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Full text of "The copper and bronze ages in South America"

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4. 



THE COPPER AND BRONZE 

A6ES IN SOUTH 

AMERICA 



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SLANDERS BOKTRVCKERI AKTlEBOI.AG 



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Oscar yliontelhis, 

in oencraiion and ^ra/iiuc/e. 



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497248 



PREFACE. 

The publication oi this volume has been assisted by a '^rant 
irom the Swedish Govevnnient, to ichoni I bci^ to tender my re- 
spectful thanks. 

I have also much pleasure in ackium'ledgiiig contributioiis 
from Baron Joha)i Mannerheim and Mrs Inn Si>iitt toicards 
the working out oi )ny material. 

Professor G. Bodman has very generously undertaken a 
number oi analyses on my behalf, free of charge. Moreover, 
a small grant icJiicJi the Gothenburg Museum obtained innn the 
Municipal Council of Gothenburg for dealing icitJi tJw collec- 
tions has been utilized for analyses, n'hich have been carried 
out mainly by Dr G. Karl Almstrom. Mr A. Hultgren has 
gratuituosly undertaken the met alio graphic examinations 
which iQjcre carried out at the Gothenburg laboratory of the 
f>Svenska)> Ball Bearing Works {A. B. Svenska Kullager- 
fabriken), likewise without any charge being made. An account 
of these analyses is included in the present work in the form 
of two appendixes. 

The investigations that form the subfect of this volume arc 
largely based, apart from studies in the literature of the sub- 
ject, on the copper and bronze objects, chiefly collected by the 
author himself, housed at the Gothenburg Museum {G. M.) and 
at the Riksmuseet in Stockholm [R. .1/.). Unpublished mate- 
rial in some of the foreign museums has also been utilized, 
. after being very kindly placed at the author's disposal. These 
museums are: Museum fitr Volkerkunde in Berlin {M. f . 
V. B.), Museum fiir Volkerkunde in Leipsic, The Trocadero 
Museum in Paris, The Linden Museum at Stuttgart, and 



VI 

MuseiDii iiir V olkcykundc in Vienna. The officials icho have 
been of the greatest service to nic in these niuseiinis, or have 
placed at my disposal the desired material are: Dr Christian 
in Vienna, Professor Dr Th. Koch-Griinberg in Stuttgart, Dr 
F. Krause in Leipsic, Dr Paul Rivet in Paris, Professor Dr 
'Max Schmidt in Berlin, Professor Dr R. Verneau in Paris, 
and Professor Dr K. Weule in Leipsic. From the Museum 
iiir Volhcrkimde in Berlin I received, free of charge, a consi- 
derable number of analyses undertaken by Professor Dr 
Ratgen . 

The translation into English, from the Mss of the author 
and Mr Hulfgren, has been carried out by Dr G. E. Fuhrf^en, 
M. A. ' 

To all those n'ho in one way or another have helped to 
defray the expenses of producing this work, or have assisted 
nie in it, I hereby offer mv sinccrest thanks. Above all I would 
thank Mr Hultgren for the agreeable collaboration I have en- 
joyed -with him, and the Directors of the Svenska Kullageria- 
brikens S. K. F. for generously permitting the use of their 
laboratory for executing the metallographic examination of the 
objects. 



vn 



CON'ri'lNTS. 

Iiitroduotiou i 

Copper Objects that were in Use, according to I:arlier Authors, 

in the Empire of the Incas at the Time of the Spanish C(Mi- 

f 1 ue s t -1 

Objects of Copper reproduced on Pottery, Textiles and Other 

Things 13 

Copper Objects of which the Age can be determined from the 

Circumstances of the Find 3O 

International and Local Types +8 

Typology ^' - 

Copper and Bronze Ages 7^ 

Why Tin \\ as mixed with the Copper i oq 

The Standardization of Bronze i n Inca Times i -^ 2 

Where were the Copper and Tin Ores obtained, and where were 

the Copper and Bronze objects made 13" 

The Origins of the vS. American Copper and Bronze Ages in the 

S. American Stone Age 14'' 

The Bronze Age m the Old Wor 1 d and in the New 133 

List of Objects Analysed Kn 

Appendix A 1/3 

Appendix B i^^ 

Bibliography 1 88 





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asMOfia 




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Map 



INTRODUCTION, 

If we study the literature of copper^) objects found in 
S. America, we shall find scattered intimations that cer- 
tain types of objects must be more recent than others, 
and particularly the suggestion that the Bronze Age in 
S. America was preceded by a Copper Age. As early an 
authority as Ewbank held that the Bronze Age in the west 
of v^. America was preceded by a Copper Age. He was of 
opinion that it was unreasonable to suppose that the Indians 
should have continued to make tools of pure copper after 
becoming acquainted with bronze. My fellow-countryman 
Eric Bomax assumes that the bronze objects found on 
the Peruvian coast are Incan, and thus of a more recent 
period than the objects of pure copper. Rivet and Ver- 
NEAT- have shown that the Bronze Age in Ecuador was evi- 
dently preceded by a Copper Age. The}^ consider that bronze 
was first introduced into Ecuador by the Incan conquest 
of the country. 

An intimate study of the copper objects found in 
vS. America with a view to their relative chronology 
has, however, not been made. This is ^^•hat I have 
attempted, and it is the results of these studies that I have 
put together in the following pages. In studying the cop- 



^) When I do not know whether an object is of copper or of bronze, 
I call it coppey. If it has been analysed, I call it pure copper when it has 
been proved to contain no tin, and bronze when it contains tin. W'hat 
I here call pure copper may therefore contain antimony, arsenic, lead, 
etc., but no tin. Will readers kindly hear this in mind throughout the 
present work. 



per objects found in S. America, I have therefore tried 
throughout to keep in mind the factor of thne. 

In the first place I have brought together such state- 
ments from the old literature as deal with copper objects 
from the time of the Conquest. This will give us an insight 
into what was in use among the Indians at the beginning 
of the I 6th century. 

Metal weapons and the like are occasionally depicted on 
pottery and textiles. Thanks to these pictures we can see 
that certain of them must be contemporaneous with certain 
types of vessels and woven fabrics about whose relative 
chronology we have some knowledge. 

Next I have compared the types of copper objects 
found under such circumstances as will enable us to draw 
some conclusions as to their age. 

Relying mainly on Rivet and VernEx\u's work I have 
attempted to distinguish forms of copper objects with a 
more local distribution from those with an extensive distri- 
bution, assuming, as will be seen, that the latter are usually 
from a latex time than the former. 

As far as possible I have also sought to utilize the t>-- 
pological method in order to be able to follow the develop- 
ment of different forms of copper objects. 

Furthermore I have collected all the known analyses 
of copper objects from the west of S. America, with the ex- 
ception of Columbia, after de Crequi-Montfort and Rivet, 
and JijON Y Caamano, and have had a considerable num- 
ber of objects analysed, in order to determine what forms 
are of pure copper and which of bronze. I have tried to 
prove that throughout the whole territory of the old 
Inca Empire the Bronze Age was preceded by a Copper 
Age. 

1- We shall see that the various methods that have been 
employed do not, broadly speaking, yield contradictory re- 
sults, and that the conclusions I have reached by one meth- 
od are confirmed bv another. 



Even as late as 1912 Joyce, in his handbook on the 
archaeology of S. America, gave it as his opinion^) that the 
Indians of S. America had not purposely alloyed copper and 
tin. He bases this assertion on the fact, to which attention 
was drawn by Mortillet and Boman, that the tools often 
contain less tin than the ornaments, though the former re- 
quired more hardness than the latter. But that tin was in- 
tentionally added in the S. American bronzes, in spite of 
this apparent inconsistency, has been shown b}^ both the 
American, Mead, and, especially, his fellow-countryman, 
the metallurgist Mathewson. The fact is that we 
must not regard the American bronzes from quite the 
same points of view as we are accustomed to adopt when 
we are concerned with the bronzes of the Old World. With 
this problem I have also been occupied in the following pa- 
ges, and, as I have already mentioned in the preface, have 
been greatly assisted in this respect by Mr A. Hultgren. 

The relationship between the Copper and Bronze Ages 
in the Old World and the New is of course a problem of 
the greatest interest. But it must be treated with consider- 
able care, for a thorough discussion of it must be preceded 
b}' a systematic study of the development in America of 
the pure copper and bronze forms, as well as that of the rela- 
tionship of the American Copper and Bronze Ages to the 
American Stone Age. This problem too, I shall touch on in 
the following. 

After these introductory remarks I will attempt to de- 
velop in detail the points of view I have to present. 



1) P. 210. )>It seems almost certain that the presence of tin is acci- 
dental, since it is found in greater quantities in those implements which 
require it least. » See also the footnote, ib. p. 132. 




Fig. 



I. Copper-disk from Catamarca, Argentina. 
(After POSNANSKY. (i)) Vi. 



CHAPTER I. 

Copper Objects that were in Use, according 

to Earlier Authors, in the Empire 

of the Incas at the Time of the 

Spanish Conquest. 

In the early literature that has been accessible to me, 
a number of copper weapons and implements are mention- 
ed, but the statements about them generally tell us very 
little. The authors of these works took far more interest, 
of course, in objects of gold and silver than in those of the 
less valuable copper. Of importance are the statements 
that are sufficiently detailed for us to be able to recognise 
forms that we meet with in the archaeological excavations, 
and can therefore verify that they were in use at the be- 
ginning of the i6th century. 

Several of these authors mention copper clubs. ^) The 
reference is evidently to clubs with star-shaped club-heads. 

^) See, for instance, Relacioxes Geograficas, Vol. II, pp. 14, iS^ 
22, 2.5, 32, 45. I,AS Casas, p. 194. 



This appears, for instance, from Xerez's account of the 
capture of Atahualpa.^) He says that the club-heads had 
five or six points. Coppes and stone club-heads of this kind 
have been found pretty generally throughout the territory' 
of the Inca Empire. (See Fig. 22). As a rule they have 
six points, but those with five are not rare. Cobo^) says 
that the club-heads used by the Indians in the Inca Em- 
pire were o'f copper. 

Copper axes were evidenth' a weapon that was in com- 
mon use in the Inca Empire at the time of the Conquest.^) 
It is mentioned from Cuenca in Ecuador^) that such axes 
had been introduced after the Inca conquest. Xerez') lik- 
ens them to halberds. Cobo**) says they were of copper or 
stone. The princes had axes of gold and silver. 

Eas Casas') also speaks of little axes that were in use 
in the Incan Empire; the haft was »Tres palmos)> in length, 
and the}^ were provided with a kind of sword-knot to pre- 
vent their being dropped during a fight. 

Garcilasso**) mentions axes among the Incan tokens 
of honour. The axe shown in Fig. 2 B, C from Cuzco seems to 

1) P. 99. . . )>la porra que esta al cabo engastonada es de metal, tan 
grande como el puno, con cinco 6 seis puntas agudas, tan gruesa cada pun- 
ta como el dedo pulgar. » See also OviEDO y Vai^des, Lib. XL,VI. Cap. VIII, 
Vol. IV, p. 177. and Huamax Poma, p. 514. 

'-) CoBO, p. 196. 

3) Relaciones GfogrAficas, Vol, II, p. 45 (Collaguas), p. 240 
(Sanct Miguel de Piura), Vol. Ill, p. 190, p. 193, (Cuenca) p. 217 (Loxa). 

*) REtACiONES GEOGrXficas. Vol. III. p. 193. »Pcleaban con por- 
rillas, defendiendo sus tierras y pcrtenencias. . . . Despues del INGUA 
han tenido lanzas de palma. . . hachuelas de cobre. » 

^) P. 100. »I,as hachas son del mesmo tamano y mayores; la cuchilla 
de metal de anchor de un palmo, como alabarda.» 

*) P. 196. )>Las hachas de anna tenian el liierro 6 cuchilla de cobre 
6 pedernal. » 

') P. 194. '^) Lib. VI, Cap. XX\'II. )Por ulthna divisa real davan al 
Principe una hacha de armas que Uaman Champi, con una asta de mas 
de una bra9a en largo. El hierro tenia una cuchilla de la una parte, y 
una punta de diamante de la otra, que para ser partesana no le faltaba 
mas que la puta que la partesana tiene por delante ». 



me to fit in best with Garcilasso's description. He calls 
this axe Champi, a word which is employed in the oldest lit- 
erature for very dissimilar things. i) 

The Araucanians had axes of copper at the time of 
the Conquest and had also lances with points of copper. 2) 

Bolas balls of copper are mentioned in Relaciones 
Geograficas'^) from CoUaguas. Similar ones of various 
types are common discoveries round ly. Titicaca. 

It is of the greatest interest to find in the oldest liter- 
ature descriptions of the type of knife commonly found 
throughout the old territory- of the Incan Empire, and which, 
in modern archaeological works is quite correctly called Tu- 
mi. Knives of this kind are shown in Fig. 21. AmbrosETTI'') 
considered that it was this type of knife that Montesinos^) 
had in mind when he wrote, « Tumi es un instrumento de 
cobre de la hechura de trinchete de zapatero, que se ensartaha 
en un palo». Bertonio,**) too, compares the Indian Tumi- 
knife to a shoemaker's knife when he explains the meaning 
of the w^ord tmni in his famous Aymara Lexicon. In Ay- 



^) CoBO (p. 196) calls the clubs with star-shaped heads Champi. Hua- 
M.4N POMA (p. 514) calls them Chanbi {Champi) or guaman Chanbi {huaman 
Champi). Bertonio, in his Aymara I,exicon, translates Champi by 'parie- 
sana, an offensive weapon, and 'hacha' an axe. In Hoi,GUIn's Lexicon 
under Champi we find. ■uMaqa o porra de armas » and in the Lexicon edited 
by RiCARDO Champi is porra para pelear. Sancto Thomas translates 
Chambi with porra para aporrear. Middendorf, in his Quichua Lexicon, 
translates Champi by 'metal; mezcla de oro y cobre\ and also by 'arma de 
indios, especie de clava con hacha'. HUAMAN PoMA also designates 
as Chanbi a lance ornamented with a hem of feathers along its shaft. 

-) Oyarzun (Cites Lovera etc.). 

3) Vol. II, p. 45. »Peleaban con unas mazas de palo recio y fuerte, 
y para que lo fuera mas, aforrabanlas con plata 6 cobre tirado y al cabo 
una porra, de plata 6 de hierro (a) con unas puntas, e con hondas e hachas 
de cobre, e con unas cuerdas de niervos recias y al cabo puestas unas bo- 
las de cobre pesadas, tirabanlas, Uaman a estas ayllos, y hoy lo usan en 
sus cazas y monterias. » 

') (I) P. 203. 

*) Tumi — Cuchillo dc los indios al modo de i'quel que usan los^apateros. 



iiiaran tumi was also probabl}^ a knife in general. Thus, 
European knives, too, were called tumi . According to 
HoLGUiN,!) tumi in Quichuan was an Indian knife of copper 
without a handle, shaped like an axe. This, is after all, a 
very good definition of this type of knife. ^) 

With such knives ulnga Huira Cocha^), according to 
MoNTESiNOS^), had 8,000 prisoners beheaded. In the pic- 
ture, Fig. 31, we can see how a knife of this kind was evi- 
dently used for beheading. The earthen vessel from which 
this figure is taken, is considered by UhlE*) to be much old- 
er than the Inca period. As we shall see, the shape of 
the tumi is typologically older than the tumi-knives 
that were presumably in use during the Inca period. Bal- 
boa^) relates how M ama-Guaco killed another Indian with 
a tumi or stone knife. Cieza de Leon") also mentions 
knives of copper and stone, used on the coast of Ecuador 
for beheading human victims. 

The older literature, as we have seen, throws some 
light on the metal weapons used in the Inca Empire. Of 
implements — apart from the tumi knife — we do not get 
to know much. Garcieasso mentions a curious kind of 
primitive hammer of copper and «laton». This was really 



*) 'tumi — cuchillo de indios de cobre a manera de segur sin cabo.' 
^) Wiener's designation, 'tulpo', must apparently be registered a- 
niong the mistakes his work contains. ' 

*) P. 154. dIos presos dicen los indios que pasaron de ocho mil. Otro 
dia, despues de la victoria, mando el Inga Huira Cocha pasarlos todos a 
cuchillo; y no paro en esto porque mando buscar los viejos y las viejas de 
aquella provincia, y los hizo cortar las cabezas. Y por esto Uamaron a 
este lugar Tumibamba. >> 

*) (3). 

5) P. 15. 

*) P. 402. (Vedia) wCon sus navajas de pedernal 6 de cobre el sacer- 
dote mayor dellos lo mataba, y cortandole la cabeza, la ofrecian con el 
cuerpo al maldito demonio, enemigo de natura humana ». It is presuma- 
bly similar scenes of sacrifice that we find reproduced on a number of 
earthen vessels from the Peruvian coast. 




w 



^' 





D E F 

Figs 2 A — 2F. Copper objects from Argentina, Bolivia and Peru. Nearly ^/., The originals 
in the Museum fiir Volkerkunde in Berlin. A =^ Cramp. Andalgala, Sta Maria, Argen- 
tina. (Catalogue no. V. A. 4057). B, C — Weapon. (Cat. no. V. A. 8738). D. Hammer 
of the type described by Garcilasso de la Vkoa. Salta, Argentina. (Cat. no. V. 
C. 5701). E — Bar of bronze in shape of axe. Oma.suyu, Bolivia (Cat. no. V. A. 
12672 b.). F — Axe, vSalta, Argentina (Cat. no. V. C. 6385). 



oiilv. a lump of metal without a haft.^) A similar one (Fig. 
J I)) from Salta is to be seen at the Ethnological Muse- 
lun in Berlin. Garcilasso speaks furthermore of axes, 
))agiichis)> and »escardillas» of copper and brass {ago far). 
He gives us no details about the shape of these. Garcilasso 
enumerates a number of implements not possessed by the 
Incas. Among them he mentions metal needles;^) but this 
nmst be \Yrong, for a quantity of them have been found in 
the Inca territory, and it is scarcely credible that they 
had gone out of use by the time of the Conquest.^) 
According to Garcilasso, there were only needles of 
plant-spines.'^) 

Garcilasso-^) mentions that the Incas had a kind of 
blow-pipe of copper, which they used in smelting metal. 
These were still in use in Garcilasso 's time. A picture of 
I'eruvian Indians blowing at these pipes is given b}' Ben- 
zoNi.^) The interesting picture is reproduced here. Two 
similar blow-pipes are to be seen, according to Mead^), in 
the collections of the American Museum of Natural Historv. 



1) »»No supieron hazer inartillos cou cabo de palo, labravan con unos 
iustrunientos que hazen de cobre y laton mezclado uno con otro. Son de 
forma de dado, las esquinas muertas, unos son grandes quanto pueden 
abarcar con la mano para los golpes mayores, otros ay medianos, y otros 
cliicos, y otros perlogados para martillar en concavo, traen aquellos sus 
martillos en la mano para golpear con ellos como si fueran quijarros*. 
Libro II. Cap. XXVIII. 

2) Libro II, Cap. XXVIII. 

^) They are found in graves from Inca times. 

*) These have also been found in graves from Inca times. 

5) »fundian a poder de soplos con unos canutos de cobre largos de 
media bra^a mas, o menos como era la fundicion grande, o chica. Los 
canutos cerrauan por el un cabo, dexauanle un agujero pequeno, por do 
el ayre saliessa mas recogido, y mas rezio: juntauanse ocho, diez y doze, 
como eran men ester para la fundicion: andaua al derredor del fuego, sop- 
lando con los canutos, y oy se estan en lo mismo, que no ha querido mudar 
costumbre. Libro II, Capitulo XXVIII. 

'') P. 251. 

') P. 43- 



|iiiiitiiiiii[nniiiiiiii|iniiimiijfi|iijiiimi[iiujiiiiiinj[iiiii!ijii]ii||jn^ 




Fig. 3. Indian smiths in Peru from the middle of the i6th century. Two 
are using blow-pipes, the third a haftless hammer. (After Benzoni). 



vSpades and hoes of copper are mentioned by CoBO.^) 
The hoe referred to by Cobo, to judge from his description, 
was probably of the type we see in P'ig. 56 c, which is still 
used by the Quichua Indians, though with an iron 
blade. In the tracts bordering on the Inca Empire there 
were also agricultural implements of metal, as is clear from 
the stories that Nuflo de Chaves heard from Indians near 
the Rio Paraguay, who had stolen some in the fields of the 
mountain Indians.-) 

Copper ornaments are scarcely mentioned at all in the 
older literature. More interest was, of course, taken in those 
of gold and silver. Shawl-pins (<(topus») are mentioned in 
several places in the Relaciones Geograficas.^) I have 
only twice seen it stated**) that they were of copper. The 

1) Cobo. Tome IV, p. 190. « Fuera desta suerte de arados tenian otro 
iiistrumento de -uu palo corvo, que hacia forma de hazuela de carpintero 
o de almocafre, con que quebrantaban los terrones, escardaban y mulliaii 
la tierra; y estos dos instrumeutos eran los principales con que labraban los 
campos. Para escardar los sembrados y hacer los hoyos en que enterra- 
l)an el Maiz al sembrado, usaban de Lampas, que los mexicanos Uaman 
Coas, y es un instrumento como azada, salvo que el hierro era de cobre, 
y no corvo, sino llano como pala corta de horno; » 

-) Relacioxes GeograFicas, Tome II, p. LXXXVII. ȴ que donde 
habian entrado era algunas casas que tenian en las chacaras, de noche, y 
que siempre hallaban palas y herramientas de metal. » 

On the Rio Paraguay they knew all about the different kinds of metal 
used in the Inca Empire, as can be gathered from the following extract 
taken from the same source as the preceding (p. LXXXIII.) 

»V que cuanto a lo del metal, dijeron que era una cosa que tenian co- 
mo hachas para cortar, salvo que uno era bianco y relucia mucho, y otro 
era amarillo. Fueles mostrada una sortija de oro, la cual tomaron y le 
dieron con ella en los dedos y la ponian en las narices, y dijeron que 
de aquel era el metal amarillo. Preguntado que para que lo olian, dijeron 
que porque habia otro metal amarillo que no era bueno y que tenia mal 
olor, y que de esto hacen en aquella tierra las herramientas con que cortan 
y hacen sus labores. » 

') Tome I, p. 173 (Atunsoro), p. 189 (Atunrucana,) p 208 (Antamarcas). 

^) Tome I. p. 149 (Vilcas Guaman) ». . . y en los hombres se los prenden 
con unos alfileres de plata grandes y el remate ancho y redondo y algunos 
son de cobre, los cuales Ilamau topos. . . » T. Ill, p. iir. (Otavalo)' 



description of the form tallies with the type of topu we see 
depicted in Fig. 22 e, and which seems to have had a very 
wide distribution throughout the Inca territories. It is stated 
that topus were first introduced into Otavalo in Ecuador 
by the Incas.^) 

Mirrors of silver and of 'agofar' , i. e. brass, are men- 
tioned by Garcilasso.-) A bronze object that was probably 
a mirror of this sort, is illustrated and described by 
Baessler.^*) 

I have not come across any description of how the In- 
dians mixed tin and copper to make bronze. As a rule we 
are not enlightened as to whether the weapons and other 
things mentioned were of pure copper or of bronze. 

Garcilasso, as we have seen, speaks of 'laton' and 
'agojar' , i. e. brass, though of course he means bronze, since 
brass was certainly unknown in S. America before the Dis- 
covery. 

In Bertonio's Aymara Lexicon bronze is mentioned. 
Isa yauri and hanko yanri are rendered b}" « hroncc cohrc 
muy duro. » Yauri is copper. Hanko yauri means white 
copper. I do not know^ the meaning of isa, but according 
to Bertonio the Aymara called steel yauri isaco or yaurina 
isacopa, whereas iron is only called yauri or quellaya yauri. 
According to the same authorit}^ the Aymara called tin 
kausi, titi or chaantaca. (T. I, p. 370). 

Very mysterious is this entr}- in Bertonio's Lexicon: — 
« Quisuthd yaurithd vlltatha qsu — es otra especie de cobrc, que 
seruia a los indios como a nosotros el azero para que mezclado 
con otro sea mas fuerte)).'^) Was this bronze with a high per- 
centage of tin, which was alloyed with copper? The Span- 
ish quotation means: This is another kind of copper, 



1) Rei,aciones Geograficas, Tome III, p. 11 1. 

-) »Los e.spejos en que se miravan las niugeres de la sangre real erau 
de plata muy brunida y las comunes en a9ofar. » Liliro II, Cap. XXVIII. 
3) (i) P. 79. Fig. 300. 
') T. II, p. 395. 



13 

which served the Indians as steel with us, as mixed with 
other (copper) it became stronger. 

Anta is Quichuan for copper. Puca anta is, according 
to HOLGUix, pure copper, titi is lead and yiirac titi or 
chayanta is tin. The same authority says that in Quichuan 
bronze is chacrusca anta or hichhascca anta, and anta curi 
or anta gapa is gold mixed (with copper). According to Mid- 
DENDORF, who had access to a number of older Quichua lexi- 
cons, which are unfortunately not in the Swedish libraries, 
puca anta is pure copper, cJinmpi anta bronze, chajruska 
anta allo^^ed metal, inich'nska anta alloy ed copper, and 'hie h'- 
aska anta cast copper. According to v. Tschudi, anta is 
Quichuan for metal generall}^ especialh' copper, puca anta 
for unalloyed red copper, chacrusca anta or hichasca anta for 
brass, bronze, or bell-metal, aiitacori for gold alloyed with 
copper. 

Within all the area of vS. America where bronze was used, 
tin ore (cassiterite) only occurs in Bolivia and Argentina in 
any quantities. Barba^) has already supplied a detailed 
account of the occurrence of tin ores in these parts. He 
mentions the tin mines at Carabuco near L. Titicaca, which, 
he sa^'s, were worked already in Inca times. Barba, whose 

^) Fol. 32. )>Xo son ordinarios donde quiera los minerales de estano, 
pero no se echan menos en aquestas riquissimas Prouincias. Famoso es 
el assiento de CoUquiri, no lexos de la Coilla de san Felipe de Austria de 
Oruro, por el mucho, y muy bueno que de sus minas se ha sacado, y se saca 
para todo aqueste Reyno, entre cuyos, metales, como ya queda aduertido, 
se hallan a vezes ricas bolsas de metal de plata. lunto a Chayanta, en los 
Charcas, ay otro mineral de estano, de que se saca en abundancia de algunos 
anos a esta parte. No lexos de Carabuco, una de los pueblos que cercan la 
orilla de la grandiosa laguna de Chucuyto, hazia la vada de la Prouincia de 
Larecaja, ay tambien labores deste metal, que los Indios trabajaron en 
tiempo de sus Ingas, y despues han proseguido los Espanoles. Son las 
vetas caudalosas, y ricos los metales en su genero, sacanse tambien^ entre 
ellos algunos de mucha plata, y todos participan de algun cobre, por cuya 
niezcla es este estano mas vistoso y duro. La fama de la riqueza destas 
vetas me lleuo a verlas, demas de la curiosidad que he tenido en ver, y 
experimentar los minerales de todas estas Prouincias. » 



14 

wide knowledge of the presence of minerals in these parts 
was based on a personal experience of many years, must be 
regarded as an extremel}' reliable author. In the University 
Library of Uppsala there is one cop3^ of this very rare work. 

Barba also mentions a number of copper mines. ^) Of 
those in Cerro de Scapi, two leagues from Chuyca in Lipes, 
those on the heights of Tarabuco in Chichas, and those sit- 
uated near Curaguara in Pacajes, he says that the}' were 
worked by Indians in old times. 

Barba also mentions and describes the ovens (« huairas ») 
in which the Indians smelted the ore. They are also describ- 
ed by several other old authors. 2) 

Thus w^e see that in the older literature there is men- 
tion of the following implements and weapons of copper in 
use at the time of the conquest of the Inca Empire: tumi- 
knives, axes, hoes, spades, hammers, star-shaped club-heads, 
and the bolas. Besides these there were blow-pipes, shawl- 
pins, and mirrors of copper. At least one tin mine that was 
worked as early as Incan times is spoken of, as well as some 
copper mines. We have detailed descriptions of the 
ovens in which the metals were smelted. 



1) Fol. 29. 

2) As BoMAN (i) gives exhaustive quotations from the old literature 
about Huairas, I would refer readers to his work. 



15 




Fig, 4. Demon and crab, on a vase from Chimbote. (After BaESSler (2) 
Fig. 330). 1/4- 



CHAPTER II. 

Objects of Copper reproduced on Pottery, Textiles, 
and Other Things. 

In the foregoing chapter I put together the information 
I could gather from the older literature about the copper 
implements, weapons and ornaments used by the Indians. 
The Indians themselves have also something to relate about 
these things. I refer to the scenes in their life that are re- 
produced in their ceramic and other arts. In endeavouring 
here to study the Copper and Bronze Ages of the Indians, I 
will not omit to utilize this source of knowledge as well. 

When we come across a weapon or implement reproduc- 
ed on an earthen vessel or a woven fabric, we cannot, of 
course, say if it represents an object of bronze or pure copper. 
We do not always know even if it was an object of stone or 
metal that is reproduced. This does not stand in the way 
of our, being able to deduct, by means of a careful stud}' of 
the object depicted on the vessel or fabric, some infor- 
mation that may be of value with regard to the relative 
chronology of the copper or bronze object in question. 

Urteaga^) has drawings of a couple of Nazca vessels 
representing demons with axes in their hands. What shape 



Figs. 4 and 






Figs 5 a— 5 d. 

Demons fighting, painting on a vase from Trnjillo. (After Joyce, 

fig. lo). 

Demon with axe in one hand and a decapitated demon head in the 

other. Painting on a vase from the coast of Peru. (Original in the 

Linden museum at vStuttgart. Cat. no. L,. 1450/97). 1/3. 

Demon resembHng the former. Painting on a vase from Chicama. 

(See Fig. 17). (Cat. no. G. M. 20. g. 31). ^3 

Axe from Inga-pirca, Ecuador. Of the type the demons seem to 

have used. (After RivET and ^■ER^■KAU).V^, 



17 

these axes had originally, is difficult to conceive, since the 
Nazca artists evidently changed the same for decorative 
purposes. As no axes have been found with Nazca pottery, 
we do not know of what material the axes reproduced were 
made. It is not altogether excluded, though scarcely likely, 
that they were of stone^) . (Fig. 9,1) 

Curious axes with a little hole in the narrow part at 
the back of the axe have been found pretty generally in 
Hcuador. (Fig. 5 d). These axes are either of stone or of 
copper. On numerous earthen vessels found in N. Peru^) 
demon figures can be seen with similar axes in their hands. 
This has already been pointed out by Boman and Joyce. 3) 
From these pictures we can see that the hole in the axes 
served for fastening a piece of string into it which was pre- 
sumably used for a loop round the wrist, to prevent the 
unhafted axe or blade from being easily dropped.^) That 
this axe was used unhafted, is thus clear. 



*) From Nazca Uhle mentions but a single object of metal (gold). 
He writes: « Of metal objects produced by this civilization I have, so far, 
only secured one single specimen, a piece of hammered gold, having an 
interesting mythological design upon it; it is now in the museum of the 
University of California. Doubtless implements of metal must have existed 
and been used by these people, as one may infer from the painted designs 
upon the pottery when they are occasionally represented, but they are 
not preserved in these burials of such a very ancient date ». Uhi,e (5) 
P. II. 

-) B.\ESSLER (2). 

Joyce, p. 127. Demon with axes. 

Seiner (i) PI. 20, 21, 22. Demons with axes. 

Squier (i) p. 226. Demon with axe. 

Hamy pi. XLI. Dsmons with axes. (See also Beuch.a.t p. 681.; 

') (i) P. 230; P. 212. 

*) The hole and loop in a number of Tumi-knives evidently served 
the same purpose. (Fig. 21, a, d.) Knives carried in the same way as these 
axes, are mentioned by Cabrer.'V. (Relaciones Geograficas, T. II, p. 140), 
from the Juries: «y todos los mas con un cuchillo colgado con uu fiador 
de la mano derecha, que se proveen los mas dellos, o otras cosas que de 
hierro tienen de rescate. » 



i8 





Fig. 6 a. Demons fighting; on a vase from Chimbote. (After Baessi.ER 
(2) fig. 332 b.). The weapon of the one is an axe like that in 
Fig. b; the other seems to have a tumi in his hand, "^j^ 
6 b. Copper axe from Cuenca, Kcuador. (After Joyce fig. 5 a). 
6 c. Tumi from the Peruvian coast. Vio- 



19 

The axes in the different pictures vary somewhat, due 
partly to their being of somewhat different shape, partly, 
as is evident, to their being more or less in artistically and 
carelessly modeled or drawn. Sometimes the axe which the 
demon holds in his hand, appears to be toothed (Fig. 6). 
A toothed copper axe of this kind found at Cuenca in Ecua- 
dor, is reproduced by Joyce. ^) 

From the pictures on the vessels we cannot, of course, 
say with certaint}' what material the axes that the demons 
are holding, were made of, but to judge from the sharply 
bent out edges I should say they were of metal, presumably 
copper. That this type of axe, with a little hole in the haft, 
has not been found in the coast districts of Peru, although 
we find it generally reproduced on earthen vessels, may pos- 
sibly be bound up with the circumstance that during the 
period when these axes were used, very few of the valuable 
copper implements were placed in the graves. The demon- 
iacal head-hunters, armed with axes, may also repre- 
sent some equatorial tribe that used to make inroads 
into the coastal districts of Peru, for, as we have already 
mentioned, this type of axe is commonly found in 
Ecuador. 

On some of the vessels (Fig. 8) the demons seem to 
be holding Tumi-knives rather than axes "') . Sometimes it is 
impossible to decide whether the weapon depicted is meant 
to represent an axe or a Tumi-knife. As a rule these Tumi- 
knives seem to be of a t3^pologically primitive type (see p. 
68) and are not provided with a sword-knot. 

On the vessel in Fig. 6 we can see two demons fighting 
with each other, one of them armed with an axe with its 
hole and sword-knot, the other with a weapon that looks 
very much like a Tumi of primitive type. It has no hole, 
and consequently no sword-knot. 

1) Fig. 5 a. 

^) It would perhaps 1)e more correct to call these axes knives, as 
they are always without hafts. 




Figs. 7 a — e. 
Demon with big corner teeth catching a fish demon. Modeled on a 
vase from Trujillo. (After Baessler (2) fig. 338.). 1/5. 
Fishdemon painted on a vase from Chimbotc. (After Baessler (2) 

fig- 327)- V,5 

Fishdemon painted on a vase from Chicama. (Cat. no. G. M. 20. 9. 

.37)- V3 

Vase from Chimbote representing a demon holding an axe in one 

hand and a decapitated human head in the other. (After Baessi<er 

(2) fig. 284). 3/,e 

Demon decapitating a man. Va.sc from Trujillo. (After Baessi^ER (2) 

fig. 285). Vs- 





Fig. 8. Vase from I'errenafe on the Peruvian Coast. (Cat. no. O. 
20. 9. 89). A shows the shape, B the ornamentation on one side. 
other side is almost identical. B — 2/3. 



M. 

The 



22 





Fig. 9. I. Painting on a drinking vessel from Nazca. The demon 
holds a hafted axe in his hand. (After Urteaga). 
2. Relief on a vase from Chimbote. (After BaessleR (2) fig. 

278). v^. 



23 

If we look a little closer at these demons, the one on the 
left, with his big corner teeth and his head-gear with a little 
animal's head in front and a triangular adornment be- 
hind, resembles several of the demons we see on the other 
pictures (Figs. 5 b, c), and who generally have axes in their 
hands. The demon on the right has quite a different head- 
gear. He is very much like a demon that we can see pic- 
tured in Fig. 31 f. He has the same long nose, the same 
hanging-out tongue, and the same double circles at the ears. 
He also seems to be armed in the same way, with a Tumi- 
knife of primitive type without a sword-knot. 

The fish-demons always have axes with sword-knots. 
Earthen vessels with similar demons seem to be very com- 
mon in collections from the north coast of Peru. (Fig. 7. 
a,b.c). 

All these earthen vessels on which are depicted demons 
with axes or Tumis of a primitive type in their hands, are 
to be ascribed, to judge from Uhle's investigations, to a 
very early period. He not only considers them to be pre- 
Incan, but even pre-Tiahuanacan. The type of axe repro- 
duced on the jars should therefore be ver}- old. This is con- 
firmed by its never being found on Incan pottery. The axes 
of this type that have been analysed, have proved, with the 
exception of two, which were of bronze, to be of pure copper. 
(See p. jj). This typologically primitive type of Tumi- 
knife is not to be found on Incan pottery, either. 

On a couple of earthen vessels (Fig. 8, andFig 9,2) the Tu- 
miknives have a strongly bent out edge, and a comparatively 
narrow handle. The figures on this vessel are but poorly 
modeled. They are possibly of a somewhat later period than 
the others, and may be copied from an older, more artistic 
pottery. Nor have these Tumi-knives sword-knots. 

Baessi,er reproduces an earthen vessel from Pacha- 
mac (Fig. 10), representing a man holding a Tumi-knife. 



24 




I'ig. lo. Vase from Pachacamac representing a man holding a Tumi like 
the one in the small fig. (b). As is still customary in the mountain dis- 
tricts of Peru, he is carrying something on his back with a rope fastened 
over his breast, not round his forehead. (After BaesslER (2), Pig. 423;. ^j^. 



25 






Figs. 



Figs. II a — II c. 

Vase from Tarma representing a person with a T-shaped 

axe in his hand. (After Hamy Pi. XXXIV). (Original 

height 0.20 m). 

Vase from Ancon like the foregoing. (Original in the 

Museum fiir Volkerkunde in Leipzig). (S. Am. 9988). 

(Original height 0.20 cm ). 

Detail from b. 



26 

The kuife is so well modeled that it is not only evidently a 
Tumi-knife, but one with a handle that ends in a little round 
disk. This type of Tumi had a wide distribution. Thus, 
similar ones of copper are known from Chuquitanta on the 
coast of Peru/) from the highlands of Bolivia^) and from 
Argentina^). Baessler*) reproduces another earthen vessel 
from the same place, representing a person carrying on his 
back a vase of undoubtedly Incan type (a so-called arybal- 
lus). The vessel, which represents the man with the Tumi- 
knife, and the one representing the water carrier, are of 
such similar types that they should be about of the same 
period, i. e., the former, too, should be from Incan times. 

In the Ethnological Museum at Leipsic there is a jar 
(Fig. lib) of black earthenware from Ancon, representing a 
man holding a bag in one hand, and a little axe in the other. 
One can see that it is an axe fastened to the haft, pre- 
sumably a T-shaped axe. The jar may date from Incan 
times. A similar jar from Tarma in the Peruvian mountains 
is shown in the work of Hamy. (Fig. ii a). 

Baessler^) reproduces a little spoon of silver, from 
Chancay, adorned with a man holding a hafted axe in one 
hand. (Fig. 12 d). The axe looks very much like a T-shaped 
axe with a sharply bent out edge, as has already been pointed 
out b}' Baessler. Spoons of this t5'pe were in use in 
Incan times (see p. 37) and perhaps even earlier, though 
of this we know nothing definite. 

The same kind of axe as the foregoing, is evidenth- 
held by the little figure that adorns the copper Tumi (Fig. 
12 a). Baessler^) has also pointed this out; the figure is 

1) M. f. V. B. V. A. 36325. 

2) Carabuco. M. f. V. B. V. A. 12413. 

3) Ambrosktti. El Bronce, Fig. 19 c. 
*) Plate 154 (Altperuanische Kunst). 

*) Plate 12, Fig. 163 (Altperuanische Metallgeriitlie) . 
*) Plate 29, Fig. 173. (Altperuanische Kunst). 




Figs. 12 a— 12 d. 
Fig. 12. a. Tumi of copper from Chuquitanta, ornamented with a man 
holding an axe in his hand. (After Baessi,ER (2), fig. 173 
and Baessi,ER (i), fig 3g]. -'j^. 

b. Enlargement of a. 

c. Axe of the type the man is holding. (After BaeSSI.ER (i) 

fig- I)- Vs- 

d. Handle of silver spoon from Chancay. (After BaessleR 

(1) fig. 163). 7,. 




c. 

Ci. 
D. K. P. 



Figs. 13 A— 13 F. 
Copper and silver objects at the Trocadero museum in Paris. 
Tumi of copper, Pacasmayo, Peru. (Cat. no. 5065). On the handle is seen 
man decapitating another with an axe, the shape of which is shown in A i 
Figure of silver with axe. From Peru. (Cat. no. 21 116). 
vShape of axe in C. 

Object of pure copper representing decapitations. (Cat. no. 1850c 
A i^ — shows the shape of the axes. 



29 

taken from his work. It is highly probable that this, if it 
were analysed, would prove to be bronze. 

In the Trocadero Museum there is a tumi (Fig. 13 B 
of copper from Pacasmayo in Peru ornamented with two 
figures of which one is decapitating the other with a si- 
milar axe (fig. 13 Ai). The same scene is depicted on another 
curious object of pure copper (Figs 13 D, E, F,) that has been 
described andf igured by Verneau^) . Very strange is a small 
figure of silver from Peru that is kept in the Trocadero 
]\Iuseum. It represents a man holding a bowl in the 
left hand and a T. -formed axe in the right. In the 
middle of the axe is a little groove that probably was 
meant to represent a hole through it. (Fig. 13 C). 

The Ethnographical Museum in Stockholm has a very 
fine, but badly worn \^■oven fabric (Fig. 14), on which is 
reproduced a demon with big corner-teeth and a huge nose. 
In one hand the demon holds a hafted axe, and in the other 
a human figure, which he appears to hold by the hair. Right 
in the middle we can also see an unhafted T-shaped axe of 
the usual type. The fabric was bought by Lieutenant Di- 
DRiK BiLDT in Lima, and comes from the maritime country 
of Peru. 

On the fabric we cannot, of course, see of what mate- 
rial the said axes were made. The simple T-shaped axe 
may just as well have been of stone as of metal. But the 
latter assumption is the more credible, and is still more like- 
ly to have been the case with the hafted axe. The fabric 
is in the Tiahuanaco style, and shows that the types of axes 
reproduced were in use during the Tiahuanaco period. 

Also in the Tiahuanaco style is a woven fabric from 
Pachacamac, reproduced by UhlE") in his famous w^ork on 
this place. It shows us a demon holding in one hand an 
axiform knife or Tumi, and in the other a decapitated head. 



') (2). 

2) (2) PI. 4, fig. I a. 



30 





ig 14 a- 



a. Detail of a piece of weaving in Tiahuanaco style bought in Lima. 
(Cat. no. R. M. 10. 4. 90). ^j^. The demon is holding a hafted axe presumably 
of the shape shown in b, a bronze axe from Covendo in Bolivia. In the 
middle of the demon's body appears a T-shaped axe like the one in c, 
Avhich is a bronze axe from Quiaca in Peru. 



The scene on this fabric in the Tiahuanaco style, is evi- 
dently the same that can be seen on several articles of pot- 
tery from the north coast of Peru. (Fig. 7 d). 

Wiener^) has shown a poncho from Ancon on which 
are seen demons with Tumi-knives. 

On a copper disk from Tiahuanaco is re[)roduced a type 
of axe which has been found, with various points of dif- 
ference, in Argentina. (Fig. 15). It is a socketed axe but the 
haft of the axe reproduced on the copper disk looks like 
a piece of string. This type of axe is also characterized 
b}' having a hook on one side. This, too, can be plainly 
seen on the copper disk. 

On other copper disks of the same kind-) from Argen- 
tina we can also see axes reproduced, though their shape is 
less distinct than on the first-named disk. One disk, shown 
in Fig. 16, is evidently a poor copy of the disk in Fig. 15. 
Compare, apart from the axes, the position of the arms and 
the whole ornamentation, such as the chequer pattern on 
the arms. The disk in Fig. 16 should also be typologically 
younger than the one in Fig. 15. AmbrosETTi^) reproduces 
a disk of another tyj^e, adorned with two human figures, 
one of which is holding an axe. (Fig. 16 c). The shape of 
the axe cannot be made out from the picture. 

The specimens that have been found of these socket 
axes are of pure copper or bronze. They have not 
been anal3'sed. The central figure on especially one 
of these copper disks (Fig. i), resembles the central 
figure on the famous gateway as well as a colossal stone 
head which is also from Tiahuanaco, and which is kept 
in L,a Paz. 



Fig. P. 47. 

Ambrosetti, El Bronce, Fig. 76 and Fig. 79. 

AxrBROSETTi, El Bronce, Fig. 95 c. and Fig. 83 c. 



32 





rig? 



and. b 



a. Copper disk from Tiahuauaco. lu the right hand the man 
holds an axe shaped like the one shown in b. (After Posxaxsky (i) ) 

b. Copper axe from Pampa Grande, Argentina. (After Ambrosetti, 
El Bronce, fig. 56). The haft is modern. 



33 




a 



I-'ig. 1 6, and i6 a — c. 
Fig. 1 6. Copper disk from La Rioja (After Ambrosetti, F,1 Broiice, fig. 

76). V5- 

a. Drawing of an arm with an axe on a copper disk from To- 
lombon, Argentina. 

b. Detail of 16. 

c. Figure on a bronze disk from Chicoana, Argentina, a, b, c. 
After Ambrosetti, El Bronce, fig. 83. 



34 

It consequently seems to follow, from what we have 
gathered about representations of axes and knives on 
fabrics, potter^', etc., that axes with a little hole in 
them were known along the northern coast of Peru during 
an earl}' period of culture. As we shall see, these axes have 
a northerly distribution, and, as far as the}^ have been 
analysed, have proved to be generally of pure copper. A 
t}' pologically primitive type of Tumi-knife is also reproduced 
on vases from this early period. Hafted or unhafted T-shaped 
axes are not represented on these earthen vessels, which 
are typical of the culture of the northern coastland. 

We find the T-shaped axe reproduced on a woven fa- 
bric in the Tiahuanaco style, and on two vessels one from 
the coast of Peru and the other from the mountains. 
Round-edged hafted axes, presumabh' T-shaped, are reprod- 
uced on the above-mentioned fabric and on a spoon 
and on two Tumi-knifes. These metal objects are of types 
that we also come across in the mountain districts of Peru 
and Bolivia. Even on another object of pure copper we 
find this type of axe reproduced. 

On a piece of pottery in the Inca style from Pachaca- 
mac, is represented a Tumi of a type which, besides on the 
Peruvian coast, we come across both in the district of L. 
Titicaca and in Argentina. 

The weapons and implements reproduced on pottery 
and textiles in the Tiahuanaco and Incan styles are evi- 
dently, as we might expect them to be, of an international 
type which obtained its distribution by the spread of the 
mountain culture in Tiahuanaco and Incan times. They 
are of types which, as far as they have been analysed, have 
most often proved to be of bronze 

We have seen that the axe with a hole for the haft, and 
with a hook, is reproduced on a copper disk from Tiahvia- 
naco, which appears to have been influenced by the Tia- 
huanaco style. 

On a quantity of earthen vessels from the coast of Pe- 



35 

ru can be seen figures of warriors with clubs in their hands. 
Some of the dubs are with star-shaped heads, others with 
circular heads. It is impossible to determine whether the 
heads are of stone or of metal, as the Indians had stone and 
metal ones of precisely similar shape. It is also certain 
that clubs with stone rings were in use at the same time as 
those with metal heads. In the Museum at Gothenburg we 
have some very well preserved hafted clubs from lea, with 
stone rings that are fastened to the haft with raw-hide. 
These clubs cannot possibly be from a time when metals 
were unknown on the coast of Peru. They are probably 
of the same age as the finely carved paddles or spades from 
the same place, which are presumably from the Inca period. 
Las Casas^) says that the Indians in Peru had both clubs 
with stone heads and clubs with metal ones. 

Adornments that were evidently of metal are not rare- 
ly to be seen reproduced on pottery. On a number of 
vessels from the coast of Peru we see nose-ornaments of 
metaP), possibly of gold, but sometimes probably of copper. 
On an earthen vessel from Ancon, reproduced b^^ SelER, 
there are tweezers worn as an ornament on the breast^). It 
is, of course, impossible to say of what metal they consisted. 



^) p. 194 i>y peleaban con unas porras cjue traiau cenidas y eran de 
piedras horadadas, y otras de metal 6 cobre a inanera de estrella con un 
astil que les pasaba por medio, cuasi de cuatro palmos. » 

2) vSee, for instance, BaESSLER (2) PI. 24. Fig. 114 and Fig. 115 (six- 
pointed morning star), Pi. 37, Fig. 196. 

See, for example, SelER (i), PI. 16, Fig. 15, Pi. 19, Fig. 12, etc. 
BaesslER (2) PI. 22, Fig. 97 & 99, PI- 24, Fig. 113, etc. RiVET and Ver- 
NEAU reproduce similar nose-ornaments of copper from Ecuador (PI. XXII). 

^) Seler (i), PI. II. Ancon. This figure shows that tweezers were worn 
on a band round the neck. This confirms my assertion that the silver 
iiboiveraf) worn in a similar manner by the Chiriguano Indians can derive 
from tweezers. (See Nordenskiold (3), Fig. 26). 



36 




Fig. 17. Vase from Chicama ornamented with demons carrying axes. 

(Cat. no. G. M. 20. 9. 31). 



CHAPTER III. 

Copper Objects of which the Age can be determined 
from the Circumstances of the Find. 

I have now given an account of what I have succeeded 
in finding in the old literature aboitt the use of copper ob- 
jects in S. America at the time of, and shortly after, the con- 
quest of the Inca Empire. I have moreover searched out 
representations of objects of this kind copied from potterv', 
textiles etc. found in vS. America. I will now pass on to 
a summary that I have made of the copper articles that 
have been found under conditions which enable us to draw 
some conclusions about their age. 

It is only a very small part of the quantities of archaeolo- 
gical objects collected in museums and published, that were 
so described as to enable us to know anything about how 
they were found. Rarely have the contents of each parti- 
cular grave been kept together as an entity. This is the 



37 

reason why our knowledge of the chronology of the differ- 
ent cultures in the west of S. America is so uncertain. 

Another unfortunate factor is that some of the really good 
investigations have yielded very few finds of copper articles. 

We know that certain types of pottery, e. g. arv'balli, 
are characteristic of the Inca period. This may be consid- 
ered as fully proved by the investigations of Uhle, Ban- 
deli ER, and JijON Y Caamano. 

In Machu Picchu, the city of ruins examined by Bing- 
ham and Eaton, copper articles have been found together 
with such pottery. In I^a Pay a, which Ambrosetti examin- 
ed, and about which comparati\e .studies have been made 
by Uhle, were found Incan pottery and copper articles. 
Blake made similar finds near Arica, as did Dorsey in Is- 
la de la Plata off the coast of Ecuador. Ewbank, again, 
speaks of finds of copper things together with Incan pot- 
tery in a grave at San Jose near Rio Maypu in Chili. Uhle 
examined graves at Pachacamac which are without a doubt 
from Inca times. These are the graves that originated in 
the so-called burial place of the maidens of the sun. Uhle also 
found some other graves with Incan Pottery at Pachacamac. 

Below I have tried to put together the finds of copper 
objects made at the places named. 

If we begin with the finds from Machu Picchu, there 
are spoons, (Fig. i8 a, v), Tumi-knives (Fig. i8 b, g, h, j, 
q) a curiouse knife with a side edge (Fig. i8 c), a ball 
(Fig. i8 d) the blade of a hoe (Fig. i8 e), a pin with a star- 
shaped head probably representing a miniature club (Fig. 
i8 f), topus with round or half-moon shaped heads (Fig. 
i8 i, m. r, s), a T-shaped axe (Fig. i8 k), a needle with 
an eye (Fig. i8 1), mirror? (Fig. i8 n), tweezers (Fig. i8 o, 
X, y) a pendant (Fig. i8 p), cro\vbar? (Fig. i8 t), and a 
topu with a round head (Fig. i8 u). 

Of these only the finds made by Eaton himself (Fig. 
1 8 m — y) are with absolute certainty of the same age as the 
Incan pottery. 




I'igs 1 8 a — iS y. Copper 01)ject.s that have been found together with 

Incan Pottery, 
a — 1. :Machu I'lccliu. After MaTiikwsox. 

a. Spoon, b. Tumi. e. Knife, d. Ball. e. Blade of hoe. f. I'm. g. Tumi 
h. Tumi. i. Topu. j. Tumi. k. T-shaped axe. 1. Needle with eye. 'Foi 
sizes, sec mathewson.) 
ni— y. :Maciiu I'icchu. After EaTox. 

m. Topu. ',5. n. Mirror? ','4. o. Tweezers, '/j. p. Pendant. Vn- '■I- Tumi. ',2 
r. Topu. 1/5. s. Topu. V'j. t. Tool c-f rectangular shape. Probably a stonel 
mason's point. \\a u. Topu. V. v. .Spoon. V2 ^- Tweezers. Va- Y- Tweezers. V2 1 



39 

We shall find, later on, that the majority of the metal 
objects from INIachu Picchu are of the types we come across 
throughout the territory held by the Incas when the vSpan- 
iards conquered the country. 

Ambrosetti, as we have mentioned, found graves with 
Incan pottery at La Paya. A number of the graves had 
pottery of only local type. In graves with undoubtedly In- 
can pottery^) Ambrosetti found the following copper ob- 
jects: — 

In grave 6i a square breastplate (Fig. 19k)-), a T-shap- 
ed ornament (Fig. 19 o), and a ball (Fig. 19 1). 

In grave 116 a square breastplate, part of a half-moon 
shaped knife and the blade of a hoe (Fig. 19 n). In this 
grave there was only one vessel; it was of Incan form, and 
with local ornamentation. 

In grave 161 a square breastplate, a chisel, two tweez- 
ers (Fig. 19 j), a ring, two ))chapitas», one round, the oth- 
er square and provided with a little hole, a little parrot, 
and other things. Ambrosetti assumes, probably rightly, 
that the parrot had served as an ornament on a knuckle- 
duster of a type that was not rare in N. Argentina. 

Among the finds called 74 by Ambrosetti he found a 
little topu (Fig. 19 m) with some Incan pottery. 

The graves of La Paya containing pottery of a local 
type are presumably not much older than those with Incan 
pottery. Among the vessels found by Ambrosetti are a 
couple with Incan shape and local ornamentation. We 
meet with the ostrich figures that are so characteristic 
of the Calchaqui urns, on vessels of obviously Incan 
shape. Here, consequently, the local ornamentation was 
continued even after the shape of the Incan vessels had be- 
come familiar. 

^) Uhi,e (4) (p. 512) considers graves 6r, 116, and 161 to be Incan. 
-) The objects I have been able to identify from the photographs and 
drawings in Ambrosetti's work, are reproduced in Fig. ig. 





c d e 



/J 



6 c 



m 



Figs 19 a — 19 s. Copper Objects that have been found together with Incan 

Pottery. 
a — g. Pachacamac. After I'hle (2). 

a. Pendant. \ _.. b. Bell. ^j^. c. Spoon, ^/j d. Chisel ^'i, e. Knife with woodei 
haft. Vg f- Knife, l/j g. Topu. Vo- 

h, i. Bay of Chacota, Peru, (now Chile). After Bi.ake (p. 289). h. Tumi. '2 

i. Tumi. 1'^. 

i — o. I/a Paya, Salta, Argentina. After Ambrosetti. (3). j. Tweezers, k. Breast or 

nament. 1. Ball. m. Topu n. Blade of hoe. o. T-shaped ornament (.size no 

stated by Ambrosetti). 

p- r. San Jose, Rio Maipu, Chile. After Kwbaxk. p. Chisel. Vg ^1- Chisel. ^ j,. r. Tumi. ''4 

s. Small human figure found by Dorsev on the Island of La Plata, Ivcuador. ^ , 



41 

In general Ambkosetti found the same kind of copper 
objects in the graves containing pottery of Incan type as 
in those with pottery of local type. In grave 136, which, 
as far as one can judge from the poor i)ictures, only contain- 
ed potter^' of a local type, Ambrosetti found a socketed axe 
which resembles the one depicted in Fig. 15 b. In the same 
grave, moreover, he found a T-shaped ornament of a type 
like that of one found in grave 61 with typically Incan art. 
In grave 164 he found one of those famous »discos » which 
seem to have been characteristic of the Calchaqui district. 
Only one vessel of less characteristic form was found in 
this grave. 

From the cemetery of the sacrificed women at Pacha- 
camac, Uhle^) reproduces a copper shawl-pin (Fig. 19 g). 
This burial-place is from Incan times, so that the topu must 
be of the same period. The shape has a ver^' extensive dis- 
tribution. Among the objects found in this cemetery were 
also two copper bells (Fig. 19 a, b.). Both types, says UhlE, 
are numerous in graves in the highland, for instance in 
Northern Bolivia, which is a proof of their Cuzco origin. 

From Inca times are also the copper objects UhlE re- 
produces on PI. 13, Figs. 21 — 26. Among them is to be not- 
ed a knife of the type we see depicted in Fig. 19 f, a haft- 
ed (Fig. 19 e) and an unhafted chisel (Fig. 19 d), a little 
spoon (Fig. 19 c) etc. A similar spoon is reproduced by 
Mathewson from the Incan Machu Picchu. Uhle also 
found here tweezers, of which there is no picture but of 
which he says: «The tweezers in this burial-ground are of 
the usual well-known shape. One pair, possibly of later 
date, was found near a house in the northern part of the 
city. The shape is a developed form of the original bivalve 
sea-shell. » UheE compare these tweezers with those figured 
by Reiss and vStubel, PI. <Si. Figs. 2, 4, 6, 8. 



1) Pachacamao, Pi. 19, Fig. 

2) » , P. 169. 



Blake reproduces two knives, Tumis found together 
with Incan pottery at the Bay of Chacota, Peru (now Chile). 
(Fig. 19 h. 1). ' 

A Tumi (Fig. 19 r) and a couple of chisels (Fig. 19 p, q. 
of bronze are mentioned by Ew-bank as found together 
with two earthen vessels which, to judge from his pictures' 
(PI. IX, Fig. II, 12), are clearly of Incan type. Ew^bank 
writes: « Figures 11 and 12 are from the same tomb, in Chile, 
out of which the bronze implements figured on Plate I^) 
were taken. » P'rom this it seems to follow that the hoe- 
blade found at the same spot, which is stated to be of 
pure copper,'-) was not found in the same tomb. Ewbank 
did not find these things himself: they were found b}' some 
workmen who were digging a canal. This makes his state- 
ments about the find very questionable. 

In a tomb on the Isla de la Plata, Ecuador, Dorsey 
found, together with some typically Incan pottery, a little 
human figure of bronze (Fig. 19 s), and the following other 
objects of copper, which he describes as follows:^) »A num- 
ber of copper pendants were also found which are of inter- 
est owing to their resemblance to the type so common in 
the highlands of Ecuador and Peru. They average from 
three-quarters of an inch in length and are bell shaped, 
being perforated near the upper end for suspension. With 
these pendants was found a similarly sized object of copper 
shaped like a vase, with rounded bottom, bulging rim and 
long and but slightly constricted neck. . . The usual num- 
ber of metallic pins were found, and they differ in no man- 
ner from the t^'pical specimens so common in Peruvian 
graves. . . These. . . are of two types, one having a large, flat, 



1) PI. VIII. 

-) It does not appear plainly from Ewbank's work if he analysed the 
<:opper objects, or if he, as one is rather inclined to think, guessed at 
the composition from the colour. He probably made no quantitative 
analysis. 

3) P. 2S8. 



43 

nearh' cylindrical head , the other having a head much small- 
er, thicker and more nearly semi-circular. » Of these ob- 
jects the human figure is unfortunately the only thing de- 
l)icted in Dorsey's work. 

I will now pass on to other finds of copper objects that 
have been made and which have been published with due 
regard to the circumstances of the finds. These finds were 
with non-Incan pottery. 

In the border districts of Bolivia and Peru I have ex- 
amined several »chulpas» and burial caves^). In each case 
the finds were carefully kept together. A certain number 
of objects found in the graVes derive from sacrifices and 
are therefore not of the same age as the skeletons deposited 
there. But this does not hold good with any certainty of 
the bronze objects found in them. A number of the graves 
had been partly stripped before I was in a position to ex- 
amine them. This is no doubt one of the reasons why not 
much potter}' is to be found in the graves. The few vessels 
I found are not of Incan t^q^e, and they are consequently 
([uite different from the finds made in the not very distant 
Machu Picchu. But this does not prove that they are not 
contemporaneous, for it is possible that pottery of a local 
type existed even during the Inca time. The bronze arti- 
cles found in the graves are shawl-pins, »topus», and a nee- 
dle with an eye, which was perhaps also used as a topu. I 
call them bronze articles because all those that have been 
analysed have proved to be of bronze. A number of these 
objects are depicted in the Tables of Analyses (see Fig. 6i). 

In the province of Sara near Santa Cruz de la Sierra, I 
examined a number of graves in 1908. In one of them I 
found a bronze disk (Fig. 62 f), three little silver disks, and 
some bone necklace-beads. The urn, with its lid and the 
objects it contained, are shown in my paper )>Urnengraber » 
etc. The bronze disk has been analvsed, and the result of 



=) (i) 



44 

the analysis is given on p. i68 of the paper. The finds I made 
at Sara show that bronze, urn burial, finger-print decora- 
tion, and tripedal pottery were contemporaneous there. 

At Caipipendi within the territors^ of the Chiriguano 
Indians, I made a number of excavations in 1908, results 
of which I hope to publish in vol. V of this work, Apart 
from a small fragment, I onl}' found there a single object 
of copper. It is part of a copper band, (Fig. 62 h) and on ana- 
lysis proved to be of pure copper. All the implements found 
at the same burial-place are of stone. Besides pure copper, 
gold was known. The pottery in the graves at Caipipendi 
is of a local type. It corresponds in shape and ornamen- 
tation more closely with what has been found at Rio Pa- 
rana than with the finds from the highlands of Bolivia. 

With pottery of a local t^-pe — if we except that from 
La Paya — copi^er objects, to judge from the finds publish- 
ed, seem to be rare in Argentina. From Kipon^) Debene- 
DETTi mentions a little pendant and a square breastplate 
of copper. He gives no pictures of them. In Pampa Gran- 
de numerous copper objects have been found, but Ambro- 
SETTi himself, who excavated a quantity of graves that had 
pottery of local type, only found a few simple chisels and 
»una punta de hachuela».2) It is not clear, as far as I can 
make out, from his work whether these finds are from graves 
or dwelling-places. They have neither been analysed 
not depicted. From Tinti Boman^) describes and pictures 
some copper disks, of which he analysed one (Fig. 43. 17) 
which proved to be of bronze. Potter}^ of a local type was 
found at the same place. 

Bruch, in a couple of graves at Hualfin in Argentina 
that he carefully examined, found two square copper disks 
and a pair of copper tweezers that were not folded up; 



*) (i) Grave .| and grave 5. 
2) Ambrosrtti (2), p. 162. 
' (2) 



45 

the ])ottery found there was of local type. It would be of great 
interest if these copper objects were analysed. vSuch finds 
as these from Argentina should be analysed in order to dis- 
cover whether bronze objects are also found there with non- 
lucan potter}', and to find there, if possible, objects from 
the Copper Age. 

The square coi)per disks are of a type that has been 
found at La Paya ^^•ith pottery of both Incan and local type 
Also tweezers of a very similar type have been found 
in several graves at I^a Paya. 

In a mound at Parana Guazu Torres came across some 
small disks of bronze. As the place of the find is outside 
the old district of the mountain culture, it is not possible 
to compare the finds made there with what has been found 
in the cultural district of the west, from which these bronze 
objects must derive. Torres' excavations were carefully 
carried out. 

On the coast of Peru have been found quantities of cop- 
])er objects with pottery of a local type. These finds have 
unfortunately not been so published as to show that the 
contents of the different graves have been kept together. 
In graves at Pachacamac, which Uhle^) considers to belong 
to »the later pre-Inca period » he found two tweezers. One 
is in the form of a human being, the other has the same 
shape as the tweezers shown in Fig. 32 c. It is of a typo- 
logically old t^'pe (see p. 75), which has proved on analysis 
to be of pure copper. 

It would be of the greatest interest if we had some re- 
liable finds from the Tiahuanaco graves, including copper 
objects. CouRTY has made some, but they are not yet 
published (see p. 90). 

In Tiahuanaco have been found a number of clamps of 
pure copper) , (Fig. 39, i — 7) , which were for fastening togeth- 
er blocks of stone. They are the only metal objects pub- 

1) (2) PI. 7, fig. 8, 0- 



46 

lished from Tiahuanaco of which, thanks to the circum- 
stances of the find, we can say that they are contempora- 
neous with the famous ruips. 

From this collocation we can see that we know quite a 
number of types of copper objects found with Incan pottery. 
The reliable finds we have of copper objects found with 
non-Incan pottery, are comparatively few. 

It is regrettable that Uhle has not had an opportunity 
of publishing a full account of his material of grave-finds 
from various parts of Peru and Bolivia like the one he 
gave us from Pachacamac. We should then have invaluable 
material for the study of copper objects from various peri- 
ods and localities. The contents of each grave must, ho- 
wever, be i^ublished as an entity, which was not done 
in the Pachacamac work. 

In a note to a paper^) dealing with the Peruvian influ- 
ence in Argentina, Uhle has some interesting remarks about 
the age of various copper types. Though he brings forward 
no detailed proofs, his statements are valuable, being based 
on unprecedented experience. 

According to Uhle, the star-shaped club-head of cop- 
per is common in collections from Cuzco and in graves from 
Inca times. 

The type of axe in Fig. 20 b, according to the same au- 
thority, is typically Incan, and is found in collections from 
Cuzco. 

Of the form of knife knowns as »Tunii», (Fig. 21), 
Uhle says that it is Incan, and Incan alone. Under Tumi 
it is therefore to be presumed that Uhle does not include 
similar knives of a typologically primitive type. We have 
seen some such copied on earthen vessels from the Peruvian 
coast districts which Uhle himself considers to be pre-In- 
can. 

The ordinary T-shaped axe, which is the original type 
of most of the metal axes found in S. America, is also ap- 

') (4). 539. 



47 

parently considered to be Incan by UiiLK. It is not reason- 
able to su])i)ose that it was not nntil Incan times that this 
form of metal axe was made. This wonld only im])ly 
that within a large area of the cultural region of the west 
it was not until Incan times that they began to use metal 
T3xes, since in a large district no metal axes have been found 
which cannot derive, tyjwlogically, from this type of axe. 

\A'e have seen that such axes are reproduced on a wov- 
en fabric in the Tiahuanaco style from the Peruvian coast. 
A form of axe which, as we shall see, can derive, typologi- 
cally, from the T-shaped axe, has already been noted as re- 
])roduced on a copper disk that seems to have been influ- 
enced by the Tiahuanaco st^de. 



48 



CHAPTER IV. 

International and Local Types. 

I will now })ass on to speak of the geographical distri- 
bution of various types of copper objects. Such a study, 
even if we only know where, and not how these objects 
were found, may contribute to our knowledge of their 
relative chronology. RivET and Verneau have conscien- 
tiously studied the entire American distribution of the forms 
of copper implements, ornaments, etc., that have been found 
in Ecuador. vSome have proved to have a very extensive, 
others a more local distribution. Basing ni}^ study mainly 
on their researches, I have put together in tables the types 
of copper objects that have been found in the whole, or al- 
most the whole, territory of the Incan Empire at its great- 
est extension, and such types as are characteristic of a part 
of the territory occupied by the Incas at the time of the 
Conquest. These international types of copper objects have 
very largely the same distribution as the earthen vessels 
which I mentioned in the foregoing as being characteristic 
of Incan times. It is therefore probable that those forms of 



49 

copper objects whose distribution corres])onds to the extent 
of the Inca Empire at the Conquest, were in use in Incan 
times. 

In studying the distribution of the types, it is of import- 
ance not only to discover the distribution of, let us say, a 
certain kind of implement, but also to discover the various 
forms of this implement. 

It was of course impossible to include everything, so I 
have tried to select forms that are characteristic. 

vSeveral of the international forms, such as some types 
of Tumis, the hoe-blade, chisel, Topu w4th round or crescent- 
shaped head, bells, needle, tweezers of the kind depicted, 
T-shaped axe, and "mirror" are among the forms that have 
been found with undoubtedly Incan pottery. Both the 
circumstances of the finds and their distribution thus show 
that these types were in use in Incan times. 

Of these international types, the Tumis, Topus, with 
big round heads, clubs with star-shaped heads, and mirrors 
are mentioned by writers who were in a position to observe 
the Indian culture while it was still original. These things 
were consecjuently still in use in the i6th century. 

We see therefore that the majority of these types of 
copper objects that are met with throughout the territory 
of the Incan Empire, are such things as, for other reasons, 
we have every cause to assume were in use in Incan times. 
I believe, further, that it was not until Incan times that they 
obtained a distribution that corresponds remarkably well 
with the maximum extent of the Inca Empire as we know it 
from historical sources. This does not imply that all these 
types first came into use in Incan times. They may have 
occurred in a restricted area before that. This is especially 
true of the T-shaped axe and the chisel. From the former, 
as we shall see, a number of forms have certainly developed 
which required a considerable time, while the latter is also 
a very primitive type of implement. 



Forms of Copper objects which occurred throughout or almost 
throughout the Inca Empire. 



Figs. 20 a — 20 e. 





Bell 



Bell 



Topu 



(Cu4-S 
(8n-0) 



Cu-rSn 
Sn^On 



Cu+Sn 



RiVHT and Verxeat, p. 



Rivet aud Verneau, p. 269. 



Rivet and Verneav, p. 313. 
') Cuzco, M. f V. B V A. 8784 



') Rivet and Verneav, PI XXI, 
fig- J.v 

2) BaeSSLER (i), pi. 14, fig. 216, 

3) Bandeuer, pi. LVII (vSilver). 
^) Ambrosetti (t), fig. 31 e. 

5) Medina, fig. 131. 



51 



Forms of Tniiiis which occurred throughout or almost throughout 
the Inca Empire, 



Figs. 21 a — 21 e. 



» 



O 



Cu+Sn 
(Sn 0) 



Cu+Sn 



Cu+Sn 
(Sn-0) 



Cu+Sn 
(Sn-O) 



V) Baksst.hr (I), PI. 3, fig. 43, 46, 47 

PI. 7, fig. 01. G. M. 21. I. 7 

(Chancay). 
2) PosxAXSKY (2), fig. i,h. (Tia 

huanaco). 

:\rATHE\vsox, fig. 17 ami fig. 2c 

(Machu Picchu). R. M. oo. i. 180 

(Quiaca). 
■') Ambrosetti (3), fig. 221. 

BoMAX (i), T. I, fig. 14. 
^) Latciiam (Paposo), p. 12. 

' ) Rivet and Verneau, PI. XX, fig. 5. 

2) Baesseer (i), fig. 41. 

■■') R. M. 06. I. 176 (Ollachea). 

*) Ambrosetti (i), fig. 19. 

1) Rivet and Verxeat-, PI. XX, 
fig. II. 

2) Baessi.er (I). PI. 3, fig. 43. 

^) M. f. V. B. V. A. 127S7, (Tia- 
huanaco). C. M. 21. 4. i (Cuzco). 
^) Ambrosetti (i), fig. 19 h. 
'") Blake, p. 289, fig. 

1) Rivet and Verxeau, PI. XX, fig 

2) Baessler, PI. 7, fig. 62. 

3) IvATox, PI. II, fig. I piachu 
Picchu) . 

*) Ambrosetti (3), fig. 221. 
5) Blake, p. 289, fig. 



) See this book p. 24. 

M f. V. B. \-. A. 36323, (Chu 

quitanta). 
2) M. f. V. B. V. A. 1 24 1 3, (Carabuco) 
•■') Ambrosetti, fig. 19 c 



52 



Forms of Copper objects which occurred throughout or almost throiiglu 
the Inca Empire. 



Figs. 2 2 a— 2 2 e. 
fl 



IS 




Knife — 



o 
■a 

5 


3 


1-0 
^1 


1 
< 









M 


-) 


») 


') 






+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


Cu+Sn 
(8n-0) 




^) 


') 


') 


') 






+ 


_L 


+ 


+ 




+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 


Cu+Sn 


+ 




') 








') 




+ 






Cu+Sn 


') 


=) 


■■*) 


*) 






+ 


+ 


+ 


+ 




Cu+Sn 



') Baessi.er (i), pi. io, fi 
2) Mead 

NORDEXSKIOLD (l). 
^) AMBROSETTI (i), fig. IO. 
^) lyATCHAM fig. p. 6. 

1) BaeSSLER (i) pi. 8, fig. 

2) NORDEXSKIOLD (l). 

') AMBROSETTI (l), fig. y. 

*) Latcham, fig. 5, p. 13. 



Rivet and VernEau, p. _ 
') G. M. 21. I. 3. (Chancay). 



'] Jijox V Caam.axo and Larri;.^ 

PI. XXXIX. 

Savule, T II, PI. CXIII. 
2) Bandeuer, pi. 30, fig. 4. 

Me.vd, fig. I h. 

M. f. V. B. V. A. 8736, 8737 

(Cuzco). 



1) Rivet and Verneau, PI. XXI 

fig. I. 

-) Baesseer (i), fig. 224 (Silver) 
'■') Eatox, pi. II. fig. 5. 

NORDEXSKIOI<D (l). 
*) AMBRO.SETTI (l), fig. 3 1 b. 



53 



onus of Copper objects which occurred throughout or almost throughout 
the Inca Empire. 

I'igs. 23 a— 23 e. 



(^ 



1 



Xeedie 



Twee- 
zers a) 




Mirror(?) 



Spoon- 
tipped 
handle 



^2 



+ + + 



Cu+Sn 
(8n-0) 



Cu+Sn 



Cu+Sn 



Cu+Sn 



IS- 



Cu+Sn 
(Sn-0) 



Rivet and Verneau, p. 283 



M Mathevvsox, fig. 27. 
2) Baessi-ER (i), pi. 16, fig. 260 
G. M. 16. 9. 272. 



^) Baessler (1), PI. 18, 'fig. 300 

') Mathewsox, fig. 21. 

') Ambrosei'Ti (i), fig. 43. 

') L,ATCHAM, fig. 2, (p. 25). 



) BAESStER (l), fig. 179. 
UHtE (2). 

) Mathewsox, fig. 10. 
Eatox, pi. I, fig. 7. 



Rivet and Verxeau, p. 265. 



a) Tweezers occur from Columbia to Argentina. The 
form shown here is found in the mountains of Peru and 
along the Peruvian coast. 



54 



Forms with mainly northerly distribution in the old Territory 
the Inca Empire. 



Figs. 24 a— 24 f. 



/ nuuuy 




Knife 



Object of 
unknown 



Knife 




Socket 
axe 




Cu+8n 



Cu 
Sn-0 



Baessler (I), PI. 8, f 
77. G. M. 21. I 
(Supe). 



B.\ESSLER (l) PI. 
82. G. M. 21. 
(Chanca\-). 



Baessler (i) PI. 6, fig. 5 

I'HI.E (2). 



Rivet and \'erxeat- 

270. 
Joyce fig. 3 d. 



Rivet and \'erxeai- 
295- 



Rivet and \'erxeau 

301. 
JijON V Caamano (2). 



55 



onus a'ilh niainlv noytherly distribution in the old Territory of 
the Inca Empire. 




Axe 



Spade 





Cu 
Sn-0 

(Cu+Sn) 



Cu 
Sn-0 



Cu 
Sn-0 



Cu 
Sn-0 



RiVKT and \'KKNRAr, p 

268. 
See this book p. 17, 



Rivet and Verxeau, p. 



;aessi,er (i), pi. 2, fig. ly. 
(;. M. 21. I. 6 (Chancay), 



Baessler (i), pi. 4, fig. 3c 



Rivet ami \'EKXEAr, p 

281. 



Baessi.er (i), pi. 7, fig. 64 
(i.M. 21. I. 2, (Chancav) 



56 



Forms with mainly southcdy distribution in the old territory oj t) 
Inca Empire. 



Fie;s. 26 a — 26 f. 




<r? 



Bell 




Cu+Sn 



Cu+Sn 



i)Reiss and Stubel PI 
8, fig, 9. 

2)AMBR0SETTI (l),fig.4f 
-)vox ROSEX, fig. 103 
2)DEBEXEDETTI (2). fig 

97- 



Ambrosetti (3). 



Ambrosetti (i), fig. 9 



Cu 
Sn-0,20 



Cu 
Sn-0.17 



Saxcher Diaz, fig. 17 
Ambrosetti (i), fig. 59 



Sanchez Diaz, fig. 12. 
Ambrosetti, (i) fig. 18. 



") Posxanskv (i). 

■-) Ambrosetti (i), fig. 80. 



57 



jnns ivith mainly southerly distribution in the old territory oj the Inca 

Empire. 




'Vjrija 



n0 




Knuckle 
duster. 



Cu 
8n 

(Cu+Sn) 



Cu+Sn 



Cu+Sn 



Cu+5 



') San Bias, Tarija M. f. V. B. 
V. A. 15625. 

2) Ambrosetti (i), fig. 21. 

3) EWBAXK, PI. \'III. 



') AmbroseTTi(i), fig. 54 b. 
') LaTcham, fig. 5 (p. ^2). 



1) Baessi.ek (i) pi. 2, fig. 9. 

2) See this liook p. 32. 

3) Ambrosetti (i), fig. 56 a, 



Sanchez Diaz, fig. 18. 



1) Ambrosetti (i), fig. 62. 

2) LATCHAM, fig. 7, 8 (p. 44) 
) XORDEXSKICJLD (2 bis) 

P- 54- 



1) G. M. i6. g. 156 (Pacha- 

camac). (Silver), 
•-) Ambrosetti (i) fig. 66. 
3) Latcham, fig. 2 (p. 40) 



Forms with mainly Central distribution in the old territory ol t 

Inca Empire. 
Fi?s. 28 a— 28 f. 




00 



Weapon 



Object of 
unknown 



Cu+Sn 



Cui-Sn 



Cu+Sn 



Cu+Sn 



NORDEXSKIOLD (l). 



N(JRDEXSKIOI,D (l). 



Mead, fig. 2 c — e. 
G. M. 21. s- I- 



Mead, fig. 3 c. 



M. f. V. B. V. A. 12362 

(Ancoraimes). 
M. f. V. B. V. A. 8738 

(Cuzco). 



POSXANSKY (2). 



59 

We have also seen from the foregoing that T-shaped 
axes were represented on a woven fabric in the Tiahnanaco 
style, and that a type of axe which, as far as we can judge 
developed from the T-shaped axe, is found reproduced on a 
co])per disk from Tiahuanaco that is probably pre-Incan. 

If we go on to the local forms, we only find a few 
among them of which we know that they were in use in In- 
can times. To the local forms belongs the axe with a little 
hole, which, to judge from figures on pottery from the Pe- 
ruvian coast, was in use there in pre-Incan times. 

It is to be observed that some of the types of imple- 
ments, weapons, and ornaments that seem to us to be lo- 
cal, may in reality have had a very wide distribution. Fu- 
ture finds will have to settle this question. 

The T-shaped copper axe was originally clearly a south- 
ern type. In Ecuador it is rare. In Argentina there have 
developed from it quite a number of other types of axe 
with a very limited distribution. I have dealt with this 
typological development below. 

Peculiar to the Peruvian coast are implements, uten- 
sils, and weapons in which the handle is stuck in as in a 
socket-celt, a hafting that has had a very limited distribu- 
tion in America, and a very wide one in the Old World. 

Not many local types have been found in the moun- 
tain districts of Peru and Bolivia around L. Titicaca. Among 
them we may note some Topu types from »Chulpas» with 
non-Incan ceramic art. 

It is not so very extraordinary that w^e do not come 
across many local forms in the tracts round Titicaca, for it 
is evidently from there that the international forms spread. 
Forms that were once local became international through 
Incan conquests. 

The handle of the Tumi-knife is sometimes ornament- 
ed with an animal's head, a hand, or the like, or is bent 
into a loop. This latter form has a particularly wide distri- 
bution. Manv Tumi-knives ornamented with llama heads 



6o 

have also been found. These appear to nie to be of parti- 
cular interest, as there is no other kind of ornamented cop- 
per implement, as far as I know, with an equalh' wide dis- 
tribution. 

All these absolutely similar knives must be from the 
same period. Perhaps they were even made at the same 
place and afterwards spread by barter or by Mitimaes. To- 
pus are still spread by barter among the Indians to places 
far away from where they were made. This is the case 
both in Bolivia and Peru. 



i 



6i 



CHAPTER V. 

Typology. 

In this chapter I have essayed, by the typological me- 
thod, to draw some conclnsions that may be of interest for 
the nnderstanding of the develoi)ment of the Copper and 
Bronze Ages in South America. 

Stone socket axes have, as we know, not been found 
anywhere in S. America. On the other hand, copper 
and golden axes of this kind have been found here and 
there. RivET and Verneau give the localities. Copper 
socket axes have been found chiefly in Argentina, and 
Ambrosetti has described and reproduced a large number 
of them. 

By Cleans of these ar ca)i see hoiv the socket axe came to be de- 
vised in S. America. An ordinary T-shaped axe was fastened 
to a wooden handle, as shown in the illustration. (Fig. 29 a). 
The blade of the axe is in the same position to the handle 
as in the usual T-shaped axes of metal or stone. (Figs. 56 a, b). 
The difference is that it was not tied to it, but sewn to it 



62 




Figs. 29 a — 29 f. After Ambrosetti (El Bronze, fig. 54 and fig. 56.) a. Copper 
axe with raw-hide binding, a copy of an axe depicted by LehmanK-Nitsche 
from Rio San Juan del Mayo, Puna de Jujuy. b. Catamarca. c. La Paya. 
d. Canada de Belen. e. Painpa grande. The haft is modern, f. Santa Maria. 



(>3 

with leather or, to i)iit it more exactly, with raw hide.') We 
have a description by Giglioij of an axe of this kind from 
Carabuco near L. Titicaca. Here is Oiglioli's description: 
— »Copper Axe. Long and narrow, chisel-shaped; it 
widens slightly at the bntt end, where it evidently widens 
fnrther so as to have a T-shaped butt, w^hich fits (possibly 
in a groove) against the wooden handle, to which it is firm- 
ly bound by a broad piece of stout raw-hide, through which 
the blade passes; the hide is doubled back and projects as 
a square appendage at the back of the handle, being kept 
tight by a treble stitching of raw-hide. » 

GiGLiOLi says that the implement does not look old, 
and reminds us that Forbes mentions that the Aymara still 
sometimes use copper axes. 2) Lehmann-Nitsche^) has de- 
scribed, from a burial cave on the Rio San Juan in Puna de 
Jujuy, Argentina, an axe (fig. 29 a) hafted in the same wa^' 
as the Carabuco one. The blade of the Puna de Jujuy axe 
has a large clasp, which is lacking in the other. 

I here reproduce some of Ambrosetti's axes from Ar- 
gentina (figs. 29 c — f ) . In these the part which in the axes from 
Carabuco and Puna de Jujuy is of hide, is of bronze or 
copper. These axes were evidently made on the model of 
the hide-hafted axe. The seam which holds together the 
hide hafting on the axes from Puna de Jujuy and Carabuco, 
is. as Ambrosetti first observed, reproduced as an orna- 
ment on the metal axe (figs. 29 c, d, f). Also on a similar 
axe (fig. 30,3) that BAESSI.ER reproduced from the Peruvian 



1) The material is excellent. I once happened to break the butt of my 
rifle while on a journey. An Argentine servant put the pieces together and 
sewed round them a piece of hide that had been thoroughly softened in 
water. It was then left to dry in the sun, and the hide contracted. The 
break was firmly mended. 

-} Forbes, (i) P. 263. »I was informed that, in some very much out - of- 
the - way districts, bronze and even stone axes may occasionally be seen 
employed by the Indians; but I have not personally fallen in with such 
implements, yet can believe that this may actually be the case. » 

2) Lehm.vnx-xietsche. Lam. III. Fig. 23. 



64 

coast, can be seen the ornamentation arising from the 
leather seam. This has already been pointed out by Rivet 
and Verneau.^) "-) 

Thus we see that the invention of the socket axe was 
made in S. America during the Copper or Bronze Age. We 
have consequently here an example of an apparently not 
simjole invention that was made independently in the Ne^\• 
World, though much later than in the Old. 

Metal socket axes are of course later than the proto- 
type, the hide-hafted axe. Still later, typologically, is the 
type of axe (Fig. 30, 2 a) we have reproduced here from 
Sanchez Diaz, which was found at Musquin in Catamarca. 
In this both handle and axe are of bronze. =*)^) On it, too, 
we see an ornamentation that is evidently a reminiscence of 
the seam on the prototype, the hide-hafted axe. 

The type of axe, the typological development of which 
we have seen here, may be recognized in the copper-plate 
I have given (Fig. 15 A). The axe which the middle figure 
has in his hand, has a socket and a clasp. As the copper- 
plate seems to have been influenced by the Tiahuanaco style, 
it is presumabh' pre-Incan. If this is correct, this 
socketed type of axe must also be pre-Incan. This does not 
stand in the wa}- of its having still been in use in Incan 
times. 



1) P. 271, 

-) This axe has not been analysed. As, from all appearances, it is a 
late type of axe, it is probably of bronze, which is also fairly clear from its 
golden lustre. But this can only be shown by analysis. 

^) This can also be seen in a splendid axe that Heger has described 
from Sierra Aconquija in Catamarca. (Fig- 30, 2 b). 

To this series of illustrations I consider that the adjoined axelike wea- 
pon from Cuzco belongs. (Fig. 2 B, C), The blade of the axe has been 
turned into a long point. On the backpiece can be seen an ornament, 
which might also derive from the seam on the hide-hafted axes. I have 
already pointed out that it is presumably this weapon of which G.\R- 
CHASSO DE LA Vega speaks. 

*) Contains 6.5 7o of tin. 











Fig. 30, I. Series showing the typological development of the socket axe from 
the star-shaped club-head. a. from Ecuador, b. from Titicaca I. (After Mead) c. 
from Quito (After Jijox y Caamaxo and L,.\rrea PI. XXXIX) 1/4. d. from 
Ecuador (After Saville T. II, PI. CXIII.) 1/2. e. from Ecuador After Gonzales 
Su.\REZ PI. IX fig. 4 a) 1/3. f. from Ecuador. (After Rivet and Verneal', PI. 
XVIII, fig. 8.) i;\j. Fig. 30, 2 a. Bronze axe from MusQuiN, Catamarca, 

Argentina. (After Sanchez Diaz). 
Fig. 30, 2 b. Copper axe from Sierra Aconquija, Argentina. (After Keger). 
Fig- 3^^. 3- Copper axe from Trujillo on the Peruvian coast. (After Bae.s.Si.ER 
(1) fig. 9). Vv 



66 

Socketed axes have been found in S. America which 
cannot derive from the hide-hafted axe. One such, of gold 
(Fig. 30, 1 e) and another of pure copper (Fig. 30, i f) are des- 
cribed by Rivet and Verneau from Ecuador. The gold 
axe at least can clearly derive from the club head of the 
morningstar type. 

Fig. 30, 1 a is a reproduction of a club head of 
bronze from Ecuador, of the usual type. Beside it is 
another from Titicaca I. One of the points is lengthened 
and has the shape of an axe. Still more plainly axe-shaped 
is the axe from Quito (Fig. 30, ic), after Jijon y Caamano 
and Larrea. From Ecuador is also the club head depict- 
ed in Fig. 30, I d. If we now turn to the little gold axe (Fig. 
30, I e) which I have reproduced from Gonzalez Su.irez it 
evidently belongs, too, to the same series. It is from 
Patecte near Chordeleg in Ecuador. Heyzey, according 
to Rivet and Verneau, has pointed out its resemblance 
to the star-shaped club-heads. Five of the points are very 
small, the sixth large and ornamented. 

Here we have evidently another series, showing how 
the invention of the socketed axe originated. With this 
series I assume that we can also class the socketed axe, 
reproduced from Rivet and Verneau, (Fig. 30, i f) from Gan- 
chu near Sigsig in Ecuador. One of the star points has been 
enlarged into the blade of an axe, the other five points re- 
duced to ears, eyes, and nose for the face that adorns the 
axe. If this is not so, this particular type of socketed axe 
must be quite isolated. i) 

The T-shaped axe has evidently been altered, too, in 
such a way as to make the edge more semicircular. The ac- 
tual shape of the axes has, moreover, been varied somewhat. 
In general we may probably regard the more semicircular 
axes of metal to be typologically more recent than the or- 



^) Apart from the examples siven by RiVKT and \"JiRXEAU I know of 
only one, which is depicted by Joyce Fig. 5 d. 



67 

(Unary T-shaped ones. Yet the actual change of the T- 
shaped axes into more semicircular ones may already have 
taken place before the Metal Age, since stone axes of this 
shape have been found in vS. America.^) vSometimes, too, me- 
tal axes have presumably been copied in stone. I have repro- 
duced such a one in a couple of earlier treatises. 2) I do not 
consider it worth while to attempt to show any series of de- 
velopment of the T-shaped axes to the more semicircular 
types. It would not be difficult to get together a beautiful se- 
ries showing how the edge of the T-shaped axe curves out- 
wards more and more, but a series of this nature has no value, 
since we do not know whether the development has been of 
this regular and gradual nature. The semicircular axes are 
probably the »hachas de cobre », mentioned by several authors 
from the period of the Conquest. It is also stated of them that 
they were halbert-shaped. If the semicircular axes were 
in use at time of the Conquest, examples in bronze should be 
common: and this is so. To judge from the woven fabric 
depicted in Fig. 15 they were even in use during the 
Tiahuanaco period. 

In Figs. 31 we have a series of different types of 'tumi' 
knives. We can easily imagine how the development of this 
type of knife proceeded. They are all from the coast of Peru. 
I have had 31 a and 31 b analysed, and they proved to be of 
pure copper. An analysis of 31 e showed it to be of bronze 
and, as I shall shortly have an opportunity of mentioning, 
it must therefore be a development of a later period. 

As J I JON Y Caamano 3) has pointed out, the demon depicted 
in p. 68 holds a tumi-knife in his hand, which is similar to 
the primitive tumi-knifes that proved to be of pure copper. 
This fits in excellently with the fact that the figure is from a 
vessel from Moche, which is considered by Uhi,e,*) to be- 



') See Rivet and Vern-au, P 
iS) (I) PI. 5, fig. 6. 
^) (2). P. 21. 
') (3) Fig- X. 



68 




1 








Figs. 31 a — 31 e. Tumi knives of copper and bronze from the coast of Peru. a. from 
Lima. (After Baessler (i) fig. 53) Sn — o. b.from Chancay (G. M. 21. i. 4.) vSn — o. 
c. from Lima. (After Baessier (i) fig. 42). d. from Chuquitanta. (After Baessler 
(1) fig. 41). e. from Chancay (G. M. 21. i. 7.) Sn 4,6%. Fig. 31 f. Demon with 
tun;i in his hand on a vase from Moche, Peruvian coast. (After Uhle (3) fig. X). 



69 

long to a very early ])eriod. The bronze tumi-knife is 
of a t^^pe with international distribntion, and which is known 
from the Inca period. 

Those are a few specimens of typological series. To 
this I would add a note: — When we can show that a type 
of axe, for instance, has evidently come into existence 
through the improvement, or, rather, alteration of another 
type, we ma}^ conclude that the former is t^'pologically more re- 
cent than the latter. If we come across both types in archaeo- 
logical excavations, and have no further details about the 
circumstances of the find, we cannot assert positively that 
the typologically more recent is of a more recent period. 
\A' e have many examples in America of typologically older 
forms having survived typologically younger ones. 

The T-shaped metal axe has scarceh* been improved 
on as an implement. All the forms that are derived 
from it have been weapons and articles of luxury, and 
it has clearly continued to exist beside the derivative 
forms. 

In spite of the limitations I have called attention to, 
the typological method should be of great importance in 
studying the Copper and Bronze Ages in S. America, espe- 
ciall}' if it is combined with analytic tests and careful ex- 
cavations. 

The typological investigations are very important in 
comparing the Copper and Bronze Ages of the Old World 
with those of the New. If, for instance, we find the same 
shape of socketed axe in the Old World and the New, and 
do not institute any typological investigations, the con- 
clusions that some ethnologists would, I have no doubt, 
jump at, are that it must be a loan. But when we are 
able to show, typologically, that the socketed axe was an 
independent invention in America, the loan theory is defini- 
telv refuted. 



70 

It is only exact studies of the developments of the 
forms that enable us to prove to what extent in ethnology 
Ave have to deal with parallel development or with loans. 
Simple as this assertion sounds, it is often lost sight of 
by theorists. 



CHAPTER VI. 

Copper and Bronze Ages. 

In the foregoing I have tried to make a list of the types 
of copper objects mentioned by writers of the time of the 
Conquest, and of those represented on pottery, woven fab- 
rics, etc. I have also given an account of the copper objects 
found in such a way that from the circumstances of the finds 
we can draw some conclusions about their age. I have at- 
tempted, moreover, from the geographical distribution of the 
forms to fix their relative chronology, and have employed 
the tj'pological method, inasfar as it can contribute to our 
knowledge of the age of the different forms. Onh' in passing 
have I mentioned that certain types have proved, on analy- 
sis, to be of pure copper, others of bronze. 

I will now try to give a more detailed account of the facts 
that show that in S. America we can distinguish between an 
earlier Copper Age and a later Bronze Age, and I will tr\' to 
base this investigation, apart from analyses, as far as pos- 
sible on the results at which we have arrived in previous 
chapters. 



72 

The annexed map i gives us a clear picture of the distri- 
bution of pure copper and bronze objects in S. America accor- 
ding to the analyses hitherto published. I have followed 
the lists drawn up by Rivet & Verneau and de CrEqui- 
MONTFORT & RivET and JijoN y Caamano, to which I have 
added a few analyses not known to them, as well as those 
that are published for the first time in this treatise. 

Most of the objects that have been analysed and illustra- 
ted, are here reproduced in outline, or in reduced photographs. 
I have made an exception in the case of the »tincullpas » which 
JijON y Caamano had analysed. Of these only a few charac- 
teristic types are reproduced . All of these have the same com- 
position, i. e., they are of pure copper. Though the drawings 
are in outline, they should suffice to show the shapes of the 
objects analysed. For a more detailed study, it is always pos- 
sible to have recourse to the original illustrations in the books 
cited. What I have aimed at in this list, is a handy resume 
of the material analysed and depicted, arranged according 
to the proportion of tin. All the authors haveunfortunateh'not 
given pictures of the objects they have analysed or had ana- 
lysed, though it stands to reason that a picture should be 
given of the object analysed, unless, as is sometimes done 
by Rivet and Verneau, the reader is referred to the illus- 
tration of another object of identical shape. Otherwise 
how can we discover whether different forms have a great- 
er proportion of tin than others? It is quite absurd to ana- 
lyse an indefinite portion of a copper object about which 
there are no exact statements relative to its find. 

It has already been pointed out by Boman^) that in Co- 
lumbia we do not find bronze objects, but only objects of 
pure copper or of gold mixed with copper. I'^o him we also 
owe the statement that on the coast of Peru and in Ecuador 
we find mainly objects of pure copper, and in Bolivia and 
Argentina mainly objects of bronze. Roughly speaking, this 
is so. In Ecuador objects of pure copper are much commoner 



d) 



than bronze ones. In the maritime country of Peru, especially 
in the northern part, objects of pure copper predominate. 
In the district round Cuzco the analyses of 54 copper objects 
has only revealed two not containing tin. In the district 
round the south of L. Titicaca bronze objects still predom- 
inate, but objects of i)ure copper are not all too rare. In 
N. Argentina and in Chile the majority of objects are of 
bronze, but still a few ones of pure copper have been found. 

EwBANK already assumed that objects of pure copper 
are older than those of bronze. He writes: — »As the Peruvi- 
ans discovered tin, and employed it somewhat extensively 
to harden copper, this axe probably dates from a period an- 
terior to that when bronze ones were first made. It is difficult 
to suppose that such a people would continue to make blades 
of soft copper when they had tin in abundance to render 
them so much more efficient. »^) 

BoMAN^) assumes that the bronze objects in the maritime 
country of Peru are Incan, and that objects of pure copper 
are from an older time. Thus he writes: — »La region des 
Yuncas semble done avoir eu, avant I'invasion des Incas, une 
metallurgie independante de celle du Perou, mais analogue 
a la metallurgie autochtone de la Colombie et de I'Equateur 
preincasique, les pieces contenant de I'etain qu'on trouve dans 
ces pays, ou du moins I'art de produire cet alliage, y ay ant pro- 
bablement ete importes pendant la domination incasique. » 

JijON y Caamano^) also considers this to be probable. 
If their assumption is correct, copper articles found in the 
coastal districts of Peru should as a rule be of bronze when 
they are of types which, by reason of what I have pointed out 
in previous chapters, we know were in use in Incan times. 
To test this, I took from the collection of copper tweezers 
from Pachacamac in the GothenburgMuseum two specimens 
(Fig. 32 d, e) which in shape and size w^ere exactly like the 

') P. 113- 

-) (i) P. 862. 
') (2) P. 41. 



74 










g t 

Figs. 32 a — 32 h. Tweezers of pure copper and brouze from Peru, a — f=Vi' 
a. from Pachacamac. (G. M. 16. 9. 267) Sn — o; b. from Supe (G. M. 21. i. 14.) 
Sn — o; c. from Pachacamac. (G. M. 16. 9. 265.) Sn — o; d. from Pachacamac 
(G. M. 16. 9. 272) Sn — 3.4; e. from Pachacamac (G M. 16. 9. 261) Sn — 5.5; 
f. from Pachacamac (After Baessler (i) fig. 260) Sn — 2.75 %; g. from Machu 
Picchu (After Mathewson fig. 27) Sn — 5.53 %; h. Machu Picchu (After 
Mathevvson fig. 22) Sn— 9.72 %. (g— height i\''4in.; h— length zVgi"-)- 



75 

tweezers found in Incan Machn Picchu (Fig. 32, g) and had 
them analysed One proved to contain 3. 4 %, the other 
5.5"o of tin. Baessler has analysed a similar pincer (fig. 32 f) 
from Pachacamac. It contained 2.75 % of tin. 

I then took from the collection three tweezers which, 
assuming the mussle-shape to be the original one (see 
]). 149), seemed to be of a typologically older type. (Fig. 32 
a. b, c). On analysis they proved to be of pure copper. 

The analysis of two Tumi-shaped knives in the collection 
showed that one (Fig. 31 e), which is in a form that has been 
foiind from the coast of Peru as far as Argentina (see p. 51) was 
of bronze. The other (Fig. 31 b) which is of a typologically 
older type, is of pure copper. It is apparently this latter 
type of Tumi-knife that we see reproduced on earthen vessels 
which UhlE considers to be pre-Incan (see Fig. 31 f.) 

I also had a few tumis from the Museum fiir Volker- 
kunde in Berlin analysed. They all proved to be free from 
tin. So also did two specimens, which, to judge, b}^ their 
type. I should have espected to be of bronze. (Fig.33e, f). 

If we examine the other copper objects from the Peruvi- 
an coast that have been analysed, and of which illustrations 
have been given, we shall find the following. The hoe shown 
in Fig. 33 p contains a little antimony, but no tin. Baess- 
ler gives a picture of a similar, but smaller one, from Pacas- 
mayo. (Fig. 33 n). It contains no tin. but i.55°o of arsenic. 
A long, narrow, and somewhat similar object that Baessler 
obtained from Trujillo, and which he reproduces (Fig. 330), 
contained no tin, but 4.03 °o of arsenic. A similar hoe (Fig. 
33 1) which Dr. Almstrom has anah'Sed for the Gothenburg 
Museum, proved to be free from tin, but contained no less 
than 4. 27^0 of arsenic. 

These hoes, in which the handle was stuck into the point, 
are not found in Peru save in the coastal regions, nor in 
Bolivia or Argentina. As far as we can judge, they are not 
an Incan implement. 

Baessler has also had a »goldglanzende Scheibe » from 



76 



Fig. s. 33a — .33p. Objects of pure copper from the Peruvian Coast that 
have been analysed and depicted. 

a — Tumi, After Baessi^ER, (i) fig. 50, Lima. 1/6 Sn — o. 

b— » >, » .) 53. 

c — • » G. M. 21. I. 4. Chancay 1/4 » 

d — » After Baessler (i) fig. 62, Trujillo » » 

e — » » -> » 61, » i> » 

f — » » » » 63, Chuquitauta » » 

g — Knife » » » 64, » » » 

h — » G. M. 21. I. 2. Chancay » » 

i — Tweezers » 21. i. 14. Siipe 1/3 » 

j — » » 16. 9. 265. Pachacamac 1/2 » 

k — » » 16. 9. 267. » » » 

1— Hoe » 21. I. 6. Chancay 1/6 ^^~°- 

As^4.2 7. 

m— Hoe? After Baessler, (i) fig. 16, Lima 1/2 ^"~°- 

As— 4.43. 

n — Hoe .) » » 21, Pacasmayo 1/6 ^ °' 

As— 1.55. 

o— -> » -> ,) 36, Trujillo 1/4 S^— °• 

As— 4.03. 
p — » G. M. 21. I. 5. Chancay 1/5 Sn — o 

(See also figs. 13 D, E, F and fig. 65). 



n 





% 



r 






k 



111 n 

Figs. 33a— 33p. 



78 

Trujillo analysed (Fig. 34 g) It contained 9.38° o of tin, but no 
arsenic. A bronze disk of like type is described by Mathewson 
form the Incan Machu Piccbu. As we have seen, disks of this 
from have had a very wide distribution. 

Two knives from Chancay and Chuquitanta (Fig. 33 g, h), 
of a type only found on the Peruvian coast, and which I have 
had anaWsed, proved to contain no tin. On the other hand, 
another knife, from vSupe (Fig. 34 e), which, to judge from the 
shape, is possibly post-Columbian, proved to be of bronze. 

We thus seethatof the copper objects found in the coast- 
al regions of Peru, and which have been analysed, and are 
reproduced, it is as a rule those which are of types that are 
also found in the mountain districts, and which were in use 
in Incan times, that are of bronze. Those types which have 
only been found in the coastal regions, do not, save in one 
case, contain tin. 

This does not prove, however, that it was not until after 
the Incan conquest of the coastal regions that the use of 
bronze came to be known there, as we do not know whether 
similar types were not used in the mountain districts even 
in pre-Incan times, and might have spread from there to 
the coastal regions. It only proves that it was owing to in- 
tercourse with the mountain districts that bronze came to be 
used on the Peruvian coast, and this intercourse, as we know 
from Uhle's investigations, already existed during Tia- 
huanaco times. As the traces of Incan influence on the 
Peruvian coast are much more considerable than those of 
Tiahuanaco, it is, however, to be assumed that the majority 
of the bronzes found there are from Incan times. 

The Bronze Age need not have been continuous on 
the coast after the Copper Age. We can easily imagine 
that communications between the mountains and the 
coast were interruptad at certain times during the Bronze 
Age, and under such conditions it is possible that, owing 
to lack of tin, the coastal tribes were for a time forced 
to return to the use of pure copper. 



79 



^rh- ^,7r 




Sj^WWUVW 




Sn- 61^ 



Jr. 



7.x- 



Srx - ^.38 



Figs. 34 a — 34 g- Objects of bronze from the coast of Peru that have 

been analysed and depicted, arranged according to the jDercentage 

of tin. 



a. — Tweezers, 


Pachacamac, 


After Baessier, (i) fig 


b.— » 


Pachacamac, 


G. M. 16. 9. 272, 


c— Tumi, 


Chancay, 


» 21. I. 7, 


d. — Tweezers, 


' Pachacamac, 


» 16. 9. 261, 


e. — Knife, 


Supe, 


» 21. I. II, 



f. — Alligator-head, Huacho, 
g. — Mirror (?), Trujillo, 



After Baessler (i) fig. 300, 



260, V2 



8o 



Figs. 3; 



-35 in. Objects of pure Copper from Ecuador that have been 



analysed and depicted. 


(After Rivet and 


Verxeau). 


a.— Axe, 




Guayas, 


V4. 


b.— » 




Jordan, 




c. — Aigrette, 




Inga-pirca, 




d.— Tumi 




Cojitambo, 




e. — Club head. 




» 




f.— » » 




» 




g. — Ceremonial 


object 


Inga-pirca, 


V-.- 


h.— » 


» 


Azogues, 




1.— » 


* 


Inga-pirca, 




]■— » 


» 


» 




k. — Point of lance, 


Sigsig, 


V4- 


1.— Topu, 




Inga-pirca, 




m. — Needle, 




Sigsig, 





8i 



*S 





^^ 




Figs. 35 a— 35 m. 



82 



Figs. 36 a — 36 o. Objects of pure copper from Ecuador, that have been 
analysed and depicted. (After Rivet and Verxeau). 

a. — Hoe, Hacienda la Maravilla, ^!^. 

near Babahoyo » 



b.— 


» , 




Puna Vieja, 




c. — 


Axe, 




Inga-pirca, 


» 


d.— 


Gilded copper 


disk 


San Bartolome, 


» 


e. — 


Axe, 




Cumbe, 


-> 


f.— 


» . 




» 


» 


g — 


»Hache-Monn 


aie », 


Puna vieja. 


» 


h.— 


Socket axe, 




Ganchu near Sigsig, 


» 


i.— 


Ring, 




Huintul, 


>> 


J — 


» , 




Sigsig. 


» 


k.— 


Axe, 




Monay, 


» 


1.— 


» , 




Inga-pirca, 


» 


m. — 


- Breastplate, 




Riobamba, 


'/«• 


n. — 


)> 




Puellaro, 


Vs- 


0. — 


Axe, 




Province of Guayas, 


',/..• 



u 





83 



%^ 




84 

This would explain the finds of two tumis of pure 
copper on the Peruvian coast, though they are of types 
which, for several reasons, we should expect to be of bronze. 
Still, it is clear that by distinguishing a Copper and a 
Bronze Age in the coastal regions of Peru we shall obtain an 
invaluable help in the study of the relative chronology. 

Rivet and Verneau assume that the bronze objects 
found in Ecuador are from Incan times. ^) They have had qua- 
litative analyses made af no less than 73 objects of copper. 2) 
Of these, 13 contained tin. Of 6 Tumi-knives analysed, no less 
than 5 contained tin. This is of special interest, as the Tumi 
is one of the objects of metal found throughout the territory 
occupied by the Incas at the time of the Conquest. The 
Tumi of pure copper is of a primitive type. 

Of the 24 axes of various types with a little hole in them 
which Rivet and Verneau had analysed, only two are 
of bronze. This type of axe has a northerly distribution in 
the old territor}' of the Incan Empire, and is not found near 
Cuzco or round E. Titicaca. As we have already stated, it 
is often represented on pottery which, according to Uhle, is 
from a period much anterior to Incan times. If it is true that 
bronze was first introduced into Ecuador b^' the Incas, this 
type of axe must still have been in use in Incan times. Only 
one ordinary- T-shaped axe from Ecuador has been analysed 
by Rivet and Verneau. 

It is of pure copper. The type occurs throughout the ter- 
ritory of the Incan Empire, but yet, as I have pointed out, it 
must be ver^^ old, as most of the other types of axe found here 
can derive from it. Of simple hoe-blades, three anal3'ses are 
communicated. One is of bronze. The type occurs through 
the old territory- of the Incan Empire. Four T-shaped axes 
with sharply bent-out edges are analysed. Only one contains 
tin. This type of axe has been met with from Ecuador to 

■ 1) P. 346- 
^) An object which, apart from tin, contained zinc (2i7o) is not included 
here, being post-Columbian. 



85 



Q 








e i g h i 

Figs. 37 a — 37 g. Objects of pure copper from Kcuador, that have been analysed 
and depicted. 

a. — Ornament to headdress, Canar, After Uhle (i), PI. 24, fig. i, Vg- 

b. — Hoe, Cochasqui (Imbabura), » » » » 24, */«• 

c. — Ring, Canar, » » * » 27, ^/g. 

d.— Ring, .) -> » .) » 28, Ve- 

e. — Disk »tincullpa », Jaboncillo, Manabi, After JiJOX Y Caamano, (2) PI. 7, fig. 3 

f. — » » Alchipichi, Pichincha, » » 

g.— » » » ,) .) .> 

h.— Hoe, Tenguel » » » (3) » XIII. Vr 

i. — Chisel, Play as » » 



fig. 2. 
» 4, fig. 6. 



» » XIV. » 



86 




U 




® 



^ 





o 




Figs. 38 a — 38 k. Objects of bronze from Ecuador, that have been analysed ar 

depicted. (After RiVET and Verneau) b — Sn-6.8: d — vSn-6.4. In the remainder tl 

proportion of tin has not been quantitatively determined. 



a.— Club 


head. 


Region de C 


iienca, 


V4- 


g. — Tumi, Carican, 


Loja, 


V4 


b.— Axe, 




Inga-pirca, 




» 


h.— » , Ona, 




)> 


c— Hoe. 




Cuenca, 




» 


i. — » , Monay, 




-> 


d.— Axe, 




Huintul, 




» 


j. — Ring, Huaca, 




I2 


e. — Tumi 




Puna Vieja, 




» 


k. — Axe, Jordan, 




V4 


f — » 




Guachapala, 




» 


(sec also fig. 19 s) 







87 

Argentina. To judge from the woven fabric shown in Fig. 14, 
it was in use already in Tiahuanaco times. Presumabl}^ it was 
still in use much later, as this seems to be the type of axe re- 
ferred to in the account of the weapons the Incas had at the 
time of the Conquest, and as it had a very wide distribution. 
The two axes with holes for the hafts that have been analysed, 
proved to be of pure copper. As we have seen, this type of 
axe is typologically late. Exactly similar axes are unknown, 
save from Ecuador. A couple of curious show axes of a lo- 
cal type also proved to be of pure copper, as well as two axes 
that Rivet and Verneau call 'hache-monnaie'. Of the four 
morning-stars analysed, two are of a type found all the way 
from Ecuador to Argentina, of bronze, and two of a local type, 
of pure copper. An awl is of bronze. The point of a lance, 
of a type we find in the northern part of the territory of 
the Incan Empire, is also of pure copper. The two Topus 
analysed proved to be of pure copper. One is of a local type, 
the other of a type that has been found throughout the ter- 
ritory of the Incan Empire. It closely resembles the Topus 
shown in Fig. 22 e, but has no hole. Of the other objects analy- 
sed, which are all more or less of local types, a ring proved to 
be of bronze, all the rest of pure copper. 

JijON y Caamano^) has published no less than 78 quanti- 
tative analyses of copper and bronze objects from Ecuador. 
Of these only 8 proved to be of bronze. All the»tincullpas», 
45 in number, which are of types only found in Ecuador, 
proved to contain no tin. Nine axes with perforated handles, 
of the type shown on p. 55, were also of pure copper, as were 
seven ear-drops, four Topus, a simple hoe, a simple anthropo- 
morphic hoe, a chisel, a languet, and a 'barrita de cobre para 
fundir'. Of bronze were three T-shaped axes, two T-shap- 
ed axes with semicircular edge, a battle-axe (Fig. 22 d), a 
star-shaped club-head, and an 'agarradera'. 

It is clear that the majority of the objects found in Ecua- 
dor that are of local or northern type, are of pure copper, and 
1) (2.)^ 



88 

the majority of those that are of types occurring throughout 
the territory of the Inca Empire, are of bronze. Rivet and 
Verneau^), like Jijon y Caamano^), are therefore of the opin- 
ion, as has been mentioned, that bronze was not introduc- 
ed until Incan times. The last-named puts it as follows: 
»Siendo la casi totalidad de objetos de bronce, que en el 
Ecuador se conocen de tipo incaico, o por lo menos peruano, 
creemos puede tenerse por demostrado, que la aleacion del 
cobre y del estano no se conocid en el Ecuador con anteriori- 
dad a la conquista cuzquena.t) 

It is not possible to sa}^ that in Ecuador implements were 
of bronze, and ornaments of pure copper, for as a rule axes 
with perforated hafts are of pure copper. It is the local forms , 
as a rule, that are of pure copper, whether the}' be imple- 
ments or ornaments. Consequently we can distinguish, also 
in Ecuador, between a Copper Age and a Bronze Age. 

It is obvious that the bronze objects found in Ecuador 
are, as a rule, of types that we know were in use in Incan 
times, and which evidently- reached Ecuador from the south. 
Whether bronze was not known in Ecuador until after the 
Incan conquest of thecountr>% or whether isolated specimens 
had already found their way in during the Tiahuanaco peri- 
od, we are unable, in the present state of our knowledge of 
the material, to decide with any certaint3^ The probability 
is that the vast majority are from Incan times. 

The great question now is. Can we prove that a Copper 
Age preceded the Bronze Age in the mountain districts of 
Peru and Bolivia, and in Chile, and in Argentina, as well. 

The fact that on the coast of Peru and in Ecuador so 
many objects of pure copper have been found, whereas such 
finds are rare in the mountain districts of Peru and Bolivia, 
and in Argentina, may very well be due to their having 
been preserved in the former places, and not in the latter. In 
the loose sand of the Peruvian coastal regions burial finds 

irP.~346. 

') (2) P. 23. 



89 



7 ^7 




"n-O. Sn-0. 



Sn-O. 



Su-O 


Sn-0- 


Sn-O. 


Jn-O 


^ 


5. 


6. 


7. 



■/.2S 



S. 



y 



Sa'2.5/ 
9, 




Sn- 6/7 






c:^ 



<S'n'Z79 Sn-/0.S9 
/2. /3. 



^igs. 39,1 — 39,13. Copper and bronze objects from Tiahuanaco, that have been 
nalysed and depicted, arranged according to the percentage of tin. I have assumed 
tat all the cramps are of the same or of similar shape, i — 2. After Bom.\n (i), 
. After Uhle (i). Va- The others after Me.\d. i — 7 = Cramps; 8, 11, 13 = Human 
igures; 9=blade of hoe (?), 10, 12 Tumisj (3 — 7 about 5 in, in length, 12 = 41 , in. long). 



go 

and scattered objects were more easily preserved for posterity- 
than up in the mountains. Where the copper things were not 
hidden in the ground, a younger generation of Indians would 
be prone to take possession of them and melt them down. 

When a copper object from the coastal regions of Peru 
occurs in great numbers in museums, but is represented on- 
ly by a few specimens from the mountain districts, this need 
not signify that it was in common use along the 
coast, but rare in the mountains. We must remem- 
ber that most of the museums have incomparably larg- 
er collections from the Peruvian coast than from the Peruvi- 
an and Bolivian mountains. It is evident, too, that in these 
latter districts the Bronze Age began much earlier than on 
the Peruvian coast and in Ecuador, to which regions the 
knowledge of bronze was conveyed by intercourse with the 
mountain districts of Bolivia. 

BoMAN^)2) has already pointed out that the »Crampons », 
which are found in Tiahuanaco (Fig. 39), and which served 
to hold blocks of stone together, are of copper that contains 
no trace of tin. He had two of these »Crampons» analysed. 
Mead has had five more analysed; they also proved to be 
of pure copper. These »Crampons» are the only analysed 
objects from Tiahuanaco of which we can assert with confi- 
dence that they are of an age with the famous ruins. Dr. 
CouRTY, who made excavations at Tiahuanaco, has been 
kind enough to communicate to me the following: — »I1 
y a effectivement a Tiahuanaco des chulpas de differentes 
epoques. Dans celles qui sont contemporaines des fameuses 
mines, il n'y a point de bronze du tout. II y a bien des 
amulettes en or et en argent natifs, il y a bien des objets en 
cuivre natif, mais point bronze. » This is of great importance. 
Thus, in Tiahuanaco, we have presumably also had a 



1) (I) P. 859. 

^) The Tiahuanaco cramps have never been nietallographically exa- 
mined, but to judge from Boman's analyses I take it for granted that they 
were cast, and not hammered out of the native copper 



91 

Copper Age, from which derive these, the most remarkable of 
all the ruins in S. America, or even, mayhap, in all America. 

With regard to these cramps, we must not omit to point 
out that for their special purpose pure copper ones w^ere pos- 
sibly better than bronze ones. 

With the exception of the cramps, not one of the 25 
objects from Tiahuanaco that have been anah'sed (Fig. 39) 
proved to be of pure copper. 

It is incorrect, of course, to call all the copper objects 
found at Tiahuanaco bronzes, as Posnansky^) has done; he 
even calls the cramps that on analysis have always proved to 
be of pure copper, bronzes. Attention should also be drawn 
to another well-known fact: pottery has been found at Tia- 
huanaco from different periods, even from Incan times, so 
that very naturally metal objects from the same time have 
also been found there. 

I have not seen any copper or bronze objects in the pure 
Tiahuanaco st^de illustrated, with the possible exception of 
the famous copper disks of which I made mention in Chap- 
ter II. on p. 32. PosNANSKY mentions that he analysed one 
of them, and says it is of bronze, but as far as I know^ he 
has not published the analysis. 

In the lower edge of the disk in Fig. 15 a, preserved in 
the ^luseum fiir Volkerkunde in Berlin, there is a nick which 
shows that some of the metal had been scraped off, pre- 
sumably for this analysis. The infraction of this precious 
specimen has been somewhat carelessly carried out. 

PosNANSKY^) depicts an animal figure of silver in the 
Tiahuanaco style. A few gold objects wath ornamentation 
that reminds one of what is regarded as characteristic of Tia- 
huanaco, have been found on the coast of Peru^) and on the 
Island of Koati.*) 



') {2). 

-) (2). Fig. 12. 

=") BaESSLER (2) fig. 404. 

") Baxdei.ier. pi. LXXVIII. 



92 



Figs. 40,1 — 40,19. Copper and bronze objects from the surroundings of 

Cuzco, that have been analysed and depicted, arranged according to the 

percentage of tin. 



I 


Tumi, 


Machu Picchu, 


After 


Mathewsox. 


2 


Ball, 


.> » 




,> 


3 


Tumi, 


» « 




» 


4 


Piece of a hoe. 


Rio Panipaconas, 




FooTE and BuELi. 


5 


Topu, star headed, Machu Picchu, 




Mathewson. 


6 


Tumi, 


» » 




» 


7 


Hoe 


,) -> 




» 


8 


Axe, 


Cuzco, 




Mead. 


9 


Topu, 


Machu Picchu, 




Mathewson. 


10 


Axe, 


» 




» 


11 


Hoe, 


Cuzco, 




Mead. 


12 


Tumi, 


Machu Picchu, 




Mathewson. 


13 


Piece of Axe, 


» » 




» 


14 


Needle, 


» 1) 




» 


15 


Mirror, (?) 


» » 




,> 


16 


Large bar. 


» » 




* 


17 


Hoe, 


» » 




» 


18 


Tweezers, 


» » 




» 


19 


Axe, 


Urubamba Valley, 




FooTE and BuEi.L 



(For sizes, see Mead, Mathewson and F'ooTE & BuEi,i,j. 



93 







^ 







6.<Sa.-3.67 ZSn-37/ S.^ya--3.dr 9. ^ .Sn-3.99. 






iOSi-3.99 /Ma^^^S J2.3n-^.62 /JM-S.Of f^Jn-.-S/S 




i5Ja'5.3^ /6. 




\fn-5j/s /Z/r2'J.53 /SS2-J.S5 /9^0'SJS 



Figs. 40,1—40,19. 



94 






tSa-7J!^ 2.Sn-8.5'f 3Sn-9.6 





TtSn - 9.39 3.Srz-9.79 6.Sn.-/2.C3 7S^'/J.¥S, 



Figs. 41,1 — 41,7. Bronze objects from the surroundings of Cuz.co, that have beer 
analysed and depicted, arranged according to the percentage of tin. 



Cuzco, 



After Mead. 



Mathewsox. 



1 . Axe, 

2. Llama, '^ 

3. Weight for bolas, » 

4. Knife, Machu Picchu, 

5. Tweezers, » » » » 
not folded, 

6. Axe, Rio Pampaconas, » FooTE and BuELl,. 

7. Spoon- Tipped handle, Machu Picchu, After Mathewson. 
(For sizes, see Mead, Mathewson and Foote & BuEi.i<). 



95 



A 



a a 




'fa-i^S6. 




w 



') 




c d e f 





^ 



A.- 9./^ 



'^ - /0.02. Srt - /7.7S 



igs. 42 a — 42 k. Objects of pure copper and bronze from the Titicaca district 

specially Titicaca T., that have been analysed and depicted, arranged according to 

the percentage of tin. 

a. — Chisel, Titicaca I., After Mead. 

aa. — Axe, Copacabana, M. f. V. B. V. A. 12791 c. V?- 

b. — Weight for bolas, Titicaca I., After Mead. 

c. — Needle, » > i> 

d. — Topu, » » » 

e. — » » » » 

f . — Weight for bola.s, » » » 

g.— » .) » .) 

h — Topu, » » » 

i. — Tumi, » >> » 

j. — • Clubhead, with hatchet » » » 

k. — Bar in Axe-shape, Huachu,Omasuyu,M. f.V. B.V.A. 12672 b. Vs 

(For sizes see also Mead). 



96 



Figs 



43,1 — 43,21. Objects of pure copper and bronze from Argentina that 
been analysed and depicted, arranged according to the percentage of tin 

T-shaped axe with double projections, Calchaqui, After SA.NCHEZ DiAZ, 
» » )> » » La Toma, M. f. V. B. V. C. 1658. 

» » » » » » » » 1656. 



Axe, 

Cramp, 

Chisel, 

Chisel?, 

Tool, 

Part of bracelet, 

Hoe, 

Bell, 

Axe, 

Small disk. 

Chisel?, 

Hoe, 

Axe, 

Disk (Diam. 21 cm.) 

» ( » 20 cm.), 

» ( 



La Paya, 

Andalgala 

Tastil, 

Musquin, 

Belen, 

Huasasayo, 

Fuerte Quemado, 

Casabindo, 

Belen, 

La Paya, 

Catamarca, 

Belen, 

Calchaqui, 

Pampa Grande, 

Chicoaua (Salta), 



After Bom AN (i), fig- 14. 

M. f. V, B. V. A. 4057. 

» BOMAN (i), fig. 67d, 

» Sanchez Diaz, 



Eric vox Rosen, fig. 103, 
vSaxchez Diaz, ^ 



have 



26 cm.), Pampa Grande, 

» Tinti, 

» (Diam. 19 cm.), Luracatao (Salta), 
Pendant?, Pucara de Rinconada, 

Axe, Calchaqui, 

Axe, San Carlos, 



» 






Va 


» » 






Vs 


» » 






Vfi 


» » 






'/« 


Ambrosetti 


(I). 


fig. gid 




» 




» 95c. 




» 




» 90a. 




BOMAN 


(2), 


» .3 c. 


V, 


Ambrosetti 


(I). 


» 91 e 




BOMAN 


(I)- 


» 136 


Va 


SAnxhez DiAZ. 




Vs 


Ambrosetti 


(I). 


» 20. 





97 




T? 




2.b. 



'>r2~0. dSja-O. /c.Sa-O. 2.^0.-0. S^x-rrc7ces. J.S^~o. //..So^O.f^, 





□ 




^~P 



K^ 




■fQiO. 6.Sn-ast: 7.S1-OM S.Ja-Q6'f'. P.S^-aya. /OS'i-/^^o 

CZ~? // s^ ^ 4i^# 








^J'n-2sf. f<S.Jn-3.oi. fy.Sr,-3M. 20. Jn- 3.2/. 2/. Jo -3.3 f. 

Figs. 4^,1 — 43.21. 



Figs. 44,1 — 44,22. Objects of iDronze from 
and depicted, arranged according 

Bell, I,a Paya, 

Chisel, Morohuasi, 

Bell, Tinogasta, 

Knuckleduster, Jujuy, 

Disk (Diam. 27.5), Santa Maria, 
Axe (Size not stated), » 

Hoe, Beleu, 

Bell, San Juan, 

Axe, Calchaqui, 

» Andalgala, 

Hoe, Belen, 

Ceremonial axe, Musquin, 

Axe (Size not stated), Tolombon, 

» Calchaqui, 

Chisel, Morohuasi, 

» La Paya, 

Axe with semicircular Jujuy, 

edge. 
Disk (Size not stated), Tolombon, 
Knuckleduster, Santa Maria, 

Ball, ■ La Paya, 

Chisel, » 

Bracelet, Quebrada del Toro, 



Argentina that have been analysed 
to the percentage of tin. 

After BoMAX, (i), fig. 14, i/j^ 

» » » » 56c, 1/, 



Sanchez Di.\z, 


\u 


Ambrosetti (i), 


^'9 

fig. 91b. 


» 


» 24 


S.4NCHEZ Dl\z, 


Vs 


Debexedetti (2) 


• fig- 97 Vs 


SAxcHEz Diaz, 


Vb 


» 


Vs 



Ve 

Ambrosetti (i), fig. 20. 
SAxcHEZ Diaz, Ve 

Eric vox Rosex, fig. 206, Vs 
SAxcHEZ Diaz, 1/3 

Vs 

Ambrosetti (1), fig. 87. 

Sanchez Di.\z, 1/3 

Boman (i), fig. 13 n, 1/. 

,> (i),fig. i3b,VG 

» (i). fig- 54. Vc 






fr,-3.9z. 2sr>-^^i. J.Jn^^.si. 'f.Jn-Ssa. f.^r,.~S.fe 



r^3 



ctt:? 



o 




^n ^ £73. 7. Sr, S:7i- 8 Sn-^i3 9<S>2 - 63/ /O Jn - 6. v^ 




iJn- 6ys /2, yn.." 6. 5-7. /J- Sn. - 756. f^Srx - 7^3 




5,^0-7^5. /dSn'797. /7.^n.~ doV. /d, Sn. - 667. 




Figs. 44,1—44,22. 



Only one object was found at Machu Picchu that proved 
when analysed, to be of pure copper. It is a Tumi (fig. 40,1). 
As it is of a typologically late form, and no remains of pre- 
Incan art have been found at Machu Picchu, I assume that 
this pure copper Tumi is not older than the bronzes of the 
same place. But it must be pointed out that the Tumi in 
question is not one of the objects found by Eaton in his 
careful excavations, but was obtained from grave-plunder- 
ing Indians who were afterwards let loose among the loca- 
lities of the finds. 

Of other objects anah'sed from the surroundings of 
Cuzco, 23 proved to be of bronze, and only one, a little hu- 
man figure, of pure coj^per. It is not illustrated. All the 
copper objects found by me in the Chulparegion have when 
analy.-:ed proved to be of bronze (Seep. 163). 

On Titicaca Island 7 objects of pure copper were found. 
Among them, curiously enough, were no less than 3 chisels. 
It would, I think, have been very extraordinary if in these 
parts, where tin was in the vicinity, they had generally made 
their chisels of pure copper after becoming acquainted 
with bronze. There is therefore, in my opinion, much to 
favour the belief that these are from a Copper Age that 
here preceded the Bronze Age. At Copacabana was also 
found a T-shaped axe (Fig. 42 a a) which on analysis, proved 
to be of pure copper. 

Very interesting is the find, mentioned above, of a piece 
of a jDure copper band in Caipipendi. Other finds at the 
same place show that the Indians there employed at the time 
stone axes of the type that RivET and VERNAU call 'haches 
simples neolithiques'. The ornamentation on the Pottery 
is not painted, but scratched. There were no handles 
on the earthen vessels. The find of sea-shells (Pecten) 
shows that the Indians at Caipipendi had intercourse 
with Indians at the coast, probably the Pacific. 

If we now turn to Argentina, we shall find in Figs. 43, 44 
the objects that have been anah'sed and depicted, arranged 



according to the i)roportion of tin, which varies very greatly. 
Of the analysed objects found in Argentina, only 6 proved 
to be of pure copper. Had the objects to be analysed been 
chosen more systematicalh', and such objects selected as 
were found with non-Incan pottery, more objects of pure 
copper would presumably have been revealed. vStill, it is 
worth noting that five of the objects from Argentina that 
proved to be of pure copper, are implements. 

A peculiarity for Argentina is undoubtedly that there 
we have local forms that are of bronze, whereas these are 
found only exceptionally on the Peruvian coast and in Ecua- 
dor. How is it to be explained that Argentina should have 
had an independent Bronze Age, while the Peruvian coast 
and Ecuador had not? It may be because they made an 
earlier acquaintance with bronze in Argentina than in Ecua- 
dor or on the coast of Peru, and that possibly, as w^e shall 
see later on, they were not dependent on the Bolivian tin. 

Another peculiarity for Argentina, especially for Cata- 
marca, is bronzes containing less than ^/a '^o of tin. From 
the tables below we can see where these were found. 

Objects of Bronze containing less than ^/o ";, of tin. 



Fuerte Quemado, Chisel 0.39 '^/q. 

Catamarca 
Belen, Catamarca 'Hache ceremonielle' 0.20 ^L. 



Rivet and DE Cre- 

OUI-MOXTFORT. 



Huasayaco, Catamarca Fragment of a bracelet 0.24 '^j^. 
Musquin, Catamarca Spatula 0.17 "/^j. 

Andalgala near S:a i>Cramp. » Trace. vSee fig 2 A 

Maria, Catamarca 

The small admixtures of tin in question cannot have 
been purposely added. They may derive from impurities 
in the copper ore. Copper ore has been found in the Old 
World with a small admixture of tin. Thus Montelius^) 
writes: — 



1) (I), P. 449. 



r M2': '<• '' 

■ »Wenn der Zinngehalt klein ist, kann es sehr schwer sein, 
zu sagen, ob er absichtlich ist oder nicht. Die meisten Kup- 
fererze enthalten gar kein Zinn. In anderen findet man ei- 
ne kleine Quantitat von diesem Metall. Englisches Kupfer 
kann 0.20 Proc. Zinn enthalten, und in sildostlichen Spa- 
nien giebt es Kupfererze mit 0.40 bis 0.50 Proc. Zinn. Ein 
Zinngehalt von ungefahr 0.50 Proc. kann folglich natiirlich 
sein. Wenn der Gehalt hoher ist, muss er als absichtlich 
betrachtet werden — falls man nicht andere Kupfergruben 
kennen lernen sollte, wo das Kupfer mehr Zinn enthalt. » 

According to Boman, native copper from Corocoro oc- 
casionally contains traces of tin.^) A piece of native copper 
that I obtained when I visited Corocoro in 1904, showed, 
however, no trace of tin when analysed, and Mead-) says that 
Mr. Atwater, who is a specialist in copper ores from Boli- 
via, and who has made some five hundred essay's and analy- 
ses of Bolivian copper ores, has never found tin in them. 

If in these objects of copper with traces of tin the tin 
is due to impurity in the copper ore, these objects presuma- 
bly belong to the Copper Age. It is to be observed that 
the implements Nos. 4 and 5 depicted in Fig. 43, are of 
peculiar local forms, which are unknown from the Inca pe- 
riod. Of special interest is that among these objects is 
a cramp similar to those from Tiahuanaco which on being 
anah^sed have always proved to be of pure copper. This 
cramp, which was found by the German traveller Herr- 
MAN, is kept in the Museum fiir Volkerkunde in Berlin. 

It is, however, possible to explain the low percentage 
of tin in these objects in another way. It may be no mere 
chance that these objects with such a low percentage of tin 

^) »Exceptionellement, le cuivre natif de Corocoro (Bolivie) contient 
en tres petites quantites d'etain, suivant un renseignment que m'ont don- 
ne MM. MORIN freres, lesquels ont analyse de nombreux cchantillons de 
cuivre de ce pays. » (i), »p. 865. 

It should also be noted that Barba says that cassiterite at Carabuco 
was found together with copper ore. Fol. 32. 

') r. .19. 



103 





Figs. 45 a — li. Objects of pure copper and bronze from Chile hat have been 

analysed and depicted. P. indicates that the object contains tin, but 

that this has not been quantitatively determined. 

a.— Axe, Atacama Chile, After Ewbaxk, Pi. VIII, i/g. 
b. — Hoe, Rio Maipu, » » » » ^j^. 
c. — Tumi, Bay of Chacota, » Blake, p. 289, fig. 12, V^- 
n.— » » -> SouiER (2), » fig. 68, y^. 
e. — Chisel, Rio Maipu, » Ewbaxk, Pi. VIII, Vs- 
f.— » » » » » » Vs- 
g.— Tumi, » » » » -> Vi- 
la.— Awl, Arica, » » PI. X, "-I,. 



104 

are found, so to speak, in the periphery of the Inca Empire. 
The low percentage can be so explained, that old broken 
copper found in the ground was melted do\Yn with some 
old broken bronze, and implements, etc., made from this. 
In remote parts they often had to take what they could get. 
It must also be remembered that through repeated recasting 
of a bronze the admixture of tin continually diminishes, 
some of the tin being lost each time. If this explanation is 
correct, these objects of copper with a very low percentage 
of tin date from the Bronze Age. 

It is probable that tin, when it occurs in a larger pro- 
portion than I to 2 %, always has been intentionally added. 
The eminent metallurgist Mathewson appears to take it for 
granted that the tin in the bronzes he examined was inten- 
tionally added. They contained from 2.11 '^0 to 13.45 "0 of 
tin. Mathewson has also pointed out that the bronzes from 
Machu Picchu are very free from impurities. By reason of the 
find of bits of pure tin in Machu Picchu, he considers it 
probable that the Indians used the like for mixing with 
their copper. 

The copper objects from Chile that have been analysed 
are 11 in number: of these 9 have proved to be of bronze, 
and two of pure copper. These two are implements, an axe 
and the blade of a hoe. Most interesting is that the axe 
is a T-shaped one with double projections. Among the six 
copper objects from Argentina which on analysis proved to be 
of pure copper, there are also three axes of this type. These are 
the only specimens of this kind of axe from Argentina that 
have been analysed, and it is possible that in them we have a 
form characteristic of the Copper Age. The type is a 
development of the ordinary T-shaped axe, but it may 
be typologically older than the whole series of forms of axes 
depicted in Fig. 29, which can evidently derive from the 
T-shaped axe. 

We have seen that in Ecuador and in the coastal regions 
of Peru the Bronze Age has undoubtedly been preceded by 



105 

a Copper Age. It is also evident that this Bronze Age reach- 
ed the Peruvian coast-land and Ecuador from the Boli- 
vian and Peruvian mountain districts, the characteristic 
mountain forms found there being, as we have pointed 
out, of bronze, whereas the local forms are generally of pure 
copper. In the mountains of Peru and Bolivia, and in Argenti- 
na, and Chile there are, as we have seen, numerous bronze ob- 
jects, but also some pure copper ones, the majority being found 
round L. Titicaca. And even if these should not be regarded 
as proving that the Bronze Age in the mountains was pre- 
ceded by a Copper Age, we must nevertheless realize that 
it is not reasonable to assume that in the mountain regions 
there was a direct transition from a Stone Age to a Bronze. 

Bronze must have been invented by a race that used 
pure copper and understood the art of casting, and as the 
invention did not originate on the coast or in Ecuador, it 
must come from the mountain tracts where there was a 
supply of tin. Here too, the Bronze Age must inevitably 
have been preceded b}' a Copper Age, assuming of course 
that bronze was invented by the Indians themselves, and 
did not in some mysterious manner find its way in from the 
Old World. I shall return to this problem later. 

A Copper Age need not necessarily, of course, have pre- 
ceded a Bronze Age throughout Bolivia, the Peruvian moun- 
tains, Argentina, and Chile. The area of the Copper Age 
rnay in certain parts have been much more restricted than 
that of the Bronze Age. It is even probable that a number 
of districts did not learn the use of copper until during 
the Bronze Age, but it cannot have been in such a district 
that the invention of bronze originated; it must have been 
in a district where the art of casting pure copper was under- 
stood before bronze was known. 

At present it is impossible to say when the Bronze Age 
began in the mountains. The oldest Tiahuanaco seems to be 
from the Copper Age. The Incan times were within the Bronze 
Age. In the Chulpas we find exclusively bronze objects. It 



io6 

therefore appears as if the Bronze Age must have begun at 
some period intermediate between the Incan times and the 
building of Tiahuanaco. If Posnansky is right in saying 
that the famous disk (Fig. 15 a) is of bronze, then bronze 
must have been known when the infhience of the Tiahuana- 
co culture made itself felt. The colour of the disk also 
points to the metal not being of pure copper, and it is from a 
localit}' where copper mixed with arsenic is very 
rare. This also explains how it is that all the 'copper' 
objects found at Tiahuanaco, with the exception of the 
cramps, have proved to be of bronze when analysed. The 
same holds good of the quaint human figures (Fig. 28 c) from 
there. I should perhaps add that the copper objects (fig. 62). 
I found in the culture deposits of the Mizque VallcA' , which 
have a ceramic art that is strongly influenced by the Tia- 
huanaco style^), have proved, inasfar as they have been 
anal3'sed, to be of bronze. But it is not absolutely certain 
that these bronze objects are of the same period as the 
pottery found at the dwelling-places. 

There is, after all, nothing impossible in the fact 
that the Indians, who could achieve such architecture as 
Tiahuanaco, should have invented bronze, especially as it 
\J was not far from that spot that there existed the only plen- 
tiful supplies of tin in S. America. 

If bronze was known in the later Tiahuanaco period, 
it is most prudent not to assume for certain that it was first 
through the Incas that the knowledge of bronze was convey- 
ed to the Indians on the coast of Peru and in Ecuador, but 
rather that it already took place when the influence of the 
Tiahuanaco culture made itself felt. We have seen that on 
the Peruvian coast has been found a woven fabric in the 
Tiahuanaco style on which are represented t^'pes of axes 
that seem to belong to the mountain culture. 

It is of course possible that the Indians round L. Titi- 
caca, and also those in Argentina, were living in a Bronze 

1) NORDEXSKIOI.D (^) 



107 

Age ^^•hile those in the coastal regions of Peru and in Kcna- 
dor were Hving in a Copper Age. Bnt that this should have 
continued for a considerable time postulates a very insigni- 
ficant commercial intercourse between the stanniferous 
mountains round h. Titicaca and the coast-land, or Ecua- 
dor, where there was no tin. The Indians of the coast can- 
not have had commercial intercourse with those of the moun- 
tains for any considerable time without becoming acquaint- 
ed with bronze, if it was known there. 

To obtain a definitive solution of this problem it is ne- 
cessary, above all, that throughout the west of vS. America 
systematic excavations be undertaken, similar to those 
made by Eaton at Macliu Picchu. It is the finds of copper 
objects made at such excavations that must first be analysed. 
It would of course be of the greatest interest if some copper 
objects found in graves on the Peruvian coast with pottery 
or textiles in Tiahuanaco style, could be anal^^sed; but I do 
not know whether any such objects are to be found in any 
museum, i. e. any that are preserved with exact details 
about the circumstances of the finds. Very welcome too 
would be the anal^'ses of copper objects from graves in 
Argentina, where the ceramic art is of an exclusivelv local 




^ 







:f.J'a-5'.^F 2.Jn-6:r6 



Figs. 46, 



Tuniis of bronze from Cajainarca, northern Peru. 
(After MEAD). 



io8 

type. It would be especially valuable to have some analyses 
of copper objects found in urns containing child bodies which 
are so characteristic of those parts. And, as I remarked, it 
would be interesting to have the copper objects analysed 
which Bruch found in his careful excavations at Hualfin. 





Jh ~6.A 



b c 



Figs. 47. a- 
V. B. V. A. 



-47c. Objects of bronze from Tarija, Bolivia. 



-Axe (M. f. 



). Ca: VV b — Bronze disk (After vox RosEX, fig. 336). 
-Chisel (After vox RoSEX, fig. 335.) Vg- 



CHAPTER VH. 



Why Tin was mixed with the Copper. 

It is evident, as we have already mentioned, that tin 
was intentionally mixed with copper in a considerable part 
of vS. America. Judging by our European conception of dif- 
ferent kinds of bronze, the mixture of tin and copper in the 
vS. American bronzes that have been analysed was very ca- 
priciously composed. Thus, Boman has pointed out that 
it is not the cutting implements that contained a specially 
high percentage of tin, and that very often these implements 
which one might assume should have been harder than the 
ornaments, contain less tin than the latter. (See Figs. 43, 44) . 
He writes: »Ives proportions d'etain sont si variables, que 
Ton pent conclure que les Indiens en question ignoraient 
I'art de graduer I'alliage selon la destination des objets. 
C'est empiriquement et au juger qu'ils ajoutaient I'etain, 
parce que I'experience leur avait enseigne cette maniere de 
durcir le metal. »^) 



1) (I) p. 868. 



no 

The material of anal^'ses at Boman's disposal embraced 
bronzes from a huge area and, undoubtedly, from a long pe- 
riod. 

It is the American metallurgist Mathewson's great 
merit to have pointed out that the S. American Indians may 
purposely have alloyed tin with copper in different propor- 
tions for different purposes, but that they proceeded from 
points of view that differ from those usualh^ imagined. 
Mathewson has examined numerous bronzes found by 
Bingham at Machu Picchu, and concludes that the Indians 
of that place presumably mixed less tin in the implements 
than we might have expected, in order to be able to hammer 
them the more easily.^) The objects were hammered hot or 
red-hot, as Mathewson has verified by microscopic examin- 
ation. 

In order to discover to what extent the hardness of the 
bronze was due to the proportion of tin, or to the treat- 
ment to which it had been subjected, I consulted Mr. A. 
HuETGREN, and asked him to examine the hardness of 
some vS. American bronzes with different proportions of 
tin. The results of Mr. Hultgren's tests are added in a 
special appendix, and I will only add a few comments here 
which ma}^ be of interest for the archaeological problems 
we are dealing with.-) 



1) KWBAXK fp. 115) was of the same opinion. Thus, as early as 1855 
he wrote: )>Peruvian cutting tools of bronze which I have met with have 
been comparatively little hardened, the proportions of tin not exceeding 
from two to three percent. Now, why was this? Because old workmen 
preferred keeping them so far malleable that they might be readily thin- 
ned by the hammer, and have only the finishing-edge put on by the hone, 
to making them brittle and hard, when nothing but tedious abrasions could 
restore or bring up a jagged or broken blade. ■> 

-) This examination was suggested to me in the first place by SeiER's 
important examination of a hammered copper axe from Mexico. By means 
of the scleroscope, Seler (2) had the hardness of this axe examined, both 
in the condition in which it was found and after it had been annealed. 



Ill 

I also had three axes made, A, B, and C, of which A 
was of ])ure copper, B contained 5 % of tin, and C 10 % 
of tin. When the}' were cast, it turned out that the metal 
in the copper axe, especially, was very blistery. 

The hardness of these axes w^as then tested by Mr 
Hultgren with a Brinell press, an instrument that is con- 
sidered by metallurgists to be much more reliable than the 
scleroscope. The hardness was first measured after the cast- 
ing, then after cold-hammering to different thicknesses, and 
lastly when the axes, after having been hammered, had again 
been annealed and the effect of the cold hammering removed. 

It was found that the pure copper could be cold-ham- 
mered up to a hardness of 128, the hardness after annealing 
being about 50. 

The 5 °o bronze could be cold-hammered up to a hard- 
ness of 203, the hardness after annealing being about 70. 

The 10 "^o bronze could be cold-hammered up to a hard- 
ness of 228, the hardness after annealing being about 85. 

From this we see that the hardness of copper cannot 
be increased by the admixture of 10 "o of tin as much as 
pure copper can be by hammering. By the addition of tin 
the copper has acquired a quality w^hich permits of its hard- 
ness being still further augmented by hammering. 

The advantage of adding 10 % of tin to the copper in- 
stead 5 %, was very small when the hardness was to be in- 
creased by hammering. 

The hardness was then compared with that of annealed copper. The axe 
is of practically pure copper. The result was as foll9ws: 

Hardness 

Edge of the axe 7.5 

annealed 3.9 

Middle 4.5 

annealed 4.,]. 

Other end 3.7 

annealed 3.7 

Annealed copper 3.6 

Clearly enough it is mainly tho edge of the axe where the hardness had 
been enhanced by the treatment. 



If we turn to the S. American bronzes that have been 
examined, it is evident that the Indians increased their 
hardness verv^ much by hammering. (See Appendix A). But 
they did not increase the hardness as much as might have 
been done. The art of cold-hammering was not sufficiently 
utilized. 

From the figures in the Appendix A we can see that a 
more stanniferous bronze is not necessarily harder than one 
containing less tin. The latter can be rendered harder than 
the former by being hammered. An examination would 
presumably reveal the fact that ornaments, even if they are 
occasionally of a bronze with a larger proportion of tin than 
that used in implements, are nevertheless not so hard. This 
seems to follow, too, from the tests of hardness with the 
scleroscope that Mathewson made on the bronzes from 
Machu Picchu. What value he assigns to his tests of hard- 
ness does not appear from his work, seeing that he makes 
no comparison between the figures he obtained. 

The following degress of hardness were obtained by 
Mathewson: 

Object Hardness % of 

Xo. Haft, Blad 

14 Tumi (see Fig. 40, 6) 14 27 3.67^) 

6 Blade of hoe (Fig. 40, 7) 15 24 30 3.71 

II Topu (Fig. 40, 9) 14 to 18 3.92 

18 Pin (Fig. 40, 14) 21 18 15 5.16 

20 Object, purpose unknown 

(Fig. 40, 16) 18 to 25 5.45 

16 Piece of hoe-blade (Fig. 40,17) 15 to 16 27 5.53 

21 Piece of metal 9 to 10 5.96 
2 Spoon-tipped handle (Fig. 41, 7) 14 to 15, 32 to 35 13.45 



^) Soft annealed alloys of this composition give a hardness number 
Ijelow I o. 



113 

Mathewson points out furtherniore that among the bron- 
zes from Machu Picchu examined by him, it was apparent- 
ly the hardest to cast that contained most tin, i. e. the 
finer ornaments. He is of opinion that the Indians added 
more tin than usual when the}^ wanted to cast such objects. 
I think it is at present very difficult to decide whether 
Mathewson was right in assuming that more tin was ad- 
ded to the copper when difficult figures were to be cast, 
for there are comparatively few analyses of the finer metal 
work which, according to Mathewson, should be of bronze 
with a high percentage of tin. Investigators have very 
naturally been averse from damaging these finer pieces of 
work by analysing them. 

The Table below neither refutes nor supports Mat- 
hewson's theory. It includes all the objects from Argenti- 
na, Peru, Bolivia, and Ecuador that have been analysed 
and have proved to contain more than lo °o of tin. They 
are but 23, of which 9 are implements or w^eapons^) . Unfor- 
tunately we have pictures of only some of the bronze orna- 
ments wdth a high percentage of tin, and it cannot be said 
of all of these that thev must have been hard to cast. 



1) To these must be added a couple of objects from Argentina called 
'Fragment tres oxj-de' and 'objet indetermine'. 



114 

Bronze Objects from Argentina, Peru, Bolivia, and 
Ecuador containing more than 10 % of tin. 



Place of Find 


Object 


% of tin 


Authority 


Chimbote 


Group of figures 


13.21 


Mead. 


Palasgache 


Pin 


10.48 


» 


Rio Pampaconas 


Axe (Fig. 41,6) 


12.03 


FOOTE & Bu- 
ELL. 


Machu Picchu 


Spatula? (Spoon) 








(Fig. 41, 7) 


1345 


Mathewson. 


Tiahuanaco 


Topu 


12.10 


Mead. 


» 


Pendeloque 








(Fig. 39, 13) 


10.59 


» 


Titicaca I. 


Axe (Fig. 42 j) 


10.02 


» 


» 


Topu 


10.62 


» 


Copacabana 


» 


12.68 


» 


Huata 


» 


10.50 


» 


Yiira 


» 


10.21 


BOMAN (l). 


» 


Disk 


II. 31 


» 


Omasuyu 


Axshaped object 


17.73 


(See Fig.2E) 


Sorata 


Head of Club 


11.42 


Forbes (i). 


Pulquina Mizque 


Axe 


1342 


See p. 167 


Sara 


Disk 


10-34 


» 


El Angel, Ecuador 


T-shaped axe 


1336 


JlJON Y CaA- 

MANO (2) . 


La Paya 


Chisel (Fig. 44, 21) 


13-52 


BOMAN (l). 


» » 


» 


55.6oAmbrosetti(3) . 


» » 


» 


30.15 


» 


Golgata 


Bracelet (Fig. 44,22 


) 14-13 


BOMAN (l). 


La Paya 


Disk 


17. — Ambrosetti(3). 


La Rioja 


Disk 


16.53^) 


Moreno. 



"5 



\ 

Figs. 4S,i -48,18. (Sec p. 116). Objects of bronze from the boundary 

districts of Peru and Bolivia that have been analysed. (All collected by 

the author). * ,. 



I. 


Tumi, 


Quiaca, R, 


, M. 


06. 


I. 177. 


2. 


Topu, 


Queara, 


•> 


» 


» 357- 


3- 


,> 


Pelechuco, 


-> 


» 


» 319- 


4- 


Axe, 


Pata, 


» 


» 


» 166. 


5- 


Tumi, 


OUachea, 


» 


» 


» 176. 


6. 


Topu. 


Queara, 


•> 


» 


» 35'8. 


7- 


Tumi, 


Ollachea, 


» 


» 


» 175- 


8. 


Axe, 


Quiaca, 


» 


» 


■> 165. 


9- 


Topu, 


Corani, 


" 


» 


» 521. 


10. 


» 


Pelechuco, 


» 


» 


» 316. 


II. 


Axe, 


Chuquesani, 


» 


i> 


» 168. 


12. 


Topu, 


Queara, 


» 


» 


'> 348. 


13- 


» 


» 


» 


-> 


'> 399- 


14. 


Tumi, 


Ollachea, 


» 


» 


» 173- 


15- 


Hoe (not 


finished) » 


» 


» 


» 172. 


16 


Axe, 


Quiaca, 


» 


» 


» 167. 


^7- 


Topu, 


Pelechuco, 


» 


» 


» 317- 



. Hoe, Ollachea, » » » i 

(See also the list of objects analysed p. 163). 



ii6 

CI 




¥ 7 




c: 



i:Jh - i.SO Z.Sn ~i95 ZSn - 2 V.Sn - S.^J ^Si - 9.M9 



%-^ 





6Jn - 2.67 TjSn -3 >/. S.Jn - J. Z9. 9^fn - ^03 fO^fn - ^M 





■fm-i/.67. iZSn-hsl i5.Jh-5. 




i^.Sn-5.0'/. 








5,58. 16. ^ ^ Sn-6.0, 



F:gs, 48,1—48,1! 



^^ 



117 




/.J^2-62/. x?X-7// J.Jh-Z^a-. ^/:Jn 78? 





^Sn^ 795^ 



6.Sn-d67 7Jn.~9c2 



Figs. 49,1 — 49,7- Tumis — t>f bronze from the boundary districts of Peru 
and Bolivia that have been analysed. (All collected by the author). 

1. Queara, R. M. 06. i. 349, (.See p. 162). 

2. Pelechuco, » » » 335, » 

3. Capamitas, » » » 404, 1/.. 

4. Queara, » » » 366, (See p. 162). 

5. » » » .>37i, Vs- 

6. Capamitas, » » » 405, Vs- 

7. » » » i> 361, (See p. 162). 



ii8 

Professor G. Bodman has analysed for me various very 
fine Topus from Chulpas in the border country of Peru and 
Bolivia (figs. 48 and 49) . They are ornamented with the heads 
of animals or with flower-buds, and some of them must have 
been hard to cast. It is scarcely possible to say whether the 
Topus that were hard to cast contain more tin than the simple 
ones. Ornaments from these parts certainly contain 
more tin than implements, but we do not know whether 
the former are from the same period as the latter. The or- 
naments were found in graves, the implements were occa- 
sional finds. 

The Indians must have discovered, as soon as they be- 
came acquainted with bronze, that bronze is easier to cast 
than pure copper. The question whether they purposely 
mixed more tin in the bronze that was to be made into fine 
ornaments than in the bronze for simple objects, does 
not, however, seem to be satisfactorily answered by the 
statistics. 

We must remember that even in the Copper Age the 
Indians made ornaments and implements that were hard 
to cast. To an Americanist, therefore, such an argument 
as Gowland's is incomprehensible; he writes: »In this 
connection there is an important fact, well known to metal- 
lurgists, but sometimes overlooked by archaeologists, which 
cannot be disregarded, i. e., that copper objects can only be 
cast in simple forms in an open mould. In a closed mould 
such as was necessary for palstaves or socketed celts and 
the like, copper cannot be satisfactorily used, as when so 
cast the implement or object would generally be full of 
cavities and worthless for any practical purpose. Hence it 
is that only flat celts and knife or dagger blades of simple 
forms could be made of copper. »i) 

The variation in the percentage of tin in the S. Ameri- 
can bronzes may, in my opinion, be explained by the Indi- 
ans having used different recipes at different periods for 
') P. 22. 



119 

adding the tin, or, and especially, by the difficulty of appor- 
tioning the tin. If the tin or tin ore was not weighed before 
being added to the copper, but was added, so to speak, by 
feeling, a variation of a few percent in the quantity of tin 
could easily arise at different castings. It should be re- 
membered that the variation of the proportion of tin in, for 
instance, a kilogramme of copper from 5 % to 10 %, means 
that only from 50 to 100 grammes of tin were added. As can be 
seen from the graphic representations on p. 125, the propor- 
tion of tin did not as a rule vary by more than a few percent. 
The copper objects that contained no tin are generally, as 
I have remarked, from the Copper Age, and those that con- 
tained a very small quantity of tin are generally from re- 
mote parts of the Inca Empire, where recourse was perhaps 
chiefly had to old broken bronze that was melted down time 
after time, and lost some proportion of the tin at each 
recasting, always provided that this tiny proportion of tin 
(below 1/2 %) was not due to impurities in the copper ore used. 
In the Old World, too, the tin in the bronze was not 
always very exactly apportioned in the Bronze Age. If, for 
instance, we regard the following table, given by Monte- 
Lius,^) of analyses from the Early Bronze Age of axes 'mit 
niedrigen Seitenranden und geschweifter bogenformiger 
Schneide, gewohnlich mit Andeutungen einer Rast', the 
variation in the proportion of tin in these axes is very simi- 
lar to that in the S. American implements of the Inca period. 
Here is the percentage of tin as stated by Montelius, to 
which I have added, for purpose of comparison, the percen- 
tage of tin in Tumis from IMachu Picchu. 

Axes (after MoNTEtius) Tumis (after Mathewson) 

Sn- 2.80, 2.95, 2.96, 4., 4.24, Sn- o., 3., 3.67, 4.22,4.82, 

452, 5.68, 5.81, 6.28, 5.12, 5.12, 6.60, 7.14, 

6.36, 7.40, 7.81, 8.22, 8.89, 8.99. o\ 
«-55- %■ 



1) (I) Vol. 23, p. 465, 



120 

GowLAND^) writes: »In fiftj'-seven anah'ses of flat axes 
the percentage of tin ranges from 3.0 to 13. i. In twenty- 
five examples only do the proportions range from 8 to 11 
per cent. In six the tin exceeds 11, and in twenty-six is 
less than 8 per cent. » 

He goes on to sa^^: »In palstaves there is great diver- 
sity in the proportions of tin. In nine examples, two con- 
tain 9.2 and 10.9 per cent respectively, whilst in five the 
amounts range from 4.3 to 6.1, and two have 18.3 percent 
each. 

GowLAND^) also records that near vSegeberg in Slesvig- 
Holstein a bronze axe was found containing 1.25 % of tin 
along with two bronze armlets containing 5.83 % and 
6-35 % respectively. 

If we compared the analyses of all manner of copper 
and bronze objects from the Old World, from different 
times and different localities, we should certainly find that 
the tin had been mixed with the copper quite as much at 
random as the Indians are supposed to have done. 

The possibility is not altogether precluded that the In- 
dians sometimes added tin to the copper in order to give 
objects a more golden colour. Baessler^) mentions that in his 
collection he has several objects with this golden lustre. 
A bronze mirror(?) containing 90.64 % of copper and 9.38 % 
of tin, has such a beautiful gold lustre that before making 
a close examination of it BaesseER was under the im- 
pression that it was gilded. The fact is that on the Pe- 
ruvian coast the Indians understood the art of gilding and 
silvering copper. 

The Indians of Columbia made a speciality of altering 
the colour of metals'*). They mixed copper and gold in all 



>) P- 33- 

^) P. 23. 

=») (i) P. 5. 

*) vSee DK Crequi-Montkdkt. Rivkt and Absand.\ux, p. 556, 



possible proportions, and, as has recently been shown by 
Absandaux, Rivet and de Crequi-Montfort, conld re- 
deem the copper from the surface of an object made of 
copper mixed with gold, by means of a vegetable acid, so 
that only gold remained. 

We must however, also be on our guard against assuming, 
from the colour alone, that tin is present or not, as some in- 
vestigators have done. Copper that contains much arsenic also 
has a gold lustre. Copper of this kind was in use among the 
Indians on the Peruvian coast, and they seem to have used 
it chiefly for the points of hoes or spits. The hardness 
of an implement of this sort (containing Cu 95.62 %, As 
4.27 %, Sb 0,08 %) has been tested by Mr Hultgren, and 
the result shows that the hardness, which had been increased 
by hammering, is not less than in the implements that are 
made of bronze containing about the same amount of tin 
as these do arsenic. It is possible that the Indians who had 
access to this arseniferous copper were not particularly an- 
xious to barter for bronze from the mountain region, their 
arseniferous copper being almost equally hard though more 
brittle. 



122 



CHAPTER VIII. 

The Standardization of Bronze in Inca Times. 

I pointed out in the previous chapter that during the 
S. American Bronze Age tin was probably not always 
apportioned according to the same recipe. 

In the graphic representations (Fig. 50 — 54) we can see 
the variations in the percentage of tin in the bronzes that 
have been analysed from the Chulpas, the Peruvian coast, 
Tiahuanaco, Machu Picchu, Titicaca Island, and Argentina. 
This shows the variations in the percentage of it better than 
if they were expressed in maxima, minima, and averages. 
Even the averages may depend very largel}^ on fortuitous 
circumstances when there are so few analyses under consid- 
eration. 

It will be noted that the proportion of tin in the bron- 
zes from Argentina varies much more than in the bronzes 



123 

from Machu Picchu. In the latter the proportion of tin in 
most of the objects is between 3 % and 6 %. Machu Picchu 
is Incarian, and all the objects found there are from Incan 
times, x)resumabl3' late Incan. The Bronzes from Argentina 
may be from ver}' various times. They are also from a 
much wider tract. 

If we compare the anah'ses from Machu Picchu with 
those from the Peruvian coast, we shall find that, with the 
exception of numerous objects of pure copper, the great 
majority of the bronzes from the latter tract also have a 
percentage of tin of 3 % to 6 %. The explanation of this 
conformity may be that the bronzes from the Peruvian 
coast, like those from Machu Picchu, are for the most part 
presumably Incan. I have already pointed out that it 
probably was not until the conquest of the coastal regions 
b}- the Incas that bronze came into universal use there. 

If we then compare the analyses from Machu Picchu 
with those from Tiahuanaco and the Chulpas, we shall find 
that the percentage of tin in the bronzes from the latter 
is somewhat higher than in those from Machu Picchu. 
Whether this is mere chance, due to the insufficiency of 
the material analysed, the future must decide. Of the bron- 
zes from the Chulpas it ma}' be said that on the whole they 
must have been harder to cast than those analysed from 
Machu Picchu. But the same cannot be said of the objects 
anaWsed from Tiahuanaco. 

Occasional finds from the border districts of Peru 
and Bolivia, which Professor Bodman has analysed for me, 
have on an average a lower percentage of tin than grave 
finds, i. e. the finds from the Chulpas. But, as we have 
remarked, it is unknown to what extent the two kinds of 
finds are contemporaneous. 

From the graphic representations showing the propor- 
tion of tin in the bronzes from Titicaca Island, I would con- 
clude that the objects analysed are in part from Incan 
times, in part from the Chulpas, which is confirmed b)' 



124 

Eandeijer's investigations^ of the archaeological remains 
on the Island. 1) J| 

It appears from what I have said, that although the 
material analysed is insufficient and to a great extent un- 
satisfactorily collected, we can speak of a standardizing of 
the bronze in Incan times, or in late Incan times. 

^) It is evidently, at least in part, the material that BandeltER col- 
lected on Titicaca Island that is used by Mead for his analyses. 



125 



Number of objects ajiah'sed 
/23^/567S9/0 



rj 
























/ 










__ 


___ 








- — 




0-1 

1-2 
2-5 

^1-5 
5-6 

^-9 
9-/0 
/0-1j 

n-iz 

12-/5 

15-/^ 

ms 

15-/6 


^ 






















N 


^\^ 


























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.^^ 


' ^ 


















^^^ 


^ 


















1 

1 




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^-- 


,—' 


'-" 


. 




— 












--.. 


^_ 


















^ 


--'' 










































^ 


^ 






















































































y\ 














































\ 











Fig. 50. Comparison between the % of tin in the bronze articles from 

Machu Picchu and those from the coast of Peru. The black line shows 

the % of tin in the former, the dotted line in the latter. 



126 



Number of objects analysed. 



W 

























/ 












'-""- 


-.^ 


^^ 


















,.- 


-"^^ 






\ 


























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--- 


. 


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^ 


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1 












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S=^^ 






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^. 


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f- 






















K 























7 






















'^. 




1 


















i 




















1 



o-/ 

/-£ 

k-5 

5-6 
6-7 

• S-tO 
to-// 

iH2 

W5 
/5-/6 
t6i7 

17-1d 



Fig. 51. Comparison between the % of tin in the bronze articles from 
Machu Picchu and Argentina. The black line shows the % of tin in the 
former, the dotted line in the latter. Four objects from Argentina with 
2 91 "y, 22.40 %, 30.15 % and 55.60 % of tin, respectively, are not included. 



127 



Number of objects analysed. 





J 


'231^^6769/0 


n 
























0-/ 
/-2 
2-3 


A 





- -■ 


--- 


- - - 


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5-6 
I 6-7 

3-9 
9-/0 
/O-// 
//-/§ 

/3-/^ 

m5 


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-— 

















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^, 


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/ 






















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__ 



Fig. 52. Comparison between the % of tin in the bronze articles from 

Machu Picchu and those from Tiahuanaco. The black line shows the ^'q 

of tin in the former, the dotted in the latter. 



128 



Number of objects analysed. 

1 2 5 ij- 5 6 7 



8 




Fig. 53. Comparison between the % of tin in the bronze articles from 

Machu Picchu and those from the Island of Titicaca. The black line 

shows the % of tin in the former, the dotted in the latter. 



129 



Number of objects analysed. 

2 d ^/ 5 6 7 



a 9 




Fig. 54. Comparison between the % of tin in the bronze articles from 

Machu Picchu and those from the Chulpas. The black line shows the "o 

of tin in the former, the dotted in the latter. 



CHAPTER IX. 

Where were the Copper and Tin Ores obtained, and 
where were the Copper and Bronze objects made. 

I have already mentioned that, according to Barba, a 
tin mine and a few copper mines were worked in pre-Co- 
lumbian times. The tin mine was near L. Titicaca, at Cara- 
buco, but several other copper mines and probably other 
tin mines, too, were worked by the Indians. 

As we know, Bolivia is now one of the chief tin produc- 
ing countries, all the tin coming from cassiterite. At sever- 
al places, i. e. in the auriferous sand at Tipuani, so-called 
stream-tin is found, and is separated from the alluvium by 



131 

washing.^) As the cassiterite is heavy, (specific gravity, 
6.8 to 7), it remains in the bnddle to thelast with the gold. 
It is not unlikely that it was while washing for gold that 
Indians first observed cassiterite, which has no other quali- 
ties than its weight that could have aroused their interest. 
It is brittle, and has not a metallic appearance^) 

Cassiterite has not been found in Peru except at Moho 
near L. Titicaca, where it occurs as a rarity together with 
plumbostannite^). Nor has cassiterite been found in Ecua- 
dor.'') It may be objected that Peru and Ecuador are so 
little known that there may be undiscovered tin mines. This 
is possible, though scarcely in the parts that belong to the 
cultural regions of the Incas. 

As far as we know, therefore, the Indians in Peru and 
Ecuador got the tin for their bronze from Bolivia. This 
presupposes that throughout these parts the Indians were 



M Forbes (2) p. 133/ mentions that native tin has been found at 
Tipuani. He devotes a detailed discussion to this, which he finds very 
remarkable. He even throws out the supposition that the tin might be 
derivable from the pumps at the gold-washings, on whirh certain parts 
were of tin. But he rejects this theory because the metallic tin occurs in 
such quantities and in such large pieces. The largest piece Forbes found 
weighed 505 grs. He goes on to say: )>Are we to suppose that some of 
the Cassiterite may have been reduced and melted by forests on fire, as 
before hinted as possible although not very probable? I record the facts 
here, but must say I am puzzled to come to a definite conclusion; for the 
tin itself in no specimen yet observed was associated with a veritable rock 
matrix. True it is that it was always extremely impure, and contained 
stony matter throughout its substance, as if entangled in it, as would be 
expected in case it had been thrown on to ground when in a fused state; 
yet its appearance left the distinct impression in the mind of its having been 
melted in an ordinary manner. » Forbes, p. 135. (Researches on the 
Mineralogy of South America II.) 

2) This presumes that the Indians invented bronze themselves, and 
did not originally get the invention from the Old World. 

^) See Raimondi, p. 168. Enock, who studied the occurrences oi 
minerals in the greater part of Peru, writes therefore on p. 1S4 that he 
came across all sorts with the exception of tin. 

*} Jij5x V Caamano (2), p. 23. 



132 

in lively commercial intercourse with Bolivia. We have 
also concluded that it was not until the Incas had con- 
quered the country that the Indians of the Peruvian coast 
and Ecuador presumably passed ovet in general from the 
Copper Age to the Bronze. It was thanks to the highly de- 
veloped system of communications organized b}^ the Incas 
that the Indians in a large part of western S. America were 
enabled to get in touch with the tin mines of Bolivia. To 
the north of the Incan Empire or the Continent, i. e. to 
what is now Columbia, the knowledge of bronze, as we have 
mentioned, never spread. 

In Argentina much cassiterite has been found in Puna 
\^' de Atacama^) and in La Rioja^), and the Indians there may 
very possibly have been independent of the Bolivian tin 
mines. This would explain why local forms, in contra- 
distinction to those in Ecuador and the Peruvian coast, are 
generall}^ of bronze and not of pure copper in Argentina. 

The question is in what form the tin was sent out from 
the districts where there was tin ore. It may have been in 
the form of finished bronze implements, in the form of un- 
wrought -bronze metal, as tin ore, or as pure tin.' Since 
copper existed in Peru and Ecuador, and only the tin was 
wanted, they possibly got it in mineral form, or even 
as pure tin. 

At Machu Picchu Bingham found pieces of pure tin, 
which seems to prove that in Incan times the Indians there 
knew this metal and were not forced to obtain bronze by 
alloying tin ore and copper ore. Mathewson^) also points 
out that most of the bronzes found at Machu Picchu are of 
such fine quality, a mixture so free from impurities, that 
the metals were probably not mixed until they had been 
melted down from the ores. 

But the possibility always exists that the tin Bingham 



*) Walther Prxcic, p. 23. 
2) Ambrosetti (i) p. 182. 



133 

found at Machu Picchu is post-Columbian. Against the 
theory that pure tin was kno\Yn in pre-Columbian times we 
have the circumstance that, in spite of the quantities of 
archaeological finds made "within the old cultural area, of 
the western part of South-America, there is not a single 
find of ])ure tin from any other place than Machu Picchu^) 
If pure tin, and not tin ore, had been in general use 
for mixing with copper to make bronze, there should be 
some occasional find of an article made of tin. There 
never has been. Nor has tin been found emplo3^ed for 
soldering; when two copper-pieces were to be joined 
together, the method employed was welding. (See 
Appendix B.) In post-Columbian times, on the other hand, 
pure tin came into very general use among the Indians. 

Very likely it was not until late Incan times — and 
Machu Picchu is presumably late Incan — that the Indians 
got so far that they could make pure tin. This would ex- 
plain the standardization of the percentage of tin that can 
be noticed at Machu Picchu, for it must have been easier 
to obtain the desired percentage of tin in the bronze by 
mixing tin and copper than by mixing tin ore and copper 
ore. If it was only a short time before the Conquest that 
the Indians became acquainted with pure tin, this would 
explain why no tin articles have been found among the 
innumerable objects discovered, for instance, on the 
Peruvian coast. 2) 

To judge from what we know about Indian barter, it 
is probable that bronze was also circulated in the form of 
finished articles. This was perhaps the commonest way. 
But it would of course not prevent these articles from being 
afterwards melted down and recast in new forms. 

It is also possible that ver\- stanniferous bronze, which 



^) I do not include the doubtful find of pure tin at Tipuani. 

^) A few objects of lead, on the other hand, have been found there and 
described (Baessler, (i) p. 169). It is doubtful whether they are pre- 
Columbian or not. 



134 

was afterwards mixed with pure copper, was obtained 
from the districts where there was tin. Bertonio, as I men- 
tioned before, speaks of a kind of copper which the Indians 
used as we use steel, and which became stronger by being 
mixed with other copper. He seems to be referring to very 
stanniferous bronze which was capable of use when mixed 
\\ith other copper. Ver>^ stanniferous bronze of this kind 
is really found in Argentina. Two bronze implements have 
been found there containing as much as 30 and 55 % of tin. 
These were of course quite unserviceable as implements, 
but they show us perhaps in what form, at least sometimes, 
the bronze circulated about from Bolivia to distant tracts. 

In the rich collections of the Ethnographical Museum 
of Berlin I tried to find objects that I imagined could be 
of such a bronze. I succeeded in finding a small axe-shaped 
object (Fig. 2 E) from Omasuyu in Bolivia that seemed 
to be of such a bronze with a large % of tin. This axe 
has no edge and can never have been used as an imple- 
ment. When analysed it contained 17.78 % of tin, It 
has a hole in the middle, probably for suspending. 

In Argentina bronze was certainh^ melted in crucibles, 
as these have been found there! The metal remaining in 
one of them has been analysed and found to have the same 
composition as the commonest bronzes.^) Several casting- 
moulds have also been found in Argentina. One has 
also been found in Ecuador ^), and is for a type of axe 
that is generally of bronze. From Argentina Ambro- 
SETTi^) describes and depicts a casting-mould of terra-cotta 
for a T-shaped axe. A mould of porous earth, in which 
were presumblay cast little round disks, was found by De- 
BENEDETTi^) at Barrealito in San Juan. He also speaks of 
finds of other moulds in Argentina. A form of metamor- 
phosed slate ['pizarra metamorfa) in which some curious or- 

^) Sn, 4.854. Cu, 95.055. Fe, 0.090. I,oss, o.ooi. Debenedetti(2) p. 116. 

*) BUi.HWAtD. 

') Ambrcsetti, El Bronce, Fig. 6. 
*) (2) p. 117. 



135 

uaiuent was cast, is depicted by Posnansky^) from Tia- 
huanaco. It is ver}- doubtful whether this is pre-Columbian. 
But the fact remains clear that all the way from Ecuador 
to San Juan in Argentina the art of casting was understood. 
It is impossible that the art should have been un- 
known in the central parts of the Inca Empire when it was 
known on the outskirts. The Col umb ian Indians, as we 
knoii-, were very clever at casting by the method called 'a 
cire perdue'. 

Whereas tin is only found in part of the old territory 
of the Inca Empire, copper is found almost everywhere, 
and the trade in copper is scarcely likely to have been very 
extensive, though, for all we know, it may have been. 

In all probability the Indians used native copper to a 
large extent, it being found at Corocoro in Bolivia and at 
many places in Peru^) Boman assumes that besides native 
copper the Indians used copper silicate (Chrysocolla) and 
presumably also copper carbonate (Malachite and Azurite) 
and cuprous oxychloride (Atacamite). He considers 
the copper used for the Tiahuanaco cramps previously spok- 
en of, to be 'd'lm'sulfure de cuivre'. 

Boman has already called attention to the importance 
of studying the impurities in copper and bronze objects in 
order to discover what kind of copper mineral the Indians 
used in different localities. Jijon y Caamano has gone 
further. He has published, as we have said, a large number 
of analyses of copper and bronze objects from Ecuador. 
The analyses have been carried out bj' Mestanza. For 
each analysis the latter has used about one gramme. Eight 
of the objects analysed contained tin. All the objects ana- 
lysed contained a little lead, varying from o.oi % to 1.14 
*'o, as well as iron, varying from 0.03 % to 0.55 %. All 
but one contained traces of arsenic, 13 traces of zinc, and 9 
traces of silver. Jijon y Caamano points out that the same 



1) (2) fig. 38 K. 

■-) Raimondi, p. 84. 



136 

impurities recur in the pure copper objects as in most 
of the bronzes, and from this draws the conclusion that if 
the copper in the pure copper objects is from Ecuador, the 
copper in these bronzes is from the same locality. On the 
other hand, he thinks the tin was imported, as tin ore has 
never been found in Ecuador. Basing his opinion on the 
find in Machu Picchu, he holds that the tin was imported 
in the form of pure tin. 

JijON Y Caamano has furthermore made a list of all 
the known analyses of copper and bronze objects from S. 
America with the same impurities. He places together, 
for instance, all the analyses that, besides Cu + Sn, yielded 
Fe + Pb, or Fe + Pb + Sb, etc., and in this way he obtains 
39 varieties. But the question remains whether the material 
of known anal^^ses is serviceable in its entirety for such an 
investigation, which Jijon y Caamano himself seems to be 
doubtful about. If we go through all the known analyses, 
we shall find that WiSSLER, for instance, in his analyses, 
published by Mead, — and these are the greatest number 
that have been published — has not always fully investigat- 
ed the impurities. The problem that Mead had set out to 
solve was to decide whether the tin had been intentionally 
or unintentionally mixed with the copper. Very small 
quantities of metal were used for the analyses. Wissler, 
who made the analyses, says: »Owing to the small amount of 
drillings taken for the analyses, in some cases onl}- o. 07 gram. 
the results should be taken as a close approximation of the 
true composition)). If we look at the tables of analyses in 
DE Crequi-Montfort and Rivet's work, we shall find that 
25 objects from Tiahuanaco were analysed, 7 of which were 
published by Boman. In all these iron has been found. In 
the remaining 18 objects, according to the analyses, iron 
occurs in only one. The analysis of this object was publish- 
ed by Uhle. The 17 objects examined by Wissler were 
presumbly not tested for iron. In the same way Boman 
found lead in most (6) of the objects he examined Wiss- 



-^37 

i,ER found lead in one object only, in another the occurrence 
of lead is stated as (?), in five lead is said to be absent, 
and no detail is given about the remainder. Boman found 
sulphur in both the cramps from Tiahuanaco that he 
"examined. In the 5 cramps that WisslER examined, he 
only found traces of sulphur in one. 

There is cause to doubt whether the other analyses 
from Tiahuanaco were as detailed as Boman's, and whether 
several other objects from there would not prove to contain 
lead, and even iron. 

If we compare the analyses from N. Argentina publish- 
ed by Boman, with most of the others from there, the for- 
mer strike us as far more complete. When two chemists 
analyse the same object, they may arrive at very different 
results. Ambrosetti^) got two chemists to analyse two axes. 
One found iron in both, but no lead. The other found traces 
of lead, but no iron. In one axe one of the chemists found 
1.8 % of nickel. The other chemist does not mention nickel. 
The anaWses claim to be complete. 

This does not stand in the way of Jijon y Caamano 
being engaged in a right method, which has been used with 
advantage in the Old World. One should only make use of 
such analyses as are complete. Among these we may count, 
besides Boman's, those especially of Baessler, Mathew^son, 
and the analyses published by Jijon y Caamano himself.^) 

From the material of complete analyses as we now 
know it, the fact remains that certain combinations of 
impurities are characteristic of certain districts, caused by 
a certain kind of copper ore having been used. Antimony 
ma}' also come, as Boman has pointed out, from impurities 

^) In the present work only some of the analyses are complete. The 
reason of this is in part that if a complete analysis is to be exact the che- 
mist requires about i gramme of material, and so much cannot often be 
sacrificed without considerably damaging the object analysed. Again, it 
is very expensive to have a large number of analyses carried out. It must 
have hurt Dr. J IJON y Caamano to take a gramme of metal from each of 
the beautiful 'tincuUpas' examined by him. 



138 

in the tin. The virgin tin from Machu Picchu contains a 
little antimony- (0.08 °o)- 

Traces of arsenic have been found in all save one of the 
copper and bronze objects from Ecuador that have been 
analysed by Mestanza. Considerable quantities of arsenic 
— 1.55, 2.14, 4.03, 4.27 and 4.43 %. — have been found in 
five objects from the Peruvian coast. Only one object from 
the mountains of Peru and Bolivia has proved to contain 
arsenic. In Argentina traces of arsenic have been found in 
two bronze disks and a copper cramp, while a copper disk 
proved on analysis to contain not less than 5.20 "o of arsenic. 
This is one of the few objects from Argentina that are free 
from tin. The analysis is published by Boman^). One may 
well wondre whether the object in question, or the metal for 
it, was not imported into Argentina from the Peruvian coast. 

Sulphur occurs in small quantities in many of the bronzes 
from Machu Picchu, but is rare in vS. American coi)per 
objects from other places. Boman, as I mentioned, has 
recorded that it is present in the two cramps from Tiahua- 
naco that he had analysed. 

lycad is an ingredient in all the objects from Ecuador that 
JijON Y Caamano has analysed. It seems to be rare, on 
the other hand, in things found on the Peruvian coast. In 
copper objects from the mountains of Peru it still seems 
to be rare, is somewhat commoner in Bolivia, and general 
in Argentina. 

Antimony occurs above all in bronze objects from the 
tracts round L. Titicaca. In the objects from Ecuador no 
antimony has been found in what has been analysed. From 
the coast of Peru Mead mentions traces of antimony in a 
knife, and Dr Almstrom found 0.7 "„ of antimony in a 
copper hoe that he analysed for me, while in another he 
found 0,08 ^'o. Antimony is not mentioned from Machu 
Picchu and Cuzco. Ii N. Argentina traces of antimony have 
been found in three objects, in E. Bolivia in one and at 
Parana-Guazu in another one. 



139 

Nickel is rare. It has been found in four objects from 
Ivcuador, and in five from Argentina. Bismuth occurs in a 
few objects from iVrgentina with a compHcated but curious- 
ly similar composition 

Cu vSii Fe Ag Vh Zu Hi 
Region Calchafiui: disk 94.98 2.58 o.ii tr. 0.22 1.65 0.23 AmbrosrtTi 

2, p. J04 
» i> » 94. — 3.07 0.08 tr. 1.04 1. 15 0.36 » 

» » » 93-55 3-46 0.75 — 0.18 1. 01 0.82 » 

I,urarat;ui (Mol, Salta) 94-95 3-03 o-37 — 0.21 0.94 0.33 » 

Bisnnith has been foiuid in^only three other objects, two 
found by me in the Queara valley in N. Bolivia near the 
Peruvian border and one in E. Bolivia. 

Very similar is the composition of the 'laminas de co- 
bre' found by Torres in a mound at Parana Guazu. It is 
also highly probable that these, which must have reached 
Rio Parana from the mountains by trade intercourse, de- 
rive from the same place. 

Cu vSn Pb Zn Fe Sb Torres, p. 578 

Lamina i 95.8S0 1.414 0.752 0.282 tr. tr. » 

» 2 91425 0.609 0.366 0.488 tr. — » 

» 3 86.088 3.282 0.746 0.300 tr. — » 

» 4 91.890 0.768 0.171 0.340 tr. — » 

We are reminded of the Calchaqui district, where zinc 
occurs, in addition to the above-mentioned disks, in two 
other objects, a disk and a 'fragment de placjue'. Apart 
from undoubtedly post-Columbian things, zinc has only 
been proved to occur in two objects from Machu Picchu, 
one from E. Bolivia and in a few from Ecuador. JiJON 
Y Caamano^) also compares the composition of the objects 
from Parana-Guazu with the composition of the disks from 
the Calchaqui district, and writes: wEstas composiciones 
parecen bastante locilizadas en la porcion andina de la 
Republica Argentina, de donde obtenian quizas, sus objetos 
metalicos, los aborigines del Parana-Guazu. » 



140 




Fig. 55. Bolas of copper from Kscoma on L. Titicaca. R. M. 03. i 



7. 192. V, 



CHAPTER X. 

The Origins of the S. American Copper and Bronze 
Ages in the S. American Stone Age. 

In the previous chapters I have attempted to study 
the S. American copper objects in order to find out, as far 
as possible, the relative chronolog}' of the different forms, 
and to unravel, from various points of view, the problem 
of the development of the Bronze Age from the Copper Age. 
I will now pass on to an attempt at collecting such facts as 
seem to show that the S. American Copper and Bronze Ages 
have their roots in the S. American Stone Age. An investiga- 
tion of this kind must precede a discussion concerning the 
delicate question as to whether there is an}^ connection 
whatsoever between the Copper and Bronze Ages in the Old 
World and in the New^ 

It is of great interest to find objects of stone, wood, 
bone, or fruits corresponding to the copper objects found in 
S. America. 



141 

The T-shaped axe, as we know, is also found in stone, 
and in this form the stone axe has had a greater distribution 
than the copper and bronze ones. This distribution has been 
studied with the greatest exactitude by RivET and Ver- 
NEAu^). They sum up the result of their investigation as 
follows: »A notre avis, les trois varietes de haches a oreilles que 
nous venous de decrire sont toutes derivees les unes des autres 
par suite d'une evolution progressive, marquee par I'ame- 
lioration constante des procedes de fixation de I'outil au 
manche. . . La hache a oreilles semble etre un type essen- 
tiellement sud-americain, dont I'origine doit etre cherchee, 
croyons nous, chez les peuplades de Test et du nord-est de 
ce continent, son introduction sur les hauts plateaux n'etant 
que secondaire. Dans cette region, aux mains de popula- 
tions plus civilisees, I'outil evolua rapidement vers des for- 
mes plus pratiques et plus maniables, et nous verrons que 
c'est la enfin I'instrument de pierre fut remplace par I'in- 
strument de cuivre. » 

As we see from this quotation RivET and Verneau are 
sure that the T-shaped metal axe is a copy of the T-shaped 
stone axe. Because of the extensive distribution of the T- 
shaped stone axe, I am inclined to think the famous French 
archaeologists are right. An argument in favour of the T- 
shaped stone axe being more original than the T-shaped me- 
tal axe is the circumstance that in the border districts of 
Peru and Bolivia I did not come across a single axe of any 
other type than this save its closely related 'hache a encoche'.^) 
Quantities of these axes (see Map 2) are to be found there. 
In other parts of Bolivia that I visited they are only to be 
found sporadically, the prevailing types of axes being quite 
different. If in N. E. Bolivia and the bordering districts of 
Peru they had not become acquainted with this type of axe 
until they had established communications with the cultur- 
ed metal region in the west, we should in these parts find 



') (I) P. 153- 

2) The distribution is studied by RivET and VkrnEau. A copper 
axe of this shape is depicted in Fig. 2 F. 



142 



Map. 2. Map showing the most important types of stone axes found 
by me during my travels in E. Bolivia and surrounding territories. In 
addition to my finds are included some axes found by von Rosen in the 
Tarija Valley. From the schematic drawings we can see not only the 
types of the axes found, but also their approximate number. The all 
black figures indicate that these types of axes were in use recently, or 
still are in use, in that district; the size of the drawings has no signifi- 
cation in there cases. 

In the explanator}' figures, the T-shaped axe with semicircular edge 
has not been included, as it only occurs in two examples. Minor va- 
riations in the shapes of the axes are not indicated in the map; only the 
main types are shown. 

The route of my last journey in S. America (1913 — -1914) is alone 
marked on the map. 

All the axes depicted on the map are kept either at the Gothenburg 
Museum or at the Riksmuseum in Stockholm 



143 




/. 2-5 6-10 lf-8.5 26-SO 
luiuia 

6 

/ 2-5 6-iO li-9.5 26-50 



Map 



144 

some type of stone axe that was in earlier use. The distri- 
bution of this type of axe in the territory I examined also 
speaks in favour of Rivet and Verne au's assumption that 
the people of the Andes got it from the east. 

On the other hand there is something to be said for the 
theory that the T-shaped metal axes are more original than 
the T-shaped stone ones. It is possible to imagine, I take 
it, that the Indians who had no access to copper, or not 
enough copper, should have copied the metal axes in stone, 
and that these types of stone axes based on metal ones 
should have been passed on to places far away where it was 
impossible to get copper. These types of stone axes may 
afterwards have been modified somewhat to make them 
less fragile. The T-shaped axe that is to be used for prac- 
tical jDurposes has actually a shape that is much more 
natural in metal than in brittle stone. In Egypt, as I 
shall point out shortly, this form of axe occurs both in 
stone and metal. Flinders Petrie considers the Egyptian 
stone axes of the T-shape to be copies of the metal axes of 
that shape. 

The T-shaped stone axe is still in use, or at least was 
in use a few years ago among the little tribes east of Cuzco. 
The axe here depicted (Fig. 56 a) from one of these tribes, 
the Huaichipairi, is hafted in the same way as a T-shaped 
copper axe from Peru that is preserved in Madrid. 
(Fig. 56 b). 

Stone axes with a little hole in them, like those of metal 
(Fig. 5 d) have been found pretty generally, especially in 
Ecuador. Their distribution has been very carefully stud- 
ied by Rivet and Verneau^). I never came across them 
in my travels. 

The star-shaped club-head of copper was, as we know, 
a commonly used weapon in Inca times, and numbers of 
these club-heads have been found in various parts of the old 



145 






a « 

Figs. 56 a — 56 c. 
a — Hafted T-shaped stone axe from the Huaichipairi Indians in Peru. 

Modern. (R. M. 05. 16. 406) 1 g. 
b — Hafted T-shaped axe of copper from Peru. (After BoM.\x (i), fiij. 

15 b.) V/.. 
c — Hoe with plate of iron. Fiom the Quichua Indians. Modern. (R. 

M. 05. 16. 274). Vo- 



^^^^(//fUC'UiS 



W^/.^.//x/.^.^ >^ 





a b c ^ 

rigs- 57 a — 57 d. vSquare knives Vi- 
a— of stone. Coast of Peru, After Baessi.er (i), fig. 74a. 
b— » copper, Chuquitanta, » » » » 75- 

c — » wood, Choroti (Modern), G. M. 13. i. 113. 



146 

territory of the Incan Empire.^) Exactly similar ones of 
stone have been pretty commonly found in the same dis- 
tricts. 2) Round stone rings have a very wide distribution 
in S. America, and were presumably used there for various 
purposes. 3) Thus, the Aymara Indians still use them as net 
sinkers. At lea in Peru have been found clubs with heads of 
similar stone rings. In the Museum fiir Volkerkunde in Ber- 
lin there is a simple copper ring from Carabuco in Bolivia 
(V. A. 12407) which was probably used, like the stone rings, 
as a club-head. 

As far as we can judge, the star-shaped club-head of 
stone is a specialized form of the simple stone ring, just as 
the star-shaped club-head of copper is a specialized form 
of the simple copper ring. But the development need not 
necessarily have proceeded in such a way that they first 
had the simple stone ring and then invented the star-shaped 
club-head of stone in its various forms. We may well imagine 
that they first had the simple stone ring, then copied it in 
metal, and then varied the forms of these club-heads in the 
more easily worked metal in different ways, inventing, among 
other things, the star-shaped club-head. This in its turn 
was again copied in stone. We must take into consideration 
a development of that sequence. The stone weapons cer- 
tainly did not disappear with the introduction of metals, 
metal and stone being used by turns right into Incan times. 
In all probability the clubs from lea with big stone rings 
were therefore from a time when metals were known, most 
likely from Incan times. They are extremely well pre- 
served. 

Square copper knives have been found in Argentina^), 
in the coastal regions of Peru^), in the border districts of Peru 



1) Rivet and Verneau P. 279. 

2) » » » P. 172. 

3) » » » P. 166. 

*) Ambrosetti, El Bronce, p. 193. 
*) BAESStER (1), fig. 75- 



147 

and Bolivia^), and in Chile'-). Baesslkr^) has already point- 
ed ont that stone knives of this type are also found on the 
Peruvian Coast. (Fig- 57 a). In my excavations at Caipi- 
pendi in S. Bolivia I also found stone knives of this kind. 
The Indians at Caipipendi had some pure copper, but com- 
monly used stone axes. It is doubtful whether the stone 
or metal variety of square knife was the original one. The 
Indians in the Chaco commonly had the same type of knife 
made of hard wood (Fig. 57 c). I have seen it copied there 
in old broken iron (Fig. 57 d). 

The little club or bolas from Escoma on L. Titicaca, 
depicted in Fig. 55, is evidently a copper imitation of a 
fastened bolas stone; even the plaiting on the thong of 
raw^-hide that probably held the stone, is indicated on the 
copper object. 

We can imagine the copper spear-head to have been an 
imitation of the bone ones. Similar heads, still in use, e. g. 
among the Caraja, are so hafted that, as in the copper spear- 
heads, the shaft is stuck into the head. 

A great number of copper bells have been found in S. 
America, as well as in Central America and Mexico. RivET 
and Verneau*) have given a careful account of their distri- 
bution. In the main we can distinguish two types, one with 
a little loop (Fig. 58 c) and another (Fig. 58 b) with small 
holes for passing string through for hanging purposes. The 
latter type seems to me to be typologically younger than 
the former, this type of bell being very likely an imitation 
of certain palm-nuts. The resemblance between a palm- 
nut and the copper bell here reproduced after SavillE, is strik- 
ing. Palm-nuts are used, for instance by the Pauserna In- 
dians, as dangles on the belt (Fig. 58 a). The suspension 
holes in the palm-nuts are natural. Similar bells have also 



1) NORDENSKIOI.D (l), PI. II, fig. 

•) Latcham, p. 13, fig. 5. 

') (I) P- 41- 

») p- 313- 



148 









Figs. 58a — 58f. Bells or rattles of palmnut or metal. 
a— Palm-nut, Pendant to belt from the Pauserna Indians, Rio Guaporc. 

G. M. 15. I. 868. 

b— Bell of copper, Ecuador, After SAvai<E, T. II, Pi- LXVI, fig. 12. (Diam. 1.3 cm.) 

c — » » » Lima, » Baessi,ER (i), fig. 516. Vi- 

d — » » » Chuquitanta, » » (i). " 5i3- '/i- 

e — » » bronze, Chiriqui » Holmes, (i). » 42. 

f — » » bronze, » » » » 41. 

»plated or washed with goldi>. 



149 

been made of walnuts. One is described by Eric von Rosen^) 
from Casabindo in Puna de Jujuy. Similar ones were also 
found by Ambrosetti^) in La Pay a. 

Uhee^) opines that shells were the first tweezers 
used for pulling out hairs, and that these were after- 
wards copied in metal. Shell-shaped tweezers have been 
found on the Peruvian coast. ^) If UheE is right, these should 
therefore be the oldest metal tweezers, t^'pologically. The 
more triangle-shaped tweezers (Fig. 32d) should be typolo- 
gically younger than the more shell-shaped ones. This is 
confirmed by the discover}' of similar triangle-shaped ones 
at Machu Picchu, a type which, as I have pointed out, is 
generall}^ even when found on the Peruvian coast, of bronze 
and not of pure copper, like the more shell-shaped ones. 

Copper needles in S. America are presumably an imita- 
tion of wooden or bone needles. UheE'^) found a wooden 
needle at Arica. It is from the primitive fisher-folk which, 
according to UheE, lived there before the Tiahuanaco cul- 
ture, and were not acquainted with metal. Copper needles 
are found from Ecuador to N. Argentina, i. e. throughout 
the territory of the Inca Empire at its greatest expansion.*') 
Yet it appears from Eaton's excavations at ]\Iachu Picchu 
that needles of plantspines were still in use in Inca 
times. A bronze needle from Machu Picchu is depict- 
ed by Mathewson. It is evident that in Inca times both 
metal needles and those of plantspines were used. Garci- 
LASSO's statement that no metal needles, but only those of 
spines, were in use in the Inca Empire, must be due to a 

^) P. 153, Fig. 144. See also p. 206, 

=) (3) In grave 72. 

^) (Pachacamac) p. 36. 

*) Baessi:,er, (i; Figs. 274 and 238. 

^) (6) P. 8. As UHI.E calls it 'aguja' and compares it with needles that 
I have described from F;1 Gran Chaco, I assume that it has an eye, but 
it is impossible to see it from the unfortunately indistinct picture in his 
work. 

«) Rivet and Verneau p. 283. 



150 

mistake. He has probably only seen the latter kind, which 
must have been commoner than the former. 

Fish-hooks have been found in several places in western 
S. America. They are of wood and bone (Polynesian form) 
or of some kind of spine, or of copper. The spine and copper 
ones have about the same form, the latter being apparently 
copied from the former, which were found by Uhle^) 
in very old graves of the primitive fisher-folk of Arica. 
Characteristic of all these S. American fish-hooks is that 
they are without barb. 2) 

The copper knuckle-duster has been found in Argenti- 
na and Chile, and possibh" on the Peruvian coast. Wooden 
ones are also known from N. Argentina, from where v. Ro- 
SEN^) reproduces one which, as he points out, must be an 
imitation of a copper knuckle-duster. Knuckle-dusters of 
wood, tapir skin and other material are still in use in the 
Chaco among the Choroti and other tribes. Wooden bells 
resembling the well-known copper bells (Fig. 27 f) from 
Argentina have been found in Puna de Jujuy and in 
Atacama*). 

Also such things as pan-pipes, ordinary flutes, spindle 
wheels, and various ornaments have been found in Peru 
both of metal and simpler material. 

Thus we see that to many copper objects there are 
corresponding forms of stone, wood, fruit-pods, shells or 
bone: — • The T-shaped axe, the axe with a little hole, the 
ring-shaped club-head, the star-shaped club-head, square 
knives, the bolas, little and big bells, the spear-head, the 
needle, the fish-hook, the knuckle-duster, and possibh' 
tweezers etc. 

It goes without saying that in a number of these the 



') (6). 

2) Reiss and Stubel, PI. 82, Fig. 32—34 (Aucon), Medina, Fig. 123 
(Copiapo). 

') Fig. 216. Morohuasi. 
*) VON Rosen p. 193. 



151 

simpler material must have been the original material, in 
others, as I have mentioned, we may be in doubt. In many 
cases the source of supply has made the decision between 
the employment of metal and the simpler material, and 
this right up to the time of the Conquest. 

We have seen from the foregoing that from these forms 
of metal implements and weapons, which seem to have their 
roots in the S. American Stone Age, we can typologically 
derive a number of forms, inter alia the socketed 
axes, which were evidently therefore not invented in 
America until the Age of Metals. We have likewise follow- 
ed the development on American soil of the Tumi-knives. 
It is clear, too, that during the Copper and Bronze Ages the 
Indians in America invented a number of forms of weapons 
and implements, and also of course ornaments. 

The metal implements which are most isolated, typo- 
logically, are the one-edged knives of the type depicted in 
Fig. 60 c. There is nothing to correspond to these in other 
material. Perhaps when we have more finds to work upon, 
we shall be able to derive these one-edged knives typologi- 
cally from the square copper and stone knives. In the case 
of most ornaments it is now impossible to prove their origin 
from forms of simpler material. If we had access to a larger 
quantity of comparative material, however, this would pre- 
sumably^ be possible in many cases. 

When the Whites conquered the Inca Empire, they 
introduced finished implements of iron, which the Indians 
obtained by barter or in exchange for work. The Campas 
in Peru are, as far as I know, the only Indians who learnt 
from the Whites how to melt iron ore and make implements 
of it. Occasionally the Indians have themselves manufac- 
tured iron implements out of old broken iron, and then it 
is easy to see how they cling to the old forms. In certain 
parts, when they obtained iron implements from the 
Whites, they preferred such as were made after their 
old fashion. 



152 

I have already mentioned that the Indians of the Chaco 
make square knives like their wooden ones out of old iron. 
Adjoining is a picture of a modern hoe with a modern blade 
shaped and hafted like the copper ones that were used in 
pre-Spanish times (Fig. 56 c). Occasionally the Indians 
would alter an implement they had obtained from the Whites 
to suit their own taste. The Yuracare break off and grind 
down a transverse edge on the ordinary' knives they get 
from the Whites. They then put handles on them in a curious 
wa}-. When they go into the woods or fields they carry 
them on their backs by a chord in the same way as, for 
instance, the Huanyam carry their knives or chisels of in- 
cisor teeth. 

This all proves how the Indians cling to the old forms 
even when they have got to know a new material to make 
them of. 

When in western S. America the Indians passed from 
the Stone Age to the Coj^per and Bronze Ages they evi- 
dently clung to the old forms in the same way. That the 
forms of their implements and weapons of pure copper and 
bronze are to a great extent presumably the same as were 
in use in the vStone Age, does not however prove that they 
invented the use of copper and bronze. The idea of using 
copper and of mixing copper wdth tin may have been im- 
ported, for thanks to their conservatism the}' clung to the 
forms the}' were used to in the Stone Age, and developed 
them further. 

Still, it is evident in that case, that the beginning of 
the Metal Age in W. South America does not stand in 
connection with these districts having been occupied by 
fresh settlers wdth new types of implements, for the metal 
culture here evidentlv had its roots in a native vStone Age. 



153 



JCu 



/ 




a 



Figs. 59 a— b. 

-Axe of bronze from China. After MORTii,i<ET. 
Copper Axe from Ecuador. After Goxzai<ES vSuareR. 



CHAPTER XI. 



The Bronze Age in the Old World and in the New, 



We must bear in mind that the relationship between 
the Coj)per and Bronze Ages in the Old World and in the 
New cannot be the object of other than superficial compari- 
son until the copper and bronze objects found in Mexico 
and Central America have been carefully examined. No 
such examination has so far been made, or more rightly 
said, published.^) In this place, therefore, I will only state 
a few facts and points of view which may throw light on the 
question whether the American Copper and Bronze Ages de- 
veloped independently or under the influence of the Old 
World. 



') From the illustrious French author, Dr. P.M'L RiVET, we may short- 
ly expect a study of this kind, based on numerous analyses made by his 
fellow-countryman M. H. ABSandaux. They have established the fact 
that Mexico really had a Bronze Age, which had been denied by the 
chief experts in the archaeology and history of that land. 



154 

Great quantities of T-shaped axes have been found in E- 
gypt. They date from the first up to the 26th Dynasty, in- 
ckisive. In the beginning they were of copper and bronze, 
and finally of iron. From the 12th Dynasty, as Flinders 
PETRIE has pointed out, they closely resemble the American 
axes of this type (Fig. 60 d and Fig. 60 e). The hafting 
was also very similar in Egypt and Peru. The more 
rounded type of T-shaped axe has also been found in Egypt 
made of stone. Feinders Petrie holds the stone axes to 
be copies of metal ones. 

It is, of course, a remarkable fact that the most important 
type of axe in S. America during the Bronze Age was also a 
very important tj^pe of axe in Egypt, where it was in use 
for thousands of years. But Flinders Petrie^) is of opinion 
that we are in the presence of a parallel development in the 
Old World and the New, and lays stress on the circumstance 
that the T-shaped axe is lacking in vast intervening 
countries. Nevertheless we may question whether these Asia- 
tic tracts have been subjected to sufficient archaeological 
study for us to be able to state that the T-shaped axe was 
never in use there. 

Flinders Petrie-) derives the T-shaped bronze axe in its 
most primitive form from an older, square type of axe with- 
out a shoulder. It is not possible to trace any similar de- 
velopment of the T-shaped metal axe in America. There 
it appears to be a copy of similar axes of stone, which, as we 

') Flinders Petrie, p. 8. »Yet this type recurs as the regular form 
in Peru and Central America. The entire absence of it in many inter- 
mediate lands must preclude our supposing a case of borrowing. It is 
one of the strong examples of an independent invention. The cause is 
not far to seek. In the endeavours to give a better attachment to the 
blade, the European peoples were working in bronze, more fusible, and 
better for casting, than copper. Hence they could proceed on the socket 
system. . . The Egyptian, like the Peruvian, was inventing this form in 
the copper stage, when hammering was the process rather than casting; 
hence both went on the natural lines of lengthening the blade along the 
handle, to give a larger bearing and a means of firm lashing. » 

*) P- 7- 



155 








Figs. 60 a — 60 e. 

Knife from Uppland, Sweden. After MoxTEtius (2), fig. 1 1 1 1, p 72. (Lenght 8 cm.). 
» » Skane, » » » » » 1112, » » ( » 4,6 »)- 

» » Chancay, Peru. G. M. 21. i. 2. (Length 15,2 cm). 

T-shaped axe from Egypt. After MoxTEUUS (i), fig. 356, p. 915. c. Vs- 
» .) » Fata, Bolivia. R. M. 06. i. 1G6. >/,. 



156 

have already mentioned, had a very wide distribution there. 
This is, as I pointed out, under the presumption that the T- 
shaped stone axe in America was not originally a copy of 
the T-shaped metal axe, which is, however, improbable. 

Another very important type of axe, the one with a little 
hole in it, (Fig. 59 b) finds its counterpart in bronze in the 
Old World (Fig. 59a). This, as Adrien de MortilletI) was 
the first to point out, is in China. The type, as we mentioned, 
has been commonly found in pure copper and in stone in S. 
America, and, as far as we can judge, this t^'pe of axe is older 
there in stone than in pure copper. Only two bronze exam- 
ples have been found. In Asia, according to Mortilt.ET, stone 
axes of this type are widely distributed. They have been 
found in Cambodia, Laos, Burma, in the Malay Peninsula, 
in Malaysia, in Tongking, and in Yunnan in S. China. It is 
curious that the vS. American copper axes of this type, like 
the Chinese bronze axes, are often ornamented. 

These are perhaps the most striking parallels to be 
found in the New World and the Old between the shapes of 
tools or wea^oons. But we should also bear in mind that 
tweezers, the barbless fish-hook, the needle^), the chisel, 
the simple hoe-blade and the hoe (?) of the type depicted in 
Fig- 33I, belong to the forms of copper objects that are also 
common to the Old World and the New. To the one-edged 
type of knife depicted in Fig. 60 c we also find corresponding 
forms in Europe (Fig. 60 a, b). The primitive Tumi-knives 
also have their counterpart in the Old WorkP). 

If we go through all our material of weapons and tools 
of bronze and copper from vS. America, we must confess 
that there is not much that is entirely original, and that to 
the majorit}- of fundamental types there is something to 



') (2). 

2) The eye in the needle, in a number of cases at least, seems to 
have been made in the same curious fashion in Peru and Egypt. (Cf. 
BaeSSLER (1), P. 62 and FundeRS PETrie, Fig. N 88). 

') See Flinders Petrie, P 50. Fig. 1, i och I,. 2. 



157 

correspond in the Old World. Yet I doubt whether this is 
any proof that the Copper and Bronze Ages arose in the 
New World under the influence of the Old. 

In the foregoing we have been able to show that at 
least one type of axe was independently invented in S. Ame- 
rica. Thas is the socketed axe, the development of which *•. 
on American soil from T-shaped axes and star-shaped club- 
heads we have been able to follow step by step. If these forms 
of weapons were independently invented in America, we 
may wonder whether this was not also the case with the other 
forms of metal weapons and metal tools. We have, indeed, 
seen that the metal culture in S. America appears to have 
its roots in the Stone Age. To a number of forms that we 
have in metal we have corresponding forms of stone, wood 
bone, fruit, shell, etc. It is clearly of great importance that 
we should tr}- to follow the development of all the forms on 
American soil before we draw any conclusions about a con- 
nection between the culture of the New World and the Old 
because of the occurrence of similar or identical forms of 
weapons, tools, etc. 

It must be confessed that there is considerable similarity 
between the metal technique of the New World and that of 
the Old during the Bronze Age. I will only bring to mind 
that such a hard invention as casting a cire perdue was 
known not only in the Old World but in the New in pre- 
Columbian times. Gilding and silvering were also known to ) 
the Indians. Bronze is, of course, also a very hard inven- 
tion, and I must confess to finding it most remarkable that 
the art of alloying tin and copper should have been hit upon 
independently both in the Old World and the New. In the 
foregoing, however, I pointed out two or three things that 
show how greatly the Indians were interested in altering 
the colour of the metal, an interest which may have resulted 
in the important invention of bronze. As I mentioned, the 
occurrence of Cassiterite in the gold-washings in Bolivia 
perhaps drew the attention of the Indians to this heavy stone 



158 

I think we must not underestimate the possibilities in 
progress to be found in such a high culture as that which 
developed in the west of S. America. The cultural area 
there had certainly a much denser population than the for- 
ests and plains east of the Andes. The development of 
social conditions was such that there existed a real distri- 
bution of labour: there were specialists, as for instance the 
workers in metal, who could thus devote all their attention 
to the development of their trade; there were mighty chiefs 
with a taste for princely magnificence, who encouraged the 
artisans. 

I think we are underestimating the Indians of Old Peru, 
Central America, and Mexico, if we believe they were unable 
independently to invent the art of casting and of alloying 
tin and copper into bronze. Why should it be necessary to 
assume that they were not independently capable of mak- 
ing important inventions in the domain of metallurgy? 

A very natural question suggests itself. If the Copper 
and Bronze Ages developed independently in the Old World 
and in the New, why are there to a great extent the same 
forms of tools and weapons in the New World as in the Old? 
This could partly be explained by a parallel evolution in 
different localities from a similar Stone Age. A further 
explanation is that for identical purposes similar tools were 
invented in different places. Certain forms, so to speak, 
suggest themselves. Take the two series of development of 
the socketed axes. Then, again, we must remember that 
already in the Bronze Age the Old World had such a variety 
of types of weapons and tools that is not surprising we 
should somewhere and somewhen find forms with their 
counterpart in the New World. 

As MONTEUUS has emphasized, it is important to re- 
member, if we would understand the possibilities of a con- 
nection between the Bronze Age of the Old World and that 
of the New, that the latter seems to be so much more recent 
than the former. 



159 

Thus MoNTELius writes^), »I)ie Bronzezeit Mexicos und 
Perns 1500 Jahre nach Kristo kanii docli nicht diircli einen 
Einfluss von der Bronzezeit-Knltur Agyptens 1500 Jahre vor 
Kristo erklart werden. » There is a difference of 3000 years, 
and, as far as we can judge, the Bronze Age in S. America 
did not last very long. It was, as we have seen, at least not 
until Incan times that it achieved a wide distribution. A- 
gainst this may be set that we dare not confidently assert 
that the Copper and Bronze Ages together did not last in 
America for more than 3000 years. Of this we know abso- 
lutely nothing. 

We can, of course, easily imagine that a Copper Age 
may develop from a Bronze Age. All that is necessary is 
that in the new'^ountry, to which the knowledge of bronze 
came from without, tin does not occur, and the possibility of 
procuring tin from elsewhere does not exist, but that they 
have access to copper. How long the tradition can be pre- 
served from generation to generation that by alloying anoth- 
er metal with copper it can be made harder, more beautiful, 
and more easily cast, we know nothing. 

In plain terms the question reduces itself to whether a 
chance connection between America and the Old World 
during the Iron Age may not have started in America a 
Copper and Bronze Age, the access to copper ore being much 
greater than that to iron ore. If a Stone Age people gets 
into touch with an Iron Age people acquainted with copper 
as well as iron, and the Stone Age people has an abundant 
supply of copper, but not of iron, it is quite natural for it to 
pass into a Copper Age, not an Iron Age. We mu.st at least 
consider such a possibility when discussing the question of the 
relations between the culture of the Old World and the New. 

It is therefore my belief that we cannot make use of 
the great difference in time between the end of the Bronze 
Age in the Old World and in the New as a decisive proof of 
their having developed quite independently of each other. 

1) (3) p. 6. 



i6o 

It is, however, indisputable that, in combination with other 
facts I have adduced, this is a powerful argument in support 
of the theory that the Bronze Age in America developed 
independently of the Bronze Age in the Old World. 

I must once more emphasize that we cannot solve the 
problem of the realitionship between the Bronze Age in the 
Old World and in the New until we are really acquainted 
with the metallurgy of Central America and Mexico. We 
must know whether the Bronze Age is older or younger in 
S. America than in Central America and Mexico, tcv what 
extent the metal culture developed independently or other- 
wise in different parts of America. As long as I was unac- 
quainted with Rivet and Absandaux's studies of copper 
and bronze objects from Mexico, and, following Lehmann,^) 
believed that the}^ had not reached a Bronze Age in Mexico 
in pre-Columbian times, I was inclined to assume that the 
Chiriqui Bronze Age arose under the influence of Peru. The 
bronze objects that Holmes^) and Mac Curdy'^) have found 
in Chiriqui are bells (Fig. 58, e f). Similar ones are found 
on the Peruvian coast, and it is very remarkable that 
among the articles carried by traders whom Bartolom^ 
Ruiz met off the coast of Ecuador there should have bein 
precisely such bells, proving that a considerable trade en 
these obj ects was carried on along the west coast of S. 
America.^) The occurrence of bronze in Mexico is, of 
course, not precluded b}^ its having been through com- 
mercial connections with Peru or Ecuador that the 
knowledge of bronze was first introduced into Chiriqui. In 
that case bronze must have been late in Chiriqui, presum- 
ably just before the Discovery. As we know, it was not 
until Incan times that bronze came into general use on the 
coast of Peru and in Ecuador. 



1) P. 678. 

') (0- 

^) Samaxos, p. 



i6i 



List of Objects Analysed. 

In this list are only included analyses specially made 
for this work, and a few that are not to be found in the lists 
of DE Creoui-Montfort &. RivET, and Jijon y Caamano. 

I. Analyses specially made for this u'ork by I)r Alm- 
STROM, Professor G. Bodman and Mr Floberg, (all of 
Gothenburg), Professor Dr. G. Ratgen (Berlin) and at the 
technical bureau of Mr Landin (vStockholm). 

A. Objects found in grave-houses, or so-called chulpas, 
and burial caves in the border districts of Peru and Bolivia}) 

Grave I. Pelechuco. 

This grave was found close to the bridle-path leading 
from the high plateau to Pelechuco. In the chulpa were 
found mouldered remains of five skeletons whose position 
to each other could not be determined, since the dead 
had not been buried, but simply put or laid in the chulpa. 
Nor could it be determined to which skeleton any of the ob- 
jects belonged that were found in the chulpa. 

') A more detailed description of tliese graves occurs in my paper, 
».\rkeo]ogiska undcrsokningar i I'erus och Bolivias griinstrakter 1004 
1903. » 



l62 




^^^ 



y ^7 



^¥o/^ A 






Figs 


6i 


,1—61,6 


Topus from 


Bol 


ivia. 


Analysed for 


this 


work 






I. 


Pelechuco, 


R 


M. 


06. 




.U5. Vi- 










2. 


Queara, 










366, -u. 










3- 


Pelechuco, 










316, 1/,. 










4- 


.) 










317. '> 










5. 


Queara, 










349, Vi- 










6. 


» 










361. '/,. 







Four coi)i)er topus \vere found in this grave. In three of 
them the ])roi)ortion of tin has been determined. 

1. R. ^I. 06. I. 316. Fig. 61, 3. The head of the topu 
shows two llama heads. Proportion of tin, 4.49 %. (Bodman). 

2. R. M. 06. I. 317. Fig. 61, 4. The head may possibly 
be meant to represent a flower-bud or a fruit. It contains a 
little stone, so that the topu has probably also served as a 
rattle. 

Proportion of tin, 5.88%. (Bodman). 

3. R. M. 06. I. 319. Fig. 62 a. Topu with triangular, 
some^^•hat worn top, and hole slighth^ askew. 
Proportion of tin, 2 %. (Bodman). 

Grave 3. Pelechuco. 

This grave, situated to the right of the Pelechuco brook, 
is of the same type as Grave I, but covered with five slabs 
of slate, while the outer w^alls were covered with a now^ par- 
tiall}^ removed w'all of small stones. The chulpa contained 
two much mouldered skeletons. The older one had evi- 
dently been disturbed and displaced when the younger one 
was inserted. The objects lay under the older skeleton. 

In this grave was found a bronze topu. 

4. R. M. 06. I. 335. Fig. 61, I. The head consists of two 
llama heads pointing away from each other. 
Proportion of tin, 7. 11 °o- (Bodman). 

Grave 2. Queara Valley. 

The chulpa was partly ruined (roofless), but not exca- 
vated. Unlike the chiilpas I described from the Pelechuco 
\'alley, this consists of a square wall provided with an open- 
ing, which had been closed with a lamina of slate. In this 
grave were found the remains of ten much mouldered, shal- 
low-h'ing skeletons. Among the objects found in the grave 
were six copper tojnis. One has been fully analysed, and in 
another the proportion of tin has been determined. 

5. R. M. 06. I. 348. Fig. 48,12. Topu in the shape of 
two flower-buds (?) 

Proportion of tin, 4.91%. (Bodman). 



1 64 

6. R. M. 06. I. 349. Fig. 61, 5 Broken topu. Possibly re- 
presents the heads of llamas. The analysis gave the follow- 
ing result: 

Copper 69.22%. 

Tin 6.21%. 

Antimony 2.67%. 

Bismuth 146%. 

Silver 

Gold in an indeterminable quantity. 

Silica (traces) . 

Remainder carbonic acid, water chemically com- 
bined and oxygen, respectively.^) (Landin.) 
Grave 4. Queara Valle}'. 

This grave was found on the right of the road leading 
from Queara to Mojos, not far from Grave 2. It is a cave 
formed by a large overlapping stone. The entrance had 
been walled over. In the grave were found remains of nine 
shallow-lying skeletons, and five copper topus together with 
a little stone necklace-bead. The proportion of tin in two 
of them has been determined. 

7. R. M. 06. I. 357. Fig. 48,2. Topu of same type as 5. 
Proportion of tin, 1.95%. (Bodman). 

8. R. M. 06. I. 358. Fig. 48, 6. Topu Pin of same type 
as foregoing. 

Proportion of tin, 2.67 "„. (Bodman). 

Grav^ 8. Queara Valley. 

Grave 8 is a cave under a big stone, near Grave 4. In 
it I found 16 skeletons, three copper pins, etc. The propor- 
tion of tin in one of the pins has been determined. 

9. R. M. 06. I. 361. Fig. 61, 6 Topu. The head 
possibly represents a human head bearing something. 
Proportion of tin. 9.02%. (Bodman). 

Grave 12. Queara Valley. 

Burial cave under a big stone. In the grave were found 

1) In analysing this object they evidently did not remove the oxidi- 
sed portion. 



i65 

remains of eight shallow-lying skeletons. One cranium 
was trepanned. In the grave I fonnd a bronze topu, etc. 

10. R. M. 06. 1.366. Fig. 61, 2. Topu. The heads look 
like flower-buds. 

Proportion of tin, 7. 8/%. {Bodm.\n.) 
Grave 14. Queara Valley. 
This is a huge grave under an overhanging piece of 
rock not far from the farm on the left side of the Queara 
brook, (^wing to indistinctness in my notes, I cannot give 
the exact number of skeletons in this grave, but there were 
close upon 200. They had not been buried, but had been 
piled up in a mass, probably in bundles which afterwards 
mouldered away. With all these skeletons very little 
handiwork was found. One of the crania had been trepan- 
ned. In this grave I found four copper topus. The propor- 
tion of tin has been determined in one case. 

11. R. M. 06. I. 371. Fig. 49.5. Topu. The head consists 
of a round, flat disk with a central hole. 

Proportion of tin, 7.95%. (Bodman). 
Grave 15. Queara Valley. 
This is a cave of the same kind as the foregoing, and is 
situated near it. It contained remains of about 50 shallow- 
lying skeletons, and very few objects with them: among 
these w^as a bronze pin. 

12. R. M. 06. I. 399. P'ig. 48, 13. Topu. The head is a 
round, flat disk with a central hole. 

Proportion of tin, 5%. (Bodman). 

Grave i. Capamitas. 
(Capamitas is situated where the Rio Caripuna joins the 
Rio Queara.) 

This is a some\\hat inaccessible cave, formed by an 
overhanging rock. Part of the cave was partitioned off by 
a long stone wall. Inside this were found scanty remains of 
the skeletons of two elderly persons, and outside this parts 
of a child's skeleton. Inside the wall I found three copper 
topus, and a similar one outside it. Those pictured here, the 



i60 

proportion of tin in which has been determined, were found 
inside the wall. 

13. R. M. 06. I. 404. Fig. 49, 3. Topu The heads 
resemble flower-buds. 

Proportion of tin, 7.66%. (Bodman). 

14. R. M. 06. I. 405. Fig. 49,6. Topu of same type as 
former. It has weathered through exposure. 
Proportion of tin, 8.87%. (Bodman). 

Grave 2. Corani Valley. 

Grave 2 is a cave under an overhanging rock. It was 
quite intact, and contained two layers of skeletons sitting 
over each other. All the handiwork was found in the upper 
layer. Among them was a bronze topu. 

15. R. M. 06. I. 521. Fig. 48, 9. Topu. 
Proportion of tin, 4.08%. (Bodman) 

B. Bronze objects from the border tracts of Peru and Bo- 
livia obtained by barter from Indians living there, who had 
come across most of them while working in their fields. 
Axes. 

16. R. M. 06. I. 165. Fig. 48, 8. Quiaca. Tin "0,3. 29. (Bodman). 

17. R. M. 06. I. 167. Fig. 48, 16. Quiaca. » 5.20. » 

18. R.M. 06. I. 166. Fig. 48, 5.Pata. » 2.43. » 

19. R. M. 06. I. 168. Fig. 48, II. Chusecani » 4.67. » 

»Tumis ». 

20. R. M. 06. I. 173. Fig. 48, 14. Ollachea. 
Tin %, 5.04. (Bodman) 

21. R. M. 06. I. 175. Fig. 48, 7. Ollachea. 

Copper 96-5 %• 

Tin 3.4%: 

I^ead traces. 

Free from arsenic, zinc, bismuth, and antimony. (Alm- 
strom.) 

22. R. M. 06. I. 176. Fig. 48, 4. Ollachea. 

Copper 91.88%. 

Tin 2.49%. 

Bismuth 0.33%. 



i67 



Antimony 3.54 

Iron 0.45 



- 0/ 



/o- 



Lead 0.12%. (Ivandin). 

23. R. M. 06. I. 177. Fig. 48,1. Ouiaca. Tin%, 1.50. (Bodman). 

Blade of a hoe. 

24. R. M. 06. I. 171. Fig. 48, 18. Ollachea. Tin%,6.02. (Bod- 

man.) 

Rough stage of hoe-blade (?) 

25. R. M. 06. I. 172. Fig. 48, 15 Ollachea. 

Copper 94-6/0. 

Tin 54%- 

Free from lead, arsenic, zinc, antimony, and bismuth. 
(Almstrom). 

C. Bronze objects found in various parts of Bolivia. 

26. G. ]M. 15. 2. 22. Fig. 62 Axe. Pulquina. 

Copper 86.47%. 

Tin 1342 %. (Floberg). 

27. R. M. R. 24. Fig. 62 Axe. Samaipata. 

Copper 97-8%. 

Tin 0.7%. 

Lead 0.4%. 

Sulphur 0.5%. 

Free from arsenic, zinc, antimony, and bismuth. (Alm- 
strom). 

28. G. M. 15. 2. 13. Fig. 62. Chisel. Cliilon. Tin"o, 7- 12. (Bod- 

man.) 

29. G. M. 15. 2. ,32. B. Fig. 62. Axe. Peres. (Mizque). Tin 
3 %. 49 (Bodman.) 

30. G. M. 15. 2. 21. Fig. 62. Part of round disk. Pulquina. 

Tin, 7.03 "o- (Bodm.\x. 

31. G. M. 15. 2. 108. A. Fig. 62. Axe. Covendo. Tin %,^.bj. 

(Bodm.\n.) 
26 — 31 were occasional finds. 

D. Find in a grave-urn, Santa Rosa, Province of Sara, 
north of vSanta Cruz de la Sierra, Bolivia. There is a detail- 



i68 

ed description of the grave in my paper, »Urnengraber, 
etc. » In the same urn were found, among other things, 
three small round silver disks. 

32. R. M. O. 73. Fig. 62. Round disk. 

Copper ^9-35%- 

Tin 10.34%- 

Zinc 0.28%. 

Antimony traces 

Bismuth traces. (Landin). 

E. Find in a grave at Kaipipendi in the Chiriguano 
territory in S. E. Bolivia. 

33. R. M. K. 29. Fig. 62 Piece of a fillet. (?) Much crumbled. 

Copper 85.9%. 

The remainder chiefly carbonic acid and water, as 
carbonate and hydroxide, respectively. (I^andin). 

F. Copper and bronze objects found on the Peruvian coast. 
The objects were bought for the Museum at Gothen- 
burg through Dr. F. X. Weizinger of Munich, and collected 
in Peru by Dr. E. Gaffron. No further details are known 
about the circumstances of the finds. The local statement;^ 
seem to be reliable. 

34. G. M. 21. I. II. Fig. 34 d. One-edged knife. Supe. 

Copper 94-7%- 

Tin 5-6%. 

Free from zinc. (Almstrom). 

35. G. M. 21. I. 5. Fig. 33 p. Hoe. Chancay. 

Copper 98.2%. 

Antimony 0.7%. 

Free from arsenic, tin, bismuth, and zinc. (Almstrom.) 

36. G. M. 21. I. 14. P'ig. 33 i. Tweezers. Supe. 
Free from tin. (Almstrom.) 

^]y. G. M. 21 I. 6. Fig. _]^ 1. lilade of a hoe. Chancay. 

Copper ()3.62",,. 

Arsenic 4.27%. 

Antimony 0.08 °o. 

Free from tin, sih'cr, lead, /.iiic and l)isninth. (Almstrom.) 



1 69 

^S. G. M. 21. I. 7. Fig. J4C. »Tumi». Chancay. 
Proportion of tin, 4.6%. (Almstrom). 

39. G. M. 21. I. 4. Fig. 33 c. »Tumi ». Chancay. 
Free from tin. (Almstrom). 

40. G. M. 21. I. 2. Fig. 33 h. One-edged knife from Chancay 

with a small spiral handle. 

Copper 97-7 %■ 

Free from tin and zinc. Contains traces of iron. (Almstrom) 

41. G.M. 21.1.15 Fig. 34 f. Object in form of a alligator- 
head. Huacho, 

Proportion of tin, 7,2%. (Almstrom.) 

41 b. G. M. 21. I. 8. Fig. 65. Rattle. Supe. 

Upper half 100,20 <^o of Copper. 

Lower » 100,15 % » )> 

Free from gold, silver, tin, antimony, lead, arsenic, nickel, 
iron and zinc. (Almstrom). 

G. Objects from the Peruvian coast obtained by ex- 
change from the Museum fiir Volkerkunde in Berlin. No 
further details are known about the circumstances of the finds. 

42. G. M. 16. 9. 261. Fig. 34 d. Tweezers. Pachacamac. 
Proportion of tin, 5.5%. (Almstrom.) 

43. G. M. 16. 9. 272. Fig. 34 b. Tweezers. Pachacamac. 
Proportion of tin, 3.4%. (Almstrom.) 

44. G. M. 16. 9. 265. Fig. ^^ j. Tweezers. Pachacamac. 
Free from tin. (Almstrom.) 

45. G. M. 16. 9. 267. Fig. 33 k. Tweezers. Pachacamac. 
Free from tin. (Almstrom.) 

H. 46. Native copper from Corocoro (Bolivia). 

After the incrustation had been removed, the copper 
contained 15% of substances insoluble in nitric acid. It 
was free from tin, gold, silver, and lead. (Almstrom.) 

I. Copper objects from the Peruvian Coast at the ^lu- 
seum fiir Volkerkunde in Berlin. 
47. V. A. 21810. Fig. 33 d. Tumi, Trujillo. 

Free from tin (Ratgkn.) 



48. V. A. 21811. Fig. 33 e. Tumi, Trujillo. 
Free from tin. (Ratgen.) 

49. V. A. 25281. Fig. 33 g. Knive, Chuquitaiita. 
Contains arsenic, free from tin. (Ratgen.) 

50. V. A. 25284. Fig. 33 f. Tumi, Chuquitanta. 
Free from tin. (Ratgen.) 

51. V. A. 26273. Fig. 33 a. Tumi, Lima. 
Contains arsenic, free from tin. (Ratgen.) 

^2. V. A. 26274. Fig. 33 b. Tumi, Lima. 

Contains arsenic, free from tin. (Ratgen.) 
J. Copper and bronze objects from Bolivia at the Mu- 
seum flir Volkerkunde in Berlin. 

53. V. A. 12672 b. Fig. 2 K. Bar in shape of a axe, 
Huachu, Omasuyu. 

Copper 82.07%. 

Tin i7-78%. 

Lead 0.05%. 

Iron 0.07%. (Ratgen.) 

54. V. A. 12791. Fig. 42 aa. Axe, Copacabana. 

Copper 96-36%. 

Arsenic 0.51%. 

Iron 0.07%. 

Trace of Coal and sand. (Ratgen.) 

55. V. A. 15625. Fig. 47 a. Axe, San Bias, Tarija. 

Copper 9370%- 

Tin 6.15%. 

Iron 0.29%. 

Trace of Cobalt. (Ratgen.) 
K. Copper objects jrom Argentina at the Museum fiir 
Volkerkunde in Berlin. 

56. V. A. 4057. Fig. 2 A. Cramp, Andalgala. 
Traces of tin, lead and arsenic. (Ratgen.) 

^y. V. C. 1656. Fig. 43, ic. Axe, La Toma, Catamarca. 

Copper 99.84%. 

Iron 0.07%. 

Trace of Cobalt. (Ratgex). 



171 

58. V. C. 1658. Fig. 43, I b. Axe, La Tonia, Catam'arca. 

Traces of tin? (x\lmstrom.) 

II. Analyses published by Eric von Rosen {p. 365) 

59. Small bell. I'ig. 43, 8. Casabindo, Jujuy, Argentina. 

Copper 96-36/0. 

Tin 0.64%. 

60. Chisel. Fig. 44, 15. Morohnasi, Ju3U3^ Argentina. 

Copper 9247%- 

Tin : 7-53?o- 

61. Chi.sel. P'ig. 47 c. Tarija, Bolivia. 

Copper 9I-85/0- 

Tin 8.15%. 

62. Bronze disk Fig. 47 b. Tarija, Bolivia. 

Copper 93I0/O- 

Tin 6.90%. 

63. Rod. Tarija, Bolivia. 

Copper 99-93%- 

Tin o.07°o- 

III. Analysis published by Boman (2). 

64. Small copper disk. Fig. 43, 17. Tinti. Salta. 

Copper 97.00%. 

Tin 2.91%. 

IV. Analyses published by Debenedetti (2). 

65. Small bell. F'ig. 44, 8. San Juan. 

-Copper 93-93%- 

Tin 5-83%- 

Iron 0.20%. 

66. Metal remains in crucible. San Juan. 

Copper 9505/O- 

Tin 4-85%- 

Iron 0.09%. 

V. Analysis published by Verneau (2). 

67. »Tintinnabulum » from Peru. (See Fig. 13, D, E, F) 
Of Copper with traces of sulphur and iron. 



172 







Figs. 62 a — 62 h. Objects from Bolivia anal3^sed for this work. 1/, 

a — Axe, Samaipata, R. M. R. 24. 

b — » Peres Mizque, G. M. 15. 2. 32 b. 

c — » Covendo. » » » <> 108 a. 

d — Disk, Pulquina, ^Mizque < » » » 21. 

e — Chisel. Chilon, » t, » » » 15. 

f — Disk, Sara, R. M. O. 73. 

g — Axe, Pulquina, (i. M. 15. 2. 22. 



Fillet(?) Caipipendi, 



R. M. K. 



173 



Appendix A. 

An examiyiation oj the hardness of g bronze implements 
from Peru and Bolivia, submitted by Baron Erland Norden- 
skiold. 

The objects were received for examination in Decem- 
ber, 1920. 

Their appearance and dimensions can be seen from 
figs. 63 1—63 IX. 

The aim of the examination was (i) to determine the 
hardness of the objects in their varions parts, and (2) to esta- 
blish, if possible, whether the hardness determined in each 
special case was mainly a result of the chemical composi- 
tion, or whether cold-hammering had contributed to pro- 
duce same. 

By cold-hammering is usually meant working on an 
object by hammering or the like at the ordinary temperature. 
As is well known, this treatment can considerably increase 
the hardness of a metal. Hot-hammering above a certain 
temperature, the so-called lowest annealing temperature, 
has not this effect on the hardness of a metal. Hot-hammer- 
ing, however, may, of course, be continued during the cooling 
below this temperature, whereby hardening by cold-hammer- 
ing ensues. The expression 'cold-hammering' should there- 
fore be interpreted in its widest significance, so as to include 
this last condition. To decide whether cold-hammering 
had taken place in this sense, hardness tests have in cer- 
tain cases been applied, first in the original state, and then 
after suitable annealing had eliminated the hardening effect 
of any possible cold-hammering. 



1/4 

Where annealing was undertaken, it Avas performed in 
such a way that the object was packed in cast iron filings 
to prevent oxidation, and heated in a gas-furnace up to 
750° c, which temperature was kept for 15 minutes, where- 
upon cooling was effected in the air. 

In order to compare the results obtained on the bronze 
implements, hardness tests were carried out on a series 
of 3 axes , newly cast from the model of an old axe from Peru , 
in pure copper, in bronze with 5% and in bronze with 10'^ „ 
of tin, first in the cast state, then after various stages of 
cold-hammering, and then after annealing both cold-ham- 
mered and not cold-hammered parts of same. These axes 
were also submitted to us b}' Baron Nordenskiold. 

For further comparison the hardness has been deter- 
mined on electrolyte copper, as rolled and annealed and 
after various stages of cold-hammering. 

Choice of method in testing hardness. 

The methods of testing hardness that can be taken into 
consideration here are two, viz. Brinell's method and 
Shore's scleroscope method. The principle of the last 
named consists in letting a small dropweight fall from a cer- 
tain height and strike the surface of the object so that it 
rebounds to a certain reduced height, which is the measure 
of the hardness of the object. This method has the advan- 
tage of only making insignificant marks on the surface of 
the object, but its results are, especially with thin objects, 
far too dependent on the thickness and mass of the object, 
as well as on the manner in which it is supported. It has 
therefore not been considered suitable in this case, where a 
comparison was to be made, for instance, between the thin 
edge and other thicker parts of the same implement. 

The hardness has therefore been determined by Bri- 
nell's method, which proceeds in the following way. A 
hardened steel ball, usually 10 mm. in diameter, is slowly 
pressed under a given pressure, generally 3,000 kg., against 
a ])lane ground surface of the object to be tested. This 



175 

produces an impression in the shape of a spherical calotte; 
the diameter of the calotte is measured by means of a mea- 
suring microscope, and the hardness number is obtained by 
dividing the pressure used by the curved Surface of the 
impressed calotte. By reason of the small thickness of the 
object, however, this test had to be modified inasmuch as 
smaller balls and smaller loads were employed. 
The following combinations have been used: 

I the same relation be- 
5 mm. ball and a load of 730 kg. I tween the load and the 



square of the diam. of the 
ball as with 10 mm. ball 
and a load of 3,000 kg. 



2.5 mm. ball and a load of 190 kg. 

and (with the cast axes) 

5 mm. ball and a load of 250 kg. 

It should be observed that only numbers obtained 
with the same size of ball and the same load are comparable 
between themselves; the values obtained with a 5 mm. ball 
are, however, to be regarded as more accurate than those 
obtained with a 2.5 mm. ball. 

To judge the significance of the hardness numbers 
obtained we may quote the Brinell numbers for some 
common metals: 



soft iron 


70 to 80 


hardened steel 


about 700 


annealed copper 


about 50 


cast tin 


8 to 10 



All the chemical analysis figures given in the following 
were communicated by Baron Nordenskiold. 

RESULTS OF TESTS. 
I. Bronze implements irojn Peru and Bolivia. 
The results will be found in Table I and Figs 6] I— 63 IX. 

II. Cast Axes. 
The results appear from Table 2 and Figs 64. 



17 6 

All the axes were porous in the metal, so that the 
hardness numbers for not cold-hammered parts are too low. 
They have been placed within parentheses. 

In the manner illustrated by Fig. 64, the lateral arms, 
with a thickness as cast of 12,8 mm., thinning out to 
9.0 mm towards the end of the axes, were cold-ham- 
mered, both by hand, and by being hydraulically pressed 
to different thicknesses, the hardness being then determined 
on the step-like ledges obtained. From this can be seen 
how the hardness increases with coldhammering when the 
tin content is 0, 5 and 10 per cent respectively. The 
hammering of the co])per axe failed owing to its porosity. 

///. Elect yolyle copper. 

A flat bar of 6.4 mm. in thickness was annealed and 
then hammered cold to various thicknesses. The following 
hardness numbers were obtained: 

Annealed Hammered to a thickness of 

6.2 mm. 4.3 mm. 3.5 mm. 2.5 mm. 
Brinell j 30 6q 89 91 93 

number [ 55 64 81 83 86 

The upper figures refer to a 5 mm. ball and a load of 750 kg. 
» lower » » » » 2.5 » » » » » » 180 » 

Summary. 

The results of the investigation may be summed up 
as follow.^. 

An addition of 5''o of tin to the copper increases the 
hardness, as determined by Brinell's method, from 45 to 
50 up to about 70, an additional 5 °,,, of tin increases 
the hardness to about 85. These figures apply to the anneal- 
ed metal. By cold-hammering the hardness of copper 
and bronze can be increased to 2^/2 to 3 times as high a value, 
expressed in Brineij, units, the increase of hardness being 
here dei)endent, of course, on the degree of coldhammering, 



177 

which, practically speaking, is ecpiivaleut to the rehitive 
decrease in thickness. 

As to the bronze implements from Pern, they have re- 
vealed very varying degrees of hardness in different parts. 
The edge, wherever it coirld be tested, was considerably 
harder than the rest of the tool. This nmst be attributed 
to the circumstance that these implements were hammered 
at a temperature below the minimum annealing tempera- 
ture for the alloy in question, either by hot-hammering, in 
which case the implement cooled down below this tempera- 
ture while being hammered, or by hammering at the ordi- 
nary temperature. This conclusion is confirmed by the fact 
that the hardness diminished considerably on annealing. 
An exception is the »blank of blade of a hoe». No. 5, which 
lacks an edge in the true sense. This showed a fairly even 
hardness all over the surface, and the decrease on annealing 
was of small account. From this we may conclude that 
the implement was either not hammered after being cast, or 
was hammered at a high temperature. 

Gothenburg, May 26th, 1921, 

Laboratory of the A.-B. Svenska KuUagerfabriken S. K. F. 
(signed) AxEi, Hitltgren. 



178 



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179 




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l82 



Appendix B. 

Investigation of a pre-historic copper object from Pent, 
a rattle, marked G. M. 21. i. 8., submitted by Baron E. 
NoRDENSKiOLD, Attendant at the Gothenbtirg Museum, 

The object, reproduced in its natural size in Fig. 65, 
is a rattle found at Supe on the Peruvian coast.^) It was 
probably used for magic practices in a similar way to that 
in which rattles are still used by Indians at the present 
time. 

The rattle (Fig. 65), which has a very S5^mmetrical 
shape and is carefully made, consists of a bulb and a handle. 
The bulb is made of two bell-shaped halves of hammered 
or »spun» copper plate, circa 0.5 mm. in thickness, joined 
together along the line A- A. Four small holes are symme- 
trically arranged in the upper half. The lower half had 
been prolonged into a short tubular neck that encloses the 
upper end of the handle and thereby forms the connection 
between bulb and handle. The upper part of the handle is 
round, the lower flat. The former has a hole right through 
it. The rattle contained two small copper balls of a 
diameter of about 5 mm. The surface of the rattle was 
corroded and verdigrised. The joint at A-A had opened 
along circa 3 cm. Apart from this the seam was not discer- 
nible, and no indication of folding or of soldering was to be 
observed. 



') (Editor's note.) No particulars are known about the drcnmstan- 
ces of the find. 



i83 



^- 




---A 



Fig. 6.5. 

Rattle of pure copper found at Siipe on the 

Peruvian coast. G. M. 21, i. 8. V5. 



1 84 

The object of the investigation was to ascertain how 
the joint had been effected. To this end a strip was cut 
out right across the joint. This section was ground, polish- 
ed, etched in a sokition of basic copper ammonium chlo- 
ride in water, and examined under the microscope. (vSee 
Fig. 66, photographs i & 2.) 

The structure consisted of a matrix of copper in both 
halves. In the upper one occurred quite a number of small 
round particles of cuprous oxide. The lower only contained 
a small quantity of such inclusions. The copper grains show- 
ed slip-lines pointing to cold working. The joint was a 
welded one, revealing in certain j^arts of its length (seen in 
cross-section) perfect metallic continuit}- between the two 
parts, in others, especially at the outer and inner edges, in- 
complete welding. Apart from copper there was no metal- 
lic constituent (as from soldering) in the structure. At the 
inner edge of the joint the lower half showed a distention 
or wale. 

Fig. 66,1 shows the cross-section of the joint after 
rather strong etching (magnified by 50). It will be seen 
that the actual line of the joint is surrounded by a zone 
more resistant to the etching, pointing to a change of chem- 
ical composition of the copper in this part, possibly due 
to dissolved oxygen absorbed in the welding. Similar 
zones also surround the cuprous oxide inclusions. The said 
wale contains a cavity. Fig. 66, 2 (magnified by 100) was 
taken after the section had been somewhat ground down. 
In this case the etching was weaker. The perfect conti- 
nuity between the halves can be plainly seen here, and 
was confirmed by examination at 1200 times magnification. 
The wale in this section is without porosit}'. 

After the strip had been removed, the interior of the 
rattle could be examined, whereupon it was found that the 
wale extended all round and was very even. 

From the examination the conclusion can be drawn 
that in all probability the two halves of the rattle had been 



i«5 




Fig. 66, I — 66, 2. 



i86 

welded together b}- means of hammering or similar working 
at a high temperature — near the melting-point of the cop- 
per. The facts that point to this conclusion are: — the 
metallic continuity between the two parts, the above-men- 
tioned wale, which was evidently formed by deformation 
in working the metal, the absence of soldering metal in the 
joint, and the absence of cuprous oxide eutectic (which 
Avould have resulted from welding by fusion without ham- 
mering). The necessary local heating of the joint was pro- 
bably effected b}^ means of a blowpipe. (The Peruvians, 
as known, use the blowpipe for heating purposes, as in smelt- 
ing metals.^) Taking into consideration the well-known 
tendency that copper has to oxidize at a temperature ap- 
proaching the melting-point, whereby welding is rendered 
considerably more difficult, it must be assumed that spe- 
cial steps were taken in the welding to protect the metal 
from the oxygen in the air, possibly embedment in char- 
coal, the admixture of a flux to keep the surfaces of the 
joint free from oxide, etc. The skill with which the work 
was carried out, is in any case astonishing, the more so since 
it appears to be generally considered impossible to weld 
copper in this manner so as to obtain a joint of any strength. 

An anah^sis of the two halves of the rattle, carried out 
by Dr. G. Karl Almstrom at the laboratory of the town 
chemist in Gothenburg, Dr. J. E. AlEn, has yielded the 
following result: 

upper half (sample weighing 0.4276 gr.) 100.20 % of copper 
lower » ( 0.5766 ...) 100.15 % 

Both samples were examined with negative results for 
gold, silver, tin, antimony, lead, arsenic, nickel, iron, and 
zink. The material in both halves is consequently exceed- 
ingly pure copper, which gives cause to presume that it 
was obtained by smelting native copper. 

The following cases, which are of interest in compari- 
son \\'ith the one described above, are cited from the lite- 
rature of the subject by Baron Nondenskiold. 

1) See p. q. 



i87 

Chari^es W. Mead^) mentions two copper blowpipes 
in the American Museum of Natural History. »These are 
31 and 25 inches long respectively. They are both made of 
rather thick sheet copper and have at one end a tunnel- 
shaped mouthpiece about 3^/2 inches in diameter at the rim . 
This part was made separately by bending the sheet copper 
into the desired form and then hammering or welding the 
edges firmly together. This mouthpiece was welded to the 
tube, which was made by bending the copper into the cy- 
lindrical form. In this case the edges are nicel}' brought 
together, but not welded. » 

No indication is given in the paper of how the presum- 
ed welding was carried out. 

Crequi-Montfort & Rivet-) describe objects, found 
in Columbia, of an alloy of gold, silver and copper with parts 
welded on. Here the welding had been performed by fu- 
sion, which W'as show-n by small drops of metal near the 
welded joint. As these, like the welded joint itself, proved 
to have the same composition as the rest of the metal, we 
have here a case of autogenous welding, w-hich probably 
did not offer any great difficulties in view of the composi- 
tion of the alloy in question. The authors assume that the 
heating was done wdth the help of blowpipes. 

Gothenburg, Sept. 24, 1921. 

Laboratory of the A.-B. Svenska Kullagerfabriken S. K. F. 
(Signed) Axel Hultgren. 



ij Prehistorie Bronze in South America. Anthropological Papers of 
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s^rie, Tome XI, 1914 — 1919. Paris 1919- ^- 5^1 ■ 



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19^ 



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ERRATA. 

Page 9^), 1. 4 from the top read Vs for VV 

■> 1^^, fig- 5i- ^, not 5, analyses of hroiizes from Titicaca I. have 

proved to contain 3 to 4 °'^ of tin. 
;- 161, 1. 7 from the top read F. Ratgex joy G. Ratgex, 




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