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In memoriam Johannis M9 Caul 

UniversitatiscollegiiapudTorontonenses Praesidis prim I 






















\i. '2. 







Syntax. Of the Z/^e o/'^^e Nominative. 



JbiVERY proposition, even the simplest, must contain two prin- 
cipal ideas : namely, that of the Subject, a thing or person of- 
which anything- is asserted in the proposition ; and that of the 
Predicate, that which is asserted of that person or thing. 

In propositions which are independent of any other, the Sub- 
ject is always in the nominative, except in the construction of 
the accusative with the infinitive. Sometimes the subject, as 
in Latin, is not expressed, eitljer because it is implied in the 
form of the verb (as in ^tX/J, <^i\^Tc, <^i\ei ' I love, thou lovest, 
he loves', except when an emphasis is thrown upon it), or be- 
cause it is easily seen from the contextf Thus it is omitted in the 
termination of the third person plural, if there be no determinate 
subject, Ae-youort, (^ctcrt, dicunt, * they say '^. Frequently also from 
the nature of the verb a subject is inadmissible, as in verbs im- 
personal, e. g. \pri, Set, e^eo-ri, and in verbs which are used im- 
personally, as (paiverai, eoiKe, e'lKOQ eari ; in verbals also in the 
neuter, ireov eari, eundum est, TroXe/nrjTea ecrri, bellandum est. 

In the same manner the proper subject is omitted, when a 
proposition follows which begins with the relative pronoun oc, 
rj, o, or a relative conjunction, evQa, ottov, ote, and these words 
refer to the subject which is kept in mind. See §. 298, 2. The 
nominative of the subject also is attracted to the relative fol- 

'^ Fisch.3a. p.347. Diiker adThuc. 7. 69. Comp. Heind. adPlat.Crat. p. 17. 


506 Sj/ntax. Of the Use of the Nominative. 

lowing in the same case, as ttXovtov d' ov /j-ev cuiai veoi, irapa- 

y'lyverai av^pl eViTreSoc Solon. El. in Brunck's Poet. Gnomic. 

p. 74. V. 9. See §. 474. 

Obs. Of ^(TTiy o'l, eoTiv ovs, &c. which united make an adjective equi- 
gg^ valent to eVtot, kviovs, see §. 482. 
('294) -pj^g following are some particular cases : 

1. When the verb indicates the occupation of a definite 
person, whose appellation in this case is often derived from the 
verb itself, the subject is not expressed particularly : Herod. 
2, 47. Bva'ii] ^e ?jSe twv vwv tij ScAtji't/ Troieerai' eTreav Ovay 
(sc. o BvTiip), Tr}v ovpi)v liKprfv Kai tov (nrXrjva Kai tov tTrt- 

ttXoov avvOeic o/liov kut tov CKaXvipe ry TripeXy. lo. 70. 

eTreav v^tov voc SeXea<r>7 {sc. o aypevc, from the preceding 
aypai) Trepi ayKiOTpov, /.leriei ec, peaov top irora^iov. comp. 
5, 15. Xen. Anab. 3, 4, 36. eTre) ^c eyiyvwcxKou avrovQ ot 

'EXXrji'ec (SovXoiiievovc cnrievai Kai ^layyeWninevovc, eKi]pvc,e 
(sc. o Ki]pv^) TO?q ' EXXj/cti irapaaKevaaaaQai. lb. 6, 5, 26. 
Trapi]yyeWeTO Se to pev ^opara em tov Se^iov wpov t^e»', ewe 
ayjpaivoiTy cTaX7riyyi{sc.o aaXTTihCTiir,). Comp. Eur. lleracl. 833. 
Demosth. in Lept. p. 465, 14. opwc, Se kui toj/ vopov vp7v avrov 
itvayvwaerai sc. o ypapparevQ. Comp. Msch. p. 403. ed. Reiske. 

Sometimes the subject nomin. is taken from a preceding 
verb of kindred meaning, as Herod. 9, 8. top 'ladpov ere'iy^eov 
Ka'i aCpL riv irpoQ reXei sc. to tcT^oc Xen. Ci/r. 2, 4, 24. 
TTopevaopai evOvc irpoc, ra (SaaiXeia, Kai iiv pev avOiaryiTai sc. o 
j3o<TtXevc. Comp. Anab. 3, 3, 5. Often, however, third per- 
sons are found without a subject, consequently impersonally, 
v€i ' it rains', for which in a fragment of Alca^us we find vei pev 
o Zeuc, as Theocr. 4, 43. Theogn. 25. Herod. 3, 117. So vlc^ei 
* it snows' Aristoph. Ach. 138 seq. (^povra, aarpcnrTei 'it 
thunders, it lightens' Arist. Anag. Fr. 7. to which the poets 
often add Zeua or uhp, Soph. CEd. C. 1456, 1606. eaeiae 
' there was an earthquake' Time. 4, 52. avaKoratei ' it grows 
dark' Xen. Cyr. 4, 5, 5.* It is not improbable that the Greeks, 
who referred all natural pheenomena to the Deity, originally 
supplied BeoQ in the mind, but in common life this was hardly 

" Valck. ad Herod. 4, 161. Toup Lamb. Bos. p. 167. 185. Ehnsl. ad 
ad Suid. T. 1. p. 397. Schsef. ad Eur. Heracl. 830. 

Sj/7itax. Of the Use of the Numinative. 507 

thought of; but vet, v'Kpei, (^povra were used quite imperson- 
ally, as in Latin pluit, niugit. 

2. So the third person sing, is often found without a sub- 
ject when anything is expressed generally and indefinitely. 
//. V , 287. (v. 276. ei yap vvv Trapa vt]vai ^eyoi/uieda iravTCQ 

apiaroi ec, Xo-^ov ) ovBe Kev evOa rcov ye jxevoc, Kai ^eTpac 

ovoiTo, where ouSet'q or tiq or avi)p may be supplied. 

In the other passages, however, which are generally referred 
to this head, the third person refers to a word before men- 
tioned''. Soph. Qild. T. 611. (piXov yap eaOXou e/c/SaXelv 'laou 
Xeyu), Kai tov irap avriS ^'lotov, ov irXelaTov (piXel, (piXe7 is 
sufficiently introduced by avrw. Id. Trach. 93. the subj. of 
TTvOoiTo is supplied by varepw, which precedes. Id. Aj. 154. 
the subject of aj^iaproi is in le'ic (see §. 271. Obs.), as JEsch. 
Ag. 69. the subject of wapaQeX^ei in (nroKXe'iiov, 6vC. Arist. 
Nub. 9SS. Hill'. Orest. 907 . orau yap ii^uc to?c Xoyoic, (ppovwu 
KaKwc, rreiOy to TrXffOoc, ry TToXei kukov /.leya, in r}^vG to7g X. 
'one who speaks agreeably' §. 269. Id. Androm. 423. in 
(jpoTolc, as §. 475. Plat. Criton. p. 49. ovre apa uvra^iKelv 
oe?, ovre kukwc, Troielv ovdeva avOpujiriov oi/S av otiovv Tracr^y 
VTT avTwVf TTocr^r) refers to the indefinite subject of the inf. uv- 
ToSiKeTi', as Menoii. p. 97 A. In Xen. Mem. S. 1, 2, 55. the 
subject of discourse from §. 54. onwards is eKaaTor,. 

Obs. In many passages of this kind the second person is taken in- 
stead of the third, e. g. Soph. Tr. 2. eKfxudots for ei;/.u'idoi. Eurip. Or. 

308. voa^s lot,ai^ris for joa// co^a'Crj. Eurip. Ion. 13S7. it now 

stands VTrepj3aiT)i' for virepfoairi'^. 

So the third person sing, alone is used of indefinite things, 
where the Latin inserts res, Eur. Troad. 405. ei S' e'lQ toS* 
eXQoi. Ion. 1196. eirei S ec avXov nuev. in the phrase ovrwc 
e'x^et, e. g. Plat. Prot. p. 340 E. comp. Soph. Aj. 684. ^ei^ei 
^77 rd-^a Arist. Ran. 1261. * it will soon show itself '. comp. 
Plat. Phileb. p. 45 D. with Stallbaum's note p. 139. eBtjXojae 

^ Soph. CEI. T. 314 seq., which " Besides the remarks of Porson, 

Pors. ad Eur. Or. 308. Ilerm. ad Vig. Hermann and Schceter, quoted in the 

p. 730, 1 11. Schsef. ad L. Bus. p. 47(3. preceding note, see Heind. ad Plat, 

referred to this head, has heen more Gorg. p. 34. Dobree ad Arist. Plut. 

correctly e.xplained by Erfurdt ad 50j. p. I16. ed. Lips. Bornem. ad 

loc. Add, ed. min. and Harm. ibid. Xen. Symp. p. 51, 

B 2 

508 Syntax. Of the the of the Nominative. 

Be ' it showed itself Xen. Cyr. 7, 1, 30. irpayp-a ov rdirpay-^ 
jxaTa is commonly supplied, as Thuc. 1, 109. a»q Se avxM 
irpovyjopei. ttoXAou Set ' far from it', &c. Herod. 9, 44. d)C Se 
TTpoau) Ti7c vuKTOc TrpoeX/jXaro * when it was far on in the 
night', where -y^povoc is usually added. 

The subject of a third person must often be supplied from 
an oblique case which precedes, as Plat. Phadon. p. 72 B. 
oiad' OTi TeXevTwvTu iravra Xrjpov tov 'Kvdvfxiojva airohei^eie, 
Kal ovSa/^iov av Cpiaivoiro, sc. o 'Ei'Sf^tiwv. Gorg. p. 464 A. 
Comp. §. 428, 2. 

296. 3. In dependent propositions the subject is often wanting, 

(295) because by an attraction it is construed with the verb of the 

preceding proposition. //. /3', 409. y^ee yap Kara Ovpov aoe\- 

(beov, wc, eTTOvelro, for wr, eiroveiTo aSeX^oc. comp. u, 

310 seq. Od. T, 219. &c. Find. Pyth. 4, 6 sqq. evOa irore 

-ypvaetov Aioc opviy^oju TrapeBpoc lepea y^prjaev oiKian^pa 

BaTTOi' Kci.piTOi^opov Ai(5vac, lepav vaaov wc 7jerj Xittojv ktkt- 

ffeiev eudp/iiarov ttoXji'. comp. ib. 9, 195. jEschyl. Agam. 500. 

Ta-y eia6f.ieaBa \af.nraBu)v (paecrcfyopwv (ppvKTWpiwv re Kai Trvpoc, 

TrapaXXay dc, tir ovv dXr^OeiQ (eicrtV), e'lre &c. Soph. (Ed. 

T. 224. oaric 7700' v/lkjjv Adiov tov Aaf^BaKov KaroiSev, av- 

BpoG e/c Tt'voc StwXeTO, tovtov KeXevd) Travra ar]/j.aii'eii> efxai. 

comp, (Ed. C. 571. Aj. 118. Eur. Iph. T. 341. Herod. 7, 

139. Trjv yap w^eX/ijv tiju twv Teiyetov ot» 

TTvdeadai, ?/t«o du rjv. comp. 8, 112. &c. Thuc. 1, 72. Kai d/na 

TTiv (TCpere pav iroXiv cpovXovTO ajj^iatveii', ocrri e'uj cvva/iuv. 

Plat. Lys. p. 206 B. Kalroi olfxui eyio, dvc pa ttoujctgi pXa- 

TTTOvra eavTov ovk dv ae eOeXeiv o^ioXo-yrjcrat, wc ayadoQ ttot 

ecTTt TTOtrjTJjc, pXapepoc wv iavrw. Xen. Hist. Gr. 2, 2, 16. 

Qripa/j.evy]C ev eKKXyjaia fiTrei', on, ei l^ovXovTai avTOv Tre^ti/zai 

7ra|0a Awcai'opov, etowc Jj^ei AaKecaijaoviovc, rrrWepov e^av- 

cpaTrohiaaaOai t})v ttoXiv povXo/Lievoi avTe-^ovcji irepi tmv reiyfjv, 

7) TTicxTewQ eveKa. comp. Ci/rop. 4, 1,3. Anab. 1, 2, 21. Isocr. 

de Pace, p. 178 A. paciov ccfti KarainaOelv Kai ttiv 'vwpav 

ripwv, OTi cvvarai rpe<p€iv dvcpac uueivovc tujv dXXwv, Kai 

Triv KaXov/iXevrjv /,iev ap"^r)v, ovaav Be avp(bopdv, on 

» Heind. ad Plat. Gorg. §.43. p. 57. §. Q9. p. 503. 
ad Phsedon. §. 45. p. 72. ad Protag. 

Sj/ntax. Of the Use of the Nojninative. 509 

7re(pvKe -^e'lfiovQ anavrac Troielv rove -^pio/jievovc, avry. The 
subject also is constructed with the preceding verb in other 
cases besides the accusative : Thuc. 1,68. riov Xe-yoi^rwi' 
fxaWov uTTOvoeTre, wc ev€Ka twv cwtoic iSf'o ciaipopwv Xeyovai. 
c. 61. JjXOe evdiic V ayyeX'ia ruiv iroXeiov, on acpeardcfi. 
lb. 97. rrjc ap^rjc, airoSei^iv ey^ei xrjq twv Adr^vaiwi', ev o'lo) 
T/JOTTw KaTeart]. Conip. Soph. Trach. 1122. Xen. Mem. S. \, 
4, 13'. Isocr. ad Phil. p. 1 1 1 E. Thuc. 1,119. \38.^ 

Obs. The article is sometimes separated from its noun. Sojjh. Trach. 
98. "AXiov aiVw Tovro, Kcipv^ai rov 'AXk/ujius, ttoQi juol ttuQi tzuIs vaiet 
TTOTe, for Kapv^ai, irodi 6 WXtcfx. irals yaiei. Eur. Here. F. 842. yv^ 
jxev rov "Hpas olus tor' ai/rw yuXoi ". The noun is sometimes repeated, 
at least in sense, II. y, 192. enr aye fjioi teal Tov^e, (piXov re/cos, oaris 
6 c' icrrty. Find. Pijth. 4, 430. cepfia ei'ieTrev, eida viv kKravvaav 
(^piL,ov fxa)(^aipai. Both propositions are intermixed with each other 
Fur. Ion. 1326. -1)^ (T))v ottov aoi f^rjrep" etrri vovderei for vovd. birov troi 
yfff)} fJiiiTtjp ea-i. and in a different way Plat. Gorg. p. 460 A. airoKa- 
Xv\Las -fjs pjjropiKrji elne -is 7ro9 >/ cvrufxis ecrriv. 

Many verbs, which are used impersonally in other languages, 297. 
followed by a proposition dependent upon them, particularly in (296) 
construction of the accusative with the infinitive, in Greek usually 
take the chief word of the following proposition as a subject, 
which is also a case of attraction. The expressions ^ri\6v eart, 
S'lKaiov ecTTi ' it is clear, reasonable', &c. are most usually thus 
constructed. Thuc. I, 93. koI ^tjXt? n otfcoSo^na en Kai vvv 
ecTTiv, on Kara, (nrovcriv eyevero. Xen. j\I. S. 2, 6, 7. Kai 
avSpa ^1) Xeyeic, oc, av tovc (p'lXovc tovc, TrpoaOev ev ttokjjv (pai- 
vrjTai, ^nXov eivai /cat tovc, varepov evepyeri^crovrn. Dem. pro 
Cor. p. 231, 16. 01 Or}/3a?oi (pavepoi Traaiv rjaav avayKaaOri- 
(JO/uevoL KUTuCpevyeiv e<p' vpac, for (pavepov r)v, rave O. civayKu- 
adrjcreaOaL^. Of the participle see §. 549, 5. Similar to 
this is Dem. in Macart. in. kui ovroi eir i^e ly^Oitaovr ai, oioi 
elaiv avOptvTToi, as Cicero Or. 20. §. 68. Fin. 4, 6, 14. Comp. 
Locr. p. 180 B. Aristot. Eth. 10, 8. p. 183 E. o'l Oeol 
yeXoloi (pavovvTai (JwaXXaTTOVTec. Herod. 2, 119. wc 

^ Wesseling ad Herod, p. 78. 87. Theocr. Q5, 179. Erf. ad Soph. 

KoenadGreg.p.(53) 128seq. Brunck Ant. 21 '2. 

ad Arist. Eccl. ll^o. Nub. 145. ^ Pors. ad Eiirip. Hec. 1030. 

Heusde Spec, in Plat, p, 61 sq. '' Eisch. ad Well. 3 a. p.313. Ilin- Eur. Med. 45'2. Scha^f. ad dcnb. ad Xcn. M. S. 3, 5, 24. 

510 Syntax. Of the Use of the Nominative. 

CTraiffTOC eyei'ero tovto epyaafxevoc,. Thus also ciKaioc €if.u, 
for ^'iKaiov ecTTtv, e^te. with an infin. according to §. 530, 1 . 53 1 . 
Herod. 1, 32 extr. oc S' av avrewv TrXeiara ey^tov StareXe??, Kai 
eTTeira t€\€vti](t\i ev-^apiartvc rov jSt'or, ovroc vap e|iot to 
uvo/iia TOVTO, w [iaaiXev, Si/coioo eaTi (pepeaOai, for otKoioi' ecTTi, 
TovTov (pepeaOai. Soph. Aiitig. 399 sq. eyio S' eXevOepoc Si- 
Katoc ei/tu TwrS' a7r7jXXa)(0ai KaKwv^. It is used impersonally 
Herod. 1, 39. e/te rot ^iKaiov eari (ppaleiv. Eiirip. Stippl. 
1055. ri B' ; ov ^'ikoiov Trarepa tov aov e'l^e.vai; Xen. Cyr. 
5, 4, 19, ''A^toi pevToi ye eafxev tou yeyevrijiievov TrpayjuaTOC 
TOVTOV ctTToXaucrai ti ayadov, for a^iov eaTiv, iijiiac aiToXavaai. 
A similar expression is, rti'ec 77;(ui' twv vewv eTrioo^oi yei'e- 
aOai eirieiKelc Plat. Thecct. p. J 43 D. 'from which young men 
can we expect, that they', &.C.'' IIoXXou, oX'iyov, to(towtoi> Sew 
TToieiv Ti ' I am very far from, very near to, so far from doing it'. 
Isocr. Busir. p. 222 B. tocfovtov (not toctovtio) Seetc ovt(o 
K€\pri<j9ai TO?c Xoyoic, wffxe, tautum abed, vt hanc rationeni in 
dicendosecutus siSyUt. Plataic. p. 297 D. toctoutov Sto^iev twu 

\(j(i)i> u^iovoOai ToTc ttXXoio ' EXXt/ctu', tudTe ih. p. 300 A. 

Oij^aToi TOffouTOu deovai /minelaOai Tiiv irpaoTrjTa tjji' v/ii€Tepav, 
tl)(TTe 8cc. Demosth. p. 191, 28. oXiyov Se Sew Xeyetv. Plat. 
Hipp. Maj. p. 283 C. TToXXov ye Sew {tovc ^irapTiaTwv vie7c 
a/iie.n'ovc woirjaai). Otherwise ttoWov, uXiyov oe? or oeiv, e.g. 
Thuc. 2, 77. TOVC nXaT«teac TaXXa ofo(|)i;yoi'Tao eXa- 
^icrxou eSe;;cre SiaCpO el p a i*^. Thus Thuc. 1, 70. jSpay^v 
yap aTreXtTTOi' l^vvuf^iCpOTepai (vjjec) SioKOdtai yeveaOai * they 
wanted very little of being'. 

Hence are derived the following constructions: Soph. Ant. 
.547. apiceaio Q\n](jKova cyu». yl/. 80. ti'Soi' apKe'iTio pevwv, 
for apKeaei ejiie dviiaKeiv, apKeiTw avTov t'l'Soi' fievctu. Plat. 
Gorg. p. 475 C. Comp. Soph. Aj. 7b". OEd. C. 498. i^'/zr. Or. 
1625. Iph. A. 1427. 7/e/. 1294. Troad. 654.^ So also «Xtc 
I'OtTowo- eyw CEd. T. 1061. 1/. (^,482. -^aXenii toi eyw /^levoc. 
avTi(^epeaOai, for ^oXeTToi^ tcrTU' t/toi avTiCp. comp. §. 534, b. 

* Markl. ad Eurip. Siippl. 186. see Lobeck ad Phryn. p. 133. 

Brunck ad Arist. Pint. 1030. Wes- « Dorv. ad Charit. p. 558. Bibl. 

sel. ad Herod, p. 720, 55. Jacobs ad Crit. 3, 2. p. 15. 

Athen. p. 04. '' Mvisgr. ad Eur. Iph. A. I.e. 

" Wessel. et Valck. ad Herod. Matthiae ad Siippl. 511. 
p. 285, 88. For examples of tTr/cosos 

Syntax. 0/ the Use of the Nominative. 511 

Find. Isthm. 4, 85. Soph. El. 1254. Thuc. 1, 132. 'Apyi- 

Xioc Xvei Tcic eiricfToXac, tv a'lC, virovoi^aac ti toiovtov 

■n-poaeirecTTaXOai, Kal avrov evpev eyyey pafi^ievov iCTeiveiv, 
where the construction is 'Apy'iXioQ eveyeypaiTTO Kreiveiv, for 
eveyeyp., 'ApyiXiov Kreiveiv 'it was in the letter, that Artabazus 
should put to death A.' Hence in Isocr. Trapezit. p. 363 C. 
should be read evpeOT] yap ev tw ypaf^ipare'iio yeypappevoc 
a(f)eipei'OC airavrioi' rwv (rvp(5o\ai(ov vtt e/nov, not yeypa^i- 
pevov. Demosth.i)! Near. p. 1347, 17. epeWev eyypa(j)n(TeaOai 
'AiroXXoBtopoc, TpuiKovra TuXuvra o(peiX(i)v tw Bripoaiu). He- 
rod. 1, 155 extr. ov^ev ^eivo'i roi eaovrai /nj aTroareuyai, for ov 
^eivov carat, prj eKeivoi aTToar. Xen. Hist. Gr. 6, 4, 6. tu)V 

Qri(iai(vv ol wpoearwrec eXoyitovTO ei p^ e^oi o ^rjpoc o 

Qt](iaiwi> TaTTiTT/Seta, oti Kiv^vvevaoi Kal 77 iroXic avroic evavria 
yevkaQat, as Thuci/d. 8,91. (puaKwv (o Qnpapevr}c) Kivdvvevaeiv 
TO Tetvoc TovTO Kol TJ^ TToXiv ^laCpOe^ipai, for on Kivdwevdoi, 
Kivdvvnc eaoiTO, pi) i\ ttoXic evavr'ia ykvono, pri to reiyoc tou to 
---^lacpOe'ipeie. Plat. Gorg. p.449 A. Soph. p. 242 B.Leg.J . 
p. 643 C. Phadon. p. 67 C. KaQapaic, Se eivai a pa ov tovto 
avpj3an>ei, for avpft. KaBapaiv e\vai. Soph. Aj. 635. Kpe'iaawv 
yap a^a KevOojv, for Kpeiaaov r]v avrov KevOeiv (KevOeaOai). See 
Lobeck's note, p. 315. And so is probably to be explained 
Eiirip. Or. 771. ov irpoaiiKopev KoXateiv rolaBe, <^wKeu)v oe yy, 
for ov irpoaijKei ro7aBe, KoXaleiv i]pc7c 'it does not become them 
to punish us'. Iphig. T. 453. ove'ipaai avp^a[r\v oiKOic, ttoXci 
re TTarptoa repwvQv vpvh)V cnroXaveiv, for (Tvppair], epe airo- 
Xaveiv, where, however, Musgrave reads <Tvp(5aiii V o'ikoic. 

Ohs. 1. Hence also the constructions, 6 Kvpos Xeyerni yireaBai used 
as well as Xeyerai Kvpov yeyecQai §. 5 .'37. rap kv vpiv kariv i] kuXmh 
e^eti', &c. i. e. kv vplv tort to rapa f/ (caXws exeu', Sec. 

Ohs. 2. On the other hand, the verb, which should be referred to a 
subject, is changed into the passive, and is used impersonally, with tlie 
dative of the subject, e. g. 2'huc. 7, 77. t/vora reus TroXepiois evrvxiirai, 
for Itcat'uis o'l iroXepiOL evTvxrjKainy. Plat. Gorg. p. 453 D. KaXws ay 
aoi itTveKe^pLTo for InreKkKpiao. See He'md. not. p. 25. Otherwise the 
third pers. pass, is used without a subject in the same manner as in Latin, 
itur. Thuc. 1,93. vwr'ipKTo rnv Uetpaitii. To this may be referred 
Herod. 6, 112. tTret ce (T(j)i ciereTaKro. Time. 1, 16. erret??) avro'is 
TrapetTKelxtrTTo, unless it be better to supply in the first to fTTpuTinrecoy, 

§12 Syntax. Of the Use of the Nominative. 

and in the second to pavriKvy, in which case both would belong to 
§. 294, 1. ib. ad Jin. afiKTo ventuni esset. Herod. 9, 100. has the plur. 
fc»s ce fipa 7rape(TKeva«7aro toI<ti "EAXjjfft. 

Obs. 3. That 6 for ovtos, and eya», <7v are often repeated by the old 
writers, see §. 46G, 5. 468. 

298. Instead of the nominative we have sometimes, 

1. Another case with a preposition. Xen. Cyrop. 8, 3, 9. 
''EffTOdav Se TTpvjTOv f^iev rwv BopvC^yoptov etc T€TpaKi(T^i- 
\iovc, ^nrpoadev Se twv ttvXwv, etc Tcrrapac, Bia^iXioi 
Be eKarepwOev tu)u ttvXwv, and thus generally in numbers which 
are given roundly. Thus also Kora with an accusative : Thuc. 

1, 3. SoKel /.loi Kara eOvrj aWa re Kai to TieXaayiKOV 

CTTt TrAetcrrov a<p' eavruiv rriv eTrwvv/iUav Trapey^eavai, singtuos 
populos. ibid. kuO' e/cao-TOuq ijSj; ti^ o^itiAt'a /naXXoi/ KaAei- 
adai ''EX\r}var,. comp. 7, 75. '^ ctti Lysias in Agorat. p. 130, 
25. eTTi BeKa OTaZia. 

2. A whole proposition : Eurip. Hipp. 429. SouXoT-yap avBpa, 
Kciv BpaavairXayyvoc tic, ij, orav ^vveiBy]Tpoc, r; Trarpoc 
KaKa, i. e. BovXoi to l^vveiBevai. Herod. 9, 68. ^jjXoT e/itot on 
iravTU TO. Trprp/jiiaTa tojv papJDapwv 7Jjot>]vto e/c nepcreiov, ei 
Kcd Tore oOrot e(pevyov, i.e. to tovtovc; (pevyeii' OjjXoT e/iioi, 
wliere however Br^Xol. may also be taken for BriXov cctti. So 
ar)f.ie7ov Be, T£K/.ujpiov Be, SrjXoi' Be, without a subject, the place 
of which is supplied by a proposition beginning with yap, §. 432, 
615. A following proposition with the relative also frequently 
contains the subject of the verb, as Ilerod. 1, 202 exlr. 

3. What is called the accusative absolute, which is explained 
by quod attinet ad, e. g. Od. a, 275. /ntjTepa B , ei oi Ov/hog 
€(popiiiaTai yn/AeeaOai, a\p itw ec, fxeyapov, is founded on an 
anacoluthia, the poet having had in his mind a-n-oTre/n-ipov, cnri- 
evai KeXeve. See §. 631. The genitive, in the same sense: 
Plat. Phccdon. p. 7 8 D. E. tmv ttoXXwv koXiHv, o'lov avOpioTrcov, 
T) tTTTTWi' dpa KOTtt TO avTo. e^^ei ; See ^. 342. 

299. The Predicate expresses the action or the quality, the con- 
(w^) rlition, which is ascribed to the subject. The Copula, as it is 

* Schcef. ad Dion. II. p. 44 seq. 358. 

Syntax. 0/ the Use of the Nominative. 513 

called, serves to connect this with the subject, by which means 
the simple ideas (in the subject and predicate) are converted 
into a proposition. This is always a verb. For this copula, 
either a proper verb is assigned, — and this is chiefly the case 
with e'lfxi ' I am', and other verbs which of themselves convey 
no complete idea, but require the addition of another definition 
in a substantive, adjective, or adverb ; — or the copula and pre- 
dicate are united in one verb, which takes place in those verbs 
which perfectly express a condition of themselves, e. g. Kupoc 
rkdvriKe ' Cyrus is dead'. Frequently the condition, or action, 
expressed by the verb, requires besides that the relation should 
be determined in which it stands to a person or thing ; hence 
arises the determination of the oblique cases, which are governed 
by the verb. 

The verb, whether it be the copula alone, or a copula with 
the predicate, is determined by the subject, with respect to 
person and number. Of the persons, the first and second, in 
the singular, dual, and plural, can only be used when the sub- 
ject is a personal pronoun, either expressed or merely understood 
for these persons, e. g. eyw fxkv aaOevM, <ru Se eppMaai ' I am ill, 
but you are well'. e'lQ oaac o tXyi/lkov ei(nreTTTWKa avpcpopac ' mto 
what misfortunes have I, wretched man, fallen'. Xen. H. Gr. 2, 

4, 14. SeiTTVovvrec ^uveXajitj3aro/xe(^a and so also when the 

speaker names himself, as Ge^tuo-TO/cArjc hxd) Trapa <re Thiic. 1, 
137. <i>oT/3oc ff' o ArjTouc Tralc, oS' tyyuc wi' /caXa? Eur. Or. 
1659.** Both persons are united Thuc. 1, 128. UuvcTavlac-'- 
a7ro7re/i7rei---/cot yvwpriv woiov/iiai. So after the relative is found 
the person to which the pronoun refers: Herod. 2, 115. eyu) 

cti' (re eTitra^rjv, oc e py da ao &ic. Lys. /). 109, 31. otto- 

(pyvaipi, oc TrpujTov pev t'^e/coTTTOi'. In all other cases the third 
person is used. 

When several subjects, of different grammatical persons, are 
put together, the verb in the predicate agrees with the chief 
person ; which is the first, with relation to the second or third ; 
and the second, with relation to the third, as in Latin. Hesiod.^ 
Th. 646. ri Sjj -yap pdXa Srjjoov evavTioi oXX/jAoiai viKt]C Kai 

" Valck. ad Eur. lli|)p. 1285. 

514 Syntax. Of the Use of the Nominative. 

Kfjdreoc irepi fxapvaj^ieB' I'lfxara Travra, Ttrr/vec re ueoi Kai oaoi 
Kpovov eKyevopeaOa. Etirip. ap. JEsch. c. Tim. p. 254. Kayu) 
ILiev ovtijo yfjaric ear avrip <TO<poc XoytZo/uai TaXrjBec, eic avcpoc 
(pvaiv. Plat. Tim. p. 29 C. ayairav y^prj pepvrjpevov, o)C, o 
Xeytov vpelc re o'l Kpnai cpvcxiv avBpioTTivr)v eyopev. Xen. Hist. 
Gr. 2, 3, 15. ETrel /cat t'-yw Kai av iroXXa Bi) tov apeaKeiv eveKa 
Ty TToXei Kai e'lTropev Kai eirpa^apev. Etaip. Or. 86. av o 7/ 
f^iaKap'ia paKupioc 9' o aoc, ttogig iik€tov €(p i]pac auAiMC, 7re- 
TTpayoTOG ^. 

Obs. There are some apparent exceptions to this rule, the verb being 
often referred to the nearest subject. Xen. Mem. S. 4, 4, 7. Trepi tov 
^iKalov Tzarv rvi' e^eir eiirelv, vpus a ovre av ovt av aXXos ovceis 
ZvvaiT avTenreir, for ZvraiaQe, but properly for ovt av av ^vvaio, ovt 
iiXXos hvvaiTo. Herod. 3, 68. Also the singular of two, Soph. (Ed. T. 
1136. Kur. Hipp. 667. ttws iiv Trpoau-ipei Kai av Ka\ ceairoiva ai'i ; 
Comp. Plat. Phccdon, j)- 77 D. The verb appears to stand in the 
person of the nearest subject and yet in the plural Eur. Ale. 672. 
■)(itpiv Toiavce Kai av ^») reKova" yXXti^c'iTriv, if >/\\. be not here the 2nd 
person. See §. 195. Obs. 1. Plat. Symp. p. 189 C. aXXjj ye ttjj tv iy 
€^10 Xeyeiv, y y av re Kai Ilavaavias eltreTijv, Bekker reads e'lTreTov (r). 
Sopth. El. 622. (3) dpepp' araices, ij a' eyio Kai TUfx c'tttj kai Tapya rapa. 
TToXX' ayav Xeyeiv Troiel, where different persons are not meant, but the 
words Tap" eirr] Kai rcipya Tapa are an illustration of eyw *!', that is, my 
words and actions, * make you speak so much', and the predicate is 
referred to the explanation. 

300. With regard to the number, the natural construction is, that 
i'^^V the verb is put in the singular, dual, or plural, according to the 
number of the subject. In Greek, however, an exception takes 
place, which again has the force of a rule, viz. that the nomi- 
native of the neuter plural has the verb in the singular, e. g. 
Twr ovT(i)v TO. pev eoTiv e(p i]p7v, tu Se ovk e(pi' i}puv. 

This usage, however, is more observed by the Attics than by 
the older writers in tlie Ionic and Doric dialects, and is fre- 
quently neglected by the Attics themselves, e. g. //. v', 266. 
oure ri vwiv opKia eiraovTai. X , 310. apij-^ava epya ykvovTO, 
where the scholiasts observe, that this is constructed apyaiKidc. 
Comp. //. /3', 87. 89. 135. 459. 462. 464. 489. Ear. El. 
507. pwv Tapa Bia -^povov a uvepvi)(rav koku ; Thuc. 6, 72. 
" Poison ad Eurip. Or. 1. c. 

Si/ntax. Of the Vse of the Nominative. 515 

^•yevovTO e/c twv ai'SpoTToStov eiKoai Kai CKarov raXavra. Xen. 
Anah. 1, 7, 17. (pavepa ricrav Kai iirirdiv Kai avOpMirtov 'i^via 
TToXXa. The Attics also sometimes join the verb in the plural 
with the neuter plural, especially in two cases : 1 . when the 
neuter plural signifies living persons, e. g. Thuc. 1, 58. to. reXij 
(magistratus) twv AaKeSai|iioviwv virea-^ovTO avrolc. 7, 57. 
Toaa^e /licv juera ' AOywa'iMv eOrrj eaTparevov. Xen. Anah. \, 
2 extr. TO. Se r]pTra(y/.iei'a avEpairoBa, 7/v ttov evrvy^aviocriv, airo- 
Xa/tjScired'. Kurip. Hec. 1149. reKv ev -^epolv ciraWov, loc 
irpocTU) TTttTpoc yevoivTO (Pors. yevoiro). 2. when the abstract 
is put for the concrete, and living creatures, not things, are 
to be understood. Hur. Cycl. 206. irwe, {.loi Kar aiTpa veo- 
yova jSXaffTrjjUaTa ; 17 irpoc ye jUOffToTc eiGi . 

Frequently the plural of the verb is put with the dual of the 301. 
subject: II. e, 275. t<o Se tu-^' ey-yw^ei* 17X601', eXorn'ovr' (300) 
u)K€ac, 'iTTTrovc Comp. tt', 337. a', 605. Eurip. Phcen. 69. tw 
^e ^v/Lij^avT eral^av'^. ' - 

In the same manner the verb in the dual is put with the 
plural of the subject, when no more than two persons or things 
are meant. //. e , 10. Svw Se oi vleec, t/o-tj/i'. P/at. Rep. 5. 
p. 478 A. dwa/iieiQ a/^KpOTepai earou. Thus in //. 0', 452. wc S 
ore j^ei/iiap poi Trora/nol kcit opeaCpi pkovrec, ec, /.uayayKeiav 
o-u/i/BaXXerov o^pif.iov vSwp two streams are to be under- 
stood ^. 

Hence the plural is often interchanged with the dual of the 
verb. Soph. CEd. C. 1435. <t(^wv (Ismene and Antigone) B' 
evodoni Zevc, rttS' ei TeXelre fxoi Qavovr ' errei ov /lioi ^wvTt 
y avOtc, e^erov. ineBeaOe 8' net], y^aiperov re. Comp. 
1112 seq. Aristoph. Av. 641. (Epops to Pisthetserus and 
Euelpides, see v. 64:4 sq.) e'laeXOer' etc veoTTiav ye rnv ejunv 

/cat Toui'o^i' 7//uTi' (ppaauTor. id. Pint. 15. (Plutus 

to Carion and Chremylus) peOeaOe vvv /liov irpwroi' 

aKOverov Stj. Plat. Phadr. p. 256 C. tw a/coXacrrw 

*• Fisch. 3 a. p. 34'2 sq. Pors. ad Porson and Dobree ad Arist. Plut. 

Eurip. Or. 590. Add. Ilec. v. 1141. 145. 

p. 95 seq. Ileind. ad Plat. Cratyl. «= Eur. Iph. T.777.(Mus. 

p. 137. Ast ad Plat. Rep. p. 386. Crit. Cant. 6. p.294.) 

Leg. p. 46. Herm. ad Soph. E\. 430. '' Fi!^ch. 3 a. p. 305. 

516 St/ntax. Of the Use of the Nominative. 

avrolv v7ToZ,vyi(jj Xa(i6vT e raQ xpvy^ac a(ppovpovc, avvaya- 
yovTe eic tuvto^', tijv vtto toju ttoXXwv naKafJiaTqv aipeoiv 
e[\eaBr]v re kol Sierrpa^avro, Kai ^lair pa^a/nevu) to 
XotTTOv rjS»j "^piovrai /j.ev avT'^, airavia ce. 

Obs. This variable use of the dual and plural appears to have been 
the cause, that sometimes, though seldom, the dual of the verb is put 
with the plural of the subject, even when more than two persons are 
signified (r). II. 6', 185. SarQe re koX itv, IlcJ^apye, Kal A'idwr ActjUTre 

re cie, rvy [.loi rrjv KO/iict)y airoTiveTov (v. 191.) aW e<^o- 

pupre'iTor kuI (ttt evCerov. Comp. //. e', 487. i, 182. Horn. H. in 
y^poll. 2,277. (v. 273. w ^elfoi, rires etrri;) rlipd' ovtios I'jadov reTit]- 
OTes. 307. a\X ayed', ws aV eywv e'«7rw, Treidefxde raxtora' laria fjiey 
■jrpiZTov KuBerov Xviravre ftoeias. comp. v. 322. In an oracle Herod. 
7, 140. 'iTov et, aCvToio, where however only two OeonpoTroi may be meant. 
Pind. 01. 2, 156. ^adovres le \a(3poi TrnyyXtaaaicf, KvpuKes ws, iiKparra 
yapverop Aios npos opinxa Oeiut', perhaps with reference to Simonides 
and Bacchylides (see Boeckh), wliere however Heyne after Dawes has 
received from the scholiast the less natural reading yapve[.i€y, Xafipot 
el(Ti yapveiy. In the tragedians and prose writers this usage is not found ; 
for Xevatrerov^sch, Eum. 256. if the true reading, may be explained of two 
(see Wellauer); and Plat. T/iaet. p. 152 E. Kal irepl tovtov Trayres e^jjs 
01 cro(poi, TvXijy TlappeytSov, ^vf-Kpeperrdov, YlpMrayvpds re Kiii 'UpuKXeiTOS 
Kol 'Ef^iTreCoKXrjs, Stobeeus Eel. Phijs. j)' 42. has ^vfirpepoyrai : Bekker 
from three MSS. Iv^c^iepiaBioy. The later poets, imitating the epic 
style, revived the usage, e.g. r/ra^Z)?o*em. 291. koX 6\l^e l^owy-e KoXoioi\ 

302. With words of number in the singular the verb is very oftea 
(301) put in the plural, because in such words the idea of several 

subjects is always included. //. 3', 278. Ioq (paaav t] nXiiOvc. 

o , 305. i) ttXiiBvc, em vrjac A^auov diroveovro. Herod. 9, 23. 

wc (T(pi TO TrXijdoG €7re(3oriO}](Tav. jEsc/j. Agam. 588. Tpo'n]v 

* Dawes's Misc. Cr. p. 49. Ueyne to be an abbreviated form of the phir. 

ad Pind. 1. c. (ad Iliad, a', 567.) hold Blomfield (Remarks, p. xliv.) denies 

that the passages out of the older that the dual is used when more than 

writersare corrupt, or think that they two are spoken of: II. 0', 185. he 

must be explained differently. On the says, two pairs arc spoken of, and 

contrary side, see Ern. ad 11. «', 566. cacli pair must be regarded as an 

Koen ad Gregor. p. (98) 218. Fisch. unit; II. e', 487. is evidently cor- 

3 b. p. 59. who, however, produces rupt; andinthc Apoil.277. 

some instances which do not belong be proposes to read ^adai, 307. *:a- 

to this head. Buttm. L. Gr. p. 135. Oefxey, and Aral. 291. kcu 64^€ ftotHv 

347 sq. considers the dual generally re koXows. 

syntax. Of the Use of the Nominative. 5 1 7 

eXovTec mjTTOT A^yetcuv aroXoQ Qeolc Xa(pvpa tuvtu toIc 
KaS EXXaSa So^ioic eTraacrciXevaav. Thuc. 1 ,20. 'AOrivaitov 
TO TrXtjuoc ' lTnrap"^ov o'lovTai vCJ) Ap/iio^iov /cat ApiaTO- 
yeiTovoc Tvpavvov uvra airoOavelv. ih. 89. AOrjvaiwv Be to 

Koivov Si€Kopit,ovTO evOvc, oOev vir e^kdevT o, 7ra?Sac 

Kai yvvaLKaQ, 2, 4. to Be ttXcTcttov /cat oaov pdXiGTa rjv 
c,vve(STpappevov, eaTr'nrTovaiv ec oifojjua. 4, 43. to Be^iov 

Kepac, T(x)v A9rivai(i)v Kai l^apvcfTiwv eBe^avTO re tovq 

KopivOiovc Kai edjcravTo poXic,. Xen. Mem. S. 4,3, 10. ttoXv 
ce yevoQ avBpujTrojv to7c /nev eK Trjc, yrjc; (pvojuevoiQ eic, Tpofprjv 

OV '^pfOVTUl, OTTO Se |3o(TA:)JjUaT(UV ^(jJOl^. 

This is especially the case with e/cocrToc, and in the formula 
aXXo^ei' oXXoq. 

a. Od. a , ull. pav o \pevai Ke'iovT ec ea irpoc BwfxaB' 
eicaaToc,. Herod. 3, 158. efxevov ev Ty etovTov tu^i ckw 
ffTOO. 7, 144. e^teXXov Xa^ecrOai op^riBov eKaaTOQ BeKa 
Bpa^pac. conip. 9, 59. Xeu. R. L. 6, 1. ev ^ep yap Talc; aX- 
XaiG TToXeai Tuiv eavTOv e KaoT oc, Kai tto/Swv Kai o'lKCTuiv 
Kai ■^pt]f.iaTiov ap^ovtjiv. Flat. Leg. 7 . p. 789 C. XajSovrec 
viro paArfc e KauT oc, iropevovTai . 

Ohs. Elsewhere eKuaros in the singular is added to a noun or pro- 
noun plur. as an apposition, or a more exact definition. //. ?/, 175. ol 
ce K\yjpoy efftjj^u'jimvTo eKaaros. comp. 185. &c. Herod. 9, 11. ei' voo) 
c>) e-^oi'TCS aivuWaaaeaQuL Ka\ avroi evri rrjs ecjVTOv eKairros. and 
before the subj. in the plur. Pind. Pyth. 9, 173. cifuvol B' ws etcadra 
(jiiXraroy Trafideriicai iroaii' i) vloy ev)(_ovr^ ejx^ev. The verb some- 
times follows in the singular, referred to eKurrTos or some word equiva- 
lent to it, although the proper subject is in the plural. //. tt', 264. ol 
ce (^(TCprJKes^ dXKifuov rJTop e^ovres npuaiTit) ttcis Trererai, Kai djuuj'et 
oiari TeKeatTi. JBsch. Pers. 133 seq. Her. 7, 104. p,a\oip,r}v av irav- 
T(t)v rjdicrra eyl rovrewy Twy av^pioy, oi 'RW>']y(tJV eKaaros (pijai 
rpiojy d^ios ehai. Comp. 8, 86. Thuc. 7, 77. comp. 1, 141. Plat. 
Rep. 1. p. 346 D. Hence the transition from the plural to the singu- 
lar Plat. Gorg. p. 503 E. ol d'XXot Trdvres Sr] jxiovpyol, /3Xe- 
TToyres Trpos to eaurwv epyoy eKaaros, ovk elKrj e/cXey o/xei'os 
irpoacpipei a Trpoircpepei Trpos to epyoy to avrov, d\X ci'ttws ay eiSos tl 

!> Moeris p. 2. Dorv. ad Charit. <= Brunck ad Arist. Plut. 785. 

p. 380, 365. Lips. Bibl. Crit. 3, 2. Heind. ad Plat. Gorg. p. 197. Fisch. 
p. 35. 3 b. p, 59 sq. 

518 Sj/utax, Of the Use of the Nominative. 

uvVw ffxij 'c^^o, e epyai^erai. Ar'ist. Plut. 785. yvTTOvffi yap teal 
<p\oj(n TavTiKrujiLa, 'EvSeiKyvjJiei'os eKuaros {Pors. ad Eur. Or. 1263.). 
Analogous to this is the construction in Xen. Hist. Gr. 2, 2, 3. ovceis 

eKoiixr]Qr], ov p.6rov trevdovyres, oXXa vofii^orres . Comp. jElian. 

V. H. 10, 16. 

h. II. L, 311. wc ju/] f.ioi -rpvlrire Trapij /.levoi aWoOef 
tiXXoc. u-Esch. Ag. 606. o\o\vy/xov aXXoc aWoOev /cara 
TTToXti' eXaaKov evCprj jiiovvTec. comp. 323. Eurip. Ph. 
1263. Trape^i6vT€Q S' oXXoc aXXoOei- ^iXwr, Xo-yo(tri Oap- 
avvovrec, el^rjv^Mv raSe. Plat. Charm, in. Kai /j.e wq eiBov 
eKnovTct e^ cnrpoadoKiiTOV euOvc iroppwdev rjairatovTO aXXoc, 
aXXoOeu. Thus also npioTwv Se aXXoQ aXXo id. ib. p. 153 D. 
Comp. Xen. H. Gr. 2, 3, 23.^ 

Ohs. In a similar manner, according to the sense, is constructed the 
following: TroXv-eXws 'A^wvict ay ova' eraipa jued' eripcoy iropyiZv 
XvSr]v D'lphil. ap. J then. 7. p. 292 D. as in Liv. 21, 60. ijjse dux 
cum aliquot princ'ipihus capiuntur. Thus also Lucian. D. D. 12, 1. Kal 

vvy eiceiyT] (>/ 'Pea) trapaXaftvvffa Kal tovs Kopu/5a>'ras avd) Kal 

KctTUj Tt)y"lir]y TrepnruXovffiy' i] pey oXoXvCuvara eirl rw 'Am, oi 
KopvljayTcs ce, &c. Such a construction would probably not be found 
in the older classics. 

303. Besides these regular deviations from the proper construction, 
C-^*'-) the following occur, though more rarely : 

1. With the plural of the subject masculine and feminine 
the verb is put in the singular, as w ith the neuters. Pind. 01. 
11,4. peXiyapvec vpvoi vaTepiov ap^ai Xoywv TcXXerar, 
and Fragm. Pind. p. 68. v. 23. ed. II. a-^elrai t opipai 
peXetjov avv avXolc, a-^e^Tai ^epeXav eXiKuprrvKa j^opoi . 
Horn. H. in Cer. 279. l^avOai Se Kopai kut evrivoOev ujpovc. 
The grammarians call this schema Pindariciim and Baotium. 
In the Attics this takes place only when the verb precedes, in 
which case probably the author had the whole in his mind and 
explained or defined it afterwards by the subst. plur. Eur. 

" Valck. ad Eur. Ph. 1254. p. 423. II. in Cer. 493. must probably be 

Wolf Pra;f. ad II. p. 58. read Trp6(ppioy, for aelo follows. See 

^ Heyne has altered these pas- Ruhnk. ad H. in Cer. p. 74 scq. 

sages: but see Herm. do Metr. P. Dorv. ad Char. p. 364 Lips. Fisch. 

p. 299sqq. Bceckh ad 01. 8, 8. Horn. 3 a. p. 345. 

Si/ntax. 0/ the Use of the Nominative. 519 

Bacch. 1303. Zz^oKrai T\T]^ovec, (pvyai, which makes Hipp. 
l269.KCKpavTai <TVfi(pofia( veojv kukwv not appear extraordinary. 
This was especially common with ean and i)v. Ilesiod. Theog. 
321. Trie S* ^v rpeic Ke(pa\ai. Epigr. in Anal. Brunch. T. 3. 
p. 180. CLV. ^i' apa KUKelvoi raXaKupSioi. Especially in the 
Doric dialect in the fragments of Epicharmus in Athenaeus, 
e. g. 7. p. 288 B. 30G A. &c. In Attic for the most part in 
the choral Songs only, or in passages where the Doric dialect 
occurs. Soph. Trach. 520. r]v §' ujLKp'nrXeKTOi KXipaKec Ari- 
stoph. Lys. 1260. nv yap rwvSpeQ ovk eXacrawQ tclc, ipaf^i/.iar,, 
Tot Hepaai. Yet also in iambics Eurip. Ion. 1146. evriv S' 
vcjyavTal ypaf^if-iaaiv TOiaic v<pui^. So Herod. I, 26. Plat. 
Euthi/d. p. 302 C. Thuc. 3, 36. '!rpoa^vve(5ciXeTO al IleXoTroi'- 
j'j/ffiwv vJJec, in Bekker. But Herod. 5, 12. rjv Wiypric, kqi Mav- 
TvrjG belongs to §. 304. and Plat. Leg. 5. p. 732 E. eVn ci) 
(pvaei av6p(l)7r€iov judXiaTa r}Bovai, and Isocr. Paneg. p. 54 B. 
to §. 305.^ Thuc. 2, 3. af^id^ac; t'c rac oSouc Kadiaracrav/iu 
uvTi re'i^ovc y, the author had probably lippara in his mind. 

The passage in Hesiod. Th. 790. (e^ [epov TroTopolo peei 
Bia. vvKTa jLieXaivav, 'Q/ceavoTo Kepac,' ^e/carij o eirl f^LoTipa Be- 
^acTTai.) 'Ei'i'ea ^ei' {sc. polpai) Trepi yuv re Kai evpea vcoTa 
daXdaarjG ^iv\]G apyvpeyc e'lX ly peuoc, eiQ uXa TrtTrrei" ■>] be 
fxi' e/c Trkrpi\G irpopeei is merely constructed according to the 
sense, because the ewea poipai are what is properly called 

2. With the dual of the subject the verb is put in the sin- 
gular. Aristoph. Vesp. 58. ii^av yap ovk ear ovre Kapv tfc 
^op^ttSoc Sow Aw TrapappiiTTOvvTe To7c6e(ji)pevoic,. Plat. Gorg, 

p. 500 D. 'lauyr, ovv jSeArtCTTOV ecTTtv, ^leXo/tievovc Kai o/noXo- 

yiiaavTac aXXy^Xoic, el eari tovtoj Sittw to; pi(^, oKe- 
■ipaadai, Tt ^ia(pep€rov dXXnXoiv. Eustathius on //. \p' , 380. 
says, this is AtopiKvorepov. But in avrdp o'l oaae ^aierai Od. t , 
131seq. offo-e is considered as neuter, as //.I'', 435. See §.436. 
Of the sing, referring to a preceding plur. see §. 293. 

«= Valck. ad Her. p. 376, 21. Wolf Eubt. ad Od. T, P- 1759, 32. con- 
ad Hesiod. Th. 321. sidered ^v as abbreviated from r]ov, 
"' Heind. ad Plat. Euthyd. p. 403. others from ^aav. 

620 Syntax. Of the Use of the Nominative. 

30 1-. When several subjects are united by a conjunctive particle, 
(303) the verb, which belongs to all, should properly be in the plural; 
but it is frequently governed in its number by one substantive, 
and mostly by that which is nearest to it, and is in the singular 
if that be a singular, or neuter plural. II. e , 703. evOa Tiva 
TrpwTOv, Tiva B' varaTOV e^evapi^ev ''EKTOtp re Hpia^oio 
iraic Kat ^(aXKeoc "A p rj c ; //. V, 386. Tjrwyei Upia^oc re 
KalaXXoi Tpbiec ayavol €i7re7v. tt', 844. aoi yap eSw/ce vUnv 
Zeuc Kpovi^rjQ Kai ' ArroXXuv. Herod. 5, 2] . e'lirer o yap 
S/j a(f)i Kai oyJ]p.aTa Kai BepaTTOvrec, Ka\ ?] -naaa ttoXX^ napaaKevij. 
Eur. Suppl. 146. Tu^evc i^a-^^iiv ^vvrjxpe IloXu I'ei/cijc B' 
ajxa. Thuc. 1,29. eoTparriyei Se riov veiov ApKTrevc o 
IleXXiKrou KOI KaXXiKpciTiic o KaXXt'ou Ka\ Tt/io»'wp o 
Tip.avOovQ. conip. 7, 43. Plat. Thcag. p. 124 E. Tiva eiroj- 
vvp'iav e'-j^ei 'iTTTTtac icai Ylepiav^poc; and before this rij-a 
eTTwrvi^iiav e'xet BaKic re Kai 2t|3uXXa Kai o imecairoc 
'ApCJyiXvTOQ ; ib. p. 129 B. ore ariararo e/c tou av/n- 
TToaiov o Tt'^jop^oc Kai ^ iXrjjiiwv o <l>tX»j/xwviooi), anoKre- 
voui-rec NiKiav. To this head belong also the passages quoted 
§. 299.0/js. Eur. Hipp. 667. Plat. Phcedon. p. 77 J).'' 

Obs. 1 . The singular also is used when the more remote subject is 
in the singular, or is a neuter plural. //. p, 387. yovra-a re Kyrjfiai re 
■Tropes 0' virh'epdev eicdarov ^eTjoes t o<^Qa\^oi re va\da<T€TO {.lapyafievoiy. 
ib. 4'', 380. TTi'oirj 2' Ei)/,n/\oio fiercifpeyor evpte r w^liw depfiero^'. 

Obs. 2. Homer joins two verbs of different numbers Od. fx, 43. ry 
c' GiiTL yuj')) Kai rtjTTia re/cva, oitca^e vuarifaavTi, irapirrTarai, ovce ya- 

Obs. 3. When two or more substantives are united by ») ' or', which 
reciprocally exclude each other, the verb is in the singular if that 
which is said applies to one only of these, not to both alike ; in the 
plural if it belongs equally to both, and it is indifferent to which 
it is ascribed. 11. v, 138. el ce K'Aprjs dp-yhxn fidyris rj <&o7/3os 'AttoWwj'. 
Eur. Hec. 83 seq. ttou Trore deiav 'liXevov }l/v)(_ay y Kaardy^pas ecriSio, 
Tpwa^es, ws jjioi Kpiruytriy oyeipovs ; "^ as in Cicero Or. 2, 4, 16. ne Sul- 
pichis aut Cotla jylus quam ego apud te valere videantur. Hcus'mg. 

" Dorvill. ad Charit. p. 364. 497. Fisch. 3 b. p. 61. 
Lips. Heind. ad Plat. Theaet. p. 411. ^ Wolf ad Hes. Theog. 321 . 

syntax. Of t lie Use of the yiumi)iatice. 521 

ad C'lc. de Off. 1,41. The sing, however is sometimes used in this 
case, as Plat, Euthi/phr, p. 6 JL, wy up j) av f/ aWos rts -n-paTTi]. So 
after oure, if the verb is represented as applying to both substantives : 
Bacclnjl. in Bninck. Anal. T. 1. p. 149. 1. Eur. Ale. 367. Kai [x ov6' o 
TlXovrwt'os Kvwy ohd^ ovttI KWTrrj •i^v^otto^ttos ay 7epw»'"Eff^oi'. 

Obs. 4. In the poets the verb plur. with two subjects sometimes 
stands between the two, as in II. v, 218. Od. k, 513. evda fxey els 

'A^epoj'ra UvpicpXeyedwy re piovaiv Kwicurcs & //. e', 744. rjyji 

poui I,ifxu€is (rvj-ipdWeroy ijck. ^rayuavcipos. The grammarians call this 
the Schema Alcmanicum'^. 

Sometimes the verb is governed in its number not by the $05. 
subject, but by the substantive, which stands with the verb as (304) 
the predicate, if this is the nearest. Herod. 6, 112. t)(tov oe 
(JTacioi ovK eXaaaoveQ to /iteTai^^iov avrcoi', i] oktCj, for tjv 
referred to^ierat^^tior. 2, 16. to S wv iraXai ai QrjjSai A'tyvrrroQ 
CKaXeero. comp. 1,93. 160. 8,46. Thuc.S, 1 12. earov §e Suo 
\6(pu) 7] iSoytiei'rj vipriXu). comp. 1, 110. Aristoph. Thesni. 21. 
o'lov ri TTOV (fTiv ai cfo(pai l^vvova'iai ! Isocr. Paneg. p. 54 B. 
(c. 18.) k<TTi yap a p-^iK<jjTaTa ruiv e^i'wv Kai ^ley'iaTac, cvvaare'iaQ 
eyovra ^KvOai kui QpaKec, Kai Hepaai . Similarly Xen. Mem. 
S. 1,4, 13. Tt (pvXov aXXo, 7) oi avOpojTTOi, OeovQ OepaTrevovcriv; 
for Oepairevei. This, however, may belong also to §. 301. 

Very often the verb eipi is omitted with adjectives and sub- ^qq 
stantives, if it be merely a copula, but not when it contains the (305) 
predicate, as in ecxTi Oeoc * there is a God'. This is most com- 
mon with eToi/iioc, e<7Ti or e'lai being omitted : Eur. Troad. 74. 
eVotju , a jSouXet, tott' e/tiou {sc. eari). Plat. Phadr. p. 252 A. 
(77 4'^\'n) ^ovXeveiv eTot'^tij®. With (ppovSoc: Eur. Hec. 163. 
(ppovdoa irpkapvc, (jipov^oi Trainee. &c. but Soph.Aut. 15. (ppov- 
Soc eariv Apye'iojv arparoQ. e'lKoc, for ei/coc ecni Isocr. tt. aur. 
^.33\. ed.Bekk. riplv S' 'A-^iXXevc n^ioc npiic Eur. Hec. 309. 
Plat. Phil. p. 16 B. i]v SrjXcuo-at pev ov navv ■^aXeiroi', YprjaOaL 
C€ TrayyaXeirov. 

« Schol. Ven. ad II. v, 138. Eu- ^ Dorv. ad Charit. p. 228. Valck. 

stath. ad Od. k', p. 1667, 33. Od. 'i,', ad Eur. Ph. p. 335. Pors. ad Eurip. 

216. p. 1762, 32. Lesbonax p. 179. Phoen. 983. Plat. Pha;dr. 

c. n. Valck. p. 267. Schsef. Melet. in Dion. H. 

'' Dorv. ad Charit. p. 563. Heind. 1, 1. p. 43 seq. 114. ad Lamb. Bos. 

ad Plat. Parm. p. 243 seq. p. C04 scij. 


522 Syntax. Of the Use of the Nominative. 

Thus also with verbals. Xen. Mem. S. 1,7, 2. el rtc, yiuj 
tjv ayaOoQ av\nTr}G, ^OKelv (5ov\oito, ti av avrto Trotrjreov etrj ; 
ap ov Til et,(i) T^c, Te\(vr]Q f.iii.Li]Teov rove, ayat/ovc auAJjTac ; 

Kai 7rp(x)TOV |uev--- Kcti toutw raura Troi/jreov* eTreira 

Kui rovro) ttoWovc eTraiverac, irapaaKevaar kov. aAAa 

firiv epyov ye ovdajiiov \ri7rTeov. eari, however, is often used : 
Isocr. Tc. avr. §. 299. crTrouoacTTeov eari. 

. Other persons are also omitted, as Eur. Hel. 1543. ei^evai 
TrpoOvjuoc sc. ei^u'. Soph. CEd. T. 92. eToi/iioc eiwelv. and in the 
plur. Soph. Ant. 634. i] aoi f.iev T;^<e?o iravray^y dpcovrec, CJyiXoi ; 
sc. ecTjiiev. Od. a , 125. toiou yap kcii Trarpoc, sc. elc,^. 

eari, nv are also generally omitted after ov^elc, where the 
relative oc, oaric follows with a negation. Herod. 5, 97. /cot 
ov^eu {eariv) o ri ovk inrea^y^ero. Soph. CEd. T. 372. av o 
(iBXioc ye, ravr ovei^'iCiov, a aoi ovdeiG oc ov^i twvS oveiciel 
raya. * there is no one of these who will not immediately re- 
proach you with tlie same', nemo no)i tihi exprohrahit. Plat. 
Menon. p. 1 \ A. ei yovv nva eOeXeiQ ovrtoc epeaOai rcHv evOace, 
ov^eiG oariG ov yeXaaerai. It occurs at full length Xen. Cyr. 
1 , b, 61. ovceic, yap rjv, oaric, ovk av al^iioaetev. This phrase, 
however, is usually considered as one word, in the sense of the 
Latin nemonon, * every one'. Plat. Hipp. Maj. p. 299 A. Kara- 
yeXio av rijxhiv ov^eic, oaric, ov. In this case ov^e'ic, is put in the 
samecase as'the relative pronoun following. Plat. Menon. p.lOC 
are icai avroc, Trapeyjov avrov epivrav rwv FAXifvwv rto (iovXo- 
/Lievio on av ric povXrjrai, Kai ovSevi otw ovk airoKpivoi^ievoc. 

id. Phadon. p. 1 1 7 D. A-TToXXo^Mpoc ovVeva ovriva ov Kare- 

KXavae rwv irapovrwv. id. Akib. \.p. 105 E. eXiriZac, e^^eic 
ev ry TroXei evcei^aaOai, ort avry iravroc, o^ioc e\, evZei^u^evoc, 
ce OT«, ovcev o ri ov wapavriKa cvvijaeaOai. Xcnoph. Ci/rop. 
1, 4, 26. ovceva ecpaaav ovrn' ovk aTToarpe(peaOai^\ ear'iv is 
often found with ov for ouSet'q : Eiir. Ale. 860. ovk eanv oaric, 
avrov e^atpi]aerai. also with ovdeic, id. El, 907. ovk eanv ov- 
ceic, oaric, ov /ne/nxpairo aoi. In these and other cases, however, 
there is often an emphasis on ear'iv, Eur. Hec. 864. ovk can 
Ovrirwv banc, ear' eXevOepoc 'there exists no mortal'*^. 

•■* Scliaef. ad Lamb. Bos. I.e. Seitll. ad Xen. Cyrop. 1. c. 
ad Eur. El. 37. <= ,See the passages in Elmsl. ad 

'' Herm. ad Wg. p. 709, 29. Scbneid. Kur. Med. 775. 

Si/)t/(/x. ()/' //w iscoflhc \ontii/<i//ve. 523 

So eaTi as a copula is omitted with subst. Soph. Phil. 855. 
ovpoG Toi, reKvov, ovpoc. Eur. Andr. 86. k'iv^vvoc. Pint. Leg. 
10. 2^' 907 D. ttAXa eXiriQ. Kaipoc, ' it is time', is often so 
used, and lopa almost always, "opa riBrj inricvai. 

kari, eia'i are also often omitted after the relative pronoun : 
Od. V , 298. ol KUTci ^lo/iiuT O^vaarjoc, Oe'ioio. Eur. Ah. 168. 
Travrac ce. pwpova, o'l kut' A^/^tTjTOU So/iovc 7rpocft]X9e, comp. 
Plat. Leg. 10. p. 891 E. also after oc av, if y or mcti should 
have followed, //. ^ , 376. oc ^e k dvrjp i^ieveyapfioc sc. y, 
comp. a', 547. jj', 286. especially after ootiq 'whosoever it 
be': Eur. Here. F. 1266. Zeuc S', oaTic, o Zeuc, TroXkfiiov /x 
eyeivuTo' Hpa. Ores/. 4 18. at full length, ^ovXevojiiev Oeolc, 
o Ti TTOT eiaiv ol Beo'i. e'lpi is also wanting after conjunctions: 
//. 6 , 230. OTTOT ev Ayi/nvio sc. lire or rijj.Gv. Eur. Hipp. 664. 
ear av eKSrjjuoc, ■)^Bovoc, Qrjcrevc sc. y. HeiX.F. 1122, el /nijKeb' 
' AiSov ^(iKyjoc, (sc. etc) eKCppaaai^ev av^. 

Ohs. Other verbs also are omitted, but only when they are found 
near at hand, in the chief or subordinate proposition, e. g. Eur. Med. 
11G2. (piXovs rojxi^ov(T, ovenrep ay ttoctis ueBev sc. vopi'C]]. Sojih. 
Track. 461. where kveyKairo is to be supplied from yreyKu-o, as in the 
case of u/aTrep av el §. 522>, 2. Time. 1, 82. oaoi uiairep kuI ///ueTs vk 
'Adrjvatwi' eTrijiovXevofxeda, for oaoi eTnjwvXevovTai, oia-Trep kui ij/.ie'is evrt- 
fiovKevujjteQa. Xen. Cyr. 4, 1, S. So with the imperat. Eur. Or. 1043. 
(TV vvv fx, aEeXfe, yu/; Tis'Ap-yeiMi' ktc'ii >], for av rvv [.te KTe2i€. See §. 511. 
This is the same attraction, of which other examples are given §. 634. 

The verb e0»/, like inquit in Latin, is commonly separated from its 
subject by some of the words quoted. The subject either precedes, as 
Xen. Mem. S. 2, 1, 26. kuI 6 'llpuKXrjs aKOvaas -avra, oj yvvai, e(p7], 
ovojia l-e aoi ti eariv, or follows. Plat. Phcedo7i. 2i. 77 C. ev Xeyeis, etpr], 
w 2(/i^ia, 6 Ke/3>j$^. Not unfrequently, however, the subject and the 

verb are found together, as Xe7i. l. c.\. Ka\ 6 'AplarnvKos ecltt] 

10. Krai i 'LwKpu.T^s e(pr] ^ or in the opposite order ib. 8. eywy', 

e(j)rf 6 'Apiarnnros. It has been already observed, §. 215. Obs. 2. that 
€<pr] is used even when a word of similar signification precedes. 

The verbs which in themselves do not constitute a complete 307. 

•' Scha^f. ad Lamb. B. 1. c. ad fHeind. Cic. de Nat. D. 1, 7, 17. 

Brunck. Gnoni. p. •2'2. is in error in regard to this. 

*= lleiud. ad Phsedon. §. 01. p. 97. 

524 Syntax. Of the Use of the Numinative. 

predicate, but require another word, are, with the exception of 
verbs signifying * being or becoming' {ein'i, vitapyw, -yivof-iat), 
or those in which this idea is included, as inevu), ire^vKa, kcit- 
ecTTnv &,c. chiefly the passives, which signify * to be called ' 
(/caXou^at, ovo/jialoiiiai 8cc.), ' to be named or chosen for any- 
thing' {aipovfxaiy -^eipoTOvov/iiai Scc), 'to appear, to be consi- 
dered as anything, to be acknowledged' {(palvofiai, koiKo, vo- 
fxitopai). They have also the additional word in the nomina- 
tive. This usaa'e belono-s to the Latin as well as the Greek. 

To this belongs also uKoveiv, signifying ' to be called'. Soph. 
(Ed. C. 988. corap. (Ed. T. 903 seq. Cor. p. 241. 
dvrl yap (ji'iXwv Kai ^erwr, o Tore Mvo/natovTO, ip'iKa ecojpo- 
BoKovv, vvv KuXaKCC Kcti OecuQ e'^dpnt Km raWa, a TTpoai]Keif 
iravT aKovovaiv. Theocr. 29, 21. al yap w^e iroric, ay aOoQ 
liiev aKovaeai e^ aaruiv. SvvaaOai ' to mean' Herod. 2, 30. 
SvvaTai Se tovto to eTroc Kara rriu EAAjji'wf yXioacrav oi e^ 
api(JT€piJQ "^eipoG irapiardf.ievoi jSaaiXei. T/iuc. 7, 58. adds elvai 
after ^vvarai, as after KaXeladai §. 420. OOs. 1. 

308. With ovopa eari and the dative of the person or thing, and 
ovopa e'x^'' '^^'l^i'^^^ refers to a subject, the name is j)ut in the 
nominative, as with ovo^iaX,eadai, with which both phrases ac- 
cord in signification ; and not, as in Latin, in the genitive or 
dative, eat ei nornen TitUii or TuUio. Od. >j , 54. Api^rri B' 
ovof.1 eaTiv eTroivu^ioi'. Herod. 2, 17. tokti ovvo/naTa Keerai 
Tooe* no fiiev ^aiTiKov avrwi', t<o Be IVIero/jtrioi'. 7,216. 
ovvojiia ce tm ovpei tovtm kui ti/ arpaTTio tmvto /ceirat Avo- 
Traia. Eur! Troad. 1241. P/af. Theag!p. 124 D. E. EiVo^ 
ovv av /iioi, Tiva eiriovviniav t^ei Ba/cic re Kai ^i(5vX\a Kal 
o 7'j|UeOa7roc Af^iCpiXvToc, ; 0E. Tiva yap oAArjr, w ^u}KpaTec, 

7rXr}v ye -^prjcr/^i woot ; tivu eTriovvpiav e^et iTTiriac Kai 

Tiep'iavBpoG; OE. oi/^iai /iiei', tv pavvoi. de Le^. 12. p. 956 C. 
ciKaaTr]pia)v ce to jiiev tt/owtoi' alpeTOi SiKaaral y'lyvoiVT av, 
ovc, av o (pevy(i)V re Kai o oiwkwv eXoivrai Koivy], BiaiTtjTai 
oLKaaruiv rovuoiiia iJ.aXXov Trpenou e^oi'Tec. Plato once joins 
the one name, in the case of ovo/na as an accusative, to the other 
in the nominative. Symp. p. 205 D. oi Se Kara ev ti elSoc lovrec 
Kai ecTirovBaKOTec to tov uXov uvofxa e^ouo-tr, epiord re Kai 
epdv Kai epaarai. Cratyl. p. 384C. oi> (l)i]<Ji aoi'Eppoycvci 

Syntax. Of the Use of the Noi/unative. 525 

uifo/iia eU'ai Bekker reads 'Kpjuoyevr}, as Theeet. p. 150 A. y Srj 
Trpoayioyeia ovofxa, for TTjOoaywyeta*. Hes. Thcog. 144. Ku- 
AcXwTrec B' ovof.1 r]aav eiriovvf-iov is a combination of this construc- 
tion with that §. 305. where i]<jav, being attracted to Kii/cAoiTre^, 
is instead of jJv. 

The words which in the predicate are added to e'ljjii and 309. 
other such verbs, are mostly adjectives, though sometimes also (^o?) 
substantives and adverbs. 

a. The adjectives are sometimes put in the gender and 
number of the subject, sometimes in the neuter sing, number, 
with subjects in the masculine and feminine, or plural. See 
§. 437 seq. 

/;. Examples of substantives in the predicate are already- 
given, §. 264. Obs. In this case, however, a noun is often 
used which indicates an employment or thing in general, instead 
of a word that properly belongs to the case in question, ahs- 
tractum pro concreto, §. 429, 1. Herod. 6, 112. rewc Se r\v 
ToT(ji''EAA?jflrt icai TO o\)voj.ia to M/jSwv ^o/3oq aKovaai, stronger 
than cpo(5ef)6v. Comp. Eurip. Troad. 242. U- p , 38. ri /ce 
ac^iv SeiAoTcrt yoou KaTuiravf-ia •yei'ot/nji', for KaraTravariKoc,. 
The substantive in the predicate then often expresses its object 
or that which is produced in the subject by the substantive, 
where in Latin esse with the dative of the person and the thing- 
is used, a construction which is not in use in Greek. //. tt, 
498. aoi yap eyw Kai eireira /caTTj^etr/ Kai uveiBoc, kaaof.iai, 

prohro tibi era. p , 636. ottmc, X"W*" ^lAotc erapoiai ye- 

vCjfxeBa vo(TTri(xavT€C, as a god, e. g. Bacchus, is often named 
with the apposition xapf.ia ftpoTo7(n. Herod. 3, 156." comp. 
1,6. Xen. Mem. S. 2, 3, 6. {Xaipe(pu)v) e/Lio\ ^rj/tta juaAAov 1] 
fL<|)eAeta eariv, magis detrimento quam utilitati est. Similar 
to this is Eur. Phccn. 733. kcu junv to viKih' eari irav evftov 
X'la, i. e. ev ev^ovX'ia eariv ' depends on prudence', where the 
substantive could not be replaced by ev^ovXov. 

This substantive in the predicate is often different in gender 
and number from the subject. //. n , 98. r; f.iev dn Aw/3rj ra^e 
y eaaerai a'lvuOev a'lvwc,. Eur. Suppl. 552. TraXaiapaO jj/iwr o 

» Ileind. ;id Plal. Theal. p. 307. ad Ciatvl. p. C. 

526 Si/ntax. Of the Use of the Nonunatlve. 

(5ioc, 'our life is a struggle'. Med. 54. Bacch. 1029. Thuc. 
2, 44. idia yap tmv ovk uvtiov Xi]6ri ol eTTiyiyvoinevoi (Traioec) 
Ticnv eaovrat. Plat. Menon. p. 91 C. ouTOt -ye (oi aocpicrrai) 
(^avepa eari Xw/3>j re Kai Sia(l)9opa t(jjv avyyiyvojuevwi', i. e. 
AwjSwi/Tai re /cat Sia(^0ei'jooiicri tovc avyyiyv. In the same way 
are to be explained the passages in Tlnic. 4, 26. a'lViov Se i?v 
oi AaKe^ai/iXovioi TrpoenrovTec,, for airioi i)(Tav. 8, 9. a'trtoi' o 
eyeveTO ttJc, uttocttoAjjo twi' vewi' oi pev ttoWoi twv Xiwv ovk 
e'lBoTeQ TO. TTpaaaopeva, ol Se oXiyoi ^vvei^orec, where the par- 
ticiple with the subject in the nominative is not put instead of 
the accusative with the infinitive, according to the opinion of 
the Scholiast, although it might also be atriov de r)v or eyevero, 
OTL ol AaKedaip. ir poeiiTOv , on ol pev ttoAXoi i/Seativ, and this 
is the only construction admitted in Latin. In the same manner 
Thucydides began the construction 3, 93. n'lnov Be t)v o't re 
©effcroXot, ei' Svvapei ovtcq twv Tavry -^(opuov Kai (vv ewi ry 
yy e/CTt^ero, (pojdovpevoi, p{] ocpiai peyaXtj layvi irapoiKojai, 
(pOeipovT ec Kai TroXepovvre c, but from the distance of 
the principal verbs from their nominative, being separated by 
other participles, he was led to consider the last part as an in- 
dependent proposition, and therefore altered the construction, 
e(p9eipov Kui eiToXepovv, and thus the words a'lTiov Be rfv are 
similar to the phrase TeKpi]piov Be, ar]pe1ov Be, except that yap 
could not follow (o'l re yap G.), because properly oi OeacraXoi 
should be the subject to ainov rjv. 

Sometimes a substantive serves at once both for subject and 
predicate. Soj)!/. Phil. 81. aAA' i]Bv yap roi Krripa t^c vIkijc, 
XajSelu, for TO KT. T. V. I'lBv KTrjpa eariv, though this may also 
be construed, r]Bv eari Xa(5eii> KTrjpa rijc, viki^c, i. e. riBv can 
KTciaOai viKi]v ' to acquire a victory'. Eur. Aiidr. 181. cmCpOo- 
vov Ti \pripa dr]Xeiwu eCpv, for -^pijpa Oi]X. ciricpOovov rt -^prjpa 
eari'^. Comp. Herod. 1, 160. rov Be' KrapveoQ rovrov (y^wpoc) 

kdTl yjuipOC, TTJC, Ml^CTO/O. 

In the tragic and lyric writers substantives and adjectives 
often stand in the predicate for an adjective alone. Soph. Aj. 
79. ovKOvv yeAwc uBiaroc, eic, eyQpovc, yeXuv, for r]Bic!rov eariv 

■' Ilcnu. ad Phil. 1. c. Malthiiu ad Eu^. Audr. I. c. 

Sj/utax. Of the Use of the Nominative. 527 

etc e. y. Eur. Iph, T. 1128. ro yap jxeT evrvylac KUKovaQai 
Bvaroic (5apvQ a'lojv, for (5apv eari. El. 69 seq. fxeyaXt] Be dvn- 
role, inolpa avjLiCpopac, KaKrjc larpov evpeiv, for /teya egtiv, ' it is 
of great value'. Find. Pyth. 2, 173 seq. ttotI Kevrpov Be rot 
AaKritepev reXedet oXiaOripoc, ol;tio<; • , 

c. Adverbs in the predicate. //. I', 130. ovBe AvKoopyoQ (308) 
Briv riv, for BtjvaioG. comp. a', 416. »? , 424. ■^aXeTTtoQ Tqu. 
Herod. 6, 109. roTcrt Se ' AOrjva'iwv arparriyolai eyivovro ti^a 
al yvojpai. Thucyd. 4, 61. ov yap ro7c, eOveaiv, on Bi-^a ire- 
(pvKe, rov erepov er^Oei Trpoaiaaii'. Aristot. Folit. 6, 3.fn. eav 

Bi'y^a 7] eKKXr]aia yevrirai. Xenoph. Cyrop. 4, 1, 18. et pa- 

6y](Jovrai, -y^ioplc, yevopevoi, rtpiv evavriovaOai. Herod. 8, 60. 
ev ^aXaplvi i)p7v Kai Xoyiov eari rwv ey9poji> KarvirepOe 
yeveaQai. Eurip. IpJiig. T. 1014. liXic ro K€ivt]G alpa {eari), 
as Or. 1037. aXic ro pr]rpoc. a^ix' eyw Be a ov Krevw (where 
the opposition is, aXX' avro^,^elpl BvrjaKe, and on this account 
an emphasis is thrown on e-yw). comp. Ale. 684. Eur. Ion. 
285. parnv Xoyoc, for paraioc, as Isocr. Paneg. parrjv elvai 
ro pepvrjaOai irepi avrajv*^. 

Obs. The passage in P/rtf. Euthyphr. p. 2 C. D. belongs not to this class, 
(MeAiros) pol (palyerai twv tzoKitikwv ixoros op^eo-flru opQios' opOuis yap 
ttxri Tuiy veioy •n-ptSrov €TripeXy]drjiai, ottws eaovrai on apiaroi. For here 
opdm kaTi is not for opQov Ian, but it would be fully, opdujs yap nZv 
TToXiTLKwy apyeaQuL k<TTi tQv veujv eTripeXrjOni'ai, ' the care of youth is 
the proper commencement of state affairs', as ib. p. 14; D. up ovi' to 
ye opdws alrelu ai' eir], lov ceofjieda Trap'' txeiywi', ravra avrovs airely. 
Thus also Leg. 3. p. 697 B. eel /.at ayayKaloy ripus re kuI ariplas cia- 
vepeiv. KA. 'O|O0ws. A9. "Eort ce opGws (cmj^ejuetv rip. Kal ut.), ripi- 
wrara pey Kal Trpwra ret Trepl rrjy \pvx^))v ayctQa KeTtrdai. lb. j). 709 E. 
tI peril TovT elirely opdios eariy {elnely) ; and in the passages which 
Heusde Spec, in Plat. p. 6. adduces, viz. Cratyl. p. 38S C. Hipiparch. 
p. 227 C. 

With verbs also which have a complete signification of them- 310. 
selves, a second nominative case is put as a predicate, which is (309) 
to be explained by wq 'as', Soph. El. 130. yevedXa yevmi'wv 

i* Matthiit not. ad Bacch. 9G0. Ant. 633. Stallb. ad Euthyphr. p. 10. 

"^ Valck. ad Ph. V. 1241. Schuet'. Schct t'cr ad Greg. p. 83. 
ad Dionys. Hal. p. 76. Erf. adSopli. 

528 Si/nlax. Of the Uae of the Nominaiive. 

roKewv, I'lKer' tyiiwi' Ka/xaTwv Trapai-ivOiov ' as a comfort, as com- 
forters'. 26. 1 14 1. fiXX' cv p»oj(Ti xepai Kvt^evQeic raXac, af.uKpoQ 
TrpoarjKeiQ oyKOQ ev a/iUKpw Kvrei^. See §. 428, 1. 

Of the construction 'EX XrjvoTo^iiat KUTearv "/'X^''' ^^^ 
§. 433. Obs. 4. 

311. Sometimes also a nominative is put without a verb following, 

(310) nominativus absohitus. These are avaKoXovB'iai, where the writer 
considers the thing of which he is about to speak, absolutely, 
or as a subject, but is led, in consequence of a parenthesis, to 
change the construction. Soph. (Ed. C. 1239. ev 10 {yvpa) 
rXijjiiMV oSe, ovK eyw jnovor,, TrdvroOev popeioc, wo tic aKrn 
Ku^mroTrX?}^ y/etuep'ia KXoveirai, wc Kal rov^e KmaKpac, ceivai 
KVf.iaToayeic aTai KAoveovaiv aei ^vvovaai, tor rAit^uov oce 
araic /cXoveTrat. Plat. Thecvt. p. 173 D. a^rov^ai Se eraipeuov 
err' ap-vac 7) avvo^oi Kai ^elirva Kai avv avXyjrpicn Ku)/noi, ouoe 
ovap Trparreiv TrpoaiaraTai auroTc. Xen. Hier. 4, 6. uyairep 01 
a9Xr)Tai ov-^, orav idiiOTcov yeviovrai KpeirTOvc,, tovto avrovc, 
ev(bpaivei, aXX' , orav tujv avTayioviarMV i]ttovc,, tout avTOVc, 

avia, for TovTM evcppaivovrai avitovTai, as soon afterwards 

ovTiA) Kai o TvpavvoQ evCppa'iverai tovtm XvTrelrai. Comp. 

6, 16. Thus also Cicero de Fin. 2, 33, 107. hccc leviora, 

poema, orationem cum ant scribis ant legis, signum, tabula, 

locus amanus, ludi, venatio, villa Luculli (na)nsi tuam dicerem, 
latebram haberes; ad corpus diceres pertiuere) sed ea, qucc dixi, 
ad corpusne refers?^ Comp. §. 562. 

(311) The nominative is used also in exclamations. Soph. Trach. 
1046. (1) TToXXa S17 Kai Oeppii Kai Xoyio kuko. kui \cp(n Kai 
vbjTOKJi poyduaac, eyu)! Hurip. Iph. A. 1305. to dvaruXaiva 
eyu>! Comp. jEsch. Pers. 515. Eur. Iph. T. 560. 

" Koen ad Gregor. p. (153) 331. 21, 3. ad Cicer. Tusc. 3, 8. Ilcind. 

'' Kuster ad Arist. Plut. 277. ad Plat. Thca?t. p. 389. ad Cratyl. 

Ilcmsterh. ad Lucian. 3. p. 377. p. 68. Kocn ad Greg. p. 87. ed. 

Brunck ad Soph. Aulig. 260. ad Schief. Ast ad Plat. Leg. p. 145. 
Arist. Ran. 1137. Davis ad Ma.x.Tyr. 


Of the Vocative. 

The vocative is used, as in English and Latin, in addresses. 31; 
With respect to the Greek language the following remarks will 
be sufficient : 

1. For the vocative the nominative is often used. -f/. y , 

277. Zeu irarep 'HeXioc 0', oq ttcivt ecpopac. So in 

energetic addresses, oi ovtog, heus tu, and without tJ, ovroc, 
ri SpuQ ; Arist. Plat. 439. avrt] av, ttoi arpeipei ; id. Thesm. 
610. Soph. Aj. 71. ovTOC, ak-- 'Trpoaj.ioXeiv kuXm, and 89. tu 
ovToc. A'lac. This is the address commonly of superiors to in- 
feriors, or of elder to younger persons ^. Plat. Si/mp. p. 1 72 A. 
o <I>aX77|Oeuc OVTOC, 'AttoXXoSw/joc, ov Trepif-ievelQ ', With 
the vocative we sometimes find an apposition with the article 
which characterizes a person in himself without reference to him 
who addresses him. Xen. Cyr. 6, 3, 33. /cal av 8e, o apy^ojv twv 
ewi ToiQ Ka/iiiiXoiQ av^ptjjv, oTTiaOev twi' appapat,iov e/CTOTTOu . 

On the other hand the vocative is sometimes used instead of 
the nominative, an attraction taking place by means of which 
the address- is blended with the designation which is annexed 
to it. Soph. Phil. 760 seq. iw ^vorrive av, ^vaTtjve ^rjra ^la 
7r6v(x)v TTavTwv (baveic, from Bvarrive and ^varrivoQ (paveic- 

Aj. 695. lo Uav, Hal' aXiVXay/CTe KvXXaviac awo cei- 

pa^oc cpdvnOi, that which properly belongs only to <pavri9i, a\i- 
irXayKToc, (pavriOi i. e. virep aXa (pavrjdi, is considered as an ob- 
jective designation, a quality belonging independently to Pan. 
Eur. Troad. 1229. Callim. Fr. 213. Bend, avri yap eKXi'iOric 
''Ifx^paae HapOev'iov, from'' I pjBpaae and'' l^ijipacfoc, e/cX//0>)C. In 
Theocr. 17,66. oX|3te Ktvpe yevoio, the attraction is obliterated^. 

2. The vocative is often put in the singular when the verb 

<= Heind. ad Plat. Prot. p. 460. Soph. Aj. 89. Fisch. 3 a. p. 319 sq. 

Blomfield p. 11. quotes ^sch. Pers. Lcnnep ad Phal. p. 94 seq. 

IGl. where two constructions are ^ Schaef. ad ApoU. Rh. p. 193. ad 

mixed according to him, w firJTep Theocr. 1. c. Seidl. ad Eur. Troad. 

^ep^ou and »/ /n»/r»?p ovrra A. 1229. Ilerm. ad Soph. Aj. 680. 

'i Gregor. p.47. et Koen, Valck. Buttm. ad Soph. Phil. 761. Conip. 

ad Eurip. Ph. 5, 1332. 1434. Musgr. Ilcind. ad llor. Sat. p. 385. 
ad Eurip. Iph. T. 1234. Brunck ad 

530 Syntax. Of ihc Vocative. 

is in the dual or plural. Od. /3', 310. 'Avt'ivo, ovmoc €(ttIv 
v7rep(l)id\oi(n i^ieO' v/^nv BaiuvaOai. Comp. Od. a , 130.^ On the 
other hand, the verb is found in the singular with the vocative 
plural in the oracle Herod. 7, 140. and the verb in the singu- 
lar with two vocatives Plat. Prot. p. 311 D. enrk fxoi, w 2w- 
Kparec, re Kai 'iTrvoKpaTec,. Comp. Euthi/d. p. 283 B.'^ Soph^ 
(Ed. C. 1102. w re/crov, ^ irdpeaTOV ; 1104. TrpoeXOer oj 
Tra7, Trarpi, where (Edipus points out Antigone alone, who has 
addressed him, but means Isniene also. Comp. Phil. 369. with 
Hermann's note on Eur. Iph. A. 1378. 

3. When a person turns suddenly from a narration, &c. to 
an address, or passes in an address from one person to an- 
other, the vocative is commonly put first. Hesiod. ' Epy. 210. 
'^Qg ecpaT (o/cuTrerrjc tprj^, ravva'nTTepoc opvic,. 'Q Ylepcri], av o 
dKove^'iKrjc. Comp.246.272. /A r, 86. (^',448. Of/.y',247. 
Soph. El. 507. ywpol^i av ec, roB' . 'AvTiydvr], ai) S cvdaSe 
(pvXacrae irarkpa rov^e. Plat. Theag. p. 127 C. Udvv ku'Sujc, 
XeyeiQ. ^Q 'EojKparec, rrpoc, ae S' av i}dr) eirj o fxera tovtov 
Aoyoc^ (r) : and before the possessive pronoun Pind. Pyth. 7, 
10, 15. Also with adversative particles //. t, 429. ''E/cto^j, 
drap av /.loi earl Trariip. Soph. (Ed. C. 237. lo.^evoi aiBo- 

(bpovec, dXX efxk rav /aeXeav oiKTiaare. The vocative, 

however, is not unfrequently placed after the pronoun, e. g. 
Eur. Or. 1 676. rd fxev KaO' 'EAti^ijv wS' 'i\ei' ac S av ^pewv, 

Opeara, oiKeiv. 

4. Generally, but not necessarily, J precedes this vocative. 
Of its position see §.277, b. 

5. Instead of the vocative an oblique case is often found in 
the apposition : Soph. (Ed. T. 1119. ere Tr/jwr eptvTw, rov 
KopivOiov ^evov. Eur. Phan. 702. Kai ae, rov Trpo/ndTopoc 

'lovG ttot' CKyovov ''^.TTaCpov eKaXeaa. Comp. Hel. 355. 

1116. where 1 120. eXde follows. El. 155. Theocr. 11, 39.^ 
A transition is also sometimes made from the vocative to the 
construction with a verb active, e. g. KaXtS. jEsch. Prom. 9 1 . w 

* Brunck ad Arist. Ran. 1479. " Porson et Schief. ad Eurip. Or. 

Soph. Phil. 369. Lob. ad Aj. 191. 614. Ilenn. ad Soph, El. 147. 

Schief. ad Soph. (Ed. C. 1102. ** Markl. ad Eur. Iph. A. 791. 

^ Schaf. App. Demosth. p. 331, 

Si/nla.i. 0/ t lie Vocative. 531 

Atoc a'lOiip, Traf.if.ii]Tup re yo, Kai rov TravoiTTrjv kvkXov tjAiou 

KctXtS. Soph. Aj. 856. or connected with the active verb, which 
precedes the vocative, (Hd. T. 159. {eKTerajiuu) irpMra ae /ce- 
kX6ij.€voc, OvyaTep Atoo, a/^i(3poT AOava, -yaidoy^ov r abeXc^eav 
'' Kprepiv, KOI <I>o?j3ov e/caj3oAoi'. comp. 203 seq. Some- 
times when the person addressed is not distinguished by a per- 
sonal pronoun, CEfZ. C. 1090. ae/xva re ttcuc DaXXac AOava, 

Kal Kaaiyvrirav arepyu) ^iwXac, apojyuQ /joXeTv, for Kai 

ae, ae/^iva 'A^ai'a, Kal . On the Other hand, a trans- 
ition is made from the accusative, which is defined by an active 
verb, to the vocative : Soph. Trach. 96 seq. ' AXiov airw towto, 

Kapv^ai (jij Xaf-iTTpa arepoTTa <pXeye6(i)v . (v. 102.) 

e'tV, w KpaTiareviov kut oj.if.ia. Hur. Ion. 925. In all these 
forms the active verb is sometimes left out, see §. 427, a. So 
with the vocative or the personal pronoun the name of the person 
addressed is often added in the accusative with Xeyu). ALsch. Ag. 
1044. eiatx) KOf-iiCov Kai av, Jiaaau^pav Xeyw. Soph. Phil. 
1261. Comp. §.432, 4. 

Ohs. In die lyrical and tragic writers we often find an invocation not 
followed by anything said in relation to that which is invoked. Thus 
Pind. Pytli. 1. yjtvaea 0(jp/.tty^ is invoked, but it is not till v. 112. that 
the poet mentions the purpose for which he has invoked the lyre — to 
celebrate Hiero. Nem. 8. nothing at all is mentioned that has any 
reference to the invocation "^pa ttotvlu. This maybe the result of lyric 
impetuosity; but several tragedies of Euripides begin with similar invo- 
cations, though in a quite unimpassioned mood, viz. Alcestis, Andro- 
mache, and Electra. Comp. El. 432.'' The passages are of a diflTerent 
kind in which a proposition with yap follows immediately upon the ad- 
dress ; for in these the purpose of the address is not mentioned till after- 
wards, and the causal proposition is placed first, after the manner of the 
Greeks, explained in§. 615. //. j/, 327. 'Arpe(^//re iculuXkoi apiffrfjes Ila- 

ya^^aiwv TToXKul yap redi'ucrL : and that to which Nestor invites 

Agamemnon and the Greeks is not mentioned till v. 331. rw ae y^p>) 
TToXe/zov fxkv a[jL t)oi Tcavaai 'Aj^aiwf. Comp. Od, a.', 174. 17(5. )(', 7 0. 
73. Pind. 01. 4. v. 1. 10. 8. v. 1. 12. In other passages, that on ac- 
count of which any one is addressed is implicated with subordinate pro- 
positions, which contain designations of the person addressed, as Horn. 
H. in Apoll. 4tl5 seq. where we ought to read L,e'iroi, toi — uf-Kpirepeffde 
TO irph', vvy fikv oiiKed' vTrorpoiroi avBis eaeade &c. according to §. (J32. 

= Seidl. ad Eur. El. 1. 

532 Sj/nlax. Of the Genitive. 

Oblique Cases. 

!13. The remaining relations, which the verb In the predicate re- 
quires to be adjoined, either according to its nature, or in par- 
ticular combinations, are expressed by what are called the ob- 
lique cases (i. e. those which must always be dependent upon 
other words), the genitive, dative, and accusative. The most 
extensive range among these cases belongs to 

The Genitive, 

which may stand not only with the predicate, but with any 
word of the proposition. Its chief purpose is to express that 
in which something else is found, whether as a property, a qua- 
lity, an action, or generally as a more precise definition. 

314. I. The genitive is used in Greek, as in all other languages, 
to express, of two substantives placed in juxtaposition and re- 
ciprocal relation, that one to which the other in any way belongs, 
e. g. aperrj avBpoc, KaWoQ yvvaiKoc, TroXe/ttoc A9t]vaiiov Kai 
YleXoTTOvi'rja'nov, v'loc,, yvvij, Trarrip Qe/^ncFTOKXeovc, inasmuch as 
Themistocles may be considered as the subject, to which his 
son, his wife, his father, are conceived to belong as an accident. 
Nothing here depends on the objective relation of the things 
described, but only on the manner in which the speaker at the 
time subjectively considers their relation. On this use it is not 
necessary to enlarge. 

315^ II. The genitive is used to denote the person or thing in which 
anything is found, whether as a property or a quality, a custom, 
a duty. See. ; and also that from which anything originates. 

(371) 1. Property. o'lKeloc, 'i^ioc tivoc. Isocr. ad Nicocl. p. 19 Ti. 
f'nravTa to. tojv o'ikovvtmv tiiv ttoXiv ot/ceTa twi* kgAcoc pam- 
\ev6vT(i)v cGTi. So the article only is used with the genitive, to. 
rwv o'lKovvTwv Tr\v iroXiv ' the property of the citizens'. Hence 
lepoc, with a genitive Ilcrod. 2, 72. ipovc, Se tovtovc, tou Net- 
\ov (^afft. Plat. Phcrdon. p. 85 B. Eur, Ale. 76. So in the 
tragic writers, ''AiSoi' ^ioXttoj Eur, Suppl, 775. Here. F. 1028. 

Sj/ntax. 0/ the Genitive. 533 

El. 143. (^Bifxevwv evSuTtt Here. P. 441. ^songs, garments con- 
secrated to Hades, to the dead'. 

etvat and ■yi-yi'etTSat especially denote with the genitive *to be- 
long'. Ilerod. 3, 1 1 7. touto to TreSiov r]v f.ikv Kore X O|0 a ff/tiiw i', 

CTrei re Se Ilejoa-fa ej^ovai to KpuTOc, ecrri tou paai- 

Xeoc*. id. 2, 134. A'/o-wttoc la^f-iovoc eyevero, sc. dovXoc . 
Hence Soph. CEd. I'. 411. ov K/ocoi/tog irpoararov yeypa\po(jiai 
' a client of Creon, belonging to Cr. as my patron', eavrov elvai 
' to be one's own master, free'. Dem. Olynth. p. 26. 27. v/lkJov 
avrtSv yevo/xevovc,. Comp. p. 42, 10. 1456, 9. Isocr. de Pac. 
j:;. 185B. Plat.Gorg. p. 508D. el/ni^e eTrlno ^oyXof-ievajfioairep 
ol iiTi/noi Tov eOeXovTOQf av re Tvirreiv povXrjrai 'aminthe 
power of any one who chooses'. Politic, p. 307 E. ovrec aei 
Twv eTririBef.ikvh}v ^ a prey to those who attack them', as .Sop/f. 
CEc?. C. 752. ToiiTTtoj^Toc ' a prey to the first comer'. Soph. (Ed. 
r. 917. a\X eari rov Xeyovroc, vv (pojSovc Xeyrj 'he gives him- 
self up to any one who relates alarming things'. Xeyovri iravri 
Treiderai, as it is explained by the grammarians in Bekk. Anecd. 
p. 65. Id. Antig. 737. ttoAic yap ovk caO', jjtic av^poc, cgO 
ei'oc. Demosth. c. Payitan. p. 982, 3. /i/jtc avyyvMjxnc, /^nW 
aXXov jiirj^euoc, eiGiv, aXX' i] rov irXe'iovoc, where eiai properly 
belongs only to wXeiovoc, * are devoted to gain, aggrandizement', 
but by a zeugma is referred to the other also. 

To this class also, in some measure, belongs Soph. Antig. 
1205. avdiG TTpOQ XiOoarpivTOv KoprjQ vv /xCpe^ov ' Aicov koI- 
Xov e'i(Tel5aivop.ev, where vviJ.(p€lov a^ov is the tomb of Antigone, 
sentenced to death, and thus destined to be the bride of Pluto, 
vvjLi(pT}''AiSov, as his property. 

Obs. The idea of property was often kept in view in the construction 
of (coivos with the genitive, §. 389, i. 

* Quality, power, custom, duty'. Here elvai may be trans- 21 G. 
lated different ways. a. Soph. Electr. 1054. iroXXiic avo'iac, {^Ti) 
{eari) KOI TO 6r]paa9ai Keva ' it partakes of great folly, it is very 
foolish', as in Latin magna, stultitia est. Eurip. Phocn. 731. 
aXXa rovO' optj ttoXXov ttovov {op) ' a matter of great labour, I 
see that it is attended with great labour', in which there is no 

* Valck. ad Herod. 1. c. p. 255, 67. ^_ Valck. ad Herod. 1. c. p. 168, 55. 

534 Si/ntax. Of the Geiiilive. 

need to supply Seojuefov with Valckenaer. Plat. ApoL S. p. 28 A. 
Comp. Herod. 2, 148. Thuc. \, 83. eanv o TroAejitoo oi*)^ 
ottXmv to TrXeov, aWa Smravric. 5, 9. voi^iaare elvai 
TOW /caAwc TToAejtieTi' to eOeXeiv Kai to aKT;j^u»'e(T0ai 'that 
alacrity and a love of honour are necessary to fight well'. Plat. 
Go7g. p.46l A. ovK o\iyr]c, (yvvovaiac, etxTi 'it requires no short 
conversation', as Leg. 4. p. 708 D. ttoXXou -^povov ean. comp. 
ib. 5. p. 735 C. Eur. Iph. A. 1151. ovro to aiyav o^toXo- 
yovvToc, ear I gov ' betrays that you confess'. Lysias, Epitaph, 
p. 191, 42. uses armelov with this genitive. 

So the gen. also expresses that in which anything is found 
as a predicate. Eur. Hel. 201 . }Laarop6c, re avyyovov 

Te Bi^v/iioyeveQ ayaX/iia Trarpi^oG XtXoiTre, where apposition 

might have been used ; or the relation of the species to the 
genus, Eur. Suppl. 716. oTrXiafxa Kopvvrtc,. 

h. In other cases eivai. may be rendered by ' to be able', re- 
ferred to the Greek genitive as the subject. Soph. (Ed. T. 393. 
Ka'iroi Toy a'lviyp, ov-^i rovTriovTOC, r]v av^poc, tienrelv ^ li 
was not a riddle for the first comer to solve'. Thuc. 6, 22. 
TToXXrj yap ovaa (J] (XTparia) ov Tracjjc e<TTai TToXewo vtto- 
Be^aadai ' not every city will be able to receive the army' ; where, 
at the same time, it is to be observed that the verb is referred 

to (TrpciTia, as its subject, instead of to ttoXXj}!' ovaav viro- 

Se^aadai, as in the passage adduced from Sophocles to aiviy/na 
was the nominative. Plat. Gorg. p. 500 A. up' ovv ttoi'toc 
avcpoc, ecjTiv e/cXe^acr0aj, TroTa ay aOa. twv ijBeiov eari Kai 
oTTola KuKa, 1] reyviKov Bel etc eKarrrov ; and in the proverbial 
expression ov ttuvtoq avBpoc, etc, }^6piv0ov eaO o TrXour, *. 

c. 'must': Soph. (Ed. C. 1429. o-TjOaTijXaTou ^piiarov to. 
KpeLoau) /nijBe ravbea Xeyeiv. 

d. 'to be wont': Thuc. 3, 39. airoaraciic tmv (iiaiov n 
TTfto-^oi'Twi' eaTLv ' they who are treated with violence are 
wont to revolt'. Plat. Rep. l.p. 335B. eanv apa St/catou 
avBpoc, I^XaiTTeiv /cot ovTti'oui^ avOpujiriov, ' it is to be expected 
from a just man, a just man is accustomed', Sec. Xeu. Aiiab. 

* Valcken. ad ITerod. 7, 153. (p. S?:*, 27.) 

Si/ii((i.r. Of /lie Genitive. 535 

2, 5, 21. iravTUTTaiJi Se airopuyv ecjTi kch a[.ir}"^ainov Kai 
avayKy ey^Ofxeviov Kal tovtmv Trovrjpivv, o'lTivec eOeXovai 
Si' eviopKiac, re Trpoc Oeovc Kal aincrTiaG irpoc, avOpioirovQ irpar- 
reiv Tt, where the construction is changed, for to e^eAetv. See 
§. 633. Xen. Mem. S. 2, I, 5. ttjAi/coutwi/ e7riKeii.icvo)v tm 

/iioivevovTi KOKUjv Ojitwc etc to. eTriKii'Swa (pepeaOai, dp ovk 

i]^r] TOVTO Travrdiraai KaKO^aifXOVtvvToc eari; * is not that 
the action of a madman?' 

Obs. Trpos often accompanies these genitives: jEsch. Jgam. 603. 
7/ Kupra Trpos yvraiKos a'ipeadai Keap ' the custom, the characteristic of a 
woman'. 1647. to yap 2oXwcrai Trpos yvvaiKos -qy aafpujs. Herod. 7, 153. 
ra TOicivTU epya oh irpos uTrai'TOS avSpos vevofxiKa yei'eadai ' that not 
every one can do such things'. Soph. Aj. 319. Trpos yap kukov te 
KoX l3 apvxpiJXO'" yoovs Toioval'' aei ttot avCpos es»/yeTr'. e^eu' ' that 
it is cowardly"*, or Isocr. de Pac. 177 C. rwv apx'ovTu))' epyoy earl tovs 
ap-)(Ofxei'Ovs ra'is eavTuiv eTrifjeXelais ■Koiel.v evcaiixovcaraTovs. comp. 
p. 167 B. In Thuc. 2, 39. rw a<p' ijfxuiv avTwv eh-lvxf the quahty is 
considered as something that proceeds from any one. 

e. In all these cases the subject of eari or ewl is a thing. 
Sometimes however a person possessing something constitutes 
the subject. Find. Pyth. 3, 108. yvoivai, o'lac eopeu aiaaa 
'what lot we have', as Soph. (Ed. C. 144. where CEdipus says 
of himself, ov rrdw p.o'ipac, evZaif-ioviaai Trpiorac sc. eif.ii. Herod. 
1, 107. (§. 373.) Plat. Gorg. p. 482 A. aWore aXXwv earl 
Xoyojv ' he holds now one language now another'. To this head 
is to be referred also the phrase elvai eroii' rpiaKovra Plat. Leg. 
4. p. 721 A. B. (comp. Lys. in Theomn. p. 119, 37.) 'to be 
thirty years old', where Isocrates JSg. ;>. 388 E. puts the accusa- 
tive, d^e\(pr\v Kopnv reTrapa Kal SIk:' ct)? yeyovvlav, §. 425, 3, b. 
Also rrJQ avTrJG yvojf.iric eivai, ejiisdeni sententice esse, *to be of the 
same opinion', Thuc. 1, 1 13. Comp. A>«. H. Gr. 2, 4, 36. 
6 Tou iLieyiarov, tov ^evrepov, tou t/oitov, ninriiiiaTOC, Plat. 
Leg. 12. p. 948 B. The phrase is more pecvdiar in Herod. 4, 
138. -naav Se ourot oi ^lafpepovreG re rw t/'»)<|)oi/ Kal eovTec 
\6yov irpoc, j3a(T<Ar/oc, which elsewhere is ev Xoyio elrai, aliquo 
numero haberi. id. 5, 92, 7. toiovtmv epyiov eari i) Tvpavvic, 
for TOt. ep. e^epydleTOi. 1, 186. ttJc, ttoXioq eoucrijq dvo (pap- 

^ Bninck ad Arist. Ran. 355. 

530 Si/ntax. Of the Genitive. 

aetjv, i. e. e^^ouaijc dvo (papaea. These very closely resemble 
the Latin idiom Titus erat summcc faciUtatis, though it is only 
in the later Greek writers that phrases exactly corresponding 


/. Closely allied to this is the practice of poets to express 
qualities of persons and things by genitives of substantives, 
with or without an adjective, in the sense of adjectives : Eur. 
Fh(xn. 1529. gtoWc Tpv^dc, i.e. ctt. rpvcpepa. 1567. ^m- 
ffTOt ydXciKTOC, i.e. iu. yuXaKTOvyoi. 1616. rpavf^iara a'l- 
[.laroc, i. e. rp. aiuciToevTa. Bacch. 388. o roc iiavyjac pioroc, 
i.e. /3ioc ricTV^^oQ. Soph.Aj. 1003. w ^vcrOearov ofi/^ia Kai toX- 
pj]c, TTiicpae,, equivalent to Kai TrtKr/ooroX^tov . CEd. T. 533. tj 
TocrorS' e^eiG roX/miQ irpoawTrov, for irp. outw roXpripov. Antig. 
114. Xeu/crjo yjiovoc, -rrrepv'^ ' a snow-white wing'. Similar to 
this is Herod. 7, 40. lipina 'iinnov ^laa'iwv, the genitive here 
also denoting a quality of the chariot, which in English can 
only be expressed by a circumlocution, ' a chariot drawn by 
Nisaean horses'. So Euripides Ilel. 1330. says, ore Z^wyiouc 
Z,evlc,aaa 6ea aaTivac, where 9i]piov belongs to aarivac, but must 
properly be construed after ^ev^aaa, Onpoi ^ew^. So is proba- 
bly to be explained Eur. Iph. T. 1113. irapQkvoc, ev^oKif.iu)v 
ya/iiwv ' a maiden destined to a noble marriage'. 

g-^y Thus the genitive is used, particularly with demonstrative 
(373) pronouns, which are explained, in order to show in whom a 
certain quality is found. Eur. Iph. A. 28. ovk ayapai ravr 
avdpoc dpKxreoG * I do not approve this in a prince'. Plat. 
Apol. S. j:). 17 B. Xen. Ages. 2, 7. aWa /mXXov rad av~ 
Tov dyaixai, on 7rXrj0oc Te ov^ev /iieiov, ?j to tcJi' TroXe/utwv, 
irapeaKevdcjaTo &.c. *I admire this in him'. ib. 1, 8. evOvQ 
/.lev ovv TToXXot iravv iiyaaOrjaav avTOV {vu/g. avTo) touto, 
TO eTTiOv/iiriaai Scc.*^ Plat. T/iea't. p. 161 B. olaO' ovv, w Geo- 
Biope, o Oavind'Cd) tou eraipov aov Tlpajrayopov . Me- 
7iex. p.'ZAW). TOVTO ^1] aJ^iov eTraive^v tmv avcpwv Ttov 
TOTe vavpayrjaavTwv, on tov e-^o/.ievov ^opoi' cieXvaav tiov 
EXXtjvwv. dc Ilep.2. p.'iQl J). TOVT ovv avro eiraiveaov 

» Lobeck ad Phryn. p. 215. Seidl. ad Eur. El. 651. 

'' Herm. ad Vig. p. 890 seq. ad " llidink. ad Tim. p. 8. 

Soph. (Ed. T. 826. ad Soph. El. 19. "* Ueind. ad Plat. Theaet. p. 317. 

Syntax. Of the Genitive. 537 

ciKaioavinic, o avT^^) ^i avrrjv toi' e^ovra ovivrfffi, Kai aciKiav^ 
o jSAoTTTet. Xen. Ages. 8. 4. eyio ovv Kai tovto eiraivtS 
AyrjaiXaov, to irpoc, to apeoKeiv rote EXXr/dti' VTrepicelv 
T17V (^aaiXewc; ^eviav. Thuc. 1, 84. Kot to ppacv Kai fxeWoVy 
o {.ikj-iC^ovTai /.laXiara rj/nojv, f^u) ciKJ-^vveaOe. Xen. Q^con. 
16, 3. ouicoui' /cat aXXoTyoiac yrjc tovto effTi yvwvai, o 
Ti T€ ovvaTai (pepeiv Kai o ti f.iri ^vvaTai, opojvTa tovc Kapirovc 
Kai TO. Sev^pa. Without a demonstrative pronoun Anab. 3, 1, 

19. eyw pev ouTroTe eTravo/nr]v paaiXea Kai tovq aw 

avTio paKapi^(t)v, ciaOeMpevoc, avTioi', oar]V pev yj^opav Kai oiav 
eyoiev, wc, Se aCJyOova to. eTnTi]Beia &('. So ti is also used 
Soph. Oi>d. r. 991. Ti S' eW eKcivriQ vp7v eic, <p6(5ov (pepov; 
In Xen. Mem. S. 1, 1, 12. ouSetq ^e iruiiroTe ^(jjKpaTovQ oxlSev 
aaepeQ ovoe avocriov ovt6 TTpaTTOVTOC, eicev ovt6 Aeyoi'TOC vkov- 
aev, two modes of expression are blended together, owSetc irajir. 

^(liKpuTOvc ovSev acejSec eiSev &C., and 2w/C|0aT»j ov^eu acre/3ec 

irpuTTOVTa ei^ev &,c. Xen. Cyrop. 8, 1, 40. KaTapa6e7v ^e 
Tov Kvpov coKOvpev, WQ ov TOVTw povh) evopi^e y^pr^vai tovq 
apyovTuc, twv apyopev(i)v Zia(pepeiv, tw jSeXTt'ovac avTwv eivai, 
aXXa Kai KaTayorjTeveiv weTo '^pr)vai avTOvc,. ' vve think we have 
observed in Cyrus'. 

Ohs. The above-mentioned construction of ayapui and Qavpu'(o} ap- 
pears to have been the cause of the construction of both verbs with a 
genitive of the object, the genitive being unaccompanied by another 
word, denoting a quality, &c. ; its place, however, being supplied by 
the following preposition with oVt, oVws, &c. These verbs, with this con- 
struction, usually signify ' to wonder at any one, or any thing', the idea 
of disapprobation, of blame, of contempt, being implied. Isocr. Nicocl. 
p. 27 A. B. davpaCd) Twv Tavnp' t))u yvojpr^y ej^^oirwi', ottojs ov Kai 
TOV irXovTOv KUKuis Xeyovaiv. Comp. tt. ctj^n^. p. 3\S E. Archid. 
p. 128 E. 135 B. de Pac. p. 161 A. also, 'to admire, to approve', 
ironically, in ridicule. Herod. 6, 76. uyuaQai erprj tov 'Epacrivov 
oi) TrpoBi^ovTos Toijs 7roXu/ras. Plat. Hipp. Maj. p. 291 E. KaX vi) t)]u 
"Hpau ciyapai aov, oti poi hoKels evyo'iKtos (iorjQeiv. Frequently, how- 
ever, it signifies 'to admire' in a good sense. Plat. Criton. p. 43 B. 
aXXa Kai aov TvuXai Qavpu'(b), aladaropeios ws yj^ews KadevCeis. Leg. 
12. p. 948 B. 'P acapayOvos Se Trept Tt)y Xeyopet'rjy Kpirnv Tuiy ^iKwy 
at,iov hyaadai, cioTi KUTelSe tovs tote avQpwTtovs ijyovpevovs evapyuis 
elvai deovs. Demosth. 2iro Cor. p. 296, 4. tis yap ovi: ay aydcraiTo 
TWV avlpSv iKclvwy Trjs apeTrjs, &C. Herod. 9, 79. to pev tvioelv Te 

VOL. II. n 

53jit' Si/ntax. OJ' the Geiiilive. 

KOI irpoopdv uyaficu aev, where aev is governed by ro evy. k. np. comp. 
ib. 58. Xen. Cyr. 3, 1, 15. ci-yacrai rov Trarpos oa-a (jefiovXevrai, an 
attraction for c'iy. vtra o ttcitiip /3e/3. Otliervvise a-yajxai and dav^a'Cbt 
visually stand with the accusative ■'. 

318. III. Another relation which is expressed by the genitive, is 
(^^') that of a whole to its parts, i. e. the genitive is put partitively. 
This use is common to the Greek, the Latin, and other languages, 
as elq TovTbiv, iinus horum or ex /lis, Sec, only that in Greek 
this use has a much more extensive range. Exceptions to this, 
where the whole is in the same case with its parts, are peculiar to 
the Greek language, and are only imitated in Latin ; but in En- 
glish and other languages are not admitted. The following are 
the cases which are chiefly to be noticed in Greek : 

1. When the article stands as a partitive pronoun o /nev — o 
Be (§. 289), the whole, which is thus divided into parts, is added 
in the genitive, e. g. twv ovtiov tu ^lei^ eariv e<p r]ixiv, 
TO. B' ovK e(p' 7]jtt?i'. Epictet. Eiichir. in. as in Lat. eorum 
qn(Z sunt, alia in potestate nostra sunt, alia non sunt. 

2. Li the same manner with participles accompanied by the 
article in the sense is qui (§. 270.), the whole is in the genitive, 
whilst in Latin it is put in the same case as the demonstrative 
pronoun is (§. 278.). The genitive frequently precedes : Herod. 
6, 108. eav 0j?/3atoi/o BotwTWV tovc fxri /3ouXojue vouc ec 
BofWToiJO TeXeeo', Baotios eos, qui nollent. T/iuc. 1, 111. 2t- 
kvtjjv'itov TOVC TT poa j^i'i^avT ac, jito^y eKparrjaai'. ib. 89. t'Tret- 

S)) ^lijSoi ave\(opri(Tai' e/c ti]C, ^LvpioTrijc, kcu ot KaraCJivyov- 

Tec avTWv rair, vavaiv ec IMu/caXj/i' cie(pOapi](Tai', AeMTvy^icrjQ 

f^ikv l\.TTeyJopi]aiiv err oikov. Isocr. ad ?\i<:. p.\S A.^. twv 

7r p o a r ay f^iuTwx' Kai twv eir iTr}cevi.iaTiov Kivei Kai peTa- 
riOei Tct pt} KuXioc KaOedTtora. Id. de Pac. p. 181 C. eiri- 
Se/^eiev ai> tic ttoXXouc y^aipovTac icai xwp eoecrpaTMV Kai 
TWi' eTriTJjoeu/iaTwi' to lc kcu to aojpa Kai tj^v \pv^i]v 
jBXaTTTOvaiv. With this genitive e/c is used: Plat. JSleucx. 
p. 242 A. Tr\c TToXewo Tipcvpevrjc rfXOev err avTi]i>, o Sj'j ^tXe? ck 
Twi' avOpioTTWv TO?c eu TtpaTTOvai Trpocnrnrreiv, TrpwTOV 
pev ^/jXoc, aiTo ^r]\ov ce (pOoroc. 

Thus also with the neuter of the participle with the article, 
^ Piers, ad Mcer. p. 1 sq. Ruhnk. ad Tim. I.e. 

Si/ntax. Of the Genitive. 539 

which stands as a substantive : Ear. Phcen. 1113. rw vocfovvti 
rei'^eojv 'the weak part of the wall', and with adjectives. I>iocr. 
Paneg. c. 42. twv f-wQiov \]^iaTa avv^iarpi^o^iev role, TpwiKolc, 
Kcii YiepaiKoic. See §. 442, 2. 

Ohs. The wliole is sometimes in the same case as the parts, e. g. Od. 319. 
)Lt', 73. 01 Fe cvuj (TtcorreXoi, b [ikv ovpavov evpvy iKurei' — (v. 101.) Toy c' (S53) 
erepov tjKUTreXov ■^Oajj.uXwTepoy o^ei. Thuc. 1, 89. otKiat at fxey ttoX- 
\cu eirewTU)K€(Tay, oXiyai oe irepirjaay. Plat. Reji. C p. 495 C. ol ^v- 
vurres avrrj (^(piXoaocpla) ol fiey ovceyos, ol ^e ttoXXoi TroXXtjy KUKuy u.L,ioi 
€1(71. comp. Eur. Jlhes. 413. Pac.ji.'i 82 A. See §. 289. Obs.S. 
So the second ol oe is sometimes again divided : Thuc. 7, 13, kuI ol levot 
01 fiey ayayKaarol kaftavTes evOvs Kara tus iroXeis airoywpovmi', ol Ce 

VTVO f-ieyuXov fxirrOov to Tvpwrov lirapdeyTes ol jxey eiri XtOoXoylas 

TrpocpaaeL uTrep-^ovrai, ol ck, u)S eicatTTOL IvvavTcu, ciirt 61 kuI u(pt]pr]yrat. 

Herodotus 6, 111. unites both constructions, ro arparoTrecoy to 

fxey avTov fxeaoy eyiyero ewl ra^ias oXiyas, to ce Kepas SKUTepoy eppwTO 

This construction takes place wherever a whole or its parts are men- 
tioned : Thuc. 2, 47. ne\o7roc2'//crtot kcu L,v^jxu^nL tci cvo jiepi) kaeftuXoy 
es Tifv 'ATTiKijy, instead of HeXoTroyyrjalujy kui L,vnjiayo}y. 'o, 92. M/;- 
Xieis 01 L,vfj.TrayTes elal j.iev Tpia fJ-kpi], for MrjXikioy Tujy L^vnivuyTuiy, 
Comp. 7. 80. Eur. Phoen. 1321. Xen. Juab. 5, 5,11. Thus also cKuaTos 
II. V ,44. Tjowas cerpoyuosau'os vrrtiXvOeyvia eKaaro v. Comp. §.302.0^5. 

3. With adjectives, as in 'L?Li\n paiici, niitlti, plerique, &c., 320. 
oAiyoi, TToXAo/, ot TToAAot, 01 7rXe?(TTOi, &c. Here also the (2^^) 
same rule obtains as in Latin, that these adjectives are put in 
the same case as the substantives, when the adjectives do not 
express merely a part of the idea contained in the substantives: 
Plat. Syinp. p. 203 A. ourot o[ BaipoveG ttoXAoi /cat Travro^a" 
TTot eiaiu ' these deities are many'. 

Hence when a substantive is joined with an adjective or pro- 
noun, w here both should be in the same case, the Greeks consider 
the substantive as the whole, and the adjective as a part of it. 
and put the former in the genitive, as oi ^^pr/aToi rwr uvOpwTrwv 
Arist. Plat. 490. 'good men', o i]pi<jvG tov y^povov, ' half the 
time', Demosth. in Lept. 7. rrjc yiiQ t?^ ttoXXijv Thuc. 2, 57. 
' the greatest part of t'he country', ev Troi-Tt kukov Plat. Rep. 9. 
p. 579 B. See §. 442. and of Superlatives §. 459, 1. 

To this head belong Sto ywaiKujv, ^aipovi' auSpwv, Sec. in 

D 2 

540 Syntax. Of the Genitive. 

Homer, ToXaiva TrapBevtov Eur. HeracL 568. comp. Ale. 467. 
M ffA^erXi avSpojv Arist. Ran. 1081. Thus the forms t'iq Oetuv, 
and Tt'a Oeoc, can hardly be different in signification ; but the 
former seems more frequent in the tragic writers, though the 
latter also occurs, e.g. Eur. Andr. 1182 seq. etc, riva A?) (})i- 
Xov avyuQ /SaXXwv Tep-ipof.iai, where (piXwv, the reading of seve- 
ral MSS., which is at variance with the metre, only shows how 
familiar the construction with the genitive was even in common 
life ^. Euripides combines both constructions Hec. 164 seq. 
Without riQ Soph. El. 199. etV ovv Oeoc, eiVe (5poT0)i> j/j' o 
Tavra Trpa^ac. Eur. Hel. 1242 seq. 

4. With demonstrative pronouns : Ilerod. 7, 217 . Kara tovto 
Tov ovpeoQ fc-^uAacraoi' fpw/cewi' \iXioi ottXTtoi, *on this side the 
mountain'. But in the phrases eic, tovto amy/ojc, ec, o ^vva/uioc, 
the genitive appears to denote the reference §. 341. kutci tovto 
Kaipov Thuc. 7, 2. ev tw toiovtio tou Kaipov ib. 69. may be ex- 
plained in either way ^. 

321. 5. With relatives : Thuc. 2, Qb. ZieXovTec, tou reiy^ova 
(354) 7j TrpoaeTriTTTe to y^Mfxa, etrecpopovv ttiv yw- qua parte muri 
agger imminehat, earn intercidcrunl Sec. Id. 7, 36. to7c Se 
KBrfvaioic, ovK eaeauai a^aiv ev aTevoyiopia oure TrepiirXovv 
ovTe ci€K7r\ovv, loirep Trjc Te-yvr]Q juaXtcrra eTriCTCuoi', *in which 
manoeuvre of their tactics', properly, ' in which part of their art'. 

Plat. Rep. 10. in. Trept Trot rjo- ewe Xeyw to jU7]Sa/t)j vapa' 

Sey^eadai avTrjc oat] /tf^tfjTifcrj. and passim. Dem. pro Cor. 
p. 266, 12. Thus Eiv. 1, 14. vastatur agri quod inter urbem 
et Fidenas est. Xen. Cyr. 6, 1, 28. tSo^e 8' avTw, o KpaTioTOv 
eiKOQ j)v elvai tvc Suva^ewc, ovTa*!^ twi' iSeXTiaTcov eiri to7c 
appaaiv, tovto cv aKpojSoXiaTwv pepei elvai, even wdiere the 
relative might stand in the same case with the substantive. He- 
rod. 7 , 205. 7TapaXal3wv de cnriKeTo Kal Qi](iai(vv touc (for ovc) 
€Q TOV apiOpov XojKJapevoQ etTroi'. Xen. Anal). 1,7, 13. pcTo. 
T7\v payj]v o'l vaTepov cXr](p9r](Tav tmv TroXep.i(x)p, toutu 
?j-y-yeXXo)', for tovq Qr^jSalovc,, ovQ. o'l TroXepioi. o'l eX. Eurip. 
Hec. 858. ovk eaTi 0vr)Twv oo-Ttq ear eXevdepoc, in which 
a comma must not follow Ovtjtmv. 

* Sec Matthis ad Eur. Ale. 121. ffid. C. 243. 
and Add. to p. 12'2. ad Andr. 1157. ^ Lob. ad Plnyn. p. 279 seq. 

Comp. Reisig Comm. Crit. in Sopli. 

Syntax. Of I lie Genitive. 541 

G. With substantives it is especially to be noticed, that where 
the names of cities or other places are accompanied by the name 
of the country in which they lie, the latter, as the whole, is in 
the genitive, and generally placed first. Herod. 5, 100. aTri- 
KOfievoi ce tw aroXio tovtm ''lujvec; ec ''E^ecroi', 7rXo?a ^ei/ 
KareXiTTOv ev KopijaaM rrjc, 'E(^eat>jo. 6, 101. oi Se Ilep- 
ijai TTAeovreQ Karea-^ov raa veaQ rriQ Kper piKtjc -^ojptiQ 
Kara Taf.ivvaG Kal XoipeaQ Kai Aly'iXia. ib. 47. ra Se 
p.eTaWa ra ^oivikikci ravra eari ttJc, Qdaov ^exa^u Ai- 
vvpcjv re KaXeojuevcov kcu Koivvpujv. Thiici/d. 2, 18. o ^e 
arpaTOQ rwv IIe\oTrovvr](ji(i)v irpotujv a(piKeTO ttJq 'Attik^C 
ec Oivorju. comp. c. 2 1 . Xen. Hist. Gr. 2, 1, 20. Oi 8e 
Aut]vaioi CjpiLUcravTO rric; ^eppovijaov eu 'KXaiovvri. 
With a difterent turn Lysias says Epit. p. 191, 25. eOaipav ev 
ry avTMv 'E\eva7vi, where Herodotus 9, 27. said 0o^ai rnc 
VjLieTeprjQ eu JLXevalvi. 

Also with names of persons: Herod. 6, 114. otto S' eOaue 
TWi' GT parriyuiv STrjffiAewc o QpaavXett). 

7. With verbs; and a. with eivai. Tliiic. 1, Q5. kcu avroc, 322. 
TjOeXe Twi* jiievovTMv elvai * one of those who remained at home'. (355) 
3, 70. erv-y-^ave yap Kai (^ovXrjc lov (o IleiOiac,) ' a member of 
the council'. Plat. Euthj/d. p. 277 C. tcSv X«^ij3avoi^Tw»/ ap' 
eiariv OL /LiavOavovreQ ' belong to those who take', id. Menon. 
p. 8 1 A. 01 ytiev Xeyovrec, ei(7i twv lepewv re Kai lepeiojv, oaoiQ 
f.iefxeXriKe, Trepi wv /Liera'^eipitovTai Xoyoi^ ototc t' elvai SiSovcit. 
Phcedon. p. 68 D. olaOa, on toi^ OavaTOV i^yovuTai iravTec ol 
aXXoi TO)v jiieyiaTiov KaKoiv elvai. Rep. 2. p. 360 A. {tov 
ivyt]v) ciaTrpa^aaOai twv ayyeXwv yeve<jdai t<jjv irepi tov 
(5aaiXea. Aristoph. Plat. 869. 17 twv irov^jpojv rja0a Kal 
roiy^wpvy^biv. Xen. Anab. 1, 2, 3. 7jv Se Ka\ o '^wKparm 
Tti>v ajx^i MtXijToi' GT paTevofikviov. Similarly Isocr. in 
Catlim. p. 380 D. ujar avrw (KaXXt/xa^w) Trpoai]Kei /tieru 
TUiv avTOf.ioX(t)v avayeypaCJyOai ttoXv /iiaXXov, ?j tojv (pevyov- 
Ttjjv,eaQai. Hence Plat. Rep. 5. p. 462 E. 1) toiuvtt] 
TToXiQ jmaXiara (pi^aei iavrrjc elvai to Tra'cr^ov * to belong to her 
as a part' *^. 

" Heins. Lect. Theocr. p. 36 1. ad Plat. Gorg. p. '271. Fiscli. 3 a. 
Markl. ad Eurip. Suppl. 292. Hcind. p. '263. 355. Ast ad Flat. Leg. p. 284. 

542 Syntax. Of the Genitive. 

Obs. 1. This genitive is frequently accompanied by eh : Isocr. in 
^ Callhn, p. 383 A. wy els eyw tparijffofxai yey€vr)p.eros. Plat. Gorg. 
p. 525 D. a5»' eyw fijfxi eyci kui 'Ap^eXaov eaeadai. also ris. Aristoph. 
Pint. 826. IfjXov, on ruif y^p r] a r iS v -is, ws eoiKas, ei. Sometimes 
Ik is joined with the genitive : Xen. Mem. S. 3, 6, 17. eupj/o-ets ev irdaiv 
epyois Toiis fxey evcofcifxuvy-ai re Kai davfial^ofxerovs Ik rwy fxaXiara 
eTTtoTouerwj' ovras, tovs c^ i:ak:oCOL,ovy-as re Kul icaracppoyovueyuvs eK 
T(ijy a/dadearu-ioy'^. More rarely otto : Thuc. I, 116. UepiKXfjs XuJDcjy 
€^i]KO)'TCt yavs citto rwr tcpopf-tovarwy. 

Obs. 2. Upon this construction also is founded the phrase eari rwy 
cuVxpwv Dcmosth. j). IS, 13. eVrt ruiy XvaireXovyrojy id. J^- 57, 24. for 
€(TTiy ala-xpuy, XvtJireXovy. Plat. Rep. 7. jJ. 525 A. -iJ»' c'tywywj' aj^ e'ir) 
Koi iu€Ta(T-pe~riKu)v, where however the genitive is always accompanied 
by the article''. Isocrates adds els jlrchid. jd. 13G B. eanv ey tQv 
al(j-)(pu}y. Plat. Rep. 10. j). 603 A. ruiy (pavXioyuy n c'irj ky i)fJ.~iy. Comp. 
Eur. Phven.lGW. also ck Eur. El. 820. e/c Tcjy icaXuiy KofjnrovcTi toiol 
QeaaaXois elyai roce. See Miisgr. not. and Pors. Advers. i^.(21S)24;\. 
Hence an adjective in the genitive plural sometimes accompanies sub- 
stantives of all kinds, in order to mark the class to which the thing or 
person mentioned belongs. Xen. Symp. 7, 2. elaetjyepero Ttj opxw'pi^i 
Tpox,os Tuiy Kepaf-ieiKuSy 'a wheel of the class of those used by 
pottei's', i. e. a potter's wheel, rpoxi's Kepajjieiicos. Theophr. Ch. 5. 
Qvpiams rujy (rrpoyyvXwy Xi] ici/dovs kcu (iaKrrjptas riZv oko- 
Xiwy eK AuKecatfioyos. Lucian. D. Mort. 10, 9. Meriinros ovroal, 
Xaftwy weXeKvyruiy i^a v~?;y i/cwv, UTroKotleL ruy Trwywrct. Conip» 
Plat. Hipp, min. p. 368 C." 

Obs. 3. In the same manner the genitive is put as an apposition to 
the nominative : Xen. Hell. 5, 4, 2. rourw 2' cifiy^eyo) 'Adt'iya^e Kara 
TToa^iy Tiya kuI Trpoadey yyujpi/Jios ojy MtXXwv, rwy 'Adijyai^e 7re(pev~ 
yvTU)y Qi]l3ai(oy. On the other hand, id. Cijrop. 2, 3, 5. XpvaayTas, 
els Tijjy i^io-ij-Hi))'. 

323. h. The genitive is used with verbs of all kinds, even with 
(356) those which govern the accusative, when the action does not 
refer to the whole object, but to a part only : //. i , 214. Traaae 
Z a\oc, Oeioio ' he sprinkled salt over it'. Od. o , 98. uTTTyiaai 
Koeuiv. ib. I, 225. rvfiuiv aivv/Li^vovc, see Bust. ad 11. v , 1213, 
55. Herod. 7, 6. (Ovoi-iaKpnoc,) okmc, citt'ikoito C as often as') 
ec o^/^tv T7JV jSacriAijoc, /coTcXeye toTv -^p-ijffuwv C pl■0- 
» Ileind. Fisch. 11. cc. ' llemslerh. ad Lucian. 1. '2. 
" Wolf ad Demosdi. Lept. p. 217. p. 453. 

Si/Hlax. Of the GenUive. 543 

phecies'). ei /.lev ti eveoi cr<p<i\/.ia (^epov tw pappapu), rwv 
fiiev eXeye ovSev, o Be to evTvyeiyTiira eKXeyo/nevoc;, eXeye, &c. .. 
comp. 4, 172 extr. Time. 2, 56. rrjc yfjo eVejUov Maid waste 
a part of the country'. Plat. Theag. p. 128 C. e-yw o\Ba rwv 
e^wv i^XiKKOTujv Kai oX'iyoj TrpeuftvTepMv {' some of those of the 
same age as, or older than, myself) o'l rrpiv /uev tovto) crvveivai 
oX'iyov ix^ioi ijcrav. S^mp. p. 213 E. Kui afj.a avrov Xa(56vra 
Tijjv raivtwv avaBeiv tov ^wKparri 'some of the fillets', just 
before which occurs jtteTciSoc tmu Taiviwv. Soph. OEd. T. 709. 
/LiaB', ovveK ecTTi aoi (iporeiov ov^ev (i. e. pporoc, ovoeic) pavTi- 
Kr)c eyov TG^i-rjc ' possessing any of the art of divination' ; 
which Toup in Suid. 2. p. 118 7iot. and Brunck ad A^^ist. Li/s. 
173. incorrectly compare with ttwc €)(ci ra^ouc. Eurip. Iph. T. 
1216. ai2v re f-ioi ottoSwi'. Arht. Pac. 30. rydi 
TTctpoi^aQ Ti]c, Qvpac,^ ' opening the door a little'. Xen. Ages. 
1, 22. Kai Tojv Kara Kparoc avaXujTWV reiykoiv ry (juXavOpio- 
TTia VTTO xe^/oa eiroieiTO. Thus the genitive is put as the sub- 
ject Xen. Anab. 3, 5, 16. ottotc fxkvroi irpoc, toi' aarpairriv 
TOV ev T(^ Tred'uo aTre'iaaivro, Kai eTrifiiyvvaOai a(p<i)v re ('some 
of them') TTpoQ ehceivovG Kai eKeivwv Tvpoc, avTOvc Comp. 
Thiic. 1, 115. e/c also accompanies this genitive Plut.Cim.S. 
Kifii(i)V Xa/3wv e/c Twv nepi tov vaov Kpe fiafiiei'ojv aairiBwu. 

Obs. 1. The genitive is to be explained in the same manner in Od. 
fx, G4. aXXci re kcu tujv alei cKpaipeiraL \\s ireTpr) ('one of these doves') 
a\y uXXijv eyujcri 7ror>)p, krapidfiiov elrui. II. t!, 121. of Tydeus : 
'Alpij(T-oio o' ey>;jue duyarpuiy ' one of the daughters of Adrastus' : ex- 
cept diat here a definite thing or person is signified, whilst in the fore- 
going, and indeed all the other examples, the part is only expressed 
generally®. Soph. El. 1322. rwi' 'ivCoBev ywpovvTOs, for tlvos t. eyd. 
(Ed. C. 640. 

Ohs. 2. Of the phrase Kureayn, iivveTplftjp', rrjs KecpaXrjs, which some, 
as Gregor. p. (50 sq.) 123 seq., refer to this class, see §. 338. Obs. 

8. With adverbs of place: Od. ft, 131. rrarrip B' efioc ;^o^^ 
aXXoOi yairic, ^wet oy r) Tedvr)Ke. Soph. Phil. 204. j) ttou (337) 
rriB }j TvBe tottwv ; ILur. Hec. 1275. oiy^ ocroi^ rayoQ 

<* Thorn. M. p. 693. McEr. p. 315. Heine], ad Plat. Gorg. p. 232. Schaf. 

" Dawes Misc. Crit. p. 310. Pier- ad Lamb. Bos. p. 087. Erf. ad Soph, 

son ad Moer. p. 163. Keen ad Greg. Ant. 1056. ed. min. Ast ad PJat. 

p. (50) 123. Ilcmst. ad Arist. Plut. Leg. p. 298. 
840. Fisch. 3 a. p. 203. 336. 376. 

544 Syntax. Of the Genitive. 

vi\au)v epi]f.Hiiv avTov eK^aXeiTe ttoi; Plat. Rep.9. p.5S8B. 
evravda \6yov. Xen. Cyrop. 6, 1, 42. ef-i^aXelv ttou t^c 
eKe'iviov -^wpac. 7, 2, 8. Se KvpoQ KaraaTpaTOTre^evaac; 
Towc eauTou, ottou eSo/cei eTrtTTjSetOTOTOi' eti'at rrjc TroAewc, 
where however the genitive may also be governed of the super- 
lative. Herod 2, 172. ayaX/iia Saifiovoc; iBpvue t?7c ttoXioq 
OKov r]v eTTtTJjSewTaTOV. id. 1, 35. Kodev tvjq Ojouyirjc. Soph. 
Philoct. 255. QX) /.iride KXy^ojv wS e-^ovroc o'lKade, jit?;S EX- 
AaSoG ^170 /U7/Sa^tou, Si»7/\0e TTov. Also when the relation is 
not strictly local : Pind. 01. 10. z7/. rov 'OXvp-irioviKav avdyixore 
/Lioi Apy^earparov irui^a, ttoOi (ppevoQ epac, yeypairrai, 
properly, *in what part of my mind'. Soph. AJ. 386. ov^ 
opac, iv el KaKov. Eur. Ion. 1271. tV ei ru^rjc. Soph. CEd. 
C 170.310. £/. 390. Eur. Hipp. 1025. ovBapov (ppevwv riv. 
where after tic might be used with the same case cv rivi kokm, 
Tu^p, &c.^ Hence the Latin phrases ubi terrarum, ubi gentium. 

In the same manner the genitive is used with adverbs of 
time, e. g. o^e tjjc r^jnepac 'late in the day', irrjviKa T»jq vpepaQ 
Aristoph. Av. 1498. though here the genitive may mean 'with 
respect to' ''. 

325. For the same reason a genitive is used with many other 
(359) verbs, which signify participation, or in which at least this 
idea is implied. 

1. perey^eiv, fxeraXappaveiv, p€Ta\ayy(a.v€iv, K0ivu}i>e7v Tiuoc, 
&c. ' to participate in anything', the impersonal pereaTi poi 
TivoQ : Pind. P. 2, 153. ov ol pcTey^ii) Opaaeoc. Isocr. 
Nicocl. p. 35 D. T>7c avSp laQ Kai t?7c ^eivoTtjroc etopivv 
Kai Twi' KUKOJU avcpijjv iroWovc, pere-^ovTac;. \cn. Pep. 
Lac. 1,9. a'l re yap yvva^KeQ diTrovc, o'ikovc, (iovXovTai KUTey^eiv, 
o'l re avSp€Q ad€\(l)ovc, toTc ttokti vpocrXappaveiv, ot tov pev 
yevovc, Kai Trie Bvvapetoc, Koivwvovat, twi' oe y^pr)paT(i)V 
OVK auTiTTOiovvTat. Thuc. 4, 10. avcpec Ol ^vvapapevoiTOV^e 
Tou Kivdvvov, Eur. Med. 942. ^vW-qipopai Be Tovde 
aoi Kayil) ttovov. and in the active Iphig. A. 160. avX\a(3e 
poyBujv^. Soph. Q^d. C. 567. e^otS 01^7)10 wv, ^wn t^c ec 
avpiov ovoev TrXeov poi aov /nereaTiv ripepac. II. ^,360. 

» Valck. ad Herod. 2, 133. (p. 167, '' Fisch. 3 b. p. 72. 

37.) ad Eiiiip. Hipp. 1012. Fisch. "■ Brunck Herni. ad Soph. Phil. 

3 b. p. 71 sq. 281. Fisch. 3 a. p. 411. 

Syntax. Of the Genitive. 545 

Ti ^loi epiSuc, Kai iipojyiic, sc. /nereaTi ; Hence with substantives 
and adjectives derived from these verbs: Xen. Mem. S. 2, 2, 32. 
ayadi) <ruX X/y TTTjOta twv ev eipijvrj Trovtjv, pepaia ce twv 
ev TToXe/^io) avpfxay^oc, epycjv, apiarrj Se (jyiXiaQ koivojvoc. 

Ohs. 1. /.terexetv is often accompanied by fxepos: JEsch. A gam. 518. 
oh yap -KOT ifv'^ovv davwv ^eQcsCtv (piXruTov rcKpov fxepos. Herod. 4, 
145. fiolpay Ti[jieu)y p.€T e-^ovres. Eur. Sujipl. 1080. ^ereXay^es 
Tv-)^ns OlEiTTUca, yepoy, fxepos, Koi (tv, ttoXis e/ict rXa^iMv. comp, Arist. 
Plut. 226. Isocr. Archid. p. 116 B. yyov fxai, irepl rov TroXe/ietv, ?) jj.>), 
7rpoa)]Keiy [xaXiffra tovtols avfj(3ovXev€iy, o'tirep Kal rwv KivhvvuyvirXf.'iaTov 
fxepos fxedeL,ov(TLv. Thus also with p-ereari. Eur. Iph. T. 1310. 
fxerecrriy vfjiiy ruiy TZ€Trpayf.i€yu}y jxepos. Isocr. Nicocl. ^J. 35 D. 
Ka.XXi(JToy inreXal3oy, e'i rts SvrciiTO ravrais reus aperals Trpoae-^^eLy Toy 
vovv, rwy ciXXuy afeXofxeyos, mv fxrjcey jxepos rots iroy^pols nereanv. 
comp. Archid. J). 135 B. Xe?i. Cyr. 7, 5, 44.'' jxereaTL also is put with 
a nominative as the subject, Thuc. 2, 27. fierefTTi irdai. to "laov^. 

Ohs. 2. peTeyeiy is also found with the accusative of the thing in 
which one participates : Soph. (Ed. C. 1482. liaKjiov ce (ivyTv\oiixiy 
piici', aXaaTOV (JLvlp iltbv, cLKepdrj ■)(^dpLV fxeTatr^oiixi 7ru)s. Aristoph. 
Plut. 1144. ov yap neTel\es tcis 'I it as irXrjyas efxol. The dative 
points out the person with whom any one partakes (§. 405.), or that by 
means of which one partakes. Thuc. 2, IG. tjj ovv eTriiroXv /caret Tr)v 
■\^ujpav avToyojdo) olKiiaei fieTei^ov o't 'Adrjyaloi, where with fj.eTei\ov 
it seems the genitive rijs xwpas or TiZy aypuiy is to be understood. Plat. 
Rep. 5. p. 452 extr. ^vyaT)) (^vaLS >/ dy'iXeia rp tov appevos yeyovs kolvo)- 
vfjaai els arravra ra tpya, where cnravTwy TiSy epyuv might also have 
been said, but els more distinctly expresses the direction and the object. 

2. irpoanKei fxo'i rivoQ ' anything becomes me, concerns 326. 
me' : Xen. Cyrop. 4, 2, 40. kwonoare, wc, et ^i/j§ eKe'ivova (3G0) 
aiayyvrkov r\v, ouS u)Q r^/uuv vvv irpoa^Kei ovre TrAr}af.iovr]Q 
ITU), ovre /LieOrjc;. ib. 8, 1, 37. ovk wcto TrpoaijKeiv ouSevt 
ap-^rjc, ocTTtq /.ti] /BeXriwi' euj tijjv apyof^ikvuiv. Aristoph. Av. 
970. Tt Se TTjoocTTj/cei dnr epol Kopivdicov; Svhat are the 
Corinthians to me?' properly, it seems to mean the same as 
perecTTt. poi. Xen. Mem. S. 4, 5, 10. utto tov paOelv ri kqXov 

Kai ayaOov rf^oval peyiarai y'lyvovrai, (vv oi pev eyKpa- 

TcTq arroXavovai TrparrovTeQ avrtt, oi Se aKpareIc, ovhevoc, 

^ Fisch.Sa. p. 411. Plat. ^ Thorn. M. i>. 600. 

Soph. p. 338. Protag. p. 53C seq. 

546 Sj/)itax. Of the Genitive. 

f.ierk\ovai. no yap av i]ttov (piiaaiiAev Tti>v TOiovru)v 
7Tpoai]Keiv Sic. and §.11. So/ceTo f-ioi \eyeiv, wo avdpi nrrovi 
Ttuf ^ici Tov (TUJi^iaTOC, i]Suv(x)v ira^nrav ovBefiiac cipeTijc, irpoa- 

3. * to impart', ixeradi^omi riv'i rivoc, : Xen. Mem. S. 2,7, 1 . 
eoiKac [iapeojc (pepeiv Ti. ')(j07j Se tov (iapovc p,eTaCiCovai 
role, (b'lXoic. id. Ci/rop. 7, 5, 78. 79. OuXttovc pev koI \pv- 
youc Kai aiThiV Kai ttotwv Kai virvov avayKi) Kai roic CovAoiG 

pera^i^ovai rroXepiKjic. S' eiricTTi] pr]C Kai peXerriQ 

TravTciwaatvov peTa^oreov rouTotc&c.^ Ill the same manner 
Plat. Leg. \\. J). 906 C. eial avyyvMpovec, del Oeoi role rwv 
dv9pu)TT(x)v a^iKOiQ Kcd d^iKovaiv, civ avrolc, rwv aCiKiiparuiv 
riG airovepy. 

Hence perhaps Enr. J\[ed. 288. ^vp^dWerai ^e ttoWu 
rov^e ^e'lparoc * contributes to this fear'. Lysias at least says, 
c. Nicom. p. 184, 31. tou pev yap vp(7c, (pvyelv pep oc ti kcu 
ovroc, avvepaXero. 

Ohs. pe-acicuyai occurs with tlie accusative Herod. 8, 5. 9, 34. 
Arist. Vesp. 917. Xen. An. 4, 5, 5." In the same manner peTaiTfTiv is 
put with the genitive of the ohject Herod. 4, MG. -jj^ (iu(n\i]ir}s 
peTaiTeofTes ' desiring a part in the government' : to which Aristophanes 
adds pepos, Vcsp. 972. Tovrojy peraiTel to pepos. 

327. 4. * to enjov' : eiravpopai, eTrcwpelv, drroXaveiv, ivaavai. 

(361) //. o, 17. ov pdv oTS' ei avre KaKoppa(l)iii c, dXeyeivnc 
irpu)r-i] eiravpiiai, * whether you will first enjoy the fruits of 
your artifices'. Ifestod.''Epy. 240. ttoXXuki kcu ^vpiraaa ttoXic, 

KOKov ctvSpoc dirnvpa. Xen. Mem. 5'. 4, 3, 11. to ce 

irpoaOelvai nnc di'9pu)Trnic aiaOijaeic apporrovauc, irpoc eKacrra, 
ci h)v aTToXavopei' iTcivrtov riop ayauwv. to ce kcu Ao- 

yiapov I'lplv ep(pv(Tui, (o iroXXd priyaviopeOa, ^i tov rwv re 

dynOwv diroXavopev Kai rd kciku aXe^opeOa. Isocr. Pdneg. 
p. 41 B. evoc, di'^poc, ev <ppoi>i](Tavroc diravTec uv airoXav- 
aeiav ol (SovXopevoi Kon'ioveiv t>;c cKeivov ciavoiac. Arist. 
Tliesm. 469. Kavn) ydp eyioy', ouTwc ovaipr]i> rwu reK- 

* Thom. M. p. 751. Valckcn. ad Eur. Suppl. 53. 
Diatr. p. 123. not. 87. "^ Schaefer Meleteni. Crit. 1. p. 10 

^ Fisch. 3 a. p. Ill scq. Markl. seq. 

Si/ntax. Of the Genitive. 547 

vwv fxiai2 Toi^ av^p eKelvov, * so may I find comfort in my 

children'. Soph. Trach. 569. ttoI yepovroc Oivewc, roaov^ 
ovijaei Twv e^iwi', eav TriOy, 7rop9/nojv. Thus yeveaOai has 
always the genitive: for in Herod. 2, 14. instead of firire 
-yevaerai /; X^pn to. citto Aioc, is now read pyre ye vaerai 17 
y/'ipr]. KapTTovaOai however takes the accusative. 

It is evident that the genitive was intended to imply a part, 
from Isocr. c. Soph. p. 293 B. ovic av eXci^tcTTOv pepoc, aire- 
\avaapev avrrjc. Also e/c or diro is found with the genitive, 
e. g. Plat. Rep. 3. j^. 395 C. 10. p. 606 B. ApoL S. p.3lB.'^ 

Ohs. The accusative also is often put with airoXaveiy, but in order to 
mark another reference, besides that which the genitive implies. The 
accusative expresses the nature of die consequence, cither good or 
bad, resulting from the object which is enjoyed, or to whose influence 
one is exposed ; the genitive on the other hand points out the object 
itself: hence the genitive and accusative often stand together. Isocr. 
Pac. p. 175 B. cecoiKa, pi], Treipw/L/eros vpds evepyerely, cnroXavrru) 
TL ^Xavpov. Xen. Mem. S. 1, 6, 2. tyw pky wprjv rovs (juXoaocpodyras 
evCaiporecrrepovs j^p^i'ai ytyieo-flai. av ce /.toi ookeTs ravavTia ryjs 
(TO(plcis inzoXeXavKet'cti. Id. Hier. 7, 9. a-KoXaheiv Tiros ayctSa. 
So Plat. Rep. 3. p. 395 C. it should be read 'iva pi] eK njs pipi'iaews to 
ehai (not -ou eh'ui) aTroXavauxrir. Plutarch T. 11. _p. 521 E. puts the 
consequence in the genitive, xP1'^^°^ ovteros cnroXavaeis, for ■^rirrTuv 

5. The construction of the verbs which signify ' to partici- 30^, 
pate, to receive, to give', with the genitive, appears to have been (363) 
the cause of other verbals also, wdiich signify * to obtain, to re- 
ceive', having the same construction, although this too may have 
arisen from the cause mentioned in §. 350. note. Of this kind 
are rvyy^uveiv, Xayy^aveiv rtvoc,, and dvTiav, Kvpeiv Tivoc,. 
Isocr. ad Nicocl. p. 22 B. C. Ovrirod (TwpaTOG ervx^Q, 
dOavuTov Se^vYnc. Id. NicocL p. 39 B. otoiVTvep hvo- 
parwv eKaara rtov irpayparojv rervx^K^, roiavrac vyeiaUe 
Kai TQQ ^vvdpeiQ uvtwv elvai : and with a double genitive Xen. 
An. 5, 5, 15. epivra Se avrovc, otto'kov tivmv vpuiv erv^ov, 
' what kind of men they found us'. Soph. Phil. 552. El. 1463. ; 

'' lens, cl llcnibt, ad Luc. T. 1. p. 3-26 sqq. Fisch. 3 a. y. Sdf. 

548 Sytitax. Of the Genitive. 

and with a double genitive of tlie thing and the person Soph. 
1315. oil' Se aov Tvyelv 6(pie/.iai aKovaov. II. w, 76. wc Kev 
Ay^iWevQ ^ojpwv e/c Tlpiainoio Xa^|7, airo B ' EktojOu Xvcry. 
Soph. CEd. C. 4:50. aW ovn /jh) Xa^wcrt rovoe cruju^ia^ov. 
Thuc. 2, 44. TO S evTv^ec, o'l av (§. 633.) ttjc evirpeve- 
CTTarr/c Xa-x^wcriv, loairep o'/Se /ttev vuv, TcXeuTJjc, v/neiQ Be 
XuTrrjc. Thus also the active form 11. rj', 79 seq. o<ppa irvpoc 
p.e T|Owec Kat T|0(uajv aXo^^oi XeXa)(^a>(ri Oavovra. comp. o, 
350. ^, 342. xp , 76. — //. a, 66. ai Kev ttwc, apvuiv Kvi(jai)Q 
aiywv re reXeiwv /SouXerai avrtaaac 7'j/u»' airo Xoiyov ajuvvai. 
Comp. Od. TT , 254. JEsch. Suppl. 35. ayp'iac, a\oG avTiaaavTeQ, 
scevum mare nacti. Soph. El. 868. (et ^evoc arep e/.iav -^epwv) 
KeKevdev, ovre rov racjiov avriacrac, o'vt€ yotiov irap' i)/nu)v. 

Herod. 2, 1 19. cnriKofxevoc, o Mei-eXewo ec, ri]v Kiyvirrov 

l^eiviwv i]VTi]ae (.leydXiov. Piiid. 01. 10, 49. aXLoaioc, av- 
Ti]aac. Soj)h. Phil. 719. ctj'^puiv ayaOwv ttoiSoc VTravTiicrac, 
'meeting with'^. Herod. 1, 31. al'Apyelai (e/io/ca'joi^ov) ti)v 
jLiriTepa ttVTtJv (tw»/ vey}vieu)v), o'lbjv reKviov eKvpi)ae, 'that 
such children were her lot'. Eur. Iph. A. 1614. Tref.iirei B' 
Aya/Liejui'Mv p. , {jjare aoi (^paaai TaSe, Xeyeiv 6 owoiac e/c 
6e(vv po'ipac, Kvpel. comp. id. Med. 23. Ion. 1288. eaQXov 
o eKvpaa Baipovoc, . 

Obs. These verbs are also very often constructed with the accusa- 
tive. With Tvy)(^uyeiv in the sense of ' obtain', the accusative is always 
that of a pronoun or adjective of the neuter gender, or an infin. with the 
article rci §. 543. Obs. 3. Soph. (Ed. T. 598. Eurip. Or. C87. Med. 756." 
It has an accus. in the sense of ' to hit', //. e', 582. ayKujya rv^wv picrov, 
where, however, the case seems to have been determined by ftuKe, 
V.580. ' to meet with, to find', Plat. Rep. 4. p. 431 C. tcis ce ye anXds 
re KUt perplas (^eTndvpias), al ct) peril rov re ical do^rjs updijs Xoyi(Tu<S 
ayorrai, ev SXiyois re eTrirev^t], Koi roTs fieXrifTTa pev <pvai, fieXricTTa 
Se Trai^evdeTffiy. which seems rather a continuation of the preceding 

construction, ros ye woXXas Kal Travrolcnras eiriOvpias av ris evpoi, 

the construction being changed by the parenthetical proposition''. 

» Reisig Enarr. (Ed. C. 14-10. >• Fisch. 3 a. p. 367 seq. 

Buttm. Lexilog. 1. p. 9 seq. 300. I ' Briinck ad Or. 686. Med. 759. 

do not understand how the idea of Ehnsl, ad Med. 741. Ilerm. ad \'ig. 

something intentional should be con- p. 762. 
tained in the genitive. '' Ilcrm. ad Vig. p. 744. 

Syntax. Of the Genitive. 549 

kvrvy)(av€iv, ' to meet with', takes the dative ; also when it signifies the 
same as ' to obtain', e. g. tfrev^ea-Oai (l>povti(r€L Plat. Phcedon. p. G8 A. 
With Xnyyiiveiv the accusative is rather more common than the geni- 
tive: Soph. El. 751. OTpaTos ai'wXoXvse tov veaviav, o'C epya cpacras 

ola Xay^avet kuko.'^. — Kvpecj : yEsch. Sept, c. Th. 700. kukos oh 
KeK\ri<TT) (olov ev Kvpijcras. especially in the sense of * to meet with, 
to find' Eurip. Hec. Q>':i3. Rhes. 113. 697. 'to touch' Horn. H. in Fen. 
174. hi Cer. 189. in which sense it elsewhere takes the dative also^ 
avToiv, avrtdv in the sense 'become partaker in, acquire', is probably 
not found with the accusative; for Soph. Antig. 982 seq. a le aneppa 
pev upycuoyovwp avraa 'Epe-)(detcdv it seems that avraae ought to be 
connected with the genitive, ' belonged to, had part in the aireppa of 
the Erechthidse as a scion' §. 428. and//, a', 31. Ipov Xe^os a.vTi6u)aav 
is more correctly explained evTpeiri^ovfrav, Tropaviovcray. In this sense 
it is joined with the dative by Pindar, Isthm. 6, 21. Toialtrn' opyals av- 
TicKxas. Homer joins avrdv with the genitive §. 383. in the sense of 
' encounter', exchanging the proper and the derivative meaning. 

Ill the same manner with K\r]povope7v the thing which is in- 329. 
herited is in the genitive: Demosth. in Aristocr. p. 690, 14. (364) 
e\B' ovTOi KXiipovofiovcTi TrJG vperepaQ So^rjq kul tidv 
vperkpwv dyaOwv. in Aristog. p. 800, 8. ric, o rrjc tovtov 
irovqpiac, per a pa c, Koi kukyjc ^o^r]Q K\t]povopeiv pouAr/- 
aopeuoQ. Tile person also of whom one inherits, is in the ge- 
nitive : Demosth. in Eubiil. p. 1311, 17. einicXiipov K\i]povo- 
/iiriaac evwopov. Otherwise the genitive of the person is gene- 
rally dependent on the genitive of the thing : Dem. pro Cor. 
p. 329. l4.mMacart. p. 1065,25. Trpocrriicei ovSevoQ KX^povope^v 
Twv 'AyvLov. The thing is rarely put in the accusative : Lycurg. 
in Leocr. p. 197. (T. 4. Reisk.) ravrriv eKXripovopovv' other- 
wise only in later authors, as Liician. D. Mort. 11, 3. outc, 
oifxai, av, J Kpdri]C, eneOvpeiQ kXt] povope7i> cnroOavovroQ 

ep.ov ra KTi^para, Kcti tov tt'iOov kcu tv^ iv^pav. 

a yap e-^p^v, av re AvriaOevovc eKX}ipovopr](^ac, Kai eyio 

aov, TToXXto juet'^w koi aepvorepa rrjc, Tiepaujv apyjiic, 

(To^i'ai', avrdpKeiav &LC. where just before in the phrase wq 

KXt)povopnaaipi Trie jSa/cTrj/Jtac avTov, the genitive of the person 
was governed by the genitive of the thing. 

« Brunck ad Soph. El. 364. Valckcn. ad Eur. Ilippol. 744. 

f lluhnk. ad H. m Cer. 1. c. Brunck ad Eur. Hec. 1. c. 

550 Sj/titax. Of the Genitive. 

Obs. Later authors construct KXr/povoyLteiv even with the accusative 
of the person, as well as with the accusative of the thing, without the ge- 
nitive of the person. Phd. Sull. 2. £K\r]poyvfxi]ae ce kuI T))r ^j]-pvun'\ 

330. 6. The construction of the verbs ' to take hold of, with the 
(365) genitive, appears to have arisen from the same cause. Yet 
these are for the most part only middle verbs. Xo^i/3ov6cT0ai 
and the compounds e7rtXo^</3. ^pdrTeadai, ciTrreaOai. Arist. 
Li/s. 1121. ov d' av ^ilwai, irpocraye toutovc, Xa(5ofxevrj. 
Vesp. 434. XdjieaOe tovtovL Li/s. Epit. ;>. 1 96, 1 3. erepiov nye- 
f.i6v(j}v Xa/3ojuej'oo, for erepovc, 7'j-ye^ioi'ac \a(iwu. Xen. Li/rop. 
7, 1, 31. OTOU Se e7riXa/3o I TO ra ^peirava, Trdvra (5ia Ste- 
KOTTTero, Km oTrXa Kai aw/^iaTa. Arist. Lj/s. 596. tjjc oe yv- 

VaiKOQ ILUKpUG O KCtlpOC KCIV TOVTOV /I?] IT iX (l [5 T] T tt I, OVCeiC 

eOeXei yrif^al tuutjjv. Plat. Phccdon. p. 79 A. twv Kara ravra 

•> I ■> >i ti ' '^ " A A ' \ ' /3 ''' "^ '^ S' 

evoi'Twv ovK eanv otm ttot av aAAo) tTTtAapoto, ?7 t(<> rrjc cia- 

' •••11 

vo'iac, Xoyiapio. The same construction remams m the other 

meanings: 'to blame', Xen. Hist. Gr. 2, 1, 32. e^o^ei' aTro- 
KTelvai Twi* a()(j(iaXwTwi' otrot })aav' AOrjvcuoi, 7rXi]V Aceijiiavrov, 
OTi fxovoc eireXu(ieTO ei' tjJ e/CK-Xjjam tov rrepi tj/c ottoto^itjc 
Th)V yeipijjv ■\pr](^ia par oc,. — avriXappaveauai. Demosth. 
p. 15, 5. two earl Kaipoc, dvTiXdl^eaOe rwv Trpayparwv. com- 
pare Xen. Cijr. 2, 3, 6. hocr. Arch. p. 136 D. E. 'to blame'. 
Plat. Thecct. j^- 1^9 C. ovk uv, olpai, aoi Soku) tou aXr]Oioc, 
\pev^ovc dvTiXa(^e(T6ai. ' to catch, to make an impression'. 
Plat. Phccdon. p. 88 D. Qavpaarwc, ydp pov o Xoyoc, outgo 
dvTiXapl3dv€Taif to appoviav rivd npwv elvai ttji' xl^vy^i]}'. 
— c^eaOai, dvTey^ecrOai tji-oc. Xen. Anal). 7, 6, 41. w ovv 
awcppovwpev, e^dpeOa avrov Svc shall keep hold of him'. 
ib. 6, 3, 17. Koivy Trie (TcjTiipiaQ e^eaOat, in sulntem in- 
cnmbere, * to be earnestly attentive to his safety'. IJerod. 1, 93. 
X'lpvr] Se e^eTat tou ai] paroc peyaXt) * borders upon'. Thuc. 
1, 140. Tr/c yi'W/urjc T^c avrrjc e'>(o/tai * persevere in'. Pur. 
Hec. 402. opoia, Kicraoc, ^pvoc, ottwc, ryitrS e^opai. — Thnc. 
1, 93. T^C 0aXo(T(T)>o TTpuiTOC {Qepi(TTOKXrjc,) eroXpriaev enreiv 
wc, dvOeKTea eaTiv. Xen. Cyrop. 5, 1, 14. oi KaXoi KayuOoi, 
tniOvpovvTea Kai wpvaiov Kai nnrtjv uyaudjv Kai yvvaiKOJV KaXuji', 

"> Mocris p. 149. Thoin. M. p. 537. Fisch. 3 a. p. 363. 

Sj/ntax. Of iJte Genitive. 551 

ojLitoc uTTtii'Tiov TOVTOJV f)ttci(ji)Q cvvai'TUi OTTe^ecToaj, iOCTTe /nj 
air Tea Oct I avTUJi' irapa to ciKaiov. 

Many verbs are constructed like aTrrof.iai, which signify the 
same; as ipaveiv, Oiyelv, Oiyyaveiv. Eur. Hec. 609. |U>) Oiy- 
yaveiv f.iov /nr^dev , aXX e'lpyeiv o-^Xov tjjc ttoiSoc*. 

Obs. Pindar joins these verbs also with the dative, e. g. Pi/lh. 4, 528. 
aavxi<} Oi-yej-ier. comp. 8, 33. 9, 75. 213. further Isihm. 4, 20. ctt-j/- 
\aiaiv uTTTord' 'llpaKkeiais, which 01. 3, 79. is expressed (rnjXay 'Ilpct- 
xXeos ixTtTcoQai. comp. Pijth. 10, 44, Qiydv is found with the accusa- 
tive Soph. Aiitig. 546. y^»'/o' it jxi} "diyes ttoiov (reavrijs. But Eur. 
Here. F. 965. 7rar>)p 2e viv diyoji' Kparaids yetpos is constructed ac- 
cording to §. 331. Both constructions appear to be united /S'o/j/?. Ant. 
857 seq. ei^aviras aXyeivoTaras efxoi iiepi fjLvas, Trarpos TpnroXiaTOV 
oItoi'. KadiKPelirdai in Homer takes the accusative, e. g. II, t,', 104. 
fx/iXa TTU)S yue KadiKeo dvfihv kmrf]. Oil. a , 342. kirei fxe [xuXiffTa KciOiKeTO 
TTevdos aXaarov, also Soph, CEd. T. 809. peaov Kupa [j.ov KudtKeTO. 
which in later writers takes a genitive, as Eustathius ad II. 4, p. dQ9, 
52. observes. 

Upon this is founded the construction by which, with the 331. 
verbs ' to take, to seize, to touch, to carry', &c. the part by (366) 
which any thing is taken is put in the genitive, whilst the whole 
is put in the accusative. \en. Anab. 1, 6, 10. jLtero ravTu, 
KeXevovToc Kvpov, eXaj3ovTO Tr]C, ^wi'jk toi' O^ooi'Trji' em 
davuTM cnravrec avaaravreQ /cat ot avyyevelc, ' took him by the 
girdle'. Find, Nem, 1, 67. av-^evoju papxpaic, o^utc. Eur. Andr. 
711. })i' oS e^ imiov yeytoc eXa St o'lKiou rrjcrS eTrto-Tracrac 
Ko^tijc. comp. ^Esch. S. c. Th. 4:30. Eur. Troad, 888. Iphig, 
A. 1376. KAY. li^ei B ov-^ eKOvcruv apira.aac\ AXIA. Sfj- 
XaSj7 l^avQric, eBeipr]c„ Antiphan.ap. Stab, Tit, 120. j^;. 608. 
Gesn. TOVQ yXi'^opevovQ ce ^ijv KcnaaTva tou a KeXov a cikov- 
Tuc, o Xa^otui'. Hence II. lo , 515. yepovra Se yeipoc, aviarr]. 
II. \p', 854.*^ ireXeiav Beli' TroSo'c. Aristoph. Plut. 315. tmv 
opykwv Kpejiiui/iiev. So also verbal adjectives are constructed 
Soph. Ant. 1221. ywaiKa Kpe^iac!Ti]v av\^ki>oc. 

Obs. It is seldom that an active verb is constructed as in §. 330. //. ?/, 
56. pecr<70u covpus iXwy. The probable explanation of tt', 406. eXice ^e 

^ Fisch. 3 a. p. 3G3. 360. "= Valok. ad Theocr. 10. Id. 4, 35. 

552 Syntax. Of the Genitive. 

Sovpos eXwy vitep ixvTvyos (comp. 409. ws cXk ck cifpoio Ke^rjvora Covpi 
(paeij'w) is, ekKE Be avTov covpos, eXiou to copv. Lucian says 
Asm. J). 158. Xanj3a.y€ral jjov €K ttJs ovpds. 

332. '^ • 'The same construction is retained also with the verbs 
(367) which signify the opposite of ' to take, to seize', viz. ' to let go, 
to loose, not to obtain anything, to miss'. See. Here too they 
are mostly middle verbs, which take the genitive. 

jueOieaOai ' to let go', takes only the genitive; /^leOievai on the 
contrary, in the same sense, usually takes the accusative : Soph. 
CEd. C. 830. fxeOec, y^epolv ttji' TraTSa Baaaov. Eur. Hec. 
404. (uc Trjcrd eKovcra ttoiSoc ov / Aristoph. 
Plitt. 42. OTio ^vi'avTi](Tai/nt Trpwrov e^iwu, cKeXevae tovtov 
jurj |J^e9 lecfOai jx en. Eur. Med. 734. ayovcriv ov ueOel av ck 
yaiYiQ, €(ue is governed of ayovaiv, and with /meOelo must be sup- 
plied e/mov. Yet Herodotus has the genitive with the active 
9, 33. ^TrapTitjrai Se, Trpuira jj.ev aKovaavrec,, Beiva eiroievvro 
Kai fxCT icaav ttJc, y^ p rf a p. o <t v vrj g TOirapaTrav in the sense of 
'to lose sight of (r), as //. X', 841. aW ovB' a»c irep (reio 
pe6i]a(jj reipopevoio. and peBieaOai ' to let go', is found with 
the accus. Eur. Phan. 533. cKeivo S ov-^ e/con/ peBriaopai in all 
theMSS. Comp. ^sch. Suppl. 856.^ 

aCpieaBai rivor,: Plat. Lach. p. 181 A. pri a(^/eoro ye tov 
avdpoQ. ib. p. 184 A. a^'ieTai tov SoparoQ 'lets go the spear' 
(on the contrary, dcjyievai ^6pv ' to hurl the spear'), ib. p. 1 86 D. 
KaBcnrep apri Ao^j/o pi) uCpiecrBai ere epov SiCKeXevero, aXXa 
epwTuv, Kai cyw vvv TrapaKcXevopai aoi pi) cicbieaBai Aa- 
y^rjTOG, pr}Be Nikioi*, aXXa cpiorav. /iocr. tt. a vtjS. jp. 3 1 8 D. 
eK€iv(i)G vpuc, i)yovpcti r(t"^iaT uv a<pe7aOai rrjc Bo^t]q tuv- 
Ttjc. p. 333 A. acjyt.pevoc rov (3oi]Bciv to7c, e'ipr]i.iei>oic. 
Comp. Archid. p. 133 B. C. Eur. Hel. 1650. ovk a(^i\ao^iai 
TreTrXwv awv. On the other hand acpievai is constructed regu- 
larly with the accusative. 

'^ Schol. Arist. Pint. 4-2. Dawes Med. 73-k etSchiefer. In the passage 

Misc. Cr. p. 236. Valcken. ad Eur. of Herodotus Biomfield recommends 

Ph. p. 189. Hipp. V. 326. On the (Remarks) tus ■xp-qcrpoavfas 'they 

contrary, Brunck ad Eur. Med. 737. laid aside tlieir entreaties', whicli 

Arist. Vesp. 416. Comp. Herm. ad certainly is not the meaning of xp»?<T- 

Soph. El. 12C9. Porson ad Eur. poavrr}. 

Syntax. Of the Cenitive. 553 

a^OjOTa'i'ejv and its compounds. llerod. 1,43. evOa S^i 

ASp^](rTOC, ciKovTitMV Tov avVf Tou jiiev afxapTavei, Tvyyja- 
vei Se TOV Kpo'iaox) ttui^oc: and in a metaphorical sense 1, 207. 
riv yap eyto -yj'W^tJjo fu) ctj^iapTW, Keivoi icof-ievoi ayaOa 
TToWa Tyoei/'oi'Toi irpoi; avTci. Isocr. ad Phil. p. 87 A. ojjttoAo- 
yovv ^e'OQ TTWTTOTe tocouto irpayixaTOC cia/Lutpreiv. 
comp. Archid. p. 123 C. D. In the hitter metaphorical sense 
it verv nearly agrees with ipevdeaOa'i rivoc, (§. 337.), as acpaX- 
XecfOai Tivoc, 'to miss of anytlnng', §. 337. accords with a/nap- 
To'vetv TivoQ, as opposed to rv^elv ^. The same construction 
remains in Sia/^apraveiv tivoc, ' to be mistaken in any one'. 
Plat. Epist. 1. p. 3 10 B. Comp. Xen. Mem. S. 3, 9, 6, 

Obs. irpoieadai seems to be constructed like /.leOlerrOaL Demosth. (368) 
p. 18, 13. ws eoTt Thiy alayjpojy, fudWov ^e rwy aiaj^^larMv, ^o) povov 
TToXeoJi' K(u roTTW)', wv rjpey ttote Kvpioi, fairecrdat Trpo'iepe rovs, 
ctWa Kul TiJjv VTto Trjs TV\rjS TrapcKn^evaadei'-wu av ppa^tt)\' re koX 
Kctipuji'. This is the only place, however, where it occurs with the 
genitive, and some explain it differently. See §. 474. Schcef. App. 
Demosth. p. 23.3. 

8. From this idea pf partition, which is implied in the geni- 3S3. 
tive, in the superlative also that substantive which marks the (369) 
class from which the superlative distinguishes the chiefest (as 
parts) is put in the genitive, as in Latin, e. g. II. a , 176. 
ev0£orTOC ^e po'i eoai dioTpecpeojv (5a(n\{](i)v. Herodotus adds 
e/c 1, 196. T?}^ ei/eiSeo-raTJ/i' e/c iraaeojv, as in Latin different 
prepositions are used for the genitive ^. 

Hence the genitive is put also with verbs, adjectives and ad- go4,_ 
verbs, which are derived from superlatives, or in which merely (370) 
the idea of preferableness is implied. 

a. Verbs. //. t' , 460. ''E/cto|Ooc v^e yvvri, oc, apiaTevecTKe 
payeaQai TjOwwv 'nnro^apiov, i. e. apiOTOC, i]v Tpiowu. Pind. 
Ne?Ji. 1, 20. upiaTCvoiaav evKupirov yQovoc 'EiKeXiav. Eiuip. 
Hipp. 1009. TTOTepa TO Trja^e awp eKaWicrTeveTO TvacKjjv 
yvvaiKiSv ; Med. 943. ^wp , a KaWicfTeveTai tcov rvv 
ev avOpdnroKTiv, o(8 e-yw, ttoXv. Ale. 653. rjT apa TravTtov 
^laTrpeTreic, axpv^ia, to which Pindar 01. 1. i/t. adds c^oy^a: o 

•> Fisch. 3 a. p. 368. = Fisch. 3 a. p. 352. 


554 * Si/ntax. Of the Genitive. 

■y^pvauc ai0o/tei'oi' Trvp ore ^iutt perrei vvkti f.icyiivopoc 
e^o^a ttXovtov, Xen. Mem. S. 3, 5, 10. Aeyw -jravTac. 

{tovc TToXc^iovc) ei' olc TTaaiv eKelvoi (ol 'A6r]i>a7oi) SrjXoi ye- 

yovaai to)v kuO' eavrovc, livQ pCjTrwv a piarevaavT ec. 

h. Adjectives. Eur. Suppl. 843. iroOev ttoO' o'lBe Biairpe- 
7re?q €v\Pv^ia OvriTwv eipvcrav; Thus also e'^oyoc II. v , 499. 
and jjassim; which however Od. (f)', 266. is constructed with 
the dative, ' amongst', for ev Traaiv anroXioiaiv. 

c. Adverbs, e'^ox^ If- t, 257. epe B' e^oy^a iravTwv 
6'jTet. Piiid. OL 9, 104. via g' "AKTopoQ e^o\wc r'lpaaev 
eTTo'iKwv Aiy'ivciQ re Mei-otTtov. 

335. 9. The genitive is also put with the verbs ' to begin', ap- 
(351) -^eiv, apyeaBai, VTrapyew, Karapyeiv, properly, * to make a be- 
ginning in, or with anything'. Theocr. 1,70. apy^Te (5w- 
KoXiKac, Mwffai (p'lXai, apyer aoi^ac. Socr. 
Axioch. 7. oi» icaTa tw ■!rpu)Ttiv •yei'etTiv to viimov KXaiei tov 
tvv OTTO XuTTJ/c apyopeuov; Xen. Mem. S. 2, 3, 11. ct riva 
Tiov yvutpipiov (5(jv\oio KaTepyaauaQai, ottotc Ovoi KoAeiv ae 
tTTi ^fiTTVov, Ti av TTOiotJjc ; XAIP. lr\\ov OTi KaTupyoipi av 
TOV avTOG, ore Ovoi/lU, KaXelv eKcivov. virapx^iv signifies es- 
pecially auclarem esse, ' to do anything first, to give occasion 
to', e. g. vTTupyeiv yeipwv a^'iKutv, a^iKiar,, ' to cause outrages 
first'; which also vnap'^ai alone denotes. Enr. Androm. 274. 
^H peyu\(i)v ayewv up' V7rrjp'6,ev, or l^a'iav ec vottov t/X0 
o tJjc Mat'oc re Kai Atoc yovoc Plat. Menex. p. 237 B. Tr7c 
evyeve'iac, rrpwrov VTrrjp^e ToTdSe ij Twr irpoyoviov yeveaiQ. 
Andocid. p. 71. ed. P. AaKeSai^itovioi cyvMaav awteii' ti)v ttoAiv 
Sta Toc €K€iv(ov riov av^pidv apeTuc, oi vTrrjp^av ti}C, tAeu- 
Bepiac airaay rr? 'EAXaSi"^. Thus also KaOnyeiaOa'i rtvoQ ' to 
be the first, to make a beginning'. P/at. Lack. p. 1 82 C. 
33(5 Obs. 1. These verbs are also found with the accusative. Flat. 
Euthyd. ji. 283 B. Bavpaaruv nva, J Kpiriov, an)p co7>7fX^ Xuyof. 
Eurip. Hec. 685. Karnp^o/^ai- vopov /3o/vX€(oj'. Or. 949. Karap- 
yop-ai areyaynor^. Demoslh. tt. Trapairp. J)- 4-31. ('Apfj-ollov Kcu'Api- 
aToyeiroros) ovs rof^if cia ras evepyeaias, as vTTT/p^ctv eh vfias, tr 

» Valck.adEur.Ph.p.lo7G. Diatr. ad Soph. El. 522. Heind. ad Plat, 
p. 241. Euthyd. p. 33d. Disscn ad I'ind. 

** Musgr. adEiir. llec. I.e. Bniiu-k p. 305. 

St/nlax. Of the (ieiiilive. 555 

uTTCiffi Tols lepoTs tTTi rah dvalais a~oy^u>i' kui Kparlipioy koii'mi'uvs 7re- 
TTOitjffde. Isocr. Plat. p. 307 D. hi:aiojs ay Tt)v avTi)u evepyea'uiv utto- 
\aJ3oifX€v, ijyTrep avTol Tvyx^n'oiiey e/s v}.ius vTrapt,ayT€s. 

Obs. 2. The construction of the verb cipxeaOai with arru and the ge- 
nitive is different from this ; the genitive only, without a preposition, 
marks the action or condition itself, which is commencing ; but the ge- 
nitive with airo marks the individual point which is the first in a con- 
tinued action or condition, as ra l3pe(j») tuv 'Ci)v air 6 Xvmjs iipxerai, 
where rou '(i^y marks the permanent condition which is commencing, 
OTTO XvTvrjs the feeling which is the first in the condition thus commen- 
cing, ' the children begin life with sorrow'. Xen. Mem. S. 2, 1,1. j3ouXei 
GKOTTioiiev, ap't,afi€t'ot utto rfjs Tpo(pris, uimvep awo rwr aroij^^eiMy, where 
rpocpi'i and cjToixela mark the point whence the inquiry commences : the 
whole however which is commenced, is the inquiry how two youths 
are to be educated for different ends, the one to govern, the other for 
the tranquillity of private life, otto with the genitive answers to ad- 
verbs in -udey. Xen. Cijr. 8, 7, 14. /.iricai-iodey Trporepoy apxov ») utvo 
rod ofwdey yevof-ieyov. comp. 1, 2, 2. 8, 7, 26. Of a similar reference 
in the construction with the participle, see §. 551. 

IV. To words of all kinds other words are added in the ge- (315) 
nitive, which show the respect in which the sense of those words 
must be taken ; in which case the genitive properly signifies 

* with regard to'. . 

1. With verbs: in the phrases wc, ottwc, ttojc, ovtcoq ey^ei 307. 

* to be qualified or endowed in any manner whatever', se habere. 
Herod. 6, 116. 'A0»?va?oi Se, wc ttoSwi^ (^^'■\p^'> rdyjiaTa e(i<ji}0€oif 
ec TO acTTv, ut sese habebant quoad pedes, i. e. quantum pedibus 
valebant, 'as fast as they could run'. Thus also 9, 59. and 
Plat. Gorg.p. 507 D. and elliptically jEsch. Suppl. 849. aovoO' 
eiri (5apiv ottwc, ttoSwi'. Hei^od. 9, QQ. oKivc, av avrov optnoai 
(77rou§»7c e)(^or'To. 5, 20. Ka\wQ ey^eiv fieOnc ' to be pretty drunk', 
(See Schaf. ad Soph. (Ed. T. 1008.) 1 , 30. f-ierpiwc eyeiv ftiov. 
Eurip. Hipp. 462. eu 'iyeiv (ppevuiv. Soph. CEd. T. 345. wr, 
opyiJQ ex^- '^^^"'-'- ^J 22. wc eicarepoc, ric, evvoiac ?/ /iin/^irjc t'x"'' 

* as each wished well to a party, or remembered the past'. 
2,90. wc, el)(e tu^^ouo eKaaroc. Thus also Plat. (Jorg. p. 451 C. 
TTwc TO. uarpa irpoc, oAXtjXct tuxovg e'x^*' and before, ttjOoc aura 
Kal TrpoQ aXArjX« TTwr, e^ei irXnOovQ, ' how they stand in relation 
to each other with regard to number'. Protag. p. 321 C, liep. 2, 

E 2 

556 Syntax. Of the Genitive. 

p. 365 A. TOcrouTO Xeyojiteva aperric Ttepi /cat KuKiac,, wc avBpio- 
TTOi Kal 6eoi vepl avra e)(oiJ<Ti Ti/urjc, ti oiop-eOa uKovovaaQ veiov 
ipvy/ac; iroieiv, i. e. (I>c a. /cat 9. avra rif-nSai. 3. p. 389 C ottwc 
irpii^ewa eyei, i. e. ottwc, wpciTrei. Gorg. p. 470 E. ov yap oiCa, 
TTcaBeiac, ottwq e^yei Kal ^iKaioavvnc ignoro, quconsit doctus, quam 
bonus vir Cic. Tnsc. Qii. 5, 12. p)at. Hep. 9. p. 571 D. orav 
vyiewwQ TIC e-^y avTOC avTov Kai au)(ppovu)Q. Leg. 4. p. /05 C 
vavTrr^yrjal/nric vXrjc o tottoc ttwc e)(et ; * how is the place with 
respect to timber for ship-building ? ' Xen. Ci/rop. 7, 5, 56. 
ovTio TooTTov e\eiv, eo ingenio esse^. In Thuc. 1 , 57. this 
construction is varied with koto : mc eKucTToic, rijQ ^vvrv^iac t? 
Kara to ^vfLiCpepov j) oj'o'yKy {al. avoy/ojc) t(T)(^€J'. Plat. Kep. 8. 
;?. 545 A. is different: ttwc ttotc t) aKparoc ^iKaioavvt] irpoQ 
a^iKinv T77V ciKparov ^\ei evBati^ioviac, Te irepi tou c^ovtoq kui 
aOXioTTiTOc, for liere ey^ei is used in an absolute sense. 

In the same manner jjkoj also is used with an adverb. Herod. 

1,30. TeXXw TOU j3tou ev Vovti TeXevri) tou (5iov Xa/t- 

TTpoTUTi] eireyeveTO. comp. ih. 102. 149. 8, 111. Eur. EL 
756. TTWC, aywvoc r;/cO|He»^; id. Heracl. 214. ykvovc, /nev >//ceto wSe 
ToTd^e, Aj//to<^wi', properly, * with respect to kindred, thou 
art thus circumstanced in relation to theui', for wSe Trpoai^Keic, 
ToTffSf yevei. comp. A/c. 298. 

338. With other verbs also the genitive is used on the same 
(.■516) ground, e. g. eTrct'-yeo-^at ''A|oeoc //. t', 142. * to be in haste 
with respect to the battle' (or on account of) gtt. oSoTo * with 
respect to the setting out', Od. a , 309. unless here, as Od. v\ 
30. e', 399. eireiyeaOai signifies * to long after anything', as 
XtXoto/iei/oc vrejOoSoTo Od.a, 315. — Ilesiod. ' ILpy. 577. tjwc 
Toi Trpo(j)e pel /xev o^ov, Trpocpepei ^e Kai epyov 'furthers 
in respect of a journey and of work.' — Tyrt. 3, 40. (Brunek. 
Gnom. p. 63.) ouSe tic outoi' ^Xuttt eiv out aioouc ouTe 
StKJjo eOeXei 'to injure him neither with respect to reverence', by 

* Ilemsterh. ad Lucian. 1. 1 . p. 228. p. 200. Lob. ad Thryn. p. 280. mix 

Valck. ad Herod. 3, 139. p. 263, 33. conslructions of different kinds lo 

ad Enr. Hippol. 462. Wessel. ad gethcr. Tliil. j). 208. 
Her. p. 722, 36. Fisch. 3 b. p. 72. 85. ^ Valck. ad Herod. 7, 157. p. 577, 

ToupEm.inSuid. t.3. p. 12. Bninck 96. ad Eurip. Ph. 364. Monk ad 

ad Arist. Lysistr. 173. Ast ad Leg. Ale. 302. 

Si/ntux. Of the (ienitive. 557 

denying it to him, ' nor to justice', (k.) ^Xdineiv rivu KcXevOov 
Od. a\ 195. ' to injure in respect to his return, to hinder'. /Esc/i. 
Aga/n. 121. Theogn. 200. voov ^e^Xaf^ij^ikvoc, eaOXov, whicli in 
jEsch. Agam. 489. is cppevojv KeKoju/nevoc. Hence (ppevoldXal^iic, 
7rapaTrXr}KTOc. Theogn. 983. iJr. (1009. Bekk.) ktcuviov ev ttoct- 
Xejiiev. perhaps also 723. {Brunck Solon. No. 12.) In the same 
manner Soph. A)itig. 22. ov yap racpov vmv rtj Kaaiyv^ru) 
Kpetvv Tov p.ev ir por'iaac, (for the simple rt'crac) tov § uri- 
paaac, ej^et ; ' honouring him, in giving him interment' ; where 
the sense of * depriving' might be given to the verb anixaCu), as 
to the verb jSAaTrro) in the former example ; but this very con- 
struction of the verb ' to deprive' seems to be derived from 
that which is here explained. See §. 353. Soph. (Ed. C. 49. 

jU77 /ii oT(^taa>)C (<'i' (re TTpoarpeTTb) (ppaaai, for f.u] jli ar. 

eK€iv(i)i> a ae wp. (pp. Comp. CEd. T. 789. Hence Plat. Hip- 
parch, p. 229 C. XeyeraL Se u/to rtuv yapiearkpixiv avQpioTriov 
Koi o QavaTOC, avrov (tov Imrapy^ov) yeveadai ov, ci a oi 
TToXXoi wi]9r]CTav, Sm rrjv rrjc aSeXcprjc arij^nav Trie, Kavi]- 
(pop'iac,, ' because Hipparchus had refused to the sister of Har- 
modius the honour of bearing the basket', i. e. of being one of 
the Kavt](p6poi, where the substantive retains the construction 
of the verb. Of the double genitive, see §. 380. OZ^.s. 1. Thiic. 
3, 92. TOV TTpoc' AOr^vaiovc ttoXc /iiov KaXwc, auroTr, ecoKei 
7j TToAic (17 Tpay^ii') KaOiaTaoOai' eni re yap Ty JLvpoia 
vavTiKov irapaaKevaaOrivai uv, oWt e/c (ipa-y^eoc, t?iv Siaf^aaiv 
yiyveaOai, TtJQ re em OpaKtic rrapo^ov -^pijaiincoc e^etv, 
' the city appeared to be favourably circumstanced with respect 
to war', 8cc. id. 1, 36. KaAwc TrapairXov KelaOai, comp. ib. 
44. Hippocr. p. 281, 29. ed. lots. KelaOai koXwc tov i^Xiov 
Kai TU)v Trvev/LiaTMv. Thus Musgrave explains the passage in 
Eurip. Med. 288. ^u/it/SaXXerat Sc TroXXa Tov^e deif.iaT0c, 
where, as in ■y^pr^aijuwc, e^eiv or ■^^prjaii.iov etvai, the construction 
irpoc Ti is more usual ; see, however, §.326. /neOievai ttoXI^iou 
//. g', 234. 240. t, 330. &c. ' to relax in war', not ' to desist 
from war', vcpievai opyrJQ * to remit one's anger', Herod. 1 , 156. 
3, 52. where the middle is more usual, avikvai opync. Arist. 
Ran. 700. e^aveic, opync Eur. Hipp. 913. comp. ib. 287.*^ 

*• Valck. ad I I'M'. 7, 16'2. p. 680, 87. 

558 Syntax. Of the Genitive. 

dvievai rijc, e(f)6Sov ' to slacken in one's approach', Thitc. 7 , 43. 
— Xeu. Hier. 4, 1. koi Trio-rewc cxjtic, eXay^iarov jneTe^ei, ttwc 
ovyl jiieyaXov iiyaOov jueiove/cre? ; 'does he not fall short, in 
respect of a great good V &:c. Isocr. ad Phil. p. 86 D. rov Srj 

TOiovrov Kai TTjXiKavra ^laTreirpayinei'ov ovk o'lei ttoav (ere) 

^leipevcrOai vo/iueiv rrjc, re rwv Xoywv Sui^a/uewc kcu ttjq 
avTov SiavoiaQ ' to be mistaken with respect to the effect of 
his speech', comp. Archid. p. 131 A. 138 B. de Pace 165 A. 
e\p€v(rac (jypevMV Uepcrac JEsch. Pers. 470. tou ttAjjOouc i^ev- 
aOevTCQ Lys. Epit. p. 193. Thus also cT(pd\\eadai tivoq 'to 
be deceived with respect to a thing', e. g. aCpaXXeaOai ^Xtt'i^oq 
Herod. 2. as iPevdeaOai cAtt. id. 1, 141. Eur. Med. 1006. 
So^>?C e(T(l)dXi]v evayyeXov. id. Ph. 7 70. cav ti tj/c Tv-)(ric eyu> 
a(pctX(v. Hence Soph. O-^d. C. 1165. aa(paXu)c rrjc ^evp' o^ov, 
1. e. /Lii) a^aXtvTa rrjc, 2. o. In a derivative sense, Ein\ Or. 
1076. yd/iitov Se ttJc ^tti' ouffTTOT/iou rrja^ ea(paXr]v, it is the 
same with di^iaprciveiv tivoc §. 332. aCJyuXXeaOai rivoe, * to be 
mistaken in any one' Ac;/. Mem. <S'. 4, 2, 26. opposed to e'lBevai. 
comp. Isocr. it. avr. ^. 182. Soph. Trach. 942. wpcjiai'iapcvoc, 

To this belongs the phrase Kareaya tz/c KccpaXijc, ^vveTpil3i]v 
Tiic KecpaXijc,, J'ractns aii/u ((jiiod atiitiet ad) caput, instead of 
caput fract am est, according to iheGriecism, by which the verb 
is not referred to its proper noun, but to that of which the noun 
is a part ; in which case tlic proper noun of the verb usually is 
put in the accusative, as in tlie Latin poets, e. g. jam rnulto 
J'racfas membra lahore, for cujus membra fracta sunt. Plat, 
(iorg. p. 469 D. kIiv riva oo^i? {.toi tijc, KeCJiaXijc (nirtov /coreo- 
■yei'oi {vufg. KciTeay^jvui) cfiv, Kareayioc, laTai avriKa f.iuXa. 
Aristoph. Vesp. 1428. Karcnyij ttjc, Ke(j)aXiic, jiieya acjiotpa. 
id. Acharii. 1180. The person is also found in the genitive 
governed hy rfjc K<-:^aXrir.. ib. 1166. k ara^eie nc avTov xr/c 
K€(baX?]C. id. Pac. 71. ewe ^vverp'ijSr} rfjc, KecpaXfic. Luciau. 
ContempL p. <il . ^vvrpiftevrec, twv Kpaviwv. In Isocr. in Cal- 
lirn. ]>. 381 A. yntovTO Kpar^vov avvrpixf/ai tijc, Ke(paXrjc avrric^. 
Also with the construction §. 424, 3. in Li/sias p. 99, 43. 
Kora-yeic T7)1' K€(f)aXi]V. 

•' Piers, ad Mcer. p. 233. Thoni. M. p. 409. llcmstcrh. ad Luc. 1. 1. p. 119. 

Si/nlax. Of (he Genitive. 559 

2. With adjectives, the more exact definition of the idea /jjg 
contained in the adjective is put in this manner in the genitive. (317) 

Herod. I, 155. ttoXiv ava/j.apTy]Tov eovaaf twv re irpoTC- 

pov Km T(Jov vvu erTTeujTwv. Plat. Leg. 1. p. 643 D. reXeior, 
TJ/o apenic \en. Cyr. 6, 1,37. avyyvwjiuov twi' avupdJTrivtov 
upapTr]j.idr(j}v * forgiving with respect to human errors'. Herod. 
1, 107. TTctpdevoc, avbpoc, iopait], or 1, 196. ya/.iov (vp. comp. 
Xen. Ci/r. 4,6, 9. ' mature with respect to marriage'. Herod. 
7, 61. awaic, epaevoc yovov, or, as Xen. Cyrop. 4, 6, 2. Isocr. 
Pa/tath. p. 258 D. aTraic, appevwv irai^wv 'childless with respect 
to sons'. Thuc. 2, Q5. of Pericles y^pt] /licitojv ^laCpavwc aSw- 
poTtiTOG yev6/.i€voc. Plat. Peg. 6. p. 774 D. Ti/nric §e Trapa 
Ttou veojrepojv ciTi/iioc Traarjr, eano, ' let all respect be denied 
him'. 8. J). 841 E. arij^ioc t(Sv ev ttJ? TroAei e-rraivojv ' \i\\~ 
honoured witli respect to the customary panegyrics', expers 
laudum. Comp. Mich. S. c. Tli. 1026. Soph. (Ed. T. 657. 
788. So the tragedians especially use adjectives compounded 
with a priv. in which the idea is implied generally, which is more 
specifically expressed by the subjoined genitive. Soph. El. 36. 
a(TK£voc, a<T~i^ii)u, i. e. avev aair. QLd. C. 677. avi]vejxoc, TravTWv 
■yeipwvbiv. 786. avaTOC, KaKwv. S65. aCpfo^'OC apac. AJ.32]. 
a\po(pr]TOC KMKV/iiaTtov. Etirip. Ph. 334. ctTreTrXoc (papkwv. 
Med. 671. ovK eapev evvriQ a'Cvyec, yaprjXiov. Ijjhig. A. 988. 
itvoaoc KUKwv. This also seems to be the origin of the follovvino- 
phrases: Soph. Trach. 247. 'j^povoc avi]pi9/Lior, yjpepwv * with 
respect to days', where properly it should be vjnepui avIipiOpoi. 
(Ed. T. 179. wv TToXtc avapiOpoc vWvTai, for o'l eu -ry TroXei 
avapiOf^ioi oXXvi'Tai. El. 23 1 . ouotTTOT CK Kaj^uirwr aTTOTTavao- 
pai avapiOpoG w^e Opi}Viou \ 

This appears also to be the proper sense of the genitive with 
the words ' near, to draw near to'. Soph. Antig. 580. ^eu- 
yovai yap rot voi Qpaaeic, orav irkXac 7jo»; tov acrjv eiaopiom 
Tov j3tov. Thus also eyyvc,, TrpoaTreXciCeaOai, ep7reXaL,€aOat. 
Soph. (Ed. T. 1100. Tlavoc opeaaipuTci TrpoaTreXaaSeiaa. id. 
Tr. 17. irpiv T?]a^e koItijc e/^nreXaaOtivai TTore. In other cases 
such verbs take the dative after them. In e^iic, with the geni- 

^ Schcef. Mclcl. in Dion. II. 1. p. 137. 

5G0 Syntax. Of the Genitive. 

tive {Arist. Ran. 765.) besides this the construction e-^eaOa'i 
rivoQ remains, ' to touch upon, to border upon'. 

The expression dpaavc, el iroXXov Arist. Nuh. 916. is sin- 
gular ; 'thou art very audacious' (properly, by much). 

Note. Hence appears to have arisen the observation, that adjectives 
compounded widi a ^5r«i'. govern the genitive : Fisch. 3 a. p. 353. But 
a p>-k\ cannot well determine the use of either the genitive, or any other 

340. 3. In the same manner, it appears, is to be explained the ge- 
{■iio) nitive, which often accompanies adverbs, to determine their 

signification by adding the respect in which they are to be 
taken. Herod. 7, 237. Trpoao) aperric avr^Ktiv ' to carry it far 
with respect to virtue'. Xen. C.ijrop. 1, 6, 39. irpoau) eXaaai 
TtJQ TrAeove^/ao. Anab. 4, 3, 28. ^nj irpoaio tov Tro-apov ^la- 
fta'iveiv. (Pv.) Hence the abbreviated phrase Herod. 3, 154. 
Kapra ev Tolcfi Vlepai^cn cti ayaOoepyiai ec to irpoau} ne-yadeoc, 
ti/lkjovtoi, i. e. Tif.itj)VTai, hxyre avrovc, (tovc, aya9oepyovc,) ec, to 
TrpocFO) /LieyaOeoc, aviiKeiv. Plat. Hutliijphr. p. 4 A. woppu) ao- 
(piac eXavveiVy or Euthyd. p. 294 E. tt. a. i]Keiv. Comp. Gorg. 
p. 486 A. Lys. p. 204 B. iroppw iropevcaOai tov epioroc 'to 
make great progress in love'. Gorg. p. 484 C. iroppo) tiJg 
■nXiKiac ^lAocro^eTv * far in years' (properly, far advanced with 
respect to years), ib. p. 310 C. Xiav iroppu) eSo^e tmv vvktu)i> 
eiuai, as Syn/p. p. 217 D. Protag. p. 326 C. irpioiaiTaTa TrjG 
riXiKiac, 'very early with respect to age'. Herod. 9, 101. irpwi 
Tt]c, -imeprjc, 'early in the day'. Hence Aristoph. Nub. 138. 
TTjXov yap oiKM Twi' aypwv ' far from here in the country'. 
So also cKcic y^povov 'long in respect to time' Herod. 8, 144. 
eKaaTaTio Tijc EupwTrrjc ' furthest in Europe' id. 9, 1 4. Hicr. 
IIcc. 961. etc, TTpoaOev kukwu. Plat. Phccdon. p. 113 B. KaTO)- 
repw ToiJ Taprdpov ' deeper in Tartarus'. Plat. Menon. p. 84 A. 
evvoe7c, av, (o ^levwu, ov eoTiv >jS>j (iadit(i)v oSe tov aVo/ui^- 
v^aKeaBui ' to what point of reminiscence he has arrived'. Thus 

also might be explained Earip. Ph. 37 2. ovtco Tdp(3ovc, a(pi- 

k6/lo]v ' to such a pitch of fear am I arrived', if ovtm could be 
united with verbs of motion, and it should not rather be rdp- 
|3oo, i. e. etc, Tup^oc See §. 595, 4. 

341. 4. In the same manner the neuters touto, tooovto, toSc 

Sj/ntax. Of ihe Genitive. 561 

with a preposition, often take a genitive as a definition. Thuc. 
1, 49. l^vvkireaov ec, toGto avdyKiic, ' they came to this, with 
respect to necessity', i. e. into such necessity. Isocr. cle Pac. 
p. 165 C, etc TOVTO yap nvec uvniac, tX>jAvOo(Tti^, wcTTe &c. ih. 
p. 174 D. etc TOCFovTO iLnaovc, KOTeaTtjaev, wcrre &c. where in 
Latin eo with the genitive is used, eo necessitatis addncti sunt, 
eo denientice progressi sunt, &c. Thus also in the dative with er, 
Thuc. 2, 17. oi j.iev ev tovtoj irapaaKev^Q rjcrav ' in this degree 
of preparation'. Xenoph. Anah. 1, 7, 5. Sta to ei' toiovtm 
eivai Tov Kivcvvov. Thus also Thuc. 1, 118. o'l A6r]va7oi eTri 
fieya eyh}pr\aav ^vvap.eti)C, where eiri fxkya is put adverbially, the 
same as Troppw. jEschin. Axioch. 9. aXkoi (eTri) ttoXv yiipwQ 
aK/iiatovcnv. In point of sense it is the same as ec TavTr]v Trjv 
avayKr\v, avoiav, etc, toctoijto plooc, ev ravTrj ry irapaaKevrj, ev 
ToiovTto Kii'^vvM, aud licnce this syntax often serves only as a 
circumlocution, e.g. etc t6B ripepac, Eurip. Phccn. 428. Ale. 9. 
for etc TavTr]V ti]v i^pepcix'. 

Hence the o-enitive is sometimes put with substantives or ';'„'^\ 

. ... (3'2()) 

verbs, or absolutely, where otherwise irepi with the genitive is 

1. With substantives : Soph. Antig. ()32. (o ttoi, reXeiav 
^prjcpov dpa jutj kXixov t>7c peXXovv pCpov, rrarpi Xvaaaivon' 
irdpei ; ' the decree with respect to, on account of, thy bride'; 
where however the genitive may be connected with Xv(7(t. as 
627 seq. Aj. 998. o^ela yap aov (3d^ic, wc Oeov rivoc, ^irjXO 
'A-^aiovc, TTavrac, ojc o'f'xi' f^avojv, 'the fame of you, with respect 
to you, as the annunciation of a god', comp. Track. 169 seq. 
Eur, Iph. A. 499. Thuc. 8, 15. dyyeX'ia rric ^lov ' the rela- 
tion concerning Chios', ib. 39. dyyeX'iav eVe/ttTroi' ctti rdc ev 
Ty MiXtitw vavc, toi* ^vpTrapaKopiaBnvai ' concerning the con- 
voying, in order to be convoyed by them'. 1, 140. to Meya- 
peiov xpiifpiapa, for which ih. c. 139. we have to Tre^j M. -ip. 
Xen. Mem. 2, 7, 13. o tou kwoq Xoyoc,. 

2. With verbs : Od. X', 1 73. etTre Se poi Tvarpoc re Kai vikoc, 
ov KaTeXeiirov. Soph. did. C. 355. pavTe7a, d Toi;o ey^pi^aOi) 
awparoc,, i. e. irepi Tovde aiopaToc, irepi e/nov. ib. 307. kXvwv 
aov Bevp' dc^y'i^erai Ta')(^ij. Comp. ib. 662. CEd. T. 701. An- 
tig. 1182. Track, 1122. Trie prirpoQ >'/^"w Trjc e^i»7c (ppaaiov, 

502 Sj/ntfix. Of the Genitive. 

iv o'lc, vvv e<s-iv. de inatre niea (comp. ib. 928. 934.), as Eur. 
Iph. A. 1123. (r). See §. 296. Thuc. 1, 52. rou Se ot/caSe 
ttAou f^iaWov ^leaKoirovv, ottjj KOjuicrSiiaovTai. Plat. Hep. 2. 
p. 364 D. oi Se T^o Twv 0€a>i> utt' avOpvjTrojv TrapaywyriQ xoi' 
' O/iUjpov jxapTvpovTai. 

3. Sometimes such genitives stand to point out the object 
of the following proposition, as genitives absolute. Eurip, A?idr. 
361. -npeic, /iiev ovv roioi^e' rrjc Se aTjC, (ppevoc, ev aov be- 
Sot/co ' as to what regards your turn of mind'. P/at. Leg. 7. 
p. 7 9 4 A. TMV Se Tpo(p<jJV avroiv Kcii tjjc nyeXijc ^vp- 
TTcicnjc,, Twv Suj^eKa yvvaiKwv piav ecj) eKaary Tera-^vai. 
Comp. Rep. 5. p. 470 A. Phccdon. p. 78 D. E. Xen. CEcon. 3, 
1 1. tj7o Se yvvaiKoc, et /nev ^iSaaKopcvr) viru rov ai'cpoc, TayaOa 
KaKOTTOiei (-0?), icrojc ciKaitoc, av i) yvvi] Tyv airiav t^ot. Mem. 
S. I, 3, 8. TOiavra /iiev nepi tovtwv CTraiCev a/^ia airovcatMi', 
a(ppo^i(jiii)v ce, TTcipijvei twv /caXwi' Kxy^vpioc, (nrey^eaOai. Isocr. 
IT. c'li'Tic. p. 317 D. TOO ^e KctXioi] Kai perpiwc Ke-^pijaOai ry 
(pvcrei, ciKaiu)u uv TravTec, toi' rpoTvov tov e/uoi' eTran'CGeiav. id. 
de Big. p. 347 E. eiSorcc Se rrjv ttoXiv tiSv pev irepi tovc, 
BeovQ (ill iis, qua (id deos spectaiit) puXiar av opyiaOelaav, ei 
TIC, eiQ Tct pvoTiipia (baivotTO ec^pcpTavooVf tujv o oAAwr, c'l 
TIC, ToXpioij rov S»7/toi' /caToXueti' '\ Comp. §. 298, 3. Hero- 
dotus adds TTcpi, 7, 102. apiOpov Se wept, pi) TrvOy, ocroi Tirec, 
eovrec, Tavra iroieetv oiot re eicrt . 

313. In the same manner also, it seems, we must explain the ge- 
(321) nitive which serves to illustrate single words or entire propo- 
sitions. Thuc. 7, 42. To?c ^vpfiKoiiaioic kututtXii^ic tycvero, 
e'l irepac, prjccv earai aCp'iGi tov inraXXayiivai tov Kivcv- 
vov ' if there was to be no end', viz. with respect to deliverance 
from danger, where, at the same time, is to be remarked the 
pleonasm irepac tou aTruXXayiivai, just as in Plato Eeg. 2. 

]}. 657 B. 1] TlIC »'/So»'»7r. Kill XvTTrjC, ^?}T7;(T/C TOV KdlVlJ Z^?;- 

Te7v uei povcTiK^ y^priaOai, CT>i^eooi' ov peyuXi]V tivci cvva/mv 
evet TTpoc TO BictcpOetpai ti)v KaOiepioOeiaav -^opeiav, eiriKaXovcra 
upyaiOTtira. Eeg. 12. p. 957 C. iravTiov padnparwv Kvpuo- 
TUTU, Tou TOV pcivOuvovTa peXTiM yiyveaOai, tu irepi tovc, 
vopovQ Kc'ipeva 'the chief of all sciences, with regard to the im- 

* llciiul. :i(l Clunni. p. 39. iid PhiLilun. I.e. \>. 100 sc(|. For'^tcr 

*' Ueind. ad Gorg. §. 139. p. «17. ad I'hecdon. p. 376. 

Si/>dax. Of the Cioiilive. 5G3 

provement of the learner, is that of the hiws'. Thus also Soph. 
Track, 55. irwc avSpoc Kara ^TjTJjcrti' ov Tr^nrcic, tivu, fxa\ia-a 
c ovwefj €Lk6c,, ' YAAo)', €1 TraTpoc, I'tyici (not vei.ioi) tiv Mfmv, 
Tov KaXwG TTpaaaeiv So/ce?j^; 'if he cares about his father, 
viz. that he is thought to be in prosperity', properly an attrac- 
tion for ei vepei tiv lopav tou tov iraTepa koX. irp. cok. Plat. 
Leg. 4. p. 7 14 D. Demosth. Oli/nth. 2. p. 19, 3. wv ovv eKel- 
voQ pev o^eiAei to?c uTrejO uvtov TreTroXirevpevoiQ yjipiv, vp7v ce 
diKrjv Trpoai]Kei Xo/SfTr, tovtmv ovyji vvv oph) tov Kaipov tou 
Xe-yeti', where tou Xcyeiv is an explanation of toutwj'. It might 
also have been tou tuvtu Xe-yeiv, had it not been necessary that 
toutwv should precede, on account of its reference to what goes 

Hence all words expressins; ideas of relation, which are not 344. 
complete without the addition of another word as the object of V"^^*^^ 
this relation, take this object (which however must not be 
passive, &c.) in the genitive. To this belong, 

1. Adjectives which have an active sense, and are mostly 
derived from active verbs, or correspond to them. In the case 
of these, their relation to an object which with the verbs would 
be in the accusative, is expressed by the genitive. Herod. 2, 
74. Ipol o(piec, livdpijJTTiov ov^apo)C hi\i]povec (from cijXelaOai 
Tiva) 'which do not harm men'. Comp. 3, 109. Find. Pijth. 
9, 103. yQova a-yi'WTa Oiipwv (yiyviiaKeiv ti), COmp. htJim. 
2,44. Pi/th.3,9. JEschi/L Agnm.MQl . 'ICj yupoiUapiloQ 
oXeOpioi (p'lXtov (from oXeOpor,, oXw) 'which have proved de- 
structive to friends'. Soph. (Ed. T. 1437. pixpov pe yyjc, e/c 
Tr/crS' offov TclvicrQ', ottou Ovijtcov (pavovpai pr]cevoc, Trpoa^yopoc 
* where I shall converse with no mortal', although with the scho- 
liast we may take Trpoavyopoc as passive for 7r|O0(joy0|0euo/tej'0<; 
like irpoacpQeyKTOc, §. 345. Soph. Aiitig. 1 1 84. IlaXAaooc 0eoq 
OTTwc iKo'iiiiriv evypuTMv Trpoayiyopoc, ut ad Palladon precesjnce- 
rem. See §. 367. Track. 538. Aw/SfjToi' tjJg fc7i»7c c^peroc. CEd. 
C. 150. (pvTttXpioc; aXawv oppaTOJV ' born blind'. See Hermann's 
note. Eurip. Ilec. 239. Kap^'iac BriKTijpia {^uKveiv Tnv KapSiav) 
' that afflict the heart', Kepmpa. ib. 687. apTipuOm KaKOJv ' who 
has but lately been acquainted with misfortune'. iO. 1125. 
U7ro7rTO<; wi- dn TpoiKiir, aXuxreioc, (uTroTTTtucti' t/) 'as he guessed 

564 Sj/ntax. Of the Genitive. 

the capture of Troy', id. Androm. 1 197. To'^oavva c^ovior, 
TTttTpoc. Hipp. 30. yrjc Ti/crSe Karoxpioc. Plat. Leg. 4.^. 7 1 I B. 
^vvi]Kooi Tuiv \uy(i)v. Thus Eur. Phan. 216. ireZia irepippvra 
^iKeX'iac, for a Trepippel 'EiKeX'iav. See Musgrave and Porson 
on this passage. Med. 735. civioiliotog Oecjv, because o/nvvvai 
Oeovc was said for dia Oeova. Hence (xwepyoc tov koivov ayaOov 
Xen. Cyrop. 3, 3, 10. KUKovpyor, jtiev twv aW<ov, eavTOv he 
TToXv KaKovpyoTepoQ (from epyaCeaQa'i riva koku.) inroTeXric <po- 
pov Thuc. 1, 56. 7, 57. from reXeii' i^opov. aXirripioi tyJq Oeov 
Thuc. \, 126. from aXneiv Tiva. Hence -yijc tiBeta Suph. CEd. 
C. 447. from a^e/jc tivog. Xen. Symp. 4, 12. TvCpXoc, awavnov, 
because in tu<|)Xoc the idea of ov-^ opwv is implied. 

In this place are to be reckoned especially adjectives in -ikoc. 
Plat. Euthi/phr. p. 3 C. ^iSacjKaXiKoc t^o uvtov aofpiac ' who 
can teach his wisdom to others', id. Rep. 3. p. 389 D. ava- 
Tpt'TTTiKOQ TToXewc. Xe7i. jMeni. S. 3, 1,6. koi yap TrapaaKev- 
aariKov tu)v eic, tov TroAepov tov aTpaTr]yov eivai \pn Kai 
TTopiGTiKov T<2v eTTtTrjSetwi' ToTc aTpaTiioTaic,. id. liep. Laced. 
2, 8. priy^aviKOi: tiov eTTtTrjSeiwv, where pr\yjivaaOui tiji* Tpofjiijv 
went before '^. Add to these, various adjectives compounded 
with a priv. e. g. Herod. 1, 32. Lysias p. 107, 24. aira- 
OriC KnKuiv, from TTuay^eiv kukci. Soph. CEd. T. 885. AiKac 
a(p6l3r]TOC, i.e. prj CJyojSovpei'OG AiKT/v. 969. a\pavaTOC eyy^ovc. 
Xen. Mem. S. 2, 1, 31. tou TravTtou rjS/trTOu a KoixTficiToc,, 
eir aivov ceauxrjc, am^Kooc; et, Kai tov iravTwr iiciaTOv Uea- 
paTOC, uOeaToc' ovccv yap TriowoTe <jeavTi]c. apyov KaXov 
reOeaaai. Comp. Hicr. I, 14. '^ 

Participles are also constructed in the same manner, e. g. Od. 
a , 18. ov8' evOa Tr€(pvypei'oc, i]ev aeOXivv, which in other cases 
is put with the accusative. //. t', 488. polpav S' ovtivo. (^tjjui 
Trecjivypei'ov epftevai av^pwv. II. ^, 219. Horn. H. Ven. 36. 
Od. a , 202. o'uov(jjv aa(pa e»Sa»c. 11. (B , 7 \S. to^wv ev e'lSioc. 
611. cTTKTTupevoi TToXepoio'^. Yet the verb ei^evai is found 
even with the genitive //. p.', 229. o', 41 1. See ^. 346. Obs. 

31-j. Obs. Various relations of adjectives also in a passive or neuter sense 
(323) arc expressed by the genitive, which denotes that from which anything 

* Fisch. 3 a. p. 352 sq. " llcmst. ad Thorn. M. p. 183 sq. 

I* Fisch. 3 a. p. 353. 

Si/ntax. Of the Genitive. 5(35 

originates, or by which it is produced, §. 371- seq. In lTziaTe(l>iis o'lrov 
Oil /)', 431. and e-^jvvjju'is twos Plat. Leg. 8. p. 828 B. this is tlie less 
remarkable, as eTrefrrei^fo'T-o ttoto'io II. t', 17.5. and k-KovojAa'CfcaQai nvos 
are also found. In tlie same way 7roXvffre(/)»)s cu<prr)s 'shaded with 
laurel' Soph. O^d. Tyr. 83. TrepiaTecpns utdiwi' id. El. 895. Anacr. 
ap. Athen. i. p. 12 A. icarrjpecpijs irai'Toiiov ayaQuiv^, were also said. So 
Soph. (Ed. C. 1519. tyw cicatu), t€Kvov Aiyews, a aoi -yiipws ctXuTra 
Tjjh Keiaerai TroXet, ' uninjured by age', ib. 1722. Ka/cwv oviels cv- 
(TciXajTos. A^sch. S. c. Th. 877. raicwi' arpvuojes. Eur. Hipp. 9G2. 
KUKiop aK}'ipaTi)S. Soph. Q^d. C. 1521. uOiktos ip/riTi'ipos, like ukt'ivos 
dep/.n'js udiKToy. Trach. G8G. (comp. Eur. Hipp. 1015.) aXai^ires yXiov. 
EL 343. ixnavTa yap (xoi ra/xa rovBerijpma Keivris lilaKTct, Kovcev 
€K aavTrjs Xeyeis, 'all thy lessons which thou givest me are suggested by 
her'. Antig. 847. (piXwp aKXav<y-os. Philoct. 10G7. ^wv/js vpoacpOeyKTos. 
Eur. Andr. 460. aQ^-n-evros yXwam]s. Dcvwsth. pro Cor. p. 275, 5. 
ayoi'TjTos uyaOwi'". These are different from the cases quoted, §. 339. 
the genitive there denoting that by which the adjective is produced ; 
while here it might be resolved by vtto, -irpos or Tropci with the genitive. 
So adwos irXrjyuiv Arist. Nub. 1413. means oh KuXa'Co^xeros TzXip/cns, 
but adtios TTJs ^iXtTTTTov cvvafrreias Dem. pro Cor. p. 3iG, 17. is equi- 
valent to ou KoX. VTTO Ttjs Cvv. — €TTiaTpn(pos avdpwTTMV Od. a, 177. is 
used in the neuter sense ' much conversant with men', from tTriarpe- 
(peirdai ardpwTrovs. 

2. Words which represent a condition or operation of the 346. 
mind, a judgement of the understanding, which is directed to (324) 
an object, but without affecting it. Such are the adjectives 
'experienced, ignorant, remembering, desirous'; and the verbs 
' to remember, to forget, to concern oneself about anything, to 
neglect' ; ' to consider, to reflect, to understand' ; ' to be desirous 

a. Adjectives : 'experienced', ^nreipoc, eTricTTr^iwv, T^tpwv, 
and the opposite 'inexperienced', uBai'ic, cubpic, cnreipoc, as in 
L'dtm peritus and impeiitus. Herod. 2, 49. rrjc Ova'iac Tavryjc 
ovK elvca aStn)c, a\X' ep-rreipoc. ALschyl. SnppL46S. OeXw 
§' aicpic /naXXov rj (TO(^oc KaKiov elvai. Xen. Lyrop. 3, 
3, bb. Tovc, uTraidevTovc, TTuvrinraaiv apeTrjc, Oavf.iuL,oif^i. 
ai>, e'l Tt TrAfcOi' av wr|>eA)i(Tete Ao-yoo KaXwc, pr]9^ic, eic, avcpaya- 
B'uiv, i] TOiic ctTraioevTouc povaiKrjc dai^ia KciXwc aauev eic 

■> See Matthiffi ad Eur. Hipp. 4G8. " Schaf. iMelet. p. 137. 

5GG Sij)itax. Of the Genitive. 

jHou(Ti/c/'}v. Aristoph. Vesp. 1429. ervyy^avev ov rpipwi' 

wv iTrTriKiic. hocr. ad Dem. p. 13 B, y^pri rove Traiteiac ope- 
•yo^i^vovc, /iirjbevoc, /lihv utt eipivQ e^eii', TravTay^ouev ce ra 
^jOTjo-'iH" avXXeyeiv. Plat. Tim. p. 20 A. Kpiriau Se ttou 
TTcivTec, ol Ti^S' 'icT/nev ovdevoc iSiwTtjv bvra wv Xeyo^tev. id. 
Apol. 5. p. 17 D. ^evtoQ ey^ii) rrJQ evOdde Xe^ewc^. 

Ohs. 1. In the old poets, verbs, especially participles which agree 
in sense with these adjectives, follow the same construction : as elEerat 
II. /Li', 229. o', 411. /3', 823. /uax>?s eu et^ore Trao-?/,?. ih. 720. ro^wj' 
€v eiloTes. p, 5. yvn) ov Tvpiv elcvla tokoio, and jmss'im. elcus as fre- 
quently occurs with the accusative, e. g. ire-K^vvneva juj/Sea etSws II. n , 
811. SiCaffKVfieros TroXefioio Hesiod. "Epy. G4^S. ov re ti vavriXii]s 
(ye(TO(pL(Tfx€ros, ov re tl ri]uit'. This was imitated by the Sophists 
particularly, e. g. ^vi'ie'is cpu[.ia-os, ycyujuvao-yLteios 0a\arrr;s in Philo- 
stratus''. Hence also ydtm, 'accustomed', is constructed with the ge- 
nitive, Sopli. EL 373. oj/«^<n0)/s twv TrXeoye^uiy Xen. Cijrop. 1, G, 35. 
comp. 3, 3, 37. although this belongs more properly to §. 344, 1.' 

Ohs. 2. Sometimes -ivepi with a genitive is found with adjectives of 
this kind. Plat. Hipparch. j). 225 C. ovy\ bf-LoXoyels top (j>i\oK€pdfj 
€TT i(TT t'l poi'a eirai Tvepl ttJs u.L,ias tovtov, odev Kepcaireiv a^'ot ; Hipp. 
Mln. p. 368 D. Trept Tuiv rexvuiv tTncrTiifxwv. JEschin. Socr. 2, 9. Kai- 
TOi ovK av a paOecTTepos ye of-ioXoyljcrais ay eiicti Trept ov^eios ruiy 
peyicTTOjy, uXXa (Tocjidj-epos. Plat. Amat. j). 132 D. e^JTretpos Trept, as 
Isocr. ad Plal. p.^(j A. el kiu Tcepl Tuiy iiXXwy inreiptos e-^ovcriy. 

Ohs, 3. Sometimes also adjectives of this kind arc joined with the 
case of their verbs, the accusative. Plat. Epinom. p. 979 D. o tuvt 
ini(jT)ipu)y. Xen. Cyrop. 3, 3, 9. en icrri'i poyes rjaav ra Trpoai)- 
KovTu Tt] eavTwy eKaaros oTrXt'crei, where Aristotle Paid. 1, 7. adds 
Trept : — to Trepi to. Kri^para e pneipoy elyai. Plat. Tim. j). 21. 
Toiis fiaXiara Trept ravra ruiy lepewy e pizelpovs. comp. Amat. 
p. 137 A. See §. 422. So also rpilJwy with the accusative, Eur. Med. 
681. Rhes. 625. Eacc/i. 717. Arist. Nuh. 867.'' 

3j7 h. Verbs : * to recollect, to forget', pvaaOai, pvftaOr]vai, pvt}- 

(o2J) aaaOai, XavOavcaOnt, XijOeaOoi, and their compounds, as fiviiaaaOe 

Se Oovpi^oc uXkijc,. Isocr. ad Demon, p. 12 C. ev aTracri toTc 

epyoic, ovY ovtco rrjc, ap'^rJQ pvr]povevoi.icv, loc, t»7c reXevTyjc 

luaOtjaiv Xa/Lil^dvopev, Gerto S ov XiiOer e(p€Tpeu)V wai^oo eov 

" Fisch. 3 a. p.3a6 sq. "^ liscli. 3 a. p. '336 seq. 

'' Ilemst. ad Ihoin. M. p. 183 .-tq. '' Iltind. ad Plat. Prot. p. 55'2 seq. 

Sj/ittax. Of the (jenitive. 567 

//. a , 495. and elsewhere reguliuly. Thus also the active f.ivdv, 
vTrof-U'dv, 'to remind'. Od. a , 321. VTre/nvrjcjev re c irarpoc. 
//. o', 407. Twr vvv iLiiv i^ivijaacra wape'Ceo. Eur. Ale. ]066. 
jiu] jii dva/nvudyc kukmv. Od. I', 168. 170. Thus too the active 
\i]den' ' to make to forget', and the derivative and compound 
verbs: Or/. »/', 221. Ik Se /ne Travrujv \r]9dvei, oaa eiraOou. 

Od. S', 221. (j)dpi.iaKov, KaKwu eTTi/Xrjf^ov cnravTWv. 11. 

o, 60. XeXdOy S' odwciMi'. Ilijmu. in Ven. 40. ''Hpj/o tKXeXa- 
dovaa Kctaiyvi]Tr]Q aXoy^ov re. 

Obs. I. /ird/rdat, 'to make mention of, is sometimes joined with 
TTepL Herod. 1, 36. naicos fiev vepl rov €f.iov /.t/) fxrijadiJTe en. Plat. 
Lach.ii. 181 A. Xeyere poi, lie earl I^uJKpuTrjs, ire pi ov euaarore cfie- 
pryjade; Menex. j). 239 C. rovrwi' Trepi ijloi ^okcT XP'?''"' eTrifxyr]iTdf]vai. 
Xen. Cyrop. 1,6, 1.2. ovo inovv irepl tovtov eTrej-wriaBr], as vwep Demosth. 
pro Cor. ji. 232. 8. where other MSS. have Trepi. 

Obs. 2. These verhs are also constructed with tlie accusative. //. 
C, 222. Tuoea ^' ov fxeiJ.viji.iai. Herod. 8, 66. rwv tTzefnniadrjv irporepov 
Tu ovvopara. Plat. Crati/l. JJ. 306 C el c eixefiriii-ajv t))v 'llcriocov 
yeveaXoyiav. Demosth. Phil. 2. p. 13, d. ravra yap iiiTUVTa ra 
cTTt Tov ftiJi-iaTOS evTUvda fjyijitotever eu oitJ' on prjdei'ra, Kaiwep brres 
ov ceii'ol Tovs aOik-ov JTcts fxejirrjaQai. Comp. Xen. Cijrop. 6, 1, 24. 
The active is also found with a double accusative, Herod. 6, 140. MiX- 

-iah]S irpoijyupeve e^ieiai tK rj/s rt'ifrov (Ay'iixrov) Tolcri UeXaayoien, 

avaidifjLvriTKUjy (T<j)eas tu xpria-tfpior. TJuie. 6, 6. o'l 'Eyeoralot t,vf.Lj-iayj.av' 
ayaj.ufxv)iaKovTes tovs 'Ad)]valovs,tceovTO (TcpifTi yavs 7re/.rJ/aj'ras (not -res) 
evajJidyaL. Plat. Rep. 6. p. 507 A. (Ae^w) ayafiyi'iaas vfids til re ey 
Tols efxirpoaQey prjdeyra Kal aXXoTe iroWuKis i'jet] eipijueya. Xen. H. Gr. 
2, 3, 30. ayaixy{](T(o Ijxds to. tovt(o Treirpayiieya. Myijuovevu), dfirijfio- 
velv are more commonly used with an accusative, Isocr. ad X/c. p. 22 A, 
eay ra -rrapeXijXvdoTa [.lyrji-wyevtjs, cij^ieiyoy /cat vrept rwr /.leXXoyTiot' /jou- 

Thus also eiriXaOeaOai ti. Lys'ias, p. 106, 12. p)] yap o'ieade, w 
iircpes ciKuaTal, el vfxels ftovXeade tu tuvto) neTTOuifieya tiriXudeadai, kui 
TOVS deovs eTriX}]aea6ai. Eur'ip. Hel. 271. Kal tus Tv\as f.iey Tas KuXds, 
as vvv e^w, "E/Wfjies eTreXadovTO. Homer says in the active II. fi, 
600. Kal eKXeXuQov KiOapicrrvy ^. 

'To concern oneself about anything-, to neglect, to be care- 318. 
less about anything', eTripeXe^aOai, Kn^eaOai, (jipovriC^iv, aXey'i- 0>'^<') 

« Miisgr. ad Eiirip. Ale. 190. 

566) Sj/ntax. Of the Genitive. 

t!,e(v, tlie impevs. /.leXet, ajiteXeT)', oXtyiopelv. IL Z, , 55. tit} he 
av K 7] Seat avTU)C avSpu)v. a, 160. twv outi jj-eTaT peiry, 
ovB' aXey'iteic,. Od. i ,215. ov ycip KvKXwrrec Atoc aiyio- 
you aXeyovaiv, ouSe Oewi' fxuKapwv : but in //. rr , 388. Hesiod. 
''Epy. 249. Oeuiv oiriv ouk aXeyovrec Xen. Cijrop. 1, 2, 2. oi 
TLep(T(ov i>6/iioi BoKovaiv apyeaQai rov Koivov ayaOov eirifxeXov- 
jLievoi ovK evOev, oOevirep rale wXelaTaiQ iroXeaiv ap^ovrai. 
Isocr. de Pac. p. 177 D. E. ei tig iiuac epwriiaeiev, ei Se^at^ieO 
ov TOCFOVTOv ■^povov (xp^avTCC roiavTii iraa-s^ovcrav tj/v ttoXiv 

eViSetv, TIC, av o/LioXoyi](J€ie -Xriv e'l /nil tig /"'j^ lepwi', /nrjTe 

yoveit)v, /niiTC Trai8ioi, fxi\T aXXov /aj^evoG cj) povT itoi ; Id. 
Nicocl. p. 30 B. ot /iicv (kcit' eviavTov eiQ tug "PX^^ eiaiovTec) 
TToXXtov K-fi To^ieXo uo-j 1', 01 §£ (('(ft to7g ovtoIg eTrio-TOTOUi'Tec) 
ovSevuG oXiyu)pov(Tii>. Thus iilso Trpovoiau 7ro(e?(T0ai tivog. 
Isocr. ad Phil. p. 88 D. '' ApyoG cctti aoi TvaTpiG' VG B'lKaiov 
T0(7avTi]v ae TroieiaOiu Trpovoiav, Qai)VTrep twv "yorea'i' t(i)v aav- 
Tov. So also irapaiiieXeiv tivog Xen. Anal). 2, 5, 7. jMein. 
S. 2, 2, 14. av ovv, 10 TTul, av (JMippovijGf roue OeovG irapanna)^ 
avyyvtJjiiovaG <TOi elvai, e'l ti TrajQij/ieX j/atoo tjjo pnTpoc. 
aCJipovTicTTelv tivog Plat. Leg. 10. p. 885 B. mtpievai tivog 
id. Phicdr. p. 234 extr. MeXei has, besides the genitive of the 
thing, the person in the dative, e. g. yvfivamwv re I'eoto avXwv 
Te Kui Kojp^ov pe.Xei Bacchi/l. Fr. Anal. 1. p. 150. 9. lueTapeXei, 
panitet. Isocr. tt. uvti^. p. 314 B. ry woXei ttoXXukig h^i] 
/iieTefieXrjae t<vv Kpia€(x)v twv /ner opyi]G kui /iu) peT eXey- 
yjov yevopevdiv^. Thus also avaKMG ^x^iv tivog. Herod. 8, 
109. Kai TIG oi/caji' re avaTrXaaacrOu) Kai airopov avaKioQ 
e)(^eTw 'attend to the sowing', comp. Thucyd. S, 102. Eur. 
Ale. 770. o pev (Hpa/cX^c) yap |)Se, twv ev AS/tJ/Tou KaKwv 
ovdev irpoTiptov, nihil curans mala, qua in donio Admeti erant, 
where liowever the genitive may be governed by ov^ev. Soph. 
CEd. C. 1211. OG TIG Tov irXeovoG pepovG XPV^^h '^ou peTpiov 
irapeiG {negligens) ^wea' (oxrre t-), (TKaioavvav (pvXaaawv ev 
epoi KQTa^ijXoG eaTai. For the same reason also (f)eiBe(T9at, 
'to spare', Isocr. Archid. p. 137 C. D. (in which is contained 
the idea, 'to be concerned about anythuig') takes the genitive, 
also (pvXdaaeaOai in the sense o( (jie'iSeaOai. Iliac. 4, 1 1. B|Oa- 

" Fisch. 3 a. p. 4U">. 

Sj/ntax. 0/ the Genitive. 5G9 

(TiSac optov TOVQ Tpmpapyovc, Ka\ Kv(5epvr]Tac </)y- 

\a(J(TO/^i€vovc Th)v ve<2v, f-u) ^wi-TjOii/'axTU', epoa, Xeywv, mq 
ovK e'lKVC en] ^vXoiv (^eif^ofxevovc tovc, iroXe^iovc ev xy X^P^ 
TrepiiBelv TtT)(_oc TreTToiyi^ievovc,. where, however, the scholiast 
suppHes Tivar, Twi' Tewr. 

Obs. 1. The adjectives and substantives corresponding to these verbs 
have the same construction. Xen. Mem. S. 1,4, 16. al ^port/^iwrorai 
rjXiKiai dewv eiri /JLeXiuraT au Thuc. 7, 55. Trjs arpareias b ^lera- 
IxeXos 'repentance on account of the expedition'. 

Obs. 2. Another construction also obtains with some of these verbs. 
Herod. C, 101. tovtov crept e^eXe irepi. Xc)i. Hier. 9, 10. IJrav ye ttoX- 
Xois irepX -wv w^eXi/Jwr fJieXri, amy/crj evplcTKetrdal re /ittWoj' kcu Itti- 
TcXelffdai. Comp. Isocr. de Pac.p.l^l C. — Soi^h. El. 237. ttws e-rrl ro'is 
^difxivoLS cLfieXetv koXuv; Sojjh. Phil. C21. e't tii'os Ki'icei -Kept. Isocr. 
Pan. p. 52 B. Thuc. 7, 56. The person who cares is also found as the 
subject : Eur. Her. F. 773. deol riSu ackioi' jiiXovcn. Comp. Soph. Aj. 
&S9 seq.^ Xen. Mem. S. 1, 4, 17. Trept ti2v erddce mi Trepl rwv kv 
A\y VTTTW Kal ev ^iKeXia cvyatrdai (^povr i'Ceiv. Dem. Olynth. p. 9, 13. 
Tidv TrpayfiaTUJi' vfxTy tKeivwv avriXrjTrrioy tarty, ei Trep v-rrep (TU)Ti)pias 
avTuiv (ppovrUere. With fieXei the thing is also put in the noiiiinative 
or accusative as a subject : II. e, 490. aoi ce xP>) '""^e Tray-a [xeXeiv 
vvtcras re Kcit ^jxap. JEschyL Prom. 3. "H^aiore, aoi he XP'I f eXetv 
eiricTToXas, us aot 7raT))p tcpelro. Eurip. Hippol. 104. uXXoimy ciXXos 
Beuiy re icaydpwTrtoy peXet. and ji^^ssim". So also peXeadat: Eur. Phccn, 
785. yanovs --- (Tol xP>) iJieXerrOat. Comp. Soj^h. El. 1436. This also 
is referred to a person Eur. Heracl. 355. erepot aov TiXeoy oh neXoyrai. 
comp. Hipp. 109. Soph. (Ed. C. 1466. '' Thus also Herod. 6, 63. 
'Apiurwyt to e\pr]pivov fxerepeXe. id. 9, 1 . upeXe'iv is also found with 
the accusative : Eurip. Ion. 448. vovderrjreos Ce pot ^o7/3os, ti TrarT^wv' 

Tralcas eKreKyovperos XaBpa 6yi](7Koyras apeXe'i. v. Musgr.^ 

(ppoyri^eiy with the accusative of the article or a neuter adjective : Eur. 
Troad. 1242. -a c ey veKpolat (ppoyrlcret Trartip aeQev. Plat. Gorg. 
p. 501 E. fiXXo 3' ohcey (ppnyrli^ety. Thcocr. 10, 52. oh peXecairet tuv 
TO TZTelv lyxevyra. See Bceckh Corp. Inscr. 1. p. 20. Thus uQepi^eiv 
' to slight', in Homer {II. a, 261. Od. ff, 212. f , 174.), has the ac- 
cusative, but elsewhere the genitive, e. g. Apoll. Rh. 1, 123. 2, 477. 

*To consider, reflect, understand', evBvpeiaBai, Gvnevai. Xen. 34.9. 

^ Matth.ce ad Here. F. 753. •■ Valck. ad Phoen. 764. 

•^ Thom.M.p.606. Fisch.3a.p.415. ' Heind. ad Phadou. p. 184. 

VOL. 11. P 

570 Si/)itax. Of the Genitive. 

Mem.^, 6, 17. evSv/Liov Se Kai twv e'ldorwv, o t'i re Xeyovffi 
Kai 6 Ti TTOiovaiv. Thuc. 1,3. oaoi a\\i]\wv ^vvieaav. How- 
evei", these verbs take also the accusative : Thuc. 5, 32. evOv- 
fxovfievoi TCLQ ev rale, j^iayjaic, ^vf^ic^opac Isocr. ad ^icocl. 
p. 15 D. eireicav evOv/n-nObjai rove <^o/3oi»c Kai Kivcvvova. 

Obs. 1. A different construction, Ivdvfielffdai irepl twos, 'to reflect 
on something', is found. Isocr. Ep. 9. p. CI 4, §. 9. Bekk. efdvfitidrjyai 
Trepi Tujp Koivuiv Trpay^arwy. Comp. Lys'ias in Erat. p>' 124, 21. 

Ohs. 2. In the same manner also the verbs aio-flcWefrflfu, TrvrSaveo-flat, 
yivujffKen', are sometimes found with the genitive instead of the accusa- 
tive, which otherwise is the more usual case with them, e. g. Thuc. 5, 83. 
ws ijadovTD ref^i^ojTwj'. Plat. /Ipol. S. p.22Qi. Kai li^ia j;V0O)tt>;v 
avTbiv Cut r>)y "Koirjcnv oioi^ieywv kol raWa crocptoTarioy eirni avdpijJTTOjy, 
for avTovs Tei-)(il^ovTas, olojievovs ' that they were erecting a wall', 'that 
they thought'. Xen. Mem. S. 1, 4, 13. rivos yap iiXXov {^wov 4'"X') 
Trpuira i-iey de.ujy twv t'u j^ieyiff-a teal KoXkiara avvTaiavTii)v jjcrOrfrai 
on elai ; On the other hand Plat. Phccdon. p. 89 A. j/^/wv ws o^etos 
rjtrdero u TrenorQei^iey is to be explained according to §. 317. Thuc. 4, 
G. u)S tTrvQuy-o rfjs IlvXov KareiXijmxiyijs. II. c', 357. ws yrw ^wo- 
fiet'oio. comp. \^', 450. Pi)id. Pyth. 4, 497. tTreyrw CiKaidy Aajuo^tXou 
irpaTricojv. Plat. Apol, 2^. 27 A. apa yvioaerai ^oj^pun^s u aofus 2») 
€p.ov yapievTit^opevov ; 

Ohs. 3. Here also seems to lie the reason why some verbs which in- 
dicate an operation of the external senses, when the object of them is 
not represented as affected by them, are constructed with the genitive 
case, as uKoveiy, uKpoiiadai, outppaiveirQai, Herod. 1, 47. in an oracxdar 
response: kuI Kunpov avylrjiJii Kai ob (pujyevy-os ukovm. Plat. Apol. 
p. 23 C. ol veoi - - - yalpovmv ukovovt€S e^eX€yj(^OfX€vu)V TtiJy 
aydpujTTwy. Soph. Aj. 1161. Kupol a'i(7^«(rro»', KXveiv ay^pos 
paralov, (pXavp" ctt/j pvOovpevov ' to listen to' ; and elsewhere very 
frequently, e. g. in the oath of the Athenian judges, uKpodaofxat tov 
re Karrjy opov Kai tov inr oXoyov jievov ojxoiws cif^itpoly Demosth. 
p. 226. Hence the poets sometimes unite both cases : Eur. Suppl. 86. 
Tiyiov y()(x)v i'lKovaa »} tip a Krvvoy. El. 198." Herod. 1, 80. ws ^k 
Kai avt'ijeffay is Ti)y juaj^?;)', eidavra ws otrfpayro rc'i^ta-a Twy Ka- 
pi'lXwy 01 'iiriTOi, Kai eiloy avTus, oTrtVw dyearpeipoy, having just before 
said T))y oCf-ttjy 6(T(ppaiy6ixeyos. We must not confound this with the 
construction ciKoveiy, TrviOdyeadai tI tlios ' to hear anything from any 
one'. See §. 373. But Plat. Rep. 8.^). 558 A. ?j ovttcj elces, ev toi- 

* Brunck ad iEsch. S. c. Th. 205. Matthiae ad Eur. Suppl. 1. c. ' 

Sj/ntax. Of the Genitive. 571 

avTt] TToXiTeicf ardpwnijjy Ka7a\pi](pi(T8evT(i)i' duyiirov t; (pvylis, ovcev rjTroi' 
avTioy n e I' 6 t' T w I' re kcu avaar pe(pojxevii) v Iv fiecru) ; is either 
more probably an ayuKoXovOia caused by the genit. consequ. uvdp. 
Karaxp., or with Reisig Enarr. Soph. (Ed. C. 243. we must mentally 
connect with el^es, cKeivrjy t))'.' TtpuoT^-a, which preceded, in which 
case it comes very near to the construction explained §. 317. 

' To long for anything', kTnQvi.ieiv, opeyeaOai, yX'iyeaOai, c(j[)i- 350. 
eaOai, e. g. Isocr. de Pac. p. 1 59 E. jtiri ^teyaAojv Se? tViOu^etv irapa v^^^) 
TO BiKaiou. Xe)i. Mem. S. 1, 2, 15. Trorepov tic, Kpirictv /cat 
A^Ki(5iaSy]v (p^ Tou |3iou rod 2w/Cj0aT0iic eTTiOvf.ii]aavTe, 
o pe^aaOai Ttjc OyittXtar, avTOV, h vo/x'KjavTe yeveaOai av iKctvo)- 
Tcirto Xeyeiv re Kai irparreiv ; Isocr. ad Demou. p. 12 B. p.a- 
\iara av rrapo^vvOe'it^G ope'^Orjvai rwv KaXtSi' epytov, ei 
Karafxadoic, wc Kai ra.Q rjoovac raQ t/c rovTMV jiiuXiara yvriaiac, 
(vulg. yvi](Tiioc,) e^o/iiey. Theophr. Char. 29 in. (cd. Schn.) 
oo^eiev av elvai ij oXiyap-^ia (piXap'^ia ric, layypioc Kparovc, 
yXi-voiiievr]. Eiirip. Phain. 541. t'l tj/o KaKiarric, ^ai/aoviov 
ecp'iecrai, cpiXorif-iiac, 7ra? ; uvrnroielaOai up^^r}C, Xen. Mem. 
S.2,\,\. jEsch. Axioch. 5. ri ipvy^i) rou ovpavov iroOei /cat ^v/li- 
(pvXov a'lOepa /cat Sn/'U, tjjC e/ceTae ^lairriQ Kai -^opeiac, 
opiyvw/xevi]. So also a/u^torjSrjTtTi' rtvoc, 'to lay claim to 
something', Fsocr. ad Phil. p. 98 C. comp. Archid. p. 131 C. 
(also afjKJ). irepi rivoc Isocr. Epist. 9. §. 8. j)- 614. Bekk. which 
usually means ' dispute about something which one claims', as 
yXi-^eaOai irepi eXevQepinc Herod. 2, 102. 'to fight for freedom 
through love of it'). ^i^Pnv rivoc, Pind. Neni. 3,10. Plat. Rep. 8. 
p. 562 C. avepeOicrOrivai rrjc, apyjiduc, apernQ ' to be inflamed, 
with a desire of virtue'. Xen. Mem. S. 3, 5, 7. See SchccJ'. ad 
Lamb. Bos. p. 750. Thus also epav, epaaOai : 11. i , 63. u(ppi]- 
riop, aOe/LiKyTOC, avearioc, eanv e/ceTi'oc, oc TToXe^iou eparai 
eTriS)]f^uov, oKpvoevToc. Hence also in the sense of ' to love' 
(with the collateral idea of 'to wish to possess, to aim at', as 
on the other hand (piXeiv, ayinruv, arepyeiv govern only the 
accusative : see Schaf. ad Long. p. 358.), and other words, 
which signify ' to love', e. g. KviaOrivai rivoc Theocr. 4, 59. 
KaieaOai tivqc,. Mt/[ij'e^iitoc K-aiero Navvovc, Ilermesian. ap. Atlien. 
13. p. 598 A.'^ To this class also belong eTretyo/uevoc, XiXai- 

'' Hemsterh. 01)ss. Misc. 0. p. 30-2. Durv. ad Charit. p. 452. 

572 Si/ntax. Of the Genitive. 

o/LtevoQ oooio §.338. cX^eaBai TreS'ioio II. ip' , 23. eaavfxevoc, TroXe- 
fxov II. tu , 404. eiTi^aSXeaBai has the same construction in the 
sense of ' to set one's mind upon' (aninium nppellere od aliquid), 
II. X, , 68. /iiriTic, vvv evapojv eTrifBaWo/LievoG ineroTrKrOe 
ixiixverw. comp. Demosth. p. 282, 14, 27. opeyeaOai ' to reach 
the hand to anything-, in order to take it'. //. f, 466. 'in order 
to kill'. T>/rt. 3, 12. (but opeyeadai ri Eur. Or. 303. 'to 
reach anything, to take it'. //. xp', 828. ope^ainevoc, \p6a Ka- 
\ov. 77 , 314. 323. (TKtXoq, w/nov. opcyeaOai is the same as 
upe^afievov (5aWeiv.) Isocr. ad Dem. p. 12 E. e'l Se? Ovijtov 
ovTa T7JC T(i)V Oetov GTO'^a(Ta<jOai ciavo'iac. Hence //. ^ , 
37. OiPe'iovrec ;na^j;c ' desirous to behold the battle'. 

It is common in Greek to ascribe feelings and desires to in- 
animate beings (as in Homer, ^ovpa XiXaiopeva ■^pouc, dcrai), 
and therefore to conceive of a feeling as accompanying an ac- 
tion. So with verbs of motion, the place or the object towards 
which the motion is directed or strives is expressed in the geni- 
tive, as aTO^ate<yOcn, TirvaKeaQai rivoc, ' to aim at something'. 
Tol^eveiv Tivoc II. 8 , 100. xp , 853 seq. aKovr'iteiv tivoc II. , 
118. eTraiaaeiv 'ittttwu II. e , 263. as opoveiv tivoc, Find. Pj/th. 
10, 95. Soph. Aj. 154. jue-yaAwi' -ipvyjov leic, ovk av afxaproi. 
ILiir. Bacch. 1096 sc^. irpwTOv /icv avrov -^ep/^iabac eppiirrov 
* threw at him'. Comp. Cj/cl. 51.* Hence i:J//;'. Iph. I'. 363. 
oaac, yeveiov -^elpac el^rjKovTiaa. So evBv, or according to an- 
other form lOvc, * straight to anything', takes the genitive : 
Arist. NkIj. 162. evOv TovppoTrvy'iov. Av. 1421. evOv IleX- 
\rn>i]c,. Elsewhere etc with the accusative accompanies it : 
Horn. II. in iSIerc. 342. evOv HuXovS eXawv. 355. e'lc, 
TlvXov lOvc eXwvra {viilg. evOvc) ^. Perhaps from this is de- 
rived the construction levai tou irpoau) 'to struggle forward, to 
advance', Xen. Anah. 1, 3, 1. X/jyei S epic Bpajtiovaa tou 
irpoaojTario Soph. AJ. 731.*^ 

, Note. In So2)h. CEd. T. 58. IfxelpM is found widi the accusative : 

■•' Schccf. ad Lamb. Bos. p. 715. idiom may lie deduced with llerm. 

Ehnsl. ad Bacch. I.e. Ell. et Pleon. p. 160. (ad 

'' Ruhnk. ad Tim. p. 127. Viger. p.C81.) from the construction 

^- Schief. ad Lamb. Bos. p. 800. explained §. 330. 
Lobeck ad Soph. Aj. 730. This 

Si/iitax. Of the Genitice. 573 

yi'wrci KuvK uyviOTa f.ioi TrpoaiiXded' t^eZ/JOJTes. But ib. 7G6. Trpos ri tovt 
icpieirai, icpiecrdai means mundare. Comp. v. 1052. 1055. Herod. 1,43. 
aKOfri^iov top (rvf, for rou avos, 

3. Words which indicate ' fuUness, to be full, defect, enipti- 351. 
ness' : because the word which expresses of what anything is C* '^) 
full, or empty, indicates the respect in which the signification 
of the o-overnino; word is taken. 

a. Adjectives. ttXIoc ' full', e. g. Ilesiod/'Epy. 102. TrXei'i; 
fuev ycip yaia kukiov, TrXenj Se ddXaaaa. /.leaTOC 'full'. Isocr. 

de Pac. p. 163 C. (jV tiw e'lpnvriv Trotrjtrw^ie^a, o^ofxeQa 

rr\v TToXiv ) i-iearriv yevof.ievTqv ej.i7T6p(j)v Kai t^eviov Kai 

ln6ToiK(ov. Comp. Xen. Cyrop. 4, 1, 9. Menand. ttoWmv 
/j.e(TT6v ear I to 6J»' (ppovri^wv. Eiirip. £/. 386. ov fxr} 
(ppoviiaeO', o'l Kevwv Bo^aapaTWV ttXij peiQ TrXavafrOe. 
Thus also TrXovaioc, ctcpvewc, are constructed with the genitive 
11. e', 544. (i(pv€i6c, ftioToio. Enrip. Or. 388. o la'i^Kvv eq 
cue TrXovaioQ kukwv. Id. Ion. 593. 7roXvKTi)iJ.iov (d'iov 'rich 
with respect to the means of livelihood', as dives crff/-/ in Virgil. 
Plat. Rep. 7. p. 521 A. ev in6v\i yap avry (rroXei) ap'^ovaiv oi 
Tw ovri irXovaioi, ov -^pvcriov, clXX' ov Se? rov evdainova ttXov- 
re?)', ti^yic ayaOrjc, re Kai ep.(^povoc,. 

Obs. 7rX)yp/;s is found also with the dative Eiirip. Bacch. 18 sq. 
€Tre\Oujv "Aaiav -rcdaai', i) irap aX/Ltupai' ciXo icetrcu, piyaeriv "EXXrfai 

papJDupois 6" of-iov vXijpeis e^ovaa KoXXiirvpywrovs TvoXeis es 

rripce Trpuiroy i}XBov 'EXXyji'iop iroXiy. as TrXr^povu, TrXiideiy with the da- 
tive §. 352. So also with o^i'eios, when that is mentioned in or by means 
of which anyone is rich. ai't)p c^pevas a<pi€i6s Hesiod. "Epy. 453. 'Eart 

Tis 'EXXowiT} a(pveu) juiiXotcn Koi elXiKOCeafri ftoetrcriy id. Fragm. ap. 

Schol. Soph. Tr. 1174. 

' Want', as Kev6c ' empty'. Soph. El. 390. ai Se (rap/cec at 
Keval (ppevMV aydX/^iar' ayopac, e'laiv. Id.Aj.ol] . aov povoc. 
Eur. Med. 518. cp'iXwu epr) poc Id. Ilec. 1146. aXXai--- 
yvpvov p e.Or]Kav ^itttv-^ov aroXiaparoc (a.?, Pmd. Nem. 
1,80. KoXeov yvpvov (pdayuvov. Comi^. Isocr. ad Phil. §. 353a.) 
Id. El. 37. y^pripdTwv Trkvnrec, even where not a deficiency so 
much as the entire absence of anything is meant, as ayvoc, ya- 
pwv Plat. Leg. 8. p. 840 D. Id. Cratyl. p. 403 E^. to (71^771- • 
veaQai, eireioav tj \Pvxn icaBapa y irdvTWV twv irepi to 

574 Syntax. Of the Genitive. 

aojjuia KUKwv Kai eiriOv f^iiuiv, ov cl)i\6ao(p6v aoi Bokcl eluai ; 
Id. Tim.p.Al D. pvOfioc Sia ttjv afxerpov ev ?V"v Kai y^apirojv 
eiridea yiyvoi^ievriv ev role, TrXeicTTOic e^tv emKovpoc. eiri tuvtu 
viro Twv avTwv (twv Movaoiv) e^oOrt. Eurip. Hipp. 1468. ti 
(priQ ; dcpnaeic, aifxaroc jn eXevOepov ; Comp. §. 353 p. 

Obs. This relation is expressed also by prepositions, as Kadapds enro 
Demosth. jJ. 1371. €rce))s tuv ftiov Menand. ap. Stob. 122. means ov 6 
jStos ei'lo'js ecTTi §. 424. 

352. b. Verbs. TrXnOuj, irXnpow, Tr^iTrXr^/ii. Xen. Cyrop. 2,2, 27. 

(330) (,{, TOUTO ^torov io(^e\i)aovaiv oi /co/coi aCJyaipeOevrec, on kukoi 
aTTeaovrai, ctAXa kch, tmv KaTajxevovriov ocroi a vcTTi/iTrXavTO 
rjS>} KaKiac, civaKudapovvTai ttoXii' avTi]i'. Isocr. Areop.p. 150 A. 
T)/C 3oyX)/o (rr/C ei' Apeiio Trctyw) eTrtffTaTOucrTjc, ou oi/cwi^, oi»oe 
eyKXriparoju, ovBe e'laCpopiov, ov^e ireviac, ouSe TroXejitou v ttoXiq 
eye/Lieu. comp. ad Phil. p. 104 C. Bacchyl. Fr. {Brunch 
Anal. T. ]./>. 151,9.) avitnroaiwv eparwv jipiOovr ayviai. 
Soph. CEd. C. 16. y^ujpoc, (3pv(t)V ^uCpinic, eXaiac, a/inreXov. 
Conip. JEsch. Choeph. 68. Hence also a^i]v eXnav kokottitoq 
Od. e, 290. Eur. Ion. 994. KopkaaaOal tivoc, 'to satiate one- 
self with anything' (to fill oneself with anything) //. t', 167. 'to 
have enough' /y^A/of/. ''EjO-y. 33. Kopeaai nva tivoq Soph. Phil. 
1156. TTctcraaOai tivoc, 'to enjoy anything' 11. t', 160. rep- 
TreaOai tivoc, 'to have enough of anything' Od. t, 213. as 
elsewhere TrXiiaOiivat, acraaOai yoov yavvj^un SaiToc, hp^ic Eur. 
Cycl. 503. Perhaps also eoTiav Tiva Xoywi' kuXwv kch cr/ce- 
\pe(ov Plat. Rep. 9. p. 571 D. as evoj-^elv nva koivwv Xoywv 
Theophr. Char. c. 8. Comp. Plat. Gorg. p. 5\S E. Hence 
also aXic, with the genitive, but not in Homer, Daives Misc. Cr. 
p. 45. 

Obs. Tr\r]cr6TJrai is also found with a dative Soph. Phil. 520. orav H 
TrXijcrOfjs r>/s roirov i,vvvvaici. ^ (where however the genitive may be go- 
verned of 7rXr/(T0p J, and 'i,vv. stand alone); TzX-qpovv Eur. Here. F. 372. 
TrevKaiaiv x^P^s TrXrjpovvTes. fipveir has more frequently a dative than 
a genitive •". 

'Want'. ^eiaOai, airopelv tivoc. Her. 3, 127. evBa (T0(piric. 

* Fisch. 3 a. p. S57sqq. Valck. ad ' Elmsl. ad Soph. (Ed. C. 16. 

Eur. Hipp. 14.50. Bloinf. Gl. Agam. 103. 

'" Scha;f, ad Long. p. 410. 

Sj/ntax. Of t fie Genitive. 575 

Seet, j3t//c cfjyov ouSeV. Xeit. Cyrop. 2, 2, 26. ol/coc, ei/Seo- 
fxevoc, oi/cerwi', t^ttov aCpdWerai, rj utto aOt/cwr raparTOf^ievoc • 
Eur. Suppl. 242. oi S' ou/c '^yovrec, Kai airavitovTec, [iiov, 

e'lc rove, e^ovrac Kevrp dcpiaaiv KUKa. Here. F. 360. 

(UpaKXric) Aioc, ciXaoa npii/nwae Xeovroc. Thus also )(_r?|Ooij- 
aOa'i Tivoc Herod. 6, 83. Kevovv r'l rivoQ .Eschi/l. Suppl. 667. 

Herod. 8, 62. rjineic fxeu KopievpeOa ec ^'ipiv t?^ ev IroAtrj, 

v/Lieic. ^e avppdywv TOiojvce novvwOevTec, p€pvr}(^ea6e twv 
e/ucov Xoyivv. Plat. Meiion. p. 7 \ B. (TViUTrei'o/iai toTc ttoXi- 
TaiQ rovTOV rov Trpdy/iiaTor,. as TrereaOai rwv aoCpiov A^schi/L 

Earn. 434. Id. Rep. 2. p. 371 C, o -yewjO-yoc dpy^aei 

T/jc avTOv ^riixiovpy'iac, KaBi]f.ievoc, ev ayopa ; OvdapwQ. 

Hence the following verbs also take the genitive of the thing : 355. 


1 . 'To bereave', arepeiv, cnroaTepelv riva rivoc,. Isoer. ad 
Phil. p. 87 C. D. CTreiSav o A070C InvoarepnQ^ rr/C re 

^o^%/C Tou Xeyoi'TOC /cat t>7<; (pwvTJQ, Kai /.in^ev 7j ro 

avvayan'i'Coinevov /ecu avuTreWov, aWd t(dv pev Tcpoeipnpe- 

' r ■>< r V ^' ' J' 

V(MV ciTrai'Tiov epr]poG -yei'jjrai Kcn yvpvoc, avayivcvcTKy oe Tt<j 

avTOV diriOuvioG et/coTwc, olpui, (pavXoc So/ce? toTc okou- 

oi;<Ti»^. Thus also i'0cT9(i^w. Soph. Phil. 1426. Uapiv to^- 

01(71 Tolc, epolai vocrC^teTc j3ioi». Od. a , 69. o(p6aXpov aXa- 
io(T€v. further apapTUveiv, ai.nTXaKeiv tivoc.. Od. i , 512. cifxap- 
TtjaeaOai o7rw7r»7c. also in its other significations ' not attain, 
not hit'. If the thing and the person are mentioned together, 
the thing is in the accusative, the person in the genitive. Soph.^ 
Phil. 230. ov yap e'luoc, out' e^e vuCjv apaprelv rovro y ovQ 
vfiac epov. Eur. Ale. 425. ywaiKOQ eaOXriQ I'mirXaKeG ' ha^t 

Obs. inroaTepelv takes also a double accusative. 

2. 'To deliver, to rescue'. Herod. 5, 62. rvpawwu eXev- 
OepwOriaav oi 'AOr^vaioi. Eur. Hipp. 1467. ae touS' eXev- 
OepM (^ovov 'I clear you'. Od. e, 397. (Kriracnov S apa 
Tovye 9eoi ko/cotijtoc eXvaav. Hesiod. Th. 528. ('Hpa/cXr/C 
Tlpopndka) eXvaaro Sucr^pocrui^a w r. Eur. Med. 1007. 
Comp. Isocr. Trapez. p. 363 C. lurr. Plmn. 1028. v6aov 
Tr'jvS' ctTraXXa^w yOova. ?i\\(\. pasaim : and when otTraXX. signi- 

^ risch. 3 a. p. 413. 

576 Syntax. Of the Gejiitive. 

fies *to remove', with the genitive of the person, id. Hec. 1187. 

OQ (brie; 'Ayatwi/ ttovov aTraWaaawv SittXoiJv iraic e/xov Kra- 

velv. Soph. Antig. 1162. cyw^etv eyQpwv, and Eur. Or. 779. 
aioO^vai KUKwv. Hence aojTrtp KaKwv ' deUverer from calamity* 
Eur. Med. 364. oojTvp /SXo/Sjjc id. Heracl. 641. Karacfyvy^ 
KciKwvEur. Or. 449. (i6. 724. KaraCpvyi) atOTiipiac, as C/c. pro 
L. Man. 13, 39. hiemis, non avaritia perfugium.) Plat. Rep. 9. 
p. 573 B. 'ih)C, av Kadi]py auX^poavvnc 

Thus also ' to escape'. Xen. Anah, 1, 3, 2. KXkapyoc, Se 
Tore pev piKpov e^efjyvye rov pn KaTaTreTpu)Qt\vai. Soph. 
Phil. 1044. T?]c, voaov TTeC^evykvai. Antig. 488. avrn re -^ri 

^VVaipOC OVK dXv^eTOV popOV KOKtCTTOV. Id. El. 627. 

Bpdaovc, TouS' OVK ctXv^eiQ * thou wilt not escape the punishment 
of this daring' ^. 

Obs. These verbs are also constructed with Ik or utto. Eurip. Here. 
F. 1012. iXevdepovrres Ik Cpaapwy ttocu. Time. 2, 71. IXevOepilxras 
Tr)v 'EXXaca utto rw»' M»'j2w)'. comp. 8, 4G. Isocr. ad PhU. p. 108 C. 
/Esch. Prom. 509. eveXivis €tpi norci a €K ceapiov en XvOei'ra firj^ey 
peiov i(Txv(T€ip Aios. comp. Thuc. 2, 71. Plat. Gorg. p. 511 C. D. ck 
Kivlvriov cruii^eiy. Plat. Phccdon. p. 62 B. Soph. El. 291. €K youiv airaX- 
Xa-reir. comp. 8, 46. Plat. Rep. 9. p. 571 C. olcrd' on 7ra»'-a ev rw 
ToiovTo) ToXpcJ TTOiely, (is airo TrttffTjs XeXv pet'OP re kcu aTrrjXXay- 
pevor ai(7xv>'t]s re rat (ppoin'iffews. Com^. Pha-don. |). 65 A. Xen. 
Ci/r. 3, 2, 23. JEsch. Ax. 17. ^orw0ei$ e/c r/jfjCe riys upK-TJs. Eur. 
Jph. A. 0)1?). poriodela utto Trarpos. 

3. 'To keep olf, to hinder' ; ' to desist from anything', Ku^Xveiv, 
epriTveiv, fc'x,et«' Tivd tivoc,, t'lpyeaOai, e. g. Antiph. p. 145, 29. 
o vopoc, ovTWC t-x*"') t-7reiSai' rir, aTroypfJf/)?^ ^ovou Si/vJji', e\pye- 
aOai Twv vopipixiv^. Plat. Crafj/l. p. 416 13. to yiip epiro- 
^'itov Kol 'icrxov Tt7c poi]c. Xen. Anah. 3, 5, 11. o oct/coc 
Svo (irBpac, e^ei tou /nj KraraSuvai. In the middle c^eaOal 
TiJ'oc for o7re)(C(T0ot, and t';)(eii'. T/i//c. 1, 112. 'EXArji't/cou 7ro- 
Atytou t'cr)(ov oi 'A0jn'«'iot. (Herod. 7, 237. the genitive ica/co- 
Ao-yi'jjc is to be explained as §. 342, 3. ' what relates to ca- 

Mlermannad Soph. El. 1033. El. fercntly. 
617. explains this cunstruction dif- •> Miscell. rhilol. vol. 1. j>. 161 note. 

Syntax. Of the Genitive. 577 

Hence generally the genitive appears to be put in order to 354. 
express a distance, which otherwise is marked by the preposition 
airo. This takes place principally in the verbs 

a. 'To be distant', ^leyeiv. Xen. Anah. 1, 10, 4. ^leay^ov 
d\\i]X(i)V [5a(n\evc, re Kai oi 'EXXrjvec wc rpiuKOvra aTuBia. 
Id. Vectig. 4, 46. aTre^^ei twv cipyvpeiujv v ey-yvTara 
TToAtc Meyapa ttoXu TrAeToi' twv irevraKoaiwv araciun', where 
§.43. it was a7re)(ei ^e ravra dir dWijXtov. Isocr. Archid. 
p. 130 C. ToaovTOV aTreyctt tou TTOtJ/aoi rt twv TrpoaTaTTOj-ieviov. 

(3. 'To separate', e. g. "^(jjp'it^iv. e7riaTj)/irj -^wpito/nevrf diKaio- 
avvr]Q Plat. Menex. />.246 E. comp. Fhadon. p. 6"9 B. ^lovpi- 

teiv. Herod. 2, 16. NeTXoo o rnv 'Act/jjv Biovpitiov t^q 

Ai(5vt]Q. See Schaf. Melet. in Dion. H. I. p. 95 note. On the 
other hand. Plat. Pficedon. jj.67 C. ■^atpiteiv diro rov o-w^iotoc 
Ttiv ilvyrfv. Isocr. Archid. p. 133 D. ^wpi^eii' rove, oiKeiora- 

y. 'To repel', as df.ivveiv, aXaX/cetv. II. /n , 402. aXXa ZevQ 
KripaQ dpvve irai^uc, eov, which elsewhere stands with airo, 
as in tt', 80. vewv otto Xoiyov ainvvai. Sometimes a/^ivveiv is 
put alone with the genitive : 7/. p , 109. a/^iwepev ovk eOeXovtri 
vrjwv ujKVTTopajv ' they are not willing to defend the ships', 
properly, 'to avert destruction from them', //. /n , 155. o/iuvo- 
^levoi a<pwu r avTwv Koi KXiaiaiov. and with irepL ' to fight for 
defence', //. p' , 182. dpvvepevai irepl IlaTjOo/cAoio Oavovroc, as 
fxdyjeaQai Trepi tivoc,'^. II. (p' , 539. Tpwwv 'iva Xoiyov o'AoX/cot, 

which in v. 138. was Tpweaai Xoiyov uXuXkoi. ' II. k , 288. 

o K€u Toi Kparoc, aXaXKijaei kukov i)pap. Hence irXavav 
riva oSoG ' to mislead any one' . 

Hence KoXvirrpri vKpeTov in Callim. Fr. 142. Trpof^Xv/na 
KUKtjv Aristoph. Vesp. 613. Eur. Siippl. 209, eTrncovptj/na t>7c 
yjiovoc Xen. An. 4, 5, 13. 'help, protection against the snow'. 
eiriKovp-naiQ KaKojv Eur. Andr. 28. as eiTiKovpoc -ipvyovc, okotov 
id. Mem. S. 4, 3, 7. 'serviceable against the cold, darkness'. 
TTvpyoc, OavciTwv ' protection against death'. Soph. (Ed. T. 1200.^ 

"^ Ileyne Obss. ad II. tt', 522. ^ Callim. Eleg.Fr.p.291. 

'' Abresch ad N. T. p. 547. Lect. comp. Valck. ad Eur. I'hoen. 786. 
Aristaen. p. 276. p. 291 seq. 

578 Sj/ntax. Of the Genitive. 

8. 'To retire from a place'. //. /ti', 406. ^^wprjaei^ S' apa 
tvtOov eirdX^ioc Herod. 2, 80. oi vewrepoi avreMV {AaKeBai- 
juoviwv) T0?(7i rrpeafivTepoiai avvTvy^(^avovTec, e'ltcovai rrjc 
ocov. Arist. Ran. 790. KctKeivoc, v-jrey^iopnaev avrio tou 
Opovov. ih. 174. vTrayeO' v/^eic tijc, o^ov. Xen. Sijmp. 
4,31. vTravicTTavrai Se juoi 7)Srj /cat OaKwv Kai oCwv 
e^iffravrai ot irXovtyioi. On the other hand id. Hier. 7, 2. 

Kal UjUeTc, TTjOOTreTWC (pepeaOe etc avrriv (rriv Tvpavv'iCa), 

OTTWQ viraviaTOJVTai Travrec, air o tmv uuKtov, oowi' 

Te irapay^iophiai. Tyrt. 3, 41. {Br. Guam. p. 63.) TraVrec 
^' ev 6(l)Koi(nv o/iwc I'eoi oi' re kut avTov e'lKOva eK -^loptjCf 
oi TE TraXaiorepoi^. Hence also avy^wpeiv, *to resign', or 'give 
up to', takes the genitive of the thing instead of the accusative. 
Herod. 7, 161. /narw yup av wSe arparov TrXeiarov eiv^iev 
eKTV/iievoi, ei ^vpaicovaioiai avy^w pijacojuev ttjo ity e^iovn] c, 
properly, ' to retire from the command'. Demost/i. pro Cor. 
p. 24:1 , 24. TJ/c Tt2v 'EXX/ji/wi' eXevOeplac irapay^wpijcrai <i>i- 
XiTTTTco. Plat. Prot. p. 336 B. C. 

e. Amono- the adverbs, yj^ipU and iroppio in particular take 
the genitive : P/af. Phccdon. J9. 96 E. ti aoi ^oKel irepl avruiv; 
TTOppw TTov, vi) Alo, c/Lie elvai tov o'leaOai trepi tovtwv tijv 
a'lTiav eicevai, ' I am far from thinking'. Thus also eACTroSwr, 
which otherwise takes the dative. 

I. With many other verbs also the genitive is used to express 
a removal from something, where otherwise utto and eK are used : 
Pind. 01. 1, 93. X'Sov /neroivJi' Ke(^a\ac jSaXeTr. Soph. CEd. 
T. 142. v/^eic i^icv (5d0pMV 'laraaOe rouaS' dpavrcc, iKTiipac, kXu- 
Souc, where apavrcc (idOpow, as it seems, should be taken to- 
gether. So ib. 808. ox^v KdOiKeTO must be taken together, 
'down from the chariot'. El. 324. go/itw»' op(v tiw ow o^ai- 

liiov evTd(l)ia y^epo7v (pepovaav, i.e. eic co/itwv . Phil. 

613. e'l jtij) Toi'Se dyoivro i')}(tov riia^e. Eur. Andr. 1063. 

dywv yfiov6c. comp. EL 1294. Id. Hcc. 1 104. oaaiov oc/)iei^ai 
avyiiQ. Id. Ion. 471. 'OAu/ittoi) Trra/iei-a for c^ 'OXu^ittou. 
Hence to ovpavov Trkaima Eur. Iph. T. 1395. ' the palladium 
which fell from heaven' *^. 

^ Valck. ad Herod. 2,80. p. 140, 8 V. '' Lobcck ad Soph. Aj. 9. (p. 222) 

^ Elmsl. ad Eur. Bacch.636. p. 92. 370. Ilcrm. dc EUips p. Ml5. 
Miisgr. ad Eur. Tread. 859. 

Sjjntax. Of the Geuitice. 579 

V. Hence, as it seems, /uecroc and /iieaovv, as well as the ad- 
verb /LieTct^v, take the genitive, e.g. Eit7\ Rh. 531. ^leaa S 
aieroQ ovpavov TroTdrai. Herod. I, 181. /u-eaovuTi Se 
Kov Trjc, avajBdaioc; eaTi Karayojyi). At least Sophocles, 
(Ed. C. 1595. joins oVo with them : dcj)' ov jnecroc; ardc, rov 
T-e QopiKiov Trerfjov /co/Arjo t dy^epdov kcitto Xdivov Ta(l)ov 
• 'KaOetero. There is also evidently the idea of an equal distance 
from two or more places conveyed in it. Yet the genitive, in 
cases where two or more places cannot be supposed, e. g. in 
Herodotus /. c, must be resolved by the expression ' with re- 
spect to'. 

4. Hence the words 'to cease, to make to cease', iraveiv, ttuv- 355. 

€(jBai, Xnyeiv. II. |3', 595. Moutrai Qdf^ivpiv iravaav aoi- 

dric. t' , 107. 'Apyeloi ?' VTreyMprjcrav, \v^av Se (jyovoio. Xen. 

Mem. S. 1, 2, 64. 3!w/C|OaTiK' (payepoc i]v tmv (jvvovt<j^v tovg 

irovTipac, eiridvpiac e^ovraQ toutwi- Travwv. Thus also 
Thuc. 2, 65. 6 YlepiKKnc eireipaTO rove 'Adnva'iovc, t>7c eir 
avTOv opync TrapaXveiv. Xen. Ci/r. 8, 5, 24. Herod. 6, 9. 
KaraXveiv riva rrjc itpX^C, as Traveiv riva TrJQ apy^rjc. II. p , 
539. Knp dyeoc, fxederiKa, i. e. eiravaa'^. In the same manner 
reXevrav rivor, Thuc. 3, 59. 104. Xen. Ci/r. 8, 7, 17. vcbieaOai 
rivoc Xen. Cyrop. 7, 5, 62. 01 ravpoi e/cre^n'o/ierot tou ^leya 
(jipoveiv Kai direidelv v (jy'ievT ai. Plat. Phccdon. p. 117 E. 
eTrecryojiiev rov ^aKpveii'. comp. Thuc. 8, 31. Xen. II. Gr. 7, 
5, 19. TToi'iov d-nroKaf^iveiv 'through weariness to desist from 
labour'. Hence Lys. Epit. p. 195, 7. aTroyvuivai tjjc eXevOepiac 
* through despair to abandon freedom'. Hence also, perhaps, 
(xeOieaOaf, {[(jyieaOai rivoc §. 332. 

Obs. 1. TTUveiv is also constructed with eic or otto : in tlie sense ' to 
deliver, to repose'. Soph. El. 987. Travcroi' e/c icaKuiy ef^ic. Eur. Hec. 
911. uoXttcij' c' ctTTO cot )(opo7ro(wv dv(7idi' KaraTravcras ttoctis kv diCKafxois 
eiceiTO. Thuc. 7, 73. arBpujirovs cnro vav^a)(^/as peyct\i]i ai'cnre-cw- 

Obs. 2. The construction, which, according to the foregoing obser- 
vations, was admitted by verbs in their proper signification, is some- 
times retained in their derivative senses, although the same reference is 
no longer applicable. Thus dew, ceoj^iai in their proper signification ' to 

■' Fisch. 3 a. p. 372 seq. 

580 Si/fitax. Of the Genitive. 

want', and hence ' to stand in need of, to require', take the genitive ; 
and this construction remains also, 1. In the impersonal eel, e. g. Eur. 
Here. F. 1173. e'i n 2et ^ ^eipos vfids rfjs ef^irjs i) a v f-i [i a xo> y * if 
you stand in need of my hand'. jEsch. Prom. 874. ravra Ze'i jiaKpov 
\6yov elireiv^. 2. In the phrase oXlyov lei, ttoWov ceT, or (§. 297.) 
oXiyov lew ' it wants but little, a great deal of. Thiicyd. 2, 77. to irvp 
t\ax 'Tou ecevcre ciacpdelpcu rovs HXaTaieas. The compound ano~ 
leu), on the contrary, takes the neuter of these adjectives in the accu- 
sative, with another noun in the genitive. jEschin. Ax. 6. eyw ^e 
eviaiu.i]v tiv rh KOiva ravra eiCerni' to(tovtov cnroceu) rwy TrepiTTiov. 
comp. 22.*' eel is often wanting with the genitive, especially with uXiyov, 
which then is used entirely as an adverb, ' nearly'. Plat. Phcedr. 
p. 2-58 E. Tiros evcK ay rts, ws elirely, ((^r), c'tW 7/ Tuiv TOiovTOjy ijlortjy 
ercKa ; ov yap ttov cKelvwy ye, civ TrpoXvTnjdiji'ai. eel y fxrjle j/cQ/jiai' o 
C)) oXiyov irdtraL a'l izepX to criofxa ticovaX e-^^ovaiv'^. More lully m 
Isocr. ad Phil. p. 92 C. 'ApyeTot, oXiyov cely ka9' tKuaToy eriavToy 
Teuyofxeyrjr kui TvopQovfxevr]v T))y ^(^ijpay Trepiopioiriy. Comp. Xen. Mem. 
S. 3, 10, 13. 3. In the sense of ' to entreat, to desire', e. g. Herod. 
1, 3Q. TrpoaleofxeOd trev. Xen. Cyrop. 1,5, 4. Kva'idpqs eirefnre Ka\ -Trpbs 
Kvpoy, leoneros avrov Treipiiadai cip-^^orTa eXOely rtjy dilpuy. And 
with the double genitive: Herod. 5, 40. ttjs fxey yui'cmccis, ttjs e^eis, ov 
Trpoadeo fiedd aev Tri% cs^o-tos. comp. 8,144. If the thing is ex- 
pressed by a pronoun neuter it is also in the accusative, as tovto vj^iSy 
ceofiai Plat. Apol. S. p. \7 C ISA. So xPlf^'^' ^"^ ^^'^^^^ double ge- 
nitive Herod. 7, 53. Twrc' eyw vfxedjy xp^'l^^*' crvyeXeL,a. The other 
verbs, which signify ' to entreat', are joined with the accusative. 

(333) c. Substantives ; partly, such as are derived from tlie ad- 
jectives above mentioned, as Plat. Rep. 1. p. 329 C. Travru- 
naai tijJV ye toiovtwu (twi' aippocKTicov) ev tm yU/oa ttoAX?) 
e'lfii^vt} ylveTai Kai eXevOepia 'freedom from such passions', 
Phadon. p. 69 B. partly also others, e. g. those which signify 
a vessel, Jk.c. and take the genitive of that with which they are 
filled, e. g. ceirac, o'lvov Od. i , 196. {Sc/ucJ. ad Long. p. 386.) 
viiTToc TTcruXwu EiiTip. P/i. 814. * a glass (full) of wine, a wood 
full of leaves, a leafy wood', comp. §. 316. 

d. Adverbs. aXic, a^nv, satis. Enrip. llec. 2S2. rwv TeOut]- 
KOTOJV a'Xtc. Or. 234. aXiG e^w tou ^varvj^eiv. JEsch. Ax. 13. 
eyioye a\ic, 'c(t\ov toi; iDy^paroc,. JEschi/l. Ag. 837. acrjv eXei^ev 

" L'orson ad Eiirip. Or. G59. 3 a. p. 413 8C(|. 

'' Uorv. ad Charit. p. 558. l" " ad Thuc. 8, 35. 

Sj/ntax. Of the Genitive. 581 

aj'/iaroc rvpavviKov. Homer uses ciXic as indeclinable in the 
same case with the substantive, e. g. Od. ??', 295. ?? /lot alrov 
e^wKev aXic, 7/S aiBotra oivov. 

4. The same signification of the genitive appears to be the S5(S. 
basis of the construction of the comparative with the genitive ; C^^*) 
for instance, ^le'iCwv ttot/ooc properly signified ' greater with 
respect to his father'. From this construction all words which 
involved a comparison, took the object of this comparison in 
the genitive. 

The genitive is therefore put with the comparative of adjec- 
tives and adverbs (see below, §. 450.), and hence with all words 
which imply the idea of a comparative, e. g. ZiirXaaioc. Isocr. 
Pariath. p. 268 B. (ti ouv ean to CTu^t|3e/3r)/coc ayafiou e/c rov 
TToXe/iiov Tou Trepi toq aTroiKiac ;) ro'ic, aiTioiQ tovtwv -yeyev)/- 
fievoic, evSoKiiielv Kul ^iirXaaiav ireTTOiriKevai ti'jv EXXaca ti]C 
e^ ao^rjc avcFTciavc. Herod. 7, 48. to 'EXXjjj'j/coi' aTpuTevf.ia 
(paiverai TToXXaTrXiiaiov ecreaOai rov i]f^ieTepov. Flat. 
Tim. p. 35 B. C. i-uav cKpe^Xe to irpwrov airu Trav-uc (.lolpav' 
fxera Se ravrr^v aCpypei ^nrXacxLav TavTVQ' tiju c av TpiTrju 
■np.ioXiau nev tjjc Sevrepac, t pnrXacriav Se rrjQ irpw- 
Trjc* reTciprt^v ^e TTJC ^evTepac SnrXrjv' Tre^nrTm' ce rpi- 
7rXr]U ttJc rpiri]C' t^v ^' eKri]V rnc ttjOwtj/c o/CTOTrXa- 
a'lav' k^^(>pr]V Se eTrTaKaieiKoaaTrXaaiav rrtc TrpwTrjc. 
Xen. Ci/rop. 8, 2, 21. oi pkv TrXeiaroi, eirei^uv r(vu lipKovv- 
Th)v TrepiTTo. ('more than they want') KrnawvTai, r<x /lev 

avTiov KaTOpvTTOvai, to. 8e KaraaijiTovcn ' tyw be 

CTreiSav KTi](J(t)/iiai, a av t'Sw TrepiTTCi ovtci twv ef.ioi ap- 
Kovvrujv, Tovroic Tctc evSe'iac twv (piXhJV e^aKOu/^tat. So also 
^evrepoc, vaTepoc. Herod. 6, 46. Sevrepw Se eVei TouTewf, for 
Hera ravTct ; as varepov rovTetov id. 7, 214. Plat. lini. 
p. 20 A. ovaia Kai -yei'et ov^evoc, varepoc, lov, as Herod. 

1, 23. 'Aoiova KiOapM^uv rwv rore eovrtov ovdevoc bev- 

Tepov. comp. Plat. Phadon, p. 87 C. D. Hence t^ vare- 
pa'ia {r)pepa) rrJQ puyjnc Plat. Menex. p. 240 C. 

Note. The rest of the adjectives, which are derived from verbs, are 
found below, after those verbs. 

Thus tlie genitive is put also with verbs which are derived 357. 
^ ^ (335) 

582 Si/ntax. Of the Genitive. 

from comparatives, as r]TTaaQai nvoc, e. g. 7jttoj elvai tivoc, 

inferioremessealiquo. Isocr. Nicocl. p. 34 B. ewpwv, twv 

eTTit/UjUiw I' Twv Trepi touc Tratoac /ecu rac yvvaiKac Kai tovg 
jSeXrio-Toi^c i]Tru)f.ievovc ' that even the best were overcome 
by means of these affections'^. Following the same analogy, 
Eurip. Iph. A. 1367. eviKwinrjv KeKpayf.iov. as Troad. 23. Cycl. 
454. i/e/Y/c/. 234. Soph. Aj.\3A0. Find. Nem. 9, 5. Arist. 
Nub. 1078.^ Xen. Anah. 1, 7, 12. 'AjSpo/co^toc vaTep^ae 
TJjc i^i-o.yj]c ' came after the battle'. Isocr. Nicocl. p. 30 D. oi 
jitei' (ev ToTc oXiyapy^iaic, Kai rate S))^ioh:paTiaic) u(TTe|00U(7t 

Twi' TT pay f.iaT(i)v' oi St ei' tcuc, f^iovapyj-aia ovrec, 

ovK aTToXe'nrovTai rwv Kaip(x)i',aW CKacTTOV ev Tio oeovri 
TTpuTTovcnv. * do not miss the right opportunity'. Since the 
idea of 'to lose' is related to this, Eurip. Iph. A. 1213. says, 
TTaiSoc v<TTepr)(ToiLiai ' I shall lose my daughter'*^. Xe7i. Mem. S. 
1, 3, 3. Ova'iac Se 9v(ov iniKpac inro liUKpwu ov^ev ijyeTro ^tei- 
ovaOai Twv otto ttoXXwi' Kai ^leyaAwi' TToAXa Kai /ncyaXa 
0v6vT(i)i'. Other words of this kind are compounded with 
TT/oo, and are found below. 

358. In the same manner the genitive is put with verbs in which 
(336) the idea of a comparative is included. Such are: 

1. Those which signify ' to surpass', or the contrary, ' to be 
surpassed, to be inferior to another', (as i]csaaaBai) jrepiyeveaOai. 
Isocr. ad Phil. p. 103 B. Tartar in> irepiyevoio t»k tou 
/BaortXewc ^vva/.iect>c. Ax'//. Ci/rop. 8, 2, 20. t-yw ynp, w 
KyooTae, o /Lieu o'l Oto\ Bovrec etc tuc, Tpvyac role avOp(oTroiQ 
. eTTo'irjaav o/tioiwc 7revr]Tac, Travrac, toutou ^lev oi/oe avroc ov- 
t'a/ irepiyeveaOai. TTcpielvai Od. a, '2A1 . ewei irepieaai 
yvvaiKwv eiBoc re /.leyeOoc, re tSe cjipevac ev^ov eiaac. comp. 
//. a', 238. Xeii. Mem. S. 3, 7, 7. Id. Cyr. 8, 2, 7. ttoXu 
^leveyKhiv avBpwTTiov t(o TrXeicT-ac TTpoaodovc Xa/njiaveiv, 
TToXv en irXeov Sn^veyKC tw TrXeTcTTa avOpu)TTU)v cuypeiaOai. 
comp. Isocr. ad Phil. p. 105 A. de Pac. p. 176 A. (with ge- 
nitive of person and dative of thing Plat. Leg. 4. p. 711 E. 
T^ TOW Xe-yeti' /owjitij TravTWv ^ia<pepeiv avOpioirwv.) vireppaXXeiv 
' to be stronger, to excel'. JEschi/l. Prom. 930. or, Sij Kcpawov 

■' Valck. ad Eur. Hipp. 7-24. *■ Fisch. 3 a. p. 309. 

^ Valck. ad Eurip. Hipp. 458. 

Sj/ntax. 0/ the Genitive. 583 

Kpe'iaaov evfjTjaei (pXoya, (3povTiic, inre ppaWovTa Kap- 
Tcpov KTvTTov. Plat. Govg. J). 475 B. aKeipcopeOa, cipa Xviry 
vire p(5a\Xei to a^iKeiv rov aSiKeiaOai, Kai aXyovai paX- 
Xov ol d^iKovvrec ?) o'l aSiKovpevoi^. (also iu the sense of ' going 
over', Eur. lun. 1341. BpiyKov touS vTrepj^aXXu) ttoSj.) virep" 
ey^eiv rivoc, Trpoeyeiv Soph. Phil. 137. virepcpepeiu Soph. (Ed. 
T. 381. Herod. 8, 138. 9, 96. Thuc. 1, 81. npocpepeiv Eur. 
Med. 1100. ei TTcipapevaeTai ciXX(jjv Pind. Nem. 11,17. whence 
dpe'ifteiv apeifieaOai always has an accusative. diioXeiTreaOai 
Tivoc ' to come short of any one', Isocr. ad Phil. p. 107 D. as 
T(uv oil/ T€Kvojv XiTToiTo Sopli. TrttcJi. 267 . and with double ge- 
nitive JEschin. in Ctcs. p. 74, 41. ei tivoc (person) a7roXet(|)- 
OiiaeTtti rr/c SwjooSo/ci'ao (in respect to). So also ewiSevecyOai 
TIVOC, ' to be inferior to any one'. See Not. ad H. Homer, p. 30. 
Also with a genitive of the thing, //. xp', 670. payjr^c e-n-i^evopai, 
'in the fight', as |3irjc eTrtSeujjc Od. (j) , 253. 

To this head should, perhaps, be referred also dve-^eaOai 
Tivor. Eur. Troad. 101. Plat. Rep. 8. p. 564 C. JEsch. Axioch. 
15. 'to bear any thing'; the opposite to i)TTaa9ai tivoc, suc- 
cumhere, which, however, is often joined with an accusative, as 
Xen. Cyr. 1,2, 10. probably also the active Soph. (Ed. T. 174. 
oure TOKOiaiv ir]iwv KapaTWv ave-^ovai yvvaiKec. 

Ohs. Some of these verbs are also constructed with an accusative, as 
7'iKui' always; vTreplSaXXeadal rira Herod. 5,124. C, 9. 13. 7, 163. 
vTrepexeif Eur. Hipp. 1381. Plat. Phcedon. p. 102 D. (see Heind.) 
7rpoex,et»' Xen. Anah. 3, 2, 19. 

3. Those which signify ' to rule' (the contrary to i^aaaaQai), 359. 

or the opposite, avaaaeiv : II. a, 38. he TeveSoioi<^i (337) 

dvdffaeic. Herod. 1, 206. 'Q jSacriXev Mt/Swi^* (5a- 

ffiAeve Twv aeiovTOv, Kai jj/xeac ai'e^eu opeiov apyovTac T(jjv- 
TT e p ap-^ofiev. II. ^, 84. aiO loCpeXXec aeiKeXiov OTpaTov 
aXXov (TH] paiveiv. Xe)i. Cj/rop. 1, 1, 2. avOpwTroi ew ovSevac 
paXXov avviaravTai, i] eiri toktouc, ovc dv aiaOiovrai ap-^eiv 
avTuiv eTTi^eipovvTuc. §. 3. eyiyvioaKopev, wc avOpioino Tre^u- 
KOTi TravTwv Twv dXX(ov ^wwv c'lJj paov, r) avOpioTrojv, 
ap\eiv. Soph. Aj. 1050. Kpaiveiv aTpuTov. ih. 1100. Troy 

■* Ikind. ad Plat. Gorg. p. 97. 

584 Syntax. Of the Genitive. 

av Grparriyelc rovSe ; (comp. Herod. 1, 211.) ttov Be aoi 
XetSv e^eaT avacrcFeiv, wv oS rj-yetT oiKodev ; ^TTapnic 
ava<T(T(i)v r)X9€C,ov'^im(vu Kparwi'. Archyt.ap.Gale, p.677 . 
aTparevixaroc, ^lev ayeTrot arpaTayoQ, 7T\(i)Ti]p(i)i> ce o Kvpep- 
I'aTJjc, Tw Se Koaf-ioj Oeoc, tciq ^//u^aq oe vuoc, rac oe TrejOi to J' 
piov evBai/iioavvaQ (ppovaaic. 

The following verbs, for the same reason, and because they 
are derived from substantives, take the genitive after them : 
Kvpieveiv Xen. Mem. -S. 3, 5, 11. i. e. Kvpiov elvai. Koipaveiv 
{Ko'ipavov elvai) Mschyl. Pers. 214. kirirpoTveveiv 'to admi- 
nister a government', Herod. 7,7. (in the sense ' to be a 
guardian', usually with the accusative §. 413, b".*), rvpavveveiv 
Herod. 1, 15. 23. 59. oTpar-nyeiv Herod. 1, 211. Soph. AJ. 
1100. Se(jn6t€iv Tsocr. ad Phil. p. 91 D. Eur. Ale. 486.^ 

According to the same analogy eVto-rareTi' twoc, is con- 
structed, which otherwise takes the dative, Isocr. ad Phil, 
p. 101 E. KXeap-^ov Tov eTriaraTiiaavTa twv totc tt pay- 
fid tom'. comp. id. p. 92 B. Xen. Mem. S. 2, 8, 3. Eurip. 
Andr. 1100. octoi Oeov ■y^pijparwi' e^karaaav. 

Ohs. 1. KpciTely is the same as Kpelcraio eh'cu. Eur. Hijip. 250. dXXci 
Kparel, p)) yiyyuxTKoyr cnroXeffdai, i. e. Kptlrraov lari or Kpuriaroy kari. 
Eur. Fr. Pel. 5. epireipla ttjs aireiplas KpareT. lliuc. 1, 69. 6 \6yos tov 
epyov iiKph-ei fama potior erat re ipsa. Like coinparatives it takes iroXv 
or TToXAw, to express the degree, e. g. Thuc. 7, GO. Hence is perhaps 
to be explained Time. 7, 49. rals yovy ravtrly Tj Trporepoy dapaijaei 
KpartjOeis, i. e. pdXKoy dapnujy rals yavaly i) TrpuTepoy. 

360. 0^*' ^- Some of these verbs are also constructed with a dative or 
(338) accusative, provided the relation which is iniphed in tlieni may ])o con- 
sidered at the same time as a reference eidier to a personal object tlic 
consideration of which defines the action, or to an object which is ex- 
posed to the operation of the action, and subjected to it. 

a. With the dative. uvciTaeiv, crijpait'eiy. II. a , 288. ttojtwj' pey 
Kpareeiy tdeXei, TvavTerrai Z^ aynacrety, Trdffi hk ar^paiveiy' a tiv olt 
TreiGeadai oiio. Comp. //. a, 180. ({,', 86. OJ. a, 117. 402. 419. ^3', 234. 
drdtraeiy is joined with both cases Eur. Iph. T. 31. ov yrjs ardaaei. 
ftapftdpoKTi. II. v , 180 seq. but see Ohs. 3. With (n}paiyeiy the da- 

* Tboni. M. p. 300. Moer. p. 149. '' Fisch. 3 a. p. 369. 

Sj/utax. Of tlic Genitive. 585 

tive is more common ; and Kparelv, Od. tt', 2Gj. (Ze^v ivui 'A0//»'/;) aire 
fcat uWois avhpaai re Kpareovcr i ku\ adaydroKTi Oeolcriy. 
fip^f"'* ^sch. Prom. 948. (Zeus) capuv uvk cip^ei Oeols, where the 
Scholiast calls this an Ionic construction. So up'^eveiv II. e, 200. /la- 
aiXeuew Od. i/, 59. Pm(/, Pyth. 10, 3. iiyeladcu II. ft', 864. Mj/o(ri»/ 
au MeerflAjjs «tt "AiTt^os liyTjcraad >] >■. /6. /3', 816. Tp w cri jtit;' 'yye- 
Idoyeve jueyas Kopv6aioXos"EKru)p, which otherwise takes the genitive. 
ib. 563. 601. 627. 650. 698. 710. 759. arpunr/t'iv. Eur. Andr. 325. 
ftaaiXeveiv tlvi. Od. i{ , 59. 'Wyeiadai., especially in the sense of ' to 
lead', takes the dative after it: Herod. 8, 215. M.r]\ifLes Q^aaaXolai 
Karrj-y)] aai'TO e7rt ^wktcus. Plat. Rep. 9. p. 573 E. ouk aiayKt], wawep 
VTTO Keyrpojy eXavyoixevovs rw*' re ciWwJ' l7ri8vjj.iij)y, kui cia(jj€poi'Tij)S vk 
avTov Tov "Epo)Tvs, TTutrais rals aXXtiis, wcrwep C(ipv(j)(ipois, ijyov- 
f.iepov, olarpdy'^. 

b. With the accusative. Od. y, 245. uva^aadai yeye avcpQv. Kpa- 
Teiv, Soph. CEd. C. 1380. roiyap to auv duici)}xa kcu tovs aovs 
dpovovs KpaTovaiv ' shall possess'. Eurip. Ph. 600. ai^rjiTTpa icpuTe'iv 
' to hold firmly', quod teneas, mordicus relinere, as Valckenaer renders 
if*. Especially in the sense * to conquer' : Eur'ipld. Ale. 501. Aristoph. 
Jv. 418. Thuc. 1, 109. 111. 2, 39. 6, 2. 7, 11. &:c. Plat. Philcb. 
p. II extr. Sijmp. p. 220 A. Isocr. ad Phil. p. 100 E. Kpuiveiv ti, 
Soph. Track. 127. draXyjjT-a yap olS' 6 wdyra Kpalyojy ftaffiXevs enefSaXe 
Oyaro'is Kpovi^as. cecnro^eiv ti, Eur'ip. Here. F. 28. Avkos r;)r eirru- 
TTVpyov T}}vle ^eairo^cjy ttoXii'. liip/eiadui, Thuc. I, 71. 6, 85. as 
iiyeladai 1,19. In this passage apx'^'-^ '■"'^* is put in opposition, and 
in Ibiy- »/y- the idea of proper dominion does not seem to be implied, 
but only the command, or leading of nations who are otherwise repre- 
sented as free. 

Obs. 3. Homer joins ardaaeiv also with ^erct and the dative Od. rj , 
23. or with kv ib. 62. So may the passages quoted §. 387. Eur. Iph. 
T. 31. II. v, 180. be explained. 

Hence also adjectives and substantives, in which the same 361. 
idea of governing is implied, and which are mostly derived (339) 
from such verbs, have a genitive after them : 

a. Adjectives. eyKparijc, (iKparnc. Xen. Mem. S. 2, 1,^7. 
oi eyKparelc ToyTwv airavriov, opposed to aSwaroic ravTO. 
TTOie'iv. hocr. ad Phil. p. 86 C. (l)t'Ai7r7roG- - -tou 'TXXu^iwf 

' Fisch. 3 a. p. 371. Eustath. ad ^ grunck ad Eur. Ph. 600. 

II. p. 51, 25. 

VOL. n. G 


5SG syntax. Of the Gemtive. 

irXvOovc, eyKparric Kai Kvpioc yeyove. especially when 

transferred to mastery over the soul : (as Kpareiv ^o/3ow kui 
Ov/^ov Plat. Tim. p. 42 B.) Xen. Cyrop. 4, 1, 14. e/ttoi SokcT, 
TJ]C iue-yio-rrjc i^Soi-rjc ttoXv ^laWov avpCpepeiv ejKparrj elvai 

* master over pleasure, inasmuch as one moderates his enjoy- 
ment', is opposed to §. 15. airXnaTwc \priaOat. Mem. S. 2, 
1, 3. virvov eyKpciTTJ elvai, ivare ^vvaaOai Kai oi/-e Koi/nrjOrji'ai 
Kal TTptJi avaarvvca /cat ay pv-rrvijaai, e'l ti Seoj. Ci/rop. 5, 1, 14. 
TO. juoYOvpa avOpoJiria iraaiov, olpai, riov eTTiOv j^i itS v uKpaTi] 
€<7Ti, KctireiTa eptora aiTuovTai. Both adjectives may be trans- 
lated * moderate, immoderate in anything' ; but the construction 
is determined by their signifying ' to be master over anything, 
to have in one's power'. In the same manner t'/ctcwi' is used, 

e. g. rjTTOJV TTOVOV, VTTl'OV, 7)doi'Wl' A(7/. ]\iet)l. S. 1, 5, 1. 4, 

5, 1 1 . upXEiv vTTVov ib. 2, G, 1. Kpareiv ijSovojv ih. 1, 5, 6. 
Thus also Kaprepoa : Theocr. 15, 94. pn (pv'u], MeAtrwSec, oc, 
upwu Kaprepuc, en?, ttXov ei-oc, * one who shall rule over us', as 
in Horace diva po fens Cijpri.^ 

b. Substantives. Plat. Leg. \. p. 648 E. yrra tov TropaToc 

* defeat by means of drinking', i. e. ' intemperance in drinking'. 
ib. 10. p. 902 A. I'fTTai i]^oi'ojv i) Xvttwv. ib. />. 908 C. uKpa- 
Teiai rjSovtjv Kal Xvttojv. Xen. Mem. S. 2, 1, ] . {^loKpaTrfc.) 
cSoKei pot TrpoTpeneiv tovc, avvovTac acfKelv eyKpareiav wpoc. 
eTTiOvp'iav (5pii)Tov Kai TTOTOu KOI XayveiaQ Kai vrrvov, Kai piyovc, 
Ka\ BaXiTovc Ka\ ttovov, where the three last genitives are 
governed by eyKparciav, not by eiTiOvpiav, ' mastery over cold, 
heat, labour', i. e. ' power, not to be overcome by them, but to 
bear them'; and even in the former part the words ttjooc eiri- 
Ovp'iav might be omitted. Isocr. ad Demon, p. 6 C. v(p wv 
KpareiaOai rriv xf/vvitv aia-^pov, tovtioi' eyKpareiav acKei 
TTavTiDV, KepSovc, opyrjc, i)^oiniC, Xvttjjc. 

Thus also adjectives, which are used as substantives in this 
sense. //. tt', 470. Trorvia Oripwv ' mistress over the wild beasts'. 
Pind. P. 4, 380. ttotviu o^vtcltwv (ieXewv of Venus. Hence 
TTOTi't' t'/u'j Eur. EL 490. 

4. * To obey', as the opposite of 'to command'. uKoveiv 

" Valck. ad Theocr. Adon. p. 386. 

Si/ntax. Of the (ienilive. 587 

Ttvoc Od. n , 11- ^^o" ^' ^'J ^ni-ioc uKovev ' listened to him'. 
jEsch. Ai£ain. 965. Id. Prom. 40. avr)KovaTel.v Se twv 
irarpuQ Xoyuyv oiov re ttwc ; * not to obey'. vrraKoveiv, lliuc. 
2, 62. e'lKoc yvojvai eXevOepiav /ii6i>, ?)v avTiAojtijSaro/iei'oi avry^c, 
^laawatoi-iev, pa^iwc Tctvra oVaXjj^Ojiiei'J})', iiWwv o inrciKov- 
aaai Koi ra TrpoaKeKrvjueva (piXeiv eXaaaovaOai. conip.6,82. 
8, 5. Xcnoph. Cyr. 4, 1, 3. 8, 1, 4. 20.'^ Thus also 7rei0ecr0at 
Tivoc,'. Herod. 1, 126. vvv u>v efx'eo TreiOopevoi, yiveaOe eXev- 
Oepoi. comp. 5, 33. Thnc. 7, 73. Eur. Iph. ^.731. TrelOeaOai 
yap eiQiaf.iai (reOev.^ But in Plat. Rep. 3. p. 391 A. oi/S' ocrioi^ 
Toura ye Kara 'Ay^iXXewG (pdvai, Kai ciXXmu Xeyovruyv 
■n-eiOeaOai, aXXtov Xeyovrojv may be the ge/iit. consequ. * nor 
to believe it on the assertion of others'. Soph. El. 411. is dif- 
ferent : eV Tov (p'lXiov ireiaQeiaa, for viro tou ' by whom per- 
suaded', amdeiv, aireiQeiv tivoc, ' not to obey'. Horn. H. in 
Cer. 448. ovB' diriOyjae 6ea Aior, dyyeXidwv. Xen. Cyrop. 
4, 5, 19. TTwo y^pi] KaXovvTOC, a-n-eiBelv. 

Ohs. 1. Hence the adjectives derived from these verbs often govern 
the genitive, as KariiKoos tuos Herod. 1, 143. 171. especially i/Tn-z/coo's 
TWOS. Plat. Rep. 3. p. 389 D. Leg. 9. p. 875 C. Thuc. G, 20. Xen. 
Cyr. 4, 2, l.** evneiQus tmv I'o^iwi' Plat. Leg. \.p. 632 B. 

Obs. 2. The dative is frequently found with these verbs, e, g. am]- 
KovffTely Herod. 6, 14. viraicoveii' Xen. Cyr. 4, 5, 19. 8, 1, IS. 7, 16. 
But //. it', 531. OTTi 1 WK i'lKOvcre /.teyos Oeos €vt,afxei'oio, o'l is to be 
taken according to §. 389 seq. as Herod. 1,214. 6, 86. where, however, 
ol is wanting in some MSS. So Kari'ik-oos has a dative: Herod. 1, 141. 
Plat. Rep. 6. p. 499 B. vwi'ikoos Plat. Leg. 9. ^J. 856 B, Eur. Heracl. 
287. Xew. C*/r. 2, 4, 22. Hence Plat. Phlleh. p. 25 B. av nep ye e/uats 
evxtus eiri'iKoos yiyvqrai rts Qewr, ' listens to them . 

5. Words which imply a comparison with respect to value, SG'^. 
or require a definition of value. To these belong : (34i) 

a. u^ioc, dud^ioc, properly 'equivalent', e. g'. Callin. El. 
V. 19. {Brunck Giiom. p. 58.) Aaw yap avpTravri ttoQoc, Kpa- 
repocbpovoQ dv^poc, Ovi}(tkovtoq' ^(Owv S a^ioQ r)^it9eMV * he 
is to be esteemed as equal to the demi-gods'. v. 21. ep^ei yap 
TToXXwv d^ia povvoc, edjv * actions which are equivalent to 

•» Scha^f. App. Dem. 1. p. 671. '^ Ehiisl. ad Eur. Ilcrad. '287. 

•^ Wessel. ad Herod, p. G3, 59. ■ ' 

588 St/ntax. Of the Genitive. 

those of many'. Herod. 1, 32. where Croesus says to Solon, 
ouS' IStwrewv avBpojv a^'iovc T),ueac eTTOirjcrac. In this sense 
avrd^wc elsewhere occurs : //. A', 514. 'u]Tp6c yap avrip ttoX- 
\wv avral^iOG aXXwv. Plat. Leg. 5. p. 728 A. irac o t eiri yrjc 
Kal VTTO yr]Q y^pvaoc ciperrjc ovk avTcigioc. Thus also in the 
sense 'worth, worthy': hoc?'. ^icocL p. 37 E. vo/Lu^ere tj/c 
avTtjc, eivai Ct) ac,iovc, tovc, avyKpvTTTOvrac toiq e^a~ 

In the same manner is constructed the adverb alitor, (e. g. 
Thuc. 3, 39. Ko\a(x9i]Twaav al^iwc rrjc uciKiac,), and aqiovv, 
a^iovaOai: Xen. Cyrop. 2, 2, 17. eywye ovBei> avicjioTepov vo- 
/xi^oj elvai Tov twv laoiv tov re kokov Kai tov ayaOov aqi- 

Ohs. The dative, which is often found with ui,ios, expresses a different 
relation, namely the person for or in reference to whom value is attri- 
buted to an object. Herod. 7, 5. »/ EvpwTr/j jiatriXci povvto dyr^Tuiy aL,lrj 
eKTijadai. comp. Xen. Mem. S. 1, 1. below §. 387. 

364. b. All words in which a determination of value is contained, 
y^'^^j as * to buy, to sell, to exchange', &.c. Herod. 5, 6. (ot Opi]iK€c,) 
oiveovTai TaQ yvvaiKac, -^priixar uyv /LieyaAwi', * for a great 
deal of money'. Epicharm. op. Xen. ISIem. S. 2, 1, 20. twv 
7rov(t)v TTwXovaiv i)/.iiv iravra raydO oi Beoi. Plat. Leg. 5. 
p. 728 A. ou^e ye, OTrorav ■^pij/naTa tic epa KraaSai prj kqXwc, 
1] /iO] cva-^€f>u)C, (jyepy KT<l)/Liei'oc, ciopoic apa Ti/na totc ti]v eavTOV 
xpv^ijv' TTavroc f-iev ovv Xeiirci' to yap avTrjc, Tipiov Kai KuXov 
aTToSiSoTai (r/.HKpov \pvaiov. Iliad. 1. , 235. (FAau/cff)) 
oc TT^ioc Ti'oe/Sfji' Ajoyin'jSea Tcvy^e o^iet/3r, y^pvcrea -j^aXKeiwi', 
eKaTupfioi ci>i'ea(5oi(jov. ALschyl. Protn. 974. tj7c ctj/c Xa~ 
Tpeiac Tiiv t/uji' cua7rf)a^iai', <ya(p(jjc eTrlaTatr , ovk av aX- 
Xa^atfx ey(o. Ltirip. JMed. 963. tiov epiov Traitiov <|)uyoc 
xl^vy^rJQ av aXXa^a ipeO , ov y^pvaov /.lovov. \en. Ci/r. 3, 
1, 36. av ce, (V 'Tiypavr}, Xel^ov poi, ttoctou au irpiaio, io(tt€ 
TYiv yvvalKa oTroAajSeTv ('for how much would you buy?') — 
eyoL» pev, hf^i), w Kujoe, Kav Tr]c, xpv^rjc w piaipr]v, waTe 
prjTTOTe XaTpevcrai TQVTtjv. Id. Mem. S. 1,2, 60. ^ioKpaTJ]C 

ovceva irionoTe f^iiaBov tjjo avvova'iac, eirpa^aTO, aXXa iraaiv 

a(puovwc emipKei tiou eavTov wv Tti'ec f^uKpa /nepr), irap eKewov 
TrpoiKa Xa(j6i'T€C, TToAAoii toTo oAAojc eTrwXovv. Hence the 

'Syntax. Of the Genitive. '589 

genitive is used also in the following combinations : 11. X, 106. 

vie Sutu Upia/xoio, w wot A-^iWevc,' \criG ev KvnfjLoiai 

diSt} /noayoKXi Xvyoiai, ttoi/luuvovt eir oeaai Xapojv, kcu kXvaev 
cnroivojv, 'delivered up for a ransom'. OcL X, 326. Ept- 
(pvXr]v, TJ y^pvaov (piXov avdpoc, e^e^aro Ti/nrjeuTa. Herod. 
7, 144. OefxicFTOKXeric aveyvioae AOrjva'iovc, veac Tovrehjv 
TtiJi' y^fir]f.iaT(i)v iroii^tj aaB ai ^irjKomaQ. Soph. Trach. 560. 
fiiaBov TTopeve ' ferried for hire'. Thnc. 7, 25. tovc, aravpovQ 
KoXv/Lil3tiTaL Svo/^ievui i^ew piov iniaOov. Plat. Hep. 9. 
p. 575 B. i^uadov eTTiKovpeii'. Gorg. 5 1 1 D. ravTtid tijc, evep- 

yea'iac Suo ^pay^fxac, eirpa^aTO. comp. Xen. Mem. S. 

\, 6, 11. Aristoph. Nub. 21. 0ep' i'Sw, ti oCpeiXco; dwBeKa 
pvac, Waa'ia' tov ^Cj^eKa pvaa Haaia; Xeii. Ci/rop. 3, 3, 3. 
vpeic, Cjue ou TrotrjcreTe i^ikjOov irepuovTa evepyeTeiv. De- 
mosth. Phil. 2. jj. 68. KSKpicrOe e/c tovtojv tmv epyoiv p-ovoi 
T<j)v aTravTiov pr]^evoQ civ KepBovQ ra KOiva OLKaia twv EA- 
Xiiv(i)v TTpoeaOai, i^ii]^' avTciXXd^aaOai |U?j Septet c '^a piroQ 
pri^' ojCpeXeiaQ rrfv etc touc 'EXArjvac ehvoiav. Eurip. Ale. 
1046. TToXXtov Se p,6-)^0(i)v riXOe yyipaQ etc, e^ttar,^. 

Hence also adjectives. Isocr. ad Nicocl. ^. 21 B. So^y jutv 
ypTjjUara KrrjTa, ^o^a ^e y^pr] jLLUTtJV ovk dJvriTi]. 

Ohs. In Lys.c. Ejncr. p. 178. 16. [xepei rwy aCiKxijianov tov kivIvvov 
kleTTpiavTo, pepos ti2v ac. ' the abstracted money', is the means by which 
they purchased immunity from the danger. 

c. For the same reason the genitive is used in the phrase 
Tipav or TipaaBa'i rti'l tivoc,. Plat. Apol. S. p. 36 A. ti- 
parai poi o civrip davuTuv. ib. E. ei ovv Zel pe Kara to 
SiKaiov rrjc, a^'iac ripaaOai, tovtov ripcopai, rrjc, ev Ylpvrcweioj 
aiTT/crewc. because the punishment was considered as an esti- 
mate of the crime, a price as it were, as is evident also from 
the form ti eanv a^ioc TraOeiv jj oTroTJaot. 

Obs. 1. The preposition ayrl, with the genitive, someumes accom- 365. 
panics the verbs signifying 'to exchange'. Isocr. Archkl. p. 138 B. (343) 
avrl BvTjTOv aojfxaTOS liQavaTov lu^av uvt LKaraWaiaadai. Id. ad 
Phil. p. 109 C. "doLS av Koi Tuiv iCiurtSy tovs eTriet/ceorcirous vvep aWov 
uev ovdeyos av to ^rjv aiTiKaTaWa^apevovs, iiirep ce rov Tv^elv 

* Fisch. 3 a. p. 378 seq. 

590 Si/ntax. Of the Genitive. 

KaXJjs ^o^j/s inrodt'tjtTKeiy ev rots iroKe^ois eSeXovras. Comp. Plat. Phce- 
don. 2^. 69 A. B. Also with irpos and the accusative : Plat. Phcedon. 
p. 69 A. fxi] ou^ avTT] ^ 7] opd)) Trpos apeTijy, ijloias Trpos ij^ovas Kal 
XvTras Trpos XvTras /cat <l>6[iov Trpos <p6ftop KaraXXarTecrdai. 

Obs. 2. Instead of the genitive the dative is also used: II. ri', 472. 
evdev ap olvi^opTO fcapjjkOjudwrres 'A^atot, aXXoi /dey ^aXkw, dXXoi 5' 
a'iOwi'i (Tih-iipta &c. the datives point out the means by ^vhich they 
procux-e the wine, as in §. 564. Ohs. Eurip. Troad. 355. cciKpva r avT- 
aXXdacrere -ols rrjace fxeXeai, Tpwct^es, yayuTjX/oi s. Androm, 1028. 
uvrd T (K.XvTai/xin'i(TTpa) cvaXXci sacra (j)6yoy daydr<^ Trpos TeKvt>>v 
cnrrjiipa. conip. Hel. 385. With this dative ey is used Soph. Ant. 945. 
aXXa^at kv yaXKOcerois auXais. 

366. d. A comparison is also implied in words which express a 
(344) difference. Bid(popoc,, erepoc, aWoc, o'XXoToo, aWorpioc,. 

Thuc. 1, 28. ^iXovc, TTOielaOai erepovc, twv vvv uvtwv /naX- 

Aoj'. Plat. Charm, p. 166 A. Tiyoc canv einaTi]] eKacTTri 
TOVTWV Tijiv e7rt(7T»7/ia»i', o ruy^oi'et ov aAAo awTJ/c tj/o 
eTTicmi pi]c,' ofov, rj XoyicrTtK'jj ean ttou tov apriov Kai tov 
irepiTTOv ttXtjOouc, ottwq e)(ei i^^S' TrepiTTOv, ottwc eyet ttXtj- 
Oovq) TTpoc, avTci Kai Trpoc, aWriXa. ?/ yap; Tlavv ye, e(br}. 


\oyi<TTiKi]c. comp. Leg. 4. p. 708 C. Soph. Antig. 218. 
Thuc. \, 139. Plat. Meiion. p. 87 C. Trorepov eaTiv eiTi(jTi)iJir] 
7) apern, i] aXXoTor e7ri(TT7/^jjc*. Dcm. pro Cor. p. 289, 14, 
ouoev aWorpiov ttohov ovre ti)C eavTOv TraTp'iBoG ovtc tou 


Thus also the verb ^lacjyepeiv. Xen. Ilier. 7, 3. ^oKe7 pot 
TOVTto ciciCpepeiv avijp tmv aWiov Z,mii)v, no Tipiic o/ot- 
yeaOai. Plat. Hep. 8. /;. 550 E. ttXoutou aperrj SieaTTjKei', 
also according to §. 354. o. a'XXotoi7<T0ai tj^oc Plat. Parm. 
p. 138 C. also ^ui(\)ep6vT(j}c Plat. Leg. 3. p. 685 D. 

Obs. 1. Instead of the simple genitive, Euripides Here. F. 519. uses 
avTi with the genitive after aXXos. ovk eaO' o^' aXXos dyrl aov ttui^os, 
yepor. Comp. Hel. 582. Soph. CEd. C. 488. Arist. Nub. G53. 

Obs. 2. Upon the same principle erayn'os seems sometimes to be 
constructed with the genitive, although tlie dative is more usual : 

" Toiip ad Suid. '2. p. 450. Schaf. ad (hcgor. Cor. p. 582 f. 

Si/ntax. Of tkc Genitive. 591 

Herod. 6, 8G. a-KolihvvTes Troieere vaiu, kui j-u) uTrolduyres, tu iyuvrLa 
Tovreioy. Plat. Eut/njphr. j). 5 D. tu uvoawv row i-dv oaiov irayrus 
kvavriov, avTo le avr^ vnoioy. Comp. Thccet. p. 184 C. Xen. Mem. 
S. 3, 12, 7. In the same manner ayriarpoipos twos Isocr. ad Phil, 
p. 94 C. On the other hand ?j is found after kyavTios Xen. Mevi. 4, 
5, 8. after cuKpepeiy Ilellen. 3, 4, 14. Anah. 3, 4, Q3. after ota^epojrws 
Plat. Pha^don. 85 B. See Heind. §. 77. 

06s. 3. hutpopos with the dative means * varying from, not corre- 
sponding with', Eur. Med. 584. r; iroWa ttoWois ei^i cici^opos ftpoTuiy. 
aWvTpius Tin ' opposite, contradictory' Isocr. it. avTiC. §. 3, 289. Bekk. 

B. The genitive expresses the object of an action or feeling 3G7. 
expressed in another noun, and is used objectively, as in Latin ; 
a relation which in English is expressed by prepositions, e. g. 
TTo^oc vlov, desiderium Jilii, not * thy son's regret', i. e. which 
the son has, but * regret for the son', like croc ttoQoc Od. A , 
202. Soph. CEd. C. 631. tic, Srjr' ai' av^poc, evjLieveiav e/c/3aXoi 
TotouSe ; * good-will towards such a man'. Eurip. Phcen. 1757. 
^vyyovov v^piaf-iara ' insults offered to the brother', injuria 
fratris. Id. Androm. 1060. yvvaiKOQ a'iyjui\ii}Ti^oc (p6[Boc 
' fear of the slave'. ey(Ooc KopivOiiov, e-^Opa AaKe^aifioviojv, 
(btXia ^i]fxQaQkvove, evvoia ' KBr\vai(jov ' hatred towards the Co- 
rinthians', See. Thuc. 7, 57. Comp. Xen. Anab. 4, 7, 20. 
§. 371, c. Passages also occur, where substantives which are 
derived from verbs, or correspond to verbs which take the ob- 
ject in the dative, are constructed with the genitive : Eurip. 
Or. 123. veprepiDv ^(i}pi)f.iaTa 'offerings of the dead', i. e. 
'things offered to the dead'. Plat. Leg. 7. p. 799 A. ev (toTc?) 
Tajv Qe(2v Ovpaaiv. Id. Apol. p. 23 C. i^ tou Qeov Xarpe'ia. 
Thuc. 1, 8. n Twv Kpeiaaovwv SovXe'ia, from bovXeveiv toTo 
Kpe'iaaoaiv. Soph. Antig. 1185. evyjj.ara YlaXXaBoG 'prayers 
to Pallas', like ehx^u Oewi; Eur. Troad. 895.^ Thuc. 2, 79. 
t] Tb)v nXaraieiou eiTiaTpareia ' the march against the Pla- 
tseans', as arpaTe'ia twv ^ap^apwv Isocr. tt. avri^. p. 321 D. 
Ep. 9. §. 20. Bekk. Id. 1, 108. ev airo^aaei r^c, -y»7c 'in the 
act of landing on the coast', from a-jro^aiveiv eic, yrjv. 

5. The genitive expresses the object and also the cause of 368. 

^ Seidi. ad Eur. Ipli. T. 443. 

592 Si/7itax. Of the Genilive. 

a feeling ; in which case it is to be rendered by ' on account 
of, for whicli reason eveKa, virep govern the genitive. 

a. With verbs. //. tv' , 545. (tnj aeiKiaaioai veKpov Mw^- 

/ttSoi-ec, Aai'awv Key^o\w pevoi, ocaoi uXovto. JEsch. Agum. 
582. Ti rove tivaXfoOevTac ei' 4'^'l(p(-o Xeyeiv, rov t^ovra r u\- 
yel.v y^pi] tv>(^)?c iraXi-y kotov. Xen. Cyrop. 5, 2, 7. rrju 
Bvyarepa, it evUiKio c, ey^ovaav t ov ace\(pov t eOvriKOT oc, 
e^aytvv roSc eiTrev, ' melancholy on account of the death of her 
brother'. Thuc. 2, 62. ov KnTo. ti]v rwr o'ikhjHv koi t>7o ync 
Ype'iav ((jL>v peyaXiov vofiitere ecyreprjaOai) avrt] r] ovva/j.ic (pal- 
verai, ovo e'lKoc, y^aXeTTw c, (pepeiv avTMV paXXov, ?j ov 
Kt]7riov Kai eyKaXXioTTiapn ttXovtov rrpoc, Tuvrriv vopKravrac 
oXiyioprjaat, \Yhere X"*^- ^tyjetj' is used absolutely ' to be in- 
dignant', as 1, 77. although elsewhere it more usually takes 
an accusative. Soph. Anlig. 1177. pi^viaac, (povov. comp. 
627. but Trach. 21 A. epyov S CKari rovSe pr)viaac ava^. 
Eur. ]ph. yl.370. EAXoSoc (rrerd). Eiir. Here. F.529. Ba- 
Kpveiv Tivoc. Bei^eiv tivoc. Soph. Oa]. T. 233 scq. Soph. El. 
1027. ^»jXw <re Tov vov, ttjc Be BeiXiac (TTvyw. Isocr. 
Evag. p. 197 C. ovTd) OeocptXioc, Kai (jiiXavOptoTrux; BiioKei rriv 
TToXiv, ijGTe TOXIC. aCJiiKvovfui'ovc, pi] liiaXXov ¥jvayopav rrjc 
aov?jc CvXovv, 1] Toiic, apyjnpevoitc, tiJc vtt e/ce/rov (jaai- 
Xeiac. Plat. Rep. 4. p. 426 D. rove OeXovrac Oepmreveiv rac 
TOiavTOC TToAeic ovk uyaaai ttjc avcpeiac re Kai evye- 
pe'iac; (ayapai with the genitive of the object is different, for 
which see §. 317. 0/>s.) Plat. Si/mp. p. 194 C. BoKovai poi 

TTuvTec o'l TrpoaOev eipr]Korcc rove uvOpioTrovc evcaipo- 

v'lteiv rwv ayaOiov, wv o Oevc avrolc, a'lrioc. comp. liep. 6. 
p. 5]6 C. 518 B. Eur?p. Iph. A. 1381. rov pev ovv ^evov 
B'lKaiov a I veer a I iz poOvpiac comp. Phocii. 1697. Id. Or. 
427. WaX<ipr]Covc ne ripoipel Cpovov (Oio^.) comp. Xeji. 
Ci/r. 4, 6, 8. with Poppo's note. Herod. 3, 145. a(peac eyw 
r ipw pi]aopai rric cvBliBe acjyi^ioc. comp. Plat. Symp. 
p. 213 D. //. y, 366. -nr e<papr]v r laaaOai A\e^nvBpov 
KnKorrjroc.. — Thus also (pOovelv rii'i rivoc, c. g. rrjc crocpiac 
Plat. Hipp. p. 228 C. Xeu. Ages. 1, 4. 7j ttoAjc ovBeTronrore, 
(jyOorycraaa roii tt por er i prjrrOai avrovc, (rove TTpoyovovc 
rnv AyrjfTiXaov) cTTry^eipi-irrr KciraXvcrai T7)v apy^r}v ovriov. 

Syntax. Of the Genitive. 593 

Isocr. Plat. p. 300 C. ry v^ieTepa iroXei rrjo 7t)C t»Jc vtt 
'Qpu)Tri(i)v deiofievnc (fyOovovaiv {oi 9rj|3aTot). Hence Thucyd. 
], 75. ap {'nonue.' v. Herm. ad Vig. p. 823, 488^ Sclmf. 
Melet. in Dion. H. p. 89.) a^io'i ea^iev apx^c, ye vc ^xo^iev 
To7(;''EXXrjai pnovTMQ ayav eTTiCpOovioc ^taKclcrBai. Hence 
also in the sense ' to deny one anything' : Mschyl. Prom. 588, 
p.1] e/uoi cl)Ooin'](Trjc euy/uarw r, aua^. 631. ou peyaipto 
TovSe (Toi Bdiph/^iaroQ. Plat. Menex. p. 238 A. rovrov 

KapiTOv ovK efpOoin^aev, aXX eveipe Kai to?c aXXoic,^. 

Herod. 1, 90. KpoTcroc KaTe{iaive avric TrapaiTeoi-ievoc, eTreivai 
oi Tw OetS TOVT(oi> oveiB'iaai. JEschyl. S. c. Th. 653. ovttot 
av^pl TwBe KvpvK€if.iaro)v pepxpy;). comp. Soph. Trach. 122. 
Xen. Ci/rop. 5, 4, 32. o Kvpoc ciKoixrac rov /.tev iraOovc u)k- 
Teipev avTov. Id. Anab. 2, 4, 1. ftrj /.ivr^aiKa Kijaeiv (^aaiXea 
avroiQ rrjc avu Kvpo) eiriar pare'iac, jurjSe aXXov p.r]CevoQ 
TU)V irapoiyo^ievwv. 

Hence the genitive also is put with the verbs ' to accuse, to 3G9. 
criminate', as eire^ikvai, Siw/ceti/, airiaaBai, (pevyeiv, ' to be C^^ ) 
accused'; aipelv, ' to cause the condemnation of any one, to gain 
one's suit'; aXJi'oi, ' to be condemned, to lose one's suit'. Plat. 
Leg. 9. p. 873 'E. eTre^trwcrai' oi 7rpo<ri)KovT€C, rov (povov 
TM Kre'ivavTi 'should accuse him (on account) of the murder', 
comp. Euthi/phr. p. 9 A. Her. 6, 104. (MtXriagea) oi eyBpoi 
eBiw^av TvpavviSoc rrjq eV Xepaov/jffw * prosecuted him on 
account of the tyranny'. Aristoph. Eqii. 367. Biu)^o^iai ae 
^eiXiac De?nosth. in NecBr. p. 1347, 2. ypa(peaQai irapa- 
vofxwv 'to accuse'. Id. in Mid. p. 554, 4. o'to^mi cjyovov av 
e'lKOTMc e/iiavTio Xax^''^^'- %«• p. 148, 21. Xen. Ages. 1, 33^ 
Dem. in Mid. p. 548, 20. xPW^ra v^^l(Ty^>eLro Swcretr, ci roi; 
Trpayixaroc a'lTUovro ef.ik. p. 552. eTraiTiaaa^ievoc ^le 
(p6vov^. Plat. Apol. S. p. 35 D. ---kaei^e'iac, (pevyovra. 
if), p. 26 A. ei Se o/cwv ^laCpOeipio {rove I'eowo), rwv tojoutwi' 
Kai ciKOvaiivv anaprr] fiaroiv ov Sevpo vopoQ eiaayeiv {in 
judicium adducere) eariv. Aristoph. Nub. 591. i]v KXewva--- 
^(optjv eXovrec kox /cXotttjc elra (^(juwcr^jre tovtov tm 
l^vXiv Tov avykva. Xen. Mem. S. 1,2, 49. aXXa Zw/cparrjc 

» Fisch. 3 a. p. 41 2 sq. '' Valck. ad Eurip. Ph. p. 239. 

594 Syntax. Of the Genitive. 

y' , e(pii o KctT^iyopoc, tovc, Trarepac, TrpoTTrfXaKit^ii' ecicaoKe 

(paa K(i}v f Kara vo/^ov e^elva I irapavoiac e\ovri Kcti rov Tra- 
repa ^rjaai. Demosth. in Titnocr. p. 732, 17. Xe-yovrwi' tmv 

i^o^wv, edv TIC aXw kXotttjo kui ^ut) Tiui]Of) Oavarov, 

TTpoarifxav avTio eecr^iov, Kai eav tig aAovc tjjc KaKwaetoQ 
TWi' yoveujv e'lQ tt)v ayopav e/npaXy, cebeaOai, Kciv aoT paTCiac, 

TIC 6(p\y Kal TovTOv SeBeaOai' Ti/.ioKpaTijG arraffi tovtoiq 

a^eiav Trote?. Comp. Plat. Leg. 9. p. 874 B. Arist. Av. 1046. 
KaXov/xai UeicrOeTaipov v^pewc. Thus also SiKai!,€iv Xen. 
Cyrop. 1, 2, 7. ^iKaZ,ovai ^e Kai eyKXijjiiaToc, ov eveKa 
ai'OpioTTOi piaovai /.lev d\\r)\ovc ftaXidra, ciKat,0VTai ce rjKKTTa, 

370. Ohs. 1. This genitive is besides often accompanied by other substan- 
(347) tives, or prepositions, on which it depends, e. g. tpevyeiy ctt' ai'rt^ 
<f)6yov Demosth. in Aristocr. p. 632, 10. eypai/zaro (jite) tovtiov avrtZv 
eyeKa Plat. Euthjphr. p. 3 B. comp. Herod. 6, 136. see Obs. 3. ypa- 
(heaOai Tiva ypu0>)v foyov, rpavfiaros JEschin. n, irapciTrp. p. 270. in 
Ctesiph. p. 608. tnroypa<p€(7dai <p6i'ov ^iici]y Antiph, p. 145, 31. Xa-)^^E7y 
riyi ciKTjy eiriTpo-n-rjs Demosth. in Aphoh. p. 853, 18. 

Ohs. 2. Other verbs of the same signification are, on account of the 
nature of their composition, differently constructed; those compounded 
with KfiTu. take the person in the genitive, and the crime, or the punish- 
ment, in the accusative, e. g. Karriyopely ri rivos. See §. 378. Yet with 
KctTTjyopuy Tiyos the crime also is put in the genitive : Demosth. in Mid. 
J). 515, 27. ei pey ovy -napayopuv iJneWoy uvrov Karriyopeiy, ovckv av 
vfiijiv y'j^iovy Belcrflat. eyKoXely has the person in the dative, and tlie 
crime in the accusative, e. g. Soph. El. 778. iyKaXuiy c)' ipol (j>6yovs -ku- 
rpfovs, Ceiy' tTrryTretXei reXe?*' '*. but also f;yt:a\ely n Kara tivos id. Phil. 
328. and eTriKuXely riri n Thuc. 1, 139. 

Ohs. 3. The punishment also is sometimes in the genitive, yet only 
BavuTov : Herod. 6, 136. SavQiTciros 6 'Api<ppoyos Oayarov aynyi^y 
VTTO Toy ^rjfjLoy MtXrta^ea eliioi^e Ttjs ^Adijvaidiy uTrarrjs etreica, ' accusing 
capitally'. Xen. Cyrop. 1, 2, 14. Ka\ dayuTov ?e ovroi Kpirovai. Thuc. 
3, 57. day fir ov ?/<:>; KpiyeaQai. Xen. H. Gr. 2, 3, 12. virayeiv da- 
rarov. Hence also Plat. Rep. 8. p. 558 A. arOpwTrwy KaTa\l/r}(l>iadf:yTb)y 
Oayarov »') (fyvyrjs. 

•' I'isch. 3 a. p. 381 sq. 

Syntax. Of the (lemlive. 595 

Obs. 4. eyoxos, which properly is constructed vvbth the dative {Dc- 
mosth. in Timocr. p. 755, 11. lepoffvXIq. kuI aaefieit^ cat kKottij /cat ttcicti 
ToTs hirord-ois eltriy eyoxoi. Isocr. de Pac. ]i. 160 A.), sometimes takes 
the genitive: Lijsias, p. 140 in. roXfjuStxi rives Xeyeiv, ws ovceis evox'JS 
cffTi XeiTTOTu^iov ovU heiXiiis. and immediately after oXw rw vo/iy 
ej'oxoy elvat. p. 110, 20. Also the genitive of the punishment Z)emos^/(. 
p. 1229, 11. eyoxoi Ceaj-iov yeyoyacn . 

h. With adjectives. Eur. Ale. Ib'i. w aycTXia roX/trjc S71. 
Iphig. A. 1287. Oi eyw, QavaTOV rov aov /.leXea. Thus Porson (3^») 
explains Eurip. Or. 219. J l^oarpvywv TrivwScc aQXiov Kapa: 
but it seems to stand for ^oaTpvyoic TrivwSetrt * filthy with re- 
spect to the hair', as §. 339. Plat. Fhadon. p. 58 E.<^ euSai- 
/lKjjv poi o avrip eCpa'iveTO Kai tou rpoirov Kai twi' Aoyojv. jEsch. 
Pers. 689. ape^nrroc, y^povov. lEichin. in Ctesiph. p. 419. 
VTrevOvvoc, ap-^T/c 

Hence the genitive stands alone in exclamations, with and 
without an interjection or a word that expresses admiration, 
indignation, compassion. Sec. Arisfoph. Av. 61.' AttoXXov aTro- 
Tpoiraie, tov yjaapi'ipciTOcl * what a swallow !' Nub. 153. (6 
Zev (iaaiXev, rrjc XeTTTo'TrjTOG rwv (^pevwv ! ' O Jupiter, the 
acuteness of his mind !' J^sch. S. c. Th. 599. with (pev. Also 
with the addition of a nominative: Eurip. Ph. 384. o'lVot twi* 
epujv tyw KOKwvl Xen. Ci/rop. 3, 1, 39. (I>€v too av^poQl 
' alas ! what a man !' 2, 2, 3. tj?c rvyjic, to epe vvv KXnOevra 
^evpo rvy^elv ! * the misfortune ! that I should have now been 
summoned hither!' Theocr. 4, 40. a}ai tw (tkXj?|Ow pdXa ^ 
voc, ! 1 0, 40. o> juot tw TTwywi'oc. The article usually accompanies 
the substantive in the genitive, because the exclamation gene- 
rally refers to a determinate case, not however in all cases*'. 
Msch. Pers. 114. oa, WepaiKov arparevpaTOC, TOuSe ! 728. tu 
TTOTTOt, Kev?]C dptjyrjc, KainKOvpiaQ aTparov I 924. at ai al at, 
KeSvaQ aX/coc ! Soph. Aj. 908. 10 /.loi eiLiac drac ! Eur. Ale. 
400. lu) juot Tu^ac ! Arist. Nub. 1476. o't^toi Trajoovot'oc ! 
Plut. 1 127. o'tViot TrXa/coui'TOC touv Terpd^i ircTreppevov ! Plat. 
Rep. 6. p. 509 C." AttoXXov, ^ai^ioinac u7rep/3oX^c! and without 

b Markl. ad Lys. p. 620. ed. R. ** 'fmip ad Said. 1. \>. U. lays down 

•^ Elmsl. ad Med. 996. tliis as a rule. 

596 Syntax. Of the Genitive. 

an interjection Xen. Cyr. 2, 2, 3. Theocr. 15, 75. y^pr]<iT(Z k 
o'lKTipi-iovoc. c'lv^poc I The grammarians supply eveKra*. 

(349) c. With substantives. Od. o , 8. TrjXe/ta)(OC vvKTa Si' afx- 
^poai-qv peXe^n/nara irarpoc eyeijoev ' grief on account of 
his father'. //. d , 25. o^vvr] 'H/oa/cXjjoc deioio. Thuc. 7, 73. 
TO Trepiyapec {h yapa) ryjc vIktic * joy for the victory'. Soph, 
Trach. 41. 7rA7}v epo\ iriKpac, wSTvac avTOv irpoapaAwv uttoi- 
y^erai 'anxiety on his account', conip. ib. 108. i)dovai tckvcov 
Eur. Troad. 426. 'joy in his children'. Eur. Or. 426. to 
Tpo'iac f-ii-aoQ 'hatred on account of Troy'. 452. Kovpa re 
Ovyarpoc, TrevOip^w K€Kap/nevoc, . Comp. §.367. 

372. With verbs of praying, the genitive is often used of the per- 
(330) son or thing, which the person entreated is to take into con- 
sideration, and from this consideration to grant the entreaty. 
Od.(5', 68. Xtffffo^iai ri/Liev Zrjvoc 'OAu^tTrt'ou v^e GcjUt- 
ffToc * I entreat you by Jupiter, for Jove's sake', yovvwv you- 
vutecfOai II. -^ , 345. Ilerod. 6, 68. oi prjrep, Oetov ae twv 
Te uAXwv KaOaTTTO^ttei'oc 'iKCTevM Kai tov Jl.pKeiov Aioo 
TOuSe. Eur. Hec. 746. iKeTevtv ae rwv^e yovvarwv 
Kai (TOV yeveiov de^iac t evcaipovoc Or. 663. tqu- 
T»jc i^a/LiapToc) iKvoviiiai ae^. In other cases vrrep, avr'i, 
irpoc, accompany this genitive, as Od. X', QQ seq. vvv 8e ae tujv 
owiOeu yovvaZ,opai, ov Trapeovrwv, irpoc t aAo-^ov Kai 
IT a r poQ. 

Hence the genitive with Ait/j ' the prayer' : Eur. Or. 284. 

olfxai Se irarepa tuv epov vroAAao yeveiov touo av eKTei- 

vni AtTuc. Id. Or. 244. Xitoi Oewv 'entreaties by the gods', 
i. e. which are addressed whilst the suppliant takes hold of the 
altar of the deity (as in the first instance the chin of the person 
entreated), as AtToi ttcttAwi' Kai arecpetou JEschyl. S. c. Th. 
101 seq. But it may also be, the prayers which we address to 

» Greg. Cor. p. (38) 137. gives this >> Misc. Philol. vol. ii. t. 1. p. 48. 

genitive without an interjection as note. Erf. ad Soph. Q:^d. T. 3J3. ed, 

Attic. See the notes ad loc. Comp. min. 

Hemst. ad Arist.Pliit. p.42'). llcind. " Brunck ad Eurip. Med. 326. 

ad Prot. p. 573. Tisch. 3 a. p. 348. Hec. 74'2. Pors. ad I'-ur. Or. CC3. 

Syntax. Of the Genitive. 597 

the gods whilst we implore their protection. Soph. (Ed. C. 
1308. (Toi TrpoarpoTTaiovc, (o irarep, Xituq e^(ov, avroc r 
e/xavTov, ^vf.iiLia^(j)u re t(vv eiiitjjv (which is followed by 
V. 1326. o'l a avTi Tra'iSiov TcHv^e Kal xpvyfic, Trarep, t/cereuo^ev) 
' entreaties on my own account, and on that of my auxiliaries', 
where the idea of the cause is quite clear. 

3. In other places the genitive expresses the person or thing 373. 
from which anything proceeds, and is to be rendered by the (374) 
preposition ab, ex, ' from'. This is the case particularly with 
the verbs ' to hear, to get information, to learn'. Xen. Cyrop. 
3, 1, 1. o ' App.evioc, ojcnuovae rov ayyeXov ra irapa tou 
Kvpov, e^eirXayri. Herod. 2, 3. u)^€ fxeu yeveaOai tmv ipewv 
Tou 'H^ai(7TOU fcV MefxCpL riKOvov. Eur. Ah. 378, oi Tratoec, 
avTol Si) TuS' e'i(Tr]KovcTaT€ irarpoc \eyovTOC, which however 
may also be explained according to §. 349. Obs. 3. Plat. 
Euthyphr. p. 4 0. av^pa irevaof-ievov rov e^ij-y rjrou, b ti 
Xpn TTOieiv, instead of which ib. p. 9 A. we have irapa tiSv 
e^jjyrjTwv TrvOeaOai. Eur. Rhes. 129. /xaOovTec, eyQphiv 
p.riyavac KaraaKOTTOv (DovXevaofieaOai. Comp. Soph. Antig. 
723. 1031. Again, in a somewhat different sense. Soph. Aj. 
1235. ravT ovK aKOveiv /.leyaXa irpoQ dovXoJv koku; 1320. 
ov yap KXvovrec, ecjfxev aiaylarovc. Xoyovc, avat, Ocvaaev, tovo 
VTT dvdpoG apTiwQ; Thucyd. 1, 125. eireih) ct<p' aTravroju 
rjKovaav yvu)]V. 

Obs. The foundation of the construction aKoveiv tivos Xeyovros, 'to 
hear any one say', rests pardy on this idiom, and partly on the remark 
§. 349. Obs. 3. In a similar manner appears to have arisen the expres- 
sion aTTocexetrdai rivos ' to assent to any one, to listen to him', properly 
airoL Ti Tiros * to approve something that another has said or done'. 
Plat. Prot. p. 324 C. ws p.ev ovv eiKoros uTroEexoi'Tai ol aoi TroXirai Kal 

j^aXfcewf Kal (tkvtotoixov (rvfifiovXevoiros ra ttoXltiku, ctTro- 

UdeiKTai (Toi. comp. Phcedon. p. 92 E. Isoo: c. Euth. p. 403 B. kvQv- 
j-ieiadaice xpfj, el airoce'ieaQe nZv ra TOiavra XeyuvToy, on. vofiov 
Oijaere, ttJs xP'' aCiKelv. comp. Ltjs. c. Nicom. in. 

In the same relation stand, a. eivai, y'lyveadat, with the ge- 374. 


"* Fisch. 3 a. p. 362 sq. 

598 Syntax. Of the Genitive. 

nitive : Xen. Cyr. 1, 2, 1. ncnfioc, f-tev h\ Xeyerat Kvpoc, 
yeveaOai Ka/iiftvaov, ^ttTjrpoc Se o/^ioXoyeiTai MavSav>]0 
yeveaOai, natus esse elicit ur patre Camh. — Eurip. Hec. 383. 
^etvoo yapaKrr\p Kafriarjuoc, ev jSpoToTc eoOXtSv yeveauai. 
Thus also TTOTO/ttov (/coTu) yevoc elvai, Atoo elvai yevevv It- (p , 
186. Soph. Ant. 486. with Kvpei. ib. 38. with irecpvKac. For 
wv, Tpacpe'ic is found 6'opA. P^zV. 3. Comp. ^Esch. S. c. Th. 794. 
On the other hand, Eur. Iphig. A. 407. Set^eic Se ttou ^toi tto- 
rpoc eK ravTov -ye-ywc ; Soph. Phil. 384. tt/ooc tou KOKiaTov 
Ka.K KCKMV 'OSwffCTewc. This genitive is used even with verbs 
of begetting : Eurip. Med. 800. ovre t?7c veotvyov vvp- 
(py^C reKvioaei TraTSa. loii. 3. jucac Oewv e(f>v<je JNIaTap. with 
which otherwise e^ is put. 

b. The genitive often expresses the material of which any- 
thing is made, with verbs, substantives, and adjectives : IJe- 
rod. 5, 82. eireipioTeov ol 'KiriSavpioi, Korepa y^a\Kov iroie- 
ovrai TO. aya\para, i] XiOov' v Sc Hvd'ii} ov^erepa Tovreiov 
ea, dWa ^vXov npepvc eXa'u]C. 2, 138. ear ptofievi] eoTi 
odoc XiOov eirl ara^iovc rpelc, paXiara ktj. Xen. Cyr. 7, 5, 
22. evCpXcKTa de ra vpoOvpa aurwi', (poiviKOC pev al Bvpai 
veTroiTfpevai, &,c. areCpavoc, iro'iac, Eind. P. 4, 426. ctt. 
dvBeptov Arist. Ach. 991. ctt. XevKo'iwv Theocr. 7, 64. a-^eSiai 
^lipOepwv Xen. Anab. 2, 4, 28."^ In ■y^apilopevt] TrapeuvTwv Od. 
a, 140. 'kindly communicating of what was at hand', the 
genitive seems to express at once the Avhole of which a part is 
meant, and the source from which anything proceeds. So 
Pi)td. Nem. 1, 46. {epapai) eovriov, ev re iraOciv Kai uKOvcraif 
(p'lXoiQ e^apKku)v, to which Isocrates adds e/c, Areop. p. 144 C. 
eK Twv virapyJtvTiov eirapKeiv. Thuc. 6, 33. arro tmv virap- 
-yovTiou. Tiie same is the case with ot^iv §. 376. 

Obs. eK often accompanies this genitive : Herod. 2, 9Q. ra ^^ ^i) 

TrXoTc't aipi earn etc rrjs a.KayOi]i Troievfieya. And again, tWi cc jiv- 

piKTjs TreTTOirjpei'j] 6vp7]. Theocr. 17, 21. eCpa reruy/ieva H a<'d- 

l^myros. or utto : Her, 7, 65. e'tpara c'tTro fuXwv TreTroirjjjiet'a. The 

dative also is used for tlie genitive when tlie stuff" of which anything is 
made may be considered also as the means by which it is made : Od. t, 

^ Heind. ad Plat. Crat. p.79. 

Syntax. Of the Genitice. 599 

!j(d3. a'l fiev yap Kepaeaai TETevyjirui, al h' eXetfiayri. Comp. i', 83. 
See §. 396. Obs.^ 

c. A genitive is put with substantives of all sorts, to express 37!). 
the author of a thing impHed in the substantive, so that the 
genitive is taken in an active sense. //. /3', 396. Kv/uara rrav- 
Toiwv ave/^i(jjv ' waves excited by many winds'. Msch. Prom. 908. 
''Wpac aXarelai ' the wanderings of lo caused by Juno'. Id. 
S. c. Th. 119. Saicov aXwaiQ. Eur. Or. 610. ove'ipar ayyeX- 
Xovaa Tayaf.iGf.ivovoQ 'the dreams sent by Agamemnon from 
the shades below'. Sitppl. 1038. tJ/cw, ^irrXovv -rrevOoG ye ^ai- 
inovtov e\(oVf luctitm a diis immissum, if the reading is correct. 
So TTOT^oc ^aifxovbiv Soph. Phil. 1116. comp. Eur. Phccu. 1300. 
al Tb)u ve(x)v Tif-iai Xen. Mem. 2, 1, 33. ' honours shown by the 
young men'. So Kr]X\c, ^v/iKpopac, Soph. (Ed. T. 833. a circum- 
locution for ^vjLKpopa, the stain originating in misfortune. 

Obs. 1. Even with passives, though rarely, the person from whom the 
effect proceeds is found in the genitive, instead of the genitive with viru : 
Eur. Or. 491. irXriyels dvyarpos Tijs cfirjs. El. 123. Keiaui, trds dXd- 
j^ov CT^ayets Alyi(Tdov t 'Ayufjep.i'oy. But Thuc. 2, 19. ra kv 
nXarai^ 7■w^ eaeXOorrwi' Qi^JDuiwy yevo^ieva, the participle is used, after 
the manner of this historian, as a substantive, and so takes a genitive. 
The phrases viKaadai tivos §. 357. Xeiweadai ruos §. 358. irctrpos Tpa- 
(peis §. 374 a. are different from this. /Esch. Agam. 826. t<^ c eiai- 
Tio) Kvrei 'EXttIs Trpocrjjei x^'P^^ ^^ 7rX/;pou/xe>'w, ■^ei'p appears to denote 
the \l/r](poi introduced by the hand ". 

Obs. 2. There is a still wider deviation in the use of the genitive to 
express the instrument of an action, consequently for the dative. Yet 

this is done only in the Ionic poets : //. /3', 415. irplv jie TrpijcraL trv- 

pos Srjioio dvpcTpa. ^',331. dW c'tca, ju») Ta.\a clcttv nvpos ^rjtoio di- 
p-qrai. comp. t', 242. and II. rj', 410. {re^:vas) nvpos /uetXtdo-eytiei', for irvpi. 

Even Plato says, Phced. ^j. 1 13 A. X//.t)'7;i' i^euvaui' vcaros kciI ttj/Xou, 

which, however, is probably to be rendered ' a lake of water and mud', 
^.355. Hence however the phrase fxtas xeipos, 'at a single stroke', 
seems to have remained in the Attic language, e. g. Here. F. 940. But 
in the passage Eur. Hcl. 1590. TrXiiaaaa KXci-uitCTrjpas evcrcpvpov ttoSos, 
the proper meaning and construction of 7r1p.7rXtjf.11 seems to have been 
kept in view along with the idiom illustrated by Porson ad Eur. Or. 54. 

*> Fisch. 3 a. p 374 sq. Schaf. ad ' Schaef. ad Lamb. B. p. 750. 

Lamb. B. p. 693. 

600 Sj/ntax. Of the Genitive. 

Similar to this is XovetrOal rii'os II. ^', 508. comp. e', 6. 9', 560. Hesiod. 
Theog. 5. So also Hesiod. Fr. 19. v. 3. Gaisf. ri^uTo Xifirrjs. Hijmn. 
Horn. iTTWovs (iprraaa ftaQvayoivnio MeX/yros. Elsewhere po/jo-t (//. tt', 
669), ttTTo {Hymn. Horn. 32, 7.), and other turns of expression, Jpoll. 
Rh. 5, 876. are used with this genitive '\ The genitive appears here 
also to express origin, §. 374 b. and consequently that by which any- 
thing is efFected. Comp. §. 377, 1. Hence perhaps also xovpoi U Kpjj- 
rrjpas e7re(TT€\pai'T0 iroToio II. a , 470. &C. 

Obs. 3. In the phrase eTroyofxal^eadai tlvus, ' to be called after some 
one'. Plat. Leg. 4. p. 7 13 A. 5. p. 738 B. the genitive does not express 
that by which anything is effected, but that by which it is occasioned, 
as cTTt is used with the genitive, KaXeiadai eiri rivos Herod. 4, 45. See 
§. 584 a. Hence enwi'Vfxos Tiyos, e. g. Eur. Phoen. 650. » caewv kizio- 

VVjjlOf **. 

376. A similar idiom obtains in the verbs ot^iv ' to smell', nveeiv 
i^^"^) * to breathe', when that of which anything smells, or which it 
breathes, is put in the genitive ; the quality of the smell being 
expressed by a neuter adjective. Arist. Lys. 616. I'l^x] -yap 
o^^eti' ye raSi fxeiZ,ovu)V Kai nXeiovdJV tt pay f-iar lov jitot 
^o/ce7. T/ieocr. 7, 143. ttuvt oicroep Oepeoc /.laXa ttiovoc, 
J<rSe S' oTTUjpijc. Lys. p. 103, 18. The part also which 
emits the smell is at the same time in the genitive, §. 318. 
§. 374 b. to which Pherecrates Atheti. 14. p. 648 C. adds e/c. 
Aristoph. Acharn. 852. Apre/inov uZ,(ov KaKov twv fxacty^a- 
\(jt)v irarpoc Tpayaffaiov, Eccl. 524. rrjc KeCJiaXrjc 0^(0 
fivpov. The verb is also put impersonally : Aristoph. Vesp. 
1058. v/uuv ^i erovc twv IpaTioJv oZ,r]<^ei Sf^tOTrjTOC ' there will 
be a smell of dexterity from your clothes'. Comp. Pac. 529 sqq. 
Herodotus 3, 23. adds otto to the genitive : b^eiv Be mr avTtjc 
(Kpr]vyic) (Ixret 'iwv ' the spring smells as of violets' *^. More fully 

in Ilermipp. ap. Athen. 1. p. 29 E. ov koi utto (jToparoc, 

o^et 'l(ji)v oa p.1] Qeairea'ia. 

In the same manner Trveiv. Aimer. 9, 3. iroQev fivpiov 
T oaovTW\>, t'TT ijepoc, Oeovaa, Tri'eeic re Kai xljchaCeic Ari- 
stoph. E(jU, 437. wc ouTOC h^t) Kai/ci'ac Kai avKoCpavTiac 

* Musgr. ad Eur. Iph. A. 1078. Arist. Pint. J020. Schweigh. ad 

Lamb. B. p. 502. ed. Schaef. Athcn. t. 7. p. 681. Porson et Do- 

'' Schipf. ad Apoll. Rh. p. 108. bree ad Arist. Plut. p. 186. Lips. 

' Tlioni. M. p. 521. Brunck ad Schat. ad Long. p. 392. 

syntax. Of the Genitive. 601 

TTveT. Epigr. Lucil/. in Anall. Br. T. 2. p. 3GG, ov /novov 
avrr) Trvel /\r]f.ioaTparic,, aWa Kai avrnr, touq oa/iirtaafx^vovQ 
TTveiv 7re7rotrj/ce rpayov. 

Also 7rpo(j(3d\\eiv /nvpov : Aristoph. Pac. 180. iroOeu (3porov 
jue 7r|00(Tej3aXe, where it is put impersonally. Athen. l3.p.5661L. 
Tovc jiivpov 7rpoal5aWovTac. For 7r|OOff/3aAXeti' oai^mv instead 
of ot^iv, irpoa^aWeiv was concisely said, which was then con- 
strued like o^etv, with which it agreed in sense. The same 
seems to be the origin of Xt'0oi inroaTiX^ovrec aXeicparoc;, 
'shining with oil', Od. y, 408. and ai^u»7c a7reXa/.nre II. ^, 

V. The genitive serves also to determine place and time, in 377. 
answer to the question * where? when? ' &.c. : for place and time C^*^^) 
may be considered as the whole of which each event constitutes 
a part. 

1. 'Where?' Od. y , 251. ri ovk' ApyeoQ ■nev A-^aiiKov; 
for ev ''Apyei. (p' , 108 sq. o'lt] vvv ovk eari ywn kut Amanda 
ycuav, ovre IluAou leprjc, ovt 'AjO-yeoc, ovre MvKijvtjQ. 
a, 24. Thus also Much. Prom. 720. Kaiac, Se y^eipoc, oi 
aidiipoTeKTOvec, o'lKovai XaXi^jSec 'on the left hand', for em 

X. )(^. as Xen. Anab. 4, 8, 15. tou evwvv/jiov tov Se^tou. 

Soph. El. 900. ea-^c'iTric opio irvpac veujprj (ioarpvy^ov rer- 
/iirjpei'ov. Eur. Suppl. 499. Kairavewc, Kepavviov Se^ac kutvov- 
Tui KXif-ictKoji' opQoaTUThiv. Hencc thc adverbs ov, ttov, 
oTTOv, 'where?' So ewi takes a genitive, and sometimes the 
genitive is used with eTrt, sometimes alone : Od. i^i ,21 . h «Xog 
V em yrjc. The expressions XeXov/nevoc QKeavoio 'in the ocean', 
§. 375. Obs. 2. might be referred to this head. 

In Homer the genitive often expresses, not a definite place, 
but a place in its whole extent, e. g. //. 0, 106 seq. TreSioio 
KpaiTTva fxdX' evda Koi evBa ^uoKe/xev ?jSt- (pepeaOai ' through the 
plain', where we might also join evOa kuI evOa ireBioio. eirecrav- 
pevov ireBioio y^ , 26. 7rape^eXQel.v TreSioio k , 344. eXKepevai 
veioio (Ba9eir]C aporpov ib. 353. 

2. With definitions of time, a. 'when?' //. X', 690. eXB^v 

■* Koen ad Greg. p. 36. ed. Schcef. Schweigh. ad Athcn. t. 7. p. 47. 
Schief ad Lamb. Bcs. p. 361 seq. 

602 Syntax. Of the Genitive. 

yap eKCLKioae (Birj MpaKXrieirf twv Trporepwv erewv * in the 
former years'. 6', 470. comp. 525. (perhaps also (j)', 111. kqi 
efxoi OdvuTOC Kal /iiolpa Kparairj eaaerai ri riovc, h ceiXrjc, rj 
n'eaov map. ' in the afternoon'.) Msch. Ag. 289. rrjc vvv reKov- 
<rr}Q (puic ToS' eixppovric. Soph. CEd. C. 396. /cat /nrji^ Kpeovra 
■y iadi aoi TOtrrwr yapiv i{!c,ovTa (3aiov kov-^i f.ivpiov XP^" 
vov. Aj. 141. T>7c vvv (^Qijxevr]c vvktoc. (comp. Trach. 173.) — 
285. aKpac, VVKTOC. Thiic. 3, 104. xoi? avTOv ■^eif.iujvoc,. Isocr. 
de Pac. p. 170 A. rrjc avrfjc rtu'epac,. Thus the genitives vvktoq, 
Bepovc, -^eif-novoc, eapoc, ' in summer, winter, spring', are very- 
frequent, accompanied sometimes by ovartc, ovror,^. With this 
genitive e/c is found Soph. EL 780. ovre vvktoc, oIt e^ n/^icpac. 
Comp. Eur. Rhes. 13. 

b. The genitive is often to be rendered by ' within, in the 
space of : Her. 2, 115. avTOv Be ae /cot touc cyovc av/nirXoovc 
Tpiuiv ■t}pepeo)v Trpoayopevd) €k tj/c e/iUic yiC ec aAAjji' Tiva 
IxeTopn'iteaQai. Plat. Alcih. 1. p. 105 A. v^^^, ^nv Qiittov eic, 

Tov ' KQr}va'ni)V Brjf^iov 7rape\dyc tovto Be eaeaOui /naXa 7}/i€- 

pu)v oX'iyuJV, TrapeXdwu Be evBei^aaOai, &c. comp. Leg. 1. 
p. 642 E. 11. p. 915 B. TpiaKOVTa nfxepuyv utto tuvttic 
Trie r]pepac Xaj3wv utt'itm to. eavTOv. Gorg. p. 516 D. Isocr. 
de Pac. p. 177 D. This genitive is accompanied by evroc Plat. 
Ale. \.p. 106 C. evToc ov iroXXov -^povov. Isocr. jEg. p. SSS'E. 
evTOC TpictKovO' i)}xepu}v. Evag. p. 20 1 E. evTOC Tpiwv ctivv . 

c. 'Since'. ^Esch. Agam. 288. tto'iov -^povov Be Kai ire- 
TTopOrjTtti TTo'Xtc. Comp. Eur. Or. 41. Arist. Lys. 280. e^ 
erwi' aXovToc ' for six years, during six years'. Plat. Phadon. 
in. ovTe TIC ^evoc a<piKTai -^povov av^vov cKeiOev. Symp. 
p. 172 C. oxiK oTtT0', oTi 7roXX(Jju eTtJV ' Ay aOiov evOdBe ou/c 
eniBeBii/iir^Kev ; 

378. Prepositions govern the genitive, not of themselves, but be- 
cause they express some one or more of the relations which have 
been already given as peculiar to the genitive; as avTi §§. 357. 
364. aTTo' §§.368.374. e/c§. 318. Trpo §§. 364. 366. eveKa, 

» Thorn. M. p. 630 sq. Musgr. ad arl (FA. C. 397. Ilcind. ad Plat. Gorg. 
Eur. Iph A. 1608. p. 7. 

" Schsf. ad Soph. El. 478. Elnisl. 

Sj/}itax. Of the (Jetiitive. 603 

^la §. 368. It is therefore absurd to have recourse in all cases 
to prepositions for the explanation of constructions, since the con- 
struction itself is determined by the original meaning of the case ; 
and when opyiteaOa'i tivoq is explained by eveKa, the question 
still remains. Why does eveKa govern a genitive ? To the original 
signification of the prepositions are added others nearly allied, 
which are not included in the use of the case, and which show 
themselves chiefly in words compounded with prepositions. 
Hence the genitive is put with verbs compounded with prepo- 
sitions which govern the genitive, when these prepositions may 
be separated from the verb, and placed immediately before the 
case, without altering the signification of the verl) : e. g. avri- 
TTupeyeiv r't tivoc for irapej^eiv ti avr'i tivoc. u7roTrr]^av ap/na- 
Toc for TrrjScti' a(p' apinaroc. e^ep^eaOai oiKiac for epyeaBai e^ 
o'lKiac, &c. but not avrikeyeiv tivoc 'to contradict any one', for 
rivi, because Xe-yen* avTi tivoc would give an entirely different 
sense, ' to speak in the place of any one'. Frequently also a 
verb compounded with a preposition which requires a genitive, 
governs the genitive, though the preposition cannot be sepa- 
rated from the verb, e. g. avTiiroielaQai tivoc, eCpieaOai tivoc, 
uTToXaveiv tivoc. Here then the genitive does not arise from 
the preposition, but from the relation which the verb expresses. 
From the same kind of reference to themselves and to the 
preposition with which they are compounded, and which ex- 
presses this reference more definitely, the verbs compounded 
with KUTu ('against', with a genitive), which represent an action 
as tending to the disadvantage of a person or thing, take the 
genitive of the person or thing against which the action is di- 
rected, together with the accusative of the thing which is the 
passive object of the verb, e. g. KaTnyopetv ti tivoc, properly, 
' to utter, to assert anything to the disadvantage of a person', 
i. e. * to accuse one of anything'. Xen. Mem. S. 1, 3, 4. twv 
aXXwv fXMp'iav KaTrjyopei, oiTivec irapa to. irapa twv Oewv arj- 
paivoiJieva ttoioucti ti. (Hence in the passive the verb, as the 
predicate, is referred to the thing or the object, as the subject : 
Thuc. 1, 95. Kill yap a^iKia ttoXX?? KaTvyopelTO avTOV 

(TlavcFaviov) vtto twv 'EXXtji'wi^ tmv aCpiKvovinevivv. Ka- 

T-nyopeiTo Se avTOV ovy^r]KiaTa MijSktjuoc. Pausmiias accu- 
snbatur injnstiticc , studii partium Pers^icanim. comp. Xet). 

H 2 

G04 Syntax. Of the Genitive. 

Cyrop. 5, 2, 27. On the other hand Herod. 7, 205. /teyaAwc 
acpewv KaT-ny6pr}TO urjSf^etr.) Euripides Heracl. 418. uses the 
accusative of the thing alone, tujv /.nvpiav epnv Karyiyopovvrwi', 
which is the less wonderful as the genitive of the personal pro- 
noun agrees entirely in signification with the possessive pronoun, 
fxiop. epov Karriy. For the accusative of the thing we have irepi 
with the genitive Lys. p. 139, 37. So also KarayiyvMaKeiv : 
Plat. ApoL S.p.25A. ttoWijv ye pov KaTCyi'ioKctG aTV)(^iav, 
* thou pronouncest that I am very unhappy'. Leg. 1. p. 625 E. 
avoiav Sj7 poi So/ceT KaTayvtHvai Tiov ttoWiov. Isocr. c. Loch. 
p.396D. opdi) B' vpac, OTUV Tov KarayvtjJTe lepocrvAiav 
rj /cXoTTjji', ov irpoc, to pcycOoc, u>u ui> \ii[D(ocn rip' ripwpiav 

TTOlOVpeVOVC, u\X opo'uoC, Ct TT it ^> T 10 V Ocil'dTOV KClTaKpiVOl'TaC, 

'judge that any one h;is cotnmiltcd sacrilege or theft ; condemn 
him of sacrilege or tlieft'. Comp. id. p. 17 B, 35 A. 'J'htic.3, 
8 1 . Kareyvwcrai' a tt « vrio v Oavaroi' * declared death against all, 
condemned tliem to death'. The person is sometimes attracted 
in its case to the infinitive : P/at. Thetct. p. 206 E. pi) to'ivvv 
pa^'uoQ KaTayivioaKwpev to ^tJjSei' eiprjKevai rou aTro(l)iii'upei>ov 
e-!ri(TTr]pi]V. Thus KaraKpiveni ottoi'twt Oavarov ih. KaraciKa- 
teiv Tivuc, Ouvarov Herod. 1, 45. KaTa\pt](l)i.CcoOa'i rivoc t>ei- 
X'lav LysiaSf p. 140, 30. 'to pronounce that one is guilty of 
cowardice'^. jEschin. Axioch. 12. oi ^e Trep\ Qi^papevrjv Kai 

KaXXi^evor KaTe'^eiporovricrav rtov uvbpijjv aKpirov 

OavuTOV. — Plat. Rep. 3. p. 392 E. toi' ^e {^pvariv) Karev- 
■veaOai tiov Ay^nnov trpoQ tov Oeou.- — -/coTCiTreTv Ti rivoc,. 
jEsch. Axioch. 7. roaaBe rov 67" KareiTrcv 'said thus much 
against life'. Xen. Cijrop. 1, 4, 8. oi Se (puXaKec irpoae- 

Xdaavrec, eCpacrav icaTe pe7v avrov t(o Trainrc^ * that they 

would accuse him to his grandfather'. Plat. Phccdon. p. 85 A. 

oi avOpunroi twv kvkvwv KaTa\pevcovTai, Kai (Retail' 

avTOvc 9pr)vovi'Tac toi' Oavarov vtto Xuttjjc e^a^eiv. 

This meaning of the words compounded with Kara is derived 
from the circumstance, that this preposition witli the genitive 
properly denotes 'down', and expresses a motion downward; 
and this sense is found in some verbs with the same con- 
struction, e. g. KaracTKedu^eiv, icaTa^eiv, KaravrXeiv, in their 
proper and figurative sense. Xen, Aiiah. 7. p. 3, 32. uvaaruc, 
» Fisch. 3 a. p. 301. 

Si/nlax. Of the (lenilivc. ()05 

o ^ev9)iQ (Twel^eTrie Kai avyKcireaKeBaae tmv jner avrou to 
Kepac ' poured out the drinking-vessel over them'. Demosth. 
pro Cor. p. 242, 12. a'lrioc ^e outoc, lotnref) eooXoKpaa lav 
Tiva /iiov Trie TTOvripiac, Ttjc, eavTOv Kai twv act/CJ/jtutTwi' Kara- 
aKe^acTac.^. Aristoph. Equ. 100. Plat. Leg. 7. p. 800 D. 
Tracrav (iXaacpiJiniav Th)v lepMv Kara-^eovai. II. ip , 408. fxt] 
(jC^hiiv e\e-yye'u]v KaTw^evy A'lOy. P/at. Rep. 7 . p. 536 B. 
(l)iXoaocl)iac, en TrAet'w yeAwrtt KaTai'TXiiao/nev. ib. 9. 
p. 587 E. Kitracbopeiv. Li/s. p. 204 D. e-Trei^av to TrotJ/^toTa 
riinojv e7rtA^e(j07j(7Jj KaravrXeiv^. Hence KarcKppove^iv tivoc, 'to 
think meanly of a person as one's inferior, to despise', with an 
accusative of the thing imputed. T/uic. 8, 8. toi^ ttXovv ravry 

€K TOU TTpOipai'OVC eTTOlOVUTO, KaTa(ppOV1l(JaVT€C, Th)V AOi]- 

va'iojv a^vvaaiav 'thought that the Athenians were unable'. 
KttTayeXciv rii'oc. Plat. Lack. in. eiai yap Tivec o'l twv toi- 
ovT(x)v KarayeXtocri, as the simple -y^Xcti' Soph. Phil. 1 125. 
These compounds are sometimes found in a good sense, e. g. 
Plat. Rep. 6. p. 508 D. orav i^iev, ov KaraXaiinrei aXy^Oeia t€ 
Kai TO ov, e'lQ TovTO inrepelat^Tai 'he whom trutli enlightens'. 
Apoll. Rh. 4, 25. jiieTtt S' hy^ rraXiaavroQ aOpoa koXttmv (e/c 
koXttmv) Cpap/itaKa ttuvt apvdiQ Kare-^evaTO (jiuj pia ino7o 
for eic, (pwpiajiiov. 

Ohs. 1. These verbs have not always the two cases, the genitive and 
accusative; only one is often used, if the tiling or person which is ex- 
pressed by die other is easily understood : Plat. The^et. |j. 20G E. /x>; 
Toivvv fmliojs Karayiyi'ujcTKWjxei' to fiij^ey elprjKei'cu rov aivo^i^va^evov 
eiriaTiiiuiji', o yvv aKOTrovjxev, the object only, or matter of the judge- 
ment, is expressed ; and since this is an infinitive, the person is referred, 
as the subject, to this, for /i*/ wtrctyiyvwiTKWjuev tov uno(j)r]i'a/j.€yov to 
elpr]K€r'ai or on yur/^tc e'lptj^ey. 

Ohs. 2. The genitive, according to the analogy of KUTafpoi'dv, also 
accompanies Trepifpopely, inrepcppoveli', ' to despise' : /Esch. Axioch. 22. 
ijcr) Tr€pi<{tpoi'(o tov i^r}v, are els afieivo) oikov jxeTaoTrjaoiievos. Ar'ist. 

Nub, 1400. (ws lilv ) Toiv KaQeaTWTWv yojiioy inrepcbpoyely 

^{jyacrOai ! Yet this is often put wiUi the accusative also, as Thuc. 3, 39. 
Arist. Nuh. 226. So also inrepopdv tivos Xen. Sijmp. 8. 22. which ih. 
8, 3. Mem. S.\,3, 4. Thuc. 6, 18. is constructed widi the accusative. 
So KaToXoyeiv tl Herod. 1, 144. 3, 121. diough akoyelv takes only the 

*• Piers, ad Mcer. p. 216 sqq. Toup. " Heusde Spec. PI. p. 127 sq. 

Em. in Suid. t. 1. p. 319 sq. 

006 Si/ n tux. Of the Genitive. 

genitive. So we find tcaraKeprofieiv Tiyos, rivi and Tira. Schcef. ad 
Long. p. 366 sq. Even Karafpovely nva, Eurip. Bacch. 503. Kara^povei 
fie Kcii eiiftas o^e. Time. 6, 43. 8, 82. Elsewhere Kara(j>p. has an ac- 
cusative of the thing without a genitive of the person: Herod. 1, 59. 
KaTU<l>por{](Tus t)]v rvpavvita ' thinking of the tyranny with contempt 
for his opponents', ib. 66. Kara^povittravTes 'ApKa^wy Kpiaaoves eivai. 
Comp. 8, 10. 

Obs.3. Some of the verbs compounded with Kara are found also with 
the dative : Od. \', 433. kut alu-xps eyeve koX ea-fTOjj.eyij(Tiv 07rt(T<7w di}- 
XvTeprjai yvyaiS,i. II. v , 282. mc c ax«s ol xi""o fivpiov d(pOa\^o7ariv 
(on the other hand 421. Kcip pa. ul vipdaXjAuii' tcexvr ax^vs): in the oracle 
Herod. 7, 140, Soph. Jj. 153. toIs ao'is uyerrw icaOvftpi^wy. Herod. 
7, 9. KUTCiyeXiKTai iifily. Comp. 3, 155. 7, r46. 7-oTcri fX€y KaTaKeKpiro 
OayaTos. Others are found with the accusative : Eur. Suppl. 588 seq. 
crro/ia ct^pw KaTaaraCov-a, for arofiaros a<ppoy /car. and with double 
accusative Soph. Phil. 823. Icpujs ye roi yiy iray KaraaTu'CeL cepas. as 
Pind. Pyth. 5, 13. evoiay os vvy KaTaiQvaaei rehv ficiKUipay eariav, for 
Teas paKaipas earias ' who pours out serenity on thy happy house'. Even 
the place from which one descends is found with KnTa(3aiyeiy in the 
accusative : Od. v//', 85. ojs ^a^ttir; KcirejSaiy v7repil)'i(i. Herod. 6, 134. 
KaraOpwcTKei Ti)y alfxacrirjy. id. 7, 218. ol ie Karefiaiyoy to ovpos, for roil 
oipeos. Od. a, 330. KXipoKa c v\l/i]Xi)v KciTejoi'iaaTO. The two last in- 
stances denote the way, as §. 409, 4. Jrist. Acharn. 711. KaTe(i6ri(Te 
3' av KeKpayws Tot,inas Tpicr^j-Xiovs 'he would have outbawled'. Comp. 
Equ. 286 scq. 

„-n The sanie is the case witli ttjoo in composition : T/iuci/d. 3, 
(377) 39. TToXepov yjfiuvTO, layvv a^iojaavTCC too cikciiov rrpo- 
0fcti'oi 'to set higher', (§. 358.) Ilerod. 5, 39. ei toi av ye 
aetovTov pri -rrpoopac. 'to care for', (§. 348.) Xen. Ilier. 
6, 10. avT(J^v (twv (pvXaK(jJv) 7rpo<pvXaT rova iv oi vopoi, 
vjare irepi ectvTuiv (poj'iovvTai Kai vnep vpwv. Ib. 11, 5, 7. 
IT poaraTCveiv tivoc Isocr.p. 108 A. 7rpo(XTr}vui tivog. Xen. 
Ilier. 10, 8. 7rjoovoe?i/ /cat tt poKivdvveveiv tSv ttoAitwv. 
(§. 348.) On the other hand Flat. Lys. p. 219 D. o rt av tic. 
Trepl TToXXou TTOiyiTai,-- - avT I ttuvtiov twv aWiov y^p-qpaTWV 
TT port pa. Leg. 5. p. 727 D. oi/Se priv, rrpo apeT^ia ottotuv 
av irpoTipa tic, kuWoc, tout t'cTTtv oii-^ eTCpov, ?; rj tjjo 4^^X'^'^ 
ovTwc Kai TravTwc aTipia. 

Words compounded with eTr'i also govern the genitive under 
the condition laid down in §. 378. as t-7ri|3oiven' yi}c,, e.g. Eiir. 

Sj/Jitax. Of the. Genitive. 607 

Or. 626. €7ri(5aTeveiv tivoq Herod. 3, 63. (but also the accu- 
sative.) veKpovQ a/.ia^au}v eiraeipav 11. t] , 426. vf^KpovQ irvp- 
KaiT]Q e7rei>r}veov ib. 428. 31. 

Ohs. 1. Sometimes, in these compound verbs, no regard is paid to 
the preposition, and another case is put for the genitive, as the sense 
and reference of the verb admit ; as ctTroorpe^eo-Ga/ riva, properly * to 
turn oneself away from any one, to abhor him', (comp. §. 393.) Eur. 
Swpj)!. 159. aver sari aliquem. cnrorpeiTecxdal ri Iph. A. 136. a-Keivai 
Tivi id. Troad. 393. ' to be distant with respect to any one', id. Troad. 
393. eKTrXely tov 'EXXyfnrorTOv Herod. 5, 103. (which 7, 58. is e^w tov 
'EWijanoyToy TrXe?)') eirel eiiijXdov rrjp UepcrlCa y^^ojprfv id. 7, 29. 
comp. Aristot. Polit. 3, 14. ji. 4^75 D. eKJSaireiy ra TpiuKoyra err) 
Plat. Rep. 7. p. 537 D." Sometimes also some verbs compounded 
with e/c are constructed with the dative: II. ^',115. IIopQeT yap rpels 
TTolSes afxvpoves eiieyei'oi'To. H. in Ven. 197. izalZes Tral oeaffi. 
^LUfxirepes k Kyeyaovrai. Herod. 1, 30. kuI afi elSe liTraai. tckvu 
kKyevofxeva. Eur. Iph. T. 814. Similarly Eur. Iph. A. 1226. 
tKerrjpiay ce yovatjLV esavrrw treOci' (r). 

Ohs. 2. On the other hand, verbs which are compounded with pre- 
positions governing a dative or accusative, sometimes take the genitive : 
Soph.Aj. 1292. T€i-)(e(»v eyKei^Xeiafxevovs, according to §. 377, l.*" Eur. 
Phcen.^54!. tovI'' elaehk^io reixeujy. Soph. CEd. T. 236. where how- 
ever the genitive yrjs may perhaps be caused by »]s, which follows 
§. 474.*= Aristoph. Lys. 272. ov yap, pa T>)y ^I'lfxriTp', kpov ^wvtos 
€y)(^uyovvrai, equivalent to KarayeXacTovTai. Soph. (Ed. T. 825. ep- 
l^areveiy TraTpihs. Soph. Ql,d. C. 400, epftalveiv opiov yrjs, c. n. Schcef. 
But Phil. G4:8. Tt Tovd', u fx)) vecjs ye r?/s ejjirjs e'l't; {eveari) Xuj^jelv 
is to be supplied from Xa'pwv v. 645. 

Words compounded with gov and o^tou especially often take 
the genitive instead of the dative, e. g. awTvyelv or evrvyelv 
Tivoc Herod. 4, 140. Soph. (Ed. C. 1482. Fhil. 321. 1333.'' 
i) ^vvoiKoc TWVKctTW 6eu)V A'lKv id. Ant. 451. AaKe^a'ipovoc, 
-yaia ^vvuivvpoc, Eiir. Hel. 503. as opujvvpov rijc iraTpiSoG 
Isocr. Ev. p. 192 C. tJ (piXrdrii, opvewu ^vvvope, Tuiv 
epuiu vpvcjv ^vvrpoC^' ar]^oi Arist. Av. 676. ra ipv^iic 
ffvyyevri Plat. Leg. 10. p. 892 A. dvoiac cnrdaiic '^vyyevuc ih. 

» Valck.adIIerod.5,10a.p.4'29,86. p. 813, 392. 

•> Lob. ad Aj. 12G1. '' Toiipad Siiid. 1. p. 171. Brunck 

<= Valck. ad E.Ph, 454. Brunck ad ail Soph. II. cc. ButUn. ad Phil. 321. 
Soph. (Ed. T. 8'25. Ilcrm. ad Vig. 

608 St/ntax. Of the Genitive. 

p. 898 B. comp. p. 897 A. Phadon. p. 86 A. Phil. p. 19 D. 
46 B. QQ B. ■yei'oc avQpwirwv ^vj.i<pvec rov iravTOC, y^povov 
Leg. 4. p. 721 C. tov yevovc tovtov ^v/x(j()wva Phil. p. 11 B. 
. TOVTOV ^v/uCpvTOVQ ^Sovctc eTTOjUCvac ib. p. 51 D. TTapCpaaiQ ai- 
/.ivXwv pvdcov oi.i6(poiToc Piiid. Nem. 8, 55. 
380. 06s. 1. A substantive sometimes governs two different genitives in 
different relations : Pind. Isthm. 6, 79. Xawv kv ■kovois cKitayXov 'Evu- 
aXt'oi;, where ttuvoi 'EvvaXlov along with tt. Xaw^' are 'the laboms 
allotted by Mars, consecrated to him', as efjya" Apijos in Homer. Msch. 
^gam. 1253. T})y fiev Ovecrrov ^aJra Troi^etwv tcpeuiv t,vvTJh:a (Qv- 
earrris eCaiyvTo Kpea Traiceia). Soph. Aj. 52. ^vju/xticra Xet'as uZaaTa 
/3 o V K- d X w »' (ppovpii/j-ara, from ^ii/L(/n(C7-a Xe/as for E,vfjinifcrov Xeiav, accord- 
ing to §. 44'2. 3. and svyLX//. (ppovpli/jLaTa (3ovKuXu)r, i. e. ctyeXot, cis (j)pov- 
povaiv 01 (iovKoXoi. ih. 618. ra Trptv epya j^^epoii' fieyicTTas aperds, 
where epya peyiffTrjs ritp. are ' deeds characterized by the greatest valour' 
§. 316. id. (Ed. C. 729. opw tIv' vfias o/Lt/xctrwv elXijcporas <^6(iov 
veioprj Trjs e/xj/s Itt eiaucov, because ofx^ara <^o/3eirat may be said 
for ' betray fear', rjjs c/Ltr/s kirciaolov according to §. 368. Eur. Androm. 
148. CToXfiov -^pwTos TToiKiXwv TT c TT X w )', ft'om xpws orrcXXerai TTc- 
xXous. Siqypl. 55. ovre ra^wi' ^wjuara ya/as eaoptS, from j^wwuvai 

TUfovs and x* yata»'. //cr. 6,2. 'lortaFos wTrttuie -wj' 'Iwvw*' 

rz/c riy€f.iovir]y tov irpos \upeiov ttoXc/hou, 'the command of the lonians 
in the war against Darius', lliuc. 3, 12. TzpoairoGTavTes lia t))p e/cet- 
vwy fjieXXr^my rmv els j/yuds ceivwv ' on account of their delay in re- 
spect to the calamities'. Plat. Rep. 1. p. 329 B. tus twv otKeiojy 
7rpo7rj;X«K((7P(s tov yi'ipws ' aflVonts which relations offer to old age'. 
Comp. Il'ipparch. in the passage (pioted §. 33S. Isocr. Panath.j). 249 A. 
Ti)v UeXoTTos fjity cnracnjs IleXoTrovvyiaov KaTaXr]\piy, Aavaov 
he rj/s TToXews Tf]s 'Apyeiwy Ka^fxov U Orjfiaiy. Other examples 
occur in the preceding sections. 

Obs. 2. Sometimes two genitives of the same number arc found to- 
gether, one of which governs the other, which occasions harshness and 
obscurity : Time. 1, 45. ?)»' /ii) tTri KepKvpuv TrXeioiri kch jutXXwo-tr utto- 
paipeiy, i) es TtSy etceiyojy n j^wpiojy, from 7a eKeiymv ■^ij)pia. comp. ib. 
53 extr. ib. 141. Ittvo rwy av-wy hnraywyTes. Xen. Anab. 5, 5, 18. 
flic} ovdky eXafiftuj'Ofiey TiSv eKehioy. Cijrop, 6, 1, 15. tu}v fxev eKei- 
vwv o^vpijjv ws TrXetora irapaipely. and so perhaps the reading is cor- 
rect Hist. Gr. 2, 2, 9. ocroi T^y a'vruiy tcTTepoyro, where some have TuJy 
uvTuiy, others t)]s avruiy. ol eKe'iyoi is contrary to the rules of the lan- 

Obs. 3. In many other cases genitives are found with substantives 

Si/ntax. Of the Genitive. 609 

instead of prepositions with their cases, though of themselves and without 
substantives they would not be so used, e. g. y\is Trarpw'as jootos, for 
e/s yi]v TT. Eur. Iph. T. 1073. comp. Horn. Od. e, 344. Hence, as a 
genitive in such cases is equivalent to an adjective, ^wnp. ib. 1119. 

votTTOp fiapftapoy ijXdov for eroarovr, i.e. ^Xdoy els /3ap/3ctpow$*. eopa 

yrjs rfja^e Sojih. Q^d. C. 45. for kv yij rrjce, as »y\('ou ipdaicr]ms Soph. 
Phil. 17. TTvpyoi hovpujy izoTafK^y for tTrt cicvfxois TrorafxoTs Eur.Phoen. 
852. as Find. 01. 2, 16. lepwy Troraiuwy iroXis Eur. Med. 851.'' Hence 
two genitives {Obs. 1.) Soph. Phil. 489. ra XaXKwdoyros Ev(3oias arnBfxa 
' the place of Chalcodon in Euboea'. id. Trach. 1191. ray O'irris Zrjros 
ViLitTToy TTciyoy. Pind. Isthm. 4, 45. ky 'Aopaore/ots adXois '^ikvwvos. 
Eur. Ion. 12. UaXXados vk 6xQ<^ rrjs WQrjyauoy x0o>'os ' in the country 
of the Athenians'. 

Obs. 4. Instead of the genitive alone is sometimes found a preposition 
with the genitive or another case : Plat. Phcedon. p. 95 extr. irepl ye^e- . 
(Tews Kcd (jidopds Trjy aiTiay oiaiTpuyiiaTevaaadai. p. 96 E. itep'i tovtujv 
Tfiv alriay elceyai the preposition with its case might be united with 
the verb, which however cannot be done de Leg. 4. p. 720 E. Ti)y irepl 
yeveaews ap\ny. 12. p. 951 E. 6 irepX rrjs Traioems iracrrjs t7rt/ze\^/r»/s 
(see §. 348. Obs. 2.). Polit. p. 329 D. aXXa kuI tovtuv izepi tis 
aiTia ecTiy ". So])h. (Ed. C. 423. ey o' efxol reXos avroiy yeyoiro rau- 
TTjs Tijs fiaxrjs Tvepi. id. (Ed. T. 283. Tvpovoiav 'i^x^iy rovde tov reKpov 
TTepi. Lys. c. Alcib.p. 142, 35. 7rapace«y/xari vrepl r>/s kavrov Troyrjplas. 
p. 171, 42. ras Trepi rovrwy rifjiopias. Sometimes instead of the geni- 
tive Trepi is joined with the accusative : Eur. Troad. 430. ol TzepX rvpay- 

vovs Koi TToXeis vTTTjpeTai. Xcn. Hist. Gr. 5, 4, 2. T!]y Tvepl 'Apxiay 

Tvpayytca'^. Other prepositions are used in the same way : /So^jA. (Ed. 
7". 612. Tuy Trap' avT<^ fiioroy eKfiaXely for tov civtov ft. Phil. 611. rc'nrl 
Tpoiq. Trepya^a. 806. TUTrl aol kciku. Lysias Olymp. p. 914. ed. Reisk. 
Other cases in which a preposition stands for the genitive have been 
quoted in the preceding paragraphs. The difference of the construc- 
tions does not affect the sense, as Isocr. Pancg. p. 70 B. (c. 39.) efx- 
TTFAporaros ruiy ivpvs Toy noXefioy Kiydvyioy entirely agrees in sense with 
Tojy TOV TvoXifxov Kircvyujy. 

Obs. 5. The word which governs the genitive is often wanting. These (:J79) 
words are, besides vlus,e.g. QovKvdidrjs o "OXopov, MiXTiairjs 6 K/^iwros, 
yvyi'i Eur. Or. 1719.'' especially oIkos or cuifxa : e. g. Od. ft', 195. /.t)j- 

'^ Schaef. Melet. p. 90. ad Soph. Ast ad Leg. p. 138 scq. 471. 
Phil. 43. Seidl. ad Eur. El. 161. '^ Schref. ad Julian. Or. p. 6. ad 

'' 8eidl. ad Eur. Iph. T. 132. Dionys. Hal. p. '23. 
'ileind.udPlat.PhaHlon.p.iriseq. *-' Schsef. ad Lamb. B. p. 93. • 

610 Syntax. Of the Dative. 

Tcpa f)v ts TTurpoi dvwyerw airovietrdai. Her. 5, 51. €S tov KXeo- 
fxeveos. id. 1, 35. ev Kpolaov. Theocr. 24, 89. ei- Ato», instead of 
which he says 17, 17. ey Aids o'lKta'^. Particularly els aEov and er ^hv 
' to the shades below, in the shades below'. Fully in Homer Od. k, 
512. e'ls 'Aicew c 6 fio y {comp. 4/', 322. 11. y, 322. K, 457. ^', 74. &c.) 
and Hesiod "£py. 153. h do/ioy Kpvepov 'AUao. Homer has even 
"A'iSoffde It. 7]', 330. v', 294. and passim. Thus eh h^aaKaXov lei'ai or 
(poirdu Xen. Cyr. 2, 3, 9. ' to go to a teacher', properly ' to the house 
of a teacher' : els opx^rpi^os levai Arist. Nub. 992. ' to go to a dancer' ''. 
According to this analogy is constructed Od. S', 581. els AlyvTrroio, Sii- 
Trereos -rroTa^o'io, arrjtra veas, and els lijxerepov Od. /3', 55. for els ijfxere- 
pov. comp. §. 489. In a single passage a verb compounded with els is 
joined with this genitive, Eur.Bacch. CIO. elcjeire^Tzonriv TlevOews, where 
however Hermann more correctly refers YLevdetas to bpKavas, which 

The Dative. 

381. The Dative expresses the remoter object to which an action 
(380) or quality refers, without affecting it so as to render it passive. 
Thus in the construction ci^ovai ti rti't ' to give anything to 
any one', ti is the passive object of the verb, tiv'i the person 
in reference to whom the action takes place. Hence the different 
constructions \oi^ope1v Tiva and Xoi^opelaOai rti't, S(o^Xc?v rtvo 
and Bio-^XelaOai. Tin, because the middle voice denotes rather 
an immanent state, i. e. one which does not pass on to and affect 
anything else. 

This reference may be of various kinds : 

1. Relation to the object, the dative denoting the person in 
respect to or for whom the action takes place, e. g. 'to benefit, 
to help, to injure', &c. and the corresponding adjectives; *to 
obey, to yield'. Dat. commodi §. 393. 

In this kind of relation the subject who acts appears to stand 
in a subordinate condition in respect to the person for whom the 
action is performed : hence passives are constructed with the 

* Lob. ad Phryn. p. 100. Valck. iu N. T. p. 386. Brimck ad 

'"Keen ad Greg. p. (18, 36.) 45, 81. Arist. Lys. 407. Tisch. 3 a. p. 255. 

Si/nlax. Of the Dative. 611 

dative, which denotes the person by whom the action is per- 
formed, and who in the active would be the subject. 

There is a similar relation when an action is effected or brought 
to pass by means of certain things, and therefore the dative is 
used to express the instrument; or means. As Aiavn tSa/xr] was 
said for vtt' A'lavror,, so Homer says xe/offti' '^tto TlarfiOKXoio 
§a/u7i'ai //. tt', 420. instead of which the dative alone is com- 
monly used. 

The instrument and means may be considered on the one 
hand as the cause (§§. 396. 397.), on the other as the manner, 
in which an action takes place. 

2. The other kind of relation is the direction which an action 
takes, and which properly expresses a movement in space. 
Hence the Greeks construed the verbs of following with a da- 
tive, and those of discoursing, contending ; in the two latter 
cases the relation being made more evident by irpoQ with the 
accusative. These verbs however admit also the idea of asso- 
ciation, as the Greeks often say eireaBai afxa, avv, &,c. §. 402. 
and hence arose the usage of expressing every kind of company 
or association by the dative, §§. 404. 405. 

065. 1. The difference between the dative and accusative thus defined 
is sufficiently great, but not equally evident in all cases. Sometimes the 
dative appears to denote die person or thing on which the effect of the 
action contained in the verb manifests itself, e. g. vpodTUTreiv tlvL ' to 
command'. This relation coincides with that of the accusative ; and 
hence of the verbs of commanding, exhorting, advising, some take a 
dative, some an accusative. 

Ohs. 2. In other cases it depends on the subjective view of the speaker, 
how he will represent the relation between the verb and its object. Hence 
there are several verbs which are as frequently construed with the dative 
as with the accusative ; and hence the person or thing which was put in 
the dative with the active verb, with the passive becomes the subject in 
the nominative. 

I. Relation generally : The words which in Greek are con- 382. 
strued with the dative, are almost the same as in Latin, 'to tell, 
advise, command, obey, aid, meet, yield, give, give up, object, 
happen'; the adjectives ' useful, injurious, smiilar, equal, plea- 

G12 Syntax. 0/ the Dative. 

saat, unpleasant, hostile, easy, difficult'. Some only of these 
require special remark. 

1. The verbs * to order, to exhort', as TrpocTTarreiv, eTrtTeX- 
XeaOai, Trapaivelv, irapeyyvav, TrapaKeXeveaOai, viroTiueaOai, 8vC. 
regularly take the dative : KeXeveiv however takes not only the 
dative in the sense of ' to exhort', but also the accusative with 
the infinitive : //. /3', 50. avrap o KrjpvKeaai \iyv<p6oy- 
yoiai KeXevae Ktipvaaeiv uyopnv^c /coprj/co^iowvrao A)(aiouc. 
and 28. dtopv^al a e KeXevae Kap^iKO/LioiovTaQ A-^aiovc,. Thuc. 
1, 44. ei yap eirl Kopivdov CKeXevov a(piaiv oi KepKvpaioi 
^viLiirXe'iv, eAuoi'T' av avTo7c al irpoc, ricXoTrori'jjcrtouc aTzovcai. 
So eCpieaOui Soph. Phil. 618. Kapa repveiv eipelro rw OeXovTi, 
but Thcocr. 25, 205. with an accusative. Thus also irpoaTar- 
Teiv : Deinosth. in Macart. p. 1070, 1. touto ttcivO , oaa oi 
v6/iioi TvpncsTctTTOvai TToieiv Tovc, 7rpo<Ji]KovTac,, r;/Jti' irpoa- 
Tc'iTTOvai Kcii ('tvayKa(l,ovai woie^v. So ei7re?i', (ppaCeiv, &c. take 
both constructions when they involve the idea oi^ KeXeveiv^. On 
the other hand vovOerelv, irapaKaXe^v, TrporpeTreiv, 7rapot,vveiv, 
7rapopiii(7v, &c, take only the accusative, ewiorpwov nrirevaiv II. 
o, 258. and orpwov OepmrovTeaeriv rind. Vijth. 4, 71. follow 
the analogy of KeXevew, irpoaTucraeiv. 

Ohs. From iliis analogy the verbs ' to rule, to govern' also take the 
dative for the genitive. See §. 3C0, a. 

383. 2. The verbs ' to happen of, to meet any one', take the da- 
tive, as in Latin, avrdv, evrvyyjiveiv rivi, miVTvy^cwciv tivi : 
Arist. Ixnii. 198. 01/.101 KaKo^aifKov, t<.7 l^vrerv^ov e^uov. and 
in the derivative sense 'to fall into anything'; Soph. Philoct. 
681. aXXoi' 3' QVTiv eyhjy oi^a kXv(dv, ovS eo'iBou jxo'ipa touS 
ey^Q'iovi avvTvy(^ovra Qvaruiv. Nevertheless evrvyy^. avv- 
rvy^. are fomid also with the genitive, in which case the com- 
pound is put instead of the simple verb. See §. 379. Obs. 2. 
uvTciv in the sense of * to meet' is found in Homer with the 
dative generally ^ ; but in the sense of * to encounter', with the 
genitive //. tt', 423. avTiateiv ' to go against', with the colla- 
teral idea ' to attack, to repel', is constructed in Herodotus with 

^ Fisch. 3 a. p. 10 i. Bmnck ;ul Thcocr. '25, 47. 
Apoll. Rh. 4, 1693. Schsf. ad "^ Buttm. Lexil. 1. p. 9 scq. 300. 

Sj/Htax. Of the Dative. C13 

tlie accusative, 4, 1 18. aVrio^oj/tcv tov eTrtoi'Ta. ib. 121. 
oi ^KvOai uTTtiVTiatov Tiiv Aape'iov arparinv. Find. Pi/lh. 

5, 59. TOV evepyerav viravnaaai voiv, vir. is equivalent to a/tei- 
(5ea9ai, and takes its construction. In the sense of ' go against', 
avTciv and the derivative verbs are not found with the accusa- 
tive *=. Conip. §.328. Obs. — e7rtK6|oeiv is joined by Pmdar 01. 

6, 1 1. with £v. 

3. The verbs 'to reproach one with anything, to censure, to ■ 

reprimand, to rebuke', take the dative of the person or thing 

against which the reproof is directed, often with the accusative 

of the thing in which the reproof consists, eTrin/^uiu ri run, /xe^t- 

cjyeaOa'i ti tivi, e-yKoXeTv xt rivt, as in Latin exprohare alicui 

alifjiiid. Isocr. ad Dem. p. 5 C. /LiaXiara av ev^OKi^ioir^c, ei 

(pa'ivoio Tavra /lu) irpaTrwv, a to?c aAXotc uv TtpuTTOvaiv 

k TT IT 1^1(0 i)c,. Xen. (Ilcon. 2, 15. ei v^wp Trap t^tou cutovvt'i 

(Toi, avTOC, iLu] e^wv, aWocre Kal eirl touto yyayov (an uvaKo- 

\ov6ia, where the writer had the preceding Tj-yjjcra^itjji/ in his 

mind in the dative airovvTi aoe, but afterwards took 7}ya'yoi' 

instead of it ; yet perhaps kcu eVt touto /j-yj/cra^an' is more 

correct, and iiyayov before) oiS* ort oi/S «t' touto /lot 

e/^ief^icpov. These verbs, however, frequently are used with 

the dative alone: Eu?-. Hel. 1314 scq. ovoe (.i^operai -rroaic. 

TTore ii/inv. Isocr. Areop. p. 149 E. ware ovk av cikotwc, tou- 

TOtc fcTTiTtyttw rj/iiei', oXXct TToXu UV SiKoiOTepov toTc QAiyu) 

Trpo im<2v rriv ttoXii' Sio t/c/j(T«<Ti v. Evag. p. 197 B. C. 

jyiac. 4, 61. 01/ ToTc itpx^iv (iovXojuievoiQ /.lepcpo^iai, aWa 

TO to vTraKovew cToi^itoTepoic ovaiv. Isocr. Fancg. p.77 C. 

{tmv TToXewv) al eKSeSo^itecai To7r, /3ap/3ajoo(C f^iuXiaTU fxev \a- 

Ke^aiLiov'ioic eyKaXovaiv, eireira Se koi toTc aXXoic 

Totc /.lerey^ovai rnc eipvi'^lQ, <jJC vircp toutwv covAeveiv 

i]vayKaa/.ievai. — v€iKeiia' aXXhXriai II. v , 254. belongs to §. 404. 

Ohs. 1. MefjKpeadai is found also vvidi the accusative : Thuc. 7, 77. 
(ou -^p))) Ka-aixif^i-ipafTOui iifids tiyay avTOvs fx{]Te reus t,vf.i(popa'is, {xiire 
rats TTctpa d/i' ul,lax> vvv KaKonadciais ('on account of your misfortunes', 
§. 403, 4, b.) Comp. Isocr. Panath. p. ^34 C. Jreop. p. 154 C. Also 
eTTiTrXi'/rretv two. : Plat. Protag. p. 327 A. e( fit) oloi' t jJj' ttoXii' ebai, el 
m) TTUvres avXrjTal r]/je>', birolos tls e^vvaro t'/vCtirros, k(u tuvto iCia khl 

•= Comp. Lob. ad Aj p. 340. 


61^' Sj/ntax. Of the Dative. 

C-q^oaicf. Trds iravra koX klilaaKe Kui kir kirXi^TTe tov fxy) KoXuii av- 

Xov y? a, otei lir ti fxdWov tmv ayadiSv avXrjruJy ayadovs 

avXrjras tovs vlels yereadai, i) rw»' (pavXwv * ; 

Obs. 2. AoLCopeTy is usually constructed with the accusative, but the 
middle XoiCopelfrOai with the dative: Herod. 2, 121, 4. tov U haXoi- 
lopeeaQuL izdaLv. Xen. Cyrop. 1, 4, 8. ol ce (pvXaKes eXoiEupovy avrov. 
ib. 9. eyravda ^eyroi {jCt] Kal 6 deTos aurw eXoiSopeiro, Tijy dpaav- 
TTqra bpiSy. Aristoj)/). Pac. 57. wSt /cexj/J'ws Xoicopelrai tu At/''. 

385. The words which signify ' equality, suitableness, resem- 
(^^^) blance', or the contrary, as o^toToc, tcroo, Scc.*^ govern the da- 
tive, as simi/is in Latin ; but this idiom is more extended than 
in Latin. Thus the following in Greek take the dative : 

1. o avToc, idem : Herod. 3, 48. v(5piai.ia kuto. S?j 

TOV avTOV -^povov TOV Kpr]Tr]poc, ttj apirayy yeyovoQ at 
the same time that the cup was carried off''. Thus also 7, 206. 
rii> yap Kara twuto (i. e. KaTti tov avTOV -^povov) OXvpiriac 
TOVTOiai TOiai irp^ypaai avj^iireaovaa. Comp. 7, 3. /(/. 
4, 132, juuc ev yy y'lveTcti, Kapizov tov avTOV avOpwTrio ai- 

TeojLievoG. T/mc. 7, 77. Kayu) toi vvv ev t(o avTio 

Kiv^vvM TOtc (jiavXoTaTOic, auopovf^iai. Plat. Leg. 12. 
p. 955 B. TOV avTOV (piXov re Kai eyOpov vopiteTW ttSq Ty 
TToXet. Corap. Rep. 2. p. 371 C. Instead of which Herodo- 
tus says 5, 69. iva /ni} aCpiai a'l avTai eojai (pvXai kui (as) ' Iwctj. 
Plato says elliptically, Gorg. p. 493 D. (jyepe Bi) aAAjjv croi 
eiKova Aeyw e/c tov avTOv yvfivaaiov ry vvv, for efc tou avTOv y. 
e^ ov TTiv vvv e'Ae^a, Eur. Ilel. 495. ovnpa Be toutov Ttjc eprjc 
eyjwcra tic, BcijiiapTOQ aXXt} TOiaiB' kvvaiei Bo/xoiQ : the genitive 
is defined by 6vo/xa, and toutov stands absolutely. In the 
same manner as o auToc, elc also is constructed with the dative : 
Eur. Ph. 157. oc e/noi /.uaQ eykveT tK paTepoc. 

Note. Of the imitation of this in Latin, see Burnt, ad Ovid. Am. 1, 

4, 1. Cort. ad Sallust. Catit. 20, S.^ 

2. In the same manner as in this construction the dative is 

" V'alck, ad Hipp. 1402. Ilcintl. " Fisch. 3 a. p. 395 5qq. 

ad Prot. p. 526. '' Schaefcr has more correctly ex- 

•" Ilemsterh. ad Arist. Pint. p. 131. plained Eur. Or. 905. rJ Karatcrei- 

Ileind. ad Plat. Gorg. p. 128. Fisch. yoyn towvtovs Xeyeiy, in Porson's 

3 a. p. 403. edition. 

Syntax. Of the Dative. 615 

to be rendered by an entire proposition beginning with a par- 
ticle of comparison, so also other adjectives, whose construc- 
tion in other respects agrees with that of the equivalent adjec- 
tive in Latin, take the dative of the principal word only in the 
proposition which contains the member of the comparison, 
whilst in Latin and English a proposition with quam, atqjie, ac, 
' as, than', must follow: Herod. 1, 155. IvrTro/cioaTea rvpav- 
vevaavTa 'iaa erea no adeX<pe(^ KXeai'0|OW KareXape 
uTToOave^v, totidem annos, quot f rater regnaverat. Arist. 
Ran. 649. ov kuI av rvKTei tuq 'laac wXrjyaQ e/iioi; * as 
many strokes as I'. 

3. The adverbs o/Lioitoc, t'crwc (e^ 'icrov), irapaTrXriaKjoc, waav- 386. 
Tioc : Herod. 2, 172. y]Sr) civ eCprj Xeywv o/noiioc avroQ tm 
iroSaviTTTripi TreTrpvyevca ' that he had fared the same as the 
foot-bath' (of which a statue of a god was made, as Amasis, 
who being formerly a private individual, was now a king). 
Xen. Hier. 6, 3. fxeOrfv kul vttvov op-oiwc eve^pa (pvXaTTO- 

fiai^. — //. y, 454. T(Tov a(piv iraaiv aT:T]yQeTO Krjpt ^e- 

Xaivy, 'as death'. Sojjh. Antig. 644. (tovtou ovve/c avSpea 

evyovTai yovaQ eveiv) wq tov (piAov Tifxwaiv e^ ktov tra- 

Tpi. — Herod. 2, 67. wq S' uvtmc, ryai kvcti ol i-^vevrai 
OaiTTovTai * in the same manner as the dogs'. Soph. Trach. 
371. Kal ravTU TToXXoi irpoQ jtiecrrj Tpa-^iviwv ciyopa ^vve^rj- 

KOVOV (i}(TaVT(i}Q ef-ioi. 

4. In the same manner the verbs ' to accommodate oneself 
to, to become', irpeTreiv, apjuorreiv, eoiKevai, govern the dative; 
and hence the adverb el/corwc also takes this case : JEsch. Ag. 
924. 'ATcovaia liiev eiTrac e'lKorwc e/irj ' thou hast spoken 
with propriety, considering my long absence'. e'lKOQ even takes 
a dative when an infinitive follows: Eur. Hipp. 1451 seq. av- 
OptjjTTOKTiv eiKOQ e^a/^iapTuveiv . 

Obs. 1. Tvpinetv is found also with the genitive : Soph. Aj. 534. -k pe- 
te ov ye T ^v av Zai fiovos tov 'pov race. Plat. Rep. 3. p. 400 B. 
aWa Tavra ^ev Kal jieTo. /^afiwyos (lovXeva-ofjieda, rives re a leXev de- 
picts Kul vjipews, ?) parias Kal aXXrjs KaKias Trpewovaai paaets. 
In the latter passage, however, the genitive may also be governed of 

* Pors. Adv. p. {1X9) 192. Monk ' Ileind. ad Plat. Phaedon. p. 10. 

ad Eur. Ale. 1017. 

G16 Sj/)itax. Of the Dative. 

l3u(Teis, and Trpe-ovaai be put absolutely, ' which are the appropriate 
proceedings of; and in the former the participle may be put substan- 
tively. TTjoeTret also is accompanied by an accusative with an infinitive : 
Eur. Iph. A. 1114. Isocr. Evag. j). 191 C. TrpdJToy fxeu ovy Trepl Trjs 
(j)v(T€b)s Trjs Evaydpou, kciI rivwv ^v cnvoyovos, - - - - - - doKcT fjoi TrpeTreiv, 

Kcil efie Twy riWw)^ eje^a c leXdely Trepl avrtSy. apf.i6Tr€iy in found also 
with Trpos and the accusative, e. g. in Isocrates, »'/ (Ttixpporrvyr) Trpos 
ras avvovaias apfiorrei, with twi and the accusative Soph. Ant. 1317. 

Ohs. 2. ojjoios is also constructed with the genitive : Herod. 3, 37. 
etrri ^e Kai Tavra ojjioia rev 'lltpai (ttov ^, like Trpoacpepi'is Eur. Here. 
F. 130. also with kutu and the accusative Plat. Rej). 8. p. 555 A. 

5. Like o/uotoc are constructed all adjectives of a similar 
meaning, e. g. a^eX(p6c 'akin, conformable to' : Soj)h. (Ed. C. 
1262. aSeX^a S, wc coiKe, Tovroiaiv (popeT ra tijc, ra- 

XaivrtQ vr]^voQ Bpewriipia. Plat. Leg.3. p. 6i^7 E. irarrip ev 

■7Ta0i]/iiaaiv a^e\(po7c wv toic yevojuevoiQ Gijcrei Trjooc rov 
SvaTv-^cjc, TtXevrrjauvTa iTTTroAuToi'. However, it is found 
with the genitive also : Plat. Phil. p.2\ B. opa Sri, rov (j)po- 
vetv Kai voeiv Ka\ Xo"y(^ea0at to. ocoi'to, Kai oaa tovtiov aceXcpa 
{irpoaSelv av aoi 77-yo?o.) Isocr. Pamg. p. 55 A. a^eXcpa tmv 
eipr^pkviDV . 

^vvu)S6c, is similar, Pitr. Med. 1004. toS ov ^i»vw8a ToTo-tv 
e^^iy yeX peroic^ ; TrpoawSoc, Eiirip. lofi. 371. TrpocroiSoQ 17 
Tv\t] T(op(o TTuOei. See §. 402 B. 

6. So also the words which signify ' nciiv',eyyvQ,7reXaG,uyyov, 
ttXi/ctioc, 7rXr](naZ,€iv, are constructed with the dative as well as 
the genitive, §. 339. Eur. Siippl. 1024. y^pwra y^pioTi treXac 
Oepeva. comp. 10(31. Phan. 873. uEsch. Snppl. 223. Pind. 
Nem. 9, 94. ^KapavSpov -^evpaaiv ay-^ov. ih. 10, 124. Tvp- 
pw ayeSov irarpoo'io). Soph. Ant. 761. TrapovTt TrXjjata no 
vvpcp'iM. Id. Trach. 748. roi; S epneXa^eic. Since the idea 
of conformity and agreement is expressed by the dative, //. 
(7,312. 'Ekto/)i pev yap eiryvrjaav kutu pijTioujVTi, the 
sense is 'agreed with him'. Eur. Med. 1166. uXX' yvea 
avSpi TTcwra . 

* Thorn. M. p. 649. '' On this whole section sec Fisch. 

•» Schffif. ad Greg. p. 509. 3 a. p. 396 sqq. 

' Heath ad Eurip. Suppl.73. 

syntax. Of the Dative. G17 

Generally a reference to a person or thing may be considered 387. 
as implied in verbs of almost all kinds, in which such a refer- (388) 
ence is admissible : this then is expressed by the dative, which 
is rendered in various modes. Xen. Mem. S. 1, 1. i/t. on ci^toc 
eo-Ti Oavarov rij iroXei 'with regard to the state', i. e. 'de- 
serves that the state should condemn him to death'. See 
§. 363. Obs. Soph. (Ed. C. 1446. ava^ua yaf) iraaiv eare 
SvaTv-^eiv, i. e. in the judgement of all. See Hermann. Li/~ 
sias c. Ergocl.p. 1 80, 27. ovk a^iov v/^uv rtfc tovt(j)v TrapaaKeviic 
yjTTaaOai, where in another view v/niov might have stood. Xeit. 
Agesil. 2, 9. €t\6 ^e 6 ' Ay^^aiXaoc /tiev to ^e^iov tou /leO eav- 
Tov, ' O p\oiJ.evioi Se eay^aroi rjcrai' auTw tou ev(t)vvjiiov' oi c av 
Gr;j3a?oi avTOi juei/ Se^iot y]aai>, Apyeioi S outoTo to eviovv- 
^tov ei\ov. JEsclii/l. Prom. 12. Kptnoc,, Bict re, acjyiov /.lev 
evToXyj AioG e^ej TtAoc di], Kov^ev epiro^iov cti" eyio ce, &c. *as 
far as concerns you, for you'. Soph. Aj. 1 128. Qeoc, yap eKau)- 
Zei jiie, T(S^e (Atavri) d' oiyopai * with regard to Ajax', i. e. 'as 
much as lay in him'. Xoi. Ci/rop. 1, 2, 2. ZoKovaiv oi vo/liol 
apyj:aBai ovk ei'Oev, oOevirep TctTc TrXeiaraic, TroXeaiv, 'with 
respect to most of the cities', i. e. ' in most of the cities'. Flat. 
Phadon. p. 79 B. id. Leg. 4. p. 706 D. 'Odvaaeuc, avrtS 
('0/tJ?|Ow) XoiSopei Tov 'Ayape/in'ova, ' in Homer'. Hipp. Mm. 
p. 364 E. 6 'A^^lXXevc, ov TroXvTpoTTOC, tm 0/n?//Of.> ireTroir^Tai; 
the dative may be explained thus, but it may also be referred 
to the passive 7rf7rojj/Ta/, for vtto tou 'Op. Tre-rr. The passive in 
Pint. Thecet. p. 192 D. may be explained in the same way, 
eTriarapai avToc epuvrio * I knov/ it for myself ; where Hein- 
dorf reads ei^ epavriS. Soph. (Ed. T. 380. w TrXouTe kch tv- 
pavvi Ka\ reyin] rkyin^c, virepcpepovda no ttoAu^'JAw ptw, ad 
vitcBJ'elicitatem, as Brunck renders it. Hence 11. a , 284. av- 
rap eyioye Xiaaop , 'A-^iXXiji peOepev ^oXoi', as Od. (^ , 377. 
ped'iei' yjaXeiroio yoXoio Ti^Xepa-^io, 11. in Ccr. 350. ocjipa e 
pr]Trip oCpQaXpoiaiv icovaa ^oXou Ka\ plivioQ aivrjc, auavaroic, 
iravaeiev ' to suffer the anger with respect to Achilles to sub- 
side', i. e. 'against Achilles"^. Thus also p'lpveiv riv'i, nuuiere 
aliquem, 'to await any one': JE^chi/I. Ag. 1160. epoi Se 
p'lpvei ay^i(ypoc, apc^{]Kei ^op'i. In the same manner the dative 

•^ On ihesc passages of Homer, sec ad Eurip. Or. 663. 
Brunck ad Arist. llan. iJ51. Person 

618 Si/titav. Of the Dative. 

seems to l)e put for the accusative P/at. Phileh. p. 33 A. no 
TOi' Tou (ppoveiv cXo/^iei'o) (i'lov oiaO wc, tovtov tov rpoTTOV 
ov^ev oTTo/cwXuet ^ijj' 'there is no obstacle to him who — has 
chosen'; where cnroKwXvei is used in a neuter sense. Accord- 
ing to this principle may be explained the passages //. v , 180. 
Eur. Iph. T. 31. quoted in §. 360, a. The dative, which 
expresses a reference to be made to something, is often found 
where * among, with', aptid, might have been used: llerod. 8, 
98. cie^epy^erai Trapat^ecn/iieva, Karawep ' EAAj/(r( i] \ap7ra011- 
(pop'ii]. ILnr. Ilec. 595. avOpioTroKJi Se o pev Tvovtipoc, ovBev 
aXXo nXriv KaKoc. Thiic 1, 6. Kcti 01 Trpea^vrcpoi avrolc 

Tiov ev^aipovoji' eTravaavro (popovrrcc,. Xe?t. Ci/r. 1, 2, 2. 

See aljove. Sometimes there is even a second dative : Eur. Hel. 
1268. Ti aoi irapaayjio ^tjra tio Te(?i');KoT( ; Mor the deceased'. 
Dem. 01. 1. p. 15, 23. uv Se tovtwv cnro(yTef)i]0)j to7j' -^pr^pa- 
Tiou, eic, ajevov KopiB)j ra ti}c. Tpofpijc, toTc ^ti'ojr, {' for the 
foreigners') avrto KaTaaTiiaerai. 

Thus the dative is found with verbs and adjectives, where in 
English the pro])ositi()ny"o;' is used : with pa^inQ 'easy', ■yaXeiruc, 
difficult'; ayaOoc, €vy^pr](TToc, koXog 'good, serviceable, useful, 
handsome', cuGy^poc, 'disgracefid', r]^vc, 'pleasant', and others, 
with which tlie dative expresses the person or thing with refer- 
ence to which one of those predicates is apj)lied to an object. 
Thus also ' E/CTOjO, arap av poi eaai Tranip Kcn irorvia py^rrip, 
7jSe Kaa'iyvriToc,. nudpassim, as in Latin. P/al. Elircdon. p. ()5 B. 
apa e)(et aXi]Oeiav Tiva b'ipic, re Kai ukoi] toic, avO pioiroic,, 
P/at. Prot. p. 334 C. roTr, pev t^wOei' tov aMparoc ayaOov can 
TM uvOpwTTO), where t. c^. denotes that for which anything is 
immediately good, but t. avO. that which is general, 'is good 
for man, for the external parts of the body'. 

Obs. Sometimes such adjectives are considered as substantives, and 
construed with the genitive, as arlpa cvaperrj yOoyus Soph. Ant. 187. 
To'is tKei kyOpo'is ypuiy T/iuc. 6, IS. Plat. Rep. 10. p. G20 B. 

(389) Hence various phrases are to be explained : 

388. a. The dative is often put, especially with wc, in order to 
show that a proposition is affirmed, not as generally true, but 
valid only with respect to a certain person, consequently rela- 

Si/ntar. Of the Dative. G19 

lively and subjectively. Soph. CEd. C. 20. fiakpuv y(ip, <'oc, 
yepovTi, 7rf)ov<TTa\i}r, oSov, ' for an old man'. iO. 76. tVeiVep 
el yevvaioc, ojc. iSovri ' for one who sees thee', in appearance. 
Plat. Soph. p. 226 C. Ta-)(^elav wc ei-ioi cjKeipiu ewirciTTeic;. 
Rep. 3. p. 3S9 D. a(jj(^poavvnc, Se (uc 7rXrj0ee oh to. roiaSe 
/LiejKTTa; for the people ^. (paiverai or ei/ca'aot might he sup- 
plied. Instead of which Plat. Soph. p. 237 C. -^aXeirov vpov 
Kal, crvcSoi' enrelv, quo ye e/^ioi, TravraTraaiv air-jpov. Hence 
tuc Se avveXovTi enrelv \. 544. 

Thus the dative expresses the opinion or judgement of a 
person. Soph. Ant. 904. /cai rot a e-yw rif-iriaa to?^ (ppovovaiv 
ev ' according to the judgement of those who understand'. See 
the Scholiast. Hence the phrase ujq e/no'i, or !oc y ejiioi, ' ac- 
cording to my judgement' : Soph. Antig. 1161. Kpk(x)v yap nv 
t^]\(i)Toc, wc efxol, TTore. Aj. 395. epe^oc o) (jyaevvoTaroi^, 
djC ei-ioi. Plat. Rep. 1 . p. 536 C. ayavuKTiiaac, poi ^okm Kai 
toairep dv/modelc, role aiTiotc, airovdaioTcpov enrelv a elirov. Ow 
pa Toi' Ai', eCpy], ovkqvv, ujc, y epoi aicpoaTy. AAA wc 
epoi, nu 8' eyu), pijTopi. Instead of which Eiirip. Ak.^lO. 
u)G y epol y^p^adai KpiTy. Plat. Soph. p. 234 E. wc, 701; v epo'i, 
ri]XiKcoSe ovTi, Kp7vai. (where Kplvai is retained from another 
construction, as e'lTreiv in wc Se aweXovri enreiv.) Xen. Vectig. 
5, 2. wc, ep^ go'^y. Soph. Trach. 718. oo^y yovv epyj. Herod. 
3, 160. irapa ^apeUo Kpiry . 

h. In the definition of a property, distance, situation of a (390) 
place, &,c. a participle is often put in the dative, which ex- 
presses the action with respect to which that definition is ap- 
plied. It may be resolved by a conditional proposition. Herod. 
2, 1 1 . ap^af-ievoi e/c pvyov SiefCTrXwiTfu eq tvv evperiv QaXaa- 
aav vpepai avaicnpovvTai reaaepnKovra, eipeanj -j^pewpevot, 
'if one beu'ins'. Id. ib. 29. otto ' YL\e(pavTivr]c, ttoXwc, av<» 
'lovTiavavTec, eari ywp'iov. comp. 1, 14. 181. 4,25. 7, 143. 
Thnc. 1, 24. — 2, 49. to ^tei' e'^w^ei' a-rrropevu} aujpa ovk 
uyav Oepiiiov ^v. Plat. Rep. 9. p. 589 C. Trpoc, re i}Sovriv 
Kol Trpor, cv^o^iav Kai M(l)eXtiav a KOTTOvpevo* o ^.tev CTrau'erric 

' Heusde Spfc. Crit. in Plat. p. 52. p. 741. Heind. a'i Plat, So[.h. p. 336. 
•• \'a!ck. ad Hipp. 324. Toup ad Ast ad Leg. p. 479, 

Suid. 1. p. 454. Brunck Le.\. Soph. 

1 -z 

620"' Sj/fitax. Of the Dative. 

rov ^iKa'iov a\j]Oevei, o Se \peKTi]C ovSev u-yieo, ovd eicwc, \peyei 
o Tt xpeyoi (r). 

c. The same takes place in definitions of time, when it is to 
be expressed that an action has taken place since a certain 
person has done this or that. /A)3', 295. 7'j^j?v S etvaroa eari 
7ref)iTp07re(i)v eviavTOc 'E)'0a§e /miiivovreacri 'since we have 
been here', w , 413. ^vw^eKurr} §0 ol i]mc Kei/^ievh). comp. 
Od. t', 192. Instead of whicli //. <p' , 155. 7/Se Se jnoi rvv 
riwQ ei'^eKUTii, or' ec. ''IXtov ei\i]Xov6a. to , 765. »/o>? yap 
vvv fxoi t6^' eeiKoarov eroc elai, e^ ov KeiOev cfjijv. comp. 
Od. 0)', 308. Herod. 9, 41. wc Se iv^eKUTi) e-ye-yoi-ce avri- 
Ka Trjjttevo tfft ev Tl\a-anjc>i. comp, 1, 84. 2, 2. 9, 10. 
2, 124. '^povov Se eyyeveaOai Tpif^o/nevw no Xaw ceKa 
jiiev eTCa tijc oSuv, Kara tijv ciAkov tovc, X'lOovc, tjjv eceifiav, 
Ss.c. 'whilst the people were tormented'. Sopli. Phil. 354. i]v 
^' Jj/jap 7jSrj ^evrepov TrXeoi'Tt /lot. Eiirip. loii. 353. ■>^|Ooi'oc 
Se Ti'c To7 TToiSt 3ia TTCTrpo-yjiJ ei'o> ; Ac//, 7/('//. 2, 1, 27. eTrei 
i]f.iepa i)v TT^i-nrri), eTTiTrXeouat toTc A0»)i'atotc. and with- 
out a participle Soph. (Ed. T. 735. Kai r'lc \povoc ToTtre eartv 
ou^eXjjXuOwc ; Herod. 2, 145. '^IpoKXt•^ jitei' Se otra ai/rot 
AiyuTTTtoi <^)ao-< eli-ai erea ec '' Af.iaaiv (5aai\ea, ^e^n^Mrai /iioi 
TTpoade, 'from Hercules', or 'since the death of Hercules"'; 
and frequently in what follows. • • 

(:59l) d. Also, when the reference of an action to some one, with 
respect to feelins:, is expressed, the person is put, especially with 
the verbs ' to come', in the dative, with the participle or adjec- 
tive, which expresses the feelino;. Od. <p' , 209. yiyvwcKO) B , 
<vc acbwiv eeXco/iie voiaiv ikuvco n'loKji Cjhijjwv 'that you 
alone longed for my arrival'. Sop/i. Q-ld. C. 1505. ttoOovvti 
7ruuv(pin')]Q ' thou comest, as I wished'. Trach. 18. xpovio S 
ev varkpu) jncv, acr^tev^j S' e/iioJ, o /cXeji'oc >?X0e Zjjror, AXat^oj- 
vjjc re TTiuc, 'he came, to my delight'. Eiirip. Elian. 1061. 

e/3a OiZ'nrovc, G»)|3a/ai' rav^je ycZi' tot cict/ic- 

I'otc, TTuXiv S' o'^jj'*. Comp. §. 401. 

e. In a similar manner the verbs e\vai and y'lyveaOia are often 

» Valck. ad Herod. '2/2. p. 101,29. Bniiick :td Soph. Trarli. 18. 
'' Mussr. et Tors, ad Eur. Ph. I.e. 

Si/nlax. Of ()ie Datice. 621 

accouipaiiied by a participle of the verb * to wish' &.c. in the 
dative ; in which case the participle only, as the leading idea, 
is translated by the finite verb. Od. y', 228. ovk uv efxoiye 
eXiroiiievo) to. yevoiro, ' I had not hoped this'. Herod. 9, 
46'. tVet S' wu avTOi e/^ivijadure Kcil ijco inevniaiv i]i^i7v oi 
Xo-yot yeyovaai, Kai cto1/.ioi ei/^iev Troietuv tuvto, since we 
are pleased with your discourse'. T/tiic. 6, 46. xw NiKia 
TTpodBe^oiiiei'o) r)v to. irepi twv 'E-ye JTaiwi'. ' Nicias expected 
the events in Segesta'. 7, 35. ol Kponoi'iurai elirov, ovk uv 
a^'iai (BovXo/LievoiG el pat, Sia rrjc, 7'?G (rfp^v tov arparov 
levui. comp, 2, 3. Soph. (LV/. T. 1356. OeXovti Kupoi 
tout' uv ■i]v. ll.ur. lull. 654. o S cuktov uvQpwiroiai, kuv ukov- 
aiv y, ^iKaiov elvui jii' o vo/xoc /? (pvaiQ ujiia Trupeiy^e tw 0ew. 
P/at. Corg. p. 4:48 D. ei uvno ye aoi ftovXofievo) e(rTiv 
uTToKpiveaOai. Conip. Phcedon. p. 78 B. Lack. p. 187 C. 
Crati/L p. 384 A. Pep. \.p. 358 D.*^ Similarly, Thiic. 5, II 1. 
TOVTiov per Kai Treirei pupevoic av ti y cvo it o kui v/^iiv kui 
OVK uveTrirrT^ipoaiv, i.e. according to the Schol. tovtwv pev 
Kai vpe7c, TreireipaaQe, kui ovk uveinar^povec, erne. 

An imitation of this in Latin occurs Sallnst. Jug. 100. iili. 
militibiis exccf/itatus cum imperatore labos voleiilifjus csset. Ta- 
cit. Agr. 18. quibus bellum vo/entibus crat. 

f. Hence verbs of all kinds are accompanied by the dative 389. 
of the personal pronouns, which represent the action with le- (39-i) 
ference to a person, but might also have been omitted without 
injury to the sense; a pleonasm which is very common in 
Latin, and is sometimes used in colloquial English. //. ^ , 501 . 
e'nre.peva'i poi, Tpioec, uyuvov IXiovyioc, Trurpi f|)^X(.) Kai piirpi, 
yohpevui ev peyupoiaiv, as Herod. 8, 6"^, I. elirai poi irpoQ 
ftaaiXila, Map^ovie. Od. d' , 569. kui aCpiv yapjipoc, Aioc. 
kaa'i. IL e, 1 16. comp. §', 219. Sop/i. (Ed. C. 82. J tUvov, 
n fteftriKev vptv o ^evoc ; Plat. Pep. I. p. 343 A. (i) tiOi)) 
ae Kopvt(SvTu irepiopa kcu ovk urropvTTCi ceopevov' oc, ye uvTtj 
ovce irpolSuTu ov^e iroipeva -yirwcr/cejo ''. To this head may 

"^ Valck. adHerod.8,101.p.C(iC,3. Wcssel. ad Herod. 8, C8. p. 649, 91. 

Dorv. ad Charit. p. 467. ed L. Koen Taylor I nd.Lys. p. 9 16. cd. R. Fisch. 

ad Greg. p. (173) 376. 2. p. 232. Rcisig Coinm. Crit. in 

<> Ilenislerh. ad Luc. t, 1. p. 432. Gid.C. p. 339. 

G22 Syntax. Of the Dative. 

perhaps be referred the passage Plat. Thecet. p. 143 D. Tivec 
T)fxLv Th)v vk(i)v eTT/'^o^oi yeveadai eTrieiKelc, and o'lio v/nlv twv 
TToXiTtov /LieipaKiu) evrervyjiKa, Avhere Heindorf ad Theat. 
]). 287. supposes the dative to be put instead of the genitive. 

g. Partly from this idiom, and partly because generally in 
the dative the idea of respect or reference to a person or thing- 
is implied, the dative is often put in Greek, where, in other 
languages, the genitive is used ; for this reason, that the Greeks 
understand a person or thing in relation to the action ex})ressed 
in the verb, or to an adjective ; whereas others, the Latins for 
instance, conceive of it with relation to a substantive. Hence 
tliis exchange of cases takes place mostly in verbs only. 

1. The dative for a genitive in reference to a verb. Herod. 
2, 17. ?j ?t Si) (0t»? TU)v oSwv Tw NetXw ecTTt rjSe. Time. 5, 
70. iva /Lu) SiacrTraaOeirt avTo7c, i) ra^ic. 6,31. TrpoOvfojOcvTOC 
ecoc eKaarov, ottujc, avrto rivi evTrpeTreia re i] vavc, Trpoeqei. 
], 89. ' AOr]i'a'nt)v TO KOivuv, e7re(0?j avTolc, ot pappupoi e/c t^c 

yMpac uTT^XOov, SieKop'i'CovTo iralSac, SvC. These three cases 

may also be explained in the same manner as J'. Comp. J, 6. 
Thus also Earip. Ph. 1563. ouKtrt aoi rcKva Xevaaei ^aoQ, 
i. (J. TCKva aov, or hke N" /. Ktir. Hee. 664. ev KaKoiai oe ov 
pa.Sioi>, (3poTo7aiv 6uC^>/j(tcTi' aTO/na. Comp. Xeii. Cyi'. 3, 2, 
4, 7. Plat. Hipp. Min. in. tov gov irarpoc A7r>;^tai'Toi» hi^ovov, 
OTi 7] 'lAt«c KuWiov e'lt] TToni/^ia t<o O/Livpto, i} i) OSvaaeia. 
Thus in Tlinc. 5, 46. (e\:tXeuov) ti]v Boiwtwi' ^vpj.iay^iav uvel- 
vai, with reference to the substantive ; but immediately after- 
wards with reference to the verb, ci /in} tj;v ^vfifia-^iav avj/o-otxri 
BotwToTo, Tifv i^icv ^vjiifut^iav ol Aa/cc8«i/Joi'(Ot Boiwrotc uvK 
e'^adoj' ilviiaeiv. Tiius also Plat. Phadon. p. 62 B. aAX« roSe 
ye fiioi SoKei cv XeyeaOai, to --- vjnac, tovc, avOpwTrovc, tv twv 
KTVjuaTtvv Toir, OeoTc eivai, which just afterwards, D. is ex- 
pressed euXoyioc, c^e«, Vfiar, eKcivov K'Tij/tara eivai'"'. 

2. With adjectives. Plat. Charm, p. 157 E. ?/ re yap ttu- 
rpota u^i?)' oiKia, kcii vtto AvciKpcovTOC, Kai vtto ^uXtvvoc, Kat 
vtt' aXXujv TToXXtxiv ttoojtwp ( "y/>.e/c(t)^tio(TTot. where however the 

" Woll'iid Dcm. Lcpt. p. 271. 

Sipttax. Of the Dative. 623 

dative vfCiv may be referred to cyKeKoo/ii. and then would belong 
to/, ov g. 1. 

3. Substantives are often accompanied also by a dative, 
which is to be explained by a genitive, but not without limi- 
tation. For it signifies properly ' for any one', or the substan- 
tives are allied to verbs or adjectives which govern the dative, 
which then refers not so much to the substantive as to the verb 
or the whole proposition. Eitr. Phccn. 17. to Qi}l3aiaiv ev- 
iTnToic, ava<^, because the expression avaaaetu rivi is used. 
ib. 86. oJ /cXeti'ov o'ikoiq, 'Avtijovt], OaXoc Trarpi, where the 
dative Trarpi belongs to kXcivou OaXoc (not to one of them 
alone), ' illustrious oflspring to the father', and o'ikoiq is for ev 
oiKoic. IlippuL 189. y^epalv irovoc, 'labour for the hands'. 
Plat. Rep. 5. p. 464 A. i) twv TratSwv Kal yvvcuKuiv koi- 
vwvia ToTc (pvXal^i, on account of the construction to7q (jyvXa^i 
Koivoi e'lai iralSec comp. B. ]>. 466 C. Eii?-. Ilec. 1267. o 
Opyj^l iLiuvTic (jiiavTeveiv rivi). comp. Or. 363. Herod. 6, 103. 
o pev di] 7rpe(T[5vT€pO(; tojv Traidwv tw Ki^iiwvt 'S.Trjcyayopyjr, t)v 
Tr]viKavTa irapa no TruTpo) MiAridSy rpecpopevoa is said with 
relation to the verb n^ rpecpopevoc. Xen. Anah. 4, 4, 2. (Daa'i- 
Xeiov eiy^e tw crarpcnry signifies properly, ' had a palace for 
the satrap'; which, according to the sense, is indeed the same 
as 'had a palace of the satrap'. Piiid. 01. 9, 24. av Gertie 
BvyaTi]p re o\ aioreipa XeXoy^^^ev peyaXoBo^oc JLvvupia, oi 
is probably to be explained according to f, and is not for 
Ovyarrip avrrjc. Pind. 01. 1, 91. Tcn- oi TraTiip vrvepKpefiaae 
Kaprepov avTio XiOov, oi is governed by vwepKpepaae, and 
avTw belongs to KapTep6v^\ Sop/i. Anlig. 857. expavaac, aX- 
yeivoTUTaQ epoi pep'ipvac, Trarpoc, TpnroXiaTOv oltoi> (Xeytov), 
Tov re wpoTravTOC, aperepov iroTpov KXeivolc, AapcaKicaiaiv, 
where kX. Aa/3S. has the same relation to e<^avaaa irorpov, as 
epo'i has to expavauQ pep'ipvac. Eur. Tph. T. 388. ra TavraXov 
Beoiaiv eariapara ' for the gods', ear. irapaayjeOevTa 0. Plat. 
Leg. 9. p. 869 D. o Se irepl rrjc, aCpeaetoQ eipnrai (povov -Kurpi, 
mirpi is governed by eipnrai, as p. 868 E. Thncyd. 6, 18. 
Ka\ pi) i'y«"C h Nt/ciou Ttou Xoyojv anpayi^ioavvr] Kai CiaaTuaic; 

'' The other passages brought for- Bceckh ad 01. ?., 10. arc explained 
ward by Hermann ad Ul. 1, 191. under ft. 

624 Si/nUtx. Of the Dative. 

TO 10 veoic to rove, Trpe<7J3vTepovc airoarpe^py is tlie same as 
oi Nt/ctou \6yoi oi avpayf^iOGVvr^v Troiovvrec, Kcti ciuaraaiv e/n- 
TToiovvrec toIc, veoic^. 

h. The poets in particular often add to the dative, especially 
of a pronoun, another dative, for explanation or more exact 
definition, which in other languages is put in the genitive, in 
the same manner as the Greeks also add to the article as a 
pronoun §. 264. or to personal pronouns §. 468, b. the name 
itself, to the genus the species §. 432. and to an accusative 
another accusative of a pronoun in the place of the genitive. 
See §. 421. Ohs. 3. Herod. 2, 18. paprvpeei Be /iioi t>J 
•yi/w^T?, where ry yvw^aj seems to be a more precise expla- 
nation of /iioi. Pind. 01. 8, 109. Koaf-tov, ov a(^iv loiraaev 
Zeuc yevei. ' to them', viz. * to their race', for yevei <t(^wi', 
as 2, 27. Pi/th. 1, 13. Nein. 7, 32. eTret xpevBeeaaii' ot 
TTorava jua-^nva aepvov eTreari ti. Soph. Phil. 1 Al . Kur. Ile- 
racL 63. This is more rare in Attic. Plat. Hipp. Min. 
p. 364 B. loKvovv eiravepeaOai, /»; aoi ejiiTroSwv e'lijv epiOTWV 
T>J eTTiBei^ei * to thee', i. e. ' to tiiy exposition'. As regards 
the sense it is indifferent whether the pronoun in this case 
be in the dative or genitive, but in res[)cct to grammar it is 
not the same thino- whetlier the oenitive be used for the da- 
tive imconditionally or under certain conditions ; one of these 
conditions is, if the second dative can be regarded as an ex- 
planation or more exact definition of the first. Two datives of 
substantives are sometimes found together: 11. X, 1 1. A^ai- 
OKTiv ce peya aOei'oc t/ipoX kKaario Kaptty. Pind. Istlim. 
1,86. o(T ayujvioc ]Lppuc, WpoBono eiropev 'ittttoic, * to He- 
rodotus (not himself immediately) but his horses', where how- 
ever iTTTToic, may be used as §. 396. Pur. Here. F. 111. 
Rhes. 266. P/at. Peg. 1 1. p. 918 C. TTa<riv eiriKovpiav rale 
■^peiaic, e^evTTopelv koi opaXorriTa Talc outriotc, 'to all 
(masc.) viz. for their wants and their property'*'. 

7. The same relation seems to be the ba>is of the construc- 

=^ Fisch. 3 a. p. 4-20. j). 287. Soph. p. 27'2. Ast ad Flat. 

' Schat.adSupli. I'hil.747. Eliiisl. Leg. p. y. belong to cases explained 

ad Eur. Med. 961. Rarch. (3 IP. 'Ihe aliovc. 
passages quutcd bylleindoit'ad'1' 

Sj/ntai. Of the Dative. 625 

tiou of the verbs elum, yiyveaOai, vTrdfj-^eiv ' to be', with the 

a. elvai Scc. Eurip. Herod. 298. ovk ecrri rouSe Traial 
Kd'AXtoi' yepuc, V TTorpoc ea6Xov KciyaOov Trec^u/cevctt, 'there is 
no nobler privilege to children'. It is usually translated * to 
have', as in Latin esse with the dative, e. g. TeXXw TraTSec 
ri<jav KctXol KayaOoi ' Tellus had good children'. Hence also 
/LierecfTi jlioi tivoc,^. 

Hence koivoc, is also constructed with the dative, and fi'om 
this construction and that of elvai with the dative arose the 
phrases: Herod. 5, 84. oi ^e Alyiv^Tai e(pa<jav o-^icrt re Kal 
'AOrivaioiai elvai ov^eu Trpayi^ia, ' had nothing to do with 
each other' ih. 33. Demosth. pro Cor. p. 320. /trjger eiva'i aoi 
Kai ^iXiTTTTM TTpayina. Hence the abbreviated phrase ti <roi 
Kal e/iioi ; Demosth. in Aphoh. p. 855. r'l vn/^uo Kal rp /3a(ravw ; 
Instead of this we have Eur. Ion. 1303. rt 8' earl <I>ot/3w 
aoire Koivov ev fxemo ; ' What has Phosbus to do with thee ? 
what art thou to Phoebus?' Hcraclid. 1 85. /j/nTv Se Kal twS 
ov^ev eaTiv ev jxeau). Eur. Iph. T. 254. Condcus apud Stoh. 
p. 501,4. Ttc yap KUTOTTTpo) Kal rv<p\co Koivutvia; where, 
in Latin, one dative is put with the ablative and cum: quid 
Phoibo tecum rei est. 

Ohs. Koii'os is also constructed widi eirl and die dative : Plat. Thec^t. 
p. 185 C. // ch cia Tiros cvvu/xis -6 t eirl Trdcri koivov kuX to cttI tovtois 
h]\ol aoi ; and widi die genitive Plat. Men. p. 241 C. e^yov kolvov 
AaKecaijjioy! u)i' re Kal 'Adrjvaicov §. 315. Obs. whence Kon'wv/a with gen. 
Eur. Iph. T. I. c. 

This reference or respect to a person or thing can properly 390. 
take place only with verbs, because it is only conceivable where (396) 
there is an action ; but the dative often accompanies substan- 
tives also, which are derived from or allied to verbs governing 
the dative. Ilesiod. Th. 93. To'in toi Mouaew)' Upri ^oaic, av- 
QpCjTToiaiv, instead of which Flat. Fhileb. p. 16 C. Be<^v etc 
avOpujTTOvc. SoVtc, as Plato himself varies the construction, 
Phcedon. p. 88 C. airiGrui ov poi'tn' toTc it p o eip^i f.ievoiQ 

•Fisch. 3a.p.414. ad Eur. IlipiH-l. '^a. I'l^ch. 3 a 

<» \'alck.adiierod.5,o3.i'.3G7scq. \\ 419. 

626 Sj/nta.i. Of the Dative. 

Ao-yotc, aWa Kai e'lQ to. varepa jLieWovra pi}9i}(Teo6at. jEsch. 
Prom. 617. Herod. 7, 169. w vtiTrioi, eTrtfte^K^eo-Oe ocra v/lUv 
eK Twv MeveXew t 1^10) prifxaTinv MiJ'fur, eVe/t^e (.iiqvuov ca- 
KpvpaTa * on account of the assistance which you afforded to 
Menelaus', because they said Ti/Liojpelv rivi. Eiirip. Phccii. 948. 
(oei rovBe) (jyoviov ai/j-a yy ^ovimi \oac, Kadpio TraXaiijJV 
' Apeoc e/c juri v ijn a tojv, oc yrjyevei dpuKovri Ti/ndopei (povov. 
from ini}uieiv tivi. T/iuc. 1, 73. tj inev Trpka^evaic, i)i.iujv ovk ec 
avTiXoyiav to?c v/^ierepoiG ^vpf-iw^oic eyevero. from 
avTiXeyeiv tivi. 6, 76. ov irepi ttJc, eXevdepiaG avreaTtjaav, 
Trepi Be ol pev (T<pi(jii', aWa pi) eKeivio Karacov\ioa€0)C, 
01 Se em BeaTTorov peTa(5oXyj. from Kara^ovXovv riva tivi. 
Plat. Ale. 1. p. 116 A. TTjv ev tw iroXkpM toIc, (p'lXoia 
(joiiOeiav. Charm, p. 166 B. av Ze opoi6ri]Ta riva 2[j/Tf7c 
avTijC TaTc aXXaic. Eeg. 9. p. 860 E. Ti avpj^ovXeveic, /j^iTr 
Trepi TTJc, vopoOeaiac ry twv RXXi]inov woXei; Aristot. 
Polit. 3. p. 473 E. Tovc, ^pcyovrac ri]v Tupavvica K(u Tifv 
TJepiavcpoii i^ pa(jv(jovX(x) avpj^ovX'iav ov\ airXioc, oii]Teov 
opOwc eTTiTipau'^. 

391. A relation is more distinctly expressed 1. in the verbs, 
(381) yvhich signify ' to assist, help, to injure', and govern the da- 
tive and accusative, api'iyeiv, apvveiv, aXe^eTr, (3oi]Oe7v, eiri- 
Kovpelv, XvaireXe^v, govern only the dative, like aiixiliari, 
opitidari: oj(j)eXe7v however is used with both cases. With the 
dative: ."JiiSch. Peru. 839. wc roTc Oavovai ttXovtoc ovSev 
loC^eXe'i, nil jurat mortiios. Prom. 342. parr\v yap, ov^ev 
wcfieXwv epoi, Tvov^acic, e'l ti Kai ttovclv OeXeic Soph. A/itig. 
560. 1) epi] '/'I'X'' ^"X"i TcOvijKev, wcrre to?<; cpiXoiaiv loCpe- 
Xetr. Eur. Or. 658. tovc, (jy'iXovi; ev to ic, kokoTc ^^j) toTo 
(piXoiaiv w(f)eXe7v. comp. 673. Arisloph, Av. 420. Herod. 

9, 103. Twv ^(ipiojv 01 oTpaTevopevoi epcov oaov eov- 

veaTO, TrpoaiofpeXeeiv eOeXovTec, roTat 'EXX jjai . Hence 
virepkyeiv yfipa tivi, i. e. apvveiv II. e , 433. See in §. 41 1, 4. 

'^ Duker adThuc. 5, 46. 8, '-21. p. y)3sc(|. Ast ad Plat. Leg. p. 36. 

Valck. ad Herod. 7, 16. p. 517, 100. Schitf. App. Dem. 1. p. 562. 875. 

Valck. ct Pors. ad Eurip. Ph. 1. c. Stallb. ad Piiil. p. 30. ad Eiitliyplir. Viger. p.711,47. Fiscli.oa. p. 101. 
p. 336. Ilciiul. ad Plat. Gorg. p. 2'29. ^ Fisch. 3 a. p. 106. 

Phsd. p. 112. Wytlcab. ad Pint. 

Sj/ntax. Of the Dative. G27 

examples of the construction of this verb with the accusative. 
Thus also XviiunveaOai rivi Herod. 1, 214. Xu^itatvo^tci'?/ Se no 
veKpio eweXeye roidde, * maltreating'. 8, \5. veac ovtm o-^i 
oX'iyac Xvf^iaiveaOai, ' to injure'. Xen. Hell. 2, 3, 26. ^ok€i St- 
Ka'iov eivai, e'l tic, iijlkvv cwtiSv Xv/iiaiverai ravry rrf kutci- 
araaei, ^Ik^v avrov ^iBovut. 7, 5, 18. 'O 'ETraiutvwvdac, evOv- 

f.iovf.ievoc, OTi avToc, XeXv f^iaajiievoQ iravraTraai ry 

eavTOv So^yj ecroiro. Arist. ISlub. 925. Xu^iatvo^uevoi^ to7c, 
iLieipaKioic. AVith the accusative §. 415, 1. a. a. Both 
constructions are united Herod. 3, 16. w Xv/naivoinevoi Ylepaai 
edoKeov ''A/naaiv Xv/na'iveaOai'^. Thus also XfuftaaOai rivi. 
Plat. Crit. p. 4:7 E. 'AAAa /.ler' eKeivov earlv rj^iui' /3(wtov Ste- 
(jyOapiiievov, (0 to oSj/cov /nev Xw|3aTat, to Se Si/caiov oviurjaiu. 
On the other hand, ovivyjui, (^Xi'ittto) are constructed with the 
accusative only. 

Obs. 1. To this class belongs the phrase ri -Xeor enriy IfAol ; ' what 
advantage have I from it ? what good is it to me ?' Xai. Cyrop. 5, 
5, 34'. ri yap tfioi -nXeov to Ti]v yz/r irXarvveadut, avTov ce uTifia- 
leaQai ; Soph. Anl'ig. 2G8. or ovlkv r^v epevvtj ai irXkov, * as we made 
nothing out of our inquiries'''. 

Ohs. 2. Tlie verbs and adjectives which signify ' useful, injurious, 
inimical', &c. are properly constructed with the dative % but sometimes 
with the genitive also. Plat. Polit. p. 296 E. waizep u Kvi3epvi]Ty]s, tu 

ri] s V e w s Kul v avT<S r aet i,vfi(l>epov TrapacpvXaTTCJV, (jwi^ei tovs 

tjvi'vav-as. Rep. 1. J). 338 C. (pr^jJi eyw elrcii tu ciKuwi' ovk aXXo ri, i) 
TUTOv KpeiTTovos t,vfi((>epoi' . Comp. Deni. pro Cor. p. 267, 15. Eur. 
Hel. 51G. ret Tvpuacpopa rtjs tvi' Trapovrrrjs avfJipopas. Of ex^P"^ ^^^ 
^.387. Obs. of eraiTfos §. 3GG. 06a-. 2. 

2. The impersonal St? is constructed with the dative and 
accusative (r)- With the dative: ^Eschi/l. Again. 857. orut 
Be Kui Set (bapfu'iKOJv ttciuov'hov, 7'/T0t /ceai'Ttc, v Te/iiovTec, ev- 
(bpovioc. treipaaof^ieaQa 7Ti}f.iaT0C, Tpe\pai vocrov. Kitr. Med. 565. 
aoi iraiBcov r'l Se?; Sappl. 596, ev SeT ^toi'oi' /tot, touc OeovQ 
eveti', ocrot BiK^v ae^^ovrai. Plat. Meiion. p. 79 E. Set ovu aoi 

■= Gronov. ad Ilerod. I.e. Wessel- p. 40G. 
ingad Her. 8, 13. p.G'2a, OJ. Lcniicp '' Valck. Dialr. p. loO. 

ad" riial. p. -17 sc(|. Ernc.sli ad •-' I'isch. 3 a. p. 'J99. 

Xcnujdi. Mcui. S. 1, 3, G. l•"i^ch. oa. 

C28 Si/ntcix. Of the Dative. 

vaXiv e^ a^^rjc, I'oc, e/iioi BoKei, tijc avTijc epwr/yaewc, ri eariv 
aperi}^. Of the accusative see §. 412. 

y^pi] is rarely found with the dative. Soph. Antig. 736. 
oAXw yap 7} {.loi yph ye rf/crS apy^eiv yfiovoc; Etoij). loH. 
1337. TOiai h evciKoic lepa KaB'it^iv, octtjc 7jSt/ccjT , e-^pifv. 

392. 3. Of the verbs signifying ' to obey, to disobey', weiOeaOai, 
^"^^^v ajTetSeTv take regularly the dative. vTruKoveiv, /caroKoveiv take 

the genitive and dative. Of the Genitive see §. 362. The fol- 
lowing are some instances of the construction with, the dative. 
Xen. Cyr. 2, 4, 6. (7>^oA7j (TcAti'wj' vttijkovov aoi. Arist. ?\iub. 
360. on yup "•' «aXw y v—aKovaaif.niv tmv vvv inerewpoao- 
(ptGTwv, TrXriv 1] n po^iKoi. Plat. Leg. 6. p. 774 B. ^rjSeic 
VTTGKoveTio fujcev avTM eKiov Tivv vecov. Comp. Xen. j\Iem. S, 
2, 3, 16. — llerod. 3, 88. ' Apu[iioi ouoa/m KaTi]Kovaav etri 
cov\oavv^f Ylepa^jai. 

To this class v-o-riicraeiv rivi also seems to belong, * to lose 
one's courage against any one, to be afraid of any one, to re- 
verence one'. Xen. Ci/r. 1, 5, 1. cvravOa S»j ttoAii' vttc- 
Tni](jaov 01 ^iXiKcc, avrw (t(o Kvpno) opposed to the foregoing 
cTKioTTTeiv TM'o. Tile sauic author ib. 6, 8. joins the accusative 
with it, TToi'U ^lot BoKei aiay^pov elvai to t oiovtovc avrovQ 
ovTuc vTTOTTTT/^af, vvliich is rendered * to fear'. 

Obs. XciTpeveLf ' to serve, to pay honour to the gods by offerings', in 
the first sense takes the dative ; and on account of the latter, though 
rarely, the accusative. Eurip. El. 132. -j'va iroXir, riva h' oIkov, 
M -Xflf^iov (Tvyyore, \a-p€vei'> ; ' implore'. It is found liowever Iphig. 
T, 1122. erOa rcis eXcKpoKTinov deds a f^KJ)! ttoXov Kovpa^', ttoT^' 
'A yn fi€ jjror I ai', Xarpevu), in the first sense with the accusative also. 

393. 4. The verbs ' to yield', eUeiv, v-e'iKeiv &,c. govern the da- 
(382) tive, as in Latin. See the passages §. 354. Soph. AJ. 669 sqq. 

KOI yap Tu ccwa Kui tu Kaprepwrara Ti/naic, UTreJKei touto 
liicv vKpoanpelc y^eif.itvi'ec ck-^w povaiv evKapirio Oepei' 
cl^iffTUTai ce vvktog aiavijc, kvkXog ry AeuKOTrwAw cjyeyyoc. 
■iipepa (j)\eyeiv. But //. o, 227. uTToet^e ^eT^ac e/nac,, i. e. 
i/Aii^e. But vTreKaTiji'ai is ))ut with the accusative of the thing 

'' Fisch. 3 a. \). 413. Ehnsl. ad Eur. Med. bd'i. p. (168 scq.) 17 1. 

Sj/?itax. Of the Dative. G29 

Plat. Vhileb. p. 43 A. aWa yap vTreKarnvai rov Xoyoi' tTTi- 
(pepo/iievov tovtuv (iovXofiai. as Sop/t. AJ. 82. CppovovvTa 
yap viv ovK uv e^e.arriv okvw. Couip. Demusth. in Lepl. 
J). 460, 1. in Androt. p. 617, 15. vvliere, on account of the 
preposition t'/c, the genitive sliould be put. So in ApuUon. Rh. 
2, 92. it should probably be o S' tu^avTOQ vireKarr], not vire<Jri). 
So also vTreKTpeTreaOa'i riva Plat. P/tccdun. p. 108 B. 

Hence also eKirodwu is often put with the dative, though 
elsewhere accompanied by the oenitive. Eur. Or. 541. inreX- 
6eT(x) cy) ToTc XoyoKTiv eKiro^wv to ynpac, i]/.i7v to aov. Phain. 
40. (J ^eve, Tvptivvoia CKiro^iov uediaraao . 

Obs. 1. The poets add sometimes ev to Cicuyai, with the dative, 
instead of the dative alone. Eiirip. Med. 629. epujres, v-rrep [.ih ayctj' 
eXdorres, oi/v €hdoL,iai', civ5' aperay TrapeSujKav ey uycpuaiv'^. 

Obs. 2. Thus eioxy^'iy also, incommodarc, molestum esse aUcu'i, ' to 
be troublesome to any one', governs the dative. Jsocr. Pancg. p. 42 C. 
tyox^e'iy roh oKouuvaiy. ad Phil. p. Si E. reus vayt^yvpeaiy eyuxXely ; 
but ib. 2). 02 seq. Qijjocuoi ijywyXow tus TrdXets rets ey UeXoTroyyijfJU)'^. 
On the contrary ipwoci^oj governs properly the accusative, ' to hinder 
any one', e. g. Xen. Mem. S. 4, 3, 9. but on account of the construction 
oi ef.nrolojv nyi, the dative also, rmpedhnento alicui esse. Isocr. tt. lutiC. 
p. 321 E. vvy Si jioi to yrjpns epTroci^ei, and in Aristotle. See iStejih. 

5. dpeaKeiv * to please', takes the dative, as in Latin: Plat. (383) 
Menon. p. 76 E. r\ aTroKpiaic, dpkaKei aoi /tcTAXoi', though fre- 
quently the accusative also, as deleclare. See §. 412. 

The dative is put with transitive and intransitive verbs, to 394. 
show that an action takes place with reference to a person or (3»') 
thing; particularly 1. ' for the advantage of any one, for the 
pleasure of any one' {dativus commodi). Herod. 8, 61 . TouTa 
Xe-yovTOC Qef^aaroKkiiOvc.f avric o Kop'ivdioc Adti/iiai'Toc erre- 

(pepero, lLvpvj3iadea ovK ewv eTn<pn(piteii' cnroXi av- 

dpi, ' dissuading him from collecting the votes to oblige a man 
without a country'. Soph. AJ. 1045. MereXaoc, «.» Su Toi-Se 

i* Thom. !VJ. p. '288. Briinck ad cd. Lips. 
Eur. B;iccb. 11^7. ^ '' bchaf. A pp. Dcui. 1. p. :)19. 

<^ Tors, ad luu. Med. 1. r. p. -jOI. 

G30 Si/ntax. Of the Dative. 

ttXowv eareiXaiiiev, which Homer expresses //. o, 159. Tf/t»ji' 
apvvf.ievoi MeveXaio^. Eur. Suppl. 15. ovq {septoii duces) ttot 
'' A^pacTTOC I'lyay , OiSittou TrayK^yipiac jiiepoc KaTaay^eiv cjyv- 
-yaSi IloXui/et/cei OeXivu yafx(3p(o ' for Polynices'. 

Hence the expressions : airo\oyei<j9ai rivi Lys. p. \11 , 19. 
Tif^ihypeiv Ti rivi. Plat. Apol. S. p. 28 C. ei rifitvpncreic, Tla- 
tookXoj Tfo era'ip(o tov (povov. af.ivveiv ti tivi. Od. 0, 525. 
for fiVo rivoc. See §. 353, 3. jEsch. S.c. Theh. 4 IS. e'lpyeiv 
reKovar] /Liijrpi TroXe/nov Sopu. Eur, Troad. 77 . waiS'i r ov 
^vvatpeO' uv Oavarov «p»;^at'\ Homer adds eTTt //. (j)' , 374. 
irepi^ei^eiv tivi II. o , 123. vTrepappio^eeiv tji'i Herod. 8, 72. 
ti/nere alicui, which also is Scipa'iveiv irepi tivi ni Herod. 8, 74. 
So kXvOi poi for /tou //. e, 1 15.*^ Hence perhaps also cpiXo- 
cbpovelada'i r/i^i * to receive any one kindly', ((^tXa (jypoveiv tivi) 
Xen. Ci/r. 3, 1, 8. Plat. Leg. W. p. 935 C. 6vp<o (jiiXocppo- 
vovjiievovc,, i. e. ■^apito/^evovc, as ib. A. more commonly with 
the accusative. 

2. ' In honour of any one*. Ilerod. 4, 34. Tycri irap- 
Oevoiai TavTyai reXt urrjaaff ytri ev AnXw KeipovTcti Kai ai 
Kopai Kai ol Trainee, twv AjjXi'wv. Aristoph. Lt/sistr. 1277. 6p- 
y^r]a uf^ievoi Oeoiaiv, evXafiujueOa to Xonrov avOic pi) ^apap- 

' " (1 
raveiv en . 

3. Hence the dative is sometimes used for /nro with the ge- 
nitive. 11. o, 87. Ge/itc7Ti Se KaXXnrap\\M ^ckto Beirac, 
* from Themis', or ' took it off Themis'. Od. ir , 40. loc, apa 
^wvijaac, ol e;St^oTo ^aX/ceoi' cyyoc,. Pind. P. 4, 35. upvic, 
{augurium) ov ttotc TpiTCJviSoc ev irpo-^oaic, Xipvac Oe<o avepi 
e'l^opevio, yalav ^i^ovti ^e'lvia, TTpiopaOev \Lv(p(ipoc KnToftac, 
Se^oTO. Sop/i. EL 442. CT/cei//fU y(ip, ci <yoi irpoaipiXwc, avTy 
^oKet yepa rn'S' ov'v TciCpoiai Be^aaOai veKvc. Similar to this 

is Soph. EL 226. tivi yap ttot av -rrpocrcpopov ukov- 

aaip eiTOC,; tivi (ppovovvT i Ka'ipia ; for irapa Tii'or, *'. 

*' V^alcken. ad Eurip. I'h. 174'2. Arist. Lys. I.e. Liician. 

p. 58-2. t. 1. p. 21)1. Eur.'l'road.SS','. 

>» Klmsl. ad Soph. (Ed. T. 092. <= Pors. ad Kur. llec. 533. Scha'f. 

•■ [)iunvs.deCoinp.p.78. ad Soi)h. Aj. 061. llcrm. ad Phid. 

'' llernd.'2,61.p. 13'i, 19. I'yth. 4, 37. .ad Soph. El. 431. 

ad Phcen. 1742. {>. 5152. Biiinck ad Abresch Dihic. Thuc, 1. p. 95. 

Si/iita.v. Of the Dative. 03 1 

On account of llie rof;em1)lance mentioned §. 382. the dative 395. 
is sometimes used for vtto with the genitive. IL tt', 32G. wr, 
no liiev Soiolai Kaaiyvy'iroiai Ba/^ievTe /3)Jt>jv etc ' E^e/3oc, 
^af)Trrid6voc eaOXol eralpoi. Piiul. 01. 12, 3. to the goddess 
Fortune: t\v yap ci> ttovtm Kv(ie pvMvrai Oocti viiec, ev 
'vepcro) re Xaixpyipol TroAe^toi Kciyopal (5ovXa(p6poi. Soph. Aj. 
539. Koi i^iriv TreXac, ye ttjOoctttoX otr. (pvXaaaeTai * by his at- 
tendants'. Xcn. Ci/r. 3, 2, 16. a vwicry^vov 7toui(JCiv ayaOa 
^^tf7(; cnroTeTeXearat aoi I'l^n, and elsewliere in abund- 
ance in the prose writers and poets'". Hence the dative with 
verbals. See §. 447, 4. and kuto^^ov ''Apei yevoc Eur. Ilec. 
1090. i. e. Karey^oiiievov vtt' ''Apewc. Soph. Antlg. 44. Eur. 
Phocu. 1711. ciTToppvTov TToXei, i.e. uTn}yopevi.ievou vwo rijc, 

Obs. The dative frequently stands in this sense with inro, especially 
in Homer, although tliis preposition in die sense of a, ah governs the 
genitive, vtto with the dative signifies properly ' under', and is put in 
this construction widi passives, in order to express the subordinate re- 
lation in which the subject of tlie passage stands to the person, by 
means of which it suffers the effect. //, tt', 420. ernljwvs xepd viro 
naTp(k\oio Met'OiTiacuo hifxii'Tas for the simple dative. Thus also ib. 
708. ov ri) TOL cuaa, a(3 vtt 6 Covpl ttoXu' TrepBai Tpujujy ayepu)X(t)y. 
ib. 384. ws o' vTvo XaiXcnri Tzuaa Ke.Xaii'i) JDejopide x^'^^' H^siod. I'll. 
8G2. tTi'iiceTO, KucraiTepos ws rex^]! vtt' cu'^ijwj' vtto t evrpi'irov X""" 

j'Oto daXipOeis, ye crihjpos, TtiKeTUi ev X^oj'i chj vf 'llfcu- 

(TTOv 7raXa/i/;o-t)'. Eur'ip. S'.ippl. AOI. 'EreoKXeovs dayoiTus 

ud€X(l)Ov X^'P' noXvi'etKovs viro. Iph'ig. A. 1284. eXevOepar ycip eel riv 
(ruy'EXXdca), oaoy ev ao\, reKvor, t:af.ioi, yereadai, j-ujce ftapjjapois 
vno,"EXXr]ras vyras, XeKrpa (rvXacrdai ftia. On the other hand Plat. 
Lack. J). 184 E. oans rvyxf'o'ei vtto tt aioorp Iftij ay ad (3 TTeTraicev- 
fxeyos, for viru TTaiCurpijiuv. Rep. 3. p. S91 C. vtto 7w (TO<pu)TaTO) 
Xeipioyi redpafifjieyos. ib. 8. p. 558 D. v'loi vtto rw TTurpi redpaj^i- 
fieyos. Comp. 9. p. 572 C. Isocr. de Big. p. 252 C. iiyovpai yap kuI 
TOVT eh'ai Twy KaXtvy, eK roiouTwy yeyufxeroy vtto tolovtols i'ldeaiy 
eTTiTpoTTevQiiyai, 'under a man of such a character'*^'. The dative has 
the same signification in the active, //. o-', 432. e/c jjey aXXawy aXiacoy 
aycpl cufxaaaey, ' made me submissive to him as his wife'. 

f Fisch. 3 a. p. 399 scq. Blomf. ad TEscli. Pers. 68. 

fc' Lennep ad Phalar. p. 242. 

632 Sijntax. Of the Dative. 

396. Since in these cases the dative expresses that by which 
(4*^0 something is produced, it was used to express a mean or in- 
strument, in answer to the questions ' wherewith ? whereby ? ' 
as in Latin, e. g. //. |3', 199. tov (t/ctjtttjOw eXacracTKev, 
K\i](ja(yKe re i^ivOu). Xeii. Cyr. 4,3, 21. SuoTv ^(^QaXj.w'lv opav. 
Also with persons: Eiir. Ileracl. 391. Xeti. Cyr. 3, 2, 11. 
ein fxev S77 rov 'Ap/uieviov wyero a-yyeXoc* o Se Kvpoc to ic, 
Trapovcm' {reKToai Kai Xt0oSo/ioic) erei-^i'Cey. Auab. 1,8, 1. 
eXavvciv iSpovvri tio 'ittttoi. So to verbs of * throwing', the 
missile is joined in the dative, as ^aWeiv -s^ep/ma^'ioic, Od. k, 
121. or XiOoic, T/iiic. 4, 43. Xeii. Cyr. 2, 3, 18. uKovTiteiv 
a'ly^/iutlc Pind. ht/itn. 1,33. ecpop/iiadelc ukovti Ooio Pitid. Nem. 
10, 130. So r'Kpeiv xpvaio id. hlhm. 7, Q.^ In this sense 
the dative is used also with substantives : Flat. Leg. I. p. 63 I C. 
KivijaeiQ Tw (Tw^oTi * motions made with the body'. 4. p. 7 17 A. 
T] TO?c ^eXeaiv ei^etrjo ' the shooting with arrows'. Hep. 3. 
p. 397 A. 2ia /ill /.It] a ewe, (pon'ciic, re Kcn cr^ii/^iacnv \ Hence 
'laO/miav imToiai viKiiv Pind. Islhtn. 2, 20. So^ai' apjuacFi ih. 3, 
25. comp. 1, 17, 86. KaWiviKoc, Itpnum Pyl/i. 1, 63. 

1. Hence seems to arise the construction of the verb xprj- 
adai with the dative, as in Latin iiti with the ablative {Soph. 
Aiitig. 24. a VI' St/cy ■>(^|orjcr0eJc SiKa'ut Kui «'o/ai», should be 
XpvoOelc St'/voto. Sec llerm.). With two datives it is rendered 
(as in Latin uti aliqiio nionitore) ' for' or ' as'. Xeii. Cyrop. 
8, 1, 11. Kcii TToAewv St" Km o\mv tOi'(jjv (pvXal^i Kai crarpa- 
Traic, ydei uri tovtwv tktiv e'/rj ^jorjcrreoi' ' that some of these 
must be made use of as guardians of the city'. ^p>7(T0ai is used 
with the accusative Xeu. llier. 11, 11. Kai to peyaX(j(l)poi> 
ov aw vppei, aXXa avv -yi'w^iy ^iy^pr]TO. 

2. In this sense the dative is also used with some verbs, 
with which, in Latin and English, no instrument or mean is 
signified, e. g. TeK^mipeaQai toIq irpoaOcv lopoXoyr} pei'oic, 
* to conclude, to infer from what was granted', Pint. Eulhyd. 
p. 289 B. which is elsewhere expressed tckj-i. utto nvoc, 

■' Dibscn ad Pind. ]Seni. 1, 18. ad Plat. Leg. p. .Gl. Slallb. ad Plat. 

^ Hcind. ad Plat. Cratyl. p. 131. riiikb. p. 140 seq. 
Baxkh ad Plat. Mill. p. 101. Ast - ' - 

Si/Nlax. Of the Dative. 633 

Plat. Rep. 6. p. 501 B. or ck tivoc, P/at. Cril. p. 44 A. 
Xen. Mem. S. 4, 1,2. So also oi ^KvOai /^lavrevovTai f)u- 
(3doi(ji iTeiinjai iroWyai, 'by tlie assistance of many wil- 
low rods', Herod. 4, 67. (naQf^iaadai r'l tivl ' to judge of from 
anything', Herod. 7, 237. whence P/at. Charm, p. 154 B. 
e/iot /.to' oh araOprjTOi'. So yiyvMcrKen' rivi Thuc. 1,8. eiKaZ,€:LV 
Tiv'i ib. 9. which ib. 10. is eiKaZ,eiv uiro twoc. Xen. Ci/r. 8, 
1, 37. Totc 7rpoetpi]iiiei'oic, cijXov^. The matter also is some- 
times expressed by tlie dative: Herod. 3, 57, rolai '^icpvioiai 
Tore r)i' /) ayopr) Kai to Trpvrain^tov TlapKo XiSo) ^aK^f-ieva. 
Theocr. 1, 52. Comp. §. 374. Obs. 

Ohs. 1 . Another mode of eKpressing tlie mean or instrimient, is by 
cia with the genitive ; but these two modes appear to have this distinc- 
tion, that the dative marks the proper and more important instrument, 
Zlu. with the genitive the subordinate but immediate, by means of which 
the use of the former becomes practicable. The chief passage is Plat. 
Thecct. p. 184 C. ffkOTret, cnroKptais Trorepa opdurepa, u> aputfiey, tovto 
eJi'ai 6(pQt.t\iA0vs, ?} ci ov opuif-iey' /cat w uKOvofiei', wra, ?} cC ov ukov- 
vpeu; ©EAI. Ai a>y eicacTTu atadapof^tedct, ej^ioiye coKei, <J ^wfcpures, 
fidXXoi' j) ols. 20. Aeiioy ynp ttov, w tral, el TvoWai rues ey »//^n', 
waTcep ey covpeiois 'iTnrois, ciladiiaeLS lyicaOijyTai, aWa ^o) eh j-iiay riia 
iCecty, e'ire 'iLv^^ijy, eiTe u eel KaXely, Trayra ravra ^vyrelyei, ») oici 
TOVTO) y, vloy opyuytov, aladai'dfieda oaa alaOijra. the sense of which 
is expressed by Cicero Tusc. Qu. 1, 20, 40. The dative may be ex- 
pressed as a subject by the nominative, as >/ 4'^X'l ^'" '^'^*' c(j)daXjjwy 
t'jpa, and so Soph, Ant. 91G. kul yvy ayei jse Cih ■yepiZy ovtcj XctJDwy, not 
his own hands, but those of his servants. Plat. A])'^^' '^- P- 17 C. e'av 
Zia TuJy nvTOjy Xoywy o/couf/re fxov a-KoXoyovixerov. 

Ohs. 2. Sometimes instead of the simple dative, prepositions with 
that or other cases are used, as ey, ey ofdaXnolcriy vptofjiai in Homer. 
JSur. Or. 1018. uls ff Icov(t' ev oj^tpaai Truyvararrjy Trpuaoxpiy e^e<TTT}v 
(ppetiSy. Comp. Soph. Ant. 7G4. Trach. 241. Soph. (Ed, T. 821. Xixn 
le Tov Qavoy-os ey xepo'iy ef.iaiy ^pa/vw, (' since they are in my hands') 
li uyy-Trep uiXero. Antig. 962. Xen. Cyr. 1, 6, 2. on ol deol 'iXeui re Kcd 
evfieyels TreyuTrovct ce, k"((t ey lepols df]Xoy i;ai ey ovpayiois arijieiois. 
Antig. 69G. 1229. Phil. 60. So cnroXXvrTdui ey dayuTo) Eur. Ale. 1011. 
Plat. Phcedon. p. 95 D. Comp. Eur. Hd. 1135. where ey tuvtt] rrj 
cvycifiei means ' by the possession of this power'. Plat. Menex. p. 240 

" rirind. ad Plat. Soph. p. 351. .. ' 


G34 Syntax. Of the Dative. 

C. D. expresses the precise force of this iv : kv rovT<o ^17 civ ns yevo- 
fieros yroh]''. Especially with dew ' to bind': Plat. Rep. 8. p. 567 C. D. 
tv [laKapiif cipa nrayK/j cecerai (6 Tvparvos). 

a-Ko with the genitive, properly denoting that from which anything 
proceeds. Soph. (Ed. C. 936. -au-a aoi t<3 i w 6' 6i.ioibJs kutto tT]s 
y\i)aar}& Xeyw. Hence the expressions aivo a-oj-iaros eiKeiv * to tell 
orally', or a-no yXw(T(Tj;$ Thuc. 7, 10. a-o ti^v apiarepiZv ()(^eipwr) 
fxax^'^dai Plat. Leg. 7. p. 795 B. airo yywfxrji (TO(j)rjs Eur. Ion. 1313. 
KaX\i(T-o)v un^MTOJv uTto EuT. Troud. 774. see Hec. 442. Comp. 
Thuc. 2, 77. 3, 11. 64. airo aynKpds cawuvris 'with little expense', 
1, 91. 8, 87. 6^vTT]S crojfxnTos »/ airo riSu ivucwv Plat. Leg. ?>. p. 832 E.'' 

cm with the genitive. Soph. CEd, C. 470. ^i oaiioy x^tpaJv diyuir. 
See Obs. 1. 

e/c. Eur. Hec. 573. f/c x^pwr (pvWois eftaWov. Soph. El. 398. t£ 
aflov'Klas iretre'iv, which V. 429. is aj3ovXi(^t Treaely. Theocr. 7, 6. os tK 
TTohos arve Kparav'^. 

avv, accompaniment, instead of the instrument. Pind. Pyth. 10, 88. 
aiiv aoicais OayjTot' riva TiOkrai. Soph. Qid. T. 17. avv yyp<f (oapvs' 
comp. 124. Tlicogn. 231. Br. <Tvy Tirepols Trwrdadai'^. 

viro. II. /3', 374. TToXts •^epaiv v0' ypeTtpijcriv aXovaa. Soph. (Ed. T. 
202. vTTo ai3 (j)di(Tuy Ke.pavv<3, according to §. 395. Ohs. 

397. 3. Hence the dative is also found in answer to the question 
(402) ' from what?' 'whence?' when the cause proceeding from an 
affection or disposition of the mind, or a subjective quality, is 
assi2;ned, as the motive of an action. //. o, 363. ttoTc, oar , 
CTjei Qvv 7roii](T)j aOvfj/iiaTa vriTrieyaiv, a\p auric avve-^eve ' from 
childishness'. Soph. El. 233. a\X ovv evvoia. y avSiv 'from 
good will'. AJ. 531. /cat juiiv (p6(ioiai y avTOv e^eXvaa/xr^v 
' from fear'. Thuc. 1, 80. ware f-o^re cnreip'ia eirSvp^aai riva 

TOv epyov, /^i^itc ayadov Kai aacpaXcc vo/Luaavra 'neither 

from inexperience, nor from conjecture, that', &.c. Comp. ^7;. 
81 extr. 4, 19. 6,33. (jypovijpaTi ' from pride'. Plat. Apol. 

^Hemsterh.adLuc.T.2.p.522scq. ^ Ilemstcrh. ad Luc. T. 3. p. 380. 

Brunck ad Soph. (Ed. T. 1112. Phil. <= Scha.f. ad Dionys. p. 296. Erf. 

CO. Tyrwhitt ad Arist. dc Poet. ad Soph. Aj. 27. 

p. 120. Porson ad Eur. Or. 1. c. '' Schaef. ad Lamb. B. p. 743. Lob. 

Dissen ad Pind. p. 487. Ast ad ad Phryn. p. 100. 
Plat. Leg. p. in. 

Sipitax. Of fhe Dative, G35 

'S'. p. 2G E. MeAtToc SoKei t)/v ypaCpriv TavTy]v vJDpei tivi kui 
a KoXaa ia Kai veorrf ti ypaxpacfOat. Xen. Cyr. 8, 1, 16. oi 
Be jiiri TTapeiev, tovtoi'O Tj-yeTro ?> aKfjareia tivi ?j a Si /c to 77 
a/iieXeia awelvai. 

Ohs. 1. Here also the dative expresses the nearer and immediate, 
lui with the accusative tlie more remote motive. Plat. Rep. 9. p. 586 C. 
T/ ce Trept ro Ovjjoeices ; ov^ e-epa toiuvtu aiayni] ylyieadai, vs av 
avTO Tovro CiaTrparTrirui, 7/ (p06j'<i> cia (piXonpiav, i) /3/ft (^la 
(piXoyeiKiar, ?; SvfKvcia OvcricoXt av, ttXt^ct/./oj'j/i' 7t^?]s re kctJ v/a't/s 
icaidvfjov ciwKwy avev Xoyiapov re Koi rov ; Time. 4, 30. 01 Aa/ceOai- 
yioVLOi ctaQeveiq. crwjiarwv c la t))v aiTU^eiav i/Trcx^wpovv''. Both 
constructions are used as synonymous Plat. Gorg. ^3. 508 B. a IIulAoi' 
alff^vrr) aiov ffvyxwpelr, and C. u av Topytar e(pri UwXos ti' alayyrriv 

Ohs. 2. The poets often add to this dative a/u^i or Trepl. II. p, 22. 
Trepl crSeiei j3X€fxeairei, which t', 237, fi', 42. p, 135. is merely ffQereV 
PXefieatreii'. Pind. Pyth. 5, 78. Trepl leipari. A^seh. Choeph. 545. 
a^cfi -apl3ei. Pers. 693. Trcpt -appjei. Choeph. ?)5. Trepl (pojPxo 'from 
fear'. Soph. ap. Athen. 1, 17 D. ajjopl 6vfX(3 'from indignation' (which 
Toup. I. c. explains wrongly. See BmnckFr. Soph. p. 005.)^ Instead 
of this also i/tto with the genitive is found : Horn. H. hi Cer. 411. vtto 
yappaTos. yEsch. Eum. 178. vn aXyovs. Thitc. 2, 8. reor>7$ ovk cikov- 
aitjs VTTO cnreipius ijnreTO rov TvoXejxuv. very rarely vTrep. Eur. Andr. 
490. epiZos inrep 'through enmity'. Suppl. 1129. aXyewv vTzep 'for 

4. The dative expresses also every external cause, a. with 398. 
passives, the cause, and not the person, by Avhich the action (^^•'') 
is effected, being put in the dative, as in Latin in the ablative, 
so that in the active the dative might be the subject, e. g. 
Soph. Aiitig. 955. ^eu^0>/ S o^y^oXotc ttoIc o ApvavTOQ. Plat. 
Leg. 4. p. 716 A. -^piipcKJiv eiraipopevoc v rijiialc h K^ai 
awfiaToc, evpopfpia, opibiis, hoiioribus, pulchritudine elatiis. 
Hep. 10. p. 608 B. wcrre cure Tipy eTrapdevra, cure )(p»J- 
liia<Jiv, ovre cip\y ov^e/iUa, ovBe ye Troir}TiKy a^iov af^ieXrjcjui 
BiKaioavur]c. This eTra'ipeoOai is accompanied also by erri, in 
which case the construction belongs to c. Xen. Mem. S. 1,2, 25. 

•* Toup ad Siiid. 2. p. 32. Ilgen ad Horn. H. Cer. p. oGO. Ilenn. 

•■ Brunck ad Apoll. Rh Q, 96. ad Vig. p. HGQ. n. 416. 

K 2 

G36 Si/Titax. 0/ the Dative. 

of Critiasand Alcibiades : loyKw/nevM /nev enl yevei, eTTripf.ievio 
o eiri ttXovto), Treipvdriiiievu) ^e e tti Bvvujiiei, ciareOfiviiijdevb) ce 

VTTO TToWtov avdphJTTwv, Ti Qavj^iaaxov, €1 VTTepri^avh} 

eyeveaO)}i> ; 

Hence also apeaKeaBai tivi (inasmuch as apeoKeiv is a 
transitive verb §. 412. Ohs. 2.) delectari aliqna re. Herod. 

4, 78. o S/cvXrjc oiaiTy /.lev ovoajnujc i^peaKero Sku- 

OiKy. The phrase too apKelaOui rivi, contentum esse aliqna re, 
seems to belong to this head : Herod. 9, 33. ouS' ovtm e^>j t'n 
apKeeaOai tovtokji /novi'oicTi. /Eschin. Axioc/i. 15. to tto- 
Bi]f.iaTa ao(piai.utTU)v oxjk iivey^erai, (.lovoic, Sc a pKel.r ai toic, 
Swa/nevoiG KaOiKeaOai tijo xpv^rjc,^. 

The dative is also used with neuter verbs, e. g. Eur. Ion. 84. 
aarpa Se (pe.vyei irvpi T(od aiOepoc, which in Homer is (pevyeiv 
viTo Tivoc,, and also with active verbs when the action is pro- 
duced by means of the substantive. Herod. 1, 87. eyw Tavra 
eTrpa^a Tij ay p^i> ei»So(/toi't7j, ry e/iewuroiJ ^e KaKoBai- 
fiovnj ^ urged by thy good fortune and my own ill fortune'. 
J'jiir. Bacch. 368. pavriKij /tttv ov Xtyo) ' m virtue of the art of 

b. With verbs of all kinds, when tlic dative is rendered by 
* on account of. Sopli. Ant. 390. (^XoXy woO' ^/^en^ Sevp' au 
e^jju^ouv eyw toTc ctuTc cnreiXnic. Comp. Ear. Hec. 1167. 
Andr. 247. £/. 149. TIiuc. 3, 98. exlr. ArnnoaOevnc Se Trepl 
NavTTaKTOV Kai tu yjjjpia Tavra i/7rcAe(f^)0)/, toic, Treirpa- 
y/iievoic (^oj3ov^tei'oc touc ' AOr^vaiovc, as Eiirip. Or. 455. Ti»v- 
Sapewc o^e are'iyei rrpoc i1/uac, ov paXiar aiSioc /t' £\ei e'lr, 
o/i^tar tXOtTi', toTctu' d^eipyaa/iievoic. T/iitc. 4, 35. o'l 
A()t]i>a7oi cTTicnrio/iievoi (tTrKXTTOjuevoi) Trepiobov pei' avTMu koi 
KvKXwaiv ^lopiov i(T'\^vi ovK ei^ov ' on account of the stiength 
of the place'. 6, 33. AOrjvaloi ecpi ii/iiac, ttoWtj aTparm wp- 
pr]VTai Kai I'avTiKy Kai 7rc2!i/cy, Trpncpacriv fiev ILy eaTaicov ^v/li- 
pa-s^ia Kai AeovTii'WJ' KaroiKKrei, to ^e aXijOec, ^iiceXiaG 
CTriOvjuia 'on account of the alliance with the inhabitants of 
Segesta, and in order to re-establish the Leontines'. 1, 84. 
/iiovoi Si avTo evirpay laic re ovk e^vj^piCo/aev Kai ^vp(l)opa'ic, 

^ Valckcn. et Wcsscl. ad Herod. 7, ICO. p. .")79, .'iO. Tiscli. 3 u. p. 109. 

Syntax. Of the Dative. G37 

ri(T<rov krkp(j)v e'lKOf^iev ' we alone are not insolent on account of 
our success'. Comp. 7, 77. jEsch. Choeph. 51. uviiXioi (5po- 
Toarvyelc, Bvocjyoi Ka\v7rrov(n ^o/liovc, decnroTtov OavaroKTi. 
Plat. Menex. p. 238 D. ovre aaQeve'ia, ovre irevia, out 
ayvojcTia TraTe.pwv aireXiiXarai ovo<:ic, ouoe toic evavrioic 

T€Tifxr]Tai. Hep. 2. p. 359 B. to St- ^'iKaiov ayamiaOai, 

ouv (jc dyaOov, a AX' wc a op it) aria rov aCiKeiv Tif.uof.ievov. 
Leg. \. p. 627 A. ev ottoctcuc oi a/neivovec, viicwcji to TrAJ/yoc /coi 
TOVQ -^eipovc, opOwQ av avTt} Kpe'iTTWV re avrijc, Xeyoiu i] ttoAic, 
eTraivdiTO re av ^iKaiorara ry roiavry viKy . 

c. Hence the dative is put with many passives and neuters, 309. 
where it also expresses the cause, occasion, or object of the 
action. Thuc. 4, 85. Oav/^iatw ry ctTro/cXe/crci [.lov rwv 
TTvXwv. 7, 63. Tyjc, T€ (powrjc ryj eir itrry] f.i'^ Kai tiov Tpoirwv 
Ty fiijuLr^aei eQavf^iateade Kara rriu EXXaoo. 3, 97. Ajj- 

f.ioadevnG Ty "^^XV tXTricrao oti ouOei' avT(o ijuauTiovTO, 

e)(^wpet fc-7ri Aiyiriov. Plat. Hipp. Maj. p. 285 extr. 

eiKorwc, (TO I -yaipovaiv oi AaKeSaJ/ioi'ioi, are TroXXa eiooTt, 
* rejoice on your account, are pleased with you'. Symp. p. 1 79 C. 
Ka\ tjV e/ceiVrjc ('AXk:/;(TtiSoc ■'pvyj\v) uveiaav (oi Beoi), aya- 
aOevrec tm epyio. Pac. p. 159 extr. r/tru^^ioi' e^eti/ 
Set, Kal Hi) fj.eya\(i)v eTTiOvfielv irapa to d'lKaiov, aWa arepyeiv 
To?c irapovaiv. ib. p. 163 D. opwaiv r\f.iac ov arepyovTaa 
olc av e)(^a>;iiev. ctti is joined with this dative ib. p. 177 A. 
CTepyovrai erri Ta?c vto tou ttX^'j^ouc oioojueraio ciopefUG. 
Comp. Panath. p. 242 A.^ aya-Kcuo is constructed like 
arepyu) in the same sense : Lyaias Epitaph, p. 192, 26. o t»?c 
'Aatac /3a(TtXeuo, oufc a-yaTTwv ToTc virapy^ovaiv ayaOolc, 

enreiXe ireuTijKovTa /.ivpu'iBac, arpanav. Comp. p. 194, 39. 

Demosth. p. 13, 11. Xen. Anab. 1, 3, 3. av^pec arpariojTai, 
p.ri Oavind^ere otj -j^aXeTrwc (pepct) to7q irapovai rrpa- 
y/naai, which otherwise is accompanied by ctt'i, as Xen. Hell. 
7, 4, 21. ^^aXeTTwq i) t(Zv Aaice^ai/novitov ttoXjc (pepovaa eiri ry 
TToXiopKia^, as C/Ver. Verr. 4, 30, 68. interverso dono regali 

" Murkl. ad Eurip. Suppl. 304. ^" Fisch. 3 a. i). 409 seq. 

BrunckadSoph. Auli-.l'il9. llfind. '' Wesseling ad Diod. Sic. 3, oD. 

ad Plat. Gorg. p. 146. Fisch. 3 a. Eibl. Crit. 3, 2. p. 17. 
p. 408. 

638 Sj/ntax. Of the Dative. 

graviler fene. hocr. Panath. p. 275 A. e^va^efjave f.iev 
ov^evl Twv yey pa i^/^iei'Mv. Plat. Gorg. p. 450 E. ^v(T^(^€paiv€lv 
TOiG Xuyoic. Id. Phccduu. p. 63 B. ovk ayavaKrwv tco 6a- 
vc'iTO). da^aXav tivl Ear. Iph. T. 925. SvaCpopeiv rivi id. 
Andr. 1'238. -yeXai^ tivi id. Iph. T. 27t).* yavpiav rivi De- 
mosth. p. 308, 6. Xea. Mem. S. 2, 1,31. toIq Treirpayi.ikvoic, 
atTvui'o^ievot. Cijiiip. Pia\ Heracl. 542. 

To these also marcveiv tivl ' to rely upon anything', seems 
to belong, as far as the dative expresses the ground of the re- 

Obs. 1. It is more usual to find k-i widi dus dative. Plat. Menon. 
in. QerruXo'i eQavjxa^oi'TO e<f linTiK^ re Ka\ ttXoitw. arepyu) is also found 
vvidi the accusative in the sense of ' to be content with anything'. 
Herod. 9, 117. oiJrw h) cVrcpyoi' ro Trapeoyra. Soph. Fr. j^- 677. 28. 
ed. Br, arepyeiv ce t ufiTverruvT a Kev deadai irpkireL aoipov Kvftevrljv, 
ct/Wu l.^)) a-eveiv -v^n^^- Thus also ayaTrdv ' to be content with any 
thing'. Isovr. Paneg. p. 69 D. ovrws ala^piSs uTrijWay r}(Tar, wore tovs 
ufearoJras /t/^fvtTt -»)v eXevOepiay ay a it a v. Comp. Thuc. 6, 18. 
Plat. Mcnex. p. 240 C. Demosth. Phil. 2. p. 70, 19. 

06a-. 2. 'J'his dative often signifies ' according to, in consequence of. 
//. d, 194. TtD pa Kal ovtl Atos jjeopai (ppeaiy. Eur. Phoen. 667. 
(Ka?/70S cpatcot'ra wXeae) cias c'(/.t«ropos llaXActcos ^pa^aTs ya-er€~is Sl- 
cwv oooi-raj, as /^. o', 412. vTroOiji-WfTvyrjaiv 'A9»'/vj?s. Horn. H. in /I poll. 
1, 98. "llpr]% (ppacpoavvi}. pAir. Phcen. 1058. XP^ro) c' c/3a XlvQiais 
uTTOdToXaiait' OiciTVovs a TXuf.uov Oiipulay rayce ydy. Plat. Apol. 
S. p. 28 C. rw ye aw Xoyw. Xcn. Cijr. 1, 2, 4. ^ofiw els ras eavrtSy 
Xwpas emtTToi napeitny". Eur. Bacch. 350. comp. §. 398. a. Similarly 
Herod. 4, 16. aKoj ti Xtyeiv 'from hearsay', which Plat. Phcedon. 
p. Gl D. calls e^ uKorii Xeyeiy. Thus also Kpiveiv Tivh ciper^ Kul m(c/<j[, 
Kcu e'vcaifioyUf Kal Tf krayriM Plat. Rej>. 10. p'. 580 B. Conip.^J. 582 D. 

400. 5. For the same reason the dative besides expresses the 

(404) manner of an action. Xen. Ci/rop. 1 , 2, 2. j3 / a dc, o'lKiav irapieyui 

* with violence'. Thuc. 4,19. (3ia ^ia(l)vyeiv. However, this may 

be the mean by which the action is effected, as Soph. Phil. 563. 

CK (3iac,. Jlcrod. 3, 127. /3(>7 re Ka\ oini\(o eViTeXeTt' ri, as porj 

» Klinsl. ad Eur. Bacch. 810. *■ lieintl. ud Plat. Gurg. p. 230. ad 

nJatak. ad M. Anion. 6, 44. C'ratyl. p. ','9. 
risch. 3 a. p. 409 srq. 

Sj/ntax. Of the Dative. 639 

re Kcii o/uiXb) 9, 59. Hence the datives of substantives are 
often jDut adverbially: Xen. Ci//\ 5, 3, 47. O Kvpnc eirifie- 
Afi'a TovTo eiroiei ' with carefulness' (a consequence of §. 397.) 
BiKy Svith justice', which is also expressed avv Sikij. Herod. 
6, 112, oi A0rii'a7oi cpouti) levTO ec, rove, (jappu povc. lliur. 

Ion. 914. tie tti'TjOou Ko'irac, jii dyec avaioeia . In the 

same manner the datives of adjectives are often put as adverbs, 
especially in the feminine. Sjj^oct/o, puhlice ; iSia, privatim ; 
Tret^ ' on foot'; rw ovn ' in reality'. Thiic. 4, 62. e'l ric, (5e- 
(3ai(i)Q Ti 7/ Tio SiKaici) {ciKy) ?} [5ia wpa^eiv oUrai. oAw tiv'i 
'entirely, altogether', omnino, Plat. Lys. p. 213 C.*^ 

Hence also as it would seem with verbs of punishing, the 
punishment is put in the dative, as in Latin, capite 2)/ectere, 
multare pecunia. Herod. 6, 21. ' Kdr]val.oi eZ.'nfxiijoaav piv {^pv- 
viyjuv), MC, uvafxi'ijaai'Ta oii<i]ia kuku, ^tAiycri dpav/iiy ai. 
tv/^uovv Tiva OavuTM, ^uyy . 

6. The dative often signifies ' with respect to', as in Troat 
To^uc &,C. Soph. CEd. T. 557 . Kal vvv eO wutog e'tpi no (3ov- 
Xevf-iari. Plat. Leg. 10. p. 908 C. to pev pi) vop'iteiv deovc,, 
apCpoiu au VTiapyjoi KOivov ttciOoc, ry Se twv aXXwu avdpioiriov 
Xwpy, TO pGv eXciTTU), TO Se rrXetw KaKci epya^oiT av. Isocr. 
Hel. Enc. p. 215 C. of Theseus : t^j pev e^ova'ia TvpawMv, 
Ta?c S evepyeaiaiG Siipaywyuiv. Eur. fph. A. 338. tm 
EoKelv pev ovy^i y^py^Mv, tm ce (SovXeadai OeXwv ' in appear- 
ance — in reality'. So in the poets when the subject denotes 
something- general, the particular thing which is found in or 
connected with it, is put in the dative. //. /3', 141. Xi]iov 
i]pvei aaTcty^veacni', for acJTayvec iipvoixjiv cv Xi]i(<). Sonh. CEd, 
T. 25. TToAic (pd'u'ov(ja per KaXv^iv eyKapiroic, ydovoc,, (pO'ivovaci 
B ayeXaic, (5ovv6poic,. Similar to this is Herod. 8, 60, 1. kiv- 
cvvevaeiQ OTroay ry EXXoof, for t'j E. Kivdvrevtjei ev ao'i. 

Of the dative with passive verbs see §. 424, 4. Obs. I. 

7. Hence the dative in answer to the question ' wherein?' 
w7re|o/3aXXen', Ttpoeyeiv, Sia(pepeiu (ppovi)aei, a^iKia &c. ' to dis- 

■' Fisch. 3 a. p. 221 bcq. p. 57. 

' Fisch. lb. p. 220. Iloog. ad \ig. •■ Fisch. 3 a. y. 582. 

640 S^nlax. Of the Dative. 

tinguish one's self in intelligence, injustice'. Herod. \, 1. 
comp. 1,91. Xeii. Mem. 2, 7, 7. layveiv toIc aCj^iaai. ib. 3, 
5, 18. avriKearto 7roin]pia voaelv. Sometimes the accusative with 
Kara is put for the dative. Isocr. Hel. Eiic. p. 217 A. to?c 
KaTo. Gvveaiv i] kut aXAo ti Trpoey^ovai cjiOovovjiiev. eni with the 
dative Xen. Mem. 4, 2, 1. 

Ohs. This dative is sometimes accompanied by er. Soph. (Ed. T. 
1112. ev re yrtiO f^iaKpu) yt'ipa t,v)cj.cei, ruce r uycpi ^vfi[.ieTpos ' with re- 
spect to age, he coincides with this man', properly ey fjciKptf yi']p<f wr. 

(105) 8. The dative expresses the relation of the measure, de- 
gree, &c. with the comparative. Herod. 1, 184. '^ep'ipaf.uc, 
yei'erjo-t Trei/re Trporepov eyevero rtjC ^trtoKpioc,. Id. 6, 106. 
TToAt Xoy'ifiio 7/ 'E/\X«q yeyove aaQevearkpt]. Aristoph. Ran. 
18. eviavT(o TTjoeor/SuT^poq. Plat. Phcedoii. p. 100 E. KeCpaXy 
fie'ittov *a head taller', but immediately afterwards p. 101 A. 
ovcevl aXXw jueT^oi^ ecrrtv, fj peyiOei * by means of nothing else'. 
Hence the datives ttoXXJ, o\iyo), j3pa)(^e? with comparatives. 
(ipay^ei tivi TrXeiw Plat. Rep. 1. p. 330 B. &.c. 

401. III. The dative expresses also the direction of an action 
(->-'^) towards an object, wliether this direction be proper and obvious 
to the senses, or an improper one, which is only imagined to 
accompany an action in conformity with a sensible mode of 
conception, e. g. //. t! , 301. a'l S' oXoXi»-yy Triiaai AOiivy 
-^elpuQ aueay^ov * lifted up their hands to JNIinerva'. Find. 
Jsthm. 6, GO. o S' uvaTe'ivac, ovpnviij yjeipac, avoaac. So with 
the verb * to come': H. i^i, 374. eireiyop-evoiai S 'ikovto. JEsch. 
Prom. 358. aXX' i)\i)ev civtm 7j1)voc, aypinrvov fteXoc. Soph. 
Ant. 233. Hence 1. the verbs * to pray': //. y' , 296. ev-^ovro 
0eoTc (iieiyeverycTiv ' prayed to the gods', because in praying 
the countenance or hands were lifted up. //. -y, 318. »j , 177. 
• Xaoi S' i)pi](javTO OcoIq tSe yelpac, aveay^ov. Xen. Cj/r. 5, 
2, 12. euvoi'Tai TTaai Oeoic, yevkaOai Trore (otoi re) Kui 
eavTovc eVtSel^oj, on tticttoi eiaiv. Comp. 7, 1, 1. Plat. 
Rep. 3. p. 394 A. Aristoph. Vesp. 862. Soph. AJ. 509. pvrnp 
ce TToWuKiQ deolc, aparai t'^vra irpoc, ^ofxovQ ^oXeiv. Thus 
also TTpoaevyeaOui rivi, though irpuc, by itself, in the sense of 
'to, towards', governs the accusative: Xen. Ci/r. 2, 1, 1. 
TTpoaevl^dficvoi Ocolc, Km vptoai. but Aristoph. Phil. 959. iva 

Sijiitax. Of the Dative. G41 

irpo(Tev^y tuv Qeou, riat. licp. 1 in. KaTe.(5i}v \Otc etc Hetpaia 

Trpotjev^o/Lievoc. r ij Oe(o. Enrip. Aiidr. 1 107. u) veainai, ti 

aotSei^ Karev^o/iieaOa; Plat. Leg. o. p. 6S7 Y>. Kai /.a)i', wv 
y o TToTc fcuveTHi eavTM yiyveaOai, ttoAao o irar^if) aTrevc,ctiT 
av TOic Oeolc ^iiiSajiiwc Kara rac too vleufc evy^nc, yiyveaOai. 
Hence the dative with iKeaioc,: Eur. Heracl. 108. 'iKeaiav 
TToAet ^ TrpocxTponav. But iKeTeveiv, TrpotjKvi'elv take the 

2. Thus also ai'o/3Xt-7reti' rivi ' to look up to any one'. Eur. 
Siippl. 323. opac, a/3oi»Xoc toe, K-eKfcpTO,u??/ie-j'); ('who is ridi- 
culed as inconsiderate') toTc KepTopovcri yopyov wc avu' 
(5Xeirei (rrj Trarpic; Lou. 1486. av>//3a S* 'E|oe)(^Oeyc, o re yj]- 
-yei^erac So/uoc ou/cert vvicrac, ^epKerai, AXiov d avapXeirei 
Xa/^nraai. Bacch. 1307. t)7c a?]C. toS epvoc, a) ToAau'O, 
vrt^voc aiayiara /cat KUKiara KaTOavouB opio, lo owft ave- 
/BAeTrei^, where, however, Brunck reads oi'. Plat. Charm, 
p. 155 C. ave(5\€\pe re j^ioi toig o(^0aXjtto?o a/LOi^avov ri o'lov. 
Similarly e/t/BXeTreti'TU'i: Plat. Rep. 10. jj. 608 D. tlvTi(3\eTreiv 
Ttvi jEschin. in Ctesiph. p. 539. Xen. Cyr. 3, 1, 23. 

Of this kind seems to be also the construction iivaoTrivai 
rivL ' to stand up against any one, in order to fight with him'. 
II. -iP', 635. OMpnaaeaOa'i Tin II. rj', 101. TroXeYtoi' dvaipelaOai 
Tivi Herod. 5, 36. 

3. The dative sometimes stands alone in this sense, instead 
of the preposition irpoc, e'lc, eiri, with the accusative, (as 
perhaps xuplii\l TrpoKaXeiaOai for e'lc yjiipf.u]v IL t] , 218. 285.) 
Find. 01. 6, 97. 'AXcpeio /neaao) Kara ftac comp. Isthni. 6, 60. 

Herod. 2, 62. ec, ^aiv eTreai- avXX€xOe.u)(^i ryai Ovaiyai. 

for etc Tftc Ova'iac. 3, 61. Soph. Trach.597. ovitot aicryvvri 
Treael, as El. 747. Tr'nTTeiv Tregw. El. 1193. Enrip. Or. 1429. 
a Se XtVov i]XaKaTa ^ciktvXoic, eXtacre, in^uiTU 6 'lero ire Cm. 
Hel. 1291. wc i^o] TrnXti' y\] Xv/^iar e/c/3aXX?? /cXi'Swr. Thus 
too Aristoph. Thesm. 1055. aioXa ^e/cucrii' etti irope'ia, for Trpof, 
ve/cuaq^. So perhaps is to be explained Pind. hlhni. 7, 10. 

^'Abicsch Diluc.Thiic. l.p.O^sqq. ad Dion. II. \u 30(3. 
Musgr. ad Eurip. Phcrn. 310. i^chaf. 

642 Sifutax. Of the Dative. 

Zeuc 'A/LiCpiTpvwvoc aXo^ov /uerrj/VOe 'H/oa*fXetotc yova7c, for 
eiri TJ71' yoviiv HjOa/cXeovc. 

4. The same appears to be the ground of the construction 
virocfTrivai tivi ' to await an enemy, not to give ground', ex- 

cipere. Xen. Atiab. 3, 2, 11. eXOovrojv Tlepawv v7roaTy]vai 

auTOic ' AOrjvaioi ToX^ujcrai'Tec eviKr^aav avTOVc Hellen. 7, 
5, 12. e^ecrri Xeyeiv, wc to?c aTro i^ei'OJj/iei'oic ouSetc ai^ 

V7ro(TTaiii. Time. 2, 61. ttoXjv jueyaXjji' ot/coui'-ac ^^oewv 

/cat ^viiicpo pale rale /.leyiaraic edeXeiu v(pi(XTaaOai, Kat 
rriu a^iioaiv /lu) a(pni'i'CeiP, as avaaTiivai rivi supra 2. It more 
commonly takes the accusative. 

402. Hence those verbs govern a dative, which are compounded 
^ -^ with the preposition eiri or irpoc,, serving to mark more pre- 
cisely the idea of the direction of an object, although these 
prepositions by themselves, in that sense, govern the accusa- 

a. eTTi. eTnaTparevecrOai : JEur. Med. 1182. SlttXovu yap 
avry Trrfj^i eireaTpareveTO. Arist. Av. 1522. oi Ze (iap(5apoi 

Beoi CTTiaTpaTevcreiv <pa<r avwOev no Ail. Comp. Vesp. 

11. Xen. Cyr. 8, 5, 25. eTrp^tei'ot rti't. De/n. in Mid. p. 583, 
23. OTTwc ewe^ei tm /mapto. tTri-^eipeiv rivi, properly, * to 
lay hands on anything, to undertake' : Isocr. de Pac. p. 180 C. 
Talc, Trpa^ecri rale avralc eTre^eiprjaav. eirep-^eaOai tivi: 
Isocr. Pan. p. 252 C. e7reX//XuOe not to Trapp^aiaaaadai^. 
Comp. Xen. M. S. 4, 2, 4. Plat. Rep. 8. p. 557 E. Thus 
also eTreyyeXai/ Ttrt : Soph. Aj.Q^9. to1.c, Oavova'i TOKJnXovai 
Travrec Kei/uei'oio CTreyyeXai'. (on the other hand iO. 969. 
TTUJQ ^rJTa TOuS eireyyeXwev ai' KUTa;) Xen. Ci/r. 5, 5, 9. 
eTre-yyeXwi'Toc epoi. 

Ohs. 1. These verbs are also found with the accusative whenever 
regard is had, not to the direction of an action, but to its cfFective re- 
lation, or where the preposition is considered as separate. Soph. Track. 
74. Eu/)oioa ^taipar (paa'iv, Evpvrov noXir, eTrKTrpareveir avroi', 

Comp. 362. Eur. Suppl. 648. "Acpacrros eirearpaTevae Ka^peitov 

TToXiv. Thuc. 4f, 92. elu)Qa<Ti re ol (not oT) layyos ttov dpatrei rots 
TTtXcts, wffTrep 'A0/;vaTot vvu, CTTtoj'res roi^ pt:r iiav^a'Corra (cat kv t^ 

" N'alck. ad Her. 7, 46. p. 631, (il. Ast ad IMal. Leg. p. 581. 

Syntax. Of the Dative. G43 

eavTov fxoyoy a^Lv v6 ^lerov aceearepnv ctt larpaTeve ly*') — Demosth. 
in Mid. p. 549, 24. eTreErjeij^iey rov (p6rov Toy 'Apt orctpj^o v*^. — 
Plat. Phiedon. p. 88 C.** kwievai has in Homer an accusative, e. g. 
//. a', 29. elsewhere a dative, e. g. Thuc. 4, 92. See Bust, ad 11. I. c. 
p. 30, 14. Eur, Here, F. 34. eTveidTrefrwy iroXiy, 

Obs, 2. In Herodotus the construction of eTreyyeXdy is followed in 
KcirayeXdy 3, 37. TroXAa rwyaX/^trt-t KareyeXaae, 38. ov yap ay 
IpoTai T€ Kui vo jxaioKTi eire^eip^ae tcarayeXdy, Comp. ib, 155. 4, 79. 

h, TTpoc. as irpocrey^eiv tov vovv toic Trpayfiaai. Trpoo-yeXav 
rivi. Lucian D. D. 7 in, irpocyftaWciv tiv'i ' to attack', e. g. 
T<o Tei)(ei Xen. Hell. 1, 2, 2. also iu the sense of * to smell 
of anything'*'. irpoaep^eaOai rivi, Xen. Cyr. 1, 4, 27. — 

Herod. 7, 6. VleiaiaTpuTi^iiMV ol avoj3e/3r;K:oTec ec ^ov<ya 

err TrXeov tt poawpeyovTO oi (tw Hep^ij) which shortly 

afterwards is expressed npoaCJiepeaOai and 1, 123. irpoaiceiaQai 
rivi. Xen. Mem. S. 3, 11, 11. ttoXv ^laCpepei ro Kara (jiixnv 
re Kal opOwc dvOpojiro) ir poaCpe peaOai. Herod. 2, 2. 
avoiyovTi t?V dvprjv ra Trai^ia Trpocnr'nrTOVTa peKOC e(pMveov. 
Plat. Leg. 6. j}. Ill extr. 7rpocnTait,eiu oiKeraiQ. comp. Eu- 
thyd. p. 278 B.^ Soph. Antig. 1237. irapBevio TrpoaTrrvaaerai 
with Hermann's note, where the accusative is more common. 

Obs. These verbs too are often constructed with the accusative, e. g. 
7rpo(Teyxeo-0at ma §. 401. Eur. Med.\\59. ci-^vxuy cIku) -n-poayeXwaa 
aw/jaros". Trpo(TJ3dXX€iy ' to seize', often takes the preposition also sepa- 
rately. Xen. Anab. 5, 2, 4. Cijrop. 5, 3, 12. Aristoph. Pac. 180. -koQev 
fipOTOv jU€ irpocrefiaXe^. II. >/, 421. ijiXios fxev eireiTa yeov TrporjejiaXXev 
apovpas ' shone upon'. So TTpoawLTvelv ri Eur. Andr. 165. Supiil. 10. 
Here. F. 1382. TrpoaoiKelv tl Thuc. 1, 24. TrpocTKadel^eadai Ti)y ttoXlv 
ib. 26. for TroXiopKelu. -irpoaKvyely takes the dative only in later writers'. 
TrpocreiTreZi', '!rpo(7(j)<ijyely, &'c. govern only the accusative, so that in this 
whole matter it must be carefully observed what is the usage of the 

c. Even verbs compounded with prepositions, which never 

•> Valck. ad Eur. Ph. p. 292. Hipp. ^ Koen ad Greg. p. (14 seq.) 36. 

526. Duker ad Thuc. 4, 60. ^ Lob. ad Fhryn. p. 463. 

« Perizon. ad JF.l. V. H. 7, 13. ? Schweigh. ad Athen. t. 3. p. 307. 

lleiske ad Diun.Chrys. p. 14. Valck. '' Koen ad flicg. p. (14) 36. 

ad Herod. 5, 46. p. 393, 99. ' Lobeck ad Phrvii. (>. 463. 

'' Ast ad Plat. Leg. p. 393. 

644 Si/ntax. Of the Dative. 

govern a dative, take the dative when they express such a 
direction to an object, as e'laepy^eaOai tivi. Soph. (La. C. 3/L. 
elariXOe toTi; TpicraOXioii' epic KaKi'h Herod. 1, 24. Kai 
T(»7(Ti eaeXOe^v yap i]^ui'i)v, ei /neWoiev aKovaeaBai rov 
ap'iarov dvOpoJTTWV cioi^ov dvay^wpiiaai etc t>7c irpv^iv^c, ec pe<jy)V 
I'fco. 3, 14. aiiTM re Ka/t|3ii(T7j eaeXOelv oIktov Tiva. 
Plat. Rep. 1. p. 330 D. eireiBdv tiq eyyvc, y rov o'leaQai 
TeXevrnaeiv, e'lae py^erai avrw oeor, kul (ppovric,. Fhad. 
p. 59 A. ^id ^n Tctvra ov^ev ttuvv jlioi cXeeivou eiayei. on the 
Other hand 7). 58 E. ovre yap wc BavdrM TrapovTa pe avBpoc 
fc-TTiTJjSetou eAfcoo e'lcrijei. Eur. Iphig. A. 1589. epoi Se t 
dXyoc ov piKpov eicyyei <ppei'i (§. 389, //.). Soph. Track. 
298. CEd. Col. 422. tov vpevaiov, ov ^opoic, cn-opjuoi' etat- 
rrXevaac. Herod. 1,1. *l>o'iviKac, tij re dXX ij )( m p \i eaaTTiKve- 
eaOai /cot S») Kai €c"Apyoc, as with ^ttTre/i-e 3, (J 1. See §. 401,3. 
Eur. Here. F. 241. Ion. 1215. Yet the accusative is also 
usual*: Eur. Hipp. 770. Movvv^ov dKrcuaiv eK^haavro 
7rei<jpara, which is generally e/c tivoc, ci'iaaaOai. 

Thus Sophocles says Aj. 153. roic, croTc «'xe<yi»' Ka0v(5pit(i)v. 
JEsch. Chocph. 564. ^upoic Trapaareixoi'Ta. Arist. Av. 501. 
KOI Kare^ei^ev TTptSroc y ovtoc (iaatXeviov ir poKvXivce7aOai 
ToTc iKTivoic, which elsewhere is joined with a genitive. 
Soph. Phil. 1111. dXXd poi dcxKOTra KpvTrrd t eVij ^oXepac, 
vTreSu (jypevoc, as Isocr. Paiialh. p. 244 A. vvv 8' ouSo' virep- 
■verai (xoi toiovto. where however Valckenaer ad Herod, 
p. 531, 64. reads eirepycTai, adopted by Bekker from MSS. 

d. Otherwise verbs, compounded with prepositions which by 
themselves require the dative, govern the same case, if the pre- 
position may be separated from the verb without affecting the 
sense, as evopdv ri rivi. Also eTrtcTTOTcTv tivi Plat. Crat. 
p. 390 B. C. Isocr. p. 91 B. although araTelv does not exist 
out of composition, on account of §. 382. dp(pi(iaXX€iv n rivi. 
Verbs also compounded with Trep'i are constructed with the 
dative, where the preposition appears to have no influence 
upon this construction : Isocr. Paneg. p. 67 B. nepifidXXciv 

'* Luc. 1. 1. p. 200. Doiv. Tlium. M. p. 'il'2 sq. 
adCharit. p.501. Pli.p.10.1. 

Sj/ntax. Of the Dative. G45 

Talc, jiieyiaTaic avj^i^opalc,, like SiSoi'ot Tiva aviii(pOfMin;, ubvvaic, 
//. e', 397. Plat. Plucdr. p. 254 E.'^ hocr. de Pac. p. 176 A. 
TrXeiocTi Kal iLieitoai Kaxoic ire p leireaov. Thiic. 1, 55. t? ^lev 
ovv K.epKvpa ovrio ir e piy'iyverai t (o TToAtjitw tmv Ko^jm'- 
6ia)v, emersit e hello, ih. 76. tj^uTi' Se /cat e/c tou eTTittfcour, (efc 
tj7c eTTiet/cetac) aSo^m to irXeov )j eVati'oc ou/c eiKrorwc irepi- 
e(TTi] (as 7, 70. -Lj/s. c. £/y/L jj. 126, 4. De/n. j^ro Cor. 
p. 288, 12. 291, 12. 301, 7. 306, 27. )S where the accusa- 
tive is more usual, e. g. Thuc. 8, 15. 

Ois. Hence probably comes the construction eTrc>p)](pii^€iy rirl ' to (395) 
permit one to vote', in suffragta mittere, Lite. Tim. p. 113. eirexpyfiffe 
r?j eKK\7](rla T/^twi'. instead of which Thuc. 1, 87. t-7rev////^t<Ce'' avrus 
€s T))y €KK\i]<Tiay tmv Aatcecai^ovidov. The construction seems to 
arise from this, that liri.-^i](pic,eiv is the same as \p>'](j)oy Trpodelycu, tTrctya- 
yely Tin. Plato, on the other hand, uses it actively, Gorg. p. 474 A. 
p.i) ovv /.njcfc yvy KeXeve €Tn\pt]^iiieiy tovs Trap or ran. Comp. 
2). 475 E.'' Another sense of tTrt;//. riyi, see §. 394. 

6. The idea of direction lies at tlie foundation of the use of 403. 
the dative, 

a. with the verbs 'to follow', e-rreaOai, uKoXovOeiv, o7r»?Se7i'. (398) 
Hence Xen.Ci/r. 8, 6, 18. rw yinepivio ayyeXh^ (cpaai) rov 
vvKTepivov ^laSe-^eaOai in the sense o( eireaOui. Plat. Leg. 
6. p. 758 B. Otherwise ^laS. is a transitive verb, as the Latin 
excipere. Thus the adjectives also, and adverbs, derived from 
those verbs, IikoXovOoc, aKoXovOtoc, eTro^iei'wc, or agreeing with 
them in signification, are constructed with the dative like dia- 
^oy^oQi Einip. Androm. 803. loc, kcikov kukm cia^oy^ov eu 
TrjK ri/xepa iropavverai. also the substantive Stooo^jj. Xeit. 
Cyrop. 1,4, 17. 17 ^la^oyji ti/ TrpocsBev CJyvXaKy ep-^CTai. 
Hence e/c SiaSo^i/c with the dative*^. Yet 2(uSo)(oc is often 
found with the genitive also : Soph. Philoct. 867. w c/)fc-y-yoc 
vTTvov ^ladoy^ov. Eurip. Siippl. 71. ayojv o^ aXXoc, epy^e- 
Tot -yowl/, y6(i)v SictSo^oc. So e^>7c, ecpe^ric, with the dative, 

•> Durv. ad Char. p. 508. V^lcken. ad Ilerud. S,6\. p. C45, 83. 

* Schffif. A(j|). Dera. p. 859. *" \' l'hcen.374. Scha-fer 

"^ liemsterh. ad Luc. t. 1. p. 4'2.'>. Meletem in Dion. II. 1. p. 17.83. 

646 Syntax. Of the Dative. 

Plat. Crat. p. 399 D. comp. Arist. Lys. 633. Plat. Leg. 6. 
p. 755 E. ;). 780 C.^ 

Since these verbs may also express a companionship, they 
are often constructed with /uero, avv, a/^ia, &.C. Soph. Trach. 
563. TjrtKo "^vv 'WpaKkel TO irpioTOV evvic e (Ttto/utj r. Xen. 
Hie)'. 9, 8, -i] (TM(f)poavini ttoXu paXXov avv tij acr^oXia (tvili- 
irapo/.iapre'i. Ci/rop. 5, 2, 36. avv to?c viKiioai, aa<p 'laOi, 

Oappovvrec, Kai ol uKoXovOoi eirovrai. lies. ' Ejoy. 228. 

ovSe ttot' iBv^'iKaiai /iier' av^paai Xi/lioc OTTJjoe?. Plat. Phi- 
leb. p. 30 C. jiieT eice'ivov tov \6yov CTTO^tevoi ". //. y , 143. 
a/iia TTjye /caJ dp.<p'nro\oi ^v eTrovro. We find also Od. a, 
278. oaaa eoiK€ (piXnc eiri ttoiSoo eireaOai. Xen.Cyr.5,5, 
37. GTTt ^lev T(i) Kva^npei o\ MjjSoi e'/Troi'TO, eTrt Se tw KvpM 
ol Tlepaai, ewi Se toutoic 06 aXXot. 

Obs. To this class, perhaps, belongs the idiom, by which, of two 
substantives, one is put in the dative, in order to express the long con- 
tinuance of a condition, in which one thing is succeeded by another of 
the same kind Hesiod. Th. 742. aXXa kev eyda Kai erda <pcpoi Trpo 
flveXXft QueXXw, 'storm upon storu)'. Soph. (Ed. T. 175. aWov 

Z'' U.V ctXXw -Kpoai^ois opueyoi' uktclv irpos ecnrepov deov. El. 236. 

aXX' om' evvoicf y avcui, jjli) TiKTeiv a iiray arais. Eur. Ph. 1510. 

aXXfi (j)6yu) (pay OS OlcnroCa copov wXeaey''. Elsewhere cTrt, 'upon', 
is found with the dative, e. g. Soph. Ant. 595. 

(399) h. ' to converse', SiaXeyeaOai, also XaXe7v tivi Demosth. 
;j. 41 1. Theophr. Ch. 3, 5, 20, 1.*^ Thus too p'lyvvaOa'i rivi, 
in all senses. KaTaXXarTcaOai ran Plat. Rep. 8. p. 566 E. 'to 
be reconciled'. 

Obs. Instead of this dative of the person in plyyvadai ru i, &c. if 
another dative of the mean, instrument, manner, &c. follow, a genitive 
is sometimes put, governed of this dative. Hesiod. Sc. Here. 35. ra vv- 
achvpov 'UXcKTpvwyijs evr^ kcu (piXorrjTL piyi]. Horn. H. ill Merc. ^. 
MoTa, Aios ly fiXorriTi piyelaa''. Thus too o(\etouo-0at : Plat. Parm. 
n. 1?8 A. Zi]yo)y ote oh poyov rjj oXXj; aov 0*X/p ftovXerai MKeuoadai, 
aXXU KUi Tw (TvyypnppUTi. for aoi. 

* Scha?f. ad Dion. II. p. 142. ' Seidler de Vers. Dochm. p.3'24. 

»> Markl. ad Lysiam, p. 92. cd. II. " Fisch. 3 a. p. 405. 

Duker ad Thuc. 7, 57. Ileind. ad " Animadv. ad II. Hoiu. p. 209. 
Plat. Phsdr. p. 26?. 

Syntax. Of the Dative. 647 

c. 'to contend', ^piteiv, fxayeaQai (and the comp. ^la- 404. 
^ay^eadai), TroXef^ielv: Xen. Mem. S. 3, 9, 2. Si/Xov ^eu yap, 
OTi I.KvOai Kal QpaK€G ovK tiv toX /.n t a eiav, aanidaQ Kai SopciTa 
\a(56vT€C„ Aa/ceSatittovtotc diauaxeaOai' (pavepov 8e, on 
Kai AaKe^aii^iovioi out' av Qpa^lv ev TreXrotc Kai ukovtioic, 
ovTe 'EkvOuiq ev to^ojo eOeXoiev civ ^lajwv'iteaO ai. He- 
siod. ''Ep-y. A\3. a/^ijioXiepyoc; avi)p (iTyai TraXa'iei. Find. 
Nem. 1, 37. -y^pri S' ev evde'iaiG o^olc, arei'^ovTa f.iapvaaBai 
<l>va {cum indole certare, i. e. parem ad ingenium industriam 
et studium afferre). Ear. Hipp. 431. /torov Se touto (paa 
a/LiiXXacjdai /3/w, yvojpm' ^iKctiav KayaOi'n' ' to vie with life, 
that it is as great a good as life itself. Theocr. 1. 136. kt]^ 
opeMV TOt fTKWTrec arjdoai yapvacavTO {leg. ^ap'iaaivro. See Anal. 
Br. T. 3. p. 250. Virg. Eel. 8, 55.) ^iKateffOa'i nvi ' to go to 
law with any one, to accuse'. Plat. Euthyphr. p. 4 E. Hence 
verbs compounded with §ia, ^lairvKxeveiv rivi, certare cum ali- 
giio lucta, Xen. Ci/r. 7, 5, 53. BiaOpvTrTeodal tivi Theocr. 6, 
15. Siae'ideiv Twi id. 5, 22. 

Hence arises the construction 7retjO>}0/7^'ai tivl II. (p , 225. 
'to try one's strength against any one'. Thuc. 1, 73. (papev 
MapaOtSvi f.i6voi TT poKiv^vvevaai no pappapio. 

Ohs. 1. Instead of TroXe^ueTi' tivl we find too -apos rira : Isocr. Paiieg. 

p. 66 C. (c. 34.) 7-oTs ftapftapois aureus (rous "lu)vas) e^edoaar, 

TTjOOS ovs olceTTOJTTOTe eTTavaavTO iroXejjLOvi'Tes' and 2^(issim. Also p-aye- 
(Tdai kTci TIVL 11. €, 124, 244. v', 26. 

Ohs. 2. TToXepe'iv is also constructed with the accusative in the sense 
of ' to attack' : Dinarch. adv. Demosth. j^. 29. ed. R. toiov-ujv trvpfiov- 
Xw»' Kul I'lyepoycjv SxpeXov Tvyeh' o'l -iroXepliaavTes Tr/v tzoXlv . 

In consequence of the idea of companionship given to the 405. 
dative, it was used particularly with words which are com- C^^^) 
pounded with avv, perd {' with'), o^uou, e. g. avtrlv rivi, vivere 
cum aliquo, viz. when the preposition may, without injury to 
the sense, be separated from the verb, and be placed imme- 
diately before the dative, or, where this division cannot take 
place, may be repeated. Thus in adjectives, (jvi'Tpocpoc {Herod. 

fHemst. Obss. Misc. 4. p. 291. ad Diod. S. 1. p. 305. 
Dorville ad Char. p. 576. Wessel. 

G48 Si/ntax. Of the Dative. 

7, 102. T^ 'EXXci'Si vei'it} a'le'i Kore avvrpocpoa eari), o'i</ii^w- 
voc, <Tviii(l)h)veiv, 8cc.^ jLieTo., indeed, in the sense of 'with', by 
itself, takes the genitive ; but in composition the dative, e. g-. 
fiereyjeiv rivoc, tivi, ' to partake of anything with some one', 
jiieTaLTioc Tti't. (But in /nera^i^ovai Tivi, f^iereaTi fxoi, ^terajueXei 
fxoi, the dative does not express a companionship, but merely 
the personal object of the verb, as in the simple verbs ^i^ovai 
Tiv'i, ear'i fxoi, fxeXei /noi.) 'O^tov, e. g. OjUoXoyeTv tivi ' to agree 
with any one', properly, ' to speak with him'. o/uoyXti)o-(Toc tivi 
'speaking the same language with any one', oj.iiovvi.i6c rn't 'of 
the same name with any one, a namesake of any one'. ojnoTpo- 
^6c, Tivi ' brought up with any one, living with any one', o/lio- 
poc, (Ion. oiiiovpoc) ' who has a common boundary {opoc, ovpoc) 
with any one' ''. Thus also ojiuXeTr nvi (which is a lengthened 
form from o/tou) 'to associate with any one'^. 

Obs. 1. Tliat adjectives compounded with trvv or ojuoiJ are often found 
with the genitive, has been observed §. 399. Obs. 2. Herod. 2, 134. 

'PocwTTis ?])' avvEovXos AlfTtjTTov Tov XoyoTTOiov' Kctl yap 

ovTOS 'luhuoi'os eyirero (^uvXos). Plat. Phcedon. p. 85 B. tyoj de kuI 
avTos {jyoui-iai bfxoSovXos ye eiiai rwi' Kvici'ioy k:ai lepus tov av~ov 
deov. For ^vvoiKely -iii Euripides Hipp. 1233. says ^vvoiKeTv er. 

(400) Obs. 2. Tlie words rrTparos, arokos, ' an army, a fleet', a-parnSrai, 
and the different classes of soldiers, as -rreiioi, 'nrirels, oTrXTrai, ^iXol, 
TreXraT-ai, also i >yes, &c. are generally accompanied by the dative only, 
without (Tvv, wlien they constitute an accompaniment. Herod. 5, 99. 
CTreih) ol 'AOrjycuoi uTntceuTO e'lKoai rijvcri. 100. airiKuf^ievoi ?e rw 
OToXu) TovTo) (cum hac classc) "lioyes ts "Ei^eaoi' arelDairoy X^'P' 
TToXXi] (cum magna maiiit). T/nic. 1, 102. WOijiaioi ijXdoy, Ki^uot os 

arparriyovfTus, ttXijOci oil/c oX/yw. 107. o'l Aa/cecaijucii io« e/J0>/- 

0i/(7Oj' T<ns ^wpievcnv eavrojy re Tre it ciKotr i ois Kul ')(^iXiois ottXi- 
Tais Ka'i Tujy ^vju/ici^wj' fivplots. 2, 21. ttrjjdXioy Trjs 'AttikIjs es 
'EXeufflrct k(u Qpiuj^e aTpuTf HeXoTroii'tjaiioy, 3, 90. avXirrufiet'Oi 2e 

rw orparw ey tov Aids tov Nefietov rw 'iep(o eTrnpevero. Hence 

Thuc. 2, 12 extr. Boiwroi toTs Xenro^kiois es HXaraiai' iXdoiTes t>)v 
ytjy Id^ovi'. (Tvy however is sometimes added, e. g. Xen. Hist. Gr. 2, 
2, 7. Anab. 1, 8, 1. So the datives Kpavyij, I'lxii, ftoy, Sec. II. /3', 209. 
Herod. 3, 14. 9, 59. yEsc/i. ,S'. c. Th. S9. Xcn.Amib. 1, 7, 4. 

^ Fisch. 3 a. p. 394. ' Fisch. 3 a. p. 401. 

'' Fiscli. 3 a. p. 394. 

Si/Jitax. Of the Dative. 649 

Ohs. 3. When a word which expresses accompaniment has avTos with 
it, both are put in the dative, without avv. II. \p', 8. aXX' avrols 
"mroLdL Koi ap^iaaiv daaov lovres YivLTpoKKov KXaiiofxev. Herod. 2, 
47. ilv Tis \l/avm] avTuiy (^AlyvTrTi(i)y^ Trapiiop vos, avrolffi i fxarioiffi 
ott' wu ej3a-^e ewvToy. 3, 45. vTfuTrprjaai avrolai veuitJoiKoiai. 
Eurip. Supj)l. 929. kuI pi]v -ou OIkKeovs ye yevratov tokou deal, 
avapTzacfavTes els {.lv^ovs j^doros avroTs t edpimvois, evXoyovcriy efx- 
(pavojs. Isocr. de Pac. J). 17G B. rpo'ipeis avrols TzXrjpojjxatrL ciefOa- 
pr]aav^. cvj' however is sometimes added : 11. fu', 112. t,', 498. Od. 
v, 118. Horn. H. in Jpoll. 1, 146. erOa toi eXk-ex'Vwj'es 'laoves ?}ye- 
peOoirai avroTs avv Tralcecrat /cat airio/r/s oXd^^oiffir. i/erot?. 2, 11 1. 
E?ir. Hipp. 1203. Cijcl. 705. Ion. 32. Plat. Rep. 8. p. 564 C. 

Lastly, the dative is used in definitions of time and place, 406. 
in answer to the questions 'when?' and ' wheie?' both chiefly 
in the poets. 

a. 'When?' Soph. EL 783. vpepa yrip ry^ aTTj/XAa-y^tai 
(})6(3ov. Eur. Phan. 4. ojc ^varvyj] Qi](Daiai rtj t69 i) /Lie pa 
uKTiv e(pr]K(iC. El/das, p. 192, 10. oi Se Tnti^ec avrov ^la 
TiivSe rrjv ttoXiv ry avry eiSov i)/ii€pa rrjv eavrwv aio- 
Ttjpiav Kai Tj/i' Twi' e\6pu)v Ti/Liwpiai'. Comp. Xen. Ci/r. 3, 3, 
29. At other times it is accompanied by ev : Eur. Hec. 44. ri 
7r€7rpu)iJievrj ^' ayei 6ai'e7i> aB6\(l)riv two Cjurjv ev rijiiaTi^. In 
the same manner vv^, f.u)v, eroc, Sec. are put in the dative, ry 
avry vvkt'i, Tpi<Ti fxria'i, ttoWoiq ereai. Also fxaKpii) -^povu), 
'during a long time' Soph. Trach. 599. 'after a long time 
Eur. Iph. A. 642. as deKactTToph) \p6vo) Troad. 20. ' after ten 
years'. But -hp-epa irepTTTy Xen. Hist. Gr. 2, 4, 13. is 'five 
days before', ^e/carw eVet irapaaKevacraiLievoc, Lys. Epitaph, 
p. 193, 16. ' for twelve years'. 

h. 'Where?' with the names of places, where sometimes ei' 
is used. Soph. Trach. 171. wc tiiv -RoXaiav (priyou avBriTai 
irore AwSwvi Siaawv e/c rieXeiaSwv e(^»), ' at Dodona'. Eur. ■ 
Phan.617. MvKrjuaic, prt 'vda^' avaKaXei Oeovc. Aristoph. 
Ach. 697. avdp' ayaOov ovra M apaOiovi rrepi rriv ttoXiv. eWa 
MapaOwvi pcv or >;m61', eSwKopeu. Plat. Menex. p. 245 A. 
(3a<Ti\ei Se auri? pev ovk eroX/urjae (iorjOrtcrai, aia^vvopevri ra 

•^ Wessel. ad Ilcrod. 2, 47. p. 126, Lob. ad Phryn. p. 99. 
20. Herm. ad Vig. p. 861. n. 409. ^ Brunck ad Eur. Hec. 1. c. Mark- 

Lamb. B. p. 745. Elmsl.adMed.160. land ad Lys. l.c, Fisch. 3 a. p. 384. 
VOL. 11. L 

650 Syntax. Of the Accusative, 

TpoTraia TO. re ^lapaOwvi /cat 2aAa/n?vi Kai TWaraiaic. 
comp. Isocr. tt. avrid. §. 328. So aypw Od. X' , 188. oSoTq 
Soph. Ant. 226. Kpari id. (Ed. C. 313. o'ikoig Track. 730. 
irovTw Eur. Hec. 1261.^ 

(y^^e Accusative. 

407. The accusative denotes the proper object of an action, either 
that which is effected or produced by the action, e. g. iroielu 
lnvOovQ n Xoyovc, or that in which the proper effect of the action 
manifests itself, that which is brought by it into a passive state, 
and is conceived of as under its influence, e. g. TUTrreji', u^iKeiv 
Ttva, &c. Much here is arbitrary, and depends upon the view 
with which a nation regards the relation between the verb and 
its object. 

The accusative stands throughout in a certain analogy to the 
nominative, inasmuch as every noun, which w ith an active verb 
is in the accusative, must be in the nominative, as subject of 
the same verb, when passive. The rule of the Latin language, 
however, that every noun which can be the subject of the pas- 
sive verb in the nominative must be in the accusative with the 
active verb, is not the rule of the Greek language. See §. 490. 

The verbs which in Greek govern the accusative are chiefly 
those which do so in Latin. 

According to the explanation given above, the accusative has 
the following significations : 

I. The result of the action. Here the following Grecisms 
are to be remarked : 

408. 1. The verb active frequently takes a substantive of the same 

(41^) derivation, or of kindred signification, in the accusative. It. v, 

220. TTOv TOi aTreiXai oi^oi'toi, tuc ^pioaiv aireiXeov v'lec, 

' A\ai<Sv ; Eurip. Ph. 65. apac, apuTai Traicriv avo(Ti(i)TaTac,. 

Plat. Rep, 10. p. 603 C. TTparrovTac, avBpMnovc nM/icTrai 

» Bcntl. ad Callim. Lav. V. 18. ad Arist. Lys. 1'299. Schaif. ad Lamb. 
Valck. ad Eur. Hipp. 545. Wessel. Bos. p. 697. Monk ad Eur. Hipp, 
ad Herod. 2, 54. p. UiO, 34. Bninck 547. 

Syntax. Of the Accusative. 65 1 

7] jUJjiir/Tt/O) jiiaiovQ h eKovaiac, Trpa^eic,. ih. )>. G08 A. t'Tra- 
^ovrec, TavTtjv rrjy eiriodiju. Apol. S. p. 28 B. toiouto)' eTri- 
TV^eviLia c7riTy]devaac,. Phado)i. p. 98 B. ouSe Tivac, airiac, 
eTTuiTiio^cvoi'. Without adj. Demuslh. de llahu. p. 80, 20. 
aTTOcTToXovc; aTT0(7Te\Xeii' (^ovXerai. Hence the verb some- 
times takes also the accusative of the object, and the substantive 
with the adjective answers to an adverb. See §. 421. Obs. 3. 

This takes place still more frequently with intransitive verbs, 
generally in order to subjoin a new definition, which might often 
also be expressed by an adverb, or the dative case, but in Greek 
is considered as something produced by the verb. //. i , 74. t(j> 
ire'iaeai, oq k€v ap'i<XTriv (iovXrjv |3ouXevcrrj, i.e. apiara 
(SovXevay. {hnt Lys. p. 131,30. rvv varepav /BouXtjv e/Sou- 
\evov 'were members of the subsequent senate'.) Soph. Phil. 
173. voael voaov dyp'iav. whence Eii7'. Ion. 632, aTratStav 

I'OffeTi'. ib. 276. iroiav fi dvatrracriv BoKeic, e^ vttvov 

arrjvai tote; for ttwc /ue ovacTTJji'cu coKelc,. 1038. ovttot 
av aroXov eTrXevffar av TOvSe. Av'ichyl. Prom. 926. ovBev 
yap avTW ravr eirapKeaei, to ^7) ou Treaeii' aTif^iwc, TTTOJ/xaT 
ovK dvaayj£ra. Pers. 303. Tri]^r\i.ia KovCJiou e/c vetoc aipi]- 
XuTO, when also irn^miaTi kovc^o) or merely kov(^(jjc, might be 
put. Comp. Again. 835. Enrip. Ion. 1287. oQev TveTpalov 
dXfi.a ^laKevOnaerai, for oOev ck ireTpac d. Comp. Troad. 756. 
Suppl. 550. Hence 7roAe|Uoi' TroXe^jeTi', as Thuci/d. 1, 112. 
AaKe^ai/iiovioi /neTtt ravTu tov lepov KaXovj^ievov -rroXei^iov 
ear parevaav. Plat. Leg. 3. ^>. 680 E. ftacriXe'iav traahiv 
diKaiorarnv (iaaiXevofievoi. Alcib. 2. p. 142 A. vtto tmv 
<TVKo<pavTOJV TToXiopKoviiievoi TToXiop Kiav ovcev eXaTTw t»;c 
UTTO TToXe^u'wi'. Protag. p. 325 C eirii^ieXovvTai TTciaav e-rri- 
fxeXeiav. Comp. Rep. 9. p. 591 D. 5. p. 451 A. in Bekker 
TOvro ovv TO Kii'SuveUjUH Kivdvveveiv ev e-^Opolc KpeiTTOu 
77 (jy'iXoiQ^. The defining adjective is seldom wanting : II. o , 
673. r)^' ocraoi irapa vr]vai fxay^rjv ep.a\ovro SoTjcrtt', for the 
simple kfiayovro. Comp. Od. i , 54. where however f.iayji]v is 
governed by arr\auf^ievoi. II. r/, 449. reiyoc, ereiyj.aauvro. 
Soph. Ant. 551. yeXojra yeXw. Herod. 4, 145. ydi^iovc, t'-yrj- 
fiai'. Eur. Andr. 869. 8e?/i' o Seifiaiveic, dya\', where the more 

'' Fisch. 3 a. p. 422 sqq.— 1'28. 
L 2 

652 Syntax. Of the Accusative. 

exact definition is contained in ayav. In airai^'iav voaeiv Eu- 
ripides, and Plat. Leg. 9. jj. 811 B. aei(pvy'iav (jyevyeru), the 
definition is contained in the compound substantive, as if it 
were airaiSa voaov vocreTr, diSiov (jyvynv <f)evyeiv. Pind. Nem. 
5,9. TlvQeaQViKi^ Ne^ueiotc TrayKpariov areCpavov, o-Te(^., which 
is the symbol of victory, stands for »'i/c»/i', whence vikuv arecp. 
obtains the idea of * acquiring the prize'. 

Obs. Instead of the accusative the dative is sometimes found. (S'opA. 
Track. 544. voaovv-i Keh'u) iroXXa rtjle ry voau). hke ar?jK.e«7-w tto- 
vr)pi<f. voaelv Xen. Mem. S. 3, 5, 18. Pint. Leg. 3. p. 695 C. AapeZos 
■Traihdq. ov harpv(j)u)(Ti] reOpufifAeyos. and D. which ibid. A. is expressed 
Siefdapfxiyrji' Traiceiuy irepielCe TraidevdePTUs avrov tovs v'lels. 

In the same manner the accusative is put with adjectives. 

Plat. Rep. 9. p. 579 D. ecrriv apa ttj dXrjde'ia o tw oi'ti 

Tvpavvoc, T(o oi'Ti ^ovXoc TUG peyiarac OwTreiac Kai oov- 
\eiac;. lb. 6. p. 490 D. KaKovc, irciaav KaKiav 'utterly bad'. 
Apol. S. p. 22 E. ao(poc, rriv eKe'iwov ao(piav, /ti?jT6 a/LiaOrjc ti)v 
ajxaQiav. Eur. Here. F. 398. ^paKovra, oc, inrXarov u/iKpe- 
Ai/CTOC eXiK e(f)povp€i. 

Hence also the following phrases, in which Kara is usually 
supplied with the accusative, inasmuch as it expresses the kind 
and mode of the action : Sop?t. Aj. 42. t'i ^rjra Tro'i/iivaiQ ttji'S' 
eTTf^tTTiTi'e? (id(Tiv, i.e. (uSe, ovrioc Eui'ip. Or. 1018. wc, (t 
i^ova ev o^tjttocri TravvcTTaTrjv ir poaOipiv e^kary]v (ppevujv. 
i. e. idovcra Travvararov. ib. 1041. Tepirov KevrjV ovrfcriv. Phocn. 
1394. y^au ^poprjf^ia Seii'oi' aWiiXoic eiri. Soph. CEd. C. 
1 166. TIC, SfjT ai' e'trj rr/i'S o irpoaQuKwv e^pav, for o ryce (e/ce?) 
OaKwv i.e. iKeTevMv. Eurip. Phan. 300. yoi'VTrereTc e^pac 
irpo<jTTiT\'(ji ae. {v. Porson.) where 70i^i»7reTeTc eSpac stands for 
ewi yovv TriTTTwv (or, if there were such a word, ■yoi'i'TreTwc). 
In the passage Soph. Trach. 49. cecnroiva Atjaveipa, TroXXa fiev 
o e-ytu Karex^ov ijcrj Trau^aKpvr o^vpinaTa ti)u lipuKXeiov e^o- 
cov you)/Aei>riv, the construction of TravBciKpvT' u^vp/nara yodaOai 
belongs to this place, but yoaaOai e^o^ov to §. 414. 

409. 2. With I^XcTreiv ' to look', intransitive, the expression of the 
look is often marked by a substantive, adjective, or participle, 
in the accusative, in the poets. Od. r , 446. irvp Be^opK^c 
JEsch. S. c. Th. 500. (p6^ov i^XeTTeiv ' to look fearful', id. 

Sijntax. Of the Accusative. 653 

Pers. 79. Knaveov S' o/.i/iia(Ti Xevaawv (poviov ^epyfxa ^paKOvror,. 
Eurip. Ion. 1282. SjOo/cwi' aVa/SAeTrojv (jyov'iav (pXoya 'with 
fiery bloodthirsty look'. Aristoph. Pint. 328. (^Xeireiv '' Apr]v 
* to look martial', as ^epKeaQai'' Kpt]v JEach. S. c. Th. 53. opav 
oXkolv Pirid. 01. 9, 165. -KecppovriKoQ (^Xeireiv Eur. Ale. 785. 
KXeTTTov (5X. Arist. Vesp. 900. (pOovepa (5X. Pind. Nem. 4, 64. 
eXeivov opav Soph. Phil. 1130.* 

3. Thus in consequence of the phrase /.id^eaOai fxa^riv, the 
words fJi(i\ri, vavf-ia^ia, TToXej^ioc,, 8cc. with viKav, ' to conquer', 
intransitive, and, if a victory in a solemn pubHc contest is 
signified, the place of the conquest, or the nature of the 
combat, are put in the accusative. Isocr. Panath. p. 286 E. 

AaKe^aif-iovioi aTravTiov raiv 'EAXj'jvwi' i7"ye/.tovec Kareaniaau 

Sia TO, /LuiYac, 7roi>j(Ta|nei^oi irXeiarac twv avupivTrtov kut 

€K€ivov Tov ■^povov, /LiT^dejiuav -nTTrjOyivai tovtcov, rjyov/iievov pa- 
aiXeujG, dXXa veviKrjKevai TraGac. Hence iravra ev'iKa II. e, 
807. Comp. Xen.Anab. 1, 10,4. 2, 1, 1. Me?n. S. 2, 6,26. 
— Thuc. 7, 66. TOO fiiev veviKi]KaT€ ^S»j vavjuay^iac;. Isocr. Ep. ad 
Phil. J!?. 4 15 D. viKav Tovc, aTe(l)avirac aywvac.. Thuc. 1, 126. 
'OXv/nTTia veviKYiKOTi. Herod. 6, 103. 'OXvf.nria'^a dveXeaOai. 
Plat. Ion. in. Epigr. Simonid. in Brunck Anal. 1. p. 140. 
''ladj^iia /cot WvBol Aio(pMv o ^iXwvoc; ev'iKa aXfia, ttoSw- 
Ke'irfV, diaKOV, aKovra, 7raXr;v. Uence viKav yvujprtv Plat. 
Gorg. p. 456 A. with Heindorf 's note p. 32. Comp. WesseliUg 
ad Herod. 1,61. Eur. Hipp. 1029. aywvac Kparelv. Comp. 
Pind. Pi/th. 10, 37. Cor. p. 292, 21. Isocr. Paneg. 
p. 7] E. (c. 40 extr.) ttoXXciq f^idy^ac "iTTwrai. An accusative 
of the person conquered is sometimes added : JEschin. in Ctes. 
p. 570. MiXrid^riQ o Tiw ev Mapa9(Svi fidy^n^ tovq (5ap(5dpovQ 
viK^aac According to this analogy is constructed Eur. Andr. 
337. ajj TovS' dyhjviel (povov. Yet the dative is very fre- 
quently used here: Isocr. p. 351 C. 'iinrwv levyei vpwroc 
'AXKf^iaiwv Twv TroXiTOJV 'OXvf.nridaiv ev'iKiicTe. Plat. Apol. 
S. p. 36 D. eiTic vp-wv iTTTTw 1] ^uv(0|OiSi T/ ^evyei vevUiiKev 

" Bergl. ad Arist. Ach. J65. Pint. Gloss. TEsch. Th. 53. 
328. Brunck ad Arist. Av. 1169. i' Ilemsterh. ad Luc. t. 1. p. 338. 

Schffif. ad Lamb. B. p. 03. Blomf. 

654 Si/ntax. Of the Accusative. 

4. According to the same analogy, the accusativeof the v/ay 
in which one goes is used after verbs of motion. Horn. H. in 
Merc. 547. aXi-nv o^ov eiaiv, as in English, 'he goes a fruitless 

<re/3e?c h^ovc, xiKovra. Comp. Plat. Rep. 6. ;;. 506 C. Hence 
K-XiVtoKa S' liPMv KaTefti](7aTO Od. a, 330. ' she descended the 
ladder', comp. Herod. 7, 218. Thus also Soph. Aj. 30. ku- 
)uoi Tie oTTrnp avTOV e'lai^wv /liovov Tnj^wvra Trecia ovv veop- 
pavTw '^'i^e.i. 845. av S' , w tuv a'nrvv ovpavov ^KppyiXa- 
Ta>»',''HA(C. Eur. Atidr. 1013. ^Kppeveiv aXiov TreXayor,. Hel. 
1130. oq e'S|Oa^te po0<a. comp. 7/)/i. T. 425.\)C. aXaaQai 
^ivpiovG Eur. Hel. 540. 

a. Hence the accusative is used with verbs of going, of the 
place whither, or the person to whom one * goes, conies', for 
e'lc,. Od. a, 332. 1] S' ore Sj? /nvriaTri pac aCpiKero ^m yv- 
vaiKiSv. for TTpoQ pv. Comp. Od. <^', 25. Piud. Pj/th. 11, 52. 
o S' apa ykpovra ^ei'oi' ^Tp6<piov e^iKero. j3aireiv ^[(ppov for 
elf. Bicppov II. y, 262. 312. Soph. El. 1349. ol to ^uiKeuiv 
TTe^ov vTre^erre p(pOr]v, ay TrpopiiBeia, -^epolv. Aiitig. 805. 
Trach. 159. Eur. Ph. 110. ov yap ti (pavXwc »)X0e OoXupe/- 
KttQ '^e6va. Comp. Iph. A. 1553. Eacch. 5. lou. 1299. 
Troad. 899. Pind. 01. 2, 173. alvov e/3a /co>oq. So also 
i)yr]aaaBai rivi iroXiv Od. "C, 11 4. Hence TreXai^eti' with the 
accusative Eur. Andr. 1170. ^wpa TreXutei^. 

h. In the poets the verbs * to stand, to sit', have an accusa- 
tive of the place. JEsch. Agam. 190. ^aipovwv Se ttou yapic, 
(Bia'ibJC aeXpa crepvov i)pev(i)v. Eurip. Audr. 1\7 . (o yvvai, 
a GeriSor, cuireSov kui avuKTopa Oacsaeic, capov. Or. 861. 
opijj S o)(^Xoi' areiyovra kcu Oaaaovr ciKpav. 943. i)u yeveia 
Se ovBev a e7rw(^eXjjffei', ouS o llii^joo rpiiroSa KaOitt^v <t>o?- 
l5oc,. So also the compounds with irpoc: JEsch. Agam. 843. 
toe Kap^'iav Trpoaiipevoc. Soph. (Ed. C. 1166. tig ^i]T av 
eirj T?jvS' o irpoaOaKOJv eSpav; Eurip. Or. 1248. arr\B ai 
pcv vpu)v Tj'ji'S apa^i}pr] rpij3ov. Elsewhere ctti also ac- 

' Misc. Obss. t. 5. p. 278. Miisgr, 1. c. \alck. ad Phocu. 110. 
ad Eur. Suppl. 251. Ilerm. ad Pind. 

Sj/ntax. Of the Accusative. G55 

companies the accusative, e. g. Time. 1, 126. KaOitovaiv evi 
Tov ^hifjiov iKerai. and irpoQ, Thuc.d, 70. avrwv -rrpoc, to. lepa 
'iKeroju KaOeto/^ievwv. Xen. Mem. S. 4, 2, 1. k. gic, ?'jvto7roie?oi/. 
where in KaQeC' ' going and sitting' is implied. 

5. With many adjectives which express ability or capacity, 
substantives are used in the accusative, to express that the 
quality which they denote is to be regarded as produced by 
those adjectives, in the same cases in which the infinitive also 
is joined with them. Plat. Prot. p. 323 A. eav ric, cjyy ayaOoc, 
avXriTnc elvai r} aWiiv rjvrivovv res^vrjv i]v jlui eariv, tj kutu- 
•yeXwfftv, &,c. (hke uyaOoc, TrpaTreiv). Comp. Alcib. I. p. 124 E. 
Xen. Cyr. \, 3, 15. /SeXruoi' Plat. Prot. p. 318 C.—Xen. 
Mem. S. 4, 2,6. o riav ftovXiovrai ^vvaroi yeveaOai (like du- 
varoc, Xeyeiv re kui Trpdrreiv, SvvaTOi ravra TroteTi', which 
immediately follow). Plat. Prot. p. 335 C. t'yw Se to. paKpa 
ravTa u^vvaToc See Heindorf p. 552 seq. Agreeably to this 
Plat. Alcib. I. p. 1 1 8 C. I'l^tj riva eiSec o-o<|)oi^ otlovv aSi^ra- 
TovvTu TToiTioai liWov Gocpov liiTep avTOc; (different from the 
construction §. 408.). Lysias c. Phil. in. ovy^ eV ti /liovov, 
dWa TToXXa ToXjitrjjOoc eariv. So also iKavoG ti (as iK. with 
infin. §. 532.) Xen. Mem. S. 4, 2, 6. Xen. Cyr. 8, 4, 18. 
Seti^oq e\p.i Tavrr\v rnv rky^vnv. Generally, however, these 
are accusatives neuter of adjectives and pronouns, as also xpn- 
aifxoQ Xen. Anub. 2, 5, 23. (ppovip-oQ Plat. Alcib. I. p. 125 A. 
are construed, and etc or irpoQ is as often added, in the same 
way as with dyaOoc, and (^povj^ioc Plat. I. c. y^pnainoc, Prot. 
p. 326 B. 

Obs. 1 . The poets, especially the tragic poets, sometimes employ, 
instead of the general words Troielu, xeei»', &c., verbs which express at 
the same time the effect contained in the noun, or a collateral circum- 
stance belonging to the agent: e.g. Soj)h. Aj. 376. cu/j.' e^evaa, i.e. alp.a 
^evoy e)(ea, as Trach. 853. reyyet SuKpvwy cixi'ay' Eur. Iph. T. 405. 
Koiipa ciareyyei aijxa ftporeioy. Soph. Jj. 55. CKeipe (povoy, i. e. KeipiDV 
kizoiei f/)0j'0i'. Ant'ig. 792 seq. eXkos TV<pXwdev, i. e. 'iXKOs 7roir?0ev t<^ 
rvcpXovy. Eur. Suj^pl. 1211. rirpdoaiceiy (l)6yoy, for (povov Troiely to) n- 


Obs. 2. In Sojoh. El. 1377. //' ere ttoXXu ?//, ct^' toy e'x«iA". Xtirapel 

" Lob. ad Soi)h. Aj. 374. Of the see Uiihnk. Prai'. ad Schell. Lex. 
similar plirase rupuTreiy noXepoy, cxtr. 

656 Syntax. Of the Accnsalive. 

TTpovfTTijy x^P'j the accusative seems to be used more, because in 
Trpolan]v \. )^. the idea of kereuo-a ce Ovovaa, aip iov e^oifxi, is con- 
tained, than that TrpofTTTJyat (^ara) Tiya was put for irpocrrrjyai. Tiros. 

6. The accusative of the thing serves to express the result 
of the action in diroKpiveaQai ti * to answer to anything', for 
Trpoc, Ti. Thuc. 3, 61. touc fJ-ev XoyovQ ovk av 7]TT?(To/ue0a enrelp, 
ei Kai avTOi (5payje(t)c to epiorrjOev aireKpivavTO. Plat. Al- 
cib. I. p. 106 B. ei ■^aXeirov So/ce? to airoKpivucydai tu epw- 
TUifxeva, Id. Phil. p. 19 A. TroVejooc i^/iwi' airoKpiveiTai to 

vvv epwTcopevov. to ^tij cvuaaOai to vvv ep(x)Tj]~ 

Oev aTTOKpivaaOai. Comp. Leg. \0. p. S97 D. Crit. p. 48 extr. 
The full construction is found ib. p. 50 A. ovk c^(jj, oj SwKjoa- 
TCC, arroKpivaaOat Ttpoc, o epwTac,^. 

■^p?i<jBai Tti'i Ti ' to make use of anything for anything', for 
etc Ti. but only with the accusative of neuter pronouns or ad- 
jectives. Thuc. 2, 15. Kal Ty Kpi]vy e-y-yuc ovay 

Ta TrAetffTOU ci^ta e-^pwi'TO' Kai vvv en ctTTO tov ap"^aiov irpo 
Te yainiKUJv Kai tc ciAXa t(vv lepujv vOf.i'it€Tai tm vcaTi ^pi/craat. 
Plat. Phileb. p. 36 C. TavTy drj ry aK^^ei tovtcov tijjv ttoO/j- 
fiuTiov ToBe -^pricTUifxeOa, * to this end', ib. p. 44 D. tovtoiq 
jiiev ovv TavTa av irpoay^pi^aaio. With eTTt, Demosth. in 
Aristug. p. 779, 18. e<p' a §' ai' kui ^pnaaiTO tic, toiovtm Orj- 
piu) {tuvtu Ofct), airevyjeadai to7c, 0eo?c /ti?) yeveaOai. Plat. 
Rep. 5. p. 451 E. €1 apa Talc, yvvai^iv errt tuvto. ■y^ptfcropeda 
Kai ToTc av^pacri, ravTo. Kai BiSaKTCOf avTac. Hence the phrases 
ovk e^ftt, o Ti (for e(j) o ti) y^pi^aionai avTio or kpavTto {Plat. 
Theag. p. 126 D. Li/s. p. 213 C. 222 D. Crit. p. 45 B. 
Xen. Ci/r. 1, 6, 2.) 'I know not what I shall do with him', 
jion habeo, (juicl eo faciam, quid again. Frequently, however, 
Ti or o Tt in this phrase signifies nothing more than ttwc or 
OTTWC : Xen. Ci/r. 1, 4, 13. riv tiq airo^paay tlHv oiKeTtov ere, 
Kai Aapyc, uvtov, ti uvtio \py ; 

So also Od. -^ , 49. outoc yap eTr'uiXev Ta^c epya. Soph. 
El. 299. ^vv 6 eiroTpvvei ireXac, o KXeivoc avry TavTa vv/ncpioc 
7rapu)v, for em TaBe c.pya, em TavTa ^. 

410, c. Hence the accusative is used as an apposition to an entire 
=• lieiud. acl Plat. Hipp. p. 138. ^ Lob. ad Phryn. p. 439. 

Sj/ntax. Of the Accusative. 657 

proposition. Eurip. Or. 1103. 'RXevriv Kraviojucv, Me^eXeoi 
Xvirriv TTiKpdv, i. e. o (to Kre'iveiv EX.) Mei'. Autttj iriKpa 
earai. ib. 1495. o Se \iaa6{.ievoc, Qavarov 7rpo(5o\av, quody 
nempe to XiaaeaOai, miinimentum esset contra mortem, ib. 1598. 
apvei KaraKTac, KciCJ) v(ip€i Aeyeic raSe' \vypav ye ttjv 
apvr]aiv. See of Apposition §. 432, 5. 

The accusative may in many of these cases be regarded as an (427) 
expression of feeling, which appears to be the reason why it is 
used in exclamation, as o) e^ue Sei'Xaiov Eurip. Troad. 138. 
although this cannot be regarded as an effect of the preceding 
action. Thus in exclamations of indignation, Arist. Av. 1269. 
deivov ye tov Ki]pvKa, rov irapa tovq (ipornvc oi-^Ojiievov, ei fxr]- 
deTTore vo(jTi]aei irdXiv, ' Oh for the herald ! ' ^. 

II. The accusative expresses the object of the action in 411. 
which its effect manifests itself, as rvTTTeiv Tim, (piXelv, vindv, 
in which the Greek coincides with other languages. The fol- 
lowing cases deserve notice : 

1. TreiOeiv ' to persuade', e. g. TroXXa/ctc e%av}.iaaa, riai wore 
Xoyotc 'A07]vaiovQ eireiaav ol ypaipajLievoi "^(tiKpar-qv, wr, 
al^ioQ etTj Oavdrov ry woXei Xen. Mem. S. in. quanam oratione 
Atheniensibus persttaserint accusatores Socratis. 

2. vj^piteiv Tivd ' to insult, to maltreat any one'. Isocr. 

p. 1 69 B. vfipitoV TCIQ V1}(T0VC,. Ll/sidS, p. 92, 10. TOVC, TTaldac 

TOVQ epovQ 7j(jyyv€, Kai ep-C avTOV vppiae. 

Obs. vfipii^f.iyeis Tiva is frequendy found, which is distinguished 
from the foregoing in this, that the former relates to oneself, e. g. to 
any maltreatment of the person, but vlSpl^eiv e'is riva ' to insult any 
person connected with one', e. g. Eur. Andr. 99G. tov 'AxiXX^ws 
^ij]Vev (jtoftnOtjs TTcdo' oa els ep vfDpifrev ' by taking from Orestes Her- 
mione who was destined for him'. Isocr. Fan. p. C4 A. els ras avriSy 
TrarplBas v^pi^eLy. Comp. p. 72 B. but ibid. E. roiis peff eavrujy els 
Kvirpov (T-parevaapevovs pdkXov, Tj rovs cdxpaXujTOVs vf^pi^ov. This dis- 
tinction, however, is not always observed •*. 

•= Gregor. p.(57) 136 seq. Spanh. vius et Reitz ad Luc. 1. c. p. 496. 

ad Arist. Nub. 1113. 1147. Kiister llemsterh. ad Luc. t. 1. p. 200. Kus- 

ad Arist. Plut. p. 53. Dorville ad tor ad Aribtoph. Plut. 900. Markb 

Charit. p. 642. ad Lys. p. 17. ed. Reisk. 

•* Lucian. SoIcec. t. 9. p. 233. Grac- 

658 St/ntax. Of the Accusative. 

3. uBiKeiv. Xen. Anab. 1, 4, 9. tovc, ix^vq oi l^vpoi Beovc 
evofxi^ov Kai a^iKelv ovK e'twv, ov^e raQ irepiarepac;. 

4. Several verbs which signify * to assist, profit, injure', as 
wCpeAeiu Tiva. J^sch. Prom. 507 . /.it) vvv (iporovc ^tev ojCpeXei 
Kaipov nepa. Eurip. Flerc. F. 684. Ai/caia tovc re/covrac 
(L^eXfTv TeKva Trarepa re TrpeajBvv, rijv re koivwvov 
yd/dwv, where rcKva is the accusative of the subject. Xen. 
Cyrop. 2, 2, 20. aiaxP^^ eariv avTiXz-yeiv , pr\ ovyjL rov wXelcTTa 
djCpeXovvra to koivov tovtov koi p.e-yi<JTiov a^iovcruai. 
ib. 8, 4, 32. TO, TToXAci So/couvto '^yeiv, fjirj kut a^'iav t»7c 
ova'iaQ (PaiveaOai (o(peXovvra tovc, (p'lXovc, aveXevOepiav 
e^otye So/ceT irepuiTrTeiv^. Thus also oi'jV»j^i : //. a , 394. ei 
TTore Srt Ti 1] errei wvTjaac /CjOaSuji* Aioq, rje Kai kpycf). Eurip. 
F7\ inc. CLI, 1. 2. ov^e/niav loiniae KaWoQ eiQ noaiv ^vvao- 
pov' r] 'perri B' lovrjae ttoXAoc. Even Aueu' in the sense of 
XvaireXelv is constructed with the accusative by Sophocles Ei. 
1005. Xvei yiip ri/nac owSev ov^ eirivCpeXel, pa^iv KnXi]v Xa- 
(36vTe., dvaKXcwc, Oavelv, unless the accusative is governed of the 
word eTTw^eXe-T, which follows. See Hermann's note. So Eur. 
Or. 803. e't ae ^nj v ^eivoiaiv oura GVf.i^()pair, e-rrapKeaw, though 
elsewhere upKciv and cirapKelv are constructed with a dative. 

Ohs. For ihfeXelp with the dative also, see §. 391. 

5. apvveiv Ti Tivt, aXe^eTv see §. 394. So also ^(/oato'^teTv 
Tivi oXeOpov II. v , 296. X', 120. r] , 143 seq. and thence //. 

a , oQQ. /ti/j vv roi ov xpaia^txiaiv aaaov lovra {epe) * not 

keep me off from thee, not protect thee against me'. Also 
dpe'ijBeaOai, avTajueijSccrOat, * to remunerate', is constructed with 
the accusative of the person or thing remunerated : Eurip. Or. 
1045. Kai <j dpeixfyuaOai OeXiv (piXornri x^ipwv. Xen. Mem. S. 

4, 3, 15. €/ce?i'o advpbj, oTi poi SoKel tuc, twv uewv evepye- 
aiac oifK av e'lQ ttotc avQp^TTiov a^'iuic, yjapiaiv apeipeaOat. 
Also in the sense of 'to answer', Hesiod. Theog. 654. Herod. 

5, 93. 7, 136. Eur. Or. 608. Suppl. 519. Iph. A. 1216. 
Thus too TipwpeiaOai riva ' to avenge oneself on any one'. 

Obs. 1. Many other verbs are found with the accusative, which ac- 
cording to their grammatical nature require another case, because the 
Greeks not only transfer the construction which a verb has in one sig- 

=» Thoin. M. p. 935. 

Sj/ntax. Of the Accusative. 659 

nification to another signification, e. g. that of ufxeifteadat. ' to remune- 
rate', to cift. ' to answer', but also in many words regard not so much 
their grammatical nature as the sense contained in them. So Herodotus 
constructs cirTia'Ceiv, v-n-avna^eiv, in the sense of ' attack', Pindar in 
the sense of a/7e('/3c(T0cu, with the accusative §, 383, 2. ; and Plato Phi- 
leb, p. 42 C. uses atTarTWj-iev for eiipw/uei' with an accusative, fiiadoco- 
rely, from its derivation from c/caiytti, should govern a dative ; but inas- 
much as the sense of ^KrOovaOai is contained in it, Demosthenes joins 
it with the accusative j3/o Cor, 2^' 265, 12. Instead of 'vrrepexeiy riyos 
§. 358, 2. Euripides says Hipp. 1381. od" 6 aiocppoaui'i] ttcutus v-rrep- 
c^oiv. See Valckenaer's note. Comp. §. 411, 4. So Demosthenes tt. 
Trapanp. j). 418, 13. says etdierai tovs Tvpurrovs in the sense of vivoKpL- 
verrdai. See Schcef. App. 2. p. 661 seq. 

Ohs. 2. Many verbs take an accusative or a dative, according to the 
different relations of which they are capable ; as, 

apiaKELV with the dative §. 393, 5. with the accusative on account of 
its derivation from apeaai ' to win', conciliare. Plat. Thecet. p. 172 D. 
eay avroiis 6 eTreXOwi' (Aoyos) apecrtj. ib. 202 C. upeai^ei ovu (re Kcii 
rideaOai ravri] ; ib. p. 202 D. 'ku f^ihroL ti pe anapecTKei. Comp. 
Rep. 8. p. 550 B.^ Hence apea-iceadal tivl ' to find pleasure in some- 
thing', delcctari ciUqua re, Herod. 3, 34. 4, IS, 9, 66. Thuc. 2, 68. 
8, 84.'' So Herod. 1, 48. ovcef TrpodUro piv, i. e. jj/ieo-^e. 

Like apeaKciv ru'/t is also constructed Soj^h. EL 174. d\X' epe y' a 

nroi'oeara upapev fpevas opi'is, whereas Od. K, 777. it is pvOoi', o 

^>) teat 7rd(7iv eyl (ppealy ijpupev yjplv. This analogy may defend 
Theogn. 26. oure yap Zevs ovd' v(i)y ttuvtcis avcavei, ohr ayexioy, 
as Theocr. 27, 22. ruoy c tphv ovtis ea^e (perf.). The metrical diffi- 
culty may be removed by §.18 seq. p. 51. especially if afoaj'eiv had 
the digamma. 

^et with the dative, see §. 391, 2. with the accusative Od. a, 124. 
pvdfitreai, orreo ce xpn. y , 14. TrjXepax, ov pev ere xP^I ^''' a'lcovs 
ovF ijflaiov. Mschyl. Prom. 86. ahrbv yap ere eel Upoprjdeus. Eur, 
Here. F. 1173. riXdov, e'l ri ^e7, yepov, y xeipbs vpds Trjs e/itr/i, »/ ^vp- 
/Lict)(wi/ ''. Xenophon combines both constructions Anab, 3, 4, 35. With 
Xf"'/ the accusative is more common. 

^ Mceris p. 175, Greg. p. ('->7) 67. Ast ad Plat. Leg. p. 19C. 

Spanhem. Brunck ad Arist. Plut. 69. <= Valck. ad Herod. 7, 160. p. 579, 

353. Toup ad Suid l.p. 83. Valck. 58. But Herod. 1, 8. upeaKuperos 

ad Hipp. 106. 184. Berglerad Arist. stands for upeTKioy, as 9, 79. 

Plut. 353. Duker ad 'Ihuc. 1, Vz8. ^ Valck. ad Hipp. 23. Pors. ad 

Fisch. 3 a. p. 410. Hciud. ad Plat. Or. 659. 
Cratyl. p. '29. Monk ad Hipp. 184. 

660 Si/titax. Of the Accusative. 

The substantives XP^^ (XP^"^)' XP^'"« ^^^ often used with eari and the 
accusative, especially in Homer, after the analogy of del and xPVi XP^'^ 
kari being equivalent to xP»/. //. X', 650. ri ce ce XP^^ ejieTo ; Od. c", 
634. €fie Ee XP^'^ yiyve-ai avrrjs. Eur. Hec. 970. dXXa ris XP^^"^ <^' 
eyuou ; Instead of which Od. /j , 28. riva ^(peiw ronoy tk'ei; e, 189. 
ore fie XP^"^ rutroy 'ikoi. Soph, Phil. 64:6. evdodey Xafiwv, orov ae 
Xp€£a Koi TTudos fiaXiaT c'x^' * ' 

efXTToCi^eiy ' to hinder', see §. 393. Obs. 2. evoxXelv ' to annoy', 
ibid. eTnarpareveadai, and other compounds of Itt/, §. 402. Xarpev- 
eiy ' to serve', with the dative, §. 392. Ois. Xoidopely and XoicopelaOai, 
§, 384. 06s. 2. Xv/jLauerrdal nyi and raa, §. 391. 415. 1. a. a. 
Heficperrdai, §. 384. vTvocrTrjrai riyi and nva, §. 401. w^eXetJ', 
§. 391. 411, 4. 

Obs. 3. Some verbs take a dative of the person with the accusative 
of the thing, as well as an accusative of the person with a dative of the 
thing : e. g. Eur. Hec. 537. u'ljx u aoi cojpovf.iedci, but Or, 117. 'JLXeyT] <t 
aceX(pt) raiCT^e dupelrai X'^^^^- ^^ Helen. 1403. Xovrpdls XP'^" eCwKa, 
but Or. 42. Xovrp' e^wce xP'^'"' *"• ^o instead o[ KaXv-rrreiy ru'ct nyi 'to 
cover one with something', we find i^aXinrTeiy rl riyi ' to spread some- 
thing as a covering over one', as Kai ol ctukos aiu(j)€icaXv\p€ //. d', 331. &c. 
comp. //. X, 313. Plat. Tim. ^;. 34 B. tu o-wyua avry Trepi€KuXv\pe. — 
Pind. Pyth. 8, 80. ^AXKfidya areipuyoicn j^aXXw, and 9, 219. ttoXXoI /xiv 
Kelroi BiKoy ^uXX' eVi kcii areipayovs . Herod, 2, 107. Trepiyrjijaai e^wSev 
r/)v olKiriy vXt], but 4, 164. vXrjy irepivijaas. 

Obs. 4. With some verbs which are followed by an infinitive it is in- 
different whether the subject of the infinitive be expressed by the accu- 
sative or by the dative, in reference to the governing verb. Of KeXeveiv 
see §. 382, 1. of eJfcds eori §. 386, 4. The same thing takes place with 
Zel: Soph. (Ed. Col. 721. vvv ctoi ra Xafiirph ravra del <paiyeiv evrr], 
for <xe del (paiyeiy. Plat. Phileb. p. 33 B. eppijOrj nov rare ey rrj napa- 
j5oXtJ Tuiy ftiioy, nr]Eey Belv fiijre fxeya iii]Te a/Jiitcpuy x^'pc'*' ^^ 'rov 
Tov yoely Kai c^poyely fiioy eXofieyt^. Rep. 10. p. 608 C. oiei uQayarto 
TTpuy pan virep toctovtov dely xP<^*'ou ecnrovduKeyai. Both con- 
structions are united Aristoph. Plut. 912. ov yap Trpocri'jtcei rijy epavTuv 
poi TToXiy evepyerely pe. 

412, Many verbs have an accusative, which does not mark the 
(407) passive object of the action, but the object to which an action 

» Valck.adEur.Hipp.23. Brunck Or. 659. Advers. p. (239) 210. 
ad Arist. Lys. 005. Pors. ad Eur. '' Seidler ad Eur. Troad. 1180. 

Syntax. Of the Accusative. GGl 

has only generally an immediate reference : e. g. 1. irpoaKv- 
veiv Tiva. He7-od. 2, 121. kui rov fxev KaXeovai Oepoc, tovtov 
/iiev TT poaKVveovai re Koi ev Troieovai. 7, 136. ov yap a<pi ev 
vofiio elvai avOpwirov tt poa Kvveeiv. Arutoph. 1 hit. 11\. 
Koi TrpocjKvvw ye irpwra fxev tov ''HXiov^ erreiTa aef.ivr]c ITaA- 
Xa^oc K\eivov TreSoi', -^uipav re iraaav Ke/cpoTroc, v i-i 
e^elaro. Comp. Vesp. 516. Plat. Rep. 3. p. 398 A. av^pa 
^1], (Lo eoiKe, ^vvuf-ievov vtto aoCpiac iravToBaTrov yiyveauai Kcti 

pi/iie'iaOaL iravTa y^p^]f.iaTa, e'l r\jjuv cKpixoiTO, irpoaKv- 

vol/iiev av avrov. In the writers of the New Testament it is 
joined with the dative. 

2. ^opvfpopelu Tiva, i. e. ^opvcjyopov elva'i rivoc. Thuc. 1, 
130. ^la rnc, QpciKric Tropev6/.ievou auTor {Uavaaviav) MT/Sot 
Kal AlyvTTTioi eSopv(l)6povv. Xen.Hier. 3, 12. ttoATtoi (J. oi 
TToXTrat) -yap ^opv<popovaiv aXX/jXouc avev ^uaOov eiri 
Tovc ^ovXovc, and metaphorically PlaL Rep. 9. p. 574 D. al 
veMGTi e/c SovXeiac XeXv/^ievai go^ai, Bopvcjyo pov aai tov 
''Epwra, Kpar^csovai f-ier e/ceivou. p. bib B. aXXoi' riva So- 
pvCJyopovffL TV pavvov. 

3. The verbs which signify ' to flatter', ^sch. Prom. 945. 
erejSou, Tcpoaevyov, OwTTxe tov KpaTovvT ae'i. Mschin. in 
Ctes. p. 618. Tt'c av e'lrt Sr/jitaywyoa toiovtoc, ocTTtc tov ;ue»/ 
S^fxov 6(jt}Tr evcrai ^vvaiTO, tovg Se Kaipovc,, ev o'lc r\v aivZeaOai 
Tvv iroXiv, aiToSoiTO. Comp. Plat. Rep. 9. p. 578 e.r^r. A'e«. 
ifes^. Gr. b, 1, 17. ti yap 7/Stoi', rj /irjSei/a avOpojTTWv KoXa- 
Keveiv, pnre ''EXXriva, ^hre [iap(iapov, e'lveKa ^uaOov ; 
But the following passage is quoted from Plutarch : oirwr. 
vTre^avi<JTaf.ievoi to7c, TrXoucriotc KoXo/ceuwct. 

4. (pOaveiv ' to come before, to anticipate', as in the letter of 
Agesilaus Plutarch. T. 8. p. 181. ed. HtUt. eiropai to. ewi- 
oToXa, ay^e^ov ^' avTav Kal ^Qafftu'^. Especially with the 
participle, of which hereafter. 

5. XavOaveiv. Pind. O/. 1, 103. et Se Oeov avi]p tic, cXneTai 
Ti Xaacf^iev ep^(ov, uj^iapTavei. 

« Valck. atl Eur. PhcEn. QB'i. 

6G2 Sj/titax. Of the Accusative. 

6. eTTiTpoireveiv riva * to be a tutor or guardian to any one'. 
Thuc. I, 132. nXe'iarapxov tov AeioviBov, aveipioQ wv, 
eireTpoTreve {Uavtjaviac). Aristoph. Eqii. 212. tov Brj^iov oioQ 
T eV e7rtT/oo7reue(»/ eyw. Plat. Prot. p. 320 A. KXeiviav 
TOV 'AXKi(5ia^ov TOV Tovl vcujrcpov aBeXcpov eiriTpoireviov 

o avTOG ouToq avrip UepiKkric, KaruOe^iiei'OC ev 'Api(ppovoc, 

eirai^eve. Also, in the sense of ' to govern' : P/at. Rep. 6. 
;>. 516 B. 519 B. * to superintend' Leg. 8. p. 846 E.^ But 
in the sense of ' to be regent or governor', it has more usually 
the genitive, §. 359.** 

7. eTTiXe'iTTeiv ' to be wanting', deficere. Xen. Ci/r. 8, 1, 1. 
oi iruTepec, irpovoovai t(jJV TraiC(x)i>, ottujc; pi^iroTe avTOVc, tu- 

8. The verbs of ' seeing' take the accusative only, when an 
accidental, not intentional, seeing is meant. The accusative 
with etc or irpoQ when they are used of ' looking with conscious- 
ness and premeditation to any thing or persons having regard 
to any one, expecting aid from him'. Eiirip. Phan. 1402. 
(3\exPac, S' ec/Apyoc, rjKe TToXm'eiKJjq apciQ. 14 1 0. 'Ereo/cXefjc 
^e IlaXXaSoc y;^pv(Ta(nri^oc, (iXe^paQ irpoc, o\kov eu^aro. Ilec. 
585. Siipp/.8.^ — Eur. Ipli. Ji. 1 633. GTpaTOC, irpoc, irXovv opa. 
Troad. 1015. ec ttV Tvyjw opuyaa tout' i^aKeiQ * having a view 
to fortune'. Both constructions arc interchanged by Sophocles, 
Anti<^. 1231 . Tor S' ayp'ioic, otrffotcri TraTTTJjrat; o ttoTc for etc, ce 

^^v . Both constructions are combined by Euripides 

Hel. 349. -KOTepa Sep/ceTat ^'aoc, TcOpnnra t ae\iov ccKcXevOa 
T cKTTepojv, unless ec be supplied with (paoc, and TeOpnnra, 
according to §. 595, 4. 

9. ano^iSpacKeiv Tiva 'to run away from anyone'. P/at. 
Rep. 8. p. 548 B. (^iXai'oXwTot coairep Trainee, -rraTcpa 

TOV VOpOV CtTTO^lBpUCfKOVTeC,. XcH. Cl/l'Op. 1, 4, 13. IjV TIQ 

airo^pcKjyj twv oik€tojv ere, ti ovtm -^py ; and (iovXevopai ottwc 
ae «7rog/3w. Comp. Time. 1, 128. In Xeu. Mem. S. 2, 10, 1. 
av tic, aoi twv o'lKenov dwo^pa, CTripcXtj ottioc, avaKopiay ; aoi 
is not governed by d-rro^pa, but has the same construction as in 

» Stallb. ad Plat. Phil, p, 76. " Thorn. M. p. 349. 

»» Thorn. M. p. 360. "^ lieind. ad Plat. Soph. p. 330. 

Sj/)itax. Of the Accusative. GG3 

§. 389. y. for immediately after comes ecli' tic, aoi Ku/nvy twv 


1 0. With the verbs * to swear', the deity or person by whom 413. 
one swears is put in the accusative. Herod. 4, 172. o/u'Covo-i K'^'^^J 
TOVQ irapa (TCpiai av^pac, St/caioTarouc Xeyojuevouc ycveauai. 
Arist. Nub. 245. /liktOov, oi^tii'' av irparT]} jit, o^tou/itai aoi 
KaTa6r](T€iv tovg Qeovc,. JEsch. S. c. Th. 45. opKov is some- 
times added : Eur. Hel. 844. aW li^vov opKov gov Kapa Ka- 
Tw^tocTo. 1161106 ZevQ oinvvp,evoQ Arist. Nub. 1241. Thus also 
eTTiopKiuv Tiva Xeu. Anab. 3, 1, 22.*^ 

The accusative in this case sometimes stands absolutely. 
Soph. Antig. 758. a AX' ov, toi'S' ''O AujIittoj', 'laB ort ya'ipwv 
eiri '<p6yoiai ^evvaaeic, e/ne . 

1 1 . d(je(5e7v. Plat. Leg. 12 iu. ypa4>al Kara toutwi' karcoi', 
ii)C, 'Ep/toi; /cat A(oc dyyeX'iac, /cat eTTtra^etc Trapa I'o^toi^ ' 
d(Te(i-n(jdvT(x)v for aaejS. e'lQ dyy. Kai eirir. Corap. Li/s. 
p. 63, 1. But eucrejSeTv riva is suspicious in the older writers, 
according to Valckenaer, who proposes to read ev o-t/Seti', 
though it is defended by the analogy of daejieiv, and ever, nva 
seems to stand in the same relation to eva. etc, Tiva, as vjipi^eiv 
nva to wjSjo. el'c Ttva §. 41 l.S 

Similar to this is a'AireTv with the accusative. Od. S', 378. 
a'AAa' vv ^leAAw aOavdrovQ dXiTeaOai. II. t , 265. ej-wi Oeoi 
dXyea SoTei', TroAAa /tta'A', oaaa ^iBovaiv, one, acj) aAtTrjrai 
o/Li6<j(Tac;. w', 586. Aioc a'AtTr/rai e^exjitoc. Ilesiod. Sc. H. 

80. j] Tt ^ey' dOnvdrovc, xjiidKapac, ijXirev Ap-CJii- 


12. Thus many verbs which signify an emotion, a feeling 414. 
with regard to an object, as ' to be ashamed, afraid, to com- i"^^^) 
passionate any one', are accompanied by an accusative, which 
expresses the object, and at the same time the efficient cause 
of this emotion. Eur. Ion. 1093. aio-^^ui^o/itai tov TToAuu/n'oi/ 
deov. Comp. 952. also ' to be ashamed of a thing' Ion. 353. 

<= Fisch. 3 a. p. 439 seq. ^ Valcken. Musgr. ad Eurip. Ph. 

^Greg. p. (UT scq.) 257. Brunck 1340. 
ad Soph. (Ed. T. CGO. 

664 Syntax. Of the Accusative. 

av^poe, a^iKiav alcf^vveTai. comp. 379. Xen. R. I-iac. 2, 1 1. 
ov^ev ovrwc. a'l^ovvTai o)C rove, apy^ovrac,. Eur. Hipp. 946. 
ai^ovp.e6a yap ra XeXejf^ieva fnoi. Soph. Aj. 121. eTroiKreipu) 
Se viv ^vaTTjvov efxirac, Ka'nrep ovra Svafievrj, o9 ovveK 
aTTi (jvyKaretevKTai KoKy. Plat. Symp. p. 173 C. u/tac roue 
era'ipovc, eXetu, oti o'leaOe ri iroieiv, ovBev Troiovvrec Herod. 
5, 4. Tov /.lei' yivo/iiei'ov irepiiC6f.ievoi oi 7rpoai]KOvrec oAo- 
<pv povrai, oaa jluv Se?, eTret re eykvero, avmrXriaai KUKa. 

The same takes place with some neuter verbs, which ex- 
press an emotion, although, even without indicating the object, 
they convey a complete idea : e. g. aXyeiv n' Soph. Aj. 
789 seq. rovK etao'fcove rav^poc, wc hxci (pepiov A'lavroQ i^j^Civ 
irpa^iv (J'ortuuam, as 792.), 7;i' i]Xy ria' cyw. Comp. 276. 
Trach. 1068. Xirjv a'^Oo/.tai eX/coc //. e, 361. ayj'vaOai rC 
Soph. Autig. 627 . w^ivovcra (Jv/LiCpopac, /Bopoc i(h Trach. 325. 
ayavuKrelv ri' Heiud. ad Plat. Pha'don. §.21. ^vaavaayje- 
rovvrec ra yiyv6/j.ei>a 'J hue. 7, 71. II. i , 77. ric uv Taoe 
yr]6i]a€iev ; Soph. Aj. 136. ae jlicv ev tt paaaovT e-Kiyjuipw. 
Hurip. Hipp. 1355. Touo 70^ ei)cre|3eTo Oeoi Ovr^crKovrac 
ov yaipovaiv. Soph. Philoct. 1314. rjaOr^v irarepa re rov e/iov 
evXoyovvra ae avrov re ^tc. Eur. Ion. 553. rcpcjiOetc, rovro. 
Some supply opiou, a/covwv &,c. with this accusative, which is 
found with it Eur. Ale. 827. ov yap ri KWjiia^ovT av r]yB6nr)v 
cr' opwv^. Thus also Oappelv ri ' to take courage with regard 
to anything': Od. 0' , 197. aii Be Oapaei rov^e y aedXov. 
Phadon. p. 88 B. oi/Sevt irpoariKei Oavar oi' Oappovvrt urj ovk 
avoiiro)c Oappelv. Comp. Euthyd.p. 275 C. Xen.Cyr. 5,5,42. 
ei rivcc, ae ri/nuxriv, avra(rTruZ,ov Kai euw^ei avrovc, 'iva ae Kai 
Oappi](swaiv. Comp. Demosth. p. 30, 15. — KarawXayrivai 
riva Demosth. p. 290, 9. — ^va-yepaiveiv ri' Plat. Leg. 10. 
]). 900 A. oil dvvap.evoQ Bva'^epaiveiv Beovc,. ib. p. 908 B. 
Bvayjepa'iveiv Tr\v a^iKiav. Hep. 2. p. 362 B. Svcx^epaiveiv ra 
aSiK€7i'. Isocr. Plat. p. 305 C. rr}v EXXaSa 7r€piif.iei>, Traaac 
Bvay^epaivovrec rac o'lKrjaeic. Plato joins 7re/ot with this verb, 
liep. 5. p. 475 B. rov izepi ra fxaO^jxara Bvayepa'ivovra . 

* Valckcn. ad Eur. Hippol. 1339. 136.700. Monk ad Eur. Ilijip 1335. 
Br. ad Arist. Equ. 783. ad Soph. Aj. "> Ilcind. ad Plat. Gorg. p. 16. 

Syntax Of the Accusative. C65 

13. Hence with the middle verbs Tv-rrreaOai, KOTrreaOai, pro- 
perly * to strike one's self, to bewail', as in Latin phingi, the ob- 
ject of the grief is put in the accusative. Herod. 2, 132. en-eav 


efiev . Eurip. Troad. 628. t/cpu^a TreTrXoic KuireKO- 

xpajuriv ueKpov. Hence also II. m , 711. irpwrca toi' y aXoyoQ 
re ^iXt} Kui TTOTi'tct i.inrt]p TiWeaOrjv. 

14. So with neuter verbs which denote a species of ado- 
ration, as witli depaireveiv itself, the name of the divinity is 
put in the accusative. Find. Isthm. 1, 8. tov uKeipemof^iav 
<I)o7/3oj/ y^opexji^iv. Soph. Antig. 1 150 seq. ae inan'o/icvai 
Trarnv\oi yopcvovcri, tov t a /iiiav ' luKy^ov. Kur. Iph. A. 
1489. eXicraeT' af.i(p\ (iw/Liov''ApT6p.iv, salianies celebrate. Here, 
F. 690. TOJ' AuTovQ e'viraiSa yovov eiXuaovcrai. 

15. With Oveiv, that on account of which the oflering is made 
is put in the accusative : e. g. Oveiv ya/nov ' to sacrifice on ac- 
count of the marriage'*^, Oveiv evayyeXia "^ on account ot the 
good news' Xen. H. Gr. 1, 7, 38. or [SovOvre^iv evayy. ib. 4, 
3, 14. So also Baiaeiv yujxov 11. t , 299. TratSoc ^ai(Jop.ev 
v/Lievalovc Eurip. Iph. tI. 123. 'to celebrate the marriage by a 
feast': also evayyeXia avadelv, crTe(|)ai'oui/ riva Arist. Flat. 765. 
Equ. 647. In Qveiv ra haf^arnpia Xen. Hist. Or. 3, 4, 3. 
and passim, 6, 4, 19. etri ryj Sio/Sacret Oveiv, ^ia(5arrtpia de- 
notes that the sacrifice was for the passage, as eirivUia Oveiv 
Fiat. St/mp. p. 173 A. an offering for victory*^. yeveOXia Oveiv 
Eur. Iph. T. 665. 

Ohs. With many verbs the accusative neuter plural of an adjective 
or pronoun is put, while substantives are added to it in the genitive or 
dative, e. g. Eur. Hel. 2G9. ra 2e to naWos airiov, for rcSu ce, where 
in aiTiop €(TTi the idea ti'epyaCeroi is also contained. So Eur. Suppl. 
596. we have eu ce'i ixorov fioi, ev being the subject of Be?, for eyas 
fiovov, as Iph. T. 1059. hos p.6vov eel. To this head belong the con- 
structions rv7X"'et»' tl §. 328. Obs. (ppoi'Tt^eiy ti §. 348. Obs. 2. 
UofjiUL Ti ^. 355. Obs. 2. TO peyaXocppny expnro §. oV6, 1. al-iucrdui 
Tira Tl §.421. Obs. 2. 

Many verbs have an accusative not only of the nearer and 415. 
•^ (409) 

" Musgr. ad Eur. El. 1127. '' Taylor ad Lys. p. 517. ed. Reisk. 


666 Sj/ntax. Of the Accusative. 

more immediate object of the action, but also of the more re- 
mote object, i. e. the person or thing to which the action with 
its immediate object passes, which in English is generally ex- 
pressed by the dative, e. g. ev or /ca/cwf, Troieiv Tiva * to do 
good, harm, to any one', ev or koktwc Ae-yeiv riva 'to speak 
well, ill, of any one'. The relations above mentioned are the 
foundation of this usage also. Either the accusative of the 
thing denotes the result, and the accusative of the person the 
passive ^oject; or the one accusative denotes the passive, the 
other only the immediate object; or the one denotes the result, 
and the other the immediate object. 

1. Result and passive object of the action. 

a. ■JTOieiv, TrpaTTCiv, ^pav, ep^eiv, ' to do'. 

a. With one accusative and the adverb cv or kokmc,. Soph. 
Aj. 1154. avOpojTre, fi)) Bpa touc Te0v»j/coToc KaKwc,. Xen. 

Mem. S. 2, I, \9. rove, irovovvraQ, iva ^vvaroi yevo- 

fievoi TOXIC, cp'iXovc ev iroiioai, Kai tjjv Trarpi^a euep-yerwai, 
TTWG ovK o'leaOai y^pr) tovtovq Kai Trovelv rjSewo eic, to. roiavra, 
Kal ti]v evcjipaivoiLievovc ; Also without these adverbs : Herod. 

7, SS. TOV ^e 'iTTTTOV aVTlKU KOT «^>\aO eTTOlJ/O-aV Ol OlK€TOl, 

wc eKeXeve, ' they did with the horse', where the proposition wc 
e/ceXewe supphes the place of those adverbs ^ 

In the same manner are constructed evepyerelv and KaKovp- 
■yeTv. Xen. Mem, S. 2, 1, 19. the passage just quoted, id.ib. 
4, 4, 24. ov-^ Ol pev ev Troiovvrec roue y^pwpevovQ iavTolc 
ayaOoi (p'lXoi e'laiv, ol Se prj avreve pyerovvrec, tovc, toi- 
ovTOvc, Bia Till' ayjipiariav piaovvrai vtt avriov \ Aristoph. 
PL 912. ov yap TTpoaiiKCi tyiv epavrov pot iroXiv evepyerelv 
pe. KttKovpye^v tovg (piXovG Xen. Cyr. 1, 6, 29. k. tovc, evav- 
TiovQ ih. 6, 3, 24. comp. 4, 3, 5. tw (5aaiXeu)c X'V"^ ko/co- 
TToteTr id. Mem. S. 3, 5, 26.^ 

Hence also Xv/^iaiveaOu'i Tiva. Isocr. de Pac. p. 179 B. eXv- 
fia'ivovTO TTiv lleXoTTOvvrjaov. Evag. p. 183 D. oXijv tiiv ttoXiv 
Xvpa'iveaOai. Comp. Panalh. p. 235 C. 236 C. which else- 
where is constructed with the dative, §. 412. 

^ Fisch. 3 a. p. 429-13-2. '' Tisch. 3 a. p. 43C, 

Syntax. Of the Accusative, 667 

/3. With two accusatives. Herod. 1, 137. aiveu) kui tovBc 

TOJ/ v6/iiov, TO Twv a\X(x)v Ylepoedjv /urjSei/a rwv eivvrov 

oiKerewv errl /m^ a'lroj civi^kcgtov iraOoc, kfjceiv. 4, 166. 
ApvdvBi]c Tcipyvpiov rwvTo tovto eiroiee, Xen. Cyrop^ 
3, 2, 15. oi/SeTTWTroTe eiravovTO ttoWu kuku imaQ ttoi- 
ovi/rec. ?/;. §, 16. a inriayvov 7roi7/(7eiv ayaSa i)/tac. 
Plat. Rep. 6. j>. 495 B. e/c toutwv S/; twi/ av§p(Si> Kcti oi to. 
f-ieyiara kuko. e pyatof-ievoi tclq TroXetc -yiyi'oi'Tat Kai 
Tovc, i^ihirac;, Ka\ o\ rdyaOa, o'l liu ravryj rv-^ivai pvkvrec' 
afxiKpa. Se (hvcjic ov^ev fxkya ovZkiroTe ovoeva ovre iohot)]1' 
ovre TToXiv Spa*^. Hence Thiic. 3, 36. 0>//3a7oi Se TroXXa 
fxev Koi dWa i^fxac, rfd'iKtjaav. Isocr. Panath. p. 271 B. a 
ToTc ''EXXj;(Tt TOLC, uXXoic, ovSe TOVQ TTOvy] porarovc, twv 
oiKCTWu 0(n6v earl piai^oveLv. 

Obs. 1. The remoter object is also sometimes in the dative. Od. I', 
289. ^o7i'i^ "»'»)p> rpwKTtjs, os ^i) -^oWh kuk arOpwrroKTiy ewpyei. 
Plat. Apol. S. p. 30 A. TuvTci Kcd vewrep^ Kai TrpeujivTepM noiriaot 
Kttl ^€10) /cat cKTTf, /.tctWoj' ^e Tols aarols. Charm, p. 157 C. oi/n, 
av €XOi[Ji-ey, o rt Troiolf-ieu croi. Xen. Hier. 7, 2. rouivra yap h) noiovai 
Tols TvpayyoLS o'l apyonEvoi. Isocr. de Big. p. 357 B. ayayaKTto, 

el Tialas jdrj^ey ayadoy iroo'ifTus rij TroXet i:ai ev ^tjjjioicpaTi^. 

Kcu kr 6\iyap^i(/. /xeya IvvitaeTcu. Both cases are joined Xen. Anah. 
5, 8, 24. ay ovv awfpoyrJTf., tovto) Tayayria TroajCFeTe, i) rovs Kvyas 

Obs. 2. els and 7r,oos are also found with the accusative of the 
person. Sojih. GEd. C. 976. fj-tjcey ^vyiels wy ecpwy, els ovi t eSp(i)y, 
Herod. 1, 41. 6(pei\€is, efxev npoTroaiaayros ^p>;(Tra ts <je, ■^pr}(XTo'iai fie 
ajjeifteaOai. Xen. Mem. S. 4, 2, 16. npos raiis TroXepous diKUtoy eJyai 
TCI ToiavTU ■KOiely. — Eur. Iph. A. 1110. Wycifiefiytjjy etvI rots ahrov 
TCKyois ayuata TrpaatTMy avTix evpedt'ifrerai ' towai'ds his children'. 

Obs. ?>. According- to the analogy of iroiely riya xaica, the verbs 
dxpeXely, (jXaTrreiy and others, in which the idea of ' doing' is implied; 
take besides the accusative of the person another accusative neuter 
plural of an adjective, where the English uses the adverbs * more', 
' very'. Plat. Hipp. Maj. p. 281 B. av yap kui iS/ot iKayos el, Traprt rwj/ 
lewy TToWh ■)(^pi]fji.aTa\afjiftdycoy, eVt irXe/w wfeXelv wy Xa/.t/3ovetJ. 

*" Fisch. 1. c. construction. Fisch. 3 a, p. 429. 

"> Dawes Misc. Crit. p. 184. 334. Zeune ad Vig. p, 289. 
Dorv. ad Char, p. 316. question this 

M 2 

668 Si/ntax. Of the Accusative. 

Dem. pro Cor. p. 255, 7. yXiKa ravra ux^eKrjaev ctTraj-as", Plat. Apol. 
S. p. 30 C. eav epe airoKTeivriTe tolovtov ovtu olov eyu> Xeyw, ovk epe 
fxei'Cw ftXdxpere »} vfjids avrovs. So Xen. 3Iem. S. 1,2,7. tu fieyicTra 
evepyeTvaavTL. ih. 4, 1, 1. fiLKpk wfeXelv. Cyrop. 5, 5, 4. opw»/ kuI 
TovTOvs TToXXa aLvojxevovs Ti)y MridiKt'iv. Dem. pro Cor. p. 258, 27. 
AaKedaifioviovs, iroWa tijv ttoXu' j/juwj' }/2ic?jK-c5ras kol /tzeyaXa. Comp. 
Xen. Anah. 1, 6, 7, 8. So ZmxiovaOai peydXa Xen. Cyr. 3, 1, 16. 
XvTretv Tivd tl Plat. Apol. S. p. 41 E. fxr)xct>OTroL0S ciWov ovhios 
(Xd-TU) ei'iore Svvarai aw^eiy Plat. Gorg. p. 512 B. 

(410) b. Ae-yetv, etTreTv, ayof36veiv riva. 

416. o- With an accusative and the adverbs eu or KaKtSc. Xen. 
Mem. S. 2, 3, 8. ttwc S' av e-yw oi'e7rt(TTi?/twi' eaii' a6eX(^ro 
\py](rdai, eiriGTapevor, ye kcu ev \eyeiv rov ev \kyovra (* to 
treat with fiiir words', opp. \6yto aviav), Kai ev Troielv rov ev 
TTOtouvra ; rov pkvroi Ka\ Xoyio Kal epy(o tt eipiopevov epe 
aviav OVK civ ^vva'iprjv out' ev Xeyeiv, out eu Troielv, aXX 
ouce 7rejjoa'(TO/Ltat. P/af. Eutki/d. p. 284 D. /ca/cwc a|Oa Xeyoufftv 
ot oya0o( ru kuku, e'lirep, wo t')(Gt, Xeyovaiv. ^ai pa. Ai , ?} o 
oc, acbo^pa ye rove yovv kukovg avOpioTrovc' tjv av, eav 
uoi 7rei.6\i, evXaftuarj elvai, iva pi] ae oi ayaOoi kukioq Xeytoaiv. 
wQ ev o\aO' , on KaKWQ Xeyovcriv oi ayaOoi rove, KaKOVc. 
Herod. 5, 83. kukwc S' i)y6p6vov oi yjnpoi av^pa pev ovoeva, 
TOG S' eiriy^iopiac yvvalKac Also in the sense of 'to 
speak well of any one, to praise': Od. a, 302. aXKipoc cctct , 
'iva ric, ere Kai o\piy6v(i)v ev e'nnj . 

Thus also euAoyeTi' and KUKoXoyelv. Isocr. Areop. p. 276 B. 
ouTOjq e'lKrj Kai Trapavop(i)C, ovc, (iv tu^vjc, eiraivtov, olc Se ctti- 
ri/^iav ^eov, evXoyiov avrovc,. {leg. ovq uv rvy^^yc, eiTiTifiav 
^eov, euXoyojv avrovc-)'^ 

Of the different constructions of Xoi^opelv and XoiBopelaOai 
see §. 384. Ol>s. 2. 

Ohs. 1. The following construction is more rare: Soph. Aj. 764. 6 
ukv yap avroy kvveTceC retcroi', iopi ftovXov Kparelv per, t,vv Oe<p d" dei 

Kparelv' 6 ^' yjieii^aTO ' his father said to him'. //. p, 237. kuI tot 

ap' A'las eiTre fto))v dyadbv MeveXaov. Comp. v', 725. v, 375. 

» Scliicf. App. Dem. p. 253. ' I'isch. 3 a. p. 433. 

<> risch. 3 a p. 429. 

Syntax. Of the Accusative. GG9 

Obs. 2. Instead of Kcttcws ^schylus /S'. c. Th. 573. has the dative, 
KUKolai fta'C^L TToWu Tvotws ftiai'. 

(3. With two accusatives. He/^od. 8, 61. rore ^e or) o 0e- 
jUKTTo/cXeijc Ke7v6v re kcu tovc, K.op ivO lov g ttoWu re Kai 
KaKa eXeye, ' he abused him and the Corinthians very much'. 
Xert. Mem. S. 2, 2, 9. oiei -^aXeirioTepov elvai aoi aKoveiv wv 
avTT) {rj jU7jT)7jo) Xeyei, t? to?c vrroKfiiTctic,, orau ev rate Tpayw- 
BiaiQ aWiiXovc, T ft ea-^aTct Xcyuxriv ; Also ' to say anything 
to one', for Trpoc, riva : Arisloph. Ach. 593. ravri Xeyeic (tv 
TOi' (TTpaTtjyuv, 7rrw)(oq wv ; 'to say anything of one' : 
Soph. El. 520. Kat TToXXa TTjOoc 7roXAo{'<; /le Sj} e^eTTrac, tl>c 
Opaaeia Kai irepa St/crjc "PX^ KaQvppiCovaa Kai ae /coi Ta C7a. 
2'6. 984. TOiayrct toi ve^ ttoc t(c c^epel (iporwv, ^Mcraiv 
Bctvovaaiv 6' wcrre pi) 'KXiTre'iv KXeoc A)U. 1057. Plat. Phced. 
p. 75 A. Thus is to be explained the passage in II. t, , 479. 
Kai TTore tic e'lTrrjai, irciTpoQ d' oye iroXXov apeii'oyv, eK TroAe^ou 
ai'iovra, 'will say of him when he returns from the war'. But 
Plat. Phccd. p. 94 D. ov Xeyei rov 'O^vcrcrea, '^TyjOoc, Be TrXij^ac 
Kpadir}v rjv'nraTre pvOw appears to be an anacohdhon for TrXrj^avra 
eviTTTeiv^. According to this analogy we find JEsch. Again. 
181. Zjji'o Be TIG TTpoippovMG ewiviKia kXii^iov Teu^erai (ppevujv 
TO irav, * raising a triumphal song to Jupiter as victor', con- 
sequently ascribing to him the victory, 

Ohs. 1. On this Idiom is founded the attraction in the passages which 
Dawes (M?5C. Crit. jj. 149.) cites: Pi^id. 01. 14, 31. KXeucapov o(ppa 

icoid v'loi' eiinjs, ort o'l i ecu' k(JT€(pavit}(T€ Kvcifxujy aedXioy Trrepo2(TL 

■yctirav. Arist. Nuh. 1147. kcu poi tvv v'lov, et pepadrjKe rov Xoyov 
€Ke7j'0}', elcf, ov apriws eicn'iyayes' instead of ofpa e'tTTTjs, on 6 v'ws oi 
€(TT€(paiu)(Te. eiVe, el o vloi pepc'idi]K€ according to §. 295, Thus too 
Eurip. Jndr. 646. Iph. T. 341.* In Plat. Menon. p. 77 A. Kai vavcrai 
TToXXa TTOtwv eK Tov e) OS, oirep (paai tovs avvrpiftoi'Tas ri eKuaroTe ol 
(TKWTTTorTes, TToie'iv is to be understood, oVep 0acrt ttouTv tovs aviTp. 

Ohs. 2. In the phrase xaipeiv \iyeiv Tiva, properly, ' to bid farewell 
to any one', i. e. ' to leave out of consideration', nan ciifure, non morari*', 
Tiva seems to belong to ■)(aipeiv as the subject, and \eyeiv to be put in 
the sense of KeXevew, since this word is also used, e. g. x"''pf"' KeXevwv 

<• Wolf Opusc. Lat. p. 100 seq. " Schcef. App. Dcm. p. 530. 

Heind. ad Plat. Gorg. p. <252. Schiet". ' Valck.adnerod.9,41. p. 712,46. 

ad Theocr. 25, 179. atl Greg. p. 128. Ilcind. ad Plat. Thea^t. p. 441. 

670 Si/ntax. Of the Accusative. 

TToWo Tovs 'Axaprects Ar'istoph. Ach. 200. and xuipcLV iav riva. 
Hence Soph. Trach. 227. xn'petv rov KijpvKa Tzpovyrenw, and Theocr. 
14 in. yaipeiv ttoXXci tuv i'lrhpa Qvutrtxoi; as Jubeo Chrcmctem in 
Terence, xalpeiv elire'iy riva is also used: Soj)h. El. 1456. for Iceta 
alicui nunciare. Elsewhere x^'peiv eiTreti' or Xeyeiv or (ppaiieiv rivi 
is used. Plat. Pltileh. p. 36 D. xa'pciv roirvy 2ei \eyeiv toTs aWots 
fxijKeair. Phcedr. p. SI 2 E. ro eiKos liioKTeov elrai, ttoWu eiTrovTa 
XO'petv Tw dXrjdel. 

417. c. epoorav or epeaOa'i riva ti ' to ask one about anything', 
^^^^^ (because not only epwr a v avdpMTrov is used, but also ejOWTOJ^ 
Ti, 'to ask after' anything'. Herod. 3, 22. Plat. Eiithyd. in. 
and p. 271 C. Min. in.) Find. 01. 6, 81. cnravrac, ev o'l'/cw 
eipero 7ra7da, tov EvaBva reKot, ' inquired of all after the 
child'. Herod. 1, 32. Ueivo Be, to eipeo /ne, oukw ae eyu) 
Xe-yw, Trplv ai> icaXwc, T€\evTi}<ravTa top aiwva ■nvOwj.iai. Plat. 
Prot. p. 315 C. e(f)aivovTO Be irepX (pvaewc re Kai p.eT€iopu}v 
uarpovo/.HKa aTTo Biepwrav tov linriav. Comp. St/mp. 
p. 173 B. FAirip. Iph. T. 667 seq. 670. Xen. Cyrnp. 3, 3,48. 
6 Kuooc ripwTa rove, uvt of^ioXovc, ra t/c tmv 7roXef.ii(x)V. 
Thus also epee'iveiVy [(rropelv, aviaTope7v Tiva ti. Also epwrav 
8cc. Tiva Trep'i tivoc is used: Herod. 1, 32. eTreipwTUG /ue ai*- 
Opwwriuov irpriyi^uiTiov irepi^. 

The construction is analogous to this in Plat. Lack. p. 1 89 D. 
'icfMCoh KaKwceyeie^^eratGiv koi rii Toiavra r} pac, uvtovc,. 
Comp, Gorg. p. 515 B. 

d. The verbs * to require, to desire', fUTe7v, cnraire^v, 
irpaTTeaOai Tiva ti. Herod. 3, 1. ircf-e^ac Ka^tt/Bwo-ijf, ec, Ai- 
-yuTTTOi' KijpvKa, a'lTee ''Afiaaiv OvyaTepa. comp. 4, 164. 
Plat. Rep. 8. p. 566 B. to Bv TvpawiKov a'lTiifia to ttoAu- 

BpvWrjTOV tTTt TOUTf.) TTOl'TeO Ot t(0 TOVTO TTpopf pj/KOTtO 

e^evpiaKovcrii', a'lTelv t o i^ SiT/woi/ (pvXaKac, Tivac. tou 
(Tw/toToo. comp. 10. ;>. 599 B. Pur. Sujjpl. 122. tovtouo 
Ooi^oJ'Tac vXOov e^aiTWv iroXiv. Plat. Apol. S. p. 27. o7re|0 kot' 
apyac vpac TTapi^Ti]aapi]v. So aiTelaQai with two accusatives 
Xen. Cyr. 5, 2, 13. irpaTTeaOai and rrpaTTeiv in the sense of 
'to require': P/;/f/. O/. 3, 10. ^aiTuiai ^eu levyOevTec, eVt 

' Fisch. 3 a. p. 430. 

Sj/ntax. Of the Accusative. G7 1 

are^avoi irpaaaovTi rovro Oeo^juaT ou y^peoc,, to which 
Pi/th. 9, 181. he adds eyelpai. 10, 34. ioq Avyeav \arpiov 

aeKovO eKU)v (.i laOov vTrepjSiov it paaaoiTO. Xen. Mem. S. 
1, 6, 11. ouoei'a TJjo (TvvovGiac, a pyv piov Trparry. Isocr. 

ad Phil. p. Ill E. tiiv ttoXiv i^ptSv ovdeic, av eiraivecreieu, 

OTt ToaovTO irXijOoQ TtSv y^pTi]paT u)v eicfiTpa^aaa tovc,^ovQ eiG Trjv aKpoiroXiv av{]veyKev. Thus also Msch. 

in Ctesiph. p. 504. ed. R. oi AoKpoi oi 'ApcjyiaaeiQ tIXj? 

TOVC KaTairXeovrac e^eXeyov. Isocr. Paiieg. p. 68 A. 

(c. 36.) rove vrjaiiljTac, da<jpoXoye7v. Hence Soph. Aj. 831. 

Toaavra a , oi Zeu, TrpoarpeTftx) . 

Obs. Widi a«Te()' the person is also found in die geniuve Eur. Med. 
917. 1163. 

e. 'To take anything from one', a(^aipeL(jQai riva ri. II. a, 418. 
275. pri^e av toi'o, ayaOoc irep ewf, uiroaipeo Kovpriv. Xen. C^^^) 
C^r. 3, 1, 39. 01 Tctic, eavrwv ynvot^t XappavovTec avvovrac, 

uXXoTplovc, avopac, vopit,ovTec, (avTOvc) a^aipe7<jBai 

avTUQ rrjv TrpUQ eavTOVQ (piXiav, Sia tovto wc, TroXepioic 
avTo7c, Ypwvrai. ib. 4, 6, 4. t ov poi'ov poi Kcti CJy'iXov iralca 
aCJyeiXero rrjv xpv^rjv. Eur. Ale. 69. /3ta yvvcuKa Tyvde a 

Thus also other verbs which are used in the same sense : 
//. o , 462. (Zeuc) TevKpovTeXapioviov ev'^oc, airr]vpa. Od. a , 
203. im) yap oy eXOoi avtjp, oaric, a acKOvra /3/|?(|)i KTi'ipar 
a-rroppaiaei, instead of which lies. Theog. 393. pn riv 
uTToppaiaeiv yepaiov. II. ^, 451. Tore vo)i jSiTjaaro piaOov 
uiravTa Aaope^(i)u eKirayXoc,. Soph. Q^d. C. 866. oq pe xpiXov 
opp oTToaTraaaG e^oi'^^. Eurip. Ip)h. A. 796. r'lc, apa p 

evirXoKapovQ Kopac aTToXwTte?. Pind. Pyth. 3, 173. 

Tov pkv o^eiaiai Bvyarpec, epiipwaav Trauaic, cvCppoavvac, pepoc, 
al Tpeic.. Demosth. in Androt. p. 6i'^, 19. Trjf Qeov rove, 
arecpavovc aeavXr]Kaat, as 11. Z, , 71. Eur. Iph. A. 158. 

Thus also aTT0(XTepe7v riva ri. Xen. Cyrop. 5, 3, 39. ov 
pkvroi TO ye (b'lXovc, KraaBai dvvaaOai ae (o Aacrvpioc,) 

•> Fisch. 3 a. p. 433. 436 seq. p. (39, 68) 94, 40. Thorn. M. p. 1 30 

«= Valcken. ad Her, 8, 3. p. 620, 38. ct Oiideiul. Elmsl. ad Heracl. 977. 
Diatrib. p. 'SOS. Koen ad Grcgor. 

672 Syntax. Of the Accusative. 

a7re<TTepT}(Tev, Anab. 6, 6, 23. tovc T pa-!retovvT tovc 
a7r€<JTepr}Kainev Trjv Trei'TrjKovTopov. Isocrnt. Archid. p. 1 19 
A. B. TovTt]V Tvv y^ujpav aTroarepeiv eTTiyeipovcxiv. 
Hence Horn. H. in Cer. 311. yepawv epiKv^ea rifiriv Kai OvaiiSv 
r)p.€paev 0Xvp,7ria 8w,uaT t'^oi'rac*. 

Obs. aipaipeiv is also constructed with the dative of the person. 
Od. a, 9. Toiair cKpelXero voarij-iov y/^inp. Xen. Cyr. 7, 1, 44. oi 
AiyiiTTTioi TO f.iei' IttI Kpoirrov avrTTpareveiy acpeXely cnpiaiv ede//97j(rov. 
ib. 2, 26. yuaj^as trot kcu TroXef^ovs acpatpui. II. (j)', 296. also with the 
genitive of the person, which is governed of the accusative of the thing. 
Plat. Rep. 5. J). 470 D. ixerpioy elvai tovs Kupirovs afaipe'iffdai Tins 
Kparovffi T(Jy KpuTOV fieywy. Dem. p)- 1098. ovlefxiav ovaiav Aew- 
crpuTov. Xen. H. Gr. 2, 3, 41. comp. ih. 20. Herod. 5, 67. even 
without a substantive on which the genitive depends Herod. 5, 83. 
ra ayaX^ara ravTa viraipkovTui cihruii', Eur. Iph. T. 25. comp. ylil- 
drom. 523. Also with a preposition Eur. Troad. 1041. aipeXov trpos 
'EWulos \f/6yop TO dijXv re. In the later writers also with the accusative 
of the thing, analogously to aTrotrrepe'ii' riia nros^. 

J". ' to teach', ^i^/ktkciv rtvci ti, as in Latin docere aliquem 
aliquid. Eur. Hipp. 254. ttoXXo ^i^aanei }.i o ttoXuc /3(otoc. 
Herod. 1, 136. iraiBevovcn rovr, — ciTSac rp'ia povva'^. 

g. ' to put on, to put off', ^K^vaat, ev^vaai, afxc^ievvvvui. 
Xen. Cyr. 1, 3, 17. Traic jneyac, piKpuv 'c\mv ■y^iTuwa, erepov 
TTOt^a {.iiKpov, fxeyax' cyovra yjLTwva, eK^vaar, avTOi>, tov 
f.ieu eavTOv eKclvov rffi(pie(Te, toi* oe CKeivov avroc ereoi; . 
Aristoph. Lys. 1156. ap(ptevvvvai also with the dative of tlie 
thing P/at. Prot. p. 320 E. a peu yap aifTMV ap.iKp6rr\TL 
VfiTTiaxe. ih.p. 321 A. Pind. Ncfn. 10, 82. 

419. h. According to the same analogy the following construc- 
tions are to he explained : 

TrpoKaXelaOai Tiva (object) n (result.) Thuc. 2, 72. airep 
Ka\ TO Trporepov ?jS>; 7rpovKa\e(T(i/j.€0a. Plat. Knthyphr. p. 5 A. 
up' ovv poi KpaTiarov eari, Trpo rr/c ypii(py]c rrjc, irpoc, h\k\iTOV 
avra Tuvra Tr^oKiaAeTaOfa avrov, 'require that he should 

" Fisch. 3 a. p. 434. "= Scha?f. ad Dionys. II. p. 412 seq. 

*! Kocn ad Greg, I. c. Fiscli. 3 a. '' Fisch. 3 a. p. 13.5. 

p. 434 seq. 

Syntax. Of the Accusative. G73 

give me an answer upon this subject', i. e. * to make use of this 
against him', comp. p. 5 B. Hence ^ik^v irpoKaXeGaaOai Lys. 
p. 163, 24. Flat. Charm, p. 169 D. ^leXeaOai, a irfjovKa- 

Xov/nyw avTov. Arist. Eqii. 792. rac irpecrfteinc a'l rac 

airov^ac, irpoKaXovVTai. Ach. 652. rw e'ipvvi]v TrpoxaXcovTci. 
Hence Soph. Trach. 1208. out p ckkuXcI. Instead of this 
Thuc. 4, 19. AaKS^aipovioi Se vpac, TrpoKaXovvrai ea airoi'^ac,. 
and 5, 43. eirl nV ^^W^'X""' '^poKaXovpevovc,^. 

avajKiiteiv riva ri ' to compel to anything'. Plat. Rep. 5. 
p. 473 A. TOVTO pev g?) pn avayKaU pe. Fhadr. p. 254 A. 
TW Se Kar apyac pev ui'TireiveTOV, ayavaK-rovvTe wc, ^eiva 
Ka\ TTcipdvopa avayKatop'evu)^ . So o vopoc, iroXXa (iiaterai 
Plat. Prot. p. 337 D. Comp. Soph. Aut. (iQ. 

i. The verbs of dividing especially are constructed with a 
double accusative, with one of which etc is often found. He- 
rodotus, though he says, 4, 148. acpeac, avrovc ec e^ poipcu; 
SieTXov, (comp. .Eschlii. in Ctes. p. 587. Plat. Rep. 9. p. 580 D. 
TToAtc 8nj|0>7T«t /CO TO rp'ia e'lh,) says 7, 121. without the pre- 
position, Tpeic, po'ipac, o aep^ric ^aaapevoc, Travra tov Tvetov 
OTparov. Plat. Leg. 5. p. 1^1 E, -yr/ Se Ka\ o'lKi'taeiQ to ooTa 
pepT] ^iavepy]Oi}T(jj. ih. j9. 738 A. o ge twi' TeTTo/JOKocTo Kai 

TtevraKiayjiXiMV apiOpoc ov TrXe lovc puic ^eovaMU 

c^y]KOVTa cvvaiT av Tepveadai ropwv. id. Polit. p. 283 D. 
^leXiopev Toii'vv avrriv Suo pepj}. Parmen. p. 144 B. acoto- 
KeKepptiTiarai apa wc o\6v re cTpiKporara Kai peyiara. 
Comp. Rep. 6. p. 509 D. Xen. Cyrop. 7, 5, 13. aKovaac, 8e 
TOUTO o Kujooc TO (TTpuTevpci KUTCveipe SwSeKo pepx]^. 

Instead of this the whole, which is divided, is also put in 
the genitive, and the word pepoc, polpa &c. referred imme- 
diately to the verb. Herod. 1, 94. dvo po'ipac. ^leXovra AuSwv 
TravTMV, KXr]p(vaai, for Avrovc TTavrac, (eic) ^vo po'ipac, cieX. 
Plat. Leg. 5. p. 737 E. Suo pev dri pept} rov Travroc dpiOpov 
vepnOiiTU). ib. 12. p. 956 B, ore Se pepr] '^o^pnrai rnc TroAewc 

<= Duker ad Thuc. 4, 19. 5, 7. Abresch Dikic.Thiic.p.Cl?. Auctar. 

AbreschDiluc.Thuc.ad8, 90. p. 802. p. 366. Fisch.3 a. p. 444 seq. Heimi. 

fHcind. ad Plat. Phadr. p. 235. ad Plat. Phaxlr. p '.>72. Schawl, ad 

« Valck. ad Her. 7, 121. p. 558, 60. Lamb. B. p. 683, 

674 Syntax. Of the Accusative. 

^vix7ra<Tt]c,. id. Soph. p. 264 C. ^leiXoi-ieOa rrjc, e'lBioXo- 
TTouKric, e'l^t} ^vo. Xen. Cyrop. 1, 2, 5. Zw^eKa Ylepauiv 
(f}v\ai ^iypt]VTai. id. Rep. Lac. 11,4. jnopac, ^lelXev e^ Kai 
I TTTT e u) V Kcti oir X IT ojv. In Xenophoii Hellen. \,1 ,21 . should 
be read : Bnjpi]inev(Dv rrjc, i)fiepac, rpiuiv /nepMi'. Thus Cicero 
says (de Orat. 1, 42, 190.), deinde eorum geiierum quasi 
quadam membra dispertiat. 

420. k. Other verbs, besides the accusative of the person, take 
(414) also an accusative of an adjective or substantive, which is a 
predicate, and expresses a quality or property, which is attri- 
buted to the object by the verb. These verbs are, as in Latin, 
those which signify * to call or name, to make, to choose', and 
when in the passive, take a double nominative. §. 307. Here 
is to be remarked : 

1. All these verbs frequently take, with the predicate, the 
infinitive elvai, from which, however, it docs not follow that this 
word is to be supplied where it does not appear. 

a. 'to call or name'. Plat. Protag. p. 311 E. ao(l)i(TTi)v ^/j 
TOt ovo/xatovGi ye tov av^pa elvai. Lach. p. 192 A. ti Xe-yetq 
TovTOy o ev iraaiv ovofxateic, Tayvr^ra elvai. Ilipparch. 
p. 226 D. oX/\' e-yw, w ^loKpaTCC,, jSovXajiiai Xeyeei' tovtovc 
(jiiXoKep^elQ eli^ai^. Plat. Phccdon. p. 162 C. x> '^ip/mac, eiru)- 
vvp'iav e^ei af.uKpoc, re Kai /.leyac, elvai. Instead of the predi- 
cate d»G is used Soph. Q^d. T. 780. dviip /.le KoXe? Trap ot>/y, 
TrXaaroc, toe, e'ii]v irarpi. 

So after ainaaOai Plat. Gurg. p. 508 D. tovg earioiVTac, 
aiTuicTovTai tojv voaiov aiTiovQ eivai . 

b. 'to make'. Herod. 7, 129. eireav Se avp/iuyOewcTi ra- 
-^laTa, evOeurev 7'/S>? o T[t]veioc tw ovvopari KaTaKparewv, 
aviovvpovc, Tovc, aXXovc, iroieei elvai. Conip. 1, 210. 

c. ' to choose, to nominate to an ofhce'. Herod. 7, 154. 
jLiera ov ttoXXov y^povov (Ati'»}(7«'Sr/;tor,) aireceyOr] Traai)C, rrjc, 
iTTTTOV elvai iinTapyoc,. 8, 134. oi Se avpfxayoi piv eiXovro 

" Ileind. ad Plat. Theast. p. 344. p. 225. 
Schaef. ;ul Dion. II. p. 141. Ilcrm. ^ Ilcind. ad Gorg. I.e. p. 217. Ast 

ad Vig, p, 750 scq. Jacobs ad Alhcn. ad Log. p. 471. Slallt). ad Thil. p. 55. 

Syntax. Of the Accusative. 675 

So with the verbs of ' giving, requiring', an infinitive eyeiv, 
eivai, Xa(5eh' &c. is found : Pirid. Pyth. 9, 100. 'iva o\ yBovoQ 
alaav avr'iKa avvreXeOeiv evvo/xov Bwpi]<T€Tai. Soph. Aj, 825. 
Comp. rind. Pyth. 9, 181. 

2. In the verbs ' to call', the following is to be observed : 

a. The predicate is sometimes the neuter singular of a pro- 
noun, although the proper object of the verb be masculine or 
plural. Eur. Bacch. 529. avaCpavM ae toS', o) Ba«:)(e, Qy](5aiQ 
ovo/iia^eiv. Plat. Pep. 1 . p. 340 E. to S' ol/^iat, eKaaroc, tovtojv, 
Kauoaov tout eaTiv o Trpo<7ayopevoi.iev avTOv, ovceTTore af.iap~ 
Titvei. Crafyl. p. 390 C. tov Se epwrav kqi cnroKpiveaQai 
eTTiaranevov oAXo tigv KaXelc, ii^iaXeKTiKov ; Gorg. p. 4S9 D. 
aWairaXiv e^ ap-^fjQ enre, T i irore Xeyeic tov c, (5 eXr iCF tov c,, 
' whom do you understand by the best V Plat. Pep. 5. p. 463 A. 
T I o ev Toic, aXXaiQ ^fJimoQ tovq ap^ovTOQ irpoaayopevei ; and 
in the passive id. Pep. 10. p. 597 E. tovto e/noiye ^oKet 
/LieTpnoTUT avirpoaayopeveaOai, pijutiTrjC, ov e/cetj^oi orj/^ttoUjOyot. 
Thus it should be Gorg. p. 448 B. el eTvy)(^ave Fopylac, 
eTn(TTr]j.LiiiV wi' tjjc Tk^vr]c, rjaTrep o aSeXcpoQ avTOv UpoBiKOc;, 
Tt av avTov (jjvof.iatof.iev ^iKaiioQ; ovy^ owep eKe7vov. as it 
is also in the Zeitz MS. (See Chr. Gottfr. Muller notitia et 
recensio Codd. MSS. qui in Bibl. Episc. Numhurgo-Gizensi 
asservantur. Lips. 1806. p.- 1 1 seq.) forTtva*^. 

b. This is often accompaxiied by ovo/na. Od. 9', 550. e'lV 
ovofi , OTTi ae KeiQi KaXeov f.ii]Tr]p tc ttotij/o tc. Eurip. Ion. 
269. ovo/Lta Ti ae KaXelv npuQ -^peojv ; ' what are we to call 
you?' ib. 813. ovof.ia Se ttoTov outov ovof.uiCei ttott]^ ; 
Plat. Cratyl. in. ov tovto elvai ovof.ia, o ti av Tivec, avvOef^ievoi 
/caXeTv /caAwcrt. id. Soph. p. 224 B. ovkovv kui tov /iiadiipaTa 

^vv(ji}vovp.evov TavTOV Trpoaepeic, uvoixa. Xen. JSIem. S. 

2, 2, 1. KaTCtpe/LiaOriKae, ovv, Tovr, ti iroiovvTac, to ovopa 
TOVTO {a-^api<TTOv(;) airoKaXovaiv. id. (Econ. 7, 3. ei jnev, 
OTav (Toi ^laXeyojVTai rrepi ep.ov TiveQ, KctXova'i pe tovto to 
ovopa, ovK olSa. and in the passive according to Obs. 1. a. 
Plat. Apol. S. p. 23 A. wcttc ovopa tovto XeyeaOai, ao(poe, 

" Hciiul ad Phil. Gorg. ]). 0, 145. p. 369, Bast. Lettre Crit, p. 30. 
Auctar. p, 507. Sclucf, ad Long. 

676 Sj/nlax. 0/ the Accusative. 

ehai. In this case also the person or thing which is named is 
in the dative : Plat. Cratt/L p. 385 D. erepov elrni KaXeiv 

CK(i(JTio uvoua. Polit. p. 279 E. rovroiai h] toTc 

a/LivvrrjpioiQ koi <7/ce7roa^iacri to f^iev oro^m i/naTin eKciAeaufiev. 
Soph. p. 229 C. TOVTio ye oluai f-iovo) Ttjc, ayvo'iac ajLiaOiav 
Tovvoiiia irpoapvOrjvai. Conip. Bep. 5. p. 471 D.*^ So Elf)'. 

Hec. 1271. Tl'/UjSw S' OVO/LLa aM K€K\u(T€Tai KVVOC, 

TaXaiVjjc cr>7^ia, i. e. Tv/iipoc croc Ke/cX. aJj^ja. 

Thus is said KaXeiv, ovopateit', ^ttovoili, rivi ri. Plat. Thecet. 
J). 185 C, y Se dia t'ivoc, ^vvctfuc ro r evrt ttocti koivov Kai to 
eirl TOVTOiQ Bi]\o7 aoi, m to eanv CTroi^o^in ^e« o Kot to ouk: 

eo-Ttv. P/at. Phccdr. p. 238 A. emOvp'iac, tij up XV 

vjBpiQ eTTiovopaaOr]^. The construction is similar in JVa/c. 
4, 98. Trapavop'iav eni toTc ^u/ amy/cp ko/coTc ovo/iiaaOtjvai. 
Plat. Parm. p. 147 D. eKaarov tijov ovouariov ovk em tivi 
KaXeU; Comp. Plat. Soph. p. 218 C. Pep. 5. p. 470 B. 

This construction seems to have arisen fiom the phrase 
TiOeaOai tivi uvopa. See c. 

c. As in the phrase ovouo etrTi the name itself is always in 
the same case as oi'o/t« (§. 308.), so the phrases compounded 
with an active verb, riOtaOai ovopa Sec, take an accusative : 
e. g. Plat. Pep. 2. />.3G9 C. Tcivry t^ ^vvoiKia eOefieOa ttoXiv 
ovopa. Leg. 5. p. 73G A. orroi ^la t})v Tpocprjc, cnropiav Tole, 
rjjepoaiv tiTi tu twv c>,^oi'tciji' pi] ey^ovrec eroipovr, avTovc tv- 
^e'lKi'vvrui TrapcdKevctKuTec, eTTcaOai, tovt oic, (oc vocTripari 
woXewc, cpTrefjivKori, Si cv(py]piav a~aX\ayijr, uvopa aTTOiKiav 
TiOepevoc, evpevwG on puXiara t^£7rep\paT0. Thus also ti- 
OeaOai alone, omittino- ovopa : Plat. Thecct. p. 157 B. w S>/ 
aOpo'iapciTi (irOpMirov re riOei'Tai Kai XiOov Kat eKaarov 
twov re Kal elSoc^. Of the passage Leg. 12. p. 956 C. see 
§. 308. 

3. The construction of the verbs * to make' is followed by 
SiSatTKeiv, Traideveiv, rpecjyciv, ' to educate one, to bring one up 
toanything'. Eurip. El. 379. aXX *:\ei roaov wevia' SibaaKci 

* Ilcind. ad Plat. Cratyl. p. 11 . 1G3. ad Eur. Hipp. 33. 
^ Ilcind. ad Plat. Phsedr. p. 2'i'2. '' Heiiid. ad Plat. Tlieat. p. 331. 

ad Cratyl. in. Coinp. Matlhia: not. 

St/ntax. Of the Accusative. 677 

^' uv^pa ^7/ -^pe'ia (To<p6v, * makes him wise'. IIeracl.576. 
oiOaff/ce jiioi TOiova^e rovaSe TraiCac, eic, to ttciv ao<povc, 
warrep av. Comp. Med. 297. P/at. Meuoit. p. 93 D. ovk iiki'i- 
Koac, on Qe/iuaTOKXtjCi KXe6(pavTOi> rov viov LTrirca pev eoi- 
^a^ciTo ayaSov; * made him be brought up a good rider'. 
ib. p. 94 B. TovTOVQ (YlapaXov Ka\ SuvOittttov) iinreac, edi8a- 
^ev ovSevoG y^e'ipovc 'AOrjvaiwu. Hep. 4. p. 421 E. to wo vie^c, 
Tj aXXovCy ovQ av ^iSa^yj, y^e'i povc Si] piov pyov c, cica^erai. 
Soph. (Kd. C. 919. Kai roi ae G>7/3ai ovk eira'iBevcrav kqkoi'. 
Plat. Rep. 8. p. 546 a. ovc r^yepovac, ir oXewv eTraiSevcjacrde, 
Epist. 7 . p. 333 B. ravrov wpoc, A'uova ^vpaKovcrioi Tore kira- 
Oox', OTrep Ktti /\iovvaioc,, ore avrov eney^eipei Traicevaai /cat 
dpexpai [iaaiXea rtjc, up-^rjc, a^iov. Thus Thuc. 1, 84. ev- 
jSowAot yiyvopeQa, apaOearepoi tcjv vopwv rrjc virepoxfjiac, 
Trai^evopevoi (i.e. ap. ?) locfre rove, vopovc vrrepopau)^. 

Thus also uv^eiv nva peyav Plat. Hep. 8. p. 565 C. 

Ohs. From these are to be distinguished the phrases in which the 
second accusative is an apposition of the first, and is determined only 
by means of the verb, of which see §. 428, 1. Isocr. ad Dem. p. 2 B. 
aTreoraXK-d (toi rovde Toy \6yoy Ewpor, ' as a present'. Xcn. Cijr. 5, 2, Ik 
Tuy Tajftpvav avrcenrt'ov TvapeXafier *■. 

II. The thing acted upon, and the immediate object of the 421. 
action in Kpv-meiv nva n, as in Latin celare al'iquem aliquid. 

Herod. 7, 28. w ^aaiXev, ov ae inroKpvxpu) t^^i^ epeojvrov 

oixTiriv. Soph. ILL 957. ov^ev yap ae SeT KpvTrreiv p in. 
Eu7\ Hippol. 927. oi» priv (jy'iXovc ye kuti paXXov // (piXovc 
KpvTTTeiv SiKoiov a tic, Trarep, ouair pa^iac,. On the other 
hand Kpvirreiv irpoc, nva Soph. Phil. 588. With the simple 
accusative of the person Plat. Thetet. p. 180 C. rwv apy^aiMv 
peTO. TTOuiaeoJC, c'nroKpvTTTopevoiV touc ttoXXovc, loc r) yeveaiQ 
nvv aXXtjjv Travnov Qiceavoc, re KaiTi}9vc, pevpara Tvyyjuvei . 

Ohs. 1. Several other verbs are found besides with two accusatives, (413) 
other constructions, however, being equally or more common. It is 

'' Bentl. Epist. ad Mill. p. 470. * liemsterh. in Obss. Misc. G. 

Toup ad Suid. '2. p.383. llenisleih. p. 310. Dorv. ad Charit. p. 219. 
ad Aristoph. Plut. p. 4. Koppiers ^ Bninck ad ^'Esch. Prom. 631. 

Obss. Philol. p. S^. Schoif. ad Lamb. Arist. Thesm. 74. in Add. 
B. p. 86','. ;id Dion. p. 412 scq. 

G7S Syntax. Of the Accusative. 

cliiefly grounded on this, that many verbs may be referred sometimes 
to a person, and sometimes to a thing, and we may say KwXveiu drOpw- 
TToy and also KwXveiv irpdyjia, 

a/jieij3€(T0ai. Pind. Pyih. 9, Q5. tov ce Kepravpos ^a/x€v>)s f.irJTiv eav 
evdi/s afieijjeTo, from ajxdfteaQai Tiva §. 411, 5. and that which is im- 
plied according to the sense in djLiet/3. ' to say, announce, set forth'. 
Soph. (Ed. C. 991. ey yap [x afiei\pai fxovioi'. 

ayaSelv. Arist. Plut. 764. ai'acijaui flov\of.iaL evayyeXiu ere, 
according to §. 414, 14. So also Equ. 647. elr' earefavovp fx" evay- 

ava^vdv. Xen. Anah, 3, 2, 11. uja/^o-j'/ffw i/fjius Koi tovs tCjv 7rpo~ 
yovbjy TtSy vf^ieTepttjy Kiycvyovs, for Ttoy Kivdvycjv. See §. 347. Obs. 
Thus also Thuc. 7, 64. rovs 'Adrjvaiovs kciI ra^e v7rofiifxyi](TKo). 

uTToXoveiy. II. ct', 345. (j(ppa raj^iora UciTpoicXoy Xovaeiav awo 
(ipoTov alfxaToei'Ta, for TiarpotcXov or Jlctrpo/cXw, because aTroXoveiy 
dydpcjTTOy was said, and also al/in. So ri^eaOai, Od. ^', 224. avrap u 
€K TTOTCifMov XP'^" yiC^To clos '0?v(r(T€vs u.Xfj.i]y (^t',35G. ere ttv^us yi\l/€i. 
comp. 376. belongs to Obs. 3. of this §.). Hence //. tt', 667. (ceXaive^es 
ulfxa Kadrjpoy --- ^apTrrjcoya. 

a.TToi,vp€~iy. Herod. 5, 35. Toy irKr-uTaroy (nro^vpi'iaas T])y /;e0aX//r. 

yeveiy. 'to cause to taste', Eur. Cycl. 149. (SuvXei ae yeinrw Trpioroy 
t'lKparoy /.te0v; yeveiv with the accusative of the thing only, llcrod. 
7, 46. The accusative of the person points out the object of the action. 
Comp. evw^^tj'. 

ypiKpety. Eur. Troad. 1196. ri tcai Trore ypci^eiey liy ce ^ovtrotroios 
ty riKpo)] from ypdipeiy riyd 'to inscribe any one's name', and ypa^eiv ti. 

^larpifteiy. Od. /3', 204. cl^pa Key r'lye ^larpiftriaiy 'A-)^aiovs oy yd^oy. 
liarp. ydfioy ' to delay', is found Od. v, 341. harp, rird would signify 
' to put him off'. 

edy. Soi^h. Ant. 538. uXX ovk Idcei. tovto y )) lih:)] ae, i. e. TrpdrTeLy. 

eTtaipeiy. Eur. Orest. 286. Aost'^t, oVns /it' endoiis epyor uyoaiMTaroy 
Tols /.ity Xoyois evfpaye. See Treideiy, and comp. §. 419, h. 

eTnaKi'iTTTeiy. Soph. Trach. 1221. ToaovToy h) a eTnaKiiirrw, reKvoy. 

evioyely. Plat. Gorg. p. 522 A. uiairep eyw voXXh kcu >/?ea koX wav- 
Todmrd eu'wxov*' vjdds. tu'w^- ^vith the accusative of the person ' to feast, 
to furnish food'. evioxetrrBcd ri points to the accusative of the thing. So 
also Herod. 1, 129. e'ipero fiiv, izpos to eavrov delnyoy, to fiiy ikelyos 
(Tdp^l TOV naiads eOoiyi(re. 

syntax. Of the Accusative. G79 

Ooiyti^eii'. See evio^ely. 

Kctdaipeii'. See uiroXoveii'. 

Kb)\v€iy. Soph. Phil. IS^l seq. ecrriv Tis, eariv, os ere KwXvcreL to 
Bfjcir. NEO. rt 0//S ; rls earai fx oviriKioXvawv ra^e \ So also e'lpyeiv 
Tiva Ti. Arist. Vesp. SSi:. tis yap eVO' o raurct a eVpywj/;^ 

fxeTep^eadai. See TiaaaQai. 

rii^eiv. See cnroXoveiy. 

TreideiP. Herod. 1, 163. tos tovto ovtc eireiOe tovs (^lOKatea s. 
Xen. Hier. 1, 16. kKeivo ye ovk av €tl Treiacus ayOpwirMu ov^eva. 
Hence ■n-eiQeadai ti : Herod. 8, 81. ol irXevres twv aTpciTriyuiv ovk cTre/- 
Qovto ra e^ayye\0e»/ra. Thuc. 2, 21. ^to ^>) (vulg. U) Kal r] ((>vyi) 
auVw (UXei(TTvai'ctKTi) eyereTO tK I>Trup-T]s, So^ayTi xpi'ii^aai Treiadfjyui 
T7)y a »'a)(wpj;<rt J', comp. 7, 73. 

TTt'etv, TTtTr/ff/ceu'. Pind. Isthm. 6, 18. tt/o-w ff(pe AlpKus ayyvy vEwp. 

TTopeveiy. Soph. Trach. 559 seq. os roy ioadvppovy 7rorn/tor ^vrjyov 
ftpoTOvs ixiadov Vojoeue x^P'^"'* ■^"''' ^^^' *'^^' y''"''^' apiaTciv Xi[j.yay 
^A'^epoyTiav iropevaas eXciTa. 

(7T€(payovy. See ayadely. 

Tiaaadca. Od. o, 236. mt er/ffaro epyov aeiKes avTideoy 'Nt]Xr}a, 
analogous to Trpctrreu', TroieTy Tiya ti. Ear. Heracl. 855. aTToriaaadai 
liKip' exdpovs. Comp. 885. So lueTieyai, fxeTepxeadcu Eur. Orest. 423. 
Cijcl. 280. 

Ohs. 2. Some verbs take, besides the accusative of the person, an 
accusative also of an adjective or pronoun in the neuter plural, which 
however is not sufficient to permit us to assume that the verb governs 
a double accusative generally, or of substantives. See §. 414, 13. Obs. 
So alTidffdai Ant'iph. p. 609. cd. Reisk. {T. 7.) a eTratrtwywat Tr)y yv- 
vcuKct TuvTi]y. Xen. Cyr. 7, 2, 22. ovk aiTiwf-uii Tude Toy Qeoy, for T(3ySe, 
as it is Plat. Soph. p. 218 B. Hence Xen. Hist. Gr. 7, 5, 12. to ye pi]v 
evTevdey yeyofueyoy eleoTi pey Toy deoy ahidadat. e^eXeyxetv Tiyd ti, 
Plat. Lys. p. 2^2 D. ctXXo p))y kcu tovto ye JofxeOa e^eXey|ru rjpds 
avTovs, ' we think we have refuted ourselves in this'. Comp. Jpol. S. 
p. 23 A.'' For not only tAeyxen' rna was said, but also eXeyxeiy ti, 
e. g. Eur. Heracl. 405. pifxeTcrdai, Herod. 5, 67. rt/uctr, id. ib. extr. 
The following cases are especially to be remarked : 

a. The verbs ' to say, to do, to become', are often not expressed, but 

=» Thorn. INI. p. Q72. Ilcind. ad "' Heind. ad Plat. Lys. p. 51. 

Plat. Soph. p. 363. 

C80 Sj/ntax. Of the Accusative. 

only those which denote the kind of saying and doing, and in which a 
verb 'to say, to do' is suppHed by the mind. Soph. Aj. 1107. tcaX to. 
(T€fiv' €.Tn) ic6\a^' eiceij'ovs, i. e. Ko\a^u)P eKetvovs \eye. CEd. T. 339. 
r/s yap ToiavT av ovic av opyii^oiT eVi; tcXixav, a (Xeywr) vvv av Triva 
uTifxa'Ceis TToXii'. CEd. Col. 1145, mv yap wfioa-' ovt: e-^evacifx-qv ovdey ae, 
for ovoef o/jpvojy isl/. ae. Thuc. 4, 12. kcu 6 ftev tovs re aWovs toicivtci 
eireaTrepxe, for roiavra Xeyiop eirecnr. 'by means of such words', not 'to 
such deeds', as in Ino-pvveiv Tiva ri. and Herod. 1, 31. tci kcitci Toy 
TeWov (Xeywv) Trpoerpe^paTO 6 SoXwv roy Kpolaoy. 6, 11. OTrep oi 
'EyeoTcttoi fiu.Xi(x-a iijids eKcpof^ouai, i. e. oVep Xeyoyres. Plat. Rep. 2. 
J). SQS D. Tcivra le koX ciXXa roiavra (Xeyoyres) eyKW/xia^ouiri dtKaioirv- 
rrjy. The dative might be used in all these places instead of the accu- 
sative, but it would be a very superficial explanation to say that the 
accusative was put for the dative, without pointing out how this has 

6. Hence such accusatives of pronouns are often used in the sense 
of adverbs. Eur. Bacch. CI 6. ravra kuI Kadvftpta avroy, for ovnos, 
properly ravra ttomv. Heracl. 949 scq. oi iroXXh fxey roy oyO' 
OTTOv 'ari vvv efxbv iralc^ i'/^iwiras, w Travovpy ecpvfipiffai. ri yap av 
Ke^vov ovt: eVXjjs Kadv(3piaai ; for ri ov ttoiiSv ovic erXrjs. Plat. Symp. 
p. 181 E. ■)(p)) Kal rovrovs rovs Travci'iiiovs epatrras irpoeravayKa^eiv ro 
roiovrov (i.e. Cjaavrws), Aanep Kai eXevdepwy yvyaiKiJjv Trpoaavayica' 
^ofxev avroiis, tcaOoaov dvvapeda, /i// epctv, not for irpoaav. rrpbs ro roiov- 
rov, as §. 419. 

c. Sometimes two constructions of one verb a;>pear to be united, 
as //. ff', 485. ev he ra re'tpeu Trayra ret r ovpavbs trrrefaywrai, because 
<TTe(j)ayovv signifies not only ' to put a garland around something', ' to 
crown', but also ' to put something on, in the manner of a garland', as 
vijaov Trepi iroiros etrrecpuyiorai Od. //, 195. comp. II. e', 739. X', 36. 
o, 153. therefore aarepes eare(j)ayiovrai Trepi ovpavoy, consequently 
<Tre(pavovv ovpavov and err. aartpas. Herod. 4, 75. ro Kara (tm-^o- 
pevov Tovro Taj^i) toy KaraTrXdarroyrai irav rb (Tuipa Kal ru Trpuaio- 
■Kor, from KaranXdacreiv ri rivos 'to smear something upon it', and 
KarairX. ri rivi ' to smear it with something'. 

Obs. 3. If a verb active is joined with a substantive from the same 
primitive in the accusative, in order to give an additional definition, 
§. 408. the accusative also of the person to which the verb is referred 
is added to it. Od. o', 245. 'Aptpiaptjoy, ov ivipi Krjpi (j>iXei Zevs r 
alyio^os Kul'ATToXXwy Trayroit]v <piX6r7]ra, instead of which //. era 
Merc. 572. tfiX-i]<Te -rrayroit] (pi\6ri)ri. Od. X', 541. Herod. 2, 1. Psam-' 

Sj/?ita.Y. Of ihe Accusative. G81 

metichus iraiZia Ivo Cicol noinivi rpei/ieiv rpo<piiv tlvu rot//voe, 

i. e. <J^€. 3, 154. etjJVTVv \w/3drai Xwj^ijv <\y>iK€(TTOv. 7, 233. tovs 
7r\cv»'a$ avTttjJi' effrii^ov ar iy fxara ftcifftX^'iia. Soph, El. 1034. 
oiiF av TOffovrov e\dos exOaipu) a eyw. Antig. 1201. Eur.Iph. A. 
1190. e^' ^ or' kyu) Koi irailes at XeXeifj-fievaL ^e^o fxeda ^e^iv, rjy ae 
Be^acrdai xpewv. Comp. Soph. Phil. 59. Thuc. 8, 75. wpKurrav 
Travras rovs aTpar itoras tovs peyitrrov s opKOvs. Plat. Leg. d. 
p. G95 A. See §. 408. Ohs. Phcedon. p. 115 D. eyyvi'irraade ovy pe 
Ti]v Ivavriav kyyvrjv. Xen. Cyrop. 8, 3, 27. epe 6 Trarijp ti)v 
Twv Trailujv iraiheiav, k-Kailevev. jEschin. Ctesiph. p. 537. 6 
^ojKiKos TToXepos ^eKcieriis ycyorws ae'ipvr](JTOv TraiCeiaf avrovs 
eiraiSevae. Hence also tlie phrase, ypucpeadai riia ypacpljy, e. g. 
Xen. Mem. S. 4, 8, 4. 

Sometimes the substantive, which is added for the purpose of defi- 
nition, is related to the verb only in signification. Eur. Troad. 42. 

KttffavBpav ' - - ya^el fiiaiws a kotiov 'Ay aj-ieprwy Xe^os. ib. 

361. 'EXevrjs yapel pe hvarv^'^'^Tepov yapov. In all these cases the 
dative miglit be put for the accusative, or, omitting the substantive in 
the accusative, an adverb instead of the adjective. 

Ohs. 4. Instead of a verb active a circumlocution is often used, the 
substantive derived from that verb active being joined with TzoieiaQai, 
e. g. Ti]v padrjiTiv "KOieiadai, for pavQaven', Thuc. 1, 68. vTr6fjivr](nv 
TvoieiaQui id. ih. 72. for viropvdv. The object of this verb, which with 
the simple verb would have been in the accusative, and in the circum- 
locution properly in the genitive, is soinetimes in the accusative also, 
inasmuch as the circumlocution answers in its signification to a verb 
active; and in this case tiie verb iroielaQai has a double accusative. 
Herod. 1, 68. Tuy)(">'ets Qijvpa ttolev pevos rijv kpyaairiv rov 
(Tict'ipov. 8, 74. Owijpa TTOievpeyoL rijy Eipv/Sici^ew aftovXirjv, 
for davpai^ovres. Thuc. 8, 41. rijv ^djpay Kura^popals Xeiav CTrot- 
etro, for e\er;Xarei. ib. G2. aKevr] kcu aydpcnroBa apvayijy Troit]- 
aapevos, i. e. apirai^wy. Similarly 4, 15. eloiev avrols (nrovEcts 
7roLr]actpevovs ra wepl HvXay, uTroffrelXai es ras 'A0//ras Trpecrfieis, 
for (nvevle.(TQuL in the sense of ' making up', as in Eurip. Med. 1140.* 
Thus the passage in Plato may be defended, Phcedoii. ]). 99 C. rov 
Sevrepoy irXovy kwl T>)y rrjs alrius i^t'irrjaiy, i]y Tvenpayparevpai, 
ftovXei (TOi, ecpr], eTriSet^iv noiyawpai, i. e. eTnSei^uj. 

With other circumlocutions the same thing occurs. //. 6', 171. cijpa 

'•' Comp. Hoogev. ad V'iger. p. 285. 

682 Syntax. Of the Accusative. 

Tideh (i. e. ar}fxaii'ior) Tptoetrai fxa.-)(7]s erepaXKea ritctjv. Herod. 4, 88. 
4wa ypa\pc'meyos tijv i^ev^ir, i. e. ^wYpa(pt](Tas. ^sch. Agam, 823 seq. 

Qeoi 'IX/ou fdopns \pi](povs ede)'TO, i. e. exprjfltravTo. Sojyh. El. 

123. Tiv' ael rciKeis wo' ciKoperov iraXai e»,- EoXepds adewraras ^arpos 
aXot'T aTrarais ^Ayafxe f-uopa, i.e. ri ti^^ ciKopecTTios oljjLijji^eis 'Aya- 
f.iefirot'a. (Ed. C. 583. r« ^' ei>> XrjtTTir "ifryeis. comp. 223. ih. 
1120. TCKV el (paj'etT aeXTTTa /jj/cvjcj Xdyor, i.e. reKva yuokpa Xeyio, 
fiaKp-qyopiS, in the sense of ' speak to some one', §. 416, h, j3. Eur. Or. 
1075. ep fiey Trpwra croi fiof-Kpijv e^w, for ej^ nen(})Oj^ai, Herc.F.lW. a. 
XPV^ "■f f^€rpi(i)s, Kcl Kparels, aTrovhijv e^eiv, for (nrevceiy. Still bolder 
is the phrase Iph. T. 225. alfjioppavrwy Zv(T^6pp.iyya ^eivwv alfiaa- 
a ova (i-ay fSw/jiovs, which however does not belong to this head, 
being compounded of the two phrases aifxaaffeiv Ih'ovs (instead of 
which atfi. ^erwj' (irar is here used) and oiyi/. /jw/iovs, and one of them 
is not used instead of an active verb. See §. 633.* 

Obs, 5. Sometimes tlie poets in particular join an accusative with an 
active verb, besides the proper object, commonly the accusative of a 
pronoun, which indicates the whole, of which the proper object is a 
part. //. n, 73. re/croi', ri KXaleis \ ri ce ae <ppe:ras 'ikcto ■jrefdos ^ 
where tlie proper object is (ppevas ; but ae, according to the common 
construction, should be aov. v, 406. and elsewhere in innumerable 
places. rind. 01. 1, 110. Trpos evafOej^oy c' ore cpvav Xtij^j'ai viv 
fAeXay yiveiov €pe(j)oy. Comp. Ncni. 3, 66 seq. Isthm. 5, 10 seq. 
yEsch. Pers. 159. Soph. G'ld. T. 718. Kui yiy apdpa kcIvos eyi^ev^as 
TTVcoly eppiypey iiXXioy ■)(^epa\y eh lifiaroy opos. (Ed. Col. 113. aiyiiao[xai 
re, Kui av j.C e^ o^ov it 6c a Kpv\hoy kot uXaos. Comp. ib. 314. El. 147. 
Phil. 1 301 . Eur. Phoen. 41 . Troad. 1240. Aristoph. Pac. 1 099. il^pa^eo 
2»), yu>'/ TTws ae ?oXw operas ei,n~aTi]aas 'ikthos ficipxl/)]^. The pronoun also 
is sometimes wanting, and only the participle which refers to it is found : 
//. y, 615. 6 ce Trpoaioyru fiercoTroy iiXaaey. Frequently not a pronoun 
but a second substantive is found in the accusative : //. rj', 1 1 seq. "Ekrcjp 
S''HVoj'7ja /3aX' auj^cia. comp. 15 seg'. 119. with 121. Hesiod. Sc. 
Here. 41. toIos yap Kpaciriv voOos onuro iroifieya Xawi'. Three 
accusatives are thus joined //.»;', 215. i/, 44. Tpwas te rpofios ah'os 
vTTTjXvOe yvTa eKaaror, where Tpwas eKuaroy are to be taken together 
according to §. 302. Obs. 

Homer sometimes joins Kara to the word which denotes the part : 

" Hcrm. ap. SeicU. ad Eur. Troad. Hipp. 571. Brunck ad TEsch. S. c. 

12:5. ad Viger. 899. Th. 836. Soph. (Ed. T. I.e. Old. C. 

'' Valck. ad Her. 1, 47. p. <n, 26. I.e. ad Arist. Pac. 1. c. Pors. ad Eur. 

ad Theocr. 10 Id. 1, .o.i. ad Eur. Hoc. 806. 

Si/ntax. Of the Accusative. 683 

II. o, 61. a? vvv fiiy reipovai Kara (f>peuas. Comp. r, 125. v, 86. or 
irpos II. o, 250. 0', 424. and Kara with the gen. //. v, 580. tov Zk Kar 
oipdaXiiuiv epejoerv)) vii^ eKd\v\pef. But it does not follow that Kara is 
always to be supplied ; it is much more probable that this construction 
is to be explained by a kind of apposition, which is particularly frequent 
in Homer §. 432, 3. which gave rise to the similar use of the double 
dative §. 389, 2, /i.<= 

Adjectives also, which are derived from active verbs, and 422. 
retain an active sense, sometimes take the accusative. Mschyl. (416) 
Agam. 1098. {irpoc, xr/v 'ArpeiBojv arky-qv rJya-yoM ae) KA2. 
/HKToOcov /.leu ovv, TToXXa ^vv KTTopa avToCpova kuko. 
Kaprdvac, for ttoXAwv KaKwv. ib. 103. eXTrtc ajmvvei 
(jipovTi^' aTrXrjCTTOi', rrju Bvixo^opov (ppkva \vTn)v. S.c. Th. 

365. Sfito'iBec rXTjjuoi'ec evvav aL-^nnXdjTov. Comp. Prom. 

912. and Schiitz p. 154. Soph. Antig. 787. Kai <j' uvt aOa- 
varojv (pv^ifxoQ ovBeic, ou9 ajxep'iuyv eir avOpMirtov. Eur, 
Iph. A. 1265. eyw TO. t oiKrpa avveroc eif-U Kai ra pi]. Plat. 
Charm, p. 15S C e^apvio elvai to. e pojrwpeva. Alcih.2. 
p. 141 D. olpa'i ae ovk avr^Koov elvai evia ye yjiiCa re Kai 
TTpijJiCa yeyevt] peva. Xe}i. Cyrop. 3, 3, 9. ot arpaTiwrai, 

eir iGTrfpovec riaav Ta irpoaifKOvra rrj eavrwv 

eKaaroc, oirXiaei, &.C. Thus Tpi.(^(Dv 'experienced, skilled', 
sometimes takes the accusative instead of the genitive. Eur. 
Med. 684. Tp'ij3(jjv to. TOia^e. Even riyepoviKoi ra irovripa Xen. 
Cyr. 2, 2, 5. See §. 346. Oh$. 2. Of substantives, pavric, is 
so constructed Eur. Heracl. 65. pavTic, rjoO' ap ov koXog raBe, 
and Trpo-Kop-Koc, (which is rather an adjective) ^sch. Choeph. 
2 1 . -^oac TTpoTTopTTOc. TO. pereojpa (ppovTiariic Plat. Apol. S. 
p. 18 B, which Xen. Symp. 6, 6. is twv pereCypojv (f)p.^ 

Several intransitive verbs are used by the poets as transitive, 423. 
and take an accusative of the object, e. g. (^IT') 

aiaau). Soph. Aj. 40. Kai irpoc ti ^vaXoyicrrov lo^ V^^'' 
■vepa ; (aiaaeiv eiroiriae). Eurip. Hec. 1062. ira ttoS eira^ac 
aapKojv oarkiov t epirXriaOoj \ Apollon. Rh. 1, 1253. cvd 

" So Eustathius explains this idiom Reisig Comm. Crit. in Soph. (Ed. C. 
ad 11. a', p. 93, 22. p. 325. 

"* Musgr. ad Soph. Antig. 798. 

N 2 

684 Syntax. Of the Accusative. 

auTw ^u^tjSXr/TO Kara ar'i^ov H/oaK-Xjjt, yvfxvov eTrdicrawv 

ftaivoj. Eurip. Phocn. 1450. -rrpofiac Se kwXov Se^iov 
{7rpo(3y]vai TroiT/crac). Heracl. 805. eK^ac, reOp'nnrtjjv YXXoc 
ap/nariov TToSa. Arist. Eccl. 161. e/c/cX»j<Tia(70U(y ou/c av irpo- 
(5airiu Tov TroSa toi/ eTepov, ei /mrj ravr aKpipojOijaerai . 

teo). Mschyl. Prom. 370. roiovSe Tuc^wc e^ava^eaei 
)^oXov. Eurip. Cycl. 391. ^aX/ceoi^ Xe|3}}T e7re<:^e<7€i' 
TTn^t. Apoll. Rh. 3, 273. TOi Se Xoer/oa Trupt ^eov*^. 

\a/.nreiv. Eurip. Hel. 1145. Aiyaiaic t evaXiaic a/craTc 
ooXjov aarepa \af.ixpac. Ion. 83. apjuaTa /iiev raBe 
\a/inrpa TeOpiTnrwv jjXior, 7JSjj Xa/Liirei Kara yfjv". 

TrXelv. Eur. Iph. T. 410. ^irXevaav vdiov uyr\f.ia (TrXetv 

peireii'. Soph. Ant. 1 1 58. Tvyrj KaTappeirei tov eurvyovvra. 

peu). Horn. II. in Apoll. 2, 202. irpopeeiv KaXXippoov 
vB(t)p. Eurip. Hec. 53\. eppei X^ipt iraic A^tXXeojc \oa.(; 
OavovTi Trarpi ®. 

airev^eiv 'to urge, to pursue'. Soph. EL 251. to <tov 
airevdovcT "t/^ia, Kai Tovpov avriic. Eur. Phan. 591. Suo 
KUKti (TTTCv^eic, reKvov. Also in the prose writers : Herod. 1, 
206. navcrai cnrevdwv to. OTrevBeic,. Thuc. 6, 39. et /u} /nav- 
BaveTC KaKct airevBovrec, . 

ynpeveiv. Eur. Here. F. 688. KUTairavaoi^iev Moucrac al /li 
e-^opevaav. ib. 873. Tuj^a a eyw ^opevau)^. 

Obs. Sometimes, especially in the poets, verbs which of themselves 
cannot govern an accusative, are joined with that case on account of the 
active sense which is implied in them. So2)h. EL 556, el c' e// wd' uet 
Xoycis esi7^j^es, i.e. et ypxov uice pe Xtyeiy, Elir. Andr. 1201. Oai'vtTa 

* Brunck Lobeck. ad Soph. I.e. •* Musgr. ad Eur. 1. c. Brunck I.e. 

Person ad Eur. Or. 1427. Reisig ct ad Apoll. Wh. 3, 225. Jacobs ad 

Enarr. Exeg. in Soph. CEd. C. VZbl . Antbol. I3r. 1, 1. p. 163. 

•> Porson 1. c. ' Valck. ad Herod. 7, 53. p. 535, 93. 

' Brunck 1. c. Musgr. ad Eur. Siippl. 161. 

^ Brunck 1. c. « Brunck ad Soph. Ant. 1151. 

Syntax. Of the Accusative. 685 

leaiTOTav yoois vofxu tu vepTepiov Karap^u), i. C. cetrir. yoaadai up^ofiai. 
Ion. 584. Tovio Kcifx e'xei irvdos, i. e. tovto kuI eyw -irodtS, So De- 
mosthenes Phil. 1. 2^. 53, 10. says, ol U crvn^axoi TeOvam ru Uei rovs 
TowvTovs aTTotTToXovs, (wlierc Reiske has inserted ^id from two MSS. be- 
fore ToiovTOvs Tovs), for ovTU) ceUaatv, &aTe TeQi'dvai. Corap. p. 366, 25. ' 
Soph. Jj.435. Tcnrpiora KaWicTTeT" dpicTT€v(Tas orparov, i.e. ry dpiffrevaai 
\a(iu}v. See Herm. ad v. 430. Eur. Pha;n.l590. a TroSa (x6y TVi^Xoirovv 
depaTT€vp.aaiv alkv kpoy^Qei, for iroca avv del edepaneve. The con- 
struction is very harsh in Soph. Antig. 212. aol ravr dpeaKCL 

Tov rySe dixryovv mt tov evf^ieyij TroXei' where <toI tcivt dpeaKCi agrees 
in sense with <tv raira noie'iv edeXcLS. In Eur. Ion. 708. which Erfurdt 
compares with this, ttoctiv belongs to yeyojuuaoixev as an active verb, 
and TToaiy euri»xeu' should have followed. Sometimes the wrong word 
is put in the accusative : Pind. Nem.lO, 132. Zevs 3' evr' "U(f ■!rvp<p6pou 
irXule \lioX6evra Kepavvoy, for jjaXibv Kep. eirXrilev "Ihav, as Eur. Or. 
1488. Tvaieiv \aip.ov ejieXXev eauj fxeXap ^i(^os. 

Passives also, if they retain their passive sense, are often 424. 
accompanied by the accusative in the following cases : (420) 

1. With verbs which govern a double accusative in the 
active, the thing is put in the accusative in the passive also. 
Thuc. 8, 5. VTTO (iaaiXeojQ Tretr pay fxevoc, rove, (popovQ (§ 417, 
d.). Herod. 3, 137. el^aipeOevrec re tov Arj/iOKrjSea kcu top 
yavXov airaipeOevTeG. Tliuc. 6,24. ro peu e7rt0u^ouv tov 
ttXov ovk el^rtpeOtjaav {Dion. aCpripeOrfaav) vtto tov o^Xweovc 
Trjc TTapaaKevr\c,. Plat. Gorg. p. 519 D. avQpCjwovQ dyaOovc 
Kal BtKcnovQ yevofxevovQ el^aipeBevTUG j-ieu aciKiav vtto tov 
Si^acTKaXov, (y^ovTaa 8e Si/catocrui/rjv, ctSt/ceTi' toutw, o ovk hyov- 
aiv;* — AUsch. Prom. 171. to veov (iovXev/x, vcj)' otov (t/ctj- 
TTTpov Tipac, T airoavXaTai. Isocr. Archid. p. 119 D. av- 

XriOeiQ'HpaKXnQ Toq (5ovc, wtto Nr]Xe(VQ /cat twv TraiSwv 

rovG dBiKT^aavTaa d-rreKTeivei'. — Soph. El. 960. {epoi) 

TrapeoTi (JTeveiu, ttXovtov TraTpwov /CT^crii' eaTepti/nevrj. En- 
rip. Troad. 379. ov ynQ opi dTToaTepov/nevoi. Bacch. 1371. 
Hel. 95. Thuc. 6, 91. tuc tt/ooctoSouc d7ro(TT€pn<rovTai 
(§. 418, g.). — Solon, ap. Pint. Sol. 31. yr)pdaKh) B' a'lei ttoXXo. 
BiSaaKopevoc. Plat. Menex. p. 236 A. Ka\ o<jtig epov kukiov 
eTraiSevOr],povaiKriv /uev vtto Ad/unrpov iraidevOeic, pi]TopiKnv 
Be VTT ' AvTKpiSvTOC, tou PapvovaioVy opwc, kuv ovtoc, o'ioq r e'lr} 

'' Scha-f. App. Dem. I. p. 375. ' Valck. Diatr. p. 203. 

686 Syntax. Of the Accusative. 

AOr]vaiovG ye ev 'A9i]vaioiG eiraivbiv €vBoKifxe7v (§. 418, f.). — 
Plat. Rep. 5. p. 456 D. (al ywaiKec) dperriv avri ifiariiov 
afiCpieaourai. Demosth. in Con. p. 1266, 28. /ne/iiapTvpiiKaaiv 
opav VTTO K.6vMVOG rvTrTop-evov e/ie, /cat Ooipariov cKdvo/nevov 
{ib. 7.). Thus in Homer eineifxcvoc oXktjv. — Xen. Cyrop. 5, 
5, 16. eyCj eireiaOriv Tavra vtto gov (§.421. Obs. 1.). So 
in consequence of the construction §. 421. Obs. 3. Eur. Hipp. 
1150. avTOC S o TXriptjjv ^eaf.iov ^vae^i)vvaTOv k\KeTai 
SeOct'c. Pha:n. 1469. TeTpiiyjxkvovc, Kaipiac, acpayac. Plat. 
Gorg. p. 476 C. D. T^rifxa Te/nverai. p. 477 A. dx^eXeTrat 
io<pk\eiav. p. 497 C. to. /neyaXa {pvanjpia) ye pepvt]<jai vpiv 
TO. ctfxiKpa. 

In the same manner, from the phrase ovo/na^eiv riva. ovojua 
is constructed Thuc. 1, 122. h KaracfypovtjaiQ ('contempt of the 
enemy', and, because this is connected with an advantageous 
opinion of oneself, * self-conceit') eic tou iroWovc, a(f)dXXeiv, to 
evavTiov ovopa acjipoavvr} /.leTtovo/LiaiSTai. 

(421) 2. As moreover, by a peculiar Graecism (§. 490.), verbs 
which in tlie active take a dative of the person, can be re- 
ferred to this person as a subject in the passive, these verbs 
in the passive have also the thing in the accusative, whilst, in 
other languages, only that which is the object of the active 
becomes the subject in the passive. Thuc. 1, 126. ot twv 
A6r]val.(ov eniTeTpa/iipevoi rriv (^v\aKi]i', for o'lc, r] (jyvXaKi) 
eireTeTpaiTTO. Aristoph. Pled. 517. KeyeipoTovi]pai dpyji\v, for 
o.pyr\ f.ioi Keyeipor6vr]Tai. comp. Mschin. in Ctes. p. 4 1 6. Soph. 
Antig. 408. irpoc aov to. Zeiv eKelv eirrjTreiXrjpevoi, for olc, 
TO Beivd cKciva eTTJ/Tret'Aj/TO. 

Hence the phrases, Herod. 7, 69. AlOioircc TvapBaXeac re 
Kai XeovTtoc evappevoi (for evr^pjuevoi). Arist. Nub. 72. Bi- 
^Oepav evTippevoc, because in the active the construction 
would have been evaTTTeiv nvl irapdaXriv, Xeovrrjv, St- 
(^Bepav^. Soph. I'rnch. 157. XeiVei TraXaidv deXrov ey-ye- 
ypapp.evr)v l^vvOrjpaTa, from eyy pdc^eiv avvOrjpara SeXry* 
as Virg. Eel. 3, 106. inscripti nomina regum Jiores. Xen. 

» Valck.adHerod.7,69.p. 541,68. Markl. ad Siippl. 715. 
Hemsterh. ad Liician. t. 1. p. 345. 

Sj/ntax. Of the Accusative. 687 

Cyrop. 6, 3, 24. 7r/oo|3e|3X»j^ie»'oi Se tovq OojpaKocpopovQ^ 
/.levovai. Ill point of sense it is the same as TrapdaXeaQ kcu 
XeovrkaQ evafx^kvac, eyovrec, ^iCpOepav evr]fip.evr\v e)(wv, ^ufOrj- 
ixara eyyeypap-j^ieva eyovaav. and it is thus in a fragment of 
Machon in Athen. 13. p. 582 C. AatSa \kyovai tvv KopivOiav 
TTore EujOiTTi'Srji' iBovaav ev /crjTTw rtvt Trtva/c/Sa Kai ypa(peiov 
e^tipTrffikvov ey^ovTa. 

After this analogy is formed Kvvr]v, eadrJTa wepiKeif.ievoc, 
because irepiKeiaQai is the same as irepiredeiaOai, and in the 
active it would be -jrepiriBevai rivi kvv?iv. Herod. 1 , 171. rewo 

Se aveu oyaviov eCpopeov rdr, aCTTTi'Sac > Tre^t roicri 

av\ecn re Kai toTcti apiarepoiai lo^ioiai TrepiKeiuevoi, viz. too 
aaTTiSao. E^^r. 5«p/>/. 718. See Markl. Comp. Tyieocr. 20, 14.^ 

3. As such a dative is often placed in relation to the verb, (122) 
instead of a genitive governed by the substantive, e. g. emSelv 
rivi rpavp-a for eTrtS. rpavf-ia tivoc, the dative is here made the 
subject of the passive, and the accusative of the thing remains : 
e. g. (eyw) eTrtSeo^tai to rpavjua' as Xenoph. Ci/r. 5, 2, 32. 
Soph. Aj. 1178. ykvovc, a-Kavroc, p'llav e^ri/nv/^evoQ. Eurip. 
Hec. 114. Ttic TTOvroiropovG r eaye aye^'iac, \ai(pii irpo- 
Tovoic. eTrepeiBof-ikvac, for olc (oiv) to. Xai^rj eirepei^eraL irpo 
rovoiG. ib. 904. utto Se aTe(^avav KeKapaai -Kvpyojv, for are- 
(pavt} TTvpyoJv aoi (<twv) diroKkKapTai. Plat. Rep. 2. p. 361 E. 
o SiV-atoc eKKav6i)(TeTai tw '(pdaXp-oj, for tm St/catw (tou 
Si/cai'ou) Tw o(/)0. eKKavOuaerou. Arist. Nub. 24. ei^' e^eKorrriv 
Trporepov top 6(f)9a\fiOv Xidu). Xeu. Auab. 4, 5, 12. oi re 
^leCpdap/iikvoi vtto ti/O -^lovoc rove o(p6a\ /.lovcy 01 re utto tou 
xpvvovc ToiiQ Sa^TuAouc twv ttoSwv a7roc7e(7rj7roTec. for oic 

(Jv) ot ocfyOaX/Lioi §(e(^0ajo^ievoi »}aui' /coi ot Stt/CTuXoi aTre- 

(Teo-TjTreffav. eV/. ilfem. 5'. 2, 1, 17. eyw /xei/ ouk olB' o ri Sta- 
^e/06i TO awTO Sep/ua ckovto rj aKovra /iiaariyovadai, 1? oXtuc 
TO auTO cfoj/j-a iraai role roiovroic eKovra n uKovra woXiop- 
KeiaOai. Demosth. pro Cor. p. 247, 1 I. ewpwv tov ^'iXnnrov 

rov o(pBaXi.iov e/CKe/coju^tevov, ttj^ kXclv Kareayora, rrju 

XeTjoa, TO cTKeXoQ TreTTr)p(x)fxkvov. and elsewhere very frequently. 
Similarly Arist. Nub. 241. ra y^pi]fxaT, for to 

*> Dorvill. ad Chaiit, p. 210. 

688 Syntax. Of the Accusative. 

■^pr]iiiaTa ^lot (juow) eve'^vpaterai. Eur. Andr. 662. KTaveiv 
de\(j)v t/jvS e/c yepiZv upTraZ, from apira'Ce.iv ti tivi*. 

(4^3) 4^ jjj a^ii these combinations the accusative stands in the 
same relation to the subject of the verb as the part to the 
whole, and expresses that part of the subject in which the 
quality expressed by the verb is more particularly found, and 
thus gradually the usage was extended ; and that to which the 
quality particularly belongs was put in the accusative with 
verbs of all kinds, as §. 421. Obs. 3. Od. a , 208. aivwc, yap 
/ce^aA?;v T€ Kai o/ufxaTa Ka\a eoiKac Keivoj, ioY Ke<pa\i) Kai 
ofifxara aov eoiKe toTc eKe'ivov. Instead of which in //. y , 1,58. 
alvu)c aOavaryai Oeyc etc, tuTro eoiKev. Soph. Phil. 7. 41. 
avrjp voatHv kojXov. Aj. 9 seq. Kapa (TTaZ,oiv iBpijJTi Kai yepac. 
Herod. 2, 111. Kaj.iveiv rove, o(pOa\f.iovc,. 3, 33. too (ppevac 
vyiaiveiv. — Plat. Rep. 5. p. 462 D. o avOpwiroQ tov daKTvXov 
aXyet, (comp. Theocr. 8, 23.) where before it was expressed 
OTUV TTOv rj/nwu ^aKTvXoG TOV TrXj/yrj. Xeii. j\Iem. S. A, 1, 2. 
Comp. Cyr. 3, 3, 9. Jl. a , 114. eirei ov eOt^v eari -^epe'iwv ov 
Sefiac, owSfc- (pvriv, out ap (f)pevac, outc ti epya. Thus 
TTo'Sac wKvc A^iWevc, in Homer. Theocr. 23, 2. I'lpar' t-^a'/3w 
Tciv liiop ch au ayaOh), tov re TpoTTOi' ovk c9 opo'iw, for ol 
{ov) 77 ixev nop(pr\ aya9r\ i]v, o Se tjOo'ttoc ou^ o^uoioc . Some- 
times Kara is found with this accusative : Soph. Trach. 379. 
?'; Kapra Xanwpa Kai Kar o/iijua kui cjyvaiv. CEd. I. 1087. Kara 
yvwfirjv 'iBpic. Plat. Crat. p. 405 B. KaOapov irape-^eiv tov 
uvBpwTTOV Kai Kara to au>f.ia kcu Kara ttjv xpv^tiv. 

Obs. 1. Instead of die accusative the dative is sometimes used, e. g. 
Eur. Bacch. G83. evlov ce Truerai aoj^aaiv Trapeififuni {awfiara nddais 
Trapeifiivn), different from Xen. Mem. S. 2, 1, 19. ^vyarol Kai ru'is aw- 
paai Kai tuTs v^i/xatSj where the dative expresses the means by which 
men become cvvaTOi tov kavrdv oIkov fiaXws luKely. But 4, 1,4. av- 
dpojTTovs Tovs tppio^eyeariiTovs rals \pv)(^cns might also be ras \pv\as. 
Plat. Leg. G. p. 773 C. Oarrnvs i'lOeai, thougli commonly i'lOr] or ijdos is 
found with adjectives, e. g. Phccdr. p. 243 C. Xen. Cyr. 8, 3, 21, 

» This explanation of the accusa- Gods, 1. Note b. 
tive with the passive is derived from '' Fisch. 3 a. p. 420 sq. The ex- 

Buttm. Gr. Gr. §. 121, 7. and is also planation of Hermann ad X'ig. p. 893. 

given liy Poppo Lucian's Dial, of the appears to be reulier too artificial. 

Syntax. Of the Accusative. 689 

aoXoiKOTcpos Tu rpoTTO), elsewhere Toy rponov as Dem. p. 1283.' Xen. 
Cyr. 4, 1, 8. ^lecpdi'ipdat edvKct rals yj'Wjuais, without var. r. Soph. 
Antig. 120 seq. efir], vplu ttoQ' afierepwy alfidTtov yevvffiv ■7r\r](Td^yai for 
yivvas. Eur. Or. 706. /cai ravs yap ei'Tudelcra Trpos ftiar irocl efta-ipey, 
etTTT) 2' avQis, yv X"-^4 '"''J^"-- ''^ovs, not ja J$, is that to whicli erreit'effdai 
properly refers, rrj vr]'i tov TrcSa evreivovaiv ol ravrai. Similar to this 
is Sojih. CEd. T. 3. krrjpiois KXadoi<Tiv €^e(TT€iJ.^f.yoi. for it is not the 
suppliants who are crowned with garlands, but the iKTtipioL kXu^oi are 
wreathed with wool ; it is therefore instead of krrfpiovs i^XaCovs l^ear, 
which in sense is equivalent to Ikt. kXuc. €t,€(TTejjifieyovs e^oi^res. Similar 
to this are also the passages quoted above, §. 400, 6, //. /3', 141. Soph. 
(Ed. T. 25. 

Obs. 2. With the accusative is sometimes found also the possessive 
pronoun of the person which is contained in the verb. Soph. Phil. 
1456. ov TToWuKi Ci) rovf.ioy heyyfii^v Kpar eycvfiv^oy TrXrjy^ai vorov. 
Eur. Phccn. 325. udev efiay re Xei/fco^^poa ice/po/nai. ATed. 1398. KUTda- 

veT 'Apyovs Kcipa aov X€i\pdyM TT€7rXriyf.ieyos. Helen. 1212. Xvirij 

<7as ci€(pdapiTaL (l)peyas **. 

5. Since in these cases the accusative often contains a deft- 4^5, 
nition which is usually expressed by an adverb or the dative, 
an occasion was furnished for the use of the accusative as an 
adverb. In this way especially Travra is used (neut. pi.) ' in 
all points, in every respect'. Soph. (Ed. T. 1197. eKpart]- 
aac TOV T7avT eiiSa/^iovoc oA/3ov. Eiir. Sthenob. Fr. 1. ou/c 
eariv oariQ ttuvt avnp evdai/^iovel, instead of whicli Alex. Fr. 
16. it is e'lQ uTTavT ev^aiiiioveL^, and Tracrtv is probably never 
found in this sense. So -rravra Tpoirov, ov Tpowov, &c. ; per- 
haps also Find. Isthm. 1, 58. et S' apera KciraKeiTai rraaav 
opydv, omni studio. Flat. Leg. 2. p. 656 seq. ti)v aurrji; 
re^vriv * with the same art'. The following words 
are especially used in this way : rt, as ovre ti KaXXiova in the 
passage of Plato ; ti diacpepei (also rlvi ^) ov^ev ' in nothing, 
in no respect', as Soph. Fhil. QQ. and afxCJyoTepov, e. g. 11. y', 
179. af.L(^6Tepov, (3a(n\evG r ayaOoc KparepoQ t aiy^p-nrrjQ. 
OLfx^oTepa ' in both respects', which is used even after datives, 
as Flat. Gorg. p. 524 B. c^yvaei 1) rpocPy r) aiii(p6Tepa^. Hence 

<= Lobeck ad Phryn. p. 304 seq. B. p. 717. 

'' Herm. ad Phil. 1442. ^ Lob. ad Phryn. p. 394. 

« Valck. ad Phoen. 621. Lobeck ' Ilcind. ad Plat. Cbarin. p. 37. 

ad Ajac. p. 1402. Spolin Led. Stallb. ad Eutb. p. 01. 
Tbeocr. 1. p. 40. Scbaif. ad Lamb. 

690 Syntax. Of the Accusative: 

Kaipov 'at the right time' Soph. AJ. 34. tjjv Tay^iart]u Xen. 
Hist. Gr. 2, 1, 28. for Tayj.aTa, rriv tt/owttji' Herod. 3, 134. 
Xen. Mem. S. 3, 6, 10. ' at first, in the beginning', ttjv evOelau 
* straight'. tt)v apyjjv, or only apyj]v, * altogether', yapiv * on 
account of. ^iKy]v * after the manner of. Tay^oc * speedily'. 
reXoc ' finally'^. So also ovoi^ia * by name' (eiriK\r]aiv ' by 
surname' 11. k', 29.). -yei-oc * by birth', irpoc^aaiv ' in pretence, 
ostensibly', to which to S' a\r]Qec, is opposed Ly&ias c. Agorat. 
^. 130, 39. In the last-raentioned cases Kara seems to have 
been supplied by the mind, as kuto. tov avrov Tpoirov Herod. 
2, 176. 

The accusative is more especially used as an adverb in the 
following cases, or instead of the dative : 

1. In order to determine the measure, 

a. With comparatives : ttoXu ^tei'^wv * much greater'. ttoWov 
ape'ivuyv II. "C, 479. ttoXAov eyB'iwv Soph. Antig. 86. //. /3', 
239. fxey afxe'ivova (pwra. Hence Xenoph. Anal). 1, 7, 12. 
varreprjae t?7c f^a^vc i]p.kpac, irevre. Of the dative in this sense 
see §. 400, 8. 

b. In answer to the questions, * how far ? how deep ? ' 
Herod. 1,31. ar a^'iovc Se ivevre Kai TeaaepaKovra SiaKo- 
/xiaavrec uttikovto ec to ipov. So the accusatives evpoc, ^adoc, 
TrXaror,, in breadth, in depth, in thickness, vipoc in height, 
TrXtjOoG in number, Xen. Anab. 4, 2, 2. In Herodotus also 
fjieyedoc, e. g. 2, 132. also with tc, and interchangeably with 
the dative areivoTt^Ti pev, pifKoc ^e id. 4, 85. The measure is 
often in the genitive which depends on evpoc &c. Xen. Anab. 
2, 5, 1. TO evpnc T€TTap(ov irXeOpivv. comp. 3, 4, 7. Plato 
Critia. p. 1 1 7 C. adds e^wv : iinroSpopoQ (XTaBiov to TrXoToo 

2. With definitions of time, in answer to the following- 
questions : 

a. ' When V 11. (p , l\ [. a'XX' t'Tri roi Kai epoi OavaTOc, kui 
polpa Kparait] ecKjerai, ); r;w<; (»/oi7r, ?), t; ^et'Xfjc, T; peaov 

•' Fiscli. 3 a. p. 224 seq. 

Sj/ntax. Of ihe Accusative. 691 

V/iiap. Herod. 2, 2. T771' ujptjv eirayiveeiv <7(pi(yi alyar, * at the 
appointed, appropriate time'. Hence vinap ' by day', inlerdiu, 
Hesiod. ''Epy. 175. Apoll. Rh. 2, 406. 3, 1079. vvktu, noctu, 
'by night', Herod. 1, 181.'' 

b. ' How long V with cardinal and ordinal numbers. Hesiod. 
Th. 635. epayovTO ZeKa TrXeiouc evtaurovc. Hence 
y^povov * a long time', diu, Herod. \, 175. and the accusative 
with e\vai, in answer to the question ' how old V Xen. Mem. S. 
3,6, 1. ovdeirio e'lKoaiv err) yeyovu)c,^. comp. Herod. 3,3 extr. 
Plat. Apol. S. p. 1 7 D. Hence to Xonrov ' in future', when an 
action going on without interruption in future time is spoken 
of, Tou AotTTou when particular cases are intended, in which an 
action takes place, consequently when it is repeated''. 

c. 'since', commonly with ordinal numbers. Thuc. 8, 23. 
Tp'iTtiv vpepav avTov ijkovtoc * the third day after he arrived'. 
Eurip. Rhes. 444. av fxev yap »jSrj SeKarov ai-^/nateiG eroc 
' for ten years, ten years long', as atinum jam tertium et vice- 
simum regnat. Flat. Apol. S. 1 8 B. €f.iov yap ttoWoi Kaniyopoi 
yeyovaai wpoc, vpcic, Kai waXai ttoXXq 7jojj errj. Leg. 2, 
p. 656 E. OKowMV S' evpijaeiQ avroQi (in Egypt) to. p.vpiocfTOv 

eroQ yeypa/iipeva t] TeTVirw/xeva twv vvv SeBrjfj.tovpyripei'UJV 

ovre Ti KaWiova, out aicr^iw. Xen. Aiiab. 4, 5, 24. Kara- 
Xa/npavei tjjp Ovyarepa tov Kwpap'^ov evi'OTr/v i]fxepau 
yeyapr}pkvr]v. jEsch. in Ctes. p. 468. Lucian. D. M. 13. ev 
BajSuXcovi Keifxai Tpimv TavTi]v i]pkpav. Also with car- 
dinal numbers : Eur. Hel. Ill seq. e-n-Ta ay^eSov ti KapiripovQ 
eTMV kvkXovg (TreTTopOrjTai ttoXic). Li/s. p. 109, 12. reOvriKe 
Tavra rpia ctj} ' three years ago'. rpiTOv eroc tovt'i Lt/s. 
p. 168, 33. 

d. 'before'. Xen. Cyrop. 6,3, 11. Ka\ \Oec, Se /cat Tpirriv 
rjpepau to outo tovto eirpaTTOv ' three days ago'^. De- 
mosth. Olynth. p. 29, 21. ainiyyeXdri ^'iXnnroG v/iilv ev OpaKy 

Tp'lTOV 7) TeTajOTOP ETOC, TOVTl, Vipa^OV Tel-^OC TToXlOpKbiv. 

^ Musgr. ad Eur. Hipp. 1131. "^ Herm. ad Vig. p. 70o, 26. 

Bacch. 7'23. *■ Ruhnk. Diss, de Antiph. p. 821. 

<= Thom. M. p. 183. in Rcisk. Orat. Gr. T. 7. 

692 Syntax. Of the Accusative. 

Plat. Rep. 10. p. 615 C. ' Kp^iaioc, rvpavvoc eyeyovei h^rj 
■^iXiooTOv kroQ eiQ eKelvov tov y^povov. 

426. 3. Lastly, the accusative is used on account of the preposition 
(425) vvith which a verb is compounded, if the preposition of itself, 
in the same sense, governs the accusative. Eia-. Andr. 985. 
eiaireaelv ^vjui(j)opav. Xen. Ci/r. 3, 1, 5. Trepiiaraadai ti. Comp. 
§. 402 d. Hence the double accusative ; one depending on 
the verb, the other on the preposition : Herod. 5, 34. trape- 
CKevaaavro Kai eriTa Kai ttoto, koi Tel-^oc eaa^avTO. Herod, 
1, 163. reT^oc 7re pi(5a\ea6ai ttju rroXiv. 7, 24. tuv iaQp.ov 
Tac viae ^leipvaai. Time. 3, 81. 8, 7. virepeveyKOVTec, rac, vavc, 
TOV laOp-ov. Eur. Hel. 1586. Phan. \A^'2,,Kvi]p.r]v Siewepaaev 
Apyeioi> ^6pv. 1435. comp. 26. Iph. T. 261. tov elapeovra 
cia ^v/j.7t\i]yad(t}v (5ovg vXoCJyopfiui ttovtov ei(Te(iaXXop.ev. But 
with the exception of TrepiiaTaaOai, it is more common for the 
preposition to be repeated with these verbs. On the other 
hand, the following verbs are more frequently constructed with 
the dative : d/ncpijSdXXeii' r'l rivi §. 402, d. : but Eurip. An- 
drom. 110. ^ovXoavvav arvyepav a/j-CpifBaXovaa Kapa. — eicnevai 
Tti't §. 402, c. and nva : Thuc. 4, 30. oi»^ i^Kiara avTOv 
ravTa eayei. 6, 31. juaXXov avTOVQ ecryei ret Seiva. Comp. 
Herod. 7, 46.^ — e7nt,eiv rivi 'to be warm upon any subject': 
Herod. 7, 13. but Eurip. Iph. T. 994. Beivii nc, opyi) Bai- 
povbjv eire^eaev TO T avTaXeiou aneppa, in the sense of 'to 
break forth against*. — eTri<TT paTeveiv : see §. 402. Obs. 1. — 
7r^o<T/3aAXeci' tiv'i and Tivd, §. 402, b. Obs. Eurip. Or. 1280. 
TO>^a TtG Apyeiujv hvoirXoc oppii(TaQ nodi (jor]Bp6p(o peXaOpa 
Trpoap'i^ei. — TTpoaoiKelv tiv'i: but Thuc. 1, 24. irpoaoiKovai Z' 
avT^v TavXavTioi. Eurip. Andr. 165. TrpoaTreaeiv epov 
yovv^y §. 402, b. Obs. These are different: irepnrTvaaeiv 
■y^elpac tivi Eur. Ale. 357. Andr. 418. and irepnTTvaaeiv ti 
'to embrace, surround' Eur. Hec. 737. Soph. A. 998.*^ 

Even verbs which are compounded with prepositions, which 
do not govern an accusative, take an accusative sometimes, as 

* V'alck. ad Iler. 7, 46. p. 631, o4. the verbs compounded with irpoi see 
•* Brunck ad Eurip. Or. 1. c. Lob. ad Soph. Aj. p. 249. 

'■ I'orson ad Eur. Med. 1203. Of 

Syntax. Of the Accusative. 693 

e/cTrXeTv, e^eX0e?v, cK^a'iveiv ri, §. 378. Obs. 1. Eurlp. Ion. 
311. (TTiKovc, S' (■i/(TTpe<|)ei Tpo^wviou, where however others 
read o-j/koTc. evcjTpeCpei for evarpecperai, i. e. avaarfiecperai 
Kara arjKovQTp.^ Msch. Pe/'S. 447. fcyt/Sareueii' ti. £«/r. 
Heracl. 848. e/u/3»7ffai i^iv tmreiov Si<ppov. ejnTr'nTreiv riva Soph. 
(Ed. C. 942. Ewr. /yj/i. tI. 808. is doubtful. 

4. Sometimes the accusative is determined by a verb which 427. 
is omitted. 

a. The accusative of the pronoun is sometimes put in em- 
phatic addresses, with the omission of the verb Xeyw or kuXuj. 
Soph. Aiitig. 441. (je Srj, ae rnv vevovaav eq ttISov Kapa, 
(jyyc; i] Karapinj py) de^puKevai ra^e ; Aristoph. Av. 274. outoc, 
tS ak Toi. Eurip. Hel. 554. ae, ti]v opeypa Seu'ov i^piXXn- 
pevrjv Tvpf5ov Vt Kpr}7r7B' epTrvpovc t opQoaTaraQ. More 
fully in Eurip. Bacch. 91^. ae, tov irpoOvpov ovO' , a /.in \peiov, 
opav, airevSovTa t cKJirovSaara , n*;v6ea Xeytv, k^ivi 7rapoic;e 
^(jjpaTdJV. Here. F, 1217. ere tov Oaaaovra dvarnvovc, e^pac. 

The same is the case with entreaties, pri irpoc, ae yovaTOJV 
viz. t/cerevw. §. 465, 3. especially in prohibitions accompanied 
with emotion, fiTj rpi^ac, sc. TroteTre Soph. Ant. 577. See Brunck 
and Musgr. pr] poi 7rp6(l)aaiv sc. Xeye Arist. Ach. 344. Comp. 
Vesp. 1174. 

b. In some writers accusatives are put which may be ex- 
plained by supplying ey^tov. Find. Fi/th. 6, 14. ^oet Be Trpoa- 
(OTTOV ev KaOapio {eywv) airayyeXei. Herod. 2, 41. tovq epcrevoQ 
(jSouc) Karopvaaovai, to Kepac, to erepdv h ^ai apcporepa 
VTTepky^ovra, sc. eyovraG. ib. 134. irvpapiBa Se Kai outoc 

aTreXtTreTO, KuiXov eKaarov rpiwv irXkBpuyv, sc. 

eyovffav. 4, 71. ui>aXap(iavov(Ji tov veKpov, KiiraKeKnptjjpkvov 
pev TO crw^io, tjjv Se vridvu ava(y^i<y6e7(Tav Kai Kaoap- 

Oelaav, TrXerjv Kvirkpov KeKoppevov, avvep pappevrju 

oTTiau), sc. eyovra. Comp. 2, 48. Xen. Anab. 4, 5, 25. Es- 
pecially in later authors, e. g. Lucian. D. M. 10, 4. o Se t^v 
TTopC^vpi^a ovToai Kai to dia^ripa, o pXoavpoQ, tiq wv 

<> Reisig Comm. Crit. in Soph. "^ Brunck ad Soph. 1. c. Musgr. 

(Ed. C. p. 319. T. 2. p. 44G. 

694 Si/7itax. Of the Accusative. 

Tv-yyaveic, ;^ Hence also oi ^eKct a^' i^^rjc 'those who are thirty 
years old', i. e. ol ^eKa (err^) acj) vjSric (e-^ovrec) among the 
Lacedaemonians. 0( ovo/na * by name', yevoc, see §. 425, ], b. 

Ohs. 1. In parenthetical propositions an accusative is sometimes 
found, referring to a preceding accusative instead of the nominative 

with its own verb. Soph. (Ed. C. 8G8. ae t ahrov kuX yevos to aov 

"IIX/os ^011] ^oiov TOiovToi', oloy Kcifie, ■yrjpdfai xore, for oloy Kityu) yrjpaiTKU). 
comp. 733.'' This is attraction, and according to this mode of con- 
struction another case is sometimes found instead of the accusative 
which preceded, as Plat. Gorg. p. 478 B. ri ovv rovrujy KaWitTTuy kariv 
wv Xeyeu ; — Tirwy Xeyeis ; Xpr]^aTi(TTik:rjs &c. for Tiya Xeyeis ; Xl°''" 
fj.aTiariK))y. or the accusative is attracted by the preceding substantive 
and put in the genitive, as Eur. Androm. 94. efjneipvKe yap ywai^l 
Tep\pis Tbiv TrapearwTijy KaKwy aya arofi aei Bia yXwircrTjs e^eiv, for ret 
TrapetTTwra kuko. t'^etv. 

Obs. 2. As KUTu with the accusative is often fotmd instead of the 
nominative of the subject, to express the Latin distributives, so it is 
also found instead ot the accusative only in the same sense. Herod. 
1, 9. cTTt TOVTOv {tov dpuroi'^ Tuiy ifjiaTUoy Kara ey t:Ka(TTov cK^vyovaa 
Oiiaei, singulas vestes, 3, 11. ayueojres kutIi era eKaoToy tmv ttq/^wi/, 
singulos pueros." 

Ohs. 3. What has been said of an accusative absolute which has no 
connection with the proposition, and is to be explained by quod att'inet 
ad^, rests on inaccurate explanations of the passages quoted. Such ac- 
cusatives are generally occasioned by the circumstance, that in propo- 
sitions which are divided by a parenthesis, the writer after the paren- 
thesis quits the construction which was begun before it, and follows 
another. Od. a, 275. has been already explained §. 298, 2. others 
§. 422. Obs. 2. Comp. §. 631, 1 scq. Herod. 5, 103. kuI yhp ti)v 
Y^avvov, Trporepoy ov jJovXoyikyrjy eru/j^m^cet>', ws eyeTrpyjcray ras Sop^ts, 
rare cr^i kui avTt] Trpoaeyeiero, where T))y Kavyoy properly should be 
followed by TzpoaeKTijaavTo. Xen. H. Gr. 5, 4, 1. tovs riSy TroXirwy 
clirayayoyTas eh n)y akpoTToXiy avrovs (AaceSatjUO'/ovs) kui fiovXr)- 

deyras AaKe^aifxoyiois rijv TroXiy ?,ovXeveiy, rf/y tovtcju ap\i]v 

tTTTO. fivyoy T(oy <f>vy6r-it)y iipKeaay KaruXvaui. combined from rovs elffay. 

'Jens, ct Ilemsterh. ad Lucian. Wessel. ad Her. y, 106. p. 151,31. 

•dd Eurip. Uel. 1. c. Brunck ad Arist. Pac. 1099. Soph. 

'' lleind. ad Ilor. Sat. 1, 4, 25. Qld. T. 717. Pors. ad Eur. Or. 1645. 

•= Schawl", ad Dion. H. \k 41. 358. Davis, ad Cic. Tusc. 1, '24. Heind. 

•' Hemst. ad Lucian. 1. p. 452. ad Plat. Theat. p. 288. 

Sj/ntax. Of the Accusative. 695 

kTiTaXvaai, and riji' rwr ctVayayoiTwi' apx^iv KaraXvaai. Comp. ib. 6, 
4, 2. where properly it should be : KXeofiftporov ce, ej^orra to eu 

^WKCvai trrparevfxa, Kal cTrepwrwrra ra o'ikoi reX/;, ti xfj) Troielv 

eveXeuo-av /itj) ttaXveiv to arpaTevfia, but on account of the parenthesis 

TlpoQoov Xe^avTos ro Zai^orwv riyei' there follows tTreoretXav Ik 7(3 

KXeoi-iftpoTa). Isocr. Panath. p. 264 C. ro fxky ovv avvTay fia Tr^s rcre 
TTuXiTeias i^al tou •^poror, oaov avTij xpf^/xeroi CiCTeXeaafxey, e^ap- 
KovPTWs ^eh'iXwTcu. Soph. CEd. T. 111. Traidos Ik jSXaoras ov 
diefTXoy iji^iipai Tpels, icai riv cipdpa Kclrus ev^ev'^as Trololt', eppi\\/ev I'tXXojy 
Xcprrh' €is uftciToy opos, ftXaaras ce is governed of Cie(T-)(ov 'not three 
days separated the birth of the boy from that which now took place', 
i. e. 'not yet three days from the birth'. Xe7i. Cyroj). 2, 1, 5. tovs 
fiei'TOi "EXXtj j'cts Tons e>/ rjj 'Aaia ol kovi't a s, ovCev irw aa(p€s Xeyerat, 
€1 eTTorTut, instead of roi^s "EXX?;)'os viKoviTas ovdei' irov aac^es Xeyovaiv, 
el eiroi'Tai, an attraction for el ol- - - otKovi'Tes en, Isocr. Panath. 
p. 253 B. Tcts Twy TroXiTeiuiv fieTajSoXas, eKeTrOL /xey ay (paveley (ev 
ra?s TToXeffiv efnreiroirjKOTes should have followed instead of) cnracras 
Tcis TToXeis, TzXtjy oXiyojy, peffras TreTroitjKOTes TiHy tolovtiov (rvf-Kpo- 
p<Sy KHi yo(Ti]ijaT(or. Xen. Cyr. 2, 3, 2. the subject ciQXa is repeated 
at the close with the predicate -n-poicetTui, and it should properly have 

been ra ce ddXa rrjs ytKrjs TrpoKeirai ot re noXefitoi Kal ra twu 

iroXefxitoy dOXa irpoK. The connection, however, is broken by the inter- 
position of CrjXoy OTi o'l re TroXefi". 

In other cases the accusative is determined by a relative pronoun 
following in the accusative ; see §. 474, c. Herod. 2, 106. tus ce 
(TTi'jXas Tas 'i(TTa KdTa Tds •)(u}pas o AlyvTTTOv ftaatXevs ^e(7W(TTpis, al 
pey TrXevyes ovKeTt (paiyoyTOi Trepieovaai, where no comma should follow 

<TT)'iXas, for it should properly be as 2e or/yXas 'iara, tovtwv al 

pey 7r\. 

Frequently an accusative after a parenthesis is repeated by means of 
the demonstrative pronoun in the same gender or in the neuter, or another 
equivalent substantive; as Isocr. Panath. ^j. 241 C. Kal TrpwToy fiey 
rds KvKXdSas yi'jaovs, Trepl as eyeyovTO TroXXal TrpayfiaTeiui kutu 
Tt)y MtVw Tov KprjTos hvyaaTeiay, TciVTas to TeXevTaloy vno Kapujy 
icare^o/xe) as, tK/3aXojTes cKeiyovs, ovk e^LCiwcruffdat tcis ^wpas troX- 
l-irjaay. Comp. §. 468. 

* The reading which Poppo has ginated from some one who could 
adopted appears to me to have ori- not understand the common reading. 


Remarks on the Oblique Cases generally. 

428. 1 • Two substantives are often found together in one case, 
of which the one contains an explanation or more exact defini- 
tion, as it were a predicate, so that the participle wv, 8cc. may 
be supphed by the mind. Hes. Th. 788. e^ lepov Troraf-ioio 
pkei Zia vvKTa /LieXcnvav 'Q/ceai'oTo Kepac' Se/caT>? o eiri /Liolpa 
Sedaarai ' as an arm of the ocean'. 'Q/c. Kepac ov * as a tenth 
part'. According to the usual expression in prose, instead of 
^k^aGTai the auxiliary e'lu'i should have been used, ^eKart] /.loipa 

eariv. See §. 310. lEsch. Ag. 81. to inrepyvpwv 

TraiSoq ov^ev apeiov ovap i]i^ie po^avrov uXaivei *as a 
dream'. £«r. Here. Fur. 494. Kal okio. ^ari/Oi /uoi * as a 
shadow'. Herod. 2, 155. to Be KaraaTeyaajxa rr\c, opocpiic 
aXXoc eiriKeerai XiOoc, for to Se /coTao-T. eo'Tii' aXXoc XiOoQ 
emKeli-ievoc,. So also in the other cases : Plat. Leg. \0. p. 9031^. 
CTTOi^wv TrpoadelaBal /uoi doKel Xo-ywv eVt tivcjv * as lenitives*. 
id. Protag. p. 316 E. Also in a different number Li/sias m 
Alcib. p. 142, 35. toIq vi.ierepaic aperaic ^prJTai rrapa- 
SeiyiiiaTi irepi tj7c eaurov Trovrjp'iaQ^. Comp. §. 420. Obs. 3. 

Hence this junction often expresses a comparison, or the 
thing compared is blended with that with which it is compared. 
Eur. Or. 545. arj d' eVifCTe ttuTc, to aTrepp.' apovpa TrapaXaj^ova 
aXXov TTapa. Iph. A. 122G. iKeTiipiav Be yovaaiv e^oTTTW aeOev 
to auipa rovpov. Rhcs. 50'. So in Horace Rusticus exspectat, 
dum dejiuat aninis^. 

(428) 2. When two verbs governing different cases are joined with 
one substantive, the substantive properly should stand with 
each verb in the case required, or at least be repeated once by 
means of a pronoun. Frequently, however, the substantive is 
put only once, and is governed in its case by the verb which 
stands next to it: Hesiod.''Kpy. 166. to7c Se Si^ avOpuj7rix)v 
(3ioTOv Kai ?j0e oTTaaaaQ Zeuc KpoviBrjc Karevacrae (sc. avTOva) 
TraTrip etc Treipara ya'irjc. Soph. Ant. 901. Oavovrac vpac, eyio 
eXovaa KairiTvpfi'iovc X,oac eSw/ca, sc. vpiv. Thiic. 6, 7 1 . {irpiv 

<" Schaf. App. Dcm. 1. p. 860. '' Dobrce ad Arist. Plut. 314. 

S_i/ntax. Remarks on the Oblique Cases. G97 

av) Ypr]^aTa u{.ia avToBav re ^uX Ae^tui/Tci t /cat irap Aarj- 
va'uov eXOij. Plat. Gorg. p. 460 C. D. fxkpvr]aai Xeyivv oX'iyio 
irpoTepov, OTi ou 2e? role, irai^oT p'lpaic, eyKuXelv ovo 
e/cj3aXXetv eK twu ttoXcoju, eav o -nvKTric Ty TrvKTiicy fin KaXojQ 
■y^prjral re Kal ctSf/cT? ; wcravTwc ^e Kai eav o pi]TMp tij priropiKy 
dSiKivc, y^p JjTai , pri no ^iSd^avri ejKaXelv pt]6e e ^ e- 
Xavi'eiv e/c tj7c TToXewc, o'XXa toj adiKovvri Kai ovk opOtoc, 
y^p (1)1.1 evil) TiJ priTopiKy. Rep. 5. p. 465 A. wpea^VTepto ^ev 
vewrepiov Travrwr dpyeiv re Kal KoXct^eiP TrpodTeTU^eTai. 
Isocr. Panath. p. 267 C. ovy iiyiiaavro SeTv tovc, upeivov rwv 
dXXtov (ppovovvrac; a'jUfcXelv oi/Se irepiopdv rac, rrjc, avrrjc 
avyyeve'iac, /Liereyovaac, dTroXXv/iievac*^. Hence the auacoluthon 
Eur. Andr. 669 seq. e'l av TraTSa ar\v ^ovc no ttoXjtcJi^, elr 

e-n-acFye roidSe, aiyy KaQriG dv, for ei ^ovc, rotate 

Traa-vovaav elcec,. 

Sometimes the case is determined by the remoter verb. 
Od. K, 53 1 . erdpoicJiv eTrorpvvai Kal dvd)^ai. Suph. Aiifig.5d7. 
Kal ^viJijueTiayh) Kal fpepco Trjc, aiTiaQ. Plat. Gorg. p. 94 D. 
Ta pev direiXovaa, rd ^c vovOeTOvcra t«?c eiriOvptaic &c. Isocr. 
Areop. p. 149 C. ot vetorepoL ev toIc, eiTiTt]^evpaaiv epevov, eu 
olc, erdyOriaav, Oavpd'CovTec Kal opiXovvrec, roue ev 
TovToic TTpojrevovrac, where, however, Bekker has adopted 
from a MS. InXovvrec, for o/iiX. Comp. §. 441. Sometimes 
words which belono- to one another are separated, as Eur. Hec. 
1224. Kal prjv rpeCpMV pev, wc <re 7ra?S expvv rpeipeiv, ctwctoc 
re TO J' epov. Orest. 57 8. etiipiuxre Trarepa KdireKreiv c pov \ii 
less remarkable. The second word is also sometimes con- 
structed according to the verb which is nearest to it: Eur. Hec. 
1045. ri ydp KaOe'LXer, OpyKa Kal Kpare7c, ^evov; for j? yap KaO. 
Qp\lKa ^ei'oj' Kal Kpare^Q avrov. Comp. Soph. Trach. 98.*^ 

In the same manner oc, »/, o are often put once with verbs 
of different government. Eurip. Suppl. 863. w /St'oo pev m' 
TToXvc, iiKiara S' oA/3w yavpoc, h'- f^«^- ^^^p. 5. p. 465 E. 
olc, e^ov ey^eiv ouctv eyoiev, for olc, e^e'ir) eyeiv Kai o'l &c. or 
o'l, e^ov avrolc e)(en', ovdev t'^oiei'. Comp. Go;-". |). 492 B. 

' Schaf. ad Poet. Gnom. p. 235. " Fois. (et Sclia?!'.) ad Eur. Ilec. 

■' Pors. ad Eur. Med. T34. Fisch. 1030. and Add. p. 93 seq. 
3 a. p. 448. Matth. ad Eur. Bacch . 697 . 

C98 Syntax. Remarks on the Oblique Cases, 

Symp. p. 201 B. w^oAoyjjro*, ou tp2t/;q eo-ri Kai /^u) ^X^'' 
TovTov epav. Comp. id. P/iadon. p. 65 A. 82 D. Rep. 8. 
p. 559 A. Gorg. p. 496 B. Thuc. 7, 62.^ 

In a similar manner a verb in the third person sometimes 
refers to a substantive as its subject, which preceded in the 
accusative. Plat. Gorg. p. 464 A. to toiovtov Xeyw, /cat ev 
(jojfiaTi eivai koi ev ^u^^J °''"* iroiel jiiev ev ey^eiv to aw/na Kai 
Tri\v xl/v^r)v, ey^ei Se ovBev nciWov, viz. to trw^ta kui j7 xpv^rj. 
quum tarnen nihilo magis bene valeant. ib. p. 468 D. w tic 

airoKTe'ivy riva oio/mevoc, elvai avrw ufxeivov, rvyyjavy Se ov 

KCLKiov, qnnm tame?i sit pejus . 

So a finite verb is often accompanied by a participle, with 
which the preceding substantive must be supphed in a different 
case. 11. tt', 406. eX/ce ^e ^ovpoc, (according to §. 331.) eXwv, 
sc. TO Eopv. Soph. L7. 47. a-yyeXXe S '^p^'i^ "KpoariBe'ic, viz. 
opKov. Thuc. 7, 5. Twv aKovriGThiv TTiv wCpeXciav ry ra^ei 
evTOQ Xiav Tei-y^fSv Tron'jffoo aCpeXeaOai (sc. ttjv tu^iv). Xen. 
Cyr. 2, 3, 17. toTc S eTepoic eiTrev, on (iuWeiv Sejjcroi avai- 
pov/^evovG ra7c jSwXoio, for /SclXXeti' toTc /3wXojq ai'atjooujuei'ouc 


3. Compounds frequently take, especially in the poets, the 
case whicli the simple verb governs. Soph. (Ed. C. 1482. 
evaiGiov Se (Sainovoc) avvTV-^oi/ui. Phil. 320. avvTv^ioi> KaKuiv 
avSpiov ArpeiccjJi', ti)C t 'OSvicrfftwr; ^'lac,. Herod. 7, 208. 
aXoyu)c eveKvpriae -oXX)7c''. The jioets also add another pre- 
position with compound verbs, as tyyeXfTi' kutci tivoq Soph. 
(Ed. C. 1339.^^ 

4. In the poets an oblique case vviiich belongs to two words 
or clauses is sometimes inserted only in the second, as if it be- 
longed exclusively to this. JEsch. Proni.2\. 'iv ovre (pivvrju, 
owTe Tou liiopcpriv (3poTU)v oipei. Cornp. Agam. 600. Soph. 
El. 929. h^vQ ov^e /.oirpi Bva-^epi'ic, for juiirpi I'iSvc, ovSe S. or 

» Ruhnk. ad Horn. II. in Ccr. l,")]. •• p.84. 

Herm. ad Vigor, p. 707. Hcind. ad '' Bninck ad Eur. Or. 1291. Phil. 

Phaedon. §. 95. 98. Scbsf. ad Soph. 1. c. 

Aj. 98. ^ Lobeck ad Soph. Aj. 9J7. 

^ lleind. ad Gorg. 1. c. p. .57. 

Si/ntax. Remarks on the Oblltjue Cases. 699 

r]B. /it»?T|Ot ovBe S. or rjBvc, ov^e ^vfrx- f^inrpi. Juir. Oresf. 406. 
rTuXa^jjC o avv^pMv a'l/iia Kai f^ir]Tpoc, ^oi'oi'. Med. 1377. a AX 
vfipic, 01 re CTol i^eoS/trjrec yuf-ioi, for vjf^pic, r} arj. Troad. 1209. 

<U TeKVOV, Ol^Y tTTTTOltTl I'J/CI/CTOl'Ta (Te, OWO JyAtK'aC TO^OlCTt. Ill 

Latin such arrangements as «///<" necem et matris ccedem mecum 
exsecuttis est, for tnatris necem et cadem, or necem et cadem tnatris, 
or iiecem matris et cczdem, would be faulty. The arrangement 
of tlie prepositions is similar §. 595, 4. 

In the same way a corresponding word from the second clause 
must sometimes be supplied with the first. Eur. Or. 742. 
ovK tKelvoc, uW eKeivr] Ke7vov evOciB i^-yayev, for ovk eKeivoc 
e.K€'n'r]v. Hipp. 1055. e'l yap (tv /iiev iralc, rjaO , eyw Se aoG Trarrjp, 
tor €1 (TV f.iev e/^ioQ ttcuc, rj . 

5. With words which express a genus, class, or general de- 
finition, the words which define it more exactly are often put 
in the same case without a copula, whereas in other languages 
the latter are in the genitive. Herod. 3, 60. to pev pnKoc, 
Tou o^u-y/taroc eTrra (ttu^io'i e'lai, to Se vipoc, Kai evpoQ 
oKTio eKurepov TroSec comp. 2, 124. 175. In the latter 
passage the nouns are first of all in the same case, and imme- 
diately afterwards the second is in the genitive, comp. 138. 
4, 123. Id. 2, 158. t^c ^uopvy^oc prJKOC peu eari ttXooq ijpepai 
reaaepec, : and even the place of which the length is given is 
in the nominative 2, 29. to Se ■^(jjpiov tovto ean em iipepaa 
rearrepac rrXooc Comp. 4, 85. 3,5. errl rpeic; I'lpepaQ oSov, 
trium dieru/n iter, but 4, 101. ^cku ripepewv o^oc id. 1, 14. 
ffraOpov e-vovrec; t piiiKOvra raXavra. Thnc. 1, 96, EX- 
\r]V0Tap[ai Tore tt^wtoi' ' k%i]va[o[.c, KcireaTr] dpXV, o'l e^ey^ovro 

Tov (popov. rjv Se o TrpwTOQ (jyopoc raydeic TCTpaKoaia 

ToXavra /cat e^ij/coi'To, magistratus quccstorum Grcvcice, tri- 
butum quadriiigentoritm talentoram. Xen. Vect. 3, 9. Se^a pva7 
€i<T(l)opd. 4, 23. ib. 24. but 3, 10. Suoti/ ^itvaTv irpoao^oQ. 
Comp.yl«a/'>.3,4, 7. — So also Herod. 8,4. eVi piaOio TpiiiKovra 

TaXdvTOiai. Thiic. 3, 104. t?}v TrevrerTnp'i^a Ta A/jX'", as 

Liv. 2, 21. Saturnalia institutiis festus dies. — Herod. 7, 60. to 
TrXrjOoc, ecpavt] ejSSo^/j/coi^Ta Kctl eKarov pvpia^ec, as L^s. Epit. 

f Elmsl. ad Eur. Heracl. i;Jl. et Add. ad Med. IHS. 
o 2 

700 S^>ita.i. Interchange of Substantives, S)-c. 

p. 192. 27. TrevTijKOvra /nvpid^ac, orpaTiav. — Plat. Soph, 
p. 229 C. a/^adia Tovvo/na, nomen inscitm. Rep. 5. p. 474 E. 
fie\ayy\u}povc rovvofxa. Comp. Charm. 175 B. Xen. Cyr. 2, 
2, 12. Comp. §.420. Obs. 2, b. 

Interchange of Substantives amongst one another and 
with Adjectives : Circumlocution. 

429. 1. Substantives of different classes are often interchanged : 
substantives especially which express a general idea of kind, are 
put for the definite person or thing in which that idea, as in one 
single case, is exemplified : abstractani pro concreto. II. ?, 20 1 . 
302. 'QKeavov re, deiov yeveaiv, Kai\repa T^Qvv, for -yej'- 
injTopa. So the epic poets used yevoQ and yeven for vioq. 
jEsch. Choeph. 1025. jmirepa, Oeojv arvyoc, 'object of the 
hatred'. Eurip. Phan. 1506. uye/.i6i'evi.ia veK:pol.(n ttoXu- 
arovov, for ?j-yejua»i'. Troad. 420. vv/ncfyev/iia, for vvjucjii]. Here. 
F. 459. v(3piaina Kal Sia(pOopdv, i. e. ovq vjSpitovai, ^laCJyOeipovai, 
olc €Tri\a'ipovai. Soph. y\j. 381. arpaTOv «Ar;/ta, for nA)/Tj;c. 
Ihuc. 2, 41. Tj}i' TToAti' TTa'i^ev aiv elvai Tr]C, FAXaooc, for 
irai^evTpiav^. Such substantives often stand for those which 
denote the effects produced by them : Soph. Ant. 533. Tpktpwv 
Bv dra KairavacTrdaeic Opoviov, of the two daughters of 
(Edipus, who seemed to wish to ruin Creon, and overturn liis 
government. Comp. §. 309. 

In prose 7rpea(3eia for irpka^eic, * embassies' for ' embas- 
sadors', is very common, even in connection with K^pvKeQ. 
Thuc. 2, 12. r]v rie/oi/cXeoDC "yi'w^ttj Trporepov veviKTjKvia, KijpvKa 
Kni IT pea (5e lav /nrj Trpocr^e-^eoiOai AaKe^aipovitov e^ecrrpaTev- 
liievojv. Comp. 4, 118. 7Va^'L<'^^12.;j. 950D. hocr. Panalh. 
p. 268 D. E. Thus in Eur. Suppl. 173. TrpeafievfiaTa is used^. 
Thus also 77 ^vij./.iay^ia for 01 ^vp/^iayoi Herod. 1, 82. Thuc. 1, 
118. 119. 130. virripecfia, for vTniperai Thuc. 1, 143. Isocrat. 

* Casaub. ad Athcn. p. 11. Valck. CLd. T. 1'244. Lob. ad Pliryn. p. 469. 
ad Eur. Hipp. v. 40G. ad Ph. 1498. '' Casaub. ad Athen. p. 30. Mis- 

Brunckad Soph. CEd.T. 85. Philoct. cell. Philol. 1. p. 2j6. 
'2,'j9. Antig.756. Musgr. ad Soph. 

Si/utax\ Interchange oj' Substantives, S)C. 701 

Paneg. c. 39. Also with the genitive Eur. Here. l'\ 547. 
op(j)ai'eviii cfiiov tekviov, for op<pava. reKva ef.ia. 

2. Words wliich signify the iuliabitants of a country are 
sometimes put for the name of the country. Thuc. 1, 107. 
^u)Kkwv aTparevaavTtxtv ec, ^wpiac,, tjjp AaKeSai/nov'itvv fM]Tp6' 
TToXiv ScC. Thus 1, 52. opwurec TTpoayeyevrjjiievac vavQ e/c tmv 

ABr]vai(i)v aKpai(pveic,, for t'^ ' h.Qi]V(Sv, according to the ma- 
jority of the MSS. ib. 110. e/c ^e tiSv 'AOtjva'iwv /cat ryjc 
aXXric l^v/Li/iia'^idoc, TTevry]KOVTa rpiijpetc SiaSo^oi TrXeovaai ec, 
A'lyvTTTOv fccr^ov Kara, to Mei'Oj/crioi' Kepac,, where Bekker reads 

AOyjvwv, without MS. authority. Thus some national appel- 
lations in Latin : itt Sequanos, in A^lduoa. 

3. Patronymics are often used for the prc^per name from 
which the patronymic is derived, e. g. ' A-yvMvif)r\c for ''Ayvwv, 
A>//toK:AetSr;c for A»/jttoK-X)7c. See §. 101. Obs. 2.^ 

4. Frequently two substantives are put for adjectives. //. 
w , 58. ' E/CT(t»p f.iev dvt}TOQ re, ywvo7/co re Oijcraro ^iaZ,6v, for 
yvvaiKeiov. Hesiod.' Kpy. 191. /LiaXXov ce kukoji' penTrjpa Kai 
vf5piu avepa Tifxi](TOv<Jiv. Herod. 4, 78. EXXaea yXwacrav, for 
which he puts 4, 108. yX. 'KXXi}Viki]u. 1 , 22. '^avr], ttoXic, 
'EXXa'c. Soph. Phil. 223. 'EXX^c aroXv. Eurip. Ph. 609. 
/co/tTToc el^. Plato often uses Xripoc, uugcc, for nugator, 'a 
trifler'*^, and iZ-euSoo for \pev^eQ ApoL S. p. 34 extr. 

Properly both substantives in this case should be of the same 
gender ; but a masculine is often joined with a feminine. ^Esch. 
Agam.675. rv')(^ri Se a u) r rj p vavv OeXovcr e^e^ero, for crwre/joa. 
Comp. id. S.c. Th. 226. Soph. (Ed. T. 80. Phil. 1471. Eur. 
Med. 364. "EXX^u y^ Iph. T. 342. aroXv "EXXj,!- Heracl. 131. 
oiiyi Triv e/iiriv cjyovea vopit^v \eipa id. Iph. T. 589 seq.^ 

<^ Koen ad Greg. p. (133) 290. ad Cratyl. p. 11. 

Riihnk. Hist. Crit. Orat. Gr. p. 90. ^ Stanley, Brunck, Blomf. ad TEsch. 

•1 Eur. Ph. 103. Ernesti S. c. Th. 1. c. Markl. ad Eur. Iph.T. 

adCaUim. p. 138. Abreschad /Esch. 341. Lob. ad Aj. 323. Musgr. ad 

2. p. 71. Kocn ad Greg. p. (45) Ion. 1252. Blomf. Gloss. Agam. 647. 

108 seq. Musgr. ad Eur. Ph. 1. c. ReisigadSoph.CEd.C.(Comm.Ex(;g.) 

Brunck ad Soph. CEd. T. 80. ad Phil. 1582. Of'EW);)' Elnisl. ad E. Suppl. 

1. c. Quart. Rev. 14. p. 492 seq. (in the 

" Heind. ad Plat. Ihciet. p. 402. . Leipzig ed. of Markl. Suppl.) 

702 Syntax. Inlerchange of SuhstaNtives, S,'C. 

430. 5. Hence sometimes a substantive is put with another in 
the genitive, instead of an adjective. Aristoph. Pint. 268. o> 
Ypvaov a-yyeiXciQ eTTwv, for eVi; -^pvaa. Unrip. Baccli. 388. 
o T^c navy^'iac (3ioToc, for (5ioc, i'^av-^oc. Sojiatymicesiderum, 
Cic. N. D. 2, 36, 92. for sidera Jlammea. Similar to this is 
the usage of tlie poets, who join two substantives, of which that 
which governs the other denotes a property which belongs to it, 
as in epKoc, oSovtwj', not * an inclosure for the teeth', but the 
teeth themselves, inclosing the mouth and palate. Find. Nem. 
10, 67. ev ayye.wv cpKeaiv Tra/^nroiKiXoic, the ay-yjj themselves 
are epKti inclosing the oil. lb. 78. Kop'ivBov ev /xv-^oic;, not ' the 
inmost recesses of Corinth', but ' Corinth which lies in the re 
cesses of the Isthmus'. The tragic and lyric poets use a sub- 
stantive and an adjective for the adjective alone : Find. Pi/th. 
2 extf. oXiaOt^poc, ol/xoc for o\iaOt]pov. Eur. Iph. T. 1128. 
/uer evTvyiac, KOKOvcfOai 9v)]to1c, papiic, aiwv, for papv eari*. 

The same substantive is put twice, once in the genitive, in 
order to express a kind of superlative, e. g. ava^ avaKTWv 
ALsch. Siippl. 533. for * the greatest king'. Adjectives espe- 
cially are used in this manner, of which hereafter^. 

The following substantives in particular are used with an- 
other in the genitive instead of adjectives : 

j3ia, ic, juevoc, aOevoc, 'strength', e.g. /3u> '\lpaK\i]eit), Alve'iao 
j3t»j, in Homer, Kuaropoc, f5ia Find. Fi/th. 1 1, 93. Tv^doc, jd'ia 
^sch. S. c. Th. 77. WoXwe'iKeoc (i'ui Eurip. Ph. 56. for 
¥LpaK\t}r,, Aiveiac, Kaaru)p, TuSeuc, IToXuveiKJjc, but with the 
collateral idea of ' strength' or ' power', as in Latin, lyerntpiL 
Acheronta Hercii le us labor : Catonis virtus incaluit mero. 
Thus ic TjjXe^ia^oto, \c, uvefxov (even tc /3/»/c HpaKrAfje/rjc Hes. 
Thcog. 332.), as odora ca/ium vis. /nevoi; AXkivooio, ''Aprjoc, 
av e/iiov, 11 eXiov S^c. aOevoc Hertwroo II. \p' ,8\7 . adevoQ'nnTU)v, 
hixiovuyv Find. 01. C^, 38.*^ X»7iiia Kopi^v'i^oc, Find. Pi/f/i. 3, 43. 
' aspiring Coronis'. 

Krjp. II. p , 851. \\a(pXa-y6vh)v S' i^yelro fluXa t^tei^eoo 

'' Matthiac ad Eur. Baocli. '.)60, ' Monk ad Eur. Hipj). 791. has 

'' Fisck 2. p. 123. other examples. 

Syntax. Interchange of Substantives, ^c. 703 

Xdaiov Ktjp 'Pylaemenes with hairy heart', i. e. the brave Pylse- 


(f>6(5oc. lies. Sc. H. 144. ev /.leaaw Se SpaKovroQ e'jjv 
<p6(5oQ (SfjuKojv (pofSepoG). 

ireipac, reXoG, reXevrii, especially in the epic poets. //. I , 
143. ujc, Kev Qaaaov oXeOpov Tre'ipaO' 'iKrtai, for oXeOpov. 
Thus OavctTOio reXoQ in Homer and Hesiod, TeXei»T7j davtiTOio 
Hes. Sc. H. 357. not 'the end of death', but ' the end which 
death causes to men'. So rovro rov y^povov reXoc, Soph. 
Trach. 167. Tep/na r^jc, auirnpiac, id. (Ed. C. 725.*^ or 'the 
completion of deliverance', as Eur. Suppl. 617. 

In the tragic and the lyric writers the following circumlo- 
cutions chiefly occur : 

BejuaQ ' a body'. JEsch. Eumen. 84. Kravelv {.D^rpioov Se^ac, 
for TT)v jLtrjTepa. Soph. (Ed. C. 1550. vvv S' e.(rx<^T6p aov 
Tovixov aTTTerai ^ep-ac, for eyw. Comp. GEf/. T. 1208. 
Trach. 908. (plXojv o'lKeriSv depac, for (piXovc oi/cerac Eiirip. 
Hec. 718. aXX' eiaopoj ycip rovce Beairorov bepac Aya- 
pepvovoQ. &c. In Soph. El. 1177. r] aov to kXcivov elBoQ 
'UXeKrpac, ro^e ; there is something more than mere circum- 
locution, viz. 'HXeKrpa v tco kXcivm eiSei Sia(f)epovaa. So 
aperac; irpocrMTrov Eur. Iph. A. 1096. n<yvylac, irpoa. Arist. 
Av. 1322. denote the dignified and calm expression of virtue. 

Kapa. Soph. (Ed. T. 950. cJ (p'lXTaTOV yvvaiKon Iokocttjjc 

Kapa. 1235. re9vr]K6 Oeiov loKciarriQ Kapa. Eurip. Or. 

470. (J X"^P^ Trpeajdv, Zrjvoc opoXeKTpov Kapa. 475. irpoff- 
(pBeyyei viv avoaiov Kapa. 

Thus the epic poets use Kapnvov and KecpaXi). II. i, 407. 

Pyth. 1 1, 52. vea Ke(^aXa, for vkoc So ^'iXn KecjyaXi) in Homer 
and elsewhere as a form of address. Plat. Ion. p. 53 1 D. 

<* Reis.ig ad G-'a\. Col. (Comm. Excg.) 716. 

704 Syntax. Interchange of Substantives, S)C. 

So ihe tragedians use -y^e'ip and ttovc. Soph. Ant. 43. et toi' 
veKpov ^vu ryBe Kov(pie7c, \€pi instead of ^vu rySe alone, i. e. 
^vv ef.ioi §. 472, 6. inasmuch as she must lift the corpse with 
the hand. Eur. Hipp. QQQ. Qeaaofxai Se avv irarpoc, ftoXojv iroci 
' with my father returning', 

bfijua and ovop-a. JEsch. Prom. 659. to BIov oppa, for Zewo. 
Soph. Tr. 527. to S' apipive'iKrjTOv u/^ipa vvpcpac eXeetvoi/ 
appevei. Eurip. Ph. 313. y^povio (rijv o(.ipa pvp'iuic ev apepaic, 
Trpoaeidov. Or. 1088. (jj iroQeivov uuop opiXiac eprjc,, yatpej 
for (li TToBeivr] opiK'ia and this for 'opi\i)Ti]c. Ion. 1280. oJ 
TavpopopCpov op pa Kyj^itrou iraTpoc,, oiav eyjicvav ti]VO 
e(pvaac,. The two words, howevei', are often confounded*. 
ovopa seems to be used when the thing which is put in the ge- 
nitive exists not in reality but in name, being transient and 

perishable, as Eur. Or. I. c. Ilec. 435. o) <^wc Trpoaenrelv 

yap GOV ovop e^eari poi. 

ae(5ac,. -Esch. Pro7n. 1099. a) pr]rpoQ epric ae(iac. Soph. 
Phil. 1289. awiopoa' ayvov Zjji'oc vtIkttou (7cj3ac, i. e. Zr/i'a 

In prose, circumlocutions with TraTSec, v'lo'i, and y^pripa es- 
pecially occur. Herod. 1, 27. eX0e?v gtt\ AuSwv TraTSac, 
for eTTi Av^ovc, and passim. Thus Homer vlec Ayaiwv, as 
Kovpoi 'A-^aiujv. Comp. Pind. Islhm. 4, 62. 

■vprjpa. Herod. 1, 36. avoc -y^piipa peya, for pcyac, avc. 
Eurip. Ph. 205. -^prjina Of/Xeiwf. Arist. Nub. 2. to \pripo. 
Twv vvKT(x)V. Xen. Cyrop. 2, 1,5. acpevdovrirwv TrapiroXv ti 

So (pvcnc, also is used to show that that which is attributed 
to anything belongs to it by nature. Soph. OLd. T. 869. ov^k 

* Valck ad pAirip. Ph. 41"). Pors. to a wliolc community, 
ad Eur. Or. 1080. Seidl. ad Eur. <= Valck. ad Eur. Ph. p. 70. More 

Iph. T. 875. instances of circumlocution (which, 

''Comp. Stallb. ad Plat. Phil. however, are not all circumlocutions, 

p. 107. Wachsmuth (Hellen. Al- inasnuich as they express more than 

terth. p. 321.) explains this usage as the proper substantive) are collected 

an extension of the custom of nam- hy Eisch. 3 a. p. 269-290. 
ing the father in honour of the son, 

Syntax. 1/iterchange of Subslantives, S)C. 705 

viv Ovara (pvaic, avepiov CTiKrev. Plat, Phil. p. 30 B. ^efAtiya- 
vrjaOai rrjv rajv KaXX'iaTiov Kal rii^Korariov (jyvaiv, as in Latin 

n at lira. 

The tragedians in the use of these combinations often attend 
only to the meaning of the whole, not of the word which serves 
for the circumlocution. Pind. Pi/th. 1, 140. o Tvpaavoiv liXa- 
Xaroc, iSojv. Soj)h. CEd. C. 794. to aov S' acfylKTai ^evp vtto- 
(BXriTov OTOfxa, ttoXXw eyov arof-iwaiv, though (r(piKveiaOai does 
not properly suit aroina, but instead of av a(l)7^ai vtt6(3X. 
arofxa eyjMV. ib. 863. w (pOey/n.' ovaiSeo, »} av yap xpuvaeic €f.iov, 

as Aj. 14. J (pBeyi^i 'AOavac, . So Eur. Ion. 1280. 

ofxiLia ecjyvaev e^i^vav could not properly have been said, nor 
Hec. 435. irpoaenreiv oi'o/ia, any more than irpoa. o^t^ia (putToc, 
nor Soph. (Ed. T. 1375. h TkKvtov oxpic, ISXaarova omoc, e/3A. 
Hence it appears that the poets regarded these combinations 
as properly circumlocutions, as if only the word ni the genitive 
had preceded, which is elsewhere the case also with Be^ac, awpa, 
KCLpa, and thus we may defend the reading of all the MSS. 
Eur. Hec. 293. to g' a^iw/m, kuv KaKwc, Xeyy, to aov Treterei*^. 

6. Another circumlocution is, where a personal denomi- 
nation which expresses an office or business, a situation, Sec. 
is accompanied by the substantives avi]p, avOpwiroc, in the same 
case. avOpwTToc, here expresses mostly contempt ; dvijp, on the 
other hand, respect; e. g. Li/sias in Nicom. p. 186, 6. ot 
fiiev TTpoyovoi vopoOerac ijpovvTO 'ZoXiova Kai Oc^utffTOArXea Kai 

UepiKXea -. vineic, Se Tiaaimevov toi/ Mt;x«>''<^»'0^ '<^"* 

ISiKo/nayov Kalerepovc, dvOpioTrovG viroy pap. f.iaTeac,. Plat. 
Gorg. p. 518 C. ^laKovovc, ^<ot Xeyeic Kai emOvpiMi' Ttapa- 
aKevaarciQ iivQ pCjirovc On the other hand, in addresses, 
dv'^pec ^iKaara'i, av^pec, arpaTitSTai, dvdpec, ' AOnvaloL are com- 
monly used as respectful expressions. Such an expression of 
respect appears to be conveyed in the passages quoted by 
Hermann ad Soph. El. 45. //. e\ 649. dvepoQ ^(ppadiyaiv 
('tyavod AaopeSovroc (but II. X' , 738. dv^pa---MovXiov a'l^- 

'' It should seem therefore that we ibid, doubted, although Stallb. ad 
must limit Forsoa's rule ad loc. of Plat. Phileb. p. 140. assented to it. 
the universality of which iSchafer 

706 Si/ntax\ Of Appositiofi. 

/uijTtjv * a man, namely, Mulios'. tt', 7 1 6. * a young strong man, 
namely, Asius'). Soph. El. 45. ^evoG /hgv el ^(i>Kevc, irap' av^poc 
^avorewc I'lKcov (where Hermann's explanation 'a viro quodam, 
nomine Ph(uioteo\ introduces an indefinite denomination where 
a definite one is required). So ^Cjc, II. Z' , 193. (^', 545. 
Od. (f)', 26. Elsewhere aviip is put with these personal de- 
nominations when the class or rank only is to be indicated to 
which he belongs, as /3oa7r tVi/BonKoXoc avi]p, in Homer. Plat. 
Ion, p. 539 extr. paipoidov av^pa. id. p. 540 D. avSpi arpa- 
rriytS^. Thus too Thiic. 1, 74. av^pa arpaT-qyov ^vve- 
TtjjTaTOv TTupeayofxeQa. 

Of Apposition. 

431. Apposition is, when a substantive or personal pronoun is 
accompanied by another substantive without a conjunctive par- 
ticle in the same case, serving to explain the former, or to 
supply some definition for the sake of emphasis or clearness. 
It may be resolved by the relative pronoun with eari, e'lai, and 
hence many of the cases which came under the head of Pre- 
dicate, are found also under that of Apposition. 

The substantive which is added should properly be in the 
same case and number as the first; but they often vary from 
each other in this respect, especially if the apposition contains 
an ahstraciiim pro concreto (§. 429, 1.) lies. Tli. 792. h Se fii 
(/utolpa) eK TTerpi]c, irpopeei, f.ieya Triiiiia Oeolaiv. Herod. 1, 205. 
yecbvpar, ^evyvviov em tou iTOTafxov ciapaaiv no aTpano, as 
jEschi/L Agam. 953. virai tic appvXac Xvoi ra-^oc,, irpoSovXov 
e/t/3a(7ti' TToSoc. Soph. CEd. C. 472. KpaTiipeQ eiaiv, av^poQ 
ev-^^eipoQ re'^vy}. Eurip. Ph. 829. o« j.u] vo^ujuov toi TratSeq 
parpi Xo-^evixa, /uiaa/iia re iraTpoc. id. Troad. 429. aire- 
-^Oripa irdyKoivov ^poTolc, o'l irepi Tvpiwvovc, Kai iroXeic vttt]- 
perai. The apposition is often in the plural, whilst the sub- 
stantive is in the singular : Hes. Sc. II. 312 seq. rpiTroQ \pv' 
cee'ioc, kXvtu epya Trepitppovoc HcpaiaToio. Eur. Hipp. 1 1 , 

* X'alck, in N. J", p. 336 seq. rloii.p.l36. HiittnmiiuCii . Gr.p. 352. 
Heind. ad Plat. Gorg. p. 247. Phse- 

Sj/ntax. Of Apposition. 707 

'IttttoXutoc, ayvov YliT^kwc; tt ai^evf.iaT a. Or. 1050. Trwq 
au ^icpoc, vw TuvTOv, ei dkf-uc, ktcivoi, koi f^ivri^ia ^k^aS ev, 
Ke^pov Te-^vaa/.iara. F/idit. 81^ sq. /tr/Se (w(|)eXe) to tto^- 
Beviov Trrepov ovpeiov rkpac, eXQeiv, weuOea yaiac, '^(piyyoQ. 
Corap. Ale. 728. Iph. T. 263. Thus it stood Soph. Phil. 36. 
correctly before the edition of Brunck : avTo^vXov y eK-mofxa, 
d)\avpovpyov tivoq Te"^vi]paT' avSpoc, . Both numbers are 
united Eur. Andr. 468. ovK apc^i^iaropac, Kopovc, epiv fxev 
o'lKbjv ^vapeveic. re Xvirac Comp. Siippl. 1210. An adjective 
neuter plural is also found in apposition to a feminine Eur. El. 

1009. eyu) Se raaBe, TpwctSoc ■ydovoQ e^aiper , avri iraiBoQ 


It has been remarked §. 274. that the substantive in the 
apposition commonly has the article, and that the apposition 
marks contempt and indignation §. 27 6. The following cases 
are more especially to be noticed : 

1. When the apposition refers to a possessive pronoun, it is 
put in the genitive. Aristoph. Pint, 33. tov e/nov pev avTOv 
Tov TaXaiTTwpov (j'y^e^vv t)S>7 vopitd^ eKTero^evaOai piov. 
See more examples in the Possessive Pronouns, §. 466, I. 

Thus also in adjectives which are derived from proper names, 
if the proper name contained in it is designed to include a defi- 
nition. //. |3', 54. Ne(TTOper? Trapa vr}\, UvXriyeveoG (5a(Ti- 
Xr/oc. e, 741 . ev Se re Topye'iri KeCpaXri deivolo ireXcopov. 
Plat. Apol. S. p. 29 D. 'A0i]va7oc w*', TroXetuq tvq pe- 
yiarnc Kal euSo/ci/itwTaTJjc eic aoCp'utv Kal [(xyvv, y^ptipaTtdv 
ovK aia'^vuy eTTipeXopevoc ; '^ Herodotus adds the proper sub- 
stantive 9, 92. Arncpovov, avSjOoc 'ATToXXwm'jTew, AttoXXwvltjq 
TtJQ eu Tw loviM koXttw. 

2. Apposition also is used, though the word, which by these 
means is to be defined more accurately, does not stand with it. 
Xen. H. Gr. 2, 3, 42. ewe paSiwq o'l ap'^ovTec, epeXXopev 
Twv apyopeviov Kpcni'taeiv, where ol ap^ovrec, is an apposition 
to vpe^c, contained in epeXXopev. Luc. D. D. 24, 2. o oe 
Waiac, Ttjc, '' ArXavTOc, ^uiKovovpai uvrolc,. 

'' Pors. ad Eur. Or. 1. r. Ai»ii. ad 550. 
Toup Ein. p. 50'^. Markl. ad .Siippl. " Biuuck ad Soph. CEd. T. aor. 

708 Syntax. Of Apposition. 

432. 3. Apposition is also used in order to determine more accu- 
rately a whole or a general idea, by subjoining the parts 
or the ideas of its component parts which are really meant*. 
//. B' , 48. ^', 283. ''ISjjv S' 'iKavev TroXviri^aKa, f^inrepa 
dTjpwv, Tapyapov, i. e. * to Gargarus', a summit of Ida. 
Comp. Od. I, 39. //. (p> , 37. o S' epiveov o^ei yaXKw 
Tajiive, veovQ o pTT7]Kac;. 11. v, 44. Tptuac oe Tpo/j-oc, aivoc 
vwiiXvOe yv7a eKaarov. Thiic. 1, 107. <J>w/cea»i' arpaTevaav- 
Tiov eq Aw^tao, ttjv AaKC^ai/LiovKW firirpoTToXiv, Boiov Kai 

Kut/viov Kal EjOiveov, oi AaKedai/xovioi 

e(ioi]6T}(Tav Tolc Awpievaiv. Plat. Rep. \0. p. 6\5 ^. tov Se 
Apdialov Kal aWovQ av/xTro^icravTec, "^elpac re Kai Trocar, 
Kal Ke^aXi-jv, clXkov. For determining a general idea by 
means of the ideas of its component parts, //. e, 122. yv7a 
S' e6t}Kei' eXa(ppa, ttoSoc Kai -^elpac virepOev. To this head 
belong also the cases §. 389, h. 421. Ohs. 3. 

4. When a proper name is joined in the apposition to a 
general designation (e. g. /Liitrrip, Ovyarrjp), by way of explana- 
tion, the tragedians often use Ae-yw with the accusative. Soph. 
Aj. 569. TeAa/itwvi Ze'i^ei ^ijrpi t , Epi'|3otav Xc-yw. id. Phil. 
12G1. av 8 , fu Tlo'iavroQ tto?, ^^iXokti]t^v Xeyw. Comp. 
§. 312, 5.*^ 

5. Frequently also a substantive commonly with an adjective 
is subjoined in apposition to an entire proposition, at least to 
several words of it, in order to express an opinion or sentence 
upon the contents of the proposition. This substantive is ge- 
nerally in the accusative, probably because Troteti^was supplied 
by the mind in the foregoing words. //. a*', 735. -q tic, Kyan^v 
pixpeif ■yetpoc eXwi', airo irvpyov, Xvypov oXcO pov. i. e. oq 
c(TTi Xvypuc, oXeOpoc jEsch. Agam. 233. eVXij Ovrvp yevkaOai 
VvyarpoQ, yvvaiKOTroiviov TroAei.nov apwyav kch vmou npo- 
reXeia, i. e. o, viz. to OvTiipa ycvkadni or Oveiv, e'lrj av apuiyij. 
Soph. Gild. T. 603. Kai novB eXey)^oi', tovto /nev TlvOd)^ 
twv 7reu0ou, to. "^priaOevT ei aacjxjijc ^'j-yyetXn aoi' tout cXX , 
ear, &,c. i. e. o, to nevOeaOai UvOol, eXey^oc, rivvce karai. 

» East. II. 0, t).697, 24. Lobcck ad Soph. Aj. 670. ct Add. 

'' Schaef. ad Lamb. Bo«. p. 028. p. 4 13. llenn. ib. 

Sj/nfax. Of AppositiuH. 709 

Eiirlp. llec. 1168. to XoiaOiov St, Tri'i/.ta niii^taTOc, nXeov, 

e^eipydcravTO deiv ' tytwv yafi OjitjuaTWV rac, TaXanruj- 

povc Kopac, KevTovaiv. Or. 1111. 'EXevijv KTo'i'w/ier, MeveXe<o 
XvTTrjv TTiKpav, where not Helen, but to Kre'iveiv EX. is the 
XuTTJ; 77. ib. 1506. o Se Xiaaofxevoc, Bavarov Trpo^aXav, quod, 
TO XiaaeaBm, miutimcntum esset contra mortem. ib. 1614. 
El. 231., and so probably Here. F. 59. is to be explained. 
Phan. 1234. tw vraTSe tw ctw ^teXAeTOP, toX f.ii] /nar a a'l- 
(T-viaTct, YWjOtc ^(ovO|ita^e?i' ttoi'toc (ttjootou, where the plural 
is'put for the singular, as Bacch. 30, 7 1 . Heracl. 403. Comp. 
§. 43 1. Plat. Gorg. p. 507 D. E. outoc e/noiye ^oKei o aKotroc 
elvot, irpoQ ov (iXeirovTa 8e? tv^', oirwc, diKaioavvi] Trapearai Kui 
a(jj(l)po(yvvr] r(o /LiaKap'no jtieXXovTi ecreaOai, ovrco irpaTTeiv, ovk 
e.Tndvf.uac, cwvra aKoXaaTovc eXvai Kal Tavrac, eTri")^eipovvTa 
vrXr/pouj', dv{]vvTOv kukov, Xyarov ftiov 2!wi'Ta. Thus also 
in Latin, e. g. Cic. de Orat. 2, 19, 79. Or. 16, 52.^ oSe is 
also found with it Ear. Hipp. 796. eKTen'ovrec, dOXiov veKvv, 
iriKpov t6^' o'iKovpr]j.ia Beairoraic t/xo7c. Comp. Sop)h. El. 450. 
An adjective without a substantive is found in this sense Eur. 
Med. 1041. Ka\ KUTOavovcjav ■y^epalv ev 7re|0((TTeXen', 6/X<otom 
avOpMiroiaiv, instead of o ^jjX. eariv. Comp. Sappl. 1073. 
Soph. Ant. 44. and with toijto Plat. Gorg. p. 508 D. dv re 
TUTrreiv [SouXrjTai, to veaviKov Bi) tovto rov aov Xoyov, eiri 
Koppnc,. On the other hand, a substantive is also found without 
an adjective Ear. Bacch. 30. To this class belongs the phrase 
TovB' o eiTrec, e.g. Plat. Rep. 5. p. 462 D. tovto o epwTac. 
Gorg. p. 461 B. tovO' o ^i) dyairac,, as in Latin id quod refers 
to a whole proposition ^. 

The nominative is found in this apposition Ear. Troad. 493. 
TO XoiaOiov Se, OpiyKoc, d9Xiu)v KaK(jov, SouXj? yvm) ypavc 'EX- 
XaS' e'iaa(pi'^oi^ai. Heracl. 71. (TTefp^i jLuaiveTai, iroXei t ovei- 
Soc Kal dewv aTijiua. Hel. 994. Keiao/neaOa Se veKpoj ^v e^^c, 
TwS' em. ^€(TT(o Tcicpo), dOdvaTOU t'lXyoc ao\, t/zoyoc §e aco -rraTpi, 
if the verb of the principal proposition is a passive or intransitive. 
On the other hand, in Od. a , 51. the nominative appears to 

•= Misc. Philol. vol.2. 1. p. 7 seq. p. 210. 
where however dift'erent cases are '^ Ileind. ad Plat. Gorg. 1. c. p. 49. 

intermixed. Hcind. ad Plat. Gorg. 

710 Si/)itax. Of Apposition. 

be determined by the preceding of-iCJiaXoc, as in //. ^, 395. by 
or,, which follows (§. 474.). 

Sometimes this apposition precedes the principal proposition, 
as in the passages quoted above, Soph. Gi.d. T. 603. El. 450. 
Eur. Hec. 1168. Troad. 493. id. Here. F. 193. ocroi ge 
To^oic Y^^p eyovfTii' eucrTo^ov, ei' juev to Awcttoi' /nvpiovQ 
olcfTOVc, a<^etG aAXoic, to crwjua pverm /tnj /coT^areTi'. So is to be 
explained Find. hthm. 3, 1 1 . See Dissen, p. 501. Eur. 

Phoeii. 1027. a'lay^pov yap, o'l /nev ovk oKvijaovaiv 

Oavelv, e-yw 2e e^io yOovuc fWez/u, where aiay^pov is an 

apposition to the following propositions, or rather to the con- 
trast implied in them. In a similar way Herodotus often makes 
that which should be contained in the apposition the principal 
proposition, and joins to it the proper principal proposition as an 

explanation, e.g. 6, 43. wc Se Tra^oTrXewv rriv Acr'ujv otti- 

KCTO o Ma|f>Soi'(oc ec t?;i' liovu^v, cvOavra /.ley larov Oiov^a epeoj 
ToTfft nv airo^eKo/LievoKJi tu)v EXXjji'wi', Ylepcretov roiai enra 
'Ordvea yvw/nriv awo^el^aaOai, wc, y^peCov e'lt] Srif.ioKpaTe€(Tdai 
Ylepaac,' rove, yap rvpavvovc twv Iwi'wi' KaTcnravaac,, &.C. in- 
stead of ec, Ti)v Iwi'i'jj)', ei'Oavra rove, rvp. riov I. KaraTT. o 
MoyoS. Si]/ Kar'iara ec, rac, ttoXuic,' o f^iey. Otov/na 
earai roiai /lU] cnroc. iSLC. 

Hence are to be explained the phrases in which a participle 
or adjective without a substantive with the article is introduced 
into a proposition, e. g. P/at. Alcib. 2. j). 143 B. \e\i}Oafiev 
11/iUic avrovc oi ayvoiav Kai irparrovrec, Kcti ro ye ea-^arouy 
eu^o^iei'oi 111.111' aiiTolc, Ta KuKiara, ' what is the worst'. id. 
Epist. 8. p. 355 D. to -ye p.eyiorov. Xenoph. Ilier. 9, 7. to 
TravrMv ye -^prioijiuurarov, * what is most useful'. Comp. Ct/r. 5, 
5, 24. Eur. Med. 564. Thuc. 2, 65. Plat. Theal. p. 190 B. 
Kai ro TTcivrivv KeCpaXaiov, aKoirei. Comp. Gorg. p. 494 E. 
Demost/i. p. 299, 7 .^ In all these cases the words ro eayjurov 
&c. are in apposition to the proposition in which they are intro- 
duced, and must be resolved like the substantive quoted above, 
o eayarov eari Scc. The article is sometimes omitted witli such 
a substantive or adjective, e.g. Thuc. 1, 142. p.eyiarov Se, t^ 

» Schaef. A pp. Dem. 2. p. 286. 

St/utcLV. Of' Apposition. 711 

TMv y^pjifiidriov airdvei K(<o\vaovrai. Plat. Phcedon. p. 96 E. 
Kal en -ye tovtujv evapyearepa, ra ^eKci /not ehoKei twv oktw 
TrXelova eTvai. id. Gorg. p. 494 E. Ka\, towtwv toioutwi' ovtmv 
Ke(pd\aiov . 

So TO \ey6fxevov, e. g. P/rtL -Rp/j. 6. p. 492 E. ev Stj tm 
TOtowToi Tov veov, TO Aeyojitei'oi', Tti'o otct Kapoiav layeiv, i. e. o 
XeyeTat, ^//ot/ ti/^/go dicitur, instead of which elsewhere uxnrep 
Xeyerai is used. id. Soph. p. 261 B. to /coTa ttjv irapoif-uav 
Xeyofj-evov. and with touto Plat. Gorg. p. 514 E. So to 
TeXevra^ov, e. g. Isocr. Panath. p. 253 D. ttuv Tovvavriov 
Plat. Gorg. 515 E. Xen. Mem. S. 1, 2, 60. The following 
are appositions of the same kind: Plat. Alcib. 1. p. 121 D. 
TO ToG Kw^wSoTTotou * as the comic writer says'. See §. 280. 
id. Theat. p. 183 E. to tou 'O/u'/pou 'as Homer says', id. 
Rep. 4. p. 422 E. to twv Trat^ovTwi' * as they say in jest', id. 

Lack. p. 191 B. TO TWU ^KvOlOV. 

The first-mentioned kind of apposition is also used in propo- 
sitions followed by oti or yap, with an entirely new proposition : 
Plat. Plmdon. p. 66 D. to 8' eayarov -rravTiov, oti 96pv(5ov 
TTapky^ei Ka\ rapayjiv. Isocr. ad Phil. p. 109 D. to Se ^cyiarov 

Twv e'lpni^ievojv, oti avp(5aii'ei . Isocr. de Pac. p. 1 70 B. 

to Se iravruyv a'^^eTXmTarov' ovc yap op,oXoyr](Taipev av, &.C. 
The relative is used in the same way : Plat. Eiithi/d. p. 304 C. 
o Se Kal aol /uctXtffTo irpocrriKei uKovcrai, oti ovde to ■^prif.uiTi- 
leaOai (paTov diaKioXveiv ov^ev. Comp. Li/s. p. 204 D. Isocr. 
IT. avTih. §. 228. Bekk. Also with other particles: eirei^n Plat. 
Hipp. Mill. p. 368 C. el Isocr. Arch. p. 127 D. otuv id. it. 
avTiB. p. 314 E. Comp. Archid. p. 132 C. Isocr. Trapezit. 
p. 361 C. o Se iravTUJV ^eivoTUTOu' SieyyvtjVTOC, yap Meve'^e- 

pov . Comp. ;j. 364 E. in Euthi/n. p. 402 A. dvTi^. 

§. 266. In both cases we might supply touto etTTi' to Se 
eo-yaTOv ttuvtwv touto eoTiv, oti ---. as indeed Plato ex- 
presses himself, Menexen. p. 244 D. Kal to ye OeioTaTOV -rrav- 

Twv (ecfTt) TO Kal j3a<TtXea etc touto Inropiac, a^iKcaQai . 

but in reality the parenthetical proposition appears to be con- 

'■ Viger. p. 15. Fisch. p. 342. 

712 Syntax, Of Apposition. 

nected with the continuation of the leading proposition, as in 
the cases §. 632. On the other hand Arist. Vesp. 605. o Se 
y r]dicfTOV TOVTWV earl, Travriov ov yw 7riXeA?7cr^i7)i', otov oi/cao 
'ito Tov jLiiaBov e-^^ojv, where we must regard Tovroiaiv e-yw yavv- 
/iiai, which does not occur till v. 612., as the apodosis ; and to 
the proposition thus completed, the words o de y h^. form a 
very common apposition, as in Latin qnod vero jucundissimum 
est, quum domnm redeo, omnes me amanter excipiunt. 

433. Ohs. 1. The words Ivoiv darepov also form an apposition, being in- 
troduced into a proposition with i'l — i/, without having any other con- 
nection with it. Isocr. ad Phil. p. 99 C. del yap /lijj^ev Trporepov irpar- 
reiv, TrpXp ay Xafti] ris rovs ''EWi]vas Cvoh' duTepov ?) crvyayoji'iiiofiei'ovs 
i) TToXXy)*' evroiay exoi'ras roh TrpaTTOjxevoii, which may be made clearer 
by supplying cvolv Qarepov iroiovvTas, i] &c. according to §. 030, 3. 
but properly ^volv Qarepov seems to be an apposition to the two cases 
mentioned with ?'/ — ?/. 

(433) Ohs. 2. It is a kind of apposition when a substantive is repeated with 
an addition, c. g. //. ^', 85. Aaodorj, dvyartjp "AXrao yepoiTos, "AX- 
7-ew, vs AeXeyeaai fiXoTTToXeiJiOKny arcKjaei. Comp. the passages quoted 
above, //. 'C, 395. Od. a, 51. 

01)8. 3. Frequently the substantive which is put in apposition to an- 
other, contains not so much an explanation or more exact determination 
of the former, as the operation or design of it. //. F, 155. davaruy 
rv TOL upKL erafiyoy, where in English we should say 'for thy death'. 
So Pindar Pyth. 10, 75. calls the head of Gorgo XiOivov dayaroy, be- 
cause it killed the beholders, turning them to stone. JEsch. Ag. 200. 
202. Tvvoul ppuTujy uXai, ' storms, which cause men to wander over the 
deep'. Eurip. Or. 802. oTrore -x^pvaelas epts apyos i]Xvde TayraXiBais, 
oiKTpoTara doiyufxara vai aipayia yeyyaiiov revewj'. hi. Phcen. 
1372. «J rXrjfxoy, o'lov Tepjioy', 'Iokikttt], ftiov yajjiioy re njjy aruiy, 
S^iyyos al y ly ^10 vs, erXt]s. See Porson's note. Comp. §. 429, 1 .* 
Also besides the apposition, the accusative is put in this sense Soph. 

(Ed. C 91. eXeL,ey hravda tcc'ifi^peiy rliv raXaitvuypoy ftioy, 

KepCT) fxey olKi'icrayra ro7s deleyfieiois, arrjy de rols Trefj-ipaariy, where 
Kepht], arrjv are represented as the etfect of the residence of Oedipus 
there. Comp. Eur. Or. 382. 

Obs. 4. Of the construction 'EXXyji'orcifilai i:arearri ap\t], and others, 
§. 428, 5. 

* See MatthicC ad Eur. llrl. 172. 

Si/ntax. Combinatiun oj Adjectives, Ssr. 71'i 

0/ tJie Combination of Adjectives, Adjective- Fro?iou?i.s 
and Participles, ivit/i Substantives. 

Adjectives, adjective-pronouns (as the possessive pronouns 434. 
ouToc, avT)], rovro. oSe, &.C. avToc,. oc, tj, o.) and participles, 
conform themselves properly, in gender and number, to the 
substantives with which they are put as epithets or predicates, 
or to which they refer. An adjective stands as an epithet when 
w^ith its substantive it constitutes one whole, so that the sub- 
stantive, without the determination conveyed in the adjective, 
would be incomplete ; as a predicate, when a new determi- 
nation is subjoined to a substantive considered as complete. 
From this rule there are many deviations in Greek writers : 

1. They refer an adjective, &c. to the substantive only in 
its sense, and put it in the gender which is implied in the 
substantive, though this last has a different grammatical 

a. Adject, and partic. //. )(', 84. (piXe reKvov, of Hec- 
tor, and ver. 87. (p'lXov OaXoc, ou reKov avri]. It. tt , 280. 
eKiin^Oev §e (paXayyec, eX Tro^uerot, because the (puX. are an 
aggregate of men. Ilerod. 5, 1 15. avrkay^e y^fiovov ein TrXel- 
GTOv TToXiopKevf.ikvi] 2oAo(, Ty)v, 7re f.nTT(i> /^ap'i e'lXov 01 
Tiepaai. jEsch. Again. 120. jSoaKOf^iet'oi Xay'ivav epiKv/Liova 
(bepfiari ye war, /3Xaj3ei'Ta XoiaOuov Spof-iuji'. Plat. Phadr. 
J9. 239 A. oure S?) Kpe'iTTOj ovtc 't(rovij.evo%' eKiov epaarric 
irai^iKu uve^erai, tJttw Se Kai viroSeeffrepov aei airep- 
yaaerai. p. 240 A. en to'ivvv oya/iioi', cnraiSa, aoiKOv 
OTi irXe^arov -y^povov TratSt/ca epnarriQ ev^airo uv yev'eaQai. 
instead of which Alcih. 2. p. 141 D. it is ' kpyeXaov to. nm- 

^iKo. epaaOevra riic Tvpavv'iSoc, aireKreive ^. Xeit. Cj/7\ 1 , 

2, 12. a'l pevoiKjai (pvXai oiayiovito pei'Oi Tcivra 

irpoQ aXXiiXovc SiareXovatv''. This is especially the case 

i* Lob. ad Phryn. ii.4'25. Markl. ad Eur. Siippl. 43. Fisch. 

<= Valck. ad Eurii). Phoen. 1290. Ha. p. 306, 317 sq. Herm. ad Vig. 
Koen ad Greg. p. (29)71. (38)93. p. 715, 49. Ecsckh ad Pind. Nem, 
Hemst. ad Lvic. 2. p. 489 seq. ed. Bip. .'">, 43. 
VOL, n. 1* 

714 Syntax. Combination of AJjecth'es, S^c. 

when there is a chx'umloeution of the subject, e. g- Tl. X , 690. 
e\6wv yap p eKUKioae j3t»j 'HpaK:Xr/eiJj. ^sch. Choeph. S93. 
(jyiXruT AiyiaOov /3/a ^. So, when a plural is used for a sin- 
gular, it takes the participle in the singular : Eur. Here. F. 
1209. i/cereuo/itev it/ii(l)l aav yeveiaSa Kai yovv Kai \cpci 
■jrpocnriTvwv. See §. 293. Generally adjectives and parti- 
ciples are put in the masculine with persons when they are de- 
signated merely as human beings ; in the feminine when they 
are defined by any occupation belonging to a particular sex, as 
especially in Xcn. Mem. S. 2, 7. See Schneider on §. 8. 

b. Pronoun. Eur. Suppl. 12. Oavovrcov eTrra yevvanov 

TeKV(i)v, ovc iroT Apyeiwv ava^ ' ASpaaroc iiyayev. 

Comp. Andr. 57 1. and the passages quoted //. ■)(, 87. Herod. 
5, J 15. So when, after the mention of a place, its inhabitants 
are referred to : Herod. 7, 8, 2. irvpwato rac, 'ABrivac, o'l ye cfie 
vTrrjp^av a^iKu TrnievvTec Thuc. 6, 80. otto neXo7rov»'7](rou 
Trapeaojuevijc w^eXetnc, o'l rwv^e Kpeiaaovc, eiai. Comp. Bccckh 
Tnscr. Gr. \. p. ] 09. 

2. Hence a collective noun in the singular and feminine, or 
neuter, is often accom])anied by the adjective in the plural and 
masculine. JEscJu/l. Agam. 588. Tpo'njv eXovrec Sj'j ttot 
'Apyeiwv cttoXoc &.C. Thucyd. 1, 143. Kv^€pvr]TaQ eyof-iev 
iroXiTctc Kai Ti)v aXXrjv viriipeaiav TrXe'iovc, Kui apeivovc 

Xen. Hist. Gr. 2, 3, 55. tj Se fSouX?) n<yv^(^iav el^ev ou*: 

ayvoovvrec, oti e-yyetioiSia e^oi'Tec Traprjaav . In both respects 
Thucyd. 3, 79. nj S' varepaia em pev tyiv ttoXiv ov^ev paX- 
Xov eTTCTrXeov, Ka'iirep ev iroXXyj rapay^y Kai ^o/3w uvrac. 

b. With pronouns. //. tt', 368. ('XLKrwp) Xelire Xaov 
T pdJiKov, ovQ aeKOVTUQ opvKTT} TttCppoc epvKe. Isocr. Plat, 
p. 299 B. TrjXiKovTov (TTpaTevparoc ovroc Qe<nriaaiv, vcj) 
wv ov povov ovK au eXarTOv ?) vtto Qt][5aio>v ^i€(pdapi]pev, aXXa 
Kai SiKaiorepov. Panatli. p. 110 A. to rplrov pepoc, aii- 
Twv, ovQ KoXovpev vvv AaKedaipov'iovc, araaiaaai pev Cpaaiv 
avTovc, ol ra eKeivojv uKpijBovvTec. In the same manner Ae«. 

» Eiir. Hec.293. et Schsef. 3 a. p.306, 317seq. Bibl.Crit. 3,'2,35. 
'• Porville ad Char. p. 415. Fisch. Ast ad Plat. Leg. p. 103 seq. 

Si/ulav. i'otnbinalion of Adjectives, Sfc. 715 

Mem. S. 2, I, 31. tiq (iv ev (ppovMU tov (tov Oiuaov toX^u/- 
aeiev eivai, o t, vkoi /nev bvrec role, (no/.iacnv advvaroi eiaiv Scc. 

Thus the relative also often stands in the plural after a sin- 
gular antecedent, when it does not refer to the definite indi- 
vidual person or thing, but to the whole class ; as if for oloc,. 
Eurip. Or. 908. av^p€7oQ ainip, oXiyciKic, aerrv Kciyopac ■^paiviDv 
kvkXou, avTOvpyoc, o'lirep Kui f^iovoi ctw^oikti ynv, cujus generis 
homines. See Porson's note. Plat. Rep. 8. p. 554 B. av-^juri- 
poQ ye TIC WJ', Kai airo TravroQ Trepiovaiav iroiovi-ievoc, Orjaavpo- 
TTOtoc avi]p' ovQ Srj Kal CTrau'ei to irXiiOoc.. So Soph. Trach. 
547 seq. opM yap rjj3f;v TJjf i^iev eprrovaav Trpocno, Tr\v oe ^Q'l- 
vovaav' uiv a(^apTraZ,eiv (piXel ocpOaXjuoG avBoc, ruiv S vireKxpe- 
TTfiv TToSa, where wu — rwv seem to refer not to h(^^ic,, but to 
rixiu vj^iv Tnu epTTOvaav irpoau), (fyBivovarau e-^ovraiv. On the 
contrary oo-rec is used in reference to a substantive plural 
§. 475, a. or when a preceding plural is used for the singular 

Ear. Iph. ^4. 991 seq. o'lKrpa yap TrenovOafxev, rj oirjOelaa 

Kevriv KarecT'yov eXmca. See §. 293/ 

Obs. Similar to this is the construction, when an adjective or par- 
ticiple conforms in gender to the substantive which is in the geni- 
tive, but in case to the substantive which governs that genitive. //. 

^', 459. TiSf c\ war dpvldujv Tre-erji'wy edpea ttoXXci ei'da 

Kai ei'Qa iroTuJi'Tui dyciWo/ievat VTepvyedcni'. Soph. Antig. 1001. 
ayj'wr' ukovco (jtdoyyoy opvLBoiv, KaKw KXai^Ofras oiarrpM kui j3€~ 
/3ap/3apwyuerw. Aj. 1G8. 7rr»/vtJv ctyeXcti /.teyav alyvinoy viro^ei- 
(rai'Tes ''. 

In the same manner a singular in a collective sense is used, 
to which a participle in the plural refers. Soph. Antig. 
1021. ov^' opvic, evanjiiovc cnroppoi(5Se7 [ioac, avBpoCpOupov 
/3e/3|OwTec a'/^oToq XiTTOc. Thus too the relative : Plat. Rep. 6. 
p. 485 B. paOij/iiaroc ael epwaiv (ot (^iXocto(^oi) oaa av avTolc, 
drfXot. &c. Isocr. Paneg. p. 67 'E. (c. 36.) ouSei^ roiovrov 
KaraaKCvatovaiv, e<[ wv earai avTolc. 

Hence ric, is often referred to by another pronoun in the 
plural. Od. X'f 502. tw Ke reco aTV^ai/M uevoc, Kai -^elpaQ 

" Schffif. ad Dion. Hal. p. 11 seq. '^ Fisch. 3 a, p. 314. 

ad Theoc. 25, 121. 


716 Si/ntax. Cumbination oj Adjectives, S;'c. 

aaTTTOVc, o'l KCivov (5i6(i)vrai. Xeii. Mem. S. 1, 2, 62. eav tic, 

(jyavepoG yevrirai KXeTrriov tovtojc Oavaroc ecrriv r} Z,^p.ia. 

Comp. Thuc. 4, 85. Plat. Leg. 12. p. 943 D. Xeti. Cyr. 7, 
4, 5. 8, 8, 4. So oaTic, and ourot answer to each other 
§. 475.^ Comp. §.487, 1. 

Ohs. It is a somewhat different case when the writer, instead of 
the word actually used, has in his mind another equivalent to it indeed, 
but of a different gender, and refers to tliis the adjective or participle. 
Od. jJL, 74. v€<pk\r} ce ^iiv a/i0t/3e/3>J^•e Kvmkr}' to j-ikv olnor epioel, 
where to fjh' v€<pos is alluded to. Thuc. 2, 47. >/ v off as irpiiirov 
i'lp^aro yereffBai toIs WQriruiois, Xeyofievov fxev icai izpoTcpov iroWa- 
yorre eyi:aTaffK>j\pui, as if ro tocryjfxa preceded. See Duker's note on the 
passage ''. 

435. Adjectives and demonstrative pronouns are often referred, in 
respect of gender, to words which are implied in a preceding- 
one from the sense or the composition. //. i', 383. Gfjpat, a'l 
B' e/caTo^iTTuXoi e'lai, ^niKoaioi S' av eKaarriv (ttuAjji/) 
civepec eiffoiy^vevat. Herod. 4, 110. cvrv-^ovaai Se TrpioToi 
'nnrochopftiM, tovto SnjpTraoav' Kai em rovrtov {'iTnrwv) nnra- 
I6f.i€i>ai eXmtovTO Tft Tujv ^KvOeiov. Soph. Track. 260. epyerai 
TToXtv T7JI' V.vpvre'iav' rovZe yap jueraiTtov juoi'oi' pporwv 
ccpaaKe tov8' elvai ttuOovc. Eurip. Ilec. 22. jrarpwa 6 
eaTia KareaKd(\>r], avroc Se (viz. irarnp) /3w/t(J ttjOOC ©eoS^jjTO) 
•irirvei. Phocn. 12. KaXovai S' 'Iokoo-tj/i/ ^iie* touto (oi-o^ta) 
yap varvp eOero. Plat. Leg. 1. p. 644 D. Oavpa /uiev eKnarov 
rjyrjaw/iieOa rwv ^woji' 0e7ov, e'lre ojc iraiyviov eKeivtov (twv 
6ewv), e'lre tor, airov^y tivi l^vvearyiKoc. 9. p. 864 D. Traioia 
YptjjfievoG, ov^ev ttu) twp t oiovtu)i> ciacpepwv, viz. iraicwv . 

This takes place in the relative pronoun oc, i], o. Hesiod. 
Theog. 450. Oi]Ke Se /lUv Kpovidrjc, KovpoT po^ov, o"i {Kovpoi) 
per eKeivi]v o^OaA|(to?(T(v 'Icovro (paoc, iroXv^epKeoc Hone. 
Thuc. 6, 80. OTTO neAo7roi'i'/;(70u Trapeaopevtic w(peXeiac, o'l 

« Stallb. ad Pliii. p. li>8. Schaf. Pors. ad Eur. Ilec. '22. Tisch. Praf. 

A pp. Dem. 1. p. 521. ad Well. Gr. p. 9 sq. 3 a. p. Ci68. 

*• Gregor. p. (37 sq.) 93. et Koen. Ilerm. ad Vig. p. 714, 44. Heind. 

•^ Hemsterh. ad Arist. Plut. .'J6C. ad Plat. Thcast. p. 369. Seidl. ad 

Valck. ad Phoen. iQ. ad Herod. 1, SG. Eur. El. 58'2. 
NVessel. ad Diod. S. t. 1. p. 373, 81. 

Si/ntax. Combinatioti of Adjectives, Sic. Ill 

(lieXoTTorv/jCTtot or ot to^eXeiav ^epovrec, i. e. avf-i/uayoi) ri^vSe 
Kpei(T(70VQ eicrl to Trapcnrav. Soph. Antig. 1 130. Kai ere Nucr/wv 
opeiov Ki<jai]peic, o\Oai yXwpa r cikto. TTOvXvaTaCJyvXoc Tre^nret, 

Qr}[3aiac, emaKOTrovvT uyviac, tuv {Qn(5iiv) e/c iraaav 

ri/.iac vneprarav iroXewv fxarpl avv Kepavvia. Comp. ib. 1035. 
CEd. C. 730. Enrip. Hec. 420. ai'v/.i(poc, awf^ikvaioc, tov 
{viiievai(jjv) f.1 e.y^pyiv rvy^eiv. Tphig. A. 1418. to Oeof^iay^eiv 
yap uTroXiirova', o {Oeioi') aov KpuTcl, e^eXoy'iau) to. y^pnaTU. 
Xen. Cyrop. 5, 2, 15. /col o'lKia ye ttoXu ^iiei^wv 17 vf^ierepa 
TtjC, e/Lirjc, o'l ye u'lKia. jtiev y^pyjaOe -yy re Kui ovpavco &c. 

Thus also the article as a pronoun. Od. ^', 434. /cot to ^lev 
eirray^a iravra Sie/noipaTO ^a'ltojv- rriv f.iev 'lav Nv/.i(priai 
Ka\ 'EjO^ty, Moto'Soc vli, OrJKev eVev^oViei'OC, toc aXXaa 
veljiiei' eKciaTO), where in txiv f-iev 'lav 8cc., from eTrraya (i.e. etc 
eTTTtt fxo'ipaa), must be understood /nolpav. 

Even where this reference to the sense only cannot be sup- 436. 
posed to be the cause, adjectives, pronouns, and participles 
often differ in gender and number I'rom the substantive to 
which they refer. 

1. The feminine in the dual is often accompanied by the 
masculine. Thuc. 5,23. af-Kptx) rw iroXee. Plat.Gorg.p.524A. 
TO) ocw. Leo. 10. p. 898 A. TouToti' ToTv /ctj'iVeotJ'. Rep.b. 
p. 452 A. TowTw Tw Tfc-^^^i'o. Comp. Soph. p. 228 E. Xen. 
Cur. 1, 2, 11. /cat f^dav djit^w tovtm tw imepa Xoyitov- 
Tcii. Mem. S. 2, 3, 1 8. ovtwg oio/cetcr0ov, loaTrep e'l tw ^eTpe, 
oq o Ofcoc eTTt TO auXAo^i/SaVeti' aXXijXciiv enoirjaev, a(p€^ev(o 
TOVTOV Tpc'nroivro Trpoc, to ^iaKu>Xvetv ctXXijXw. Theocr. 21, 
48. Tw \epe reivof^ievoc, -rrepl kvCjCoXov, evpov aywva. See 
Part I. §. 63. Obs. 2. 

Thus also the participle. //. 9', 455. Jupiter says to Minerva 
and Juno, ovk av e(^' rij-ieTepivv oy^eojv, TrXrjyei'Te Kepavvio, 
a\p ec "OXu^tTTOi' 'iKeaOov. IJesiod. "Epy. 195. /cot TOTe S)? ttjooc 
''OXviLiTTOV OTTO ■^(Oovoc evpvo^e'u]C, XevKolaiv (papeeaai KaXv- 
xPaiiievio \poa /coXoi', ct^amTWi' f-iera (pvXov 'irov irpoXnrovT 
dvdpwTTovQ A[gwc Kal Nt7te(Ttc. {Soph. E/. 977.^ where 
Electra speaks of herself and Chrysothemis: 'i^eaOe TwSe tw 
/c a (T I -y i^ rj T d', (piXoi, w to?' irurp'oov olkov r^eaojcroTiii', w roiatv 

7 ] 8 Si/titax. Combination of Adjectives, &ic. 

eyOpolG ev j3ej3>jK:o(Tiv ttotc, 4'^\r]c a ^eiSijcra I'xe, TrpovcTTt]- 
Tt]v cjiovov. does not properly belong to this place, since the 
substantive is masculine, only that it is put for the feminine 
substantive ra Kaaiyvnra.) Plat. Phcsd. p. 237 D. 17^1(01/ ev 
eKacFTO) Bvo rive earov iSea ap'^ovre Kai ayovre, oiv 
eTTO/nsda, y av ayrjrov, rj /nev e/n(pvTOC ovcra €7rtpu/tta r}cov(M)v, 
aXXt) Se e7riKT»jTOC ^o^a, eCpte/nevr] rov apiOTOv. tovtw oe ev 
r]/juv Tore jjiev bfxovoelrov, &:c.^ The masculine is even mixed 
with the feminine Soph. (Ed. C. 1676. irapo'KTOj.iev idovre kqi 

2. Sometimes even with nouns feminine in the singular and 
plural the adjective &c. is put in the masculine. //. k , 216. 
oiv " i^ieXaivav , Qri\vv, as Q?]\vc, eepar] in Homer. 11. t, 97. 
'Wpi) OrjXvc, eovcra. OriXvv airopav Eiirip. Hec. 659. Of the 
same class are ri^vc, avrpy, /jjuiaeoc i]pepac, 8vC. which are ad- 
duced §. 119, b. Obs. 4. Probably in the old language these 
were adjectives of two terminations, communia. To this head 
may also be referred aXoc, ttoXioTo in Homer. So Sophocles 
uses rr{kiKovroc, for rr]\iKavTi] EL 614. (Ed. C. 751. and 
Philemon (/). 63. ed. Osan)i.) quotes from Hesiod Bcntop^vov 
{-voio) ttoXjjoc. 

In oaae (baeiva II. v, 435. uaac aiparoevra ib. 617. tiie 
dual oaae {%. 91, 3.) is regarded as a neuter plural, whence 
the construction uaae ^a'lerai Od. ^,131. So aXKipa ^ovpe 
11. tt', 139. with Heyne's note in the Observations. 

So participles in the masculine singular and plural are fre- 
quently found with substantives of the feminine gender. In 
Pind. 01. 6, 23. eTrra S' eVeiTo rrvpav veKpaiv reXeaBcv- 
Twv, T«XaioviS«c elTrev ^c. veKpujv reXeaOevriov go together, 
' the corpses of seven j^yres'. In Eur. Troad. 1121. ^i>jSe yaiav 

TTor eXOoi AtiKaivav Svayapov ala-^OQ eXiov ILXXuci 

ra peydXa. eXwv refers to Menelaus. Eleclr. 1023. toElectra: 
TO Trpaypa Se f.ia06vra a , i]v per a^iwc jiuaelv e"^\ic, arvyelv 
SiKaiov, the reading should be paOovrac See below 4. Ipliig. 

" \'alck. ad Eur. Ili]>i5. 38G. Kucn p. 308. llcrm. ad Oij)!!. II. 78, 1. 
ad Grcgor. p. (304) 631. Dukcr ad '' Thorn. M. 448 sq. Uuhnk. Ep. 

Tluic. 5,79. Fisch. 1. p. 31t), 370.3 a. Crit p. 101. 

Syntax. Combiiu/lion of Adjectives, S)C. 719 

T. 844. 0) Kpei(T<Tov, 1] Xoyoicriv, evTv^tov e/nov i^v^a, ti 
(pui ; may be compared with Xeu. Cyr. 7, 3, 8. ai clyaOi} Kai 
TTKTTri xpv^rj, o'lyrj Sjj airoXiTT lov ijfxac, according to §. 434, 

1, a. Bat JEschylus Agam. 573. has Xeifxujvuu Spoaoi rt- 

Oevrec, evOrjpov Tpiya. This is more frequent in the later 
poets, KOTa^pvyOevTOQ aKavdric Nicand. T/ier. 329. and other 
passages quoted by Bceckh I. c. This interchange of gender 
seems to have taken place when nothing particular depended 
on the determination of the gender, but only a person generally 
was meant. Tlius too Xen, Mem. S. 2, 7, 2. aweXtiXvOaaiv 
wc e/Lie KaraXeXeififxevai aSeX<pai re Kai aoeXcptSal /cat 
avetpiai roaavr ai, ojctt elvai ei> ry oiKia reacrapacTKaiceKa 
Touc eXevBepovc^. 

3. On the other hand the adjective or verb is used in the 
plural with a substantive or pronoun dual, as §.301. Od. X', 
211. ocppa Kai eiv A/Sao, (piXac irepi ■^elpe ftaXovre a/.i- 
iporepu) Kpvepolo TeTapirfojiiGaOa yooio. Plat. Phadr, 

J). 278 B. OTt vCj KarapavTec, i^Kovaapev. Eiithyd. 

p. 273 D. eyeXacfciTTiv ovv a/ncpu) /3X ei/'Oi'Tec. and both 
numbers conjoined id. Protag. j9. 317 E. kv §e rovrw KaX- 
X'lac T£ Kai AA/ct/3iaS>?C ijKeTtjv ayovre tov Ilpo^iKOV ava^ 
aTTiaavrec, e.K rrjc, KX'ivqc °. 

On the contrary the participle is also found in the dual, with 
the substantive in the plural, if only two persons are meant. 
//. 7r,429. 01 8, (xXJT aiyvTTioi ■ya^ti/'Wi'v^ec, ayKvXoy^eiXai, 
werpy ecj) v\py]Xy i^ieyaXa KXatovre /na-^ovrai. Plat. Rep. 10. 
p.614 C. ev (jj rrjc, yfjc ^vo eivai ^aff/uara e'^ofievio aXXr/Xoir. 
as the verb, though referring to a subject in the plural, is often 
found in the dual (§. 301.) if no more than two persons or 
things are meant. 

The dual Suo is often joined with a plural substantive : e. g. 
Soph. Aj. 237. Suo S apy'iTTodac, KpiovQ dveXwi'. even in the 

•= Heath ad Eur. Med. 803. Yalck. Find. 01. 6. p. 155. 
Diatr. p. 175 A. Miisgr. ad Eur. Ipli. '" Ileind. ad Plat. Prot. §. =23. 

T. 844. Cycl. 326. Bocckh Explic. 

720 Si/ntax. Combination of Adjectives, S)X. 

genitive and dative Msch. Ag. 1395. Kav ^volv oii^uo-^fxaaiv. 
Kiim. 597. cvo Lv f.iiaaf.iaT(x)v^. 

Obs. Masculine substantives are also found in an adjective sense with 
feminines, as rfjs Trarpofoyrov /.iijTpos Soph. Track. 1125. with Scheefer's 
note. See §. 112. Obs. 2. 

4. Tlie tragedians use the masculine for the feminine, espe- 
cially in two cases : 

a. When the plural instead of the singular is used of a fe- 
male, and this indeed is commonly the case. Soph. El. 399. 
TTeaovjiieO , ei \pri} Trarpi ti jliio pov/nevoi, of Electra and 
Chrysothemis. Eurip. llec. 515. ovk ap' wc, Oavovf-ievovQ 
jLieTrjXOec Jj/tiac. Ip/iig. A. 828. oi» Oav/^ui a r]fxac, ayvoen', 
ovQ /iiri —apoc, Kareidec,, and pa.'isim . 

b. When a chorus of women is speaking of themselves. Eu- 
rip. IJippol. 1119 serj. ^vveaiv Se tiv eXiriBi KevOoJV Xeiwopai 
eu re Tv-^aic, BvartSv Kai ev epyi-iaai Xevaaivv. Andr. 422. 
(liK-eip ciKovaac,, where others iiave aKovaaa .^ 

Obs. The comparatives and superlatives of adjectives which are com- 
mon, or of those which are used as common, have usually three termi- 
nations. But here also the termination of the masculine sometimes 
stands for the feminine. Time. 3, 101. cvaejifioXw-aTos >/ AoKpis, 
5, 110. Tioi' K-parovy-uv diropMrepos >'/ \f]\pis. See §.117, 11. Obs,^ 

437. 4. The adjective as a predicate (not as an epithet) of things 
and persons, often stands in the neuter singular, although the 
subject is masculine or feminine or in the plural. //. /3 , 204. 
OVK. ayaOov TroXvKoiptii'ir)' e'lc, Koipavoc, karco. Ilerod. 3, 36. 
aocpov Se 7j TTpoi^irtOit]. Eurip. Med. 1090. oi ^ikv y areKvoi, 
^i aireipoavvav, c'lO rjou pporolc, eW aviapov 7ra?oec 
TcXeOovcT , ov\i TVVovTec, TToXXwv /novOiov cnreyjiiVTai. Here. 
F. 1295. KeKXrjpei'to Se (pojTt i^uiKapuo ttotc o[ /nerapuXai 

» Elmsley ad Eur. Med. T98. ad Soph. El. 977. Antig.92G. Arist. 

Sophocles (Ed. C. 531. considers Eccl. 31. Eur. Med. 316. Pors. ad 

^voij' TTca'^wj/as ungrammatical. On Eur. Ilec. 515. Ilcrm. ad Vig. 

the other side, see Osann Syll. In- p. 715, 50. 

script, p. 86. not. 47. Gottling ad *= Dorv.adChar. p.29'.'. Ilerm. I.e. 

Aristot. Polit. p. 367 scq. '' Misc. Obss. 3. p, 303. Dorv, ad 

'' Dawes-'s Miso.Cr. p. 310. Biunck Char. p. 347. 

iij/ntax. Combination of Adjectives, S^c. 721 

XvTTijpov. Plat. Leg. 4. p. 101 A. kukov ev OaXuTrtj rpir}- 
peic, oirXiraic, irapnaruiaai fLia-^ojuevoic. and also according to 
§. 303. lb. 5. p. 732 E. ecm di) (pvaei avO ptjjir eiov f.ia- 
Xtora i)Sovai Kai Xvirai Kai eiriOv fiiiai. Rep. 5. p. 455 T^. 
aadevkarepov yvi'i) avdpoQ. Conip. Phccdon. p. 87 D. Thus 
too the participle with an adjective : Flat. Hep. 4. p. 420 C. 
oi o(bQa\ixoif KaWiarov o»', ovk ocxTpeuo ei>a\i]\ipi.ievoi elev. 
The difference of the construction of the adjective as an epithet, 
and as a predicate, is strong;ly marked in these expressions 
Plat. Hipp. Maj. p. 288 B. Oi]\eia '/ttttoc Kokr] ov KaXov, ib. C. 
Xvpa KaXi] ov KaXov ; yjorpa KoXy] ov koXov ; 

This predicate in the neuter is often accompanied by xpri^ia 

or KTripa. Herod. 3, 80. kwc S 01* eix] y^pi\i.ia Karijprr)- 

fxkvov j^iovvapy^it] ; Eurip. Iphig. A. 334. I'ouc ^e y ov 

j3ej3aioc adiKov Kxrjjita, kov aaCpec (piXoic Plat. Theag. 

jo. 122 B. ffu^tjSovXT) lepov y^prj/^ia. A]so wpayfxa : Uemosth. 

77. Trapairp. p. 383, 5. Meitand. ap. Slob. Tit. 10. wg ttoikiXov 

Trpayjx ecrri Kai irXavov rv^v- Or these substantives are put 

in the genitive, with the superlative of the adjective : Herod. 5, 

24. KTTjpaTMv TTavTwv TipiojTOTOv uvijp cpiXoi). Isocr. ad Ni- 

cocl. p. 25 B. avppovXoQ ayaOoc, \pr]cnpojTaTOV Kai TvpavviKui- 

' ' I lip. 

Tarov aTravTMV /crrj^iaTWV ean . 

Obs. 1. ovdeu, fxr]cev are often used in a similar manner with the 
verb el^i, kariv, elai in the predicate, or in apposition with subjects of 

all genders. Eurip. Or. 717. ui 7r/\»)v yvvaiKhs ovreKa ffrparr/Xareiv, 

-ciW ovZev ' thou who art fit for nothing but', &c. Pha^n. 417. 

Tct (j)i\u)t^ 3' ovSer, ?')»' rts Cvrrrv^rj. See §. 28 i. Androm. 50. izaihi 
T ovSev ear ctTrwj' ' is of no avail', ib. 1080. ovcev e'/'jii', aiTuiKo^av 'I 
am lost'. Plat. Rep. 8. ]J' ^^^ ^' uv2pes ol iii-ierepoi TrXovaioi elalv 
oiidey. Ap)ol. S.J). 41 E. ehv ookwitI tl eJyai, firj^ey oires, oreidi- 

^ere avTois, oVt ovk kTvifieXovrTUL wi' eel (ccti ocovtcu ti eli'ai, oyres 

ol^eyos a^ioi. and with the article in the neuter Sojih. Track. 1107. xay 
TO /ijj^ev w. Comp. Aj. 1275. Eur. Rhes. 821. ?} tov "Ei^ropa ro 
[xrjBey elyai Kcti KaKuy vop-i^ere 'of no consequence': also in the 
masculine Eur. Phcen. 612. izpos roy ohcey. Soph.Aj. 767. kciv 6 ntjSey 
&v. ovcey, ju//2e»' are also used as indeclinables : Soph. Aj. 12^1. 6t 
ovhev Ml' TOV]cey cuTeirrjjs vvrep. Eur. Hcracl. 168. ytpovTOs to 

^ \'alck. ad Eur. I'h. '.^06. Brunckad Arist. Ran. \Wl. Fisch. 3 a. p. '288. 310. 

722 Sj/ntax. Combination of Adjectives, &jc. 

fXTj^ey ovroi. Troad. 415. arop tci aefxvh /cat hoKi}fia(nv ao(j)a ov^er rt 
Kpei(T(Tio Twv TO fiTj^ey rjv apa. 

Instead of this the masculine is used jurist. Equ. 158. to vvv fieu 
ovEels, aiioLov B' vTrepfikyas. and in the obhque cases Sojyh. (Ed, C. 918. 
KafjL "laov rw j-irjceyl. Antig. 1325. tov ovk oyra jjdWov f; fj-rfCeva, qui 
jiotius exlinctus sum quam nullo tiumero hahendus. and ovleies also in 
the plural Herod. 9, 58. ovceves apa koyTes ev ovdufiolai eovcri "EX- 
XrjffL eicnreheintvaTo, 'men of no consideration'. Soph. Aj. 1114. oh 
yap iiiiov tovs firiheyas. Eurip. Androm. 700. aefxvol B' ey ap^ah 
i'l^eyoi Kara TTToXiy (ppoyovai Bt'jfiov fxeJl^oy, oyres ov^iyes. Iphig. A. 
371. Commonly the masculine is used for 'of no value', the neuter in 
this sense and also in that of 'destroyed'. (See Eur. Or. 717. Phcvn. 
417. Andr. 50.) Eurip. Ion. C06. b (to) fXTj^ey wv Kal ov^iywy kck- 
Xt'jffofiai will be the only exception, if this reading be correct*. 

Ohs. 2. The comparatives ' more, less', nXeitjy, fxeioyy, &c. are often 
put as epithets with substantives of the masculine and feminine gender 
and plural number, in the neuter singular or plural, and in the ac- 
cusative, although the substantive be in the nominative, genitive, or 
dative. Xen. Cyrop, 2, 1, 5. '/ttttovs fxey ut,€i ov jielov Biafivpuoy. 
§. C. iinreas ixey ijfily eiyai /uelov ?) to TpiToy jiepos, Sec. ibid. 7re\- 
TUOTCLS Ka\ To^oras TrXeoy f/ elKoai iivpiaBas, instead of which §. 5. it 
IS To^uTus irXeiovs ?) TeTpaKiariJLvplovs, Xoy)(^o<pupovs ov fxeiovs TCTpa- 
K((Tjxvplu)y, TreXrarrTas ov pelovs TpKTfivplojy. This, as the grammarians 
observe, e. g. Thorn. M. j). 719. Mceris, ^i. 294. is a more Attic construc- 
tion than irXeiuvs, TrXetovwj', TrXelocn y Tp. Thus also the neuter plural 
IS used Plat. Afcncx. ])• ^'^^ B. u.vtt} // ae^yorrjs irapajxeyei iij-iipas 
TrXeiw ?} Tpels. And in Xen. Anab. 5, 6, 9. one MS. gives "AXvy ov 
fie I it) ^voly OTa^ioiy, for ov fie7oy. 

Obs. 3. It seems to be a different case when ravra has an adjective 
or participle with it, as ravra 6.cvyaroy. Plat. Parm. p. 160 A. ravra 
£k iuvyaroy c<payi]. Id. Prot. j). 314 C. ^ut,ay iipi'iy ravra, enopevofieOa. 
comp. Xen. Anab. 4, 1,13. Here the predicate in the singular seems 
to be joined to the neuter plural, just in the same way as the neuter 
plural regularly takes the verb in the singular §. 300. In Plat. So2)h. 
J). 251 E. Ka'i fi))y ru ye ^vo Ithvyarov evpedi], ra Bvo is considered as a 
whole, unless the proposition in its complete form ought to stand thus, 
Kal fit)y Tu ye ^vo Trotetr, or vnoXufijiayeiy acvyaroy evpeOi], SoAlcib. 1. 

* Dorv. ad Charit. p. 218. eil.Lips. Lol). ad Soph. Aj. I'JIO. Elmsh ad 
Valcken. ad Ilerod. 9, 58. p. 7 19, 19. Eur. Hcracl. 168. 

Si/ntax. Combination of Adjectives, S^c. 723 

p. 129 C. ovKOvv IxWo fxkv u refivuiv t:ai u ^pu)[ieyos, iiWo Ce ols u 
rifivoyv ■)(j)r}Tai, where ctXXot fxkv — aWa Se would give quite a false 
meaning. There is a similar construction in n yap earl ravra ; §. 488, 2. 
and Herod. 1, 89. Kvp<p ^e eTrifxeXes kyerero ra Kpolaos elyre **. 

In the phrases unavTa Sucr^fpeia ' nothing but disagreeableness' Sojjh. 
Phil. 902. ciTrav pviros Theocr. 15, 20. anar, cnrarra appear to be the 
subject and the substantive which is subjoined to be the predicate, which 
is stronger than dnafra Svax^pij. Similar to this is Trdv ay aduy, Trdv 
KUKuy Plat. Phil. p. 28 A. nil nisi honum. On the other hand Herod. 
1, 32. TzCiv eoTt avQphjTTos cviAcpopi'i, Tray appears to be used adverbially. 

Obs. 4. In Herodotus 4, 17. we have Nevpwr 2e to vpds ftopijy aye^ov 
epyjfios ctvdpil)Tru}y. Comp. ib. 20, 191.*^ But here to irpos /3. ay. seems " 
not to be the subject to epijjios, but the accusative in the sense /caret 
7-0 7rpo$ ft. a. and with eprj/j-os, x^P'l ^r yj; must be understood, and 
the genitive also must depend upon to Trpos ft. ay. as 4, 185. virep dk 
Trjs 6(ppvT]s TavT7]S, TO TTjOos voToy Kai ixecroyaiay ttJs Aiftvijs eprjuos kuI 
(iyvdpos Kal ciOifpos Kai avo^iftpos teal d^vXns eori >/ X'^'P''* ^'^ Thucyd. 
7, 62. Ku\ yap To^orai ttoWoI Kai ciKOiTtcrrat e-mftiiuoyrai k(u uxXos, f, 
vaw/ia^'ai' fJL^y iroiovixeyoi ey ireXayei, ovk av e^pi^Jl^eda, Cia to ftXcnrTeiv 
ay TO Trjs iiri<7T7]fJLr]s tt] ftapvTr]Ti. Twy yeuiy, ey dk 7?/ iiyayKacrfxeyr) awo 
T(Sy yeuiy TreZfo/iax'? Trpoa^opa eurai, it should be properly, us 
(oxXos) Trp6a(j)opos eVrcti. But the proposition ey ce ry i)vayK. Sec. does 
not depend upon the relative, and Trpocrfopa eorai is put for Trpoaipopoy 
eaTui (see §. 443.), where we must understand ?-w ^x^^ xpfjadai. 

5. Proper names in the singular are often accompanied by 438. 
the adjectives Trpwroc, Trac, and others, in the neuter plural, as 
predicates, or in apposition. Herod. 6, 100. Aia^liniQ o No9w- 
voc, eujv TMv 'FjpeTpieojv to. tt pwra, 9, 77. Aa^Trtup o TlvOau), 
Aiyivi}Te(i)v Ttt Trpiora. princeps Eretriensium, JEgi)ietaruni. 
Eurip. Med. 912. olyiiai yap wjiiac rrjcrde -yijo KopivO'iaG to. 
TrpioT eaeaOai. Comp. Or. 1245. In signification, Eur. Iph. 
il. 51. agrees with this, oi to. irpwr ojX^iafxkvoi. Herod. 3, 
157. TTCivra Zri ^v [tp] rolai BajSuXwviotcri XioTTvpoc, 'was 
everything to them'. 7, 156. o Be (FeXwy) tuq Euprj/coi/croc 
e/coaruve, Kai eaav Inravra oi ai ^vpi]Kovaai. Ihuc. 8, 95. 
Eu/Sota -yap alroic, dTTOKeKXyjafievriQ rrjc ATTtKr7(; Troj-Ta r]i'. 
Comp. Dcmosth. de Cor. p. 240, 11. In these phrases, irpwra 

^ Ileind. ad Plat. Tarm. p. 280. Ast ad Plat. Leg. p. 176 seq. 
Bast et Scha;f. ad Gregor. p. 130. ' Sec Wcsseling's Note. 

724 Sj/ntax. Combination of Adjectives, S^c. 

is commonly put with, uud -Kavru without, the article ; yet 
Eurip. Flee. 794. irpuira rwv €/nu)v (jiiXivv, where, however, 
Brunck reads ra irptora twv e. (f). Porson Trpuiroc, wv e^iwv 
<pi\(i}v. Herod. 1, 122. riv re o'l ev tw Xo-yw ra iravra 7j Kvvio 

* Cyno was everything in his story ; he talked of nothing hut 
Cyno' : wiiere Travra without the article would have meant 

* Cyno was dear to him above everything'. Perhaps the singu- 
lar is so used Soph. Ant. 487. e'lO' ojnaifj.oveaTepa row ttovtoc 
r'ljLuv 7Lr]voc, 'EpKeiov Kvpel * than Jupiter, who is above all others 
honoured by us' '\ 

Similar to this is ra (piXraTa, by which everything is desig- 
nated which is especially dear to a man, wife, children, &:c. an 
only son. Soph. Phil. 435. flaT/oo/cXoo oc crou Trnrpoc, riv ra. 

(piXTara, 'the favourite'. Eur. Troad. 375. o (TTpoTJj-yo'c 

Tu ^'iXrar loXeae, 'his daughter'. Soph. (Ed. C. 915. ra 
rrjcT^e tz/o -ytjo Kvpia, for rov Kvpiov. Theocr. 15, 142. ''Ap-yeoq 

uKpa WcXaayo'i. So JEsch. Pers. 1. TciBe juev Tlepauiv 

TTtcTTa /caXeTroi Kai (jyvXuKeQ . 

4i9. Demonstrative pronouns are often not in the gender of the 
substantive to which they refer, but in the neuter, provided the 
idea of the substantive in the abstract be considered generally 
as a thing or matter. P/at. Alcib. 1. ;>. 115 D. ttwc ovv 
Xtyeic, rrepi avcpiac, ewi iToau) av avrov (tjjc avcp'iac,) ce^aio 
GTepeaOai ; Each. p. 185 E. eiric lipa i)p(Jov rey^viKoc, irepi ipv^ija 
Oepaireiav, Kai oioc re kuXujc tovto (ti)u \pvyjiv) OepaTrevaai ', 
Comp. Phccdon. p. 88 A. Eurip. Suppl. 597. Xen. Cijrop. 
1, 6, 28. Xcovai Kai apKTOic, Kai irapSaXeaiv ovk eic, to laov 
KaOiaTajLievoi e/iia^eaOe, aXXa peTci TrXcove^'iac, rivoc, ael eirei- 
paaOe aywviteadai wpdc, ai/ra. Aristot. Polit. 7. p. 589 C. 
oei Kai yopriyiac, tu'oc to L,r]v KuXioc,, tout ou Ce eXarTOVOC 
fiiev ToTc upeivov SioKei/iievoic, TrXe'iovoQ Se toTo '\^£7pov. Thus 
too Plat. Hep. 4. p. 421 seq. ttXovtoc, tc Kai irevia, wc tou pev 
{TTAOVTOV) rpv(pi}v re Kai apyiav Kai veMrepiapov epTroiovvroc, 
TOW oe (t)7o Trej'/aq) avcXevOepiau /col KOKoepy'iav Trpdc, toT veio- 

' Of -a irpwra see Hemst. ad Luc. Ran. 421. Of Travra, Valck. ad Ilerod. 

t. 1. p. 400. Obss. Misc. 5. p. 30. 7, 156. p. 576, 66. Duker ad Tliuc. 

Wessel. ad Ilcr. 6, 100. p. 484, 47. 8,95. Ilerm. ad Vig. p. 727,95.10. 
Bruiickad Eurip. Or. 1251. Aristoph. '' Blomf. Gloss. Pers. 1. 

Syntax. Combinatiun of Adjectives, &;c. 725 

repiafxM. Comp. §. 468. c.*^ Thus even the pronoun is some- 
times found in the singular in reference to a substantive phiral. 

Thiic. 1, 80 extr. r'lvi irKTrevcravTaQ y^pr) eTr€i-)(Orivai ; roTc 

y^priixaGiv ; aWa ttoXXw en ttAciV) tovtov eWenrofxev. 

These pronouns are even put sometimes in the neuter plural, 
although the word to which they refer is in the singular. Plat. 
Menon. p. 78 D. y^pva'iov ^i) Kai apyvpiov 7ropiZ,eadai aperr] 

ecTTiv, wc, (br](n Mti'aji'. Trorepov TrpoanOijc tl tovtm 

TM TTopu), TO ^iKa'i-wc Kai ocTi'wc ; h ovoei' (TOi ciaCpepei ; aWa 
Kav a^iKcoc, t(C avTu Tropt'^r/rcti, opoiojcav avra (to TtopiCeadai) 
aperriv KaXelc, ; Phileb. p. 1 1 E. pcou ovk, av peu i)§ovy paWov 
(jya'ivrjrai ^vyyevrjc (e^tc xpvyjjc) ijTTiopeOa pev a/nCpoTepoi rov 
Tavra (rriv e^tr) ey^^ovroG |3e|3aici»c (3iov, Kparei Se o ttjc 
rj^ovric TOi* T^c (l)povrj(T€(ji)G ; Leg. 1. p. 647 A. dp ovv ovk av 
vofxoQeTiiG TOVTOV Tov (p6(5ov ev Tip^ peyi(TTij ae(ioi, kqi kciXmv 
alSdo, TO TOVT(ov {cp6(5ov) OdppoQ evavTioi' ava'iceiau Trpoaa- 
yopevoi; Comp. Xen. Anab. 1, 7, 4.'^ So TctSe, TauTa refer 
to an infinitive Pur. Aiidr. 371. f^ieyaXa yap Kp'ivo) To§e, 
\e\ovG (XTepeaOai^. 

The neuter is used also when the pronouns refer to persons 
and not merely to things. Nicocl. p. 34 B. tovg ttoTSoc 
Touc eavTwv kui tug yvvaiKaG to?c eto TauTa e^apapTavovai. 

Thus the relative pronoun is put in the neuter, when it re- 
fers to a thing generally, whether masculine or feminine. Soph. 
(Ed. T. 542. op ou^i (.ihipov CffTi Tovyyeipriixa aov, avev re 
iT\r]QovG Kol (p'lXwv TvpavviBa 6i]pav, o TrXijOei '^prjpaaiv 
aXi(TK€Tai ; Thuc. 1, 122. tijv iiacfuv, et Kai ^eivov tw aKov<Tai, 
'icfTOJ OVK aXXo Ti (pepovaav, 7j dvTiKpvG SovXeiav' o Kai Xoyto 
ev^oiaaOrjvai aia'^poi' Ty IleXoTrovvyjaio. 7, 62. evprjTai d I'lplv, 
oaa )(p>} avTivavntiyeiaOai, /cat rrpoc tug twv tTrojTtSwj' auToTc 
7ra-^vT}]Tac, <t>7rep (qua re) pdXioTa e^XaiTTopeOa. Plat. 
Symp. p. 196 A. (Tuu/<eTpou Kai vypaG iceaG p^ya TCKprjpiov rj 
ev(Tyn]^iocsvv\)y o Sj] Kai oia<pepovT(t}G e/c TravTiov opoXoyovuevojG 
''EpioG e'x^'^' ^'^ ^^^^ other hand Xenoph. Mem. S. 3, 9, 8. 

"= Markl. ad Eurip. Suppl. 432. <• Jacobs ad Athen. p. 85. Schref. 

Schaef. ad Soph. El. 1366. Heind. App. Dem. 1. p. '23+. 

ad Phffid. p. 139 seq. Ast ad Plat. * Schcef. ad Dion. Hal. p. 80 .seq. 

Leg. p. 80. ' Stallb, ad Phil. p. 20T. ' Heind. ad Plat. Gorg. p. 47. 

726 Syntax. Comhination of Adjectives, S^c. 

(I)06vop Se ffKroTTwi^, o ti e'trj &c. is regular, as in Latin quid sit 
invidia, which refers to the determination of the class of ob- 
jects io which anything belongs, whereas on the contrary in 
(pQovov (TKoirdjv, ooTic, ell] the class is considered as already 
determined, and the question only is put, what other qualities 
besides the thing has, as Plat. Gorg. p. 462 D. t/c reyrnj 

o\f/07roua Ot/Sejuia, to IlwXe. - - -'AXXa ri, (^yaOi. 4>»j^tt ^77 

e/nrreipia tic. This distinction is marked in Cicero Tjtsc. Qu. 1, 
22, 51. animi, quid ant qualis esset, intelligentia. So also the 
plural: li,ur. Andr. 271. a S ear eyl^vric Koi irvpoc, Trepai- 
repu), ovceic, ywaiKOC (pupf-iaK e^eu/OJjfce irio KaKrjc Comp. Iph. 
A. 938. In Troad. 396. aei Kar' iifiap avv Ba/.iapTi koi tckvoic. 
WKovv, A^atotc OJV aTTr}aai> tjSoi'ot, an' may refer to ^upaproc 
Kai TeKV(i)v, but also to tov oI/ceTv avv B. Ka\ t. as T/iuc. 1, 69. 
Kairoi eXeyeaOe aacpaXelc, eivai, ojv (tov aa<p. elvai) upa o \6yoc, 
TOV epyov eKpuTci. Xen. Anah. 1, 9, 24. Comp. §. 475, a. 

Obs. 1. In a similar manner an adjective is sometimes put, as well 
as a demonstrative or relative pronoun, in the neuter, which either de- 
signates a thing generally, or refers to a verb preceding, or to an entire 
proposition, and is afterwards explained by masculine or feminine sub- 
stantives (^)<?r epcxcgeshi). 

a. Adjective. Thiic. 2, G3. ett:<)s pt) vopiaai Trcpt tros 

puvov, lovXeias Ai't eXevdepias, ay(oylc^f(TOai. 

h. Demonstr. pr. Eur, Suppl.b\2. kcu tovtu toi ratcpelot', »'/ TrpopijOia. 
Plat. Reji. 2. p. 207. Xeyovtri ttov kuI irupaKeXevoi'-at Traripes re v'tea-i, 
ws ■)(^p)) ^iKaiov elvai, ovk uvtu, S ikaioarvvrjv, eiraitovi'Tes, ttXXo ros 
an aiiT^s ev^oKipi'iaeis. Comp. Phccdon. j). 93 E. Gorg. p. 449 C. 
ApoL S. p. 24 E." 

C. Relative pr. Thuc. 3, 12. u toIs aXXois paXidra, evymu, TTiffTiv 
pepairn, >///?>' tovto {rtjif TTitTTiv) 6 (^oftos kyypov Tr(tpel-)(€. Plat. Rep, 9. 
J>. ^83 ti. o p€TaL,v I'lpa vvr h) apforepu)}' et^apev etrai, t)]v f]av\iai', 
TOVTO TTOTC u/jicpoTepa eoTUi, XvTzri re ku'i yj^ori). Comp. Prot. p. 313 A. 
Leg. 1. j;. 631 C* Hence may be explained the involved passage 
m I hue. 2, 40. ciafepoi'Tws yap ^i) kuI ToCe e-^opo', wffre ToXpciv re ol 
avTot /ictXiora, kai irepl loy c-Kiyeipiirropev eKXoyli^eadui' o (sc. to evXo- 
yii^effdai) toIs ciXXois, iipaOia pey Opaaos, Xoyttrpos ?e oki'Ov (p^pei, 

=* Plat.Theast. p.297seq. Cratyl. p. 97. Paimcn. p. (J^G. 
'' Ileind. ad Phit. Gorg. p. 121. ad 

Si/utax. Combination of Adjectives, &)C. 7*27 

wlieie only the opposition, kfxaOia /jey Opuaoi, interrupts the con- 
struction, instead of o vols i'lWois, (tf^iadias Opaaos fepoucris, okvuv (p^pei, 
namely 6 \oyt«rjLios. See §. G22. 

Obs. 2. Thus also the adjectives ttcis, uXXos, especially when they 
are referred to a substantive which is not in the same case with them, 
are used in the masculine or neuter, though the substantive is feminine. 
Soph. Tr. 121G. Trpoffreifiat 2' ejuoi X"P"' /^P"X^'^"' '^P°^ fxuicpoTs 
iiXXois ciCovs. Plat, Tiw, j), 41 E. 4v(7r//(ras le to ttuv, culXe \pvxas 

laapid^ovs rots aarpois, eyeifie 0' cKacrrtjv vpos eKciarov, ~ rofiovi 

re Toiis e'tfjiapi.teyovs etTrev alrcus' on yevems fJ-ey eaoiTO r€Tayf.i€in] fxia 

6. As the predicate verb is sometimes referred to the sub- 410. 
stantive in the predicate, instead of that in the subject, so the 
participle sometimes conforms not to the subject, but the 
predicate. Plat. Leg. 5. p. 735 ~E. rove f-ieyiara e^ij^uajonj- 
KOTQC, aviarovc Se ovrac, fieyi.(TTr}v Se ovaau pAapj;v iroXewc, 
(for oi^Toc) oTraXXaTTfa' eiwOev. Profag. p. 359 D. Parmen. 
p. 134 C. iravra, a 8r} wc iSeac avTuc ourrac viTo\an(5avo^i€v, 
for uvTa ovra, where avra after the relative is superfluous. 
See §. 471.*^ 

In the same manner the relative, as in Latin, sometimes 
takes, not the gender and number of the substantive to which 
it refers, but that of the following one. Herod. 5, 108. Trjv 
aKpr\v, o'l KoXevvrai KXijiSec t^q KuttjOou. ILur. Hel. 290. o o 
ay\ai(Xi.ia ow/ttarwi' €,1101; t (.(pv, Ovyamp avav^poQ TToAut 
TrapOeveverai. Comp. Ion. 955. Plat. Leg. 3. p. 699 C. o 

d)o/3oc, ou ^ovXevovrec, toIq vpoaOev vo/^iok; efce/crrji'TO, iju 

a'l^o) TToWaKic, ev toTc avw Xoyotc e'nronev. Id. Leg. 1. 
p. 629 D. Hence Eur. Andr. 862. KvavoTTTepoc opviQ e'lO' 
euji', v irevKaev (TKa<poc,, 1) ^iii Kvaveac, eirepacf aKrac, Trptjj- 
tottXovq TrXara^. 

7. When the demonstrative pronoun is the subject, and has 
a substantive for the predicate, it is put, as in Latin, in the 
gender of the predicate. Plat. Crat. p. 433 E. to awOrit^iara 

" Dorv. ad Char. p. 551 seq. p.212. Prot. p.637. Jacobs ad Athen. 

Hemsterh. ad Luc. T. 1. p. 447 scq. p. 7. 
ed. Bip. * Herm. ad Vig. p. 708. Heind. ad 

'' Plat. Hipp. J 09. Farm. Plat. Pha;dr. p. 279. ad Cratyl. 75. 

728 Syntax. Combination of Adjectives, S^c. 

etvai Tct ovo^ara - - - Koi elvai TavTr\v opdoTTjra ovo/hutoc, 
(TvvOi^Ki^v. Enthi/phr. in. ovroi S?j 'A0r]va7o'i ye St'/crji' avTriv 
KaXovaiv, oXAo ypa(pni'. Eur. EL 762. a(payrii> ai/retc riivBe 
f.ioi ' this is murder which thou announcest to me'^. Often how- 
ever also in the neuter: Plat. Fhadr. p. 245 C. inovov S77 to 

avTO Kivovv ovTTore Xjp/et Kivovi^ievov, aWa Kat TO?r, aAAofc, 

ocra Kivelrai, tovto Trij-y?} Kai ap\r] yeveaeojc, which Cicero 
Tasc. Disp. 1,23, 53. renders, hicfojis, hoc principium est mo- 
vendi. Plat. Phadon. p. 7 3 D. tovto d ecjTiv avai^iviiGic. Comp. 
Apol. S. p. 29 A. Isocr. c. Soph. p. 293 D. Lysias p. 98, 45. 
and combined with the remark §. 439. Plat. Gorg. p. 492 C. 
The neuter seems to be used when the word to which the pro- 
noun refers is to be emphatically distinguislied; the gender of 
the predicate substantive when this is to be distinguished. The 
case is the same with the relative : Plat. Leg. 1 . p. 629 D. to 
f.iev, o KaAovf.i6v airavTCC OTaaiv, 

On the other hand, especially in tlie poets, ToSe is often 
found as a substantive followed by a noun masculine or femi- 
nine in the predicate. Soph. (Ed. T. 1329. 'AttoXAwi' toS ?ji/ 
* that was Apollo', especially in negative propositions, as Thuc. 
6, 77. ovK ' Iwj'ec Ta^e eia'iv. Eur. Troad. 99. ovkcti Tpoia 
TciBe. Andr. 168. ou yap e(TB'''FjKTO)p TtiSe . 

441. If an adjective, participle, or pronoun refers to two or more 
substantives, then 

1. If all the substantives are of the same gender, the adjec- 
tive Sec. is properly in this gender and in the plural. Yet here, if 
the substantives signify inanimate objects, the neuter is often 
used : Xen. Cyr. 1, 3, 2. upcov avTov KeKoa/nrt/nevov koi o<pOa\- 
/itwv VTToypa(pi^ Kai y^pu)f.iaTOC. evTpixpei Kai Konaic, irpoaBe- 
Toic, a ^») vof^itiia »)v ev MZ/Soic. Isocr. Panath. p. 278 13. 
TavTa S' enrol', ov wpoc, tjji' evaepeiav, owoe Trpoc, tyiv St/ca(o- 
avvrfv, ouSe irpuc tw (jypovriaiv airopXe^pac, a av citiXOec. 

2. If the substantives are of different genders, then 

o. If inanimate objects are signified, the neuter plural is com- 
monly used. Ilerod. 2, \32. Tovavy^eva Kai ttji' Ke(paXi}v 

» Heind. ad Plat. Soph. p. 313. '' Matthite ad Eur. Troad. 99. 

Syntax. Combination of Adjectives, i^c. 729 

^a'lvei KexpvaMi.ikva. Plat. Mene.v. p. 246 E. ovre yap 

ttXovtoq KuXXoc, (jyepei no KeKrij/nevii) /Lier avavcpiuQ ovre 

aw/LiaroQ kuXXoc Km t^X^'' SetAw /coi kukoI l^vvoiKovvra 
TTpeTTOura (paiverai, aXX' cnrpeTrri. Xen. Mem. S. 3, 1, 7. 
X'iQqi re Koi irX'ivOoi /cat ^vXa Kai KepujiioQ araKTtoc eppip.f.ieva 
ovcev -y pi} (Tina eariv. 

Thus also the relative. Isocr. de Pac. p. 159 A. i) 
eKKXriaiaaovrec. Trep'i re TroXe/nov Kai eiphvi]C., a ixeyiaTrjv e^et 
cvva/.uu ei> t(o j3t(u tiov avOpwrrivv. 

b. With animated beings the adjective is put in the mascu- 
line, if one of the substantives is of the mascuHne gender. 
Herod. 3, 119. Trarpoc Kai /mtirpor, ovKeri /itou Iujovtwv, 
o8eX(^eoc au aXXoc ovSevl rpoTroJ yevoiro. Pind. 01. 9, 66. 
Uvppa AevKaX'iMV re napvaaov Kara^avre. Plat.Menon. 
p. 73 B. Twv avTU)v apa af-iCpoTepoi BeovTUi, e'lrrep /.leXXovaiv 
ayaOoi elvai, Kai v yvvrj Kai o avnp, ^iKaioavvnQ icai aiocppo- 
avvrjc. Xen. Cj/rop. 3, 1, 7. o>c Se el^e Trarepa re Kai ^nrepa 
Kai aSeXcbovc Kai ttji* eavTOv yvvalKa ai^fxaXwrovG 
yeyevr)f^ie\'ovc, ecuKpvaev, loarrep eiKoc. 

c. Also the adjective conforms in gender and number to one 
only of the substantives. 11. e , 891. a'lel yap roi epic re 
(piXt} TToXeyttoi re /na^ai re. /3', 136. ai Be ttov 7]f.ier€pai r 
aXo')(^oi Kai vrjTTta reKva e'lar evl /neyapoir, -rror iBeyfxevai. 
o', 193. ya7a 8' en ^vvrj -rravro^v Kai f.iaKpoc ''OXvf.nroQ. 
Xen. Cyrop. 7, 5, 60. rovQ eyovrac, -Kal^ac, i] yvvalKac, 
avvapfxotovaaQ rj TraidiKo. eyvw (jiixrei crvvrtvayKaaOai ravra 
fidXiara (piXelv^. 

So also the relative. Isocr. de Pac. p. 163 A. B. ^era 
TToXXna aacpaXeiaQ riw ttoXiv oiKi'iaoixev, airaXXayevrec tToXefiwv 
Kai Kivdvvvjv Kai rapayj]c„ eic, Yfv vvv irpoQ aXXi]XovQ Karearn^ev. 

In this case sometimes the adjective &c. conforms itself not 
to the nearest, but to one of the remoter substantives. Od. i , 
222 seq, vaov S' opto ayyea iravra, yavXoi re (TKaCpicec re, 
rervyfieva, role evafxeXyev, where yavXo'i and (TKaCpidec stand 

"^ Fisch. 3 a. p. 314-317. 
VOL. H. Q 

730 Spitax. Combination of Adjectives, 6>c. 

in the same relation to ayyea, as the species to the genus. Hes. 
''EjO-y. 403. oIkov fxev irpojTiara yvvalKu re, (Bovv r aporripa, 
KttjtiV, ov ja/iieTni'. Comp. Tlieog. 972 seq. Eur. Bacch. 
740. eiSec S' av rj TrXevp', v Si^tjAov ejuf3a(Ttv, piirTO/nev avd) 
re KOI Karb). Compare, however, §. 304. Obs. 3. Here. F. 
776. o -^pvaoQ a T €.vrvy[a (ppoveiv (5porovc e^ayerai, cv~ 
va<Tiv e<peXKiov. Thuc. 8, 63. irvOoixevoc, tov ^rpof.i^i\[^r)v 
Koi rac. vavc aireXriXvBoTa. In Eur. Ion. 712. vvv S r] pev 
eppei l^vpdyopalc, o S' evTvy(^e7, iroXiov eianeaovcra yrjpac the 
construction §. 622. also takes place. 

Obs. 1 . In the lyric poets a participle %\hicl] refers to two nouns 
sometimes stands in the middle between them, which is called by the 
grammarians ^x''/^ " 'AXKjjciviKoy. Find. Pyth. 4, 31 S. 7re/i«7re c' 'Epfxds 

lilvpovs vlous Toy fikv 'E-)(i.ova, Kex^adovras ^/3^, top B' "Epvroy, 

where, however, there is a reference to the preceding accusative plural. 
Comp. §. 304. Obs. 4.^ 

Obs. 2. Sometimes an adjective which refers to two substantives is 
found only with the second. SojyJi. CEd. C. 1399. o'tpoi neXevdov Trjs 
T tfxrjs cvinrpa^ias, where rtjs ejujjs belongs also to KeXevOov. Eurip. 
Sujypl. 23. TO T ey^os ->'/v re Cv(TTV)(^e(TTaTr]y (TTeyioy (TTpaTciay, i. e. to 
T€ cv(7Tvxe(rTaToy eyX''*' Comp. (Ed. T. 41 7. See above, §. 428, 4. 

442. Instead of the adjectives being considered, as in other lan- 
guages, as epithets of the substantives, and put in the same 
case with them, in Greek the substantive is often considered 
as the whole, and the adjective as the part ; and then the sub- 
stantive is put in the genitive. The adjective has then the 
gender of the substantive. 

1. The cases are very common in which the substantive is 
put with the adjective in the plural. jEsch. Supp/. 310. ravra 
Twi' TTaXXaypaTwv. Soph. CEd. T. 18. 01 Se t' tjdeiov Xe/CTOt, 
for Xe/CToi yOeoi. Arist. Plut. 490. o\ y^pnarol twv av9pu>7rwv. 
Eurip. Ilec. 194. purep, ttwg (pO^yyei ap^yapra KaKwy ; Isocr. 
ad Mfoc/. p. 24 B. St? tovc (iovXopevovQ v TroieTv 77 ypafpeiv 
Ti Keyapiapevov to7c ttoXXoTo pr] tovc, locfieXipojraTOvc 
Twv Xoywi^ ^TjTeTi^, t'lXXa tovc /.ivOoj^earaTovc, lor tovc wcj). 
XoyovQ. ib.D.Tct (TTTOuSatft Twv Trpay paTOji'. ib. tovc, 

' V^alck. ad Lesbon. p. 179. 

Sj/ntax. of Adjectives, S^c. 731 

ev cbpovovvTuc, Twv a V fHoTT to V . de Pac, p. 181 C. t(ov 
eBea/utaT 10 u Kal tmv e7rtT>;Seu;UaTw v to?c kul to (rivfia 
Kai TJjr \pvy(riv (^Xuttt ovaiv. Comp. §. 320 seq. To this 
class belong also Sia Oedojv, a^tSei'/ceroc av^pwv II. X , 248. 
(J liiiap' dvtpujv Arist. Vesp. 396. See §. 320.'* and Oeuiv rtc, 
(jy'iXojv TiQ is even more usual than Oeoc, rtc, though this also is 
found, e. g. Eur. Aiidr. I \82 seq. so that sometimes both con- 
structions are found together, as Eur. EL 1242.*^ 

2. This construction takes place also in the singular, espe- 
cially in Attic. Herod. 1,24. tov ttoXXov tov -y^povov 
SiaTp'ijSovTa TTOjoa UepiauEpo), for toi' ttoXXov {irXeicTTOv) 
vpovov. Thuc. 1, 2. jiidXiara Be rrjc yrjc i] apiaTri aei rac 
jiiera^oXdc tmv oiicriropiov el-^ev ' the best countries', id. 5,3] . 
em TrJ i)/iiiGeia rrjc yrjc. Plat. PhadoH. p. 1 04 A. o i]ilii(tvc, tov 
api9/iiov uTTac. Xen. Cyr. 4, 5, 1. Tre/tTrere riixiv tou TreTroijj^ievou 
a'lTOv TOV yiuiavv^. — Thuc. 7, 3. Ty vaTepaia uyuyv ttjv irXe'i- 
GTnv TnQ cfT puT la c TTupeTu^e irpoG ra rei-^n twv AOriva'itov, 
' the greater part of the army'. Arist. Ach. 350. t^c i^iapiXric. 
(Tv-vvnv * many glowing embers'. Xen. Cyrop. 3, 2, 2. (tkottwv 
KUTevoei TToXXrjv TT]a y^iopac, toIc, Appevioic, ep-qf-iov kql 
dpyov ovcrav, ' a great part of the country'. Comp. ib. 6, 2, 26. 
— Thuc. 7, 25. ^aXeTTfOTOTJ? S i}v tjjc trTOupaxrewc V 
K pv<pioc,. Plat. Hep. 3. p. 416 B. rr/v ^teytffTJji' T-qc, 
evXaf^e'iac TTctpeaKevaaf-ikvoi av e\ev. Prot. p. 329 A. SoXt^oi' 
KUTaTe'ivovGi tov Xo"you, for coXiyj}V Xoyoi'^. 

3. The neuter of the adjective or participle is also common 
here. 11. v , 178. n au, to crcrov o^iiXoi; ttoXXoi' erreXQujv, 
eoTTjc; Herod. 8, 100. to ttoXXov tJ/C OTpaTirjc;. 6, 113. to 
TeTpa/Li/Lievov twv [iapfiapwv. Thuc. 1, 118. ctti peya Bvi'a/.ieojc,. 
Comp. §. 320,4. 341. Xen. Anab. 1, 8, 8. i^ieaov rjpepac. 

*> Dobree ad Aristoph. Vesp. 1. c. " Wolf ad Demosth. Lept. p. 223. 

Erf. ad Soph. QLd. T. 1186. Monk « liemsterh. ad Luc. T. 1. p. SJG. 

ad Alcest. 472. Dorv. ad Charit. p.281. Wcssel. ad 

= Elmsl. ad Soph. Aj. 1188. and Diod. S. T. 1. p. 606. Fisch. 3 a. 

on the other side Harm, ad Aj. 977. p. 296 sqq. Heind. ad Plat. Cratyl. 

Reisig Comui. Crit. in Soph. CEd. C. p. 28. Kiister et Brunck ad Arist. 

p. 223. Comp. MatthiiE ad Ear. Ach. 350. 
Andr. 1157. 


732 Syntax. Combination of Adjectives, S)C. 

Cyr. 5, 3, 52. ev fxkato vvktojv. ih. 4, 4, 1. e^w /lecrou hf^hpac,, 
which the grammarians allege to be more Attic than ^teajj i^epa. 
To this belong also the passages quoted vol. 1. p. 207. 1. 4. 
To this place belongs the expression ev -rravrl kokov eivai Plat. 
Rep. 9. p. 579 B. ev Travrl aOviniaQ Thicyd. 1, 55. 'alto- 
gether unhappy, quite spiritless, without courage'. Herod. 
7, 118. e'lc, irdv kokov aCJiiKveiaOai. Eur. Ale. 613. iravra 
ao(j)l.aG for iraaa aocp'ia. So A?idr. 1175. etc ev fxo'ipac,, for 
f.dav /iiolpav. 

In the same manner the neuter of xt'o ' who?' and tic ' any- 
one', is used. Soph. Aj. 314. avnper' ev tw TrpaypaTOC 
Kvpe7 TTore, i. e. ev rivi -n-payi^iaTi. Ant. 1229. ev tw ^vp- 
Cpopap^ieCpOaprjc; as ti ^vp(j)opac Eur. Or. 1464. t'l ayye- 
Xiac, Soph. EL 169 ser/. Comp. Eur. Hel. 1215. Herod. 
6, 133. oi Ylapioi, o/cwc liev ti Swctoucti tw MtXTiaS?? apyv- 
p'lov, ovBev cievoevvro. Thuc. 4, 130. ^/v ri Kai ara- 
(Tiaapov ev Ty iroXei, for tic araaiacrpoG. 7, 69. Xupirpo- 
Trjroc Tt. 

4. It rarely happens that the genitive of a substantive mas- 
culine or feminine is accompanied by the adjective in the neuter 
plural. Soph. Antig. \209. tw S' aOXiac aayipa 7repi(5aivei (Doric 
epiiovri paWov aaaov, for |3o?} oar/^toc. Q^d. C.923. ib. 1693. 
Eurip. Phaii. 1500, ov irpoKaXvirropeva (5oaTpvy^io^enc, a (3 pa 
TTO/orjiSoc, for TraprfiSa a(3pav (^ofTTpvy^io^ri. Hel. 985. a (toi 
TTupeXnrev f/ce TMv\6yu)V, (ppaau), for owe \6yovc, where one 
MS. has TM \6yw. Xen. Ci/rop. 8, 3, 41. rjKei Se tiq v tJv 
7rpo(3aTwv XeXvKwpeva (pepwv, v twv ftowv KaraKeKpt]- 
pviapeva. This accords with the strata viarum of Virgil. 
It seems to have been occasioned by the circumstance that the 
neuter plural is elsewhere used for persons, as §. 438. as it 
were abst. pjoconcr. Soph. Q'^d. T. 261. koivwv re Tra'idcov 
Koiv av, €1 Ke'ivo) ykvoc, pi) '^varv^vaev, jjv av eKireCpvKOTa, is 
pleonastically said for koivoi Trainee »?<Tai' av eKirecpvKOTeG^. 

Ohs. As far as relates to the use of the neuter of persons, the fol- 
lowing phrases may be compared with these. Arist. Ecd. 52. vpu) 

* Schsef. ad Apoll. Rh. Schol. min. Heind. ad Ilor. Sat. p. 258. 
p. 233. Erf. ad Soph. Ant. Soj. ed. 

Syntax. Of the Adjective in particular. 733 

■Kpoaiovaaa ^arepas iroWas ttcu'i/ yvyalKUi o n Trep tor' oipeXos ey r// 
TToXet ' the principal women'. Xen. Hist. Gr. 5, 3, 6. TrafiTrXriOels 
unetcTeivav aydpujirovs, Kai o tl Trep o^eXos y]v tov tolovtov nTpa-evjxaTOS. 
■ — Herod. 9, 31. o n fieu avrov dwarwraTOt' irdv awoXe^as eoT7?cre. 
Thuc. 4, 133. o T ri av-iHv avQos, cnvoXivXei. — Theocr. 7, 5. e(Vt Trep 
kadXbv yauiv nSy eV ciywdey. Apollon. Rh. 3, 347. Hor. Serm. 1, 6, 1. 
Lydorum qiiicrfdd Etruscos incoluitjincs^'. Comp. §. 445, a. 

Of the Adjective in imrticular. 

The following observations still remain to be made upon the 443. 
usage of the adjective : 

1. When an adjective is put with an auxiliary verb, as pre- 
dicate, without referring to a proper sul)ject, consisting of one 
word, it is properly in the neuter singular; the Greeks, how- 
ever, often put the neuter plural. Herod. 1, 91. t»ji> Trewpuj- 
fxkvr]v ^lolpav acvvara ecxTi a7ro(pvyeeiv Kai deto. Comp. ihuc. 
1, 125. 3, 88. &c. llerod. 3, 109. oIk av i]!/ (iiwatf-ia uv- 
OpbJTTOiai. 9, 2. y^aXeTza eivai Trepiylveadai Kai airacn avdpio- 
TTOiai. Soph. Antig. 576. SeSoy^itei;', wc eoiKe, r/ji'Se KarOavelv, 
for ^edoyinevov eOTi. Philoct. 524. aXX' a'lay^pa /.levTOi, gov 
y' efx ev^eearepov ^ei/w (pavrivaL irpoc, to Kaipiov Troveiv. 
Eurip. Hec. 1230. dx^eiva jx'ev fxoi, -raXXorpia Kp'iveiv kgkq. 
Plat. Rep. 8. p. 562 A. XoiTra av eU^- 

This is particularly the case with vejbals. Herod. 3, 6 1. (o 
fjiayoQ Ilaritei9t]c;) KvpvKUQ Bicirepire ry re aWri Kai S?j /cot ec 
A'lyvTTTOv, TrpoepeovTa (applies merely to the one who was sent 
to Egypt. See c. 62 in.) tm arparto, wc 'E/.iepSioc, tov Kvpov 
aKovarea eiri tov Xoittou, ciXX' ov Kap(5v(J€(i). Thuc. 1, 86. 
r)/XLV elai ^vpixa-^oi ayaOol, ovq ov irapaBoTea to?c AOrivaioiQ 

eo-Tti/, ouSe ^'iKaiG Kai Xoyoic Sia/c/oirea aXXa rt^ittu- 

or/Tta ev ra\ei Kai vayrl aQkvei. Com]), ih. 88.93. Sec. Soph. 

"Hemst. ad Lucian. T. l.p. 436. = Valck. ad Eurip. Hipp. 370. 

ed. Bip. Kiister ad Arist. Eccl. 53. Koen ad Greg. p. (53 seq.) 130. 
Valck. ad Theocr. 10. Idyll, p. 162. Herm. ad Vig. p. 739, 139. 

734 Si/ntax. Of the Adjective in iiarticulur. 

Antig. 677. outwc a/nvvre earl role Koajiovfxkvoic, kqvtoi 
yvvaiKOQ ouSa/ttwc 11 a a ri re a. Aristoph. Pint. 1085. ^uvcfc- 
TTore eciTi aoi Kai rriv Tpvya . 

2. When a relative pronoun is referred to the substantive, 
the adjective, instead of standing as it properly should with its 
substantive, is often separated from the substantive, and, as 
in Latin, put with the relative. //. v, 340. e(ppi^€u 8e iua^tj 
(pBicFififipoTOQ ey^e'njcn f^iuKpyc, uc, el-^ov ra jiieaiy^poac. 
Eurip. Or. 844. HXeKrpa, Xoyovr, tiKovaov, ovc 001 cvarv- 
^e7c VK(x> (pkpwv. Time. 1 y 43. kui cut(pvy6i'T€Q evOvc, irpoc, 

TO. orpaTOTreca, a r/v eTTi twv FjirnroXwv Tpia uy- 

yeWovai rrji' '^(po^ov, where just above the genitive was put 
in the same manner : TrporrjSavTec to reiy^idpa, b rjv avrodi 
TOJV ^v paKOVffitvv, aipovat. 

Ai^. 3. Two or more adjectives (and participles also) are often 
added to one substantive without a conjunctive particle. This 
juxtaposition of adjectives, without a copulative, facilitates the 
combination of these different ideas into one image and one 
whole, whereas the frequent repetition of the copulative repre- 
sents them as continuing in a separate state. ILtt , 221. ^17X01? 
OTTO irisip. aveojye KaXijC, SatSoXerjc. 428. aiyvirtoi yapxpiovv^ec, 
ayKvXn-^eiXat. 802. e-yyoc ppSv, i-ikya, aripapovy KeKopvO/iie- 
vov. ff , 275. v^pijXai re TrvXai, aaviSer, t em t'^c, apapviaiy 
(xaKpai, ei)^e(7T0i, et,evyfjikvai e'lpvaovrui . Aa adjective or par- 
ticiple, and its substantives, often constitute together a prin- 
cipal idea, and to this principal idea another adjective refers : 
Herod. 7, 23. ctTtoc Se a(piai ttoXXoq €(po'ira en tijc Aairjc 
aXriXe(Ti.ievoQ 'much ground corn', i. e. 'much meal'; where 
much and ground corn, would be a solecism in English 

4. On the other hand the Greeks regularly join ~oXvc, w'ith 
another adjective, expressing praise or blame, e. g. ayaOoc, 
KaKoc, by means of the copulative. Iferod. 8,61. touc KopivOi.ovc 
TToXXa re Kai kuku eXeye. Aiist. Lys. 1159. ri ByiO , 

='llcmsterh.arl Arist. Pint. p. 408. '' Coinp. Ilcrm. ad Orjih. Lilh.81. 

Bmnck ib. 5. 1085. Valck. ad Herod. Elmsl, ad Eur. Med. 807. 
3, 61. p. '.'27, 21. Koen 1. c. 

Syntax. Of the Adjective in particular. 735 

vnt}pyfxei>(i)v T€ ttoWujv /ca-y aOw v, jita^e(T0e. Xen, Mem. S. 

2, 9, 6. (Tvv€i^u)Q avTto TToXXa Kai TTOVT] pa^. Sometimes re 
Kai, Herod. 4, 167. Flat. Rep. 10. p. 615 D. noXXd re koi 
avoaia e'lpyafffievoc,. or re repeated, Od. v , 157. 7/. j3',213. 
— TToXX ayaOd, TroXXa Ka/ca are also found Arist. Eccl. 435. 
P/ff^ Leg. I. p. 629 B. 

5. Two adjectives also are frequently put together, one of 
which negatively expresses the sense of the others. Herod. 

3, 25. ef.ijxavi]C, re eCov /cat ov (ppevrf ptic. Soph. (Ed. T. 58. 
yvwTo. KovK dyvojrd poi . 

6. Adjectives also are often expressed by circumlocution : 445. 

a. The adjective, in order to determine more accurately the 
substantive, and to express this determination better, is sub- 
joined with the relative and the verb e'l/^u. II. r{ , 50. avroQ 
^e TrpoKaXeaaai Kyaiwv oar ic apiaroc, for tov apiarov 

'A')(aiwv. p',6\. wG ore t'lq re \k<jjv (ioaKopevric ayeXtjg 

(5ovv apTTuayj, vtiq apiaTX]. 509. i)roi pev rov vcKpov eiri- 
TpaneO', o'lTrep apiaroi, ap(p' avTio (3e(5ap6v. according to which 
//. //, 13. must be pointed. Eurip. Ph. 755. irpoKpivaa o'lirep 
aXKipwraroi. Soph. (Ed. T. 663. on TTvparov oXoipav, for tw 
TTvparot oXeOpo). Plat. Rep. 5. p. 466 E. Comp. §. 442. Obs.^ 

. b. The adjective is accompanied by oIoq. Arist. Vesp. 970. 
oS eT€poQ o'loc eariv oiKov poQ povov. De77i.Oli/nth. p. 23,7 . 
€1 pev yap tic avr]p eariv ev avrolc oloc epireipoQ. Plat. 

Apol. S. p. 23 A. TToXXai aireyBeiai /cat o'lai yaXeirioTaTai, 

Theocr. 14, 59. Xenophon says fully Mem. S. 4, 8 extr. 
e^oKei TOiovTor, elvai, oloc av en; apiaroc ye avrip Kai 

This oloc is also put after an adjective. Herod. 4, 28. evda 

•^ Brunck ad Arist. Thesm. Sol. for which reason we have Plat. 

Nub. 1329. Sluiter Lect. Andoc. in Pliaedon. j). 58 D. Traprjaay nres 

Plat. Min. p. 89. Blomf. ad iEsch. ^al woXXoi ye. 

Pers. 249. Poppo ad Xen. Cyr. 7, ■' N' Her.3/i5. p.20G, .'>2. 

1, 11. So also Tives kuI ttoWoi. Bninck ad Soph. 1. c. 

Wyttcnl).adPi\it. dcSeraNuni.Vind. " V'alck. adTheocr. 10. Id. p. 102. 

p. 125. only that here something more Comp. Heyne ad II. it', 272. 
is added, ' some and mdeed many', 

736 Syntax. Of the Adjective in particular. 

rove, jjiev OKrut twv fir}V(Sv a^OjO>)TOC otoq jLyverai Kpvfxoc. 
Plat. Charm, p. 155 C. dve(5\e\pe juoi toIq o^0aXjUo?c a/t//- 
-^avov Ti oiov. 

c. In the same mannei" also octoq is used, only that this 
usually follows its adjective, and is put at the end of the pro- 
position. It accompanies adjectives which express a distinction 
generally, or with respect to magnitude and number (r). Herod. 
4, 194. ot Se (tt'iOtikoi) ff^i a(|)0ovot oaoi ev Tolai ovpeai 
yivovrai. Plat. Hipp. Maj. p. 282 C. ^pTj^iara eXa/3e Oav- 
fxaara oaa. Leg. 6. p. 782 A. u^ii)yjJiVov av y^povov oaov 
-yeyoj^oc av e'lt}. Arist. Nub. 750. tjv irepi avrov o^Xoc virep- 
(pvTJG oaoc. This phrase seems originally to have been formed 
from two propositions referring to each other, as Qavj-iaarov 
eoTiv, oaa ^pTj/uara e'AajSe, instead of Oavnaara eari y^pij/uaTa, 
oaa eXa[5e. By usage, however, oaoQ has been referred to the 
adjective, and both put in the same case, as Plat. Rep. 9. 
p. 588 A. e'l ToaovTOv ri^ovy viKa o ayaOor, re Kai B'lKaioc rov 
KaKov re Kai a^iKOv , uj^i-qy^uvM o?j oo'<»' TrXeToi' viKriaei evayj}- 
fxaavvy re [iiov Kai KaWei Kai apenj. The construction is similar 
in the phrase ovdeva ovriv oujc aTroarpa<privai e(paaav ^. 306. 
Oav/xaaru)c, tuc §. 628. An unusual position is found Herod. 
1, 14. aAX uaa pev apyvpov avaOijpara eari oi rrXelara ev 
Ae\(l)o7ai. but here two clauses appear to have been combined, 
aXX' oaa pev apy. avaOrtpara eari, rovrwv eari oi ttX. 

d. The neuters of many adjectives, in connection with the 
article, express a whole, which might also be denoted by the 
plural, as to evavr'iov * the enemies', Thuc. 7, 44. kch Trav ro 
e^ evavriac Kai e'l (piXiov eh] rwv ijSjj ttuXiv (^evyovrwv, iroXepinv 
kvopiCov. id. 6, 69. TO vrniKoov ' subjects' collectively, avr'i- 
TToXoi' ri Xen. Hell. 2, 3, 30. ' a hostile party', to 0»7Xu, to 
SucTTu^ec Eur. Here. P. 537, 562. eariv ri pui Kar ' Apyoc 
eifpevec, (piXivv ; Eur. El. 605. This happens especially with 
adverbs in -t/coc : to noXiriKov Herod. 7, 103. 'the citizens' 
collectively, to HXXt^iukuv Thuc. 1, 1. to AcvpiKov id. 7, 44. 
TO ^appapiKov, to [ttttikov, ro oTrXiriKov, ro ^vppa-^iKov. To 
this class belong the phrases oTt ocjieXoc &:c. §. 442. Obs. 
There is a difference in to koivov ' the community, the state', 
which does indeed also express a whole, but for which the 

Syntax. Of the Adjective in particular. 737 

plural masculine genitive cannot be substituted : and to 
vavTiKov ' the fleet', comprises not only rac vrjac, but also the 

So also are participles used. Herod. 1, 97. irXevvoc, aei 
yiyvo/iievov tov eTnCpoireovTOQ, for TrXevvojv yiyvofxevtov tu)v 
eirKJyoireovTCJv. Id. 7 , 209. to vTro/nevov for touc vTro/nGvovraQ. 
Id. 9, 61. TO TrpoaKei/Lievov. comp. 63. Thuc. 7 , 48. tju yap ri 
Kai ev '^vpuKovaaic, jSouXo/xei'ov ToTr, AOrjvaioiQ ra Ttpayf-iaTa 
ev'^ovvai. Comp. c. 49. id. 8, 66. opwv ttoAu to ^vveaTr]KOQ, 
which was shortly before oi ^vveaTtorec,. Xen. Mem. .S. 1, 
2, 43. TO Kparovv rrjc TroAewc. 

In the plural the adjectives in-t/coc denote some circumstance, 
which the context determines, relating to the noun which is the 
root, or the history of a people, as Ta TpojiKo. Thuc. 1,3. * the 
Trojan war', to. 'EAAj/rtKa ' the Grecian history', Tct vavriKo. 
* the naval war, naval aftairs'. 

Neuter adjectives are used in other circumstances also for 
masculines, as Eur. SuppL 577. ocot y vj3pi<JTai' y^priara o 
ov KoXaCoaev, for y^priaTOVc 

7. Adjectives are very often put in the neuter singular and 446. 
plural, with and without an article, for adverbs, e. g. tt/jwtov 
' in the first place', to irptSrov ' at first'. eTriTrj^ec, ' on purpose', 
consulto S)C. a'lva for aivwc 11. a', 414. aKiy^nra 11. p , 75. tto- 
Te|oa, utrum, Xen. Mem. S. 2, 3, 6. &c. Soph. El. 961. aAe/c- 
rpa yrjpdaKovcrav dvv/xevaia Te, instead of which aAeKTpoc 
/cot duvfxevaioc ynpdaKei is more common. So Eur. Hel. 291. 
TToAta TrapOeveveTui. Eur. /o«. 1391. Kpv^ala vvf.i<pevQelaa, 
for Kpvcjiaiijjc, Kpv(pa. Soph. CEd. C. 319. Cpai^pa yovv air 
6f.ipdTwv o-aiWt ^te. Xen. Cyr. 3, 2, 14. TroAAa 'frequently'. 
Sometimes a substantive which in sense is contained in the verb 
may be supplied, as Soph. CEd. T. 1300 seq. tic o irn^naac 
fxe'itova {Trn^vpara, as §. 408.) with Erfurdt's note. So with 
io(pe\eiv, (BXciirTeiv, trif^uovv adjectives in the neuter ])]ural are 
used in the sense of adverbs. See §. 415. Obs. 3. and with 
oleiv the adjective in the neuter, not the adverb, is used. See 
§. 376. The neuter singular with the article is found Theocr. 

738 Si/ntax. Of the Adjective in particular. 

1, 41. Kaf-ivovTi TO Kaprepov avBp\ eotKwc. 3, 3. and in other 
later writers*. But ov^eu, /mi^cv, are not used, merely to 
strengthen the negation, for ov and pi], for they may always be 
rendered ' in no respect' : Eur. Aiidr. 88. pn^ev tout' oreiSteryc 
epoi, and in the other passages quoted by Elmsley ad Soph. (Ed. 
C. 779. and Matthise Eur. Or est. 182. Comp. Herm. ad Soph. 
Antig. 6 1 0. Comparatives of adverbs especially are expressed 
by the neuter singular of adjectives, and superlatives by the 
neuter plural. See §. 260.^ 

8. Adjectives also, referred to substantives, are in the same 
way put in the masculine or feminine, for adverbs, or prepositions 
with their case. //. p, 361. toI S' a-y)(TjCTTTvoi eTriTTTov, for 
ayvt dX\i]\ii}v. a , 334. aev voTepoG e\p' vtto yaiav ' as the 
second to you'. J^sch. Ag. 50. vTraToi Xey^eujv, for virep X. 
Soph. Phil. 808. o^eTa, Ta\eia, for b'^ewc, Tayktoc. So Eur. 
Ion. 439. oTrac pev ov yevoir av etc Tipac, (pi\oc, for airavra 
' in all respects'. Adjectives of this kind are also used instead 
of datives taken adverbially : Soph. QHd. C. 441 . ijXavve p' tvc 
yrjc. '^poviov, for x/oovw ' after a time', as it is v. 437. Soi6. 
1637. op/cioc for o/oKw. So in Homer 11. a, 497. riepiri S' 
fivejSrj ixcyav ovpavov, for ripi, mane^. (5', 2. ev^ov ir avvv-^ioi, 
for vvKTi. More particularly adjectives marking a time, and 
derived from substantives or adverbs, are thus used, e. g. //. a, 
423 .sery. Zevc x^'^oc e|3jj KOTa go?Ta, for ^^tc Adjectives 
in -aloe, chiefly derived from ordinal numerals, are put thus, 
e. g. ^evrepaioQ a^tK-eTO, for ry ^evrepa vpepa. See §. 144. 
also in other senses aKonaiovc lieXOciv to ire^iov Xen. Anab. 
4, 1, 5. * in the darkness-, twilight'. Ideas of space are also 
expressed in this way : Soph. (Ed. 7'. 1 4 1 1 . BaXaaaiov eKp'ixpciTe, 
for f'lc. 6dXa(Taav. Comp. Eur. IJcc. 7 82. especially adverbs 
compounded with prepositions, as ]L 0', 530. uttjjoToi Otopri- 
■yO^VTeCyfoY VTTO rnv t/w. Soph. (Ed. T. 32. t-(/)t(TT(ot ktopeOa, 
for errt t\) enria. id. (Ed. C. 119. CKTOTrioq avOeic, for ck 
(toutow) toi7 tottou. ih. 234. where d(^oppoG is used for diro. 
See Ohs. 3, a. Antig. 7 85. </)otT«r, vTrepirovTioc,. Instead of 
a substantive with an adjective Soph. EL 841. irdp'lvxoc, avaa- 

» \'alck. ad Theocr. 10. id. p. OB. '' Fi^ch. 3 a. p. 216 

Hcrni. ad Sopli. fEd. C. 1636. " Buttmann LcnII. \k 1 18 bcq. 

Sj//i(ax. Of the Adjective in parlicular. 739 

aei, for iraaojv r. \p. In prose WTrocrTrorSoc is particularly com- 
mon, e. g. vTToaTTOv^ovc; cfvWa(5ei.i> rivac, for vtto ctttovSoTc , &c. 

9. Adjectives also are often used in the sense of substantives, 
and then take another substantive in the genitive, or another 
adjective or pronoun possessive. Xen. H. Gr. 5, 2, 33. toTc 
vixerepoic, Zvayieveai. Apol. S. 27. toTc ei-iolc, evvoic Plat. 
Theat. p. 147 C. tw aw ofxiovvjuo)^. 

10. In the poets adjectives derived from projjer names are 
often used instead of the genitives of these names. Od. y, 1 90. 
UoidvTiov viov, for Yluiavroc. Comp. ih. 264. r; , 324. Find. 
Pyth. 2, 34. J ^civoj^ikveie ttoI. Eur. Iph. T. 5. rr/c Tw^apeiac 
OvyuTpoc. Comp. Ip/rig. A. 1541. IJerc. F. 136. toi' 'Hpd- 
A-Aetov Trarepa. also Herod. 7, 105. To7cri MaaKa/ueioiai e/c- 
yovoiai. In T/ieocr. 26, 35, the daughters of Cadmus and 
sisters of Semeleare called dBeXcpeal avrar, Ka^jnelai, as Tihull. 
3, 6, 24, Cadmea mater, the daughter of Cadmus, mother of 
Pentheus. See Huschke's note. 

Obs. The following circumstances are to be remarked respecting the 
usage of the tragic and lyric writers: 

1. If a substantive connected widi a genitive has an adjective with it, 
the adjective often refers not to the genitive but to the governing word, 
provided the nominative and genitive together make up one principal 
idea ; as izar^p iraTpus, equivalent to ttottttos ' grandfather', 7ra?s Trades, 
i. e. vlwi'os 'grandson'; wlience ovfuus ttoTs Tzai^os Eur. Andr. 5S5. 
Toy kjiov ujch'Ljy iruroy id. Plioen. 30. because Mcinov ttovos denotes 
' parturition, the child born', id. Here, F. 449. ypciTai oaawv Trrjyal, 
i. e. yepaia CciKpva, or C. yepaius. id. Ale. 549. leytoy irpos uWrjy iarluy 
'to another house of hospitality'. Sojdi. (Fd. T. 1400. Tovfjiuy aij-ta 
TTurpiis ' the blood of my father slied by me'. In other cases the geni- 
tive is an addition, in itself unnecessary, but serving poetically to de- 
fine, as Eur. Here. F. 468. eyiSKijpa Treoiu ra^ia yyjs (ce/crjj/ueros. Ion. 
1357. x^P°* ^^' ayicaXais c/icus, (with which Lobeck ad Soph. Aj. 308. 
compares PfH(/. 01. 8, 5o, reaTs x^P^s epyarriais.) Soph. Ant. 793. yeii^os 
iivipwv l[,vvaifxov, where retKos ivvai^ov ' kindred strife', is used for 
' strife of kinsmen', as Obs. 3, c. Sometimes die genitive is the prin- 
cipal word, which receives a more extended, more exact, or strength- 

'' Dorv. ad Char. p. 389. Valck. ^ Scha;f. ad Schol. Apoll. Rh. 

ad Theocr. (to. id.)7,'^l. lisch. 3ii. p. 1G8 seq. , 

p. 331 scq. 

740 Syntax. Of the Adjective in particular. 

ening definition, as Pind. 01. 8, 90. iv re-paari Traliwy yviois, for ev 
rerpaen Tranrh, because, in wrestling, the limbs, and especially the arms, 
are exerted. Pyth. 4, 453. vjue-epas ai^-lvas 6\(3ov, for v/jerepov 6Xj3oy, 
with the collateral idea of splendour. Eur. Or. 991. ro Trravoi' c/wyyua 
7ru)Xu)y, for rovs irrayovs 'Iwirovs BuoKofiefovs, to which the reading of 
Brunck Soj)h. Track. 508. vxptKepu) rerpaopoi' (paafxa ravpov, for ravpos 
rerpaopos, belongs. From this usage it seems to have arisen, that in 
other places the adjective is added to the wrong noun, but still to one 
which stands in connection with the principal noun, as A^sch. Ag. 49. 
eKTrariois aXyetn TraiZwv, for eKTrarlutv TraiSwy. Soph. Aj. 11S3. TroXtas 
TTovTOv divos, for TToXiov TTovTOv. EuT. lou. 292. ^ao-yua abv yQovos, for 
\. ajjs ■)(^d.^ So CEd. T. 1375. for aX\' ?/ tckvuv ZrJT o\pts tJj' tflfxepos, 
/oXaarova ottws efoXacTTey, /jXaaro'rrwj' referring to rtfcrwi' would have 
been more exact. 

2. The adjective often contains not a definition in itself belonging to 
the substantive, but an extension of the idea contained in the verb, or it 
may be considered as the consequence and effect of the verb. //. (3', 
416. RfCTopeoy ce ^trwra Tvepl arijOefrai Ca'iL,ai ■)(aXKO) pwyaXeoy. 
i, 6. €l(j(')K€ depfia Xoerpu deppijvi], A'lsch. Ag. 1258. €v<pi]jiov, iS 
rdXaiya, Koii^rfcroy arojia, i. e. Koip. or. tiVre eixpiJiJoy elyai. Soph, QHd. 
C. 1200. Twy aijjy ahepKTwy ofxfid-wv rrjrw fievos. Aj, G9. tyw yap 
ofxfidTioy cnroaTpoipovs avyds cnreipliu), comp. 430. El, 741. A7it, 791. 
(TV Kal EiKai(i)y itCtKovs (ppiyas Trapamras t 7rt X w/jri, i. e. irapaffTTwy 

a^i.K. TTOtels. Eur. Bacch. 1055. Qipaoy KiaaiJ tcofii'irrjy avdis e^a- 

Vf:ar€<poy. So Soph, Ant. 1010. Karappvels j^iipin fcoXu/rrr/s li^eKeiyTO 
TTifieXijs, the adjective Ka-ap, expresses not an independent quality of 
the prjpol, but belongs to the verb, Kurappvels e^ei^eiyro, for Kureppurjaay, 

also Soph, (Ed, T. 57. ttoXis 'eprj pos ayhpuiy fi)) ^vvo ikovvtu)v 

€ao). Alsch. Pcrs. 151. Ka\ Trpo(Tij>d6yyois 2e ■^eojy avTi)y Trdyras 
fivdoicn Tvpoaav cdy. Soph, Track. 262. avTvy iXOvyr is Sofiovi 
€(pe(TT toy. Eur. Hec. 927. Ittic efiv los ios Tvinoifx es ti/'rur, which 
belong to Pleonasms ''. 

3. Compound adjectives in particular are used in a great variety of 

a. They arc often employed only to make the language more sonorous, 
only one part of the compound being regarded : c. g. TTaXaliparos vpu- 

» Brunck ad Soph. Trach. 508. Seidl. ad Eur. El. 412. Scha^f. ad 

Musgr. ad (Ed. T. 1^273. Lob. af] Soph. Aj. 40'2. ad Greg. y. 533. 

Aj. 9. App. Dcm. 1. p. 239. 

*> Lob. ad Soph. Aj. p. 299. 353. 

Syntax. Of the Adjective in particular. 741 

roia for ■naXaui Soph. Trach. 823, So is explained ftuyi^Lol TrarreXels 
Soph. Antig. lOlG. and vpQoTrovs Tvayos ib. 985. is probably for opOos''. 

h. They are found as an apposition, instead of the nouns contained 
in the compound adjectives, as jEsch. Prom. 301. iricrfpofn'iTwfi aia, 
i. e. (TiE}']pov fjiiirrip. Pind. Nem. 1, 92. opdo^iavTiv Teipeaiav for opduy 
fuiPTiv Teip. as Soph. Phil. 1338. "EXevos apiaronavTis, i. e."EX. uptcrros 
fidins. (Ed. T. 55Q. Tov aepvopavTiv avlpa. Soph. Antig. 1283. 
Tovce TTUfXfxijTtjp ve.Kpov for TTovrws, Kara tvuvtu, fivrrjp. 

c. They are found instead of the genitive of the substantive con- 
tained in the compound, as Eur. Phcen. 845. avi'aifioy Xexos for X. crvv- 
aipov • bed of a relation by blood', i. e. ' the son'. Comp. Soph. Ant. 
793. supra 1. Eur. Here. F. 395. Kupirov [jLriXofopoy for Kapiruy pi'iXwy. 
Iph. T. 412. tpiXoTvXovTov afxiXXav av^oyres for apiXX. ttXovtov, only 
that the adjective expresses more forcibly the striving for wealth. Id. 
El. 126. TroXvdnKpvp i]0(jvav for >/c. caKprnov. Soph. CEd. T. 26. ayeXat 
(3o{iuofioL for ayeXat (oodiy. Commonly, however, the compounded ad- 
jective is found instead of the substantive with an adjective, participle, 
or second substantive in the genitive : e. g. yEsch. Agam. 272. euayye- 
Xoitnv kXiriaiv OvrjiroXels for eXiritny ay«9?]v ayyeXf'as. Comp. Eur. 
Med. 1017. Pind. Pyth. 5, 39 scq. lipiadapnuTov yepas for y. opioretas 
appciTioy. Nem. 10, 71. evuyiov ripa for ripa evrvxovs ayiSvos. 01. 3, 4. 
Qi'jpoyos oXvpinovLtcav vpvov for v. viktjs "OXvpTriKrjs. and with a genitive 
Pyth. 6, 4. IlvdioviKos vfiroy Brjaavpos for Tlvdior'iKwv iipv. drjir. accord- 
ino- to No. 1. i. e. {J/ij'wv riKuy UvOiuwy. Soph. Antig. 1022. aylpo- 
/pdopoy alixa, for aljua cwcpos ^Qapevros. Aj. 935. apiarox^i-P «yw»' for 
ay. aplffTOjy xetpwr, i. e. avcptZy. Q^d. C. 1062. pip<pappaTOi afxiXXai 
for d^i. apparcjy pip(j)a (pevyuyrujy. Eur. Here. F. 384. x^W^^''^'- "''^po- 
(jpujres for X- '■o'^ /3i/3pw(7(ceij' ar0pw7roi/s. Hipp. 67. evTrarepeia av'Xa 
for nuXa ciyaSou Trarpos, as evirarpiSat ohoi ib. 1092. /^j/«. T. 1090. 

ij deiyrjs p eawaus kic TzarpoKToyov x^P^^' ^^r €k x- Trarpos ktel- 

voyTos. and where the adjective has a passive signification Soph. Ant. 
1022. avlpocpQupov cdpa. Eurip. Or. 833. 1683. aipa prjrpoiCTuyoy for 
alyua [x. KTciyOelarjs "'. Sometimes the meaning which already exists ac- 
cording to the sense in the substantive contained in the compound adjec- 
tive, is pleonastically repeated, with or without a new definition : Soph. 
Ant. 848 5e^. e'p/na Tvpft6x<^(TToy (i. e. e. rvpfiovx'^'Jrov) racpov Trorcuyiov* 
Eur. Phcen. 1370. Xevtcoirtixeis ktvttoi X^P^'*' ^'^^ XevKwy Tzijxeioy kt. 
where x^po''^ "^ added as No. 1. One part of the compound adjective 
refers to the governing substantive, and the other is instead of the ge- 

«= Herm. ad Soph. Aj. 221. ^ Elmsl. ad Eur. Bacch. 139. 

742 Sj/nfax. 0/ the Verba/s in -rtoc. 

nitive yEsch. Choeph. 21. o^i-x^'P i^'^^os, instead of o^vs x^^P*^^ ktvttos. 
There is also sometimes found with tlie governing substantive an adjec- 
tive or pronoun, which properly refers to a part of the compound ad- 
jective : Eur. Here. F. 1383 seq. ffj-ias ex,ets ncudoKTOvovs crovs, where 
(Tovs refers properly to ttu'icus, implied in the compound : and so perhaps 
we should explain Soj^h. Track. 824 seq. -eXeoyiiiyros lioceKu-os iiporos, 
i.e. (iporos ^. reXeiuip firfnoy. at least this explanation seems to be esta- 
blished by the above examples. Id. El. 858. iXirices koivotokol evira- 
rpidai for tX. koivov tokov {jov KOivy efio'i reydh'TOs a^eXfov) evnaTpicov. 

4. With substantives or adjectives which are used in a metaphorical 
sense, adjectives contradictory to them are often used to show that they 
are not to be taken literally, e.g. /Esch. Pcrs. 64. /3o^ yap Kv/ia x^P" 
cralov r-parov 'the waves of the army', not waves in the strict sense, 
but terrestrial waves. Eur. Or. 319. aftuKxevroy Siatrnv, because dla- 
aos is properly a company of Bacchanals, ih. 1513. Orestes and Py- 
lades are called advpaoL BuKx^t. Phccn. 221. aKapizLUTa Trecia ' of the 
sea', ih. uuifjios ftravXo'-aros 'the tumult of war'. Here. F. 1136. v6- 
Xe/dos c'tTToXeyuos ' the murder of the children' *. 

In a similar way they often add to a substantive an adjective com- 
pounded with a ])riv. of the same root or similar signification, to ex- 
press that that substantive does not properly belong to the object 
designated, on account of the misfortune connected with it. Eur. 
Hee. 612. Polyxena is called vu/h^jj r' ayvfjipos Trapderos t anapOevos 
• the unhappy ^ride and virgin'. Hel. 698. ya^os ayajios {hinuptcs 
nupt'ia; Cic. dc Orat. 3, 58.) ' the unhappy marriage' ''. 

To this class belong the forms Aua-optJ, otioVapts, Eur. Hcc. 945. 
only that they do not stand for c*i/(t-ux»'/s, aUos n«pts, but 'Paris born 
for (his own and others') misfortune'. cvaeXera Eur. Or. 1395. Jph. 
A. 1326. w TTarep airowarep A^sch. Choeph. 312. 

5. Two adjectives are often placed together, one in the genitive, to 
denote the highest degree : Soph. G^d. T. 465. appyjr appi'i-wr. Phil. 65. 

Of the Verbals in -tcoc 

447. The Verbals in -reoc (§. 220.) are used either impersonally, 
as the Latin gerunds, e.g. Ireov ear'iv, eundum est, 'one must 

» Blomf. Gloss. A£!am. 81. ^ Matthiae ad Eur. Hec. 608. 

Sj/ntax. Of the Verbals in -t^oq. 743 

go' ; or are referred to a subject, like the Latin participles fut, 

1. When they are put impersonally, the neuter plural is 
often put for the neuter singular, particularly in Attic. See 
§. 443. 

2. Verbals, though passive in derivation, govern the cases 
of the verbs from which they are derived, like actives : e. g. 
eTTtOu^tijTeov fco-Tti^ eiprji'jjc, eTnyeipr]Tkov ean tw epyo), 
a(TKr]reou eari t^^i/ aperijv. This case usually expresses the 
object of the action ; so that the verbal may be resolved by Sei 
with the infinitive active or middle, as eiridviuielv Se?, /UjueTcrOat, 
TrapaahcevcKTaaOai Sei 3 a. As these middle verbs have often an 
intransitive signification, their verbals also are so used ; as Plat. 
Gorg. p. 507 D. TcapaaKevaGTeov (.uikiara pev pr}^ev deiaOai tou 
KoXatecfBai, i. e. irapaaKevacraaOca Be7, * we must put ourselves 
into that state of mind'. id. Rep. 7. p. 520 C. avveOicrreov 
for avveOiteiv eavTuv Se?. It is seldom that a verbal of a passive 
verb keeps its passive sense and is joined with the word by 
which it is determined : Soph. Antig. 678. ovre yvvaiKOQ 
ovSap<x)Q ri(T(jr]Tea. Arist. Lys. 450. ov yvvaiicwv ovde- 
TTOT eaO I'jTTJjTea I'j^iTi'. 

3. When the verbals take an accusative, two constructions, 
equally common, are made use of. Either 

a. The verbal remains in the neuter impersonally, and 
retains as an active its object in the accusative. Eurip. Or. 
759. OKTTeov Tilde. Phccn. 724. e^oitneov y ap oirXa 
Kadpeifjjv iroXei. Plat. Gorg. p. 487 C. Ka'i irore vpuju eytlt 
VTTijKovaa l3ovX€vopei>0)V, pey^pic ottoi rr]v aoipiav a(7/cjj- 
reoi' en?. ih. p. 507 D. a(i)(ppoavvr]V pev Stw/creov Kal 
a<jKr\Teov, uKoXaaiav oe (pevKTeov. ibid. eiriBerkov BiKtjv, 
Kal KoXaareov, ei peXXei evcaipojv elvai. Comp. Leg. 4. 
p. 715 E. Xen. Mem. 1, 7, 2. ei tic, pi] wu ayaOoc avXrjTrjc, 

SoKelv (oovXoiTO, ctjO ov Ta e^u) tj;c re^i'jjc piuriTeov 

TOVQ ayaOovQ awX>;Tac; and the same, ttoXXov c, eTrai- 
verac irapacTKGvaaTeov, epyov ovbapov Xj/Trreoi'. Comp. 
2,1,28. Or 

b. The object becomes the subject, and the verbal is re- 

744 Syntax. Of the Use of the Comparative. 

ferred to it as a passive, in the same gender, number, and 
case, like the Latin participle in dus. Herod. 7, 168. ov acjyi 
TrepiOTTTer} earl i] EXAac aTroXXvjUtin/, for oi; wepiOTrreov 
eoTi ri)v 'EXXaSa. Xen. Mem. S. 3, 6, 3. tovto SijXoi', oti, 
eirrep Tip.aaOai jSouXej, w(pe\-nrka aoi v ttoXic eariv^. 
Plato unites both constructions Phccd. p. 107 B. aWa kui rac 
■ye vTToOeaeiCi rac, TrptJTac, Kai ei Triarai rj/^ar eicrti', o^wc 
€Tri(TK€TrTeai (^(pecTTepov, owing to the preceding iriaTai. 

4. When a person accompanies the verbal as the subject of 
the action, it is put in the dative, as in Latin with the gerund 
and the participle in dus: e. g. w(^eX>jTea aoi rj ttoXiq ecxTiv. 

Sometimes, however, the person is put in the accusative, 
provided the construction of the verbal is the same with that 
of the impersonal Sel with the infinitive and accusative, as 
TrapaaKevacxTeov earl Te^»')?v no avOpwiro), the same as ira- 
paaKevaaaaOai ^ei rev. tov civO. Thuc. 8, 65. Xoyoc eK 
TOV (pavepov Trpoeipyafrro avroic, wc ovre /iuatfoCpopiiTeov eiri 
aXXovQ n Tovc, (TTparevopeuovc, ovre fieOeKTeov twv 
Trpayi^iariov TrXe'ioaiv rj TrevraKia'^iXioic. Plat. Rep. 7. 
p. 520 D. KaTa(5aT£ov ev /nepei eKaarov e'lc, tt^v twv aXXtov 
^vvo'iK7mu. Comp. 3. p. 400 D. Leg. 8. p. 833 D. ib. 1. 
p. 643 A. ^la ravryjc, (tj/c TratSetoo) <|)a/i€»/ ireov elvai tov 
■rrpoKey^eipiafxevov tv t([> vvv Xoyov v<p rtf^iwv. ih. 7. 
p. 808 D. avev Troi/nevoc oure Tr/oo/Bara oiire aXXo ovcev 
irio (5i(i)Teov. Isocr. Evag. p. 190 B. ov jurjv ^ovXcvtcov tovq 
ye vovv eyoi-rac toIc ovto) kokwc (ppovovaiv. The two con- 
structions are united in P/al. Rep. 5. p. 453 D. ovkovv koi 
hp-iv vevaTeov eXTriCovTac. Comp. Thuc. 1, 72. 

Of the Use of the Comparative. 

448. The Comparative compares two things or propositions with 
each other, in respect to the degree in which a quality is pos- 

» Fisch. 3 a. p.41G sqq. Dem. p. 319. calls the latter con- 

^ Ern. ad Xen. Mem. S. 3, P, 1. struction the more common.) Ast 

Heind.a(li'Iat.Pha>dr.p.335. Schasf. ad Plat. Leg. p. 70. Wyttenb. Phi- 

Melet. in Dion. 11. p. 89. (who App. lorn. '2. p. 1.'). 

Si/tdax. Of the Use of the Comparative. 745 

sessed, attributing to the one a higher degree than to the other, 
either by means of the conjunction 17, quam, ' than', or, instead 
of this, by changing the second substantive into the genitive. 

1. a. In the construction with ?'/, the word with which an- 
other is compared is usually put in the same case with the 
word compared (subject of the comparison). //. a, 260. I'lci] 
yap TTOT eyio /cot apeioaiv, rieirep v/nlv, av^paaiv ojjuiXijcra, 
i. e. 7} vjjieic, eare. Herod. 1 , 10, 1. av Se jiieWfjQ eir avSpac, 
arpareveaOai TToXv cijueivovac, v ^KvOac. Thiic.7 ,77 . i/ojj 
Tivec, Kal e/c Beivore piov, h rotwi'Se, eaM6i]CTav. Plat. 
Leg. 1 0. p. 892 B. apa ouk e^ avajKijc, to. ipv^rjc avyy evrj irpo- 
repa av euj -yeyoi'oro tiov a^jf-iari Trpoa^KovruJv, ova\]C, ravrnc 
TrpeafDvTepac, v aioparoc. Xen. Ci/rop. 8, 3, 32. oXAa 
TT Aovcrt wTfc-jOr.) /iiev av, tj epoi, ecioovc,. 

Sometimes however, after »/, the nominative is used, if ei/LU or 
another word can be supplied. Xen. Mem. S. 1, 6, 4. TreTreto-^uaf, 
ere iLiaXXou cnroOave^v av eXeaOai, h t^l^' M(yTrep eyw, for (.ouTrep 
eyw ^w. Isocr. Pac. extr. to1.c, vewrepoic Kai (.uiXXov uKina- 
"Covaiv, 1] eyio (a/c^ia^w), irapaivM. Demosth. p. 287, 27. 
77/iwi' ujLieivov, 1] e/cetvoj, to ^leAXoi^ Trpoopiopevwv '^. 

b. When it is an entire proposition with which the subject 
is compared, and the comparative expresses that a quality 
exists in too high a degree to allow something mentioned to 
follow, 1] has after it the infinitive with ware. Herod. 3, 14. 
w Tral Kvpov, to. jiiev o'lKijia 7)v pet^ kuku, h wcrre avuKXaieiv, 
graviora mala, quam ut ficre possem. Simonid. ap. Plut. de 
And. Poet. p. 15 D. {c. 1. p. 59. ed. H.) apaQkarepoi yap e'laiv, 
1] Cjqvk epov e^aTTaraaBai. 

wc or ware is very often omitted. Soph. (Ed. T. 1293. to 
yap voanpa juellov 1) (pkpeiv. Eur. Hec. 1107. ^vyyvwaO' , 
orav TIC, Kpe'iaaov , 1) Cpepeiv, koko. 7ra6>j, rnXaivr]C e^avaX- 
Xa^ai tovc. id. Ale. 230. a^(o Kal aCpayaQ rade, Kai wXeov 
7] ^poyji) §€pt}v ovpav'iM Trt'Xa^eii' . 

<= Of a similar change in the case <* Valck. ad Her. 3, M. p. 200, CO. 

after wdTrep see Heind. ad Plat. INIarkl. ad Eur. SiippL 844. 
Pha;don. §. 137. p. 235. 


746 Syntax. Of the Use of the Comparative. 

The positive is very frequently, in this case, used with the 
infinitive without ?). Herod. 6, 109. oX'iyovc yap eivai 
arparn] rrj Mi]B(i)v av /ii(5a\eeiv * too few to come to action 
with', Sec. ' comp. 7, 207. Thuc. 1, 50.— Thuc. 2, 61. ra- 
7reti'?7 vfxwv rj diavoia eyKaprepelv a e-yvwre. Plat. Menex. 
j9. 239 E. o y^povoc, (Bpay^vc, a^/wc ^iriyh<^aa6 at. Xen. 
CEcon. 16, 10. aK\npa earai j; y»7 Kivelv tw t^vyei. 

Properly speaking, the positive is not here used instead of 
the comparative, but the infinitive expresses either the respect 
in which the adjective is to be taken, as §. 534. ' ye are too 
few in respect to the battle with the Medes', or the effect and 
consequence of the obstacle included in the adjective ; so that 
the infinitive is to be taken in a negative sense, ' ye are few so 
as to be prevented from fighting', or ' so that ye cannot fight'. 
The latter explanation is confirmed by the circumstance, that 
ware is often joined with the infinitive : and so Cicero says, 
Lai. 17, 63. iinhecilla enhii natiira est ad contenmendarn poten- 
tiam. The sense is the same whether I say imbecilla est nat. 
ad cant. pot. or imheciUior quam id contemnat pot. {nimis imbe- 
cilla would be English-Latin). So we should understand Eur. 
Heracl. 747. kire'i roi /cat /ca/coc juei'eii' ^6pv, where cowardice 
(KaKoc) is the cause why Eurystheus does oot await the foe. 

In this case ware also accompanies the infinitive, and must 
be taken in a negative sense. Plat. Protag. p. 314 B. 7j/(cTo 
en veoi, loare toctovtov irpayf^ia oie\kaQai. Xen. Cxjr. 

4, 5, 15. oXt'-yoi lapkv, (ticrre eyKparelc elvai. id. Mem. 

5. 3, 13, 3. uXXo -^pv^pov, (vcfre XovaaaOai, ecrnv. Eu^ 
rip. Andrum. HO. yepojv eKeivoc, ioare a M(^e\e1v irapwv. 
Id. Phain. 1395. ov paKpav yap reiykiov TrepiTTTv^ai, wctt 
ouv aTTuvra a eiokvai tu cptofieva^. 

For other modes see below §.451. 

M-9. c. When it is not a substantive that is compared with an- 
other, but the quality of a thing expressed by an adjective that 
is considered in its proportion to another quality, and compared 
in deo^ree with it (where in Latin quam pro is used), then ij Kara 

» Wyttcnb. in Bibl. Crit. 3, '2. p. 64. Heiml. ad. Plat. Prot. p. 478. 

Sj/nt(tx. Of th>i Uie of the Comparative. 747 

or 7/ irpoc, is put after the comparative. Herod. 4, 95. tov 
ZaX|UO^iv TOVTOv eTTiaTainevov St'oiTui/ re 'laSa /cat ??Oea fiadv- 
T€pa Tj /cara Qp{]iKac, i. e. 17 ota Qprfn^ec e)(^oi>c7ii' ' than can 
be expected from the Thracians, than one meets with amon<T the 
Thracians'. Soph. (Ed. C. 598. xt yap to /^ieltou, r) icar uv- 
BpioTTov, voffeic ; ' worse than man can bear'. Comp. Ant. 768. 
Trach. 1019. Thuc. 2, 50. to elSoc T»jf, voaou to. re aXXa 
■^^^aXeiTMTeptjjc,, 1) Kara rriv audptoireiav C^yvaiv, irpoaeTrnrTev 
€Ka.(TT(o, Kai &C. id. 6, 15. ' A\Ki(5iah]c, rale e7riOvi.uaic, /tiet- 
to(Tiv rj KUTO. TW virapyovaav ova'iuv ey^prjro 'had more 
wants than he had abihty to satisfy', id. 7, 45. ovrXa ttXcio 
i) KaTii Touc veKpovc, e/Vj(|)0»> ' more arms than the number 
of tlie dead led one to expect'. Plat. Rep. 2. p. 359 D. Idelu 
evovra veKpov (.leitoj v kut avQpioirov ' greater than a man 
usually is'. Comp. Fhmlon. p. 94 E. Xen. Mem. S. 4, 4, 24. 
TO Tovq vof-iovQ avTOvc, role, irapa^^alvovai Tac, ri/nuipiac, Ix^iv, 
fteXTiovoc, 1] Kar avOpojrrov vo^io^eTOU So/ceT /.loi eivai 
' more sagacious than can be looked for from man'. Comp. 
Aristot. Poet. 2, 1.*^ In this manner also the relation explained 
in the preceding section is expressed. Thuc. 7, 75. f-Leitw, v 
Kara SaKpva, rci ^ev TreTTOuOoTac, vJSrj, ra Se (.leWovrac, which 
in Herod. 3, 14. is /.letio kuku, 1] ojare avaKXaieiv. Both con- 
structions are umtedEurip. Med. 673. ao(^iorep , >/ Kar av^pa 
cfvfx^a\el.v, eirri, i.e. rj kut avSpa Kal r? ware av^pa av/Lipa- 
Xelu. Thus too Plat. Crat. p. 392 A. Tavra jne'iti-o earlv v 
kut' ef^ie Kal ae e^evpelu. 

In the same manner 7) irpoc, is used. Thuc. 4, 39. o yap 
apyjjjv 'ETTtTciSac ev^eear cpw c, efcdffTw Trapelyev h rrpoc. 
TTji/ e'^ovaiav *^. Instead of 77 Kara or n Trpoc, irapa is used, 
which is generally the opposite of /coTa. See §. 588, c. y. 

2. The omission of the conjunction 7} is very common, in 450. 
which case the substantive following is put in the genitive. //. 
p , 446. ov ^lei^ yap xi irov earlv oitvpuiTepov av^poc 
TTo'vTWi', oaaa tc yaiav eVi TTi^fc/ft Te /cot epirei. Od. a , 27. ov 
Tt e'-ywye 7/ c ya'i-nc ^vvaj^iai yXvKcpwrepov ctAAo (oecrc/oi ' . 

*> Wess. et Valcken. ad Herod. 8, " Valck.inOrat,t.IIcmst.etV.p.30. 

38. p. 636, 100. '' Fisch. 3 a. p. 3 JO. 

R 2 

748 Syntax. Of the Use of the Comparative. 

Hence Isocr. Panath. p. 287 C. SokcTc yap fxoi twv f^iev X)j- 
xPeaQca co^av, ov /ne'itio Se, v Q ci^ioQ el. for juett^w eKCiVjjc jjc, 
unless it should be h nc, a. el. 

Ohs. 1. The prepositions Tzpo and arrt are sometimes placed before 
these genitives. Herod. 1, G2. oiai.v i) rvparvls Trpo eXevdepirjs ^v 
aairaa-drepoy. Plat. Plu^don. p. 99 A. Soph. J ntig. 182. j^iei^ov 
vans avTi rrjs avrov Trarpas (plXoy rojuli^ei, tovtov ovlafiov Xeyw. 
Comp. Track. 577. Eiirip. Suppl. 421. 6 yap xP^^'os fiudrjaiv airl 
Tov Tcixovs Kpeiaffh) cicutri. where, however, cpetfro-w may also stand 
by itself. Arist. Fesp. 210. ?] fxoi Kpelrrov ijy Ti]pe7i' i:^•twv?;^' ttj'-t 
TOVTOV TOV irarpos. comp. Ac. 209.^ 

Obs. 2. Whether this genitive is accompanied by a redundant ?'/ is 
very doubtful. Herod. 7, 26. 'iva Tnjyal aradi^ovfft Maidv^pov iroTajiov, 
Koi hepov ovK eXaucroyos, ?/ Maiaycpov. Thuc. 2, 13. ovic eXaaeroyos ^y 
7) TreyTliKoyTU rctXtir-wJ'. ib. 7, 77. i'ict] Tiyes Kai efc ^eivoTepioy »/ roiiSyde 
e(TU)dr](Tay, is agreeable to the common construction mentioned §. 448, 
1, a. though the nominative might also have been used. T/nic. 8, 94. 
01 0' av 'Adt]yaloi e'vdvs ^pofJM es Toy Ueipaid iraySiipel k\wpovy, ws tov 
iciov TToXefMOv jiei'Coros y utto Tuiy iroXefiltjjy, ov^ ems aXXu vpus tiS 
X/yueri oyros, means, ' reflecting that a war in their own country was 
more dangerous than one which proceeded fronn the enemy', &c. Plat. 
Leg. 6. p. 705 A. ^») eXuTToy i) TpiaKoyTU yeyoyws hdjy. and ih. D. 
the phrase yiyyeaQai cTioy Tp. is independent of the comparative §. 316. 
though ») Tp. cTi] might also have been said, or Tp. tTuiy witliout »;, 
as it is p. 764 cxtr. Theocr. 15, 20,. the genitive would be required as 
the price §. 3G4. independently of the comparative. The following 
passages, on the other hand, cause doubt : Lys. tt. 'Apia-. xP- P- 156, 5. 
Sre^aj'w oe rw 0a\\ou tXeyero eJyni -rrXeoy i) ireyTtiKoyTci TciXayTwy, 
uTvodayoyTos ce 7? ovaia €(j)dyi] irepl eyceica ra\cu ra, unless ovaiu be the 
subject of eXeycTO. Isocr. Arch'td. p. 131 A. Ka\ yap tiiayyeXOi'ivai to7s 
"EXXrjai icaXXld) tuvt cart Kal j^iaXXoy itppoTTOyTa to7s >;jite-ef»ots (ppoyi)- 
patTi, 1) wy eyioi Tiyes avi-iftovXevovm. where however Coray has 
struck out i'l as being added in his MS. by a later hand, Bekker quotes 
no various reading. Xen. Hell. 2, 1, 8. »/ ce Kopjj eoTi puKpoTcpov y 
■yeipos. 4, 6, 5. ov irpoj^ei TrXeoy rrjs i/pepas ») ^ujccku aTUciioy. where, 
however, ar. may be governed of ocoy understood from irpoijei. Theocr. 
20, 26. tK (TTopuTioy C€ eppee poi (pujya yXvKepwTepa, j) peXiicijpw, where 

" Markl. ad Eur. Supjil. 419. I'isch. 1. c. 

Si/utax. Of the Use of the Comparative. 741) 

some read i) fteXi Ktipio. Virg. /En. 4, 501. has been more correctly 
explained by Wunderlich, and Quint. 11, 1, 21. by Gesner ''. 

On the other hand the genitives rov-ov, ov, vvliich are governed by a 
comparative, are often followed by an explanation with »'), instead of 
the infinitive with the article. Od. 'C, 182. oJ ^<ei' yap tov ye K^tlaaov 
Km cipeioj', )/ 6y o^ocppoveoi'Te roiifxamr oIkov eyj]TOV aviip i/ce yvi'ij, for 
TOV exet»' avEpa Kal yvvcuKn. Eurip. Heracl. 298. ovk etrn rovce 
Traiarl KuWioy ytpas, ») irarpos kadXov KuyuQov Tre<pvK€i'ai. Comp. 
3Ied. 55S seq. Plat. Thcag. /j. 127 A. ovk ead' o tl tovtov fie'iCou ay 
kppaiov tjyijaai^rjy, »/ el ovtos apeaKoiro rrj rrij avyovai'a. Comp. Criton. 
p. 44 C. Gorg. J). 500 C. So also Sojjh. Antig. 1090. ('/fo yvM -p^teii') 
TOV vovv ctfxeivu) T(Zy (pperwv, j) vvy (pepei, with Erfurdt's note '^. Some- 
times ?'/ is wanting with the explanatory infinitive, as elsewhere a de- 
monstrative pronoun is explained by an infinitive alone, §. 4G8, b, 

/Esch. Ag. 613. Tl yap yvyaitSi tovtov (peyyos ijcioy cpaxeTy 

TTuXas ayo'it,ai, for tovtov, i) irvXas, ay. Plat. Gorg. p. 519 D. Some- 
times, although very rarely, tovtov which introduces the infinitive is 
omitted. Eur, Ale. 89G. tL yap aidpl KUKoy pel^or, upaprtly TricTTijs 
a.\6-)(^ov ; Time. 1, 53. (TKeipaade, tis evTrpat,ia atvayuoTepa, i) tis toIs 
TToXefiiois XvTrrjpoTepa, et l]y vfxels ay wpo iroXXwy "^pimdruy kuI ^apiros 
€Tip!](TaaQe cvyapiy vph' irporryeyeadui, a'vTi] TrapeoTiy uvre-rrayyeXTOS. 
Perhaps, liovvever, it would be more correct to suppose that the con- 
struction is here adapted to the sense only. The interrogation is equi- 
valent to a negation, oucey aycpl Kai^oy fielCoy, ovlepia ev-pa^ia aTraiitj- 
Tepa icai XvTrrjpoTepa. and this again is the same as j^ieyinToy kukuv 
ayCpi, a'vTt] // evTrpalla (TTTcti'iwrar/j Kul XvTDjpoTciTtp From the con- 
struction with the comparative, a transition seems to have been made 
to the similar construction with the superlative ''. 

'' Kocn and Scliaef. ad Gregor. Matthias ad Ale. 899. Theotherpas- 

p. (36) 89. Valck. ad Theocr. 10. sages, in which the editors suppose 

Id. p. 1G2. 340. Fisch. 3 a. p. 351. that// istobesiipplied,appeartoadmit 

Toup ad Theocr. 15, 36. maintain another explanation, as vEsch. Pruni. 

the pleonastic use of >/. Comp. llerni. 634. should prol)ably, with the Scho- 

ad Soph. Antig. 1266. liast, be pointed thus: ^i) {.wv irpo- 

•^ Toup ad Longin. p. 321. Markl. Kt]Cov pciaaov (sc. >) ^e?)' ws iuol 

ad Lys. p. 370 R. Ileind. ad Plat. yXvKv sc. paOe'ty. For the usage of 

Gurg. p. 183. For similar passages ws ex|)laiiied Ol)s. 3. c. accorclino- to 

from Latin authors, see Misc. Philul. which Hermann ad Vig. p. 720. ex- 

2, 1. p. 99. 3. p. 85. plains this passage, is not applicable 

"^ Hermann has tacitly abandoned, here, since ovtojs cannot be supplied, 

ad Eur. Med. 633. (ed. Elmsl. Lijis. fiij fiov ■Kpodicov ovtojs, tlis epol 

p. 368.) ad Ale. 560. the explanation yXvKv. — Plat. Phadon. p. 112 D. kciI 

which he gave ad Vig. p. 884. Comp. ena pey KorarrtK-pi) y eltrpil l'i,e~ 

750 Syntax. Of the Use of the Comparative. 

4il. If ^ ought to be followed by an entire proposition (a substan- 
tive or an infinitive with ear/), the substantive only of this is 
often put in the genitive, or the infinitive changed into the 
kindred substantive in the genitive. Herod. 2, 35. i) AtyvwroQ 
epya \oyov f~ieZ,(x> irapeyerai Trpoc iracfuv yjMpy]v, for epya 
/iieitfo 17 Xeyetv earlv, e^eanv, ' greater curiosities than can be 
expressed'. Thus Thuc. 2, 50. yevopevov k pelacrov \oyov 
TO elSoc Ti]c, v6<jov. Comp. Xen. Mem. S. 3, 11, 1. — Thuc. 
2, 64. 7j vocroc, Trpaypa /novov o?) T(ji)v itavTiov eXTrtooo Kpeia- 
aov yeyevr]i.ievov ' worse than one could expect'. /Esch. Agam. 
276. Trevcry Se yjappa pe^'C^v eXTTt'Soc KXveiv. — Aew. Hell. 
2, 3, 24. e'l TK vpiov vopitei irXeovac, tou Kaipov airo- 
Bi'n(TK€iv, i. e. ttX. h Kaipoc, eari, plures, qiiayn par est. Id. 
ib. 7, 5, 13. ccno^av TToppivre pu) tov Kaipov. — Xen. 
Mem. S. ], 6, 11. eXarrov rr]Q ci^'uic. — Herod. 2, 18. to 
eyoj T>?c tjUJjc yviopijc vcrrepov Trepi AiyviTTOv eirvUopriv, 
i. e. varepov 1) eyu) eyviov. The finite verb is put in the genitive 
of the participle Plat. Gorg. p. 484 C. irepairepu} mv ^eovroc, 
i. e. irep. t] SeT. comp. p. 497 B. Xen. Mem. S. 2, 1, 22. 
epvBpoTepa tov ovtoc,, i. e. ep. 1] tm ovti rjv^. Sophocles says 
with still greater abbreviation Qild. T. 1374. epya Kpeicraov 
ay^6vj}r,, graviora cjuam qua: suspendio Itii possint. 

Some phrases of this kind are equivalent to the construction 
of the comparative and infinitive with Iootc, e. g. Kpeiaaiov 
\oyov, the same as Kpeiaawv ?; ojare Xeyeiv. Kpc'iacrcou cXttiooc, 
for Kpe'iaoMV ?? loare eXTriC^iv. Hence Thuc. 1, 84. apaOearepoi 
Ttuv i'o/lkov t r) c, inre po\piac irai^evoiiievot, for ap. jj toare vire- 
popav TOXIC, vopovQ. Dem. de Cor. p. 21 o, 9. (pojBovpai pi] 
TMV eipyaapevtov avno kokmv ovtoc eXaTTtvv V7ro\y](pOy. 

Trefff.i', where f] eiapet is ccniivaltut §. 4.")0. Obs.2. lb. p. 109, 21. //you- 

to rfjs etarpoTJs before §. 481. Obs. '2. jjieios pdWor Xiyecrdui ws pot 

Soph. p. 267 B. Kairoi riva jjell^o) TrpoafiKe, ovrws is to be supplied, as 

Cialpeaiv a.yi'u)uias re kcu yr'uxTews Obs.3.c. and Demosth. adv. Macart. 

Oi'iaopey, the construction is riva p. GOG E. (p. 1071. 2. Reisk.) e»c- 

lialp. ay)'. Kal yv. fieii^o) Oija, sc. (jjlpeir ?e roy uTrodai'fnra rj; uorc- 

j) ravTTjr, T))t' rov ei^erai hial rov pt) f)"'? V «'' Trpodiorrai, ravrtjs is to 

elbivni. Lvs. p. 177 init. rwr tni be supplied. 

fplXi-mrot' e\d6iTU)v is an explana- * \'alck. ad Eur. Ph. 89G. Hipp, 

tion oi T()VTu)v, which precedes, as in 121G. 

S^nlax. Of the Use oj' ihe Comparative. 751 

By a similar usage, the comparative is followed by the geni- 452. 
tive of the reciprocal pronouns efxavrov, aeavrov, eavrov, and 
the same subject is compared to itself with regard to its dif- 
ferent circumstances at different times. Thuc. 3, 11. ^vva- 
Twrepoi avTol avTWv eyiyvovro. Plat. Rep. 4. p. 421 D. 
TrAouTJjcTac -vyTpevc, apyoc, Kai a/xeAiic, yevi](TeTai ^aAAov avroQ 
eavTOv, i. e. /^uiWov 1] Trporepov 1))'. Comp. Rep. 3. ^p. 41 1 C. 
Leg. 1 . p. 191 D. /wet^ovwc ovtov aKovau)fxev 7/jUwi' avT(x)v. 
Lack. p. 1 82 C. TravTa avSpa ev TToXe/uw /cai dappaXciorepov 
Kal ai'dpeiorepov civ Troniaeiev avrov avrov ovk oXiyoJ avrrj ^j 
eirKTTViiiri. Instead of which ib. p. 184 B. e-mcpaverrTepoQ ?/ 
oloc, rjv. and Protag. pj. 350 A. Ka\ dvrol eavrojv OappaXeio- 
repo'i e'laiv, eirei^av ^ladtoaiv, tj irpiv i^iaOelv. Thus too otTrAa- 
aioc: Herod. S, 137. ^nr\^]aioQ eyevero avroQ ewwrou as 
great again as it was'. Thus Herodotus 2, 25. explains this 

genitive by an additional proposition with i] : o Se NetXofi 

TOUTOv Tov y/povov avToc, ewvTOV peei ttoAAw vTrooeeaTe- 
poQ 7) TOV OepeoG, where 1) tov depeoc, is a kind of explanation 
of i(ovTov, for VTrodec(XT€poQ ?) o'loq uvtoc, tou OepizOQ peei. 
8, 86. eyevovTO tcivtijv ti)v rf/.iepriv jj-ciKpio a/neivovec; avTOi 
ew'uTwv, jj TrpoQ Ei»|3oiy. and Thuc. 7, 66. av^pec, kwei- 
Sav, <jJ a^ioutrt Trpovy^eii', KoXovaOiocyi, Toy viroXonrov avTivu 
Trie ^o^riQ aadeveaTcpov avTO iavTOv eoTiv, i] ei /xi/o (^yjurj- 
aav TO TrpujTOv. Plat. Protag. p. 350 A.^ 

When the substantive which is compared, and that with which i:o3. 
it is compared, are the same word, and the genitive of the com- 
parison is accompanied by another genitive, then the word which 
should be repeated in the genitive is sometimes omitted. //. 
^', 191. Kpeiaaiov ^' avTe Aioc, yevei] YloTa/^iolo TCTVKTai, 
for yeveiic, HoTOf^. Herod. 2, 134. irvpai^u^a Be Kai ovtoc, 
cnreXiTTCTO ttoXXom eXaaao) tov iraTpoc, for t»7g irvpa/iiicoQ tov tt. 
Soph. Phil. 682. ov^' ea'iSou ^o'lpa touS' e-^Oiovi ovvtv^ovtu 
OvuTuiv, for T>7c (.lo'ipaQ rovSe. Xen. Cyr. 3, 3, 41. yu)pav 
e.yj^Te ov^ev t^ttov ■iif.itSv evTi/nov, for tjjc yujpac,>. 
Theocr. 2, 15. \cCip' , E/cara So(T7rXi/Tt, /ecu eo teXoc, a^ifiiv 
oiraBei, 'l>0|0;ta/c« tuvO' epdoiaa -^epciova /iti/r t( Ki pKnc, f.n}T 

^ Ast ad rial. Leg. \\ 83. 33-1. 

752 Si/iilax. Of' the Use of the Comparative. 

Ti M)jSeiac, jitrjTe ^civOaG Uepi/.i'tiBaQ, for rtxiv KijOfcaq 
<pap/na.KU)v, 8cc.^ 

Obs. 1. This takes place not merely in comparatives, but also in 
other comparisons, e. g. //. p', 51. aifia-i ol cevoi-o kojacil Xapi-etraiv 
ojAoTai, for -u7s K6f.iais riHv Xapiriop. Callin. El. extr. 'ipcei yap -rroWwv 
ai,ia, fxovvos kwv ' deeds which are to be prized like many' ; i. e. as the 
deeds of many. Plat. Alcih. 1 extr. iv e\apyov ilpa 6 e/jos epu)s ovcev 
^loitjei, for 70V epojTos TreXapyov. Thus also in Latin Cic. Or, 1, 4, 15. 
6, 23. 44, 197. Fhi. 5, 12, 34. &c. 

A similar abbreviation occurs in Sojjh. (Ed. T. 1507. ju>/c' tt,iaw(Tr(s 
TtiffEe roTs ejxols kcikoIs, for ro -wi'Ce kuku. Plat. Phcedr. p. 279 A. 

ov^ev av yevoiro davpaarot', e< Trepl avrovs tovs Xuyovs, ols vvy 

tTTi^eipel, TrXeov i) Trait wr cieieyKOi rujy TrwTrore a\paj.ievwy Xoywr, for 
1/ av^pes TTuicwp^. Theoplir, ch. 5. 

454. Obs. 2. This genitive generally follows the comparative instead of //, 
as in Latin the ablative for quani, only when the substantive with which 
another is compared would be in the nominative, when rendered by i}, 
or in the accusative in the oblique construction of the accusative with 
the infinitive as the subject, or as the object in the accusative. Pas- 
sages, however, are found, in which the genitive is put for i; with the 
dative: Thuc. 1, 85. e^eori c' /jluWoi' erepwv ((ca0' iiavy^iuy j3ov- 
XeueiJ/) for f-iaWov »} eripois. 2, GO. et fioi kuI jjeaus iiyov^ieroi ijdWoy 
ereptjjy Trpocrelvai avrk iroXepeh' tizeindrjTe. 7, (^o. Kai ravra 70ts 
VTrXirais ov)(^ r'laaoy -toy yavrijjy TrupakeXeuo^at, for j) rols ravrais. 
Eurip. Or. 548. iXoyLOunyv ovy t^ yeyovs dpj^jjyerj; paXXvy p apvyai 
Trjs vnoa- u.(Tr}S -po(pus, for j) t)} vrroaTi'iff)]. Isocr. Pac. p. 176 A. 
pei'Coai KUKoii ■KCpieirefToy cttJ -17^ np-^^ys Tavrrjs riSy Iv ciTruyrt rw j^poyo) 
T1J TToXei yeyeyrjpevwy, where properly j) -lus yeyeyrijitvan could not 
stand for the genitive, but i) yeyiyrji'rai''. 

Sometimes even the genitive is used, when, in the resolution with >}, 
the word after the particle would stand in a different case from that in 
which that word stands which has the comparative as an epithet, and 
which properly is compared with another. Sopfi. Ant'ig. 75. cTrei TrXelojy 
Xpot^os, cy eel p upecrKciy toIs kc'itw tujv eydace, for TrXeioJV ■)(p6vos 

» Schicf. Melct. p. 57. 127 not. ad Jacobs ad Anlhol. Palat. p. 63. 
Lamb. B. p. 3. ad Apoll. Uh. Schol. ■= Poppo ad Xcn. Cyr. 11, 1, 17. 

p. 164. Herm. ad Vig. p. 717, 55. Ecisig Soph. (Ed. C. 

'' Ileind. ad Plat. Phfedv. p. 355. 661. 

Sj/ntax. Of the Use of the Co/nparative. 753 

h-eirov, ou eel fi upiaxeiv rols tvdace. Ar'istoph. Plut. 55S. tov 
UXovTov TTCtpexw jyeXriouas iiycpas, for 1) o UXuvros, not 17 tov UXovroy. 

Ohs. 3. For tliese common kinds of construction of the comparative, 455. 
others more rare occur : 

a. fcTTt with a dative. OJ. rj', 21G. oh yap ti (j-uyepjj kirl yaaTept 
Kvvrepov iiXXo eirXero, for 1) arvyepi) yairt'ip, or arvyepijs ynarepos. 
Herod. 4, 118. vj-uy ce ovch' tTrt tovtm earcu tXacppurepov, for tovtou. 

TTpus with an accusative. Herod. 2, 35. A'tyvnTon epya Xoyov 

fiHiu) irapexerni Trpos Tzdaav X'^P*'*'' where irpus signifies ' in comparison 
with'. Comp. TJiuc. 7, 58 extr. 

TTupa, 2^rcetcr, with an accusative. Time. 1, 23. ijXiov e/cXe/^^eis Trvtc- 
vorepcu irapa tci eK tov irplv yjiuvov nvr]ixovev6ixera ^vyejJticTay. 

■kXiiv is also found for ?/ Eur. Herael. 233. diravTa yap tuvt karX 
Kpeianw, tvXijv vtv' \\pyeiois Treueh'. For ov Ttporepoy I'l Lysias, _^). 174, 
says ov Trporepoy eiravcrayro ews. 

b. In particular, various constructions occur with ^idXXoy, TrXiov : 
e. g. uXXa for ?/. Time. 1, 83. eany i ttoXp^ios o^x oVXwv to irXeov, 
oXXn cairarris. Isocr. ad Nieocl. p. 23 B. pdXXo y a'lpovvrai crvyelyai 
To7s k't,a^apTdyovmy, c'tXX' ov Tols d-KOTpiizov(Ji. Plat. Prot. j)- 354 B. 
exere tl dXXo reXos Xeyeiy, e(s o cnrojiXexbai'Tes aura ayaOct KuXe'ire, 
ciXX' yjcorcis re ecu XuTras, where H. Stephan. and Bekker have aXX' y 
7/3. See He'ind. p. 622. Kni ov follows, Thiic. 1, 74. tceianre unkp vfxuiv 
Kcil ovx hl^'-'>v T^ irXeoy. ih. 120. These anacolutha take their origin 
from the circumstance, that a comparison with ' more' implies at the 
same time an opposition, and two modes of speech are combined : iuriv 
6 TToX. ovx ottXmv, uXXh caTrdyrjs, and ottX. /.tciXXoi' ») ca7rdyr}s Sec. 

c. A union of two kinds of construction occurs in Plat. Apol. S. 
p. 36 D. ou'/c t'o-O', o Tl jiuXXoy Tvpeiici. ourws, ws Toy -oiovToy dycpa 
ty UpvTCU'elo) mTeiadai, from the expression ovcey /xclXXoy Trpeirei, H) 
Toy dycpa aiT. and also ovcey TrpeTrei ovtws Sec. ih. p. 30 A. and without 
01/7-ws Theocr. 9, 33. ovtc yap viryos, ovt eap e^ctTru'as yXvKepujTepov, 
oi/re fxeXi(T(raLS dyOeu, daaov Ijuiy Mo'icrai (plXui. Lys. JJ. 109, 21. 
iiyovjxeyos fxdXXov Xeyeadai (ovtws) ws [.iol Trpoaiji^e. Eur. Hipp. 536. 
ovTe ydp Trvpos ovt d(7Tpujy vircpTepoy JDeXos, o'loy to rcis 'AfpociTus njaiy 
e»c x^P*^^ "Epujs, for eKeivov tov fteXovs, o'loy. Similarly Plut. Min. 
p. 318 E. ovic taQ\ o Tl tovtov daefiidTepov kaTiv, ovo ovTb> XP'I f^dXXov 
ci}Xo/3ei(T0cu, TrX))y els deovs kui Xoyw (cai epyu> e^afxapTdyeiy, where ttX/jv 
is for )'; : Bekker, however, has ovc o ti for ovc ovrw. 

754 Syntax, Of the Use of the Comparative. 

d. Since the proposition after ndWov is negative in sense, ov is 
sometimes used after ?/. Herod. 4, 118. j/'icet yap 6 Wiparis ovliv tl 
ficiWov ctt' i]fieas, 7/ ov kui eni vfxeas in Schweighaeuser and Gaisford. 
Thuc. 2, G2. ovc eiKos j^aXfTrws (pepeiv avruiy fjLciWoy, y ov, kIittlov 
KUL kyKoKkwirifffxa ttXovtov ivpvs tcivttjv vofxirravras, oXiyioprjrrai^, and 
without a negative before fudWoy : Thuc. S, 36. wfivy to j3ov\€v^ia, 
TToXiv o\y]y ^la^QeTpat, f^iaWov f; ov rovs alrlovs. 

Ohs. 4. When eKar-ov, irXeor, TrXeiio are followed by a numeral, >; 
is often omitted. Thuc, 6, 95. xj Xeia eirpdOr] raXavrwv ovk eXarroy 
irevTe KaX e'lKoai, Plat. Aj'iol. S. J^. 17 D. vvy eyw Trpuiroy errl ^iKaary'ipiov 
ayaftejjrjKa, ertj yeyoyivs TrXct'w fpcof-niKoyTa. as in Latin, ainplius. 
TrXeoy, eXarroy are then often used as indeclinable, as in the passage in 
Thucydides. Comp. Lys. p. 155, 33. 15G, C" 

Obs. 5. The measure by how much one thing exceeds another, or is 
exceeded by it, is put either in the dative, /ua/^pw, oXiyo), ttoXXw'^. see 
§. 400, 8. or in the accusative, vXiyoy, ttoXv, fieya. see §. 425, 1, a. 
These words are sometimes separated from the comparative : Plat, 

Eutliyphr. p, 14 B. r; 7roX6 fioi lia i3pa-)(yTep(oy etTres ar. for cia 

TToXv j3paj(yT€pu)y, Xen. Cyr. 6, 4, 8. vwecry6pr]y avTiS - - - ij^eiy avVjJ 
ak noXv 'Apuffira av^pa kuI TriaroTcpoy Kal dfielyoya'^ Thus also Cic 
de Orat. 2, 57 in. inulto hi eo studio mag is ipse elahorat. 

Obs. 6. The comparative is strengthened by eVt, Lat. cliam. Soph. 
(Ed. C. 5. Tov fffiiKpov c' en fie^oy (jicpoyra, and passirn. This also is 
sometimes separated from the comparative by other words, as Ilcrod. 
5,87. W6r]yaioL(n ^e eVt rov Trddeos ^eiyorepoy tl I6l,at. elrai to Tuiy 
yvyaiKioy epyoy. Comp. ib. 92, 6. 

Obs. 7, In this manner especially are compared two comparatives in 
two propositions by means of oVw — to(tovtm, oaov — toctovto (roo-o>'), 
as in Latin, fpio — co. Sometimes these words are omitted, and the 
two propositions contracted into one, e. g, Xen. Ilicr. 5, 5. ey^eaTepois 
yap ovffi TaireiyoTepois civroTs oiovrai yjprjaQai, for ocrto eySeiffrepoi elai, 
ToaovTf rair. fidXXoy is sometimes wanting with oVw Xoi. Hicr. 10,2. 
unless we ought to read there oo-w civ ttXcw. The cases are different 
in which oVw is used without a comparative for oVi §. 480. e. g. Plat. 
Euthijphr. p. 1 1 D. ceivoTepos riir TC'^vrfv to(tovto), o(tu> 6 ney tU avTOv 

* Dukcr ad Thuc. 3, 36. I3ast ad ^ Ilcind. ;id Plat. Cratyl. p. 101. 

r.icg. p. 102. Ilcrm. ad Vig. p.801. ad Thadon. p. 232. Borncm. ad 

'' Lob. ad Pliryn. p. 410. Xen. Synip. 1. §. 4. p. 46. Scha-f. 

*■ Ilcind. ad Plat. Phadon p, 108. i\pp. Dcm. 1. p. ii. p. 377. 

Sj/ntax. Of the Use of the Comparative. 755 

/.iota tTToiei ov /.leioyra, lllo prcestanlior CO, quod &c. Comp. Herod. 
C, 137, 8, 13." See §. 480, c. 

Ohs. 8. With ftovXajdcti, f^iaWov is sometimes omitted. //. a, 117. 
ftovXo 1^ eyw Xaoy (joov eyt^evoi j*/ uTroXeaOai, t'o/o instead of /H«/o. Comp. 
Od. jj.', 3-50. ^M?". Andr, 351. Trocras o' av evr'us Qvyarip ii(nKi]^eyy]v 
ftoiiXoC av e'vpeh', rj Tradelv Ityio Xeyio ; 

Obs. 9. The poets sometimes omit the proposition with >'/, and give a 
different turn to the expression. So2)h. Antig. 637. ejuot yap ovleis 
a^iLJs earai ylijios {.lei^ioi' (pepeadai, aov kciXujs ijyovfxeyov, for fieii^itjy 
(p€pe<7d(u, r] eKch'os oy aii ay yyij. where, however, instead of the latter, the 
genitive absolute has been chosen : si tu connubium, quod jungam, mihi 
demonstravcris, nullum m'lhi jwtius crit, i. e. co quod tu demonstraveris. 
Comp. 701, 703. The passage Eur. Med. 655. is still more remarkable : 
dctyciTw, dayarii) irapos canei-qv, ajjepar rayd' ec,ayv<Ta(ra, if the sense be 
Trapos la}xeiriy, r] (Tpiv) n'jy^e Ti)y yfjepay e^avvaai. ^ut hoc die per- 
functa, prius moriar, involves a contradiction in itself, and therefore pro- 
bably after Tropos hti.ielr]y we should supply from the preceding, rj I'nroXis 

When two adjectives or adverbs are compared with each 456. 
other, so as to signify that any one property or quahty is found 
in a higher degree in one thing than in another, both adjectives 
or adverbs are put in the comparative. Od. a , 164. iravTec, k 
aprtaaiar eXaCpporepoi tto^uq elvai, h a(l)v€i6Tepoi ypv~ 
aolo TC eadr]T6c, re. Herod. 3, Q5. eTroa/cra ray^vrepa ?/ 
aoCpiOTepa. Hence ib. 2, 37. oi AiyvirTioi TrepiTU/^ivovTai, 
7rpoTijj.iovTec Kadapoi elvai 7j evTrpeTreaTepoi, where the first 
comparative lies in TrpoTtpwvTec, i. e. /3oi;Ao|(iei'oi jttoAXoi' KaOa- 
poi, KaOapiorepoi, eivai. Thuc. 1, 21. mc, \oy6ypa<poi ^vve- 
ueaav ewi TO TrpocraytoyoTepov ry uKpodaei ?; a\y]deaTe- 
pov. Aristoph. Ach. 1078. ta» arpaTrjyol irXeovcc, ?) /3eA- 
Tjoi'ec. P/at. Thcict. p. 144 A. o\ o^eic koi uyyivoi koi 

/iivyjILiovec /LiaviKUJTepoi i] avSpeiOT epoi (pvovrai. 

Isocr. Epist. p. 407 B. ovBelc, yap eanv, ootiq ov Kareyino 
TT poTrerearepov ere Kiv^vveveiv, t} (BaaiXtKwrepov^. 

The comparative is also used without an expressed object of 457. 

'^ Soph. (T.d.C. 741. mixes j). 74. 
both constructions; but not App. •■ Herin. ;id \'ig. p.71o, f)n, Ilcind. 

Deni. 1. p. 866. Stallb. ad Eutli\ phr. ad Plat. Thcirt. p. 289. 

75G Syntax. Of' the Use of the Comparative. 

comparison, where we may easily supply * than is just, than is 
usual, than might have been expected, than at present', or 'than 
formerly'. As it attributes a quality only under a certain rela- 
tion, it expresses a lower degree of that which the adjective 
imputes to the substantive than is expressed by the positive, 
which attributes it without limitation. In Latin p«»/o is used, 
in English * somewhat, rather'. Iferud. 3, 146. Maiai'^pito 
ce TO) TvpavvM rfv abeAcjyeoQ v~o /^la py or e poc. 6, 107. oia 
Se ol TT pealSvrepo) ovri. Sometimes ti also is added: 
Thuc. 8, 84. o oe avOaBecTTcpov tc ti aireKpivaTO. Comp. 
2, 11.^ 

In other cases a comparison is understood with something 
which is prevented or weakened by the adjective, as in §. 448, 
l,b. 451. 452. Herod. 6, 108. -imeLC eKaaTepoj oixeojuev, sc. 
7] ware vfxac, BkyeaQai, as Theocr. 15, 7. Herod. 4, 1 98. 7j At/3un 

oyre avy^jiov (ppovritovaa ouotj', o'vre o/uppov TrXew 

iriovaa Seo>/ArjTa«, sc. — Xtw tov Scoutoc. Herodotus says 
at full length, 7, 13. Mare aeiKearepa aTroppixpai eVea ec avSpa 
7rpea[5vrepoi', ?j -^peiov. Xeu. j\Iem. S. 2, 9, 4. (piXoy^pi^rjToc 
re Kai cvcj^viarepoc, lov, sc. ?} ojcrre airo iravTOQ Kep^aiveiv. Here 
the comparative expresses a higher degree, in reference to that 
which would otherwi^fe have taken place ^. 

So the com])arative seems sometimes to be used for the posi- 
tive ; but then, too, it expresses a quality with reference to an 
additional circumstance in the mind, as //. a , 32. a'AX' 'i9i, /nij 
fi epeOiCe, aaiorepoc (oc ice ver]ai 'that thou mayest return more 
securely than thou otherwise wouldest', where Plato Hep. 3. 
p. 393 E. says, airievai Se e/ceXeue Kai /uri epeQ'iCeiv, iva ctwc 
oi'/caSe e-XOoj. Comp. //. (/)', 101. J, 52. Herod. 2, 46. ov 
/[tot TjStoi' can Xcyeiv, i.e. 'than not to say it'. Paid. Nem. 
5,30. ov Toi atraaa KepBiiov (puivoKra irpoawTrov aXaOei 
arpeKr]c, (»; fii) cpaiv. Trpoa.) Thus ot af.icivovec,, optiinales 
('better than the multitude'). Eur. Suppl. 420. veojTepoc 
especially is used in this manner, c. g. et rt et'»; rciorepov Trcpi 

'^ Il.Stcph. App. de Dial.p.39sq. '' Miisgr. ad Eur. Ale. 706. Of 

Nitzsch Comrn. de Comp. Gr. Ling. ^uWov so used see Heind. ad Plat. 

Modis (at the end of his edition of Phaedon. §. 20. p. 33. 
Plato's Ion), p. 57 scq. 

syntax. Of the Use of the Comparative. 757 

Ti}u EXAaSa, ' anything new' (i, e. * tlian has yet happened'). 
Herod. ], 27. but usually Kaivov, not KaivoTtspov'^. a/neivov 
(e. g. Twc yap a/iieivov in Homer), ov fSeXnov {Xeii. Cyr. 5, 
1, 12.). ov Xwov, ov KpeiTTOV, ov KaWiov Od. t] , 159. ov 
-^eipov Plat. Phadon. p. 105 A. Scc.** The sense is tlie same 
as if the positive were used. 

Obs. 1. On the other hand, the positive is sometimes put for the 
comparative. Herod. 9, 2G. ijfitas ciicaioy e-^^eiy ro erepoy Kepas i'jTrep 
'Adi]yaiovs. Thuc. 6, 21. al(rynov ce ftiatrOei'ras cnveXdeTy, ?y v(r-epoy 
€Triiuera77€j-nTeadai, to wpwroy aaKeTrroJS [Dov\ev(7ap.eyovs *^. Here the 
comparative appears to be omitted : ciKaioy e^. ru er. k. ciKaioTepoy ?; 
'Adijv. cila-^puy ft. air. kuI a'icr-^ioy /) . 

Obs. 2. The comparative ako is put for the superlative : e. g. Od. ?/, 
156. 'EA^err/os, os ci) 'Paii'iKioy aycpuiy Tzpoyeyetjrepos ijey, 'older than the 

other Phasacians', as Isocr. de Pac, p. 173 D. ivpoaljKeL tovs 

(.K w^eAe/a vovQerovyras e-aiyely Kal fteXr lovs -loy TroXirwy yoj-iH^ety, 
Comp. ^j. 183 C 

The positive is often put with paWov for the comparative. 453. 
But this adverb also is often put with the comparative. Herod. 
1, 31. wc a/iieivov eir] avOpiowM TeOviwai jiiaWov i] ^(l)€iv. 
ib. 32. paWov oXf^iujrepoG eari. even in Homer, //. tJ , 
203. prj'irepoi paWov. jEsch. S. c. Th. 675. tic oXXoc p(7X- 
Xov ev^iKwrepoc;; Eurip, Hec. 377. Oavwv ^' av en] p(7X- 
Xov evrvy^ear e poc, ?; C^i-. P^/^. Go/'g. p. 487 B. a icr^wj/- 
Tijporept,) puXXov tov ceovroc. Leg. 6. p. 781 A. yevoQ 
i]pix)v rwv avBphJTTOJV XaO paioT€ pov paXXov Kai eTTt/cXoTrw- 
Tepov ecpv TO OrjXv ^ici to aaOevec. Phccdon. p. 79 E. Isocr. 
Archid. p. 138 B. C. ttoXu ziaXXov KpeiTTOv, peyuXov kch- 
pov Tipi]v avTaXXaqaadai, ?/ piKpov \^p6v(jv peyaXaic, ai(j\vvaiQ 
rtpac, uvTovc, irepil^aX&iv. Comp. ib. p. 1 34 C. Hel. 
p. 218C.S 

"= Astad Plat. Hep. p. 538. Stallb. ' Fisch. 2. p. 149. 3 a." p. 327. 

ad Plat. Euth. in. Ilerm. ad Vig. p. 717,56. 

'' Koeu ad Greg. p. (46) 112 scq. ^ Wetsten. ad Phil. 1,23. Valcken. 

Valck. ad Herod. 2, 46. p. 126, 10. ad Ilerod. 2, 138. (p. 171, 36.) 7,143. 

Musgr. ad Eur. Ale. 763. Fiscli. 3 a. (p. 569, 33.) Brunck ad Arist. Eccl. 

p. 327. Herm. ad Vigor, p. 719, 58. 1131. Heusde Spec. Cr. in Plat. 

\vhere the remark of Reiz furnishes p. 118. Fisch. 2. p. 2:37 sq. Herm. 

the best solution. Nitzsch p. 56. ad Vig. p. 716, 60. Ast ad Plat. Leg. 

* Wesseling ad Her. 9, 26. p. 703, p. 224 seq. Monk ad Hipp. 487. 

50. Fisch. 3 a. p. 325. Blomf. ad /Esch. Theb. 670. 


Of the Use of the Superlative. 

459. The Superlative is used to show that the quality implied is 
found in its highest degree in the subject defined. When the 
class of objects from which the defined substantive is in this 
manner taken, is expressed at the same time, then the superla- 
tive is used also in English. If this class be not expressed, 
the superlative is usually rendered by ' very, extremely', with 
the positive: e.g. Xen. Mem. S. 4, 1, 3. eTre^e'iKwev t(Sv 

'nnT(i)v TOVQ €.v(^veaTaTovc,, ei e/c vewv da/iiacfdeiev, ev- 

^jorjffTOTaTouc Kai a piarovc yiyvof^ievovc, * in the greatest 
degree, very, useful, good', Sec. 

1. When the class from which the substantive to which the 
superlative belongs is taken, is mentioned at the same time, the 
genitive is usually in the plural, e. g. ^iKaioTaroQ KevTcivptov 
II. X', 83 1 . which is often accompanied by TravTOJv, e. g. Herod. 
4, 142. KUKKXTOvc re Kai avav^ poTcir ovq Kpivovaiv eivai 
mravroiv avQ pioiroyv. or avOpujTrwv Plat. Euthi/phr p. 13. E. 
or a\X(i)v It. a, 505. 10 Kv jiio p It) raroc, aWtov^. In the poets 
this genitive is often the positive of the adjective, which is in the 
superlative. j/Esc/ii/l. Suppl. 540. paKaptov naKupraTe Kai reXewi' 

TeXeiOTOTOP KpUTOC,. Sojill. (Ed. T. 334. W KOKWU KUKKTTe. 

Aristoph. Vac. 183. m piupwv piapwrare^^. Comp. §.333. 

2. The superlative is commonly in the gender of the substan- 
tive which is in the genitive case, e.g. ovpavuQ 7jSt<rTOV twi' 06a- 
parwv, not jJS((ttoc. Isocr. ad Nicocl. cxtr. avp(iov\oc, ciyaOoc, 

I \ r r I I 

y^pr\<sipii)TaTOV Kai TvpavviKwrarov atravTiov KTiipa- 
T(ov ccTTi. Instances however are found in which the super- 
lative is in the gender of its subject, and not of the genitive, 
e. g. //. (j) , 353. oc, apa KapTKTTOC, Kai eXaCppoTaroc, Trere- 
jjvwv. Comj). '^ , 139. Theocr. 12, 7. ofjowi/ avp-rravTiov \iyv- 
cl)<ovor, aoiboTari] TreT€t]vwv. Herod, 4, 85. o IToi'toc ircXayeiov 
airavTCov TreCpvKe OiovpacmoTaroc {Cod. Saner. -to»'). A/itip/ion 
ap. Suid. V. OeaicearaTov' avOpioiroc, be fpyi<ri pcv 7ruvT(x)i> 

" Blomf. ad iEsch. Pers. 189. " Fisch. 2. p. 146 sq. 3 a. p. 352. 

Si/ntax. Of the Use of the Superlative. 759 

Onp'iMv Oeai^eaTUTOC yeveaOai. Menand. a p. Luciuii. 
Amor. T. 5. jj. 306. voawv y^aXeirMraroc, (pOovoQ*^. 

Ohs. Sometimes the genitive does not mark the class of objects to 
which the substantive accompanied by the superlative belongs, but the 
class of the subject of the verb. Herod. 7, 70. ol e/c r/js Ai/3ur/s Ai- 
OtWes ovXoTaTOV Tpi-)(jM^a eyovn TruPTwr avOpojiruy. Comp. Xe7l. 
Mem. ^S". 4, 5, 1. 8, 11. The superlative and the genitive also relate 
to an oblique case: Herod. 7, 238. Sep^rjs iravTOJV C)) juc'tXtorra aydpujy 
edvfxojd)] Aewpih]. Xen. Mem. S. 4, 5, 1. 

The superlative is frequently accompanied, not by the geni- 460. 
tive plural of a class of objects, but by the genitive of the re- 
flective pronoun, by which, in this case, is expressed the highest 
degree to wliich a thing or person attains. Herod. 1, 193. 
eireav ^e apiara avri) etovrria eveiK\i, ewi -rpi^Koaia eKCpepei 
' at the very best, when it produces most'. 1, 203. 'H Kaairtri 

evpoG eari, Ty evpvTaTt} eari avTr] ewwrr/c, o/ctw 

iniepetov. Eurip. ap. Plat. Gorg. p. 484 E. AojUTrpoq eariv 
eKaaroQ ev rovTO), IV avroc; avrov Tvy\avyj peAriaToc, wv. 
Plat. Leo-. 4. p. 715 D. veoc u)v ttuc avdpiOTroc to. roiavra 
dp(5\vTara avTOQ avrov opa. Xen. Mem. S. 1, 2, 46. e'lde 
aoi, J YlepiKXeic, totg avveyevo/iitiv, ore deivoTaroQ a avrov 

ravra tfaUa ! 

In order to strengthen the signification of the superlative, 4G1 
particles &c. are often added to it, as ttoXXw, jua/cjow, ttoAu, 
■n-apci TToXv. Herod. 1, 143. ttoXXw aadeveararov, mnlto in- 
firmissimam. Thuc. 4,92. iroXXio paXiara. II. a, 91. ttoXXov 
apiaroc. /3', 769. ttoXu ^epraroc.. Aristoph. Pint. 445. 
Beivorarov epyov -napa iroXv. Herod. 1, \93. paKp(^ apiarti, 
huge optima. Arist. Pac. 672. paKpc^ €vvov(Traroc,. 

In the Ionic poets uxa, e^oX«> ftey" are often joined with 
it, e. g. o^ apiaroc, II. a, 69. €^o)(^* apiaroi Od. B , 629. 
jiieya (jyeprare Od. X, 477. 

/cai : e. g. Kal fxaXiara Xen. Cyr. 2, 1, 5. vel inaxime. 

" Dorv. ad Charit. p. 347. Person Menandr. p. 193. 
(et Schaef.)adEur.Ph. 1730. Schsf. '' Stephan. App. de Dial. p. 41. 

ad Dion. H. p. 230. and Ind. p. 163. Wessel. ad Herod, p. 91, 18. Hoog. 

Ind. Greg. p. 1064 seq. Meinekead ad Vig. p. 68. Fisch. 2, p. 148. 

760 Si/ntax. Of the Use of tlie Superlative. 

The particles wc, ottwc, y especially are often joined with 
the superlative, in the sense of wc, with words signifying 
* ability, possibility'. Xeii. Mem. S. 2, 2, 6. eiriineXovvTai ol 
yovelc, uTTwc, oi Trcucec avrdlc, ykvojvrai mc, cvvaTOv ^kXriaTOi. 

4, 5, 2. cipa KaXov Kai /.leyaXelov I'o/n'^etc elvai avBpi Kai iroXei 
KTxifxa eXevOepiav ; Qc o'lov re juaXiaTci, e(pt]. Thitc. 7, 21. 
ecprj -^privaL ■nXijpouv I'civc wc ^vvavraL TrXeiarac. Xeii. Mem. 

5. 4, 5, 9. u> c evi {licet) 'i]^iara. id. Cyr. 1 , 1, 9. i? oi' 
cvviopai Tuyjara. 1, 4, 14, Siayivvi^eaOai, ottmc, eicaaTOC, to. 
KpuTiara cvvaiTO. id. Rep. Imc. 1, 3. (titoj tj vlvvotov 
/LieTpKjJTarii}. Thuc. 7, 21. ayu)v aTpariuv, oai^v eKaarayoQev 
TrXe'iaTr]v eBvvaro. Herod. 6, 44. ev vow ey^ovTec, ocrac ciu 
TrXeicTTac cvvaivro Ka-adTpeCpecrOai twv KXXyiviSoov TrnXiwv. 
ly 60. avvo\avTec pvpiaca uvQpujTTiijv o>c paXiaTa etyov. 
Xen. Hell. 2, 2, 9. oaovQ ijBvuaTO TrXeiaTOVc aOpo'iaac,^. 
oaoc, is also used as an adjective Herod. 7, 223. aire'^eiKvvvTo 
pu>pr]Q oaov elyjov peyiaTOv. Still more diffusely Plato says 
Rep. 9. p. 586 D. a[ UTTiQvfxiai tuc, aXi^OeaTUTCic, i]dovaQ 
AT}\povTai, iOQ oiov re uvtoIq liXriOelc, Xajielv. 

These relative particles also stand alone, where ^vvaaOai, 
^vvaTov eari is supplied by the mind. Xen. Cyr. 1, 6, 26. a>c 
TuyjL(jTa, quam celerrime. ottioq apiara Msch. Ag. 611. ottwc 
Tayjiara Arisf. Vesp. 168. 365. ij apiarov Xen. Ci/r.2,4, 32. 
7, 5, 82. oaov Tci-^iGTa Sopli. El. 1457. also on for o n, as 
Xeu. Cyrop. 6, 1, 43. on TrXeiaTOv -^povov. Od. e , 1 12. otti 
Tay^^iaTa. Eurip. A/idrom. 924, ircpxpov pe -^iopac, Tija^' ottoi 
7rpu(T(i)TaT0), with reference to Trepx^ov for t/cetcre ottou TrpouM- 
Taru) eariv. Sometimes these conjunctions are separated from 
the superlative by other words, especially prepositions : Thuc. 
3, 46. on cv ^pay(VTan<). Xen. Cyr. 1, 6, 26. wc ev ey^npu)' 
Tario. Demoslli. de Cor. p. 321, 26. wc irap' o'lKeioTaTO)^. 
Of oTi see §. 624, 3,fl. The use of wc, ovioc,, y, has probably 
originated from ovrtoc being supplied by the mind, as tocjovto 
with oCTOi'. This is particularly evident when av comes between 
IOC and the superlative, in wliich case the principal verb must 
be supplied in the optative : Thuc. 6,57. Ka\ evdvQ aTTepicrKkirrwc 
TrepiTreaovrec, Kai wc av paXicrra ti opyrjc, sc. Trepnreaoiev. Dem. 

* Fisch. 2. p. 142-151. '' Schaf. App. Dem. 2. p. 362. 

Sj/ntax. Of the Use of the Sitperlalive. 701 

01. \. p. 15, 8. ovT€ yap evTrpeTTCJc, ovB' loc liv kuXXiot (t^oO 
avTM Tu irapovT ey^ei*^. The following passages, however, are 
not to be referred to this head : Soph. Trach. 330. iropevkaBto 
areyar, ovtwc ottwc I'l^iaTa. Dem. 01. 2. p. 21, 10. ottojc tic 
\eyei KaWiara Kal Tci-^iara, ovtojc, apecTKCi /.loi : for here outwc 
OTTOJC do not serve to strengthen the superlative, but belong to 
the verb, ovtwc ottwc ij^iOTa rropeveaOai, ovtwc ottwc tic Aeyei 
KaW. Kai To^. yiyveaOai Seiv. 

Obs. These particles are also used widiout the superlative. Time. 
1, 22. L)(Tov Ivrarov uKpifteta, for uKpifteaTara. Plat. Prot. p. 314 D. 
Xen. J nab. 1, 8, 11. Thus also ws Ka\a)s h Svyauiv Crat'm. ap. Su'id. 
s. V. TO irapov eu Oitrdai. See Hemst. ad Luc. T. 3. p. 366. for ws kuX- 
Xiirra Svvaroy. ws or ocrov ra^os, quam celerr'ime. 

oloc also is used with the superlative. Plat. Apol. S.p. 22 E. 
aireyQeiai, o'lai y^aXeirwrar ai Ka\ (BapyraTai. Symp. 
p.220'B. Trdyov o'lov SeivoTOTov. Xen. A?iab. 4,8,2. -^(vpiou 
olov -^aXeTTUjrarov. Aristot. Eth. 9, S.p. 155 D. avrip oloc 
KpciTiaroc. In Xenophon it is fully expressed : Mem. S. 4, 

8 extr. o "EbjKpaTrjc eSo/cei toioutoc elvai, oloc av e'lrj 

apiaroc ye aviip Kal evdaii.iove.aT aroc. Coiup. §. 445, b. 

etc also is used with the superlative. Herod. 6, 127. 2,ttiv- 

dvplBric CTTt 7rXe?(7TOP §7} ^A(S/jc etc avrip airiKeTO. Soph. 

CEd. T. 1380. o ttoptAj/^wv e-ytu KoXXtcxT' a'l'jjjo etc cv ye 
Ta?c 07j/3atc TpaCpe'ic. Thuc. 8, 68. touc aywvitojxevovc 
TrXeTfTTo elc avrip dvvdpevoc w(|)eXe?i'. Xe}i. Aiiah. 1, 9, 22. 
dwpa TrXeTcTTa etc ye avrip tjv eXap-^ave, as in Latin units 

onmium maxime 

Sometimes too the superlative is accompanied by an adverb 
or adjective in the superlative, for the positive. Soph. G^d. C. 
743. TrXeTcTTOi' dvOpwTTOJV KaKiaTOC, for ttoXu kukiotoc. id. 
Phil. 631. tj7c TrXe7(TT0u e ')(^0 1 a t rj c Cjuot e-^iSvrjc. Eur. Ale. 
802. TJ]^ TrXeTcTTOi' ri^'iaTriv 6ed)u Kvirpiv. Thus also /ta- 
XtffTa eyBioTOC II. |3', 220. fidXioTa efxC^epecTaTa Herod. 
2, 76. comp. 1, 171. ^tdXtcTTa ^etvoTaToc Thue. 7, 42.*^ 

' Scheef. App. Dem. p. 26S. 487. Person applied this incorrectly 

^ Herod. 6, 127. (p. 497, Eur. Ilec. G20. Sec Matthias ad v. 

51.) Lob. ad Soph. Aj. 1328. Blomf. 613. Reisig Conim. Crit. in Soph. 

Gloss. Pers. 333. CEd. C. p. 342. 

* Fisch. 2. p. 144. Monk ad Hipp. 

VOL. II. s 

762 Sifutax. Of ihe Use of the Snjyerlative. 

It is different Plat. Epitt. p. 992 B. tovtov Xeyu) top aA?/- 
Bearara aocjyujTarov ' a man whom with the greatest truth one 
may call the wisest'. So we must understand Soph. CEd. C. 
1190. if we adopt the reading proposed by Toup, ra twv 
KUKiara Bvaaej^eararuyv. ^ 

Obs. Circumlocutions are frequently found with the superlative. 
jiEschin. Eryx. 1. vtto Ik twv aniKptov tovtu)v av fidWov vpyi^oivro, 
ovTWS wsav jsaXiara x^aXeTrwraroi eirjffav, for dpy/^otJTO av ■)(aX€Tru)TaTa. 
X,en. Cyr. 7, 5, 58. on rj ttoXis oiirws e'xoi avVw, ws av TroXe/itwranj 
ykvoLTO ai'Cpl 7rcXts\ 

462. Sometimes two superlatives in two different propositions are 
compared with each other by the words tooovtoj — oau), in 
order to show that a quality exists in the highest degree in one 
subject, in the same measure as it is possessed by another in 
the highest degree. In this case comparatives also may be put 
for superlatives. Thac. 8, 84. oaio /.laXiara Kal cXevOepoi 
rjaau oi vavrai, roaovru) Kal Opaavrara TrpoaTreaovrec, tov 
piaOov fnryjTOvv, as in Latin, naulcz, ut Uherrimi erant, ita auda- 
cisshie, only with this difference, that in Latin ita — ut are 
usually the particles of comparison instead of eo — quo, but in 
Greek these remain the same as with the comparative. The 
indefinite subject also, which in Latin with this construction is 
expressed by quisque, is expressed in Greek by tic as with the 
comparative. Plat. Rep. 2. p. 374 D. oaio (.leyiarov to t(Sv 
(pvXaKiov epyoVf TOffOVTW (T^oXrjC re ruiv aXXojv TrXei(jrt]Q 
av e'lt) Kal av Te)(^v>}c Te Kal eirt/JieXelaa p.eyiarr]C, ceopevov. 
Sometimes, especially when the proposition with oaio follows, 
TOorouTw is omitted : Thuc. 1,68. irpoanKei T]pac. ov)^ vKiara 
(i.e.paXiara. See §.466.)ei7reiv, ocrw Kal peyicrra eyKXripara 
e-^^opev ' we have the greater right to speak, in proportion as 
we have the greater charges to make'. 2, 47. avroi paXiara 
e9vr}aK0v, oom Kal paXiara 7rpo<jy€(jai>. Herod. 5, 29. aXyoQ 
peyiarov pev avrolai vp'iv, erl ?e tojv Xoittwv v^iiv, oato irpo" 
earare rija 'EXXadoc, where oaw is ior otc. Tiie compara- 
tive is also intermixed with the superlative : Dcmosth. Oli/nfh. 
p. 21, 22. ofj-o) yap CTOiporaT avrio doKOV/iiev -^priaOai, 
TocfovTM pciXXov cnriaTovni navTec, avTw. In Soph. Iracli. 

» Comp. Reisig Comm. Crit. ad (Eel C 1C70. 

Stfiitax, Of the Use of the SuperUdivc. 7G3 

312 seq. eire'i viv rwi'Se TrXeTarov t'oKricra, BXeTrowff , ocno Trep 
Kal (ppovelv olSev /tioi^)?, it is not necessary to supply /taXicrTa 
with 0(7(0, since oaw may stand for on. See §. 480. Obs. 2. 
§. 45.5. ''Obs. 4. 

This kind of construction too, as in Latin, is abbreviated by 
the omission of roaovrio — ocrw, and the two propositions are 
contracted into one. Herod. 7 , 203. civat OvriT(Sv ov^eua owSt 
ecreadai, tw kukov e^ apyjiG yivoiiievo^) ov avvej.ii')(Oi), roiai ^e 
fieyiaTOKJi avredjv neyiara, i. e. ocrw f.ikyi(sroi r\aav, roaovrof 
fLieyiara. Soph. Antig. 1327. jSjOo^icTTa ycip Kpariara rav 
TToa\v KUKu *the shorter the better'. Xcn. Mem. S. 4, 1,3. al 
api(TTai doKOvcrai elvai (pvcreic /uctXicrTa TraiSetaq ceovrai. id. 
Hier. 1, 21. rov eKaaT(i) rj^of-ievov juaXiara tovtov o'lei Kai 
epdjTiKi^Tara e)(^etv rov epyov tovtov; 

The superlative of negative adjectives or adverbs is often 40:3. 
put with ov for the positive without ov, especially ov-)(^ vKKxra, 
for/.mXi(TTa. Thiic. 1,68. See §. 465. Phit. Phadon. p. 1 17 D. 
e-yw oi»Y jjfctffTa tovtou eveKa tuc, yvvcuKac aTTeire/iiipa, 'iva /u/ 
TOiavra 7rXrjjU|tieXo?ej'. Herod. 2, 43. ovy^ rj/cio-TO, aXXa pa- 
XtffTa. Thuc.l ,4.4. pkyidTOv 8e /col ovy^ y^KKJTa e(5XaiPev 
o Traitovicrpoc. Thus also II. o , 11. tVet ov piv a(^avpoTaToc 
/3aX' 'A)(otaT)', i. e. 'iGyvpoTaTOC and with the antithesis Od. 
p',4\5. ov yap /^toi SoKeetc o ko/ckttoc ' KyuKj^v ep/Lievat, aXX 
u)pi(TTOC,. Herod. 4, 95. {ZaXpo'^ic w^iu'Xjjcre) 'EXXr'/vwv ou tm 
acrOei'ecfTaTW <7o(^ic7t>^ Flu^a-yopy. Thuc. 1, 5. i)yovpev(ov 
av^p(j}v ov T(jiv a^vvaT (x)T aT(i)v. Comp. 8, 100. Xen. Hist, 
Gr. 6, 4, 18. 01 ovK eXa^KTTov SKvo;ue»'oi ev ry TroXei . 

As the comparative is put for the superlative, in the same 4(;.i,, 
manner the superlative is sometimes put for the comparative. 
Od.X', 481. (TfcTo S', 'A^tXXeu, ovtiq ain)p TrpoTrapoiOe paKap- 
TttToc, OUT ap ott/ctctw. Herod. 2, 103. ec tovtovc, Se /loj 
SoKeei Kal ov irpocxuiTaTa cnriKeaOai o AiyvTrrioc, arparoc 
Comp. 3, 119. Eurip. Iphig. A. 1603. ravTJiv pdXiaTU 
TrJQ K6py]c, aairateTai, where Musgrave quotes ApoU. lih. 
3, 91. Aristoph. Av. 823. XiSarov, i) to ^^XeypaQ Trediov. 

''Gatak. Advers. Misc. 1. c. 7. 98 seq. Comp. Valck. ad ller. 3, ^5. 
p. 215 F. Valck, ad Her. 4, 95. p. 206, 52. Bninck ad Soph, (Ya). 
p. .324, 95. Roen ad Greg. p. (41) T. 58. 

s 2 

764 Syntax. Use of the Personal and Possessive Pronouns. 

This superlative is even followed by ?), Herod. 2, 35. AiyuTTToc 
irXeiGTa Oov/iiaaia eyei n a\\r\ x^pr], (where, however, some 
MSS. have TrXew,) as it is followed by the genitive //. X , 481. 

Ohs. Of w ^/\' ai'lpojy &c. where Person Prcef. Hec. j). 54. Monk 
ad Eur. Ale. 472. consider the positive to be used for the superlative, 
see §. 320, 3.* 

0/ the Use of the Pronovns. 

I. Personal and Possessive Pronouns. 

465. 1 . The nominative of the personal pronoun is usually omitted 
with the personal terminations of verbs, as in Latin, except 
where there is an emphasis, e. g. in an opposition, whether ex- 
pressed or understood, e. g. aXXa ttuvtivq /cat av oxpei avrrtu 
Xen. Cyr. 5, 1,7. 

2. In dialogues the personal pronoun is often used without 
the verb, if it has occurred in the speech of the other party. 
In this case it is mostly accompanied by -ye (§. 602.). Plat. 
Gorg. p. 454 C. KaXeic, n TreTTKTrevKevai; FOPr. * Eywye, 
i. e. ' yes', ih. p. 462 D. BouXet ovv, eTreiS)] n/^iac to \(tf>i- 
Z[e(T0ai, (Ji^iiKpov Ti fxoi yjaplaaaOai; TIQA. ' E-ya>ye. id. Rep. 
3 in. rj-yy tm'o ttot au yeveaOai ai'cpc7ov, ej^ovra ev avrio 
TOVTO TO ceif^ia; Ma Ai'a, j) S, oc, ovk G-ywye, 'no'. Comp. 
Xen. Cyr. 5, 1, 4. Mem. 4, 2, 10.'' Thus too in the dative : 
Plat. Gorg. p. 510 B. (piXoc, /not ^okcI flKaaroc, eKaaro) eluai 

o)Q o'lov TC jttaXtcTTa, o of.wioQ Tw ojiioito. ov Kai aoi f 

KAA. e/j-oiye. 

This is founded upon the general usage, by which, in an- 
swers, the leading word of the question is repeated. 

When any one wishes to dissuade another from anything by 
entreaties, firj av ye is very commonly used with the omission 
of the verb preceding. Soph. (Ed. Col. 1441. IIOA. et x/oj?, 

"" Wessel. adllcr.?, 16. p. 517, 16. ad Athcn. T. 7. p. 12 scq. Ast ad 

Valck. ad Phcen. 1589. Musgr. ad Plat. p. 107. 
Soph. Ant. 1349. Fisch. 3 a. p. 329. •' 'J horn. M. p. 264. 

Herm. ad Viger. p. 7 1 8, 57 . Schwcigh. 

Sy}dax. Use of the Personal and Possessive Pronoufis. 765 

OavoviJiai, ANTir. fxn cfv y , d\X Cjuoj ttiBov. Eurip. Hec. 412. 

(jSouAei TretreTi' Trpoc ovSac aaj^^rj/novyicrai t, eK veov (ipa- 

\iovoG (nracfOelcr' ;) a ire'iaei. fxii av y ' ov yap ti^ioQ. Phan. 
541. Ti T)7c Ka/ciffTijc ^aii^iQVwv e<pieaai, (piXortfiiac, iral ; /u?j 
av y' aSiKoc, 7) deuQ. So /lU) /j.oi av (ravra e'nrric) Med. 769.^ 

3. In the forms of entreaty, irpoQ OetSv, Trpoc de^iac, and the 
like, the accusative of the pronoun, being governed of iKe- 
revb) &c. which is often omitted, is commonly put between the 
preposition and the genitive. Soph. (Ed. Col. 1333. Trpoc, vvv 
<xe Kpi]VMV, TTpoc Oeojv oj-ioyv'njjv anu) iriOecrOai. Eurip. Med. 
325. ^iTj Trpoc ere ■yovi'a)^', rrjc re veoyajiiov Koprjc. Ale. 281. juiri, 
Trpoc ere Oewv, rAyo jue Trpo^ovvai. Comp. Andr. 893.^ Thus 
also in Latin, Per te deos oro. 

4. The personal pronouns are sometimes put twice in the 
same proposition, when in the first instance they were separated 
too far from the verb ; Pleonasm. Eur. Phan. 507. e^itot /neu, 
el /cot fXT) KaB' 'EAAtji'wv 'y^Ooi'a reOpa/t^ieO', a'AA oui' ^i^i-era jnoi 
So/cetc Aeyeii'. Xenoph. Ci/r. 6, 4,7. Koi Kvpo) Se BokS f.ieyaXr]V 
Tiva rifxac Yapiv o<pei\eiv, ort ;ue, ot^/uaAwTov yevoi.ievr]v Kai 
e^aipe9e7(jav eavrto, ovre /ne toe SovAjji' rf^'iioae KeKTrjoOai, ovre 
wc eXevOepav ev aTi7iw ovofxari, where Schneider omits the 
second ^e. ib. 4, 5, 29. a/ce^ai Se Kai, o'kj^ ovti /jloi Trepi ae 
oloq lov Trepl e/te eireiTO. /toi ixkfxC^y^. CEcon. 10, 4. ov yap av 
eyw-ye ere ^vvai/mriv, ei toiovtoc eirjc, acxTraaaaOai ae eK rrjq 
^wyrjq, where Zeune erases the second ae. It is found the se- 
cond time pleonastically Arist. Pint. 912. ov yap Trpoanxei 

ttV ef-iavrov p. o i ttoXiv evepyere^v /li , (o KeTr<pe ; This 

is different from the case where the same pronoun is put twice 
with two different verbs ^. 

The possessive pronouns are equivalent in signification to 466. 
the genitive of the personal pronouns : e. g. ai irarep -nperepe, 
v'loG epoQ is the same as Trarep v/j-ojv, vIoq pov. Hence Soph. 
Trach. 485. Ke'ivov re Ka\ ariv e^ 'laov Koiviw \apiv. 

" Valcken. ad Phoen. 334. p. 196. Brunck ad Eur. Med. 1. c. ApoU. 

■I Valcken. ad Eurip. Ph. 1659. Rh.3, 985. Monk ad Eur. Hipp. 603. 
Pors. ad Eurip. Med. 325. Markl. ^ Valck. ad Eur. Phcen. v. 500. 

ad Eur. Suppl. 277. Iph. A. 1233. Wopkens Lect. Tull. p. 271. 

766 S^titax. Use of the Personal and Possessive Pronouns. 

1. A more precise definition of the person indicated by the 
possessive pronoun is put in the genitive, as an apposition to 
the pronoun possessive. //. y, 180. ^arip avr efxoc eaKe 
KVi'WTTiSoc. Soph. GEd. C. 344. (T(f)u) S avr eKeivcov TajLia 
^ucTTTji/ou KUKu vTTepTTOvelrov. Comp. Trach. 775. Plat. 

Si/mp. p. 194 A. eTTiXj/Cjitajv juefx ov e'lriv, u> AyaOwv, e( 

icojv Ti]v ar]V avcpiav Kai /.ley aXoCppoovvrjv avapaivovroc Giri 
TOi' oKpipavTa iLiera twv vitoKpiTwv, kui pXetpavr oc, evavriov 

ToaovTOv Oearpov, vvv oii]9e'u}i> ae Oopvj^jjOiiaeaOai &,c. 

Aristoph. Ach. 93. eKKoxpeie ye Kopal^ Trara^ac rov ye aov 
(o^OoA^tov) Tov TTpea^eioc, as noinen meum absent is, meas 
prccsentis preces, Cic. Plane. 10, 26. Comp. §. 431, 1.^ So 
an adjective is defined by a personal pronoun Eur. Med. 1320. 
Traioec reOvaai \eipi /^irjrpioa aeOev. 

In the same manner the pronoun avroc ' self is added to 
the pronoun possessive in the genitive, as in Latin, mea ipsius 
culpa. II. o ,39. vui'irepov \eyoc, avTuiv. k, 204. ei^ avrov 
OviLKo. Od. a , 7. avTtov yap (rcperepyjaiv uTaaOaXnjcTii' uXovto. 
Herod. 6, 97. oTrtre em ra vfierepa avreojv. JEscli. Ag. 
1333. aira^ er ei7re?v prjaiv h Opr]vov OeX(t) epov rov avTiiQ. 
Comp. lb. 1308. and passim^ . 

2. As the genitive is sometimes put objectively (§. 367.), 
the possessive pronouns too are used, though rarely, in the 
same sense, e. g. ctoc ttoBoc. Od. X', 201. not * thy regret', 
but * my regret for thee'. JEsch. Pers. 696. t7/v e/ni)v a'lSui 
liieBelc, * fear of me*. Soph. Q^d. C. 332. tckvov, r'l B' nXOec; 

ISM. (T)/, TTurep, TrpojiiyiOia * from anxiety on thy account'. 
id. El. 343. Topa vovOcTi'iiiiaTa 'the lessons which thou givest 
me'. 0£d. C. 1113. r/ e/.n) vTTovpy'ia * the service rendered 
to me'. So xpeia ei.ii] Eur. Suppl. 20. is the same as \pe'ia 
/aov, and Ilel. 1178. e^ov BiopOwaai Xoyoic. aav epiv 'the dis- 
l^utc about. thee'. Plat. Gorg. p. 486 A. evvo'n^ yap epui Ty 

^ Valck. ad Phocn. 151U. " \iger. p. IGl. Ilcrni. p. 732. 

'■ Fisch. 1. p. 231 seq. Ast ad Plat, 121. TOppo ad Xcn. (Jyr. B, 3, 32, 
Leg. p, 42. p. 600. 

Syntax. Of the Use of the Demonstrative Pronoum. 707 

3. The possessive pronoun in the neuter with the article is 
sometimes put for the personal pronoun, as the article with the 
genitive, as a circumlocution, §. 285. Herod. 8, 140, 1. to 
vfxkrepov for vf^ielc,. Plat. Hep. 7. p. 533 A. to -y efxov ovSev 
av TrpoOvfLiiac, awoXenroi, for eyw. Eur. Or. 296. orav ^e TUfi 
uOvi^o'iaavT 'i^yjc, for Comp. ^wt??'. 235. Ion. 803.^ Else- 
where TO ejLiov, TO orov, signify 'my, thy advantage'*^. 

Obs. 1. It has been already mentioned that the unemphatic enclitic 
cases [iov, aov often precede the words by which they are governed, 
§. 58. These enclitic cases are sometimes found where the acuted 
should stand. See §. 145. Obs. 1. Comp. //. 0', 175. Eur. PhKn.451. 

Obs. 2. In propositions consisting of two clauses, which have a pro- 
noun in common, in Homer and Herodotus the pronoun is sometimes 
not given till the second clause, though it belongs also to the first. 
II. Ci 46. ^wypei, 'Arp^os vie, crO 3' ci^ia Se^at uTioira. Herod. 1, 206. 

fjLvj^doi' fJ-ey, <jy €')(^eis i^evyi'vs tov ttotu^ov, d^es, av ^e - - Sia(3aive 

is T))v 7]€pr]y. This is the same usage as has been explained §. 289. 
Obs. 9. of the Article. So II. k, 237. /j-ri^k av y alSofxeyos ayai fpeal 
Tov nhv apeiu) KaXXeiTreiy, av Se ^(eipoya, for roy [j.ey apeiui, ■)(elpoya 2e. 
In other poets also in propositions with »'/ — ?/, ovoe — ovle, the pronoun 
is repeated, as Soph. Phil. 1116. -kotiios ae iaijxoviov raZe, ov^e ae ye 
^oXos ea^'. See Buttmann's note, Comp. §. 272 seq. 

Obs. 3. The possessive pronouns express sometimes that which has 
been mentioned by the person designated, as Soph. Ant. 572. to abv 
Xi\oi, i. e. TO vnu aov vyofia'Cofieyoy Xe^^os, as explained by the Scholiast. 
id. Phil. 1251. l,vv t^ SiKaio) top ady ov rap(^u) (pojwy ' the threat which 
thou usest in order to frighten me*. Eur. Heracl. 285. 

II. Demonstrative Pronouns avroc, cKeTi/oc, outoc 

1 . auTOC. 

The pronoun uvtoq has three significations: — 1. When 467. 

in the nominative with a finite verb, or in the oblique cases 

with another noun, before or after the article, it signifies ' self, 

ipse, e. g. If. a , 133. i) e^eXetc, otpp uvtoq exi'^ "y^pac, uvrap 

* Vakk. ad Heiod. 8, 140. p. 687, Lamb. Bos. p. 171, 223. 
52. Boisson. ad Philo5lr. p. 296 "^ Valck. ad Eur. Hipp. 40. lleind. 

Ast ad Plat. Leg. p. 70. Ilcind. ad ad Plat. Gorg. §. 23. 
Plat. Phffid. 99. p. 1G7. Schaf. ad 

768 Syntax. Of the Use of the Demonstrative Pronouns. 

e/u' a'vTOJG riadai ^evo/iievov ; ' that you yourself may have the 
prize' ^. If the noun has the article with it, avroc in this sig- 
nification stands either before the substantive with the article, 
or after both, the latter when ' self is to be emphatically dis- 
tinguished and more connected with the verb. //. ^', 450. aXX' 
ou fxoi Tpiowv Toaaov /.leXei aXyoc OTTiaau), ovt avrvQ EKajSijc 
'even Hecuba', v, 614. rjroi o /nev KopvQoc, (paXov yXaaev 
tTTTToSaaea/c aKpov vtto X6(pov avrov, and so avro tovto or 
tout' avro ' this very thing' ''. In the phrases §. 405. Obs. 3. 
it marks the accompanying substantive as something not usually 
found in conjunction with the action. It also implies that a 
thing or person is to be considered without regard to any other, 
as Plat. Hep. 5. p. 479 E. avro to kuXov, avro to ^'iKaiov 
* decorum, justice itself (by itself) in tlie abstract, opposed to 
the individual things which have those attributes. Conip. Gorg. 
p. 496 C. The article also is wanting id. Rep. 5. p. 478 extr. 
o ^prjffTOC, oc auTO ^cv KoAor, Kai ideav riva avTOv kuXXovq 
jitjjSe^tiai' 7}-yeTTai. In the same manner when a person or thing 
is to be opposed to its attributes or accidental qualities : Hesiod. 
Sc. Here. 251. tcjv koi xpvj^ai ^uei' \66va ^vvovct aicoc ei(T(u 

avTUJv, o<TTea de a(pi KeXannj wvOcTai a'hj. //. ^',18. 

aXX ajLiCpo) Qvfiov air^vpa, avrov Ka\ Oepairovra KaXiiaiov. 
Piftd. 01. 6, 21.*^ Kara yen avrov re viv Kai (|)a(S/jUac ittttovq 
€/iiap\p€v, and so, with re, pasaim. avroc, sometimes precedes : 
Plat. Gorg. p. 511 E. aiocracra Kai avrov Kai 7ra7Sac,. The 
pronoun is then in the same case with the substantive opposed 
to it, the opposition being expressed by a participle referred to 
the pronoun : Xen. Cj/r. 1,3, 1. avri] re Ka\ rov vlov e-)^ovaa. 
Plat. Rep. 3. p. 398 A. a i)jlu.v a(l)iKoiro eiQ ri)v iroXiv avroc 
T€ Kai TO. TTOiii/Liara (3ovX6/xevoG CTrtSei^at. Similar to this is 
Isocr. Epist. \.p. 404 iti. ovk av ewiaroXriv eVe^TTOV, aXX 
avroQ av orot BieXeydr^v 'by word of mouth'. As denoting 
here the principal person, in opposition to what surrounds him, 
avroc signifies also * the master, the teacher', in opposition to 
his servants or disciples, without these being expressly named. 

* So must be understood the pas- *• V^alck. ad Herod. 3, 71. ad lo. 

sages adduced by Ileusdc Sp. Cril. Chrysost. p. 6. Ast ad Plat. Leg. 

in Plat. p. 96. in which avros does p. 467. 
not stand for (rv. *■ Kuhnk. ad lloni. H. in Ccr. 2. 

Syntax. Of the Use of the Demonstrative Pronouns. 709 

Arist. Nub. 218. tic ovtoc, ov'm Kpej^iaBfjac, aui]p ; Avtoq. 

TiQ avTOQ ; Sw/Cjoarrjc. So uvtoc, e(pif * the master said 

it"^. Elsewhere the opposition is only conceived by the mind : 
Eur. Phocn. Adi .eyei rvpavviB' uvtoq, in opposition toPolynices, 
whom he had excluded, ib. 1805. vvv arif-ioc, avroc, whereas 
on other occasions he has made others, e. g. the Sphinx, ari- 
fiovQ^. Soph. Phil. 316, otc 'OXv/uTTioi Oeol Bo7ev wot uvtoIq 
avTiTTOiv e/uou TraOeiu, ' to themselves', whereas they were 
accustomed to indulge their violence against others. Comp. 
275. 430. So Isocr. Plat. p. 302 D. ouSev av e/cwXue tovg 
airaai roTq ''EAX>j(T(r a'lTiovc, rfjc auiTr)piac, yevo/uievovc, avTOvc 
VTTO Tuiv 'EXAiji'wv e'^avSpaTTO^iaOrivai. It is also in the nom. 
as pron. of the third person, only in opposition, where we 
distinguish it by the emphasis: II. y', 282. avroc eireiB 
EAevjji' e^erw Kai KTrif-iara iravTa' ri/xelc o ev viieaai veoj/neua. 
Comp. Xen. Mem. S. 4, 5, 9. where avrri, i. e. aKpaa'ia, is 
opposed to e-y/cjoorera, which follows ^ 

2. If the oblique cases follow the verb, then it signifies 
merely * to him, him, her, it', &c. e. g. avTo. cny<S jEsch. Pr. 440. 

3. If it has the article before it, it signifies * the same', idein. 
See §§. 146. 266. 

4. So avToQ is used to express that one has done something 468. 
from his own impulse, as in Latin ipse is used for sponte. II. p , 
254. aXXd TiQ avToa 'iTw. and elsewhere. 

5. It frequently stands for /.wvog, which sense is connected 
with that of * of itself. //. v', 729. aXA' ovttwg a/na iravra 
^vvy](Teai uvtoq eXeaOai. Xen. Mem. S. 3, 14, 3. avev tou 
ai.Tov TO oipov uvTo eaOieiv. Hence avTOi yap eaf^iev ' we are 
by ourselves', Plat. Parm. p. 137 A. wc y ^v outoTc i^fTiv 
e'ipi](yQai id. Prot. in. * between ourselves'. Comp. Xen. Symp. 
4, 25.S 

6. When in a proposition the reflective pronoun kavTov &c. 
is found in the genitive, dative, or accusative, ovtoc, is frequently 

^ Casaub. ad Thcophr. Char. p. 34. plains both passages clifFerently. 
cd. Fisch. ' Herm, ad Vig. p. 734, 6. 

• Valckenaer ad Phcen. 1235. ex- « Herm, ad Vig. p. 733. III. 

770 Si/iUax. Of the Use of the Demonstrative Pronouns. 

added to the subject for the sake of emphasis, as in Latin se ipse. 
The subject of the verb as an agent is then opposed to itself as 
the passive object, and in this way any other agent is excluded. 
Thus Od. a , 33. oi Se /cot avTOi aCpyaiv araaOaXiyaiv virep 
juojoop aXye ej^ovaiv. (On the other hand ib. 7. avrwv yap 
a^erepriaiv aTacjBaXojaiv oXovto. conip. 409.) jEsch, S. c. 
Th. 408. avToc KaO' avTOv Tr/f v(ipiv /LiavrevcreTai, * against 
himself. Soph. A?it. 1177. Comp. Track. 910, 1132. even 
where eaurou stands for aeavrov Trach, 451. ei S avroc, avroi' 

(i. e. (jeavTov) wde TrtuSeuetq . Plat. Phad. p. 94 E. 

ovre yap av 'OjUijp(j>\oyo7p€v, oure avroi tj^ui' avTOic comp. 
ib. p. 61 E. 62 C. Also in the oblique cases Isocr. Paneg. 
c. 35. Toq fxey'iarac, tcjv TroXewv jm) avraQ eavxMv cav etvai 
Kvp'taQ. So also avroc. eavrov vTroBeecrrepoc. §§. 452. 460. If 
the article or a preposition belongs to the reflective pronoun, 
avToc, stands between them. yEsch. Agam. 845. to?c uvtoq 
avTOv TTijpaaiv (Sapvverai. Prom. 929. ToToi' waXuKTrriv vvv 
7rapaaK€va^erai fir avroc; avrio. Soph. Q^d. C. 930. ib. 1356. 
Plat. Alcib. 2. p. 144 C. The later sophists especially imitated 
this even in prose *. 

The position of avroc ' self, before eKaaroc, is also to be 
remarked. Herod. 7, 19. BcXu)v avroc, 'iKaaroc, ra -rrpoKeifxeva 
Bwpa Xafteiv ' each wished himself to take', excluding others. 
Comp. 8, 123. Thuc. 7, 70. So of two parties avroi eKarepoi 
Herod. 9, 26. and combined with the preceding construc- 
tion Demosth. p. 182, 6. oaa avroc eKaaroc cavrt^ 7rpoai]Keiv 
i]yi]<Taro ". 

4G9. 7. avroc is often used alone in the sense of is ipse. Plat. 
\^^'^) Lus. p. 204 A. avrov irpuirov i^^ewc uKovaaif^i av, eiri ri^ Kai 

eiaeifxi, for avrov rovrov. Rep. 2. /). 362D. auTO ovk e'lpr)- 

rai, o fxaXiara eSet pnOnvai. Alcib. 1. p. 134 C. Dcm. de Cor. 

p. 270, 19. Thus ipse is often put for is ipse, e.g. Cic. Fin. 

1,5, 13. See Misc. Phil. 2, \. p. 96.*= 

8. Sometimes avroc stands for ovroc or cKelvoc, and has the 

=" Bast LcUie Crit. p. 17G. Elmsl. '' \'alck. ad Thoen. 497. Matthia: 

ad llcracl. 814. lleisig Comm. Ciit. ad Eur. Hec. 1203, 
in Soph. (Ed. C. p. 311. "^ licind. ad Tlat. Lys. p. 4 sq. 

syntax. Of the Use of the Demonstrative Pronouns. 771 

relative after it, Eur. Troad. 668. a7re7rTu<r avTi)v, "jtcc 
avdpa Tov irapoc, Kaivoiai XeKTpoic, cnro(iaXova aWov (piXei. 
comp. Iph. A. 1031. Plat. Theag. p. 123 D. dp ovk outtj, 
rj ttXouov eniffTa/^ieOa ap-^eiv. In Thuc. 2, 37. ov Trapavo/nov- 

fxev uKpoaaei r<2v v6}.i(x)V /cat j^iaXiaTa avruiv, ocrot eir 

w^eXem twv adiKov/iievcjv Keivrat, the demonstrative pronoun 
is omitted, and avrwv (ex iis) governed of inaXiara, et ex Us 
maxime earum, wliere the comma after avTU)v should be struck 

9. avToc, is often used after ordinal numbers, to show that 
one person with several others, whose number is less by one 
than the number mentioned, has done something. Thuc. 1, 46. 
}Lopiv9i(i)v arpartjyoc, r)u AevoKXei^rjQ o JLvOvkXcovc, iref-nrTOC, 
avTOQ, 'with four others'. Xen. Hist. Gr. 2, 2, 17. /uera 
ravTU yjpeOr) Trpe.apeurric ec AaKeSaijuova ai'TO/CjOaTWjO, Se/caroc 
avTOG, with nine others'. Instead of which Thuc. 1, 57. /ner 
aXX(ov evvea ^. avToc is omitted Plat. Leg. 3. p. 695 C. (Aa- 
peioa) eXdwv eic tijv ap~^riu kcii Xapiov avrriv epoo^ioc, ciei- 

Xero . Dem. de Cor. p. 261,3. o tjjc jiitaq eWoc Kai 

BcKaroQ Ttporepov avvreXy]c,. 

10. Homer often puts ov, ol, e, which he uses as a pronoun 
of the third person (§. 147. Obs. 1.), and makes the noun itself 
follow these. II. v , 600. iw apa ol Oepairtjop e'xe, iroi/tievi 
Xaiov. (j) , 249. iva jLiiv Travaeie ttovoio, ^lov A'^iXXrja. 
Od. t f 48. avTiKa S 'Hwc rjXOev evOpovoc, V fxiv eyeipe, 
Naufft/cciav euTreTrXoi'. Comp. a, 194. This is the same 
idiom which obtains in regard to the article also, as a demon- 
strative pronoun, §. 263. Obs. 

11. Of the reflective pronouns e/navrov, aeavrov, eavrov, 
see §. 148. Obs. 2. as also of the distinction between avrov 
and avTov, ib. Obs. 3. 

2. ovToc and oSe. 

1 . These demonstratives are generally distinguished in this 470. 
way, that outoc refers to that which immediately precedes, oSe 
to that which immediately follows. //. i , 627. ^te^v)]f.iai roSe 

^ Wassc ad Thuc, 2, 13. Dorv. ad Charit. p. 262. lloog. ad Vig. p. 73 a. 

772 Syntax. Of the Use of the Demonstrative Pronouns. 

epyov eyw TrdXai, followed by this epyov 529. Kovprirec r efxa- 
^oj'TO Kal AitidXoi. Herod. 1, 206. Trkfx^paaa v Tojiwpir, ki]- 

pvKa eXeye race' J jSacxiXeu Mi}Stov - but after the 

completion of the speech, Tuvtu ^e aKovaac o Kvpoc 

and so c. 207. compared with 208. Comp. ib. 1 40. 149. 6, 53. 
ravra (what was related c. 52.) ^lev Aa/ceSai^toi'toi \eyovai 

povvoi 'EXXtji/wv' TfiSe Se e-yw ypd<pw, Svhat follows'. 

comp. 58. 7, 5. Plat. Menon. p. 90 C. 93 B.^ This usage 
however is not without exceptions : Soph. A)it. 449, 5 1 . rovaBe 
vopovQ refers to to. Ki^pvyBevra v. 447. Hur. Or. 898. eiri 
TwSe (after Talthybius v. 888.) S' i]y6peve AtOyitJjS»jc «»'a^» 
as 887. eTTi TwSe, after the herald v. 885. comp. 902. Pha;n. 
582. <Tol peu Tud' avdu) (what follows v. 542.) aol Se HoXu- 
veiKCQ, \ey(t>. comp. 806. Herod. \, 137. aiveto rovSe tov 
vopov. (c. 136.) a'lvew Se Koi Tov^e, 'the following', comp. 
c. 141. (§. 4.) 214 extr. — outgo is also referred to what fol- 
lows Eur. Hipp. 431. p.<jvov Se touto (paa' apiWaaOai pitx), 
yvu)txr]v SiKa'iav KuyaOijv. Alc. 568. Herod. 1, 125. (jypov- 
TiCfiiv Be evpiaKeTCH {Kvpoc) ravra Kaipuorara elvai' CTTOtee 
^e TctSe, where ravra like ra^e refers to what follows, comp. 
216 extr. and so Soph. Ant. 296 seq. 673. ovroc and oSe are 
quite synonymous ". 

Obs. The same holds good of rowcrde and touwtos, w^e and ov-cos. He- 
rod. 6, 57 in. TpoTTU) ToiovTia (Schw. and Gaisf.) refers to what precedes; 
but c. 39. rpoTTw roiuSe to that which was related c. 38. as 1, 180. 
whereas c. 111. roiovBe ri refers to what follows, as 1, 178. w(?e Herod. 
6, 1 1 1 in. refers to what follows, but immediately after we have 6 yap 
vuuos Tore €l\e ovrw toTui ^AdrfyaioKTi, tov TroXf^op^oj' e^^eiy Kepas to 
SeW'i'' comp. 1 10, 1. 9, 31. J^e 8, 139. refers the first time to the 
genealogy which follows ; but a second wle refers back again to this. 
5, 2, tJ^e refers to what precedes, and 9, 51. ovtu> to what follows. 

2. There is no better foundation for the opinion that oSe 
cannot refer to oc following ^. These passages admit of no doubt : 
11. (i y 346. rovade S ea (^yOivvOeiv, eva Kai dvo rot Kev 
'Ayai<jjv i/off^iv (5ov\ev(jjai. Comp. Od. a', 403. Soph. Qud. T. 

* Erf. ct Ilerm. ad Soph. (Ed. T. ^Comp.Schsf. App. Dem.^. I).280. 

101. cd. min. Heind. ad Cic. de Nat. '■ Buttm. ad Sopii. I*liil.«7. comp. 

D. 2, 50 in. ilcrm. ib. 

Sj/ntax. Of the Use of the Demonstrative Pronouns. 773 

1130. TToTov (ivSpa Kal Xcyeic; toi^o' oc irafieariv. 

AntigAQ'd. oa TIC yap ev TroWoiaiv, (oc e-yw KaKolc Z,y, ttwc oS 
ovj^i Kar9av<l)v Kep^oc (jiepei ; Trach. 283. Comp. Aj. 255 seq. 
Eur. Or. 896. Plat. Leg. I. p. 627 E. TroTepoc ovv a/itttVwi/ ; 

o(TTic 7rpo(TTal^eiev, t) oSe or, ai' rouq y^pnaTOVQ apy^eiv iroi- 

T)(Teie; Elsewhere outoc and oBe are thus discrimmated, that 
the former refers to the more remote, the latter to the nearer 
noun : as //. 0', 109. toutw /Jieu depdirovre KOjxe'iTwv' rwSe Se 
vu}\ Tpioaiv €(p' i7nTo^dpoi(Tiv lOwopev, where tovtu) refers to 
the horses of Nestor mentioned ver. 104. rwSe to the horses of 
^neas, carried off by Diomed, who is speaking. And so the 
difference between outoc and o§e consists in this, that oZe 
points out the object more distinctly, as if with the finger. 

3. Of OUTOC as an address see §. 150. Obs. 2. 312,1.^ 
and ofTouTo^ei^ — touto Se §. 288. Obs. 2. 

4. Frequently outoc denotes not a really present or just 
mentioned person or thing, but what is known and obvious to 
all, or circumstances common to all. Plat. Phcedon. p. 75 E. 
ei Se je, oipai, \a{iovTec, -rrpiv yevcaOai, yivof.i€VOL airioXeffapev, 
varepov Se Ta?c aiaOijcjeai y^piopevoL irepi TauTa eKeivac ava- 
\ap(5dvopev, where touto means earthly sensible objects (see 
Heindorf's note p. 88. and Stallb. ad Phileb. p. 194.), as hcBc 
in Latin, e. g. qui non hac stare cupiat Cic. Catil. Plat. Phce- 
don.p. 69 C. ol Toc TeXeToc rjjuTv ouTOt /caTatTTrjffavTec * those 
well-known men'^. Hence it also denotes something particu- 
larly harsh and disagreeable, already known as such : Pind. 
Nem. 9, 68. irelpav pev dydvopa ^oivikootoXwv eyy^kwv tou- 

Tav dva(3dX\opai loc -rropaiara ' that well known dreadful 

battle'. So is probably to be taken Eur. Iph. T. 205. wktoq 
Ke'ivaQ * that unfortunate night', in which Iph. was conceived ; 
and Troad. 1196. vttvoi r eKelvoi . 

5. In dialogues, rovro, ravra are found with affirmative 

^ Comp. Apoll.TT.avrwj/. p. 285 B. (quoted there) means the day of the 

Heind. ad Prot. p. 460. murder previously mentioned by the 

* lieind.adPhadon. p. tiO. Boeckh chorus, and Eur. Troad. 207. viit, 

ad Plat. Min. p. 65. awrct is ev >j XeKrpois 'EWriruy ay 

f See Matthije not. ad Eur. Troad. -n-Xadeitjy. 
1178. ButfcetVa a/itepaSoph.El. 201. 

774 Sj/ntax. Of the Use of the Demonstrative Pronouns. 

answers, eari being omitted, * it is so, be it so, yes'. Arist. 

Vesp, 1008. a AX eKTiM/iieu. Tavra ye, vvv eiirep ^OKel. 

Plat. Rep. 4. p. 422 B.^ So also rotaJra Eur. EL 648. 

vTTOTTToc, ovcfa ytyvoxTKCt TToXei. TOiavTa' nicteiTai yap avo- 

moc yvvr], 

6. ouTOf, is frequently put with koj, in the same manner as 
the Latin et is^ isr/ue, in the sense * and indeed, and that too'. 
Herod. 1, 147. ovroi yap /novvoi liovtov ovk ayovaiv AiraTOv- 
pia' Kai ovTOi Kara ^ovou Tiva cfKri^iv. id. 6, 1 1 . eiri ^vpov 
aK/nrJQ k")(^eTai vf-uv ra ■Kp^yf.iaTa, avBpeQ ' Iwvec, v elvai eAew- 
depoiai 1] BovXoKTi, Kai tovtoicti ujq Spaireryai. Comp. 
Xeu. Anab. 2, 5, 21. quoted §. 315, d. More frequently, 
however, the pronoun is put in the neuter plural, /cai ravra, 
inasmuch as generally the more accurate definition of an entire 
proposition, at least of several words, or of one verb, and not 
of a single noun, is to be thereby introduced. It is commonly 
translated ' although' and ' especially' ; but this signification 
is not contained in the words Kai ravra, but in the participle 
following, or generally in the nature of what is subjoined; 
since this, for the most part, contains a chief motive of an 
action, an important though only apparent obstacle, or gene- 
rally a main consideration. Plat. Rep. 3. p. 404 B.''0 imipoQ 

ev raiG rcov iipu)(i)v eariaaeaiv ovre i\Ov(tiv avrovc, 

earia, Kai ravra t'Trt Oa\arr\i ev JLWr^aTrourit) uvrac, where 
the * although', which is required by tlie sense, lies in the par- 
ticiple. Soph. El. 633. iiriG roiavra tjjv reKov(Tav vjSjotcre, 
Kai ravra ri]XiKovroc., et quidetn, quod indignius etiam est, 
etsi tantilla cctate sit^. kui ravra is rarely found after the 
participle: Plat. Rep. I. p. 341 C. vvu yovv, ecpi], eTrcyeipijaac, 
ovBev <t)v Kai ravra. 

7. TouTO and ravra arc often put for ^la ravra 'on this 
account'. Soph. (Ed. T. \L)05. Kai /niiv /ndXiara rovr' aCJyiKO- 
fx}]v, OTTwc ev irpa^aiixi ri. Plat. Si/nip. p. 174 A. ravra S' 
eicaXAw7rtcro^)ji', iva KaXoc irapa KaXov'iM. Protag. p. 310 E. 

* Heind. ad Plat. Pha;doii. §. 61. adGnom. p. 27'2sq. Dobrce ad Arist. 
p. 98. Pint, 516, Add. 

'• Hoogev. ad Vig. p. 176. Schaf. 

Si/iita.v. Of the Use of the Demonstrative Pronouns. 775 

a'XA' avTii Tavra vvv I'lKO) irapa ae. Comp. Eur. Andr. 212. 
Iph. T. 939.*^ 

8. The neuter of the demonstrative pronouns ovroc and oSe 
is also used with adverbs of time and place for more exact defi- 
nition. Herod. 7, 104. wq eyoj Tvy^aviv tuvvv raSe 
earopytjjc, eKeivovc, avroc fiaXiara e^eniaTeai, 'at this very 
time', as 7iunc ipsum Cic. ad Att. 7 , 3. 12, 16. 40. Eurip. 
Ion. bQQ. TOUT* eicei vvv eanrapimev * at that very time'. 
avrov ry^e is used with definitions of place, as Herod. 9, 1 1.*^ 

9. These pronouns also are often put for the personal pro- (47 1) 
nouns eyw, av. Eurip. Ale. 690. juri Ovrjty^ vrrep touS av- 
^poii' ouS eyu) irpo aov, for vircp e/iiov. Comp. AUsch. S. c. 

Th. 653. Soph. Track. 305. Plat. Gorg. p. 489 B. ouToa i 
dvrip ov iravaerai CpiXvapwv. enre /not, (jj ^(jjKparec,, ovk aiayvvij 
&c. for av ov iraixyrj. Comp. ib. p. 505 C. These pronouns 
are put for the second person mostly in a contemptuous sense®. 

10. e/ceTvoc, like ille, refers properly to a remote or absent 471. 
thing or person, but often it refers to that which immediately 
precedes. So Soph. Track. 244. e/ceTvoo refers, as a mere pro- 
noun of the third person, to Hercules, who has been just men- 
tioned ; ' he'. So also (Ed. 2\ 259. 261. 263. to Lai us, men- 
tioned ver. 257. In Plat. Protag. p. 310 D. it is quite synony- 
mous witii uvTOG which precedes. It would refer back to the 
subject of the proposition were Monk's conjecture correct. 
Soph. AJ. 1039. KeivoQ ra Keivov arepyeTUJ, for to. eavrov, 
where the MSS. have Kelvoc, t eiceiva ar. 

11. A common expression is toiit' eKeivo or toS' e/ceTi'o, in 
which eKeivo refers to something before mentioned, or to a 
proverb or well known sentiment, and touto points out that 
the saying is a fact here. This phrase usually stands without 
any connection with the rest of the construction, so that what 

'^ KoenadGreg. p.(u)30. Brunck Sp. Grit, in Plat. p. 3 sq. Schaf. in 

ad Arist. Nub. 319. Ast ad Plat. Dion. Hal. l.p. 114, G2. Ileind. ad 

Leg. p. 214. andof rouro p. 163. 169. Plat. Gorg. p. 143. 

'' See Matthiae not. ad Horn. 11. in ' Ileind. ad Plat. Phaedon. §. 138. 

Merc. 169. p. 02. p. 236. Schneider ad Xen. Cyr. 5, 

•^ Musgr. ad Soph. Aj. 78. Heusde 2, 28. Scheef. App. Deni. 2. p. 215. 

776 Syntax. Of the Use of the Demonstrative Pronouns. 

follows is joined to it without any copulative particle. Eur. Or. 
804. TOUT cKelvo, KraaB kraipovc,, ^tr) to avyyevec, ^ovov. 
Med. 98. T0§ eKeivo, (p'lXoi Trainee, /niirrip Kivel Kpac'iav. Plat. 
Phcedr. p. 241 D. where eKe7vo refers to the verse previously 
quoted. Aristophanes Ach. 41. says at full length, toGt 
CKeiv ou'ytu "'Xeyoi^. So also Plat. Si/mp. p. 223 A. TauTa 
cKeiva TO eiwOora. Soph. Ant. 384. 7JS ear €K€ivi} rovpyov tj 
^eipyaa/nevrt, rjSe refers to Antigone as being present, eKe'ivrj 
to her as previously spoken of. Similar to this is outo tovto 
Eur. Or. 665. epeic aBvuaTOv. avro tovto, tovc. (p'lXovc ev 
To7c KaKolc ^/t»j TOtc (piXoiaiv io(peXeii>y ' this is just that', 
where tovto refers to the followins: sentence. Arist. Pac. 64. 
TOUT ecTTt TOuTO TO KoKov ttvO ov yd) ' Xeyov. Comp. Lt/s. C. 
Andoc.p. 106, 23. Xen. Anab. 1, 9, 21.* 

12. These demonstrative pronouns are often used instead 
of the adverbs 'here, there', the speaker pointing as it were 
with the finger. 11. ^' , 532 sq. ?) -yo^ ' AyjXXevc, eyyvQ oSe 
KXoveujv ' for Achilles rages there near the tumult'. Comp. 
Od. g', 26. w, 307. Soph. (Ed. C.M\. where Brunck has 
adopted the gloss wSe. Fau\ Androm. 1232. ^a'l/iiwv oBe tic 

XevKriv aiOepa ■KopOj^Levoj.ievoc, TreSi'wv ein^aivei. Ale. 24. 

Jjof? oe TO roc Qavarov eiaopw TTcXac,. 134. aXX jjo oiracwv 
€K Bo/xwv TiQ cp-^eTai SaKpvppoovaa. Iphig. A. 6. tic, ttot ap' 
aoTiip oSe TTopO/nevei. Aristoph. Nub. 214. aXX' 1) Aa/ce- 
oat'^wv TTou ' GTiv ; MAG. ottou 'gtiv\ avTr]i. In the genitive 
Eur. Hec. 712. eiaopui yap TOuSe Seo-TTOTOu Se/tac Aya/ne/^ivovoc. 
— eip'i, &.C. are often omitted : Soph. Ant. 526. Kctl pi)v irpo ttu- 
Xmv jJS' lajLiin't] ". — €Ke7voc is used in the same way //. e, 604. 
Kai I'ui' ot irapa Keivoc ' AprjQ. 

oSe is often put thus with the personal pronoun, Vvith or 
without e'l/n'i, in the sense of the Latin en! adsum. Od. (j)', 
207. ei'cov /.lev ojj 00 outoc eyw KaKo. ttoXXo. poyrjaac, i/Xu- 
Oov. Comp. w, 205. Pind. 01. 4, 37. outoc cyCo Tayy- 

TCLTi. Eurip. Suppl. 1048. r/S' eyu) TTCTpac ciri BvaTf]- 

vov aiu)pt}i.ia Kovcpito), iraTcp. Also without the personal pro- 

« Hcind. ad Plisdr. p. 234. Elmsl. '' Monk ad Hipp. 170. Blomf. ad 

ad Eur. Med. 97. S. c. Th. i5G8. 

Si/ntax. Of' the Use of t/ie Demonstrative Pronouns. 777 

noun Eur. Or. 374. oB e'ifx Opearric,, IslevcXeioc, ov laro- 

Hence the phrase //. t', 140. Bui pa B eywu oBe iravra 
Trapaayel.v, adsum, lit dem. as Eiirip. Iphig. A. 1487. TrXo/ca- 
juoc, oSe KaTaarefpeiv, ecce comam, quam coronetis. Of the 
infinitive see §. 535. Similar to this is roSe No. 12. 

13. As adjectives are used for adverbs (§. 446, 8.), so 
TavTa, TaBe, roBe sometimes stand for ovrwc, wSe, II. e , 185. 
°"X ^y' "''^"^^ Qeov TaBe ixaiverai. comp. 827. Soph. Q^d. 

T. 264. dvd' (i)V eyw raB' VTreppayovfxai, as Aj. 1346. 

Eur. Med. 158.^ So roiavra, Soph. (Ed. T. 1327. ttwg eVXijc 
TOiavra aaq oxpeic, papavai ; ® • 

So ToSe is used in Homer adverbially 'hither' //. ^', 298. 
309. Od. a, 409. T, 407. 

Of the Demonstrative Pronouns general/'/. 

1 . Properly the demonstrative pronouns are used only when 472. 
they refer to a noun which has preceded in another proposition; 
frequently, however, they are put also when the noun goes be- 
fore in the same proposition, a. This especially takes place 
when the case governed of the verb is separated from it by a 
parenthesis, commonly considered as the accusative absolute. 
Od. v', 78. aW riTOi tov ^elvov, eirei -reov 'iKero Bcof-ia, 
eaaco piv -yXalvav re -^irivva re, e'lj-iara KaXa. comp. c , 652. 
Herod. 7, 221. toi' /itai/TH', oc e'lTrero Ty nrpaTiij Tavry, 
Meyi(TT ir]v tov 'AKupvava, Xeyoinevov elvat ra aveKciOev 

UTTO yieXapTToBoc,, TOVTOV (pai'epoQ eari Aewi'/Sijo airoTrep- 

TTiov. comp. 6, 46. Soph. (Ed. T. 246. Karevyopai Be tov 
BeBpciKor' , e'lre ric elo ojv XeXrjOev, e'lre TrXeioviou fiera, kokov 
Ka/cwc viv apoipov eKTpi\pai (5iov. Comp. v. 269 seq. El. 1364 
seq. Trach.287. Eur. Bacch. 201 seq. Thuc.2,62. Plat.ApoL 
5. p. 40D. id. Rep. 3. p. 398 A. (ivBpa Bi), wo coiKe, Bwd- 

•= ToupadSuid.l.p.429sq. Sckef. " So Hermann ad Soph. Aj. 448. 

in Dion. Hal. 1. p. 77. note. takes roioace in the passage from 

•* See Matthice Not. ad Eur. Med. Soph. TEsch. Prom. J 1'2. Choeph. 40. 

158. Erf. ad Soph. (Ed. T. 265. ed. for w^e, but there is no reason why 

min. The passages quoted by Elms- we should not take the word in its 

ley ad Eur. Med. 49. 672. admit an- proper meaning, 
other explanation. 


778 Syntax. Of the Use of the Demonstrative Prouoiais. 

fxevov VTTO (TOC^'iaQ Travro^anov yiyveaOai Kai /nijiieiauai Travra 

'^prmara, e'l rt/J^'iv a<p'iKoiTO eic tjji^ ttoXiv irpoaKv- 

volpev uv avTov. Xen. Anal). 2, 4, 7. eyio ^lej^ ovv (iaaiXea, 
w TToXXa ouTWC e<7Tt TO av/iina'^a, einep 7r|Oo0Ujue?Tai rj^noc otto- 
Xeaai, ovk olSa, o ri SeT avTOV ojuocrai. id. Cyrop. 1, 3, 15. 
id. Mem. 2, 3, 9. Oav/iiaora ye Xeyeic, e'l Kvva /iier, ei aoi ijv 
eiri 7Tpo[5aTOic, eTrirh^eioc, /cot tovq /licv Trotjiievac, ?7cr7ra4eTO, croi 
Se trpoaiovTi ey^aXeiraivev, a^eXrj(Toq av tou opyiteaOai eireipa) 
€v TTou]aac, irpavveiv avrov, where Schiitz and Schneider throw 
out awTOP improperly. Comp. Isocr. Evag. p. ^91 C. Nicocl. 
p. 28 B. Panath. p. 241 C. and with attraction Herod. 1, 34. 
TOVTOV Sri ujv Tov ' Ktvv arii^Laivei tio Kpotao) o oveipoc, mq 
aiToXeei fiiv. See §. 296. When to has preceded as a demon- 
strative pronoun, it is repeated by e/ceTvo, Flat. Fhil. p. 54 C. 
The pronoun is frequently used thus after a proposition begin- 
ning with the relative, although the word itself to which the 
demonstrative pronoun refers has gone before : Herod. 4, 44. 
Aayoetoc /SouAo^tei'oc 'IrSop ttoto^ioi', oc, KpoKoSeiXovc, Sev- 
TepoQ ovTOC, TTOTap.u)v TravTtov irapeyeTai, tov tov tov ttotu- 
fxov c'lSevai tt? cc, OaXaaaav ckSiSoI, &,c. Comp. H. y , 4 seq. 
Eur. Troad. 1 'l44 seq. Plat. Phccdon. p. 99 B. 107 D. hocr. 
Panath. in the passages quoted §. 434, 2, h.^ 

I). The following passages are somewhat different : Herod. 
2, 124. fc-/c Twv Xi9oTop.te(i>v Tuiv ev t<o Apa[5uit o'vpei, 
eK TovTeojv eXKeiv XiOovc, which is a pleonasm originating 
in the ancient inartificial simplicity of the language. A 
similar simplicity is observable in Pind. 01. 1,91. Tav oi wa- 
Tjjp virepKpeixaae KapTepov qvtm XiOov. §. 389, h. The 
demonstrative pronoun also serves to express emphasis, 27nic. 
4. 69. a I o'lKiai Tou TTponaTeiov enaX^eic Aa^n/Bovovcrai, au- 
ral vir^pyov tpv/^ia. \cn. Ci/rop. 6, 1, 17. vf^icic, ce to. 
Trpoaopa vp7v auroTc rijc Aaavpiac, e/ceti'a KTiiaOe Kai 
epyateade. The demonstrative is often repeated also for the 
sake of emphasis in the second member of a comparison : Xe)i. 

Mem. S. 1, 2, 24. 'AXKi(3iaBi]c S' av ojcnrep oi twv 

yvfxviKMV ayioviov aOX ))to( padiwc tt p(i)T evovT eQ afxeXovai Ttjc 

* Pors. Praf. Hcc. p. 12. Ilciiul. in Plat. p. 51. Bornem. ad Xen. 
ad Gorg. §. 84. Wyttenb. ad Plul. Symp. p. 154. 
Phaedon. p.311. Ileusde Spec. Crit. 

Sj/)itax. Of the Use of the Demonstraiive Pronouns. 779 

a<TKiiaG(vc, o'vTio KaKe^voc, 7j^ttXjj<Tei' avrov. Xen. Cj/r. 1,4, 19. 
Comp. Hist. Gr. 2, 4, 41. Rejj. Laced. 10, 4. even where the 
comparison is not in the pronoun. Plat. Apol. S. p. 19 A. 
eTTi^eijOTjTfcOv v/lkjov e^eXeaOai t?}v SiapoXriv, iV v/ue^Q ev ttoXXw 
y/povM eyere, TavTr]V ev ovrtoaiv oXiyo) y^povio . 

2. The demonstrative pronoun is very frequently redundant 
before and after participles or infinitives with the article, with- 
out a parenthesis. Plat. Theat, p. 172 B. to Koivy ^o^av 
TOVTO yiyverai dXr^dec Xen. Cyrop. 4, 2, 39. ei Se tmv vvvl 
diwKovTOJV Kal KaraKaivovTWV tovq i)iuLeTepovr, TroXe/movc 
Kal ^lay o/iev(uv, e'l tig evavriovTai, tovtiov ^o^oinev ovtcvc, 
a/j.eXe7v. id. Ages. 4, 4. oi irpoiKa ev TreTTovOorec, ovtoi 
aei ndeojc vTrt]peTOV(n Tio evepyeTT). Comp. Herod. 9,67 . Isocr. 
Paneg. in. The passage in Herod. 4, 172. is more peculiar: 
opvvovai fxev rove, rtapa aCpiai av^pac, tiKaiOTUTOvc Kai apicrrovG 
XeyoiiievovG yeveadai toutouc, twu tWjIi/Swv rnrTOfxevoi^. 
Before the participle Plat. Leg. 3. p. 680 D. pwv ovk e/c 
rovTiov, TMV Kara p'lav o'lKricnv Kai Kara yevoG SiecrTTapine- 
V(ov {roiavTui iroXiTelai yiyvovrai). Comp. Isocr. Areop. 
p. 145 A. So Herod. 8, 68. a participle with the article ex- 
plains the preceding pronoun, ovre avrovG oikog arpei^ueiv 

Towc eKeWev avrwv i]KovTac. Before or after the infinitive 
Soph. Trach. 458. to /.n) irvOeaOai toiJto /li aXyvveiev av. Xen. 
Cyr. 8, 7, 9. to Se 7rpo(iovXeveiv Kai to riye7adai, e(p 
o Ti av KaipoQ SoKy elvai, touto irpoaTaTTh) rto Trporepio ye- 
vopevoj, and in the neuter plural ib. 12. to St ^vaKara-n-paKTo- 
Tepo)v Te epav, Kal to TroXXa fxeptjuvav Kai to /lu) ^vvaaOai 
rjavYi<t^ ^'X^"^» Kiei'Tpi^Ojitei'Ov vrro tj/C ttjOOC Ta/iia epya CJyiXovei- 
Kiac, Kal TO eTTifiovXeveiv Kal to eTrij^ovXeveaOai tout a Tto 
(iaaiXevovTi aVay/cj; aov juaXXoi/ avpirapopapTe^v. Eur. Ph. 
545. Kelvo KuXXiov, TeKvov, laoTnra Tifxav . 

b. If the demonstrative precedes the infinitive, it serves to 
increase the attention to what follows. The infinitive has then 
frequently no article. Eur. Hipp. Al \. ev ao(pol(n yap tuS 

I* JensiusadLucian.t '2.p.355scq. "= Jensius 1. c. Morus ad Isocr. 

Dorvill. ad Charit. p. 288. Schtefer Paneg. p. 9.e. Plat.Theat. 
in Dionys. Hal. 1. p. 83 seq. not. p. 382. Ast ad Plat. Leg. p. 10. 
Melet. p. 84. ** Fisch. 2. p. 235 seq. 

T 2 

780 Si/titax. Of the Use of the Demonstrative Pronouns. 

earl Oi'rjrwj', XavOaveiv rd i^ri KaXa. Comp. 480. Plat. Apol. 
S. p. 38 C. dwo rov avTojuaTov dv vf-uv tovto eyevero, e/te 
reOvdvai g/j. Comp. p. 39 A. Phadr. p. 68 B. and in the ac- 
cusative Soph. Track. 96. ''AXiov a'lro) tovto, Kapv'^ai tov 
'AXK|it7]i^aq &c. where tovto cannot belong to Kap. because tov 
'AXk. is governed by it. Eur. Hipp. 1313. Comp. Ak. 36. 
Andr.31\. /iieydXa yap Kp'ivu) Tu^e, Xey^ovc, aTcpeaOai. HeracL 
352. Plat. Phccd. p. 74 A. Comp. /). 72 C. 78 C. Homer 
uses the article in this way Od. v , 52. dv'it) koi to (for tovto) 
(bvXdaaeiv Trdvvvyov eypi]aaovTa. Also in the genitive Plat. 
Gorg. «. 474 E. ov S/j irov efcroc toiitoji' eaTi to. KoXa, tou 
io(f)eXina elvai li rj^ea v dp(^6Tepa, and without the article ib. 
r». 5 1 9 D. Kot TOVTOV Tou Aoyou Ti av aXoyioTepov eh] Trpayua, 
dvOpwirovc aSt/cf?v, for tou dv9. aS. or ?; avOp. aS. ac- 
cording to §. 450. Obs.2. Comp. Si/mp. p. 192 D. Also 
with repeated preposition Plat. Leg. 2. p. 670 D. ^te-)(pi ye 
ToaovTOv ireTrai^evaOai o-^eSov dvayKa7QV, juexP* "^^^ cvvaTOV 
elvai. Comp. Xen. Mem. 4, 7, 5. with Schneider's note. 
In the dative Eur. Or. 1168. (5dpoc, ti kuv twS eoTiv, 
a'lveiaOai Xiav, where Plato uses the article with repetition of 
the preposition Apol. S. p. 35 C. oi» yap ein tovtii) KdQi]Tai 
o ^iKaaTiic,, t'TTi Tw KaTayjupiteaQai rd diKaia. Both propo- 
sitions are blended in one Od. «', 3. j)toi /nev xo^e koXov 
uKovepev ccttIv doi^ov, for jjtoi p.. t. k. ecrrti', oKovepev aoidov. 

c. TOVTO, ToSe prepares the way for an entire proposition 
Plat. Gorg. p. 515 E. dXXd To^e uoi enre tVt tovtco, ei 
XeyovTai'AOtjvaloi ^id HepiKXea (BeXTiovc, yeyovevat. Ale. 1. 
p. 130 A. Xen. Metn. 4, 5, 9. Plat. Soph. p. 234 B. ouKom- 
TOV y viTiay\'ovpevov cvvaTOV tivai pin tg^i'ij iravTa iroieiv 
yiyvtoffKopev ttov tovto oti ^vvaTOC eaToi, where is an example 
of attraction for yiyv. tovto oti o y vTriayrifov/iievoc. So also 
if a verb requires the participle after it, where on also might 
stand Soph. Phil. 1355. ttwc tuvt e^avaa-^ijaeaOe, TOtcrjv 
'Ar/oewc epe ^'in-oi-Trt vaiaiv ; Arist. J^iih. 380. tovti p. cXe- 
Xi'jOi] o "Zevc ovK wv, o/\A oi'T avTOv ^ivoc, vvvi paaiXevuyv, for 
OTI o Levc, OVK e<TT(. 

d. This preparatory touto, To^e is often followed by an in- 
dependent proposition not connected with the preceding either 

St/ntax. Of the Use of the Demonsirative FronunNS, 781 

by an infinitive, or a particle, or a conjunction. Herod. 7 , 32. 
T<Joi'Be Se €ii'€Ka to ^evrepov aTreTrefiire eiri ytiv re Kai uSwp" 
oerui wporepov ovK ecorfau ^apeuo irepipavTi, tovtovq 7ray\v 
ecoKee totc Sctcrai'Toc Swcreii'. Plat. (iorg. p. 47 G B. cjKoirei 

oe Kai Tooe" dpa e'l tig ti Troiel, avayKt] ti elvai • 

Comp. lb. p. 474 D. Prot. p. 356 C.''' The same thing takes 
place with toiovtoc, and Toioa^e Herod. 9, 107. P/at. Apol. 
S. p. 22 A. kTrauov Ti TOiovTOv' oi pev pctXicTTa ev^oKipuvvTec, 
ebo^av poi Scc. See §. 630, 3. Generally yap follows in the 
proposition which is to be explained. See §. 615. 

e. A similar case is when the neuter of the demonstrative 
pronoun is used in order to announce a noun which follows, 
whether in the masculine or feminine. Od. a', 159. tovtoktiv 
pev TavTci peXei, KiOapic, Kai aoi^if. Soph. CEd. C. 787 seq. 
Eur. Hipp. 431. povov Se touto (paa upiWaaOai (5io), 
yvu)pi]v ^iKa'iav KciyaOriv, ot(o Trapy. So adjectives are in- 
troduced by Toura Plat. Gorg. p. 515 E. tcivtI yap eywye 
ciKOvtv TlepiKXea ireTroniKevai A9r]vaiovc; apyovc,. Plat. Rep. 3. 
p. 407 A. vpar, avTOva cica^iopev, iroTepov jttcXerrjTeoi^ tow to 
TM irXovaiio Kai apitoTOv tio pi) peXeTwvTi, 7/ voctot po<pia. 
Protag.p. 360 E. ti ttot eaTiv avTo, i) apeTij. Phad.p. 67 D. 
Comp. J}. 91 D. which is particularly frequent in Plato. So 
Cicero says Tusc. Qa. 1, 34, 83. illud angit vel potius ex- 
cruciat, discessus ab onmibus lis, qua sunt bona in vita^. 

Ohs. In a similar manner kKelvo often announces an entire pi-opo- 
sition. Plat. Hipp. Illaj. p. 283 D. aXX' eicelt'o, pwv in) AaKecaipuvioi 
aov (jeXriov av -rzaicevaeiav roiis avnjiv Tvatcas ; See Heindorf s note, 
p. 129. 

f. With the double i), o-ye is sometimes used pleonastically 
in Homer and Herodotus. Od. /3, 327. 7/ ra'aq e/c WvXov a^ei 
apvvTopaQ i^paToevTOC,, h oye Kai ^irapTrjOev. Herod. 2, 173. 
also in other propositions consisting;- of two members //. t,', 191. 
aXX oTi Si) yiyvcoaKe 9eov yovov i]vv eovTa, avTOV piv KaTepvKe, 
SiSov S oye OvyaTcpa i]v^. 

MIeind. ad Plat. Thea;t. §. 72. ad Leg. p 35. 131. 

p. 379 seq. " Clarke ad II. y, 109. Robinson 

'' Heind. ad Plat. Hipp. p. 138. a'l ad Hesiod. "Epy. 34G. Ernest, ad 

Cratyl. p. ]34. ad Prot. p. 474. Ast Calliin. IJ. in Dian. 150. 

782 Si/ntax. Of the Use of' the Demonstrative Pronouns. 

(468) 3. The demonstrative pronoun is not unfrequently used for the 
relative pronoun in the continuation of a proposition beginning 
with a relative, usually where this is to be repeated, but in a 
different case from that in the first instance. //. a', 78. be 
fxeya iravrtjv Apye'iojv Kpareei Kai o'l Treidovrai Ayaioi, for Kai 
(5 TT. 'Ax- Comp. Od. a, 70. 11. V, 171. Herod. 3, 34. 
ri|orj^a(77rea, toi' er/^ia re /naXiaTa, Kai oi rac ayyeX'iac eCpepe 
ouToc. Comp. eZ>. 120. 2,40. 8,62. Plat. Euthyd. p. 30 IE. 
tip ovv Tavra r]yy aa elvai, (i)v av apl^yc, Kai e^y (joi uvtoIc 
■^prjaBai, o rt av /SouXy, for Kai oic e^y crot. Comp. ThecEt. 
p. 192 A. Rep. 6. p. 505 D. Menex. p. 241 E. Xen. Cyr. 3, 
3, 38. TToi? S>j eKcivoc, eariv o avrip, be avveOrjpa, TjjUtv, Kai av 
fxoi jiiaXa e^oKeiQ Oavi^iateiv avTov. Comp. Isocr. Panath. 
p. 278 B. JEschin. in Ctcsiph. p. 510. Also in the same case 
with the relative Herod. 9, 2 1 . ?) to eTnjua^ujTaTov r]v tov 
ywpiov iravTOC, Kai irpoao^oc, fxaXiara ravry eylvero ry 'iinr(o *. 
So a transition is made from the relative to a personal pronoun, 
Od. I, 20. be 7ra(Ti coXoiaiv avOpu)TTOi<Ji /.leXu), Kai fiiev kXcoc 
ovpavov 'iK€i. Soph. AJ. 457. 

Obs. Other demonstratives are interchanged in the same way with 
relatives. Herod. 5, 49, 11. eV0a is followed by erOavTct. Arist. 
Av. 1709 seq. u\os by ovre -oiovror. 

Sometimes the demonstrative pronoun is wanting. //. y\ 
235. ovc K€v ev yvoinv Kai t ovvopa pvOrjaai/tiijv (ovvo/na avTtJV, 
i. e. (jjv ovv.) Plat. P/ifcdon. p. 82 D. ckcIvoi, olc, ti /iieXei t?7c 
aVTiov \poyric, aXXa yuj; (Tw^toxa TrAoTTOi'Teo Z,(oai (,sc. avTo'i), 
unless in such cases we prefer to supply the relative in an- 
other case^. 

The demonstrative pronoun follows the relative even in the 
same proposition. Herod. 4, 44. 'IvBou ttotojUoi', oc, KpoKo- 
ceiXovc, cevrepoc, ovt oc TTOTaytttuv iravrwv irapeyeTai. Kurip. 
Andr. 651. {ywalKa l3ap(iapov) r/r ^prfv ff' iiXavveiv t^ivS' 
vnepl^eiXov podc Plat. Phccdon. p. 99 B. b ^jj poi (pu'ivovTai 

" Eur.Andr. 651. Ilerm. •> jicind. ad Plat. Gorg. p. 248. 

ad Vig. p. 707 seq. Ast ad Plat. Leg. (which passage, however, does not 

p. 449. Stallb. ad Phil. p. 'J.9. ad come under this head.) Hipp. p. 145. 
Euthyphr. p. 43. 

Si/nlax. Of the Use of ihe Demonslralicc Vro)ioii)is. 783 

xpr]Aa<p<JjvTec oi ttoXaoi loQaWiov civto irpoaayopcveiv, avTo 

is added for tlie sake of perspicuity, as the words o irpoaa-y. 
are separated. So the personal pronoun is added after the re- 
lative Hur. Phceu. 1640 seq. ov kuI irplv ec (pioc /nrjrpoQ J/c 
yovrjc, poXe^v, ayovov ArroWivv Aauo p eOecrTnaev ^ovea yeve- 
aOai Trarpoc,. In Xenophon R. Lac. 10, 4. oc {A.vKovpyoc) 
eireiEri KarepaOev, on o'l pn (^ovXapevoi eTTipeXelaOai rrjc, cipeTtic 
ov-^ tKavoi eiai Tcic, Trarpicac av^eiv, e/ceTvoc £f fy ^irapTrj 
■nvayKaae &cc. this construction is occasioned by the antithesis 
contained in the parenthesis. Comp. §. 472, \,b. To this 
head belongs wv o pev avrwv, which occurs in the later writers, 
e. g. Callim. Epigr. 44. See Herm. ad Vig. p. 709.*^ 

Note. The case where the noun itself with the article follows the 
relative, is similar to the foregoing. See §. 474. 

4. By means of the demonstrative pronoun also, propo- (469) 
sitions, the first of which contains the verb e'lp'i, and the second 
the relative pronoun, are contracted into one. I/.X', 611. 
NeexTOjO kpeio, ovTiva tovtov ayei pepXrjpevou e/c iroXepoio, 
for 0(7Ttc ouTOC eariv, ov ayei. Od. i, 348. o^p eLcyc, 
olou Ti TTOTOi* ToBe J'rjGc eKeKevOei ■t]peTepr], for otov n to 
TTOTOv ToSe ecFTiu, o i) v. e/c. jEschi/l. Prom. 251. pey 
ojipeXrjpa tout eSojpijcTU) (3pOTo7c. Eurip. loii. 1281. o'lav 
eyf^vav rr^vS e^ucrac ! Plat. Prat. p. 318 B. 'Q TlpioTayopa, 
TovTO peu ouoey davpaarov Xeyeic, for ovhev Qavpaarov eaTi 
TovTo, o Xeyeic. P/icvdon. p. 61 C. Comp. §. 255, 4. Obs. 
and §. 267. '^ Thus apparently is to be explained Theocr. 1, 7. 
a^iov, cJ TTOipav, to Teoi' peXoc, i] to KUTa-^ec Tijv uiro tuc, 
TreTpac, KaTaXei(3eTai vxpoOev v^ojp, for >; to KUTa-^eQ rrivo vcwp 
kdTiv, o KdTaXeipeTai. 

Obs. The following are similar abbreviations, in which, however, 
there is no demonstrative pronoun to be supplied : Eur. Iph. T. 273. 
eiT ovv iir uktols Oaaaerou AioaKopa), for e'lT ovy ^loaKopu) karov, Cj 
QaaasTOv. Thuc. 7 , 38. ovckv crjKovvres, oirolov ti to peXXou Troii'iaovaii; 
for Lttolup ti to pkWov eVrat, o Trouycr. further Pind. Nem. 9, 97. ej'0' 
'Ap€(as 'Kopov uyOpoj-rroi KaXeoim, for evda nopos kaTiv, ov 'Ap. ivopov a. 

" Brunck ad Soph. Phil. 316. the passage from Sophocles, more 
Herm. ad \'iger. 1. c. Scheef. ad correctly as I think, above. 
Lamb. B. p. '23. I have oxiilaiiicd '' Heind. ad I'lat. Goig. p. 193. 

784 Si/ntax. Of the Use of the Relative Pronoun. 

KoX. Plat. Phcedon. jj. 107 C. vwep rov ■\p6rov tovtov ixovor, ev w 
KoXovfiev TO ^TJy, which Wyttenbach, p. 285. explains ev w to kqXov- 
fievov ^rjv koTi. Comp. Soph. Track. 648. Xen. H. Gr. 5, 1, 10. 

5. As adjectives are often used in the neuter plural, though 
they refer only to one thing, so ra^e, ravra are often used for 
the singular. Examples have been already given §. 472, 2, b. 
Eur. Hipp. 471. A7idr. 371. Plat. Gorg. p. 474 E. ib. C. 
Soph.Phil.\355. Xen.Anab. 1,9, 24. Plat. Phadou. p.68B. 
a(p6Bpa yap avT'o ravra ^o^ei, fxrjSajuov aWoOi KaOapojQ ev- 
Tev^eadai (ppovi^aei, aW i] eKel^. 

Of the Relative Pronoun. 

473. The case of the relative pronoun is properly determined by 
the verb of the proposition in which it stands : but it is a pe- 
culiarity of the Greek language, that when it should be put in 
the accusative, on account of the verb active following, it is put 
in the genitive or dative, according to the case of the foregoing 
noun or pronoun, to which it refers, by a kind of attraction, and 
consequently conforms to this noun or pronoun preceding not 
only in gender and number, but in case also. 

a. When the noun or pronoun precedes Herod. 1, 23. 

' Ap'iova di0vpap(5ov irpwrov avQ pojTTiov Ttov 7'j^te?(; 

i'S/uei' TTOUjaavTa. Thuc. 7, 21. liytou airo t<Jjv ttoAcwv, wv 
eTreiGC arpariav. ILurip. Ale. 501. ») ^\p^ /ite Traiaiv o'lc' Ap-qa 
eyeivaro /iiayrfv avvaipai. Isocr. de Pac. p. 162 B. cpri/m -^privai 

y^pijaOai tuic avi'OijKaic, jii?j TavTaiQ aic, vvv Tivec 

yeypu(paaiv, uWa Jk.c. J^lat. (Jorg. p. 451 seq. o'l St]/j.iovpyoi 
TovTCJV ii)v CTT^jveaev o to cxkoXiuv TToniaac Comp. JlHsch. S. c. 
Th. 310 seq. Soph. Trach. 421. 680—82. Plat. Phcedon. 

p. 60 D. 76 B. 

b. If the word to which the relative refers be a demon- 
strative pronoun, this pronoun is generally omitted, and the 
relative takes its case. Isocr. Paneg. p. 46 B. C. r] ttoAic 
7;/i(t»»', ii)v eXapev, Inraai f^iere^wKe, for juereSw^ei' eKe'iviov, a 
e.\. Pint. Gorg. p. 457 E. e/noi So/ceTo crv ov irai'v uKoXovOa 

' Schacf, ad Dion. II, dc Comp. p, 80. 

^ijntax. Of the Use vj the Relative Pronoun. 785 

Aeyetv ovBe av/iiCJXjjva o'lc, to ttjOwtov eXeycc, for e/ceivotc, «. 
Xen. Anab. 1,9, 2 5. avv o'iq jwa'Attrra (piXelc and in connection 
with the observation §. 480, c. Demosthenes in Mid. p. 515, 
10. says Si.K7]v jdovXa/iievoi \aj3eiv, wv eVt rtou aXXwv creOeavTO 
dpaavv ovra, for eKeivwv, a ereO. Opaavv, i. e. on ereO. Plat. 
Phcedon.p. 6 1 C. and with §. 477. ib. D. Soph. (Ed. T. 788. Kal 
/ii o <I>oTj3oG lov jiieu t/co/urjv citijliov e^eire/^npev, for ctr. e/ceivtuv 
a (i. e. Si' a) t'/co^rji'. Sometimes the construction, by these 
means, becomes involved : Soph. (Ed. T. 862. ovSev jnp av 
Trpa^aijii av, wv o'v aoi (piXov, for ovBev av Trpa^aijii av eKeivwv, 
a /Lie Trpa^ai o'v aoi (piXov eari. See Erfurdt's note, sm. ed. 

If another noun follows the relative which refers to it, it is 
naturally put also in the case of the relative, as Demosth. pro 

Cor. 325, 10. kfxe oure Kaipoc, Trpor^yayero lov eKpiva 

ciKai(i)v Kai avfx(pep6vTwv t^j TrarpiBi oiicev •trpocovvai. In 
Plat. Phadon. p. 104 A. kui tw toiJ irepirTov, ovtoq ov^ 
owep TrJQ Tjoia'Soc. Bekker after Heindorf reads ouTrep without 
MS. authority. Elmsley ad Arist. Ach. 608. defends the com- 
mon reading by Arist. Ach. 601. Xen. Hist. Gr. 1, 4, 16. 
See Obs. 2. oioc. which, however, cannot avail for its defence, 
unless the reading were ovtoq ov-^ ovirep ?'} rpiac 

Obs. 1 . The relative, even when it should be in the nominative, very 
seldom conforms in case to the preceding noun or pronoun. Herod. 
1, 68. ovlev KO) el^ores tuv rjv vrepi Sapots re Kal avrov Kpolaoi'. Thuc. 
7,67. TToKKaX (vries) p^ffrai es to j3\c'nrTeadai a(f u)v ii/dTv TrapecrKevacrrai, 
for cW eK€ivu)v, tt Trap. But Plat. Phcedon. p. 69 A. tovto ^' ofioioy 
eerriy J vvv Ci) eXeyero should be, at full length, w ufjiowy elvat eXeyero. 

Obs. 2. This is imitated also by other relatives : udev. Soph. Track. 
701. e(c ce yrjs, oQey TrpovKeir, uya'Ceovai QpojxllwCeis ucppol, for eKclOev, 
OTTov. Comp. Eur. Hipp. 1005. Thuc. 1, 89. ciekOfiH^orro evdvs, odev 
vireUdeyro, iralcas, for etceWey, onuv. Plat. Polit. p. 203 C. Comp. 
§. 496. 

oios. Plat. Rep. 8. p. 556 B. eXa-rw (pvoirro rwv toiovtwv KaK(oy, 
o'lwv vvv C)) etTTunev. Comp. 4. ^9. 444 B. Isocrat. -^g. J>' ^^~ ^' 
a. This, even when it should be in the nominative, with the substantive 
belonging to it, and have ka-l or e'lai after it, takes the case of the word 

"■ Biiinck ad Arist. Thesm. 836, Phit. 1128. 

786 Sj/nlax. Of the Use of the Relative Pronomi. 

to which it refers, in which case kari or elai is omitted. Thuc. 7, 21. 
irpos avSpas roXjjirjpovs, o'iovs kcu 'A 0?/ vat o vs, for olot 'AdTjvaloi 
eitriv. Soph. Track. 443 seq. o'las y efjiov, for o'la eyw ei/jii. Plat. 
Soph. p. 237 C. o'tij) ye ejiol Travrrnraatv airopov, for olos tyw e/jut. Xen, 
Mem. S. 1, 9, 3. ttoXXw t'jcio)' ean, yjupi^o^erov o'ito aol ai'^pi >/ 
aTre-)(66fievov, w^eXeTo-flca, for avBpi, olos av el. Hence Plat. Euthyd. 

p. 272 A. Kparlarw Koi ctXXov ^tSa^at Xiyeiv re kui iTvyypa<peadai 

Xoyovs o'iovs els to ciKCKTrypia. properly o'loi els ra ^ik. av apfioTTOier. 
See Heind. p. 302 seq. Also when olos stands for ware. Demosth. 
p. 23, 16. TOiovTOvs aydpwTTovs, o'iovs fiedvadevTas op^eFffQat. Even 
when the subject of this olos is in the nominative Ar'ist. /ich. 601. 
veavias V o'iovs gv SialedpaicoTas. Xen. Hist. Or, 1, 4, IG. — b. If the 
word to which olos should refer is omitted, the article is put with olos 
in the case of the word omitted : Xen. Hist. Gr. 2, 3, 25. yrorres to7s 
o'lois iifxtv re kcu vfTiv -^aXeTDjv TroXirelar elrat SrifioKpaTiay, for T-otou- 
rots, o'loi )/yLie(s re kui vfieis ecrpty'^. olos is also omitted, and only the 
demonstrative rowv-os used, which never takes place with other rela- 
tives : Plat. Rep. 1. J). 349 D. toiovtos upa tarh' eicaTepos ourw)' olairep 
€oiK€v, for TOIOVTOS, owi eKfU'OJ, o'lffnep eoiKey. Phcedon. p>. 92 B, ov yap 
Et) appovia ye toiovtov 1(ttiv w «7reiKo^ets, with Heind. note, 2^. 158. 

riXiKOS. Arist, Ach. 703. eiKos drCpn Kv^oy, i]XiKov QovKvciCr^y, 
e^oXeffdai. Eccl. 4:65. €Ke7yo ^eiyuy Tolaiv »/Xt\oiffi vwv, for ?JX//co$ 
0. ecTTi, Tr}XiKovTois, i]\iK0L »'w tapey. 

Ohs. 3. Even when the relative remains in the right case, it serves 
to contract two j)ropositions into one, by omitting the demonstrative 
pronoun. Xen. Mem. S. 2, 6, 34. epol eyyiyrcTai evvoia npos ovs 
ay viroXaj3(jj evyotKuis e^eti' Trpos epe, for Trpos eKeiyovs ovs ay vnoX. 

Obs. 4. The following passages must not be referred to this head : 
Plat. Rep. 7. p. 533 E. cWi 3' ov Trepi oyofiaTOs tj ap^icrl3i]Triins, ols 
TOffovTOjy Trepi <TKe\pis o(tu)v -q^lv irpoKeiTai, i. e. aKc\pis irepi toitovtojv 
irpoKeiTai, irepl ocruiv rjpiy tTKe\pis TrpoKeiTai. Leg. 2. p. G71 C. tovtov 
})' eiyai tov TrXaaTtjy Toy uvroy, oyTvep rore, tov ayaddy yopo6eTr)y. 
Here the accusative of the relative is determined by the oratio obliqua. 

474. In the above instances the relative takes the case of the pre- 
ceding substantive ; but sometimes instead of this the substan- 
tive takes, even when it stands first, the case of the relative 
which follows. 11. <j , 192. aAXou 8' ov rev olSa, rev av 
kXvto. rei'^ea Svw. Od. , 74. The nominative is so used in 

' Kciz dc Ace. Incl. p. 79. 

Syntax. Of the Use uj l/ic ReiaUve Prunuun. 787 

//. I', 396. quoted §.431. Jlerod. 2, 106. rac ^e arvXac 
Tac, lora Kara rac -^lopac o AiyvTrrov paaiXevc, ^eatvaTpic, at 
juei* TrXeui'ec ovkcti (pa'ivovTai Trepieovaai. Comp. 1, 108. 5, 87. 

Soph. El. 6o'3. (piXoiGi T€ l^vvovcrav Kai reKviov oatov 

c/iioi ^vavoia juj] irpoaeaTiv for rcKvoic. Comp. Track. 283. 
(Ed. T. 449. Arist. Li/sistr. 408. P/at. Menon. p. 96 A. 
'^\eic ovv e'nreiv aWov otovovv tt pay f.iaTOC ov oi ^lev 

(paaKOVTec, SiSaaKaXoi elvai, u/uioXoyovvTai Trovrjpoi elvai. 

ib. C. wnoXoyriKa/iieu Se ye, ir pay f^iaroc ov f.u]re cicaaKaXoi 
^(jjre (ua0>)Tcu eiev, tovto BidaKTOv f.iri elvai. In this manner 
we may explain Dem. 01. p. 18, 13. pri juovoy ttoXcwv kcu 
roTTMV h)v Tjpev TTore Kvpioi, (pa'iveadai Trpoief-ievovc, whence also 
the following genitives. So Virg. ^En. 1, 577. urhem, quam 
statiio, vestra est^. Hence ouSeva ovtiv ov icareKXavae §. 306. 
The same thing takes place with adverbs, e. g. Soph. Q^d. C. 
1227. jSrivai Ke79€v oBev irep Tjfcet, for /ceTae oBev. 

There are other methods in which the relative serves to blend 
the two members of a proposition. 

a. Sometimes the relative has the noun to which it should (474) 
refer in the same case after it, as in Latin. Herod. 5, 106. 
pri pev rrporepov GK^vaaaOai tov e)(^a)v KiOtvva KaTa^naopai 
ec 'lwvit]v, TTpLV &c. Soph. Trach. 674seq. w ycip toi' ev^vrripa 
TvenXov apriioc e^^ptoi' apyrJT' oioc, evepov iroKio, tovt i}(pavi- 
arai. Xen. Anab. 1, 9, 19. e't Tiva opwt] KaraaKevatovra VQ 
apyoL y^iopac, for rr/i' yjujpav, r/c apyoi. Eur. El. 860.*^ Eur. 
Hel. 314.** jEsch. S. c. Th. 555. eariv Se Ka\ twS' ov Xkyeic, 
Tov 'A|0/coSa, av^p o/co/ittoc. Soph. Antig. 1156. To this 
class belong the passages quoted by Seidler ad Eur. Iph. T. 
146. ev Kii^eioic, o'iktoic, a'l poi avp^a'ivova' UTai. Soph. El. 
203. €v Beiirvdjv appin^v eKvayX' ayBtf, rove epoQ 'i8e Tramp 
Oauarovc, ai'/ceTc, where arai, Qavaroi ought to stand in appo- 
sition to oinToic, ayOt], but are constructed according to the 
relative. This takes place most frequently when the propo- 
sition with the relative precedes, because the principal thought 

" Heind. ad Plat. Lys. p. 47 sq. Vig. p. 711, 35. Ileind. ad Plat. 

Dorville ad Char. p. 593. 609. Charm. §. 43. Gorg. §. 85. Prot. 

"= Valck. ad Herod. 7, 151. p. 574, §. 80. Elnisl. ad Eur. Ilcracl. 601, 
86. Fisch. 3 a. p. 310. lierm. ad "^ Person ad Eur. Or. 1645. 

788 Sj/iitax. Of the Use of the Relative Pronoun. 

is contained in it (§. 478), as Soph. CEd. Col. 907. vvv S 
ovairep ovtoq tovc, vojuovc, eiaiiXO e^wv, TovTOiaiv, ovk 
aWoiaiv, apjLioadyjGerai. Eur. Or. 63. Comp. Hipp. 900. In 
both cases the noun frequently has the article : Soph. Aiit. 
404. ravrrju y tSwi' OaTrrovaav ov av tov veKpov o7re?7rac. 
Plat. Crit. p. 48 C. PJmd.p. 61 B. PoUt. p. 269 B. Rep. 5. 
p. 477 C. So adjectives which should stand with their sub- 
stantives are separated from them, and attracted to the propo- 
sition which begins with the relative, e. g. Eur. Or. 854. 
Xoyouq ciKovaov, o'vc, aoi cvcFTv^elr, jj/cw ^eputv. 

h. Hence the nouns which should precede the relative, in 
conjunction with a demonstrative pronoun or adjective in the 
same case with these, are frequently referred to the relative. 
//. 7j', 186. uX\ OTe S17 Tov 'iKave, (pepwv av opiXov airavrr], 
oc, piv eTTiypaxpac; Kvverj |3oXe (^a/Sjjttoq A'lac,. comp. t, 
131 serj. Ilerod. 9, 71. Plat. Hipp. Maf p. 281 C. t'i Trore 
TO aiTiov, OTi 01 TraXaioi e/ceTrot, cJv ovopara peyaXa 

Xeyerat e7r< croCpia, H itt aKov t€ Kai l^iavTOC, wc»? 

Travrec, 1/ ol ttoWoi avrojv (pn'ivovTai (nrey^opevoi t<i>v ttoXitikwv 
Trpa^etov ; Phadon. />. 66 E. Apol. S. p. 41 A. sometimes 
after ?). Plat. Sj/mp. p. 205 extr. ov^ev ye aWo eanv ov 
€p<x)(Tiu ai'9pu)Troi, 1] TOV ayaOov. also with the article. De- 
viosth. in Peplin. p. 462, 16. twv ei(T(poptdv kui Tpn]papyjLhiv 

- ovtcic k(JT aTe\i}C eK tiov iraXauov vopiov, ouoe ovq 

OVTOQ eypa'ipc rove, afj) Appociov Kai ApiaToyeirovoc,^. 

c. This construction is also combined with the preceding 
§. 473. Soph Olid. Col. 334. (j}XOov) ^iiv wirep elyov oiKerwv 
TTKTTM povM. Pitrip. Or. 1406. ol Se Trpoc Bpovovc, ecxio poXovrec 
ac, eyj/jti' o to^otoc Tlupic yvvaiKoc,. Thuc. 7, 54. A.Oi]valoi 
Se (TpoTTOiov eaTTiaav) j)c ot Tvparjvoi rpoirrjc eiroiricTavTO twv 
TreZ,wv, for tj7C rpoTcnc, tiov iret^v, r;i' 01 Tvpa. eir. Comp. Plat. 
Hipp. Maj. p. 291 C. Xen. Mem. 2, 7, J 3. Herod. 9, 26. So 
oaai i]pepai, sc. etcrt, Od. ^ , 93. ocjaai vvktcc, re Kai r]pepai €k 
Atoc e'laiv, which Horace translates quotquot euiit dies, whence 
afterwards came an adverb oar]pepai. Theocr. 1, 42. (pairjc, 
Kcv yv'iuju viu oaov aOevoQ eXXoirieveii', for ttuvti to) yviwv auevei 
oaov eoTi. 

» Wulf. ;ul Dcin. Lc].!. p.2J6. 

St/utax. Of the Use of the Relative Pruiioiiit. 789 

d. If there are two verbs of different regimen in tlie ])ropo- 
sition which begins with the relative, with each of which there- 
fore the relative should be in a different case, it is commonly 
found only once, and in the case required by the nearest verb. 
0(1.(3', 1 14. avo)'^9i Be fiiv ■yaf.ieeaQai tw, oreii) re rrar-np /ceXe- 
Tot Kal avdavei avry, i. e. Kui oc, avSavei avri^. Plat. Phccdon. 
p. 8 1 B. TO a(i)f.iaroei^ec;, ov tig liv axpairo Kai tooi &c. See 
§. 428, 2. 

On the other hand, clauses of propositions which should be 
joined to the proposition by a relative, are often treated as in- 
dependent propositions. Plat. Leg. 12. p. 944 A. oirocroi Kara 

Kpr}i.ivwv pKpevTec airMXeaav orrXa ij /iivpi av ric, e^oi 

ToiavTci Trapa/iivBovpevoc, eira^eiu, for ola /.ivpi av tic, e^oi Trap, 
eir. Euthj/phr.p. 6 B. C. even where no relative precedes Apol. S. 

p. 41 IB. eiri TToaii) B' av tiq Se^atro e^eracrai Ooucrcrea 

?j ^i(yv(l)ov 7) aXXouq fxvpiovc, av tic, eiiroi, for o'lovc, aXX. pvp. 
This resembles the usage explained §. 472, 3. So after a 
conjunction an independent proposition is introduced : Plat. 
Phced. p. 90 D. Tavry pev oua^ o/toioi o'l Xoyoi to7q avOpwiroic 

e'laiv ciXX' e/cea-r? ij, enei^av ric TTKyrevcry Aoyw tivi 

aXjj0et eli^oi Kcnreira oX'iyov vtyrepov avrto So^y \pev^i)c 

eivai Kal pciXicr-a Ei) ol Trepi tovc, avriXoyiKovc \6yovc 

^uiTpiipavreQ olad' on TeXevrtovTec oiovrai, &c. 

e. Prepositions are often omitted with the relative when 
they have been already used with the noun to which it refers : 
e.g. Plat. Gorg. p. 516 C. uypiwrepovc, ye avTOvc a7re(py]i'ev i] 
o'lovc TTOjoeXajSe, Kal tovt e'lG avTOv ov 1]KI(tt av jjpoi'Xero, for 
etc, ov. See §. 595. 

Obs. 1. Soph. CEd. C. 1106. atTeh a reui'ei is translated by Brimck 
quod jJetis consequeris, as if it were for a aiTeh, a collocation of which 
there is no other example, a is rather governed of rev'^ei, and stands 
for w»'. See §. 328. Obs. 

Obs. 2. The expression vs /SouXet ' any one', is not strictly gramma- 
tical for 01' ftovXei, as in Latin quids for qucmms. Plat. Gorg. p. 527 A. 

epya roiavra ola tovtuv os ftovXei eipynaTai. Crat. p. 4.o2 A, 

avTo. rh SeKa i) oar is jJovXei aWos aptOfios. 

^ Heusde Spec. Crit. in Plat. p. 13seq. llcind. ad Plat. Gorg. §.8(3. 

790 Si/ntax. Of the Use of the Relative Pronoun. 

4-75. a. The relative often differs in number from the word to 
which it is referred, and is in the singular when that is in the 
plural, when some one, without determining which, of the pre- 
ceding number, consequently any one at pleasure, is to be dis- 
tinguished. Hence also in this case octtic or oc av is commonly 

put: II. rr'f 62\. 'S(ja\€7r6v ae iravruiv avOpwTTiou apea- 

aai jxkvoc,, oc /ce aev avra e\6y aiivvo^evoc.. Comp. t, 260. 
•y^j 73. Od. <p' , 293. otvoc ae Tpwei jueXt)jSj]C, oare /cat 
aWovc, jSAaTTTet, oc, av /itiv ■yavdov e\y. Comp. ib. 313. 
Soph. Atitig. 707. octtic yap avroc, >/ (ppoveiv ixovoc ^oKel, rj 
yXtiiaaav, rjv ovk aXXoc, v ipvyr}V e\eiv, ovtoi ^laTTTV^uevrec, 
wcpOnaav KaKoi Eur. EL 939. Comp. Med. 224. Andr. 180. 
Find. 01. 3, 18 seq. Aristoph. Nub. 348. yiyvovrai iravO 
o Tt (BovXovrai. Simonid. np. Plat. Protag.p. 345 D. Travraa 
Be e7rau'o?/nt {eiraiviijiu'}) Kai (piXeu) eKwv, oariQ ep^y /uri^ev 
aia-^pov. Plat. Pep. 8. j). 566 D. trpoayeXa re Kai otrTraZ^eToi 
TTavrac, (o av 7repiTvy)(av\]^. So also Soph. Aj. 758. Tct 

irepiaaa awpara ootig fiv /car avOpwirov (jipovel. and 

so o and ravTu refer to each other, e. g. Eur. Iph. T. 695 seq. 
Xen. Cyr. 1, 6, 11. 8, 3, 46. The case is similar when the 
masculine oaric is found after the neuter of a collective, as 
Pind. Pyth. 3, 36 seq. ean Be (pvXov ev avSpujiroKTi /uaraco- 

TaTOV, "}(TTIC, TTUTTTalVei TO. TTOpOh). But E}ir. HeC. 363. kwClT 

icTwc av Seo-TTOTWi' i.op.wv (ppkvac, rvyjiip av, ootiq apyvpov 
fx wvriaeTai, the plural is used in the sense of the singular 
§. 293. 

On the other hand the relative is in the plural, in reference 
to a singular, both when it refers to a whole class of objects 
§. 434, 2. and in some other cases. TL ^', 410. yeppaB'uo, 

TO. pa TToXXa Trap ttogi papvapkvwv eKvXivcero. Eur. 

Here. F. 193. ocxoi Se ro^otq X^TjO t^^oiKTii' evaroy^ov 

pvp'iovQ o'larovG a(peic aXXoic, to au^pa pverai pi) KaT0ave7v. 
a is also found in reference to a feminine singular Eur. Andr. 
271. a B' ear eyJ.Bvr)Q Kai Trvpoc, Trepaircpto, ovBeic, yvvaiKoc, 
(bapfiaK e^evprjKe ttw /ca/o7o, where however a apparently does 
not refer so much to yui^aticoc KuKric as to that which is suggested 

=» Biunckad Soph. AJ.7G0. Heincl. Leg. p. 63. Elnisl. ad Soph. CEd. T. 
ad Plat. Prot. p. 593, Ast ad Plat. 713. Monk ad Eur. Hipp. 78. 

Syntax. 0/ the Use of the Relative Pronouti. 791 

to the mind by yvvij kuki}, viz. yvv. KaKrjc, ToX^i/jiioTa. But a 
and ToSe refer to one another Eur. Ion. 963. tout' liv a i>vv 
<Toi (pavepa crr}|UaiVw kukci. Comp. Hec. 998 seq.^ {Med. 552. 
will probably be better explained according to §. 478.) 

b. The person which follows the relative is determined by 
the word to which the relative refers. If it refers to the subject 
of the first person, expressed or to be supplied, the first person 
also follows the relative ; if it refers to a vocative, or the subject 
of the second person or the pronoun of the second person, this 
follows the relative. Eur. Sujypl. 1094 seq. ovk av ttot eiq toS 
ri\9ov,eiQ o vvv kukov' o(ttiq (pvTevaac, /cat veavlau Te/cwv apicFTOv, 
elra Tov^e vvv gt epiaKOf-iai. Plat. Crit. j). 45 ^. avavSpia. 
TT? r]p.eTepa ^laweCpevyevai rjinac, So/ceTi', oiTivkc, ae ov cieaijj- 
ffOjuei'. Eur, Hec. 258. ^ir\^e yiyvioaKoiaO e^ioi, o't tovc, (jyi- 
\ovQ (iXaiTTovTec ov (ppovritere. A deviation occurs //. p, 
248. fJ (p'lXoi, ' Apyeiwv i)yi]ropec, r/Se fxe^ovrec, o'lre Trap 
'Arpe'thjc, 'Ayaiiiefxvovi Kul MeveXao), Sr/jiua irivovcjiv Kai 
vovaiv eKacTTOi \aolc, *^. 

c. If, besides the noun to which the relative refers, it has 
another of different gender or number, as an explanation or 
definition of the former, the relative is often in the number and 
gender of the preceding noun : e. g. Flat. Symp. p. 187 C. D. 
eTretSav Sep Karay^pnadai pvOp-co re Kai appov'ia }/ TroiovvTa, o 
Sri imeXoTToiiav KuXovaiv, &c. Comp. p. 191 B. but more fre- 
quently in that of the following noun. See §. 440. 

Similar to the usage explained in §. 474, 6. is that in which 476. 
the relative is followed by the proper noun, with the article, as 
if for explanation in the apposition. Herod. 1,39. to Se ov 
lj.avQaveic, aXXa XeXr]9e ae, to oveipov, epe toi Bikuiov eari 
(bpateiv. Plat. Thecet. p. 167 B. erepa roiavTa, a S/j rivec; 
TO. (havTaapara vttu aneipiac aXr)6i] KaXovaiv. Hipp. Maj. 
p. 294 A. B. rjpeiQ yap irov e/ceTvo eZ[j7TOi)|uev, to Travra to. KoXa 
TrpaypuTa KaXa eariv, (lya-rrep w iravTa ra peyaXa fffTt peyaXa, 
Toj vwepe-y^ovri. Rep. 9. p. 579 C. Euthyd. p. 271 C^ 
Comp. §.439. Obs. 

•> Reiz ad Lucian. t. 3. p. 403. <= Iluschke ad Tib. 1. 6, 39. 

Herm. ad Find. Pyth. 6, 19. Schief. ■* Ileind. ad Plat. Gorg. p. 121. ad 

ad Eur. Urest. 910, ed. Pors. Crat.p.97. Farm. p. 226. Prot.p.579. 

792 Sj/?itax. Of Ihe Use of the Relative Pronoun. 

In a similar manner the relative is explained by an infinitive 
or an entire proposition, which in sense repeats that to which 
the relative referred. Eur. Med. 13 seq. aur/j re Travra o-u^i- 
(jyepovcT 'lacrovi, r'lTrep /neyiaTri yiyverai aojTtjpia, orav yvvii 
Tvpoc av^pa i-iri ^L-^oaTary. Thuc. 5, 6. ware ovk av eXaOev 
avToOev oppuffievoc o KXewi/ tw arpario' oirep irpoaeceyeTO 
7Ton)<jeiv avTuu, cTrt rrjv ' Ap-ip'nroXiv, virepicovra (rcpojv to ttAtj- 
6oc, aual5n(Tea9ai. Isocr. tt. clvt. p. 314 A. Comp. de Pac. 
p. 159 C. 160 A. Plat. Phikb. p. 15 B. with Stallbaum's 
note. Thus the genitive of the relative after a comparative is 
explained by a supplement with ?) : Isocr. Panath. p. 249 B. 
wv TIC, aWoc, (painjcreTai irpovoriBeic, ?} tic t'jitTroowv /caroCTTOc, 
Tov p-ri^ev en yeveaOai toiovto. Comp. de Pac. p. 161 D. 
See §. 450. Ohs. 2. 

477^ The relative serves also, as in Latin, to connect propositions 
instead of the demonstrative : e. g. Kpovoc KaTeiriev EaTiav, 
etTa Ari/JiriTpav Kal ''Hpav' peB' ac YlXovrivva Kai Yloaeicwva. 
This takes place also in combinations which do not occur in 

a. After a parentliesi?, when the discourse reverts to what 
preceded. //. A', 221. (t/c ojj TrpwToc, AyapepvovoG avTioc 
riXOef ;) 'Icpi^apac. ' AvTip'opihjc, 7)1^0 re peyac re, oc, Tpacpi) ev 
QpyKy, Sec. to V. 230. oq pa tot 'Arpei^eu) Ayopepvovoc 
avTioc rjXOev, liic, inquam, obviam processit, or hie igitur &c. 
Comp. Herod. 7, 205. Soph. (TJ. C. 1308—1326. Eur. 
Or. 892 — 904.^ So alv /iot peXeaOai Soph. CEd. T. 1466. is 
the correct reading. 

b. In addresses. Soph. (Ed. C. 1354. wf S a^iwdeiQ elcri 
KUKOvaac y epov TOiavO' , a pj) ToxiS' ovttot eixjypavel piov. o c, 

y , M KaKiaTC, aKrJTTTpa Kai Opovovc, ex,*^''' '''*^*' "^'''"C 

avTov TTUTCpa Toi'S' inn'iXaaac, where properly av y , w kuk. 
should have been used. Thus too with the imperative: Soph. 
QLd. T. 723. ToiaiiTci (^ripai pavTiKui Zn'opiaav. u)v evTpeirov 
av primer, for uXXd tovtiov evTpeirov <tu p. id. CEd. C 731. 
{op<jj Tiv vpac, oppaTwv eiXijtpoTaa (poj^ov vewp?) ttjc, eprjc, citckt- 

^ Auimadv. in H. Ilom. ]i. 170. lloin. Ilynini el Batrachom. p. 31. 

Sj/ntax. Of the Use of t/ie Relative Pro?ioim. 793 

o^ou") ov f.oir oKveire, jut/t' a^?\T cttoc, kqkou. where ov is re- 
ferred to the personal pronoun contained in e^trjc, for aWa firj 
oKj^eTre e,ite. Comp. 282. Eur. Anclr. \77 . Iphig. A. 394. 

c. In interrogations. Eur. Or. 746. OP. xpricfyov ayu(^' rf/mSv 
TToXtTOC etri (povio Oeadai y^peojv. HYA. r/ Kpivei ti \pr]/J.a ; 
for Tt Se ^|0. iivTt] Kpivei ; 

d. For the demonstrative with yap. Eurip. Hec. 409. /3ow- 
Aet TrecreTv irpoc ov^ac, eX/cwffat re aoi/ yepovra y^ptSra, irpoc, 
(5'iav ixiOoviiievr], afT^^rj^toi'Jjcrai t', e/c veow f^pa-^^iovoc (nraaOela ; 
a ire'iaei, 'since all this thou wilt be obliged to suffer', id. Ale, 
669. ov f.iriv epeic ye ^i', wc, itTijiiatovTa aov yrjpac; 6ai>e7v Trpov- 
^(ijKac,. ocTTic a'l^o^pMv irpoc a r\v jxaXiara. Here the propo- 
sition with oc contains at the same time the antithesis of the 
preceding negative proposition, as in the following passage it 
expresses the antithesis of an interrogation, which also has a 
negative sense : Xen. Mem. S. 3, 5, 15 seq. irore yap ovrwa 
'A9riva7oi, loairep AaKe^ai/uiovioi, h 7rpea(5vTepovr, ai^eaovrai ; 

oi awo TWJ/ Trarepwv apyovTUi KaraCppovelv twv yepai- 

reptov' 77 au)f.iaaKi]aov(nv ourwc ; o\ ov jliovov avroi eu- 

e^tac a/uieXovaiu, aWa Kai twv eiripeXovnevoiV KarayeXwai, &c. 
where the proposition with o'/ may be rendered by * nay' ; 'nay 
they begin, nay they neglect'. 

e. o especially often stands at the beginning of a proposition, 
i.e. Bi o for S^a TouTo, (juare for itaque. Eurip. Hec. 13. ve<u- 
TUTOC S' J?v Ylpiajiii^Mv' o Kai jtie yrjc, vTre^eire/iiiliei' (r). Comp. 
Ph. 156, 270.^ Thus also a for gi' a: Soph. Trach. 186. a 
Ka\ ae tuv avaaaav eXiriaii' Xe-yw xaS uiev icr^eiv. Comp. Q^d. 
C. 1287. 

The relative with its proposition often stands first, as in Latin, 473. 
when the leading idea of the whole period, the emphasis, is 
contained in it. Soph. Phil. 86. e-yw pev, ovc av rwv Xoywv 
aXycjJ kXvwv, TOucrSe Kai irpaaaeiu arvyu). 

It precedes also when there is no demonstrative pronoun 
following, but an entire complete proposition to which it re- 

^ Valck. ad Phoen. 137. Musgr. rip. Hec. 1. c. PhcEii. 270. Arist. 
ad Eurip. Ph. 270. Brunck ad Eu- Eccl.3iJ8. Herm. ad Vig. p. 706, 27. 

794 Sj/tUax. Of the Use of the Relative Pronoun. 

fers. Eurip. Ion. 654. o S evKrov avOpwiroiai kuu ukovoiv 
17, Si/cotov elvai fx o vo/iioG ?; (pvaiQ 6 a/ta Trapei'^e tw Ocm, 
where o refers to the following BUaiov elvai. ih. 183. El. 943. 
o S TjTrara ae TrXeTcTOv ou/c ey^wKora, Tjv^eic rtc eh'OJ, ToTfft 
'^pij/naai aBevu)v. Hence the neuter o, z'eferring to what 
follows, stands at the beginning of a proposition, in order 
to carry back the thoughts to a preceding assertion : Xen. 
Hier. 6, 12. o S' etvXioaac Vfi^cic, wc rove /ttev (jyiXovQ /iiaXicrra 
ev TTOieiv ^vi'a/.ie6a, tovc, S e'^Opovc Travrwv jiiaXicTTa "^eipov- 
/iieOa, ouSe ravd' ovr(i)Q e'x^'* Here o refers to the entire 
proposition which follows, u)C rove, pltv (p'lXovc, Sec. but this 
proposition is joined to the proposition with the relative, as 
depending on it (§. 632.), for to Se ij/nac tovc, i^iev (p'lXovc 
fxaXiara ev Troielv ^vvaaOai, tovc B eyOp. yeipovodai (b etnX. 
r]fxac) ovde rovd' ovtcuq e\£i, where in Latin we should say 
quod vero nos beatos pradicasli, which is explained by quod 
attinet ad. Usage however, departing from the original form 
of the expression, made the proposition with o the protasis, 
where on also might have stood: as Xen. Anah. 6, 1, 29. b 
S vfxeic, evvoeire, on jJttoi/ av araaiQ eii) kvoc, apyovTOC, eu 
iare, oTt, &c. and in the plural Hell. 2, 3, 45. luir. Or. 
564. €^ otc ^ cnreiXeic wc irerpioOiivai /le ?e7, ctKovcrov. The 
proposition to which the relative should refer is sometimes 
omitted, or included in the proposition with the relative : Eur. 
Med. 552 seq. a S e'lQ ya/iiovG ^loi (5aaiXiKovr, love'i^Krac, ev 
TwSe (in the following part ver. 556 seq.) Set'^o), for a Se /itoi 
wveiBiaac, on ya/novQ (SaaiX. eyri/iUt. or a substantive follows in 
an epexegesis of the o, according to §. 439. Obs. 1. as in 
Plat. Euthi/d. p. 271 C. b Be av epuirac, rrjv ao(piav avrolvf 
Oav/iiaai , tu Kpinvv, TravcroCpoi are-^vwc, (probably wo irava. ar. 
as in Eurip. Iph. A. 948.). The relative and the proposition 
to which it should refer are contracted into one in Herod 3, 81. 
Ta ec, TO irXiiOoQ avcoye (jyepeiv to KparoCy yi'w^trjc tj;c upiari)C, 
rjpapTrjKe, quod verojussit, 'with respect, however, to his desire, 
that the supreme power should be given up to the people', Slc. 

So probably the passages are to be explained in which a 
new proposition with a conjunction follows the proposition 
with b, §. 432, 4. 

Sj/iitai\ Of the Use of the Relative Pronoun. 795 

The relative is put also for various conjunctions, which would 4:70. 
refer to a demonstrative pronoun preceding or to be supplied : 

a. for oJare: e. g. in the form e4>' Jre ^ upon condition that'. 
This should be properly em toutw, axxre, as Thucydides 3, 114. 

says, (TTTOvSaq Kai ^vn/^ia^iav eTrotjjcrai'TO €7rt to lace, ware 

fiTire 'A/iTT/oa/ctwrac /uera 'AKa^pai'tuf arpareveiv eiri IleXoTroi/- 
vrxTiovQ, linire, &c. Thus wcrre Thuc. 3, 34. 75. 114. 5, 94. 
7, 82. But because the relative properly refers to the demon- 
strative, so according to §.473. they said ctti toi/tw, (o or wre, 
or with the preposition repeated eirl tovtw, e^' wre, as Flat. 
ApoL S.p. 29 C. (Herodotus says 7, 154. eirl rotcxSe, err' wre.) 
The demonstrative is then omitted by §.473. e(^', w, as A"e«. 
if/s^ Gr. 2, 2, 20. and e^' tore. Hence on account of ware, 
which according to the sense is contained in this expression, 
the infinitive usually follows in this place, though the fut. ind. 
also frequently follows, e. g. Thuc. 1, 103. 113. 

Obs. 1. There are also other cases where the relative os, cans is put 
for wffre, especially after ourw or wce, TrjXtKovros, towvtos, where, how- 
ever, the finite verb and not the infinitive follows : Herod. 4, 52. Kpiin] 
TTik-pt), ovTM 2j; tl kovaa iriKp)), y, ^eyadei <T/it(cp>) eovara, Kipr^ tuv "Yvra- 
viv, 'so bitter that', comp. 1, 87. Soph. Ant. 220. Eur. Andr. 170. 
Plat. Rep. 2. p. 560 B. obcels av ycroiro ovrus aCafidpTitos, os iif 
Helmey kv Ty ZiKaiouvrri. Xen. Anah. 2, 5, 12. r/v ovrw fjairerai, 
ofTTis ov aoL foovXerai cpiXos eivat ; Isocr. Epist. p. 408 D. XP') cTt- 

Qvp-eiv Co^Tjs rTjXikaurrjs to piyedos, fjv poros hy (tv rwy vvv 

byrwy icrrjaaaQaL cvyyidelrjs ". 

Obs. 2. Other relatives also are put for conjunctions, especially olos 
and oaos. Plat. Gorg. p. 457 D. aKolxravTei irep'i o-^wv avriSy Toiavra, 
via vai Toiii Tzapovaas axdeadai. Eur. Heracl. 745. av^fiaxoi yiyoio 
fioi ToiovTos, olos ay rpoTrijP 'Evpvtrdewi deiTfy. 

a. olos in the expression olos el^i or olos t eli^i with the infinitive, 
which is properly roiouros e<>£, ware, 'I am of such a kind as', which 
may have three significations: 1. 'I am able'. 2. 'I am wont'. S. '1 
am ready, willing'. Od. <p', 172. oh yap toi ce ye toIov iyelyaro 
TToryia pt'irrip, oloy re pvrrjpa fiiov r efieyai Kai oiaruiy. Soph. (Ed, 1. 
1295. Qeapa c elcroxpei rdx" roiovrov, olov Kai OTvyovvT eTroiKrlaai. 
Plat. Cratyl. p. 2\)5 A. Kivdvvevei rotourds ns elyai 6 'Ayanefxywy, 

=» Wyttenb. Bib!. Ciit. 3, 2, 03. Schaf. in Dion Hal. Melet. Crit. p. 71 note. 

u 2 

796 Syntax. Of the Use of the Relative Pronoun. 

oTos, av coleiev avTf, ciairoyelfrdai kuI KapTCpelv, 'Agamemnon seems 
to be able to persevere in difficulties'. Comp. id. Criton. p. 46 B. 
Eep. I. p. 351 E. 3. p. 415 E. Menon. p. 100 A. Amat. p. 136 A. 
Xen. Cyrop. 1, 2, 3. 8, 4, 31. Mem. 2, 1, 15. toiovtos, olos Xuo-treXtiv. 
comp. 2, 6, 37. Demosth. 01. 1. p. 23.^ The abbreviated forms olos 
eifjiL and olos r elfil are more common, which have usually this distinc- 
tion, viz. that olos eJjia signifies ' I am wont', and olos -' eljui ' I am 
able' *". But although this distinction almost alwriys holds good, it 
is not vmiversally confirmed by usage : e. g. olds elfii signifies ' I am 
able'. Plat. Rep. 3 in. el yueWou<7iv eirni uvcpeloi, dp' ov ravra re 
XekTeoi', Kcu olci civrovs Troiijcrai iJKi(T-a rov dayci-oy cecievai, talia, quce 
efficere possint, 'things which are calculated to diminish fear', id. 
Theag. p. 127 C. iraw (poj^ovixai. v-ep tovtov, pi] rivt c'iXXw eiruxj; 
o'lu) tovtov cuKJjde'ipai 'who may, or is able, to mislead him'. Thuc. 
6, \2 extr. koI to •npdypa /xeya elvai Kn\ jjl)) olov rewrepw oovXev- 
aaadal re Kai o^ews f-ieTa^eiplrrai, * such as a young man would be able'. 
Xen. Mem. jS*. 4, 6, 11. where it is interchanged with Iwdixevos : 'Aya- 
Qovs oe Trpos ret ToiavTU yo^ii^eis aXXous rtvas, f/ tovs cvvajjeyovs 
avTOis KaXds ■)(^pf](T6aL ; Oi^*:, aXXa tovtovs, etpr]. Kai;ovs ct lipa tovs 
o'lovs TovTois KaKiiSs ■^pfjnditi. id. ib. 1, 4, G. roOs pev Trpocrdey ocov- 
Tas TTciffi 4(1)01$ olovs Tepyeiy eiyai, tovs ce yni.i(plovs o'lovs Traph tov- 
Twy Zel,u^kyovs Xeaiyeiy, ' are adapted to cutting, to bruising'. In 
general, the idea of being accustomed, able, is not contained in this 
phrase independently, but in the whole import of the proposition ; 
since sometimes cvyaj.iai, cvyciTos is added: e.g. Plat. Charm. 2^.^56 B. 
kffTi yap TOiavTi} (// ?uru/jis) o'la fii] IvyaaOai T))y K€(pa\))y fioyov 
vyid TTOie'iy. Hipp. Maj. j). 295 C. towvtol elyai oTot pi) EvyuToi 
bpdv. comp. Phcedon. p. 101 E. The idea of must is often contained in 
the proposition, as Thuc. 7, 42. ' to be inclined', as Xen. Ages. 8, 2. 
Demosth. p. 1086, 21. Plat. Rep. 2. p. 365 E. (where, however, it 
may signify ' to be accustomed or able', as lOeXeiv also has these three 
meanings). The principal idea, ' to be so constituted as', nearly the 
same as irecpvKeyai, is throughout the basis, and is differently modified, 
according to the diflfcrent relations of the proposition. 

b. ocros after Toaov-os. Ilerod. 6, 137. ecoiiTOvs ce yerecrOai toctovto 

" Xen. Cyr. 7, 5, 84. ovk ecTTiy if a man himself is virtuous'. 
iiXXy] (jivXciKi) TOiavTT], o'la aWoy '' Harpocr. etSuid. v. olosel. V'alck. 

Tiva KuXoy KuyaBov vnapxeiv, docs ad llcrod. 8, 68, '2. Reiz de Pros, 

not belong to this place, being cqui- Gr. Incl. p. 79 sqq. Fisch. 3 b. p. 15 

valent to o'ia (pvXau) eori to avToy sqq. 
--- v-a.p\€iy ' the best defence is 

Si/ntax. Of the Use uf the Relative Vrononn. 797 

eKeivwy at'dpai afieiioyas, u(t<^, irapeov avrolfft ctTTOicretrfu rovs IleXaff- 
yovs, eirei trfeas eXaftov eirijJovXevorTai, ouk ideXrjaai, lor uinre ovk ede- 
Xijaai. Thucijd. 3, 49. >/ fxkv eipdatre tooovtov, uaov nax'/ra ave- 
yvujKevni to \///;0tff/na. Xen. Anab. 4, 8, 12. Isocr, de Pac. jj. 178 D. 
ToaovTOV yap vwepeiooXovTO tovs iijxeTepovs toIs els T0vs"E\\rii'as a/-tap- 
TijjJiaaiv, oaov irpos toIs irpoTepov inrapyovaL afayas Kcil aratjeis tv reus 
TToXeaiv knoii]aavTo. Comp. Epist. p. 409 A. Xen. H. Gr. 2, 3, 29. 
Hence the following phrases seem to have arisen: Thucyd. 1, 2. je/io- 
fi€voi ra uvTMV etcatxTOi, urroi' airoi^iji' (ctti toctovto, w'crre aTr.), quantma 
satis esset ad viiam sustentandam. Plat. Prot. p. 334 C. ^di tovto ol 
larpo'i Trai'-es cnrayopevovai rols aadei'ovai ^)) ')(^prjcTdai eXaio), aW >/ on 

G[xiKpoTaT(o oaov yLoi'ov T)]i' cvay^ipeiav Kuraaflecrai. Comp. 

Xen. Jnah. 7, 3, 22. (Econ. 11,18. Evenus in Anal. Br. T. \.p. 165. 
7. coll. Ovid. Fast. 1, 3J7. We might also supply elaptcel, which 
Arrian de Exp. Alex. 7. c. 1. adds: /cai oxjy oXiyov varepov cnrodciyojy 
ToaovTov Kadet,€is rfjs yijs, ogov tL,apK€l eyreTafdai rw awfiaTL. 

b. for particles of time. Isocr. Pan. p. 69 C. D. (c. 39 in.) 480. 
OUK e/c TOVTOJV ^'iKaiov eari aKoirelv ttju /BacriXewq ovvaf.iiv, e^ 

(vv /xeO' eKarepuiv -yeyovev, a\X e^ mv avroc, virep eavTOv 
TreTroXe/iiriKev, where e^ wv stands the first time for ore, but 
for the sake of coiicinnity, that it might answer better to the 
second e^ Jv (a TreTroX.). This is especially common in pey^pia 
ov ' until that', donee, for /tte^^pi tovtov (tou -^povov), ore, for 
which Thucydides 1, 90. says f-ie-^pi roaovTov ewe oj', comp. 
Xen. Mem. 4, 7, 22. and Xen. Anab. 1, 7, 6. it stands for 
^itexjotc eKeivov (tou tottou) ottou. A similar origin may pro- 
bably be assigned to the Homeric elaoKe (elc o /ce), i. e. etc 
e/ceivo (tou ^jooi'ou), ot' ai> {e'lc on Kev Od. p, 99.), of an 
event to be waited for, shortened by the Attics into ec7Te. 
Herodotus 9, 55. says of an event actually happening, eq o ec 
ve'iKea airiKcaTO. 

Obs. Herodotus uses i^expi- ov or orov instead of /texpt alone : e. g. 
2, 173. fJiexpi- OTOV TrX7]8il)pr]S ayopr']S. 3, 104. /iiexpt ov ayopijs CiaXv- 
aios, where the Ionic idiom has obliterated the origin and primary 
meaning of the particles. 

c. for oTi 'that' or 'because'. Plat. Rep. 2. p. 3t»7 D. 
TOUT ouv auTO CTrau'ecrov ciKaioavr'tjc, o outj/ ot outtjv tov 
eyovTo ov'ivr]aiv, for oti ov'iin^aiv, but with reference to the 

798 Syntax. Of the Use of the Relative Pronoun. 

construction ovivtijul riva ti §.415. Obs. 3. so that it is equi- 
valent to TTji' tj(pe\eiav, rjv tov e-^. wcpeXei. The Homeric o, 
which is used without a demonstrative preceding or to be sup- 
phed, and stands for on §. 486, 3. is different from this. To 
this belong also the passages quoted §.473 B. Plat. Phadon. 
p. 61 C. Dem. in Mid. p. 515, 10. Dem. pro Megalop. 
p. 205, 13. TrpoariKei Sj/ttou TrXe/oi y^apiv avrovc e-^eiv tuv 

^(TU)dr}(Tav v(p r]fxu}V rj u>\' aSt/ceTv KwAuovrat vvv opyit,€aBai 

for eKeivtoi', on. This is especially the case in the formula avB' 
oTov, avB u>v, for avTi tovtov or TovT(t)^', oTi ' inasmuch as', 
as Theocr. Epigr. 17. e^ei rav Xap'v a ywa avTi ti]V(i>v, wv 
Toi^ Kh)pov ^Opeipe. or 'because' Soph. Ant. 1066. avO' u>v 
e^etC )Uti' Twu avio (jaXwv Karu), &c. Comp. CEf/. C. 967. 
Arist. Ach. 293. is different : avrl S' lov laireiaa^iriv, ovk 'tare 
ye, for uvti u>v tivojv §. 485. * for what', pro qua mercede,Virg. 
Geo. 4, 1 50. and when it serves to unite propositions instead of 
avTi TovTiov (§. 477.) * on which account', quare, as Soph. (Ed. 
T. 264.* 

Hence also t) Plat. Phccdon. p. 90 B. a AX* cvraZOa /iiev ou^ 

'of.ioiQi oi \oyoi Toic avOpwiroic etai'v oXX' t/ceiVy 7^ 

to which reXeuTcJi'Tec o'lovrai shoukl have been referred, but 
is added by an anacoluthon in an independent proposition after 
the parenthesis. Hence t) has the sense of ' inasmuch as'. 
Xen. Mem. 2, 1, 18. ou coKel aoi SiaCpcpeiv ra CKovcria rwv 
aKovaiu)Vf y o /xev ck(1)v weiviov, ik,c. for ravrij ^ia(pep£iv on. 

In a similar way the relative stands for wo 'as'. Isocr. 
TT.avnS. §. 155. XeXeiTovpyijKaTe KaWiov wv ot vofxoi irpoarar- 
Tovaiv, for ?; wc ot v. irp. 

Obs. 1. It is a dilfercnt case when the masculine or feminine of os is 
put where we use 'because', and the Latins qui. Ilerod. 1, o3. {Kpolaos 
^6X(i)ya) aTTOTrefiTrerai, Kapra c6£as afinOen ehai, vs, tu Trapeuyra iiyuda. 
{.lereU, Tijf reXeirj/v irairbs ^pZ/^taros ipdv eKeXeve. Comp. Eurip. Iph. 
Aid. 912. Xcn. Mem. 2, 7, 13. 

Obs. 2. In tlie same manner oaos is used after roa-ovros. Iltrod. 8, 
13. »7 avrii TTtp eovaa vvl, iroWur rjv ert aypiurepi], ToaovTot orrij) iv 
neXaye'i ^fpopiyoiat kiri-rrnrrc. Xcn. Cijrop. 8, 1, 4. ruaovrov ^la- 

' Hcrni. ad V^ig, p. 710. Schaf. App. Dcmosth. 1. p. BIO. 

Si/nlax. Of the Use uf I he Relative Prunoun, 799 

(jiipeiy lifdas eel rwy ^ovXioy, oaov ol fiep covXoi liKoures rols deawoTUis 
vTTTjpeTovcTU', &c. Comp. Isocr. de Pac. p. 168 A. D. 170 C' and 
without TOffovTos Soph. Trach. 312. comp. §. 4.55. Ohs. 4. 

Ohs. 3. The relatives olos and oaos are often put for oVi roioJros, on 
ToaovTOs. II. e, 757. Zev Trarep, oh vey-eai^rt" Apei rale Kaprepa epya^ 
baaa-Lov re /cat olov aizdjXeffe Xaov 'Axatwj^, for Sri roaovroy kui tolov- 
Toy. comp. ^', 95. Herod. 1, 31. oI 'Apyeiat eytiavapt^ov n)»' nrjTepa, 
o'ibiv TiKViov eicvprjae, for ort TOiovnoy reKyojy e/c. T/<HC. 2, 41. fxoyt] 
ovT€ rS TToXefiiu) eireXdoyri dyam/cn/ffij' e'xet, v^' o'twi' KOKOTraQei. Of 
a similar nature is the Homeric oV iiyopeveis, ola fx' eopyas, for ort 
Toiavra ayopeveis, on roiavra (x eopyas, which refers to an entire pro- 
position, the import of which is inferred from the speech of the other, 
2)ro Us quce dixisti, fecisti, quantum conjiccre licet ex Us, quce, Sj-c. e. g. 
II. a, 95. x'. 347. Od. h', 611. /Esch. Prom. 915. j| yu*)// eVi Zeus, 
Ka'nrep alOahrji cppeywy, eWai Taireiyos, olov e^aprverai yafxav yafxeiv. 
Eur. Iph. T. 150. o'lav lUiinv o\piy 'according to the dream which I 
saw'. So may Eur. Ion. 628. be explained". Thus Homer employs a 
relative proposition, in which olos refers to a noun following in the same 
proposition, in order to give the ground of explanation of another sen- 
tence. II. ff', 262. olos kKeivov Bv^bs vTrepftios, ovk ideXijdei fil{xyeiv 
ey ireoio), for otl towvtos ec. 6. u7rep/3. which is the same as 2^ro sua 
atrocitate nolet, and may be compared with the Latin quce ejus est atro- 
citas, qua est atrocitate. Comp. II, 0', 450. Od. o, 211. 

So ws is used for Sri ovtujs. Eur. Iph. T. 1188. cT0(puy u edpe'^ey 
'EXXhs, ws ^crdov KaXws. Comp. Troad. 895. Plat. Phtsdon. j). 48 E. 

evcainwy fxoL 6 avijp ecpaiyeTO ws adetjs Koi yevval.<i)s ereXevra. So 

Homer uses oIo>', i. e. on roiovroy for on ovru)s II. i/i', 471, 587. Also 
'lyu Soph. (Ed. T. 1442. n' taTajxey XP^'^^' ^^r on. eyravda XP- eVr. 

Obs. 4. OS is also used for olos, e. g. Plat. Gorg. p. 473 E. oray 
-oiavra \ey>j$ a ovcels ay (piiaeiey avQpionioy. Isocr. tt. cut. p. 230 C. 
Eur. Suppl. 737. Ipwpey re TOLai)Q\ av av rvyyavrts QeXwy. Without 
TOioiTOS Plat. Euthyd. p. 283 D. os fxey ovk ean, (jovXerai avroy yeve- 
adai, OS ^' eoTt I'vy, firjKen eu'at*. 

The relative also is frequently put for i'va, ia order to ex- 481 

'^ Wasse ad Thucyd. 6, 89. That os is not used for on ovtos, as 

« Wyttenb. ad Eel. Hist. p. 347. I have maintained ad Eur. Or. 1114. 

Jen. Litt. Z. 1809. n. 245. p. 14'2. Iph. T. 147. Hel. 924. Ion. 180. is 

Scha;f. ad Lamb. Bos. p. 252 seq. shown by Schecfcr ibid 1119. 

Ueiiid. ad Phffid. p. 262. ' Pors. ad Eur. Or. 910. Adv. 

^ Schtef. ad Eur. Or. 130. cd. Tons. p. 209. Plat. Phsdr. p. 210. 

800' Si/ntax. Of the Use of the Relative Pronoun. 

press a purpose, as in Latin gui for «f is. II. i, 165. aXX 
ayere, kX^jtovc OTpvvo}.iev, o'l /ce Ta-^icrra kXOwcr ec, KXiairjv 
Tlri\riiace(i) AyiAjjoc. Thiic. 7, 25. Kai TWt' veiov f.iia eic IleAo- 
TToi'j/jjo'ov wveTO, Trpka^eic, ayovaa, oiTrep xa aCpeTepa (ppacrb)- 
(Tiu. Xen. Mem. S. 2, 1, 14. oTrXa KTiovrai, o'lc, ap-vvovvTai 
TovQ a^iKovurac. Eurip. Iphig. T. 1217. Kai iroXei ire^i^ov 
Tiv , o(JTiQ arfpavei. 

Obs. 1. Frequently no demonstrative precedes the relative, especially 
in the poets, where instead of it e!, et ns would have been expected. 
Hesiod. Theog. 783. Kai p oans xpevlrjrai 'OXvfnrLa cwyuar' ej^ovrwr, 
Zeus Se re '^Ipiy evrepxpe is an anacoluthon, in which what should have 
followed o(Trts, viz. KcTrai vifvTuos ver. 795. is delayed, in order first to 
relate the preceding circumstances. Herod. 2, 65. ru 3' av ns TiSy 
6r]pl,ii)v TOVTujy hcUTUKTeiyri, j) pey eKwr, Oararus 1/ i^rjpiij, as though CTrt 
TOVTf or ai'TL TovTOv Qity. 1) ^. Od. ^', 402 seq. l,eiy, oi/rw ylip Key pot 

evKXeiT] r' aperii re e'trj t7r' ardpcjTrovs '-6s a CTret e<s K\ia'ii]v t 

ixyayoy aurts Ce KTeiratpi, Scc. where as is referred to poi, in- 
stead of ei//cXe<;j e'it] poi, et ae Kreirnipi. Soph. Track. 905 seq. Plat. 
EutliTjphr. p. S C. where e*ce/j/w is omitted with dvpovyrai, as Xen. Cyr. 
1,5, 13. o Ti yap pi] roiovroy uTvojjijaerai izap vpiJUv, els epe to eXXelirov 
c^€(, for Tovro TO tW. and Lys. j). 109, 19. So Soph. (Ed. C. 263. 
Kapoiye tvov raur' 1(it\v, o'lTiyes iJciOpojy t/v rwj'Ce p' ii,a.payT€s eir' eXav- 
vere, where we should have expected Kapoiye irov raur' ea-ly, oTe vpeTs 

eXauVere, but it is expressed as if preceded by Kapoiye irov tuvt 

IffTi Trap' vpcjy '. 

For OS, oaris, et tis is often used. See §. 617. 

Obs. 2. Sometimes the relative is put with a finite verb, instead of 
the substantive related to the verb. Soph. (JEd. C. 1411. o\s Trovetrov 
is used for rots vpeTepois iroyois. Comp. Eur. Orest.56i:. Plat. Phcedon. 
2^. 112 D. KaTniTiKpv 7) elerpei, for Tijs elapofis. Thuc. 7, 48. Lys. c. 
Pol. p. 158, 37. loy vplv evyoi ^aay, for 7^s els vpds evroias. Demosth. 
pro Cor. p. 231, 4. ols evTV^^^^Keaav kv AevKrpois, for toIs euruj(>/- 
paariy. Comp. p. 270, 19. 310, 16 seq. So Plat. Phcedon. p. 94 C. 
evayTia ^idety {rijy v/zu^*/)') o^s eTriTeiyoiTO Kai ^aXwro Kai iraXXoiro. 
Both idioms have arisen from the use of the relative for ws. 

Obs. 3. Of such turns of expression as Thuc. 4, 18. aitxfiporwv he 

* Schaefer ad Soph. Trach. 90,5. to §. 475, a. and Brunck does not 
quotes Arist. Equ. l'J73. ibique explain oorts by e'i tis. 
Brunck. But the passage belongs 

Sj/fUa.i. Of the Use oj' the Relative Pronoun. 801 

aycpioy, o'lTiyes rayaQix es>ij3o\oy aaipaXiJis edevro, for ro rdy. 

eeerecti, see §. 633. 

The noun also or pronoun to vvhicli the relative refers is 482. 
often wanting, if the former be either a general word, or one 
which may be easily supplied from the context : e. g. Xen. 
Cj/r. 3, 1, 29. oui'ato av eupeTi', oroj uv y^apiaaio, fov evpelv 
Tiva. Comp. ib. 4, 5, 49. 5, 4, 30.' P/at. Rep. 9. p. 577 B. 
Xen. Anab. 2, 4, 5. irpuirov f-iev ayopav ov^eic. r]f.uv irape^ei, 
ovc , oTToOcv eTTKnTiov/LieOa, for ovS earai ouSev, or ti, bdev, or 
ovbeiQ TTape^ei tottov, odev. ib. 3, 1, 20. otou ujvriaoineOa, y^eiv 
en o\iyovG e-^ovrac,. Hence eiaiv o"i Xeyovaiu Plat. Gorg. 
p. 503 A. which is imitated in the Latin sunt qui dicant ; instead 
of this, however, the Greeks prefer eialv o\ \e.yovrec 

Similar to this is ovk eariv, og or ocmc, where the propo- 
sition with the relative may be considered as the subject of the 
verb eari, e. g. //. -^ , 348. wc ovk eaO , og arjc ye KvvaG K6- 
(paXrJG uTraXaXKOi ' no one will keep oft'. ov^e'iG eariv ocrriG. 
Eur. £/. 908. ovk eanv ov^eiG oartc av f.ikp.'^paiTO aoi. Med. 
798. ovTiG eariv oariG e^aipi^aeTai. See §. 483. 

Hence the construction eariv (with the accent thrown back) 
ot, eaTiv tov, ecrriv o'lg, appears to have arisen. For the verb 
el/iii seems at first to have been referred to a subject preceding, 
and to have been in the same number as the relative following. 
But commonly, 1. It stands in the third person sing. pres. 
eari, not e'lai or riv, riaav, though the relative following be in 
the plural, and the chief verb of the proposition in the iniperf. 
aorist, or future. 2. eariv ot does not connect itself with the con- 
struction of the proposition, but stands by itself in an adjective 
sense evioi, eviai, evia, Thuc. 1,12. YiekoTrovvy^aioi lOKiaav tjJc 
aAXrjq EAXaSoc iariv u yoipia, i. e. kvia yjsipia. 2, 26. 3, 92. 
AaKe^aifxovioi twv aWuyv }LWi]V(i)v eKeXevou rov (iovXri/nevov 
eireaOai, ttXyiv 1u)vwv kqi A~^aiwv kqi ham' tov aXXtJv edvuju. 
7, 1 1. r}Xde TvXnnroG AaK€cai/.iovioc (TTpaxiav e)(^w»' «7ro twv ev 
StfceXta TToXewv eariv u)v. Plat. Alcib. p. 143 C. e't -ye im) 
Trpoadeirjf.iev ti^v eariv a)v re ayvoiav kui koTiv oic, /cat 

'' Elmsl. ad Eur. Heracl. 977. ad Med. 775. 

802 Syyttax. Of the Use of the Relative Pronoun. 

eyova'i ttwc ayaBov, oxtttc^ eKeivoiG kokov. Comp. p. 144 C. 
Phadon. p. Ill D. Xen. Cyrop. 2, 3, 18. evravQa ol /nev 
e/3aXXov Ta?q /3wXotc, Kai ecrriv o'l ervy^avov Kai BwpuKwv 
KOI yepfxov, o'l Se /cat /inipov Kai kvii/luSoc,. Ilellen. 2, 4, 6. K:ai 
etTTi ^tev ouc avTwv KareXa^ov. Memor. S. 3, 5, 3. irpoyovwv 
Koka epyaovK e(TTiv oic jtte/^w KanrXeiu) vTrap-^ei, ij A0r)ratotc. 
Thus Propert. 3, 7, 17. J3s^ qui bus Elea concurrit palma 
quadriga, Est qui bus in celeres gloria nata pedes, for sunt. 
For e(TTt, ei'i also was used, and hence the adjective evtoi, non- 
nulli. Thus also in interrogations, where, however, ootiq is 
generally put. Plat. Menon. p. 85 B. eariv ijvtivo ^o^av 
ov\ avTOv ovTOc aneKpivaTO ; Xen. Mem. S. 1, 4, 6. kanv 
ovarii'ac avOpojirwi' TcOav/naKac eiri aoCpui; Com[i. Plat. Apol. 
S.p. 27 B. Rep. I. p. 352 E. 353 D.* 

Obs. 1. Yet eifii is sometimes put in the plural or imperfect. Tkuc. 
7,44. 01 vtrrefwy -nKuires elaiv ol ^tn/inproires riou ocioy Kara riiv 
yijpav errXayi'idijiTay. comp. ibid. 57. Plat. Leg. 11. jj- 934 D. pal- 
rovrai pkv ovv ttoWoX ttoWovs rpoirovs, ovs fi€i> rvv enrofXEV, vivo ronur, 
eiffi c^ o'l ^la dvfjov KaKt)y (pvcriv iifia kcu Tpo(j}t)v yeyofiiyi]y. Xen. 
Anab. 2, 5, 18. eto-i V avriSv (jioy ttot-ojuwi'), ovs ov^' av TravTairaai 
^laftalrjre. id. llcUen. 7, 5, 17. rwv voXepiuv t]V ovs viroa-oylovs 
tnriloaay. Ci/rop. 5, 3, IG. yy tt kuI u tXajje x^^P'or. 

Obs. 2. In the same manner eVn is often used with a relative adverb 
following, in which case the two are put for an adverb, eariy 'iya or 
oTTov, est ubi, est quando, 'many times'. Eur. Iph. A. 929. 'iariv p.kv 
ovv, 1v ricv, n)) Xiay (pporelv, iariv Ik x^^'^ov yj>ii(niioy yyw^iijy ex^iy. 
Thus also eoTiy ov Eurip. Or. 630. ovk Had' oirov ' in no case'. Soph. 
(Ed. T. 448. Eur. Here. F. 186.— laO* ottt, Plat. Rep. 6. ^). 486 B. 
interrogatively • in any way V jEsch. in Ctes. p. 83. tdt. ovk t'aTiy ottt] 
fiyanTt'ian^ai 'to no place' \ — (crriy eyOa ' in many places' Xe7i. Cyr. 
7, 4, 15. 8, 2, 5. — err-iy »/ ' in a certain degree' Eur. Hcc. 851. — eVrtv 
oTTiJis *it is possible'; interrogatively i'wri^j. y//c. 53. cor' ovv ottws 
"AXKrjtms is yfjpas ^oXoi ; ' is it possible that' &c. Comp. Plat. Rep. 5. 
p. 453 B. or with a negative preceding, ovk eariy oircos * by no means, 
in no case'. Herod. 7, 102. Eur. Med. 172.*= ovk eany oirws ov 'by 

=* Jens, ad Luc. T. 1. p. 188. ad Pliryn. p. 271. does not belong to 

Fisch. 1. p. 343. Abresch Diluc. this head. 

Thuc. p. 410. *^ Valck. ad Eur. Ilijip. 604. 

'' TEsch. Ag. 67. quoted hy Lob. 

St/nlar. Of the Use of the Relative Pronoun. 803 

all means', ' in every case' Plat. Apol. S. p. 27 E. also ovk ^<70' us 
Soph. Antig. 750. — tariv ore ' sometimes'''. 

Other particles besides are put with the relative pronoun, as 483. 
re and tig. 

a. oQ re occurs, with the exception of Homer, only in the 
lyric poets and choruses, and appears in sense not to differ 
from oc, re being added, as with almost all the conjunctions, 
to show that oq (originally the same with the demonstrative 
§. 65. Obs. 3. §. 153.) is taken relatively. II. e, 467. Kcirai 
(tvi]p, ou r laop erioinev E/cto^i ?tw. H^ntn. Horn. 4, 189. ov 
(jioOaX/iUOG avi)p y'tyverai, oc, re Oealc evvaterai aOavdrriaiv. 
II. ^, 115. Krii/.iara navra /tmX , oaaa r AXe^avdpoc riya- 
yero Tpoirivde^. 

h. oaric, is different from oc, inasmuch as it applies to an 
object in general, in the sense of quisrjiiis, quicinique: in which 
case TTac often goes before, e. g. //. r , 260. avOpioirovc 
rivvvvrai, o ric k eiriopKov o/toffc??, ' every one who swears 
falsely'. Here it is to be observed, that after ttoc it is used 
only in the singular; in the plural they said TroVrec ocroe, not 
o'lrivec. Hence 'whoever it may be*. Horn. H. in Merc. 277. 
Eur. Or. 418. dovXevo/nev 0eo7c, o ri ttot €i<tiv o'l Oeoi . ocrric 
is also frequently joined with ovv, S//, ^uirore, but in the case of 
the substantive which accompanies it, for oariQ av y or e'lrt. 
Plat. Hep. 1. ^.335 B. eanv apa ^iKa'iov av^poQ (5\a7rreiv Kal 
ovrivovv dvdpojTTtov ; 'any man whoever he may be'. Comp. 
p. 350 A. Alcib. 2. p. 144 C. Also separately Isocr. ir. dvr. 
§. 89. Bekk. b paciivc oariQ av ovv fjovXr)6eic TroiT]aeie. He- 
rodotus has frequently on ^/j, e. g. 6, 134. levai enl to jue- 
yapov, o Ti S17 7roiT](jovra evroc,. Sturz Lex. Xen. 3. p. 349, a. 
quotes two passages from Xenophon. Demosthenes, and es- 
pecially the later writers, use oariQ Zx] ttot oZv^. So oaric, 
alone, after ou and /itrj, ouSe, ^rjSe. Plat. Leg. 11. /?. 919 D. 
lS/layvi}r(i)V - ' •• pi]re KaTrrjXoc eKU)V yuj'jS' aKtov /xrjScJc yiyveaOu), 
pr]B epiropoQ, /iiTire BiaKov'iav fiTid' rjvriva KCKrv/^ievoc. Comp. 

'' Acta Monac. 1, 2. p. 206. Erfurdt. 

* Herm. ad Orph. Lith. 299. os ^ Scha?f. ad Lamb. Bos. p. GOl. 

re is differently explained by Soph. ^ Lob. ad Phryn. ji. 373. 

(Ed. T. 088. in the smaller edition ut 

804 Sytitax. Of the Use of the Relatice Pronoun. 

ib. 2. p. 674 C. Hipp. Maj. p. 282 D. Phcedon. p. 78 D.* 
Lysias even repeats oariQ c. Erat. p. 127 extr. as Callitn. H. 
in Dian. 18. 

Elsewhere oanc, denotes the class to which any one belongs, 
'one who'. So //. ^u', 334. oanc refers not to a definite leader, 
but to any one, be he who he may. Od. a , 403. ^?j yap oS' 
eXOoi avrip, ootic, aeKovra jj'njcpiv KTij/naT inroppaiaei ' any man 
who', &.C. Soph. Antig. 1025. Keivoc, ovk er ear' avrip ajiovXoc 
ovB avo\(3oCfOaTic ec kokov rreawv aKeirai. Comp. Isocr. Soph, 
p. 293 B. de Big. p. 335 B. ap. Btkker, where before it was 
read oc, uv and w. Od. [5 , 113. avojydi Be f.uv ya/neeaOai tio, 
orew re iraTrip KeXerai, hcai avcavei avry, the person to whom 
she was to be married is left in himself undefined, but the de- 
monstrative points out that he is determined by the pleasure 
of the father. In the following passages: Soph. Aj. 1299 se^'. 
vc eic iraTpoc /tiev eipi TeXapwvoQ yeyujc, ocrric OTparov to. 

TrpujT apicTTevaac eiJ.i]v lay^ei /.iijrepa. Trach.d. JEur. Hipp. 

1073. comp. 956. Ale. 244. 669. A7idrom. 592 serj. oariG 
does indeed add a definition to the preceding noun, but one 
which is not exclusively appropriate to it, but denotes a class 
to which the person mentioned belongs, and means * one who'. 
Soph. QLd. T. 1054. ywai, voeic eKelvov, ovriv aprlioc /^loXe^v 
eipiepeoOa, tov ovtoq Atyei is equivalent to v. eKeivov, 'oi> e(p. 
OffTiG TOT ecrri quisqtiis sit. Herod. 1, 7. 3, 115. air orev is 
a conjecture of Reiz for otto rev, the reading of the MSS. 
(perhaps otto tou, as 1, 145. in the MSS.) Eur. Hipp. 916. 
Bacch. 115. are suspicious, on account of the variations of the 
MSS. We find, however, ootiq for oc //. '4^' , 43. ov pa Zrju 
oariQ re deu)V viraTOC, /cat apiaroQ. Herod. 2, 151. eu vuto \a- 
(iovrec TO -^priartipiov o ri eKey^pi]TO a(pi . In Lysias p. 160 
extr. the parts are separated by av. or, av tic, vpac ev woiy. 

Hence oi»8etc ootiq (and oc. Flat. Ale. p. 103 B.*^) ou*', 

' Ast ad Plat. Leg. p. 73. Scliaf. Coinj). ad Eiir. Med. 775. p. 373. 
App. 13eni. p. 858. "^ llerm. ad Eur. Med. 775. 

'' SeeMatthicC ad Hom.ll. in Veil. ''Not pij. See llciiid. ad Plat. 

157. Hermann, who opposed llie Phitd. p. 233. Ast ad PJat. Ale. 1. 

doctrine there laid down, teaches the p. 305. Schneider ad Xen. Cyr. 1, 

fame thing ad Soph. (Ed. T. 688. 4, 25. 

Sj/ritax. Of the Lhe of the Relative Pronoun. 805 

'everyone'. Herod. 5, 97. koI ovdev o n ovic vir'iayjcTO 'he 
promised everything'. Thuc. 7, 87. /cat Tre^oo kui vrjec Kai 
ovSev o Ti ovK anwXero. Comp. 2, 88. 3, 81. — ocrrtc conforms 
usually in case to the preceding ov^e'ic, or this to oaric : Plat. 
Prot.p. 317 C. ouSei'oc otou ov ttuvtwv av Vfxiov KaO ■!]\iKiav 
Trarnp eir]v. Comp. ib. p. 323 B. Thus also in interrogations 
after t/<; : Thuc. 3, 39. r'lva o'leaOe ovnva ou (Bpay^e'ia irpo- 
(l)u<jei aTTocTTijaeaOai ; Comp. ib. 46. Comp. §. 306. 445, c. 

In the same manner oc av seems to be used, as referring also 

to something in general, quicunque. Thuc. 7, 7. -Kpea^eic 

aTTeaTiiArjaav, ottwc arpuTia en Trepaiwvtj rpoTroj w au, ev 
oXkuoiv, r) TrXoi'otc V aAXwc, ottwg av TTpo^wpy, where tjoottw w 
av stands for octtjc uv y o TpoTroc, as quocunque tandem modoy 
and is explained by ottwo uv Trpoyjjjp^ which follows*'. 

Of oc -ye, OGTrep, see §. 602. 

The relative is often used in Homer for the article o, which 484. 
in him stands for the demonstrative pronoun. //. ^', 201. wc 
o TOM ov ^vvaro papxpai irocriv, owS oc aXv^ai. Comp. "C , 59. 
especially in the neuter. //. ^ , 9. o ycip yepac ean Oavovrojv. 
Comp. ju', 357. The later writers use also oc pev — oc ^e. See 
§. 289. Obs. 7. 

In the Attics only the following cases occur : 

a. oc Kai oQ ' this or that person', speaking indeterminately. 
Herod. 4, 68. Xeyovai ovroi wc ToeTrtVai' paXicrra race, u)Q 
T«c f3aaiXr]iac laTiac eiriopKrjKe oc Kai oc. In the oblique cases 
the article is used, toi^ koi rov. ^. 286. 

b. Kai oc for Kai ovtoq. Herod. 7, 18. Kai 6c, appioaac 
jueya, dvaOpuxjKei. Plat. Theag. p. 129 B. Kaloc eireayje. and 
in the feminine id. Symp. p. 201 E. Kai 77, Ovk ev(^r]pi]aeic ] 
e(^)/. Comp. p. 202 B. Xen. Cyrop. 5, 4, 4. /cat oc e^a- 
TTarrjOetc Siw/cet ava KpaToc. Comp. ib. 5, 36. Here also in 
the oblique cases the article is used §. 286. 

•See Scha-fer App. Dem. ]. p. 815 note. 

806 Sj/utax. Of the Use of the Relative Pronoun. 

Thus also T] S' oQ * said he', which is very frequent in Plato. 
Comp. §.215. Obs. 3.^ 

485. The relative often stands also for tic ' who V but only in de- 
pendent propositions. Soph. CEld. Col. 1171. e^otS' aKoviov 
TwvS', oc GaO' o TTpoaTarrjc. Time. 1, 137. of Themistocles : 
Kai Be'iaac. cjypa^ei tm vavK\i]pio, octtic etrri, quis sit, aperit. 
Plat. Menon. p. 80 C. Trept aperric, o gcstiv, eyw fxev ovk o\^a. 
Hep. 8. p. 559 A. trpoeXutneda 2/j ti Trapa^eiyfia CKarepiov, at 
e'la'iv. Xen. Cyr. 6, 1, 46. Mem. S. 2, 6, 29. pi} av ovv airo- 
KpvTTTOv /ue, 0(C av ^ovXoio (piXoQ yev^aOai . 

Obs. Of the use of citrrts in indirect interrogations see §. 4SS, 1. 

Instead of the relative the poets, especially Homer, often use 
wc. //. ^ , 44. pr) oil poi TtXecrij kiroQ o/3|0(/ioc 'E/ctw/j, wc ttot 

e7r»j7retX»j(Tei'. ip , 50. orpwov vXrjv t a^epevat, irapa 

TC ayelv, Cjc CTTiei/cec veKpov e-^ovra veeaOai vno to(l)ov nepoevra. 
Comp. T,', 407. i//', 50. Soph. (Ed. C. 1124. kuI aol Oeol 
TTopoiev, IOC eytt' OeXw, outw re /ca/ "yVj r^yoe. So axnrep Plat. 
Phadon. p. 100 E. edv aoi ^uvSok-t? wairtp epoi'^. The following 
passages, however, which Wyttenbach ad Eel. Hist. p. 358. 
quotes, do not belong to this place: Herod. 2, 1 16.''0/itjjooo 

eTTOir/ae ti* IXtuot irAavi^v tjji' AXe^oropou, a>o aTTTjvetvOjj 

aywv 'K\evt)v. Time. 1,1. Ooukuo. A0. ^vi>eypa\pe ruf ttoXc/ioi/ 
Twi' neXo7roi'»')j<Tta)v Ktw A0»jvoiwi', wc CTToXepr^aav irpoc aX- 
Xj'/Xouc. For here the sense of the preceding substantive is ex- 
tended by another turn of the sentence, and wc signifies hotv. 

48G. Some parts of the relative have a peculiar signification, viz. 

1. The genitive ov stands adverbially in the sense ' where', 
ubi, also * whither', as Xen. H. Gr. 2, 3, 54. 

2. The dative feminine signifies, a. * wliere', as the Latin 

' Koen ad Grog. p. (61, 5) 144. to be correct, ovk oTta ae us el to be 

Ileind. ad Plat. Charm. p.7U. lloog. incorrect. See Ilerm. ad Soph. Aj. 

ad Vig. p. 25. Ilcnn. ib. p. 700, '28. 1»38. 

'' Ehiisl. ad Iph. T. 766. considers " Aniniadv. ad Horn. II. p. 373. 

04 in this case as a solecism; ad Schaef. ad Soph. (Kd. C 11'24. Of 

Med. 1086. he declares oltc't uc vi eT Cjanep Ileind. ad I'hadon. p. \'i9. 

Si/ntax. 0/ the Use of the Relative Pronoun. 807 

(/iia ; or ' whither'. Hesiod. ''Epy. 206. ry S* elc, \i a av ey^ 
Trefj ayu>. Comp. Herod. 9, 64. Flat. Fhced. p. 82 A. D. 
h. ' so far as, inasmuch as', quatenns. Xen. Mem. S. 2, 

1, 18. ov SoKei ffoi Twi^ TOiouTwi' BiaCpepeiv to. eKovaui tmv 
uKOvaiiov, V o i^iev CKiou ireivwv (pdyoi av, ottotg (^ovXoito Scc. 

c. 'how, in what manner', quemadmodum. Xen. Cyr. 1, 

2, 5. wc i^iaWov SjjXov -yevrixai, r/ e-KipeXovrui, d>c av ^kXriaroi 
eiev 01 TToXtTai . 

J. with comparatives. 

e. with superlatives for wq. •»! rayjiara, quam celerrime. 

3. o often stands, a. for Si' o, ^?/a?e. See §.477, c?. 

b. In Homer for ort ' that', e. g. //. 0', 140. comp. o', 248. 

4. a also stands sometimes for Si' a. are and a ^i) mean 

fl. *as', quernadmoduin, siciit. //. x', 127. are TrapOevoc niOeoc 
TC. Herod. 1, 123. are drtpevTy. &c. So /ca0a (Herodotus 
/vciTa) KaOaTrep. 

h. ntpote, to assign an objective reason, 'since'. Herod. 
1, 123. /BouXojuevoc o ''AiOTrayoo SjjXwtrai ti}»' ewurou yvwpr]v, 

«XXwc pev ov^apuic elye, are twv o^vjv (lyvXaaaopeviov 

and frequently. Soph. Aj. 1043. a di) KaKovpyoc dviip 'as a 
malefactor, since he is a malefactor'. Comp. Plat. Phadr. 
p. 244 E. Leg. 6. p. 778 A. Sj/mpos. p. 183 E. &,c. 

Obs. 1. In many cases d(joi is used in a similar manner to the rela- 
tive OS, e. g. in indefinite statements of magnitude. Herod. 1, 99. to 
3e apyvpioy peyaOos etrri vcruv wv, pecunia quantidacuiupie. 1, 160. tnt 
piadf o(Tw 111 ' for hire, liovvever great or small it might be'. Comp. 
3, 52. 159. 4, 151. id. 1, 157. oVjjv c// kotc, as ocrns ovv §. 483, 6. Of 
oaos with adjectives see §. 445, c. Of oVw, oVoj' with comparatives 
§. 455. Obs. 4. With superlatives §. 461. 462. instead of wdre §.479. 
Obs. 2, b. for on §. 480. Obs. 2. for on roaovros ib. Obs. 3. 

uaov and otra are also used adverbially in limiting propositions, e. g. 
oaov y tp elcevai, quantum equklem sciam. oaov kuO' rj/jLus ' as far as 
lies in our power', where Euripides Bacch. 183. says ilaov t:nO' yj/ids 
cvyciTuy. Hence with adverbs, to soften the expression, ocrov avrixa 

'' Vulck. ad Pha-n. p. 90^ Hipp. '276. j). 193, b. C. 

808 Syntax. Of the Use of the Indejinite Pronouns. 

' (as much as) immediately', oaov ov, liaov ovttw, or ovceiro). Eur. Hec. 
143. )/^ei 2' 'OZvfrevs oaov ovtc i'lh] ' as much as not yet, i. e. presently**. 
Hence 'only', //. i', 354. aXX' oaov h ^kcucis re izvXas koI (pi^ybv 
'iKavev. (cTTt 70(7. oaov kariv Is 'EiK.) Theocr. 1, 45. rvrdov oaaov aTTwdev 
' only a short way off'. In this sense it is doubled Jirist. Vesp. 213. 
TL ovK aweicoifxiidrjiJLev oaov oaov ariXijv (from roa. oaov ariXt] tariv ). 
and in indefinite statements of quantity and magnitude: oaov re ttv- 
yovaiov, oaov t opyviuv in Homer, ' about, nearly'. 

Ohs. 2. Several of the relatives are used with a repetition of the pre- 
ceding verb, in order to leave the expression indefinite, because its 
more exact definition would be unpleasant, and generally to point out 
something as disagreeable. Eur. Med. 1018. j/yyetXas oV ijyyetXas' ov 
ae ^lefjKpd^ai, ib. S94. aXX' eajuev o'lov ea^ev, ovk tpw Kai:ov, yvviuKes. 
Soph. (Ed. C. 376. e'itr' oinrep eiai. So also ha ih. 273. Jco/ujjv 'Iv 
iKojiriv, especially with ws or ottws yEsch. Ag. 1297. tTrei to irpiJjTov 
elcov 'IXiov -KoXiv 7rpuE,aaav ws tTrpa^ev. Soph. CEd. T. 1376. jjXaarova' 
oTTws €j3XaaT€v. Eur. Or. 78 seq. eirel Trpos"lXiov eVXcuff' ottws cTrXeuo-a 
deofxavel 7rdr/7w. So also in regard to future events, which we wish not 
to describe clearly, Eur. Hcc. 873. TraayovTos axcpos OprjKos ola 

The hidejinite Pronouns : I. tic, tJ. 

487. T/c is properly added to a substantive, which is left unde- 
termined, where in English * a, an, a certain one, any one' is 
used. Soph. (Ed. T. 106. eTrtffTeXXet (raipoic rove avToevxac 
ycipi T(/utt»joe?v Tivac, for t. out. o'lrivec ovv ciai. e'lc tiq is 
sometimes found Plat. Ion. p. 531 D. or tic etc, as Soph. Ant. 
269. for Tcc CEd. T. 246 seq. for etc. It has, however, three 
other significations besides : 

] . It is used in a collective sense, as the English ' many a 
one'. //. (j) , 126. 6p(o<rKu}v tic Kara Kv/na fxcXaivav (pp^X 
viraXv^ei ly^Ovc, oc Ke (pdytjai Avkuovoq apyera Sij^toi'. Archil, 
in Brunch Anal. T. I. p. 45. 30. ijixirXaKov, /cai ttou tip aXXo»' 
T)^ OLTT] Kiyj](jaTO. 'J hue. 7, 61. i]v Kpari^awpev vvv rale 
vavaiv, ean no niv virapyovaav ttov oiKeiav ttoAiv eiriceiv . 

« Dorvillo ad Charit. p. C02. Crit. in Soph. CEd. C. p. 233. 

'' Ilcrni. ad Vig. p. 720, 93. '' Duker. ad TluiC. 3, 111. Ani- 

* Murkl. ad Eur. Iph. A. 049. madv. ad U. Iloui. p. 407. ad Ba- 

Schaf. ad Soph. (Ed. C. 273. Blomf. trach. p. 123. 

Gloss. Agam. 66. Reisig Comm. 

syntax. Of the Uhe of the Indefinite F/onouiis. 809 

Hence a plural often refers to tic in the singular §. 434. and 
TIC, is used with the imperative §. 511, 1. 

2. It expresses the English ' one' (the French on), and in- 
dicates any person whatever ; also ' several', or all who are 
present, 'everyone'. 11. ji', 382 seq. ev jncv tic Bopv Otj^aaOco See. 
Herod. 8, 109. /cat tiq oik'itiv re ava7r\a(jaa6(o ' let them build 
up the houses again', or ' let every one build his house'. Xen. 
Cyr. 6, 1, 6. XeyeTOJ tig irepi avTOV tovtov, 7j yLyvujaKei. 
Comp. 3, 3, 61.« 

3. Hence it stands often for the personal pronoun t'-yw, as 
we use 'one'. Soph. Aj. 245. a»jOa t'iv i]^r] Kapa KaXv/j-i^iaai 
Kpv\pafxevov irodolv kXottciv apeaOai, Aristoph. Thesm. 603. ttol 
TIC TpktpeTai; Plat. Alcib. 2 in. 2Q. ^a[v>;i ye xt eaKvOpojira- 
Kevai re Kai elc yr]V |3Xe7retv, wq ti avi'voov/.ievoc. AAK. /cot ti 


Thus also it is put for av. Soph. Aj. 1138. tout' etc aviav 
TovTToc ep'x^eTai tivL Arist. Ran. 552. 554. kukov r)/cei tivL 
Sojaei Ttc B'lKTiv. 

4. Ttc is often put with adjectives of quality, quantity, mag- 
nitude, especially when these stand alone, without a substan- 
tive, or in the predicate. Herod. 4, 198. SoKeet ^toi ov^ apeT^v 
elva'i TIG V Ai(5vr] (nrov^airj. Plat. Pep. 2. p. 358 B. eyw tic, 
tuq eWe, Svai^iadi'iC. 4. p. 432 C. Suff/SaTOC Ttc o tottoc ^a«VeTOt 
Koi KUTaaKioc. Aristoph. Pint. 726. wc ^tXoTroXi'c Ttc eaO' o 
^aijiKjov Kai aoCpoG. Herod. 1, 181. Tclyoc ov ttoXAw tcio 
aaOeveaTcpov. Thnc.B, 1. oi* ttoXXw tivl vTro^eeoTepoi' TroXe/nov 
avnpovvTO rj toi' Trpoc ITeXoTroi^i'rjcriouc. So ttoToc Ttc {Plat. 
Gorg. p. 4S7 extr.) ttoooc tic. Also with the adjective as an 
epithet: Soph. Aj. 1266. tov Ouvoutoc wg xa^^eTa Ttc (ipOToTic 
-yapic diappet^. Sometimes Ttc is found before the adjective, 
as in Herod. 4, 198. Plat. Rep. 2. p. 358. Soph. Phil. 519. 

•^ Vakk. ad Herod. 8, 109. Toup ad Suid. 2. p. 335. Elmsl. ad 
(p. 671 a.) Med. 807. not. r. Ast ad Plat. Leg. 

f Brunck ad Soph. Aj. 245. Harm. p. 153. Of ttoWoj rn'es Wyttenb. 
ad Vig. p. 731, 114. ad Plat. Phsedon. p. 1 1(3. Of ■rro'ios 

e Wessel. ad Herod. 4,198. p. 368. ns Blomf. ad iEsch. Pers. 340. 
VOL. 11. X 

810 Si/fUax. Of the Use of the Indefinite Pronouns. 

opa av, fxri vvv fxev tic ev-^eprjC rrapyc. Plat. Symp. p. 210 E. 
KaToXeTai ti Oavfiaarov rriv (pvaiv KaAov. 

With numerals also: Thuc. 3, 111. ec Sia/cotn'ovc nvaQ 
aitTwv cnreKTCivav. 7, 87. v/nepac e/BSo/UTj/coi'Ta Tivac ovtu) 
BiriTi]9T]<Tav ciOpooi. Here it is the English ' about, nearly' ^ 

affaa, clttu especially are thus used, which are rarely found 
by themselves without an adjective. O^. t,218. ottttoi acrcra. 
Plat. Phcedon. p. 60 E. p. 112 C. rerrap arra pev/^iaTO. 

and separately Amat. p. 135 A. TroTa Se paXiara roiratofxev 

./ T b 

ctTTa eivai . 

The neuter ti is put with adverbs especially, or neuter ad- 
jectives standing as adverbs, e. g. ay^edov ti, rravv ti, ttoXu ti, 
ovdev Ti*^. TToXai Tt Plat. Gorg. p. 499 B. ^ia(pep6vTtDr. ti 
Thuc. 1, 138. ovt(o ^v ti Herod. 8, 99. 4, 52. n sometimes 

precedes, Plat. Prot. p. 327 B. o'lei av ti, e(pri, juaWov 

yeveaOai. See Heind. note, /). 527. xi is frequently subjoined 
to ov^. In all these cases rtc seems to temper the expression 
by referring a person or thing to the whole class to which it 
belongs. It is also found with substantives Plat. St/mp. 
p. 175 B. e'0oc Ti TOVT e'xet. Gorg. p. 522 D. outj? tic 

5. In other cases tic without an additional adjective has 
the sense of ' eminent, distinguished'. Theocr. 11,79. S»jAo>'ot 
kv Ta ya Ki]ywv tIc (pa'ivoncu j;/iec 'a man of consideration'. 
Plat. Amat. p. 133 C. Ka'i /hol to p-ev tt^wtov eSo^e ti einelv. 
Phcedon. p. 63 C. eueXTrt'c e'lpi elvai ti toTc TexeXeuTTjicofft. 
Comp. Gorg. p. 472 A. Thus the Latin aliquis: e. g. est ali- 
quid^, 'it is something to the purpose'. 

6. It has been observed, N" 4, that Ttc is frequently placed 
before the word to which it belono;s. Such collocations as 

Soph. Ant. 158. (aXX oSe yap ^r} ftaaiXevc "y^iopac ) 

ywpei, Tti'a S>/ ur]Tiv tpeaawv. Theocr. 1,32. evToaOev ce yvva, 

" Koen ad Gregor. p. (3 b.) 7. ct "^ Valck. ad Eur. Hipp. 792. 

Scha4'. '' Ast ad Plat. Leg. p. 71. 

'' Ileind. ad Plat. Thcait. p. 338. ' ad Vigcr. p. 152. Ilcrm. p. 731. 

'^ Dorv. ad Charit. p. 477. Comp. Markl. ad Eiir. Suppl. '28B. 

Sj/uta.r. Of the Use of t/ie Indefinite Pronouns. 811 

Tt Oeojv WiBa)<i.ia, rervKrai, are to be explained by the punc- 
tuation of the ancients §. 58., according to which it would be 
more correct to efface the comma after xo^pei and ywd even 
in our editions. Whether this tig can stand at the very be- 
ginning of a proposition is doubtful, from the circumstance that 
no other enclitic can, and no decisive instance has yet been 
produced. uEsch. Choeph. 111. nu ovu eV aXXov r^Se TrpoarSQ 
araaei, the 107th line, Tivac. Se tovtovc, rtHiv (p'lXujv TrpoaGweiru) ; 
with the answer -wpwrov pev avriiv yjoaric, A'lyiaOou arvyei, 
which leads us to expect the mention of another, shows that 
Tiva is the interrogative pronoun riva. ib. 650. tic, evoov, w ttoT, 
Trot paX avOic. Eur. Fhocn. 1097. the interrogative sense is not 
inadmissible, as it might be presumed that some one would be 
in the palace, at least a servant ; wherefore Orestes JEsch. G49. 
immediately exclaims, Trat, ttoT, Ovpac, iiKovaov avXeiac ktvttov. 
See Blomf. ad v. 642. and in Euripides what follows shows 
that the messenger had no doubt that some one was in the 
house. Ear. Bacch. 60. TIC o^M ; tig oSw ; tic ^e peXaBpoic; 
would be strange if rendered ' is there ani/ body in the street 
or in the houses? implying the possibility that there was no 
one whom the following proclamation could concern, cktottoc 
e'ffTw Sec. Eur. Suppl. 1 1 86. ti S?? ttuO' i>p7v aW vTrovpy?\aai 
pe SeT ; Theseus combines in one the two questions * can I do 
anything', and ' what is it?' In the only passage where tic is 
clearly the indefinite. Soph. Track. 865. t\ (pvpi; comp. (Ed. 
T. 1475. Xt-yw TJ, T( means * something true and worthy of 
attention'. See llerm. ad Vig. p. 731, 113. 

7. Sometimes adjectives or participles stand alone, though 
only something of that which is named is meant, where 
usually Ti is added. .Esch. Ag. 271. av S' e'lTe /ce^roi-, eiVe pi] 
TTeTTvapkvi] 'something good'. Plat. Soph. p. 237 C. Comp. 
p. 87 C. Soph. Ant. 687. yevoiTO inevTuv -^^iTepM KaXwc eyov. 
Comp. (Ed. T. 515. §. 570.8 

In the poets, on the other hand, tIc is sometimes doubled. 
Soph. Trach. 945. wtt' et tic Suo v kiu irXkovc tic hpepac 

s Bceckh in Plat. Min. p. IVi. §. 76. p. 573, ad Eiithyd. §. G4-. Ast 
llcind. ad Plat. Gorg. § 47. Protas?. ad Plat. Leg. p. 89. 573. 

X 2 

812 Syntax. Of the Use of the Indefinite Pronouns. 

Xoy'iterai Eur. And)-. 734. eari yap ric ov irpoab) 

27ra/0Trjc ttoXic tic Comp. Orest. 1224.5^5'. Of o f.iev tic 

see §. 288.^ 

8. The form ?) tic, ?] ov^eU is negative, yet with the ex- 
pression of floubt, ' next to none'. Herod. 3, 140. ava(5e(5i}Ke 
S' rj TIC v ov^eic, /co) Trap 7'j^itac auTwi'. Aew. Cj/r. 7, 5, 45. 
TOVTivv Twv TrepieaTTiKOTWV r) Tiva t] ovoeva olca . 

Ohs. In later Alexandrian writers tis is sometimes put for oarLs, 
but not in the old classic authors •=. 

9. aWoTi, properly aXXo tj, is used in interrogations 
when an affirmative answer may naturally be expected, nonne 
a) with 7/ following: Herod. 1, 109. a\\6 ti (oXXort) r\ Xei- 
Trexat to evBevrev e/nol kiv^vv(ov o /neyicrroc ; nonne superest? 
Plat. ApoL S. p. 24 D. aXXoTt n Trep\ TrXe'icrTOv ttou], ottwc wC 
/3tXTt(TT0i 01 veojTepoi eaovrai; Originally it seems that ttouo, 

y'lyverai, aX\6 ri TroieTc, v frot^, was understood, which is 

often omitted after aWoc, as in Latin, 7nhil, nisi de cade cogitat. 
(Comp. §. 488, 1 1 .) Hence Plat. Phccdon. p. 79 A. B. (jyepe 
St7, ^ S' oc, aX\6 Ti r]uu}v avTwv »/ to /uer (Tw/ito ecrri, to ce 
■^vy^n; Ov^ev liWo, €(pri. This, however, soon received the 
sense of a simple interrogation, and hence b) v also is omitted: 

Plat. Charm, p. 167 B. uXXoti ovv Trdvra ravra av e'ti) 

n'la TIC fc-TTtffT^/ir? ; Hipparch. p. 226 E. aWoTi ovv o'lye 
<^tXo/cepSeTc (piXovai to Kepdoc; 'what? do not the greedy 
love gain?"^ 

II. o Beiva differs in this respect from tic, as it refers not to 
an indefinite person or thing, but a definite one, whose name 
we either do not know, or do not choose to mention®. 

Interi'ogative Pronoun tic 
488. 1. The interrogative pronoun t/c is used in direct and in- 

=^ Pors. Add. ad Ilec. p. 100. 'i Ilcrm. ad Viger. p.730, 109. 110. 

Scha; Soph. Trach. 945. Ehnsl. Comp. Ilcusde Spec, in Plat. p. 59. 

ad Arist. Ach. 574. Erf. ad Soph. Shiiter Lect. Andoc. p. 140. Stallb. 

Ant. 685. ed. min. ad Euthyphr. p. 104. 

^ Valck, ad Herod, p. 270, 35. *= Ilenn. ad Viger. p. 704, 24. 

•^ Wolf, ad Demosth. Lept. p. 230. 

Si/ritax. Of iJie Use of the Lidefinite Pronouns. 813 

direct interrogation Soph. Aj. 794. in the hitter oartc also. 
Thus Soph. CEd. T. 7 1 seq. both are used : wc ttvOoiO' o ti 
Spwv T) T( (piovojv Ti'ivSe pvaaif^LTTiv TToXti'. — uaaa is used like 
oaTic, II. K , 206, acTo-a re ^uijrioaxTt juera aCpiaiv. But if the 
person who is interrogated rejDeats the question before the 
answer, then o(ttiq'\s used : Arist. Ran. 198. XAP. ovtoc,^ ti 
7roi6?c ; AION. o Tt TToiw ; Ti S' aXXo y t). A?;. 698. (tu S' et 
Tt'c aVgpwv; "OcTTtq eV £7(0; Merwi/. P/a^. Eiithyphr. 
p. 2 B. aXAa S?) r'lva ypa(f)i]U ae jeypaTTrai; 2Q. ijvTiva; 
ovK ciyevvrj, e/noiye Bokgi. as ottojg answers to ttwg in the same 
case §. 611, 4.*^ 

Obs. This Tis appears to be used for the relative offTis Soph. El. 
316. ws vvv iiTvovTos, IcTTopei Ti Goi (j)iXoy, if it be not a false reading for 

TO aoi (f). 

2. It is often not at the beginning of the interrogation. Eur. 
Hipp. 524. ^^iJiaiveic ge ti ; as Troad. 74. Here. F. 1249. 
SpdaeiG Se Tt; comp. 330. fyh. ^.671. a^TeTc r'l ; comp. 704. 
1459. Ion. 1031. ti TwSe -^priaOe ; dvvaaiv eK<pepei riva ; 

3. Sometimes an interrogative proposition with ri follows 
words which do not express a question but involve it, as Soph. 
Aj. 794. ware p' wd'iveiv ri ^j'jc, ut anxius expectem quid dicas^. 

4. t/c is sometimes used of two, consequently for vorepoc. 
Plat. Phileb. p. 52 D. ti ttotg y^pv (jydvai irpoa dXriOeiau elvai, 
TO KaOapou T€ KOI elXiKpivec;, v to a(p6Spa tc Kai to ttoAv &C. 
See Stallb. note, p. 168. 

5. Respecting the difference between tic, eari and t'l eari 
see §. 439. Hence also Soph. Trach. 311. tic, ttot' el ve- 
av'i^ojv, dvav^poc v TeKovcra ; where the inquiry relates not to 
the class, vedvideQ, but a subordinate division. Hence ti 
yepwpai, e. g. jEsch. S. c. Th. 299. comp. 156. Eum. 791. 
821. Thuc. 2, 52. means ' what is to become of me?''* 

6. Sometimes this interrogative has the article : Aristoph. 

' Brunck ad Arist. Thesm. 630. •■ V^alck. ad Theocr. Adoniaz. 51. 

Heind. ad Plat. Hipp. p. 153. p. 360. .Sclisf. Melct. p. 98. Herm. 

sErf. ad Soph. (Ed. T.T4. ed. uiin. ad Vip;. p. 730, 108. 

814 Sj/ntax. Oj the Use oft lie Indefinite Proiiomts. 

Nub. 776. aye Si) ra^ewc rovri ^vvapTvaaov. STPE"^. to ti ; 
Av. 1039. j'o^ouc veovc iiko) Trap vjnaQ Bevpo TrwXrjaojv. IlEI. 

TO Ti; Coinp. §. 265, 4. 

7. Sometimes ti as predicate, with ecrri following, is ac- 
companied by the subject in the neuter plural. P/at. Theat. 
p. 154 E. Tt TTOT eartv, a diavoovjueOa. ib. p. 155 C.,fif, 
Ti ttot' ecTTt TouTo. Plat. Phcedon. p. 5S C. Comp.p. 93 C* 

8. Tt is often put for St a ri ; *what?' quid? for 'where- 
fore?' quare? Xen. Mem. S. 4, 2, 6. 9avi.ia<TT6v, r'l ttotc o'l 

pnvXo/Jievoi KiOapiZeiv iKcivoi yevecfOai ireipuivrai toe avve- 

vetTTOTo TOieiv b ti av jJovXwi'Tai ayaOoi yeveaOai. So 6 Tt 
for StoTt Thuc. 1, 90. lu the poets Tt ■^prj/.ia is also used in 
this sense Eui'. Ileracl. 634. 647. 710. In this sense Tt, es- 
pecially Tt ovv, is frequent, with a negative, in animated exhor- 
tations, e. g. Arist. Lysistr. 1 103. ti oi> KaXovj^iev SrJTa ttiv 
Av(Ti<jTpaTiiv; * why do we not call?' i. e. Met us call imme- 
diately'. Plat. Pliileb. p. 54 B.** So ti Stj ; quid tandem? in 
the sense ' why not?' Xen. Mem. S. 4, 4, 20. 

9. Ti is found in many other combinations, especially with 
particles, to give greater animation to discourse, e. g. 

Tt yap; quid enijH? ' what then, what farther?' to express 
that there is nothing wonderful in what has been said, often 
equivalent to Tt yap uv ; Pur. Or. 482 seq. Mei-eXae, irpoa- 

(pOeyyei viv, avoaiov Kapa ; Tt yap ; cpiXov ^tot iraTpoQ eoTii' 

cKyovoc,^. ' and further', in the continuation of questions, as 
Xeu. Mem. S. 2, 6, 2. 3. 

Tt Se ; is used in interrogations expressive of wonder, * how 
then?'^ partly in a transition to another subject §. 630, 2. or 
when questions are continued, as t/ yap; Xen. Mem. S. 2, 1, 
3. 6, 4. 

^ Plat. Gorg. p. 212. ad .Slalll). ad I'liil. p. 173 sa;. Coiiip. 

Pliandon. in. Scli.-if. ad .Soph. El. 766. Jacobs ad Antli. Gr. )>. 76. 

App. Dein. p. 270. .Stallb. ad Eu- *= Bluinf. ad Asch. Ag.26;l. llcrm. 

thyplir. p. 101. ad Vig. p. 7:29, 10b. 

•• Ileind. ad I'lat. Charm. §. 5, •* Valck. ad Eur. llipp. MOO. 
Soph. p. .328. ad llor. Sal. p. 5. 

Si/nta.v. Of the Use of the Indefnile Pronouns. 815 

rl jiii]v ; (properly ' and what else V quidaliud ?) ' why not V 
i. e. * certainly'^. Plat. Phccdr. p. 229 A. B. opuc ovv ^Keivrjv 
Trjv v\pr}XoraTt}v TrXaravov; Tt /u/jf ; Comp. Phileb. p. 17 B. 
An affirmative answer commonly follows, but not always, e. g. 
Piat. Phil. p. 44 B. C. 

Tt OVV S/; ; * what do you mean by that ? how do you un- 
derstand that?' Plat.Gorg. p. 453'B. BloE. Menon. p. S9D. 

Tt OVV Sii ; TTpoQ Tt /BXeTTWv ^vcT^epaiveiQ avro ; also 

when the reason of a statement is inquired after, Gorg. /). 497 D. 

1 0. Thus in Plato ti otet, ti oio^e^a are often found where 
Tt does not connect itself with any other part of the proposition, 
but according to the construction is superfluous. Symp. 
p. 2\\ E. Tt ^r\ra, e(pri, o'lo/xeOa, e'l tw yevoiro avTO ro KaXov 
iE€7v eiXiKpivec dp' o'lei, e<pri, (pavXov (5iov yiyveadai , 

11. A negation is often more strongly expressed by a ques- 
tion, and thus ti is found in the same proposition with a ne- 
gative. Dem. pro Cor. p. 24.1, 29. eXawoiJievcjv kul v(5piZ,oiJ.ev(vv 
Kai Tt KUKOv ov^i IT a (T "^o V T (1) V TTuaa rj oiKov/jievr} iLiecrrri 
ykyove tt/ooSotwv, for ov^ev kukov o ti ov -tt. nihil non mali, i. e. 
omnia mala, perferentium. So Eur. Phan. 906. TtV ou Bpujv, 
TTola S ov Xkyu)v eirri. See Matthice ad v. 878. 

So Tt ctXXo ye, 7j or e'l fxi] is used with a finite verb following 
for ov^ev aXXo, where we must not repeat the preceding or fol- 
lowing verb with ti aXXo, but supply in the mind a general verb 
yiyverai, ttoioj, iracfyo}. A7ist. Nub. 1495. avOpwire, ri TroieTq; 

' O Ti TTOiw ; Tt S aXXoy h oiaXeTTToXoyovi^iai; Comp. Thuc. 

3, 52. Xen. Mem. S. 2, 3, 17.S So ov^ev aXXo r) is used Plat. 
Crit. p. 50 A. Menon. p. 76B. 80 A, 84 D. Comp. §. 487, 9. 

12. Tt'c with the word belonging to it is often used after 
the article, or the relative, or the conjunction, independently of 
the rest of the proposition, which cannot be the case in Latin 
or English, e. g. Plat. Prot. ^j. 312 C. D. eiTtc epoiro i^^tac, 

* Schaef. ad Soph. Trach. 390. pro S. Rose. §. 49. 

^Heind. ad Plat. Pha^dr. p. 214. ? Dcvar. de Partic. p. 343. ed. 

Of a similar phrase Quid censes in Reusmann Ileind. ad Plat. Phaedon. 

Cic. sec Matthife Not. ad Cic. Or. §. 20. p. 32. 

81G Syntax. Of the Use of the Indefnite Pronouns. 

Ttav Ti ao(piov eiaiv oi Z,tiiypa.<poi eiriaTrifxoveQ, enroifxev av irov 

avTio, on Twv irpoc, rriv airepyaaiav ti]v tu)v eiKovojv. o oe 

ao(pi(TTric TWV Ti aoCpwu eari; Theag. p. 125 B. ei ovv epoiro 
TIC TOi' lEjVpnriBr]v, twv ti ao<p(jjv avvovaia (prJQ ao(povQ elvai 
Toi»c Tvpavvovc, ; ' in what must their wisdom consist, from 
whose society tyrants learn wisdom?' Symp. p. 206 A. B. 


Kai r) avoTaaiQ epwc av KaXoiTO ; Comp. Xen. Mem. S. 2, 2, 1.* 
After the relative P/a^. Theag. p. 123 D. r] (jocpia tic, eaTiv, 
rj TivoQ eiriaTcifieOa cipy^eiv ; * and what do we understand how 
to govern by its means ?' Comp. ib. E. Also after conjunctions : 
Plat. Hipp. Maj. p. 288 A. (according to the correction of 
Schleiermacher) TavTa TtavTa, a (pr)Q KaXa eivai, el ti ecrtv 
avTO TO KaXov, tuvt av e'lt] Ka\d ; ' what must beauty itself 
be, in order that these may be beautiful?' A>;/. Mem. S. 1, 
4, 14. oTavTi 7ron](7wcn, vojiueic avTOvc aov (ppovTiCeiv ; es- 
pecially with the participle. So also Soph. Aj. 11 . ti i-iri 
yevrtTai; with Schaefer's note. ib. 107. Plat. Gorg. p. 488 C. 
with Heind. note. Comp. Ale. 1. p. 106 C. After conjunctions 
and the relative Plat. Phad. p. 105 B. J av ti aw/naTi eyye- 
vtfTai, Oep/mov eoTai ; ' what must there be in the body in order 
that it may be warm?' Also twice in the same proposition in 
different cases. Plat. Rep. 1. p. 332 C. D. Dem. pro Cor. 
p. 249, 8. e^eToteaOat, tic t'ivoc a'lTioc eaTi; ' who is guilty, 
and of what? ' — Of interrogatives in the participial construction 
see §. 567. 

Obs. 1. Otlier interrogatives and relatives are used in the same way, 
when they have the sense of interrogatives. Herod. 3, 42. ypafei es 
f5ift\i6v iravra, ra (i. e. a) iroiijaavTo. fxiv o\a tcarciXeXafti'iKee. Soph. 
(Ed. T. 1401. dpa fxov fxefXi'rjrrO' 6 ti, oV epya Spairas vimv elra ^eup' lii)v 
oTToT eirpacraoy avdis ; Track. 1044.*^ Comp. ^j. ^03. Wence Soph. 

(Ed. T. 1 j26 seq. oans eis oaov KXvcujra avfxcpopds eXyXvOev (where 

the words ei$ oVoj/ k\. a. kX. should properly depend on Xcvaaere 
ver. 1 .524. but have been attracted to the proposition with ocrns). So 
two interrogatives are found togetlier Plat. Phil. p. 54 A. Trorepor ovv 
TovTtov t'reca TroTepov ; with Stallbaum's note p. 1 72. 

» lleinrl. ad Plat. Hip).. M. p. 140. Schneider ad Xen. I. c. 

'' Reiz ad Viger. p. 7.31, 112. ■■ Monk ad Eur. Ale. 115. 

St/utax. Interchange of the Pronouns. 817 

Ohs. 2. ris is also united in one proposition with other interrogatives, 
as in the Homeric formula tIs Trudef Icra-i, where a point is usually 
placed after ris. Eur. llcracl. 662. Plat. Ion. p. 530 A. ttws 7t r/yw- 
viaw ; and vice versa Phileb. p. 58. av ce tl ttws ciuKpiioLS av^. 

Of the 

Reflective Pronoun 

ov, oi, e 
see §.147. 06s. 1. 

Interchange of the Pronouns. 

I. Personal and possessive pronouns. Of TeoTo for aeio see 

§. 145, 3. So Od. jS', 55. V, 301. Horn. H. in Merc. 370. 489. 
ea ij/Lierepov for ec vfxeTepov^. eoc is sometimes used for the 
pronoun of the first and second person in the poets, e^oc, (toc, 
&c. : Od. V, 320. aAX mei (ppeaiv riaiv e\iov ^e^aiyfievov 
■qrop TjAw^r/v, for ejxaic,. Od, a, 320. ^wjxaaiv olaiv avaacroic, 

for CToTc. II. K , 398. 7j cjiv^iv f^ovXevoire fxerci <r(^iaiv, 

for fied vfxiv. eoc for (x<peTepoQ Hesiod. ' Epy. 58. w icev awavreQ 
Tepiriovrai Kara Ov/uov, eov kukov a/ntpayairuivTeQ. and vice 
versa aCperepoG for eoc id. Scut. Here. 90. oc, 7rpo\nru)v ac^e- 
Tcpov T€ Bo/iiov a^erepovc re TO/crjar, w^ero . 

II. The reflective pronoun eavrov for the other personal pro- 
nouns compounded with awroq. Soph. OEd. C, 853. comp. 1356. 
Plat. Phadon. p. 91 C. avTireivere evXajBov/nevoi, ottiog /mrj eyui 

VTTO TrpoBvixiaa ap.a eavrov re Kai vpac e^a7raTi](yac 

oiyjiaofxai, for efxavTov. Thuc. 1, 82. ra avrojv apa CKiropi- 
Z,^fxeQa, for r^pdHv avTu)v. Plat. Phtzdon. p. 78 B. Se7 rjpac 
avepeaBai eavrovc, where ri/ixaG is the accusative of the subject 
to avepkadai. ^sch. Agam. 1308. et S' eTtjrvpuic, popov tov 
avTrJQ olaQa, ttojq irpoQ (Sojpov evroXpwc; irarelc ; for aav- 

^ Of TTws rl Heind. ad Plat. Hipp. p. 306. 

Maj. p. 166. Stallb. ad Phil. p. 191. * Jen. A. L. Z. 1809. n. 247. 

On the whole Obs. Seidl. ap. Ilerm. p. 159 note. 

ad Ant. 2. Ilerm. ad Soph. Aj. 1164. ^ Wolf I'roleg. ad lloin. p. 217 sqq. 

Reisig Comm. Cril. ad ^o\>\\. (Ed. ('. fisch. 2. p. 237 sq. 

818 Sj/ntax. Oft fie Verb. 

TJ?c. Plat. Protag. p. 312 A. av ^e ovk av aiaj^vvoio etc tovq 
' EXXrjvac avTOv (TO(f)iaTr)V Trape-^iov, Coinp. Amat. p. 136 D. 
Alcib. 2. p. 143 C. Xe/i. Cyr. 6, 3, 27. ^schin. in Ctesiph. 
p. 551. Demosth. Oli/nth. p>. 9, 13. avrwv for vj^iiZv avrtjv^. 

Obs. Where avros seems to be put for eyw, uv, >//xeTs, &c. the truth 
is rather that these pronouns are omitted. See §• 470. 

III. The refiective pronoun kavruiv and the reciprocal pronoun 
a\\i]X(ov. Soph. Antig. 145. KaO avTolv ^iKparelc \6yyac 
OTYtaavT , e^eroi/ Koivov davarov fxepoQ a/uKpio, for /car aXA7j- 
Xoiv. Plat. Parmen. p. 134 A. aura avrwv Kai irpuQ avra 
€Keiva ear I, for aW'i{Kwv Kai Trpoc, aXXr]\a. On the other hand, 
the reciprocal pronoun is put for the reflective Thuc. 3, 81. o\ 

TToXXoi Twv tKCTWv ^lecpOeipuv avTOv ev no lept^ aXXir'j- 


0/ Me Verb. 

490. By transitive verbs are here meant, according to the distri- 
bution §. 156. in contradistinction to neuter and deponent verbs, 
those which are capable of determining various relations of the 
subject, to which the action belongs, to an object or person. 
These have three kinds, the active, passive, and middle. As 
the effect of the active consists in determining the case which 
it governs, what has been said of the use of the cases is sufli- 
cient to illustrate the active. The Greeks often use the active 
of objects which are not produced by the activity of any agent, 
but come by nature, as (pveiv oBovrac, Trwywra, (ppevac, 'to get 
teeth', &c. Hence Soph. (Ed. C. 150. aXawu o^jttaTwi' dpa 
Kai rtaOa (pUTaX/^ioc, i. e. dp aXaa ofxixciTa eCpvaac; or dp aXauQ 
■TrecpvKaQ; See Herm. ad loc. So Eur. Hipp. 1327. et pri tuc, 
(ppevaQ dieCpOopev Ovtirwv oaoKJiv dv^avei povapyjLa, for ei /iiJj 
(ppevcQ Bie(l)9appevai e'laiv. Comp. Med. 99. 

The passive, if we follow the analogy of other languages, 
takes properly as its subject the immediate object of the active, 

^ Dorv. ad Char. p. 296. '' Uemstorh. in Obss. Mi>c. 10. )). 209. 

Sj/nlax. Of the Verb.' 819 

which with this voice was in the accusative : the subject of the 
active, on the contrary, is joined with the passive by means of 
the preposition vtto with the genitive (rarely otto, e. g. 'r/iuc. 
3, 36. ciAXai yvwi-iai a(p' kKaarwv eXeyovTO. Comp. Herod. 2, 
54. 5, 17.), or Trpoc, with the genitive. Frequently, however, 
it stands in the dative also, with or without vtto (§. 395.), as 
with the verbals in -reoc, e. g. 'A^iWevc; Kreivei tov ' E/cropa. 
''Ekt(i)P Kre'iverai vttu (Trpoc,) ' Ay^iXXeioc, in the poets 'A'xtXXrji 
(utt' 'A^.) eSa^i;. The dative is very frequently put with the 
perf. pass, of verbs whose perf. act. is not much used, e. g. 
/iie^pi TOVTOv rtiJ.1v TreiraiaOw. Tcwra XeXcicrai imw, for AeAey^a 


In Greek, however, the object also, which was in the geni- 
tive or dative with the active, may become the subject of the 
passive. Plat. Rep. S. p. 558 A. avOpwinov KaTaxpr^cpiaOevTwv 
Oavarov ri (pvyrjc, fvom KaTa^rifp'ite'yOai- rivoc Ouvarov. Xen. 
Hist. Gr. 5, 2, 36. /cat e/ceT^oc i^iev /caTei//»j(|)j(70J7. — Plat. 
Sump. p. 196 C. eli'oi o/noXoyelrai aiocppoa'vvr] to KpaT^lv 
il^ovwv Kai eTTcSu^tJv, ''EjOWTOC Se ^irjoe/ttiai^ n'jSoi'ui' Kpe'iTTU) 
eivaC e'l Se ^Jttouc, KpaTolvT uv vtto tou ' Epwroc, o oe Kpa- 
ToT. Comp. XeiK H. Gr. 5, 4, \. — Plat. Eathi/d. p. 273 C. 
e'nrwv ovv ravra fc axe(|)joov/j0r}i' vtt avTOv. Comp. Rep. 8. 
p. 556 D. hocr. ad Phil. p. 1 1 B. — Thiic. 1, 68. jneyiara 
eyKXi'iiLiara eyof^iev, vtto /.lev ' AOr]va'i(jjv v^piCof-ievoi, viro Se 
v/iiojv afieXov/iievoi. Plat. Rep. 8. p. 55 1 A. Comp. ib. 10. 
p. 613 A. — Time. 3, 61. ovk -n^iow ovtoi rtye/xoveveaOai 
vcp' i]inwi'. — Herod. 7, 144. at Se vrjec, ec to fxev eiroinOrjcrav, 

oiiK ey jOT/o-^r/o-ai', from ypr/crSai Tivi. Thlic. 1, 82. aveiri- 

(jyOovov, oaoi loairep Kai TJjueTc vtt' ' AOr]va'uov eirifiovXev- 
6^eQa --- liaaiod^vai. comp. 4, 61. Plat. Alcib.2. p. 141 D. 
Thuc. 6, 54. TO 'AjOta-TO-yeiTOvoc Ka\ Appo^'tov ToXp-npa St 
e/owTtfcrjv ^vvrv^iav eTrey^eipi'iOt). id. 7, 70. '^vvervyy^ave 
TO. pev aXXoic, e^|3 ej3X 17 /ce vat, to Se avTovc, t' /u /3 e /3 X >7- 
aOai. Xen. H. Gr. 2, 3, 35. e/ceTvot e^aaav, TvpoaTa- 
\Bkvra pe v^' eavriSv ovk aveXecrOai, 8cc. Comp. Soph. 
Antig. 670. Thuc. 5, 75. 7, 70.— Xen. Mem. S. 4, 2, 33. 
TlaXapri^r}i> Travrec vpvovaiv, wc ^10. (TO<piav (jyOovrjOeic vtto 
TOV 'OSuaTtwc a7r''AeTo. hocr. ad Dcm. p. 8 C. /u'cret touc 

820 Spifax. Of the Verb. 

KoXaKevovTciQ, <jj<T7rep rove e^aTrarwvTaQ' aiii<poT€poi yap 
TTKTTevdeuTec rove iricTTevtyavTac, {vi(/g. iTKyTevovTac) aoiKov- 
aiv. id. ad Phil. p. 92 A. oi Aa/ceSat^tortoi air laTOVVTai 
VTTO Trdx'Twv T\ekoTrovvr]a'ni)v. Xen. Mem. S. 2, 6, 11. Comp. 
Soph. CEd. C. 1193.^ Pindar even says 01. 1, 154 seq. ra- 
"^VTciQ TTo^wif ip'iteTai, although in epiC^iv TayvrnTi the dative 
only answers to the question 'in what ? ' §. 400. Xen. Mem. S. 
2, 6, 8. . 

It has been noticed before, §. 424 seg. that the passive takes 
an accusative also. From a union of this idiom with the fore- 
going arise the phrases explained in §. 424, 3. e. g. Eur. 
Rhes. 539. tic eKiipv-^Ori TrpwTrjv CJyvXaKijv ; from Ktipvcraeiv 
Tivi CJyvXaKTfv. Thuc. 5, 37. ot KopivOioi ravra eTreo-raX- 
pevoi. Plat. Tim. p. 60 C. to Se viro irvpoc, Trayouc to voTe- 
pov Trav e^apiraaOev, for oi to vorepov e^ripiracrBr]. Xen. Ilier. 
1, 19. o TrapaTiOe/nei'oc rroWa, unless TraparidefxevoQ be rather 
the middle voice in this place. 

491. The proper signification of the middle is most evident in the 
aorists, particularly the aor. 1 . In the present and imperfect 
the distinction between the passive and middle is often indeter- 
minate in the signification, as the form in both is exactly the 
same. The fut. middle has usually the sense of the active, 
also of the passive ; and what is called the perf. middle, more 
properly the perf. 2. active, never has the signification of the 

The peculiar signification of the middle is the reflective, where 
the action returns upon the subject of it. 

a. The chief characteristic consists in the subject of the 
action being at the same time the projjer immediate object of 
it, so that the middle is exactly equivalent in signification to 
the active, joined with the corresponding reflective personal 
pronoun : e. g. Xovio ' I wash another', Xovojxai, i. q. Xovio 
ef-iavTov, ' I wash myself, cnre-^eiv ' to withhold another', 
mid. aTrey^eadai, mroaykaBai, i. q. aireyeiv eavrov. 

Many middle verbs receive a genuine intransitive significa- 

* Dorv, ad Clinrit. p. o76. 

Syntax. Of the Verb. 82 1 

tion, e. g. iraveiv nva tivoq, avocare aliam, TraveaOai, se ipsum 
avocare, ' to make oneself abstain', i. e. ' to desist'. Thus arkX- 
\eiv ' to send', o-reXXea^ai * to travel', e. g. Herod. 4, 147. TrXa- 
Z,eiv ' to make another wander', irXateaQai ' to wander', &,c. 
^o/3eT»^ * to put to flight, to terrify', (po(5ela9ai ' to fly, to be 

Of these verbs, some are referred to an object, and are 
transitive, either because the active may take a double accu- 
sative, as Trepaiovv riva iroTanov ' to convey one over a river', 
mid. rrepaiovaOai woTafLiov ' to pass a river' ; or when the action, 
which is properly intransitive, is considered in relation to an 
object (§. 411.), e. g. <^o/3eT(70ai nva 'to fear any one'. 

h. More frequently, however, the subject of the action is 492. 
the remote object of it, with reference to which it takes place ; 
so that the middle is equivalent to the active, with the dative 
of the reflective pronoun e/.iavT(v, aeavTio, kavrio, e. g. a'lpeiu 

* to take up anything for another, in order to transfer it to an- 
other', a'lpeaOai ' to take up, in order to keep it oneself, to 
transfer to oneself''. a(l)atpe7v * to take anything from an- 
other', acpaipeiadai ' to take anything for oneself, in order to 
retain or use it' ^. SouXoui', Kara^ovXavv, ' to subject anything 
to another', e. g. jEsch. S. c. Th. 256. avrri av ^ovXo7q Kai pe 
Kai Tvaaav iroXiv, KciTacovXovaOai 'to subject oneself . ev^veiv 

* to put anything on another', ev^veaOai * to put on oneself. 
Xen. Cyr. 6, 4, 2. of Abradatas : eTrei S' epeXXe tov XivoCv 
BujpaKa ev^vecTuai, TrpocrCpepei avrto i) TlavOeia -^pvaovv, Kpa- 
voc &c. §.3. ravTU Se Xeyovaa cipa eveBve to. o-rrXa^. (pv- 
Xarreiv ' to watch any one, to observe', (pvXciTreaOai ' to ob- 
serve anything to one's advantage (dat. commodi), in order to 
avoid it . So cfirov^ac,, e'lprjvr^v Troieladai (§. 421. Obs. 2.) 
when the action concerns the subject, TroieTi^ Arist. Pac. 212. 
1 199. ' to make a peace for others'^. 

^ Dawes Misc. Crit. p. 235. E Poppo ad Xen. Cyr. Q, 5, 1. 3, 

" BiLinck ad Arist. Pint. 1140. 1, 4. Stallb. ad Plat. Piii!. p. 177. 

•^ Hcmsterh. ad Thorn. M. p. 249. Comp. Matthis ad H. Horn, in 

" Bninck ad Arist. Thesm. 252. Merc. 77. 
f Dorv. ad Charit. p. 469. 

822 Sijntax. Of the Verb. 

Hence the middle is used when the passive object is any- 
thing belonging to the subject of the verb ; generally, for 
almost any relation which the object bears to the subject of 
the action : e. g. irepippn^ai -^irwva signifies * to tear the gar- 
ment of another', irepippn^acfOai X- ' *^o ^^ar one's own gar- 
ment' ^. Soph. CEd. T. 1021. aXA' uvri rov Bi) 7ra?Sa jn ojuo- 
HaCero, ' called me iiis son', \veiv, ' to return anything to any 
one for a ransom' ; \veaOai, ' to receive back anything that 
belongs to one'. //. a, 13, 1 9, 29. Plat. Meuex. p. 243 C. 
Thus BkaBai vofiovc is said of a legislator who submits himself 
to the laws which he has made, or of a free state which enacts 
laws for itself. Xen. Mem. S. 4, 4, 19. Comp. Plat. Leg. 7. 
p. 820 E.** The same distinction obtains between -^pd^eiv and 
■ypaxpaaOai rupovc. Xen. ISleni. S. 1, 2, 45. ocun oi oXcyoi to?c 
TToXXoTc pi] TTciaavTCC, aXXa KpaTovvreQ -y pa(^uv(Ji, TTorepov 
(3iav (pwpev i) pi) (pojpev elvai. On the other hand G^co/i. 9, 14. 
uIk cipKeiv So/cet toIc, TroXiTatc, vv ruj-iovc, kuXovq y pa\p(i)VTai. 

c. The middle often expresses an action which took place at 
the command of the subject, consequently with regard to it, 
which is expressed in English by 'to cause'. Ileiod. 1,31. 
Apyeioi a(pe(i)i> e'lKovac Troirirra pevnt avcOecrav eo AeX^ouc 

* caused statues to be made'. Xeu. Ci/r. 6, 4, 2. of Panthea: 

e7roii](TaTO onXa. ih. §. 3. Ilerotl. 7, 100. 'Bcp^vc Ste^e- 

Xaui'Wi/ £77 (ippaTOC Trap' cOvoc ti' tiKacTTOV, eTTwOaveTO, Kai 

ayrey pa<pov ot ypapparirsrai. tvvavra o :^ept,vc, 

rrapeirXee irapa rat; iTpCjpac, t(ov vcuiv, cveipwruiv re eKa<TTac, 
opo'i(DC Kai Tov Tre^ov Kai nir oypac^opevoc, 'causing them to 
be registered' (comp. Xen. Hist. (h-. 6, 3, 19.), a distinction 
which Plutarch Themist. 13. does not observe. Hence ypa- 
cjiecrOai Tii'a ' to accuse', properly ' to cause the name, as of an 
accused person, to be taken down in writing by the magistrate 
before whom the process is carried', nomeu deferre. ^iZaaKeiv 

* to teach', ^i^anKeaOat * to cause to be taught'. Eur. Med. 
296 sq. x/^i) S' ovTToO' , uaric apT'KJypivv ircCpvK avi)p, Traicac, 

" Iltnisterh. Obss. Misc. 5. 3. i- Wu'fad Dcni I.cpt. Prol. p. l-^r 

p. 6t. Valck. ct VVesscl. ad Ilcrod. note. B(Eckh in Plat. Min. p. 91. 
3, 66. p. T30, 37. 

Syntax. Of the Verb. 823 

TrepiaawG eKSidaaKCcrOai aofpovc'^. Thuc. 1, 130. of Pau- 
sanias : rpairetav YlepaiKriv TrapeTidero, as Xen. Ilier. 1, 19, 
20. So ■ya/ueTi' riva ' to marry' of the man ; -yn/naaOai, literally 
' to cause oneself to be married' of the woman. 

d. The perf. pass, is used as a perf. mid. in verbs which do 493. 
not occur merely in the middle form, but have in this form only 
the sense required for the occasion. Sopfi. Antig. 363. voawv^ 
apriyavoju Cpvyac ^vpTvkcppaaTai. Xen. Anab. 5, 2, 9. ot 
pavreic, diro^e^eiyfxevoi riaav, on /ua^J? P^^ f'''?> "^^ Se 
reXoc KaXov t^q e^ogou. Isocr. Areop. p. 147 B. tj^ ehicoapiaQ 

olov T rii' liieTaayelv toTc, ttoXXtiv dperrju Kcii aw^po- 

avvr]v ev tJ |3iw ei^geSeiyjue vo t c Plat. Enthyphr. in. ypa- 
(jynv ae T(C, wc'eoi/ce, yeypa-rrrai. Thuc. 3, 90. erv^ov ^vo 

(jyvXai Tiva Kai evedpav ireTroitjpevai. Com-p. Plat. 

Prot. p. 328 B. Rep. 8. p. 556 C. Bern, pro Cor. p. 259, 23. 
Xen. Cyr.l ,1, \2. ^laireTrpaypai irapa (tov pr) Troirjcrat 
apirayi'iv. Isocr. ad Phil. p. 86 B. Herod. 3, 136. Tra^t- 
cKevaa pcvoi iravTu eVXeov ec ti]v EXXooa. Xen. Mem. o. 
4, 2, 1 . KarapaOwv ^v6vdt]pov ypa/^ipara iroWd aweiXeype- 
vov TToirjTOJV. id. Anab. 4, 7, 1. x^p'ia mkovv lax^P"' "^' "^ao- 
vot, ev olc Kal to. t-TriTrjSeta Travra el^ov avuKeico pi(T/.ievoi. 
ib. 5, 6, 12. oi ph avopec, ypr^vTcii Tropeiai', i]v v^ielc, avp^ov- 
Xevere. Demosth. in Phorm. p. 958, 13. ttji^ pev \k\vaai, 
rrjv B' eKde.BwKac eraipau. Thuc. 6, 36. ovk avrovc. el/coc, tov 
eKel TToXepov ju/jTrw /3ej3aiwc kut aXeXv pevovc, eir aXXov 
TToXepov eX9e7v. Eurip. Iph. A. 1279. Ov MereXewc pe Kara- 
dedovXdJTai, tekvov . 

The aor. pass, is used as a middle perhaps only in erprt^^Tiv 
Eur. Troad. 484. 

Of the Perf. 2. {Perf. Middle) and Fut. Middle. 
I. The perf. 2. has, 1. in some verbs a sense entirely transi- 49 1-. 
tive, e. g. eKTOva (ciTreKTOva), ciKijKoa {tikovku is merely Doric), 

" Thorn. M. p. 265. Kuster ad ad Plat. IVot. p. 517. Ehiisl. ad Med. 

Aristoph. Nub. 1311. Valck. ad 299. 

Amm. p. 70. Ruhnk. ad Tim. '' Musgr. ad Eur. Med. 1139. 

p. 83 sq. Ast ad Plat. Leg. p. 428. Fisch. 3 b. p. 62 sq. Viger. p. '216. 

Schffif. ad Tlieocr. p. 2'23. '229. Of ubi v. Z. et llemi. p. 7-18, IGG. 

^tt)a(TK<;(vandotca(T/.e<TyatseelIeind. Bluuif. Gl. Agani. 2^>2. 

824 Spitax. Of the Verb. 

eairopa, XeXoiTra. vecjievya II. (p' , 609. Od. a, 12. &c. olSa, 
ireTTOuOay reroKa, earopya Herod. 1, 104. and the poetic 
OTTWTra, 7re(j)pa^e, ceSopKa, eopya, TreTrXrjya, Xe\oy\a. The 
perf. act. of these verbs are not in use, probably on account of 

2. In most verbs, however, this perf. 2. has an intransitive 
signification. This is self-evident in verbs which are of them- 
selves intransitive or neuter, as ep-^o/nai, eXnXvBa, eOu), eicjQa, 
e'lKU), koiKa, Kpa^o), KeKpaya, o^w, o^wSa, &c. But in many 
verbs also which have a transitive signification in the active, 
the intransitive is substituted in the perf. 2. as, 

ayvvm * I break', perf. 2. eaya ' I am broken' *. 
eyeipio * I wake another'. eypi]yopa ' I awake'. 
cXttw ' I give hope', Od. (5\ 91. eoXira ' I hope'. 

oWv/iii 'I destroy, lose', perf. 1. oXwAeKo. perf. 2. oAwAa 

* I am undone, lost', peril. 

ireiOu) 'I persuade', perf. act. irerreiKa. perf. 2. TreiroiOa, *I 
rely upon, trust, believe'. 

TTTjyvviiu * I affix'. ireTrnya ' I am fixed', injixus sum. 

TTpdacTio, perf. 1. TTeir payja ' I liave done', perf. 2. Tckirpaya, 
e. g. eu, /ca/cwc, ' I have been fortunate, unfortunate' **. 

pnyvvfu * I break, rend', eppcoya ' I fall to pieces', intrans. 
P/'at. riucdon. p. 86 A. 

ai]TTh) ' I corrupt, make putrid'. Zovpa aear\-Ke vetjv II. j3', 135. 

* are rotten'. 

t/jkw ' I liquefy, melt', to /cat KKa'iovaa TerriKa II. y , 176. 
consumta sum. 

^a'lvu) ' I show'. irecpTiva ' I have appeared'. Eurip. Iph. A. 
973. Troad. 615. 

* From cLVoiyw ' I open', the Attics an intransitive sense, * standing open', 

have perf. 1. av€io-)(ii, ortwy/iat, See Thorn. M. p. 71. Grasv. ad Luc. 

imperf. avetDyov, iwefyo^riv Plat. T. 9. p. 486. Lob. ad Phryn. 

Phjedon. p. 59 D. Xen. H. Gr. 6, p. 137 sq. Mcineke ad Menandr. 

4,7. only later Atticists and un-Attic p. 77. 

writers used the perf. 2. dj'ewyws in " Buttm. L. Gr. 2. p. 222. 

Si/ntax. Of the Verb. 825 

To this class also belongs Od. xp , 237. ttoXAtj Se irepi \poi 
TeTpo(pev aA/i»j, 'has accumulated, condensed itself. In 
some verbs the perf. 2. has both a transitive and intransitive 
or passive sense, as in ^(e(^0opa, which the older Attics use 
for diecpOapKa, the un-Attic writers, as Hippocrates, and even 
Homer //. o', 128. and the Attics, for'^. Sophocles 
EL 1120. uses KeKevOe transitively; CEd. C. 1523. Ant. 911, 
intransitively. In others the two perfects are distinguished in 
a different manner in the signification. Thus /uevw has /iie/ne- 
vr\Ka in the perf. 1. 'I have remained'; ia the perf. 2. ^te/iova 
(poet.) *I persevere, am zealous in anything' ; also transitive, 
/Liepove S oye iaa Oeolaiv, moUtiir. 

II. What are called the fut. mid. are properly simpler forms 
of the fut. pass. Hence they are found commonly, a. as fut. 

pass, as //. V y 100. Bavpa o ovttot eywye TeAeuTJj(Te- 

aOai ec^aoKov. Soph. Ant. 210. Ti/niiderai. ib. 890. arepy]- 
aerai. EL 1248. kukov ov irore Xyjao/nevov. Eur. Hipp. 951. 
e^oyKuxrerai. SuppL 523. eTriTu^opeaOa §/j. Herod, 5, 35. 
peri^aeadai. Thuc. 1, 142. K(i)\vaovrai, eaaofxeuoi. 

b. As futures of deponents, as Lj/s. c. Erat. p. 124, 21. kui 
vf.Lac, ■t]yovvTO irepi twv fiXeWovrtov ovk evOv/xiicreaOai. As many 
perfects of deponents have both passive and active meaning, 
iKJyaiprjaofxai has commonly an active, but also a passive mean- 
ing. Herod. 5, 35. Eur. Troad. 1288. w Tpo'ia, to KXeivov 
ovojn a(paipr](Tei ra'^a. 

c. Several verbs take in the fut. the form of deponents, and 
their fut. mid. is used as a fut, act. §. 184. Obs. 1. Comp. 
§. 495, d. These are also sometimes used passively, as TroXiop- 

It is rarely that deponents have in the fut. the common form 
of the passive, as e7rtjueXrj0»j(To^ei/oq Xen. Mem. S. 2, 7, 8. See 
§. 495, b. 

Obs. It was noticed §. 181. Obs. that the fut. 1. mid. is very often 
found for the active, and is the only fut. in use in some active verbs. It 
is often put also for the passive, of which hereafter. 

•^ Thorn. M. p. T60 sqq. ct Interpr. ad Luc. t. 9. p. 452 s^q. Markl. ad Eur. 
McEris, p.l27. Amnion, p. 41. Giav. Iph.T,719. Lob. adPliryn. p. leosq. 
VOL. 11. Y 

826 Si/ntax. Of the Verb. 

495. The deponent verbs are to be distinguished from the middle; 
the former having the form of passives but the sense of actives 
or neuters, e. g. ai(jOavo/Liai, deyo/^iai, yiyvojuai, ^eojLiai^ ^, 
epya^o/iiai, ep')^o/iiai, i)yeoiiiai, f.Laivof.iai, fxayofiai, ■^pdo/, and 

a. These have commonly in the perf. the form of the passive, 
in the aorist that of the middle : as alaOavo/iiai, ijaOi}jiiai, rjoBo- 
t.ii]v. aTTTOjitoi, »';/^ijttai, 7]\painr]v. Se-^o/iiai, ^cSey/iiai, eSe^a/mjv 
(but vTToSeyOeiQ Eur. Heracl. 760.). yiyvofLiai, yeyevt^fxai and 
yeyova, eyev6f.iriv. Eeo/^iai, eSe7j0j/v. eTricr/ceTrTo/tai -ecrKeyU^tai 
-€(JKe\paj.n]v. epydtoixai, eipyaaf.iai (also pass. §.493. Obs.), e'lp' 
yaaa^ir\v. rjyeopai, i]yrii.iai, i)yri(Ta/xriv. inayoi.iai, ^te^ioyjj^tat, 
ef^iay^eaafx-qv. f.iriyjj.vii)fxai,]\avr]f.iai, e/.i7]-^avi]aaiiiriu. OKeTTTO- 
fiiaif ecTKejiiiLiaif eaKexpajLir^v. TeKpaipoinai, TeTeKpaprai, eTeK/LUfpu- 
jurjv. yapiCopai, Keyapiafxai, eyapiaa/nrjv. -^prjaOui, Keypjj^iat, 
cy^priacif.iriv ()(pjj(T0rji'at only in the sense 'obtain an oracle'; 
once pass. Herod. 7. 144. Soph. (Ed. C. 355.^) epy^opai, cAtj- 
XvOa has an aor. of the active form, riXOoi', as o'/^o^ioi, a pcrf. 
o'c^ioKa. paivojiiai, ^tljiiTji'a, i/navrjv. Of Svvapai, ^eSwrz/tai, rjBv- 
vi}Oi]v, the aor. 1. mid. eBwtjaa/injv is less common. 

According to this analogy Homer says for e/3»j, eSu, e(5i](Taro, 
eBvaaro II. k, 513, 517.** 

b. Other verbs, many of which have also an active form, but 
occur in particular senses only in the passive, consequently as 
deponents, have generally along with the perf. pass, also the 
aor. pass, as ai(r^vvea9ai, tjn-^vvOiiv. (t/mWaaOai, i]jm\\i]Oy]i' in 
Euripides. u7ra\\aTTOiiiai,u7ritX\ay/iiai, a7r»jXAa^0»jv and mttj/X- 
Xayy]V, not a7r»jXXo^a^>ji'. a^OeaOai, i]yOecsBnv. ^laXeyeadai, 
8ie\e'\^0r}v (SieXc^ci^trji; only in Homer). Siai'oeAaOai, Siavevorjitiai 
Xen. Mem. <S'. 3, 3, 7. Bievoi]Ot]v. evavTiovaOai, i]vavTuoO)]i>. 
evOvpeiaOai, evTe6v/nt]i.iai, eveOv/LiiiOi^v. eireiyeaOai, fTret^^et'c 
Thuc.3,3. cTTipeXelaOai, eneneXi^Oiiv, fut. CTri/tieXijOqao/iievoi Xen. 
Mem. S, 2, 7, 8. cvco-^eiaOai, evoj^tjOi])'. KaraKXiveaOai, Kare- 
KXi6t]v and KareKXivijv {Arist. Nub. 694. P/at. Sj/mp. p. 213 

=• Hcrni. ad Soph. Ant. 2-4. ed. sec. supposes a difference between tlie 

Imt xpi](y6ri Dem. J\Jid. p. 619, 19. forms tl^t'iauTo and efji'iccTO, ecv- 

seenis to be from XP"'' ' to lend'. (tuto and Idutrero. 

^ Buttniann L. Gr. 1. p. 418 note. 

Si/ntax. Of the Verb. 827 

C. E. 219 B. 222 E.). KaTairXriTTeaQai, intrans, KcireTr\a-yr]v. 
KoiiuaaOiu, e/co«/t7j0rji/ (in Homer also eK:oi;in/(Ta/^u/v, e.g. k, 99. )• 
l^ivao/Liai, iuLeinvrif.iai, e/.ivi](j9tiv (in Homer also e/ti'n<Ta|it?jv). oto- 
l^iai, ioiiOi]v. op/.iaa9ai (in Homer also opiii{](7aaOai, e. g\ //. , 
511.). Tre'iOeaOai ' obey' , eTre'icrOriv. TreipaaOai, eweipnOtjv (m 
Homer also Treipi'icraaOai, e. g. //. f , 435. Herod. 3, 152. 
7, 106. 135.). ■n-epcnovaOai, e7repauo0r]u. TrXat^aQai, eTrXoy- 
yOnv. TTopeveaBai, eiropevOriv. TrpoOvfieiaOai, TrporeOvfu^iiiai, 
irpovOvfii]QTi]V. (po^eiadai, e^oj3j/0)j>/. yjciXeTra'iveaQai, e^aXe- 
travBnv. The reason is, that most of these verbs denote a passive 
state, and some, as evw^elaSai, irepaiovaOai, (po^eiaOai, are 
really passives. 

Some other verbs imitate this : e. g. (ppateaOai has commonly 
e<ppaaafxr]v, but Od. e', 183. Eur. Hec. 550. e^paaBnv. eiri' 
vor)9rjvcu Herod. 6, 115. ajue'ifteaOai, commonly i]f.iei^api)v, 
but Find. Pyth. 4, 180. a^tet^0>/. fx^Kpeadai, commonly e^ite^ti- 
xpdpriv, but ei^iefx(p9n Find. Isthm. 2, 30. a'e^eadai, ecre(p9riv 
Sophocles (Br. Lex. Soph. s. h. v.) Plat. Phadr. p. 254 B. 
So ecTTparevOrjv Pind. Pyth. 1, 98. From a-rroKpiveaQai, airo- 
KeKpi/^ai, aTrefCjOivctjitrji', the later writers formed an aor. pass. 

c. Many verbs have, even in the present, the active and 
passive form in the same sense ; as opaaOai in Homer and 
the tragic writers, vriy^eiv and vriy^eaOai. Xa^tTrero in Homer. 
voovj^ievoc, Soph. CEd. T. 1487. as (rvvvoovf.i£voc Ear. Or. 634. 
Ion. 656, evvoovp,€voc Li/s. p. 115 extr. irodovi-ieva (ppev'i Soph. 
Trach. 103. ■t^-iropovj.i-qv Eys. c. Sim. p. 97, 16. aKOTrelaOai 
id. ib. p. 98 extr. Xen. Mem. S. 2, 2, 4. 6, 39. but in 2, 1, 22. 
aKoireiaOai is 'to consider oneself (comp. Eur. Med. 1 175.), 
different from aKoirelv. e^ayyeXXopai Eur. Ion. 1627.*^ Of 
/cXat'w, K€K\av/Lievoc is used, ' wet with tears', ' one who has wept 
and retains the traces of it', JEsch. Choeph. 454, 727, SopJi. 
(Ed. T. 1490. Of ^oKeo), ^eSoKrai ' it is decreed' is common, 
as SoKei, eSo^e ry (5ov\y. also *to appear' Herod. 8, 110. 

d. Several deponents have in the perf. botli active and 

■^ Erf. ad Soph. (Ed. T. 1014. East, ad II. ff, p. 69i, 22. II. k, 
Valck. ad Nov. T. p. S2G. Comp. p. 806, 5'2. 

Y 2 

828 Si/ntax. Of the Verb. 

passive signification, as e'lpyafT/nai act. Thuc. \, 142. Xen. 
Mem. S. 2, 6, 6. pass. ib. 3, 10, 9. Plat. Rep. 8. p. 566 A. 
Comp. Herod. 4, 27. 7, 102.^ tnreKeKpKJo act. P/«L i7/pp. 
Maj.p. 289 D. Comp. Leg. 2. p. 673 B. pass. Gorg. p. 453 D. 
See Heind. p. 25 seq. evreBvpriaBai is generally active, but 
Plat. Crat. p. 404 seq. A. pass, /neinri'^avrirai generally active, 
but Soph. Trach. 586. pass. ecjv^aOai act. and pass. Xen. 
Mem. S. 2, 7, 12. e(ovi]9ri is used passively. eoKep/j-ai act. 
Dew. 2M il/«V/. p. 576, 15. pass. \i]9oinai 'forget', but Ar/cro- 
/nevoc Soph. EL 1248. ohlivione obruendus. So a7r»jy?);tei'oo 
pass. Herod. 1, 207. 9, 26. -jjnaiuei'oc pass. Thuc. 3, 61. 
KeKTrijiievoc id. 7, 70. pass. Kara^epyOrivai Soph. Trach. 1000. 
which AJ. 425. is active. ^pciKeic, aor. 2. active, Pind. Pyth. 
2, 38. passive Nc«2. 7, 4. eleXio^vOnv Soph. Phil. 330. eSw- 
^»707j il/. 1029. even the pres. Xv/Liaivopai is used passively 
Lys. p. 180, 42.** So ev'^eaOai is probably passive Soph. CEd. 
T. 1512. and eiWrat yEscA. CAoe;?/t. 302. iVr. Phan. 266. 
comp. /pA. 975.*^ Others have, for the active signification, 
the passive form in the perf., the middle in the aorist ; for the 
passive signification, a 1st aor. pass, as KTao/.iai, KeKniinaiy 
eKTr]aupr]v act. cKTi'iOnv pass. Eur. Hec. 449. — w^Orji^, visus 
sum, has a passive sense only. 

496. The different kinds of verbs, however, are often interchanged 
with each other. Thus we find 

1 , Transitives in the active for neuters, where eavrov may 
generally be supplied. This is most connuon with iiyeiv, (5aX- 
Xeiv, StSoi'at, eXavveiv, e-^etv, levai, and their compounds. Xen. 
Anal). 4, 2, 15. tVct S' e-y-yuc nyov ol ' ¥X\i]ve.Q, sc. ti]v arpa- 
Tiav, which accompanies it, 7, 5, 9. ava-yeiv ' to retreat', Xen. 
Cyr. 1, 4, 24. 7, 1, 45. ^layeiv almost entirely as a neuter, 
persistere. (5d\X e'lc KopuKac, abi in malam rem. irpo<jayeiv 
' march towards'. — e'laftdWeiv, cpl^dWeiv, ' to make an irrup- 
tion', of a river ' to disembogue'. t'7rj/3aAXen', in to einpaX- 
Xov pepoc ' the quota'. TT/ooajSa'AAeii', sc. tw re'i^ei, * attack'. 

=* Valck. ad Eur. Phoen. 10G9. Ast found in EInisl. ad Eur. Ilcracl. 7a7. 

ad Plat. Leg. p. 448.. EInisl. ad Eur. Fiscli. 3 b. p. G'2 seq. 
Ileracl. 701. " Matthia- ad Eur. Vhcru. 'ZoS. 

'' Other examples of the aorist are 

Sj/ntax. Of the Verb. 829 

Plat. Leg. 9. p. 878 B. o-UjiijSaXXeti' 'engaoe'. Xeu. Cyr. 7, 
1, 20. eK^iZovai, of a river, 'to disembogue', kiri^i^ovai 'to 
make progress'. avTaTro^i^ovai Plat. Phccdon. p. 72 B. 'to 
correspond'. StSovai 'to sacrifice oneself, Eur. PJioin. 21. 

EXavj'eti' Xoi. Mem. 3, 3, 1. ^leXavveiv or ^ic^eXavveiv * to 
lide or drive through', Herod. 7, 100. CTreXavveiv , irpoae- 
Xavveiv, Xeu. 1, 4, 8. 8cc. ' ^yeiv, in /caXwc e^eiv, coc (T7rouoj7c 
ei^oi' §. 337, ]. 'to bring to land' (sc. tog vavc), Herod. 6, 
92. ' to hold your course towards', tuc ec tov iroTafxov irv- 
Xi^oQ eyovaac, Herod. 1, 191. ^leyeiv 'to penetrate, to be 
pre-eminent', in Homer //. e', 100. ' to be distant', e^kyeiv 
'to rise', of the sun. eTre^eiv 'to pause, to withhold assent'. 
Kcneyeiv {riiv vavv) ' to bring to land'. Trapkyei impers. licet, 
irpokyeiv 'to be conspicuous'. Trpoaeyeiv (toi^ vovv) ' to attend'. 
Xen.Mem. S.4, 5, 6. — e^tevai, sc. o ttoto/hoc e^i'rjcriv e'lQ OdXaa- 
aav. avievai ' to remit', 8cc.*^ (jwdTrreiv ' to engage', Eur. Phcen. 
1419. where iJ.d.yj]v or a similar word is often added; 'to come 
together' ib. 730. etc Xo^yovc, avvritpa rioXuvet/cet. ciTraXXaTTetv 
* to come off', Xeu. Mem. S. 3, 13, 6. avvapfx6t,eiv 'to suit', 
ib. 2, 6, 20. comp. ib. 24. Tvpoafxi-yvvvai -jn'iayeiv ' to engage', 
Thuc. 7, 70. also ' to be adjacent' Plat. Leg. p. 878 B. The 
following are more rare: Herod. 7, 221. o Se aTroTre^itTro/iei^oc 
avTOG /iieu ovK aTreXnre, 'did not depart'. Thuc. 3, 10. tj^uTv 
oe Kai AOtfvaioiQ l^vf.iiJ.ay^ia eyevero ttjowtov, cnroXnrovTMv 
v/lkSv e'/c TOV MjjSi/cou TroXe^iou. Plat. Phcedon. p. 78 B. 

A7ro(jTi](javT€c, for aTrodTcti'Tefi Herod. 9, 23. Examples are 
frequent in the poets: Soph. Trach. 130. kvkXovciv iox kvk- 
Xovvrai. Eur. El. 1243. (pa'ivovai for (pa'ivovrai^. 

2. Neuters for actives, as aiaaw, pew, Xu/ii7r(i), Sec. See §. 423. 
Eur. Ph. 233. (u Xa^tTrouffa irerpa Trvpoc BiK6pv(poi' creXaq. 
ib. 248. ' Apr)C ai/na ^aiov (pXeyei raSe TroXei^ id. El. 94. 
(Salvu) TToSa with Seidler's note. Comp. Hipp. 1306. Artist. 
Eccl. 161. Pind. Pyth. 4, 268. kou ^e Trove? Tavra. 

3. Neuters for passives. //. ^', 73. Tpwec ' Apriicjy'iXijjv vir 

^ Lob. ad Soph. Aj. 248. ^ Burgess ad Dawes p. 495. Vech- 

* Hoog. ad Viger. p. 181 sq. Bur- ncr Ilellenol. p. 91 sq. ed. Heusiager. 

gess ad Dawes Misc. Crit. p.493s(i. AbrcschadThoni. M.p. 298. Zeune 

Comp. Scha?f. ad Lamb. B. p. 127 sq. ad Vigcr. p. 194 sq. 

83Q Syntax. Of the Verb. 

A^fuwv ' IXtov eiaave^y]aav, avaXKeit^ai. Sojuevrec. where, 
nevertheless, the passive construction with vtto may have been 
determined by Sa^tevrec. //. c', 149. ' Ayaioi v(p) ''E/crOjOoq 
m>^po(p6voio (jyevyovrec With (pevyeiv, acciisatum esse, this 
construction is regularly used, as o(p\eiv vtto tivoc, Plat. Apol. 
S. p. 39 B. 'to be condemned', ^m/ceta^ai vtto tivoc, Xen. H. 
Gr. 4, 1,32. KclaOai generally being equivalent to reOeiaOai. 
Thuc. 1, 130. o Ylavcjaviac, tov Kai irporepov ev /neyaXio o^iw- 
/tiari VTTO Twv EXX?/i'wv (comp. 6, 15.), as Cic. pro Mil. 35, 
96. beatos esse, quibus ea res hoiori fuerit a suis civihns. 
Enrip. Ph. 729. e^et t'iv oyKov rlipyoc, Yi\\'i]vix)v -ndpa. id. 
Med. 1011. Kctrei toi koi av irpoc, reKviov 'in. Plat. Apol. S. 
p. 30 E. ov pa^uoc, tiAXov TOiovrov evpi]aeTe aTeyj'tSc, tt poa Kel- 
fievov Ty TToXet vtto tov Oeov. Vectig. 5,6. ov 


l^ieOa ; This usage is particularly common in the phrase dvrj- 
oKeiv, TTiTTTeiv Herod. 9, 67. vtto tivoq^. 

Neuters acquire in the poets, along with the sense, also the 
form of the passive, as in avXelTui de -nav jxeXaOpov 'resounds 
with the flute' ^. 

4. Actives for passives. Soph. (Ed. T. 967. KevOei kcltu) 
ytjc, for KevOe-ai. comp. Aj. 634. Eitrip. Med. 106. BrjXov 
B' apyjic e^aipofievov veCJyoQ oi/mvyrjc;, wc f^X ^^^4'^*- i"Pt^o»'t 
Ovi^ih) {Piiid. Pyth. 4, 33. CKTeXevTuaei is active, Qvpav 
yeviaOai K. t. X. being the object)*^. Thus eaXw^a, eaXwv are 
always passive, and Homer uses II. e, bob. cTpacpeTtiv, II. »/, 
199. £7,436. Od. y ,28. T pacjie/iiev, for eTpa(pi)T}]v, Tpacpfivai. 

5. Actives for middle verbs (r). Eur. Hec. 911. kutu- 
iravaac,, for KaTairavaaj^ievoc. Arist. lian. 580. -nave tov 
Xoyov, for TTOUdai . Eurip. Or. 288. avaKaXvTTT , ti} Kaaiyvrj- 
Tov Kupa. Phan. 21. o ^ -iidoinj Sovc,*^. JEsch. Pers. 197. 
7re7rXou<; p^yvvaiv a/ii(pi aioj^iaTi (comp. 466. 1024. 1052.), 

* V;ilck.adIIero{].6,45.p.457, 99. Charit. p. 435. Fisch. 3 b. p. 61 sq. 

ad Eur. Hipp. p. 1162. Fisch. 3 a. Erf. ad Soph. CEd. T. 153. ed, min. 
p. 441. •' Bniiick ad Arist. Ran. 269. ad 

^ Elmsl. ad Soph. (Ed. T. 1094. Soph. Phil. 1275. Heind. ad Plat. 

•= Abresch ad /Esch. 1. p. 86, Phaedr. §. 5. 
Brunck ad Soph. (Ed. C. 74. ad Eur. "^ V'alck. Dialr. p. 233 B. C. Pors. 

Bacch. 1041. ad Or. 296. Dorville ad ad Eur. Or. 1. c. 

Sj/tUax. Of the Verb. 831 

which elsewhere is ■7T€pif>pn^aa9at TreTrXouc. So KO/ni^eiv for 
KOfiit,eadai, recuperare, Pind. Pi/th. 4, 188. p'nrreiv for p. eav- 
Tov Eu7'. Cycl. 166. Tlel. 1345. Tepelv ?j Kavcrai irapaayjfiv 
Tip larpM Plat. Gorg. p. 456 B. with Heindorf 's note p. 33. 
^epeiv viKr]v &,c. for (pepeaOai Pind. 01. 8, 85. Soph. (Ed. C. 
651. Ant. 460. El. 1088. &c. Zew. Mm. S. 3, 14, 1. oi^ov 
fpkpeiv. and immediately after, (pepeaOat ^ 

6. Passives for active verbs, or neuters, as o'lKiipevoc, for 
oiKwv Herod. 1, 27. 7,21. ol nepi tou ' AOtov KaTOiKii/iievoi. 
and immediately afterwards, in a passive sense, o yap ''AOwq 

eari opoc, /neya oiKrj/nevov vtto avBpiowu^v. Thiic. 5, 83. 

Eur. Iph. ^.710. Thus in Homer, Trefjyvynevov eluai, for Trc(pev- 
ykvai. But the cases in which the perf. pass, is at the same 
time the perf. mid. do not belong to this place. See §. 493. 

7. Middle verbs for active. //. a', 501. aWa av tou y 
eXOovaa, Qea, vweXixJao decTjiiujv. ^, 235. t ipi]aaGQai, for 
Tip.ri(7ai ae. Herod. 2, 121, 4. tt poayayeaQai, for Trpoayd- 
yeiv. Soph. (Ed. T. 287. Itt pa^\v, for eirpa^a. Aj. 647. 
KpvTTTeTai, for KpvirTei. comp. Trach. 474. id. Trach.680. 
Trpovdi^a^aTO, for TrpovBiSa^e, as Pind. 01. 8, 77. So in 
prose, TrpoTpeireaOai Tiva, e. g. Xen. Mem. S. 1, 2, 32. 3, 3, 8. 
4, 5, 1. for TrpoTpeireiv. ibid. 2, 1, 1. 3, 3, 15. But Plat. 
Gorg. p. 484 B. HpaKXiiQ -nXdcraTO TUQ (BovQ means * as his 
spoil', as Soph. (Ed. T. 1021. TralZa /it lovofxat^To 'his son'. 

Of the fut. mid. used for the fut. act. see §. 184. Obs. 1. 

8. Middle verbs for passives in the aor. 2. Od. X , 334. 
v , 2. Kr]\r]6pM S' €<TyovTO, suavitate retinebantiir. Pind. Pyth» 
1, 16. o Se {ai&TOC^ Kvu}CF(T(x}v vypov vmtov aiiope7, reaTr, pnralai 
KaTacT'^of.ievoG. Eurip. Hipp. 27. Plat. Phadr. p. 244 E. 
id. ThecBt. p. 165 B. ei^ cjypeuTi avcr^oinevoc. But KaTecr-yeTO 
Od. y , 284. means 'he held back', as //. ?j', 248. yakKoc ev 
pivip ff^eTo), impetum suum repressit. Od. y , 196. XnreaOai 
is used as a passive, as Herod. 4, 84. eX'nrovTO is used in 
the same sense as /coraXei^GrTi'ot just before. Herod. 8, 90. 

^ Misc. Obss. 5, 3. p. 63. Dorv, ad o-ai (or Tropitraadcu Sch?ef. A\i\).Dcm. 
Char. p. 411. Lob. ad Soph. Aj. 129. l.p. 254. Of ^^uXctrretj/ ib. 2. p. 215. 
Ehnsl. ad Eur. Med. 7G9. Oi' -rr opt- 

832 Syntax. Of the Tenses. 

al vrjeQ ^latpdapearn {-(pOapovro. See §. 204, 7, b.) we 
should read with Hermann ^lecpOaparo. Eur. Hel. 42. irpov- 
Bep.riv, for TrpovTe6r)v. Also the aor. 1. Od. 0' , 35. Kovpu) Se 
oiife> Kai 7r€i'Tr]K0VTa KpivaaBiov Kara Srj^ioi'. 4H. Kovpti) ce 
K pivOevT€. Hes.Sc. H. 173. Kuirpoi Sotot aTTOvpa}.ievoi xpvy^ac. 
Find. Pi/th. 4, 432. vpa^aGOai Tr6vov. Find. 01. 7, 27. 
oCppaveXojpiovavSpa Trap AA^etw (Tre^avwcra/itevoi' au'ecrw, 
where, however, <TT€<p. may be taken in its proper signification, 
inasmuch as he gained himself the prize by his own strength. 
Soph. Antig. 354. kgI (pQe-yi-ia Kai r]vep.6ev (ppovriua /cat aarv- 
vofiovc, opyac eSi^a^aro, where, according to the common 
usage, eEiSct-^Bri should be put. But eBicayOrf signifies, ' he 
learnt, passively, from others', e^ida^aro ' he learnt by his own 
agency'* ('taught himself). 

Obs. The form of the aor, 1. mid. is found in Homer in the verbs 
ftiji'ai, cvyui, t/3//aa-o, ecixruTO, for t/'?//, ecv, e. g. //. k, 513. 517. 

Of the Tenses. 

497. The signification of the Tenses has already been given ge- 
nerally §.158 seq. According to the remarks there made, the 
Present, as in all languages, designates an action present, and 
still incomplete : and of the three tenses of past time, the aorist 
marks a past action in itself, without any reference to another 
action, at the same or a different time. Hence it is used in 
narrations ; and so far answers entirely to the perfect of the 

The Perfect, on the contrary, expresses an action which has 
taken place, indeed, at a previous time, but which is connected 
either in itself or its consequences, or its accompanying cir- 
cumstances, with the present time. Thus eypaxpa signifies, 
indeed, the completion of the action, but it does not determine 
vviiether the consequences of it, viz. the writing which I have 

* llemst. Obs^s. Misc. 10. p. 21(3. Km. (ii. Or. p. 23(3. .Scha?r. acl I'. 
Comp. Maikl. ad Lys. p. 650. ed. 1\. Gnoin. p. 166. Lob.adPhryn. p. 319. 
Dorv. ad Charit. p. 358. llcrm. de 

syntax. Of the Tenses. 833 

written, be still existing or not. Teypacpa, on the contrary, 
not only signifies ' 1 have written', but shows also the con- 
tinued existence of the writing. In the same manner}Ka 
' I am married' ; on the contrary, eyufirjaa (eyrifxa) ' I mar- 
ried'; 7] TToXic eaX(oK6 'the city is taken, conquered', rj ttoXig 
edXu) 'the city was taken'^\ Isoa: de Pac. p. 163 A. o fiev 
TToXefXOC awavTiov vi^iac rujv elprj/ttei'WM aTreo-repTj/ce (con- 
tinued privation)' Kai yap toi irevearepovQ TreiroiriKe (con- 
tinued poverty) Kai iroXXovc, Kivdvvovc VTTOixkveiv ^vayKaae 
(transient), kui irpoQ TOvc''EXXin'ac, Sta/Se/SXr/zce, Kai iravra 
T/JOTToi' TeTaAai7rwjo»;/cei' v/ndc. Thus immediately after- 
wards: T a pa\i] c e'lQ nv vvv Trpoc aXXi]Xovc; KaO ear a 1.1 ev mto 
which our counsels have driven us, and in which we still find 
ourselves', not Karearvi^iev, according to the reading of Hier. 
Wolf. Comp. Xen. Uellen. 5,3, 27. Hence /ce/cT7,/tat signifies 
* I possess', properly * I have acquired to myself (/craojuat), 
so that the acquisition is still mine'. 

The Plusquamperfectum denotes a past action, but one 
which still continued, either by itself or in its consequences 
and accompanying circumstances during another past action. 
Herod. 8,61. ravra Se oi ■7rpoe(pep6, on vX<vKeadv re /cat 
KareixovTO ai 'A0r7vat. Thuc. 2, 18. i) Olvori, oixra^ ev 
l^edop'ioic Tvc, 'Attikvc Kai Botwrtac, er ere'i^icTTO, kql avrio 
(bpovp'uo oi ABr]val.oi e'^poivro. 

The Imperfect expresses a. an action continuing during an- 
other action which is past, the accompanying circumstances of 
an action, or of a situation in past time, whether the main action 
be expressly stated, or be inferred from the context. It differs 
from the aoristin this, that the aorist marks an action past but 
transient ; the imperfect, an action past but at that time con- 
tinuing. Xen. Anab. 5, 4, 24. tovq TreXTaaraQ eSe^ai'TO oi 
BdpSapoi Kai eutiv OVTO' CTret S' eyyiic, r/trav oi oirXiTOi, 

erpa-rrovTO. Kai oi ireXraaTai evUvc, enrovro ot ot 

oTrATrai ev rd^ei e'nrovTO. 

h. An action continued by being frequently repeated, hocr. 
TT.avTtS. p.349 B. ov KaraXa/Boi'Tec tov Ileijoaia Ka\ top oitov 

^ Primisser, p. 62, 

834 Sy)itax\ Of the Tenses. 

Tov Gv ry X^P'i ^'£<^^^tp^'''^ f^^^ ''"'l^ y^v ere/nvere Kai to. 
TrpoacTTeia eveTrprjaare Kai TeAevTwvTec, toiq TCiy^eai rrpoae- 

c. An action begun or contemplated but not completed, an 
attempt not brought to a successful conclusion. Herod. 1, 6S. 
e/LiiaOovTO ('he wished to hire') Trap' oh k eK^i^6vT0crr\v av\i]v' 
■vpovui Se it)c, aveyvtoae, evoiKiaOi]. Eur. Here. F. 538. toju 
eOvr](TK€ reKv, a7rwXXv^t»}i' ^' e-yw 'were on the point of being 
killed', as 551. kgI irpoc, (3'iav eOuiicTKere. So Iph. T. 26. 

0^5. It is often optional whether a writer will express or not the 
continuance of the state produced by a past action, because this may 
be self-evident, or it may have been his design to direct attention chiefly 
to the action itself. Hence the aorist is often found where properly the 
perfect should have been used ; but very rarely, perhaps never in the 
Attics, is the perfect used instead of the aorist. Thus Plato says 

Tim. p. 47 D. // apjAoria els KaT(Ltcu<Tf^n](nv Kcii ^v^cpioyiav eavTi] 

^vfxfjia)(os vTfo 'MovcTbiv c ecorai. but immediately after pvdfios Itti- 

Kovpos CTTi -aura vtto tiov avrdv eSodrj, for ^e^orat. Nor is it always 
necessary, in speaking of past actions, to express that one contiimes 
while the other takes place, and therefore the aorist is found frequently 
instead of the plusq. perf. in narration, e. g. I'huc. 1, 102. ol 'Adrjvaloi 

evdvs, €7r€ih)\u}pi]aav sv^juaj^oi eyerotro. "The 

essential character of the aorist is therefore entirely negative, i. e. the 
use of the other praeterites is limited to definite cases, and the aorist 
comes in, wherever it is impossible, or is not in the purpose of the 
writer, distinctly to mark this relation "." 

498. Of the several forms of the Future, which, as belonging to 
one kind of verb, are as little to be distinguished in signification 
as the two aorists, the 3d fut. pass., or as it is called the Paulo 
post futurum, marks a. a future action, the beginning of 
which, however, falls in a time Avhich, relatively to the action 
itself, is already past ; and therefore an action, the consequences 
of which, or the state resulting from it, will be permanent in 
future time. Thus it bears the same relation to the other fu- 
tures, as, among the tenses of past time, the perfect does to the 
aorist. U. w , 742. c/uot ^e XeXe'ixperai aXyea Xvypd 'will rc- 

'^ Buttm. Gr. Gr. p. 314. Obs. ]. 3rd ed. 

Syntax. Of the Tenses. 835 

main to me'. Hesiod. 'E/oy. 177. aXX' e}.nn]c, koi roTtrt ^e- 
lni^eTui eaOXa KaKolaiv ' will be mingled' (a permanent state, 
mista erunt, not miscebuntiir). Thuc. 2, 64. -yi/wre ^e ovofxa 

ixeyiarov avTi)v (rrjv ttoAiv) e-^ovtrav ev iraaiv avOpwTroiQ, 

Kai ^vva/LUv jLieyiaTtjv Brj f^i-^Xpi TOuSe KeKTii/aevriv, tjc, ec, ai^iov 

TOLC eTTiyiyvojLiei'oic, ^I'^V**? KuraXeXeixperai, 'will 

remain'. Plat. Rep. 6. p. 506 A. ovkovu r)fuv tj TroXixe/a 
reXewG K€Koa /ill] (J eTui, eav o toiovtog avTi)v eTTiaKoiry (pvXa^ 
o TovTwv e7riaTi]/Li(jjv, ' will be completely organized', ib. 5. 
p. 465 A. TrpeajSvrepo) /itei' veiorepuyv Travrtjv ap-yeiv re Kai 
KoXateiu TrpoareTa^erai, ' will be ordered', i. q. vofxoc, eaTai. 
Aristoph. Eqii. 1369. eTreiO o ttoAitjjc tv KciTaXoyio olibeic, Kara 
aTTovSuG nereyypaipnaeTai (* will or shall become enrolled 
in another class'), a\X jloairep i]v to TrptSrov, eyyeypaxperai 
(' will remain enrolled in that in which he was'). Plat. Epist. 2. 
^.31] B. 01 Xoyot <yeaiyi]aovTai. Hence of those verbs 
whose present marks only the beginning of an action, but the 
perf. the complete action, as ^il^ui^r/^at, /cl/cT^/^itaj, Sec. the fut. 3. 
is used, in order to show that the perfect action is to happen 
in future : KeKr^ao/iai ' I shall possess', but KTr]aof.iai ' I shall 
acquire for myself. Thus too the futures SeS{]ao/.iai, rreTrav- 
aopaif TreTTpdaof-uu, &c. express not so much the simple fut. 
pass, a future transient action, as a future permanent con- 
dition, which will have arisen from a transient action*^. 

Hence this future is often used, in order to express the ra- 
pidity of an action, by taking not the beginning of it, but its 
completion, and the state resulting from it. Soph. Tr. 586. 
pefxi]\avr}Tai Tovpyov, ei t( /ii] cokoj irpaaaeiv inaraiov et of jui], 
TreiravaeTai. Arht. Plat. 1027. ti yap Trottjcret, (ppaZ,e, Kai 
ireTTpa^erai. Comp. 1200. Plat. Gorg. p. AQd T>. Instead 
of this simple form a circumlocutory future is also used, which 
consists of the future of el^itt and the partic. perf. pass. Isocr. 
TT. avTiS. §. 317. (pavepivc, eaecrOe Karexp-qC^ia j^ikvoi Tr\v 
TOinvrnv a^iKiav, Kai tt erroiriKOTec ofioiov, viz. ei tovtiov 
KarayvojcreaOe, decreveritis, feccritis. Xen. Ci/r. 7 , 2, 13. 7V Se 

^ See the instances in Piers, ad 1303. To this future is applicable 
Moeriti.l23.293.'294. Comp.Brunck wliat Schffifcr maintains of 1. fut. 
acl^sGh.Prom.84G.8(i3. Eur.Bacch. pass. Appar. Dcm. 1. p. 600. 

S36 Syntax. Of the Tenses. 

^lapTraaryc, Kai ai reyvai aoi, ug -rrrjyac (paai twi' Ka\(Jov elvai, 
^ie(|>0a/o^tevai eaovTai. Anab. 1 , 6, 36. ]]v oe 7rot?j(TTjTe a 
Xeyere, idTe, on avSpa KaraKavovrec kaeaOe, Scc. Hellen. 

1, 5, 18. o ETrajiitvwi'Sac evOvjuov/nevoc, otl avTOC 

XeXu^acr^iei'oc Travrcnracn ry eavTuv co^y eaoiTO. This 
answers to the J'ut. exactum of the Latuis. Comp. L,ys. p. 139, 
20. 166,7. 178,24. 185,29. Of a smiilar use'of the per- 
fect see §. 500. 

b. The remaining futures express not simply a future action, 
but one which is considered as predetermined by circumstances 
and the state of affairs. Xen. Mem. S. 2, 1, 17. oi etc, rnv 

pacrtXt/CTjv Teyvriv Trai^evo/nevoi ti ^ia(pepov(yi twv e^ avay- 

Ki]C KciKOTTadovvTUH', €1 ye Tretv/jcrouffi Kai St^Tjcrovct, * if 
they are destined to hunger and thirst'. So wlien the purpose 
is spoken of: Flat. Gorg. p. 49 I E. tov opBwc ^iwa6[.ievov 
* he who means to live rightly'. Flat. Rep. 2. p. ^Ib A. Comp. 
Phccdon. p. 73 C. Also with the partic. Rep. 3 in. ToiavT 
arra aKovareov toig rytv aWijXtov (piX'iav p,!] irepi apiKpov 
TToiriaopevoic, * whom we do not wish slightly to value it'. Plat. 
Rep. 5. p. 459 E. et av i] ayeXri tijJV C^yvXaKiov on paXiaTa 
aGTaa'iacjToc earai, 'is to be', where just before it was ex- 
pressed, ei p.eWei to -rroipviov on aKporarov eivai. Hence 
also in questions, mixed with the conj. Eur. Ion. 771. e'l-rrw/xev 
V aiyujpev ; i] ti dpaaopev ; ' what are wetodo?' i.e. * what 
do you wish that we should do V 

The participle future is used in imprecations. Arist. Ach. 
865. TTouev TTpoakTTrav oi kokwc airoXovpevoiy not properly as a 
wnsh, though expressed in Latin by r^ui utinam male pereant, 
but as a prediction of the fate which we regard as inevitable. 
Comp. Eur. Ilcracl. 872. Ct/cI. 474. Luc. D. D. 14, 2. 

c. The future is used with ov and an interrogation in the first 
person, in earnest exhortations to oneself; in the second pei'son, 
for the imperative. 

a. Eur. Andr. \2\2. ov aTrapci^opai Kopav; Med. 883. ovk 
airaXXa-^Oyiaopai Ovpov ; liel. 551. Comp. Here. F. 1151.* 

" Elnisl.Class.Journ.n. 15,i).210. (Eur. Iph. c. n. Markl. Lips. 1822. p. 296.) 

St/ntax. Of the Tenses, 837 

/3. Soph. Phil. 976. ovK el /ueQeIc ra ro^a tovt' Cjuot naXiv, 
for airiOi, but with an expression of quickness. Comj). Soph. Qui. 
T. 638. AJ. 75. 7Vy/cA. 1183. yl^^^. 244. 886. I'lat. Gorg. 
p. 466 E. id. Symp. p. 201 E. ovk ev<priiniiaeic, \ for ei(^»)|uei'\ 
In propositions of two members ov is sometimes found in the 
first, and jutj in the second. Soph. Aj. 75. ov cny ave^ei, ^urjSe 
BeiXiav dpeic; Trach. 1 183. ^r/Se belongs then only to the second 
member. (See Elnisl. ad Med. 1 120. where they are found to- 
gether.) So that ^tr;St- BeiX'iau upelc, is equivalent to koI uXki/lioc 
eaei, and this referred to ov in the first member (' will you not be 
brave?') is equivalent to * be brave!' Soph. (Ed. T. 637. ovk 
el av T o'lKovQ, av re, Y.pkov, Kara aTeyac, /cat ^itj to /uijSei/ 
iiXyoG etc ^te-y o'laere ; where prt to p. o'laere is nearly equi- 
valent to eaaere, ovk eaaere ', i. e. eare^. 

The future without an interrogation is used for the impera- 
tive. //. K, 88. yvioaeai Arpeidiiv Ayape/nvova, i. e. yvuiBi. 
Comp. Eur. Ion. 1377. Med. 1 1 60. Here. F. 794. Xen. Cyr. 
8, 3, 47. aXXa av peu TrXovrioif o'lKoi jueveTq. The force of an 
imperative exists also in Xen. Hist. Gr. 2, 3, 34. vpe7c ovv, eav 
auiCppovtire, ov tovtov, aXX vfxuiv (peiaeaOe. Oi Aristoph. Pint. 
488. juaXuKov B evSaxrere py]Bev see Herm. ad Eiir. Med. ed. 
Elmsl. p. 37 6. Lips. Of ou^/j with future or aorist see §. 516. 

d. Besides the simple forms of the future, there is also a 
periphrastic future, made up of ^iteAAw and the infinitive of the 
present, the aorist, or the future (not the perfect, for redfavat 
Plat, Apol. p. 30 C. is a present, according to the sense, and 
Horn. Hynm. in Cer.456. we should read B'lSeaOaL for Be^eadai), 
and corresponds with the Latin periphrastic future of the par- 
ticiple in -urus, and the verb sum. It expresses the future re- 
motely (5'o/j/«. El. 318. h'^ovTOQ h peXXovToc) in relation to 
another time, which is marked by the tense in which peXXu) 
stands, e. g. /.leXXd), epeXXov, epeXXt]<ja ypa(peiv, scripturus 
sum, eram, fui. In English this is expressed sometimes by 
' about to do anything, intending, is to be', &.c. Plat. Hep. 2. 
p. 370 C. o yap yewpyoQ ovk avroc, Tronjaerai ^avno to upOTpov, 

^ Herm. ad Vig. p. ?40, 145. Ehnsley, points and explains these 
Elmsl. ad Soph. (Ed. C. 897. passages difterently. See §. 516, b. 

•^ Herm. adSoph.Aj. 75. following 

838 Syntax. Of the Tenses. 

et jueXXet KaWiov eivai, ' if the plough is to be good', i. e. ' if 
he intends that it should be good'. Comp. Aristot. Pott. 1 in. 
Plat. Rep. 6. p. 488 D. ib. p. 491 A. ttoc v/luv o/xoXoy/jo-ei, 
ToiavTTiv (pvaiv kuI Travra e-^ovcjav, otra TrpoaeTa^a/j-ev vvu Si), ei 
reXewc /neXXei (according to the Cod. Reg. vulg. ^eXXot^) 
<pi\6(yo(poG yeveaOai, * if one wishes', ib. 8. p. 567 B. V7re^- 
aipelv TOVTOVQ iravTaQ del rov Tvpavvov, ei (WeXXei ap<^eiv, 
which immediately afterwards is expressed e'lirep ap^ei. 

The infinitive is often wanting, when it can be easily sup- 
plied either from the context or otherwise. Msch. Pers. 810. 
Comp. Soph. Trach. lb. Isocr. Enc. Hel. p. 213 B. tclq p.ev 
e-KopBovv, rac, Se ef.ieWov, toIc, 2e i]TTei\ovv Toiv TToXeuyv, 
sc. iropBeiv. Comp. Paneg. p. 68 D. (C. 37.) Plat. Thecet. 
j9. 148 E.*^ Sometimes there is an accusative with peWeiv, 
which, however, is determined by the infmitive to be supplied, 
as Ear. Iph. A. 1124. olcrOa yap TTcnpoc, TravTUXi a jneWei ye 
sc. TToie'iv. Or. 1188. ayaOd is the subject accusative, to to. 
dyaOci /ncWciv caeaOai'^. Hence /neWtJv ' future', and the ex- 
pression Ti ou /ueXXci ; Plat. Hipp. Min. p. 365 C. eSoKci apa, 
wc eoiKev, 'OfiiipM erepoQ (.lev eivai avrip oXtjOj^o, erepoc, Se 
xpevdric, aXX' ovy^ o avroc. 11111. TTwc yap ov /iieWei, a> ^loKpa- 
Tec; sc.doKelv, Miow should it not appear thus to him', i. e. 
' without doubt'. Rep. 6. p. 494 B, Tt B' ov /neWei ; Comp. 
ibid. 8. p. 568 A. Phcedon. p. 78 B.'^ 

As the simple future is used (No. b.) so peWo) with the in- 
finitive, where we should say 'shall, must' &.c. Od. rl , 270. 
») yap e'jueXXoi' en \vvkaeaBai oitvl TroXX?^, ' I was to do it', i. e. 
'it was appointed me by fate'. Od. v, 293. ovk ap e/neWec 
Xnl^eiv dirarcuov * you were never going to give over'. Plat. 
Rep. 5. p. 459 E. ei av rj ayeXij twv (jyvXaKwv on /uaXtcrTa 
daraa'iaaTOQ carai 'is to be', where just before it was ex- 
pressed, ci /iieXXei TO iromviov on aKporarov elvai. Hence 
of that which according to probability is the consequence of 
the circumstances and the state of things : Od. S , 200. i^ikWeic, 
Be av 'i^i-icvai, where we also say ' you icill probably know'. //. 

* Heind, ad Plat. Pann. p. 291 scq. <" Heind. ad Plat. Theaet. p. 304. 

•> Hemstcrh. ad Lucian. 2. p. 54G. ad Crat. p. 67. Hipp. p. 139. Wyt- 
"= Matthite ad Eur. Or. 1175. tenb. ad Pint. p. 50 C. 

Sj/iitax. Of the Tenses. 839 

(j), 83. Plat. Leg. 3. p. 679 D. yeveal StajBiovaai TroXXat 


vvv are-yvorepoL jLieXXovaiv elvai, ' are likely to be'*^. Some- 
times it is found after conditional propositions, to express the 
future consequence of this condition. Herod. 2, 43. et ye Trap* 
EAat;vwv eXapov ovvo/xa tgv caif.iovoQ, tovtwv ovk tjkkttu 
eineXXov fxvi](.ni]v e^eiv, as a necessary consequence of Xafteiv. 
Eur. Iph. A. 1414 seq. 

This peculiar signification of the tenses is most clearly marked 499. 
in the indicative and participle, e.g. Mid. ji. 57 6, 18. 
Kai yap av aOXtoc w, ei TOiavra ttuOwv /cat Traffvwi', ?7^teXoyv 
(jjv irepi TovThiv epelv i]p.eXXov rrpoc, vj^iac Hence the participles 
of the aor. act. can only be rendered in Latin by the participle 
of an active verb, making the object of the Greek participle 
the subject, rendering the verb active by a passive, and referring 
it to that subject, e. g. Tavra Troii^aac,, e'lnCiv, his factis, dictis. 
TOV Trarepa iBbjv, patre viso. 

The remaining moods of the present, however, serve at the 
same time for the imperfect, and thus especially the infinitive 
present is used, in order to express the continuance of the ac- 
companying circumstances of an action, or a past action fre- 
quently repeated. Herod. 8, 69. of Xerxes : Ojuwq §e roTo-t 
TrXeoai TreiOeavai eh'eXeve, Tooe Karaco^ac' Trpoc /nev Eu/Sotij 
acpkac, eOeXoKfiKeeiVf ' had fought badly', where in the oratio 
recta the imperf. rideXoKaKow would be used. 6, 1 17. 'Etti^jjXov 
Tuiv ojujuariov GrepriOi]vai, ovre irXi^yevra ovBev tou adjfxaTOC; 
0VT6 [3Xr]6e.vra, Kcti to Xoittou t)7c ^o»?c BiareXeeiv (conti- 
nuing) airo TOVTOV tov -^povov eovTu Tu(j!)Xoi'. Xe'veti' (repeat- 
ed, and therefore continuing) Se avTou rjKovaa rrepl tov TrdOeoc. 
TOiovoe Tiva Xoyov' avcpa ot coKeeiv onXiTtiv uvTiaTrjvai jiieyav, 
TOV TO yeveiov ttiv acnnca Traaav aKia^eiv' to Se (paapa tovto 
ewvTOV pcv TT a pel^eXB e7i>, tov ce ccovtov TrapaaTaTrw itiro- 
KTelvat. Comp. 1, 1. 8, 109. Xen. Mem. S. 2, 6, 31. P/at. 
Rep. 10. p. 614 C. ciKa(JTac Se peTa^i) tovtwv KaOrjaOai' 
ouc, eTrei^r) dia^iKaaeiav, tovc, pei> BiKuiovc KeXeveiv iropeveaOai 
TYjv etc, Se^tov Te Kai avto dia tov ovpavov. opav ^r) 

•^ Clarke ad Od. a, 232. Passow's Lexicon. 

840 Syntax. Of the Tenses. 

Tuvrri juev KaO eKarepov to yaaf.ia rov ovpavov re Kai tj/c yric 
uTnovaac. rac, xpv^dc, ' had sat down, had ordered him, that he 
had seen' ; and thus in the whole following passage; avievai, 
Karapaiveii', KaraaKrivaaOai, aairat^eaQai, TrvvQaveaOai, cii)- 
yeladai, &c. all actions vvhicli are continued in their frequent 
repetition. Comp. ib. 2. p. 359 D. 360 B. Symp. p. 213 B. 
Soph. Trach. 70. Arist. Av. 472. Demosth. p. 46, 19. 
So also in the optative (in the or. ohiiqua) : Xen. Mem. S. 2, 
6, 13. rj/covcra, on TlepiKXtjc ttoWqc; {eino^ac) eTriaraiTO, 
where also r]Tri.(TTaro might stand, but not eTricFTarai. So lov 
Eur. Troad. 1225. f.ieyac, e/noi ttot wv avaKTiop TroXewc, for 
Sc v<yOa, not el. Comp. ih. 1229. Andr. 968. Hel. 1457. 
lofi. 1327. KTeivovaa, for on eKreivec. The part. pres. de- 
notes a repeated action, Xen. Hist. Or. 2, 4, 25. irpovofxac, Se 
TTOiovfievoi Kai Xa/i/3u vo vrec ^vXa /cat OTTwpav eKaOevdov 
TraXiv Iv Yleipaiei' and an action undertaken but not yet com- 
pleted, after a verb of motion. Find. Pi/th. 4, 188. iKopav 
Koi.iitMv TrarpoQ ei.iov nfxuv. Comp. §. 566, 6. But since in 
Herodotus, as well as Homer, the imperfect and the aorist are 
not distinguished accurately enough in signification from each 
other, the former often puts the infinitive imperfect for the 
aorist, e. g. 2, 121, 5. 

500. Since in the perfect the chief regard is paid to the perma- 
nence of the consequences of an action (see §. 497.), and the 
action itself is almost left out of view, it is also used to express 
the rapid execution of an action. Soph. Trach. 83. ovk el 
)c,vvkp^ii)v, r]v'iK 1] aeawapeOa, Keivov (3iov aujaavTOc, which re- 
presents the consequence as immediate, whereas aio0i]cr6peda 
would have led us to conceive of it as taking place later. So 
also Phil. 75. ei pe ro^wv eyKparric ai(TOi](TeTai, oXtoXa, 
stronger than oXovpai. Comp. CE(/. T. 1166. Eur. Iph. T. 
992. Eur. Or. 940. ei 8e 817 KaraKreveiTe pe, o vopoc avelrai, 
* will be annulled in that moment'. Ei. 690. Comp. llhes. 482. 
Herod. 9, 78. Dein. tt. avpp. p. 178, 17. irac o irapwi' (poj^OQ 
XeXvrai^. In most of these cases the perfect answers to the 
fut. exact, of the Latins in the apodosis. 

^ See MatthicE Not. atl Eur. Or. 929, Med. 1053. 

Sj/)tt(ix. Of the Toises. 841 

The perfect keeps these, its proper significations, throuj^h all 

its moods. Herod. 7, 20 8. uKriKoei Be wc aXia^ieuri eirj 

TavT\i arfHiTiri oAt'yrj. 3, 75. e'Aeye oaa a-yaOu Kvfmc, Wepaaa 
7r£7roii]Koi. Xen. Cur. 6, 2, 9 seq. eXeyov, on Kpolaoc, peu 
rj-ycjuwv /ecu aTpaTirfoc, ttuvtcov yfj-ni^ieuoQ etJj twi^ TToAt^uwi', 
SeSoy^ntTOV S' ci'u ttocti toTc avpf^ikyoic, ^aaiXavai ttucdj t>j 
^yi'ttjiiet GKaarov Trapelvcu 8cc. Comp. 2, 4, 17, Arist. Av. 1350. 
apSjOeTof -ye iravv voiu'itoi-iev be ai' 7re7rX?jyr? irciTepa, vgottoq 
utv. Equ. 1148. i-weiT avayKulco iraXiv e^epe7v, ott av 
/ce/cXo(^a»(Tt juou. 

Hence the perfect is used in the rest of the moods, when the 
writer wishes to show that the condition mentioned is to be con- 
tinued. P/at. Rep. 8. p. 564 C. w (Kr?(/)r7i'e) Bi) Set toi^ ayaOov 

larpov re Kal voinoOerrju TroXecoc, wopptoOev evXaftifiaOai, 

jxaXiara /Lieu, ottojc f^v ey-yevr/aOor, cii^ Se eyyevr^aOov, oirtvc on 
Ta\i(TTa (jvv avToic toTo Knp'ioic eKrerfirinOov. Xoi. Hell. 5, 
4, 7. e^iovrec Be eliTov, tw Ovpav KeKXelaOai ' that the door 
should remain shut'. Thus feOvaOi II. x, 365. does not signify 
'die', but is the same as /ceTo-o QavCjv. reOvahiv, oTe f.ioi /.iriKeTi 
TovTo liieXoi, Mimnerm. not 'may I die!' but 'would I were 
dead !' Thuc. 8, 74. 'iva, i]v py) virciKovaioai, TeQvi]KMai * may be 
dead', i. e. ' be put to death without delay'. Soph. Phil. 1 280. 
Trkiravpai ' I cease instantly'. This is the case particularly in 
the imperative perfect, the use of which is by no means con- 
fined to verbs whose perfect has the sense of the present, nor 
does it occur only in the poets, but is used especially to denote 
j the complete termination of an action, its results being per- 

manent: Plat. Eiithi/d. p. 278 D. TavTa pev ovv, a) EvOvBr]pe 
re Kctl AiovvaoBojpe, TreTraiaOoj re vplv, Kai iawc iKavioc, eyei, 
with the implied idea that there should be no more sport, id. 
Rep. 6. p. 503 B. vvv Be tovto pev TeroXpriaOoj e'nrelv, on 
TOVG aKpi(5e(TTaT0VG (^uXa/cac cpiXoa6<povc Bel KaQiGravai. id. 
Rep. 8. p. 561 seq. reraxOo^ vp^v kuto. Bi^poKpar'iau o roi- 
ovTOC ui'np. ib. 553 A. aireipyaaOio Br) r\plv Kai avrt] r) 
TToXiTeia, i)i' oXiytijO^tav KaXovaiv. id. Leg. 4. />. 7 12 A. ib. 9. 
p. 874 D. ib 10. p. 893 B. aye Br), Oeou c'l irore irapa- 
/cXrjTeoi' T/^iTv, vvv eario touto o'vtio yevopevov, eiri ye airo- 
Bei^iv, ioc. e'la'i, rrjv avT(ov cnrovBij ira paKeKXriaOcov. Lucian. 


842 Sytitax. Of the Temes. 

D. Mort. 10, 10. TO ayKvpiov aveaTTaaOio * let the anchor be 
weighed, and remain so' : especially id. ib. 30, 1. o nev Xtjctttjc 
ovroc ^iIjctt par OQ ec, Tov nvpi(l)\eye9ovTa e^</3e/3X7?(T0(u* (to 
remain there) o S' lepocrvXoQ vtto xr/c ^i/na'ipac ciaaTraadiirio 
(an action passing; by, and leaving no remarkable consequences), 
o Se Tvpavvoc, J 'Ep/iiii, irapa rov Tituov airoraOeic, viro rtov 
yvirwv Ketpeadh) (continued action) kui ovtoq to jjTrop. Comp. 
Thitc. 1,71. In particular eipi'iaBo) is used at the close of a 
discourse of a topic : Xen. Mem. S. 4, 2, 19. o/tia»o ^e eipncrOo) 
poi, a^iKwrepov elvai tov e/covra i//euSo/uevov tou ukovtoq, as 
e'lpvaOai Eur. Hec. 236. Comp. Isocr. Paneg. p. 43 D.^ 

Further, it is to be remarked, that it is as little necessary in 
the rest of the moods as in the indicative, always to show de- 
terminately this continuance of an action, or its consequences, 
by the form ; and that hence the aorist is sometimes used where, 
accurately speaking, the perfect should be put. Thus De- 
mosthenes in Midiam, p. 576, 23. oi»x^ o c(TK€ppevoc, ov^ o 
HepifiivrjaaQ xa d'lKaia Xeyeiv vvv, for jue/nejor/ti'jjjcwc for the 
consequences of /.lepip-vav are continued as well as those of 
fTKeiTTeaOai, and he had said just before, /. 16. e-yw Be y 
ecrKeCJyOai f.iev (pvph fat ovk av apvi]9eim', K<ii^ /ne peXerv^Gvai 
y (Lc evrtv (.laXiara epo'i^. But it does not hence follow that the 
perfect and the aorist have exactly the same signification. 

501. The aorist in all the moods, except the indicative and the 
participle, is usually expressed in Latin and English by the 
present. But in Greek this distinction between the imperative, 
optative, conjunctive, infinitive of the aorist, and the same 
moods of the present, appears to obtain, — that the aorist de- 
signates an action transient, and considered independently in its 
completion, but the present a continued and frequently re- 
peated action, or one in which the beginning only is considered. 
Thus Plato Hep. 9. 7>. 572 D. 0ec ro'ivw 7rd\n> xou roiovrov 
ri^T) Trpea^vTepov yeyovoroc veov v'lov ev role tovtov av ijOeai 
reBpafifxkvov. T'iOr]i^ii. TiOei tou'vv kui xa avra eKeiva Trepi 
avTov yiyvopeva, because the first shows the admission of a 
proposition, which can only be instantaneous and transient, 

» Musgr. ctBrunckad E. IIcc. 1. c. r^lusn. 68. 
'' Schsefer on Person's note ad Eur. 

Sj/itlax. Oj' (he Tenses. 843 

although the proposition or the supposition itself be continuing; 
but in Tt^ft every new point of comparison requires the repe- 
tition of the admission. Xe/t. Cyrop. 5, 1, 2. Ka\e<jac o 
Kvpoc *A/oa(77n)v MjjSoi', tovtov GKeXevae Sia(pvXa!^ai gvtm 
T7JV re yvvaiKa /cat t?^' (TKr]vr]v, where he refers only to the ac- 
tion as one concluded in itself; on the contrary, §. 3. TavTr}v 
ovv eKeXevaev o KvpoQ BiaipvXaTTeiv rov Apa(nri]V, ewe uv 
avToc Xa(3y, because the addition ewe ai> &.c. requires the con- 
tinuance of the same action, id. Mem. S. I, 1, 14. to7c /nev 
aei Kiveiadai iravTa (So/ceTv), toTc oe ouSev av irore KivrjOi)- 
vat, Kal TOiG jnev Travra yiyveadai re Kai airoXXvaOo i, rote 
B' ovT av -yei^eo-^ai TTore ov^ev, ovre airoXeaOai, where the 
infin. aor. with av in the oratio obliqua answers completely to 
the optat. aor. with av in the oratio recta (see of the Infinitive), 
and designates an action abstractedly, without reference to its 
continuance or frequent repetition : but the infinitive present 
marks distinctly continuance or frequent repetition of the action. 
Comp. Xen. H. Gr. 2, 2, 4. Xen. Cijr. 2, 4, \0.—ib. 1, 4, 1, 
^lairpa^aaOai is used of the fulfilment of each separate solicita- 
tion, but immediately afterwards o Se KvpoG o ti ^eoivro avrov 
ol Trainee, Trejoi ttovtoc eiroielTO ^laTrpaTreaOai of the repeated 
fulfilment. Liician. D. Mort. 10, 10. ware Xve to. airoyeia (be- 
ginning of the action), ttjv a7ro(3adpav aveXw/iieOa, to ayKvpiov 
avecFTTCKjOoj' ireraaov to lariov, e'vOvve, to iropOf-iev, to ttij- 
^aXiov (continuance), ib. 9. the Philosopher says to Menippus, 
ovKovv Ku\ (TV airoOov Trjv eXevOep'iav. but Mercury answers, 
yutjSo^wc* aXXa Kal e')(^e ravTu, because the latter shows a con- 
tinued action, the former, one confined to a particular time. In 
the same way we must take the following passages : Demosth. 
Phil. 1. p. 44, 2. eirei^av airavra aKovat\Te, Kpivare Kai /jtj 
zrporepov tt poXa^|3 a I'eTe, inasmuch as the previous judgment 
has a continued influence upon the decision of the auditors, and 
is repeated at every single point of the speech ; but the judg- 
ment and the sentence, Kpiveiv, is complete in itself in the con- 
clusion of the whole, ib. /. 16. irpwrov fiev roivvv rpnjpetc, irev- 
Ti]KOVTa TrapaaKevaaaaOai (prjui Be7v, elr avrovc, ovroj toc 

•yi'w/uac e\eiv, ■ irpoc ^e toutoic, toTc i]/.aae(n twv nr- 

veiov iTnrayojyovG TpiripeiQ KanrAoia iKava evr peTTiaai KeAevu). 

ravra pev o'lopai Belv virup-^eiv kiri tqc e^ai<^vTi]c, arpa- 

z 2 

844 Syntax. Of the Tenses. 

re'iac. where the regular change of the aorist and the present 
leads us to suspect a difference also of meaning : roc yvojinaQ 
e^eiv and virafiyjeiv are, from their nature, necessarily perma- 
nent : the sliips, however, are not to be prepared during the 
whole time, but only at first (opposed to eira), which if it 
cannot be immediately accomplished, yet appears to the speaker 
and hearer only as a single point of time complete in itself. See 

45, 2. 'iv 1] cui TO)' (po^^ov i](jvy[av i\'>f (permanent) ij 

7rapiBu)v Tavra itcpvXaKToc Arj(^0y (transient). The cases in 
which an action confined to a moment is referred to, are 
naturally much more frequent than those in which a continued 
action is marked, or where merely the beginning of it is to be 
considered; and hence the imper. opt. conj. and infinitive of 
the aorist are more frequent than the same moods of the pre- 
sent. It is often indifi'erent also, whether these accessory sig- 
nifications be marked at the same time. ]*/at. Crati/l. p. 387 A. 
TTOTepov i}jiuv Ti^ir^Teov eKamov wr, hv I'meic povXwjLieOa Kai lo av 
(^ovXijOto/.tev, ftovXoj/iieOa might have been used in both cases, 
since the will must accompany the whole duration of the action, 
or jSouXjj^w^tei', since the will must have preceded its com- 
mencement, as in Latin, si vohtero. See Matthioe Exc. ad Cic. 
Or. 7. p. 243. but regard is had to this circumstance, that the 
manner of cutting (wc av /3ouXwjite0a) must be present to the 
person cutting during the whole operation, but the instrument 
is determined once for all at the beginning. Id. Leg. G. p. 7 67 E. 
TrpoGTiixav Tovc, KplvavTac tjjv St/crji^ o ti ^jOJ) Trpuc, rovrio 
iraOe'iv i) airoTiveiv no koivm (comp. ib. 12. p. 941 D. 943 B. 
946 D. Sec), in which phrase the aorist is more common, the 
present is thought to express the periodical payment of the 
fine. Eur. Iph. A. 482. Ka'i o-ot Trapaivui jwj/t inroKTCiveiv 
TeKvov, /iZ/t' avOeXeaOai rovfiov, awoKTelvai might also have 
been used, but the aorist expresses that the action of killing 
was undertaken only, not completed, which it was less necessary 
to remark in the case of the following word, because avBeXeaOai 
Tou/iov (to choose my advantage instead of thy child, i. e. sa- 
crifice thy child for my advantage) is an action completed as 
soon as cnroKTeiveiv takes place. Thus it is often optional 
whether an action shall be described in reference to its com- 
pletion (aorist), or its duration, repetition, &c. be indicated at 

Si/ntax. Of t lie Tenses. 845 

the same time. Comp. Xen. Cyr. G, 1, 23. with §.46, 1,2, 7. 
4, 5, 55. b,b, 13. 8, 1, 21. Comp. §. 527. 06s. 1. 

The infinitive of the aorist is often found where we should 
have expected that of the future, because the action is con- 
sidered in itself as concluded, and its future occurrence is suf- 
ficiently expressed by the governing verb. Time. 4, 70. \ey(ov 
ev eXiriSi elvai avaXa/3e?i' NtVatai', of which just before 
KaTaXi]\peaOai is used. Fd. 5, 9. eXirlc avrovc, ovtm (poftt] 9 ri- 
val. Comp. FiiuLPytli. 4,432 seq. Ear. Here. F.l 41 ."^ Plat. 
Alcih. 1. p. 105 A.'' So the inf. pres. is found Soph. Trach. 
1 69. TOiavT ecppate irpoc, Oewv e'lfiapfiei'ct tojv HpctKXeiwv 
eKTe\evTc7<j6ai 7t6vwv. See Reisig /. c. So Herod. 7, 220. and 
generally in oracles the inf. aor. is used*^. The same thing 
takes place even when the idea of futurity is not contained in 
the governing verb : 11. v, 666 seq. ttoWciki yap ol kenre 
yepwv ayaOoQ IloXviBoc, vova(o vtt' apyaXey ^0i(70oi oic, ev 

/.leyapoiaiv, v ^aiiUjvai. Eur. Iph. T. 463. ol/^iai yap viv 

iKcredaai rude. Soph. El. 442.^ So ^leAXeiv when it forms 
with the infinitive a circumlocution of the future has often the 
infin. aor.% rarely when it means ' to delay', if the infinitive 
expresses an action concluded in itself and not prolonged 
through successive points of time, or if at least its prolongation 
is not contemplated by the mind : Eur. Rhes. 675. t'i ^leXXere, 
crwaat |3tor, i.e. TayeiiJG atoaaTe (i'lov. id. Phan. 310.. ti 
jiieXXeiQ VTrwpo(l)a jneXaOpa Trepdv, diyeiv r tjXevaiQ reKvov, 
where diye^v is considered as immediately following irepav, and 
concluded in itself . 

* Of eXivt'Ceiv with the inf. aor. Lobcck ad Phryn. p. 749. Coray ad 

see Elmsl. ad Med. 750. Ileind. ad Isocr. p. 277, 15. Reisig Comm. 

Plat. Pha>don. §. SQ. p. 48. Bunii Crit. in Soph. (Ed. C. p. 191. 
apud Schitf. App. Dem. 1. p. 205. <= Boeckh ad Pind. Pyth. 4,55 seq. 

Poppo ad Xen. Cyr. 2, 4, 15. Stallb. ^ ad iEsch. Pers. 738. ad 

ad Plat. Phil. p. 158. Matlhite ad Eur. Phoen. 899. Ileind. Plat. Prot. 

Eur. Hec. 280. Monk ad Eur. Ale. p. 487. Of this hilin. after €iridot,os 

147. Of the difference between the see Lobeck ad Phryn. p. 133. 
aor. pres. and fut. see Ilerm. ad Soph. " Dorv, ad Char. p. 22 1. ed. Lips. 

Aj. 1061. ad Eur. Med. 750. Porson ad Eur. Or. 929. Ehiisl. ad 

'' Obss. Misc. 4. p. 28G. hiterp. Eur.Heracl.7 10. BoeckhadPind.Ol. 

ad Luc. T. 3. p. 478. WesseUng ad 8, 32. Lob, ad Phryn. p. 745 seq. 
Diod.14,14. Conip.Thom.M.p. 1G7. ^ Elmsl. ad Eur. Med. 1209. not.r. 

Ileind. ad Plat. Euthyd. p. 323. Comp. Hcrm. ib. p. 394. 

846 Syntax. Of the Tenses. 

Sometimes the optat. aor. is thus used in the oratio ohliqua. 
Xen. Hellen. 2, 3, 56. wc elirev o Sarvyooc, on oijttw^etev, ei 
/LtTj aiioTTi^aeiev, em^pero' av Se ciwTrw, ovk apa, e'^tj, o(/uw^OjUat ; 
iT*. 5, 4, 13. ou /iievTOi TOVTOv ye eve/cev Karcf-ieivev, aW ev 
etSwc, OTt, ei (TTpaTjj-yoirj, Xe^eiav oi TroXirai, wc AyijfftXaoc 

Trpay/j-aTa ry TroAet -Kapeyei. unless av be omitted in both 

cases, oTi oi}.ni)^eiev av, Xe^eiav av oi TroXlrai. .Esch. Pers. 
355 seg. both pres. and aor. opt. are used : loc, ei AteXan-jjc 

vvKTOC 'i^erai Kve<paCy ' EXXrjrec ov fie.voiev aXXa 

P'lOTOv eKacjaaiuTo, where, however, Blomfield has adopted 
from conjecture inevolev, eKawaoiaro. 

Besides this, the infinitive and part. aor. are generally used 
if the principal verb is in the aor. P/nt. Pliad. p. 60 C. eu -y 
t7roir/(Tac a va juvTjaac ^te. Xen. Anah. 5, 8, 1 4. But if one of 
the tvi^o verbs expresses an action in its own nature continuing, 
they will not be in the same tense, as Thuc. 7, 38. irapaaKeva- 
Z,oixevoi cierkXeaav. So e\'t» ar]f^u]vac §. 559. eyw aiToceic,ai 
Plat. Phcedon. p. 88 B. comp. Menon. p. 81 E. 82 A. 

In the oratio obliqua the optative sometimes has the sense 
of time past, e. g. Herod. 1, 31. tTreipioTay Tiva ^evrepov /.ler 
CKeTvov tSoi 'had seen'. It has uftener, however, along with 
the above explained indication of a compk-ted action, the sense 
also of an indefinite time, where in Latin the conjunctive of the 
perfect is used, e. g. Demoslh. p. 576, 16. ovk av apvi]deir]v, 
nan negaverim, * I will not deny it'. Xen. Mem. S. 4, 2, 5. 
ap/noaeie S' civ ovtio Trpooi/MateaBai * it might suit' . 

The conjunctive with particles of time, orav, eweiSav, often 
corresponds to the Latin futurum exactuni. II. "C, 412. ou 
■yap CT aXXrj carai OaXiriopi], eirei av av ye ttot^om e7rt(T7ryo, 
and passim^. Yet the leading idea of an action complete and 
concluded always remains. 

Obs. With respect to the two aorists in the passive, it is to be ob- 
served further, that the lonians and older Attics mostly use the aor. 1, 
the later Attics, on the other hand, tlie aor. 2, as the softer form''. 

• Comjt. Ilerm. ad Soph. El. 47. '' Valck. ad Eur. Thoen. P79. 
•> Eisch. 2. p. 268. Eicrson ad Mcevid. p. '^08. 

* Ei5ch. ?. p. 270 seq. 

Syntax. Of the Tenses. 847 

However, the aor. 2. is not unfrequent even in the tragedians*. The 
case is the same with the fut. 1. and 2. pass/ 

The future retains in the optative and infinitive the sense of (502) 
a future action s. 

Besides this proper signification, the tenses have also, a. that 502. 
of an action frequently repeated, ' to be wont', for which the C^^^) 
present also might be used. 

1. Imperfect, when the action may be conceived as con- 
tinuing or repeated. //. a', 218. oc, /ce BeoLQ eTTiireiOriTai, /naXa 
T e/cAuor ai/Tov, 8cc. 

2. Perfect, with reference to the complete fulfilment, suc- 
ceeded by a state analogous to it. Herod. 2, 63. eiriTeXeovai, 
TTOievai, followed by TreTroveaTai. Plat. Phadon. p. 80 D. 
avrr] Se §17 ij/xlv 11 roiavrri Kai ovt(o ireCpvKvla, inraWuT to /Lievt} 
Tov aii)i.iaToc,, evBvc, ciaTreipvarjTai Kai airoXioXei^. Prot. 
p. 328 B. Xen. Cyr. 4, 2, 26. ov^ev kari Kep^aXewrepov rov 
viKav' o yap Kparuiu a/^a iravra (TvvripiraKe, 8vC.' 

3. Aorist, an action being considered as a case which has 
once occurred. //. »/ , 4. wc ^e Oeoc vavryjcnv eeX^o/nevoiaiv 

edojKev ovpov wc apa tw Tjowecrcrii' eeXdojiievoi<ji (pavii- 

Tt]v. Comp. Herod. 1, 194. Eiirip. Or. 706. /cat puvq yap, 
eKradeiaa irpoc, (i'lav TroSt, e[5atpeVf eari] S avQic,, i^v \aXa 
TToSa. Comp. Suppl. 227. Troad. 53. 713. Plat. Rep. 6. 
p. 495 C. ovToi pev Brj ovtojg eKir'nTTOvrec, avroi re (Biov ov 
Trpoai]KovTa ovS aXrjOri ^wcr<, rrfu oe, wairep opc^avriv ^vyyeviSv, 
aXXoi e7retcreX0ovT€C avaJ^ioi i^ayjjvdv re Kai ovei'Sj? Trepijj- 
^av. Comp. ib. 5. p. 462 D. 8. p. 560 A. 9. p. 586 A. 
10.;?. 609 A. Leg. 4. p. 716 B. 9. p. 854 E. Phadon. 
p. 73 D. Xeti. Cyr. 1, 2, 2. rji» no rovrwv n irapa^aivT^, 
^rjpiav eiredeaau . 

' Herm. ad Eurip. Ilec. 333. '' Hemst. ad Lucian. t. 3. p. 402. 

' Valck. ad Eur. Hipp. 354. Valcken. Diatr. p. 163 A. Toup ad 

sDawesMisc. Crit. p. 105. Brunck Longin. p. 275. Heind. ad Plat, 

ad Soph. CEd. Tyr. 792. El. 34. Pha^dr. p 275. Phsdon. p. 78. 

*• Heind. ad Plat. Theat. p. 328. Fisch. 2. p. 260 sqq. Hoog. ad Vig. 

Fisch. 2. p. 258. p. 210. Stallb. ad Plat. Euthyphr. 

' Fisch. 2. p. 258. p. 59. 

&4S Syntax. Of tlie Temes. 

4. Future, as a case of probable occurrence. Herod. 1, 173. 
KaAeovai otto tou' i^ir]Tepwv ewvTOvc. Kai ovk otto twi' 7raTep(i)v. 
eipo/xevov Se erepov tov erepov, tic, eii], KaraXe^ei ewvrov 
fxr]T poO ev Kai r?]C f^irirpoc, avavepeerai tch; prirepac. Pinci. 
01. 7 i)K (piuXav ^ojprjaeTai, followed ver. 10. by OrJKe piu ta- 
XcoTOv. Soph, uiutig. 348. Kparel Se jiUiyavctic Onpoc opeaai- 
(iara, \a(nav')(eva 6' 'ittttov vTra^erai upCpiXoCpov t^^yov, which 
is followed ver. 356. by e^i^a^aro^. 

Hence the different tenses with this signification are often 
interchanged. Thus in the passages cited from Plato, N** 2. 
the perfect with the aorist; in the same, N° 3. the present and 
the aorist ; in Sophocles, N° 4. the present, future, and aorist; 
and in Herodotus, Hj. the present and future. Comp. Hesiod. 
"Epy. 240 sq. 244 sq. T/ieog. 748. Calliii. EL 14. 

^03. 6. The aorist is used when an action has been undertaken, 
but, owing to circumstances beyond the controul of the person 
undertaking it, not completed. Eur. Andr. 811. pv Kardavr) 
KTeivaaa Tovr, ov \pi]i> Kraveiv, Hermione having been prevented 
from committing the murder only by the arrival of Peleus, it is 
attributed to her as if committed. So Ion. 1310. eKreiva 
S' vvra TToXfc/tioi' copoiQ e^<o?o. fh. 1520. eiCTeiva a ciKOvaa . 

c. After Ti ov the aorist often follows where the present would 
have been expected ; the action, which is the subject of the in- 
terrogation, being thus represented as one which should already 
have taken place. Soph. (Ed. T. 1002. rt S»7t' eyioy ov rovSe 

TOU ^oj3ou a, civa^, e^eXvad/iuiv ; Arisl, Eys. 181. Plat. 

Mcnex. p. 236 C. ti oZv ov SniXOec ; The present is used in 
the same way; the future probably only Eur. Hipp. 1073. ti 
^i]Ta Tovpov ov Xv(T(t} oTopa, where an action is spoken of which 
must necessarily take place, and which Hippolytus, /. 1075. 
himself refuses to perform '^. 

504. Besides these cases the tenses are put for each other also, 
e. o- . • 

" Fisch. 2. p. 263. Zeiinc ad Vig. <^ lleind. ad Plat. Gorg. p. 118. 

p. 212. Frot. p. 459 scq. Stallb. ad Phil. 

'' Herm. ad Soph. Aj. 1105. Mat- p. 173. Poppo ad Xcn. Cyr. 2, 1, 4. 

thicB ad Eur. Andr. 794. Elmsl. ad Eur. Heracl. 805. 

Sj/nlax. Of the Tenses. 849 

1 . The present is put, 1 . for the aorist, in an animated nar- 
ration, which represents what took place as present, as in Latin 
the p)^a:se/is Jiistoricuni. Eurip. Suppl. 652. Kcnrav^ujc yap riv 
AaTpic, ou Zeuo Kepavvio TrvpTToXio KaraiOaXo^. ih. 893. 
€AU(x)}> c eir Ij'oyou poac, TraiSeveTUi KaT ' A^yoc. Even 
with TTore Eur. Bacch. 2. Also with the collateral circum- 
stances of a past action, e. g. after the relative: Eur. El. 419. 
^wvt' e'laaKovaac, ttoTS', ov e/caw^et ttotc. comp. ih. 544." Even 
when a definition of time in the aorist follows : Eur. Hec. 963. 
Tvyj^avo) yap eu jneaoic QpyKtjc opoic, airiov, or rjAaec cevpo. 
Hence the present and aorist are often used in the same sen- 
tence. Thuc. 1, 95. of Pausanias : eXQ^v S eic AaKeSaijuova 
T(Jov /.lev i^ia TTpoc, Tiva a^iKr]f.iaTiov evOvvOt], ra oe fxeyicTTa 
aTToXverai pi) a^iKelv. ib. 46 extr. 7,83. Kai avaXapf3a- 
vova'i re to. ottAo, Kai o'l ^vpaKOvaioi aiaOavovrai Kai 
e7rai<l)vi(Tav. Comp. Soph. Ant. 406. Xen. H. Or. 2, 3, 23. 
7, 5, 12. The perf. is also used with the pres. Soph. (Ed. C. 376. 
aTToarepiaKei Ka^€\y]XaKev. Trach. 616. 698. //. /c , 199 seq. 
o9i OTj veKvojv oie(pa'iveTO -vwpoQ ttitttoi^twv, for Treaovrtov or o'l 

eTTtTTTOV §. 499.^ 

2. Tj/cw has regularly the signification of a past action, of 
the perfect, not ' I come, am in the act of coming', but ' I am 
come, I am here', adsum, as eXi]Xv9a, and the imperf. 7]kov 

answers to the plusq. perf. Herod. 6, 100. Alay^ivr^c (ppd- 

L,ei Tolai i]Kox)(Ti Twv AOT]vai(ov iravTa tu irapeovTU a(bi 
irpy^ypara, 'to those who were come'. Comp. 104. 8,50. 68. 
Thus Aristophanes Flut. 284. uses i]Kei along with adiiKTai, 
ver. 265.^ In this manner ukoxxjj is often used for aKi]Koa. 
Od. y , 193. ATjoet'Srji^ oe Kai auToi uKoveTe voafpiv eovra, 
U)C vXOe, &c. o , 402. vrjooG tic, '^vpit] KiKX^taKerai, ei ttou 
a/coveiq. Plat. Gorg. p. 503 C QepiaroKXea ovk aKoveir, avSpa 
ayaOov yeyovora, Kai Kipu)va Kai M^iXriaorjv Kai TIepiKXea 
TOVTovi Tov veoxjTi TCTeXevTrjKOTa, ov Kai av uKijKoac,^. So 

•^ Buttm. Soph. Phil. Ileind. ad Plat. Phadon. §. 77, 

371. Seidl. ad Eur. El. 414. quotes ^ Dawes Misc. Crit. p.48sq. Dorv. 

inapplicable passages. ad Charit. p. 221. Valck. ad Eur. 

''' Vaicken. ad Eurip. Hipp. 34. Phoen. 383. Musgr. ad Eur. Hec. 1. 

Brunck ad Eurip. Hec. 21. Schsf. ^' Heind. ad Plat. Gorg. p. 193. 

in Dionys. Hal. 1. p. 116 note. Comp. Dorv. ad Charit. p. 562, 

850 Sj/Htax. Of the Tenses. 

k\v(jj Sopft. Track. 68. and o'l'^ofxai ib. 41. efxoi rriKpac <vB7vac 
avTOv 7rpo(jpa\(jjv airoi'^CTai. Herod. 9, 58. wc eirvdero rove 
"EWiivac aTroi"s(o/nevovc. Comp. Msch. Pers. 176. Ag. 180. 

3. The present is sometimes used instead of the future, as 
fxkvei, XeiTrerat, TreXei, in an oracle Herod. 7, 140. and Homer 
//. \' , 365. e^avvd). So in the infinitive. Soph. Trach. 170. 
ToiavT ecbpat^ Trpoc Oeiou eifxapfieva twv UpaKXeiioi' eKreXev 
ratrOai ttovojv. Comp. Eur. Heracl. 494. Thuc. 7, 56.^ also 
partie. pres. for the fut. as Eur. Hec. 1197. diraX\d(Tau)v for 
dtraWd^wv. Xen. Hell. 2, 1, 29. i) UapaXoc, ec rdc, ' A6i)vac 
eirXevcfev, cnrayyeWovcra ra yeyovora, for airayyeXovaa. So an 
action intended is spoken of as if performed, e. g. Od. w , 442. 
OLKOv artf.iov e^eiG p.vaa Se yvvaiKa, Trat^a t airoKTeiveiCi, ' vvish- 
est to kill'. 

The verb eT^i in particular in the present has regularly the 
signification of the future. Herod. 8, 60. i]v Be ye Kai ra 
eyu) cXtti^w yevqrai, ovre ii/mv eo tou IoO/liov irapkaovrai oi 
(idp(3apoi, ovre tt poj^riaovTai iKaarepo) rrjc Attik^C, a tt i- 
aa'i T€ ovBevi Koajxit)^. Thus the participle also is used Thuc, 
5, Qb. eaTpaTOTreSevaavTO, wc lovrec eiri touc TroXejUtouc. 
and the infinitive Plat. Phccdon. p. 103 D. kol to irvp ye au, 
TrpoaiovToc rov "ipvvpov avT(o, ?) vTreqievai ij aTroXelauai. 
et/ii however often occurs as a present jEsch. S. c. Th. 375. 
Eumen.221. Thuc. 4, 61. 

505. II. The imperfect is sometimes put, 1. for the aorist, espe- 
cially in Homer and Herodotus ; the narrator representing the 
action as if he had been present during its passing : e. g. Plat. 
Rep. 10 in. TravTOC apa fiaXXov opBwQ to KL^o/^iev Trjf iroXiv. 
Comp. Herod. 8, 61 srjq. Plat. Tim. p. 35 B. oXov rovro 

" The case of uctKe'if is different, *• Reisig Coinni. Crit. in CEd. C. 

which denotes not a single transient p. 190. Elms), ad Med. 888. Seidl. 

action, but a permanent state, the ad Iph. T. 1284. Comp. Miscell. 

same as ahmy eh'ai : and of (jtev- Phil. '2, '2. p. 80. 
yeiy *to be in exile', not ' to go into '^ Diikcr ad Thuc. 2, 44. Piers, ad 

exile', which Heindorf (ad Plat. Pro- Moer. p. 16 sq. Valck. ad Hipp. 

tag. p. 463.) has not sufficiently ad- 1065. 
verted to. 

syntax. Of t lie Tenses. 851 

/iioipac ocrac, irpoariKe ^levei/Liev. rip-^ero de ^laipelu w^e' 

fxiav a<^ei\e ro irpuirov airo iravTOC, fxo'ipav' fxera Se Tavrriv 
a(pripei SnrXatTiav Tavrrjc,, where yp^ero, acpypei stand for 
hp^aro, aCpelXe. 

2. The imperf. rjv is often used where other languages em- 
ploy the present, either when a conclusion is drawn from the 
present state that something is not as it once seemed to be (in 
which case riv is generally accompanied by apa, e.g. Eur. Hipp. 
362. Kinrpic, ovK ap tji/ OeoQ. Troad. 415 seq.), or when refer- 
ence is made to something said before, as Plat. Crat.p. 387 C. 
ovKovv Kai TO ovo/Liat^iv Trpdl^iG tic eaTiv, e'lirep Kai to \eyeiv 
Trpa^'iQ TIC, r]v Trepi to. irpayfxaTa ; with reference to ib. B, dp' 
ovv ov Kai TO Xeyeiv p-ia t'iq cctti twv irpa^ewv . The imperf. 
seems also to be used in this way in other cases : Plat. Crit. 
p. 47 D. o tw pev SiKaiM peXTtov eyiyveTo, &c. i. e. yiyveaOai 

Ohs. The imperf. xP^*'> '^^^h TrporTfJKev are often used, not for the 
presents, but, like the Latin oportebat, deheham, to denote that something 
should be, or should have been, which is not. Soph, Phil, 1363. xf"7»' y«P 
tre pi}T avTOP ttot els Tpotay poXely, ///.las r a-irelpyeiy ' thou shouldest 
not have gone'. Eur. Hipp). 29D. {Heracl. 450. ypr^v signifies * it was 
allotted to us'.) So w(pe\ov §. 513. Obs, 3. Herod. 1, 39. el pey yixp 

VTTO ocovTos Toi elite reXevTiiTeiv pe XP^i^ ^''^ ^^ Ttoieeiv ra 

TToieeis. Plat, Charm, ji, 158 B. Demosthenes ^jro Cor, p, 292, 14. 
uses it of a supposition or condition, without any such accessory idea : 
tL av, e'i ttou rrjs j^wpcis ravro tovto TrdOos (Tvyefirj, TrpocrSoKfjaai xpfjv * ; 
XP»/, ^ei, TTpoarrjKei, on the other hand, are used of things which yet 
may and should be done. See §• 510, G. 

3, Sometimes the imperf. for the pres. in the annunciations 
of messengers, e. g. Arist. Ach. 1073. icpai a eKeXevov ol 
(JTpaTT]yoi Ti]pepov TaykuiC XapovTa tovc, XoyovQ . 

III. The perf. for the pres., especially in verbs whose present 
tense shows the commencement of the action, e. g. ^k^oiKu, ire- 

^ Eur. Hipp.359. Schaef. Epist. Socr. ed. Orell. p. 322 seq. 

ad Dion. Hal. p. 126. ad Thcocr. 19, Stallb. ad Plat. Phil. p. 60. 

8. ad Soph. (Ed. C. 1697. Mcineke * See Matthis ad Eur. Hec. 262. 

ad Menandr. and especially Heind. Hipp. 296. 344. Androm. 424. 

ad Phacdon. p. 54 seq. Bremi ad ' Heind. ad Horat. Sat. p. 388. 

85*2 Stjntux. Of the Tenses. 

(pofSrjixai, KeKXt]jiiai, TreTroiOa. In this case the plusq. perf. has 
the sense of the imperf.^ The Greeks also use in letters the 
perf. for the pres. in transient actions, as Isocr. ad Dem. in. 
cnrearaXKa aoi TOj'Se toi' Xoyou ^lofjov . 

IV. The plusq. perf. is also used, especially in Homer and 
Herodotus, for the imperf. or aor. //. e, 65. tov f.iev Mtjpiovric 
ore ^rj KUTefiapTne ^iwkmv, /3e/3X?/K:e/, for f'jSaAe. comp. 73. 
661. ib. 696. So Se(Se)(^aTo is used as an aorist II. i, 67 I. as 
an imperf. //. S', 4. e/Be^Wt a, 221. f, 495. 513. X', 296. 
&c. TTCTraXaKTO ib. 98. e\e\(KTO ib. 39. v, 558. oputpcyaro 
X , 26. eXijXaro V , 595. 7re7ro)'jjTO o , 447. oVe/CTaTO p , 472. 
— Herod. 1,79. eXviXvOee for 7/X0e, as it should probably be 
8, 50. for eX/Au^e. ib. 83. opp^aro. comp. 158. 7, 215. 218. 
219. TrapecTKevacaTO 9, 61. 102. as at the end of the chapter 
eneTravvTo. 84 extr. 'EapBiec vXioKeaav. unless this expresses 
the relation of the earlier action to the later eiropOeero, as just 
before, o avroc re avaf^efSi^Kee kuI kut' avrov oXXot Ylepcreuiv 

avepaiuov, equivalent to tou avrov ai'aj3ej3>jKOToc, aVe- 

(3aivov, and 5, 86. comp. 1, 189. 7, 206. 8, 38. 114. 9, 

10 exfr. So T/iuc. 7, 86. Kai o jnev (Nt/ct'ao) eTcOinfKei 

Tovc, c ev Tuic, XiOoTopiaic, oi ^vpaKoaioi ■vaXeTTOJC, pere- 


506. V. The aorist is used, 1. in the sense of the present, even 
where it cannot be rendered ' to be wont', especially in the tra- 
gedians. Soph. Aj. 536. eTTtjvea epyov Ka\ -rrpovoiav i]v Wov. 
Phil. 1433. comp. 1289. El. 668. e^e'^ap^v ro priQkv' e'l^kvai 
ce GOV TTpojTKJTa xpyt^^^, TiQ (T d7re<TT€iXe (3poTix)v. Eurip. Or. 
1687 sq. icov peOirjp Fjppiovtfv airo (T(payrjcf Kai XeKrp' ein^- 
vea , i]viK av ti^M iraTiip. id. Jph. A. 510. aTreTrrvcra tol- 
avce (Tvyyeveiav aXXi}Xu)v iriKpav. id. Med. 273. ae, ti)v cr/cu- 
OpcoTTov Kai TToaei 9vpovpe.vt]v ^li]ceiav, elirov TrjaSe yric e^u) 
irepdv. comp. Andr. 412. 1238. In Latin and English the 
present must be used here ; but in Greek the aorist seems here 
also to retain a sense very nearly related to its proper one, of 
an action completely finished, in which no alteration can be 
made, and to be used in order to express the action quite 

» Thorn. M. p. 264. '' Wvttcnb. ad Plut. p. 306. 

Sj/7}tax. Of' the Tenses. 853 

determinately, every doubt as to its truth and unalterableness 
being removed, as in Latin hoc tibi dictum volo^. 

2. As the perf. is used of future actions to denote their 
sudden appearance and rapid completion (§. 500.), so is the aor. 
Eur. Med. 78. oTrtuAojuecr^ ap , ei KaKov TrpoaoKrojuev veou Tra- 
\auo, ' we are undone if. So Homer says //. S', 158. ov pkv 
TTOJC, aXiov ireXei opKiov al/iia re apvuiv, airovcni t ciKpr^TOi Kat 
ce^iai, yc eTreirid/.iev. e'nrep yap re Kai civtik OXv/Lnrioc ovk 
ereXeaaev, e/c re Kai oxpe reXei' aw re peyaX(o aTreriaav avif 
(TCJyyaiv Ke(pa\yai, yvvai^i re Kai reKeecran'. comp. t, 412 seq. 
Soph. Ant. 302. ocroi oe j.ii(TQapvovvrec, i^vvaav rate, y^povM nor 
e^GTTpa^av ojr, ^ovvai ot'/cr/i', the scholiasts explain avri rov (^a- 
vepoi ecTourai kcu rt/ncopriOricTovrai. but the sense seems to be, 
Jioc ipso (toj avvaai ravra) ejj'eceruiit nt post aliquod tempus 
pauas deuf. But Plat. Gorg. p. 484 A. eTroi'acrTac ave(pavr] 
^ecTTTOTJjc iii^ierepoG o SouAoc appears to belong to this head. So 
Livy21,43. si tales cuii)nos in pra/io habebitis, quales hie osten- 
ditis, vicimus, veviKijKa/nev or eviK^jaapev. So Cicero Verr. 
2, 23, 61. 3, 62, 145. 95 in. 

VI. Sometimes the fut. seems to be used for the pres. Soph. 
CEd. T. 1076. rovpov § fc-yw, Kei apiKpov eari, airepp iSel.v 
(5ovX7]<jopai, where however the point of time is indicated at 
which the present wish passes into accomplishment. Comp. 
(Ed. C. 1289. Eur. Med. 263. Euripides often uses r'l Xe^etc, 
in the expression of surprise at news received, e. g. Hel. 788. 
TTuir. (priG; ri Xe^eic ; wc p aTrtoXeacic, ■yui'ai! , probably to ex- 
press the fear of still worse details. 

■ The infin. fut. in particular is often found instead of the 
pres. e.g. after ftovXopai Isocr. c. Soph. p. 291 C. -npiv ev- 
Be'i^ecfdai (iovXopevoQ. after ev-^opai Soph. (Ed. T. 269. after 
Svvapai Soph. Phil. 1394. after irapacrKevateoOai Xen. Cyr. 
7, 5, 12. and several other verbs, which Schajfer «ri Poet. Gnom. 
j9. 16 seq. and Lobeck ad Phryn. p. 747. have collected. In 
all these cases the object of the wish Sec. is something future, 

•= Ilerm. de Em. Gr. Gr. p. 194 sq. "^ Valck. ad Eur. Hipp. 353. Elnist. 

ad Vig. p. 746. n. 162. who has how- ad Eur. Med. 1277. Comp. Herm. 

ever explained this idiom somewiiat ad Vig. p. 747. n. 164. 
ditferentlv. Elrasl. ad Med. 266. 

854 Syntax. 0/ the Moods. 

though conceived of as present in the act of wishing. On the 
other hand Soph. Phil. 597. ovtog yap irXeov to Oapaoc el^e 
Oarepov ^paaeiv To'^e, ^pav could not have been used, as 
something future is necessarily implied. After viricryveiaOai 
the fut. is tlie tense regularly used. 

Of the Moods. 

507. I. The indicative is used in Greek when anything is to be 
represented as actually existing or happening, and as something 
independent of the thought and conception of the speaker. 
Hence it is put in very many cases where in Latin the con- 
junctive must be used. 

1. After relatives, both pronouns and particles, where in 
Latin the dependence of this clause is expressed by the 
conj., the fut. indie, is often used in Greek, whether the pre- 
ceding verb be past or present, to denote what shall or will 
happen, not what is merely conceived as such. P/at. Gorg. 
p. 509 B. dpa ov TavT-qv (TTjf (ioi]Oeiav) i']tig aiTorpk\pei ti)v 
pey'i<TTr)v ri/Litjjv pXapyiv ; ib. p. 513 A. ei oe av o'lei ovtivovv 
av9pu)Triov Trapa^uxjeiv Tey^vriv Tiva TOtauriji', tjtic ce Troirfcrei 

peya dvvaaOai . ih. p. 521 B. Comp. Menex.p. 236 E. 

Xe7i. H. Gr. 2, 3, 2. eSo^e tm ^vim>> rpiaKovra avdpac, iXeaOat, 
o'l Tovc Trarpiovc vopovc ^vyy pa\Pov(ri. Soph. Phil. 303. ov 
yap TIC op/iior, eariv, ouS ottoi irXewi', c^e/nTroXj/o-ct Kepdoc,, ij 
^evtoaerai. So after negative propositions with the relative, 
e. g. Xen. Hist. Gr. 6, 1,4. Trap epoi ovdeic piaOoCpopei, oariQ 
pr) iKavoc eariv 'laa Troi'eTi^ 67101" qui }ion possit. id. Mem. 
S. 2, 2, 8. ov^enioTTOTe avTi]v out elira out eTroJijcra ovcev, ccp 
M -i^ayyvBt), propter quod erubesceret. The optative et»j ar, 
ai(Tvui'0etrj civ would represent the thing merely as possible or 
probable ; whereas here, on the contrary, something is only to 
be simply denied. 

2. In indirect interrogations. Herod. 8, 79. I'lpeac (jraaia- 

(^eiv Ypeujv eari irepi tou oKOTepoc i)pc(i)v 7rAea> ayaOa ti)u 

iruTpiha epydaerai, as Isocr. Paiieg. p. 56 D. Thuc. 2, 4. 
ot nXaTaitjc ei^ovXevovTO, e'lrc KaraKavaova iv, ioanep e\ou- 
aiv, epTTprjcravrec TO o'lKTiiiia, e'lre ti nXAo y^p-n<roi'r ai, titrutn 

Sj/ntax. Of the Moods. 855 

eos cone re ma re lit, ait aliud quid il/is J'acercnt. Xen. 
Mem. S. 2, 6, 4. a^o\r]v Troielrai, oiroOev avroQ Kep^avel. comp. 
§. 528. Plat. Euthyphr. p. 2 C. eKeivoc, yap, a>c (pv<^iv, olBe, 
Tiva rpoTTov o'l veoi Sia(l)6£ipovTai, 'are actually destroyed'; 
^ia(l)Ot-'ipnivTo av would imply, 'might have been destroyed'. 
Thus opare, ri iroiovpev, signifies, ' you see what we are 
actually doing'; but Plat. Leg. 1. p. 642 A. opare, t'i ttoiw- 
pev 'see what we are to do'. Comp. Herod. 5, 13. 9, 54. 
Thuc. 3, 113. Xen. Cyr. 4, 4, 4.=^ 

3. In the oratio ohliqua, the indicative in Greek is much 
more used than in Latin ; for all single propositions or mem- 
bers of a proposition, which are not necessarily to be considered 
as uttered in the person of another, may be expressed in Greek 
by the indicative. Xen. Cyr. 1, 4, 27. Xe-yerat, ore K.vpoQ 
avyei /cat ctTTTjXXaTTOi'TO aV dXXnXojv (here the optative would 
be faulty, because an action is determinately expressed to 

have taken place at a definite time) av^pa two. twv 

MrjSwv, jUo'Xa KaXov KayaOou ovra, eKTreirX^yQai ttoXvv riva 
■yjpovov erri tw KoXXet tov Kvpov' 7]viKa ^e eojpa rove, 
avyyeveic chiXovvTac avrov, v7roXei(l)ui]vai' eirei ce oi aXXoi 
airriXdov, irpocreXOelv no Kvpto Kai enrelv, &c. The indicative, 
however, is very frequently used in single propositions, which 
are connected with the speech of another: Herod. 1, 163. 
eKeXeve rrjc eavTov ^w^rjc oiKelv okov povXavrai. id. 9, 44. 
ot (pvXaKec eXdovrec eXeyoi', ojg ai'OptvTroQ i]Koi eir 'nrvrov e/c rov 
arpaTOTredov rov ^^dwv, oc aXy\o peu ov^ev irapayvpvol 
eVoc, arparriyovc Se ovopa'Cujv eOeXeiv (prjai ec, Xoyovc eXOeiv. 
Xen. Cyr. 4, 2, 3. ewoTjOevrec Se, ola re Traa-^ovaiv vtto 
rwv Xaavp'nov, Kai on vvv reOvair] pev o apyu)V avrwv, &.C. 
ib. 36.'' See §. 529. 

4. In conditional propositions the indicative is used properly 508. 

a. when the relation of the condition to the consequences is 
supposed as actual, without any expression of uncertainty, 
e. g. e'l e'lal (3(Dpoi, e'lai /cat 6eoi. In this the Greek entirely 
coincides with the Latin idiom. 

• lleind. ad Plat. Hipp. p. 162. ^ Hcind. ad Plat. Soph. p. 439 scq. 

856 Syntax. Of the Moods. 

b. When the condition and consequence are both past actions, 
whose relation to each other shows that any action would have 
taken place if another had happened, the indicative of past 
time is used twice, in the protasis with ei alone, and in the 
apodosis with ai^, wherein Latin the plusq. perf. conj. is used in 
both cases. Here too the aor. expresses an action confined to 
a single case and completed in a sinole moment, the imperf. 
an action continuing through several moments or frequently 
repeated. //. ^, 211. Kai vv k en TrXeovac Krave Ylaiovac 
WKVG A^tXXeuc, ei /ill] yjuxjcifievoc TrpoaeCpi] iroTa/iioc, paBu- 
Sivijc. comp. 544. Od.B', 363. Eurip. Troad. 401. e'l S i](xav 
oiKoi ( A^atoi), y^pricTTOG ujv eXavOav uv' si domi mansissent 
Grccci, Hectoris virtus non innotuisset. In Greek however 
both conditions are represented as contmuing, as indeed they 
are in their nature. Plat. Gorg. p. 516 E. Kairoi ovtoi (Cimon, 
Themistocles, Miltiades) et i](jav av^pec ayaOot, ovk av woTe 
Tavra eTraay^ov (repeated as being apphcable to several). 
Comp. Herod. 1, 4. 6t pi] avrai epovXcar o, ovk uv i]pTruZ,ovTO. 
Thuc. 1, 4. of Agamemnon: ovk uv ovv v^awv eKpurei, ei 
pri Ti Ka\ vavTiKov et^ev, both actions continuing together. 
Hence the aorist is often exchanged for the imperf. in the con- 
tinuation of the proposition, or an aorist answers in another 
clause to the imperf., or vice versa. Plat. Apol. S. p. 32 E. 
ap ovv av o\eaOe roauce eri] ciayeveaOai, ti eirpaTTOV, 

epor]9ovv, eTroiovui]V. TJuic. 1, 74. ei Se irpoa- 

ej^io pijaaiiiev irporepov t(o jNL/dw, ?/ pj) CToXpiiaapev 
vcTTtpov cffpjji'ni tc Tuc vane, wc cieijyOapiiici'oi, ovdev uv en 
fc'Sei (repeated) vjnac, pi) cyovrac, vauc iKavac,, vavpayelv, aXXo 
Kau ■t]av\iav av avno tt pocvu) pi]<Te th TrpaypctTu, ij cjjov- 
Xero. Xen. ]\[em. S. 1, 1,5. tic, ovk av opoXoyi]aeiev, avrov 
PovXcgOcii pi]T i]Xi6iov pr]T aXa^ova fpaiveaOai toiq (Tvvovaiv ; 
eSo/cei (continuing) S av upC^orepa touto, e'l wpoayopevtov 
wc VTTo ueov (^aivnpeva elra "ipevtupe.voc eCpaivcro. St]Xov 
ovv, OTi OVK uv TrpoeX cyev (repeated), ci pi) ciriarevaev 
(each time) uXi]6ev(jeiv. Comp. Aiiab. 5, 8, 13. Soph. Trach. 
S6. 7rapi]v is equivalent to ijXOov'^. 

=* Brunck ad Arist. Lys. 149. Pint. Dion. Hal. 1. p. 55 sq. Stallb. ad 
583. ad Eurip. Hipp. 705. Comp. Plat. Euthyphr. p. 81 seq. 
Herm. ad Vig. p. 821. Schiefer in ' 

Sifulax. Of the Muods. 857 

c. Since the imperf. expresses the contiiuiance of an action 

or a state, it is used of present actions, but only when they 

properly belong to the past, and extend from this into the 

present ; while those which belong to the present only, or the 

present and the future, are put in the optative. The past being 

incapable of change, the imperfect is used of actions which are 

represented as not having happened, or with a negative as 

having happened. Herod. I, 187. e'l /mri a7r\n(rT6G re eoc 

y^prijxaTWV koi aia-^poKep^ric, ovk av veKpuiv Oi]Kac, ai'ewyec, 

nisi esses, non aperires {at eras; ergo aperiebas), wheie the 

opening of graves is represented as a practice, a characteristic 

trait of the person who opened them, not as a thing frequently 

happening. Soph. OEd. T. 83. (et /uri tjSuc vv) ovk av wS eip-rre, 

where el^Tre represents the action, not as merely present (in 

that case epiroi av would have been used), but as having taken 

place even at an earlier time (/j^i/c eaTiv' kp-uei ovv). Eur. 

Bacch. 258. ei /lo) ae yy)pac iroXiov e^eppvero, KoOj/ct av 

jaindudum sederes. Plat. Phcedon.p. 73 A. e'l /n") e-rvyy^a- 

vev avToio emaTTipri evovaa Kai opOoc Xoyoc, ovk av oloi t 

rjcrav tovto Troielv, nisi inesset non possent. Comp. 

Alcib. 1. p. 1 1 1 E. Hipp. Maj. p. 294 D. rrpoariv ^' av (to 

(pa'iveaOai KaXd), e'nrep to irpeirov KaXov rfv, Kai pr) povov Ka\a 

eiro'iei elvai, aWa Kai (paiveaOai. Comp. p. 299 E. Prot. 

p. 322 B. Xen. JSleiit. S. I, 6, 12. cijXov Br), on, ei Kai txiv 

^vvova'iav wov tii'oc a^'iav eivai, Kai ravniv av ovk eXarrov 

Trie a^'iac apyvpiov eirpciTTOv. Comp. 2, 6, 26. 4, 3, 3. 

Alexis ap. Atheii. 10. p. 71. ed. Schia. e'l tov /neOvaKerrBai irpo- 

Tepov TO KpanraXav ir apey iveO Ti|it?i', ovo av e'lc, olvov ttotg 

TTpodieTo TrXeTi' tov pcTpiov. So also the plusq. perf. in the 

protasis Plat. Phccdon. p. 106. et tovto iopoX6yt}TO i]p7v, paS'iojc 

av ^lepa-^^^opeOa. The difference between the indie, with av and 

the optative is seen Plat. Prot. p. 311 B. C. where of actions 

which belong equally to past and present time it is said et 

eirevoeic e'l tic ere ijpeTO ti av uTreK pivco; but of 

the present only ih. D. irapa Be ci) YlpojTayopav vvv a(piKopevoi 

ei ovv TIC, imac epoiTO ti av avTO) aire k pivai- 

peOa ; id. Phisdon. p. lOS A. But Meuon. p. 74 B. e'l tic, ae 

uvepoiTO TOVTO, Ti ecTTt a'^rjpa, w Mcvoiv; ei av-io enrec,, 
(I \ f ,f f ti 1 \ f ^ f 

07 1 (TTpoyyvAoTTiCf ei (Toi enrev airtp cyoj, iroTepov ayjipa tj 

voi>. 11. 2 A 

858 Syntax. Of the Moods. 

arpoyyv\6ri]C, ecniv ij cr-^fiiiia ri, eiirec, otjttou av on ayrjiiia 
Tt, ei Ttc avepoiTo is not used for ei tig avrjpero, but the case is 
considered first as possible and to be expected, afterwards as 
existing at an indefinite past or present time. Soph. CEd. T. 
1511. a(p(j)v S , u) TCKV , ei /iiei> eiy^err}v t/c»j (ppevac, iroW av 
TTapyvovv' vvv 2e tovt' e'v^eade fxoi, that which might have 
happened at an indefinite time is opposed to that which is to 
happen now, not before also. 

Even of actions still present, the aorist is sometimes used if, 
rapidly passing, they are limited to a single point of time. Plat. 
Phccdon. p. 106 A. ovkovv ei /cat to a9ep/.iov ai>ayKa7ov tji; avio- 
XeOpov eluai, OTTOTe tiq em ^toi'a Oeppov eirayayoi, vTreqyei av 
»j y^MV ovaa (rwo kui arr\KTOc ; oi> yap av aTrioAero ye, ovo av 
vTro/Lievovaa ece^aTO av rriv Oep/noTtiTa. where vrre^yei must 
be the aorist, because the yielding of the unmelted snow can 
only be momentary, like the being destroyed and the reception 
of the warmth. So Gorg. p. 447 E. and the passages there pro- 
duced by Heindorf §.3. p. 6. the aorist is used, not of a con- 
tinued or repeated, but single act. Soph. Ant. 755. et pr\ nariip 
r\<yffy eliTov av (as an act) a oi»/c eu (jypovelv. Comp. Plat. Eu- 
thi/d. p. 283 E. Prot. p.3\\ E.=^ 

Instead of et with the indicative, the participle only is used. 
Xen, ]\Ieni.S. 1,4, 14, oure yap j3ooc, av e^wr aiopa, avOpto- 
TTOV oe yvu)\Vf i]ovvaT av irparTeiv a epouXero. Comp. 
§. 566, 4. Also avev with the ^^en. of the infin. Plat. Phccdon. 
p. 99 A. avev Toi) to. TOiavra eveti' ovk av o'loq t i\v, i. e. ei p.^ 
T« ToiavTa e\yjev. 

Ohs. 1. Tlie optative in the apodosis is irregular, as II. e', 388. Kal 
vv tcey eV0' utt vXoito "Aprjs, citos 7ro\e/iOto, et p}) prjrpvn), TrepiKaWi/s 
'He/9(/3oia, 'Eppiif e^fiyyeiXey, for airwXeTO. Comp. 311 seq. p, 70. 
€vda K€ pela (pepoi kXvtu T€v')(^ea TlaiOoiEno 'ArpeiSrjs, el pt'i ol ayaa- 
aaro 'ifuiiDos 'ATroXXwt'. So also (ce is joined with et //. \p', 526. in an 
oracle Herod. 1, 174, and an epigram of Erinna, Brunck Anal. 1. p. 58. 
It is a different case §. 524, 2. 

Ohs. 2, Sometimes av is omitted in tlie apodosis with the impcrf. or 
aorist of xP'/*'> ^'c* ^^ must separate from tliis the use of XP')') 

* Stallb. ad Plat. Euthyphr. p. 51. Mattli. ad Eur. Bacch. 1290. 
8f, NUzsch ad Ion. ji. 27. Comp. 

Si/ntax. Of the Moods. 859 

iEei, &c. mentioned §. 505. Obs. Soph. CEd. T. 2j5. olc el yap tJj/ to 
Trpayfxa /ui) derjXarov, aKudaprov viids eiKos r/v oiircus edv, nan dece~ 
bat vos scelus inexinatum relinqucre, nearly resembles the use of tliese 
words, the indie, without i'lv expressing the impropriety more defi- 
nitely than if by means of av it had been made to depend on the 
supposed condition. Comp. Isocr. Paneg. in. The same thing takes 
place whenever 'must, should' is expressed : Xen. Mem. S. 2, 7, 10. et 
/uev Toivvv cH(y)^p6v n tfieWov kpydaaaQai, Quyarov drr avrov Trpoaipe- 
reoy tJv, as in Latin, prceferenda erat mors. Dem. de Cor. p. 294 extr. 

€1 yap rjy aircKTL 'irpvdtjXa ovo' ovtu)S aKOcrrareov jjt', not only 

in the case supposed, but in every case ; so that et expresses not so 
much a conceivable supposition as a case assumed to be real : as 

Plat. Gorg. J)' 514 C. et Ce fiyre ^tSao-KciXov e"i\oyiev o'vrw Sk 

av6i]Tox' rfv. Of j/v dpa see §. 505. So riv is found without or in defi- 
nite statements not dependent on any supposition, as Eur. Iph. A. 1209. 
kv 'icrii) yap >]»' Toce. Xen. Anah. 7, 7, 40. alay^pov yap jjy rii fiey t/ja 
^taTreTTjOaj^Qat, ra ^e CKelrwy irepiopdy e/je KUKois 'iyoyra. Soph. (Ed. T. 
1368. Xen. Hell. 2, 3, 41. Herod. 1, 75 extr. (ccJs yap ott'ktio Ttopev- 
opeyoi ctel3>](Tay avrov \ expresses the impossibility more definitely than 
ictJs yap ay. Soph. El. 914. ovre c'pQci' tXdydayey means, not 'she 
would not, or she could not have done it unobserved', but ' she did not 
do it secretly' ; the word ' secretly' being emphatic. JEsch. Agam. 
875. Ka\ Tpavj^uiTioy fxey et roawy ervy^avev oc\ ws Trpos oIkov 
w-)(ETeveTO (parts, rerpwrai diKruov TrXeu) ^eyeiy 'if he has been (not 
'had been') so often wounded, he has (not 'would have had') more 
wounds', &c. As in Latin, the indie, is often found with a clause 
answering to it, in which is the conj. with si or nisi (Ramshorns Lat. 
Gram. p. 584. ZumpVs Lat. Gram. §. 76, 4.), so also in Greek. 
Theocr. 16, 42, 54. Time. 8, 86. wpixr]jxeyu)v rwy ey 2a^w 'Adtjyaicov 
TrXelv ejTt <T({)ds avroiis, ey J rra^eorara 'Iu)yiay i;ai 'EXXijaTToyroy evdvs 
elj^py, where the result is represented as certain, tenebant Ionium, si eo 
profecti essent. Plat. Sijmp. pi- 190 C. //. I!, 348. where eyQa fie kv/jl 
ciTToepffe expresses, with the liveliness of the speaker's feeling, the effect 
as real. And so perhaps Eur. Ale. 921. cvo c dyrl fj.Lds "AiEijs -4^vx,ds 
run TTtoTomras ye avveaxey bpov. See Matt h. ad 923. In all these cases 
ay properly speaking is not omitted, any more than in e^w etTretv Plat. 
Apol. S. p. 34 A. 2^ossum dicere ' I could say', longum est ' it noidd be 
tedious' ; though it would in English be expressed conditionally. 

Sometimes an abbreviation takes place, as Plat. Ajjol. S. p. 20 C. oh 
yap h'lTTov, aov ye ohley rtSy dXXioy Trepirrorepoy ■KpayfiarevopevoVy 
e-rreira roaavri] 0»;;Lt>/ re Kal Xoyos yeyoyev, e\ fii) ri eTrparres aXXoloy ij 

2 A 2 


860 Syntax. Of the Moods. 

01 TToWoi, where with el ju// we may supply vs ovk eyerero ciy before the 
clause which repeats the participial construction (see §. 636.) : as 
perhaps Eur. Phcen. 1382. war eKcaKpvaai y ei (ppovovvr ervy^arei', 
which in orat. recta would be Satcpvei ra ^wjuara, 7/ fxdWov eca^pvev 
uf, €1 (ppoyovvT It. (comp. 1602. with Matth. adv. 1561.) or Cic. de 
Legg. 1, 19 extr. et lahehar long'nis (et lapsus essem longius) nisi me 
reiinuissem. Where on the contrary an action cannot be conceived as 
really existing, but only in a supposed case, av can hardly be omitted, 
as in the passages collected by Schaefer Melct. Crit. p. 129, 85. Thus 
Soph. El. 1022. we should read with Brunck, after several MSS. -kuv 
yap au Kareipyaau). And Eur. Hcl. 1678. TrtiXai 3' uce\(p)iv Kctl vpiv 
e^€(Tcjaaiu€P, the conjecture /crtr Trpiv et,. is probably correct. Comp. 
Eur. Trend. 401. 403.* 

5. The indicative also of all tenses is frequently used with 
av, without any condition implied, where in Latin the conjunc- 
tive is used. 

a. Imperf. Time. 7, 55. ov dwa/ncvoi eTreveyKe^v oure eve 
TToXire'iac ti /leTojSoArjc to ^iiujyopov avroic, <o ir poa^jyovro 
av, quo sibi eos adj an xissott, where the imperf. shows an 
incident then liappeninp;, and accompanying the circumstances 
of that time. \en. Ilicr. 1, 9. ci yiip tovO ovtwc c>(€"', t^i^G 

av TToXAot ^tfci" eTreOv jiiovv Tvpuv^'Civ ; ttwc of Travrec. 

e^/jAouv av Tovc, rvpavvovc,; (juare coiiciipiscercn/ , i/niderenf, 
a continuation to the present time of an action begun in past 
time. Tims especially efBovXofujv av, -i'lOfXov av is used, *I 
could have wished', not only now, i)ut also previously, vellem, 
whence it follows tliat as being passed it can no longer be 
effected. Phil. Vlucdr. p. 228 /\. Ka'iroi e(5ovXnfir]v y av 
/.i<7\\ov (aTTOjuvtjinoveveiv to. Avaiov) i] /not ttoXv y^pvaiov yeve- 
aOai. On the otlier hand, (SovXoiprjv av P/at. Li/s. p. 211 E. 
' I now could wish', as something present and future, conse- 
quently still possible, ve/itn ^. Without such a reference, as a 
real wish we find e'/SouAojttjji^ without av JEsch. in Ctes. p. 383. 

e/3ouXo/<rjv ovv rrw povXrjv opOtoc, cioiKclaOai. So after the 

relative P/at. P/iadon. in. See Heindorf's note, p. 4. 

I). Plusquamp. Demosth. pro Cor. p. 235, 29. t>7c e'lpyvijc, 

" Comp. Poppo Obs. in Time. p. 14, are jicro commonly intermixed. 
112. Scha-f. App. Dcm. '2. p. 324. i" Dawes Misc. Crit. p. -237. Schaf. 

Passages of diftcrcnt kinds however in Dion. Hal. 1. p. 124 sq. 

Si/nliix. Of the Imperative. 861 

tiv ^mi-i-apr'nKei Kai ovk av ci/iKpoTepa e()(e, zeal r^v eifii]vr]v 
Kctl TO ywn'ia. Id. ibid. p. 242, 9. id. in Arislocr. p. 680, 25. 
■\p^](\>i(jf.ia TOiovTov Ti Trap vf.aov evpero, e^ ov KVfjwUcvTOC, av, 
■))BiKr]VTO pev (pavepwc, oi ^vo twv (dacriXewi', I'lavy^iuv S uv 
vyov oi arpaTtjyovvTec, avTolc,. The plusq. perf. here retains 
its signification. 

c. Aorist. Plot. Leg. 3. p. 679 B. TrXovcnoi ovk av ttot 
eyevovTO, uYpvaoi re Kai avapyvpot ovtcc. Xen. Anab. 4, 
2, 10. Ka\ avToi /nev uv e-rropevOriaav, yirep oi ciXXoi, rn S 
virolvyia ovk nv a'AXy f/ tovti? eK^?]vai, profecti essent^ or pr oji- 
cisci potuisseiit. Isocr. in Soph. p. 293 B. eyw Se irpo -rroWwv 
av y^pnpciTtov eTi^nj(T«'/irji' rriXiKOVTOv ^vvaaOui tw (piXoao- 
(piav, oaov ovroi Xeyovcnv (icrwc, yap ovt' av vpeic, irXelaTOv 
a7reXei(p9t]pev, ovB' av eXdy^icxTOV pepoc aireXavaa fxev 
avTiic). Thus also iJ/cictt' av r)OeXii(ra, minime voluissem^. 

• 6. Of the imperfects xpw, t'^^'. irpoanKev, see §. 505. Obs. 510. 

7. Sometimes also the indicative is used in suppositions, 
when something- which any one has said is assumed as real, 
and its possibihty is not further to be inquired into, where in 
every other language the conjunctive would be used. Enr, An- 
drom. 335. reOvriKa ry (n] Ovyarpl, Kai p airhyXecje' piai- 
(povov pev OVK eV av (pvyoi pvaoc, * admitting that I had been 
slain by thy dauohter, and that she had made an end of nie'. 
id. Suppl. 252. r]paprev' ev veoiai 6 avoptoircov roce eveariv 
' grantingthat he has erred', id. Hel. 1068. Ka\ g») TtapelKev' 
elra ttwc, avev vewc, acoOriaopecjOa ' supposing that he yielded"'. 

Of tJie Impeua'iive. 

The Imperative is used in Greek, as in other languages, in 511. 
addresses, entreaties, commands, &c. The personal pronouns, 
as in other languages, are omitted except when they serve for 

•^ Scha;f. 1. c. ad Viger. p. 839. n. 33] . 

^ Eur. Suppl. I.e. llerni. 

862 Si/ulax. Of the Imperative. 

distinction or have an emphasis. With respect to the Greek 
idiom, it is to be observed : 

1. The second person sometimes receives an indefinite sub- 
ject, and thus stands for the third. Eur. Rhes. 687 sqq. ireXac, 

TIC lOi. 7ra?e, TToTe irac; tic, av. ^^\^ ""ac Ttc '^^X^ 

irac ^opv. epire tt a c, kcit 'l\voQ avTMV. Arist. Av. l\S6. 

^(upei Seupo Trac vTrrjpeT^iC To^ewe Trac tic,. ib. 1191. 
ctXXa (pvXaTTe Trac, tic, aepa irepivk^eXov. Corap. Eur. Bacch. 
173. A transition is made from the third person to the second 
ih. 346. (TTeiyertu tic, wq rayoo, e\9wv Se BaKOvc TOvaS , 'iv 
ouovo(TK07rei, jLtovAoic Tpiaivov KavaT pexpov e/LiTTaAiv, Kai 

2. Sometimes the plural of the imperative is used though 
only one person be addressed. Soph. (Ed. Col. 1104. irpoa- 
kXBeT, J TTaT, 7raT/rjt. comp. 1112. Arist. Ran. 1479. ^W" 
/oeiT6 To'ivvv, (J Atovucr', eaw. But in Hesiod. Sc. H. 327. 
Xat|oeTe, Auy/c»7oc yeve/;, yeve/j according to the sense is plural. 
On the other hand, the imperative is also put in the singu- 
lar, though more than one person is mentioned : Plat. Prot. 
p. 311 D. etTre ^tot, w 'EioKpaTCC Ke /cot linroKpaTec. See 
§.312, 2.-'^ 

3. In prohibitions with py, the imperative of the present is 
commonly used, but the conjunctive of the aorists. 11. i , 33. 
av de pn Ti -^oXuiOijc. Od. tt', 168. jut/S' eir'iKevBe, buto,263. 
/Lu'jS' eiriKevayc. Herod. 1, 155. av pevTOi pri iravTa Ovpto \pew, 
prf^e el^(ivaaTi]ar]c. See §. 517, 5. Li/s. c. Eratoslh. p. 127, 30. 
Plat. Gorg. p. 500 E. n avp<paBi j) pi) avpcjyyc. Yet some- 
times in Homer the imperative of the aorist is found in the 
second person: //. S', 410. tm pi] poi irarepac ttoB' opo'iij evBeo 
Tiprj. Od. w', 248. av Se pi) yoXov cvBeo Bvpio. Mi) iPevaov is 
once found in Aristophanes, Thesm. 877. and pi] vopiaov is 
cited from Sophocles. The third person imp. of the aor. 1 . is 
frequently found : Od. 7r',301. pi\Tic tTretT* 'O^vanoc aKovaarh) 
evBov eovTOC. Msch. Prom. 332. pi]^e aoi peXijauTW. S. c. 
Th. 1038. pi] ^oKi](raT(o tiv'i. Soph. Aj. 1 180 scr/. pi]^k ae 

> Brunck ad Arist. Ran. 1479. p. 41. Acta Monac. 1. p. 3(3 seq. 
Soph, riiil. 3G9. Comp. ad 11. Hum. 

Sj/nUix. Of I he Imperative. 863 

Kivr}<Tdrio tic ib. 1334. Plat. ApoL S. in. iiiy]delc, Trpoff^o/cr/aoTW. 
Xen. Cyr. 7, 5, 73. Venat. 2, 3. and the aor. 1. pass. Hopli. (Ed. 
T. 1449. ef.iov Se jtuj ttot' a^KoOnru) ToSe irarpwov aarv 
IwvToa oiKiiTov Tux^''"'- We fiiid in P/«^ Leg. 9. p. 861 E. fxn 
TiQ oi'rjTaf. and Symp. p. 213 E. jurj juoi /ne ^KJyrjrai^. 

The second person future is sometimes found with this im'i. 
J^sch. S. c. Th. 252. ov crT-yo; jinjSei/ twi'S' epeic Kara tttoXiv, 
which is not to be confounded with pn^k following oi» in an 
interrogation §. 498, c. /3. Arid. Eccl. 1145. Ka\ pv irapa- 
\ei\peiQ priUva {e\ei\pa, Xeixpyc, from Xe'nrfo, is not in use, at 
least among the genuine Attic writers. Schcef. ad P. Gnom. 
p. 148.). Soph. Ant. 84. aXX' oZv Trpo^ir]vvaeic, ye tovto pri- 
^ei't Tovpyov, with the v. r. Trpop.r]vvanc,^. 

Ov fxi] with the future is more common §. 516. 

4. The imperative is used not unfrequently by the Attic 
poets in a dependent proposition after oicr^ o. Soph. (Ed. T. 
543. olaB' wc, TToi'rjo-oi'; ' knowest thou what thou must do?' 
Eur. Hec. 229. olaO' ovv o dpaaov ; HeracL 452. aXX' olaO' 
o /HOI av/LiTTpal^ov ; Thus also in the third person Eur. Iph. T. 
1211. olaOa vvv a ^toi yeveaOo) ; The fat. is found Eur. Med. 
605. Cycl. 131. The imperative here cannot be rendered by 
any other tense or mood ; for the future does not properly con- 
tain the sense of ' must'. The phrase seems to have arisen from 
a transposition, for Tro'irjaov, olaO o ; yevcaOo) f.ioi, olaO o ; as 
Plant. Rud. 3, 5, 18. Tange, sed scin' quomodo?^ 

5. The use of the Greek imperative varies in some other 
respects from that of other languages. 

a. It sometimes expresses not so much a command, as ade- 

^ Thorn. M. p. 611. Ilerodian. " Elmsley ad Med. SOA. will not 

Piers, p. 479. Interpr. ad Greg. admit this. See however Scha-f. ad 

p. (6) 15. Brunck ad Arist. Thesm. P. Gnom. p. 318. 

870. Lysistr. 1036. Soph. CEd. C. '' Menandr. p. 107. Bcrgl. 

731. Phil. 582. Pors. ad Eur. Ilec. ad Arist. Eqii. 1 155. Koen ad Greg. 

1174. Herm. de Prffic. Att. p. 4—8. p. (7 sq.) 18. Brunck ad Arist. Av. 

ad Vig. p. 809. Bast et Schsf. and 54. Eur. Hec. 1. c. Soph. CEd. T. 

Ind. Gr. Greg. s. v. ^^^. Schajf. ad 1. c. Herm. ad Viger. p. 740, 143. 

Gnom. p. 155. 364. The reason of de Ellips. p. 193. Fisch. 3 b. p. 52. 

this idiom is pointed oat by Hermann Ehnsl. ad Soph. G'2d. T. 543. 
ad Soph. Aj. 1064. 

864 Stjydax. Of the Optative and Conjunctive. 

claration of what is proper to be done, according to the situation 
in which a person is placed. F,nr. Iph. T. 337. evyov 8e roiao , 
oi veavi, aoi ^evwv a(pa.yia Trapelvai, 'thou shouldest wish . 
jEsch. Prom. 713. orel^ dinipoTOvc yvac ' thou must go'*. 

b. Hence the imperative is found also in interrogations, after 
particles or the relative. Plat. Leg. 7. p. 801 D. t'i nvv ; o 
TToXAa'/cic ep(t)TU), Ke'iaOu) vo/joc vf-uv /cai tvttoc, e/CjUa-yeioi' re 
Tp'iTov TovTo; 'shall a law exist?' ib. p. 800 E. Herod. 

1,89. KUTiaov (pvXaKovc ot Xeyjvruiv, &c. a transition from 

tlie orat. obliqna into the recta. 

c. The iuiperutive is sometimes used to express what should 
properly be expressed by a conditional or limiting proposition, 
as in Latin, Da tnihi te facilem ; dederis in carmina vires, for 
5/ mihi te facilem dederis. See Excurs. ad Cic. Oratt. 7. 
p. 239 se(/. Soph. Ant ig. 1168. ttXoiitci yap Kar oi/coi', ei 
(BovXei, /leya, Kal tv ^C- f<^"" K'ftVep TrAouryc /cot tyc 


Of I he Optative and Conjuxctive. 

The Optative and Conjunctive express, according to its dif- 
ferent modifications and shades of meaning, that which in 
Latin can only be signified by the Conjunctive. Both represent 
an action, not as something real, but rather as something only 
conceived of. That which is conceived of, however, is either 
something merely possible, probable, desirable, consequently 
uncertain, or something which, as it depends on external cir- 
cumstances, may be expected with some definiteness. The 
former is expressed by the optative, the latter by the conjunc- 
tive. Hence the optative is used to express a wish, something 
merely possible or probable, and therefore in the orat. obliqua ; 
and for the same reason it especially accompanies past actions. 

Although these moods, logically/ considered, always denote 
something dependent upon a conception, yet in treating of them 
grammatically this conception is not always expressed ; and 

» Maikl. ad Eur. Iph. A. rni. 

Sj/ntax. Of the Optative and Cofijunclive. 865 

therefore in grammar we may separate their use in independent 
propositions from their use in those which are dependent. 
Each has its proper rules, although they coincide in the main 
principle just mentioned. 

I. The Optative and Conjunctive in independent Propositions. 

A. The Optative, as the mood which expresses the speaker's 513. 
own thought, is used 1. in the expression of a wish, and then 
is put without av, or the poetic Ke^\ 11. a, 42. Tiaeiav 
Aai/aot e/xa caKpva aolai (SeXeaaiv ' may the Greeks atone for'. 
//. y', 304.] f^iav aairov^ei ye Ktu itKXeiwc avro Aoi/xrj v ! 
Herod. 1, 5. Soph. Aj. 550. oi irai, yevoio Trarpoc. evrv- 
ykarepoc, to. 8' oAX' ofxoioc,' Koi ykvoi av ov kukoc, ' mayest 
thou be more fortunate than thy father !— then (with av) thou 
wilt not be bad'. Hence Eur. Med. 759. ti S' op/cw rwSe ^rj 
'/Lijiiei'wv TraOoic, i. e. r'l 7ra9e7v evj(7j ; Soph. Phil. 895. ti Srjra 
^pioi^i eyw; 'what should I wish to do?' A7ist. Pint. 438. 
TTol TIC, (pvyoi ; ' whither should a man wish to flee?' instead 
of which Eur. Or. 598. it is ' whither could a man flee?' and 
Soph. Aj. 503. TTo? TIC ovv ^uyy ; ' whither should a man flee?' 
jEsch. Suppl. 20. Tim -yoGi' -^lopav evcjypova jiidWov Ttjac 
acpiKoiiiieOu ; 'could we wish to come to?' which passage, 
however, is suspicious, on account of youi-. In negative pro- 
positions /tjj, not ou, is used §. 608, 4, a. 

In this case et, el yap, e'lOe, utinam^, are often used, or wc, 
TTwc av^ with the optative. Od. -y', 205. e'l yap e^iiol Toaarjv^e 
deal ^vvaf.uv irapaOe'icv. Eur. Hec. 830. e'l /lIOI yevoiTO 
(pQoyyoQ ev ^pay^ioai 8cc. Horn. H. in Merc. 309. cu ttottoi, 
e'lO' ttTToXoiTo jSowv yevoo ! which Callimachus Fr. 7. ex- 
presses XaXyjSwi^ toe awoXoiTO -yevoo ! Comj). Soph. EI. 126. 

Soph. Aj. 388. J Zev, irwG av tov alfivXojTaTOV 

oXeaaac TeXoc Bavoif^ii kuvtoqI 

Ohs. 1. In this sense it is often accompanied by Kev II. C> 281. cis 
Kev 01 avQi. yata "^aroi. 

«■ BrunckadEurip.Ph.5U. Arist. p. 757 seq. who makes a difference 

Eqii. 400. between ei, e\ yup and tide. 

•^ Valck. ad Eur. Ph. 7(31. Zeune '' Valck. and iMonk ad Eur. Hipp, 

ad Viger.p. 503 seq. Herni. ad Vigrr. '^08.315. Markl. ad I',ur. Sup|4. 79(k 

866 Sj/ntax. Of the Optative and Conjutictive 

Ohs. 2. If the wish relates to anything past, the indicative aorist is 
used with el yap, eiOe, without ay. Eur. Or. 1613. el yap KaTetryor, fn) 
dewy tcXecpdeh vtto. Comp. Andr. 294. 118.5. Suppl. 823 seq. Xen. 
Mem. S. 1, 2, 46. e'lde aoi rore (rvyeyeyofirji', ore ^eiioraros (ravrov 
ravra ^ada ! Also the imperfect is used in an action which is continued 
from the past to the present, as §. 508, c. Eurip. Iph. A. 666. e'lff ^v 
KuXov poi aoi T liyeiv (jv/JLTrXovy e/ie. Comp. Hipp. 1091. Heracl. 733. 
El. 1068. 

Ohs. 3. Another mode of expressing a wish is e"i0' ufeXor, w^eXes, 
-e, especially in the poets ; with the infinitive present of actions which 
should have taken place but have not. II. a, 415. aid' oipeXes Trapa 
vrjvffiy aSaKpvTos kqI ain'ifjujy riudai, dehehas sedere, ' thou shouldst sit', 
i. e. utinam scderes. Comp. Ar'ist. Vcsj). 730. Plat. Rep. 4. p. 432 C. 
ipa ovv Kai vpoOvfiov KariCeli', lay irws Trporepoy ei-iov icijs Kal e/xoi 
(Ppaaris. Et yap difeXoy, eft]. Comp. Criton. jj. 44 D. With the infin. 
aor. of past actions; II. (p' , 269. &s p 6<peX' "EKruip KTcTrat. Eurip. 

Med. in. e'iO' w0e\"'Apyoi;s jjij tiaTrrcKrdai CTKa<pos i;vayeas SvjuttXjj- 

yacas. Also w0e\e, wfeiXe stand alone A^scIi. Prom, 48. Soph. Phil. 
969. Eur. Iph. A. 1303. /di'iTror w<j)eiXe {Priaiuus) -or a^(p\ ftovcri 
fiovKoXoy Tpafeyr 'AXe£,ay^poy oiKiaai a^(pl to XevKoy vSiop. Comp. 
Herod. 1, 111. Demosth. in Aristog. p. 783, 23. uxpeXe yap fjrj^els 
ttXXos 'ApifTToyeiroyi yaipeii'. Respecting Soph. CEd. C. 539. kceiupriv 
Zwpoy, o pZ/TTor' eyw raXaKupCios eTrtiXpeXr) (ra TroXeos €L,eXe(Tdai, see 
Vol. I. p. 426. Later writers use uxpeXov, lofeXe, as conjunctions. 
Callim. Epigr. 18. w(peXe f^n]C eyeyorro doa'i rees. Arrian. Diss. 2, 18. 
Sx^eXoy Tis fiera. ravrrjs tKoifiijQr]'^. 

Ohs. 4. Thus also the optative with oi)rws is used in entreaties, when, 
in order to render the other party propitious to the suppliant, the latter 
wishes him something pleasing or profitable, as II. a, 18. Eur. Med. 712. 
ouTws epios crui 7rpt)s deuJr TeXeaipopos yeyoiro Trai^aiy, Kai/Tos vXf3ios 
6 ay IS. as Sic te diva jwiens Cypri regat. Or in protestations : Arist. 
Thesm. 469. Kavrt) yap eywy', ovrios oralprjy ruiy reKvioy, fii(T(S tov 
uycp €Kehoy, ' I hate him, as truly as I wish to have joy in my children*. 
JVuh. 520. ovTw V iKij (xaipi y' tyw Koi yopi^oi jjii] y (70<pds, ws - - - 
7!-p<l)rovs I'liiwd ayayeva ipds. 

il4. 2. Otherwise the optative is used, but in connection with av 
or /ce, in order to give to a proposition an expression of a mere 

'^ lliom. M. ]). 2G9. 665. liitcrpr. 3 a. p. 147 seq. Ilerm. ad Viger. 
ad M(rr. p. 285 seq. Gi\xv. etllcitz p. 75C bcq. Blomf. ad iEsch. Pers. 
ad Luc. Sola'C. t. 9. p. 448. Fisch. 012. 

in independent Propositions. 867 

conjecture, a bare possibility, and thence of uncertainty and 
doubt, or in expressions of wishing, in order to declare any- 
thing, not as a fixed purpose, but only as an inclination, which 
may not be gratified, where in English, ' I would that, wish, 
could', are used. a. Herod. \, 70 extr. Taya Se uv kui o\ 
airo^oi-ievoi Aeyoiev drnKo/JLevoi ec ^TrapTW, i^c, airaipeOeiriaav 
vTTo ^a^'iojv. Comp. 8, 136. hocr. Areop. 146 E. itrwc^ av 
ovv Tivec eTTiTtjUTJcreiav TO?c e'lpvinevoic. Herod. 3, 23. to be 
vBbop TOVTO €1 a<pi eari dXnOeojQ olov ti Xeyerai, Sm touto av 
elev, TovTw rci wavra ■^peujf.ievoi, naKp6(iioi 'they are perhaps . 
Comp. 1, 2. 70. 9, 71. Hence Plat. Leg. 3. p. 677 B. ol 
Tore Trepicbvyovrec ttjv cjydopav ay^e^uv opeioi Tivec, av elev 
vof.ielc ' they were, perhaps, probably, shepherds'. So with 
negatives to express what is improbable : Herod. 2, 41. ovt 
dvrip A'tyvTTTioc, ovre -yvvTi liv^pa ''EAAr/ra (piXi^aeie av t(o 
aropaTi, ov^e /.la-^aipy dv^poQ''EWrivoQ y^pnaerai, ' will hardly 
kiss', where the future expresses what Herodotus knew for 
certain, ih. 47. rd Se dWa Kpea aireovrai ev tt? TravaeXnvio' 
ev aXXrj de r}iiiep\i ovK dv en yevaa'iaTO * they will hardly 
taste it'. Soph. Track. 196. to ydp ttoOovv eKaaroc eK^iaOelv 
OeXwi' OVK dv jit €06? TO, TTplv Kad' ijSovjn' K^veiv. Xen. Cyr. 1, 
2, 11. /cat 6r)pwvT€C /tei; ouK av d pi(TTi]<jaiev * they hardly 
ever breakfast'. Thus it is used in a rough estimate Xen. 
Cyr. 1,2, 13. tVetSav Se tu wevre kuI e'lKoaiv tVjj ^lareXeaioaiv, 
e'ir}(Tav ^lev dv ovtoi TrXeToi' ri v TrevTnKovra eri] yeyovorec, 
OTTO yevedc,. 

b. The optative may therefore be frequently rendered by * to 
be able'. Od. /c', 269. eVi ydp Kev dXv^aif^iev kok(jv y]i.iap. ib. 
fi , I37se^. rue e'l fxev k daiveoG edac,, vogtov re ^iecr]ai, rj r av 
er eic'lOaKTtv, kuku irep irda^ovTee,, iKoicrOe 'it is possible that 
you may come'. Herod. 5, 9. -yevoiTo S dv rrdv ev t(o i^iaKpio 
Ypovo). Comp. 6, 63. TIiuc. 2, 89. ouTe ydp dv eKirXevaeie 
TIC, wc XP^h ^'C e/iipoAw, ovT€ av a»'a^wp7/(r ct e>' ev ceovri. 

Plat.Phcedon.p.S] B. edv ^e ye (tj ^pv-^n) tou (jwjuaTor, 

aTToXXaTTT/Tat, yeyotirevfievrf vtt avTOV, ware /.ii]cev 

aXXo ^oKe7v eivai d\t]9ec, a'XX' rj to a to par ne idee, ov t«c av 
dxpaiTo Kal 'i^oi Kul irioi Kai cjydyoi &.C. Isocr. de l^ace, 
p. 183 C. dvt]p dae^iyQ Ka\ irorripdr, ti')(oi' dv (jiOdaeie 

868 Si/ntdx. Of the Optative and Conjunctive 

TeXeuTj'jcrac, irpiv Sovvai B'lKriv toju i^jxapTqfxevwVf ' it IS pos- 
sible, it may be, that he may die before'. 

c. An inclination, the indulgence of which depends on cir- 
cumstances, and which is therefore only possible and con- 
tingent, is expressed bv the optative with av, especially (5ov- 
Xoifiriv av Od. X', 489^. Flat. Lj/s. p. 211 E. Xen. Alem. S. 
3, 5, 1. (see §. 509 a.) Plat. Crat. p. 411 A. rjSewc av Oea- 
(Taifxrjv Tavra tu KaAa ovo/LiaTa. 

Hence the optative in interrogatiojis. //. y', 52. ovk av or) 
fj-elveiac ' Apr}i<pi\ov MeveXaov ; * couldst thou not stand against 
him?' K, 204. Plaf. Gorg. in. o'AX' apa e9e\n<reiev av 
■niMv diaXeydrivai ; ' would he be willing V ib. p. 449 B, The 
optative is also put in a negative interrogation for the impera- 
tive : //. e , 456. OVK av ^r\ rovZ av^pa jita^j/r. epvaaio 
/LiereXOMv; where the optative softens, ' thou wouldst not drag 
him away ?' Thus in entreaties Od. t)', 22. t , 57. Comp. ib. 
^', 132. //. k', 303. TIC av fioi reXeaeie; for reXeaartt} ria. 
Sometimes, however, this turn gives the command more em- 
phasis : 11.(1)', 263. OVK av Si} ^/oi li/^ia^av eCpoirX la aaiT€ 
TayjLara, tovto. re ttuvt tTr lOelre, tva Trpi^aawfiev oooto ; — ■ 
e'l also with the optative is us;ed thus : //. w. 74. e'l rtc KaXeaeie, 
for KaXeaard) tic. So after ttmc av, tic av Soph. Aj. 388. 
tu Zeu, TTOJC "I' Toi' ainvXtorarov oXcaac reXoc Bavoijxi kuvtog 
* how could I manage to destroy him? I would then die will- 
ingly', id. GUd. C. 1100. TIC av Oeivv ctoi tovS upiarov avcp 
\Seiv Bo'ir) ; * what god could afford thee a sight of him ?' which 
are only different turns given to the expression of a wish, 
' would that I could destroy him !' &c. 
515. d' Very often, however, the optative serves to express even 
the most definite assertions with modesty and politeness, as a 
mere conjecture : a moderation which, in consequence of their 
])olitical equality, was peculiar to all Greeks, but particularly 
the Athenians, and very seldom occurring in modern languages. 
Aristoph. Flat. 284. ovkct av Kpvxpat/iu ' I will no longer con- 
ceal it from you'. Xen. Cyr. 1, 4, 13. w/>a oi' irapaaKevateaOai 
ffoi e'/rj, oTio paoTiytoaetc /uc. Comp. ib. 28. 3, 1, 43. 7,5,25. 
OVK av OjueXetv Beoi, c(pii o Kvpoc, aXX' levai. Thus the op- 
tative is often used : 

in independent Propositions. 8G9 

a. In conclusions. P/at. Eutlii/plir. p. 13 D. oAAa Tt'c Br) 
Beiov BepaTTp'ia eiri civ i) oaioTi]C, ; EY0. ^v-irep, w ^(.oKpar^c,, oi 
covXoi Towc BecnroTac 6epair€vov<n. 2Q. Mar^ai'w. vTrripeTiKt] 
TIC, av, IOC, eoiKev, eir/ Oeolc. ib. p. 14 C. einaTrtpri iipa ai- 
ri](J€MC, Kai Socrewc Qeoic, i] oaiorric, av e't>/. Gorg. p. 502 D. 

|3. The optative frequently softens the future. //. /3 , 158. 
ovTijj Bi) oiKovBe, (pl\r]v t'c TTarplSa ■yaiav, Apye7oi (pev^ovrai 
eTT evpea uujra OaXaacrnc ; Kacoe Kev ev^u>\riv V\piapio Kanraicri 
XiTToiev 'Apye'irjv 'EXevr.u ; Comp. Od. [3 , 2\8. e , 34. i ,217 . 
II. o, 70. Herod. 4, 97. e\popai rot Kai ou/c av XeKpOeiriv. 
Thltc. 3, 13. ovre "yup airotyTijaeTai aXXoc,, ra re i^peTepa 
irpoayev^aerai, TraOoipev r avceivorepa i] onrptv covXevovrec 
Soph. Phil. 1302. ovu av peOeiriv, for ov fueOijaio. Eur. Ip/iig. 
A, 310. ovK av peOeipriv. OPESB. ouS 6-ywy a^i^aopai. 
Plat. Rep. 10. p. 615 D. ovy^ jJk'P'j ovS av h^oi Bevpo. 
Xen. H. Or. 2, 3, 29.^ 

y. In the same manner the optative gives a softening turn 
instead of the imperative. Od.a ,287. ei pev kcv Trarpoc, [^iotov 
Kai v6<JTOV aKovcjyjQ, ») t av, Tpvyjjpevoc, irep, en rXaii)C eviav- 
Tov, for TXr]9i, or 'then thou canst yet endure'. Soph. Phil.674. 
EL 1491. -^fopo^c av e'lao), more as a request. Antig. 444. 
jEA 1451. Pi/id. Pj/fh. 10,95. Thjv c CKacTTOc opovei, Tvy^iov Kev 
apiraXeav ay^eQoi (ppovridu Tav Trap ttoooc as a precept. Plat. 
Leg. 7. p. 813 B. toTc ^tei* tou'iu' iraiaiv opyjidTai, toTo oe op- 

j^rjaTpidec, av eiev KA. earu) Brf ravry . Panneti. 

p. 1 26 A. Arist. Vesp. 725. The optative is also used without av, 
and consequently a wish, not a command expressed. //. v , 120 
seq. h TJC eTreiTo Kai t]p€i(i)v Ay^iXi]i TrapcsTa'u] ton] ce Kparoc, 
peya, pijBe ri OvpM ^PUfccrOiK. Od. o , 24. Comp. //v. § , 1 93. 735. 
Pind. 01. 9, 61. (^epoic, te Tlpoj-oyeveiac aaTei yXujaaav. 
^sch. Again. 953. virai tic apjOvXac, Xvoi Tayjoc,, for Auerw. 
Soph. Trach. 1225. Eur. Tph. T. 1492. iTwaav ec, am' avv 
Qeac, ayaXpari yaiav, Kadicpvaaivro t evTi>yjijJC ppcrac, where 
the imperative denotes what depends on the pleasure and de- 
cree of Thoas, the optative what depends on circumstances. 

" Bnmck ad Soph. El. 1J91. ^ Brunck ad Soi.h. El. 1491. 

A]. Wd. Ilcind. ad Plat. I'arm. p. 1};h, 

870 Syntax. Of the Optative and Conjunctive 

Xen. Anal). 3, 2, 37. yLeiplaocpoc i-iev i^-yoiTo twv ce 

irXevpwv eKarepii)v dvo raTv 7rpe(T(ivTaT(i)v (JTparriyM eTrt^ie- 
Xoi(x9i]v. Plat. Euthi/d. p. 273 E. e'l ^e vvu aXjjQwc Tavnju 
Ti)v eTTicTTJ/^trjv e)(eTOi', tXew e'lt} to v. Leg. 5 ««Y. ukovoi Bi) 
TTctc. Comp. Leg. 11 ?//. Arist. Vesp. 572. 

O65. When regularly constructed, the optative in this easels accom- 
panied by (iy or Key. Yet these particles are sometimes wanting. //. e', 
303. o ov dlio y cii'^pe (pipoiev (as Xcn. Anah, 5, 4, 25. where two 
MSS. have av (pepoi). ib. -q, 48. 17 pa vv fiol ti Tridoio; (on the other 

hand, Od. &, 13G. t; pa kev iv Zetr^iois edeXois eu^eii' ; Comp. 

Od. o', 430. <t', 356.) Comp. Od. X', 612. v', 248. ^', 122. Sojjfi. (Ed. 
C, 42. rets TTctyB' apojcras ILvfievicas 6 y' ej'0d3' w»' (Z?/'. cu') eiTroi Xews 
vii'. 205. riya (^Br. and others r/v' ity) aov TrarpiV cKTrvOolfxay ', 1172. 
Kal tIs ttot €(Triy, oy y' eyw (Sj* av eyw Br.) -ipeLiaifxi ri. Comp. Philoct. 
694. Eurip. Iph. A. 1220. ovSels Tzphs raS' diretTroi (iporuiy. Hipp. 

473. ouSe oreyr/i' yap kuXiSs aKptfiutcreiav. Andr. 931. ttws ouv 

Tac', ws e'tTTOi rts, c^ripuprayes ; Plat. Cratijl. p. 397 A. ttcu'v yap Ijceus 
TCI eTTiXonra irepl ruiy uropurwy uKovcrai^i, as Isocr. Panath. p. 253 C. 
oh yap a7roicpv\paijjiL raXtjOes. So too Eur. Hipp. 1200. Kal ddauoy ?) 
Xeyot {al. Xeyei) tls, Bacch, 747. Qaacrov t) trxi £,vra.-ipais. and in com- 
parisons Soph. 2'rach. 113. &(tt aKapavros y Norou j) Bopea rts Kvpar 
€y evpei TToyTO) (iavr ttriovTa t "iloi, where perhaps we should read 
Kvpar' ay evp. ir. as ib. 700. Xcn. Hier. 1], 13. dijeravpovs ye pijy 
e-^ois nayras tovs irapa rols flXois ttXovtovs. Isocr. Panath. j). 241 D. 
Tovs "\LXXr]yas eCiBa^ay ov rpoiroy hiotKovvTes ras avrtijy irarpldas 
peyaXrjy Tiiy 'EXXdca ttoli'i creiay. So also in interrogations : /Esch. 

Ag. 1385 scq. TTws yap rts Trr}poyi)y apKvaraToy (ppa^eiey ; Clioeph. 

590. Of Siippl. 20. see §. 513. Soph. (Ed. T. 72. wj -KvQoiff on 
^pwy, 7J Ti <j)u)y<jjy ri'iyce pvaalprjy ttoXij'. Soph. (Ed. C, 1418. "kios yap 
avBis av TTuXiy aTparevp ay oipi ravToy, elaaTa^ rpeaas ; 'how should 
I be able ?' id. Antig. GO 1. reay, Zev, Svyaaiy ns culpuiy vTrepljaaitf 
Karaayoi ; ' who could check it V rn Karaerxr], the reading of Brunck, 
would mean ' who should check it V Eur. Iph. A. 523. oy p)) av <ppa'Ceis, 
TTws vTToXaftoipev X6yoy\ ' how could we guess?' Comp. §. 528. 

It is not probable that ay should have been omitted by the oversight 
of transcribers in all the passages above quoted, nor yet that the Greeks 
should have arbitrarily inserted or omitted it. From considering the 
cases in which av is regularly omitted, as in wishing, in the oratio ob- 
liqua after os and other relatives, it becomes probable that the proper 
force of av is to express the hypothetical relation of one member of a 

in independent Propositions, 871 

proposition to another, either expressed or present to the mind. Thus 
TTuSs ravTou (rrpuTevfia ciyoifii, and ttws tti' r. or. dy. express one and the 
same principal thouglit ; but the latter also implies a supposition, ' if 1 
wished, if opportunity again offered', &c. ; and as such a supposition 
may in most cases be supplied by the mind, the construction of the 
optative with civ was chosen in preference, for this reason also that 
the expression of something conditional and hypothetical points out the 
bare possibility or probability more strongly than ' can, may', &c. This 
explanation is confirmed on the one hand by the circumstance that 
after conditional propositions with el the optative will hardly be found 
in the apodosis without dv, and on the other that with the particles sig- 
nifying ' perhaps', 'laws, T-o^a, the optative is often found with, but 
often without dv, though we cannot rationally say that "ktms, Tu-)(a 
supply the place of dv, as JSsch. Suppl. 741. to-ws ynp ?) Kf]pvL, rts i) 
Trpetrfjvs noXoi. Soph. El. 800. eTzei-Kcp ovt efxov Kara^iojs irpa^eias, is 
probably a corruption for Kcirdtyi dy, since we must necessarily supply 
in the mind el cnrofTTeixois, Eur. Ipih. A. 419. ware repcpdelijs (cwv, for 
tils Ti repfd. ut delectareris, as Ion. 1396. because ISwf is the same as 
el 'icoLs. 

There is a difference between these cases and those where, in two 
clauses standing in similar relations, dv is used only once with the op- 
tative, as /Esch. Ag. 1058. ireidoC tw, el ireiQoC, cnreidoirjs c' 'iaojs. 
Plat. Piicedon. p. 87 D. Ttjv avrrjy TavTr)i', oijjiai, elKova ce^air ay ii 
^^X^l Tpos TO aMfia, K(ii ris Xeycjy avrd tuvtci Trepl avrtjjy jieTpid fxoi 
(paiyoiTO Xeyeiy, where the dy belongs to faiy. as well as Ce^. ib. E. 
Xe7i. Mem. S. 2, 1, 18. 6 fxey ckiov Treivojy tpdyoi av cTrure I^ovKoito, 
Kcu 6 eKcjy ci\pu)y irun. id. Cyr. 6, 1, 20. Even in propositions with 
yap, and when another turn is chosen, as Xen. A nab. 4, G, 13. cokov- 

^ev B' dy f.LOi eprjfxorept^ dy rtS dWai opei -^prfaQui.' fxiyoiev yap 

avTov ndXXoy ddpooL ol TroXefAwi, because the preceding words have the 
meaning epijfiorepu) av r. d. op. ^pw^eQa* jxevoiey ydp. Also in paren- 
thetical propositions : Plat, Rep. 2. /;. 360 B. ovcels dy yevoiro, ws 
^o^etey, ovtws dla}.idyTLyos and in the continuation of the con- 
struction interrupted by a parenthesis Herod, 3, 127. w Uepaai, ris dv 

fioi TOVTO vfxewy {nroards eitLTeXeaeie ; {evda ydp ao(j)tr)s ceei, 

plrjs epyoy ovcey,) vfieojy h) oh' ris {xoi. 'Opoirea i) ^woy-a dydyoi j) 
aTTOKTeiyeie *. 

B, The conjunctive is used when anything ought to take 516. 
place. Thus 1. without au or /ce, in exhortations in the first (^^^) 

* Ilerm. ad Vig. p. 943. ad Elms). Med. p. 353. 

872 Syntax. Of the Optative and Conjunctive 

person plural, ' let us do this or that', e. g. 'iw/iiev 'let us go', 
Hayojfieda * let us fight'. But in the second and third person 
the optative is used, as §. 513, 1. //. v, 119. aXX ayeO , 
r]/j.eiQ TTep juiv air ot pioir w f.iev OTrKTcrio avroueu, ij tic, eneiTa 
Kai r/juet'wi' A^iXj/i Traparau}, Sot?; Se Kparoc, f-ieya, for which, 
in the following verse, the imperative is used. Od.y^, 77. 
eXOoj/^iev S' ava aarv, jSojj S wKiara yevoiro. Soph. Aflt. 
152.^ So the 1st person singular is found in Homer: Jl. ^, 
450. i'Swjit' o Tiv epya reTVKTai, * let me see, I wish to see', as 
ib. 418. Xiaawfx avepa rovrof. Od. t', 37. ^,340. oXX aye 
vvv eTrt'/ttetrov Apijia Tevy^ea Bvoj *I wish to put on', t, , 126. 
In the following passages only after (jyepe, aye, or similar 
words: Herod. I, 11. 7, 103. Soph. F/iil. 1452. Eur. Hipp. 
877. Here. F. 530. E/. 875.^ Arist. Ach. 1 120. Comp. 
Equ. 113. P/at. Phccdon. p. 63 B. Dem. pro Cor. />. 3 15, 20. 
This use coincides vervmuch with that of the future, as indeed 
both are united //. /, 60. f, 129, 131. 

The 1st person singular of neuter and passive verbs seems 
to be used in the same way Soph. Trach. 801. aXXa ^i eK ye 
Ttjade yrja irupOj^ievaov wc ray^iara, jtujo avrov Oavto, as Eur. 
Heracl. 560. pi) rpeffyjc /ttO(T/taToc rovpov pcTaay^elv, aXX 
eXevOeptoc, Oui'U), ' 1 wish not to die here, I wish to die free'. 
Eur. iroad. 173. pi] vvv /loi t?)1' ^aKyevovaav ^aaavopav 
7rep\pr}(jO' t^w, a'lcjy^vvav Apytioimv paivao eir aXycai o 
iiXyvvOoj, i. e. py) fcTT. (tXy. ' Y wish not to suffer new sorrows'. 
Perhaps also (Kd. C. 174. uj ^elvoi, pi) SiJt' aSt/c^jOw, though it 
seems more suitable to supply here SeSot/ca or o^oo, as //. a , 26. 
<p', 475.' 

Such exhortations addressed to oneself are sometimes 
strengthened hy a question with ov and the future. Eur. Med. 
883. ovK a7iuXXayBi]aoucu Ovpov -, i. e. aye airaXXay^dw Ovpov. 
Andr. 12 12. ' 

Ohs. Homer and other epic poets use here a form similar to the in- 

' Valckcn. ad Her. 4, 118. Ilcrm. passages which Hermann ad Soph. 

ad \'iger. p. 743. Phil. 1081. p. 196 sc(|. ciuotcs, belong 

•• Elmsl. ad Eur. Heracl. 5b9. ad to §. olC, 3. 
Med. VlV'i. ad Bacch. 341. Comp. ' Elmsl. ad Heracl. 1. c. ad Soph. 

Dobree ad Arist. Plut. 965. But the a:d. C. 1. c. 

in independent Propositions. 873 

dicative, to/xei^. See §. 201, 9. But Eurip. Iph'ig. A. 16. for aTeixof^ey 
e'iau) we should read <7rei\ojjX€v eVw. 

2. In questions of indecision or doubt, when a person asks 
himself or another what he is to do, also without av, and with 
or without an interrogative particle. 11. k , 62. avOi (.levh) ^lera 
T0?(7t, ^eSeypevoc, elaoKev eXOyc, r/e Oew pera a avTiQ; Jliiir. 
Pliucn. 740. aW a/nCpL ^eiirvov ovai ■7rpoa(3aX(jo ^opv; Thus 
Eurip. Here. Fur. 1111. must be taken as an interrogation: 
yepovrec, e'A0a> r(Sv eptSv kukiov veXaG; ' am I to approach ?'' 
id. Hec. 1249. comp. ib. 84. Thus ti (jx^ ; ri Sjow; 'what 
am I to say? do?' Aristoph. Pint. 1198. eyw cie r'l ttoim; 
Plat. Gorg. p. 447 D. ti epojpai; II. X, 404. rt iraQoj; 
'what am I to do?' Comp. Herod. 4, 1 1 8. Plat. Prot. p. 322 C. 
TTorepov, IOC ai renvoi vei'epi]VTai, ovtm Kai ravTuc veipoj , 
ib. 334 E. TTorepa ovv, ocra t'/uot So/cei Belv cnroKpiveaOai, roa- 
avTci aoi cnroKpivojpai ; where just before it was expressed : 
ri ^payvTepa aoi cnroKp'ivwpai, i] Bel; Comp. Hipparch, 
p. 229 A. seq. 

3. Other questions, direct as well as indirect, with the idea 
'should', are so expressed. II. tt', 648. [Zeuc (ppdtero Ovpto,} 
7j ridr] Kai Ke7vov evl Kparepy va^'ivYj avrov eir avriueoj 2ap- 
TTJjSoi/t Cpai^tpoc ''E/CTtUjO -^oXkio S)7Wff??, avo t wpcvv TCvye 
eXr^rai (whether he should), -n eVi /cat 7rXeoi'eo-(j(i^ o(^eXXeiev 
(which he would most willingly do) ttovov a'nrvv. Comp. Od. 
tt', 74. Herod. 1, 53, Kpolaoc; vjuieac eireipMra, ei OTpa- 
Tevtirai eni riepaac, Kai e'l Tiva arpuTov av^puiv tt poaBeoiro 
(al. 7rpoaOet]Tai) avp/na^ov ; where •n-poaOenrai seems more 
correct, if it signifies ' whether he is to take any army as his 
auxiliaries' ; but irpoaBkoiro, if the sense be ' whether he can 

take it'. Thuc. 6,25. e^r? y^prlvai evavTiov inravTOJV r/o>) 

Xeyeiv, rjv Tiva avrto TrapaaKevnv AOrivoLOi \p'n(f) la (ovrai. 
Dem. pro Cor. p. 268, 27. in Androt. p. 613, 3. Plat. Prot. 
p. 348 D. nepiiojv ^rjre? OTOf eTrtSei^rjTai Kai peO otov 
j3e/3aia>ff»/Tat. Xen. Mem. S. 2, 1, 21. 'HpaKXea e^eXOovra 
e'lQ i](TV\iav KuOriaOai, airopovvra oirorepav tojv ocojv t pa- 
ir vrai. The conjunctive is found in the sense of the future 

^ Valck. ad Eurip. Hipp. v. 782. ad Viger. p. 731. 
ad Eur. Ph. 735. Porson ib. Herm. 

VOL. II. 2 1$ 

874 Sj/ntax. Of the Optative and Conjunctive 

II. o, 16. ov /iiau oIS', et avre KaKoppaipnjG oAe-yeiv»}C tt^wtij 
eirav prjai Kai ae -rrXriyycnv ijnaacra). 

Ohs. 1. The rule which Dawes Misc, Cr. p. 207. Brunck ad Arist. 
Plut. 438. Jv. 164.. Sojjh. Aj. 403. Aniig. 605. Phil. 1393. (comp. 
Schaefer in Dion. H. 1. i^. 97 scq. Heind. ad Plat. Prot. p. 497.) 
establish, that in interrogations the conjunctive is put without civ, but 
the optative with dr, is true in general ; only a difference of signifi- 
cation is the origin of this idiom. With the conjunctive a person asks, 
wishing to be informed, what he is to do (except in some cases, which 
are explained from what follows, and occur hereafter) ; but with the 
optative, when he considers what may be done. In those cases where 
the conjunctive expresses ' should', it does not take av, which, how- 
ever, may be added to it in the cases about to be explained below. 
The optative has here the same signification as in §. 514, and therefore 
regularly takes av as it docs there ; which soinetimes, as there also, is 
omitted. See Herm. ad Viger. p. 729, 108. 

Ohs. 2. Instead of the conjunctive the future also is used. Plat. Crit, 
p. 50 B. 7/ kpovfjiev Trpos uvtovs, vti yciKei yap ii/Jids ?/ ttoXis, kcu ovic 
opQws r))y c/kj/i' eKpiye ; ravra ?) ti kpovfiev ; Gorg. p)'52\ B. o'v^ *^t,€t, 
o TL •)(piiae-ai avrois'^. Parm. p. 137 B. Comp. Apol. S. p. 37 B. C. and 
hence the conjunctive and future are found together Soph. Track. 972. 
TL TToQw; TL C€ p i) (7 o fx CI L ', Comp. ^^c. 214. 21G. The indicative 
also is put in this case for the conjunctive, e. g. ttws Xeyof-iei' ; Plat. 
Gorg. p. 480, Ti lit ovv Xiyopey irepl tov uaiov ; id. Euthyphr. p. 10.** 
Eur. Ion. 771. e'iTrwpey, Ti aiywpey j) ti hpaaopev. 

3. In a similar manner the conjunctive is used without a con- 
junction and without av after (3ovXei in interrogations. Soph. 
Phil. 762. (5ovXei XojSw^tai Srjra Kai Olyio ti (tov ; Plat. 
Gorg. p. 434 C. |3ouAei ovv Suo e'/Sfj Oio pev ireiOovQ ; Comp. 
p. 479 C. The conjunctive stands also first Plat. Phadon. 
J). 79 A. Ocvpev ovv l^ovXe.i Suo e'lSr] tcjv ovtwv; The second 
or third person is in the infinitive Ea7\ Iph. A. 998. (dovXei viv 
iKeriv aov irepiTTTv^ai yuvv ; Without a question id. Rep. 2. 
p. 372 E. e'l S' av /3o vXeaOe Kai CJyXeypa'ivovaav ttoAiv Oeatpr)- 
awpev, ovBev airoKMXvei, for Oewprjaai rjpac. Phadon. p.95Ei. 
eiT€ Ti jSouXft TrpoaOijc i) acjieXijc, for irpoaQeivai ij aCpeXeiv. 
— OeXeic, is used for ftovXei, e. g. Soph. CEd. 1\ 65 J. 

» lleind. ad Plat. Gorg. p. 63. 

•> Heind. ad Plat.Gorg p. lOP. ad Theajt. p. 441. 

in independent Propositions. • 875 

Obs. It is doubtful whether the future here stands for the conjunc- 
tive {Stallb. ad Phil. p. 77.), the MSS. varying between o and w ; but 
it is more probable that the transcribers should have changed the future 
into the conjunctive than vice versa. The indie, pres. {Schcef. ad L. 
Bos. p. 7()5.) is found only in later writers. 

4. The conjunctive also is used in questions of indignation, 
with which a preceding command is repeated. Arist. lian. 
1132. AION. AiayvXe, 7rapaiv<jJ croi crtWTrav. AI2X. e-yw 
a 10)77 (S tmSb ; ' am 1 to be silent before this man V Comp. zV/. 
Ijys. 530. IjUC. D. D. I. Xvaou pe, tJ Zeu ZEY2. Avcrw 

In negative propositions the conjunctive is used after /tT/ 517. 
or ov pn for the future, but usually only the conj. aor. 1. 
pass, or aor. 2. act. and middle ; instead of the aor. 1. act. the 
future is used. Msch. S. c. Th. 201. Xevarripa ^nixov S ovti 
pr] (pvyy f.i6pov, i. e. ov (pev^erai. Comp. 283. Soph. El. 42. 
ov yap ae jurj y^po- Te Kai y^povo) paKpi2 yvuia owo VTTOTTTev- 
aovaiu u)d' y}vQi(jpevov, as (Ed. C 450. and with the conjunc- 
tive after the future Arist. Vesp. 394. Soph. Phil. 103. ov prt 
TTiOr^Tai, i. e. ov Tre'iaerai. Comp. Trach. 621. 1190. Plot. 
Charm, p. 168 D. ay^pwv o^ic, ovdev av pi] Trore iSy, for ovk 
o-^evfu. Rep. 5. p. 473 D. Comp. ib. 10. p. 597 C. ib. 6. 
p. 492 E. ovre jiyveTui, o'vre yeyovei', ov^e ovv pi) yevrjTai 
aXXoTov ijOoQ irpoQ apcTriv, Trapa ti^v tovtojv iraiceiav Treirai- 
Sevpevov^. Hipp, Maj. p. 300 D. ov yap prj Trore evpyc,, o 
pi^TTOT eyw TTeirovOa pqTe av, tout apCporepovQ i]paQ Treirov- 
Oorac Also the conj. present : Soph. QLd. C. 1023. ouc ov 
pr]TroTe ■^lopac, (pvyovrec; Trjo^ ETrev-^covrai Oeolc,. Plat. 
Rej). \. p. 341 C. aW ov pi) otoc T yc. Xen. Ilicr. 11, 15. 
eoi^ Towc (piXovQ Kpar^c cv ttoiwv, ov pi] trot cvvMVTai avTeyeiv 
oi TToXepioi. Comp. Atiab. 2, 2, 12. And with the aor. 1. pass. 
A^sch. S. c. Th. 38. outi pri Xij(^0w SoXw, i. e. ov \ri(p6i](yopai. 
Plat. Symp. p. 214 A. ottoctov av KeXevay tic, toctovtov 
eKTTiiov, ovdev fxaWov pi] ttotc pedvaOy^. Also ov alone is 
found : Od. ^', 201. ovk eaO ovtog ain)p Siepuc, (iporoc, ovSe 

*= Dawes Misc. Crit. p. 78. Comp. Stallb. ad Plat. Phil. p. 52. 

Valck. Diatrib. p. 211. * To this head belong the passages 

^ Of the latter construction see quoted Wyttenb. ad Eel. Hist. p. 343. 

2 B 2 

876 Sj/)itax. Of the Optative and Conjiinctive 

■yevjjrai &c. Comp. 7r',437. Thus the ipassagea Xenoph.A7iab. 
7, 7, 24. must be explained : oi av (pavepol waiv aXnOeiav 
aaKOvvrec, tovtwi' oi \6yoi, riv ti ^eojvrai, ovBev f.ieiov ouvwi/- 
Tot dvvaaffOai, 7j aXAwi' i) j3/a, unless this be rather an error 
of the transcriber, for ^vvavrai caused by ^ecovrai. For ^e?ov 
can hardly stand instead of ^try. Instead of the former negative 
ov, the negative /aa used in an oath is found with the accusative 
Arist. Lys. 916. na tov AttoXXo) i^Li] a eyw, Kaiirep roiovrov 
ovra, KaraKXivw y^ai.iai. Comp. EccL 991. A v. 194. according 
to which Ran. 511. ov after 'AttoXXw should be struck out^. 

This construction has probably arisen from ov SeSocKo /u?] 
■yvfufft ' I am not afraid that they should know thee', i. e. 'they 
certainly will not know thee'''. This being stronger than ov 
yvuxjovrai, this ov fxi) was also prefixed, for the sake of a 
stronger negation, to the future Soph. (Ed. C. 450 seg. EL 42. 
Perhaps, too, the Homeric usage (see Obs. 4.) may have had 
some influence*^. 

Ohs. 1. Dawes Misc. Cr'it. p. 221 seq. laid down the rule, which has 
been adopted by Brunck (fid Arist. Lys. 704. &c.) and most subsequent 
critics, tliat after ov {.n) the conj. aor. 1. act. is never found, and un- 
dertook to alter the passages which opposed this rule. It is true the 
alteration consists generally in changing an rj into an e, or an w into an 
0, and that in many passages the MSS. vary, as Plat. Polit. p. 308 D. 
Leg. 5. p. 735 B. Xen. Cyr. 8, 2, 8. Tlie transcribers, too, have some- 
times introduced manifest faults into the text, as Eur. Jlipp. Gil. ov 
^ff irpofTolartjs x^^P"f ^^^ irpoaoiaeis. But many passages are also found 
wliere such a change is inadmissible, as Sop)h. Phil. 381. where Brunck's 
conjecture iKwXevaeis is a solecism, as the Greeks said not irXeijaio but 
TtXevcroviiai. /Ij. 560. the Attic future is vftpiel, as Eur. Iph. T. IS. 
cKpop/xieT. Arist. Vesp. 394. ovpljaio can be nothing but the conj. aor. 1., 
as the fut. would be ovpiicrofiai. See Arist. Pac. 1266. — Plat. Rep. 10. 
p. 609 B. uTToXel, not cnroXeaei (a rarer form), would be the future. 
See Vol. I. §. 181, 2, b. Xcn. Anah. 4, 8, 13. ovleXs pj]Keri fieh'r]. 
Therefore although with oh /x// tlie fut. instead of the aor. 1. act. is 
most common, the rule is not certain, and it is safest to keep to the 

^ Elmsl. ad Soph. (Ed. C. 177. Ehnsl. Med. p. 390. ad CEd. C. 1028, 

p. 117. Lips. El. 1041. 

'' Elmsl. ad GEd. C. 177 extr. Ast *= Werfer in Act. Monac. 1, 2. 

ad Plat. Kcp. p. 304 seq. Ilerm. ad p. 228. 

in independent Propositions. 877 

MSS. even where a change would be easy, especially as Reisig Comm. 
Crit. in Soph. (Ed. C. p. 250 seq. appears correctly to have remarked, 
that here also the aorist appears to denote a completed or transient, 
the future a continuing action''. 

Ohs. 2. Elmsley ad Eur. Med. 1120. Soph. (Ed. C. 177. distin- 
guishes from this construction a similar one of the particles ov //// with 
the future for the imperative, which he considers universally as ques- 
tions, according to the remark quoted §. 498, c, a. Thus Eur. Med. 1160. 
ov fxt) 6v(TiJ.€y))s eVj; (l)lXois, Trnvaei ce 0i;/xou &c. is according to him to 
be taken as a question, fj)) ci/ff/xej/Z/s being equivalent to (piXyj, and ov 
only belonging to Ttavaei, arpexpeis &c. ov <ptkr] eery ; i. e. ^iXt] 'ladi, or 
l.ifj Su(Tpeyt)s 'iadi. Soph. Trach. 980. ov fxri '^eyepeis is equivalent to 
ovK eiideii^ eao-ets, i. e. fxi) l^eyeipe &c. This explanation is applicable 
to many passages, e. g. Eur. El. 386. where ov p)) (ppovnaed" is equi- 
valent to * be humble ! ' but its universal admission is opposed by the 
union of the aor. with the fut. after ov pt], as in the passages quoted 
Soph.El.42. (Ed. C.450. Jrist. Vesp. 394. since e. g. ov n fit) Xaxwcri 
must be the same as ov Xiit,ovTai, and /u'yre ij^ei, which imnnediately 
follows, as pi]Te j/^erw. It is also opposed by some passages which 
must be altered to suit the rule, as Soph. (Ed. C. 176. where Elmsley 
would read upri for a^et. id. El. 1052. where he prefers the reading ov 
aoi pi) pedexPofxai, as if fit) fxed. were not a solecism for ov fxed. That 
the proper sense of the future remains after ov /u// is shown by Eur. 
Phcen. 1633. cto^ws yap elrre Teipeaias, ov jxi] ttote, gov rt'ivde yfjv 
oIkovptos, ev irpa^eLv voXlv. This explanation therefore, as Hermann 
observes, ad Elmsl. Med. p. 390. ed. Lips., only suits those passages 
in which the 2nd person is found, which gives the prohibitive force to 
that phrase, in interrogations, 

Ohs. 3. The optative after ov fit] is very suspicious. See Schcef. App. 
Dem. 2. p. 321 seq. except in the orat. ohliqua, as Soph. Phil. 611. 
edtaTTiaey, rcnrl Tpoia izepyap ws ov pt) Tfore irepaoiey or Tzepaeiav. 

Ohs. 4. From this case we must distinguish fit) ov with the conjunc- 
tive, in which also cedoiKu is omitted. Plat.Phcedon. p. 67 B. fit) icadapM 
yap icadapov efuTrreadai fit) ov QefxiTov ^, vereor ne nefas sit, which is in 
Latin also a milder expression for nefas est. Comp. Gorg. p. 462 E. 
Leg. 9. p. 861 E. Parm. p. 130 D.^ 

Ohs. 5. Elsewhere in Homer the conjunctive is sometimes found 

■1 Heind. ad Plat. Phadon. p. 44. declare against the rule of Dawes. 
Herm. ad Soph. Aj. 557. Ast ad Plat. « Heind. ad Parm. p. 214. 

Leg. p. 495. Poppo ad Cyr. 3, 2, 8. 

878 Syntax. Of the Op-tat he and Conjunctive 

instead of the future. 1. with ay or kc. //. a, 184. ti)i> /licj' cyw 

TTe/z^'w, eyw ^e k ttyw Bpicrj/ta ^.aWtTrapjjo)', for cit,u). comp. 137. 205. 
ib. y, 54. \', 431. Od. ■)(, 325. ovk ay C)) ■!Tpo(j)vyi]ada. 

2. without liy. II. a', 2G2. ov yap ttw roiovs 'i^ov aiepas vv^e 
'i^(i)fiai. C> 459. Kal Tiore ris e'lirytTiv, followed v. 462. by ws ttote 
Tis epeei. Comp. y', 287. v, 87- 91. 197. i, 121. o', 350. Oc?. e', 
266. &c. So the conjunctive is intermixed with the future Od. S', 
240. X', 328. where, however, fiv6i]cro^ai is probably the Homei'ic form 
of the conjunctive §. 201, 9. 

Obs. 6. The use of the conjunctive in these cases in the older lan- 
guage instead of the optative with liv, — oXeaeie ay, e'nroi av &c., which 
is more common, and almost the only form used by the Attics, — appears 
to have originated from the circumstance that the conjunctive and future 
differed only by the long and short vowel, and were often interchanged 
in signification. The future is intermixed witli the optative Herod. 
2, 41. quoted in §. 514. as the conjunctive is used for the futiu'c Obs. 5. 
The conjunctive appears to stand exactly as the optative Od, a, 396. 
TuivKey ris roc' e^jjon v e;ret Oure ^ws ^Odvacrevs, for e'j^oi liy 'may 
have, has perhaps', for even the future t'i'ei would here be too definite. 
And so the conjunctive and optative are intermixed Od. l', 692. and 
thus Horn, II. in Apoll. 339. «X\' oye (f>ipT€pos ?;, ocraoy Kpvyov evpvuTra 
Zevs may be defended. 

In three places the conjunctive is found with e'ide instead of tlie op- 
tative. Soph. Phil. 1092. ei0' eXwai p-e. Eur. Sujypl. 1028 seq. 

e'ide <pavu)my. Hcl. 269. e'lG' Xafiw. Hermann Elcm. Doctr. M, 

<p. 5o5. endeavoured to defend these passages, recognizing in them the 
expression of a wish. But in Ilel. 269. Xajju) would stand not for 
Xaftoifxi, but, as the wish relates to sometliing past, for eXajwy, a thing 
unheard of; and some MSS. have Xapely. The other passages are 
suspicious, from the metre as well as the sense, though no satisfactory 
emendation of them has been suggested''. 

II. Oj' the Optative and Conjunctive in dependent Propositions, 
or after Conjunctions. 

^.^ The use of the Optative and Conjunctive after Conjunctions 
is distinguished in this way, — that the former is used when the 

* Pliil. 1092. we might read tV Siippl. 1028. Even Hermann ad 
ul6\ fiiw- -- 1 Xw (7t jxe; i. c. f Xa- Phil. p. 195. sccnis to luive aban- 
aovdi. SeeMatthia; ad Eur. Ilcc.4'24. doned his former opiniou. 

in dependent Propositions, or after ConJiinctioNs. 870 

chief verb of the whole proposition, or the verb of tlie propo- 
sition upon which the conjunction depends, expresses an action 
of past time, and the verb which depends upon the conjunction 
belongs determinately to past time, a consequence of the use 
of the optative in orat. ohliqiia. The conjunctive on the other 
hand is used if the preceding verb expresses anything present 
or future, in which case the verb which is governed of the con- 
junction necessarily belongs to tlie same time. Thus that which 
in Latin is the rule of succession of the tenses, in Greek is the 
rule of succession of the moods ; and where in Latin, after con- 
junctions, the imperfect should be put, in Greek the optative 
is used ; and where in the former language the conj. present is 
employed, in the latter the conjunctive is put. Here, however, 
appears again the peculiarity of the Greek language in narration, 
mentioned §. 529, — that the narrator often puts himself in the 
situation of the person of whom he relates anything, and con- 
siders a thing as present or future, which is indeed present or 
future with respect to that person, but which in the relation 
should be represented as past. Besides this, the two moods 
are sometimes placed after conjunctions also, for the same 
reason which determined the use of them in independent pro- 

The conjunctions after which these moods are put, are 

1. those which express a piupose, iva, ocppa, mc, ottojc, and juii. 

2. particles of time, as cTret, eTretS/], ore, cue eni]!', eTrewctu, 
OTuv. irpiv, eioc &c. 3. conditional particles, el and ecu', ijr. 
4. relatives, or,, o'loc, oaoc, ottov, oOev, evOa, ottoi 8cc. 

1. OJ' the Optative and Conjunctive after 'iv a, o(ppa, 


Here particularly the rule just mentioned holds good, ac- 
cording to which the optative is put after verbs of past time, 
and the conjunctive after verbs of present or future time, and 
without ai>, e. g. //. X , 289 seq. aX\ lOvc eXavvere /LUovvyaQ 
'iTTTTOVQ iCpOif^iMV Arti'cicoi', 'iv VTccpTepov Evyjoc, apr}(jOe, but 
11. e, in. ki>9 av Tvceicy Ato^tujoei FlaXXac: A0iji'rj Sco/ce f.icvoc 
Kai Bapaoc, iv eVStiXoc p.era -rraaiv Apyetoiai -y trot to, iSe 
kXIoo eaOXov apoiTo. Thus in Homer //, a, 26. pi] (xe, 

880 Syntax. Of the Optative and Conjunctive 

yepov, KoiXyjaiv eyio 7raf)a vrivai Kiyeitt) /tiij vv roi ov 

y^paia fxig OKyfTrrpov Kal arej^if-ia Qeoio. 32. aXX \Bi, f.ii^ fx 
epeOite, aauirepoc, mq Ke vet^ai: but Plato relates the same 
event thus; Rep. 3. p. 393 E. o Se 'Ayainefxvwv riyp'iaivev, 
evTeWojuevoQ vvv re amevai Kai avOic, fny} eXOeiv, fxr) avrto to 
re (TKrJTrTpov Kai ra tou 9eov aTef-ifxara pi) errapKeaoi. --- 
awievai Se eKeXeve Kal pri epeOi'Ceiv, iva awe, o'lKace eXOoi^. 
There are, however, several deviations from this rule, founded 
on the relation of the propositions. 

1. The conjunctive is frequently used, although the pre- 
ceding verb be in the time past, when the verb which depends 
upon the conjunction denotes an action which is continued to 
the present time. e.g. II. e , 127. a^Xvv B av toi ott oCpOaXpwv 
eXof, }/ irpiv eirrjev, ocjip' ev yivdjaKyc rii^iev Oeou r^Se Kai 
avdpa, because at the time at which IMinerva is speaking, 
yivuxjKeiv is a consequence still continuing of the past action 
a<paipeiv dyXvv. But Plato Alcib. 2 extr. could no longer re- 
present this as present : warrep no Aiopi)dei <pr](n ri)v Adrjvav 
' Ofxr]poc arro rtov ocjiOaXpivv aCJieXeiv tijv w^Xw, oCJyp ev 
-yivoKT/cot ij/xev Oeov jjSe Kal ai'dpa. Comp. jEsch. Prom. 462. 
Choeph. 730. Eii rip. Ilec. 27 . ktuvwv etc olSp aXoc fte0i7x> 
'iv avToc ■^pvaov tv Sojitoic ^XV' Plf^t. Leg. 2. p. 653 seq. Beat 

^e oiKre'ipavTec to twv civOpioTrMV ctt'ittovov 7r£<pvKoc yevoc, 

Movaoc ATToAAwi'a Te jHoi^crjj-ytTrji' Kai Atoi'UdOi^ ^vveopTaaraQ 
e^oaav, iv ^iravopOojvT ai rac, yevopevaa TpoCpuc, cv toTc 
eopratc peTo. Oetjv^. On the other hand, the optative is found 
after the present when the verb which follows the conjunctive 
really indicates a past action, as Herod. 7, 103. opa, pi] pdrriv 
Kopwoc, o Xoyoc, o e'ipi]pevoc, ei »/, vide, nefuerit ostentatio, i. e. 

2. Sometimes it is indifferent whether one will express de- 
terminately that the consequence of a past action is continued 
on to the time of the relation, or not. Hence, in such cases, 
the conjunctive is sometimes interchanged with the optative. 

■' Dawes Misc. Cr. p. 85. Brunck Ileind. ad Plat. Prot. §. 29. has col- 
ad Arist. Ran. 24. Equ. 893. Ilerrn. lectcd deviations from this rule, 
ad Vig. p. 790 seq. 259. 809, 268. *■ Misccll. Philol. 2, 1. p. 34 seq. 
850. Schafer in Dion. II. 1. p. 109 seq. Heind. ad Plat. Thest. p. 439. 

after iva, o(f)pa, ottwc, o>c. 881' 

Thus it is in Eurip. Hec. 697. EK. efxoc, ^kvoc,, QpaKioc (Vtto- 
TctQ {eKTCive viv). XOP. lojiioi, Ti Xe^etc ; y^pvaov wc eyot 
KTaviov, although ib. 27. he had used e^^ in the same combi- 
nation. Comp. Eurip. Suppl. 201 sqq-^ 

3. On the contrary, the optative in certain combinations is 
put after verbs of the present time, e. g. when the present 
(historicum) is put for the aorist, as in Latin also, the conj. 
imperf. follows the present: e. g. Eurip. Hec. 10. ttoXvv Se 
aw e/noi y^pvaov eKire/inrei XciOpa Trarrip, 'iv , e'liroT 'W'lov 
Teiyt} Trkaoi, toIq ^ojcjiif e'lJ? Trai<Ji jurj (nraviG (5iov. 

4. Since the optative expresses an action as merely possible 
or probable, or desirable (§. 514.), but the conjunctive as what 
depends on the will of the speaker or another, the optative 
sometimes stands even after verbs of the present or future time, 
following the conjunction 'iva, &.c. when the action which follows 
the conjunction is to be marked only as presumptive and pro- 
bable, and the conjunctive after verbs of the past time, when 
the consequence is considered as one which is to be obtained. 
It is clear that the use of the one or the other is not arbitrary, 
from the passages in which they are intermixed: Od. y' , 77. 
avTi^ yap evi (ppeai Bapaoc, AOijvr] Orj-^ , iva jxiv irepi Trarpoc, 
aTTOiyop.evoio kpoiTO, i]0 iva piv Kkeoc, eaOXou ev avQphiwoiaiv 

h.y^'i^aiv. Comp. 0(L fx, 1 5G scj. 11. to' , 584. pi) o pev 

ovK epvaaiTO. opivQeiy] /cat e KaraKre'iveie. 

Aioc, S aXirnTai ecperpac,, as a necessary consequence of 
KaTaKTc'iveiv considered merely as possible, as Herod. 1, 185. 
id. 9,51. ec TOUToi' S?) tov -^wpov elBovXevaavro peraaTtiuai, 
iva Kai vcari e^wcrt -^puaOai aCJiOoi'io, kcil oi unreec a(peac 
pr) aivoiuTO. Eur. Ion. 1623. where e-^ova eh]c, expresses 
something which the Pythia wishes but does not venture to 
promise, as //. •j^', 244. may be explained, unless Bapipj, not 
Bape'iri, be the true reading there. Eur. Hel. 56. toe, v(3piu 

^e'l^ojpev yoovc t a (pel »j u, ' if opportunity offers'. Thuc. 

6, 96. eTTTaKocfLovG XoyubciQ twv ottXitiuv e^eKpivav Trporepov, 

OTrijJC Twv re EttittoXwi' ^'irjcrav (pvXaKec, kui, w £Q aXXo 

Ti oep, Tayy ^vvearMTCC, ir a p ay lyv to vtui, for the former may 

" Misc. Phil. 2, 1. p. 36. 

882 Syntax. Of the Optative and Conjunctive 

be made sure of, the latter not so well. Comp. Plat. Phccdon. 
p. 88 C. In a similar way we may justify Od. -^f 391. Trj- 
Ae^a^ e't S, ct-ye jlioi Ka\e(Tov Tpocpov EujOUAcAetai', oCJypa 
eTToc e'lTroi/^ii, to fxoi KaraOvi^iiov eariv, as something which he 
wishes, where otherwise o<pp' eiTrw is used. Wolf conjectured 

eiTTM/xi. Od. j3', 52. (.ivqarripeQ Trarpoc f-iev ec oikov airep- 

piyaai veeaOai iKapiov, ojq k avroc eeSvdjaa ito BvyciTpa, 
Soil] S' lo K eOeXoi Kai oi Ke-^apicfinevoc, eXBoi, 'that he may, 
perhaps, give some dowry'. Soph. CEd. C. 11. oTrjaov pe 
Ka^'iSpvcTov, IOC, TTvBo'ipeBa, the reading of all the MSS. equivalent 
to (Lc TTvBwpeOa. e'lOe Se TrvOo'ipeOa. El. 760. (eu ppa-^e^ -s^oXkio 
peyicTTOV awpa SeiAat'nc (TttoSou (pepovaiv avcpec *l>w/cewv re- 
Taypevoi,) ottwc Trarpioac tvi.i(5ov e/cXo'j^ot y^OovoQ. Eurip, 

Tphig. T. 1217. Kai TToXei Trefiitpov riv , oariQ aripave7 

eu Sopoic ptpveiv airavTac. GO. jU7j avvai'Ttoev (|)o»'(.) ; * lest 
they meet?' ib. 1223. the MSS. read poXric, though it might 
also be |UoXo«c^. Arisf. Ran. 23. the optative seems to express 
that Dionysius had this intention when first he let Xenias 
mount. See lleisig Comm. Crit. in Soph. (Ed. C. p. 169.^ 

The following constructions must be distinguished from these, 
in which wc does not signify * that', but * as' : Plat. Phccdr. 
p. 230 B. Koi wr, aKpijv e'\et t?7o avO\]C, wc av evioSearaTOV 
napey/oi tov tottov ! ib. p. 231 A. ov yap vtt avayKrjc,, aXX 
eKovrec, wc or apiara wept tojv oi/ceiwv (3ovX€V(TaiVTO, irpoc, 
Ti)V Evvapiv T7)V avTWV ev iroiovcxiv. Gorg. p. 453 C.*^ 

Conjunctive for tlie o})talive. Herod. 1, 29. — oXwi^ lnre^r\- 
pr)ae erea St/ca, lua Bi) pi] riva tojv vopcvv avayKaaOy Xvaai 
Twv^Oero. Comp. 1, 34. 3, 150. 7, 206. 221. 8, 141. &c. 
Isucr. Areop. p. 145 C. eKcivo povov eTtipovv, ottwc /ttr/Sev 
jiirjTe Twv TTQTp'iwv KaTaXvaova t, pi]T e^co twi* vopitoptivoju 
TrpoaOi'iaovaii', and passitn. Thucydides especially, in narra- 
tion, almost regularly puts the conjunctive for the optative, 
not through negligence, which is foreign from his character, 
but probably to represent the purpose as one the attainment of 
wliich was not doubted of by the actor, or {in oat. obliqua) the 

■■^ See Heind. ad Plat. Prot. §. 20. Ilcrm. ad Soph. Aj. 1200. ad El. 57. 
p. 502. ad (Ed. C. 1 1. Ueisig 1. c. 

** See different explanations in ^ Comp. Hcind. ad Gorg. p. 25. 

after 'Iva, o^joa, ottwc, wg. 883 

speaker ; while he seems, on the other hand, to use the optative 
when he intends to mark a purpose of uncertain accotnphsh- 
ment (see 7, 25.). Often too the use of the conjunctive for 
the optative may be explained by the kind of representation 
used by the Greeks, in which, even when they mark an action 
as passed, yet, in the relation of the accompanying circum- 
stances of it, they transport themselves to the time in which it 
happened, and represent it as present*^. See §. 529. 5. 

5. The optative seems often to stand after propositions which 
express a wish, continuing as it were the form of wishing : e.g. 
Msch. Eum. 297. eXOoi (/cXuei Se kuI -n-poacoOev mv Oeoc) ottojq 
yevoiTo TMv^e jiioiXvr/ipioc. Soph. Aj. 1217 . Fhi/oct. 324. yevoiTO xeipa irXr^pwGai TTore, iv ai MvKi]vai yvol.ev, Scc. 
The purpose of the wish is also its object ^ 

6, n>a, wc, fjiii, (more rarely ottwc,) are found very frequently 519. 
with the indicative of a past tense of actions which should have 
happened but have not, as §. 508. e.g. with the imperf. Soph. 
Olid. T. 1389. 'iv r;v tv<^Xoc re /cat k\v(vv /urjSei/. Eurip. 

Hipp. 645. XP^^ aCpOoyya cvrcuc (raTc yvvai^i) avyKciroi- 

Kiteiv SaKi) 6r]pu)v/iv eI)(^oi^ p,^]^e 7rjoocr(j)wve?i' riva, 8cc. (which 
conditionally expressed would have been e'l avyKartoKitof-iev, ou/c 

Hv elyov.) Comp. hocr. p. 189 D. So after a wish concern- 
ing something conceived of as past (§. 513. Obs. 2.) JEsch. 

Prom. 152. et yap ^i vtto y^iu i]Kev mc, piiTe Oeoc,, prire 

TIG ciXXoc toTctS' eVe-yr'/Oet. Comp. T/ieocr. 7, 86. 11, 55. 

With the aorist ^Esch. Prom. 753. ri ovk ev Tuy^ei eppnp' 

ef.iavTr\i' T?]a'B' citto cttu^Xou Trcrpac, ottwq ttc^w crKi]\paaa, tmv 
iravTwv TTOviov air^Waynv. Soph. (Ed. T. 1392. ti /i ov 
Xa(iu}v eKTCivac evOvc, wg eSei^a ^ii/Trore e/navTou avOp(oTTOi(Xii', 
evOev riv yeyioc,; Eurip. Phan. 213. (^vpiov olB/na Xirrova 

e(5uv <t>oij3oj SouXo /iieXuOpojv,) 'iv vtto Seipaai vi(po- 

jSoXojc TlapvacTov kut evaaOriv. Iphig. T. 358. 'iv avrovc, 
ai'TeT(/uwj07j(7a^ir})'. Comp. Plat. Euthyd. p. 304 E. Prot. 
p. 335 C.*^ The proper signification of each tense remains 

<* Heind. ad Prot. p. 504. ad Soph. CEd. T. 1392. Zeune ad 

" Ilerm. ad Aj. 1. c. Schctf. App. Viger. p. 557. Ilerm. ib. p. 851 seq. 

Dem. l.p. 4;}6. Heind. ad Plat. Theat. p. 347 sq. 

f Valck. ad Eur. Hipp. 928. Diatr. Elmsl. ad Sopli. CEd. T. 1389. Monk 

p. 149 A. Briinck ad Arist. Ran. 919. ad Hipp. 643. 

884 Sj/utax. Of the Optative and Conjunctive 

here as explained §. 508. Sometimes after the same particle 
we find the indicative with the optative or conjunctive : Plat. 
Menon. p. 89 B. twv veuiv tovg ayadovc raa (pvaeiG avirapa- 

Xal36vT€Q e(|)uXaTTO^ev eu aKpoiroXei, tva ^TjSetq avTOUC 

die(p6eip€v dXX eTreiSi) aCpiKoivro e'lc, Trjv vXiKiav, y^pr^aifioi 
y'lyvoivTO (of the future). 

7. The future is often used instead of the conjunctive. //. 0', 

111. rwde Se vuji Tpwcrlv e^' l7r~o^af.ioi(nv lOvvopev, o(f)pa Kai 
''EKTwp e'laerai. u',301. Od.p',7. especially after the verbs 

' to fear', after pv : Aristoph. Ecd. 486. kvkXu) TrepiaKOTrovpevr) 
KaKelae Koi to. ryS' e/c Se^iwi', pi) '^vp(popa -y evjjcre rat to 
TTpaypa. Plat. Rep. 5. p. 450 seq. (jyofiepov re kcu aCpaXepov, 

pr), a<pa\€ic t»jc aXiiOeiac, Keitropai. Xen. Cyr. 4, 

1, 18.^ In these and other passages the future expresses a 
state that continues, or something that will occur at an indefi- 
nite future time ; the conj. aor., a transient state occurring in 
particular cases, and then completely concluded, as in the pas- 
sage quoted from Xen. Cyr. %. 15. it is opa pn iraBwpev, not 
■neitTopeOa, though §. 18. it is opa prj ^eijaei^. So JEsch. Pers. 

112. TavTO. poi peXay^iTtvv Cppiiv apvaaerai ^o/3to pi) 

TToXic, 7rv6r)Tai Kevav^pov pey aarv ^ovaicoc, koi to Kiaaivov 
TToXia/^i ai'Tt'SouTToi^ eaacTai. Arisf. Eccles. 494. The read- 
mg (pvXaTTe yiip, pv ^y Ti a paKpov a (J) pat ae is not correct Plat. 
Cratyl. p. 393 C. since Try shows that several cases are spoken 
of. Ml] is also an interrogative particle ' whether', and hence 
probably was used to express a doubt, a merely possible, pro- 
bable, and to be apprehended event. Thus Plat. Lack. p. 1 87 B. 
cTKOTrelv Y/O'), pv oit ev t(o Kapl vp7v o k'iv^vvoq KivSvveverai, 'to 
consider whether not'. Eur. Phcen. 92. eiriayec, loc av irpov- 
l^epevvi'icju) aTi(iov, pi] ric, iroXiridv ev Tpi/3f.) (pavraterai, 
Kc'ipoi pev eXOi] (jiavXoCfWC, SovXv),\P(jyoc,, ^trj signifies 'whether', 
and the two constructions pi] t(c cpavraterai, nam quis conspi- 
ciatur, and pi] tic (pavToCnTai /cat cXOij, are blended together. 
With the indie, pres. pi] is probably always 'whether'. 

= Ilemstorh. ad Arist. Pint. p. -JOS. ad Med. 337. Stallb. ad Plat. Phil, 

Heind. ad Plat. Crat. y. 36. Observ. p.l3.— Elmsley ad Soph.CEd. C.1725. 

Misc. Nov. 3. p. 14. Dorv. ad Cliarit. shows that in the passages there 

p. 344. Elmsl. ad Eur. Ileracl. <2bO. quoted by Brunck, ws with the fut. 

'' See Hcrni. ad Soph. El. 993. id. means not xd but tTret. 

after iva, ocfypa, ottivCj ujc 885 

In particular, this is almost the regular construction after 
oTTioc, which indeed takes the pres., the aor. 1. pass, and aor. 2. 
in the conjunctive, but instead of the aor. 1. act. and mid. the 
future commonly, and this, whether it be governed by a verb 
preceding, or that opa, cave, is omitted, (e. g. Plat. Menon. 
p. 77 A. Menex.p. 236 C. 249 E. Xen. Cyr. 4, 2, 39.) ^ The 
fut. and conj . are both found together Plat. Tim. p. 1 8 E. "Ottwc 
however is also found with the conj. aor. 1. not only when all 
the MSS. have this mood, as Herod. 2, 120 extr. ottwc Trouicrojai. 
Thuc. 1,72.4, 66. Lys. p. 138 extr. — since in these passages 
the future TToniaovai &,c. might be the true reading, as in Plat. 
Ale. 2 in. where ottwc pj Xi'iay should be Xijaei. Dem. 01. 3. 
p. 28, 6. Isocr. Evag. p. 1 89. — but also where the future can- 
not be substituted by a change of a letter, as Soph. El. 1 122. 
OTTwc KXavau). (where the fut. is KXavaov/nai.) Xen. Anah. 5, 6, 
21. (fut. eicirXevaeTai.) Comp. Hist. Gr. 5, 1, 18. Mem. S. 2, 
10, 1. (fut. duaKnf.a€7.) Cyr. 7, 5, 82. (fut. diroXavcroneOa.) 
Plat. Leg. 1 . p. 632 C. ottojc, irdvra tnro(pi]vyj. Eur. Phan. 
1368. OTTwc Xova^f irpodriTai re, the aorist hinders the change 
of Xouffi? into Xov<T€i. Comp. Hec. 613. Tread. 449. arel.^', 
OTTOJc, Tci^iaT ec aBov vvimpiu) yv/^uojueOa, where however we might 
put a colon after rdxif^r'' Herod. 2, 121,2. irpotyairoXeei, not 
TTjOoo-aTToXeCTet, would be the form usual in Herodotus. Arist.Eccl. 
117. the metre does not allow to read TrpOf.ieXery]aof.iev, unless 
with Brunck we read wc dv for ottwc. By such passages others 
are justified, in which the MSS. have the conj. aor. 1. Properly 
OTTwc means 'how', as Eur. Med. 1109. fxeXery KarciTpvyo- 
fxkvovc, (/LieXeTwiLievovc) irptorov inev ottwc 6pexpov<n KaXwc, p'lo- 
Tov 9' OTToOev XeixPovai reKvoic,. and it was used in this sense 
especially after verbs of caring, providing, guarding, with the 
fut. §. 507, 2. and after the phrases p? eXAtVrjr,, ^uj Seiffrjc, 
&c.*^ But since caring hoiu a thing might be brought about, 
presumes care that it should be brought about, and the two 
phrases easily pass into one another, ottwc, came to be used with 
a future even when it was equivalent to tva, though here the 
conj. aor. 1. was also admissible. Regard also seems to have 
been paid to the different sense of the future and aorist; the 
former signifying a continuing, the latter a transient, action ^. 

«^ Elmsl, ad Eur. Heracl. 250. who maintains only of ottws pi what 

•^ Dawes Misc. Crit. p. 227, 4!)9. is true of oVws generally. Wolf ad 

88G Syntax. Of the Optative and Conjunctive 

520. 8. T^o this head belongs the construction of SeSoiKa pj with 
opt. and conj. ; the fear suggesting naturally to the mind the 
purpose of avoiding the object of fear. The opt. and conj. fol- 
low in the main according to the principal rule already laid 
down. Eur. Andr. 722. 77 f.iri ^i<poc, \a(3ov(T afivvaOoiro ae, 
eSeicTaG. EL 30. The conj. however is often found after the 
preterite : Herod. 7, 118. 'YBapvi]Ci Karappio^ijaaG /uri 01 4>(o/c€eq 
eojai AaKe^aifxovioi. comp. 9, 46 extr. Eur. P/ian. 70. tw 
S etc cp6(3ov ireaovre, /nrj Te\€(T<p6povc eu>^«c Oeoi Kpaivto- 
aiv, oiKovvrtov ojnov, ^v/iilia^'T era^av, Hipp. 1311. Comp. 
Andr. 627. 1059. Plat. Euthi/d' p. 288 B. Ka\ eyw (^o/3>,- 
BeiG, f.iri Xoioop'ia yevrjrai, ttciXiv KareTrpavvov tuv K.Tri<jnnTOV. 
and passim. For the object of the fear is mostly considered as 
determinately future, although it may sometimes be represented 
as merely possible. Euripides Hec. 1138 secj. combines the 
conjunctive and optative ; by the conjunctive designating an 
event which he thinks will certainly happen, the re-establish- 
ment of Troy ; by the optative that which is possible only or 
probable, the renewed invasion by the Greeks. Of the future 
after ^e^oiKa /ni] see N° 7. A preterite indicative sometimes 
follows SfcSotAca with /nii, to express more mildly an unfavourable 
opinion, now first formed, respecting a past transaction, as in 
Latin, ^"ereo7', 7ie erraverini, vide iie lapsus sis. Od. e, 300. ^eiBcj, 
fxri Bri iravTCi Oea vr]i.iepTea elrrev, 'that she has spoken'. Thuc. 
3, 53. vvv Be <^oj3oi'/ue0o, i^ii) ap(pOTepo)v rifxapr^^Kanev. 
Isocr. ad Phil. j). 85 E. e^eirXayyiaau, pri Bui to jripaQ e^ecr- 
TTf Ka Tou (ppovelv. Plat. Li/s. p. 218 D. So also Eur. Hel. 
119. ff/coTreTre, pri BoKtjaiv e't^er eK Oeivv^. 

Obs. Instead of he^oiKa prj, Se3. oVws pi) is found Soph. QL,d. T. 1058. 
Eur. Hipp. 523. ^e^oix' oVws poi pi) Xiav (parys kuici). Comp. Arist. 
Equ. 112. and also oVws without pi] Eur. Heracl. 249. and in the sense 
of 'how' Iph. T. 1002. rijv Oeuy 2' ottws Xudu), cccoiku. further ws Soj)h. 

Demosth. Lept. p. 266. Fisch. ad Poppo Obs. in Thuc. p. 135. acl Xcn. 

Well. 2. p. 251. Brunck ad Arist. Cyr. 3, 1,27. Nitzsche ad Plat. Ion. 

Lys.384.1305. Ran. 378. 1363. Av. p. 24. Scha;f. App. Dem. 1. p. 277. 

1240. ad Soph. Q:d.T. 1392. El. 956. 618.832. 

Ajac. 556. Valcken. ad Theocr. 10. » Musgr. ad Eurip. Ph. 93. Bur- 

Id. p. 30. ad Ilcrod. 6, 85. Toup ad gess Praf. ad Dawes Misc. Crit. 

Suid. 1. p. 45. follow Dawes. On the p. xxviii. note. Sch^f. Melet. p. 115 

other side are Ileind. ad Prot. p. 476. note. 

after iva, ucppa, ottojc,, mq. 887 

EL 142G. ht]K€t' €K<popov, jjirjrpuov ws ere Xrjfx' anjucWei Trore. comp. ib. 
1309. Jrist. Jch.655. Xen. Cijr. 6, 2, 30. comp. 5, 2, 11.'' also 
on Xen. Cijr. 3, 1, 1. efope'iTO on 6<j)8ii<T€(TdaL cyueWe -a ftafftXeia. In 
these constructions the object of fear alone is expressed, without the 
collateral idea of guarding against it. So also SojjIi. Track. 17G. rap- 
fiovaav, e'i fi€ XP^) l^^t'^i-^' Eur. Med. 187. comp. Jndr. 61. Ilcracl. 
646. Or. 1329 seq. (p6(ios ns elaeXljXvd', ijvriy kv lofj-ois icXvu) ftoi'iv, 
i. e. ^olSovfiai. ayyoovtra i'lvnva /3. kX. The infinitive is found after the 
verbs of fearing, answering to ws on, Eur. Ion. 1564. Bavelv ae cei- 
ffas i.irirp6s e/c jSovXeujuarwj/. id. Hec. 762. Comp. Rhes. 936. Msch. 
S. c. Th. 726. and in the sense *not to be willing through fear' Thuc. 
1, 136. ZeMiai U (paaxoi'Tuv KepKvpcumi' ex^iv ahrov. Plat. Gorg. 
/). 457 E. <pol3ovficu cicXeyxety (re, 'I shrink'. Also with wore fii] 
(§. 531. Obs. 2.) Eur. Iph. T. 1391. fpol^os c -^v ioare /m) rey'^ai nooa. 
This infinitive, as it expresses the object of fear, takes the article : Plat. 
Gorg. p. 512 E. Apol. S. p. 28 D. itoXv fxaXXov Beiaas to Ziiv. 

Obs. 2. "Ar is often added to these particles. "Iva ay, in the Attics, 
means only ubicunque" ; but Homer has 'iva /ce Od. ^', 156. 

OTTws av with opt. Herod. 1, 75. ciwpvxa ftaderji' opvafreiv dyoira fx)]- 
voei^ea, oKuys av to arpuTowt^ov idpvfxevov kutci vwrou Xo/3oi (aParis MS. 
has Xafti]). ib. 99. 110. comp. 2, 126. /Esch. Ag. 374. Thuc. 7, 65. 
"Ottws appears not to be constructed with the optative without av, ex- 
cept in the cases mentioned §. 518, 5. Xen. Cyr. 1, 2, 10. tTrt^iteXeZrat 
oTTws av e^pfev, oizws means 'how', comp. ib. §. 5. With the con- 
junctive av is very common: Plat. Gorg. p. 481 A. ni]xavi]Teov ottws 
av haij)vyri Kal ju>/ c^w {BeJck.) Cf/c/jr, aXXa. comp. p. 504 D. E. &c.^ 
Isocr. TT. ctj'ric. cd. Bekk. oitws av ciaKeiade should be read, with Bekker, 
Eiaiceriade. and Plat. Phcedon. p. 84 E. ^o(3eiade jx)) ciaKei[.iai, /.«// is an 
interrogative particle. 

o(ppa av with opt. //. [jl, 25 seq. ve 2' lipa Zeus trvvexes, v(ppa k€ ddcr- 
dov aXiwXoa ret'xe" 0et>/- I" the Attic writers it appears not to occur. 
With the conj. Od. fx, 51. eic ^' avrov TrelpaT av7i<pdio, ofpa tee Tepiro- 
fxevos ott' aKovijs H^eipi'ivouv. comp. v, 412. 

ws i'lv with opt. in Homer and Herodotus. Od. v, 102. (Cfu^wo-w ^e 

Toi o(Tae ws av aeiKeXios Traai jj.vr](TTrjpcn (pavehjs (^av/yjjs ?) 

0', 20. ws i:ev. Herod. 5, 57. 7, 176. comp. 9, 22. 51. In the Attic 

•» Schffif. Melet. p. 113. Crit. in Soph. CEd. C. p. 211. 

<= Elmsl. ad Soph.Qkl.C. 189. and ** Brunckud Anst.Lys.3yi. Heind. 

Poppo Diss. p. 19 seq. Dcfiderlein ad Plat. Phadon. p. 15. ad Prot. 

in Act. Monac. 1. p.37. ReisigCom. p. 497. 

888 Si/ntax. Of the Optative and Conjunctive 

writers it is not found with this mood ; for Xen. Cyr. 1, 2, 5. eTrifieXov- 
rai, ws cw fteX-ia-oi elev o'l iroXirai, ws means 'how', (comp. §. 10. with 
Poppo's note. S't/nqj. 7, 2. 8, 27.) and Arist. Av. 1338 seq. yeroi'nav 
aleros vxpnreras, us au iroraBeinv, the opt. continues the wish §. 518, 5. 
With the conj. JEsch. Prom. 10. eel deals covrai diKrjv, ws av ^Lcax^y 
Ti]v Aios Tvpavvihi arkpyeiv. comp. ih. 659. 712. Clioeph. 18. 522. 984. 
Eur. Phcen. 92. e7r/<rxes, ws av Trpov^epevri'iffix) a-ipov. Comp. 781. 
Hijtp. 288. Andr. 716. Iph. A. 620. Iph. T. 1074. Troad. 85.1273. 
/fe/. 1431. 1542. Ion.77. Arist. Eccl. 57. Vesp. 178. 425. ^i-. 1454. 
1509. 1548. &c. Aristophanes, according to Brunck's remark ad Lys. 
1305. seldom joins ws to the conj. without av, which the tragedians 
very often do. ws av ripiiaojxev II. tt', 271. is to be taken according to 
§. 201, 9. p. 319. 

jjLi] is also found with av and the opt. Soph. Track. 631. leloiKa yap, 
pi) irpia Xeyois av rov ttoOov. Thuc, 2, 93. 

It seems probable, from the use of aj' elsewhere (see §. 515, 4. Ohs.), 
that av serves to express the conditional and hypothetical relation of a 
proposition to a member which precedes, or which is present to the 
mind: as Xcn. Anah. 6, 1, 1. el ovv ravra eyw opiZv CoKoii]v, oirov 
Ivvaiprjv, Ivravd' uKvpov Tzoielv to et:eivu)v a.^iu)i.ia, eKelio evvoio, pi) Xiav 
av Ta\v (Toxppovierdeirjv. with that difference between the opt. and 
conj. which has been already explained §. 523, 2. Thus Eur. Bacch. 

509 seq. KuOeip^ar avrov ws av ctkotiov elcropt/. Kvecpas 'that he may 

in that case (viz. euv KaOeipxOfi) see the darkness'. There will then be 
a gradation : iva denotes a purpose the attainment of which is con- 
sidered in every case as actual, certain, or necessary ; ws iiv, ottds av, 
o0pa civ, with the conj., one which might be attained in a definite and 
actual case ; oVws civ with the opt. one which might be attained only in 
a case supposed merely to be possible or probable. As the liypothetical 
is always more indefinite than the categorical, civ seems to be used with 
these particles often to render the expression milder ■'. 

2. Of the Optative and Conjunctive after Particles of Time. 

521. The optative is put with the particles eire'i, eireih], otc, 
oTTore, where the discourse is concerning a past action, which, 

a Hermann ad Eur. Bacch. 503. prjpevojv. Superbiter et contemplim 

1232. considers ws civ with the conj. rcspondct Creon. Schater ad Soph, 

as expressing mere possibihty, si libct, Trach. 03 1 . Keisig de Part, civ p. 1 1 5. 

si fieri possit, which seems to contra- Later poets used the fut. indie, after 

diet what he remarks ad Soph. Ant. o^pa, fxi) Ilerm. ad Vig. p. 9'27. 
215. ws av (TKOTTol vvv ijre twv ct- 

ufler Panicles of Time, 889 

however, was not limited to a precise point of time, but was 
often repeated by several persons, or in several places ; the 
conjunctive is put with eV/jr, eirei^au, orav, o-rrorav, when an 
action thus frequently recurring is mentioned belonging to 
present or future time. //. y, 232. ttoWuki /uv ^eiviaaev 
'Aptji(pi\oc MeveXaor, o'ikm ev i^f.ieTef}M, OTTore KpijTrjOev 
'UoiTo. ih. i, 191. comp. «', 610. y, 216. g', 335. 344. 
Od. y, 283. 0', 87. Sec. Herod. 1, 29. airiKveoi'Tai ec, ^ap- 

gjc TTOi^rec CK TtJG 'EXXaSoc aoCJUff-a}, wc, eKaaroc avrewv 

aTTiKveoiro. 7, 6. of Onomacritus : okwc, uttikoito ec 

oxpiv Tr)v jSaaiXrioc, KareXtye rwv ■^pyiaf.iwv. comp. ib. 119. 

Thiic. 2, 10. eTretSij 8c e/CfitxTOtc eroiina y'lyvoiTO Kara 
Tov y^povov Tov e'ipr}iiievov, ^vmjeaav to. ^vo /.leprj ano TToAewc 
eKcicTTrjG ec tov laOuov, because the discourse is concerning 
several divisions, and the action is considered as repeated with 
each ; afterwards it is said concerning the whole, erreidrj irav 
TO arparevpa ^vvei\eyf.ieioi> tji'. iO. 49. /cat to awf^ia, oaov 
irep y^povov Koi i) voaoc uK/natoi, ovk ejnapaivero, because 
he speaks of that which happened to all sick persons, and 
therefore frequently. Comp. 1, 49. 2, 13. 15. 18.^34. 79. 
7, 18. 44. 70. PIdt. Ph(cd.p. 59 D. Trepiefxevofxev eKuarore, 

eioc avoiyOent to SefT^twrr/jOtoj'. eTreiSjj Se avoiyOeir], 

riei/Liev irapa tov ^iiJKpuT^h Comp. Xeii. Ci/r. 2, I, 5. 2b. 
3, 20. 8, 4, 2. A?iab. 1,2, 7. Ages. 1, 21. Hel/eii. 6, 4, 
11. In the same manner el is used Thuc. 7, 79. ei f.iei> eiri- 
oiev oi 'AQnvaioi, vveyjujpovv, e'l ^' iivayoipolev, eireKeivro. 
comp. ib. 71. Soph. Track. 908. Eur. Hec. 1165. In this 
case the imperf. usually stands in the other member, or a 
plusq. perf. equivalent to the imperf. as in Xen. Anab. 1, 5, 2. 
since this also serves to show an action often repeated ; for 
which reason etjirapaaae Eur. Med. 1226. is a more correct 
reading than eanapa^e. more rarely the aorist, as //. y , 232. 
T/mc. 7, 71. Oftentimes also the frequent recurrence of an 
action is indicated more strongly by the addition of the particle 
av. of which below. It is a different case when otc with the 
opt. is in the or. obi. without indicating a repeated action. 

The conjunctive: //. a, 168. e^w S' oX'iyov re (p'lXov Te 
epyofx e\wv evrt vijac, liri^iv /ceKa/tw 7roAe/ii t^w r. Herod. 
6, 27. ^iXeei K(,)C Trpoarifiniveiv (o Oeoc), evT av ^leXXy 

VOL. II. 2 ( 

890 Si/ntax. Of the Optative and Conjunctive 

/ue-yaXa kuku tj ttoXi n eOvei eaeaOai. Plat. Gorg. p. Abb B. sq. 

OTav wepi larpwv a'lpeaewc, y ry iroXei avXXoyoQ, aX- 

\6ri rj Tore o priTOpiKuc ov avpj^ovXevaei, 8cc. Xen. Cyr. 3, 

3, 26. oirep KOI vvv en iroiovaiv o'l ^ap^apoi paaiXeic,' otto- 
Tttv (TT paTOTreSev(i)VTai, raCppov Trepij^aWovTai evTrerwc 
^la Tijv TToXv-^eipiav. Anab. 2, 4, 26. O KX'eapyoc, i]yeiro 
p.ev etc Svo' eiTopevero Se ciAXore kqi aXXore e(pi(rT(tiJ.evoc,' 
offov S iiv Ypovov TO i]yovp,evov tov arpaTevnaTOQ eTricrT?^), 
TO(TovTOV avayKT} -vpovov Si' oXov rov aTparevj^iaTOQ yiyveoOai 
TTiv eiriaTaaiv. where the conjunctive is right, so long as it is a 
general proposition containing a remark which is still applicable ; 
but if it be uttered merely in reference to that particular march 
of Clearchus, the reading of other MSS. etriaTijaeie (sc. iavro) 
would be more correct. Thus u>c too is used as a particle of 
time with the conj. Herod. 4, 172. rwv Be wc eKaaroc oi 
/.iiy^Oy, Bi2o7 Soj pov. — Hence the conj. with these particles is 
used in general propositions, where the discourse is of something 
that takes place usually, and therefore frequently. 

Sometimes the conj. with these particles does not express 
an action frequently repeated at the present time, but merely a 
future action. //. 'C', 412. ov yap cr aXXtj earai BaXirMpi], 
CTret av av ye ttot/^iov eTriairtjc,, where the aor. 2. conj. ex- 
presses thefut. exact am of the Latin, quum tu mortem obieris. 
Eur. Iph. T. 629. Comp. Troad. 1155. HeL 1401. Thuc. 

4, 60. eiKoc, orav yvujaiv iifiaa T€Tpv^wf.iei'ovc, /cfu rrXeovi 
TTore aroXio eXOovrac avrovQ TuBe iravra TreipuaeaOai viro aCpac 
iroie^aOai. Also with the pres. as a simple fut. //. , 475. ot 
av ol /uiev fc-TTt TTpvpinjai p.aywvTai. Plat. Gorg. p. 526 E. 
Prot. p. 335 B. In this case Homer uses the fut. after ore Kev, 
II. v , 335. aXX avaywpriaai, ore Kev l[v/iipXr}aeai avT<o. 

Ohs. 1. Tlie use of ihe optative and conjunctive does not depend upon 
whetherone wishes to use ore, tTreto/, 8cc. ovutcw, tireicay ; but, vice versa, 
the proper sense of the moods in assigning the time determines the use 
of the particle. Now commonly the particles compounded with iiv are 
used vvlicn the conjunctive is to be employed; with the optative those 
without ciy. Sometimes however the former, orar, eTzeicav, are found 
with the optative, and ore, eireih) with the conjunctive ; but the latter only 
in Homer. yEsch. Pers. 448. Iv-uvda -rrefXTvei Tovrrl', ottms, orav vediv 
(pdaptyrei t-)(^Ofjoi rfjaoy eKffto i^oiaro, Kreiroiey eu)(e(pwro»' 'EWiiitoy 

after Particles of 'J'iinc. 891 

(TTparui; as something said in reference to the future, consequently in 
or. obi. {oi: recta, otuv t/co-Wi^wj'rai cre/Vere), as Xe7i. Cyr. 8, 1, 4i. Kai 
yap, virorav eXavPoiev ra drjpia ru7s 'nnrevtny els ra Trec^ia, (pepecrOcu 
aiTOV els di'ipay tovtois eTTt-Tpeire. comp. 1, 3, II. But in the following 
instances, Plat. Alcih. 2. p. 148 D. 'AQip'aiois Koi AaKecaifiavlois cia- 
^opds y€VO{xevr]s, avueftawe rfj TroXet iif^iSy, ware kcu kutu yfiy Kai Kara 
daXciTrai', OTrorai' fJ-a^n yevoiTO, cvaTvyelv. id. Symp. p. 219 E. 
Comp. Tim. p. 39 C. jEschin. Ax. 8. Xen. Ages. 9, 2. 6 U rdre 
fiaXidTU e'xaipei', oirorav Tayj.(TTa rvx^vTas, wv heoivTO, a-rroir e}i-!z oi. 
oTToray is used for bnore of past actions, which cannot be considered as 
something merely conceived by the mind ^. But in Xen. Cyr. 1, 3, 18. 
eireiday diKoi ys is more correct, since there a future action is marked. 

ore, oTTore, tTreto// with the conj. are used for oVar, tTrcioai' in Homer 
and other older poets, the conj. being required. //. f', 323. ovce tI fxiv 
Xpeij errrai rvfufioxoris, ore fiiv da-n-rujfTiy Wxaioi, quum Gr. eum sepe- 
lient. comp. ^', 286. tt', 245. Od. k, 48G. \', 105. /x', 55. ^', 170. o, 408. 
and 2^asshn. In the Attic poets eTrei is found with the conj. only twice, 
viz. in Sojih. (Ed. C. 1226. eTrei (partj. Ant. 1025. errei ^' a^iopn/ in 
all MSS. ; in both which Brunck has ctd'/i'. yyiKa is found with the 
conj. without liy, especially in the later writers ''. 

Note, orav, eireiSay, Sec. will hardly be found with the indicative ; 
for in //. fi, 41 sq. 0, 341. Od. a, 41. (rrpeferai, (j)dey^ofxui, Ipeipe- 
Tai are conjunctives. See §. 201, 9. In Xen. Mem. S, 1, 2, 35. 4, 3, 
4. 6. 9. €7reiC)i is now restored from MSS., and in Cebct. Tab. p. 229. 
it should be read oray jj.i] eTrlarioyTai. 

Obs. 2. The optative also is sometimes used, without expressing an 
action frequently repeated. //. o-', 465. at yap piy Oayaroio rjv(7r]x^os 
wce cvyaijjiriy yoatpiy aitoi:pvii^at, ore fxiy [.lopos alvos iKayoi, a case 
merely supposed in continuation of the wish: as Theocr.7, 108. comp. 
II. (j), 429. Od.(i', 31. ?/V x' 'V'"' '^"^" eivoi, tire Trporepos ye ttw- 
doiTo, 'when he should have any how heard it'. Sojjh. Track. 92 seq. 
Plat. Rep. 9. p. 574 B. otto re ce pi) CvyaiTO, apTru'Cot ay kuI (iia'CoiTO 
fxera rovro, a case only imaginary, as with el, when the optative follows 
in the apodosis. So Xen. Mem. S. 2, 1,18. 6 pey e/vwy Treuwy (payoL 
ay o-KOTE ftovXoiTO. but immediately after, rtS c' e^ ayayKrjs ravru 
TTUffXOPTi oufC e^ecrriy, OTrorau ftovXijrai, Traveadai ''. 

Obs. 3. This use of the conjunctive, inasmuch as with eTreicay, otto- 
ray it expresses an action often repeated in the present time, or usually 

'' Poppo ad Xen. Cyr. 1,3,11. explains very correctly, p. 930 seq., the 

^ Schffif. ad Theocr. 23, 30. passages ap. Theogn. 269. Cr. 275. 

" llerniann ad Vig. p. 920 seq. who Bekk. 

2 c 2 

892 Sj/)it(ix. Of the Optative and Conjunctive 

happening, is connected with the Homeric use of it, since in compari- 
sons the conjunctive is used with words of all kinds ; as with 6s II. e, 
138. o, 580. (huel II. i, 477. ware II. X', 68. p', 278. ws ore 11. \', 
155. 292. o, G05. (instead of which //. X', 269. ws 6Va>' is used.) ws 
oTTore //. X', 305. o, 382. i)vt€ II. p, 547. In the Attic poets one in- 
stance only is found, Eu7\ Hec. 1025. aXlixeyov tls ws es i'u-Xov e/x7re- 
at^v Xexpios eKTrearj flXrjs Kapcias. Instead of the conj. Homer has also 
the fut. //. K, 183. /3', 147. 395. 

522. With the remaining particles of time, which do not determine 
a space of time during which an action takes place, but a point 
of time before or until which something takes place, as ea>c,, ear 
av, Trp'iv, f^iey^pi ov, the opt. and conj. are used for the most part 
in the same cases in which they were used with 'iva, ocppa. 

1. etor, 'until' (e'laoKc Horn, i^expi ov, &.C.), when a past 
action is spoken of as lasting to a point of time also past, takes 
the verb in the indie, imperf. or aor. Plat. Gorg. p. 50G B. 
7)Sewc av KaXXtfcXe? tovtm en SteXeyo/uTjj', ewe qvtm tiiv tov 
'Ain(f)iovoc, cirreBioKa pnaiv. Xen. II. Gr. 2,3, 42. Compare 
• what was said §. 508. 519, G. of an action which would have 
taken place had something happened differently. But even 
when the action has really taken place, this construction is 
used, neither oi- nor anything similar preceding, in the principal 

])roposition. Eai-. Ale. 769 seq. of Hercules: irivei ewq 

cOeppriv avTov «^t^j/3aa-a (|)Xo^ ou'ou. Ilerod. 2, 143. Ho- 
mer //. o', 22. has the conj. in this case : or Se Xa/3o»/a 
piTTTaaKov Te-roywv (itto jSfjXou, o^p' liv 'ik^tui ■y?]v for o^p 
(IV 'iKavev. If the action has been frequently repeated in past 
times, ewr, has the opt. without av : Flat. Phccdon. p. 59 D. 
TTepiefxkvof.iev ovv eKaarore ewe avoiyOe'ir] to BeafiWTiipiov. Lojc 
' whilst, as long as', has only the indie, preter. as ewe. o ravi) 
lopixaive, &,c.^ 

If the principal action is past, ewe after preterites takes the 
opt. without av : as Od. e , 385. lopere S enl Kpanrvov Bopeiji', 
7r|00 ?e kv/luit' ca^ev, ewe oye ^aniKeaai <pi\r)peTi.ioiai filyeuu 
a limit which iEolus prescribes to himself. Comp. i , 376. 
Xen. Anah. 2, 1, 2. Hence as something said: Xen. Cyr. 5, 
3, 53. ^ovc, TuiiQ {]yep6vac Ttjc, oSov iropeveaOai eKeXevev ijctu- 

* Blonif. Gloss. Pers. 434. 

aj'ler Particles of Time. ^03 

yjiyc., euic. ayyeXoc cXOoi. But since the conj. wlih ilv would be 
used in the or. recta, the two modes are combined ; the or. obi. 
by the opt., the or. recta by the addition of «V. Sop/i. Trach. 
684 seq. Xen. Cyr. 4, 5, 36. role [inrkac, eKeXevae (pvXurreiv 
rovQ ayayovrac, ewe uv ri an^iavBeit] avTo7c,, where Schnei- 
der and Poppo read ewe au tiq atifiav^j. Comp. Trpiv. Of the 
conj. in or. obi. see §. 529, 3. 

Of present actions whose hmit of time is determined by an- 
other action, ewe, Sec. is used with the conjunctive and liv. II. 
/3', 331. i-ui^iveTe TTcii'Tec evKvijiAiBec, ' Ayaiol hvtov, eiaoKci' 
a<JTV ^leya npiai.ioio eXwf.iev. Comp. e', 466. Od. /3', 99 sq. 
— Soph. (Ed. C. 113 sqq. Kal axj f.i' e^ oSou TroSa KpvxPov kut 
aX(Toc, Ttoif^' ewe lii' eKjuaOoj, Tivac, Xoyovc, epovaiv. — II. a , 
509. Tocppa B' erri Tpweaai riOei Kparoc, o<pp' uv ' Ay^aioi viou 
ei-wu Ti(T(jo(Tiv. Comp. 11. v, 141. ^', 558. Od.(5', 154.'^ 
If, however, a case be merely supposed, or expressed as if de- 
pending on a supposition, in which case the principal proposi- 
tion has the opt., the opt. will also be found in the dependent 
proposition with or without av: Plat. Phccdon. p. 101 D. et Se 

TIC nuT»/c Ti]C, V7T0ve(T€(i)C e^oiTO, y^atpeiv ewijr, av ewe av 

TO cnr avrric opf.u]OevTa. oKeif^aio. lb. aXXr]v av viroOeaiv vtto- 

Oe/uevoc ewe, tVi ri iKavou eXOoic, where Heindorf inserts av. 

Comp. Rep. 6. p. 501 C. 

2. TTp'iv 'before', is constructed on the whole like ewe. 
a. With past real actions it takes the indie, imperf. and aor^: 
e. 0-. Soph. (Ed. T. lib. vyo/^inv 8' avi)p aarwv peyiaroc, rwv 
e'/ce?, Trp'iv /tot rvyj) Toia^' eweaTih Isocr. de Big. 348 B. ov 
Trporepov enavaavro, wplv tov Trarepa e/c tou arparonecov pere- 

b. If a past action is represented as one which the agent has 
in his thoughts, wplv takes the opt. without av. II. (p! , 580. 
'A-yZ/j-wp ovK eOeXev (pevyeiv, nplv Treipnaair' ' Ay^iXiioc,. Here 
too the or. obi. is combined with the or. recta by means of av. 

e. With future actions which the agent has in his thoughts, 
irpiv has commonly the infin.: e.g. Eur. Med. 78. a7rwXuf.iea9' 
cip' , e'l KaKov Trpoao'iaopev veov iraXaiw, irpiv toS el^rivrXijKevat. 

>> Vak-k. ad Eiirip. Hipp. Co9. "^ Elnibl. ad Eur. Med. 1 1 42. 

Bruiick ad Eur. Phcen. 09. 

894 S^nlax. Of the Optative and Conjunctive 

ih. 93.^ even when the preceding clause contains a negative, 
in which case irpiv is also used with the conj. and av. Soph. 
CEcl. C. 48. oAX oKoe /iievTOi rov^avtaTavai TroXewc ot^ effri 
dapaoc, irpiv y av evSe'i^co t'i ^pw. comp. 909. Eur. Med. 
278 seq. So Thuc. 7, 63. Soph. Ant. 618. e'l^ori S' ovSev 
kpirei, TTpiv TTvpi Qeppw iroca tic, Trpoaavpy, ov^ev is indeed to 
be connected with e'ldon, but the piincipal thought is ov^ev S' 
otSer, Trpiv &c. Homer combines the inf. and conj. //. p' , 504. 
ov yap eyioye ' F.KTopa Upiain'i^ijv jiiereoc (TyJ](jeaOai otw, Trp'iv y 

t'TT Ay^i\\r]oc, KaWiTpi-^e (iimevai j'ttttw <^oj3r/ffa' Te 

rj/c avToc evi 7rpu)Toiaiv aXwy. Od. |3', 373. He who 

says ' I will not do this till thou commandest me' requires the 
command as the condition of his action, but cannot engage that 
the command will be given, and therefore says oi» Tronjaio touto, 
Trpip av KeXevarjc But he who says ' I will do it before thou 
commandest' makes the command somethino- actual, and there- 
fore says iroiriao) tovto Trpiv ae /eeXtucrot''. -irpiv with the conj. 
is very rarely found after affirmative propositions, as Sitnonid. 
Br. Gnom. No. 4.v.i\. Guisf. Poet. Gr. Min. No. 23 1 . (^Oavei 
Se rov fxev yrjpac, a^r/Xov Xa|3o»', irplv TCpp 'iKt]Tai, for (pOavei 
\a(S6v is merely prius comprehendit, and cannot contain a ne- 
gative. Eur. Or. 1224. contains a negative sense in (pvXaacje. 

The fut. indie, is seldom i'ound after negative propositions, 
as //. a , 29. tijv c eyd) ov Xvaio, Trp'iv /.uv Kal yiipac eTreiaiv, 
imless we here put a colon after Xvau), so that vpiv shall sig- 
nify ' first'. 

(/. If the opt. with av is used in the main proposition of 
present or future actions expressed only as probable, Trp'iv is 
used with the opt. like cwc. Soph. Track, in. Xoyoc, /nev ear 
ttjO^aToc avOpojTTtjjv oSe, wr, ovk av a'lwv eKpdOoi (5pOTwv, irplv av 
Ouvoi T«c, where some MSS. have Odvij. Xen. II. Gr. 2, 3, 
48. TOtcroe evavTioc eipi, o'l ovk o'iovtui KaXriv av eyyeveadai 
oAiyapy^iav, TTpiv av tq to vtt oAiywv rvpavveiauai ti]v ttoAiv 

" EhHsl. ad Eur. Med. 77, 215. expresses something as uncertain. 

^ In this way I have modified Her- See §. 512. It is clear from § 521. 

mann's statement ad Eur. Med. cd. ad fin. that the signijicatio fut. exact. 

Elmsl. p. 351. especially as I cannot is not found in omtii conjnnctiro, but 

regard the conj, as the mood which only in conj. aorisfi. 

aj'ler Conditional i* art ides. 895 

Obs. The poets occasionally omit av with the coiij. Od. k, 174 seq. 
oh yap TTw KaraSvarofied' ay^vv^xevoi izep els 'AiCao lu^ovs, Tvpiv fxopai^ov 
17/Ltap €Tve\dr]. Comp, p, 9. Soph. Track. 9'i6. Arist. Eccl. 751 seq. 
Prose writers also do this: Plat. Phcedon. j)- 72 C. ju») Trporepoy avruv 
anoKTivvvvai. le'iv, irply aj'ay/c>;»' (^Bckk. wply ay ay.) tlvU o deus eirt- 
xe^^/jj. Id. Leg. 9. j^. 873 £.■= 

3. Of the Optative a7id Conjunctive after Conditional Particles. 

In the use of the Optative and Conjunctive in conditional 52:i. 
propositions, regard is had principally to the relation which the 
condition in the protasis has to its consequences in the apo- 
dosis, which is mostly shown by the mode in which the apodosis 
is expressed. This relation is in general double : either such 
that the consequences of a supposed case, or of a condition, 
are considered as determinate actually or necessarily ; or such 
that it is represented only as possible or contingent, and con- 
sequently the condition also as possible only. In the former 
case the conclusion is expressed by the future or imperative, 
when the consequence is present or future ; in the other by the 
optative with av. The nature of the apodosis in this case de- 
termines that of the protasis. 

1. If in the apodosis the future or the imperative (a con- 
ditional 'to be obliged'), or an indicative, as in general pro- 
positions, is found, and the condition is considered only as such, 
then the condition is expressed by ei with the future, or more 
mildly by eav, riv, av (in the Ionic poets ei /ce or oiVe), with the 
conjunctive. 11. a , 137. e\ Se kc ^u] Swwo-it, e-yw Se Kev avroc 
e'Awjuai. y, 281. ei /.lev Kev MeveXaov 'AX^^av^poc koto- 
7re(^i'>7, avToc eireiO' 'EXevriv ey^eru). 284. ei Se k AXe^- 

avBpov KT€iv\] ^avOoQ MeveXaoc, Tpwac airo^ovvui (inf. 

for the imperative). 288. ei B' av epol TijLn)u Upianoc; Tlpiafioio 

re TToTSec r'lveiv ovk e9e\o)CTiv avTcip e-yw pa-)(VGOfiai. 

e, 351. n re a o'iio piynaeiv TroXepov ye Kal e'l y^' erepojOi 
TTvQr\ai. Od. a\ 287. e'l pev Kev Trarpoc, ft'iorov /cat vocttov 
aKovay]G, >'/ r' av Tpv^opevoc irep en rXaujc, eviavrov (for 

'^ Heind. ad PhfEdon. p. '27 seq. p. 02.) only in llie tragedians. Poppo 

maintains that ay is omitted only in Obss. in Thuc. p. 143. observes that 

the poets. Reisig Conj. in AVist. in Thncydides ay is often omitted 

p. 65. (opposed by Stallb. ad Philcb. with pexpi- ov. 

8Q6 Sj/n(ax. Of the Optative and Conjanctice 

rXrj9i). hoc?-. Arcop. p. 142 A. B. oXA' eav inev KUTop- 
Oojaaxji TTep'i Tivac, Trpa^eic, v Sia Tu^^rjr, ?] ci apcpoc aperrji', 
/iiiKpoi' SiaXiTTOvrec ttuXiv eic, toc avraQ airopiac, Karearrinav, 
redigi Solent. Xen. Anab.2, 3, 6. eXeyoi' ^e ot a-yyeXot, on 
ei/coTo ^oico7ev Xeyeiu jSaatXeT, /cat i^Kotev I'/ye/toi'oc eA(^oi'Te<:, oi 
avTovc, eciv cnrov^ai yeviovrai, u^ovaiv, ei>9ev e^ovai ra eiri- 
Ti]^eia, a transition to a kind oi oratio recta. Ei with the fut. 
and y'jv with the conj. appear to be used as quite equivalent to 
each other Jsocr. ir. avriB. 138. e< pev vpeic, Trpoc, avro to 
ciKaiov cnrofiXeTTOVTec (TKexpeaOe Trepi tovtmv, ovk kanv ottcjc, nv 
^o^ei' ?/!' S cn'aXo"y((T7/fy0e T7J1' oyi'oiav ovcev €vp6uii<J€Tai. 

Ohs. In the protasis el also is often used with the indicative present 
or future, if the condition is not only to have the expression of mere 
possibility or probability, but is considered as a case definitely happen- 
ing with reference to the consequence. //. e', 3j0. el Ik. av y els 
TToXepoy TTtoXi'i (jeai, rj rt a otw fliyijcretv noXepov. Comp. II. o , 213. 
Herod. 1, 32. ei M irpds rovTOiai en reXevrijaei rov ftiov f.v, ovros 
Iveu'os, Tov ail ^rirels, cJA/3ios KeKXrjirdai ct^ios eort. whereby the neces- 
sary connection of the condition with the consequence, by virtue of 
which the latter necessarily presupposes the former, is made moi'e 

2. When the optative with ai> is used in the apodosis, and 
consequently a case is adduced which is merely possible, pro- 
bable or problematical, then in the protasis the optative is used 
with et, without «)', as the condition, in that case, is also only pro- 
blematical. The entire relation, in this case, does not express 
anything- future or present, but something which is merely pos- 
sible or imaginable, at an indefinite time, the reverse of which 
is equally possible. //. a, 255. j) kcv ■yr}Oii(jai Tlptapoc, 
Tlpiapoio re TralBec, ctXXoi reTpwec peya kcv Key^apoiuro 
OvpM, €1 acpwiv TfiSe Travra TrvBolaro papvapevoiiu. Xen. 
Cyr. 3, 3, 49. Tt §', e^fj, (u Kiipe, ei Kai av crvyKaXeaac,, ewQ 
en e^ecTTt, TrapaKeXevaaio, ei apa (nam) n Kai av apcivovc 
(av) TT oil] a a ic rove arpariujTac; ' wouldst thou make them ?' 
*if thou exhortedst them V Jsocr. ad i^icoc/. p. 16 C. et tic, 

TOVC, KpOTOVVTUC, TOU TtX^iOoVQ CTT O|0eT1JI' TT p O T p e \^ € I € )', Oytt" 

<j)OTepovc, tiv oj(peXi)aeiei' '. 

* Conqi, BriMick ad Ari?t. Phit. *" Valcken. ad Hipp. 17 J. I>runck 

106'i. ad Arisl. I'hit. 1037. 

after Conditional Particles. 897' 

To this head belongs also the construction of the particles 
locnrep av ei 'as if, which take the opt. in cases merely sup- 
posed, but in such a way that au, which precedes tJ, refers to 
an opt. in the apodosis of the conditional proposition. Dem. 

pro Cor. p. 293, 1. axrwep au e'l tic, vavKXripov rrjc vavayiaQ 

a'lTKOTO, aXX' ouS' fdrCvlSepvojv ti)v vavv, (pijaeiev au, where wcrTrep 
uv ^//(Tetei/ av are to be taken together, as Plat. Gorg. p. 465 C. 

Kal yap civ el to aw^to ehcpive, to tou ' Ava^ayopov af ttoAu 

riv. Comp. §. 461. p. 760. The apodosis is often omitted, if 
it can easily be supplied, as Isocr. Paneg. p. 71 D. opoiwc 
^leTTOpevOijaav, wcnrep av ei TrpoTrepTTopevoi, for wairep av eiro- 
pev9r]CTav, ei TTpoerrepCpOnauv, and thus ioairep av et came to be 
considered as one particle, and participles were joined with it. 
See §. 569, . 

It has been observed before, §. 508. that in past actions, or 
in those which are divided between the past and the present, 
the indicative of the aorist or imperf. is put twice in the apodosis 
with liv. So loar-n-ep av e'l : Plat. Gorg. p. 447 D. toa-rrcp av 
€L ervyyavev wr u7roei??/{aTWi' crjj.unvpyoc, aireicpivaTO av oij irov 
aoi. Comp. 7^. 474 C. Si/mp. p. 199 D. 

Obs. 1. Sometimes et is followed not only by the indicative, but also ^24. 
by the optative. Plat. Phcedon. p. G7 E. ei yap ^ia/3e/3A Tjcrat ph' 
7rajT«x^ '■^ (7w/^ar(, avrijv oe kuG' avT))y eii-idv pov at r))i' 4'^X'l*^ 
exeiv (a supposition mentioned as if it actually existed) tovtov U 
yiyvopevov (po(3o'iPTO Kcil aya vaKTo'ie u (supposed only as some- 
thing which does not necessarily exist). So Isocr. de Pac. p. 177 D. 
<\>povTi'Coi is probably the true reading, not (ppovrt'Cei, as in the MS. 
Urbin. Eur. Oreai. 508. ee rofh' cnrotcreiyeiev opvXei^rpos yvyt) (a case 
merely supposed) x<^ rovce ttcus av prjrep' a r raTroKTeret (which in 
the case supposed will necessarily follow), Kcnreid' 6 Keivov yeroperos 
(hovf foyvi' Xvaei, Trepas S>) Trot KUKuJy Trpo/h'/creroi''. 

Obs. 2. From these general fundamental propositions, however, there ^^^^\ 
are various deviations, which are founded mostly on the particular kind 
of the conditional propositions. 

1. €t with the indicative, and in the apodosis the optative, with ay, 
viz. when the condition contains a determinately expressed case, and 
the apodosis is uttered with the expression of a mere conjecture, or 

<^ Jacob-? ad Athen. p. 115. Ast ad I'lat. Leg. p. 1^5. 

S&S Si/fitax. Of the Optative and Conjunctive 

contains a consequence which is merely possible or probable. Soph. 
Ant. 925. ctW el ^kv ovv toS' karlv kv deots (piXa, Tradovres av i,vy- 
yvolfiev iiiJ.apTr]K6r€S. Plat. Thecet. p. 171 A. B. ovkovv rr/r avrov 
(d'nqaiv) av \pevli] avy^topol, el Tt)t' tmi> ijyovjievwv avTov \pevEeadai 
ofioXoyei aXrjdi) eli'ui, where that which here constitutes the con- 
dition was just before mentioned as a determinate case. The distinction 
between the indicative and optative with et, is particularly marked in 
the following passages: Plat. Apol. S. p. 28 E. eyia Zeiva av e'irjy 

elpyafffiei'os, e;, ore f-iev fxe ol ap^oires erarror, ovs vjueTs e'i\e(Td€ 

ap\eii' pov, Tore pey, ov eiceh'oi era-roy, epevor, Aaizep Ka\ 

aWos Tis, KUL eKivhvvevov inroQarelv, rov he Qeov tiittovtos 

XeiTToifii T))y ra^iv. where the indie, expresses a determinate cir- 
cumstance which had happened, but the opt. an action which is merely 
assumed and possible. In the same manner Hipp. 3Ihi. p. 3G3 C. D. 
S64D. Cratyl. p.39lC. Gorg. p. i52 B. Jpol. S.i^. 37 C. p. 4:0 CD. 
Xen, Mem. S. 4, 2, 31. Isocr. tt, i^evy. p. 35(i seq. — Eur'ip. Hipp. 476. 
aX\', et Ta irXeiu) ■^(prjaTa tmv kokiHv ej^eis, dvBpwKos ovaa, tcapra y ei) 
irpa^eias av, where the indie, is more correct than the conj.^ Comp. 
Sujipl. 522 scq. Soj)lt. (Ed. C. 960. But in Plat. Mown. p. 80 B. it 

should be el ToiavTa iroiols (as a mere supposition), Ta')^ av aTra^- 

deiijs, and Alcih, 2. p. 144 B, el ey-^^eipols dyvooTs, - - - owTTore av 

iiriBoio ''. The case is different when el signifies * although' : Soph. Trach. 
592. aXX' eiceiai ■)(^p)) cpwaay, ojs ovc , el COKels e^eu', e ^oi$ nj^ yrwjua, 
^j) Treipwuevi]. Plat. Alcih. 1. 2^- 109 C. et yap kuX hiayoelrai ris, ws 
^e7 Trpos tovs to. ci Kaia irpuTTOVTas TroXejjLely, ovk av opoXoyt'iaete ye. 

In the same manner el is not unfrequcntly accompanied by the future 
indie, when the opt. with iiv follows in the apodosis. II. w', 290. 
Eurip. Hipp. 484. TJr' dp dv 6\^e y dvipei e^evpoiev dv, el fxi) 
yvvalices prj^ayds eii pi) (roper. Arist. Eccl. 162. ov TrpoloaiTjv rbv 
irvha Tov erepov dv, el yu>/ tovt UKpiftwdiffferai. Comp. Iph. A. 
1199 seq. Troad. 7S0 seq. Plat. Gorg. p. 401 E. — el here indicates a 
determinate case*^. 

2. et with the indie, of a past tense, and the opt. with dv in the 
apodosis, viz. w-hen a circumstance in past time is represented as a 
condition, in its relation to a consequence which is still present. Od. a, 

=* Brunck ad Eurip. Hipp. 474. '' Bckkcr has restored these rcad- 

Schs'f. ad Dion. 11. p. 230. ings in both cases. 
Plat.Thest. p.. SCO. ad Protag. p. :)57. *■' lieiud. ad Gorg. p. 20. Pha'don. 

573. Stallb. ad Phil. p. 49. ad Eu- p. 218. Prot. p. 357. 573. Jacobs 

thyphr. p. 18. MalUiiie ad Eur. Hipp. ad Alhen. p. 29 seq. 
471. Suppl. 521. 

after Conditional Particles. 899 

236. kirel ov ke Qavovri irep loc uKa)(^oi fxrjy, el /.terct oh eTctpoiai Sauri 
Tpwtj}' epi S))pM, ' I should not grieve if he were slain', non moererem, 
si peril s set. Time. 2, 60. e'i jxol koI fxeaojs fiyoiifxevoi fxaXXoy erepoiv 
Trpoaeipai avra xoXejueti' eTreitrOrjTe, ovk civ eiKorws rvv ye tov a()iK€7v 
airiav (pepol i-irji'. Plat. Rep. 6. j). 493 C. oiov irep av el dpef^ipdros 
jueyoXou i^al l(T-)(^vpov Tp€(^npeiov ras opyas ris Kctl eiridvidias Karefxav- 

dni'ei', t^arapadwy de ravra izavra (TO(piav re KaXecreie, 

Kai cTTi SiSntTKuXiciv rpeiT oiTO - ~ - (^ovo^aCoi ce~~-€-^OL KaXol 

eaipaKUiS e'ir]^ - - - roiovTOS h) ujy, vpos Aios ovic aroiros ay troi ^onoirf 
{vidg. coKJj) etyai 7raie€VTi)s; 'if anyone had learnt, and called that 
wisdom'. Phcedon. p. 81) E. Comp. Ajiol. S. j). 28 E. under N° 1. 
Isoer. Paneg. p. 62 A. Plat. Euthjd. p. 297 E.'' It is a different case 
Sojm. El. 797. TroXXwy ay iJKOis, w i,€y\ aL,ios rv^ely, el Ti)yc' eTrciixras 
TTJs TroXvyXw(T(7ov (iofjs, as an action supposed to be past, of which the 
consequence appears now for the first time. 

3. el with the opt., and the indie, in the apodosis, when in the apo- 
dosis something is determinately asserted, but the protasis conveys only 
a possible case. Pind. Pytli. 4, 468. el yap ns o^'oi/s o^vrofia ireXeKei 
e^epei\pai Key fjeyaXas dpvos, alay^vyoi Ce o'l darjroy elcos' Kal 
(pdiyoKapTTos eoi<ra Si^oT \pr]<p6y Trep avTc7s, where et signifies 'although'. 
Herod. 1, 32. ov yap roi 6 jueya TrXovcrios paXXoy rov ctt' ijfieprjy e')(oyTos 
6Xj3iijjTep6s effTi, el fxi) ol tv"^i] eiri (Tttoito, rrayTa /caXa e-^oyra reXev- 
TTJaai ev tov fiiov. Comp. 7, 101. Thuc. 2, 5. ol aXXoi Qrjfialoi, ovs 
eSei rrjs yvtcros TrapayeveaQai TraycTTpan^i, e'i Ti apa ju») irpo^uxpoir} 

Tols ecreXriXvOucTi, eTreftoiidovy, ' if perchance success should not 

attend them', as the thought of those who had arranged this orat. oh- 
liqua. ih. 39. el padvi^icf fj,aXXoy i] Ttovwy fjeXerrj, Kal prj ixer'a yojxwv 
TO irXeloy *} Tpoirojy ayCpeias eQeXoifxev Kiv^vveveiy, Trepiyiyyerai 
ilfxiv Tols f.ieXXov(Tiy aXyeiyols jxr] irpoKufxyeiy. Comp. Plat. Charm, 
p. 154 D. Protag. p. 334 B.^ 

Hence the indie, of past time sometimes follows, along with the opt., 
which denotes what is yet to come. Plat. Apol. S. p. 28 E. supra 
§. 524, 1. Isoer. Plat. Jt- 297 E. TzavTuv ay iifuTy aXoyojTaroy ett] avfx- 

(^efirjKos, el toIs p.ey a'tVtoi yeyeyi^aQe tyis eXevQepias, iifxels ^^ yu//3' 

tKerevovres v/uds rwy avrdjy rols k-^^QiGTois Tv^oifiey. both according to 
the construction §. 622, 3. Lys. hi Ergocl, j^- 179, 32. ceiyby ay en/, 

el vvy fxey avyyycjprjy eyoire, ev Ce rw reojs xpoyf Qavdrf ck'o- 

Xdiiere. Xen. Cyr. 4, 2, 46. 

'^ Elmsl. ad Eur. Bacch. 1341. Scha;f.adDion.H.p.2)4. Erf.adCEd. 

<^ Wolf ad Demoslh. Lept, i>. '^U3. T. 604. Elmsl. ad Eur. Bacch. QVl. 

900 Sj/iila.v. Of the Optative and Conjii/ictive 

Thus the future also is put in the apodosis. //. k, 222. et r/s fioi 
ayrjp afx' ewoiTO /cat dWos, fxdWop daXTrwpi) kqI dapcraXeijjrepoy etrrai. 
Comp. i, 389. Plat. Phcedon. p. 105 B. ei yap tpoio fje, J dr ri [eu 
T^ (lel.^ ai}jxaTL eyyevrjTcn, depfiov earai, ov riji' dcr(paX{j aoi epuj 
air 6 Kp I (Til' (K€ii'7]v Tijv dj.ia6rj, on w or Qep^iortjs. where the condition is 
immediately afterwards expressed more definitely as something which 
is expected ; d y epri, <a dy ri (JwparL eyyeijjrat, yocrijaei, ovk epio. as 
something conceived of Eur. Andr. 967. ei o eriicoii)s, wu-ep hci^cjs, 
Xoyovs, TrefA\pwy a dir oiKwy rw)'3' (»;X9oi'). To this head belongs also 
the conj. in the apodosis as a fut. //. X', 386. el jj-ev h) d>Ttl3toy avv 
TevyeuL Treiprjdelrjs, ovk dy rot )(pcii(T fX7)(Ti ftios. 

Also the indicative of a past tense follows in the sense of §. 508, c. 
Plat. Alcih. 1. p. 111. et ftovXridehjfjLey eu^eiat fit) [xoroy iroioi 
di'dpu)Troi elaiy, «XX biroloi vyieiyol i) yoarwceis, dpa luayoldy yjjJtly rjaay 
SiddaKuXoi 01 TToXXoi ; Conip. Xcn. Cyr. 2, 1, 9. 

4. ijy {dy, lay) with the conj., and the opt. in the apodosis. //. h', 97. 
Tov Key h) TTCt^nrpojra Trap' ayXaci cwpa (jyepoio, a'i Key iCij MejeXoov 
Tivpf]), tTTijjdyr dXeyeiyijs, where the opt. is used, as in inde- 
pendent proposiiiuns, to soften the expression of the future, ' thou 
mightst bear thence', not ' thou wouldst'. Thus too Od. jn!, 216 — 251. 

Soph. El. 554. tjv t(f>rjs 1.101 Xe^aifM dy. Eur. IIcl. 1094 seq. Arist. 

Eccl. 415 seq. Isocr. it. drr. §. 101. Comp. Pint. Phcedon. p. 93 B. 
Xen.Apol. S. 6. Tjy ce a\(TQdywf.iUL •^(eipiov yiyyojieyos ku\ KUTUf.tej^i(p(>)paL 
efxavToy, (a case which was previously represented as occurring of 
necessity : aia'yKTj earot rd tov yijpios d-orcXeFo-Qnt &c.) TrtJs dy eyw 
en dy ijteios ftiorevoifii; * how am I to be able to live with pleasure?' 
which is equivalent to ovk dy en eyio {jdiuis piorevoi/jLi, or ovk en eyw 
ll^eMs ftioTevffU). Thus also Isocr. Areop. p. 152 C. Ilerod. 7, 161. 
fidrrjy yap dy wCe TzdpaXoy EXXi'iytoy arpardy irXe'ta-oy e'iijfiey eKn]- 
fxeyoi, et ^vpi]Koaioi(n (ovres 'Adrjyaloi avyy^wpyaofiey rijs >/ye/Lio- 
rir]s, because the latter was required of them. Ilerod. 8, 57. the oral, 
ohliqva and recta appear to be blended. 

(b'lh) ^' ^' 's ^^^^ ^ \ih\(\. of particle of time, and when it accompanies an 
action often repeated in past time, takes an optative, like the proper 
particles of time, followeil by the iniperf. or aor. indie. See Time. 7, 44. 

et fiev e yrv^oie y nin lii<pevyoy uvtovs Arist. Pac. 212 seq. 

Comp. Plat. Apol. S. p. 3S A. Xen. Cyr. 1, 3, 12. 4, 6. Anab. 7, 4,24. 
Mem. S. 1, 3, 4. 

G. Sometimes el with the indie, or o])t. and ijy with conj. are used 
together as if equivalent. Herod. 3, 35. et fiey yap tov naicos tov auv 
Tovde - /joXwr Tv-)(^oifii Hepcrai (puyeoyTui Xeyojres ovdey, T/i/ ^e 

after Condilional Particles. 901 

6.fiupr(i) cSrc, \vheic it cannot be said that Cambyses expresses the first 
as merely possil)le, the second more determinately. ib. 3G. Time. 2, 5. 
eftovXojTO yap a^/cti', et rira Xd jSoiey, vrrdp-^^eip diri tiSv evcov, i\v 
apa Tv-)^^ii)(Ti Tires e^ioyprjfxevoi, where we have first tlie oratio obliqua, 
afterwards the oratio recta. So //. i, 141. et ^e Key "Apyos iKoiiJ.ed' 
'A)^^aiiKuy ovdap dpovptjs, yctfjj^pos fcey fioi eoL, tIctio ce jmv Irrov 'Opiam]. 
where 136. et k€ with the conj. stood. 

7. The deviations hitherto adduced are fiaunded upon the pecuh'ar 535. 
nature of the conditional propositions, and are thus, in a certain degree, 
regular. The following cases, on the contrary, are irregular : 

a. When el with the opt. takes ay. Find. Pijth. 4, 468. a passage 
which is quoted §. 524, 3, Comp. Nem. 7, 131. II. ;//', 592. &, 196. 
205. Eur. Hel. 834. Plat. Leg. 10. j^. 905 C. el B' t7riSe))s \6yov twos 

eTL dv e'irjs eTruKove. Similar to this is ijy ice Theocr. 27, 35. Apol. 

Rh. 3, 401'. Xcn. Cyr. 3, 3, 55. tovs diraiSevTOvs TrayTdiramv dperrji 
Qav^id^oip' d»' e'i n TiXenv dv w^eXZ/aete Xoyos KaXws pt-jdets els dydpa- 
yadlay. Xen. ov ydp dy KaXiZs exoi, el, oti reXeuJS drijp dya- 
dos eyeyeTO, Cih TOVTO ovce ^eioytor dy Tvy^dyoi eTratj'ojy^. 

h. el is sometimes also constructed with the conjunctive, but only in 
Ionic and Doric writers, e. g. //. e', 258. \', 1 16. fx, 224. 245. tt', 30. 
559. Od. a, 204. e', 221. ^i', 96. 348. Phid. Pyth. 4, 473. 488. 
Nem. 7, 16. 22 seq. Theocr. 25, 45." In Herodotus the MSS. vary : 
2, 13. 8,49. ib. 118. 7, 161. From the Attic writers the grammarians 
quote et with the conj. (Bekk. A need. j^. 144.) from Soph. (Ed. T. 868. 
in a chorus : et ttoXXwv vTrepTrXrjadtj jiuTuy (Stob. and a MS, in Brunck 
i)v TT.). Ql,d. C. 1443. et (tov uTtpridtJ, without v. r. et aoipos rj from 
Cratinus. et Jcri from Xen. Cyr. 3, 3, 50. where now eJey instead of 
cjo-i is found. Plat. Leg. 12. p. 958 D. e'lre tis dpprjr, e'lTe tis OfjXvs rJ. 
Thomas M. j)' 267. and Phavorinus quote Sojjh. Ant. 706. Ke'i tis 7] 
ao(j)6s, as some MSS. read, others ki'iv tis jJ ct. Thue. 6, 2J. et Lvjtw- 
cnv is found with the v. r. yjv ^. The MSS. vary in many other places 
between I'lv and et, so that it is uncertain whether the transcribers have 
been influenced by the custom of later times to join el with the conj., 

or the Atticists have substituted yy for et. The v. r. i)t' ^i) yeyijTat 

Herod. 8, 118. has the appearance of proceeding from a grammarian 
who has revised the Sancroft MS. There can be little doubt that the 
conj. is the correct reading ; but no good reason has yet been assigned 
why in these instances et, not >"/)' or edy, should have been joined with 

=* Boeckh ad Find. 11. cc. Heind. in Soph. CEd. C. p. 399. Matthise ad 
ad Plat. Trot, p 535. lleisig de Par- Eur. Hipp. G95. 
tic. uy, p. 104. Comp. Comm. Crit. '' llerm. ad Viger. p. 831, 304. 

902 Sj/ntax. Of the Optative and Conjunctive 

it. See Herm. ad Soph, (Ed. C. 1445. (§. 523, 1, note.) ad Viger. 
J). 834. n. 312. 

c. »V occurs very rarely with the optative. Thiic. 3, 44. four MSS. 
have et re — elej', for i]v re. Thom. M. quotes this passage under et 
as an example of the use of ?/v Isocr. Pac. p. 168 C. aW ofiojs ovnos 
avTOVs oyairw/xei', uiad' vTrep fiey Trailwv Twy ijfierepwv ?)v Trepi riyas 
k^af-ilipTOiev , ovk av edeXijtraiiJev ^iKns vTrotrj^etj', where Bekker has 
adopted el from the MS. Urbin. which has been revised and corrected 
by an Atticist. In both passages j'/v is more correct ; but the opt. 
seems to have been caused by the opt. whicli immediately follows". In 
Homer e'lKe with the opt. is frequent: see 8, a. Herod. 4, 190. the 
Aldine Ed. and many MSS. omit eh], for which we probably should 
read with Werfer ei]. 

d. i]i' is found also with the indie. Herod. Q, 13. 3, 69. and according 
to the best MS. 1, 200. (av ce ijy fieyaXios upoQv^eai). In later writers 
this is very common. ButXen. Anah. 7, 6, 24. where a repeated action 
is spoken of, we should read et Trpo trio ire for the common Trpoo-tjjre. 

Note. The protasis with et is often wanting, when it is easy to be 
supplied, as //. y', 52 sq, ovk av Efj fxeiveias apif((pi\ov IsleveXnov ; 
yi'oirjs \\ o'iov (pwros ex^*^^ daXepfiv TrapaKoiriv, 'then thou wouldst 
perceive', comp. t', 245. 303. Od. i]', 278. Thuc. 1, 71. 2, 11. where 
ovrw serves for the protasis. Instead of this also the participle is often 
used: //. k, 240. tovtpv ye (mofxevoio kuX Ik irvpos aWofiepoio 
afiij)U) voanjaaifiey. Xen. Anab. 3, 1, 2. Sometimes the apodosis of 
the conditional proposition is wanting : as Eiir. Hec. 1200. 6 yjpv'^os, et 
(iovXoio TuXyjOrj Xtyeti', eVreire ~6y efioy iralCa, for o o/doXoyiiaeias ay, el 
joovXoio, as ih. 796. 

525 et signifies also ' whether', and is used with the conj. when the ques- 
tion is asked, what any one should do. Herod. 2, 52. eyj)i](TTi)pia^oyTo, 
et aveXwvTai Ta ovyonara. A'e?t. Ct/;-. 8,4, 10. Of that which is repre- 
sented as real, et is used with the indie. Xen. Anah. 7, 3, 37. aKtJ^ai, et 
6 'EXX{]ru)y yuiAos KaXXioy ex^i- Mem. S. 2, 2, 2. Of a future event 
yet to be investigated, eay with the conj. tr/cei^ai, ectj^ roce trol fiaXXov 
apedKT]. See Schneider's note. In this sense it is often used ellipti- 
cally, especially in Homer, with the omission of Treipcjfxeyos, OKonwy, 
e. g. H. 4'') 40. avTiKa K7]pvK€(T(n XiyvfOoyyoicn KeXevaay, ayu^i Trvpi 
arijaai -piiro^a fxeyay, el irenidoiey UijXeihrjy, since they wished to try 
* whether they could prevail upon Pelidcs'. In past actions el is put 
without ay with the optative, in present or future actions, e'i Ke, iay, 

» Herm. ad Vigcr. p. 822. n.591. Schaf. Melet. Crit. p. 87, 31. 

after Relatives. QQfo 

i'lv with the conjunctive, e.g. II. v, 172. yXavKWMv V Wiis (pepe-ai jjerei, 
r/v Tiva Trefvri avlpuiy. ib. 463. v fxep ayrios i'lXvde, yuvyu))', e'i ttws 
€v TTC^t'coiro, XajDwv, Ku'i ^o}ov afecT]. Comp. //. k, 206. Thuc. 1, 
58. UoTidaiarai ce TrefixpavTes fxev Kai Trap 'Adriraiovs Trpecfteis, e'i Trcas 
•jreiaeLav, Sec. ib. 2, 77. Comp. 2, 12. 64. 7, 79. eireKCivTO, nai 
fiakiara vols vtjTarois TrpoenriTTToyres, e'i ttujs, kutu ftpaxv rpe^dixevoi, 
irdy TO arpdrevfjia ^o(MiGeiav. Comp. 3, 45. Exir'qi. Androm. 4^^. 
leiixarovnevr] o' eyw cifxwy -KupoiKov Qerilos els avdKTopoy Bdaaio t6B' 
eXdodff, i'ly M^ (^wXvctjj dayely. The opt. is used of present actions 
when the doubtfuhiess of the result is to be strongly marked : Eur. 
Andr. 54. t^r/rei ciKip', e'i ttws m vpoade a^dX^ar e^aiTovfieros deoy 
irapddXpiT Is to Xonroy evueyrj. and with ay Xen. Mem. S. 4, 2, 30. 
The infinitive is omitted when it occurs again in the proposition with eV, 
//. 7], 375. rat U ro5' eiTrefxeyai ttvkivov eVos (viz. iravffaffdai TroXefiov), 
a'i K eOeXcjaiy Trav^afrdat TroXe/noio. Comp. 394. Herod. 6, 101. In this 
case it may be often changed into ' that', ut '*. 

4. Of the Optative and Conjunctive after the Relatives, oc, 
odTtc, oioc, OTTOU, o9ev, ^c. 

1. If the relatives refer to definite persons or things, they 527. 
are followed by the indicative. But if the person or thing be 
indefinite, i. e. if any person or thing of a kind, or every person 
or thing to which the accompanying definitions are applicable, 
be signified only generally, where in Latin quicunque or si qiiis 
is put; then the verb mai/ be in the optative or conjunctive; 
in the optative without av, when the whole proposition affirms 
something of past time; in the conjunctive with civ, when it 
affirms something of present or future time. //. (5', 188. ovTiva 
fxev /SafftATja Kai e^o^ov civ^pa Kiy^eit], tov S' dyavoic eireeacfiv 
epr)TvaaaKe uapaaraQ. 198. o»^ S' av ^/j|UOu t av^pa 'i8oi, 
^ooiovTU T e^evpoi, tov (XKniTTpio eXaaaffKe. Comp. k,489. 
On the other hand, Agamemnon says, //. /3', 391. ov Se k e-ywp 
UTravevde fxayjic eOeXovra vo/jcrw }.U}-ivateiv -rrapu vrjvai Kopu)- 
v'ktiv, ov oi eVeira apKiov eaoeiTUi cpvyeeiv kvvuq 7jo oiwvovc. 
Eurip. Troad. 380. ouc "A,or/a e\oi, ov TralBac el^ov, ov Sd- 
paproQ eu Yepo^v TreirXoiG (xvve<TTaXr}(rai>, ' all who fell in battle . 
Thuc. 7, 29. Travrac, e^ijc, orio evTvy^oiev, /cat TraTSac Kot 
yvvul.Kac, KTeivovre.Q * whomsoever they might meet'. Comp. 

^ V. ad II. Homer, (ed. Lips. 1805.) p. 6. Reisig Enarr. (Ed. C. 1761. 

904 Syntax. Of the Optative and Cunjunctive 

Xen. Anab. 2, 5, 32. 6, 13. 25. Thuc. 2, 34. iula 8e K\ivrj 
Kevn (jyeperai earpwjxevr] rujv a<pavu)v, o'l av fxri evpeOioaiv 

{si qui non inveniinitur) e'lc, avalpeaiv. avrip ypiipevoc 

VTTO rrjc TToXewc, oc av yvoijuy re doKy jlui ac,vveroc elvai Kai 
a^itlfpari 7rpoi]Kyj, \eyei. IL p , 48. ott— jj t tOucry, ry t 
e'lKovffi ar'iy^ec uv^pojv. Thuc. 2, 11. eirecOe, oiroi av tig 
T^yjjToi. But Xen. Anab. 4, 2, 24. payJ)i.i.evoi Se oi iroXepiot 
Kai 7ry ei'»/ crret'op ■yuypiov irpoKaTaXappavovTec, eKioAvov rac, 
irapo^ovc. The conjunctive in this case is mostly put in general 
propositions, when something is expressed which happens 
usually, and at this time also, e. g. Xen. Mem. S. 4, 2, 29. 
opac Be Kai tmv iroXetov oti oaai av ayvoijcracrai tijv cavrtov 
Bvvapiv KpeiTToai TToXefxiicrujaiv, ai fiev avucnaTOi yiyvGvrai, 
at Be e^ eXevOepwv SovXai. and passim. 

Ohs. 1. In some })laces, however, the conjiuictive or optative is used, 

wlicre the opt. or conj. sliould be; a. Od. if, 33. ov yhp dice 

uyaiva'Coperoi (piXeova, us k ilWnder eXdoi. since here not only a 
person generally, quicioique, but also the accidental nature of his coming, 
is indicated. 11. a, 549. the opt. edeXoipt leaves it uncertain whether 
he will decide ciTrarevde Oewv. Both these passages belong rather to 
§. 528. those belong to this head in which a>' is omitted. Xen. Cyr. 
1, 6, 19. Tov pki' avrov Xeyeiv, a pi) aa(h<os eideit], tpeideffdai 2eT ' what 
he perhaps does not know'. Comp. 2,4, 10. where ovs ar ns l3ovXr}rai 
is first used, because all occupations whatever are spoken of, where an 
expression of mere possibility would be unsuitable, as a avi'epyos must 
be so in some one thing, in the 2iid member ovs ns jjovXui-o, because a 
specific occupation is spoken of. ib. 7, 5, GO. there is a kind of oralio 
oM'iqua. Eur. Herac. 19. 

h. The opt. is often used, because it is found in the main proi^osilion. 
//. y', 299. vTnrorepni TrpoTcpoi virep vpKia TTTjpi'iveiav, wSe <r^' eyve- 

(paXos xoA'a'^ts peoi C, 58. 521. /x', 228. Sojyh. Track. 953. eiff 

uvepoetrau ns yevoiT 'iirovpos etrriwris avpa, ijrts p InroiKitreiey €K 
TOTTuy. Ar'ist. Vesp. 1431. Plat. Parm. p. 138 B. er liXXo) pey oy 
kvkX^ ttov ay irepiey^oiro vtt iKeirov, ey i^ av eh] (from ey <o ay »/, and 
e»' ^ eit)). id. Rep. 8. j). 557 B.' 

c. The conj. is sometimes used for the opt. when there is a transition 
from the oratio ohViqua to the recta. Herod. 1, 29. opKioKn peydXoim 
KaT€i')(j)yTO 'AOrjvaloi, ?€Ka eVeci yjilitreaQai yopoiai, rovs ay aft '!^6Xwy 

^ Ilerm. ad Soph. Aj. VIOO. Scha f. App. Bern. 1. p. 130. 

afler Relatives. 905 

Obs. 2. av is usually put in the construction witli tlic conj., but is 
omitted in that with the opt.'' Yet there are exceptions to this too. 
&v is omitted in the construction with the conjunctive, not only in the 
poets, but even in prose writers. Herod. 2, 85. Plat. Ale. I. p. 134 E. 
Comp. Thuc. 4, 17. Isocr. Panath. p. 248 D. In Xen. Mem. S. 1, G, 13. 
bans Ce, op ay yvS evipvii oyra, cicdcrKioy b ti dv e^>; ayaQuy, (piXov 
troifJTcii &c. the preceding ai' appears to belong to tlie following conj. 
also'=. ay stood with the opt. Plat. Rep. 8. j)- 557 D. KLycvyevcL Tt3 
(DovXofxeyM TroXiy KaraiTKevdi^eiy dyayKalov elyai, eh IrifxoKparuvjxeyt^v 
eXdoyri irvXiy, vs dy uvroy dpeaicoi rpuiTOS, rovroy l^XeiiacTdai, but 
Bekker reads apeaKi], In Soph. Q^d. T. 77. eyw kukos fir] dpcoy dy eirjy 
ira.yQi', oV dy ^i]Xq'i Qeus, which passage is quoted by Burgess l. c, 
cr}Xol is the conj. So the reading is doubtful in Xcn. Anah. 2, G, 25. 
ofTovs fxkv \_dv~\ alaOdvoi-a. Other passages in which os dy is found 
with the opt. have been corrected from MSS., or belong to §. .528. 

Obs. 3. The fut. is used for the conj. II. k, 43. XP^^ ftovXrjs e^ue Kal 
ae, cwTpe(p(:s w Me;^e\ae, KeptUtXerjs, i'lris Key epvuerai ?}ce (rawerei 
'Apyetovs Kai vijas, where, however, both may be the old form of the 
conjunctive. Comp. 282. //. e, 747. Od. a, 101. //. i, 508. But in 
Eur'ip. Ale. 77. the better MSS. have dyyia)] for dyyicei, which at 
least would be dyvieT. Of Plat. Leg. 12. p>- ^'^7 C. ovs dv o'l Tvpoa- 
liKovres rov reXevTi'iaavTOs ew utpoyrai see Buttm.L, Gr.2. p), 201. note. 
and this Grammar, Vol. I. p. 424. 

2. From these are to be distinguished the passages in which 528, 
the optative is put after relatives, in the sense which it 
usually has in independent propositions §.514 seq. Here it 
regularly takes av, and is found even when a present action is 
spoken of. //. Q , 292. irpwro) rot /ner e/te 7rpea[5i]iov ev \ep. 

Oi^aw, ije yvval'^, t)Ke.v toi opov \kyoc, ei<y ava^alvoi, 

* may ascend'. Comp. k, 166. "C, 451. Od. d, 21. p , 586. 
Herod. 6, 44. Soph. Ant. 912. Eur. Heracl. 975. ovk ean. 

TOVTOV OCTTIC (IV /C a T « /C T O V O t. T/tUC. 2, 39. KQl OVK effTJl', OTC 

^evrjXacrtatc aircipyopev nva h paO^paroe,, ?j Oeaparoc,, o pi) 
Kpv(pBev liv TIC, TU)v TToXep'iojv (Swv w f/)eX>;OeiJ/. Comp. 7, 77. 

'' Dawes Misc. Cr. p. 02. On the ad Aj. 1074. App. Dcm. 1. p. 657 not. 

other side Burgess, p. 601. Monk ad Eur. Ale. 76. Stallb. ad 

•= Brunck ad vEsch. S. c. Th. 259. Plat. Phil. p. 62 seq. Comp.Bornem. 

Soph. CEd. C.395. Pors. ad Eur. Or. ad Xcn. Apol. S. p. 30. Reisig de 

141. Med. 222. Matthias ad H. Horn. Part. dy. p. 111. Elnisl. ad Soph. 

p. 83. Lob. ad Soph. Aj. 759. Schtef. (Ed. C. 395. 

VOL. IT. 2 J> 

906 Syntax. Of the Optative in the oiatio obliqua. 

Plat, Gorg. p. 456 C. ou -yojo eari, irepi otov ovk av iriBa- 
viorepov e'tVot o pr]TopiKoc,i] aWoQoariaovv. PhcBdon. p. 89 J). 
Coiiip. 50 1 C. Euthi/d. p. 274 E. with Heindorf's note, p. 311. 
and to mark the indefiniteness more distinctly Phadon. p. 1 1 E. 
/iteya av j3owrjc, on ovk olaOa aWwc ttwc eKaarov "yfyvojuevoi', 
1] /.leraay/ov ttJc; idiaQ ovGiac e/cacTTOU, ov av /neraa'^oi, 'of 
whichever they may partake', llnic. 7, 48. So after iva 
'where' Soph. Q^d. C. 405. ov 'where' Eur. Orest. 638. wc, 
OTTOJG 'how' Arist. Nub. 1181. 

Obs. ay is sometimes wanting with this opt. Soph. Phil. 693. iV 
avTOS 7]V irpoaovpos, ovk e)^w»' jiuffLi', ovCe ru'' ey^wpwy Kcucoyelrova, Trap' 
to arovov uvri-virov j3apvi3p(^T cnroKXavaeiev aifiaTt]p6v. II. \, 348. 
Soph. (Ed. C. 1172. /cat -is ttot early, oy y eyw ■^e^aifxi ri. y^sch. 
Prom. 291. Comp. Choeph. 169. Eur. Iph. T. 592. Ltjs. in Diogit. 
p. 905. ed. Reishe. Eur. Ale. 52. Soph. (Ed. T. 979. Arist. Ran. 96. 
where the preceding av belongs to Xclkol also. Plat. Euthijd. p. 292 E. 
r/$ TCOT eoTLV >/ €Tri(TT})pTj cKeiyi], i) iipas evcaipovas 7roii)a€i€v. but 
immediately follows : jj. 293 A. ris ttot kaAv j; eTricTTi'ipr], -qs Tv^oyres 
ay KuXdjs Toy €Trl\onroy (3loy hieXdoLpey. Xen. Mem, S, 2, 1, 23. 
eaOrjra, Cl t)s ay pdXicrra ?/ uipa ^ laXttfnroi. See §.515. Obs. Other 
cases §. 529, 4. 

3. The relative also is frequently used for n>a, as in Latin qui 
for lit. Od.o ,457. Kat tot ap ayyeXov t)Kav, oc ayy eiXeie 
yvvaiKi. II. 1 , 165. kXyitovq OTpvvoiiiev, o'l /ce eXO(jja, In 
this sense in //. a, 36. oq k eiiry, the reading of the Cod. 
Vienn. would require to be understood; but oc k e'tVoc means 
qui fort asse dicat, Corap. Thuc. 1 , 25. Xen, Mem. S,2,\, 14. 

The Optative in the oratio obliqua. 

529. When anything that has been said or thought by another 
is quoted as such, not as an idea of the writer, and yet not in 
the words of the speaker, but in narration, i. e. in oratione 
obliqua, the optative is frequently used, and without av. (for 
in Xen. Anab. 1, 6, 2. KaTaXXayciQ Se outoc Kvpoj, enrev, 
ei avTM oonj iTTTrtac ■y^iAiovc,, oti touc TrpoKaraKaiovTac tTTTTtac 
h KaTUKaivoi av eve^pevaac, v t^J^VTac iroXXovc, avTiov e'Aoi &.C. 
Comp. ib, 1, 9, 10. the opt. is in the apodosis with av after a 
condition.) This opt. then is used 1. after all particles, even 

Syntax. Of the Optative in the oratiu obliqua. 907 

those which are compounded with av, as orai', e7reiSav% &c. 
Od. I, 331. avTup Tovc liWovc, K\i]pio TTeTraXayOai avojyov, 
oariQ ToXjtt?;tTe/ev e/.ioi avv jUO^Xor aeifiac, Tpixfjai ev o(j)Oa\fM<o, 
ore Tou yXvKvQ vttvoc, ikuvoi. Thuc. 2,21. ot Kya.pv?]c, uku- 
KiCov TovYlepiKkka, on <jrparr\yoc, wv ovk e7re^a-yot. Comp. 
Xen. Anah. 4, 3, 29. id. Agesil. 1, 10. Tiaaacpepviic jnev 
lo/iioaev AyrjaiXao), ei aTre'iaairo, eujQ kXOoiev, ovc, Trep,\peie 
irpoQ /3a(TtAta ayyeXovc. Comp. Th2(c. 2, 7 extr. 80 extr. 
Plat. Rep. 10. p. 614 C. tovc diKaarac, fTreiSr} dia^iKa- 
aeiav, tovc, /licv Bikuiovc KeXeveiv TropeveaBca tjji' eic, ce^iav. 
Xen. Anab. 1, 9, 11. evyjw rivec avrov €^e(p€pov, mq eu^otro 
TOcrowTOv Ypovov ^r/i', e'c re vikmi] kul tovc ev Kai tovq KUKtoQ 
voiovvTUQ aXe^oixevoc Thus the optative is to be explained 
Xen. Hist. Gr. 2, 1 extr. Avaav^poc, ^hXoKXea irpwTOv epio- 
Ti]aac, oc TOVC, 'AvSp'iovc Kai KopivO'iovQ KaTUKpr^/xv laeie, ti 
en; ci^ioc TraOeii', ap^upevoc, ec'ILXXrjvaQ irapavopeiv, inre(T<pa^ev. 

where oq KaTUKprji^iviaeie are words from the question of 

Lysander, and properly the construction runs thus : ti e'lri 

a^ioc, TTaOeiv eKeivoc, oc KUTOKpripviaeie, qui pr&cipitasset, 

qua is pana dignus esset, not Philoclem, qui jyrcccipitaverat. So 
in the indirect question Soph. Trach. 772. kvTavQa Bi) /Sorjcre 

To»/ ^vcfdaipova A'f^av TToiaiQ eveyKUi Tovde priyavalc; 


2. In particular the optative is put in this case after oti, ojc„ 
whether the action belong to the present, past, or future time. 
Herod. 9, 41. ^ovXevo/^ieviov Se a'/Se i)aai> ai yvuii-iai' i) pev 

'ApTa(iaZ,ov, u}Q \peh)V e'/rj avaZ,ev^avTac ikvai. Comp. c. 44. 

Thuc. 1, 72. eSo^ei' auToTc -rrapiT^Tea ec, tovc, AaKe^aipoviovQ 
eivaif ^r]Xh)aai wepi tou ttoi^toc, wq ov Tay^ewc avTolc povXevTeov 
eit]. Comp. 2, 13. 57. 72. Soph. Phil. 343. nXdov--'Ki6c t 
'O^vaaevc, yjo Tpo(^evQ tov pov TruTpoc, XeyovTec, - - - o)Q ov 
OepiQ yiyvoiT, errel KaTe(p9iTO TruTrip tjuoc, tu Trkpyap aXXof 
^ p! cXelv. Comp. Plat. Gorg. p. 460 E. — Plat. Phadon. 
p. 57 B. ayyeiXai, oti (pappaKov ttiwv airoOavoi ' that he was 
dead'. Xen. Anab. 1 , 2,21. ti] Se vaTepa'ia i)Kev c'ty-yeXoc 

" Herm. ad Vig. p. 786, 244. 792, Comm. Crit. in Soph. (Ed. C. p. 320. 
256. Poppo ad Xen. Cyr. 4, 2, 6. do Part. liy. p. 111. Elinsl. ad CEd. 
Of the orat. obliqua generally Reisig C. 945. 

2 D 2 

908 Sj/iitax. Of the Optative in the oratio obliqua. 

Aeywv, oTt XeXotTTwc eh] "EvevveffiQ to. aKpa. id. Mem. S. 2, 
6, ]d.iiKov(Tainev, on TTe/ot/cXijc ttoXXoc (eTrwgac) eTriffTotTO, 
ac, eTTctdiov ry TroXei eiro'iei avTi)v (piXeiv avTOV, for on 7]7rt<TTaTO. 
Comp. T-/i?/c. 2, 5. 6. 48. A>;<. He//. 2, 1, 3\.—-Soph. (Ed. 

r. 790. o <i)o?/3oc 7rpov<pavri Xeywv, mq ^anpl ^ev -^peit] 

/ite /it-)(^0>7ra(, yei'oq S' arXrirov dvOptoTTOiai BiiXwaoi^i opav, 
(hovevQ ^* ec70i/urji^ tou (pvTev(jai>TOC iraTpoc Comp. Thiic. 
2, 2. In future actions also, instead of the future another 
tense is used. Herod. 7, 6. y^prjai^iov, o)c al eiri Ai^ivov eiriKei- 
uevai vrjaoi dcpavito'taro Kara rrJQ OaXaaai^c,. 

3. Sometimes also in these optatives wc or otl is omitted. 
JEschyl. Apam. 6 If), tcwt aTTayyeiXov iroaei, hxeiv ottwc 
Taviar epa(rp.iov TroXei' -yuvotfca TriffTJji' o ev cof^ioic, evpoi 
fxoXuiv, o'lav 7T€p ovv eXciire. Soph. Phil. 615. virkayeTO top 
av^p' AvatoTc TOvSe Sr/Xwcretv dytvv' o'toiro juev puXiaO , 
eKovaiov Xa/3w»', Scc. !'/«/. i?cp. 4. p. 420 C. el Vf-iSc av^pi- 
avrac ypiK^ovrac TrpoaeXBCjv rtc e-ipeye, Xeywv, on ov toic 
KaXXidTOic Tov t^oov Tci KuXXiara (papj^iaKa irpoaTiQef-iev' 01 
yap oCpOaXi^iol KctXXiarov ov, ovK oarpeUo evaXijXipf^ievoi elev, 
aXXd incXavi. Comp. ib. 10. p. 614 D. Sj/}7ip. p. 201 A. 
Epist. 7. p. 328 C. Phadon. p. 95 D. Xen. Anah. 7, 3, 13.^^ 

4. The opt. is used not only when something is expressly 
given as having been said or related by another, but in order 
to intimate that it was said or thought by another. Soph. El. 
621 . irpoc. opyriv eKCpepei, /neOelaa pot XeyetP a y^pytoi/.u, in 
reference to r. 556. where we may conceive the permission of 
Cleon to be given in the words ecpiTifxi act Xeyeiv a itu -^pylrfc. 
(Ed. T. 1245. e/caXei top ?}S»} Aa'iop TraXai veKpov, pv^pi]v 
TTaXaiQv atreppdrwv eyova' , vcj) wv ddvoi p-ev avroc, t?jp ce 
TiKTOvaav X ITT 01 &c. as that which he called to mind. ib. 796. 
Trach. 903. Kpv-^aa epavrnv cvOa pn Tia eia'iSoi, nbi se a 
nemine visum iri credebat. On the other hand in the orat. 

recta Aj. 658. Kpvxpu) toS' lyyoQ rovpov ya'iac opv^ac 

evda pn TIC o^perai. 

5. The Greeks often quote the words of another narratively, 
and yet suddenly change into the orat. recta as if the person 

» Schacf. in Dion. II. 1. p. 102. lleind. ad Phaedon. p. 129 seq. 

Syntax. Of the Optative in the oratio obliqua. 909 

himself spoke. Xen. Hell. 2, 1, 25. ( ^Xki^Aq) ovk ev Ka\(S 

e<p7} avTOvr. opj.iclv, aWa /iiedop^uaai ec Sjjcttov 7r«|07jvei 

ov ovTec, vavf.iayj]aeTe, e(pn, '^rav (5ov\i]a9e. Xen. Anal). 1, 

3, 14. elc Se ^i) eWe Tre/nxPai 7rpoKaTaXr]\po^evovc ra uKpa, 

OTTwc jUJj (pdaaovaiv o Kvpoc /o'jre oi KiXiKec, KaTa\a(56vrec, (ov 
TToXAouc Kai TToWa y^pvuara ey^o^iev iipiraKoreQ. Cyrop. 1, 

4, 28. Comp. 2, 3, 4. Lys. Epitaph, p. 192, 32. So /A o', 
347. Eur. Hel. 1683.'' ' Hence the iniperat. after relatives 
§. 511, 5, 6. the conj. after 'iva for the opt. §. 519. Thus they 
put wc, oTi itself before the actual words of the speaker, Herod. 
2, 115. See §. 624. "On. c. 

Hence they often combine both kinds of speech, keeping the 
persons or the infin. from the orat. obliqua, the tenses and 
moods from the orat. recta, e. g. Xen. Hell. 2, I, 24. Avaav- 
Bpoc Se TUQ Taylarac twv vetSv e/ceXevcrev eireaOai role AOrj- 
va'ioic' eireidav de e/c|3cucri, Kari^ovrac, o ri Troiovaiv, awo- 
TrXeti;. On the same ground the Greeks, in narration, con- 
sider the main verb as well as the accompanying circumstances 
of an event as present, and hence use the present indie. : Herod, 

], 164. o ^e"Ap7rayoc, e7roXio/>/cee avrovc, irpoiayopevoc, 

ewea, wG 01 KaraxpfJ, et (SovXovrai ^wKaieeQ Trpopax^wva 
eva liiovvov rov Te'i^f^oQ epe^xPai. Thucyd. 2, 8. i) Se evvoia irapa 
iroXv eiroiei twv avOpwiroov jitctXXov ec tovc, AaKeBaif.ioviovc,, 
aXXox; Te Kai Trpoenrovrwv, on t/jv 'EXXo'Sa eXevQepov aiv. 
se id agere, iit Graciam in libertatem vindicent. Comp. 2, 13. 
Hence the indie, is used in the orat. obliqua as often as the opt. 
§. 507, 3. and the indie, and opt. are intermixed : Herod. 1, 86. 

eXeye Sr}, wc nXQe apyi]V o 'EoXiov, /cat Oejjcrajitevoc Trai^ra 

rov eojvTOv oX(5ov airo^Xavpiaeie. Herod. 3, 61. ovtoq dr) 
wvol eiravkaTY], {.laOwv re. Tor 'Ef.iep^iocOavarov wc KpvirroiTO 
yevo^tei/oc, Kai loc oX'iyoi re r)<Tav oi eTriaTapevoi avrov Uep- 
aeiov, oi Se TroXXot Trepieovra ilUV eiBeirjaav. 9, 38. ib. 69. 
Comp.5,97. Eur. Hel. 52b seq. Arist.Vesp. 2%2. Thuc.2, 80. 
Tsocr. de Big. p. 348 A. e'lanyyeXXov e'lC rvv (iovX^v Xeyovrec, 
<Lc o Trarrip avvdyei /.leu tw eraipiav em veojrepoic irpay^iaaiu, 
ovToi Be ev ry rioXvTtctH'oo o'ik'k^ avvBeiTTvovvTa; xa ^ivarvpia 

^ Wyttcnb. Bibl. Crit. 3, 3. ]). 90. Comp. Ilciiifl. nd Phadun. p. 1'29, 
3, 4. p. 10. Schaf. Mekt. p. 102. ad Prot. p. 510. 

910 Si/iitax. Of the Injinitive and Pari iciple. 

TTOivaaiev. id. Trapezit. p. 369 A. eXeyev, on cXevOepoQ 
ear I Kal to yevoQ eoj MiXijaioG, Trejii^eie Se avrov Ylaaiwv. 
Thus the indicative and optative after on in the sense of ' be- 
cause', are interchanged Herod. 8, 70. appwdeov, on avToi 
l^iev, ev 'ZaXajMvi Kcinijiievoi, virep yrjc t)7o ' A6r}vaiwv vavfxa-^^^eeiv 
iLieWoiev, viKnOevrec, Be ei/ rj'/trw a;roXn/ii(|)(^e»'Tec TroXiop- 
Ki}(7ovTai. and after other particles or relatives Xen. Anab. 
3, 5, 19. ofxoioi riaav Oav/iiatovTec, ottoi ttotc Tpexpovrai oi 
'EXXrivec, Ka\ r'l ev vio e-^oiev^. 

Of the Distinction between the Injinitive and the 

530. If a verb is governed of another verb or an adjective, a 
double relation is established, according to which the use of 
the infinitive and participle or certain particles is determined : 

Either the leading verb or adjective conveys in itself a 
complete and independent idea, and the first member of the 
proposition requires no addition to define it more exactly ; 

Or it has in itself no complete idea, but expresses an action 
which only becomes complete by the addition of its reference. 
Thus the verbs ' I pray, I persuade, I will', &c. always require 
an addition which expresses ' for what T pray, to what I per- 
suade any one, what I will'. 

When the former verb is complete in itself, or when an entire 
complete proposition precedes, the purpose is expressed by the 
conjunctions u'o, ocjypa, ottojc, e. g. irapaivu) aoi paOelv ypap.- 
juarn, iva aoCJiioTepoQ yevri, but the comequence, which is not de- 
signed, by wtrre with the infin. This takes place especially 
after the words of comparison, roaovroc, toiovtoc, ovtwc,. 

If, on the contrary, the preceding principal verb or adjective, 
or the main proposition in itself has no complete idea, the 

» Stallb. ad Plat. Euthyphr. p. 107. of two different constructions appears 

endeavours to establish a distinction, to liavc taken jilacc here. Comp. 

but none has been suggested that is Ileind. ad Plat. Sopli. p. 439 seq. 
ajiplicable to all cases, and a mixtiuc 

Syntax. Of the Injinitivc and Parlkiph. 911 

relation of the second verb to the first is expressed by the 
infin. or the participle: which of the two is to be used depends 
on their respective nature. 

The Infinitive expresses an action absolutely, and without 
necessary reference to the person acting or suffering. Hence it 
takes the place of a substantive, and expresses all those re- 
lations to a verb which the cases of a substantive express. As 
subject in the nom., or obj. in the accus., it may be with or 
Vv'ithout the article ; in other cases it requires the article. 

The Participle, on the other hand, represents an action as a 
quality found in a person or thing, and therefore expresses the 
proper object of a verb. 

Thus in the propositions, ' I will write, I command you to 
write, I admonish you, warn you to go', 8cc. the English in- 
finitive is the designed consequence of the first verb, and is in 
most cases expressed in Latin by ut. In the propositions dicit 
se voiturnm esse, credo animiun esse immortalem, 6;c. the Latin 
infinitive expresses only the object of the governing verb, and 
in niveus videri, the respect in which tiiveus is to be taken, 
snow-white in outward appearance. On the contrary, in the 
propositions ' I saw him fall, I heard him say', scio me esse 
mortalem, intelligo me errasse, the infinitive is merely the ob- 
ject, and the immediate object, not the purpose of the verbs 
* to see, hear, know, perceive'. 

Hereupon are founded the following rules : 

1. When a verb or adjective of incomplete meaning is fol- 
lowed by a verb which expresses the purpose or the consequence 
of it, the latter in Greek is put in the infinitive, without a con- 
junction. The infinitive then in part answers to the infinitive in 
Latin after the verbs volo, malo, nolo, cupio, conor, audeo, &c. 
when the subject of the two actions is the same, in part to the 
conjunctions, uf, ne, quominus : e. g. oro te, u t venias, hortor te, 
nt scrihas,iinpulit me, ut discerem, persuasit mi/ii, at projicis- 
cerer, imperavit mihi, ut ad te irem, impedivit me, quominus 
scriberem, must be rendered in Greek by the infinitive : ^ 
aov eXQelv, irapaivu) not ypa(j)ei\>, ■rrafxo'^vvev t/je f^iav- 
Oaveiv, cireiacv cpe nopevcaOai, e/ctXtucrei' tfic{ei.ioi) npocae 

912 Sijntax. Of the Infinitive aud Participle. 

e\Be7v, eKufXvtje {.le yf)a(peiv or f.u) ypacpeiv. Usually in 
this case, no conjunction is put with the infinitive or conj. opt. 
instead of the simple infinitive, although some few passages are 
found in which conjunctions are used ; of which hereafter. 

2. When a verb of incomplete meaning is accompanied by 
another, which marks merely the object of the former, the 
latter is put in the participle, sometimes where in Latin the 
participle is used, as video te scribentem, audio te docentem, 
oow ae ypacpovra, ukovuj ce ^i^aaKovrci, sometimes after verbs, 
which indicate a perception by means of the external senses, or 
the understanding {verba sensuian), where in Latin the accus. 
with the infin. is used, as scio me esse mortalem, sentio te iratiim 
esse, Sec. ol^a Ovtitug wr, ojcrOaro/tot ere yaXewaivovTa. 

The distinction of the construction with the infinitive and 
with the participle is most clearly shown, when the same verb 
takes, according to its diflferent senses, sometimes one, some- 
times the other mood, e. g. /naOelv * to perceive', has the par- 
ticiple jEsc/ij//. Prom. 62. 'iva fxddy aoCpiaTVC wv tou Aioq 
vojOearepoQ. But jn. 'to learn', has the infinitive Xen. Ci/r. 

4, 1, 18. e'l inaOi)(TOVTai evavriovaOai. Thus too yiyvujaKeiv 
Time. 1, 102. eyvhjaav aTroirefxirofievoi 'they perceived that 

they were sent away'; but Soph. Antig. 1089. iva yvio 

Tpe(f)€iv T?})' yXwacfav rjav^ojTepav, 'that he may learn', as 
Enr. up. PliU. 2. p. 603 A. Xe7i. Anab. 3, 2, 25. Comp. 
Plat. Hep. 10. p. 619 A. So the infinitive follows yrwi'ai 

* to resolve'. Isocr. Trap. p. 361 D. — Me^n^/jcrOat with partic. 
§. 549, 6. with infin. Xen. Anab. 3, 2, 29. Hence Pind. Pyth. 

5, 30. uses pi) \aOcTO) witli an infin. Theocr. 1 1 , 64. — JLiSevai 

* to know', with partic. §. 548, 2. but * to know how to do any- 
thing', with the infin. Soph. Aj. 666. e'laopeaOa Oeolc, ei'/cetv. 
Comp. 11. )/', 238 seq. Soph. Ant. 472. Eur. Ale. 577. Troad. 
1048. Jon. 953. Isocr. tt. avrid. p. 315 I). ^eiKvvvai 'to show', 
with the partic. §. 549, 5. but ' to teach', with the infin. Eur. 
Andr. 707. 1003. — IloftTv 'to make', is followed regularly by 
the infinitive: aperrjc, TTou\aac. c-TnOvneiv Xen. Mem. S. 1,2, 2. 
(]uum faceret, ut virtuti sfuderent. but TrotfTi' 'to represent', 
has the object in the participle, as in Latin : Isocr. Evag. 

p. 190 D. TOIC, TTOir\Taic- - -TOVC, OeOVC, o'lOl> T C(TT« TToiiiaai Kai 

Si/Hlax. 0/ i/te [iijinitive. 913 

StaXe-yojtiePOJu; Koi (Tvi>ayiovitoi.ievouc, o'lC uv ^ov\nOu)(riv. 
(7ro(e?M 'to put the case', Xcn. Anab. 5, 7, 9. has the infini- 
tive, as I'Ojitt^dt, \eyit).) 

Of the Infinitive. 

The Infinitive is therefore used 

I. After verbs which imply any purpose whatever, and re- 531. 
quire the addition of this purpose or its eftect, by means of 
another verb (consequently in the same way as the accusative 
denotes the result of the action §.408 seq.) ; and sometimes, 
when the subject of both verbs remains the same, as ' to wish, 
to desire', eOeXw, jSouXo^nat, eTriOujiiew, einy^eipcio {conor), Tret- 
pdo/iuti, To\/Lid(o, Si'vo^iat, ey^o) in the sense of ' I can', oto- 
voeiadat ' to meditate', e7ri/3ouAeveti' Aiist. Pint. 1111.^ c^eari 
(licet), olov T eari, jueXXw, Trpnaipcofxai (statiio), €i(o9a ' I am 
accustomed', /LiavBdvM ' I learn', diBdaKoj ' I teach', and others, 
which in other languages also are followed by the infinitive ; 
sometimes, where the subject is changed, where in Latin at 
must follow : thus, after the verbs * to pray', ^eojuai, Xiaaof.iai, 
lK€Tev(jj: ' to exhort', Trapaiveio : * to remind', vovOctcoj : 'to 
urge', TrpoTpcTTco : * to persuade', Tre'iOu) : ' to order', KeXemo, 
irpoaTaTTU): 'to prohibit', airayopevo) : ' to permit , eTriTpeTru) : 
* to trouble one's self, aTrov^aCoincu : 'to counsel', avi-i(iov\€v(o: 
' to cause', J acere nt, iroieiv, Karepydti^aOai, (e. g. Xcn. Mem. 
S. 2, 3, 11. ei TM'a twi^ -yi'wptVtwv [5ov\oio Kcire pyacraaOai, 
OTTore 6voi, KaXelv ae eirl ^eiTrvov, ri iiv ttoio'djc; Plat. Rep. 2. 
p. 360 A. diaTTpd^aaOta twv dyyeXwv yeveaOai twv irepi tov 
(5aaiXea, id egisse, operam dediase, ut^.) ' it falls out', ao^i/BaiVei : 
'it is just, necessary, requisite', ^'iKaiov aariv, uvayKi] eari, 
MCpeXinov eaTi, and after several others. Instances occur every- 

For the same reason the infinitive is put after irecpvKevai, 
ita natiira comparafnni esse, ut. Soph. Phil. 80. eXoi^a kui 
(puaei ae ^n; ireipvKOTa TOiavra ^a>ve?i', /ojce t e')(^va<jOai 

■■' Pors. ad Eur. IIcc. Add. IIGI. '' Uoim. ad Vigor, y. 741, 195. 

p. 103. ad Arist. I'ac. 405. 

014 Stfntax. Of the hifinitioe. 

KUKa. lb. 88. e(pvv -yap ov^ev e/c re^i'ijc tt paa a eiv KaKwc. 
Comp. Aufig. 523. Thuci/d. 2, 64.' Comp. Plat. Crati/l. 
p. 387 B. C. D. 

So the infinitive is used after BoKel, placet, ' it seems 2:ood', 
e. g. go/cei eiri^iwKeiv Herod. 8, 108. comp. 102. after Xe-yeii', 
when any effect is to be produced by speaking, e. g. Eur. 
Iroad. 724. Xk^aQ apia