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Full text of "The Cornish See [and] Cathedral, historical [and] architectural notes;"


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BEQUEST OF 






REV. 


OANON SCADDING, 


D. 


D. 




TORONTO. 1907. 







Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2007 with funding from 

Microsoft Corporation 



http://www.archive.org/details/cornishseeandcatOOtruruoft 






Cl?e (CornisJ? See & Catl)ebmL 



^►• ^ » 



HISTORICAL & ARCHITECTURAL 
NOTES. 




Published by the authority of the Dean and Chapter 
of Truro. 



HEARD AND SONS, TRURO. 



HAMILTON, ADAMS, AND CO., LONDON. 



•% 



i^'^J^loU 




^xttatz. 



ft^HE special circumstances of the Cornish See and Cathedral seem to 
^© demand some particular notice and record. The revival of an ancient 
Bishopric, merged and absorbed into another for 830 years, and the 
building of a new Cathedral, are events for which it is not easy to find parallels 
m the history of " this Church and Realm." The Consecration of the 
Cathedral at Truro on November 3rd, 1887, is the first instance of the kind 
in England since the Reformation. There was the consecration of St. Paul's, 
rebuilt by Sir Christopher Wren after the destruction of '* Old St. Paul's" in 
the great fire of Tondon in 1666. There have been built in Scotland, Ireland, 
and the Colonies, Cathedrals of varying size and magnificence during the last 
quarter of a century ; but in recent times no such event as the consecration of 
a newly-founded Cathedral has taken place in the Church of England ; in that 
body which historically and ecclesiastically is one with the ancient Church of 
the Kingdom of England — the Church that was founded for the English by 
St. Augustine of Canterbury — that drew to itself the Cornish and Welsh 
remnants of still earlier Churches, as well as the fruits of the labours of 
Scottish and Irish missionaries in the northern and central regions of this 
country. 

If we go back beyond the Reformation we find the last instance of a 
newly-built and consecrated Cathedral at Salisbury (that lovely and well-nigh 
perfect model of a Christian Church), dedicated in 1258. But here there was 
but the moving of the Cathedral Body from the site at Old Sarum to the new 
spot at SaUsbury, where they built their Cathedral. Indeed, tor a similar 
instance to that of Truro, we are carried back to the tenth, eleventh, or 
twelfth centuries, when new Cathedrals like Wells (909), Norwich (1096), Ely 
(1109), Carlisle (1133), were founded, in some cases absorbing portions of 
earher monastic and parish Churches, much in the same way that Truro 
Cathedral has taken into itself the Parish Church of St. Mary. 

It is thought, therefore, that a small handbook like the present one may 
be useful to visitors to Cornwall and others who desire information about the 
See and Cathedral of this county. It aims at giving within a small compass 
such facts as are necessary for the purpose, without attempting anything like a 
technical or scientific description. Its unambitious character may, perhaps, 
spare it any great severity of criticism. 

The Editor desires to thanlc Mr. J. L. Pearson, R.A., the architect, Mr. 
E. A. Freeman, Regius Professor of Modern History, Oxford, Lord Grim- 
thorpe, and the Rev. W. S. Lach-Szyrma, Vicar of Newlyn St. Peter, for 
important architectural and historical assistance; the Editor of the "Truro 
Diocesan Kalendar," lor permission to reprint the Bishop of Chester's 
valuable account of the Cornish Bishopric ; the proprietors of the " West 
Briton," for permission to make use of former numbers of their paper, and 
Messrs. Heard and Sons, lor the generous co-operation by which it has been 
possible to give so many and such excellent illustrations. There remain many^ 
others whom it would occupy too large a space to name, such as those who 
have executed the various "ornamenta" of the Cathedral, and who have 
kindly assisted the Editor in making the description of the details complete, 
and are now asked to accept this acknowledgment of their kindness. 



iFntiel 



Aisle, South q. u ic :io ?i 

Aisles, Choir 9,^ '4, 1 5, 3©, 3'. 

Altar, Cathedral 26* 

Altar, St. Mary's g/ 

Altar, candlesticks, cross, frontals, plate, standards, ) 

rails, vases | 26, 29, 58, 59. 

Ambulatory 29. 

BeufanYchimes ' -" -' -" ." ." .' m iaS'o' ^°' ^' 

Benson, Bishop ^ I 112? 

„ On " The Cathedral" - - . . 8. ' * 

Bishop's Throne 2^. 

Bishopric of Cornwall i— ■^. 

Bishops of Cornwall and Crediton ... 3. 

„ Exeter 4' 

„ Truro 4. 

Bodmin, Archdeaconry of 5. S3. 

,, Bishops at - - - . - . •>' * 

Bubb, Mr. 15. 

Canonries, Residentiary 5^*7^ 

„ Honorary 6*, 60. 

Canons' stalls ---.... 6 22 60 

Carlyon, Mr. E. 5* ' * 

» Miss jQ 

Cathedrals, old and new foundation - - . 7/ 

Cathedral, Truro 8 t? ^^n 

Central Tower - ,' fl^^*^* 

Chalices . !§' ij* 

Chair, Bishop's Confirmation - - . . ^q ^^' 

Chancellor, Schools of 61* 

Choir, The jVseq 

Chapter, Greater ----... 7. 

„ Residentiary y[ 

Chapter House Jl 

Clock in iA -jn 

^^- : : : : : : : ^^^ 

Colours, Liturgical - . - _ . . 26 27 

Committee, Ladies' 11' i;^! 

„ General 3 'A 

Cornish Saints ^2 seq i 1 

Cornwall, Archdeaconry of "i '-. ^'' * '^* 

„ Bishopric of j.^-^' 

„ Bishops of - - - . . . , 

Duke of g] 

Cross, Altar 28. 

Cross, Viscount i ^ ' 

Crypt ..,,-. 30. 



VI. iitbEyL. 

Dean and Chapter of Exeter - . - - 7. 

Dean and Chapter of Truro ... - - 7. 

Deaneries, Rural - - - . - - 5f "^^t S3* 

Design of Cathedral 18. 

Dimensions of Cathedral - - - - - 13, 16. 

East End of Cathedral (Exterior) - - - 15. 

„ „ (Interior) - - - 24, 30, 31. 

Exeter, Bishops of - . . - . - 4. 

Exeter, Dean and Chapter of - - - - 7. 

Exterior of Cathedral 14. 

Font 17. 

Font Cover ..---.. 17. 

Fortescue Arms, &c. 22. 

Foundation Stones, Laying 8. 

Frontals 27, 28. 

Frontal Box 28. 

German's, St., Bishop at 3. 

Gifts to Cathedral 54 — ^7. 

Glass, Stained 9, 16, 17, 18, 29, 30, 

44, seq. 

Harvey, Canon 8, 11. 

Heraldry, Canting 22. 

History of Bishopric of Cornwall ... i seq. 

History of Cornish Saints 32 seq., i, 3. 

Interior of Cathedral 16. 

Internal Fittings Fund ii» 53. 

Internal Fittings, List of 54 — 57. 

Lectern _.----.. 21. 

Litany Desk .-.-._. 23. 

Martyn, Henry - - 14, 16, 50, 51, 52. 

Monuments . - - - - - - 19, 20. 

Mount Edgcumbe, Earl of . - - - - 8,11. 

Nave, design for 13. 

„ Foundation stone in 9. 

Nix, Mr. A. P. 14. 

Organ, Cathedral 18, 19. 

„ Parish 10, 29. 

Ornaments S4» 59- 

Parish of St. Mary 7> 8, 9, 19, 29, 30. 

Patens 58, 59. 

Pavement, Baptistery 17. 

„ Choir 21. 

„ Retro-choir 30. 

„ South Aisle 29. 

Pearson, J. L., R.A. 8, 58, 59. 

Pendarves, Monument of 20. 

Phillpotts, Bishop 5> 23. 

,, Canon 14. 

Plate, Altar - - . ... 58, 59. 

Pole-Carew, Arms ...... 22. 

Porch, South 16. 

Pulpit 20. 



INDEX. ' VII 

Reredos - - 24 seq. 

Robartes, John, Monument of - - - - 19. 

„ Lord, Gift of 21. 

„ Arms of ----- - 22. 

Rolle, Lady 5. 

Saints, Cornish - 32 seq., i, 3. 

Saints in Reredos 25, 26. 

Saints in Stained Glass ----- 45 seq. 

Scholae Cancellarii - 61. 

Screens, Iron 22. 

„ Side 25. 

South Aisle I4> IS> 29, 30. 

„ Porch 14. 

„ Transept 17. 

South-East Transept 21. 

Stained glass, scheme for 44 seq. 

„ in east windows - - . . 16,17. 

„ in North Transept - - - 18. 

„ in South Aisle . . - - 9, 29, 30. 

„ in South Transept - - - 16, 17. 

Stones of Cathedral 15. 

„ precious -...-- 58. 

Swam, Robert - - 13. 

Temple, Bishop - 4, 5 23. 

Throne, Bishop's ------ 23. 

Transept, Great 17. 

„ Choir ------ 21 . 

Tremayne, Mrs. Arthur 12. 

Truro Bishopric Act, 1877 - - - - 3, 5. 

„ Chapter Act, 1878 6. 

„ Bishopric & Chapter Acts Amendment, 1887 7. 

„ Cathedral of 8 seq. 

„ Dean and Chapter of - - . - 7. 

„ Diocese of 3, 5. 

„ old Church of 9. 

Rectors of - - - - - - - 10, 11. 

Vestries ..-.--.- 30. 

Vivian, family monument of - - - - 20. 

Wilkinson, Bishop - - - - - - 4>ii» 

Wise, Canon 14, 20. 



©ioceee of Zxnto^ 



HISTORY OF THE ANCIENT BISHOPRIC IN CORNWALL. 
By the Right Rev. William Stubbs, Lord Bishop of Chester, 

AND FORMERLY ReGIUS PROFESSOR OF MODERN HiSTORY, 

Oxford, and Canon of S. Paul's. 

ftpjHE history of the early Church in Cornwall is very obscure. Consider- 
{^ ations of race, of geographical relations, and historical probability, would 
lead us to connect it with Ireland, Brittany and Wales ; and such is 
the general inference from the legends of the Saints of the four regions : Irish 
hermits found homes in Cornwall ; the sons of Cornish princes appear among 
the Breton Saints ; a Cornish king becomes a monk at S. David's ; and in 
some cases the dedications of churches point to a common early history. 

The existence of Roman Christian inscriptions in Cornwall may imply 
that Christian Truth was within the reach of Cornish men as early as the 4th 
century. The ancient tradition of S . German's refers the conversion of the 
people to a Saint of that name, sent by Pope Gregory the Great ; but there 
can be no doubt that the S. German in question was the famous Bishop of 
Auxerre, who lived a century and a half before S. Gregory the Great, and 
paid two visits to Britain to confute the Pelagian Heresy. The tradition, then, 
would rather point to the fact that there was already a Christian Church in 
Cornwall, which had become infected with Pelagianism. If this be granted, 
it may be inferred, without reference to the merely legendary histories of 
martjn-s and hermits, such as S. Melor, or MeUor, who is said to have suffered 
in Cornwall in A.D. 411, and Saints Fingar, Piala, and others, companions 
of S. Patrick, who were martyred about A.D. 450, that Cornwall had become 
to a great extent Christianised before the Romans left Britain. 

At or about AD. 450, occurred the great migration from Britain to 
Armorica, which gave to the latter country the name of Britannia Minor, or 
Brittany. This was one result of the Saxon invasion of Britain ; the fugitives 
were British Christians, and the affinity of the Cornish and Breton languages 
leads to the conclusion that the emigrants were from that part of Britain 
which was pressed by the invaders engaged in founding the West Saxon state ; 
that is from Hampshire, Dorsetshire, and Devonshire. Cornwall and Western 
Devonshire, known by the name of Damnonia, retained their independence 
under British princes, and their Christianity, in much the same form as it had 
possessed when the departure of the Romans broke the communication 
between the British Churches and Western Christendom. In the time of 
Gildas the prince ot Damnonia was named Constantine or Custeint ; he be- 
came a monk at S. David's in A.D. 589 Gerein or Gerran, according to the 
legend, was prince when S. Teilo, in 596, returned from Armorica. About 705, 
S. Aldhelm, afterwards Bishop of Sherborne, wrote to another Gerein, 
Geruntius, or Gereint, prince of Damnonia, urging him to adopt the custom 
of keeping Easter approved by the rest of the Churches of the West. The 



2 DIOCESE OF TRtJRO. 

parts of Damnouia which were subject to Wessex accepted the change, but 
the Cornish men retained their independence, and probably their custom upon 
the point in question. 

During this period we have no historical list of Cornish bishops. But 
we know from the fact that British Bishops, who could scarcely have come 
from any other region, assisted in the consecration of S. Chad, in 604, A.D., 
that the Churches had proper superintendence, and legend has preserved some 
few names of bishops, as S. Rumon, the patron of Tavistock, S, Conoglas, 
who was buried at Glastonbury, S. Pieran, S. Carantoc, S. Withinoc, S, 
Barnic, S. Elidius, and S. Hildren, whose names are preserved in Cornish 
Kalendars, but who may have equally belonged to Ireland or Britany. 

In the year 813 Egbert, the king of Wessex, overran Cornwall, but did 
not formally annex it, as he seems to have annexed Devonshire, to the West 
Saxon kingdom ; for a king of Cornwall, Dumgarth, is found as late as the 
year 875. Athelstan finally reduced Cornwall to subjection in the year 926, 
and the Cornish Church must now have become isolated, Egbert and the 
West Saxon kings were in the closest alliance with the See of Canterbury, 
and prudence, as well as the hope of maintaining an ecclesiastical system, 
must have led the Cornish Church to submit to the See of Augustine. There 
is at Canterbury a copy of a letter written by Kenstec or ivenstet, bishop 
elect of the Cornish people, in which he professes his obedience to the Church 
of Canterbury, and declares his faith to Ceolnoth, Archbishop of Canterbury, 
A.D. 833 to 870; this may have been drawn up soon after Egbert's visit to 
Cornwall. King Alfred had property in Cornwall, in Triconshire or Trigg, 
which is mentioned in his will. The spiritual superintendence of these 
domains and his dependencies in Devonshire he placed in the hands of Asser, 
a Briton of S. David's, afterwards bishop of Sherborne. The influence of 
Asser in Cornwall may have either strengthened or supplanted that of the 
earlier episcopate. In the year 909 Edward the Elder founded a bishopric 
for Devonshire, with its See at Crediton, annexed to it three towns in Corn- 
wall, Pawton, Callington, and Lawhitton, to be missionary centres from which 
Eadulf, the newly-appointed bishop, might annually visit the Cornish people, 
who still persisted in their opposition to the English and Roman discipline. 
The mission of Eadulf and the arms of Athelstan finally incorporated the 
Cornish with the English Church. Conan, the native Cornish bishop, appears 
as a member of Athelstan's witenagemot from A.D. 931, and Cornwall was 
thenceforward an Enghsh Diocese. 

The names of Conan's successors are fairly well ascertained ; a bishop 
named Comoere was contemporary with King Edward, as was also Wulfsige, 
who must have been an Englishman, and whose name is attached to charters 
from A D. 967 to 980. His successors were Ealdred, from A.D. 993 to about 
1002 ; and Burhwold, who flourished in A.D. 1018. Living, the nephew of 
Burhwold and abbot of Tavistock, became bishop of Crediton in 1027, and 
of Worcester in 1038, and on Burhwold's death, held Cornwall with Crediton. 
Under Leofric, the successor of Living, who became bishop of Crediton and 
Cornwall in 1046, the See of the now united dioceses was iixed at Exeter. 

It is not now known where the See was originally fixed. In the Irish 
and Welsh churches the system of territorial dioceses was very imperfecily 
developed ; in the West Saxon churches, until the very eve of the Norman 
conquest, the dioceses coincided with the shires; in other words, in the Celtic 
period the bishops were bi.shops of churches, with dioceses very uncertainly 
dtfiued ; in the West Saxon times they were bishops of dioceses, ihc Sees of 
which were not permanently fixed : the Bishop of Wiltshire and Berkshire, 



DIOCESE OF TRURO. ^ 

for instance, fixed his See for the one county at Sunning, and for the other at 
Ramsbury, having a cathedral at neither : somewhat later Dorset, with its See 
of Sherborne, was annexed, and after an attempt to fix the See at Malmesbury, 
it was finally settled at Salisbury. Something of the kind may have taken 
place in Cornwall and Devon. 

The See of Bishop Kenstec, in the ninth century, was fixed in the 
Monastery called Dinnurrin; possibly, Dingerein, the city of King Gerein, 
now Gerrans, or S. Gerran's. If this was the regular seat of the bishopric, 
it had very soon to give way either to S. German's or to Bodmin. 

1. S. German's was the See of Bishop Burhwold ; and there also the 
historian, Florence of Worcester, places the episcopal See of Cornwall: S. 
German's is believed to have borne the earlier name of Lanaledh, and might 
also be Dinnurrin ; for the name is very indistinctly written in the Canterbury 
M.S., and in fact it requires little more strain on the letter of the M.S. to 
connect it with Germanus than with Gerein. 

2. The church of S. Petrock, at Bodmin, was a frequent residence of 
the Cornish bishops ; there were granted the manumissions of serfs, the best 
ascertained of their acts ; S. Petrock, co-ordinately with S. German, was a 
patron saint of Cornwall ; and William of Malmesbury, who was well 
acquainted with West Saxon traditions, was unable to decide at which of the 
two places the bishops had sat. S. Petrock's-stow was destroyed by the 
Danes in A.D. 981 ; and possibly the See was then transferred to S. German's. 

It is quite possible that these two churches had equal cl lims to be the 
See of the bishop under the West Saxon rule of diocesan episcopacy ; or 
that it was transferred from one to the other, in consequence ol the ravages 
of the Danes, just as the See of Leicester was tranferred . to Dorchester. 
Earlier, native bishops may have ruled, each from his own monastery, and 
Kenstec have been bishop of S. Gerrans. 

Under the bishops of Exeter Cornwall was formed into an archdeaconry, 
probably before the close of the eleventh century. It was re-constituted as a 
diocese, with its See at Truro, in the year 1876, by the Act 39 and 40 Victoria, 
c. 54, and the first bishop, Dr. Edward White Benson, was consecrated at 
S. Paul's Cathedral, on the Festival of S. Mark, 1877, by the Archbishop of 
Canterbury, and the assisting bishops of London, Winchester, Hereford, 
Lincoln, Salisbury, Exeter, Ely, and the Suffragan Bishops of Nottingham, 
and Dover. 





Bishops of 




Cornwall 




Crediton. 




Kenstec (Dinurrin) 

Conan (S. German's) 

Comoere (Bodmin) 

Wulfsige (Bodmin) 

Ealdred (Bodmin) 

Aethelred 

Burhwold (S. German's) 


c. 865 

.. 931 

c. 960 

.. 967 

•• 993 

. . lOOI 

.. IOI8 


Eadulf . . 

Aethelgeard I. 

Elfwold 

Sideman 

Elfric .. 

Elfwold 

Eadnoth 


..909 
.. 934 
.. 953 
.. 973 

;: :: ^l 

.. 1012 




Cornwall and Crediton. 




Lyfing 


1027 


1 Leofric 


, 1046 



DtOCESfe OF TRtfRO. 





Bishops of 




Exeter. 


T^fric 


. 1046 


John Veysey (restored) 


Osbern 


• 1073 


James Turberville 
William Alley . . 


William Warelwast .. c 


. 1107 


Robert Chichester 


. 1138 


William Bradbridge 


Robert Warelwast 


• "55 


John Woolton 


Bartholomew 


. 1161 


Gevase Babington 


John Fitze-duke .. 
Henry Marshall .. 


. 1 186 


William Cotton . . 


• "94 


Valentine Gary . . 


Simon de Apulia 


. 1214 


Joseph Hall 
Balph Brownrigg . . 


William Briwere, or Bruere 


. 1224 


Richard Blondy . . 


• 1245 


John Gauden 
SethWard 


Walter Bronescombe 


. 1258 


Peter Quivil 


. 1280 


Anthony Sparrow 


Thomas De Bji;ton 


. 1292 


Thomas Lamplugh 


Walter De Stapledon 


• 1308 


Jonathan Trelawny 


.'ames Barkley .. 


• 1327 


Ofspring Blackall 


John De Grandisson 


• 1327 


Launcelot Blackburn 


Thomas De Brantyngham . . 


• 1370 


Stephen Weston . . 


Edmund Stafford . 


• 1395 


Nicholas Clagett 


John Catterick 
Edmund Lacy 
(Jeorge Nevylle . . 


• 1419 


George Lavington 


. 1420 


Federick Keppel 


. 1458 


John Ross 
William Buller . . 


JohnBothe 

Peter Courtenay . . 


• 1465 


. 1478 


Henry Reginald Courtenay 


Richard Fox 


• 1487 


John Fisher 


Oliver King 


• 1493 


George Pelham . . 


Richard Redmayne 


• 1495 


William Carey . . 


,lohn Arundell 
!lugh Oldham .. 


. 1502 


Christopher Bethell 
Henry Phillpotts 


• 1504 


John Veysey 
Miles Coverdale .. 


• 1519 


Frederick Temple 


. 1551 






Tr 


URO. 


Edward y 


iVhite Be 


nson . . 1877 


George H 


[oward V 


/ilkinson .. 1883 



I5S3 
1555 
1560 
1571.2 
1578 
1595 
1598 
1621 
1627 
1642 
1660 
1662 
1667 
1676 
1688 
1707 
1716 
1724 
1742 
1746 

1763 
1778 
1792 
1797 
1803 
1807 
1820 
1830 
1831 
1869 



THE RESTORATION OF THE CORNISH BISHOPRIC. 

7(rvHE work of restoration is generally slow, and so it was with the revival 
\3f of the ancient See of Cornwall. As long ago as 1847 (thirty years 
before the fiist Bishop of the restored See was consecrated a Bill for 
the formation of three new Sees (including one for Cornwall) was introduced 
into Parliament by Lord John Russell, but it failed to pass. Seven years 
later, 1854, an offer was made by Dr. Walker, Rector of S. Columb Major, 
of the advowson and Rector's house of that parish, as a nucleus for the 
endowment of a Cornish Bishropric, and shortly afterwards, 1855, Bishop 
Phillpotts generously declared himself willing to relinquish ;^5oo a year of his 
income, as well as his Cornish patronage. The Ecclesiastical and Cathedral 
Commissioners were all along in favour of the scheme. In 1859 a deputation, 
representing 1,433 l«iymen and 230 clergy, went up to Lord Palmerston, 
praying for the introduction of a Bill to establish a Bishropric in Cornwall, 
to be endowed from funds derived from Cathedral or capitular property now 
in the hands of the Ecclesiastical Commissioners (Prebendary Kinsman wrote 
and published a valuable letter, calling attention to these funds), but still no 
action was taken. 



DIOCESE OF TRURO. 5 

The matter was, in 1863, made the subject of a petition from both 
Houses of Convocation to the Crown, and was warmly supported by Arch- 
bishop Longley, who personally visited Cornsvall to judge for himself. In 
1867 Lord Lyttleton succeeded in passing through the House of Lords a Bill 
for the erection of three Sees (including Cornwall), but it failed to pass the 
House of Commons. All this delay was very disappointing, but the subject 
was not allowed to drop, even after the death of two of its most earnest 
advocates. Bishop Phillpotts in 1869, and Prebendary Tatham in 1874; and 
in 1875, at a great meeting called by Mr. Edmund Carlyon, of S. Austell, 
it was announced that Bishop Temple had offered to surrender ;^8oo of his 
income and his patronage in Cornwall. He also advocated the giving up 
to Cornwall of the fifth Canonry of Exeter (retained, it is believed, tlirough 
the influence of Bishop Phillpotts, when the Cathedral Commission was 
cutting down almost everywhere the number of endowed Canonries to four 
in each Cathedral). 

Early in 1876 the magnificent gift of _;^40,ooo by Lady Rolle (though 
the donor's name was not divulged at the time) encouraged the Committee 
formed at the Exeter Diocesan Conference, 1875, ^^ carry on the strenuous 
efforts already being made to raise subscriptions throughout Devon and 
Cornwall. So successfully was this done, that on August 11, 1876, a Bill, intro- 
duced by Mr. Cross, Home Secretary (afterwards Viscount Cross), passed 
into law, authorising the foundation of the Bishopric. The additional Home 
Bishoprics' Endowment Fund made noble grants, first of ;^i,ooo and after- 
wards of ;^2,ooo ; and the income required by ParHament being now secured, 
an order in Council, dated December 15th, 1876, declared the Bishopric of 
Truro to be founded. 

On April 25th, S. Mark's Day, 1877, Dr. Edward White Benson, late 
Chancellor and Canon Residentiary of Lincoln Cathedral, 1872 — 77, and 
formerly Head Master of Wellington College, 1859— 1872, was consecrated 
the first Bishop of the restored See, at S. Paul's Cathedral, by the Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury (Dr. Tait), assisted by the Bishops of London, Win- 
chester, Hereford, Lincoln, SaUsbury, Exeter, Ely, and the Suffragan Bishops 
of Nottingham and Dover. 

The new Bishop was installed and enthroned in S. Mary's Church, Truro, 
on May 1st, 1877, that Church having by the Truro Bishopric Act, 1876, 
been constituted the Cathedral Church of the Diocese. It has been usual, 
at least in later days, for those towns that are the seats of Bishoprics to be 
dignified with the rank and title of city. For instance, when Henry VIII. 
founded a Bishopric in Gloucester, he also gave it a new charter, constituting 
it a city. I ruro, in like manner, was raised to the style and dignity of a 
city after the foundation of the Bishopric, and letters patent were signed to 
that effect on August 17th, 1877. 



THE DIOCESE OF TRURO. 



O^HE Diocese includes the County of Cornwall and five parishes of Devon, 
\g) The Population (according to the census of 1881) is 333,441. Its area 
1,359 square miles. It is divided into two Archdeaconries, the ancient 
one, that of Cornwall, dating from the close of the eleventh century, having 
been sub-divided by the creation of the new Archdeaconry of Bodmin, in 1877, 
In the Diocese there are 12 Rural Deaneries, 236 Benefices, 231 Incumbents, 
Assistant Curates, 83; other Clergy, 495 Parsonage Houses, 210. 



DIOCESE OF TRURO. 



THE CATHEDRAL CHAPTER. 

^S'HE Act of Parliament of 1876, authorising the foundation of the 
\2/ Bishopric, gave, as in the case of other new Sees, power to the 
Bishop to appoint twenty-four Honorary Canons. 

The First Bishop, Dr. Benson, anxious to link the newly-formed See 
with the ancient memories of the Early Cornish Church, attached to each stall 
of the Honorary Canons the name of some early ^Missionary Bishop or other 
renowned saint from the Old Celtic Kalendars, or from among those who, ir 
early ages, gave their names to numerous villages or " Churchtowns " in 
Cornwall. • 

These selected names, given below, will be found inscribed on the several 
stalls, together with the Latin titles of the Psalms, which, in accordance with 
the ancient custom of Cathedrals of the old foundation, are recited daily in 
private by each of the Canons. In this way the whole Psalter, of 150 Psalms, 
is repeated every day by the Chapter, including the Bishop and Canons, Residen- 
tiar)' and Honorary. 

In the appendix will be found a brief account of the saints whose names 
are attached to the Canons' stalls : — 

STALL OF PSALMS. 

(S. Neot) Domine^ probasti. Eripe me. D amine clamavi. Voce inea. 

(S. Corentin) . .Quam bonus Israel. Ut quid, Deus. 

(S. Aldhelm) . .Confitemini. Super Jluinina. C^n/itebor tibi. 

(S. German) Conjitebimur tibi. Notus in ludaea. Voce mea. 

(S. Piran) A ttendite, popule. 

(S. Buriena) Deus stetit. Deus guts. Quam dilecta. Benedixisti. 

(S. Carantoc) — Deusyvenerunt. Qui regis. Exultate Deo. 

(S. Petroc) Cantate Domino. Dominus regnavit. lubilate Deo. Misericordiam 

et indicium. 
(S. Columb) Confitemini Domino. Ad Dominum. Levavi oculos. Laetatus sum. 

Ad te levavi oculos meos. 

(S. Uni) Misericordias Domini. 

{?>. Ger^oc) Deus ultionum. Venite exultemus. Cantate. Dominus regnavit. 

(S. CoNSTANTiN).Z)fl>«/«^, cxaudi. Benedic, anima mea. 

(S. Paul) Benedic, anima mea. Domino : Domitie. 

(S. Samson) ... .Con/itemini Domino, et invocate. 

(S. Breaca) ... Domine, re/ugium. Qui habitat. Bonumest. Dominus regnavit. 

(S. Conan) Lauda, anima mea. Laudate Dominum. Laudate Dominum. 

is. Nectan) Confitemine Domino. Paratum cor meum. 
S. Cybi) Confitemini Dojuino, quoniam. 

(S. Teilo) Deus laudum. Di.tit Dominus. Confitebor tibi. Beatus vir. 

(S. I A.) I nclina, Domine. Fundamcnta eius. Domine Deus. 

{^. KuwEHHf^ ..Laudate, pueri. In exitu Israel. Non nobis. Dilexi quoniam. Laudate 

Dominum 
(S. WiNWOLOc)...A''w/ quia Dominus. Qui confidunt. In convcrtendo. Nisi Dominus. 

Beati omnes. Saepe expu^naverunt. De profundis 
(S. Meriadoc)..Z)<7;«/«^, non est. Memento Domine. luce quam bonum. Ecce nunc. 

Laudate nomen. 
(S. Rlmon) Domine Ex audi. Benedictus Dominus. Exaltabo tc, Deus. 

In 1878 was passed the Truro Chapter Act, authorising the foundation 
and endowment of Residentiary Canonries, to be in the patronage of the 
Bishop ; and in 1882 the fifth Canonry, originally belonginjj to Exeter 
Cathedral, was transferred to the new Diocese. Out of the income arising 
from this source were founded, by order in Council, dated March loth, 1885, 
two Residentiary Canonries, which were allotted by the present Bishop to 
the offices of Precentor and Chancellor of Truro Cathedral. 



DIOCESE OF TRURO. 7 

In Cathedral Chapters of the old foundation * there were usually four 
principal officers, in the following order of dignity, Precentor, Chancellor, 
Treasurer, Sub-dean. It was the object of the first Bishop of Truro to model 
(as far as circumstances would allow) his new Cathedral on the lines of the 
Cathedrals of the " old foundation." In the first years of the newly-formed 
Diocese the Chapter, as has been stated above, consisted of Honorary Canons, 
of whom the senior. Canon Thynne (who, already Prebendary of Exeter, 
elected to be transferred to the new Cathedral Body) was appointed to act as 
Treasurer; Canon Whitaker, Chancellor, with charge of the Scholse 
Cancellarii, or Theological Schools for the training of candidates for Holy 
Orders ; Canon Phillpotts, President of Honorary Canons ; Canon Mason, 
Missioner — the latter well known in Cornwall for his mission work throughout 
the Diocese. Truro has now (1887) its endowed stalls for Precentor and 
Chancellor. In addition to this, by an Act of Parliament which passed in 
June, 1887, the Cathedral Chapter has been legally recognised as a body 
corporate, capable of holding property and endowments, and to it are to be 
transferred the patronage in Cornwall at present held by the Dean and 
Chapter of Exeter. The Bishop is constituted the Dean, and the Residen- 
tiary Chapter is composed of the two above-named endowed Residentiaries, 
together with the Sub-dean, who, by the Act, will also be always the Rector 
of the Parish of S. Mary, and one or more of the Honorary Canons holding 
the offices of Missioner, Treasurer, or President of Honorary Canons, who 
will. act as Residentiaries until two or more stalls are endowed. The Canons 
Residentiary and Honorary Canons form together, under the Dean (at present 
the Bishop), the Greater Chapter, which, as distinguished from the Residen- 
tiary Chapter, in the Cathedrals of the " old foundation," usually excercised 
the right to elect a Proctor to represent it in Convocation, and also the right 
to elect the Bishop under the conge d* elire. 

Truro, therefore, is a Cathedral of somewhat mixed character; it is 
literally of '* new foundation,*' it has honorary Canons instead of non- 
residentiary Prebendaries, but its residentiary Chapter is formed on the model 
of Cathedrals of the "old foundation," and its statutes (at present only in 
draft) are of a corresponding character. 

Below are given the names of the present Members of the Residentiary 
Chapter : — 

Dean — The Lord Bishop of Truro. 

Residentiary Canons : 

A. B. Donaldson, M.A., Precentor. 
A. J. Worlledge, M.A., Chancellor. 
J. H. Moore, M.A., Sub-dean (Rector of Truro). 
F. E. Carter, M.A., Missioner. 

* The Cathedrals of the "old foundation," which consisted of secular Canons, not of 
Monastic or Canons regular, are York, Hereford, Lichfield, Salisbury, Exeter, Wells, 
Lincoln, Chichestei, S. Paul's, S. David's, Bangor, S. Asaph, Llandaff. Their statutes and 
organisation remain substantially unchanged from the Pre-Reformation times. Those of the "new 
foundation " are either those which had been, previously to the Reformation, monastic, and 
were then changed to secular establishments, namely Canterbury, Winchester, Durham, Ely, 
Norwich, Worcester, Carlisle, Rochester ; or Cathedrals newly created, as Gloucester, Peter- 
borough, Chester, Oxford, Bristol, in the reign of Henry VHL, pr of still latei date, such as 
Manchester, Ripon, in the present century. S. Alban's, Southwell, Newcastle, Liverpool 
are simple parish Churches, though the two former have magnificent histories as monastic 
Churches. 



8 DIOCESE OF TRURO. 

Beyond the income secured for the two above-named Canons, Truro has 
at present (1887) no endo\vraent for its Cathedral, the maintenance of Divine 
worship and repairs of the fabric, payment of choir, organist, and other 
officials. But an attempt has been made, with good promise of success, to procure 
powers from ParUament to enable the Ecclesiastical Commissioners to make 
a grant out of the large funds in their hands, derived from ancient capitiJar 
and Cathedral property in Cornwall, for these necessary objects. 



THE FIRST STEPS. 

92f HE first Bishop of Truro felt at once the paramount importance of a 
\§/ Cathedral for his new Diocese, as a centre of Church life and worship, from 
which the whole Diocese would receive quickening influences. His views are 
embodied in an interesting volume, entitled — **The Cathedral: its necessary 
place in the life and work of the Church" (Murray, 1879^. At the first 
Diocesan Conference, held in October, 1877, a committee was appointed for 
the purpose of considering what steps should be taken to provide a suitable 
Cathedral. And in April, 1878, a County Meeting, under the presidency of 
the Lord-Lieutenant — Lord Mount Edgcumbe — was called to further this 
object. It was decided, after some alternative sites had been discussed, to 
erect the New Cathedral on the site of St. Mary's Church, and, to facilitate 
this plan, the Rector andpatron, the Rev. C. F. Harvey, now Vicar of Probus, 
and Hon. Canon of Truro, generously placed in the hands of the Bishop the 
advowson of the Rectory. The parishioners of St Mary's and others had 
collected a sum of ;^3,ooo or ;<r4,ooo towards the restoration of the Parish 
Church, this was also readily given towards the scheme. A sum of ^Ti 5,000 
was collected in the room, and subscriptions flowed in. In August, 1878, J. 
L. Pearson, Esq., R.A., was selected as architect, and in the following year 
his plans were presented, and accepted. A sum of ;^io,ooo was spent on the 
purchase of the site and the adjacent property, and building operations were 
now commenced. 



LAYING OF THE FOUNDATION STONES. 

SHIS event, which may be fairly considered of historic interest, took place 
in the presence of a great multitude, with very imposing ceremonies. 
There were present the Bishops of Truro, Exeter, and Madagascar, and 
a great body of the Clergy of the Diocese, including the Archdeacons, Canons 
of the Cathedral, and the Rural Deans. Of the laity, there assisted at the 
ceremony the Lord Lieutenant, the Earl of Mount Edgcumbe, the Lord 
Mayor of London, the Mayor and Corporation of Truro, and the municijial 
authorities of various boroughs in Devonshire and Cornwall, together with a 
vast concourse of men and women of all ranks and stations. The Prince and 
Princess of Wales, accompanied by their sons, Princes Albert Victor and 
George, were the guests of Viscount Falmouth, at Tregothnan, and drove 




OLD ST. MAKY'S church. 



TRURO CATHEDRAL. 9 

thence to the city, where they were received with great state by the civic and 
other authorities. 

The stones were laid by the Prince (Duke of Cornwall), one at the N.E. 
corner of the exterior of the choir, and another in the nave, with full masonic 
as well as ecclesiastical ceremonies. The Gr ind Officers of England and the 
Provincial Officers of Cornwall assisted the Prinje in the former part of the 
ceremony; while the benediction of the si ones by the Bishop cf the Diocese 
was made solemn by the singing of hymns and chanting of Psalms by a choir 
gathered from various parts of the Diocese. The day was observed as a great 
County holiday and day of rejoicing ; and the event was annually commemo- 
rated by special services either in the wooden Church, or out of doors, at 
the foundation stones, and within the newly-erected building, so far as it was 
possible, from time to time. 



OLD St. MARY'S CHURCH. 



IN the Autumn of 1880 the demolition of St. Mary's Church was com- 
menced, to make way for the new edifice, the Parishioners, by a resolution 

passed in Vestry, January, 1880, having accepted as their future Parish 
Church the south aisle of their old Church, which has been incorporated by 
the Architect with much skill and taste into the new building. The following 
history and description of the old Church will be interesting to many: — 

The Church wasbuilton the site of two successive and more ancient edifices, 
in the early part of the i6th century. The South and East fronts, which are 
richly decorated, belong in style to the reign of Henry VII., and a d'^ed has 
been preserved, dated the 19th year of that King (1504), by which Sir John 
Arundell grants permission to the inhabitants of Truro to dig for stone 
at his manor at Truro-vean, for the purpose of " byldynge of the new 
Church and of a new toure." The date of 1518, the earliest inscribed in 
the Church, is painted on the glass in one of the windows of the present 
south aisle of the Cathedral. The West and North fronts, as well as the 
interior, were in a very different and less ornamental style, and were finished 
at a later period. Hals says that " the Church was built at the proper costs 
and charges of the inhabitants and other pious benefactors," and that the arms 
of Tregian, Trenoweth, Carmenow, Edgcombe and others, were in his time to 
be seen in the windows, and that on the North window were the arms of John, 
Earl of Cornwall, together with the badge and motto of the Dukes of 
Cornwall. The greater part of the painted glass was remove i, as well as a 
quantity of fragments and ornaments, during the repairs eflFected towards the 
middle of the i8th century. Judging from the few fragments that have been 
preserved, this act of the so-called "restorer" is deeply to be regretted. 

The Church consisted of a nave and south aisle, of eight bays, and of a 
smaller North aisle, of five bays. The length of the Church, measured intern- 
ally, was 114 feet, its greatest width, 38 feet. The height from floor to roof 
was 24 ■ feet. The roof was, until the recent alteration, covered with a 
plastered ceiling, dating from the first half of the last century. The Altar, 
still preserved and used as the Parish Altar in the South aisle of the Cathedral, 
is of oak, with the following inscription in Greek uncials, i.e., "He that 
eateth My Flesh and drinketh My Blood hath eternal life, and I will raise 
hirn up at the last day"- John vi. 54. Ihis altar was the gift of George 
Phippen, Rector from 1624 to 1648 (?). The monuments originally in the 



10 TRURO CATHEDRAL. 

old Church are now in the N. Transept of the Cathedral, and are described 
in their proper place later on. 

The oigan was built in 1750, by By field, and was enlargecf at a later 
date, and again altered in 1887, when it was planed in its position in the 
south aisle. It is said to have been originally built for one of the Chapels Royal, 
but was not found suitable for its intended situation, and was bought by Mr. 
Lemon, and presented by him to the Church. 

The steeple of old St. Mary's was a quasi classic structure, completed in 
1769, and at a cost to the Corporation of nearly /900. Previously to that 
date there was nothing but a bell-cote, with a single bell. The tenor bell was 
given by Lord Falmouth, and bears the date. — The smaller bell was 
purchased by the Parish. 

Some years ago a clock with chimes was presented to the Parish by Miss 
Carlyon These, together with the bells, have been placed in the ne^v 
campanile or clock-tower. 



LIST OF THE RECTORS OF TRURO. 

Extracted from Exeter Records by Mr. Arthur Burch, Registrar. 

1278. Dominus NiCHOLAUS DE Castello, Capellanus. Instituted to the 

Church or Chapel of S. Mary of Triueru, by Bp. Bronescombe, at 

Teynton, on Monday next after Epiphany. 
1339. Dominus Galfridus in Venella de Tadelawe, Presbiter. 

Instituted to the Church of Treureu, by Bp. Grandison, at Clist, on 

Aug. 22. Patron, Thos. Prideaux. 
1349. Dominus Radulphus de Polwyl, Presbiter. Instituted to the 

Church of Truru, by Bp. Grandison, at Clist, on Sept. 20. Patron, 

John of Mountnyrom. 
1362. Johannes Decoy de Trewythenek, Clericus. Instituted to the 

Church of Trufru, by Bp. Grandison, at Chudleigh, on Sep. 15. 

Patron, Robert Prideaux, of Nyweham. 
No date. Thomas Wille. 
1412. Nicholas Treberveth. Instituted to the Church of the Blessed 

Mary of Treureu, on March 18. Patron, Robert Hull. Died 

Rector. 
1450. Dominus Simon Kestell, Capellanus. Instituted to the Church of 

Truru, by Bp. Lacy, at Chudleigh, on May 12. Patron, Henry 

Bodrugan. Died Rector. 
1461— 2. Dominus Rfginaldus Thomas, Capellanus. Instituted to the 

Church of the Bltssed Mary of Truru, by Bp. Neville's Vicar, at 

Exeter, March 10. Died Rector. 
1499. D )minus Thomas Baslegh. Presbiter. Instituted to the Church of 

Fiuru, by Bp. Redwayn's Vicar, on Sep. 10. Peter Eggecomb, 

patron. Resigned. 
1513. Dominus Thomas Colcot, Capellanus. Instituted to the Church of 

Trewro, by Bp. Oh I ham's Vicar, on Sep. I. Died Rector. 
1522. Dominus John Ovkrowe, Capellanus. Instituted to Church of 

Frew. 00, by Bp. Vcsey's Vicar, on Apr. 12. Resigned. 
1533. Magister Waltkr Burgayne. Instituted by surrogate of B[). 

Vesey's Vicar- Genera), on May lo, to the Church of Truro. 

Resigned, 



TRURO CATHEDRAL. II 

1 54 1. Thomas FFUYeHErGlericusr- Instituted Jiy,Bp,3iresey, on Sep. i, 

to the Church of Truroo. Patron, Richard Edgecombe. Resigned. 
1546. Dominus Nccholas Wenmouthe, Priest. Instituted by Bp. Vesey's 

Vicar-General, on Dec. 20, to the Church of Truroo. 
1558. Dominus Richardus Ffossr, Clericus, Collated (by lapse) by 

Bishop Turbervile to the Church of Truro, IM^y 12, 
1558. William Dawson {histitutton not recorded). Died Rector. 
1624. George Phippen. Instituted by Bp. Cary, at London, on Dec. 17, 

to the Church of Truroe. Patron, Hugh Boscawen. {Apparently 

he was deprived by the Puritans). 
No date. JosiAS Hall. Died Rector. - , 

1666—7. Samuel Thomas. Patron, Richard Edgecomb. Died Rector. 

Instituted March 22. 

1692. Robert Bowbeare. Instituted March 25. Patron, Pearse 

Edgcumbe. Ceded. 

1693. Simon Pagett. Instituted Nov. 8. 

1711. Joseph Jane, B.A. Instituted by Bp. Blackall. (By lapse). Died 

Rector. Instituted May 29, 
1746. St. John Eliot, B.A. Collated (by lapse) June 3. {Also Rector of 

Ladock). Died Rector. 
1761. Charles Pye, B.A. Instituted July 9. Patron, George, Lord 

Edgcumbe. Died Rector. 
1803. Thomas Carlyon, M..\. Instituted May 3. Patror, Right Hon. 

Richard, Earl of Mount Edgcombe. {Also Vicar of Pr bus). Died 

Rector. 
1826. Thomas Stackhouse Carlyon, M. A. Instituted July 10. Ceded. 
1833. Edward Dix, M.A. Instituted Dec. 12. Ceded. (Afterwards 

Vicdr of Newlyn). 
1839, William WooDis Harvey, M.A. Instituted March i. {Prebendary 

of Exeter). Patron, the same Earl. (While Rector, himself 

became Patron) . Resigned. 
i860. Edmund George Harvey, B.A. Instituted July 7. Ceded. 

(Afterwards Vicar of Mullion). 
1865. Henry Bawden Bullocke, M.A. Instituted June i. 
1875. Clement Fox Hakvey, M.A. Instituted Apr, 30. {Honorary 

Canon of Truro). Ceded . Afterwards Vicar of Probus. 
1885. James Henry Moore, M.A. Collated Oct. 7, by thr Patron, 

George, Lord Bishop of Truro. {Honorary Canon of Truro and 

Sub-dean of Truro Cathedral). 



INTERNAL FITTINGS FUND. 



ftJ^'HE translation of Dr. Benson to the Primacy in 1883 left the See of 
^© Truro vacant, and, to the great satisfaction of Cornish Churciimei), his 
own Examining Chaplain, the Rev. G. H. Wilkinson, Vicar ol S. 
Peter's, Eaton Square, and Hon. Canon of Truro, was seltcted as his suj- 
cessor. 

This appointment not only gave that fresh impetus to the mising of funds 
for the building of the Cathedral which eventually resulted in the erection of 
the transepts (the southern one as a memorial to Dr. Benson, first Bishop of 
Truro), but was instrumental in helping on the effort to build the first stage 



12 TRURO CATHEDRAL. 

of the central tower and the clock tower. It was, moreover, soon followed 
by a new and interesting movement. This was the Ladies' Association for 
providing the internal fittings for the Cathedral. 

In the Spring of 1884, when upwards of ^^90,000 had been subscribed 
for the building of the Cathedral, and a Guarantee Fund of ^^10,000 was 
about to be raised 10 complete the work contemplated, the Cathedral Building 
Committee requested the architect to give them an estimate of the sum nec- 
essary for providing temporary internal fittings to enable the services to be 
carried on when the Cathedral was consecrated. These were to be of the 
simplest and cheapest character; but it seemed even then that ;^i,630 would 
be required. This, however, did not suit the Bishop's ideas — as he sai.l, 
quoting King David's words — speaking (in I. Chron. xxii. 5) of the Jewi-;h 
temple, *' The House that is builded for the Lord must be very magnifical." 
He did not think these temporary internal fittings worthy of the beau:ilul 
Cathedral, and then the happy thought occurs to him, no doubt an answer to 
earnest prayer — "Why should not this be entrusted to the Women of Corn- 
wall, and so give them a share in the great work ?" On the 29ih of 
August, 1884, he summoned a meeting of Cornish ladies (160 were present), 
and all went to the temporary Cathedra' and received the Holy Communion 
together, and then the Bishop, not only in his sermon, but in the addresses he 
delivered afterwards in the Council Chamber of the Town Hall, showed what 
a sacred charge had been gladly undertaken, all present humbly believing that 
God himself had entrusted it to them. The Diocese was divided, ac- 
cording to the Rural Deaneries, into twelve divisions, each of which had its 
own Lady President and Secretary, and Local Committees and workers were 
appointed in almost every parish, under the superintendence of Miss Selina 
Thornton, the Honoiary Secretary. 

A few of the smaller fittings had previously bi'cn promised, but an ap- 
parently hopeless list of the more costly requirements remained to be provided. 
But "One and AH" set to work. One Deaneiy guaranteed to raise money 
for one object, one for another, and private individuals availed themselves of 
this opportunity of making some special ofTering. Remembering the Bishop's 
instructions — "That workers were not to relax thtir efibrts until they were 
able to report to him that every woman in Cornwall had been told of this 
great enterprise, and had had an opportunity of contributing towards its accom- 
plishment" — collectors were appointed, and it was found that when the move- 
ment was clearly explained to them, none were more willing to give than the 
poor, and that they liked to be asked to take their share of the work. In a 
very few months more than fifteen thousand pounds were raised, and Mr. 
Pearson was instructed to prepare designs for the various internal fittings, 
worthy of the beautiful building which was to contain them. 

Mrs. Arthur Tremayne eventually took Miss S. Thornton's place as 
General Secretary, and to her energy and zeal are to be attributed in no little 
degree the success of the movement. 

In the appendix will be given the list of the Ladies' Committee and 
Offic rs, together with the detailed account of the various articles provided 
through their efforts. 




SOUTH-EAST VIEW OF CATHEDRAL, SHOWING^OLD ST. MARY'S AISLE. 

From Photo by Ellery, Truro. 



TRtJRO CATHEDRAL. I3 

THE DESIGN OF THE CATHEDRAL. 

^PEAKING generally of the design and plan of the Cathedral, it may be 
7j said to exhibit a wise combination of fidelity to ancient standards of 
•^ English architecture of the best and purest models, with a singular 
freedom from servile imitation and commonplace adherence to the letter 
rather than to the spirii of early art. 

There may be traced both in the general plan and design, as well as in 
many of the details, great versatility of a' tistic skill, adaptation to local and 
practical requirements, and a bold and free use of varying forms. 

Students of the architecture of our old English Cathedrals will now and 
again be met, as they walk through or round Truro Cathedral, with some 
feature that reminds them of Lincoln, or Westminster, or some other noble 
ancient minster ; but it will be like the features of children of the same family, 
born of the same noble parents, Religion and Art, and not mere dead 
mechanical copies, without life or meaning. 

The aim of the architect has evidently been to realise a true Cathedral, 
not a merely enlarged Parochial Church ; to make every part of the building 
and every detail of the ornamentation combine to produce a Christian temple, 
full of almost endless variety in detail, without ceasing to be one lovely, har- 
monious whole ; a type, it may be fairly said, of the Church — one Holy 
Catholic and Apostolic, with infinitely varying forms of life, work, and holiness, 
in the members that together make up the Body of Christ. 

The architecture of the Cathedral is early English, with characteristics of 
buildings of the early part of the 13th century. 

The general external features of the building, when completed, will be a 
grand central and two western towers, some deeply recessed doorways and 
windows of plain character, yet graceful lines. The entire length of the 
building from east to west will be about 300 feet. The interior of the choir 
is 115 ft. The nave will be 165 feet long and about 76 feet wide. From floor 
to roof the height of the interior is 70 feet. The central tower will be the 
highest point of the building : from the floor-line to the weather-cock it will 
be about 224 feet high. The towers at the western end will be about 204 
feet high. Of these three towers nothing is yet built but that portion of the 
central tower which rises to the level of the ridge of the roof. The energy 
of the zealous Clerk of the Works, Mr. Robert Swain, warmly supported by 
other friends of the Church, was mainly instrumental in raising funds to erect 
this portion of the tower. The design for the completion of the central tower 
shows two stages above the level of the roof, with three double-Hghted windows 
in each, the final stage being ornamented with an elevated parapet and pinnacles 
at the corners. 

The design for the nave and aisles shows a series of aisle windows, ei^ht 
in number, simple lancets, in couplets, divided by buttresses, and the clerestory 
windows consist of two broad lancet-shaped lights, with a trefoil in the head. 

The design for the west front is very imposing. In the centre are two 
large doorways, deeply recessed, embracing the whole of the front between 
the towers. These doorways are flanked with buttresses and pinnacles, and 
are enriched with sculpture in the spandrils and arches. Above there is a 
rose window, with two double-lancet windows beneath. These windows, 
including the rose, are deeply recessed from the arch which supports the 
gable of the nave, and which is enriched with panel-work and sculpture, on 
each side being two turret?, combining staircases and finial pinnacles. The 
towers, one on each side, stand back from the line of the west front a few 



14 TRURO CATHEDRAL. 

feet. They are in four stages, the lowest having a one-light window ; the 
second, two lancets, which are on a line with the lancet windows of the west 
front ; the third and fourth stages are composed of two double windows 
each, those in the upper stages being very lofty. 

Of the nave, with its western towers, nothing is at present erected save 
a portion of the two bays on each side. A rough stone wall and lean-to 
roof closes in the western opening of the great tower and the transepts. 



DESCRIPTION OF THE BUILDING. 
Exterior. 

ft^HE best approach io view the external features of the Cathedral is through 
\g) Cathedral lane (the old Church lane). The eye is attracted by the south 
. transept and its richly decorated porch, which form a very marked feature 
on the south side of the building. The doorway is composed of three small 
arcades, separated by detached pillars, the double doorway itself being deeply 
recessed. It is flanked by pinnacles. Ihe decoration (sculptured or other- 
wise) of this porch, which is the gift of Canon Phillpotts, of Porthgwidden, 
has not yet been finally decided upon, and the empty wall spaces and tym- 
panum over the door seem to demand suitable ornamentation. Above the 
porch rises the gable end of the trau'^ept, composed of three lancet windows 
in the lower portion, immediately over the porch, and a large rose window 
above, the window and the gable being enriched with panel work of an early 
character. 

To the west of the transept is seen the circular roof, the tapering pin- 
nacles and open parapet and narrow lancet windows of the Baptistery. This 
portion of the building not only gives variety and character to the architec- 
tural design, but, from the fact of its being a memorial to Henry Martyn, the 
devoted missionary, a native of Truro, will always recall and link the Cathedral 
with sacred memories of the missionary work of the Church. The Baptistery 
will be more particularly described when the interior is visited. 

Westward of the transept rises the Clock Tower, and beyond it the 
portion of the old Church of St. Mary's, Truro. These two form together 
that portion of the building which alone has been retained, by the generosity 
of the Rector and Churchwardens, as the legal Parish Church. This arrange- 
ment has received the sanction of Parhament, by an Act passed June, 1887. 

The Clock Tower or Campanile rises to a height of 135 feet, in four 
stages, terminating in a spire covered with Cornish copper, and crowned by a 
gilt vane, the gift of A. P. Nix, Esq., who placed it in situ with his own 
hands. The funds for the building of the Clock Tower were raised, to a 
great extent, by the zeal and generosity of inhabitants of Truro and the 
immediate neighbourhood, assisted by gifts from more distant quarters. In 
this tower are placed the Pari<-h bells and clock. The present dial faces of 
the clock, which are new, are the gift of Canon Wise, of Ladock, a generous 
benefactor of the Cathedral. The old and somewhat unique front of the 
present south aisle deserves careful study. It is a rich piec^i of perpendicular 
work ; and when the plans of the Cathedral were being prepared, many lovers 
of ancient buildings in the Diocese and elsewhere earnestly desired that this 
distinctive feature should be preserved. The way in which the old portion 
has been united with the new is deserving of all praise. 'Ihe whole of the 



TRURO CATHEDRAL. 1 5 

Clock Tower has been designed with the purpose of linking the old and new 
together ; and the richer character of the south transept prevents there being 
too violent a contrast between the severity of the early English architecture 
of the newer building and the more florid ornamentation of the older 
fragment of the 1 6th century work. There are, including that at the base of 
the clock tower, seven windows of perpendicular style ; there is much carving 
on the parapet and south wall, of a character similar to that seen at S. Mary 
Magdalene, Launceston, and other Cornish churches of the same period. 

Passing round the east end of the south aisle, the visitor will observe the 
lemains of rich Tudor work in three niches, one canopied and surmounted 
by a coat of arms, now too mutilated to decipher. Nor must he omit to 
observe the flying buttresses of the choir and the gables and turrets of the 
choir transept. 

Standing at the east end of the building, the spectator looks up at a 
circular window in the gable, the two tiers of windows of the choir, of three 
lancets each, the lower tier being shorter, and below them the smaller windows 
that light the crypt. Passing round the north side, ne will observe the much 
more severe aspect of this part of the building, and the solid buttresses that 
strengthen and support the walls, and the exterior of the organ chamber and 
the north transept, with its magnificent rose window. At the north east corner 
of this transept will hereafter stand the Chapter House, which is designed to 
be octagonal in plan, and to be approached by a porch, with flights of steps 
leading from the exterior, as also from the transept, and from the cloister court- 
yard, which will extend from the eastern wall of the rorth transept almost to 
the western end of the north nave aisle. 

Before entering the Cathedral it may be interesting to note the various 
materials of which this noble building has been constructed. When the Cathed- 
ral was about to be erected a strong feeling was expressed that local stone 
should, as far as possible, be employed, and the Clerk of the Works, Mr. 
Bubb, whose death, in i88i, was grea^ly felt by all connected with the 
Cathedral, visited a great number of quarries in Cornwall for this purpose. 
Externally the walls are of local stone, faced with ashlar work, and buttress 
coins of Mabe granite ; the dressings are of Bath stone, of various kinds. 
Internally the walls are faced with ashlar work of St. Stephen's china-clay 
stone, a species of inferior granite, with dressings of Bath stone. Doulting 
stone has been partially used, but was neither found so economical and good 
as the Corsham stone, which has been mostly employed. 

The detached shafts are of Polyphant stone, Duporth stone, Hamhill 
stone, and a reddish or orange tinted stone from the neighbourhood of 
Northampton. The vaulting and groining are of Bath stone. 

It will be interesting to make some comparison of the dimensions of Truro 
Cathedral, as designed to be completed, with those of some of the best known 
Cathedrals in England. 

In the following table * are given instances of some of the various classes 
of Cathedrals, from the largest, among which are numbered York, St. Paul's, 
Lincoln, Winchester, &c., ranging from upwards of 50,000 sq. feet of area, 
to upwards of 60,000 sq. feet ; or what may roughly be called those of a 
second class, ranging from upwards of 30,000 sq. feet to upwards of 40,000 
sq. feet, including Worcester, Gloucester, &c.; or a third class, including 

* Compiled (by permission) from a very full list of English and foreign Churches, and 
their dimensions, given in "A. Bo9k on Building," by Lord Grimthorpe. London : Crosby, 
Lockwood, and Co., i88o. (Second editiohi) 



i6 



TRURO CATSEDRAL. 



Exeter, Hereford, Ripon, &c., from upwards of 25,000 scj. feet to 30,000 sq. 
feet; and the fourth class, ranging from 20,000 to 25,000, including Rochester, 
Bristol, &c. Truro takes'its place among these last, and while smaller, as a 
whole, than Rochester Cathedral or Tewkesbury Abbey, is larger than^Bristol, 
St. David's, St. Patrick's, Dubhn, or the new Cathedral at Edinburgh.' 

At present, of course, the design is but partially reahsed, and it remains 
for the generosity of Churchmen of the nineteenth century to vie with the 
noble and lavish expenditure of past ages in completing for Cornwall what will 
be a worthy sister of the glorious and noble sanctuaries raised for the worship 
of Almighty God throughout England, whose names that appear in the 
following table will recal to our readers splendid visions of glorious architeo- 
ture and holy associations of lofty worship. 

Long. Wide. High, 

In.sideDimensions.Area,sq.ft. 



St. Paul's 59,700 

Lincoln 57>200 

Ely 46,000 

Salisbury 43,Si5 

Gloucester 30,600 

Exeter 29,600 

Hereford 26,856 

Rochester 23,300 

Bristol 22,556 

St. David's 21,950 

Edinburgh 21,160 

Dublin, \ 

St. Patrick's / ^^ 

Truro 23,200 



'ah 


^ , , 

Trans. Na. 1 All. 


Mid. 


Trans. 1 Vlt. I 


460 


240 182 ! 94 


42 


94 


88 


481 


(223W 
\ I7ie. 


-5! {^30. 


39 


|6iw. 
( 36e. 


82n. 
74c. 


517 


i«S 


230 


7« 


34 


74 


72 


450 


|206w 

I i95e. 


195 


82 


32 


|57w. 
l34e. 


84 


408 


142 


180 


«3 


35 


35 


67 


3«3 


140 


140 


72 


34 


27 


69 


325 


\^ 


130 


74 


30 


54 


70 


313 


122 


126 


65 


28 


30 


55 


284 


113 


125 


69 


31 


29 


52 


298 


129 




70 


29 


27 


46 


242 


112 


i3« 


68i 


33 


68^ 




300 


72 


— 


63 


— 


— 


85 


300 


109 


131 


62 


29 


58 


70 



— S 



Steeple. 
356 D. 
262 C. 

206 W2. 

215 w. 
1.404 C. 
225 C. 

I40N.«feS 

144 c. 
156 c. 
133 c. 
124 c. 
300 c. 

225 c. 
( 250 c. 

) 200 W2. 



THE INTERIOR. 



rSSING southwards along the High Cross, or from Boscawen Street 
through Cathedral Lane, the visitor will do well to enter the South or 
Phillpotts Porch. The external carving of the finials, the dog-tooth 
ornament in the arches and groining are worthy of careful examination. The 
steps at the entrance are formed of fine large blocks of Cornish granite. The 
blank spaces on the wall and over the door seem to cry out for some decoration, 
which, it is to be hoped, will not be long in forthcoming. As the visitor 
enters the door and looks to the right, he wOl see in the arcading on the wall 
some shafts of fine Cornish porphyry, the gift of the late Colonel Cocks, who 
interested himself greatly in the choice of building materials for the Cathedral, 
and whose memorial is to be seen in the stained glass of the lancet windows 
close at hand in the south transept over head. Turning to the left the visitor 
should pass between the light and elegant clustered columns of polyphant and 
bath stone into the Baptistery or Henry Martyn memorial. This is quite an 
architectural gem, and consists of a circular building, with a groined roof, 
richly carved, supported by shafts of Bath stone and polyphant, with an 
arcading resting on carefully selected shafts of Cornish serpentine. 




VIEW OF SOUTH PORCH. 



TRURO CATHEDRAL. 1 7 

THE FONT. 

ftJ5*HE Font is circular in plan, and stands four feet five inches above the 
{^ Mosaic paving of the Baptistery, which is formed of varied foreign marbles 
of different tints, having two solid marble steps. The bottom one is seven 
feet six inches in diameter, of dark rich Fossil Marble ; the second step is five feet 
eight inches in diameter, of selected Red Marble. At the same level with 
these is a fine circular step of Vert des Alpes, four feet four inches in diameter, 
and upon which is fixed the foot-pace and lower plinth to the Font, of a fine 
sample of pale Giallo Antico, forming, as it were, a platform for the Font. 
In the centre of this stands the massive moulded plinth, in fine selected 
Breccia Rosso Antico, and on this is fixed the stem or centre shaft, of Griolte 
d' Itahe, with base of Breccia Rosso Antico, around which are solid moulded 
and carved bases of the same marble, upon which stands eight columns, which, 
with the centre stem, support the elaborate and massive bowl (three feet nine 
inches in diameter and one foot eight inches deep), of a beautiful and unique 
specimen of Breccia Rosso Antico, worked to circular form, and having the 
eight capitals to the columns elaborately carved out of the solid, the top rim 
being also elegantly moulded and carved with a flowing ornament. All the 
surfaces, including the carving, have been polished. The Font has been 
executed by Mr. Robert Davison, Marylebone Road, London, and is the gift 
of the Sunday School children of the Diocese. 

The flooring is the gift of the Deanery of St. Austell. 

The Font Cover is executed in oak, with circular base, rising to an octagon. 
There are two tiers of gables, with carved crockets and finials, supported by 
flying buttresses, with perforated tracing in the panels. The spire is crocketed 
with enrichments on the top, and there are groined roofs to each tier of gables. 

The Cover is the gift of the Students of the Truro Diocesan Training 
College for Schoolmistresses, and is the work of Robinson, of Broad Street, 
London. 



THE TRANSEPT. 

FASSING out of the Baptistery the visitor should take his stand under the 
central tower, and,lookingupwards, take note of the fine proportions of this 
portion of the building. The massive piers and finely conceived arches, with 
their rich carving of dog-tooth ornament, the handsome arcading of the first 
stage of the tower, from which will eventually spring a groined roof, are 
sufficient to make the spectator long for the completion of this noble feature of 
the Cathedral. Looking eastward a view of the lofty Choir is now obtained, which 
for dignity, strength, and hghtness, will bear favourable comparison with some 
of the noblest choirs in England. But before proceeding to examine the choir 
in detail, attention must be paid to the Transept north and south. The 
Southern Transept is a memorial to Dr. Benson, Archbishop of Canterbury, first 
Bishop of Truro, erected in recognition of his great work in organising the 
newly constituted or revived Diocese of Cornwall, and his six years' labours as 
its first Chief Pastor. The transept is lighted by three lancet windows, with 
fine arcading in the triforium level, resting on detached shafts, and with a noble 
rose window above ; the stained glass filling the latter is the gift of the Masters 
and Boys of WelUngton College, of which great school Dr. Benson was head- 
master from 1859 to 1872. The subject depicted is the out-pouring of the 
Holy Spirit upon the Apostles at Pentecost. In the three lower lights are 
subjects conaected with the Spirit's work in the Church, A fuller account of 



18 



TRURO CATHEDRAL. 



these subjects will be found in the Appendix where the whole series of windows 
in the Cathedral is explained. The tnree lower windows form a memorial to 
the late Col. Cocks. The stained glass is of the richly toned kind character- 
istic of the thirteenth centur}% and was executed by Clayton and Bell. It 
recals the colouring and style observable in stained glass at Lincoln, York, 
Bourges, and Chartres. The triforium of the transept aisles is formed of fine 
segmental arches, with pierced quatre foils and double arcading ; the clerestory 
of double lancet windows, with quatre foil head opening. The whole is 
groined in bath stone. 

The North Transept is longer than the South by about lo feet, and is hghted 
by three double lancet windows with cinque foil head openings. Above these 
is a large rose window, the tracery of which was the gift of Miss Gumey, whose 
father, Sir Goldsworthy Gurney, was the well-known improver of the steam 
engine. 

It is filled with stained glass, representing the genealogy of our Lord, after 
the manner of old '* Jesse" windows (see Appendix). This window is the 
gift of the Deanery of Penwith. 

In this transept there is a fine gallery, with open parapet resting on 
groined arches, supported by fine columns. Through the triforium on the east 
side of the transept can be seen the organ chamber, which is formed from 
the two western bays on the north side of the choir, and runs to the full 
height of the clerestory. 

In this spacious chamber is placed 



THE ORGAN. 

JpjHIS is a magnificent instrument, by Willis, of London, and consists oi 
^§) Four Manual Organs, viz.. Solo, Swell, Great, and Choir. These 
Organs range each from CC to A (58 notes), and the Pedal from CCC 
to F (30 notes). 

The Pedal. 

metal 



Double Diapason, open wood 32 feet 
Open Diapason, ,, 16 ,, 

Octave 8 „ 



4. Violone, open metal m 

front 16 feet 

5. Violoncello 8 „ 

6. Ophicleide 16 „ 



The Choir Organ. 

Gamba, metal 8 feet 

Dulciana, ,, 8 ,, 

Hohl Flote, open wood .... 8 ,, 
LiebUch Gedact from Tenor . 
C, metal 8 „ 



5. Gemshom 4 fee t 

6. Lieblich Flote, metal 
throughout 4 „ 

7. Piccolo (harmonic) metal 2 „ 

8. Como di Bassetto 8 „ 



The Great Organ. 



1. Double Diapason, open metal 16 feet 

2. Open Diapason, „ 8 ,, 

3. Open Diapason, „ 8 „ 

4. Claribel, new form, open wood 8 ,, 

5. Principal, metal 4 ,, 

6. Flfite Harmonique 4 ,, 

7. Twelfth 3 „ 



8. Fifteenth 2 feet 

9. Mixture, three ranks .... 

10. Double Trumpet, metal 

and zinc 16 ,, 

11. Tromba 8 ,, 

12. Clarion 4 „ 




VIEW OF BAPTISTERY. 



TRURO CATHEDRAL. 



19 



The Swell. 



1. Geigen Principal, metal .... 1 6 feet 

2. Open Diapason 8 „ 



3. Lieblich Gedact, metal and 

wood 

4. Echo Gamba 

5. Vox Angelica, undulating 

with No. 4 by double wind- 
age, lower octave derived 
from No. 4 



1. Harmonic Flute, open metal 8 feet 

2. Concert Flute 4 „ 



Orchestral Oboe 8 



6. Geigen Principal • 4 feet 

7. Flageolet • 2 „ 

8. Mixture, three ranks 

9. Contra Oboe, metal & zinc 

10. Cornopean 8 „ 

1 1. Hautboy 

12. Clarion 4 ,, 

13. Vox Humana 8 „ 



The Solo. 

4. Clarionet 8 feet 

5. Tuba 8 „ 



The Couplers. 

6. Solo to Pedals. 

7. Swell to Pedals. 



Great to Pedals. 
Choir to Pedals. 



1. Swell to Organ, sub-octave. 

2. Swell to Great, unison. 

3. Swell to Great, super-octave. 

4. Choir to Great. 

5. Solo to Great. 

The instrument is fitted with pneumatic pistons, and complete tubular 
pneumatic system for the pedals. It is blown by two hydraulic engines, 
placed in the triforium on the east side of the north transept. The pipes are 
chiefly made of fine spotted metal. 

It is intended hereafter, should funds be forthcoming, to provide the organ 
with a handsome case in oak ; the present external arrangements being of a 
temporary character. 

The organ is the gift of the Deaneries of Cammarth and St. Austell, 
supplemented by other contributions. 



THE MONUMENTS. 

IN the North Transept are placed monuments formerly situated in the old 
Parish Church of Truro. 

Conspicuous among them on the North wall is that of John Robarts and 
his wife. It is a fine specimen of Renaissance monumental art of the Jacobean 
period ; the general design is a semi-circular pediment, supported on an 
entablature vidth columns, decorated with emblematic figures, such as Time, 
Death and the like, surmounted by the family coat of arms ; the whole is of 
fine alabaster and marbles of different colours. There are semi-recumbent 
effigies in the costume of the day of John Robarts and his wife, with the 
following inscription : 

" Heare lyeth inclosed ye Body of John Robarts, Esq., the sonne of 
Richard Robarts, late of Truro, Esq., deceased. He married Phillipe one 
of ye daughters of John Gavrigan, of Gavrigan, in ye countie of Cornwall, 
Esquire, by whom he had issue Sir Richard Robarts, Knight, his son and 
Heire, late High Sheriffe of the County of Cornwall, and NoE More. 
IJe was in all liis life tiine a true lover of virtue in word and deed, plain^ 



20 TRURO CATHEDRAL. 

uprighte, faithfuU, and constant, and most just in perfonninge ye same and 
evermore, in all his actions reputed grave, honest, and very discret. He deceased 
ye twenty-first day of March, in ye year of our Redemption 1614, and of his 
age 70, or thereabouts." 

This monumeat has been carefully restored at the cost of the present 
Lord Robartes. 

On the west wall will be seen a monument of slate, with alabaster 
mouldings, erected to the memory of Richard Pendarves (ancestor of the present 
Pendafves, of Pendarves), date, 27th of December, 1667. 

In the adjoining space of the west wall is a group of marble tablets, with 
medallions and bust, to various members of the Vivian family. Prominent, with 
its bust and weeping cherubs, is the monument of Lieutenant-General Lord 
Vivian, who commanded a Cavalry Brigade at Waterloo with great gallantry 
and success. On either side are grouped memorials of John and Thomas 
Vivian ; Eliza, \vife of Sir Richard Henry Vivian, and daughter of Phihp 
Champion Crespigny ; John Henry Vivian, M.P. for Swansea ; Betsy, wife of 
John Vivian. These monuments form hnks between the new Cathedral and 
the history of the past, some of whose worthies are thus commemorated within 
its walls. 



THE PULPIT. 

^SfpT the north comer of the entrance to the choir stands the Pulpit, a 
J53L noble offering to the Cathedral, by a donor who has enriched the building 
by his generosity in other ways. Canon Wise, of Ladock. 

It is designed in the Decorated Style, and is constructed generally of 
polished Hopton Wood stone from the quarries near Wirksworth, Notts. Its 
moulded plinth is of Frosterley marble, in continuation of the Chancel step of 
the same material. 

The ground plan of the lower portion is that of an irregular heptagon, with 
bases, shafts, and caps supporting moulded groins, which work within the 
heptagon and against an acute-angled pier supporting the central portion of the 
pulpit. This pier is emphasised with a column at each angle, extending the 
whole height of the pulpit, the central one supporting the book-board. 

At the floor of the pulpit the plan becomes circular. 

Above the floor are six richly-carved niches, separated by diapered 
buttresses with pinnacles. In these niches are placed the seated figures of 
Noah, Moses, Elijah, St. John Baptist, our Lord, and St. Paul, Great 
Preachers of righteousness to the sons of men. 

In the spaces above the niches are small shields inscribed with emblems 
and monograms referring to the figures below. They are the dove with the 
olive branch and the rainbow, the ark of bulrushes and the burning bush, the 
Altar with sacrifice and fire descending, and the chariot of fire, the sword in 

Eale with a label and the words "vox clamantis" and the Agnus bearing the 
anner, IHS and XPC, the initial letter P. with the swords in saltire, and the 
battle-axe in pale. 

The finials of the niches and of the pinnacles run up into the cornice, 
which is enriched between^them with carved paterae. 




CHOIK — LOOKING EAST. 



TRURO CATHEDRAL. 21 

THE LECTERN. 

fij^HE Lectern, with the steps leading thereto, is of brass or ♦* latten '* metal. 
^g) It consists of a central column or shaft, supporting an Eagle, the out- 
stretched wings of which carry the Holy Bible (richly bound and 
ornamented.) The Eagle is represented as trampling on a -'basihsk," or 
dragon, and symbolises the Word of God and the power of the Gospel over- 
coming the "wicked one." Four buttresses serve to support the central 
shaft ; on these buttresses are statuettes of the four Evangelists, each bearing 
his Gospel. There are two richly floriated branches springing from the 
central •* annulus," or ring of the shaft, which support candles to light the 
book. The base of the Lectern rests on four crouching lions, as is usually 
seen in ancient examples. 

The whole lectern and steps were executed by Messrs. Cox, Sons, 
Buckley, and Co., and are the gift of Miss Harriet Lanyon. 



THE CHOm.. 

JpfHE visitor will now enter the choir, passing up the splendid steps which, 
\g) like the rest in the choir and the entrance to the choir aisles, are of Frosterly 
marble and serpentine alternately. The mosaic panel between the two 
highest of these first steps is formed of varied Devonshire marbles, with the 
exception of the small green squares, which are of Vert Antique. The 
pavement in the centre of the choir is formed of various designs in dark red 
(Gretenstein), dark green (Vert des Alpes), with large red squares (Rouge 
Royal), the cream coloured bordering being of Jura marble. 

Between the next steps are two long panels on the North side, with light 
red slabs (Rouge de Veronne), dark red (Rouge Royal), dark green (Vert des 
Alpes) ; on the South side, light green slabs (Cippolino), and dark red (Rouge 
Royal). The next level is laid with red marble (Gretenstein), green (Cippolino), 
and cream coloured (HauteviUe). The lovely veined steps of the Sanctuary 
are of Pavonazza marble, and the mosaic of dark red (Rosso Antico), Hght red 
(Rouge Jasper), dark green (Vert Antique), and hght green (Irish). In the 
panel, between steps i and 2, is a bright blue circle in the centre, of Lapis 
Lazuli. 

These marbles are gifts from various individuals (see appendix), and are 
the work of the same artists as executed the marble work of the font and 
baptistery. 

Speaking generally of the architecture of the choir, it is of lofty and grace- 
ful construction, with aisles and vaulted roof, a handsome double arcaded 
triforium and clerestory of light but noble proportions. The groining is 
formed of delicate richly carved ribs resting on clustered shafts. 

There is a fine retro-choir communicating with the aisles, forming a 
spacious ambulatory round the whole choir. 

There are two Eastern or choir transepts, treated with varied grouping of 
features. 

In the South the windows are arranged in four tall lancets, with a 
wheel window above ; on the North there are two divisions of lights, each 
subdivided again, giving eight lancets with quartre foils above. 

The Northern bays of the Choir are the gift of Lord Robartes, in memory 
of the late Lord Robartes and his wife, who was a member of the Pole Carew 



ii TRtJRO CAtltEDRAt. 

family. The coats of arms of the two families are carved in stone, that of 
the Robartes is emblazoned : — Azure, three estoils and a chief wavy or. That 
of the Pole Carew : — Quarterly ist and 4th Carew; or, three lions passant in 
pale sable. 2nd and 3rd Pole :— Azure, Sem6e of fleurs-de-lis or, a lion 
rampant argent. The mottoes of the two families are "Quae Supra" and 
" Pollet virtus." The legend in Enghsh, which extends along the string-course, 
combines and expands the meaning of the mottoes in these words, "The 
path of the just is as the shining light, that shineth more and more unto the 
perfect day." 

On the opposite side the bays are a gift of the Fortescue family, as a 
memorial of the late Hon. George Fortescue, and bear the coat of the Fortescue 
family, and the motto " Forte Scutum Salus Ducum." A warlike sentiment 
expanded into the nobler and higher meaning of the words of the Psalmist, 
** The Lord is my strength and my shield." * 

Between the columns on either side are elegant screens of delicate 
hammered iron, that for design and execution are worthy of comparison with 
some of the finest work of ancient handicraftsmen. In front are the Canons' 
stalls and seats for the choir, with the Bishop's tlirone on the south side. 

In accordance with ancient precedent, the stalls are arranged so as to place 
the chief dignitaries east and west of the members of the assembled Chapter. 
On the right, as the choir is entered, is the Bishop's seat as a member of the 
Cathedral Body. Next to him sits the Dean, then the Archdeacon of Cornwall, 
and beyond him the Sub-Dean. The Precentor's stall is on the left of the choir 
entrance, on his left the Missioner's, next the Missioner's that of the Archdeacon 
of Bodmin, and beyond him one for the Chancellor of the Diocese. The 
easternmost stall of the right range belongs to the Chancellor of the Cathedral 
Church, next the Throne, which has two seats for chaplains or dignities, one on 
either side of the Bishop. Westward from the Chancellor's stall. Canons in 
order. 

Opposite the Chancellor the Treasurer of the Church has his stall at the 
east extremity of the left range, and westward therefrom Canons as on the right 
range. 

Priest -Vicars and other officials occupy the lower ranges, or "Forma 
Secunda," where also provision is made for Prebendaries of Endellion 
Collegiate Church and students of the Scholae Cancellarii. 

The stalls and other seats are worked in finely grained Burmese teak, and 
are of simple but dignified design. The arcaded panel work in front is of the 
Decorated period of art, an era when the best of existing woodwork in our 
Cathedrals was executed. In Cornwall, as a rule, the fine woodwork so 
frequently met with is of a later date, and somewhat more florid in style. The 
stalls were executed by Messrs. Shillitoe and Sons, the Builders and 
Contractors for the Cathedral. 



* The Latin motto is an instonce of what b called "canting heraldry," when a pun or 
rebus is indicated either by the motto or the armorial bearing. Instances of the latter niay 
be seen on the tombs of Abbot Wheathampstede, with the Wheat sheaf, and Abbot Ramrigge 
with the Ram in S. Alban's Abbey (now a Cathedral); specimens of the former may be found 
in the motto of the Scudamore family, "Scutum amons divini," or of the Vere, "vero nil 
verius," or of the Vernon, " Ver non semper virct," or of the Fairfax, " Fare, fac." 




bishop's thuone. 



TRURO CATHEDRAL. 23 



THE BISHOP'S THRONE. 



555?HIS is made in Burmese teak, and is a superb structure, with central seat 
%^ for tlie Bishop, and Chaplains' seats on either side. The book front of 
the Bishop's seat has sculptured figures of the Archbishop of Canterbury, 
Dr. Benson, giving the Benediction ; the Bishop of London, Dr. Temple ; and 
the Bishop of Truro, Dr. Wilkinson. These figures, which are sculptured out 
of the solid, are in canopied and crocketed niches under the Bishop's book- 
board. The fronts to the Chaplains' seats are traceried, canopied, and 
crocketed. 

The divisional ends between the book-front of the Bishop and the 
Chaplains' terminate with poppy heads, with very richly-sculptured figures 
representing the four great Doctors of the Western Church — St. Gregory the 
Great, St. Jerome, St. Augustine, and St. Ambrose. Below the poppy heads 
on the same ends are sculptured a winged beast and a Pehcan, symbols of 
might and love. 

The two ends of the fronts to the Chaplains' book-fronts are traceried, and 
terminate with sculptured poppy heads of animals entwined in each other in 
combat. 

The seats are Misereres, and divided as stalls, with beautifully-sculptured 
canopies over. That to the Bishop's seat is supported on clustered columns. 
The back of the seat is traceried and sculptured, the central panel having the 
Archbishop's mitre and a shield under, with the arms of the Archbishopric of 
Canterbury quartered with those of the present Archbishop, Dr. Benson. The 
panel on the eastern side contains the mitre and arms of the Bishopric of 
London, quartered with those of Dr. Temple, the present Bishop of London 
and late Bishop of Exeter, out of which See the See of Truro was formed ; and 
the panel on the western side contains the mitre and arms of the Bishopric of 
Truro quartered with those of Dr. Wilkinson, the present Bishop of Truro. 
The ends to the Chaplains' seats which run up and support the richly-groined 
canopies have on their fronts sculptured representations of the Archangels St. 
Raphael and St. Michael — St. Raphael in armour, on the eastern side, with a 
flaming word in his hand, and St. Michael on the western side in armour, 
striking a dragon at his feet with a sword. 

The seats are surmounted by elaborate groined canopies, of varied design, 
and terminating over the Bishop's seat with a crocketed spire, round which 
cluster a forest of pinnacles with flying buttresses. 

The whole work is sculptured out of the solid wood, and was executed in 
its entirety by Messrs. Luscombe and Son, of Exeter. It is a splendid 
memorial of the long and able Episcopate of Bishop Phillpotts, well known 
as "Henry of Exeter" in the Church hisiory of tne first bait of the 
nineteenth century. 

The Litany desk or faldstool is of teak. There are finely carved poppy 
heads. Math emblems of the four EvangeKsts and other figures, in panels on the 
ends. The front is arcaded with mouldings, and is further ornamented with 
crockets and finials, supported by columns. The front of the bookboard is 
enriched with carving. This is the gift of Mrs. Archer, and was executed by 
the same maker as the font cover. 



TRURO CAtHE±>RAt. 



THE REREDOS. 



£f TANDING below the Sanctuary steps, which are of lovely ItaUan marble, 
jy delicately veined, we look up at the magnificent Reredos, of richly carved 
•^ Bath stone. The general idea of the sculpture is " the one great 
sacrifice of our Blessed Lord," made with bloodshedding on the cross, 
represented in the " Crucifixion," immediately above the altar, and as pleaded 
continually in heaven, represented in the "Majesty" which fills the upper 
part of the central portion of the reredos ; while on either side are typical 
subjects of the older Covenant, representing the great foreshadowing of Sacrifice 
for sin, of the gift of Life, of Communion with God, and of self-oblation. 

Examining the Reredos in detail, it will be observed that the whole is 
designed in three great sections, a central and two side ones ; each subdivided 
into separate portions, by tiers of recessed and richly canopied niches, the 
composition forming, with its splendid groups of sculptured figures, not only a 
work of beautiful symbolic art, but a most effective mstrument of devotional 
and sacramental teaching. 

In the central section our attention is first of all directed to the offering of 
the great High Priest of the ** one oblation of Himself once offered on the 
Cross." The Sculptor has succeeded in combining that which it is so difficult 
to do, the true pathos of human suffering with the dignity of the Divine 
Personahty of the holy Victim. 

All the details of the great and awful event are treated historically and yet 
devotionally. On either side of the Crucified Son of God are the Blessed Virgin 
Mary and St. John ; at the foot of the cross Mary Magdalene embraces the sacred 
Feet ; the other Mary offers consolation to the sorrowful Mother. The purpose 
of the Saviour's passion includes Jew and Gentile, and so are seen in the group 
Hebrew Rabbis, the Roman Centurion wdth his soldiers, and a man of the 
people holding a lantern ; that the event is one that concerns not earth only 
but the unseen world, is shown by the presence of ministering Angels, whose 
nine-fold choirs are also indicated in the nine small niches immediately above 
the altar, and in the adoring representatives of the heavenly hosts in the 
eight pairs of niches on each side of the central section. Below these 
angehc figures on either side close to the altar are the figures of the four 
EvangeUsts, in the pages of whose writings are recorded with such emphatic 
fullness all the details of the Saviour's Cross and Passion. 

Then above, in the upper division of the Central Section, we see the figure 
of the same Jesus, "Who, for the joy that was set before Him, endured the cross, 
despised the shame, and is now set on the right hand of the Majesty on high." 
There is the great High "Priest upon His Throne," crowned and robed, 
holding the Book of Life, "ever living to make intercession," "appearing 
before God for us," surrounded by angels, and amidst the glory of the 
"Redeemed from among men," lifting His Hands in blessing upon His 
Church as at the Ascension. 

Then on either side are the great historical preludes of this mighty 
mystery. 

I. — Righteous Abel and his sacrifice of faith looking forward to the sprinkling 
of that Blood "which speaketh better things" than that of the first 
witness slain for God's truth. 

2. — Noah, who walked with God and offered his oblation of thanksgiving for 
redemption from the punisliment that overtook the ungodly. 



•rktrko CATHEbkAt. i5 

3. — The Tree of Life — the Sacrament of Life in Paradise — emblem of the Living 
Sacrament of Life in the Church on earth, and of the bliss of Eternal 
Communion in Heaven. 

4. — The Sacrifice of Isaac — faint type of the gift of an Eternal Father, "Who 
spared not His own Son." 

5. — The Brazen Serpent — type of the uplifting of the Son of Man on the 
Cross to redeem mankind from the curse of sin. 

6. — Feasting on the Paschal Lamb — the figure of Him that was to be *' the very 
Paschal Lamb, that taketh away the sin of the world," and Whose Flesh is 
" meat indeed " for His people. 

7. — The Shew Bread — the emblem and the memorial of the self-oblation and 

the consecration of the 12 tribes, and of mystic communion with God in 

His Sanctuary, to be realised in a far deeper sense and meaning in the 

Eucharistic feast, where Christians feed on the Bread of Life, and 

" offer themselves, their souls and bodies as a living sacrifice" to God, 

their reconciled Father. 
8. — The gathering of the first fruits — fulfilled in the Resurrection of the Son 

of God, " the first fruits of them that slept," in the Sanctification of the 

Church as " akind of first fruits of His creatures," and in the consecration to 

God in this present world now, and hereafter at the great harvest, of 

all the best gifts of spirit, soul and body that man possesses, redeemed 

and made " fit for the Master's use." 

In the outer ders of niches are seen the figures of the prophets who spoke 
beforehand of all this ; Isaiah, the EvangeHcal prophet; and David, the Psalmist 
of the Passion ; Amos, the shepherd prophet of the Church's glory ; Zachariah, 
the prophet of the Priesthood ; Jeremiah, the prophet of mercy and judgment ; 
and Joel, the prophet of penitence ; Malachi, who foretold the oblation of 
the pure offering of the Eucharist. 

And then the Apostles and martyred Saints of the Christian Church. 

The twelve great "Foundations" of the Church grouped in the lower 
sub-divisions of the two side sections, and in the tiers of niches representatives 
of later saints of varied rank and station and time. 

St. Edmund, the English Christian King, shot to death by heathen Danes. 

St. Polycarp, the Holy Bishop and Martyr of Smyrna. 

St. CeciUa, the sweet singer and Virgin Martyr. 

St. Alban, Proto-martyr of Britain. 

St. George, the saintly soldier-martyr of Cappadocia, Patron of England. 

St. Catherine, the cultured Virgin Martyr, patroness of philosophy and 
learning. 

St. Lawrence, the holy Archdeacon of Rome and Martyr. 

St. Vincent, the martyred Deacon of Spain, who, with St. Lawrence, 
bore witness with his blood in the great persecution under Diocletian. 

This magnificent reredos is the gift of the Deanery of Powder, and is the 
work of Mr. N. Hitch, of Kennington. 

The Sanctuary is enclosed on the North and South sides by richly carved 
stone screens. The Northern one contains a seat for the Bishop and assistant 
Clergy. It is the gift of the Deanery of West. 

The Southern screen contains the Piscina, credence table, and Sedilia for 
Celebrant, Epistoler, and Gospeller, with decorated canopies, and are the gift 
of the Deanery of Stratton and other donors. 



26 



TRURO CATHEDRAL. 



In the side screens are five buttresses on each side, and a series of 
sculptured figures, representing the following Saints in order, commencing 
from the South side : — 

1. S. Stephen. 4. S. David. 7. S. Benedict. 

2. S. Martin. 5. S. Chad. 8. S. Dunstan. 

3. S. Blaise. b. S. Hilary. 9. S. Bede. 

10. S. Alphege. 13. S. Giles. 

11. S.Agatha. 14. S.Nicolas. 
[5. S. Valentine. 



12. S. Swithin. 
On the North side : — 

16. S. Remigius. 

17. S. Lambert. 

18. S. Agnes. 

25. S. Edward. 

26. S. Jerome. 

27. S. Augustine. 



19. 
20. 
21. 



S. Crispin. 
S. Boniface. 



22. 

23- 

24. 



S. Etheldreda. 
S. Gregory. 
S. Ambrose. 



S. Margaret. 

28. S. John Baptist 

29. S. Anne. 

30. S. Mary Magdalene. 

With Archbishops Becket and Laud in the Bishop's seat. 

These saints, taken with those on the reredos, form the noble Company 
of the Saints commemorated in the Kalendar of the English Church, both on 
the " Black letter days " (as they are called) and the "red letter days," or 
days of "obligation," appointed in the Prayer Book in the "table of all the 
feasts that are to be observed in the Church of England throughout the 
year;" or at least included in the comprehensive festival of All Saints, within 
the octave of which Feast the consecration of the Cathedral took place 
November 3rd, 1887. 

In the sculpture of the panels are represented : — 

1. The Resurrection. Entering the Sepulchre. 

2. Christ reveaUng Himself to Mary. 

3. On the road to Emmaus. 

4. The Supper. 

5. Appearance to the Apostles. 

6. The appearance to S. Thomas. 

7. Moses striking the rock. 

8. Gathering the manna, 
r 9. The draught of fishes. 
\io. 

These all give a representation of the Lord's Risen Life, and such types and 
events as illustrate the power and strength of that Risen Life manifested in 
His Church. The sculpture is the work of Mr. N. Hitch, of Kennington. 



THE ALTAR AND ITS FURNITURE. 
55JHE Altar is a beautiful work of art ; it is of rich mahogany, carved and 
^® decorated in gold and colours, with figures of angels and other 
emblems. The altar is the gift of the late Miss Nankivell. 
There will be a complete set of beautiful altar frontals, of four colours, 
white, red, purple, and blue.* These colours are those found in the descrip- 
tion of the tabernacle in the book Exodus, and are believed on good authority 
to have been used, not only in the early English Church, but also very 

•For information on these colours see "Liturgical colours," by Clapton Rolfe, an 
ingenious and learned dissertation. 



TRURO CATHEDRAL. 27 

generally in this country during the middle ages, up to and including the 2nd 
year of King Edward the Sixth, the date referred to by the famous ** ornaments" 
rubric" in the Book of Common Prayer as the standard of reference for the 
Church of England in these matters. Inventories of vestments existing at 
that date in churches throughout England for the altar as well as for 
officiating clergy include all these colours. 

The colours in the Sarum rite were briefly as follows : — 
White. — Eastertide, and probably Christmastide. Feasts of the Blessed Virgin, 

St. Michael, St. John, Virgins' Days, Dedication festival. 
Red.— All Sundays (not in Eastertide) and Martyrs' Days. 
Ash Wednesday, Maundy Thursday, Good Friday. 
Yellow. — Confessors. 
Blue was used very frequently, probably as a ferial colour, as were also purple, 

broMOi, grey, green, &,c. 

At Exeter a somewhat different use was introduced by Bishop Grandison, 
and agreed more nearly with the sequence of colours used in the present 
Roman Cathohc Church, and adopted in some churches of the AngUcan 
Communion at the present day. 



THE ALTAR FRONTALS. 

I. — The White Frontal is of the richest cream white damask and 
golden velvet, covered with highly-raised embroidery, with "bosses" of amber 
set in portions of the work. The flowers on this frontal are those which are 
S}mbolical of the Incarnation of the Son of God, born of the Blessed Virgin 
Mary, such as the rose, lily, pomegranate, and marigold. There are four 
exquisitely-embroidered figures of Cherubim, crowned vvdth asphodel, on the 
golden satin orphreys. A great portion of the beautiful needlework has been 
wrought by the hands of the donors. Lady Shaftesbury and Mrs. Lewis. 

II. The Red Frontal (for Pentecost.) — The red Whitsuntide frontal 
is of a rich red satin brocade. The centrepiece of the design being an Agnus 
Dei, richly embroidered, and standing in a golden green mound, flov^dng from 
which are the four typical rivers. The whole back-ground is powdered with 
gold stars, and a canopy of blue and gold overarches the entire centre. On 
either side of the Agnus Dei are two panels, each containing a beautifully 
embroidered Angel, worshipping and swinging a censer. The two Angels 
nearest the centrepiece have their heads bowed in worship ; those at the ends 
with their heads upUfted in praise. The ground of these panels is also 
powdered with gold stars, and each has a canopy of blue and gold. There 
are four orphreys of dark blue damask, richly worked with gold fylfot crosses 
and embroidery. 

The Super-frontal is of red silk velvet, with a massive design of roses, 
embroidered in colours, and stems of raised gold. The whole was worked by 
the Sisters of S. Mary the Virgin, Wantage, and is the gift of the Deanery of 
Bodmin. 

III. The Red Frontal (for Martyrs.)— This frontal is designed after Van 



28 TRUllO CATHEDRAL. 

Eyck's Adoration of the Lamb (in Ghent Cathedral). The centre figure, 
representing the " Lamb as it had been slain," on the altar on the fair hill of 
Sion, and the two figures on either side, St. Mary and St. John Baptist, are 
copied from his picture ; while the two outside figures represent two Cornish 
Evangelists — St. Piran, wearing the robes and ornaments of his age, is copied 
from a figure of a Celtic Bishop on the West Front of Rheims Cathedral. The 
breastplate worn at that time by Cornish Bishops is composed of the twelve 
stones mentioned in the Revelation of St. John, in their order The mitre is 
of the distinctive Cornish type, as is also the staff of silver. St. Buriena wears 
the undyed wool of the Welsh sheep, covered with her royal mantle of Irish 
yellow. The " Powdering " are sketches fiom the picture; the whole being 
meant to represent the worship of the Blessed. The somewhat stiff treatment 
is due to Van Eyck's style, and the use of pure colours, mixed tints being in 
his day unknown, was adopted in order to give dignity and boldness to a 
work which will be seen from far. This frontal was worked by Sister Clara, 
of St. James' Home, Kilkhampton, and Mrs. Carnsew. 

IV. — The Blue Frontal is of rich damask silk, embroidered with 
medallions. There are four orphreys of liUes treated conventionally. The 
Super-frontal is of blue velvet, with embroidered Fleurs de Lys. The whole 
was designed by Mr. Pearson, and worked and presented by Mrs. Lewis Foster, 
the Misses Tatham, and Miss Penrose. 



THE FRONTAL BOX. 

y2?HE press for altar frontals, which stands in the retro-choir, is con- 
\3/ structed of Burmese Teak, with an internal Iming of cedar. 

The front is elaborately sculptured with traceried and foliated arcading 
and crocketed gablets. The lid is hung with four massive wrought iron hinges, 
Dolted to the woodwork, and fastened with wrought iron padlocks. 

It was made and sculptured by the same firm that executed the Bishop's 
throne, and is the gift of the parish of Lawhitton. 



THE ALTAR CROSS. 

ft^HIS beautiful ornament is of pure silver gilt, set with various precious 
^g) stones. It stands two feet in height, and is all wrought and chased by 
" hammer and hand." It is a very beautiful example of the gold- 
smith's art. The design includes at the four terminations of the cross Angels, 
with censers chased in bas-rehef, while a choir of adoring angehc ministrants 
are seen in high relief in a series of arcaded niches in the boss under the 
shaft of the cross. The base at the foot is octagonal, and is also nicely 
chased and ♦♦ bossed." In the centre of the cross is shown the figure of 
the "Agnus Dei," most exquisitely wrought in "repousse" work. The 
whole cross was designed by the architect, and executed by Messrs. Cox, 
Sons, Buckley, and Co. It is the gift of Lady Magheramore. 

The Altar Candlesticks and Vases are of handsome design, and harmonise 
well with the cross. They are the work of Hart, Peard, and Co., London, 
and the gifts ef the Misses Roberts and Miss Pennant, 



TRURO CATHEDRAL. ^9 

THE SANCTUARY STANDARD LIGHTS. 

rE two Sanctuary Standards are of polished brass, and have each 57 lights, 
a centre circular stem rises to a height of about 1 1 feet from a solid base, 2 
feet in diameter, which rests upon four legs of simple design, and these 
are attached by interlacing scroll-work to the centre stem, which is banded at 
intervals. At the height of 7 feet 6 inches four ornamental brackets spring 
from it, and support the lower circle, of 24 lights. Above this is a second 
and smaller circle, of 16 lights, supported from the lower one by upright, 
fringed with delicate scroll work. Each of these circles is attached by open 
scroll-work to the centre stem, which terminates in a tapering cluster of 17 
lights. These standards have been made by Messrs. White and Sons, of 207, 
Oxford-street, London, 



THE ALTAR RAILS. 

SHE Altar Rails are also of polished brass, each 8 feet 2 inches long, and 
2 feet 3 inches high, divided into three panels by four square pillars, and 
filled in with ornamental scroll-work, surmounted with a brass rail at 
top. The rails are by same artists as the standards. 



THE SOUTH AISLE. 

ftJjjHE visitor, now leaving the choir by the iron gate that leads into the 
^® south aisle of the choir, can proceed to visit the parochial portion of the 
building, first noticing the beautiful proportions of the groined roof and 
arches of the choir aisle. In addition to this aisle, there is a passage or 
ambulatory between the southern aisle of the choir and the Parish Church, 
which deserves some attentive inspection ; the architect had a somewhat 
difficult problem to overcome in the junction of two buildings dissimilar in 
architectural character as well as in height and strength. The needful 
strength for buttresses to resist the thrust and weight has been successfully 
secured, while the rich geometric panelled work in the space above the 
arches prepares the eye for the later perpendicular style of the building we 
are now entering. The south aisle of the old Parish Church now forms a 
complete Chvu-ch in itself, and is set apart for parochial use, and has secured 
to it all the legal rights and privileges of a Parish Church, by the Act of 
Parliament referred to on page 9. It contains the old parish altar described 
on page 9, to the south of which is a modern piscina, with credence table 
of stone ; behind the altar is a handsome dossal. 

The sanctuary is paved with tiles that were taken from the old Church, 
the rest of the aisle with plain tiles and wood block pavement. The seats 
for the clergy are made from old woodwork. The organ on the south side is 
the one referred to on page 9, re-airanged and repaired; the curved and 
waggon-shaped roof is formed of a portion of that found beneath the plaster 
ceiling described on page 9. The east window is filled with stained glass 
of a decorative character, containing emblems of the four evangelists, and 
escutcheons bearing the instruments of the Passion and various scriptural 
texts referring to the same subject. 

There are memorial windows to members of families closely connected 



30 TRURO CATHEDRAL. 

with Tiuro — Harvey, Willyaras, Daubuz. The subjects of the glass that 
fills these windows include events in the life and work of our Blessed Lord, 
His parables and miracles, as follows : 

Lazarus raised to life. 
The Good Samaritan. 
Christ blessing Httle children. 



The Deposition. 
The Entombment. 
The Resurrection. 
The Ascension. 
The Supper at Bethany. 
Works of mercy. 



Jairus's daughter. 

The Publican and Pharisee. 

Christ's Entry into Jerusalem. 

The date of this glass is the early half of the nineteeenth century :— 

In the three windows nearest the west-end are preserved some interesting 
fragments of stained glass of the 1 6th century, referred to on page 9. 

In the tower, which is approached by a circular staircase from the west 
end of the aisle, are the clock and bells alluded to on p. 10. 



THE CRYPT. 

nS ETURNING eastwards through the ambulatory, the visitor would do well 
J|*jk to pass down the staircase immediately in front of him, when he will find 
^^ himself in the Crypt. This is a very fine feature of the building, 
though its general effect and grand proportions are at present somewhat 
marred and obscured, through its being divided by partition walls into various 
chambers. This, however, was necessary, that provision might be made for 
vestry and other similar accommodation. These chambers include on the 
eastern side a temporary chapter-room and a small vestry for the Bishop ; on 
the western side a vestry for the clergy and a large room for choir vestry and 
practising school. The vaulted roof of the Crypt is supported on solid pillars, 
of a substantial character, and when seen, as it was before it was divided, and, 
as it was designed to be, entirely open from end to end, it presented a 
beautiful appearance. It is hoped that some day, when a chapter-house and 
vestries are erected, that the partitions will be removed, and the fair proportions 
of the Crypt made visible once more. The Crypt is heated with hot water, 
and the Cathedral also by hot air (Grundy's patent apparatus), the furnace 
chamber being situate under the Northern Transept. Passing along the 
central passage of the Crypt, the visitor should ascend the Northern Staircase, 
and will find himself in the north aisle of the choir ; he should pass behind the 
leredos and examine the beautiful detached shafts and arches of 

THE RETRO-CHOIR. 

ft^HE flooring of the Retro-choir, as well of the choir aisles and transepts, 
ft) is made of a species of concrete, composed of minute fragments of 
^■^ different marbles, mixed with coloured cements and laid in simple 
patterns. The whole forms a thoroughly solid mass, presenting a perfectly 
smooth surface, of beautiful grain and tint. 

The arcading round the eastern end of the choir and choir aisles is designed 
with considerable variety of detail, and is decorated with elegant carving. 

Here it will be well to c^U attention to th^ stained glass of tl^e e^( 



TRURO CATHEDRAL. 3 1 

windows of the choir. They form the centre and climax of a very full and 
elaborate scheme, that is intended to be carried out hereafter throughout the 
whole Cathedral. (See appendix for fuller details.) The east windows repre- 
sent our Lord in His humiliation and in His glory. In the three lower lights 
are given the details of His life and death of humility ; in the upper His glory 
and majesty with His saints and angels. These windows are the gift of the 
Deanery of East. The rich colouring of the glass is very characteristic of the 
period of the architecture of the Cathedral, and gives a fane tone and solemn 
"dim religious light" to the choir and the whole building. Taken in 
combination with the pure tones of the delicately sculptured stone work, the 
quiet tints of the different materials used in the construction of the building, 
the rich but subdued patterns of the flooring, the dark wood carving, and the 
polished metal of the ornaments, there is a splendid and harmonious effect of 
variously contributing details not to be surpassed in any modern building. 



CONCLUDING REMARKS. 



IN conclusion, it may be said, without exaggeration, that Truro Cathedral is 
a public witness to the living faith of the An ghcan Branch of the Catholic 
Church. In this prosaic and utilitarian age, men and women have given 
nobly and generously to raise a splendid temple, " exceeding magnificil," as a 
♦* House of God " and a " House of Prayer for all people " of the Diocese. It 
has called forth all the noblest energies of architect, builder, sculptor, painter, 
artificer in stone and wood and metal and glass, the delicate skill of the 
embroiderer and of the worker in fine linen. Materials from its native Corn- 
wall, together with choice marbles from distant lands, have been used to rear 
its walls and clothe them with beauty. It has all the " instrumenta " of Divine 
worship richly provided — plate, silver and gold, vessels of brass, books bound 
in fairly wrought covers, a magnificent organ. What shall be the issue of all 
this costly expenditure of thought and skill, art and mateiial, energy and 
money.'' Not, it is hoped, the mere election of a lovely building to which the 
tourist and the lover of art shall come to satisfy a passing curiosity or a shallow 
asthetic taste ; but a sanctuary for the highest of purposes— the woiship of the 
Almighty, '• the High and Lofty One that inhabiteth eternity, whose name is 
Holy ;" the worship of the Father " in spirit and in truth." And again, shall 
it not become a centre of life and love for the children of God .'' To it may go 
up "the tribes of the Lord" as to a spiritual "Jerusalem, builded as a ciiy 
that is compact together," " to give thanks unto the name of the Lord." In 
Cornwall, with its twelve Deaneries, there is a likeness to Israel of old, and 
the Cathedral may be to them a centre of unity and of life. To it the people 
were invited to come day after day from their 12 deaneiies in the octave of the 
consecration, with clergy and choirs, churchworkers, lay people, men and women, 
and to realise their oneness in the body of Christ, and to claim the Cathedral 
as their own Mother Church. Let this be often done, and the Cathedral be 
made a place of meeting for all the various societies of the Diocese— confrater- 
nities, guilds, organisations for spiritual, educational, and moral work, for 
puriiy, temperance, home missions, foreign missions— and it will then be doing 
the work that its first founders hoped and prayed for. Let this be done, ana 
Truro Cathedral will become what it is desired that the Mother Church of the 
Diocese should always be — "A city set upon a hill," "A praise m the earth." 



®ppenbi;c^ 



THE CORNISH SAINTS TO WHOM THE STALLS IN 
TRURO CATHEDRAL ARE DEDICATED. 

By the Rev. W. S. Lach-Szyrma, M.A., Vicar of Newly n, St. PeUr. 



INTRODUCTORY REMARKS. 

IN the following pages will be found a short statement of the histoiy of the 
twenty-four Cornish Saints after whom the stalls in Truro Cathedral are 

named. They are arranged alphabetically for convenience of reference, so 
that anyone desiring to know about a particular saint or stall can find what is 
said easily by referring to the name under its letter. 

It may be noticed that the account of some of the saints is very brief, the 
fact being that only the main outlines of their history is known. At the same 
time all fair and candid persons must reject the theory that any of the Cornish 
Saints are mythical — the main particulars of their lives are as well authenticated 
as we can expect. The improbable legends which are related about several 
of them have been omitted, but may be readily found in books easy of access. 

I.— St. ADWENNA. 

rr T. ADWENNA was a Welsh princess, daughter of King Brychan. She 
2J is held to have been the founder of the parish of Advent, and possibly 
also of Ludgvan (which has been supposed to have been originally Lan- 
Dwynwen, or Lan-Adwenna, e.c, the Church of Adwenna).* She was held 
to be the ** Patron Saint of Lovers," and there is a curious legend also that 
on Ludgvan well she bestowed the blessing, that no one baptized in that well 
should be hanged. 

About her family there is a strange story, i.e.^ that her father, King 
Brychan, had 24 children, whose devotion to the Church caused them to be 
canonized by the early British Christians. This improbable story may probably 
be understood, that the Brychan Family being of great influence and wealth, 
produced several eminent persons, distinguished for their devotion to religion, 
/.<?., Bishops, hermits, abbesses, or founders of religious houses, and that some 
of these were sons and daughters, some grandsons and grandaughters of the 
good king Brychan. 

II.— St. ALDHELM. 

rf T. ALDHELM, unlike the majority of the Cornish Saints in the Cathedral, 
2J was a Saxon and not a Briton, and an ecclesiastic of the English, 
•^and not of the Brito-Celtic Church. Aldhelm was son of Kenter, a scion 
of the royal family of the West Saxons, and thus descended from Cerdic, and 
probably a collateral ancestor of her Majesty Queen Victoria, and of the present 
Royal Family of England. He was educated by an Irish scholar, Maidulf, at 
Malmesbury — so, though of Saxon blood, his earlier education was Celtic. He 
is said to have been a man of much learning for his age and country, studying 

* S«e Borlase, " The Age of the Saints," p. 89, 90. 



CORNISH SAINTS. 33 

Greek and even Hebrew at Canterbury, in the school of the great Theodore, 
the Archbishop. About 670 he was made abbot of Malmesbury. He founded 
Frome and Bedford inonasteries, and had a share in restoring Glastonbury, He 
is said to have been the first EngUshman who studied Latin metres. 

The letter of Aldhelm to king Gerontius is of great interest, as showing the 
efforts made at that time to bring the Cornish Church into union with the 
English and with ihe rest of Latin Christendom. It would seem that the 
Cornish clergy and laity refused all friendly intercourse with the English clergy, 
and even destroyed the vessels from which they had eaten, as polluted. Aid- 
helm was very anxious to bring the Cornish church into communion with the 
see of Canterbury, and used very strong language on the subject. The great 
diocese of Wessex being divided, he was made first bishop of Sherborne, and 
thus, in some sense, may be regarded as a predecessor of the English bishops 
of Cornwall, i.e.., of St. Germans and Bodmin, as, certainly, by his energy and 
ability, he had a great influence in the religious history ot the western portion 
of the kingdom of Wessex, and paved the way for the absorption of the 
Church of Cornwall into that of England as his cousin (or uncle, as Fabricius 
affirms), king Ina did for the absorption of the kingdom of Cornwall into that 
of England. 

A goodly number of the writings of Aldhelm are still extant in prose 
and poetry. They are quaint, but show learning, and are interesting, as 
revealing the prevalent ideas of an age in which England has but few hterary 
relics. He may be regarded, with St. Columb, the greatest author of the 
24 saints to whom these stalls are dedicated. 



in.— St. BREACA. 

^T. BREA.CA was an Irish Princess, possibly sister of King and Saint 
X^ Germoe. She accompanied the expedition of S.S. la, Uni, Sininus, 
•^ Elwyn, Maman, Crewenna (Crowan), Wynnerus (Gwinear), and 
Germochus to St. Ives Bay about, A.D. 450. She was born in East Meath, on 
the borders of Leinster and Munster. She was probably a friend of St. 
Brigid before leaving Ireland, and the Magh Breagh, or '* field of Bieaca," 
between the Liffey and Boyne, is said to be named after her. She is said by 
Butler to have been a disciple of St. Patrick. When she arrived into Cornwall 
she appears to have escaped the ferocity of Tewdar and the Pagans, and to 
have settled on the range of hiUs over the east of Mount's Bay, where St. 
Breage Church now stands. Here she was a neighbour of St. Germoe 
(possibly her brother), hence the Cornish saying, 

Germoe mather, — Germoe a king. 

Breaga lavethes. — Breage a midwife. 

Thus Breaca may be counted one of the first "nursing sisters" of old 
Cornwall. 



IV.— St. BURIENA.— (the Virgin.) 

J?T. BURIENA was probably (as Mr. W. C. Borlase supposes) the same as 
2J Bruinsech, the slender princess of Donegal, " the daughter of a king of 
•^ that part of Ireland." Bruinsech was celebrated for her beauty, indeed, 
was one of the most famous beauties of Ireland. She was converted 



34 CORNlSEt SAINTS. 

to Christianity (by S. Kieran, or S. Piran, as he is called in Cornwall) and, it 

appears, became a nun. She could not, however, escape her suitors, and was 

abducted by one of them from her cell. She escaped, however, it appears to 

Cornwall, where St. Piran ministered so successfully. She is especially 

remembered at Buriaa, which was said by old writers to be dedicated to " S. 

Burien the Virgin." Here was erected by Athelstan the famous collegiate 

church and deanery of Burian, which remained a Royal Peculiar until our 

own times. The deans of Burian had singular rights and privileges. They 

appear long to have been independent of the Bishops of Exeter, and bad a 

probate court of their own, ■with power to prove wills. Some of the mediaeval 

deans were men of eminence. The privileges of Burian were like those of 

Westminster Abbey and S. George's, Windsor. In recent times, however, 

the deanery has been abolished, and the rectories of Burian, S. Levan, and 

Sennen formed out of it. 

The romantic legend of S. Burian has been worked out into a tale in the 
Cornish Magazine for 1886. 



V.~St. CARANTOC, or CRANTOCK. 

#*^T. CARANTOC, or Caimech, is placed in the legends as early as 
J% the fifth century, i.e., long before either St. Augustine of Canterbury 
•^ or St. Gregory were bom. He is said to have come from Cornwall, and 
have assisted S. Patrick in drawing up the Brehon Laws. In an Irish manu- 
script of Century VIII., i.e., the Feiline of .^Engus, he is said to have been 
a Comishman by birth, but this is doubtful. Like St. Piran he appears to 
have carried his altar with him. 1 his altar is said to have beenlanded at Carran or 
Crantock, near wnere now Crantock Church is built. Legend says that here 
was reared the mythic city of Lancarrow, which was notorious for its luxury, 
and was swept away by the sea as a punishment for its wickedness— (See 
Hunt's " Drolls.") A collegiate church of Crantock was established here 
nearly 1,000 years ago, and is recorded in Exeter Domesday Book (1087). It 
had its Canons, who held a manor of Langorroc. St. Caran toe is counted as 
one of the links between the Irish, Welsh, and Cornish Saints, for in some 
sense he might be claimed by each country, i.e., Ireland, Wales, and Cornwall. 



VI.— St. COLUMB OR COLUMBANUS. 

^OLUMBANUS (who is probably the Cornish St. Columb) was bom in 
wl Leinster in 543. He was educated at the Irish monastery of Bangor, 
w under St. Comgall, and became a monk there. When about 40 years of 
age he started as a Missionary, and, with twelve companions, in memory of the 
twelve Apostles, went to Britain, and probably to Cornwall, where he is 
commemorated at St. Columb Major and Minor. He went to the Vosges 
and founded some famous monasteries. He was among the most celebrated of 
the ancient Irish missionaries to the continent of Europe. 



CORNISH SAINTS. 35 

VII.— St. CONAN. 

^R^HE first English bishop of St. German's in the days of King Athelstan. 
\g) It seems that Kenstec, of Dingerin (or St. Gerrans), had formerly been 
a bishop under the authority of the archiepiscopal See of Canterbury, 
but, as far as we can understand the history of the EngUsh bishopric of 
Cornwall, Conan was the first Bishop of the Cornish who commenced the 
line of Bishops under the dominion of Canterbury, which Hne closed with 
Leofric, the famous founder of the See of Exeter. Bishop Conan was thus 
founder of the bishopric of St. German's in much the same sense as Archbishop 
Benson was of Truro, nearly one thousand years after. 

There is little known of Bishop Conan ; but several signatures of his are 
extant, and there can be no doubt, even to the most hypercritical historian, of 
his existence and his episcopate in Cornwall. His name is Celtic, and he was 
probably a Comishman, or at least a Briton. Conan is a well known 
Armorican name, and is linked in the legend of the "Beunans Meriasek " 
with the memory of the king of Brittany, who offered his daughter, the 
princess, in marriage to Meriasek before his mission into Cornwall. 



VIII.— St. CONSTANTINE. 

rjT. CONSTANTINE was a King of CornwaU, and is, therefore, one of 
Jiy the Royal Cornish SaiHts. He is said to have been a descendant of the 
•^ Emperor Constantine the Great and of the Empress Helena, but this, 
probably, is a mere after- thought, derived from the resemblance or identity of 
their names. 

Constantine appears in his earlier days to have been of by no means a 
saintly character. He was son of King Padain, and, therefore, a Prince 
of Cernwall by his own right. He was a harsh man in his younger days, and 
is called by Gildas "The tyrranous whelp of the filthy honess of Damnonia." 
To obtain the erown he appears to have killed two royal children (probably 
bis nephews) who stood in the way of his kingship. He also is said to have 
divorced his wife, and (in another narrative) to have been much grieved at her 
death afterwards. Probably, it was for this reason, and with the qualms of 
conscience, that he was induced to give up the monarchy and to retire into St. 
David's Monastery in Wales, from whence he went into " a foreign land," and 
there founded another rehgious house (probably in the west of Scotland). 
Here he died in A.D. 576, after living an exemplary life of repentance. 

Although the earlier life of King Constantine does not seem at all suited 
to his position in Cornish and Welsh hagiology, yet it should be remembered 
that even in Holy Writ King David is spoken of with commendation, in spite 
of his sins, and also that St. Augustine, of Hippo, and many other eminent 
saints were guilty of many sins in their early days. The temptations of 
his position as Prince in a barbarous age form some excuse for Constantine's 
faults in his earlier career. He was in his way a great man, and probably in 
time became a good man. 

Constantine gives the name to an important parish near Falmouth. The 
name of ** Constantine " is famiHar in old Cornish legend, and the story of the 
Emperor Constantine the Great forms a part of the M.S. of the Beunans 
Meriasek, under the head of the Life of St. Sylvester. 

There is another St. Constantine, it appears, in Cornish legend, who was 
a chieftain of North CornwaD, converted by S. Petrock. 



3^ CORNtSit SAiKtS. 

IX.— St. CORENTIN. 
%g? BRETON Bishop of the 5th Century, and, therefore, anterior to St. 
XX Augustine of Canterbury. He was consecrated by the great St. Martin, 
of Tours. St. Martin's legend of his dividing his cloak with the beggar 
is familiar to all students of mediaeval Christian art, as often depicted in fresco 
and stained windows, and after whom the oldest parish Church in England, now 
used as such, is named, i.e., St Martin, at Canterbury. St. Corentin founded the 
Diocese of Quimper, in Brittany, which is situated in the French Cornu-gallia 
or Comouaille. He was a popular Cornish Saint, and St. Cury Parish is named 
after him. He was possibly one of the first missionaries from Armorica 
who laboured in Cornwall. 



X.— St. CUBY or CYBY. 

£y T. CUBY was a Prince of Cornwall, son of Solomon, King of Cornwall, 
JIJ and grandson of King or Saint Gen ans. He was bom between the Lynher 
•^ and Nottar, i.e., near Callington. When a young man he went to Gaul, 
and was a disciple of the famous St. Hilary, of Poictiers, who afterwards 
consecrated him Bishop. He was thus another case of a great chieftain giving 
up secular power to receive the Episcopate. He appears, like so many Brito- 
Celtic Bishops, to have travelled much, visiting Wales and Ireland, and, 
legend adds, even making a pilgrimage to Jerusalem. A number of legends 
and miracles are related in the Vita Sancti Kehii (republished by Mr. Rees), 
of this eminent Comishman, but they are improbable, and not very interesting. 
Amon^ them we have a story, like that told of St. Neot, of a she-goat fleeing for 
refuge to St. Cuby from the hunters. He gave her safety, and obtained from 
the King the ground on which the hounds had run. The King gave up his 
castle to Cuby, who there died in great honour, eminent alike as prelate and 
as Prince. It seems this occured in Anglesey, where he founded a monastery. 
He is patron of Cuby parish, and also of Duloe, and was much regarded in 
Wales, where many Churches are called after him. 



XI.— St. GERMAN OR GERMANUS. 

rE Great St. Germanus, or Gennain, was bom at Auxerre, in France, 
hence he is called by the French *' St. Germain Auxerrois." His parents 
are said to have been Rusticus and Germanilla, who both were 
Christians, and he was baptised as a child. He was educated, probably, at 
Lyons, and thence went to Rome, where he studied at the Bar, and practised 
as a barrister at the prefect's tribunal. On his return home he married a lady 
called Eustachia, and became one of the six "Dukes of Gaul." In his leisure 
time Germanus was a great huntsman, and offended the Bishop Amator of 
Auxerre by his hanging the heads of his game on a pear tree, which the 
Bishop thought looked very like the pagan votive offerings to the 
heathen gods. The Bi^hop cut down the pear tree. Germanus, furious, 
threatened Amator's life, who, struck by the resolute conduct of his adversary, 
thought he would make a good head of the diocese. Amator summoned his 
clergy and laity to the Church, and bade the latter disarm themselves. 
Germanus, with the other laymen, obeyed. Then the Bishop, almost by 
force, induced Germanus to receive holy orders. Soon afterwards the Bishop 



CORNISH SAINTS. 37 

was taken ill, and he pursuaded the people to elect Germanus. Amator was 
taken to the Church, and there, on the Episcopal throne, he expired. 
Germanus was elected to the office ol Bishop of Auxerre, but he became an 
utterly changed man. He gave up his property to the poor, and was a com- 
plete ascetic. Still he was very hospitable, and gave good meals to his 
guests, though he did not partake of them hii self. 

At this time, ?.<?., A.D. 431, Pelagianism (which denied original sin) 
was common in Britain. A synod was assembled in Gaul, where the com- 
plaint of the British Bishops was heard, and Germanus, now Bishop of 
Auxerre (his native town), and Lupus, Bishop of Troyes, were deputed to go 
on a mission to Britain to correct these errors. On his road, when near Paris, 
Germanus called St. Genevieve to devote herself to the religious life. The 
passage of the Channel was very rough, and it seems that Germanus was carried to 
the East Cornish coast, and, tradition says, landed near St. German's Hut, 
and the monastery and parish of St. German's (at one time the seat of the 
Cornish Bishopric, and the centre of religious life in East Cornwall) were 
founded in his memory near his landing place. It is said, however, that the 
great struggle with Pelagianism took place at Verulam or St. Albans, where 
the Pelagians were refuted by Germanus. It is curious to note this historic 
link between the two new Sees of Truro and St. Albans. In 1447 he made a 
second expedition to Britain, in company of Severus, Bishop of Treves. 
There are many Welsh traditions of German's doings in their country, and 
in other parts of Britain. He founded several colleges (of which, possibly, 
our Cornish St. German's may have been one.) The latter history of St. 
German belongs rather to the history of France than of Cornwall, e.g.^ 
his courageous dealing with the Alapi, his mission to Ravenna, his death in 
Italy, and the great funeral he had at Auxerre. 

The Cornish mediaeval Church had a special service in memory of St. 
German, who seems always to have been as much respected in Cornwall as in 
France. One of the finest Churches in Paris, St. Germain Auxerrois, is 
dedicated to his honour, as well as the handsome Church of St. German's, in 
Cornwall, erected on the site of Cornwall's ancient Cathedral; also St. 
German's Cathedral at Peel, in the Isle of Man. 



XII.— St. GERMOC. 



ftJ^jHE history of St. Germochus, or Germocor Germoe(as he is called in modem 
^g) times), is one of the most interesting and suggestive in Cornish 
hagiology. He is said to have been an Irish King or regulus of the 
fifth century, converted to Christianity by the preaching, probably, of St. 
Patrick (to judge by the date.) About A.D. 450 he gave up his kingdom, 
and was consecrated Bishop. He is called by the old writers both " King " 
and "Bishop," e.g., by Leland (temp. Henry VIII.) he is mentioned as a King, 
in which local tradition agrees in the ancient Cornish saying, *' Germo Mather, 
Breaca lavethas." Germoe,aKing; Breaca, a midwife; and byWilliam of Wor- 
cester (temp. Edward IV.), as a Bishop. He was almost certainly both. He 
went with the expedition of St. la (of which we shall speak) to St. Ives Bay, 
and landed in Cornwall, but when the heathen tyrant Tewdar murdered some of 
the party, he appears to have been spared by him (possibly for prudential 
reasons, as his quondam Irish subjects might have avenged the murder of their 
ex-King, even though hehad become a Christian andbeen consecrated a Bishop.) 



38 CORNISH SAINTS. 

Germoe appears to have been allowed to live and die in peace, on the eastern 
shores of Mount's Bay, where the interesting Church of St. Germoe, and 
"St. Germoe's Chair," testify to its work, and, it may be, the tradition of 
his kingship. 

The legend of St. Germoe may be said to have some similarity to the famous 
Indian legend of Gautama Buddha, which has had such an influence on the 
religious thought of Asia, but is by no means improbable in itself. There is 
nothing so wonderful in an Irish King yielding his difficult post and office, 
and, in the fervour of religious enthusiasm, giving up all for Christ, and 
becoming a missionary Bishop among the as yet partly heathen Cornish 
people. 



XIII.-^St. IA. 

ifr. IA was an Irish Princess, who, with St. Germoe, sailed to St. Ives Bay 
J^ about A.D. 450 on a missionary expedition. They are said to have 
•^ "landed in Cornwall at a place called Heal (=Hayle) ; thence they went 
to a village called Conotconia," or Conerton — probably near the modem 
Connor Downs. By Leland's account, however, she is said to have landed 
at Pendinas, " the peninsula or rock where now the town of St. les (=Ives) 
standeth." The difference is not great, for St. Ives is scarcely 3 miles from 
Hayle. 

It is said that she by some means gained great influence with a local 
chieftain, " one Dinas, a lord of that country," and induced him to build a 
Church. 

This raised the wrath of the heathen King, Tewdar, who (to judge by Cornish 
legend) was really a Welsh chieftain, who had come over the Bristol Channel 
and settled with bis heathen followers at Hayle, or rather Riviere, on the spot 
where the Hayle Towans now stand. 

Tewdar resolved on St. la's death. According to tradition, he had 
already slain St. Gwithian or Gothian, who was thus the proto-martyr of Corn- 
wall, in whose memory, or by whom the ancient church or oratory of St. 
Gwithian, in the Gwithian sands (probably the oldest Christian Church in 
England) was reared. It appears that Tewdar and the heathens seized St. la 
and some of her followers, and killed them at Conerton, or Connor Downs, 
near Gwithian. 



XIV.— St. MERIADOC. 



ftJ^'HE story of St. Meriadoc was probably the most familiar of all the 
^W Cornish saint legends to mediaeval Comishmen, and of the greatest 
interest to modem students, for it was the subject of the most famous 
drama in the Cornish language — the last discovered of the few relics we have 
of that extinct tongue, i.e., the Beunans Meriasek, or "Life of Meiiasek." 
This curious work was discovered in 1869 among the Hengwert MSS. in 
Wales, and has, since then, been translated and published by Mr. Whitley 
Stokes. 

St. Meriadoc, or Meriasek, was a Breton noble of a branch of the Royal 
Family of Armorica. He is represented in the drama to have been from 
childhood a youth of exemplary piety. His relative, King Conan wished him 



CORNISH SAINTS. 39 

to marry his cousin, the Princess of Brittany, who was the heiress of great 
estates and manors, as well as a Royal Princess. But Meriadoc strenuously 
rejected the proposal, and fled the country (as the drama asserts, into Corn- 
wall), being ordained in Brittany. From the Meneage, where he landed, 
he is said to have gone to Camborne, and there established an oratory and 
hermitage. Here he devoted himself to Christianizing the rude population of 
Camborne and the neighbourhood of Cam Brea. He appears, from the 
drama, to have been through hfe a strict teetotaler, and thus may be regarded 
as the first founder and patron of Cornish temperance societies. His energetic 
work in Camborne raised the bitterness of the heathen tribes about Hayle, 
and he was threatened with death. It would seem that Meriadoc did not 
aspire to the martyr's crown, and so, finding the opposition strong against 
him, he fled from Camborne and from Cornwall, and, taking ship, embarked 
for his native Brittany. Here he was warmly received ; and when the 
Bishop of Vannes died he was elected to be his successor, and consecrated 
Bishop. In his episcopate in Brittany he was self-denying and earnest, and 
devoted himself to his duties. He ultimately died in quiet possession of his 
see, and in the odour of sanctity. 

The Church of Camborne, in the middle ages, greatly venerated the memory 
of the Breton Meriadoc, and the drama of his Hfe was written (at least, the 
copy now extant) in 1504. The drama was probably enacted in that 
neighbourhood at the Plan-an-guares. There is still a vestige of the venera- 
tion of Camborne folk for Meriasek, or Meriadoc, in their colloquial soubriquet 
of " Merrygleks." 



XV.— St. NECTAN. 

£7t. NECTAN was a Prince of Wales in the fifth century, son of the good 
7% King Brychan, or Brechan, and, therefore, brother of St. Adwenna, of 
•^ whom we have already spoken. He seems to have given up all for 
Christ, and settled in Cornwall. Here he was distinguished as a hermit of 
singular piety and holiness, as Hals calls him. It appears that he ultimately 
obtained the crown of martyrdom, for Leland speaks of him as a " martyr 
buried at Hartland," He is remembered both there and at St. Nighton Chapel, 
in St. Winnow. 



XVI.— St. NEOT. 

rrT. NEOT was another Royal saint, commemorated both at St. Neot, in 
A/ Cornwall (where his church, famed for its splendid and curious stained 
windows, is among the most famous ecclesiological curiosities of the 
county), and also at St. Neot, in Huntingdonshire. He is said to have been 
not a Cornishman, but a Saxon, a relative of King Alfred the Great. In his 
youth he entered Glastonbury Abbey as a monk, and became there one of the 
most learned ecclesiastics of his age. He was there ordained deacon and priest, 
St. Neot was alarmed by his own successes, and, fearing the temptation of 
vanity, retired to St. Guevirs, in Cornwall, which is now called St. Neot, a wild 
spot near the Bodmin Moors. In this hermitage he dwelt for seven years, in 
seclusion and meditation, and is said by hagiologists to have been favoured 
with many visions. It is also said that King Alfred sent to and even visited 



40 CORNISH SAINTS. 

the hermit Neot (the former statement is more probable than the latter) to 
consult him on affairs of State, as he had a very high opinion of his cousin's 
wisdom and discretion. It is said by Butler and others that Neot advised 
Alfred to form the University of Oxford, and formed the scheme for that 
university. This statement, of course, would be rejected by those who deny 
that King Alfred founded Oxford University. 

It is said that Neot suiFered from fistula, and died in 877. Many lives of 
the great St. Neot have been published. 



XVn»— St. PAUL, OR POL-DE-LEON. 

^I^HE Cornish saint " Paul " was not the great apostle of the Gentiles — 
^® though, possibly, baptised in that name after him — but a famous Breton 
or Cornish bishop of the sixth century. He is more familiar in modern 
times as the Bishop St. Pol-de-Leon, after whom the Cathedral and city 
of St. Pol-de-Leon, in Brittany, is named. 

St. Paul-de-Leon is called a " Breton from Cornwall and cousin of St. 
Samson." It is probable also that he was related to St. Padarn, of the 
neighbouring parish of Madron. He went, in his early days, to the convent 
of St. Iltutus, where he studied. He laboured among the fishing folk on the 
west shore of Mount's Bay, and established there the Church of St. Paul, 
which is called after him. He afterwards went to Brittany, and was the 
founder of the See of Leon there, in Cornouaille, called after him St. 
Pol-de-Leon. 



XVin.— St. PETROC, or PETROCUS—" CAPTAIN OF THE 

CORNISH SAINTS." 

rf T. PETROC is said by Leland to have been " by birth, a Camber ; 
3J studied 20 years in Ireland, returned to his monastery in Cornwall, and 
•^died there." This represents what was beHeved to have been, in the reign 
of Henry VIIL, the main outlines^ot Petroc's history, and probably it is quite 
correct. He was a very popular Brito-Celtic saint. He had no less than four 
churches dedicated to his memory in Cornwall, i.e., Bodmin, Little Petherick 
(or Petroc), Trevalga, and Padstow ^Petrochstow) ; eight in Devon, one in 
France, and two in Wales. He is said by some authorities to have been a 
Cornish Prince, by others to have been (as Leland thought) a Welshman, and 
an uncle of St. Cadoc. 

It appears he first settled at Padstow, and there established his monastery. 
Among the legends of St. Petroc is the following, which may be a variant of 
the Cornish legend of St. Cuby and of St. Neot. A stag, pressed by the 
hunters, fled to Petrock's cell. The servants reported the story to their 
master (Constantine), a harsh heathen chieftain. Constantine hurried to the 
spot and tried to smite Petroc, who turned his body rigid, and thereby con- 
verted him to Christianity. 

The monastery of St. Petroc at Bodmin (whither it was removed from 
Padstow because of the danger of pirates) was at one time, at least, a seat of 
the Cornish Bishopric and the centre of religious life in the county. 

Alban Butler says he died at Bodmin in 564. The value of St. Petroc's 



CORNISH SAINTS. 4I 

legend is shown by the contest for his relics, which in 11 78 were carried 
secretly to Meen in Brittany, but afterwards were restored to Bodmin. It 
appears that Petrock was both Bishop and Abbot, as was not unusual in the 
Bnti-Celtic Church. 

Although so famous in tradition little is known of the details of St. 
Petroc's life. 



XIX.— St. PIRAN OK PERRAN. 



tfr. PIRAN or Perran, in mediaeval Latin called St. Piranus, was almost 
2J to a certainty the same as the great Irish prelate St. Kieran or Ciaran. 
•^ This resemblance of the names is not manifest at first sight, but there 
are a great number of cases where tht Irish ** K " became " P " in Cornish, 
and this mutation is according to the aceepted laws ol philology. St. Piran was the 
patron and, probably, founder of three parishes in Cornwall, i.e., (i) Perran- 
zabuloe, where his memory is especially preserved ; (2) Perranarworthal ; and 
(3) Perranuthnoe. He is also known in the Irish form of his name at St. 
Keverne, and the legends about the Cornish St. Keverne probably relate to 
him. 

St. Piran was " the firstborn of the saints of Ireland," and was descended 
from the princes of Ossory. His father was Lugneus, and his mother was called 
Liadem. He is a little later than the earlier groups of Irish Saints, e.g., SS. 
la, Germoe, Breage, Uni, and is said to have been consecrated bishop inA.D. 
538. Thus supposing the oratory of St. Gwithian (disinterred from the 
Gwithian sands), was really erected by the proto-martyr of Cornwall, it woidd 
be the oldest Christian Church in England, for St. Martin's, Canterbury, even 
in its oldest part, would be more than a century later, and the famous Church 
of Perranzabuloe about 80 years later. 

It appears that St. Piran lived as a hermit in a lonely spot called Hele, 
in Ireland, and that he founded the monastery of Saighir. Here he established 
the bishopric of Ossory. It would appear that from Ireland he went to 
Cornwall and died, after a successsul ministry among the Cornish, near 
Padstow, on the north coast, or more probably at his own little Church of 
Perranzabuloe, which is very well suited, by its position and date, to have been 
the Irish prelate's last place of devotion and prayer. Probably in all England 
there is no place more suited for a hermit of the retiring and ascetic character 
of St. Piran than Perranzabuloe, and the place well suits the historic records 
of the character of the man. 

The discovery of the "buried church " of Perranzabuloe in modern times 
has given rise to a literature of its own, and the name of St. Piran, or Perran, 
is almost as well known in our nineteenth century as in his own time. The 
Church is interesting, as being one of the oldest Christian Churches (as we 
have seen) in England, or, indeed, in western Europe, preserved singularly 
well by the sand, but in danger, alas, from modem tourists. 

St. Piran was in themiddle ages regarded the patron of the Cornish miners. 
That he ministered to the " old men " of the tin mines of Perranzabuloe is not 
improbable, for there are mine works quite near the ancient Perran Church. 



42 CORNISH SAINTS. 

XX.— St. RUMON. 

ffl. RUMON" was a Scoto-Irish Bishop of the sixth century. He is said in 
5J the records of Tavistock Abbey, which Leland examined, to have been 
•^ ♦* Geneve Scottis Hibemiensis." He came over from Ireland to Cornwall 
and established in a forest in the Meneage, near the Lizard promontory, a 
hermitage. This forest abounded at that time with wild beasts, and here St. 
Rumon lived and prayed. He is called in history Ronan, Renon, andRuan, 
as well as Rumon. The forest in which he lived was Nemoean, or Nevet. St. 
Ronan's well, in Sir Walter Scott's well-known romance, was probably named 
after him. 

He was a popular Cornish saint in the middle ages. Not only St. Ruan 
Major and St. Ruan Minor, in the Meneage, probably originally erected and 
consecrated by him in the region of his solitary hermitage, but also Ruan 
Lanyhorne and the ancient chapelry of St. Rumon, in Redruth, were dedicated 
to him in Cornwall, as well as Rumonsleigh, in Devonshire. In Brittany, also, 
there are places called after him. 



XXI.— St. SAMSON. 

f^T. SAMSON was a Cornish Bishop, cousin of St. Paul. He is also 
/J connected in history with another cousin, St. Machutus, or St. Malo 
•^ (after whom St. Mawes is called), and several other of the Cornish 
saints appear to have had dealings with him as relatives or friends. He was 
a pupil of St. Iltutus, in Glamorganshire, and was ordained priest by St. 
Dubritius. He laboured in Wales, Ireland, Cornwall, and Brittany. In the 
latter country he converted many heathen, and founded the Abbey and 
Bishopric of Dol there. His signature to the Council of Paris in 557 is thus 
put, "I, Samson, a sinner, bishop, have consented and subscribed." He died 
about 564. 

XXII.— St. TEILO. 

r?T. TEILO was one of the " three blessed visitors of Britain," the other 
5j two being St. David, the famous patron of Wales, and St. Padarn, 
•^ whose visit to Cornwall and ministry there Comishmen commemorate in 
St. Madron Church. 

He was Bishop of LandafFin the sixth century, and is said to have travelled 
with SS. David and Padarn to Brittany, and thence to have made a pilgrimage 
to Jerusalem (the latter statement we must take cum grano salt's). He is said, 
with his nephew, Oudoceus, and a party of missionaries, to have visited 
Cornwall, and landed at the port of Dingerreim (probably tke modern St. 
Gerrans, near Falmouth). Thence he went to visit King Gerrenius of 
Cornwall, who was then dying. 



XXIII.— St. UNI. 

fTT. UNI, or UNY, was an Irish noble, brother of St. la, of whom we 
Z/ have already spoken. He was an Irishman of good family, probably a 
•^ chieftain, or regulus, in the fifth century. He came about A.D, 450 to 
St. Ives Bay with his sister, St. 1^, as we n^ve seen before, and with SS. 



CORNISH SAINTS. 43 

Breaca (Breage), Seninus (Sennen), Elwyn (or Elwyn, of Hayle), Maman, 
Germock, or Germo, Crewenna (Crowan), Helena, Ethan, Wynnerus, or 
Gwinnear. Very little is known of Uni, except that he was martyred by the 
tyrant Teudar, the heathen chief of Hayle. He was a popular saint in the 
middle ages, as not only St. Uuy Lelant (where he was buried) was dedicated 
to him, but also Redruth Church, and there is a chapel to him in Sancreed,viz; 
Chapel Uny. 

It has been suggested, though the subject is obscure, that the pillar, or 
menhir, recently discovered built in Gulval Church (probably as base to a cross) 
may be to his memory. 

XXIV.— St. WINWALOE. 

jfx. WINWALOE, or Winwaloei, was a British Prince, who fled before 
2^ the victorious Saxons into Armoria, or Brittany. Here he appears to 
•^ have been a disciple of the famous St. Martin, of Tours. He founded 
there the celebrated monastery of Landeveck, over which he presided as 
Abbot. In Cornwall he is remembered as patron of Landewednack, and also 
of Gunwallo (which in a corrupted form bears his name). He was com- 
memorated on March 3rd, or the Sunday nearest to it, and was buried in his 
monastery ol Landevench, where his shrine still exists. 

There was a cousin of St. Winwaloei, whose name is very like his, and 
who may be confounded with him, i.e., St. Winwaloe. 



ALPHABETICAL LIST OF THE STALLS OF TRURO 
CATHEDRAL. 

1. St. Adwenna Welsh Princess, 

2. St. Aldhelm English Bishop. ' 

3. St* Breaca Irish Princess. 

4. St. Bunena Irish Princess. 

5. St. Carantoc Cornish Bishop. 

6. St. Columb Irish Bishop and Missionary. 

7. St. Conan Cornish and English ... Bishop. 

8. St. Constantine Cornish King. 

9. St. Corentin Breton Bishop. 

10. St. Cuby or Cyby .... Cornish Prince and Bishop. 

11. St. German Gallic Bishop. 

12. St. Germoe Irish King. 

13. St. la Irish Virgin Martyr. 

14. St . Meriadoc Breton Bishop. 

15. St Nectan Welsh « Martyr. 

16. St. Neot English Prince and Hermit. 

17. St. Paul Breton Bishop. 

18. St. Petroc Cornish or Welsh Bishop. 

19. St. Piran Irish Bishop. 

20. St. Rumon Irish Bishop. 

21. St. Samson Cornish or Breton .... Bishop. 

22. St. Teilo Welsh Bishop. 

23. St. Uni Irish Martyr. 

24. St, Winwaloe Breton Prince ^nd Abbot. 



44 THE STAINED WINDOWS. 

Cfje Staineti aEmtrotos. 

ftJj'HE scheme of subjects for the above, which has been carefully prepared, 
{^ and which it is hoped will some day be carried out in its completeness, 
is designed to illustrate the dealings of God with man from the 
beginning of creation until the consummation of all things, through His 
Eternal Word and Holy Spirit, manifested in the lives and characters of all His 
servants, both of the Old and New Covenant. 

The series begins with the 

WEST WINDOW. 

Where, in the Rose, vnM be depicted the symbol of the Creator Spirit, and 
in the four 1 ghts, the Creation and the Fall 

(i.) The Creation of Light, Herbs and Trees, Sun and Moon. 

(2.) Whales, Fowl, Beasts. 

(3.) Creation of Adam, the Naming of the Creatures, the formation of 
Eve. 

(4.) The temptation of Eve, the Judgment on Fallen Man, the Expul- 
sion from Eden. 

At the sides, St. Michael and St. Gabriel, the Archangel leadeis of the 
Heavenly Hosts, ministering to the race of men. 

The series is continued in the Clerestory, where, in the 32 lights of 
the nave, will be seen : — 

Adam and Eve, Abel and Enoch, 

Noah and Shem, Melchisedech and Abraham, 

Sarah and Isaac, Rebekah and Jacob, 

Leah and Judah, Rachel and Joseph, 

Moses and Miriam Aaron and Phinehas, 

Joshua and Rahab, Deborah and Barak, 

Gideon and Jephthah, Samson and Eli. 

Ruth and Samuel, Elijah and Elisha. 

In the Transepts : — 

South. North. 

David and Solomon, Abiathar and Zadok, 

Hezekiah and Eliakim, Jehoiada and Zachariah his 

Josiah and Zerubbabel, son, 

Nehemiah and Esther. Azariah and Hilkiah, 

Joshua (son of Josedech) 

and Ezra, 
Simon (son of Onias) and 
Judas Maccaboeus. 

THE CHOIR. 
The four greater Prophets. The twelve lesser Prophets. 

South East Transept. North East Transept. 

Baruch and Tobit. Job and Agur. 

Susanna and the Mother of Author of " Wi<5dom " and 

the Seven Martyrs. Jesus Sou of Sirach, 



Ttt£ STAINED WINDOWS. 45 

RETRO-CHOIR. 
Simeon and Anna. Zacharias and Elizabeth. 

ORGAN CHAMBER. 
Jubal. 
Asaph. 

The Great Rose Window of the 

I^ORTH TRANSEPT 

Forms the link between the Church's life in the Old and New Testament, and 
represents the genealogy of the Second Adam, the Incarnate Son of God, 
depicted as Born of the Virgin Mary in the centre, sprung from the first 
Adam, according to the Flesh, through 

(i.) Adam, Seth, Enoch, Noah. 

(2.) Shem, Abraham, Isaac, Jacob. 

(3.) Judah, Salmon, Boaz, Jesse. 

(4.) David, Solomon, Asa, Jehoshaphat, 

(5.) Joash, Hezekiah, Manasseh, Josiah. 

(6.) Salathiel, Zerubbabel, Matthat, Joachim. 

The series is now continued in the Great Window of the 
NORTH EAST TRANSEPT, 
Where, in the four Upper Lights, are given — 

(I.) TYPES OF THE INCARNATION. 

Burning Bush, Gideon's Fleece, Elisha stretching himself on the child, 
Jacob's Ladder. 

(2.) TYPES OF THE ATONEMENT. 

Sacrifice of Isaac, Passover, Brazen Serpent, Smitten Rock. 
(3.) TYPES OF THE RESURRECTION. 

Daniel coming out of the den of lions, Jonah, Joseph, Samson and 
Gates of Gaza. 

(4.} TYPES OF THE ASCENSION. 

Elijah, Entry of Ark into Jerusalem, David's return after slaughter of 
Goliatn, The Great Day of Atonement. 

In THE LOWER LIGHTS ARE 

(I.) TYPES OF THE CHURCH. 

Formation of Eve, Aaron's Rod, Moses laying his hands on Joshua. 

(2.) TYPES OF HOLY BAPTISM. 

Noah's Ark, Coming up from the Red Sea, Naaman in Jordan. 

(3.) TYPES OF THE HOLY EUCHARIST. 

Melchizedek, The Manna, The Grapes of Eschol. 

(4.) TYPES OF THE CHURCH. 

The Sceptre held out to Esther, The Seven branched Candlestick, The 

Building of the Temple. 
The centre and climax of the whole series is in 

THE GREAT EAST WINDOW, 
Where is represented the fulfilment of all these types in the Person and 
Work of the Incarnate Son of God, our Lord Jesus Christ. 



46 THE STAINED WINDOWS. 

IN THE THREE LOWER LIGHTS 

Are represented three Great mysteries — The Incarnation, the Passion, the 
Resurrection, manifesting our Lord in His Humiliation, passing onwards by 
the transition of the Resurrection Life to His Glory. 



ON THE LEFT— 








(l.) 


The Annunciation. 




(2.) 


The Visitation. 




(3-) 


The Announcement to the Shepherds. 




(4-) 


The Adoration of the Magi. 


IN THE CENTRE- 








(I.) 


The Last Supper. 




(2.) 


The Agony. 




(3-) 


The Ecce Homo. 




(4-) 


The Crucifixion. 


ON THE RIGHT— 








(I.) 


The dead Christ on His Mother's knees. 




(2.) 


The Burial. 




I3-) 


The Resurrection. 




(4-) 


The Ascension. 



IN THE THREE UPPER LIGHTS. 

The Lord in glory, surrounded by "Angels and Archangels and all the 
company of Heaven," and Saints gathered from among men of either 
covenant, and of all nations, and kindreds, and tongues, before the Throne 
and before the Lamb. The fulfilment of St. Paul's words in Philipians ii., 

5—12. 

IN THE CENTRAL LIGHT 
Is seen above, the Glorified Redeemer, at His feet, three mighty Archangels, 
below, the Blessed Mother of the Incarnate Son of God, with the Holy 
Innocents, and in the lowest compartment the adoration of the Lamb. — 
Rev. V. 

IN THE NORTHERN LIGHT 

Are the patriarchs from Adam to Jacob, below them angels and then Six 
Apostles, with St. Paul ; again come Angels, and further still a company of 
Martyrs, most of whom are chosen as having Cornish Churches dedicated 
to them — St. Denys, St. Blaise, St. Alphege, St. Alban, St. Faith, St. Agnes, 
St. Juhtta, St. Margaret, and in the lowest compartment, the Glory of the 
Word of God as depicted in Rev. xix., ii. 

IN THE SOUTHERN LIGHT. 

Above are the Prophets from Moses to St. John the Baptist, then Angels, 
and below Six Apostles, vrith St. Barnabas; then again more Angels, and 
further still the four Greek and four Latin Doctors of the Church. In the 
lowest compartment, the glory of the New Jerusalem, the Bride, the Lamb's 
Wife. — Rev. xxii. 

In the great window of the 

SOUTH-EAST TRANSEPT 

will be events of the thirty-three years' life and ministry. 

(I.) The Appearance of the Angel to the Shepherds. The Adoration 
of the Magi. 



THfi STAINED WINDOWS. 47 

(2.) The Flight into Egypt, the Finding in the Temple, the Home at 

Nazareth, the Baptism. 

(3.) The Temptation, the first Miracle, the Sermon on the Mount, the 
Transfiguration. 

The link between the Person and Work of the Great Head of the Church 
and the Saints of the New Testament is given in the window of the 

GREAT SOUTH TRANSEPT, 

"Where, in the Rose, is depicted the mystery of Pentecost, the Descent of the 
Holy Spirit upon the Apostles ; all of whom are represented in the twelve 
compartments, with their respective emblems. 

In the three Hghts below are depicted various manifestations of the work- 
ing of that Divine Spirit in the various great crises in the Church's History, 
through which it has been guided by the abiding presence of the Holy Ghost 
since His first descent on the day of Pentecost. 

(i.) The work of Stephen, the Baptism of Cornelius, St. Paul at 
Athens. 

(2.) The Council of Jerusalem, the Council of Nice, and figures of 
great leaders of the Councils of the Church, St. James, St. Cyprian, and St. 

Athanasius. 

(3.) St. LaAvrence displaying the poor as being the treasures of ihe 
Church, the Conversion of Censtantine, St. Augustine preaching at Canter- 
bury. 

The whole of the windows in the aisles is devoted to a great series of 
Saints and worthies of the Catholic Church, and of the English Branch of it, 
ranging from the earliest days since Pentecost down to the present day. 

AT THE END OF THE NORTH AISLE 

Is seen St. Stephen, the great Deacon and Proto-Martyr. 

AT THE END OF THE SOUTH AISLE. 

St. John the Divine, two types of saintly character, the one of eager zealous 
work, the other of patient waiting contemplation, both sanctified by suffering, 
martyrdom, and confessorship ; two eminent manifestations of the Life of the 
Incarnate God, the Glorified Redeemer, "glorified in His saints." 

Below the figure of St. Stephen are the scenes of his testimony before the 
Sanhedrim and his death. 

Below that of St. John are the scenes of his leading the Blessed Virgin 
Mary from Calvary, and of his teaching in his old age at Ephesus. 

AISLES. 

IN THE RETRO-CHOIR 

Will be Apostles, or companions and contemporaries of the same, mentioned 
in the Apostolic writings. 

ON THE SOUTH SIDE. 

(I.) St. Peter, with St. James and St. Mark. 

(2.) St. James, the brother of our Lord, St. Matthew, St. Thomas. 



THE STAINED WtNDOWS. 



ON THE NORTH SIDE. 



(I.) St; Paul, with St. Luke and St. Mary Magdalene. 
(2.) St. Timothy, with St. Denys and Onesimus. 

The series is continued with Apostolic Saints and Mart)^^ from the close 
of the first century, with typical martyrs, missionaries, doctors, confessors of 
East and West, Britain, England, and Cornwall, carrying us through Primitive 
times, the days of Celtic Christianity, the conversion of the English, the 
mediaeval ages of the Church, the reformation period, representing the missionary 
labours of modern times, the worthies of the latter English Church, poets, 
apologists, evangelists, missionaries, pastors, concluding with the figure of 
Edward White Benson, first Bishop of the restored See, and founder of the 
Cathedral. 

Taking them in order we have in 

NORTH AISLE OF THE CHOIR. 

Light. Scene. 

(St. Clement ) 

St. Ignatius J The martyrdom of St. Polycarp. 

St, Polycarp ) 

/ ^ ( o!' ?^^*-*°TSLf,,v ) St. Pantaenus embarking on his 

'^'lil:&^'^ 1 Mission to India^ 

( St. Cyprian > 

(3) J St. Perpetua and her babe [ Beheading of St. Cyprian. 
( St. Lawrence j 

I St. Alban . 

(4) J St. Catharine f St. Alban before the judge. 



St. Pancras 
/ X I c!* :^^^.f^^^^"^ ) Athanasius assailed in church, 

<5' |-?."^.„.ton, Feb.9,A.D.356. 



St. Chrysostom 
St. Monnica < 

(6) j St. Ambrose I St. Austin's conversion. 



St. Austin 



St. Benedict \ St. Benet founding his monastery 

(7) { St. Anthony Un the Temple of Apollo at Monte 
St. Scholastica j Cassino. 
St. Jerome j 

(8) \ St. Ephraim Syrus > St. Jerome translating. 



St. Leo 

St. Phan ) 

(9) { St. German > L^he "Alleluia" battle. 



St. Petroc 
St. Gregory 

(lo) \ St. Martin \ St. Gregory and the English boys. 

' St. Patrick 



THE STAINED WINDOWS. 



49 



AISLES. 

In the NORTH TRANSEPT, Saints of England. 

Light. Scene. 

St. Greorge, St. George and the Dragon. 

St. Joseph of Arimathaea, 
St. Augustine of Canterbury. 

In the NAVE, the odd numbers on the North side, and the even on the South . 



Light. 

{Theodore of Tarsus 
St. Wilfrid 
St. Aidan 
( St. Hilda 
(2) { St. Giles 

( St. Etheldreda 

(The Venerable Bede 
St. John Damascene 
Alcuin 

(Charles the Great 
Alfred 
St. Olave 
(St. Boniface 
St. Columban 
St. Methodius 
(St. Edward the Confessor 
St. Neot 
St. Aldhehn 
(St. Bernard 
St. Francis 
St. Dominic 
!St. Louis 
St. Elizabeth of Hungary 
St. Alexander Newsky 
I St. Anselm 
(9) s Duns Scotus 

\ St. Thomas Aquinas 

{Stephen Langton 
St. Thomas of Canterbury 
St. Hugh of Lincoln 
{St. Katherine of Siena 
Dante 
Fra Angelico 
{Thomas a Kempis 
Bishop Ken 
St. Theresa 
1 Bishop Fisher, 
Savonarola 
Erasmus 
/Archbishop Cranmer 
(14) < John Trevisa 
(Bishop Andrewes 



Scene. 
Council of Hatfield. 



St. Hilda teaching at Whitby. 

Bede dying, dictating the trans- 
lation of St. John's Gospel. 

Founding of Schools. 

St. Boniface cutting down the oak. 
' Edward and his Queen enthroning 



Leofric, first Bishop of Exeter. 
St. Bernard preaching the Crusade. 

Death of St. Louis. 

St. Anselm confronting William 
the Red King. 

Magna Charta. 

St. Katherine warning the Pope at 
Avignon. 

Thomas a Kempis meditating in 
the field. 

Martyrdom of Fisher 
Martyrdom of Cranmer. 



50 THE STAINED WINDOWS. 

/ St. Carlo Borromeo 



/ bt. carlo tJorromeo \ 

(15) ^ Archbishop Laud K St. Carlo tending the sick. 

(St. Vincent de Paul j 

/St. Francis Xavier \ 

(16) .^ Las Casas l Xavier preaching m Japan. 



{Margaret Godolphin "J 

Bishop Trelawny > Margaret Godolphin leaving court. 

Sir Bevil Grenville J 

{Bishop Butler ) 

Pascal V Butler composing the Analogy. 

Newton ' 

{George Herbert ) 

Cowper > George Herbert's last Sunday. 

Keble ) 



OPPOSITE THE SOUTH PORCH. 

{John Wesley ) 

Charles Wesley > Wesley preaching in Gwennap Pit. 

Samuel Walker, of Truro i 



(The first Bishop of Truro \ 
l?rSar)".«ended'by Foundation of Truro CathedraL 
Faith and Hope / 



THE BAPTISTERY, 

/jIrECTED in memory of Henry Martyn, contains three lights, which will 
W be filled with scenes from the life of St. John the Baptist. The four 
^ hghts of the apse contain the figures of four native Cornish saints and 
missionaries — St. Paul, St. Cybi, St. Constantine, and St. Winnow. Beneath 
are scenes from the Ufe of Henry Martyn — 

(I.) Martyn at School at Truro. 

(2.) Praying by Lamorran Creek. 

(3.) Sailing from Falmouth. 



(4.) First sight of heathen worship. 
(5.) Preachmg at Cawnpore. 



(6.) Translating the Scriptures. 
(7.) Disputing with Persian doctors. 
(8.) Burial by the Armenians at 
Tokat. 



This long and comprehensive series has been designed in the hope that 
some day the windows of the Cathedral of Cornwall may contain, in noble 
form and colour, a consecutive outline of the Church's history, and serve not 
only to give rich colouring and brightness to a completed building, but as a 
perpetual means of instruction to God's people, and a memorial of God's 
Saints, whose lives and heroic achievements are the perpetual witness through 
the ages of the presence, in His Church, of the Eternal Son. in the power of 
"the Spirit, dividing to every man equally as He will." It will have the 
further advantage of suggesting subjects to future donors of memorial 
windows. In many of our older Cathedrals, to say nothing of Parish Churches, 
the windows are often disfigured, not only by inferior glass, but incongruous 
subjects ; while in other cases, where the material and execution are good, 
there is a total lack of sequence of thought, and an absence of clear and defiiiite 
meaning in the glass that has, perhaps, cost very large sums of money. 



HENRY MARTYN. 5 1 

52*HIS devoted and accomplished servant of God and of His Church was 
\^ born at Truro, February i8th, 1781. He was the third son of John 
Marty n, miner, of Gwennap, who, by his industry and enterprise, 
raised himself in the social scale, and became clerk to a merchant of 
Truro. His son Henry was born in a house situated on the spot where the 
Miners' Bank now stands. At the age of seven he was sent to Truro 
Grammar School, under the head-master of that day, Dr Cardew. H-; was 
a bright boy and made good progress in his studies, and, after an unsuccessful 
attempt to gain a scholarship at Oxford, entered St. John's College, 
Cambridge, October, 1797, the former University losing the noble alumnits 
that the latter gained. 

Here he was most successful, being first of his year in the College Exami- 
nation of 1800, and senior wrangler 1801, while still under 20. His spiritual 
awakening and development was mainly owing to intercourse with Mr. 
Simeon, for whom he ever afterwards entertained the deepest feelings of 
gratitude. He was elected Fellow of St. John's, 1802, and obtained other 
University and College distinctions. His mind was directed to the foreign 
mission work of the Church, partly by the teaching of Simeon and partly by 
the example of self devotion given by Dr. Carey in India and David Brannerd 
among the North American Indians. Henry Martin was led to offer himself to 
the missionary organisation afterwards known as the Church Missionary Society. 
But it was not till 1804, when a great temporal loss was the occasion of his 
determining to go abroad, that he began to reahse the idea thus formed. In 
1803 he was ordained Deacon at Ely, and served as Curate of Holy Trinity, 
Cambridge, under Mr Simeon. A year later he offered himself as a candidate 
for an Indian chaplaincy, and in 1805 received a sudden summons to leave 
England in ten days. He was ordained Priest on February i8th (his birthday) 
and left Cambridge. The circumstances of his farewell to England, his agony 
at parting from friends and his beloved Cornwall, form a most touching 
narrative. His ardent love for souls made him " constant in season and out 
of season " on board ship during his voyage out to India in " preaching 
Tesus Christ,'* both by earnest word and a holy and sweet example. His 
labours among his own countrymen in Calcutta, and among the Hindus and 
Mahommedans at Dinapore, Cawnpore, and elsewhere, cannot be dwelt upon 
here. He made a long journey into Armenia and Persia for the purpose of 
making thorough and complete translations of the Bible into the languages of 
these countries, and, after severe fatigue and privations, fell a victim to fever at 
Tocat, October i6th, 1812. His sweetness of character greatly endeared him 
to the native Christians, and even the Mohammedans of those countries, and 
he was buried with aU respect ; Dean Stanley goes so far as to say, with 
aU "the honours due to an Archbishop." His remains were afterwards 
translated to a new cemetery, and an obelisk placed over them, bearing an 
inscription in English, Armenian, Persian, and Turkish, in memory of one 
who " was known in the East as a man of God." It lies " on a broad terrace 
overlooking the whole city, and shaded by walnut and other fruit trees and 
by weeping willows." The foUov/ing words of Henry Martyn deserve to be 
noted and made known among his fellow Cornishmen : — "Even if I never 
should see a native converted, God may design, by my patience and con- 
tinuance in the work, to encourage future missionaries." 



52 HENRY MARTYN. 

For fuller particulars of Henry Martyn's life, character, and labours, the 
reader is referred to " Life and letters of the Rev. Henry Martyn," by the 
Rev. John Sargent, rector of Lavington, and to a very interesting and instruc- 
tive article on "Henry Martyn," in the Church Quarterly Review, October, 
l88i, by Canon Mason. 

It is most devoutly to be wished that the memorial baptistery may be not 
only a perpetual monument of the life and labours of a holy man, who, in a 
age when Englishmen of education and talent rarely, if ever, thought of 
devoting their gifts to the mission work of the church, led the way for others 
who have since followed the same noble career, but also an incentive and example 
to our own day. Cornwall has in recent times given a missionary Bishop to 
Madagascar in the person of Dr. Kestell Cornish, son of a venerated vicar of 
Kenwyn and friend of Keble ; and other men and women from the diocese 
have gone to distant fields of work in Japan and elsewhere. May the number 
of these be greatly enlarged. 



THE CATHEDRAL COMMITTEE. 53 

?r{je CatljftJral Committer. 

Clergy : — The Lord Archbishop of Canterbury* ; The Archdeacons ; The 
Canons and Hon. Canons ; The Rural Deans ; The Proctors in Convocation ; 
The Rector of Truro* ; Canon Scott-Holland ; Revs. Hon. J. T. Boscawen, 
St. A. H. M. St. Aubyn, R. M. Blaldston, C. W. Carlyon, G. E. Hermon, 
Sir V. D. Vyvyan, Bart., G. L. Woollcombe ; Canon Cornish* {Sec.\ 

Laymen : — The Earl of Mt. Edgcunibe* {Lord Lieut.), D. Collins 
{High Sheriff), Earl of St. Germans*, Viscount Falmouth*. Lord Robartes*. 
Earl of Devon, Lord Clinton; Lord St. Levan, C. T. D. Acland, M.P., 
A. Archer, W. Barrett, G. L. Basset, E. B. Beauchamp, R. G. Bennet, 
W. G. Cavendish-Bentinck, M.P., W. Boger, W. BoHtho*, W. C. Borlase, 
M.P., A. R. Boucher*, E. S. Cams- Wilson, J. G. Chilcott, T. Chirgwin,* 
C. A. V. Conybeare, M.P., L. Courtney, M.P., J. C. Daubuz*, T. A. 
Dorrien-Smith, F. G. Enys, R. Foster, T. R. Foster, C. Davies Gilbert, 
R. Glanville, C. Gumey, H. M. Harvey, F. Hearle-Cock. Sir J. McG. Hogg, 
Bart., M.P., R. Kitto, R. Marrack, A. Mills, A. P. Nix* {Treas.), Sir W. 
W. R. Onslow, Bart., Capt. F. Townley Parker, Major Parkyn, R. M. Paul*, 
W. C. Pendarves, W. H. Pole-Carew, T. R. Polwhele*, C. G. Prideaux- 
Brune, Sir C. Rashleigh, Bart., J. Rashleigh, Sir C. B. Graves- Sawle, Bart., 
S. SerpeU, P. C. Smith, C. E. Treflfry, Col. Tremayne*, J. Treraayne, H. 
Tresawna, W. Trethewy, A. P. Vivian, Su- H. H. Vivian, Bart., M.P., M. H. 
Williams, A. C. Willyams, E. W. B. WHlyams; E. Carlyon* {Sec.) 

[*Meinbers of Executive Committee ; also Canons Donaldson, Hockin, Phillpotts, 
Thynne, Whitaker, Wise, and Worlledge.] 



iLatrtes* Committefv 

(For Providing Internal Fittings.) 

President— H.K.'H.. The Princess of Wales (Duchess of Cornwall). 

Vice-President — Mrs. Benson. Treasurer — A. P. Nix, Esq., Tjuro. 

Gen. Secretary — Mrs. Arthur Tremayne, Carclew, Perran-ar-Worthal. 

Ruridecanal. 
Presidents. Secretaries. 

Archdeaconry of Cornwall. 
St. Austell— Mrs. Williams, Old Vicarage, S. Miss J. Coode, Pond Dhu, St. Austell. 

Austell. 
Cammarth— Mrs. Peter, Pendower, Gram- Miss Peter, Pendower, Grampound Road. 

pound Road. 
Kerrier— Mrs. J. J. Rogers, Lamorva, Fal- Miss Hill, Penhillis, Helston. 

mouth. 
Penwith— Lady St. Levan, S. Michael's Mt., Mrs. W. H. Borlase, Alverton House, Pen- 

Marazion. zance. 

Powder— Mrs Arthur Tremayne, Carclew, Miss Glynn Grylls, Glynngarth, Truro. 

Perran-ar-Worthal. 
Pydar— Hon. Mrs. Prideaux-Brune, Prideaux Mrs. Mann, Vicarage, S. Issey, r.s.o. 

Place, Padstow. 

Archdeaconry of Bodmin. 

Bodmin-Lady Robartes, Lanhydrock, Bodmin. Mrs. Foster, Lanwithan, Lostwithiel. 

East— Countess of S. German's, Port Eliot, S. Lady Ernestine Edgcumbe, Mount Edg- 

German's. cumbe, Devonport. 

Stratton— Mrs. Thynne, Penstowe, Kilkhamp- Sister Clara Maria, S. James' Home, Kilk- 

ton. hampton. 

Trigg Major— Mrs. C. Cowlard, S.John's, Miss DuBoulay, Lawhitton, Launceston. 

Launceston. 

Trigg Minor-Mrs.Cann,Davidstow,Camelford. Miss Hawker, Penally, Boscastle. 

West— Lady Trelawny, Trelawne, Duloe, r.s.o. Mrs. Boucber, Trenean, S. German's. 



S4 



INTERNAL FITTINGS. 



Internal jFtttinsia;. 





GIFT. 


VALUE. 


DONOR. 


I . 


. The Altar 


200 .. 


Miss E.N. 


2 . 


. Altar Rails 


50 .. 


, Pa»ishofNewlynEast. 


3 • 


. Candlesticks 


50 .. 


Miss C. and Miss H. Roberts. 


4 • 


. Communion Plate 
(a) Chalice &Paten, "In.. 








memoriam," Flagon . . 


500 ., 


. Per Rev. R. Roe. 




(^) Chalice and Paten .. 




, Prebendary Kinsman. 




(^)ChaUce 


50 .. 


. Miss Franks 




{d) Paten 


10 . , 


. Mr. Edmunds. 




{e) Chalice 




, By Jewellery given Bishop of Tmro 
for Cathedral. 




(/) Paten 


40 . 


. By Mrs. Parker's friend. 




(^) Silver Bread Dish .. 
. Book Stand 


20 . 


. Lady St. Levan. 


5 . 




. Mrs. Clement Hoey. 


6 . 


. Books (Altar Services 4).. 








White 




. Mrs. Paige. 




Red 




. Lady Vyvyan. 




Violet 




. Messrs. Heard. 




Bke 






7 . 


. Hassocks 


10 . 


. Lady Ernestine Edgcumbe 


8 . 


, Klneehng Mats and . . 








Cushions 


35 . 


. Messrs. Criddle and Smith. 


9 . 


. Linen 




. [See separate List.' 
. [ Do. 


lo . 


. Frontals 




II . 


. A Cross for Altar 




. Lady Magheramome. 


12 . 


. Vases do. 




. Hon. E. Douglas Pennant. 


13 . 


, . The Bishop's Throne . . 


350 . 


. In Mem. Bishop Phillpotts. 


14 . 


,. Sedilia 


200 . 


. Mrs. Rogers and Family, in Mem. 
( Mrs. Coles, Mrs. Gibbons, Mrs. 




Credence Table 


30 . 


. < Glencross, Mrs. Hermon, and 
( Mrs. Rendle. 




Bishop's Chair 


140 . 


. By Hon. E. Thesiger. 


15 , 


.. Pulpit 


350 . 


. Canon Wise. 


16 , 


. . Chairs for Transept 


1,000 . 


. Collected by Mrs. Benney. 


17 


. . Litany Stool 


50 . 


. Mrs. Archer. 


18 , 


. . Font 


250 . 


. Sunday School Children. 


19 


. . Font Cover 


200 . 


. Diocesan Training College. 


20 , 


. . Brass Ewer 




. The Misses Chilcott. 


21 , 


.. Books 


100 . 


. Women of Padstow. 


22 


. . Markers 




. [See separate List^ . 
. [See separate List' . 


23 


. . Alms Bags 




24 


. . An Alms Dish 


100 . 


. Canon Phillpotts. 


25 


. . Alms Boxes (2) 


10 , 


, . Brixton C.F.S. Members. 


26 


. . Vestry Fittings 


^37 . 


. Deanery of Pydar. 


27 


. . Lectern 




. Miss Harriet Lanyon. 


28 


. . 1 ,000 Kneelers 


30 




29 


, . Organ 


409 . 


. Miss C. Wilkinson. 




Choir 


267 . 


. Various. 



INTERNAL FITTINGS. 



55 



Great . . 548 

Swell . . 564 

Pedal . . 708 

Solo . . 297 

Couplers . , 55 

Accessories . . 142 

Pneumatic Lever . . 160 

Pedal TubularNeumatic . . 80 



Carnmarth Deanery. 
St. Austell Deanery. 



Various. 



2 Hydraulic Engines . . 


150 


. . Mr. Sinclair. 


32 feet Diapason Open . . 


250 


. . Various. 


30 . . Reredos 


2,023 


. . Deanery of Powder. 


31 .. Stalls for Choir 






I, Bishop's 


60 


. . Parish of St. Columb Major. 


2, Precentor's 


60 


. . Lady Robartes. 


3, Archd. of Cornwall. . 


30 


. . Parish of St. Gluvias. 


4, Archd. of Bodmin . . 


30 


. . Parish of Bodmin. 


5, Canon's 


30 . 


,. Parish of BHsland. 


6, Do. 


30 ■ 


, . Parish of Egloshayle. 


7, Do. 


30 • 


, . Parish of St. Kew. 


8, Do. 


30 ■ 


, . Parish of St. Winnow. 


9, Do. 


30 . 


. Parish of Lostwithiel. 


10, Do. 


30 • 


. Parish of North Hill. 


II, Do. 


30 • 


. Parish of Lawhitton. 


12, Do. 


30 • 


. Parish of Launceston. 


13, Do. 


30 • 


. Parish of Launceston. 


14, Do. 


30 • 


. Parish of N. Petherwin. 


-+ I5» Do. 


30 . 


. . Deanery of Trigg Major. 


16, Do. 


30 . 


Do. 


17, Do. 


30 • 


Do. 


18, Do. 


30 . 


. Parish of Minster and Forrabury. 


19, Do. 


30 . 


. Parish of Fowey. 


20, Do. 


30 . 


. Parish of Tywardreath. 


21, Do. 


30 . 


. Parish of St. Breock. 


22, Do. 


30 • 


. Parish of St. Petrock. 


23, Do. 


30 . 


. In Mem. Bishop Phillpotts, by his 

family. 
. In Mem. Rev. A. A. Vawdrey. 


24, Do. 


30 . 


25, Do. 


30 . 


. By Andrew Hichens, Esq. 


26, Do. 


30 . 


. By Mr. Stephens. 


27, Do. 


30 . 


. By Miss Lloyd. 


28, Do. 


30 . 


. By Mrs. Brydges Willyams. 


29, Do. 


30 .. 


By Mrs. Thornton. 


30, Do. 


30 ., 


, By Mrs. Phyllis Pearce. 


Still to be Erected— 






I. 


30 •■ 


, Trigg Major Deanery. 


2. 


30 


Do. 


3- 


30 


Do. 


4. 


30 .. 


Trigg Minor Deanery, 


k ;: 


30 .. 
30 ., 


Do. 
Do. 



•+ E-Cf Lohk, 



£^V^l_^ 



^ Zo 



S6 



INTERNAL FTTTINGS. 





GIFT. VALUE. 


DONOR. 




Choirmen*s Seats 


138 . 


. Mrs. and Miss Enys, and surplus 
money from 3 Deaneries. 




Choir Boys' Seats 


100 . 


. St. Peter's, Eaton Square. 


32 . 


. Altar Standard Lights . . 


250 . 


. Mrs. Hambly (the late). 


33 • 


. Side Screen 


590 . 


. Deanery of West. 




South Side Screen 


590 • 


. Deanery of Stratton. 


34 • 


. Painted Windows 








East Upper Tier . . ] 


[,000 . 


. Deanery of East. 




East Lower Tier 


500 . 


Do. 




Rose Window, N.T. . . 


650 . 


, . Deanery of Penwith. 




Rose Window, S.T. . . 


500 . 


, . In Memoriam. 

, . In Mem. Col. Cocks. 

. . By Lady Rowe, in Mem. 




Baptistery Window 


40 


. . Deanery of Penwith. 




Do. 


40 


Do. 




Do. 


40 


. . Mrs. Mary Rogers. 




Do. 


40 


. . The Misses Pedlar. 


35 . 


. Marble Floor and Steps. . 








for Sanctuary 


600 


. . Deanery of Pydar. 


36 . 


. Three Steps nearest . . 








Sanctuary 


70 


. . Church Society, per Mrs. Benney. 


37 . 


, . Carving and Serpentine . . 
etc.,etc.,inBaptistery . . 








and East End 


325 


. . Deanery of Kinder. 


38 . 


, . Flooring W. of Sane- . . 








tuary 


362 


. . Deanery of Bodmin. 


39 


. . Flooring of Baptistery .. 


133 


. . Deanery of St. Austell. 


40 


. . Box for Frontals 


38 


.. Parish of Lawhitton. 


41 


.. Steps and Stand for.. 








Lectern 


100 


. . John James, Esq. 


42 


... Mats, Dusters, &c. 




.. Various. 




ALTAR LINEN, &c. 



GIFT. 

Fair Linen Cloth— Festival 



Ordinary 



Purificators 
Chalice Veil (White) 



Chalice Veil (Whitsuntide, Red) 
Frontals, White 

„ Red (Whitsuntide) 

„ Red (Martyrs) 

„ Blue 



DONOR. 

Mrs. Boucher. 
Miss Street (the late). 
Lady Shaftesbury. 
Miss A. WilUams. 
Miss Grylls. 
Mrs. Palmes. 
John Shelley, Esq. 

i Some Communicants, St. Peter's, 

( Eaton Square. 

E.C., per Miss Wilkinson. 
Mrs. Bird. 

Lady Shaftesbury and Mrs. Lewis. 
Deanery of Bodmin. 
Sister Clara and Mrs. Camsew. 
Mrs. L. Foster and MissTatham, 



INTERNAL SITTINGS. 57 

GIFT. DONOR. 

(Miss E. St. Aubyn, Miss Peel, Miss 
Peter, and ;^5 towards Markers 
from Mrs. E. Baring. 
fi. Miss Franks, Mrs. Handcock, 

I Miss Plympton, Miss Du Boulay, 
Miss Heaton, Miss E. Macnaghten, 
Alms Bags (3 or 4 sets) each bag £i,, ■{ Miss Richards, Miss Tagert, Miss 

I Williams, Miss_yiijvle.i, Countess 
I of St. Germans, Lady Trelawny, 
I Miss Foster, and Miss Penrose. 



The chairs with which the Cathedral is seated were supplied by Messrs. 
Gill and Son, at cost price, the amount of which was collected by Mrs. Benney. 



N.B. —Every effort has been made to make this list complete and accurate, 
but it is probable that there are errors and omissions, whicn the Editor trusts 
may be pardoned. 



S8 THE EUCHARISTIC VESSELS. 

Efje lEucfjaristic Fessete. 

7(5vHE gold set comprises Chalice, Paten, and Flagon, and is a gift "In 
Vs/ Memoriam," per Rev. R. Roe. 

The Chalice measures eight inches in height, the bowl is quite plain, 
its weighs about 29 ozs. troy. The base is cinque-foiled and ornamented 
with five repouss6 placques, viz., the Crucifixion and Evangelistic symbols 
mentioned in the Apocalypse, and with delicately beaten foUated work 
in panels and margins. The Knop is massive and enriched by an arcade 
of Tabernacle work, beneath the ten niches of which Angels issue atter the 
manner of Corbels, bearing scrolls inscribed with the word "Holy." 
The upper and lower shafts are decagonal and panelled with a vine leaf in the 
same conventional treatment adopted in the other parts. Beneath the Bowl a 
shell or cup of richly embossed work springs from the upper shaft and gives 
support to the Bowl. 

The Paten is 6f ins. diam., and weighs 7 ozs. troy. Its centre is sunk to 
fit the top of the Bowl of Chalice, and is without ornamentation. 

The Flagon weighs about 35 ozs. troy. The bulbous portion is enriched 
with four placques, representing the Crucifixion, the Agony in the Garden, the 
Institution of the Last Supper, and the Miracle of Cana in Galilee — in bold 
relief, surrounded with foliage in repousse of a conventional vine-leaf type. 
The Foot is cinque-foiled, with a foliage wrought on the necking next to the 
body. The Handle is attached to the body by a cluster of scrolls, and the 
Lid — also repouss^ — is surmounted by the double cross fleur^, the whole 
forming fine examples of the Goldsmith's Art, have been carried out from the 
designs, and under the direction of J. L. Pearson, Esq., R.A., by Hart, Son, 
Peard, and Co., of 168, Regent-street, London. 

The Bishop's Chalice has its Bowl of Gold and the other parts of silver 
gilt ; it measures 7 ins. in height, and takes its form and treatment of orna- 
mentation mainly from the number and kind of articles which have been 
incorporated in it. The inscription beneath the foot is as follows : — 

" 1887. All Saints' Day. This sacred vessel is a memorial before God 
of the spirit of devotion which in these latter days He has quickened in 
the Church of England. The Gold and " Precious Stones for Beauty " 
are the gifts of a large number of persons, who have severally offered that 
which they most value for the Glory of God and the service of His Holy 
Table." 

The precious metals of the gifts have been used in the vessel itself, and the 
gems — some of them in their original settings— numbering in all over three 
hundred, have been distributed over the Knop and Foot, forming here centres 
for panels of rich filagree work, and there terminations to the scrolls. The 
cup or shell supporting the Bowl is also enriched with filagree, but without 
jewels. Undesignedlythereare"twelvekindsofpreciousstones," viz., Diamonds, 
Rubies, Sapphire, Emeralds, Opals, Carbuncles, Topazes, Amethysts, Pearls, 
Corals, Turquoise, and Chrysoprasus ; and about the Knop are twelve groups 
in their original settings — six hoop rings mounted on its foiled band, and six 
roses on its upper lobes. It is altogether an interesting piece of work, 
felicitious in expressing its donative origin, unique in design, excellent in 
workmanship, and of very considerable intrinsic value. 

The Paten for use with this Chalice is of the same size as the gold Paten. It 
has a centre of gold, enriched by an engraved geometrical design, and a band, 
inscribed with the words, " This is my Body, which is given for you," and a rirn 



THE EUCHARISTIC VESSELS. 59 

of Silver gilt, with repousse foliage ornament and seven MedaUions, on which are 
Angels bearing Shields, which display emblems of the Passion, viz., crown of 
thorns, nails, seamless coat, lantern, dice, thirty pieces of silver, ladder, and 
sponge, while the foliage is richly set with garnets, chrysolites, jacinths, 
amethysts, coral and turquoise. These have also been executed by Hart, Son, 
Peard, and Co. 

The Credence Paten, or Bread Plate, is 8|- ins. diam., of Silver gilt, stand- 
ing on a six-foil foot, and has jewels, as last mentioned, both in its knop and 
upon the rim, and which is also enriched by boldly wrought fohage in repousse. 
It is the gift of Lady St. Levan. 

Another Chalice is of Silver gilt, and stands 7| ins. heigh ; on its well- 
splayed five-foiled foot are six medalhons, containing Angels in repousse, with 
garnets alternating between them. The Knop is boldly moulded and set with 
twelve stones, and beneath the Bowl is a cupping of richly embossed fohage. 

The Paten en suite has in its centre the Agnus in repousse surrounded by 
a ribbon, and beyond engraved foliage. Its rim has seven medallions, whereon 
are displayed the Greek form of our Lord's monogram between a border of 
fohage in repousse of conventional vine leaf type. These were also made by 
Hart, Son, Peard and Co. 



aitar JFurniture* 

•sjtf S standing on the re-table, and not strictly for sacred use, the following 
J5J^ articles have not been manufactured in the precious metals, but of 
metal gilt ; both in design and workmanship, however, they partake 
of the same general characteristics as the plate. 

Candlesticks. — These are 23 inches in height, and start from a 
triangular base, richly fohated ; the shafts are boldly diapered, the divisions 
being marked by pearl beading with a button in each lozenge ; the knops are 
moulded and enriched with repousse ornament, as also are the broad spreading 
pans. The base, knop, and two bosses of each are enriched with topazes, 
amethysts, carbuncles, chrysoprases, and carnehan. They are the gift of 
Misses C. and H. Roberts. 

Flower Vases.— These are of two sizes, one pair being nine inches high 
and the other pair eight inches. They are quatrefoil in plan, richly ribbed and 
moulded, with handles alternating in their detail the Oak and the Lily. In a 
medaUion at the front of each respectively is a representation of St. Mary, 
St. Agnes, St. Catherine, and St. Cecilia, and in the other three medalhons of 
each are representations in repousse of the Lily, the Rose, the Passion 
Flower, and the Pomegranate— emblems of Purity, Love, Suffering, and The 
Resurrection. These are the gift of the Hon. E. Douglas Pennant. 

Altar Book Desk. — This is of brass, but finished in colour to corre- 
spond with the candlesticks and vases. The plate is richly engraved, having 
in the centre of a quatrefoil the figure of St. Mary. At the two sides are 
bands of Oakleaf fohage, and geometrical forms take up the oblong shape of 
the plate. It is the gift of Mrs. Clement Hoey. 

These articles have also been made from Mr. Pearson's designs, by Hart, 
Son, Peard, and Co« 



6o 



THE bishop's confirmation CHAIR. 



JTIje Bisfjop's Confirmation CJjatr 

Is constructed of hard wood, and covered entirely with bullocks' hide, the 
surface of which is enriched with conventional ornament deeply embossed in 
the leather, the edges and joinings of which are secured to the wood framing 
by closely-studded bronzed nails. The terminal knobs at arms and back are 
silvered and lacquered on the wood. In the centre of the leather splat 
forming the back of chair is embossed a Bishop's mitre, and the intersection of 
the lower framing xmder the seat is marked on the front and back by pro- 
jecting leather-covered shields bearing the arms of the diocese. The seat is 
upholstered in rich crimson silk velvet. 

The chair was made by Mr. Robert Christie, 102, George-street, 
Portman-square, London, W. 



(iIatJ)etiral Stalls. 

In addition to those occupied by the Canons Residentiary, the stalls in the 
Cathedral are assigned as follows : — 



W. J. Phillpotts, M.A., Archdeacon of Cornwall. 
R. HoBHOUES, M.A., Archdeacon of Bodmin. 



»(i.) A. 

R. 

^(2.) T. 

R. 

S. 
J. 

c. 

A. 

R. 
T. 
R. 



C. Thynne, M.A. (St. 

Neot.) 
Martin, M.A. (St. Coren- 

tin.) 
PhiUpotts, M.A. (St. Aid- 
helm.) 
Vautier,M.A. (St. German.) 
Rogers, M.A. (St. Piran.) 

R. Cornish, M.A. (St. 

Buriena.) 

F. Harvey, M.A. (St. 

Carantoc.) 

J. Mason, M.A. (St. 

Petroc.) 
F.Wise, M.A. (St.Columb.) 
B. Coulson, M.A. (S. Uni.) 

H. K. Buck, M.A. (St. 

Germoc.) 



(St. 



*{3.) 



W. P. Chappel, M.A. 

Constantin.) 
P. Bush, M.A. (St. Paul.) 
H. H. Du Boulay, B.A. (St. 

Samson.) 
F. V. Thornton, M.A. (St. 

Breaca.) 
F. Hockin, M.A. (St. Conan.) 
A.P.Moor,M.A. (St. Nectan.) 

F. E. Carter, M.A. (St. Cybi.) 
J. H. Moore, M.A. (St.Teilo.) 
J. S. Tyacke, M.A. (St. la.) 

G. H. Whitaker (St. Adwenna.) 
(Vacant) (St. Winwoloc.) 

„ (St. Meriadoc.) 
„ (St. Rumon.) 



Performing duties of (i) Treasurer ; (2) President; (3) Missioner. 

The following have a place in the Forma Secunda : — 

F.H. O. Whittingstall, M.A., Vice-Chancellor. 
E. F. Taylor, M.A., Diocesan Inspector. 
J. Agar Ellis, B.A., Sacrist. 



CATHEDRAL SCHOOL OF DIVINITY. 6 1 

Catijetrral Srfjool of ©tftmitg 

("SCHOLM CANCELLARII ' ), 

Truro. 



Visitor : 
The Lord Bishop of the Diocese. 

Chancellor of the Cathedral Church and Principal : 
The Rev. Canon Worlledge, M.A. 

Vice- Chancellor of the Cathedral ^ Tutor : 

The Rev. H. O. Fearnly-Whittingstall, M.A.., 

New College, Oxford. 

Occasional Lecturers : 
The Rev. Canon Moor, M.A. 
The Rev. Canon Carter, M.A. 



I.— Object of the School. 
In the Cathedrals of the Old Foundation it was the duty of a Canon, 
named the Chancellor, to conduct Schools of Divinity, in which men were 
trained for Holy Orders. This School, founded in accordance with this 
ancient custom in October, 1877, is open both to Graduates and Non- 
Graduates. 

II.— Qualifications for Admission. 
Non-Graduates will be examined in (i) The Greek ©f one of the Gospels ; 
(2) a Latin author ; (3) Knowledge of the principal facts in the Old and New 
Testaments ; (4) The Church Catechism. There is no entrance examination 
for Graduates. 

III. Period of Residence. 
Graduates of the Universities reside for one year. Non-Graduates com- 
plete their ordinary course of training in two years, and reside in the Hostel, 
or in lodgings approved by the authorities. 

The year is divided into three terms, of about ten weeks each, beginning 
about January 20th, May ist, and October 6th. 

Students are left entirely free in their choice of the Diocese and Parish 
which they may prefer for their Ordination and first Curacy, except those 
elected to Bursaries, who undertake to serve for three years in the Diocese of 
Truro. 

IV. Course of Study. 
(i) The subjects usually required by the Bishops for their Ordination Exam- 
inations, and the special subjects appointed for " the Preliminary 
Examination of Candidates for Holy Orders." The results of this 
Examination are recognised by the Bishop of Truro for his Ordination. 

(2) There is an Examination at the end of each Term, and occasional papers 

are also set on one or more of the subjects. 

(3) Students are also practised in the composition and delivery of sermons. 

V» Practical Training. 
(i) Each Student in turn reads the Lessons at daily Matins. 
(2) Opportunity is offered for obtaining experience in Parochial and Missiou 
work, under the Clergy of Truro or the neighbourhood, 



62 CATHEDRAL SCHOOL OF DIVINITY. 

VI. Payments. 
(i) Tuition Fees, ;^io a term (paid in advance). 

(2) Board and Lodging in the Hostel, about ^ 19 a Term. 

(3) Cassock, Surplice, Cap, and Gown, cost about £^. Books from _^5 

upwards. 
All necessary furniture is provided for residents in the Hostel, except 
bedroom linen. 

Vn. Bursaries. 

A Bursary of j^6o, tenable for two years, is offered annually to Students 
who are in bona fide need of assistance. 

Candidates are examined in (i) General knowledge of Holy Scripture; 
^2) Greek Grammar, and Translation of the Greek Testament ; (3) A Latin 
Ecclesiastical Author ; (4) The Church Catechism. 

The next Bursary will be given ia the Autumn of 1888. 

*^ Any further information may be obtained on application to the Rev, 
Canon Worlledge^ 4, Strangways Terrace^ Truro* 



HEARD AND SONS, STEAM PRESS, TRURO, 



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