ad Phil. p. 85 E. e^eTrXayrjcTav^ /mrj Sid to yrjpaG e^ea- 
rriKa rov (ppovelv. Plat. Lys. /?. 218 D. So also Eur. Hel, 
119. GKOTreire, jurj SoKYjaiv eiyer e/c Qewv^. 

Ohs. Instead of heloiKa prj, deB, ottios pi] is found Soph. CEd. T. 1058. 
Eur. Hipp. 523. Be^oix ottojs poi fxi] Xiay (f)arfjs kukyj. Comp. Arist. 
Equ. 112. and also ottws without pi] Eur. Heracl. 249. and in the sense 
of * how' Iph. T. 1002. tyiv Qeov Z' oirios \a0w, IcloiKa. further ws Soph. 

Demosth. Lept. p. 266. Fisch. ad Poppo Obs. in Thuc. p. 155. ad Xen. 

Well. 2. p. 251. Brunck ad Arist. Cyr. 3, j,27. Nitzsche ad P]at. Ion. 

Lys.384. 1305. Ran. 378. 1363. Av. p. 24. Schaef. App. Dem. 1. p. 277. 

1240. ad Soph. CEd. T. 1392. E1.956. 618.832. 

Ajac. 556. Valcken. ad Theocr. 10. » Musgr. ad Eurip. Ph. 93. Bur- 
Id. p. 30. ad Herod. 6, 85. Toup ad gess Praef. ad Dawes Misc. Crit. 
Suid. 1. p. 45. follow Dawes. On the p. xxviii. note. Schaef. Melet. p. 115 
other side are Heind. ad Prot. p. 476. note. 

after iva, oC^pa, ottwg, wc. 887 

JEl, 142C. iJir)K€T cKipofioVf fjiTjrpcfov Cjs (re X^/x' artfia.<7€i irore* comp. ib. 
1309. Jrist. Ach. 655. Xen, Cijr. 6, 2, 30. comp. 5, 2, 11. *• also 
Sn Xen. Cyr. 3, 1, 1. e(pofteiTO on oipdiiareadai efxeWe to. fSaaiXeLa. In 
these constructions the object of fear alone is expressed, without the 
collateral idea of guarding against it. So also Soph. Track. 176. rap- 
fiovaay, et fie xP^l fJ-ei^eiv, Eur* Med. 187. comp. Andr. 61. Hcracl, 
646. Or. 1329 seq. <p6(ios ris eto'eXiyXv6', ijvTiv ev ^6/xois kXvoj (oo{]v^ 
i. e. (f)o(3ov/xai ayvoovaa rjvriva /3. k\. The infinitive is found after the 
verbs of fearing, answering to ws oti, Eur. Ion. 1564. dayely ae heU 
eras firjrpos €k (^ovXevfxaTwv. id. Hec. 762. Comp. Rites. 936. ^sch. 
iS. c. Th. 726. and in the sense *not to be willing through fear' Thuc. 
1, 136. Zehievai he (pacrKOPTU)^ KepKvpaiojp e^^eij/ avrov. Plat, Gorg. 
|3. 457 E. (pofjov/Jicit hieXeyxeiy ce, *I shrink'. Also with a/ore /iri 
(§. 531. Obs. 2.) Eur. Iph. T. 1391. </)o/3o* h' ^v dare jii^ rkylai noha. 
This infinitive, as it expresses the object of fear, takes the article: Plat. 
Gorg. p. 512 E. Apol. S. p. 28 D. ttoXv fjidXXoy Belaas ro ^rjy. 

Obs. 2. "Ap is often added to these particles, "lya av, in the Attics, 
means only ubicunque^ ; but Homer has iVa k€ Od, fx, 156. 

OTTOJs av with opt. Herod. 1, 75. hiupv^a fictOerjv opvaffeiv ayovra /jtrj- 
voeidea, okcjs av to ffTpaTOtredov Idpvfieyov Kara vojtov Xa/3ot (a Paris MS. 
has Xdfir]). ib. 99. 110. comp. 2, 126. jEsch. Ag. 374>. Thuc. 7, 65. 
"Ottws appears not to be constructed with the optative without ay, ex- 
cept in the cases mentioned §. 518, 5. Xen. Cyr. 1, 2, 10. eTri/jieXelrai 
oTTws ay drjp^ey, onos means 'how', comp. ib. §. 5. With the con- 
junctive ay is very common: Plat. Gorg. p. 481 A. fir]yavr]Teoy orrws 
ay hai^vyri Ka\ /jd) ^w (Bekk.) hiKrjy, dXXd. comp. p. 504 D. E. &c.'^ 
Isocr. TT. ciyrid. ed. Bekk, orrws av ZiaKeLfrQe should be read, with Bekker, 
SiaKerjaOe. and Plat. Phcedon. p. 84 E. <po(ielade fxij BiaKeinaif fitj is an 
interrogative particle. 

o^pa av with opt. 11. fiy 25 seq. ve h* apa Zevs <Tvy€\eSf oc^pa Ke ddtr- 
Boy dXiTrXoa reiyea deiri. In the Attic writers it appears not to occur. 
With the conj. Od. /x\ 51. ck ^' ahrov Treipar dviifdoj, o0(oa Ke repiro- 
fxevos ott' aKovrjs ^eiprjyoay, comp. v', 412. 

ws dv with opt. in Homer and Herodotus. Od. v\ 102. Kw^iotnu le 

Toi baae w$ dv deiKeXios Trdari fxyr}(TTrjp(n (pavehjs {(pavrjrjs 1^ 

&, 20. ws Key. Herod. 5, 57. 7, 176. comp. 9, 22. 51. In the Attic 

•♦ Schaef. Melet. p. 113. Crit. in Soph. (Ed. C. p. 21 1. 

•= Elmsl. ad Soph. (Ed. C. 189. and ^ Brunckad Anst.Lys.384. Heind. 

Poppo Diss. p. 19 seq. Dcederlein ad Plat. Pha;don. p. 15. ad Prot. 

in Act. Monac. 1. p. 37. ReisigCom. p. 497. 

888 Sj/ntax. Of the Optative and Conjunctive 

writers it is not found with this mood; ^oxXen. Cyr. 1, 2, 5. eirifxiXov' 
rat, ws av j3eXri(TT0L elev o'l TroXtrai, ws means ' how', (comp. §. 10. with 
Poppo's note. Symp. 7, 2. 8, 27.) and Arist. Av. 1338 seq. yevoijiav 
aleros vxj^nriTaSf ws ay 7rora0etr/>/, the opt. continues the wish §.518, 5. 
With the conj. jEsch. Prom, 10. del deol^s Bovyat ZcKrjy, ws av didax^y 
rrjy Aios Tvpavvila arepyeiy. comp. ih. 659. 712. Choeph. 18. 522. 984. 
£ur, Phcen. 92. e7r/o-)(es, ws ay Trpov^epevyrjffO) aTtf^oy. comp. 781. 
Hipp. 288. Andr. 716. Iph. A. 620. Iph. T. 1074. Troad. 85. 1273. 
Hel. 1431. 1542. Ion.77. Arist. Eccl 57. Vesp. 178.425. Av. 1454. 
1509. 1548. &c. Aristophanes, according to Brunck's remark at/ //?/5. 
1305. seldom joins Cos to the conj. without av, which the tragedians 
very often do. u)s ay rifiticrofxey II. tt', 271. is to be taken according to 
§. 201, 9. p. 319. 

firj is also found with ay and the opt. Soph, Trach. 631. dedoiKa yap, 
fxri TTjOW Xeyois ay roy iroQoy. Thuc, 2, 93. 

It seems probable, from the use of av elsewhere (see §. 515, 4. Ohs.\ 
that av serves to express the conditional and hypothetical relation of a 
proposition to a member which precedes, or which is present to the 
mind: as Xen. Anah. 6, 1, 1. el ovy ravra eydj bpuiy doKoirjyj ottov 
dvvai[ir]v, eyravd' aKvpov Troietv to cKeiyojy a^/w^ta, CKelyo eyyou), pri Xiay 
ay ra^v aiixppoy L(TBeir)y. with that difference between the opt. and 
conj. which has been already explained §. 523, 2. Thus Eur. Bacch. 

509 seq. Kadeip^ar avroy Cjs ay aKorioy elaopq. Kyei^ias 'that he may 

in that case (viz. eav Kadeipx^rj) see the darkness'. There will then be 
a gradation : i' va denotes a purpose the attainment of which is con- 
sidered in every case as actual, certain, or necessary ; ws av, ottws av, 
ocppa ay, with the conj., one which might be attained in a definite and 
actual case ; ottws av with the opt. one which might be attained only in 
a case supposed merely to be possible or probable. As the hypothetical 
is always more indefinite than the categorical, av seems to be used with 
these particles often to render the expression milder '*. 

2. Of the Optative and Conjunctive after Particles of Time. 

521. The optative is put with the particles eireij enei^j), ore, 
OTTore, where the discourse is concerning a past action, which, 

a Hermann ad Eur. Bacch. 503. prjjjLevojy. Superbiter et contemptim 

1232. considers ws civ M'ith the conj. respondet Creon. Schasfer ad Soph, 

as expressing mere possibility, si libetj Trach. 63 1 . Reisig de Part, a v p. 1 1 5. 

si fieri possit, which seems to contra- Later poets used the fut. indie, after 

diet what he remarks ad Soph. Ant. o(f)pa, fii) Ilerm. ad Vig. p. 927. 
215. ws av aKOTTol vvy »)re rioy el- 

after Partitles of Time. 889 

however, was not limited to a precise point of time, but was 
often repeated by several persons, or in several places ; the 
conjunctive is put with eVriv, eirei^av, orav, OTrorai', when an 
action thus frequently recurring is mentioned belonging to 
present or future time. II. y, 232. ttoWuki /uiv ^€ivi(T(j€v 
'Api]i(pi\oQ MeveXaoG o'ikoj ev y)fxerep(Of oirore Kpr^TrjOev 
iKoiTo. ih. I, 191. comp. a, 610. y, 216. g', 335, 344. 
Od. y, 283. d', 87. &c. Herod. 1, 29. limKvkovrai ec ^dp- 

^iQ TTcwTec, €K Ttjc EXXaSoc <TO(j)iaT(Uy toe, eKacTTOC, cwrecjv 

airiKveoiro. 7, 6. of Onomacritus : okwc, aTriKoiro ec 

o\piv TYjif jSacrtXr/oc KareXeye rwv -^pr^cTfxtjv. comp. ib. 119. 

l^hifc. 2, 10. e'Tret^ri ^e e/caoTOtr, eroi/na y lyvoiro Kara 
Tov -y^povov Tov eiprjjj.ei'ov, t,vvrf€(Tav tu cvo fxepr) airo TroAewc 
€Ka(TTr]Q e.G rov laOuou, because the discourse is concerning 
several divisions, and the action is considered as repeated with 
each ; afterwards it is said concerning the whole, eTrei^ri nav 
TO arpaTevjiia ^vveiXey/nevov r?r. ib. 49. Kai to aijjjjia, oaov 
irep y^povov Kai r\ voaoc ciK/ma^oi, ovk e/napaivero, because 
he speaks of that which happened to all sick persons, and 
therefore frequently. Comp. 1, 49. 2, 13. 15. 18. 34. 79. 
7, 18. 44. 70. Plat. Phccd. p. 59 T>. Trepie/uLevoinev eKaarore, 

eojc avoiyOe'u) to ^eap.u)rr]piov. eTrei^?) ^e avoiy^deni}^ 

y'lGifxev irapa toi/ Sw/c^ctTij. Comp. Xe?i. Cyr. 2, 1, 5. 26. 
3, 20. 8, 4, 2. Anab. 1,2, 7. Ages. 1, 21. Ilellen. 6, 4, 
II. In the same manner ei is used Thuc. 7, 79. ei jnev €7rt- 
oiev ol AOrjvaioi, vneyujpovv, ei § uva'^d) poleVy eireKeivro. 
comp. ib. 71. Soph, Track. 908. Eur. Hec. 1165. In this 
case the imperf. usually stands in the other member, or a 
plusq. perf. equivalent to the imperf. as in Xe?i. Anab. 1, 5, 2. 
since this also serves to show an action often repeated ; for 
which reason eanapacrcje Eur. Med. 1226. is a more correct 
reading than eairapa^e. more rarely the aorist, as //. y , 232. 
Thuc. 7, 71. Oftentimes also the frequent recurrence of an 
action is indicated more strongly by the addition of the particle 
av, of which below. It is a different case when otc with the 
opt. is in the or. obi. without indicating a repeated action. 

The conjunctive: //. a\ 168. e-yw S oX'iyov t€ (jy'iXov re 
kpyofjL eyjjjv eiri vrjaQ, ctttiv K€Ka/^iijj iroXe /^iit^ov. Herod. 
6, 27. (f)iXeei KtoQ Ttpoar]f.ia'iv€iv (o Oeoc,)y evr uv /Lie XX y 

VOL. II. 2 r 

890 Syntax, Of the Optative and Conjunctive 

fxeyaXa KaKci rj ttoXi 17 eOvei eaeaOai. Plat. Gorg. p. 455 B. sq. 

orav irepi larpwv aipeaetJG y ry iroXei avWoyoc, aX- 

XoTi rj Tore o prjTOpiKoc ov GV/m^ovXevaei, &c. Xen. Cyr, 3, 

3, 26. oirep Kai vvv en Troiovaiv ol (5ap^apoi jSafftXeTc' otto- 
Tttv (jrpaTOire^evwvTaif raippov Trepi^aXXovrai evirerujc 
^la TTJv TToXv^eipiav. Anab. 2, 4, 26. 'O KXeapyoc, riye^ro 
fxev etc 8vo* eiropevero ^e aXXoTe Kai aXXore eipiarafxevoQ' 
oaov S av y^povov to riyovfievov rov GrpaTeviiaroc, eiricrTy, 
ToaovTOV avayKT) y^povov St oXov rov ffTparevp-aTOC yiyveaQai 
rrjv eTTiffraaiv, where the conjunctive is right, so long as it is a 
general proposition containing a remark which is still applicable ; 
but if it be uttered merely in reference to that particular march 
of Clearchus, the reading of other MSS. eTriaTrjaeie {sc. eavro) 
would be more correct. Thus wq too is used as a particle of 
time with the conj. Herod. 4, 172. rwv Se J>c eKaaroc 01 
1^1%^ V J ^tSoT ^(vpov. — Hence the conj. with these particles is 
used in general propositions, where the discourse is of something 
that takes place usually, and therefore frequently. 

Sometimes the conj. with these particles does not express 
an action frequently repeated at the present time, but merely a 
future action. //. 2', 412. ov yap er aXXij earai OaXirMpr}, 
eirei av av ye ttot/ulov eTriffiryc;, where the aor. 2. conj. ex- 
presses the^w^. exactum of the Latin, quum tu mortem ohieris, 
Eur. Ipk. T. 629. Comp. Troad. 1155. Hel. 1401. Thuc, 

4, 60. eiKOQj orav yvtjjaiv r]fxac, TerpvyjuJiiievovQ, Kai nXeovi 
TTore GToXco eXOovrac avrovQ ra^e iravra TreipaaeaOai vtto a<pac 
TToielaOai. Also with the pres. as a simple fut. //. 6', 475. or 
av 01 i^ev em Trpvjuvyai /uayijjprai. Plat. Gorg. p. 526 E. 
Pt'ot. p. 335 B. In this case Homer uses the fut. after ore Kev, 
II. V y 335. aXX avaywpr\aaiy ore Kev ^vfi^iXi^Geai avr^. 

Ohs. 1. The use of the optative and conjunctive does not depend upon 
whether one wishes to use ore^ eireihr]^ &c. ox orav, eireilav ; but, vice versa, 
the proper sense of the moods in assigning the time determines the use 
of the particle. Now commonly the particles compounded with av are 
used when the conjunctive is to be employed ; with the optative those 
without ay. Sometimes however the former, oraPf kiredav, are found 
with the optative, and ore, cTreih) with the conjunctive ; but the latter only 
in Homer, ^sch. Pers. 448. evravda Tre/xTret Tovah\ vmos, or ay yewy 
(fidapeyres €-^dpol yrjaoy eKaioi^oiaro, Kreiyoiey ei/^e/jowrov 'EWrjrojy 

after Particles of Time, 891 

ffTparoVf as something said in reference to the future, consequently in 
or. obi. {or. recta, orav eKauji^iovrai KreiycTe), as Xen. Cyr, 8, 1 , 44. koL 
ycfjO, btroTav eXavvoiev to. dripia rots iTnrevtTiu els ra Tref^m, i^epeaBai 
mroy els dtjpay rovrois eTrerpeire. comp. 1, 3, II. But in the following 
instances, Plat. Alcih. 2. p. 148 D. 'Adrjvatois /cat AaKe^ai/jLoviois ^la- 
^opds yeyojuepriSf avveftaive rfj 7ro\et rjfxioyf utare koX Kara yijv Kal Kara 
Qakarrav, Sir orav ft«X^ yei/otro, ^vorvj^ety. id. Symp. p. 219 E. 
Comp. Tim. p. 39 C. jfEschin. Ax. 8. Xen. Ages. 9, 2. 6 ^e rare 
p,a\iara e-^aipey, OTroray rdj(^L(TTa TV)(6yraSf wy ^eoiyrOf diroire^TTOi, 
oTToray is used for o-n-ore of past actions, which cannot be considered as 
something merely conceived by the mind ^. But in Xen. Cyr. 1, 3, 18. 
eireiday o'lkol jJs is more correct, since there a future action is marked. 

ore, oTrdre, tTret^^ with the conj. are used for oTav, eTreitdy in Homer 
and other older poets, the conj. being required. //. 0', S22. ovZe tL fxiv 
Xpeio eVrai rvjjfioxorjs, ore fiiy QaTrrioaiy 'Aj(aioi, quum Gr. eum sepe- 
lient. comp. /i', 286. tt', 245. Od. k, 48G. V, 105. /z', 55. 4', 170. o', 408. 
and passim. In tlie Attic poets tTret is found with the conj. only twice, 
viz. in Soph. (Ed. C. 1226. cTret (l>avy. Ant. 1025. eTret ^' dfiaprrj in 
all MSS. ; in both which Brunck has eirriy. rjy'iKa is found with the 
conj. without a»/, especially in the later writers^. 

Note, or ay, e-Trei^dy, &c. will hardly be found with the indicative ; 
for in //. fji'f 41 sq. ^', 341. Od. a, 41. (Trp€(p€rai, 00ey^o/zat, Ijieipe- 
rat are conjunctives. See §. 201, 9. In Xen. Mem. S. 1, 2, 35. 4, 3, 
4. 6. 9. e-rreih) is now restored from MSS., and in Cebet. Tab. p. 229. 
it should be read or ay firi erriarojyrai, 

Obs. 2. The optative also is sometimes used, without expressing an 
action frequently repeated. //. o-', 465. at yap fiiy davdroio ^vffrjxeos 
wSe hvyaijjirfy v6a(^iy cnroKpvxpat, ore fxiy fiopos alyos Ik a. vol, a case 
merely supposed in continuation of the wish: as Theocr.7, 108. comp. 
//. <p\ 429. Od. j3\ 31. ^V x! ^H^^ (rdcpa eiiroi, ore rrporepos ye ttv- 
Qoiro, * when he should have any how heard it'. Soph. Trach. 92 seq. 
Plat. Rep. 9. p. 574 B. or: ore Ve fi^ ^vyairOf dpTrd^oi ay Kal pidi^oiro 
fiera rovro, a case only imaginary, as with et, when the optative follows 
in the apodosis. So Xen. Mem. aS. 2, 1, 18, 6 fxey cKiitv Treum' ({tdyoi 
ay oTTore fiovXoiro. but immediately after, rS ^' e^ dyayKrjs ravra 
"KaaypvTL ovk e^ecrriy, OTroray (iovXrjrai, Travecrdai *^. 

Obs. 3. This use of the conjunctive, inasmuch as with eirei^ay, otto- 
ray it expresses an action often repeated in the present time, or usually 

* Poppo ad Xen. Cyr. 1, 3, 11. explains very correctly, p. 930 seq., the 

'' Schffif. ad Theocr. 23, 30. passages ap. Theogn. 269. Br. 275. 

•^ Hermann ad Vig. p. 920 seq. who Bekk. 

2 c 2 

892 Syntax, Of the Optative and Conjunctive 

happening, is connected with the Homeric use of it, since in compari- 
sons the conjunctive is used with words of all kinds ; as witli os II. e', 
138. o', 580. ojaei II. i, 477. ware II. X, 68. /z', 278. ws ore II. V, 
155. 292. o', 605. (instead of which //. X', 269. (hs orav is used.) ws 
biroTe II. X', 305. o', 382. rivre 11. p, 547. In the Attic poets one in- 
stance only is found, Eur. Hec. 1025. aXifievoy tis ws es airXov efxire- 
aiov Xexpios eKirear] 0/Xr/s KapBlas. Instead of the conj. Homer has also 
the fut. II. K, 183. /3', 147. 395. 

522. With the remaining particles of time, which do not determine 
a space of time during which an action takes place, but a point 
of time before or until which something takes place, as ewe, ecrr 
av, TTpiv, i^e^pi ov, the opt. and conj. are used for the most part 
in the same cases in which they w^ere used with 'iva, ocppa. 

1. eu)G 'until' (eto-o/ce Horn, fxey^pi ov, &c.), when a past 
action is spoken of as lasting to a point of time also past, takes 
the verb in the indie, imperf. or aor. Plat. Gorg. p. 506 B. 
riceioQ av KaXXc/cXe? toutoj en ^leXe-yo^rjv, eojc avrio rriv tov 
AjjL(^iovoc aire^toKa prjcnv. Xen. II. Gr. 2, 3, 42. Compare 
what was said §. 508. 519, 6. of an action which would have 
taken place had something happened differently. But even 
when the action has really taken place, this construction is 
used, neither av nor anything similar preceding, in the principal 

proposition. Eur. Ale. 769 seq, of Hercules: irivei eioa 

iOepjurjv avrov ufjL(pi^aGa ^Xof oivov, Herod. 2, 143. Ho- 
mer //. o , 22. has the conj. in this case : ov Se \a(5oijui 
piirracTKOv TeTaywv awo jSrjXou, o^^o' av 'iKYjTaL yrjv for o(l)p 
av 'iKavev. If the action has been frequently repeated in past 
times, €(jJG has the opt. without av: Plat. Phcsdon. p. 59 D. 
irepiefxevofxev ovv eKaarore ewQ avoiydeiri to ^€(T/iiWTrjpiov. ' Ewe 
' whilst, as long as', has only the indie, preter. as ewe o ravO' 
iop/j.aiv€, &c.^ 

If the principal action is past, ewe after preterites takes the 
opt. without av : as Od. e, 385. wpae ^ em Kpaiirvov J^operjv, 
Trpo ^e KVfxar ea^eVy ewe oye <I>atr;/cecr<Ti (piXrjpeT/uiOKJi fxiyeit}, 
a limit which ^Eolus prescribes to himself. Corap. c', 376. 
Xen. Anah. 2, 1, 2. Hence as something said: Xen. Cyr. 5, 
3, 53. ^ovQ TOVQ r)yei.i6vac rfje obov iropeveaQai e/ceXevev r]<sv- 

" Blomf. Gloss. Pers. 434. 

after Particles of Time, 893 

yjii)C, €U)c ayyeXoc eXOoi. But since the conj. with av would be 
used in the or. recta, the two modes are combined ; the or. obi, 
by the opt., the or. recta by the addition of au. Soph. Track. 
684 scq. Xen. Cyr, 4, 5, 36. toi;(; tTTTreac e/ceXeutre <pvXaTT€iv 
Tovc ayayovrac, ewe, av ri (jr]fxavde'ir) avrolc, where Schnei- 
der and Poppo read etoc, av tic, ar]fxaviij, Comp. irpiv. Of the 
conj. in or, obi. see §. 529, 3. 

Of present actions whose hmit of time is determined by an- 
other action, ewe, &c. is used with the conjunctive and av. II. 
p, 331. i-uixvere iravrec, evKvqfxi^ee, hyaioi avrov, etaoKev 
acjTv fieya Y\piap,oio eXwfuiev. Comp. e', 466. Od. jS', 99 sq. 
— Soph. CEd. C. 113 sqq. Kai av /ll ef oSou irooa Kpvxpov kut 
aXaoc, TijJvS ewQ av eK/LiaOw, rivac Xoyove, epovaiv. — //. a, 
509. rotppa S em Tpweaai riOei KparoQ o(pp av Ay^aioi viov 
ifiiov rUwaiv. Comp. //. v\ 141. ^', 558. Od.^\ 154.^ 
If, however, a case be merely supposed, or expressed as if de- 
pending on a supposition, in which case the principal proposi- 
tion has the opt., the opt. will also be found in the dependent 
proposition with or without av: Plat. Phcedofi. p. 101 D. ei ^e 

TIC avTrjc Trje, vTToOeaewQ e^oiTO, yaipeiv ewrjc av ewe av 

Ta an avTrjc opfJLr}6evTa (iKeipaio. ib. aXXr\v av virodeaiv utto- 

BefxevoQ ewQ eirl ti iKavov eXOoie,, where Heindorf inserts av, 

Comp. Rep. 6. p. 501 C. 

2. irpiv 'before', is constructed on the whole like ewe, 
a. With past real actions it takes the indie, imperf. and aor. : 
e. g. Soph. CEd. T. 775. rfyo/uLrfv S avrjp aaTwv p-kyiaTOQ twv 
cAceT, Trpiv juoi tv^t) TOia^ eTrkaTr]. Isocr, de Big. 348 B. ou 
TTporepov eiravcravTO, irpiv tov iraTepa eK tou (TTpaTOire^ov fxCTe" 

Z>. If a past action is represented as one which the agent has 
in his thoughts, irpiv takes the opt. without av. II. (p\ 580. 
Ayr]V(op ovK eOeXev <^€u-yei»^, irpiv ireiprtaaiT A'^iXrjoe,. Here 
too the or. obl, is combined with the or. recta by means of av, 

c. With future actions which the agent has in his thoughts, 
TTpiv has commonly the infin. : e.g. Eur. Med. 78. aTrwXo/uieaO' 
ap , ei KaKov ir poao'iaofxev veov iraXauo, irpiv toS el^rjvTXrjKevai, 

^ Vak'k. ad Eiirip. Hipp. 659. ^ Elmsl. ad Eur. Med. 1142. 

Brunck ad Eur. Fhoen. 89. 

894 Syntax. Of the Optative and Conjunctive 

ib. 93.* even when the preceding clause contains a negative, 
in which case irpiv is also used with the conj. and av. Soph, 
CEd, C. 48. aXX ovce inevTOi rovl^avKTravai TroXewc ^i^ ecm 
OapaoGj TTpiv y av ev^el^tj t'i ^ptj. comp. 909. Eur. Med. 
278 seq. So Thuc. 7, 63. Soph. Ant. 618. el^ori ^' ovSev 
kpnei, TTpiv irvpL Qeppw Tro^a ric, irpoGavpy, ov^ev is indeed to 
be connected with el^ori, but the principal thought is ov^ev d' 
ol^ev, irpiv &c. Homer combines the inf. and conj. //. p y 504. 
ov yap kyijjye ' FiKTopa UpiajUL^rjv peveoQ (ryriaeaOai oiu), irpiv y 

fc'TT AyjWrioc KaWirpiyjc ^r]fxevai 'iinnx) (pof^rjcrai re 

Yj 1^ avTOG evi irpujTOKJiv a\<l)y. Od. j3 , 373. He who 

says ' I will not do this till thou commandest me' requires the 
command as the condition of his action, but cannot engage that 
the command will be given, and therefore says ov Trot^trw touto, 
irpiv av KeXevffrjQ. But he who says ' I will do it before thou 
commandest' makes the command something actual, and there- 
fore says TTOi^dw touto irpiv ae KeXevaai . irpiv with the conj. 
is very rarely found after affirmative propositions, as Simonid. 
Br. Gnom. No. 4. -y. 1 1. Gaisf. Poet. Gr. Min. No. 231. (jyOavei 
§e Tov imev yrjpac, a^riXov \a(5ov, irpiv rep^i 'iKrirai, for (pOavei 
\a[36v is merely prius comprehendit, and cannot contain a ne- 
gative. Eur, Or, 1224. contains a negative sense in (j)v\aG(Te. 

The fut. indie, is seldom found after negative propositions, 
as //. a , 29. TTJv S eyu) ov Xvaio, irpiv jxiv Kai yrjpaQ eireiaiv, 
unless we here put a colon after Xvaw, so that irpiv shall sig- 
nify ' first'. 

d. If the opt. with av is used in the main proposition of 
present or future actions expressed only as probable, irpiv is 
used with the opt. like ewQ. Soph. Trach. in. Xoyoo jnev cot 
ap'VciloQ av9pu)ir(t)v oSe, u)C, ovk dv aKjjv eKjiaOoi ^poTWV, irpiv av 
6 a VOL TIC, where some MSS. have Odvy. Xen. H, Gr. 2, 3, 
48. ToTtrSe evavrioc, eipi, oi ovk oiovrai KaXi^v av eyyeveaOai 
o\iy apyiav, irpiv av eq to vit o\iy(x)v rvpavveiadai Trjv iroXiv 

* Elmsl. ad Eur. Med. 77, 215. expresses something as uncertain. 

^ In this way I have modified Her- See §. 512. It is clear from § 521. 

mann's statement ad Eur. Med. cd. ad fin. that the significatio Jut. exact. 

Elmsl. p. 351. especially as I cannot is not found in omni conjunctivo, but 

regard the conj. as the mood which only in conj, aorisli. 

ajler Conditional Particles. 895 

Obs. The poets occasionally omit av with the conj. Od. k, 174 seq. 
oh yap xu) tcara^vaufied' a-)(^vvfji€yoi Trep els 'At^ao ^o/jlovs, irpty ixopai^ov 
^fiap eireXdr]. Comp. p, 9. Soph. Track. 946. Arist. Eccl. 751 seq. 
Prose writers also do this: Plat. Phcedon. p. J2 C. /u>) irporcpoy ahroy 
arroKrivyvvai ^ely, Trpiy ayayKrjy (Bekh. rrply ay ay.) tlvcl 6 decs cttl- 
7re/i;//j7. ^d. Leg. 9. p. 872 E.<= 

3. Of the Optative and Conjtinctive after Conditional Particles. 

In the use of the Optative and Conjunctive in conditional 523. 
propositions, regard is had principally to the relation which the 
condition in the protasis has to its consequences in the apo- 
dosis, which is mostly shown by the mode in which the apodosis 
is expressed. This relation is in general double : either such 
that the consequences of a supposed case, or of a condition, 
are considered as determinate actually or necessarily ; or such 
that it is represented only as possible or contingent, and con- 
sequently the condition also as possible only. In the former 
case the conclusion is expressed by the future or imperative, 
when the consequence is present or future ; in the other by the 
optative with av. The nature of the apodosis in this case de- 
termines that of the protasis. 

1. If in the apodosis the future or the imperative (a con- 
ditional ' to be obliged'), or an indicative, as in general pro- 
positions, is found, and the condition is considered only as such, 
then the condition is expressed by et with the future, or more 
mildly by ea»/, i]v, av (in the Ionic poets ei Ke or aiKe), with the 
conjunctive. II. a, 137. e'l 8e Ke juri Swoxriv, eyu) Se kcv auroc 
eXdj/mai. y, 281. ei /xev Kev MeveXooi' AXe^av^poc Kara- 
7re(j>vTri, avToc eireiO' FiXevtiv e^erw. 284. ei Se k AXe^- 

av^pov Kreivy ^avOoQ Mei^eXaoc, Tpujaa airoSovvai (inf. 

for the imperative). 288. ei S' av e/moL n/uriv YIpia/uLOQ Ylpiof^ioio 

re TraT^ec riveiv ovk eOeXwaiv avrap eyw fia'^iiao/nai. 

e, ool. >^ re a otw piyijaeiv iToAefxov ye Kai ei ^ ereptoui 
TTvOriai. Od. a', 287. e'l f.icv Kev irarpoc, ^iorov Kai vocttov 
aKovcTijc, ri T av rpv^ofjievoc, irep en rXairic eviavrov (for 

•^ Heind. ad Pha^don. p. 27 seq. p. 62.) only in the tragedians. Poppo 

maintains that av is omitted only in Obss. in Thuc. p. 143. observes that 

the poets. Reisig Conj. in Arist. in Thucydidcs ai^ is often omitted 

p. 6"). (opposed by Stallb. ad Philcb. with f.i€)(pi <n>. 

896 Sj/ntax. Of the Optative and Conjunctive 

rXriOi). Isocr. Areop, p. 142 A. B. a\X eav inev Karop- 
V(jj(Tw<Ji nepi Tivac irpa^eic, h ^t« "^^X^^y ^ ^'* ^^^P^^^ aperriVy 
jLUKpov ciaXi7r6vT€C TTaXiv eiQ Tad avrac airopiac, KareaTrfdav, 
redigi solent. Xen. Anab,2, 3, 6. eXeyoj^ ^e o\ oyyeXot, on 
eiKora cok(H€v Xeyeiv jSacriXei, Kai rjKotev r]y€fx6vac, eyovreCy ot 
avTOvCf eav airov^ai yevMvrai, a^ovcnv, evOev e^ovai ra iiri- 
rri^eia, a transition to a kind of oratio recta, Ei with the fut. 
and rjv with the conj. appear to be used as quite equivalent to 
each other Isocr, it, avri^, 138. et ^ei^ vjueic npoc, avro to 
ciKainv aTTopXeTTOVTec aKe'ipeaOe irepi tovtwv, ovk eariv oirtjc, ov 
oo^ei tjv o avaAoyiarjaue rr)v ayvoiav ovoei' evpeurjaeTai, 

Obs. In the protasis el also is often used with the indicative present 
or future, if the condition is not only to have the expression of mere 
possibility or probability, but is considered as a case definitely happen- 
ing with reference to the consequence. //. e', 350. el ^e av y els 
TToXefjiop 7ru)Xri(Teai, rj re a oicj piyijcreiv TroXe/jLoy, Comp. //. o', 213. 
Herod. 1, 32. el ^e wpos tovtokti ert reXevrrj aei rbv (iiov ev, ovtos 
€Ke7vos, Tov av ^^jTels^ 6X(3ios KCKXtjadai ct^ios ecrrL. whereby the neces- 
sary connection of the condition with the consequence, by virtue of 
which the latter necessarily presupposes the former, is made more 
prominent \ 

2. When the optative with av is used in the apodosis, and 
consequently a case is adduced which is merely possible, pro- 
bable or problematical, then in the protasis the optative is used 
with ei, without av, as the condition, in that case, is also only pro- 
blematical. The entire relation, in this case, does not express 
anything future or present, but something which is merely pos- 
sible or imaginable, at an indefinite time, the reverse of which 
is equally possible. //. a, 255. i) k€V yrjOrjaai Tipia/moc 
YlpiajLioio T€ Trainee, aXXoi re TjOwec ineya kev Key^apoiaro 
Ovp(v, ei (TCpojiv race iravra TrvOoiaTO fxapva^evouv, Xen, 
Cyr. 3, 3, 49. Tt ^, e^rj, a) Kujoe, e( Kai av crvyKaXeaac, ewQ 
en efetrrt, napaKt^Xevaaio, ei a pa {num) tl Kai av apeivovc 
(av) TTOiTfaaiG rove, crT/oaTiwrac J ' wouldst thou make them?' 

'if thou exhortedst them V Isocr. ad Mcoc/. p. 16 C. et rtc 

TOVQ Kparovvrar, rov ttXtj^ovc ctt aperr\v n por pex^eiev, a/n- 
(jyorepovc, av ujipeXriaeiev . 

* Comj). Brunck ad Arist. Plut. •> V^alcken. ad Hipp.471. Brunck 

1064. ad Arist. IMut. 1037. 

after Conditiouai Particles. 897 

To this head belongs also the construction of the particles 
ioGTref) air et * as if, which take the opt. in cases merely sup- 
posed, but in such a way that av, which precedes et, refers to 
an opt. in the apodosis of the conditional proposition. Dem, 
pro Cor, p. 293, 1. wairep av ei tic vavKXrjpou - - * ttJq vavayiaQ 
aiTiioro, a\\ ouo cKvpepvtiJVTriv vavv, ^i}(j€iev av, where wcnrep 
III' (pncreiev av are to be taken together, as Plat. Gorg. p. 465 C. 

Kai yap av ei ro a(i)f.ia eKpive, to tov Ava^ayopov av ttoXu 

riv. Comp. §. 461. p. 760. The apodosis is often omitted, if 
it can easily be supplied, as Isocr. Paneg. p. 71 D. o/io/wq 
ci€7rop€vur}<jav, wcnrep av ei tt poire fiiropevoij lor locnrep av ctto- 
pevOrjaaVy ei 7rpo€7refjL(l)9r]aaVj and thus loaTrep av el came to be 
considered as one particle, and participles were joined with it. 
See §. 569. 

It has been observed before, §. 508. that in past actions, or 
in those which are divided between the past and the present, 
the indicative of the aorist or imperf. is put twice in the apodosis 
with av. So wGTrep av ei : Plat. Gorg. p. 447 D. LxJirep av 
€1 ervyyjavev wv vnocti/LiaTiov or/^tjovpyoc aireKpivaTO av ^77 irov 
dot. Comp. p. 474 C. Sj/mp. p. 199 D. 

Obs. 1 . Sometimes el is followed not only by the indicative, but also ^qa 
by the optative. Plat. Phdedon. p. 67 E. el yap ^laftejjXrj'vrai pkv 
Traira-^rj rw (Tcofxari, avrriv ^e fcu0' avT})y Itt idv pov at t^v ^vy»)>' 
e^eiv (a supposition mentioned as if it actually existed) tovtov Zk 
yiyropevov (poftolvTo kuX ayavaKTo'iev (supposed only as some- 
thing which does not necessarily exist). So Isocr. de Pac. p, 177 D. 
(ppovTiCoi is probably the true reading, not (l)poyTi^€i, as in the MS. 
Urbin. Eur. Orest. 508. el rorh* aTroKTeiyeiev opoXcKvpos yvvrj (a case 
merely supposed) ^^u) rovde 7ra7s av pr^rep^ av t air oKTeveX (which in 
the case supposed will necessarily follow), /cciTreiQ' b Keivov yevoperos 
0oj'w (j)6voy Xvffei, Trepas di) ttoI kukiov Trjoo/j/ycerat*^. 

Obs, 2. From these general fundamental propositions, however, there (^qa\ 
are various deviations, which are founded mostly on the particular kind 
of the conditional propositions. 

1 . el with the indicative, and in the apodosis the optative, with Ay, 
viz. when the condition contains a determinately expressed case, and 
the apodosis is uttered with the expression of a mere conjecture, or 

' Jacobs ad Athen. p. 145. Ast ad Plat. Leg. p. V25. 

898 Si/ntax. Of the Optative and Conjunctive 

contains a consequence which is merely possible or probable. Soph. 
Ant, 925. aW el fxev ovv toZ^ karlv kv Qeois ^iXa^ iraQovTes av ^vy- 
yyolfxev rj/jLapTTjKores. Plat, Thecet. p. 171 A. B. ovkovv rrjv avTOv 
{o'iYj(TLv) av \p€v^rj ffvy^^wpot, el Trjv rioy rjyovf^evojv avrov i/zeu^ecQai 
o/jioXoyei aXi^drj elyai, where that which here constitutes the con- 
dition was just before mentioned as a determinate case. The distinction 
between the indicative and optative with el, is particularly marked in 
the following passages: Plat. Apol. S. p. 28 E. eyw deiya av e'lrjv 

elpyacTfjievos, el, ore fiiv fie ol ap-^ovres eraTTov, ovs vfie'is e'lXeffde 

ap^^eiv fJLOv, - " 'Tore fxev, ov eKelvoi eTarrov, efxevov, licnrep koI 

aXXos Tis, KOL eKLvZvvevov cnroQavetv, rov Ze Beov tclttovtos ' 

XeiTToifAi rrjv ra^iv. where the indie, expresses a determinate cir- 
cumstance which had happened, but the opt. an action which is merely 
assumed and possible. In the same manner Hipp, Min. p. SQ^ C. D. 
364 D. Cratyl p. 391 C. Gorg.p.452B. Apol. S.p.SI C. p.^QC.J>. 
Xen. Mem. S. 4, 2, 31. Isocr. tt. ^evy. p. 356 seq. — Eurip. Hipp. 476. 
aW*, et rot TrXeiw j^prjara nSv KaKuiv e^eis, avQpwiros ovaa, Kcipra y ev 
TTpa^eias dv, where the indie, is more correct than the conj.^ Comp. 
Suppl. 522 seq. Soph. (Ed. C. 969, But in Plat. Menon. p. 80 B. it 
should be el--- roiavra 7roio7s (as a mere supposition), ra-)^ av d tt a j^- 

Belijs, and Alcih. 2. p, 144 B. el eyy(eipols -■ - "ayvools, oviroTe av 

eTTtdoio^. The case is different when el signifies * although' : Soph. Trach. 
592. dXX elZevai )(|0)) Zpuiaav, ws ov^\ el doKels ey^eiv, €^(^01$ av yi^wjiia, 
p^ ireipiofievT}. Plat. Alcih. \, p. 109 C. el yap Ka\ hiavoelrai tls, ws 
^€1 irpos Tovs ra BiKaia TrpaTTOvras TroXe^cTv, ovk av opoXoyricreie ye. 

Tn the same manner el is not unfrequently accompanied by the future 
indie, when the opt. with av follows in the apodosis. //. w', 296. 
Eurip. Hipp. 484. ^t' dp' dv 6\p€ y dvdpes e^evpoiev dv, el yuj) 
yvvalKes fxtj^avas evpiiaofxev, Arist. Eccl. 162. ov npo(3airjv rbv 
iroZa Tov erepov dv, el fjirl rovr d/cpi/3w0//crera(. Comp. Iph. A, 
1199 seq, Troad, 736 seq. Plat. Gorg. p. 401 E. — el here indicates a 
determinate case*^. 

2. el with the indie, of a past tense, and the opt. with dv in the 
apodosis, viz. when a circumstance in past time is represented as a 
condition, in its relation to a consequence which is still present. Od, a, 

* Brunck ad Eurip. Hipp. 474. ^ Bekker has restored these read- 

Schaef. ad Dion. H. p. 230. ings in both cases. 

Plat.Thcaet. p. 380. ad Protag. p. 557. *= Heind. ad Gorg. p. 20. Pliaedon. 

673. Stallb. ad Phil. p. 49. ad Eu- p. 218. Prot. p. 557. 573. Jacobs 

thyphr. p. 18. Matthiee ad Eur. Hipp. ad Athen. p. 29 seq. 
471. Suppl. 521. 

after Conditional Particles, 899 

236. k-rrei ov k€ davoPTi nep w^' aKa')(^oi fjirjv, el //era ols erapoLtri Bdi^irj 
Tpwtop €yt h)ii(pf * I should not grieve if he were slain', non moererem^ 
si periisset. Thuc. 2, 60. et ixol koX fjiiffios rjyovfxevoL fxdWoy ereputu 
Trpoaelvat avra iroXe^elv €7r€i(rOr}T€f ovk av etKOTws vvv ye rov a^iKeTv 
aWiav (f>€poi jJLTjv. Plat. Rep. 6. p. 493 C, oloy Trep ay el BpeiJ.jj.aTOS 
jjeyaXov Kai layypov Tpe<pofX€V(}v ras opy/is ns Kal eTnQvfxias Kare fidv- 

dayeVf KaTafxaOioy ^e Tavra iravra ao^iav re KaXecreie, 

Ka\ eirX ^i^aaKaXiav rpeTToiTO-'-iovojid'Coi Ze ' - - €\ol - - - KaXot 

eii)paK(os e'lri) - - " TOiovTos hi] wk, ttjoos Atos ovk cltottos av (toi BoKoir/ 
{vulg. hoK^) elvai Traihevrfjs ; * if any one had learnt, and called that 
wisdom'. Phcedon. p. 89 E. Comp. Apol. S. p. 28 E. under N'' 1. 
Isocr. Paneg. p, 62 A. Plat. Euthyd. p. 297 E.'' It is a different case 
Soph. El, 797. TToXXijiv dv rJKOis, io i,ev\ d^ios TV)(^e'iv, el riji'd^ eiravaas 
T-qs 7roXvyXd)(T(Tov fiorisf as an action supposed to be past, of which the 
consequence appears now for the first time. 

3. el with the opt., and the indie, in the apodosis, when in the apo- 
dosis something is determinately asserted, but the protasis conveys only 
a possible case. Pind. Pyth. 4, 468. el ydp ns o^ovs o^vTOfi^ TreX^Kei 
€^epei\pai Kev jxeydXas hpvoSf al(7\vpoi Be ol Qarirov elhos' Kai 
(pBivoKapttos koltra BiBoX \prj<p6y trep avrds, where et signifies * although'. 
Herod. 1, 32. ov ydp rot 6 p.eya TrXovcrios fiaXXov rov en r^fjiipriv e-^ovros 
6XI3iu)Tep6s eoTt, el fii] oi rv^rf eiriairoLTOf Trdvra koXcl e^ovra reXev- 
T-fjaai ev rov (iiov. Comp. 7, 101. Thuc. 2, 5. ol dXXoi Qr}(3a7oif ovs 
eBei rr}s vvktos TrapayereaOai iravvrpaTiq.^ €t rt dpa fjij) irpo'^topoir) 

rots etreXriXvQocriy - €7re(DO})dovVf * if perchance success should not 

attend them', as the thought of those who had arranged this orat. ob- 
liqua. ib. 39. el pi^Qvfxlc} jjdXXov ?/ ttoi^wv fjeXerr], Kal firj jjerd rofiiov 
ro 7rXe2ov yj rpdirojv dvBpeias edeXoifxev KivBvveveiVf Trepiyiyverai 
f] rots f.ieXXov(Tiv dXyeivols fxrj TrpoKdjiveiy. Comp. Plat. Charm, 
p, 154 D. Protag. p. 334 B.^ 

Hence the indie, of past time sometimes follows, along with the opt., 
which denotes what is yet to come. Plat, Apol, S. p. 2^ E. supra 
§. 524, 1. Isocr, Plat, p, 297 E. Travrwv dv rj/jTv dXoyojrarov e'lri avji- 

pefirjKoSy el to7s fxev a'irioi yeyevrjade rrjs eXevdepiaSy r/fjeis Be fxrjB* 

iKerevovres vfids ruiv avrdjv rols e^dlcrrois rvyoL^ev. both according to 
the construction §. 622, 3. Lys, in Ergocl, p. 179, 32. Beivov dv ehj, 

€1 vvv fjiev avyyvwfxrjv eypire^ ev Be r^ re<t)S "Xpov^ davdr^ cko- 

Xd^ere, Xen, Cyr. 4, 2, 46. 

•* Elmsl. ad Eur. Bacch. 1341. SchjEf.adDion.H.p.2J4. Erf.adCEd. 

*■ Wolf ad Demosth. Lept. p. 283. T. 664. Elmsl. ad Eur. Bacch. 612. 

900 Syntax, Of the Optative and Conjunctive 

Thus the future also is put in the apodosis. II. k, 222. e't ris yioi 
cLvrip ctju' eiroLTO koX aXXos, fiaWov da\7rioprf Kal dap(Ta\€U)r€poy eorat. 
Comp. i', 389. Plat. Phcedon. p. 105 B. el yap epoio /ue, J ay tL \kv 
T<D del.~\ (TU)fxaTL eyyeyrjrai, Qepfioy eorai, ov Ti)y a.(T<pu\rj col epu) 
airoKpiaiy eKeiyrjy Ttjy ajjLadrjy otl w ay OepjJLorris. where the condition is 
immediately afterwards expressed more definitely as something which 
is expected ; ay ept], to ay tl cwyuart eyyeyrjrai, yoaijaeL, ovk kpui. as 
something conceived of Eur. Andr. 967. el S' eySidoiris, uianep ey^i^ojSj 
Xoyovs, Treixxpujy a air o'lKioy rwj'3' (r^XGov). To this head belongs also 
the conj. in the apodosis as a fut. //. X', 386. et fxev ^>) ayTi^ioy avv 
Tev')(e(n Treiprjdeirjs, ovk ay roi \paiff^ri(Ti (iios. 

Also the indicative of a past tense follows in the sense of §. 508, c. 
Plat. Alcih. 1. p. 111. ei fiovXrjdeir] jiey el^erai ju») fxoyoy ttoIoi 
ai'dpojTrot elariy, ctXX' ottoIol vyieiyol i) yoawheis, dpa iKavoldy ijjjTy rjaay 
hidd(TKa\oL 01 TToXXot ; Comp. Xen. Cyr. 2, 1, 9. 

4. ijy {dy, edy) with the conj., and the opt. in the apodosis. II. 3', 97. 
Tov Key ^rj 7ra/x7rpwra Trap' ayXad ^(opa (j>epoLO, a'i Key 'idrj MeyeXaoy 
TTvpfjs einl^dyT oXeyeLyrjs, where the opt. is used, as in inde- 
pendent propositions, to soften the expression of the future, * thou 
mightst bear thence', not ' thou wouldst'. Thus too Od. /3', 246 — 251. 

jSoph. El. 554. i)y e(ftys fioi Xe^aifx ay. Eur. Hel. 1094 seq. Arist, 

Eccl. 415 seq. Isocr. tt. ayr. §. 101. Comp. Plat. Phcedon. p. 93 B. 
Xen.Apol. S. 6. r)y ^e alffdayioixai 'yeip^y yiyyofieyos Ka\ KaTafxe/JKJxvfiai 
epavroy, (a case which was previously represented as occurring of 
necessity : avdyKt] earat to. tov yripws airoreXelcrdnL &c.) ttws ay eyio 
en a*' ^^ews Piotcvoiijii ; * how am I to be able to live with pleasure V 
which is equivalent to ovk dy ert ey(b ijdews (DLOTevoifii, or ovk en eyio 
Tjdews fiioTevau). Thus also Isocr. Areop. p. 152 C. Herod. 7, 161. 
udrrfy yap ay wde TrdpaXoy 'RXXriyioy arparoy irXe~i(TToy e'irjfiey eKrtj' 
ueyoi, el ^vprjKOffioKn eoyres "AdijyaToi a-vy')(^ojprj aofxey Trjs i]yep.o- 
virjs, because the latter was required of them. Herod. 8, 57. the orat, 
obliqiia and recta appear to be blended. 

5. et is also a kind of particle of time, and when it accompanies an 
action often repeated in past time, takes an optative, like the proper 
particles of time, followed by the imperf. or aor. indie. See Thuc, 7, 44. 

el fiey evrv^oiey rici ^le^evyov avrovs Arist. Pac. 212 seq, 

Comp. Plat, Apol. S. p. 3S A. Xen. Cyr. 1, 3, 12. 4, 6. Anab, 7, 4,24. 
Mem, S,l,3, 4. 

6. Sometimes el with the indie, or opt. and ijv with conj. are used 
together as if equivalent. Herod. 3, 35. el jiey yap tov nai^os tov gov 
Tovle (3aXii)y rvxoi/jit Xlepaai (paveoyrai Xeyoires ovdey^ i)y Se 

after Conditional Particles. 901 

h^dpT(t) &c., where it cannot be said that Cambyses expresses the first 
as merely possible, the second more determinately. ih. QQ. Time. 2, 5. 
efoovXavTO yap ff<pt{7tyf e'i riya \a/3oiev, VTrdpyeiv avrX Tuiv evZov, ijv 
apa Tvx^f^t Tires e^ojyprjfxeyoi, where we have first the oratio obliquUf 
afterwards the oratio recta. So II. t', 141. et ^e ice v "Apyos iKoifxeB' 
'A^auKoy ovdap apovprjs, yafifipos Kev fjioi eoif riaio ci fiiy Irrov 'O/aeorr/. 
where 136. et ke with the conj. stood. 

7. The deviations hitherto adduced are founded upon the peculiar 525. 
nature of the conditional propositions, and are thus, in a certain degree, 
regular. The following cases, on the contrary, are irregular : 

a. When et with the opt. takes uv. Pind. Pyth. 4, 468. a passage 
which is quoted §. 524, 3. Comp. Nem. 7, 131. //. ;^', 592. 0', 196. 
205. Eur, Hel. 834. Plat. Leg. 10. p. 905 C. et a' eTrideris \6yov tivos 

€Ti av eir]s ktzaKove. Similar to this is riv ke Theocr. 27, 35. Apol, 

Rh. 3, 404. Xen. Cyr. 3, 3, 55. tovs cnraidevrovs TravTairamv uperffs 
davpa^oiij' ay e'i tl irXeov ay w0eX//o-et€ Xoyos KaXws pijOeis els aySpa- 
yadiay. Xen. Agesil. in. oh yap ay KaXios e^oi, et, on reXeojs ayrjp oya- 
dos eyeyero, ^ta rovro ov^e fxeioyioy ay rvy^ayoi eTraiywy^, 

b. el is sometimes also constructed with the conjunctive, but only in 
Ionic and Doric writers, e.g. II. e', 258. V, 116. f/, 224. 245. tt', 30. 
559. Od. a, 204. e', 221. /x', 96. 348. Pind. Pijth. 4, 473. 488. 
Nem. 7, 16. 22 seq. Theocr. 25, 45.'' In Herodotus the MSS. vary: 
2, 13. 8, 49. i6. 118. 7, 161. From the Attic writers the grammarians 
quote et with the conj. {Bekk. Anecd. p. 144.) from Soph. Qjld. T. 868. 
in a chorus : et iroXXuiy vTrepTrXrjadfj fxaray (Stob. and a MS. in Erunck 
7/v TT.). (Ed. C. 1443. e'i aov areprjduif without V. r. et cro^os 37 from 
Cratinus. el ojart from Xen. Cyr. 3, 3, 50. where now eley instead of 
tJo-t is found. Plat. Leg. 12. p. 958 D. eire tis appijy, e'ire ris OrjXvs ^. 
Thomas M. p. 267. and Phavorinus quote Soph. Ant. 706. tcet tls n 
ff0(f)6sf as some MSS. read, others Ki^y ns y a. Thuc. 6, 21. et Evaroj- 
ffty is found with the v. r. f/j/ ^. The MSS. vary in many other places 
between ijy and et, so that it is uncertain whether the transcribers have 
been influenced by the custom of later times to join el with the conj., 

or the Atticists have substituted yy for et. The v. r. >V y"'} yeyijrai 

Herod. 8, 118. has the appearance of proceeding from a grammarian 
who has revised the Sancroft MS. There can be little doubt that the 
conj. is the correct reading ; but no good reason has yet been assigned 
why in these instances et, not i]y or eav, should have been joined with 

» Boeckh ad Pind. 11. cc. Heind. in Soph. CEd. C. p. 399. Matthije ad 
ad Plat. Prot. p,535. Reisig do Par- Eur. Hipp. 69:.. 
tic. uy, p. 104. Comp. Comm. Crit. ^ Herni. ad Viger. p. 831, 304. 

902 Sj/ntax, Of the Optative and Conjunctive 

it. See Herm, ad Soph. (Ed, C, 1445. (§. 52^^ 1, note.) ad Viger* 
p. 834. n. 312. 

c. riv occurs very rarely with the optative. Thuc. 3, 44. four MSS. 
have et re — ele>/, for riv re. Thorn. M. quotes this passage under el 
as an example of the use of »/v. Isocr. Pac, p. 168 C. aX\' ojiios ovrtos 
avTOvs ay air (JjjJLevy w<t0' vrrep fikv nai^iov tu)u yjfxerepiov riv irepi Tivas 
e^afiapTOiePf ovk ay edeXTjaaifJiep diKns viroa-^eiv, where Bekker has 
adopted el from the MS. Urbin. which has been revised and corrected 
by an Atticist. In both passages r/v is more correct ; but the opt. 
seems to have been caused by the opt. which immediately follows *. In 
Homer eUe with the opt. is frequent: see 8, «. Herod. 4, 196. the 
Aldine Ed. and many MSS. omit e't?/, for which we probably should 
read with Werfer e?;. 

d. riv is found also with the indie. Herod. 2, 13. 3, 69. and according 
to the best MS. 1, 206. (on) ^e ?)v /ueyaXws 'KpoOvfjieai). In later writers 
this is very common. But Xen. Anah. 7, 6, 24. where a repeated action 
is spoken of, we should read el irpoaioLTe for the common TrpoaiTjTe. 

Note. The protasis with el is often wanting, when it is easy to be 
supplied, as //. y', 52 sq. ovk av Bi] neiveias apr]i(pi\ov MeveXaov ; 
yvoirjs j^, o'iov ({xjjtos e^eis daXep^v TrapaKOiTiv, 'then thou wouldst 
perceive', comp. t', 245. 303. Od. rj', 278. Thuc. 1, 71. 2, 11. where 
ovru) serves for the protasis. Instead of this also the participle is often 
used: IL k, 246. tovtov ye (mofievoio kqI €k wvpos aWofxevoio 
ajjupb) vocrrriffaifjiev. Xen. Anah. 3, 1, 2. Sometimes the apodosis of 
the conditional proposition is wanting : as Eur. Hec. 1206. 6 ')(jpvaos, el 
(3ovXoio raXrjdri Xeyeij^, CKTeive rov efxbv Trat^a, for o bjxoXoyiiaeias av, ei 
(3ovXoio, as ib. 796. 

el signifies also ' whether', and is used with the conj. when the ques- 
tion is asked, what any one should do. Herod. 2, 52. exprjarrjpLa^ovro, 
el aveXiovrai Ta ovioijaTa. Xew. Cz/r. 8,4, 16. Of that which is repre- 
sented as real, el is used with the indie. Xen. Anah. 7, 3, 37. (TKe\pai, el 
6 'EXXrivcjv vofios koXXiov e'xei. Mem. S. 2, 2, 2. Of a future event 
yet to be investigated, eav with the conj. (TK€\paiy eav rode ao\ /jiaXXov 
apeffKT). See Schneider's note. In this sense it is often used ellipti- 
cally, especially in Homer, with the omission of Treipujjjievos, aKOTrwVf 
e. g. II. 4^', ^^' avTiKa Kr)pvK€(TffL XiyvcpBoyyoLCti KeXevaav, a^<fi rrvpl 
crrrjaai rpiTroda fji^yav, el Treiridoiev HrjXeidriVj since they wished to try 
* whether they could prevail upon Pelides'. In past actions el is put 
without av with the optative, in present or future actions, ei Ke, edv, 

• Ilerm. ad Viger. p. 823. n.591. Schgef. Melet. Crit. p. 87, 31. 

after Relatives. 903 

i)v with the conjunctive, e.g. II. v\ 172. y\avKiah}v l' Wvs ^eperat fi^vei, 
^v rtva 7r€(f>vr] av^puiy. ib. 463. 6 yuev avrios r'lKvQe, yovvioy, e'i ttojs 
€v tre^iloLTOi \a(ju)y, Kui ^u)by a(peir). Cornp. //. k\ 206. Thuc. 1, 
58. ITort^atarai le Trefixpayres fxky koX trap ^ ABr}vaiovs irpecrfteis, ei ttws 
Treiaeiay, &c. ib. 2, 77. Comp. 2, 12. 64. 7, 79. eTrcKeiyro, kui 
/idXiara rois varaTOis TrpoffTriTTToyTes, e'i ttws, Kara (ipa-^v rpexpdneyoi, 
irdv TO OTpdrev^a (pofji'i aeiay. Comp. 3, 45. Eurip. Androm. 44. 
^ei/jLarov/jieyr} 3' eyo/ Eofiioy TcdpoiKoy QeTidos els dydKropoy ddaffio roS* 
eXQovG, i]y ^e KojXvarf Oayely. The opt. is used of present actions 
when the doubtfulness of the result is to be strongly marked : Eur, 
Andr. 54. tKTivei ^Urfy, ei irws ra irpoade a(pd\^aT e^aiTOVfieyos deoy 
7rapd(T\oiT Is to Xoi-Koy evfxeyrj. and with ai^ Xen. Mem. S, 4, 2, SO. 
The infinitive is omitted when it occurs again in the proposition with elf, 
II. 7/', S75. Kcu he T()h' eiTrefjLeyaL TrvKiyoy eiros (viz. Travaraadai TToXefiov), 
ui K eOeXojffiy TraixraadaL TroXefioio. Comp. 394. Herod. 6, 101. In this 
case it may be often changed into ' that', ut^. 

4. Of the Optative and Conjunctive after the Relatives, oc, 
oariQ, oloG, OTTOv, oBep, Sfc, 

1. If the relatives refer to definite persons or things, they 527. 
are followed by the indicative. But if the person or thing be 
indefinite, i. e. if any person or thing of a kind, or every person 
or thing to which the accompanying definitions are applicable, 
be signified only generally, where in Latin quicunque or si quis 
is put; then the verb may he in the optative or conjunctive; 
in the optative without av, when the whole proposition affirms 
something of past time ; in the conjunctive with aV, when it 
affirms something of present or future time. //. |3', 188. ovriva 
/uLev fjacTiXria Kai e^o^oif avSpa Ki'^elt), tov ^ ayavolc, eirkeaGiv 
epriTvaacTKe TTapaarac 198. ov S av ^r]fAOv t av^pa [Sot, 
po6(Jt)VTa T e(f)evpoif rov GKr]Trrpii) eXaaaaKe. Comp. k,489. 
On the other hand, Agamemnon says, //. j3', 39 1 . ov ^e k e-ywi/ 
airavevQe fxayjic eOeXovra vorj(7<t» jULip-va^eiv irapa vrjvai KoptO' 
vLiJiVy ov oi eneiTa apKiov ecFiTelrai (pvyeeiv kvvuq 17S oiu)vovc. 
Eurip. Troad. 380. ouc '' Kpr\c, eXoi, ov iral^ac, ei^ov, ou ^a- 
fiiapToc ev yepol.v ireirXoic, avvearaXri<jav, ' all who fell in battle*. 
Thuc. 7, 29. iravraQ e^y)C, oru) evrv'^oiev, kql TraTSac Kai 
yvva^Kac kt€ivovt€g ' whomsoever they might meet'. Comp. 

^ V. ad II. Homer, (ed. Lips. 1805.) p. C. Reisig Enarr. (Ed. C. 1761. 

904 Sj/ntax. Of the Optative and Coujanctive 

Xen, Anah. 2, 5, 32. 6, 13. 25. Thuc. 2, 34. fxia Se kXivt] 
KevTi cfyeperai ecTTpio/nevrj twv a(j)av(jjVj ot av fjirj evpeOtJcriv 

{si qui non inveniuntur) eic, avaipecjiv. avrip rjpnfxevoQ 

VTTO rrjc TToXewc, he av yvhj/unn re coKy /jtrj a^vveroc elvai kol 
a^iwjmaTL TTporjKr), Xeyet. II. p , 48. ottttt? t i6v(Ty, ''"J ^ 
eiKovcTL (TTi^ec avdptjv. Thuc. 2, 11. enecyOe, oiroi av tiq 
riyrjrai. But Xen. Anah. 4, 2, 24. jua^O)uevoi Se ot TroAc/iuoi 
/cat OTTTj e\ri arevov yjitypiov TrpOKaTaXap[5avovT€c, ekioXvov tuq 
napo^ovc. The conjunctive in this case is mostly put in general 
propositions, when something is expressed which happens 
usually, and at this time also, e. g. Xen. Mem. S. 4, 2, 29. 
opaQ ^e Kai twv TroXeisJv on oaai av ayvoriaaaai Trjv iavTMV 
cvvapiv Kpe'irroGi 7ro\eini](T(i)(nv, ai fiev avacfraTOi yiyvovrai, 
at §e ef eXevdepwv ^ovXai. and passim. 

Ohs. 1. In some places, however, the conjunctive or optative is used, 

where the opt. or conj. slioukl be; a. Od. rj', 23. ov yap o'lde 

ay arra^o per 01 (fyiXeova, vs k liXXodev eXdoi. since here not only a 
person generally, quicunque, but also the accidental nature of his coming, 
is indicated. //. a', 549. the opt. edeXoipi leaves it uncertain whether 
he will decide aTravevde Oeuiv. Both these passages belong rather to 
§. 528. those belong to this head in which av is omitted. Xen. Cyr. 
1, 6, 19. Tov per avTOV Xeyeiv, a pri (ra^ws elhelr}, (peidecrdai ^et ' what 
he perhaps does not know'. Comp. 2,4, 10. where ovs av tls (3ovXr}TaL 
is first used, because all occupations whatever are spoken of, where an 
expression of mere possibility would be unsuitable, as a awepyos must 
be so in some one thing, in the 2nd member ovs tis j^ovXolto^ because a 
specific occupation is spoken of. ih. 7, 5, 66. there is a khid of oratio 
ohliqua. Eur. Herac. 19. 

h. The opt. is often used, because it is found in the main proposition. 
//. y', 299. OTnrorepoi irporepoi inrep opKia tttj pi)v€iav, (o^e acf eytce- 

(paXos )(ajua3is peoL Tj 58. 521. p'j 228. Soph. Track. 953. ei& 

avepoearad ris yevoir eirovpos €(7ri<jJTis avpa, iJTts ^' cnroiKiffeiev ck 
roTTiov. Ar'ist. Vesp. 1431. Plat. Farm. p. 138 B. ev aXX« fuLev ov 
KvuXb) TTOv av TrepiiyoiTO vtv tKcivov, ev to av e'ltj (from ev w av i], and 
ev w eirj). id. Rep. 8. p. 557 B.' 

c. The conj. is sometimes used for the opt. when there is a transition 
from the oratio obliqua to the recta. Herod. 1, 29. opKioiari jxeyaXotai 
Karei^ovTO ^Adrjvaloif ^eKa eVea ^pljcreadai vopoiffi, rovs av a(f>i ^6Xu)v 

» llerm. ad Soph. Aj. VIOO. Schcef. App. Dem. 1. p. 436. 

afUr Relatives. 905 

Ohs, 2. CIV is usually put in the construction with the conj., but is 
omitted in that with the opt.** Yet there are exceptions to this too. 
Av is omitted in the construction with the conjunctive, not only in the 
poets, but even in prose writers. Herod. 2, 85. Plat, Ale. \, p. 134 E. 
Comp. Thuc. 4, 17. Isocr. Panath. p. 248 D. InXen. Mem. S. 1, 6,13, 
Bans ^e, ov av yvcS €V(pva ovray di^dffKijjy 6 ti ay e^?; ayadoy, ^iXou 
TroirjraL &:c. the preceding civ appears to belong to the following conj. 
also*^. dv stood with the opt. Plat. Rep. 8. p. 557 D. KivdvyeveL 7<p 
joovXoiJievci) TToXtv KaraaKevdi^eiy avayKoioy elvai, eh ^■qfxoKpaTovixevr]v 
eXQovTL TToKiVf OS av avrov apecxKoi TpoTroSf tovtov cKXeliaffdaif but 
Bekker reads apeak-r). In Soph. (Ed. T. 77. eyw kukos firj ^pioy ay eirjy 
7rdyd\ Off av ^rjXol devs, which passage is quoted by Burgess I. c, 
^rjXol is the conj. So the reading is doubtful in Xe7t. Anah. 2, 6, 25. 
ScTovs fiev [av] alcrOayoiTo. Other passages in which os dv is found 
with the opt. have been corrected from MSS., or belong to §. 528. 

Obs. 3. The fut. is used for the conj. //. k, 43. XP^^ PovXrjs efxe Kai 
aCf ^iorpecpes to MeveXae, Kep^aXerjs, »/rts Key epvaerai r)^e (raofO'et 
'Apyeiovs Kal vrjas, where, however, both may be the old form of the 
conjunctive. Comp. 282. //. e, 747. Od. a', 101. //. t', 508. But in 
Eurip. Ale. 11 . the better MSS. have dyviffrf for ayviaeif which at 
least would be ayviet. Of Plat. Leg. 12. p. 947 C. ovs ay ol Trpocr- 
y'jKovTes Tov reXevTrjaayTos eir oxpovraL see Buttm.L.Gr. 2. p, 201, note, 
and this Grammar, Vol. T. p. 424. 

2. From these are to be distinguished the passages in vs^hich 528. 
the optative is put after relatives, in the sense which it 
usually has in independent propositions §.514 seq. Here it 
regularly takes av, and is found even when a present action is 
spoken of. //. 9 , 292. wpujrit) rot fxer efxe irpeaf^rjiov ev Yep. 

6r}G(jj, rje yvval.'^ , rjKeu rot Ojuov Xe^oc eiaavaj^aivoi, 

'may ascend'. Comp. k, 166. t\ 451. Od. o, 21. p\ 586. 
Herod. 6, 44, Soph. Ant, 912. Eur. Heracl, 975. ovk. ecm 
rovrov octtic av KaraKravoi, Thuc, 2, 39. Kai ovk effriv, ore 
l^evrjXaalaic; aire'ipyofxkv nva r) fxaOrijuaroc;, r) Oea/maTOQ, o /uli) 
KpvC^dev av TIC, rtjv TroXejLUtjv tSwv d>^eX»j0eii/. Comp. 7, 77. 

'' Dawes Misc. Cr. p. 82. On the ad Aj. 1074. App. Dem. 1. p.657not. 

other side Burgess, p. 501. Monk ad Faif. Ale. 76. Stalib. ad 

" Brunck ad.yEsch. S. c. Th. 259. Plat. Phil. p.G2scq. Comp.Bornem. 

Soph. a^d. C. 395. Pors. ad Eur. Or. ad Xcn. Apol. S. p. 60. Reisig de 

141. Med. 222. Matthiie ad Il.Honi. Part. dv. p. 111. Elmsl. ad Soph, 

p. 83. Lob. ad Soph. Aj. 759. Schaif. CEd. C. 395. 

VOL. II. 2 D 

906 Syntax. Of the Optative in the oratio obliqua. 

Plat, Gorg. p. 456 C. ov yap e^rri, Tre^oi orov ovk av TriBa- 
viorepov enroi o pi^ropiKoc ri aWoQ ocrrKJOvv, Phadon. p.S9T). 
Comp.501C. Euthi/d. p. 27 4E, with HeindorPs note, p. 3 11. 
and to mark the indefiniteness more distinctly Phadon. p. 1 1 E. 
peya av powrjc, on ovk olaOa aXXwc ttcoc eKacrrov yiyvo/Lievov, 
r) peraayov rr]Q i^'iac, ova'iac, eKaarov, ov av peraay^oi, 'of 
whichever they may partake'. Thiic. 7, 48. So after tVa 
'where' Soph. Qild. C. 405. ov 'where' Eur, Orest. 638. wc, 
OTTwq ' how' Arist. Nub, 1181. 

Obs. av is sometimes wanting with this opt. Soph. Phil. 693. 'iv 
avTOS ^v Trpoffovpos, ovk eximv fiaariv, ovde tlv ey^^^wptoy KaKoyeirova, Trap* 
(o arovov arrlrvTrop j3apvl3pu)r ciTroicXavaeiev alfjiaTrjpoy, II. ^', 348. 
Soph. (Ed, C. 1172. /cat tis ttot effrlvf ov y eyw xpe^aipl ri, JEsch, 
Prom. 291. Comp. Choeph. 169. Eur. Iph. T. 592. Lys, in Diogit. 
p. 905. ed. Reiske. Eur. Ale. 52. Soph. (Ed. T. 979. Arist. Ran. 96. 
where the preceding av belongs to Xa/cot also. Plat, Euthyd. p. 292 E. 
Tis TTOT €(Tt\v f] eTTiffTYipr) €Kelvrj, >/ yjficis ev^alpovas ttolij aeiev. but 
immediately follows : p. 293 A. ris ttot ear\v fj eTnarTYifxi], i]s rvx^vres 
av KaXios tov errlXoiTrov (3iov B leXdoipev. Xen. Mem. /iS. 2, 1, 23. 
errdrjraf di ^s av fxaXiarra // (l)pa diaXapiroi. See §.515. Obs. Other 
cases §. 529, 4. 

3. The relative also is frequently used for tva, as in Latin qui 
for ut. Od. o J 457 . Kai tot ap ayyeXov r]KaVf oq ayyeiXeie 
yvvaiKi. II. I y \Qb. KXr]TovQ oTpvvofxev, o'l fee eXOcja . In 
this sense in //. a, 36. oq k eiwy, the reading of the Cod. 
Vienn. would require to be understood; but oc k eiiroi means 
qui fort asse dicat, Comip. Thuc. 7 ,25. Xeu. Mem, S.2,l,l4, 

The Optative in the oratio obliqua. 

529. When anything that has been said or thought by another 
is quoted as such, not as an idea of the writer, and yet not in 
the words of the speaker, but in narration, i. e. in oratione 
obliqua, the optative is frequently used, and without av. (for 
in Xen, Anab. 1, 6, 2. KaTaXXayeic, ^e outgo Kvpio, elrrev, 
€1 avTio Soi»j Imreac yjX'iovQ, oti tovq npoKaTaKaiovTac iTnreac 
-n KaTttKaivoi av eve^pevaac, rj ^wi^raq ttoXXovg avTiov eXoi &c. 
Comp. ib, 1, 9, 10. the opt. is in the apodosis with av after a 
condition.) This opt. then is used 1. after all particles, even 

Syntax. Of the Optative in the oratio ubliqua. 907 

those which are compounded with av, as orav, eneiBav^, 8cc. 
Od, I, 331. axjTap Touc aWovc, KXrjpio ireTraXayOai avayyov, 
OffTiQ ToXjur/tretev e^ot avv ^o^Xov aeipac, rpi\pai ev o(j)0a\iii(Oy 
ore TOP yXvKVQ vwuoc iKavoi, Thuc. 2,21. oi Ayapvrjc, eKa- 
Ki^ov TOvTiepiKXea, on (JTpary]yoc, wi/ ovk eire^ayoi, Comp. 
Xen, Anab, 4, 3, 29. id. Agesil. 1, 10. TKTaracpepvric; /uev 
wfjLoaev Ayr)ai\cnx), ei aTreiaairOj ktvc kXOoieu, ovc, 7refx\peie 
npoc jSacTiXea ayyeXovc. Comp. Thuc. 2, 7 extr. 80 extr. 
Plat. Rep. 10. p. 614 C. tovq ^iKaffrac, eirei^rj Sia^iKa- 
ffeiav, TOVQ pcv BiKaiovc KeXeveiv nopeveaOai ttiv eiQ de^iav. 
Xen, Anab. 1, 9, 11. evyjiv rivec avrov el[e(j)€pov, ioq eu^otro 
TOGOVTOV '^povov ZSiVf ec re viKtorj /cat tovc ev Kai tovq kukijjq 
iroiovvTUQ aXe^ofievoQ. Thus the optative is to be explained 
Xen, Hist, Or, 2, 1 extr. Av^rav^poQ, <I>iXofcXea irpwTOv epw- 

Tr}(TaQ,OQTOVQ*Av^pLOVQKaLKopivO'lOVQ K UT tt K pt] /ilV I G € I €j TL 

eiTf a^ioQ iradelv, ap^apevoQ er/ EXX?j»/ao Trapavoinelpj aireaipd^eu. 

where oq KaTaKprffjiviffeie are words from the question of 

Lysander, and properly the construction runs thus : tl eirj 

tti^ioQ iraOelv eKcivoQ, oc KaTaKpripviaeie, qni pracipit asset, 

qua is pana dignus esset, not Philoclem, qui pnecipitaverat. So 
in the indirect question Soph. Track. 772. ivTavOa Sri f36r}<Te 

TOi/ Svadaipova Aiyav Troiaic eveyKai TOvSe pit'^avaiQ 


2. In particular the optative is put in this case after oti, wq, 
whether the action belong to the present, past, or future time. 
Herod. 9, 41. l^ovXevofxevtov Se aiSe riaav al yvwixai' i) pev 

ApTaj3atov, u)Q \pewv e\r] avat^v^avTaQ levai. Comp. c. 44. 

T^huc. 1, 72. eSo^ev qvtoIq 7rapiTr)Tea eq tovc AaKeSaipoviovQ 
elvai, SrjX(x}(jai irepi tou iraVTOQ, b)Q0v TaykwQ avTolQ povXevTeov 
eU. Comp. 2, 13. 57. 72. Soph. Phil. 343. ^X0ov---g7oc t 

OSvG(J€VQ yjUJ Tp0<pCVQ TOV pOV TTilTpOQ, XeyOVTeQ, " • - W Q OV 

OepiQ yiyvoLT , €7rei KaTe(j)0iTO iraTrip epoQ, to. irepyap aXXov 
?J p' eXetv. Comp. Plat, Gorg. p. 460 E. — Plat. Phccdon. 
p, 57 B. ayyeiXai, oti (pappaKov ttiwv airoOavoi ' that he was 
dead*. Xen, Anab. 1, 2, 21. t^ ^e vaTepaia riKev ayyeXoQ 

* Herm. ad Vig. p. 786, 244. 792, Comm. Crit. in Soph. CIaI. C. p. 320. 
256. Poppo ad Xen. Cyr. 4, 2, C. dc Part. ay. p. 114. Elmsl. ad (Ed. 
Of the orat. oblupia generally Ileisig C. 945. 

2 D 2 

908 Syntax, Of the Optative in the oratio obliqua. 

\eyu)V, on XeXocTrwc e\r\ ^vevveaic, ra aKpa. id. Mem, Sf 2, 
6, 1 3. riKOvcra juev, on TIepiKXric TroXXac (eTrw^ac) eir iffTaiTO, 
ac ewa^MV rrj TToXet eiroiei avrriv (piXelv avrov, for on ri7n<JTaT0. 
Comp. Thuc. 2, 5. 6. 48. Xen. Hell. 2, 1, '^\.—Soph. CEd. 

T. 790. o <I>o?j3oc TTpovC^avr) Xeywv, (I>c /mvrpi f^ev \peir) 

fue juiyOrivai, yevoQ S IltXtitov avQptiJiroKJi orjXwo"ot^ opav, 
(j>ovevc S' eaoifxr]v tov (pvrevaavroc irarpoQ. Comp. Thuc. 
2, 2. Ill future actions also, instead of the future another 
tense is used. Herod. 7, 6. ^^orjo-juov, wc ai eTrt Arj/mvov eiriKei- 
jiievai vrjaoi a^avi^otaro Kara rrja OaXaacrriQ. 

3. Sometimes also in these optatives tha or on is omitted. 
JEschyl, Agam. 615. ravr aTrayyetXoi/ Troaet, T^fceti^ ottwc 
Ta^KTT* epaa/uLiov iroXet' yvvaiKa TrKTTrjv S ev oo/xotr, euyoot 
fioXtJV, o'lav nep ovv eXenre. Soph. Phil. 615. virea-^ero tov 
avZp Avaioic TovSe o>;Xw(Tefv ayu)v' o'loiro juer paXiaO , 
BKOvcTiov Xa(3u)v, 8cc. P/«^. lie'/). 4. p. 420 C. ei i7iuac av^pi- 
avrac ypa(j)ovTac npoaeXOivv tiq expeye, Xeywv, on ov toIc 
KaXXi(TTOic TOV ^wou ra KaXXicTTa (papjuaKa irpotjTiQefJLev' oi 
yap o^OaXjUOt kqXXkjtov ou, ovk ocTTpeiw evaXrjXi/jiiuevoi eieif, 
aXXa peXavi. Comp. ib. 10. p. 614 D. Symp. p. 201 A. 
Epist. 7. p. 328 C. Phcedon. p. 95 D. Xen. Anah. 7, 3, 13.^ 

4. The opt. is used not only when something is expressly 
given as having been said or related by another, but in order 
to intimate that it was said or thought by another. Soph. El. 
627. TTpoc, opyriv eK(pep€i, jueOelaa f.ioi Xe-yeti^ a y^pi^Z,oij.ii, in 
reference to v. 556. where we may conceive the permission of 
Cleon to be given in the words e(^ir)fxi aoi Xeyeiv a av y^py^^r)c,. 
CEd. T. 1245. eAcaXei tov h^r] Kaiov iraXai veKpov, juvtijULrjv 
TToXaiojv aweppaTOJV e^oucr , i*^ cjv Oavoi /j.ev auroc, t77»^ ^e 
TiKTOvcrav XiTToi Sic. as that which he called to mind. ib. 796. 
Trach. 903. Kpv\pa(y ejuavT7]v evOa jliii tk eiai^oi, nbi se a 
nemine visum iri credebat. On the other hand in the orat. 

recta Aj, 658. Kpvxpu) Tod eyx^^ tovkiov yaiac opvl^ac 

evOa fill TIC oxpCTai, 

5. The Greeks often quote the words of another narratively, 
and yet suddenly change into the orat. recta as if the person 

• Schacf. in Dion. H. 1 . p. 102. Heind. ad Phaedon. p. 129 seq. 

Sj/ntax. Of the Optative in the oratio obliqua. 909 

himself spoke. Xea. Hell. 2, \, 25. ('AXK:i/3taS»jc) ovk ev KaXt^ 

e(j)rj avTOVQ opfxelv, aWa fxeQopfxiaai ec 2t?(TTOv napyjvei 

ov ourec, vau/ia^rJcreTe, e(j)ri, orau jSouXr/cr^e. Xen. Anah. 1, 

3, 14. etc ^e ^77 etTre 7rc/n^pai irpoKaraXriipo/nevovc ra aKpa, 

OTTCJC /birj <pOdaov(Jiv o KvpoQ jLiijre 01 KtXt/cec KaTaXapoPTeCj OJV 
TToWovc Kai TToXXa y^pi\fxara ky^ofxev ripTraKorec Cyrop. 1, 

4, 28. Comp. 2, 3, 4. Lys, Epitaph, p. 192,32. So //. o, 
347. Eur. Hel. 1683.^ Hence the imperat. after relatives 
§. 51 1, 5, 6. the conj. after tW for the opt. §. 519. Thus they 
put (Lc, on itself before the actual words of the speaker, Herod, 

2, 115. See §. 624. "Ort. c. 

Hence they often combine both kinds of speech, keeping the 
persons or the infin. from the or at. ohliqua, the tenses and 
moods from the orat. recta, e. g. Xen. Hell. 2, 1, 24. Avaav- 
cpoQ ce raQ ray^icTrac xwt' vetjjv CKeXevGev eireaOai toiq AOtf- 
vaioK;' ineidav Se e/cjSwcri, Karidovrac o ri iroiovffiv, airo- 
TrXeiv. On the same ground the Greeks, in narration, con- 
sider the main verb as well as the accompanying circumstances 
of an event as present, and hence use the present indie. : Herod. 

1, 164. o ^e ' ApTTayoc, CTToXio^/cee avTOvc, TrpOKJ^ojuievoci 

fc'Trea, wc 01 Karay^pa, e'l (^ovXovrai ^loKaieec Trpojuiayjetjua 
eva jLiovvov rou Te/^eoc epelxpai. Thuci/d. 2, 8. 17 oe evvoia napa 
TToXu fcVo/et Twv avOpwTTtjjv jLiaXXov ec tovq AaKeSaip.oviovQ, 
aXXtjQ re Kai TTpotnrovTtjJVf on ttjv EXXaSa eXevOepovcriv. 
se id agere, ut Grceciam in libertatem vindicent, Comp. 2, 13. 
Hence the indie, is used in the orat. obliqua as often as the opt. 
§. 507, 3. and the indie, and opt. are intermixed : Herod. 1, 86. 

eXeye ^77, wc r)XOe ap^riv o 2oXwi/, Kai Oer/aa/uevoc Trai/ra 

Tov ecjvTOv oXj3ov a7ro(pXavpi<j€i€. Herod. 3, 61. ovtoq ^rj 
(jijv 01 eiraveGTYi, juaOwv re toi' ^jnep^iaQOavarov J>c k pvirroiTO 
yevopeuoQy Kai u)q oXtyoi re r\aav ot eiriGrajueuoi avrov Hep' 
aetoVf ot ^€ TToXXot irepieovTa fxw e'lZeiriaav. 9, 38. ib. 69. 
Comp.5,97. Eur. Hel. 525 seq. Arist.Vesp,2S2. Thuc. 2, 80. 
Isocr. de Big. p. 348 A. et<T^-yyeXXoy etc ttjv ^ovXrjv Xeyovrec, 
u)C o irarrjp avvayei fxev ttiv iraipiav em v€(x)Tepoic irpaypaaiVj 
ovTOi ^e ev ry UoXvtiijjvoq oiKia avv^enrvovvrea ra fxvaTr)pia 

^ Wyttenb. Bibl. Crit. 3, 3. p. 99. Comp. Heind. ad Phadon. p. 129, 

3, 4. p. 10. Scha f. Melet. p. 102. ad Prot. p. 510. 

910 Sj/ntax. Ojlhe Infinitive and Parliciple. 

TTOirjffaiev. id, Trapezit. p. 369 A. eXeyev, on eXevOepoQ 
e(rTi Kai to yevoQ eii? MiXrlfftoc, Trejuxpeie ^e avrov Jlaaiwv, 
Thus the indicative and optative after on in the sense of ' be- 
cause', are interchanged Herod, 8, 70. apptjdeov, on avrol 
jitei', ev 2aXa/.ui^t Karrifievoij virep yrjc rrjc; AOrfvaiuju vavfxay^eeiv 
fxeWoiev, viKtjOevTec, ^e eu vy](j(j) cnroXainCJyOevreG iroXiop- 
Kr)(TovTai. and after other particles or relatives Xen. Anab, 
3, 5, 19. ojiioioi ifauv OaviJ,at,ovr€(;, owoi nore r pexpovrai oi 

' E,\Xr)V6Q Kal r'l ev vi^ ey^oiev^. 

Of the Distinction between the Infinitive and the 


530. If a verb is governed of another verb or an adjective, a 
double relation is established, according to which the use of 
the infinitive and participle or certain particles is determined : 

Either the leading verb or adjective conveys in itself a 
complete and independent idea, and ihe first member of the 
proposition requires no addition to define it more exactly ; 

Or it has in itself no complete idea, but expresses an action 
which only becomes complete by the addition of its reference. 
Thus the verbs * I pray, I persuade, I will', &c. always require 
an addition which expresses ' for what I pray, to what I per- 
suade any one, what I will*. 

When the former verb is complete in itself, or when an entire 
complete proposition precedes, the purpose is expressed by the 
conjunctions ii^a, o(j)pa, OTroic, e. g. irapaivw <joi paOelv ypafn- 
fnara, iva (TO(f)u)TepoQ yevg, but the consequence, which is not de- 
signed, by loare with the infin. This takes place especially 
after the words of comparison, too-outoc, toiovtoc, ovtcjc;. 

If, on the contrary, the preceding principal verb or adjective, 
or the main proposition in itself has no complete idea, the 

* Stallb. ad Plat. Euthyphr. p. 107. of two difFerent constructions appears 

endeavours to establish a distinction, to have taken place here. Comp. 

but none has been suggested that is llcind. ad Plat. Soph. p. 439 seq. 
applicable to all cases, and a mixture 

Syntax, Of the Infinitive and Participle, 911 

relation of the second verb to the first is expressed by the 
infin. or the participle : which of the two is to be used depends 
on their respective nature. 

The Infinitive expresses an action absolutely, and without 
necessary reference to the person acting or suffering. Hence it 
takes the place of a substantive, and expresses all those re- 
lations to a verb which the cases of a substantive express. As 
subject in the nom., or obj. in the accus., it may be with or 
without the article ; in other cases it requires the article. 

The Participle, on the other hand, represents an action as a 
quality found in a person or thing, and therefore expresses the 
proper object of a verb. 

Thus in the propositions, ' I will write, I command you to 
write, I admonish you, warn you to go', &c. the English in- 
finitive is the designed consequence of the first verb, and is in 
most cases expressed in Latin by ut. In the propositions dicit 
se venturnm esse, credo animiim esse immortalem, S^c. the Latin 
infinitive expresses only the object of the governing verb, and 
in niveus videri, the respect in which niveus is to be taken, 
snow-white in outward appearance. On the contrary, in the 
propositions ' I saw him fall, I heard him say*, scio me esse 
mortalem, intelligo me errasse, the infinitive is merely the ob- 
ject, and the immediate object, not the purpose of the verbs 
' to see, hear, know, perceive'. 

Hereupon are founded the following rules : 

1. When a verb or adjective of incomplete meaning is fol- 
lowed by a verb which expresses the purpose or the consequence 
of it, the latter in Greek is put in the infinitive, without a con- 
junction. The infinitive then in part answers to the infinitive in 
Latin after the verbs volo, malo, nolo, cupio, conor, audeo, &c. 
when the subject of the two actions is the same, in part to the 
conjunctions, ut, ne, qnominus: e. g. orote, ut venios, hortorte, 
ut scribaSfimpulit me, ut discerem, persuasit tnihi, ut jiroficis* 
cerer, imperavit mihi, ut ad te irem, impedivit me, quominns 
scriberem, must be rendered in Greek by the infinitive : ^eo/nai 
aov eXOelv, irapaivtjj rroi y pa(^eiv, ircipio^vvcv e/ne {.lav- 
Gave IV, cweiaev e^tte wopevefrOai, CKcXcvaev epc{cfi(n) irpoQae 

912 Syntax, Of the Infinitive and Participle. 

e\Be1v, eKU)\vak fue ypcKpeiv or jui) ypa(j)eiv. Usually in 
this case, no conjunction is put with the infinitive or conj. opt. 
instead of the simple infinitive, although some few passages are 
found in which conjunctions are used; of which hereafter. 

2. When a verb of incomplete meaning is accompanied by 
another, which marks merely the object of the former, the 
latter is put in the participle, sometimes where in Latin the 
participle is used, as video te scrihentem, audio te docentem, 
opw ae ypa(j)ovra, ukovu) <t€ Si^aaKovra, sometimes after verbs, 
which indicate a perception by means of the external senses, or 
the understanding (verba sensuum), where in Latin the accus. 
with the infin. is used, as scio me esse mortalem, sentio te iratum 
esse, Sec. ol^a Bvyitog wv, aiaOavo/jiaL ae yaXeTraiVovra. 

The distinction of the construction with the infinitive and 
with the participle is most clearly shown, when the same verb 
takes, according to its different senses, sometimes one, some- 
times the other mood, e. g. fxaOeiv ' to perceive', has the par- 
ticiple Mschyl, Prom. 62. tVa ^a0^ ao^iGrriQ iov tou Aioq 
v(i)6e(TTepoQ. But p. 'to learn', has the infinitive Xen. Cyr. 

4, 1, 18. et paOr](TovTai evavriovaOai. Thus too yiyvLjoKeiv 
Thuc. 1, 102. eyvuiaav cnroirepiropevoi 'they perceived that 

they were sent away'; but Soph. Antig. 1089. 'iva yvio 

Tpe(j)eiv rriv yXwaaav r]Gvyu)repaVf 'that he may learn', as 
Eur. ap. Pint. 2. p. 603 A. Xen. Anab. 3, 2, 25. Comp. 
Plat. Pep. 10. j9. 619 A. So the infinitive follows yvi^vai 
' to resolve'. Isocr. Trap. p. 361 D. — MepvrjaOai with partic. 
§. 549, 6. with infin. Xen. Anab. 3, 2, 29. Hence Pind. Pyth. 

5, 30. uses prj XaOero) with an infin. Theocr. 1 1 , 64. — Ei^evat 
' to know', with partic. §. 548, 2. but ' to know how to do any- 
thing', with the infin. Seiph. Aj. Q(yQ. eiaopeada Oeolc, e'lKeiv. 
Comp. 11. t/, 238 seq. Soph. Ant. 472. Eur. Ale. 577. Troad. 
1048. iow.953. Isocr.TT.avTi^. p. 3\5D. ^eiKvvvai Ho show', 
with the partic. §. 549, 5. but 'to teach', with the infin. Eur. 
Andr, 707. 1003. — Tloielv 'to make', is followed regularly by 
the infinitive : aperrJQ Trotrjcrac eniOvpeiv Xen. Mem. S. 1,2, 2. 
qnum faceret, ut virtuli studerent. but ttohTlv 'to represent*, 
has the object in the participle, as in Latin : Isocr. Evag. 
p, 190 D. ToTc Troir^TOiG Tovc OeovQ o'lov r eari TTOiijffai Kai 

Syntax. Of the hijinitive, 913 

^laXeyofxevovc, kcli Gvva^dyvi'Co^evovc,, o'lc, av povArjuuxTiv. 
(iroielv 'to put the case*, Xen. Anab, 5, 7, 9. has the infini- 
tive, as voiJ.i^(t), Xe-ytu.) 

Of the Infinitive. 

The Infinitive is therefore used 

I. After verbs which imply any purpose whatever, and re- 531, 
quire the addition of this purpose or its effect, by means of 
another verb (consequently in the same way as the accusative 
denotes the result of the action §.408 seq.) ; and sometimes, 
when the subject of both verbs remains the same, as ' to wish, 
to desire', eOeXto, jSovAo^uai, emOviuLeu), eTnyeipkw (conor), irei- 
paofjLaiy ToXfuLao), ^vvafxai, €)(^a> in the sense of ' I can*, ^ia~ 
voeiadai ' to meditate', eiri^ovXeveiv Arist, Pint, 1111.* t'Jeari 
{licet), oiov T eari, jueAXw, irpoaipeofxai (statuo), e'lcoOa ' I am 
accustomed*, juavOavu) ' I learn*, ^tSacr/cw ' I teach*, and others, 
which in other languages also are followed by the infinitive ; 
sometimes, where the subject is changed, where in Latin ut 
must follow : thus, after the verbs ' to pray', Seo^tat, XiGcrofxai, 
iKerevd) : ' to exhort', irapaiveci) : ' to remind*, vovOered) : ' to 
urge', TrporpeTTtt) : ' to persuade', ireiOd) : ' to order', KeXemo, 
irpoaraTTU): 'to prohibit*, oTra-yo^evw: ' to permit', eTriT/oeTrw : 
' to trouble one's self, airov^dto/LiaL : ' to counsel', (rvfifiovXevio : 
' to CQ.use\ facere iit, ttoiclVj Karepya^eaOai, (e. g. Xen. Mem. 
S. 2, 3, 11. ei Tiva tujv yvojpiijuov f5ovXoio Kare pyacFacrBai, 
oirore Ovoi, KaXelv ae eiri SeiTrvov, r'l av 7^otol^7c; Plat. Hep. 2. 
p. 360 A. ^lanpal^aaOai twv ayyeXtov yevkcjQai twv irepi tov 
(3aaiXea, id egisse, operam dedisse, iit^.) * it falls out*, crviii(iaiif€L : 
'it is just, necessary, requisite*, ^iKaiov eariv, avayKr] eari, 
io(j)eXiiJi6v eari, and after several others. Instances occur every- 

For the same reason the infinitive is put after 7re(pvKevai, 
ita natura comparatum esse, ut. Soph. Phil. 80. e^oi^a Kal 
(pvaei ae jurj TrecpvKora roiavra (jxvvelv, price Te^vaffOai 

* Pors. ad Eur. Hcc. Add. 1161. •' llerm. ad Viger. p. 744, 195. 

p. 103. ad Arist. Pac. 405. 

914 Sj/nlax. Of the hijinitive. 

KaKa. th, 88. k(j)vv yap ov^ev €K T€'yvr}C irpaoa eiv fco/cwc. 
Comp. Antig. 523. Thucyd, 2, 64. Comp. Vlat, Qraty], 
p, 387 B. C. D. 

So the infinitive is used after ^o/cei, placet, ' it seems good', 
e. g. So/ceT eiri^iCjKeiv Herod. 8, 108. comp. 102. after Xe-yeiv, 
when any effect is to be produced by speaking, e. g. Eur, 
Troad. 724. Ae^aq apicTTOv iroL^a jtiri rpeCpeiv Trarpoc, 'that 
they should not support'; after \pav Herod. 5, 80. ^okeo) toi/ 
Oeov y^pr)(jai rfjuuv ^eeaOai AiyivYiredyv ' that we should entreat' ; 
after Xo-yt^eo-^at Eur. Or est. 555. eXoyiaafxriv fi afivvai ' that 
I ought to help'. Plat. Prot. p. 346 B. r]yr\aaTO Ka\ avroQ 
eiraiveaai ' thought that he ought to praise'. See Heind. note. 
p. 595 seq.^ So the infinitive is put after TrapaaKevdt^aOai 
also. Thuc. 3, 110. ry aWrj cFTparia afxa napeaKeva^ero 
PorjOe^v eir avrovc, ad opem suis contra illos ferendam se 
pra^parabat. Yet here the participle also is pat. See §. 551. 
Obs. 1. 

Ohs. 1. The verbs which denote to care for anything, eTripcXeTadai, 
(ppoyri^eiv, dpdvf aKOTveiv^ take not the simple infin. but this with the 
article in the gen. or else ws, ottws. Xen. Cyr. 2, 1, 29. kizejieXeTo le 
KoX Tovde 6 Kvpos, OTTios [lyTTOTe ai'i^poJTOi yevojievoL CTrt to upiarov Kal 
TO delirpov elaioiev, and passim. When Treideiv is not followed by the 
action which it is the purpose of the persuasion to produce, but by the 
object of the persuasion, where in Latin the accus. with the infin. is 
used after persuadere, then otl or a>s is generally used : e. g. Xen. Mem. 
S. in, TToWcLKLS edavfiaaay Ttai Trore Xoyois 'Adrji'aiovs eireiffav ol ypa- 
\pafX€POL '^(jjKpa.TTjVf ws ci^ios eir] dayciTov rfj TroXet. but also the infin. 
§. 533, After the verbs of fearing firj is used. See §. 519. 

Obs. 2. These verbs nevertheless are sometimes followed by a con- 
junction ; as, 

MSf oTTus, which here also properly denotes *how, in what manner'. 
//. 0', 459. TTCtjO^, ojs Key Tpojes virepcpiaXoL airoXioyTai, where the infin. 
could not be cnroX^ffdai, but airoXXvyai. Comp. Od. /3', 316. Herod. 1 , 8. 
TTo/ee, 6ko)s t)]v yvvaiKa deijaeai yvfivyjy, as ib. 209 extr. (where after a 
parenthesis okios is repeated by ws) 5,