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Coral Reefs 
of the World 



Central and Western Pacific 







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Compiled by The lUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 



UNEP 

The United Nations Environment Programme 
(UNEP) is a Secretariat within the United 
Nations which has been charged with the 
responsibility of working with Governments to 
catalyze the most sound forms of development, 
and to co-ordinate global action for development 
without destruction. 

The Regional Seas Programme was initiated by 
UNEP in 1974. Since then the Governing 
Council of UNEP has repeatedly endorsed a 
regional approach to the control of marine 
pollution and the management of marine and 
coastal resources and has requested the 
development of regional action plans. 

The Regional Seas Programme at present 
includes ten regions and has over 120 coastal 
States participating in it. Each regional action 
plan is formulated according to the needs of the 
region as perceived by the Governments 
concerned, and is designed to link assessment of 
the quality of the marine environment, and of the 
causes of its deterioration, with activities for the 
management and development of the marine and 
coastal environment. The action plans promote 
the parallel development of regional legal 
agreements and of action-oriented programme 
activities. 



lUCN 

The International Union for Conservation of 
Nature and Natural Resources (lUCN) is a 
membership organization comprising 
governments, non-governmental organizations 
(NGOs), research institutions, and conservation 
agencies, whose objective is to promote and 
encourage the protection and sustainable use of 
living resources. 

Founded in 1948, lUCN has nearly 600 
members representing 1 16 countries. Its six 
Commissions comprise a global network of 
experts on threatened species, protected areas, 
ecology, environmental planning, environmental 
law, and environmental education. Its thematic 
programmes include tropical forests, wetlands, 
marine ecosystems, plants, oceanic islands, the 
Sahel, Antarctica, and population and 
sustainable development. 



Digitized by tine Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

UNEP-WCIVIC, Cambridge 



http://www.archive.org/details/coralreefsofworl03well 



CORAL REEFS OF THE WORLD 

Volume 3: Central and Western Pacific 



UNEP 

The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) is a Secretariat within the United Nations which has been 
charged with the responsibility of working with Governments to catalyze the most sound forms of development, and to 
co-ordinate global action for development without destruction. 

The Regional Seas Programme was initiated by UNEP in 1974. Since then the Governing Council of UNEP has 
repeatedly endorsed a regional approach to the control of marine pollution and the management of marine and coastal 
resources and has requested the development of regional action plans. 

The Regional Seas Programme at present includes ten regions* and has over 120 coastal States paiticq>ating in it. Each 
regional action plan is formulated according to the needs of the region as perceived by the Governments concerned, and 
is designed to link assessment of the quality of the marine environment, and of the causes of its deterioration, with 
aaivities for the management and development of the marine and coastal environment. The action plans promote the 
parallel development of regional legal agreements and of action-oriented programme activities**. 



lUCN 

The International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (lUCN) is a membership organization 
comprising governments, non-governmental organizations (NGOs), research institutions, and conservation agencies, 
whose objective is to promote and encourage the protection and sustainable use of living resources. 

Founded in 1948, lUCN has nearly 600 members representing 116 countries. Its six Commissions comprise a global 
network of experts on threatened species, protected areas, ecology, environmental planning, environmental law, and 
environmental education. Its thematic programmes include tropical forests, wetlands, marine ecosystems, plants, oceanic 
islands, the Sahel, Antarctica, and population and sustainable development. 

The Conservation Monitoring Centre (CMC) is the division of lUCN that provides an information service to the Union, 
its members, and the conservation and development communities. CMC has developed an integrated and 
cross-referenced global database on animals, plants and habitats of conservation concern, on protected areas throughout 
the world, and on the international trade in wildlife species and products. CMC produces a wide variety of specialist 
outputs and reports based on the analysis of this data, including such major publications as the Red Data Books and 
Protected Areas Directories which are now recognized as the authoritative reference works in their field. 



*Mediterranean Region, Kuwait Action Plan Region, West and Central African Region, Wider Caribbean Region, East 
Asian Seas Region, South-East Pacific Region, South Pacific Region, Red Sea and Gulf of Aden Region, Eastern African 
Region and South Asian Seas Region. 

••UNEP: Achievements and planned development of UNEP's Regional Seas Programme and comparable programmes 
sponsored by other bodies. UNEP Regional Seas Reports and Studies No. 1 UNEP, 1982. 



CORAL REEFS OF THE WORLD 
Volume 3: Central and Western Pacific 

Prepared by 

The lUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 

Cambridge, U.K. 

in collaboration with 

The United Nations Environment Programme 

with financial support from the World Wide Fund for Nature, 

the United Nations Environment Stamp Conservation Fund, 

and Exxon Corporation 



The first draft of this volume was compiled by 

Susan M. Wells 

The final version was revised, updated and edited by 

Susan M. Wells and Martin D. Jenkins 

The rUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre, Cambridge, U.K. 



The Hawaii section was compiled by 
Dr R. Grigg and Dr P. Jokiel, Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology, Kaneohe, Hawaii 

and 

Dr J.E. Maragos, Environment Resource Planning Branch, 

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Hawaii 

The Hong Kong section was compiled by 
Dr B. Morton, Dept of Zoology, University of Hong Kong 

The accounts for Bikini and Kwajalein Atolls in the Marshall Islands were compUed by 

Dr J.E. Maragos, Environment Resource Planning Branch, 

U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Hawaii 

The first draft of the Nauru seaion was compiled by 
P. Lili, Dept of Fisheries, Republic of Nauru 

The Taiwan section was compiled by 
Dr Lee-Shing Fang, National Sun Yat-sen University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan 



United Nations Environment Programme 
International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources 

1988 



Published jointly by UNEP, Nairobi, Kenya, and lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, U.K. 




Copyright: 



1988 United Nations Environment Programme 

Reproduction of this publication for educational or other non-commercial purposes is authorized 
without prior permission from the copyright holder, provided the source is acknowledged. 

Reproduction for resale or other commercial purposes is prohibited without the prior written 
permission of the copyright holder. 



Citation: 



UNEP/IUCN (1988). Coral Reefs of the World. Volume 3: Central and Western Pacific. UNEP 
Regional Seas Direaories and Bibliographies. lUCN, Gland, Switzerland and Cambridge, 
UX./UNEP, Nairobi, Kenya, xlix + 329 pp., 30 maps. 



ISBN: 
Printed by: 
Cover design by: 
Typeset by: 
Cover photo: 

Available from: 



Trade enquiries: 



2-88032-945-0 

Page Bros (Norwich) Ltd, UJC. 

James Butler, Nagui Henein 

lUCN Publications Services Unit 

Reef scene with diver, Red Sea: David George 

lUCN Publications Services, 

219c Huntingdon Road, Cambridge CB3 ODL, U.K. 

Belhaven Press (a division of Pinter Publishers), 

25 Floral Street, London, WC2E 9DS, U.K. 

or for North America: 

Columbia University Press, 

136 South Broadway, Irvington, NY 10533, U.SA. 



The designations of geographical entities in this book, and the presentation of the material, do not imply the expression of 
any opinion whatsoever on the part of UNEP or lUCN concerning the legal status of any country, territory, or area, or of 
its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. 



NOTE 



This document is not an official publication but a compilation of information on coral reefs of international importance. 
It is a contribution to UNEP sponsored regional action plans for the protection and development of the marine 
environment and coastal areas in the central and western Pacific Ocean, specifically to the South Pacific Action Plan. 



CONTENTS 



Page 



Page 



l^■. 



PREFACE 


X 


y 


COOK ISLANDS 


51 


ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 


xi 


Introduction 


51 








Aitutaki 


56 


INTRODUCTION 


XV 




Manihiki 


58 


Methods and format 


XV 




Ngatangiia Harbour and Muri Lagoon 


59 


Corals and reef distribution 


xvi 




Pukapuka 


59 


Economic importance of reefs 


xviii 




Suwarrow Atoll National Park 


60 


Vulnerability of reefs 


xix 








Human impact on reefs 


XX 


rr, 


FEDERATED STATES OF MICRONESIA 


63 


Reef management 


xxiii 


Introduction 


63 


References 


xxviii 




Pohnpei 


71 


TABLES 


xxxiii 


H 


FIJI 


73 


1. Damage to reefs due to natural events 


xxxiii 


Introduction 


73 


2. Known threats to reefs 


XXXV 


? 


Coral Coast 


90 


3. Existing, proposed and recommended 


xxxix 


Great and North Astrolabe Reefs 


91 


protected areas adjacent to or 




Lakeba 


92 


including reefs 






Nadi Waters and Mamanuca Group 


92 


4. National legislation relating to 


xlvii 




Natadola Bay 


94 


coral reefs 






Suva Barrier Reef and Nukulau and 
Makuluva Cays 


95 


AMERICAN SAMOA 


1 




Wakaya 


96 


Introduction 


1 








Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary 


8 


P 


FRENCH POLYNESIA 


99 


Goat Island Point - Utulei Reef 


xo 


Introduction 


99 


Papaloloa Point 


11 




Austral Is - Rapa 


118 


Rose Atoll National Wildlife Refuge 


11 




Society Is - Manuae Reserve 


118 


Swains Atoll 


12 




Society Is - Temae 
Society Is - Tiahura 


119 
120 


AUSTRALIA - EASTERN 


15 




Tuamotu Group - Mataiva 


121 


Introduction 


15 




Tuamotu Group - Moruroa 


122 


Cobourg Peninsula Marine National Park 


20 




Tuamotu Group - Rangiroa 


123 


and Sanctuary 






Tuamotu Group - Takapoto 


125 


Coringa-Herald National Nature Reserve 


21 




Tuamotu Group - Tikehau 


126 


Elizabeth and Middleton Reefs Marine 


21 




Tuamotu Group - W.A. Robinson Integral 


127 


National Nature Reserve 






Reserve and Biosphere Reserve 




Great Barrier Reef Region 


21 




Clipperton Island 


128 


Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, 


25 








Cairns and Cormorant Pass Sections 






GUAM 


129 


Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, 


27 


[M 


Introduction 


129 


Central Section 






Anao Conservation Reserve 


134 


Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, 


27 




Guam Territorial Seashore Park 


135 


Far Northern Section 






Haputo Ecological Reserve Area 


137 


Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, 


28 




Luminao Barrier Reef 


139 


Mackay-Capricom Section 






Orote Peninsula Ecological Reserve Area 


139 


Lihou Reef National Nature Reserve 


30 




Pati Point Natural Area and north-west 


140 


Lord Howe Island Permanent Park 


30 




coastline 




Preserve 






War in the Pacific National Historical 


141 


Solitary Islands 


32 




Park 




Torres Strait Reefs 


33 




HAWAII and CEN TRAL PACIHC U.S. 


143 


BELAU 


35 


r 


DEPENDENCIES 




Introduction 


35 


Introduction 


143 


Chelbacheb 


40 




Hawaii Island 


151 


Helen Reef 


41 




Kahoolawe Island 


152 


Ngcheangel Atoll 


42 




Kauai Island 
Lanai Island 


153 
154 


CHINA 


43 




Maui Island 


155 


Introduction 


43 




Molokai Island 


156 


Dongsha Qundao 


46 




Molokini Islet Marine Life 


157 


Hainan 


47 




Conservation District 




Nansha Qundao 
Xisha Qundao 


48 
48 




Niihau Island 


157 



Coral Reefs of the World 



Page 

NWHI - Hawaiian Islands National 158 

Wildlife Refuge 
NWHI - Kure Marine Fishery Management 160 

Area and Midway Atoll 
Oahu Island 
Oahu - Ala Wai and Waikiki-Diamond 

Head Fisheries Management Area 
Oahu - Hanauma Bay Marine Life 163 

Conservation District 
Oahu - Kaneohe Bay and Coconut Island 164 

Marine Refuge 
Baker Island National Wildlife Refuge 166 

Howland Island National Wildlife Refuge 166 
Jarvis Island National Wildlife Refuge 166 

Johnston Island National Wildlife 167 

Refuge 
Palmyra Atoll 
Wake AtoU 



t^^ 



n. 



% 



9 



161 Me, 

162 1 



P 



168 h 

169 ' 



?0 



HONG KONG 171 

Introduction 171 

JAPAN 175 

Introduction 175 
Iriomote National Park, Yaeyama Marine 189 

Park and Sakiyama Bay Nature 

Conservation Area 

Ishigakishima 190 

Kushimoto Marine Park 192 

Miyake-jima 192 

Okinawa Kaigan Quasi-National Park 194 

and Sesoko-jima 

KIRIBATI 197 

Introduction 197 

Kiritimati Wildlife Sanctuary 203 

Onotoa Atoll 205 

Tarawa AtoU 206 

MARSHALL ISLANDS 209 

Introduction 209 

Amo AtoU 214 

Bikini AtoU 215 

Enewetak AtoU 216 

Kwajalein AtoU 217 

MajuroAtoU 218 f 'i 

NAURU 219 

Introduction 219 

NEW CALEDONIA 223 

Introduction 223 

Chesterfield Islands 230 

D'Entrecasteaux Reefs 231 

Great Reef Rotating Reserves 231 
Maitre and Amedee Islet Nature Reserves 232 

Yves Merlet Marine Reserve 232 

NEW ZEALAND 235 

Introduction 235 

NIUE 237 

Introduction 237 



'V 



I 



NORTHERN MARLSlNA ISLANDS 
Introduction 

PAPUA NEW GUINEA 
Introduction 
Hansa Bay 

Horseshoe Reef - Tahira 
Motupore Island 
Salamaua Peninsula 

PITCAIRN 

Introduction 
Ducie AtoU 
Henderson Island 

SOLOMON ISLANDS 
5 Introduction 

Marovo Lagoon 

TAIWAN 

Introduction 

Hsiao-Uu-chiu Reef Fishery Conservation 

Area 
Kenting National Park 
Lan-yu Reef 

Lu-tao Reef Fishery Conservation Area 
Nan-sha Reefs 
Northern coast and North-east Coast 

Coastal Conservation Zone 
Pen-hu Reefs and Fishery Conservation 

Area 
Tung-sha Reefs 

TOKELAU 

Introduction 

TONGA 

Introduction 
Ha'atafu Beach Reserve 
Hakaumama'o Reef Reserve 
Malinoa Island Park and Reef Reserve 
Monuafe Island Park and Reef Reserve 
Pangaimotu Reef Reserve 

TUVALU 

Introduction 
Funafuti AtoU 

VANUATU 

Introduction 

President Coolidge and Million 

DoUar Point Reserve 
Reef Islands 

WALLIS and FUTUNA 
Introduction 
Futuna Island 

WESTERN SAMOA 
Introduction 

Aleipata and Nu'utele Islands 
Palolo Deep Reserve 



241 
241 

247 
247 
260 
261 
262 
263 

265 
265 
265 
267 

269 
269 

277 

279 

279 
282 

282 
284 

284 
285 
285 

286 

287 

289 
289 

293 
293 
301 

301 
301 
302 
302 

305 
305 
308 

311 
311 
317 

317 

319 
319 
321 

323 
323 
327 
327 



Contents 



MAPS 



Country 



Page 



Country 



Page 



PACIFIC OCEAN REGION 


viii-ix 


NAURU 


220 


AMERICAN SAMOA 


2 


NEWCALEDONL\ 


224 


AUSTRALIA - Eastern 


16 


NIUE 


238 


BELAU 


36 


NORTHERN MARL^NA ISLANDS 


242 


CHINA 


44 


PAPUA NEW GUINEA 


248 


COOK ISLANDS 


52 


PITCAIRN 


266 


FEDERATED STATES OF MICRONESL\ 


64 


SOLOMON ISLANDS 


270 


nji 


74-75 


TAIWAN 


280 


FRENCH POLYNESL\ 


100 


TOKELAU 


290 


GUAM 


130 


TONGA 


294 


HAWAII 


144 


TUVALU 


306 


HONG KONG 


172 


VANUATU 


312 


JAPAN 


176 


WALLIS and FUTUNA 


320 


KIRIBATI 


198 


WESTERN SAMOA 


324 


MARSHALL ISLANDS 


210 







Coral Reefs of the World 





JAPAN 
• 15 



CiFlC 



V TAIWAN 






na Is (Japan] 


• Minamltc 


)rl (Japan] 


Oki-no-Tori Shima 
(Japan) 


• NORTHERN 

; MARIANA ISLANDS 

.'• 


Wake 
(U.S.AJ 




* GUAM 


° ' ^ 


^ 


.-:■. ., 


• 







NAURU 



i-^' **^ ^ Nukuma 

EA ^••v5P/l 



(Papua 
-.. -'Ay, New Guinea] 



VANUATU 'i? 
•5S» 



• 4 



^E\A/ 



>\Ss,*o 



i?J^ 



Norfolk 
(Australia] 



•.• 



•'•Lord Howe 
(Australia] 



IICE 



130°E 



} '.IS 

^ ^|150°E 



170°E 



Coral Reefs of the World 



OCEAiV 



MARSHALL 
ISLANDS 



7^. Reefs ♦ Existing Marine Parks 



Number of parl<s given if location not stiown 



fi 



iv 










.Johnston 
^ Atoll (U.S.A.] 



Kingman Reef [U.S.A.] 
*. Palmyra [U.S.A.] 



"^^ 




Clipperton 
Francej lo^N — 

iio-lw 



20°N 



10°N-J 



Howland [U.S.A.: 



BakerWu.S.A.] 



Jarvis [U.S.A.] 



KIRIBATI 



TUVALU^'> V A .JOKELAU 

and i«, ^y ^"V AMERICAN • 
FUTUNA^ ^*i-. SAMOA 



o°— 



I 

I 

10°S— ' 



FIJI/:rv^.?:3 V- 



'W-.Tv,* 



-Hunter ° I 

[New -Minerva [Tonga] 

Caledonia] ' 



COOK 



ISLANDS 






FRENCH 
. POLYNESIA 



6=> 



20° SH 



• Kermatjiec Is 
■ ■ [New Zealand] 
I 




NEW ZEALAND 



• 


P'TCA/RN ISLANDS 




acs — 




1 


700 1400 km 
1 1 



[at the equator] 



ef!^ 



i170°W 



|150° W 



|i3q^w_ 



PREFACE 



The last decade has seen growing concern for the future 
of coral reefs worldwide. Until comparatively recently, 
man used coral reefs for subsistence purposes only, as 
sources of food and craft materials. With the 
development of commercial fisheries, rapidly increasing 
populations still dependent on a subsistence lifestyle, 
growth of coastal ports and urban areas, increasing soil 
run-off due to deforestation and poor land use practices 
and most recently the exponential growth of coastal 
tourism, reefs have come under increasing pressure from 
both indirect and direct impacts. The theme The Reef 
and Man' was chosen for both the 4th and 5th 
International Coral Reef Congresses (1981 and 1985) 
when numerous papers were presented documenting the 
deterioration of reefs around the world. Reef protection 
and management were major issues at the 3rd World 
National Parks Congress, BaU in 1982 and at the XV 
Pacific Science Congress, Dunedin, New Zealand in 1983, 
and are now integrated into many environmental 
programmes and projects at international, regional and 
national levels. 

Associated with this concern, there has been growing 
demand for information about coral reefs and their 
status. In response to this, the Coral Reef Working 
Group of the lUCN Commission on Ecology carried out 
two projects, one to document threats to reefs (see 
below) and a second to compile an inventory of parks and 
reserves containing coral reefs. The latter resulted in a 
preliminary Ust of coral reef proteaed areas, published in 
the lUCN Coral Reef Newsletters (Salvat, 1978, 1979, 
1981 and 1982) which forms the basis of this Directory. 



The aims of the Coral Reef Directory are: 

1. to provide a broad survey of the reefs of the world 
giving sufficient detail to enable priorities for reef 
conservation to be established at both national and 
international levels. 

2. to identify those areas where further research and 
conservation action is required. 

3. to establish to what extent those reefs currently 
receiving or recommended for some form of 
protection are representative of the fuU range of 
reef types. 

4. to promote more effective management of coral 
reefs by making basic information widely available. 

5. to facilitate comparison between areas, thereby 
providing a working tool for those concerned with 
reef management. 

6. to stimulate increased interest in coral reefs on the 
part of the general public, government officials, 
planners, scientists and students. 

Many of the sections in this directory are incomplete and 
much of the information included will inevitably become 
rapidly out of date. However, the coral reef database at 
the lUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre in Cambridge 
will be continuously updated. Information should be sent 
to: 

lUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre, 
219c Huntingdon Road, 
Cambridge, CB3 ODL, U.K. 



ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 



We are very grateful to the many people and institutions 
who have given generous assistance in the preparation of 
this volume. 

The staff of the lUCN Conservation Monitoring Centre 
gave invaluable support and assistance, as well as Simon 
Nash who helped to edit the first draft. 

The maps were prepared by Francine Adams and 
Caroline Harcourt. 

We would particularly like to thank the following who 
prepared drafts, reviewed sections and provided 
information for the country sections: 

AMERICAN SAMOA 

Dr C. Birkeland, Marine Laboratory, University of Guam 

T. Buckley, Office of Marine and Wildlife Resources, 

Pago Pago, American Samoa 
Dr A.L. Dahl, St-Pierre d'Albigny, France 
B. Harry, USDI National Park Service, Pacific Area 

Office, Honolulu, Hawaii 
D. Itano, Office of Marine and Wildlife Resources, Pago 

Pago, American Samoa 
Dr A.E. Lamberts, Michigan, U.S.A. 
Dr J.E. Maragos, Environment Resource Planning 

Branch, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Hawaii 
Dr M. Pichon, Australian Institute of Marine Sciences, 

TownsvUle 
W. Thomas, NOAA, USDI, Washington DC, U.S.A. 
Dr R.C. Wass, USDI, FWS, Honolulu, Hawaii 

AUSTRALL\ 

Dr J.T. Baker, Australian Institute of Marine Sciences, 

Townsville 
Dr J. Bunt, Australian Institute of Marine Sciences, 

Townsville 
Dr W. Craik, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, 

Townsville 
Dr Z. Dinesen, Queensland National Parks and Wildlife 

Service, Rockhampton 
Dr H. Heatwole, University of New England, Armidale 
Dr P. Hunnam, Queensland National Parks and Wildlife 

Service, Cairns 
Dr R. Kenchington, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park 

Authority, Townsville 
Dr D.A. Pollard, Fisheries Research Institute, Dept of 

Agriculture, New South Wales 
M. Samoilys, Kilifi, Mombasa, Kenya 
Dr J. Veron, Australian Institute of Marine Sciences, 

Townsville 

BELAU 

Dr A.L. Dahl, St-Pierre d'Albigny, France 

Dr M. Gawel, Dept of Resources and Development, 

Kolonia, Pohnpei 
B. Harry, USDI National Park Service, Pacific Area 

Office, Honolulu, Hawaii 
Dr L. Eldredge, Marine Laboratory, University of Guam 
Dr G. Heslinga, Micronesian Mariculture Demonstration 

Center, Koror, Republic of Palau 
Dr J.E. Maragos, Environment Resource Planning 

Branch, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Hawaii 
L.H. Strauss, Washington D.C., U.S.A. 



CHINA 

Dr P.O. Ang, Marine Sciences Center, University of the 

Philippines, Quezon City, Philippines 
Dr Qian-Wen Lan, First Institute of Oceanography, 

Qingdao 
Dr Bao-Ling Wu, First Institute of Oceanography, 

Qingdao 
Dr Qiqan Wu, Third Institute of Oceanography, Xiamen 
Dr Zhaoxuan Zeng, Dept of Geography, South China 

Normal University, Guangzhou 
Dr Dakui Zhu, Dept of Geo and Ocean Sciences, Nanjing 

University 
Dr Ren-lin Zou, South China Sea Institute of 

Oceanology, Academia Sinica, Guangzhou 

COOK ISLANDS 

Dr G. Andrews, Australian Institute of Marine Sciences, 

Townsville 
Dr A.L. Dahl, St-Pierre d'Albigny, France 
Dr G. Paulay, Dept of Zoology, University of 

Washington, Seattle, U.S.A. 
N.A. Sims, Ministry of Marine Resources, Rarotonga, 

Cook Islands 

FEDERATED STATES OF MICRONESL\ 
Dr A. Antonius, King Abdulaziz University, Saudi Arabia 
Dr C. Birkeland, Marine Laboratory, University of Guam 
Dr L. Eldredge, Marine Laboratory, University of Guam 
Dr M. Gawel, Dept of Resources and Development, 

Kolonia, Pohnpei 
B. Harry, USDI National Park Service, Pacific Area 

Office, Honolulu, Hawaii 
Dr P. Holthus, SPREP, South Pacific Commission, 

Noumea, New Caledonia 
Dr J.E. Maragos, Environment Resource Planning 

Branch, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Hawaii 

nji 

Dr T. Adams, Ministry of Primary Industries, Suva 

Dr G.B.K. Baines, Development Unit, Western Province 

Government, Gizo, Solomon Islands 
Dr J.E. Brodie, University of the South Pacific, Suva 
Dr F. Clunie, Fiji Museum, Suva 
Dr M. Guinea, Palmerston, Australia 
Dr D. Kobluk, Earth and Planetary Science, University of 

Toronto, Ontario, Canada 
Dr N. Perm, University College of Swansea, U.K. 
Dr U. Raj, University of the South Pacific, Suva 
Dr P. Rodda, Mineral Resources Dept, Government of 

Fiji, Suva 
I. Rowles, National Trust for Fiji 
Prof. J.S. Ryland, Dept of Zoology, University College of 

Swansea, U.K. 
Dr B. Smith, Marine Laboratory, University of Guam, 

Guam 

FRENCH POLYNESIA 

Dr F.G. Bourrouilh-Le Jan, Laboratoire de gSologie- 
s^dimentologie comparee et appliquee, Universite 
de Pau et des Pays de I'Adour, Pau, France 

Dr C. Gabrie, Paris, France 

Dr B. Salvat, Centre de Biology 'Tropicale et 

Mediterranfeene", University de Perpignan, France 

M. Hicks, Moorea 



Coral Reefs of the World 



Dr P. Holthus, SPREP, Noumea, New Caledonia 
Dr J.C. Thibault, Corsica, France 
Dr J. de Vaugelas, Laboratoire de biologic et icologie 
marine, University de Nice, France 

KIRIBATI 

Dr M. Gamett, Dolgellau, Gwynedd, U.K. 

Dr P. Holthus, SPREP, South Pacific Commission, 

Noumea, New Caledonia 
Dr D. Newill, Transport and Road Research Laboratory 

Dept of Transport, U.K. 
Prof. J.S. Ryland, Dept of Zoology, University College of 

Swansea, U.K. 
C. Stevens, Sir Alexander Gibb and Partners, Berks, U.K. 

JAPAN 

Dr O. Ikenouye, Marine Parks Center of Japan, Tokyo 

Dr D.H.H. Ktmimann, Berlin, F.R.G. 

T. Milliken, TRAFFIC Japan, Tokyo 

Dr J.T. Moyer, Tatsuo Tanaka Memorial Biological 

Station, Miyake-jima 
Dr K. Muzik, Okinawa Expo Aquarium, Okinawa 
Dr M. Nishihira, Dept of Biology, University of the 

Ryukyus, Okinawa 
T. Obara, Nature Conservation Bureau, Environment 

Agency, Tokyo 
Dr M. Ohta, UNEP Regional Office for Asia and the 

Pacific, Bangkok, Thailand 
Dr G. Tribble, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, 

Hawaii 
Dr M. Yamaguchi, Dept of Marine Sciences, Univ. of the 

Ryukyus, Okinawa 
M. Yasuko, WWF Japan, Tokyo 

GUAM 

Dr C. Birkeland, Marine Laboratory, University of Guam 
Dr L. Eldredge, Marine Laboratory, University of Guam 
Dr M. Gawel, Dept of Resources and Development, 

Kolonia, Pohnpei 
D.T. Lotz, Dept of Parks and Recreation, Guam 

MARSHALL ISLANDS 

Dr L. Eldredge, Marine Laboratory, University of Guam 

Dr M. Gawel, Dept of Resources and Development, 

Kolonia, Pohnpei 
Dr J.E. Maragos, Environment Resource Planning 

Branch, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Hawaii 

NAURU 

Dr L. Eldredge, Marine Laboratory, University of Guam 

NEW CALEDONIA 

Dr P. Bouchet, Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle, 

Paris, France 
Dr W. Bour, ORSTOM-Noum6a, Noumea 
Dr A.L. Dahl, St-Pierre d'Albigny, France 

NEW ZEALAND 

Dr M.P. Francis, Leigh Marine Lab., Northland 

NIUE 

Dr A.L. Dahl, St-Pierre d'Albigny, France 
Dr G. Paulay, Dept of Zoology, University of 
Washington, Seattle, U.S.A. 

NORTHERN MAIUANA ISLANDS 

Dr C. Birkeland, Marine Laboratory, University of Guam 

Dr L. Eldredge, Marine Laboratory, University of Guam 



Dr M. Gawel, Dept of Resources and Development, 

Kolonia, Pohnpei 
B. Harry, USD! National Park Service, Pacific Area 

Office, Honolulu, Hawaii 
Dr J.E. Maragos, Environment Resource Planning 

Branch, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Hawaii 

PAPUA NEW GUINEA 

F.B.S. Antram, TRAFFIC Oceania, Sydney, Australia 

Dr M. Claereboudt, University Libre de Bruxelles, 

Belgium 
J. Genolagani, PNG University of Technology, Lae 
Dr R.E. Johannes, CSIRO, Tasmania, Australia 
Dr B. Kojis and Dr N. Ouinn, Heron Island Research 

Station, Australia 
K. Kisokau, Dept of Enviromnent and Conservation, 

Boroko 
Dr N. Kwapena, Wildlife Division, Dept of Environment 

and Conservation, Boroko 
Dr E. Lindgren, Dept of Environment and Conservation, 

Boroko 
Dr J.L. Munro, ICLARM, South Pacific Office, Honiara, 

Solomon Islands 
Dr N. Polunin, Dept of Biology, University of Newcastle, 

Newcastle, U.K. 
L.H. Strauss, Washington D.C., U.S.A. 
A. Wright, Forum Fisheries Agency, Honiara, Solomon 

Islands 

PITCAIRN 

Dr N. Broodbakker, London, U.K. 

S. Oldfield, Great Gransden, Cambridge, U.K. 

A. Parkes, University of Hull, U.K. 

Dr G. Paulay, Dept of Zoology, University of 

Washington, Seattle, U.S.A. 
M. Richmond, Southampton, U.K. 

B. Vittery, Nature Conservancy Council, Peterborough, 

U.K. 

SOLOMON ISLANDS 

Dr G.B.K. Baines, Development Unit, Western Province 
Govenmient, Gizo 

A. Worsnop, Honiara 

S. Diake, Ministry of Natural Resources, Honiara 

TAIWAN 

Dr K.T. Shao, Inst. Zool. Acad. Sinica, Taipei 

R. Quen-Jan, c/o Dept Biology, University of York, U.K. 

TOKELAU 

Dr R. GiUett, FAO/UNDP Regional Fishery Support 

Programme, Suva, Fiji 
Dr A. Hooper, Univ. Auckland, New Zealand 
I. Reti, SPREP, South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New 

Caledonia 

TONGA 

Dr R. Chesher, Neiafu, Vava'u 
Dr A.L. Dahl, St-Pierre d'Albigny, France 
U. Samani, Ministry of Lands, Survey and Natural 
Resources, Nuku'alofa 

TUVALU 

Dr A.L. Dahl, St-Pierre d'Albigny, France 

B. Sloth, Ministry of the Environment, Copenhagen, 

Denmark 
Dr L. Zann, Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority, 
Townsville, Australia 



Acknowledgements 



VANUATU 

Dr G.B.K. Baines, Development Unit, Western Province 

Government, Gizo, Solomon Islands 
Wycliff Bakeo, Fisheries Dept, Ministry of Agriculture, 

Fisheries and Forests, Luganville 
Dr MR. Chambers, Environmental Unit, Ministry of 

Lands, Energy and Water Supply, Port Vila 
Dr J. Crossland, James Crossland and Associates, 

Auckland, New Zealand 
Dr A.L. Dahl, St-Pierre d'Albigny, France 
Dr D. Dickinson, Vanuatu Natural Science Society, 

Malapoe College, Port Vila 
Dr R. Pickering, Vanuatu Natural Science Society, 

Port Vila 
A. Power, Santo Dive Tours, Santo 



WESTERN SAMOA 

Dr A.L. Dahl, St-Pierre d'Albigny, France 

Dr P. Holthus, SPREP, South Pacific Commission, 

Noumea, New Caledonia 
T. Uli, Ministry of Agriculture, Forests and Fisheries, 

Apia 
B. Bishop, Ministry of Agriculture, Forests and Fisheries, 

Apia 

The following institutions and individuals have provided 
valuable general assistance: B. Bishop, Pacific Science 
Association, Honolulu, Hawaii; Dr D. Challinor, 
Smithsonian Institution, Washington D.C., U.S.A.; 
International Council for Bird Preservation, Cambridge; 
N. Wendt and Dr P. Holthus, SPREP, Noumea, New 
Caledonia 



INTRODUCTION 



METHODS AND FORMAT 

Regional coverage 

The Directory consists of three volumes covering 1) the 
Wider Caribbean, Atlantic and Eastern Pacific, 2) the 
Indian Ocean (up to and including South-east Asia), the 
Red Sea and the "Gulf'* and 3) the Pacific and 
Australasia. This volume (3) includes 29 countries in the 
region extending from Chpperton Island and the Pitcaim 
Islands in the East Pacific to the eastern seaboard of 
Asia, Papua New Guinea and Eastern AustraUa. Most of 
this area lies within the Oceanian Realm as defined by 
Udvardy (1975), but China, Taiwan and Hong Kong lie 
within the Indomalayan Realm, and Japan within the 
Palaearctic Realm. Western AustraUa, Indonesia and the 
Phihppines, which have close biological, geographical or 
political affinities with some of the countries in this 
volume are covered in Volume 2. Of the regions defined 
by the UNEP Regional Seas Programme, only the South 
Pacific Region is covered in this volume. Eastern 
Australia, Hawaii, Hong Kong, Taiwan, Japan, China and 
New Zealand are not within this Region although some 
of them participate in the Regional Seas Programme. 



Sources of information 

Information has been obtained from a wide variety of 
sources, including published and unpublished material, 
and from a worldwide correspondence with coral reef 
researchers, conservationists and government officials. 
However, there are many gaps, either because the 
information is not available or because it has not been 
possible to contact the person who could provide it. 

Accounts for protected areas which are being compiled 
for the lUCN Directory of Oceanian Protected Areas 
(lUCN, in prep.) have been rewritten in the appropriate 
format and additional information included where 
relevant; data on terrestrial aspects have generaUy been 
reduced. A recent source of information on marine parks 
is Silva el at. (1986) which provides an update on the list 
compiled by Bjbrklund (1974). A complete and accurate 
listing of marine parks of the world is not yet available, 
partly because there are numerous instances where it is 
not known whether the park legislation covers marine (or 
submarine) habitat. 

In order to keep the volume to a manageable size, coral 
reefs have had to be considered in isolation from other 
closely associated marine habitats, such as seagrass beds 
and mangroves. A directory of wetlands of international 
importance is currently being compiled for Asia by IWRB 
(International Waterfowl Research Bureau) with the 
support of lUCN and UNEP; this will provide a 
complementary volume for the Asian countries, with its 
emphasis on other coastal and marine habitats. 

Information on reef-related species has been taken 
mainly from the lUCN Red Data Books, including 
Groombridge (1982) for turtles and crocodiles and 
WeUs et at. (1983) for marine invertebrates. Information 
on seabirds is largely from papers in CroxaU et al. (1984). 



Maps showing the distribution of reefs and of proposed 
and established protected areas have been compiled for 
each country using, where possible, material sent in by 
correspondents and, where this was unavailable, British 
Admiralty and other charts and maps available at the 
University of Cambridge. In many instances, it was 
possible to give only a very rough approximation of true 
reef distribution and the extent of reef coverage is 
probably greatly under-represented. The majority of 
countries in this volume comprise groups of islands; 
information about individual islands is generally 
presented in tabular form, using as a basis the checklist 
provided by Douglas (1969), updated wherever possible. 
Orthography generaUy foUows that of Motteler (1986). 



Site descriptions 

The format has been adapted from that used in other 
lUCN directories. For each country, an introductory 
section describes the distribution of reefs within the 
country, their status, relevant conservation issues and 
legislation. A comprehensive reference Ust, including 
scientific monographs and papers, popular books and 
articles, bibUographies, management plans and 
unpublished reports, is included. This seaion is foUowed 
by detailed accounts for reefs already protected in 
national parks and reserves, reefs proposed for 
protection, and reefs recommended by qualified experts 
as requiring protection or management on the basis of 
their scientific interest or economic importance. These 
accounts have the foUovring format: 

1. Geographical Location province, region, 
geographical coordinates; where relevant the 
proximity to major towns, national borders, other 
protected areas and major features is noted. 

2. Area, Depth and Altitude in hectares and metres: 
areas of both protected and unprotected areas; 
minimum/maximum depth of reef; altitude of 
associated cay/atoU/terrestrial ecosystem. 

3. Land Tenure pubUc (govenmient-owned), freehold, 
private, etc., with percentages or hectarage where 
there is multiple ownership. 

4. Physical Features topography, geology, cUmate, 
hydrology, and other physical features (e.g. saUnity, 
water clarity, wave action, currents, water 
temperature), particularly as they affect 
management of the area; reef type e.g. barrier, 
fringing, atoU, patch. 

5. Reef Structure and Corals reef zonation: coral 
morphology, diversity, per cent Uve cover and 
dominant species. 

6. Noteworthy Fauna and Flora predominant algae 
and other vegetation; vertebrates and invertebrates 
which are of particular importance due to their 
dominance in the ecosystem, rarity, size of 
population, etc., in particular, species of possible 
economic importance (e.g. dugong, turtles, fish. 



Coral Reefs of the World 



molluscs, crustaceans, echinoderms, etc.) and those 
included in the lUCN Red Data Books. 

7. Scientific Importance and Research importance of 
the reef in terms of the scientific interest of its coral 
formations and fauna; major research conducted in 
the area; details of current projects and scientific 
facilities. 

8. Economic and Social Benefits use or potential use 
for fisheries (commercial or subsistence), tourism, 
recreation, mariculture, education, harbour 
protection. 

9. Disturbance or Deficiencies natural disturbances 
such as hurricanes and Acanthaster damage; 
siltation; pollution; damaging fishing methods (e.g. 
explosives, poisons, trawling); collection of corals 
for the curio trade, lime or building materials; 
overcoUection of shells and other marine 
invertebrates; overfishing of reef fish for food or the 
aquarium trade; anchor damage and boat 
groundings; damage from tourists (e.g. trampling) 
and SCUBA divers; dredging, filling and other 
forms of coastal development. 

10. Legal Protection degree of legal or special 
protection afforded to certain elements within the 
area. 

11. Management local adtninistrative entity for the 
area; presence of interpretative centres and 
wardens; degree of enforcement of legislation; 
system of zoning. 

12. Recommendations legislation and management 
required; research priorities. 



CORALS AND REEF DISTRIBUTION 

Structure of Coral Reefs 

Coral reefs rank as among the most biologically 
produaive and diverse of all natural ecosystems, their 
high productivity stemming from efficient biological 
recycling, high retention of nutrients and a structure 
which provides habitat for a vast array of other 
organisms. They are tropical, shallow water ecosystems, 
largely restricted to the area between the latitudes 30°N 
and 30°S. The exact areal extent of coral reefs in the 
world is unknown and extremely difficult to estimate. 
However, Smith (1978) has produced a figure of 
600 000 sq. km for reefs to a depth of 30 m. Under this 
analysis, 13%, or about 77 000 sq. km, lie within the 
South Pacific (including Eastern Australia), and 12%, or 
about 76 000 sq. km, lie within the North Pacific 
(including the Galapagos and west coast of North 
America). It must be emphasised that these figures are 
only a rough approximation; one estimate for the Great 
Barrier Reef alone gives a total of 348 000 sq. km, 
presumably including reefs to depths greater than 30 m. 

General descriptions of coral reefs, their ecology and 
environmental requirements are given in Wood (1983), 
Sahn and Clark (1984), Kenchington and Hudson (1984) 
and Snedaker and Getter (1985). 



The true reef-building corals (hermatypic or stony corals) 
are animals (polyps) that collectively deposit calcium 
carbonate to build colonies. The coral polyps have 
symbiotic algae (zooxanthellae) within their tissues which 
process the polyp's waste products, thus retaining vital 
nutrients. The term "reer' is used in the directory for a 
population of stony corals which continues to build on 
products of its own making (Stoddart, 1969). Not all 
reefs are constructed predominantly of corals. In 
particular, several genera of red algae grow as heavily 
calcified encrustations which bind the reef framework 
together, forming structures such as algal ridges. In other 
cases, populations of corals exist, often in deeper, colder 
waters, which either do not build on themselves or are 
formed of ahermatypic, non-symbiotic corals which do 
not build reefs. Many of these have been included in the 
directory (like true reefs they may also have a very high 
productivity) and have been termed coral assemblages or 
communities. 

Present day reefs fall into two basic categories: shelf 
reefs, which form on the continental shelf of large land 
masses; and oceanic reefs, which develop adjacent to 
deeper waters, often in association with oceanic islands. 
Within these two categories are a number of different 
reef types: fringing reefs which grow close to shore (i.e. 
most shelf reefs, although some develop around oceanic 
islands); patch reefs which form on irregularities on 
shallow parts of the sea bed; bank reefs which occur 
deeper than patch reefs, both on the continental shelf and 
in oceanic waters; barrier reefs which develop along the 
edge of the continental shelf or through land subsidence 
in deeper water and are separated from the mainland or 
island by a relatively deep, wide lagoon; and atolls, which 
are roughly circular reefs around a central lagoon and are 
typically found in oceanic waters, probably corresponding 
to the fringing reefs of long since submerged islands. 

Marine and reef-related research in the Pacific Ocean, 
apart from in Eastern Australia, lags behind that of other 
parts of the world. This is largely because of the 
inaccessibility of many islands, and the vast distances that 
are involved. It is therefore striking that some of the 
earliest, and arguably the most important, reef work was 
carried out here. It was in the Tuamotu Archipelago and 
Society Islands of French Polynesia that Darwin began to 
develop his ideas on the orderly development of reefs on 
slowly sinking ocean volcanoes, on comparing the 
morphology of reef types with the theory of subsidence 
(Darwin, 1842). Until comparatively recently, research 
was restricted to expedition oriented work (Yonge, 
1973). Early expeditions to the South Pacific included the 
Carnegie Institute expeditions to American Samoa 
(1917-1920), the Whitney South Seas Expedition (1922), 
the Great Barrier Reef Expedition (1928-29) and the 
Mangareva Expedition (1934). More recent ones include 
the Singer Polignac expeditions to the New Caledonia 
area (1960s), the Te Vega Expedition to the West Pacific 
from Stamford University (1^65), the Royal Society 
Expedition to the Solomons (1965), the Cook Bicentenary 
Expedition (1969), the National Geographic 
Society-Oceanic Institute Expedition (1970), and the 
University of Hawaii expeditions to Tabuaeran 
(1970-1972). The Palau Tropical Biological Station, run 
by the Japanese until World War II, was one of the 
earliest permanent marine research bases. 



Introduction 



Long-term reef projects are still comparatively rare in the 
region but reef research activities have increased 
enormously recently, through the activities of institutions 
such as the University of the South Pacific in Fiji, 
universities in Hawaii, Papua New Guinea, Guam and 
Australia, the Atoll Research Unit in Kiribati, the South 
Pacific Commission and ORSTOM in New Caledonia, 
and numerous cruises and expeditions such as the 
missions from the Museum National d'Histoire NatureUe 
in Paris to French Polynesia. The Atoll Research 
Bulletin provides a focus for much of the published work 
for this area. Eldredge (1987c) provides a compilation of 
references to Pacific marine ecosystems, and the 23rd 
South Pacific Conference in 1983 resulted in the 
compilation of a bibliography of marine related 
references (SPC, 1984). 



Reef Distribution 

Coral makes up a great proportion of Pacific islands, 
either by active growth of the reef itself or by 
accumulation of reef debris by mechanical forces such as 
waves and currents. Coral growth is optimal only within 
a fairly narrow range of water temperatures and 
saUnities, and reef structure and development is 
influenced by other oceanogaphic factors such as currents 
and wave force. Compared to the Atlantic and Indian 
Oceans, the Pacific region is characterized by a lack of 
continental land masses, the absence of much continental 
shelf and the striking contrast between high volcanic 
oceanic islands and low coral atolls. 

In the South Pacific, the continental shelf down to the 
200 m isobath demarcates the continent proper to the 
west; most of the Arafura Sea is less than 100 m deep and 
the Torres Strait less than 20 m. The margin area of the 
continental shelf extends eastwards to the island arcs 



which form an almost continuous chain of islands or 
shallows stretching from New Zealand, through Tonga, 
the Solomon Islands, the Bismarck Archipelago, Belau 
and the Marianas to Japan; it includes the Tasman Sea, 
Coral Sea, Solomon Sea and Philippine Sea. Inside this 
margin area, seamounts support archipelagoes such as 
Fiji, Vanuatu, New Caledonia and the Loyalty Islands, 
interspersed with several very deep basin areas such as 
the Coral and Solomon Seas. To the east, the island arcs 
are bounded by deep trenches, the most distinctive of 
which are the Marianas Trench, the Palau Trench, the 
Bougainville Trench, the New Hebrides Trench, the 
Tonga Trench, and the Kermadec Trench, several of 
which are more than 10 000 m deep. Further east, depth 
averages more than 4000 m, and seamounts in the form of 
ocean ridges stretch over considerable distances, varying 
in width from 200 to 500 km. These are more or less 
parallel, rurming NW-SE and form the basement of atoll 
chains such as the Carolines (Federated States of 
Micronesia), Marshalls, Kiribati, Tuvalu, Tokelau, Cook 
Islands and Tuamotu Archipelago. Other less extensive 
relief features created by volcanic activity form the 
basements of more isolated island groups such as the 
Society Islands, Samoa, the Marquesas and Hawaii 
(Wauthy, 1986). The islands form three major groupings: 
Micronesia in the north-west, which has a minute 
proportion of emergent land in relation to sea area and 
runs from Ogasawara-shoto and Kazan-retto (the Bonin 
and Volcano Islands) to the Marianas and Marshalls; 
Polynesia, the group most remote from continental 
influence, which includes all the islands and atolls from 
Hawaii to Easter Island and west to Tuvalu and Tonga; 
and the larger islands of Melanesia which include Fiji, 
Papua New Guinea and New Caledonia, and which form 
part of the structural mass of the Australian Continent. 
The following table of distribution of reef types in the 
Pacific is taken from Dahl (1980): 







AR 


WAR 


LAR 


BR 


FR 


LR 


NGR 


SR 


New Guinea 




X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Bismark Achipelago 










X 


X 


X 






Solomon Islands 




X 






X 


X 


X 






New Caledonia-Loyalty 




X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 






New Hebrides (Vanuatu) 






X 


X 




X 


X 




X 


Norfolk-Lord Howe-Kermadec 












X 








Fiji 




X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 






Tonga-Niue 




X 






X 


X 


X 






Samoa-Wallis 




X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Tuvalu-Tokelau 




X 


X 


X 






X 




X 


Kiribati-Nauru 






X 


X 




X 


X 




X 


Mariana Islands 










X 


X 


X 


X 




Caroline Islands 




X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


Marshall Islands 




X 


X 


X 






X 






Phoetux-Line-Northem Cook 




X 


X 


X 






X 






Cook-Austral 




X 


X 


X 


X 


X 


X 






Society Islands 






X 


X 


X 


X 


X 






Tuamotu Archipelago 




X 


X 


X 




X 


X 




X 


Marquesas 












X 








Pitcaim-Gambier-Rapa 






X 


X 


X 


X 


X 






AR = algal reef 


WAR=' 


windward atoll reef 




LAR = 


•■ leeward atoll reef 




BR = barrier reef 


FR 


= 1 


fringing reef 






LR = 


: lagoon reef 






NGR= non-growing reef 


SR 


= ; 


submerged reef 













Coral Reefs of the World 



A brief summary of some of the oceanographic 
characteristics of the Pacific is given in Groves (1979) and 
a more detailed account is given in Wauthy (1986). The 
tropical Pacific is dominated by the North-easterly Trade 
Winds (strongest November - May) and the South- 
easterly Trade Winds (strongest June - October), while at 
higher latitudes, the winds are from the west. Wind 
waves are particularly important in the Pacific, having a 
major impact on islet (motu) construction and destruction 
on atolls. The large size of the Pacific means that almost 
everywhere there is appreciable wave energy at long 
wave periods and the trade winds cause almost constant 
shorter waves on eastern shores of islands. Hurricanes 
are comparatively rare in the eastern Pacific but common 
in the west. From October to January there are often 
westerly storms related to the monsoon winds of 
South-east Asia. Rainfall is very varied; it is highest in 
the region of Palmyra, (at about 7°N) under the 
intertropical convergence zone and smallest near the 
equator, for example in parts of Kiribati. Sea surface 
temperatures along the Equator are warmer in the west 
than in the east, and as the South Equatorial Current 
flows west it is heated several degrees before reaching 
the western Pacific. Furthermore, sea temperatures show 
much greater armual variation in the east than in the 
west. The El Nino phenomenon is a characteristic of the 
Pacific, and occurs at intervals of 2-10 years when 
anomalously warm water currents are triggered in the 
Eastern Pacific, and are accompanied by a rise in 
temperature of surface waters, high rainfall, and a sea 
level rise in the east and fall in the west (Cane, 1983). 
There are no major upweUings in the Pacific and no 
major input of nutrients from large land masses to favour 
primary productivity, which leads to a strong contrast 
between the produaive coral reefs and the oligotrophic 
ocean. 



The Ryukyu-retto (Ryukyu Archipelago) in Japan and 
the southern Great Barrier Reef are the northern and 
southern limits of the Indo-west Pacific centre of high 
diversity and have a high similarity between q>ecies. 
This is due to larval transport from the central region via 
the warm Kuroshio Current to the north and the East 
Australian Current to the south (Veron, 1985). 

With the decrease in diversity away from the western 
Pacific centre of endemism there is also a noticeable 
increase in levels of endemism. Hawaii is very isolated 
from other reefs and has a marginal northern tropical 
location; it has an impoverished fauna but greater reef 
development and diversity than reefs in the Galapagos or 
eastern Polynesia (Glynn and Wellington, 1984). Kay 
(1987) discussed patterns of speciation in the Pacific basin 
with reference to molluscs, crustaceans and echinoderms 
and identifies two foci of endemism: Hawaii and 
south-east Polynesia. Other marginal areas for coral 
growth include the Kermadec Islands, Norfolk and Lord 
Howe Island, and the Pitcaim Group. 

Zann and Bolton (1985) describe the distribution of the 
Blue Coral Heliopora coerulea throughout the Pacific, 
noting that it is more abundant in the equatorial Central 
Pacific such as the Marshall Islands, Tuvalu and the 
Gilbert Islands than in the Western Pacific. This is 
considered to be a result of competition with scleractinian 
corals. Heliopora is a "living fossil" and the only member 
of its family, and is possibly outcompeted by 
scleractinians which have a higher species diversity. 
Richmond (1985) discusses the distribution 
of Pocillopora damicornis across the Pacific. 



ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF REEFS 



Coral Diversity 

The study of marine biogeography in this region is still in 
its infancy. Within the central Indo-Pacific, coral faunas 
are essentially homogenous at both generic and species 
level (Veron, 1985 and 1986). The most obvious trend is 
the decreasing diversity of scleractinian corals from the 
Western Pacific, adjacent to the Indo-Malayan centre of 
coral reef evolution and diversity, to the Central and 
Eastern Pacific; and from the equator north and south to 
more temperate waters. The east-west trend is probably 
a result of the prevailing westward currents preventing 
eastward dispersal of many corals. The main easterly 
tropical current flows north of the equator, missing most 
reef areas. The South Equatorial Current, the other 
weaker easterly current, may be the main vehicle for 
larval transport during El Niiio disturbances. In the 
Tuamotu and Society Island groups, diversity is fairly 
high and there are a wide variety of reef types, but 
further east in the Marquesas reef diversity is poor. 
Glynn and Wellington (1984) discuss the relationship of 
these reefs with those of the Eastern Pacific, and the 
Galapagos in particular. The Line Islands (part of 
Kiribati) probably serve as a source for much of the coral 
reef biota of the Eastern Pacific. The reefs of the Central 
Pacific tend to be more strongly dominated by algae 
rather than corals as in the west. This is reflected on a 
small scale by the difference between the windward and 
leeward reefs of Pacific atolls. On eastern, wave-exposed 
reef slopes, melobesioid red-algal coral is very 
conspicuous. 



The Worid Conservation Strategy (lUCN/UNEP/WWF, 
1980) identifies coral reefs as one of the "essential 
life-support systems" necessary for food production, 
heahh and other aspects of human survival and 
sustainable development. Reefs protect the coastline 
against waves and storm surge, prevent erosion and 
contribute to the formation of sandy beaches and 
sheltered harbours. They are a source of raw materials 
such as corals and coral sand for building materials, black 
coral for jewellery, and stony coral and shells for 
ornamental objects. Increasing numbers of reef species 
are being found to contain compounds with medical 
properties. Reef resources are particularly important in 
the many island nations of the Pacific where lack of soil 
and water mean that agricultural potential is limited. A 
broader view of the marine economy and its importance 
in this region is given in Gopalakrishnan (1984). The 
Directory gives particular attention to the crucial role of 
reefs in fisheries and to their new role as a major focus of 
the tourist industry, owing to their aesthetic appeal and 
recreational value. 



Fisheries 

Reefs provide the fish, molluscs and crustaceans on which 
coastal communities in developing countries depend and, 
with other inshore habitats, provide nutrients and 
breeding grounds for many commercial species. Reefs 
are mainly important in small-scale traditional fisheries, 
particularly in island nations, the sea providing up to 90% 
of the animal protein of many Pacific islanders. Yields 



Introduction 



are often underestimated because of the large numbers of 
subsistence fishermen whose catches are not recorded, 
and are very variable (partly due to the varying 
conditions under which estimates have been made). It is 
thought that in general a sustainable yearly harvest of 
15 t/sq. km can be obtained from coralline areas in 
depths of less than 30 m (Munro and Williams, 1985). In 
Belau a potential yield of 2000-11 000 tormes of reef fish 
has been estimated, a range of the same magnitude as the 
tuna fishery, which seems to apply to Micronesia as a 
whole (Johannes, 1977). Excluding subsistence fishing, 
reef and lagoon fish may constitute 29% of the 
commercialized local fishery in the South Pacific, a yield 
of 100 000 tormes a year (Salvat, 1980). Commercial reef 
fish include Trevally Caranx spp. and other large species 
caught in deep water passages in the reef, and smaller 
fish caught on the reef flat. The outer reef is occasionally 
used for fishing although it is normally too dangerous. 
With the increase in tuna fishing, a complementary bait 
fishery has developed around coral reefs for small fish 
such as anchovies Stolepherus spp., sprats Spralelloides 
spp. and sardines Sardinella spp. The Great Barrier Reef 
region off Australia is an exception in the region in that 
there is no subsistence harvesting on the reefs except in 
the very north in the Torres Straits. However, the area is 
very important for recreational and commercial fishing. 
There is also controlled exploitation of aquarium fish, a 
resource which is being increasingly exploited in other 
areas although it is still of minor importance in 
comparison with the South-east Asian trade (Wood, 1985; 
Randall, 1987). Additional information on fisheries in 
the Pacific region is provided in Mitchell (1975), Zann 
(1979), King and Stone (1979), Gopalakrishnan (1984) 
and Kearney (1985). 

In addition to finfish, a wide range of other species are 
taken including molluscs, crustaceans, turtles, corals, 
shells and algae. The importance of invertebrate fisheries 
in Oceania, including those referred to as "miscellaneous 
marine products", particularly Giant Clams, trochus and 
beche-de-mer, is described by Pearson (1980), Salvat 
(1980) and Carleton (1984a and b). At present 
exploitation of many of these resources is largely 
opportunistic and involves the export of raw or only 
simply processed produas. 

The productivity of certain mollusc species appears to be 
enormous in some circumstances; in French Polynesia, 
estimates for productivity range from 12 kg/ha 
for Tridacna maxima to 460 kg/ha for Cardium fragum 
in lagoons in the Tuamotu atolls (Richard, 1982). The 
Pacific countries contribute about 60% of the mother-of 
pearl imported by Japan for the button industry, mainly 
trochus Trochus niloticus and pearl oysters Pinctada 
margaritifera. Exploitation has recently increased 
through the introduction of culture techniques, and 
trochus provides an important source of foreign exchange 
in many countries. Giant Clams are collected for local 
consumption, but are also fished commercially, largely by 
the Taiwanese for the lucrative Asian market; the meat is 
the chief product although there is also a market for the 
shells in Europe and the USA. The ornamental coral and 
shell trade is not as important as it is in South-east Asia 
but there is some exploitation, for example in Fiji, Papua 
New Guinea, and New Caledonia, and there is a small 
amount of regulated exploitation on the Great Barrier 
Reef. Black coral is exploited in a few countries such as 
Hawaii, Tonga and Papua New Guinea, and surveys 
suggest that it has potential value elsewhere provided its 



vulnerability to over-exploitation is recognised (Carleton 
and Philipson, 1987). In many Pacific countries, reef 
algae such as Caulerpa are an important source of food 
(King and Stone, 1979); the commercial potential of 
marine algal resources in the area is reviewed by Furtado 
and Wereko-Brobby (1987). 



Tourism 

The tourist industry is developing rapidly and, although 
not yet as important as in the Caribbean and Indian 
Ocean, it is becoming a major economic factor. In island 
nations, the favourable climates, clear waters, beaches 
and reefs are major attractions. Pacific tourism started in 
the 1950s with the expansion of airlines and the 
development of cruises by shipping companies. Fiji and 
Hawaii are the main island tourist destinations, and in 
both countries the industry is focused on a few resort 
areas such as the 200 km Coral Coast on Viti Levu in 
Fiji. French Polynesia (mainly Tahiti and Moorea) and 
Vanuatu attract a medium number of tourists, but in 
many other countries tourism is at a very low level. In 
Papua New Guinea, the tourist industry is important but 
is still largely restriaed to the interior; the potential for 
reef-based tourism in this country has yet to be fulfilled 
(Baines, 1980). The Queensland coast of Australia is 
probably the most important area economically for 
recreation and tourism, the primary attraction being the 
Great Barrier Reef. The total income from island resorts, 
camping, charterboats and reef fishing on the reef has 
been estimated at A$116.8 million, the rapid growth of 
the industry largely being a result of the new technology, 
such as high speed catamarans and semi-submersible 
viewing chambers, which make the reef easily accesible 
(Driml, 1987). A regional tourism programme has been 
set up for the South Pacific, supported by SPREP and the 
EEC, to promote tourism and to provide an information 
centre (Anon., 1986c). 



VULNERABILITY OF REEFS 

Biological research on reefs in the 1960s and early 1970s 
led to the view that reefs were fragile ecosystems, 
particularly vulnerable to human activities and slow to 
recover if oamaged (Johannes, 1975). Subsequent work 
led to contrasting ideas, that reef communities are 
dynamic and unstable and that self-replacement and 
recovery from natural disturbance is normal and 
contributes to the maintenance of high diversity on the 
reef (Connell, 1978). These theories have been reviewed 
by Pearson (1981), Brown and Howard (1985), Brown 
(1987a) and Grigg and Dollar (in press), the consensus 
being that reefs are perhaps not as fragile as was 
previously thought. 

However, corals generally have very specific 
requirements for light, temperature, water clarity, salinity 
and oxygen. Their lack of mobility makes them 
vubierable to siltation, through smothering and oxygen 
depletion. Coral growth tends to be slower where 
sediments are regularly disturbed, and silted substrates 
inhibit larval settlement. Light penetration is decreased 
in turbid water, reducing photosynthesis by the symbiotic 
zooxanthellae; even in the clearest seas, reef-building 
corals are restricted to depths of less than 30 m and are 
generally found in much shallower waters. Many stony 
corals have slow growth rates, which may be slowed 



Coral Reefs of the World 



further by adverse environmental conditions; Davies 
(1983) provides figures for reef growth in the range of 
0.38-12 m per thousand years. Brown and Howard (1985) 
review the responses of corals to stress, in terms of 
altered growth rate and metabolism (photosynthesis and 
respiration), loss of zooxanthellae, behavioural responses 
such as filament extrusion and mucus produaion, 
sediment shedding, altered reproductive biology and the 
appearance of disease. 

Hurricanes, storms, diseases and sea-level changes show 
that reefs are well adapted to recovery from a variety of 
sources of natural stress (Pearson, 1981), although the 
manner and speed with which this occurs may be 
immensely variable. Recovery rates have been estimated 
at from 20 to 50 years for complex reefs to only a few 
years for simpler reefs at a subclimax state of succession. 
Shallow water monospecific thickets of, for 
example, Acropora palmata may recover even more 
quickly (Grigg and Dollar, in press). There is some 
concern that such phenomena, particularly outbreaks of 
coral predators (see below), are occurring at increasing 
frequencies, perhaps as a result of human activities, 
although at present there is no general consensus of 
opinion (Brown, 1987a). The observed increase in 
incidents may simply be an artefact of the rapid increase 
in reef studies over the last 20 years. Some of the more 
recent natural events having an impact on reefs in the 
Pacific Ocean region are summarized in Table 1. 



the Indo-Pacific, where outbreaks of the 
Crown-of-Thorns Starfish, Acamhaster planci, have 
affected many reefs over the last 25-30 years (Table 1) 
(Endean, 1973; Moran, 1986). This phenomenon has 
been well studied in the Pacific, but remains a 
controversial subject. It is of greatest concern in 
Australia because of the economic impact it could 
potentially have on the Great Barrier Reef. Research has 
still not indicated whether outbreaks are simply natural 
recurring phenomena or whether they are the result of 
human activities; there is some evidence to suggest, for 
example, that increased soil-run off may aggravate 
outbreaks and in some instances cause them (Birkeland, 
1982). A major study is currently under way in Australia 
which may provide new information to resolve these 
problems. 

Whereas asteroids appear to be the most influential 
predators on Pacific reefs, echinoids seem to be more 
important in the Caribbean (Birkeland, 1987). Sea 
urchins can cause significant damage if they occur in high 
numbers. They graze on algal turf on coral rock and may 
weaken the reef structure through erosion of the rock 
surface (Hutchings, 1986). Urchin outbreaks have not yet 
been recorded in the Pacific, possible reasons for this 
being discussed in SPC/SPEC/ESCAP/UNEP (1985) 
and Birkeland (1987). One theory is that outbreaks are a 
result of human impact on the reefs, which is 
recognisably greater in the Caribbean than in the Pacific. 



Climatic, tidal and geological events 

Storms and cyclones can reduce large areas of reef to 
rubble through freshwater inundation and the breaking of 
branching corals. Hurricanes are a frequent phenomenon 
in the Pacific; their impact on reefs has been documented 
in several countries including Fiji, French Polynesia and 
Tokelau. Stoddart (1985) summarizes current thinking on 
the impact of storm damage; most research and the only 
long-term monitoring studies (on the impact of 
hurricanes) have been carried out in the Caribbean. 
Geological and tectonic events, such as earthquakes and 
volcanic eruption, may affect reefs and have had a 
recorded impact in Fiji, the Northern Marianas and the 
Solomon Islands. 

Cold temperatures periodically cause coral mortality in 
the more northerly and southerly parts of the region. 
Elevated temperatures may be equally damaging; the 
abnormally high sea-water temperatures which 
accompanied the severe 1982-83 El Niiio event were 
probably responsible for the widespread "bleaching" (i.e. 
loss of symbiotic zooxanthellae) and death of corals in the 
tropical Pacific and western Atlantic (Glynn, 1984). It is 
thought that coral reef recovery may take many years or 
decades in the Eastern Pacific. In the Central and 
Western Pacific there have been no detailed studies but 
reefs have been seriously damaged in areas as widely 
separated as Japan and French Polynesia (Table 1). In 
some areas these events were accompanied by 
abnormally low tides and storms which exacerbated the 
damage. 



Coral predators 

Coral predators can have a significant impact on reef 
structure and development. This is particularly evident in 



Disease 

Two diseases, white band and black band, are widespread 
in the Caribbean but in the Pacific region have only been 
recorded from Japan. It is possible that the great size of 
the Pacific helps to buffer the spread of disease 
(Birkeland, 1987). Coral genera and species differ in 
their response but the general effect is a weakening of the 
reef framework. The diseases do not appear to be 
correlated with human activities and may be caused by 
bacteria (Antonius, 1981; Peters, 1983; Gladfelter, 1982). 



HUMAN IMPACT ON REEFS 

Although reefs may be constantly experiencing natural 
change, there is increasing evidence that human impart, 
combined with natural disturbance, may significantly slow 
the recovery rate of a reef, particularly since man-induced 
damage is often chronic rather than temporary. Where 
reefs are of economic importance, their long recovery 
time may become an important issue. Kenchington and 
Hudson (1984), Sahn and Clark (1984), Sorensen et al. 
(1984), Brown and Howard (1985), Salvat (1987a) and 
Grigg and Dollar (in press) review the impart of human 
activities on coral reefs and Clark (1985) provides more 
detailed case studies. 

Threats to coral reefs are intimately related to the high 
population densities of coastal areas. Although many of 
the Pacific nations have comparatively low population 
densities, the small size of many of the islands, and the 
fact that urban developments are often of necessity 
located on the coast, means that land-based artivities 
have a very direct impart on the adjacent inshore waters. 
Fringing reefs, lying immediately off shore, are 
particularly vulnerable to pollutants and sediments 
washed off the land and may be affected by artivities 



Introduction 



taking place many kilometres away, such as 
deforestation. They also suffer greatest damage from 
overexploitation and recreational use owing to their 
accessibility. Atoll and barrier reefs are less vulnerable 
but may be affected by pollutants carried on oceanic 
currents or released from ships and, in areas which are 
important to fisheries, may be vulnerable to 
overexploitation. 

The lack of long-term studies and monitoring projects in 
the region has meant that threats to reefs have largely 
been inferred from known damaging activities. The 
Pacific however probably has proportionately more 
pristine and untouched reefs than other oceans (Dahl, 
1985a). The reefs of New Caledonia and the Solomons 
are thought to be largely pristine, and those of Vanuatu, 
Tokelau and Niue have probably been Uttle affected. 
Reefs in Melanesia may also be comparatively healthy 
because of the large area of reef resulting from the 
presence of the continental shelf and the fact that 
populations are less dense and less oriented towards the 
sea. In contrast, most accessible reefs in Polynesia are 
considered to be in various stages of decline, particularly 
in Fiji, Tonga, Western Samoa, American Samoa (except 
the remote Rose Atoll) and the Cook Islands 
(particularly Rarotonga). 

In the early 1980s, three quarters of the countries in the 
South Pacific region reported reef pollution, nearly half 
noted damage from illegal fishing with explosives and 
poisons, and one third cited siltation from erosion and 
dredging as problems (Dahl and Baumgart, 1983). Reef 
fisheries have clearly declined in areas where the 
population has increased or traditional fishing techniques 
have been superceded by modem methods. Tsuda (1981) 
gave a brief overview of threats to reefs in Micronesia 
and concluded that in the late 1970s, dynamiting for fish, 
and dredging and construction were the most damaging 
activities. Overviews of enviroiunental problems in the 
Pacific including those associated with reefs, are also 
provided by Dahl (1985a) and Gomez and Yap (1985). 
The main impacts on reefs in the region as identified in 
this volume are discussed below and are listed in Table 2. 



Run-off from land clearance 

Soil run-off is the most frequent source of increased 
sediment content in coastal waters, and is considered to 
be one of the most damaging impacts on corals in many 
parts of the world. In the Pacific, the problem is largely 
restricted to the high volcanic islands, such as the Society 
Islands in French Polynesia, and to continental countries 
such as Japan. It has been reported from about 11 
countries in the region (Table 2). Deforestation through 
logging and agricultural malpractices such as 
slash-and-bum, are the main causes, as well as destruction 
of mangroves, which act as sediment traps. The impact is 
often compounded by the input of fertilizers, pesticides 
and other pollutants. The responses of corals to sediment 
are very variable, many species being able to withstand 
low levels and others having behavioural or physiological 
responses to remove sediment (Grigg and Dollar, in 
press). Nevertheless, there are certainly many instances 
where damage is severe. Furthermore, siltation of this 
kind is often difficult to control, since the source of 
sediment may be far from the site of damage and come 
under the control of different agencies and government 
authorities. Although soil run-off is not yet as serious in 



the Pacific as in other regions, it could potentially cause 
major long term changes since, unlike reefs fringing 
continental land masses, most of those round oceanic 
islands have evolved in the absence of any significant 
terrestrial input (Birkeland, 1987). 



Industrial, domestic and agricultural pollution 

The impact of pollution in the South Pacific region is 
reviewed by Helfrich and Maragos (1979), Matsos (1981) 
and Brodie and Morrison (1984). It is not yet a major 
problem in the region except in urban areas, as there is 
very little industrial development, but is of considerable 
concern for the future, given the difficulty of disposal of 
wastes on small islands. 

Sewage pollution has been reported from a number of 
countries (Table 2) and is a potential problem in many 
more. It causes eutrophication and ensuing accelerated 
algal growth which smothers corals; oxygen depletion and 
toxic contamination compound this (Johannes, 1975; 
Brown and Howard, 1985; Marszalek, 1987; Pastorok and 
Bilyard, 1985). It is of particular concern on small islands 
where urbanisation or tourism are developing rapidly, 
such as Fiji. Recovery of the reef may take place rapidly 
once the source of pol'ution is removed, and increasing 
efforts are now being made to place outfalls in water 
deeper than optimal for coral growth and in sites exposed 
to strong currents and uru'estricted water circulation. 
Kaneohe Bay in Hawaii has become a classic example of 
this, having been studied both before and after the 
implementation of pollution controls. 

The long-term impact of heavy metals and other similar 
pollutants on coral reefs is still far from clear (Howard 
and Brown, 1984; Brown, 1987b) but is of concern in 
countries where mining is a major activity on the coast. 
In the Pacific, minerals are extracted from some high 
islands, particularly Papua New Guinea, Fiji, New 
Caledonia, and to a lesser extent the Solomon Islands and 
Vanuatu. The only major resource on coral islands is 
phosphate but the exploitation of this has had a major 
impact on several smaU islands, particularly Nauru, 
Banaba (Kiribati) and Makatea (French Polynesia). The 
main consequences of mining in both these cases is 
sedimentation (Dupon, 1986; Anon., 1986d). 

The impact of oil on coral reefs has been the subject of 
intensive research in the Caribbean and Red Sea. Of 
particular concern are oil terminals, tanker traffic, 
refineries and offshore oil reserves adjacent to reefs, all 
of which are potential sources of pollution. However, as 
yet it is not a major source of concern in the Pacific. The 
long-term effect of petroleum hydrocarbons on corals is 
poorly known but short-term sublethal effects may be felt 
(Knapp era/., 1983), reef fish may be affected (Gettleson, 
1980) and various other detrimental effects have been 
recorded (Loya and Rinkevich, 1987). Single-event 
episodes, such as oil spills, rarely seem to have 
detrimental effects but chronic oil pollution may, 
particularly in the intertidal zone where the reef surface 
may be exposed to the air. Major damage may also result 
from the clean-up operations which take place following 
spills, chemical detergents often being toxic. 

Thermal pollution, from power plants and industrial 
complexes, affects reproduction and may cause expulsion 
of zooxanthellae (bleaching), a temperature rise of 4''C 



Coral Reefs of the World 



generally causing damage (Neudecker, 1987); the impact 
of thermal pollution has been investigated in Guam and 
Taiwan. The disposal of chemical and hazardous military 
wastes is another problem in the Pacific, particularly in 
the U.S. affiliated islands. 



Coastal development 

Activities such as filling to provide sites for industry, 
housing, recreation, and airports, and dredging to create, 
deepen or improve harbours, ports and marinas have 
major impacts, through increased turbidity and altered 
water circulation (White, 1987). In the Pacific, most 
settlement is on the coast and although the size of urban 
centres on many islands is comparatively small, the rate 
of urbanization is as large as elsewhere (Low, 1981). 
Causeways linking small islands, the construaion of 
perimeter roads (Falanruw, 1983) and tourist 
developments are often the cause of damage. Helfrich 
(1979) discusses various aspects of such problems. 
Military artivities have also caused significant damage, 
particularly in the U.S. affiliated islands. 



Coral and sand mining and dredging 

Large quantities of coral and sand are mined for use as 
Ume, and for road and building materials, particularly on 
islands where terrestrial sources of such materials are 
limited. This causes beach erosion and transportation of 
sand to other sites as a result of altered water circulation. 
Sedimentation and pollution from the introduction of 
toxic substances in the mining process also affect adjacent 
coral reefs. These is a widespread problem in the Pacific 
(Table 2), its impact have been studied particularly in 
French Polynesia (Dubois and Towle, 1985; Salvat, 
1987b). 



Overexploitation 

Exploitation of reef species is increasing in countries 
where cash economies have been introduced relatively 
recently, in those with high population growth rates, and 
where tourism has expanded rapidly. In most cases, the 
concern is not with the extinaion of species but with 
lowered reef productivity. The impaa of fisheries on 
reefs and lagoons in the Pacific is reviewed by Parrish 
(1980) and more generally by Munro et al. (1987). Fish 
catches have deteriorated in some reef areas and 
fishermen may be now obliged to travel further afield to 
find new, undamaged reefs with worthwhile fish stocks. 
Overfishing is reported in many countries in the region, 
but does not appear to be as significant as in other 
oceans. There is also less concern about the aquarium 
fish industry (Wood, 1985; Randall, 1987), as this is not 
yet a major issue in the Pacific. 

Some reef invertebrates are however very vulnerable. 
Mother-of-pearl species have been overfished throughout 
much of the region and Giant Clams have been seriously 
depleted. The impact of collection of shells and coral for 
the marine curio trade does not yet seem to be serious in 
the Pacific but as the tourist industry increases this could 
lead to localised reef damage (Wells and Alcala, 1987; 
Wells, in press; Wood and Wells, in prep.; Munro, in 
press). 



Deleterious fishing methods 

Although illegal in most countries, fishing using 
dynamite, poisons or intoxicants still occurs, the use of 
dynamite having increased considerably after World War 
n when ammunition was readily available. These 
methods can be extremely damaging, destroying the reef, 
wasting fish and killing invertebrates (Alcala and Gomez, 
1987; Eldredge, 1987b). Dynamite fishing has been 
reported recently in at least 11 countries (Table 2), nearly 
half the countries in the South Pacific region (Dahl and 
Baumgart, 1983), and it is particularly serious in 
Micronesia. Spearfishing is practiced by many 
subsistence fishermen and althou^ of great concern in 
the Caribbean where recreational spearfishing has 
depleted some reef species, it does not yet seem to be an 
issue in the Pacific. 



Intensive recreational use 

Recreational aaivities are less widespread and therefore 
less damaging in the Pacific than in the Caribbean and 
Indian Ocean, but have been cited in the deterioration of 
reefs of some countries, such as French Polynesia, 
Hawaii, Japan and Taiwan (Table 2). Anchoring, boat 
groundings, trampling, littering, and increased 
exploitation of marine resources as a result of tourism 
cause localized reef damage (Gomez, 1983a; Tihnant, 
1987). However, the main impact is probably not so 
much directly from these activities as from the indirect 
effect of tourist-generated pollution and coastal 
development. Tourist facilities are usually concentrated 
along narrow coastal strips and in semi-enclosed bays. 
Breakwaters and jetties are often constructed to protect 
beach fronts and this leads to the alteration of water 
circulation and erosion of beaches elsewhere. The impact 
of this in Oceania is discussed in Baines (1980) with 
particular reference to Fiji where this has been a 
significant issue. 



Nuclear detonations and radioactivity 

This is a subject of great political discussion and moral 
concern at present specific to the Pacific. TTie main issues 
are nuclear explosions in French Polynesia, nuclear 
missile testing in the U.S. affiliated Pacific states and 
proposals to include the Pacific Ocean in strategies for 
radioactive waste management. From 1946 to 1982, 203 
explosions took place on Bikini, Enewetak, Johnston and 
Kiritimati under the U.S programme, on Kiritimati under 
the U.K. programme and on Moruroa and Fangataufa in 
the Tuamotu archipelago under the French programme. 
A Techiucal Group on Radioactivity in the South Pacific 
Region was created in 1982 and reviewed knowledge to 
that date (SPC/SPEC/ESCAP/UNEP, 1983b). Further 
information is given in Bablet and Perrault (1987), 
Seymour (1982), Gopalakrishnan (1984) and Bacon et al. 
(1985) but many of the data collected on the impact of 
testing have not been published. Nuclear explosions 
cause more direct harm in the immediate area concerned 
than most other human activities, but environmental 
damage in the wider context and in the long-term is not 
fully understood. 



Introduction 



REEF MANAGEME>rr 

Reef management is intimately related to island 
management in many of the smaller island nations of 
Oceania. At a 1973 regional symposium on reefs and 
lagoons (SPC, 1973), several resolutions and 
recommendations were drawn up for the conservation 
and management of reefs in the area, covering the 
creation of marine protected areas, control of damaging 
fishing methods, particularly dynamiting, improvement of 
reef research and development of tourism. Early 
conservation efforts in the region are described in Costin 
and Groves (1973) and these issues have also been 
discussed at recent Pacific Science Congresses; papers 
concerning the marine environment from the 1983 
congress in Dunedin, New Zealand are published in 
UNEP (1985). Dahl (1985d) provides a brief 
introduction to reef management in the region, indicating 
the numerous efforts now under way although many 
issues remain as relevant as they were fifteen years ago. 
Efforts under way in the U.S. affiliated countries 
(American Samoa, Guam, Northern Marianas, Marshall 
Islands, Federated States of Micronesia and Belau), 
following an assessment of the opportunities to improve 
sustainable renewable resource development and 
management by the U.S. Office of Technology 
Assessment, are described in Anon. (1987). 



Traditional resource management 

Oceania, unlike the Caribbean and Indian Ocean, is 
notable for the importance of the continuing existence of 
customary law or "traditional use rights in fisheries" 
(TURFs). The western concept of ownership tends to be 
too inflexible for islands where a small amount of land 
and few coastal resources must be shared among many 
multiple uses. Throughout much of the region, clans or 
large communal groups own and control the rights to fish 
on their adjacent reefs, this area generally extending from 
the shoreline across the reef flats and lagoon to the outer 
reef slope. Management may include limited entry to 
fishing grounds, self-imposed closed seasons and 
restrictions on the types of gear used (Eaton, 1985; 
Johannes, 1977, 1978, 1984 and in press; Nietschmann, 
1984; Ruddle and Johannes, 1985; SPC/SPEC/ 
ESCAP/UNEP, 1985). In many countries, particularly in 
Polynesia (Fiji, Tonga, Tokelau) and parts of Micronesia 
(F.S.M. (Yap), Belau), such systems appear to have 
evolved to ensure a sustainable yield of reef resources, 
and to minimize conflicts and distribute resources 
effectively. Elsewhere, notably in parts of Melanesia 
such as Papua New Guinea, they seem to have a political 
or social, rather than conservation, basis (Chapman, 1985 
and 1987; Polunin, 1984). Increasingly, traditional rights 
are tending to disappear in the vicinity of urban centres 
as a result of the arrival of outsiders. In several 
countries, such as Hawaii, the Marianas, Pohnpei and 
American Samoa, these rights have almost completely 
disappeared. Although these systems are mainly found 
on oceanic islands, in Japan, traditional rights have until 
recently been controlled by traditional village leaders; 
these rights are now being transferred to village-based 
co-operatives but the basic system is being maintained, 
ensuring local involvement in the management of 
resources. 

Traditional fishing rights and marine tenure, where they 
still exist, affect all aspeas of current reef management 



efforts and offer new solutions, through the integration of 
traditional methods with modem strategies. Although 
systems are comparatively well understood in many parts 
of Oceania, information is noticeably lacking for China, 
Japan and Taiwan (Ruddle and Johannes, 1985). A high 
priority is to determine the boundaries of marine tenure 
systems throughout the region in order to assess their 
current applicability (Johaimes, in press). With the 
arrival of the colonial powers in the Pacific, the western 
principle of all land and sea below the high water mark or 
mean high tide level belonging to the government or 
crown was generally adopted in the legislation. This 
often led to two systems of marine tenure existing for the 
same areas, and had to be resolved by government 
recognition of traditional fishing rights but not ownership 
of the marine areas involved. If new management 
systems can reinforce traditional ways or ideas they will 
have a better chance of success. The traditional tenure 
system involves enforcement of regulations by local 
people, whereas under the western system of 
management the government is required to provide and 
maintain an enforcement system. The appointment of 
local villagers as wardens of marine protected areas is 
one way of integrating traditional systems with modem 
requirements. Baines (1980) discusses the integration of 
tourism with traditional management. 

It is now widely recognised that information on 
traditional resource use patterns should be assembled to 
provide the necessary background for modem 
management of subsistence fisheries (Fakalau and 
Shephard, 1986). Fisheries in the tropics involve far more 
species than in temperate regions, and it will be a long 
time before the scientific data are available to manage 
them in a western style; a short cut is provided by 
building on the traditional knowledge of local fishermen, 
which in such areas is usually considerable. Where such 
systems still operate effectively it is recommended that 
they should simply be left; in other cases it may be 
desirable to openly recognise them and to provide legal 
institutionalization for them provided that this does not 
impede their evolution as situations change. Johannes (in 
press) suggests that private enterprises such as seaweed 
and Giant Clam farming, pearl culture and trochus 
fisheries, could be integrated effectively into traditional 
resource ownership systems. 



Protected areas 

Reef management through a system of proteaed areas 
can help halt further degradation, facilitate the recovery 
of devastated areas, protect breeding stocks, improve 
recruitment in neighbouring areas and maintain the 
sustainable utilization of reef resources (Bakus, 1983; 
Sabn and Clark, 1984; Lien and Graham, 1985). 

The economic benefits of marine parks are being 
increasingly recognised (van't Hof, 1985; Sahn and Clark, 
1984; Lien and Graham, 1985). Income to a park accrues 
through entrance fees, concessions from commercial 
diving and boat operators, permits for particular 
activities, direct management of commercial activities by 
park staff, and the sale of souvenirs and educational 
materials. Against this is balanced the cost of staffing a 
park, the maintenance of facilities, the management of 
the environment where necessary, the provision of 
educational and recreational activities and in some cases 
the purchase of the site. Studies in the Caribbean have 



Coral Reefs of the World 



shown a benefitxost ratio of 10:1 in some parks, 
particularly where SCUBA diving is an important activity 
(van't Hof, 1985). In the Pacific, with its low level of 
tourism, the economic value of marine parks has yet to be 
demonstrated in the smaller island nations but in 
Australia and Japan it is clearly significant. 

The protected area system of Oceania has been reviewed 
in Anon. (1979 and 1985) and Dahl (1980, 1985b and 
1986). At the Third South Pacific National Parks and 
Reserves Conference, sponsored by SPREP in 
co-operation with lUCN, an Action Strategy for 
Protected Areas in the South Pacific Region was 
produced (Anon., 1985) which incorporates the general 
goals for improvement of protected area coverage in this 
area suggested by Dahl (1985b). 

Of the 29 countries included in this volume, 15 have a 
total of 71 protected areas which include coral reefs, but 
many of these are not yet properly implemented 
(Table 3). There are also 22 areas in which some form of 
fishing control operates. Several of the protected areas 
have been proposed for upgrading or improved 
management. About 60 sites adjacent to terrestrial 
protected areas are recommended for inclusion or could 
be included, and over 170 other sites have been 
recommended for protection. The main problem in most 
parks is poor management through lack of funding and 
trained persoimel. Some countries, however, such as 
Australia, Guam, Hawaii, Japan and Tonga, now have 
well developed marine park programmes. In the Pacific, 
a large number of countries (F.S.M., Fiji, Hong Kong, 
Marshall Islands, Nauru, Niue, Kiribati, Pitcaim, Solomon 
Islands, Tokelau, Tuvalu, Wallis and Futuna and possibly 
China) still have no coral reef protected areas, although 
in several of these countries projects are under way. 

In many countries, the continuing existence of traditional 
tenure and customary law means that the western 
concept of protected areas may not be appropriate, as 
discussed by Eaton (1985). In some countries, successful 
integration of the two systems is taking place, for 
example Fiji, and also Papua New Guinea which has a 
particular category of protected area (Wildlife 
Management Areas) in which local people are closely 
involved in the establishment and maintenance of 
management. Furthermore, the concept of coastal zone 
management has particular relevance in this area and has 
been adopted in several countries. Tallies of protected 
reef areas in this region therefore do not necessarily 
provide a good indication of successful protection and 
management of the reefs of a country. 

The World Conservation Strategy emphasizes that any 
system of protected areas must aim to protect a 
representative selection of ecosystem types. This is still a 
problem as far as marine ecosystems are concerned, as 
there is no widely accepted classification. Problems in 
the classification of marine ecosystems are discussed by 
Ray (1975) and Salm (1984). Hayden ct al. (1984) 
produced a preliminary classification based on attributes 
of the physical environment combined with faunal 
assemblage data. 

Marine protected areas vary immensely in size, the area 
chosen often depending on practical rather than scientific 
considerations. The critical minimum core area for a 
coral reef protected area is considered by Salm (1984) to 
be the smallest area in which all coral species found in 



the overall area have a 100% chance of being found on 
all reefs of the same size. For example, in the Chagos 
Archipelago, core areas would correspond to at least 
300 ha for each reef type (Salm, 1980). The remainder of 
the reserve (including reef-flats, land and intervening and 
surrounding waters) should function as a buffer and is 
zoned for different uses, permitting optimal use of the 
area by different interest groups with minimum conflict 
and maximum control. Reef flats and seagrass beds are 
often overlooked but are important in the recycling of 
nutrients in the reef ecosystem, and several fish have life 
cycles which involve two or more of these systems 
(Ogden and Gladfelter, 1983; SPC/SPEC/ESCAP/ 
UNEP, 1985). The creation of protected areas around 
and including entire island systems, and the extension of 
boundaries of terrestrial protected areas to include 
marine habitats are effective means of achieving 
protection of a group of interrelated ecosystems. Large 
multiple-use areas are therefore generally more practical 
than small reserves, although sanctuaries or strict reserves 
may still be required for critical habitat areas, such as 
nutrient sources, areas of high biological diversity and 
nesting, or to protect breeding stocks of important fish 
(Salm and Clark, 1984). 

The Man and the Biosphere programme (MAB), 
established in 1971 by Unesco, is of particular relevance 
in this context. One aim of the programme is the 
establishment of an international network of "Biosphere 
Reserves". These sites, selected to provide representative 
examples of the world's major ecosystems, encompass 
multiple zones including one or more highly protected 
core areas (to protect natural ecosystems and genetic 
diversity), traditional use areas (to study and document 
traditional use patterns), experimental areas (for 
manipulative research on resource utilisation) and 
rehabilitation areas (to study techniques for the 
restoration of degraded ecosystems). They must also 
offer possibilities for sharing personnel and educational 
research and training facilities and have the potential for 
involving local communities in research and educational 
programmes. 

The 1984 Action Plan for Biosphere Reserves emphasizes 
the need to improve representation of coastal and aquatic 
ecosystems. Of the 252 listed Biosphere sites, less than a 
dozen include or are adjacent to reefs, and only the W.A. 
Robinson Biosphere Reserve in French Polynesia lies 
within the region covered by this volume. An early MAB 
project involved an intensive study of some of the Fijian 
and French Polynesian islands but there was no follow-up 
in terms of creating biosphere reserves. Biosphere 
Reserves are particularly appropriate for the coastal zone 
owing to their emphasis on linkages between 
conservation and development and because of the 
difficulty of including complete marine and coastal 
ecosystems within traditional forms of protected areas. 
The diverse terrestrial and marine ecosystems, and varied 
cultural histories, traditions and traditional tenure 
systems in the Pacific provide good opportunites for 
applying this concept. 

While Biosphere Reserves are aimed at proterting 
representative samples of ecosystems, the World Heritage 
Site system has been designed to conserve unique and 
outstanding examples of the world's natural heritage. 
These may be nominated by parties to the World 
Heritage Convention (Convention concerning the 
Proteaion of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage), 



Introduction 



concluded at Paris, 23 November 1972. Of the 62 listed 
natural sites, the following include or are adjacent to 
reefs: Aldabra, Great Barrier Reef (Australia), Sierra 
Nevada de Santa Marta (Colombia) and the Galdpagos. 
There is clearly scope for listing other reefs on this 
convention. 

In 1968 the International Biological Programme drew up 
a list of 39 "Islands for Science", with the aim of 
developing a convention to provide them with long-term 
protection for future research, the main criterion being 
that all were to be free from outside human impact 
(Douglas, 1969; Elliott, 1973). This proposal was never 
put into practice, but the islands on the list from the 
region covered by this volume are repeated here for 
interest: 

Japan: Minami-io-jima 
Cook Islands: Suwarrow AtoU 
Pitcaim: Ducie, Henderson, Oeno 
Kiribati: Bimie, Rawaki (Phoenix), Vostock, 

Maiden 
American Samoa: Rose Atoll 
USA: Jarvis, Kingman Reef, Rowland 
Hawaii: Pearl and Hermes Reef, Laysan, Gardner 

Pinnacles, Necker, Nihoa 
Northern Marianas: Farallon de Pajaros, Maug, 

Guguan and Farallon de Medinilla 
Belau: Helen 
F.S.M.: EastFayu 
Marshall Islands: Bokaak, Bikar 

There is now renewed interest in establishing protected 
sites for long-term research work and monitoring of reefs 
and there may be a need to identify suitable reef areas 
for such aaivities (Birkeland, 1987). 



Coastal zone management is discussed by Sorensen et al. 
(1984) and Snedaker and Getter (1985) who provide 
guidelines for the creation of national coastal resources 
management programmes; actions by international aid 
organizations; land use and coastal planning; and 
envirormiental impart assessment, many of which are 
specific to coral reefs. The International Affairs Office 
of the U.S. National Parks Service, in co-operation with 
the U.S. Agency for International Development and 
other organizations, has set up the C.A.M.P. (Coastal 
Area Management and Plarming) Network to provide 
information and training opportunities. The 

Commonwealth Science Council (CSC) has initiated a 
South Pacific Coastal Zone Management Programme 
(SOPACOAST) which provides for comprehensive, 
community-based projerts and other artivities designed to 
improve knowledge and understanding of island coastal 
resource systems, to develop the capacity of communities 
with traditional resource rights to assess their resources 
and monitor change, and to impart training in coastal 
area management at all levels. There are two site-specific 
projects: a "high" island projett in the Solomon Islands, 
and a "low" island projert in the Cook Islands. As the 
projerts progress, increasing attention will be paid to the 
application of the results in other parts of the region 
(Commonwealth Science Council, 1986). 

The Unesco Coral Reef Management Handbook 
(Kenchington and Hudson, 1984) aims to provide 
political, administrative and technical decision-makers 
who have responsibility for coral reefs with the means to 
ensure that relevant issues are properly considered in the 
course of their work. UNEP is currently preparing a set 
of Coral Reef Management Guidelines in collaboration 
with the Australian Great Barrier Reef Marine Park 
Authority. 



Coastal zone management planning 



Reef fisheries management 



Reef management has increasingly to be considered in 
the context of the entire coastal zone, and even 
catchment area; this is particularly important where 
siltation, caused by upstream sources, is a problem. The 
technology to avoid much human-induced damage to 
coral reefs is now available. For example, sewage outfalls 
can be placed below the level of coral growth, thermal 
effluent can be discharged in deep water, there are new 
methods for dispersing oil and alternative materials to 
coral are available for construrtion. This technology is 
often not applied owing to lack of technical expertise, 
funding or co-ordination between the relevant 
government authorities, but many countries are now 
moving in this direction. 

In many Pacific countries, the concept of coastal zone 
management is particularly appropriate, and programmes 
are now under way in several countries, particularly the 
U.S. affiliated islands (Hawaii, Guam, American Samoa). 
Enforcement of regulations in countries consisting of 
scattered islands, as the majority are in the Pacific, is a 
particular problem; the introdurtion of broad 
management strategies with the involvement of local 
people is likely to be more effertive in the long-term than 
attempting to enforce legislation controlling fisheries and 
proterted areas, unless these are part of the broader plan 
(Baines, 1985). 



The World Conservation Strategy recommends that the 
maintenance of coral reef fisheries at sustainable levels 
be considered a global priority. In addition to customary 
law, most countries in the region covered by this volume 
have national legislation to regulate fisheries (Table 4). 
Venkatesh and Vava'i (1983) and SPC/SPEC/ESCAP/ 
UNEP (1985) summarise marine resource legislation, and 
the latter includes a discussion of the applicability of 
western concepts of legislation to Oceania. A regional 
approach to fisheries management is proving to be 
advantageous. For example, in the Caribbean, a Fisheries 
Act has been developed under the auspices of the 
Organization of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS) and 
FAO which provides for the preparation of fisheries 
management and development plans, appointment of 
national fisheries advisory committees, regional 
co-operation, establishment of marine reserves and 
conservation programmes and prohibition of certain 
methods (Goodwin, 1985). In the Pacific, the Forum 
Fisheries Agency has been established under the South 
Pacific Forum Fisheries Agency Convention, for the 
conservation of fisheries resources and the promotion of 
optimal utilisation (a convention - the Fishing and 
Conservation of the Living Resources of the High Seas 
Convention of 1958 - also exists between Fiji and Tonga 
in 1958 (Venkatesh and Vava'i, 1983)). The Fisheries 
Forum Agency is artive in encouraging improved 
fisheries management including reef fisheries. 



Coral Reefs of the World 



Management of of reef and lagoon fisheries in the Pacific 
is discussed by Marshall (1980) and specifically in the 
U.S. affiliated islands in Callaghan (in press); general 
recommendations are given in Munro et al. (1987). 
Although some resources have been overexploited, 
landings could probably be improved through stock 
enhancement, such as use of underexploited non-reef 
species, artificial reefs and fish aggregating devices. In 
the U.S. affiliated islands, efforts are being made to direct 
fisheries away from the more fragile and heavily fished 
reef and lagoon resources to the comparatively 
underexploited pelagic and outer reef slope resources 
(Anon., 1987). The success of the Japanese in Micronesia 
during the mandate period (Smith, 1947) suggests that 
there is considerable potential for economic development 
of a variety of marine resources (Anon., 1987). 
Recommendations of improved management of the 
aquarium fish trade are given in Wood (1985) and 
Randall (1987). 

Particular attention is being paid to reef invertebrates 
(Pearson, 1980; Smith, in press) and the Fisheries Forum 
Agency has initiated a programme to examine their 
marketing (Carleton, 1984a and b). New Caledonia and 
Australia are notable for having developed systems for 
the exploitation and management of invertebrates such as 
corals and shells. The ornamental coral and shell trades 
generally need better management, both nationally and 
internationally (Wells and Alcala, 1987; Wood and Wells, 
in prep.; Wells, in press). The shell trade potentially 
provides an important source of income as many molluscs 
can probably support fairly intense exploitation, provided 
damage to the reef environment and local 
overexploitation of the more popular species is avoided. 
Attempts have been made in Papua New Guinea and are 
being made in Fiji to develop the industry in a sustainable 
manner. Exploitation of stony corals is considered 
inadvisable because of the damage it causes to the reef 
(Gomez, 1983b) but there is potential for managed 
exploitation of the semi-precious corals. Carleton and 
Philipson (1987) provide recommendations for the 
management of black coral, suggesting that oiJy 
small-scale, high craft content, processing enterprises 
should be encouraged; raw black coral should not be 
exported. A management plan drawn up for precious 
corals by the Western Pacific Regional Fishery 
Management Council (1980) could provide a model for 
other coral resources. Furtado and Wereko-Brobby 
(1987) recommend a survey of commercially valuable 
algal resources in Fiji, Kiribati, Papua New Guinea and 
the Solomon Islands prior to the development of 
management strategies for exploitation. 

Little work has been carried out on artificial reefs and 
FADs (fish aggregating devices) in this region but 
projects are under way in some countries such as Japan 
and Western Samoa, and their potential is discussed in 
Gopalakrishnan (1984) and Anon. (1987). Compared 
with South-east Asia, aquaculture is a recent 
development in the Pacific (King and Stone, 1979). 
Rapid advances are being made, however, at the 
Micronesian Mariculture Demonstration Center in Belau, 
particularly for the commercially valuable but often 
overexploited molluscs: Giant Clams and trochus (Anon., 
1987), on several of the Tuamotu atolls, where pearl 
oyster culture is proving to be a viable economic activity, 
and in the U.S. affihated islands (Nelson, in press). A 
regional progamme for Giant Clam farming is under way 
under the auspices of ICLARM and includes AustraUa, 



Papua New Guinea, Fiji, Solomon Islands, Belau and 
Western Samoa (Lucas and Munro, 1985; Munro, 1986 
and in press). In addition to developing techniques for 
improving harvest yields, the trochus and Giant Clam 
programmes are also aiming at restocking depleted reefs, 
and in some cases introducing stock to new areas. 
Guidelines for such activities will need to be drawn up to 
ensure that in the long-term such introductions do not 
have deleterious effects. 

The Convention on International Trade in Endangered 
Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES), concluded in 
Washington D.C., 1973, provides a mechanism for 
controlling international trade in threatened species. 
However, although many reef species are involved in 
international trade, few fit the strict criteria required for 
listing on the Appendices. AH turtles (Cheloniidae and 
Dermochelydae) and the Dugong Dugong dugon (except 
Australian populations) are listed in Appendix I which 
prohibits international trade between parties. Black coral 
(Antipatharia), the Giant Clams Tridacnidae and a 
number of stony coral genera are listed in Appendix D, 
which means that an export permit is required from the 
country of origin. 



Research, training and education 

Research into the coastal zone has increased dramatically 
in recent years, particularly in relation to the conflict 
between economic development and natural resource 
conservation, although, compared with the Caribbean and 
Australia, reef-related research in the Pacific Ocean is 
still fragmentary. UNEP/FAO (1985) lists marine 
environmental centres in the region and Eldredge (1987a) 
provides a directory of Pacific coral reef researchers; a 
world list of coral reef research institutes is currently 
being prepared (Eldredge and Potter, in prep.). Further 
information on marine research institutes and scientists is 
also available in Unesco/FAO (1983) and in the Coral 
Reef Newsletter produced by the Scientific Committee 
on Coral Reefs of the Pacific Science Association. A 
Pacific Islands Marine Resources Information Service 
(PIMRIS) is to be set up at the University of the South 
Pacific in Fiji (Eldredge, pers. comm., 1987). 

The Division of Marine Sciences of Unesco has played a 
major role in stimulating research and in training 
specialists and technicians in marine sciences through the 
Major Inter-regional Project on Research and Training 
leading to Integrated Management of Coastal Systems 
(COMAR). Pilot projects are being drawn up to give 
each region the praaical experience and background for 
decision-making in the field of coastal zone management 
(Unesco, 1986a). In Asia and the Pacific COMAR 
activities have focused on produrtivity and interactions 
between coral reefs and mangroves, traditional 
knowledge and the development of a network of coral 
reef institutions (Unesco, 1982). Regional workshops 
have been held on coral taxonomy (Unesco, 1985), reef 
survey methods, the assessment of damage caused by 
humans (Brown, 1986) and a comparison of tropical 
marine and coastal processes in the Atlantic and Pacific 
(Birkeland, 1987). The need for long-term research 
projects and permanently based laboratories which could 
carry out such work is recognised; it is recommended that 
a broad-scale programme to assess productivity gradients 
should be initiated in the Pacific as in the Caribbean 
(Birkeland, 1987). 



Introduction 



International seminars are held in the U.SA. for 
administrators, managers and professional personnel 
involved in coastal and marine protected areas policy, 
planning, design, management and operations (Anon., 
1986a). 

Monitoring changes on reefs is a high priority (Brown 
and Howard, 1985; Unesco, 1985). Simple, low-cost 
techniques for assessment have been designed with the 
Pacific in mind (Dahl, 1977 and 1981). At the more 
sophisticated level, remote sensing of coral reefs, 
although costly, is becoming an increasingly useful 
technique. A training course on the subject has recently 
been run under the auspices of the Unesco COMAR 
project (Unesco, 1986b) and an ESCAP/UNDP/ADAB/ 
USP Pacific Island Regional Remote Sensing workshop 
examined the potential for resource mapping in the 
Pacific; a pilot project is now under way in Tonga 
(Chesher and Thaman, 1987). Extensive work on remote 
sensing applications to reef management is also under 
way in New Caledonia and French Polynesia. Marine 
resource atlases have been prepared for a number of 
Pacific countries (Hawaii, American Samoa, Pohnpei in 
the F.S.M.), the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers taking a 
lead role in this activity (Maragos and Elliott, 1985; 
Anon., 1987), and these provide a useful baseline for 
planners and resource managers. 

Education programmes in schools and villages are also 
extremely important to help local people to understand 
the importance of reef resources and lead to improved 
enforcement of planning controls and regulations. 
Foreign visitors and tourists also need to understand the 
reef ecosystem, and marine parks are increasingly 
contributing to this through their provision of 
interpretative centres, underwater trails and guidebooks. 
SPREP (1984) describes activities under way at that time 
and the research, educational and monitoring 
programmes under way in different institutions within the 
region. 



International and regional efforts 

Multinational collaboration and regional strategies are 
particularly important in the conservation and 
management of marine resources which are so often 
shared by several countries. Forster (1985) and Pulea 
(1984 and 1985) discuss the conventions of particular 
relevance to the South Pacific region. Kenchington and 
Hudson (1984) summarize the international agencies and 
organizations which carry out activities relating to reef 
management. 

The UNEP Regional Seas Programme was initiated in 
1974. Since then the Governing Council of UNEP has 
repeatedly endorsed a regional approach to the control of 
marine pollution and the management of marine and 
coastal resources and has requested the development of 
regional action plans. 

The Regional Seas Programme at present includes ten 
regions and has over 120 coastal States participating in it. 
It is conceived as an action-orientated programme having 
concern not only for the consequences but also for the 
causes of environmental degradation and encompassing a 
comprehensive approach to combating environmental 
problems through the management of marine and coastal 
areas. Each regional action plan is formulated according 



to the needs of the region as perceived by the 
Governments concerned. It is designed to link 
assessment of the quality of the marine environment and 
the causes of its deterioration with aaivities for the 
management and development of the marine and coastal 
environment. The action plans promote the parallel 
development of regional legal agreements and of 
aaion-orientated programme activities. 

An important UNEP contribution to the concept of 
promoting regional cooperation in assessing and 
combating marine pollution together with resource 
conservation and management in oceans and coastal 
areas has been the preparation and publication of a series 
of regional directories and bibliographies. 

UNEP's recognition of the enviromnental importance of 
coral reefs, as well as the tremendous pressures on and 
global exploitation of these fragile ecosystems, has been 
demonstrated in the inclusion and encouragement of 
various measures to protect reefs in the regional action 
plans. The publication of the Pacific Coral Reef 
Researchers in UNEP's Regional Seas Directories and 
BibUographies (UNEP/PSA/SPREP/UG, 1984) is also 
an indication of this concern. In order to give coral reefs 
and associated problems a deservedly much greater 
exposure it was decided to publish the three volumes of 
directories that would cover the coral reefs globally. This 
volume includes a single region within the Programme: 
the South Pacific Region. 

SPREP, the South Pacific Regional Environment 
Programme, is the central environmental organisation in 
the region. It was developed by the South Pacific Bureau 
for Economic Co-operation (SPEC), the Economic and 
Social Corrmiission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) and 
the South Pacific Commission (SPC). There are 22 
participating countries, and the developed countries 
involved (Australia, France, New Zealand, U.K. and 
U.S.A) support the programme. The Action Plan for 
Managing the Natural Resources and Enviroimient of the 
South Pacific Region (SPC/SPEC/SPREP/UNEP, 
1983a) was adopted, with the South Pacific Declaration 
on Natural Resources and Environment of the South 
Pacific Region, at the 1982 Conference on the Human 
Environment in the South Pacific which was convened at 
Rarotonga in 1982 (SPREP, 1982; Carew-Reid and 
Sheppard, 1985; Dahl, 1985c). 

The activities of Unesco and the Commonwealth Science 
Council in the region with respect to reefs are described 
above. lUCN/WWF activities include the development 
of marine parks and the general support of national park 
services through assistance provided by the lUCN 
Commission on National Parks and Protected Areas 
(CNPPA). The Conservation for Development Centre of 
lUCN is contributing to the development of National 
Conservation Strategies which will take reef ecosystems, 
where relevant, into account. 



International conventions 

Most international wildlife conventions make little 
reference to coral reefs. The UNEP Regional Seas 
Convention, two conventions relating to fisheries, CITES 
and the World Heritage Convention are mentioned above 
and a summary of environmental conventions of 
relevance in the Pacific region is given in Venkatesh and 



Coral Reefs of the World 



Va'ai (1983). The following conventions also have, or 
could have, some bearing on reef management and 
conservation: 

The Convention on the Protection and Development of 
the Natural Resources of the South Pacific Region 
(SPREP Convention) was approved in 1986; 10 countries 
have signed, of which two have ratified. It concerns the 
marine and coastal environment and emphasises pollution 
control. There are two protocols, one concerning 
prevention of pollution by dumping and the other 
concerning regional co-operation in combating pollution 
emergencies (Pulea, 1985). 

The Convention for the Conservation of Nature in the 
South Pacific (Apia Convention) 1976 was sponsored by 
the SPC and lUCN and resulted from a regional 
symposium held in 1971 (Costin and Groves, 1973). It 
provides for the encouragement of the establishment of 
protected areas and the protection of species. Papua 
New Guinea, France (New Caledonia), Western Samoa 
and most recently the Cook Islands have ratified, and the 
convention can now come into force. Discussions are 
currently under way as to the best means of rationalising 
this with the Convention for the Proteaion and 
Development of the Natural Resources of the South 
Pacific Region which has a broader, more modem 
approach to conservation issues but which is limited to 
the marine and coastal zone (Forster, 1985). 

The Convention on the Prevention of Marine Pollution 
by Dumping of Wastes and Other Matter, 1972 and the 
International Convention for the Prevention of Marine 
PoUution from Ships (MARPOL 73/78) have been drawn 
up by the International Maritime Organization to prevent 
marine pollution from ships which may often have a 
direct impact on reefs. They are discussed by 
Kenchington and Hudson (1984) and Hayes (1981). 

The Convention on Wetlands of International 
Importance especially as Waterfowl Habitat, concluded at 
Ramsar, Iran, 2 February 1971, lists wetlands of 
international importance primarily to waterfowl, but sites 
may be selected on a variety of criteria. Wetlands are 
defined as areas of marsh, fen, peatland or water, fresh 
and marine, the depth of which at low tide does not 
exceed six metres; shallow coral reefs are therefore 
included. At present the only Ramsar site which includes 
reefs is the St Lucia System in South Africa. It is 
generally felt that, in its present form, the Convention is 
not appropriate for reefs since a) the emphasis is strongly 
on bird habitat, b) reefs generally extend to depths 
greater than 6 m, and c) reefs generally come under 
different national legislation from other wetland habitats, 
which would complicate the implementation of the 
Convention within a country (Anon., 1986b; Wells, 
1984). However, efforts are currently under way to 
revise the convention to make it an important force for 
the protection of coastal wetlands essential for supporting 
fisheries. 



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TABLE 1: DAMAGE TO REEFS DUE TO NATURAL EVENTS 



Climate, tides and 
tectonic events 



Coral predators 



Disease 



American 
Samoa 


storm (1987, Swains AtoU), 
heavy rain (1924, Tutuila), 
low tides (Tutuila), hurricanes 
(1966, 1987*) 


A planci (1978-79, 
Tutuila; 1987, Ofu) 


Australia, 
Eastern 


floods (1974, Moreton Bay) 


A planci (1962-74, 1978, 
1980/81, 1985-? mid part 
Great Barrier ReeQ 


Belau 




A planci (193Ds, 1970s) 


China 


hurricanes (1975, Xisha Qundao) 




Cook Is 


hurricanes 


A planci (1971; 1987*) 


Federated States 
of Micronesia 




A planci (1970s; 1987*) 


Fiji 


hurricanes (1965, Viti Levu; 
1975, Lau Group; 1978, 
Taveuni; 1980, Viti Levu; 
1983, Malololailai; 1985, 
Mamanuca Group), earthquakes 
(1953, 1979, Taveuni, Vanua 
Levu), heavy rainfall (1986, 
Viti Levu) 


A planci (1960s, 1970s*, 
1978/80, 1984) 


French 
Polynesia 


hurricanes (1903, Hao; 1906, 
Tuamotu Gp and Gambiers; 


A planci (1981, Moorea, 
and others) 



1980, 1981, Mururoa; 1982-83, 
Society Islands and Tuamotu Gp), 
sea level drop and El Nifio 
(1983, Society Islands), low 
tides (1978, 1980, Mataiva) 



Guam 


hurricanes, sea-level changes 


Hawaii 


storms, tsunamis, hurricane 
(1982) 


Hong Kong 


cold temperatures, low tides 


Japan 


coral bleaching and high 
water temperatures, (El Niiio), 
low water temperatures, 
hurricanes 


Kiribati 


high rainfaU and high sea 
temperature (El Nino) (1983*) 


Marshall Is 


hurricanes 


Nauru 


wave action 


New Caledonia 




Niue 


hurricane (1979) 



A planci (1968-70) Ter[xos 
A planci (1960s, Molokai) 



A planci (1957, Miyako; 
1960s-1980s, Ryukyus, Kyusho, 
Shikoku, Honshu), Drupella, 
(1976-80S, Miyake-jima, 
Kushimoto), Terpios 

A planci (1970s, Tarawa, 
Abaiang; 1940s, Kiritimati) 



A planci 



white and 
black band 
(Ishigaki) 



Coral Reefs of the World 
Table 1 (Contd) 



Climate, tides and 
tectonic events 



Coral predators 



Disease 



Northern 
Mariana Is 


typhoons and wave action*, 
volcanic eruption 


A planet (1968, 1971) 


Papua 
New Guinea 


storms (1969, Conflict Group, 
and others), earthquake (Madang) 


A planci (1983, Milne Bay; 


Pitcaim 


low water temperature? 
(Ducie) 


(single specimen A planci, 
Ducie) 


Solomon Is 


earthquake (1978), low tide/ 
El Niiio (1983), cyclones 


A planci (1966, 1968, Mala 
1981, Guadalcanal) 


Taiwan 


cyclones 


A planci 


Tokelau 


hurricane (1987), sea level 
drop/El Nifio (1983) 


A planci (1960s*) 


Tonga 


cyclone (1982), low tides 
and heavy rain /El Niiio (1984, 


A planci (1969, Vava'u 
Group) 



Tuvalu 
Vanuatu 



Wallis 
and Futuna 

Western Samoa 



Hihif o peninsula) 

hurricane (1972, Funafuti) 

hurricanes (1972, Reef 
Islands; 1985 Espiritu Santo; 
1987 Efate), emergence 



A planci (1986) 



A planci (1930s, 1960s-70s, 
Upolu and others) 



event occurred but damage not reported 



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TABLE 3: EXISTING, PROPOSED AND RECOMMENDED PROTECTED AREAS 
ADJACENT TO OR INCLUDING REEFS 

* = party to World Heritage Convention 

= marine habitats not included within protected area 

F = some controls over fishing/fishing reserve 

rm = resource management 

I. = Island 

Is = Islands 

The lUCN Categories for Protected Areas have not been applied to the protected areas in this region. 



Established 



Proposed/ 
Recommended 



AMERICAN SAMOA 

Rose Atoll National Wildlife Refuge 

Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary 

North Tutuila National Park (inc. Pola I.) 

Papaloloa Pt, Ofu 

South Ta'u National Park 

Nu'utele Islet, Ofu 

Goat I. Pt - Utulei Reef, Tutuila 

Lepisi Pt, Tutuila 

Ogegasa Pt, Tutuila 

Pago Pago Bay and Pala Lagoon, Tutuila 

Swains Atoll 



+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 



AUSTRALIA, EASTERN 

Cobourg Peninsula Marine National Park and Sanctuary 

Coringa - Herald National Nature Reserve 

Elizabeth and Middleton Reefs MarineNational Nature 

Reserve 
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park 

Cairns Section 

Central Section 

Cormorant Pass Section 

Far Northern Section 

Mackay-Capricom Section 
Lihou Reef National Nature Reserve 
Lord Howe Island Permanent Park Preserve 
Solitary Is Marine Reserve 

BELAU 

Chelbacheb (Rock Is) National Park 

Ngerukeuid Is Wildlife Preserve 

Ngerumekaol Chaimel 

Ikedelukes Reef trochus reserve 

Ngederrak Reef 
Helen Reef 



+ 
F 
F 
F 



CHINA 

Hainan Reefs 
Xisha Qundao 



COOK ISLANDS 

Suwarrow Atoll National Park 

Avatiu foreshore reserve 

Aitutaki trochus reserve 

Palmerston trochus reserve 

Manuae trochus reserve 

Takutea 

Pukapuka 

Black Rocks (Tuoro), Rarotonga 

Ngatangiia Harbour and Muri Lagoon, Rarotonga 

Aitukaki lagoon and eastern motus 



+ 

{ + ) 
F 
F 
F 



(+) 
rm 

+ 
+ 
+ 



Coral Reefs of the World 
Table 3 (Contd) 



Established Proposed/ 

Recommended 



FEDERATED STATES OF MICRONESIA 

Pohnpei nn 

Gaferut + 

Elate turtle reserve + 

Pikelot turtle reserve + 

West Fayu turtle reserve + 

Oroluk turtle reserve + 

FUI 

(T = terrestrial, M = marine, P = park, R = reserve, ( +) = seabird rookery or turtle reserve) 

Viti Levu, Lomaitivi, Kadavu and Yasawas 

Natadola Bay XP 

Makuluva and reefs MR 

Suva Barrier Reef and cays MP, MR 
Vuo (+) 
Draunibota (-I-) 
Labiko ( + ) 

Bird I., Beqa Lagoon (+) 

Vatu-i-ra (+) 

Mabualau (+) 

Beqa Lagoon MP, MR 

Nadi Bay reefs (inc. Tai and Luvuka) MP, MR 

Coral Coast reefs MP, MR 

Makogai and reefs 7P_ MR 

Wakaya and reefs MP 

Cakau Momo (Horseshoe Reef) MP 

Great Astrolabe reef MP, MR 

North Astrolabe Reef MR 

Yabu /+\ 

Taqa Rock (+) 

White Rock (+) 

Mamanuca Group MR 
Malamala and reefs TP, TR, MP, MR 

Vanua Levu and Taveuni 

Namenalala and reef TR, MR 

Nanuku islets (+) 

Great Sea Reef MP, MR 

Qelelevu Atoll TR, MR 

Rainbow Reef MP, MR 

Yadua Taba + 

Rotuma TP, MP 

Lau Group 

Wailagilala Atoll TR, MR 

Qilaqila (Bay of Islands) TP, MP 

Fulaga Bay of Islands MP, PR 

Sovu Is ( + ) 

Cakau Lekaleka Barrier Reef MP, MR 

Nukutolu islets and reefs MR 

Other areas recommended: 

Leleuvia . + 

Ra coast 4. 

Mana + 

Yasawa-i-rara + 

Makodroga + 

Balolo Point, Ovalau Island + 

Cobia -i- 

Vetauua (+) 

Nukubasaga (+) 

Nukubalati (+) 



-xl- 



Introduction 
Table 3 (Contd) 



Established Proposed/ 

Recommended 



FRENCH POLYNESIA 

Austral Islands 

Gambler Islands 

Marquesas 

Hatutaa ( + ) 

Biao ( + ) 

Mohotanj ( + ) 

MotuOne ( + ) 

Society Islands 

Manuae (Scilly) Reserve + 

Huahine i™ 

Tetiaroa + 

Moorea reefs - Temae, Tiahura + 

Raiatea + 

Tupai + 

Maupihaa + 

Motu One + 

Tuamotu Archipelago 

W.A. Robinson Integral Reserve + 

Anuanuraro + 

Anuanurunga + 

Apataki (+) 

Hereheretue + 

Kauehi (+) 

Matureivavao (+) 

Napuka (+) 

Nukutipipi + 

Pukapuka ' + 

Tekokota (+) 

Toau + 

Motu Paio (Rangiroa) (+) 

Clipperton I. (France) + 



GUAM 

Anao Conservation Reserve + 

Haputo Ecological Reserve Area + 

Orote Peninsula Ecological Reserve Area + 

Pati Point Natural Area + 

War in the Pacific National Historical Park + 

Guam Territorial Seashore Park + 
Luminao Barrier Reef + 

HAWAH 

(MLCD = Marine Life Conservation District, MFMA = Marine Fisheries Management Area, SP = State Park, SNAR 
= State Natural Area Reserve, NWR = National Wildlife Refuge) 
Hawaii Island 

Kealakekua Bay MLCD + 

Lapakahi State Historical Park MLCD + 

Wailea Bay MLCD + 

HUo Bay MFMA F 

Puako Bay and Reef MFMA F 

Kailua Bay MFMA F 
Kahoolawe Island "•" 

Kauai Island 

Waimea Bay and Recreational Pier MFMA F 

Hanamaulu Bay and Ahukini Recreational Pier MFMA F 

MUolii Reef SP + 

Nualolo-Kai Reef SP + 
Lanai Island 

Hulopoe Bay - Palawai, Manele Bay - Kamao MLCD + 

Manele Boat Harbor MFMA F 

-3di- 



Coral Reefs of the World 
Table 3 (Contd) 



Established Proposed/ 

Recommended 



HAWAII (Contd) 
Maui 

Honolua and Mokuleia Bay MLCD + 

Kahului Harbor MFMAs F 

Cape Kinau, Ahihi and La Perouse Bays SNAR + 

Molokini Islet MLCD + 

Hawaiian Islands NWR + 

Kure MFMA F 
Oahu Island 

Hanauma Bay MLCD + 

Pupukea Beach Park MLCD + 

Waikiki-Diamond Head MFMA F 

Coconut Island Marine Refuge + 
U.S. Dependencies: 

Baker Island NWR + 

Howland Island NWR + 

Jarvis Island NWR + 

Johnston Island NWR + 
Palmyra Atoll + 

HONG KONG 

Country Park 6 ( + ) + 

Country Park 7 ( + ) + 

Country Park 8 ( + ) + 

Country Park 18 ( + ) + 

Kat O Chau Special Area ( + ) 

JAPAN 

(Q.N.P. = Quasi-National Park; NP = National Park) 

Minamiboso QNP + 

Katsuura 
Yoshino-Kumano NP + 

Kushimoto 
Muroto-Anan Kaigan QNP + 

Awaoshima 

Awatakegashima 
Ashizuri-Uwakai NP + 

Tatsukushi 

Okinoshima 

Kashinishi 

Uwakai 
Genkai QNP + 

Genkai 
SaikaiNP + 

Wakamatsu 

Fukue 
Unzen-Amakusa NP + 

Tomioka 

Amakusa 

Ushibuka 
Nippo Kaigan QNP + 

Nanpokuura 

Kamae 
Nichinan Kaigan QNP + 

Nichinan 
Kirishima-Yaku NP + 

Sakurajima 

Sata Misaki 
Amami o-shima QNP + 

Kasari Hanto-Higashi Kaigan 

Surikozaki 

-xlii- 



Inlroduction 



Table 3 (Contd) 



Established 



Proposed/ 
Recommended 



JAPAN (Contd) 

Kametoku 

Sctouchi 

Yoronto 
Okinawa Kaigan QNP 

Onna Kaigan 

Tokashiki 

Zaniami 
Iriomotc NP 

Yaeyama 

Sakiyama Bay Nature Conservation Area 
Fuji-Hakone Izu NP 

Miyake-jima 
Ogasawara NP 

Ogaswara 
Kabira Bay marine sanctuary, Ishigakisliima 
Nagura Bay marine sanctuary, Ishigakishima 
Shiraho Lagoon, Isltigakishinia 



+ 
+ 

F 

F 



KIRIBATI 

Kirilimati Wildlife Sanctuary 

Maiden Wildlife Sanctuary 

Slarbuck Wildlife Sanctuary 

Rawaki Wildlife Sanctuary 

McKean Wildlife Sanctuary 

Vostock Wildlife Sanctuary 

Birnic Wildlife Sanctuary 

Phoenix Island National Park 

Enderbury 

Caroline 

Flint 

Kanton 

Butaritari 

Abaiang 



( + ) 
( + ) 
( + ) 
( + ) 
( + ) 
( + ) 
( + ) 



(+) 
(+) 
(+) 
(+) 
( + ) 
( + ) 



MARSHALL ISLANDS 
Kwajalein 
Jemo 
Bikini 



rm 

+ 

(+) 



NAURU 



NEW CALEDONIA 

New Caledonia "protected zone" 

Maitre Islel Nature Reserve 

Amedec Islet Nature Reserve 

Great Reef Rotating Reserve 

Yves Merlet Marine Reserve 

Isle of Pines 

Ngo and Uie Bays 

Mba and Mbo 

Chesterfield 

Hunter 

Beautemps-Beaupre 

Terrain Bas and La Foa 

D'Entrecasteaux Reefs 



F 

+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 



NEW ZEALAND 

Kermadcc Islands 



-xliii- 



Coral Reefs of the World 
Table 3 (Contd) 



Established Proposed/ 

Recommended 



NIUE 

Fatiau Tuai + 

Makapu (+) 

Hio (+) 

Limu (+) 

Makatutaha (■)-) 

Tahileleka (+) 

Hikutavake Reef -l- 

Vaihoko + 

Tuo + 

Vaitafe + 

Motu + 

NORTHERN MARIANA ISLANDS 

Guguan ( + ) + 

Maug ( + ) + 

Farallon de Pajaros ( + ) + 

Asuncion ( + ) + 

Saipan (selected sites) + 

Managaha + 

Rota (selected sites) + 

Tinian (selected sites) + 

PAPUA NEW GUINEA 

(WMA = Wildlife Management Area) 

East New Britain 

Talele I. Nature Reserve + 

Nanuk I. Provincial Park + 

West New Britain 

Gam WMA + 

Hoskins Bay + 

Cape Anukur + 

Manus 

Lou I. WMA + 

Ndrolowa WMA + 

Wuvulu Is + 

Ninigo Group + 

Hermit Is + 

Western Is + 

Sabben Is + 

Alim Is + 

Milne Bay 

Sawataetae Wildlife Management Bay + 

Baniara I. Protected Area + 

Trobriand Is + 

Muyua + 

Goodenough + 

Fergusson + 

Normanby + 

Pocklington Reef + 

Misima + 

Yela Is + 

Calvados Chain + 

Conflict Group + 

Warils + 

Milne Bay Is + 

Madang 

Ranba (Long) I. WMA + 

Macclay Park + 

Manam I. + 

Hansa Bay (Laing Island) + 

-xliv- 



Introduction 
Table 3 (Contd) 



Established Proposed/ 

Recommended 



+ 



PAPUA NEW GUINEA (Contd) 

Karkar 

Bagiai WMA + 

Northern Province 

Mangrove I. + 

Cape Nelson 

Central Province 

Horseshoe Reef Marine Park + 

Coutance Is + 

Motupore I. WMA + 

Idlers Bay + 

Papuan Barrier Reef + 

Western Province 

MazaWMA + 

National Capital 

Taurama Beach Recreational Park + 

East Sepik 

Unei Island Village Reserve + 

Shouten Is + 

West Sepik 

Tumleo Ali, Seleo and Angel Island + 

Morobe 

Fly Island Marine Park 

Tami Is + 

Salamaua Peninsula + 

New Ireland 

St Mathias Group 

Islands between Lavongai and Kavieng + 

Djaul Is + 

Tabar Is + 

Lihir Group + 

Tanga Is + 

Feni Is + 

N. Solomons 

Pinipel-Nissau Group + 

Kulu, Manus, Passau + 



+ 



+ 



PITCAIRN 

Henderson I. + 

SOLOMON ISLANDS 

Tulagi ( + ) 

Oema (+) 

Mandoleana ( + ) 

Dalakalau ( + ) 

Dalakalonga ( + ) 

Marovo Lagoon '™ 

Amavon Is, Manning Strait + 

Rennell I. + 

TAIWAN 

(CCZ = Coastal Conservation Zone; FCA = Fishery Conservation Area) 

North-east Coast CCZ + 

Renting National Park and CCZ + 

Lang- Yang River Mouth CCZ + 

Su-Hua CCZ + 

Hua-Tung CCZ + 

Hsiao-Uu-chiu Reef FCA F 

Lu-tao Reef FCA F 

Pen-hu Reefs FCA F 

Two FCAs near Renting F 

-xlv- 



Coral Reefs of the World 
Table 3 (Contd) 



Established 



Proposed/ 
Recommended 



TAIWAN (Contd) 
Lan-yu Reef 

TOKELAU 



TONGA 

Fanga'uta and Fangakakau Lagoon Reserve 
Ha'ataf u Beach Reserve 
Hakaumama'o Reef Reserve 
Malinoa Island Park and Reef Reserve 
Monuafe Island Park and Reef Reserve 
Pangaimotu Reef Reserve 
'Eua National Park 
Nuapapu-Vaka'eita marine reserve 
Muihopohoponga Beach Reserve 
'Ata Island Biosphere Reserve 

TUVALU 
Funafuti 
Vaitupu 
Kosciusko Bank 

VANUATU 

President Coolidge and Million Dollar Point 

Whitesands Recreational Reserve 

Bucaro Recreational Reserve 

Site on Aore, Recreational Reserve 

Naomebaravu Recreational Reserve 

Reef Is 

Anatom I. 

Cook Reef 

North west coasts of Makekula and Santo 

WALLIS AND FUTUNA 
Alofi I. 

WESTERN SAMOA 

Palolo Deep Marine Reserve, Upolu 
Aleipata and Nu'utele Is, Upolu 
Satuimalufilufi/Fuailolo'o, Upolu 
Fusi/Tafitoala, Upolu 
Aganoa, Upolu 
Nu'usaf e I., Upolu 
Salamumu, Upolu 
Leanamoea, Savai'i 
Cape Puava, Savai'i 



+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 



+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 



F 
F 

+ 



+ 
+ 
+ 
+ 



(+) 



-xlvi- 



TABLE 4: NATIONAL LEGISLATION RELATING TO CORAL REEFS 



This list is known to be incomplete but has been included 
as a guide to the types of legislation which exist for the 
management of coral reefs and reef fisheries; customary 
law is not included. Information was not obtained for 
New Zealand. Additional information is available in 
Venkatesh and Va'ai (1983) and SPC/SPEC/ESCAP/ 
UNEP (1985). 

AMERICAN SAMOA 

U.S. Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act, 

1972 

designates ocean waters as marine sanctuaries. 
U.S. Endangered Species Act, 1973 

bans turtle collection. 
U.S. Fisheries Conservation and Management Act, 1976 
U.S. Clean Water Act, 1977 
U.S. Coastal Zone Management Act, 1972 

Executive Order 3-80 

establishes the Coastal Management Program, and 

includes provision for establishment of Special 

Management Areas. 
PubUc Law 16-58 

prohibits use of poison in territorial waters. 
Territorial laws 

prohibits use of dynamite for marine harvesting. 

AUSTRALIA, EASTERN 

Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Act, 1975 

establishes Great Barrier Reef Marine Park 
Authority and provides for establishment, control, 
care and development of a marine park in the Great 
Barrier Reef region. 

Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Regulations, 1983 

include prohibition on drilling for petroleum within 
Great Barrier Reef region. 

Torres Strait Treaty, 1978, amended 1984, ratified 15.2.85 

(bilateral agreement with Papua New Guinea) 

establishes protected zone in Torres Strait where 
traditional resource exploitation can continue. 

Queensland legislation protects Charonia tritonis and 

bans spearfishing with SCUBA. 

BELAU 

N.B. Belau is the last remaining part of the Trust 

Territory of the Pacific Islands. It is expected shortly to 

become an independent nation in close association with 

the U.S.A. When this happens much existing legislation 

may no longer apply. 

U.S. Clean Water Act, 1977 

U.S. Endangered Species Act, 1973 

Palau (Belau) Code (Chapter 2) 

establishes Ngerukeuid Islands Wildlife Preserve; 

provides for conservation of dugongs and other 

marine life; prohibits fishing in Ngerumekaol during 

grouper spawning season. 
Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands Code Title 45 

provides for control of fishing with explosives and 

poisons; limits collection of turtles, sponges, trochus, 

pearl shell. 
Republic of Palau Public Laws 

restrict location of trochus collection; prohibit 

export of clam meat; estabUsh Palau Lagoon 

Monument. 
Koror (Oreor) State Ordinances 

establish trochus sanctuaries and prohibit shelling. 



CHINA 

Regulations for the Propagation and Protection of 

Fishery Resources, 1979 

Marine Environmental Protection Law, 1982 

covers wide range of issues; administered by the 
Environmental Protection Department. 

Coastal Zone and Shallow Sea Areas Protection and 

Management Law (in preparation) 

COOK ISLANDS 
Conservation Act, 1975 

establishes Suwarrow Atoll National Park. 
Conservation Act, 1987 

includes provision for establishment of marine parks. 
Trochus Act, 1975 

restricts harvest of trochus within reserves. 
Territorial Sea and Exclusive Economic Zone Act, 1979 

includes provision for proteaion and preservation 

of marine environment. 
Legislation 

prohibits use of poisons and dynamite. 

FEDERATED STATES OF MICRONESL\ 
Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands regulations no 
longer apply and F.S.M. environmental legislation has not 
yet been enacted. 

FUI 

Fisheries Aa, 1978 

Chap. 158 prohibits use of explosives and poisons 
for fishing; minimum size limits for turtles, Trochus, 
mother-of-pearl, Scylla serrata; protects turtles and 
eggs during nesting season, and Charonia tritonis 
and Cassis cornuta. 

Town Planning Act, 1946 

Chap. 109 provides for preparation of Town 
Planning Schemes, including conservation of 
foreshores, harbours and other parts of the sea. 

Harbour Act No. 3, 1974 

provides for penalties to be imposed for pollution of 
harbour and coastal waters (never been used). 

Public Health Act 

Chap. 91 controls sewage discharge. 

National Trust for Fiji Ordinance, 1970 

Chap. 265 provides for the permanent preservation 
of lands (including reefs) and for the development 
of parks and reserves. 

Mining Act 

requires environmental impact assessment for 
mining activities. 

FRENCH POLYNESDV 

Fisheries legislation 

provides for protection and management of marine 
and coastal resources; controls exploitation of pearl 
oysters and trochus. 

Marine pollution legislation 

GUAM 

U.S. Endangered Species Act, 1973 

bans turtles collection. 
U.S. Coastal Zone Management Act 

provides for planning controls and regulations for 

coastal resources. 
U.S. Clean Water Act, 1977 



-xlvii- 



Coral Reefs of the World 



Section 208 mandates Guam Water Quality 
Management Plan, designates conservation areas 
where pollutants banned. 

Fisheries regulations 

prohibit poisons and explosives; limit exploitation of 
live coral, coconut crabs, trochus, spiny lobsters. 

Law 12-209, 1975 

set up Guam Territorial Park System, creating 
Guam Territorial Seashore Park and Anao 
Conservation Area. 

HAW An (U.SA.) 

The Marine Protection, Research and Sanctuaries Act, 

1972 

designates ocean waters as marine sanctuaries. 

U.S. Endangered Species Act, 1973 
bans turtle collection. 

Fishery Conservation and Management Act, 1977 

regulates fisheries within 200 mi. (320 km) territorial 
limit; provides for establishment of regional fishery 
management councils; regulates establishment of 
Habitat Areas of Particular Concern (HAPC); 
regulates take of coral; controls fishing; bans take of 
aquarium fish in protected areas. 

HONG KONG 

Fisheries Protection Ordinance Chapter 171, 1964 

prohibits use of explosive and poison in fishing. 
Legislarion 

regulates activities in coastal waters (details not 

known). 
Country Parks Ordinance, 1976 

provides for establishment of country parks 

(includes coastline but not seabed). 

JAPAN 

Fisheries Law, 1949 

establishes framework for operation of Fisheries 
Cooperative Associations in management of local 
fisheries resources; places limits (including seasonal 
and size limits) and sometimes bans on some 
fisheries, including turtle eggs and corals in the 
orders Scleractinia, Gorgonacea and Stolonifera in 
Okinawa Prefecture. 

National Parks Law 1931, revised 1957 

provides for creation of national, quasi-national and 
prefectural nature parks. 

Environment Preservation Law, 1972 

designates the Environment Agency responsible for 
national parks. 

Okinawan Prefectural Government regulations, 1973 

provide for conservation of natural envirorunent, 
including establishment of conservation areas. 

KIRIBATI 

Fisheries Ordinance, 1957 

prohibits fishing without license, or with explosives, 

gas, poison; protects ancient and customary fishing 

grounds. 
WildUfe Conservation Ordinance, 1975, amended 1979 

partial protection of Green Turtles; provides for 

establishment of wildlife sanctuaries. 

MARSHALL ISLANDS 

Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands regulations no 

longer apply and Marshall Is environmental legislation 

has not yet been enacted; U.S. laws apply to U.S. 

aaivities. 



NAURU 

Marine Resources Act, 1978 

provides for exploitation, conservation 
management of fish and aquatic resources. 



and 



NEW CALEDONIA 
Law 76-12222, 1976 

environmental legislation. 
Laws 64-1331, 1964; 73-477, 1973; 79-5, 1979 

prohibit marine pollution by hydrocarbons. 
Law 76-599, 1976 

prevents and controls pollution by dumping from 

ships and aircraft. 
Deliberation 245, 1981, modified by DeUberation 510, 
1982 

regulates fishing, including trochus fishing, and 

prohibits dynamite fishing. 
Arrets 83-002/CG, 1983 

requires permit for trochus fishing and establishes 

size limit. 
D6Ub6ration 509, 1982, and ArrSt^ 85-321/CM, 1985 

authorizes controlled collertion of coral on trial 

basis in Tetembia section of barrier reef. 
Law 56-1106, 1956, Resolution 225, 1965, D6Ub6ration 
108, 1980, Decree 1504, 1980 

establishes protected areas. 
Water Resources and Pollution Law, Deliberation 105, 
1968 

controls or prohibits activities likely to endanger 

water quality; allows for establishment of protected 

zones. 
Legislation: 

prohibits night fishing 

controls collection of turtles, aquarium fish, bryozoa 

and sponges. 

NIUE 

Fish Protection Ordinance, 1965 

NORTHERN MAIUANA ISLANDS 
Public Law 1-8, Chapter 13 

empowers Dept of Natural Resources to protect and 

enhance natural resources. 
U.S. Coastal Zone Management Act 

provides for Coastal Resources Management 

Program which regulates activities in territorial 

waters. 
P.L.2-51 Fish, Game and Endangered Species Act, 1981 
Emergency Regulations Proteaing Fish and Wildlife, 1983 

establishes licensing requirements and controls for 

collecting trochus, corals, turtles and lobsters; 

prohibits use of explosives and poisons; designates 

sanctuaries. 
Environmental Planning Aa, 1978 
Environmental Contaminants Act, 1978 

PAPUA NEW GUINEA 

Continental Shelf (Living and Natural Resources) Act 

(Chapter 210) 

controls the harvesting of sedentary organisms, 
including clams, trochus and Gold-lip Pearl shell. 

Fisheries Act (Chapter 214) 

defines the powers of the Minister and officers of 
the Dept of Fisheries and Marine Resources in 
relation to licensing and fisheries management (does 
not cover whales and sedentary organisms). 

Fauna (Protection and Control) Aa, 1966 

provides for establishment of Wildlife Sanctuaries 
and Wildlife Management Areas. 



-xlviii- 



Introduction 



Native Customs (Recognition) Act 1963 (Chapter 19, 

Section 5b) 

specifically recognizes the customary rights or 
ownership in connection with the sea, reef, seabed, 
rivers and lakes, including rights to fishing. 

Torres Strait Treaty, 1978, amended 1984, ratified 15.2.85 

(bilateral agreement with Australia) 

establishes protected zone in Torres Strait where 
traditional resource exploitation can continue. 

Coral harvesting law 

PITCAIRN ISLANDS 
Fisheries Zone Ordinance 

provides for management of fisheries resources. 

SOLOMON ISLANDS 

Delimitation of Marine Waters Act, 1978 

provides for protection and preservation of marine 
environment. 

National Parks Act, 1954 

Fisheries Act, 1972/1977 

provides for licenses and permits for commercial 
fishing, enables limits on gear type and harvestable 
fish sizes to be set and closed areas to be declared. 

Regulations limit size of harvestable trochus and turtles. 

TAIWAN 

National Park Law, 1972 

provides for establishment of natural parks. 
Coastal Area Environment Protection Plan 

establishes coastal conservation zones. 

TOKELAU 

(Traditional conservation measures only) 

TONGA 

Parks and Reserves Act, 1976 

authorizes establishment of protected areas. 
Bird and Fish Preservation Act, 1915, amended 1974 

partial or complete protection for some species, 

including turtles. 



Environmental Protection and Fisheries Acts in 
preparation. 

TUVALU 

Fisheries Ordinance, 1977 

prohibits fishing with explosives and poisons. 
Prohibited Areas Ordinance 

provides for establishment of wildlife reserves. 
Wildlife Conservation Ordinance, 1975 
Legislation: 

controls pollution and waste disposal. 

regulates sand and coral removal. 

VANUATU 

Fisheries Act No. 37, 1982 

provides for establishment of marine reserves. 

Fisheries Regulations, 1983 

provides for issue of fishing licenses and 
conservation and regulation of fisheries, including 
size Limits for spiny and slipper lobsters, coconut 
crabs, trochus. Turbo and Charonia; partially 
protects turtles; totally proteas marine mammals; 
limits coral collection; requires permits for export of 
trochus, green snail, crustaceans, aquarium fish, 
coral and beche-de-mer. 

WALLIS AND FUTUNA 

Fisheries Regulation Order No. 83, 1965 

prohibits use of explosives or poison for fishing. 

WESTERN SAMOA 
Fish Protection Act, 1972 

regulates exploitation of marine resources. 
Fish Dynamiting Act, 1972 

prohibits use of dynamite for fishing. 
Police Offences Act, Section 4(f), 1961 

prohibits use of Derris and Barringtonia plants and 

derivatives for fishing. 
National Parks and Reserves Act, 1974 

enables estabUshment of marine parks and reserves. 
Water Act, 1965 

controls discharge of pollutants into coastal waters. 



-xljx- 



AMERICAN SAMOA 



INTRODUCTION 

General Description 

American Samoa, an unincorporated territory of the 
U.S.A., comprises the six eastern islands of the Samoan 
Archipelago as well as Swains Atoll, which is 
geographically part of the Tokelau group. The land area 
covers 76 sq. mi. The geology of the Samoan Islands is 
described by Steams (1944). All the islands except 
Swains Atoll are aligned along the crest of a 
discontinuous submarine ridge which extends over 
485 km and trends roughly north-west by south-east. 
Swains and Rose Atolls are limestone, the others are 
composed principally of volcanic rock and are typically 
steep-sided, with little in the way of coastal plains, and 
with lush vegetation. Terrestrial aspects of the ecology of 
the islands are described in some detail in Amerson el al. 
(1982) and Dahl (1970 and 1973) provides short 
ecological reports. 

Tutuila is the largest island and is the top of a composite 
volcano rising approximately three miles (4.8 km) from 
the ocean floor, which results in deep water near shore. 
There are many small but no major streams and the 
island is almost bisected on the south-east by a deep 
natural harbour, Pago Pago Harbor. The coasthne, 
except at the mouths of drowned alluvial valleys, is 
irregular, rocky and composed of steep cliffs of variable 
height. 

American Samoa has a warm, humid tropical climate with 
average temperature of 70-90°F (21-32°C) and average 
humidity of 80%; mean rainfall is about 200 in. 
(5080 mm), the heaviest rains occurring from December 
to March. It is in the zone of the south-east trade winds 
which are moderate from May to November. During the 
remainder of the year winds are variable; the strongest 
occur during the winter months of June to August, and 
the weakest are from December to February. Major 
hurricanes are experienced about once every five years; 
these normally approach from the north but occasionally 
come from other directions. Tsunamis may also occur 
although only inner Pago Pago Harbor has experienced 
any sizeable run-up (USDC, 1984). 



Table of Islands 

Tufuila (X) 52 sq. mi. (135 sq. km) (32 x 4 km), 
volcanic, 2141 ft (653 m) with chain of mountains; 
fringing reef along eastern part of south coast as 
described below (see separate accounts for Fagatele Bay 
and Goat Island Pt - Utulei Reef). 

Aunu'u (X) 1 sq. mi. (2.6 sq. km); volcanic islet with 200 
ft (61 m) cone, 1.6 km off south-east coast of Tutuila; 
fringing reef. 



Manu'a Group 

Ofu (X) 3 sq. mi. (7.8 sq. km), 1621 ft (494 m) volcanic; 
undisturbed fringing reef; important reefs at Asaga Strait, 
Alaufau and Ofu; important structural reefs occur as 



offshore banks near Asaga Strait and Tumua'i Pt 
(Maragos, 1986); reef on west side at anchorage, 200 m 
off shore from Alaufau at 10-20 m depth, described by 
Dahl et al. (1974): water clear and warm with abundant 
fish; bottom has marked topographic relief, with small 
corals and red algae on top of elevations, dense coral 
cover; high species diversity on walls and white sand in 
troughs; (see account for Papaloloa Pt); brief descriptions 
of some sites in Itano (1987). 

Olosega (X) 2 sq.mi. (5.2 sq. km); volcanic, 2095 ft 
(639 m); important reefs at Tamatupu Pt and Sili and 
important structural reef at Pouono Pt (Maragos, 1986); 
reef about 200 m off sheltered west side at 20-25 m depth 
described by Dahl et al. (1974): bottom rocky with huge 
blocks; coral cover more extensive and diversity higher 
than Ta'u, with huge colonies of table Acropora 
and Pontes and abundant alcyonarians. 

Ta'u (X) 17 sq. mi. (44 sq. km); 3170 ft (966 m) central 
peak; important reefs at Faleasao, Si'ufaga, Fusi and Saua 
(Maragos, 1986); reef on north-west coast described by 
Dahl et al. (1974); other reefs described by Itano (1987); 
see below for descriptions; fish recorded at various sites 
listed in Itano (1987). 

Rose Atoll (see separate account). 

Swains Atoll (X) (see separate account). 

(X) = Inhabited 



The islands are rich in fringing reefs although these are 
relatively narrow and lack good near-shore drop-offs. 
They typically consist of a shallow lagoon or moat (about 
2 m deep), a shallower fore-reef, a reef crest (usually 
emergent at low tide), a surge zone (with spur and groove 
formation on the south-west windward side) and a sharp 
reef front dropping 5-10 m to a reef terrace and gradually 
descending to deep water. Most of the reefs have passes; 
the maximum width is 500 m and most are much 
narrower (Dahl, 1970 and 1973). 

The reefs of American Samoa are among the best 
documented in the South Pacific region, those around 
Tutuila having been studied for nearly 70 years (Dahl, 
1985). Lamberts (1983a) describes early scientific 
expeditions to the islands, the only extensive study of the 
reefs being the Carnegie Institution programme of 1917 
to 1920. Early coral studies include those of Cary (1921 
and 1931), Chamberiin (1921), Davis (1921), 
Helfrich et al. (1975), Hoffmeister (1925) and Maragos 
(1972). A resource survey of selected sites was carried 
out in the early 1970s by Randall and Devaney (1974). 
Monitoring surveys of reefs around Tutuila were made 
between 1970 and 1980 (Dahl, 1981). In 1979, a complete 
survey of the reefs was carried out for the U.S. Army 
Corps of Engineers and a reef inventory prepared for 
Tutuila, Aunu'u, Ofu, Olosega and Ta'u (AF and 
AECOS, 1980; Maragos and Elliott, 1985). Reef 
monitoring stations have been set up by Itano and 
Buckley of the Office of Marine and Wildlife Resources 



-1- 



Coral Reefs of the World 




AMERICAN SAMOA 

r^ Reefs 

■ Approximate 200m isobath 

y^ Park or protected area 

>4 Proposed pari< or protected area 

- ' ' Proposed park or protected area bouxjary 



MANU'A ISLANDS 
O Ta'u 



20 40 60 80 km 
i I I 1 



©Rose Atoll 



171°W 



I170°W 



|169''W 



|168°W 



Pola" 




2 3 4 5 km 



(lor all enlargements) 




Olosega 



MANU'A ISLANDS 




Fatalele Pt 



-2- 



American Samoa 



of the American Samoa Goveniment on all islands except 
Ta'u. Some of these transects duphcate areas previously 
studied by Wass (1978) and Dahl et al. (1974), others are 
new and were chosen because they are representative of 
a particular biotope. On Tutuila, transects have been set 
up at Whale Rock, Faga'alu, Taema Bank, Nafanua Bank, 
Faga'itua Bay, Tula, Aoa, Masefau, Puaneva Pt, Fagasa, 
Sita Bay, Poloa, Afao, Leone Bay and Coconut Pt. 
Periodic monitoring is carried out at the monitoring 
stations and transects for reef fish and corals are made. 
Corals are identified to species where possible and a coral 
reference collection is maintained and added to 
(Itano in litt., 29.7.87). Lamberts (1983a) lists 174 
scleractinian corals in 48 genera and subgenera for 
American Samoa. Surveys by the Office of Marine and 
Wildlife Resources have recorded Blue Coral Heliopora 
caenilea on Ofu, Olosega, Swains Island, and Taema 
Bank off Tutuila, with highest abundance on Ofu 
(Itano in litt., 29.7.87); Dahl et al. (1974) also recorded it 
at Leone Bay, Tutuila. Reef algae were studied by Dahl 
(1972). 

Two thirds of the coastline of Tutuila (about 55 km), 
particularly to the south, is bordered by narrow fringing 
reefs which are partially exposed at low tide. There are 
no barrier reefs and only a single well-developed lagoon 
(Pala Lagoon). Beyond the breakers on the seaward 
margin of the reef flat, the bottom slopes rapidly to very 
deep water, except south-west of Aunu'u Island where 
depths are less because of the drowned barrier reef 
Nafanua Bank. Because of rapid submergence during the 
last period of Pleistocene sea-level rise, the limited areas 
of fringing reefs are discontinuous and consist primarily 
of bedded calcareous sand and silt rather than coral reef 
framework (Steams, 1944). 

The most important reefs, identified in the course of 
compiling the coral reef inventory, are in Pago Pago 
Harbor, Utulei, Aua, Faga'alu, Tafananai, Alega, 
Faga'itua, Aoa, Masefau, Afono, Vatia, Fagasa, 
Massacre, Maloata, Poloa, Amanave, Nua-Se'etaga and 
Leone, Asili, Pala Lagoon, Matuu and around Aunu'u 
Island. Structurally the most important reefs occur at 
Pala Lagoon, Faleapoi Pt (south of Leone), Coconut Pt, 
outer Pago Pago Harbor and Faga'itua Bay on the south 
coast and Aoa, Masefau, Fagasa and Poloa Bays on the 
north coast. Much of the north coast lacks structural 
reefs altogether. Important submerged structural reefs 
occur as the two offshore banks, Taema and Nafanua 
(Maragos, 1986; AF and AECOS, 1980). 

The broadest fringing reef extends about 1000 m from the 
shore in the south mid portion of the island, at Nu'u'uli, 
near Pago Pago Airport. It protects the shallow estuary, 
Pala Lagoon, separated from it in part by the sandy 
peninsula. Coconut Pt. Prior to construction work for the 
airport, the deeper parts of this area had large thickets of 
staghom acroporid corals some of which were over 30 m 
across and 2 m high (Helfrich et al., 1975). 

A fifth of the Tutuila reef front is found in Pago Pago 
Harbor which was extensively studied between 1917 and 
1920 by Mayor (1918, 1924 a,b,c and d) and by Bramlette 
(1926) who described marine bottom samples. Of the 
reef transects made by Mayor, only those of Aua and 
Utulei now cross living reef, the others having 
disappeared as a result of dredging and filling (Dahl and 
Lamtjerts, 1977) and sedimentation (Maragos, 1986). A 
reduction in total numbers of corals, a change in the 



relative proportions of different genera and a probable 
reduction in the average size of individual colonies was 
recorded. Acropora is still the dominant coral 
but Psammocora abundance has been reduced by two 
thirds. Pocillopora has become more abundant 
replacing Porites. 

Brief surveys were made at two sites on Tutuila by 
Dahl et al. (1974), prior to the Acanthaster infestation of 
1978-79. At Leone Bay on the windward south-west side, 
the reef was surveyed out to 350 m from the shore near 
Logologo Pt. At that time the reef structure was 
irregular, somewhat resembling a spur and groove system, 
with a shallow reef flat and large reef patches in deeper 
water extending down to 25 m. Coral cover was very 
variable, sometimes reaching 100%, but with many 
hehopores. A large flat of white, completely 
detritus-free, coarse sand occurred at 15 m depth. The 
water was clear and warm with abundant fish. This area 
was apparently not affected by the Acanthaster outbreak 
and in 1987 was reported as still having a dense cover 
of Acropora hyacinthus and A irregularis, with other 
corals also being abundant and fish diversity high 
(Itano in litt, 29.7.87). On the north side of Tutuila, at 
Ogegasa Pt, Dahl et al. (1974) described a vertical basaltic 
rock slope from the surface to 3 m, followed by a rocky 
flat with small scattered corals extending 50 m off shore 
to 7 m depth. From here a slope with spur and groove 
formations dropped to 15 m and then a very steep slope 
dropped down to 30 m, ending in an extensive sand flat. 
This slope had extremely high coral cover and species 
diversity. 

Sita Bay on the north coast still has good coral growth 
after the Acanthaster infestation (Itano in litt., 29.7.87; 
Lamberts in litt., 7.2.85). Fagatele Bay, on the 
south-west, is described in a separate account. 

Taema Bank is a drowned barrier reef, similar to 
Nafanua Bank, about 7 km off the entrance to Pago Pago 
Harbor. Both banks are the remains of a barrier reef 
which enclosed a former lagoon extending from the 
vicinity of the airport to the channel between Tutuila and 
Aunu'u Island. Water depth varies from 100 m in the 
lagoon to 6 m over the banks which are cut by passages. 
The inner slopes of the banks are reported to be heavily 
silted and mostly devoid of conspicuous marine life but 
currents keep the seaward slopes free of silt (Maragos, 
1986). The seaward slope and crest of the shallower 
sections of the banks have high coral abundance 
(Maragos in litt., 10.7.87). The banks and the area 
between Tutuila and the Manu'a Group are major 
feeding grounds for birds and have abundant commercial 
fish (Maragos, 1986). 

Reefs around Ofu and Olosega are mentioned briefly 
above in the table. On Ta'u, the reef between Faga on 
the central part of the northern coast and Lepula in the 
north-east is characterized by spur and groove formation 
extending gradually offshore for 100 m from the outer 
reef flat margin before sloping to meet basalt pavement 
areas at ca 20 m depth. The channels are lined with 
boulders and sand pockets and generally have no coral 
cover; coral growth on the higher parts of the basalt spurs 
is generally sparse but increases to ca 30% below 10 m 
depth. Corals are generally robust, low growing or 
encrusting forms capable of withstanding high wave 
energies, the community being dominated by Acropora 
humilis, Porites luiea. encrusting Millepora and small 



-3- 



Coral Reefs of the World 



colonies of massive faviids. Similar coral communities 
occur along the western half of the north coast, between 
Utumanua Pt and Avatele Cove, coral cover increasing 
off Faleasao Village (Itano, 1987). Buckley (1987) gives a 
brief description of the reef fronting Faleasao Village. 
Dahl et al. (1974) briefly surveyed a reef on the 
north-west coast, at a leeward but exposed site about 
300 m off shore. They described a rocky flat with huge 
boulders at 20-25 m depth; Pontes and Pocillopora were 
the most common corals, but diversity, abundance and 
colony size were low. Itano (1987) surveyed the northern 
half of the west coast of Ta'u. Here a broad shallow shelf 
extends out from the fringing reef at Luma to encompass 
Maafee Rock and has relatively high live coral cover 
dominated by Acropora humilis and other sturdy coral 
species; the area off Ta'u village had spur-and-groove 
formations similar to those between Lepula and Faga. 

Leatherback Turtles Dermochelys coriacea, Olive 
Ridleys Lepidochelys olivacea and Loggerheads Caretta 
caretta have been recorded in American Samoan waters, 
and both Green Turtles Chelonia mydas and 
Hawksbills Eretmochelys imbricala nest, mainly on Rose 
Atoll with apparently scattered nesting elsewhere, 
principally in the Manu'a group, although it is possible 
that Eretmochelys also nests sparsely on Tutuila 
(Amerson et al., 1982; Anon., 1979; Johannes, 1986). 



Reef Resources 

Tutuila is the most populated island with 90% of the total 
population of American Samoa (35 000 in 1980); one 
third lives around Pago Pago Bay and the remainder live 
mainly in small villages on the limited flat coastal areas. 
Much of the inner part of the island is still relatively 
pristine as a result of the inaccessibility of the central 
ridge system. The Manu'a group have a considerably 
lower population density and no industry and are 
therefore little changed, but the population is again 
concentrated on the coast in several small villages. 

The Samoan people have historically relied on reef and 
lagoon organisms for a substantial part of their diet. 
Fishing practices were surveyed by the Office of Marine 
Resources between 1977 and 1980 on Tutuila and the 
results are described by Wass (1983). Additional 
information is provided by Hill (1978). Shoreline 
recreational fishing is traditionally important and about 
300 tonnes of fish a year are taken in this way. The 
Office of Marine and Wildlife Resources is conducting a 
bottom fish stock assessment in conjuction with the U.S. 
National Marine Fisheries Service (Itano, 1987). Both 
eggs and meat of turtles (mainly Eretmochelys imbricata) 
are eaten, and tortoiseshell is used locally for jewellery 
and decoration. Johannes (1986) estimated that ca 50 
turtles a year were taken on Tutuila and Olosega, 
although in general there was little interest in catching 
turtles. In the early 1980s the 50 or so inhabitants of 
Swains AtoU (see separate account) apparently relied to 
some extent on turtle eggs and meat for subsistence 
(Balazs, 1982). Tourism and reef-related recreational 
activities are popular in some areas, particulariy at Goat 
Island Pt and Fagatele Bay (see separate accounts). 

Disturbances and Deficiencies 

The reefs of American Samoa have suffered disturbance 
from a variety of causes, and a 1979 coral reef inventory 



showed relatively few areas with more than 50% coral 
cover. The reefs of Tutuila were subjected to a severe 
infestation of Acanthaster planci in 1978-1979 
(Beulig et al., 1981; Birkeland and Randall, 1979). 
Damage, particularly to Acropora, was widespread with 
reefs at the following sites being severely damaged or 
wiped out: Taema, Nafanua, Faga'itua Bay, Aunu'u, 
Onenoa, Aoa, Sailele, Masefau, Afono, Vatia, Tafeu 
Cove, Fagasa, Fagafue, Aasu, Aoloau, Fagamalo, 
Maloata, Poloa, Vailoatai, Fagatele, Fagalua (Larsen) 
Bay and the airport. Recolonization has been slow and 
new colonies are still small. Reefs of the Manu'a islands 
were unaffected. Surveys in 1987 revealed fair 
concentrations of Acanthaster on Ofu although these are 
not considered to represent a major infestation (Itano, 
1987 and m to., 29.7.87). 

Silt-laden freshwater from torrential rain often overlays 
the Pago Pago reefs and in 1924 was responsible for 
considerable coral death (Mayor, 1924a). In 1966 a 
hurricane caused terrestrial damage but only minor harm 
to the reefs (Dahl and Lamberts, 1977). Hurricane Tusi, 
on 17th January 1987, caused considerable terrestrial 
damage on the Manu'a islands but did not result in large 
destructive swells and thus caused relatively little direct 
damage to the reefs. The vegetation has reportedly 
recovered well in general, with Uttle excess erosion, 
although two drainage basins on the north coast of Ta'u 
(Auauli and Avatele) were gutted by excessive runoff, 
leading to increased sediment load on adjacent reefs with 
some evidence of coral smothering (Itano, 1987 
and /n//n., 29.7.87). 

In many reef moats on Tutuila, large thickets 
of Acropora formosa, the lower parts of which are often 
dead and the upper parts killed in a sharply demarcated 
line, have been found presumably corresponding to 
extreme low water tide level (Dahl and Lamberts, 1977). 

There has been some coral mortality where it is not 
known whether the cause was natural or man-induced. 
On Tutuila, extensive coral death occurred in 1973 on the 
reefs bounded by Coconut Pt, Pago Pago Airport and out 
to the reef edge. All the corals of the dominant suborder 
Astrocoeniina, including Acropora, Moniipora 
and Pocillopora, died to a depth of 6 m within an area of 
at least 8 ha. Fungiids and faviids remained healthy 
(Lamberts, 1983b). It was postulated that the mortality 
was caused by some event connected with the erection of 
a fish trap in the area, such as the addition of poisons to 
the water, but subsequent experiments proved nothing 
conclusively. Lamberts (1983b) studied recolotuzation 
rates of this reef area. Most of the species that had died 
out have re-established themselves, but the natural 
processes are being modified by the dredging of borrow 
pits, which may also account for increased beach erosion 
along Coconut Pt. The Acropora thickets previously 
found in these areas will probably never be fully 
re-established because of changes in substrate (increased 
sediment) but it is thought that the reef may eventually 
recover. Similar areas of coral kill were observed in the 
north shore bay of Masefau and at the edge of 
moderately deep water in Faga'itua Bay. 

Human activities are having an increasing impact on the 
reef. Coastal areas, particularly Pago Pago Harbor, Pala 
Lagoon and the more populated inlets, have been fairly 
extensively degraded through pollution, coral smothering 
through sedimentation and siltation, fish dynamiting and 



American Samoa 



fish poisoning. Littoral erosion arising from inadequate 
protection against wave energy has, in the past, removed 
considerable portions of the narrow coastal platform. 
Increased agricultural usage of steep slopes and 
increasing numbers of dredging and construction projects 
including road construction have resulted in erosion with 
deposition of terrigenous silt in sheltered bays and on 
reef areas adjacent to stream outfalls; significant portions 
of Pago Pago Bay, Faga'itua Bay, Leone Bay and Pala 
Lagoon have been silted over. Dredging and blasting 
activities in at least 20 sites around TutuUa and the 
Manu'a islands have resulted in direct destruction of the 
reef; dredging in some cases has been to provide access to 
isolated villages, but has often been carried out to 
provide a source of road-bed materials (SPREP, 1980; 
Swerdloff, 1973). There are also problems with the 
containment of oil spills and the dislocation of coastal 
outline due to irregular reclamation practices including 
land filling with rubbish. In recent years there has been a 
serious problem of littering and rubbish dumping on reefs 
and in lagoons adjacent to villages. 

On Tutuila, the reefs in Pago Pago Bay have suffered 
particular damage. Between 1942 and 1945, the military 
dredged several inshore areas for landfill, there was an 
increase in harbour traffic and shipping converted from 
coal to oil. Tuna canneries were estabUshed on the north 
shore of the harbour in 1956 and dredging operations 
were expanded in 1960. By 1973 the tuna canneries and a 
marine railway in the harbour serviced an ocean-going 
fleet of over 250 fishing ships and the port facilities are 
increasingly visited by tour ships and used as a freight 
transhipment point. High turbidity and siltation caused 
the death of most corals in the inner half of the bay as 
described by Dahl and Lamberts (1977). Approximately 
95% of the reefs at the back of the bay fronting the 
villages of Fagatogo and Pago Pago have been filled 
(Wass, 1983). Only the shallow reefs near the mouth of 
the bay, with a relatively high rate of water exchange, 
have remained viable, and a portion of that area has been 
destroyed by dredging. Organic pollution is also a 
problem; untreated sewage, polluted streams and 
untreated wastes from two fish caimeries flow into the 
bay which has changed from a clear-water coral reef 
regime to a turbid silty area. The problem has been 
accentuated by the increased use of agricultural 
fertilizers. OU streaks often cover the bay, originating 
from the bilge residue of commercial vessels (primarily 
the long line fishing fleet), spillage at the fuel dock and 
leakage from deteriorating underground fuel oil pipe 
lines (Swerdloff, 1973). Maragos (1972) monitored the 
growth and survival of transplanted corals at several sites 
in the harbour and reported greater mortality and least 
growth at the irmermost site. Goat Island Reef (see 
separate account), concluding that poorer water quality 
inside the bay was the cause. Dahl and Lamberts (1977) 
reported occasional small oil spills and the drainage of 
urban and industrial wastes into the harbour. Treatment 
projects are, however, under way (see below) and Dahl 
and Lamberts (1977) suggested that Aua Reef is 
gradually recovering from earher stress. 

Significant damage was caused to reefs adjacent to Pala 
Lagoon by the extension of the commercial airfield out 
into the lagoon. An assessment of the expected impact of 
dredging in Pala Lagoon for a proposed boat basin was 
carried out by Helfrich et al. (1975). Devaney and 
Suzumoto (1977) carried out a survey of Auasi Harbor in 
the context of a harbour development project; some reef 



damage may have occurred. The reefs at Leone Bay are 
potentially threatened by a plaimed boat harbour 
(Itano /«//«., 29.7.87). 

The Manu'a Islands, although free from extensive 
construction and agricultural usage, have suffered some 
reef destruction. Channels have been dredged at Ofu and 
Ta'u for small boat harbours and blasting of the Asaga 
Strait between Ofu and Olosega as part of a bridge and 
road project has caused some damage to reefs (Maragos, 
1986). A large land sUde caused by road construction on 
Olosega had covered some 5 sq. km of reef flat by July 
1987 and was expected to cause more damage as 
construction and associated erosion continued 
(Buckley m //■«., 4.8.87). Small boat harbour dredging and 
construction on Aunu'u, Ofu, and Fusi (Ta'u) has 
probably caused some reef damage but also created coral 
and fish habitat (Itano in litt., 29.7.87). 

The recent rapid population growth has put considerable 
pressure on reef resources and traditional conservation 
practices have largely been discarded. The dependancy 
of American Samoans on their marine resources is 
decreasing, due to the availability of canned and frozen 
foods, but seafood consumption remains high. Increased 
mobility has led to a tendency to fish reefs of 
neighbouring villages. Reef fishermen consider that 
yields are less than they were previously, but it is beUeved 
that while fish varieties have been reduced, there has 
probably not been a reduction in biomass. Fish poisoning 
and dynamiting have caused a reduction in the variety of 
fish stocks. Dynamiting has caused considerable damage 
to reefs around TutuUa and in the Manu'a group 
(Swerdloff, 1973; Thomas in litt., 9.7.87); it is less 
widespread than previously, but in the past three years 
has been recorded several times in Fagatele and Fagasa 
Bays and other areas around Tutuila (Thomas in litt., 
9.7.87). Giant Clams (Tridacna spp) have effectively 
been fished out in Samoan waters, other than at Rose 
Atoll (Maragos in litt., 10.7.87). Turtle numbers around 
Tutuila are said to have declined considerably in the five 
years up to 1981 (Johannes, 1986). 



Legislation and Management 

A general overview of conservation activities is given in 
Eaton (1985) and OTA (1987) provides an analysis of 
coastal resource development and management. 

Ownership of the reefs and their resources was 
traditionally vested in the chiefs of each village and a 
complex system of taboos, restricting efforts to certain 
seasons and locations arose, which served to protect the 
reefs from over-exploitation. These rights have been 
largely abandoned but some elements remain. At 
present, village councils occasionally limit fishing on the 
reefs fronting the village through temporary bans on 
fishing or by prohibiting fishermen from other villages 
(Johannes, in press; Wass, 1983). It is still customary for 
outsiders to request permission to fish these reefs 
(Maragos in litt., 10.7.87). Several villages do not allow 
fishing on Sundays and most prohibit the use of dynamite 
or bleach (Joharmes, in press; Wass, 1983). 

Under Federal Public Law 93-435, the American Samoan 
Government owns all submerged lands from the mean 
highwater mark out to the hmit of the territorial sea. 
Executive Order 3-80, which established the American 



Coral Reefs of the World 



Samoa Coastal Management Program (ASCMP) in 1980, 
contains 16 policies which govern the use of the coastal 
zone, including reef protection, marine resource 
protection, protection of unique areas, improvement of 
recreational opportunities and control of shoreline 
development (USDC, 1980). A detailed description of 
legislation relevant to reefs is given in USDC (1984). 
Many of the U.S. Federal laws and regulations apply, 
including the Marine Protection, Research and 
Sanctuaries Act (1972), the Marine Mammal Protection 
Act (1972), the Fishery Conservation and Management 
Act (1976), the Endangered Species Act (1973), the 
Coastal Zone Management Act (1972), the River and 
Harbor Act (1899), the Clean Water Act (1977) and the 
National Environmental Policy Act. 

Pollution control is now greatly improved (Maragos, 
1986). The Environmental Protection Agency is 
represented and is active in controlling effluent from the 
tuna canneries; stricter controls affecting the dumping of 
nitrogen- and phosphate-rich wastes into Pago Pago Bay 
have been imposed and will have to be complied with by 
1991. A sewerage project is in progress for Pala Lagoon 
which should improve water quality in the estuary. The 
Office of Coastal Zone Management actively enforces 
U.S. Coast Guard oil pollution regulations and funds a 
project responsible for oil pollution control and cleaning 
up debris and oil spill in Pago Pago Harbor. It runs an 
Island Wide Metal Cleanup programme and a Marine 
Awareness programme for students which stresses the 
importance of the sea to Samoa, and the damage done by 
pollution, siltation and other activities. The office is also 
active in trying to control illegal landfills, mangrove 
cutting and beach sand mining, although with limited 
success, and has also contracted teachers to develop and 
adapt the school science curriculum to make it more 
relevant to the country (Itano in lilt., 29.7.87). Seawalls 
are being rebuilt along eroded sections of coast (SPREP, 
1980). The Office of Marine and Wildlife Resources 
(OMWR) is responsible for fisheries development and 
wildlife management in cooperation with U.S. Federal 
Resource Agencies and American Samoa Agencies 
(Buckley in litt., 30.9.87). 

At present Public Law 16-58 prohibits the use of poison 
in territorial waters and provides punishment by fines 
and/or imprisonment; territorial law also prohibits the 
use of dynamite to harvest fish and other marine 
resources. Attempts are being made to control the use of 
dynamite and bleach with a public awareness campaign 
using newspapers, television and lectures (Itano in litt., 
29.7.87). 

Executive Order 3-80 (see above) provides for the 
establishment of Special Management Areas. Two 
protected areas. Rose Atoll National Wildlife Refuge and 
Fagatele Bay National Marine Sanctuary, include reefs 
and are described in separate accounts. 

A small Tridacnid clam nursery has been started in 
Faga'itua Bay on Tutuiia by the village of Alofau in 
cooperation with the Office of Marine and Wildlife 
Resources, with seed clams obtained from the 
Micronesian Mariculture Demonstration Center in 
Palau. The village leaders have closed the immediate 
reef area around the clams to swimming or fishing. The 
long term aim is to increase Giant Clam populations on 
Tutuila's reefs (Anon., 1987b; Buckley in lilt., 4.8.87). 



Recommendations 

A number of reef areas have been recommended for 
protection. 

1. A National Park has been propo.scd for the northern 
part of Tutuiia from Siufaga Pt east to Craggy Pt, 
apparently excluding Vatia Bay; re.strictions on the 
use of reefs and marine resources have not been 
defined in the proposals (Anon., 1988). As of 
March 1988 the proposals had not been endorsed by 
the U.S. National Park Service (Harry in litt., 
29.2.88). This would include the area of Pola Islet - 
Pola'uta Ridge, recommended as a protected area 
for breeding birds and as a marine reserve by 
Amerson et al. (1982) and (Dahl, 1980). 

2. Goat Island Reef - Utulei Reef on Tutuiia {see 
separate account). 

3. Coastal and reef reserves have been recommended 
at Lepisi Pt and Ogegasa Pt on Tutuiia by Dahl 
(1980). 

4. Pago Pago Bay and Pala Lagoon on Tutuiia have 
been identified as areas of particular concern and 
importance (Maragos, 1986); recommendations for 
the management of Pala Lagoon are given in 
Yamasaki ei al. (1985) and there are plans to 
rehabihtate both areas. 

5. A National Park has been proposed for the area 
covering much of the southern part of Ta'u, from 
Fatatele Pt east to Papasao Pt; it would include 
waters and reefs up to 0.25 mi. (0.4 km) from shore, 
although restrictions on the use of reefs and marine 
resources have not been defined in the proposals 
(Anon., 1988). As of March 1988 the proposals had 
not been endorsed by the U.S. National Park 
Service (Harry in litt., 29.2.88). 

4. Papaloloa Pt proposed national marine sanctuary on 
Ofu (see separate account). 

5. Protection of Nu'utele islet, off Ofu, for its seabird 
colony has been recommended (Dahl, 1980). 

6. Swains AtoU (see separate account). 

The American Samoan Natural Resources Commission 
made up of "fono" (the bicameral legislative body of the 
Territory of American Samoa) members and resource 
management agency representatives is drawing up a list 
of endangered species for the Territory (Buckley in litt., 
30.9.87; Thomas m //■((., 9.7.87). It is hoped that fisheries 
regulations drafted by the Office of Marine and Wildlife 
Resources (OMWR) will be implemented in 1988, when 
OMWR enforcement officers should also be appointed 
(Itano in lilt., 10.7,87). Wass (1983) recommended that 
village councils should be encouraged to take a more 
active role in future management schemes and suggested 
that a management plan for the island of Tutuiia as a 
whole should be formulated. The effects of uncontrolled 
destruction on the outer edges of the 223 acres (90 ha) of 
mangrove and wetland areas on the coast need 
assessment. 

It has been suggested that aid for fisheries in the Manu'a 
group should concentrate on controlling erosion. 



-6- 



American Samoa 



developing the Fish Aggregating Devices, developing 
support facilities for "alias" (simple aluminium-hulled 
catamaran styled fishing boats), and reef enhancement 
projects (Itano, 1987). 

Itano (1987) recommends further surveys on the reefs of 
Ofu, with particular emphasis on Acanthasler and the 
potential need to implement controlling measures. 



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American Samoa. Final rept. 99 pp. 



FAGATELE BAY NATIONAL MARINE SANCTUARY 

Geographical Location 12 km south-west of Pago Pago 
Harbour on the southernmost point of Tutuila, including 
the whole bay up to mean high high water; 14°23'S, 
170°46'W. 

Area, Depth, Altitude 66 ha; 26-36 m depth to 122 m 
altitude. 

Land Tenure American Samoan Government. 

Physical Features Fagatele Bay is formed by a collapsed 
volcanic crater and is surrounded by steep cliffs and 
volcanic rocks. Seumalo Ridge rises over 400 ft (122 m) 
along the western and northern sides, and the eastern 
side is bounded by Matautuloa Ridge, over 200 ft (61 m) 



American Samoa 



high. Soils on the steep slopes surrounding the bay are 
silty clay loams. The beaches are composed primarily of 
calcareous sand with a small amount of volcanic sand. 
The sand deposits extend off shore for about 20-30 ft 
(6-9 m) until they merge with the reef platforms which 
are composed primarily of consolidated limestone and 
encrusting algae. 

The platforms, approximately 200 ft (61 m) or less wide 
and 2 ft (0.6 m) deep, have bottom reliefs of 1 ft (0.3 m). 
They fringe the shore of the bay, the widest platform 
occurring on the eastern side. The reef front drops 
almost vertically to 5-10 ft (1.5-3.0 m), then gradually 
slopes seaward to 15-20 ft (4.5-6.0 m). The reef front 
slope may extend up to 300 ft (91 m) off shore, and 
contains widely separated pinnacles rising from depths of 
15-20 ft (4.5-6.0 m) to within 4-5 ft (1.2-1.5 m) of the 
surface. The bay bottom reaches a depth of 120 ft (36 m) 
approximately 1100 ft (335 m) due west of the pocket 
beach and is covered with rubble. 

Wave action (normally from the east) is damped by the 
encircling reef platform and because the bay faces 
south-west. Tides are probably similar to Pago Pago Bay 
where they are diurnal with mean and spring tidal ranges 
of 2.5 ft (0.76 m) and 3.1 ft (0.95 m) respectively. Water 
temperatures is 80-82°F (26.7-27.8°C) with Uttle seasonal 
or diurnal change; salinity ranges from 35.5 ppt to 36.0 
ppt. Visibility is normally at least 50 ft (15 m) (USDC, 
1984). 

Reef Structure and Corals A fairly well-developed 
fringing reef flat exists within the protected portion of the 
bay, the submerged part of which varies in depth from 0.5 
to 2 m. There is a sparse covering of corals Pavona, 
Pontes, Acropora, Pocillopora and Milleporc. Along the 
eastern edge of the bay, 10% of the reef flat at a depth of 
about 2 ft (0.6 m) is covered by coral and a further 5% 
has dead coral heads. The most conspicuous corals 
are Pocillopora verrucosa, Favia sp., Galaxea 
sp., Goniaslrea sp., A humilis, Pontes lutea and the soft 
coral Palythoa sp. Other species have been recorded in 
Leone Bay, just west of Fagatele Bay, and may be 
present in the latter. 

The reef terrace varies from 2 to 10 m depth with strong 
currents and surge in some areas. The substrate is basalt 
in exposed areas and calcium carbonate in sheltered 
areas. Prior to Acanthasler infestation, there was 
30-100% coral cover of Acropora, Pontes, Montipora, 
Pocillopora and others. The reef front borders the 
seaward edge of the reef terrace and consists of a portion 
of the fore-reef, 5-40 m deep, that slopes steeply to deep 
water. Prior to Acanlhaster infestation, the upper 
portions supported the most luxuriant and diverse coral 
assemblages in the bay. Nearly vertical basalt cliffs and 
faces extend from the surface to as deep as 80 m along 
the exposed outer portions of the bay which are 
characterized by strong currents and surge in the upper 
portions. Scattered corals are found on these walls 
including large fan corals at depths below 40 m. 

About 172 coral species have been recorded from the 
area (USDC, 1984). 

Noteworthy Fauna and Flora The steep cliffs have 
typical coastal and littoral vegetation. There is an 
abundant avifauna and the fruit bats Pieropus samoensis 
and P. longanus roost in the area (Amerson el al., 1982; 



Dahl, 1980; Itano in litt., 29.7.87). The Humpback 
Whale Megaptera novaeangliae is found in the bay and 
adjacent waters from July to October, the breeding and 
calving season. Sperm Whales Physeter calodon are 
occasionally sighted off shore. Other cetaceans, including 
the Pacific Bottlenose Tursiops truncatus and 
Spinner Stenella sp. Dolphins also use the bay and 
adjacent waters (USDC, 1984). HawksbiUs Eretmochelys 
imbricata and Green Turtles Chetonia mydas are found 
frequently, and Leatherbacks Dermochelys coriacea, 
OUve Ridleys Lepidochelys olivacea and the 
Loggerheads Caretta caretta have been recorded (USDC, 
1984). 

The bay's configuration provides a protected habitat for 
an abundant fish fauna. Surveys of fish located on the 
reef flat and reef front indicate a high diversity and over 
80 species of fish have been recorded. 114 species have 
been recorded from the waters off the south-eastern tip 
of the bay (Wass, 1978; USDC, 1984). 

Scientific Importance and Research A brief survey of 
the flora and fauna was carried out in 1979 and more 
detailed studies of the fish fauna have been made but 
these have not been published. A further survey to 
gather baseline population data, by the University of 
Guam under contract to the National Oceanic and 
Atmospheric Administration and the Development 
Planning and Tourism Office, Government of American 
Samoa, was completed in April 1985 (Birkeland et al,, in 
press), and the reefs will be re-surveyed in 1988 
(Thomas in litt., 9.7.87; Itano in litt., 29.7.87). Reference 
collections of the fish, corals, algae and invertebrates are 
housed at the Office of Marine and Wildlife Resources, 
Pago Pago, and at the University of Guam (Itano in litt., 
29.7.87). Research on coral recolonization and changes in 
the composition and structure of inshore fish 
communities is under way. The pristine nature of the bay 
provides ideal conditions for the study of coral 
regeneration following Acanthaster predation. Future 
research requirements are described in USDC (1984), and 
range from broad surveys to monitoring of Acanthaster. 

Economic Value and Social Benefits The steep cliffs 
surrounding the bay make it relatively inaccessible from 
land, although the beaches can be reached via a foot 
trail. The area is located near the village of Leone (1700 
inhabitants), and there are three smaller villages in the 
immediate vicinity. The sanctuary has a number of 
invertebrates which serve as important subsistence food 
sources, including sea anemones, lobsters, limpets, clams, 
octopuses and sea urchins. Subsistence fishing and 
recreational aaivities are both important in the area 
(USDC, 1984). 

Disturbance or Deficiencies In late 1978 and eariy 1979, 
hard corals were heavily predated by Acanthaster, 90% of 
the reef being destroyed; recent surveys indicate that 
coral cover is regenerating (Thomas, 1985). 

Human impact has been minimal, and the bay is 
considered one of the least disturbed areas on Tutuila, 
although dynamiting has occurred during the last three 
years (Thomas m //'«., 9.7.87). Water quality is considered 
to be very high as there is no urban or industrial run-off, 
agricultural activities on the surrounding ridges are 
limited and there are no permanent streams discharging 
into the bay. Increased visitor use of the area could 



Coral Reefs of the World 



affect the reefs, although the regulations should limit this 
(USDC, 1984). 

Legal Protection Fagatele Bay was declared a marine 
park in October 1982 by the governor of American 
Samoa. This gave the Department of Parks and 
Recreation of the American Samoan Government the 
authority to enforce and promulgate laws to protect the 
resources to the 10 fathom (18.3 m) line as well as collect 
any fees. Protection was enhanced by the designation of 
the area as a National Marine Sanctuary on 17.4.85 under 
Title 3 of the Marine Protection, Research and 
Sanctuaries Act, 1972 (Thomas, 1985 and in lilt., 9.7.87) 
which finally came into force in July 1987 (Buckley in litt., 
30.9.87). The sanctuary regulations prohibit activities, 
such as dredging and discharge of pollutants, which 
would threaten the bay's resources. Traditional uses such 
as subsistence fishing and recreation are permitted. In 
the past, local customary rules restricted fishing by 
outsiders, especially for commercial purposes, and also 
reinforced government bans on the use of dynamite and 
chemical poisons (Eaton, 1985). 

Management The Sanctuary Programs Division, 

National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 
(NOAA), of the U.S. Federal Government is responsible 
for overall administration and programme 
implementation within the sanctuary. A management 
plan has been drawn up for the sanctuary (USDC, 1984) 
and a manager is to be appointed in the 1988 fiscal year 
(which begins on 1st October 1987), funding not having 
been available for this so far. The American Samoan 
Office of Economic Development Planning is the on-site 
agency which will take the lead in coordinating with the 
manager for the day-to-day management of the 
sanctuary. It will coordinate its Coastal Zone 
Management Program activities with the Department of 
Parks and Recreation where appropriate (Thomas 1985 
and in litt., 9.7.87). The Department of Parks and 
Recreation is responsible for providing a park ranger to 
assist the future manager with enforcement; a local 
ranger has been hired to police the area and is receiving 
training in Hawaii (Itano in litt., 29.7.87). The area is 
divided into two zones: an outer zone in which 
subsistence fishing is permitted, and an inner core zone 
which is a strict reserve. It is anticipated that most 
visitors will come by boat from Leone which would give 
the park authority greater control (Eaton, 1985). 

Recommendations Recommendations are provided in 
the management plan and include a detailed research 
programme, provision of mooring buoys, improved 
access, and the development of an interpretive 
programme and centre. It was originally recommended 
that Fagalua (Larsen's) Bay be included in the sanctuary, 
but after extensive review, both the Territorial and 
Federal governments decided against it (Thomas in litt., 
9.7.87). 



GOAT ISLAND POINT • UTULEI REEF 

Geographical Location Along the western side of the 
outer portion of Pago Pago Bay, Tutuila, from eastern 
edge of oil dock at Fagatogo, around Goat Island Point 



(Rainmaker Hotel), past Utulei Village to Tulutulu 
(Blunt's) Point; nOMTW, WITS. 

Area, Depth, Altitude 1800 m of shoreline; 0-50 m depth 
to base of reef slope. 

Physical Features The site originally proposed as a 
marine sanctuary encompasses the intertidal area, reef 
flat and associated dredged area (10-250 m, wide) and the 
steeply sloping reef front to a depth of 50 m (Anon., n.d. 
a)- 

Reef Structure and Corals The reefs fronting Goat 
Island Point and Utulei Village are fairly typical of 
semi-protected reefs in the region and have a fairly 
diverse fauna. An extensive dredged area along a portion 
of the shoreline provides habitat for organisms preferring 
a silty sand bottom (Anon., n.d. a). 

Noteworthy Fauna and Flora No information. 

Scientific Importance and Research The area was 
originally studied between 1917 and 1920 by Mayor 
(1918, 1924a, b, c and d) and subsequently by Maragos 
(1972) who monitored the growth and survival of 
transplanted corals here. It is the innermost remaining 
structural reef (not yet dredged or filled) on the southern 
side of Pago Pago Harbour (Maragos in litt., 10.7.87). 

Economic Value and Social Benefits The area is 
important for recreational and subsistence fisheries, 
particularly for villagers from Utulei. Annual catches are 
estimated at 4524 kg fish and 3271 kg invertebrates 
(Wass, 1983). It is the most popular area for recreational 
diving, snorkelling, boating and water sports. The only 
two public beach parks on Tutuila and the Pago Pago 
Yacht Club lie within the proposed site, and the major 
hotel on the island, the Rainmaker, is adjacent. There 
are plans for additional watersport activities in the area 
(Anon., n.d. a). 

Disturbance or Deficiencies A variety of pollutants 
including organic and chemical wastes from fish 
canneries, oil from vessel traffic and fuelling operations, 
silt from construction projects and increased run-off, and 
sewage have adversely affected the habitat over the 
years. A sewage outfall is located at the southern 
boundary of the site off Utulei (Anon., n.d. a). Species 
diversity has decreased, hard coral coverage has been 
reduced, and turbidity has increased. Maragos (1972) 
found that coral growth and survival in 1970-71 was 
suboptimal probably due to sedimentation and other 
water pollution. The fuelling of large vessels and the 
offloading of petroleum products on the north-west 
boundary of the proposed site pose a serious threat 
should a major oil spill occur. 

Legal Protection None at present. 

Management None. 

Recommendations The area was originally considered 
by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 
as a potential marine sanctuary; it was not, however, 
included on the Final Site Evaluation List and thus 
remains unprotected (Thomas in litt., 9.1. 61). 
Management measures included in the original proposal 
included protection of corals, fish and shells on the reefs 



-10- 



surrounding the hotel for the benefit of tourists and 
residents. The residents of Utulei were to be allowed to 
continue subsistence fishing (Anon., n.d. a). 



American Samoa 

Disturbance or Deficiencies The area was not affected 
by hurricane damage from Hurricane Tusi, which struck 
American Samoa on 17th Jan. 1987 (Itano in litt., 
29.7.8T). TTie site is fairly remote and is therefore 
unaffected by pollution or over-exploitation at present. 

Legal Protection None. 



PAPALOLOA POINT 

Geographical Location Ofu Island; southernmost tip, 
along the edge of the runway at Ofu airport, eastward to 
Asagatai Point; 169°40'W, 14°11'S. 

Area, Depth, Altitude 0.75 sq. mi. (1.92 sq. km) with 3 
miles (4.8 km) of shoreline; depth to 45 m. 

Physical Features Includes shoreline and adjacent 
fringing reef, 150-180 m wide. Visibihty is good in the 
nearshore depression (see below) but is reduced near the 
Point (AF and AECOS, 1980). 

Reef Structure and Corals Most of the fringing reef is 
shallow (0.6-1.0 m at high tide) and consists of rubble and 
consohdated limestone. The inner reef flat 275 m 
north-west of Papaloloa Point is relatively barren with 
low coral cover. A depression lies just off shore here, 
about 1.5-2.5 m deep, which has numerous large 
microatolls of Heliopora coerulea, 3-5 m in diameter. 
Other abundant corals are Pontes lutea, Millepora spp., 
especially M. tortuosa, and large patches of Montipora 
spp. Thick branched Acropora intermedia grows in 
thickets in the deeper, more seaward part of the 
depression. It has been suggested that the microatolls 
may be the result of regrowth of corals following 
dredging for fill material for Ofu airport. Small amounts 
of coral grow on the relatively flat outer reef platform 
(AF and AECOS, 1980). 

Noteworthy Fauna and Flora The reef fronting the 
eastern end of the airport has a very diverse fish fauna, 
over 70 species having been described. Giant 

Clams Tridacna spp. are present, and the HawksbiU 
Turtle Eretmochelys imbricata has been recorded 
(Itano in litt., 29.7.87). The area is adjacent to Vaoto 
Marsh. 

Scientific Importance and Research The reefs at 
Papaloloa Point were surveyed by the Office of Marine 
and WildUfe Resources in 1986 and 1987 (Itano in litt., 
29.7.87). They are an excellent example of a fringing reef 
community with a diverse and abundant fauna. Itano 
{in litt., 29.7.87) considers them to be unique in the 
country for their beauty and coral and fish diversity; Blue 
Coral Heliopora coerulea is present and is more 
abundant around Ofu than at any of the other sites at 
which it is known to occur in American Samoa. 

Economic Value and Social Benefits The area is 
important for recreational and subsistence fishing. 
Diving, snorkelling and swimming are popular activities 
and there is considerable potential for increased 
recreational use. A small hotel (6-8 beds capacity) has 
been built near Ofu airport which encourages visitors to 
enjoy the reef through non-destructive activities such as 
snorkelling and photography; it is mainly used by contract 
workers on construaion projects (Itano in litt., 29.7.87; 
Thomas/«/irt., 9.7.87). 



Management None. 

Recommendations Proposed for national marine 

sanctuary designation and is on the National Marine Site 
Evaluation List (NOAA, 1983). Protection of the area is 
considered a high priority in the Action Strategy for 
Protected Areas in the South Pacific Region (Anon., 
1985). 



ROSE ATOLL NATIONAL WILDLIFE REFUGE 

Geographical Location 241 km east-south-east of Pago 
Pago Harbour; 14°32'S, 168°08'W. 

Area, Depth, Altitude Lagoon 2 km wide and 20 m 
deep; 640 ha reef and lagoon; Rose Island 5.18 ha, 3 m 
alt. and 1.0 km shoreline length; Sand Island 2.59 ha, 
5.2 m alt. and 0.5 km shoreline. The exterior boundary of 
the refuge is the extreme low waterline outside the 
perimeter reef except at the entrance channel where the 
boundary is a line extending between the extreme low 
waterUnes on each side of the entrance channel (Wass, 
1987). 

Land Tenure U.S. Federal Government ownership. 

Physical Features One of the smallest coral atolls in the 
world consisting of two low sandy islets. Rose and Sand, 
on a coralUne algal reef enclosing a lagoon. A single 
channel 6-50 ft (1.8-15 m) deep links the lagoon to the 
sea. There is no freshwater. Information on the atoU is 
given in Sachet (1954) and Mayor (1924e). 

Reef Structure and Corals A brief description of some 
of the reef habitats of the lagoon is given in Wass (n.d. 
a). 25-50% of the area between the inner edge of the 
reef flat and the drop-off to the floor of the lagoon is 
covered by coral blocks, the larger of which are exposed 
at low tide. The tops of the larger blocks are flattened 
and encrusted with coralline algae; their sides are 
profusely covered with a diverse assortment of hard and 
soft corals, and algae. The remainder of the area consists 
of rubble flat, encrusted with coralline algae and a few 
scattered small colonies of branching Acropora. The 
lagoon floor has an undulating sandy bottom at 12-20 m, 
much of which is covered with algae; there are occasional 
small colonies of Acropora. Jutting up from the floor of 
the lagoon to its surface are several coral pinnacles with 
flat tops and very steep sides. The flattened tops are 
encrusted with coralline algae, while hard and soft corals 
and algae are found on the often vertical or undercut 
sides. 

The reef front described by Wass (n.d. b) begins at a 
depth of 4 m and consists of an irregular and often steep 
slope to a depth of about 50 m. The upper portion may 



-11- 



Coral Reefs of the World 



be bisected by ridges and surge channels. In some areas a 
narrow terrace occurs at 5-20 m, before the bottom 
plunges steeply to greater depths. The irregular substrate 
is calcareous and compacted with coralline algae 
predominating. Corals are abundant and diverse, but 
table and staghom Acropora are lacking. 

The outer reef was surveyed by the Office of Marine and 
Wildlife Resources and five monitoring sites were chosen 
in 1986 (Itano, 1987). The results of these surveys are not 
available at present. 

Noteworthy Fauna and Flora There is a Pisonia grove 
on Rose Island and some coconuts. Vegetation is 
described by Setchell (1924) and Amerson et al. (1982) 
and is the least diverse of that on any island in American 
Samoa. There are only seven plant species. Sand Island 
has no vegetation. 

Hawksbills Eretmochelys imbricata and Green 
Turtles Chelonia mydas nest on the atoll. About 97% of 
the total seabird population of American Samoa is 
resident on the atoU, with about 312 000 birds of 20 
species. There are large nesting colonies of seabirds 
including Greater Fregala minor and Lesser F. ariel 
Frigatebirds, Red-footed Sula sula, Brown S. leucogaster 
and Blue-faced S. dactylatra Boobies, Red-tailed 
Tropicbirds Phaeton rubricauda. White Gygis alba and 
Sooty Sterna fuscata Terns, Brown Anous stolidus and 
Black A minutus Noddies, Reef Herons Egretta gularis 
and a variety of shore birds (Amerson et al., 1982). 

Over 200 species of fish have been recorded. The lagoon 
fish fauna is similar to that of the rest of the Samoan 
Islands although there is a lack of damselfish species and 
biomass within the lagoon, and relatively few herbivorous 
fish (Wass, n.d. a). The abundance of carnivorous fish is 
high, possibly due to the lack of fishing pressure. The 
fish fauna of the reef front has a low diversity compared 
with other reef fronts around Tutuila. Surveys in early 
1987 indicated little change in the reef fish community 
over the past six or seven years. The Giant 
Clam Tridacna maxima is present throughout the shallow 
areas of the lagoon; in 1980 about 10% of the population 
was dead (Wass, n.d. c). 

Scientific Importance and Research The atoll is 
considered one of the most isolated and least disturbed in 
the world. Annual resource surveys are carried out by 
U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS) and American 
Samoan government personnel; these include surveys of 
both the outer reef and lagoon as well as of the terrestrial 
biota of Sand and Rose Islands. Itano (in litt., 29.7.87) 
suggests that the benthic community of Rose Atoll may 
be unique in American Samoa because of the 
overwhelming presence of encrusting coralline algae; soft 
corals are also abundant whilst hard corals are poorly 
represented. The Tridacna maxima (Giant Clam) 
population is being studied by USFWS to determine 
management strategies (Radtke, 1985; Itano in litt., 
29.7.87). The atoll has considerable scientific and 
educational value and has been visited by school teachers 
from the American Samoan Department of Education 
(Anon., 1987a). 

Economic Value and Social Benefits The atoll has 
apparently never been inhabited (Swerdloff, 1973). Prior 
to its estabhshment as a wildlife refuge, the Samoans 
fished Giant Clams on the atoll. 



Disturbance or Deficiencies The islands are virtually 
undisturbed apart from the presence of a concrete 
marker, a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service Refuge sign and 
a few introduced coconut trees Cocos nucifera which are 
reportedly not thriving. Introduced Polynesian 

rats Rattus exulans feed on bird eggs, and perhaps birds 
and their young and hatchling turtles; there is however, 
little direct evidence of this and the rats do not appear to 
constitute a major threat to the island's biota 
(Amerson ef a/., 1982). Hurricane Tusi in 1987 does not 
appear to have had any adverse impact on the reefs 
(Itano, 1987). 

Legal Protection Established as a National Wildlife 
Refuge on 5.7.73, primarily for the protection of turtles 
and seabirds. 

Management Administered as a strict natural area by 
the Hawaiian Islands and Pacific Islands National 
Wildlife Refuge Complex, Honolulu, in cooperation with 
the American Samoan Government. A permit is required 
for entrance and all activities within the refuge generally 
require the issue of a Special Use Permit; these are issued 
only for activities which are beneficial to fish and wildlife 
resources and management of the refuge. Fishing is 
permitted within the refuge but the catch must be 
consumed on site or released; any Giant Clam fishing 
requires a special permit. Birds and turtles may not be 
disturbed or harvested and no animals or plant material 
may be taken ashore. The number of people allowed to 
camp overnight at once on the islands is strictly limited 
(six on Rose Island and two on Sand Island) and no 
camping on beaches is allowed during the Green Turtle 
nesting season (Wass, 1987). A brochure has been 
produced for visitors (Anon., n.d. b). 

Recommendations The island was proposed as an Island 
for Science under the IBP programme. Wass (1987) 
outlines policy and recommendations for the use of Rose 
Atoll to increase environmental awareness and 
appreciation amongst Samoan teachers. It was 
recorrunended by the Government that harvesting of 
Giant Clams be resumed (Wass, n.d. c). However it has 
been stressed that the value of Rose Atoll as a refuge and 
study site for an undisturbed population of Tridacna 
considerably outweighs any benefits which may be 
derived from a commercial harvest of the clams 
(Itano in litt., 29.7.87; Maragosi/i litt., 10.7.87). 



SWAINS ATOLL 

Geographical Location 270 km north of Samoa; 
geographically and floristically part of the Tokelau 
Islands, 160 km to the north-west; 11°03'S, 171°03'W. 

Area, Depth, Altitude Island is 210 ha; max. alt. less 
than 6 m. 

Land Tenure Privately owned by the Jennings family 
and a sovereign (flag) possession of the U.S.A. 

Physical Features The island is a ring-shaped atoll with 
a large, completely enclosed brackish water lagoon in the 
centre. Rainfall is about 2500 mm/year (Whistler, 1983). 
The island is described by Bryan (1974). 



-12- 



American Samoa 



Reef Structure and Corals The reefs were surveyed by 
Itano (1987 and in lift., 29.7.87). Prior to devastating 
storm damage in February 1987, the reefs were 
apparently virtually pristine, with 80-100% live coral 
cover. The lagoon is land-locked and very little sediment 
reaches the reefs, leading to underwater visibiUtes 
exceeding 150 ft (46 m). The community is dominated 
by Pocillopora and Montipora with isolated massive 
colonies of Pontes lutea. Stylo phora mordax is fairly 
common and Pavona, Psammocora and Acropora were 
noted but not common; an explanate Pontes was very 
common on the outer reef slope from 15 to 40 m depth 
on the north-east coast but was not observed on the west 
coast. Millepora was present and Heliopora caemlea was 
not uncommon on the reef flat. The north-east coast 
appeared to be the only area unaffected by the storm. 

Noteworthy Fauna and Flora The flora and vegetation 
of the island are described by Whistler (1983); there is 
some scrub and forest but the rest of the island is 
cultivated. Birds are described by Clapp 

(1968). Hernandia forest, uncommon elsewhere in 
American Samoa, is found on the island. Green 
Turtles Chelonia mydas reportedly used to nest; in 1982 it 
was stated that they had only been recorded off shore in 
recent years (Amerson et al., 1982). 

Prior to storm damage (and still on the north-east coast), 
the fish corrununity was dominated by large predatory 
fishes such as carangids, serranids, lutjanids and large 
barracuda, and dogtooth tuna (Gymnosarda unicolor). 
Fishing pressure was evidently low with very large and 
old wrasse (Cheilinus undulalus) and giant grouper 
present, and abundant jack populations. Pomacentrids 
were low in diversity and abundance with the exception 
of Chromis acares which was common (Itano in litt., 
29.7.87). 

Scientific Importance and Research The reefs have 
been surveyed by the Office of Marine and Wildlife 
Resources of the American Samoan Government and 
may more closely resemble those of Tokelau than 
American Samoa. Prior to storm damage, they were 
considered among the most beautiful and productive in 
American Samoa (Itano, 1987). 



taken to the island in September 1987 (Itano in litt., 
29.7.87). Landing is made on the west side of the island, 
at Taulaga (Whistler, 1983). In the early 1980s the 
inhabitants were to some extent reUant on turtle eggs and 
meat for subsistence (Balazs, 1982). 

Disturbance or Deficiencies The reefs suffered 

devastating damage as a result of a storm in early 1987. 
Damage was most severe around the western half of the 
island with near total destruction of living corals down to 
60 ft (18 m) in some areas. At one transect site facing 
due west, at Taulaga, live coral cover down to 50 ft 
(15 m) had decreased from 95-100% (recorded in 
December 1986) to 7-12% (April 1987). Large 
branching Pocillopora colonies had been broken off near 
their bases, and flat Montipora colonies had also been 
broken or apparently killed by sedimentation. Many of 
the deeper corals were being smothered by coral rubble 
generated further up the reef. The north-west facing reef 
was believed likely to be particularly susceptible to 
damage as this area is sheltered from the prevailing winds 
(the south-east trades) and swell, allowing development 
of more delicate coral growth forms. The zone facing 
south-east had apparently not been greatly affected. This 
area had previously not had very high coral cover, the 
coral fauna being dominated by soft corals and low 
growing robust forms which could withstand the 
south-east tradewinds and associated swells. The eastern 
part of the island was least affected and a transect off the 
north-east shore showed live coral cover of nearly 100% 
with virtually no coral breakage. There appeared to have 
been a concommitant reduction in fish diversity, other 
than off the east side of the island, with a notable lack of 
large predatory fishes; many of the smaller fishes were 
apparently still present but at lower densities. There is 
concern that the storm damage to the reefs may lead to a 
reduction in available food for the vUlagers in the future 
(Itano, 1987). 

The coconut trees on the island are slowly being replaced 
by littoral forest species, chiefly Hernandia 
and Pandanus (Amerson et al., 1982). The Polynesian 
Rat Rattus exulans is common on the island and feral pigs 
are found in the coconut plantations (Amerson et al., 
1982). 



Economic Value and Social Benefits Until recently 
there was an important copra industry on the island, 
employing several hundred Tokelau Islanders 
(Amersoner a/., 1982). Copra export has now apparently 
ceased and by 1987 the population had declined to 18-20 
Samoans. The storm of early 1987 destroyed all buildings 
at Taulaga, the only village on the island, and the 
inhabitants have moved to Tutuila to await the 
construction of pre-fabricated buildings which will be 



Legal Protection None. 

Management None. 

Recommendations Dahl (1980) recommended that the 
outer reefs and lagoon should be surveyed; this has now 
been carried out and recommendations for management 
should be drawn up. 



-13- 



AUSTRALIA, EASTERN 



INTRODUCTION 

General Description 

Reefs of the east coast of Australia are dominated by the 
Great Barrier Reef, the world's largest reef system, 
extending 2000 km along the north-east coast of 
Queensland and including some 2500 major reefs and 
almost as many islands. The Great Barrier Reef Region 
is described in the following accounts. In addition to the 
barrier reef system itself, the inshore high islands from 
the southern part of the Region to Princess Charlotte 
Bay, usually have complex coastlines, parts of which have 
strong tidal currents and extensive areas of relatively 
shallow, turbid water, resulting in a wide range of 
fringing communities adapted to muddy conditions and 
often with a very high coral species diversity 
(Hopleye/a/., 1983; Veron, 1986). 

There are also reefs outside this region. Reef building 
corals (at least six genera) are found as far south as 
Sydney and Nambucca Heads, 430 km to the north 
(Wells, 1955a). Reef building corals have also been 
found at Arrawarra and Woolgoolga headlands, adjacent 
to Nambucca Heads (Veron, 1973). Reefs around the 
Solitary Islands, Lord Howe Island and Elizabeth and 
Middleton Reefs are described in separate accounts. 
Detailed studies of shallow-water reef-building corals 
have been made in Moreton Bay (27°S) by Wells (1955a 
and b) and in Port Phillip Bay (38°S) by Squires (1966). 
Flinders Reef near Moreton Bay has a dense cover of 
corals but the reef itself is of sandstone. Corai diversity is 
very high. The reef is similar to Elizabeth and Middleton 
Reefs although the area covered is only 10 ha (Veron, 
1986). 

To the east, the Coral Sea consists of two parts: the 
northern half is a broad abyssal plain between the 
northern part of the Great Barrier Reef and Vanuatu and 
the southern half comprises a number of seamounts, 
some capped by reefs, cays and atolls, lying between the 
central and southern Great Barrier Reef and New 
Caledonia. The reefs in this area are widely separated 
and have little in common. Most are very rich 
in Acropora and a few other coral genera but none has 
the diversity of the Great Barrier Reef (Veron, 1986). 
Flinders Reef, north-east of Townsville (not to be 
confused with the Moreton Bay reef of the same name), 
is described by Done (1982), Williams (1982), Sheppard 
(1985) and Wilkinson (1987). The Lihou and 
Coringa-Herald reefs are described in separate accounts. 

North of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park, the barrier 
line of reefs forms deltaic reefs {see account for Far 
Northern Section) and dissected reefs. The latter are 
found at the northern limit of the barrier line where the 
deltaic reefs break up into a complex of reef strips 
running east-west. At the northern extremity they form a 
series of downward sloping steps which eventually 
become submerged in mud in the Gulf of Papua. During 
periods of monsoonal flooding large masses of low 
salinity water from Papua New Guinean rivers move 
down to these reefs and can be seen underwater as lenses 
but appear to have no effect on the reefs. 



Extensive reefs are found in the Torres Strait (see 
separate account). Further west, reefs occur in the 
Cobourg Peninsula Marine National Park and Sanctuary 
(see separate account) and possibly in the Crocodile 
Islands and Castlereagh Bay Area (Davis, 1985) in the 
Northern Territory. The coral fauna of Eastern Austraha 
is described by Veron and Pichon (1976, 1980 and 1982), 
Veron et al. (\911) and Veron and Wallace (1983). 

A useful popular account of the reefs is given in Reader's 
Digest (1984). The Austrahan Coral Reef Society have 
produced a coral reef handbook which gives general 
information (Mather and Bennett, 1984), and the June 
1986 issue of Oceanus is devoted to the Great Barrier 
Reef. 



Reef Resources 

Subsistence use of the reefs of Eastern Australia by 
Aboriginal communities was important in the past but is 
now largely restricted to the northernmost reefs, in 
particular those in tiie Torres Strait (see separate 
account). The Great Barrier Reef however has major 
economic importance for commercial fisheries and the 
tourist industry. Recreational use of the reef has been 
developed here to a greater extent than anywhere else in 
the world (see separate accounts). 



Disturbances and Deficiencies 

Much of the Great Barrier Reef Region, as well as many 
reefs outside this area, are relatively undisturbed by 
human activities, although some areas are susceptible to 
damage from intensive recreational use. Many of the 
reefs however have been damaged by population 
outbreaks of the Crown-of-Thorns Starfish; the extent to 
which this may have caused long-term damage is 
discussed in the following accounts. Fringing reefs may 
be damaged periodically by freshwater run-off; for 
example, the 1974 Brisbane floods covered the reefs of 
Moreton Bay with up to 5 cm of silt. 



Legislation and Management 

Most of the Great Barrier Reef lies within the Great 
Barrier Reef Marine Park, which is described in the 
following accounts. The Australian National Parks and 
Wildlife Service has general responsibility for marine 
protected areas in Commonwealth waters outside the 
Great Barrier Reef Region (Anon., 1986). An inventory 
of these areas has been produced (Ivanovici, 1984), and 
the more important reef sites are described in the 
following accounts. 



Recommendations 

Recommendations specific to particular locations are 
given in the following accounts. 



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Coral Reefs of the World 




-16- 



Australia, Eastern 



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Trachyphyllidae. Aust. Inst. Mar Sci. Monog. Ser 3: 

233 pp. 

Veron, J.E.N. and Wallace, C.C. (1983). Scleractinia of 

Eastern Australia. Part 5. Family Acroporidae. 490 pp. 

Veron, J.E.N., How, RA.., Done TJ., Zell, L.D., Dodkin, 

MJ. and O'Farrell, A.F. (1974). Corals of the Solitary 

Islands, Central New South Wales. Aus J. Mar 

Freshwater Res 25: 193-208. 

Vine, PJ. (1970). Field and laboratory observations of 

the Crown-of-thoms Starfish Acanthaster planci. Nature 

(London) 228: 341. 

Walsh, RJ., Harris, C.L., Harvey, J.M., 

Maxwell, W.G.H., Thompson, J.M. and Tranter, DJ. 

(1971). Report of the Committee on the Problem of the 

Crown-of-thorns Starfish (Acanthaster planci). 

Commonwealth Government Printing Office, Canberra, 

Australia. 45 pp. 

Weber, J.N. and Woodhead, P.MJ. (1970). Ecological 

studies of the coral predator Acanthaster planci in the 

South Pacific. Mar Biol. 6: 12-17. 

Wells, J.W. (1955a). A survey of the distribution of reef 

coral genera in the Great Barrier Reef region. Rep. Great 

Barrier Reef Committee No. 6 (2). 

Wells, J.W. (1955b). Recent and subfossil corals of 

Moreton Bay, Queensland. Pap. Dep. Geol. Univ. 

Qd 4 (10). 

Wilkinson, C.R. (1987). Productivity and abundance of 

large sponge populations on Flinders Reef flats. Coral 

Sea. Coral Reefs 5(4): 183-188. 

Williams. D. McB. (1982). Patterns in the distribution of 

fish communities across the Central Great Barrier 

Reef. Coral Reefs 1(1): 35-43. 

Williams, D. McB. and Hatcher, A.I. (1983). Structure of 

fish communities on outer slopes of inshore, mid-shelf 

and outer shelf reefs of the Great Barrier Reef. Mar 

Ecol. Prog. Ser 10: 239-250. 



Williams, R. (1980). Recreation management of the 
Great Barrier Reef. Paper presented to 53rd Conference 
of Royal Australian Institute of Parks and Recreation. 
Wilson, J. (1978). Tourist and recreation activity in the 
northern sector of the Great Barrier Reef. In: Workshop 
on the Northern Sector of the Great Barrier Reef. 
Townsville, Queensland. GBRMPA: 148-158. 
Wolanski, E. (1981). Aspects of physical oceanography 
of the Great Barrier Reef lagoon. Proc. 4th Int. Coral 
Reef Symp, Manila 1: 375-381. 

Woodland, D J. and Hooper, J.N.A. (1977). The effect of 
human trampling on coral reefs. Biol. Cons. 11: 1-4. 
Zann, L. and Eager, E. (Eds) (1987). The Crown of 
Thorns Starfish. Aust. Science Mag. 3. 
Zell L.D. (1981). Constraints for management and 
interpretive activities on the Great Barrier Reef. Proc. 
4lh Int. Coral Reef Symp, Manila 1: 237-241. 



COBOURG PENINSULA MARINE NATIONAL PARK 
AND SANCTUARY 

Geographical Location Northern Territory; 200 km 
north-east of Darwin, forming the northern shore of Van 
Diemen Gulf; iri5'S, 132°15'E. 

Area, Depth, Altitude The marine national park covers 
ca 229 000 ha, of which 29 000 ha is the Sanctuary 
(Ivanovici, 1984). 

Physical Features There are a wide range of benthic 
habitats including coral reefs (Ivanovici, 1984). 

Noteworthy Fauna and Flora The area includes 
populations of Dugong Dugong dugon. Green, 
Leatherback, Olive Ridley and Hawksbill (Chelonia 
mydas, Dermochelys coriacea, Lepidochelys olivacea 
and Eretmochelys imbricata) Turtles, and Estuarine 
Crocodiles Crocodylus porosus (Ivanovici, 1984; Limpus, 
1981). 

Scientific Importance and Research No information. 

Economic Value and Social Benefits An important area 
for commercial fishing and prawn trawling. The 
Peninsula is also used extensively by Aborigines for 
traditional exploitation or resources. There are some 
recreational activities (Ivanovici, 1984). 

Disturbance or Deficiencies There is some concern 
about over-exploitation of fishery resources. Crocodile 
poaching occurs (Ivanovici, 1984). 

Legal Protection The waters surrounding the Peninsula 
were declared a Marine National Park on 1.7.83 under 
the Territory Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act 1951, 
Section 12; the boundaries of the Park are shown in 
Ivanovici (1984). The intertidal area adjoining the 
Peninsula and adjacent islands, from high water to low 
water mark, was declared a Sanctuary on 3.9.81 under the 
Cobourg Peninsula Aboriginal Land and Sanctuary Act 
1981 (Ivanovici, 1984). 

Management The Conservation Commission of the 
Northern Territory is responsible for management of the 
Park and enforcement of Sanctuary regulations. The 



-20- 



Australia, Eastern 



Cobourg Peninsula Sanctuary Board is responsible for the 
management of the Sanctuary (Ivanovici, 1984). 



ELIZABETH AND MIDDLETON REEFS MARINE 
NATIONAL NATURE RESERVE 

Geographical Location 600 km south-east of Brisbane; 
95 km north of Lord Howe Island; 29°2r-30°03'S, 
158°55'-159n4'E. 



CORINGA-HERALD NATIONAL NATURE RESERVE 

Geographical Location Coral Sea Islands Territory, off 
the northern coast of Queensland in the central region of 
the Coral Sea (within 16°-18°S, 149°-151°E), 420 km east 
of Cairns, 350 km east of the Great Barrier Reef. The 
reserve includes Coringa Islets, Herald Cays and 
Magdelaine Cays. 

Area, Depth, Altitude 8856 sq. km. 

Land Tenure Commonwealth of Australia. 



Physical Features 

waters. 



Islands, reefs, cays and surrounding 



Reef Structure and Corals Corals are described in 
Veron and WaUace (1983). The Phyllospongia 
community in the lagoon is larger than those found on 
the Great Barrier Reef but coral and fish diversity is 
lower (Anon., 1986). 

Noteworthy Fauna and Flora There are extensive 
seabird colonies, including Red-footed Boobies and 
Greater Frigatebirds (Anon., 1986), important nesting 
sites and a diverse marine fauna. Seabirds found 
nowhere else in the Coral Sea Islands Territory occur in 
large numbers at Coringa-Herald. It also supports the 
only stands of Pisonia grandis. Cetaceans include 
Southern Right Whale and Humpback Whale Megaptera 
novaeangliae. 

Scientific Importance and Research Austrahan 

National Parks and WildUfe Service (ANPWS) have 
conducted five biological surveys in the Coral Sea Islands 
Territory, including the Coringa-Herald Reserve. These 
have obtained information on breeding and nesting of 
seabirds and on the cetacean populations. In October 
1984 a major resource survey was carried out by the 
ANPWS in collaboration with the Australian Survey 
Office (Anon., 1986). 

Disturbance or Deficiencies Foreign fishing vessels take 
fish and clams in the area. There is a potential threat 
from pollution from shipwrecks. Rats are adversely 
affecting the birdlife (Anon., 1986). 

Legal Protection The area was declared as a reserve 
3.8.82 under the National Parks and Wildlife 
Conservation Act 1975, by the Governor-General of the 
Commonwealth of Australia. The legislation provides 
complete protection for all marine wildlife. 

Management The Austrahan National Parks and 
Wildlife Service manages the reserve. Management plans 
are being prepared. In 1985, a management patrol was 
initiated as well as a programme of rat eradication 
(Anon., 1986). 



Area, Depth, Altitude Total area ca 105 km in length; 
each reef covers about 2000 ha. 

Land Tenure State. 

Physical Features Both reefs are open ocean platform 
reefs. Elizabeth Reef has a deeper, more extensive 
lagoon. They have broad reef flats exposed at low tide, 
when the lagoonal waters are well above the level of the 
surrounding ocean. 

Noteworthy Fauna and Flora An important breeding 
area for the Black Cod Epinephelus daemeli; the last 
breeding area in Australian waters in which this species 
has not been overfished. The reefs are also an important 
feeding and resting area for sea birds and turtles. Three 
new species of crab were discovered in 1987. 

Reef Structure and Corals Many species of coral, rarely 
if ever recorded from other reefs are common, but coral 
diversity is lower than on tropical reefs (Veron, 1986). 

Scientific Importance and Research The reefs are the 
southernmost open ocean platform reefs in the world. 
They feature an unusual variety of species as they are 
located where tropical and temperate currents meet. 
Visited by researchers from the Queensland Museum in 
1987. 

Disturbance or Deficiencies There are few if any signs 
of enviroimiental stress (Veron, 1986). 

Legal Protection The reefs were declared a National 
Nature Reserve on 11.12.87 under the National Parks and 
Wildlife Conservation Act, 1975. 



GREAT BARRIER REEF REGION 

Geographical Location Off Queensland coast; the Great 
Barrier Reef (GBR) Region Ues between 10°41'S and 
24°30'S from north Cape York Peninsula to south of 
Gladstone. 

Area, Depth, Altitude 348 700 sq. km in area stretching 
along 2000 km of the coast, running from the low tide 
mark to beyond the 200 m bathymetric contour (KeUeher, 
1981; Kelleher and Kenchington, 1984). Approximately 
2600 individual reefs varying in size from 1 ha to 
100 sq. km. The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park 
(GBRMP) occupies about 98.5% of the Region. 

Land Tenure Title to the sea bed beneath the 3 naut. mi. 
(5.6 km). Teriitorial Sea is vested in the Queensland 
Government, subject to the operation of the Great 
Barrier Reef Marine Park Act, 1975. There is no title to 
the seabed seawards of the Territorial Sea. Port areas 
and areas adjacent to urban or intensive agriculture are 



-21- 



Coral Reefs of the World 



administered by the State of Queensland and are 
generally not included in the Great Barrier Reef Marine 
Park (amounts to less than 2% of the Region). Public 
title to islands is vested in the State of Queensland, apart 
from public lands owned by the Commonwealth. Some 
land is held by private persons (GBRMPA, 1981b). 

Physical Features South of 15°30'S the reefs are 
generally 30 km or more off shore. Those that are closer, 
coastal fringing and nearshore continental islands, have 
poor water visibility due to terrestrial runoff and 
sediment (Hopley and Partain, 1986). The coastal lagoon 
between the main body of the GBR and the mainland has 
a maximum depth of 145 m but rarely exceeds 60 m 
(Wolanski, 1981). For physical oceanography see 
Pickard elal. (1977). 

Climatic details are given in GBRMPA (1981b). Average 
summer temperatures range from 30°C in Cairns to 26°C 
in Gladstone; winter temperatures range from 26°C in 
Cairns to 15°C in Gladstone. Cyclones may occur in the 
summer; there are rough seas through autumn and winter 
with the south-east trade winds, and calm water in the 
spring (ZeU, 1981). 

In some areas the tidal range is great, such as the area 
including RedbUl Reef 90 km east of Mackay (20°58'S) 
where the semi-diurnal tidal range exceeds 5 m 
(Hopley et al., 1981). The water circulation of the GBR 
is immensely complicated, governed by properties of the 
Coral Sea, land runoff, evaporation, the south-east trade 
winds, forced upwellings due to strong tidal currents in 
narrow reef passages, and coastal waters including, 
significantly, mangroves. 

Reef Structure and Corals The GBR is the largest 
system of coral reefs in the world. A detailed Ust of reefs 
and their associated features is given in the Great Barrier 
Reef Gazetteer. The following accounts give details of 
the reefs in different Sections of the Region; this account 
gives a brief overview. In the north the reef is narrow 
with ribbon reefs on its eastern edge, extensive coastal 
fringing reefs and patch reefs. In the south it broadens 
giving a vast wilderness of patch reefs separated by open 
water or narrow chaimels. There are 243 coral cays 
(Kelleher and Kenchington, 1984). The GBR supports 
over 300 species of hard coral. Approximately 70% of 
the hermatypic corals of the Indo-Pacific are found along 
eastern Australia. A full description is given in Veron 
(1974). Fringing reefs are described by Hopley and 
Partain (1986). 

Noteworthy Fauna and Flora The GBR supports 1500 
species of fish, over 4000 species of molluscs and a variety 
of endemic species (Kelleher and Kenchington, 1982). 
252 species of birds nest and breed on the coral cays 
(Kelleher, 1981; Kelleher and Kenchington, 1982). 

Six turtle species occur in Queensland waters, five on the 
GBR. Three are closely associated with the Reef: the 
widespread and abundant Green Turtle Chelonia mydas 
and Loggerhead Carella careiia which have undergone 
marked fluctuations in the numbers in recent years, cause 
unknown. The Hawksbill Ereimochelys imbricata is 
widespread but not abundant and breeds predominantly 
in low densities on inner shelf areas of the northern GBR 
and islands of the central to eastern Torres Strait. Long 
Island in the Torres Strait is the major rookery and has 
several hundred turtles annually. Campbell Island and 



Millman Island are important sites (Bustard, 1972; 
Limpus 1981; Limpusera/., 1983a). Low density nesting 
of the widespread Flat-back Turtle Chelonia depressa, an 
Australian endemic, occurs as far south as Mon Repos 
(25°). It is the dominant nesting species between Bustard 
Head (24°) and Townsville (19°), important 
concentrations occurring on Peake Island (23°), Wild 
Duck Island and Avoid Island (both 22°). There are 
major feeding grounds throughout the GBR (Bustard, 
1974; Limpus, 1981; Limpus el al., 1983b). Lepidochelys 
olivacea is poorly known with low density nesting 
recorded in isolated areas (Limpus, 1981). Dermochelys 
coriacea migrates along the southern areas of the 
Queensland coast in appreciable numbers but little 
nesting occurs (Limpus, 1981). 

The largest known populations of Dugong Dugong dugon 
occur in Australia. The total number in Queensland is 
unknown and southern populations may be increasing. 
Aerial counts are currently being carried out to estimate 
populations (Marsh, 1985). Large herds (over 100) have 
been sighted just south of the Capricomia Section in 
Great Sandy Strait and Hervey Bay, in the central GBR 
Region from Townsville to Cardwell, and in the northern 
GBR Region from Cape Flattery to Shelbume Bay. 

Several species of cetaceans are found within the 
Region. The most frequently reported whales are the 
Humpback Megaplera novaeangliae, Minke Balaenoptera 
acutorostrata and Killer Whales Orcinus orca. The 
Humpback Whale is considered to be an endangered 
species due to whaling earlier this century. Whaling 
ceased in 1962 and the Humpback population appears to 
be recovering. Feeding in Antarctic waters during the 
summer months. Humpbacks migrate north along the east 
coast of Australia in winter to calve and mate. Sightings 
are reported throughout the GBR Region as far north as 
the Cairns area. 

Dolphins abound throughout the Region and those 
species usually seen in coastal areas are the 
Bottlenose Tursiops tnincatus, Irrawaddy River Orcaella 
brevirostris and the Indo-Pacific Humpback Sousa 
chinensis. Off shore, the Spiimer Dolphin Sienella 
longirostris is also sometimes sighted. 

The Saltwater Crocodile, Crocodylus porosus is found in 
mangrove swamps and river estuaries along the coastal 
fringe of the Region. Past hunting activity and removal 
of large crocodiles perceived as a threat in areas of 
frequent human activity has placed crocodile populations 
in many areas under considerable pressure. Significant 
populations are now only found in suitable habitat at 
remote locations mainly towards the northern end of the 
Region. As they tend to avoid areas of strong wave 
action, few saltwater crocodiles are seen around offshore 
coral reefs. There are important populations of Giant 
Clams (Tridacnidae) which are currently the subject of a 
long-term research programme (Braley, 1984). 

Scientific Importance and Research With its enormous 
faunal, floral and geomorphological diversity, the GBR 
offers unparalleled opportunities for scientific research. 
Research activities in the Region have accelerated and 
assumed even greater importance since the formation of 
the Great Barrier Reef Committee (now the Australian 
Coral Reef Society) in 1922 and the British GBR 
Expedition to the Low Isles in 1928-29. The need for 
such research has become more critical in recent years 



-22- 



Australia, Eastern 



with the GBR's inclusion on the World Heritage List in 
1981 (Kelleher, 1986), concern resulting from 
Crown-of-thoms Starfish outbreaks and intensifying 
demands placed on the resource by human use. 

While research on the GBR continues to be conducted by 
scientists from most Australian universities and 
institutions, concerted efforts are concentrated, for 
logistical reasons, on field research stations and North 
Queensland mainland centres. For local and visiting 
overseas scientists, field stations are operated by the 
University of Queensland (Heron I.), the University of 
Sydney (One Tree I.), James Cook University 
(Orpheus I.) and the Australian Museum (Lizard I.). 
Details of research activities in the GBR Region are 
given in Baker et al., (1983), GBRMPA (1983d) and 
GBRMPA (1986). 

Because of their strategic location, the James Cook 
University and the Australian Institute of Marine Science 
(AIMS), both in Townsville, have extensive coral reef 
research programmes that cover the full gambit of 
scientific disciplines (see AIMS, 1986a,b and 1987). The 
existence of AIMS and the Great Barrier Reef Marine 
Park Authority (GBRMPA) has facilitated development 
of widely-encompassing, multi-discipUnary research 
programmes with numerous benefits over individual 
discrete ad hoc projects. 

The Research and Monitoring Section of the GBRMPA 
obtains and interprets information to assist in the 
plarming, administration and education funaions of 
managing the Marine Park (GBRMPA, 1987a). To 
obtain this information the Authority is empowered to 
commission research or undertake research itself. The 
GBRMPA Research Programme is splii into eleven 
categories: Analysis of Use (e.g. Driml, 1987a and b); 
Biology (e.g. Craik, 1986; Lanyon, 1986); Environmental 
Design (e.g. Dutton, 1987); Information Systems; 
Management Strategies (e.g. Claasen and Kenchington, 
1987; Baldwin, 1987); Marine Geosciences (e.g. Kuchler, 
1986); Oceanography; Survey and Bathymetry and 
Crown-of-thoms Starfish (see Moran, 1986 for review; 
Zann and Eager, 1987). Most research is carried out by 
outside agencies under contract with the Authority 
(KeUeher, 1981; Kelleher and Kenchington, 1984). 

Economic Value and Social Benefits The GBR has 

great commercial and recreational value. Use of the Reef 
for a great variety of activities is increasing rapidly. 
Prawns and demersal and pelagic fish are fished and 
commercial fisheries yielded a landed value of 
approximately S436 million annually in 1982. Small 
quantities of coral are collected (Ohver and McGinnity, 
1985). The potential for beche-de-mer exploitation has 
been investigated (Harriott, 1985b). From April 1979 to 
March 1980 there were approximately two million visitor 
trips to the reefs, islands and adjacent mainland. In 
1981/82, tourists spent approximately SI 10 million on 
recreational activities within the GBR Region including 
money on island resorts, charter boats, and activities such 
as island camping (Driml, 1987a). Further details are 
given in Driml (1987b), Hundloe (1985), McGinnity 
(1981), WiUiams (1980) and Wilson (1978). 

Disturbance or Deficiencies Population outbreaks of 
the Crown-of-thorns Starfish, Acanlhasier planci 
occurred from 1962 to 1974 on approximately 300 reefs in 
the middle section of the Great Barrier Reef (14°-20°S) 



destroying a high proportion of hard coral cover 
(Endean, 1974; Endean and Stablum, 1975; Kenchington 
and Pearson, 1981). The resulting disintegration of the 
coral reef communities and increased algal cover 
(Walsh et al., 1971) became the subject of intense 
controversy and international concern. A Committee of 
Inquiry was set up (Kenchington, 1978; Walsh et al., 
1971). Rapid recovery was seen in the 1970s on reefs off 
InnisfaU (e.g. Feather Reef) (Cameron and Endean, 1981; 
Pearson, 1974). There were new outbreaks in 1978 
(Cameron and Endean, 1981; Kenchington and Pearson, 
1981; Nash and Zell, 1981). Reefs between 16°30' and 
17°30'S were infested in 1980/1981, e.g. Howie Reef, 
40 km off Innisfail (Endean, 1982). Survey results 
suggest that the aggregations may not have been as 
intense as those in the 1960s (Kenchington and Pearson, 
1981; Nash and Zell, 1981). The cause of the outbreaks, 
either a natural phenomenon or the result of manmade 
perturbations, has been the subject of numerous 
publications (Baker, 1977; Birkeland and Wolanski, in 
press; Bradbury et at., 1985a,b and c; Cameron and 
Endean, 1981; Done and Fisk, 1985; Endean, 1973, 1974, 
1977 and 1982; Frankel, 1975 and 1977; Glynn, 1981; 
Kenchington in press; Kettle and Lucas in press; Lucas, 
1973; Moran et al., 1984 and 1985; Moran, 1986; Randall, 
1976; Vine, 1970; Walsh et al., 1971; Weber and 
Woodhead, 1970; Zar.n and Eager, 1987). There have 
been attempts to control the outbreaks, including 
Queensland Govenmient legislation to protect the 
Triton Charonia tritonis and to ban spearfishing with 
SCUBA following Endean's report in 1969, though these 
are not strongly enforced (Endean, 1982; Kenchington, 
1978). Other control measures include collecting the 
starfish by hand or injecting them with compressed air or 
CuS04. These methods are only reasonably effective for 
small areas, and have not been sufficient at Green Island 
(Kenchington and Pearson, 1981). The Commonwealth 
Government is funding a major research programme on 
this issue. Coral bleaching has been observed in several 
areas (Done and Fisk, 1985; Harriott, 1985a; Oliver, 1985). 

Agriculture, predominantly sugar cane, and industry have 
been developing rapidly, producing waste and water 
discharge, the introduction of pesticides and fertilizers, 
soil erosion, dredging, accidental spillage and increased 
shipping. Unsubstantiated observations by locals indicate 
increased algal cover, decreased water clarity and changes 
in fish populations and coral communities, all changes 
associated with disturbed and polluted coral reefs 
(Bennell, 1980; KeUeher and Kenchington, 1984). 
However, a workshop conducted by GBRMPA on 
contaminants in GBR waters concluded that measured 
levels of most contaminants (in the groups of heavy 
metals, organochlorines and hydrocarbons) within reef 
waters are generally close to the lower limits of detertion, 
although in some adjacent coastal waters (notably 
harbours), concentrations indicative of low to moderate 
pollution have been recorded (Dutton, 1985). The 
environmental effects of offshore tourist development is 
discussed by Kelleher and Dutton (1985). 

The poaching of protected Giant Clams Tridacna gigas 
and T. derasa by Taiwanese fishing boats used to be 
severe; 4600 T. derasa were poached from the Swain 
Reefs during the period 1969-1977 (Pearson, 1977). With 
regular surveillance and the introduction of a 200 mi. (320 
km) Austrahan Fishing Zone this poaching has almost 
been eliminated (Kenchington pers. comm.). 



-23- 



Coral Reefs of the World 



Legal Protection The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park 
Act was passed in 1975 by the Federal Government 
establishing the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park 
Authority (GBRMPA). This Act provides for the 
establishment, control, care and development of a marine 
park in the Great Barrier Reef Region as defined in that 
Act. Areas of the Region may be declared as part of the 
Marine Park. Operations for the recovery of minerals are 
prohibited, except for the purpose of research and 
investigations relevant to the establishment, care and 
development of the Marine Park, or for scientific 
research (GBRMPA, 1981b). GBRMPA recommends 
areas for declaration as part of the Great Barrier Reef 
Marine Park, prepares zoning plans for these areas, and 
arranges and undertakes research and investigation 
relevant to the marine park (Baker, 1977; GBRMPA, 
1981b; KeUeher and Kenchington, 1984). 

The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park covers 
345 000 sq. km or 98.5% of the Region (GBRMPA, 
1987a). There are also marine reserves on Crown land in 
the form of 13 Fisheries Habitat Reserves. In 1981 the 
Great Barrier Reef was declared a World Heritage Site 
(GBRMPA, 1981b). Drilling for petroleum in the Great 
Barrier Reef Region is prohibited by the Great Barrier 
Reef Marine Park (Prohibition of Drilling for Petroleum) 
Regulations. Oil drilling is discussed by Connell (1970). 
Dugong and all sea turtles are totally protected with the 
exception that indigenous people may take them for their 
own use (Limpus, 1981). 

Management The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Act 
outlines and directs the preparation and application of 
zoning plans for declared sections of the Marine Park and 
outlines the matters for which regulations may be made 
to give effect to the Act. The Regulations provide for the 
enforcement of zoning plans and describe the scope of 
the power of the Authority to permit various activities 
within the Park. 

The Marine Park is managed through a co-operative 
arrangement between the Federal and Queensland 
Governments. There is a Ministerial Council comprising 
two Ministers from each of the two Governments to 
co-ordinate the policies of the Governments on Marine 
Park matters. The Authority and the Federal Minister to 
whom the Authority is responsible are assisted by an 
independent Consultative Committee, made up of 
representatives of government, industry and community 
bodies. Officers of the administrative arm of the 
Authority are Federal Government employees, whereas 
day to day management is the responsibility of the 
Queensland National Parks and Wildlife Service. Two 
members of the Authority itself are appointed by the 
Federal Government and the third member is appointed 
by the Queensland Government. 

The GBRMPA pohcy is to maximize opportunity for 
human enjoyment by keeping regulation of activity at the 
minimum considered necessary to achieve conservation 
objectives (Kelleher, 1981). The Great Barrier Reef is 
divided into sections and these are divided into zones 
with different protection status. Zoning plans are a form 
of broad scale management plan and the planning process 
leading to the application of a zoning plan to a Park 
section involves a number of discrete steps which are 
outlined in the Act. The major feature of the zoning 
process is the public participation programme. Divided 
into two stages, the programme first invites public input 



early in the planning process to help construct a draft 
zoning plan and later invites comments on the suitability 
of the draft plan produced. Public participation assists 
the Authority in gaining information on the resources and 
uses of the Park, to identify management issues and to 
separate confhcting uses. The programme allows 
interested members of the pubhc to have a say in the 
construction of a zoning plan and encourages Marine 
Park users to take some responsibility for the 
management of the Park. Day to day management of 
such a huge area depends to a large degree on public 
co-operation. 

Zoning plans have now been prepared for all sections of 
the Marine Park. These are the Mackay-Capricom, 
Central, Cairns and Far Northern Sections. It is the 
pohcy of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Authority 
to review zoning plans after five years of operation to 
take account of changing circumstances. The area 
formerly known as the Capricornia Section has been 
incorporated into the initial zoning plan for the 
surrounding Capricorn Section, and these two areas 
together have been re-named the Mackay-Capricorn 
Section. The Plan for the Capricornia area has some 
significant changes to the previous zoning plan. The 
review process for the Cairns Section is due to begin in 
1989. 

The major categories of zones into which a Park Section 
is divided are: 

General Use "A" Zone (GUA) 
General Use "B" Zone (GUB) 
Marine National Park "A" Zone (MNPA) 
Marine National Park "B" Zone (MNPB) 
Preservation Zone 

Generally, about 75% of a Park section is zone General 
Use "A", another 20% General Use "B", 4% Marine 
National Park zones and the remainder Preservation. It 
should be borne in mind that the great majority of a Park 
section is open water and the area covered by reefs is 
relatively small. The restriction on activities that may be 
pursued in each zone is as follows (see table overleaf). 

Other specific management conditions may be apphed to 
nominated areas within the zoning plan. These include 
Replenishment Areas that provide for the replenishment 
of natural resources in heavily used areas by restricting 
for a specified period the activities which cause removal 
of those resources. There is also provision for Seasonal 
Closure Areas, designed to protect such areas as bird 
nesting sites during egg laying and fledgling rearing. 
Special Management Areas do not have to be specified in 
the zoning plan and are designed to allow for specific 
management at sites where contingencies arise. These 
may only be declared after public representations have 
been considered on their proposed declaration. 

The second major management tool available to the 
Marine Park Authority apart from zoning plans is the 
power to issue permits for a broad spectrum of activities 
that are pursued within the Great Barrier Reef Marine 
Park. These activities include tourist facilities and 
programmes, education programmes, aircraft operations 
discharge of wastes, collecting, installation and operation 
of moorings and traditional hunting and fishing. The 
main purposes of the permit system are to encourage 



-24- 



Australia, Eastern 





GUA 


GUB 


MNPA 


MNPB 


Pres 


Trawling 


Yes 


No 


No 


No 


No 


Line Fishing 


Yes 


Yes 


Limited 


No 


No 


Collecting (comm.) 


Permit 


Permit 


No 


No 


No 


Collecting (rec.) 


Limited 


Limited 


No 


No 


No 


Spearfishing 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


No 


No 


Netting (comm.) 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


No 


No 


Bait Netting 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


No 


Research 


Permit 


Permit 


Permit 


Permit 


Permit 


Boating, Diving 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


Yes 


No 


Tourist Facilities 


Permit 


Permit 


Permit 


Permit 


No 


Traditional Hunting 


Permit 


Permit 


Permit 


No 


No 


and Fishing 













responsible behaviour in users, separate potentially 
conflicting uses, limit the time an activity may be 
conducted, Umit the area in which an activity may be 
conducted, limit the quantity of resources collected, limit 
the number of people engaged in an activity and gather 
data for management. Appropriate conditions under 
which a permitted activity may be conducted are attached 
to each permit through a permit assessment procedure 
developed by the Authority. 

The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Regulations (1985) 
supersede previous regulations and provide for 
enforcement of zoning plans in effect in mid-1985. These 
regulations also cover general matters throughout the 
Park and in unzoned sections, including; 

Prohibiting the taking of specimens greater than 

1200 mm of the Grouper Promicrops lanceolatus 

and the Potato Cod Epinephelus tukula; 

Prohibiting littering in the Park; 

Prohibiting the use of spearguns with SCUBA or 

surface-supphed breathing equipment, and of power 

heads; and 

Providing for control of prescribed activities 

including the development of offshore structures 

and the establishment of mariculture operations. 

Regulations are made from time to time to give effect to 
zoning plans and to address other management issues 
which arise. 



GREAT BARRIER REEF MARINE PARK, 
AND CORMORANT PASS SECTIONS 



CAIRNS 



Geographical Location The Section extends from just 
north of Lizard Island past Cooktown, north of Cairns, 
south to Beaver Reef near Tully, on the Queensland 
coast. 

Cormorant Pass Section lies within the outer boundaries 
of the Cairns Section, mid-point at approximately 
14°40'S, 145°39'E. It is 250 km north of Cairns between 
No Name Reef and Ribbon Reef No. 10. 



Area, Depth, Altitude The Cairns Section covers an area 
of 35 500 sq. km about 10% of the Region, and the air 
space above to 3000 ft (912 m). Cormorant Pass Section is 
341 ha. 

Land Tenure See GBR Region 

Physical Features The Cairns Section includes 231 
known individual coral reefs, banks, patches and shoals; 
and 25 islands of continental origin with fringing reefs 
surrounding 23 of the islands. There are 18 low wooded 
islands and 19 sand and single cays of reefal origin. 
Cormorant Pass Section is an area of inter-reef al waters. 

Within the outer boundaries of the section are several 
islands of note, including: Lizard Island; Green Island 
27 km north-east of Cairns and Michaelmas Cay 40 km 
from Cairns. Green Island on the inner part of the GBR 
is a low (approx. 1 m above H.T.) coral cay of 13 ha, with 
dense forest vegetation and a coral sand beach on its 
leeward side. Michaelmas Cay, a major bird rookery, is 
very small and exposed to the south-east trade winds 
giving long rolling swells for ten months of the year. In 
November and December it experiences light northerly 
winds (Edgecombe, 1980). Lizard Island has a small 
(1 sq. km) lagoon which links four other adjacent islands 
and is separated into an inner and an outer lagoon by a 
narrow charmel, which also connects them to the main 
GBR lagoon (Leis, 1981). 

Reef Structure and Corals Within the Cairns Section 
there are banks, patches and shoals, and reefs including 
wall reefs (ribbon reefs), plug reefs, patch reefs and 
coastal and island fringing reefs. Ribbon reefs form a 
near soUd wall of barrier reefs along the edge of the 
continental shelf from Cooktown (for further details see 
account for Far Northern Section). 

Fringing reefs are found along parts of the coast 
including near Kurrimine in the Tully district, Alexander 
Reef between Cairns and Port Douglas (with heavy 
sediment cover;, the Cape Tribulation area and on the 
rocky sections of the coast north of Cooktown. 

Noteworthy Fauna and Flora More than 130 bird 
species, including some 35 seabirds, have been recorded 
within the Section and 77 are known to breed. 



-25- 



Coral Reefs of the World 



Michaelmas Cay is recognized as one of the most 
important seabird nesting sites in Queensland 
(GBRMPA, 1983b) and Green Island has thousands of 
birds including Common Noddies, Sooty Terns, Crested 
and Lesser Crested Terns (Edgecombe, 1980). 

The Dugong Dugong dugon feeds and breeds in the 
seagrass beds and sheltered bays of the northern part of 
the Section; Green Turtles Chelonia mydas. 
Loggerheads Carelia caretla, Leatherbacks Dermochelys 
coriacea and Hawksbills Eretmochelys imbricata are also 
seen (Ivanovici, 1984). The nearshore open waters 
around Lizard Island are important nursery grounds for 
several taxa of fish (Leis, 1981); species richness is high 
and similar to that at One Tree Island (Talbot and 
Gilbert, 1981). About 850 species of fish have been 
recorded from the Section (GBRMPA, 1983b). Giant 
Clams are relatively common throughout the Seaion. 

The Cormorant Pass Section is an important tourist 
destination due to its group of Potato Cod Epinephelus 
tukula (Ivanovici, 1984), which are very tame, having 
been hand fed by divers for at least six years. 

Scientific Importance and Research Lizard Island 
Research Station was established in 1973 and has a 
platform for field work on Carter Reef. A smaller field 
station, established by the Queensland Department of 
Primary Industries, Northern Fisheries Research Centre, 
is located on Green Island. Low Isles (off Port Douglas) 
was the site of the base for the Royal Society Expedition 
of 1928, which carried out one of the first comprehensive 
studies on the Reef; it was used as a base for subsequent 
expeditions in 1958 and 1973. 

Economic Value and Social Benefits The area is 
adjacent to a number of rapidly growing tourist centres 
between TuUy and Cooktown. Approximately 130 000 
tourists visit Green Island each year (GBRMPA, 1983b) 
which has an underwater observatory in 5 m of water, 
built in 1953. Tourist facilities and services are also 
operated on Lizard Island, out of Port Douglas to 
Agincourt Reef and Low Isles (GBRMPA 1983b; 
Hundloe et ai, 1981), and also to Hastings and Norman 
Reefs and Michaelmas Cay. The group of Potato Cod at 
Cormorant Pass is a popular attraction for SCUBA divers 
(Ivanovici, 1984). Dive tours operate throughout the 
area. High speed catamarans and semi-submersibles are 
very common and have the potential for putting up to 
2000 people per day on the reefs off Cairns. Recreational 
fishing yields a demersal fish catch with an estimated 
value of over 3-4 million Austrahan dollars, comparable 
to the most important commercial fishery in the area, the 
prawn fishery; marlin fishing is also important in this 
Section (Craik, 1981a). There is some traditional hunting 
and fishing for turtles and dugong. 

Disturbance or Deficiencies The first reported 

outbreaks of the Crown-of-Thoms Starfish Acanthaster 
plana in the GBR Region were recorded from Green 
Island in 1962. This resulted in high coral mortality 
continuing until 1967 (Endean and Stablum, 1975). By 
1979 a good coral cover had been re-established, but 
renewed outbreaks occurred, again destroying the coral. 
Queensland Fisheries Service surveys recorded large 
populations of Acanthaster giving an estimate of 1-2 
million in 1980 (Nash and ZeU, 1981). A survey in 1981 
reported 90% mortality (Cameron and Endean, 1981; 



Endean, 1982). Limited control measures included 
injecting with CuS04 but this was not effective at the 
scale attempted and is very expensive (estimated cost for 
killing 1 million starfish exceeds $800 000). Whether 
massive control programmes should be attempted is hotly 
debated (Kenchington and Pearson, 1981). 

About 70% of the Section is close to population centres, 
which has led to heavy use of the reefs, particularly off 
Cairns. By 1976 coral damage and sedimentation caused 
by boat propellers was evident at Green Island and there 
was destruction of the reef flat from walking and shell 
and coral collecting. The lengthening of the jetty has 
resulted in erosion of the foreshore and a deepening of 
the channel. Sewage from the hotels and litter pollution 
is seen (Edgecombe, 1980). There is evidence to suggest 
that some fish populations, particularly on nearshore 
reefs, are under heavy fishing pressure. Many outer reefs 
of the Section exhibit the effects of clam removal by 
foreign (mainly Taiwanese) fishermen. The long-term 
effects of this activity are largely unknown. There has 
been considerable concern about the impact of soil 
run-off on the fringing reef along the Daintree coast 
(Craik and Dutton, 1987). 

Legal Protection The Cairns Section was declared in 
1981 and the zoning plan came into effect two years later 
(GBRMPA, 1983a). In operation for five years, the 
Zoning Plan is now due for review and the re-zoning 
process has begun. A survey of the Section user groups 
conducted by the Consultative Committee in 1987 found 
general acceptance of the Zoning Plan and its objectives. 

Cormorant Pass Sertion was proclaimed on 21.10.82 to 
protea an areas of 3 sq. km near Lizard Island on 
account of the group of tame Potato Cod Epinephelus 
tukula (Hegeri, 1981; Ivanovici, 1984). Spearfishing and 
line fishing other than trolling are forbidden (GBRMPA, 
1983b). Both sections are proteaed under the provisions 
of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Act, 1974, the 
Cairns Section Zoning Plan and the Great Barrier Reef 
Marine Park Regulations. 

In 1938 the Queensland Govenmient formed Green 
Island Marine National Park giving full protection to 
marine organisms but allowing limited recreational 
fishing (Gare, 1976). Green Island is also designated as a 
bird sanctuary along with neighbouring Upolo Cay and 
Michaelmas Cay (Edgecombe, 1980). In 1960 the Park 
came under the National Parks - Forestry Act. Qther 
National Parks in the area and adjacent to coral reefs 
include the Barnard Group of islands, the Frankland 
Islands, the Hope Islands, Cape Tribulation and several 
islands in the Lizard Island area. A Scientific Research 
Zone is located adjacent to the Starcke River to protect 
an area of seagrass and dugong. 

Management See GBR Region. 

Recommendations It is anticipated that many intertidal 
areas around these cays and islands will be declared 
Marine Parks under the Queensland Marine Parks Aa of 
1982, and will be zoned to complement the Great Barrier 
Reef Marine Park. 



-26- 



Australia, Eastern 



GREAT BARRIER REEF MARINE PARK, CENTRAL 
SECTION 

Geographical Location Extends from the 

Whitsunday /Lindeman Island Groups to Dunk Island off 
the city of Innisfail. 

Area, Depth, Altitude Approximately 77 000 sq. km; 
comprises about 22% of the Great Barrier Reef Region. 

Land Tenure see GBR Region 

Physical Features There are 596 individual coral reefs, 
patches, shoals and banks including fringing reefs, 13 
coral cays and 194 islands of continental origin (193 with 
fringing reefs). There are mangroves and seagrass beds. 

Reef Structure and Corals Reefs of the Central Section 
of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park vary according to 
their distance from the coastline. The outermost or 
shelf-edge reefs are most exposed and have the clearest 
deepest water. The innermost are influenced by the 
flood waters of rivers and the middle or mid-shelf reefs 
are of varying shapes and sizes, often with very different 
combinations of coral communities (Veron, 1986). Soft 
corals on several reefs in the Section are described by 
Dinesen (1983). PameU (1986) provides information on 
the fringing reef at Orpheus Island. 

Noteworthy Fauna and Flora Noteworthy fauna and 
flora found in the Central Section are similar to that of 
the other sections of the Marine Park. Fish communities 
in the Section have been studied by Russ (1984a and b) 
and Williams and Hatcher (1983). The Humpback 
Whale Megaptera novaeangliae is seen throughout the 
Section between July and October. Humpbacks are 
known to calve in the area as females with new bom 
calves are regularly sighted and an occasional birth is 
observed, usually in shallow water close to land or a reef. 

Large numbers of Dugong dugon have been sighted 
during aerial surveys in several bays along the coast 
although populations are less significant than those in the 
Far Northern Section. Dugong are often found in 
sheltered bays as they provide habitat for seagrasses 
which are the staple diet for Dugong and the Green 
Turile Chelonia mydas. Over a dozen species of seagrass 
have been recorded in bays in and adjacent to the Central 
Section, including Hatodute uninervis and Zostera 
capricorni. 

Twenty two species of sea birds of eight families have 
been recorded in the Section and nine of these have been 
found breeding. These records cover 16 islands and 
groups of islands of which the more significant are 
Eshelby Island and the Brook Group. 

Scientific Importance and Research AIMS research has 
concentrated on Pandora, Rib, Myrmidon, Flinders, 
Britomart and Davies reefs; the James Cook University 
of Queensland also carried out research on reefs in this 
Section (GBRMPA, 1983b). There is a small research 
station on Orpheus Island in the Palm Island Group, run 
by James Cook University. 

Economic Value and Social Benefits The small number 
and ephemeral nature of the cays limits opportunities for 
island-based activities, and the relatively large distances 
between reefs and from the mainland, combined with 



many periods of rough seas, can limit access to the reefs. 
However, there is a high diversity of marine life 
supporting recreational activities (particularly in the 
Whitsunday/Lindeman groups), and conunercial 
activities. Over 200 charter boats and 4000 private boats 
are based in centres adjacent to the Section and these 
provide the main access. The main recreational activities 
are diving, snorkelling, photography, reef fishing and light 
tackle game fishing. There are three Historic Shipwrecks, 
the Yongala, the Guthenberg and the Foam. The 
Yongala is a popular dive location. Reef walking is only 
possible occasionally as few reefs are exposed at low 
tide. Several semi-submersible coral viewing vessels are 
located off Townsville and in the Whitsundays. There 
are numerous resorts, many of which cater for diving. 
The major commercial activities are trawling for prawns, 
bugs and scallops, reef fishing, troUing for mackerel and 
the provision of tourist services (GBRMPA, 1983b). 

Disturbance or Deficiencies Coral bleaching has been 
observed on Myrmidon Reef (Fisk and Done, 1985). The 
advent of large, high-speed catamarans is causing 
increasing day visitor pressures on the resources of the 
Section. The use of smaller high-speed charter 
catamarans for fishing activities is also expected to 
increase pressure on the area's fish resources. The 
floating hotel installed and operating at John Brewer 
Reef since January 1988 is probably the first of several 
such developments and its impact on the natural 
resources of the Reef is being closely monitored by the 
Authority. Environmental protection measures of a high 
standard have been incorporated into the design of and 
operational procedures for the Hotel and its 
environmental impact is not expected to be significant, 
although there is considerable concern. 

Legal Protection Proclaimed a Section in 15.10.84; 
protected under the provisions of the Great Barrier Reef 
Marine Park Act, 1975 and the Great Barrier Reef 
Marine Park Regulations. A zoning plan has been 
prepared (GBRMPA, 1987b). The following National 
Parks occur within the area: Magnetic Island, Whitsunday 
Islands, Gloucester Island, Repulse Islands, Orpheus 
Island, Hinchinbrook Island and Channel, Nypa Pahns 
and the Rockinham Bay area off Cardwell (including 
Dunk Island, the Family Islands and Brook Islands). The 
following areas, all in the Rockingham Bay area, are 
Fishery Habitat Reserves; Hinchinbrook Channel, 
Dallachy Creek, Meunga Creek, Murray River, Wreck 
Creek and Hull River. The "Yongala" and "Foam" 
Historic Ship Protected Zones lie within the area. 



Management 

Region. 



See account for Great Barrier Reef 



GREAT BARRIER REEF MARINE PARK, FAR 
NORTHERN SECTION 

Geographical Location Extends from just north of 
Lizard Island to the northern tip of Cape York. 

Area, Depth, Altitude 83 000 sq. km, covering about 
23% of the Great Barrier Reef region. 

Land Tenure (see GBR Region) 



-27- 



Coral Reefs of the World 



Physical Features The Section includes 573 individual 
coral reefs, 168 coral cays and 58 continental islands 
(Anon., 1984). The continental shelf drops sharply east 
of the reef. There are seagrass beds and mangroves along 
the coast. 

Reef Structure and Corals The reefs of the Section 
consist of an outer barrier of ribbon and plug reefs, vast 
areas of large submerged shoals and, on the coast, an 
inner line of reefs. Many of the cays and islands and 
much of the mainland have fringing reefs (GBRMPA, 
1983b). The coral reef system varies from north to south 
and from the coast seawards. Ribbon reefs form a near 
solid wall of barrier reefs along the edge of the 
continental shelf north to Pandora Entrance. The eastern 
side is fully exposed to the open ocean swell and for ten 
months of each year is pounded by heavy surf. TTnis outer 
face plunges into the abyssal depths of the Queensland 
Trench and has some of the most spectacular underwater 
scenery in the Region. The water is very clear and corals 
are found to 50 m depth where they are still diverse and 
some have even been dredged from 100 m. North of 
Pandora Entrance the barrier line of reefs develops a 
pattern that looks like river deltas and are known as 
deltaic reefs. These form such a barrier to tidal water 
movements that standing waves 2 m high may be formed 
(Veron, 1986). 

North of Princess Charlotte Bay there is an immense 
complex of reefs, cays and high islands. These are 
shallower than those further south and the water is 
relatively turbid but as there are few rivers, reefs are 
found right up to the coastline (Veron, 1986). Additional 
information is given in GBRMPA (1983e). 

Noteworthy Fauna and Flora Raine Island is a major 
seabird rookery in the GBR Region. Raine Island and 
Pandora Cay form one of the largest breeding grounds 
for the Green Turtle Chetonia mydas. Islands in the 
north of the area are nesting sites for the Hawksbill 
Turtle Erelmochelys imbricala. The seagrass beds and 
sheltered bays provide breeding grounds for significant 
numbers of Dugong Dugong dugon (GBRMPA, 1983b). 

Scientific Importance and Research Contains some of 
the most important turtle and seabird nesting sites in the 
West Pacific and is the least disturbed part of the Great 
Barrier Reef. Probably the only area where the 
opportunity exists to protect a near-pristine complete 
cross section of the Reef, from outer Barrier to inshore 
reefs (Anon., 1984). However, little research has been 
carried out (GBRMPA, 1983b), although the natural 
history of Raine Island is described by Stoddart el al., 
(1981). 

Economic Value and Social Benefits The least used part 
of the Barrier Reef; some commercial fishing, shipping, 
recreational and traditional fishing, collecting, cruising, 
yachting, diving and research (Anon., 1984; GBRMPA, 
1983e). The area lies on an important commercial 
shipping route and contains the historic wreck Pandora. 
There is a long history of aboriginal use of the area; tribal 
ownership has been established over particular areas of 
coastline and reef (GBRMPA, 1983b). Additional 
information is given in GBRMPA (1983e). 

Disturbance or Deficiencies Generally slight although 
the activities mentioned above could have some adverse 
impacts, particulars bottom trawling. 



Legal Protection Proclaimed a Section of the GBR 
Marine Park 31.8.82 and protected under the provisions 
of the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Act, 1975, the 
Great Barrier Reef Marine Park Regulations and the Far 
Northern Section Zoning Plan (GBRMPA, 1983b) which 
came into effect in February 1986. Raine Island is a 
reserve under the Trusteeship of the Director of the 
Queensland Department of Community Services. Cape 
Melville is a National Park on the adjacent mainland and 
the Pandora Historic Shipwreck Protected Zone (under 
the Federal Historic Shipwrecks Act 1975) lies within the 
area. There are three Fishery Habitat Reserves in the 
area: Princess Charlotte Bay, Silver Plains, Temple Bay 
and Escape River (Ivanovici, 1984), 



Management 

Region. 



See account for Great Barrier Reef 



GREAT BARRIER REEF MARINE PARK, 
MACKAY-CAPRICORN SECTION 

Geographical Location The Mackay-Capricom Section 
lies off the central Queensland coast and extends from 
just south of the Lindeman Island Group to the southern 
boundary of the Great Barrier Reef Region and from the 
coastline for a large part of its length up to 280 km 
offshore; it is adjacent to the coastal centres of Mackay, 
Yeppoon and Gladstone. This is a new section 
combining most of the former Southern and Inshore 
Southern Sections proclaimed in 1983, except for the part 
now included in the Central Section. 

The Capricornia Section, which formerly covered the 
reefs and waters around the Capricorn and Bunker group 
of islands, is now part of the Mackay-Capricom Section. 

Area, Depth, Altitude The Mackay-Capricom Section 
covers 149 000 sq. km, comprising about 41% of the 
Great Barrier Reef Region. The area formerly known as 
the Capricornia Section covers approximately 
11 800 sq. km and covers just over 3% of the GBR 
Region. 

Land Tenure see GBR Region. 

Physical Features Outside the area formerly covered by 
the Capricornia Section, the Mackay-Capricorn Section 
includes 1059 individual coral reefs, shoals and banks, 
including fringing reefs; there are 58 coral cays and 405 
islands of continental origin, as well as Blue Holes. Swain 
Reefs and Pompey Reefs are dense areas of patch reefs 
separated by deep narrow channels. Cays at Swain Reefs 
are described by Flood and Heatwole (1986). 

The area formerly known as the Capricornia Section is a 
subtropical group of reefs including 14 cays (the 
Capricorn (northern) and Bunker (southern) Groups) 
lying on the Tropic of Capricorn. They include 21 major 
reefs each with a sharply defined margin and generally 
rounded shape. Most have shallow lagoons and many 
have cays, some with dense vegetation (Veron, 1986). 
One Tree Island, 100 km east of Rockhampton, lies 
approximately 18 km from the edge of the continental 
shelf. It is a lagoonal platform reef with a shallow 
complex lagoon system. The rwo larger lagoons cover an 



-28- 



Australia, Eastern 



area of 12 sq. km and are separated at low tide by a 
narrow neck of reef and sand. Broad sub-tidal sand 
sheets behind the eastern and southern reef flats grade 
into the lagoon which has a low tide depth ranging from 
2.5 m (south) to 4 m (east) to 5-10 m (north-west). The 
island lies on the south-east comer of the sand sheets and 
measures 4.7 km x 2.7 km (Frith, 1981; Kinsey 1972; 
Marshall and Davies, 1982). Heron Island, a coral cay, 
Ues 73 km off the mainland on the Tropic of Capricorn. 
Fairfax Island is a coral cay consisting of two small 
islands on an egg-shaped reef. Hoskyn Island is a double 
cay. Lady Musgrove Island is a cay surrounded by an 
extensive coral reef. Lady Elliot Island, the only other 
cay in the former Capricornia Section hes somewhat 
further south and is not considered to belong to either the 
Bunker or Capricorn Groups. It is described in Hall 
(1984). 

Reef Structure and Corals The former Capricornia 
Section has 12 shoals, two drying wall reefs, six drying 
closed ring reefs, 13 drying platform reefs and one 
platform reef. The reefs are separated by deep water 
allowing good circulation and usually luxuriant growth; 
72% of all Great Barrier Reef coral species occur here 
(Veron, 1986). The reef at Heron Island extends 5 miles 
(8 km) to the south, giving a reef flat largely exposed at 
low tide. One Tree Island has a well developed, 
unbroken reef crest formed by a narrow coral-algal rim 
on the north-west and southern sides, and by a higher, 
broader series of ephemeral shingle banks along the 
eastern side. The reef crest is of compacted coral rock 
with small pools and scattered dead coral boulders and is 
exposed at low tide (McMichael, 1974). Llewellyn Reef 
is a good example of a raised lagoonal platform (Kelleher 
and Kenchington, 1984). 

Swain Reefs is a vast expanse of reef patches of varying 
shapes and sizes, some with small cays. The eastern and 
southern reefs are small and have a rugged, wave-washed 
appearance as they are exposed to big ocean swells. The 
western reefs are larger, less exposed and many have 
lagoons with extensive coral growth. The Pompey 
Complex includes reefs, channels, sandbars and lagoons. 
It is surrounded by deep water and broken by deep 
channels with very strong tidal currents; the reefs make a 
major barrier to tidal movement resulting in short-lived 
cascading torrents during tidal changes (Veron, 1986). 

Noteworthy Fauna and Flora In the former Capricornia 
Section 859 species of fish have been recorded (Russell, 
1983; Talbot et a/., n.d.). The richness of the fauna of 
Heron Island is well known, particularly the diversity and 
lameness of the fish at the bommie. Clams and 
holothurians abound at One Tree Island (McMichael, 
1974) and the species richness of the coral reef fishes is 
high and similar to that seen at Lizard Island (Talbot and 
Gilbert, 1981). 

The Capricorn/Bunker Group includes a third of the 
islands in the Great Barrier Reef Region known to be 
important to nesting turtles. Among these, Wreck Island 
is one of the three largest nesting sites in the world for 
the Loggerhead Turtle Caretta caretta (Bustard, 1974), 
over 1000 female Loggerheads congregating there in 
some seasons (Limpus, 1981). Wreck Island is also an 
important nesting site for the Green Turtle Chelonia 
mydas as is Hoskyn Island. Elsewhere in the 
Mackay-Capricom Section, Avoid and Wild Duck Islands 



are the second and third largest nesting sites in the GBR 
Region for the Flatback Turtle Chelonia depressa. 

Over 30% of the important seabird nesting sites of the 
whole GBR Region are situated on the Capricornia 
Islands (GBRMPA, 1983b). Masthead, One Tree, North 
West and Wilson Islands are the most important; other 
major sites are Lady Musgrave, Fairfax, Hoskyn, Tryon 
and Heron (Lavery and Grimes, 1971). The principal 
breeding ground of the Brown Booby Sula leucogaster is 
on Fairfax Island; other birds on this island include the 
Wedge-tail Shearwater Puffinus pacificus, estimated at 
16 600, and Eastern Reef Herons (Reef Herons) Reef 
Herons Egretta sacra, Roseate Terns Sterna dougallii, 
Black-naped Terns Sterna sumatrana. Crested 
Terns Sterna bergii, Little Terns Sterna albifrons. Lesser 
Crested Terns Sterna bengalensis and 17 000 
White-capped Noddy Terns Anous minutus (Shipway, 
1969). Hoskyn Island supports the Brown Booby, 
Wedge-tail, Bridled Tern Sterna anaethetus, and 
White-capped Noddy Tern. Many other birds occur 
including sea eagles and Ospreys Pandion haliaeetus. 
Over 50 species have been found on Heron Island, 30 
occurring regularly (Kikkawa 1976; GBRMPA, 1983b). 

Scientific Importance and Research The Capricorn and 
Bunker Groups are important as the most southerly 
groups of coralline islands in the Indo-Pacific except for 
Lord Howe Island. The high diversity of coral reef biota 
and easy accessibility of the reefs make them an 
important scientific resource. Llewellyn Reef is a fine 
example of a raised lagoonal platform characteristic of 
the Capricorn/Bunker Group of Reefs, and is therefore 
of importance as a reference site (Kelleher and 
Kenchington, 1984). The vegetation of the coral cays is 
of intrinsic interest and there have been long-term studies 
on the dynamics of the flora. The bird life has been 
extensively researched (Kikkawa (1976). Swain Reefs are 
the least studied of the GBR Region on account of their 
remoteness (Veron, 1986). 

In 1951 the Great Barrier Reef Committee initiated the 
Heron Island Research Station, now operated by the 
University of Queensland. A large number of scientists, 
both national and international, visit the station (over 
4000 in 1979) and there are facihties to provide for up to 
50 scientists. TTie Australian Museum established a 
Research Station on One Tree Island in 1966, and it has 
been operated since 1975 by Sydney University. These 
two stations provide one of the world's significant sources 
of base-line data on coral reefs. Research is initiated by 
the GBRMPA for management purposes. For example 
surveys have been carried out on the coral 
trout Plectra ponms leopardus, a popular angling species, 
to estimate relative population size and density (Craik, 
1981b). 

Economic Value and Social Benefits Historically the 
reefs and islands of the area have been subject to 
commercial exploitation, including guano mining and 
turtle harvesting. The Capricorn and Bunker Groups are 
heavily used for recreation. Large numbers of people 
from the neighbouring coastal towns visit the islands by 
boat either to camp or on day trips. There is a resort on 
Heron Island catering for about 180 guests (Kelleher and 
Kenchington, 1984). Lady Elliott Island supports another 
tourist resort (Hall, 1984) and camping and reef 
associated activities have become increasingly popular on 



-29- 



Coral Reefs of the World 



several other islands in the area (GBRMPA, 1983b). 
Line fishing involving the chartering of boats is a popular 
activity. A total estimate of 390 000 kg of reef fish are 
caught by recreational fishermen; there is a commercial 
catch of 130 000 kg (Hundloe et al., 1981). Popular fish 
include coral trout Plectropomus spp.. Red 
Emperor Luljanus sebae. Sweet Lip Leihrinus 
chrysostomus and cod Epinephelus spp. (Craik, 1981a). 

Disturbance or Deficiencies The area is under increased 
use owing to its accessibility from growing coastal towns 
and the high population density of the southern 
Queensland coast. Heavy use by people camping and 
fishing has resulted in reef damage from anchors and 
walking, rubbish, coral and shell collecting and a 
reduction in fish populations including a decrease in 
individual size and age. This is particularly noticeable on 
Masthead, North West and Lady Musgrave Islands. 

Human impact is particularly high on Heron Island 
because of the resort, and this extends to nearby reefs 
such as Wistari. A drop in live coral cover from 41% to 
8% due to reef walking has been estimated in some areas 
(Woodland and Hooper, 1977). Intense research activity 
on Heron Island (850 man-weeks in 1976) and One Tree 
Island may also disturb the reefs. Heron Island is being 
eroded with a consistent westward movement of 
sediment within the beach zone. Dredging and blasting 
of the reef to provide boat access has amplified the 
erosion, and the walls constructed are insufficient (Flood, 
1979). 

Many animals have been introduced (chickens, rats, dogs, 
etc.) which have had a significant impact on the turtle 
population, and trees have been cut down. 

Legal Protection The Capricomia Seaion was declared 
part of the GBR Marine Park in 17.10.79 and is protected 
under the provisions of the Great Barrier Reef Marine 
Park Aa 1975, the Capricomia Section Zoning Plan 
(GBRMPA, 1980a and b, 1981a) and the Great Barrier 
Reef Marine Park Regulations. It has been fully zoned 
and managed since July 1981. TTie Mackay-Capricom 
Section was proclaimed on 15.10.84 and regulations came 
into operation on 7.11.83; a zoning plan has recently been 
prepared (GBRMPA, 1988). 

Heron Island Reef and Wistari Reef were reserved in 
1965 as a Marine Park under Queensland Fisheries 
legislation (Gare, 1976; Ivanovici, 1984) and fishing 
restrictions were imposed in 1974 (Craik, 1981b). The 
islands of Fairfax, Hoskyn, Heron and Lady Musgrave 
are Queensland owned and were established as National 
Parks in 1937. Other National Parks within the Section or 
adjacent to the reefs in the area include Keppel Bay 
Islands (20 km off the Yeppoon coast), Tryon, 
North-west and Masthead Islands within the Capricorn 
Group, Sir James Smith Islands and adjacent Brampton 
Island, the Newry Group, Bushy Island, Prudhoe Island, 
and the nearby Beverley Group and Guardfish Cluster, 
the Percy Group and Wild Duck Island. 

There are Fish Habitat Reserves at Repulse Bay, Corio 
Bay, Bustard, Gott Colosseum, Innes, Rodd's harbour, 
Eurimbula and Round Hill (the last seven of these in the 
Gladstone region north of Bustard Head), and Fish 
Sanctuaries at Hook Island (off Whitsunday Islands), 
Middle Island (off Yeppoon) and Eurimbula (Ivanovici, 
1984). 



Management See Great Barrier Reef Region Account 



LIHOU REEF NATIONAL NATURE RESERVE 

Geographical Location Coral Sea Islands Territory; off 
the northern coast of Queensland in the central region of 
the Coral Sea (within 16°-18°S, 151°-153°), 560 km 
east-north-east of TownsvUle, 350 km east of the Great 
Barrier Reef. 

Area, Depth, Altitude 8436 sq. km. 

Land Tenure Commonwealth of Australia. 

Physical Features Sandy cays, vegetated islets and reefs. 

Reef Structure and Corals There is a horseshoe-shaped 
reef system with spectacular topography. Corals are 
described in Veron and Wallace (1983). 

Noteworthy Fauna and Flora Several of the cays 
provide important nesting sites for turtles and seabirds, 
including Red-footed Boobies and Greater Frigatebirds. 
Anne and Nellie Cays are major seabird nesting sites, and 
Georgina Cay has a breeding colony of the threatened 
Little Tern (Anon., 1986). Southern Right and 
Humpback Whales may occur. 

Scientific Importance and Research AustraUan 

National Parks and WUdlife Service (ANPWS) have 
conducted five biological surveys in the Coral Sea Islands 
Territory covering the Lihou Reef Reserve. These have 
obtained information on breeding and nesting of seabirds, 
and on the cetacean populations. In August 1984, six cays 
were surveyed by the ANPWS, and in October 1984 a 
major resource survey was carried out in collaboration 
with the Australian Survey Office (Anon., 1986). 

Disturbance or Deficiencies Foreign fishing vessels take 
fish and clams in the area. Pollution from shipwrecks is a 
threat. 

Legal Protection The area was declared a reserve 3.8.82 
under the National Parks and Wildlife Conservation Act 
1975 by the Governor-General of the Commonwealth of 
Australia. The legislation provides complete protection 
for all marine wildlife. 



Management ANPWS manage 

Management plans are being prepared. 



the 



LORD HOWE ISLAND PERMANENT PARK 
PRESERVE 

Geographical Location South Pacific Ocean, 700 km 
north-east of Sydney, New South Wales; 31°30'-31°50'S, 
159°00'-159°17'E. The Group includes Balls Pyramid, the 
Admiralty Islands and adjacent islets to the south of Lord 
Howe Island. 



-30- 



Australia, Eastern 



Area, Depth, Altitude The islands cover about 15 sq. km 
of which Lord Howe Island represents 14 sq. km (Anon., 
1981). The lagoon at Lord Howe Island is about 5x2 km 
wide at its broadest point and is very shallow, 1-2 m at 
low tide (Allen and Paxton, 1974; PoUard, 1977; 
Sutherland and Ritchie, 1974). Outside the lagoon the 
reef drops to 15-20 m and then gradually slopes to deeper 
water. The 200 m Une is approximately 7-12 km off shore 
(Allen and Paxton, 1974). 

Land Tenure State of New South Wales, private 
ownership by leasehold subject to a number of conditions 
(Anon., 1981; RandaU, 1977). 

Physical Features The islands are the eroded rentnants 
of a volcano situated on the western ridge of the Lord 
Howe Rise, emerging from depths of 2000 m. The 
Admiralty Islands comprise seven islets north-east of 
Lord Howe. Ball's Pyramid is a monolithic spire 
approximately 20 km south-west of Lord Howe and rises 
to 550 m (Allen and Paxton, 1974). Lord Howe Island 
has two mountains, Mount Gower (875 m) and Mount 
Lidgbird (777 m) in the south (Anon., 1981). The 
western concave shore borders a shallow lagoon which is 
protected from the open sea by a barrier reef which has 
two gaps: Erscott's Passage (3-5 m deep) in the south and 
North Pass (4-6 m deep) (Allen and Paxton, 1974). 
Water clarity is good at the reef crest, which is exposed at 
low tide, but poorer in the lagoon which has 
correspondingly depauperate coral growth (Pollard, 1977; 
Anon., 1981). The outside face of the reef experiences 
strong tidal currents (PoUard, 1977; Randall, 1977). 
Away from the lagoon the shoreline is steep with rocky 
cliffs extending to the water's edge and down to depths of 
20 m or more. Caves, ledges, fissures and archways are 
common features. Surface water temperatures range 
from 17°C in winter to 25°C in summer. Shallow lagoon 
waters are usually warmer (AUen and Paxton, 1974). 

Reef Structure and Corals In former geological time, 
the reef was more extensive (Veron, 1986). The 
alga Utholhamnion and the coral Acropora cuneata are 
the main reef building organisms (Anon., 1981; Veron 
and Done, 1979). The range of habitats at Lord Howe 
Island is illustrated by species such as Pocillopora 
damicornis, Stylophora pislillala, and Acropora spp. 
which exhibit shallow water reef crest forms and deep 
water reef face forms. A total of 57 coral species in 33 
genera have been recorded, two of which are undescribed 
and not known from the Great Barrier Reef. On the 
whole, species and growth forms are similar to those 
found further north, e.g. the common Goniasirea 
australis, Favia speciosa, F. abdila, F. halicora, 
and Plesiastrea cf. versipora form spherical colonies of 
various sizes as seen on the Great Barrier Reef (Veron, 
1974). However growth forms and species composition 
can differ from their tropical counterparts, and there is a 
range of tropical and temperate species (Anon., 1981). 
For example, Scolyinia australis, a non-tropical species 
occuring on the southern coast of Australia, has its 
northern limit at Lord Howe Island where it is 
indistinguishable from small specimens of S. viliensis, a 
tropical species (Veron, 1981; Veron and Pichon, 
1976). Acanthaslrea sp. and Serialopora hyslrix are 
normally restricted to tropical waters. Coral growth on 
the outer reef face extends to 20 m with low lying forms 
(Pollard, 1977). A list of stony corals occuring at Lord 
Howe Island is given in Veron (1974) and Veron and 
Done (1979). 



Noteworthy Fauna and Flora There is a rich diversity of 
fish and invertebrates, particularly echinoderms (Pollard, 
1977). There are a number of zoogeographical 
components to the fish fauna: tropical, oceanic and 
southern temperate (Anon., 1981). Tropical species 
dominate, the four common groups being the Labridae, 
Pomacentridae, Gobiidae and Chaetodontidae which also 
dominate on the Great Barrier Reef (Allen and Paxton, 
1974), but the richness is lower here possibly due lO the 
more variable temperature and more temperate fades of 
the reef slopes (Talbot and Gilbert, 1981). Fishes are 
listed in Allen et al. (1976); 447 species in 107 families 
have been recorded, 4% of which have only been found 
in Norfolk Island and Middleton Reef waters (Anon., 
1981). Chaetodon tricinctus is known only from Lord 
Howe Island. Others are wide-ranging Indo-Pacific 
species. Large shoals of mullet, Myxus elongatus and 
Silver Drummer Kyphosus fuscus, which can be hand 
fed, occur at Ned's Beach (RandaU, 1977). The 
commonest shark is Carcharhinus galapagensis; Grey 
Whaler Sharks occur outside the reef. At North Islet in 
the Admiralty Group there is a high diversity of fish 
(AUen and Paxton, 1974). The most diverse fauna is 
found localized in "holes" just inside the reef crest, e.g. 
Erscott's Hole in the south, Blunt's Hole and Sylph's 
Hole in the north and Comet's Hole in the centre of the 
lagoon. Further information is given in Pollard and 
Burchmore(1985). 

At least two species of turtle occur (PoUard, 1977). There 
are significant populations of seabirds, particularly on the 
Admiralty Islets (RandaU, 1977). 12 species nest on the 
island group and a further 18 species visit the area. There 
is an estimate of 100 000 pairs of Sooty Terns, Sterna 
fuscala (one of its most southerly breeding sites). The 
area is the only known breeding locaUty for the 
Providence Petrel Pterodroina solandri with an estimate 
of 96 000 breeding pairs in 1975. There are significant 
numbers of breeding Flesh-footed Shearwaters, Puffinus 
carneipes and Wedge-taUed Shearwaters P. pacificus; an 
estimate of 4000 Little Shearwaters P. assimilis on Roach 
Island; and other breeding seabirds are Black-winged 
Petrel Pterodroina nigripennis, White-bellied Storm 
Petrel Fregatta grallaria. Masked Booby Sula daclylatra 
(most southerly breeding site), tropicbird Phaethon 
rubricauda, noddy Anous stolidus (one of most southerly 
breeding sites), Grey Temlet Procelsterna albivittata, 
White Tern Gygis alba (Anon., 1981). 

Scientific Importance and Research The Lord Howe 
Islands are considered to be an outstanding example of 
an island system developed from submarine volcanic 
activity. The reef is unique in that it is a transition 
between an algal and coral reef caused by osciUations of 
hot and cold water around the island, and is one of the 
southernmost reefs in the world. A number of 
zoogeographic components are represented by the fauna 
and the Group is central to a region of significant 
endemism among fish and other organisms (Anon., 1981; 
Randall, 1977). A more recent assessment of this area 
can be found in PoUard and Burchmore (1985). 

Economic Value and Social Benefits Tourism is 

important and about 4000 visitors are flown in each year 
(Anon., 1981; Randall, 1977). A commercial dive 
operation has recently been established on the island. 
Recreational line fishing is popular, and the catch is used 
for the visitors (Pollard, 1977). The Saddled Rock 



-31- 



Coral Reefs of the World 



Cod Ephinephelus daemeli, bluefish, double-header, 
trevally, large numbers of kingfish, salmon, garfish and 
sandmullet are caught in the lagoon and on the reef. 
Wahoo, Spanish mackerel, tuna and marlin are caught 
beyond the reef, and prawns, crab and lobster are also 
taken (PoUard, 1977). 

Disturbance or Deficiencies Periodic sub-antarctic 
currents denude the coral reefs, but tropical currents 
provide recolonizing larvae (Anon., 1981). Human 
impact is neglible due to local measures preventing 
overfishing and the absence of any commercial fishing 
industry (Anon., 1981). There is possibly some pollution 
from sewage effluent and a rubbish dump at the south 
end of Lord Howe Island Lagoon (Pollard, 1977). Coral 
die-off has been observed on some parts of the reef 
which may be due to seepage of polluted groundwater 
(Pollard, pers. comm. 1988). 

Legal Protection The land areas are protected by the 
Lord Howe Island Permanent Park Preserve established 
in 1981. In 1961, local concern led to a ban on 
spearfishing, netting and dynamiting in the lagoon, and 
complete protection for Lionfish Plerois volitans and a 
large wrasse, Coris aygula. Since the early sixties the 
islanders have actively enforced restrictions on fishing 
and collecting and established an unofficial marine 
preserve at Ned's Beach (Anon., 1981). In 1967 a marine 
reserve was established for the main section of the reef 
(Randall, 1977). The Lord Howe Island Group was 
declared a World Heritage Site in 1982. 

Management The Lord Howe Island Act 1953 

established a Board to oversee the management of the 
islands resources (Lord Howe Island Board, Lands 
Department Building, 23 Bridge Street, Sydney 2000). 
The Board includes an officer of the National Parks and 
Wildlife Service (P.O. Box N189, Grosvenor Streeet, P.O. 
Sydney 2000). 

Recommendations Legislation should be provided for 
the protective measures taken by the islanders and a 
marine park should be established (Randall, 1977), 
involving multiple use zonalion. A full marine ecological 
survey should be conducted and possibly a small research 
station built on the lagoon shore at Lord Howe Island. 
The ecological implications of constructional work on 
jettys and slipways and the establishment of moorings 
must be carefully considered (Pollard, 1977). Some of 
these recommendations have been carried out in the 
course of a marine environmental study, following which 
a proposal for an aquatic reserve was drawn up (Pollard 
and Burchmore, 1985). 



SOLITARY ISLANDS PROPOSED MARINE RESERVE 

Geographical Location 2-11 km North-north-east of 
Coffs Harbour off the northern coast of New South 
Wales, between 29''55'S and 30°14'S. A group of six 
islands: Split Solitary, South Solitary (or Lighthouse), 
South-west Solitary (or Groper), North-west Sohtary and 
North Sohtary Islands, and North Rock. The most 
northern island. North Sohtary hes approximately 11 km 
off shore (Anon., 1977). 



Area, Depth, Altitude The islands stretch for a distance 
of approximately 46 km. The two highest islands, North 
and South Solitary are over 40 m high (Anon., 1977). 

Physical Features The Reserve comprises the five rocky 
islands together with a number of smaller exposed rocks 
and reefs (Anon., 1977). North-west Solitary, South-west 
Solitary and Split Solitary are located near the 20 m 
depth contour between 2 and 5.2 km offshore and are 
approximately similar in size and appearance, each having 
steep rugged walls and a protected rocky seafloor on their 
northern and western sides. North and South Solitary are 
7 and 11 km offshore respectively and are situated near 
the 40 m depth contour. They are much larger than the 
inshore islands, have a more irregular, complex shape and 
are exposed to rougher although markedly less turbid 
seas (Veron et at., 1974). 

Reef Structure and Corals Corals are the dominant 
sedentary fauna and occur over wide areas and depth 
ranges and are frequently intermixed with sponges, 
ascidians, soft corals and algae (Veron el al., 1974): 17-18 
genera including 34 species of hermatypic corals have 
been recorded. At least 11 of the genera are at their 
southernmost limit. In some localities there is 100% coral 
cover, in other areas an assemblage of corals, sponges, 
algae and ascidians occurs (Veron el al., 1974). Acropora 
and Turbinaria are dominant (Veron, 1986). Corals 
cover the rocky seafloor in partly sheltered embayments. 
Subjective observation suggests that the coral formations 
around North-west and Split Sohtary Islands are 
essentially similar to those around South-west Sohtary 
Island (Veron et al., 1974). There are four sectors, each 
characterized by different coral, ascidian, sponge and 
algal associations. Dominant species form a 100% cover 
in some places. There is little inter-island variation in 
coral distribution apart from North Solitary, which has a 
very different faunal assemblage with large areas 
dominated by giant sea anemones. Nine of the species of 
coral found around this island are not found at the 
others. The lush growth forms and large coral size of 
several other coral species indicate that environmental 
conditions are generally more favourable there than at 
the other islands (Veron et al., 1974). 

Noteworthy Fauna and Flora Kelp beds are extensive, 
usually intermixed with corals (Veron, 1986). 
Information is available on fish records. Fourteen species 
of bird have been recorded. North Solitary Island has a 
large colony of muttonbirds and the largest colony of 
crested terns in New South Wales (Anon., 1973). 

Scientific Importance and Research The area 

represents the southern extreme for several of its coral 
species and has the most southerly coral communities in 
Australian waters, although there are no true reefs 
(Veron, 1986). It is of interest that the coral diversity 
here is poor compared with that seen at Lord Howe 
Island which is approximately 135 km south of the 
Solitary Islands (Pollard, 1977) The area has been 
studied for some time by the University of New England 
(Armidale) working from their field research station at 
Arrawarra (Anon., 1977). 

Disturbance or Deficiencies Rabbit grazing may have 
disturbed the vegetation on the islands but North Sohtary 
is unique in being free of exotic plants and animals 
(Anon., 1973). 



-32- 



Australia, Eastern 



Legal Protection North Solitary Island is a Nature 
Reserve (Anon., 1973). 

Recommendations A Marine Park proposal for the 
islands has been drawn up by Pollard (1981). 



TORRES STRAIT REEFS 

Geographical Location Between Papua New Guinea 
and Cape York Peninsula; 142''-144°E, 9°-irS. 

Area, Depth, Altitude Average depth 10-15 m in west to 
30-50 m in east (Nietschmann, 1985). 

Land Tenure Much of the area is Queensland State and 
Australian national territory; 13 outer islands are state 
reserves, jointly administered by the Department of 
Aboriginal and Islander Advancement (DAIA) and 
elected leaders on each island. Part of the area has been 
in dispute because of Papua New Guinean territorial 
claims (Nietschmann, 1985). 

Physical Features The Torres Strait area includes 
volcanic, continental, coral and alluvial islands, with 
fringing, platform and barrier reefs, and lies at the end of 
the Sahul shelf. Mabuiag Island is described in 
Nietschmann (1985). Tides are exceptionally strong, with 
a 3.5 m tidal range at Mabuiag Island. There are two 
dominant seasons: Sagerau tonar, from May to 
September, which is the south-east tradewind season with 
gusty winds, sporadic rain squalls and rough seas; 
and Kukiau muiaru, from December to April, which is 
the north-west monsoon and rainy season (over 1500 mm 
rain at Thursday Island), with frequent strong storms and 
extended periods of calm. In October and November 
there is a period of calm weather, Naigai muiaru, with 
gradually increasing winds from the north and Uttle rain 
(Nietschmann, 1985). 

Reef Structure and Corals The western side of the 
Strait is bordered by huge reefs which are little more than 
mud banks encircled by coral. Coral growth here is poor 
and Umited in depth because the strong westerly currents 
cause turbidity. Eastwards, as the water becomes deeper 
and clearer, reefs and cays are more numerous and 
richer. Some of the most extensive reefs are the Orman 
Reef Cluster, between Mabuiag I. and Burk Is and Kuiku 
Pad, between Mabuiag and Badu Is. The eastern Torres 
Strait has high islands with extensive reef flats; the 
eastern edge is the northern extremity of the barrier line 
and has dissected reefs (Veron, 1986). An early account 
of the reefs around Murray Island is given in Mayor 
(1918). Additional information on the reefs is given in 
Veron (1978a and b), Veron and Hudson (1978) and 
GBRMPA (1983e). 

Noteworthy Fauna and Flora The Torres Strait has 
important populations of Green Turtle Chelonia mydas, 
Dugong Dugong dugon and a diverse fish and marine 
invertebrate faune (Nietschmann, 1976 and 1985). There 
is low density breeding of the Flatback Turtle Chelonia 
depressa in the South-west islands (Limpus, 1981). 
Occasional nesting of Hawksbill Eretmochelys imbricata 
and Ohve Ridley Lepidochelys olivacea is seen on Crab 



Island, off the west coast of the northern tip of the Cape 
York Peninsula; this island is also a major nesting site for 
the flatback turtle (Limpus et al., 1983b). 

Scientific Importance and Research One of the most 
ecologically complex areas of the Sahul Shelf 
(Nietschmann, 1985). 

Economic Value and Social Benefits The reefs are 
vitally important to the islanders and Aborigines for 
subsistence, providing fish, green turtles and dugong in 
particular, and also crayfish, crabs and a variety of 
molluscs. There is a human population of about 5500, 
Uving on 17 islands, Thursday Island being the 
governmental and commercial centre. Commercial 
fishing for trochus, pearl shell and beche-de-mer also 
takes place (the Strait was one of the most important 
pearl shell producing areas at the end of the last century), 
but crayfish is now the main economic activity, and the 
industry is developing fast. Crayfish are taken by 
islanders by free diving and the tails are frozen and sold 
to buyers on Thursday Island. Commercial crayfishing 
boats also use the area (Nietschmann, 1985). Additional 
information is given in GBRMPA (1983e). 

Disturbance or Deficiencies There is considerable 
concern about over-exploitation of many marine 
resources. The pearl shell beds, beche-de-mer, trochus 
and hawksbill resources were over-exploited at the 
beginnning of the century. Currently there is heavy 
pressure on turtles, dugong and crayfish. Subistence 
exploitation has declined as increasing numbers of 
islanders have moved to the mainland, but there is no 
control over the islanders' commercial fishing activities. 
Crews of crayfishing boats often take turtles and dugong 
and Taiwanese trawlers are known to fish illegally in the 
area (Nietschmann, 1985). 

Legal Protection There is a long history of traditional 
marine conservation in the area which is documented by 
Nietschmann (1985). Several of these methods are still 
practised such as rotation of fishing areas, self-imposed 
limitations on quantities taken, and traditional rights to 
reefs, islands and waters. The islanders have rights over 
"sea territories"; for example, that of the islanders on 
Mabuiag covers about 640 sq. km, including 190 sq. km of 
reefs. 

Under the 1978 Torres Strait treaty, the islanders and 
Papua New Guineans bordering the Strait may continue 
their traditional fishing activities, subsistence fishing is 
given precedence over commercial fishing, and there is an 
embargo on seabed mining and oil drilling for ten years. 
A protected zone, in which commercial fishing is 
controlled, covers almost all the islands and reefs of the 
strait. In 1968/69 Queensland state legislation was 
passed limiting exploitation of dugong and green turtles 
to islanders and aborigines for subsistence; subsistence 
hunting by non-indigenous people and all commercial 
exploitation is prohibited. 

There are 74 islands, including 13 inhabited ones, listed as 
reserves under Queensland legislation. The area also 
includes Possession Island National Park and Round 
Island Environmental Park, off Thursday island. 

Management Surveillance is minimal to non-existent, 
although Taiwanese trawlers are expelled from the area if 
caught (Nietschmann, 1985). 



-33- 



BELAU 



INTRODUCTION 

General Description 

Currently part of the Trust Territory of the Pacific 
Islands, the Repubhc of Belau (Palau) is to become an 
independent nation in free association with the U.S.A. 
The archipelago, the westernmost group of the Carolines 
lying between 6°53'N and 8°12'N, and 134°08'E and 
134°44'E, about 741 km east of Mindanao in the 
Philippines, consists of eight large and 18 small, high 
volcanic and low limestone islands and about 350 islets, 
surrounded by a complex of fringing and patch reefs 
(Dahl et al., 1974; Taylor and Fielding, 1978). 

The islands have a wet summer (maximum rain in July) 
and a drier winter (February - April), with temperatures 
in the range 70-90°F (21-32°C). Soils are either volcanic 
or of coralline-limestone and there is httle freshwater on 
the low islands (Johnson, 1972a). General information 
on the area is given in Office of Ministry of Social 
Services (1985) and Maragos (1986). The islands have a 
rich flora with many endemics but are considerably 
disturbed (Douglas, 1969). 



Table of Islands 

Helen Reef (see separate account). 

Tobi 0.25 sq. mi. (0.65 sq. km); one flat islet; no lagoon. 

Merir 0.33 sq. mi. (0.85 sq. km); atoll with one flat islet; 
lagoon; fringing reef; some of best Green Turtle Chelonia 
mydas nesting beaches. 

Pulo Anna (X) 0.33 sq. mi. (0.85 sq. km); small islet; no 
lagoon. 

Sonsorol Is (X) 0.75 sq. mi. (1.9 sq. km); two smaU islets 
(Sonsorol and Fana); no lagoon; fringing reef. 

Ngeaur (Angaur) (X) 3.25 sq. mi, (8.4 sq. km); raised 
Ume-stone, 200 ft (61 m); reefs described below. 

Beliliou (Peleliu) (X) 4.9 sq. mi. (12.7 sq. km); raised 
limestone island 100 ft (30 m); well-wooded; 2 tidal 
creeks with mangroves; barrier and fringing reefs; two 
small islets offshore - Ngedbus (Ngesebus) and Ngebad 
(Ngabad). 

Ngercheu (Ngergoi) (see account for Chelbacheb (Rock 
Islands) proposed National Park). 

Ngerechong (Ngeregong) (see account for Chelbacheb 
(Rock Islands) proposed National Park). 

Ngemlis (see account for Chelbacheb (Rock Islands) 
proposed National Park). 

Chelbacheb (Rock Islands) 

Ulebsechel (Auluplagel) (X) 16 sq. mi. (41 sq. km); 
raised hmestone island; thickly wooded; 



Ngeteklou (Gologugeul) 
Ulebsechel; 



between Oreor and 



Also: Bukrrairong (Kamori), Ngeruktabel 
(Urukthapel), Tlutkaraguis (Adorius), Butottoribo, 
Ongael, Ngebedangel (Ngobasangel), Ulong 
(Aulong), Mecherchar (Eil Malik or Amototi), 
Bablomekang (Abappaomogan), Ngerukeuid 
(Ngerukewid or Orokuizu) (see account for 
Chelbacheb (Rock Islands) proposed National Park). 

Ngerekebesang (Arakabesan) (X) 2 sq. mi. (5.2 sq. km); 
volcanic; reefs described by Randall et al. (1978). 



Ngemelachel (Malakal) (X) 

described by Birkeland et al. (1976). 



marme environment 



Oreor (Koror) (X) 3.6 sq. mi. (9.3 sq. km); volcanic in 
W., raised limestone in E; birds; western barrier reef 
drops off steeply; outer reef flats usually submerged at 
low tide; other parts of barrier reef shallower. 

Babeldaob (Babelthuap) (X) 332 sq. km - largest island; 
volcanic, some Hmestone to S; 400 ft; mangroves in bays; 
fringing reef on east side and on part of west coast, 
barrier reef /small lagoon pattern to south-east. 

Ngcheangel (Kayangel) (X) (see separate account). 

Ngeruangel (NgaruangI) 80 x 35 m; atoll with single 
islet of coral rock; 1 m high; described by Gressitt (1953); 
reef; abundant terns. 



(X) = Inhabited 

Orthography follows Motteler (1986), derived 
1983-84 U.S. Geological Survey topographic maps. 



from 



Belau is considered to have the richest reefs in the Pacific 
with the highest species diversity (Faulkner, 1974; Smith, 
1977); 300 species of coral have been recorded (Johannes, 
1977). The Japanese carried out extensive work on the 
reefs, concentrating in particular on Iwayama Bay on 
Oreor (Koror), where they ran the Palao Tropical 
Research Station from 1935 until World War II (Smith, 
1977; Maragos, 1986). Eguchi (1935 and 1938) provided 
early descriptions of the reefs and corals. In 1968 the IBP 
(International Biological Programme) recommended that 
a Tropical Research Institute be set up in the country. 
The Micronesian Mariculture Demonstration Center was 
established in the early 1970s on Ngemelachel (Malakal) 
and carries out extensive work on trochus and giant 
clams. The Palau Marine Research Institute on Oreor is 
an internationally governed, non-profit corporation 
designed to promote research and service. Smith (1977) 
provides a brief review of other research efforts in the 
islands. 

Dahl et al. (1974) described the reefs of Ngeaur (Angaur) 
at the southern end of Belau beyond the barrier reef. 
TTie island lacks major reef development except on the 



-35- 



Coral Reefs of the World 



BELAU 



"^ 



Babeldaob 



<© 



'Sonsorol 

Pulo Anna 
Merir 



^ Tobi 



Helen Reel 



132° |E 



10 km 



Ngeaur 



Ngeruangel 



Ngcheangel 



Northwest Reef 



Gabaru Reef 



Comoran Reef 



Ngerukeuid 
'Ngerumekaol Channel' 



-7°N 




Ulebsechel ^ 
Ngederrgk Reef ^^T" 

(P ^ 

n Ikedelukes Reef , 



■^Ngerechong/ 
^gercheu ~ ~ 



Ngeaur: 



<J 



134°lE 



Kossof Reef 



BELAU 

r^ Reefs 

■ ••■■ Approximate 200m isobath 

"^ Park or protected area 

"m Proposed park or protected area 

— Proposed park or proteaed area 
boundary 



-36- 



Belau 



south and west sides, and there is a certain amount of 
sedimentation. On the west (leeward) side, towards the 
centre of the reef development, a smooth rocky flat was 
found with small scattered corals extending 700 m off 
shore to a depth of 5 m. This was followed by a gentle 
slope 200 m wide, down to 8 m with larger and more 
abundant corals. A steeper slope, 100 m wide with lush 
Uving coral coverage, extends down to 38 m where it is 
interrupted by a sand flat 30 m wide. A slope with 
patches of coral interspersed with sand continues down 
from 40 m at 1 km off shore. Helen Reef is described 
separately, but its reefs have never been studied in detail. 

The high island cluster of Babeldaob, Oreor and Beliliou 
(Peleliu), is surrounded by a large and spectacular barrier 
reef. This is nearly a mile (1.6 km) wide in places, about 
451 km long and drops off steeply on its outer edge, 
enclosing a lagoon of about 1450 sq. km (Johnson, 
1972a). There are wide passages through the reef on the 
east coast including Ngemelachel Harbor. One small 
atoll (Ngcheangel or Kayangel) is located immediately 
north of the barrier reef. The northern extremity of the 
barrier reef is represented by Kossol, Northwest 
(Ngerael) and Cormoran-Gabaru reefs which are 
surrounded by relatively deep water. A complex 
intermingling of barrier and fringing reef structures runs 
south past Babeldaob to Beliliou and a barrier reef runs 
north from Beliliou past the Ngerukeuid (Ngerukewid) 
Islands and to the west of Babeldaob, from which it is 
separated by a shallow lagoon. Details of fringing reefs 
around the islands are given in the table above (Smith, 
1977). 

Reefs around Ngcheangel (Kayangel) AtoU in the north 
and in the Chelbacheb (Rock Islands) area to the south 
of Oreor (Koror) are described in separate accounts. 
Reefs in the south of Ngemelachel (Malakal) Island were 
described in the course of an environmental study for the 
site of a secondary treatment sewage plant 
(Birkeland et al., 1976). A broad fringing reef extends 
400 m south of the island itself and is divided into four 
distinct zones: a sand-and-rubble intertidal zone, a 
narrow seagrass Enhalus acoroides band, a ramose 
coral Montipora zone, and a Monti pora-Lobophora 
zone. The coral reef community is very diverse. A total 
of 48 genera and 163 species of scleractinian corals were 
observed; it is thought that there may be more species of 
scleractinian corals near the sewer outfall site on 
Ngemelachel Island than could be listed for the entire 
tropical Atlantic to depths of 100 m. Some 66 species of 
fish (including 25 pomacentrids) were observed on the 
transects studied. 

Reefs on the east coast of Ngerekebesang (Arakabesan) 
Island were studied in the course of an environmental 
survey for a resort (Randall ei al., 1978). A lagoon 
fringing reef as wide as 300 m is developed at the north 
and south margins of the embayment. This reef contains 
a moderately diverse coral fauna, 40 genera and 117 
species. More than 125 fish species were observed, and 
the diversity of the macroinvertebrates was high. Several 
species of bivalve gastropods were exceedingly abundant. 

Marine habitats are particularly varied with marine lakes 
(Hamner, 1982), seagrass beds and numerous marine 
caves which have evolved geologically from marine lakes 
(Bozanic, 1985). Smith (1977) provides an overview of 
the major marine and coastal ecosystems in Belau. 
Seventy-seven species of damselfish have been recorded 



(Johannes, 1977). Plankton recorded in Belau are 

discussed in Yamaguchi (1972) and ecology and 

distribution of shallow-water crinoids in Meyer and 
Macurda (1980). 



Reef Resources 

Fishing activities on Ngcheangel and in the area south of 
Oreor are described in separate accounts. Fishing 
methods in use in the 1940s are described in Smith 
(1947). The exposed reefs in Kossol Passage are little 
used, the residents of Babeldaob restricting their fishing 
activities to the fringing reefs. South of Babeldaob 
commercial fishing predominates, using net, trap and 
spearfishing. On the western fringing reefs from Behhou 
to Ngemlis, there is a fishery for several open water and 
reef fish. Mollusc fisheries are also important (Smith, 
1977). Trochus are harvested and are an important 
source of income (Heslinga et al., 1984). The Black-lip 
Pearl Oyster Pinctada margaritifera was extensively 
harvested in the 1930s, with recorded production in 1939 
of ca 2500 tons (2540 t), although this probably includes 
some catches made elsewhere in Micronesia. 
Experiments in pearl culture using the same species were 
also carried out at that time (Smith, 1947). A survey of 
precious coral stocks iias been carried out but it is 
thought that the existing black and gold corals would only 
support a small industry (Grigg, 1975). 

Belau is gaining an increasing revenue from a 
diver-oriented tourist industry, with the Chelbacheb 
(Rock Island) area and some of the passages in the 
leeward barrier reef being popular. The 

NgemUs/Bamam Bay area on the south-western portion 
of the barrier reef has especially luxuriant and spectacular 
coral formations (Smith, 1977). Warner et al. (1979) 
carried out a socionomic-economic-ecological impact 
study of tourism. A large resort has been built on 
Ngerekebesang (Arakabesan). 



Disturbances and Deficiencies 

Acanthaster planci infestations have occurred, 
particularly on Ngeruktabel (Birkeland, 1979; Marsh and 
Bryan, 1972). Outbreaks before World War 11 are 
described in Hayashi (1938). 

Most of the human population is concentrated on the 
three islands immediately to the south of Babeldaob. 
Oreor is a largely residential and corrunercial district with 
hotel and resort facilities. Ngemelachel is largely 
occupied with maritime and fishing industries, and 
Ngerekebesang is the District Administration Center and 
a further residential area. Currently the marine 
environment is relatively healthy (Maragos, 1986). 
However, the area is under considerable threat on 
account of its strategic location which is of interest both 
for military purposes and for the establishment of a 
major Pacific port (Smith, 1977; Caulfield, 1986). In 
1976, the Save Palau Organisation was formed to oppose 
the construction of a major port and oil transhipment 
facility (Port Pacific), and implementation of the 
proposals was delayed (Falanruw, 1980; NRDC, n.d.). 
Subsequently, the proposal was abandoned apparently for 
economic reasons, but new plans have arisen to make 
Belau the main multiple use port for the western Pacific 
(Faulkner, 1983). 



-37- 



Coral Reefs of the World 



In 1968, a project to survey and prospect 1500 sq. mi. 
(3885 sq. km) of land and water in southern Belau with a 
view to large-scale phosphate mining, was proposed, but 
this presumably did not go ahead. A community dock 
harbour was constructed in Behliou but the area was 
subjected to an environmental survey first (Aecos, Inc., 
1979). Studies were also carried out at Ngerekebesang 
and an environmental impact assessment prepared prior 
to the building of the Palau Resort Hotel (Brewer et ai, 
n.d.; Randall et al., 1978). An environmental survey was 
carried out for the Babeldaob-Oreor Airport 
(Environmental Consultants Inc., 1978). It is not known 
whether any of these developments has a deleterious 
impact on the reefs. Domestic pollution and solid waste 
disposal may become more serious threats throughout the 
islands in the future (Maragos, 1986). SPREP (1980) 
reported that in the 1970s dynamite fishing was causing 
serious damage to the reefs, but Maragos (1986) found no 
very clear evidence of this in the 1980s. 



Legislation and Management 

Under traditional custom, each village cluster or 
municipality in Belau exercises the right to limit access to 
adjacent fishing grounds; these rights are slill maintained 
to just beyond the outer reef drop-off and are controlled 
by the chiefs. Fishermen may be allowed to use their 
neighbours' waters for local use, if permission is granted. 
Surplus reefs may also be given to more needy villages. 
Some grounds are shared; for example the Kossol and 
Northwest reefs are traditionally jointly fished by the 
people of Ngcheangel and Ngercherong. Subsidiary 
family and individual rights are no longer recognised 
(Johannes, in press). 

Under Chapter 2 of the Palau (Belau) Code, there are a 
variety of regulations relating to reef resources (Anon., 
1985). Section 201 provides for the establishment of the 
Ngerukeuid Islands Wildlife Preserve, Section 203 for the 
conservation of dugongs. Section 205 for the protection 
of marine life, and Section 208 for the prohibition of 
fishing in Ngerumekaol Channel, in the Ngerukeuid 
Islands, during the grouper spawning season. Under the 
Trust Territory Code Title 45, Chapter 1, there are 
provisions for the control of fishing with explosives, 
poisons and chemicals (Section 1), for limited turtle 
collecting (Section 2), and for controlling the take of 
sponges (Section 3) and Pinctada margarilifera 
(Section 4). Chapter 4 covers control of trochus 
harvesting (Section 51). Under the Republic of Belau 
Public Law, trochus harvesting can be restricted to 
certain areas (RPPL No. 1-30), export of clam meat is 
prohibited (RPPL No. 1-9) and the Palau (Belau) Lagoon 
Monument was established (RPPL No. 5-6-5). Under the 
Koror (Oreor) State Ordinance trochus breeding 
sanctuaries may be established (Ord. No. 150-69 (48-69)) 
and shelling may be prohibited (Ord. No. 49-1969 
(157-69)). 

The trochus management policy includes minimum size 
limits, restricted seasons, sanctuaries and a moratorium 
system in which states or villages voluntarily stop 
collecting shells for one or more years. Moratoriums 
were introduced in Ngcheangel (1979, 1983), 
Ngeremlengui (1980) and Oreor and Beliliou (1983). 
Currently there are two sanctuaries in Koror (Oreor) 
State (see account for Chelbacheb (Rock Islands) 
proposed National Park) (Heslinga et ai, 1984). 



Until the Trust Territory arrangement for Belau is 
terminated, the country will also be subject to several 
U.S. environmental laws and regulation.s, including the 
Clean Water Act and the Endangered Species Act. It is 
intended that counterpart laws and regulations will be in 
effect at the time of termination but this has not 
happened in other areas formerly part of the Trust 
Territory (the Federated States of Micronesia and 
Republic of the Marshall Islands) (Maragos in lilt., 
10.8.87). 

Ngerukeuid Islands Wildlife Preserve is described in the 
account for Chelbacheb (Rock Islands) proposed 
National Park, and includes Ngerumekaol Channel, which 
operates as a preserve during the grouper spawning 
season, and the two trochus sanctuaries mentioned 
above. There are occasionally moratoriums on the take 
of trochus in other parts of Belau (see account for 
Ngcheangel). TTie Micronesian Mariculture 

Demonstration Center plays a major role in the 
International Giant Clam Mariculture Project, and is also 
active in raising trochus. 



Recommendations 

Various proposals have been made for Belau. In 1979 
NRDC (Natural Resources Defense Council) with other 
organizations filed a petition with NOAA (National 
Oceanographic and Atmospheric Administration) 
requesting that a marine sanctuary be designated 
(NRDC, n.d.). One proposal was that the entire Belau 
Archipelago, excluding Malakal Harbour and the waters 
immediately surrounding Oreor should be a marine 
sanctuary (Tsuda, n.d.). A rather smaller area covering 
Chelbacheb (Rock Islands) has been proposed as a 
National Park which would include the Ngerukeuid 
Islands; these have potential for World Heritage 
nomination. Part of this area is a World War II battle 
site and has potential as a National Historical Park 
(Harry m //«., 29.2.88). Helen Reef was proposed as an 
Island for Science by the International Biological 
Programme in the 1960s and is recommended for 
protection on account of its giant clam populations (Dahl, 
1986). Maragos (1986) gives general recommendations 
for the improved management of marine resources in 
Belau and stresses that the major requirement is for a 
coastal zone management programme and a coastal 
resources inventory. In particular, proposals for the 
development of a port in this area need very careful 
consideration. Further recommendations are given in 
Smith (1977). 



References 

* = cited but not consulted 

*Aecos, Inc. (1979). Baseline environmental surveys and 

impact assessment relative to dredging of Peleliu 

community dock harbor and access channel. Prepared for 

Parsons, Honolulu, Hawaii. 

Anon. (1976). Endangered species in Trust Territory and 

Northern Marianas. Territorial Register 1(12): 5. 

Anon. (1985). Country review - Republic of 

Palau. Report of the 3rd South Pacific National Parks 

and Reser\'esConference, Apia 3: 162-174. 

Anon. (1986). Palau's "Seventy Rock Islands" given more 

protection. Environment Newsletter (SPREP) 5: 1-2. 



-38- 



Belau 



*Birkeland, C. (1979). Report on the Acamhaster planci 

(rrusech) survey of Palau, 18-26 May 1979. Univ. Guam 

Mar. Lab. Misc. Repi 25. 30 pp. 

♦Birkeland, C, Tsuda, R.T., Randall, R.H., 

Araesbury, S.S. and Gushing, F. (1976). Limited current 

and underwater biological surveys of a proposed sewer 

outfall site on Malakal Island, Palau. Univ. Guam Mar. 

Lab. Tech. Rept 25. 59 pp. 

Bozanic, J. (1985). Palau 1985 National Science 

Foundation cave diving expedition. National 

Speleological Society News (U.S.) October: 311-315. 

♦Brewer, WA. and Associates, Tsutsui, A. and Caderas, 

P. (n.d.). Environmental assessment for Palau Resort 

Hotel, Ngerakabesang Hamlet, Arakabesan Island, 

Republic of Palau. Prep, for Pacific Islands Development 

Corporation. 

Brownell, R.L. Jr, Anderson, PJC., Owen, R.P. and 

Ralls K. (1981). The status of dugongs at Palau, an 

isolated island group. In: Marsh, H. (Ed.), The Dugong. 

Proceedings of a Seminar/Workshop. James Cook 

University, Townsville. Pp. 19-42. 

Bryan, P.G. and McConnell, D.B. (1976). Status of Giant 

Clam stocks (Tridacnidae) on Helen Reef, Palau, 

Western Caroline Islands, April 1975. Mar. Fish. Rev. 38: 

15-18. 

Caulfield, C. (1986). Peace makes waves in the 

Pacific. New Scientist 10 April 1986: 51. 

Dahl, A.L. (1980). Regional Ecosystems Survey of the 

South Pacific Area. SPC/IUCN Technical Paper 179. 

South Pacific Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia. 

Dahl, A.L. (1986). Review of the Protected Areas System 

in Oceania. lUCN/UNEP. 239 pp. 

Dahl, A.L., Macintyre, I.G. and Antonius, A. (1974). A 

comparative survey of coral reef research sites. 

(CITRE). Atoll Res. Bull. 172: 37-77. 

Douglas, G. (1969). Checklist of Pacific Oceanic 

Islands. Micronesica 5(2): 327-463. 

*Eguchi, M. (1935). On the corals and coral reefs in the 

Palao Islands of the south sea islands. Sci. Rep. Ser. 2 

Geoi, Tohoku Imperial Univ. 16. 

•Eguchi, M. (1938). A systematic study of the 

reef-buUding corals of the Palao Islands. Palao Trap. 

Biol. Stn Stud. 3: 325-390. 

Elliott, H. (1973). Pacific oceanic islands recommended 

for designation as Islands for Science. Proceeding and 

Papers, Regional Symposium on Conservation of Nature 

- Reefs and Lagoons. South Pacific Commission, 

Noumea, New Caledonia. Pp. 287-305. 

•Engbring, J. (1983). Avifauna of the south-west islands 

of Palau. Aloll Res. Bull. 267. 22 pp. 

♦Environmental Consultants Inc. (1978). Environmental 

survey for the proposed Babelthuap-Koror Airport and 

Peleliu Island. Interim Report. Prep, for R.M. Parsons, 

Honolulu, Hawaii. 177 pp. 

Falanruw, M.V.C. (1980). Marine environment impact of 

land-based activities in the Trust Territory of the Pacific 

Islands. In: Marine and Coastal Processes in the Pacific: 

Ecological Aspects of Coastal Zone Management. 

Unesco, ROSTEA, Jakarta. Pp. 19-47. 

Faulkner, D. (1974). This Uving Reef. Quadrangle/New 

York Times Book Co., N.Y. 179 pp. 

Faulkner, D. (1983). Belau from above. Sea Frontiers 

29(1): 33-39. 

Gressitt, J.-L. (1952). Description of Kayangel Atoll, 

Palau Islands. Atoll Res. Bull. 14. 6 pp. 

•Gressitt, J.-L. (1953). Notes on Ngaruangl and 

Kayangel Atolls, Palau Islands. Atoll Res. Bull. 21. 5 pp. 

♦Grigg, R.W. (1975). The commercial potential of 

precious corals in the Western Caroline Islands, 



Micronesia. Univ. Hawaii Seagrant Rept AR-75-03. 15 pp. 
Hamner, W.M. (1982). Strange world of Palau's salt 
lakes. Nat. Geog 161(2): 264-282. 
♦Hayashi, R. (1938). Palao Trop Biol. Stud. 1. 417 pp. 
Heslinga, GA., Orak, O. and Ngiramengior, M. (1984). 
Coral reef sanctuaries for Trochus shells. Mar. Fish. Rev. 
46(4): 73-80. 

Hester, FJ. and Jones, E. (1974). A survey of giant 
clams, Tridacnidae, on Helen Reef, a western Pacific 
atoU. Mar. Fish. Rev. 36: 17-22. 

Hirschberger, W. (1980). Tridacnid clam stocks on Helen 
Reef, Palau, Western CaroUne Islands. Mar. Fish. Rev. 
42(2): 8-15. 

•Johannes, R. (1977). The Natural Resources. Will this 
Mecca bow to the oil merchants? Oceanic Symposium 
(Quoted in NRDC (n.d.)). 

Johannes, R.E. (in press). The role of Marine Resource 
Tenure Systems (TURFs) in sustainable nearshore 
marine resource development and management in 
U.S.-affiUated tropical Pacific islands. In: Smith, B.D. 
(Ed.), Topic Reviews in Insular Resource Development 
and Management in the Pacific U.S.-affiliated 
Islands. Univ. Guam Mar. Lab. Tech. Rept 88. 
Johannes, R. E. (1985). The role of marine resource 
tenure systems (TURFs) in sustainable nearshore marine 
resource development and management in U.S.-affiliated 
tropical Pacific islands. Office of Technology Assessment, 
U.S. Congress. Draft. 

Johnson, S.P. (1972a). Palau: conservation frontier of 
the Pacific. National Parks and Conservation Magazine 
46(4): 12-17. 

Johnson, S.P. (1972b). Palau: Exploring the Limestone 
Islands. National Parks and Conservation Magazine 
46(7): 4-8. 

Johnson, S.P. (1972c). Palau and a Seventy Islands 
, Tropical Park. National Parks and Consen'ation 
Magazine 46(8): 9-13. 

Maragos, J.E. (1986). Coastal resource development and 
management in the U.S. Pacific Islands: 1. 
Island-by-island analysis. Office of Technology 
Assessment, U.S. Congress. Draft. 

•Marsh, J.A. and Bryan, P.G. (1972). Acanthasler planci, 
Crown-of-thoms Starfish. Resurvey of Palau. Univ. Guam 
Mar Lab. Misc. Rept 7. 8 pp. 

•Meyer, D.L. and Macurda, D.B., Jr (1980). Ecology and 
distribution of shallow-water crinoids of Palau and 
Guam. Micronesica 16(1): 59-99. 

Motteler, L.S. (1986). Pacific Island Names. S.P. Bishop 
Mus Misc. Publ. 34. 91 pp. 

NRDC (Natural Resources Defense Council) (n.d.). 
Proposal to implement the World Conservation Strategy 
in the Caroline Islands of Micronesia. 
Pritchard, P.C.H. (1981). Marine turtles of Micronesia. 
In: Bjorndal, K.A. (Ed.), Biology and Consen'ation of 
Sea Turtles. Smithsonian Institution Press, 
Washington D.C. Pp. 263-274. 

Randall, R.H., Birkeland, C, Amesbury, S.S., Lassuy, D. 
and Eads, J.R. (1978). Marine survey of a proposed 
resort site at Arakabesan Island, Palau. Univ. Guam Mar. 
Lab. Tech. Rept 44. 73 pp. 

•Read, K.R.H. (1974a). Kayangel Atoll. Oceans 7(1): 
10-17. 

•Read, K.R.H. (1974b). The Rock Islands of 
Palau. Oceans 7(1). 

Smith, R.O. (1947). Fishery resources of 

Micronesia. Fishery Leaflet 239. Fish and Wildlife 
Service, U.S. Dept of the Interior. 46 pp. 
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-39- 



Coral Reefs of the World 



planning document. Contrib. lUCN Mar. Prog. 3.7.70. 

102 pp. 

Taylor, L.R. and Fielding, A. (1978). A wealth of 

habitat. Oceans 11(1): 30-32. 

Tsuda, R.T. (1976). Occurrence of the genus Sargassum 

(Phaeophyta) on two Pacific atolls. Micronesica 12(2): 

279-282. 

*Tsuda, R.T. (1981). Marine benthic algae of Kayangel 

Atoll, Palau. Aloll Res. Bull. 225: 43-48. 

Tsuda, R.T. (n.d.). Report to lUCN Coral Reef Group. 

Unpub. rept. 9 pp. 

Tsuda, R.T., Fosberg, F.R. and Sachet, M.-H. (1977). 

Distribution of seagrasses in Micronesia. Micronesica 

13(2): 191-198. 

•Warner, D.C., Marsh, JJs.. and Karolle, B.G. (1979). 

The potential for tourism and resort development in 

Palau: A socio-economic-ecological impact study. Univ. 

Guam Mar. Lab. Misc. Rept 25. 82 pp. 

*Yamaguchl, M. (1972). Preliminary report on a 

plankton survey in Palau, December 1971 to January 

1972. Univ. Guam Mar. Lab. Tech. Rept 5. 14 pp. 



CHELBACHEB (ROCK ISLANDS) PROPOSED 
NATIONAL PARK, INCLUDING NGERUKEUID 
ISLANDS (SEVENTY ISLANDS) WILDLIFE 
PRESERVE 

Geographical Location Southern Belau, between Oreor 
and BeUliou, including Ngeruktabel (Urukthapel), 
Tlutkaraguis, Butottoribo, Ongael, Ulong (Aulong), 
Ngebedangel (Ngobasangel), Mecherchar (Eil Malik), 
Bablomekang (Abappaomogan), Ngerukeuid 

(Ngerukewid or Orukuizu), Ngemlis, Ngerechong, 
Ngercheu and associated islands; the Ngerukeuid Islands 
are about 18 mi. (29 km) south-west of Oreor; 
7°10'-7°20'N, 134''15-134°30'E. 

Area, Depth, Altitude Ngerukeuid Reserve covers 2.6 
sq. km; Ngeruktabel covers 7.3 sq. mi. (19 sq. km), max. 
alt. 680 ft (207 m); Mecherchar covers 3.4 sq. mi. (8.8 
sq. km). 

Land Tenure Government. 

Physical Features The Chelbacheb or Rock Islands 
(also called the Limestone Islands), to the south of Oreor, 
are formed from limestone on top of the peaks of 
submerged volcanoes on an arc-shaped ridge system. 
They are generally low with impenetrable forest cover 
(Johnson, 1972b). A popular account is given in Read 
(1974b). Current patterns in this area are complex 
(Dahl £f a/., 1974). The Ngerukeuid Islands are a group 
of relatively remote raised limestone islands, mostly very 
small, with markedly undercut shores covering an area of 
one square mile (2.6 sq. km). The average height is 100 ft 
(30 m) and they are well wooded (Douglas, 1969). The 
NgemUs are 40 km south-west of Oreor and consist of 
parts of the slightly elevated coral platform; they front on 
the outer reef margin on the west, a sheltered charmel on 
the south-east and a lagoon to the north. Ngerechong 
Island is situated on the windward (east) side of the 
barrier reef, about 32 km south of Oreor. 

Brief descriptions of the other islands in the proposed 
National Park are given in Douglas (1969). Mecherchar 



and Ngeruktabel are inhabited raised limestone islands, 
the latter with many offshore islets in the west. 

Reef Structure and Corals A number of sites were 
surveyed in the course of preliminary investigations for 
the proposed CITRE project (Dahl et at., 1974). In the 
Ngemlis, surveys were carried out on reefs on the 
south-east and west. In the south-east there is a shallow 
300 m wide reef flat. Corals are scarce inshore but 
become abundant towards the reef edge at 0.5 m depth, 
with soft corals predominating. Beyond the edge, there is 
a vertical drop-off, much of which is overhanging, to 
260 m. Alcyonarians are dominant down to 30 m, and 
scleractinians and gorgonians are both well represented. 
At around 40 m, the slope begins to project outwards and 
collects calcareous sediment; corals become scarcer and 
appear not to grow beyond 60 m. The west side has a 
broader, 500 m-wide reef flat with stony corals dominant 
at the seaward edge at 0.5 m depth. There is a steep 
drop-off to 12 m with good coral coverage, with big 
buttresses dominated by Porites heads and rubble-filled 
chutes extending down to 20 m. A gentle slope extends 
down to 40 m with Pachyseris dominant, after which the 
slope becomes increasingly sandy and corals dwindle. 
The site has high species diversity and a good drop-off 
but sedimentation limits coral growth at around 50 m 
depth. At both sites the drop-offs are very near the 
surface and sponges are almost completely lacking. 
Ngerechong Island has a poorly developed reef; the outer 
reef slope on the south-east side of the island consists of a 
gentle sandy slope, with scattered coral growth, becoming 
even sandier at depth (Dahl et al., 1974). Mecherchar has 
a fringing reef on the east coast and Ngeruktabel has a 
narrow fringing reef (Douglas, 1969). 

Noteworthy Fauna and Flora The islands are inhabited 
by the Micronesian megapode Megapodius laperouse 
senex which nests on Ngeruktabel and in the Ngerukeuid 
Islands Preserve; the Belau Scops Owl Otus podarginus is 
also present (Johnson, 1972b). Brownell et al. (1981) 
noted that 34 Dugongs Dugong dugon were sighted in 
1978. Reproductive rates are high but poaching rates are 
so great that it is suggested that the Belau Dugongs could 
be exterminated by the end of the century. There is some 
limestone forest of interest in the Ngerukeuid Reserve 
(Dahl, 1980). Pandandus and some endemic palms are 
found on the islets (Johnson, 1972a). Giant Clams occur 
(Johnson, 1972b). Turtles are common (Pritchard, 1981), 
in particular the Hawksbill Eretmochelys imbricata and 
Green Turtle Chelonia mydas. The Saltwater 

Crocodile Crocodylus porosus is found around these 
islands (Johnson, 1972b). 

Scientific Importance and Research The reefs at the 
Ngemlis are spectacular, although there appears to be a 
constant flow of sediment (Dahl et al, 1974). Faulkner 
(1974) provided extensive photographic coverage of the 
reefs. 

Economic Value and Social Benefits The area is 
becoming important for tourism, having some 25 beaches, 
and is also of historical and anthropological interest. 

Disturbance or Deficiencies There was a major 
outbreak of Acanthaster planci on Ngeruktabel in 1977 
(Birkeland, 1979). The inaccessibihty and remoteness of 
most of the islands have ensured that they have remained 
pristine. However they are coming under increasing 
pressure with the expansion of the Belau population and 



-40- 



Belau 



the suitability of the area for recreation and fishing 
(Johnson, 1972b). Many of the islands are important for 
phosphate; in 1968 they were threatened by a proposed 
survey for possible large-scale mining of phosphates. It 
was recommended that the Ngerukeuid Islands Reserve 
be excluded. Fishing with poisons and explosives became 
a serious problem in the 1970s. SoU erosion is beginning 
to lead to siltation in the lagoon which is also being 
affected by sewage pollution. Dredging of the lagoon for 
construction materials could cause further problems 
(Johnson, 1972a). In the late 1970s a spill of coconut oil 
from a reefed tanker caused localised damage off 
Mecherchar (Falanruw, 1983). SheU collecting by tourists 
may deplete mollusc populations (Johnson, 1972a). The 
eggs of the megapode are considered a dehcacy and in 
the past were collected by local people. Turtles are stUl 
caught Ulegally and there is excessive poaching of 
Dugong. The Saltwater Crocodile population was 
heavily exploited in the past (Johnson, 1972b) but lack of 
firearms has curtailed this. 

Legal Protection The Ngerukeuid Islands were 

estabhshed as a Preserve by District Order in 1956 
through the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands 
Conservation Law Section 201 of the Trust Territory 
Code. Fishing, plant collecting and fires are prohibited 
within the Preserve (Douglas, 1969). Hawksbill and 
Green Turtles and the Dugong are protected (Anon., 
1976). The area also includes Ngerumekaol Channel, 
17 km ESE of Oreor and 1.7kmNNE of the Ngerukeuid 
Islands, which was estabhshed under the same legislation 
as the Ngerukeuid Preserve, as a protected spawning 
ground for groupers. It is closed each year from April 1st 
to July 31st (Anon., 1985). In May 1982, Ikedelukes Reef 
(south-east of Ngeruktabel) and Ngederrak Reef 
(between Ngeruktabel and Ulebsechel) were created 
trochus sanctuaries, in place of the seven small trochus 
sanctuaries originally established in Koror (Oreor) State 
(HesUnga era/., 1984). 

Management The Preserve is managed by the 

Conservation Officer of the Bureau of Resources and 
Development in the Ministry of Natural Resources 
(Offices of Ministry of Social Services). In 1980 
enforcement was reported as variable (Dahl, 1980). The 
Ngerukeuid Islands were formerly protected by ancient 
taboos (Douglas, 1969). The trochus sanctuaries are 
patrolled by local Marine Resources Division personnel 
and harvesting is permitted within them for a week 
(Heslinga era/., 1984). 

Recommendations A National Park was proposed at the 
Technical Meeting of IBP/CT, Nov. 1968, to include rock 
islets, coasts and lagoons from south of Oreor to north of 
Belihou and westwards to the barrier reef. Strictly 
controlled fishing regulations are recommended to 
protect the islanders hereditary baitfish rights (Johnson, 
1972b). The Ngerukeuid Islands Wildlife Preserve would 
remain a strict nature reserve within the Park (Johnson, 
1972c). An lUCN project is currently being developed to 
improve management of this area (Anon., 1986). The 
area, in particular the Ngerukeuid Islands, has potential 
for World Heritage Nomination. Dahl (1986) suggests 
protection of additional parts of the marine environment 
such as the Ngemlis. 



HELEN REEF 

Geographical Location 

131°46'E. 



South of Belau; 2°43'N, 



Area, Depth, Altitude Land area 194 ha; reef and lagoon 
area ca 216 sq. km, with reef extending ca 24 km 
north-south, 9 km east-west; max. depth in lagoon over 
60 m. 

Physical Features An atoU with a submerged reef and 
lagoon, and a small low island (Helen Island) at its 
northern end. The reef is about 1200 m wide except in 
the north where there is an extensive sandy area between 
the lagoon and the sea. Outside the lagoon, the reef 
slope drops off steeply. A navigable passage on the 
western side permits access to the lagoon for vessels of 
moderate draft. Winds and currents are variable and 
there is no well-defined windward side. The island is 
sandy and covered with typical atoll vegetation including 
coconut trees (EUiott, 1973; Hester and Jones, 1974; 
Hirschberger, 1980). 

Reef Structure and Corals Coral growth is most 
luxuriant on the west side of the reef (Hester and Jones, 
1974). The reefs are expeaed to be rich. 

Noteworthy Fauna and Flora At one time the reef 
supported large populations of giant clams Tridacnidae 
(Hirschberger, 1980). Helen Reef has some of the 
best Chelonia mydas nesting beaches in the Belau system 
(Pritchard, 1981). The avifauna is described by Engbring 
(1983); large numbers of seabirds nest. 

Scientific Importance and Research Although no visit 
was made, the reef was identified by Dahl e/ a/. (1974) as 
having rich and undisturbed coral growth, but its 
inaccessibility made it unsuitable for the proposed 
CITRE research program. In May 1971, the NOAA 
research vessel, Townsend Cromwell, operated by the 
National Marine Fisheries Service, conducted a survey of 
the Trust Territory's marine resources in the course of 
which a brief stop was made. In 1972, a return visit was 
made to survey clam stocks; resurveys of clams were 
made in 1975 and 1976 by the Palau (Belau) District 
Marine Resources Office (Hirschberger, 1980). 

Economic Value and Social Benefits The island is 
uninhabited although there are some indications of 
possible former occupation (EUiott, 1973). Helen Reef 
receives only occasional visits from U.S. Trust Territory 
outer island support ships and foreign fishing vessels 
(Hirschberger, 1980). 

Disturbance or Deficiencies The clam populations have 
been extensively reduced through exploitation by foreign 
fishing vessels (Bryan and McConneU, 1976; Hester and 
Jones, 1974; Hirschberger, 1980). The reefs are said to be 
relatively untouched (Hester and Jones, 1974). 

Legal Protection None. 

Management None. 

Recommendations Proposed as an "Island for Science" 
by the International Biological Programme in 1968; Dahl 
(1986) recommends protection against poaching. 



-41- 



Coral Reefs of the World 

NGCHEANGEL (KAYANGEL) ATOLL 

Geographical Location Northernmost land area of 
Belau Archipelago (no other atoll within 150 miles 
(241km));20mi. (32km)northof Babeldaob; ca 8°10'N, 
134''42'E. 

Area, Depth, Altitude 2.3 sq. mi. (6 sq. km); atoll has a 
north-south diameter of less than 3.5 mi. (5.6 km), 
east-west diameter of 2 mi. (3.2 km). 

Physical Features The atoll consists of an almost 
complete circle of reef with four islets (Ngajangel, 
Ngariungs, Ngaralpas, Gorak) on the east side, occupying 
a little less than half of the perimeter. The islets decrease 
markedly in size from north to south. The entrance to 
the lagoon is shallow and not very distinct, located on the 
west (leeward) side. It consists of a sand-bottomed break 
in the reef a number of yards wide, 1-2 fathoms 
(1.8-3.6 m) deep at low tide and dotted with coral heads 
of varying size (Dahl et al., 1974; Gressitt, 1952). The 
gaps between the islets are rough and rocky on the 
seaward side and sandy on the lagoon side and at low tide 
it is possible to walk beween the two northern and two 
southern ones. They are described in Gressitt (1952). 
The atoll has a rather wet climate with an estimated 
rainfaU of perhaps 150 in. (3810 mm) (Gressitt, 1952). A 
popular account of the atoll is given in Read (1974a). 

The lagoon has mainly a sand bottom 4-6 m deep. Most 
of the south-eastern part is less than 2 fathoms (3.6 m) 
deep and has large scattered coral heads except in the 
shallower parts. In the central and northern parts, the 
water is deeper and the coral heads less visible. In the 
south-western part the coral heads are large and widely 
separated and the water a few fathoms deep. In the west 
the lagoon becomes shallower towards the inlet and the 
coral heads are closer together (Gressit, 1952). The reef 
forming the atoll is in general not very wide on the west 
side. Depth increases rapidly, particularly near the south 
end. At low tide, the reef is emergent in some areas. On 
the east, south of the islets, there is for the most part a 
fairly flat platform exposed at low tide. The sea bottom 
slopes off at an initial gradient of 10-25°. 

Reef Structure and Corals The patch-reefs and coral 
heads in the lagoon have high species diversity and coral 
cover (Dahl el al., 1974). In some shallow areas east of 
the centre of the lagoon or near the centre of the main 
island, Acropora grows on the bottom (Gressitt, 1952). 
The leeward (west) outer reef is topped by a 50 m wide 
flat of calcareous algae, leading to a reef edge with lush 
coral growth. There is a steep drop-off down to 10 m, 
also with very high coral coverage and species diversity. 
This is followed by a gentle slope to 40 m on 
which Pachyseris is dominant. The slope flattens 



between 40 and 50 m and becomes sandy beyond 50 m. 
Temperature decreases markedly with depth and the 
water becomes increasingly murky, the living reef ending 
at 50-60 m. The east side is very exposed, the outer reef 
starting with a broad algal turf-covered flat which drops 
to a platform about 1000 m wide and 7-10 m deep with 
little coral growth. There is no drop-off (Dahl ct al., 
1974). 

Noteworthy Fauna and Flora The islets are almost 
entirely covered with vegetation, largely coconut palms 
and crops but also some natural vegetation, as at the 
north end of Ngajangel. Details in Gressitt (1952). Sea 
turtles were nesting on Ngaralapas in 1951; Gorak had 
nests of terns and other seabirds. Megapodes nest on the 
islets, particularly on Ngariungs; other birds include 
kingfishers Halcyon chlons teraokai and the Morning 
Bird Colluricincia tenebrosa. Marine benthic algae have 
been described by Tsuda (1981). The alga Sargassum 
crassifolium is known from only two central Pacific 
atolls, Ngcheangel and Ulittri (Tsuda, 1976), and the 
seagrass Thalassodendron cilialum is known in 
Micronesia only from the lagoon at Ngcheangel 
(Tsuda (?/«/., 1977). 

Scientific Importance and Research The atoll was 
visited in the early 1950s (Gressitt, 1952 and 1953) and in 
1971 during preliminary surveys for the proposed CITRE 
project (Dahl el al., 1974). The lagoon is considered to be 
a typical example of Pacific lagoons and has rich coral 
formations (Dahl el al, 1974). 

Economic Value and Social Benefits In 1980 the human 
population was 140 (Dahl ('«//«., 27.10.87). The village is 
situated on Ngajangel, the largest island (Gressitt, 1952). 
Harvesting of trochus is an important activity 
(Heslinga et al., 1984). Fishing on atoll reefs takes place, 
mainly using V-shaped set nets, spearfishing techniques 
and set-traps (Smith, 1977). Edible polychaete worms are 
taken from sand flats around Ngajangel (Read, 1974a). 

Disturbance or Deficiencies A substantial amount of 
coral in the lagoon had been broken by canoes or fishing 
operations when the atoll was visited in 1951 (Gressit, 
1952). Giant clams were formerly common but have 
declined through overfishing (Smith, 1977). The reef pass 
was enlarged with explosives in the 1970s (Dahl in lilt., 
27.10.87). 

Legal Protection There were moratoriums on trochus 
harvesting in 1979 and 1983 (HesHnga el al., 1984). 

Management None. 

Recommendations No information. 



-42- 



CHINA 



INTRODUCTION 

General Description 

The coast of mainland China with its numerous offshore 
islands extends for over 6000 km from about 4rN to 
about 20°N and is bordered by the Huang Hai (Yellow 
Sea), Dong Hai (East China Sea), Taiwan Haixia (Taiwan 
Strait) and Nan Hai (South China Sea). Details of the 
hydrography of the northern part of the Nan Hai are 
given in Watts (1971). In winter, warm water from the 
Kuroshio Current enters the Nan Hai through the Luzon 
Strait and moves southwards; in summer there is a 
reversal and the waters enter through the Selat Gasper 
and Selat Karimata between Borneo and Sumatra in the 
south and leave through the Taiwan Haixia and Luzon 
Strait. The Zhujiang (Xi Jiang) (Pearl River) flows into 
the Nan Hai below Guangzhou (Canton). 

The mainland coast has only patchy coral growth because 
of turbidity, variable salinity and low winter 
temperatures. Coral communities are restricted to 
offshore islands such as Namao, Dagan, Shangchuan and 
Xiachuan, and in Taiya and Taipeng Gulfs (Liang, 
1985d). The ecology of reef corals in Tai-A Bay in 
eastern Guangdong is described by Liang and Zhu (1987). 

Coral communities are principally found around the 
offshore islands and archipelagos in the Nan Hai (Liang, 
1985a, b, c and d). The most important area for reefs is 
probably the Xisha Qundao (Paracel Shoals) (see 
separate account) which lie to the south of Hainan. 
Fringing reefs are also found around Hainan {see separate 
account), and to the south around the atolls of Dongsha 
and Nansha Qundao (see separate accounts), and 
Huangyan. The geomorphology of Huangyan, which is 
an oceanic atoll with raised reefs, rising steeply from the 
sea bottom at 3500 m, is described by Xu and Zhong 
(1980); the atoll is triangular with a reef front slope, a 
reef flat and lagoon which connects with the sea through 
a navigable channel to the south-east corner of the atoll. 
Barrett-Smith (1890) and Brook (1892 and 1893) reported 
corals from Zhenghe Qunjiao Qundao and Zhongsha 
Qundao (Macclesfield Bank) in the Nan Hai. Zhongsha 
Qundao lies 183 km south-east of Xisha Qundao and 
consists of two large atolls: Zhongsha Atoll (53 km in 
diameter) is a drowned atoll, whereas "Yellow Rock" 
AtoU (15 km in diameter) is elevated to 1-1.5 m above sea 
level. Species diversity in Zhongsha Qundao is lower 
than in Xisha Qundao as most of the reefs lie 7 m below 
the surface. However, coral distribution is interesting 
because of the depth at which some species occur 
(e.g. Pavona papryracea and Rtiodarea largrenii at 70 m) 
and the isolation of some reef patches (Liang, 1985d). 

Zou and Chen (1983) list a total of 179 scleractinians in 
45 genera and 14 families in China, but Liang (1985a) lists 
325 species in 62 genera. Forty-five species in 27 genera 
have been described from Huangyan and 45 in 21 genera 
from the mainland coast of Guangdong and Guangxi 
Zhuangzu Zizhiqu. There is a tendency towards a 
decrease in abundance and diversity of pocilloporids 
and Fungia from north to south and a corresponding 
increase in diversity of Turbinaria. Deep water 



ahermatypic corals from the northern shelf of the Nan 
Hai are decribed by Zou et al. (1983). 

Mangroves are described by Yang (1984). Four species 
of marine turtle, the Green Turtle Chelonia mydas. 
Loggerhead Caretta caretta, Hawksbill Eretmochelys 
imbricala and Leatherback Dermochetys coriacea occur in 
Chinese waters (Huang, 1981). 



Reef Resources 

There is httle information on the economic importance of 
reefs in China but traditional uses of marine resources 
are described by Wu (1985b) and the wildlife of the 
islands of the Nan Hai has been exploited for centuries. 
Turtles are apparently heavily exploited, especially in the 
Xisha Qundao (see separate account); originally taken 
mainly for their meat, and, in the case of Eretmochelys 
imbricata, for tortoiseshell, virtually all parts are now 
used (Frazier and Frazier, 1985; Huang, 1981). 



Disturbances and Deficiencies 

Some reefs may suffer natural damage from cyclones (see 
account for Xisha Qundao). Damage due to human 
activities on Hainan and in Xisha Qundao is described in 
separate accounts. Oil pollution does not seem to be a 
problem at present, but the current programme of oil 
exploration on the South China continental shelf could 
result in more frequent spills. Turtle numbers are 
beheved to have declined through over-fishing and 
habitat loss; Frazier and Frazier (1985) noted that the 
incidental turtle catch in Fujian and Guangdong could 
account for a very high percentage of the turtles nesting 
there. Mangroves are threatened by land reclamation for 
agriculture, construction of dikes for shrimp and eel 
culture, and cutting for fuel-wood (Zhu, 1987). 



Legislation and Management 

The Ministry of Agriculture, Animal Husbandry and 
Fishery is responsible for the protection of fishing 
resources and monitoring of pollution of fishing ports. 
The Institute of Marine Environmental Protection of the 
National Bureau of Oceanography carries out research on 
a variety of aspects of marine environmental protection. 
A multi-disciplinary, comprehensive investigation has 
been organized to obtain basic information for use in the 
formulation of the Coastal Zone and Shallow Sea Areas 
Protection and Management Law, as well as for 
conducting scientific management of the coastal zone 
(Wu, 1985b). A coastal management law has reportedly 
been passed and includes provision for mangrove 
preservation and management (Zhu, 1987). 

Traditional and historical methods of regulating the use 
of marine resources are described in Wu (1985b). The 
first Fishery Law was promulgated in 1939 and included 
regulations to control the use of coastal land, to protect 
breeding areas of marine biota and to establish fishing 
grounds. In 1979, regulations were issued for the 



-43- 



Coral Reefs of the World 



„<0 




China 



"Propagation and Protection of Fishery Resources". In 
1982 a "Marine Environmental Protection Law" came 
into force which covers a wide range of issues and is 
administered by the Environmental Protection 
Department under the State Council. 

The Huidong Nature Reserve in Guangdong protects a 
sea turtle nesting beach (Wang in litt., 20.11.86); it is not 
known if there are any corals in the area. Tuntze Nature 
Reserve at 20''N, 110°20'E on the north coast of Hainan 
protects 3737 ha of mangroves {see separate account). 
There is also Chinese legislation stipulating reserves in 
Zhongsha Qundao, Xisha Qundao and Nansha Qundao 
(Wang in litt., 20.11.86 and see separate accounts). It is 
not known to what extent any of these reserves cover 
reefs. 



Recommendations 

Zhu (1987) states that preservation of mangrove areas 
has become a task of top priority in coastal conservation 
in China, in view of the threats facing mangroves and 
their value in increasing coastal productivity, protecting 
the coastline and decreasing sediment deposition in 
navigation channels. There also appears to be 
considerable need to protect and manage reef resources, 
as evidenced by the recent work on Hainan (see separate 
account). 



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Zou, R.-L. (1981). A mathematical model of the 

hermatypic coral community of the Xisha Islands, 

Guangdong Province, China. Proc. 4th Int. Coral Reef 

Symp, Manila 2: 329-331. 

Zou, R.-L. (1984). Studies on corals from Xisha Islands. 

5. The deep-water Acropora with a description of a new 

species. Tropic Oceanology 3(2): 52-55. 

Zou, R.-L. (1975a). Studies on the corals of the Xisha 

Islands, Guangdong Province, China 2. The genus 

Millepora, with the description of a new species. Science 

Press, Academia Sinica. (In Chinese with English 

abstract). 

Zou, R.-L. (1976b). Studies on the corals of the Xisha 

Islands, Guangdong Privince, China 3. An illustrated 

catalogue of scleractinian, hydrocoralUen, Heliporina and 

Tubiporina. Science Press Academia Sinica. (In Chinese 

with English abstract). 

Zou, R. and Chen, Y. (1983). Preliminary study on the 

geographical distribution of shallow-water Scleractinia 

corals from China. Nanhai Studia Marina Sinica 4: 89-95. 

(In Chinese with English abstract). 



Zou, R.-L., Ma, J.H. and Sung, S.W. (1966). A 
preliminary study on the vertical zonation of the coral 
reef of Hainan Island Oceanol. Umnol Sinica 8: 153-161. 
Zou, R., Meng, Z. and Guan, X. (1983). Ecological 
analyses of ahermatypic corals from the northern shelf of 
South China Sea. Tropic Oceanology 2(3): 1-6. (In 
Chinese with English abstract). 

Zou, R.-L., Song, S.W. and Ma, J.H. (1975). The 
Shallow-water Scleractinian Corals of Hainan Island. 
Scientific Pubhsher, Peking. 66 pp. 



DONGSHA QUNDAO (TUNG-SHA REEF, PRATAS) 

Geographical Location 170 mi. (274 km) south-east of 
Hong Kong and 240 mi. (386 km) south-west of 
Kaohsiung City, Taiwan; 20°40'-43'N, 116°42'-44'E. 

Area, Depth, Altitude The Dongsha reefs cover 
ca 100 sq. km; Dongsha Qundao (Tung-Sha Tao) is 
1.7 sq. km; max. alt. 5 m. 

Land Tenure Sovereignty of the area is disputed by 
China and Taiwan. 

Physical Features The Dongsha reefs are a large 
submerged atoU with the smaU island of Dongsha 
Qundao situated on its west. The island is covered with 
sandy coral debris and traces of guano and has a lagoon 
(0.6 sq. km) open on the west side. It is surrounded by a 
shallow terrace which drops to 40 m or more at the outer 
edge (Fang in litt., 14.3.84). 

The climate is subtropical oceanic, heavily influenced by 
the monsoon. Average air temperature ranges from 
20.2°C to 28.7°C, water temperature from 21°C to 30''C. 
A thermocline is found at 30-75 m depth in waters 
outside the atoll. Surface currents flow north-east with a 
velocity of 0.2-0.5 mi./hr (0.3-0.8 km/hr). Currents at 
depths of 300 m turn to the north-west with a speed 
below 0.2 mi./hr (0_3 km/hr). Seasonal winds also 
produce surface currents (Fang in litt., 14.3.84). 

Reef Structure and Corals The reef structure is typical 
of atolls (Yang era/., 1975). Over 70 species of reef coral 
have been recorded (Liang, 1985a and d). In a three day 
trip, 45 coral species in 17 genera were collected: 60% of 
the specimens (125 pieces) were Acropora, 10% 
were Porites (Yang et at., 1975). The coral fauna 
appeared to be similar to that in Kenting National Park 
and Hsiao-hu-chiu in Taiwan (Fang in litt., 14.3.84 and 
see section on Taiwan). 

Noteworthy Fauna and Flora Twenty-five species of fish 
in 17 genera (86 specimens) have been collected. 
Apogonidae, Labridae, and Pomacentridae are dominant 
famiUes. Twenty-six species of mollusc in 23 genera have 
been recorded. Strombus, Monetaria and Tridacna are 
abundant, while Tutufa bubo, Oliva arnata, Terebra 
dimidiata and Area ventricosa are rare (Yang et at., 
1975). The seagrasses Halophila ovalis and Thalassia 
hemprichii flourish. Eleven Chlorophycophyta, seven 
Phaeophycophyta and ten Rhodophyta have also been 
found (Fang in lilt., 1,4.3.84). 



-46- 



China 



Scientific Importance and Research The weather has 
been recorded since 1925 due to the presence of the 
lighthouse. An expedition sponsored by the National 
Science Council, Taiwan, carried out a survey in March 
1975 and studied the hydrology, biology, geology, fishery 
and chemical composition of the reefs (Fang in till., 
14.3.84). 

Economic Value and Social Benefits There is a 
permanent station established by Taiwan on the island 
which is an important site for navigation and 
ocean/weather observations. Diegenea simplex, an alga 
used pharmacologically, is collected in large quantities in 
this area. The adjacent fishing ground (finfish and 
shellfish) is visited by fishermen from southern Taiwan 
and commercial shell and lobster fishing is under way 
(Fang m//K., 30.4.87). 

Disturbance or Deficiencies There is a potential threat 
from overfishing of shell fish and populations of Giant 
Clams Tridacna elongala are reported to be decreasing 
(Fang (■«//«., 14.3.84). 

Legal Protection None. 

Management Reef resources are not managed. 



HAINAN (HUAN CHU-CHIM) 

Geographical Location Nan Hai (South China Sea); 
Hainan Province, separated from the mainland by the 
15 mi. (24 km) wide Hainan Strait; 18°09'-20°20'N, 
108°36'-112°02'E. 

Area, Depth, Altitude 33 556 sq. km; max. alt. over 
1000 m. 

Physical Features The geology of Hainan is described 
by Zhu et al. (1982) and Zhu and Zhong (1984). The 
island is generally high in the south-west and centre, 
lower to the north-east. Average surface water 
temperature in February is 22°C, in August 29°C. Tides 
are irregular and mixed, with tidal range usually not more 
that 3 m(Wum//«., 4.6.87). 

Reef Structure and Corals There have been no major 
studies of reef ecology but there is a fringing reef on the 
south and south-east coasts (Wu and Hutchings, 1986; 
Zou et al., 1966; Zou et al., 1975). Early descriptions of 
the reefs are given in Gurjanova (1959) and 
Naymov et al. (1960). The reefs are believed to be less 
than 10 000 years old and are less than 10 m thick. 
Although well-developed reefs were present along the 
southern coast in the 1950s, a brief survey in 1984 in the 
region of Sanya indicated that little of these remained. 
Brief surveys were made at Simau ehou, Shen Chow, 
Hsiao Tun Hai and Lunya Bay. The last-named of these, 
a sheltered bay north-east of Sanya, had the best 
developed reefs with a high percentage of living coral, 
although extensive areas of dead coral were also present 
(Wu and Hutchings, 1986). There are now only scattered 
coral colonies but a substantial number of genera have 
been found (Wu, 1985a). Liang (1985a and d) lists some 
166 species of scleractinian corals in 43 genera from 



Hainan and associated islands; Zou et al. (1966) list 110 
species and subspecies in 34 genera. Twenty-six species 
have been recorded in the cooler waters off the northern 
part of Hainan. The most diverse areas are at the 
southern tip and include Luhuitou (87 species recorded), 
Ximsozhou (77 species) and Xinchun lagoon (53 species) 
(Liang, 1985 a and d). However Brown (1986) reports 
that only 20 species are now found. 

Noteworthy Fauna and Flora There are 10 species of 
mangrove, covering ca 40 sq. km (Zhu, 1987), and 9 
species of sea grass. Marine algae, numbering ca 500 
species, are described by Yang (1978). Around 700 
species of molluscs have been recorded, 
including Trochus niloticus, Pinctada maxima 
and P. martensis (Qi et al., 1984) and Tridacna spp. (Wu 
and Hutchings, 1986). Over 1000 species of fish, 100 
species of echinoderms and 120 species of polychaetes are 
known to occur (Klebovitsch and Wu, 1963; Wu in lilt., 
4.6.87). 

Scientific Importance and Research Research has been 
carried out for many years on Hainan by the South China 
Sea Institute of Oceanography which has a marine 
research station at Sanya in the south (Zhu in litt., 
3.11.87). The reefs were surveyed in the 1950s by 
Gurjanova (1959) and Naymov et al. (1960). 

Economic Value and Social Benefits Turtles are 
exploited; in 1985, 97 tonnes were landed in Qionghai 
county (Wang in lilt., 20.11.86). Collection of coral for 
the building trade (see below) can provide an income 
10-30 times the average income of a farmer (Struhsaker, 
1987). 

Disturbance or Deficiencies The reefs appear to have 
suffered significant damage from siltation and overfishing 
using fine meshed nets. There is extensive algal cover in 
some areas and high densities of the urchin Diadema sp. 
Dredging probably accounts for the siltation. Fish are 
more abundant in naval restricted areas where there is 
lower fishing pressure. Overfi.shing is particularly evident 
at Shen Chow and Haia Tun Hai in the south (Wu, 1985a; 
Wu and Hutchings, 1986). The mining of corals for the 
construction industry, dredging and the collection of live 
corals for the aquarium trade represent additional threats 
(Brown, 19S6; Wu and Hutchings, 1986). Struhsaker 
(1987) describes the collecting of coral from a reef near 
the town of Qinglan on the north-east coast. A 
considerable number of people collected both live and 
dead coral, prising it free with a heavy metal bit at the 
end of a 2 m pole. A single person could collect 
1000-2500 kg of coral each week and it was thought that 
in total very large amounts were being taken from the 
reef. The great majority was used for building houses, 
although some was sold to tourists. Mangroves are 
threatened by land reclamation for agriculture, 
construction of dikes for shrimp and eel culture, and 
cutting for fuel-wood (Zhu, 1987). 

Legal Protection According to Yang (1987), Tuntze 
Nature Reserve at 20°N, 110°20'E on the north coast of 
Hainan protects 3737 ha of mangroves; it is not known if 
reefs are included. Fishing has been prohibited for 
several years in Lunya Bay on the south coast (Wu and 
Hutchings, 1986). 

Management None. 



-47- 



Coral Reefs of the World 



Recommendations It is suggested that at least part of 
the south coast reef area should be closed to allow 
recovery of the reef; dredging in the vicinity of the reefs 
should be banned; size restrictions should be introduced 
for commercial fish species; and a public awareness 
programme should be introduced as a high priority. 
Future work in the area should carefully document the 
distribution and composition of the reefs (Wu, 1985a; Wu 
and Hutchings, 1986). 



Economic Value and Social Benefits Projects on the 
exploitation of new fishing grounds and commercial shell 
and lobster fisheries are now under way in the area 
(Fang />!//«., 30.4.87). 

Disturbance or Deficiencies Not known. 

Legal Protection There is reportedly Chinese legislation 
stipulating a reserve or reserves in the area (Wang in litt., 
20.11.86), but details are lacking. 

Management None known. 



NANSHA QUNDAO (NAN-SHA REEFS, SPRATLY 
ISLANDS) 



Geographical Location The main island is Taiping dao 
(or Itu Aba Island), ICaS'N, 114°22'E, and is located 
north-west of Tizard banks and reefs; the southernmost, 
at 4°N, is Zengmu (Tsan-Mou Reef); 4°-ll°30'N, 

log'so'-in-so'E. 



XISHA QUNDAO (PARACEL SHOALS) 

Geographical Location Nan Hai (South China Sea) 
south-east of continental shelf and Hainan; in the region 

is'so'-n-oo'N, iir-ii3°E. 



Area, Depth, Altitude Taiping dao is 1289 x 366 m; 
3.8 m above sea-level. 

Land Tenure Sovereignty over the reefs is disputed by a 
number of countries in the area, including China and 
Taiwan. 

Physical Features The Nansha Qundao are a series of 
104 emergent reefs and countless submerged reefs and 
include fringing reefs and atolls. The climate is oceanic 
tropical. Air temperature ranges from 26. TC to 28.8''C. 
Average water temperature is 28. rc. Tlie north-east 
monsoon blows from October to March, the south-west 
monsoon from May to October. The current flows 
south-west during the former and east or north during the 
latter (Fangm lilt., 14.3.84). 

Reef Structure and Corals Taiping dao is surrounded 
by a reef terrace and has sandy shoals, reef flats, reef 
barriers and reef fronts. Coral communities are 
flourishing and diverse, and there is high coral cover, 
with Acropora the dominant species (Fang in litt., 
14.3.84). Bassett-Smith (1890) first described corals from 
Tizard Bank. Over 100 species of coral have now been 
recorded at Tizard Atoll. There are two distinct coral 
zones, an upper terrace to 18 m depth and a lower 
terrace, from 37 to 56 m depth, with different coral 
composition. On the intervening slope, from 18 to 37 m, 
only one species was found. Some species have been 
recorded at considerable depth, for example Leploseris 
striata at 65 m, Montipora sp. at 81 m and Favia sp. at 
83 m. Eighteen species of reef coral have been recorded 
on coral knolls in the lagoon (Liang, 1985a and d). 

Noteworthy Fauna and Flora A total of 111 species of 
fish in 26 families have been identified (Chang el al., 
1981). Giant clams Tridacna spp. have been seen. A 
flourishing eel grass bed was found on a sandy shoal 
(Fangm/m., 14.3.84). 

Scientific Importance and Research Research 

expeditions, which concentrated on fish, were undertaken 
to Taiping Dao from the Fishery Research Institution of 
Taiwan and the Institute of Zoology, Academia Sinica, 
Taiwan, in 1976 and 1981 respectively (Fang in litt., 
14.3.84). 



Area, Depth, Altitude There are 31 islets. The largest is 
Yongxingdao (1.8 sq. km); three others, Tongdao, 
Zhongjiandao and Taipingdao, are over 1.5 sq. km and 
the remaining 25 islets are aU smaller than 0.5 sq km. 
Depth of the lagoon in the Yongle complex atoll is 43 m, 
in the Xuande complex atoll 67 m, and in the Xuande 
Dong (East Xuande) complex atoll 58 m. Max. alt. 
(15 m) is reached by Shidao islet; 10 islets reach ca 10 m 
and the remainder are under 7 m. 

Land Tenure Sovereignty of the area is disputed by 
China and Vietnam. 

Physical Features The islands and reefs have an 
atoU-like structure: complex atolls, simple atolls and table 
reefs have been described. The complex atolls are 
Yongle, Xuande and Xuande Dong; the simple atolls 
include Beijiao, Yuzhuo, Huaguang, Panshi and Langhua; 
the table reefs include Jinyin and Zhonjian (Wu in litt., 
A.l.&l). Their geology is described by Zhu (1981) and 
Zhu and Zhong (1984), their geomorphology and origin 
by Zeng and Qiu (1987), and sediments by Zhong and 
Huang (1979). Average temperature on the islands is 
26°C, with a minimum of 15.3°C. Annual rainfall 
averages 1400 mm (range 1300-2000 mm), and there are 
clearly marked wet and dry seasons. During the wet 
summer months winds are generally weak and from the 
south-west whilst during the drier winter months winds 
are strong and from the north-east or north-west; 
typhoons are frequent from June to January, with a peak 
in November. Annual mean surface water temperature is 
26.8°C. Mean surface salinity is 33.7 ppt (range 33.1-34.2 
ppt) and tides are irregular diurnal with average tidal 
range of 0.6-1.5 m. Currents are mainly from easterly 
directions (south-east to north-east) (Wu in litt., 4.7.87). 

Reef Structure and Corals The community structure 
and species diversity of these reefs is described by Zou 
(1978, 1979 and 1981). On the north-east reef Hats there 
is luxuriant hermatypic coral growth and diverse 
populations of other reef organisms. In contrast, the 
south-west reef flats have a sparse fauna. There is no 
algal ridge and the coral fauna on both the north-east and 
south-west seaward slopes is poor. More detailed studies 
were carried out at Zhongjiandao (Zhong Jian), a 
wooded island in the south-west, and Zhao Shu, a sandy 



-48- 



China 



island in the north-east of the group. Transects across the 
reefs of these islands are described in Zou (1979) and a 
mathematical model of the coral communities is given in 
Zou (1981). Coral growth rates are described by He and 
Zhong (1982). The most recent studies give 123 (Liang, 
1985a) or 127 (Zou and Chen, 1983) species and 
subspecies of scleractinian corals in 37 or 38 genera 
respectively; Zou (1975b) listed 113 in 33 
genera. Millepora is particularly abundant and Zou 
(1975a) describes a new species, M. xishaensis. Deep 
water acroporids from Yongle Qundao are described by 
Zou (1984). 

Noteworthy Fauna and Flora The islands are covered 
with low bushes, Pisonia grandis, Guettarda speciosa 
and Scaevota sericea. Many have major seabird colonies 
(Huen-pu, 1980; Melville, 1984), including Red-footed 
Boobies Sula sula. Brown Boobies S. leucogaster and 
Greater Frigatebirds Fregata minor. The Green 
Turtle Chelonia mydas nests in the islands, apparently in 
significant numbers, but this population is subject to 
exploitation, largely by fishermen from Hainan (Frazier 
and Frazier, 1985; Huang, 1981; Wang in litt., 20.11.86). 
Over 500 species of molluscs are present, 
including Haliotis, Pinctada maxima, Turbo and Giant 
Clams Hippopus and Tridacna. More than 1000 species 
of Crustacea have been recorded, as well as ca 100 genera 
of Foraminifera (Zheng, 1979), 160 species of polychaete, 
150 species of echinoderms (Wu in litt., 4.7.87), and 552 
fish species (Wang, 1981). Three species of sea grass are 
present (Yang, 1985) and over 200 species of seaweed, 
the main species being the same as those found off 
Hainan (Tseng, 1983; Wu in litt, 4.7.87). Dinoflagellates 
are described in Chen (1981). 



Scientific Importance and Research The reefs have 
been extensively studied, including an ecological survey 
from 1973 to 1976 by the South China Sea Institute of 
Oceanology, Academia Sinica (Zou, 1979). 

Economic Value and Social Benefits The biological 
resources of the islands are described by Chen and Sung 
(1977). At present only Yongxingdao and Shindao are 
inhabited (Wu in litt., 4.7.87). 

Disturbance or Deficiencies There were considerable 
changes in morphology of some of the islands as a result 
of a typhoon which passed between Yongle Qundao and 
Zhongjiandao in August 1975 (Zou, 1979). Damage to 
the reefs due to human activities is less serious than on 
Hainan but the escalating coral trade and overfisliing are 
begiiming to cause problems (Brown, 1986). Guano from 
the booby colonies is used as fertilizer and its extraaion 
caused considerable devastation earlier in the century, 
leading to the disappearance of the Red-footed Booby. 
Extraaion is now regulated and the Brown Booby is 
protected (Chen and Sung, 1977). Rats have been 
introduced and the cats that have been subsequently 
introduced to control them have also affected the bird 
populations (Melville, 1985). 

Legal Protection There is reportedly Chinese legislation 
stipulating a reserve in the islands, but details are lacking 
(Wang m /(ft., 20.11.86). 

Recommendations Given the scientific interest of the 
Xisha reefs, it would appear that this should be 
considered an area of conservation concern 



-49- 



COOK ISLANDS 



INTRODUCTION 

General Description 

The fifteen Cook Islands are scattered in the area 
S^-ZS'S, 156°-167°W and are self-governing but linked to 
New Zealand. There is considerable information on the 
oceanography of the region, gathered in the course of 
survey work by the New Zealand Oceanographic Institute 
to identify manganese deposits in the south-west Pacific 
(Summerhayes, 1967; Landmessere/ al., 1976). 

The Southern Cook Islands consist of a linear series of 
volcanic and uplifted islands (with both limestone and 
volcanic facies) of different ages (Turner and Jarrard, 
1982), extending for ca 650 km from Mauke to 
Palmerston, and the two more isolated islands of 
Rarotonga and Mangaia, all rising from depths of 
4500-5000 ft (1372-1524 m). The islands are described in 
Stoddart (1975c) and their geology in Wood and Hay 
(1970). Rarotonga is the largest and is an isolated 
volcanic island, now deeply dissected by erosion. The 
other high islands in the Southern Group have mixed 
volcanic and Umestone rocks, some being elevated to 
form makatea (fossil reef); their geology is discussed in 
Spencer el al. (1987). The Southern Group is influenced 
by winds from the north-east, east and south-east. 
Rainfall ranges from 1500 mm to 2800 mm (Anon., 
1985). Hurricanes and storms occur mainly from January 
to March and approach from the north-east. The mean 
sea surface temperature varies from 27.3°C in January to 
25.5°C in June. Tides are semi-diurnal with a small 
amplitude. On Rarotonga, spring tidal range is 0.85 m 
and neap range 0.33 m (Henry, 1977; Stoddart, 1975c). 

The area between Aitutaki and Penrhyn (Tongareva) is 
known as the South Penrhyn Basin and reaches depths of 
over 4500 m. The Northern Group are low atolls, the 
western ones lying on the Manihiki Plateau, and are 
sparsely settled and little changed, with only 25 sq. km of 
land area in total. 



Table of Islands 



Mauke (Parry) (X) 7.1 sq. mi. (18.4 sq. km); low, 
volcanic, 100 ft (30 m), raised island surrounded by 
makatea; completely surrounded by 50-100 m wide reef 
flat, much intertidal or supratidal but some submerged; 
reef flat dominated by hard reef rock pavement and 
therefore very depauperate; outer reef slopes gently to 
8-15 m depth, then steeply to at least 80 m, generally 
without shelves (Paulay, in press); 32 coral genera known 
(Paulay, 1985). 

Mitiaro 8.6 sq. mi. (22.3 sq. km); low volcanic; raised 
island surrounded by makatea; geology described by 
Wood and Hay (1970); fringing reef with narrow living 
reef flat; 23 coral genera known (Paulay, 1985). 

Atiu (X) 10.9 sq. mi. (28.2 sq. km); volcanic plateau 300 
ft (91 m); raised island surrounded by makatea; geology 
described by MarshaU (1908 and 1930) and Wood and 
Hay (1970); fringing reef with narrow living reef flat; 
long stretch of coastline along north side lacks reef flat 
(Paulay, in press); 19 coral genera known (Paulay, 1985). 

Takutea 0.5 sq. mi. (1.3 sq. km); low lying, elongated, 
sand cay (Wood and Hay, 1970). No anchorages; 
surrounded by reef; turtle nesting site (Brandon, 1977). 

Manuae (Hervey) 8.5 sq. mi. (22 sq. km); atoll with twin, 
flat, coral, sand islets; Manuae and Au-o-to; shallow 
closed lagoon (Wood and Hay, 1970); surrounded by 
continuous reef with single narrow boat passage; lagoonal 
sedimentation described by Summerhayes (1971); turtle 
nesting site (Brandon, 1977); first island of the Cook 
Islands to be discovered by Captain Cook. 

Aitutaki (X) {see separate account). 

Palmerston (X) land area 1 sq. mi. (2.6 sq. km); atoU 
with elongated lagoon and 8 islets (Wood and Hay, 1970); 
underwater morphology described by Irwin (1985); 
surrounded by reef; fish described by Grange and 
Singleton (1985); major nesting site for Green 
Turtle Chelonia mydas (Balazs, 1981); additional 
information in Helm and Percival (1973). 



Southern Group 

Mangaia (X) 27.3 sq. mi. (71 sq. km); low, volcanic, 
554 ft (169 m); uplifted island surrounded by makatea; 
described by Davis (1928); geology and surrounding 
fringing reef described by Marshall (1927) and 
Stoddart et al. (1985a and b); narrow living reef flat; 
outer reef slope steepens precipitously but levels off to 
wide terrace at 30-40 m depth (Paulay, in press); 28 coral 
genera known (Paulay, 1985); fish described by Clerk 
(1981). 



Northern Group 

Suwarrow Atoll (Suvarov) (see separate account). 

Penrhyn (Tongareva, Mangarongaro) (X) 3.8 sq. mi. 
(9.8 sq. km); largest atoU with many islets; described by 
Doran (1961) and Wood and Hay (1970); surrounded by 
reef; Green Turtle Chelonia mydas and 
Hawksbill Eretmochelys imbricata nest (Balazs, 1981); 
surveyed in 1985 by Ministry of Marine Resources 
(Sims m //•((., 11.12.87). 



Rarotonga (X) 25.8 sq. mi. (67 sq. km); high, volcanic, 
650 m; described by Doran (1961); geology described by 
Marshall (1908 and 1930) and Wood (1967); further 
information in Stoddart (1975c); reefs described below; 
those of Ngatangiia Harbour described in separate 
account; 41 coral genera known (Paulay, 1985). 



Manihiki (X) (see separate account). 

Rakahanga (X) 1.55 sq. mi. (4 sq. km); atoll; small 
lagoon which has closed in last 25 years; 2 main islets to 
north and south, with 7 smaller islets between; 
surrounded by reef; Chelonia mydas nest (Balazs, 1981). 



-51- 



Coral Reefs of the World 



COOK ISLANDS 

r^ Reefs 

• • Approximate 2000m isobath 

^Park or protected area 



© 



Rarotonga 



Black Rooks 




,Motutapu 

■neroa 
oromirJ 
Mun Lagoon 
Taakoka 



5 l<m 



Aitutaki 




Pukapuka 



Pukapuka 




5 km 



_j I 



Motu Ko 



i65°|w leciw 

Rakahanga_ 

-io°s a 

gj Pukapuka ManihS?7 

.Nassau NORTHERN COOK ISLANDS 

/S>' Suwarrow 



Penrhyn 



-15°S 



300 km 



Palmerstort«|\^ 

^ ^ Aitutaki 

SOUTHERN COOK ISLANDS "** 
-20°S 



Manuae'^ 

Mitiaro 



Takutea 
Atiu' 



" Mauke 



Rarotonga^ 

Mangaia,®,' 



Manihiki 




Porea 



Suwarrow 




-52- 



Cook Islands 



Nassau (X) 0.45 sq. mi. (1.2 sq. km); islet without 
lagoon; oval, flat sand cay with few dunes (Wood and 
Hay, 1970); narrow reef flat; owned and used by 
Pukapuka people. 



Pukapuka (Danger, Pakapuka) 
account). 

(X) = Inhabited 



(X) (see separate 



Marine biology is discussed in Randall (1978) and a 
checklist of the marine fauna, including 14 species of fish, 
is given in Gibbsc( a/. (1975). Paulay(in press) describes 
the heterodont bivalve fauna in detail, echinoderms are 
described in Devaney (1973 and 1974), Marsh (1974) and 
McKnight (1972), polychaetes in Gibbs (1972) and 
alpheid shrimps in Banner and Banner (1967). Shrimps 
were also collected by Operation Raleigh in 1986 
(Richmond, 1986). 



Reefs of the Cook Islands have been studied by both the 
Eclipse Expedition of 1965 (McNight, 1972) and the 1969 
Cook Bicentenary Expedition to the South-west Pacific 
(Gibbs el ai, 1971); reefs of Aitutaki (see separate 
account) and Rarotonga received particular attention. 
Fringing and lagoon reefs are common. A barrier reef is 
found at Aitutaki, and atoll reefs at Manuae and 
Palmerston (Dahl, 1980a). Reefs at Manihiki, Suwarrow 
and Pukapuka are described in separate accounts. 

Crossland (1928) and Dana (1898) gave early descriptions 
of the fringing reefs around Rarotonga and more recent 
work has been carried out by Stoddart (1972 and 1975c), 
Dahl (1980b) (who compared these reefs with those of 
Aitutaki), Gauss (1982) and Lewis el at. (1980), the last in 
the course of a survey to assess the potential for offshore 
sand and gravel aggregate. A brief description is given in 
Paulay (in press). The fringing reef increases in size from 
the south-east corner of the island counterclockwise, such 
that the widest and narrowest reefs are adjacent at the 
south-east comer. The reefs are about 400 m, and up to 
800 m, wide along the south coast and 100-200 m wide 
along the west and north coasts; on the windward east 
coast, the reefs are 50-100 m wide with large intertidal 
portions and large amounts of accumulated rubble. The 
reef edge is continuous except for steep-sided narrow 
inlets at Avatiu, Avarua, Ngatangiia and several places 
along the south coast. The reef flats are covered with 
sand, and are rarely covered by more than 1.5 m of water 
even at high tide (Stoddart, 1972). Growing corals are 
common in many areas and the holothurian Ilololhuria 
alra is locally abundant, mostly on the inner southern 
reefs of Ngatangiia (Paulay in lilt., 10.7.87). There is an 
algal ridge on the reef which is thought to be higher in 
the south than in the north (Marshall, 1930). Work 
during the 1967 Cook Bicentenary Expedition was 
concentrated mainly at Ngatangiia Harbour (see separate 
account). 

Fifty-seven scleractinian corals were recorded in 1971. 
The most abundant genera collected at Aitutaki and 
Ngatangiia (Rarotonga) in the course of the Cook 
Bicentenary Expedition were Poriies, Pocillopora, 
Monlipora, Acropora, Favia, Faviles, Hydnophora 
and Lobophyllia. Cypliastrea, Turbinaria, Gala.xea were 
common and Fungia and Herpoliilm were rare 
(Gibbs el al., 1971; Stoddart and Pillai, 1973). A more 
recent list of genera for Rarotonga, Aitutaki, Atiu, 
Mauke and Mitiaro is given in Paulay (1985), 41 genera 
(35 hermatypic) having been recorded from Rarotonga. 

A history of the reef-related research work carried out in 
the islands is given in Stoddart (1975c) and additional 
references are given in Cowan (1980), Thompson (1983) 
and Paulay (in press). Mangrove vegetation and 
seagrasses are absent throughout the Cook Islands. 



Reef Resources 

Reefs, reef flats and lagoons play a leading role in protein 
supply in the Cook Islands (Hambuechen, 1973b). 
Islanders on the atolls of the Northern Group may be as 
much as 90% dependent on protein from the sea, much 
of which is from the reefs; those in the Southern Group 
may be 60% dependent. On Palmerston, fish are the 
main protein source and almost all reef fish are eaten, 
most of them speared on the reef crest at low tide, 
although gill nets may also be put across small reef 
passages (Grange and Singleton, 1985). Reef fishing 
production is currently static with sporadic shipments 
made to Rarotonga (Sims, 1985 and in lilt., 11.12.87). 
Lawson and Kearney (1982) provide an assessment of 
skipjack and baitfish resources. Turtles, but not then- 
eggs, are regularly eaten on some of the islands 
(Palmerston, Pukapuka, Manihiki and possibly Penrhyn). 
Turtle meat is said to be not readily acceptable on 
Rarotonga and turtles on Penrhyn are taken principally 
for their shell (Balazs, 1981; Sims in lilt, to B. 
Groombridge, 28.8.86). 

Trochus Trochus nilolicus was first introduced to the 
Cook Islands in 1957; its abundance, distribution and 
exploitation are described by Sims (1985), greatest 
exploitation taking place on Aitutaki (see separate 
account). It has also become established on Palmerston 
and Manuae, an introduction programme having been 
started in 1981 when the value of the trochus industry 
was first appreciated. However, probably only the atoll 
islands have reefs suitable for this species. Attempts to 
introduce the Goldlip Pearl Oyster Pinclada maxima on 
Rakahanga and Pukapuka are under way, although this 
has proved difficult in the past (Paulay //; //«., 10.7.87; 
Sims //!//«., 11.12.87). 

The tourist industry is increasing, particularly on 
Rarotonga and Aitutaki (see separate account). Tourists 
snorkel throughout the Rarotongan lagoon and there is 
one Rarotongan SCUBA-dive operator who usually 
operates off Nikao, where a wreck has recently been sunk 
in 90 ft (27 m) of water, and off Tupapa (Sims in litt., 
11.12.87). 



Disturbances and Deficiencies 

Hurricanes periodically cause damage but this has not 
been studied; unspecified damage has been recorded on 
Pukapuka, on motus on the south and east sides of 
Penrhyn and on the north coasts of most Southern Group 
islands. Reefs around Rarotonga and Aitutaki were 
surveyed in 1971 for Acanlhastcr planci and numbers 
were found to be high. Although there were coral 
patches at about 12 m depth on the southern terrace of 
Rarotonga, elsewhere 50-90% of the coral was dead 
(Devaney and Randall, 1973). In 1978, no starfish were 



-53- 



Coral Reefs of the World 



found, but the reef-front terrace around Rarotonga was 
generally floored with dead, algal-covered coral with 
small patches of coral/algal sand between the dead coral 
heads. Only a few massive Forties heads were found to 
be alive, and it was suggested that this poor coral cover 
was also associated with the Acanlhaster outbreak 
(Lewis f( a/., 1980). There have also been some reports 
of damage from Acanlhaster on Manuae, Manihiki and 
Penrhyn (Hambuechen, 1973a) although these conflict 
with local reports (Sims in litt., 11.12.87). 

Most problems due to human activities have arisen on 
Rarotonga, the most densely populated and 
technologically developed island, where airport and hotel 
construction, port improvement, pollution and soil 
run-off have contributed to coastal degradation. The 
reefs are considered to be in an advanced stage of 
degradation (SPREP, 1980; Dahl, 1980b). An island near 
Avatiu is much altered by reclamation of the reef flat 
(Stoddart, 1972). Chemical run-off may be a significant 
problem (Hambuechen, 1973a and b), and problems 
created by the increased use of pesticides are described 
by Hambuechen (1973b). Fish poisoning and dynamiting 
are believed to be relatively unimportant (Paulay in litt., 
10.7.87) although they have occurred (Dahl, 1980b; 
Hambuechen, 1973a). 

Reefs elsewhere are said to be in good condition. 
However, soil erosion as a result of pineapple cultivation 
is occurring on Mangaia and Atiu. The lagoons of 
Aitutaki and Manuae are reported to be steadily silting 
up (Summerhayes, 1971). Phosphate mining may be 
investigated on Rakahanga and Manihiki 
(Eldredge in litt., 18.2.85) and could cause damage. Peari 
oyster stocks on Penrhyn have declined from previous 
levels (Sims in litt., 11.12.87). 



Legislation and Management 

Traditional legislation is still important on the Cook 
Islands and operates with increasing effectiveness in the 
outer islands. The i& 'u< concept enables restricted access 
to be enforced on land and lagoon areas. This effectively 
inhibited tree cutting to the seaward side of the road on 
Rarotonga for several years (SPREP, 1980; Anon., 1985), 
but has scarcely been used in the Southern Group in the 
past thirty years (Paulay in lilt., 10.07.87). 

General conservation information is given in SPREP 
(1980), an early description is given in Gare (n.d), and 
information on protected areas and land tenure is given 
in Anon. (1985). The Territorial Sea and Exclusive 
Economic Zone Act (1979) includes provision for 
regulations to be promulgated for protection and 
preservation of the marine environment. Legislation 
prohibiting the use of poisons and dynamite is reported to 
exist (Hambuechen, 1973a). The Trochus Act 1975 
regulates the harvest of trochus by licenses within 
reserves (Anon., 1985). Trochus regulations are enforced 
by the Ministry of Marine Resources, through the ad hoc 
appointment of Trochus Inspectors. A fully effective 
system is still being developed (Sims in litt., 11.12.87). 
Legislation controlling the exploitation of trochus on 
Aitutaki is described in a separate account. The Island 
Council of Palmerston reportedly forbad the use of 
spearguns in 1977 in response to an apparent decline in 
turtle numbers (Balazs, 1981); however turtles are now 
apparently freely hunted there (Sims in lilt., 11,12,87). 



The Conservation Act 1975, devised to conserve nature 
and natural resources and to protect historic sites and the 
environment, has not been used to any extent and there 
are no regulations deriving from it. It provides for any 
land, lagoon, reef, and island to be declared a National 
Park, World Park or Hi.storic Site. In 1987, a new 
Conservation Act was passed which includes provision 
for marine parks (Dahl in litt., 27.10.87). 

Suwarrow Atoll National Park is described in a separate 
account. On Rarotonga there is a foreshore reserve 
between the main road and the beach from Avatiu 
Harbour to the airport (SPREP, 1980). The original 
purpose of this is not known; it consists only of a narrow 
"nature strip" between the road and beach and is 
becoming built up in parts (Sims in lilt., 11.12.87). 
Takutea was designated a bird sanctuary in 1905 but not 
yet legislated as such although there are plans to do so 
(Anon., 1985). There are three fishing reserves protected 
under the Trochus Act (1975) where diving for trochus 
without a licence is prohibited: Aitutaki, Palmerston and 
Manuae lagoons. 



Recommendations 

A Coastal Zone Management Programme 
(SOPACOAST) is currently being developed for the 
South Pacific in collaboration with South Pacific regional 
organisations and the Commonwealth Science Council. 
Pukapuka has been selected as a study site to develop a 
management plan for low islands {see separate account). 
Information and experience gained from this project will 
be used in the development of management programmes 
in other parts of the Cook Islands. Furthermore, the 
environment and resources of the Northern Group will 
be documented, an archipelagic resource conservation 
strategy will be developed for the area and training for its 
effective development and implementation will be carried 
out (Anon., 1986). 

Dahl (1980a) recommended the creation of a number of 
protected areas, but these have not been followed-up: on 
Rarotonga, the Black Rocks (Tuoro) area and the islets 
and reefs of Ngatangiia Harbour have been 
recommended as reserves; the lagoon and eastern motus 
of Aitutaki have been recommended as a reserve; 
Manuae was proposed as an international maritime park 
but this is no longer considered a priority. A more 
detailed proposal for a coastal protected area system on 
Rarotonga is given in Dahl (1980b), including the 
establishment of a marine fisheries management reserve 
for all the reefs, lagoons and adjacent coastal waters. 
Additional work is required to implement the national 
park at Suwarrow. 



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Douglas, G. (1969). Checklist of Pacific Oceanic 

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AITUTAKI 

Geographical Location North-west of Manuae, 225 km 
north of Rarotonga; 18°51'S, 159°48'W. 

Area, Depth, Altitude 106 sq. km, of which about half is 
the lagoon (66 sq. km lagoon proper and 10 sq. km reef 
flat); max. alt. 119 m; max. depth of lagoon 10.5 m. 
Aitutaki Island is 16.8 sq. km; other islands have a total 
area of 2.2 sq. km. 

Physical Features Aitutaki is a roughly triangular 
volcanic cone, forming an almost-atoll, rising from depths 
of more than 4000 m and is the northernmost of the 
group of similar cones running south to Mauke. 
Geomorphology of the reefs and lagoons is described by 
Stoddart (1975a). The large lagoon is generally shallow; 
over three quarters of it is less than 4.5 m deep and 
maximum depth is 10.5 m (Stoddart, 1975c). Lagoonal 
sedimentation is described by Summerhayes (1971) and 
Gibbs (1975). Tidal range is small, 0.12 m at neaps and 
0.49 m at springs. Annual rainfall is 1830-1984 mm, with 



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Cook Islands 



a maximum in December to February and a pronounced 
dry season between June and September (Stoddart, 
1975c). Mean annual temperature is 25.6°C. 

Aitutaki is the main island and lies on the north-west 
rim. Twelve detrital reef islands or motus (Akitua, 
Angarei, Ee, Mangere, Papau, Tavaerua Iti, Tavaerua, 
Akaiami, Muritapua, Tekopua, Tapuaetai and Motukitiu) 
along the eastern reef and Maina to the west are 
described by Stoddart (1975b). Akaiami and Tekopua 
are the largest. There is a sand cay north of Tapuaetai. 
Moturakau and Rapota are volcanic islands on the south 
of the atoll. 

The reef is a barrier reef forming a triangle, the sides of 
which are 13-15 km long; the total length of the 
peripheral reef is 45 km. The reefs are mostly 
600-1000 m wide, with a maximum of 1700 m. The 
prevailing trade winds cause the outer edge to be steep 
along the south and east, and of intermediate slope on 
the west. There is a deep pass at Arutanga in the 
north-west navigable by small vessels. Water exchange 
between the lagoon and ocean occurs over the peripheral 
reef flats (MUler, 1980). 

Reef Structure and Corals The reefs have been studied 
by Stoddart and Pillai (1973) and the lagoon by Gibbs 
(1975); brief descriptions are given by Dahl (1980b) and 
Paulay (in press). Stoddart and Pillai studied 
representative transects across the eastern windward reef 
and the western reefs. A total of 28 coral genera have 
been described (Paulay, 1985). 

The eastern reef forms a continuous rock flat, 0.6-1 km 
wide, which is higher opposite the islands and lower 
between them (probably because of the scouring which 
can occur there and the rubble build-up in front of the 
islands). Sedimentation fans are found between the 
motus (Summerhayes, 1971). The reefs are narrower 
adjacent to the islands, so that the lagoon edge of the reef 
is lobate unlike the seaward edge which is straight. Most 
of the reef is covered at low water but it is not an area of 
active reef construction. Corals grow in the rock-floored 
moats near the seaward margin and in the deeper, more 
sheltered areas between the islands. A typical transect as 
at Kopuanu, Ootu, shows the following (Stoddart, 1975a); 

a) An algal rim, deeply dissected by surge channels and 
coated with crustose Porolitlion, a turf of filamentous 
algae, and larger algae (e.g. Sargassum and Turbiiiaria); 
corals are limited to encrustations, mainly of Acropora, 
and Pocillopora; Millepora occurs on the seaward side of 
the rim and in small colonies on the sides of the surge 
channels; b) a zone of green algae on the inner part of 
the algal rim; c) a zone of encrusting pink algae 
and Turbinaria on the inner slope of the algal rim; d) a 
moat 75-85 m wide with scattered patches of coral 
including large microatoUs of Ponies lutea; and e) a 
narrow zone of sand passing to the island beach. 

The western reefs are 0.8-1.7 km wide and in the north 
abut against the main volcanic island. There are some 
well-defined surge channels but the reef edge is 
irregular. The depth of the flat increases from the land to 
the sea, where there is a narrow constructional barrier of 
corals rising from depths of 3-4 m. In the south the reef 
is formed by coalescing coral colonies generally rising 
from 3-4 m depth with winding intersecting channels in 



between. A transect taken at Vaioue in the north, where 
the llat is 900 m wide, shows the following: 

a) an irregularly indented reef edge, without an algal 
ridge, formed by coalescing corals and rubble forming an 
open-work structure superficially bounded with 
encrusting pink algae; Acropora, soft corals 
and Turbinaria algae are conspicuous; b) an outer flat, 
mainly of ramose Acropora with winding channels up to 
2 m deep between; c) the main reef flat, 500 m wide, with 
a sandy surface with coalescing and anastomosing linear 
coral patches which are dead on the upper surfaces but 
rimmed with Millepora and living corals on the sides; and 
d) an inner zone, 50-100 m wide, consisting mainly of 
dead corals but with living microatolls of P. lulea, 1-2 m 
in diameter, covered with bushy Turbinaria algae on the 
upper surface. Reef blocks are common near the edge of 
the reef and are no doubt of storm origin. 

The southern reefs have no algal rim, are protected from 
both prevailing trade winds and hurricanes, and there are 
few storm blocks. The reef flat consists of a sand flat, 
with corals forming an open framework interrupted by 
pools. The pools become fewer and the reef patches 
more continuous near the reef edge and there is much 
delicate coral growth. 

There are many small reef patches in the south-west and 
south of the lagoon, but fewer in the north-east and 
extreme south-east. Large surface reefs are not common 
except in the south-west where there are irregular, 
flat-topped, steep sided ridges with abundant coral 
growth on their sides, extending transversely across the 
lagoon from the main island to Maina. 

Noteworthy Fauna and Flora Tridacna maxima is very 
common on all reefs (Miller, 1980). The 

holothurian Holothuria atra is common on reef flats. 
There are abundant Trochus Trochus nilolicus stocks. 
The lagoon fauna and terrestrial vegetation of the reef 
islands is described by Gibbs el al. (1971). Additional 
information on the vegetation and flora of the atoll is 
given in Fosberg (1975) and Stoddart (1975d and e). 

Scientific Importance and Research The atoll was first 
described by Agassiz (1903) and was subsequently visited 
in the course of the 1967 Cook Bicentenary Expedition. 
Currently studies are under way on trochus stocks by the 
Ministry of Marine Resources (Sims, 1985). It is also the 
site of introductions of Tridacna derasa from Belau 
and Euchewna culture growth trials. The Green 
Snail Turbo marmoratus has been introduced to the 
north-west outer reef slope (Sims in liii., 6.5.87). Studies 
of lagoon water hydrology and productivity in relation to 
prospects for commercial bivalve culture have been 
undertaken by Sims and Charpy (in prep.). 

Economic Value and Social Benefits Tridacna maxima 
forms the basis of a major food-gathering and 
commercial industry and there is some commercial 
exploitation of Caulerpa sp. and Turbo seiosus 
(Sims in lilt., 6.5.87). The crab Scylla serrata and banded 
stomatopod Lysiosquilla maculaia are trapped by 
fishermen in the muddier parts of the lagoon (Miller, 
1980). Trochus was introduced in 1957 from Fiji and 
rapidly became well established. Its economic potential 
was largely ignored at first and commercial harvesting 
was not undertaken until 1981 (Sims, i985). Since then 



-57- 



Coral Reefs of the World 



considerable quantities have been taken for export during 
regulated and specified harvest seasons (see below). 
There is an airstrip (Douglas, 1969). Tourists are taken 
on snorkelling trips on the lagoon (Sims in till., 11.12.87). 

Disturbance or Deficiencies In the early 1970s, 80-90% 
of the corals on the southern seaward slope of the 
western reef were found to be dead in the course of 
an Acanthaster planci survey by the Westward expedition 
from Honolulu (Devaney and Randall, 1973). At several 
points around the lagoon margins, particularly near 
Maina and along the east rim, the coral patches were 
being buried by marginal sediments and many of the 
patches close to the main island, particularly in the turbid 
water of the north-east arm, were dead and covered 
with Lopophylla communities. This was thought to be 
possibly due to Acanthaster predation, although only 
small numbers of starfish were seen. Stoddart (1969) 
suggested that such damage might have been due to 
hurricanes. Acanthaster are now present in sporadic 
localized concentrations (Sims in lilt., 6.5.87). 

The discharge into the lagoon of the chemical dip used in 
banana packaging is potentially serious (SPREP, 1980). 
The lagoon is said to be silting up (Summerhayes, 1971). 
The central lagoon was the site of extensive dynamiting 
during the early 1950s for a flying-boat landing strip. 
Arutanga passage was blasted by the U.S. Airforce during 
World War II. Since then there has been periodic 
blasting and dredging at Arutanga, Papau and for canoe 
passages (Sims in litt., 6.5.87). In 1981 it was reported by 
locals that populations of the small Green Snail Turbo 
setosus had declined, perhaps as a result of the 
proliferation of the introduced trochus (Sims, 1985). 
Such declines, if indeed they occurred, appear to have 
halted (Sims in litt., 6.5.87). 

Legal Protection Regulations for trochus harvesting 
have been arbitrarily declared at the beginning of each 
season since 1981. In 1984, there was a quota of 20 
tonnes, no time limit for the season, an upper size limit of 
11 cm and a reserve was declared over 3 km of windward 
reef (Sims, 1985). Currently there is a lower size Umit of 
8 cm. Harvests in 1985 and 1987 were regulated by a 
time limit of three days and one day respectively. There 
is a 2 km reserve area centred on Akaiami within which 
all collection is banned (Sims in litt., 6.5.87). 

Recommendations Aitutaki lagoon and eastern motus, 
including the adjacent reef, has been recommended for 
reserve status (Dahl, 1980a), and general 
recommendations for improved management of lagoon 
and coastal resources are given in Dahl (1980b). It has 
been recommended that quota levels for trochus should 
be set at 30% of the estimated standing stock and that 
monitoring of stocks should continue (Sims, 1985). 



Physical Features Manihiki is a pear-shaped atoU which 
faces the prevailing winds. There are two large islets, 
Tukao and Tauhunu, to the north-east and west and 
many smaller islets in the south, the largest of which is 
Porea. Lagoonal islets are found at different stages of 
development, miniature reef flats having developed 
around some of them. Tides are described by Gilmour 
(1974) and hydrology by Ridgeway (1974). A general 
description of the atoll is given in BuUivant (1974c) and 
Bullivant and McCarm (1974a). Mean annual rainfall is 
2482 mm. 

Reef Structure and Corals The lagoon and reefs are 
described by BuUivant (1974b and c) and corals by 
McCann (1974b). The outer reef is typical with 
buttresses and surge channels and deep water close in. 
The greatest development of coral within the lagoon is at 
the south-east perimeter, where the waves wash over the 
reef. Pinnacles of living and dead coral are abundant in 
the lagoon, some breaking the surface as sandbanks and 
islets. Acropora sp. and Fungia sp. were especially 
abundant on the slopes of the miniature fringing reefs 
surrounding the islets. 

Noteworthy Fauna and Flora Molluscs are described by 
McCann (1974a), echinoderms by McNight (1974), crabs 
by Bullivant (1974a) and fish by Bullivant and McCann 
(1974b). Green Chelonia mydas and 

Hawksbill Eretmochelys imbricata turtles nest (Balazs, 
1981). Blacklip Pearl Oysters Pinctada margaritifera are 
abundant in the lagoon (Bullivant, 1962). 

Scientific Importance and Research The atoll was 
visited by an expedition from the New Zealand 
Oceanographic Institute (NZOI) in 1960 in order to 
determine the hydrological characteristics of the lagoon 
so that data of use in the pearl shell fisheries 
investigations might be available (Bullivant, 1974c). 
Stock assessment and growth studies of P. margaritifera 
are currently under way (Sims in litt., 11.12.87). Breeding 
of this species and the thorny oyster are described by 
Bullivant (1962). 

Economic Value and Social Benefits Good quality pearl 
shell is found on Manihiki and the Blacklip Pearl Oyster 
is exploited commercially. Commercial pearl-farms are 
now in operation (Simsm lill., 11.12.87). 

Disturbance or Deficiencies Reefs are reported to have 
been damaged by Acanthaster planci (Hambuechen, 
1973a) although local people assert that this is not true 
(Simsmto., 11.12.87). There were fears that phosphate 
mining investigations would disrupt the lagoon 
(Eldredge in lilt., 18.2.85), but these were not allowed 
because of local fears that driUing would disturb the pearl 
oyster stocks (Sims in litt., 11.12.87). 



MANIHIKI 

Geographical Location Northern Cook group; 10°25'S, 
161°02'W. 

Area, Depth, Altitude 2.0 sq. mi. (5.2 sq. km); lagoon 
about 5 km. diam., max. depth 72 m. 



Legal Protection None. 

Management The Ministry of Marine Resources and 
the Island Council are responsible for the management of 
the pearl-shell fishery (Sims in lilt., 11.12.87). 

Recommendations There were no specific 

recommendations from the NZOI study. 



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Cook Islands 



NGATANGIIA HARBOUR AND MURI LAGOON 

Geographical Location South-eastern side of 

Rarotonga; 21°15'S, 159°44'W. 

Physical Features The harbour and lagoon are sheltered 
by a chain of islets, mainly of rubble and sand except for 
Taakoka which is volcanic. Motutapu (600 x 360 m), the 
largest and northernmost island, is a simple cay with a 
rubble beach on the seaward side, a wide intertidal 
expanse of Uca dominated sand and silt on the leeward 
side and a makatea overlooking the deeper water of the 
harbour entrance. Oneroa (500 x 200 m), the second 
largest island, south of Motutapu, is similar but lacks the 
makatea. Koromiri (320 x 120 m) is the smallest of the 
cays and is also similar. Taakoka, to the south, is not a 
cay but is set well back from the reef edge and consists of 
a low basalt hill. On each side of the harbour, there is a 
pronounced coastal indentation where Avana Stream, the 
largest stream on Rarotonga, and Turangi Stream reach 
the coast, creating a deep gap in the reef north of 
Motutapu. The harbour entrance is bordered with 3 m 
high undercut cliffs. Inside the harbour is the muddy 
delta of Avana Stream, which filled in much of the 
harbour after forest clearance early in the century 
(Dahl in lilt., 27.10.87). Outside the harbour, a gently 
troughed channel is strewn with coral heads for 150 m 
offshore. Beyond this a double 20 m deep channel 
system is floored with sand to the edge of the reef-front 
terrace. There are beaches of fine sand at Muri. The 
islands are described in more detail by Stoddart (1972) 
and additional information is given in Lewis el al. (1980). 

Reef Structure and Corals The reef Ues about 500 m 
from the coast. There is a poorly developed algal ridge 
(Gibbs et al., 1971). The lagoonal reefs had almost no 
living coral in 1976, although the state of the coral 
skeletons suggested that this was a recent phenomenon 
(Dahl, 1980b). Rhodoliths and coralliths in Muri Lagoon 
are described by Scoffin et al. (1985b). 

Noteworthy Fauna and Flora The reef flats at 
Ngatangiia Harbour have particularly large numbers of 
the holothurian Holothuria aira (up to 10 per sq. m). 
Vegetation of the islands is described by Stoddart (1972). 

Scientific Importance and Research Ngatangiia 

Harbour is the site of unsuccessful growth trials of the 
green mussel Perna viridis in 1985 (Sims, 1986). Studies 
of estuarine and lagoon hydrology and productivity in 
relation to prospects for commercial bivalve culture have 
been carried out (Charpy and Sims, in prep.). 

Economic Value and Social Benefits Artisanal and 
subsistence fishing are important activities in the area. 
Fish traps are still used. There is extensive use of the 
area by tourists and water sports operators (Sims in liii., 
6.5.87). The area has great potential for tourism and 
recreation, provided high density facilities are avoided 
(Dahl, 1980b). 

Disturbance or Deficiencies The lagoon was considered 
considerably degraded in the 1970s (Dahl, 1980b). There 
has been extensive dredging in the harbour, north of 
Avana Stream mouth. There was some dynamiting in the 
lagoon in 1985 near the dinghy sailing club (Sims in lilt., 
6.5.87). 

Legal Protection None. 



Management None. 

Recommendations The islets of Motutapu, Oneroa, 
Koromiri and Taakoko, with the adjacent reefs were 
recommended as reserves by Dahl (1980a), and it is 
recommended that no buildings should be permitted on 
these motus. Comprehensive planning should be 
instituted for the whole area (Dahl, 1980b). 



PUKAPUKA (DANGER ISLAND, PAKAPUKA) 

Geographical Location 67 km north-west of Nassau, 
about 460 km south-west of Manihiki and Rakahanga and 
more than 1300 km from Rarotonga; 10''53'S, 165°49'W. 

Area, Depth, Altitude Total land area about 700 ha; 
max. alt. 4 m; lagoon about 8 km x 3-5 km and 10-50 m 
deep. 

Physical Features The atoll is triangular with three 
islets at the reef apexes and several sand banks (Andrews, 
1987; Wood and Hay, 1970). The northern islet, 
Pukapuka, is horsesho'; shaped and has a maximum width 
of 1600 m. The two southern islets (Motu Ko and Motu 
Kotawa) consist of unconsolidated coral debris with 
coarse slabby boulders toward the seaward margin, finer 
coral fragments in the interior and fine sand with a thin 
layer of carbonate cement in places along the lagoon 
shore. The atoll is surrounded by a closed reef, apart 
from an artificial passage at the north-western edge, and 
has a shallow lagoon. The western slope of the atoU 
descends into the Samoan Basin which reaches depths of 
more than 6000 m. The seaward reef flat and occasional 
beach are bordered at many places by low ledges or small 
ramparts of partly cemented boulders and coral debris 
carried by storm waves from the outer slope and ridge 
over the reef flat. Many coral boulders lie on the reef 
flat. The lagoon is strewn with heads and patches of 
coral that rise from the flat sandy bottom to just below 
the surface or are aaually exposed at low tide. A 
description of the reef-lagoon complex is given in 
Andrews (1987). 

There is a relatively constant temperature (27-29°C) 
throughout the year. Annual rainfall in the region 
averages 2811 mm with a high of 3940 mm and a low of 
1812 mm. Cyclones generally do not affect Pukapuka 
although there are sporadic storm surges which cause 
considerable damage to the atoll and islands (Anon., 
1986; Andrews, 1987). 

Reef Structure and Corals A description of the reefs is 
given in Andrews (1987). The outer reef has high coral 
cover (60% + ) dominated by Monti pora aequituberculata, 
Pocillopora eydou.xi and Pavona minuta with significant 
areas of Acropora in shallower water and massive Pontes 
at depth. An area of the outer reef on the northern 
extreme of Motu Ko was significantly different from the 
relatively consistent outer reef complex, probably related 
to the presence of a wrecked fishing vessel in 1981. The 
reef flats are comprised of algal mats and sand, generally 
covered by a maximum of one metre of water at high 
tide. Live corals are scarce with a few small Poriles 
colonies on the flat and occasional stunted Pocillopora 
and Acropora species on a well-defined algal ridge. In 



-59- 



Coral Reefs of the World 



the lagoon, the area of high coral cover is restricted 
mostly to within the 3 m contour. Small faviids dominate 
the sandy substrate with some large Pontes species. 
Larger patch reefs display considerable diversity with 
areas of Montipora monasleriata being significant. An 
area consisting mainly of monospecific pinnacles 
of Astreopora listeri is located between Te alo Pukupuku 
and Motu Ko. 

Noteworthy Fauna and Flora The Green Chelonia 
mydas and HawksbUl Eretmochelys imbricata Turtle nest 
on the atoU (Balazs, 1981). There is a large and diverse 
population of fish. The Coconut Crab Birgus latro 
occurs. Trochus niloticus (which did not previously 
occur) and Pinctada margaritifera have been introduced 
to establish commercial stocks (Andrews, 1987). 

Scientific Importance and Research The metal content 
of tridacnids has been studied (Khristoforova and 
Bogdanova, 1981). Pukapuka has been selected as pilot 
project for a low island within a regional project to 
improve coastal zone management in the South Pacific. 
In 1986 a survey was conducted by the Australian 
Institute of Marine Sciences, with the support of the 
Commonwealth Science Council and the Cook Islands 
Government, under the South Pacific Coastal Zone 
Management Project (SOPACOAST). Maps have been 
prepared of the reef resources and hydrological 
parameters, and benchmarks are being established as a 
basis for measuring ecological changes (Andrews, 1987). 
Economic Value and Social Benefits The entire 
population of about 790 lives in three villages on the 
lagoon side of the northern islet and relies predominantly 
on the reefs for food. Fishing practices are traditionally 
based but have taken advantage of modem technology; 
modem dinghies and outboard motors are preferred 
when available. The main fishing techniques are 
described in Andrews (1987). 

Disturbance or Deficiencies Periodic storm surges may 
cause damage. There is potential for increased pressure 
on reef resources (Anon., 1986). Stocks of Pinctada 
margaritifera declined dramatically in the 1950s, 
probably owing to overfishing. There was a decrease in 
abundance and individual size of some fish species until 
spearfishing was prohibited and stocks of clams, 
particularly Tridacna maxima, have declined. There is 
some evidence of eutrophication (from sewage) and an 
increase of turbidity in the lagoon (Andrews, 1987). 

Legal Protection Spearfishing has been banned in the 
lagoon by the Island Council since 1985 to protect the 
small, easily speared Epinephelus and Cephaiopholis 
which are highly valued as food (Andrews, 1987; 
Sims //!//«., 11.12.87). 

Management The uninhabited part of the northern islet, 
and the two southern islets are divided amongst the three 
villages as food reserves ('motu's') and each village 
controls the reef and fishing grounds near its motu. Each 
reserve has a small settlement of houses occupied only 
during visits for food supplies and copra breaking 
(Andrews, 1987; Beaglehole and Beaglehole, 1938). 
Fishing on the outer reefs is open to aU islanders (Anon., 
1986). Conservation practices are regularly reviewed by 
the traditional goveming body, the Island Council, which 
includes two representatives from each village. The 
Council enforces such issues as the spearfishing "tapu" 
within the lagoon. The villages govern the opening and 



closing of their motus to visitors and the taking of 
coconut crabs and seabirds; such closures, which also 
apply to adjacent areas within the lagoon, may last for up 
to six years. 

Recommendations The SOPACOAST project, having 
defined and described the resources of the atoll, will aim 
to better apply existing knowledge of the area to coastal 
zone management and assist in improving community 
capability to administer, manage and monitor coastal 
resources and the environment. Training and educational 
activities related to the project theme will be arranged 
(Anon., 1986). Andrews (1987) gives recommendations 
for further research, such as investigations of the clam 
stocks and reasons for their decline, and monitoring of 
the lagoon resources. Conservation measures for turtles 
and clams should probably be introduced. 



SUW ARROW (SUVAROV) ATOLL NATIONAL PARK 

Geographical Location 950 km NNW of Rarotonga on 
the south-west rim of the Manihiki Plateau; IS'WS, 
163°05'W. 

Area, Depth, Altitude 40.5 ha land; max. alt. of islands 
2-3 m; lagoon area 133 sq. km (10 km diameter); max. 
depth of lagoon 80 m. 

Land Tenure Crown land. 

Physical Features The atoll has 22 vegetated islets 
situated on the almost continuous rim, 0.5-1.0 km wide, 
and a diamond-shaped reef. The lagoon has active water 
exchange with the sea through a wide, 10 m deep, pass 
near Anchorage Island in the north-east. Throughout 
most of the lagoon patch reefs give the seabed a very 
irregular morphology. Tidal range at springs is about 
1 m. Trade winds blow from the south-east but most 
storms and cyclones approach from the north-west 
(Douglas, 1969; Scoffin et ai, 1985a; Tudhope et al., 
1985). Sediments are described by Tudhope ef o/. (1985) 
and other geological aspects by Scoffin et al. (1985a). 
General information on the atoll is given in Helm and 
Percival (1973) and Neale (1966). 

Reef Structure and Corals There is a well developed 
algal ridge and a broad reef flat 100-800 m wide 
surrounding the atoU (Scoffin et al., 1985a). Several 
patch reefs, more than 100 m in diameter, reach up to sea 
level in the central lagoon while small patch reefs are 
particularly abundant around the westem margin 
(Tudhope c( a/., 1985). 

Noteworthy Fauna and Flora Some wet atoll forest 
remains (Douglas, 1969; Wood and Hay, 1970). The atoll 
is a turtle nesting site (Brandon, 1977) and of major 
importance for nesting seabirds (Anon., 1985). Coconut 
Crabs Birgus latro occur on the islands and sparse 
clam Tridacna maxima beds in the lagoon and on the reef 
(Anon., 1985). Reef fish are described by Grange and 
Singleton (1985). 

Scientific Importance and Research The heavy metal 
content of Tridacna and Caulerpa in the lagoon has been 
studied by Khristoforova and Bogdanova (1981). A joint 



-60- 



Cook Islands 



New Zealand DSIR/Royal Society of London Northern 
Cook Islands cruise visited the atoll in 1981. Black lip 
Pearl Oyster Pinctada margarilifera stocks are being 
surveyed and growth studies are underway by the 
Ministry of Marine Resources. Trochus Trochus niloticus 
introdunions were successfully carried out in 1985 and 
1987 (Sims in tin., 6.5.87). There was an unsuccessful 
attempt to introduce the Goldlip Pearl Oyster Pinciada 
maxima (Paulay /n lilt., 10.7.87). 



Econoniic Value and Social Benefits 
once an important activity. 



Pearl fishing was 



Disturbance or Deficiencies There are illegal visits in 
small boats as the atoll is a popular stopover for yachts 
(Anon., 1985; SPREP, 1980). There has been some 
hurricane damage, particularly on the islets (Douglas, 
1969). Coconut crabs have been reported to attack 
nesting seabirds. Pearl oyster stocks have significantly 
declined (Sims in lit!., 11.12.87) 

Legal Protection Declared a National Park 29.6.78 
under Section 11(1) of the Conservation Act 1975. 
Fishing is permitted for immediate use but not for 
commercial purposes. Licenses may be issued for 



mother-of-pearl collection, and for making of copra, 
culling of Coconut Crabs and controlling of rats on 
Anchorage Island (Anon., 1985). 

Management The National Park is under the joint 
control of the Conservation Service of Internal Affairs 
and Marine Resources (Fisheries) but there is no active 
management. There is reportedly a caretaker and his 
family (SPREP, 1980; Anon., 1985), although other 
sources indicate that, at least between 1982 and 1986, this 
was not the case (Paulay in lilt., 10.7.87). The area is 
zoned for pearl culture and commercial pelagic fishing 
(Anon., 1985). 

Recommendations The atoll was recommended as an 
Island for Science (Douglas, 1969) but this programme 
was never followed through. A warden has been 
appointed (Sims m lilt., 11.12.87). Base line studies must 
be completed so that a comprehensive management plan 
can be developed and implemented (Anon., 1985); this is 
considered a priority in the Action Strategy for Protected 
Areas in the South Pacific Region, drawn up at the Tliird 
South Pacific National Parks and Reserves Conference in 
1985. 



-61- 



FEDERATED STATES OF MICRONESIA 



INTRODUCTION 

General Description 

The Federated States of Micronesia (F.S.M.) consists of 
the states of Yap, Truk, Ponape and Kosrae and became 
a freely associated independent nation in close 
association with the U.S.A. in 1986, having previously 
been part of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands. 
The F.S.M. includes most of the Caroline Islands, running 
west-north-west from Kosrae to Yap, and consists of 
volcanic and metamorphic islands and atolls. 
"Almost-atolls" are also present, making the group one of 
the more typical line island chains. The development and 
origin of the Caroline Islands is described by Scott and 
Rotondo (1983); general information is given in SPREP 
(1980). Belau (Palau), the westernmost group of the 
Caroline Islands, is described in a separate section. 



Fats (X) 1.1 sq. mi. (2.8 sq. km); raised atoll, 60 ft 
(18 m); phosphate mining (Gawel in lilt., 25.6.87). 

Sorol (X) 0.36 sq. mi. (0.9 sq. km); atoU with 10-11 islets; 
enclosed reef; periodically inhabited (Gawel in lilt., 
25.6.87). 

Eauriplk (X) 0.09 sq. mi. (0.23 sq. km); atoll with six 
small islets all covered with coconuts except Edarepe I. 
which is awash at high tide. 

Woleai (X) 1.75 sq. mi. (4.5 sq. km); large atoll with 
double form and 21 islets; reefs well developed; totally 
undisturbed (Dahl et al., 1974). 

Ifallk (Ifaluk) (X) 0.57 sq. mi. (1.5 sq. km); atoll with 
three islets; atoU described by Tracey et al. (1961) and 
Bates and Abbott (1958); check-list of marine algae 
(Abbott, 1961). 



Table of Islands 



Yap State 



Yap Islands Proper (Waqab) 4 high volcanic and 
metamorphic islands separated by ditches or narrow 
charmels through mangroves: 

Yap (X) 21.68 sq. mi. (56 sq. km); elongated 
volcanic and metamorphic, 155 ft (47.2 m) in south, 
579 ft (176 m) centre and north; reefs described 
below; echinoderms described by Grosenbaugh 
(1981), seagrasses by Kock and Tsuda (1978) and 
marine benthic algae by Tsuda and Belk (1972); 
over 650 fish species recorded, including some 
genera and families not recorded elsewhere in the 
F.S.M. (Gawel /« litt., 25.6.87); 

Gagil Tamil (Gagil-Tomil) (X) 11.13 sq. mi. 
(28.8 sq. km); volcanic; very indented coastline 
fringed with mangrove; separated from Yap by 
Tagareng Canal; broad fringing reef to east and 
south; 

Maap (Map) (X) 4.1 sq. mi. (10.6 sq. km); volcanic 
200 ft (61 m) with mangroves along north-west and 
south coasts; broad fringing reef to east; 

Rumung (X) 1.66 sq. mi. (4.3 sq. km); volcanic; 
fringing reef to north-west and north-east. 



Outer Yap Islands 

Ulithi (X) 1.8 sq. mi. (4.7 sq. km); largest atoll in 
Carolines, with 40 islets scattered in four main groups; 
most reefs unsurveyed but probably undisturbed; survey 
of site at Falalop Island carried out by Tsuda et al. (1978); 
sea turtle nesting beaches; wrecks in lagoon dating from 
World War II. 

Ngulu (X) 0.165 sq. mi. (0.43 sq. km); atoll with 8 islets; 
reef; sea turtle nesting beaches. 



Faraulep (Fechaulep) (X) 0.16 sq. mi. (0.4 sq. km); atoU 
with three low small islets. 

Gaferut 0.043 sq. mi. (0.11 sq. km); island 100 ft (30 m) 
(Niering, 1961); fringing reef; no lagoon; Red-footed 
Booby Sula sula, frigatebirds. Coconut Crab Birgus latro; 
Green Turtle Chelonia mydas nesting. 

Olimarao 0.085 sq. mi. (0.22 sq. km); atoll with 2 islets 
on reef surrounded by lagoon. 

Elate (X) 0.2 sq. mi. (0.5 sq. km); atoll with 2 groups of 
islets (Elato and Toas); mangroves; turtle nesting. 

Lamotrek (X) 0.38 sq. mi. (0.98 sq. km); atoll with 3 
wooded islets. 

West Fayu (Pigailoe) 0.24 sq. mi. (0.62 sq. km); coral 
islet; extensive reef with lagoon; sea turtle nesting 
beaches. 

Satawal (X) 0.5 sq. mi. (1.3 sq. km); small coral island, 
15 ft (4.6 m); no lagoon; plants described by Fosberg 
(1969); few reef fish resources but tuna fishing important 
(Gillett, in press).. 

Pikelot 0.04 sq. mi. (0.1 sq. km); small islet, fringed by 
extensive reef; no lagoon; turtle nesting; visited for turtle 
fishing. 



Truk State 

Truk Lagoon (Chuk) almost-atoU (described in main 
text), with following principal islands: 

Moen (Wono) (X) 7.25 sq. mi. (18.8 sq. km); high 
volcanic 1215 ft (370 m); mangroves along N and SE 
coasts; reefs described below; 

Dublon (Tonowas) (X) 3.4 sq. mi. (8.8 sq. km); 
high volcanic, 1145 ft (349 m); some mangroves 
along N, NE and NW coasts; fringing reef; reefs. 



-63- 



Cord Reefs of the World 



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-64- 



Federated States of Micronesia 



mangroves and seagrasses mapped, and 
fishes and algae listed in OPS, TTPI (1978a); 



corals. 



Etten (X) small volcanic island, mostly man-made 
by coral fill on reef creating airstrip in World War 
II; fringing reef; reefs, mangroves and seagrasses 
mapped, and corals, fishes and algae listed in OPS, 
TTPI (1978a); 



Pulusuk (X) 1 sq. mi. (2.6 sq. km); atoll with low coral 
island; fringing reef. 

Puluwat (X) 1.3 sq. mi. (3.4 sq. km); atoU with 2 large 
islets, 3 smaller (Niering, 1961); reef. 

Pulap (X) 0.33 sq. mi. (0.85 sq. km); atoll with 3 wooded 

islets. 



Uman (X) 1.8 sq. mi. (4.7 sq. km); high volcanic, 
800+ ft (244 m); small patches of mangroves to N 
and S; fringing reef; reefs, mangroves and seagrasses 
mapped, and corals, fishes and algae listed in OPS, 
TTPI (1978b); 

Fefan (Fefen) (X) 5.1 sq. mi. (13.2 sq. km); high 
volcanic, 978 ft (298 m); very small mangrove areas 
on W coast; fringing reef; reefs, mangroves and 
seagrasses mapped, and corals, fishes and algae 
listed in OPS, TTPI (1978c); 

Siis (Tsis) (X) 0.25 sq. mi. (0.65 sq. km); smaU 
island, 300 ft (91 m); extensive fringing reef on east 
coast; 



Manila Reef 



Hall Islands 

Nomwin (X) 0.7 sq. mi. (1.8 sq. km); atoU with 9 islets, 
circular reef. 

Murilo (X) 0.5 sq. mi. (1.3 sq. km); atoll with chain of 
5 + islets on north of reef. 

Fayu 0.15 sq. mi. (0.39 sq. km); small low-lying coral 
island; no lagoon; central depression which collects water; 
surrounded by fringing reef; many seabirds. 



Parem (Param) (X) 200+ ft (61 m); small volcanic 
island; mangroves on S. coast; fringing reef; 

Eot (X) 0.19 sq. mi. (0.5 sq. km); 200+ ft (61 + m); 
linked to Udot by fringing reef; reefs, mangroves 
and seagrasses mapped, and corals, fishes and algae 
listed in OPS, TTPI (1978d); 

Udot (X) 1.9 sq. mi. (4.9 sq. km); moderately high 
volcanic, 400-500 ft (122-152 m); fringing reef; reefs, 
mangroves and seagrasses mapped, and corals, 
fishes and algae listed in OPS, TTPI (1978d); 

Romonum (Ulalu) (X) 0.29 sq. mi. (0.75 sq. km); 
low island; fringing reef; 

Fanapanges (Fala-Beguets) (X) 0.6 sq. mi. (1.6 
sq. km); 200 ft (61 m); extensive fringing reef; 

Tol (X) 13.2 sq. mi. (34.2 sq. km); high volcanic; 
1440 ft (439 m); consists of four virtually connected 
islands (Tol, Wonei, Pata, Polle); deeply indented 
coastline, mangrove-lined; fringing reef particularly 
to west; 

Pis (X) small island on northern part of barrier 
reef. 

Neoch (Kuop) (X) 0.19 sq. mi. (0.49 sq. km); atoU near 
Truk Lagoon with 4 islets; marine benthic algae described 
(Tsuda, 1972). 

Nama (X) 0.3 sq. mi. (0.8 sq. km); coral islet; no lagoon; 
fringing reef. 

Losap (X) 0.4 sq. mi. (1 sq. km); atoll with 8 islets; 
semi-circular reef. 



Westerns 



Mortlock Islands (Nomoi) 

Satawan (X) 1.75 sq. mi. (4.5 sq. km); large atoU with 
numerous islets and 11 main ones. 

Lukunor (X) )/atoU with 6 + islets on oval lagoon. 

Etal (X) 0.7 sq. mi. (1.8 sq. km); small atoll with 13 islets 
enclosing small lagoon. 

Namoluk (X) 0.83 sq. mi. (2.2 sq. km); atoU with 5 islets 
and closed lagoon (7.5 sq. km), one of deepest in the 
Pacific (Marshall, 1975); reefs 1.5 km on each side, 
encircle lagoon; reefs undescribed; marine molluscs listed 
by Marshall (1975); Green Turtles and 
Hawksbills Eretmochelys imbricata found in lagoon and 
nest on Amwes islet; Coconut Crab Birgus latro present; 
many seabirds (Marshall, 1975). 



Pohnpel (Ponape) State 

Pohnpei (Ponape) (see separate account). 

Ant (X) 0.7 sq. mi. (1.8 sq. km); atoll near Pohnpei with 
several small islets; periodically inhabited; excellent reef 
(described below); privately owned; Green Turtles may 
nest. 

Pakin (X) 0.42 sq. mi, (1.1 sq. km); atoll with 5+ islets, 
no channel into lagoon; periodically inhabited; northern 
reef surveyed; good reefs (described below); Green 
Turtle recorded. 

Ngetik (Sapwuahfik) (X) 0.66 sq. mi. (1.7 sq. km); atoll 
with 3 islands and several small islets. 

Oroluk (X) 0.2 sq. mi. (O.S sq. km); atoU with ring of 
very small, wooded islets; Polynesia; good reefs; Green 
Turtle nesting. 



Namonuito (X) 1.7 sq. mi. (4.4 sq. km); large atoll with 
10 islets; fringing reefs. 



Minto Reef 



-65- 



Coral Reefs of the World 



/ 



Nukuoro (X) 0.66 sq. mi. (1.7 sq. km); atoU with 40 + 
islets; circular reef; inaccessible. 

Kapingamarangi (X) 0.5 sq. mi. (1.3 sq. km); atoll with 
33 islets on circular reef; geology described by McKee 
(1958); geography by Wiens (1956) and Niering (1956); 
heavily populated, Polynesian; turtles once important, 
now scarce. 

Mwokil (Mokil) (X) 0.5 sq. mi. (1.3 sq. km); atoU with 3 
main islets, small lagoon small, rectangular reef. 

Pingelap (X) 0.66 sq. mi. (1.7 sq. km); atoU with 2 
islands and 1 islet; 20 ft (6 m); small lagoon; square reef; 
a few mangroves on south; flora described in St John, 
1948; general descripiton in Murphy (1949). 



Kosrae State 

Kosrae (Kusaie) (X) 42.33 sq. mi. (100 sq. km); high 
volcanic 2061 ft (628 m) island with chain of mtns to S 
and isolated peak to N, 1943 ft (592 m); deeply dissected; 
narrow coast plain with some mangroves particularly S 
and NW, best examples in Lele Harbour to E; also four 
smaller volcanic islands (most important Lele (Leluh), 
population centre of Kosrae); reefs described below; 
sparse nesting of Green Turtles and Hawksbills. 

(X) = Inhabited 



Yap State includes the Yap Islands proper, a number of 
outlying atolls and low coral islets and the raised coral 
island of Fais. Most of the literature concerns the Yap 
Islands proper (Maragos in lilt., 10.8.87). In 1987, the 
Universities of Hawaii and Guam and the U.S. Army 
Corps of Engineers were conducting an extensive 
inventory, at over 60 stations, of these as part of the Yap 
Islands coastal resources inventory and atlas project 
(Maragos m //«., 10.8.87). The Yap Islands proper consist 
of a group of metamorphic and old volcanic islands of 
moderate slope and lobed shorelines which are 
surrounded by broad fringing reefs and lie within a 
triangular shaped reef complex with limited lagoon 
waters. Road causeways now connect all the high island 
complex except Rumung. The islands have interesting 
reef faunas, mangroves, endemic plants, and some 
evergreen forest but are very disturbed (Douglas, 1969). 

Yap has excellent broad fringing reefs especially on the 
north-west with some lagoon development inside the 
reef. Tsuda (1978) mapped the general current patterns 
and the biological characteristics of the lagoon. Corals 
have been described by Neudecker (1978) and Sugiyama 
(1942); over 200 species have now been recorded 
(Maragos (Vi /(»., 10.8.87). Reef sites at Balabat and Pelak 
on the east coast are described by Tsuda ef a/. (1978), and 
the reef around Donitsch Island in Tomil Harbour is 
described by Amesbury et al. (1976). Dahl et al. (1974) 
surveyed the reefs at four sites on the west coast. The 
lagoon off Gorror, on the south-west coast, was shallow 
with a sandy bottom with turtle grass and occasional coral 
patches of high diversity (ca 50 species). The lagoon off 
Nif was deep. The surrounding reef walls were covered 
with large corals down to a sandy bottom at 10 m. The 
reef was emergent at low tide, the top covered with algal 



turf and occasional small colonies of Faviles. The 
leeward outer reef off Okau began with a rocky fore-reef 
flat 1500 m wide, cut by long surge chaimels 2 m deep 
and 1-2 m wide. Coral coverage increased to the reef 
edge at a depth of 7 m with only a few species less than in 
Belau. The slope then dropped steeply to 25 m with good 
coral growth, beyond which a more gentle slope was 
dominated by Pachyseris. Coral growth ended at around 
40 m. At Mil Entrance, on the west between Yap and 
Rumung islands, the reef flat on the north side of the 
channel extended down to 2 m with good coral coverage. 
There was a drop-off with good coral growth down to 
10 m followed by a gentle slope with turtle grass. In 
general reef quaUty was high but reefs were subject to 
terrestrial influences, a result of Yap being a high island. 

Truk Lagoon is an "almost-atoU" (Scott and Rotondo, 
1983), consisting of a deeply eroded, volcanic 
submergence having left embayed basaltic islands and 
stacks in a lagoon surrounded by a shallow barrier reef 
with a few coral islands and cays. The lagoon, nearly 
300 ft (91 m) deep in places (Maragos in litt., 10.8.87), is 
considered to be at an intermediate stage of evolution 
between a true barrier reef and a true atoll reef. The 19 
volcanic islands within the lagoon are steep-sided with 
little coastal plain, and most are fringed by narrow coral 
reef flats (Maragos, 1986). Most have little remaining 
natural vegetation except on the summits of the highest 
islands (Douglas, 1969) and some have mangrove stands. 
The World War II Japanese wrecks in the lagoon have 
provided a substrate for abundant growth of reef 
organisms. Tsuda et al. (1977a) carried out preliminary 
observations on the algae, corals and fish inhabiting the 
sunken ferry Fujikawa Mant. Other reefs have been 
described in the course of environmental impact studies 
(see below), including those on the east coast of Tol (in 
the western part of Truk Lagoon) and fringing reef on 
the west, south-east and north-east sides of Moen 
(Clayshulte et al,, 1978). A Moen coastal resource 
inventory was completed recently (Cheney et al., 1982). 
Around 100 species of holothurians have been recorded 
in Truk Lagoon (Beardsley, 1971). Virtually no scientific 
studies have been carried out in outer Truk State 
(Maragos m /(■«., 10.8.87). 

Pohnpei State consists of a high island complex and some 
outer atolls. The island of Pohnpei is described in a 
separate account. Dahl et al. (1974) give brief details for 
some of the reefs around Ant and Pakin. Both atolls 
have excellent reef development. On the leeward side of 
Ant, beyond the northern tip, the reef crest is 100 m wide 
with a fore-reef flat 200 m wide extending down to the 
reef edge at 10 m depth. Coral growth begins at 2 m 
depth, 30 m off shore, increasing to 90% coverage at 50 m 
off shore and 100% at 100 m. From the reef edge there is 
a steep slope down to 30 m depth with coral cover of over 
100% on account of the dominant overlapping 
table Acropora. The slope continues down to 50 m with 
interspersed sand cover increasing to 50%, although coral 
development continues much deeper. Pakin has a steep 
drop-off and coral development to beyond the normal 
SCUBA range. The centre of the northern reef was 
surveyed. An 80 m wide reef crest merges with a sloping 
fore-reef 50 m wide and 7 m deep at the edge. The first 
20 m is bare of coral cover, but coral density increases to 
the edge with head-shaped Pontes dominant. From the 
edge an almost vertical drop-off descends, with good 
coral cover of large specimens and a considerable amount 
of algae. Sand patches begin al 50 m but at 60 m, coral 



-66- 



Federated Slates of Micronesia 



cover is still 30% and continues to the limit of visibility. 
Surveys at both atolls have been carried out recently but 
the results have not yet been published (Birkeland in liil., 
10.11.87). 

Kosrae State includes the fourth largest island in the 
Carolines. In the geological past, there was probably a 
shallow lagoon or moat and reef system around the island 
(either a barrier reef or very wide fringing reef 
(Maragos in litt., 10.8.87)), but the lagoon is now nearly 
filled in to sea level with sandy loams, swamp and 
forests. Raised sand and rubble beaches mark the 
position of the outer edge of the reef. Beyond this, the 
reef forms a flat extending to the breaker zone. Good 
reef growing conditions have permitted the full 
development of a typical fringing reef (Scott and 
Rotondo, 1983). Over 50 sites, covering all reef areas 
around Kosrae, were surveyed in 1986 as part of a coastal 
resources inventory and atlas project sponsored by the 
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Maragos in lilt., 10.8.87). 
The reef flat at Okat is described by Eldredge et at. 
(1979). Wide fringing reefs are found particularly around 
the northern half of the island and at embayments on the 
south at Taf and Utwe (Maragos, 1986); other large 
embayments occur at Lele (Leluh) in the east and Okat in 
the north (Maragos in litt., 10.8.87). The most valuable 
concentrations of marine resources in the State are at 
Okat (Maragos, 1986) and Utwe (Maragos m litt., 10.8.87). 

Very little is known about the reefs of other islands in the 
F.S.M. but Oroluk Atoll reefs and Minto Reefs are 
considered particularly important (Gawel in litt., 29.1.87). 

Green Turtles Chelonia mydas and 

HawksbiUs Eretmochelys imbricata are the principal 
species present, with Olive Ridleys Lepidochelys olivacea 
and Leatherbacks Dermochelys coriacea recorded on rare 
occasions. Nesting, mainly of Green Turtles, is largely 
confined to the more distant coral atolls and islands, 
although both Green Turtles and HawksbiUs are found 
year-round in the lagoons of the high islands (McCoy, 
1981; Pritchard, 1981). Seagrass distribution in 
Micronesia is described in Tsuda et at. (1977b). 



Reef Resources 

Fisheries, agriculture and tourism are the three major 
industries (SPREP, 1980). Smith (1947) described fishing 
techniques in use in Micronesia, including the Caroline 
Islands, in the 1940s. Fish and shellfish were the most 
important source of protein, with inshore and reef 
fisheries being of much greater importance than offshore 
fisheries. The most important finfish groups were 
angelfish, barracuda, crevalle, goatfish, parrot fish, 
squirrel fish, surgeon fish and wrasse. Among 
invertebrates the more important were Anadara cockles, 
conchs, crabs, especially Scytla serrala, 

octopus, Spondylus, spiny lobster, sea anemone, sea 
urchin, clams, including giant clams Tridacna, several 
species of trochus, and turbos. Reef fishing is still 
important throughout the States. In Yap State, a 
subsistence lifestyle dominates, fishing is important and 
tourism is still a relatively minor industry. In Truk, the 
fringing reefs around the islands are important for day to 
day resources, most fishing being carried out by women 
hand collecting on the flats. Pou Bay is the most popular 
fishing spot on Moen (Maragos, 1986). Truk has been a 



source of trepang, or beche-de-mer; in 1941, 520 tonnes 
wet weight of sea cucumbers were harvested from Truk 
Lagoon and nearly 32 000 pounds (14.5 tonnes) of 
trepang were exported from Truk to Japan (Beardsley, 
1971; Smith, 1947); since then there has been no fishery 
although large numbers of holothurians are still present 
(Beardsley, 1971). Truk Lagoon is famous for its World 
War II Japanese wrecks which are a major attraction to 
SCUBA divers (Rosenberg, 1981) and account for a large 
proportion of the tourist industry. On Kosrae, the main 
subsistence fishery is at Okat; there is considerable 
potential for tourism and fishery development on this 
island (Maragos, 1986), and several hotels have been built 
or are being planned (Maragos in litt., 10.8.87). 
Subsistence harvest of turtles in the outer atolls and low 
islands of the F.S.M. is discussed in McCoy (1981). 



Disturbances and Deficiencies 

Acanthaster planci infestations have occurred in a 
number of areas (Antonius, 1971a and b; Cheny, 1973; 
Marsh and Tsuda, 1973; Tsuda, 1971). In May 1971, 
twelve islands (Pulap, Puluwat, Pulusuk, Satawal, 
Lamotrek, Elato, Olimarao, Eauripik, Woleai, Ifalik, 
Faraulep and Mogami Bank) were visited very briefly to 
investigate this problem (Tsuda, 1971). Acanthaster has 
also been recorded on Yap, Ant, Pohnpei, Mwokil, 
Nukuoro, Kapingamarangi, Pingelap (Antonius, 1971a 
and b), and Kosrae (Maragos in litt., 10.8.87). 

Most of the F.S.M. are inhabited, with the high and large 
islands in each state serving as urban and government 
centres. Many of the islands are highly disturbed 
(Douglas, 1969) and may come increasingly under 
pressure with the withdrawal of U.S. assistance (NRDC, 
n.d.) and the possible development of military activities. 
Fisheries and tourism may have increasing impacts on the 
reefs (Maragos, 1986). A number of environmental 
impact studies have been carried out around sewage 
outfalls. Pollution of this kind was considered to be a 
minor problem where the sewage undergoes secondary 
treatment before release (Tsuda, n.d), but Maragos (1986 
and in litt., 10.8.87) considers it among the major 
problems in these islands, especially if treatment is not 
properly maintained and if outfalls discharge into sluggish 
lagoon waters. Moreover, many islanders do not use the 
new sewer systems due to cost (Maragos in litl., 10.8.87). 

Reefs on Yap are subject to influence from terrestrial 
run-off, and coastal dredging is of major concern; this 
group of islands was also seriously affected by World 
War II (Maragos, 1986). Sewage pollution has been a 
problem but efforts are being made to improve this 
(Maragos, 1986). Environmental impact studies carried 
out in Yap include those at Donitsch sewer outfall 
(Amesbury et al., 1976), at Balabat and Pelak on the east 
coast of Yap (Tsuda et al., 1978), at the Colonia Dock site 
and for the siting of proposed dredging projects in Yap 
Lagoon (Amesbury et al., 1977b; Strong et al., 1982; 
Tsuda, 1978). In Outer Yap an environmental impact 
study has been carried out at a site on Falalop Island, 
Ulithi Atoll (Tsuda et al., 1978). Oil spills and pesticides 
have had localised impact on Yap (Falanruw, 1980). A 
comparison by Falanruw (1980) of the results of reef 
surveys by Sugiyama (1942) and Neudecker (1978) shows 
that there has been a considerable redurtion of the coral 
zone in Yap Harbour. 



-67- 



Coral Reefs of the World 



Truk is the most populous and crowded district and the 
reefs are considered to be seriously disturbed (Dahl et al., 
1974) and were considerably damaged during World War 
II; recovery of bombed corals and those affected by 
dynamite fishing appears to have been fairly minor. 
Other problems in Truk include dredge and fill activities, 
the construction of a road causeway across Pou Bay, and 
road building using reef materials (Maragos, 1986). 
Environmental impact studies have been carried out at an 
airport runway expansion site on Moen, built along the 
north-west coast using material from the reef flat at Pou 
Bay (Amesbury, 1981; Devaney et al., 1975; 
Amesbury et al., 1978, 1979, 1980 and 1982); considerable 
damage was caused as the screens to limit the turbidity 
caused by dredging and filling were not properly applied 
(Maragos, 1986). Studies were also carried out on Moen 
at a sewage outfall at Point Gabert (Tsuda et at., 1975), 
and on the north-east fringing reef to monitor sediment 
load and reef fish following dredging (Zolan et at., 1981; 
Amesbury, 1981). Various other environmental impact 
studies have been carried out in Truk, including one for a 
proposed fishery complex site on Tol (Clayshulte et al., 
1978) and one for the Truk Tuna Fishery Complex on 
Dublon (Amesbury et al., 1977a). 

In Pohnpei State there is concern that airports being built 
on reefs on the outer islands and atolls may have a 
deleterious effect on the reefs (Maragos, 1986). On 
Pakin there were plans in the 1970s to open a channel 
into the lagoon and build a pier (Dahl et al., 1974). 
Problems on Pohnpei Island are described in a separate 
account. 

On Kosrae, reefs at Okat have been seriously damaged 
and new road development projects are now threatening 
others. A marine environmental survey of Okat was 
carried out in the course of development of a port and 
runway (Eldredge et al., 1979), but unnecessary 
sedimentation occurred through dredging and filling and 
the reefs have been damaged; a decline in fishery yields 
in this area has been reported (Maragos in litt., 10.8.87). 
Some remedial work has been accomplished but these 
developments wUl have long term consequences 
(Maragos, 1986). The construction of a circumferential 
road at Utwe has caused significant damage as "borrow" 
sites have been opened in reef areas for fill and aggregate 
(Maragos, 1986 and m /(■«., 10.8.87). As yet, other types 
of pollution and waste disposal are still a minor problem 
in this State and a sewage treatment plant project has 
been initiated (Maragos, 1986). 

Coastal resources are heavily exploited for subsistence 
purposes. Dynamiting the reefs for fish seems to be a 
widespread problem (SPREP, 1980), particularly in Truk 
State where reefs around Moen and other islands have 
been seriously damaged (Maragos, 1986). Dynamiting 
and fishing with bleach is also reported from Yap 
(Johannes, in press). In Ulithi there was a major 
ciguatera problem in the 1960s (Randall and Jones, 1968), 
and fish poisoning problems are described in Gawel 
(1984). Giant Clams have been heavily 

over-exploited. Tridacna gigas is now extinct 
and Hippopus hippopus is very rare although fossil shells 
in recent sediments suggest that these species used to be 
abundant (Anon., 1987). Turtles in the F.S.M. are 
coming under increasing hunting pressure; for example 
those on Oroluk in Pohnpei are considered threatened by 
the recent settlement of Kapingamarangi islanders who 
have reported declining catches since they started taking 



turtles in the late 1960s (Gawel in litt., 25.6.87; McCoy, 
1981). 



Legislation and Management 

Traditional customs play an important role in reef 
management in some areas. In Yap, traditional fishing 
rights are the most complicated of all the islands. Village 
boundaries extend through the lagoon to the open sea 
and outsiders are strictly prohibited. Fishing rights in 
reef flat areas are controlled by particular families but are 
overseen by the village as a whole. Fishing areas are 
sometimes put off Umits until fish populations have 
increased. Although some customs have died out, most 
are maintained and the villagers themselves may prohibit 
fishing with dynamite and bleach (Falanruw, 1984). On 
Uhthi, the chiefs of the eight districts control marine 
resources and the reefs, lagoons and islands are divided 
among the clans. On Satawal, the men are free to fish 
anywhere but the women may only fish within the reef. 
The "Chief of the Sea" may sometimes prohibit the use of 
spears in certain areas. Fishing activities on more distant 
reefs are more strictly regulated; for example, fishing on 
Wenimong Reef is restricted to special occassions. On 
Woleai, the lagoon is a controlled area divided among the 
chiefs of the atoll and the large coral heads within the 
lagoon are also owned. In Truk State, the reef flats 
surrounding the islands in the lagoon are generally owned 
by the adjacent land owners and lineages and access by 
others is restricted. This helps to control exploitation on 
"owned" reefs although it may increase exploitation on 
"open" reefs (Johannes, in press; Maragos, 1986). On 
Namonuito, in the Western Islands of Truk, there are 
traditional rights and tenure on at least one (Ulul) of the 
five islands. On Etal, in the Mortlocks, the reef slopes 
and flats are divided into small named tracts owned by 
clans who have exclusive fishing rights; taboos may be 
placed on some reefs for conservation purposes. On 
Lukunor, rights have relapsed, although in the 1940s 
unsuccessful attempts were made to reintroduce them. 
On Kosrae, traditional rights have died out (Johannes, in 
press). 

There are now few legislative environmental controls in 
the F.S.M. Under the Trust Territory of the Pacific 
Islands, a large number of Trust Territory and U.S. 
environmental laws and permit programmes applied, as 
described in Dahl (1980), in particular the National 
Environmental Policy Act (the U.S. law prescribing 
environmental impact statements or EISs). With the 
termination of the Trust Territory, these provisions now 
only apply to U.S. actions within the F.S.M. (now very 
few in number) and do not apply to private individual or 
F.S.M. state actions. Counterpart environmental laws 
and regulations were intended to be introduced for use 
by the F.S.M. goverment, but these had not materialized 
by July 1987 (Maragos in litt., 10.8.87). 

The ships in Truk Lagoon have been designated a 
historical monument (Rosenburg, 1981) and have 
potential for development as a National Historical Park 
(Harry in litt., 29.2.88). An inventory of reef resources 
has been compiled for Moen (Cheney et al., 1982; 
Maragos and Elliott, 1985) and an atlas and report of reef 
resources have been prepared for Pohnpei (see separate 
account). Coastal resource inventories and atlases for 
Kosrae and Yap Islands proper are being sponsored by 
the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and the Universities 



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Federated States of Micronesia 



of Guam and Hawaii are preparing coastal resource 
management plans for these islands. The Government of 
Truk State has requested a similar inventory for Truk 
Lagoon and the Governor of Yap State has requested 
funds to continue the inventory and atlas programme in 
the outer Yap Islands and atolls (Maragos in litt., 10.8.87). 



Recommendations 

There is a serious need for environmental legislation to 
replace that which applied under the Trust Territory of 
the Pacific Islands (Maragos in litt., 10.8.87). Some 
degree of protection has been recommended for Gaferut 
(Dahl, 1980). Turtle reserves have been recommended 
for Elato, Pikelot, West Fayu and Oroluk. East Fayu was 
proposed as an "Island for Science" by the International 
Biological Programme as it is largely undisturbed. Ulithi 
is one of the very few relatively undisturbed atolls 
directly accessible by plane; Woleai is considered totally 
undisturbed (Dahl et al., 1974). Recommendations for 
the management of Pohnpei reefs are given in a separate 
account. A giant clam mariculture project is being 
considered for Kosrae and nursery trials are to be carried 
out on shallow subtidal and intertidal fringing reef flats 
(Anon., 1987). 

Dahl (1980 and 1986) stresses that there is an urgent need 
to inventory the biomes of the F.S.M. in view of the 
richness of the area and the likelihood of great 
development pressure in the near future. The National 
Resources Defence Council, with support from 
lUCN/WWF, has developed a conservation plan of 
action for consideration by the governments of the F.S.M. 
(NRDC, n.d). Truk State is considered to be particularly 
urgently in need of attention, and the coastal resource 
inventory carried out for Moen should be expanded to 
other islands and atoUs. Funds have been requested from 
the government of the F.S.M. and the U.S. National 
Congress for additional inventories of Truk Lagoon and 
outer Yap State (Maragos in litt., 10.8.87). 



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Douglas, G. (1969). Checklist of Pacific Oceanic 

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Coral Reefs of the World 



environmental survey of Okat, Kosrae. Univ. Guam Mar. 

Lab. Tech. Rept 63. 101 pp. 

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♦Fosberg, F.R. (1969). Plants of Satawal Island, Caroline 

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Gawel, M. (1984). Fish poisoning related to human 

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Gillett, R. (in press). Traditional tuna fishing: A study at 

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B.P. Bishop Mus. 

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Mus. Bull. 209. 151 pp. 

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the asteroids, echinoids and holothurians in Yap 

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Holthus, P.F. (1985). A reef resource conservation and 

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Holthus, P.F. (1987). Pohnpei coastal resources: 

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lagoon fishery. Mar. Resource Div., Ponape. Unpub. rept. 

28 pp. 

Johannes, R.E. (in press). The role of Marine Resource 

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marine resource development and management in 

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(Ed.), Topic Reviews in Insular Resource Development 

and Management in the Pacific U.S.-affiliated 

islands. Univ. Guam Mar. Lab. Tech. Rept 88. 

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assemblages of Yap, Micronesia. Aquatic Bot. 5: 245-249. 

*Manoa Mapworks (1985). Pohnpei Coastal Resource 

Atlas. Prepared for the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, 

Pacific Ocean Division under contract no. 

DACW-83-84-M-0577. Honolulu, Hawaii. 78 pp. 

McCoy, MA. (1981). Subsistence hunting of turtles in the 

western Pacific: The Caroline Islands. In: Bjorndal, K.A. 

(Ed.), Biology and Conservation of Sea Turtles. 

Smithsonian Institution Press, Washington D.C. 

Pp. 275-280. 

*McKee, E.D. (1958). Geology of Kapingamarangi Atoll, 

Caroline Islands. Bull. Geol. Soc. Aiiier. 69: 241-278. 

Maragos, J.E. (1986). Coastal resource development and 

management in the U.S. Pacific Islands: 1. 

Island-by-island analysis. Office of Technology 

Assessment, U.S. Congress. Draft. 

Maragos, J.E. and Elliott, M.E. (1985). Coastal resource 

inventories in Hawaii, Samoa and Micronesia. Proc. 5th 

Int. Coral Reef Cong, Tahiti 5: 577-582. 

•Marsh, JjV. and Tsuda, R.T. (1973). Population levels 

of Acanlhaster planci in the Mariana and Caroline 

Islands, 1969-1972. Aloll Res Bull. 170: 1-16. 



•Marshall, M. (1975). The natural history of Namoluk 

Atoll, Eastern Caroline Islands. Atoll Res Bull. 189. 

♦Murphy, R.E. (1949). "High" and "low" islands in the 

eastern Carolines. Geog. Rev. 39: 425-439. 

Neudecker, S. (1978). Qualitative assessment of coral 

species composition of reef communities in Yap Lagoon. 

In: Tsuda, R.T. (Ed.), Marine Biological Survey of Yap 

Lagoon. Univ. Guam Mar. Lab. Tech. Rept 45: 43-80. 

•Nlerlng, W-A. (1956). Bioecology of Kapingamarangi 

Atoll, Caroline Islands: Terrestrial aspects. Aloll Res. 

Bull 49. 32 pp. 

•Niering, WA. (1961). Observations on Puluwat and 

Gaferut, Caroline Islands. Atoll Res. Bull. 76: 1-10. 

NRDC (Natural Resources Defense Council) (n.d.). 

Proposal to implement the World Conservation Strategy 

in the Caroline Islands of Micronesia. 

•OPS, TTPI (Office of Planning and Statistics, Trust 

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(1978a). Tonowas / Etten Land Use Guide. 

•OPS, TTPI (Office of Planning and Statistics, Trust 

Territory of the Pacific Islands) (1978b). Uman Land 

Use Guide. 

•OPS, TTPI (Office of Planning and Statistics, Trust 

Territory of the Pacific Islands) (1978c). Fefan Land 

Use Guide. 

•OPS, TTPI (Office of Planning and Statistics, Trust 

Territory of the Pacific Islands) (1978d). Udot/Eot 

Land Use Guide. 

Pritchard, P.C.H. (1981). Marine turtles of Micronesia. 

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Sea Turtles. Smithsonian Institution Press, 

Washington DC. Pp. 263-274. 

•Randall, J.E. and Jones, R.S. (1968). Report on 

ciguatera at Ulithi Atoll, Caroline Islands. Univ. Guam 

Mar. Lab. Misc. Rept 1 . 4 pp. 

Rosenberg, VA. (1981). Shipwrecks of Truk. Privately 

printed. 102 pp. 

•St John, H. (1948). Report on the flora of Pingelap 

AtoU, Caroline Islands, Micronesia, and observations on 

the native inhabitants: Pacific Plant Studies 7. Pac. Sci. 2: 

96-113. 

Scott, GAJ. and Rotondo, G.M. (1983). A model for the 

development of types of atoll and volcanic islands on the 

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•Strong, R.D., Randall, R.H., Smalley, T.L., Bumoon, B. 

and Bowoo, O. (1982). Environmental assessment for 

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Guam Mar Lab. Tech. Rept 78. 88 pp. 

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and its fringing reefs. Mem. Palaeont. Inst. Fac. Sci. 

Tohoku Imp Univ. 39: 7-26. 

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Tech. Rept 2. 127 pp. 

•Tsuda, R.T. (1972). Marine benthic algae from Truk 

and Kuop, Caroline Islands. Aloll Res Bull. 155: 1-10. 



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•Tsuda, R.T. (Ed.) (1978). Marine biological survey of 

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*Tsuda, R.T., Amesbury, S.S., Moras, S.C. and 

Beeman, P.P. (1975). Limited current and underwater 

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Lassuy, D.R. and Smith, B.D. (1978). Current and 

underater biological survey of selected sewer outfall sites 

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•Tsuda, R.T., Randall, R.H. and Chase, J.A. (1974). 

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Shafter, Hawaii. 

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few basalt islands with fringing reefs. An extensive 
barrier reef, dissected by over 15 deep passes, encloses 
the lagoon and supports a few sand islets (Baker, 1951; 
Glassman, 1952; Holthus, 1985; Maragos, 1986). Physical 
features of the northern part of the lagoon are described 
byBirkeland(1980). 

Reef Structure and Corals A coral reef inventory and 
atlas covering the whole island have been prepared 
(Manoa Mapwork.s, 1985; Maragos, 1986; USACE, 
1986). Prior to this, the barrier reef had been studied at 
Mant Passage, the north-east entrance through the 
windward side of the reef. Species diversity was low and 
the water turbid (Dahl ef fl/., 1974). Corals and reefs of 
the northern lagoon are described in Birkeland (1980). 
An environmental study was carried out in the region of 
Tuanmokot Channel (Tsuda et al., 1974). 

Noteworthy Fauna and Flora The flora is described in 
Glassman (1952). 

Scientific Importance and Research In 1984 the reef 
and lagoon resources were inventoried 

semi-quantitatively during a two month survey by the 
U.S. Army Corps of Engineers and the University of 
Hawaii in order to compile a coral reef inventory and 
atlas (see above). The teefs are being analysed as part of 
the proposed coral reef management plan (Maragos, 
1986; Holthus, 1985 and 1987). Bibliographies of coastal 
Pohnpei are provided in Birkeland (1980) and USACE 
(1986). 

Economic Value and Social Benefits Fish are an 
important subsistence resource (Johannes, 1978) and 
there is good potential for further development 
(Maragos, 1986). Trochus shell is harvested and a small 
artisanal fishery provides the local market with fresh reef 
fish (Holthus, 1985). 



POHNPEI (PONAPE) 

Geographical Location Pohnpei State is in the eastern 
Caroline Islands, between Truk and Kosrae; nearest 
islands to Pohnpei are Ant and Pakin; ca 6°45'N, 
157''15'E. 

Area, Depth, Altitude 334 sq. km; diameter about 
20 km; max. alt. 2595 ft (791 m). 

Physical Features Pohnpei is a roughly pentagonal high 
basalt volcanic island with a number of high peaks from 
which radiate sharp ridges, steep cliffs and narrow valleys 
which often reach to the deeply indented shore. There 
are only limited coastal lowlands and plains. Rainfall is 
almost 5000 mm a year on the windward coast and an 
estimated 10 000 mm a year in the interior, resulting in 
numerous streams which discharge into nearshore 
waters. Reefs and the coast are described in USACE 
(1986). The island is surrounded by a complex reef and 
lagoon system. The highly convoluted fringing reef, 
20-2000 m wide, supports a nearly continuous belt of 
mangrove. A deep, 1-2 mile (1.6-3.2 km) wide lagoon 
encircles most of the island except in the south-east 
where there is a continuous fringing reef platform. The 
lagoon has many linear, patch and pinnacle reefs and a 



Disturbance or Deficiencies Acanthaster outbreaks were 
studied in the early 1970s (Cheney, 1974). Most of the 
reefs are in a relatively healthy state but there are an 
increasing number of threats as most of the population of 
Pohnpei State is based on this island at Kolonia, and the 
island is the capital of the F.S.M. (Holthus, 1985). There 
has been recent reef destruction from dredge and fill 
activities on shallow flats, especially near the port and 
airport area of Kolonia. Sediment from upland 
construction has also caused reef degradation and reef 
"borrow" sites for aggregate for building of the 
circumferential road have caused problems. Domestic 
pollution and disposal of solid waste are becoming of 
increasing concern. Increased fishing pressure is 
becoming apparent in the lagoon. Dynamite fishing has 
been reported but is not said to be serious (Maragos, 
1986). 

Legal Protection There are no protected areas, 

although Trochus reserves have been designated to 
control overharvesting (Holthus, 1985). 

Management There are at present very few 

environmental controls in effect, those that previously 
operated having largely ceased to apply with the 
termination of the Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands in 
October 1986 (Maragos in litt., 10.8.87). The traditional 
use of marine resources, sea tenure and their deniise have 
been briefly documented (Bascom, 1965; Johannes, in 
press; Sudo, 1984). The five municipalities used to have 



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Coral Reefs of the World 



exclusive fishing rights in adjacent waters but these 
traditional customs have now died out. 

Recommendations Following preliminary 

recommendations made by Holthus (1985), a detailed 
reef and lagoon resource management plan has been 
prepared (Holthus, 1987) which could serve as a model 
for other high islands. Using the Pohpei Coastal 
Resource Atlas (USAGE, 1986) as a map base, a zoning 
plan for the mangrove reef and lagoon areas has been 
developed. The zones are: 1) development/general use 
(with specific sand mining and reef flat dredging sites); 2) 
sustainable use; 3) seasonal preserves; 4) species 
preserves; 5) marine parks. Management measures set 
out include; permits; water and envirormiental quality 



monitoring; fisheries conservation including the 
estabhshment of Giant Clam preserves and monitoring of 
depleted species; facilities siting; emergency planning; 
land use controls; and hazardous substances 
management. A team of various Pohnpei State 
government agencies is reviewing the plan, and 
organising its distribution and public review. It will then 
be printed by the University of Hawaii Sea Grant 
(Holthus in liti., 27.10.87). Appropriate measures to 
control excessive soU erosion and reef sedimentation are 
suggested for coastal areas adjacent to extensive land 
clearing and road construction (Holthus, 1985). Earlier 
recommendations for improvement of the reef fishery are 
given in Johannes (1978). 



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FUI 



INTRODUCTION 

General Description 

Fiji comprises about 844 islands and islets (of which 
about 106 are inhabited) scattered in the area 15°-23°S, 
177°-178°W. The country is divided into 14 provinces 
and Rotuma, and the islands may be divided into several 
distinct groups: Rotuma; Vanua Levu and associated 
islands, including Taveuni and the Ringgold Isles; the Lau 
Group; the Lomaiviti Group; the Yasawas; Viti Levu and 
associated islands; and Kadavu and associated islands. 
The main archipelago comprises a total land area of 
18 333 sq. km, of which 87% is accounted for by Viti 
Levu (10 386 sq. km) and Vanua Levu (5534 sq. km); 
other large islands are Taveuni, Kadavu and Gau. Apart 
from Kadavu and islands in the Koro Sea, the islands 
consist almost entirely of volcanic and plutonic rocks of 
various ages which have been subjected to degeneration 
and soil formation under typical tropical conditions of 
intense weathering. The Fiji Plateau consists of two 
submerged platforms, the Viti Levu and Vanua Levu 
platforms, and is surrounded by deep water, except at the 
Kermadec Ridge which links it with North Island, New 
Zealand. Depths of 2000-3000 m are found within the 
Lau Group in the east but are generally less than 2000 m 
around Viti Levu and Vanua Levu. The 1830 m (1000 
fathom) isobath is situated less than 18 km off Viti Levu 
in the south-west. 

The surface current flows south-westerly through the 
group. Water temperatures are always above 20°C, with 
a summer ocean maximum of about 30°C and a mean 
annual variation of about 6°C. Tidal range is very small, 
neap tides having a mean range of 0.9 m and springs of 
1.30 m (Ryland, 1981). Tides are semi-diurnal with the 
lower low-water springs falling during the night in 
suirmier but during the day in winter (Ryland, 1979). 

The climate is tropical with high humidity and 
temperatures may rise to 35°C, but these are modified by 
the south-east trade winds from May to November. The 
summer is hot and wet with several tropical cyclones 
while the winter months are drier and cooler. Mean 
monthly temperatures range from 23°C in July and 
August to 27°C in January. Annual rainfall is unevenly 
distributed owing to the rain shadow caused by the 
mountains and high plateaux (1200+ m) of the larger 
islands (mean 3000 mm on the east coast, 1650 mm on the 
west coast) (Guinea, 1981). 

In the following table, reefs taken from Ordinance 
Survey maps are referenced O.S. Considerable 

information has been provided by Rodda (jn litt., 
14.9.87). However, the tables are not comprehensive for 
all reefs and islands, particularly in the more complex 
systems. 

Table of Islands 

ROTUMA GROUP 

Rotuma is the northernmost island group and lies ca 
400 km north of Vanua Levu. The group is volcanic in 
origin (the most recent eruptions are post human 



settlement) and consists of Rotuma and nine associated 
islets, five of which are situated on the reef surrounding 
Rotuma (Woodhall, 1985). The climate is more 
equatorial than the rest of Fiji (warmer and wetter). 
There are no mangroves (Dunlap and Singh, 1980). For 
most of the year a current flows west-north-west at 
ca 1 kph (Smith in litt., 5.10.87). 

Rotuma (X) 44 sq. km; volcanic; a few swampy areas, 
one perennial stream and freshwater seeps on some 
beaches; east and west parts connected by possibly 
recent, narrow, sandy vegetated isthmus; well-developed 
fringing reef; reef flat generally narrow, up to 400 m wide 
at Noa'tau and in a few other areas (Smith in litt., 
5.10.87); extensive submerged sand and coral bank 
extends ca 8 km from Malhaha towards north-west of 
Rotuma, and submarine bank (Whale Bank), 
ca 5 x 1.5 km with mean depth 30-33 m, lies to the west; 
5 small islets on reef around coast: Hauatiu, 
Haua-Meamea, Solnohu, Solkope, Afgaha. 

Uea 77 ha; cone to 860 ft (262 m), cliff-bound; no reef. 

Hatana 4 ha; 60 ft (18.3 m); volcanic; booby Sula sp. 
nesting; small islet, Hofhavunglola, on same reef platform 
with nesting Noddy Terns Anous sp. (Smith in litt., 
5.10.87). 

Hofliua less than 1 sq. km; 190 ft (58 m); cliff-bound; 
volcanic; no reef. 



VANUA LEVU AND RINGGOLD GROUPS 

Vanua Levu is the second largest island in Fiji; reefs 
along the south and west coasts include Cakau Levu, the 
Vanua Levu Barrier Reef and Rainbow Reef. Taveuni, 
the third largest island and part of the Vanua Levu 
Group, is separated from Vanua Levu by Somosomo 
Strait (9 km wide at its narrowest). There are a number 
of offshore islands and a complex offshore reef system, 
including the Great Sea Reef. Descriptions of geology 
and reefs are given in Woodhall (1985b). The Ringgold 
Isles and associated reefs extend east and north-east of 
Vanua Levu and are sometimes considered part of the 
Lau Group, although they are separated from them by 
the Nanuku Passage and are not geologically part of them. 

Vanua Levu 5534 sq km; high volcanic, 1032 m; some 
limestone along south-east coast; arid plains; mountain 
chain creates rainshadow, with dry north-west side (mean 
rainfall 160 cm p.a.) and wet south side (420 cm rain pa); 
average temperature 25°C; river system is less developed 
than Viti Levu; only one river over 25 km long (Dreketi); 
three rivers (Wailevu, Labasa and Qawa) merge to form 
the Labasa delta on the central northern coast; 
mangroves found near all river mouths (Dunlap and 
Singh, 1980); reefs along coast of Somosomo Str. to 
south-east (Davis, 1920); several areas surveyed for Giant 
Clams (Lewises a/., 1985). 

Namenalala (Namena) 43.2 ha; hilly and forested; 
105 m rounded summit; volcanic; on Namena barrier reef; 
also fringing reef; turtles; important seabird nesting 
colony (Clunie, in press); fishing; resort. 



-73- 



Coral Reefs of the World 




-74- 



Fiji 




'^ Reefs 

• Approximate 1000m isobath , 

^ Proposed park or protected 
area 



Rotuma 



"^^ 



-15°S 



EXPLORING ISLES 



Cicobiai-lau 



Va,.Va.ae> -'..-g^^^^^ee^ ' Ka.a.aga 
^aS^ Vekan» " 



Tuvuca \ 



LAU GROUP 



0©' 



\ ^Yaroua Reid Reef 
Tavunuku-i-vanua 



Nayau| 



Lakeba 



Vanua Valu g> 



Moala 



Vanua Mas! 

'I Bukatatanoa 
'^_ Reefs 

Aiwa^*^ 
Oneala 



* Nauatu 
.. Tavunasici.O 



Olorua« Mqce 



£acau Lekaleka 



3- i,.iuoB Ma 



^ 



MOALA GROUP 



Korno*' V^Karoni 
Vuaqava^-, ^Namuka-Hau 



Totoya 



Maluku 



@ 



Cikobia 



Vanua Levu 



YASAWA GROUP 








■i" ■ LAU GROUP 
■3) 



MOALA GROUP 



— 20°S 



f 



100 



200 km 

I 



Ceva-i-ra 

9 



|175°E 



180° El 



■ Marabo * 

Fulaga(^^Ogea 

Nukusoge 



Vaioa^ 
Vuata ValoaO 



26 50 km 



^ Ono-i-lau 



Vuata Ono 



Tuvana-i-colOo o Tuvana-l-ra 



-75- 



Coral Reefs of the World 



Yadua 5.26 sq. mi. (13.6 sq. km); volcanic; 195 m; 
fringing reefs (O.S.). 

Yadua Tabu 0.7 sq km; volcanic; 100 m; within Yadua 
fringing reef (O.S.); endemic iguana Brachylophus 
vitiensis (Singh, 1985). 

Yaqaga 3.73 sq. mi. (9.7 sq. km); 887 ft (270 m); 
volcanic; rocky; fringing reef (O.S.). 

Galea 190 acres (77 ha); 90 m, volcanic; fringing reef 
(O.S.). 

Tavea 39 acres (15.8 ha); 79 m, volcanic; surrounded by 
mangroves; fringing reefs (O.S.). 

Nukuira mangrove-covered cay surrounded by circular 
Ovatoa Reef (6-10 km diameter) within Great Sea Reef. 

Nadogo (Nadogu) mangrove-covered cay within circular 
reef (6-10 km diameter) (O.S.). 

Vatuki 1.6 ha; mangrove-covered sand and beach-rock 
cay within circular reef (ca 3 km diameter) (O.S.). 

Macuata-i-wai 1.25 sq. mi. (3.2 sq. km); 500 ft (152 m); 
volcanic; stony; fringing reef; Mavuva (18 ha) lies off 
north tip within fringing reef (OS.). 

Talailau mangrove-covered cay within circular Cakau 
. Talailau Reef (3-7 km diameter). 

Kia 400 acres (162 ha); 780 ft (238 m); volcanic, very 
rugged; surrounded by Great Sea Reef; no fringing reefs 
(OS.). 

Vorovoro 35.2 ha; 292 ft (89 m); no reefs (O.S.). 

Mali (X) 6.7 sq. km; 562 ft (171 m); conical peak; 
volcanic; fringing reef mainly along north coast (OS.). 

Sausau 6 acres (2.4 ha); volcanic; situated on 25 km reef 
parallel to Great Sea Reef (O.S.); sea snakes. 

Tivi 343 ft (105 m); volcanic; fringing reef (O.S.), 

Tutu 2.8 sq. km; 634 ft (193 m); volcanic; joined to 
mainland by mangroves; fringing reef along ca 1/2 of 
coast (O.S.). 

Kavewa (X) 210 acres (85 ha); volcanic; within circular 
reef (O.S.). 

Gevo (X) 190 acres (77 ha), 463 ft (141 m); volcanic; 
fringing reef (O.S). 

Druadrua (X) 1.5 sq. mi. (3.9 sq. km); 438 ft (134 m); 
volcanic; flat-topped; rocky; fringing reef (O.S.). 

Namukalau (X) 50.2 ha; volcanic; fringing reef on north 
side; mangroves. 

Tilagica on Great Sea Reef (OS.); surrounded by 
mangroves. 

Bekana 12.2 ha; 6 m; volcanic; within circular reef 
(2-4 km diameter) (O.S). 



Rabi (X) 26.56 sq. mi. (68.8 sq. km); volcanic; 1529 ft 
(466 m); steep slopes; reef encircled (Davis, 1920); settled 
by former Banaban islanders; Florida Reefs off 
south-east coast; Texas Reef ca 15 km north-west (O.S). 

Kioa (X) 18.6 sq. km; 1 km from Vanua Levu; volcanic, 
305 m; sheer south and south-east face to eroded volcanic 
cone; fringing reef mainly on east and south coasts (O.S.). 

Taveuni (X) 168 sq. mi. (435 sq. km); volcanic backbone 
of dormant cones; 4072 ft (1241 m); crater lake (Davis, 
1920); drier north-west side; south-east coast has ca 
700 cm annual rainfall (highest in Fiji); steep sides and 
high rainfall contribute to scarcity of reefs - absent from 
much of east and west coasts of southern part of island, 
elsewhere largely fringing reefs (Ryland, 1979); Vuna 
Reef at south-western extremity encloses a lagoon which 
is a surviving part of more extensive structure (Davis, 
1920); Korolevu with associated reef complex lies off 
north-west coast; Viubani lies within reef off northern tip 
(O.S); described by Brookfield (1978a). 

Qamea (X) 13 sq. mi. (33.7 sq. km); volcanic; 996 ft 
(304 m); deeply dissected coastline; mangrove-filled islets; 
fringing reef round much of coast; Qamea and Laucala 
both part-encircled by same barrier reef (Davis, 1920); 
small resort. 

Laucala (X) 4.7 sq. mi. (12.2 sq. km); volcanic, 440 ft 
(134 m); private; Motualevu Reef ca 5 km north-east. 

Matagi (X) 232 acres (94 ha); volcanic, ca 100 m; sited 
on Qamea barrier reef; privately owned; small resort. 

Cikobia (X) 5.78 sq. mi. (15 sq. km); narrow limestone 
ridge with 2 volcanic areas; west very rugged; 630 ft 
(192 m); east lower and sandy, 430-450 ft (131-137 m); 
fringing reef; seabird colony (Clunie, in press). 



Ringgold Isles 

Heemskercq Reefs large elongate barrier reef system 
with deep lagoon. 

Nukusemanu reefs lying to north, with sand cay (2 ha) 
with some beach rock; seabird colony (Clunie, in press). 

Nanuku Reef Islets three small reef islets of sand and 
beach-rock to south; bank of sandy coral; 150 sq. yds 
(123 sq. m) of reef; seabirds; turtles (Bustard, 1970). 

Budd Reef Islets almost-atoU, 12 mi. (19.3 km) 

diameter; narrow barrier reef circling 16 x 10 km lagoon, 
50-80 m deep (Clunie, in press; Davis, 1920); include: 

Yanuca (X) 102 ha; 137 m; volcanic; 

Yavu 62 ha; 112.8 m; volcanic; 

Maqewa 26 ha; volcanic; rocky, covered with low 
scrubby bush; 280 ft (85 m); joined to Yanuca by 
reef; 

Beka 2.8 ha; volcanic; 110 ft (33.5 m); 

Cobia 70 ha; Uttle-eroded volcanic remains of 
crater rim with wet, steep slopes, 580 ft (177 m); 



-76- 



Fiji 



almost circular but breached over 300 m distance; 
tides flow over reef into sandy bottomed lagoon 
(800 m broad, 44 m deep); rich marine life; 
mangroves fringe coast; reef slopes steeply into 
deep water; 4 small sandy beaches; forest seriously 
damaged by goats, serious erosion; reef unaffected 
at present but threatened (Clunie, in press); 

Baranitiqa and Tovuka AA ha and 1.5 ha volcanic 
double islet; Rarantiqa low and flat; Tovuka small 
and rugged (45 m) with bad soil erosion from 
introduced goats (Clunie, in press). 

Adolphus Reef circular lagoon awash at high tide. 

Nukubasaga 20 ha; atoll; 3 m; rockbound; beach-rock 
and sand; 3 m; major seabird colony, turtles. 

Nukubalati (Nukupureti) 3.2 ha; atoll; 3 m; sand cay 
with beach rock; connected to Nukubasaga by reef; 
seabirds, turtles. 

Qelelevu (Naqelelevu) (X) 147 ha; atoll, 2 islets; 30-40 ft 
(9-12 m); continuous barrier reef to west of islets; islets 
described by Clunie (in press); reefs described and 
mapped in Phipps and Preobrazhensky (1977); seabird 
nesting colony; Coconut Crab Birgus lairo present 
(Clunie, in press); adjoined by limestone islets 
Taulalia/Tauraria (13.5 ha). 

Vetauua 38.3 ha; 2 m; sand and beach-rock with 2 small 
limestone stacks ca 3 m high on reef flat; fringing reef 
described and mapped in Phipps and Preobrazhensky 
(1977); major seabird nesting colony (Clunie, in press). 



second is volcanic, 37 m; both on one reef in lagoon; third 
volcanic with fringing reef joining it to main barrier reef; 
turtles; fishing. 

Naitauba (X) 8.8 sq. km in reef system of 26 sq. km; 
circular volcanic and limestone; 610 ft (186 m); private; 
fringing reefs described by Brodie and Brodie (1987). 

Malima 3 volcanic islets on one reef in lagoon; land area 
33 ha; largest 39.6 m, others lower; reef system 17 sq. km. 

Exploring Isles reef system 860 sq. km; includes: 

Vanua Balavu (X) 20.54 sq. mi. (53.2 sq. km); 

limestone/ volcanic, 930 ft (283 m) cliffs; Qilaqila (Bay of 
Islands) lies south of north-western tip and encloses 
numerous islets; Daku barrier reef runs from Namalata Pt 
for 8.5 mi. (13.6 km) to Muamua Passage; surveyed for 
Giant Clams, as well as Qilaqila Reefs (Lewis ei ai, 
1985); larger barrier reef complex to east, enclosing: 

Sovu Islets 3 steep-sided limestone masses; total 
area 16.6 ha; 230 ft (70 m); fringing reef; seabirds; 

Avea (Yavea) (X) 2.16 sq. km; volcanic and 
limestone; 600 ft (183 m); fringing reef joining 
island to Vanua Balavu; 

Namalala (Malata) (X) 2.1 sq. km; high backed 
limestone ridge with some volcanic rock; 420 ft 
(128 m); 

Susui (X) 3.3 sq. km; end of elevated reef; 430 ft 
(131 m); limestone in west, volcanic rocks and 
sandflat in east; 



LAU ISLANDS 

The Lau Archipelago is the most easterly part of Fiji and 
consists of about 40 small islands and over 250 islets and 
cays covering an area of ca 440 sq. km in 1 13 900 sq. km 
of ocean, between 16°30'-20°S and 178-180°W. Their 
geology is described by Ladd and Hoffmeister (1945). 
The northern islands are mainly high and of composite 
volcanic and limestone, the southern ones mainly low and 
limestone only but there are some islands of solely 
volcanic formation (Rodda in litl., 14.10.87). The largest 
is Lakeba (see separate account). Although many of the 
islands are only a few kilometres apart, depths between 
them frequently reach 200-300 m, and sometimes over 
1500 m; bathymetric studies indicate the sea bed to be an 
irregular volcanic terrain (Phipps and Preobrazhensky, 
1977). Mean annual temperature is 26°C; mean rainfall is 
200 cm with most parts of the region experiencing a 
moderate dry season of three months. Most islands lack 
freshwater (Duniap and Singh, 1980). Geology and reef 
systems of this group are described and mapped in 
WoodhaU (1984a, b and c; 1985a and c). 

Wailagilala (X) true atoll surrounded by very deep 
water; lagoon; 2 islets of sand and beach-rock, variable in 
size (30 ha in 1950s); barrier reef; reef system covers 
24 sq. km, described and mapped by Phipps and 
Preobrazhensk7 (1977); fore-reef drops vertically to 
200-300 m; lighthouse. 

Kibobo land area 16.6 ha in reef system of 25 sq. km; 3 
islets in middle of lagoon; largest is limestone, 58 m; 



Munia (X) 4.5 sq. km; high ridge, 950 ft (290 m); 
steep scarps; volcanic, very fertile; fringing reef 
joined to main barrier reef; privately owned; 

Cikobia-i-lau (X) 2.98 sq. km; volcanic and 
limestone; 550 ft (168 m); barrier reef surveyed for 
Giant Clams (Lewis et ai, 1985); fringing reef 
separated from barrier reef. 

Kanacea (X) 5 sq. mi. (13 sq. km); reef system 
53 sq. km; volcanic with 7 peaks; 850 ft (259 m) summits 
and higher slopes; fringing reef with lagoon to the east; 
private. 

Kaibu 1.5 sq. km; mainly limestone with low plain 
underlain by volcanic rock; 150 ft (388 m); rugged; on 
same reef system (20 sq. km) as Yacata. 

Yacata (X) 8.3 sq. km; limestone and volcanic with 
terraces; 256 m; fringing reef encloses Kaibu as well; 
many limestone islets on north coast. 

Nukutolu Islets Koronidre (Umestone) and Korosiga 
(sand and beach rock) on one elongated reef; Nasaqa 
(sand and beach rock) on separate reef to east; 
lighthouse; visited from Yacata for coconuts and turtles; 
seabird rookery. 

Vatu Vara 3.84 sq. km in 8.5 sq. km reef system; high 
limestone; 314 m; flat-topped; cUff-bound; fringing reef; 
privately owned. 



-77- 



Coral Reefs of the World 



Mago (X) 22 sq. km in 36.5 sq. km reef system; 
limestone overlain and underlain by volcanics; 204 m; 
central basin; fringing reef; privately owned. 

Katafaga 80 ha in 17 sq. km reef system; volcanic plus 
limestone; 180 ft (55 m); twin summits; reefs described 
and mapped by Phipps and Preobrazhensky (1977); 
privately owned; visited during turtle season. 

Vekai 1 ha in reef system of 8 sq. km; low limestone 
islet on inner edge of reef; turtle fishing; seabirds. 

Tuvuca (X) 5 sq. mi. (13 sq. km) in 21 sq. km reef 
system; high Umestone, undercut cliffs along much of 
coast and inland; central basin with several depressions; 
800 ft (244 m); barrier reef with narrow lagoon; fringing 
reef around north; reefs described and mapped by Phipps 
and Preobrazhensky (1977); geology described by Rodda 
(1981). 

Cicia (X) 13 sq. mi. (34 sq. km) in reef system of 49 sq. 
km; mainly volcanic; 540 ft (165 m) with rim of limestone 
cliffs; fringing reef, described and mapped by Phipps and 
Preobrazhensky (1977). 

Tavunuku-i-vanua 55 ha patch reef with 4 ha sand cay. 

Yaroua 80 ha patch reef with 12 ha sand cay. 

Reid Reef almost circular central lagoon; reef system 
89 sq. km; 3 limestone islets each with fringing reef; 
Late-i-Viti (18 m), Late-i-Tonga (15 m) and Booby Rock 
(4 m); surveyed by Fisheries Dept Giant Clam project 
(Lewis era/., 1985). 

Nayau (X) 7 sq. mi. (18 sq. km) in reef system of 
26 sq. km; limestone with some areas of volcanic rock 
exposed beneath; 179 m; hills around central basin, 
undercut sea cliffs; fringing reef. 

Bukatatanoa Reefs barrier reef complex awash at high 
tide; second largest reef system in Lau covering 
ca 750 sq. km (over 200 km of reef); main reef system has 
limestone islet, Vanua Masi (15 ha, 24.4 m); also 
limestone Bacon I. on barrier reef; surveyed by Fisheries 
Dept Giant Clam project (Lewis et al., 1985). 

Lakeba (X) {see separate account). 

Aiwa 121 ha land area in 59 sq. km reef system; 2 
narrow limestone islets, ca 1.6 km long; alt. 200 ft (61 m); 
low bluffs and sheer chffs; surveyed by Unesco/UNFPA 
project; reefs, molluscs and fish described by Salvat et al. 
(1976); no true fringing reefs; submerged 12 km barrier 
reef on southern side; fishing. 

Oneata (X) 4 sq. km in 95 sq. km reef system; low 
Umestone ridge, 160 ft (49 m) with some volcanic rocks in 
extensive lagoon; swampy central depression; mushroom 
rocks; joined by reef to Loa; used as U.S. observation 
post. 

Cacau Lekaleka barrier reef with enclosed lagoon. 

Moce (X) 4 sq. mi. (10.4 sq. km) in 55 sq. km reef 
system; volcanic cone 590 ft (180 m); wet; fringing reef. 

Karoni 40.4 ha in same reef system as Moce; limestone, 
120 ft (37 m); on reef attached to main barrier reef. 



Komo (X) 1.53 sq. km in 34 sq. km reef system; narrow 
volcanic ridge, 270 ft (82 m), within lagoon; 8 ha 
limestone rocky islet (Komo Driki) off shore on separate 
reef to west. 

Olorua 16.2 ha in 6 sq. km reef system; small steep 
island; remains of volcanic cone, 250 ft (76 m). 

Vanua Vatu (X) 4.1 sq. km on reef system of 
12.5 sq. km; circular Umestone, 102 m; 1 smaU viUage, 
known for "sacred" red prawns. 

Tavunasici 40 ha in 4 sq. km reef system; Umestone 
island ca 800 m diameter with low cliffs, coral-sand 
beaches, beach rock; 61 m; encircled by barrier reef with 
lagoon 400-800 m across; surveyed by Unesco/UNFPA 
project; reefs described by Salvat et al. (1976). 

Vuaqava 8.1 sq. km in 17 sq. km reef system; Umestone 
atoll; 300-350 ft (91-107 m) sea cliffs, central basin with 
tidal saltwater; fringing reef; lake used as turtle pen by 
Kabara islanders. 

Kabara (X) 12 sq. mi. (31 sq. km) in 44.5 sq. km reef 
system; basin-shaped; Umestone; 300-350 ft (91-107 m) 
cUffs and 470 ft (143 m) volcanic hills; central basin 100 ft 
(91 m) pitted and karstic; reefs described by Galzin et al. 
(1979) and Salvat et al. (1976); no fringing reef; 
continuous barrier reef, emergent at low tide on east, 
surrounds lagoon ca 500 m wide, 2-3 m deep; lagoon 
filling with sand and outer reef dying (98% of barrier reef 
dead) presumed to be result of recent uplift; surveyed by 
Unesco/UNFPA project. 

Marabo (X) 1.29 sq. km in 3.5 sq. km reef system; oval 
limestone island, 49 m; steep undercut cliffs; no landing 
places. 

Yagasa Cluster 4 limestone islets in 90 sq. km reef 
system; under-cut cliffs; barrier reef surrounds islets; 
surveyed by Unesco/UNFPA project; reefs, moUuscs, 
fish described by Salvat et al. (1976): 



Yagasa-levu 
inaccessible; 



2.6 sq. km, 119 m; rising in terraces, 



Navutu-i-loma limestone, many mushroom islets; 

Navutu-i-ra 270 ft (82 m); low cUffs and mushroom 
islets; attached by fringing reef to barrier reef; 

Yavuca very rugged, inaccessible; attached by 
fringing reef to same barrier reef as Navutu-i-ra. 

Naievo (Nayabo) 25 ha limestone islet with sand flat, 
surrounded by reefs covering 1.4 sq. km; 3 m. 

Namuka-i-lau (X) 5 sq. mi. (13 sq. km) in 50 sq. km reef 
system; narrow limestone ridge around oval island; 260 ft 
(79 m); fairly weU developed barrier reef around most of 
coast, except north; surveyed by Unesco/UNFPA 
project; reefs, molluscs, fish described by Salvat et al. 
(1976). 

Fulaga (X) 18.5 sq. km on reef system of 55 sq. km; 
crescent of limestone surrounding lagoon; 79 m; 
mushroom islets; marine cave at Qaranitoa; fringing reef; 
seagrass beds; land crab breeding area; bays and islets 
very attractive. 



-78- 



Fiji 



Ogea 90 sq. km reef system with ca 200 islands and islets 
including: 

Ogea Driki 5.23 sq. km; limestone; steep cliffs; 
300 ft (91 m); landing place choked with mangroves; 
seabirds; 

Ogea Levu and Yanuya (X) 13.3 sq. km; limestone; 
270 ft (82 m); fringed with mushroom islets. 

Teteika ca 1.5 sq. km patch reef; limestone with thin 
veneer of algae and coral (Ladd and Hoffmeister, 1945). 

Nukusoge ca 5 sq. km; atoU reef with sand bank 
normally above high tide level (Ladd and Hoffmeister, 
1945). 

Vatoa (X) 4.45 sq. km in 20.5 sq. km reef system; 
limestone; 209 ft (64 m); caves; barrier reef. 

Vuata Vatoa circular reef 4x3 mi. (6.4 x 4.8 km) with 
deep lagoon; awash at high tide; moderate Giant Clam 
populations; surveyed by Fisheries Dept Giant Clam 
project (Lewis et at., 1985). 

Ono-i-lau (X) ca 7.9 sq. km total land area in 80 sq. km 
reef system; 6 main islands; 3 are volcanic remains of 
breached crater; one sand islet (Udui); 2 are clusters of 
limestone islets and stacks; 113 m; over 100 islands in 
total, within barrier reef. 

Vuata Ono ring reef ca 3 x 2 mi. (4.8 x 3.2 km); awash at 
high tide; Giant Clams very abundant; surveyed by 
Fisheries Dept Giant Clam project (Lewises al., 1985). 

Tuvana-i-ra 70 ha in 4.5 sq. km reef system; small sand 
cay with small areas of limestone. 

Tuvana-i-colo 38 ha in 2.25 sq. km reef system; atoU, 
small sand and limestone cay; barrier reefs. 

Navatu shallowly submerged reef 3 x 2 mi. (4.8 x 
3.2 km) with central lagoon; may be submerged atoll; 
surveyed by Unesco/UNFPA project; reefs described by 
Salvat et al. (1976); 95% dead on iiuier part but good 
corals on outer slope; coral fauna poor; clams surveyed 
by Fisheries Dept Giant Clam project (Lewis et al., 1985). 



Moala Group 

Volcanic with reefs (sometimes included in Koro Sea 
islands). 

Matuku (X) 11 sq. mi. (28.5 sq. km); volcanic, old crater 
rim breached by sea; steep slopes to 1262 ft (385 m) 
(Davis, 1920); good harbour on west; reef -bound. 

Totoya (X) 11 sq. mi. (28.5 sq. km); volcanic eroded 
crater rim up to 361 m, almost completely closed; central 
lagoon; barrier reef 2 mi. (3.2 km) off shore; reef 
encircled (Davis, 1920). 

Moala (X) 23.98 sq. mi. (62.1 sq. km); volcanic, 8 peaks; 
1535 ft (468 m); rugged with high relief; mangroves; 
fringing and barrier reef (Davis, 1920). 



LOMAIVm GROUP/KORO SEA ISLANDS 

The Lomaiviti group consists of about 15 islands in the 
Koro Sea, east of Viti Levu, covering a land area of 
ca 415 sq. km. Most of the islands are of volcanic origin 
and aU the larger islands are high islands. The region has 
a weak dry season, with mean rainfall of 300 cm p.a. and 
mean annual temperature of 20°C. The group has very 
complex reef systems particularly at Wakaya, Makogai, 
Ovalau, Nairai and Cakau Momo (Dunlap and Singh, 
1980). 

Gau (X) 140 sq. km; volcanic backbone ridge; 2345 ft 
(715 m); highland to north; 54% dense forest cover; birds 
described by Watling (1985); mangroves on north coast; 
leeward barrier reef (Ryland, 1979); reef encircled 
(Davis, 1920). 

Yaciwa ca 2 ha; limestone cay; emerged reef; lighthouse; 
seabird roost (WatUng, 1985). 

Mabulica Reef shallow lagoon. 

Nairai (X) 9.4 sq. mi. (24.3 sq. .km); volcanic; 1104 ft 
(336 m) ridge; extensive barrier reefs (Davis, 1920); reef 
irregularly shaped with elongations to north, south and 
west; surveyed for Giant Clams (Lewis et at., 1985); 
Sucuni Levu and Lailai both volcanic islets, part of old, 
eroded Nairai volcano. 

Cakau Momo circular, non-emergent atoll, 1.5 mi. 
(2.4 km) diameter; reefs; surveyed for Giant Clams 
(Lewis et al. (1985). 

Koro (X) 104 sq. km; massive volcano with often steep 
seaward faces and central plateau; 522 m; fringing reefs. 

Batiki (X) 3.6 sq. mi. (9.3 sq. km); volcanic, 600 ft 
(183 m); mangroves; surrounded by reefs. 

Wakaya (X) (see separate account). 

Makogai (X) 8.4 sq. km; volcanic, 4 summits, 850 ft 
(259 m) (Davis, 1920); mangroves; linked to Wakaya by 
barrier reef - unusual figure of 8 shape; fringing reef; 
surveyed for Giant Clams (Levds et al., 1985) and has 
Giant Clam Project marine station (Anon., 1986b); forest 
badly destroyed (Clunie, in press). 

Makodroga 81 ha; high volcanic, 138 m; fringing reef; 
visited for fish and firewood; turtle nesting; forest badly 
destroyed (Clunie, in press). 

Ovalau (X) 103 sq. km; volcanic, central basin 
surrounded by peaks, 2053 ft (626 m) (Davis, 1920); reef 
encircled; reef system to west is maze of fringe and patch 
reefs; Ladotagane (114 ft (34.7 m), Yanuca Levu (76 ha) 
(X) and Yanuca Lailai (30 ha) lie off south coast, all are 
volcanic, hiUy and steep. 

Moturlki (X) 10.9 sq. km; volcanic; 436 ft (133 m); 
mangroves; fringing reef. 

Cagalai 8.8 ha; sand and beach rock cay south-west of 
Moturiki; platform reefs (Ryland, 1981). 

Leieuvia 10 ha; sand and beach rock cay; fringing and 
platform reefs (Ryland, 1981). 



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Coral Reefs of the World 



Naigani (X) 470 acres (190 ha); volcanic with one area 
of limestone, rounded, 186 m; mangroves; fringing reefs; 
surveyed for Giant Glams (Lewis et al., 1985); has resort 
hotel. 



Vm LEVU AND ASSOCIATED ISLANDS 

Viti Levu is the largest island in Fiji, covering over half 
the total land area; it is the only high continental island in 
Fiji. 

Viti Uvu (X) 4011 sq. mi. (10 388 sq. km); largely 
volcanic but also sedimentary rocks, 4341 ft (1323 m); 
central plateau running approx. north/south causing 
rainshadow to leeward north-west; prevailing winds are 
south-east trades, causing a wet windward south-east and 
drier rain-shadow north-west; annual rainfall exceeds 
3000 mm over much of the south-east; high rainfall drains 
mainly through system of four rivers which merge as the 
Rewa, the outflow of which greatly influences marine 
ecosystems in the south-east; other important rivers are 
the Navua, Sigatoka and Ba (Ryland, 1981); mangroves 
along coast; general desciption of reefs given below; see 
separate accounts for descriptions of Suva Barrier Reef, 
and fringing reefs on Coral Coast and in Nadi Waters. 

Vatialailai 71 ha. 

Macuata 40.4 ha; 400 ft (122 m); volcanic. 

Nanuyakato 4.9 ha; 240 ft (73 m); volcanic; dry. 

Tovu (X) 41 ha; 62 m; volcanic; hilly; part privately 
owned; Tovulailai (7.8 ha), volcanic, within same reef 
system. 

Malake (X) 1.75 sq. mi. (4.5 sq. km); volcanic; hilly, 
775 ft (236 m); mangroves. 

Nananu-i-ra 2.69 sq. km; volcanic; resorts on south coast. 

Nananu-i-cake 3.0 sq. km; volcanic. 

Qoma 16.2 ha; 120 ft (36.6 m); volcanic. 

Nukulevu 1.3 ha; sandy islets; 30 ft (9.1 m). 

Omini 1.6 ha; calcareous sandstone; fringed with 
mangroves. 

Qata 2.1 ha; calcareous sandstone; fringed with 
mangroves. 

Tawainave 3.2 ha; calcareous sandstone; fringed with 
mangroves. 

Vatulami calcareous sandstone; fringed with mangroves; 
east of Tawainave. 

Telau 3.2 ha; 100 ft (30 m); calcareous sandstone. 

Viwa (X) 60 ha; 160 ft (48.7 m); calcareous sandstone. 



Bau (X) 8.6 ha; 80 ft (24.4 m); calcareous sandstone; 
sheltered by barrier reef. 



Tobenia (X) 1.6 ha; sand; 2-3 m; resort hotel. 

Mabualau 2.1 ha; limestone; 3-5 m; seabird rookery; sea 
snakes (Guinea, 1980). 

Vug (see account for Suva Barrier Reef). 

Draunibota (X) {see account for Suva Barrier Reef). 

Senia 

Beqa (X) 14 sq. mi. (36.3 sq. km); 439 m, volcanic; 
indented coast, radially dissected; mangrove; lagoon 
390 sq. km with 5 islands and patch reefs; barrier reef 
undescribed; fringing reef; surveyed for Giant Clams 
(Lewis el al., 1985); islands in lagoon are: 

Nanuku (Storm I.) 0.8 ha; beach rock and sand 
cay; on barrier reef; 

Moturiki 18 ha; volcanic, 320 ft (97.5 m); land 
crabs; 

Yanuca (X) 154 ha; 450 ft (137 m); volcanic; 

Bird I. (Cakaunibuli) 4 ft (1.2 m); sand; on Cakau 
Nisid reef in Beqa Lagoon; seabirds; 

Ugaga 3.2 ha; volcanic with fringing reef, 

south-west of Beqa. 

Vatulele (X) 12.19 sq. mi. (31.6 sq. km); limestone with 
area of volcanic rocks in east; 110 ft (33.5 m); vertical 
cliffs on west limestone, slope and caves on east; fringing 
reef on west, extending into barrier reef on north and 
east; red prawns in pool-cave; three nearby islets: 

Vatu Levu 30 ft (9.1 m); limestone; rugged, lies in 
lagoon of Vatulele Reef; 

Vatu Lailai 10 ft (3 m); limestone; lies in lagoon of 
Vatulele Reef; 

Vatu Savu 20 ft (6 m); limestone; rugged. 



YASAWA GROUP 

The Yasawa group consists of an arc of over 65 islands 
and islets covering ca 150 sq. km extending west and 
north-west of Viti Levu from the Nadi Bay region. They 
are predominantly high volcanic islands (although some 
of the small islands in the southern Mamanuca sub-group 
are low islands), and the group has the appearance of a 
drowned mountain range. There are many fine sandy 
beaches. The region has a marked dry season running 
from June to October; mean annual temperature is 25''C, 
mean rainfall 150 cm p.a. The islands are particularly 
vulnerable to tropical storms which occur yearly. There 
are many small fringing and patch reefs but no major reef 
systems, apart from Ethel Reef, a 20 km long barrier reef 
10-20 km to the west. 

Mamanuca Group (see separate account). 

Kuata 1.46 sq. km; 570 ft (174 m); volcanic. 

Wayasewa 2.5 sq. mi. (6.5 sq. km); 1160 ft (354 m); 
volcanic; joined to Waya by sand spit exposed at low tide. 



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Fiji 



Waya (X) 8.5 sq. mi. (22 sq. km); 1874 ft (571 m); 
volcanic; rugged, steep west coast in south. 

Viwa (X) 200 acres (81 ha); ca 18 m; limestone; emerged 
coral-algal reefs; bank of coral debris. 

Narara 49.7 ha; mainly sandstone, 

Naukacuvu 48.5 ha; mainly sandstone; between Narara 
and Nanuya Balavu. 

Nanuya Balavu 80 ha; mainly sandstone. 

Drawaqa 67.6 ha; mainly sandstone. 

Naviti (X) 34 sq. km; 1272 ft (388 m), volcanic; rugged; 
mangroves in 2 main bays; many small islets on margin of 
tidal sand flat along north part of east coast. 

Yaqeta (X) 2.82 sq. mi. (7.3 sq. km); 220 m; volcanic; 
mangrove swamps. 

Matacawa Levu (X) 9.5 sq. km; 980 ft (299 m); 
windward coast with mangroves; volcanic; extensive tidal 
sand flat in bay to windward. 

Tavewa 400 acres (162 ha); 180 m; volcanic; private 
plantation; minor mangroves in SW. 

Nacula (X) 22 sq. km; 270 m; volcanic; mangroves on 
windward side. 

Sawa-i-lau 79.2 ha; limestone peak with sheer rock face; 
210 m; lower area of limestone and volcanic rock; marine 
cave. 

Yasawa (X) 32 sq. km; 233 m; volcanic; mangroves. 

Yalewa Kalou 27.4 ha; 180 m; slightly eroded crescentic 
volcanic cone with some sheer rock faces on outer coast. 



KADAVU AND ASSOCIATED ISLANDS 

Kadavu and its smaller associated islands lie to the south 
of Viti Levu; they are high volcanic islands and, like the 
Moala group in the Koro Sea, do not arise from the Fiji 
Platform. Solo lies in the centre of a lagoon bounded by 
North Astrolabe Reef, ca 10 km north of the 
northernmost part of Great Astrolabe Reef. The other 
islands are either immediately off Kadavu or lie within 
Great Astrolabe Reef which extends ca 35 km 
northwards off the north-eastern edge of Kadavu. Most 
of the islands are described in the account for Great and 
North Astrolabe Reefs. 

Kadavu (X) 408 sq. km; elongated, volcanic, to over 
600 m; irregular coastline (Davis, 1920); mangroves; 
fringing reef, absent at Buke Levu where coastline is 
cliffs; geology described by Woodrow (1980). 

Solo (X) (see account for Great and North Astrolabe 
Reefs). 

Great Astrolabe Reef (see separate account). 

Tawadromu 18.6 ha; volcanic; 70 ft (21 m). 

Yadatavaya 50.3 ha; volcanic; 65 ft (19.8 m). 



Galea (X) 3.34 sq. km; volcanic; 114 m; small resort. 

Matanuku 570 ft (174 m); linked by sandy flat; 
mangroves. 

Nagigia (Denham) 10 ft (3 m) coral rock; honey 

combed; emerged reef. 

Ceva-i-ra on Conway Reef, most isolated reef in Fiji; 
21°46'S, 174°3rE; small sand islet with young coconut 
palms, probably inundated during very high swells. 

(X) = Inhabited 



Ryland (1979 and 1981) provides an overview description 
of the reefs of Fiji and early descriptions are given by 
Agassiz (1899), Gardiner (1898), Hoffmeister (1925) and 
Davis (1920). A pilot project was carried out between 
1974 and 1976 in the Laa Group, involving surveys of 
Lakeba, Aiwa, Kabara, Tavunasici, and Namuka-i-lau, the 
Yagasa cluster and the Navatu Reef, as part of the 
Unesco/UNFPA project on Population and Environment 
in the eastern i.slands of Fiji as a contribution to the MAS 
(Man and the Biosphere) Program (Anon., 1983; 
Brookfield, 1978a, b and 1979; MAB, 1977; Salvat et ai, 
1976 and 1977). Reefs around seven islands in the 
northern Lau Group and Ringgold Isles were studied by 
Phipps and Preobrazhensky (1977). The Institute of 
Marine Resources at the University of the South Pacific 
in Suva is studying the Laucala Bay region (see account 
for Suva Barrier Reef), and has studied some of the reefs 
along the Coral Coast of Viti Levu, and reefs around 
some of the Nadi Waters cays (see separate accounts). It 
also has a research field station on Dravuni in Great 
Astrolabe Reef off Kadavu (see separate account). 
Reef-related research currently in progress includes: 
interactions between coral reefs, sea grass beds and 
mangroves (as part of a project funded by SPREP); 
monitoring of Acanthaster; and ecology and taxonomy of 
opisthobranchs (Brodie in litt., 10.11.87). Reefs on 
Malololailai have been the studied by the University of 
Toronto (see account for Nadi Waters and Mamanuca 
Group). 

The following account is based largely on Ryland (1979 
and 1981). Reefs are found associated with all the island 
groups; many of the reef systems are extensive and 
complex and include barrier, fringing and platform reefs. 
There are only two shelf atolls: Wailagilala, in the Lau 
Group, and Qelelevu, east of Vanua Levu. Two types of 
barrier reefs are found. Oceanic ribbon reefs include the 
Great Sea Reef, Beqa Barrier Reef, Great Astrolabe 
Reef and some of the Lau Group barrier reefs; these 
enclose lagoons or sea areas of normal salinity and their 
entire character is oceanic, but they are poorly known. 
The Great Sea Reef, extending for over 200 km, is one of 
the world's major barrier reefs. It delimits the 
continental shelf as a westwards-widening wedge from 
Udu Point, the north-eastern tip of Vanua Levu. 
Approaching the northernmost islands of the Yasawa 
chain, it deepens and swings south and then east, around 
Yalew Kalou, and continues as the Pascoe Reefs which 
reach the surface intermjttently. Between the reef west 
of Yalewa Kalou and the Yasawa Group is a channel 
more than 550 m deep, Round Island Passage, which 
gives access to the enclosed Bligh Water between Vanua 



-81- 



Coral Reefs of the World 



Levu and Viti Levu. To the west of the Yasawa and 
Mamanuca Groups is a string of reefs, some rather deep 
but probably stiU living, enclosing an extensive area of 
shelf waters, scattered with platform reefs; the boundary 
reefs west of the Yasawa Group are called the Ethel 
Reefs, whilst in the south, approaching Viti Levu and 
rising to the surface again, is the Malolo Barrier Reef. 
Parts of the shelf margin in the Viwa area may not have 
much of a reef build-up. The second type of barrier reef 
includes reefs which may be exposed, with well 
developed spurs and grooves, as off Suva {see separate 
account), or more sheltered, as off Ba. Such reefs are 
separated from the mainland by a relatively narrow and 
shallow lagoon charmel of neritic nature, which is 
generally turbid with surface water of low salinity 
extending out to or even over the reef. 

Fringing reefs are found from the southern end of the 
Mamanuca Group almost to Beqa, south of Viti Levu, 
where the 100 fathom (183 m) isobath is adjacent to the 
coast. The shelf is present but rather narrow south of 
Bligh Water and around eastern Viti Levu, and 
fragmented offshore reefs are found here, separated from 
the mainland only by narrow, shallow lagoon channels. 
The smaller islands to the south and east of Viti Levu and 
Vanua Levu have barrier reefs or exposed fringing reefs 
depending on the closeness to shore of the 100 fathom 
isobath. Often fringing reefs line one coast but the reef 
swings off shore as a barrier on the other. Reefs are 
largely absent off the southern coast of Taveuni where 
the coast plunges very steeply into the sea. 

Platform reefs are restricted to shelf waters and are 
common inside the Great Sea Reef, including the 
Yasawa-Mamanuca arc, and within the Mabualau-Ovalau 
series of barrier reefs off eastern Viti Levu. Their 
configuration may be influenced by neighbouring reefs, 
especially where the system is complex, as at Cagalai and 
Leleuvia to the south-west of Ovalau, or off the Rewa 
delta. The platform reefs in Nadi waters and towards the 
Mamanuca Group are more typical (see separate account). 

The reefs around Viti Levu are best known and are 
described in Ryland (1979 and 1981). Corals at the 
mouth of the Rewa River, where the greatest disruption 
of the fringing reef occurs, have been described by 
Cooper (1966) and Squires (1962). Islands at the mouth 
of the river split the flow up into several channels: the 
Navuloa mouth, the Nasoata mouth and the Nukulau 
mouth. The Navuloa mouth runs into Bau Water, 
forming a lagoon-hke area with luxuriant corals to the 
east, which joins Bligh Water to the north of Viti Levu 
(Cooper, 1966). Its effea on the Nukulau reefs is 
described in the account for Suva Barrier Reef. 

Fringing reefs within the shelter of the barrier reef are 
different in character from those of the exposed 
south-west coast. Good examples are seen at Tailevu 
Point (north-east Viti Levu) and Vuda Point, near 
Lautoka. Much of a fringing reef within the shelter of a 
barrier reef consists of a well consohdated flat of barren 
appearance. Where the reef flat is overlain with sand, as 
at Vuda, zoanthids may cover large areas but the most 
typical animals are brittle stars Ophiocoma scolo pendrina 
and active, snapping squiUid shrimps. Near the reef edge 
are various zoanthids Palythoa, soft corals Xenia, 
Sinularia, Sarcophyton, Organ-pipe Coral Tubipora sp., 
Fire Coral Millepora lenera and M. platyphylla, and 
small faviids, Pocillopora and Acropora. Tailevu Point 



Reef is notable for the abundance of Fun^'a. There is no 
raised crest but the edge of the reef becomes increasingly 
honey-combed with channels and caves. Coral growth is 
rich but not particularly diverse. The reef edge is sinuous 
and drops almost vertically for 2-4 m to a sandy bed. 
Water tends to be murky. The Tailevu Reef has many 
gorgonians just below low water mark of spring tides and 
Pacific Harbour is charaaerized by an abundance of 
stinging hydroids Macrorhynchia ( = Lytocarpus) 
philippinus. No detailed analysis of the seaward slope 
fauna has yet been made (Boschma, 1950; Ryland, 1979). 
Within the shelter of the offshore reefs, wide grey 
beaches of gentle slope are deposited. These are backed 
by mangals dominated by Bruguiera gymnorhiza and 
fringed with Rhizophora stylosa. Where the degree of 
wave exposure is higher, the beaches are whiter and 
steeper, as at Pacific Harbour. Westward of Beqa and its 
barrier reef, deep water comes close to shore and the 
area is known as the Coral Coast (see separate account). 
Other marine ecosystems are described briefly by Bajpai 
(1979), in particular the Sigatoka sand dunes on the south 
coast of Viti Levu; these are also described by 
Kirkpatrick and Hassall (1981). 

Cemohorsky (1965), Chapman (1971) and Fowler (1959) 
describe the mitres (molluscs), marine algae and fishes of 
Fiji respectively. Parkinson (1982) lists 106 species of 
bivalve in 25 families recorded in Fiji waters and also lists 
shells found at dive sites along southern Viti Levu (see 
accounts for Suva Harbour and Coral Coast) and in the 
Yasawa Islands. Although Fiji lies to the south and east 
of the main centre of marine moUusc diversity in the 
Papua New Guinea - Indonesia - Philippines region, it 
still supports a wide range of species, including many 
popular with shell collectors such as cones (Conus spp.), 
cowries (Cypraea spp), mitres (Mitra spp.), and augers 
(Terebra spp), as well as olives (Oliva spp.), ceriths 
(Cerithium spp.), strombs (Strombus spp.) and murexes 
(Murex spp.). Fiji has long been known as a source of 
the Golden Cowry Cypraea aurantia and Cypraea 
Valentino, the most valuatjle shell found in Fijian waters. 
Fifteen species of zoanthids have been collected around 
Viti Levu (Muirhead and Ryland, 1981 and 1985) and 
Muzik and Wainwright ( 1977) describe five species of sea 
fan from Fiji. Dilly and Ryland (1985) 

describe Rliabdo pleura from Suva and Great Astrolabe 
Reefs. Kott (1981) describes ascidians of reef flats in Fiji 
and Ryland et al. (1984) describe didemnid ascidians in 
Viti Levu. 

Dunlap and Singh (1980) list endemic marine fish, such 
as Alherina ovalana and Engyprosopon fijiensis known 
only from the Lomaiviti waters. Sea snakes on the 
islands Mubualau, Namuka and Sausau have been 
described by Guinea (1980). Green Turtles Chelonia 
mydas and Hawksbills Eretmochelys imbricata may be 
widespread although not common, but little information 
is available (Bustard, 1970; Hirth, 1971). The waters of 
the Lomaiviti group are breeding and calving grounds for 
Humpback Megaptera novaeangliae and Sperm 
Whales Physeter macrocephalus (Dunlap and Singh, 
1980). Mangrove resources are described by Baines (1979 
and 1980a) and Lai (1983); the hybrid mangrove Selala is 
of interest (Tomlinson, 1978). Seabird colony distribution 
is described in Gamett (1984); colonies on Namenalala 
and the Ringgold Isles are discussed by Clunie (in press), 
and seabirds (including the recently rediscovered Fiji 
Petrel Pseudobulweria macgillivrayi) of Gau by Watling 
(1985). 



-82- 



Fiji 



Reef Resources 

Early publications on the Fijian fisheries include Deane 
(1910), HoraeU (1940), Levy (1940/44) and Toganivalu 
(1914). Subsistence fishing still predominates. In 1984, 
subsistence harvest was estimated at ca 14 800 tormes, 
with commercial fisheries at ca 5800 tonnes and industrial 
fish production (essentially tuna) at 6000 tonnes (De 
Backer, 1985). Subsistence fisheries traditionally take 
place in inshore (mainly reef) areas. Government loans 
may be granted for fishery enterprises. Fishery resources 
are briefly reviewed by Baines (1982b) and Kearney 
(1982) provides an assessment of skipjack and baitfish 
resources. 

Trochus, mother-of-pearl, beche-de-mer and giant clams 
are important commercial resources (Baines, 1982b; 
Burrows, 1940/44; Dunlap and Singh, 1980; King and 
Stone, 1979; Lewis et al., 1984 and 1985; South Pacific 
Commission, 1980; Turbet, 1940/44). Almost aU trochus 
and mother-of-pearl is exported; in 1983 export of the 
former amounted to 343 tonnes, of the latter 23 tonnes, 
making Fiji one of the largest producers in the South 
Pacific region for both these. A factory has reportedly 
been set up to produce button blanks from trochus. In 
1983, 33 tonnes of beche-de-mer were exported and 
ca 11 tonnes marketed locally; species consumed locally 
(mainly that known as "dairo") differ from those exported 
("sucuwalu", "loaloa"). Giant Clams are an important 
subsistence and local commercial item in many areas; it is 
estimated that ca 17 tonnes passed through municipal 
markets and other outlets in 1983 (Anon., 1984). A Giant 
Clam fishery project has been underway since 1984 with 
the Fisheries Division of the Ministry of Primary 
Industries (Lewis « a/., 1984 and 1985). Local and export 
markets for lobsters (of which five species occur in Fiji) 
are reportedly strong, although commercial exploitation 
has apparently not been encouraged; an estimated 29 
tonnes was marketed in Fiji in 1983, mostly through 
hotels and restaurants (Anon., 1984). Turtle meat is in 
heavy demand, for consumption both by native Fijians 
and in tourist restaurants; eggs are also collected and in 
1970 there was reported to be a major shell carving 
industry, using both Hawksbill and Green Turtle shells 
(Bustard, 1970; Hirth, 1971). Black coral is the basis of a 
small local cottage industry, selling to tourists; Fiji's black 
coral resources may be considerable but at present are 
only lightly exploited (Anon., 1984). The Seaking 
Trading company runs an ornamental coral export trade, 
operating mostly in Bau waters (Brodie m lilt., 10.11.87). 
In the 1970s a single exporter of aquarium fish was 
operating (Fiji Biomarine Ltd.) but had become inactive 
by 1984. In 1978, 24 000 live fish were exported (Dunlap 
and Singh, 1980). An aquarium fish company, operating 
from Pacific Harbour on Viti Levu, has however been 
active since 1985 (Brodie in tin., 10.11.87). Parkinson 
(1982) provides a commercial catalogue of specimen 
mollusc shells found in the country. Currently, shell 
collecting by villagers is generally of the larger, more 
spectacular species for sale to tourists, while the smaller 
valuable species sought by specialist shell-collectors are 
largely neglected. Marine algal resources are described in 
Prakash (1987). 

Since 1982 tourism has been the largest source of foreign 
exchange, in gross terms, although in net terms it still 
comes second to sugar (De Backer, 1985). In 1985 there 
were an estimated 250 000 tourists. Much of the tourism 
is concentrated on Viti Levu, along the Coral Coast, at 



Suva, Deuba, Nadi, at a new major development at 
Pacific Harbour, west of the Navua River, and in the 
Yasawa Group. Many of the small islands are being 
developed as resorts such as Toberua, north-east of Suva, 
and Nananu-i-ra adjacent to Storm Island (north Viti 
Levu) {see also account for Nadi Waters and Mamanuca 
Group). There are diving centres at Suva, Sigatoka, 
Pacific Harbour and Lautoka on Viti Levu, at Matei on 
Taveuni, and on Mana and Tai ("Beachcomber") ir. the 
Mamanucas, catering mainly for expatriates and tourists 
(Brodie in litt., 10.11.87; Dunlap and Singh, 1980). The 
lagoon at Beqa is rated as one of the world's top diving 
areas. Frigate, Sulphur and Cutter Passages being 
particularly popular sites. Fish Patch, off Suva, is another 
popular diving locality on account of the high fish 
densities and interesting corals found there (Evans, n.d.). 
Tourism on Vanua Levu is still at a low level and is 
concentrated around Savusavu and eastwards. There is a 
diving centre at Mua Beach and cruise ships occasionally 
visit Savusavu. There is some tourism on the west coast 
of Taveuni. The Kadavu Group has very little tourism 
although there is a small resort on Galoa (Brodie in litt., 
26.11.87). Other areas, particularly the outer islands, such 
as the Lau Group, with diverse reef resources, have 
virtually no tourism at present (Dunlap and Singh, 1980). 
A dive operation (Marine Pacific) using a large boat is to 
begin dive tours in the Lau Group in 1988 (Brodie in litt., 
10.11.87). 



Disturbances and Deficiencies 

Hurricanes cause periodic damage to the Fijian reefs. 
Following one in 1965, reefs and large numbers of fish 
were killed in the mouth of the Navuloa, in the southern 
part of Bau water, on the east coast of Viti Levu, 
probably due to freshwater inundation (Cooper, 1966). 
Although the Rewa delta was flooded, the barrier reef on 
either side of Nukulau was not affected. In 1975 
Hurricane Val damaged reefs in the Lau group but 
Phipps and Preobrazhensky (1977) found evidence of 
rapid coral regeneration. Cyclone Fay in 1978 caused 
extensive damage to reefs at the northern end of Taveuni 
(Dunlap and Singh, 1980). Cyclone Wally severely 
damaged the fringing reef at Deuba near Pacific Harbour 
in 1980 (Ryland et al., 1984), as well as other reefs in this 
area and there were extensive mud slides and siltation 
(Guinea in litt., 6.3.85). Reefs on Malololailai suffered 
some visible damage in a 1983 hurricane (see account for 
Nadi Waters and Mamanuca Group). Two hurricanes 
(Eric and Nigel) hit Fiji within 48 hours of each other in 
January 1985 and a further one (Hina) in March 1985. 
Terrestrial damage was severe, particularly in western 
Viti Levu and there was some damage to reefs in the 
Mamanuca Group (see separate account). Large scale 
flooding following exceptional rainfall in early 1986 
caused massive damage to reef corals in the Suva area 
(see account for Suva Barrier Reef). 

Other causes of natural damage include earthquakes such 
as the earthquake of November 1979 which caused 
damage on Taveuni and the Natewa Peninsula, and 
tsunamis, such as that resulting from the Suva earthquake 
of September 1953 (Everingham, 1987). In the 
1960s, Acanthaster infestation was considered a serious 
enough problem to warrant permanent monitoring 
(Owens, 1971; Robinson, 1971) and studies were carried 
out at Natadola and Wakaya Island (see separate 
accounts). However by 1978/80 infestation was not 



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Coral Reefs of the World 



serious (Ryland in lilt., 25.8.87). More recent work has 
been carried out on Acanthaster on the Suva Barrier Reef 
(see separate account). 

The rugged interior of the main islands confines extensive 
agricultural production and urban development to a 
fertile but vulnerable coastal fringe of flatter land. Major 
environmental problems in coastal waters (SPREP, 1980; 
Lai, 1984) include oil pollution (especially in Suva and 
Lautoka); sand dredging affecting turtle grass beds and 
fauna (see account for Suva Barrier Reef); overfishing 
(e.g. turtles); insensitive placement of groynes, jetties or 
reef blasting interfering with water flow and sand 
deposition; depletion of mangrove areas through urban 
growth and drainage schemes; depletion of coral 
communities through tourist resort sewage outfaUs and, 
to some extent, collection of live organisms. Perhaps 
most important is the threat of sedimentation from 
logging activities and coastal development. For example, 
in 1982 during construction of Queen's Road (the 
Suva-Nadi highway) along the south coast of Viti Levu, 
soil was washed from one site into Serua Bay, smothering 
mangroves and affecting adjacent coral reefs (Lai, 1984). 
Problems caused by the rapid development of the tourist 
industry along the Coral Coast and at Nadi are discussed 
in separate accounts and by Baines (1977b and 1982a). 
Siltation resulting from construction of the Pacific 
Harbour complex of luxury villas caused the death of 
corals in the small fringing reef at the mouth of 
Qaraniqio Creek (Bajpai, 1979) and construction of 
groynes and artificial harbours has increased 
sedimentation loads in a number of areas along the Coral 
Coast (Lai, 1984). The reef around Cobia, one of the 
Budd Islets, in the Ringgold Isles, is potentially 
threatened by soil erosion and runoff, a result of 
overgrazing by introduced goats (Clunie in Hit., 16.4.85). 

Coral sand is an essential raw material for cement 
production in Fiji. Penn (1981 and 1982) found that coral 
sand extracted from seagrass reef flats was causing 
destruction of seagrass beds within the dredge pit areas 
(see account for Suva Barrier Reef). This could 
ultimately have an impact on reefs as well. 

The disposal of tailings from copper mining operations at 
Namosi in the offshore area south of Viti Levu could 
pose a threat but environmental impact studies will be 
carried out before such activities commence. It was 
envisaged that tailings should be disposed of in deep 
water to minimise effects on the reef (Rodda in litt., 
14.9.87). Petroleum exploration is being carried out 
extensively in Fijian waters in the Bligh Water area, the 
Great Sea Reef area, the Yasawas area and the Lomaiviti 
Group area. Efforts are being made to minimize effects 
of driUing and oil spills in the course of this activity 
(Dunlap and Singh, 1980; Richmond, 1979). Clunie 
(in litt., 16.4.85) and Lai (1984) point out the potential for 
increased pollution problems near large towns and 
industrial centres and from sewage and waste disposal 
near tourist resorts especially in the Mamanuca Group 
and along the Coral Coast. 

Over-fishing is generally not a problem in the rural areas 
except near population centres (Lai, 1984). Depletion of 
shellfish in localized areas and possible over-collection of 
aquarium fish are growing problems. Bait fishing is 
intensive in some lagoons (Clunie in litt., 16.4.85) but this 
is unlikely to have any long term effect. There is some 
collection of corals and shells for tourists but this does 



not appear to be intensive. Turtles (taken by setting nets 
or by divers with spears) are being depleted. Dynamite 
fishing has been reported (Lai, 1984) as well as fishing 
with poisons such as derris (Ryland in litt., 25.8.87). 
Ciguatera poisoning is a problem in Bau Water (Cooper, 
1966). 

Giant Clams have been seriously depleted. T. gigas 
and Hippopus hippopus are now very rare or locaUy 
extinct; for example T. gigas was fished at Wailagilala 
fifteen years ago but is no longer found there. Tridacna 
maxima, T. derasa and T. squamosa are found in 
decreasing order of abundance. The Bulla and Dravuni 
reef systems near Kadavu and those at Vanua Balavu 
(Lau Group) are ahnost devoid of Giant Clams due to 
artisanal fishing. Bukatatanoa and Reid reefs (east of 
Lakeba, Lau) have low densities of clams and evidence of 
foreign poaching. Vuata Vatoa and Navatu reefs (south 
Lau) have moderate clam populations but these are not 
suitable for exploitation. Vuata Ono (south Lau) is very 
isolated and has a high density of clams in a limited area. 
The area around Suva is devoid of clams, possibly as 
much to do with water turbidity as over-exploitation. In 
general, isolated reefs harbour a larger population of 
clams than those with associated islands (Adams in litt., 
7.2.85; Lewis et ai, 1984 and 1985). 



Legislation and Management 

Extended family groups called "mataqalis" have 
traditional fishing rights over reefs in Fijian waters from 
mean high water mark to the outer edge of the associated 
fringing or barrier reef; the boundaries to these areas are 
generally seaward extensions of boundaries on land, 
although rights over the marine areas are rights of use 
rather than ownership. Fishing rights boundaries have 
been recorded for all the islands. In the Lau Group, one 
"clan" or "ngonendau" in each grouping of villages 
consisted of fishing specialists, the head of which was in 
charge and had the knowledge and power to declare 
restrictions on the times and areas of fishing (Baines, 
1982a and b; Eaton, 1985; Kunatuba, 1983; Siwatibau, 
1984). Under British tidal law, however, all land below 
MHWM and extending outwards to the ocean edge of the 
outer reef is legally defined as the property of the nation. 
Nevertheless, in fulfilment of a pledge by Governor Sir 
Arthur Gordon (1881) "all" reefs and shellfish beds have 
been assigned by the Native Lands and Fisheries 
Commission to members of the indigenous Fijian race for 
purposes of subsistence fishing and harvesting. They may 
be licensed to fish commercially and have the right to 
permit or refuse appUcations for commercial fishing by 
others. The Minister of State and Lands and Mineral 
Resources has been empowered to waive these rights for 
development of special projects by the Government 
(Dunlap and Singh, 1980), but for any development 
which can be shown to have adverse effects on fisheries 
or fishing rights, compensation has to be paid to the 
native fishing rights owners after an environmental 
impact assessment has been carried out (Lai, 1984). In 
1978, the Fijian Fisheries Commission was appointed to 
draft terms of reference for a study of fishing rights but 
this had not been completed by 1985. 

There is at present an inadequate legislative 
infrastructure for the conservation of critical marine 
habitats and environmental controls are dispersed 
amongst several different acts and regulations. Aspects 



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Fiji 



of legislation and management relating to the coastal 
zone are briefly described in SPREP (1980). 

The Environmental Management Committee (EMC), 
which has representatives of most government 
departments, the National Trust for Fiji and the 
University of the South Pacific, advises the government 
on environmental matters, and reviews development 
projects and environmental impact assessments of 
projects (Brodie in lilt., 26.11.87). Mining is the only 
activity for which an environmental impact assessment is 
necessary by law (Lai, 1984) and provision for 
environmental protection in the Mining Act is reasonable, 
but enforcement and monitoring are generally weak 
(Brodie in lift., 10.11,87). Environmental impact 
assessments are also required for some hotel 
constructions and are sometimes passed to the EMC for 
evaluation (Brodie in till., 11.10.87). 

Leases for coral sand mining are granted by the Director 
of Mineral Development for only short periods at a time 
to assist in natural rehabiUtation of seagrasses and reefs. 
Rehabilitation efforts in the form of artificial reefs and 
seagrass transplants are under way. Management plans 
include the estimation of potential extractable sand 
resources, prediction of changes in local lagoonal 
hydrography and careful design of dredging operations 
(Lai, 1984). 

The Town Planning Act 1946 (Chap. 109) provides for 
the preparation of Town Planning Schemes including the 
conservation of natural beauties of the area including 
lakes, banks or rivers, foreshore or harbours, and other 
parts of the sea, hill slopes, summits and valleys. Act No. 
3 1974 Harbour Act (Chap. 160) enables heavy penalities 
to be imposed for the pollution of harbour and coastal 
waters but this has never been used. The Public Health 
Act (Chap. 91) controls sewage discharge. 

The 1978 Fisheries Act (Chap. 158) includes regulations 
prohibiting the use of dynamite and other explosives and 
poisons (including derris, rotenone, plant extracts and 
chemicals) for fishing. It provides minimum size limits 
for harvestable Scylla serrata, turtles, Trochus, and 
mother-of-pearl, completely protects Charonia irilonis 
and Cassis cornuia and prohibits the taking of eggs and 
killing of turtles during the 4-month nesting season. 
There are at present no legal controls on clam fishing, 
except for the Ucensing of fishermen and vessels. In 1984 
a memorandum from the Minister for Primary Industries 
setting out a broad policy for the exploitation of living 
sedentary reef resources was approved by cabinet. It 
contains preliminary guidelines for the controlled 
exploitation of Giant Clam (vasua), lobster (urau), 
beche-de-mer (dri), trochus (sici), mother-of-pearl (civa), 
corals (including Black Coral), collectors shells, aquarium 
fish and seaweeds. For clams, these include the 
restriction of harvesting to Fijian nationals with the 
written approval of the owners of the customary fishing 
rights, minimum size limits, monitoring of catches, 
licensing of exports and refusal of hcences unless all of 
the clam is utilized, and a fair price to be paid to the local 
supplier. There are similar regulations for lobster stocks 
but those for the other resources are generally less 
stringent as there is beUeved to be less danger of 
over-exploitation (Anon., 1984). 

The National Trust for Fiji Ordinance 1970 (Chap. 265) 
provides for the permanent preservation of lands 



(including reefs) for the benefit of the nation; the 
protection and augmentation of such lands and their 
surroundings and to preserve their natural aspect and 
features; to protect animal and plant life; and to provide 
for the access to and enjoyment by the public of such 
lands; and for the development of parks and reserves. 
The Forestry Ordinance (1953) provides for 
estabhshment of Nature Reserves within Reserved Forest 
Areas (Dahl, 1980). 

There are no marine reserves at present. Dunlap and 
Singh (1980) list a number of recreational areas which 
have been established but few of these include reefs. 
There are a few protected islands but the surrounding 
reefs are unprotected. On Viti Levu, the islands of 
Draunibota (Cave), Labiko (Snake) and Vuo (Admiralty) 
in the Bay of Islands are protected. Yadua Tabu off the 
west coast of Vanua Levu is managed by the National 
Trust for Fiji in cooperation with the landowners as a 
sanctuary for the endangered Fiji Crested 
Iguana Brachylo phus viliensis (Singh, 1985). A mangrove 
management plan has beeii completed and is being acted 
on (Brodie //ito., 10.11.87). 



Recommendations 

One of the principal aims of the Government's 
Development Plan Eight for the period 1980-85 was: "to 
establish a system of regional and national parks in Fiji 
which will serve a dual purpose; first the provision of 
managed outdoor recreation facilities for the local 
population and, second, the conservation of areas of 
outstanding beauty or special scientific (botanical or 
marine) interest". It was stressed that National Parks and 
Reserves needed to be established in a manner which 
avoided conflict with development schemes. To minimize 
costs, it was recommended that where possible protected 
areas should be established by leasing Crown Lands, and 
negotiating for rights with native land owners who were 
willing to consider compensation in the form of economic 
benefits (such as employment and income) rather than 
outright cash payments. The initial programme was to be 
concentrated in Viti Levu, the region where the natural 
environment was considered to be under greatest 
pressure and where the need for provision of outdoor 
recreation was greatest; priority was also to be given to 
sites near existing urban areas. The particular need to 
preserve mangroves, through the creation of coastal 
marine reserves and the incorporation of mangrove areas 
into coastal parks where necessary, was stressed. 

Much of this policy was contained in a plan for a 
National Parks and Reserves System for Fiji, submitted to 
the government by the National Trust for Fiji in 1980 
(Dunlap and Singh, 1980). The report made a number of 
further recommendations for the management of the 
country's resources including marine ones, reviewed the 
functions of government agencies, statutory authorities 
and other institutions most concerned with planning and 
use of Fiji's natural resources and proposed methods for 
dealing with communally owned lands. The plan 
proposed a network of protected areas and a suggested 
timetable for setting them up. The following have marine 
components: 

* see separate account. 

T = terrestrial, M = marine, P = park, R = reserve. 



-85- 



Coral Reefs of the World 

Viti Levu, Lomaiviti, Kadavu and Yasawas 

•Natadola Bay: 1980; TP for public recreation. 

♦Makuluva and reefs: 1981-85; MR (Suva Barrier 

Reef account). 

♦Suva Barrier Reef and cays: 1981-85; MP and MR. 

Bird I., Beqa Lagoon: seabird rookery. 

Vatu-i-ra: seabird rookery. 

Mubualau: seabird rookery. 

Beqa Lagoon: 1986; MP and MR. 

•Nadi Bay reefs: 1981-85; MP and MR. 

•Coral Coast reefs: 1981-85; MP and MR. 

Makogai and reefs: 1981-85; TP and TR. 

*Wakaya and reefs: 1986; historical and MP. 

Cakau Momo (Horseshoe Reef): 1986; MP. 

•North Astrolabe Reef: 1981-85; MR. 

♦Great Astrolabe reef: 1986; MP and MR. 

♦Yabu: seabird rookery (Gt and North Astrolabe 

Reefs account). 

Taqa Rocks: seabird rookery. 

♦Mamanuca Group: 1986; MR (Nadi Bay and 

Mamanuca Group account). 

♦Malamala and reefs: 1986; TP, TR, MP, MR, 

(Nadi Bay and Mamanuca Group account). 

White Rock: seabird rookery. 

Vanua Levu and Taveuni 

Namenalala and reef: 1986; TR and MR; also 

seabird rookery. 

Nanuku islets: 1981-85; turtle nesting beach reserve. 

Great Sea Reef: 1986; MP and MR. 

Qelelevu Atoll: 1986; TR and MR. 

Rainbow Reef: 1986; MP and MR. 

Rotuma: 1986; TP and MP. 

Lau Group 

WaUagilala: 1986; TR and MR. 

QUaqUa (Bay of Islands): 1981-85; TP and MP. 

Fulaga Bay of Islands: 1986; MP and PR; seagrass. 

Sovu islands: seabird rookery. 

Cakau Lekaleka Barrier Reef: 1986; MP and MR. 

Nukutolu islets and reefs: 1981-85; MR. 

There is also a critical need for a beach park in the 
Deuba area on Viti Levu for use by people in the 
Suva-Nausori region (Dunlap and Singh, 1980). The plan 
contained a detailed draft management plan for the 
Natadola Bay area, which was proposed as Fiji's first 
national park (see separate account). This has not been 
pursued, and the Garrick Memorial Reserve, an inland 
area of rain forest in Viti Levu is now being developed as 
the first national park. In 1985 there were plans that Tai 
and Luvuka and their surrounding reefs in Nadi Bay 
should become the first marine park (see separate 
account). 

However the National Trust for Fiji, the parastatal body 
chiefly charged with the setting up of reserves (excepting 
forest reserves), is hampered by insufficient funds and 
manpower: up to 1985, at least, it received 45 000 Fiji 
Dollars per annum (its intended budget is 90 000 Fiji 
Dollars per armum) (Anon., 1985a). Legislation for the 
establishment of proteaed areas is to be contained in a 
National Parks and Reserves Act, as proposed by the 
National Trust for Fiji, but this has not yet been drafted. 
A new Town and Country Planning Act, with improved 
provision for environmental protection, has also been 



proposed or drafted, but details are lacking. A proposal 
has also been drawn up for the development of a 
National Conservation Strategy for Fiji (Prescott-Allen, 
1986), which is currently being revised (Fernando in lilt., 
2.11.87). 

Dahl (1980) recommended some additional reef areas for 

protection: 

Leleuvia: sand cay, fringing reef. 

Ra coast: fringing reef. 

Mana: fringing reef. 

Yasawa-i-rara: fringing reef. 

Makodroga: fringing reef. 

Vuaqava: marine lake. 

Yasawa: marine caves. 

Vatulele: red prawn pool-cave. 

Koro: red turtle pool-cave. 

Balolo Pt, Ovalau: balolo rise area. 

Moturiki: land crab breeding area. 

Rewa delta: for seagrasses and Rhizophora. 

A number of other proposed protected marine areas have 
also been reported. Several informally protected areas 
for the tagging of clams will be set up in the near future 
(e.g. Natrai, Koro Sea), but these will have no official 
status (Adams m lilt., 7.2.85). In 1985 it was reported that 
the possibility was being investigated of declaring the 
reefs around Yadua Tabu off western Vanua Levu a 
reserve, with the cooperation of the traditional 
landowners (Singh pers. comm., 1985). Clunie (in press) 
recommends that the rich marine life of the lagoon at 
Cobia in the Budd Reef Islets (Ringgold Islands) should 
be surveyed, and that action should be taken to preserve 
this island. Recommendations are also made for the 
protection of Vetauua, Nukubasaga and Nukubalati as 
seabird reserves. 

The biology of the three sea snakes, Laticauda colubrina, 
L laticaudata and Hydrophis melanoce phalus requires 
close investigation to ensure that the proposed marine 
reserves are effective to protect them (Guinea, 1980). All 
three species occur in Laucala Bay and Bau waters. 

A mangrove management plan has been completed 
(Brodie in litt., 10.11.87); earlier recommendations for 
mangrove management are given in Baines (1979). The 
importance of mitigating effects of coastal tourist 
development, both in minimising environmental impacts 
and ensuring that local people can still retain access to 
foreshore and inshore areas is discussed in Baines (1982a). 

In general, adequate legislative provision for the 
conservation of critical marine habitats is still lacking. 
Procedures have reportedly been prepared for the 
establishment of marine parks and reserves which take 
into account traditional fishing rights. Compensation (for 
loss of fishing revenues) may be an important 
consideration in the conservation of marine species 
(Anon., 1985a). Projects of high priority for further 
research include coral reefs, turtles, seabird colonies, fish 
and shellfish resources (SPREP, 1980). New approaches 
to the management of subsistence fisheries are discussed 
in Baines (1982b). 

Parkinson (1982) has made recommendations for the 
development of a small scale specimen shell industry. A 
small group from Central Division should be trained in 
the collection and marketing of shells, to act as a nucleus 



-86- 



Fiji 



for training other groups. A vessel should be obtained 
and fitted out to be used for extension work on shells and 
related products in the islands. A draft extension booklet 
entitled "Collecting shells as a business" has been 
prepared, which includes basic conservation measures, 
such as only collecting perfect adult specimens, not 
destroying coral and replacing in their original position 
any boulders which have been moved. 

Additional general recommendations for management of 
the marine habitat are given in Anon. (1985a). The 
efforts of the Fisheries Division to protect endangered or 
seriously depleted species (e.g. turtles) should be 
re-enforced, through the preservation of critical habitat 
and development of measures to protect these species 
during that part of their life cycle when the habitat is 
being used. Inshore marine areas near population and 
tourist centres in need of protection or which provide 
recreation opportunities should be identified. The latter 
should be chosen only where there is reasonable 
assurance that pollution or other external conditions over 
which a park authority has little, if any control, will not 
adversely affea marine life in the future. Emphasis 
should be given to the protection of marine habitats 
containing species such as aquarium fish, soft corals and 
sponges, etc., and to promoting research on these species 
by organisations such as the Institute of Marine 
Resources, University of the South Pacific, to assist the 
Fisheries Division with their management. Reviews of 
the Unesco/UNPPA project in the Lau Group are 
provided in Anon. (1983), Brookfield (1983) and 
Bayliss-Smith (1983). Planning recommendations of the 
project were geared mainly to improving economic 
development. Account was taken of the vulnerability of 
the islands to cyclone damage, and diversification of 
production was proposed as a means to reduce this 
vulnerability. The best management methods were found 
within the indigenous system. It is not known if any 
recommendations were followed up. 



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Lewis, A.D., Adams, TJ.H. and Ledua, E. (1985). Giant 

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1986. Bull. Mar. Sci. 



CORAL COAST 

Geographical Location South coast of Viti Levu, west of 
Serua (18°16'S, 177°55'E) to, but not including, Natadola 
(18°08'S, 177°18'E). 

Area, Depth, Altitude About 60 km of coastline. 

Physical Features The 100 fathom (183 m) isobath lies 
approximately 1 km offshore; soundings of 550-1280 m 
are indicated within 5.5 km of the shore. The 
well-developed fringing reef extends almost unbroken for 
63 km with a seaward extension of 500-1000 m. The only 
major gap coincides with the mouth of the Sigatoka River 
where terrigenous sands have built up into high dunes. 
At intervals, corresponding to the creeks which descend 
from the hills of the Southern Coastal Range, the 
continuity of the reef is broken by passages 100-300 m 
across. These provide shelter for a wealth of corals and 
other sessile forms at and below low water mark of spring 
tides. While the moat may become very hot by day 
(35°C + ), the passages preserve the cooler ocean 
temperature. Landwards in these passages, water from 
the moats flows swiftly out through the channels 
paralleling the shore or cascades over a miniature cUff 
(Ryland, 1979). The reefs are backed by carbonate sand 
beaches (Ryland, 1981). Other coastal habitats are 
described by Morton and Raj (1980). 

Reef Structure and Corals The reefs at Cuvu (Thuvu) 
and Korolevu have been described by Morton and Raj 
(1980). The reef just east of Cuvu has a moat, extremely 
rich in corals forming micro-atolls of Pontes, Seriatopora, 
Pavona and Euphyllia. Seaward of this is the reef 
platform, dominated by Pontes and dissected by irregular 
channels with strong currents. Beyond this there is an 
emergent reef crest with a gentle seaward slope on which 
heavy surf breaks. Tubipora is abundant, with Favia, 
Favites and Acropora becoming more conmion 
seawards. A shallow stretch of standing water of variable 
width, the summit moat, runs the whole length of the reef 
immediately behind the crest and is filled with brown 
algae. The seaward slope has three zones; a Sargassum 
zone; a rich zone of diverse corals and algae, and the 
seaward edge which has a strong overlay 
of Lithophyllum, with Porolilhon onkodes becoming 
dominant seawards. Pocillopora eydouxi is the main 



coral. The surge channels on the reef front are 
dominated by P. verrucosa and P. eydouxi with 
some Acropora. 

At Namatakula, the fringing reef is up to 800 m wide and 
differs from the Cuvu-Naevuevu Reef in that there is no 
well developed moat with micro-atolls and no clear cut 
seaward Sargassum zone. A Montipora zone is found 
between the lower beach and a wide, shallow moat where 
other corals begin to appear. This extends out about 
800 m, to the summit slope which has strong currents and 
rich coral cover, with abundant Montipora, faviids 
and Acropora. The seaward slope also has diverse corals, 
with Platygyra, Goniastrea, Millepora and Acropora. 
The seaward edge of the reef is covered with Acropora 
and Pocillopora, and there is abundant Palythoa. 

The reef 200 m west of Korolevu Beach Hotel is similar 
to the Cuvu-Naevuevu Reef. Its distinctive feature is in 
the middle region where the moat is in many places 
roofed over by large tables of Porites, Millepora, 
faviids, SymphylUa and Galaxea. These canopies at low 
water level overhang living micro-atoUs below, which 
include a variety of species. 

The reef at Malevu, 10 km east of Sigatoka, has been 
studied in some detail by Ryland (1981) and is also briefly 
described by Morton and Raj (1980). It is bounded by 
the outflows of Bulu Creek to the east and Korotogo 
Creek to the west. To seaward it is fully exposed to the 
south-easterly weather: a substantial swell and rough sea 
appear normal, particularly during the cooler months. 
Several zones have been identified. The seaward slope or 
wave break zone (Zone 1) is intermittently exposed and 
consists of a hard Lithophyllum/ Porolilhon crust 
supporting a sward dominated by Amphiroa spp. 
and Caulerpa peltata. There is httle coral apart from 
small mounds of Pocillopora verrucosa. It rises gently to 
the reef crest zone (Zone 2) which has a permanent belt 
of low growing Sargassum cristae folium and no corals. It 
dips to the reef flat (Zone 3) at a level closely 
approximating MHWN. About 500 m from the beach, 
the flat becomes broken by tunnels and crevices which 
become deeper and more numerous. These are 
characterized by a variety of Milleporidae, Alcyonacea 
and Zoanthidea and a range of less abundant corals. In 
Zone 4, the crevices break into numbers of rounded, 
flat-topped pedestals separated by gulleys, which become 
more isolated, some of them forming large micro-atolls, 
particularly of Porites lutea and Di ploastrea heliopora. In 
Zone 5, in the central part of the reef flat lagoon nearer 
the beach, the micro-atolls are associated with elongated 
drifts of rubble and large clumps of P. andrewsi 
and Pavona divaricata in particular and change to 
irregular lines of massive and branching corals, separated 
by sandy drainage channels. Within 50-500 m of the 
beach, coral cover between the channels becomes 
discontinuous. Approaching the beach there is generally 
a distinct gutter containing tall loose clumps 
of Sargassum sp. On most days during the low tide 
period, waves continue to break over the reef crest, 
keeping the lagoon full. This water cascades over the 
flariking ridge on which a community of endemic 
didemnid ascidians, Dipiosoma multipapillatum is found 
(Kott, 1981). The important features of the reef are the 
clear zonation of corals, zoanthids, algae and ascidians 
and the high diversity of scleractinians encountered in the 
reef flat lagoon. The reef differs in detail and species 



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Fiji 



composition from those described at Cuvu and Korolevu, 
but is similarly rich and flourishing (Ryland, 1981). 

Morton and Raj (1980) describe Komave Reef, between 
Korolevu Bay to the west and Naicobocobo river mouth 
to the east. It is about 4.5 km long and 700 m wide. The 
surge zone, 50-100 m wide, is very exposed and the 
seaward slope is broken by numerous surge charmels. 
Corals are diverse and are dominated by Pocillopora, 
Favia, Plalygyra and Monti pora. The surge platform is 
consolidated with Lithophyllum moluccense 

and Porolilhon onkodes. From 30 to 60 ft (9-18 m) 
depth, secondary platforms with luxuriant coral cover, 
dominated by Pontes and faviids, are found before the 
drop-off. The reef summit is dominated by algae, and to 
the landward edge Palythoa and the ascidian Diplosoma 
similis (Rylands in litt., 25.8.87) become dominant. The 
reef flat is almost devoid of corals, although in 
pools Porites andrewsi is dominant. TTie reef moat with 
its micro-atoUs has moderate currents which permit 
growth of a diverse coral community, characterized by 
large table colonies of Porites, Favia, Symphyllia 
and Galaxea, which often shelter other corals. The 
shallow, landward lagoon has been artificially deepened 
and has no corals of significance. 

Noteworthy Fauna and Flora Ryland et at. (1984) 
studied didemnid ascidians at Malevu. Parkinson (1982) 
lists 85 species of specimen-shell mollusc (including 
22 Terebra species) in 11 families recorded in a series of 
dives in 1981 along the coast from Sigatoka east to Navua. 

Scientific Importance and Research The Coral Coast 
has the longest chain of fringing reefs in Fiji, all of which 
are considered rich and flourishing (Morton and Raj, 
1980; Ryland, 1981). The U.S.P. Institute of Marine 
Resources has worked on some of them, such as 
Cuvu-Naevuevu (Dunlap and Singh, 1980). Surveys have 
been undertaken of the foreshore area of the Hyatt 
Regency Hotel development (Raj et al., 1981) and of the 
Fijian Hotel reef near Sigatoka (Gawel and Seeto, 1982). 

Economic Value and Social Benefits The Coral Coast is 
developing as a prime tourist area on account of the 
attractive reefs and beaches and the high insolation and 
moderate rainfall. Hotels are concentrated mainly in the 
vicinity of Korolevu, Malevu-Korotogo and Cuvu but 
new unit-accomodation resorts opened near Namada and 
Tagaqe during 1980. The shallow lagoon-Uke nature of 
the reef-flat permits snorkelling without causing damage 
to beds of intertidal coral. There is a diving centre at 
Sigatoka (Dunlap and Singh, 1980). 

The reefs are also important as sources of fish and 
shellfish to the coastal villages (Ryland, 1981). 

Disturbance or Deficiencies In the late 

1970s, Acanlhaster were present at Malevu but were not 
causing a problem (Robinson, 1971). Morton and Raj 
(1980) described Acanlhaster as being common on 
Komave Reef. Cyclone Wally in 1980 had a major 
impact on the reefs in this area (Ryland et al., 1984). 

In general planning regulations are sound and relatively 
few tourists venture on or over the reef (Ryland, 1981). 
However, coastal development is intense in some areas. 
For example, the Hyatt Regency Hotel is situated by the 
Komave Reef; an artificial island has been buUt out to the 
west of the hotel, with spits to the east and west. 



apparently to trap coral sand for the beach. Immediately 
in front of the beach a swimming hole has been excavated 
(Morton and Raj, 1980). Additional damage to reefs in 
the 1970s as a result of tourism is briefly described by 
Baines (1980). 

Legal Protection None. 

Recommendations Dunlap and Singh (1980) 

recoirmiend the Coral Coast Reefs for marine park and 
reserve status. Pollution sources should be investigated 
to determine the practicality of protecting the fringing 
reefs. Those most suitable should be protected. Cuvu 
Beach is recommended as a terrestrial reserve. 



GREAT AND NORTH ASTROLABE REEFS 

Geographical Location North-east of Kadavu, south of 
Viti Levu; Solo is an island on North Astrolabe Reef at 
18°40'S, 178°30'E; Great Astrolabe includes a number of 
islands and extends about 35 km north of the 
north-eastern coast of Kadavu at ca 18°45'S, 178''30'E. 

Area, Depth, Altitude Solo (600 sq. m, max. alt. 10 ft 
(3 m). Great Astrolabe Reef includes Yaukuvelevu 
(62 ha, 400 ft (122 m)), YaukuvelaUai (18 ha, 210 ft 
(64 m)), Yabu (6 ha, 170 ft (52 m)), Dravuni (200 acres 
(81 ha)), BuUa (425 acres (172 ha), 460 ft (140 m)), Ono 
(11.7 sq. mi. (30 sq. km), 344 m), Vanuakula (17.3 ha, 
250 ft (76 m)), Yanuyanu-i-sau (28 m) and 
Yanuyanu-i-loma (13.5 ha, 140 ft (42.7 m)), Namara 
(19 ha, 230 ft (71 m)), Qasibale (60 ft (18.3 m)), Vuro 
(21 ha, 270 ft (82 m)) and Vurolailai (90 ft (27 m)). 

Physical Features North Astrolabe Reef is a circular 
atoll barrier reef with a rocky islet, Solo, the eroded peak 
of a volcano, in the middle of the open lagoon. Great 
Astrolabe Reef is also a barrier reef (classified by Ryland 
(1981) as an oceanic ribbon reef), extending north-east 
and west of Kadavu to encompass a number of small 
islands (Dunlap and Singh, 1980). AH the islands are 
volcanic. Davis (1920) briefly described Ono which has 
steep cliffs on the west coast. 

Reef Structure and Corals Morton and Raj (1980a) 
describe the fringing reef at Yaukuve which has a basalt 
volcanic shore. The sublittoral fringe has rich and diverse 
corals including several species of Acropora, Porites 
lutea, Pocillopora damicornis and faviids. On the vertical 
face beyond this, there are broad foliose sheets 
of Montipora foliosa. The first part of the reef platform 
is overlaid with silty sand and has few hving corals. At 
the edge, where the surge breaks at lowest spring tides, 
there are good A reticulata tables. A popular account of 
the reef at Solo Lighthouse is given by Gibbons and Penn 
(n.d.). 

Noteworthy Fauna and Flora Yabu is a seabird rookery. 

Scientific Importance and Research The Institute of 
Marine Resources, University of the South Pacific, has a 
research field station on Dravuni with accommodation 
for 15 visiting scientists. An unpubUshed fish checklist 
and some comments on fisheries have been prepared 
following a fish collecting trip organized by the 



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Coral Reefs of the World 



University of the South Pacific and the Ontario Museum, 
Canada (Brodie in lilt., 10.11.87). 

Economic Value and Social Benefits Private yachts 
sometimes visit the islands; groups of SCUBA divers 
occasionally explore the reefs and tour operators arrange 
charter cruises to the reefs (Dunlap and Singh, 1980). 
Solo has a lighthouse. 

Disturbance or Deficiencies Giant Clams have almost 
disappeared from the Bulla and Dravuni reef systems due 
to artisanal fishing (Lewis ei al., 1984; Adams in lilt., 
7.2.85) 

Legal Protection None as yet. 

Management Traditional management and customs are 
still practiced on the Dravuni reefs (Birkeland, 1987). 

Recommendations North Astrolabe Reef was 

recommended for development as a marine reserve 
between 1981 and 1985; Great Astrolabe Reef was 
recommended for development as a marine park and 
reserve in 1986. The Yabu seabird rookery is 
recommended for additional protection (Dunlap and 
Singh, 1980). None of these recommendations appears to 
have been acted upon. 



LAKEBA 

Geographical Location 

18°15'S. 



Central Lau Islands; 178°48'W, 



Area, Depth, Altitude Emergent island 55.9 sq. km; total 
lagoon area 82 sq. km; lagoon around island 0-10 m deep, 
36 sq. km; Great Lagoon 46 sq. km; mangrove 5 sq. km; 
max. alt. 219 m. 

Physical Features Lakeba is the largest island of the 
Lau Group, and is almost circular and mainly volcanic but 
with the remains of a limestone rim. Tidal range is less 
than 1 m. East to south-east trade winds predominate. 
The south and west coast is bordered by limestone cliffs 
reaching 250 ft (76 m) in height. Sea surface 
temperatures range from 27.9 to 29.3°C; salinity is 
33-34 ppt. The island is surrounded by a continuous 
barrier reef demarcating a lagoon, 500-700 m wide, with a 
single large opening on the south-west and sandy 
beaches. The north, south and west sides of the island 
are bordered by a shallow lagoon, except in front of 
Tubou where depths are great enough for ships to 
anchor. Off the eastern end of the island there is a very 
deep and extensive lagoon called the Great Lagoon which 
has not been studied. The eastern shore of the lagoon is 
bordered by mangroves. Two sink holes, Waci Waci and 
Yadrana, of karstic origin are located in the south-east 
and north of the lagoon. These are subcircular with an 
area of about 1 sq. km and are areas of strong turbidity 
(Salvat, 1976 and 1977). 

Reef Structure and Corals On the west coast, corals 
cover less than 50% of the lagoon bottom. Outside the 
barrier reef flat, the reef is well developed, terminating 
seaward in a dense algal crest of Caulerpa, Halimeda 
and Turbinaria. On the north coast, seaweed beds and 



algae are found nearshore and the frontal zone of the 
barrier reef is covered with corals. On the south coast 
corals are abundant on the barrier reef near the pass but 
not on the channel bottom. 

Sixty-five species of scleractinian corals and three species 
of Millepora have been recorded. Salvat et al. (1976 and 
1977) describe the zonation on the barrier reef. The 
outer slope is dominated by encrusting Acropora, 
providing 20-70% coverage and 100% on some vertical 
walls. The frontal zone has only 5-50% Uving coral cover, 
with Acropora dominating. The outer reef flat has the 
greatest diversity of corals. Pontes usually makes up only 
1% coral cover. Species diversity around the sinkholes is 
low, although corals occur around Waci Waci. 

Noteworthy Fauna and Flora Along the eastern shore of 
the island is a 9 km stretch of mangroves, between 
Nukunuku and Waitabu villages. It consists of a 
monospecific stand of Rhizophora and reaches a 
maximum width of 1500 m. Salvat et al. (1977) recorded 
218 species of mollusc and 145 fish species. 

Scientific Importance and Research The island was 
surveyed as part of a Unesco/UNFPA project on 
population and environment in the eastern islands of Fiji 
under the MAB Program (Salvat et al., 1976 and 1977). 

Economic Value and Social Benefits The population of 
Lakeba numbers about 2100. A small amount of fishing 
is carried out but there are only about 10 motor 
boats. Trochus niloticus and mother-of-pearl shells are 
exported to Suva, and the Giant Clam Tridacna derasa 
and other molluscs are much sought after for food 
(Salvat e/ a/., 1977). 

Disturbance or Deficiencies The reefs and marine 
environments are relatively undisturbed as the lagoon 
and reefs are less important food sources than the island 
and the local people do not dive below 10 m when 
collecting marine organisms. Most fishing is done by 
women, within the limits of the lagoon and reefs. 
However, Giant Clams (Tridacnidae) have been 
overexploited and Trochus exploitation should not be 
increased. A road was built round the island in 1969 but 
coral sand mining, and mangrove cutting have so far had 
very little impact (Salvat et al., 1977). 

Legal Protection None. 

Management Fishing is regulated by traditional laws. 

Recommendations Not mentioned for protection in the 
Fiji National Trust Plan (Dunlap and Singh, 1980). 
General recommendations from the Unesco/UNFPA 
project are given in Anon. (1983), Brookfield (1983) and 
Bayliss-Smith (1983). It is not known if any 
recommendations were followed up. 



NADI WATERS AND MAMANUCA GROUP 

Geographical Location Western Viti Levu, within the 
approximate area , 17''20'-17°55'S, 177°00'-177°25'E, 
including the Mamanuca Group (the southern part of the 
Yasawa Group), and several scattered islands between 



-92- 



Fiji 



these and Viti Levu, in the Nadi Bay region. Local 
inhabitants use the term Mamanuca to refer to the 
southern part (Mamanuca-i-cake) of the Mamanuca 
Group as it is shown on maps, referring to the northern 
part of the group, or Mamanuca-i-ra, as the 
Narokorokoyawa Group. 

Area, Depth, Altitude The Mamanuca-i-ra 

(Narokorokoyawa) Group comprises Eori (16.2 ha, 
64 m), Navadra (30.3 ha, 128 m), Vanua Levu (50.5 ha, 
350 ft (107 m)), Vanualailai (ca 4 ha, joined to Vanua 
Levu by sand spit), Naniukalele, Kadomo (30.3 ha, 330 ft 
(100 m)), Yavuriba (0.8 ha, 100 ft (30 m)). The 
Mamanuca Rocks lie between Mamanuca-i-ra and 
Mamanuca-i-cake. The Mamanuca-i-cake (Mamanuca) 
Group comprises Monu (73 ha, 730 ft (222 m)), Yanuya 
(300 acres (122 ha), 340 ft (104 m)), Monuriki (40 ha, 
590 ft (180 m)), Matamanoa (14.2 ha, 230 ft (70 m)), 
Nautanivono (240 ft (73 m)), Tavua (470 acres (190 ha), 
570 ft (174 m)), Tokoriki (99 ha, 310 ft (95 m)). Islands 
within the Malolo Group include Malolo (3.73 sq. mi. (9.7 
sq. km), 750 ft (229 m)) which is joined to Malololailai 
(Malolosewa or Plantation L) (500 acres (235 ha), 230 ft 
(70 m)), Wadigi (3 islets, 60 ft (18.3 m)), Qalito 
("Castaway") (56.7 ha, 390 ft (119 m)), Mociu 
("Honeymoon") (0.8 ha, 180 ft (55 m)), Mana (132 ha, 
69.5 m), Vomo (109 ha, 380 ft (116 m)) and Vomo Lailai 
(6 ha, 200 ft (61 m)). Islands lying within Nadi Waters 
include Namotu (6 ha in the 1950s but now greatly 
reduced after hurricanes), Tavarua, (10 ha, flat-topped), 
Tivoa, Luvuka ('Treasure") (10 ha), Tai ("Beachcomber") 
(2 ha), Navini (2.1 ha), Malamala (4.9 ha), Kadavu 
("Bounty") (16.2 ha) and Yakuilau. 

Land Tenure A private company (Islands in the Sun 
(Fiji) Ltd.) owns 99-year leases for Kadavu, Luvuka, Tai 
and Vomo. Malololailai is privately owned 

(Koblukm//H., 23.11.84). 



Reef Structure and Corals Most of the islands in the 
Mamanuca group are surrounded by fringing reefs. On 
Malololailai, the best reef growth is on the south-east and 
east where there is a broad intertidal reef platform that 
extends across sandy intertidal flats, to a sandy beach 
along the shore. There is a good shallow water coral 
community and a high diversity of molluscs (with ca 300 
species recorded) and coral biota (Anon., 1986; 
Kobluk in tin., 23.11.84). Further details of the reef here 
are given in Kobluk and Lysenko (1987). 

Ryland (1981) describes corals on Navini patch reef. To 
leeward the reef flat is about 50 m wide and shelves very 
gently to the region of drop-off. Luxurious coral growth 
here breaks surface at low water springs. The approach 
to the edge is marked by the abundance of Acropora 
tables, often 1 m or more across, thickets of Acropora 
spp. and Pocillopora damicornis, micro-atolls 
of Diploaslrea heliopora, and large colonies 
of Sarcophyton trochelio pliorum . The fore-reef descends 
steeply but irregularly for 5-10 m with coral heads, bare 
cliffs, or slabs of Diploastrea, but without large growths 
of Acropora hyacinthus or similar forms. There is no 
groove and buttress fore-reef or coralline reef crest. 

Noteworthy Fauna and Flora The tree vegetation on 
Navini cay includes Hernandia peliata, Termiimlia 
lilloralis and Calophyltum inophyllum mixed with 
coconuts and Acacia simplici folia scrub. Some bushes of 
the rare Suriaiia marilima are present on the lee side 
(Ryland, 1981). 

Scientific Importance and Research The islands have 
been mapped by the Mineral Resources Department of 
Fiji and a geological map is in preparation (Rodda in lilt., 
14.9.87). Reefs on Malololailali have been the subject of 
study over at least three seasons by the University of 
Toronto in collaboration with Earthwatch (Anon., 1986a). 



Physical Features An area of insular shelf, protected 
from the prevailing winds, with high islands and sand 
cays, most with fringing and some with barrier reefs, and 
numerous small patch reefs. Islands of the 

Mamanuca-i-ra and Mamanuca-i-cake Groups are almost 
wholly volcanic, apart from some limestone on Eori. The 
islands in Nadi Waters are all of sand and beach-rock. 
Being sheltered, the beaches of Nadi Bay itself are not of 
white sand and are often backed by mangals. There is 
little detailed pubUshed information on the islands or 
reefs. 

There is an extensive well-protected lagoon on the west 
side of Malololailai that is shared with Malolo. The 
lagoon centre is deep and is fringed by a typical lagoon 
patch reef network. It is open to the north and south, the 
southern opening being protected from the sea by an 
east-west trending small barrier reef that lies between the 
island and the large Malolo Barrier Reef about 6 km to 
the south. Information on the geology of the island is 
available (Kobluk in litt., 23.11.84). Malolo has a fine 3 
km sand beach and is hilly. 

Navini is a small oval patch reef about 20 km off shore, 
almost due west from Nadi Airport, or WSW from Vuda 
Point, which has been described by Ryland (1981). It is 
700 m in longest dimension and supports a cay 300 m in 
length. The seabed slopes away from the reef to 
surrounding depths of 37 m. The sea is rough on the 
windward side under normal trade wind conditions. 



Economic Value and Social Benefits This is the most 
important tourist location in Fiji. There are several large 
hotels on the mainland in the vicinity of Nadi Airport, but 
much of the attraction of the area lies in day trips to or 
short stays on the islands and cays. The latter, despite 
their lack of ground water and minimal land area, are in 
great demand as sites for resorts. Most of those between 
Nadi and the Mamanuca Group have now been, or are 
being developed, often to a high density of units; these 
include Navini, Mana, Malolo, Matamanoa; Malololailai, 
Qalita, Tai, Kadavu, Luvuka, Tavarua and Nanuyalevu, 
with plans (in 1985) for the development of Vomo. The 
reefs surrounding these islands are major attractions, with 
snorkelling and coral viewing from, boats being popular 
activities (Dunlap and Singh, 1980; Ryland, 1981). The 
lagoon on the west side of Malololailai is used as a yacht 
club anchorage; the island is often visited by tourists, a 
landing strip permitting regular light plane flights from 
Nadi Airport (Kobluk in lilt., 23.11.84). There are diving 
centres on Mana and Molololailai (Anon., n.d.). Cruise 
ships (Blue Lagoon and Seafarer) call at various sites in 
the Mamanuca Group and further north in the Yasawas 
to buy shells and marine curios. Fishing is an important 
activity on many of the islands. 

Disturbance or Deficiencies There was some hurricane 
damage to the Malololailai reefs in 1983 (Kobluk in litt., 
23.11.84). The same area was hit by two cyclones in 1985, 
57 days apart, which caused a reduction of about 50% in 
the number of boulders sheltering cryptic coral on the 



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Coral Reefs of the World 



Molololailai reefs. However, there was little change in 
the composition of the remaining cryptic coral fauna 
(Kobluk and Lysenko, 1987). Minor damage to reefs was 
also noted around Luvuka, Tai and Qalito (Brodie in lilt., 
10.11.87; WeUs pers. obs., 1985). 

Developments on the low islands are recent and the reefs 
are unspoilt but their small size renders both the cay and 
the coral vulnerable to damage and exploitation (Ryland, 
1981). The high density of tourist traffic year round is 
considered to have had some impact on the reefs at 
Malololailai (Kobluk in lilt., 23.11.84). In the south and 
south-west of the lagoon mollusc populations have 
reportedly been depleted by overcollecting. The main 
reef on the east and south-east has suffered less damage 
as it is not easily accessible. On Luvuka, there had been 
some evidence of algal overgrowth caused by sewage 
pollution on the reefs, but steps are being taken to 
control this (Brodie pers. comm., 1985). 

Legal Protection None. 

Management The "vanua" of Vuda on the mainland 
south of Lautoka have the fishing rights on Tai and 
Luvuka. Since the development of the resorts, 
subsistence fishing has improved and tourist activity 
expanded, with holders of traditional fishing rights 
becoming involved in resort management and boat hire. 
A new sewage disposal system has been installed on 
Luvuka, to carry sewage from the resort to deep water 
beyond the reef. A study of the effects of the new system 
concluded that there was no immediate threat either to 
public health or to the island fringing reefs from the new 
system (Brodie and Ryan, 1987). 

Recommendations The reef around Tai was 

recommended for reserve status by Dahl (1980). Dunlap 
and Singh (1980) recommended both the reefs of Nadi 
Bay and of the Mamanuca Islands for marine park and 
reserve status, with Nadi Bay accorded higher priority. It 
was noted that the Mamanuca group of islands and reefs 
should be given higher priority if the Nadi Bay proposal 
did not go through. It was recommended that potential 
pollution sources be investigated to determine the 
practicality of protecting the reefs and if suitable, 
designation and classification should be carried out. 
Designation was originally timetabled for 1985. Dunlap 
and Singh (1980) recommended that Malamala amd the 
surrounding reefs be given park and reserve status 
(terrestrial and marine) in 1986. 

The development of a marine national park around Tai 
and Luvuka as a pilot project, with the help of the fishing 
right owners, is now considered a high priority (Anon., 
1985b) and is considered a priority in the Action Strategy 
for Protected Areas in the South Pacific Region, drawn 
up at the Third South Pacific National Parks and 
Reserves Conference in 1985. The company which owns 
the leases on Tai and Luvuka is enthusiastic and in 1985 
negotiations were under way with the fishing rights 
owners. The reserve is to extend 500 m from high water 
mark around both islands (although it is unclear if this 
also included all water between the two islands) (Rowles 
pers. comm., July, 1985). No progress appeared to have 
been made in this by late 1987 (Brodie in lilt., 10.11.87). 
The proprietor of the Musket Cove Resort on 
Malololailai is also concerned that the development of 
tourism should not damage the reefs (Kobluk in lilt.. 



23.11.84). Long-term monitoring of the sewage disposal 
system for Luvuka is recommended (Brodie and Ryan, 
1987). 



NATADOLA BAY PROPOSED NATIONAL PARK 

Geographical Location South-west Viti Levu, west of 
Sigatoka; 18°08'S, 177''18'E. 

Land Tenure The area close to the beach and around 
the lake and mangroves is Crown Land. Sixteen 
mataqalis own native land, and there is some freehold 
land owned by Fiji Macambo Holdings. 

Physical Features Natadola Bay is surrounded by rocks 
of the Wainimala Group, a deformed sequence of 
volcanic and sedimentary rocks overlain by siltstone and 
limestone, and forms a wide bay bordered with white 
sand and surrounded by low hills. Navo, an island on the 
eastern border of the Bay, is composed of limestone and 
has undercut cliffs. A branch of the Tuva River flows 
into the area via a brackish lake with no direct cormection 
to the sea. There is a barrier reef 1.5-2 miles 
(2.4-3.2 sq. km) off shore with a central gap, a fringing 
reef on the western side of the bay and an apron 
extension of the fringing reef at the eastern side of the 
bay. Between the two fringing reefs, there is a gently 
sloping sand bottom. The lagoon within the barrier reef 
is shallow enough in many parts to wade across at low 
tide. Rainfall averages 1850 mm and there is a marked 
dry season (Robinson, 1971; Singh, 1980). 

Reef Structure and Corals The barrier reef has not 
been studied; Robinson (1971) gives a brief description of 
the lagoon. Patch reefs are scattered across the sandy 
lagoon bottom and at extreme low tide are covered by 
6-12 in. (15-30 cm) of water. The flat tops of the patch 
reefs are covered in many places by dead zoantharian 
coral or living alcyonarians, predominantly Sinularia. 
The sides of the patch reefs have a rich growth of stony 
and soft corals. A transect across the lagoon revealed a 
zone, corresponding to the path of the main tidal current, 
where soft coral flourishes and living hard coral is 
decreased. 

Noteworthy Fauna and Flora The terrestrial vegetation 
of the area is described by Singh (1980). There is a dense 
mangrove forest in the lake area. Shore birds are the 
predominant wildlife. Singh (1980) provides a 

preliminary list of marine fish. 

Scientific Importance and Research An initial 

investigation was carried out during the preparation of 
the National Parks and Reserves Plan for Fiji. This was 
followed by other investigations by the National Trust of 
Fiji. 

Economic Value and Social Benefits The area has 
considerable archaeological interest. At present there are 
no visitor facilities, but recreational activities such as 
swimming, snorkelling, horse racing and camping are 
popular. Fishing and shellfish collecting is prevalent 
around the barrier reef. The area is of value to visitors 
from the nearby hotels and tourist centres (Singh, 1980). 



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Fiji 



Disturbance or Deficiencies The area may be 

vulnerable due to its small size and the proximity of 
agricultural land which lies as close as 10 m to the beach 
in some places. Runoff of chemical fertilizers could cause 
problems. Shell collecting was extensive in the 1960s 
(Robinson, 1971). Robinson (1971) discusses the 
possibility of the reef having been damaged 
by Acanlhaster between 1965 and 1969, resulting in the 
appearance of a zone of soft coral in the lagoon and the 
almost complete dominance of the reef crest by the soft 
coral Sinularia where once there had been an abundance 
of ahermatypic corals. Sedimentation in Natadola 
Harbour had increased while turbulence was reduced, 
and a number of Acanlhaster were observed. The land 
behind Natadola Lagoon had been intensely cultivated by 
the 1960s, probably resulting in increased runoff, fertilizer 
enrichment and sedimentation, and it is not clear whether 
these activities or the Acanlhaster had caused coral 
damage. Baines (1982) noted that speculators had paid 
relatively high prices for farm land backing Natadola Bay 
with the prospect of developing the area into a large-scale 
tourist resort; as of 1985 no such development had begun 
(Wells and Jenkins, pers. obs., 1985). 

Legal Protection None. 

Management The native fishing rights are held by the 
Vanua of Nasoqo and the Vanua of Nasoni of Nadroga. 

Recommendations In Dunlap and Singh (1980) the area 
was considered to be the most suitable for the 
establishment of Fiji's first National Park. A plan for its 
development and management was drawn up (Singh, 
1980). A system of zonation was proposed to include 
Natural Areas, Development Areas and Historic Areas; 
traditional usage of the area would still be permitted. It 
was intended to install interpretive facilities and 
undertake survey and research work, and to monitor 
carefully the increased usage of the area once it was 
gazetted. Initially only the terrestrial part of the park was 
to be developed, primarily for the purpose of recreation. 
As of 1985 no progress had been made in the further 
development of this area. 



SUVA BARRIER REEF AND 
MAKULUVA CAYS 



NUKULAU AND 



Geographical Location South-east of Suva Harbour 
(18°08'S, 178°25'E), south coast of Viti Levu. 

Land Tenure Nukulau is government-owned. 

Physical Features Suva Barrier Reef is part of the 
south-eastern reef chain of Viti Levu and encloses Suva 
Peninsula and Laucala Bay. It forms a crescent 
protecting Suva Harbour to the south-east and skirting 
the tip of the peninsula at a distance of about one km. 
The eastern part encloses Laucala Bay and is broken 
midway by Nukubuco Passage, adjacent to which lies the 
islet of Nukubuco. At its eastern extremity, cut off from 
the main reef by the Nukulau Passage, are the sand cays 
of Nukulau and Makuluva, each with its own fringing reef 
(Morton and Raj, 1980b). Makuluva, the outermost cay 
has a wide fringing reef, extending south-east of the islet 
independent of the barrier reef. Most of the Rewa flows 



into Laucala Bay, near Nukulau. The shores of the Bay 
are described by Morton and Raj (1980a). Further 
information is given in Ryland et al. (1984). 

Reef Structure and Corals Morton and Raj (1980b) 
describe a transect across the barrier reef at Laucala Bay. 
Five zones are identified. Starting on the landward side, 
there is a seagrass bed of Syringodium and Halophila. A 
shallower zone of soft corals and Pontes follows. In 
addition to several Pontes species, Alveopora 
and Seriatopora are also found. The principal soft coral 
species are Sarcophyton and Sinularia. The next part of 
the reef flat is dominated by echinoderms. Seaward of 
this is a long stretch of loose consolidated rubble 
intermingled with patches of coarse sand, up to 700 m 
wide. Towards the summit of the reef aest, there are 
dead coral heads, especially Acropora tables and pieces 
of rubble, the largest being blocks up to a metre across. 
These provide habitats for diverse invertebrate 
communities described by Morton and Raj (1980b). The 
seaward slope of the reef is exposed and subjected to 
heavy surf. The upper part is dominated by Acropora, 
Montipora viridis, Pocillopora eydouxi and Palythoa, 
with numerous dead rubble patches between the living 
coral. In deeper water Acropora, Pocillopora verrucosa, 
Millepora and Montipora viridis predominate. 

The west, or channel section of the barrier reef, just 
outside Suva Harbour, has a sheltered, shallow lagoon 
area with scattered corals in the seaward part, followed 
by an Amphiroa-Turbinaria-Sargassum flat with limited 
coral growth on the seaward edge. Further out is a 
zoanthid zone dominated by Palythoa, but with Acropora 
and Montipora becoming increasingly abundant. 
Seaward of this is the reef crest which is less exposed 
than on the Laucala Bay side. Acropora dominates, 
with Montipora, faviids, Tubipora musica and Pavona 
decussata. Surge channels seaward of the crest are 
covered with Millepora tenera and Pocillopora verrucosa, 
with a wide diversity of other corals. 

The lagoon between the main reef and the Suva 
Peninsula forms a channel with a fairly strong tidal 
current, and there is a scatter of patch reefs here, in 
about 5 m of water. Elaborate growths of branched 
corals reach up to a metre from the bottom, Acropora 
predominating. Faviid head corals are lacking but there 
is abundant Echinopora lamellosa and Hydrophora 
exesa. Merulina, Pavona, Psammocora, Porites, 

Seriatopora and Stylophora are also found. 

Makuluva fringing reef has a particularly well developed 
rubble flat, described in detail by Morton and Raj 
(1980b), loosely consoUdated and with a fragile canopy 
of Amphiroa and Lithophyllum calcareous algae. At 
30-40 m from the seaward edge, the reef crest is covered 
mainly with Amphiroa and green algae, with 
low-profile Acropora heads, Porites, Favia 
and Goniastrea. The seaward slope and surge zone have 
deep surge charmels. The surge zone is dominated by 
zoanthids, Palythoa and Xenia, and Organpipe 
Coral Tubipora musica is very common. Of the 
scleractinians, Favia and Favites may cover 10-20% of 
the surface, and Porites andrewsi, Acropora sp. 
and Montipora viridis are common. Millepora 
pocillopora and Disticho pora violacea are also found. 

On Nukulau, corals are rare, absent or dead off the 
landward shore but increase in diversity towards the east 



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Coral Reefs of the World 



and south, presumably due to the decrease in sediment 
and increase in salinity (Squires, 1962). Corals are rare or 
absent in Laucala Bay. 

Noteworthy Fauna and Flora Morton and Raj (1980a 
and b) give details of the marine fauna found in the area. 
Parkinson (1982) lists 30 mollusc species (including 
12 Conus spp) in 7 families recorded in survey dives in 
1981 in the Suva Harbour region. There are some 
Tridacnids present on Suva reef, particularly T. maxima 
(Brodie in litt., 10.11.87). The seasnake Lalicauda 
colubrina is found on Nukulau (Guinea, 1980). 
Ryland et at. (1984) studied didemnid ascidians on 
Nukubuco Reef. There is a Mangrove Park on the island 
of Laucala, and the Rewa River is fringed with 
mangroves in its lower reaches. 

Scientific Importance and Research The reefs in this 
area are used extensively for teaching purposes, as the 
University of the South Pacific campus is situated on the 
shore of Laucala Bay. 

Economic Value and Social Benefits Tourism is 

becoming increasingly important in this area, and most 
diving in Fiji takes place around Suva. Day trips to 
Nukulau are a popular attraction, and the reefs can be 
viewed there with glass panelled boats. 

Disturbance or Deficiencies In 1984 there was an 
outbreak of Acamhaster planci on the barrier reef, the 
population dynamics of which had been studied since the 
juvenile stage (Zarm era/., in press). However, the extent 
of coral damage is not yet known. 

Suva is the main international port and population centre 
of Fiji and there has been considerable death of stony 
corals in this area since the beginning of the century. 
Mayer (1924) mentions that the reefs had deteriorated by 
the 1920s and attributed this to silting following the 
removal of vegetation from the watershed of the Rewa 
River. SUting at the mouth of the Rewa has continued, 
increased from time to time by heavy flooding. For 
example in January 1965, there was extensive coral death, 
followed by mangrove establishment on Nukulau after 
severe flooding in 1964 (Robinson, 1971). The 1965 
hurricane did not appear to damage the reefs (Cooper, 
1966). Cyclone WaUy in April 1980 had a noticeable 
impact on the reefs, causing severe flooding and 
discolouration of the water (Ryland et at., 1984) and there 
was massive damage to reef corals in the Suva area 
following large scale flooding caused by exceptional 
rainfaU in early 1986 (Brodie in litt., 10.11.87). 

From 1960 to 1979, around 123 million tons (dry weight) 
of coral sand were extracted from seven different sites in 
Laucala Bay; in 1979 extraction from seagrass beds was 
proceeding at the rate of 2000 tons a week (Bajpai, 
1979). Coral sand is also dredged from the sand banks 
near Nukuboco. The full impact of this activity is not 
known but it is potentially damaging to adjacent reefs 
and has already caused extensive mortality of turtle 
grass Syringodium isoetifolius (Baines, 1977a; Holmes, 
1980; Krishna, 1979; Lai, 1984; Penn, 1981 and 1982). 
Nukubuco was used for target practice in World War II. 
Makuluva has changed extensively over the years, partly 
by destruction and partly by movement. Large concrete 
water tanks, originally on the island are now on the reef, 
the sand of the island having moved away to the 



south-east (Roddam litt., 14.9.87) 

Legal Protection Vuo (Admiralty Island) (1.0 ha, 
calcareous sandstone), Draunibota (Cave Island) (1.9 ha, 
calcareous sandstone and limestone) and Labiko (Snake 
Island) are three small reserves in the Bay of Islands 
which are popular for recreational purposes (Dahl, 1980; 
Eaton, 1985). These are under the administration of the 
Ministry of Forests but there are plans to transfer them 
to the National Trust (Dunlap and Singh, 1980). The 
adjacent reefs are not protected. 

Management None. 

Recommendations Suva Barrier Reef has been 

recommended for marine park and reserve status 
(Dunlap and Singh, 1980). Investigations should be made 
to determine whether the reefs are likely to be affected 
by pollution; if not, protected areas should be designated 
and classified and applications for foreshore leases made. 
Makuluva and its reefs are recommended as a marine 
reserve. Both developments were originally intended to 
take place over the period 1981-1985. Dahl (1980) 
recommends protection of the Rewa River delta and 
mangroves. Guinea (1980) suggested that the 

seasnake Lalicauda colubrina required protection which 
could be achieved by the creation of a reserve on 
Nukulau. 



WAKAYA 

Geographical Location In the Lomaiviti Group; 17''39'S, 
179°01'E. 

Area, Depth, Altitude 3 sq. mi. (7.8 sq. km). 

Land Tenure Privately owned. 

Physical Features The island is volcanic, with high 
bluffs reaching 600' (183 m) on the west (Davis, 1920). 

Reef Structure and Corals Robinson (1971) surveyed 
three areas on the northern reefs of Wakaya in the course 
of a study of Acamhaster infestation, but gives few details 
of reef structure. 

Noteworthy Fauna and Flora Red Deer from New 
Caledonia have been introduced to the island. The island 
is covered largely by coconut plantations. 

Scientific Importance and Research The reef is 
considered to be of particular interest (Dunlap and Singh, 
1980). 

Economic Value and Social Benefits Trochus is 

coUeaed for food from the northern reefs, and the shell 
used to be collected for a button factory at Levuka until 
this closed in 1970 (Robinson, 1971). 

Disturbance or Deficiencies Robinson (1971) described 
high densities of Acamhaster on parts of the Wakaya 
reefs in the 1960s. The change in reef structure from 
stony corals to predominantly soft corals was attributed 
to Acamhaster predation since the island is comparatively 



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Fiji 

isolated and has had no history of agricultural chemicals Recommendations Wakaya and its reefs are 

in recent years. recommended for terrestrial and marine park status. The 

potential for developing a historical and marine park in 
Legal Protection None yet. co-operation with freehold landowners and the Fiji 

Museum should be investigated (Dunlap and Singh, 1980). 
Management None. 



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FRENCH POLYNESIA 



INTRODUCTION 

General Description 

French Polynesia extends over ca 2 500 000 sq. km of 
ocean from 134°28'W (Temoe) to 154''40'W (Manuae or 
Scilly) and from 7°50'S (Motu One) to 27'36'S (Rapa). 
Emergent land totals about 4000 sq. km and there is 
about 7000 sq. km of lagoon. The islands are situated in a 
general NW-SE orientation, their age decreasing from 
north-west to south-east, and they form five distinctive 
archipelagos: Society, Tuamotu, Gambier, Marquesas and 
Tubuai or Austral Islands. There are around 130 islands, 
of which 84 are atolls; most of the remainder are high 
volcanic islands, many being very mountainous with 
inaccessible interiors. Salvat (1985) provides a 
classification of them based on geomorphologial and 
economic characteristics. Clipperton Island lies much 
further to the east and is under the authority of the 
French Government; it is described in a separate account 
in this section. 

Annual rainfall affects the mean temperature through a 
warm rainy season from November to April and a 
relatively cool and dry season from May to October. The 
eastern trade winds predominate from October to 
March. From April to June, there are long calm periods 
broken by occasional cyclones, which generally arrive 
from the north-east and north-west. Within this general 
pattern there are significant differences between the 
archipelagoes (Teissier, 1969; SPREP, 1980). Cyclones 
have been rare in the past, averaging one per century to 
the north of the Marquesas, one to three per century 
from the Marquesas to the region north of the Tuamotu 
group, four to eight per century from the Tuamotu group 
to the Gamblers and one every two or three years in the 
Austral areas (Gabri6 and Salvat, 1985). 1982/3 was 
exceptional in that five cyclones occurred (Nano, Orama, 
Reva, Veena and Wilham), probably related to the 
abnormal El Nino of that period, and were accompanied 
by abnormally low sea levels (Rougerie and Wauthy, 
1985; Harrison and Cane, 1984). Gabrie and Salvat 
(1985) provide a summary of the hydrology of the 
region. Tides are semi-diurnal, with an amplitude rarely 
exceeding 40 cm. Seawater temperature decreases 
southward and eastward to Rapa where the minimum 
temperature suitable for coral growth is found. Summer 
temperatures are 26-30°C and winter temperatures are 
20-22°C. 



Table of Islands 

SOCIETY ARCHIPELAGO 

The Society archipelago covers 720 sq. km and consists of 
nine high, volcanic islands and five atolls, divided into the 
Windward (Tahiti, Moorea, Maiao, Mehetia and 
Tetiaroa) and the Leeward Islands (Huahine, 
Raiatea-Tahaa, Bora-Bora, Maupiti, Tupai, Maupihaa 
(Mopelia), Manuae and Motu One) for the purposes of 
administration. They provide a classic example of a 
complete sequence of island forms, from active volcanoes 
to small atolls, moving northwards from Mehetia. Their 



origins and geology are discussed by Pirazzoli (1985a) 
who summarises earlier studies, and provides a brief 
description of the vegetation and flora. 

There are numerous publications on the reefs of Tahiti 
and Moorea, including early descriptions by Crossland 
(1927b, 1928a and b, 1939). ChevaUer (1971 and 1977) 
describes reef origin in these areas. 

Mehetia (Mahetia, Meetia) 2 sq. km; high volcanic, still 
active; 433 m; youngest island in Societies situated close 
to "hot spot" (Talandier, 1983); no true fringing reefs but 
coral colonies found on submarine volcanic slopes, 
particularly Pocillopora; research expedition in 1983 
(Anon., 1983); privately owned; introduced pigs and goats. 

Tahiti (X) 1042 sq. km; high volcanic; 2241 m and 
1323 m; marine environment extensively studied; reef 
origins described by Chevalier (1971); discontinuous 
fringing reefs with a chain of barrier reefs enclosing a 
lagoon in some places, frequently interrupted (ChevaUer, 
1973); early description by Crossland (1928a, b and 1939); 
primary production in lagoons of Faaa and Vairao 
described (Ricard, 1974 and 1976a); Bale de Port Phaeton 
and other urban areas studied 1981 (see main text); 
barrier reef slope on north-west surveyed by Salvat et al. 
(1985) between 70 and 1100 m depth using submersible as 
part of OTEC power plant project: 0-100 m, slope 
covered with living coral reef; 100- 200 m a subvertical 
cliff of dead coral; 200- 250 m encrusting corals on a 
volcanic substrate; 250-500 m basaltic outcrops and 
sediment channels; 500-1100 m a gentler slope with 
sedimentary deposits and coral debris; species are being 
identified from photographs; avifauna described in 
Thibault (1975a). 

Tetiaroa (X) 1288 ha; atoU with 13 islets around 
enclosed lagoon; 6 islets have seabird rookeries, including 
Tahuna Rahi and Tahuna Iti; privately owned with hotel; 
avifauna described in Thibault (1976). 

Moorea (X) 136 sq. km; high volcanic; 1207 m; 25 km 
north-west of Tahiti; triangular in shape with ca 61 km of 
coastline and two distinct bays (Opunohu and Cook) on 
north coast; barrier reef, intersected by twelve passes 
corresponding to the principal valleys and submerged at 
high tide, circles the island enclosing shallow lagoon 
500-1500 m wide and generally 0.5-3 m deep; deeper 
channels in lagoon run parallel to the coast, opening into 
the passes; four coral islets (Fareone, Tiahura, Irioa and 
Ahi); marine environment extensively studied; Galzin and 
Pointier (1985) provide detailed description of the island 
including the lagoon at Vaipahu, Paroa, Paevaeva and 
Afareaitu; corals described by Chevalier and Kiihlmann 
(1984), lagoonal zooplankton by Lefevre (1985), 
planktonic productivity by Soumia and Ricard (1975b), 
foraminiferal distribution by Venec-Peyre (1985); less 
sedimentation than on Tahiti; {see separate accounts for 
Tiahura and Temae). 

Maiao (Tubual-Manu) (X) 9.5 sq. km; almost atoll with 
volcanic ridge; 154 m; 7 islets on barrier (Tapuaemanu) 
reef; ridge flanked by coral flats and barrier reef; 
avifauna described in Thibault (1973a). 



-99- 



Coral Reefs of the World 



FRENCH POLYNESIA 

f^ Reefs 

Approximate 4000m isobath 
■^ Park or protected area 



Hatutaa,, Motu One , 
Eiao" %„ 

■■ .Motu Iti % 



8°S — 



Nuku Hiva t3 o Ua Huka 



'(-.■^ 



"^>y 



Ua Pouq 

Tahuata?'^ 



Fata Huku 
Hiva Oa 



Mohotani 
Fatu Hiva 



<? 



12°S — 



King George Is 



^0. 



'^^oru 



'"'c, 



iiip, 



'fo 



//// ^ #^ :NormTepd,o.,-- , ''°0 



/>v^ ">^v;-^^ 



,0^'° 






CV _ oS* J*" •„^ -^ DisaBPOinlmenI Is Pukapuka 



Mangareva, /-^ V^^'t^^^Vv-e ^o.^^^.-f F 



:n<.>.^^ 



^5" ^ <r\ o^ • aV-®*''^Oo%'^* .a Fangatau 
V /^•^>r?f^^«^*'?^^^^^^^ > -Fakah-n, 



16°S — 



o*- *^ Maiao o-. ^ \ ••> i^ a o .v . i auere 



•J ^ ^P -o!*- J. •Tauere 



.Tatakoto 



.^.^''C^/P.,.^" 



'%(. 



''Go 



Akiaki 



Pukarua 



Vahitahi "^ Reao 

20°S- 



.. Maria 
Rimatarao 



\ Rurutu 
.'.•, Moses Reef 



c^ \si' <^ ^Nukulavake 

Hereheretue; . "i^®^ ^'S^'^Q'i^ ,s« t 'Pinaki 

Anuanurunga ; Anuanuraro V^ /& ovja^* 

Nukulipipi -^ . oTureia .^■i^ ,o»o 

Temalangi, \?*°'"*.^®^ 

MoruroaO \'^^^ ^ S. Marulea 
Fangataufa" - .^'^ Maria 



"^Os 



,Tubuai-.. . 



^^, 



'Ac 



400 km 
I 



o> Raivavae 



; _Morane 



GAMBIER IS 



pot 



i\a' 



,*Teni 



^i^y-"" 24° s — 



Neilson Reef 



152°W 



148''W 



Rapa 

• Marolirt Is 
144° W|...^.-. 140°W| 



136°W| 28°S- 



Moorea 




75 15 km 



Cambier Islands 




•••"••(Tokorua' "^ £^*kamarujl 

Motu Teiko * /i 

''" ^ i^Makaroa __/*^ 

pManui^- 

\ <a / 

\ Kamaka ' 
7.5 km ■ / 

' ' \ / 



\ 



v.— 



/ 



-100- 



French Polynesia 



Huahine Nui and Huahine Iti (X) 73 sq. km; twin 
islands; volcanic; 435 m and 669 m; described by Pirazzoli 
(1985a); surrounded by narrow barrier reef with five 
passes; barrier reef raised at north to form cultivated 
terrace; fringing reef around island largely dead; major 
interdisciplinary research study currently underway 
(Gabrie in lilt., 16.11.87); marine survey carried out by 
Randall and Amesbury (1987); avifauna described in 
Thibault (1973b). 

Raiatea and Tahaa (X) 194 sq. km and 88 sq. km; high 
volcanic; 1017 m and 590 m; barrier reef encircling both 
islands; lagoon contin ous apart from two short sections 
on west and penetrates deeply into bays, becoming larger 
north of Tahaa; avifauna described in Thibault (1973b). 

Bora-Bora (Pora-Pora) (X) 30 sq. km; high volcanic; 
727 m; deep large lagoon with one pass; well developed 
reef islands on wide barrier reef; reef and lagoon 
described by Guilcher el al. (1969); Bale de Nunue 
described by Gabrie and Porcher (1985a); Pte Matira 
described by Porcher (1984); considered one of the most 
beautiful islands in the world; described by Pirazzoli 
(1985a). 

Tupai (Motu Iti) (X) 8 sq. mi. (21 sq. km); only atoll in 
Society Islands; barrier reef with two motu; narrow 
shallow closed lagoon with numerous coral patches and 
abundant phytoplankton; described in Pirazzoli (1985a); 
scientific studies carried out in 1983 (Delesalle, 1984); 
avifauna described in Thibault (1973c); partly private. 

Maupiti (X) 13.5 sq. km; almost-atoU with small residual 
volcanic island (380 m) separated from a wide barrier 
reef flat by shallow, partially reticulated lagoon; barrier 
reef with well developed islands; central island flanked by 
well-developed fringing reef; considerable freshwater 
inflow; abundant reef life and lagoon fish fauna; 
d'iscribed in Pirazzoli (1985a). 

Maupihaa (Mopelia, Mopihaa) (X) 1 sq. mi. (2.6 
sq. km); atoll with many islets; reef with narrow pass; 
coralline algal ridge; coral plays very small role in reef 
formation; described by Guilcher el al. (1966 and 1969); 
water movements described by Berthois el al. (1963). 

Manuae (Scilly, Fanuaura) (X) (see separate account). 

Motu One (Bellingshausen) (X) closed atoll with 4 
islets; triangular reef. 



TUAMOTU GROUP 

The Tuamotu group consists of 76 islands which, apart 
from Makatea, are low atolls, either closed or with one or 
more passes or "hoa". They cap the tops of cones which 
rise steeply, not from the ocean floor, which is 
4000-4500 m deep in this region, but from a huge ridge 
which forms wide shelves ranging in depth from 1500 to 
3000 m deep. Geomorphological and geochronological 
evidence suggests that they are much older than the other 
groups of islands (Montaggioni, 1985). They lie within 
the hurricane belt. There are some mangroves along 
lagoon shores. The lagoons have high benthic 
populations and biomass of invertebrates, Tridacna 
maxima generally being the most important with the sea 
cucumber Halodeima aira (Salvat, 1971a and b). The hoa 
are described by Chevalier (1972). 



Early descriptions of the reefs included Ranson (1958). 
The exterior reefs of the atolls are very exposed and have 
an algal ridge, followed by a spur and groove formation 
and a small drop-off which receives the impact from the 
waves. The outer slope drops from 5 to 40 m and has 
massive corals, with Acropora and Millepora. There is 
little or no coral on the reef flat. The inner slopes on the 
lagoonside are mainly sandy with a few corals. Patch 
reefs may be present in the lagoon. The reefs of 
Rangiroa, Takapoto, Tikehau, Taiaro, Mataiva and 
Moruroa (Mururoa) are described in separate accounts. 

Morane atoll; enclosed lagoon, 3 islets. 

Maria atoll; enclosed lagoon. 

S. Marutea atoll; 11 mi. (18 km) long with islets; 1 pass 
into lagoon. 

Actaeon Group: 

Matureivavao (Maturei Vavao) atoll; low with 
enclosed lagoon; benthos of lagoon studied 
(Renaud-Morantefa/., 1970); 

Tenarunga atoll; low, enclosed lagoon; 

Vahanga atoll; low, enclosed lagoon; 

Tenararo (Tenaroa) atoU; low, enclosed lagoon. 

Fangataufa oblong atoll; lagoon 40-42 m deep (10 km); 
1 pass into lagoon; reefs consist of coralline edge, 
reef -flat, inshore belt; hydrozoan described (Redier, 
1967); molluscs studied on four reefs (Salvat, 1970b and 
1972); terrestrial fauna described in Thibault (1987). 

Moruroa (Mururoa) (see separate account). 

Tematangi atoll; low with enclosed lagoon. 

Tureia (X) atoll; low, with enclosed lagoon. 

Vanavana atoll; narrow strip of land enclosing lagoon. 

Duke of Gloucester Group: 

Nukutipipi atoU; 4 km; enclosed lagoon; badly 
damaged by hurricanes; privately owned; proposed 
for future studies (Salvat, 1987); 

Anuanurunga atoll; 4 islets on reef; 

Anuanuraro (X?) 5 km enclosed lagoon; privately 
owned. 

Hereheretue (X) atoU; enclosed lagoon; molluscs 
studied on 2 reefs (Richard, 1970). 

Reao (X) narrow atoll and enclosed lagoon (22 x 4 
km);molluscs studied on 5 reefs (Richard, 1970); benthic 
fauna of lagoon described - densities of T. maxima 50-70 
per sq. m over 370 ha of lagoon coast (Salvat, 
1971b); Poriles mordax and Acropora formosa very 
abundant in lagoon but coral diversity low (Chevalier, 
1981). 

Pukarua (Pukaruha) (X) atoll; enclosed lagoon (13 x 
3 km). 



-101- 



Coral Reefs of the World 

Tatakoto (X) atoU; low with enclosed lagoon (15 x 6 km). 

Pinaki (X) atoll; 3 islets to north-west of reef. 

Nukutavake (X) coral island with no lagoon (5x2 km). 

Vairaatea (X) 2 islands; barrier reef. 

Vahitahi (X) long atoll with enclosed lagoon. 

Akiaki small round island with enclosed lagoon. 

Ahunui enclosed lagoon. 

Paraoa enclosed lagoon; turtles. 

Manuhangi enclosed lagoon. 

Nengonengo nearly circular atoll; pearl-rich lagoon. 

Hao (X) atoll (56 x 15 km); 1 pass into lagoon; 
considerable research work (Salvat, 1982); growth study 
of Turbo by ViUiers and Sire (1985). 

Amanu (X) atoll. 

Ravahere atoll; enclosed lagoon. 

Marokau (X) 

Reitoru atoU; enclosed lagoon. 

Haraiki 

Hikueru (X) atoll (12 km); no passes into lagoon. 

Tekokota atoll; enclosed lagoon. 

Tauere 

Rekareka (Rekareta) atoll; enclosed lagoon; no 

freshwater. 

N. Marutea atoll; submerged barrier reef. 

Nihiru (X) circular atoll with enclosed circular lagoon. 

Pukapuka (X?) atoll; enclosed, very shallow (less than 
5 m) lagoon. 

Fakahina (Fangahina) atoll. 

Fangatau (Angatau) (X) atoll; enclosed lagoon (7 x 
4 km). 

Disappointment Group (Pukarua): 

Napuka (X) irregularly shaped atoll with closed 
lagoon and narrow reef; described by Crossland 
(1927a); study of fishing carried out since 1981 
(Conte, 1985); proposed for future research (Salvat, 
1987); 

N. Tepoto (X) no lagoon but central depression, 
1 mi. (1.6 km) diameter; proposed for future 
research (Salvat, 1987). 

Takume (X) atoll (23 x 7 km); 2 passes into lagoon. 



Raroia (X) 334 ha (9 sq. mi. (23.3 sq. km)); oval atoU 
with many islets around lagoon, 6 ft (1.8 m) deep; 
geology described by Newell (1956); general information 
in Doty and Morrison (1954) and NeweU (1954b); reefs 
and sedimentary processes described (NeweU, 1954a); 
molluscs described by Morrison (1954) and fish by Harry 
(1953). 

Taenga (X) southern reef awash. 

Makemo (X) 2 passes into lagoon. 

Katiu (X) atoll (24 x 13 km); low; 2 passes into lagoon. 

Hit! atoU; enclosed lagoon. 

Tuanake smaU boat entrance only to lagoon. 

S. Tepoto (Eliza) atoU; small boat entrance only to 
lagoon. 

Motutunga atoll. 

Tahanea atoll; 3 passes into lagoon. 

Anaa (X) atoU; 11 islets, with enclosed lagoon (30 x 
10 km); ca 600 miUion individuals of Cardium fragum 
estimated in lagoon (Richard, 1982a); proposed for future 
research (Salvat, 1987). 

Faaite (X) atoU. 

Fakarava (Fakareva) (X) rectangular atoll with islets 
confined to east of lagoon (56 x 24 km); 2 passes into 
lagoon. 

Raraka (X) circular atoll. 

Taiaro (X) (see account for W.A. Robinson Integral 
Reserve and Biosphere Reserve). 

Kauehi (Kaueki) (X) circular atoll. 

Aratika triangular atoll (37 x 24 km) with 2 passes into 
lagoon. 

Toau (Toua) untouched by ciguatera poisoning. 

Niau (X) atoll; 5 m; elliptical with completely enclosed 
lagoon; fringing reef. 

Kaukura (X) atoll; 2 narrow passes into lagoon (47 x 
13 km). 

Apataki (X) atoll (30 x 24 km) with 3 passes into lagoon; 
described by Blanchet (1978). 

Arutua (X) circular atoll (28 km); 1 pass into lagoon. 

King George Islands: 

Tikei (X) small low coral island (3 m); fringing reef; 

Takapoto (X) (see separate account); 

Takaroa (X) atoll (28 x 8 km); 1 pass into lagoon; 



-102- 



French Polynesia 



Manihi (X) atoll; shoaly lagoon; coral diversity 
greatest near pass; Leploseris and Pachyseris found 
only here (Chevalier, 1981); 

Alie (X?) atoll (24 x 9 km); 1 pass through lagoon. 

Makatea (X) 28 sq. km (7 x 4.5 km); only raised atoll in 
French Polynesia, 113 m; terraced with central hollow; 
partly surrounded by fringing reef extending out ca 100 m 
from base of vertical cliffs which flank almost all coast; 
described by Doumenge (1963); coral cover low; coral 
diverse on outer slopes only; geology and reefs described 
by Montaggioni (1985), Montaggioni et al. (1985a and b); 
research project in 1982 (Montaggioni et al., 1983; Salvat, 
1982); avifauna described in Thibault (1972) and 
Thibault et al. (in press). 

Rangiroa (X) (see separate account). 

Tikehau (X) (see separate account). 

Mataiva (Matahiva) (see separate account). 

GAMBIER ISLANDS 

The Gambler Islands are often considered part of the 
Tuamotu archipelago, and are the easternmost part of 
French Polynesia, lying between 23° and 23°18'S, and 
134°51' and 135°07'W (550 km from Pitcairn but some 
1600 km from Tahiti). The islands and reefs cover an 
area of 35 km from north to south and 30 km from east to 
west. Mangareva (the largest), Taravai, Aukena and 
Akamaru are the four principal islands and are of 
particular interest in that all four volcanic islands are 
surrounded by a single barrier reef. They are very rugged 
and highly dissected, with large bays dissecting the coasts 
and narrow insular shelves on which fringing reefs are 
found. Brousse el al. (1974) describe the submarine 
platforms and terraces, the climate and the 
geomorphology of fringing and barrier reefs. The 
dominant winds are the north-easterly trade winds. 
Cyclones are rarer than in the Tuamotu group, although 
one in 1906 caused considerable damage (Teissier, 1969). 
Tides are semi-diurnal with a greater range than on the 
Tuamotu atolls, reaching 80 cm at Rikitea on 
Mangareva. The main current in the area is the South 
Equatorial, flowing north south or 

north-east /south/west. Currents in the passes may be 
greater than 2 knots. Water temperatures average about 
26°C in March and 22°C in August. In all seasons there 
is a thermochne at 200 m or more depth. There is a 
considerable swell on the exposed eastern side of the 
island group and in the south (Brousse et al., 1974). 
Further general information is given in Brousse (1974), 
Chevre (1974) and Moniod (1974). 

The barrier reef which surrounds the Mangareva group is 
continuous over a distance of 90 km. The crest is 
emergent or very shallow over 42% of this distance in the 
north-west, north, east and the south-west comer. 
Elsewhere it is submerged to depths of 15 m, and there 
are no deep passes. Unlike most of the Tuamotu atolls, 
there are few motus (about 25) on the reef 
(Brousse et al., 1974). The south is the most open, so that 
the southern sides of the islands tend to be very exposed, 
particularly Kamaka and the islets of Manui and 
Makaroa. The western sides of the islands are the most 
sheltered. Sedimentation near the coast, particularly in 



the bays, is considerable. The large bays of Gatavake, 
Kirimiro andTaku are turbid and there is little calcareous 
algal or coral growth. Pirazzoli (1985b) has mapped the 
northern part of the lagoon using satellite imagery. 

Chevalier (1974) describes the distribution of corals on 
the barrier reef, fringing reefs, pinnacles and the lagoon 
bottom. Brousse et al. (1974) describe the outer slope of 
the reef at a number of sites, concentrating on the north, 
east and north-west where there is a full reef system. TTie 
slope is gentle to 25-30 m and then drops increasingly 
steeply, with submarine platforms occurring in some 
places at depths of 10-12 m and 18-22 m. A spur and 
groove system has been observed to depths of about 
20 m, but is not as diverse and rich as on other atolls in 
the Pacific, possibly due to the gentle slope of the outer 
slope. The barrier reef is 200-800 m in width, and is 
widest in the north-east between Puaumu and Gaioio, 
and particularly wide (1100 m) at Tokorua. Coral fauna 
is poorer than that of Tahiti. On the external slope of the 
barrier reef, corals are rare and disappear completely 
below 30-40 m, perhaps due to upwellings although this 
has not been proven (Chevalier, 1974 and 1981). The 
coral fauna of the fringing reef is variable and in general 
rather poor; that of the lagoon is rich due to the 
numerous pinnacles. The Gambler Lagoon is unusual for 
the numerous soft coril communities found there; it is 
suggested that some environmental change (cyclones, 
temperature drops) caused replacement of the 
scleractinian fauna by more resistant alcyonarians 
(Chevalier, 1981; Tixier-Durivault, 1969). Octocorals are 
described by Tixier-Durivault (1974). 

Temoe (Timoe) 6.9 sq. km; low coral atoll (1.8 m) with 
lagoon (23 m max. depth) enclosed by reef 100 yds (91 m) 
wide; lagoon mapped by PirazzoH (1985b). 

Mangareva (X) 5 sq. mi. (13 sq. km); high volcanic 
(445 m), fringing reef on exposed south coast, 150 m 
wide, sometimes discontinuous; well developed reef on 
east south of Rikitea, near Pointe Teonekura and to 
north-east of village between Pointe Kureru and Pointe 
Teauouo; in Rikitea Bay reefs are largely covered with 
sand; wide (100-500 m) reefs are found on the gentle 
slope, in very shallow water at low tide, on the north and 
west sides, mainly around headlands (Brousse et al., 
191 A); molluscs described by Richard (1974b). 

Aukena 0.5 sq. mi. (13 sq. km); volcanic (198 m), reefs 
best developed (unusually) on more exposed south-east 
coast; fringing reef extends from point at Teanakoporo to 
point at Mata Kuiti, about 500 m wide with some rich 
coral and algal growth; on north-west small discontinuous 
reefs found (Brousse et al., 1974). 

Akamaru (X) 0.7 sq. mi. (1.8 sq. km); volcanic (246 m), 
few reefs due to exposure, always non-emergent. 

S. Lagoon Islets: 

Manui volcanic,; reefs virtually absent; 

Kamaka volcanic, 176 m; few reefs; 

Makaroa volcanic; reefs virtually absent; visited 
for fishing; 

Tarauruoa volcanic; reefs virtually absent; 



-103- 



Coral Reefs of the World 



Totegegie volcanic; reefs virtually absent; 

Motu-Teiko volcanic; reefs virtually absent. 

Taravai (X) 2.2 sq. mi. (5.7 sq. km); volcanic (256 m); 
south coast exposed with only narrow reefs, sometimes 
discontinuous; east coast also exposed, reefs well 
developed only to north of village of Taravai; a reef also 
occurs in the shallow channel between this island and 
Agakauitai; discontinuous fringing reefs on west coast 
(BrousseeJo/., 1974). 

Agakauitai (X) volcanic, 479 ft (146 m); reefs same 
distribution as those around Taravai (Brousse et al., 1974). 



AUSTRAL ISLANDS 

The Austral Islands lie between 144° and 154°W and 
comprise seven islands lying on a NW-SE axis crossing 
the Tropic of Capricorn, to the south and south-east of 
the rest of French Polynesia. The two main islands are 
Rapa and Raivavae, which make interesting comparisons, 
the former having a temperate climate and the latter a 
tropical climate. 

The coral fauna of the Australs is considered to be 
particularly interesting (Pichon, 1985a). Despite slightly 
cooler waters, some genera, such as Galaxea, Goniaslrea 
and Turbinaria, which are absent from more typically 
tropical islands are found there. This may be due to 
larval transport from more faunally diverse areas than 
French Polynesia, such as the Cook Islands to the west. 

Marotiri Is (Bass Is) 0.1 sq. mi. (0.26 sq. km); 9 volcanic 
rock pinnacles (105 m) without vegetation, including 
Marotiri Nui, Marotiri Iti and Vairiavai; corals described 
by Faure (1985 and 1986). 

Rapa (X) (see separate account). 

Raivavae (Raevavae) (X) 16 sq. km; 9 km long; high 
volcanic (437 m); fringing reefs and almost continuous 
barrier reef and reef islets; molluscs of lagoon and barrier 
reef studied (Salvat, 1971c and 1973a); lagoon fauna 
poorer than that of Gamblers, despite similar latitude; 
fauna of outer reefs similar; avifauna described in 
Thibault (1974c). 

Tubuai (X) 48 sq. km; high volcanic (422 m); 
surrounded by barrier reef with 7 islets; geomorphology 
described by Brousse et al. (1980); rich coral fauna cf. 
other Austral Is. (77 species, including ssp. not found 
elsewhere in Polynesia) (ChevaUer, 1980 and 1981); algae 
described by Denizot (1980), fish by Plessis (1980) and 
avifauna by Thibault (1974c). 

Rurutu (X) 29 sq. km; high volcanic (389 m), some 
elevated reef limestone makatea; geology described by 
Bardintzeff « fl/. (1985). 

Rimatara (X) low (95 m), volcanic and makatea; 
fringing reef. 

Maria (Hull) 0.5 sq. mi. (1.3 sq. km); 4 islets, dense atoU 
forest triangular reef, shallow lagoon. 



MARQUESAS 

The Marquesas are the most northerly islands in French 
Polynesia and are situated in the west-flowing South 
Equatorial Current, some 5500 km west of the Galapagos 
between 7°50' and 10°35'S and 138°20' and 140°30'W. 
They are at a greater distance from a continent than any 
other island in the world (Brousse et al., 1978). They 
form two groups with a total land area of 1274 sq. km: 
one in the north-west with three principal islands (Ua 
Huka, Nuku Hiva and Ua Pou) and several islets (Motu 
Iti, Eiao, Hatutaa) and banks (Hinakura. Motu One, 
Clark and Lawson); and a group HI km to the south-east 
with four main islands (Fatu Hiva, Hiva Oa, Tahuata, 
Mohotani) and several islets, rocks and banks 
(Thomasset, Fatu Huku and Dumont d'Urville). The 
islands are volcanic and their geology is described by 
Brousse et al. (1978). The coasts are generally heavily 
embayed with high cliffs, and are largely rocky. Sandy 
beaches are rare except at the mouth of bays, apart from 
a large beach on the east coast of Eiao. Once forested, 
the islands are largely denuded except at altitudes over 
900 m (Halle, 1978). Depths between the islands, apart 
from the channel between Hiva Oa and Tahuata, average 
about 2000 m. 

The climate is described by Cauchard and Inchauspe 
(1978). Air temperature varies very httle and is usually 
above 25°C; annual rainfall is between 700 and 1400 mm, 
most falling in June, unlike neighbouring archipelagos 
where most rainfall faUs at the beginning of the year. 
However it is very irregular and there are often long 
periods of virtual drought. The west coasts of Nuku 
Hiva, Ua Huka and Hiva Oa, the north-west of Ua Pou 
and the north of Tahuata receive little rain and in general 
have a desert appearance. Cyclones and tropical storms 
are extremely rare unlike the rest of French Polynesia. 
Easterly trade winds predominate. In general there is 
little seasonal variation although usually the first six 
months of the year are warm and wet compared with the 
second half of the year. A brief history of the islands is 
given by Brousse et al. (1978). 

The Marquesas are the only volcanic islands in French 
Polynesia not to be surrounded by uninterrupted fringing 
or barrier reefs. Brousse et al. (1978) and Chevalier 
(1978) and Glynn and Wellington (1983) discuss the poor 
development of reefs. Crossland (1927a) provides an 
early description of reefs on Fatu Hiva and Tahuata in 
the southern group and Nuku Hiva in the northern 
group. There are small reefs, of fringing or patch 
morphology, mostly confined to shallow depths, usually 
10 m or less, in bays or along protected shores 
(Brousse et al., 1978; Chevalier, 1978). Corals and 
calcareous algae are also found in dispersed patches 
around most of the coast, including a scattering on the 
external slope and submarine cliffs. Two types of reef 
are distinguished: those that are "embryonic" and poorly 
developed (possibly comparable to the apron reefs of 
other authors) as at Taiohae (Nuku Hiva), Hane (Ua 
Huka) and Hanamate, Punahe and Taaoa (Hiva Oa); and 
true reefs of less than one km in length, some of which 
(Bale du Controleur and Hakatea on Nuku Hiva) are 
rudimentary and others which are well developed (Anaho 
on Nuku Hiva, Hanaiapa on Hiva Oa; and reefs on 
Tahuata, some of which (Motopu, Hana Hevane and 
Hana te Toi) have reached maturity. 



-104- 



Chevalier (1978) suggests that these reefs are very young, 
the reef framework being only 3-5 m thick. The coral 
fauna is poor, 26 species having been identified. The 
most common genera are Millepora, Pocillopora 
and Pontes, only three or four species being abundant 
everywhere, and the genus Acropora and the families 
Mussidae and Faviidae are unknown (Chevalier, 1978 and 
1981). One or a few corals (e.g. Pontes lobata, 
Pocillopora spp.) ate often the predominant structural 
elements and crustose algae may be important (ChevaUer, 
1978; Crossland, 1927a). Algal crests are absent although 
other calcareous algae communities have been found. 
Phytoplankton productivity is high (Soumia, 1976). 

Motu One (Hot de Sable) cay situated on a volcanic 
plug, with no vegetation; consists of sand and formation 
regularly changes; fringing reef (Brousse et ai, 1978; 
ChevaUer, 1978; Crossland, 1927a); the only coral island 
in the Marquesas; to the east of the islet is a large stand 
of Porolithon and calcareous algae considered unique in 
French Polynesia; Chelonia mydas nesting area. 

Hatutaa (Hatutu) 1813 ha (8 x 3 km); high volcanic; 420 
m; seabirds. 

Eiao 52 sq. km (13 x 7 km); high volcanic; 577 m.; 
seabirds (Thibault in lilt., 17.2.88). 

Motu Iti 3 low barren dry islets. 

Nuku Hiva (X) 330 sq. km (32 x 20 km); high volcanic, 
1208 m; fringing reef in some bays; those at Bale de 
Taiohae, Crique des Tai-Oa, Baie de Controleur, Bale 
d'Anaho, Baie de Hatiheu, and Baie de Haaopu 
described by Brousse et al. (1978) and ChevaUer (1978); 
red tide recorded (Soumia and Plessis, 1974). 

Ua Huka (X) 77 sq. km (15 x 8 km); high volcanic, 854 
m; reefs in Baie de Hane, Baie de Vaipaee and Baie 
Hatuana described by Brousse et al. (1978) and Chevalier 
(1978); islet (Motupapa) with seabirds (Thibault in lift., 
17.2.88). 

Ua Pou (X) 105 sq. km. (15 x 10 km); high, volcanic, 
1252 m; described by Brousse (1978); reefs in bays of 
Hakahetau, Hakanahi, Hakahau, Hohoi, Hakatao and 
Hakamaii described by Brousse et al. (1978) and 
ChevaUer (1978); flat-topped islet (Motuoa) with seabirds 
(Thibault in tin., 17.2.88). 

Fatu Huku (Fatu Hutu) 1.3 sq. km (4.5 x 0.8 km); dry 
rocky islet; 359 m; seabird rookery 

Hiva Oa (X) 320 sq. km (35 x 13 km); high, volcanic; 
1190 m; fringing reef in Baie Taaoa, Bales de Punahe, 
Hanamate, Puamau, Hanaiapa described by Brousse et al. 
(1978) and ChevaUer (1978). 

Tahuata (X) 50 sq. km (15 x 9 km); high, volcanic; 
1050 m; described in detail by Brousse (1978); fringing 
reef in Baie de Motopu, Hana Hevane, Hana de Toi and 
Bales de Vaitahu and Hapatoni described by 
Brousse et al. (1978), Crossland (1927) and ChevaUer 
(1978); reefs most abundant at Hana Hevane and Motopu. 

Mohotani (Motane, Mohotane) 15 sq. km (8 x 2 km); 
520 m; dry; described by Brousse (1978) and Sachet et al. 
(1975); seabirds (Thibault in lift., 17.2.88). 



French Polynesia 

Thomasset Reef (Ariane Rock) isolated rocky islet. 

Fatu Hiva (X) 80 sq. km (15 x 7 km); high, volcanic; 960 
m; described by Brousse (1978); very few corals; reefs at 
Pointe Tataaihoa and Baie d'Omoa described by 
Brousse et al. (1978) and ChevaUer (1978). 

(X) = Inhabited 



The geomorphology and geology of the reefs of French 
Polynesia have been described by ChevaUer (1973). 
Gabrie and Salvat (1985) provide a summary of general 
reef information. The main reef formations are found 
around the high islands and atolls although there are 
several oceanic banks of variable forms (e.g. EbriU Reef 
in the Gamblers and Moses Reef in the Australs). Pichon 
(1985a) describes organic production in some of the 
reefs. Some mapping of the reefs using sateUite imagery 
has been attempted (PirazzoU, 1985b) in the Gamblers, 
the Tuamotu group and of the submerged atoll Portland 
Reef, south of the Gamblers. 

Lying at the eastenmiost extremity of the Indo-Pacific 
Province, French Polynesia is at the limit of the axis of 
decreasing species richness and has a comparatively poor 
coral fauna. This is accentuated by the prevailing 
currents and winds which hinder the dispersal of larvae 
from the Western Pacific, the comparatively low water 
temperature compared with the Western Pacific, and the 
remoteness of the islands from continental masses. Many 
Western Pacific genera are not found (e.g. Symphyllia, 
Oulophyliia, Seriatopora, Goniopora and the famiUes 
MeruUnidae and EuphylUdae) and only 18 species seem 
to be endemic to the region. Other characteristics typical 
of a marginal area are a high species diversity within 
some genera (e.g. Psammocora, Pocillopora, Leptoseris, 
and to a lesser extent Montipora) and a comparative 
abundance of some taxa which are uncommon or absent 
in the central Indo-west Pacific such as Sandalolitha 
and Pontes irregularis. 

ChevaUer (1981) discusses the origin of the coral fauna. 
Scleractinia are described by Charaber (1979) and 
ChevaUer (1979a and 1981) and Usted in Pichon (1985b). 
168 species in 51 genera have been identified, including a 
few ahermatypic forms such as Culicia and lubastraea 
but not including deep-water ahermatypic corals. 
Although the Acroporidae show the highest species 
diversity, the Poritidae and Agaricidae are dominant in 
biomass, particularly around high islands, and the 
PodUoporidae and some Faviidae are abundant in the 
atolls. 

In general, the coral fauna of the high volcanic islands 
surrounded by fringing or barrier reefs is richer than that 
of low atolls of banks. Many species are found only on 
the reefs adjacent to volcanic islands. Psammocora, 
Synaraea, Pachyseris, Pavona and closely related genera 
are more abundant on fringing or barrier reefs than on 
atoUs. GeneraUy the fauna of the outer slope and reef 
rim varies only sUghtly from one atoll to another but the 
coral fauna of the lagoons may be very different 
depending on depth and degree of exchange with the 
open ocean. Open atoUs have a richer fauna than closed 
atoUs, and in the former, greatest coral diversity is to be 
found near the passes. In closed or semi-closed lagoons. 



-105- 



Coral Reefs of the World 



the coral fauna may be much impoverished and 
dominated by Pontes and Acropora. The Tuamotu and 
Society Islands have a moderately high coral diversity, 
with large reefs and a variety of reef types. These two 
groups of islands are of particular interest as they were 
the subject of Darwin's early studies of reef morphology 
and evolution (Glynn and Wellington, 1983). 

Richard (1985b) summarises the history of coral reef 
research in French Polynesia. Following an agreement 
between the Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle in 
Paris and the Centre d'Experimentation Nucleaires in 
1965, numerous missions were undertaken to study the 
marine life of the area within the context of an 
interdisciplinary study of island ecosystems (Salvat, 
1976a). The Antenne du Museum National d'Histoire 
Naturelle et de I'EcoIe Pratique des Hautes Etudes 
(Antenne Museum-EPHE) was established in 1971 on 
Moorea. The main objectives of its research programme 
are to study the wealth and productivity of reef 
ecosystems (Galzin and Pointier, 1985; Salvat, 1982). A 
bibliography of the main references on the reefs of 
French Polynesia is given in Gabrie and Salvat (1985). 
Around 70 islands have been visited by scientists from the 
Antenne Museum-EPHE and pubhcations have appeared 
on 30. Current reef research activities are described by 
Salvat (1987) and include studies using satellite imagery 
aimed at reef management. 

The Tuamotu islands are best known scientifically (30 out 
of 76 islands visited), particularly Takapoto, Rangiroa, 
Reao, Taiaro, Moruroa and Fangataufa, which are now 
the objea of a number of more detailed and long term 
studies. Facilities for research work on each island in the 
Tuamotu group are summarized in Salvat (1982). 
Moorea, Tahiti and Manuae in the Society Islands are 
also weU known. Studies have been carried out in the 
Gamblers under the auspices of the Comite Scientifique 
du Service Mixte de Controle Biologique in the context of 
a programme to look at all islands within a certain 
distance of the nuclear testing being carried out on 
Moruroa (Brousse et al., 1974). Missions were 
undertaken to the Marquesas in 1972 and 1973 also under 
the auspices of the Direction des Centres 
d'Experimentations Nucleaires (Brousse et al., 1978). 
There is a NASA Satellite Laser Ranging Station on 
Huahine in the Society Islands. Extensive work is also 
carried out by ORSTOM (Institut frangais de Recherche 
Scientifique pour le Developpement en Cooperation) 
which is based on Tahiti. This is largely fisheries 
oriented. Monnet et al. (1986) provide a bibliography of 
ORSTOM publications. Additional work on fisheries, 
particularly the pearl fishery, is carried out by EVAAM 
(Etablissement pour la Valorisation des Activites 
Aquacoles et Maritimes). In 1985 the University of 
California at Berkeley established the South Pacific 
Biological Research Station on Moorea in Cook Bay 
which will be carrying out work in collaboration with the 
Anterme Museum-EPHE. 

Richard (1985a) provides a list of all marine invertebrate, 
fish and algae species recorded in French Polynesia and a 
bibhography of references related to marine fauna and 
flora. The marine molluscs have been particularly well 
studied and publications include Richard (1974a and b), 
Salvat and Rives (1975) and Salvat (1967). A 
malacological expedition to the Australs took place in 
1968 (Salvat, 1973a). Richard (1974b) and Salvat (1970a) 
describe the molluscs of the Gamblers. The marine 



mollusc fauna of the Marquesas is described in 
Lavondes et al. (1973) and Richard and Salvat 
(1973). Cypraea obvelata is endemic to French 
Polynesia. Tridacna maxima is the only member of the 
family Tridacnidae to occur in French Polynesia 
(Richard, 1977); it is found in all the archipelagos except 
the Marquesas but finds conditions for its optimal 
development in the lagoons of the Tuamotu atolls. 
Although not exploited to any great extent at present, its 
high productivity has considerable potential. 

Randall (1973 and 1985) describes the fish, 800 species in 
90 families having been recorded. A total of 246 fish 
species have been recorded in the Gamblers 
(Fourmanoir et al., 1974). The fish fauna of the 
Marquesas is described by Plessis and Mauge (1978); it 
seems to resemble that of the rest of Polynesia but is 
sUghtly less diverse. 

Marine algae are listed by Payri and Meinesz (1985). 
Holyoak and Thibault (1984), Thibault and Thibault 
(1975), Thibault and Rives (1975) and Thibault (in press) 
describe the birds of French Polynesia and Gamett 
(1984) gives a brief overview of seabird distribution. The 
seabird fauna of the Marquesas is described by Ehrhardt 
(1978). Birds of the Gamblers are described by Lacan 
and Mougin (1974) and of the Society archipelago by 
Thibault (1974a). 



Reef Resources 

Fishing is an important activity, and a general review of 
fisheries is given by Ugolini et al. (1982). Improved 
marketing and management of the fishing industry are 
discussed by Grand (1985). The catch is generally 
consumed locally although exports are starting with the 
growth of Papeete as a port and the development of 
domestic flights. Traditional subsistence fishing is still 
carried out on many atolls and islands such as Napuka, in 
the Tuamotu group (Conte, 1985 and 1988), and the 
Marquesas (Baines, 1982). In the Tuamotu group, 
numerous studies have been carried out on lagoonal 
productivity and potential for aquaculture and 
exploitation of fish stocks (Plessis, 1969; Salvat, 1971a; 
Grand, 1983). Results of deep fishing trips on the outer 
slopes of some of the atolls are discussed in Manac'h and 
Carsin (1985). Fishing methods in the Gamblers are 
described by Fourmanoir et al. (1974). In the Society 
Islands, crabs from Maiao lagoon are sent to the Papeete 
market. Lagoon fisheries on Raiatea and Tahaa are 
described by James (1980). Gillett and Kearney (1983) 
provide an assessment of skipjack and baitfish resources. 

Pearl oysters were intensively collected for their 
mother-of-pearl from the early 19th century to about 
1950 when production started to fall due to 
overexploitation. Exploitation peaked at 1400 tons 
although maximum sustainable yield is probably about 
1000 tons. Both the mother-of-pearl and pearl industries 
are now thriving as a result of the development of culture 
techniques (CoeroU, 1983; Real-Testud and Richard, 
1984). Exports of the highly valued black pearls from the 
Black Lip Oyster Pinctada margaritifera have increased 
since 1972 due to increased culture operations following a 
decline in natural stocks in the 1970s. The pearl industry 
has had the highest export value of any product in 
Polynesia since 1983. Of the 152 fishing co-operatives in 
French Polynesia, 91 are concerned with mother-of-pearl 



-106- 



French Polynesia 



and pearl culture. These are found on 18 atolls in the 
Tuamotus (Ahe, Amanu, Apataki, Aratika, Arutua, 
Faaite, Hao, Hikueru, Katiu, Kaukura, Makemo, Manihi, 
Marokau, Raraka, Taenga, Takapoto, Takaroa and 
Takume) and in the Gambiers. 

Hatchery production has been found to be unsuccessful 
and natural stocks are used, either adults collected by 
divers or spats which are collected and reared. Growth 
of pearl fanning has created a demand for living oysters 
which are able to withstand the grafting operation. 
Experiments on spat collection have been carried out 
largely in the Tuamotu and Gambler Islands, early 
experiments having been carried out in 1963 at Bora-Bora 
and in 1968 in Manihi and Takapoto. In 1976 a 
programme was established with the help of the 
Territorial Fishery Service and pilot stations were 
established on Takapoto, Hikueru and Rikitea. Since 
1981 EVAAM and ORSTOM have been carrying out 
studies to improve the quality of production (Coeroli and 
Mizuno, 1985; Cabral et ai, 1985; Intes and Coeroli, 
1985). Studies are being carried out on Takapoto, 
Manuae, Gambiers, Hikueru and Manihi (atolls hsted in 
descending order of abundance of stocks). Culture 
experiments have been carried out on Tetiaroa. Trochus 
niloticus was introduced to Tahiti in the late 1950s and 
commercial exploitation began in 1971, when populations 
were estimated at 2500 tonnes. The industry is described 
by Yen (1985). 

The tourist industry is expanding rapidly and tourists 
have increased in number from 82 822 in 1975 to 160 000 
in 1986 (Anon., 1987; Gabrie in lilt., 16.11.87). This 
growth is facilitated by the improved domestic flight 
service and the construction of hotels on many islands. 
Reef-related activities are of growing importance. 
Resorts are found in the Society Islands on Tetiaroa, 
Tahiti, Moorea, where there are numerous hotels on the 
coast and reef-related recreational activities are catered 
for (see accounts for Temae and Tiahura), Huahine, 
Raiatea and Bora-Bora; in the Tuamotu group on Manihi 
and Rangiroa; in the Australs on Tubuai and Rurutu; and 
in the Marquesas on Nuku Hiva (Gabrie in lilt., 16.11.87; 
Thibault in lilt., 17.2.88). On Nuku Hiva there are two 
small hotels and one large one; however at present 
tourism is at a very low level because of the difficulty in 
obtaining flights to the island (Thibault in lilt., 17.2.88). 
As of January 1987, Tahiti and Moorea together 
accounted for 81% of total hotel capacity (Gabrie in lilt., 
16.11.87). 



Disturbances and Deficiencies 

French Polynesia periodically suffers severe hurricane 
damage, as has been recorded at Hao (1903), Hikueru, 
Kaukura, Marokau and the Gambiers (1906) (Teissier, 
1969). However, it is not known to what extent the reefs 
were damaged in these early events. Three of the five 
cyclones which affected French Polynesia in 1982-1983 
passed close to the Society Islands and caused significant 
reef damage, as well as in other areas (Dupon, 1986). 
Furthermore, from mid-March to the end of May 1983, 
the mean sea level dropped by as much as 20-25 cm 
below normal in the Society Islands (Rougerie and 
Wauthy, 1983) causing extensive death to corals, algae 
and reef biota close to the surface. For example, large 
areas of reef died at Moorea. This prolonged period of 
low sea-levels and cyclonic disturbances was probably 



related to the abnormal El Nino which occurred at that 
time (Glynn, 1984; Pirazzoli, 1985a). There is some 
evidence of recovery on the outer reef slopes 
(Salvat in lilt., 1986). The impact of these events on 
seabird colonies is not known, although Sooty 
Terns Sterna fuscata in the Marquesas deserted their 
nesting colonies for several months during 1983 
(Thibault, in lilt., 17.2.88). There have been some 
outbreaks of Acanlhaster planci, for example in Moorea 
(see account for Tiahura). 

The population of French Polynesia has increased rapidly 
since the 1920s, reaching about 166 700 in 1984. 
Bellwood (1978) gives information on the early 
Polynesians, and Bayliss-Smith (1974) describes 
population growth on the atolls. Over 70% of the 
population is concentrated on the leeward islands, 
particularly Tahiti and then Raiatea, placing the reefs and 
marine environments of this region under greatest 
pressure. The other high volcanic islands are less at risk, 
due to their lower populations, but atoll environments are 
very vulnerable. Industrial activity is still slight but the 
reefs are being affected by dredging, coastline alteration, 
filling, and discharge of sewage (Porcher and Dupuy, 
1985). The Gambler Islands are considered to be 98% 
devastated by man. The establishment of the Centre 
d'Experimentation du Pacifique in 1963 caused major 
changes on the islands; many new buildings were erected 
and an airport was constructed on the reef at Totegegie. 
A brief history of the people and culture of these islands 
is given by O'Reilly (1974) and Egron (1974). 

74% of the population of Tahiti live between Mahina and 
Punaauia which includes a large stretch of lagoon, bays, 
rivers and major industrial and urban concentrations. A 
year long study has revealed widespread pollution 
(Fraizier et ai, 1985). The area between Faaa Airport 
and Venus Pt, which includes the harbour and its 
industrial zone, is particularly at risk, as well as North 
Punama, which is threatened by the increasing urban 
zone to the south of Tahiti. The harbour is being 
extended to include new storage tanks, an electric power 
plant operating on fuel oil, and various other facilities 
which could have an adverse impact on the environment. 
The concrete covering of the reef between the passes of 
Papeete and Taaone will increase the confinement of the 
lagoon waters and accelerate pollution which is already 
reported to be severe in the harbour, from ship traffic 
and hydrocarbon spillage, the discharge of urban sewage, 
and sedimentation caused by accelerating erosion and 
excavation of coral marl. There is clear evidence of reef 
degradation (Deneuebourg, 1971; Ricard et ai, 1981; 
Salvat, 1982; Poll et ai, 1984). The fringing reef at 
Taunoa, from Fare Ute to Arahiri Pt to the east of the 
pass at Taaone has been the subject of environmental 
impact studies (Fraizier, 1980; De Nardi et ai, 1983). The 
reef has coral cover of up to 65-85% at 3-4 m depth, but 
in deep water, there is noticeable siltation with much 
dead coral and living coral cover drops to 10%. The 
central part of the lagoon has no corals and much 
sediment. On the barrier reef, near the construction 
works, cover is as low as 20-50%, although it reaches 80% 
in more pristine environments. Environmental impaa 
studies on the reefs and lagoon waters of the urban zone 
include Poll et ai (1983), Porcher et ai (1986) and 
Porcher (1986), and on the Papeete Port include 
Ricard et ai (1981 and 1986). Studies have also been 
carried out on the lagoon at Punaauia (Delesalle et ai, 
1982) in preparation for a channel projea, and at Outo 



-107- 



Coral Reefs of ihe World 



Maoro (Porcher et al., 1985) in the north-west and 
Atimaono (Porcher ei al., 1987) in the south. IFREMER 
(Institut fran?ais de recherche pour I'exploitation de la 
mer) has been studying the site of a shore based OTEC 
pilot plant since 1982 and has carried out surveys of the 
reefs (Equipe de projet E.T.M., 1985b) and temperatures 
and currents (Equipe de projet E.T.M., 1985a) to assess 
potential environmental effeas. 

A major problem in the Society Islands is the use of coral 
sand from the lagoon as a source of road building 
materials. A number of studies to investigate the damage 
this causes have been carried out (Vaugelas, 1979; 
Gabrie et al., 1985; Masson and Simon, 1985; 
Porcher el al., 1985; Porcher and Gabrie, 1987). 



Moorea; Galzin and Pointier (1985) describe those at 
Teavaro, Haapiti and Tiahura. Although currently illegal 
on Moorea, dredging is still taking place on the 
north-west coast (Gabrie in litt.. 16.11.87). Reefs around 
Moorea are also suffering from sedimentation resulting 
from agriculture on steep slopes and from tourist 
developments, particularly in the north-west; reefs from 
Pointe Tiahura through to the Club Mediterranee 
development are said to be badly damaged (see separate 
account). A number of environmental impact studies 
have been carried out on Moorea including Anon. (1977), 
Porcher and Bouilloud (1984) and Porcher and Gabrie 
(1987) and a study is under way to investigate the impact 
of human aaivities on the reef (Gabrie in litt., 16.11.87). 

On Maupiti coral extraction is a problem, and there is 
also pollution from agricultural runoff into lagoon, coral 
rock from the lagoon is used for road building and for 
ground levelling for tourist developments. It is thought 
that insecticides used in water melon cultivation may 
cause pollution (Plessis, 1973b). On Huahine, the 
fringing reef is largely dead and is becoming silted up and 
there is reef damage from coral and sand dredging for 
construction of the coastal road (Pirazzoli, 1985a). 
Environmental impact studies have been carried out on 
Bora-Bora at the sites of hotel developments (Porcher, 
1984 and 1985a; Gabrie, 1986). 

In the Tuamotu group, Makatea was intensively mined 
for phosphate from 1917 to 1966; it was once the most 
populated island in the Tuamotu group but is now 
inhabited by only 30 copra workers. There has been 
some reef damage in Manihi (Hicks pers. comm. 1985). 
In many of the Tuamotu atolls reef damage has been 
caused by military activities involving nuclear test sites, 
particularly on Moruroa {see separate account), Anaa, 
Fangataufa and Hao. Primary forest in the Marquesas 
has been destroyed on many islands by introduced 
herbivores (Brousseef a/., 1978; Halle, 1978). 

Gabri6 (m litt., 16.11.87), writing specifically about 
Moorea, but by extension applying to other parts of 
French Polynesia, notes that the following recreational 
aaivities may have impacts on reefs: walking on the reef; 
coUeaing shells; diving and snorkelling; and a variety of 
motorised vessels used by tourists. These activities in 
general only take place in limited areas of reef, 
immediately in front of hotels, but the impact they have, 
and the relative importance of the different activities, is 
difficult to assess as no studies have been carried out. 
Tourists may also have disruptive effects on seabird 
colonies if they are allowed uncontrolled access, as at 



Tahuna Rahi and Tahuna Iti on Tetiaroa (Thibault in litt., 
17.2.88). 

Overfishing has been reported in a number of areas 
including Hikueni, Takume and Takaroa (SPREP, 1980). 
Ciguatera is a widespread problem and major research on 
this is carried out at the Louis Malarde Institute on Tahiti 
(Bagnis et al., 1985). Incidences of red tides in the 
Marquesas are described by Taxit (1978) and Bagnis and 
Denizot (1978) discuss the problems associated with 
widespread ciguatera. 



Legislation and Management 

Traditionally, fishing rights in the Society Islands were 
monopolized by the upper classes who were both leaders 
and fishermen and the lower classes were rarely 
permitted to fish (Baines, 1982) but this has now ceased. 
Baines (1982) briefly mentions traditional fishing 
practises in the Marquesas where fishermen form a 
distinct class, accorded an inferior position in the social 
scale. 

No overall environmental policy exists, although there is 
legislation for a certain number of ad hoc problems 
(SPREP, 1980). The Territory has full power over 
environmental matters. TTie law of 26 December 1964, 
modified on 16 May 1973 and 2 January 1979, concerning 
marine pollution by oil, is enforced, but the International 
Convention for the Prevention of Pollution of the Sea by 
Oil has not yet been enforced. 

Legislation covers research in the marine environment, 
fisheries and aquaculture (SPREP, 1980). Arrete no. 
208/AA/Peche of 29.1.69 prohibits the use of SCUBA 
equipment for spearfishing. Arrete no. 2125 of 2.10.81 
prohibits the use of SCUBA for all fishing or collection 
of all marine animals. Arrete no. 150/SG of 18.2.46 
prohibits the use of certain toxic substances for fishing. 
Arrete no. 1942/AA of 9.7.70 controls fishing in the 
lagoon of Faaura Rahi on Huahine. 

The Fisheries Department controls the marine 
environment, particularly pearl exploitation. Exploitation 
quotas are set every year for each lagoon and studies 
concerning restocking of over-exploited lagoons have 
been made with the assistance of CNEXO. Three fishing 
sectors for trochus have been defined on the Tahiti and 
Moorea reefs, one of which is exploited each year. Size 
limits and a fishery quota have been defined on the basis 
of work carried out by EVAAM. Nevertheless there was 
a marked decline in populations in 1984 and current 
efforts are direaed at reversing this trend (Yen, 1985). 

A number of land use planning studies, the responsibility 
of the Service de I'Amenagement, have been carried out, 
particularly on Tahiti (Porcher and Dupuy, 1985). 
Environmental impart assessments (detailed above) are 
the responsibihty of the Delegation a I'Environnement. 
There have been some voluntary efforts on Moorea to 
remove Acanthaster planci from the reefs (Hicks in litt., 
1986). Coral dredging has been prohibited around the 
island, but enforcement is poor (Gabrie in litt., 16.11.87). 

Forestry Regulations contain provisions for the 
establishment of Strict Nature Reserves (Reserves 
Intfigrales) but there is no provision for their supervision. 



-108- 



French Polynesia 



There are no other provisions for protected areas. The 
following areas have been established: 

1. W.A. Robinson Reserve Integrale and Biosphere 
Reserve (Tuamotu group) (see separate account). 

2. Manuae (Scilly) Atoll Reserve (Society Islands) (see 
separate account). 

3. The islets of Mohotani, Eiao, Hatutaa and Motu 
One (Marquesas); declared reserves under arrete 
no. 2559 of 28 July 1971 (Decker, 1973); it would 
seem that the lagoons around these islets are also 
protected. 



Recommendations 

Dahl (1986) stresses the importance of setting up a 
representative series of marine reserves throughout the 
country. Areas recommended for protection in Dahl 
(1980) are as follows: 

Society Islands 

Tetiaroa: seabird sanctuary on Tahuna Iti; reserve 

with 400 m protective belts 

Moorea: representative selection of reef and lagoon 

habitats; Tiahura and Temae have been suggested 

(see separate accounts) 

Raiatea: reserve for complete estuary - lagoon - 

reef sequence in one of least devastated bays e.g. 

Faatema 

Tupai: reserve for seabird rookery, internal lagoons 

and barrier reef 

Maupthaa: reserve for seabird rookeries, turtle 

nesting areas and a selection of marine biomes 

Motu One: reserve for seabird rookeries, turtle 

nesting areas and a selection of marine biomes 

Tuamotu group 

Anuanuraro: reserve for lagoon 
Anuanurunga: reserve for lagoon 
Apataki: reserve for seabirds and turtles 
Hereheretue: reserve for lagoon 
Kauehi: reserve for seabirds and turtles 
Matureivavao: reserve for birds and vegetation 
Napuka: reserve for seabirds and turtles 
Nukutipipi: reserve for lagoon 
Pukapuka: reserve for seabirds, turtles and lagoon 
Tekokota: reserve for seabirds and turtles 
Toau: reserve for atoll 

Gamblers 

Manui: reserve for seabirds 
Motu-Teiko: reserve for seabirds 

Marquesas 

Ua Huka: reserve for seabirds (Motupapa); 
proposed by Salvat (1974) 

Ua Pou: reserve for seabirds (Motuoa); proposed 
by Salvat (1974) 

The Service de I'Amenagement has set up a project to 
preserve part of the coral reef ecosystem in the 
north-west part of Tahiti, including the barrier and 
channel reef (Porcher and Dupuy, 1985). The D616gation 
k I'Environnement is working with SPREP to develop 



reef and lagoon management plans for Tahiti and 
Bora-Bora (Holthus in lilt., 4.3.88). In Huahine, a major 
interdisciplinary project is under way aimed at developing 
a management plan for the island. This involves 
institutions and organizations in French Polynesia, France 
and other countries including the Universities of Guam 
and California (Gabri6 in litt., 16.11.87), and has included 
a marine survey of proposed protected areas 
(Holthus in litt., 4.3.88). Studies are under way to 
develop improved management of the reefs of Moorea 
(Gabri6 in litt., 16.11.87). Salvat (1973b) stresses the 
importance of the Tuamotu archipelago and the need for 
protection of some of the atolls. Salvat (1974) has 
described conservation measures for the Marquesas; 
recommending the protection of Motupapa, an islet of 
Ua Huka, and Motuoa, an islet of Ua Pou, for seabirds. 
Motu Paio, on Rangiroa, has also been recommended as 
a seabird reserve (Thibault in litt., 17.2.88). Clipperton is 
being considered for protection by the French 
Government (Bourrouilh-Le Jan in litt., 28.9.87). 

The exploitation of marine and terrestrial aggregates in 
Tahiti, Huahine, Raiatea, Tahaa, Bora-Bora and Maupiti 
is described by Porcher and Gabri6 (1985 and 1987) in 
the context of two studies requested by the Service de 
I'Equipement de Polynesie frangaise in 1984 and 1985. 
The results will include an inventory of dredging activities 
and recommendations for a limited number of dredging 
sites and the restoration of damaged areas. Additional 
studies will attempt to identify alternative materials 
(Gabri6 et al., 1985, Porcher et Gabrifi, 1985 and 1987). 



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RAPA 

Geographical Location South Austral archipelago; 
500 km from Raivavae, 1300 km from Tahiti; 27°35'S, 
144°20'W. 

Area, Depth, Altitude 40 sq. km (c. 9 x 7 km); 650 m. 

Physical Features A high volcanic island surrounded by 
a large and gently sloping platform, 0-55 m deep and 
2-4.5 km wide. The coastline has 19 bays with deep 
channels, separated by high cliffs, including a large deep 
bay, Ahurei Bay, to the east which represents a drowned 
caldera. The geology of the island is described by 
Brousse and Gelugne (1986). Sea temperatures are low 
since the island is outside the tropical zone, with a 
maximum of T^C in summer and 20°C in winter. 
Annual rainfall is about 2-3 m, unevenly distributed 
throughout the year, often accompanying storms. Winds 
are frequently strong (DIRCEN, 1986; Faure, 1985). 

Reef Structure and Corals The temperature is not 
optimal for coral growth and there are no true reefs or 
lagoon. However coral communities are found on the 
slope surrounding the island and in the bays and 
channels. Corals are particularly abundant in Ahurei Bay 
where monospecific stands of Acropora formosa are 
found. However, there is no Poriies or Pachyseris and 
algal cover is very high, reaching 70% in some areas 
(Faure, 1985). Corals are also found in the bays of Hiri 
and Akao, as well as algal pavement and a reef flat 
formed of isolated coral colonies with brown algae 
(Brousse and Gelugne, 1986). Chevalier (1981) described 
13 coral genera and Faure (1985) described 61 species in 
31 genera; additional information on the corals is given in 
Faure (1986). 

Noteworthy Fauna and Flora The marine mollusc fauna 
is considered poor compared with that of Raevavae 
(Salvat, 1973). 250 species have been recorded (Richard, 
1984, 1985a and 1986), and endemicity is about 10%, 
similar to the isolated Marquesas to the nonh. A number 
of species are common to Easter Island. The mollusc 
fauna is considered of particular interest on account of 
the dominance of herbivorous species due to the high 
algal cover; carnivorous species are poorly represented. 
The fish fauna is described by Plessis (1986). There are 
important sea bird colonies on the south and west coasts 
and on Motu Tanturau. The terrestrial wildlife shows 



high levels of endemism. The avifauna is described in 
Thibault (1974d and 1975b) and terrestrial vegetation in 
DIRCEN (1986). 

Scientific Importance and Research A scientific mission 
visited the island in 1984 under the auspices of the 
Direaion des Centres d'Experimentation Nucleaires 
(DIRCEN, 1986). 

Economic Value and Social Benefits Fishing is an 
important subistence activity (Plessis, 1986). 

Disturbance or Deficiencies The terrestrial vegetation 
has been damaged, principally by goats, and by cows in 
the north-east comer of the island, but also by bush fires 
and by man (DIRCEN, 1986). Erosion now seems to be 
contributing to the sedimentation which appears to limit 
coral growth, in addition to recent volcanic events and 
cold water temperatures (Brousse and Gelugne, 1986). 

Legal Protection None. 

Management None. 

Recommendations The island is of major scientific 
interest for its terrestrial wildlife and high levels of 
endemism, much of which is considered under threat 
from habitat clearance. There would appear to be urgent 
need to investigate the conservation status of this island 
ecosystem, and it is recommended that the entire island 
system should be proteaed (Salvat in litl., 1988). 



MANUAE (SCILLY OR FENUAURA ATOLL) 
RESERVE 

Geographical Location In the leeward islands (extreme 
west) of the Society Islands, 550 km west of Tahiti; 
16°30'S, 154''40'W. 

Area, Depth, Altitude 200 ha; lagoon elongated 
north-south, 11x9 km; lagoon av. depth 50 m, max. 70 m, 
deeper on the west than east. 

Physical Features Manuae is a circular enclosed atoll. 
The eastern part of the atoll consists of sandy, wooded 
islets separated by shallow channels. The western part is 
a barrier reef, skirted on the lagoon side by a low sand 
dune 10 km long. The geomorphology is described by 
Chevalier (1979b). The lagoon is only accessible to Ught 
boats via the pass at the northern point of the island. To 
the west and south there is water exchange between the 
lagoon and sea at high tide but during calm periods, 
water enters only via the few operative hoa. In strong 
winds and tides, the flow varies according to wind 
direction and is described by Ricard and Delesalle 
(1981). Salinity in the lagoon ranges from 35.45 to 
35.63 ppt, and there is sb'ght stratification with a lower 
salinity at the surface. Surface temperature in the 
shallow margin area is about 28°C; in the centre it is 
about 27°C. The hydrology of the lagoon is described by 
Ricard et al. (1979a). 

Reef Structure and Corals The western and southern 
parts of the reef have been divided into the following 
zones (Chevalier, 1979b): well developed algal ridge; reef 



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French Polynesia 



flat with corals and algae; eroded fossilized algal crest; 
immersed eroded organic flagstone, emerged coastal strip 
and sandy inner slope. The lagoon has many coral 
patches and pinnacles, none of which reach more than 
20 m below the surface. There is heavy sedimentation 
and many of the patches are covered with silt (Salvat, 
1979a and b). Fourteen genera of scleractinia have been 
recorded; Pontes (at the surface), Monlipora 
and Psammocora dominate (Chevalier, 1979b; Salvat and 
Venec-Peyre, 1981). 

Noteworthy Fauna and Flora There are coconut groves 
on the eastern part of the atoll and the vegetation is 
described by Sachet (1983). The Green Turtle Chelonia 
mydas nests on the atoll (Vergonzanne, 1979). The fish 
fauna is described by Bagnis and Bennett (1979) and 
Galzin (1979). Tridacna maxima and Pinctada 

margaritifera are abundant in the lagoon (Salvat and 
Venec-Peyre, 1981). The marine molluscs are described 
by Richard (1979), the foraminifera by Salvat and 
Venec-Peyre (1981), algae by Denizot (1979) and 
phytoplankton by Ricard and Delesalle (1981). Benthic 
fauna of the lagoon is described by Salvat (1983). 

Scientific Importance and Research Visited by an 
expedition from the Museum National d'Hisloire 
Naturelle, Paris, in 1979 (Anon., 1979a). Since then there 
have been several missions by EVAAM to study Pinctada 
stocks and by CNEXO to study turtles (Lebeau, 1985). 
The atoll is of interest because it is intermediate between 
an open and a closed atoll. 



Economic Value and Social Benefits 
inhabited. 



The atoll is 



Disturbance or Deficiencies There is a potential risk of 
overexploitation of marine resources and there is regular 
poaching of turtles by the inhabitants of Maupiti 
(Thibault in lilt., 17.2.88). Potential problems from 
ciguatera are discussed by Bagnis and Bennett (1979). 
Enforcement of protection is considered a problem, as at 
present the Territory of French Polynesia lacks the 
resources to undertake this adequately (Thibault in lilt., 
17.2.88). 

Legal Protection Designated as a reserve in 1971 under 
Arrete No. 2559/DOM of 28.7.71 (Anon., n.d. b). 
Alteration of the natural features or ecology of the 
lagoon is prohibited. Exploitation of fauna and flora 
within the lagoon, except for that required for staff on 
the island, is prohibited. A permit from the head of the 
Territoire en Conseil de Gouvernement is required for 
scientific research. 

Management None, although there has been one arrest 
for poaching which went before the court in Papeete. 

Recommendations It has been recommended that the 
reserve should be extended to include some of the 
terrestrial areas as turtle and bird sanctuaries (Dahl, 
1980). Efforts must be made to convince the local 
authorities of the interest of the reserve and its resources, 
and to establish effective protection with a warden, 
although the difficulty of such an enterprise is recognised 
(Salvat m/w, 1988). 



TE^UE (RECIF D'lLOT) 

Geographical Location North-east coast of Moorea 
between Aroa and Faaupo Points; 149°46'W, 17''29'S. 

Area, Depth, Altitude 4.5 km of barrier reef. 

Physical Features There is no lagoon in this area and 
the barrier reef is connected directly to the coast. The 
beach is exposed to strong waves. Pools carpeted with 
blue green algae are found along the edge of the rubble 
zone which has a low species diversity. Zones of 
conglomerate and flagstone are interspersed with the 
pools. The broken reef flat, in 20 cm of water, consists of 
joined coral patches. There is considerable turbidity on 
the outer slope. Nine zones (see next paragraph for 
deeper zones) have been defined at Aroa Point but 
towards the south-east some of these become less 
important. TTie reef flat is atrophied and the 
conglomerate of the upper zone is replaced by beach 
rock. Towards Faaupo Point the reef flat widens again, 
the conglomerate reappears and the outer edge resembles 
that at Aroa Point (Galzin and Pointier, 1985). The area 
is described in greater detail in Anon. (1977). 

Inland of the beach is a saline lake, the hydrological 
aspects of which are described by Burlot el al. (1985) and 
Pouchan et al. (1985). 

Reef Structure and Corals The reef flat is colonised in 
some areas with Acropora, Millepora and Pontes. The 
reef front is dominated by algae (Turbinaria oniata, 
Sargassum sp. and PoroUthon onkodes) and corals 
(Pocillopora, Acropora, Cladiella). The ridge consists of 
95% coralline algae. Other species are Chlorodesmis 
and Caulerpa. The outer slope is a platform furrowed by 
narrow channels (1 m wide and 1.8 m deep), with basins 
7-10 m deep and 20-30 m in diameter (Galzin and 
Pointier, 1985). The reefs in this area resemble outer 
slope reefs of atolls, unlike the reef at Tiahura, also on 
Moorea (Anon., 1977). 

Noteworthy Fauna and Flora Some of the fish and 
mollusc fauna, particularly Nerita p/icata, are described in 
Galzin and Pointier (1985). Algae are described by Payri 
(1987) and molluscs by Richard (1982b). 

Scientific Importance and Research This is the only site 
on Moorea where the barrier reef joins the coast. The 
reef was studied in the course of Mission Benthyplan to 
Moorea in May 1977 (Anon., 1977). 

Economic Value and Social Benefits The bay and reef 
to the east of Temae, adjacent to the hotel, are popular 
for recreation, snorkelling and water sports. The reef at 
Temae is occasionally visited by tourists (Gabrie in lilt., 
16.11.87). 

Disturbance or Deficiencies The area was exposed to 
the hurricanes of 1982 and 1983 which caused 
considerable damage. A large hotel development is 
scheduled for the area, although tourism is currently 
declining (Salvat in lilt., 1988). 

Legal Protection None. 



Management None. 



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Coral Reefs of the World 



Recommendations Considered by some to be worthy of 
protection as one of the few remaining healthy reefs on 
Moorea. There are plans to create a "lagoonarium" as 
part of the hotel development, in order to protect part of 
the reef. 



TIAHURA 

Geographical Location North-west Moorea, between 
Tepee and Tehau Points; 17°29'S, 149°52"W. 

Area, Depth, Altitude 1750 m of coastline; lagoon 840 m 
wide and 5-12 m deep. 

Physical Features The area includes a fringing reef, 
channel, barrier reef and ridge and a small islet, motu 
Irioa, covered with bushy vegetation. The pattern of 
water circulation is complex. At flood tide oceanic 
waters flow into the lagoon by the Taotoi Pass and over 
the barrier reef; at ebb tide, the lagoon waters flow out 
through the pass. In the lagoon, the greatest current is in 
the channel but there is a small but important circulation 
of water on the fringing reef. Tides are semi-diurnal with 
amplitudes rarely exceeding 0.3 m. The volume of water 
in the lagoon is comparatively small resulting in wide 
fluctuations in several parameters depending on the 
intensity of oceanic exchange. Tidal currents may be 
strong (currents range from 0.5 to 2 knots) and there may 
be a disappearance or temporary lapse in the tidal cycle. 
The area is sheltered from the south-east trade winds but 
there is normally a fairly large swell on the north-west 
reefs (Galzin and Pointier, 1985). 

Reef Structure and Corals From the beach, a sediment 
zone, consisting largely of decomposed microatoUs 
descends to a fragmented reef flat which precedes a zone 
of coral patches some of which have aggregated to form 
vast coral heads. The fringing reef, 250 m wide at the 
transect area (where most research has been carried out), 
is shallow (less than 1.5 m deep). The channel, 9 m deep 
and 100 m wide at the transect, has coral formations on 
the shoreward side and a gentle sandy slope on the 
seaward side. The barrier reef (490 m wide) is shallow 
(no more than 2.5 m deep at high tide) on the landward 
side with a zone of fine coral sand. Seaward of this there 
are sparse coral patches which gradually become denser 
towards a zone of scattered pebbles and coral heads. 
There is a mixed reef ridge on slightly elevated flagstone 
on the outer edge (Galzin and Pointier, 1985). 

Jaubert et at. (1976) describe the outer slope of the 
Tiahura Reef. This has an unusual morphology, with 
three zones between sea-level and 60 m depth. From 
0-15 m depth, there are coral buttresses and guUies; this 
upper reef is divided into a furrowed and low-incUned 
upper platform (0-7 m depth) colonized by scattered coral 
colonies, and a spur and groove system ending at 15 m 
depth in a sediment basin lying parallel to the reef front. 
From 15-27 m depth, the spurs and grooves of the lower 
reef slope have dense corals on the upper parts of the 
spurs, but more scattered corals deeper. From 27-47 m 
depth, coral sand is found with an enteropneusta and 
cephalochordate community with sand eels Taenioconger. 
There is a sharp break in the slope at 65 m depth (Galzin 
and Pointier, 1985). 



Reef productivity is described by Ricard (1983). Jaubert 
(1977a) has described growth forms of the coral Synarea 
convexa. 24 scleractinians have been collected, poritids 
being most common. Bouchon (1985) described 
scleractinian coral communities before the outbreak 
of Acanthasler planci and found that species richness and 
coral coverage increased seawards. The fringing reef flat 
was characterized by a poor coral community, dominated 
by Pontes and Montipora. A richer community 
dominated by Acropora and Pocillopora was found on 
the barrier reef flat. The outer reef had three zones; 
an Acropora and Pocillopora zone from 0-10 m depth, 
a Porites and Montastrea zone from 15 to 20 m depth and 
a massive Porites zone at 30 m depth. Since 
the Acanthaster outbreak there has been a major 
decrease in coral coverage. 

Noteworthy Fauna and Flora The fauna and flora of the 
reef and lagoon have been intensively studied and are 
briefly reviewed in Galzin and Pointier (1985). Fish of 
the lagoon are described by Galzin (1976, 1977, 1983 and 
1985) and Plessis (1972b and 1973a). 280 species have 
been recorded. Fish biomass is greater on the fringing 
reef by the channel than on the reef flat or fringing reef 
proper. A less diverse fauna is found near the shore. 
The pomacentrid Slegastes nigricans is the predominant 
species on fringing reef patches near the channel and the 
acanthurid Ctenochaetus striatus dominates on the reef 
flat. Chaetodon abundance is noticeable as on all 
Polynesian reefs. Decapod crustaceans and polychaetes 
are described by Peyrot-Clausade (1976 and 1977) and de 
Vaugelas e( a/. (1986). The holothurian Halodeima alra, 
the most abundant echinoderm in the lagoon, is described 
by Renaud-Momant (1977); molluscs are described by 
Richard (1973a and b) and Richard and Salvat (1972); 
150 species have been collected from the transect. The 
algal community of the lagoon is described by Payri 
(1983). 

Scientific Importance and Research The area has been 
studied since 1971 when the Antenne du Museum et 
Ecole Pratique des Hautes Etudes was established and it 
is the most studied reef on Moorea (Ricard et ai, 1977). 
A transect was established along which most of the 
studies have been carried out. Many of the studies have 
been directed at determining the productivity of the reef 
and a preliminary production balance has been 
determined which is summarised in Galzin and Pointier 
(1985). Naim (1980) studied the small mobile 
macrofauna in the algae in the lagoon. Phytoplankton 
was studied between 1974 and 1978 (Ricard, 1976a and b; 
Soumia and Ricard, 1975b and 1976) and zooplankton by 
Lefevre (1984). Between 1971 and 1981, some 178 
publications were produced on a variety of subjects. 

Economic Value and Social Benefits There are six 
hotels on the shore facing the reef. The most recently 
constructed, the Hotel Sofitel, was completed in 1987; all 
the others are over 10 years old, although the Club 
Mediterranee at the western end of the area was enlarged 
in 1985 (Gabrie in lilt., 16.11.87; Wells pers. obs., 1985). 
The whole area, particularly around the motu, is used by 
tourists from the hotels, especially from the Club 
Mediterranee (Gabrie /'« litt., 16.11.87). 

Disturbance or Deficiencies Tiahura reef was seriously 
damaged by an outbreak of Acanthaster planci in 1981 
which caused a major decline in coral coverage 
particularly of branching forms such as Pocillopora 



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French Polynesia 



and Acropoia. In some areas, coverage was reduced by 
50%, the worst affected area being the outer reef slope. 
The loss of scleractinians affected the motile cryptofauna 
(Peyrot-Clausade, 1985) and fish; the density of 
chaetodontids which are coral feeders declined by 47% 
(Bouchon, 1985; Bouchon-Navaro et al., 1985). The reefs 
may also have suffered coral mortality as a result of the 
abnormal El Nino of 1983 (Glynn, 1984). 

Extraction of coral sand (for building materials) from the 
lagoon in two parallel dredging channels has seriously 
damaged the area. Coral sand extraction took place in 
1962 and 1975, the latter occurrence causing the almost 
complete isolation of an 18 ha zone of fringing reef 
between the dredging dike and Teepe Point. The 
increased turbidity had a noticeable impact on primary 
production (Ricard, 1980 and 1981) and on the 
ichthyological and benthic communities (Anon., 1979; 
Naim, 1981; Salvat et al., 1979). There has been an 
increase in water temperature in this area, suppression of 
water circulation, a large drop in salinity, a marked 
increase in turbidity and noticeable sedimentation (de 
Vaugelas, 1979). Corals were reduced by 95% and 
diversity of other taxonomic groups is also lower; 
macrophytic algal production increased by 5%. The 
dredged zone is considered irretrievably destroyed, a 
study in 1984 indicating that the fringing reef is stiU in a 
poor condition. Porcher (1985) and Porcher and 
Bouilloud (1984) carried out an environmental impact 
study during the construaion of the Hotel Sofitel. A 
channel was dredged through the reef to allow boats to 
reach the shore at the hotel, but attempts to manage the 
dredging operations were partially successful 
(Gabrie //I //«., 16.11.87 and see below). No dredging has 
been carried out on the Tiahura reef itself since the 
completion of the hotel. However an illegal dredging 
operation, which had been running for at least a year, was 
in operation immediately west of the area in July 1987 
and had disturbed the adjacent fringing reefs. No studies 
have been carried out on the effects of recreational use 
on the reefs. There are not known to be any plans at 
present for further hotel development along this stretch 
of coast (Gabrie in litt., 16.11.87). 

Legal Protection Coral dredging is now banned on 
Moorea (Gabrie in lilt., 16.11.87). 

Management An experimental attempt, which was 
largely successful (Gabrie in litt., 16.11.87), was made to 
control the effects of the most recent dredging operation 
by enclosing the site with a woven curtain which 
prevented the dispersal of fine particles (Galzin and 
Pointier, 1985). However other recommended actions 
(Porcher and Bouilloud, 1984), in particular that of 
vacuuming away the accumulated sediment before 
removal of the curtain, were not carried out 
(Gabrie /•«//>/., 16.11.87). 

Recommendations Given the scientific importance of 
this site and the long history of research on the transect, 
it would seem of the utmost importance that attempts are 
made to stop further deterioration and to ensure that any 
future developments have as small an impact as possible. 
Preliminary proposals have been drawn up by the 
Antenne Museum-EPHE for the restoration of areas 
degraded by dredging (Gabrie in litt., 16.11.87) and for 
monitoring the area on a ten-yearly basis (Salvat, 1987). 



MATAIVA 

Geographical Location Westernmost atoU in Tuamotu 
group, 300 km north of Tahiti; 14''55'S, 148°36'W. 

Area, Depth, Altitude 10 x 5.5 km; lagoon depth av. 8 m, 
max. 30 m. 

Physical Features The atoll has an unusual morphology 
and geology with a wide (200-1500 m), ahnost continuous, 
eUiptical atoll rim which permits very little oceanic 
exchange, and a reticulated lagoon divided into about 70 
shallow basins by a network of slightly submerged 
partitions. A detailed description of this, including the 
geology and hydrology of the atoll, is given in DelesaUe 
(1985b). There are several hoa to the south and a single 
pass in the north. The north and east coastline forms a 
single islet. 

The climate is similar to that of the other Tuamotu 
atolls. There is a dry, cool season from April to 
September (24-27°C) and a hot, wet season from Oaober 
to March (28-30°C). Rainfall is rarely more than 25 mm 
a year. Storms and cyclones are rare although there were 
three in 1983. Easterly trade winds predominate. Water 
temperatures in the lagoon do not vary much with a 
maximum of 29-31°C in the rainy season and a minimum 
of 25-27°C in the dry season. The lagoon waters have a 
more or less pronounced milky appearance due to the 
suspension of fine, silty calcareous particles and have high 
and variable concentrations of dissolved nutrients, 
especially nitrates and siUcates (Delesalle, 1985b). 

Reef Structure and Corals Coral diversity in the lagoon 
is very low, only 28 species having been recorded. 
Highest diversity is found near the pass and hoa. Coral 
cover is also very low, diminishing from 30% near the 
hoa to 0% in the eastern part of the atoU. Colonies are 
mainly located on the partition summits around the edges 
of the pools. Pontes lobata, forming microatolls on these 
shoals, and Acropora tortuosa on the pool sides, are the 
commonest species. Montipora aequituberculala 

and Leptastrea purpurea are widely distributed but have 
very small colonies. The outer slope is more diverse that 
the lagoon but corals are often small. The eroded reef 
flat has a few corals near the reef front, Acropora 
and Pocillopora being most common (Delesalle, 1985b). 

Noteworthy Fauna and Flora The algae and 

phyto-plankton are described by Salvat (1982). The 
phytoplankton is quantitatively dominated by 
phytoflagellates and qualitatively by diatoms (Delesalle, 
1985a). Marine fauna recorded from the atoll include 
over 220 molluscs, 115 fish species and about lOO 
crustaceans (DelesaUe, 1985b), among which the 
thalassinid mud-shrimp Callichirus armatus is responsible 
for extensive reworking of the lagoon soft bottom 
sediments (de Vaugelas, 1985; de Vaugelas et al., 1986). 
The Coconut Crab Birgus latro is rare (Delesalle, 1985b). 

Scientific Importance and Research Considerable work 
has been carried out because of the potential for 
phosphate mining on the atoll. Missions to Mataiva were 
undertaken in 1981 (Delesalle et al., 1981), 1982 and 1983 
(Delesalle, 1985b). 

Economic Value and Social Benefits In 1983, the 
population numbered just over 180, but there is much 



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Coral Reefs of the World 



exchange with Rangiroa. Fishing and copra are the 
traditional means of support. The sea provides about 
50% of the protein requirements, including fish, molluscs, 
crustaceans and turtles. Fishing techniques include 
spears, lines and fish parks located in the pass and near 
the hoa (DelesaUe, 1985b). 

Disturbance or Deficiencies There are many dead 
colonies in the lagoon caused by the high turbidity, 
particularly in the eastern part. On the north side 
however Pontes is abundant even though the turbidity is 
still high. There was some cyclone damage to the outer 
reefs in 1983. Much of the dead coral may have been 
caused by events such as occurred in 1978 and 1980, when 
extreme low tides combined with strong sunlight to cause 
very high temperatures (32°C) for as long as ten days. In 
1981, coral cover was as low as 10% even near the hoa 
but had increased by 1983 (Delesalle, 1985b). 

A major threat would be the initiation of phosphate 
mining. Phosphate deposits cover about 5 sq. km and 
represent some 10 million tons of available ore. 
Exploitation of this resource would take 10-15 years and 
necessitate the employment of about 200 people and 
could have a major impact on the natural environment 
(Delesalle, 1982 and 1985b). The inhabitants of the atoll 
are reportedly opposed to the mining (Thibault in litt., 
17.2.88) and the plans are currently dormant 
(Salvatm/in., 1988). 

Legal Protection None. 

Management None. 

Recommendations A turtle and seabird reserve was 
proposed by Dahl (1980) for the atoll but both birds and 
turtles are now scarce. Should the proposed phosphate 
mining plans go ahead, a rigorous environmental impact 
assessment should be carried out and measures enforced 
to ensure that these activities have minimum impact on 
the natural resources. 



MORUROA 

Geographical Location South-east Tuamotu group; 
21°46'-21°54'S, 138°47'-139°03'W. 

Area, Depth, Altitude 28 x 10 km; atoll rim is 65 km 
long; max. alt. 6.5 m; lagoon 26 x 9 km, max. depth 52 m. 

Physical Features The atoll, oriented WSW-ENE, has 
one pass into the lagoon in the north-west and 300 islets. 
The rim is wider in the south (550-700 m) than in the 
north (400 m). On the west, there are few emergent 
islands and much of the rim is submerged at low tide; in 
the east and south there are numerous motu and large 
portions of the rim are permanently emerged. Islets vary 
in length from 20 m to several kilometres and in width 
from 30 to 900 m. They are described by Chevalier et al. 
(1968). Soils are described by Tercinier (1969). The 
geology and geomorphology of the atoll have been 
extensively studied, such research being facilitated by the 
fact that the atoll has been drilled to its volcanic 
basement in many places (Chevalier et al., 1968; 
Deneuebourg, 1969; Bardintzeff et al., 1985; Buigues, 



1985; Pontes et al, 1969; Gachon and Buigues, 1985; 
Aissaoui and Purser, 1985; Labeyrie et al., 1969; Ruzie 
and Gachon, 1985). Dolomitisation is described by 
Purser and Aissaoui (1985). Surrounding waters reach 
depths of over 3000 m, even between the atoll and its 
nearest neighbour Fangataufa at 50 km distance. 

The cUmate is described in Chevalier et al. (1968). It is 
cooler than much of the Tuamotu archipelago as the atoU 
is situated well to the south-east. Humidity is high, most 
rain falling between November and January. Easterly 
trade winds predominate, although during the winter, 
westerly winds may prevail. Cyclones are periodically 
experienced. Tides are semi-diurnal with an amplitude of 
40-70 cm. 

Hoa vary in width from a few metres to 150 m and in 
depth from 50 cm at low tide at the outer end to 1-4 m on 
the lagoon side. About 28% connea directly with the 
sea; the remainder do so only during high seas and 
storms. Chevalier et al. (1968) distinguish five different 
types of hoa: those that are occasionally functional and 
which have a single opening into the lagoon and end in a 
cul-de-sac on the ocean side; functional hoa which 
connect with the sea at high tide and may or may not at 
low tide; non-functional hoa which are entirely isolated 
from the lagoon and the sea; and two other varieties of 
the latter. Of the 288 hoa, 79 are functional and are most 
abundant on the south, their density increasing from east 
to west on both sides of the atoll. 

There is a single pass in the north-west, about 4500 m 
wide and with a maximum depth of 8-9 m, and the islet, 
Giroflee, situated in the south-west (Chevalier et al., 
1968). The pass is unusually large compared with other 
atolls in the Tuamotu group and the rapid exchange of 
water is responsible for the particular characteristics of 
the lagoon fauna and flora, especially the relatively rich 
coral fauna. Sedimentation in the lagoon is described by 
Trichet (1969). Further information is provided in 
Rougerieera/. (1980). 

Reef Structure and Corals The exterior reef can be 
divided into three zones: reef flat, algal crest and outer 
slope. The reef flat in front of the motu has two zones. 
The internal zone, which ranges from a few metres wide 
in the north to 60 m wide in the south, may be submerged 
or emergent at high tide and is irregular with numerous 
erosion channels and occasional "negro heads". The 
external zone is submerged at low tide and, like the inner 
zone, is formed of reefal conglomerate; living corals are 
found towards the seaward edge of the zone and are most 
abundant on the sheltered north and west sides of the 
atoll. The reef flat between the motu, particularly in the 
north and west, forms a platform with a gentle slope 
lagoonwards. The leeward reef flat has more abundant 
coral fauna than the windward reef flat, coverage 
reaching 50-60% in some areas (Chevalier et al., 1968). 

The algal crest varies in form according to its location on 
the atoll. It is largest on the windward reefs in the south, 
30-50 m wide and emergent by 80 cm at low tide. The 
exterior part is formed of living calcareous algae, 
predominantly Porolithon and Chevaliericrusia; the 
internal part is largely dead and eroded. There are 
numerous spurs and grooves which extend down the 
outer slope to depths of 20 m, the spurs with a width of 
3-10 m, the grooves usually remaining narrow. The spurs 
are covered with calcareous algae on the upper parts and 



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French Polvnesia 



corals in deeper water. At the eastern extremity of the 
atoll, which is even more exposed, the algal crest is 
similar but the spurs are broken by ledges. On the more 
sheltered eastern coast, the algal crest is less well 
developed, 10-20 m wide with 20-30 cm exposed at low 
tide. On the western leeward side, the atoll is even less 
developed, 10-20 m wide and emergent at low tide by 
10-20 cm. 

The outer slope can be studied by diving only at certain 
points on the atoll (Camelia, Brigitte, Canon, Grue, 
Aline, Becasse and Hortensia). The slope extends 
normally for 40-50 m to depths of 15-25 m. The profile of 
the slope in other areas has been estimated by soundings 
and is illustrated in Chevalier et al. (1968). Below the 
algal zone which extends to about 10 m on the windward 
side of the atoll, the outer slope is dominated 
by Acropora and Pocillopora. On the leeward side, the 
outer slope has a richer coral fauna and a clear zonation 
can be distinguished. From 1 to 4 m depth, there is still a 
rich algal cover with a coral coverage of 20-30%, 
dominated by Pocillopora brevicornis, which is richest on 
the spurs. From 4 to 8 m depth, coral coverage reaches 
40, the main species being P. brevicornis, Acropora 
corymbosa, A danai, and Millepora plalypliylla. From 8 
to 15 m depth, corals are less abundant although species 
composition is similar apart from P. brevicornis which is 
less abundant. From 15 to 25 m depth, coral coverage is 
30% at maximum and the principal species are A humilis, 
A. corymbosa and A syringodes. Below 25 m depth, 
corals become progressively rarer and disappear at about 
60 m. Between 25 and 30 m depth the main species 
is Montipora caliculata. The hoa have a poor coral 
diversity but scattered madreporarian corals may occur. 

The ecology and benthos of the lagoon is described by 
Salvat and Renaud-Mornant (1969). Chevalier et al. 
(1968) describe the lagoon reefs, including the fringing 
reefs of the motu and submerged reef flats, as well as 
patch reefs around the edge of the lagoon. The latter are 
particularly numerous in the south-west of the lagoon and 
become more scattered towards the centre. Maximum 
diameter is about 120 m. The motu fringing reefs may 
have coral coverage as high as 80%, the main species 
being A brevicornis, A danai and A corymbosa 
(Chevalier era/., 1968). On the patch reefs Acropora spp. 
generally dominate the surface of the reef, A danai 
and Millepora platyphylla occur to 2 m depth 
and A macro phlhatma dominates to 15 m depth. 

Eighty species of coral in 26 genera have been recorded 
from the atoll. Tixier-Durivault (1969) described the soft 
corals. 

Noteworthy Fauna and Flora In the 1960s the motu 
were largely vegetated, coconuts palms being dominant 
(Pomier, 1969). The vegetation and terrestrial fauna are 
described in Chevalier et al. (1968) and Pomier (1969). 
The bird fauna is considered comparatively poor with less 
than ten breeding species but there are large numbers, 
mainly terns and noddies which had colonies on the 
north-western part of the atoll. Seabirds include 
Murphy's Pterodroma ultima and Kermadec 
Petrels P. neglecla, the Greater Crested Tern Sterna 
bergii, the White Tern Gygis alba, and the Brown Aious 
stolidus and Black Noddies A minutus. A number of 
other migrating species have been recorded. The only 
mammals are four species of rodent, all introduced by 



man. The marine fauna is described in Chevalier et al. 
(1968). England (1971) described the actiniarian fauna. 
Fish distribution is described by Quigier (1969). The 
plankton is described by Michel (1969). 

Scientific Importance and Research Following the 
establishment of a Centre d'Experimentations Nucleaires 
(C.E.P.) on the atoll, a series of detailed studies was 
carried out prior to nuclear testing on all biological 
aspects to provide a baseline from which changes due to 
radioactive events could be monitored. TTie research was 
carried out by a number of scientific institutions under 
the direction of the Service Mixte de Controle 
Biologique, established in 1964 under the Direction des 
Centres d'Experimentations Nucleaires. Much of the 
work was published in a special issie of Cahiers 
Pacifique in 1968. Subsequent missions have studied a 
variety of aspects although this has not all been 
published, such as the study visit made by a team 
comprising Australian, New Zealand, and Papua New 
Guinea scientists (Atkinson et al., 1984). 

Economic Value and Social Benefits The island was 
uninhabited following devastation by cyclones in 
1904-1906, but was sporadically visited for the collection 
of copra. A military base with some 3000 employees is 
situated on the north-eastern end of the atoll. 

Disturbance or Deficiencies Cyclones damaged the atoll 
in 1980, 1981 and 1983. The establishment of the C.E.P. 
on the atoll caused considerable alteration to the 
terrestrial parts of the atoll (Chevalier et al., 1968). 
Atomic testing commenced in 1966 (Danielsson, 1984). 
Atmospheric testing ceased in 1974 and was replaced by 
underground testing, requiring the drilling of bore holes 
to 800-1000 m depth on the atoll rim, mainly along the 
southern side. Since 1980 underground testing has taken 
place in holes drilled in the lagoon. There have been 
reports of leakage of radioactive substances, physical 
damage to the structure of the atoll, tidal waves 
generated by explosions and poorly managed dumping of 
radioactive material on the northern part of the atoll 
which is now considered highly contaminated. There has 
been considerable controversy as to whether the heavy 
incidence of ciguatera in the region is related to the 
testing; evidence suggests that radiation itself is not a 
causal factor but that other military activities carried out 
in the area such as dredging and rubbish dumping may be 
a contributary factor (Caire et al., 1985). 

Hermit crabs Coenobita perlata declined rapidly after the 
establishment of the C.E.P. as they are used as fishing 
bait. The lobsters Parribacus antharticus and Panulirus 
penicillatus have become increasingly rare. 

Legal Protection None. 

Management None. 



RANGIROA 

Geographical Location 

ISWS, 147°40'W. 



200 km north-east of Tahiti; 



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Coral Reefs of the World 



Area, Depth, Altitude 1640 sq km (84 x 33 km with a 
periphery of 225 km); average lagoon depth 20 m, max. 
35 m, width 4-30 km. 

Physical Features The atoll rim is widest in the east and 
narrowest in the south (300-600 m); further details are 
given in Ricard (1985). There are about 240 islands or 
motu, mainly on the north-west part of the atoll; the 
remainder consists of sandy areas more or less 
submerged. The lagoon has scattered coral pinnacles, 
sand banks, islets and shallows and a silty bottom 
(Dufour et ai, 1984) and silty narrow beaches in the 
north, characterised by the presence of marine 
phanerograms which are rarely found in Polynesia, which 
form lawns covering dozens of sq. km. There are two 
main passes (Hotua Uva and Hivia) on the north side, 
which are 450 and 550 m wide and 14 and 35 m deep 
respectively. Each has a patch reef situated at the 
entrance to the lagoon. There are about 150 hoa, some of 
which are permanently functional. Others are open to 
the lagoon but blocked from the ocean. Others, 
particularly in the south, are open to the ocean but 
blocked to the lagoon and some hoa are completely 
isolated. There are numerous small fossil reef pinnacles 
(feo) on the south side, described by Ricard (1985). 

Easterly trade winds predominate, but north or 
south-west gales may occur between November and May 
which is the cyclone season. Rainfall is between 1200 and 
1500 mm a year and is highest between November and 
January. Hydrological details are given in Ricard (1985), 
Rougerie and Gros (1980) and Gros et al. (1980); the 
lagoon waters are similar to the ocean due to exchange 
through the passes and its large size; Ln some ways the 
lagoon operates more like an inland sea. Sea level 
changes are described in Ricard (1985). Stoddart (1969) 
describes the geomorphology of the atoll. A general 
description is given by Ottino (1972). 

Reef Structure and Corals The surf zone of the reef flat 
is most exposed on the northern rim and consists of an 
algal ridge 10-20 m wide, mainly of Poroliilwn 
craspedium, P. onkoides and some Lilliophyllum, which 
forms spurs and grooves. The submerged reef flat is a 
calcareous platform with small colonies of Pontes 
and Acropora scattered over its surface. Landward of 
this is flat rocky calcareous floor and a zone of 
beachrock. The reef flat is similar in the south with a 
well developed algal crest but this is followed by a "feo" 
zone which is dissected by deep channels. Corals are less 
abundant in the south, only Acropora being regularly 
observed although hydrocorals may be abundant. Coral 
diversity is greatest at Hao. 

Coral diversity and abundance are low in the lagoon, 
although corals are abundant where the slope drops 
off, Acropora providing 95% cover, and Pontes 3%, with 
a scattering of Pocillopora and Montipora. In the south 
of the lagoon the sand is less silty and coral patches are 
abundant in shallow water but become less so with 
depth. The massive genera Favia, Platygyra 

and Montipora are most abundant with Pocillopora 
and Acropora. Coral patches or pinnacles are scattered 
throughout in about 20-25 m of water. The sheltered side 
of a pinnacle (generally the north-west side) has a 
100-150 m wide platform of coral rock at 0.5-3 m depth, 
covered with sand and scattered with coral patches 
usually of Acropora. The exposed side has a narrow 
sandy shelf with Acropora and encrusting algae. The 



slope below the platform has abundant Millepora 
plalyphilla and scattered corals of a variety of species. 
The lagoon bottom around the pinnacles is sandy with 
scattered Acropora. 

Permanently functional hoa have a high coral diversity. 
Those that are blocked from the ocean have a sparse 
covering of Acropora and Montipora. Those that are 
open to the ocean but blocked from the lagoon have a 
rich coral community, particularly near the outer reef 
flat. In completely isolated hoa Pontes is usually the only 
coral present. The reefs around Motu Paio are described 
in Ricard (1985). 

Noteworthy Fauna and Flora A total of 58 species of 
fish were described by Plessis (1970 and 1972a) but 
research since then has brought the total to about 600 for 
the lagoon alone. The lagoon has particularly rich algal 
and faunal communities and about 95 species of mollusc 
have been described. Plankton, benthic fauna and flora, 
particularly molluscs, and fish are described by 
Michel et al. (1971), Poll and Richard (1973) and Ricard 
(1985). The permanently functioning hoa have a 
particularly diverse fauna. Sachet (1969) has described 
the terrestrial flora of the atoll. Motu Paio (Bird Island), 
5 mi. (8 km) from the village of Tiputa, is the nesting site 
for large numbers of birds, mainly noddies and terns. 

Scientific Importance and Research Rangiroa is the 
second largest atoll in the world and the largest in the 
Tuamotu group. Pirazzoh (1982 and 1985b) has 
investigated mapping the lagoon by satellite imagery. 
The atoU was visited in the 1960s, the results of the 
expedition being summarised by Stoddart (1969). The 
atoll rim is covered with "kopara" deposits, cyanobacterial 
deposits which accumulate in shallow ponds Just above 
the tide mark (Defarge et al., 1985; Ricard, 1985). 

The Commissariat a I'Energie Atomique and the Oil and 
Oleaginous Research Institute both have laboratories on 
the atoll. The EVAAM station carries out research on 
lagoon and coastal fishing, and pearl culture. With the 
introduction of small scale tuna fishing, interest has 
grown in the possibility of farming baitfish. Hoa and 
kopara ponds are being studied for this purpose, and the 
experimental work carried out so far is described briefly 
in Ricard (1985). A hatchery for Pinctada margaritifera 
has been established and there are plans to expand the 
research carried out on the pearl oyster. 

Economic Value and Social Benefits Rangiroa is the 
most populated atoll (about 700 people in 1985) in the 
Tuamotu archipelago. There are two villages, Avatoru 
and Tiputa on the north side, each to the east of the two 
navigable passes. Fishing and fish culture (Chanos 
chanos), coconuts and pearl culture are the main sources 
of income. Fishing used to be the most important activity 
but today it provides employment for only about 20-30 
fishermen; about half the catch is for local consumption, 
the remainder being exported to Tahiti (Grand et at., 
1983). Fish parks located in the passes are used to catch 
migrant fish for export to Tahiti. A variety of fishing 
methods are described in Ricard (1985). The lagoon at 
Hoa Vaimati is separated from the main lagoon and 
provides a suitable environment for breeding 
baitfish Chanos chanos (Dufour, 1985). Kopara ponds in 
the north west at Pavete are also used for this purpose 
(Ricard, 1985). A pilot station has been built here and 
nearly 8 t of baitfish have been produced since 1984. 



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French Polynesia 



Tourism is becoming increasingly important and there are 
four hotels, an airstrip and watersport facilities. 

Disturbance or Deficiencies The reefs suffered serious 
damage from the 1983 cyclones which also altered the 
formation of the beaches. The north-west and west of 
the atoll suffers most serious damage during such events 
(Bourrouilh-Le Jan and Tallandier, 1985). 

Legal Protection None. 

Recommendations Motu Paio has been recommended 
as a reserve for birds and its owner is willing for this to 
happen (Thibault in litl., 17.2.88). In the early 1970s the 
atoU was suggested for National Park status (Elhot, 1973). 



TAKAPOTO 

Geographical Location One of the northern Tuamotu 
atolls, 600 km from Tahiti and 10 km south-west of its 
sister atoll Takaroa; 14°35'S, 145n3'W. 

Area, Depth, Altitude 74 sq. km (17 x 5 km, with a 
periphery of 44.6 km), of which 23 sq. km is emerged rim 
and 51 sq. km is lagoon; lagoon depth av. 23 m, max. 60 m. 

Physical Features Oriented SW-NE. The lagoon, with a 
largely sandy bottom, is more or less closed but some 
oceanic exchange takes place through "hoa" or reef flat 
spillways which are about 10 m wide and less than 10 cm 
deep and permit water exchange depending on the tides, 
winds and relative levels of ocean and lagoon. There are 
25 hoa on the south coast, one of which, at Orapa, 
provides some degree of water exchange each day; the 
hoa on the north-west side of the atoll are non-functional 
except for one which functions during very strong swells 
(Salvat and Richard, 1985). Lagoon salinity reaches 
39.8 ppt. Geomorphology and marine ecology of the 
lagoon area are described by Chevalier el al. (1979), 
Chevalier and Denizot (1979) and Salvat (1981); 
physicochemistry and plankton by Gueredrat and 
Rougerie (1978); and hydrology and primary production 
by Ricard et al. (1978) and Sournia and Ricard (1975a 
and b). Information on the lagoon is summarised in 
Salvat and Richard (1985). The climate is typical of the 
Tuamotu group with a dry cool season from May to 
October and a hot and rainy one from November to 
April. Annual rainfall is 1.2-2.5 m and easterly trade 
winds predominate except during bad weather when 
winds are from the west. Tidal amplitude is about 40 cm 
and low tides usually occur in the early morning and late 
evening. 

Reef Structure and Corals A total of 58 scleractinian 
genera and five hydrocorals have been recorded from the 
atoll (Bouchon, 1983; Kuhlmann and Chevaher, 1986). 
The outer reef flat and algal crest have poor coral 
coverage. On the outer slope coral coverage is usually 
over 60%; the upper zone is dominated by Pocillopora 
verrucosa, Acropora danai and Pavona mi/iuta; the 
middle zone by Pontes; and the lower zone by Leptoseris 
hawaiensis and Pachyseris speciosa. The outer slope near 
the village is described by Salvat and Richard (1985) and 
sites near Okukina in the west, Fakatopatere in the 



south-west and Orapa in the south-east are described by 
Kuhlmann and Chevalier (1986). 

Coral communities are poorer in the lagoon due to 
sedimentation. There are over 400 coral patches and 
pinnacles from 10 to 100 m in diameter, the majority of 
which are very small and are situated in the south-west of 
the lagoon. Coral coverage of the piimacles is usually 
under 1% except for Ponies lobala and Millepora 
platiphylla and the pinnacles are characterised by the 
predominance of molluscs. Acropora and Pocillopora 
are found on pinnacles near spillways but are not found 
elsewhere in the lagoon (Chevalier, 1981; Chevalier and 
Denizot, 1979; Kuhhnann and Chevaher, 1986). The 
deepest parts of the lagoon are dominated by 
Thamnasteridae. Salvat and Richard (1985) give a 
detailed description of the Tararo, Orapa and Vairua 
coral patches. 

Noteworthy Fauna and Flora Fish are described by 
Bagnis et al. (1979) and Bouchon-Navaro (1983) and 
about 300 species have been recorded; the lagoonal fauna 
is considered comparatively rich. Takapoto lagoon is of 
particular interest for the predominance of four species 
of mollusc, Tridacna maxima, Pinctada margaritifera. 
Area ventricosa and Chama iostoma, on the coral 
pinnacles; their biomars is estimated at 1100 tons and 
about 70 miUion individuals. In order to study the 
potential for farming these species, there has been 
intensive research within the MAB programme on a 
variety of parameters, summarised in Salvat and Richard 
(1985). Publications include Jaubert (1977b) and Richard 
(1977, 1978, 1983, 1987 and in press) and Richard et al. 
(1979). Although these species constitute a large standing 
crop, research has shown that they have a very slow 
growth rate and low productivity. The 

holothurian Halodeima atra is very abundant in the 
lagoon. Plankton are described by Gueredrat and 
Rougerie (1978), Renon (1977) and Ricard et ai (1979b). 

The terrestrial fauna and flora are reviewed by Salvat and 
Richard (1985). Sachet (1985) provides a species list of 
the flora. Eight km north of the village near Vairua, tall 
groves of Pisonia grandis provide roosting and nesting 
sites for noddies A/ious, boobies Sula and terns Gygis. 
Seaward of this there is poor open scrub vegetation which 
may resemble the original atoll vegetation. The bird 
fauna is poor and there is no true seabird colony (Salvat 
and Richard, 1985; Thibault, 1974b). 

Scientific Importance and Research One of the best 
known Pacific atolls, Takapoto was selected for a 
MAB/Unesco research programme and long term studies 
have been carried out by the Antenne de Tahiti. Some 40 
papers have been published concerning the atoll and are 
listed by Salvat and Richard (1985) who provide a review 
of current knowledge. Species diversity is low but 
abundance is high. The Centre de Recherche 
Gouvememental pour la Culture des Perles was set up by 
the Service de la Peche in 1970 and carries out research 
on pearl culture. PirazzoU (1985b) has investigated 
mapping the lagoon using satellite imagery and PirazzoU 
and Montaggioni (1984) describe recent variations in sea 
level on the atoll. 

Economic Value and Social Benefits Takapoto is 
considered to have considerable potential for economic 
development due to the expansion of the pearl culture 
industry in 1970 and the construction of a small airstrip in 



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Coral Beefs of the World 



1973. The population has varied considerably and 
reached about 400 in 1985. The entire population now 
lives in the village of Fakatopatere, situated at the south 
of the atoll. Pearl culture, fishing and copra are the main 
sources of income. Fish is an important part of the diet, 
the principal species caught in stone fish traps situated in 
the more functional hoa being Red Snappers Lutjanus 
and Lethrinus spp., parrotfish Scarus and sea bass 
Serranidae. The black lip oyster Pinclada margaritifera 
was first exploited at the beginning of the 19th century, 
when mother-of-pearl was exported to Valparaiso and 
Sydney. From 1946 to 1965 Takapoto production, which 
made up 8% of the total Tuamotu-Gambier production, 
varied from 1 to 149 tons. OvercoUection and the 
development of pearl culture on the island since 1969 has 
meant that mother-of-pearl production ceased after 1965. 
By 1984 there were 13 pearl farms of which six were 
co-operatives, six private and one state-owned. About 
7000 pearls are produced on Takapoto armually with a 
value of USS 282 000. SheUcraft provides an additional 
source of income (Salvat and Richard, 1985). 

Disturbance or Deficiencies Takapoto was seriously 
damaged during the period of cyclones from December 
1982 to April 1983, Cyclone Orama-Nima which passed 
closest causing particularly severe damage to the village 
(Salvat and Richard, 1985). 50-100% destruction was 
recorded over 40% of the outer slope of the reef on the 
east side although the rest remained largely intact. 
Scleractinian species started to show signs of recovery 
after two years (Laboute, 1985). Ciguatera poisoning is 
apparently absent from the lagoon but toxic fish have 
been caught on the outer reef near the wharf; there was 
an outbreak of ciguatera between 1960 and 1970. 

Legal Protection None. 

Management None. 

Recommendations Regular monitoring of the reefs and 
marine resources should be carried out and appropriate 
management techniques implemented as they become 
necessary. 



TIKEHAU 

Geographical Location North-west Tuamotu 

archipelago, 300 km north of Tahiti, between Mataiva 
and Rangiroa; 15°00'S, MSnO'W. 

Area, Depth, Altitude 25 x 25 km; widest diameter 
28 km; reef rim about 78 km long and varying in width 
from 300 m in the north-west to 1300 m in the south-east; 
lagoon av. depth 20 m, max. 45 m. 

Physical Features A circular open atoll with one pass, 
300 m wide and 3.7 m deep, on the west and more than 
150 hoa or charmels, over 100 of which are situated in the 
south-east. It is separated from Mataiva by a distance of 
37 km and depths of less than 1000 m. The motu are 
usually 150-300 m wide except the one in the south-west 
which is 900 m at its widest point. There is a single pass, 
Tuheiava on the west, about 400 m wide. A seven mile 
long channel flows from the pass through the lagoon to 



the village. There are numerous pinnacles in the lagoon 
(HarmeUn- Vivien, 1985). 

The climate is typical of the Tuamotu group; there is a 
hot season from November to April with occasional 
heavy rainfall and a cooler wet season from May to 
October. Easterly trade winds predominate. Hurricanes 
occur in the hot season, usually blowing in the opposite 
direction to the trade winds. Tides are semi diurnal with 
a range of less than 1 m. The surface temperature of the 
lagoon waters is lowest (about 26°C) in July and August 
and highest (above 30°C) in February and March, and 
temperatures fluctuate more than that of the ocean. The 
salinity of the lagoon is variable, depending on the 
amount of water exchange taking place with the ocean; 
however inflow of sea water largely seems to 
counterbalance any salinity increases due to evaporation. 
Heavy rainstorms may reduce salinity as observed 
following the hurricane of 1983. The geological history of 
the atoll and the hydrology of the lagoon are described in 
Harmelin-Vivien (1985). Additional general information 
is given in Intes (1984) and Anon. (1985). 

Reef Structure and Corals Faure amd Laboute (1984) 
divide the reefs into the outer slope, the reef flat and the 
lagoon reef. The outer slope consists of three zones: the 
fore reef zone from 0-10 m is formed of a spur and 
groove zone and a fore reef platform; the outer terrace 
(10-25 m) resembles an old spur and groove system and is 
an irregularly eroded surface; and the deep slope which 
starts below 25 m. 

The reef flat can be subdivided into an outer reef flat 
which consists of an algal ridge and the submerged flat, 
and an inner reef flat. 

The lagoon has an inner reef slope which drops to about 

5 m and is generally covered with sediments; between 

6 m and 12 m the edge of the lagoon is covered with 
sedimentary deposits with abundant coral patches. The 
soft bottom of the lagoon consists of fine coralline mud, 
extensively reworked by Thalassinid mud-shrimps. Coral 
pinnacles are found scattered throughout the lagoon and 
are most abundant to the south-west; these usually 
measure 50-100 m in diameter although some may reach 
200 m. The largest ones support small motu or islets and 
are surrounded by extensive reef flats. 

Scientific Importance and Research Tikehau provides a 
model of a mid-sized open atoll and was selected by 
ORSTOM for the development of a multidisciplinary 
research program in collaboration with a number of other 
French laboratories. This progamme was initiated in 

1982 and preliminary results were published in 1984 
(Harmelin-Vivien, 1985). Particulate organic matter in 
the lagoon has been studied by Charpy (1985). 

Economic Value and Social Benefits Since the 1970s, 
after a long period of regression, the population rose 
slightly to reach 266 in 1983. There is an airstrip and the 
atoll is also serviced by schooner. The economy is based 
on copra production, which suffered heavy losses in the 

1983 cyclones, and fishing. Fishing has increased in 
importance as a result of the damage suffered by the 
copra plantations in the hurricanes, but this may be a 
temporary phenomenon until the plantations have been 
restored. An elaborate fish "park" system of traps staked 
in shallow waters near passes is used and is described by 



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French Polynesia 



Blanche! (1985) and Morize (1985). 
exported to Papeete. 



The catch is 



Disturbance or Deficiencies The reefs suffered 

extensive damage from three cyclones between 
December 1982 and April 1983 which caused 50-100% 
coral destruction (Harmelin-Vivien and Laboute, 1983). 
Cyclone Veena passed particularly close, causing 
destruction of 80% of the outer reef communities, only 
the north-west sector being spared. There was reported 
to be some recovery after two years (Laboute, 1985). 

Following a rapid rise in catch rates in the early 1970s, 
there has been a sharp decline in the artisanal fishery 
yields (Blanchet, 1985). 

Legal Protection None. 

Management None. 



W^. ROBINSON INTEGRAL RESERVE AND 
BIOSPHERE RESERVE (TAIARO ATOLL) 

Geographical Location In the Tuamotu Archipelago, 
540 km ENE of Tahiti, and 230 km from Raroia Atoll; 
15°42'S, 144°34"W. 

Area, Depth, Altitude 2000 ha; max. alt. 5 m; lagoon 
max. depth 29 m. 



Land Tenure 

W.A. Robinson. 



Private property; owned by 



Physical Features An almost circular closed atoll, 5 km 
in diameter, which encloses a lagoon with water saltier 
(reaching 43 ppt) than that of the sea. The emergent belt 
of the atoll measures 700 m from the sea to the lagoon at 
its widest part, and has a circumference of 12 km. The 
lagoon is fairly uniformly deep (20-25 m) with a 
maximum depth of 29 m. The emergent rim is continuous 
but there are 18 closed channels (hoa) blocked by 
boulders probably deposited by a tidal wave between 
1878 and 1906. The lagoon level is currently gradually 
becoming lower, the water saltier and its fauna scarcer 
(Salvat el al., 1977). The lagoon is permanently isolated 
except possibly during severe storms (Chevalier, 1976). 
Geomorphology is described by Chevaher and Salvat 
(1976) and hydrology and phytoplankton by Ricard and 
DelesaUe (1983). Further information is given in Salvat 
(1976b). 

Reef Structure and Corals The outer reefs, about 50 m 
wide (Salvat et al., 1977) have a well developed algal crest 
on the windward side (south and south-east). On the 
sheltered western side, the reefs have a much richer and 
more diverse coral and moUusc fauna (Chevalier and 
Richard, 1976). Below 20 m, little Uving fauna is found 
(Poll and Salvat, 1976). 

The lagoonal area has been studied in most detail. The 
centre of the lagoon is devoid of coral pinnacles 
(Chevaher and Salvat, 1976), and only one coral 
species. Pontes lobala, is found. In the past the lagoon 
coral fauna was much richer, several fossil species having 
been recorded (Chevalier, 1976). A study at eight 



stations along the margin of the lagoon during the 1972 
expedition revealed three types of habitat: sandy detritus, 
coral pavement and algae. The bottom of the lagoon was 
studied at five stations and was found to be homogenous 
in its morphology and fauna with abundant Codakia 
divergens (Bagnis, 1976; Poll and Salvat, 1976; Salvat, 
1976b: Salvat et al., 1911) on sand and many small dead 
coral patches covered with the valves of Chama 
and Crassostraea (Salvat et al., 1977). 

Noteworthy Fauna and Flora The atoll is unusual in that 
it is covered, not with coconut pahns, but mainly with 
open bush vegetation. Pickering (1876) hsts the varied 
vegetation found in 1839. Birgus latro, the Coconut 
Crab, occurs on the atoll. The lagoon fauna is well 
known and includes 104 moUusc species (Poh and Salvat, 
1976; Richard, 1976) (of which Tridacna maxima, 
Pinctada maculata, Codakia divergens and Gafrarium 
pectinatum are particularly abundant) three sponges, two 
echinoderms and 55 fish (Bagnis, 1976; Salvat et al. 1977). 

Scientific Importance and Research Botanical and 
malacological collections were made in the 1830s (U.S. 
Exploring Expedition, C. Wilkes). In 1970, a study on 
competition between the mosquitos Aedes polynesiensis, 
a vector of human filariasis, and A albopiclus, an 
introduced species, was initiated by the Pacific Section of 
the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases 
at Honolulu, Hawaii. This study began before the atoll 
became a reserve. The introduced species does not seem 
to have become established and further introductions will 
not be permitted. In 1972 a study mission from the 
Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle (Paris) and the 
Ecole Practique des Hautes Etudes carried out an 
inventory of the lagoon and reefs, and studies of the 
ecology, geomorphology and hydrology of the reef and 
lagoon (Salvat, 1976b). Scientists are encouraged to 
apply for permission to work there (Anon., n.d. a). 

Economic Value and Social Benefits The history of the 
island from the time of the first Polynesians is told in 
Robinson (1972). There is currently no fishing or tourism. 

Disturbance or Deficiencies Coconuts were introduced 
into the atoll. Once a centre of the Polynesian Kingdom, 
200 years ago, the atoll is now only inhaoited by a family 
of caretakers. 

Legal Protection Designated as a permanent reserve for 
science on 1st August 1972 under decree no. 2456/AA. 
In February 1973, the area was extended to include the 
entire atoll, with a protective zone of 1 km surrounding 
it. Measures have been taken by the Administrative 
Committee, in collaboration with the Governor of French 
Polynesia and the owner of Taiaro, to protect the fauna 
and flora of the atoll, reef, lagoon and surrounding sea. 
The atoll was declared a Biosphere Reserve in January 
1977. 

Management A permit is required to visit the atoll. The 
reserve is administered by the Management Committee 
Secretariat, Delegue de la Commission des Monuments 
Naturels et Sites, BP 866, Tahiti, French Polynesia. A 
caretaker and his family warden the atoll. 

Recommendations The atoll should be re-surveyed to 
assess any changes that may have taken place since it was 
last studied in 1972, and to reaffirm its imponance as a 
protected area (Salvat in litt., 1988). 



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Coral Reefs of the World 

CLIPPERTON ISLAND 

Geographical Location 1300 km from the Pacifc coast of 
Mexico, 2800 km from Hawaii and 5200 km from Tahiti; 
lOnS'N, 109°13'W (the only atoll lying east of Ducie). 

Area, Depth, Altitude 6 sq. km; average altitude 5 m; 
volcanic plug 29 m. 

Land Tenure Under the authority of the French 
Goverrmient. 

Physical Features An egg-shaped near atoU with 
enclosed lagoon oriented NW-SE. The atoll rim consists 
of a narrow band of rock normally 100-200 m wide, but 
reaching 400 m in the west and narrowing to 45 m in the 
north-east where waves may spread into the lagoon. At 
the south-east end is a small 29 m high volcanic plug 
covered with lichen and guano. Soils are described by 
Bourrouilh-Le Jan (1971b). Lagoonal waters are 
described by Bourrouilh-Le Jan (1971a and 1980), 
Bourrouilh-Le Jan et al. (1985), Carsin (1985) and 
Niaussat (1978); there is a strong halocline and the waters 
are highly eutrophic and almost fresh at the surface. 
Sedimentation is described by Bourrouilh-Le Jan (1983). 
The magnetic field has been studied by Bourrouilh-Le 
Jan et al. (1985). North-easterly trade winds predominate 
but are replaced occasionally in the summer by tropical 
storms and sometimes cyclones from the south-east. 
Even during moderate winds, the atoll is subject to heavy 
oceanic swell. 

Reef Structure and Corals The atoll is surrounded by a 
reef flat exposed at low tide, a reef front cut by channels, 
a submarine terrace (12-18 m deep) and a precipitous 
outer slope. Coral, including Pocillopora verrucosa, 
P. meandrina and Pavona gigantea, and algal growth is 
found on the reef front and submarine terrace. The 
lower edge of the submarine terrace and outer slope are 
completely covered by corals (Bakus, 1975; Sachet, 1962a 
and b). The lagoonal fauna is poor but algae and higher 
plants are abundant (Carsin, 1985; Niaussat, 1978). 

Noteworthy Fauna and Flora TTie fauna and flora 
consists of an unusual assemblage including both Panamic 
and Indo-Pacific forms. The invertebrate fauna of the 
lagoon is described by Allison (1959) and Hertlein and 
Emerson (1953 and 1957), Salvat and Erhardt (1970) and 
Salvat and Salvat (1972). There are seven main species of 
seabird (two noddies, two terns, two boobies and 
frigatebirds), a lizard Emoia cyaitura and the 
crab Geocarcinus planatus. The island is largely covered 
with scrub vegetation and a few coconut palms (Sachet, 



1958). Additional information is given in Niaussat (1978) 
and Squires (1959 and 1962). 

Scientific Importance and Research The only coral atoll 
in the East Pacific, Clipperton is an exception to the 
normal lack of extensive coral reef development west of 
Ducie, having rich coral growth (Dana, 1975). Sachet 
(1958) listed scientific expeditions to the atoll up to that 
date; the most recent ones include the Scripps Institute of 
Oceanography Acapulco Trench Expedition in 1954, 1956 
and 1958, the Bougainville Missions of the French 
National Navy from 1966 to 1969, and the Cousteau 
Expedition in March 1980. The closed lagoon is of 
particular interest. It has permanently deoxygenated 
water, is a model for modem formation and 
sedimentation of phosphate and carbonate diagenesis, 
and apatite has been discovered in the intertidal modem 
deposits along the shore (Bourrouilh-Le Jan, 1983; 
Bourrouilh-Le Jan in lilt., 28.9.87; Bourrouilh-Le 
Jan et al., 1985; Carsin, 1985; Niaussat, 1978). The fauna 
and flora are of biogeographical interest on account of 
their Indo-Pacific and American relationships. 

Economic Value and Social Benefits The history of the 
island is described in Rossf elder (1976) and Sachet 
(1958). Phosphate was worked from 1898 to 1917 but the 
island is now uninhabited although it is visited by U.S. 
tuna fishermen (Bourrouilh-Le Jan in lilt., 28.9.87). 
Access is difficult on account of heavy oceanic swell. 

Disturbance or Deficiencies Coconuts were planted in 
1897. Introduced pigs were destroyed in 1958 to prevent 
a decline in bird populations. Meteorological stations 
have occasionally been set up and the island would be 
suitable for a sateUite observation post; a permanent 
installation would have a major effect on the atoll and its 
lagoon although it is argued that this could be controlled 
(Bourrouilh-Le Jan in lilt., 28.9.87). There is also a 
proposal to open up the lagoon in order to build a port 
(Thibault//i/(H., 17.2.88). 

Legal Protection None. 

Management None at present. 

Recommendations The island is to be legally protected 
by the French Government, but this will take some time 
to implement. Visits by tuna fishermen should be 
prohibited (Bourrouilh-Le Jan in lilt., 28.9.87). Sachet 
(1958) and Elliot (1973) pointed out the need to preserve 
Clipperton as a natural laboratory for future scientific 
studies. The island may be compared with Henderson 
(see Pitcairn Group) as one of the least altered island 
systems in the Pacific. 



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GUAM 



INTRODUCTION 

General Description 

Guam is an unincorporated territory of the United States 
and has a land area of about 541 sq. 1cm. It is the largest 
and southernmost of the Mariana Islands and is 
composed of raised limestone and old deeply weathered 
volcanoes, with a maximum altitude of 1151 ft (400 m). 
Vegetation of Guam is described by Fosberg (1960) and 
Eldredge (1983a) provides a bibHography of the Mariana 
Islands, including Guam. 

Extensive work has been carried out on the marine 
environment by the University of Guam Marine 
Laboratory, which is located on the east coast at 
Mangilao, and a comprehensive bibliography of 
pubUcations is available (Marine Laboratory, University 
of Guam, 1986). References to oceanographic Uterature 
are given in Eldredge and Kropp (1981). Tracey et at. 
(1964) provide an early description of the reefs of the 
island. Randall and HoUoman (1974) provide an 
overview of geology, hydrology and physiography of the 
coastal regions, and Easton et al. (1978) describe the 
shoreUne and reefs. The geology is described in greater 
detail by Emery (1962). RandaU and Eldredge (1976) 
mapped the basic coastal outline, fringing reefs, 
mangroves and seagrass beds in the course of a survey as 
part of the Coastal Zone Management Program which 
began in 1976. Stojkovich (1977) carried out a survey and 
species inventory of twelve representative pristine marine 
communities on Guam as part of this programme, the 
majority of which are described in the following 
accounts. Marsh (1974) studied reef flat productivity, and 
Randall (1978 and 1985) conducted transects on reef flat 
platforms at five locations (see below and separate 
accounts). Water circulation on reef flats at Pago Bay 
and Tumon Bay are described by Marsh et al. (1981). 
The corals of Guam are described by Randall and Myers 
((1983); the soft coral Asterospicularia randalli may be 
endemic (Gawel, 1976). 

Most of the reefs are fringing, although there are two 
barrier reef lagoons, Apra Harbor which is now 
extensively modified, and Cocos Lagoon in the 
south-west. Apra Harbor, on the west coast, is the only 
deep water port. It is bounded to the south by the Orote 
Peninsula and to the north by Luminao Reef and Cabras 
Island (see separate accounts for Luminao Reef and 
Orote Ecological Reserve Area). Four species of reef 
building corals, Pavona frondifera, Pectinia lactuca, 
Leploseris gardineri and Montipora sp., are found in 
Apra Harbor, near Piti Channel and Sasa Bay, and 
nowhere else on Guam (Marine Laboratory, University 
of Guam, 1977). A detailed study of Piti Channel and 
Piti Bay was carried out from 1972 to 1977 over the 
period of construction of the Cabras Power Plant 
(Marsh e/ a/., 1977). Coral growth rates in Apra Harbor 
and at Cabras Power Plant were studied by Neudecker 
(1981). Luminao Reef and reefs within the War in the 
Pacific National Historical Park are described in separate 
accounts. 

Reefs in Agana Bay, to the north of Apra Harbor are 
described by Randall (1978), Randall and Eldredge 



(1974) and Tracey et al. (1964). The reef at Tumon Bay, 
to the north, was described by Tracey et al. (1964) and 
Randall (1973c) prior to Acanthaster infestation (see 
below) and subsequently by Randall (1978). Further 
information on this area is given in Jones and Randall 
(1972) and Randall and Jones (1973). Tanguisson Reef, 
further north, was extensively studied during the 
construction of the Tanguisson Power Plant (Jones et al., 
1976; Colgan, 1981). Reefs along the north-west coast 
are described in the accounts for Haputo Ecological 
Reserve Area and Pati Point Natural Area. 

The north-east coast from Pati Point to Pago Bay is 
characterized by gentle to steep cliffs and sea-level cut 
benches of varying widths with no fringing reef, although 
corals are found in deeper waters (Stojkovich, 1977). 
Ylig Bay reefs are described by Randall (1978). Reefs of 
the Guam Territorial Seashore Park in the south-west, 
including Cocos barrier reef and lagoon, are described in 
a separate account. An emergent holocene reef at Aga 
Point, to the east of the Guam Territorial Seashore Park, 
is described by Siegrist and Randall (1985). 

The fish of Guam are described by Amesbury (1978), 
Amesbury and Myers (1982), Jones and Larson (1974) 
and Kami (1975); fish grazing effects are described by 
Birkeland et al. (1985). Holothurians are described by 
Rowe and Doty (1977), crinoids by Meyer and Macurda 
(1980), asteroids by Yamaguchi (1975b), and gastropod 
molluscs by Roth (1976). Colgan (1985) describes the 
distribution of the vermetid mollusc Dendropoma 
maxima. The ecology of seagrasses on reefs in Guam is 
discussed by Tsuda (1972b). Benthic algae are described 
by Tsuda (1972c), brown algae by Tsuda (1977), and 
coralline algae by Gordon et al. (1976). Mangroves are 
described by Moore et al. (1977), Marine Laboratory, 
University of Guam (1977) and Wilder (1976). The most 
extensive and mature mangrove communities are found 
in Apra Harbor, although this area has undergone 
extensive modification through dredging, landfill and 
construction. Descriptions and recommendations for 
their preservation are given in Stojkovich (1977), and 
discussion of the recovery of the area in Bultitude and 
Strong (1985). 



Reef Resources 

In 1980 Guam had a population of more than 106 000 
people. Amesbury (1982), Amesbury el at. (1986), 
Eldredge (1983b) and Kami and Ikehara (1976) describe 
the fisheries. Several species of gastropod and bivalve 
are taken for food. A survey of edible reef molluscs was 
undertaken to assess their conservation status (Stojkovich 
and Smith, 1978). The extent of coral, shell and algal 
harvesting is detailed by Hedlund (1977). In the 1970s, 
several species of reef corals were collected 
commercially, as well as a small quantity of shells and 
black coral. Larger quantities of shells were being taken 
privately. Collecting areas for Acropora included Nimitz 
Channel and Taleyfac Bay on the west coast south of 
Orote Point, and, for black coral, near Umatac Bay. 
Shells are taken in a variety of places; Tumon and Agana 
Bays were good areas in the 1960s. Edible algae is 
collected from Pago Bay and Sella Bay. Tumon Bay is an 



-129- 



Coral Reefs of the World 



GUAM 

r^ Reefs 

Approximate 200m isobath 
y^ Park or protected area 
ERA Ecological Reserve Area 
NHP National Historical Park 



AchaeR> 
Uruno BeachV 



— 13° 30'N 



Glass Breakwate 
Catalan Bank 

JHarb 




ague Beach 

Pati Pi 

■'• 
Natural area 



Anao Point 
nao Conservaiion 
Reserve 



Orote Peninsula 
ERA 



8 km 



Cocos I 



144°|45'E 



-130- 



Guam 



important recreational area with most of the hotel 
developments located along its shorehne. SCUBA diving 
is popular on a number of reefs. A general description of 
marine and coastal exploitation is given in 
Jermison-Nolan (1979). 



Disturbances and Deficiencies 

The impact of Typhoon Pamela on the reefs is described 
by Ogg and Koslow (1978) and RandaU and Eldredge 
(1977). Little damage occurred along the reef-flat 
platforms and reef margins. Yamaguchi (1975) described 
mass mortalites of reef animals due to sea-level 
fluctuations. There was a major outbreak of Acanthaster 
planci from 1968 to 1970 (Cheney, 1973 and 1974; Marsh 
and Tsuda, 1973; Tsuda, 1971). For example, over 90% 
of the corals on Tanguisson Reef died (Randall, 1973a) 
but the reef recovered over a period of eleven years 
(Colgan, 1981; Jones et al., 1976; Randall, 1973b). In 
1979, scattered aggregations of up to 200 individuals were 
observed on the reefs (Birkeland, 1982). 

The effects of development by the U.S. military, private 
industry and more recently tourism and home building 
have led to pressures from accelerated use and landscape 
alteration. Shallow, non-contiguous dredging (less than 
2 ft (0.6 m)) is about to begin in Tutnon Bay to enhance 
recreation there, and the reefs will be affected 
(Eldredge in litt., 1987). Storm drainage collected from 
the hotel parking lots and grounds in Tumon Bay is 
discharged into the supralittoral reef flat zone producing 
sediment deposits. The formation of such sediment 
deposits is described by Clayshulte (1981). Reefs in 
Agana Bay are already affected and there is 
sedimentation in YUg Bay (RandaU, 1978). SUtation 
studies have been carried out at Fouha Bay and Ylig Bay 
(Randall and Birkeland, 1978). Terrestrial inputs of 
nitrogen and phosphorus on fringing reefs are described 
in Marsh (1977). Apra Harbor has also come under 
increasing stress from industrial activities (see also 
account for Luminao Reef). Studies on the effects of 
untreated sewage (Jones and Randall, 1971) and 
secondarily treated sewage (Tsuda and Grosenbaugh, 
1977) indicated that little destruction of reefs occurred 
when the sewage undergoes secondary treatment. 

Extensive studies have been carried out on thermal 
pollution at the Tanguisson Power Plant on the 
north-west coast by Jones and Randall (1973), Jones et al. 
(1976) and Neudecker (1976, 1977a, b and 1981). The 
plant became operational in 1971 and thermally enriched 
discharge waters subsequently destroyed a reef flat and 
margin area of 20 000 sq. m. Release of plant effluent 
resulted in an elevation of water temperature on the 
adjacent reef flat and reef margin and wave action 
exposed even the deeper parts of the reef margin to 
temperatures above ambient as well as other potentially 
detrimental effluent parameters such as chlorine and 
heavy metals. Introduction of the effluent was shown to 
be responsible for some destruction of reef margin corals 
but effluent is stratified beyond the surf zone and no 
longer threatens benthic organisms (Jones et al., 1976). 
There has been little recovery of the destroyed 
community. The Cabras Power Plant also releases heated 
effluent into the Apra Harbor Lagoon affecting an 
adjacent tidal flat. However, studies carried out by 
Marsh and Doty (1975 and 1976), Marsh and Gordon 
(1972, 1973 and 1974), Marsh et al. (1977) and 



Marsh et al. (1985) suggested that greatest damage 
occurred during the construction phase due to poorly 
managed dredging activities, when a coral community was 
destroyed in West Piti Bay. There had been little 
regeneration by 1976. Coral transplantation experiments 
were attempted (Birkeland et al., 1979). 

Differences in the population structures and abundances 
of economicaly important reef fishes were observed 
between accessible, heavily fished reef flats and 
inaccessible, lightly fished reef flats at six study sites 
(Katnik, 1981). Shell populations on the reefs were found 
to have noticeably declined in the 1970s (Hedlund, 1977). 



Legislation and Management 

The United States Federal Endangered Species Act and 
the Coastal Zone Management Act apply, and coastal 
resources are subject to planning controls and 
regulations. The Guam Coastal Management Program 
and Final Environmental Impact Statement was 
pubUshed in 1979; the entire island is considered to be a 
coastal zone. Environmental problems, management and 
legislation are discussed in SPREP (1980). 

Fishing regulations prohibit poisons and explosives and 
limit exploitation of live coral, coconut crabs, Trochus 
and spiny lobsters (Dahl, 1980; Hedlund, 1977). The 
Guam Water Quality Management Plan was mandated 
under Section 208 of the 1977 U.S. Clean Water Act. 
Guam Water Quality Standards designate certain coastal 
waters as conservation areas in which no discharge of 
pollutants is allowed. Pollution controls are described in 
Anon. (1973) and SPREP (1980). Hazardous waste 
material is controlled by the Guam Environmental 
Protection Agency (Zucker, 1984). 

In 1975, the Guam Territorial Park System, administered 
by the Department of Parks and Recreation, Government 
of Guam, came into existence and includes three 
protected areas created under Law 12-209, two of which 
include reefs (Anon., 1985 and see separate accounts): 



The Guam Territorial Seashore Park 
Anao Conservation Area 



The Federal Government has established four protected 
areas, all of which include or are adjacent to reefs: 

1. The "War in the Pacific National Historical Park" 

2. Haputo Ecological Reserve Area 

3. Orote Peninsula Ecological Reserve Area 

4. Pati Point Natural Area 

The Ecological Reserve Areas and Natural Area were 
estabhshed as physical or biological units in which current 
natural conditions are maintained; all are described in 
separate accounts. 



Recommendations 

Major challenges for the future, as identified by Maragos 
(1986), include stemming of soil erosion and development 
of more effective programmes for the disposal of solid 
and hazardous wastes, including unexploded ordnance. 
The probable application on Guam of a new Defense 
Environmental Restoration Account, administered by the 



-131- 



Coral Reefs of the World 



U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, should help in the latter 
effort. Increased legislative controls for waste 

management and small and deep draft navigation, 
including adequate environmental controls, and close 
scrutiny and control of future resort and military 
construction on the island, will be important in the 
conservation of coastal resources. 

Hedlund (1977) makes recommendations for the 
improved management of coral, shell and algae 
harvesting. These include protection of three coral 
species, Euphyllia spp., Plerogyra sinuosa and Tubaslrea 
aurea and two molluscs. Cassis cornuta and Charonia 
trilonis, public education programmes and a variety of 
other measures specifically for corals. Plucer-Rosario 
and Randall (1985) discuss the potential for 
transplantation of three rare coral species from the 
commercial harbour to areas unaffected by pollution. 
The development of aquaculture on Guam is discussed in 
Fitzgerald and Nelson (1979), and of fisheries in 
Amesbury (1982) and Amesbury el al. (1986). 



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Tahiti 4: 177-182. 

Marsh, JA., Ross, R.M. and Zolan, WJ. (1981). Water 

circulation on two Gujm reef flats. Proc. 4th Int. Coral 

Reef Symp, Manila 1: 355-360. 

•Meyer, D.L. and Macurda, D.B., Jr (1980). Ecology and 

distribution of the shallow-water crinoids of Palau and 

Guam. Micronesica 16(1): 59-99. 

•Moore, P., Raulerson, L., Chernin, M. and McMakin, P. 

(1977). Inventory and mapping of wetland vegetation in 

Guam, Tinian and Saipan, Mariana Islands. Univ. Guam 

Biosci. 253 pp. 

NOAA (1983). Announcement of National Marine 

Sanctuary Program Final Site Evaluation List. Federal 

Register 48(151): 35568-35577. 

•National Park Service (1983). General Management 

Plan, War in the Pacific National Historical Park. Dept 

Interior. 

•Neudecker, S. (1976). Efferts of thermal effluent on the 

coral reef community at Tanguisson. Univ. of Guam 

Mar. Lab. Tech. Rept 30. 55 pp. 

•Neudecker, S. (1977a). Transplant experiments to test 

the effect of fish grazing on coral distribution. Proc. 3rd 

Int. Coral Reef Symp, Miami 1: 317-323. 

Neudecker, S. (1977b). Development and environmental 

quality of coral reef communities near the Tanguisson 

Power Plant. Univ. Guam Mar. Lab. Tech. Rept 41. 68 pp. 

Neudecker, S. (1981). Growth and survival of 

scleractinian corals exposed to thermal effluents at 

Guam. Proc. 4th Int. Coral Reef Symp, Manila 1: 

173-180. 

•Ogg, J.G. and Koslow, iA. (1978). The impact of 

Typhoon Pamela (1976) on Guam's coral reefs and 

beaches. Pac. Sci. 32(2): 105-118. 

Plucer-Rosario, G. (1983). Effect of substrate and light 

on growth and distribution of Terpios, an encrusting 

sponge which kills corals. M.S. Thesis, University of 

Guam. 39 pp. 

Plucer-Rosarlo, G. and Randall, R.H. (1985). 

Preservation of rare coral species by transplantation and 

examination of their recruitment and growth. Proc. 5th 

Int. Coral Reef Cong., Tahiti 2: 299 (Abstract). 

Pritchard, P.C.H. (1981). Marine turtles of Micronesia. 

In: Bjorndal, K.A. (Ed), Biology and Conservation of 

Sea Turtles. Smithsonian Institution Press, 

Washington D.C. Pp. 263-274. 



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Coral Reefs of ihe World 



•Randall, R.H. (1973a). Distribution of corals 

after Acanlhaster planci infestation at Tanguisson Point, 

Guam. Micronesica 9(2): 213-222. 

•Randall, R.H. (1973b). Coral reef recovery following 

extensive damage by the "crown-of-thoms" 

starfish Acanlhaster planci (L.). In: Tokioka, T. and 

Nishimura, S. (Eds), Proc. 2nd Int. Symp. on Cnidaria 

Publ. Seto Mar. Biol. Lab. 20: 462^189. 

•Randall, R.H. (1973c). Reef physiography and 

distribution of corals at Tumon Bay, Guam, before 

Crown-of-thoms starfish Acanthaster planci (L.) 

predation. Micronesica 9(1): 119-158. 

Randall, R.H. (Ed.) (1978). Guam's reefs and beaches. 

Part 2. Transect Studies. Univ. Guam Mar. Lab. Tech. 

Kept 48. 90 pp. 

•Randall, R.H. (1979). Geologic features within the 

Guam seashore study area. Univ. Guam Mar Lab. Tech. 

Rept 55. 53 pp. 

Randall, R.H. (1982). Corals. In: RandaU, R.H. and 

Eldredge, L.G. (Eds), Assessment of the shoalwater 

environments in the vicinity of the proposed OTEC 

development at Cabras Island, Guam. Univ. Guam Mar. 

Lab. Tech. Rept. 79: 63-106. 

Randall, R.H. (1985). Habitat geomorphology and 

community struaure of corals in the Mariana 

Islands. Proc. 5th Int. Coral Reef Cong, Tahiti 6: 261-266. 

•Randall, R.H. and Birkeland, C. (1978). Guam's reefs 

and beaches. Part 2. Sedimentation studies at Fouha Bay 

and Ylig Bay. Univ. Guam Mar. Lab. Tech. Rept 47. 77 pp. 

•Randall, R.H. and Eldredge, L.G. (1974). A marine 

survey for the Sleepy Lagoon Marina. Univ. Guam Mar. 

Lab. Env. Surv. Rept 14. 42 pp. 

•Randall, R.H. and Eldredge, L.G. (1976). Atlas of 

Reefs and Beaches of Guam. Coastal Zone Mgmt Sect., 

Bur. Planning, Guam. 191 pp. 

•Randall, R.H. and Eldredge, L.G. (1977). Effects of 

Typhoon Pamela on the coral reefs of Guam. Proc. 3rd 

Int. Symp Coral Reefs, Miami 2: 525-531. 

Randall, R.H. and Eldredge, L.G. (Eds) (1982). 

Assessment of the shoalwater environments in the 

vicinity of the proposed OTEC development at Cabras 

Island, Guam. Univ. Guam Mar Tech. Rept. 79. 208 pp. 

•Randall, R.H. and HoUoman, J. (1974). Coastal survey 

of Guam. Univ. Guam Mar. Lab. Tech. Rept 14. 404 pp. 

•Randall, R.H. and Jones, R.S. (1973). A marine survey 

for the proposed Hilton Hotel dredging project. Univ. 

Guam Mar. Lab. Env. Surv. Rept 1. 30 pp. 

•Randall, R.H. and Myers, R.F. (1983). Guide to the 

coastal resources of Guam: Vol. 2. The corals. Univ. of 

Guam Press. 128 pp. 

•Randall, R.H. and Sherwood, T.S. (Eds) (1982). 

Resurvey of Cocos Lagoon, Guam, Territory of 

Guam. Univ. Guam Mar. Lab. Tech. Rept 80. 104 pp. 

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Rechebei, R. (1975). Marine biological survey of the 

Cocos barrier reefs and enclosed lagoon. Univ. Guam 

Mar. Lab. Tech. Rept 17. 159 pp. 

Raulerson, L. (1979). Terrestrial and freshwater 

organisms within, and limnology and hydrology of, the 

Guam Seashore Study Area and the War in the Pacific 

National Historical Park. Dept. of Biology, Univ. of 

Guam. 93 pp. 

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of Guam. Univ. Guam Mar. 1Mb. Tech. Rept 27. 99 pp. 

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holothurians of Guam Micronesica 13(2): 217-250. 

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Commission, Noumea, New Caledonia. 



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Tahiti 6: 563-568. 

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representative pristine marine communities on 

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Surv. Prof. Pap 403-A: 1-104. 

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Tech. Rept 2. 127 pp. 

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(crown-of-thoms starfish) workshop. Univ. Guam Mar. 

Lab. Tech. Rept 3. 36 pp. 

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seasonal studies on two species of Sargassum on the reefs 

of Guam. Proc. Seventh Int. Seaweed Symp., Sapporo, 

Japan: 40-44. 

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Phaeophyta (brown algae) on Guam's fringing 

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sewage treatment plant: Impaa of secondary treated 

effluent on Guam coastal waters. Univ. Guam WRCC 

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37 pp. 

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Zucker, W.H. (1984). Hazardous waste management on 

Guam: a case study. Ambio 13(5-6): 334-335. 



ANAO CONSERVATION RESERVE 

Geographical Location North-west coast in the 

municipality of Yigo, from Anao Point to Catalina Point, 
adjacent to Pati Point Natural Area; 130°32'N, 144^56'E. 

Area, Depth, Altitude Sea level to 161 m; 263 ha. 

Land Tenure Government of Guam. 



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Guam 



Physical Features A rugged limestone cliff borders the 
coral reef fringed coastline. Inland, the topography rises 
quickly to the Umestone cliffs (Anon., 1985). 

Reef Structure and Corals No information. 

Noteworthy Fauna and Flora Terrestrial flora and fauna 
are described in Anon. (1985). 

Scientific Importance and Research Not known at 

present. 

Economic Value and Social Benefits Accessible by 
footpath. 

Disturbance or Deficiencies There is some illegal fishing. 

Legal Protection EstabUshed in 1953 by PubUc Law 
12-209. 

Management Hunting, shelling, crabbing, fishing and 
outdoor recreation activities are permitted. The area is 
managed jointly by the Department of Parks and 
Recreation and the Department of Agriculture to make it 
accessible to the public while preserving the natural 
features. 



GUAM TERRITORIAL SEASHORE PARK 

Geographical Location The Park covers an extensive but 
irregularly patterned area in the south-west of Guam, 
with park areas interspersed by non-park private and 
Federal lands. It includes a contiguous stretch of 
coastline from Anae Island and patch reef, 1 km off shore 
south of Nimitz Beach Park in the west, south to include 
twenty-two acres (8.9 ha) of Cocos Island and all of the 
Lagoon and east to include a portion of Ajayan Bay, just 
north of Manell Channel. The area includes Cetti Bay on 
the south-west coast between Sella and Fouha Bays. The 
park Ues within the area 13°13'-13°25'N, 
144°38'-144°44'E. 

Area, Depth, Altitude The Park covers 3596 ha of land 
and 2539 ha of water; Cocos Barrier reefs and lagoon 
cover 10 sq. km (NOAA, 1983); the Park covers marine 
habitat to the 60 ft (18.3 m) depth contour; max. alt. 
396 m at Mt Lamlam. 

Land Tenure The entire park is either owned with title 
or claimed by the Government of Guam; some areas of 
the park are claimed by individuals and others are leased 
to private individuals by the Government for agriculture 
and livestock grazing (Anon., 1985). Cocos Lagoon and 
one third of Cocos Island are owned by the Government 
of Guam; the remaining two thirds of Cocos Island (not 
within the park) is privately owned. 

Physical Features The south-west part of Guam is 
largely volcanic and consists of a series of hills of around 
400 m in altitude extending along the west of the island. 
Much of the coastline has low limestone cliffs with 
scattered beaches. Geological features are described by 
Randall (1979). 



Anae Island and patch reef form a mini-barrier reef 
system which protects the inside submarine terrace from 
large swells and strong currents. Anae Island is the only 
one of the eight islets on the south-west coast which is 
not associated with a fringing reef. The western and 
northern sides of the island and patch reef slope steeply 
to a 30 m terrace while the eastern and southern sides 
consist of a gently sloping terrace 3-8 m deep. In these 
protected waters, large coral mounds, pinnaclet and 
ridge, 6-8 m high, are separated by sandy floored 
channels and holes (Stojkovich, 1977). Randall and 
Holloman (1974) describe some features of the area. 

Randall and Holloman (1974) describe some features of 
Cetti Bay, which is surrounded by steep slopes and sandy 
beaches. The shoreline consists of rocky volcanic 
headlands with steep shorelines, bordered by low-lying 
narrow limestone terraces (NOAA, 1983). Silt content is 
high and visibility low in the inner bay, but visibihty is 
good in other areas. 

Cocos Barrier Reef and Lagoon comprise a triangular 
barrier reef, lagoon and associated islands. The area has 
been divided into three biotopes. The terrestrial biotope 
includes Cocos Island and a small sand islet at its eastern 
end. Babe Island, with the landward border along Cocos 
Lagoon. This consists of a narrow fringing reef, an 
intertidal zone dotted with mangrove patches, and 
seagrasses. A second biotope consists of the deep 
Mamaon and Manell Channels and a third includes the 
lagoon, barrier reef-flat platform and fringing reef-flat 
platforms. The barrier reefs are nearly 5 km long on the 
north-west side, 5-6 km long on the south. On the 
north-east side of the lagoon there is a 4 km long stretch 
of coast consisting of steep mountainous land and alluvial 
coastal lowland (Stojkovich, 1977; NOAA, 1983). A 
more detailed description is given in Randall et at. (1975). 

Randall and Holloman (1974) provide a physiographic 
description of Ajayan Bay which is summarized by 
Stojkovich (1977). The fringing reef platform bordering 
most of the south-east shoreline is completely cut by the 
Ajayan River, forming a small estuary embayment with 
moderate alluvial silt deposition at the river mouth. A 
small islet, Agrigan Island, is located on the south-west 
reef flat. The channel is characterized by progressively 
steeper fringing reef walls seaward to approximately 18 m 
in depth. The floor of the channel grades from a silt-mud 
zone to sand approximately midway out. Water visibility 
improves seaward. The reef flats are wide and largely 
covered by seagrass beds. 

Reef Structure and Corals Much of the surface of the 
patch reef adjacent to Anae Island is exposed at low tide 
and is largely devoid of live corals. Along the inside 
patch reef edge there are small colonies of Acropora, 
Leptastrea and Ponies, with Goniastrea retiformis in 
scattered patches. Diversity and colony size increase 
towards the terrace at 4-9 m. Huge A palifera and 
hemispherical Ponies colonies dominate. The algal 
community is moderately diverse (Stojkovich, 1977). 

Stojkovich (1977) gives a brief description of the reefs of 
Cetti Bay. The reef flat is continuous around the bay 
with the exception of two breaks occurring at river 
mouths. The platforms (15-20 m wide) have no moat or 
algal ridge and are exposed at low tide. They are largely 
devoid of corals but have a rich algal community, 



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Coral Reefs of the World 



abundant holothurians and many large sea anemones. 
The reef margin, face and terrace are fairly uniform 
around the bay apart from a volcanic area on the north 
side which is cut by irregular cracks and fissures. The 
margin face typically extends down for 3-4 m and then 
slopes to a tilted terrace zone 4-10 m deep beyond which 
the sand floor of the bay begins. The algal and coral 
communities of the margin, face and terrace are very 
rich. Massive columns and mounds of Pontes 
characterize the terrace and large colonies of Montipora 
and Acropora are common. A large bed. 6 m in 
diameter, of the soft corals Sinularia and Lobophyton is 
found to the south. 

The reefs at Fouha Bay are described by Randall (1978). 

The reefs of Cocos Barrier Reef and Lagoon have been 
described by Randall ff a/. (1975), Randall and Sherwood 
(1982) and Stojkovich (1977). Coral cover on the barrier 
reef -flat platform is variably dense and diverse based on 
differing degrees of reef-flat exposure. In general, there 
is an increase in coral cover and diversity from the 
seaward side to the lagoon side and a total of 59 species 
have been recorded. The shallow lagoon terrace extends 
lagoonward to the 3 m contour, varying in width from 
200-1000 m. The boundary along the near shore shelf is 
demarcated by the seagrass Enhalus acoroides. Extensive 
regions of the terrace floor are covered by Acropora 
formosa and thickets ranging in diameter from a few to 
many metres create a varied range of habitats. In 
general, coral growth is more dominant on the southern 
terrace. Towards the eastern end of the lagoon, 
the Acropora thickets become increasingly large with 
zones of mixed corals between patches. Coral diversity is 
highest here. The western part of this area is devoid of 
corals for the most part; 79 species have been recorded in 
the rest of this area. 

The sand floor of the central portion of the lagoon is 
interrupted by mounds, knolls and knobs, rich in coral, 
algae, associated invertebrates and fish. The under 
surface of overhanging mushroom-shaped knolls 
have Leptoseris, Pavona, Plerogyra and Pontes, normally 
found in much deeper habitats. A total of 102 species of 
coral was recorded. Soft corals are particularly abundant, 
especially Sinularia polydactyla. 

The channel margins of Mamaon and Manell barrier reef 
charmels are highly variable with respect to coral density, 
diversity and physiographic character. In general 
lagoonward sides of the channels were more highly 
developed with diversity highest at the channel mouths. 
Several species of Pontes dominate, and coral diversity is 
highest with 104 species recorded. The steep channel 
slopes and submarine cliffs range in depth from 3-30 m. 
Turbid water and high sedimentation rates inhibit a rich 
coral growth but isolated patches occur especially near 
the channel mouths. Pavona, Acropora and Pontes are 
abundant. In the more cavernous parts of the channels, 
low light intensities have permitted a variety of deep 
water species to develop. The channel floors are largely 
devoid of corals apart from a few small Porites colonies. 
The barrier reefs are nearly 5 km long on the north-west 
side, 5-6 km long on the south. On the north-east side of 
the lagoon there is a 4 km long stretch of coast consisting 
of steep mountainous land and alluvial coastal lowland 
(NOAA, 1983). 



In Ajayan Bay, the east and west side channel walls are 
considerably different. The east side slopes gradually to 
the channel floor, while the west side drops almost 
vertically. Abundance and diversity of algae on the 
channel walls increases seaward. Coral development is 
considerably more diverse on the west side and also 
becomes richer seaward. The reef flat on the west is 
largely depauperate due to frequent ex-posure during low 
tides, but there are a few scattered corals in water-filled 
crevices and holes (Stojkovich, 1977). 

Noteworthy Fauna and Flora Terrestrial and freshwater 
fauna and flora of the area are described in Raulerson 
(1979) and briefly in Anon. (1985). Marine fauna and 
flora checklists for several areas within the Park are given 
in Stojkovich (1977). At Cocos Barrier Reef and Lagoon, 
the marine flora is diverse, 91 species having been 
described. Highest diversity was found on the barrier and 
patch reefs. The lagoon supports an extremely rich 
ichthyofauna, with large numbers of juvenile reef fish. 
The Hawksbill Eretmochelys imbricata is often present 
and the Dugong Dugong dugon was reported in 1974 
(Randall et al., 1975). The Coconut Crab Birgus lairo 
occurs on Cocos Island (as elsewhere), as well as a variety 
of reptiles. The island has a number of nesting seabirds 
including White Terns Gygis alba. A diverse and 
abundant fish community exists in the channel in Ajayan 
Bay, including numerous stonefish Synanceia verrucosa. 
Associated wetland and terrestrial communities are 
described by Moore et al. (1977), the seagrass beds on the 
reef flats in this bay being some of the most extensive on 
Guam. The fish community at Anae is very diverse and 
there are abundant fish and marine algae al Cetti Bay. 
Turtles used to nest on the beach at the latter (Dahl, 
1980), and Green Chelonia mydas and 
Hawksbill Eretmochelys imbricata Turtles are reported 
still to occur (NOAA, 1983). 

Scientific Importance and Research There has been 
extensive marine research in several areas including 
Nimitz Channel and Taleyfac Bay (Chemin et al., 1977), 
Fouha Bay (Randall and Birkeland, 1978), Toguan Bay 
(Jones et al., 1974) and also Sella and Umatac Bays. 
Shellfish and sea urchin studies were conducted in 1978 
and the Division of Aquatic Wildlife Resources carries 
out periodic offshore aerial surveillance programmes. 
Two artificial reefs have been constructed in Cocos 
Lagoon to investigate improved lagoon management 
techniques (Kock, 1982). The Cocos Lagoon area is 
unique in the diversity of features found there including 
barrier reefs, fringing reefs, patch reefs, barrier reef 
channels, mangroves, seagrass beds and estuaries, and is 
considered an important scientific study site. The 
submarine terrace between the patch reef and adjacent 
fringing reef on Anae supports one of the richest and 
most diverse coral communities found in Guam's coastal 
waters (Stojkovich, 1977). Studies of the hydrology, 
limnology and terrestrial and freshwater biology of the 
area are described in Raulerson (1979). 

Economic Value and Social Benefits At present there 
are three boat launching sites, the main site being Merizo 
Pier Park. The Cocos Lagoon area is considered suitable 
for hmited recreational development, and is already 
popular for boating, snorkelling and diving. Cocos Island, 
two-thirds of which is privately owned and outside the 
Park boundaries, is a major day-time resort, with nearly 
300 000 visitors in 1986. There is also a resort with 75 



-136- 



Guam 



cottages and other facilities (Eldredge in lilt., 1987). A 
government park, Dano Park, is being developed at the 
western end of the island (the portion within the 
Seashore Park) for picnicking and camping (Lotz in lilt., 
21.9.87). Ajayan Bay is readily accessible and is a 
popular place for fishermen, skin divers and picnickers. 
Anae Island and patch reef are readily accessible by small 
boat and is popular for SCUBA diving and underwater 
photography. Cetti Bay is extremely isolated and can 
only be reached by boat or a long walk but is scenically 
very attractive and is popular with divers, boaters and 
fishermen (Stojkovich, 1977). 

Disturbance or Deficiencies The sponge Terpios was 
overgrowing corals at Anae Island at a rapid rate in the 
early 1970s and its growth rate was monitored (Bryan, 
1973; Plucer-Rosario, 1983). The increasing popularity of 
the Merizo coast and of Cocos Island, as a full-time 
fishing and tourist operation, could be a threat. 
Randall et at. (1975) considered that any physical 
disruption of habitats within the lagoon or immediately 
adjacent areas could have serious effects on the fish 
population in particular. Shell populations have been 
depleted by collectors, especially popular species such 
as Cassis cornula (Hedlund, 1977). There is some illegal 
fishing with dynamite and bleach (Anon., 1985). 
However, Randall and Sherwood (1982) found that little 
change had occurred in Cocos Lagoon between 1975 and 
1982 although there had been a substantial increase in 
tourism in the area. The freighter M.V. Toros Bay ran 
aground north-west of Cocos Island on 21st December 
1986 and caused damage by scouring two patches of reef 
totalling ca 1650 sq. m within the park. Damage was 
assessed by the Guam Environmental Protection Agency 
(Stillberger per Birkeland in lilt, 10.11.87). Other 
problems in the park include poaching, illegal wildfires 
causing erosion, illegal dumping of waste, including 
vehicles, and agricultural encroachment (Anon., 1985). 

Legal Protection The Guam Territorial Seashore Park 
was established 12 December 1978 under Executive 
Order No. 78-42, and is designed to protect the wildlife, 
marine life and other oceanic resources and natural 
environment of south-west Guam. Some portions have 
been protected since 1953. Hunting, sheUing, fishing, 
ranching, boating and outdoor recreation activities are 
permitted. The Guam Environmental Protection Agency 
water quality rating for most of this area is "A", 
recreational, but for Anae Island and Patch Reef and for 
Cetti Bay is "AA", conservation. There are three Natural 
Landmarks within the Park: Fouha Point, Mt Lamlam 
and Facpi Point. Public Law 95-625 of 10 November 
1978 called for revision and updating the National Park 
Service study of the Guam National Seashore, in order to 
make recommendations for the protection of the natural 
and historic resources of the area, as well as providing 
visitor access and interpretive services. A Natural 
Landmark Survey and the study by Raulerson (1979) 
were in response to this. 

Management The Master Plan was adopted in 1979 and 
encourages multiple use (Anon., 1979). The U.S. Army 
Corps of Engineers (1983) has reviewed planning and the 
management of the entire area. The Department of 
Parks and Recreation is responsible for co-ordination, 
planning, facility maintenance, outdoor recreation, 
historic preservation and scenic resources. The 
Department of Agriculture is responsible for leases and 
land registration. The Guam Environmental Protection 



Agency is responsible for water and air pollution and 
solid waste. All agencies have active programs in the 
Park in their area of responsibility. 

Recommendations Cocos Barrier Reef and Lagoon was 
proposed as a marine reserve under the Coastal Zone 
Management Act (Dahl, 1980) and listed on the 
Sanctuary Evaluation List by NOAA (1983). The latter 
includes within the proposed sanctuary site the barrier 
reefs, lagoon, three islets (Cocos, Babe and a third sandy 
island) and the coastal region lying between the mouth of 
Mamaon and Manell Channels. Additionally, Cocos 
Lagoon has been proposed as a U.S. National Park 
Service National Natural Landmark (Eldredge in lill., 
1987). Their 2B rating indicates that the site "appears to 
be nationally significant" and the "site is in some danger". 
An area from Facpi Point to Fort Santo Angel, on the 
northern side of Umatac Bay, has also been proposed as a 
National Marine Sanctuary (NOAA, 1983), and includes 
Sella, Cetti and Fouha Bays. The area includes the 
offshore waters to depths of 18.3 m and covers 5 sq. km. 
As of mid-1987 the sanctuary proposals were not under 
active consideration (Lotz in lilt, 21.9.87). 

Stojkovich (1977) gives a Ust of recommendations for the 
Cocos Lagoon area which include: fishing, coral 
harvesting and shell collecting within the proposed 
sanctuary to be prohibited except by special permit; the 
GEPA water quality classification to be changed from 
"A" recreation to "AA" conservation; the establishment of 
an upper limit on the number and type of point source 
discharges into Mamaon and Manell Channels; 
recreational activities to be retained but strictly 
controlled; the establishment of an upper limit on the 
number of transport boats and persons using the area at 
any given time, the estabhshment of the entire Cocos 
area as a marine underwater park with trails and basic 
information on the geology, physiography and biota; the 
placement of artificial reefs and fish traps for scientific 
and maricultural purposes should be allowed with the 
issuance of a special permit; strict litter laws to be 
implemented especially for waste cans. 

Stojkovich (1977) recommended that Ajayan Bay, Anae 
Island and patch reef, and Cetti Bay be established as 
natural sanctuaries in which no coral harvesting be 
allowed; that fishing be allowed only by special permit; 
that swimming, snorkelling and SCUBA diving activities 
be retained; that special care be taken to preserve the 
seagrass beds and that the adjacent wetlands be included 
in any preservation plan. Mooring buoys should be 
estabhshed and underwater trails developed. 

Some of these recommendations have been taken care of 
in the course of implementation of the park. There are 
plans for a full range of interpretive facilities and under 
the General Development Plan there are moves to 
promote recreational use in accordance with the Land 
Classification Plan. Overnight accomodation will be 
restricted to camp grounds. There are plans for intertidal 
reef flat nature trails. 



HAPUTO ECOLOGICAL RESERVE AREA (ERA) 

Geographical Location North-west coast; Double Reef 
(including Pugua Patch Reef) lies between Falcona Beach 



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Coral Reefs of the World 



and Pugua Pt; Haputo ERA extends to the outer edge of 
the reef line and beyond this to include Double Reef; 
BO'SS'N, 144°50'W. 

Area, Depth, Altitude 102 ha of which 73 ha are land 

and 29 ha are sea; 1 m depth to 122 m altitude. 

Land Tenure The surrounding land is part of the U.S. 
Naval Communications Finegayan Military Reservation 
and the Federal Aviation Administration. 

Physical Features The shoreline has rocky limestone 
cliffs with two sand beach coves. Inland the topography 
rises rapidly to the top of the limestone cliffs (Anon., 
1985). Haputo Beach Ues in a small embayment, 
bordered by cut benches and steep rocky slopes on both 
the north and south sides, and is described by RandaJl 
and HoUoman (1974). Double Reef consists of a narrow 
fringing reef and adjacent patch reef (Pugua) about 
350 m off shore. Pugua Patch Reef is about 300 m wide 
with a wave-washed upper surface which is occasionally 
exposed during low spring tides. An adjacent 
developmental reef front and submarine terrace zone 
extend both north-west and shoreward to the fringing 
reef platform. A sandy channel floor lies south of the 
patch reef. Many holes and coral ridges, with relief of 
6-15 m, are located shoreward on the submarine terrace 
(RandaU and Holloman, 1974; Stojkovich, 1977). 
Freshwater springs are abundant on the inner reef flat. 

Reef Structure and Corals Stojkovich (1977) describes 
four zones at Double Reef and Pugua Patch Reef: an 
inner reef flat; an outer reef flat and margin face; a 
submarine terrace with massive coral ridges and sand 
channels; and the patch reef. 

The inner reef flat is poorly developed and largely 
exposed at low tide. The outer reef flat and margin face 
are riddled with small channels, indentations and holes in 
a hone>'combed struaure. Coral coverage is high and 
very diverse with much Pocillopora, Acropora and 
encrusting corals. Algal cover is also rich and diverse. 
The submarine terrace has massive coral ridges up to 
10 m high and 100-120 m long, extending to within 3 m of 
the surface. These are mainly covered by 

small Pocillopora and Acropora colonies with a variety 
of other genera interspersed. In several places, 
massive Poriies and Acropora mounds and pillars add to 
the relief. Direaly opposite the patch reef, two extensive 
thickets of A formosa extend from the reef margin to 
the terrace. In one area, a wTCck has created an anificial 
reef. The patch reef consists of reef-rock pavement with 
local patches of sand, rubble and scattered coral/algal 
communities. The extreme western side is almost 
continually wave-washed. Tubastrea aurea, a species rare 
in Guam, has been reported from Double Reef. 

Stojkovich (1977) recognized three zones on Haputo 
Beach fringing reef: inner reef flat; outer reef flat margin 
and channels; and submarine terrace. The inner reef flat 
consists of a smooth reef-rock pavement with sand cover, 
intermittently exposed at low tide, with little community 
development apan from a few algae and occasional small 
corals. The outer reef flat and margin forms a 
honeycomb matrix; there is a well-developed spur and 
groove system with some of the grooves 3-4 m deep. In 
several places, the grooves are closed at the top by 
calcareous algae and corals forming enclosed overhangs. 
Coral coverage is outstanding and diversity remarkably 



high for north-western Guam, with no one genus 
dominant although Pocillopora and Acropora are very 
evident. Algae cover is rich, turf algae dominating. The 
submarine terrace begins at a depth of 6 m and slopes 
gradually to a plateau at 15-20 m, and is not particularly 
rich. Occasional large Poriies colonies are found with 
small colonies of many other genera. 

Noteworthy Fauna and Flora The honeycomb structure 
of the outer reef flat at Double Reef and Haputo Beach 
has led to a diverse and very rich fish fauna, 108 species 
having been recorded at the former and twenty-one at 
the latter. Large fish are found near the submarine 
terrace and manta rays have been recorded. Marine 
fauna and flora species lists for the area are given in 
Stojkovich (1977). Terrestrial fauna and flora are briefly 
described in Anon. (1985). 

Scientific Importance and Research The relatively 
small size and well defined boundaries of Double Reef 
and Pugua Patch Reef make the area an ideal monitoring 
site for tropical reef habitats. The calcareous red algal 
community is one of the finest around the island 
(Stojkovich, 1977). 

Economic Value and Social Benefits There is a small 
track to Haputo Beach. Calm seas and good anchorage 
make water access possible throughout most of the year. 
The range of topography and attractiveness make Double 
Reef a favourite recreational spot for SCUBA diving, 
fishing and photography (Stojkovich, 1977). 

Disturbance or Deficiencies In 1968, there was a 
population outbreak of Acanthaster planci on Double 
Reef and divers removed large numbers of starfish from 
a 90 000 sq. m area that year (Chesher, 
1969b). Acanthaster has also had a visible effect on 
Haputo Beach fringing reef but this was less apparent on 
the submarine terrace (Stojkovich, 1977). Disturbances 
continue to be reported. The sponge Terpios was found 
to be abundant on Double Reef in the early 1980s, 
encrusting more than Wc of the area (Plucer-Rosario, 
1983). There is some illegal fishing with dynamite and 
bleach (Anon., 1985). 

Legal Protection Haputo ERA was established 15J.84 
by the Chief of Naval Operations, U.S. Navy. Hunting, 
shelling, fishing and outdoor recreation aaivities are 
permitted (Anon., 1985). The Guam Environmental 
Proteaion Agency water quality rating for this area is 
"AA", conservation. 

Management A management plan was approved on 21st 
January 1986 (Lotz in litt.. 21.9.87). 

Recommendations Stojkovich (1977) recommended that 
Double Reef and Pugua Patch Reef should be created a 
marine sanauary with no coral harvesting, fishing or 
other such actiN-ity, although swimming, snorkelling and 
SCUBA diving should be permitted. Littering should be 
prohibited. It was also recommended that Haputo Beach 
fringing reef be established as a marine sanauary in 
which no coral harvesting, fishing or other such activity 
be allowed, but swimming, snorkeUing and SCUBA 
dicing should be permitted. Littering should be 
prohibited. Mooring buoys should be established. With 
the establishment of the Ecological Reserve Area, most 
of these recommendations have been implemented, 
although mooring buoys might be needed. 



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Guam 



LUMINAO BARRIER REEF 

Geographical Location The barrier reef extends west 
from Cabras Island, on the west coast, and is continuous 
with the submerged Catalan Bank, serving as the 
foundation for Glass Breakwater; located at ca 13°28'N, 
144°39'E. 

Area, Depth, Altitude The barrier reef is 2.5 km long 
and ranges in width from 240 m at the eastern end to 
620 m at the western end (Randall, 1982). 



extend this because of lack of enforcement and logistical 
problems. 

Management None. 

Recommendations Stojkovich (1977) recommended that 
the area be established as a natural sanctuary in which no 
coral harvesting, net fishing or other such activity be 
permitted. A series of underwater trails should be 
developed. 



Land Tenure Lies within the boundaries of Apra 
Harbor Naval Reservation. 



Physical Features Randall and Eldredge (1982) and 
Randall and HoUoman (1974) describe the area. The 
barrier reef forms a wide, shallow platform which can be 
divided into four physiographic zones: inner and outer 
moats which retain water at low tide; outer limestone 
pavement which is exposed at low spring tides, and a 
wave-washed reef margin. The fore-reef slopes to a 
depths of 5-7 m, an indeterminate submarine terrace dips 
to 15-20 m and the outer seaward slope drops steeply 
(RandaU and Eldredge, 1982). 

Reef Structure and Corals Randall and Eldredge (1982) 
and Stojkovich (1977) describe the western end of the 
seaward side of the barrier reef. A diverse coral 
community, consisting of 160 species within 45 genera, is 
found on the shallow reef platform and upper fore-reef 
slope. The western end of the Luminao Barrier Reef has 
the greatest species richness (134 species) and surface 
coverage (30.7%) of any similar reef on Guam. Thirty 
species of Acropora are known, A aspera 
and A formosa being the most abundant; 22 species 
of Monti pora, 11 species of Pavona, and 
eight Psammocora are also recorded. The family 
Fungiidae is not well represented. Randall (1982) 
describes the reefs and corals. 

Noteworthy Fauna and Flora There is a wide variety of 
fish. Marine fauna and flora species Usts are given in 
Randall and Eldredge (1982) and Stojkovich (1977). 

Scientific Importance and Research Coral recruitment 
patterns were studied on the reef by Birkeland et al. 
(1981). 

Economic Value and Social Benefits A diverse coral 
community, calm waters and easy access from the 
breakwater has made this a popular area for snorkellers 
and underwater photographers. 

Disturbance or Deficiencies The lagoon side of 
Luminao Reef has been largely altered by dredging, 
filling and construction and is not considered within the 
recommended marine sanctuary area. However, the 
seaward side of the reef could also be affected in the long 
term by industrial activities in the vicinity of Apra 
Harbor. Oil spills have occurred in the area; for example, 
in November 1982, about 16 800 gallons of deballast oil 
floated west along the breakwater. 

Legal Protection The Guam Environmental Protection 
Agency water quality rating for this area is "A", 
recreational. A total ban on fishing was implemented on 
the Luminao Barrier Reef (Guam PL. 16-114) for one 
year ending 1 October 1983. There was no attempt to 



OROTE PENINSULA ECOLOGICAL RESERVE AREA 

Geographical Location South coast of Orote Peninsula, 
west central Guam; 13°26'N, 144°38'E. 

Area, Depth, Altitude 66 ha; 12 ha land and 54 ha water; 
120 ft (36.6 m) depth to 61 m alt. 

Land Tenure United States Navy; part of the U.S. Naval 
Apra Harbor Reservation. 

Physical Features Thi- limestones drop vertically to the 
first submarine terrace at 15-20 m depth, which is 20-45 m 
wide. A second submarine cliff drops to a second terrace 
at about 80 m. The submerged terraces have interesting 
tunnel and cave features. A large hole about 7 m in 
diameter known as the Blue Hole opens on the first 
terrace at about 18 m depth, and descends vertically to 
about 80 m with a window at 35 m (Stojkovich, 1977). 
Throughout the summer months the north-west swell is 
smaU, but there are strong currents (Stojkovich, 1977). 

Reef Structure and Corals There is an undisturbed 
coral and algal community on the submerged cliff face, 
but no true coral reefs. Coral cover however is minimal. 
The upper slope and most of the terrace floor consists of 
scattered small Pocillopora colonies. In more protected 
habitats around fallen blocks and larger rubble, a much 
richer coral community is evident. Acropora and Ponies 
are common along with patches of soft corals and 
crinoids. Diversity is moderate with no single genus 
dominating. The coral Pachyciavularia violacea was 
observed in semi-protected areas and had not been 
recorded elsewhere on Guam in 1977. Deep water and 
cryptic corals are moderately abundant in the Blue Hole 
(Stojkovich, 1977). 

Noteworthy Fauna and Flora The Marianas fruit 
bat Pteropus m. mariannus is found in the area (Anon., 
1985). Species lists for marine algae and fauna recorded 
in the area are given in Stojkovich (1977). 

Scientific Importance and Research Surveyed briefly by 
Stojkovich (1977). 

Economic Value and Social Benefits The area is 
popular with fishermen and SCUBA divers but is 
inaccessible by land (Stojkovich, 1977). 



Disturbance or Deficiencies 

pristine (Stojkovich, 1977). 



The area is virtually 



Legal Protection Established by the Chief of Naval 
Operations, U.S. Navy on 13.3.1984. Fishing, shelling and 



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Coral Reefs of the World 



outdoor recreational activities are permitted (Anon., 
1985). The Guam Environmental Protection Agency 
water quality classification for this area is "A", 
recreational. 

Management A management plan for the reserve was 
approved on 3.3.86 (Lotz in liii., 21.9.87); the draft of the 
plan was prepared by the U.S. Navy (1985). 

Recommendations Included in the management plan. 



PATI POINT NATURAL AREA AND NORTH-WEST 
COASTLINE 

Geographical Location An area on the extreme 
north-western coast, extending from Falcona Beach north 
to Ritidian Point; Tarague Beach lies between Ritidian 
(13°39'N, 144''5rE) and Pati Points (13°35'N, 144°56'E). 

Area, Depth, Altitude Sea level to 138 m; Pati Point 
Natural Area covers 112 ha. 

Land Tenure Uruno Beach is privately owned; the 
remaining area, including Pati Point Natural Area, lies 
within the Andersen Air Force Base Military Reservation. 

Physical Features Randall and Holloman (1974) 
describe the geology, hydrology and physiography of the 
area. The north coast consists of rugged limestone cliffs 
bordering intermittent long stretches of beach with a 
wide reef flat platform and convex algal ridge. There is 
heavy surf and strong rip currents especially near the 
larger surge channels and near Ritidian. 

Reef Structure and Corals Stojkovich (1977) describes 
three broad zones in the Uruno-Ritidian area: reef flat 
and associated moat; reef margin and face with cuestal 
algal ridge; and submarine terrace and slope. 

The sandy inner reef flat is sparsely inhabited apart from 
the alga Caulerpa antoensis. The moat (1-1.5 m deep) 
extends out to the reef margin and algal ridge. Coral 
development becomes progressively more luxurious 
towards the back of the algal ridge and small, low 
colonies give way to larger thickets and colonies 
of Acropora and Pontes. Goniaslrea relifonnis, 
Pocillopora damicornis, Psammocora coiuigua 
and Millepora spp. are also abundant. Towards Uruno, 
high rehef colonies were more common. The moat and 
outer reef platform have a rich composition of turf and 
fleshy algae. 

The algal ridge here is a good example of a cuestal type 
of margin development. The ridge is typically above the 
high water Une and continuously wave-washed, with a 
thick orange mat of the alga Gelidiella 
acerosa; Porolithon onkodes is also abundant and 
small Pocillopora colonies are found in a few scattered 
crevices. 

The terrace, 5-10 m wide, drops abruptly to about 15 m. 
Scoured surge channels up to 8 m wide cut through the 
reef platform in several places. Coral cover is moderate 
to sparse here due to Acamhasler planci predation. 
Recolonization was evident in the 1970s. 



Encrusting Montipora, Favia, Plalygyra, Ponies 
and Pocillopora were common and algal cover was rich 
with the larger forms predominant. 

Stojkovich (1977) also studied an area near East Tarague 
Beach, near Scout Beach, with a well developed convex 
algal ridge and reef flat platform, typical of northern 
Guam. The reef flat platform consists of a poorly 
defined inner zone on which numerous scattered remnant 
patches of limestone occur; a middle zone consisting 
mostly of a thin veneer of sand covering an irregular 
hmestone platform with columnar limestone projections 
protruding through in many places; and a margin with a 
well defined convex algal ridge and massive spur and 
groove system cut in places by large surge channels. The 
coral community on the latter is predominately low relief 
due to heavy wave action but very dense Pocillopora, 
Acropora, Montipora and Millepora are well represented. 

Noteworthy Fauna and Flora Chaetodontid, 

pomacentrid, acanthurid and balistid fish are abundant in 
the moat area of the reef. Fish are also abundant in the 
holes, overhangs and crevices of the terrace and slope 
zones. Larger game fish and grey sharks have been 
recorded and the Hawksbill Turtle Eretmochelys 
imbricata has been seen in the deeper slope waters and 
used to nest on Ritidian Beach (Pritchard, 1981). Species 
hsts for marine fauna and flora are given in Stojkovich 
(1977). A brief description of the terrestrial fauna and 
flora of Pati Point is given in Anon. (1985). 

Scientific Importance and Research The longest stretch 
of pristine beach on Guam, with a diverse and attractive 
reef (Stojkovich, 1977). The Uruno Reef area has been 
surveyed by Dickinson and Tsuda (1975) and Stojkovich 
(1977) studied a number of sites in the area. 

Economic Value and Social Benefits Heavy swells and 
strong currents preclude the development of this area for 
recreation without major modifications which are not 
recommended (Dickinson and Tsuda, 1975). There is a 
single military access road at Tarague Beach and the area 
is largely restricted to use by military dependents. Access 
to Pati Point Natural Area is not permitted. 

Disturbance or Deficiencies Acamhasler planci 

predation was heavy in some areas in the late sixties 
(Chesher, 1969a). Ritidian Beach has been used for the 
disposal of munitions (Dahl, 1980). Dickinson and Tsuda 
(1975) investigated the biological and environmental 
impact of resort development at Uruno. 

Legal Protection Pati Point Natural Area was 

estabUshed by the U.S. Air Force in 1973. The Guam 
Environmental Protection Agency water quality 
classification for this area is "AA", conservation. 

Management The area lies mainly within Andersen Air 
Force Base military reservation and is largely inaccessible 
to the public. Access to private property is limited. 

Recommendations Stojkovich (1977) recommended that 
this entire coastal sector be made a natural marine 
sanctuary in which no coral harvesting, net fishing or 
other such activity be permitted. The Tarague Beach 
area could be established as a natural sanctuary in which 
no coral harvesting, net fishing or other such activity be 
permitted, but swimming, snorkelling and SCUBA diving 
activities be retained. 



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Guam 



WAR IN THE PACIFIC NATIONAL HISTORICAL 
PARK 

Geographical Location West central Guam; the site is 
split in two by the Apra Harbour Naval Station; the park 
Ues within the area 13''22'-13°28'N, 144°38'-144°44'E. 



Area, Depth, Altitude 

depth to 313 m alt. 



374 ha land, 405 ha water; 65 m 



Land Tenure Includes land owned by both the Federal 
and Guam Governments and privately. Of the water 
area, 327 ha is owned by the Government of Guam, the 
remaining 78 ha by the Federal Government. 

Physical Features The Park consists of seven physically 
separate units; Asan Beach Unit, Asan Inland Unit, 
Fonte Plateau Unit, Piti Unit, Mt Chachao/Mt Tenjo 
Unit, Agat Unit and Mt Alifan Unit. These include sand 
beaches, offshore reefs, rugged hills and mountain tops 
(Anon., 1985). 

Reef Structure and Corals Two units, Asan Beach and 
Agat, contain coral reefs (Anon., 1985). Those at Agat 
were described in Eldredge el al. (1977) and Randall 
(1978). The Piti Unit is adjacent to reefs. The marine 
resources of this area are described by Eldredge (1979); 
some 140 species of coral have been identified in the 
Agat area. 

Noteworthy Fauna and Flora Terrestrial and freshwater 
fauna and flora are described by Raulerson (1979), and 
briefly in Anon. (1985). A total of 75 species of 
gastropod, 18 species of bivalves, 45 species of 
echinoderms and 26 fish species have been recorded 
(Eldredge, 1979). 



Scientific Importance and Research Studies of the 
terrestrial and freshwater biology, hydrology and 
limnology of the area are detailed in Raulerson (1979), 
and of marine biological resources in Eldredge (1979). 

Economic Value and Social Benefits The primary 
purpose of the park is to preserve the historic features of 
World War II, including many Japanese defensive 
fortifications; the designated areas encompass the major 
assault beaches and the major beach-head perimeter 
estabUshed in late June 1944; much of the heaviest 
fighting during the American Invasion of Guam in World 
War II occurred in these areas (Raulerson, 1979). 

Disturbance or Deficiencies There are some problems 
from fishing with bleach and dynamite (Anon., 1985). 
Sections of the shoreline have been altered by sea walls 
and sewage outfalls. Agat Bay is moderately heavily 
developed (Randall, 1978), and in 1987 a boat launch site 
and marina were under construction there 
(Eldredge in lilt., 1987). Other problems include illegal 
dumping, grassland fires and poaching (Anon., 1985). 
Most of the terrestrial vegetation has been modified by 
man, although in some areas "benign neglect" over the 
past 35 years has allowed natural vegetation to recover 
(Raulerson, 1979). 

Legal Protection Estabhshed by the U.S. National Park 
Service in 1978 under Federal Public Law 95-348 as a 
"multiple-use management area". The legislation 
authorizes the inclusion of the reef areas of Agat, Piti and 
Asan. It was estabhshed to conserve and interpret 
outstanding natural, scenic and historic values. Shelling, 
fishing, boating and outdoor recreation activities are 
permitted. 

Management A management plan has been approved 
and implemented (National Park Service, 1983). 



-141- 



HAWAII 



INTRODUCTION 

General Description 

The Hawaiian Archipelago is the longest and most 
isolated chain of tropical islands in the world, stretching 
about 2300 km from Hawaii in the south-east (19°35'N, 
155°30'W) to Kure AtoU in the north-west (28°25'N, 
178°20'W). Considerable geophysical evidence suggests 
that the entire chain formed as a result of tectonic motion 
of the Pacific plate over a relatively stationary hotspot in 
the mantle of the earth (Wilson, 1963; Morgan, 1972; 
Jackson et ai, 1980; Grigg, 1985a). Hawaii, the youngest 
island (the oldest rocks are 0.8 million years), is situated 
over the hotspot and contains the most active volcano in 
the world, Kilauea. Steady crustal movement is gradually 
transporting each island mass north-westward, eventually 
breaking connection with the hotspot. As a result, 
moving north-west of Hawaii, the islands become 
progressively older and gradually decrease in size due to 
subsidence and erosion. All of the islands north-west of 
Gardner Pinnacles, the last island in the chain with 
subaerial basalts, are either atolls, coral islands or reefs 
and shoals of limestone construction. Midway Atoll, the 
second to last island in the chain, has been dated at 
27.7_+0.6 million years (Dalrymple et al., 1977). Beyond 
Kure Atoll, the last island, the chain continues 
underwater as a series of drowned atolls (Grigg, 1982) or 
seamounts which extend all the way to Kamchatka 
(Jackson era/., 1980). 

The geography of the Hawaiian Islands is varied and 
complex. The islands at the south-eastern end are the 
tops of some of the largest mountains in the world 
(measured from their bases); Mauna Loa is almost 32 000 
ft (9756 m) above the sea floor, making it the highest on 
earth. Some of the older high islands are deeply eroded 
with spectactular river valleys such as Waipio Valley on 
Hawaii, lao Valley on Maui and Halawa Valley on 
Molokai. All of these are heavily vegetated and contain 
highly evolved faunas with many endemic birds and 
insects. A rise in sea level of approximately 130 m during 
the Holocene has created many bays and estuaries in the 
drowned heads of some of the river valley systems, 
particularly on older islands in the chain. The islands 
north-west of the high islands are much simpler 
geographically because they are low rocky islets or coral 
islands at sea level. All of the stages described by Charles 
Darwin in his theory regarding the evolution of atolls are 
represented in the Hawaiian Islands (Scott and Rotondo, 
1983). Coastal geology is described in Moberly (1963) 
and submarine topography in Coulboum et al. (1974). 

The climate of Hawaii is mainly tropical but approaches 
subtropical at the north-western extreme. The 

atmospheric cUmate is characterized by mild 
temperatures all year, moderate humidity, persistent 
north-easterly tradewinds, highly varied rainfall patterns 
within short distances and infrequency of severe storms 
(Armstrong, 1973). In the summer from May to October 
when the sun is almost overhead, the weather is warmer 
and drier and the trades more persistent. "Winter" 
months from October to April are cooler, wetter and 
characterized by more variable winds. Storm fronts from 
the south, north and west (Kona conditions) are most 



frequent during the winter. In general, Hawaii's climate 
reflects the interplay between four factors; latitude, the 
surrounding ocean, Hawaii's location relative to storm 
tracks and the Pacific anticyclone and terrain. Rainfall 
over the open sea averages about 700 mm/yr but over 
land it ranges between 200 and 10000 mm/yr, due mainly 
to orographic effects, and is highest at an elevation of 
about 750 m. Temperature at sea level varies seasonally 
between about 23 and 27°C. Air temperature decreases 
about 1.5^ per 300 m of altitude. 

In the ocean, surface temperature differences are 
seasonal; during the summer there are almost no 
differences across the chain, whereas in the winter 
differences average about 3°C but may be as large as 
6°C. Salinity is relatively constant everywhere (about 
35 ppt) except in nearshore areas subject to land run-off 
effects. Other oceanographic factors which vary 
seasonally or latitudinally across the chain and which 
affect the ecology of coral reefs specifically are 
considered in more detail below. 

From the time of the discovery voyages of Captain James 
Cook, the Hawaiian Islands have been appreciated for 
their rich natural history (Kay, 1972). The first studies of 
Hawaiian coral reefs were those of Dana (1853) who 
gave a lengthy description. The next major studies were 
by Vaughan (1907 and 1910), with other early work by 
MacCaughey (1918) and Edmondson (1924, 1928, 1929 
and 1933). Extensive work on the marine environment is 
carried out at the Hawaii Institute of Marine Biology in 
Kaneohe Bay, Oahu (see separate account). Recent 
research is described in Bardach (1974), Grigg (1981a) 
and Grigg and DoUar (1980). 

In spite of their low diversity, coral reefs in Hawaii are 
fairly well developed. Their community structure, 
succession and development throughout the archipelago 
have been reviewed by Grigg (1983). Reefs are best 
developed on leeward (southern and south-western) 
coasts or in bays sheltered from wave action. These 
include many sites along the Kona Coast and Kealakekua 
Bay on Hawaii, Molokini "lagoon", the southern coast of 
west Maui, the north coast of Lanai, the south-east coast 
of Molokai, Hanauma Bay and some reefs near Barbers 
Point on Oahu, and the lagoons of the north-western 
Hawaiian Islands, including Midway and Kure (see 
separate accounts). Coral growth rates are highest at the 
south-eastern end of the chain where water temperature 
and sunhght is optimal. However, islands in this portion 
of the chain are relatively young (1-2 million years) and 
fringing reefs with only a weakly developed spur and 
groove system are found. Moving north-west the first 
barrier reef encountered is off Kaneohe Bay; this part of 
Oahu is about 2.5 miUion years old, although the barrier 
reef itself is probably only Holocene in origin (i.e. 10 000 
years or less). French Frigate Shoals (25°N) is about the 
youngest atoll (about 12 million years old) in the 
archipelago. Towards the end of the chain, coral growth 
rates gradually diminish to a point where rates of 
limestone accretion due to corals and other carbonate 
producers fail to keep up with rates of erosion and 
subsidence. This threshold has been called the Darwin 
Point (Grigg, 1981b and 1982), and marks the latitude in 
the archipelago where islands drown. Because of plate 



-143- 



Coral Reefs of the World 




-144- 



Hawaii 



motion to the north-west over the past 70 million years, a 
number of former drowned Hawaiian islands or guyots 
continue northward in the form of a submerged chain 
known today as the Emperor Seamounts. 

Coral species composition in the Hawaiian Archipelago is 
remarkably uniform. With the exception of three species 
of Acropora in the centre of the archipelago, most 
species occur throughout the archipelago. Given the 
rather large gradients in temperature and hght across the 
chain, this suggests that most species of coral in the 
Hawaiian Archipelago are generalized species. Initial 
taxonomic work was carried out by Vaughan (1907 and 
1910) who described 86 species of Hawaiian reef and 
ahermatypic corals. Maragos (1977), considering only the 
hermatypic species, revised and updated Vaughan's list 
and concluded that only 40 were reef-building species. 
Two more species of acroporid corals were added to the 
list by Grigg et al. (1981) and more recently two 
additional species and genera have been reported. 
However some of the earlier species records may be 
junior synonyms of other species (Maragos and Jokiel, 
1986) and the total Hawaiian list may not exceed 40 
species. Endemism in the coral fauna is considered to be 
about 20% (Jokiel, 1987). Relative to the Indo-West 
Pacific where over 200 species of corals commonly occur 
on a single coral reef, this fauna must be considered 
depauperate. Isolation of the Hawaiian Archipelago is 
generally considered to be the cause of this low diversity 
(Dana, 1971; Grigg, 1983; Jokiel, 1987; Maragos, 1977; 
Maragos and Jokiel, 1986). 

The effects of isolation on the diversity and endemism of 
the marine invertebrate and reef fish faunas are discussed 
in Kay and Palumbi (1987) and Hourigan and Reese 
(1987) respectively. Both groups show low diversity 
relative to elsewhere in the Pacific, but high endemism 
(30%). The reef and shore fauna of Hawaii is described 
in Devaney and Eldredge (1977) and the ecology and 
distribution of crustose Corallinaceae in Littler (1973a 
and b). Powers (1970) provides a numerical taxonomic 
study of Hawaiian reef corals. Distribution of seabirds in 
the islands is described in Harrison et al. (1984). 

Individual data sheets have been prepared for all the 
major islands in the chain as well as the North-western 
Hawaiian Islands (NWHI), Midway and Kure Atolls. 
Individual data sheets have also been prepared for special 
areas of interest: Molokini Island, Hanauma Bay, 
Waikiki- Diamond Head and Kaneohe Bay, the last three 
all on Oahu. 

For convenience, accounts for the U.S. dependencies 
Howland, Jarvis, Baker and Johnston (all reserves), and 
Palmyra and Wake Atolls are included in this section. 
Kingman Reef, also a U.S. dependency, is a triangular 
reef with a deep lagoon and one tiny flat coral islet, often 
only exposed at low tide. It is under the jurisdiction of 
the U.S. Navy (Maragos, 1986). It is reported to have a 
rich marine fauna and was proposed for hsting as an 
"Island for Science" (Douglas, 1969). 



Reef Resources 

Subsistence and commercial fishing, and many aquatic 
activities such as snorkelling, SCUBA diving, shell 
collecting, underwater photography, swimming, surfing, 
windsurfing, sailing, whale watching and over-water 



transportation are carried out in Hawaii. Many species 
belonging to various taxa including algae, black coral, 
lobsters, crabs, octopus, and reef fish are harvested 
commercially (Grigg, 1965 and 1976). 



Disturbances and Deficiencies 

As latitude increases within the chain, temperature and 
light gradually decline and account for reductions in coral 
growth rates (Grigg, 1981b). Also, because the 
north-western islands are less protected from ocean swell, 
disturbance from storms to these islands is of greater 
limiting significance than in the high islands. Effects of 
storm stress on coral community structure are discussed 
in Dollar (1981). In general, natural disturbances related 
to storms account for more damage to coral reefs in 
Hawaii than those caused by anthropogenic sources. 

The environmental conditions for reef growth in Hawaii 
range from optimal to suboptimal, to absolutely limiting. 
On the major high islands (Hawaii to Kauai), land run-off 
and sedimentation have limited reef development in 
many areas. Urbanization and associated anthropogenic 
poUutants from sewer outfalls, sugar mill discharges, 
power plant effluents, dredging aaivities and non-point 
source run-off, pose senous but generally highly localized 
impacts. Estuarine pollution is discussed in Cox and 
Gordon (1970) and non-point pollution in State 
Department of Health (1978). In general the "health" of 
coral reefs in Hawaii can be said to be good and 
sedimentation levels are declining owing to declining 
urban development, ranching, and plantation-style 
agriculture. However, overfishing is a persistent problem 
on the high islands. 

impacts on the U.S. dependency islands are described in 
the following accounts. 



Legislation and Management 

Prior to western contact, the right to harvest seafood in 
local coastal waters was controlled by the chiefs. Since 
then these rights have largely been bought by the 
government but a few areas of coastal waters (konohikis) 
remain under nominal private control (Johannes, 1984). 

Efforts to regulate and control human impact on the 
marine environment are gradually improving 
environmental conditions for the growth of corals and 
other shallow water reef resources. Management of coral 
reef resources in the State is the responsibility of the 
Division of Aquatic Resources, Department of Land and 
Natural Resources. Regulations concerning resource use 
apply to all waters of the state except for special areas 
which are designated Marine Life Conservation Districts, 
Marine Fisheries Management Areas and Natural Area 
Reserves which have specific use restrictions and 
guidelines {see separate accounts). The State Department 
of Health manages coastal water quality and the State 
Department of Economic Development manages 
Hawaii's Coastal Zone Management Program, both of 
which can have positive influence on coral reefs. An 
ecosystem approach to water quality is discussed in 
Technical Committee on Water Quahty Standards 
(1977). The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers regulates 
dredging, filling and construction in coastal waters with 
its permit programme. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife 



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Coral Reefs of the World 



Service (Federal Government) shares management 
responsibility with the State in the North-western 
Hawaiian Islands (NWHI) for the Hawaiian Islands 
National Wildlife Refuge. The Western Pacific Regional 
Fisheries Management Council is responsible for the 
management of fishery resources in the NWHI (primarily 
outside 3 miles (4.8 km) offshore). 

In 1977 a five-year research programme was started by 
the State of Hawaii in cooperation with the U.S. Fish and 
Wildlife Service, the National Marine Fisheries Service 
and the Sea Grant College at the University of Hawaii. 
Its aim was to assess the fishery resources of the 
Hawaiian Archipelago and to develop management plans 
for preserving unique wildlife and conserving 
commercially important species. At least 26 research 
projects were undertaken, touching on all trophic levels 
of a variety of reef and oceanic ecosystems (Grigg, 1981a). 

Coastal resource inventory studies were initiated in 1978. 
Texts and atlases have been completed for the islands of 
Oahu, Maui, the west coast of Hawaii, and Kauai and are 
in preparation for Molokai (Maragos and Elliott, 1985). 
The following protected areas include reefs: 

Hawaii 

Kealakekua Bay Marine Life Conservation District 

(MLCD) 

Lapakahi State Historical Park MLCD 

WaUea Bay MLCD 

Hilo Bay Marine Fishery Management Area 

(MFMA) 

Puako Bay and Reef MFMA 

Kailua Bay MFMA 



Lanai 



Hulopoe Bay-Palawai and Manele Bay-Kamao 

MLCD 

Manele Boat Harbour MFMA 



Maui 



Honolua and Mokuleia Bays MLCD 

Kahului Harbor MFMA (three separate areas) 

Cape Kinau, Ahihi and La Perouse Bays State 

Natural Area 

Molokini Islet MLCD 

Oahu 

Hanauma MLCD 
Pupukea Beach Park MLCD 
Waikiki-Diamond Head MFMA 
Coconut Island Marine Life Refuge 

Kauai 

Waimea Bay and Recreational Pier MFMA 

Hanamaulu Bay and Ahukini Recreational Pier 

MFMA 

Milolii Reef State Park 

Nualolo-Kai Reef State Park 

North-western Hawaiian Islands 

Hawaiian Islands National Wildlife Refuge and 

MFMA 

Kure MFMA 

The following U.S. dependencies are also protected (see 
separate accounts): 

Baker Island National Wildlife Refuge 



Howland Island National Wildlife Refuge 
Jarvis Island National Wildlife Refuge 
Johnston Island National Wildlife Refuge 



Recommendations 

The adequacy of state and federal regulations concerning 
the management of marine resources in Hawaii can be 
said to be generally good, although, in some areas, 
particularly Oahu, enforcement of the regulations has 
been ineffective due to lack of sufficient enforcement 
staff and of effort on the part of many enforcement 
officers. Many reefs have been seriously overfished. 
Perhaps the most important problems facing the state is 
the need for further research documenting the effects of 
overfishing specific to area, type of gear used and effort 
applied, so that overfishing can be controlled. A need 
exists for stronger enforcement of existing regulations as 
well as more restrictive legislation, particularly regarding 
gill nets and spear fishing. It is particularly important to 
separate the effects of fishing from environmental 
degradation caused by various sources of pollution and 
natural disturbance. There are some areas which may 
require additional protection such as Kahoolawe Island. 
Johannes (1984) suggests that the remaining areas of 
coastal water under private control might present a novel 
opportunity for creating additional marine protected 
areas with few legal or management problems. 



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Hawaii 



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Area, Depth, Altitude Hawaii is the largest island in the 
chain, with an area of 1 041 446 ha. The highest 
elevations are Mauna Kea (4205 m) and Mauna Loa 
(4168 m), which are the highest peaks in the State. 

Physical Features Hawaii (the "Big Island") is the 
youngest island in the Hawaiian Archipelago. It is 
roughly triangular in shape, with five volcanoes, two of 
which - Mauna Loa and Kilauea - are still active, the 
latter being the most active volcano in the world. Two of 
the others, Mauna Kea, and Kohala, are virtually extinct 
and the third, Hualalai, last erupted in 1859. Except for 
the windward slope of Kohala, the island as a whole is 
little eroded. The only perennial streams are on the 
north-eastern slopes of Mauna Kea and Kohala; the latter 
has been deeply eroded into a number of heavily 
vegetated valleys such as Waipio. The high permeability 
of the fresh lavas forming the surface of Kilauea, Mauna 
Loa and Hualalai inhibits the development of permanent 
streams (Steams, 1966). Large areas on these mountains 
are relatively bare of vegetation, and the south-western 
side of Kilauea is a desert (Kau Desert). 

Rainfall varies greatly in different localities and is 
heaviest on the windward side of the north-east coast 
where it is about 350 cm/yr year. In the Kau Desert 
rainfall is generally less than 100 cm/yr. Only four 
significant stream mouth estuaries are found on the 
island: Hilo, including Wailoa and Wailuku Rivers, 
Waipio Stream, Waimanu Stream, and Pololu Stream 
(Grace, 1974). Much of the shoreline is cliffed or 
bordered by jagged lava fields. Several black sand 
beaches exist on the windward coast near Kalapana 
whereas white sand beaches are restricted to the Kona 
and western coasts. The geology and groundwater 
resources are described by Stearns and MacDonald 
(1946). 

Reef Structure and Corals Hawaii has virtually no 
fringing reefs, but some well developed subtidal reefs 
occur off the Kona Coast and western coasts (Nolan and 
Cheney, 1981). These are characterized by a weak 
spur-and-groove system. The largest reef extends about 
1 km from shore at Kawaihae Bay. Most of the reefs off 
Hawaii are Holocene in age, no more thon 6000 to 9000 
years old TGrigg, 1983). In areas where the best 
developed reefs are found, coral cover averages about 
67%. Dominant species are Poriles lobata 

and P. compressa, and to a much lesser extent Pavona 
varians, Montipora verrucosa and Pocillopora 
meandrina. Some of the best conditions for diving (calm, 
clear water and well developed reefs) in the State exist 
off the Kona Coast. Reef zonation in this area has been 
studied by Dollar (1975). Several recent underwater lava 
flows support reef assemblages at various stages of 
succession (Grigg and Maragos, 1974). 

Noteworthy Fauna and Flora The marine fauna of the 
northern Kona Coast is described by Brock and Brock 

(1974). 



HAWAII ISLAND (SEVERAL 
CONSERVATION DISTRICTS) 



MARINE LIFE 



Geographical Location South-east end 

archipelago, at approx. 19°35'N, 155''30'W. 



of the 



Scientific Importance and Research Because much of 
the island is of recent origin, processes associated with 
the development of reef morphologies and community 
structure can be easily studied. Since weather conditions 
on the Kona Coast are calm much of the year this area is 
an ideal site for long-term reef studies. Hobson (1974) 
discusses feeding relationships of teleost fishes in this 
region. 



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Coral Reefs of the World 



Economic Value and Social Benefits The main 
industries on Hawaii are sugarcane, cattle ranching, 
tourism and diversified agriculture. The island has the 
only commercial coffee crop in the United States and the 
largest orchid production in the world; cultivation of 
marijuana, although illegal, is probably the single most 
economically important agricultural crop. An 

outstanding deep-sea fishing area is found off the Kona 
Coast and is a popular attraction for tourists. SCUBA 
diving and snorkelling is also excellent off the Kona 
Coast, where extremely clear water exists nearly 
year-round. Subsistence fishing for reef and offshore 
species is important to the local population. A deep-sea 
handline fishery for tuna (kashibi) occurs seasonally off 
Hilo and Kona. 

Disturbance or Deficiencies The most common source 
of disturbance to reefs is abrasion, scour and breakage 
from high waves (Grigg and Maragos, 1974; Dollar, 
1982). In places along the Kona Coast, submerged 
freshwater springs inhibit the growth of coral. 
Maragos et al. (1977) studied the impact of offshore sand 
mining at Keauhou Bay on the Kona coast. Siltation 
from stream discharge and sugar mills is a problem in 
some areas along the Hamakua Coast, but there are few 
pollution problems. The discharge of bagasse from the 
Hamakua Sugar Mills ceased altogether in 1975 and 
sediment discharges have been greatly reduced. Impacts 
at the present time (1984) have been judged to be 
minimal and highly localized (Grigg, 1985b). Overfishing 
of reef resources is not as serious a problem on Hawaii as 
it is on the other major islands, although this could 
change rapidly. 

Legal Protection Several areas around the island of 
Hawaii are designated as Marine Life Conservation 
Districts, where no living or geological specimens may be 
removed. They include the submerged lands and 
overlying waters at the following locations; Kealakekua 
Bay, where permitted activities are restricted to fishing 
Opelu Decapterus pinnulalus, Akule Triachurops 
crumenophihalmus and crustaceans by any legal method 
except traps, and other finfish only by hook-and-line or 
thrownet; Lapakahi State Historical Park, where Opelu 
fishing is permitted with nets, and other finfish or 
crustaceans can be taken by hook-and-line or thrownet; 
and Wailea Bay, where fishing with pole or hook-and-line 
for finfish is permitted. Other areas designated as 
Marine Fisheries Management Areas include Hilo Bay 
(plus part of WaUoa and Wailuku Rivers), Puako Bay and 
Reef, and Kailua Bay. Various fishing restrictions apply 
to each area. 



Management Areas in Hawaii Island are listed under 
chapters 47, 52 and 54 respectively, of subtitle 4 part II, 
Title 13 of the same Division. Water quality standards 
and regulations are found in Chapter 54, Hawaii Revised 
Statutes. 

Recommendations An assessment of all nearshore 
fishery pressures (commercial, subsistence and 
recreation) with the ultimate goal of controlling future 
overfishing is required. A comprehensive tourism 
development plan for Kona - North Kohala to control 
future levels of impact of tourism on reefs should be 
produced. Early recommendations for marine 

conservation districts are given in Kimmerer and Durbin 
(1975). 



KAHOOLAWE ISLAND 

Geographical Location 11 km west of the south-western 
extremity of Maui across the Alalakeiki Channel; 
20°32'N, 156°38'W. 

Area, Depth, Altitude The island is 11 656 ha in area 
and projects 450 m above sea level. Reefs extend to 
about 30 m depth with isolated corals occurring 
somewhat deeper. 

Land Tenure Federal government, under indefinite 
"lease" or jurisdiction from the State of Hawaii. 

Physical Features Kahoolawe Island was formed from a 
single volcano and is now largely barren, dry and lacking 
in significant vegetation. The coastline has steep pah 
cliffs in the east while the western end is characterized by 
numerous pocket beaches and low rocky cliffs. The 
island is dry, with an average rainfall of about 63 cm a 
year. The surface is deeply weathered by wind and rain 
although there are no perrenial streams. Huge clouds of 
red dust are often observed blowing seaward during 
strong winds (Grace, 1974). The geology and 
groundwater resources are described by Steams (1940). 

Reef Structure and Corals In general, reefs are poorly 
developed due to the steep insular shelves and periodic 
stress from heavy siltation during storms. The best reefs 
are found off the west end at Kuia Shoal; elsewhere they 
are patchy and often only thin veneers on underlying 
basalt foundations. 



The waters off Kawaihae Bay at the north-west end of 
the island, and around the north-east and south-east 
coasts are all designated Class "A" by the Department of 
Health. The waters from Ka Lae (South Cape) up to the 
west coast (Kona Coast) are classified "AA". Adjacent to 
boat piers and wharves, water is class "B" (State 
Department of Health, 1980e and 1987). All historic era 
(dated) submerged lava flows are also classified "AA" 
(the highest level of protection). 

Management Regulations for the Marine Life 

Conservation Districts cited above are listed under 
chapters 29, 33 and 35 respectively, of Subtitle 4, part I, 
Title 13 of the Division of Aquatic Resources, 
Department of Land and Natural Resources, State of 
Hawaii. Regulations for the Marine Fisheries 



Scientific Importance and Research Kahoolawe, having 
been a bomb site for the Navy, presents an opportunity to 
assess impact caused by this activity, although this has not 
yet been done. 

Economic Value and Social Benefits The island once 
supported a small population, but is now uninhabited and 
is used as an aerial bombing target by the U.S. military. 
Access to the island is restricted although fishing around 
the island up to the shoreline is periodically allowed on 
weekends or other short periods. Fishing and diving are 
good at Kuia Shoal. 

Disturbance or Deficiencies Introduced goats, sheep 
and cattle have destroyed virtually all of the native 
vegetation and have stripped the upper soil levels. 



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Hawaii 



preventing regeneration. Bombing has almost certainly 
caused damage but the extent is unknown. 

Legal Protection None. 

Management Restricted access but otherwise none. The 
island is currently under naval jurisdiction. Danger zones 
consisting of aerial bombing targets and naval shore 
bombardment areas extend across the island and seaward 
about 2 miles from all sides of the island. 

Recommendations The State of Hawaii should reclaim 
jurisdiction over Kahoolawe. Bombing should be 
prohibited and a programme to restore and manage both 
the terrestrial and marine resources would be desirable 
and beneficial to the long-term interests of the state. A 
study to assess the damage caused by bombing should be 
carried out. 



KAUAI ISLAND (SEVERAL FISHERIES 
MANAGEMENT AREAS) 



Geographical Location 

22°05'N, 159''30'W, 



113 km north-west of Oahu; 



Area, Depth, Altitude Kauai ranks fourth in size of the 
Hawaiian Islands, with an area of 143 710 ha. The 
highest peak, Kawaikini, is 1600 m, followed by 
Waialeale, 1540 m high. 

Land Tenure Over 50% of the land belongs to the 
private sector, 43% to the state, and the rest to the 
federal govenmient. 

Physical Features Kauai is geologically the most 
complex and oldest of the major Hawaiian islands. It is 
roughly circular in shape and consists of a single shield 
volcano, the flanks of which have been greatly reduced by 
erosion, mainly by streams, except along the dry west 
coast. The mountains on the west and north sides 
descend in steep jagged ridges, while the gentle east and 
south slopes are cut by shallow gulches. A narrow coastal 
plain borders much of the shoreUne to the base of the 
dissected upland. 

Kauai is the wettest island in the Hawaiian Archipelago. 
At Waialeale near the centre of the island, the world's 
highest mean annual rainfall (over 1140 cm/yr) has been 
recorded. Rainfall decreases towards the coasts to a 
minimum of about 50 cm/yr on the leeward coast. The 
winter months (December to March) have the strongest 
winds, sometimes accompanied by heavy rains. 

The major streams of Kauai have their headwaters in the 
massive rocks of the large central caldera of the volcano. 
Their stability is enhanced by low slopes, deep soil, high 
rainfall, and tall vegetation, and on the east side of the 
island by springs from the dike complex within the 
volcano. Kauai has 11 distinctive bays formed by the 
drowning of river valleys and 15 streams feed into 
significant estuaries (Grace, 1974). The geology and 
ground-water resources are described by 
MacDonald et al. (1960). Kauai has the largest and best 
beaches in the Hawaiian islands, although some of them 
at Kapaa, Hanapepe and Kekaha have undergone serious 



erosion. In many places the sand is cemented into beach 
rock. AECOS, Inc. (1982) provide an inventory of the 
coastal resources of Kauai, and Manoa Mapworks (1983) 
provide a coastline resource atlas. 

Reef Structure and Corals Most of Kauai's coastline is 
bordered by fringing reef. In many areas, the reef flats 
are very wide and in some places extend more than 1 km 
from shore. Off shore, at depths between 5 and 30 m, 
significant reefs are found on virtually all sides of the 
island. An ancient, drowned "barrier reef" exists off 
Polihale Beach on the western shore at a depth of about 
20 m and there are numerous drowned sea level terraces 
at 20-60 m around the island. The reefs are generally 
holocene veneers dominated by Ponies lobata (Grigg, 
1983); other common species are Pocillopora meandrina, 
Monlipora patula, Leptastrea purpurea 

and M. verrucosa. Small apron reefs dominated by 
crustose coralline algae jut out from the shoreline at 
MiloUi and Nualolo-Kai along Kauai's sea cliff coastline. 

Noteworthy Fauna and Flora The lack of heavy fishing 
pressure combined with excellent habitat has resulted in a 
diverse and abundant fish fauna. At depths of 30-50 m 
black corals are abundant along drop-offs and undercut 
areas. 

Scientific Importance and Research Little research has 
been done on the reefs off Kauai and abundant 
opportunities exist for the study of reef fish and coral 
populations. Kohn and Helfrich (1957) studied reef 
productivity at Kapaa on the east coast. The apron reefs 
at Milolii and Naulolo-Kai, and the composition of algae 
and corals (which are quite abundant on the reef flats) 
are unique in Hawaii. 

Economic Value and Social Benefits Kauai's major 
industry is the growing and processing of sugarcane, and 
to a lesser extent pineapple cultivation and diversified 
agriculture. Tourism is becoming an increasingly 
significant activity, particularly along the south and east 
shores. The most popular aquatic activities are 
swimming, surfing, snorkelling and SCUBA diving. Some 
reefs are productive for commercial and sport fishing. 
Excellent tuna grounds exist off black rock (Haupu) on 
the southern coast, and Kanai is one of the best fishing 
grounds in the state. Black coral is a commercially 
valuable resource, but stocks are somewhat depleted by 
past harvesting. 

Disturbance or Deficiencies The many streams which 
discharge into nearshore waters lead to a high degree of 
freshwater input and siltation, which exert a much greater 
influence than elsewhere in the Hawaiian islands. 
Agricultural wastewater and sewage discharge is reducing 
water quality in some places such as Hanapepe Bay. 
Along the south-west coast, ground-water seepage has 
caused nutrient enrichment and stimulated algal growth 
in some areas, locally inhibiting coral growth. 

Legal Protection Both Waimea Bay and Waimea 
Recreational Pier on the south coast, and Hanamaulu 
Bay and Ahukini Recreational Pier on the east coast, are 
regulated as Marine Fisheries Management Areas. 
Within 46 m of Waimea Recreational Pier it is prohibited 
to use spear, trap, thrownet, draw, drag, seine or any 
other type of net except a crab net. At Hanamaulu Bay, 
within 46 m of the Ahukini Recreational Pier, the use of 
a thrownet or spear is prohibited, while within the 



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Coral Beefs of the World 



Ahukini Pier portion of the bay, draw, drag, seine or 
other nets except for thrownets and crab nets are 
prohibited. 

The apron reefs at Milolii and Nualolo-Kai are State 
Parks. Several spots on Kauai are Natural Wildlife 
Refuges which provide habitat for species of waterbirds 
or seabirds, such as the wetlands along lower reaches of 
Huleia River, Hanalie Valley and Kilauea Point. 

The waters extending clockwise from Hikimoe Valley 
(between Polihale and Kaawiki Ridges) north-east to the 
east end of Hanalei Bay, are classified as "AA" by the 
Department of Health. The remaining waters are class 
"A" except near boat-docking facilities where they are "B" 
(State Department of Health, 1980d). 

Management The Marine Fisheries Management Areas 
and the Natural Wildlife Refuges are administered by the 
Division of Aquatic Resources, Department of Land and 
Natural Resources (DLNR), 1151 Punchbowl St., 
Honolulu, HI 96813. Regulations pertaining to Waimea 
Bay and Hanamaulu Bay Marine Fisheries Management 
Areas are Usted under Chapters 49 and 50, of Part II, 
Subtitle 4, Title 13 of the DLNR. 

Recommendations Draft regulations regarding the 
monitoring of black coral harvesting should be 
implemented and enforced by the state. 



sheltered from winter swell by the islands of Molokai and 
Maui. Reef thickets dominated by Porites compressa are 
found at depths of 5-20 m and in many places approach 
100% cover. The south and we.st sides of the island are 
more sparsely populated by corals. Near Manele Bay, a 
reef area known as "Cathedrals" offers spectacular diving 
by virtue of its deeply eroded caves and steep drop-offs. 

Noteworthy Fauna and Flora The crest of Lanaihale 
Peak contains a residual forest with many endemic and 
indigenous plant species. 

Scientific Importance and Research Reef and fish 
populations on Lanai are relatively undisturbed providing 
opportunities for baseline research. An emerged fossil 
coral facies has been described from an elevation of 
300 m. The University of Hawaii Sea Grant Program is 
conducting a coral reef inventory along the east and south 
coasts. 

Economic Value and Social Benefits Approximately 
one-fifth of Lanai Island is devoted to pineapple 
agriculture, making it the largest single pineapple 
plantation in the world. However the owners of the 
island are beginning to phase out agriculture and develop 
plans for resorts. Tourism at present is virtually 
non-existent but diving and fishing charters from Maui 
are common, as some of the best diving in the Hawaiian 
Islands is found here. Large beds of black 
coral Aiiiipalhes dichoioma and A grandis exist at depths 
of 40-110 m off the north coast, used by small fisheries 
based out of Lahaina, Maui. 



LANAI ISLAND (TWO MARINE LIFE 
CO