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VOL. 3. OCTOBER, NO. 1. 


C. D. Center, '94. W. D. Calvin, '95. 

John Eoss, '94. C. A. Allenburger, '95. 

A. T. Holbrook, '95. S. T. Hart, Business Manager. 

Communications in reference to Advertisements or Subscriptions (Subscription Price 
$1.00 per annum) should be addressed to S. T. Hart, Business Manager, 334 Dearborn Street. 

All other Communications, Articles for Publication, etc., should be addressed Editor? 
The Corpuscle, Rush Medical College. 

Remittances should be made by money-order, draft or registered letter, payable to 
The Corpuscle, and addressed to S. T. Hart, Business Manager, 334 Dearborn Street, 

Electrotypes will be furnished authors free of charge, if proper drawings are provided. 
Electrotypes of engravings will be furnished authors at cost, when they wish to preserve 
them for future reproduction. 

It is a source of great satisfaction to The Corpuscle to see Prof. Bridge 
in our midst again. The Professor has been one of the oldest and best friends 
The Corpuscle has had. His efforts have always been to encourage the 
paper. He pinned his faith and allegiance to it at the beginning, and during 
its brief existence has shown his faith by his works, and has demonstrated 
his loyalty both by word and deed. No one but the editors can know the 
dearth, at times, of sympathy and support the paper has received. We do 
not wish to censure anyone for we, doubtless, have no entirely just accusa- 
tion to bring, but from Prof. Bridge The Corpuscle never received a prom- 
ise that was not righteously kept. His was not the fashion to promise and 
defer, until our deferred hopes made us very sick and made our columns look- 
very thin. Prof. Bridge is a busy man but he believes in the journalistic 
work of the students, and he encourages that belief by encouraging them, 
and by actual example in the line of contributing. 


At the annual meeting of the Alumni Association of Rush in '92, Prof. 
Bouffleur called the attention of the association to The Corpuscle, and upon 
discussion it was voted to make The Corpuscle the official organ of the as- 
sociation; and the secretary and treasurer were instructed to subscribe and 
pay for the journal, out of the funds on hand for the following year. 

At the last annual meeting of this association the report of the treasurer 
showed that ninety- two members had received the journal for one year and at 
this point the matter was dropped and the association adjourned without 
making provision for the following year. When the members found that they 
were not receiving their journal each month they complained, and especially 
those of the last class who expected to get the journal as an inducement to 
join the association. 

We hope some plan may be agreed upon so the members may receive this 
journal until the regular annual meeting and that then they will make it a 
regular monthly visitor to every Rush alumni office. 

We regret that in this number is an entire absence of clinic reports. A 
few words of explanation and apology may be in place. The Corpuscle has 
now reached the point where it is no longer merely a college paper. Its cir- 
culation has increased wonderfully. The publisher is in almost daily receipt 
of requests to "exchange," or of words of commendation and encouragement 
from outside parties, and, now, it has reached this point of prosperity and ad- 
vancement almost wholly on account of the reports of clinics and lectures the 
paper contained. But this very source of increase is what is making anxiety 
for the management. When it was merely a student's paper, the various pro- 
fessors were perfectly willing to allow The Corpuscle man to take down a 
clinic or lecture and publish it without revision or scrutiny. But now the 
paper goes wide-spread, and some of the lecturers object to our publishing 
their lectures, or the clinicians object to our reporting their clinics without 
such reports being revised and corrected by them. In the fatigue of a lecture 
or clinic the speaker, of course, is liable to a lapsus linguce; the reporter is 
liable to be less scientific than the speaker and misconstrue some expression, 
and there is always a certain allowance to be made for the outside, or delud- 
ing noises that intervene between speaker and reporter. To show our mean- 
ing, listen some time to an oration or lecture. The next morning read it over 
in the daily paper and see the difference between that report and the impres- 
sion you carried away with you. Then again each listener always colors a 
sentence with the special hue of his own personality, and it is utterly im- 
possible to always get precisely what the speaker intended should be given_ 
But The CORPUSCI ,e cannot advance without clinics any more than a passeng- 
er train can without steam, so we have compromised on this basis: we will 


have reports of clinics and lectures. A good fellow has agreed to report 
them in an informal way. not word for word, but idea for idea as nearly as he 
can interpret them, and in this way no onus of criticism can fall on the 
shoulders of the lecturer. If it does not prove satisfactory, we will be forced 
to employ a stenographer and let his verbatim reports be corrected and re- 
vised by the lecturer. 

We are informed that Mr. Gould will occupy apartments on the first floor 
of the new laboratory building, and that Adolph will move into those now oc- 
cupied by Mr. Gould. This is but another way of recognizing the worth and 
time-tried abilities of our genial clerk, and of a very competent janitor. Mr. 
Gould has held his position since 75, and Dolph has served for nearly ten 
years. Rush would not seem like herself with either one away, and it gives 
us pleasure to congratulate them on the change so advantageous to both. 

The new student at Rush perhaps gains a certain amount of experience 
by the entire absence of anything or anybody to guide his uninitiated feet for 
the first week or two, but this experience is often unpleasant and of longer 
duration than the limit mentioned. In time he learns that Anatomy lectures 
are held "way up stairs,' 1 that it is bad form to sit m the front row, and that 
Mr,. Gould is not able to go with him from class to class and point out a seat 
for him and introduce him to the professor. Experience teaches him all this, 
but there is one thing which new students seem not to appreciate for a long 
time. They are unnecessarily shy of the Free Dispensary. Seniors and 
middlers, many of them, feel far above attending dispensary clinics — : but the 
dispensary gets along very comfortably without that class of students and 
their opinions should count for little with the new men. There can be no 
better means devised for the inexperienced junior to familiarize himself with 
the sight, the methods, the paraphernalia of surgical operations and medical 
examinations than these Free Dispensary clinics. This "adjusting" himself 
is the primary benefit, the actual knowledge gleaned from the clinics comes 
later. The juniors should feel no hesitancy in attending any of these after- 
noon clinics down in the dispensary. 

A misused privilege is worse than no privilege at all. All will admit that 
the opportunity for seeing and learning afforded by the different departments 
of the dispensary are of great value when properly considered. It is how- 
ever a lamentable fact that there is a lack of system in this work which re- 
sults in much loss to all concerned. Seniors and middles can not derive the 
benefit they should because of the omnipresence of "D. Js'' who know as yet 
comparatively nothing of their fundamental branches and who can not, there- 
fore, see understandingly, but blindly. Now one word of advice to the "D. 


Js" [Dear Juniors] . Your time spent in your regular work will bring you 
much better results for the first year than to attend clinic, either those of the 
arena or dispensaries, however we do not ask that you take our advice but 
ask your professors and those who have charge of these departments. We 
trust that this work may become more systematized that there may be places 
for all and all will be found in their places. 

Hereafter, acting on a suggestion, each editorial will be signed with at 
least the initial of the writer. The staff, as you know, is composed of five 
men, each of whom has a right to air his individual views. Often these views 
are very dissimilar, and it gives our editorial space a queer appearance to 
have one form of advice given in one paragraph and exactly the opposite in 
the next. A signature to each will obviate this difficulty. 

To those entering Rush for the first time we would suggest that they 
take time by the forelock and commence immediately crowning themselves 
with glory by being the recipients at some future time of those rewards that 
hard work alone will bring. We believe that no reward excels that of being 
the possessor of an abundance of practical knowledge, still there are a few 
rewards of a different kind that serve only as inspirators and indicators of 
ability. Do not forget that there is a Benjamin Rush prize, a gold medal 
valued at fifty dollars, given to that member of the graduating class who 
passes the highest examination in every department of medicine represented 
that year in the examination for the degree. 

Also that there is a gold medal given for the best dissection. This medal 
is the Daniel Brainard prize. 

The student passing best examination in obstetrics receives the De Laskie 
Miller prize which consists of a set of obstetrical instruments. 

There are the two Freer prizes, for those showing a superior knowledge 
of medicine . 

The junior receiving best grade in junior chemistry is given the position 
of assistant, by which he not only saves paying tuition but, what is of still 
greater value gives him a very superior opportunity for familiarizing himself 
with this most important study. 

The way to learn anatomy is over the cadaver, and no student has such 
good opportunities for such study as do these prosectors, and how did they 
secure their positions? By securing the 100 per cent, and 99 per cent, grades. 

There are many other much coveted positions that are given to the faith- 
ful and deserving among which are internships in Presbyterian and Cook 
County Hosj^itals, which positions, could they be purchased, would undoubt- 
edly command thousands of dollars, but true merit is what is wanted and 
must be had by those who secure these positions. And should you fail you 
have been strengthened by striving. Now, in the beginning of your course, 
is the time to commence good solid systematic work. 

By Norman Bridge, A. M., M. D. 


An Address Inaugurating- the Fifty-first Annual Course of Study at Rush Medical College 

Chicago, Sept, 26, 1893. 

This hour is a witness of the enlightenment of the age, of the needs of 
mankind, and especially of the enthusiasm of youth. 

The most enticing fact of the three is the enthusiasm of youth. It is per- 
ennial; it never fades nor fails, and it is the hope of the race. It sustains 
every man who learns, and infects every man who teaches; and every soul 
that is awake must be in touch with it. It ignores fate and smiles at rebuffs; 
it disregards obstacles, and disbelieves in failures to come. It is not its fault 
if it has no perspective; it cannot look backward; it must look and push some 
where, and that where is forward. Nature in this arrangement is kind, Pos- 
sibly you could acquire medicine faster and better if you were endowed with 
the wisdom that comes of the looking backward, but it is doubtful. You 
might lose in enthusiasm more than you would gain — too much retrospect 
might be a hindrance. With a smooth track, the blind horse often wins in 
the race. He does not suffer in ardor or courage by the dangers and distrac- 
tions along the road — he does not see them. 

You are running a race, and you are sure to have an abundance of good 
advice about it; some of it you will pay for, and some will come gratis. No 
inconsiderable part of the teaching here will be in the shape of personal ad- 
vice. It will be wonderfully diversified, and as it is to come from so many 
minds, we 'cannot promise that it will in all things absolutely agree with it- 
self, but I am bound to say it will all be good advice. Its very disagreements 
will impress you with a great truth, so hard foe the average man to grasp, 
that it is no discredit to knowledge and truth that all minds are unable to con. 
ceive them in exactly the same way . 

The advice you will be disinclined to listen to is that which hints of fail- 
ure. Some who have preceded you in the journey you are traveling would 
say that if you knew what pitfalls were along the way, you would be ap- 
palled. But that is a truth that could be told to most men every hour. 
Lightning is always liable to strike a man (except in California), but it seldom 
does strike. 

It is fortunate you do not know of the accidents ahead, and tonight they 
are impossible. But at the same time there is no harm in having the harness 
well buckled and the straps strong for the journey, and rations for the way. 
as well as a knowledge of the safest road. 

Success, attainments, achievements are sure to come, but they will not 
drop down to us like the dew of heaven; and tomorrow and the successive 
tomorrows would best find us cool and calculating . To retrace steps taken 


in toil galls a little the finest ambition. It is better to be sure than to be 
sorry; and sore feet mean a grievous load. If we could only keep to the 
course that is shortest and has the fewest hills; and if the hills were always 
in sight for us to avoid them! 

You who are about to enter the profession are fortunate in your oppor- 
tunity, for you come with an epoch in medicine. You will have fewer things 
to unlearn than some of your predecessors here had; you may even ride on 
the waves of a revolution in science, and we congratulate you. 

All men who study here must learn anatomy, physiology, chemistry, and 
the materia medica, as well as a thousand other technical and not at first 
manifestly practical things. But these are only a preparation for the real 
work for which doctors are created. The true function of the doctor is to 
help mankind to longer and safer lives of more comfort. 

These thousand and one technical things, and some thousands of other 
more apparently practical ones, constitute a survey of the field, of the things 
in particular to be done, and the tools so far in use. But the field must be 
perpetually re- surveyed, since the corner stones are sometimes found in the 
wrong places, and constantly new tools and new ways of using them are dis- 
covered . 

Medicine cannot stop nor stand; it is a constant development. A few 
things, like many of the facts of anatomy, which we know that we know, 
have been true since they were first discovered, and they must so remain 
through the. life -time of the race. But as to a multitude of others that we 
have held so positively, our knowledge of today supercedes that of yesterday. 
And some of this wisdom which we today regard as the consummation of all 
things, tomorrow we may make a stepping stone to something higher, if we 
do not reject it as unfit even for a stepping stone. 

We who draw inspiration and enthusiasm from you, have seen some revo- 
lutions in our science and art. The last apparently finished one is that marvel 
of discovery and development, furnishing more surprises and wonders than 
all the fairy tales of the past, called modern surgery. Out of the science of 
bacteriology and microscopy it grew, and it has reduced the mortality of sur- 
gery by a large percentage, and made many new operations possible, and 
many diseases for the first time curable. It has done more; it has made the 
practice of some old-fashioned surgery a crime, so that some of the old knowl- 
edge, so blessed and beneficient we thought when it came to us, is now posit- 
ively opprobrious as a guide for professional action. 

The science of bacteriology, that has grown up with modern surgery and 
made it possible, has, with other researches that it has made possible, begun 
to give the light of day to a class of medical diseases called sometimes zym- 
otic, whose origin and nature have till now been covered with mystery. 
"Toxines," "anti-toxines, v "biological therapeutics," and a host of other new 
words and phrases, have already come into our technical language as a conse- 
quence, and others are to follow. This line of discovery is a starting point 
from which we take, and must take, a new reckoning in medicine. The next 
decade may as thoroughly revolutionize the science of internal medicine as 
that of surgery has been changed already. You. gentlemen, will enter the 


profession with this something of a new era, and will witness a new proof 
added to the manifold preceding proofs that the science of medicine is pro- 
gressive, and cannot be circumscribed by any sect, or ism, or pathy . 

We cannot all become bacteriologists; I wish we could. We cannot all 
give years of work to laboratory pursuits; I envy the men who can. For the 
workmen of the laboratories are the prophets, as they will be the lawgivers 
of the profession of the future . It behooves us who are plodding along in 
clinical fields to make their work a part of our intellectual life if we can, and 
apply their discoveries to the service of mankind. We who, passing toward 
and into age, are feeling the touch of that inevitable tendency to mental fixed- 
ness that comes to all as the years fly, may have some difficulty in doing this. 
You cannot understand this difficulty, and -you will not encounter it now. The 
difficulty may be overcome by any of your seniors who will, and by you in 
your intellectual ripeness. We are fortunate in the memory of the elder By- 
ford as a perpetual reminder of how beautifully a human mind may go on 
growing and developing and fitting itself into new conditions for three quar- 
ters of a century. His face in bronze or marble or in color ought to grace 
this amphitheatre, a constant lesson of serenity and self poise. 

Rush College is determined that, whether you will or not, you who com- 
mit yourselves to her care shall march at or near the head of the column. 
Yonder laboratory testifies to that determination, and after you have strug- 
gled with the courses of work within it, you will know, if you do not already, 
the full force of the testimony, and that you are expected to live in the scien- 
tific life of today . No greater monument to the spirit of progress in the 
councils of the college could have been built than that laboratory. May you 
love its work and become enthused with its spirit, and may many of you, 
after you shall be graduated, come back there to work out in patience and toil 
some of the problems that are now demanding solution. No satisfaction can 
be so rich, no fame so lasting, as that which comes of such work — but you 
must think only of the satisfaction, never of the fame. Fame is sweetest 
when it comes as a surprise and unbidden, out of the qualities of work and 
life that are pursued for their own sake. 

It is a temptation of the young to build castles of business success in the 
future: so many patients, so many thousand dollars charged, so much collect- 
ed, so many patients captured from competitors; and it is a sweet morsel to 
tell of such successes, especially sweet to the fellow who can tell of them. 
But I met, a few years ago, a young man working away as a poorly paid as- 
sistant in a great laboratory, who was entirely satisfied; who declared that if 
he could get enough to eat and some cheap clothes to wear, he would spend 
his life in such work, because he liked it and thought it ought to be done. It 
was unavoidable that he should be called, as he has been since, to a higher 
work, and he is liable any day to be promoted again, and nobody knows how 
soon we shall all be sitting at his feet. 

The new laboratory building does not nominally increase the scope of 
work in the College, but it gives all the practical courses more range as to 
room, apparatus, facilities, and healthfulness, and makes it certain that all 
such work shall become a larger and more ambitious part of the College life 


and study. All the laboratory courses of the College go into the new build- 
ing, the anatomy, chemistry, materia medica, physiology, pathology, and not 
least, bacteriology, and all under conditions of wholesomeness that will invite 
larger results from both teachers and students, 

Not the least of the missions of the laboratory is to provide — what I am 
sure gratifies us all and all the alumni alike — a more w T holesome working 
place for that man (to whom the College owes a debt of permanent gratitude) 
who for nearly two decades has here carried forward, under the greatest dif- 
ficulties, a work tending more than any other to scientific thinking; that most 
unselfish and indefatigable of men, the distinguished professor of chemistry 
and toxicology. 

Another great advantage will accrue; the old building, now to be devoted 
more completely to clinical and scholastic work, will enter upon a career of 
usefulness never dreampt of before. Labor here will be more healthful be- 
cause less crowded; the atmosphere will be better, and opportunities may be 
found for further elaboration and growth of some of the new r er methods of 
teaching, especially of recitation work, an old-new method which deserves to 
be more employed in all medical schools. 

The purpose of the laboratory is primarily to teach to undergraduates 
what is possible of the sciences that underlie all the rest of medicine. Its 
larger mission must be to add to the knowledge of the world through the 
work of its directors and assistants, and of the alumni of the College who may 
return from year to year to pursue courses of study and make original re- 
searches within its walls. I am aware that usually, the world over, such 
work is only made possible by liberal endowments of material aid. The state 
cannot be expected to support very freely original investigation, and if citi- 
zens who are able will not support it, but give their millions, as they seem to 
be doing, mostly for studies in the languages and classics of antiquity and 
in theology, then original research must be done independently of endow 7 - 
ments, even if more haltingly, and with the sacrifice occasionally of the unre- 
quited life of a worker. What pathetic interest has the fact that men will 
give more for progress in embellishments, in the use of words and the devel- 
opment of art and taste, than in the saving of human lives! 

Your experience in the laboratory will be a large one. Nothing here can 
be a finer test than that of who among you are capable of scientific work and 
scholarship, and of an intellectual life. If there are any lazy ones, this will 
find them out. No teacher, no laboratory equipment can make an incisive, 
accurate expert out of a man who does his work and his thinking in a slip- 
shod way. The drill of a thorough-going school is a great winnowing pro- 
cess. Inevitably the chaff, with a great appearance, floats to the top and 
away. It is impossible to keep it and the solid grain together; they don't 
mix well; and their natures cannot be greatly changed. 

An innovation which this institution inaugurates tonight is an eight 
months annual period of college study. Its advantages are manifold and mul- 
tifarious. To some, I regret to say, it means chiefly more expense to stu- 
dents, more time spent away from home, more hardships to gain an education 
—eight months to do what can be done in six. But to those wdio have had 


the largest observation of the ways of learning, it means more tranquility in 
study; more certainty of scholarship; better fixation of mental habits of the 
best sort; more absorption of knowledge from teachers knd from each other; 
more acquaintance with the world of thought. 

Academic walls somehow seem to exhale knowledge, and beget ideas. 
Association with them creates an ambition for learning, and a spirit of culti- 
vation; beside being a blessed memory through life, it colors the thought and 
directs the energies of a lifetime and of successive lifetimes. No money is so 
well spent as that which gives the student a prolonged stay at a technical or 
professional school of a high order. The residence of the average graduate 
at such a school has been, in America, altogether too brief. 

The object of school life is not simply or chiefly to learn by an effort of 
memory the longest list of facts in the shortest time, but to cause the largest 
list of correct ideas to become so thorough a part of our cerebral life, that 
their use and command will be as nearly as possible automatic— and time is 
necessary for the process. It is not true that any man can learn in the old 
six months' course, by any amount of safe cramming, what he can easily ac- 
quire in the longer one. It does not pay to enter upon a business of life re- 
quiring the greatest wisdom, with an act of foolishness. The cramming act 
is an unwise one; it breeds confusion of ideas, lack of symmetry and sharp- 
ness in mental images — notions and facts get into the wrong intellectual 
pigeon-holes, and become so mixed and tangled up with each other that they 
are often useless. Moreover it is fatiguing to the system as a whole; and too 
often depreciated bodily vigor during the school life not only reduces the rate 
and certainty of learning, but sends the graduate out into the world handi- 
capped by debility, to be broken down early in a professional career. 

• One of the first things this College hopes for. for each of you, is a nor- 
mal body and a surplus of strength; so it encourages exercise and athletics,' 
good rooms v ventilation and food, and even condones some hilarity if it only 
works to this end. 

The longer course will also be a great gain since it will enable men, by 
prolonged association with the College and with each other, the better to 
learn their own respective imperfections and perhaps to correct them; to 
have some of the rough or projecting corners knocked off. It is given to the 
choice few to be glad to be told of. and to see and measure their own defects. 
Everybody thinks he sees and knows his own but it is his neighbors who 
truly see them; and human nature has not greatly changed for nineteen cen- 

We struggle along montn after month against some glaring obstacle to 
our best progress, because no one happens or dares to tell us of it; or we will 
not believe it. We finally discover it by the accidents of life or association, 
humiliated that we had missed it so long. 

In two successive terms in this College — not many years ago — a teacher 
held trial examinations in the middle of the course. With incalculable labor 
he examined every paper; drew a blue line under each error he could discover 
in language, grammer and statement, and returned the papers to their re- 
spective writers in the hope that each would discover if he could — and the 


triumph were greater if he could — what his errors were and correct them, or 
avoid them in his final examination. The result was curious. The men with 
good preliminary education, who by school drill of some sort had learned how 
to learn, avoided repetition of the errors. But as to the men who most need- 
ed the assistance, the work was well nigh thrown away. Many of them 
looked over their blue marks, evideutly with small study of their import, and 
went to their final examinations to make the same or similar mistakes. These 
were simply incapable of seeing what their shortcomings were, or of profiting 
by having them hinted at. Hints and passing suggestions would not open 
their eyes; only rebuffs, or time for absorption would do. 

Then the longer residence at the College means a larger, more intimate 
college life, more class experiences, more amusing incidents — things to be re- 
membered, and that emphasize and fix in the mind the things studied. The 
vocation of the study of medicine in a medical college becomes to most men 
intensely, even terribly, monotonous. The best of the vigorous and healthy 
students find it hard to keep up their interest to the end of the term — they 
never do unless they are in the graduating class — and they positively never, 
under any system of instruction so far invented, maintain at a high standard 
their intellectual avidity and receptiveness to the end of the term. Lack of 
variety, lack of illustrative and even digressive incidents, constitute much of 
the difficulty, and a longer term will be a remedy. The jokes, the mistakes 
in the quiz, the slips and misconstructions, that occur so often, are so much 
spice — sometimes rather crude, and occasionally coarse, but spice neverthe- 
less — to relieve the tedium of the prolonged effort to acquire an enormous 
mass of facts and impressions. The occasional blunder in the quiz that sets 
the class in a titter, sometimes does more good than a dozen correct answers; 
it impresses the occasion and the topic on every one present. A blunder re- 
enforces the truth. 

The verbal and other mistakes of the teacher sometimes have a similar 
effect — only he is usually like the man who walks down the street with a 
chalk mark on his back, he is an entertainment from which he is himself ex- 
cluded. All such digressive influences we, in our anxiety for the ideal, too 
often taboo as so much flood- wood. But they are the straw to the bricks, and 
are never to be despised. College politics among the students are even al- 
lowable as a diluent, and certainly the College Newspaper, in the school spirit 
it produces, pays for itself a dozen times over each year. 

Even the peculiarities of a teacher that familiarly characterize him with 
his students, and perhaps gives him a sobriquet for life, have their value. 
The greatest teacher of anatomy perhaps that this country has had is remem- 
bered by thousands of his pupils in connection with the phrase "probe in it," 
Every time it is uttered, it brings up to memory the picture of the great 
teacher standing in the arena, and as refined and instructive utterances as 
were ever listened to; and pictures of the very anatomy come to the mind at 
the same time. 

For more than a quarter of a century, students came to this College to be 
entertained by the wit, anecdotes and classical references of the late Prof. 
Allen, 4 'Uncle' r by the grace of his own permission. As juniors they were so 


much amused by it all, that they sometimes would leave a lecture, and, for 
the moment, forget everything of it but the wit. As seniors they began to 
discover that the wit and the anecdotes were merely the decorations of some 
of the most incisive philosophy ever taught; that they simply accentuated the 
wisdom of the man. As practitioners, by the hundreds they cherish the mem- 
ory of Allen as that teacher who, above all others, showed them how to think. 

But there are other reasons for extending the term to eight months. 
It is demanded by the progress of the world and the standing of the College 
as an institution of learning, as well as by the position of Chicago as a medi- 
cal center. It is simply the most recent of a long series of steps forward 
that, in the last ten years, the College has made in its requirements; but we 
know well that it is not the last. The last will not be taken till it makes the 
work done here equal to that in any other undergraduate school in the world; 
and even then the College must continue to move forward. The world moves; 
the College cannot teach that and herself stand still! 

Methods of teaching in all sorts of schools have changed radically in the 
last decade. Manual training, until lately unheard of, is claiming the atten- 
tion of all general educators. We do not characterize by this term medical 
college work, but we might well enough. Our practical courses, in this Col- 
lege something less than a dozen, that did not exist twenty years ago, are, in 
their scope, value and influence on the processes of the mind, only different 
forms of manual training. Manual training is nothing but practical training; 
there is strictly no such thing as educating the hand alone; it is the brain and 
spinal cord that are educated — the normal hand is instantly obedient to any 
automatism the nerve centers acquire. It is practical work that is the wor- 
ship of the hour and ought to be. 

One of the most striking improvements in the curriculum of the College 
in late years is the great increase in the amount of that form of teaching 
known as clinical. Nothing could be more practical than this; it makes the 
science into an art; it applies the art to the exigencies of life. 

Perhaps no description of London, or Berlin, or Boston, or Los Angeles, 
including a description of their people, could enable you, a stranger, and 
dropped down in either place unexpectedly, to know promptly where you 
were. If you had seen numerous pictures of the place, its most notable build- 
ings, streets and statues, you might know, after a moment's reflection, and if 
you were confronted with some of them, that you had opened your eyes in a 
particular city; but unless you had been a very diligent student and had a 
good command of yourself, you would get lost and have to inquire your way 
ten minutes after you began to move from point to point. Repeated thought- 
ful visits to each city would make you feel at Home in them, and a residence 
in any of them, would give you a sense of pride that you knew the ground on 
which you trod. But if, in a familiar haunt of your home city, you happen, in 
a moment of reverie or carelessness, to find yourself facing west when you 
think you are looking east, you are in utter confusion and, among the most 
familiar of all scenes, for the moment lost. Your conceit takes a tumble, you 
knit your brow and finally are enabled to gather yourself together, and simply 
t urn around a,nd face the other way to your right bearings. What is the 


matter? Simply that the most familiar of sights and scenes came upon you 
unexpectedly, and in wrong" sequence, and you were lost. 

In the study of medicine these truths obtain. We must read books and 
learn the descriptions of the towns, cities, and citadels of medicine so that 
each is a distinct picture in the mind. We must listen to didactic lectures to 
amplify that knowledge. But we must be taken to these sights and scenes 
actually and study their different features, have actual contact with them, 
and know them when we see them, and know their significance. And this is 
what the study of clinical medicine and surgery is calculated to do for us. 

Clinical study approaches the subject of medicine, not as in the study of 
its principles and practice by scientifically considering each disease, but by 
the study of the individual patient, and the individual thing of and about the 
particular patient, as to their significance. The doctor is both a detective and 
a judge — never an advocate in this study — and runs down every suggestion 
and hint and lead that offers a hope of finding facts that will be of value in 
the particular case; he also weighs duly and with a fairness to truth that is 
judicial, all statements and facts, and especially the statements of the patient, 
and is often obliged to discount the latter by a large percentage for the patient's 
benefit. We read the classical pictures of disease, as true and perfect as can 
be drawn, the results of the winnowing of the observations of men from the 
time of Hippocrates, and against which as pictures of disease, little or no 
criticism can be made. 

We fix all these pictures in memory as well as we can — they are beautiful 
and distinct and clear. But actually people rarely get sick, continue sick, 
and recover or die in accordance with these pictures as they are fixed in our 
minds, and clinical study is our disillusionment. People, their symptoms and 
their sicknesses, present an unending variation, an almost infinite complex- 
ity. Every man, woman and child who consults us must be considered and 
studied individually and wisely; and practical, that is clinical, stuffy is the 
only avenue we have to a working knowledge of how to do it. 

But how can the pictures of disease be perfect, you say, and we not find 
them as the rule in actual life? The descriptions must strike an average of 
every extreme; not the highest nor the lowest, but somewhere between them. 
We learn some of the exceptions, or try to, so as to vary the picture a little, 
but the picture that becomes a part of our cerebral furniture shows the aver- 
age of all the conditions. Did it ever occur to you that such an average 
might be strictly true, and yet no patient ever exactly represent that 
average in all particulars? A thousand men at the end of their twentieth 
year will weigh all the way, let us assume, from 80 to 200 pounds each; the 
average weight will perhaps be 182 pounds, yet it is entirely possible that not 
a man of the thousand will tip the beam at exactly that figure. 

The total of clinical work is materially increased in the extended term 
and it is all justified; the wonder is that we have been so long in reaching the 
present standard in this particular. 

Finally the college has found justification of the improvements she has 
made, in the results. There is no test like the test of experience. There is 
no success like succeeding. Rush College has for many years been, step by 


step, adding to the amount of her teaching and her exactions of students . 
The course has been several times lengthened; several new and severer condi- 
tions of admission have succeeded each other; the fees have been raised so 
that the cost to the student has more than doubled. Students have com- 
plained of these things, sometimes with bitterness, yet numbers of applicants 
have justified them, and the alumni and the public have always applauded 
them. Last year witnessed the largest attendance in half a century. Evi- 
dently some ether devices must be invented to keep students out, beside more 
severe entrance conditions, harder work in the classes, and more difficulty in 
getting out with the diploma of the Institution. 

Is it a matter of surprise that men seek the diploma of Rush College? 
What brings them here? It is not chiefly, I am persuaded, the age of the 
College, although it is the oldest institution of learning in Illinois, and has a 
span of history one- eighth that of America; nor chiefly its great army of 
alumni, of whom the class tablets in this room so eloquently testify; nor the 
fame of any of its teachers, or of its honored dead who have fallen in its 
service. It is rather the public belief that is firm and abiding, based on the 
record of the past, that whoever may come or go, the College will stand firm; 
will teach the science of the time, and will develop with the age. 

After the address of Prof. Bridge had been warmly applauded, Prof. 
Holmes said: "A few of you recall the kindly counsels of Dr. Roberts, as he 
came before you as President of Lake Forest University. More, perhaps re- 
member the inspiring words of Dr. McClure, who several times addressed 
you as acting President of the University after the resignation of Dr. Roberts. 

I take great pleasure in introducing to you a distinguished scientist and 
educator, who was till recently President of the State University of Indiana, 
and who more recently has been called to the Presidency of Lake Forest 

He will' hereafter devote his energies and the fruit of his experience to 
the interests of the University, and, as far as may be, to the welfare of its 
Medical department, Rush Medical College. 

I introduce to you Dr. John M. Coulter." 

By John M. Coulter. 

"I must confess a two-fold interest in this occasion; first an official one, 
having been called to preside over the organization of which this is so import- 
ant a part; and second a personal one, being more closely drawn to this pro- 
fession than any other excepting my own, so that had I not been led to 
become a botanist, I certainly would have chosen to be a physician. His- 
torically the two professions are very closely allied, as formerly almost all 
botanists entered their domain by the way of the medical profession, and were 
really physicians side-tracked. To-day, however, we have a main lite of our 
own, but do not forget the time when we were parts of a common system. 

Added to the words of greeting, which I extend to you, I would very brief- 


ly present a thought or two which may be of service, and if not, will serve to 
indicate my great interest in your work. 

Recognizing the overwhelming importance of the medical profession, and 
the peculiar relation its members hold to society, too much thought cannot be 
given to their preparation. Taking physicians as a class, is there anything 
that with reasonable effort will make them any more efficient? You will of 
course understand that I am not speaking of those vigorous men who rise 
above every condition and do the best things, but of the "rank and file''; and 
you will also understand that what I am about to say is not in the spirit of un- 
favorable criticism, but of a genuine and deep interest in everything that 
pertains to your noble profession. Prom such a standpoint I would say that 
the most notable general lack is to be found in the very incomplete prepara- 
tion of those undertaking to enter upon medical studies. Regarding the 
medical profession as the most difficult of all, and its subject matter as requir- 
ing the most mature mental operations, I think that the future will demand of 
our medical schools that only those with some development of mental muscle 
be permitted to enter . It is too common a result to find that the graduate 
has been so immature as a student, that he has been satisfied with mere 
names and formulae, and has no conception of the real meaning of his work. 
This display of verbiage is by far the most common characteristic of the im- 
mature student in every profession. My first proposition then is; 

1. Thai ta preparatory course is neessary J r or the development of the student 
habit. Of course I mean by this not the student habit developed by our sec- 
ondary schools, a habit very well suited to that stage of progress, but that 
independent habit which should be developed by college metnods. I have no 
doubt but that you have found stronger work done by some high school 
graduates than by some college graduates, bub this difference lies in the indi- 
vidual, not in the training. The ability to grasp an important subject, to 
make details but the indices of underlying principles, to see the thought that 
lies behind the illustration, such ability comes from mental discipline, mental 
discipline that comes beyond the informational period of the secondary 
schools. All education which is preliminary to professional training is but 
the development of power, the storing up of mental energy, and other things 
being equal, he can do the strongest professional work who has stored the most 
of this energy. As a student of biology, who has occasion to know somewhat 
of the tremendous problems connected with organisms, I recognize in your 
subject matter the most recondite of problems, in the presence of 
which feeble equipment seems a mockery. Of course just as a school boy 
may solve a problem by following some rule which conveys to his mind no 
principle, so, I presume, a physician may mechanically learn a list of symp- 
toms and the corresponding treatment; but you must know that your science 
has made no progress in such hands. I would regard preparatory training, 
therefore, as necessarily dealing entirely with subjects allied to your profes- 
sion, but as chiefly dealing with the development of power, the cultivation of 
the student habit. Such studies should be regai ded much as the apparatus 
of the gymnasium, the use of which looks to the healthy development of the 
bodily powers. I take it that what the medical faculty desires to have pre- 


sented to them is not necessarily men who have dabbled a little in the subjects 
that properly belong to the medical college, but who have been trained 
to be students, with habits of close observation and independent thinking, let 
the means of preparation be what they may. And this leads to my second 

2. That in preparatory training the laboratory should find a prominent place. 
My plea for this has no reference to the subject, but to the method. The 
method, the purpose of a laboratory are usually mysteries to the tyro, and he 
must undergo more or less training before such work becomes really effective. 
The habit of observation, of reasoning from observed facts, are mental atti- 
tudes so very different from those concerned in culling information from 
books that the book-student must for a, time be completely bewildered in a 
laboratory, He can read about facts indefinitely, but when they bodily con- 
front him he sees little and reasons less. His whole habit is to depend upon 
others for information, and when he loses the grasp of the hand that has 
been leading him he feels like one groping in the dark. Instead of reading 
how it is done he is asked to do it. From my own experience with beginners 
in the laboratory I can imagine sorry work of the tyro upon such a subject as 
the human body, and how in his hands dissection is apt to become mangling. 
From my point of view, therefore, preliminary laboratory training, the labo- 
ratory subject being of minor importance, becomes essential, that the work 
here, for which you have but little enough time at best, may become immedi- 
ately effective; and that the time which should be given to investigation of 
lhe subject be not curtailed by learning how to investigate. The principle I 
seek to emphasize can be illustrated in the case of the students going to Ger- 
many for a course of lectures without understanding a word of German. 
Much of his time is lost in acquiring knowledge enough of the language to 
get what he has come for; and his opportunities have slipped away before he 
is in a condition to improve them. 

3. What I have said with reference to preparation in general, and prepa- 
tion in the laboratory, has to do directly with effectiveness in the work of the 
medical college. There is another consideration beyond this which to me 
would seem to make a broad preparation imperative, and that is the phy- 
sician's place among men, as a man of enormous possible influence if to his 
technical skill he add that culture which makes his contact a means of refine- 
ment. And among the many possible sources of culture may I venture to 
suggest one that is superlatively needed in this day when the price of success 
is narrowness of work, and that is, the study of our own language. The ability 
to speak English, with clearness and precision, is an accomplishment too much 
neglected by professional men. It is often a matter of early association, in 
every case it should be a matter of study. I have called this ability an ac- 
complishment, but it is far more; for I would look upon it as a means for 
largely increasing your influence in any community. You may cite instances 
of many who have done well enough without it; but as one who is constantly in 
touch with educational movements T can assure you that tbe star of English is 
in the ascendent, and that demands will be made for it that no profession can 


afford to neglect. It is not, however, the possible public demand that influ- 
enced me to make a plea for English, but the thought of increasing the healthful 
influence of the one profession that enters every home. And this thought 
must be the key to all I have said, for in such a profession I would see the 
highest types of men that modern education can produce. 

I suppose that this age in which we live has impressed itself upon all of 
us as one in which there is an astonishing subdivision of labor, as one in which 
success demands the utmost concentration upon some comparatively restricted 
field of labor. We call this the age of specialists; and it is the narrow-edged 
men who are ploughing the deep furrows, and are always in demand when 
real work is to be done. It is pre-eminently true that "a great deal of the 
wisdom of a man in this century is shown in leaving things unknown, and a 
great deal of his practical sense in leaving things undone.'" But there is 
grave danger just now of carrying this idea too far. A double danger con- 
fronts us to-day, namely, failure to specialize, and being nothing but a special- 
ist. The former makes the tvork ineffective; the latter the life. The world is 
fond of jesting at lop-sided specialists, and the jest is a reasonable one. A 
man has no more call to be lop-sided in these days of specialization than 
formerly. ' 'There is nothing more pitiable than the man in whom one giant 
faculty has starved the rest, like the dwarf whose large feet and hands seem 
to have devoured his stature." "Surely man dwarfs himself if he pushes too 
far the doctrine of the subdivision of labor. Success is purchased too dear, if to 
attain it one has to become a monster of one-sided development, and trans- 
formed into a head, an arm, a finger, or a leg, instead of a man." The times 
will demand that you sail between Scylla and Chary bdis, and the most effective 
manhood will avoid both. Concentration that does not involve isolation from 
other men and other things seems to have the promise of best results. 

I would commend you to the work that lies before you, that with the 

spirit of earnestness you may make the most of it. All things are possible to 

patience, skill, and indomitable will. And finally "whatsoever things are 

true, whatsoever things are honest, whatsoever things are just, whatsoever 

hings are pure, whatsoever things are of good report, think on these things." 


(Extract from a report of a Faculty meeting.) 

The reader may wonder if The Corpuscle is going to run an advertise- 
ment for Pears' Soap, but if he will glance down another line or two he may 
see the wherefore for such a title . 

Every year one, two, or a dozen members of the Faculty refer to the ob- 
noxious practices of yelling before clinics, of chewing tobacco and of smok- 
ing "the weed" in incongruous places, and at times poorly chosen. Now 
of course some medical students will smoke and chew tobacco. We ourself 
smoke, and if we did such a vile thing as chewing it, we would confess that 
too. Also we yell, and once this year, while suffering from a spasm of energy 
and its accompanying atrophy of remembrance, we began to initiate a bray 
within the deep recesses of our oral cavity, just prior to a clinic. Where- 
upon the fellow behind us brought a big note book down upon our editorial 
caput, which relieved the spasm and stimulated the atrophied function. 
When we -'came too" we turned around and thanked him for the whack, 
disrespectful though it was to senior dignity and editorial caput. Now we 
are ready to pass the whack on to the next man when he forgets. It is patent 
to every man who stops to think, that yelling before clinics is a bad indulg- 
ence in the end. 

But when it comes to tobacco, a greater than '76 spirit of independence 
springs up. If the I. O. O. A. T. C. (which being interpreted means the in- 
dependent order of anti-tobacco cranks), had never preached against tobacco; 
or if you had never been impressed in boyhood days with "it is a manly thing 
to use tobacco;" or if you had never seen a "drink, smoke, or chew" pledge; 
or if the other delegation of cranks had not told you it was an infringment on 
your rights to advise giving it up, or to rule it out of order in the lecture 
room, you would not cling to it so tenaciously. If every man in the class be- 
gan to bring boarding-house pie into the lecture room to eat and to smear on 
the floor during lecture, you would not feel badly injured if the Faculty, out 
of regard for your health and their own comfort, should forbid such om- 
nivorous demonstrations — unless a human 22-calibre freak should advance the 
argument that to forbid pie in the lecture room was an encroachment on your 
divine rights — In the latter case, the class would, on doubt, arise to a man 
and fight the matter out. Even now, many of you will accuse the author 
of toadying to the Faculty for some ulterior purpose, because of this article 

But the use of tobacco in the lecture room becomes a matter of personal 
interest to every man, and doubly so to many of us. 

Given a young man with pulmonary trouble, or a tendency toward it; 
given also five hundred microbes for him to take in with every inspiration. 


under favorable conditions; add some hard work; subtract exercise and sun- 
light; add hasty meals three times a day; then plus a vast expenditure of 
nervous energy; subtract sufficient sleep, and what have you? Well, if the 
family history was good you have a ne wly fledged M. D. , trying to raise suf- 
ficient money to purchase a ticket to Colorado or California. Now take that 
same young man with the same conditions, and to these conditions add a large 
amount of dust loaded with pneumococci and the-other-to-numerous-to-men- 
tion microbes of the human mouth; add also sufficient tobacco smoke to serve 
as an irritant for the sensitive bronchial areas, — an agent that acts exactly 
like the ivory point for the vaccine virus — and then what have you? Well if 
the family history was not of the best, you will probably have a very suc- 
cessful funeral the next Spring or Fall . And the strange thing about it is, 
that the fellow who dies then is never the one who spit on the floor. They 
are probably reserved for a more sumptious damnation. 

Take an afternoon off about once a week and think, on that occasion, 
solely about hygiene and sanitation, instead of tubercuclosis, and there will 
probably be less of tuberculosis as a result, 


Saturday evening a reception was given Rush Medical students at Y . M . 
C. A. rooms on Monroe street. There were a goodly number present, prob- 
ably 250. After the introduction committee had exerted themselves and suc- 
ceeded in making the many strangers acquaintances, all were invited into the 
audience room, where they were highly entertained by music furnished by the 
trio, Miss Henderson, Miss Patterson and Mrs. Aldrich, with Miss Rice as 
pianist. Select reading by Prof. Barrett, a pleasant talk by Dr. Beebe, and a 
club address by Mr. Messer, secretary of Y. M. C. A., of Chicago. Mr. Mes- 
ser spoke of the aims of the Y. M.' C. A., among which he mentioned the 
moral or spiritual benefits, intellectual benefits and physical benefits, all of 
which tend to make a man of the highest order. 

The ladies of the Third Presbyterian church assisted greatly in making 
the evening a most enjoyable one and to them much credit is due. 

Refreshments were served, after which the evening of enjoyment having 
advanced to the hour when all temperate people seek the soothing influence 
of Morpheus, all departed benefited in many ways. 


The '95 Annual Board has not been idle during the summer vacation, and 
we are assured of the publication next spring of a most interesting and val- 
uable volume. "The Pulse" is to contain besides the historical and biograph- 
ical parts a very choice selection of jokes, grinds, sketches, poems and mis- 
cellany. To aid this latter department of the book the management have 
placed in both the buildings lock boxes into which they invite all students to 
put any matter whatsoever that would be at all available for the book. It is 
hoped the invitation will be enthusiastically responded to, for the publication 
of a Medical College Annual is an untried experiment, and the board surely 
deserves the support of ihe whole college in tne efforts they are exerting to 
produce a creditable book. 



The committee which was appointed by the informal meeting of Saturday 
last for the purpose of considering the advisability of Class Organization, 
beg leave to submit the following: 

Whereas, The precedent of Class Organization has always been found 
beneficial in promoting harmony and intelligent co-operation, and 

Whereas, Such organizations have been found to have met the needs of 
the numerous students before us, therefore 

Resolved, That for the foregoing reasons, we, the committee, respectfully 
recommend that a permanent organization of the Junior Class of '93 of Rush 
College be affected; and we further recommend that we follow the precedent 
of former organizations in electing a President, Tivo Vice Presidents, a Recording 
Sec etary, Corresponding Secretary, Treasurer, Historian and a Committee of 
Five to co-operate with the officers, Respectfully submitted, 

H. C. Gemmill, Geo. T. Carson, I. H. Dunaway, 

F. W. Greiner, A. J. Tucker, Maurice Duane Bird, 

Jas. H. Roth, R. J. Burns, William B. Andrews. 

At a meeting of the class Oct. 5th, the above report was adopted, and 
class ties began to grow, and they proceeded to election of officers, which re- 
sulted in the following men being chosen. 

President, E. N. Eckert; 1st Vice President, G. T. Carson; 

2nd Vice President, C. W. Cox; Rec. Secretary, D. C. Gummill; 

Cor. Secretary, I. H. Dunaway; Treasurer, W. S. Lewis; 

Historian, W. B. Andrew. 

One man arose and said, "My name is not Cox, it is Whiskers, or at least 
that is what they have been calling me." He then explained why he refused 
to be passed up the oth3r day, by saying that he had been town marshall 
during the last three years. Several then agreed to call him Dr. Cox here- 
after and all'went merry as a marriage bell. The juniors are a fine class and 
will be all right as soon as some of them have the "D. J." edge w T orn off. 



in times past it was the custom down in the town I come from too have a 
parcle of good advise given to the popelace in the columns of the bugel from 
time to time kernel demiJon would seaze his firey pen and would dip it into 
the flowing ink and rite some powerfle good advise which it was of en my 
priviledge to reed and the town I come from is none the length and bredth of 
this imortle land in consequence so not being hear verry long though I de- 
zired to do my fellow students a good turn and will try to adopt some of the 
kernels cracking good advise two there neads dont be a as keap your hed 
cool and your feat hot a flacksead poletise is good for boils alwaj^s attend 
church on sundy for when in roam do as the romeans do to much wotter in- 
ternally is sure too produse asscitis this is one of my one for every won in 
the town I come from always said as how I looked like the kernel and so I 
thought it prorper to begin too devellope my tallents and the kernel always 
tuke his strate and never too my serton nollege was he bothurd with assitis 


although his nose was flamboyantly tinged like a rising son which begorge- 
ates the esfcern sky dont expect to rate on a d j for he may retallyate on you 
a soft anser makes the profesor tired and loud words coll for hisses if a man 
lends you five keep away from him so you kant borro five more it is better 
for the life insurranse company if you cettel ammikably and taik a drink than 
too go onto the feald of onor and be perforrated with meny hoals the chump 
wot sits up lait to studdy is a fool and the man with a early pull catches the 
internship which I kant remember any more so fairwell. d. J. anon 

A few years ago in a city that now has a greater area than any other in 
the world, and in time to come will undoubtedly number more inhabitants, 
there was a prosperous medical college that had built for itself a more com- 
modious building to provide room for the constantly increasing number of 
students who were seeking this institution of learning. At this time a gen- 
tleman not of great avoirdupois, young in years but ripe with learning, was 
invited to take charge of the chair of Chemistry, Pharmacy and Toxicology. 
He came, but with fear and trembling lest he should not prove a success in 
his field of la'bor. He had none with whom to share his fear, as all who 
knew him were confident as to his ability, and they were not disappointed, 
but were more than satisfied at the end of the year . As an indication of the 
appreciation and esteem in which this professor was held by his assistant and 
students, it was decided to present him with a microscope. A committee was 
appointed which upon investigation learned that the quality of the microscope 
they desired could not be secured in the city, neither could it be secured until 
after the desired time for the presentation had passed. What was to be done? 
It was known that another professor possessed a microscope of the style of 
the one desired, therefore it was decided to borrow this one, present it to the 
professor of chemistry, and then make the exchange unbeknown to the 
chemist when the one ordered should arrive. The professor agreed to lend 
it upon the condition that it would be returned to him that night that he 
might use it the following day, which condition was consented to by the bor- 
rowers. The glass was presented, modestly received, and placed away in 
chemical laboratory under lock and key for safe keeping . Later, however, 
the assistant entered the laboratory, secured the microscope and returned it 
to its rightful owner as per agreement. Imagine, if you can, the chemist's 
chagrin when on the following. day having some microscopical examinations 
to make, and desiring to test his new glass, discovered that it was gone. For 
once he was non-plussed, and the case demanded that explanations be made 
which were forthcoming in due time. Discoveries since made by this micro- 
scope have proven of much value to mankind, and should you ever meet its 
owner he will tell you the sequel. 


Prof. Senn abandoned the hunt for the sportive bacillus, of some kind 
or other, during the summer, and for about five weeks hunted and recreated 
in Yellowstone Park and vicinity. Of course you all know about his being 
elected president of the American Surgical Association, and that he has been 
re-elected president of the Military Surgeons. 

Prof. Hamilton spent his vacation in the Chicago clinics, as he informed 
The- Corpuscle man, the while a humorous twinkle gleamed in his eye, The 
genial professor is a boon to The Corpuscle man. Always willing to 
answer questions and to talk on outside matters as well. From one who 
knows we learned that Prof. Hamilton has been elected editor of the largest 
medical journal — the Journal of the American Medical Association. This 
journal embodies forty pages or more of solid reading matter and, like the 
utterances of many of our noted professors, it is authority. Prof. Hamilton 
was also in attendance at the Pan American Medical Congress and was chair- 
man on the section for Surgery, as Prof. Ingals was for the section on Laryn- 

Prof. Ingals took no vacation this summer, but instead w r ent down ^to 
Washington to the Pan American Medical Congress. 

■X- -7c 

Prof. Hyde also staj^ed in the city but, as he told the seniors, he is going 
to go to Paris for a few months to attend clinics, and to familiarize himself 
with any new ideas the profession there may have. Dr. Montgomery will fill 
his place while he is away — or ralher, he will supply the deficiency as much 
as anyone possibly could. No one can fill Prof, Hyde's place. We are glad 
however it is to be Dr. Montgomery instead of some one else. 

Dr. W. H. Bartran, '80, is at Fort Howard, Wis. The doctor took a post 
graduate course at Rush after his Ann Arbor course, and had surgery under 
Prof. Gunn at both places. 

Dr. J. F. Pritchard, who was graduated the year of the great fire, is at 
Manitowoc, Wis. 

Dr. C. W. Stoelting, '81, is at Oconto, Wis. The doctor is as jolly as of 

Another of the class of '81, Dr. H. A. Wolter, is at Green Bay, Wis., and 
they say he is the best physician in town, but F. L. Lewis '70 disputes the 
title with him. 

Comerford, '90, is "paying expenses, " as he jokingly remarked, at Ap- 
pleton, Wis. 

F. H. McNeel, of '81, who relates with considerable satisfaction that he 
was the preceptor of "La Count, that Cook County man who is just a little 
bit smart," is at Merrill, Wis. 

Otto Braun, '92, and R. L. Nourse, '89, are at Ashland, Wis. 

G. C. Chamberlain, '91, is in a mining hospital at Bessemer, Mich., and 
his chief there is J. W. Whiteside, of '80. 

R. W. Holmes, of whom The Corpuscle holds a just pride, spent his 
summer at Ironwood, Mich. He had charge of "the Armory" there which 
was the Emergency Hospital for the typhoid patients. The doctor won both 
respect and admiration by his devotedness, his kindness and his skill. Dr. J. 
K. Niven, '81, was his chief, but Dr. N. says Holmes deserves the credit. Dr. 
Niven is county physician, city physician and health officer. He has a 
nephew in the class of '94. 

Dr. O. G. Youngquist has the position of physician to the state prison at 

Marquette, Mich. He has a very enviable practice beside. 

* * 

Dr. W. A. Burnham, one or the old-time graduates of Rush is located at 
Hancock, Mich. Also, C. G. Printz, '93, is there. 

T. J. Edgcomb, '85, has been at Iron Mountain, Mich., but since the 
democratic administration began times in the iron region have been so dull 
tnatthe doctor has decided to "go west." 

Dr. H. W. Sheldon, '85, can be found at Negaunee, Mich. 


Dr. C. S. Lombard, '81, has a nice position at Negaunee, Mich. We have 
it on good authority that the doctor has made himself rich there. 

' -X-' 

G. D. Beach '91, is at Ishpenning, Mich., and is a member of a hospital 
staff. Beach is the man Prof. Parkes complimented so highly regarding his 
examination on surgery . 

Dr. Rudolph Holmes, '93, has accepted a position in the Union Hospital 
at Ironwood, Michigan, where he will remain until the beginning of his term 
as interne in the Presbyterian Hospital. 

■x- -x- 

Dr. Edwin Naffz, '93, has two offices in the city, one on State street and 
the other on Archer avenue. 


Dr. Robert P. Eckert, '92, is located at the corner of Division street and 
LaSalle avenue. 

-x- * 


Dr. William Bennett, '93, is practising in Milv aukee, Wis. 

-x- -x- 


Dr. Franklin, '92, of Pratt, Kansas, called at the college a few days ago 
and explained why Kansas was the coming state. 

' -X-" 

Dear Corpuscle: — I send you card by this mail. Come to my office in 
Roseland (Chicago suburb) about Nov. 1st or thereafter and take a smoke. 
I enclose |1.00 for The Corpuscle which 1 7nu$t have. If I understand it, 
this entitles me to membership in R. M. C. Alumni Association. Very truly 
yours, A. G. Huizinga. 

Why smoke with Huizinga"? Listen! 

Rev, and Mrs. B. VanEss request your presence at the marriage of their 
daughter Alice, to Dr. Albert G. Huizinga, Thursday afternoon, Sept. 28th, 
189?, at 2 o'clock, corner River and Twelfth streets, Holland, Mich. 

* -X- 

Married, Wednesday, August 2, 1893, Dr. W. E. Minahan to Mary 
Dignin. At home, Calumetville, Wis., after Aug. 15th. 


There was once a boyish student, with a prematurely wise face, in attend- 
ance at Rush. This student wore glasses, long hair, a suit of clothes, and his 
name — well it is a name hard to find a rhyme for. Also he was graduated in 
'93. Last summer he went off into the wilds of somewhere to kill time, and 
to assist overworked physicians in not allowing a ravaging epidemic to kill 
the population. Here he was eminently successful, so much so that his fame 
waxed great in epidemic cases, and very shortly after his arrival on the spot, 
—at least within six months, — the epidemic had gone into history, or over in- 
to Canada. It was no more. Then some of the long-suffering and over- 
worked ancients among the physicians there, took counsel together and said 
"We will try him on an obstetrical case." As Fortune usually decrees the 
trial came off at 3:30 A. M. The young and celebrated — for epidemic cases — 
physician was told to go and attend the ushering into the world of another 
member of society. He went. Also, he came back. The person most in- 
terested, and always present at such presentations, absolutely refused to al- 
low such a boyish hand to control the destiny of the debutante. Hence he 
came back. But the ancient among the physicians, who was counting on a 
long nap in his soft warm bed, was exceedingly wroth when roused up and 
told his presence was required there. He donned a few clothes — for rage 
kept him warm, called the young physician to follow and, as tradition sayeth, 
actually ran to the ushering in. He burst open the door, shot a fiery glance 
at the attendants, hauled the meek and boyish doctor up to the bedside, and 
in a voice which was a cross between muttering thunder and the bellowing of 
an alligator cried out, "What in the name of Pluto and the infernal regions is 
the matter here? Why wouldn't Dr. Holmes do? What else do we have him 
up here for? Good regions of darkness and of light! Inhabitants of this and 
other worlds! Gods, goddesses, bats, moles and fishes! in Chicago he does 
nothing else all the time but tend to baby cases! !" 

The attention of all students is called to the following notice from the 
College Y, M. C. A. — A year ago a weekly prayer meeting, under the auspices 
of the Y. M. C. A., was organized at Rush. The meetings that were held 
during the year were well attended and those who attended derived great 
benefit from them. Although some of our most faithful workers were in last 
year's class and therefore will not be able to be with us this year, we who are 
left feel it is our duty to carry on the meetings again this year. The first 
meeting was held Tuesday, Oct. 3, at 5 P. M. All the students who are in- 
terested in this work are most cordially invited to meet with us every Tues- 
day afternoon from r>-r>:3<>. We especially invite the juniors to attend and 
take part in these meetings, thereby keeping up the interest they may have 
acquired in this line at home. We are sure that none of those who attend 


these meetings will feel that the time is wasted. There is not a student in 
the college who would not feel benefited by laying aside his books for a half 
an hour each week and joining in singing, and studying God's word. Let all 
attend, and let every one consider that he has something to do personally 
with the success of the meetings. Remember the time, Tuesday afternoon 
from 5-5:30. 

* * 

He wants a skeleton — The following advertisement inserted in the 
Daily News last night is a little peculiar but the advertiser means business: 

Wanted — Skeleton in exchange for music lessons on any instrument. 

At first thought the proposal to purchase a human skeleton with music 
lessons seems a little incongruous, but that's what John Greer wants to do, 
or he wouldn't have advertised as he did in the Daily News . Mr. Greer is a 
first year student at Rush Medical college and he says the professor of anat- 
omy has advised all the class to get skeletons of their own to aid them in their 
studies. But good skeletons come high. 

"The best articulated skeletons cost as high as $40/' explains Mr. Greer. 
"The best ones are imported from Paris. For some reason they don't make 
them so well in this country. The students usually get the ones that are not 
put together and when they are graduated they sometimes sell them and get 
articulated skeletons to ornament their offices with." 

Mr, Greer has given lessons on the guitar for years and it occurred to 
him that if he could exchange lessons on the guitar for a good skeleton he 
would be just that much ahead in current coin. If the owner of the skeleton 
wants to play some other instrument Mr. Greer will get his sister or his 
brother-in-law to give the lessons for him. 

Mr. Greer can undoubtedly make his exchange of music for bones if he 
will make his proposition to some middler who has been reading Shoemaker 
on music. 

At a meeting of the middle class, held October 17, the following officers 
were elected for this college year: 

President W. H. Lewis. 

First Vice President B. F. Bettleheim. 

Second Vice President F. Huizenga. 

Secretary A. T . Holbrook . 

■X- -X- 

A member of the faculty has sent the following to The Corpuscee with 
with the suggestion that it might be of value to some students: "The in- 
stincts of a gentleman prevent one from inflicting any needless mental or 
physical discomfort on those about him, and the rules of good society de- 
mand conformance to certain forms and customs which distinguish the well- 
bled, and are essential in the physician who would grace his x^rofession . " 

"Here Salv" Smith has a new plan to keep a patient from swallowing his 
tongue when he gives an anaesthetic, but he admits the post-mortem was 
never so satisfactory to him as in the old way. 


Disregarding the ethical principle of the profession the following adver- 
tisement was inserted by a "Wisconsin M. D., whom we will call Dr. Windy: 

Dr. Windy, Physician and Surgeon. — All diseases treated thoroughly 
and in accordance with latest method; if not incurable, cured in a short time. 
I wish to point especially to my success in treating rheumatism, tetter, curva- 
tures of the spine, cancer, paralysis, kidneys, liver, heart and stomach, ner- 
vous diseasee and diseases of women. 

Consumptives treated with Kock's Lymph, of Dr. Louis Weigert's appa- 
ratus for the cure of consumption by inhaling hot air containing different 
gases or by gold preparations. Cancer and lupus treated without the knife. 
Patients residing outside of town may find accommodation in my house. In 
cases of operations requiring a second doctor, I procure same from Chicago 
at my own expense. Medical attendance day or night, town or country. 

A fellow practitioner possessed of some wit, then had the following in- 

Respectfully, Dr. Windy. 

A. Takoff, M. D., Physician and Surgeon. — All incurable diseases cured 
in a short time. I especially wish to call attention to my success in treating 
warts by Prof. E. Trollope's improved method wich is occasionally success- 
ful, In surgical operations requiring a second doctor I will procure one from 
Buena Vista at the expense of the patient. 

The Corpuscle tries not to be personal— -but one of the middlers who 
lives in Oak Park is said to have so thoroughly discouraged a young lady who 
was about to enter the Training School for Nurses that she has packed up her 
striped gingham and mackintosh and gone back to her "childhood's happy 
home down on the farm." It seems- the lady wished to see something of hos- 
pital-life and our friend volunteered to escort her. In his enthusiasm he in- 
cluded two hospitals, five dispensing clinics, one amputation in the amphi- 
theater, a ride on the ambulance, two autopsies and the morgue. He had to 
take the lady home in a cab, and she has not only given up the idea of being 
a trained nurse, but also the idea of being a doctor's wife and living in Oak 
Park. See what enthusiasm will do. 

' *" 
These facts now face the junior 

And his little noddle vex — 
That Griffiths is not Dr. Senn 
And Mr. Gould's not Prex. 

* -x- 

Dr. B. is rather hard on himself. In class recently he made these two 
remarks. "Some time ago a gentleman came to my office who was looking 

for the biggest quack in Chicago." and "When I was a young man 

I spent eight or nine years in an insane asylum." 

-x- * 

Prof. Brower — Mr. Beigler, what do you understand by circwnfusa?" 
Beigler — "It refers to the patient's surroundings, for instance his nurse." 

B. apparently does not believe that the same relations should exist between 

patient and nurse as between doctor and nurse. 


A "B. J." who was airing his erudition(?) of medicine had his case diag- 
nosed by a middler thus: "This man has a serious common "D. J." complaint; 
he is suffering from a severe attack of diarrhoea of words and of constipation 

of ideas." 

* -x- 

K the Faculty feels the need of encouragement we will say: the changes 
made this year are improvements, and will enable the classes to get more in- 
formation and at a less expenditure of nervous energy than before. 

■X- -X- 

At one of the first surgical clinics one D. J. at least was greatly interest- 
ed in the way the patient performed under the anaesthetic, for when the 
patient's hands began to tremble he asked a senior if that was rigor mortis. 


Speaking of extremes did you notice at the beginning of the term the re- 
spective hair-cuts of Messrs Judd and Minnick? 

* -X- 

Warhorse already has one of Chicago's most eminent lawyers among his 
patients. Ask Baker for further information. 

* -x- 


Willett is working for a position in Presbyterian Hospital "for all there 
is in it." Go in on your muscle Willett, there are others doing the same thing. 

■x- * 


As usual the B. J. class furnishes the brawn, if not the brain, of the in- 

■x- -x- 


Adolph is the authorized and only original retailer of The Corpuscle. 
Name blown in the bottle; take no other. 

•x- * 


These are the times that try men's soles, as weary Raggles remarked as 
he stepped into a puddle formed by the falling rain. 

' * -x- 


After listening to aD. J. quiz, we decide that some members of the new 
class are as sharp as the business end of a Jersey mosquito. 

■X- * 

Free! A copy of "Golden Rules of Surgical Practice" to every Rush 
student at W. T. Keener Co. book store. 

■X- -X- 

Married-man Field and Columbian Guard Porter were scrapping recently, 
some observing fellow advised them to pull hair. 

-X- -X- 

The D. J. from Mattoon, 111., who came to Rush tilled with the idea of 
making a mighty surgeon, fainted at the first clinic. 

■X- -X- 

If you have not learned that "Reddy" was a member of the C. C. Q. C, 
it surely has not been his fault. 

■x- -X- 


"What text-book will we use on obstetrics?" Davis. 

■x- -x- 


"Will we use any text-book on obstetrics?" Yes. 


Kelly surprised the class at a late surgical clinic by explaining" how a 
patient was injured by a splinter as big as a tree. 

Chapman thinks that the funny joke which Rettig has been playing on 
him all year by chaining their bicycles together is getting old. 

The original "name blown in the bottle" Nicols came very near arresting 
a man while he was special detective during the vacation. 


The young man with his ticket in his hand hunting his seat has been here 
this year as usual. 

* -K- 

Among the new seniors are Messrs. Helvie and Vasenpaur from Chicago 
Medical College. 

* -X- 


Tom Bishop, '95, has left us and gone to Bellevue Hospital, where lie will 
give the students pointers on good nature and good penmanship. 

New and improved methods in foot-ball and in surgery go forward hand 
in hand. 

We heard one of the D. Js. explaining that the building of the College of 
P. and S. was the Phosphurus and Sulphur college. So much for D. J. 

■x- # 

The senior class is increased by several men coming in from other col- 
leges and universities. This is a good sign for "Old Rush." 

Did you see Whiskers run in by our Columbian Guards? 


Nivins sports a fine crop of senior hair on the face. 

* -X- 

Lamb (of Louisville) has commenced practising in Chicago. 
Circular insanity — wheel in the head. 

■X- * 


The janitors and door-keepers have new caps. 

* * 


Copeland denies the rumor that he was married during the vacation. 

* * 


Judd denies the rumor that he uses his hair for a pillow. 

•X- -X- 

Dr. Marcusson wishes to officially deny "the rumor." 

* -x- 


W. K. Keith, formerly of Ann Arbor, has joined '94. 



Rush Medical College. 


Don't forget to read the distinctive advertisement of the Codliver Glycerine Co. in this 
issue. It is something worthy of your notice. Write them for Physician's Souvenir and 
mention The Corpuscle and it will be mailed to you free. 

Jacksonville, 111. 
I have had emminent satisfaction mthe use of the Elixir Three Chlorides "R & H.*' 
in the treatment of nervous and mental diseases. It is a favorite prescription with me. 

Very truly yours. Frank Parsons, Norbury. M. D. 
Oak Park, 111., Sept. 30, 1893. 

W. D. Allison Co. Dear Sirs: — I have used your improved surgical table now for a lit- 
tle over a year and find it far more convenient and easier to manipulate than the best chairs 
in the market. For adaptability to all kinds of office work, it certainly deserves a blue ribbon. 

Very truly, II. W. Bassett, M. D. 

Alfred Baily, M. D., of 38 Rock St., Fall River, Mass., in a letter of recent date, writes: 
"I have had splendid results from Antikamnia in rheumatic gout, as well as La-Grippe. " 

The Century Chemical Co. , St. Louis, Mo. , have placed before the profession a remedy 
for organic Stricture of the urethra. This preparation is undoubtedly a safe, positive, and 
permanent cure for Stricture of the worst type, and to any one who feels at all doubtful as to 
the efficiency of the remedy, we say, write for particulars. (Hundreds of testimonials). 

An Epigram Confirmed. — Dr. W. E. Anthony, of Providence, R, I., writes as follows: 
When I was a medical student, in 1865,1 remember hearing Dr. Wendell Holmes, then Profes- 
sor of Anatomy at Harvard College, say to his class: '"When you begin practice you will 
have twenty remedies for one disease, but after twenty years you will have twenty diseases 
for one remedy/' That prediction seems to be fulfilled in the use of Antikamnia, which 
seems to meet so many indications. 

Treatment of Uterine Troubles. — More and more, as time passes and the smoke of dis- 
cussion gives way to solid conviction, is the profession impressed with the thought that there 
are many of the diseases of women and girls, which, under no circumstances, require or 
should receive manipulative or mechanical treatment. Indeed, conscientious physicians, 
recognizing the neurotic factor, and granting to the uterus and its appendages the privilege 
of being locally disturbed by constitutional conditions, are ready to receive gratefully and en- 
thusiastically such a remedy as Ponca Compound. It serves as a general stimulator of secre- 
tions, and as a thorough tonic. The indorsement of such men as Dr. A. M. Owen, of 
Evansville, Inch ; Dr. Thos. Hunt Stucky, of Louisville; Dr. Arch Dixon, President of the 
Kentucky State Medical Society; Dr. Wm. F. Kier, of St. Louis, and hundreds of others 
scattered over the country, is convincing proof of the value of Ponca Compound. — Medical 


For Asthma. M. Sig. Teaspoonful three times daily. 

5.— Antipyrine, 3ij. (Add to above one-eighth grain of Bromide 

Neurosine, lij. of Zinc each successive week). 

Fl. Ext. Grindelia Rob., Iss, For False Pains of Pregnancy. 

Syr. Verba Santa, Ijss. I*. — Dioviburnia, Iviij 

M. Sig. Dessertspoonful as indicated. M. Sig. Desertspoonful three times a day. 

For Bronchitis. For Intestinal Tenesmus (Colic). 

5. —Neurosine, §i v . $.— Tr. Opii Camph. li. 

Syr. Senegae, ^ij Dioviburnia, 3ij. 

M. Sig. Two teaspoonfuls every three hours. M.Sig. Tablespo<mful as required. 
For Chorea. For Ovarian Neuralgia. 

K.— Fl. Ext. Cimicifugac, fij. ?.— Dioviburnia, ?vi. 

Neurosine, ?iv. Sig. Teaspoonful three or four times a day. 

K El W Tx a Ti 0R1\TOKY !B T J I IIDISG. 




C. D. Center, '94. W. D. Calvin, '95. 

John Ross, '94. C. A. Allenburger, '95. 

A. T. Holbrook, '95. S. T. Hart, Business Manager. 

Membership in the Alumnt Association of Rush Medical, College is obtainable at any time by- 
graduates of the College, providing they are in good standing in the profession, and shall pay the annual 
dues, 11.00. This fee includes a subscription to The Corpuscle for the current year. This journal is the 
official organ of the Association. 

Dues and all communications relating to the Association should be sent to 

JOHN EDWIN RHODES, M.D., Sec'y and Treas. 

34 Washington St., Chicago. 

College Anniversaries— 

Doctorate Sermon, Sunday, May 29ch, 1894. 

Special Clinics and Class Day Exercises, Monday, May 21st, 1894. 

Scientific Meeting of the Alumni Association, 10 A. M. and 2 P. M., Tuesday, May 22nd, 1894. 

Business Meeting of the Alumni Association, 10 A. M., Wednesday, May 23rd, 1894. < 

Annual Commencement 2 P. M. Alumni Banquet 1V% P. M. 

Ruby Red and Black: Colors of Lake Forest University. Yellow: Color of Rush Medical College. 

He would indeed be an unobserving student, who did not notice the efforts 
the trustees and faculty have been making in the past year to raise the whole 
tone of Rush College- The standard of the degree has been raised by the 
rigid enforcement of the new rules under which examinations are held, by the 
recently adopted system of quizzing, by the addition of new and able men to 
the faculty, and by the erection of the Laboratory building, with the many 
advantages it gives. They have further sought to benefit the institution by 
making rules and plans to insure better deportment from the students, and a 
cleaner and more attractive college. This much the government of the col- 
lege has done and it now rests with us as students to aid them or thwart their 
plans. Different institutions of learning have different and peculiar customs, 
The couleur locale of colleges is probably more distinguishing than that of any 
other institutions. In some colleges there is a most decided tendency for the 
student-body to be boisterous, to be careless of dress and habit; in others it is 
an aim for every man to be distressingly careful of his behavior and appear- 
ance. Either extreme is undesirable. But at Rush it is certain that were the 
students more thoughtful of the condition of their college, of their deport- 


ment and of their personal appearance it would add much to make our insti- 
tution more attractive, and aid wonderfully in the movement for advancing 
the whole standard of the college. It takes b,ut little time and no extra ex- 
pense for a man to make his appearance neat, It does not involve new and 
stylish garments, and the man who shaves himself once a week can well afford 
to duplicate and triplicate the operation. Self-respect and the respect of 
others are well worth one's pains. Every man of common sense knows what 
gentlemanly deportment is, and the lack of it is usually the result of mere 
thoughtlessness. We need no book on etiquette to explain the error in con- 
fusing the proper usage of the floor and wall and those square boxes of sand 
placed about the buildings. A little, serious reflection by the students is all 
that is necessary to convince them of the power they possess to aid the facul- 
ty and trustees in this work, and of the obligation upon them to use it. 

Apropos to fche above the Corpuscle wishes to speak of a matter which 
may be of interest to some members of the faculty. We wish to appear per- 
fectly respectful, for such are our feelings, and we merely voice the sentiment 
of the students and criticise with a view to aiding this movement for raising 
the standard of the college. Some of the ablest instructors we have are 
young men whose experience as teachers is not extensive, and it is to these 
instructors we wish to mention some differences that are very noticeable be- 
tween their method of conducting classes and that of the older, more experi- 
enced members of the faculty. To be popular with the students and to ap- 
pear dignified before them is a condition hard to maintain, and we can all 
appreciate, at least in part, the trying position of an instructor of medical 
students. Still we would suggest that to remark to the class that — "Mr. 
Blank appears to be sick pretty often" — when the class knows him to be seri- 
ously ill, neither lends dignity nor popularity to an instructor. To insist on 
knowing about what a man is laughing, to find himself in error and not admit 
it, to quiz a man with the evident purpose of cornering him— these are equally 
ineffectual. And we might add that we have never heard any of the more 
dignified and popular of the instructors try to get a laugh from the class by 
telling them that "the class is better off without such men," when three men 
happened to be called out on a matter of importance. 

It has long been said that if Rush lacked even one point to be abreast of 
eastern medical colleges it was that she has had too large classes. This ob- 
jection, it is true, has only been raised by inferior schools that were vainly 
striving to diminish the classes at Rush in the hope that they might replenish 
their thin ranks. There are a great many of these colleges, to be sure, when 
we remember that there are one hundred and fifteen institutions in this. 


country that graduate doctors of medicine each year. Yet the classes at Rush 
continue to grow and it seems that not content to let the United States fur- 
nish the students, the foreign countries have stepped in and contributed to 
swell the ever-increasing throng. People are not slow to recognize Chicago, 
with all her clinical advantages, as a great medical center and also that Rush 
is the nucleus. As time wears away all objections to a nourishing institution, 
so the last twelve months have swept away the last objection to Rush. After 
only a single month of recitation in small classes the instructors and the 
students join in one common assent that Rush has taken another great step 
forward. The new laboratory building with all its beautiful dissecting rooms, 
chemical apparatus and physiological instruments, has not as sacred a place 
in the student's breast as those new recitation rooms, The instructors come 
in close contact with each student and invariably find his weak points. Then 
all doubtful points are fully discussed and the student feels that each recita- 
tion is especially his own, and that to be familiar with any subject that might 
arise for discussion he must be amply prepared on every part of the lesson. 
This plan has reduced the devices of coachers to a minimum and the man who 
was habitually absent a year ago now is on Hand as regularly as the most 
punctual student. 

Now is the time when the members of the junior class, who have aspira- 
tions toward a place on The Corpuscle, should begin to make these aspira- 
tions manifest. Two juniors will be chosen to fill the places left vacant by 
Messrs. Ross and Center whose term expires with '93. The men who are 
chosen are those showing an ability for journalistic work, combined with an 
interest in that work. Many men are found, who are capable of doing the 
work, but who are either too lazy to undertake it, or who take no interest in 
such a venture. The ability of the various candidates is judged largely by 
the worth of the articles, or article, each may submit for publication, if these 
articles are found suitable. No one's name will be made public whose endeav- 
or in this direction may prove futile. No criticisms, either printed or other- 
wise will be made on any man's work, unless it is to the writer himself, at 
his request. 

It is needless to say that the work is of a highly advantageous character 
to those performing it. To many it opens a field of action not attainable in 
any other way. The Faculty recognize the intrinsic benefit the paper is to 
the students, and encourage it. Some will ask, is it profitable? Yes, if you 
make it profitable, the same that can be said of your four years course in 
college. It is profitable if you improve the time, otherwise it is a dead loss. 
Like the autopsies at Cook County necropsy theatre, the profit to the casual 
observer seems slight, bat to the student their value can scarcely be esfcimat- 


ed. You may have noticed that the board of editors does not keep a carriage, 
nor has it invested in any Chicago real estate. In this line of profit the gain 
is something stupendously small, but in the good will' of the readers and 
clientage of the paper, it is rich as Croesus or Rockefeller. 

The new laboratory building of Rush Medical College is now com- 
pleted. Although there is an unfortunate, though unavoidable delay in se- 
curing the apparatus necessary for the chemical, the physiological and for 
the pathological laboratories, the spacious dissecting room and the recitation 
rooms are furnished and now occupied. 

Quite a large amount of apparatus, both of domestic and of foreign manu- 
facture is arranged in the laboratories above mentioned. The remainder has 
been promised for delivery in a short time. 

The formal dedication will take place at four o'clock Monday afternoon, 
December 4th, the fiftieth anniversary of the first introductory lecture deliv- 
ered by Prof. Brainard in 1843. 

Prof. H. M. Lyman will deliver the dedicatory address which will be 
followed by an address by Dr. John Coulter, president of Lake Forest uni- 

All students, alumni and friends of the college are invited to be present 
at the dedication. 

An account of the introductory exercises of the fifty -first courses of in- 
struction in Rush Medical college was inadvertantly omitted in our last issue. 

The term was opened on the evening of Sept, 26th, with prayer by the 
Rev. Dr. Withrow. The addresses of Prof. Norman Bridge and Dr. John M. 
Coulter, president of Lake Forest university, were presented to our readers 
in the October number of The Corpuscle. 

A larger number of matriculates was assembled than ever before. This 
may seem like an old story, and an exaggeration, for the same thing has been 
said each year during the last ten years. The statement is now repeated, be- 
cause the records of the college have shown each year a steady increase in 
the number of students. At this time there are 715 matriculates. 

The faculty look with satisfaction upon this fact, for it had some reason 
to fear that the increased requirements of the preliminary examinations, and 
the increase in the length of each of the three required terms from six to that 
of eight months would somewhat reduce the number of the class. 

The trustees and faculty believe that this success is secured by the sur- 
passing facilities for the study of the science of medicine and surgery in gen- 
eral, for the pursuit of all kinds of laboratory work, and for the clinical study 
of surgery and medicine as well as of the specialties . 

The Central Free Dispensary provided treatment for 15,000 patients dur- 


ing the past year. The Presbyterian Hospital has 243 beds and has treated 
the past year 2113 patients. Prom these institutions are selected typical 
cases for clinical purposes in such large numbers that the clinics of Rush 
Medical College are not inferior to those of any medical college in this country 
or in the world. 

The division of the students into three graded classes, the junior, middle 
and senior, and this subdivision into convenient sections for recitations and 
class demonstrations has been most successfully arranged. The two fine edi- 
fices, which the college now possesses, render this system of education emi- 
nently practicable. 

We do not wish to appear boastful of the rank of our Alma Mater: we 
cannot regard, however, otherwise than with pride, the provisions she has 
made for the care and training of her children. 

No alumnus should come to Chicago without revisiting the college and 
witnessing for himself what surprising opportunities, as compared with those 
of the past, are offered to those who wish to learn the science and the art of 

The Corpuscle, as the official organ of the Alumni Association, is 
going to make an effort toward more alumni notes. If any member will kind- 
ly send us his address in case of a change, or a bit of news from time to time, 
whether sombre or racy, or whatever it may be, we will be grateful to him. 

We have a special kick coming against the man who sponges his neigh- 
bor's paper. After the last issue appeared, we chanced to be sitting in a 
room where sat a lonesome looking little junior who was beguiling the long 
hour by reading the almost-imperceptible-to-perception thoughts of the ed- 
itorial columns. In comes a senior — which makes the deed only more base . 
He calmly seated himself by the junior, "sized" the latter up, and said "Hello, 
is The Corpuscle out!" The junior, seeing no chance for a denial, admitted 
that it was . Hereupon the senior coolly took the copy from the hands of the 
junior saying, "Let me see if there is anything good in the Pseudopodia," 
and kept that paper just eighteen minutes by the watch. He didn't read 
Prof. Bridge's article, — it seemed to be too brainy for him — and he did really 
return the paper to the junior after he had looked it through. Now, as far as 
pecuniary advantage goes, we don't make a cent if Dolph sells a copy to every 
man in Rush, and we don't lose a cent if he sells only one hundred copies, so 
we can give vent to our righteous indignation. We have a sincere suspicion 
that that senior would borrow his grandmother's false teeth while she was 
eating, if he could make anything by the transaction. He has that kind of 
fluid in his veins. 


In our last issue we called attention to the position of the Alumni Asso- 
ciation of Rush and The Corpuscle, and endeavored to show why the mem- 
bers of the association would not receive the journal although they joined the 
association with that understanding. It was simply an oversight of the as- 
sociation at its last meeting by not making an appropriation for the payment 
of the subscriptions for the following year, which was done as an experiment 
the year before. However, the secretary of the association has taken the 
matter in hand upon his own responsibility and has made arrangements with 
the publisher whereby the members will receive The Corpuscle for the en- 
suing year. He has asked the alumni of Rush to join the association and has 
been able in the last few weeks to turn over to the publisher nearly four hun- 
dred subscriptions. This, in view of the fact that one year ago the member- 
ship of the association was thirty-one, shows that by the energy of the secre- 
tary and the aid of The Corpuscle the membership may slip up into the 
thousands inside of a few months. No one can be more gratified than the 
editors that the alumni are coming to the front and asserting their allegiance 
to Good Old Rush. 

The presence of Dr. Norman Bridge in our lecture-rooms has been one of 
the pleasantest features of the new term. The affliction that prevents Dr. 
Bridge from being continually with us calls forth the deepest sympathy from 
all of his many friends, and is particularly hard in that it keeps him from a 
work that had his keenest interest and a work that was so greatly strength- 
ening our college. It has been a privilege for the two lower classes to hear 
the interesting and scholarly addresses from a man who has been so intimate- 
ly identified with the recent progress of Rush. 

Prof. Norman Bridge. 

[Note. — We wish again to call attention to the fact that these reports of clinics are not 
taken verbatim, are not taken by a stenographer, are not furnished by the professor holding 
the clinic. If any misstatement of the facts has crept in the criticism falls on the student 
reporting the clinic, and not on the professor. — Ed.] 

Oct. 16, 1893. 
Case I. Man about thirty 3 ears old. Mother died of phthisis. No his- 
tory of injury. Personal history: A few days ago the patient's right ankle 
became greatly swollen and very painful. Came at once to Chicago for treat- 
ment. The ankle was oedematous; the region of pain and tenderness was 
from the tarso- metatarsal articulations to about the junction of the lower and 
middle thirds of leg. No fluctuation could be elicited in joint. Further ques- 
tioning discovered that he had suffered a specific infection one year before, 
and a diagnosis of urethral arthritis was made. Prof. B. said : This patient 
was infected with a specific disease one year ago. We do not need to inquire 
if there has been a recent exposure to a similar infection, for this result of the 
first infection might have been brought on by exposure to cold or wet, or by 
some accident, which has stirred up the latent microbes. A further inflamma- 
tion may occur, for as yet the clinical picture of this case is not fully devel- 
oped. His joint will probably be permanently stiffened to some extent. The 
treatment is local heat, either dry or moist, but continuously apinied, quiet- 
ness, elevation of limb, anodynes to relieve pain, good and nourishing but not 
stimulating diet, and mercury in some form, preferably an iodide. Always 
first stop further infection from the urethra. 

Case II. Male, age forty years. Habits good, except the excessive use 
of tobacco. Sixteen months ago was seized with his present trouble. Had 
been exerting severely, and on ceasing his right foot and ankle became stiff 
arid sore; for three months this condition remained, when swelling succeeded 
and the right leg became disabled. The same condition extended to the other 
ankle and wrists, then to elbows, knees, and shoulders; limbs feel heavy; suf- 
fers pain now in shoulders, arms and legs. Has been troubled with ••bloat- 
ing." Has great difficulty in swallowing, and for ten months has been almost 
unable to swallow his saliva; can swallow water. Weight in health 225 lbs.; 
present weight 160 lbs. Has never had arise in temperature, he thinks. Pain 
never in the joints, but in the masses of soft tissue. No history of specific in- 
fection at any time. No heart lesion. A lessened vesicular murmur on the 
right side in the inter- scapular region, and dry friction sounds on right side. 
Urine normal. A student suggested neuritis, but the swelling was against 
that diagnosis, and the patient had never had any tingling in the finger ends. 
Another student suggested trichiniasis, which was partially ruled out, as the 
patient said he had never had diarrhoea. The swelling was against it also. A 
diagnosis of rheumatoid affection was made. The inability to use the limbs in 


extension was attributed to connective tissue deposits which had contracted. 
A true myositis was not likely to be so general. The patient was referred for 
examination of his muscular tissue and sputum by the microscope. Prof. B. 
advised the class to be suspicious of 'tuberculosis when such dry friction sounds 
were ptesent. Present treatment would be alteratives, systematic massage, 
and abundant nourishment. He thought that while no doubt, to some extent 
the muscles of deglutition had become affected also, that a degree of "mind 
cure'' would be in place in regard to the difficulty in swallowing. 

Case III. Girl eighteen years old. Losing weight and color. Taken 
sick year ago, when she coughed blood. Four weeks ago began to grow 
worse again. No night sweats. Temperature 100 deg. F. ; pulse 108. Is 
'short-winded"; appetite poor; food causes distress . The professor excluded 
chlorosis by the temperature. There was no cessation of the menstrual flow. 
The patient was so agitated that no physical examination in open clinic was 
attempted. After the girl had retired Prof. B. said there was no doubc the 
case was one of phthisis pulmonalis. She would be examined carefully and 
further report would be made. 

Case IV. Woman twenty-two years old. When five years old had 
measles, followed by scarlet fever; following that she had paralysis of 
right side, and some "trouble in the head." Was then unable to walk, 
talk, or use her arm. The paralysis has improved; can walk, talk, and use 
the arm somewhat. General health good . She complains of no strength in 
the right arm . The limb shows the peculiar movements of athetosis, and a 
diagnosis is made accordingly. 

Oct. 23, 1893. 

Case I. Male, age thirty years. Runs elevator . Taken sick one week 
ago with slight chill; some fever in afternoon, but remained at work that day. 
Next day entered hospital. Temperature on entrance 102.4 deg. F. At eight 
p. m. that day it was 103 deg. F. At present it is 102.3 deg. F. The tongue 
looks better than on his entrance, but it is still coated and tremulous . He is 
a strong looking man. He has lost his appetite, his pulse is irregular and in- 
creased in rapidity; there is no abdominal tenderness and no diarrhoea. On 
the abdomen are found some reddish, elevated spots. The liver is not en- 
larged, but the spleen is slightly so. Prof. B. said: True typhoid spots are 
always elevated, as the cause of their production makes elevation a necessity, 
but often the elevation is so slight that we are unable to distinguish it. The 
diagnosis is typhoid fever, and he is now on the regular typhoid diet and 

Case II. Boy fifteen years old. Family history reveals that his father has 
rheumatism and his mother died of phthisis . The patient says he had similar 
attacks to this one, wheu eleven and fourteen years old. The doctors called 
them rheumatism. Three years ago he had typhoid fever. He has been an 
elevator boy. Has not suffered during the past year from anything but short- 
ness of breath. A week ago the left knee became swollen, reddened and pain- 
ful. This subsided in the knee and began in the left ankle and shoulder; 
then it appeared in the right knee and left wrist, and now it is chiefly in the 
left wrist. He has not been confined to his bed altogether, but sits up a part 


of the time. His pulse is from 100 to 116. His temperature on admission was 
102.8 deg. F. It has never been below 99.4 deg. F. It is now 100 deg. F. 
The number of joints involved at the same time excludes gonorrhoeal rheuma- 
tism, and the patient's age is also against such a diagnosis. A heart fremitus 
can be detected by the hand. The blow of the heart is first felt, followed by 
a shaking or jarring against the hand. With the systole can be heard a blow- 
ing sound, mitral regurgitation; also a blowing sound with both systole and 
diastole . The aortic opening is probably roughened, and there is likely some 
regurgitation. There is also a pericardial friction sound, and the heart is en- 
larged. The boy probably had endocarditis five years ago, which accounts for 
the enlargement of the heart, although the heart may become greatly hyper- 
trophied in a few weeks. He has now a fresh endocarditis, with an accompa- 
nying pericarditis, in connection with his rheumatism. In the rheumatism of 
children the lining of the heart is nearly always involved. There is here 
also an accompanying enlargement of the liver and spleen. The patient is 
taking salophen, three or four grains every four hours. 

Case III. Man twenty- two years old. Gives a history of pleuritis eight 
months ago, which he has never been free from. Has been tapped seventeen 
times, and each time, as he says, a yellowish fluid has escaped. The first time 
three pints were withdrawn, and on each succeeding time, except the last, 
about one quart. The last time only a teacupful was obtained. The patient 
says this fluid was not pus. He was always tapped in the same place. The 
apex beat of the heart is displaced to the right. There is a pronourced loss 
of motion and a great degree of flatness on the left side of the chest. A splen- 
did illustration of "cracked pot" sound can be heard on percussion over the 
left side. There is an inability to push the fingers so far into the intercostal 
spaces on the left, as on the right, showing that there is a thickening of tissue 
somewhere. This is the thickening of the pleura, due to the inflammation. 
There are course rales on the left side, and the patient says he spits "yellow 
matter." His case will be referred until we can examine the sputa. 

Case IV. This patient came in this morning. He is sixty-five years old. 
He denies any venereal history, and confesses to the excesi ive use of alcohol. 
For four or five years he has suffered with extreme nausea, and vomiting, on 
arising in the morning. For three months he has had great difficulty in swal- 
lowing solids. Water goes down all right. He says his "stomach gags" him. 
Three weeks ago he discovered this lump in his neck. It is plainly an en- 
largement of the lymphatic glands. He has lost above thirty pounds in 
weight. The percussion note is the same on both sides. Auscultation gives 
a beautiful amphoric sound on the right, which is completely lost when the 
patient reclines . The diagnosis is carcinoma of the lower portion of the oeso- 

Oct. 26, 1893, 

Case I. Woman thirty-five years old. Abdomen enormously distended. 
Has existed for nearly a year, and is steadily increasing in size. First indica- 
tion of its presence- or of anything abnormal being present, was a sharp pain 
in left iliac fossa. There is but small amount of pain now. The patient is up 
and about part of the time. Her appetite is good; also her digestion. She 


menstruates regularly and normally. She has noticed that her feet swell at 
times; are a very little swollen now. There is perfect fluctuation present in 
this enlargement, but heart and kidney disease are excluded by the patient's 
not having swelling of the face, hands, or arms at any time, and by the fact 
that the abdominal enlargement was present before ever her feet swelled. On 
percussion there is tympanitic resonance in the region of the stomach and 
above each anterior superior spine, but in the umbilical region there is dul- 
ness. The note above the anterior superior spine of the right side is much 
more tympanitic than on the left. The area of dullness is more on the left side 
of the mesial line than on the right. The diagnosis is ovarian cyst. The pa- 
tient will be referred to Prof. Etheridge. 

Case II. Man, age thirty-eight. No appearance of disease unless it is a. 
marked nervousness. He complains of sexual weakness. Says that eleven 
years ago he had " nervous prostration. " He had been managing a general 
merchandise store for three years, and had worked very hard. At the time 
he was prostrated he fell insensible, and was unable to carry on his business 
for about a month. After that he was afraid to be alone, afraid to cross his 
store alone, saying he felt if he did so he would die. Why he felt so he can 
not say. He had pains in the head and back, and often felt as if he was fall- 
ing. Five years ago he was compelled to quit his business, from loss of mem- 
ory, and the symptoms given above. Three months after his "nervous pros- 
tration" he married, on the advice of a physician. Has two children as a 
result of that marriage, but even then he felt a loss of sexual vigor. This 
lack then, as now, is a physical or nervous lack, and not a mental one. He 
confesses to a mental desire, but cannot carry it out. This loss has been com- 
plete for two years, yet only a week ago he had a nocturnal emission. He con- 
fesses to about six months of self abuse, when a boy of "fifteen or sixteen, and 
says he had a gonorrhoea — contracted accidentally and not from an intercourse 
— about that time. Says he has never worried over his nocturnal emissions, 
nor over his youthful indiscretions. His father died at the age of seventy- 
eight in an insane asylum. His mother is alive and well at the same age. He 
has one sister who is insane, and three brothers, all healthy and pros- 
perous business men. Says the family is composed of very " nervous" mem- 
bers. He does not think he has ever had an epileptic fit. There is no history 
of orchitis or epididymitis to account for his loss of sexual function, and the 
fact that he is the father of two children, both born after the beginning of this 
trouble, would argue against that. His tendon reflexes are present and slight- 
ly exaggerated. His co-ordination is perfect. His vision is all right. He 
don't get angry any easier than he did when well. The diagnosis is weak 
nerve tension, with a small degree of mental reserve to begin with, and over- 
taxation of his forces. Nothing will save and cure him but mental and physi- 
cal rest. Restorative tonics in small doses to be given a long time are of use. 
Tranquility is his sine qua non. He has worried over himself like a foolish 
boy, and every one of these patients does the same thing. 

Case III. Male, age thirty- three years. Is married. Is a farmer living 
in the country. His father and mother are alive and well. One grandmother 
had some nervous trouble, but he cannot say what it was. A sister twenty-six 


years old has locomotor ataxia. A brother has " twitchings of the head"; he 
cannot say what the trouble is called, Has no dead brothers or sisters. He 
has had all the usual diseases of childhood; has never received any injuries; 
is temperate, and smokes and chews tobacco. Is troubled with pain in the 
legs, and can walk with difficulty; staggers as he walks; sometimes falls, es- 
pecially if he turns quickly. His sensations are nearly normal; cannot stand 
with his eyes closed. The patellar reflexes are absolutely lost; the pupillary 
reflexes are present. He has a difficulty in articulating, the sounds being 
made as if there was a sluggishness of the lips, tongue and palate. The case 
is clearly locomator ataxia, although there are some features that distinguish 
it from the ordinary form. Generally the pupillary symptoms are found; here 
too we have no gastric crises, but the aberration of speech, which is usually a 
late symptom, is present. This is what is often called "hereditary ataxia," 
an ataxia that follows one family through the successive generations. Prof. 
Sanger Brown has made it a careful study and can tell a great deal concern- 
ing it, from his own investigations. The disease is utterly and absolutely in- 

Case IV. Man thirty- three years old. Six years ago he began vomiting; 
was troubled considerably at that time; then grew better. One month ago he 
was taken again, and now he vomits with considerable regularity every week. 
He never has pain nor headache; never complains of nausea on arising in the 
morning. There is hydro-chloric acid present in the stomach. The urine 
shows nothing abnormal. The spells of vomiting last sometimes for twelve 
out of the twenty-four hours. Has no symptoms at all during the interim. He 
vomits both before and after meals, and indeed feels better after eating a 
hearty meal. There are no symptoms of locomotor ataxia aside from the vom- 
iting. The man does not drink alcoholic beverages. He has no doubt a slight 
degree of chronic gastritis. All there is to be done for him, now, is to caution 
against the use, of anything in the way of food or drinks that will irritate the 
stomach, and he will be carefully examined and watched to see if this gastric 
irritation is a reflex trouble, and if so, what. 

Case V. Man thirty years old. Appearance indicative of anaemia. Com- 
plains of vomiting blood. His family history is good. His general health 
has been good. He had small-pox ten years ago, and rheumatism, which ceased 
six years ago, for twelve years. Has had indigestion occasionally and for a 
number of years has been very irregular in regard to meal times. The first 
attack of haematemesis came on two weeks ago, when, he says, he vomited 
about two ounces of blood. Then again that week he vomited the same quan- 
tity . Last Tuesday he vomited a pint of blood, which was bright red in color. 
He has lost seven or eight pounds in weight, and his appetite remains good . 
The color of the blood and the quantity will exclude the possibility of its be- 
ing the result of capillary oozing. The man drinks nothing stronger than 
beer, and but little of that, and has no symptoms of cirrhosis of the liver any- 
way. The liver area is normal. The history, the appearance of the patient, 
and all is against carcinoma. He has a very loud mitral murmur, systolic in 
kind, and enlargement of the heart from the mitral insufficiency. He has un- 
doubtedly an ulcer of the stomach also. Clinicus. 

Prof. A. C. Cotton. 

Report of Clinic for Diseases of Children. Oct. 13, '93. 

Case I. This patient was a girl about seven years old. The elicited fam- 
ily history pointed, perhaps, to a rheumatic affection. As is so often the case, 
it was very difficult to get a satisfactory family history. Dispensary clinics, 
where patients of foreign birth are the rule, are proverbially of meagre re- 
ports as regards histories. The personal history was that the child was prone 
to awake at night, crying, — " frightened," as the aunt said, Choreic move- 
ments were present, The child was emaciated and anaemic. On examination 
a cardiac murmur was detected, and further questioning elicited the fact that 
the child did complain of pain in the cardiac region. The murmur to-day was 
heard most distinctly over the base of the heart, and was transmitted to the 
neck. Diagnosis, rheumatic endocarditis. 

Case II. Boy of about eleven years. No family history could be elicited. 
Personal history revealed complaint of dyspnoea, cough, and sore throat, all 
of which was aggravated by damp weather, and in the winter. Also that dur- 
ing paroxysms of dyspnoea, whistling sounds could be heard as the patient 
tried to breathe. The boy was poorly nourished and anaemic. Sclerotics very 
light; chest narrow. The ribs had that peculiar flaring distinctness. There 
was a depression like a girdle about the body in the hypochondriac region. 
There was great tonsillar hypertrophy. Dullness and increased vocal reso- 
nance discovered at apex of right lung. Prof. C. would not call the case 
asthma, saying that he did not believe there was any such distinctive disease, 
any more than he believed there was such a thing as chorea, by itself, but 
said he preferred "asthmatic attacks" in conjunction with some real dis- 
ease, or "choreic attacks," as the case might be. . He made the diagnosis of 
phthisis pulmonalis, but said the boy would be referred to a more careful and 
less hasty examination to insure certainty. 

Case III. Boy five years old. History obscure. A week ago developed 
lesion on knee. The anterior aspect of the right knee had all the classical 
signs of inflammation. No history of traumatism. Diagnosis, furuncle. 
Treatment recommended an aseptic and antiseptic poultice; " in this way 
instead of a hot-bed for germs, we make it a death-bed for germs.'" The poul- 
tice is to relieve pain, relax tension, favor absorption, and also " pointing," 
and to favor early discharge. Prof. C, said he believed in opening a boil with 
a sharp instrument, although such a method is not considered good surgery, 
" but what is good surgery is sometimes mighty poor practice." He advised 
injecting the cavity with hydrogen peroxide, then dressing with L-m antiseptic 
dressing. Free purgation was recommended. For the furuncular diathesis 
he advised sulphide of calcium, syrup iodide of iron,- and good nourishment. 

Case IV. Boy nine years old. History, mother has "asthma," father 
" heart trouble," and grandfather dropped dead. The boy has been sick two 
years. Personal complaint, sore throat and dyspnoea on reclining. Is 
emaciated and haggard. Examination shows enormous tonsillar hypertro- 
phy. One was excised and one was "scalped." The latter was not intention- 
al, but Prof . C. allowed it to go, saying that often the "scalping 
effective as complete removal, 


About four hundred post-mortems are made annually in the p. m. room 
adjoining Cook County Hospital. Fortunately, we are able to secure an exam- 
ination of the greater number of our transfers to Ward 19, as the morgue is 
called. An examination post-mortem becomes invaluable when the case has 
been followed for some weeks, when time has elapsed for the accumulation of 
an extensive history, and repeated physical examinations have been made. 

Post-mortems — 1. Furnish a basis on which to found subsequent diagnosis, 
the value of which cannot be estimated too highly. Some of the ante-mortem 
diagnoses of a junior in the early part of his service, compared with the p. m. 
findings, are truly "beautifully and wonderfully made." 

2. Correct the always vague and oftentimes entirely false impressions con- 
cerning the naked eye appearances of healthy and diseased organs obtained 
from text-books. 

3. Educate the senses to appreciate the feel, location, relation, and rela- 
tive importance from a pathological standpoint, of the organs and tissues, 
which a short dissecting course does not do. 

4. They teach modesty in opinion, and a condonment of errors in judg- 
ment by brother practitioners . One soon learns to make tentative and not 
positive diagnoses. The "unexpected always happens"; and it turns up in 
the p. m. room with a frequency and freshness that would do credit to Tom 

5. Establish, in the examination of healthy tissues, the starting point for 
the study of histology and physiology; and in that of morbid tissues for the 
study of pathology . 


1. One heavy cartilage knife. 

2. One scalpel. 

3. One dissecting forceps. 

4. Enterotomes. 

5. A pair of scissors. 

6. One viscera knife (a long, flat, thin-bladed knife.) 

7. Bone-saw. 

8. Chisels and mallet. 

9. A strong, large needle and heavy twine. 
10, Measuring stick and scales. 

To remove the organs, make an incision from the anterior surface of the 
pubes to one inch above the upper border of the sternum, in the median line, 
passing to the left of the umbilicus to avoid the possible remains of the 
omphalo-mesenteric foetal structure. Reflecting the abdominal parietes, cut 
loose the pubic attachment of the rectus abdominis on either side. Next, lift- 
ing each flap, dissect it from the chest wall, including in the coarse dissection 
all the tissues superjacent to the bony structure. There is then exposed the 


peritoneal cavity filled with folds of intestine, and the anterior chest wall. 
Note the following points: 

1. Fluid in the peritoneal cavity. If so, character and amount. 

2. Omentum covering intestines. If not, its position, appearance and a1- 

3. Appendix vermiformis. Its position, length, appearance naked-eye, 
and morbid changes. 

4. Peritoneal adhesions. Where and how firm, extensive. 

5. Naked-eye appearance of intestines. Smooth and shiny; injected, ad- 
herent, covered with exudate. 

6. Distance the diaphragm reaches on either side, ascertained by insert- 
ing the fingers beneath the costal arch. 

Then, with the heavy cartilage knife cut through the chest wall, begin- 
ning on either side at the margin of the costal arch and cutting through the 
costal cartilages near their junction with the ribs. When the first rib is 
reached, find first the sterno-clavicular articulation, arid separate it. Having 
done this on both sides lift the sternum from below and dissect off the attached 
diaphragm and pleurae and the cellular tissue of the anterior mediastinum. 
Usually the attachment of the first rib is osseous and must be broken. Turn 
back or remove entirely the sternum, and there is exposed the anterior media- 
stinum, the external fibrous layer of the pericardium, and on either side the 
pleural cavities containing the lungs. 

Note, now 1. If the lungs are collapsed. 2. If the pleural cavities, R. or 
L, contain fluid; if so, the kind and amount. 3. If there are any adhesions 
between the pleural surfaces; if so, their nature and extent. 4. Any abnor- 
mal condition of the parietal structure, such as tumors, abscess cavities, exu- 
dates, thickenings, etc. Those of the visceral are usually described in con- 
nection with the organ it covers. 

It is then time to remove the viscera; and they are most conveniently 
taken out in the following order and manner: 

Heart. It is lifted from its sac, and the vessels cut where they pierce the 
parietal pericardium. , 

Lungs. Turning each lung up out of its cavity, cut along the base from 
the outer side, through the large vessels and the bronchi. 

Spleen. It is found near the lower margin of the left chest wall, postero- 
lateral^, plastered against the diaphragm, and can readily be lifted out and 
the anchoring folds of the peritoneum and vessels at the hilum severed. 

Intestines, A number of methods are used, of which the following shown 
me by Prof. Fenger, seems to be the most expeditious. Lifting a coil any- 
where from the general mass of small intestines, incise the mesenteric attach- 
ment close to the gut for some distance. Then follow the gut, first one way, 
then the other, down to the rectum, and up to the duodenum. It can be easily 
separated by drawing the intestine ^.ense with the left hand, while the mesen- 
tery is divided by a series of cuts with the heavy knife held in the right. It 
will be found to be more convenient to follow the gut downward to the rectum 
first, since the colon, which will then have been removed, covers the first part 
of the small intestine. Tie the rectum, to avoid leaking, and cut above; or tie 


in two places and cut between. Leave the duodenum attached to the stomach. 

Liver. Preliminary to the removal of this organ, an incision several cen- 
timetres in length, beginning about 6 cm. below the pylorus, should be made 
m the duodenum, and the patency of the ductus communis choledochus tested 
by passing the finger along its course toward the bowel, squeezing out the 
contents into the intestine; or the same thing may be accomplished by pres- 
sure upon the gall-cyst. The presence of gall-stones or other obstruction 
should be noted . To remove the organ, cut the round ligament and incise the 
diaphragm over the convex surface from before backwards to its posterior 
margin; also the suspensory ligament. Then, tilting the anterior margin up- 
ward, divide the gastro- hepatic mesentery with the inclosed vessels; lift the 
organ and sever the coronary ligiment attached along its posterior border, and 
it is freed. 

Pancreas. Some careful dissection around the head is necessary, since it 
is so closely approximated to the duodenum. 

Stomach. Dissect duodenum and stomach up together; tie the oesophagus 
a short distance above the cardiac orifice, and cut above. 

Genito-urinary organs. These may all be taken out in one piece, and the 
value of the examination enhanced by the complete picture obtained. To do 
this, incise the peritoneum along the outer border of the right kidney, and in- 
sert the fingers beneath the border and lift it from its bed of loose areolar and 
adipose tissue, being careful to include the supra-renal, which caps it above. 
Divide the peritoneum and vessels along its base, map out the course of the 
ureter by pulling it taut and cut the peritoneum binding it down, liberating it 
to the bladder wall. Extract the left kidney, supra-renal, and ureter in the 
same manner. 

Bladder. Divide the fold of the peritoneum, which dips between the blad- 
der and pubes, and insert the fingers into the prevesical cellular tissues. This 
forms a complete layer around the bladder, and may be forcibly loosened quite 
readily with the fingers, freeing the bladder to the neck. At the neck a firm, 
roundish, lobulated body, the prostate will be felt, which must also be loosened. 
Then with the large knife, cut from the anterior side below the prostate and 
lift out prostate, bladder, ureters, kidneys, and supra-renals. It is well, also, 
to include the vas deferens, and testicle, with the epididymis, which can be 
done by simply enlarging the inguinal canal and extracting from the scrotum 
through it the testicle, cord, and vas, then separating vas and testis from the 
spermatic cord. 

Aorta, This should be dissected up from its cardiac extremity to its bifur- 
cation into the common iliacs. It may also be opened and examined in situ. 

Brain, Make an incision through the scalp, beginning just behind one 
ear and carrying it directly over the vertex to a similar point on the opposite 
side. Dissect up and reflect each flap, the anterior to the orbits and reflected 
over the face, the posterior to the external occipital protuberance and reflected 
over the neck. This exposes the entire skull-cap. Make a circular cut with 
the saw around the head in a plane a few lines above and parallel with a line 
drawn from glabella to inion. Loosen the cap with chisel and mallet and forci 
bly separate it from the dura, which adheres quite firmly. 


The convex surface of the brain is then exposed, covered by the fibrous 
dura. Taking a pair of scissors or sharp scalpel, slit open the superior longi- 
tudinal sinus, which will be examined for a thrombo-phlebitis, or the presence 
or absence of clotted blood, etc. With the sea] pel next open through the dura 
all around at the margin of the sawn surface of the skull, and draw the dural 
flaps up to the median line. This exposes the convolutions of the hemis- 
pheres, covered by the delicate pia. Insert two fingers of the left hand be- 
neath the anterior border of the frontal lobes, one finger for each hemisphere; 
and lifting the brain gently from its bed, divide the process of tne f alx cerebri 
attached to the crista galli of the ethmoid. Liberate the falx from the fissure, 
leaving it attached posteriorly, 

The anterior portion of the organ can then be lifted high enough to divide 
the tentorium along its attachment to the superior border of the petrous por- 
tion of the temporal bone and its continuations to the sphenoid. Lifting the 
organ, the pons, medulla, and upper end of the cord are exposed. Pass the 
viscera knife along the anterior surface of the medulla, and sever the cord as 
low down as possible. The encephalon should then be lifted from the skull 
carefully, at the same time freeing it from the dura, which still extends in- 
ward between the cerebrum and cerebellum as the tentorium, and covers the 
outer aspect of the latter portion of the brain. 

The dura should be examined for signs of inflammation, as exudata. fluid, 
or injected membrane; and for new growths, as gliomata, or exostoses; for 
scars, cysts, etc. With chisel and mallet, examine all the sinuses, mastoid, 
sphenoid, ethmoid, and frontal, adjacent to the brain cavity, for disease, and 
the middle ear as well. 

Spinal cord. With cadaver on belly, cut from nape of neck to sacrum, in 
median line, down to spine. Clear off the tissues on each side of spinous pro- 
cesses and from the lamellas . Chisel through the lamellae on each side, be- 
ginning below with the second or third lumbar vertebra. Loosen the attach- 
ments and remove the excised portion in one piece, beginning below. This 
exposes the cord covered by the dura. Liberate the cord by cutting dural at- 
tachments, and the nerves at their exits from the canal. Include part of the 
cauda. Avoid manipulation. Remove the cord gently, keeping the posterior 
surface up. With scissors slit down the dura on the posterior surface, and 
complete the examination of dura, pia, and posterior aspect of cord; then roll 
it gently over and repeat the process for the anterior surface. 

Frederick A. McGrew. M, D. 



The great event in the history of each class is the senior election. The 
first year of the course the men are unacquainted with each other to a great 
degree. In fact it has been but recently that the first-year men have had any 
ambition in regard to class politics. The second-year men know each other 
better and usually carry on a rather unanimous and calmly-planned election of 
officers, but it is when the senior choosing comes that Greek meets Greek, and 
that the warlike son of Erin dons his armor for the fray. By that time every 
man knows his neighbor; that new or ancient animosities appear. The elec- 
tion recently held, however, was marked by a noticeable absence of ill-feeling 
on all sides. Of course every one was not suited, but if there is more than one 
in the class every one cannot be pleased every night by " leaving off head." 

The men honored by their classmates are as follows : 

For President, E. H. Ochsner. A more fitting choice could scarcely have 
been, since he combines worth with scholarship, and adorns the pair with all 
the attributes of one of Nature's noblemen. 

For Vice-President, J. V. Canavan, one of Wisconsin's sturdy sons. Mr. 
Canavan was elected on the first ballot. 

In the race for the secretaryship Harry Hays was several lengths ahead, 
and proved his staying qualities by staying there on every ballot. 

The Exchequer will be managed by E. B. McAllister, and not a member 
of the class doubts his ability and honesty. 

There was practically no contest for position of Valedictorian. Mr. F. A. 
Andre was a general favorite, and all contest would have proved in vain. The 
choice was emphatically a wise one. Mr. Andre is gifted with a very pleasing 
personality; he deserved honor at the hands of his classmates, both on account 
of his ability and because he was a friend to every member of '94. His rec- 
ord is an unblemished one. 

The position of Historian was given to John Ross. Space fails us for the 
enumeration of irrefutable reasons why Mr. Ross should have received this 
place, and it is a sincere pleasure for the other members of the Corpuscle 
Board to thus publicly offer their congratulations. If there is one thing more 
in Mr. Ross' line than making history, it is that of writing history. 

Possibly the most difficult position for any member of '94 to fill is that of 
Poet. The class is singularly deficient in Tennysons and Longfellows, but 
there was one whose poetic soul held at least a spark of Milton's divine power, 
and by their choice the class will fan it to a flame Mr. F. W. Miller, poet 
laureate of '94. 

Mr. J. V. Russell was chosen chorister, and already we predict a success- 
ful musical part for the Commencement program. 

Mr. A. C. Corliss was a general favorite for the position of chaplain. It 
is no more than fitting that the class should choose a member from the front 
rank to represent in public the higher and more sacred feelings and beliefs. 


The Executive Committee was formed with Mr. F. P. Lierle for chairman, 
and Messrs. B. N. Clark, E. L. Wyckoff, W. E. Nichols, and C. H. Manning 
as associates. These men are so well known that they need no introduction 
and no encomiums at our hands. 

A new feature was introduced into this election, and a new and very nec- 
essary office was created — that of Sergeant-at-Arms. Naturally the position, 
being a new and untried one, sought the man. To whom does thought instinc- 
tively turn when dwelling on martial themes but to Bismarck. Who made 
Europe, Asia and Africa tremble under his tread and either headed the brave 
and valient Huns (or defeated that horde of devastating devils known as Huns, 
we forget which), but King Otto the Great? Who has in a land scarcely more 
than beginning to count her age by centuries, made a name famous in all parts 
but Bock? So that the natural choice of the class for this responsible position 
fell upon Otto Bismarck Bock. Already he has vaulted into the arena, risk- 
a sprain to bone, (bone collar button,) and risking the chance of a seat in the 
front row, in order to maintain the dignity and peace of the Senior class. 
Long may Bock wave. 


One of the professors reports two cases where idiosyncrasy played a very 
important part and a very peculiar performance. The first is that of a 
woman about fifty years old, in whom opium, or any preparation of the drug, 
produced convulsions similar to epileptiform seizures. The patient was not 
one who was in the habit of having convulsions or "fits" of any kind. The 
professor tried her on several occasions and in various ways, and always with 
the same result. 

The second is still more remarkable, The patient was a young woman of 
about twenty-five. Her peculiar dislike was for eggs. Any part of one of 
these palatable little fellows taken into the mouth would produce inflamma- 
tion of the mouth, tongue and fauces, and the inflammation, whether pseudo 
or real, was accompanied by so much swelling that the tongue would protrude 
from the oral cavity. All the classical signs of inflammation would be pres- 
ent. The raw or cooked ep:g, as plain egg, was not necessary to produce 
this condition, as pastry, or any article containing egg, was sufficient to pro- 
duce the peculiar phenomenon. More than this, a bit of egg placed on the 
skin of the patient would produce a very credible "blister." The professor 
had never seen just such a case before, but the patient knew of another, a 
young man, who is similarly affected. 

Prof. Etheridge is attaining prominence in military circles. ^He has been 
made brigade surgeon of the First Brigade, Illinois National-Guard, and also 
a major in the regular army. It is now Prof. Etheridge, Major Etheridge, 
Surgeon Etheridge, Dr. Etheridge, or with the boys, still plain "Jimmie." 
This may sound irreverent, but the professor is never better respected and 
loved than when the boys call him Jimmie. It is an appellation destined to 
be as famous as ' k Uncle Allen's" was. 



President, Dr. John H. Murphy, class 1850, St. Paul, Minn. 

Vice President, Dr. W. W. Torrance, '80, Ottawa, 111. 

Secretary and Treasurer, Dr. John Edwin Rhodes, '86, 34 Washington 
St., Chicago, 111. 

Assistant Secretary, Dr. Chas. J. Whalen, '91, Chicago, 111. 

Committee on Necrology, Dr. A. I. Bouffleur, '87, Chicago, 111. 

Executive Committee, Dr. A. C. Ullerick, '93, Dr. J. W. Dodson, '82, Dr. 
C. D. Wescott, '83. 


Dr. A. G. Holmes, '93, is located at Port Tampa -City, Florida, and re- 
ports business good in that sunny clime. 

Dr. Lewis B. Trux, '92, died at his home in Barron, Wis., on the 7th of 
October. Dr. Trux was well known at Rush and many present students, as 
well as his class-mates, were pained to hear the sad hews. He immediately 
located in Barron when he was graduated from this institution and made 
many acquaintances, all of whom soon became his personal friends, for he 
never had an enemy; his practice was only limited by -his physical strength, 
yet his promising life, when he was doing an incalcuable amount of good and 
winning honor and distinction, was cut off in the very morning of its use- 
fulness. In March last Dr. Trux was married to Miss Cora P. Bliss, of 
Racine: and with an accomplished wife, the confidence of the community, his 
ideal— that of being a physician— realized, he was .prepared to spend a happy 
life and do much good for humanity. So full of life and vigor his friends 
scarcely realized the severity of the attack of pneumonia; until, it would seem, 
too late. Kind hands did all in their power to relieve his terrible suffering 
but to no avail. Dr. Trux was born in Sparta, read with Dr. Emmons, of that 
city, attended the state university at Madison, and had many youn^- college 
friends all over the country who sympathize with the grief- stricken youn°- 

wife, his aged parents, and the community which has met an irreparable loss. 

* * 

W. C. Cameron, '93, is located at Metz, Ind., with C. W. Goodale, '69. He 
also entered another partnership Sept. 27 with Miss Cora Chore, of Angola. 


We trust that the first partnership will be characterized by a large practice, 
and the second by much joy. 

Charles Lemuel Marston, '93, is practicing at Mason City, la. Rush gave 
him a certificate of honor; may the people of Mason City do likewise. 


J. P. Clark, '93, was seen at Prof. Ethridge's clinic the other day. He 
answers calls both day and night at Portsmouth, la. 

-x- * 


H. H. Long, '93, of Kingsbury, Ind., is doing well. 

Who does not remember S. S. Tuttle? Where is he? Well let me tell 
you. Recently the writer was in the vicinity of Van Wert, O., and in conver- 
sation with one of the local politicians the politician said, in speaking of the 
politics of the county, "We very seldom secure any of the county olfices but 
are going to make a raid on the enemy this year. We are sure of electing our 
candidates for coroner and probably may elect one or two others." Why 
should this politician have such confidence? because his candidate is S. S. 
Tuttle, who is already city physician of Van Wert. Here is to "Tut." 

C. M. C. Walters, of '92, was seen recently sitting on the perch with 
Thomas Jefferson Creed, M. D., of '93, and a democrat. Dr. Walters is prac- 
ticing at Bancroft, la. And why did they sit on the perch? Probably because 
the boys were "passing up" the front rows. Dr. Creel has entered into part- 
nership with Dr. Wood, of Angola, Ind., and is doing well. He is the father 
of a baby girl of whom he may be justly proud, as the writer, who has seen 
the Miss Creel, can testify. 


Dr. P. H. Lynch, who was graduated in the eighties, is at Escanaba, 
Mich., and J. A. Gault, class of '95, is associated with him. Under the very 
lax laws of Michigan Mr. Gault is allowed to practice. 


Dr. J. E. Rankin is at Petosky, Mich. 

■x- * 


Dr. J. F. Pease, '93, is located at Big Rapids, Mich. The doctor and his 
wife are both medically inclined. 

•x- -x- 


E. N. Heysett, class of '89, is practicing the healing art at Ludington. Mich. 
The doctor has taken to himself a wife since leaving Rush. 

■X- -X- 

Dr. F. B, Florentine, of the early eighties, is located at Saginaw, Mich., 
and is making a specialty of gynecology. The doctor supplemented his Rush 
course with a course under Prof. Pozzi, of Paris. 

-x- -x- 


Dr. H. G. Anthony, '84, sends in a subscription from 353 N. Clark St., 


• v - -X- 

E. E. Anderson, M. D., Garland, Kansas, says he wants The Corpuscle, 
and asks if "Old Rush" is as near the front as in '8-4. Well, we think so, 


Dr. S. T. Anderson, '81, sends in his •'Hello" from Bloomington, 111. 


H. H. Albers, M. D., '91, can be addressed at Allenton, Wis. 

* -X- 

Dr. Wells Andrews, 76, can be found at 815 Washington Boul., Chicago. 


Dr. J. R. Jones, '88, sends his dollar from Britton, S. Dak. 
W. P. Sherman, M. D., West Pullman, 111. 

■X- -X- 

Dr. N. H. Hamilton has gone from Grafton, N. Dak. to Santa Monica, Cal. 

■x- * 

Dr. M. Arthur writes from Cumberland Gap, Tenn. 

•x- * 

W. T. Bishop, M. D., of Harrisburg, Pa., writes the secretary of the 
alumni association a long letter. Doctor, the next time you are at Rush give 
a Corpuscle man a chance to welcome you. 

* -x- 


Dr. Chas. E. Booth, '72, is at Low Moor, Va. 

•x- -x- 


Prof. Bevan has been definitely found at last. He writes the secretary 
of the alumni association, Dr., John Edwin Rhodes, from Portland, Oregon. 
Of course the faculty knew his whereabouts but some of the students did not- 

Here is one from '62. Strange how the Rush men show their loyalty, 
even to those of ante bellum days. Dr. G. W. Beggs, Sioux City, Iowa. 

* -X- 

Dr. John H. Byrne, '74, 48 S. Sheldon street, Chicago, asks why his 
Corpuscle don't come. He will do us a favor, if it is not received hereafter, 
by letting us know at once. 

-X- * 

"Mail Corpuscle to my address." L. C. Bowers, M. D., class of '86. 

•x- -x- 

O. C. Bailey, M. D., '86, Waterloo, Wis. 

* * 

H. T. Brown, M. D., Mt. Henry, 111., sends in a warm greeting. The 
doctor says the the names attached to his diploma are those of Brainard, 
Blaney, Herrick, McLean, Evans, Davis and Spencer. The date is 1850. 


Dr. John H. Besharian, Acting Imperial Commissioner for Persia to the 
World's Columbian Exposition, is an alumnus of '82. The doctor is at 30?7 

Indiana avenue, Chicago, at present. 

* * 

Dr. Jas. Barr, '68, has removed from Algona, Iowa, to Roseburg, Oregon. 
Another member of that class, P. C. Murphy. M. D., is at Manito, 111. He 
says, "Grand old Rush." Their motto was "Seek the truth." 

■X- -X- 


"The Rush light never grows dim. 'Old Rush' alone is immortal, and 
the mystic honor of the name warms the heart of every graduate. " Yours 
cordially, F. M. Casal, '64, Santa Barbara, Cal. 


A. V. Benedict, M. D., '81, writes in from Lidgerwood, N. Dak. 

* * 

Dr. E. E. Barr, '93, Provident Hospital and Training School, 2900 Dear 

born St., Chicago. 

* * 

J. E. Brock, M. D., Coal City, 111. 

E. W. Boyles, M. D., '62, says, "Send me The Corpuscle" Clay City, 

* -X- 

Dr. T. N. Boue, '66, Loda, 111, 

-x- * ^ 

Dr. S. Bailey, Mt. Ayr, Iowa, class of 79. 

Dr. C. V. Bogue, doctor by the grace of an Eclectic school in 78 and Rush 
in '84, Newport, Vt. 

Dr. C. A. Barnes, 70, Southport, Ind., says he would like the names and 
addresses of the alumni. We are giving them just as fast as we can, Doctor. 

"I hope all of 'Old Rush' graduates will join and work for the grand old 
college." T. D. Baird, 77, Walsenburg, Colo. 

-X- -X- 


"Anything in reference to 'Old Rush' strikes me in a tender spot. Yours 

eternally, Geo. W. Brandon, class of 71, Milford, Neb." 

I * * 

Dr. B. Bill, class of 79, Genoa Junction, Wis. 

Dr. Samuel Gushing Beach, Presbyterian Hospital, Chicago, sends us his 
greeting also. Small favors thankfully received from our ex-editor. 

Alonzo F. Burnham, M. D., Ashland, 111. 


Dr. J. B. Bradley, Eaton Rapids, Mich. 
G. L. Buland, M. D., '84, Greenwood, Wis. 

"I am just as enthusiastic as ever over 'Old Rush 1 and am always glad to 
hear of its prosperity." Andrew W. Bowman, M. D., class of 78, Davenport. 


Dr. A. L. Cory, '92, Surgeon L, S. and M. S. R. R., 4136 Wabash avenue. 

Dr. M. M. Crocker, '87, Gila Bend, Arizona. 


Here is a new one on The Corpuscle. Dr. Francis D. Coltrin, '89, 
writes from Braceville, 111,, as follows: "I cheerfully enclose the dollar and 
should like very much to receive The Corpuscle, and I assure you it will be 
a 'read' one when it circulates down here." 


Rush '81, T. C. Clark, M. D., Stillwater, Minn. 

Dr. C. D. Carter, DeKalb, 111. 

G. W. Crawhall, M. D., Sibley, Iowa, class of '90. 

* * 

"Enclosed find one dollar which I believe entitles me to membership in 
the Alumni association, and also to a copy of The Corpuscle, Please see that 
I get The Corpuscle." W. W. Claybaugh, '83, Dexter, Iowa. 

Dr. W. G. Cochran, '69, has retired from practice, given up his position 
as president of the California State Board of Health, and is now president of 
the State Loan and Trust Company, Los Angelos, Cal, 

C. P. Caldwell, M. D., 77, 4425 Michigan Ave., Chicago. 

* * 


W. J, Carter, M. D., '64, Marion, Ind. 

Dr. J. W. Connelly, Fermington, 111., class of '90. 

* * 

Dr. L. W. Campbell, Ada, Ohio, Rush, '81 . 

"John Edwin Rhodes, M. D. — Dear Sir: Your communication came to 
hand a day or two ago. I don't know that it will be possible for me to lend 
my presence to the meetings, which will, of course, be a damper on the pro- 
ceedings. However it affords me great pleasure to make my contribution and 
I enclose herewith check No. 1595, Commercial Bank of St. Paul, (which by 
the way is solvent) for $1.00. This will, I hope, make up in part for the lack 
of my presence. I shall be pleased to receive the various issues of The Cor- 
puscle as they appear from time to time. Yours very truly, J. W. Chamber - 

lin, St. Paul, Minn. 

* *• 

Here is quite a curious matter. F. M. Crouse, Indianapolis, Ind., writes 
that he believes he was graduated from Rush in '53, but as he never practiced 

he is not sure. At present he entitles himself "the antiquarian bookseller." 

* -x- 


Dr. Albert de Bey, '84, Orange City, Iowa, sends his best regards. He has 
a student in the present senior class. 

Geo. Deacon, M. D,, '85, formerly of Cedar Rapids, Iowa, now of Pasa 
dena, Cal. 

-X- -X- 


W. G. Davis, M. D., Fremont, Neb. 


Dr. J. Dawson, '85, San Francisco, Cal. 


Dr. A. A. Dye, '71, formerly of Lamar, Mo., now at Madison, Wis. 


G. B. Galer, M. D., 72, sends his dollar and his greeting from Belmond, 


* * 

Dr. O. W. French writes in from Hosmer,Iowa, to rene^ T his subscription 

to The Corpuscle. 

* * 

H. M. Ferguson, M. D., '90, Gardner, 111. 

Dr. E. R. Fletcher, '70, sends in his "one dollar William" from St. Paul. 

Dr. Frank Fitzgerald, '86, Morrison, 111. 

* -k 

Dr. D. M. Finley, '68, Cascade, Iowa. 

Dr. F. J. Gobar, Durand, Wis., joins the Alumni Association and gets 
The Corpuscle "to be more in touch with my Alma Mater." 

R. A. Goodner, M. D., class of '88, Asst. Supt. Illinois Southern Hospital 
for the Insane, Anna, 111. 

Geo. Green, M. D., 70, Aurora, 111.: "Please see that I get The Cor- 

Dr, S. M. Gould, 70, Argos, Ind,, says: "The impress made upon me by 
Blaney, Freer, Gunn and others still remains." 

Dr. C. A, Gill, Mount Horeb, Wis. We regret the doctor did not give his 

C. W. Doty, M_ D., '88, Cordova, Neb. 

C. M. Dolph, M. D., '88, Pleasant Lake, Ind. 

■X- * 

Dr. W. Brown Ewing, '85, Western Pensylvania Hospital for the Insane, 
Dixmont, Pa. 

Marshall Enfield, M. D., 73, Clarinda, Iowa. 

"Yours for 'Old Rush,' " John W. Emmons, '83, Sparta, Wis. 

Dr. W. H. Eldred, '82, Room 24 Times building, Chicago, 111. 

* * 

Dr. P. M. Evans, Rush 70, Minounk, 111. 


H, H. Witherstine, M. D., mayor of the city of Rochester, Minn. 

Prof. Frank D. Wright, professor of anatomy and clinical surgery, 
Barnes Medical College, St. Louis, Mo. 


The way time files is illustrated by the Junior who said it seemed to him 
when he wasn't paying bills he was being quizzed. 


Of all sad words of tongue or pen, 
The saddest are these, "Bevan's not back again. 

-X- -X- 

Dr. Marcusson is looking for that fellow who officially denied the rumor. 


* * 

There's a pipe that's never smoken; 
There's a junior's heart half broken; 
And a middler's throat is choken 

For tobacco, that is all, 
While the senior, half defiant, 
Grinds the Yucalan, so pliant, 

For the rules are never turned toward the wall. 


A junior says he has not studied any, but he has nob missed a single thing 
so far. 

The signs which read, " Smoking and chewing tobacco positively prohib- 
ited in this room," does not include the cabbage leaves that D. J. Hayes has 
been smoking. 

# -X- 

The pulse boxes seem to attract a great deal of attention every day the 
secretary emptres the contents into a bushel-basket and carries the precious 
articles home. With many a blush he reads of his many accomplishments and 
lausrhs at the funny verses of juniors about " Sweet scented meadows" and 
" The husking of the pumpkins." 

* -X- 

Occasionally we find a doctor who has been hanging around the clinics 
for three or four years who presumes to know it all, and who airs his knowl- 
edge if a student fails to make a proper diagnosis or mistakes a minor symp- 
tom for a positive one. f^he student invariably recognizes a benefactor if a 
doctor will give him an idea to work upon, or show him a mistake which he 
has made, but if the doctor tells him how much he himself can find out in two 
seconds, and how much plainer the case is than the nose on a man's face, the 
student wonders why the doctor has not been made a professor, and what a lot 
of money a publisher could make out of such a brilliant man. 


Last summer, when many students were giving their minds a respite from 
the dreary drudgery of a medical college life, McAllister and Beacom began 
to think up schemes which led them to clivers places. They followed their 


thoughts as far as the classic and much-revered Green street one day, and 
never since that momentous day could they be estranged from that street 
They cared little for the color of the street, but kept up daily visits to that 
wonderful place. Days sped into weeks and weeks slipped into months, yet 
with undaunted zeal these young men would turn their feet down that famous 
thoroughfare, and from their eyes we read that " In the great lexicon of youth 
there is no such word as fail." At last the long-expected time arrived and a 
messenger came in haste, his foaming steed sniffing the evening breeze far out- 
classed that renowned Sheridan thoroughbred. The young men repaired to 
their familiar haunt immediately. Then the work began. Mc. lost his glasses, 
Beacom lost his head, and poured six quarts of water into a pint cup in a vain 
endeavor to make a solution of carbolicacid. Beacom got off his coat, Mc. 
got off a joke, and greases his shoes with vasaline, instead of his hands. The 
time had arrived, and they must work quickly. Everything was ready. The 
moment came, and Mc. grabbed a clothes-line ard tied it around Beacom's arm. 
He said it was the largest umbilical cord on record and wanted to cut it with 
an ax. Beacom objected, and Mc. saw his mistake. Beacom then became, 
" rattled" and imagined he was in the maternity ward of the county hospital, 
with four hundred cases on hand; but in his calmer moments since he says it 
was only a case of twins. 

* -X- 

Patient in Dispensary — "A Homcepath doctor told me a year ago that he 
could cure me, and that I would die if I took any but Homoepath medicine, 
which I have been taking ever since." 

Attending Physician — " And how are you now?" 

Patient — "Worse than when I began doctoring with the Homoepath. He 
has taken most of my money andiias not done me any good." (One week later 
patient returns.) 

Attending Physician — " How are you to-day?" 

Patient — ' ' Am much better . " 

Morals: 1. Something for nothing — charity. 2. Nothing for something — 

a delusion. 


-X- * 

Dr. Gould (at telephone) — "Hello Central! Give me 2416 street." 

(2416 is given, and Dr. Gould shouts): " Hello Smith! when can you send that 
fire-escape man up to see me? This is Rush. Have him call for me at the 

Smith — " Who are you?" 

Dr. Gould — " Gould — Frank Gould — not Jay Gould." 

Smith — " How do you spell it?" 

Dr. Gould— "G-o-u-l-d." 

Smith—" What is that first letter?" 

Gr. Gould— ■" Listen! A, B, C, D, E, F, G. It is G. Do you understand? 
(Aside to the boys) : That wire works blamed hard this morning . " 

We suppose that the fire escapes are for the new " Lab." They will be 
very convenient for D. J.'s when they commence their dissecting this winter. 

* -x- 

Anglo Saxon Ryan says he would weigh 135 pounds were he fat 


A dispatch from Iowa in a recent newspaper tells of the suicide of a medi- 
cal student out there. We hope the instructor who gives out the lessons in 
pathology to the middle class has seen this warning notice. 

Members of the middle class in anatomy have been figuring up as to 
whether it is worse for the class to come late and keep the instructor waiting, 
or for the instructor to come late and keep the class waiting. They have de- 
cided that it depends on who is talking. 


Amt. to Patient — ■" What is the trouble?" 
Patient — " That is what I came to find out?" 

Who presented the flowers to the trio at the reception? West Point Co- 
lumbian Guard D. J. Garrard. 

The fresh young men who have been sighing to get at a cadaver will have 
to curb their ambitions until after the Middlers have finished. The work will 
be done slowly, perfectly, and learnedly; so it will be useless to take broad- 
axes into the room, as was customary last year, and is still in vogue at other 
colleges . 

It was not the office that caused the swelled heads of successful candidates 

on the morning following the election. 


A suggestion for the senior class poet: 

Your poem must be rich, rare, racy, 

As everybody knows; 
You must mingle mirth, madness, and music, 

And close it lachrymose. 

■X- * 


The second 'division D. J. quiz class have adopted the following refrain : 
I His whisk | ers red, 
I And eye | s are blue, 
I He wears | gold specs, 
| And og I gles you. 

Dr. Cotton (in D. J. lecture) — "And now if I pass this bottle around foi 
the members of this class to taste, what will be the effect? 
Middler (just entered) — " All get drunk." 

Some one found the following poem, which shows the D. J. conclusion 
perfectly : 

"Doc. Bouffleur is a funny man, 

And Cotton 'best of all;' 
Doc. Dodson is, once in a while, 
But Haines, he's not at all." 

De Jay. 

Senior anatomy lectures are o. k. 


(See Frontispiece.) 

Daniel Brainerd, some half a century ago, founded a medical college in a 
small building on the North Side. Rush college was a small and unpretentious 
affair in those days, but then Chicago was a small town. As the city grew 
Rush grew also, until to-day it occupies its present proud position in the med- 
ical arena, with a record of over six thousand graduates practicing in every 
state and territory in the country, and over fifteen thousand patients treated 
every year. Rush has been fortunate from the start in her official roster, 
having counted among her presidents such men as Daniel Brainerd, J. V. Z. 
Blaney, Joseph W. Freer, J. Adams Allen, and E. L. Holmes. The small 
structure that served as the first home of this institution was soon replaced by 
a larger building, amply equipped with all necessary facilities. This structure 
was, however, completely gutted by the historic fire of 1871. Rush quickly 
rose, phoenix like, from the ashes of those October days, twenty-two years 
ago, and was soon comfortably ensconced in temporary quarters on the South 
Side, this place being deserted in 1875 for its present home, where the annual 
courses and clinical instruction of the college are given . Rush Medical Col- 
lege has made a great onward stride the past year, that makes her envied by 
all her sister institutions by the erection of a new laboratory building, in every 
way a worthy addition to her equipment. This building, designed for labara- 
tory purposes, was designed by Cecil S. Corwin, who has prepared the designs 
for many of the handsomest and more artistic residences to be seen along our 
leading boulevards and fashionable avenues, as this gentleman has made a 
a specialty of the finest class of residences. The laboratory is a massive six- 
story and basement structure of pressed-brick and light-colored stone. From 
an architectural standpoint it is a magnificent example of the severe type of 
the renaissance style. This impressive and yet pleasing style of architecture 
is admirably adapted for academic, professional, and technical schools, and 
its more general adoption would do much toward making our educational in- 
stitutions more attractive than they are to-day. The windows are of the 
Romanesque style, and elaborate cornice is in molded terra cotta. The main 
entrance is both elaborate and artistic. The facings are of buff stone and the 
main entrance of pressed brick. The cut-stone work up to the second floor 
was done by Findeisen & Stein, the well-known cut- stone contractors at 423 to 
429 N. Halsted street, this city, who have furnished this class of work for 
many of our more prominent buildings. The ornamental columns and capi- 
tols and the artistic carving around the entrance, which has been very favora- 
bly commented on by all beholders, are their handiwork. The roofing and 
cornice- work, which forms a handsome covering to f he building, was done by 
J. C. McFarland, of 2511 to 2519 South State street, this city, who also 
furnished the sky light. Mr. McFarland is one of our best-known 
dealers in cornices, sky - lights, slate, tin and corrugated • iron work, 
and takes contracts in his special line in all parts of the country. The 


Northwestern Terra Cotta Company furnished the terra cotta work. The 
soapstone used in the operating tables and the tanks for laboratory work 
came from the Alberene Stone Company, 219 Dearborn street; the soapstone 
furnished is positively non -porous, resists actions of acids and is especially 
adapted for laboratory work. The interior of the laboratory is furnished in 
admirable style. The stanchions are substantially built on the slow combus- 
tion plan, the iron work being furnished by the Dearborn Foundry Company, 
at 1525 Dearborn street, one of the largest and best known firms handling 
structural iron in the west. The general contract went to Mortimer Brothers, 
a contracting firm whose prominence in Chicago building circles is too well- 
known to require further mention. Associated with them was the Murdock 
Campbell Company, room 913, The Temple. The substantiability and sym- 
metry of the carpenter work is but another example of the admirable and con- 
scientious class of work which is the only one turned out by this concern. 
Medical colleges and hospitals where a minimum of unnecessary noise is im- 
perative to the successful performance of difficult and delicate operations, the 
insulation of heat, cold and sound is vitally essential. In Rush's new labora- 
tory this is admirably accomplished by the use of mineral wool, that best of 
all insulators. Every floor in the building is deafened by a layer of two 
inches of mineral wool, laid between the rough and finished flooring. This 
mineral wool, furnished by the Chicago Piie- Proof Covering Company 48-50 
Franklin street, supersedes all cinders and is more deafening, on account of 
its manifest superiority. The plumbing of the building has been well and ef- 
ficiently done by Brown & Mortimer, 45 W. Washington street, who used the 
. atest and most improved methods in regard to thorough sanitary ventilation, 
This well-known firm also furnished the gas-fitting and sewerage. And the 
mere mention of the fact that the John Davis Company did the steam heating 
and Theodore Laffan the painting of the building, is sufficient guarantee of 
the effectiveness and superior character of that branch of the work. The 
dissecting room is one of the finest in the United States; a skylight gives the 
necessary light and the ventilation is of that thorough character needed in all 
apartments devoted to such a purpose, and too often lacking . The chemical 
and physiological laboratories are particularly well appointed. The whole 
interior is beautifully finished in Georgia pine and all the floors are of hard 
wood. Taking all its features into account it is safe to say that for its special 
purpose it has no superior in the country. All the interior fixtures were fur- 
nished by M. Dencer, 24th and Butler streets. 

Rush Medical College is the medical department of Lake Forest Univer- 
sity; its present board of trustees are: De Laskie Miller, President, E. L. 
Holmes, Vice President, The Hon. Jno. C. Haines, Secretary, Henry M 
Lyman, Treashrer and Assistant Secretary, and Messrs. Ephraim Ingals, 
Lyman J. Gage, Walter S. Haines, Norman Bridge, James Nevins Hyde, E. 
Fletcher Ingals, Geo. M. Bogue, Nicholas Senn, James H. Etheridge and 
Nathan M. Freer. Ex- Officio members are: His Excellency. Governor John 
P. Altgeld, The Hon. Jos. B. Gill, Lieut, Governor, Hon. Clayton E. Crafts, 
Speaker of the House of Representatives and E. L. Holmes, President of the 
Faculty . 


Advertising- Notices. 


By R. A. Vaughan, M. D.. 704 Olive St., St. Louis. 

Don't Prescribe Codliver Glycerine. 


1st— It is so pleasant to the taste, that your patients may think they are not taking 
medicine; and may even forget that you ever prescribed for them and fail to pay their bills. 
You should give them something nasty and they will never forget you. 

2nd — Its digestive powers so increase the appetite that they will soon be using pork and 
beans instead of your medicines. And the Butcher and Grocer will get the money which 
otherwise belongs to the Doctor and Undertaker. 

3rd — Its alterative properties infuses new blood and life and your patients take a bright 
view of the future and cease to be gloomy and sad. This you should prevent, for pain is a 
great educator, 

4th — Codliver Grlycerine mixes uniformly in all prescriptions; which proves that it is 
best to use codliver oil, its emulsions, or some other indigestible stuff that will not mix, so 
that your patient will have two kinds of medicine to take, and will realize ihat life is not an 
empty dream, nor one continuous round of pleasure. 

5th — Codliver Grlycerine is born by the most delicate children, increasing their digest. 
ive powers; which shows it should not be used with them, because it costs money to raise 
children with strong digestive powers. 

6th — Codliver Grlycerine is valuable in the convalescent period from all diseases. Don't 
use it then, for your patients may get too strong for other diseases to attack them and thus 
cheat yourself out of continued fees. 

7th— Codliver Glycerine is valuable in wasting diseases. You should be careful how you 
prescribe it or there may be a sharp advance in the "living skeleton" market. 

8th — Codliver Glycerine is valuable in all lung and bronchial diseases. These cases will 
live a long time on nasty and indigestible stuff and if you cure them quickly on Codliver 
Glycerine for small fees, they may die of accident and you will lose big fees. 

9th — Codliver Glycerine is valuable in Rickets and all strumous diseases of the bones; 
but should not be used for you are liable to cure so many children as to produce a scarcity of 
Dime-Museum freaks. 

10th — Codliver Glycerine exerts its effects on the system at once, while it takes the oil 
and emulsions from four to six weeks to produce any effect. You should let your patients 
suffer as long as possible and get a larger fee, and if they should happen to get well they will 
think you are a stunner. — Eureka Springs Medical Journsl. 

After a thorough trial of your Henry's Tri-Iodides in rheumatism I can pronounce it in- 
deed an anti-rheumatic remedy. It has given me uniformly good results in the treatment of 
both the acute and chronic forms of this disease. N. L. Clark, M. D., Meridian, Miss. 

The active medical properties of cod liver oil are found in four times the quantity in 
Codliver Glycerine that they are in the best Norwegian cod liver oil, because none but its 
active properties are taken up in its manufacture. In other words a Teaspoonful of Codliver 
Glycerine (one dose) represents the active medical properties of two tablespoon/ids of the 
best Norwegian cod liver oil, or from four to six tablispoonfuls of any of the emulsions. The 
nauseating, indigestible and other deleterious properties that the oil and emulsions contain, 
are not found in Codliver Glycerine; besides it mixes readily with water or any prescription 
and is a strong digestive stimulant. The manufacturers of Codliver Glycerine have made it 
possible to give cod liver oil in constant and heroic doses, without nausea, or oppression of 
the digestive organs. Any stomach will tolerate it. 





C. D. Center, '94. W. D, Calvin, '95. 

John Koss, '94. C. A. Allenburger, '95. 

A. T. Holbrook, '95. S. T. Hart, Business Manager 

334 Dearborn Street 

Membership in the Alumni Association of Rush Medical, College is obtainable at any time by- 
graduates of the College, providing they are in good standing in the profession, and shall pay the i annual 
dues, $1.00. This fee includes a subscription to The Corpuscle for the current year. This journal is the 
official organ of the Association. 

Dues and all communications relating to the Association should be sent to 

JOHN EDWIN RHODES, M. D., Sec'y andTreas., 34 Washington St., Chicago 

College Anniversaries— 

Doctorate Sermon, Sunday, May 20th, 1894. 

Special Clinics and Class- Day Exercises, Monday, May 21st, 1894. 

Scientific Meeting of the Alumni Association, 10 A. M. and 2 P. M., Tuesday, May 22nd, 1894. 

Business Meeting of the Alumni Association, 10 A. M., Wednesday, May 23rd, 1894. 

Annual Commencement 2 P. M. Alumni Banquet 7:30 P. M. 

Ruby Red and Black: Colors of Lake Forest University. Yellow: Color of Rush Medical College. 


The death of Chas. Warrington Earle removes from the medical profes- 
sion an honored member, and from the medical students a true friend. Dr. 
Earle held a position of high esteem among his fellow practitioners because 
of his manliness and generosity, his breadth of character and valuable 
achievements. He was prominent in in his profession and in society. But, 
perhaps, where his loss will be most keenly felt is among the students of 
medicine, to whom his encouragement and wisdom were freely given. 

Dr. Earle was born in Vermont in 1845, removing, to make Illinois his 
future home nine years later, When sixteen years of age he entered the 
army and served gallantly through the war, maintaining to the time of his 
death an active interest in the Grand Army of the Republic and the Loyal 
,Legion. In 1870 he was graduated from the Chicago Medical College, and 
since that time has been identified with all the advancing movements of the 
medical profession in Chicago, Dr. Earle 's loyalty to the Northwestern 
University Woman's Medical School of which he was president, and to the 


College of Physicians and Surgeons, of whose board of directors he was 
president, will never be forgotten by the institutions. 

His connection with Rush, although confined to a course of spring lec- 
tures, is pleasantly remembered by those who sat under him. 

We mourn with our sister institutions the loss of this noble spirit. 

It is a source of great encouragement for The Corpuscle to see the in- 
terest taken in the paper by the members of the Junior class. As a matter 
of course the two higher classes, being familiar with the aims and results 
accomplished by the paper, are its steadfast friends and upholders. But the 
Junior class is composed of new men. Everything is new to them. They 
are classified as D. J's. — a designation at first a cause of much mortification 
and annoyance, but which soon comes to be a rather joyful, than otherwise, 
sound. In every school the first year men are subjected to more or less. 
"breaking in.'' In at least half of the definition they are veritable Ishmae- 
lites, for every one's hand is against them. Those avIio have had any experi- 
ence in college ways take it as a matter of course, and the jibes received are 
returned in the same friendly spirit. The Corpuscle often takes up some 
particularly good hit and publishes it — not with the view to disparaging the 
Junior class, but merely to help retain the old custom which has furnished so 
many health-giving laughs in bygone years, and which is perfectly harmless. 
But occasionally there is a man, one of these overgrown, pastry-complexioned 
fellows, who has never before been outside of the family circle, and who was 
absolute monarch of that little kingdom; and that man "squeals" when a 
Junior is referred to as a D. J. He says he will stop the publication of the 
journal, and when asked how he expects to accomplish that feat, replies that 
he will never buy a copy of it. This makes us think of another story: There 
was once a dear old fool of a monarch who had less brain than a crawfish and 
more conceit than a peacock. In fact this conceit was so great his irreverent 
subjects said he had a wheel in his head . One day he was out yachting with 
some ladies and gentlemen of the court, when a squall arose. The monarch 
speedily became very sick, whereupon he threatened the sea, declaring - he 
would have it bailed out dry and all the water poured into the back pasture 
lot if it did not become quiet. He made such an egregious ass of himself that 
a few of the gentlemen present tipped up his heels and dropped him over- 
board. Just at present writing, the little sunfishes and bullheads are wearing 
his carpal bones, vertebra*, etc., as charms on their watch chains. The Junior 
class has never made such a good appearance as the present one does, and it 
has not a more appreciative friend than The Corpuscle. Also in our hum- 
ble opinion the paper will continue to roll its wheels onward. Any one wish- 
ing to stop it by putting his foot on the rail is at liberty to do so. 


Nothing; so endears a college to its alumni as the customs and traditions that 
are peculiar to the Alma Mater. A man rejoices in the success of his college. 
He sees with pride its advances, but his true affection for the place he feels 
when he sees the present college-student living in the same customs and shar- 
ing the same traditions that were his years before. The form of our com- 
mencement exercises, the placing of the class tablets, our exercises at the 
opening of the term, the prizes, the quiz class, these are the things the old 
alumnus inquires about. They are peculiar to our college in their particular 
form, and it has often happened that father and son and even grandson have 
gone through some of the same old customs at Rush. We must then protect 
these customs and establish more — they bind us more closely to our college 
and to one another. 

It is unfortunate that one of the older features of the college life here, 
the old college hymn, should now be forgotten. Pew students know that such 
a song exists, but it does and it is a beautiful hymn, well worthy of being 
handed down from class to class, and sung at all appropriate times in honor 
of Old Rush. We were glad to hear the new Glee Club sing it and hope the 
Pulse will contain it next spring. 

Extremes are positions held by the unreasonable, foolish, silly, absurd, 
preposterous and ridiculous in the fields of thought, and by the intemperate, 
unseemly, unbecoming, indecorous, unsuitable, unfit, and unbefitting in the 
field of action. 

A good thing may become an evil when abused by the extremists. This 
we see when studying the subjects of balneotherapy, electrotherapy, psycho- 
therapy, climatotherapy, and massotherapy in therapeutics, although they 
are all good when reasonably applied, but when their intended application is 
abused by the Water Dr. Flectro-Crank Paith-Curist they become an evil. 

The principle is the same wherever its application. 

Occasionally a fellow comes to Rush who is in need of an administration 
of pass-upo-therapy, a treatment that should only be used in cases of hyper- 
trophy of the brain Or some other similar malady that has become chronic . 
This acts as a kind of mind-cure, and that it may retain its deserved merits 
be applied only on those patients who are suffering from an advanced stage of 
the malady, and in those cases it should not be made a physical hernia treat- 
ment. Our medical jurisprudence, however, teaches us not to use medical 
terms in submitting a report, therefore we will use good plain Anglo Saxon, 
and say that the practice of "passing up" has become a nuisance because of 
its abuse, and w T e trust that some measure may be taken to prevent it. Those 
who insist upon abusing this custom should not be passed up but passed out of 
the institution. 


While the Junior students are working hard over their lessons, the Mid- 
dlers wondering why the professors do not give the whole book for one 
recitation, ,<and the Seniors wondering how many of their class, can possibly 
pull through and who will sret a sealed envelope, did it ever occur to any of 
them that Rush Medical College did not have a chair for diseases of children. 
How essential it is that the doctor should know about the many diseases which 
attack these little patients is acknowlegged by all, and the time will soon 
come when it will not be said that the old ladies know more about treating 
these patients than the doctor. It is said that it is hard to find what is the 
trouble with these little ones, yet this is only argument that the doctor should 
be drilled to diagnose a case in infancy as well as in old age. The young man 
starting out to acquire a living in medicine can do no better than to assure 
the community that he can cope with infants' diseases, by being able to suc- 
cessfully care for his first case. Nothing will gain a young man more repu- 
tation than to have it said that he saved a little child's life, and this young 
man has forever friends in the parents of this child. 

To be sure the students study some diseases common to childhood, yet 
there should be a separate division for this subject, and as much time given 
to it as to other branches. Every student can easily see the benefit of the 
children's clinic and they would reluctantly see it abandoned, but if a chair 
was created for this department and a course arranged, the students would 
become as interested in the lectures as they are in the clinics- 

The faculty have the advantage of having a member who will admirably 
fill the chair as soon as one is created, and in the progress that Rush is now 
making that time does not seem bo be far off when her students will have 
another branch to pass, and Rush will take another step up the ladder of 

The next issue of The Corpuscle will contain a full report of the exer- 
cises held December fourth in dedication of the laboratory building. 

Frank A. Stahl, M. D., Demonstrator of Obstetrics. 

The present occasion offers a happy opportunity to render our friend Dr. 
Adolphus our hearty thanks for his many kindnesses in transferring to us 
such obstetrical cases as are referred to him for treatment. 

It enables us to assist the students to enjoy opportunities rich in material, 
of* interest and instruction and especially valuable for the many experiences 
which can only be gathered at the bedside and which otherwise might be dif- 
ficult to obtain. 

A brief history of the case as kindly furnished by Senior Von Rehm, who 
had charge of the case, is as follows: 

Rosa M , 30 years old, married 12 years, well developed multipara 

presenting no physical deformities. Venereal history — Lues probably. 

She has given birth to ten children, the present being the tenth, of which 
the first three are living, two boys aged 11 and 9 years respectively and a girl 
seven years of age; the fourth died aged 44- months, the fifth, 5+ months, the 
sixth at birth, the seventh, eighth and ninth miscarried at four months. 

The tenth, a partus prematurus, the present case, an anencephalic and 
akranic female monster, of about the eighth month, delivered after a tedious 
labor of sixty hours with forceps, life continuing about fifteen minutes. 

The first stage of labor, dilation of the os. continued during the whole of 
the sixty hours. Calling at this hour, internal examination revealed the 
nature of the foetal monstrosity, at the same time explaining the prolongation 
of the labor and the easily apparent exhaustion of the mother as witnessed by 
the gradually weakening, though regular pains, the loss of tone and strength 
of the mother, the lack of progress of the labor, etc. 

Examination also yielded that the cervix was relatively dilated, that is, it 
had not disappeared from around the head, yet it would permit the head to 

The membranes had been ruptured some twenty four hours. • 

The head was in the pelvic cavity with the face presenting; the rough- 
ened upper margins of the frontal bores covered with the hair and connective 
tissue covering, characteristic of such monsters, could be easily felt. 

The forceps being decided upon to terminate labor, they were applied and 
head soon delivered, followed by extraction of the trunk. The cord was not 
severed; the placenta was immediately delivered by means of Crede's method. 

The puerperium of the lying-in woman passed without anything of mo- 
ment occurring. She was discharged, I believe, on the. tenth day. 

Our illustiation pictures an example of that class of monsters termed 
Anencephalia et Akrania. Its weight was about six pounds. 



i- : 

Fig 1. Front view of a case of Anencephalia et akrania. 



Face Absence of upper portion, the forehead imperfectly developed, 
the eyes and lids bulging and prominent giving the monster a toad like ap- 

Nose — Much flattened, chin and head as a whole because of the short- 
ness of neck rests upon and between the shoulders and upper portion of the 
trunk . 

Trunk and Extremities — Are extraordinarily developed, continuing to 
the fingers and toes. 
Umbilical Cord — Numerous twi stings. 

Placenta- Amniotic or foetal surface, cord inserted laterally — insertio funicu- 
li lateralis. 



Fig. II, Same foetus lateral view. 

Head — Shows entire absence of the vault of the skull; the brain is lack- 
ing; the base of the skull is covered with a vascular mass of connective tissue 
and more anteriorly with hair. The parietal bones are wholly absent, like- 
wise tabular portions off the frontal, temporal and occipital bones. 

Neck — Not visible because of its shortness, head resting upon the trunk. 

Ears — Drooping and resting upon shoulders. 
Placenta — Chorionic or uterine surface, membranes complete and showing 
sack as formed by the secundines with central opening marking where mem- 
branes ruptured allowing Liq. Amnii and foetus to pass through. 

Genesis: Ziegler, summing up his conclusions drawn from the writings of 
Geoffroy Saint-Hilaire, Cruveilheir, Dareste, Forster, Panum, Virchow 
Schultze, etc., writes as follows: 

"Malformations may be of two kinds, on the one hand the ovum may 
have inherited a tendency to abnormal growth, on the other, a normal em- 
bryo may in the course of development be affected by disturbing influences from 
without ivhich check its progress toward the perfectly developed form. Experience 
indicates that both events occur. 

The recurrence of hereditary malformations in a family, such as excess 
or absence of fingers, toes, etc., can only be explained by the supposition 
that the abnormal tendency exists from the first in the embryo, having been 
transmitted from one or the other parent. On the other hand the absence of 
one or more limbs, deficiency of the cranium, etc., are to be accounted for in a 
satisfactory ivay only by assuming that externcd causes of - injury have affected the 
growing fostus. 

Disturbing influences acting on the otherwise normal embryo play a far more 


important part than heredity in the genesis of malformations. The pathologi- 
cal peculiarities transmitted congenitally from parent to child manifest them- 
selves less in anomalies of external form than in deficiency or perverted 
function of the tissues or in morbid predispositions. Such anomalies are to 
be detected only by minute anatomical examination or they are incapable of 
anatomical demonstration at all. 

The causes of malformation in any given case can only be approximately 
determined or referred to this or that hypothetical injury. 

Monstrosities by defect are commonly malformations by arrest: they owe 
their existence to a local hinder mice, to the development of a normally con- 
stituted embryo. The earlier the injury the greater is usually its effect. The 
loss of da few cells in the earlier stages of growth may involve the absence of 
an entire organ or limb; while later on after the general form is nearly com- 
plete the same loss might not be noticeable at all. 

Malformations, in the narrowest sense of the term, originate for the most 
part in the first three months of foetal life." 

In seeking for an explanation for the malformation in our case but one 
circumstance presents itself. 

The mother relates that during the third month of pregnancy she wit- 
nessed a child run over by a street-car, crushing the upper and back part of 
its head into a pulpy mass. She claims to have sustained a severe shock at 
the time, and was afraid lest her child be affected in some like manner. 

Aside from other considerations let us admit that she did sustain a shock. 
There is no doubt that almost any one witnessing such an accident would be 
more or less moved thereby, and especially a pregnant woman. 

How was the shock produced? By and as a result of the impressions car- 
ried to and made upon the camera obscura of the brain system, that complexity 
we term the mind. These mental impressions produce shock. Through what 
means does such a shock act? Through the same means that it was re- 
ceived, namely, the mind. It in its turn becomes active and sends out various 
impulses proportionate to the dignity of the shock of the impressions. These 
impulses produce specific effects; if malignant,pain— injury ;if benignant, pleas- 
ure — benefit. 

Shock implies an activity; activity — force. 

A force expends itself in that direction, or upon that particular point or 
part towards which and upon which it may be directed. 

The shock of the impressions was received by and upon the mind and ex- 
pended by and through the mind. At the time of experiencing the shock two 
things were especially uppermost and closely connected in the woman's mind; 
first, the crushed head of the foreign child; second, her own developing child. 

Between these two and forming a connecting link existed hope and fear 
for the welfare of her child. 

Was it not just this link which formed the means of communication be- 
tween the agitated mind laboring under the influence of the shock of the 
crushed head, the proximate mental object, along which link the activity of 
the agitated mind was transmitted, and expending its force upon that second, 
the ultimate mental object, her developing child. 


And in so far as the expenditure was for good or evil would the effect 
upon the foetus be of a nature beneficial or injurious? 

That there is some diversity of opinion concerning the influence of mater- 
nal impressions may readily be gathered from the following conclusion: 

' 'There is absolutely no evidence that any emotion upon the part of the 
mother felt during pregnancy has any effect whatever on the formation of the 
child — that there is no malformation peculiar to the human race — all malform- 
ations present in the human race are observed in the lower animals— analagous 
malformations are observed in the vegetable kingdom;" regarding these lat- 
ter observations as evidences rebuttal to the theory of emotional influences. 

What is emotion? Is it a nonentity, a void: or is it an entity, a creation 
creative? We incline to the latter view. 

A woman, pregnant, narrowly escapes a runaway; she is seized with 
fear, trembling, a faintness. When the doctor arrives he announces an abor- 

Sight— impression— emotion — effect, let us analyze these phenomena. 

The esprit of the scare presents and is a force. 

The mind is a center (of forces) receptive of forces, and in turn creating 
forces. To such a force (mental) we apply the term impulse, which is, in 
effect, good or bad. 

A force expends itself upon an object, a center. This center is thereby 
moved, agitated, changed, in proportion as the nature is of the inflicting 
force. As a result of this agitation, &c, the center creates and sends out 
other forces, impulses. 

It is to this agitation, this change, this activity, that we apply the term 
emotion, and to which we owe these phenomena — the influence, impression of 
a force (gj| JJJ^a^hiia) u P on t ne center, the mind. 

This center, the mind, is actively moved by that force, creates and trans- 
mits new forces, impulses to other centers (*}j° J *J^™ S ) , whose effects are either 
beneficial 01 injurious (malformation) — in our illustrations the latter. 

For these reasons we find it more consistent to favor the antithesis of the 
above referred conclusion, namely, that there is absolutely no evidence that 
any emotion on the part of the mother, felt at any time during the pregnancy, 
has not any effect whatever on the formation of the child. 

Concerning the nature of the observations as evidences eon, we are inclined 
to the view that they argue pro, and that they tend to establish the influence 
of maternal impressions (acting as a force) rather than the reverse. 

All kingdoms are subject to the same physical laws and forces; each has 
its own peculiar characteristic manifestations for such a force . 

A natural or physical force (cause) is followed by a natural or physical 
effect. Forces (causes) may be perverted, distorted, interfered with. If the ■ 
effect of a force be that which we have learned to recognize as the usual, we 
speak of it as the natural or normal. When the effect is not the usual or nor- 
mal, as by a perversion of a force, we speak of that effect as the unnatural or 

If the forces or influences active in the developmental stages of life are 


permitted their proper exercise and scope, we have as the consequence the 
normal, or natural development; in the human the perfect child; in the animal 
the perfect young; in the vegetable the perfect flower. Let any influence 
arise interfering with or changing the activities of these (developmental) for- 
ces we have a like interference or change in the effect, the offspring, propor- 
tionate as the perversion is superficial or profound; in the human the imper- 
fect child; in the animal the imperfect young; in the vegetable the imperfect 
flower. Illustrations of developmental imperfections are many, some of our 
museums being rich in collections of this character, 

Apropos of malformations, we find that even in that which is termed path- 
ological, like deviations from the perfect are observed . 

While in Vienna I remember Privat Docent Zehman, then of the "Patho- 
logisches Institut," demonstrating, in a specimen taken from the brain, a mal- 
formation of the pathological cysticercus cellulosae. 

In conclusion permit me to cite views of Drs. W. A. Hammond and Seguin 
upon this subject of maternal impressions — gentlemen eminently fitted to ex- 
press themselves upon such a question. 

Dr. Hammond: "The chances of these instances, &c, being due to coin- 
cidence are infinitisimally small, and though I am careful not to reason upon 
the principle of post hoc, ergo propter hoc, I cannot, nor do I think any other 
person can, no matter how logical may be his mind, reason fairly against the 
connection of cause and effect in such cases. The correctness of the facts can 
only be questioned; if these be accepted the probabilities are thousands of 
millions to one that the relation between the phenomena is direct." 

Dr. Seguin, in "Idiocy and Its Treatment," N. Y. 1886," remarks: "Im- 
pressions will sometimes reach the foetus in its recess, cut off its legs or arms, 
or inflict large flesh wounds before birth — from which we surmise that idiocy 
holds unknown, though certain, relations to maternal impressions, as modifi- 
cations to placental nutrition . " 


External Examination: During the earlier months the diagnosis would be 
accompanied with so many difficulties as to render such efforts nil. 

During the latter weeks, especially the last week and just before labor, 
the diagnosis in many cases may be fixed. 

By palpation find the breach and fix the same with one hand, with the 
other seek the cephalic tumor. 

When the head is dependent, as is quite usual, this may most easily 
be done by forming a figure j± with the thumb and fingers, then gradually in- 
sert or rather push down into the hypogastrium between the uterus and pos- 
terior surface of the symphysis pubes, tending to encircle the head outside of 
the lower uterine or vaginal segment, 

The size, form, contour and consistency of the head may thus be ascer- 
tained and should such a diminutive cephalic formation be present, its char- 
acter may be recognized and the diagnosis made. 

The writer recalls such a case occurring in the Munich Maternity. By 
this method Prof. Von Winckel in one of his "Touchir Courses" diagnosed an 


anencephalia six days before labor. (Post partum the monster continued to 
live for some fourteen hours.) 

Internal Examination: Diagnosis because of deformities not of special 
difficulty, especially if membranes are ruptured; the absence and irregular- 
ities in the development of the cranial tissues, the finger will easily recognize; 
also the margins of the hypotrophied bones covered by the vascular connect- 
ive tissue, the latter yielding a sensation like that of the placenta. 

This connective tissue covering is usually more marked anteriorly at 
about where the anterior f ontanelle would be and is covered with quite a rich 
growth of hair. By some writers, this aggregation is spoken of as the 
"Stump" and is of diagnostic importance. 

Citing from Cazeaux we learn "that whenever the finger touches the 
presenting part the foetus is affected with convulsive and irregular move- 
ments which soon attract attention; the motions being probably due to direct 
irritation of the "stump" which is generally surmounted by the hairy scalp in 
cases of this kind. By this sign I (Cazeaux) was enabled to diagnose an 
anencephalia foetus before the membranes were ruptured, to the great 
astonishment of the students, etc." 

In our case, pressure was made with this intent and were rewarded in 
noticing foetal movements. 

It is easy to confuse such a case with a face presentation because of its 
tendency to engage and remain in that presentation throughout labor. 

To differentiate, seek the forehead, "touch" towards the cranial arch: 
you will soon become aware of the deformity. 

Treatment: If the foetus present in a manner of pelvic presentations, 
is like treatment in other such cases. Likewise, if the foetus should engage 
in an oblique position with shoulder presentation; treatment is the same as in 
other similar cases, namely, turn and immediately extract. 

In those cases where foetus engages with head. If possible learn of the 
condition when palpating externally. If so do not interfere, if at all, until 
labor has set in . 

During labor examine internally to ascertain condition. If, because of 
the asymetry of the cephalic development, there is a tendency that the nor- 
mal mechanism of labor be prevented, endeavor to avoid a lengthened pro- 
longation of the first stage by encouraging the dilitation of the cervix by 
means of hot douches, etc. 

The cervix dilated, if labor becomes tedious or exhaustion manifests it- 
self, anticipate nature, assist her by means of conservative forceps if head be 
in the pelvic cavity, or even if the head be at the superior strait, though 
when the head is yet in the latter position, the writer always prefers the 
simpler method, namely, turning and extraction. 

Fortunately the monstrosity is nonviable, its continuity of life depending 
upon the presence of the medulla ablongata which is always rudimentary. 
Life may continue from a few minutes to 60 or 70 hours post partum. 


By Dr. Montgomery. 

Oct, 20, '93. 

Case I . Girl seven years old. Has always been pretty well. Present 
trouble reddish discolorations with fine scales on legs, arms and chest. The 
mother said she believed the child was born with the disease. Always is 
better in summer and worse in spring and fall. Never had any medication 
except inunctions of lard. The lesions itch moderately but the child's body 
shows no scratch marks. Certain sites seem chosen by the disease, notably 
the extensor surfaces of the arms and legs. The flexor surfaces are compar- 
atively free. The lesions are not sharply defined. They are massed as to ar- 
rangment, and the color might be said to be a slight browning. They are 
very minute papules with scales. Their anatomical site is in the hair follicles. 
They are slow of evolution and form from the sound skin. The scales are a 
dirty white, not numerous, dry and fine, with a firm attachment. On their re- 
moval there is a dry surface underneath. ' 'The disease can be but one thing, 
arising as it does, beginning with birth, or very early in life, and remaining 
so persistently for seven years, and that is Xerosis." There is also a sebor- 
rhoea sicca of the scalp, and a furuncle on the left cheek "caused probably by 
the irritation of the skin." "There is not much to be done for this patient." 
The atonic condition was ordered relieved, tepid water and soap for the dis- 
eased skin, followed by oiling. A removal to a more salubrious climate was 
advised, as Dr. M. said the patient would probably always have the disease 
In this climate. 

Case II. Man eighteen years old. Always been well No history of 
previous skin disease. Present trouble, itching lesions on backs of hands and 
on face. Previous medication "putting salve on it/' to use the patient's 
words. The man is a painter; believes, though, he is better when at work 
than when idle, but Dr. M. disagrees with him there. Has had the trouble 
ten months. The lesions are sharply outlined, reddish, scaling, circinate 
lesions, disposed to clear within centre of circle. Diagnosis: Ringworm, 
and on the hands complicated and aggravated by eczema The two conditions 
have to be attended to, and to a certain extent they are opposed in their treat- 
ment. The irritation on the hands would exclude the use of the parasiticide. 
Treatment for the eczema first, was ordered. The patient was told to bathe 
only in borax water or tepid bran water. A simple protective ointment. Las- 
sar paste, was ordered. This is 

Acidi Salicylici gr. v.. 
Zinci Oxidi, 3ii. 
Talc, 5iii. 

Vaseline gss. 
m Ft. past. 


The salicylic acid is the medicament, the other being more as a base. 
The lesions on the face were ordered treated with a parasiticide, and Dr. M. 
said that after a few days of the protective treatment for the eczematous con- 
dition, a thorough treatment for the ringworm of the hands would be begun. 

Case III. Man, age thirty-five, unmarried; always been well. Never 
had disease of skin before. Has had present trouble for eight weeks. Began 
as a slightly elevated patch on skin, and now encircles both the anus and um- 
bilicus. There is no itching to speak of. The lesion is sharply outlined, is 
symmetrical, and acute. It looks like soft, broad warts: has a peculiar and 
very disagreeable smelling secretion. Most of the wart-like bodies have a 
broad base; some are attached by almost a pedicle though. The lesion about 
the umbilicus differs from, that about the anus in being dryer and more purple 
in color. That about the anus is a dirty gray. "The patient gives no history 
of syphilis, but we know some other symptoms have preceded, although the 
patient may have gone through the earlier stages of the disease and been un- 
conscious of it, for this is an undoubted case of syphilis. The man denies 
ever having had a lesion on the penis, but on examination I find distinct evi- 
dence of one having been there." 

The hour closed before Dr. M. could give the course of treatment in this 

Oct. 23, '93. 

Case I. Woman sixty years old; unmarried. Can give no history of 
previous skin disease, and with the exception of rheumatism has always been 
very well. Two years ago she fell and struck her head, bruising it quite 
severely. Present trouble began soon after as a "scab" about as large as 
ones finger-nail. This kept increasing in size; has never left her and is now 
about the size of a silver dollar. Has always had some discharge, but not 
much. For medication she "puts salve on it." Her pain consists of occasion- 
al "pricks like a pin." The lesion is located almost on the centre of the top 
of the head, has become chronic, and is a consecutive lesion — an ulcer. Its 
color is light red; it is of irregularly oval shape. It is deep seated and the 
base is reddened and firm. The floor is neither worm-eaten nor smooth, ex- 
cept in the centre where it is smooth and glazed; the edges are everted; it 
never bleeds, which is somewhat unusual. The secretion is sero-purulent, 
and the odor is very offensive and almost characteristic of the disease. Its 
evolution is from sound skin. The diagnosis is epithelioma. Treatment, ex- 
tirpation . 

Case II. Woman twenty-five years old; always been pretty well. Pres- 
ent trouble began fifteen years ago. Has been, at intervals entirely free from 
the disease, the intervals of freedom lasting sometimes 'three or four months. 
It began behind the left ear in something looking like a ringworm, and in 
three days had spread over the face The woman does housework. In her 
own words the lesions "fill with water, and then it peels." It burns; it is 
diffuse over posterior part of forearms and on both sides of the face; it is 
chronic. The elementary lesion is a papule; she scratches, gets moisture, 
and a crust forms. On the face there are also macules. The lesions are 
massed and coalescing. There is a tendency to a circular grouping with a 


clearing centre. Some of the legions are sharply defined, but most of them 
are not. Their color is very suggestive of lichen planus, purplish. That on 
the face is clearly not lichen planus. Dr. M. said: "It is possible we have a 
case of lichen planus on the hands, and the irritation there has caused this 
disease on the face. Probably, however, the trouble was originally an ery- 
thema caused by constitutional trouble; this has been aggravated in some way 
until we now have practically an eczema. The treatment will be a protective 
ointment, the Lassar paste. Also bran water for baths." 

Case III. Girl, age seven years. Present trouble since two years old. 
Comes on with considerable regularity every month. Seems to be no accom- 
panying trouble. The lesion this month is on the right side of face. There 
is a reddened area which burns and itches. It is asymetrical, acute; consists 
of small vesicles, in size from pin head to half split pea; the vesicles are firm, 
don't break easily, not very tense, filled with a serous fluid, and have areola 
of reddened tissue about them. There is a little tendency to purulency. It 
is a case of herpes simplex. Herpes zoster is ruled out by the repeated at- 
tacks. The treatment will be to avoid rupture of the vesicles, a dusting with 
simple dusting powder, or protection with a soft plaster, or with Lassar 
paste. An effort will be mar J to overcome the tendency to recurrence. Tne 
child must be well and cajrefulty nourished, and she must be rendered less 
susceptible to weather changes by a daily morning sponge bath with cold 

Oct. 27, '98. 

Cases I and II. Boys, one sixteen the other eleven years old. Brothers. 
Have had the disease four weeks. Appeared first on the face as "water 
blisters." The discharge is irritating to the surrounding surface. The 
lesions spread quite rapidly over the face and neck. The initial appearance 
is a vesicle with a serous exudate and a tendency to pustulation. These 
vesicles are easy to rupture. The general health is good. There is a slight 
rise in temperature . The lesions itch, are localized, are symmetrical, acute, 
elementary and multiform. They are first isolated, then coalescing with ir- 
regular grouping. Their definition is poor. They are elevated; color, red, 
base red and infiltrated, apex fiat. The pustules are transitory, the crust 
forms, falls off, and leaves a temporary stain . Their involution is really by 
dessication. The pustule is pea size, and the color of the crust a dirty brown; 
it is friable, thin, and its attachment is slight. The surface beneath, when 
one is removed, shows a suppurating surface. The diagnosis is impetigo 
contagiosa. The treatment consists of the mineral acids, quinine for a short 
time, cleansing and disinfection of the surface, and then a protective salve or 
dressing; the white precipitate ointment is very good. 

Case III. Girl eight years old. Family history good. Has always been 
well. Habits regular; the mother says the child is bathed all over at least 
once a week. Good appetite. Ten days ago the trouble began; the cause 
was unknown. It appeared on the neck and in the occipital region as little 
red spots. These have been steadily spreading until the area reaches almost 
to the middle of the spine. The evolution is macule, papule, vesicle, pustule. 
These run together and a crust forms. There is intolerable itching. The 


mother has been using vaseline and Cuticura salve. The diagnosis is easily 
made, as pediculi are found as well as their ova. The irritation and scratching 
have produced the eczematous condition. For treatment use crude petroleum, 
borax water or alcohol . The first is the most effective. For the eczema use 
the bran bath and Lassar paste. 

Case IV. Man, age forty-five years; unmarried; good family history. 
Eighteen years ago he had two soft chancres and a bubo. Present skin dis- 
ease began two months ago as an eruption over the eye, which spread to be- 
hind the ears and over the back. General health good, only he is dizzy on 
arising in the morning. Has been taking mercury and iodide of potassium. 
The lesions are dull red, itch slightly, are symmetrical, are crusted papules 
and tubercles. 

At this point, owing to a very unfortunate occurrence, the examination 
was stopped. 

By A Student. 

Tell me not in scientific 

Pages, such a tale as this, 
That diseases most terrific 

Gain diffusion by a kiss. 

Kissing's real, ah, kissing's earnest, 
Though the vile bacillus lurk 

In the kiss that thou returnest, 
Trust me, Damon will not shirk. 

Vain the doctor's adjuration, 

Phyllis lightly to me trips: 
If there's death in osculation 

Let me take it from thy lips . 

When a merry maiden fair is 

Medical advice decline, 
Let her sweet orbicularis 

Oris lightly resb on thine. 

Yet, since kissing surely pleases, 

We, by iEsculapian art, 
Can prognosticate diseases, 

Soft affections of the heart. 

Kissing is by nature taught us, 

Kiss the girls, then, when they come, 

Tho' a kiss be, oide Plantus, 
Archerontis pabulum. 

By Harlan Page, M. D., Warren, Ohio. 

The three following cases presenting themselves as they did at my office 
during the same week, and two at least being rather unusual, seem to me to 
have some points at least worthy of mention. 

Case I. Mr. M. , age 67, merchant, called me into his place of business 
to pass judgment on a symmetrical fluctuating tumor over the olecranon pro- 
cess of the right arm which he had just discovered. He could give me no 
idea as to length of time it had been there, neither could he recall the receipt 
of any injury. There was no tenderness, pain, discoloration or impairment 
of motion. Family history negative, but he was of a rheumatic diathesis. My 
diagnosis was that of a serous effusion into the bursa. I prescribed the free 
use of Liq. Plumbi Subacetatis Dilutum, together with slight pressure ap- 
plied by means of roller bandage. Three days later, there being no evident 
improvement, I aspirated drawing off some 2 ounces of decidedly bloody 
serum, applied antiseptic dressing which I held in place by means of roller 
bandage so applied as to secure equable pressure . There was a slight re- 
currence followed in a day or two by entire subsidence of swelling. 

Case II. Mr. S,, age 65, gentleman of leisure, and of a rheumatic dia- 
thesis, came to my office on account of a recently discovered fluctuating 
tumor over the olecranon process of the right arm. He could recall no injury 
while pain, tenderness, and discoloration were conspicuously absent except 
at a point where he had endeavored to incise the sac himself. Profiting by 
my recent experience I aspirated at once and was rewarded with about 2 
ounces of what appeared to be venous blood slightly disorganized. The arm 
was dressed as in the former case. There was slight recurrence followed by 
entire subsidence of swelling. 

Case III. Mr. F. , age 37, laborer, presented himself for treatment of 
what he supposed to be rheumatism, located in the right knee. He had been 
suffering for two weeks but had continued to work, finding some relief in do- 
mestic liniments. His family history was negative but he had suffered from 
numerous attacks of rheumatism. I found a small fluctuating tumor irregular 
in outline one-half inch above the upper border of the patella, the leg be- 
ing extended. It was painful to touch and there was considerable redness of 
skin together with marked local rise of temperature. My diagnosis was that 
of acute bursites with effusion. Absolute rest of the part was enjoined 
and a local application of lead water and laudanum prescribed. This treat- 
ment was continued for about a week with slight improvement, Ichthyol 
was next employed with negative results. This was followed by the appli- 
cation of blisters repeated with sufficient frequency to secure a continuous 
counter-irritant effect. His progress from this on was uninterrupted al- 


though his recovery was not complete for nearly four weeks after I first saw 

The points of interest to me in the first two cases were the excessive size 
of the tumors, the painlessness, the inability to assign an injury as the 
cause. The rapid and complete absorption of the second effusion following the 
aspiration and the character of the fluid. I find in the literature of this sub- 
ject cases cited in which the symptoms were quite like those in these cases, 
but which were treated by free incision with the expectation of finding pus. 
This makes the diagnosis of these hemorrhagic and serous effusions of much 
more importance, for in the one case aspiration will give perfect results while 
if not aspirated there will remain at least the "melon seed" bodies the presence 
of which I believe to be the cause of repeated attacks of effusion as often oc- 
curs. And on the other hand where pus really exists free incision and drain- 
age is imperative . Why should not the diagnostic power of the hypodermic 
be invoked in all such cases? 

The points in regard to the third case are dangers of self treatment "for 
rheumatiz," in cases of pain around joints, and the value of continued counter- 
irritation in the stimulation of absorption of serous fluids. 

It has been suggested by one of the faculty, and the suggestion is ap- 
proved by most of the students, that a bulletin-board be placed in some prom- 
inent place in the hall of our college, to be used as a students' directory, each 
student placing his name and address thereon. This would be of direct benefit 
to all alike — students and friends who may wish to visit, and come here not 
knowing where to find them, There would be but little expense connected 
with this. There is plenty of space; the students attend to it personally, thus 
putting no more work upon our gentlemanly clerk. As a suggestion to the 
ideal, we would recommend the plan pursued in the Chicago Theological Sem- 
inary on Ashland boulevard, near Madison street. Their board has spaces 
arranged in regular order, large enough to slip in a small card, with name and 
address of the student . ■ 


Editor of Corpuscle: 

There is one point in the treatment of some cases of facial neuralgia that 
seems to be often overlooked, not merely by the young practitioners, but by 
the older ones as well. A case that has come under my observation recently 
suggested the idea of this letter to you on the subject. 

This case will fully illustrate my point. The patient, a lady of 40 years, 
suffered from neuralgic pains shooting along the horizontal surface of the in- 
ferior maxillary bone from the mental foramen to the ramus. No relief being 
received from ordinary treatment, and the pains becoming almost unbearable, 
the patient now in a serious nervous condition was removed to a sanitarium. 
Pain now began to be felt in the second bicuspid tooth, and it was removed in 
hope of relief, but the neuralgia was not bettered. A consultation of physi- 
cians decided that her only hope for relief was in the removal of a portion of 
the nerve. The operation was being planned when the dentist, who had been 
called to extract the bicuspid tooth, heard of it, and volunteered to the physi- 
cians the advice of removing another tooth, with hope of relief. The physi- 
cians, however, held to their opinions, as before expressed, and objected to 
the extraction of any teeth which were not troublesome. The tooth suggested 
by the dentist was the third molar tooth of that side, one which had been filled 
some months before, but which had given no trouble since. The patient, when 
informed of the dentist's suggestion, insisted on having the tooth extracted, 
despite the physicians' protests, and the operation was performed. The result 
was that the pain speedily left the woman, and although this happened over a 
year ago has not occurred since. 

Now this neuralgia was what dentists call "bicuspid pain," and it is caused 
by inflammation of the inferior dental nerve, which causes a pressure on the 
walls of the mental foramen and the consequent pain. When the molar tooth 
was extracted it was broken open and in it was found a small, independent, 
bony growth in the bulbous portion of the nerve known as incementosis, or 
"pulp nodgel." This condition of a tooth invariably produces a neuralgia like 
the one described. The bony growths may lie in one or many teeth. I have 
seen cases where there were five. There is often no sure guide to the teeth 
so affected, they being in general those that are most decayed, and the rule be- 
ing that where one tooth is so affected others are apt to be, 

It is not my purpose to discuss why these "pulp nodgels" in apparently 
sound and healthy teeth should cause an inflammation and foreign pain. I wish 
merely to point out to you in what a simple manner a terrible neuralgia may 
be cured. Take the case I cited of the poor woman who suffered agonies for 
months and was about to be subjected to the surgeon's knife! Remember 
the lesson the dentist taught her physicians. 

November 22nd, 1893. J. g, B. 



Although the ancient Arabs were celebrated for their knowledge, the 
"Osmaulis" have only of late years made any advances in the study of medi- 
cine . They are most credulous and superstitious in their notions upon this 
subject, and ready to follow the advice of any empiric in the healing art. 
They seem to know two diseases among themselves: one they call gelinjic and 
the other yelanjik. The first is used in "comprehensive universality," and 
signifies almost any ailment; the second is applied to erysipelas and ner- 
vous pain in the face. The art of curing gelinjik has long been possessed by 
a single family and descends in hereditary succession from one to another of 
its members. There is a certain Meriem Kadin of this profession who once 
had the good fortune to cure one of the sultans of Turkey with some of the 
mysterious reel nectar, which is the principal medicine administered for this 
malady. But the famous Yilanjikjee (the doctor of erysipelas) has a far more 
famed reputation. A particular class of Emirs, or the descendants of Fatima, 
the daughter of Mahommed, are supposed to possess the virtue of healing the 
nervous diseases of the face. They wear green turbans, repeat certain pray- 
ers over the patient, and are supposed to possess a charm in their fingers' 
ends. The emir lays his thumb on his nose, breathes upon the extended fin- 
gers, then lays the thumb upon the forehead of the patient and the fingers 
upon the troublesome nerve, uttering a short prayer meantime . Thus he oft- 
en succeeds in dispelling the malady in a few minutes, whether by his own 
medical skill or by the credulity of his superstitious patient. Strange to say, 
they believe that, when a cure is not effected it is not because of the inefficien- 
cy of the charmed 'fingers, but because the disease was not genuine yilanjik. 

An upholsterer, once exceedingly ill of typhus fever, called in one of 
those medical gentlemen of whom there is no scarcity in Turkey, who, al- 
though he considered the case quite hopeless, prescribed for his patient and 
took his leave. The next day, in passing by, he inquired of a servant at the 
door if his master was not dead. "Dead!" exclaimed the servant, "no, he is 
much better." Whereupon the doctor proceeded up-stairs to obtain the solu- 
tion of this miracle, "Why," said the convalescent, " I was consumed with 
thirst and drank a pailful of the juice of a pickled cabbage." "Wonderful!" 
said the doctor, and soon after, when called to another typhus patient, he 
forthwith prescribed "a pailful of pickled cabbage juice." On calling the next 
day to congratulate his patient upon his recovery he was astonished to be told 
the man was dead ! The doctor duly noted in his memoranda that although in 
cases of typhus fever pickled cabbage juice is a very efficient remedy, it is not 
to be used unless the patient be by profession an upholsterer!" 

Fortunately this branch of the science is making progress in Turkey year 
by year. At present there are many regular graduates practising, especially 
among the soldiers. 


At a recent meeting of the Faculty the following resolution was passed : 
"That the Faculty of Rush Medical College instruct their representative 
at the next meeting of the American Medical College Association to present a 
resolution requiring all students who enter medical colleges during and after 
the year 1895 to attend four courses of lectures of not less than six months 
each; with the provision that graduates in the department of arts and sciences 
from high grade colleges and universities be allowed to enter the second year 
of such a course and be graduated in medicine at the end of three years." 

Some of the medical colleges in this association have already adopted a 
four years' course with more or less rigid rules governing its pursuance, our 
own catalogue showing such a provision . But the American Medical College 
Association has about one hundred and thirty colleges in its membership and 
the general adoption of the resolution above given would be a radical move. 
No one, however, can doubt the result of the move, that it would, at least in 
part, solve the problem every medical society and legislature periodically dis- 
cusses, that it would do much to determine who shall and who shall not prac- 
tise medicine. The friends of Rush are proud to have her introduce this 
motion, it is significant to have our college take a stand of prominence among 
those colleges whose goal is thorough preparation and not shekels. 

We are glad, too, that the Faculty announce the arrangement of three 
new practical courses, which will be taken up next term. 

One in the art of Opthalmoscopy, under the supervision of President 
Holmes; one in the art of Laryngoscopy, under the supervision of Professor 
Ingals; one in Bandaging and Surgical Appliances, under the supervision of 
Professor Senn. 

Hereafter the three classes in college will be officially designated as 
Freshmen, Middlers and Seniors. When the new four years' course is adopt- 
ed the classes will be named as in literary colleges; Freshmen, Sophomores, 
Juniors and Seniors. 


The little volume by Dr. A. C. Corwin, demonstrator of physical diag- 
nosis at Rush, and attending physician to the Central and Bethesda dispensa- 
ries, has just been reviewed. The book is an admirable one in its way. It 
condenses and puts in concise and business-like form the subject of physical 
diagnosis . In this day and age we should be grateful to anyone who can give 
us the same amount of a subject in less time than has usually been taken for 
that subject. It is not only valuable for the student, but should be so for the 
young practitioner who has not fastened securely to all the methods of physi- 
cal diagnosis. Dr. Corwin has also simplified the old, and produced from it a 
new stethoscope with a particularly desirable feature — that of taking less 
room in the pocket than any other binaural stethoscope . It also introduces 
less auto-stethoscopic sounds than any we have ever seen. Both the book 
and stethoscope are of very low price, and the Rush student will do well to 
possess them. 


Dr. Edward Bailey, '85, is taking in some of the clinics preparatory to go- 
ing to China, where he will conduct a hospital for the United States govern- 
ment. Since leaving Rush he has held a government position. He will be 

remembered as ''instrument hander," for Prof. Gunn. 

* * 


But here is one that can almost say "In the beginning." Chas. G, 
Garrett, M, D., '49, Calvert, Texas. The doctor is local surgeon for the H, 
and T, C. R. R. - 

* * 
Arthur Young, M. D., '53, Prescott, Wis. 

■a- -if 

Dr, H. C. Worthington, '82, Oak Park, 111. 

* * 

Frank C. Wiser, M. D., '91, Falls City, Neb. 

* * 

H. J. Warmuth, M. D., '68, Smyrna, Tenn. 

R. M. Wigginton, M. D., '68, Waukesha, Wis. 

"I am yours for 'Old Rush.' " C. A. White, M. D., Danville, Ind. 

Here it is again! "If this Corpuscle carries oxygen in proportion to the 
circulatory system through which it courses— all Rush Alumni— new life will 


be enthused into the supporters of old Rush that will cause her to tear down 
her walls and build greater. J. F. Myers, M D., '83, Rock Island, 111. 


Dr, Jacob May, '76, Bridgeport, Ct. 

J. P. McMahon, M. D., '83, Peoria, 111. 

Dr. F. J. Mittan, '91, Colfax, 111. 

Dr. Franklin Miles, '74, 1315 Masonic Temple, Chicago. 

Dr. G. H. McAllister, 92, Avoca, Wis. 

W. B. Martin, M. D. '88, Cable, 111. 

Thos. Moeller, M. D., 1007 Masonic Temple, Chicago, says he has taken 
The Corpuscle from its initial appearance. 

"Long live The Corpuscle." M. S. McGauran, '88, Lawrence, Mass. . 

Dr. E. B. Hutchinson, '89, is permanently located at Fifty-fifth street and 
Monroe avenue. 

Dr. F. M. Jay, former Presbyterian Hospital Interne, later registrar at 
Cook County hospital, is one of the new demonstrators of anatomy. The doc- 
tor is elaborating a work on the anomolies found in anatomical research. He 
finds many curious and funny things, and always has his gun— otherwise his 
pencil — along with him to shoot them. 

* -x- 


Dr. D. G. Hoxie, '93, writes-that his "sign may be heard creaking in the 

breezes that sweeps through Belmond, Iowa." 

* * 


Dr. E.N. Sartelle, '93, is practicing in Marathon City, Wis. 

* * 

Dr. W. N. Keener, '85, of Jamesporfc, Missouri, is one of the alumni who 

have visited the new laboratory building and expressed their admiration for 

everything, from the dissecting, room to the basement. 

* * 


Dr. Hoyt, of the class of '83, may be seen on "practitioners' row" at all' 
of the more important clinics. He expects to be in Chicago most of the win- 
ter, meantime holding a good practice in Kansas, to which he later returns. 

Dr. M, Brainard Keegan, '93, writes from Bloomington, Indiana, that he 
has made a very encouraging start. 

■X- -x- 


S. C. White, M. D, '69, Sandwich, 111. 

Another member of '49. J. H. Warren, M. D. 324 Prospect Ave., Mil- 
waukee, Wis. 


Dr. W E. Williams, '89, Cambria, Wis., wonders if the Alumni Associa- 
tion could not adopt a monogram or coat of arms to be used by the members 
on their stationery. 


Dr. T. N. Wear, 78, Fargo, N. Dak. 

J. G. Truax, M, D., 73, No. 17 E. 127th St,, New York. 

H. W. Thayer, M. D. '86, Corry, Penn. "Please send me The Corpus- 
cle early and regularly," 

J. B. Trowbridge, M. D., '92, Haywood, Wis. 

Dr. William Treacy, 77, Helena, Mont. 


Dr. John W. Trueworthy, "65, Los Angeles, Cal. 

* IS- 

Dr. G. L. Smith, 79, Jefferson, Wis. 

Dr. A. F. Snyder, '84, Baraboo, Wis. 

A, H. Stephani, M. D., '86, 318 N. Robey St., Chicago. 

R, G. Sayles, M. D., Hale's Corners, Wis. 

Dr. P. Schmitz,'91, Lenore, 111, 

Dr. C. E. Steadman, '66, Junction City. Kan. 

C. C. Smead, M. D., '85, Sully, Iowa. 

Dr. W. P. Sherman, '89, West Pullman, 111. 

Dr. G. F. Schreiber, 75, May wood, 111. 


Dr. E. J. Smith, 72, Harlan, Iowa. 

Dr. S. Smith, '69, Emporium, Pa. 

"Yours Truly," J. N. D. Shiukel, '85, Friars Point, Miss. 

"Some day I hope to meet with the boys of Rush as one of them." Dr. 

C. C. Sprague, '69. Pierce, S. Dakota. 

* * 

Dr. T. Sprague, Sheffield, 111., class of 70. 

* * 

Class of 77, Dr. A. B. Royal. Americus, Kas. 

Dr. Chas. F. Ross, '81, Saunemin, 111. 


We clip the following from an Edwardsville, Illinois paper, which refers 
to a member of the class of '93. "Dr. A, B. McKee is assisting Dr. Jos. 
Pogne, and will occupy a room in the new addition to the office. Dr. McKee 
will make a specialty of diseases of the eye, ear and throat. He is in Chicago 
this week buying necessary apparatus and appliances." 

Dr. H. J. Gahagan, '93, physician at the Elgin Insane Asylum, was tell- 
ing the boys of some things he has met in his short career as a professional 
man, when he revisited Rush a few weeks ago. 

The Port Wayne News in a sketch of Dr. James M. Dunnen, 79, of that 
city: ' ; He is medical referee for northern Indiana for the Mutual Life Insur- 
ance company, of New York; chief surgeon western division New York, Chi- 
cago & St. Louis railroad, surgeon Lake Shore & Michigan Southern and the 
Lake Erie & Western railroads. Also physician and surgeon to St. Joseph 
hospital and secretary of the National Association of Railway Surgeons." 

Everyone remembers E. E. Morgan, '93, and will be pleased to hear that 

he is doing himself justice by building up a mighty practice at Port Wayne, 


Dr. A. D. Kimball, '61, surgeon Marion Branch National Home for dis- 
abled volunteer soldiers, Marion Ind, 

Leslie E. Keeley, M. D., Dwight, 111., of Gold Cure fame, sends in his 

subscription to The Corpuscle. 

■x- * 

How is this, which is an extract from a letter to Dr. Rhodes. — ki It is cer- 
tainly the wish of every Alumnus to see Old Rush ride prosperously on. If 
she ever becomes half so proud of me as I am of her, there will be a great 
man in my neighborhood. I am glad of her energy as manifested in The 
Corpuscle, which I took one year, forgot to pay for it the next, and the 
management evidently would not trust me so it failed to reach me last year. 
While at the World's Pair I went to the publisher, paid my little doNar for 
present year, and left word that if I should be hibernating next pay day to 
send it C. O. D. if need be, but to send it anyway."' — Dr. Clem D. McCoy. '90, 
Kenton, Ohio. 

Class of '80. W. E. Harwood. M. D., Soudan, Minn., Surgeon of the 
Minnesota Iron Co. 


W. H. Lane, M. D., '89, Angola, Ind! 


-X- -X- 

L. L. Leeds, M. D., Lincoln, 111. 

-X- # 


Dr. G. D. Ladd, 75, Milwaukee, Wis. 

-X- -X- 


Dr. J. A. Rawlins, '88, Bassett, Iowa. 


O. J. Raskolin, M. D., '82, Peoria, 111. 


■K- -K 

Dr. J. Quam, '91, Deerfield, Wis. 

"Class of '89, |1 enclosed. In haste, " D. W. E. Putnam, Whiting, Ind. 

Dr. C. E. Price, '93. Eaton, 111. 


Dr. C: R. Pickering, '93, Michigan City, Ind. 
Dr. F. J. Perry. '92, Fort Atkinson, Wis. 
Dr. C. F. Phillips. '88, Stevens Point, Wis. 


W. K. Newcomb, M. D., '82, Fisher, 111. ' T am in hearty accord with your 
efforts to develop the organization of the Alumni." 

Prof. J. P. Lord, *82. chair of the Principles and Practice of Surgery, 
Creighton Medical College, Omaha, Neb. 

Another member of '68, T. C. Kimball, M. D.. Marion, Ind. His son, G. 

D. Kimball. '92, is at Memphis, Tenn. 

"I have been well pleased with The Corpuscle so far." J. F. Keefer, 

M. D., '81, Sterling, 111. 

* * 

; The memory of 'Uncle Jim, ' Rea, Gunn, Parkes and Miller ever exists . 
Fraternally yours, C H. Hamilton, M. D., 73, Dubuque, Iowa. 

Dr. N. E. Mighell, '85, located at Marshalltown, Iowa, was seen in our 

halls last week. 

* ■«• 

Red Wing, Minn.; Class of '84. N. Juell, M. D. 

* * 

W. L. Johnson, M. D., '68, Saratoga, Wyoming. J. B. Moore, M. D,, '68, 
Kokomo, Ind. H. C. Grinnell, M. D., '68, Markle. Ind. Dr. Henrotin, of 
Chicago, who is not a stranger to the present Rush students, was also a mem- 
ber of '68. 

* r. 

J. H. Junge, M. D., .'91, 2401 Walnut St.. Milwaukee, Wis, 

G. W. Kittell, M. D., '56, Avon Park, Florida. 

"Count me in at the revival of the Alumni Association ana send me The 
Corpuscle," M. L. Hildreth, M. D., '80, Lyons. Neb. 

* ' -:f 

Dr. Don S. Harvey, '91, So. Chicago, 111. 


One of the Faculty told his class the other day that Prof, Etheridge per- 
formed more laparotomies last year than any other surgeon in America. 

No smoking in the chemical laboratory either — whew! We wonder if the 
faculty object to our chewing gum on Wood street, near the college. 

The Lake Forest University Foot-Ball team had heard of the brawny ex- 
players in Rush, and came to the college recently to fill up weak places in 
their team. If pathology lessons were in vogue at Lake Forest they would 
understand why Rush didn't help them out. We have in college good mate- 
rial from many western and eastern institutions, but we also have pathology 

We saw a physician's card the other day that proved loyalty to Rush. It 



Grand old Rush, '54. 

A man has but one evening in which to study pathology. The lesson as- 
signed is forty pages long. If he gets his lesson it takes him all night, and 
he is no good next morning. If he does not get his lesson he is also no good 
next morning. Hence pathology recitations are bound to be a failure. 

Q. E. D. 

* -x- 


The latest catalogue of the University of Pennsylvania shows an enroll- 
ment in the medical department of eight hundred and forty-seven students. 

Oh! Moiris E. K., 

With those whiskers so J, 

Your appearance is tiresome to C, 
Oh! may U B Y's, 
And now open yourl's 

To the fact that sans barde you should B. 

Who has a tintype? Beyer. 

-X- * 

The Middlers appreciate the fact that they are being favored with a supe 
rior course in medical jurisprudence. 


The giee club which was started some time ago by the middle class is 
holding regular weekly rehearsals and is proving a great success. The club 
consists at present of twenty members, five on each of the four parts; and the 
voices balance the parts and harmonize remarkably well. It is hoped by the 
college that the club can flourish and maintain a high standard, for there are 
many college occasions where glee club music is most desirable. The follow- 
ing are its officers: 

President, F. J. Huizenga, Leader, A. T. Holbrook. 

Secretary, A. E. Bertling. Treasurer. T. J. Williams. 

■ They say with faith all may be saved, 
But we can see no hope 
For the man in the dissecting-room 
Who stole the toilet soap. 

Perhaps you may recognise this: 

"Good morning, what nerve is that? — what? Gray doesn't say so — what 
is Von Armenstenier's operation for ligating the cutaneous branches of the 
popliteal artery? — what? that's very important — don't you know you are 
wasting time? — you just slash away and — what's that vessel? — what? Gray 
doesn't say so." 

No more we gamble for what's left 

Of our dissected stiffs; 
No more we scent our boarding-house 

With "dried cadaver" whiffs; 
No more we boil or bury them — 

For with emphatic tones 
The 'demonstrator has announced 

" The college keeps the hours!''' 

Perhaps you may have noticed that there was no Noyes about the college 
a few days ago. It was oppressively still. Noyes and Outhet had merely tak- 
en a Cruse up the lake to a neighboring town. It is reported that on reaching 
there they left the cruiser in dry-clock No. 20 and went out by themselves to 
places that were not dry, where they could watch the "schooners cross the 


Prof. Dodson has devised a plan which, if the students carry it out, will 
give us a collection in the anatomical museum that will soon become interest- 
ing and valuable. He desires every student in the dissecting-room to care- 
fully note any anomolous conditions found in their subjects, write a descrip- 
tion of the same, and remove the part in such a way that it can be preserved 
for the museum. Considering the vast amount of material which is used in 
Rush every year we have advantages here for gaining such a collection thai 


are excelled in only a single instance in the United States, The collection will 
be carefully catalogued and described as specimens are received. 

Mr. John Outhet has resigned his position as a member of the Pulse 
board, and Mr. A. W. Rogers has been elected to an editorship. 

The Pulse management makes the following announcement: 

Two prizes of considerable value will be offered by the board for the best 
two poems on any subject of peculiar interest to medical students. 

The poems are not to exceed thirty lines in length. 

They are to be deposited in the Pulse boxes in sealed envelopes, and un- 
signed; the author's name to be deposited in another sealed envelope enclosed 
with the poem in the first envelope. 

Poems already received by the board will be entered in the competition. 

One student may enter as many poems as he desires. 

The date of closing the competition will be posted above the boxes for a 
week preceding the date . 

These conditions and the nature of the prizes will be posted over the 
Pulse boxes in the new and old buildings. 

The Pulse management also makes the following requests: 

1. That students having Rush men for preceptors deposit in the Pulse 
boxes the names, addresses, and classes of their preceptors, signing their own 
names to the same. 

2. That students deposit in the boxes the names, addresses, and classes 
of any very aged Rush men of whom they may know, or any other informa- 
tion that will lead to the discovery of our oldest alumnus in class or in years. 

* * 

Lost, Strayed or Stolen: One full-grown, able-bodied, adult Crowe. An- 
swers the name of Tom. When last seen wore a blue emigrant cap, a loud 
striped shirt, and a smile that buckled behind. The Crowe is of the English 
variety, and flies high. A liberal reward will be paid for his return, dead or 
intoxicated, to No. 237 South Leavitt street. 

We are glad to have "Billy" McKenna. '95, back again. 

The member of the "consulting staff' was somewhat rattled when he said 
the patient was sick ten months last winter. 

A d. j. is now a Freshman; but when the senior was a d. j. he was a D. J. 

For preponderance of cheek ex-Columbian Guard Baker surely should re- 
ceive the highest honors. 


* * 

If you don't understand how to take a hot-air bath ask some of the boys. 

* * 
Adolph vs. Sheeny. 

Rounds one. 

For further particulars enquire of Adolph . 

Gives Desired Results in the Crises of Locomotor Ataxia, Neuralgia, 
Sciatica, Rheumatism, Pneumonia, Menstrual Neuroses, Typhoid and 


"The doctor has the highest and best right 
Send to The Antikamnia Chemical to insist that no worthless substitute be im- 
Company, St. Louis, Mo., for Sample £,. posed upon his defenseless patient. He knows 
Mah F n in "vf9t Popkft Roy frff <5pppify * the specific effect of the genuine drug and 
mailed in Vest Pocket Box, Free. SPECIFY knows equally well it cannot be successfully 
Antikamnia (genuine) on your Prescriptions. imitated."— Courier of Medicine. 



Recommended by the Faculty. 

By Horatio R. Bigelow and over thirty eminent specialists. In one volume, 

900 pages. 


By N. Senn. 


By the same author. 

The author's professional standing is sufficient recommendation for these 

two books. 

In two volumes; over 1000 pages. With especial reference to the clinical ap- 
plication of drugs. 
The latest and most complete work out on the new drugs and the newer com- 
bination of old drugs prominently in use. 
First American translation of the great German work by Von Krafrt-Ebing 
on sexual preversion, Read it. 
These and all other of the publications of Tr;e F fl- DAVIS CO., can be 
had by sending to their western office, 



Advertising- Notices. 



The season of pneumonia, typhoid, bronchitis, also the recurring epidemic of influenza, 
while not so malignant as its predecessor, la grippe, still makes apropos an extract from The 
Medical Summary. It says in speaking of the action of antikamnia: 

"This drug has a well-earned character as an analgesic. It is one of the few among the 
many claimants for favor that have successfully stood the test of experience. In a case of 
acute poly-articular rheumatism prominently affecting both knees, where there was great 
swelling and exquisite tenderness of the articulations, two ten-grain doses at an interval of 
an hour procured almost complete relief, followed by several hours of restful sleep. This 
was the more remarkable as after one or two more doses there was comparatively little pain 
experienced to the close of the attack. For the relief of nervous headache, hemicrania, men- 
strual neuroses and neuralgias in general, it cannot be over-praised. In the prevailing epi- 
demic of la grippe its usefulness as a pain-reliever and composer of the perturbed nervous 
forces is unsurpassed. It has become indispensable, and doubtless there is not a physician 
acquainted with its decisive action who could be induced to dispense with it. Five or ten 
grains as a commencing dose, then two, three or five grains every three or five hours, will re- 
lieve the severest cases, in a few hours causing the splitting cephalalgia, lumbar and general 
muscular pains and nervous disquietude to vanish. On the whole it abates the fever and 
subdues the whole assemblage of perturbed activities that distinguish la grippe as no other 
agent, or combination of agents, has ever done, producing not a single unpleasant symptom 
and leaving no sequelae. Quinine checks ague, digitalis energizes the drooping heart, ergot 
promotes uterine contraction, but their action is no more nearly specific than is that of anti- 
kamnia in its sphere of usefulness." In line with and supplementary to the foregoing, Hugo 
Engel, A. M., M. D., late Lecturer on Electro-Therapeutics Jefferson Medical College, Pro- 
fessor of Nervous Diseases and Clinical Medicine Med. Chir. College, and Consultant in 
Nervous Diseases at St. Joseph's Hospital, Philadelphia, says: '"The remedy has become a 
favorite with many members of the profession, It is very reliable in all kinds of pain, and as 
quickly acting as a hypodermic injection of morphia. It is used only internally. To stop pain 
five grains are administered at once; three minutes later the same dose is repeated, and, if 
necessary, a third dose given three minutes after the second. If ten minutes after the third 
dose the remedy has had a decided effect, but a little of the pain be remaining, a fourth dose 
of gr. v may then be administered. In 92 per cent of all cases it immediately stops the pain 
The following is an excellent prescription in la grippe and painful bronchial catarrh. 

I£ Antikamnia (Genuine) 3 ij 

Mist. Glycyrrh, Comp 1 iij 

F, E. Rad. Glycyrrh. . 3 ij 

Vini Rubri Gall q. s. ft. 1 vj 

M Sig. — Two teaspoonfuls every three hours. 
For whooping-cough in a child four years old: 

I£ Antikamnia, (Genuine) gr. xxxvj 

Divide in chart, No. xij. 

Sig. — At night, one powder eveiy fifteen minutes until three have been 
taken. Administer in dilute claret, or port or sherry wine. 

As an antipyretic from gr. v to gr. x should be given every ten minutes until the temper- 
ature has been reduced, or 40 to 50 grains have been taken, when the same dose is repeated 
at longer intervals, until the desired effect is obtained." 

i 5 Fl. Ext, Ergot (Squibbs). . . .Ij. 

For Menorrhagia (Chronic( < Tr, Cinnamonii ....... - 3 i j . 

( Dioviburnia ad oxij. 

M> Sig, Dessertspoonful three or four times daily. 
For Hysteria from Menstrual Derangements. \ ty Dioviburnia, 

( Neurosine aa §iv. 

M, Sis. Dessertspoonful as required. 

Returned to First Principles, — Prof. Lister, Father of Antiseptic Surgery, after 
i hordughly trying all of the known antiseptics, has returned to carbolic acid as the only true 
antiseptic; wnich makes it evident that the Phenique preparations prepared by the Phenique 
Chemical Co. of St, Louis are without a rival in surgery; each possessing their own peculiar 
fields and advantages, and arc rid of the rank and objectionable oder of the natural acids. 

PBXDKEieSOR. I3i\Kinil K. BR(DYv 7 MR. 



VOL. 3. JANUARY, NO. 4. 


A. T. HOLBROOK, '95, President. 

W. D. CALVIN. '95, Secretary. C. A. ALLENBURGER, '95, Treasnrer. 

E. M. ECKARD, '96. A. O. GIRARD, '96. 

S. T. HART, Business Manager, 334 Dearborn Street 

Membership in the Alumni Association of Rush Medical, College is obtainable at any time by 
graduates of the College, providing they are in good standing in the profession, and shall pay the i annual 
dues, f 1.00. This fee includes a subscription to The Corpuscle for the current year. This journal is the 
official organ of the Association. 

Dues and all communications relating to the Association should be sent to 

JOHN EDWIN RHODES, M. D., Sec'y and Treas., 34 Washington St., Chicago 

College Anniversaries— 

Doctorate Sermon, Sunday, May 20th, 1894. 

Special Clinics and Class- Day Exercises, Monday, May 21st, 1894. 

Scientific Meeting of the Alumni Association, 10 A. M. and 2 P. M., Tuesday, May 22nd, 1894. 

Business Meeting of the Alumni Association, 10 A. M., Wednesday, May 23rd, 1894. 

Annual Commencement 2 P. M. Alumni Banquet 7:30 P. M. 

Ruby Red and Black: Colors of Lake Forest University. Yellow: Color of Rush Medical College. 


With this issue of The Corpuscle the reorganized administration for 
the new year takes control of the journal, the senior editors withdrawing and 
leaving the management in the hands of the underclassmen, Mr. Center and 
Mr. Ross in retiring from the editorial staff, leave a journal far superior to 
the one on which they began their work two years ago; and that this im- 
provement is largely due to their personal efforts is a fact that makes all 
Rush men indebted to them. We are pleased to announce the election of two 
members of the Freshman class to positions on the staff, Mr. E, M. Eckard 
and Mr. A. O. Girard. The policy of the journal under the new management 
will remain the same — "devoted to the interests of Rush Medical College, its 
students and alumni" — and we trust we shall merit the co-operation and sup- 
port which have always been accorded The Corpuscle by those whose inte- 
rest we represent. 

People in general are becoming aroused, and are very properly asking 
the question, "why should the, so-considered, innocent dementated individu- 
als be allowed to run at large until they develop into the most vicious class of 


the insane?" One writer has. very truly said, "We might as well have dyna- 
mite about the streets and say it is harmless, as to allow these, so-called, 
harmles insane to go about at large in the community." Too many sad pages 
in history have been caused by this innocent- vicious class. Well, who is to 
blame? That is not an easy question to answer, but one thing is sure, and 
that is that the members of the medical profession have a very responsible 
position to occupy, in as much as no other class of people can so ably judge 
concerning the condition of the mind. If the sins of ommission are as great 
as the sins of commission, that doctor who will knowingly allow adementated 
person in his community to run at large and endanger the life and happiness 
of those around him, commits a sin of omission, if it lies in his power to have 
such a person sent to an insane asylum. Many crimes could thus be prevent- 
ed, nor could it be said of our courts, "You are hanging an insane man." 
Surely the careful study and investigation of phenomena of the mind must 
be both full of interest and profitable to all concerned 

A School of Health for Women has been established upon new and most 
commendable principles at Riverside, Cal. Its object is to fit women for the 
actual duties of life, a training that so many sadly need. We see about us 
every day the evil results of ignorance on the part of the mother as well as 
the daughter. It has been well said that "we provide for the results of such 
ignorance with asylums, hospitals and other institutions of the kind," bufc 
how often we allow ourselves to be blinded by the causes. 

Herbert Spencer was not aware how much good he was doing when he 
incited the founders of this innstitution to action by his words, "Seriously, 
is it not an astonishing fact that through the treatment of offspring depend 
their lives or deaths, and their moral welfare or ruin, yet not one word of in 
struction on the treatment of offspring is ever given to those who will here- 
after be parents. That parents should begin the difficult task of rearing 
children without ever having given a thought to the principles, physical, 
moral or intellectual, which ought to guide them, excites neither surprise at 
the actors or pity for the victims." No person who has ever studied medicine 
can help but realize that a very great amount of unhappiness and pain is the 
direct result of ignorance. To be true this means that just in proportion as 
the people become educated in morals and good common sense will there be 
less work for the doctor. But where is the man who would have others suffer 
for his express benefit? Such a creature would not be of this higher species 
of animals — man — but simply one of a lower — brute. 

Truly it is the duty of the physician to instruct, to prevent- sickness and 
pain as well as to relieve the same. Such is to be the coming physician, and 


such are C. J. Gill, M. D., '66, and E. S. Goodhue, '91, both of Rush, and 
who are members of the faculty of the Riverside school. 

After the libellous newspaper drawings that have appeared in connection 
with the Prendergast trial we are glad to present a likeness of Professor 
Brower that his friends can recognize. Dr. Brower's painstaking and con- 
scientious work for the students at Rush has given them a confidence in him 
that no professional questioning lawyer can shake by any amount of cross- 

The February issue, following our; custom, will present the pictures of 
Mr. Center and Mr. Ross, the retiring senior editoi s. 



Ladies and Gentlemen — Colleagues : — Fifty years-ago this day, 
December 4, 1843, the founder of Rush Medical College delivered to a small 
group of untutored students the introductory address which opened the first 
course of instruction in an infant institution. 

It is not for me to describe at this time the rude village, which Chicago 
then was, nor the college which, it is true, had received its name; yet pos- 
sessed nothing — no habitation, no apparatus, and no means of illustration. It 
was indeed only a phantom of hope. Nay, it did possess rich treasures— the 
abilities and courage of Daniel Brainard and his four colleagues. 

After many years of patient toil, discouragements and disaster, the spa- 
cious edifice in which we now are was completed — seventeen years ago, in the 
centennial year of our national independence. During the past two years the 
Trustees and Faculty, after many anxious deliberations, perfected the plans 
of a new laboratory building, and on last commencement day laid with simple 
ceremony its corner-stone. We are assembled here to-day to dedicate the 
completed edifice- -as we dedicate anew Rush Medical College to the quest of 
knowledge which may relieve suffering and prolong life . 

With gratitude in our hearts for the past prosperity of our school may we 
enter upon these exercises with the prayer that heaven's blessings may con- 
tinue to rest upon it and that teachers and students may labor earnestly for 
the purposes to which we dedicate it. 

The invocation was then uttered by the Rev. Dr. Withrow. 

The following beautiful college hymn was sung by the Rush Glee Club: 

O Fount of Being's sea, 
Forever flowing free, 

The One in all, 
Thou whom no eye e'er saw. 
Indwelling Love and Law, 
To thee we suppliant draw. 

On thee we call ! 

Be consecrate to truth 
In manhood as in youth 

Our growing powers; 
That we may read thy thought 
Nature and Life in- wrought, 
Thy perfect will be taught 

And make it ours! 


Thine image may we own 
In man, creation's crown, 

These temples thine; 
Holy our calling be, 
From bonds of pain to free, 
And bring the liberty 

Of life divine ! 

Thy presence still abide 
Within these walls to guide, 

Inspire and bless; 
Thou who art strong to heal, 
The Christ- like touch reveal, 
And in each spirit seal 

Thy tenderness! Amen. 

P. L. H. 


President Holmes presented the keys of the laboratory to Prof. De Laskie 
Miller, President of the Board of Trustees, with the following words: 

Mr. President:— As senior member of the executive committee to which 
was intrusted the duty of securing the plans and prosecuting the construction 
of the new laboratories, I have the honor of delivering into your custody the 
keys of the laboratories completed. 

It is with extreme satisfaction that I am able to state, in behalf of the 
committee, that this structure, so pleasing to the eye, if not the largest and 
most expensive of its kind in this country, is inferior to none in thoroughness 
of workwanship, in the convenience of its arrangements and in the perfection 
of its equipment. 

The committee take great pride in the fact that the corporation of the col- 
lege have accomplished this work unaided — at a cost of more than $90,000. Of 
this sum more than $60,000 were donated by the faculty, and $31,000 raised by 
sale of bonds. Unaided! did I say? In accordance with the letter it is true; 
and yet in spirit a falsehood. Can any of us forget under what great obliga- 
tions we are for the means to construct this great building — to those few men 
who began this work — to the long roll of their successors who labored faith- 
fully and courageously, and to that larger number of alumni who have ever 
stood, through good fortune and misfortune, loyal to their alma mater? To 
these— to all these— whatever honor we may be permitted to claim, be full 
praise for their faithfulness, which made possible these two edifices which 
stand here face to face; and to them be the praise for the foundations which 
rendered possible the magnificent buildings of the Presbyterian Hospital, 
which adjoins our college so closely. 

Mr. President, may the keys which have been placed in your care never 
cease to open the portals of Rush Medical College to all who will labor earn 
estly in the field of medical science. 

To this address Dr. De Laskie Miller, as President of the Board of Trus- 
tees, responded as follows: 


President Holmes: — In officially receiving the keys of this building it 
is proper for me to say to you, sir, and to the members of the Faculty, that 
this act of yours gives me great pleasure, for it conveys the tokens of an im- 
porl ant work completed, and everyone interested in the prosperity of the 
University, of which Rush constitutes an important part, will unite with me 
in congratulating you on your success. 

Realizing the importance of this building, the Board of Trustees has felt 
an eager interest in the progress of your work, in its construction from its in- 
inception. It was an important work because it was demanded by the scien- 
tific progress of these times. It was important because it was required to ac- 
commodate your students, and I am sure I do not err in saying that the mem- 
bers of the medical profession of the whole country will accept the comple- 
tion of this commodious laboratory as a guarantee of your determination to 
faithfully discharge your duties to all those who seek instruction here. 

And now that this building— beautiful in design and substantial in con- 
struction—has been dedicated to the uses of science and humanity by appro- 
priate exercises, and the blessing of the Supreme Architect of the universe 
has been solemnly invoked upon all work that may be done within its walls — 
by teachers and by learners— here may it stand as an enduring monument to 
the public spirit, the energy and the perseverance of the Faculty of Rush 
Medical College. 

Professor Henry M. Lyman then delivered the dedicatory address: 

This is an epoch-making day. It is the fiftieth anniversary of the day of 
small things — but of events as great in relation to those times as this celebra- 
tion is for to-day. When Dr. Brainard called together the first students of 
Rush Medical College in a small wooden building opposite the Sherman House 
he addressed them in words fully appropriate to those times. The art of med- 
icine was old at that time, and was well practiced; but the science of medicine 
had not fully emerged from medieval darkness. When Dr. Brainard taught 
he was doing all that was required. He imparted all the knowledge his stu- 
dents were prepared to receive. His college was well equipped with skilled 
instructors, well versed in medical art. Dr. Brainard foresaw and foretold 
the development of the school and of the village in which it was started into a 
great institution and a great city, which would overshadow the whole region, 
and thus prophesied the Chicago of to-day, 

The story of the growth of the school from building to building has re- 
cently been told in this room by President Holmes. It was not until the fire of 
1871 that there seemed to be any abatement in its growth. Then it was 
thought that the school was extinguished, that it would never arise from the 
ruins, that it would be but a memory of the past. What was the result? The 
fire was the greatest piece of good fortune that ever befell Rush Medical Col- 
lege. The school possessed absolutely nothing but the good will of its alumni. 
The building was gone, the apparatus was destroyed, the Faculty had nothing 
but their strong wills, their practical brains, and their hopeful souls. What 
was the result? In five years the present building was erected beside the 
great hospital of the city. See what has been accomplished. The institution 
has outgrown its grandest expectations, until there has come the necessity for 


providing new means; and now, instead of having nothing, the Trustees hold 
property worth nearly two hundred thousand dollars . Of this the new labo- 
ratory building, costing sixty thousand dollars, is a gift from the Faculty to 
the Trustees, the first and the largest gift of this kind that the Trustees have 
received. It represents an amount of self-denial that has seldom been parall- 
eled in the history of medical education. It was my pleasure this morning to 
sign the last check which completes the payment for the building. 

But I do not wish to dwell upon the excellence of the building; I want to 
speak of the immense advance in medical teaching that has been made during 
the last fifty years . To-day we have a science of medicine; we have now a 
body of classified knowledge that constitutes a real medical science, in place 
of tne empericism of former days. I wish to call your attention, therefore, 
to the fact that this day marks a new era in the teaching of medicine. To-day 
we stand ready to teach the science of medicine as well as the art. Dr. Holmes 
and myself had the advantage of attending two of the best schools in the 
country when the science of medicine was scarcely a known quantity. We 
were taught the art of medicine by the ablest teachers in the country, but how 
much attention was paid to physiology? Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes deliv- 
ered just three lectures on physiology during the winter term in Boston. In 
New York there was just appointed a full-fledged teacher of physiology, J. C. 
Dalton, who taught physiology alone. There for the first time we had the 
science of physiology fully taught in a medical school. You are becoming fa- 
miliar with the use of the microscope in the new building. In the New York 
medical school of that day how many microscopes do you suppose there were? 
Well, the professor of theory and practice of medicine was said to have a mi 
croscope, the only one possessed in the school, and it was a wonderful curios- 
ity only exhibited once a year. In the matter of chemistry our laboratory fills 
an entire story of the new building. You know with what skill and ability 
the professor of chemistry teaches not merely the science but also the art, not 
a lost art in my early days, for it had hardly been discovered. I remember 
how meager was the instruction in chemistry, and yet there was no lack of 
ability or of knowledge on the teacher's part. He taught all there was any 
demand for in those days, all there was any need for. You are now made to 
become familiar not only with scientific theories, but with the art of using and 
handling chemical substances. We now aim to commence with the science of 
medicine — theory first and practice afterwards. T n those days it was the rule 
to study the art, and afterwards to learn the theory, if there was one. It is 
our plan now to ground the student in the science, teaching him to use his 
eyes and ears. You are grounded in the science of anatomy on the upper 
floor of the new building; then you are taught the minute structure of animal 
tissues with the microscope. You are taught how different parts are put to- 
gether, and how they appear. When I was a student histology was as un- 
known as bacteriology was only a few years ago. I remember when the first 
published description of the histology of the kidney was considered a revela- 
tion; that a kidney was not merely a mass of flesh, but a complicated organ 
composed of tubules and glomeruli, was a novelty to us all. 

From the new building you will come to these halls, dedicated to 


"The relief of suffering and the prolongation of life." 
Here we put in practice the truths taught in the laboratories across the 
way. Here you study the diseases of the tissues which you have learned to 
know in health. 

Now a word for the future. We are not satisfied yet. We have accom- 
plished wonders, but that is not enough. We can do pretty well, but we want 
more. We want a few more buildings. We want the hospital enlarged. We 
want a place where Dr. Haines can enlarge his work; where the professors of 
anatomy and physiology may lay before the students their branches to greater 
advantage. We must have it. We want you all to help us. We want to 
make more rapid progress in this matter of teaching. We are ahead now, but 
we want to teach still better. It will be but a short time before the require- 
ments for graduation will be increased. For that reason it will be necessary 
to take more lime. You now study three years; it will not be long before you 
will be required to attend four courses of lectures, for it is a fact that it is not 
possible to learn the science and the art of medicine in less than four years, 
We do not ask for money, but for encouragement. Let it be known to the 
world that here is a progressive spirit which will not be satisfied with less 
than the best. And you can help us by guiding young men in coming here. 
You can guide the young men in the matter of preparation. There is much 
to be done before the profession can stand in the community where it must 
stand as a learned profession. The students who come here must be sufficient- 
ly trained in the rudiments of learning to appreciate what is here presented. 
You can insist upon the value of preparatory study. It was in those early 
years that a young man, a peddler of milk, announced to his customers one 
morning that he was about to leave his cart and begin the practice of medi- 
cine. Having done some sort of nominal study while riding for three years 
on a milk cart he was ready for the practice of medicine. That day has long 
since passed, but we want something better than has yet been attained, so that 
finally all physicians may take their places, as they should take them, as mem- 
bers of a learned and honored profession. 

President Coulter of Lake Forest University presented the following ad- 
dress ; 


The laboratory idea has now pervaded all education. Formerly the term 
laboratory was almost restricted to 4 he science of chemistry; but presently 
physics demanded its use, and botany and zoology, and now even psychology 
has its laboratories, until the term has come to apply to the direct study of 
any of the phenomena of nature. In the field of letters, and of human inter- 
course; the same spirit prevails, and no such department is considered com- 
plete without its "seminary." All this means emancipation from the domina- 
tion of text-books, Not many years ago I asked a young man what was the 
science of chemistry, and from his answers I inferred that he thought it was 
the book he had been studying. It is absolutely necessary to come in contact 
with subjects as things entirely apart from books that have been written 
about them, as things of enormous proportion which human knowledge has 
as yet but faintly discerned. When books are seen to hold the relation to a 


subject that guide-po^ts do to a city a reasonable mental attitude is secured. 
It is this mental attitude that the laboratory is intended to secure, for it is 
first-hand contact with the subject itself. The time has past when the pos- 
session of a few books and a reasonable knowledge of their contents made a 
man a physician or a lawyer or a minister. I have met in every profession 
two classes of men: by far the larger class swear by the book, quote author- 
ities, and seek to cover up their own lack of knowledge of underlying prin- 
ciples by a free use of technical terms. I know all about the necessities of a 
scientific terminology, but I am protesting against the too prevalent impres- 
sion that a word which is merely a convenience explains anything . These 
professional men, therefore, who seem to regard a subject as synonymous 
with some book, and who only memorize what they are told, are very aptly 
called "second-hand men." The other and smaller class of professional men 
are those who have come in contact with the subject itself, have become 
familiar with fundamental principles, are contributors to knowledge and 
really know what they talk about. It is these "first-hand" men that the labor- 
atory is meant to develop. 

May I suggest the great laboratory field wirich lies at the door of our 
medical schools awaiting their cultivation? This field is that vast one known 
as biology, which deals with the laws of life, those laws which control the or- 
ganic worid. If I understand it, this is your subject, your special work focal- 
izing upon that manifestation of organic life shown by the human body. That 
the greatest recent advances made in your profession have come from real 
biological investigations augurs well for that day when medical schools will 
either all give or all demand for entrance a certain amount of biological train- 
ing. The short-sighted view too often taken of such training may be illus- 
trated by an incident which recently came to my notice. In a medical school 
where some attempt was made to illustrate some of the fundamental biologi- 
cal principles, the amoeba was used to illustrate some of the properties of 
protoplasm. After the exercise was over, one of the students who had 
come to the difficult study of medicine with very little preparation of any 
kind, asked his fellow ' 'what was that thing the professor was talking 
about?" On being told it was an amoeba, he replied "Be we going to doctor 
them things," Thorough professional training consists not merely in learn- 
ing the specific technique of that profession but the application of all forms 
of human knowledge to it. To my mind nothing can be more fundamental in 
the study of the human body than a biological laboratory, where the laws of 
life are investigated. This includes both structure and function, the great 
fields of morphology and physiology. No proper conception of physiological 
activity can be obtained without some knowledge of the principles of chemis- 
try, which laboratory then at once becomes a necessity, and the same might 
be said of certain regions of physics. And then, in these later years, another 
laboratory science closely related to your work, has been born, poorly de- 
veloped as yet but with tremendous promise, the subject of experimental 
psychology, which is nothing more or less than a study of the physiology of 
the nervous system. At this stage of suggestion some might raise the ob- 
jection that courses of study would thus become so seriously burdened as to 


become a practical impossibility; to which I have two answers: (1) only the 
elementary principles of these subjects are asked for, simply enough to point 
out their bearing upon the great subject of the profession, and (2) some of 
this training might well be demanded among entrance requirements. It is a 
poor preparatory school now which does not have its chemical and labora- 
tories, and such a demand would work very little hardships. My friends, I 
can assure you, from what I know of the spirit that is now pervading the 
colleges of this country, that that medical college which either does or de- 
mands such work will attract ever increasing numbers of the brightest young 
men in the country. A great evil is often unintentially done by those of us 
who are older and must now use the capital we have laid up, in our advice to 
the young. We are too apt to tell them of our own opportunities and to sug- 
gest to them that that is all they will need to be as successful as we have 
been. This may be true, but surely our honest wish must be that each suc- 
ceeding generation shall have better opportunities than the one before and 
shall be more successful. 

With this new and splendid laboratory building as a text, my thoughts 
have thus run beyond the present to the possibilities of the future, when this 
whole building shall be full of facilities for studying life and all its correlated 

For the present, let me commend to your enthusiastic support this be- 
ginning, which opens up before you such new and such important possibili- 
ties. Sieze hold of every phase of laboratory work, as your great emanci- 
pator from the slavery of books, as the great cultivator of individual investi- 
gation and independent thinking, as your very salvation from that pedantry 
which is simply ignorance hiding behind words. 

Henry Baird Favill, M D. 

In proportion to the intimacy of relationship in function, between various 
factors in society, there become established more or less definite and recipro- 
cal reactions. 

These become under fixed conditions constant, and are variable only as 
conditions may be varied. The social fabric, however intricately woven, is 
maintained in its stability, by the accuracy of adaptation of part to part. 
The relative position, therefore, of different elements, becomes of great im- 
portance, and faulty correlation a source of weakness. 

The atmosphere which surrounds men in professions, or business, or 
labor, or education, gives color to their impressions, and detetmine largely 
the estimate of each by the others. 

Hence it transpires that bodies or institutions, whose activities are par- 
allel, or convergent; assume towards each other attitudes more or less abso- 
lute as the contact is familiar. 

For many years the professions of law and medicine have recognized that 
there was much in common. The frequency with which the labors of the 
legal profession need to de supplemented by the results of medical investiga- 
tion, is very great. So gi eat as to induce a definite new science, which seeks 
to cover the zone wherein are found the points of contact of medicine and 
law. The active participants in the practice of either profession have, of 
necessity a common ground, wherein each is the interpreter of his art. 

The entire field of medical knowledge is at the disposal of the law, for 
the benefit of society, and the institutions by which the dispensation takes 
place, are thus made the seat of activity of the physicians. 

Gradually in the fulfilment of various demands, the physician has taken 
a. place of increasing prominence in judicial processes. Can I say of increas- 
ing usefulness? 

Clearly there should be no possible negative to this question. Practically 
there exists so grave a qualification as to lay the proposition open. 

The capacities in which physicians serve the purpose of justice are two- 
fold, and essentially distinct, but the imperfections in process and result in 
each relationship, are commonly charged against both. 

A physician is a witness or he is an "expert." An observer of the con- 
ditions in question, or a commentator upon their significance. The distinc- 
tion is fundamental. The separation is not always sharply defined in practice. 

While smarting under the injustice of many a judicial utterance, w T hich 
sweepingly condemn medical evidence, and by implication heap indignity up- 
on the members of the profession; it is indispensable, that we realize closely 
the elements of our relationship, and recognize the features of our weakness. 
It is a fact that medical testimony in general, is under a cloud. That courts 
have declared themselves as distrustful of it. That numerical preponder- 


ance of witnesses has at times appeared to be of determining weight. That 
the gravest differences of opinion are constantly evoked from acting experts 
That the result of such contradiction is not positive assistance but a neutral- 
izing of influence, which leaves both factors inert. 

The relation of the physician to the court should be one of support. It is 
in danger of becoming an annoying conventionality. 

To what must be ascribed this manifest impropriety? 

The distinction between ordinary and expert testimony must be empha- 
sized. The greater part of the odium which has settled upon medical evidence 
is born of inadequate "expert" service. The reasons for this are four-fold: 

(1). There is no satisfactory definition of an expert. Custom and judi- 
cial declaration have in some measure restricted the term, but quite inade- 
quately. Hence incompetency is often the chief characteristic of an expert 
eccentricity is often his stock in trade. 

(2). There is no appropriate method of submitting subject matter to ex- 
perts. To call forth an opinion upon a proposition, more or less one-sided, is 
to open the way to a false position, which the witness sees he ought not to 
take, but which the rules of practice make it difficult for him to avoid. To 
add to this the necessity of defending his position from the attack of cross 
examination, protected only by the respect of counsel for his mental agility, 
is to make embarrassment out of circumstances which should permit un- 
trammelled judgement. 

(3). The method of employment of witnesses is open to objection. The 
summoning of experts by opposing sides is always open to innuendo as to 
partnership. Assuming that the insinuation be false, the notion is not easily 
dispelled from the mind of the observer. 

(4). There are distinct limitations of knowledge. Consequently the 
positiveness of evidence is materially qualified, if the exact facts are adhered 
to. The law needs decision, certainty. Hence it is prone to demand it. Not 
getting it satisfactorily, it is liable to be critical. 

To obtain the highest good from our knowledge, as it is, it is indispens- 
able that the authority of experts be placed upon a plane above the suspicion 
of bias or incompetency, and thus the very uncertainty be given a dignity by 
its dependence upon veracity. 

That this may be, it is necessary to positively and wisely determine the 
method of his usefulness, and establish his relationships. 

These reforms, which will come in time, the medical profession will be 
able to affect very indirectly. A clear appreciation of the defect must under- 
lie its correction. 

With regard to ordinary medical testimony the profession has the op- 
portunity, and hence the obligation, to effect improvement. More is expected 
of a medical witness than of others, because, 

(1). Being of a learned profession, his intelligence is assumed to be of 
the best. This assumption should finally be justified by the fact, 

(2). His contribution to the subject matter, as a rule, deals with condi- 
tions outside ordinary knowledge, and comprehension, and the tendency is to 
be over exacting in circumstances of that kind. 


(3). The intimacy of his relation to the matters which it falls to him to 
expound, implies an obligation to adequately develop them. 

The directions in which physicians are most frequently a disappointment 

(1). In a failure to properly estimate the breadth of their responsibilities 
in a medico-legal aspect. The man who closely conceives his obligations, 
will on the whole, do them justice. 

(2). In an inability to usefully present facts. This may be with regard 
to his candor, or due to his methods of observation. A deficiency in either is 
destructive of his utility. 

(3). With respect to his inferences. Upon any collection of data, there 
will be more or less demand for conclusions. In proportion to the discrimin- 
ation and logic displayed will be the reliability and utility of the agent. The 
man who jumps at his conclusions frequently has to flounder to a footing. 

It is unpleasant to admit, much more to direct attention, to the shade of 
discredit, which attaches to our present status. Independent of the stab 
which our pride receives, we are conscious of a grevious defect in an import- 
ant economic adherence. By the failure, our usefulness is lessened. By the 
want, the cause of justice is the poorer. 

In so far as the fault lies at the door of the profession, let the oncoming 
physicians correct it. In so far as it lies in the institutions, over which medi- 
cal men have no extraordinary control, let a keen intelligence of the situation 
reinforce a steadfast demand, which shall eventually be productive of reform. 

Samuel L. Weber, M. D. 

Last week a man entered my office, and handing me his caid, introduced 
himself as a representative of a chemical manufacturing firm of Boston. He 
called, he said, to present me with a sample of a new compound made by his 
firm; a compound that was an antipyretic, antirheumatic, antineuralgic, etc., 
etc. He wished me to try the sample, assuring me that I would find it to be 
all that he claimed for it. With the sample he left a large four-paged pam- 
phlet lauding the value of the compound and giving a list of diseases and con- 
ditions in which it had been of value. This laudatory epistle was unsigned 
save that at the bottom of each page was the firms name and place of busi- 
ness and list of other proprietory articles which it has or is endeavoring to 
put into the hands of physicians. This agent was the fourth within a week, 
who came to introduce some new preparation. .One of the other three present- 
ed a new diuretic mixture, supposedly made from some, tome, unknown south- 
ern plant; and "good" for all kidney, bladder and urethral diseases. Another 
wished to introduce a new very palatable emulsion of Cod Liver Oil (which 
upon analysis I found to contain about 12 per cent, of the oil.). Another ben- 
evolently offered a new specific- for consumption, emphysema, chronic bron- 
chitis and all other chronic lung ailments. 

This thing is kept up the year around. In the city and in the country 
we are over run by agents who with smiles on their faces, politeness, famili- 
arity and unlimited assurance in their manner, and smoothly mesmerized lies 
on their lips, importune us to try- their drugs or preparations; and departing 
leave behind them circulars and other literature filled with laudatory articles 
signed by D. J. Smith, M. D. of Pumpkin Hollow, Texas, or by some other 
equally renowned practitioner. These laudatory testimonials all run about 
the same scientific way; recounting the sufferings of some mysterious Mr. M. 
S or Mrs. J. D., who were treated for years by varions physicians without ob- 
taining any relief, and who finally came into his hands. He then tried the 
various known remedies without avail, when finally he gave the patient the 
preparation in question, upon which the patient improved very much. Since 
then he has given the preparation in other cases, all of which were much im- 
proved thereby. Our scientific brother then winds up by declaring that this 
preparation is the greatest remedy in such and such a class of cases. 

Reading our medical journals we are bored to exasperation by the adver- 
tisements on their covers and advertisement pages. We read everywhere the 
announcement that - - compound "is the standard prescription in the 
ailments of women and in obstetric practice; 1 ' that ic is ' k a powerful antispas- 
modic nervine^and uterine tonic. . . .Perfectly safe, prompt and reliable. . . .In 
D. smenorrhoea, menorrhogia, threatened abortion and convulsions it is the 
perfection of remedies. The most accomplished gynecologists in the United 
States employ and recommend - compound." Again we read in the 


advertisement columns of all of our reputable medical journals, : — com- 
pound, uterine alterative, metritis, endometritis, subinvolution, neuorrhagia, 
metorrhagia, leucorrhcea, dysmenorrhoea, ovarian neuralgia, painful pregnan- 
cy, after pains," &c. Again we are seductively told in journal advertisements 

and by agents that ' ' , for genio urinary diseases specially valuable 

in prostatic troubles of old men, presenility, difficult micturition, urethral in- 
flammation, ovarian pain, irritable bladder positive merit as a rebuilder," 

&c. Once more we read " , a powerful anti-fat. Is the only remedy that 

will absorb fatty tissue in a great degree without any evil after-effects what- 
ever. By its powerful though harmless action it replaces morbid tissue with 
soft flesh. For obesity and fatty degeneration of the heart," &c. 

I might quote such advertisements ad infinitum and ad nauseatum. In 
view of this persistent dinning into the ears of the profession of such seduc- 
tively told lies about these things, is it a wonder that so many physicians suc- 
cumb? Is it a wonder that tons of such stuff is prescribed? Go to any drug 
store and look through the prescription files and you will be astonished and 
mortified that so much of this unscientific, proprietary and advertised rubbish 
is regularly prescribed. 

Where is the trouble? Where does the fault lie? Why are we so easily 
deluded and ensnared by these mercenary and crafty manufacturers? 

Chemists are furnishing us daily with new anti-pyreties, new anti-neural- 
gics, new hypnotics, new surgical antiseptics, new gastric and intestinal anti- 
septics, new diuretics, new alkaloids of old drugs and new modifications or 
new salts of old alkaloids, In this bewildering shower of new remedies from 
the chemists whose motives are all right, and from the speculating manufac- 
turers whose motives are usually all wrong, what are we to do? How recog- 
nize the valuable? How detect the useless or fraudulent? 

To-day we cannot say, "I<shall use none of these new drugs," for only 
yesterday antipyrine, pheuacetine, acetanilid, the salicylates, dyuretine, co 
coaine, creosote," sulphenol were new remedies — to-day they are already indis- 
pensible and invaluable. Very few of us have the ability, the time or the 
facilities, independently to investigate the merits of a new drug. What, then, 
are we to do? This question puzzles, probably, every honest practitioner who 
wishes to do for his patients the best that the science of to-day teaches. 

What is to guide us in the adoption of a new remedy? In therapeutics, as 
in every other branch of medicine, or in any other science, no one name, no one 
man, is authority. A new fact in medicine must come to us as a new fact in 
any other natural science, A full and statistical account of logically con- 
ducted experiments which led to the discovered fact, must be given. It mat- 
ters not who makes the discovery, such a scientifically written announcement 
of the discovery must be published in a medical journal of recognized stand- 
ing, or read at the meeting of a regular medical society or convention. If the 
new remedy is a drug, a full account of its pharmacology and chemistry must 
be stated. Moreover, an air of perfect honesty and candor must prevail the 
article by which the new remedy is introduced. Everything must be frankly 
and freely stated. If there is the least suspicion of anything held back, or 
any taint of charlatanism of any kind, the scientific world will ignore it. 


After the just-described introduction of the new remed/ to the scientific 
world has been made, must come the verification of its announced value by 
men of recognized ability. Every newly- announced fact of science is prompt- 
ly put to crucial tests by scientific workers. Every therapeutic measure 
which promises to be of value is instantly seized upon and tried by competent 
men. We must now emphasize what constitutes a competent man. This is of 
the greatest importance, as it is the consensus of opinion of competent men 
that is to be our guide as to whether we are to adopt or to ignore a new reme- 
dy. A competent man in this connection is: (1.) A man of known ability and 
experience in the pathology, diagnosis, and treatment of that class of diseases 
for which the new remedy is to be used. (2.) A man of recognized honesty 
and known scientific training, so that he should be able to critically analyze 
his series of experiments and deduce from them a logical conclusion. (3) He 
must have a large practice, best a large hospital practice, so that he may have 
material enough to make that large number of trials with the new remedy, 
which shall give a scientific basis to his conclusions. (The physiological and 
toxic effects of a new drug are worked out in the laboratory upon animals. 
This is usually done by the man who introduces the drug. Experiments to 
determine the therapeutic effects of a drug are of most value if done with hos- 
pital patients, for only in the hospital has one that full and continuous control 
of the patients which is necessary in order to obtain all the data required in 
scientific experimentation.) (4.) Before announcing an opinion upon the mer- 
its of a remedy he must have made a sufficiently large number of trials, so as 
to eliminate chance and assure to his results a relation to the disease as that 
of cause and effect. 

Such scientific tests by competent men are always promptly and numer 
ously made, with a new remedy. If the remedy is thus found to be of no 
value, the whole matter is at once dropped and we here no more about it in 
medical literature. If, however, it is found to be of value, then the scientific 
work of our competent men is soon published in various standard medical 
journals. Editorials on the new remedy appear. It is discussed in medical 
societies. Thus in a brief time a consensus of opinion upon the merits of the 
new remedy prevades current medical literature and the discussion of med- 
ical societies. 

Such is the history of all new drugs. Dr. Ludwig Knorr, a rather ob- 
scure chemist, in seeking for a better substitute for quinine than kairin, dis- 
covered two years before, made a compound in 1884, which gave him in 
the few cases in which he used it, astonishingly good results. He reported 
the compound, antipyrine, and results obtained by it in a medical journal. 
Within a few months it had been tried by dozens of competent men in thous- 
ands of febrile diseases; its value found to be even more extensive than an- 
ticipated or reported by Knorr. A whole literature sprang up upon this com- 
pound, and it became the property of the bulk of the profession. (Unfortun- 
ately Knorr is a mercenary man and patented the name and process of manu- 
facture in every country. Otherwise the drug was regularly brought before 
the profession). 

Salicylic acic, known for some time to the chemists, was introduced into 


the Materia Medica in 1874 by Kolbe as a surgical antiseptic, superior, he 
claimed, to carbolic acid so generally and profusely used at that time. Two 
years later two German physicians, Buss and Strieker, independently discov- 
ered that it was of marvelous value in acute articular rheumatism, A large 
number of competent men repeated their experiments and established the 
full value of the drug in that disease. Medical journals teemed with articles 
recounting the value of the drug, and the body of medical practitioners soon 
used it freely as taught them in those articles. The drug was never adver- 
tised in any commercial way. No advertisement appeared on the advertising 
pages of any medical journal; no sleek agents went around and left sample 
packages to every Tom, Dick and Harry of an M. D . for trial. 

Cocoaine was accidentally discovered by a student in chemistry in the 
University of Vienna by a flask, in which he was boiling some organic com- 
pounds, exp.'oding, and some of the fluid spattering into his eyes. The fluid 
causing anaesthesia in the eyes, led him and others to investigate all of the 
possible ingredients that could have been in the flask at the time of the ex- 
plosion. This resulted in the discovery of cocoaine. The accident, the dis- 
covery of the ingredient and the numerous experiments of the local ansses- 
thetic effects of cocoaine were fully and statistically published. Trials of 
cocoaine were promptly and numerously made by competent men — its peculiar 
and unique value fully described and indorsed, and cocoaine became a standard 
article of our Materia Medica. I repeat. It was never advertised in adver- 
tisement columns, it was never peddled, nobody was ever importuned to try 
or to buy it. 

Now let us review the steps necessary to properly place the worthiness 
of a new remedy before the bulk of the profession— before the rank and file 
of the profession — before those who have not the time or knowledge or facili- 
ties to determine for themselves the exact merit of a new drug. 

1. The discovery. This may be accidental as in the case of cocoaine; it 
may be deliberate from a knowledge of the relation of chemical structure to 
physological action — as was the discovery of amyl nitrite and mure recently 
that of phenacetine; it may be the result of a deliberate search through the 
myriads of chemical compounds for one that should have the therapeutic effect 
sought for— such has resulted in the discovery of many internal antiseptics, 
of acetanilid and of many recent hypnotics; it may be the result of physio- 
logical experiments with newly obtained chemical combinations, — such has 
given us apomorphine; or it may be entirely empirical and without any scien- 
tific method such as introduced almost all of the remedies until recently. 

2. The announcement of the discovery in a legitimate manner, by writ- 
ing a paper upon it giving fully all known information as to the origin, 
method of preparation, composition, pharmacology, chemistry, structural 
formulae, etc., together with all experiments that led the author to form his 
opinions of the therapeutic value of the remedy. 

3. The verification of the new remedy by a large number of competent 

4. If found of value by these, the publication of their results in standard 
medical journals. 


5. The spreading of the good news in current medical literature, by re- 
views and editorials of these journal articles, and in medical societies by 
papers and discussions. 

When the above steps have been complied with, and they always are if 
there is any virtue in the proposed new remedy, then, and not till then, should 
the rank and file of the profession use it. There is no other legitimate or 
scientific way of introducing a remedy to the medical profession. 

Let us apply this analysis to that "antipyretic, anti-rheumatic, anti-neu- 
ralgic, etc.. etc.," which that suave and pleasant gentleman wished me te try 
last week. He could not give me the chemical origin or formula of the com- 
pound; he could point to no literature from competent men upon it; I had 
never heard of the stuff before; I had seen no mention of it in any article in 
any standard medical journal. As to its therapeutic value, freedom from 
toxic effect and dose, I had to take his word (a lawman) for it — a word taught 
him to say by a body of lay capitalists who are in the manufacturing busi- 
ness of this and other compounds only for the money there is in it. Would I, 
would anybody, be justified to experiment upon patients with such stuff com- 
ing from such a source and in such a manner. 

Our rule of guidance, then, in considering the use of a proposed new 
remedy is not difficult. Our information of new remedies we must obtain in 
the same way as we obtain our information in pathology, in obstetrics or in 
any other branch of medicine from tne writings and teachings of competent 
medical men. From standard medical journals, standard medical books and 
from the proceedings of leading medical societies. Certainly not from adver- 
tisements. Certainly not from agents or peddlars. Certainly not from mer- 
cenary lay capitalists. Drugs that are brought to our attention only through 
advertisements, or by peddlars or agents are utterly unworthy of our atten- 
tion. This statement is sweeping but absolutely true. It makes us boil with 
indignation every time we read one of these lying advertisements and every 
time we are obliged to listen to one of those agents who, parrot-like, recite 
to us those lying statements taught them by their employers, "Do tl ose 
mercenary lay manufacturers think" we say to ourselves, "that we are so ig- 
norant and credulous as to be taken in by their seductive and lying state- 
ments about their fraudulent preparations.^" A moment later w 7 e are pale 
with mortification when we recall the fact that so many of our profession are 
so ignorant as to be duped into prescribing and using vast quantities of such 
advertised stuff. The shrewd individuals who manufacture and advertise the 
stuff laugh and grow rich upon the credulity and ignorance of so many of our 
profession . 

One more question. How soon after the proper introduction of a new 
remedy shall the practitioners use it" Here no precise rule can be laid down. 
In private practice we ought to prescribe a new drug only after the hospital 
physicians and other competent authorities have fairly well established its 
value. Many new preparations have jumped into a brief notoriety upon a too 
hasty recommendation of one or two well-known men. Better wait a little 
until there is a fairly uniform consensus of opinion among authorities and in 


literature. In this connection we may change words to drugs in Pope's well- 
known lines. 

In drugs as in fashions, the same rule will hold, 
Alike fantastic if too new or old, 

Be not the first by whom the new are tried, 
Nor yet the last to lay the old aside. 
18 Central Music Hall. 


Given at the Dunning - Asylum for the Insane, by Prof. D. R. Brower. 

On the afternoon of December 16, the senior class assembled itself at the 
Union depot, to accompany Dr. Brower to Dunning. It is considerable of an 
effort for the class to assemble itself, for it numbers over two hundred men, 
but on this occasion the train was not kept waiting. Some of the men were 
too hilarious. Exhuberance of spirits is all right in its place, but when in a 
public place as the Union depot, where ladies and children are about, Com- 
anche yeils and college hazing are rather de trop. Of course a senior who has 
undergone three years of such treatment, does not think it strange when 
twenty or thirty men swoop down on one of their number and hasily, and 
with large and influential muscles, shove him stern end fiist through a car 
window. But such actions will reduce the attendance at Rush much more 
effectively and forever tan raising the fees. 

At Dunning the clinic was highly instructive. Typical cases of melan- 
cholia, dementia, paranoia, mania, and other forms of insanity, were shewn. 
Attention was called to the ''insane ear" and other peculiar diagnostic signs 
of "wheels." A vote of thanks from the class is due the physicians at Dun- 
ning, who so cordially co-operated to make the clinic a success. 

From the clinic room the class went, in sections, through the entire 
asylum. On this tour many laughable incidents occurred — incidents which 
will impress the tendencies of some insane persons more firmly 
on the minds of the students. It may be that De Vere, whose bosom swells 
with pride whenever he views his whiskers, will forget how he had those 
whiskers pulled by a vigorous old negro woman but it will be strange if he 
does . If he should, Copeland, who was huggep into a speechless and breath- 
less condition by the same patient, can remind him of it. The narrative 
might also relate that it took four men to get the youngest and most innocent 
member of the class away from the presence of a bewitching little coryphee, 
whose gay experiences had turned her head, but who retains her normal ap- 
titute for flirting even yet. Poor B — (B stands for "boy") he thought she 
was an attendant merely paying homage to his charms. All in all, it was an 
instructive day, and one of relaxation from the eternal grind — for which we 
are duly thankful. The senior class next year will probably have the same 
opportunity given them and they have the wishes of the present class for the 
satne good time. A. 0. Ripple. 


The cases which are here briefly recorded were admitted to the Detention 
Hospital during the present year. Patients are detained here for a brief pe- 
riod and then transferred to the hospitals for the insane at Elgin, Kankakee, 
or Jefferson. Because of the brief observation of these cases many interest- 
ing and instructive data, that a larger study would afford, are absent. The 
cases typify a few of the many manifestations of a mind diseased, and are re- 
corded because your editor thought they would be of interest to the readers of 
The Corpuscle. 

The case of A. S. , aged 40, illustrates the grandiose delusions of a paretic 
dement. Present condition said to have existed for six months. Alleged 
cause, business anxiety and overwork. Was operated upon by Dr. Pratt, at 
Lincoln Park Sanitarium, for the cure of his mental malady, or, as he says 
for "nervous prostitution." The "American" operation, he says, has com- 
pletely cured him. Principal cause of insanity is a long prepuce, and if it be 
removed and the "American" done complete recovery will ensue as in his 
case. He has purchased the sanitarium for ten million dollars, and is going 
to have the insane of Illinois cured there. Is going to buy the "World's Fair 
and open it free of charge to the public. Made all his money breeding horses. 
Has a horse that can trot a mile in 1:02. Owns many million horses, and all 
the resident and business real estate of Chicago. Will make everybody rich 
by buying real estate at twice its market value and then giving it away. Go- 
ing to Europe next week and takes the citizens of Chicago with him; will buy 
the trans-Atlantic steamers, etc. 

Is very complacent, and happy; says he is not insane, and does not seem 
worried at the insinuation. 

No paretic mator symptoms. 

The following case is one of parouvia persecutoria; that is a chronic form 
of insanity characterized by a perversion of the logical apparatus, so that 
systematized delusions of a persecutory type dominate the patient's daily life. 
Hallucinations, illusions, or emotional excitement may or may not be present. 
In this case there is an inherited taint, and the somatis stigmata of neuvo- 
degeneration are evident. 

H. S. ; male; 21; American. Uncle insane. Heavy; thick-set; low-sized 
Marked asymmetry of face, left side being smaller than right. Right eye- 
brow composed of thick, black hair. On left side hair is much finer, and with- 
out pigment. Brow wrinkled, and during conversation the palpebral orifices 
are much narrowed, 

He says that his mother and his brothers and sisters are plotting against 
him, endeavoring to do away with him; many times he has seen them glanc- 
ing furtively, and as he thought, menacingly at him. A fortune-teller told 
him — he overheard it — that he could not be killed by shooting, because there 


was not ammunition enough in the world to kill him; nor by poisoning, be- 
cause he would vomit it up; nor could he be stabbed by any steel-pointed 
weapon, though he might be slightly injured thereby. So his relatives 
wish to get him out of the way by sending him to an asylum in order to gain 
possession of property willed to him by his father — property valued at 
$5,000. He never saw the will, but he knows there is a codicil in it 
leaving him the property. Many years ago his sister borrowed $100 from his 
father, and he has instituted suit in the circuit court to recover that sum plus 
compound interest, which he computes to be about $5,000. Brother stole a 
cow worth $75 from his father, and sold it for $60, and he has tried to recover 
that sum with compound interest. 
He ^ T as sent to the asylum. 

Case No. III. is an eratomaniac, a type of paranoa in which the delusions 
are of an erratic nature, perversion of the sexual appetite being also present. 

Druggist; aged 27; American. General health good; no previous illness 
of any severity. Denies any venereal history; no scars nor discolorations to 
warrant presumption of previous contagion. His family history has been 
good. He is a very fluent talker and eagerly recites his grievances to gain 
sympathy for himself and denunciation of his oppressors. 

For many months — five or six — he has been bothered by his intimate 
friends and family, who, he says, are constantly irritating him about some 
lady friends. They want to know whom he really loves, and they have con- 
spired with one whom he detests to try and have him fall in love with her. 
There is not a minute of the day, not a place he has been in, where they do 
not in some way recall that odious girl to him. To-day they sent a yellow dog 
on the street because she wears a yellow dress. In every newspaper they 
have inserted something which indirectly bears on her. Signs in the city, 
the stars grouping themselves into her initials, annoy him. He says he dis- 
likes her, abhors her, and these constant reminders of her irritate him so that 
he fears he may be driven insane. He says there is another young lady whom 
he loves devotedly, but his friends do not think she is his equal and have 
frowned on their union, and to prevent the consummation of his happiness 
have entered into this conspiracy. He becomes very much excited during the 
recital of his story, and there is a marked tremor of the finer muscle of ex- 
pression, especially the corrugator supercilii. He is very passionate sexually, 
and has practised masturbation for some years. 

He was sent to an asylum. 

The next case is also characterized by systematized delusions, which have 
taken on ideas of persecution, and it repeats the oft-told, and in this instance 
disastrous lesson, that no insane is always inocuous. 

C. B. ; aged 35. Was sent to Kankakee insane asylum five years ago, and 
two years later discharged to his friends as harmless. 

There is no history of inherited taint in the case, the family assigning as 
a causitive factor domestic trouble. 

Patient is of quiet disposition, not readily excited, and very freely tells 
t^s history. Many times he bridges over his sentences by phrases which are 


meaningless, but to him seem to span the logical stamata in his argument. 

He says that in 1884 he was "elected by acclamation" to fill some indefinite 
office, but because of the persecution of some people he was never reinstated 
in office. These people wished to get rid of him because of the "natural in- 
stinct of self-protection," and the "survival of the fittest." At his boarding 
house nauseous gases of a positive and a negative character have been gene- 
rated in the lower part of the house and conducted into his room. The posi- 
tive gases were exhilerating, and the negative gases depressed him. These 
gases had the odor of burning animal matter. 

Lately "Tontine bonds" on his life, expiring in five years, have been put 
on the market, and he has consulted eminent jurists in this city striving to 
obtain an injunction prohibiting the sale of these bonds . Obtaining no redress 
he visited the board of trade where these bonds were being sold and demanded 
that they should cease persecuting him by selling his life-bonds. He was 
ejected. Three days later he returned and fired three shots into their midst, 
wounding several of the members. He was arrested and brought to Detention 
Hospital. He believes they will cease selling the bonds, and is sorry that he 
had to have recourse to such a severe measure. 

Sent to Kankakee. 

Melancholia is a variety of insanity in wbich melancholy, or depression, 
is the essential feature. Suicidal and homocidal tendencies are of ten present, 
frequently as a result of a command from a supernatural power to sacrifice 
themselves or relatives; perhaps to become rid of a delusional malady that is 
gnawing at their vitals; may be to drown out in. the agony of death the taunt- 
ing voices that threaten destruction, or to substitute a less painful speedy 
death for the lingering torture they think impending. Hallucinations are 
many times prominently present. As regards prognosis these cases are more 
favorable than those preceding, from 60 to 70 per cent, resulting in recovery, 
the others terminating in death from suicide, exhaustion, or intercurrent mal- 
ady, or gradually deteriorating into a terminal dementia worse than death. 

L. M. ; female; age 21; single. No previous illness. Family history neg- 
ative. Present sickness has existed for about five weeks; gradual onset. 
Friends observed tbat instead of being bright, happy and gay, as she was 
wont, she became morose, taciturn, and paid no heed to the affairs of the world, 
which had previously interested her. She sought solitude, and looked with 
suspicion and mistrust at the anxiety of the family, Obscure delusions of im- 
pending disaster haunted her; voices questioning her chastity and accusing 
her of being pregnant so terrorized her that to find relief she attempted sui- 
cide by throwing herself out of the second-story window. She sustained a 
fracture of the left tibia, and was taken to the Detention Hospital. 

She is extremely depressed; painful expression of countenance, which at 
times changes to great fear, and she cries out that she is going to be killed. 
Had refused to eat for several days, because of vague suspicions of poisoned 
food, but can be coaxed to take a little nourishment. 

Sent to asylum. 

In cases of mild digestive disturbance a common symptom is mental tor- 


por, anenergy, or slight depression, and in the following case one of the most 
profound melancholia which we find associated vith advanced gastric disease, 
it is but logical that we should couple the conditions as effect and cause in the 
absence of other demonstrable evidence. 

In the great majority of cases the cause of insanity is in the brain, but in 
such a case as the following it is not unreasonable to assign to the gastric dis- 
ease a prominent position in the etiology, being at the same time careful not 
to generalize from an individual case and state that the cause of melancholia 
is, as the name might imply (black bile), a digestive disturbance. 

A. H. ; German; aged about 45. Can not talk English; no history attain- 
able. Was first seen in county jail, where he had been sent on a charge of 
larceny three months previous. He was kneeling in his cell, eyes closed and 
hands clasped as in prayer. The guards could not induce him to lie down, and 
his fellow- prisoners said he had been in prayer for four or five days. Eats 
nothing, but would take copious draughts of water. He was removed to De- 
tention Hospital. 

Patient very obese; weight 230 pounds; skin non-resilient, muddy hue. 
Pulse very fast, and weak; can not count the beats. Examination of body 
otherwise negative. Vomits great quantity of black, watery, foul- smelling 
material . 

Has to be restrained in bed, else he will be on his knees in the room. 
Knees are much swollen, and skin excoriated as a result of his praying. Takes 
no notice of those in the room with him . Does not respond to questions, but 
lies in bed, eyelids tightly closed, brow wrinkled, lips moving as if whispering 
and hands clasped in devotional attitude. 

On second day after his admission became comitose and died. 

Autopsy revealed fatty degeneration of liver, kidney and heart. Stomach 
measured 36 cm. from curviture to curviture longitudinally, and 22 cm. trans- 
versely. Wall of stomach much attenuated; no nugae. 

Pyloric orifice will only admit a medium-sized sound [No. 22 P.] On 
side of pyloris is an irregularly-shaped area, size of silver dollar, where there 
is a loss of the mucus coat, border abrupt, flow of ulcer uneven, pale gray 
color. White fibrous lines and bands radiate from ulcer for as far as 6 cm. 
These bands are especially broad and strong in region of pyloris and narrow 
its lumen. Colon bound firmly to mesentery by fibrous bands. Microscopical 
examination of nervous tissue negative. 

F. X. Walls, M. D. 

Asst. County Physician. 


The following arricle was handed in by a Freshman in the competition for 
Editorship on The Corpuscle staff. Ed. 

If it is admissable at this time I would like to express to the members of 
The Corpuscle committee a few thoughts upon some of the conditions of in- 
telectualand moral growth. My observation as a college student has been 
that students often fail to recieve the full benefit of their studies and instruc- 
tion, because they do not know how to co-operate most effectually with their 
teachers in efforts for their own improvement. 

There is no lack of willingness on their part. No lack of fidelity or skill 
on the part of their teachers, but simply a failure to put themselves in the 
position to recieve the stimulus and mental uplift which might be obtained. 

We have all observed the difference in the intellectual progress of differ- 
ent students. One seems to grasp every subject with ease and certainty. His 
classmates point to him with pride. If we meet him after an interval of a few 
months we are impressed with his intellectual growth. Another makes little 
progress and becomes a hard problem to himself and his friends and especial- 
ly to his teachers. 

Now it is generally true that a student's advancement will be in proportion 
to his deligence in study and this is what we naturally expect. But it was not 
the case with Henry Ward Beecher and a number of other great men. And 
there have always been enough instances of successful men who were poor 
students to keep some excellent people busy explaining and to afford great 
comfort to lazy and conceited students w ho want reward of hard work with 
out being willing to do the work. 

In our Medical College we have an advantage over some institutions in 
that all, I think, who are here, have come with a desire and a distinct purpose 
in view. 

If then we desire to grow in knowledge, let us try to apprehend closely the 
condition and means of growth . This passive growth is no more credit to us 
than our increase of stature or avoirdupois. The growth which leads to real 
excellence is always accompanied with cautious effort. Great men do not be- 
come such by idly waiting and wishing. There is much in heredity, but there 
is much more in environments and education. No blood was ever blue enough 
to make a man eminent except as he himself strove to attain eminence. 

Intellectual growth requires first a conciousness of one's need of growth, 
and second a conciousness of one's capacity for growth. 

There are people who feel no need of improvement they are self-compla- 
cent in the belief that they are great already. 

Many also who are concious of their need distrust their capacity for 
growth. Faith in ourselves, in the capacity of our faculties to respond to the 
demands which will be made upon them, is no less essential than the concious- 
ness of our need of improvement. When Beaconsfield, stammering througq 


his first parliamentary argument was coughed down by his jeering audience, 
he exclaimed, ' 'I yield to your ridicule today, but the time will come when 
you will be glad to listen to me." We develop our powers according to the 
difficulties which confront us. 

. Practice makes perfect when there is definite aim. Learn to concentrate 
all your powers and compel them to act every time with their utmost vigor. 
This is the secret of intellectual growth. 



In pursuance of the policy indicated in the resolutions to be presented to 
the American Medical College convention, regarding a four years course, pub- 
lished in the December Corpuscle, the Faculty and Trustees of Rush Med- 
ical College aunounce: 

"That the course in the college will be lengthened as follows: That from 
students who intend to graduate in the class of 1898, or in subsequent classes, 
four years of medical study, and attendance upon four annual courses of lec- 
tures of not less than six months each, will be required, The last course of 
lectures, at least, must be attended in this college. Students who enter from 
colleges that do not hold annual examinations, are required to make up all 
back examinations, and to pay the examination fee of $10 for each year, be- 
fore taking the final examination in this college . 

Provided that graduates of literary colleges who have taken a course of 
four years including study of natural sciences, graduates from the scientific 
department o fLake Forest University, or other universities and colleges that 
furnish an equivalent course of scientific study, graduates from schoolt of 
pharmacy that require three years of study and an adequate preliminary edu- 
cation, and graduates from dental schools requiring two years' study and an 
adequate preliminary education, will be admitted, without examination to the 
second or sophomore year in Rush Medical College, and may be graduated at 
the end of three full courses of lectures. 

Graduates from the dental department of Lake Forest or from other rep- 
utable dental colleges that require an adequate preliminary education, togeth- 
er with a course of three years that includes the subjects taught in Rush 
Medical College during the first two years of the course will be admitted to 
the third or junior year without introductory examination, and may be gradu- 
ated at the end of two full courses of lectures. 


The question of the exact, natural so-called "sore-throat" is being sys- 
tematically investigated by the Harvard Medical School, which has sent out 
the following circular; 

"It is desired to secure information as to how many cases of mild sore- 
throat are or are not diphtheritic. This can only be done by bacteriological 
examination of cases in private practice, and your co-operation in securing 
evidence upon the point would be very valuable. Nutrient materials and di- 
rections for making cultures will be furnished from this laboratory. The 
cultures will be carried on and the examination concluded without further 
trouble to you, and a report sent to you as soon as the work is finished. If 
you are willing to help in the investigation we shall be very glad to hear from 
you and further instructions as to the methods will be given you." 

Dr. Senn made a magnificent Christmas gift to the Newberry Library 
of priceless medical reference books. The number of volumes aggregate 
nearly 8,000, in addition to which is a large number of pamphlets, and will 
form a separate department in the center room on the third floor of the libra- 
ry building. It will be known as the "Senn collection." The value of this 
present is not alone in the number of books given, but also because some of 
the books cannot be duplicated and are therefore practically priceless. An 
effort was made to secure some of them for the Surgeon General's library at 
Washington, but Dr. Senn would not part with them. The Newberry has 
had a most phenomenal growth, being only three and one-half years old, and 
now has the largest and most valuable medical library west of Washington. 
Chicago is bound to become the great center of medical education in this 
country, and for which it will be indebted to such men as our most honored 

Dr. Senn and his contemporaries. 


The older students know that Dr. Haines is to be congratulated upon his 
unusually good health this winter. His annual attack of broncho-pneumonia 

seems unable to operate in a comfortable, well- ventilated laboratory. 

* * 

Dr. Hamilton has had his share, but we are glad to say is entirely over 
his recent illness. 

Dr. Senn's trip to Florida shows that he can practice prophylaxis as well 
as preach it. 

Dr. Hyde returned from abroad in excellent health during the holidays. 


President Holmes sends us the following notice, which is of special in- 
terest to the alumni: — ''We wish every alumnus, who has not visited the col- 
lege in the past four years, could spend a short time in the amphitheatre. 
There may be seen the familiar faces of Brainard, Blaney, Freer, Allen, 
Gunn and Parkes, in bronze, marble or on canvas. On the walls surrounding 
these as decorations, are the memorial tablets in brass of nearly all the 
classes of the past half century. Only nine classas are unrepresented, those 
of 1864, 65, 66, 67, 72, 73, 74, 75, and 76. Will not a few members of these 
classes respectively constitute themselves a committee to select st motto, sub- 
scribe $10- 00 and send the same to Mr. Gould, clerk of the college. Mr. 
Gould will gladly execute any order entrusted to him in reference to these 
tablets. Could members of the classes above mentioned see for themselves 
the tablets with their mottos, we feel certain they would take measures to 
place tablets in the panels reserved for their classes on the walls of the ampi- 


* * 

E. S. Kelly, M. D., 78, is connected with the Department of Health at 
Minneapolis, Minn. 

'62 had a pretty good class. Here is another member; Dr. J. M. Hagly, 

Mt. Morris, N. Y. 

* * » 

Dr. L. H. Hayman, '78, is practising in Boscobel, Wis. 

* * 

Dr. L. J. Adair, '69, is physician to the Anamosa penitentiary, Iowa. 

* * 

Dr. Ed. Barnes, '82, of Ripon, Wis., expects to locate in Chicago next 
spring. It is rumored that there will probably be some rice in his hat band, 
and umbrella when he arrives, 

Dr. L. C. Dorland, '87, whose office is on the corner of Twelfth street and 
Ogden avenue, has been appointed Demonstrator for the dissecting classes of 
the new Dental college. He spent considerable time in our new room, study- 
ing the systems now used, which he declares are far different from those of 
the days when they wiped their half -washed hands on a rope, 

Stuart, Iowa, Nov. 28, 189 . 
John E. Rhodes, M. D., Chicago, 111. 
Dear Sir: Your circular letter of Aug. 1st. came duly to hand but accident- 
ally misplaced and only found again today. In the meantime a copy of The 
Corpuscle reached me and awakened old memories as I read over names of 
students who attended lectures when I did (nearly a quarter of a century ago) 
and created in me an earnest desire to know the whereabouts of my class- 


mates. In fact if there is anywhere published a list, of the names and ad- 
dresses of all the alumni of our college 1 would like to obtain it. Great 
changes have taken place even since my school days, and many who then 
filled chairs, now fill graves. ''Old Rush'' came into being the same autumn 
I did, hence we celebrate the same birth year, and I therefore feel an especial 
attachment to her, aside from her being my alma mater. We are of the same 
age but it requires no prophet nor son of one to fortell which of us is to sur- 
vive the other, for as I grow weaker she grows stronger, and I trust that long 
after I shall be dead and forgotten she will have grown in power and influ- 
ence so that generations yet unborn will bless her memory for the light she 
sheds and the healing balm she scatters in the path of human sorrow. So I say, 
long live our dear, dear old school and brighter lustre gather round the names 
of those who made her great. If it were not that Time's wheels revolve only 
oneway; and that it is written "Thou shalt not covet," I should be tempted 
to wish myself a boy again to enjoy the advantages now afforded the young 
in our profession, but the decree "thou shaft surely die" has not yet been ab- 
rogated. I enclose $1.00 annual dues and subscription for volume 3 of The 
Corpuscle." Truly Yours, 

J. R. Dosh, 70. 

* * 

Members of the class of '83 who desire to meet their fellow class-mate, 
J. D. Adams, of Scotland, S . Dak. , will be so favored by attending alumni 

reunion next May. 

* * 

Riverside, Calif., Nov. 26, 1893. 
John Edwin Rhodes, Dear Doctor: I graduated with the class of '66. 
My diploma is signed by such men as Brainard and Blaney and Allen (Uncle) 
and Freer, and DeEaskie Miller and Ephraim Ingals, the mention of whose 
names may recall pleasant memories to some of the alumni whose hairs are 
now "silvering o'er with age." Yoius, C. J. Gill. 

It is gratifying to see the loyalty to Rush expressed in these letters Dr. 
Rhodes receives as secretary of the Alumni Association. The fact that -the 
Alumni Association has growu from one hundred and fifty to nearly four 
hundred and fifty in membership since Dr. Rhodes took his office, shows 
where most of the thanks should go for the present flourishing condition of 
the Association. 

-:t- # 

Dr. Louis Hertel, '93, has been receiving a good deal of newspaper no- 
toriety through his endeavors to be appointed a physician at Dunning. 

J. D. Mishoff, who graduated in '89, is located at 431 Milwaukee street, 
Milwaukee, Wis. 

Emery H. Bayley, vice president of '93, is now serving as intern at As- 
bury Methodist Hospital, Minneapolis, Minn. H. H. Herzog, of same class, 
is located in the same city at St. Mary's hospital. A. N. Bessensen has also 
swung his shingle in this "City of the North" and is prospering nicely. 

Gives Desired Results in the Crises of Locomotor Ataxia, Neuralgia, 
Sciatica, Rheumatism, Pneumonia, Menstrual Neuroses, Typhoid and 


"The doctor has the highest and best right 

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Jaynes, '94, had the merriest Christmas of the whole outfit. He went out 
to Morgan Park, Illinois, and with a clergyman to see that the transaction 
was properly conducted; he received for a gift one of the belles of the place. 
He says the advice a preacher gave the Christian Association a short time 
ago, to get married early, is sound, and we should judge he meant it for he 
wears a smile that interferes with his ears. 


The newspaper accounts of the Prendergast and Cronin trials have given 
the Medical Jurisprudence class a good chance to see the application of what 
Dr. Favill has been lecturing . With Professors L^man, Haines, Brower, 
Belfield and Talbot on the witness stand Rush has been well represented. 


A member of the Faculty has asked The Corpuscle to state the satis- 
faction and pleasure which was expressed at the last Faculty meeting over 
the marked improvement in the halls and rooms since the little oak framed 
signs appeared. We can assure the Faculty that they do not hold a monopoly 
of the pleasure over the matter. 


The number of matriculates up to date is seven hundred and forty! That 
makes Rush the second largest medical college in the country, the University 
of Pennsylvania Medical Department having about one hundred more. 

At Rush we don't say: "Where the chicken gets the axe," or "Where the 
bottle gets the cork," or "Agnes wears her beads; we say: "Where Eddie In- 

gals has his carbuncles." 

* * 

If you wish to see a good joke, turn to page 659 of Lyman's "Practice" 
and read the seventh line from the bottom. Perhaps the Professor himself 
has never noticed it. 

■X- * 


We hear that the man who leads in the Pulse poem competition had a 

verse where "Paul Fox" rhymed with "small-pox." 

* * 


How Latin does help one in studying anatomy ! Take for instance the 
semilunar valves. How simple it is to understand the structure of the valve! 
Semi means half. Luna means moon. Half- moon. So of course the valve is 
composed of two parts to complete the whole. If you don't believe it ask Dr. 

Heminway or Field '95. 

* * 

The fellows who board at Mrs. Rowe's evidently are not suffering. On 
the occasion of her birthday recently Mr. G. N. Ryan, after an eloquent, tear- 
starting address, presented her with an elaborate fruit- service on behalf of 
her family of Rushers. 





A. T. HOLBROOK. '95. President. 

W. D. CALVIN, '95, Secretary. C. A. ALLENBURGER, '95, Treasurer. 

E. M. ECKARD, '96. F. C. HONNOLD, '96. 

S. T. HART, Business Manager, 334 Dearborn Street 

Membership in the Alumni Association of Rush Medical College is obtainable at any time by 
raduates of the College, providing they are in good standing in the profession, and shall pay the annual 
clues, $1.00. This fee includes a subscription to The Corpuscle for the current year. This journal is the 
official organ of the Association. 

Dues and all communications relating to the Association should be sent to 

JOHN EDWIN RHODES, M. D., Sec'y andTreas., 34 Washington St., Chicagol 

College Anniversaries— 

Doctorate Sermon, Sunday, May 20th, 1894. 

Special Clinics and Class-Day Exercises, Monday, May 21st, 1894. 

Scientific Meeting of the Alumni Association, 10 A. M. and 2 P. M.. Tuesday, May 22nd, 1894. 

Business Meeting of the Alumni Association, 10 A. M., Wednesday, May 23rd, 1894. 

Annual Commencement 2 P. M. Alumni Banquet 7:30 P. M. 

Ruby Red and Black: Colors of Lake Forest University. Yellow: Color of Rush Medical College. 


We are certain 'that if the average student at Rush were asked his opinion 
regarding the numerous inferior, mushroom "Medical Colleges" that spring 
up and nourish for a season, he would be emphatic in his denunciation of 
them. But we are not so certain that these same students on settling in the 
locality of such an institution would refuse to associate themselves with such 
schools and give them their aid and encouragement for the returns of an ex- 
perience and advertising that might prove pecuniarly beneficial . In fact we 
know of Rush men casting the "pearls," they gathered here, before audiences 
of the proverbial sort. 

At a medical meeting, held in Boston a short time ago, an address made 
by Dr. J. M . DaCosta, Professor Emeritus of Medicine in the Jefferson Col- 
lege, discusses this point. He said: "The chief difficulty in making a high 
standard universal lies in the number of medical colleges. It is indeed a 
sorry admission that the medical schools in this country are the greatest 
enemy to medical progress, not in themselves but in their number. Some 
years ago there were nearly three hundred; now there are not far from one 


hundred and fifty, and they are dying at about the rate of three a year, with- 
out, it must be said, many mourners. A further reduction would be a national 
benefit. The reason they constitute in their number a bar to medical educa- 
tion is not only that in their struggle for existence the feeble ones tend to 
keep the general standard down but that it is utterly impossible that all can 
keep pace with the requirements of modern medicine. How can all have well 
equipped laboratories? Where can the clinical work be done, on which the 
medicine of the day depends? The remedy lies in their amalgamation." 

Dr. W. S. Chaplin, Chancellor of Washington University, Saint Louis, 
who addressed the same meeting after Dr. DaCosta, announced that Saint 
Louis has eleven medical schools. He attributed the large number to the lack 
of science, education and culture, and the convenient means it gave a special- 
ist, for instance, to advertise himself as "professor'' in a medical school. 

It is almost a maxim that cranks and their theories flourish only on the 
opposition offered them. That, left to their insignificant selves, they soon 
run their short, harmless course and pass unnoticed and disappointed from 
the world where they tried so hard to attract attention . 

So it is that the regular medical profession regards the anti- vivisection- 
is jj and from this policy we would not deviate. It does not harm us to have 
Mr. Philip Peabody say: "What can the people of France be dreaming of to 
allow this monstrous charlatan, Pasteur, to deliberately poison and infect 

their domestic auimals? A little more sense and this prince of swindlers 

will follow Koch and Brown-Sequard, who have had their downfall. A trio 

of more cruel, ignorant, insolent braggarts this generation has not seen 

more truthless, heartless deception the world has not experienced. I will not 
insult your intelligence by telling you that all vivisection is worse than use- 
less no good has ever come from it and it is demonstrated that none ever 

can." It does not harm Professor Huxley because Miss Prances Power Cobbe 
feels that, because of his being a vivisector ' 'the disgrace of his acquaintance 
became naturally abhorrent." 

And it does not harm us when that kind, gentle, humanity loving, disciple 
of truth, Colonel Bob Ingersoll, leaves iiis other mission long enough to tell 
the admiring public that he marvels at "the people of a civilized country al- 
lowing their fellow citizens to commit this useless and heartless crime of vivi- 
section. The cruelty is unspeakable, the knowledge gained is worthless. 
Not one fact of importance to the human race has been ascertained by these 
scientific assassins." He calls the- vivisector a "wild beast," a "criminal" a 
"coward;" in all his famous vocabularly he has "no words strong enough to 
express" his "abhorrence, hatred and loathing" for the vivisector "who is of 
less value than the animal he destroys. " 


Such blind, ignorant, biased, untruths need no answer they are of interest 
to the profession because they are amusing. The particular point we wish to 
make to our readers is not an answer to this class of cranks but to another 
aspect of the question. 

The bright little weekly, Life, that takes up its pen to satire American 
follies has given the medical profession many a sharp and deserved prick of 
late. This we enjoy as much as the laity; but in an issue last month they 
went a step too far. They took a sentence from the announcement of the 
Chicago Post- Graduate School of Medicine and attempted to prove by it that 
•medical men gathered at that college to enjoy the suffering of animals in the 
laboratories. They make this quotation: "Aim is to instruct as well as to 
entertain. The medical, chemistry and toxicological, microscopy, bacterio- 
logical, and experimental surgery on the lower animals, are well equipped, 
and systematic courses in each subject may be arranged at any time." From 
this they deduce the facts that the college has made an official announcement 
that its "cutting up of live animals is generally done simply for amusement." 

Perhaps the custom of the humorists to make a double and sometimes 
far-fetched meaning from phrases was the influence; perhaps the Columbian 
Exposition trip of the editor was not prolonged enough for him to see that 
Chicagoans are fairly well civilized — at all events the statement made by the 
paper was unkind and inexcusable. The doctor is of all men a humanitarian, 
but he does not forget the dumb animals. When the sacrifice of a lower ani- 
mal is made necessary, it is done with no levity and carelessness, it is not done 
to "amuse" or "entertain." 

We have a deep respect for Life and the intelligence of its editors, and 
we should be sorry to see it join the ranks of those whose rhetoric stands 
without logic or truth . 

Most of us as students are not sufficiently familiar with the physical ap- 
pearance of drugs. We may study them and write upon them apparently un- 
derstandingly in examinations and still this is not sufficient. Words can not 
always describe fully certain tastes, smells or feelings . 

Prof. Brower's advice, ''secure samples of the different drugs, take them to 
your rooms, look at them, taste them, and become as familiar with them as you 
would your most intimate friends,''' was of the most opportune, and we all will 
profit by it if we but follow it. 

How often we have read or heard the words, "soon after the ingestion of 
even a small quantity, a sensation of numbness and a persistent tingling are 
felt in the tongue and lids." All will recognize that the above words apply to 
aconite, but how many have ever felt this peculiar tingling? Some have al- 
ready secured samples of these different drugs and the cost is very low. The 


practical course in materia medica (to be) will be one of the most valuable and 

will well be worth an "extra X." 

Now that the term will cover the larger part of blossoming May, when 
one so desires to be out in the open air, when the gymnasium gives way to 
field exercise, why is not the present the proper time to organize class base- 
ball teams, and make general arrangements for a royal old "field day?" Of 
course because of our great amount of hard work the same amount of time 
can not be given for training, but it is beyond dispute that every student 
should take a sufficient amount of exercise, which far exceeds the amount 
usually devoted by the average student, for keeping his muscles in first class 
condition. This exercise could be more systematized and the result would be 
that by "field day" the fellows could indulge in some fairly good running, 
jumping, kicking, throwing the hammer, tugging and numerous other feats 
usually characteristic of such a day. A game of ball between the Middlers 
and Freshman might add to the interest of the day. 

Prizes should of course be given to the successful competitors. 

If this suggestion meets with favor by those athletically inclined the 
matter could probably be best carried to a successful conclusion by placing 
the management in the hands of a committee consisting of a certain number 
from each class. 

The "West Side Ball Park" could undoubtedly be secured as a place for 

We are sorry to announce the withdrawal of Mr. Girard from the college 
and his consequent resignation as editor of The Corpuscle. Mr. Fred C. 
Honnold, '96, has been elected his successor. 

The Corpuscle this month publishes the pictures of two of its creditors. 
Certainly the journal owes much to Mr. Center and Mr. Ross, the retiring 
senior editors. 

Professor H. M. Lyman. 

[Note. — We wish again to call attention to the fact that these reports of clinics are not 
taken verbatim, are not taken by a stenographer, are not furnished by the professor holding- 
the clinic. If any misstatement of the facts has crept in the criticism falls on the student 
reporting the clinic, and not on the professor.— Ed.] 

Case I. Male; age thirty -four years. Brought in by Mr. Howard Thomp- 
son, who had elicited the following facts concerning the case: 

Occupation of patient, carpenter. His father was killed; his mother is 
living, and was at one time affected in like manner as the patient. She made 
full recovery. A cousin of his father was also afflicted with this disease, and 
died during an acute attack. 

The patient has never been seriously ill with any other disease. He came 
to this country in 18,81, and at that time weighed 204 pounds. At present he 
weighs 144 pounds. In January, 1882, he was taken with ''cramps in the 
stomach," which have reappeared each year regularly, with the exception of 
1885. In 1884, and again in 1892, he had two attacks. So far this year he has 
had three — first in July, second in August, and third in September. The at- 
tacks, as he describes them, are preceded by distention of the stomach, eruc- 
tations, headache, dizziness, drowsiness and depression of spirits. He has 
pain which is referred to the epigastric region, and which shoots up to the 
left shoulder. During the attacks he flexes his thighs on the abdomen, and 
complains of terrible pain in the epigastric region — (epigastralgia.) This pain 
is so great that his physician, after trying morphine, and not getting favorable 
results, has resorted to general anaesthesia. The man vomits during the at- 
tack, the vomitus'being partly digested food and partly a greenish, shiny sub- 
stance. He often loses consciousness during the seizure. The attacks for- 
merly lasted about an hour and a half each, but his last one lasted for seven 
hours. When the attack ends he regains consciousness, and, with the excep- 
tion of great weakness, he feels as well as usual. His bowels are irregular. 
He has a right inguinal hernia, but there have never been symptoms of stran- 
gulation. His attacks come on both in the night and during the day. His 
urine is loaded with urates, and the specific gravity is 1033. Aside from this 
the urine is negative . Mr. Thompson, who was present during one of these 
attacks, confirmed the statement regarding distention of the stomach and vom- 
iting; said the pain was paroxysmal, was increased by moderate pressure and 
relieved by deep pressure, exactly like a superficial neuralgia. Further ques- 
tioning elicited the fact that the patient sometimes had pain also in the region 
immediately above the symphysis pubis, which, Prof. Lyman said, was a very 
frequent accompaniment of a concealed or repressed gout, or rheumatism, — 
the condition of lithalmia, as called by old writers. An examination of the 
heart revealed nothing abnormal, Prof. L. said: This man suffers from a 
lack of nervous power of the stomach, which lack causes a diminution of mus- 


cular movement of the stomach, a lessening of the secretion of hydrochloric 
acid, and this condition is a true dyspepsia nervasa; you will meet with various 
forms of the disease, but underlying nearly every case will be found either the 
arthritic diathesis, or a too great expenditure of nervous energy, or the sequel 
of many nervous disorders. 

The treatment of these troubles often embraces months of careful atten- 
tention. The diet must be judiciously regulated. It is not enough for you 
to say to the patient, "Be careful what you eat;" instead make out a careful 
diet list for him. He must eat slowly, and never to repletion, A change of 
air and scenery is often of great benefit. Then follow sponge baths, massage, 
electricity, exercise. Careful attention must also be })aid to the bowels. The 
preparations of rhubarb, gentian, and ipecac, are very valuable for these 

Case II. Female; age twenty-five years. Suffers from a high degree of 
ansemia. The face is perfectly colorless; the ears are as bloodless as those of 
a corpse. She has no menorrhagia or haemorrhages now. Two yea^s ago 
she had a miscarriage attended by haemorrhage and pain for considerable 
time. Her trouble dates back to this. The haemo-globinometer shows at 
present but 27 per cent, of haemoglobin, but the number of red blood corpu- 
scles is actually increased about ten per cent. 

Case III. Girl; age fourteen years. Been out of health one year. Had 
always been well before; that is, has never had a severe sickness. Has had a 
mild form of bronchitis each winter for three winters, but this does not last 
throughout the entire season. Has been treated for the present trouble at 
various places. The last treatment was cupping over the spine. Last June 
she became much worse than she had been, so that when walking she would 
fall down. In August she began to have attacks of rigidity; could not bend 
her limbs. Often the head and heels would sustain the body, and sometimes 
the opisthotonus would be so great as to bring the feet and head nearly to- 
gether behind. She sits now with limbs flexed, the upper ones folded behind 
her back, and the weight rests on the crossed legs and feet. Occasionally this 
condition of flexion changes almost instantly to one of extreme extension, 
which continues for a few moments and then as suddenly changes again. 
There is no twitching or jerking of the limbs. Sometimes when she is asleep 
clonic spasms of the legs are seen . The mother gives her sulf onal to produce 
sleep, and when the girl is profoundly unconscious the limbs can be straight- 
ened. The patient will not micturate nor defecate without artifica] aid. A 
hot bath for the former and rectal injection or a cathartic for the latter. She 
sometimes vomits on eating and drinking. There is no trouble in swallowing. 
She complains sometimes of diplopia, aud there is also hyper-metropia. She 
has not spoken above a whisper for five or six weeks. She had such a spell 
as this five or six weeks ago, and then her speech returned suddenly, There 
is a loss of sensation in the fauces, palate and pharynx. There is partial hemi- 
anaesthesia of the left side, what is usually called patchy anaesthesia. The 
patient says she cannot smell, but can taste. The mentality is seemingly al- 
most normal, although she persists in giving her parents and friends Biblical 

The corpuscle, is? 

names, and will call them nothing else. The diagnosis is hysteria. This at- 
tack may cease to-morrow, but it may last for years. At this juncture the pa- 
tient, who had been removed from the room, was quickly brought in in a state 
of perfect extension. Now there is but little sensation anywhere, and the girl 
lies in an unconscious, or seemingly unconscious, condition. Suddenly the 
patient flexed, assumed the sitting position, and regained consciousness. A 
person once hysterical is always hysterical, although the same sort of attacks 
are not always manifested. The treatment is often unsatisfactory; get the 
patient away from sympathizing friends and relatives. Put them in a hospital 
or sanitarium, where they can be isolated, and change this place of abode 
often enough so that they will never feel completely at home and domesticated 
there. Treat the general symptoms. Diet, tonics, baths. Be always kind and 
firm, but unsympathetic in your treatment. The hysterical state thrives on 
pity and petting. 

Case IV. Boy ten years old. Two months ago had diphtheria. Is still 
pale. He is suffering from diphtheric paresis, affecting, now, chiefly the low- 
er limbs. He has had trouble in swallowing, milk or water returning through 
the nose, but the muscles of deglutition have now recovered. This condition 
is often met with, and should not give too great alarm. The patients usually 
recover in a few months. Occasionally a group of muscles will refuse to im- 
prove and remain permanently paretic or paralyzed. The paralysis is caused 
by inflammation of the peripheral nerves, and is a polyneuritis, in which exu- 
dation to a slight extent involves the motor nerve roots and gray matter of 
the anterior cor una in the cord. 

The boy should have nerve tonics, strychnine or nux vomica, also small 
doses of potassium iodide, about one grain t. i. d., and some preparation of iron 
for his anaemic condition. 

Case V. Boy; age fourteen years. Troubled with nocturnal enuresis. 
This annoying condition often follows some disease of the nervous system— 
often follows rickets. It is caused frequently by over-excitation of brain, 
spinal cord, and nerves during the day, so that in the first hours of the night, 
when the enuresis usually occurs, the over-taxed nerves, during the profound 
slumber of the child, lose their power of inhibition, and wetting the bed is the 
result. This patient has always had this trouble. He has a grown-up sister 
who has always wet the bed. Usually, however, as the patient reaches adult 
life the habit is overcome. The mother says her daughter is steadily improv- 
ing in this respect. The child ordinarily has but one wetting a night, gener- 
ally about eleven o'clock, but this boy has two and three every night. 

The treatment of these cases is wide-reaching. Doctor the child all over. 
Regulate his hours and mode of eating. Let him have only digestible food, 
no candy, or any of the "truck" of which children are so fond, and which is 
so carefully provided for them by every grocery store and confectionery shop 
in the land. Feed him four or five times a day, giving him milk, eggs, bread, 
meat, and those vegetables that are easy to digest. Keep him warmly housed 
and clothed, and then do what is very essential, give him a cold sponge or 
shower bath every day, followed by rubbing him nard and dry. For medicine 
give him the ordinary nerve tonics, and for the relief of the bladder give bel- 
ladonna in increasing doses till its fall effects appear. Clinicus. 


Prof. J. H. Etheridge. 

Case I. Washing of a new-born babe, before the class. Prof. E. re- 
marked that this was an innovation, and that he did not know of its ever be- 
ing introduced into a medical college before. The modus operandi, with the 
accompanying verbal instructions, was about as follows: Always have the 
washing done before an open fire if possible. Be very particular about the 
eyes, not waiting to cleanse them until the bath, but doing so as soon as the 
head emerges into the world. Use pieces of soft old linen saturated in a boric 
acid solution, Then for the bath the nurse begins at the head and works 
down . She uses soap and water freely. It is difficult to get the head clean if 
the hair is long, but a little perseverance will accomplish it. Dry the head 
and hair perfectly with a soft towel. Always support the head. Then the nurse 
deftly places the baby in the bowl of warm water for the rest, still supporting 
the head with her hand, or in the bend of her elbow. The baby always likes 
to have his back washed and rubbed; it makes him stop crying, After care- 
fully drying, the cord is powdered with boric acid, and a pad or protective of 
absorbent cotton is placed around it. The binder is then put on, and sewed 
on; there are no pins used. The sewing takes but a few seconds longer, and 
with it there is always the satisfaction of knowing that if the bab;y cries it is 
not because a pin pricks him. The diaper, if put on properly, precludes the 
possibility of the clothes being soiled. The little undershirt is put on, and 
sewed on. Different customs obtain for the washing of babies, in different 
localities. Most civilized countries wash now — at least a part of the child— 
as soon as the mother is made comfortable. Some countries oil the baby for a 
week, ten days, etc. , and it is said there are a few countries where they oil the 
baby for a year. It has been the custom here to wash hands, head and face, 
and oil the rest of the child for two or three days. 

Case II. A Fibroid of the Uterus as a Working Hypothesis. — The pa- 
tient has passed the menapause, and contrary to the run of such tumors, this 
one is still growing. She complains of constant pain running down her legs. 
Just what I will do in this case I cannot tell until I have explored the abdom- 
inal cavity. I may tie off the broad ligaments, perform hysterectomy, or do 
something else. After having made the usual preparations regarding asep- 
sis, make an incision in the median line clear through the skin and superficial 
fascia at the first sweep. Incise the sheath of the muscle, scrape away and 
dissect away the muscular tissue and fat, pick up the peritoneum between two 
dissecting forceps ready to make the little opening without danger to the 
intestine. This patient is a "bleeder," and some hemostatic forceps must be 
used. There is a mass of adhesions covering in the whole top of the pelvis. 
This is what simulates a uterine fibroid. The adhesions are very extensive, 
and it is almost impossible tc get through them. Reach the fundus of the 


uterus as a starting point and work from that. The uterus is small and well 
down in the pelvis. The adhesions are from a former peritonitis; wherever 
peritoneum touches peritoneum adhesions will form if there is inflammation. 
The more adhesions are destroyed the less is found of what was expected . 
Often when starting for a fibroid you will find instead a salpingitis, so mis- 
leading are adhesions. The main point to decide in the diagnosis is, does this 
woman need a laparotomy or not. 

Am now well down in the pelvis and am pulling up what seems to be an 
abnormal right broad ligament, and now it is brought up into view. This ova- 
ry, because of its condition, will be tied off — it is undoubtedly the cause of the 
peritonitis. Ligatures of heavy silk are used. After tying, tuck a sponge 
into the abdominal cavity, grasp the pedicle with a forceps, and amputate. 
The lumen of the uterine artery is in this case as large as a lead pencil. Now, 
as the stump is perfectly dry, the pedicle is allowed to slip down and the for- 
ceps removed. The ovary on the left side is atrophied and is partially bu- 
ried in adhesions. This one is freed and allowed to remain. With a sponge 
and a long forceps the Douglas cul de sac is explored to see if there has been 
haemorrhage. In this case there will be considerable from the rupture of the 
adhesions. This is sponged out, and the sponging is continued' until the 
sponge comes up dry. 

Care must be taken not to poke off the ligature. One way to stop bleed- 
ing of a large vessel in such a case is to upset the patient, let the intestine 
gravitate toward the head, thus exposing the interior of the abdominal cavity, 
when the vessel can be seen and secured. Another is to put a compress in 
the pelvis, pressing it down tightly. In this case a glass drain filled with 
gauze, closed and rounded at the bottom, with small holes at bottom and sides, 
will be used. This will remain in as long as necessary. It stops the bleeding 
by keeping everything as dry as possible. A pool of blood in the abdomen is 
likely to hinder the formation of the clot in the vessel end. 

Now tuck a flat sponge down over the intestines, pick up the peritoneum 
on each side and insert sutures. A powder of boric acid, with an absorbent 
dressing and a flannel binder is used. A. C. Ripple. 

Professor Daniel R. Brower. 
General or central galvanization is a useful method of applying the con- 
stant galvanic current to the central nervous system so as to secure the tonic, 
sedative and alterative properties of this form of electricity. 

Apparatus — The apparatus required is a galvanic battery of at least 
twenty-four volts. The best portable battery is the ordinary zinc and carbon 
battery of from eighteen to twenty-four cells, For a stationary battery the 
"diamond carbon" cell is the best. Two electrodes, one about five centimet- 
ers in diameter and the other at least ten centimeters square are necessary. 
The ordinary copper electrodes covered with sponges will best answer the 
purpose, provided the sponges are well disinfected after each application. A 
milliampere-meter should always be used, for accuracy in dosage is as neces- 
sary with electricity as with the preparations of pharmacy. 

Details of Treatment — The electrodes must be placed in direct contact 
with the skin because the potential of the galvanic current is not sufficient 
to overcome the resistance of the clothing. The clothing must therefore be 
loosened so that the current may be carried the entire length of the spine. 
The room in which the seance is held must be of a proper temperature, and 
the electrodes must be warm so that there can be no danger of chilling the 
patient. All unnecessary exposure of the patient should be avoided. 

The first step is the galvanization of the brain. Place the larger elec- 
trode, well saturated with warm, salt water and connected with the positive 
pole of the battery, on the forehead and place the other electrode, similarly 
wetted and connected with tne negative pole, and gradually increase the 
strength of the current to four or six milliamperes according to the suscepti- 
bility of the patient, always avoiding the use of a current strength that will 
produce disagreeable sensations. Indeed the least current that the patient 
can feel usually gives the best results. The current should be thus applied 
for about five minutes. 

The second step is the galvanization of the cervical sympathetic. The 
larger electrode connected with the positive pole is now placed at the nape of 
the neck and the smaller electrode, the negative, is without interruption slow- 
ly moved up and down the inner border of the sterno-cleido mastoideus 
muscle first on one side and then on the other, using five to ten milliamperes. 
This should continue about eight minutes. 

The third step is the galvanization of the spinal cord and the abdominal 
sympathetic; for this purpose the smaller or negative electrode is placed 
over the umbilicus, the larger or positive is gradually without interruption 
moved up and down the spine, using from ten to fifteen milliamperes of cur- 
rent and continuing the application about ten minutes. 

These treatments should be given daily for ten days and then every 
other day for two weeks or longer if necessary • 


The first step in the technique brings the brain under the influence of the 
current, and although there are some medical skeptics who doubt our ability 
to do this yet it may be considered that it can be done without a reasonable 
doubt, and that the sedative, tonic and alterative properties of galvanism are 

The second step improves the nutrition of the cervical ganglia of the 
sympathetic nervous system, an important part of the blood regulating ap- 
paratus of the brain and thereby improves the vaso-motor tonus of the cere- 
bral vessels. 

The third step brings under the influence of galvanism the spinal 
cord and abdominal sympathetic nervous system, thereby improving the nu - 
trition of the spinal cord and promoting the processes of digestion and assim - 

This treatment is useful in insomnia, in the early stages of melancholia, 
in epilepsy, in chorea, in neurasthenia, in spinal sclerosis, in nervous dys- 
pepsia and in diabetes insipidus. 




H 2 0, CO,, H g S-HCy-HI- H Br— H CI,— H N 3 — NH, 


All compounds of K, — Na,— N H 4 , and Li. (See note 1.) 

All Nitrates, Chlorates, Permanganates, Acetates, Lactates, and Hypo- 
phosphites. (See note 2.) 

All Chlorides, Bromides, and Iodines, except those of Hg. Ag, and Pb. 
[Hg CI, is, however, soluble.] 

All Sulphates except those of Ba, Sr, Ca, and Pb. (See note 3.) 


All Hydrates, Carbonates, Phosphates, Oxides, Sulphides, Arsen- 
ates, Arsenites, Borates, Silicates, and Tannates, except those of K, Na, 
N H 4 and Li.— (See note 4.) 

Insoluble Phosphates, Arsenates, and Arsenites dissolve in Acids. 

In the above table, if a substance dissolves in fewer than 100 parts of 
H 2 0,it is regarded as soluble; but if it requires more than 100 parts to effect its 
solution, it is classed among the in. solubles. 

Note 1. — The Bitartrate of K requires about 180 parts of cold H., O for 
solution, and the Platino-chlorides of K and N H 4 are difficultly soluble. 

The Carbonates and Phosphate of Li are sparingly soluble. 

Note 2. — The Acetates of the Cinchona Alkaloids are difficultly soluble. 

Note 3. — The neutral Sulphates of the Cinchona Alkaloids are difficultly 
soluble, but they dissolve readily in dilute acids. 

Note 4. — The Phosphates of many of Alkaloids are soluble. 

W. S. Haines, M. D. 



Definition. — General usage limits the term " roller bandage " to one 
made from muslin. Other roller bandages are named from material used, as 
rubber bandage, gauze bandage, &c. 

Material. — Unbleached muslin [remove selvage], gauze, rubber, white 
flannel, crinoline, &c. [More elastic if cut bias]. 

Rolling. — Hand, Hopkins' key, Machine. 

Size. — £ or 1 inch by 3 yards for hand, fingers or toes; 2 in. by 3, 5 or 7 
yards for head or extremities in children; 2-J in. by 7 yards for extremities in 
adults ;3 in. by 7 or 9 yards for groin or trunk :6 to 8 in. by 10 yards for trunk. 

Parts of a Roller . — Body, initial and terminal extremities, upper and 
lower border, external and internal surface. 

Use. — Support or protection. Retain — Dressings, splints. Prevent or 
Control— Oozing of blood, serum, oedema, spasm of muscles. 


Depending upon the Roller Itself. — [a] Circumference of part [great- 
er the circumference the more force can be used. The thigh will bear more 
tension than the ankle.] [b] Incomplete bandaging. [If a considerable por- 
tion of the distal extremity of limb be left uncovered it will swell. This ten- 
sion will increase the tension beneath bandage, which may result in strangu- 
lation.] [c] Character of dressing beneath. [More tension can be used if part 
be covered with yielding material, as cotton, or over a well padded splint.] 
[d] Increase of tension from flexion or extension, [e] Number of turns. 
[Every additional turn over sanie part increases tension, nearly double accord- 
ing to Hopkins.] [f] Shrinkage. [If a bandage becomes wet or damp it will 
shrink when dry.] 

[a] Texture and Condition of Tissues. — No Pressure — Acute. inflammatory 
condition. Moderate Pressure — Flabby limbs of delicate children and aged 
persons. Considerable Pressure — ^Edematous douchy tissue. Firm Pres- 
sure — Hard infillrated tissue. 

Existing in the Part Bandaged. — [b] Habit. [Tension can be measured 
as patient becomes accustomed to pressure of the bandage.] [c] Situation. 
[Chest must not be too firmly bandaged, especially if patient has not recov- 
ered from anesthetic. Care must also be observed in bandaging lower jaw in 
like condition, [d] Change of position. [A limb, after being horizontal for 
some time will swell when allowed to hang. Fixed dressing, if too tight, must 
be cut.] 


To Fix — [Begin at smallest diameter and at end of oval, not at the side.] 
To Repeat. To Overlap. To Reverse. To Recur. To Secure— [If a pin is 
used it should always be a safety pin; adhesive strap; sew or tie. J To Remove. 
[The above follows that practical book, "The Roller Bandage," by Dr. Hopkins.] 


Circular bandage. Spiral bandage. Spiral reversed bandage. Figure-of- 


eight bandage. [The principle most used.] As the "spica" bandage is in re- 
ality either an ascending or a descending figure-of-eight, we will drop the word 
and employ instead the term "ascending figure of -eight." The descending 
figure-of-eight will not be used. 


Apply bandage smoothly and carefully, with uniform pressure. Begin- 
ners generally use too much force. Prof. Ashhurst advises a number of turns 
of a bandage in securing a fracture, rather than a few turns too firmly applied. 

Place part in the position it is to occupy, as regards flexion or extension, 
before applying bandage. 

In upper or lower extremity leave fingers or toes exposed, in order that 
swelling or changes in circulation may be observed. 

To pre vent chafing : Never bandage skin to skin. Place cotton between 
arm and side of chest, back of ear, between the fingers and the toes. 

Pad hollows, as palm of hand, axilla, popliteal space, &c. Bandage will 
fit better. 

Always use ascending figure-of-eight. 


Barton [2 in. by 5 yds.] A figure-of-eight bandage. Very practical. Use. — 
In fracture of body of lower jaw. To retain dressings. After luxations. As 
a substitute for head-gear of Sayre's suspension apparatus. Danger. — If pa- 
tient vomits before recovery from anaesthetic. 

Crossedor. Oblique bandage of angle of jaw. [2 in. by 5 yds.] A circu- 
lar bandage and very useful. Use. — To retain dressings on chin, parotid re- 
gion, &c, and in fracture of lower jaw with troublesome displacement. 

Figure-of -Eight of Head and Chin. [2 in. by 3 yds.] Dr. Hunter's V 
bandage. Use. — To retain dressings and after plaster operations on chin or 
lips. It allows patient the use of his jaw. Dr. White's head and neck band 
age is similar to this, the lower loop passing around neck instead of chin. 

Figure of -Eight of One or Both Eyes. [2 in. by 5 or 7 yds.] Use. — To 
retain dressings or make compression upon orbit. 

Transverse Recurrent of Head. [2 in. by 7 yds.] Use.— To retain dress- 
ings on vault of cranium, or first three or four turns can be used to make com- 
pression on frontal or parielal region. Figure 1. 




Figure-of -Eight of Finger, [f in. by 1-J yds.] 

Figure -of -Bight of Thumb and Wrist. [1 in. by 3 yds.] The ascending 
spica of thumb. 

Figure- of -Eight of Wrist and of Thumb and Fingers. [1 in. by 5 yds.] 
The demi-gauntlet. 

Figure-of-Eight and Spinal Reverse of Upper Extremity. [2 in. by 7 yds.] 
This is a combination of the figure-of-eight of hand and wrist, of fore- arm, of 
elbow, of arm and of shoulder, and neck or opposite axilla (the ascending spi- 
ral of shoulder) with a few spiral or spinal reversed turns on fore-arm and 

Figure-of-Eight of the Neck and Axilla. [2 in. by 5 yds.] Use,— To se- 
cure dressings on neck, shoulder or axilla. Does not restrict motion of arm. 


Figure-of-Eight of Trunk, [2i in. by 7 yds.] Use.— A secure bandage to 
retain dressings, support ribs, &c. Apply carefully, that respiration may not 
be interfered with. 

Figure-of-Eight of Chest and Neck. [2£ in. by 7 yds.] Use.— To sup- 
port and compress one breast. 

Figure-of-Eight of Both Breasts, [2-j- in. by 7 yds.] Use. - -To support 
and compress both breasts. Dr. Fisher's bandage. 


Figure-of-Eight of Groin and Pelvis. [2-J in. by 7 yds.] This is the as 
cending spiral of groin. • Use. — To secure dressing, or make compression in in- 
guinal region. 

Figure-of-Eight and Spiral Reversed of Lower Extremity. [2k in. by 7. 
yds.] A combination of the Figure-of-Eight of foot and ankle, of leg, of knee, 
and of thigh, with a few spiral and spiral reversed turns. Use. — To retain 
dressing and splints, and to make compression or give support. 

Recurrent of Stump. Use. — After amputation of limb. 


Elastic Webbing. [2-J in. wide.] Use. — Auto- transfusion. Varicose con- 
dition of limbs. Chronic ulcers when pressure is indicated. 

Mosquito-netting. [2 in. by 3 or 5 yds.] Use.— A light bandage to retain 
dressings on eyes. Moisten before using. 

Gauze. [4J or 9 in. by 5 yds. Gauze one yard wide folded twice upon 
itself will make a bandage of four thicknesses nine inches wide; or if first cut 
in two and then folded will make a 4^ inch bandage.] Use, — A soft, pliable, 
elastic bandage [the 9 inch] is very useful on trunk or groin, or with figure- 
of-eight, and after operations upon breast. The 4^ inch is useful after opera- 
tions upon head, axilla or shoulder, &c. ; also as the primary bandage (previ- 
ously shrunken) to protect skin before applying a plaster-of-paris bandage. 

White Flannel. [2J in. by 5 to 7 yds.] Use. — A good bandage, but too 
expensive . Being elastic it will adapt itself to uneven surfaces, make equa- 
ble compression, and is not easily displaced . Best material with which to 
bandage extremities for shock following operations. 

Plaster- of -Paris. [2J or 3 in. by 5 yds. J Made by rubbing dental (extra 


calcineal) plaster- of -paris into crinoline. Each roll should be wrapped 
in waxed paper and kept in a tight box, as exposure to air or dampness will 
impair its setting qualities. 

Application. — [The limb or part having been protected by a gauze bandage 
or with cotton held in position by a very loose, muslin roller], immerse one plas- 
ter bandage in a basin of water until bubbles cease to rise; remove from basin, 
squeeze gently and apply . If too wet dust on dry plaster. 

To stiffen cast, incorporate between the layers strips of tin or galvanized 
iron, or strips of wood f to 1 inch wide, such as can be obtained at cigar-box 

To remove, or to make an opening in cast, dampen line of incision with 
acetic acid and cut with a knife, the blade of which has been broken off square. 

To remove plaster from hands, wash in a solution of sodium carbonate, 
one tablespoonful to a basin of water. 

On children, varnish cast in region of urinary apparatus. 

Use of Plaster Bandages. As a support, to secure immobility, and to keep 
parts at rest. To accomplish this last condition, follow Prof. Hamilton's rule, 
that is, "The plaster bandage must include the thigh to keep the leg at rest, 
and must include the pelvis to keep the thigh at rest." 

(To be concluded in March issue.) 



The expression of love from her eyes so keen, 
As they beam on another in a far distant land, 

Is a pleasure to feel, — it can never be seen, 

Save you walk with my love, heart in heart, hand in hand. 

I list while thy heart and ascending aorta, 
Their volumes of valvular harmony pour, 

And my soul from this vascular music has caught a 
New life from this dry anatomical lore. 

Those beautiful orbs, they are haunting me still, 
As they roll 'neath the palpebral dimly translusent, 

Obeying in silence the magical will 
Of thy occulo-motor pathetic abducent. 

Oh! Thy cornea, love, has a radiant light, 
As the sparkle, that laughs in the icicle's gleam, 

And thy crystalline lens like a diamond bright, 
Through the quivering frame of thine iris is seen. 

Thou hast stolen the charm from my studio dim, 
And I turn from dissections embittered with wrath; 

Thou hast stepped betwixt me and my skeleton grim. 
Oh, Lady, Fair Lady, why crossed thou my path? 


[The following case, reported by one of the last year's graduates, will be 
of interest to us, as his friends and as students of obstetrics. We hope some 
of the older experienced readers will answer his queries through the medium 
of The Corpuscle. Remember this is the organ of the Alumni Association 
and is gladly open to Rush graduates. — Ed.] 

On January 1 at 4:30 A. M. Mrs. S. gave birth to a child. The midwife 
failed to remove the placenta. I was called in and arrived at 7 P. M. [20 miles 
out.] The woman was in great pain, pulse rapid, temperature normal. On 
examination I found part of placenta protruding from the vulva and much 
torn. The uterus was tightly contracted, holding the upper portion of the 
placenta in a firm grasp. I introduced two fingers and dilated the uterine os, 
when the placenta readily slipped out. It was so much torn that it was im- 
possible to tell whether it was all removed or not, but the uterus seemed of a 
size small enough to indicate that it was empty. The next day she was feel- 
ing extremely well; no pain whatever, I warned them that the danger was 
not passed and pointed out the danger signals, The night of the second day, 
about 10 o'clock, she was taken with a severe chill; the temperature began to 
rise and pain and tenderness of the lower abdomen became very marked. How- 
ever, they neglected my warning and I did not see her until about 7 P. M. the 
third day. She was in great agony, pain and tenderness marked, face drawn, 
temperature 105 degrees, and pulse 160 and very weak. I anaesthetized her 
and introduced my hand to scrape out the uterus. The placental site occupied 
seemingly the whole anterior uterine surface and the remnants were extreme- 
ly adherent. I scraped away what I could with my fingers and a Sim's sharp 
curette, but with only a farmer (and a not very intelligent one at that) to give 
the anaesthetic. I was working under difficulties. She suddenly ceased 
breathing and the pulse at the wrist could not be 'felt. I immediately elevated 
the feet to an angle of 45 degrees and resorted to all the usual methods to re- 
store her. In about an hour and a half she had again the appearance of life. 
I had used strychnine until I could feel the muscles slightly twitch beneath 
my fingers. I remained with her until morning, when her whole condition was 
much improved. The temperature was 103 degrees and gradually falling, the 
pulse 140 and much improved in strength. 

As I was afraid to make a second effort at removal alone I telegraphed for 
assistance and in the evening went to see her again . Her condition was about 
the same as when I left her in the morning; the pain was gone, the tempera- 
ture and pulse were the same. I had given her morphia, which would account 
for absence of pain. 

We resolved to undertake a complete removal, and so again put her to 
sleep. The uterus contracted so firmly that we could not scrape for a great 
while at a time and we had to relieve each other. Finally I resorted to the 


use of Thomas' spoon saw, but was careful not to penetrate the uterine wall. 
It took us over an hour to scrape it away so adherent was it. 

She recovered from the anaesthetic and we were preparing to leave when 
she suddenly cried out, "I'm going to die!" and began to breathe very rapidly. 
The lips became livid and the pulse-rate increased. There was no haemor- 
rhage and the onset was too rapid to indicate any . My opinion is that she 
died of pulmonary embolism. Was I right in undertaking the second opera- 
tion? Tne foul odor, at first decided, had entirely disappeared; still there 
was an amount of placenta that in my opinion, and in that of my consultant, it 
was dangerous to leave. Any remarks upon the above or similar cases would 
greatly oblige the writer. 

Milton, n.d. w> L. Grant, '93. 


February first occured the first annual ball, given under the auspices of 
the Medical and Dental students of Chicago. To say that it was a success is 
to put it mildly. 

The attendance was good and those present represented the best society. 
The program was carried out nicely, and the following prizes were awarded in 
a fair and impartial manner. Miss Mamie Clark having been selected to draw 
the lots. 

First prize: Pocket Surgical Case drawn by J. H. Cunningham of 
Chicago Dental. 

Second prize: Medical Case, drawn by F. A.Allen, Rush '94. 

Third prize: Dennis Test Case, drawn by L. A. Kelly, American Dental. 

Fourth prize: Set Excavators, drawn by F. R. Weston, Rush '94. 

Fifth prize: Two Perfume Bottles, drawn by H. Strong, Rush '94. 

Sixth prize: Bracket and Table, drawn by W. T. Peters, Rush '94. 

Seventh prize: Awarded to Miss K. K. Halgate of the Womans Medical. 

Mr. Lewis of the Middle Class presented the prizes in an appropriate 
manner. Much credit is due tne members of the reception committees and es- 
pecially to the managers, Messrs. Ryan and Bolsta, of Rush. 

To The Corpuscle: 

Dr. W. H. Leslie, of Rush, '93, now in West Africa at a mission station 
called Banga Manteke, in Congo Free State, writes in a letter dated Oct. 24, 
1893, concerning two peculiar diseases there, as follows: 

"There is a good deal of sickness, much of which is new to me. The one 
that is the greatest puzzle is the 'sleeping sickness,' or filaria sanguinis homi- 
nis minor, of Patrick Manson; the real cause of which is not definitely proved 
as yet, and as soon as I can get a microscope I will seek more definite infor- 

"Of clinical history but little is known, and there are fifty speculative the- 
ories, which proves none to be quite correct. It is certainly aggravated 
by a lack of proper food, as it occurs in the years of scarcity, and among the 
poorest people Tt seems to be contagious, as it occurs in epidemics. It 
yields to heavy doses of quinine, combined with arsenic and strychnia, and 
would thus seem to be a kind of malaria. The first symptom I can get any 
definite information about is a persistent pain in the back of the head and 
neck, attended with considerable stiffness. There often appears over the body 
a papulo- vesicular eruption, in which Manson has found, in every case, the 
filaria mentioned above, usually found also in the blood. These worms are 
easily distinguished from the filaria sanguinis, being much broader, and hav- 
ing two dark spots, or streaks, on an abruptly rounded cephalic end, and 
when transferred to the slide they are but short lived. This disease is some- 
times acute and sometimes sub- acute, or chronic. Its symptoms show its 
widespread disturbance of the nervous system, viz., languor, drowsiness, ma- 
nia, indicating an implication of the higher centers; tremor, convulsions, 
spasms, paralysis, pointing to an involvement of motor centers or paths; par- 
alysis of sphincters, bed-sores, trophic disturbance and spinal trouble. At 
last the patient sinks into a profound sleep, from which at first he is waked 
with difficulty, and toward the end it is impossible to rouse him. Shortly 
before death the body becomes so swollen that the features are no longer 

"Another new disease is Congo fever, which resembles malaria a good 
deal and yields readily to quinine and iron, at least I guess the quinine does 
the work, but I give iron at the same time, as every person here is more or 
less anaemic. 

"One of ihe physicians' friends in America I find here in all its power. 
Syphilis is making terrible raids among the black people, proving the state- 
ment of Prof. Hyde last year, that a disease coming among a people whom it 
has not visited before is more virulent and deadly. Ten years ago it was en- 
tirely unknown, but to-day it is making just walking carcasses of putrid rot- 
tenness of many poor innocent human beings. 

' 'At present I have no fear of any other doctor coming in to rob me of my 
practice, as there are no doctors thatlknow of except witch doctors, fcr thiee 



or four days* journey on either side of me, and to the south and north many 
days' journey. I walk long distances sometimes to see urgent cases, but when 
kings or chiefs wish to see me they must send carriers to take me in a ham- 
mock, as I have to harbor my strength. It is already known for many miles 
that I am here. We have a dispensary in full operation, and hope soon to 
turn my present house into the beginning of a hospital." 

Will H. Leslie, '93. 

Forty-nine classes have gone forth from Rush, and gone where ° To 
every clime and country. Undoubtedly each and everyone in moments of ret- 
rospection thinks of the days gone by when he sat upon the benches, listened 
to the words of wisdom and saw the apparent miracles performed . 

Some things are as they ever have been and ever will be. Class organi- 
zations, class associations, class jokes, class mottos and class graduations. 
But it is of class mottos we wish to speak. 

Among the things of interest on the walls of the upper amphitheatre at 
Rush are the brass tablets on which may be seen the mottos of most of the 
classes from 1844 to the present. 

Oftimes do we see an alumnus visiting his alma mater point out to a friend 
his class tablet, and occasionally do we behold an alumnus searching in vain 
for such a tablet, for he belongs to a class that has failed to have its motto 
placed there, but it is hoped that such will not be the case long. Fall in line. 
Come in out of the rain! 

For the benefit of the alumni we print the mottos of the various classes 
1844— Unus et Primus. 
1845— IObe,y. 
1846— Healing Art Divine. 
1847 — Medico Ignorantia Scelus. 

1848— Fidelity. 

1849— Ich diem' 

1850— Suaviter et Fortiter. 

1851 — Courage and Diligence. 

1852 — Virtute et Labore. 

1853— Ut Prosim. 

1854 — Tenax Propositi. 

1855 — For the Healing of the Nations 

1856— Fideli Certa, 

1857— Rectitude. 

1858— Fide et Labore. 

1859— Where Suffering Calls. 

I860— Esto Probus et Verus. 

1861— Work Wins Worth. 

1862— Noblesse Oblige. 

1863 — Salus Populi Suprema Lex . 

1868— Seek the Truth. 

It will be seen that 1864, 1865, 1866, 1867 

are the only classes without tablets. 

1869 — Faber Quisque Suae Fortunae. 

1870 — Crescat Proficiat. 

1871 — Diligentia Opportunetatem Fa- 

1877 — Nunquam Retrorsum. 
1878 — Respect the Old Inspect the New 
1879— Non Ministrari sed Ministrare. 
1880— Patior ut Potior. 
1881 — Floreat qui Laborat. 
1882 — Spectemur Agendo . 
1883 — Res est Sacra Miser. 
1884— Quo Miseria Ducit. 
1885— Fiat Lux. 
1886— (Greek). 
1887 — Scientia Ratio. 
1888— Semper paratus. 
1890— Quod Bonum est Tente. 
1891— Nil sine Labore. 
1892 — Non Finitum sed Inceptum. 
1893 — Alis Inserviendo Consumor. 

1872, 1873, 1874, 1875, 1876 


From the earliest days of Rush Medical College, a very few rules — un- 
written — have sufficed to govern its students. As the number of the class, as 
also the number of patients who come to its clinics, has greatly increased dur- 
ing the past few years; it has seemed best to the authorities to codify these 

We believe all alumni and friends of the college who visit the clinics, lec- 
tures and laboratories will appreciate the wisdom of these laws as do the stu- 
dents now in the college. 

Not one of these regulations is unreasonable. The Corpuscle hopes 
they will at all times be kept in force by the Faculty. The Corpuscle also 
trusts each class will use its influence in favor of quiet and good conduct 
within the college walls. 

It is a very easy matter for a student to so deport himself that he will 
ever remain ignorant of the color of an "admonition card" requesting him to 
call upon the Faculty "committee on discipline." 


in the interest of the College, its teachers and students, and of the patients 
who come to its clinics. 

(1) Smoking and chewing tobacco are prohibited in the college buildings, 
except in the dissecting room. 

(2) Undue noise and rudeness must be avoided in all rooms and halls, es- 
pecially those in which patients assemble. 

(3) Students are not permitted in the rooms and passages assigned to pa- 
tients, except by authority of the Faculty. 

(4) All acts which tend to injure or deface the college buildings, their 
furniture and appliances, and all conduct that disturbs the comfort and quiet 
of teachers and students and patients while in the college buildings, are 
strictly prohibited. 

(5) Loitering in the halls during lecture hours is unworthy of a student. 

(6) The College Clerk will hold tickets of attendance as security for the 
good conduct of students and for the safe return of all keys and apparatus en- 
trusted to them. 

(7) Students must present their General Ticket to the College Clerk, be- 
fore they can receive tickets for any of the practical courses. 

(8) Overcoats and umbrellas must not be taken into the laboratories or 
the dissecting room. 

(9) The College Clerk is directed not to call students from any of the col- 
lege exercises. 

(10) The use of the college telephone is not permitted to students. 

By order of the Trustees and Faculty. 
January, 1894. 


The sin of counter-prescribing by Pharmacists is a very old one but 
never before has it attained as much prominence or been productive of as 
much evil as now. To it, and to its. education of the people, to seek cheap ir- 
responsible medical advice, must be in a measure attributed the recent dan- 
gerous practice which some newspapers have instituted of prescribing through 
their columns for their patrons . 

All such practices are to be condemned as very dangerous to the public 

The injustice to the sufferer of a pharmacist, a news-paper physician, 
essaying to prescribe even for a cough! What means have they of determining 
whether it be a cough of incipient tuberculosis, bronchitis, or reflex from 
nasal obstruction? 

I but recently saw a beautiful lady carried to a consumptive's grave whose 
life I am fully persuaded might have been saved had not the strategic days 
bean spent under the guidance of a conceited druggist, who, with his narcotic 
syrups, obscured nature's danger signals until too late to avert the disaster. 

Turning our attention in this article to the pharmacist only, how will he 
explain his apparent disregard for the public health? His answer will often 
be that he is driven to it by the physicians who have ceased writing prescrip- 
tions and are furnishing their own medicines, or that he does not feel that he 
is in any way responsible, as he never prescribes unless his patrons desire it 
and furthermore that when he does he feels sure that the results will corres- 
pond favorably with those of most of the physicians. These reasons, as we 
see it, reduce easily to two, egotism and cupidity. If actuated by cupidity 
alone he is the*basest of men, for what more diabolical than tampering with 
life, endangering health and sowing the seeds of future disease. For such we 
can only shed a tear of pity while uttering a prayer that their patrons, may be 

Trusting and believing that the above class is a small one, how shall we 
account for so much egotism among the larger one composed, as it is for the 
most part, of intelligent gentlemen? I say "egotism'* and say it advisedly 
for what else can you call that which enables a pharmacist every time he 
counter-prescribes to virtually say "I have only studied two of the many 
sciences that go to make up the physician's art, but I nevertheless feel fully 
competent to cope with him and in fact am so confident that I do not hesitate 
to depart from his modest course and strongly recommend my own ability in 
selecting a remedy for your trouble." 

Suppose that an engineer, his engine disabled, should enter a drug store 
m search of the master-mechanic and the druggist, having elicited the facts, 
should volunteer the information and persuade the engineer that cylinder oil 
was what his engine needed. Unheard of egotism! What does he know 
about the construction of an engine or the functions of its parts? 


But how much less does the average pharmacist know of the human body 
and its vicera? True, they often give relief or they would not be consulted 
so much, but does that make their crime the less? No! it but makes them the 
more dangerous. The oil might have been just what the engine needed, but 
we would not have held the pharmacist less culpable than we would had it 
simply masked a graver trouble until life was lost as a result. 

Of course the pharmacist does not look upon himself in this light, neither 
do his patrons and probably but few physicians, and so long has he asserted 
his ability unquestioned and so incapable is he of discriminating between 
really good and bad results of medication, that he has grown to look upon 
this as a part of his legitimate business. 

As to the cause for this attitude of the pharmacist we believe that out- 
side of the monetary one it is to be found in the relationship between physi- 
cian and druggist, or more properly the estimates they form of each other as 
a result of this relationship. 

The physician, during his college course, must needs master so many 
branches other than materia medica and chemistry, the only two which he 
has in common with the pharmacist, that he is very apt to slight these, feel- 
ing that a correct diagnosis will be much more essential than the knowledge 
of the dose of some drug w r Lich he may never use. 

The pharmacist, per contra, whose business at college is presumably to 
fit himself to supply scientifically the varied wants of many physicians, is 
constantly impressed with the necessity of familiarizing himself with the 
natural history, dosage, therapeutical uses and incompatabilities of all drugs 
contained in the Pharmacopoeia. 

As a result of this condition of affairs when the two meet professionally 
the pharmacist gets to sound only the shallowest depths of the physician's 
lore, while the physician, on the other hand, beholds the pharmacist at his 
very best, There is engendered in the mind of the latter as a result of this 
feeling the idea that it isn't much of an undertaking to prescribe for the sick 
and afflicted, and physicians have more or less ministered to this idea by con- 
sulting with their pharmacist often in prescribing, and in failing to take any 
positive or aggressive position against the practice of which their pharma- 
ceutical brethren are guilty. 

One of the radical remedial measures that w T e would suggest, then, w T ould 
be a general time of therapeutical refreshing on the part of physicians, or at 
least let each make it a rule of practice to never prescribe or call for a remedy 
with which he is not thoroughly conversant. This last I am sure will not 
only fill the pharmacist's breast with greater reverence for his lore but will 
likewise work beneficially to his patients. 

Let each one stand ready to render an account for the faith which he may 
have in any remedy to meet certain indications. 

On the other hand let the pharmacist awaken to the fact that his training 
has not in the least qualified him for intelligent examination or rational diag- 
nosis which must precede logical deductions as to treatment, and that he as- 
sumes a most grave responsibility in furnishing medicines thus carelessly, for 
while it may not do positive harm in every case, it yet delays the time of ra- 
tional treatment even until it is mayhap forever too late. Page, M, D., Warren, Ohio. 

We are glad to call the attention of The Corpuscle readers to an article 
in The Chicago' Clinical Revieiu, by Dr. Emanuel Senn, '93, on ''Olive Oil 
as a Remedy in the Treatment of Gastric Ulcer." Dr. Semi's paper 
contains a very interesting account of the disease and its usual modes of treat- 
ment, followed by the treatment he recommends and the history of an obsti- 
nate case that successfully yielded to the olive oil cure. The paper has 
received very nattering criticism, and Dr. Senn will be glad to furnish reprints 
to Rush men applying through The Corpuscle. 

-X- -X- 

The Medical Summary for February contains reminiscences of the Surgical 
Clinic of Jefferson College of fifty years ago, by Dr. Abram Livesey. Old 
Professor Gross held the clinic and told how- for sciatica the parts if possible 
are "to be rubbed by a nice, soft, tender, little woman's hand," and if this 
fails the "next resort is the application of the hot iron." Eleven cases are 
reported, including a lateral operation for stone, an ingrowing toe-nail, and 
the removal of a mammary gland where "sweet oil was profusely used to pre- 
vent ingress of germs." In the light of modern surgery the accounts are 
very entertaining. 

The Pacific Record of Medicine and Surgery contains this: 


Once upon a midnight dreary, 
The doctor slumbered weak and weary, 
And all the town could hear 
Him snore. 

While he lay there sweetly napping, 
' Suddenly there came a tapping 
Like a ramgoat madly rapping 
His hard head upon 

The door. 

"Get up there" a voice said loudly, 
"Come in haste," he added proudly, 
Like a man who owned a million or 
Much more. 

But the doctor never heeded, 
Back to dreamland fast he speeded, 
For such men as that he needed 
In his practice 

Never more. 

For long months that man had owed him. 
Not a cent he'd ever paid him, 
And the doctor now will dose him 


L. G. Armstrong, '59, Boscobel, Wis., who entered Rush in "56, is coming 
to attend commencement next spring. He is full to overflowing of the Rush 

* * 


"Shake, Doctor, und hurrah for Rush, the already or soon to be greatest 
medical institution in the world.' 7 J. J. Bennett, '81, Lloyd, Wis. 


John Cassidy, class of '68, South Bend, Ind. 

* * 

"I certainly wish to be numbered among the sons of Rush Medical col- 
lege." Geo. G. Barnett, '84, Ishpeming, Mich. 


J. H. Cristler, 73, says that he too feels proud of "Old Rush'' He is 
practicing at Childress, Texas, 

"Old and faithful." How about the "Forty-niners?" That is the year of 
graduation of Asa Clark, who is now Supt. of State Asylum for Insane, at 
Stockton, Cal. 

John Binnie, '75, is located at Poynette, Wis. 

S. S. Clayberg, '72, writes from Avon, 111. 

CI. Chenoweth, '69, is located at Decatur, 111, in "Syndicate Block" and 
has formed a syndicate with W. J. Chenoweth, M. D. 

A. S. Barndt graduated in '61 and receives his mail at Menomonee, Wis. 

C. J. Creighton, '79, may be found by addressing him at 2943 Prairie 

Ave.. Chicago. 

* * 

James Muncey, '63, has been a faithful alumnus for many years and de- 
clares his love for his alma mater . He has resided at Jesup, la. , during the 
past twenty years. 

■K- * 

S. P. Bennett has moved from Richmond, 111., to Alma, Mich. „ 

* * 


W. L. Grant, '93, has located at Milton, N. D. 

* * 


P. Antes Canfield, '72, of Necedah, Wis., remains as he has long been, a 
faithful member of Alumni Association, and though he has not been enabled 
to meet with it because of impaired health, he does not lose his genuine in- 


At the last meeting of the Freshman class the following yell was adopted : 

Rix: Rax: Rix: 

Rush '96. 
This is supposed to be the cause of so much throat trouble among the Fresh- 

Mark Train says Adam and Eve had many advantages, but the principal 
one was that they escaped teething. Oh! Mamma! 

* * 

Stranger to Student— "I should like to see Mr. Jones who is a student 

Student — "Come back next year and perhaps we will have a bulletin of 
addresses. There's no way now to find out where he is." , 

Jack and Ben say it wasn't the policemen but they wanted to be quiet in 
the theatre anyway. 

* * 

Dr. Mellish — "Mr. H. describe the hip joint." 

Freshman H.- "I didn't study any further than the left hand." 

Dr. M. — "Describe the shoulder, then." 

F. H. — "I began at the elbow, doctor." 

* -x- 

The one especial feature at the ball was the young lady who wanted to 
see a D. J. — and she saw too. 

Is that your stiff, Rich 

The Nu Sigma Nu members held an initiation and spread one evening re 
cently. From appearances next day we judge that the goat came out ahead. 

• * 

Rooster- medic — "Do you know why a girl's emphatic refusal of her lover 
is like an electric current?" 

Hen-medic — "Perhaps because it gives such a shock." 

Rooster-medic — "No — because it is so positive and negative." 

* * 


In the quiz class of Dr. Senn, Jr., while discussing the manner in which 
carcinoma invaded all varieties of tissue, some bright student remarked that 
"carcinoma knew no anatomy." We suppose some smart senior will go 
around now asking "why a carcinoma is like Jimmie Russell." 

-X- -X- 

Notwithstanding the fact that students are constantly being advised not 
to indulge in politics after graduating, some students insist upon running for 
Congress before graduation or marriage. 


Bellwood is not married, he is only thinking that he would like to be. 
Keep a stiff upper lip, B., every fellow must have his day and yours will be 
one of those coming ones. 

-X- -X- 

" Wonderful!" cried a voice in the dissecting room, and those in the near 
vicinity turned to see Adkinson, the man on the right upper 11, holding aloft 
a beheaded match. "I found this in the heart," said he, in his musical voice. 
•'Impossible," some cry. '"Tis true, and it must have entered through the 
lungs or else from some external injury," he said. Even the quizmaster 
stood aghast; but before night it leaked out tha- McBride had placed it in the 
vena cava a week before, and if you want to hear some swearing ask Adkin- 
son if he found his match. 

* -x- 


We clip this from a Missouri paper: 


It's tine to be a doctor 

When small-pox gives alarm, 
And vaccinate the pretty girls — 

Sometimes upon the arm . 

■X- * 


T lie Medical Herald says that phthisical patients are henceforth to have 
special cars attached for their use to all passenger trains between Buda-Pesth 
and Gleichenburg, during the season at the latter place. 

" -X- 

There is one Freshman who has lost a linger but swears he did not put 
his finger in his ear and let the wheels grind it off, but we doubt the truth of 
his denial 

-x- -x- 


"We notice with pleasure that our worthy recording secretary has at last 
taken advantage of the warm weather and ' 'shorn his locks." D. J. 

-X- # 

Editors Corpuscle: I see by your last issue that Professor Dodson is 
making a collection of anomalous structures. Dr. Heminway can supply him 
with the finest line of semi-lunar aortic valves on the market. They are com- 
posed of two divisions each and the doctor has seen some twenty-five cases of 
them. A. Middler, Section II, Throat and Chest. 


"A deficiency of hairs," was noticed in the eyelashes of a patient in the 
clinic by one of our noble seniors. 

-X- -X- 

Nichols, who goes home by way of Terra Haute, met two ladies on the 
train when he went down to the farm for Christinas; and the ladies attracted 
his attention (as all ladies do), so he told them his address but failed to get 
any information from them. According to his own words he "had a lovely 
time." Imagine his astonishment when he returned to get a note from one of 
his classmates asking "How did you enjoy your trip home and how do you 
like my wife?" 


It has been suggested that we call that "establishment" that occupies the 
triangle between Van Buren, Ogden and Wood, the "Grand Right and Left," 

it "changes hands" so often. 

* * 


When Dr. Haines quizzes a certain middler named "Ed., M who has black 
hair and sits on the perch, McLain says 'he is making a "Cruseial test." [P. S. 
— This costs McLain the cigars. | 

Hemmingway is undoubtedly the most expert "D.J." operator in the 
dissecting room, and from the calm confidence of his action, and the glittering- 
array of instruments at hand has often been mistaken by visitors for some 

surgeon interested in special investigation. 

* * 


Secrecy, mystery, and a knowing smile seem to accompany the Pulse edi- 
tors. From the way they are working we ought to have a good book this 


* * 

The Freshmen have organized a base-ball team, and from the material set 
forth they will not be far behind the times. . The following were selected as 
the trial team: 

Pitchers, Andrews, Hermann, and Blake. 

Catcher, McNary. 

First B., Beebe. 

Second B., Wallace. 

Third B., Schultz. 

Short stop, Frost. 

Right Field, Townsend. 

Left Field, Bryant. 

Center Field, Richardson. 

Substitute,, Smith. Mr. Stone was elected as Manager. 


The late cold weather has made the various skating places about the city 
popular resorts for the Rush boys. For instance take Douglas Park. Fight! 
fight! fight! Look out for the "Cop." 

■x- -x- 

We now say "Jimmy" Grier. 

-X -x- 

Two student in a medical college at Des Moines, Iowa were recently tried 
and convicted for stealing the body of an old pauper from the local cemetery. 

* -X- 

Dr. Mary A. Snganuma, an American woman, who recently moved to 
Japan, is the first "hen-medic" ever licensed to practice there. 


A certain student who has not as yet taken any of his examinations, was 
examining a patient recently in one of the sub clinics, finally gives way saying: 
"I would not risk my reputation in that case." As a student of three month's 
standing is not supposed to have much of a reputation as to diagnosing, such 
an admission was surprising. 


Said Cotton to a freshman, as he roused him with a start, 
"Can you tell us the effect of digitalis on the heart?" 
The startled freshman quick replied "it quickeneth the beat." 
"But how?" He could not answer and he sadly took his seat. 

For illustration, take a mule who's always loath to start 

Then ply the whip, the effect is like the drug's upon the heart. 

What is it works this wondrous change and brings him to a run? 

'Tis merely that you stimulate his "motor ganglion." 

* * 

Dr. (in dispensary) — "How do you know you had that disease?" 

Patient — "Veil Dr., you see I vas a soldier in der army." 

Dr. (Aside to D. J. assistants) — "The patient has probably made a correct 

diagnosis of his case." 

Patient — "I vas in der German army you see Dr." 

Dr. — "That settles it! I guess tnere is no doubt now. That seems to be 

one of the proofs over there that a man has been in the army." 


Dr. — "Do you drink?" 
Patient— "No." 
Dr.— "Not at all?" 
Patient — "Oh, one in the morning." 
Dr.-- "That all?" 

Patient — "I have to have a night-cap that wont hurt me Dr. You know 
there is considerable in regularity. Cleveland takes his regular." 

It is reported that Menefee would make A. No. 1. husband. When asked 

about it Wm. smiles and blushes but does not say a word. 

-x- * 


Loss of appetite is a new cause for typhoid. 

-x- * 


Where! O, where! In the Freshman squealer. 

* * 


Did you ever stop to think why the man with the ankylosed face and his 
wife worked each professor? 


Dr. Pope gave alcohol for an anaesthetic at one of the clinics during the 

Senior George had his name in the city papers a few weeks ago. 

Antiftyrine, which people use a great deal now- a- days, is made by the 
condensation of a halogen butyrate and phenylhydrazine; the methylphenyl- 
pyrazine resulting is converted by a weak dehydromethylphenylpyrazine. 
The process is patented, however, so that it will not be legal for you to make 
antipyrine for yourself. 

-X- * 


"What do we get from Iodine," inquired the teacher, placid, 
"I think if I remember right 'tis Idiotic Acid." 

Gives Desired Results in the Crises of Locomotor Ataxia, Neuralgia, 
Sciatica, Rheumatism, Pneumonia, Menstrual Neuroses, Typhoid and 


"The doctor has the highest and best right 

to insist that no worthless substitute be im- 

P posed upon his defenseless patient. He knows 

*Jf the specific effect of the genuine drug and 

knows equally well it cannot be successfully 

imitated." — Courier of Medicine. 


Send to The Antikamnia Chemical 
Company, St. Louis, Mo., for Sample 
Mailed in "vest Pocket Box," Free. Specify 
Antikamnia (genuine) on your Prescriptions. 


A.NA.L G INB - LA.B ORL>& ■ 

Only Elements, C H.N. O. 

The above remedy is a vegetable powder of grayish brown color, agreeable odor and taste, slightly 
soluble in water, and soluble in wine or alcoholic solutions. It is compatible with all powders. 

Analgine-liaborde is a combination of the active principles of Camellia Thea, Apium Graveolus, 
Saccharine and a Carbo-Hydrate, and is an original French formula of Professor Laborde. 

French physicians have prescribed this remedy for some time past and find it to be one of the best 
Antipyretics, Analgesics and Anodynes known. As a remedy for headaches, arising from any cause, it is 
unexcelled; this, then, is'one of its most prominent therapeutic properties. In fevers its effects are speedy 
and sale, as it rapidly reduces the temperature and sustains the action of the heart; it has a speedy 
and permanent action in all vague, transitory, and wandering pains, as the rheumatic and neuralgic 
type. It has also proven itself exceedingly efficacious in relieving the difficult breathing of Asthma, and, 
in fact, it is a better remedy than any of the so-called Antipyretic, Analgesics or Anodynes recently in- 
troduced, as no possible harm can follow its use. It will be found a therapeutic agent equal to, and in 
most cases superior to Antipyrine, Phenaeetine, Antifebrine, Acetanilid, or any of their imitations. It 
has none of the disadvantages of the above mentioned, and the dose never needs to be increased. 

Analgine-Laborde does not accumulate in the system or cause any deleterious after-effects. It is 
therefore, a perfectly safe remedy to leave with the nurse or patient. 

ANALGINE LABORDE 6 grams (93 grains). 

QUININE SULPH 1 gram lo 2 grains. 

Siiiiia.— Divide in VI Powders, 


The usual average dose of Anagine-Laborde is V 2 gm, to 1 gm. (7 grs. to 15 grs.), repeated every half 
hour till thePdesired effect is obtained; the intervals may be varied, however, according to the advice of 
the physician. 

The special value of Analgine-Laborde as a remedy is its power to quickly and safely relieve all 
headaches, as of the sick, nervous or neuralgic types, congestive, anaemic, toxic and neurasthenic, as 
classified by Dr. Allan McLarie Hamilton, in his Brochure on headaches. 

Analgine-Laborde will enable the physician to relieve the pain in the shortest possible space of time 
and thus aid him in prescribing the necessary remedies for the different causes as in the organic, ana?mic, 
toxic and neurasthenic classes. 

As its efficacy depends largely upon its exact proportionate parts, it is best dispensed in powders con- 
taining from V 2 gram to 1 gram and it may be combined with other drugs, as Ruinine, Pepsin, etc. 

ANALGINE-LABORDE 6 grams, (93 grains) . 

Sig.— Divide in VZ powders. 


All first-class druggists throughout the world have the genuine Analgine-Laborde. 
Sole agents for U. S. A., South America and the West Indies: 


St. E,oui% Mo, 


Dr. W. N. Bahrenburg, No. 919 Wash Street, St. Louis, Diseases of the Throat and 
Nose, in a letter dated October 31, 1892, says: 

In twelve cases of scarlatina accompanied by diphtheritic sore throat, treated by me recent- 
ly ,1 used a spray composed of equal parts of Chloro-Phenique and water as a topical applica- 
tion. It caused an immediate cessation of fetor and gave great relief to the patient. Con- 
valescence was rapid in every case. I have also used Chloro-Phenique as a gargle and mouth- 
wash, and as a spray in otorrhoea and ozoena, with uniformly good results." 


H. B. Pcttingill, M. D., Mystic Flats, 39th and Broadway, New York City, in an article 
an ''Intestinal Antisepsis" in New Phar. Prod., gives some excellent experience from which 
the followin 

Dr. Van Valgah in a paper on the "Causation and Treatment of Chronic Diarrhoea, " in 
the New York Medical Record, says: "Having secured as nearly as we can a clean and 
sweet state of the digestive tube, our next object is to get perfect digestion of the food taken. 
This is an aim second to no other in importance. Undigested food in the wrong part of the 
intestine is an irritant. Rapid absorption is the chief barrier against superdigestion, fer- 
mentation and putrefaction, and perfect digestion is the essential preliminary to the easy 
and healthy performance of the function of the mucous membrane." Now with this condi- 
tion of affairs and the administration of proper remedies, we can expect to destroy the patho- 
genic bacteria and the resulting toxines can be rendered innocous. The tyrotoxicons of 
Vaughan belonging to the toxalbumen type are readily destroyed by the decomposition of salol 
in the intestinal tract. Salol is a salicylate of phenol, and as said before, is not acted upon 
until it passes through the stomach, and when the phenol is set free in the intestine it has its 
maximum antiseptic power. Now in addition to this we have the calmative and analgesic 
effect of the antikamnia, which effect is so often necessary, and where in many cases opium is 

Every physician knows full well the advantages to be derived from the use of antikamnia 
in very many diseases, but a number of them are still lacking a knowledge of the fact, that an- 
tikamnia in combination with various Temcdies has a peculiarly happy effect; particularly is 
is this the case when combined with salol. Salol is a most valuable remedy in many affec- 
tions; and its usefulness seems to be enchanced by combining it with antikamnia. The rheu- 
matoid conditions so often seen in various manifestations in this country, are wonderfully re- 
lieved by the use of this combination. 

The five grain tablet containing 2£ grains each of antikamnia and salol, is recommended 
highly in the treatment of cases of both acute and chronic cystitis. The pain and burning is 
relieved to a marked degree. Salol makes the urine acid and clears it up. This remedy is a 
reliable one in the treatment of summer diarrhoea, entero-colitis, dysentery, etc. In dysen- 
tery, where there are bloody, slimy discharges, with salol antikamnia will give results 
that are gratifying. 

In closing his paper, Dr. Pettingill adds: It is also one of the best remedies, for the re- 
lief of the headache and pains of influenza, ("la grippe"). The muscular pains which so often 
accompany this disease, and which seem to be a part and parcel of it, are often relieved at 
once by a full dose of this combination. Great reliance can be placed in the admixture of 
these two drugs in those diseases in which the onset is sudden, and which are attended with 
great pain and hyperasthesia with intense nervous derangement, particularly when the tem- 
perature rises to 102 degrees or 103 degrees. By its antithermic, analgesic and neurotic pro- 
perties, it fills a want scarcely found in any other remedy. 

''-.. 5 . y 




VOL. 3. MARCH, NO. 6. 


A. T. HOLBROOK, '95, President. 

W. D. CALVIN, '95, Secretary. C. A. ALLENBURGER, '95, Treasurer. 

E. M. ECKARD, '96. F. C. HONNOLD, '96. 

S. T. HART, Business Manager, 334 Dearborn Street 

Membership in the Alumni Association of Rush Medical, College is obtainable at any time by 
raduates of the College, providing they are in good standing in the profession, and shall pay the annual 
dues, $1.00. This fee includes a subscription to The Corpuscle for the current year. This journal is the 
official organ of the Association. 

Dues and all communications relating to the Association should be sent to 

JOHN EDWIN RHODES, M. D., Sec'y andTreas., 34 Washington St., Chicago 

College Anniversaries— 

Doctorate Sermon, Sunday, May 20th, 1894. 

Special Clinics and Class-Day Exercises, Monday, May 21st, 1894. 

Scientific Meeting of the Alumni Association, 10 A. M. and 2 P. M.. Tuesday, May 22nd, 1894. 

Business Meeting of the Alumni Association, 10 A. M., Wednesday, May 23rd, 1894. 

Annual Commencement 2 P. M. Alumni Banquet 7:30 P. M. 

Ruby Red and Black: Colors of Lake Forest University. Yellow: Color of Rush Medical College. 


There is a paragraph in the annual announcement of Rush in regard to 
practitioner's fees, and everyone is led to believe that because the announce- 
ment is silenr on all other points regarding these medical gentlemen, that the 
requirements for graduation are the same for them as for other students. By 
experience we learn that the practitioner takes what lectures he pleases, 
skims the cream from the clinics, is particularly conspicuous where the best 
things are to be found, and is always absent when quiz hour comes . Or in 
reality he finds the easy spots and shuns everything that bears a resemblance 
to drugery. 

Now this matter to us seems rather badly "muddled." If a student, 
whether graduated or not, expects to share the honor of graduation day and 
the dignity of a Rush graduate, he should be required not only to pass satis- 
factory examinations, but pass quiz masters, diagnose cases in the arena, and 
do other work which is imposed upon other members of the class. Because 
he is an M. D. the excuse "not prepared today" should not be disregarded. 

If every practitioner was a Rush graduate who sat on the benches, or 
was from equally as good a college, it would be different. But many see their 
tirst real clinic in Rush, and quiz strikes terror to their hearts. 


But when they begin their practice, they will turn their former diploma 
to the wall and hang the Rush diploma over it, having used the former all 
they care to — it being but an easy stepping-stone to the latter. 

A graduate should be compelled to enter Rush as a senior and when the 
final day comes if his marks are not sufficient to graduate him he should be 
treated as other students. We are for Rush, her examinations, her quizes, 
her clinics, her every institution, and her graduates, but we are against her 
graduates who have not become familiar with every one of her qualities. 

Perhaps it has not been noticed by Freshmen themselves, but it is never- 
theless a fact, they are more or less generally acquainted with each other. 
This, no doubt, is due to two influences. One, and perhaps the most direct 
influence is on account of the relation in quiz-class, where each one soon be- 
comes acquainted with his fellow-classmen. There being four divisions, how- 
ever, somewhat impedes the advance of mutual acquaintance. This lack is 
for the most part supplied by class- meetings, and in order that the class 
should feel itself strongly in union these meetings should be well attended. 
Let the interest of the class be your interest, and let the welfare of the class 
be your first anxiety. 

It is a well known fact that in past years many men have gone through 
the course at "Rush,' 1 with their acquaintance limited to a dozen. It is only 
through acquintance that a man is brought out, he may have valuable opin- 
ions, and suggestions of extreme value but no chance to air them. Unless he 
participates in matters at school, how can he expect to treat with matters of 
like importance in the world at large? Learn to express your ideas here and 
you will have no trouble in being a leader among the laity. 

We are heartily in favor of class organization as a rule, und urge Fresh- 
men to begin now, so that in their senior year they may work in perfect har- 
mony and with a sense of "in unity alone is there strength." 

The men you come in contact with now, may become valuable friends in 
after years, at any rate a man cannot have too many friends . Soon, a com- 
mittee of eight men will be elected to the board of editors for the "Annual" of 
1895. If you have talent or ambition in a literary line, what better place to 
express it than before your classmen. They have no other means of knowing 
except from your attitude and ability as a scholar. Would not any one of the 
class of '96 feel much humiliated if they should fail to come up to the stand- 
ard of their preceding brethren? Let your face as well as your name appear 
before your class, and perhaps you will find you may become extremely use- 
ful to your classmates and reflect honor upon yourself and alma-mater. 

Next year you will be a Junior, and the next a Senior. You are called 


before a clinic in consultation with Dr. Senn; how much easier it will be to 
present the prognosis, diagnosis and treatment of the patient before you, if 
you are on "public speaking terms" with your class mates. 

Your class probably includes men who have never had the advantage of a 
college education, nor have they been able to become acquainted with the 
code connected with the proceedings of a literary society of any kind. To 
these the class meetings hold out another advantage. They may become ac- 
quainted with the "modus operandi" accompanying such institutions, and when 
they get out in practice will be able to conduct the local medical society with 
credit to themselves and be "masters of the situation." 

One of "Rush" graduates of the year 1883, who has now a good practice 
in a city of about 18,000 inhabitants, recently informed one of the Editors of 
The Corpuscle, of a scheme, whereby the medical fraternity in cities or 
towns of considerable size, is protected from "dead beats." 

It is a fact there are men mean enough to beat a physician, who has per- 
haps been the means of saving his life, but of course we find "dead beats" 
everywhere. We stoutly believe that of all bills, a doctor's bill should be 
paid. (And, by the way. how many wealthy physicians do you know, who 
have made their money in exclusive practice? A few specialists perhaps.) 

The scheme adopted by the physicians in this city is as follows: A per- 
son is appointed who selects the names of those who have never paid their 
bills, from each physician's book, compares them and classifies them. Those 
who have employed only one physician are marked with a figure 1. Those 
who are found on two books with bills unpaid are marked 2, and so on up to 
any limit. A revised list is supplied to each physician interested. Those 
marked 1 are usually visited again. Those marked 2 are left to the discretion 
of the individual physician called upon: but those marked 3 or more are 

The list is revised each month and care is taken to select those who are 
really unable to pay, and turn them over to the county physician. 

This scheme seems a valuable one and protects the deserving poor as well 
as the overworked physician. 

The man who depends upon railroads to carry his person from place to 
place finds himself as much in need of a ^uide as a watch. He finds it most 
necessary to consult very carefully his little guide before starting on a trip 
that may not only be long but winding in its course and which will cause him 
to ride over many roads some of which use different standards of time, while 
others are practically respectors of no time. So it is in practical life; we 
must have carefully studied the many varieties of human nature and have 
made those preparations and obtained those qualifications that this complex 


world will demand. We must not forget that we will be called upon to meet 
people in the social, educational and other circles and can not expect them all 
to come to us upon our special platform or in our special world, the medical. 
That a person's success no matter in what profession he may be, depends in 
great part upon his other than professional relations, is beyond dispute. That 
altogether too large a number of our students do not properly appreciate this 
fact is evident. In this edition of The Corpuscle will be found a most 
worthy article upon this very important question. We trust that other ar- 
ticles may follow along this line from those who are experiencing the appli- 
cation of these questions in practical life. Such articles can not be too care- 
fully read by students. No one of course questions the ability of a Rush 
graduate to properly apply his medical knowledge, but the opportunity of ap- 
plying the same is often wanting because he does not knew how to meet 

The question of cremation of the dead is a live question over dead sub- 
jects. Public opinion is rapidly being moulded in its favor. The supersti- 
tious theological objections are rapidly passing away and people are ceasing 
to believe that the spiritual body is not to be composed of the same material 
as that left by the soul at death. 

The problem is much more serious in the crowded countries of Europe 
than in the United States, but it is now being seriously considered in our 
larger cities. 

Intra- murdeleal burial has been prohibited in England for the last fifty 
years and the pressure for burial ground has been so great that some have pro- 
posed to have the bodies taken out to sea, there to become food for the fishes. 

If public opinion can be once convinced that health and life are endan- 
gered by the burial of poisonous dead bodies near the living, then the de- 
mand for protection would come from the people. 

Recently we were told that the railroad company made objections when 
the law compelled them to employ only such men as were not color blind, 
they now see that as a result of such law many lives are saved and that it 
saves them many thousands of dollars. So it will be with the public, when 
properly educated upon this question, they will willingly protect themselves. 

It is reported that a married medical student of one of our neighboring 
colleges, in an address delivered to medical students, advised that they should 
either marry now or immediately after graduating. 

You have all read about that fox that was unfortunate enough to be 
caught in a trap as reported by iEsop. There are some people who would 
make a business of this most sacred privilege, and while they do not advise 
one to put an "ad" in the paper notifying the public he is now ready to 


link fortunes or misfortunes with some fair damsel, they do advise you to 
marry before or as soon a& you begin practicing. 

Apparently some people are governed by the sentiment expressed in the 

"Man may live without poetry, music or art, 
Man may live without conscience and live without heart, 
Man may live without friends, we may live without books, 
But civilized man cannot live without cooks."' 

Remember the above is only poety and while it sounds musical it does 
not express the facts as does sommon sense prose. Marry when your circum- 
stances and inclinations permit, but do not allow the profession of medicine to 
make you a slave and cause you to act rashly. 

The Corpuscle has no better friend than Professor E. Fletcher Ingals 
whose likeness we print this month. Dr. Ingals is a man who takes time to 
look down from the top rounds of that oft-mentioned "ladder of success" and 
encourage those who are taking the first steps. We are glad to also present 
in this issue a report of one of his recent clinics in the college. 




The frailty of human life, the uncertainty of human desire, the end of 
human destiny has again been placed before us. In the midst of the toil and 
anguish of vicissitudes, or in the glow of triumph we are ever walking with 
Death. Seeking to unravel the mysteries of the world about us, to meet, face 
to face, the truths of the Nature all around us, we are taken hence, and the 
places that have known us shall know us no more. A more than earthly 
mystery asks the attention, and, alone and unaided, each one must search out 
and know the inscrutable wonder to which Infinity alone holds the key. 

Whereas, in the fathomless workings of the Almighty God, our friend 
and classmate, Edwin Lewis Wyckoff, has been taken from us, and holding 
him, as we do, in tenderest remembrance, we, the class of '91 of Rush Med- 
ical College, by our committee selected, do hereby extend to his sorrowing 
mother and family, our most sincere sympathy, trusting that in their bereave- 
ment they may be sustained and comforted by a divine Hand, and also by 
these resolutions of respect and regard, and be it further 

Resolved that a copy of these resolutions be sent to the family, and 
another copy to the college paper for publication therein, that our feelings of 
sorrow at our loss, and our deep distress may find public expression. And 
be it further 

• Resolved that we beseech the Faculty of Rush Medical College to grant to 
the family of Edwin Lewis Wyckoff the diploma which he so justly deserved, 
and for which he strove. 

Chas. D. Center, 
Ralph M. Peters. 
Jas. A. Best. 

Held by Prof. E. Fletcher Ingals. 

gentlemen: — The patient whom I first present to you today is a man 
sixty-five years of age who has always been healthy until within the last three 
months. He tells me that about ten weeks ago he noticed what appeared to be 
an ulcer in the region of the left tonsil. There was no swelling, and it caused 
no pain; subsequently, it became slightly sore but it still gives no very great 
inconvenience. There had been no swelling before the appearance of the 
ulcer, and there has not been, nor is there now, any enlargement of the cervi- 
cal glands. His physician, Dr. C. H. Helm, by whom he was sent to me, wrote 
that in consequence of the uncertainty of the diagnosis he had given him forty 
grains of the iodide of potassium and one sixteenth of a grain of the bichlor- 
ide of mercury three times a day for some time, but that there had been no 
perceptible improvement. I find the patient in good general health, indeed 
since childhood he has not suffered from any disease, and there is no hereditary 
predisposition to disease of any kind. Previous to five years ago he used 
alcoholic stimulants to excess, but since that time has been very temperate ex- 
cepting in the use of tobacco ' He admits that he has smoked a pipe almost 
constantly for many years. He formerly weighed 160 pounds, but now weighs 
only 150, the loss perhaps being due to the large doses of iodide of potassium 
which he has been taking. I find a little oedema of the lower eyelids, there 
is slight lividity of the lips, and he tells me that upon exertion he experiences 
some dyspnoea;" there is no cough or expectoration, no fever and no accelera- 
tion of the pulse; the tongue is clean, the appetite good, and the digestion 
normal; there is no unusual thirst, the bowels are acting regularly, and the 
urine appears normal in quantity though somewhat darker in color than usual. 
Upon examination of the fauces I find a superficial ulcer on the left side invol- 
ving the anterior pillar of the fauces and extending back upon the left tonsil. 
This ulcer is about two centimeters in diameter from above downward, and 
about fifteen millimeters from side to side, oval in form, with the surf ace raised 
nearly two millimeters above the surrounding mucous membrane. When the 
secretions are brushed from the surface of the ulcer with a pledget of cotton, 
it has a somewhat granular appearance, and is seen to be congested about 
twenty per cent., the normal color being taken as a unit. At the edges of the 
ulcer the flattened granules or granulations roll slightly over the surrounding 
tissue. There appears to be no induration at the base of the ulcer, or of the 
tissue immediately surrounding it, and there is no swelling of the parts. The 
diagnosis in such a case must rest between tuberculosis, syphilis and cancer. 

In tubercular ulceration of the throat, when superficial as it usually is, we 
do not have a distinctively circumscribed ulcer but one in which the edges are 
irregular or wormeaten, and in which the surface is slightly excavated; be- 
sides this, such ulcers are attended by severe pain which conditions are not 
present in this case. Again, in tubercular ulceration of the throat we find, 


in practically all cases, pronounced constitutional symptoms which are not pres- 
sent here. We may therefore, safely exclude tuberculosis. 

In syphilis we have a protean disease giving rise to so many different con- 
ditions that it can not always be positively differentiated from other well known 
lesions; but I have never seen a syphilitic sore in the throat resembling the 
ulcer found in this case. In the secondary stages of syphilis we have superfi- 
ial sores with a surrounding red areola and slightly swollen tissues. In the 
tertiary we have excavated ulcers with hardened edges and usually very con- 
siderable swelling. In the present case we have neither the superficial ulcer 
with the surrounding areola nor the excavated ulcer of the tertiary stage, and 
careful inquiry into the patient's history fails to elicit any evidence whatever 
of a syphilitic history. There has been a thorough trial of iodide of potas- 
sium and bichloride of mercury by his physician without benefit which in addi- 
tion to the history and appearance seems to justify us in excluding specific dis- 

Cancer of the throat of whatever variety, is nearly always preceded for 
.some time by marked induration and this is attended by considerable pain, 
neither of which have been present in this case. In many cases also, we dis- 
cover a hereditary history of cancer which is not present here. The patient 
himself thinks that the ulcer is in some way connected with the chemicals 
which he used several years ago in his business as a photographer, but the long 
interval intervening between the use of these agents and the development of 
the ulcer seems to preclude the idea of any connection between them, and the 
constant irritation kept up by excessive smoking is a very much more probable 
cause of the disease. Having excluded two of the diseases which appear to be 
the only ones likely to be confounded in such a case, we are forced to the con- 
clusion that this is a maglignant ulcer. However, before pronouncing so grave 
a diagnosis, it has seemed to me important to get further council and make mi- 
croscopic examinations. A few days ago when I first saw the patient I made a 
microscopic examination of one of the granulations taken from the surface but 
discovered nothing. I then had him see Professor Senn who viewed the case 
in practically the same light that I had; but upon making a deeper section 
from the side of the ulcer he succeeded in obtaining a microscopic section 
which revealed distinct evidences of carcinoma and we have concluded that, 
owing to the location of the ulcer and the impossibility of reaching it from 
without excepting through a very severe surgical operation involving tying 
the carotid artery, the best operation to be done will be thorough cauterization 
with the thermocautery. The patient will be given an anaesthetic and this 
operation will be made. 

Subsequent History. — The patient was anaesthetized the same afternoon 
and with the Paquelin cautery the whole surface of the ulcer and the healthy 
tissue for a quarter of an inch surrounding its border were thoroughly burned 
to the depth of a quarter of an inch. The patient stopped breathing several 
times from the chloroform, which was used on account of the danger of an ex- 
plosion if ether had been employed, but as soon as he was fairly anaesthetised 
I found that when he stopped breathing, touching the part with the thermo 
cautery would speedily restore the respiratory movement. When seen the 


next morning he pronounced himself very well, excepting that he had a very- 
sore throat. A gargle of li per cent, carbolic acid was ordered to be used fre- 
quently, and liquid diet was given, but no other treatment allowed. A week 
after the first operation, all of the slough having come off, there appeared in 
the central portion of the ulcer a few granulations of suspicious character. 
He was therefore anaesthetized again, this time he took the chloroform without 
difficulty and the part was again thoroughly cauterized. He recovered from 
the anaesthetic, as in the first instance, without any untoward symptoms. 
Three days later, one or two points of which I felt a little uncertain, were 
touched with strong lactic acid, the throat having first been anaesthetized by a 
solution of cocaine. He was then allowed to go to his home, his physician be- 
ing requested in case the healing did not progress satisfactorily, to touch any 
unhealthy granulations with lactic acid. 

Whatever the outcome of the case may be, we feel that the very best thing 
has been done for the patient. The diseased tissue seems to have been thorough- 
ly destroyed, and the wound was not severe. 


In the Senate of the United States, February 12, 1894, Mr. Palmer intro- 
duced the following bill; which was read twice and referred to the Committee 
on Military Affairs. 

In the House of Representatives, February 16, 1894, Mr. Richards intro- 
duced the following bill: 

A Bill to remove certain disabilities of the late acting assistant surgeons. 

Be it enacted by the Senate and House of Representatives of the United States of 
America in Congress assembled, That private physicians who were employed as 
medical officers in the armies of the United States for a period of not less than 
three months, in accordance with paragraph twelve hundred and sixty-eight, 
of the Revised Regulations United States Army, eighteen hundred and sixty- 
one, and thirteen hundred and four, and seventy-one, Appendix B, Revised 
Regulations, eighteen hundred and sixty- three, and who were known officially 
as acting assistant surgeons of the United States Army, and whose services 
were honorably terminated, shall be commissioned by the President of the 
United States as acting assistant surgeons of the United States Army; and 
the date of employment as acting assistant surgeons to be the date 
of commission and muster into service, and the date of the honorable termina- 
tion of service as acting assistant surgeon to be the date of discharge or 
muster out of service: 

Provided, That no pay or allowance shall be made to any such acting as- 
sistant surgeon by virtue of this act; and this act shall not affect the rank, 
pay, or emoluments of commissioned medical officers of the United States 

By A. U. Downing, LL. D. 


The countries of Europe were the first to undertake the solution of the 
question of Deaf Mute Education, but little or no effort was made by the sys- 
tem of signs which is the chief medium of communication at the present day 
in the United States. Signs were not eschewed altogether in the schools of 
Britian, France and Germany, but nevertheless those who were interested in 
the work were enthusiastically in favor of the speech method. Likely it was 
not considered possible in those days to build a system of signs which would 
be a ready medium of conversation and education. A large majority of the 
people of this country (chiefly those who are not associated with deaf mute 
education) hold a similar belief. Ask the ordinary individual if from observa- 
tion he would judge signs as used by the deaf a system, and he will reply in 
the negative, that from observation he would set down signs as a conglomer- 
ate mass of meaningless gestures, the product of a clamorous desire on the part 
of the person using them to make his wants known. Now it may be conceded 
that for a person not acquainted with these gestures to stand by and watch a 
couple of mutes in animated conversation, he would be utterly at sea as to the 
meaning. The lecturer on the public platform gesticulates in order to give 
force and beauty to his thoughts, but these gestures have no special signifi- 
cance in most cases. The sign language is significant above every thing, and 
when one has learned it on the basis of its signification, he has acquired a real 
language which' he can use in any emergency to elucidate most any idea. 

To give an idea of the significance of signs, let us mention a few. The 
sign for "doctor" is made by putting the fingers of the right hand on the pulse 
of the left. The doctor says, "Let me feel your pulse." The sign for "medi- 
cine"-rub the tips of the index and middle fingers of the right hand in the palm 
of the left — the idea of the doctor's mashing the little lumps of powders. 
(This sign, we must remember, was invented before pellets and capsules be- 
came fashionable.) The sign for an ache in the stomach — bring the index 
fingers of the right and left hands across the stomach toward each other. 
The degree of pain is shown by the expression of the face. Thus we might 
go on indefinitely, and each sign would impress you with its origin and mean- 
ing. When the language of signs has been learned to proficiency, one can in- 
terpret the ordinary public lecture, or minister's sermon with absolute satis- 
faction, to a body of deaf mutes. 

Now for the work within the class-room. Let us, first of all, not be led 
off into the common error of concluding these unfortunate children come to 
school wholly devoid of mental capacity or of ideas. Ideas they have, but 
they are only ideas, crude and uncultivated. They are locked up in their 
minds so tightly that with other than their own language (signs) they cannot 


get out. The chief aim of our work is to unlock that store-house of ideas, 
and be the cause of their flowing out in even and easy English. To do this 
they must acquire the English language. Now, gentle reader reflect what a 
difficulty you found it to learn French, Greek, Latin or what not, and then 
think of the task that confronts these people when, without hearing, they 
stand before that most difficult of all languages — the English language. All 
that they learn must come through the eye, and when the eye is turned away 
for even a moment, the line of communication to their thoughts, like the sev- 
ering of the electric current is broken. 

The child is admitted to school at eight years of age, and about the first 
word he learns is "cat." He is taught to write this word, and then the object 
is brought and shown to him. By a significant nod or two the idea is con- 
veyed to him that the name refers to the thing. Quickly he recognizes it and 
then after being taught to spell it, he is given the sign for the cat, which he 
also recognizes immediately. Now his back is turned to the word, and the 
teacher makes the sign for "cat," is rewarded by the child's spelling off c-a-t. 
In this way a half hundred of names of common things are taught and then we 
turn to sentence writing. Naturally the only method by which they can com- 
prehend the idea of sentences, is by performing the action and then writing 
it out in sentence form. So we rely on actions to a very large extent in order 
to start them right. John jumps over a stick; and the class is expected to 
write it out. Mary falls on the floor; and quickly the rest are writing the sen- 
tence describing it. This is practical teaching, however homely it may ap- 
pear. The aim after getting them started is to encourage them to do their 
own thinking. This is difficult because their very misfortune tends to make 
them reliant on the teacher. Hence they are encouraged to rove off into new 
fields of thought and to express them in English. When once the teacher has 
succeeded in doing that, the question of education is virtually solved; and if 
he fails in this, there will be very little practical good come of the pupil's ex- 
perience in school. Every educated deaf person stands for many a gray hair 
in the teacher's poor head and many a stumble-andget-up-again on the part 
of the deaf person himself. 

There are many peculiar facts relating to the deaf. For the most part 
they do not care to have their misfortune become the source of anybody's 
curiosity. Some of them are so sensitive to this that if when in conversation 
with a friend, a curious crowd gather about (as crowds always do), they will 
first look very much embarrassed and abruptly leave as the only means of 
escape. Others are not so sensitive. I know one deaf person who frequent- 
ly refers to himself as a "dummy." The feeling of independence is common 
among them, and yet very often they are not adverse to having their misfor- 
tune the cause of their advancement or preferment. They are offended if you 
speak of them as "the poor things." They profess not to want pity, but just- 
ice — a fair show with their speaking brethren. 

Desiring above all to mingle with society, still they are a great people 
for exclusive societies and organizations. They thus combat the very aim 
they have in view. It may be that things will be different when everybody 
is able to spell by the manual alphabet. That is a desideratum, and when 


the public at large take enough interest in these people to do that, they may 
see things in a different light. 

Since the unfortunate child of the family is in nearly all cases the favored 
one, they naturally have a will to be broken at school. They thus require 
extra attention when they first enter in order that this habit of wanting the 
earth may be overcome. Otherwise they will develop an ungovernable dispo- 

A set of deaf children is more curious than any I have ever seen in speaking 
and hearing persons. The smallest incident will create among them a perfect 
panic of curiosity. Such a thing as the passing of a patrol wagon will be the 
cause of the whole school's rushing pell mell to the fence. When a stranger 
comes among them he is eyed with the deepest curiosity. If he can use the 
sign language, he will be surrounded in short order. 

They are also very fond of blood and thunder tales. They will remain 
interested for hours in tales of war, frontier life and Indians. Indian stories 
are positively fascinating to them, and in their amateur plays there is always 
a rivalry as to who shall have the honor of impersonating the Indians. Not 
long since the writer saw a rendition of "Rip Van Winkle" by deaf mutes, 
and although there is nothing in the story of the play that includes Indian 
characters, yet they insisted on having Indians put in somewhere, which was 
done and the play came off as amended. 

On one occasion a teacher explained to his class the meaning of LL. D. 
He mentioned, of course, the person to whom it was applied as being educat- 
ed and so on. Afterward on of the children presented this. 

'"G-ocl is good. 
God is kind. 
Grod is wise. 
Grod is very LL. D. 

The insight into the English language is rather shallow with them in 
their tender years, and in looking for a definition in the dictionary they recog- 
nize no different meanings for the same word. Not long since a pupil who 
had been under the writer's charge, concluded to write him a letter. A few 
days before he had read an article in the daily press, of certain parties ' 'mak- 
ing complaint" to the police authorities about something. This boy did not 
want to use the article word for word as he saw it in the paper, so he went to 
the dictionary and looked up the word "complaint," and this is the way he 
told it in his letter. "They made « bodily ailment (complaint) to the police." 
This same boy had been in the printing office at the institution, but had not 
been there sufficiently long to make a hand as typo. After leaving school he 
secured a position as type-setter but on account of his lack of skill he soon 
lost his place. He wrote to the foreman of the printing office for a recom- 
mendation, and this is the way he worded the request: "You will send me a 
recommendation before I get a job." He told the truth, for without a recom- 
mendation it was utterly impossible for him to "get a job" but that is not 
what he meant. He meant that he desired a recommendation in order that he 
might get a place, and that he would wait till it came before looking. 

This boy was a character of unusual type. In writing a letter lie could 


not confine himself to local news and events. He would start out by saying 
he was well, and in the very next breath would begin an account of some- 
thing that took place in China, or Bohemia or New York. Evidently he had 
read in the daily press that which made a profound (?) impression on him. 
On other occasions he would speak of the moon and the stars and all such 
stuff, but .'mary a word" of news at home. You can imagine his letters were 
highly interesting. This boy left school before his time was up with a con- 
suming desire to get rich, and in just six days he met his reverses. 

Another thing that is noticeable is their ever ready belief in what is told 
them. They accept everything as truth. A gentleman noted in the profes- 
sion of teaching the deaf proved this to a certainty before a class that had 
been nine or ten years at school. He started out with the following: — "Many 
many thousand years ago, when I was a boy, etc., etc." Every boy and girl 
accepted the statement without a moment's hesitation. They were expectant. 
They wanted the rest of the tale, but the gentleman retired without another 
word. The writer related the following to his own class: "Two years ago 
last June, I got a telegram from my uncle at San Francisco telling me of the 
dangerous illness of my mother. I immediately packed my grip and started. 
I left Union Station, Pittsburg, at three in the afternoon and got there at five 
that same evening," and so on. Not a soul saw anything absurd until I began 
to look disappointed, when they awoke to the absurdity of the statement. 
The explanation of this is, not apparent to me unless it be that they are led 
too much in school by the teacher. If they did their own thinking more, their 
tendency to believing every statement they hear without weighing it might 
be checked. Still that is only my supposition. 

They take positive delight in -seeing each other corrected by the teacher, 
and if the correction extend to the extremity of corporal punishment, they 
even get hilarious and fairly dance with goulish glee. They are ever on the 
alert to tell the teacher this or that about some other pupil. A teacher finds 
his hands full in trying to overcome these. He must be ever ready to squelch 
all tattling. And success does not come in an hour or a day. I had occasion 
one day to punish a boy slightly. When, suddenly, I looked back at the rest 
of the school, three of the boys were laughing so hard that they were doubled 
almost in a knot. It need not be said that three more boys got a dose of the 
medicine they so much enjoyed seeing the first one take. 

A comparatively small per cent, of deaf mutes are born so — probably only 
about 30 per cent. The remainder lose their hearing from various causes, 
chief among which are scarlet fever, spinal meningitis and measels. The fol- 
lowing analysis shows the uniform ratio of causes of deafness. The total 
from which the following table is formed is two thousand. It shows its uni- 
form ratio of causes of deafness. 

Causes No. Causes. No. 

Not reported , 76 Yellow fever 1 

Reported unknown 149 Black fever 1 

Congenita] 633 Catarrhal fever 14 

Scarlet fever 206 Fever 63 

Brain fever 161 Sickness 124 

Spotted fever 170 Sores in head 97 


Tynhoid fever 39 Measels 68 

Bilious fever 6 Cold 47 

Congestive fever 4 Fits . . •_ 27 

Typhus fever 2 Whooping cough 37 

Lung fever 10 Accidents 27 

Hydrocephalus 9 Worms 2 

Teething 11 Dysentery 2 

Jaundice 1 Small pox 2 

Miasma 1 Neuralgia 1 

Cramps in neck 1 Rheumatism 4 

Drum of ear affected 1 Bronchitis 

Rickets , 5 Calomel 1 

Erysipelas 6 Cruelty 2 

Scrofula 11 Gout. 1 

Quinine 9 Swimming 2 

Paralysis 9 Lightning 

Diptheria. . 13 Tonsilitis 1 

Ague 4 Cholera infantum 1 

Croup 4 Spinal meningitis • 6 

Mumps 8 Spasms 2 

White swelling . 3 Inflammation of ear 2 

Chicken pox 4 

A very peculiar fact in this connection may be stated. Deaf mutes find it 
almost impossible to walk in a straight line. They stagger at times like a 
man under the influence of liquor. The faster they walk the worse they seem 
to stagger. I am not sure that any cause has been suggested for this strange 
truth. Rerhaps Rush students can suggest a plausable explanation. 

Every institution for deaf mutes has its attending physician and consult- 
ing physician. They are generally paid so much a year. One physician in 
the writer's knowledge is the attending physician for four different public in- 
stitutions all in his own locality. His work is confined almost entirely to 
these. He has no horse or carriage but simply walks his rounds. He says 
it is much pleasanter than depending on indiscriminate public calls at any 
hour of the day or night through mud and slush, and indeed his personal ap- 
pearance proves it, for one never sees his clothes covered with equine hair 
or mud. 

The physician who can guarantee no evil after-effects of such diseases as 
scarlet fever and spinal meningitis is the coming man. He will be given pie 
and meat three times a day and live on angel food the rest of his natural life. 

Intermarriage of the deaf has been advanced as a cause of congenital 
deaf muteism. It is asserted that the union of congenitally deaf persons in- 
variably produces deaf children, but this has not been sufficiently reenforced 
with facts in the way of specific cases. When a deaf mute father and mother 
have eight children all deaf from birth one might feel convinced. Such cases 
are occasional. On the other hand some deaf parents have as many offspring 
all hearing and speaking. This would seem to disprove the theory. Efforts 
have been made to start a movement toward prohibiting the intermarriage of 
the deaf but no results have come. 



It is a well known fact that experience is the best teacher, for the lessons 
learned thereby, though bitter, are never to be forgotten. By observation, al- 
so, we learn the many important lessons of life, as in the study of human nature, 
the peculiarities of our neighbor, his eccentricities, his failures, his successes, 
all furnish food for thought. It is essential in the practice of medicine, as well 
as in the pursuit of any other vocation, to be well versed in the knowledge of 
people, in other words, to be a good judge of human nature. Indeed, he who 
possesses this faculty, be it inherited or acquired, has the key to a liberal edu- 
cation, and success is assured him in any enterprise he may undertake. As a 
student of human nature, an investigator of character, he becomes keen in his 
perception, methodical in his business, broad in his convictions and just in his 
conclusions. The value of observations is appreciated by all thoughful minds 
at some period of life. As time is an important factor in the evolution of a 
great personality so the success of a life may depend upon the period at which 
the individual fully realizes this value. It was a young Napoleon who lived 
on the small island of Corsica, a young Senn who practiced in the back woods 
of Wisconsin. The habit of observation, the study of human character, which 
enabled these men to exert a world wide influence was begun early in life. 

It is commonly accepted that the success of an individual depends upon 
two essential elements, viz: ability and opportunity. Let me insist that a third 
element must be considered as an essential factor in the success of any enter- 
prise of moment. That of time. These three; ability, opportunity and time. 
The first may be inherent or acquired, the second may occur or may be or- 
dered by superior genius and determination, but the third is under the control 
of no man. Since the days of Joshua the sun has refused to stand at tbe com- 
mand of mortal. Who, then, can escape the conviction, that if power among 
our fellowmen depends upon the culture of observation and study of human 
nature, that we must begin noio, or the time essential to the application of this 
power will be wanting? The genius to conceive and organize, the force to 
overcome and achieve, are both useless in the hands of him who lacks time to 

The curriculum of a Medical College must furnish opportunities for the ac- 
quirement of a thorough information of all that pertains to the rudiments of 
the science of practical medicine. This, however, is not enough. The success- 
ful practitioner must possess other qualities, as: graces of mind and morals 
which we call "character," and of mind and body which we call "presence," 
before he can impress people with his title to M. D. The world expects little 
of the medical student. The world demands much of the Doctor of Medicine. 
Prince Hal, the hair brained associate of Falstaff and Bardolph, and Henry V. 
King of England, were two very different personages in the eyes of the world, 
and seperated by a sharp line of demarkation 


No knowledge of Medical science can, in public estimation, make amends 
for evidences of ill breeding, careless deportment or immorality. A thought- 
ful demeanor, a dignified bearing, a character above reproach and a life above 
suspicion, must characterize the man who invades the sancity of the home in 
the responsible relationship of "family physician. 1 ' No other human relation- 
ship demands the clear mind, the pure heart, the gentle touch, the tender 
sympathy, the broad charity and the comprehensive knowledge of all that 
goes to make up the great human family - 

In our zeal to master all the branches of study required in the college 
course, can we afford to forget the higher requirements? If not, when shall 
we begin this higher culture? Shall the junior forego his noisy class room 
horse play and rude boarding house manners, the middler his toying with 
girls and dice and cards, or the senior his nights of dissipation and question- 
able companionship, or, shall the student drift through his college life the sub- 
ject of caprice and every transient impulse that the freedom from home re- 
straint and the latitude which a great city allows, until, with uncultivated 
morals, unkempt manners, and unrestrained tastes he receives into his hand, 
from his Alma Mater, a parchment that makes him what? What he himself 
hath made himself 

James Harvey Raymond M. D. 


Nov. 1. 1893, with the assistance of Drs. M, V. Lornegan of Casner and 
W. J. Chenoweth of Decatur, I made a vaginal hysterectomy which I think 
should be published on account of circumstances accompanying an accident to 
the bladder. 

The woman was about forty-five years of age and had been healthy until a 
few months previous, when she was afflicted with a constant offensive dis- 
charge, of a hemorrhagic character, from the vagina, which caused emaciation 
and weakness. I saw her with Dr. Lornegan, her family physician, and found 
a cancer of the body and neck of the uterus. From the mobility of the organ 
we thought it a favorable case for an operation, and she readily consented. 

While seperating the uterus from the bladder the index finger and handle 
of instruments only were used. Nothing alarming occurred until after the 
separation had been effected, when a gush of urine notified us of injury of the 
bladder. We had applied clamps and ligatures, and in our efforts to discover 
the extent of the lesion, with a view to relieving, one of the ligatures became 
loose and dropped off, and was followed by considerable hemorrhage. After 
arresting the bleeding we passed a catheter through the urethea and bladder 
into the vagina and with this as a guide passed a finger into the bladder 
through the rent. A large amount of urine poured into the vagina demon- 
strating the fact that the opening was so high up as to admit a large accumu- 
lation into the bladder before an overflow could take place. Instead therefore 
of resorting to celiotomy (apparently our only recouuld be effected by con- 
soft rubber catheter in the bladder hoping that union wod; the woman recov- 
tactof the injured part. In this we were not disappointed; the woman recov- 
ered in about four weeks and is now able to do ordinary house work. 

That this lesion was not caused by thrusting in the point of a catherer 
through the bladder as occured in a case reported by Dr. E. E. Montgomery, 
nor the severing of one of the ureters as frequently happens, is certain. The 
result probably justifies the course pursued, but of this we are not positive. 

Cassidy Chenoworth, M. D., Decatur 111.. 

Commencing with The Upper, 

Let's proceed the bones to name, 
And try to help some student 

Up the towering hill of fame. 

First of all there is the Frontal bone. 

And the thickened Occiput, 
Just between lie the Parietal, 

And next hard as a nut, 
Come the Temporal; and as we yet 

Further forward go, 
Are the Nasal bones which form the nose, 

The Maxilla bones below. 
Behind them is the Ethmoid bone, 

The Sphenoid, and the Vomer, 
All more difficult to learn, than 

A lesson in "Old Homer," 
The Turbinate and Palate bones, 

And outward lie the Malar, 
Just as easy to repeat, as 

The "Tinker and the tailor. 
The richman and the poorman, and 

The beggarman and thief." 
But of all the bones most difficult, 

The Palate is the chief. 
Now only add to these two more, 

The bones with which we cry (?). 
Their names, they are the Lachrymal, 

Oh my! Oh my! Oh my! 

I've finished head and face, and to 

The Spine I quickly go, 
And name it in five varied groups. 

With carefulness and slow, 
Cervical, Dorsal, Lumbar, with 

The Sacrum and the Coccyx . 
Some words I must abbreviate, 

Or get me in a fix, 
Before I come to the Sternal bone, 

The short Damascus sword. 
Which consists of three queer pieces, 

I pledge you on my word, 
They are called the Manubrium, 


Gladiolus and Xiphoid append, 
And betwixt them and the "Column,'' 
Ribs and Cartilages extend. 

3 Here at last we will begin 

On the bone without a name, 
Just ask me once again and 

I'll tell you that the same 
Is called the Os Innominate, 

Or Haunch bone if you please, 
And below it there extend from 

The Hips down to the knees. 
The Femur bones, the strongest bones, 

Of all the bones the longest, 
And the Fibula and Tibia, 

In strength, next to the strongest, 
Below these are the Tarsal bones 

Of which there number seven; 
Mix them up and shake them up, 

Perhaps there'll come eleven. 
The Os Calcis and the Astragalus, 

Are the largest ones you see, 
The smaller ones the Scaphoid, Cuboid, 

And cuneiform bones, three. 
Of five bones, the Metatarsal 

Most certainly consists, 
And by adding fourteen Phalanx, it 

Will make complete the list. 

4 .But ah! me; I have made, indeed, 

A most disastrous blunder, 
The upper extremity should include 

These bones among the number. 
The Scapula, the Clavicle, 

The Humerus, for all 
Are by far too important bones 

From our valued list to fall. 
The Radius and the Ulna, which 

The useful forearm form, 
And immediately below them, come 

The small bones of the palm, 
Which (I added them up quickly though), 

I think will n amber eight. 
The Boat, the Half-moon and the Wedge, 

(Now tell me is that straight?) 
The Pea-bone, Great-bone, Hooked one, 

And the two small acrobats, 
Now then you may add to these, five 


Carpal bones and that's 
All the bones I think of now, 

Except the last fourteen, 
Which are almost the same description 

As the ones which we have seen 
In the foot, but pardon me, there 

Is one bone which is loose, 
And this bone, like the Sesamoid, 

Is omitted if we choose. 


The students in college are well informed as to what The Pulse will be when 
it appears next month, but the alumni have not had it decribed to them . It is 
chiefly to the alumni that this article is addressed. 

There will be published in April the first "annual" published by Rush 
and, and far as can be learned the first published by any medical college. 
The book will contain some two hundred and fifty large pages, handsomely 
bound in cloth and is planned to be the first of a yearly series of volumes that 
are to keep in a permanent and serviceable form the history of old Rush — 
profane and sacred. The Pulse each year is to be published by the middle 
(or the future Junior) class, a gift to the college by this class from now on, 
in the same spirit as the Senior class presents its tablet. This year the con- 
tents will include an excellent, accurate history of the institution illustrated 
by cuts of all the old buildings, also by likenesses of those whose names are 
so closely linked with its past life; short biographical sketches and half-tone 
pictures of each menber of the college faculty; pictures too of many of the 
instructors and some of the most prominent alumni ;a complete list of the stu- 
dents now attending college with their home addresses, a useful compilation 
that will be a novelty at Rush; besides that of these classes, the history of 
the last graduating class, "93, will be given with a list of its members; mem- 
bership lists of the organizations in college ;the songs of Rush; the programmes 
of all college exercises for the past year; a department of miscellany that is 
to be a good natured collection of the humorous side of the students, faculty, 
classes — the college in general, to contain also much contributed wit from all 
the different classes. These and the many other features in the book are to 
be accompanied by some two hundred illustrations, half-tones, steel-engraved 
insets and sketches. When the amount of work required of the present student 
at Rush is considered, it is readily appreciated that the board of editors 
from the middle class has an arduous task to prepare this book for cir- 
culatipn, and it is due to them that all Rush men, past or present, give them 
support in their undertaking by subscribing liberally for the books . In each 
copy of this issue of The Corpuscle will be found subscription blanks whose 
directions are plain. If you can influence an acquaintance to join you in sub- 
scribing, if you can write to persons who will subscribe, if you will speak a 
good word for the book, it will be a help and an encouragement. 


The dream of Abin Ezry, the son of Thot, the son of Null, the son of a 
man born blind. On the fourteenth day of the second month, when the sons 
of men get themselves up into the shops and purchase tinsel and gaudy sacri- 
fice to the daughters of the tribe, Abin Ezry sat within his tent and meditated 
on the thusness of the day. The winds from the mountains on the north blew 
cold, and Abin Ezry felt his feet grow chill and blue, but he still meditated. 
He could not keep it; like an eight day clock, or the evolution of species, or 
the ravaging board bill, his meditations ran ceaslessly on. Peradventure he 
freezeth? Well no matter, the world is over- stocked. Now about the 
eleventh hour he arose, and putting aside cold, blueness, and his mantle, he 
girded himself, threw away his quid and began: "Centuries ago, when prim- 
eval darkness clothed the universe throughout, and chaos itself was in chaot- 
ic state, before the mountains and the hills had been brought forth, when 
heat, cold, moisture, and drought were not even words, when the elements 
were a dream, and there was naught in illimitable space, before the creation, 
even, of space itself, or of Forever and Never, when all there was, a finite 
mind can grasp, was the infinite Source and his Eternity, there rose within 
the bounds of that eternity, fathered by the infinite Source, a feeble little ray 
of light — Idea. And there was naught of sustenance for that early babe. 
Above was naught; below was naught; on every side was nothing. It seemed 
as if the little spark must go out, since wind of adversity could not fan it to 
a flame, nor friendly fuel prolong the little gleam. But lo, the Source laid 
down the initial law, — nothing in all Eternity can be destroyed. Straightway, 
as if encouraged by the dictum, there came forth many little gleams to light 
the life and help along the first born son. Then did creation multiply space, 
but faster than it all, swept on the first-born son, gathering strength and 
stature by the way. Naught was too high for him to over-step; the deepest 
abyss in all chaotic realm was his delight; and naught so small that it was 
overseen. But as creation sped, the growing child grew weary; one early 
morn, just after heaven was made, he stood upon the battlements and cried, 
'O space that must be filled! Beginning sea! Swift fleeting light! I give 
myself unto thee!' and straightway he divided himself in the midst command- 
ing each part to sub-divide, and each succeeding part to do likewise as long- 
as hungry creation called for their assistance. Today, I, Abin Ezry, see the 
wisdom of this primary, and of the ultimate division. The sons of Earth have 
nourished and developed each minutest trace on which the finite attention 
could be centered. Yea, verily, and some are overdone, for here the million- 
millioneth son of the First-born has been cared for until the human being has 
been overcome, and in his place remains but an Idea, a Suggestion. For 
many generations a family turneth its attention to the healing art as perfect- 
ed for the relief of those of softer mould. All that remains of that much sim- 
mered strain is one long, quivering, index finger attached by a single nervous 


element to the uncased brain behind. Now corporeal beings walk the streets, 
or those, forsooth, onithe ultima thule of science, are transported by their 
fellows of more earthy make. A stout bound box is borne along the way. 
The lock unfast shows softest sheathes within. The downy feathers of young 
humming birds; the silky hairs plucked from an infant's skin, and in the 
midst of all is seen the Visible Idea brought out and perfected — a palpitating 
mass of nervous cells, a slender filament for a connecting path, and at the 
end an Action cased in steel, which, given liberty, at once proceeds to do 
most difficult of operations. When offered room a laparotomy, a spine remov- 
al, a brain resection, or a true exchange of brain from head to head, is but a 
momento space. Two men are brought. One strong, a vicious animal; the 
other sickly, weak, and useless to the common-wealth, save that within his 
skull there is the thing that makes an animal human. The "Visible Idea is 
brought forth. A ray of sunlight on the mass of cells starts up the action; in 
the twinkling of an eye the steel-cased action-blade has done its work. The 
strong one now is given the active brain; he strides out all a man. The 
weakly one — but it has long since been deemed wrong to suffer him to be, so 
he is not. Or come into the hall where Justice on her throne meets out to all 
humanity its dues. Two lives approach, and with low tremulous tones be- 
seech the judge and Public Interests, to grant them legal union. Upon a 
table near at hand, a jewelled case reposes; within its depths is the most keen 
and subtle Idea Visible of ail the land. Its case unlocked, and sunlight 
thrown within, it wakes to thought and action. The past is opened like a 
book; on one side there is seen a heritage of drunkenness, epilepsy, insanity, 
crime; on the other debauchery, idiocy and filth. The never-changing law 
goes forth, and in a space brief as a swallow's dip, the Visible Idea changes 
them so they go but no more a man and woman; they are spared to be the 
carriers of brick and wood, not more . The danger of perpetuation of like 
beings is forever lost to them. The Visible Idea is exalted, and Public Inter- 
est safe " 

And Abin Ezry fell upon his face from weariness, and from a deep amaz- 
ment, but as his circulation cooled itself, he pinched his calf, as was his cus- 
tom when desiring to awake, and yawned and stretched, then took a smoke, 
His brain still whirled with its too-far-ahead-fancies, and his spirits sank re- 
membering the tasks of the morrow; but with a firm conviction that the weak 
will sink, willy nilly, and that "whatever is to be, is apt to be" he doused his 
srlim A. C. Ripple. 



Four Tailed Bandage of Head. Take a piece of muslin or other material 
seven inches wide and long enough to pass over crown of head and fasten 
under the chin. Tear each end lengthwise within two inches of center. The 
bandage will then have four extremities or "tails" three and one-half inches 
wide, and an untorn portion or "body" four inches long and seven inches wide. 

To cover front of head, place the body over frontal region, tie anterior 
tails at nape of neck and posterior tails under chin. To cover top of head 
[Figure 2] move body of bandage back and fasten tails as in 
bandage for front of head. To cover back of head place 
body on occiput, tie posterior tails on forehead and anterior 
tails under chin. 

Four Tailed Bandage of Chin. [2 in. wide, body 3 in.] 
Place body on chin, tie upper tails back of neck, lower tails 
on top of head . 

Six Tailed of Head. [Galen]. Wide enough to ex- 
tend from eye brows to inion, long enough to tie under chin. 
Three tails to be made in each end. The center tail is wider than those on 
edge of bandage. Place body in position. Bring posterior tails forward 
under middle and anterior portion and fasten at forehead. They can be short- 
ened if necessary. Fasten anterior tails at nape of neck, then bring down 
middle section and tie under chin. This makes a more secure bandage than 
recurrent of head. 

Four 1 ailed 'Sling of Arm. [Fig. 3. | [14 in. wide by 
2 yds.] Tear two tails in each end, one ten inches and 
one four inches wide, body four inches . A useful band- 
age in fracture of clavicle, especially in children, as it is 
not easily deranged, 

To apply. Place pad (not to be used as a fulcrum) 
under axilla on injured side, arm at side, forearm flexed 
upward across chest . Place body of bandage over point 
of olecranon with narrow tails below. The broad tails 
pass horizontally around chest confining arm to side, the. 
four inch tails pass upward and are fastened over oppo- 
site shoulder. The adhesive strip which Sayres first ap- 
plies in fracture of clavicle may be used to good advantage with this bandage. 

Four Tailed Bandage of Knee. Six or eight inches wide and long enough 
to pass twice around leg and tie. Tear four tails of equal width leaving a 
three inch body, place this over patella, pass tails around leg and tie on top. 

T Bandage of Perineum. Its shape, as the name indicates, is like the 
letter T. The horizontal arm, two and one half inches wide, is passed around 
body just above iliac crests and tied in front. To the center and at right 


angles to this is attached the vertical portion which passes down under perin- 
eum and upward to horizontal arm to be fastened in median line or torn into 
two tails and these attached separately. 

T Bandage of the Buttock. [Fig. 4.] The horizontal arm, 
three inches wide, passes around abdomen and is fastened in 
front. A right angled triangle is attached by its base, measur- 
ing nine inches to the center of horizontal portion, the perpen- 
dicular side measuring eleven inches, being in median line. 
To the apex is sewed a strap two inches wide and long enough 
to pass under perineum around thigh to be fastened to the 
center of the hypotenuse of triangle. 

T Bandage of Groin is like the above. 


The method of bandaging first systematized by Dr. Mayor of Lausanne , 
Switzerland, 1832. 

Material. Should be soft and pliable, as gauze or thin muslin, and be cut 
out in squares. 

Shape — Square is seldom used. 

Rectangle is a square folded once or twice on itself from side to side . 
Triangle is a square folded once from corner to corner. The longest 
side, or line of folding, is the base, the angle opposite the base is the apex, the 
two remaining angles are called the extremities or ends. 

Cravat. Bring apex of triangle to center of base, folding several times 
until it is as narrow as desired. 
Cord. Is a twisted cravat. 
The names of the bandages are intended to serve as guides in their appli- 
cation. The first portion of the name designates that part of the person to 
which the base of triangle or the body of cravat is to be applied. For example 
the "Fronto Occipito Labialis Cravat," the body is placed upon the forehead, 
crossed on occiput and fastened on lip, (it is a figure-of-eight of fore-head and 

Occipito Frontal Triangle. Base on nape of neck, apex forward over top 
of head hanging down on forehead. Fasten extremities around forehead, 
then turn apex up over the secured ends and pin. This can be worn at night 
as the knot is in front. 

Fronto Occipital Triangle. The reverse of above, base on forehead and 
tied behind. Useful for operator and assistant to absorb perspiration on fore- 
head and prevent dandruff and hairs from falling into wound while perform- 
ing venous operations. 

The Bi- Temporal Triangle explains itself. 

Auriculo Occipital Triangle. Base in front of affected ear apex back 
around occiput to opposite ear, bring one end over top of head, the other un- 
der chin and tie. 

Triangle Suspensory of Breast. Base under affected breast one end be- 
neath axilla, the other over opposite shoulder, fasten behind. Apex is 
passed over shoulder on affected side under the secured ends and pinned. 
This bandage is for support only and not for pressure. 



Radio- Cervical Triangle. Flex forearm at right angles, place base under 
wrist. Inner end passes upward over opposite shoulder, outer end passes up 
around arm over shoulder on sound side and fastened at nape of neck. Afex 
is brought around elbow and fastened in front (Pig. 6.) 

Second Method. Base under wrist, apex projecting be- 
yond elbow . Posterior extremity passes across chest and 
under axilla on sound side, anterior extremity up over 
shoulder on injured side and fasten at back. Apex forward 
around arm and elbow, and pinned. (Fig. 

Triangular Cap of Shoulder. Tie a 
cravat around neck, to this is secured the 
apex of a triangle, the base on arm, pass 
the extremities around arm and tie. 

Agnew's Method. Base is placed on top of shoulder, 
ends pass around and cross under axilla around arm and are 

fastened on outer side of arm. 

Carfto- Palmer Triangle. Base on wrist, apex passes down around ends 
of fingers and back to opposite side, ends pass around wrist and tied over 

In presenting this synopsis nothing original was attempted. It is simply 
an effort to present a few of the many bandages in use. For further informa- 
tion on the subject see: "The Roller Bandage," by W. B. Hopkins, M. D., 
"The Principles and Practice of Bandaging," by G. G. Davis, M. D., "Minor 
Surgery and Bandaging,*' by H. R. Wharton, M. D., or any work on surgery. 

John W. O'Neill, M. D. 


A volume on "Hospitals, Dispensaries, and Nursing" will soon appear. 
Prof. Henry M. Hurd, of the Johns Hopkins Hospital, announces that this 
will be the latest, most varied, and from the point of view of the number and 
world-wide experience of the contributors, the most valuable work on these 
matters, that has yet appeared. 

The book will consist of some seven hundred pages, and about sixty illus- 
trations and plans. 

The contributors number over seventy, among whom are Drs. Allan Her- 
bert and W. Douglass, of Paris. 

Dr. H. Mercke, of Berlin, contributes an article on "Hospital Administra- 
tion," and D. C. F. M. Pistor, of Berlin, an article on "Trained Nursing in 
Berlin". Miss Florence Nightingale an article on "The Principles of Nurse 
Training." Dr. G. H. M. Rowe, of Boston, an article on "Isolation Wards 
and Infectious Hospitals." Dr. B. H. Stedman, Chicago, an article on " Diet 
Kitchens and Hospitals." 


Having lecently read in one of the established jDeriodicals, a criticism on 
the practice of medicine in the West, and upon the meritorious qualities of its 
representatives, I feel it my duty, as an interested resident of this benighted 
realm, to say a few words in its defense. 

In Kansas, and in all of the country west of the Missouri river and east of 
the mountains, which Longfellow described as "the pasture," many changes 
are taking place. The constant rearing of cattle which was a natural result 
of the wealth of grass, is now being interspersed by many other industries. 
The soil, rich, black, and productive, yields bountifully of the cereals, corn, 
wheat, and crops of various kinds, while the mines furnish their wealth of 
coal, salt, gypsum, and the metals. Into this magnificent country population 
is steadily flowing, composed of a hardy and intelligent class of people. Phy- 
sicians, however, are not nearly so plentiful in proportion to the population 
as in most other localities. The causes of this are these: This section has 
the deserved reputation of being a healthy country, and containing no mi- 
asma within its borders. As a result of this it has been avoided by many phy- 
sicians who seemto think that success lies only in following disease, and se- 
curing practice in the localities containing the most. The belief also that it 
is cold and severe in winter, and that all riding done during that season is over 
rough, unbroken roads and across bleak prairies, is rhyme without reason. 
Is is well said in the eulogy of .Arapooish, the Crow, that "This is a good 
country. The Great Spirit has put it inexactly the right place; while you are 
in it you fare well; whenever you go out of it, whichever way you turn, you 
fare worse. Everything good is found here," 

Yet this country, while free from miasma and fevers of various kinds, h&s 
numerous other diseases with surgery enough besides, to gladden the heart 
of any enthusiastic practitioner. Among those prevailing is the influenza, in 
its many and varied forms. It is known under many other names, and seems 
to be with us yearly. The name varies with the epidemic, or possibly to suit 
the occasion. It has been said that the name has been changed to please the 
people, like the preacher, who would preach the same sermon on many oc- 
casions, but "hollered" at different places. This disease has prevailed here 
and descriptions of it have been given from 1832, when Captain Bonneville 
found it on the Snake River, in Idaho, until Dr. Roberts Bartholow wrote his 
accurate description of it not many years since. 

Diphtheria also makes ravages in certain localities in this district, espec- 
ially during the fall and winter, and contrary to the general belief, it is more 
frequent in high and elevated localities than elsewhere. Of the exanthemata, 
we have our share. But aside from these mentioned the diseases arefew. Pneu- 
monia and other diseases of the lungs, though formerly found to a consider- 
able extent among the Indians, are now especially rare. Of surgery, we have 
enough, especially bone surgery and injuries by horses and machinery, which 


in connection with reparative and railroad work, is sufficient to prevent any 
man from becoming "rusty." 

As to the bleakness of the country, and cold winter rides, these, though 
formerly proving very disadvantageous to the practice of medicine, have dis- 
appeared with the wonderful development of the country. The grass cov- 
ered plains have been changed into rich, grain bearing farms, each with its 
grove of timber, its orchard, and hedges, which not only check the force of 
the wind, but make it a longed for comfort during the heated term. Towns 
and cities have sprung up as if by magic, and not only the comforts, but the 
luxuries of life are at our very doors. The citizens of this country are com- 
petent to judge an intelligent, capable, and educated man. They are willing 
and able, and do reward such, according to their merit. It is a place suitable 
not only for a home, but its healthfullness, productiveness, and the char" 
acter of its people, all contribute to make life a pleasant one therein. 

Again we say, with Arapooish, we love it "with its snowy mountains 
and sunny plains." "All kinds of climate, and good things in every season." 



Dr. Bouffleur's popularity with the students, who sat under him last year 
and this, has been pleasantly shown daring the past few weeks. On the 
morning of March 11th, he was summoned before the Middle Class and 
charged by Mr. A. E. Sweet, as spokesman for the class, of numerous con- 
spiracies and actions in the interest of the class. Dr. Bouffleur in response 
made a very modest and weak denial of the charges, although his rhetoric 
was excellent; whereupon he was declared guilty, and punished by being 
made to carry home a beautiful onyx clock, put it on the mantel, think of the 
class whenever he sees it, and wind it once a week. 

At a meeting of the Freshman class on the morning of the 3rd inst., Dr. 
Bouffleur was presented with a very handsome etching "Pasteur in his 
Laboratory" with^the following very graceful little speech by Mr. J. B. 
Schreiter, of the '9'6 class: 

"Dr. Bouffleur— In consideration of the service you have rendered in 
guiding us through our early days in anatomy, while we were yet strangers 
within these walls, and in recognition of your merit as a lecturer and as a 
gentleman, we, the class of '96, present you this etching as a token of our 

The Doctor thanked the boys heartily and made a few very appropriate 
remarks. He was enthusiastically cheered proving him to be a favorite with 
the class. 

Professor Brower makes this announcement, regarding exemption 
from his examination in Materia Medica and Therapeutics: 

Four classes of students will be exempt from examination on presenta- 
tion of proper certificates. 

Such certificates are to be only presented by students who expect to be 
graduated this spring. 

The four classes exempt are: 

1. Graduates of Regular Medical Colleges. 

2. Graduates of Eclectic Medical Colleges. 

3. Graduates of Colleges of Pharmacy. 

4. Students from other Regular Medical Colleges who have passed this 


The Secretary of the Alumni Association wishes a complete file of the 
proceedings of the Association. All the records were lost some years since 
and a file of the publication was not kept by the former Secretary. If any 
alumnus has these' and is willing to turn them over to the Association, please 
communicate with the Secretary, John Edwin Rhodes, M. D., 34 Washington 

Members of the Alumni Association will be grieved to learn of the death 
of Dr. John Henry Murphy, the President of the Association. 


In the death of Dr. Murphy the profession has lost one of its most distin- 
guished members, and Rush College one of its oldest and most loyal alumni. 

For several years he has been afflicted with diabetes and for the last six 
months his health had gradually failed as the result of the frequent occurrence 
of carbuncles about his head. One of these painful processes assumed such 
size and produced such pronounced sepsis that operations for its removal were 
necessitated. These proved of but temporary relief and on the evening of 
January 31st. last, he succumbed to the overpowering influences of his disease. 

The history of this self-made man is in brief as follows: He was born in 
New Jersey in 1826, reared in Illinois, acquired his education in the Quincy 
schools, graduated from Rush Medical College in 1850, and practiced medicine 
in St. Paul and vicinity from that time up to the date of his death. 

Those of us who attended the Rash Alumni banquet last year will remember 
his presence and the humorous manner in which he recounted the reminiscen- 
ces of his trips to and from college and the vicissitudes of his early profes- 
sional life in the far Northwest. In fact, his great fund of reminiscences and 
his unique powers as an orator made him an essential figure at all festive oc- 
casions in Minnesota and a most welcome guest everywhere. 

He was known as the Master of the profession in the Northwest, and all 
occasions acquitted himself in a manner well deserving of the title. 

As a mau, he was always known to be honest, upright, liberal, and just. 
In manner he was free and frank, and in speech blunt and to the point. He 
was known far and near as a large-headed, jovial, charitable man, and as a 
most sincere friend. As a soldier and statesman he was known as loyal to the 
highest degree. 

While he was universally respected and honored as a man, his greatest 
achievements were as a physician and surgeon. A man of natural genius, of 
quick perception, of ready adaptability, of dauntless courage, and with a good 
practical education, he was well equipped for his life work, and by his energy 
soon worked his way into the very front rank of his profession He launched 


his future in the new Northwest and grew up with it into reputation and 
greatness. While always blessed with an extensive practice, each year 
seemed to add to his many duties. 

Dr. Murphy rendered a great deal of very valuable and distinguished 
service during the civil war, which was repeatedly recognized by more impor- 
tant assignments and promotions. 

On account of his high reputation as an able and skilled surgeon he was 
retained by several railroad companies. He has served four important lines 
as chief surgeon and as many as local surgeon; in fact it is stated that at one 
time he had more miles of railroad under his professional supervision than 
any three surgeons in the United States. 

He was an honored member of numerous medical and civic societies. In 
1891 -2 he was President of the National Association of Railway Surgeons 
and at the time of his death was President of Rush College Alumni Associa- 
tion. For the past twenty-four years he has served as Surgeon- General of 
the state of Minnesota. In addition to his professional honors he has held 
several important civic offices. 

His busy life is ended and it is indeed a brilliant record that this distin- 
guished alumnus leaves behind. He will be greatly missed by the profession 
at large, the Alumni of Rush College, and especially so by those of us 
who have been accustomed to meet this good-hearted, steadfast friend. 



W. H. LEWIS, Business Manager of THE PULSE, Rush Medical College, 

Please enter my name on your books as a subscriber to 

-^The Pulsed- 

for 1894, for which I agree to pay One Dollar and express charges C. O. D. 

Nam e 





Tansey upon being complimented upon his anatomical drawing recently 
modestly replied: "That was only an embryo drawing." Well, Tansey, em- 
bryos usually grow. 


The Corpuscle extends congratulations to "Papa" Field upon his im- 
proved appearance. 

"Grave and Reverend Seniors" — Doxey and Elkinton. 

We don't know how new it is, but a St. Louis' damsel asked us if it had 
ever occurred to us how a-maized the ears of corn would be, could they hear 
the cob pipe, (This happened the day before that terrible snow-storm.) 


I was struck — Bertling. 

I am struck — Bell wood. 

I would be struck — Shorty Nichols. 

I should be struck — Harding. 

Dr. Reed, of Ohio, has introduced into the legislature of that state a bill 
permitting condemned murderers to die by electricity or an anaesthetic. 
If they choose to die by chloroform they must agree to give their bodies for 

vivisection under the anaesthetic. 

* * 

Keith can deny the accusation that he is making a remark during a lecture 

on the Code, in more languages than any fellow we ever saw. 

* * 


Freeman is no more "Prunts," but "Hornblower." When "Prunts" talks 
in class- meeting it reminds us of the ass wrapped in the lion skin. 


A senior wants to know how a large stomach-tube can be used after intu- 
bation, as the caliber of the intubation tube is much smaller than any stomach- 
tube he has ever seen. 

Jewell says he hardly understands the phenomenon of seeing with a glass- 

"Warts, corns, bunions and ingrowing toe-nails" will become a specialty 
with the graduation of the class of '94. 


' 'An abscess is a foreign body in the pharynx. " So says a dignified senior. 

* * 

A few seniors are over-exerting themselves in exercisingir the pulls. 

Gives Desired Results in the Crises of Locomotor Ataxia, Neuralgia, 
Sciatica, Rheumatism, Pneumonia, Menstrual Neuroses, Typhoid and 


"The doctor has the highest and best right 
Send to The Antikamnia Chemical to insist that no worthless substitute be im- 
Company, St. Louis, Mo., for Sample JL posed upon his defenseless patient. He knows 
«< ' „ ' -, , *J? the specific effect of the genuine drug and 

Mailed in Vest Pocket Box," Free. Specify " know ^ equally well it cannot be successfully 
Antikamnia (genuine) on your Prescriptions. imitated."— Courier of Medicine. 




Only Elements, C. H.1N. O. 

The above remedy is a vegetable powder of grayish brown color, agreeable odor and taste, slightly 
soluble in water, and soluble in wine or alcoholic solutions. It is compatible with all powders. 

Analgine-Iiaborde is a combination of the active principles of Camellia Thea, Apium Graveolus, 
Saccharine and a Carbo-Hydrate, and is an original French formula of Professor Laborde. 

French physicians have prescribed this remedy for some time past and find it to be one of the best 
Antipyretics, Analgesics' and Anodynes known. As a remedy for headaches, arising from any cause, it is 
unexcelled; this, then, is one of pits most prominent therapeutic properties. In fevers its effects are speedy 
and sale, as it rapidly reduces the temperature and sustains the action of the heart; it has a speedy 
and permanent action in all vague, transitory, and wandering pains, as the rheumatic and neuralgic 
type. It has also proven itself exceedingly efficacious in relieving the difficult breathing of Asthma, and, 
in fact, it is a better remedy than any of the so-called Antipyretic, Analgesics or Anodynes recently in- 
troduced, as no possible harm can follow its use. It will lie found a therapeutic agent equal to, and in 
most cases superior to Antipyrine, Phenacetine, Antifebrine, Acetanilid, or any of their imitations. It 
has none of the disadvantages of the above mentioned, and the dose never needs to be increased. 

Analgine-Laborde does not accumulate in the system or cause any deleterious after-effects. It is 
therefore, a perfectly safe remedy to leave with the nurse or patient. 

ANALGIIVE LABORDE ..6 grams (93 grains). 

QUININE SULPH 1 gram 15V 2 grains. 

Signa.— Divide in 12 Powders. 


The usual average dose of Anagine-Laborde is X A gm. to 1 gm. (7 grs. to 15 grs.), repeated every half 
hour till thefdesired effect is obtained; the intervals may be varied, however, according to the advice of 
the physician. 

The special value of Analgine-Laborde as a remedy is its power to quickly and safely relieve a~r 
headaches, as of the sick, nervous or neuralgic types, congestive, anaemic, toxic and neurasthenic, as 
classified by Dr. Allan McLane Hamilton, in his Brochure on headaches. 

Analgine-Laborde will enable the physician to relieve the pain in the shortest possible space of time 
and thus aid him in prescribing the necessary remedies for the different causes as in the organic, anaemic 
toxic and neurasthenic classes. 

As its efficacy depends largely upon its exact proportionate parts, it is best dispensed in powders con 
tainingjfrom digram to 1 gram and it may be combined with dther.drugs, as Kuinine, Pepsin, etc. 

ANALGINE-LABORDE 6 grams, (93 grains), 

Sig.— Divide in 12 powders. 


All first-class druggists throughout the world have the genuine Analgine-Laborde, 
Sole agents for U. S. A., South America and the West Indies: 


St. JLVoui^ A/o. 


The senior class had an harmonious meeting. Where are we drifting. 

r To the list of braves headed by "Rain-in- the-Face," was recently added 
' ' Young-Man-Af raid-of -the-Proffessors. " 

"The man that struck Billy Patterson" has been forgotten since the search 
has begun for the man that cut Copeland's whiskers. 

"Six scruples of chrysarobin to an ounce of vaseline makes a mild soothing 

salve," was a revelation to the quiz master on skin. 


* # 

Who says, "I'll biff you one?" Edmunds. 

-x- * 

A stranger passing the college while Dr. Brophy-was making his opening 
lecture to the middlers remarked that he guessed "Hell had broken loose." 


* * 

Dr. Haines is evidently an admirer of iEsop, He has likened C0 2 to the 

dog in the manger. He also likened Nitrogen to the "drone in the chemical 

hive." The latter, however, is entirely original. 


We are supplied with a black-smith and a white-smith in the Freshman 


If you don't believe Gemmell came by "Darwin's Route," just listen to his 

* * 

The attention of the Freshman class is called to the new titles for some old 
laws in chemistry: 

Raleux Law. — Salts having same acid radicle will not decompose each 

Chenoweth's Law. — Salts having same basyless radicle will not decom- 
pose each other. 

Specialties — Surgery and Gynaecology. 

Des.Hemminway & Whackoff, 

Office Hours: "RVpo P,lim'r> 

1:30 p. m to 6:30 p. M. r ree ^-UniC. 

Some one informed Prof. Bevan his lectures were like a prayer-meeting 

where only one man prayed, They don't think so now. Oh, no! not after his 

"Homcep." story. 

* * 

Fish-bates. Brown-berry. White-bird. 




VOL. 3. APRIL, NO. 7. 


A. T. HOLBROOK, '95, President. 
W. D. CALVIN, '95, Secretary. C. A. ALLENBURGER, '95, Treasurer. 

E. M. ECKARD, '96. F. C. HONNOLD,- '96. 

E. M. PERCY, Business Manager, N. W. Cor. Congress and Honore Streets 

Membership in the Alumni Association of Rush Medical, College is obtainable at any time by 
graduates of the College, providing they are in good standing in the profession, and shall pay the annual 
dues, $1.00. This fee includes a subscription to The Corpuscle for the 'current year. This journal is the 
official organ of the Association. 

Dues and all communications relating to the Association should be sent to 

JOHN EDWIN RHODES, M. D., Sec'y andTreas., 34 Washington St., Chicago. 

College Anniversaries— 

Doctorate Sermon, Sunday, May 20th, 1894. 

Special Clinics and Class-Day Exercises, Monday, May 21st, 1894. 

Scientific Meeting of the Alumni Association, 10 A. M. and 2 P. M., Tuesday, May 22nd, 1894. 

Business Meeting of the Alumni Association, 10 A. M., Wednesday, May 23rd, 1894. 

Annual Commencement 2 P. M. Alumni Banquet 7:30 P. M. 

Ruby Red and Black: Colors of Lake Forest University. Yellow: Color of Rush Medical College. 


We have to apologize for the delay of a week in the appearance of this 
month's issue. Our tardiness was due to a change in the business manage 
rnont of the journal caused by the withdrawal of Mr. Hart and the appoint 
ment of Mr. F. M. Percy to the position of business manager. 

The Corpuscle is prepared to say to every alumnus of Rush Medical 
College, that if he will come back to Commencement this year, he will go 
home fully paid for his trip and enthusiastic over and proud of his college. 
In another part of the journal we publish the programme of exercises, but it 
is not alone the exercises, the clinics, the meetings he will enjoy. Nor is it 
alone the meeting of old chums and sitting in the same old halls. There will 
come to every Rush graduate, who returns this spring, a satisfaction that his 
college is one that is in the lead, not in the empty words from i; enthusiastic 
youngsters " in the college journal, but in fact, a fact that he can see and 
appreciate for himself. We don't care if you take our enthusiasm with a grain 
or a drachm of allowance, or if you think the descriptions w r e publish of our 
new laboratories are bit highly colored, all we ask is for you to come and see. 
We are proud and enthusiastic, so will you be if you come. 


We are not Freshmen but we dropped in at the Freshman class meeting 
when their Pulse board was being elected and heard and saw some remarkable 
things. It is not our purpose to criticize a matter of honor or etiquette that 
might be mentioned, but we do desire to say to some of those misinformed or 
uninformed members of the class of ninety- six that if they desire to appear in 
public and influence a body of men, especially in any radical matter, a slight 
knowledge of the subject, or a faint glimmer of light on the matter they pro 
pose to discuss, is always desirable. "All is fair in love and war" does not in- 
clude Pulse board elections, and it is not considered good advise anyhow. A 
square, frank honesty is the best policy and if you have a personal feeling or 
jealousy or what-not, you had better salt it down or keep it on ice when you 
go to class meetings. One thing that the meeting showed us was that the 
Freshman class does not appreciate the fact that the Corpuscle is the Col- 
lege paper and not run for the private interests of the Corpuscle editors. 
Every student in college should get a copy of every issue of the paper, he 
should feel in sympathy with its every move, and should call it his paper. 
Then, for instance, he would not have to look up back numbers for lectures, 
reports or synopses of courses. The manner of running the Corpuscle is 
exactly the method by which the most successful college papers of all large 
colleges are managed. The same as Harvard, Yale, Princeton, Ann Arbor, 
Williams, Amherst — all the leading college papers are published. The college 
is so large, the proper management of the paper by the whole student body is 
utterly impossible. Still the paper is yours, for it is the college paper just as 
we have the college nine or glee club. As soon as we let some petty, selfish 
spite or jealousy crowd out our loyalty to the college or any of its institu 
tions we had better give our morals a Turkish bath. 

It is very evident that small-pox is becoming epidemic. The health 
officers of New York and Brooklyn«have issued proclamations and are endeav- 
oring in all ways to prevent its spread. On the twenty- seventh of March 
seventeen cases were taken to the pest house in this city. Isolated cases are 
reported from all parts. Patients are ambulating and no person is safe from 
exposure. These patients can not be blamed. They may not have known 
that they had been exposed and when the symptoms first appear they are of 
course unable to diagnose their case, since it is a diagnosis that perplexes 
many physicians. That it is all but criminal negligence not to vaccinate, is 
beyond dispute as is shown by Mr. Marson's well-known figures, which give 
the result of his observations made during twenty-five years, in nearly 6,000 
cases of post vaccinal small-pox in the London small-pox hospital. 



1. Unvaccinated 35| 

2. Having been vaccinated, without leaving cicatrix 21f 

3. Having one cicatrix 7| 

4. Having two cicatrices 4-J 

5. Having three cicatrices If 

6. Having four cicatrices f 

This is only one of -many similar reports that prove the efficiacy of vaccina- 


tion as a prophylactic to small- pox. If all people would keep perfectly vac- 
cinated, small-pox would undoubtedly soon be an evil of the past. Surely no 
student should be negligent concerning this question. 

"When Billroth died, what riches were taken from our profession!" 
Billroth, the great physician and surgeon, the teacher, the accomplished 
gentleman, the loving father. To us, Americans, whose lives are such head- 
long races through the foreshortened three score and ten years, the life of 
Billroth furnishes an example, a lesson we can not afford to pass unnoticed. 
It is with pleasure that we publish this month, from the pen of a friend of 
The Corpuscle, the personal reminiscences of an acquaintanceship with 
this great master. It is refreshing to read of the breadth of character and 
achievements that these reminiscences show — that a man may become great 
in some one department of science or art, and yet not exclude from his life 
the appreciation and even unusual knowledge of other departments. If the 
ordinary man does not know "how the other half lives,'* the extraordinary 
man does not know how the other ninety- nine one-hundredths live. Billroth 
was not of these, he was one of those truly "great souls that are a part of 

The following on the genius of Billroth we copy from a recent issue of 
The Lancet. 

" 'Talent,' according to a famous definition, 'does what it can; genius does 
what it likes;' and the mighty surgeon, whose loss the whole 
medical world is deploring was undoubtedly a genius . His mental vitality 
and energy were literally unbounded. The scientific and the artistic — the 
analytic and the creative — were faculties not only coexisting in him, but actu- 
ally independent, owing their vigor and their outward expression or produc- 
tiveness to the harmony with which they were kept in play. Prom the tem- 
porary exhaustion of one he would pass with renewed life to the exercise of 
the other, and be 'all the fresher for the alternation. After hours spent in the 
bacteriological laboratory he would sit down to the piano forte and dream 
over the keys for hours more, the intensity of his previous occupation seem- 
ing to lend a profounder sentiment or a more aerial spirituality to his inter- 
pretation of sonata or nocturne. 'Billroth,' his pupils have been heard to 
say, 'was never better in the operating theatre or lecture-room than after he 
had been assisting till the small hours at a dramatic representation or a con- 
cert in his own house.' The severer the work awaiting him on the morrow 
the more deeply he would plunge into its emotional or intellectual opposite 
the night before, and vice versa. Billroth was not only a musician, but an ac- 
complished artist and liter ateur." 

Very often those who shower blessings are cursed by ungrateful recipients. 
Such seems to be the case with "Old Sol" who has been shedding his rays 
upon mankind for years without number. And who are finding fault with 
"Old Sol?" Have you not heard that the Cook County Medical Society has 
decided that there is a direct relationship between the sun spots and small- 
pox. The society has declared that times when small-pox is prevalent seem 
to be coincident with great atmospheric changes as observed in maximum 


magnetic disturbances, auroral displays and sun spots, which occur every 
eleven years. This is but another example of that fallacious kind of reason- 
ing, that when two things happen at the same time one must be cause and the 
other effect. Why not just as well say that the sun spots were caused by 
small- pox ? 

We wish to call the attention of the readers of the Corpuscle in general 
and the Freshman class in particular, to a series of admirable and meritorious 
articles by Professor Cotton, the first of which appears in this issue. No one 
is more anxious that the minds now being modeled at "Rush," be cast with 
perfect symmetry than Dr. Cotton, and we are desirous of seeing his efforts 
fully appreciated. 


Numerous cards about the colleges, hospitals and stores near Rush, read: 
"The Pulse, Annual of Rush Medical College, will appear about the middle of 
April, those who have not subscribed before the 10th of April will be charged 
$1.50 per copy. Price of book by subscription before that date will be $1.00- 
Subscriptions received by members of the Board; or may be deposited in the 
Pulse boxes at the College." The card was not put up to make any bold bluff, 
because the sale of the entire edition, which is limited to one thousand copies, 
is assured. In justice to those who are out of town and who would have 
subscribed through the blanks in last month's Corpuscle had they known of 
this arrangement, all $1.00 Corpuscle subscriptions that are sent in up to the 
date of sale of the book, will be honored, provided such contracts are not 
signed by students in the college. Subscriptions received by W. H. Lewis, 
Business Manager, Rush Medical College, until edition is exhausted, 

The Pulse prizes have been awarded as follows: The best poem, a five 
dollar order on Messrs. Charles Truax and Greene, Mr. Charles Center. For 
second poem, a four dollar order on The MacIntoshElectric Co. , Mr. Frederick 
Jefferson. The best joke, a three dollar order on The W. T. Keener Co., Mr. 
Harry Thompson. For best illustration, a three dollar medicine case, Mul- 
ford Co., Mr. Charles Hobbs. The judges were Messrs. Windmueller, Craig 
and Beebe, 

Walk out in the evening, 

Perhaps as late as three. 
Stroll round Wood and Congress streets 

This is what you see: 
Lights in every window, 

Boy near every light, 
Book or two with every boy, 

Glued there for the night. 
You know what's the matter, 

Know it is the dam — 
Aging way of grinding 

For next day's exam. 

Bock is up in Milwaukee a good deal lately, trying to arrange a partner- 
ship with Dr. Leon of that city. 


DIED MARCH 28TH, 1894. 

Resolutions of the Freshman Class— God is Mysterious, God is 


Whereas, It has pleased the Almighty in his wisdom, to remove our 
esteemed class-mate Chas. W. Cox, 

Whereas, He being an officer of the Freshman class, and having been 
recognized for his ability as a student by Rush Medical College, be it 

Resolved, That we as a class express our deep feeling of sorrow for his 
sad and untimely death, and furthermore be it 

Resolved, That we tender our sympathy to the widow in her bereavement 
and be it further 

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be sent to the family, and 
another copy sent to the college paper for publication. 

Geo. T. Carson, 
S. D. Eeebe, 
S. O. Duncan, 
W, G. Law, 
Jno. F. Dunshie. 

Whereas, Our esteemed Professor of Materia-Medica, Dr. A. C. Cotton, 
has manifested the most profound solicitude, for the care and comfort of our 
lamented class-mate, Mr. C. W. Cox; and 

Whereas, By employing all the resources which science, actuated by 
the most sincere affection could suggest — he has been untiring in his efforts, 
to ameliorate the sufferer's condition; be it 

Resolved, That the class of '96, of the Rush Medical college, express and 
do hereby express to Prof. Cotton their gratitude and appreciation for the 
services so unreservedly bestowed. In thus explicitly tendering our thank- 
fulness, we desire to assure Prof. Cotton that his unstinted efforts in behalf 
of our late comrade, have only enhanced the esteem we entertained for one 
who had already 'endeared himself to us by an unvarying course of courtesy 
and kindness. Be it further 

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be presented to Prof. Cotton 
and published in the next issue of the Corpuscle. 

T. Francis Conroy, 
Clyde M. Fish, 
Harry L. Smith, 
___________ Committee. 

Whereas, The students of the Chicago College of Dental Surgery have 
manifested their kind]y feeling of friendship and sympathy to the Freshman 
class of Rush Medical College in our bereavement occasioned by the sad death 
of our class-mate Chas. W. Cox, 

Whereas, They having materially aided us in our efforts to provide 
every comfort for the family of deceased; therefore, be it 

Resolved, That we return our hearty thanks and assurances of apprecia- 
tion of their kindness and generosity, and furthermore 

Resolved, That a copy of these resolutions be sent the students of the 
Dental College and another copy sent to the Corpuscle for publication. 

F. W. Greiner, 
F. E. Wallace, 
B. A. Arnold. 



Clang! Clang;! Clang! The great gong wakes the echoes in the halls of 
Old Rush and startles the late matriculant as he stands at the office window 
waiting while Mr. Gould fills out his ticket and receipt for five and eighty. 
Now he is a full-fledged D. J. in the leading medical college of the west. The 
old building vibrates to the tread of a thousand feet as the different classes 
make their way with some crowding and jostling to their respective lecture, 
laboratory and clinic rooms. 

Out of the surging mass a familiar form and hand grasp. " Hello Tom ! 
Just come? Been here two weeks waiting for you. Want you to room with 
me. Nice front room, hot and cold water and everything. Widow with two 
lovely daughters and no other boarders. What's on this hour? Let's see — 
Materia Medica, Gynecology. That's the Materia Medica lecture room. You 
can't see anything in there. Hang the dry stuff ! You can read that up any 
time out of the Dispensatory. Come with me. I'll show you something." 
Up the long flights of stairs finally emerging upon the giddy "perch" the per- 
spective of the great semi- funnel lined, with heads and terminating in the 
arena about which flit gowned assistants and trained nurses with jaunty white 
caps. The opposite wall bordered with brass tablets bearing unintelligible 
class mottoes and adorned with portraits, busts and bas relief, of the Great 
Dead of Rush. "That's Brainard, the greatest surgeon of his time and first 
president of the college. That's Gunn. My preceptor used to see him operate. 
The other one is Parkes. He got twenty thousand dollars for a single opera- 
tion. That one with the long beard was a president. I've forgotten his name, 
and the others, I guess were professors." A commotion. "There he is" as 
the figure of a handsome man clad in spotless white gown appears in the 
arena. "No applause, gentlemen," with a graceful deprecatory wave of the 
hand. "You see, Tom, it stirs up the germs. They wash and boil those 
gowns before every operation to kill the microbes." More assistants with a 
table moving noiselessly on rollers, supporting the anaesthetized patient 
swathed with towels exposing only so much of the face not covered by the 
inhaler in the hands of a quiet little doctor. "Gentlemen, a left ovarian cyst. 
Knife/' Swish. From ensiform to pubes. Swish. Sponge, dab, snip, liga- 
ture. "Ah!" Stitch, stitch, stitch. 17 pounds. 6 minutes and 30 seconds. 
Laparotomy. Another and another. "I tell you he is great. Does a Lapar- 
otomy ever/ day of his life. No other clinic in America like it, but just wait 
until you see Senn. He's out of sight. " With protruding optics and bated 
breath the D. J. consecrates himself to operative Gynecology. 

A month has passed and Old Rush with her eight hundred students and 
instructors has settled down to the eight months work with a quiet irresist- 
able energy and momentum which, like the motion of the great ocean steamer, 


is felt and appreciated only by comparison with the lighter craft falling astern 
and the receding beacons and head-lands, while the adverse winds and surg- 
ing waves never cause the slightest tremor through her great proportions nor 
the least deviation from her steady, onward course. 

"Uncle Richard is coming tomorrow to pay us a little visit. You know 
he has charge of an educational exhibit at the Exposition and has to stay 
around until he can get permission to ship the stuff back to the University. 
He's a teacher of Natural History or something. Used to be a doctor, gradu- 
ated at Harvard and practiced until his health broke down and then went to 
teaching. He knows a lot but we'll show him a few things, We'll take him 
to the clinics and hospital and open his eyes." 

Uncle Richard calls when the boys are out and is shown to their room and 
while waiting takes an inventory. The walls' showed decoration of skull and 
cross bones, photos of dissecting room and class in cadaveric surgery, litho- 
graphs of Andre Versalle and Wilson's "Surgical Clinic." On the table an 
os-calcis inkstand, pen rack made of inferior maxilla, a calvarium half full of 
smoking tobacco and a surgical pocket case of tanned human integument. 
The mantel held volumes on surgery by Serin, Hamilton, and Wyeth, Gray's 
Anatomy, Atfield's Chemistry, Kirk's Physiology, Potter's Quiz on Materia 
Medica, three catalogues of leading surgical instrument houses and a stack of 
pamphlet reprints of journal articles on a series of Laparotomies. "H'm," 
mused Uncle Richard. "I will remain a week or two and possibly have a few 
talks wittj, the boys." 

To l)e continued. 

A familiar sign in new form — S. S. S. for the Bloodfs' 

•ft -ft 

Prof. in Chemistry. — "What is graphite?" 
Student. — "I don't know, Sir." 

Prof. — (holding up his pencil) "We have all seen it" and adding as he 
puts down a zero "and know how it marks." 

•ft ■& 

At least the most economical if not the meanest man in the college has 
turned up • He blows smoke into a bottle and then smokes the bottle. 

In spite of the fact that "the college owns the bones," the relic and sou- 
venir fiends got in their "deadly" work in the dissecting room, "swiping" 
faise teeth for ear rings, toe-nails for cuff buttons, tattoo marks for orna- 
ments, heads of femurs for canes, ears to be put in alcohol, etc. etc., ad infin- 

A "D. J," may not be so swift 

As the Middler in the school; 
But it doesn't follow from that drift, 

That a "D. J." is a fool. 
Nor are the Seniors yet so bright 

But that with time and care, 
A "D. J." might not win a fame, 

With which they can't compare. 


The recent announcement of the death of Professor Theodor von Billroth 
very vividly recalls to my mind the pleasure I experienced in his acquaintance 
at Saint Gilgen and later in meeting him and his interesting family in the 
grand old city of Vienna. 

Seven years ago this summer my father, sister and I arrived in the lovely 
town of St. Gilgen for a week's visit among dear relatives, after a few months 
of fatiguing but most delightful travel in Europe. If any one has once gazed 
upon this fascinating little village, the memory of it will ever remain, for it is 
truly a beautiful, poetic spot. Situated midway between the Emperor's sum- 
mer resort, Ischl, and picturesque Salzburg, it lies in the very midst of the 
finest scenery of Upper Austria. At that time there was no railroad thither 
from either of these places, so one had to content one's self with a long ride 
by coach. The monotony of such a journey was indeed relieved by the 
beauty of the mountainous surroundings and ever-changing landscape. The 
most inspiring impression is received in reaching St. Wolfgangsee, which lies 
dazzling in the sunlight, blue and beautiful in its tranquility. It is sur- 
rounded by mountains, some high, some krw, some covered with verdure to 
the very summit, others rugged and craggy, severe and frowning in the dis- 
tance. Here and there, nestling on the shore, are scattered little villages, 
their white buildings resplendent in the twilight glow. One of the largest 
and most pleasing of these is St. Gilgen. Many people come here from 
Vienna to spend their summer vacations. Here, too, Professor Billroth had 
his villa, where he came each year to seek a few months of rest and peace af- 
ter a busy, active life in Vienna. 

A few days after our arrival he honored us with a call. He was indeed a 
grand looking man, Ins white hair brushed back from his forehead, deep set 
blue eyes, and a figure, although slightly bent, full of life and vigor; surely 
a man who would attract attention anywmere. He was taller than the aver- 
age and inclined to be stout. His dress on this occasion was quite similar to 
that worn by the peasantry, which city gentlemen in Austria imitate when 
spending a season in Tyrol. It consisted of heavy hob -nailed shoes, worsted 
stockings, knee-breeches of a brown sort of water- proof cloth, which were 
buttoned below the knee and held around the waist by a broad belt, a short 
coat of the same material and a soft brown hat with a feather in the back. 
This, Professor Billroth always wore w T hen in St. Gilgen. It was very be- 
coming and unique, just what one needed for climbing the hills and moun- 
tains in all kinds of weather. We were much impressed with our renowmed 
visitor — his genial manner, kindly smile and attractive personality made us 
feel him our friend at once. My sister in her eagerness to converse in Ger- 
man with Professor Billroth forgot her grammar entirely and addressed him 
with the familiar "thou." This pronoun is only used among relatives and in- 
timate friends. For a German to make use of it on other occasions would be 


something unheard of, especially when addressing such an eminent person as 
Professor Billroth. All laughed, greatly amused at our American enthusiasm, 
much to her embarrassment. Professor Billroth, however, with merry twink- 
ling eyes and in a most winning manner thanked her for her compliment and 
begged her to continue talking German, and not to mind about the perplexing 

Before we left St. Gilgen Professor Billroth invited us to a bowling party 
at his villa. This villa stood upon a hill a short distance from the lake but so 
elevated that the view from it, of the country and lake with its picturesque 
villages was exquisite. The villa itself was an ideal summer home, with large 
sunny rooms furnished with taste and refinement. The spacious garden was 
filled with fragrant flowers, the roses of which were Professor Billroth's 
special care. In the drawing room stood a concert grand piano, for Profes- 
sor Billroth was an intense lover of music and an excellent pianist. At this 
party we had the pleasure of meeting his eldest daughter, the rest of the fam- 
ily having already returned to Vienna. She was also attired in a peasant 
costume of a navy blue skirt, worn rather short, a fancy bodice with silver 
buttons, a white, full waist trimmed in red and a gorgeously embroidered 
apron. Many of the young people were dressed in the same way and pre- 
sented a very pretty picture in our host's parlor. After bowling awhile and 
partaking of light refreshments we listened to delightful music. Fraulein E — 
had a very sympathetic voice which had received a most careful training un- 
der her illustrious father's guidance. The songs were charmingly rendered, 
Professor Billroth, himself, playing the accompaniments. He usually accom- 
panied his daughter and a touching sight it was to see them thus together. 

Professor Billroth's musical attainments were wonderful. He read at 
sight the most difficult music with no effort whatever. With all the labor con- 
nected with his marvelous operations and the preparation of his lectures and « 
literary work he never wholly neglected his music. He was an intimate 
friend of Brahms," the celebrated composer, who came to him with his compo- 
sitions for advice and criticism . Many of Brahm's productions were first 
heard in Professor Billroth's salon. The greatest artists were his friends and 
loved to come together at his home . One of my cousins, a fine performer on 
the piano, nonprofessional, was very intimate with the entire Billroth family. 
Whenever Professor Billroth could spare an evening he would send for her 
to come and play duets with him. Then they played and played, unmindful 
of fleeting time until the wee small hours of the night. 

Professor Billroth was not only physician, surgeon and musician but also 
a most affable and entertaining man in society. He was everywhere a wel- 
come gue st; young and old alike adored him. It was whispered to me in 
Vienna that the emperor himself was scarcely more beloved. Every one knew 
him and whoever had entree to his soirees was considered most fortunate. 
The students vied with one another to be first at his clinics. 

The winter before I met him Professor Billroth had a most dangerous ill- 
ness. For days all Vienna was in suspense. Crowds thronged about his house 
waiting for tidings. The newspapers published two bulletins daily concerning 
his condition. His cellar was filled to overflowing with the choicest and most 


expensive wines given by admiring and loving friends. The public had but 
to know what he needed and it was sent him at once. When the news spread 
that the crisis had passed, the students all paraded the streets with lanterns 
and banners flying; the city was ablaze with lights and there was general 
jubilee and thanksgiving. In regard to this illness his friend Hanslick writes: 
"For days Billroth was not expected to recover. I was furious when people 
said to me: 'what a loss for science!' What did I care for science? That 
could take care of itself. Great Physicians will come again. But Billroth, 
the man * '* * * will never come again." 

After this dangerous illness Professor Billroth took a long vacation to 
St. Gilgen. On account of his tendency to corpulence, his physicians urged 
him to reduce his weight by systematic dieting and prolonged exercise. Ac 
cordingly it was his custom to rise at 4 o'clock in the morning and take long 
walks through the country and at breakfast we would often see his familiar 
figure wending its way homeward. 

My father and sister soon departed for home leaving me with friends in 
Vienna. In this beautiful city Professor Billroth showed me kind attention 
On several occasions I enjoyed his hospitality and always found .him the same 
polished and entertaining gentleman. I also had the pleasure of making the 
acquaintance of the rest of his family which consisted of his wife and two 
younger daughters. Prau Billroth I shall never forget. She was a true Ger- 
man wife, mother and Hausfrau; a most motherly looking woman to whom 
my heart went out at once. She was highly educated and just the one to 
fully appreciate her husband's grand achievements. In her dress she was 
simplicity itself. Even at her largest receptions she appeared in the same, 
quiet, unpretentious way. In her presence one could not but feel her woman- 
liness. The second daughter differed from her elder sister in being slighter 
and fairer. She also had a beautiful voice, not so powerful as her sister's but- 
very sweet. The youngest daughter was not yet in society. She was full of 
life and spirits, always on the alert for merriment and fun. 

Once I attended a ball given by the law students of the University and a 
grand affair it was. Prince Rudolf was one of the patrons and appeared in 
full military dress. During the evening I noticed the prince conversing with 
a most distinguished looking man. I wondered who he might be, for, at a 
distance I failed to recognize him. As he turned I saw it was Professor Bill- 
roth. It was the first time I had seen him in evening dress, adorned with all 
the decorations he had received from the rulers and princes of different coun- 
tries in recognition of his many contributions to science and grand improve- 
ments in surgery . His breast was covered with almost a dozen and a half of 
medals, large and small, of all kinds of designs and workmanship. How 
proud I was, and how my heart pulsated with joy when, a few minutes later 
he spied me and came across the hall to enquire how I was enjoying myself. 
He spoke awhile with me and then turned to others who claimed his attention. 

One very amusing evening spent at his house I remember particularly 
well. The entertainment was a burlesque concert given by his daughters, 
Dr. G— , his first assistant and surgeon-iu-chief to the Rudolphina Hospital 
in Vienna, and a few friends. In the first number one of his daughters ap- 


peared. Robed in white she sparkled with all the precious stones with which 
she could adorn herself. She sang operatic airs, imitating the great singers 
with trills upon trills and such fanciful effects that she won tremendous ap- 
plause. With great sweeping bows she retired from the scene. Violin 
and piano solos followed . Then another daughter came upon the stage in a 
picturesque peasant costume, with jaunty cap, and sang Alpine peasant songs 
in a sweet and melodious voice. The most ridiculous part of the program 
was when Dr. G — with longhair dishevelled, parted in the middle, and hang- 
ing over his face with the air of a fanatical poet read a poem accompanied by 
the piano. His reading was most dramatic; when he read anything tragic, 
the pianist played the daintiest of Wiener Walzes. When the hero spoke the 
piano responded with the sweetest treble notes imaginable; and the heroines 
voice was represented by the gruffest and most unharmonious chords of the 
bass. The instrumental part was always apropos, but entirely contradictory 
to the idea expressed and was made up of popular local songs. 

Many of the allusions I failed to understand on account of my limited 
knowledge of Vienna life, but knew they must be very funny to provoke such 
laughter and applause. 

Professor Billroth with beaming countenance moved about the audience 
as much amused and pleased as any of us. After the concert a collation was 
served, followed by dancing. It was a most enjoyable evening, and the last 
one I spent at Professor Billroth's house. It was also the last time I had the 
pleasure of seeing him. I am very, very glad that I had the delightful pleas- 
ure of personally knowing this truly great man, and of seeing him in the very 
midst of his loving family. 

It is indeed wonderful that a man could reach as he did, the highest sum- 
mit in the art of medicine and surgery and, at the same time, find hours, per- 
haps when others were asleep, which he could devote to general science, 
literature and his beloved piano. He w T as very proficient in music, played the 
violin and viola, and even wrote a number of beautiful compositions. After 
my sister's return to Chicago, Professor Billroth sent her a sweet little song 
composed by himself and copied in his own hand, together with his picture 
and autograph. These she will ever highly prize. 

When the thought comes over me that this beloved, illustrious man will 
never walk among his admiring friends, and that he lies asleep, crowned with 
his wonderful achievements and kindly deeds, never again to charm his stu- 
dents and the world with his scholarly lectures and marvelous operations, I 
cannot suppress a sigh and a tear. 

The world has lost a wonderful, philanthropic and noble man. He gave 
generously to charity. His name will ever stand as a shining light among 
his profession who owe to him much of their knowledge of the great improve- 
ments of modern surgery. 

People of all nationalities, from the very lowest to the highest ranks, 
either called him or came hundreds of miles to consult him and to undergo 
dangerous operations. They paid him, too, voluntarily, most extravagant 
fees out of gratitude. 

I have seen a number of photographs of Professor Billroth; the most 


pleasing, however, was one sent by him to my father not many months before 
his death. He is standing with uncovered head on the veranda of his St. Gil- 
gen villa, dressed in his peasant costume and gazing upon the autumnal land- 
scape about him. Underneath, with his signature, are written these words, 
"Such a glorious autumn day I have never yet seen." Looking at the picture 
I am filled with the thought, how symbolic that autumnal day is of the au- 
tumn of his grand, full life, so rich in activity and power, and what a beauti- 
ful setting the landscape makes for his fine figure and soul inspiring face. 
I do not wonder that Hanslick said:' 'Billroth, the man will never come again. " 

P. H. G. 


A system of Legal Medicine by Allen McLane Hamilton, M. D., Consult- 
ing Physician to the Insane Asylum of New York, etc. etc., and Lawrence 
Godkin, Esq., of the New York Bar, will appear about May 1st, in two 
large octavo volumes. 

This work will supply a long felt want. The list of contributors includes 
the names of some of the most distinguished writers and authors upon Medi- 
ical Jurisprudence in America. The editor and his colleagues aim to give the 
work a decided. judicial and impartial tone, so that it may be consulted with 
confidence by all as an authority of the first order. 

Walter S. Haines, A. M., M. D., has contributed one of the most valu- 
able articles contained in the book, on the subject, "Poisoning by Alkaloids 
and other Organic Substances. " This article is illustrated by microscopic 
drawings made by E. R. LaCount, M. D., and paintings showing chemical re- 
actions by P. P. S, Doane, '95. 

Articles on Poisoning by Inorganic Substances by C. E. Pellen, Ph. D., 
P. & S., N. Y. 

Ptomaine Poisoning by Victor C. Vaughan, A. M., Ph. D., M. D., Michi- 
gan University, 

Affections of Speech— Aphasia, by Chas. K. Mills, A. M., M. D., Univer- 
sity of Pennsylvania. 

Insanity in its Medico-Legal Bearings, by Allen McLane Hamil- 
ton, M. D. 

The Duties and Obligations of Medical Experts, by William B. Hornblower, 

Insanity and Crime, by B. Sacks, A. M., M. D., New York Polyclinic. 

Blood and Blood Stains, by James F. Babcock. 

Many other articles by equally eminent men have been contributed all of 
which go to make the book most desirable. 


Patient was brought to the hospital by the patrol, assigned to service of 
Dr . Bouffleur. Complains that his rupture has come clown and will not go 
back. Has had a rupture for 2 yrs. caused, as patient says, by a kick from a 
mule. Previous to that time he had had a swelling in the right side of 
scrotum which was tapped and found to contain water. This condition had 
occurred three times previous to the appearance of the Hernia, never since. 
Patient also has what he describes as "falling fits" which he attributes either 
to fright, or injury on the head received at a lire when he was 12 yrs. of age. 
On entrance patient is suffering intensely. Says the rupture came down 12 
hrs. before entering hospital; at that time he was carrying a bag of coal and 
the truss he was wearing broke near the bulb — the hernia descending imme- 
diately. Is unable to pass urine and has had no bowel- movement for 2 days. 
Examination shows a right inguinal hernia reaching down into the scrotum. 
Swelling is very tense, painful and tender. General condition good. 

Treatment — Patient catheterized, when on attempting to pass catheter he 
urinates voluntarily. Attempt made at reduction by manipulation under CHC1 3 
anaesthesia. Unsuccessful — Prepared for operation; shaving, scrubbing, 
Aether, Bichloride. Operation. Aether anaesthesia. 

An incision 3 in. long was made 4- in. above Poupart's ligament, beginning 
1-| in. from ant. sup. sp. as far as the middle of the upper end of the swelling, 
then curving downward over the swelling. Superior angle of ext. abdominal 
ring located and found to surround the sac tightly. This intercolumnar fascia 
divided as was also the ext. oblique in the direction of its fibres, no signs of 
constriction at internal ring as finger could easily be passed between perito- 
neum and abdominal wall. Attempt to replace the gut was unsuccessful. 

Incision extended a little further down the scrotum, the sac drawn out 
into the wound, when the lower portion was found to be adherent to the 
testicle and the cord, running along the internal and posterior surface of the 
sac, The sac was incised and the finger passed toward the ring. A constric- 
tion was felt corresponding about to the ext. abdominal ring. This was 
divided on the finger which was forced still further in the sac and another 
constriction located above the first, this was also divided when the gut 
which was in good condition, only somewhat congested, was easily replaced. 
The end was separated from the internal abdominal ring to near the testicle. 
The sac ligated near the extremities at the separated portion. The interven- 
ing portion removed. Wound thoroughly sponged with 5 per cent, carbolic. 
Inguinal canal closed by Bassime's method. Four sutures in internal layer, five 
in ext. skin. Closed with a continuous suture; a small gauze-dram inserted in 
upper angle — dressed, Four days after operation the wound was dressed. 
Dressings were found saturated with a bloody discharge. Drain removed. 
Dressed again, the 10th day sutures removed. Absolutely clean throughout. 

In this case the hernial sac was composed of the tunica vaginalis therefore 


a congenital Hernia. The history of a previous hydrocele on this side would 
indicate that at one time the tunica vaginalis was separate from the peritonea 1 
cavity. Hence we must conclude that the hernial canal was at one time 
occluded, without the usual atrophy at the peritoneal wall in that region. 
The constriction was found in the sac itself, and of course the constricting 
rings were well marked fibrous bands corresponding to the location of the 
int. and external abdominal rings, the first points normally for the hernial 
sac to become occluded. There was a great deal of oozing during the operation 
so that drainage was thought advisable, the drain being inserted in the super- 
ior angle. The result showed that drainage was perfect, and the danger of a 
post -operation infection rendered almost nil by this precaution as the lower 
angle of this incision is not only in a notoriously unclean place but is also 
very hard to protect by dressings. 


House Surgeon, Cook County Hospital. 


George H. Weaver. M. D. 

The multiplication of laboratory courses in the more extensive medical 
education which is rapidly developing in American Medical schools, brings 
with it the frequently difficult task of deciding how much time shall be de- 
voted to each department, how far it is desirable to seek to exhaust each sub- 
ject in the under-graduate course, and what part of the student's time is best 
adapted to the study of each of the several subjects. 

Practical bacteriology has been made an essential part of the course of 
study in Rush Medical College after the present year. The object of this 
course is not to make the students expert bacteriologists. It is the purpose 
of the course to familiarize the student with such parts of practical bacteriol- 
ogy as are essential to a proper intelligent practice of modern surgery and 

This includes a knowledge of what bacteria are, where they are found, 
under what conditions they thrive, what the products of their activity are, 
and what agents affect them injuriously, both chemical and thermal. The 
prosecution of this study impresses upon the mind how difficult it is to obtain 
and id reserve perfect asepsis in surgical procedures, arid also by what means 
this essential result may be obtained. Besides these principles as applied to 
the growth and manipulation of bacteria in general, it is desirable that the 
student before completing his study of medicine should know so much of the 
pathogenic bacteria as may be of value to him in the practice of his art, in the 
directions of prevention, diagnosis, and cure of disease processes. 

Under this heading would be included the differential stain for the Bac- 
illus Tuberculosis, the cultural and morphological peculiarities of the Bacillus 
Diphtherias; the methods of detecting the Microcococcus Tancalatus and 
Streptococci in sputum: and the Gonococcus in pus. He should also know how 
to make a bacteriological examination of a dead body, a tissue, secretion or ex- 
cretion in suspicious cases, in at least so far as the preparation of cultures 


are concerned; and how to inoculate animals for determining the presence or 
character of certain bacteria in suspected exudates and secretions. For pur- 
poses of hygiene, the bacteriological examination of water, air, and soil should 
be understood as thoroughly as of practical value. Under this heading might 
be introduced the study of the Bacillus of Typhosus and Cholerse Spirillum. 
This work has been placed in the second year of college study, thus enabling 
the student to better understand the studies of the senior year. Upon the es- 
tablishment of a uniform four years of college study, it might be desirable to 
place a slightly briefer course than that just outlined in the freshman year, 
and furnish an advanced course in the fourth year. By a careful and system- 
atic preparation of the work for the class in advance, the course outlined may 
be fairly well covered in a series of fifteen lessons of two hours each, prefer- 
ably on successive days. To accomplish this, some of the course, as methods 
of inoculation of animals, must be demonstrated to the class as a whole and 
not done by each member himself . 

With these ideas in view, the following course has been outlined and fol- 
lowed in the Bacteriological laboratory. 

Cleaning of glass -ware including stopping of test-tubes. 

Preparation of media, gelatine, plain agar-agar, glycerine agar-agar, glu- 
cose agar-agar, bouillon, plain and litmus milk, potato. 

Sterilization by dry and moist heat. 

Methods of isolation of bacteria in pure culture by means of Petri dishes 
and Esmarch rolls. , 

Practical experiments with antiseptics of various characters and strengths. 

Systematis study of one of each of the growth- forms of bacteria, making 
drawings of the colony of plant and slab cultures on different solid media, and 
of individual bacteria after staining; preparing a written description of the 
growth in all media, and of the bacterium in the hanging drop and stained pre- 
parations . 

Special staining processes for demonstration of spores, capsules and 

Pathogenic Bacteria. 

Bacillus Tuberculosis, staining of preparations of sputum and pure culture. 

Micrococcus Tancalafcus Capsulatus with capsule stained in sputum. 

Gonococcus — methods of differentiating it from other diplococci in secre- 
tions from mucous membrane. 

Study of colonies and various growths of Bacillus Diphtherise and Strept- 
ococcus, with the morphology of each . 

Study of the Bacillus Typhosus and the Spirillum Cholerse Asiaticse for 
purposes of differentiation of each. 

Bacteriological examination of water. 

Demonstration of methods of inoculation of animals and the bacteriologi- 
cal examination of the organs at the autopsy. 


The Laboratory of Practical Anatomy, or dissecting room, occupies the 
fifth or top floor of the new building", having a floor space of 98 x 48 ft., un- 
broken by standard pillars or obstruction of any kind. The stairway by 
which it is reached, opens at the top to a platform only partially enclosed, 
exposed thereby to the open air. As the elevator shaft from the storge room 
outside of the main building has no connection with the other floors, there is 
no avenue for the transmission, to other portions of the main building, of foul 
odors which might arise from the careless or improper preparation of ma- 
terial. A skylight 22 x 80 .feet occupies the main portion of the ceiling, 
which is just under the roof, and with four windows on the east and six on 
the south side of the room provides an abundance of light for the work which 
is all done in the day time. The floor is of Portland cement with an asphalt- 
um top dressing, sloping from sides to centre with a gradient of one inch to 
every five feet. The asphaltum is turned up on the sides of the room to the 
height of six inches, and two 6-inch drain pipes open from the centre of the 
floor so that the floor can be completely flushed with a hose. 

*The new laboratory building recently completed at a cost of about $100,000 is the great- 
est addition which has yet been made to the teaching facilities of Rush Medical College. In 
its construction, arrangement and equipment it seems almost perfectly adapted to the pur- 
poses for which it was designed. The alumni and friends of the college will be interested in 
a fuller account of it than has yet appeared, and the CORPUSCLE has arranged for a series of 
articles giving a detailed description of each department. We present in this issue, a des- 
cription of the Laboratory of Practical Anatomy, prepared by the demonstrator of anatomy. 

Ed's Corpuscle. 


At the west end of the room a space 22 ft. deep is partitioned off from 
the full width of the room, and this is further subdivided into a demonstra- 
tion room on the north, 22 x 23 ft.; and an operative surgery room 21 x 23 
ft. The elevator shaft opens into the southwest corner of this room, and 
in the southeast corner is a small cloak and instrument room for the demon- 
strators. The demonstration room has a central arena 10^x14 ft. about which 
is arranged a series of three steps, 9 in. high and 16 in, wide, standing upon 
which 100 students can readily see a demonstration in the arena. Opening 
from the south side of the main room, east of the main entrance, is a wash 
room and urinal 12x12 ft. Stationary bowls are not used because of the diffi- 
culty of keeping them clean. In lieu of them is an iron sink, of which there 
is a total length of 36 ft, provided with enamel ware basins. 

The tables, 50 in number, are of iron and glass. The frame, of 1-inch gas 
pipe (the details of which are well shown in the process- print accompanying 
this article), is 6 ft. long, 22 in. wide, by 33 in. high at the head end and 
31 at the foot end. The legs are set in heavy 8 inch circular flanges, and as 
the complete table weighs about 180 lbs., it sets as firmly on the floor as if it 
were bolted to it. The tops of plate glass, average about f in. in thickness 
and are Qk feet long by 24 in. wide; the upper surface is planed and grooved 
in 10 shallow longitudinal grooves; the corners are rounded and the edges 
bevelled. An oblong galvanized iron drip bucket, hung on clips at the lower 
end, extends the full width of the table. The glass tops, supported on lead 
plates at the corners and in the centre, are held in place by galvanized iron 
strips riveted to the iron frame. The height of the table as given above is 
found to be the most convenient, as the student can work easily either sitting 
on the stools provided (25 in. high) or standing. 

A cloak room is provided in the basement for the outer clothing of the 
students. The dissecting garments are hung on numbered hooks on the walls 
of the demonstration room. Closed lockers are objectionable because of the 
impossibility of keeping them clean and inodorous. 

When completely furnished, the walls of the main room are to be. hung 
with anatomical charts and plates, and cases are to be placed along the wall 
for wet and dry anatomical preparations, and frozen sections, the latter pre- 
served under glass in alcohol. 

The material is received through the Demonstrator's Association, un der 
the Illinois Anatomy Act of 1884, is at once injected, by a fountain syrin g- 
through a T canula in the carotid artery, with about one gallon of preservative 
solution (a .2 per cent, solution of Hydrarg. Bichloride, in 50 per cent, alcohol 
with glycerine to which a small amount of arsenic or sodium arseniate is 
sometimes added) at the end of twenty-four hours, the artery filling injection 
(a thin paste of plaster of Paris, colored with vermillion and mixed with the 
preservative solution) is injected by means of an embalmer's pump. The 
bodies are then placed in the refrigerator, which is kep t a temperature of 
about 24° Fahrenheit, and kept frozen un til use d. 

The skeletons obtained from the dissecting room are cleaned by the 
janitor of the anatomical department, and transferred to the osteological 


laboratory (which will form the subject of a subsequent article), to be there 
studied by the students, in laboratory classes, or loaned to them. 

The teaching force in the department of Practical Anatomy, working 
under the direction of Prof. Bevan, comprises a demonstrator, 9 assistant 
demonstrators and instructors, and a janitor. 


In Rush where Anatomy is second only to God; where Freshman.;- Mid- 
dler, and as well the Senior, struggle to become proficient in all its branches, 
perhaps it would not be out of place to make a few remarks regarding the 
earlier years of anatomical investigation. 

We find it very difficult to determine the exact date at which this science 
became the subject of minute investigation. 

Everyone knows the peculiar superstition felt by the ancients in regard 
to the mutilation of their dead, even the lowliest feeling, it a lasting disgrace 
if the body of a relative was made the subject of an anatomical investigation. 
Thus, it was with difficulty that men ambitious in this direction were able to 
procure any knowledge, their efforts being restricted to comparative anatomy. 

Alemaron of Crotona, and Democritus are said to have dissected animals 
in order to obtain some knowledge of human anatomy. Hippocrates of Cos, 
about 440 B. C, though the father of Medicine, was an anatomist of but very 
little note, because of his mistaken views, as well superficial as incorrect. 
Aristotle, born 384 B. C, may be justly called the Father of Anatomy and in- 
deed founder of the science. 

Comparative anatomy seems to have been his forte, no record being found 
of his having dissected the human subject. It was he gave the name of aorta 
to the great artery. 

Erasistratus, 250 B. C, dissected the bodies of criminals, and Heraphilus 
is also said to have dissected human beings. 

Galen, 131 A. D., dissected apes, realizing the fact they were the nearest 
human and would serve as excellent comparative material. 

The medical school of Bolona and Padua in the thirteenth century be- 
came famous on account of their anatomical researches. In the seventeenth 
century progress was rapid; Harvey discovered the circulation, and the mi- 
croscope led in a grand revolution of medical ideas. 

Aselli in 1622 demonstrated to us the lymphatic system, and Wharton and 
Malphini. whose names have become common language with us, added valu- 
able information, by the aid of the microscope. 

We are indebted to Pacchioni, Valsalva, Sartorini of Italy; Winslo w , 
Lieutand, Bichat, of France; Haller and Wickel, of Germany; Cowper, Ches- 
elden and Hunter, of England, for much valuable information. 

Pathological anatomy is traceable to the ancients, but of course did not 
assume a scientific form until more recent years. 

Morgagni, 1767, is, perhaps, the true founder of this part of anatomical 
science. But in the nineteenth century we are still confronted with problems 
which defy solution, and the field is broad for further scientific research, 
and the time is' very far distant when a man can say he knows man as he is. 


The first of a series of ball games to be played between now and the close 
of the school year, occurred on Saturday, March 24th, at Doug-las Park, be- 
tween the Rush Medical College boys (Freshmen) and the Chicago Dental 
College, resulting in the entire discomfiture of the latter, with a score of -7 to 
39. The game was attended by a large number of enthusiastic college men, 
who kept the spirit of the players up to the queen's taste. 

The playing of the Rush men in general was above reproach and of some 
in particular it was par excellence — the team is certainly a strong one. 

The boys anticipate a series of interesting games, and show no hesitancy 
in accepting challenges from any source. 

A second game was with the Northwestern University team at Evanston, 
on Saturday, April 7th, resulting in our defeat, with a score of 4 to 9 in favor 
of the Northwestern University boys. 

Unfortunately Schultz was unable to be with our team and the game 
lagged a little at times in consequence; and the boys did not seem to play to- 
gether as well as usual — due likely to a lack of sufficient team practice. 

Individually, however, the majority of the team did well, and succeeded 
in at least holding the score down so that the University boys — though ad- 
mittedly good players — cannot crow much, for with our captain in the game 
and the remainder of our men in their regular positions the outcome would 
have been decidedly more favorable for Rush— if not a walk- over. 

Ample arrangements were made for the transportation of the students — a 
special train of four coaches was run over the C. & N. W. — and some 400 or 
more of the boys from Rush and Chicago Dental Colleges accompanied the 
team to the field, and with a profusion of college colors, songs and yells and 
numerous ingenious inventions for creating amusement and making noise, 
kept the enthusiasm of the occasion at a fever heat. 

In a very interesting 7-inning game at Lake Forest college grounds on 
the 12th inst. , the Rush men won an easy victory from the Lake Forest Uni- 
versity team, with a score of 17 to 1. The playing of the Medics was most 
excellent, and one of the best games they have put up this season. 

The Rush team and students accompanying them were nicely treated — a 
fact, in view of the lack of hospitality in the past, we are glad to note. 

With pleasanter weather, a kindlier and more favoring Fortune and Capt. 
Schultz in his accustomed place the boys were more successful on Saturday 
last (April 14th) and, with a score of 11 to 1, succeeded in carrying off the 
honors of the day from the Northwestern team right handily, putting up a 
game that was remarkable for the great number of star plays and almost ab- 
solute freedom from errors. 

With a team superior to any in the past history of the college, a captain 
like Schultz and the support of the students we may expect an unexcelled 
record of success for the Rush Medical College ball team. 

Then came the game last Satnrday with the University of Chicago — 
there aje some things better left unsaid — we merely give the sad score of 14 
to 11, against us. 


The world does certainly move. A few centuries ago a crank called Galileo 
declared that the solid earth of ours, apparently a fixed universe, is really a 
swiftly moving atom of an immense planetary system. Derided, persecuted, 
imprisoned for his blasphemous utterances, he clung to his proof that the 
world does move. Today no one doubts this except the celebrated colored 
clergyman of Richmond. Rev. Mr. Jasper. 

Thirty years ago a French chemist, Louis Pasteur, proved that the 
fermentations are not, as had been supposed, mere oxidations, but are. the 
work of certain microscopic fungi; a few years later a Scotch surgeon, Joseph 
Lister, conceived and practiced the idea that wound infections might be the 
result of similar parasitic life. Twenty years ago many facts tending to sup- 
port this cranky idea of Lister, were accumulating. But it was not until the 
announcement by Robert Koch, just twelve years ago, that tuberculosis is 
caused by one of these fungi, the tubercle bacillus, that the subject of bacteria 
attracted any attention in this country. A year later it fell to the lot of the 
writer — then just returned from a European laboratory — to preach the gospel 
of bacteriology to American physicians from the rostrum of the Cartwright 
lectureship in New York. 

At that time most medical men in this country regarded bacteria as the 
phantom creatures of the diseased brains of crank microscopists; a learned 
professor in New Orleans asserted that Koch's newly- discovered bacilli were 
only fat crystals, a statement hailed with applause by medical teachers and 
journals throughout the country. 
But the world kept moving. 

A little later medical opinion in this country admitte dthat bacteria did 
actually exist; that they were not fat crystals nor fibrin threads. But it 
asserted that they were not in any way responsible for disease, that they were 
only accidentally present in wounds, etc. or perhaps even the product of the 
disease; their alleged causation of disease was still the subject of scoff and 

But the world kept right on moving. 

Still later, even the least progressive physician -became convinced that 
bacteria must be in some way intimately associated with many diseases, per- 
haps even caused a few of them; but he consoled himself b}^ asserting that a 
knowledge of bacteria was not " practical " — that it did not help in the. 
diagnosis and treatment of disease; that it was merely a "fad" — good enough 
to entertain students with, but not worth while remembering when these 
students began the serious business of practicing medicine. 

Still the world stubbornly kept up its old habit of moving. 
Today we know that each of some thirty diseases of man and other ani- 
mals is caused by a bacterium; that the recognition of certain species is 
valuable, sometimes essential, for the diagnosis of tuberculosis, diphtheria, 


anthrax, glanders, etc.; that preventive medicine is based almost entirely 
upon a knowledge of bacteria; that protective vaccination has saved thousands 
of valuable animals from anthrax, blackleg, hog and chicken cholera, etc.; 
that the only successful treatment for rabies is that of Pasteur; that a certain 
percentage of malignant growths can be removed by inoculation with the pro- 
ducts of the erysipelas bacterium; that tetanus and pneumonia have been 
successfully treated by injections of the serum of immunized animals; that 
surgery has become a science, rather than a branch of carpentry— in short 
that all of modern surgery and much of modern medicine rests upon 

Knowledge of these minute plants must be gained by personal acquaintance 
as well as by lectures; to this end Rush College has provided a commodious 
and well equipped laboratory, where her students may study this fascinating 
branch of botany and its relations to disease. For the tripod upon which 
modern medicine rests comprises anatomy, physiology and bacteriology — and 
the greatest as well as the youngest of these is bacteriology. 

Wm. T. Belfield. 


For the information of students of Rush Medical College. — The out-door 
Lying-in Department of the Central Free Dispensary has been discontinued. 
Obstetrical patients will in all instances be referred to Dr. H. B. Stehman, 
the professor of clinical obstetrics, Rush Medical College. 

April 1, 1891. Philip Adolphus, Sup't of Clinics. 

Professor Merriman is delivering the final lectures in Senior Obstetrics. 

■X- # 

Professor Herrick left early in the month for Europe. 


. A pusher of the pencil went out to report a party the other night where 
the home had been recently blessed with a new baby. Accompanied by his 
best girl he met the hostess at the door and after the usual salutation, asked 
about the baby's health. The lady, who was quite deaf, and suffering with 
the grippe, thought he. was asking about her cold and told him that though 
she usually had one every winter, this was the worst she ever had; it kept 
her awake at nights a good deal at first. Theu noticing that the scribe was 
getting pale and nervous, she said she could tell by his looks that he was go- 
ing to have one just like hers, and asked him to go in and sit down. The pa- 
per was out as usual the next week but the local editor has quit inquiring 
about babies. 




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The following program has been prepared for Commencement week, be- 
ginning Monday, May 21st, 1894: 

At 10 A. M. Prof. Lyman will give a Clinic on Internal Medicine. At 
1:30 P. M., Prof. Ingals will give a Clinic on Diseases of the Chest, Throat, 
and Nose. At 2:30 P. M., Prof. Hyde will give a Clinic on Skin and Venereal 
Diseases. At 4 P. M . , the Annual Class Day Exercises will take place in the 
Amphitheatre of the College . 

Tuesday, May 22nd, at 9 A. M., Informal Reunion of the Alumni w T ill be 
held at the College Building, followed at 9:30 A. M., by a Medical Clinic by 
Prof. Norman Bridge. From 11 A. M. to 2 P. M., a Reception will be given 
by the Faculty in the new Laboratory Building. Students will be at work on 
subjects of special interest to the practitioner in the Laboratories of Practical 
Anatomy, Chemistry, Histology, Pathology, Bacteriology, and Experimental 
Physiology. A light lunch will be served in the building. Tickets to this 
Reception will be issued at the Informal Reunion at 9 A. M. From 2 to 4 P. 
M., Prof. Senn will give a Surgical Clinic. At 4 P. M., a Scientific Meet- 
ing will be held in the College Building. The following papers will be 
presented . 

1. "The Future Requirements of Medical Education." 

Dr. Perry H. Millard, St. Paul, Minn. 

2. "Exhibition of Splint for Treatment of Ordinary Fracture of Leg or 

Ankle." Dr. Wm. Meacher, Portage, Wis. 

3. Paper by Dr. L. J. Adair, Anamosa, Iowa. 

4. "Vaginal Tamponade. " Dr. O. B. Will, Peoria, 111. 

5. "Nature, the Best Obstetrician." Dr. J. G. Meacham, Racine, Wis 

6. "Modern Transfusion. " Dr. L. L. McArthur, Chicago, 111. 
In the evening it is proposed to attend some theatre in a body. 

On Wednesday, May 23rd, at 9 o'clock, Prof. Etheridge will give a Gyne- 
cological Clinic. At 10:30 the Annual Business Meeting and Election of Of- 
ficers will take place at the College Building. At 2 P. M., Graduation Exer- 
cises will be held at Central Music Hall. At 7 P. M., Reception and Joint 
Banquet of the Faculty and Alumni will be held at the Grand Pacific Hotel. 
The Program for this Banquet is to consist of a number of Addresses by prom- 
inent men, interspersed with music by a quartette and orchestra. The ban- 
quet will be presided over by Dr. W. W. Torrence, vice-president of the 

A large number of Alumni have expressed their intention of being present 
at these exercises, and we hope a special effort will be made by many others 
to attend. The Meeting of this year promises to be the most interesting in 
the history of the Association. John Edwin Rhodes, M. D., Sec'y. 



The Secretary of the Alumni Association has prepared a very accurate, 
and complete history of the Association, which will appear in The Pulse. 
the College Annual which is soon to be published. The history of the College, 
the pictures of old buildings, of the members of the Faculty, past and pres- 
ent, of many of the alumni, are only a few of the many features of this book 
that will interest the alumni. The edition is limited and the alumni who wish 
to subscribe are urged to do so at once. 

A large portion of the letters coming in from the alumni now a days say 
that the writers are to be with us at Commencement time. It is going to be 
a jubilee occasion for Rush and with all that we have to be thankful for and 
to congratulate ourselves upon, there is going to be more good-time and en- 
thusiasm to the minute than any other Commencement had to the half hour. 
We are going to publish some longer extracts from letters we receive and let 
you see that Loyalty is a thing you do not leave in the Central Music Hall 
when you get your diploma. 

The following comes from Williams Hospital, North China Mission, 
Lientsin, N. China. "The Corpuscle reaches me in this far country where 
since 1880 I have been holding up a small Rush light in the interests of sci- 
ence and religion. I have a hospital under my care the clientel of which, in 
and out-door will average 10,000 or more per year. A staff of 4 or 5 internes 
who are also students in medicine, to all of which I am the visiting, resident, 
and consulting medical, surgical, opthalmological, etc etc. staff, and college 
faculty. I am very glad to hear of the revived interest in the Alumni Asso- 
ciation." A. P. Peck, A..M., M. D., Class of 71. 

The following extract from a letter telling about Rush in 1846-7 is from 
Dr. John L. Ingersoll, a brother of Col. Robert Ingersoll. Dr. Ingersoll, who 
lives at Prospect,, Wisconsin, is one of Rush's oldest sons, and although it is 
forty-five years since he left college, his interest in Rush and his loyalty to 
her are always active: 

"When I was in Rush College in 1846—7, Dr. Daniel Brainard was Pres- 
ident of the Faculty and Professor of Surgery. The Professor of Anatomy 
was Dr. Herrick, his brother being demonstrator. The first session Dr. Her- 
rick was with the army in Mexico and Dr. Brainard took his place. Dr. John 
Evans was Professor of Obstetrics. The chair of Theory and Practice of 
Medicine was filled by Graham N. Pitch, of Logan sport, Ind. He was after- 
wards sent to the U. S, Senate. John M'Lean filled the chair of Materia 
Medica, and James V. Z. Blaney that of Chemistry. Dr. Armor lectured on 
Physiology. I must tell you a good thing that happened at Rush. The year 
before I was there a young colored man by the name of Peck, whom I had 
met at Oberlin, was admitted as a student and returned the next year. Well 
Rush had many more students that year and some of them objected to a 'nig- 
ger.' The Faculty were in favor of allowing Peck to attend again. The Fac- 
ulty did not like to take the responsibility of deciding the question, so the 
President, Dr. Brainard, came before the class and laid the case before them 
to decide as they saw fit, at the same time indicating how he felt. He then 


left the hall, and the students after talking the matter over put It to vote and 
we admitted the darkey whooping. Well there was a young man by the name 
of Sanders, from Indiana, who had made much too big a blow about it to back 
down, accordingly he went to Dr. Brainard and wanted him to refund the 
price of his matriculal ion ticket. Brainard refused and Sanders pulled heel 
for Laporte Ind. Medical College. Soon after he joined, the students got 
hold of the story and Dr. Brainard told me the way they told it was this, that 
the students at Rush took a vote on the case of Sanders and Peck and admit- 
ted the darkey and refused Sanders. His fellow students guyed him so mer- 
cilessly that he left the college. Yes, I saw the first administration of an 
anaesthetic (Ether) in Rush. Dr. Brainard gave it to a verdant country lad 
preparatory to removing the entire middle finger, the bones being cavious. 
Dr. Brainard administered the ether in a kind of tin horn. In a little while the 
subject wilted and dropped into a profound slumber. Dr. Brainard made 
quick work with knife and bone forceps and while the boy was still asleep the 
dressing was completed. Gradually he regained consciousness but it took 
him some time to gather his wits. Finally he caught sight of the blood and 
seemed to recollect what he was there for. A placid smile spread over his 
dull faatures and he exclaimed, 'Gosh wan't that done quick.' Then what a 
cheer there was by the class. Yours Truly, John L. Ingersoll. 

The following tribute tells of the love the older classes had for their in- 
structors — a love we may assure them, that is kept just as sincere and deep by 
the, students now in Rush:" 

"I am not boasting when I declare with all confidence, that the faculty 
which graced Rush Medical College in the year of my graduation was one of 
the most learned and nobly poised of any in this or any other country. I re- 
member with great gratitude, and esteem, and love those great hearts and 
minds, who bestowed unstintingly upon ustheir wealth of knowledge and no- 
bility of self. They not only taught us great truths, but also goodness, the beauty 
and grandeur of truth. I remember with especial delight that great philoso- 
pher, Allen, (our uncle). The scintillations of wit (like that of the Latin poet 
Horace) which sparkled from his most brilliant mind will brighten and glad- 
den the pathway all along of every true nephew of his . I remember too, that 
master mind, the Daniel Webster of Anatomists, Professor Charles T. Parkes. 
One had but need to look at him when he came before the class to be inspired 
with a lofty aim, to climb to the heights of the science of anatomy. Great, 
noble, and good was he, and his name with those of Allen, Byford, and Gunn, 
will be cherished and reverred as long as Rush Medical College stands and 
continues to shed bright her light. " Herbert E. Bogue, 

We guarantee to "set them up" on sight, for this one. 

"I enjoy the effusions of these bright youngsters and am proud of the 
credit they do us and our Alma Mater. In their vigor and enthusiasm we 
renew our youth again. I wish every one of them health and proiessfonal 
success." Fraternally Yours, R. R. DeWitt, 71. 

We shall have with us at Commencement, Dr. Leroy Grant Armstrong, 
'59 who they say not only took about all the honors in his class, but has con- 
tinued taking them ever since, first in the army, and then in his continuous 
practice of twenty-seven years in Boscobel, Wisconsin. 


Copies of Professor Belfield's lectures that weie published in The Cor 
puscle in 1892 may be bought at Anderson's Book Store. There are also 
copies of some of the other lectures published in old Corpuscles, 

* * 

We had hoped to have a full report of the Csesai ian Section performed by 

Professor Stehman, but found it impossible to secure one for this issue. It is 

said that the audience present that day in the' Ampitheater was the largest 

that ever witnessed a Caesarian Section in this country. 

* -A" 

Dr. Linnell: What two kinds of matter do we have in the cord? 
McKenna '95: Gray matter and Dura Matter. 


By the way, why is Shorty Nichols like the Dura Mater? 
— Well the Dura Mater is thin and tough. 

The Commencement this year is going to be one rousing round of pleas- 
ure. Any promises of a good time you write to Rush friends will be surely 
fulfilled if they attend. 

A Freshman who couldn't reach the Pulse box dropped this on the 
floor in trying to make his contribution: 

Little bunch of whiskers 

That grew on Raymond's chin, 
, That is where he wore them, 
Enough to fool the wind. 
Every night he curled them, 

Did them up on tin, 
Little bunch of whiskers 

That grew on Raymond's chin. 

* * 

Those who visited the dissecting room during the last dissection, were 
impressed with the extreme cleanliness and absence of stench. We are in- 
debted to our good friend Adolph for this perfect order, and the Faculty rec- 
ognize their wise action in promoting him to the top floor. 

At a meeting of the Freshman class on March 31st, the following gentle- 
men were chosen for the '95 Annual Board: Geo. T. Carson, Chas. L. Hobbs, 
Sam'l O. Duncan, Ezra R. Lamed, Wm. D. McNary, Wm. C. F. Witte, Frank 
Bullen, Jas. N. Martin, Jr. 

Q. M. — "How many sides has the heart?" 
Student. — "Two. The outside and inside." 


Rush has done well as usual in the hospital appointments, and the Cor- 
puscle extends the congratulations of the college and its friends to the men 
who so successfully held their own against the other colleges. The appoint- 
ments were: Cook County Hospital, 1st place, Ryan; 2nd place, Ochsner; 
6th place, Tice. Alexian Brothers Hospital, Hecker. Michael Rees Hospital, 
Clas, and Schakett. 

Student. — "How can you determine the ulceration of Peyer's patches in 
Typhoid fever?" Prof. — "By post mortem." 

It is a happy suggestion of Prof. C's, that some of the boys who are 
afraid to attempt a recitation "have their backbones laundried." 

"I'm used to being asked questions Doctor" — Engalls. 

Dr. Haines. — "How many two dollar bills make two dollars?" 
Freshman Cavitt. — ' k Two." 

Smith is "out of sight" to take photographs. 

What grudge has Bates against the man who takes photographs? 


Dr. Cotton. — "The still sow gets the swill." 

* * 
Appearances talk, else Prof. H. wouldn't have asked Daniels if he would 
expect to raise corn if he planted wheat. 

What Lenten altar is richer, or what fair one's heart the happier by rea- 
son of the proof in such sacrifice, we do not know; but certain it is that numer- 
ous of the boys have lost their whiskers and revealed their classic features 
for the admiration of their friends. 


Freshmen generally do not care to recite; Our friend "D. J." Oliver, 
"However" is an ardent student and has always a great anxiety to recite and 
receive the approval of his professors. 

The appearance of an elderly country gentleman in the Freshman lecture 
room the other day was greeted with an ovation from the boys. It is as re- 
freshing as a breath from the meadows to see such a man, and we trust the 
demonstration was in appreciation of his probable worth, rather than a "guy" 
upon his eccentricity of s,tyle. 

A case of Just-ice — Water at 32 degrees F. 


•X- * 

First class authority — The Seniors. 


■X- * 

Very pointed remark — Where the Quiz master says "Really you ought to 
allow the author to sharpen your wits upon this matter." 

Gives Desired Results in the Crises of Locomotor Ataxia, Neuralgia, 
Sciatica, Rheumatism, Pneumonia, Menstrual Neuroses, Typhoid and 


Send to The Antikamnia Chemical 
^Company, St. Louis, Mo., for Sample 
Mailed in 'Vest Pocket Box," Free. Specify 
Antikamnia (genuine) on your Prescriptions. 


"The doctor has the highest and best right 
to insist that no worthless substitute be im- 
posed upon his defenseless patient. He knows 
the specific effect of the genuine drug and 
knows equally well it cannot be successfully 
imitated." — Courier of Medicine. 



Called fi 


vaETXETg, C2, H. W, O 


It is a pleasure for us to draw the especial attention of our many readers at this time, to 
that wonderfully popular work by Dr. Cathell, on "The Physician Himself," just published 
in the tenth edition by The F. A. Davis Co., Chicago. 

It is alike interesting and instructive to all classes of physicians, and particularly • to 
those about to launch into the sea of a professional career destined at best to be checkered 
by storms as well as the calms of life; and the intuitive knowledge gained simply by reading 
the book through once — and it is a pleasant task — will be felt in countless ways ever after- 
wards, always to the betterment of the doctor and his patients as well. 

We certainly can offer no better suggestion to the young graduate than to secure a copy 
at once. See Prof. Hyde's comment on it in this issue. 

We invite attention to the advertisement of the Physicians' Mutual Manufacturing 
Company of Chicago. This company was organized two years ago to manufacture and sell 
direct to the physicians for cash, its object being to supply pure and accurate prescriptions 
with full amount of drug and pure drug in everything they make, that the physician can al- 
ways rely on effect. As they reserve no profit for druggists, traveling men or bad debts they 
can afford to sell very close. They have stockholders in every state and their goods are guar- 
anteed satisfactory or money refunded. Give them a trial. They sell Quinine in tablets, 
any 40 cents per ounce, and make up anything listed by other manufacturers at about 25 per 
cent less than their prices. Their private formula department is always crowded with orders 
and they are pleased to vuote prices on any formula made in tablets and can furnish them 

T. D. Finck, M. M., Kentucky School of Medicine, Louisville, says: 

"1 am convinced there is no remedy so usefnl and attended with such satisfactory results 
in the treatment of melancholia with-vasomotor disturbances, anemic headaches, emotional 
distress and active delusions of apprehension and distrust, as antikamnia. It also increases 
the appetite and arterial tension, as well as being particularly serviceable in relieving the per- 
sistent headache which accompanies nervous asthenia. 

As an antiseptic and antipyretic and antiperiodic, it is good, nothing better. It is es- 
pecially beneficial in spasmodic asthenia, in hay fever, in whooping cough, in headaches, par- 
ticularly of the nervous variety, also that from disorders of the digestive organs, or from the 
various neurosis. 

In mild hysteriod affections, in the various neuralgias, particularly ovarian, in the nerv- 
ous tremor so often seen in confirmed drunkards, also in delirium tremens, it is of particular 

The pain of locsmottor ata[ia yields to treasment with antikamnia in a remarkable de- 
gree, its analgesic power being of a peculiar kind, in that it will relieve painful affections due 
to pathological conditions of the peripheral nerves, as neuritis, etc. ; also lumbago, sciatica 
and myalgia, 

Wnen pain is the prominent symptom, it is a desideratum, as its province is relief of 
pain in any and every form. And best of all, there is no danger of morphinism, no nausea 
nor malaise so common with opium and its preparations." — Cincinnati Lancet-Clinic. 

tTbe IRO00 flDemorial 

A beautiful memorial tablet executed in bronze by Messrs. Winslow Brothers, 
of this city, has recently been placed upon the walls of the college amphitheatre by 
Mrs. Elizabeth H. Ross, wife of the late Prof. Joseph B. Ross. 

The inscription not only perpetuates the memory of a faithful and honored 
teacher, but also records three important events in the history of the college. 

The terse phrases upon the tablet will be read not without emotion by the num- 
erous alumni of 'our Alma M ater who remember the earnestness and worth of 
Prof fcoss as a man and a teacher. The cut which we give below is on the scale 
of one to seven. 

jmmmM^m j 






VOL. 3. MAY, NO. 8. 


A. T. HOLBROOK, '95, President. 
W. D. CALVIN, '95, Secretary. C. A. ALLENBURGER, '95, Treasurer. 

E. M. EGKARD, '96. F. C. HONNOLD, '96. 

W. J. ANDERSON, Publisher. P. M. PERCY, Business Manager, 

N. W. Cor. Congress and Honore Sts. 

Membership in the Alumni Association of Rush Medical College is obtainable at any time by- 
graduates of the College, providing they are in good standing in the profession, and shall pay the annual 
dues, $1.00. This fee includes a subscription to The Corpuscle for the current year. This journal is the 
official organ of the Association. 

Dues and all communications relating to the Association should be sent to 

JOHN EDWIN RHODES, M. D., Sec'y andTreas., 34 Washington St., Chicago. 

College Anniversaries— 

Doctorate Sermon, Sunday, May 20th, 1894. 

Special Clinics and Class-Day Exercises, Monday, May 21st, 1894. 

Scientific Meeting of the Alumni Association, 10 A. M. and 2 P. M., Tuesday, May 22nd, 1894. 

Business Meeting of the Alumni Association, 10 A. M., Wednesday, May 23rd, 1894. 

Annual Commencement 2 P. M. Alumni Banquet 7:30 P. M. 

Ruby Red and Black: Colors of Lake Forest University. Yellow: Color of Rush Medical College. 

About June first the Corpuscle is to publish a special extra issue to con- 
tain the commencement and anniversary exercises in full, besides much else 
of interest, including the questions of some of the more important hospital 
examinations. This number will be forwarded to you, on leaving your ad- 
dress and the regular subscription price (fifteen cents) with any of the editors, 
with Adolph or at Anderson's book-store. 

The Corpuscle is not going to review or criticize the Pulse, for this has 
been done by nearly every reader of the Corpuscle in an individual way. 
However, we are going to express the sentiments of the entire college and 
tell the Pulse board that there has been nothing but praise, heard for this 
book. We have heard the criticisms of "all sorts and conditions" of Bush- 
men. We have heard the President and members of the Faculty, and we have 
heard John and Adolph; we have heard alumni with gray beards, and D. F's 
with bald lips and chins— and all we have heard has been in praise. And the 
board have had good substantial congratulations. The Faculty sent over and 


took one hundred copies outright for distribution to various college and 
general libraries. Individual members of the Faculty ordered from fifteen to 
five copies each. The Alumni Association have spoken for two hundred 
copies. Twenty of the books are stored in the safe vault by the officers of 
the college to be used as books of reference and history in the future. In 
starting this book the Middle class did a shrewd and fortunate thing; and 
their choice of editors was equally as happy. They have given Rush, as one 
Professor remarked, "The best advertisement it has ever been given," and 
all Rush men, we are sure will acknowledge the debt. 

Why not have an athletic association? Is enthusiasm lacking? No. Are 
the students unwilling to train? No. Is the countenance of the Faculty in 
the way? decidedly No. For has not Professor Bevan pledged loyalty on two 
occasions? Has not Professor Dodson shown hearty interest in our sports, and 
has not Professor Cotton been seen on our field of Waterloo on both negative 
and positive occasions? No doubt the whole Faculty is with the cause. Then 
what do we lack? Organization? Ah! There we have found the deficiency. 
No one to act in an official capacity. What is the remedy? Why, let's call 
a meeting and elect our officers. May we not depend upon some member of 
the ball- team to call a meeting this week? Manager Fullen wider could act 
well in this capacity. With officers elected we would be in shape to take next 
year's matriculates in hand. Call the meeting and we will insure the attend- 
ance of the Corpuscle board at least. This much for Athletics. 

The strict observance of the original ten commandments or of the ten 
hundred added commandments is decidedly unusual to-day. Blue laws are 
hardly up to date and a man's own conscience is his guide. There are those 
who can not go to the church fair and pay five cents to grab in the grab-bag, 
then there are those who draw the line at matching pennies, some can bet a 
quarter on the ball game, the next grade will sit in a "quiet little game of 
draw," then comes the man who buys tickets on Yo Tambien and bucks the 
faro-table or roulette wheel. You can grade all offenders in this way. You 
can for instance look at the work of your class in the college. There is the 
man who gets a tip from the man beside him or a glance at his book in quiz 
class, there is the fellow who has had hard luck during the term and can't 
think of that exam, question to save his life and gets a tip from his neighbor, 
then comes the man who delivers addresses on morality in the Y. M. C. A. 
meeting and bewails the sins of his classmates and meanwhile carries a well 
arranged and finely written pony to examination, and then last and worst 
are the men who are looking for honors, who are proud of their grades in 
the class and come to examinations and sit down in front on the second 


and third, rows and with this bluff of an honest position carry out the well 
rehearsed schemes for helping one another and securing those "honors." The 
poor fellow, who has been sick or out of classes for some other reason, and 
cribs a question from his neighbor is caught and plucked, the shrewder man in 
the second row smiles and accepts his position in the quiz class. 

No college man squares his account with his Alma Mater with the payment 
of his last term-bill. He still owes her more than Desdamona owed father 
and lover and among the most important and simplest of these duties is to 
subscribe for, read and encourage in every prossible way the publication of 
the students of his own college. 

Seniors, subscribe for next year's Corpuscle! 

What is the use of this question-asking about examination questions, while 
the most of the class are anxious to have a good, quiet hour or two in which to 
finish their work? Such ridiculous, useless, school-boy questions are asked. 
Read the question over carefully and answer that question. Put the most 
reasonable interpretation on it. You will never lose a single per cent, if you do 
that, while the unsatisfactory answer the instructor invariably gives your 
question and the disturbance you cause, work far more evil than good. Be a 
clam in examinations. 

We think the base-ball team should be mentioned editorially, and con 
gratulated and thanked officially. It is certairly enthusing to see our boys 
come from their hard grinding and their examinations, with almost no team or 
individual practice and go out and wipe the ground with some of the strongest 
university teams, that practice daily, and observe strict training. By hired 
prof essional coachers, a training table and regular practice, we would give 
Chicago a chance to talk base-ball championship again. Too bad the boys 
can't practice up and play the league nine. 

We refuse to be quiet about this coming Commencement. Responses are 
coming in from every side and any Rush man that misses this jubilee is going 
to have a good, big load of regret to carry next year. The secretary of the 
Alumni Association has published a full order of exercises on page 230. 
The theatre party is promising to be one of the most attractive occasions of 
the programme. Hundreds of seats have been taken for it by Rush men and 
if the students take hold and join the alumni, the whole lower floor of Hooley's 
theatre will be filled with Rush men. Let every body turn out. The play, 
"Charley's Aunt" is a rousing, jolly one. The company is excellent. The 
best seats are to be given us for one dollar. So get seats at once through 
Dr. John Edwin Rhodes, Venetian Building, or the student collectors. 



Case I. Male, age twenty-eight years. Has complained for three 
months, health being good previous to this time. One year ago had a light 
attack of typhoid from which he recovered completely. He has sustained no 
serious injury. His business is that of an engineer and he is at work under 
shelter. He complains of headache, dizziness, being sick at stomach, vomit- 
ing occasionally — perhaps every other day. Has backache and pain in the 
limbs. When he first felt this trouble he laid off work for one week then 
resumed it, and has been working ever since. He has been having chills for 
a week or more, says he cannot get warm sometimes. This chilliness comes 
on in the forenoon, lasts the greater part of the day and is followed by fever 
lasting nearly all night. The following day he feels fairly well with the 
exception of depression of physical energy and of mental force. On the third 
day he occasionally has his chill and fever; often it is absent and a more pro- 
found state of depression takes its place. His tongue is tremulous, flabby, 
coated down the middle and at the root with a yellowish coating. His pulse 
is quick, but not rapid, beating about eighty times to the minute. This quick- 
ness indicates a laboring of the heart, as from irritation. The feel of the 
pulse is hard. The diagnosis is intermittent malarial fever. He has no val- 
vular heart lesion; the spleen is enlarged and the liver also. It is not a 
typical case, however. The chills and fever of malaria are the reaction of the 
nervous system to the malarial poison. This is a mild case, but being of the 
irregular type is more dangerous than the regular chill, fever, sweat, class. 
Of course he will be placed on a strict quinine treatment. At one time it was 
considered necessary to prepare the patient for his quinine by giving a brisk 
cathartic first. Now-a-days we do not follow this so closely, but it is a good 
plan to give a cathartic along with the quinine. A good form to use for a 
strong man is, 


Hydrarg. Chloridi mitis. gr. X 
Jalapae, gr. X 

Sodii Bicarb, gr. V 

Sig. Take in one dose . 


Or for a large strong man you may use a compound cathartic pill. He 
may vomit after it, but this will not hurt him. Tbe purging and emesis are 
all to the same end. Diuretics should always be given. The Citrat. Potassii 
is very good or a glass of lemonade with twenty-five grains of the Bicarb. 
Potassium. Free perspiration is to be sought. In fact open all the emun- 

Case II. Male, aged fifty-five years. Has always been well until four 
months ago. His family history is good, no trace of tuberculosis, cancer or 
syphilis. He lives an indoor life. His present trouble manifests itself in loss 


of appetite, getting easily tired, pain in the chest which was aggravated by .swal- 
lowing. In a few more weeks he had difficulty in swallowing, which about 
three weeks ago became very annoying. He learned to avoid meat which 
seemed to lodge at the painful point from where it was rejected, or ejected, — 
not vomited. The difficulty in swallowing has steadily grown worse and now 
he can swallow nothing but fluids, and these cause pain. As to his general 
health he has — he says — run down. You see he is pale, looks feeble; he has 
lost flesh. His eyes are sunken into his head. Five weeks ago he says he 
vomited up one-half pint of pus which was streaked with blood. On further 
questioning he says that quantity during the day and not all at once. The 
evacuation of this pus does not relieve any of his symptoms so an abscess is 

A diagnosis of carcinoma of the lower portion of the esophagus was given 
for a working hypothesis. The man has no enlarged lymph glands; there is 
no dulness in the thorax that is abnormal, there is no aneurismal pulsation or 
bruit, so a sound, or esophageal bougie is passed. This lodges at a point 
about eleven inches from the incisor teeth. A smaller one goes perhaps three 
eights of an inch farther. The diagnosis is stenosis due to malignant growth . 
It is a little irregular in location, the typical carcinoma of this structure being 
lower down. The treatment is unsatisfactory; bougies may be passed each 
day, using a larger one each time: this may prevent the man from starving to 
death. Death is usually by marasmus, although; almost providentially it seems 
very many of these patients go with pneumonia or tuberculosis. In rare cases 
a secondary deposit in a vital organ is the cause, and hemorrhage from the 
erosion of a large vessel of the oesophagus or surrounding structures may 
bring the end. 

Case III, Male, age thirty-five years. Farmer by occupation. Has been 
annoyed for four years by a feeling of distention after eating, and by trouble- 
some eructationS'Of gas. He is constipated and resorts to syrup of figs for 
relief. Has headache, loss of appetite, loss of flesh and strength; he is grow- 
ing pale. Cannot bring himself to make an effort requiring either physical or 
mental strength. Has no ambition. Dyspepsia was given as a working 
diagnosis. He says he feels better for a few minutes after eating but can go 
twelve hours without food and feel no inconvenience, so dyspepsia caused by 
an excess of hydrochloric acid is excluded. 

This undoubtedly comes under the head of nervo-motor dyspepsia with a 
lack of the normal secretion, but on this form of dyspepsia any of the other 
forms may be grafted. This patient lives in Minnesota and has to drink 
alkaline water. He drinks to about three cups of strong coffee per day. This 
last factor, no doubt, is an influential one in the production of his trouble. 
He eats rapidly too, allowing never more than twenty minutes for a meal. He 
has also lived a wild life and has had venereal diseases. Uses tobacco in two 
forms. A useful remedy in many of these cases is ipecac in small doses. 
Suit the dose to the patient; there is no infallible rule. A prescription which 
can readily be analyzed as to its reasons for using is this: 

^ Pulv. Ipecac, gr. 1-10. 
Ex. Nucis Vom. gr. 1-4 


Ex. Gentian. gr. 1 

01. Resin. Piper, nig. gtt 1 
M Ft. pil. No. 1, 
Sig. Take one at each meal time. 
If there is obstinate constipation a good addition to this is a tenth of a 
grain of aloin. Make this prescription a matter of experiment; some patients 
can take more aloin and ipecac than others. If the stools are light colored 
small doses of podophyllin are of great benefit. A. C. Ripple. 



"Confound this Mydriatic group and the whole Materia Medica. What's 

the use of learning all these Motor-excitants and Motor-depressants? I hate 

drugs anyway. Who was that old fellow who said 'throw physic to the dogs?' 

I believe he was right." "Yes," said Tom, "what's the u&e of all these 

drugs? The best physicians use the fewest medicines. Professor 

said at the Laboratory dedication that we should master Anatomy, Physiology, 
Pathology and Bacteriology and that we could read up Materia Medica and 

Therapeutics at our leisure, and Prof said in his address at the Wom- 

ans College that the main thing is Diagnosis; that if we could diagnose dis- 
ease anybody could apply the therapeutics . Now if that's the case what's the 
need of drilling over the Carbolic Acid groups or 'Cerebral-excitants' and 
'Cerebral-depressants,' with four or five preparations of each drug to re- 
member? I say its a waste of time. What are we here for? We can look up 
Materia Medica when we want to use it. I'm going to be a surgeon, any way. 
What do you think, Uncle Richard?" "Well, boys," said Uncle Richard, 
knocking the ashes out of his pipe, "I see you are inclined to climb the tree 
of knowledge by grasping the blossoms rather than the branches. You are 
here to learn facts, thousands of facts, and to gain a knowledge of their ap- 
plication to your chosen science. Science is but a grouping together of facts 
having a common relation. So far as reading up at your leisure the facts of 
any particular branch of your curriculum you might with equal propriety read 
up all the branches at your homes and thus save the expense of attendance 
upon a college course. 'Why are you here?' Because you believe that pro- 
fessors of large experience, teachers worthy of the name, can by tneir knowl- 
edge and experience in the different branches so select from the great mass of 
information, so group according to common resemblance or relationship these 
dry facts, that they shall glow with interest. Two things are requisite to be- 
come a successful practitioner, as I hope you soon may be, to know and to do, 
or as the former venerable president of your College would say, 'first find 
out what is the matter and then what are vote going to do about it.'' Tom's idea 
of becoming a surgeon without a thorough knowledge of Materia Medica is 
absurd. You must learn to stand alone before you can walk or run, much less 
fly. Your fitness for the brilliant specialty must be demonstrated by your 
success in general practice. If you can not treat malnutrition you have no 
business with surgery. If you can not diagnose and treat Syphilis by what 
right do you attempt Nose and Throat? Your justly renowned professors of 
special branches have attained their high eminence through laborious work 


in general practice. In many instances special adaptation, added to the excep- 
tional facilities afforded only by the large city and connection with dispensary, 
hospital and clinic, determined the special line ultimately chosen. 

The early ambition of a Freshman to become a surgeon is laudable nor 
would I utter one word of discouragement. The heroism and brilliancy of 
the Capital operation, the renown of the operator and the magnificent fee, the 
settings of the arena with its details and trained auxiliaries needs neither drop 
curtain nor foot lights to render your splendid Surgical Clinics truly dra- 
matic. Your very atmosphere is surcharged with surgical enthusiasm. 

You have in your College as brilliant a coterie of specialists as was ever 
gathered in one institution in America. It has been my good fortune to meet 
during the past month personally in office or clinic nearly every member of 
your faculty. Success in the highest sense is -stamped upon every phase of 
their daily lives. Prof. Holmes has for more than a quarter of a century 
maintained the position of leader in his specialty. One can not come within 
the range of Prof. Lyman's influence with being impressed with his great 
mind and encyclopcedic information. In Prof. Hyde the most diminu- 
tive skin lesion finds a tongue that charms the listener. Prof. Brower's opin- 
ion alone arrests the ponderous machinery of the law and secures a new trial 
to the wretch for whose blood the community clamors. An hour seemed bat 
twenty minutes while listening to a discussion of Alkaloids by your learned 
Prof. Haines. A visit to the office of Prof . Ingals without knowledge of his 
far reaching reputation is enough to convince one that his pre-eminence is 
well sustained; and the Surgical and Gynecological Clinics of Senn, Ether- 
idge and Hamilton have, I believe, no equal in the world. 

In looking over the list of the Alumni of your college I find that during 
the past twenty years less than two per cent, of the graduates have disting- 
uished themselves, to any extent, in surgery or surgical specialties, which 
means that probably not more than two or three members of each class, are 
likely to become* distinguished specialists, The conclusion is plain that the 
great majority, despite the ambitions of early student life, are to become 
merely general practitioners of medicine. As such your success will depend 
almost entirely upon your demonstrated ability to alleviate suffering and 
combat disease. Now tell me of what possible value is your complete 
knowledge of all means of refined diagnosis, if you are ignorant of the 
agents for relief. Would an intelligent person employ as a carpenter a man 
who could discourse learnedly upon the principles of architecture, the prob- 
lems of tensil strength of material, foundations and roof trusses, who dis- 
played an ignorance of the names and uses of his working tools? in short 
didn't know the difference between an adz and a hand-saw? But, you say the 
laity is incompetent to judge of your knowledge of Materia Medica and 
Therapeutics. Nay, they are most competent to judge of your ignorance in 
this matter, but even admitting that your want of a comprehensive knowledge 
of the application of remedial agents is not disclosed by poor results in your 
daily work, there is a way that information of your weakness in this respect 
will reach the public ear. To illustrate — You locate, as will ninety-five per 
cent of your class, in a small city or village or hamlet. The community is all 


alert to "size up" the new doctor, the local profession has its eye focussed 
upon you to determine your weak spot. Your first patient, in all probability 
is a medical case. No opportunity to display your surgical efficiency by per- 
forming a laparotomy, no chance to show your skill in couching for cataract, 
not even an opportunity to perform lavage or apply electricity. No, the only 
method of communicating your skill and knowledge to the laity and medical 
profession is by means of your written prescription, an order on the druggist 
for remedial agents concerning which you are densely ignorant. Ignorant 
again of the method of constructing a proper, classical prescription. The first 
jrrescription from the new doctor. Eagerly the druggist scans it, sizes you up, 
labels and classifies you. How long, think you, before the prof ession and the 
laity in that small community will know of your deficiency? Your measure is 
taken, the word has gone forth and years of successful practice may not 
overcome that first unfavorable impression. 

Charles Dewey Center, '94. 

Awarded the Prize for Senior Essays. 

Diphtheria is a contagious, infectious disease, probably not peculiar to 
man, and whose origin is supposed to be a specific micro-organism — the Klebs- 
Loeffler baccillus. This disease is regarded by Ingals, and some other 
American authors,- as well as by many English physicians, as a constitutional 
disease with marked local manifestations. By a host of equally good author- 
ities it is considered merely a local difficulty, which exerts a profound effect 
upon the general system. 

Diphtheria is mainly a disease of childhood, finding the majority of its 
victims between the ages of two and ten, but age does not secure immunity as 
may be attested by the high rate of mortality among those who take the dis- 
ease under two years, and by the nurses and doctors who contract diphtheria 
while attending diphtheritic patients, or who, perchance, receive the contag- 
ion in a brave effort made to suck out the bits of membrane from the throat of 
the sufferer. Nor does climate or locality exert any special weight in the 
production of the disease, beyond this: that in all such troubles dampness, 
cold, filth, and unhygienic surroundings in general always act as predispos- 
ing factors. It may be said too, that frequently a malignant epidemic of diph- 
theria is found in a newly settled rural district, but it is a notorious fact that 
in such districts the family sewerage, dung from stables, kitchen debris, etc. , 
is cared for in a very lax manner, if cared for at all; moreover the water sup- 
ply is usually bad; the newly built houses are damp and cold, and it is remark- 
able that more cases of typhoid malaria, and diphtheria are not found. 

The characteristic local manifestation of diphtheria is the formation of 
a whitish membrane, growing gray with age, firm elastic, and in a true case 
rather firmly adherent to the underlying tissue, beginning to form, in 
diphtheria of the throat, usually as a patch or streak upon the tonsil, and ex- 
tending from here to any or all of the surrounding structures. Hence it may 
invade the nasal passages, the larynx, trachea, or even the bronchi 


(It must not be forgotten that a true diptheritic membrane may form on 
any abrasion of skin or mucous membrane, but in this brief article the re- 
marks will be confined to that appearing in the throat.) 

This membrane is composed of fibrinous exudate, epithelia, and the bac- 
illi. When stripped up it leaves a raw, bleeding surface, for it has re- 
placed all, or practically all, of the mucous membrane. It is a necrotic epi- 
thelial layer, dangerous in a mechanical way as well as furnishing the focus 
for constitutional infection. Upon the surface and in the upper stratum the 
microbe proliferates, while upon the raw base beneath the bottom layer the 
ptomaines find an easy spot for absorption. 

But to return to the Klebs-Lceffler bacillus. This facultative, anaerobic 
bacillus was discovered by Lcemer in 1884. It is a curved rod about as long 
as the tubercle bacillus and twice as thick. Frequently the ends are seen to 
be knobbed. No spores have been found. It is not very resistant to heat, 
being destroyed by a temperature of 50 degrees C, but its vitality under or- 
dinary circumstances is truly wonderful. It has been known to remain in 
rooms, retaining its power of proliferation, for months and even years. Fre- 
quently it is found in connection with other micro-organisms, notably the 
streptococcus. Just how it comes to infect the mucous membrane of the 
throat is not known, but it is safe to say that it must find there an altered 
condition from the normally resistant structures, which condition furnishes 
the locus minoris resistentiss. The Klebs Lcemer bacillus does not do the 
major harm by its mere presence, but by its ptomaines resistlessly forcing 
upon the patient a systemic and supremely prostrating intoxication. 

Diphtheria, for description, may be conveniently divided into three forms, 
the benign, the infective, and the malignant. (Some authors classify it as true 
diphtheria and diphtheroid, claiming the latter is produced wholly by strept- 
ococcus.) The symptoms of these forms vary chiefly in degree. There is a 
period of incubation lasting from two to seven days; the patient, if old 
enough, complains of malaise, headache, pain on swallowing, and there is 
usually a chill and some fever, but these initial symptoms do not differ ma- 
terially, if at all, from those arising with the inception of a severe sore throat. 
Cases have been where the appearance of the membrane was the first indica- 
tion of the disease. 

As the attack advances, the lymph glands at the angle of the jaw become 
enlarged; the temperature rises, perhaps to 103 degrees F. There is great 
restlessness; the pulse may be very rapid, or abnormally slow; anorexia is 
present and sometimes vomiting; everything indicates a true systemic 

The course of the disease is brief, running a favorable length in from one 
to two weeks, or an unfavorable one in a shorter time usually, but even when 
convalescence seems assured the patient must be given great care. He should 
be confined to bed in a recumbent, or at least a reclining posture, for a per 
iod commensurate with the severity of the attack, this confinement lasting 
from three to six weeks, for any exertion may bring on a fatal paralysis of 
the enfeebled heart muscle. Paralysis of other parts frequently occur, the 
soft palate being a favorable seat, and paralysis here is indicated by regurg- 


itation of liquids through nose, by the nasal tones, etc. The vocal cords, the 
muscles of the eye, and one or more groups of nuscles of the trunk and ex- 
tremities may be affected . Frequently there is paresis and ataxia without 

The diagnosis of diphtheria is not always an easy one to make, and yet 
most of the errors will be upon the safe side. It must be differentiated es- 
pecially from tonsilitis, herpetic sore throat, and by those who consider 
croup and diphtheria as two diseases, from croup; but to one familiar with 
these troubles the task will not prove an unsurmountable one. The tendency 
to-day is to make a diagnosis, in all doubtful cases, by the aid of the culture 
medium . A sterilized swab is hastily brushed over the affected part picking 
up the baccili which are then transferred to a serum culture medium to await 
development. Claims have been made to finding Klebs-Loeffler bacillus in 
mouths and throats where there was not even a suspicion of diphtheria, but 
this does not disprove the theory that diphtheria is caused by Klebs-Loeffler 
bacillus. The diagnosis must further be made by the appearance and loca- 
tion of the membrane, the glandular enlargement, the high degree of pros- 
tration accompanying a comparatively low fever, the history of exposure to 
diphtheria, and any other symptoms that may present themselves. 

The various forms of treatment for diphtheria clearly show that no spe- 
cific has been found for the disease. Some authors assert that no true case 
has ever been cured or recovers spontaneously, but to the writer this state- 
ment seems too radical. For internal use, alsohol in some form is the sine qua 
non\ it should be given to the verge of intoxication. The bowels must be kept 
open, preferably with calomel, thus affording a sewerage-way for the pto- 
maine-laden system. The tincture of the chloride of iron must be adminis- 
tered, both for its tonic and for its local antiseptic and stringent effect. It 
should be given every two hours, one drop for each year of age of the patient. 
Strychnia and digitalis may be given if their administration seems indicated. 
A nutritious and supportive diet must be insisted upon, and the patient must 
be fed with predigested food per rectum, if not per orem. 

The local treatment is more varied. All the antiseptic solutions have 
been tried with changing effects. The theory for each one is good, but some- 
thing seems lacking in the practice. Sir Morrill Makenzie favored a full 
strength lactic acid, which he used as a paint, but this is very painful and it 
is well to irritate the patient as little as possible, since each annoyance de- 
tracts that much from the strength of the sufferer. Hence the pseudo-mem- 
brane should not be stripped off, as such a procedure, while very painful, 
hastens if anything the absorption of the ptomaines. The bichloride of 
mercury, potassium, permanganate and chlorate, carbolic acid, boric acid, 
and cinnamon water solutions have all been tried. To-day the favorite seems 
to be a 50 volume solution of Hydrogen Peroxide, which for the first two or 
three days is injected under the membrane, after which it is used as a spray. 
It is non-toxic, painless, and very effective. Lime water, locally and intern- 
ally has afforded good results in some cases, as has the sublimation of from 
15 to 30 grains of calomel at the bedside of the patient. 

The prognosis is always grave, especially so when the temperature re- 


mains at or above 103 degrees F. for more than three days, or when it drops 
and remains at subnormal , as it often does with the formation of the pseudo- 
membrane. The extension of the disease to the nasal passages and else- 
where indicates the virulency of the attack. Above all diseases the family 
must co-operate in the treatment to render it availing. They should be in- 
structed regarding the temperature of living rooms, as a room at 75 degree F, 
is not too warm for children whose stature confines them to the lower stratum 
of air. Especially during the spring and fall months the rooms should be 
heated, at least a little, to avoid the dampness which is prone to collect 
within. When one member of the family has diphtheria, he must be isolated. 
A convenient way for closing the entrance to the sick room is to hang over 
the door- way a sheet which is kept saturated, with a 5 per cent, solution of 
carbolic acid. The sick room should be sunny and well ventilated, and after * 
the removal of the patient must be thoroughly disinfected. Both family and 
physician must remember that diphtheria, an insidious foe, constantly lurks 
in cold and damp apartments, fearing nothing but sunlight and heat, striking 
down with an impartial hand both the weak and the strong, respecting 
neither the most cherished nor the most disliked. Diphtheria, truly, fur- 
nishes a fruitful field for the student seeking sure methods for combating 



Pathology is the science which treats of the origin, development, struc- 
tural and functional changes, of the variations from a normal condition of 
health. In as much as there is no marked line between health and disease, 
the boundary between normal and abnormal structure, between normal and 
abnormal performance of function, in other words, the point where anatomy 
and physiology leaves off, and pathology begins, can not be exactly defined. 
What presentation or position in the birth of the child shall we call normal, 
and all others pathological! Or what heigth of body, circumference of limb 
or diameter of artery, shall we call health— all departures from, disease? 

Pathology includes properly etiology or pathogenesis. Pathological 
anatomy refers to naked eye changes — gross changes. Morbid anatomy 
has the same significance — being more applicable to conditions ob- 
served in the dead house. Pathological histology refers to microscopical 
changes. Cellular pathology, and morbid histology are synonymous terms. 
Thus pathology not only describes gross, naked eye changes, and 
microscopical changes, but tells why and how they occur. It is in intimate 
touch with other branches of medicine. It forms a connecting link the im- 
portance of which none can afford to under-estimate. This may be illustrated 
by a diagram: 





Internal medicinal 
Therapy . 

Physiology, [- Pathology -\ Obstetrics. 

Materia Medica, 


Gynaecology . 

Eye, Ear, Nose, Throat. 

Skin Diseases. 


The surgeon must first of all be an anatomist' next a pathologist. If in 
addition he is a mechanical genius he is eminently endowed indeed. Gross 
changes he deals with constantly, the minutest variations from normal contour 
he recognizes from his knowledge of anatomy. Through pathology he is 
enabled to institute treatment and state a prognosis. From the fact that an 
endarteritis obliterans accompanies the deep cicatrix formation in old ulcers 
— thus prohibiting permanent healing with new tissue — he knows the difficulty 
in dealing with such lesions, and their liability to break down again and 
again. Prom his pathology he is enabled to appreciate the value of Eest in 
the treatment of many surgical conditions. 

To the physician a familiarity with gross changes is not as important per- 
haps, as to the surgeon. In the post mortem room much may be learned con- 
firmatory or not of the ante mortem diagnosis. While the patient is dead, the 
leison if there be one — and there often is — is of the greatest value for future 
patients. Chiefly valuable to him is a knowledge of what is occurring at the 
present time, what has occurred, and to what extent can medicine modify the pro- 
cess favorably. He is only enabled to appreciate ante mortem conditions, by 
seeing many post mortem examinations. The fact that a knowledge of Physi- 
ology, Histology and Embryology are essential to a knowledge of Pathology 
can not be questioned. Materia medica particularly that part which treats of 
the actions of drugs, is united to Therapy by Pathology. 

Chemistry also comes in for its share; medical chemistry, chemical path- 
ology, chemistry as applied to abnormal function or tissue change, as yet in 
its infancy, will necessarily increase our knowledge concerning all consecutive, 
conclusive branches of medicine. The advance in the knowledge of blood 
serum changes, obtained by chemical research, is giving to medicine prophy- 
laxis, where expectancy only, existed before. Bacteriology is a part of path- 
ology — vegetable parasites — which has been so far worked out, with so many 
new'' and far reaching results, that it is almost entirely divorced from its 
origin branch. 

All so-called specialties are but studies in special pathology, which should 
properly follow the study of general pathology — never preceed. Caries, even 
to-day. occurs only in the tooth and lower jaw, for many dental surgeons. The 
connection between urticaria and indigestion, is not greater than between indi- 
gestion and heart neuroses — yet who has heard of a pathology of indigestion? 
As regards treatment, he who would undertake the treatment of any 
disease be it medical or surgical, without first wondering, if not concluding, 
what structural changes are present, may as well prescribe alphabetically. 
Why immobilize the fracture? Or when your typhoid patient is constipated 
in the third week of his sickness, do you give salts ? In English, books on 
internal medicine are entitled "Practice of Medicine," in German the title 
often is "Pathologie und Therapie." 

Beginning with Morgagni's writings in 1761, elaborated by 
Meckel at the beginning of the present century, nearly all 
the knowledge in this branch has been accumulated in the last fifty years. 
Where existed once a single word expressing a condition, many now occur 
for varieties in structure or origin. Old names have been abolished or have 


lost their value. "Cancer" in some countries still has reference to sarcomata 
and carcinomata both. "Cyst" no longer conveys one idea, but many. 
Goitre, fungus hsematodes, encephaloid, "Bright's Disease," have lost 
much of their value as expressing single well denned conditions. Many 
names retained are now modified by the form word. Leukaemia is not simply 
leukaemia but splenic, myelogenic, etc. Endometritis may be decidual. 

Rokitanski, Rindfleisch, Virchow, Senn , Zeigler, Cornil, Cruveilhier, Laennec, 
Billroth, Cohnheim, Paget. Waldeyer, Weigert, Klebs, Langhans, Pontfick, 
Arnold, Recklinghausen, Coats and Sutton are all names that will be associated 
with pathology for all time. At present a host are woiking, the field having 
broadened, each in his own particular direction. Epochs have been marked 
by bacteriological investigations and experimental research. The cause 
found, the disease produced, study of the disease so produced, has destroyed 
an old therapy and built a new one, not as wide perhaps but much more 
definite. Asepsis and antisepsis is a new therapy in surgery, no less than 
intestinal antisepsis is in internal medicine. 

The American student of medicine sees too little deadhouse work. Its 
value is not appreciated, nor its instruction obligatory . Pathology can not be 
learned with the miscroscope alone. The microscopical study of an infarct 
gives you no idea of its size, shape, position, or mechanical bearings. Who 
can appreciate the changed histology in a fibrinous inflammation of a 
serous membrane having never seen it with his eyes, in the gross ? 
Post mortem's should have combined with them full and accurate clinical 
histories of the cases-. To the student pursuing such methods, with the name 
of a disease, is brought to his mind a host of memories of symptoms, changed 
anatomy and histology. He no longer is dependent upon his text book, but 
carries with him, pictures of things he has seen, felt, measured or identified. 
But as no text book will answer in place of deadhouse work, neither will 
clinical histories answer in place of bed side instruction. All these oppor- 
tunities are as yet, but little open. Hospital positions, and post-graduate 
courses offer the best facilities, meanwhile we can hope for the future when 
pre- graduate clinical bedside teaching, and morgue work, shall be added to 
studies in microscopical pathology, and bacteriology. 

For certain branches, the student has no difficulty in selecting a text book 
which will be accepted as authority by all. In pathology this is as yet not so. 
No one book covers it all. The nearest approach to it, is probably Zeigler's 
last edition as yet in the German and untranslated. And when the English 
edition appears, many new advances will have been made. This is necessarily 
so in any rapidly advancing science. It remains for the teacher 
to see that any given subject is presented to the student with all 
the new and important authoritative developments concerning it, sub- 
joined. Much is already tenable, that no new developments will destroy. 
But new forms are added, new facts in etiology, and mode of formation, are 
being constantly brought to light, hence a need for better classification etc. is 
required. In the majority of known lesions much more of detail remains yet 
to be worked out, especially is this true of ante mortem conditions — the 
development of the lesion, and the reasons why this or that change results. 


Can we say positively typhoid fever only exists when a certain degree of 
infection has occurred, or only when certain lesions have been produced? Have 
we not degrees of infection, and accompanying changes in function or struc- 
ture not yet recognized either clinically or pathologically? 

The possibilities of the pathology of the. future, its probabilities already 
dimly foreshadowed, are so numerous and so great that the young man of to- 
day can not begin to estimate them. It remains to the white-headed practi- 
tioner, who has kept himself informed, in the light of what was, in his student 
days, to conclude what may be fifty years hence. 

Many inventions have been made by uneducated at least unscienfific men. 
Knowledge, m its advancement, has made it necessary that this or that 
fact be added — as a link. One, walking from St. Paul to Manitoba wore off the 
toes of his footgear. The metal tips of the boots of our childhood was the 
result, and his patent made him director of a dozen Canadian banks. Thus 
the obscure worker of today may be famous to-morrow. 

Theories are necessary for the advance of knowledge, serving as a frame- 
work to work on, much as a blood clot may act for growth of new tissue. It 
is well in asserting that carcinoma possesses rapidly proliferating embryonial 
epithelial cells, to theoretically suppose an irritant or a stimulus to account 
for the condition. 

From the standpoint of an irritant much work has been done upon para- 
sites in tumors. Prom the standpoint of stimulation men have sought and 
found embryonial remnants. The laurels await him who determines what 
irritants or what stimuli, how acting and how applied, supporting his state- 
ments by unimpeachable investigations. And as knowledge advances this 
seemingly final link can with justice be looked for. 

To-day pus is pus. It may differ in color, consistency, etc., co-morrow 
new words expressing all its etiological variations be heard daily in clinics. 
Many diseases are only clinical pictures with attached names, possessing only 
assumed or theoretical pathology. Especially is this true of nervous diseases. 
For epilepsy ovaries are removed, and craniectomy done. Uraemia is a pois- 
oning by potassium salts (Felts and Ritter),by creatin (Schottin and Voit), by 
ammonia (Treitz and Frerichs), by urea (Wilson), a hydrsemia (Traube), and a 
multiple poisoning (Bouchard). Can we not have reliable pathology for in- 
sanity and neurasthenia? — their clinical value in undoubted. In some cases 
pathology is in advance of clinical pictures. "Appendicitis" is a word express- 
ing a variety of pathological conditions. The chemical pathology of tissue 
degenerations is much in darkness. Methods of differentiation are needed 
not only at the bedside, but even in dealing with the dead tissue. "Rheum- 
atism" has been too long a term — varieties, whose etiology is still covered by 
the words "cause unknown." These illustrations could be repeated in- 

In conclusion, a better appreciation of the importance of pathology is 
needed and to be hoped for, and that going out from Rush each year there may 
be a few who will earnestly undertake the work of clearing up some of its 
dark points, and making our knowledge more complete. 

E. R. LeCount, M. D. 


Baltimore, Maryland, April 25, 1894. 
Editors of The Corpuscle: 

Since my arrival at The Johns Hopkins Hospital, I have been on the look- 
out for facts which might be of interest to the readers of your valuable journal. 
As the work I am doing keeps me pretty closely at the hospital laboratories, 
I, perhaps, can do no better than mention some of the observations made of 
my surroundings. I will not, however, burden you with a detailed description 
of the hospital and laboratories but, as it is a comparatively new institution 
and a model of its kind, a brief sketch, including an account of the character 
of the work here may not go amiss. 

The Johns Hopkins Hospital was made possible by a provision in the will 
of the gentleman whose name it bears, whereby six and one-half millions of 
dollars were bequeathed for the twain object of establishing a University and 
Hospital. One-half of this sum was intended for hospital purposes, the in- 
terest from this magnificent principal to be used, as it accrued, for buildings, 
furnishings, and general expenses; the principal to remain untouched for all 
time. The trustees who received this money in 1875 at once set about plan- 
ning a hospital which should be perfect in construction and suited to its pur- 
poses. All was not ready until five years ago, but with the result of securing 
a magnificent institution, which in its equipment for modern scientific work 
in all branches of medicine, equals any of its kind in America, and ranks 
among the best in the world. With plenty of funds with which to work, the 
trustees have not considered money -making as the chief feature of the hos- 
pital, but have looked rather towards the best care and modern treatment of 
the sick; hence, thoroughness of work and close attention to details charac- 
terize every department. The heads of departments and their assistants are 
men who stand high in the ranks of the medical profession, and, as they re- 
ceive salaries, can give their time to observation and original research. In 
connection with the hospital there are suitable laboratories intended for the 
use of the professors and their assistants in analysing and examining histo- 
logically and bacteriologically the material from the morgue and wards, also 
for the instruction of small classes. This department is under the immediate 
direction of Professor Wm. H. Welch, who is one of the most prominent 
pathologists of this country. 

Up to the present time the hospital has not been used to any 
great extent as an educational institution, but post graduate courses 
are given each winter to small classes. During the winter the stu- 
dents attend the clinics and ward classes held by the chiefs of departments 
and are allowed to take courses in pathology, histology, and bacteriology, if 
they choose to do so. The laboratories accommodate classes of from fifteen 
to twenty each, and two courses are given each year. These courses have 
become very popular, and anyone who works in them surely has opportuni- 
ties that are unsurpassed any where. When one begins his studies here he is 


impressed with the thoroughness of every detail of the work. All methods 
of precision are used in making diagnoses. The blood and secretions are all 
examined microscopically and bacteriologically and neither time nor expense 
are considered in making up the final results. An observation of these meth- 
ods as applied here gives one a full appreciation of the practical value of the 
microscope to the medical profession. 

The examination of the blood, urine, and other secretions is now a very 
essential factor in all those methods of examination of a case which collect- 
ively go to make up its diagnosis. Just as the use of the stethescpe 
is an important factor in the diagnosis of a given disease of the 
chest, so is the use of the microscope. Many times a positive diag- 
nosis of intermittent fever can not be made without the demonstration 
of Laveran's organism; neither can the various forms of the blood dis- 
eases be differentiated without the use of the microscope to separate 
the corpuscular elements peculiar to each. Again, the examination micro- 
scopically of the urine is just as essential in making a diagnosis of kidney 
disease, as is the recognition chemically of albumen or the discovery of the 
clinical signs such as oedema, cachexia, and cardiac hypertrophy. 

Medicine is becoming more and more an exact science, and the day is fast 
passing away when a physician can get along without a practical knowledge 
of the use of scientific appliances in making up the diagnosis of a given case. 
Not many years ago, when bacteriology was in its infancy, the microscope 
was hailed as the instrument which was to revolutionize the practice of medi- 
cine; this it has done, not, however, in the hands of the practitioner, as is 
evidenced by the numerous instruments covered with dust, or stored away 
on some glass- encased shelf, so often seen in physicions' offices; things of 
beauty but seldom or never used.- The work with the microscope has been 
done in laboratories by scientific men, prepared for investigation. These 
men, by careful, pains-taking, and patient work, have placed the science of 
microscopy where it may be made of daily service to every practitioner of 
medicine. We have now, then, what might be deemed a practical microscopy, 
and a new reaction has set in; the old microscope should be taken from off 
the shelf, refitted, and put to practical use. This newer microscope deals 
with evidences of disease at the bedside; the blood, the urine, the sputa, and 
foeces may now be examined with exactness and rapidity. This branch of 
microscopy, whicn is better known as clinical microscopy, should become a 
distinct course in our medical colleges. Here, at The Johns Hopkins Hospital 
it has proved so efficient in clinical work that a special post-graduate course is 
now given in it which is separate and distinct from the course in pathology 
and bacteriology proper. But such a course should not be limited to post- 
graduate students; all undergraduates should be prepared to do such work 
when they first enter upon the practice of medicine. 

Histology and Pathology at Rush Medical College, has been taught dur- 
ing the past year upon much the same plan as that followed here, and it is 
hoped that with the progressive spirit shown by the Faculty in providing and 
equipping our new laboratories, it will not be long until we, in the west, 
can hold forth a course to under-graduates which shall rank with those of the 
far east given in small classes and to men well advanced in practical medicine. 

D. D. Bishop. 

Editors Corpuscle: 

In my humble opinion the medical profession will never know all there is 
to be known of medicine. Some will know more than others but none will 
know all. I am certain that as a rule physicians give too much medicine. In 
some cases patients are literally drugged to death. 

In a recent number of an Eastern weekly medical journal a professor of 
physiology gave a patient, suffering from chronic dyspepsia, the following 
remedies within twenty-three days. Bicarbonate of soda, salicin, naphthalin, 
salol, salicin again, listerine, menthol, and- finally bismuth subgallate or 
dermatoi. The last remedy is credited with curing the case of " fermentation 
dyspepsia." The patient left the United States and after six months called 
upon the professor and reported himself " perfectly well." It was fortunately 
for him that he got away for a season. The treatment of the ordinary cases 
that come before us are of most importance to us as physicians. 

A child a few months old is brought to you. The mother says it has a 
cold and she has been giving it ''domestic remedies." The babe has a tem- 
perature of 102° F. Pulse 132. Skin dry. There are mucous rales. There 
are occasional slight attacks of coughing. He swallows the mucus of course. 
If the mucus is tenacious he will cough and vomit, perhaps he will raise a 
considerable quantity as he has swallowed all that he coughed up. His bowels 
move once daily. His kidneys act freely ; though the urine will have a high 
color and a stronger odor. There is no perceptible periodicity. 

The next questions are. What is this and what shall I give? Do not 
name it. Prescribe for the conditions found, increased temperature, frequent 
and weak pulse, dry cough with tenacious mucus. I would prescribe as follows : 

5 Specific tr. Aconite (Lloyds) 

" '' Ipecac, A A M x 
Water or Syrup, lij 

M Sig. One-third teaspoonful every hour. 
The child may be sponged occasionally with a little warm salt water. If 
the temperature goes above 102 or 3 give not more than three, one grain doses 
of acetanilid. One every 1 or 2 hours between doses of the aconite and 
ipecac. Never give children acetanilid, phenacetine or antipyrine contin- 
uously. If they have weak circulation those remedies will make it weaker. 
If the fever recurs periodically then exhibit quinine. For children I prefer to 
use the following: 

? Quinine, grs. xx 

Aromatic Sulph. Acid q. s. to dissolve. 
Glycerine, !ij 

M Sig. Apply over chest and abdomen. 
One teaspoonful every two hours, eight applications each day. Time 
preferred for the application when the temperature is the lowest. The 
patient will recover very soon if there are no complications especially 
caused by drugs. 

I. B. Washburn, M. D., Rush '61. 
Rensselaer, Ind. 


"And the Greatest of these is Charity." 

In our eagerness to assist Mother Nature, are we not wasting time and 
feeling if we quarrel about methods, if we consume our efforts upon persons? 
A quantity of energy is lost in this way. East of us, some usually calm edit- 
ors are angry with each other, because each is doing the most he can to keep 
the world out of sickness, and doing it in his own way. Two doctors in Mis- 
souri are out of temper because a third urges the use of ergot in the second 
stage of labor. These two, forgetting the point at issue, have indulged in 
nomenclature more personal and useless even than that to which they are 
used in medicine. 

Three, (barring his use of ergot) may be a good physician. 

We should be charitable enough to give to the contributor of our medical 
quota, credit for being as candid, truthful, and unbiased in his work as we 
are in ours. Do we monopolize truth, or hold the only way out of the medi- 
cal labyrinth? If the worker be wiser than we, it will save us heartache if 
we don't get angry, but prepare for inception. If the worker expose his ig- 
norance, we have no reason to boast for we have often exposed ours. Here 
is opportunity to enlighten. And if he be egotistical and dogmatic, we may 
pity, and point to improvement by kindly wit and laughter. 

We cannot be sure of anything for a moment except that we may our- 
selves err. And while it is our privilege and duty to enquire into things care- 
fully, we must do so with a liberal spirit that shall be frank with facts which 
seem to disprove what we had fondly cherished as truth. 

Of what avail is learning unless it makes us more eager to hear every 
man's side? We and all are endeavoring to reach a given point, and shall we 
condemn our friends because they have taken other paths to reach it? Until 
we have gained the end we can not look scornfully upon a different way from 
ours, for we may be in a by-path after all. 

We should be glad to recognize the assertion of individual opinion, how- 
ever trained; pleased to see when one refuses to follow blindly another man's 
experience but loves his own. 

When we read or hear of some unusual experience, we set about to con- 
sider conditions and circumstances governing it, to discover if it will not finally 
be lopped off to what is ordinary. We read on to find if the emphasized signifi- 
cance is not more to the man's eye than real — but question sincerity we 
shall never. 

Have you never been dreadfully in error when you would have staked 
your reputation that it was truth you held? Another man not philosophic 
enough, might have said you lied, but after awhile you came to your senses 
and blushed for yourself in your office. We are all of us coming to our senses 
upon something or other. "But why keep your head over your shoulder?" 
is the way my mother's kinsman has expressed it to the world. 


To medicine ' 'prove all things" is often superciliously applied. But in 
the same breath we deny any virtue to a new theory which we have not 
proved. Are we thoughtful to consider that the things Ave can prove in an or- 
dinary life -time are very, very few? that for the most part we are having our 
problems solved by other men? that other men can do some things better and 
bring the evidence to us more clearly, than we can ourselves? 

In our word- strife are we not apt to forget that truth is what we desire — 
and not victory? tSome of us could read again to advantage the works of Dar- 
win, Huxley, and Spencer, if possible, to get a part of the dispassionate spirit 
with which they array facts in argument. We are cheered by their acknowl- 
edgments of truths which are against their cherished theories. But they de- 
sire to teach truth, and not make a path which shall be called faty" their name. 
I feel sure there is not a reader of the Corpuscle .who would not be glad to 
have a better treatment than his own, evolved out of whoever's experience and 
study. If we could only get the true remedy for this disease that rises by 
day and night, would we not be willing to call it nernol And yet, after the 
late quarrels of French doctors, we would believe not. 

What is more pleasing than a calm discussion where each controvertist 
list brings up his facts with no fear of the issue. Personality is eliminated. 
The truth opens up like the landscape before a moving car. The matter is 
very different when the two pant and blow for fear one will overcome; when 
they tear each other's coat-tails to get at an abstract; when they fill in want 
of statement with a thrust, 

Those who put a man's qualification in pound because he differs from 
them, are like the men who in argument grow red in the face, talk loudly, and 
stamp their feet — thus expending all the energy they had to carry on a log- 
ical controversy. This is what some of our good friends are doing south. 

In a recent number of one of our journals, a Dr. Taylor says: "I bleed 
my typhoid patients because it cures them." This is equal to Mark Twain. 
In these degenerate days of Osier, Brandt, etc. , Dr. Taylor reminds one of 
Rip Van Winkle, who. in the changed conditions of his new government, still 
shouts, "Long live King George. " But even this unassailable old doctor is 
attacked and a critic sticks a lance into him. Now charity all through this 
medical career, is a great thing, as great as it was when Paul wrote the 
Epistle. And the lack of it is a great lack, but it is a symptom of the course 
which kills more people than cholera. 

And, in making out my last death certificate, had it not been for fear of 
inflicting upon you, dear Corpuscle boys, another theme for text- book con- 
sideration. I should (with due respect to blood purifiers) have put down the 
cause of death and the lack of charity to — A Lack of Humor. 

E. S. Goodhue, '92, Riverside, California. 



Many years ago in Alexandria when the medical profession was akin to 
the priesthood, when medical knowledge rested upon an empirical and not on 
a scientific basis, there were many specialists and specialties. No great laws 
of pathology were known. The dogmas which were applied to one region 
of the body wgre very different from those applied to another. It was be- 
lieved, as Prof. Allen used to say, that there was one law for the internal and 
one for the external. 

Slowly but very surely the old foundation stones of empiricism have been 
and are being dug out and replaced by stones of scientific fact and as a result 
there is being built up a science of medicine. 

With our advancement in knowledge we have found out that the great 
laws of physiology and pathology apply not to a single region of the body but co 
all. That there is not one law for the internal and one for the external, but 
one common to both. 

Inflammation of the hand is the same process as is inflammation of the 
brain or eye or rectum, produced by the same causes; a physician who under- 
stands his work should be as well able to treat the one as the other. Carcinoma 
of the uterus or pyloris,. mammary gland or larynx are the same process, governed 
by the same laws of growth and demand the same principles of treatment. 
The surgeon who understands the subject of carcinoma should be as well able 
to handle carcinoma of the uterus 'as carcinoma of the larynx. The estab- 
lished truths of medicine are few and far between. The theories and meth- 
ods on trial are infinite. Every physician can master all the great known 
facts in medicine. No one mind can become conversant with its vast litera- 
ture of theories and contentions. 

The student of medicine often becomes confused in his work and is un- 
able to choose between the fact and fiction spread out before him. 

The medical student who desires to become a successful physician must mas- 
ter the broad sciences upon which practical medicine is founded. He must study 
the life evidences of diseases as shown him in the clinic, the pathological 
anatomy as shown him in the dead house. He must learn to employ the means 
of diagnosis at his disposal, the microscope, stetheoscope, ophthalmoscope, 
etc. He must pass through the normal training school of bandaging, the use 
of the scalpel. 

When he graduates he must recognize the fact that he has just begun the 
study of medicine and that if he follows up his work as it should be followed 
he will learn more each year ef his practice than he did in any year of his 
college life. 

If possible after graduation he should obtain a hospital appointment. 
When he begins practice he must begin as a general practitioner; as a gen- 
eaal practitioner he will come in contact with disease in the broadest possible 


way. As a general practitioner he will be of far greater service to his pati- 
ents than he could be as a specialist. If after years of general practice he 
finds that his inclinations, the character of his work, and his fitness for some 
special work warrant, then he can legitimately limit his work to some special 
field, and become a specialist. In all great centres of population there is a place 
for such specialists, men who from opportunity and experience, peculiar 
training and fitness have become experts in certain lines of work. If such 
men do good work there is a place for them in the profession. Within the 
last quarter of a century there have developed in the profession many speci- 
alties and specialists. Many of these specialties have no right to exist; many 
of these specialists are an evil to the public and the profession. 

It is a common thing for a student of medicine to select some specialty 
when in college, after graduation to take a post-graduate course in some east- 
ern or European medical centre, enter practice and announce to the public and 
profession that he is a specialist in nose and throat, genito-urinary, rectal, 
skin, nervous diseases, or some other limited field. Such men can not be good 
physicians, they cannot see further than their own specialty. H. Mac 
Naughton Jones in his practical manual of diseases of women says: "Unfor- 
tunately many students look upon diseases of women as a 'specialty.' 
This is but one of the many disastrous consequences which have followed that 
modern parcelling out of the body into segments, and the handing over of a 
small piece of it to this or that specialist to exercise his speculative ingenuity 
in the discovery of some diseased condition beyond the ken of the ordinary 
physician. A mushroom -like brood of specialists and specialties appear daily 
to be sprouting into existence, with some experience of 'special work.' I 
have come to the conclusion that, with the exception of ophthalmology and 
otology there is, or rather ought to be in the hands of most trained physi- 
cians and surgeons, no necessity for that abandonment of the rightful respon- 
sibility which as ja physician or surgeon they would assure to their patients." 
A few years ago a bright New York business man wrote to one of the medical 
journals his personal experience with specialists. He was not feeling well, 
had headache, was overworked, his health below par. He called upon an 
occulist, who informed him that he was suffering from eye strain, and that it 
would be necessary to do a tenotemy of one of the eye muscles. This was 
done without bringing with it any relief. The occulist then referred him to a 
nose and throat man who disdovered posterior hypertrophies; these were re- 
moved without benefit. He was then sent along the line to a rectal specialist 
and this oracle of orificial surgery discovered pockets in his rectum; 
these were snipped away without benefit. Another specialist circumcised 
him and slit up his ureatus. His sex alone saved him from the gynaecologist. 
At last disgusted with himself and specialists, he called on his old family phy- 
sician who with the advice of less tobacco more exercise, and general treat- 
ment brought about a cure. This picture is not overdrawn. Thousands of 
patients are being treated in America to-day by men masquerading as spec- 
ialists whose work if analyzed would stamp them as charlatans. These men 
make money, become widely known; but every physician should take the 
modern Hippocratic oath, "practice medicine honestly or do not practice it at 


all." There should be no specialists in medicine except in lines of work 
which require such special dexterity of manipulation as can only be acquired 
and maintained by extensive and continuous practice, as removal of a cataract, 
the removal of an intra-laryngeal growth, etc. This word then to the medi- 
cal student: Become a physician in the broadest sense of the term. If 
after years of general practice, your inclinations, your special fitness, your 
wide experience in some special field warrant, then, and not till then can you 
limit your work to a special field, become a specialist. 

Arthur Dean Bevan. M. D. 


"Many men of many minds" says the proverb and many students have 
peculiarities of manner as distinctly their own as their faces. And though in 
danger of attack for writing on the hackneyed subject of "college life and re- 
lations," I shall endeavor to sketch a few of these individual manners. 

There is the cool, cheeky man, who never loses his self-possession while 
reciting, and who has no fear in saying anything so long as it is plausible. 
He has not the least hesitancy in correcting the blunders of the quiz master, 
and if the latter be at all timid "bluffs" him. He will enumerate the details 
of an improvised set of facts with the precision and dignity of a true scholar; 
and by taking stray suggestions from the instructors and whispering monitors 
will oftimes lead himself into egregious errors that set the division in a roar. 

His counterpart is the man who, apparently or really, never dares utter 
a sentence quickly or continuously, but would describe the skull something 
"thusly." "The - ah - skull - ah - is composed - ah - the skull - ah - con- 
tains - ah - 22 bones - er - that is - ah - is divided - er - into - ah - 14 in the 
face - er - and - ah - 8 in the - er - cranium." 

It is extremely wearisome sometimes to be compelled to listen to some 
of these "er"-ing brethren. One feels like laying hold of such an one and 
shaking a sentence out of him. 

Then in agreeable contrast to the slow and (perhaps?) sure reciters is the 

Another specimen is occasionally found, one who fully offsets Jack's 
mechanical promptness, by doing a great deal before he gets ready to recite. 
It is amusing to watch such an one when called upon to recite. He never 
hears his name the first time, and when with second summons and numerous 
pokings from those around him, he comprehends that something is 
wanted of him; he carries on an interesting monologue by means 
of the expression of his face. First, a look of astonishment says, "Is 
it possible that you want me to recite." Then an air of perplexity "Is it me or 
somebody else." Then as he rises, half-way a gleam of hope conjectures, 
"Maybe he made a mistake in calling me." As developments do not strength- 
en this supposition, an imploring glance begs "Please call some one else;" 
followed by a reproachful look "How could you call me?" Then a resigned, 
martyr-like look drives remorse to the instructor's heart as it plainly utters, 
"Very well, I'll forgive you; but if I flunk, it wont be my fault." 

Every division too, has its unfortunate man who always knows his lesson 


perfectly, but never understands exactly what the instructor means by his 
question. So he asks, "Do you mean this?" "Do you want I should give 
that?" and so on, all of which is wholly unconnected with the question asked. 
At last the unfortunate man sits down, leaving the impression on the rest of 
the division that he has flunked. Flunked! By no means! Didn't he know 
the lesson perfectly? But for fear a similar erroneous idea may be held by 
the quiz master (and book) he lingers after recitation and elaborately explains 
that he knew this, but understood the instructor wanted this or the other, 
which was not explained in the text-book, etc., till in sheer self-defence the 
teacher exclaims "Well, I suppose the long and short of it is that you want 
me to allow you to make up this lesson." Our friend scorns this imputation, 
and with all his dignity aroused by being so misunderstood witheringly re- 
plies "No sir! I only want you to understand I knew the lesson; I don't care 
what mark you give me," and, turning grandly on his heel strides out. 



It goes now as an assured fact that the college may boast of a ball team 
of unquestionable merit, and composed too of men who neither "strike out' 
n the ' w quiz" or "at the bat." 

The final yearly exams, that are to occur in the very early future have 
kept the ball players and enthusiasts at their studies, rather than in the field 
for the last few weeks; the only recent game being the one with the Chicago 
University at the West Side Ball Park on Saturday, the 28th, when most glo- 
rious revenge was had from Stagg's "hopefuls," the score of 16 to 1 appear- 
ing in most delightful contrast to that of the Satuday preceding. 

This will probably be the last of the series to occur before the 17th when 
the boys hope to be able to play off the games with the Chicago and North- 
western Universities and possibly if it can be arranged, take a short trip of a 
week or ten days to some of the neighboring Universities. 

In a game with the U. of W. team at the West Side Ball Park, the 8th, 
the Rush men found the gait of the visitors "too swift" for them and very 
graciously (?) turned the game over to them with a score of 17 to 26. 


The interest taken by the students, generally, in athletics, and the sup- 
port given by them this year justifies the suggestion that next year a regular 
team (if possible) be formed, with a sufficient number of capable substitutes in 
practice and at hand, that a vacancy in the team may be filled at once and with- 
out jeopardizing the effectiveness of the team. 


The Secretary of the Alumni Associa'tion sends us the following an- 
nouncement : 

•'Alumni Association of Rush Medical College (Medical Department of 
Lake Forest University). Commencement Week — Monday, May 21, to Wed- 
nesday, May 23, 1894. 

34 Washington Street, Chicago, 111., May 1st, 1894. 

My Dear Doctor: — The following program has been arranged for 
Commencement Week of Rush Medical College for 1894: 

On Monday, May 21, at 10 A. M., a Clinic on Internal Medicine will be 
given by Prof. Lyman. 

At 1:30 P. M., there will be a Clinic on Diseases of the Chest, Throat and 
Nose, by Prof. Ingals. 

At 2:30 P. M., a Clinic on Skin and Venereal Diseases, by Prof. Hyde. 

At 4 P. M., the Class Day Exercises of the Class of 1894 will be held in 
the Amphitheatre of the College. 

On Tuesday, May 22, at 9 A. M., an informal Reunion of the Alumni 
will be held at the College Amphitheatre. Admission tickets to the Re- 
ception in the Laboratory Building will be issued to the Alumni and Graduat- 
ing Class. 

At 9:30 A. M., a Medical Clinic will be given by Prof. Bridge. 

From 11 A. M., to 2 P. M., a Reception will be tendered to the Alumni 
in the New Laboratory Building. . Students will be at work on subjects of 
special interest to practitioners in the Laboratories of Practical Anatomy, 
Chemistry, Histology, Pathology, Bacteriology, and Experimental Physio- 
logy. A light lunch will be served in the building. 

From 2 to 4 P. M., a Surgical Clinic will be given by Prof. Senn in the 
Amphitheatre of the College. 

At 4 P. M., a Scientific Meeting will be held in the College Amphitheatre, 
for which the following program has been provided. 

1. "The Future Requirements of Medical Education." 

Dr. Perry H. Millard, St. Paul, Minn. 

2. ' 'Exhibition of Splint for Treatment of Ordinary Fracture of Leg or Ankle. " 

Dr. Wm. Meacher, Portage, Wis. 

3. "Insanity of Criminals." Dr. L. J. Adair, Anamosa, la. 

4. "Vaginal Tamponade." Dr. O. B. Will, Peoria, 111. 

5. "Nature the Best Obstetrican." Dr. John G. Meacham, Jr., Racine, Wis. 

6. "Modern Transfusion." Dr. L. L. McArthur, Chicago, 111. 
In the evening arrangements have been made to attend Hooley's Theatre 

in a body, to see the sparkling comedy, "Charley's Aunt," that has had such 
a remarkably successful run in New York. In order to reserve these seats 
the Secretary must know definitely at least ten days beforehand the exact 
number who will attend. 


On Wednesday, May' 23. at 9 A. M., there will be a Gynecological Clinic 
by Prof. Etheridge. 

At 10.80 A. M., the Annual Business Meeting of the Association will be 
held at the College. 

The Graduating Exercises will be held at Central Music Hall at 2 P. M. 

At 7 P. M., a Reception and Joint Banquet of the Faculty and Alumni 
will be given at the Grand Pacific Hotel. This will be presided over by the 
Vice-President of the Association, Dr. W. W. Torrence, of Keithsburg, Illi- 
nois. A very interesting program for this banquet has been provided. 

Tickets to the theatre have been arranged for at the reduced price of one 
dollar each for the best seats. The tickets for the Banquet will be one dollar 
and fifty cents per plate. It is necessary that all who expect to attend the 
Banquet Wednesday evening, and join the Theatre Party Tuesday evening, 
should notify the Secretary at once, as we must know the exact number so 
that all may be provided for; therefore please return enclosed card to Secre- 
tary without delay. 

The dues for the ensuing year of one dollar, which includes the year's 
subcription to our Official Magazine, "The Corpuscle, " may be sent the 
Secretary by mail, or paid at Commencement time. 

Yours Truly, John Edwin Rhodes, Secy. 

Professor Haines makes the following announcement: 
(1.) The Hospital Quiz class for next year has been appointed from the 
grades taken from the marks received on the Junior work of last year and the 
consideration of work done during the past (Middle) year. 

It is expected that about fifteen will take the work . Some more men, 
by securing particularly good grades in the examinations this spring may be 
added to the class. 

(2) The Hospital Quiz class for year after next will be appointed from 
grades received in the four Freshman branches at the end of this term. This 
arrangement is made to enable the class to start its work as early as possible, 
the discontinuation of a spring course cutting off much of the time formerly 
devoted to the work of the class. 

(3) The work of the newly appointed quiz class will commence at once and 
continue through the month and be taken up again in October. The work of 
the next year's class will probably start about the first of January. 

We have received from Drs. Cutler and Frisbie of the New England Vac- 
cine Company, Chelsea, Massachusets, a very well written, accurately 
illustrated and neatly bound volume on "Variola and Vaccinia." The succes- 
sion of remarkably well executed half-tones that illustrate the progression of 
a severe case of small pox from its first to its last day are not only interesting 
but of unquestioned value, especially to students, because of the accurate 
manner in which every detail of the eruption is shown. The points on 
diagnosis given by Dr. John D. Fisher, of Boston, are also of especial value 
to one not familiar vvith the disease. 

* * * To the practitioner of a decade or more, a glance over his past 
history from the hopefulness of college life through the years of struggling 
for a living and a business, up to a successful practice, affords great satisfac- 
tion. I know of nothing better calculated to occasion this retrospect than 
the Corpuscle with its college notes and jokes. I. T. Burnside, '83. 

West Duluth, Minn. 

Rush men are everywhere. E. L. Pitz after securing his diploma in '81, 
located at Roadsto wn, N. J. , where he is now ' 'reducing suffering and pro- 
longing life." 

D. H. Bowen, 76. Address Yankton, la. 

Frederick H. Bates, 78. Ellenhurst, 111. 

C. A. Bucher is located at Batavia, 111., and graduated in '64. 

* * 

C. M. Ballard of '89, is located within sight of Rush at 394 Paulina street' 
and a medical student who rooms in that vicinity is impressed with the fact 
that Dr. Ballard has a large practice. 

* * 

W. J. Fernald '90, at Rantoul, 111. 


T. H. Cornwall 74. Audale, Kan. 

G. E. P. Anderson '93 is located at Lebanon, Kan., and is receiving his 

fees in " Kansas corn." 

* -X- 

J. D. Camerer '80, Kimmundy, 111., seems to be making much more than 
a good living having invested in several large stock farms since commencing 
to practice. 

W. A. Chamberlin '82. St. Charles, Minn 

-X- -X- 

J. E. Covey, Lexington, 111, 


-X- * 

Albert A. Anderson '82, Des Moines, la. 
H. W. P. Bartells, Bensenville, 111.* 


John R. Barrett, Hartsburg, 111. 

J. A. Patton '90, 1971 W. Madison street, Chicago. 


G. B. N. Clow '83, Sacramento, Cal. 


T. Byron DeWitt 72, San Francisco, Cal 

■& * 

■X- * 

Willis Clay '88, Renville, Minn. 

H. G. Anderson, 6658 State street, Chicago. 

W. C. Houtz, '88, Leonidas, Mich. 


Geo. H. Weaver '89, 535 Washington Boulevard, Chicago. 
D. J. Brookings '69, Woodward, la. 
W. C. Bowers '82, La Place, 111. 


"I hope to attend commencement.*' T. J. Agnew, '87. 

San Pierre, Ind. 

E. G. Bennett 78, Brodhead, Wis. 

"Thank the boys for me who make the Corpuscle. Trusting that our 
next Alumni meeting may be both felicitous and fruitful. I am faithfully yours, " 
75 43rd St., Chicago. M. H. Cazier '80. 

Los Angeles, Cal. 

"Was a member of class of 78." 

H. G. Brainerd. 

E. P. Rice receives callers at 279 Clark street, Chicago. 


C, W. Cornell, 71, of Knoxville, la., writes, "Enclosed find $1.00 for 
which please place my name on the roll of the 'Alumni Association' and send 
me The Corpuscle." 

W. H. Corribean, 76, Morton, 111., has felt the wave of enthusiasm and 
comes into the fold once more as a member of the Alumni Association 

C. S. Acker, '85, is located at Arkansas City, Kansas, where he has been 
practicing since graduating. It was he who designed the college pin, 

Chas. G. Booth, 72, says, "The reputation of Rush is universal and her 
alumni are at the front. The Corpuscle always brings with it a feeling of 
grateful remembrance and pleasure; my library table has no more welcome 

"My best wishes are with Rush." J. R. Burlingaure. 

First Mosquito — You seem to be thriving this season. 
Second Mosquito — Yes, I drink none but arterial blood. Its purer and 
more nourishing. — Puck. 


A bill for the prevention of blindness has been introduced before the 
state legislature of Ohio, which provides a penalty for failure to report sore 
eyes in an infant within two weeks after birth. 

Scotland has 7,709 medical practitioners, of whom twelve are women. 

* * 


Bettleheim says that he would -'cut a frog from its head to secure a good 
specimen for experiment upon the nerve." Betty was undoubtedly thinking 
of those hypercephalic tadpoles he used to chase in the Missouri creeks when 

he used to be known as "Bernie" in his neighborhood. 

■x- * 

Adkinson claims that he is not married, but that age and size would cut 
no figure if he wanted to be, 

Prof. — Mr. Deadlow, how would you diagnose ivhooping- cough? 

Deadlow— By the peculiar whooping -cough. 

■x- * 


A certain lady reader of the Corpuscle recently asked. "Who is that 
Mr. D. J.? He seems to be such a popular fellow." 

•X- * 

After that medicine exam, many a wilted, sweated-out, limp, starchless 
middler hied him to the Bock- dispensary and after a preliminary, "Wasn't 

that a St. Louis of an examination," dissolved some of his feelings and 

thirst; and wished himself drowned off the coast of Portugal or married to 
some fair damsel in the Azores, where the differential diagnosis between the 
first seventy-six diseases in "Lyman's Practice" is of no more importance to 

him than the County Hospital is to Rush. 

* * 


Don't forget that the Corpuscle editors had to take exams, too. 

•x- * 

Speaking of " up to date," did you see the questions in Middle 


Tne successful contestants for the Presbyterian interneships were, in 
order: Miller, Center, Butler and Williams. It was "no pull " and as square 
and fair an examination as could be given; and the honors have gone where 
they belong. 

* -X- 

The Faculty and Alumni are ready to take all the copies of the Pulse left 
and if any students want more copies the board advise action on their part. 
Those students, who have subscribed and have not called for their books are 
urged to do so at once. 

Samuel C. Benedict, M.D. Richmond and Danville, 

surgeon. Macon and Northern, 



Georgia Railroads. 

ATHENS, GA M APRIL 13th, 1894. 







Besides ANTIKAMNIA" in 
original POWDERED FORM, 
our list now includes: 
One Grain Tablets 
Two Grain Tablets 

Three Grain Tablets 
Five Grain Tablets 
Ten Grain Tablets 

■ • ALSO • • 

(2i4 Grs. Each Antikamnia and Quinine) 

(2/4 Grs. Each Antikamnia and Salol ) 


Miami Medical College, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

N. B.— Physicians prescribing, should specify 


The Antikamnia Chemical Co., 



Verily ex-Editor Center's cup is full of rosy happiness, the Essay prize 
. and an Interneship in Presbyterian. He has job -lots of second-hand laurel 
wreaths to give away. 

Alfred C. Godfrey, 1890, Demonstrator of Anatomy "Jno D. Creighton" 
Med. Col., Omaha, and formerly Interne, old "Presbyterian," has been ap- 
pointed one of the Attending Surgeons, Presbyterian Hospital, Omaha. Thus 
are perpetuated by their pupils the teachings of great masters like Parkes 
and Senn. 

* * 

Here's to the man from the Y. M. C. A., 
Who sat near me one Saturday, 
When we wrote our Middle-exam on Gray, 
And had ten minutes to say our say. 

Here's a little prayer for my "Christian" (?) friend, 

— I hope this a blush to his face will send — 

For he copied his paper from end to end; 

Prom a small brown-covered quiz-compend . 

I go now and then to the Y. M. C. A. , 

And I've heard the prayers he had to say 

But I tell you fellows it doesn't pay; 

— "Recording Angel" ain't built that way. 

■X- * 

Dr. Cotton says a fellow who is smart enough to disguise the fact of using 
a pony is smart enough to get along anyway. 

Prof. Haines to Mr. Raub (just arrived): "Mr. Raub, I was just coming to 
you, and I won't rob you of your turn!" All faint. 

A steady pore — An unbroken hours plugging. 
An i-deal — Squaring accounts with an oculist. 
Pipe organs — Organs of respiration. 


A grave subject — The young doctor's first patient. 
Up in arms — A baby. 
Parasites — Eyes. 

•x- -x- 

•x- * 


•X- -X- 

The latest thing out is a treatise an The Cultivation of "Pie Plant" by 
Freshman Richardson. 


Dr. Yonon is celebrated for his tales about the "Persian Dead? 




VOL. 3. JUNE, , NO. 9. 


A. T. HOLBROOK, '95, President. 
W. D. CALVIN, '95, Secretary. C. A. ALLENBURGER, '95, Treasurer. 

E. M. ECKARD, '96. F. C. HONNOLD, '96. 

W. J. ANDERSON, Publisher. P. M. PERCY, Business Manager, 

N. W. Cor. Congress and Honore Sts 

Membership in the Alumni Association of Rush Medical, College is obtainable at any time by- 
graduates of the College, providing they are in good standing in the profession, and shall pay the annual 
dues, $1.00. This fee includes a subscription to The Corpuscle for the ^current year. This journal is the 
official organ of the Association. 

Dues and all communications relating to the Association should be sent to 

JOHN EDWIN RHODES, M. D., Sec'y andTreas., 34 Washington St., Chicago. 

College Anniversaries— 

Doctorate Sermon, Sunday, May 20th, 1894. 

Special Clinics and Class-Day Exercises, Monday, May 21st, 1894. 

Scientific Meeting of the Alumni Association, 10 A. M. and 2 P. M., Tuesday, May 22nd, 1894. 

Business Meeting of the Alumni Association, 10 A. M., Wednesday, May 23rd, 1894. 

Annual Commencement 2 P. M. Alumni Banquet 7:30 P. M. 

Ruby Red and Black: Colors of Lake Forest University. Yellow: Color of Rush Medical College. 


There will be a special issue of The Corpuscle for July containing 
Doctorate Sermon of Bishop Fallows, subject "Christian Science;" an address 
on "Our Work and Mission" by W. W. Torrence, M. D. ; Clinical Reports, 
Class History, Class Prophecy and other things of interest. Those desiring 
copies of July issue will send names to publisher. 

It may be of interest to about 95 per cent, of the class of '95 to learn 
that after they had betaken themselves to their respective homes, or fields of 
labor, a competative (?) examination was held for the Freer prize. The an- 
nouncement that such an examination was to be held was made the evening 
before at the final meeting of class of '94, where members of other classes were 
not supposed to be present. However, a very limited number (2 or 3), of the 
members of '95, were there and straightway betook themselves to their dens 
and loaded for the contest on the morrow. On the following morning the 
news became circulated to 8 or 10 more students and at an informal meeting 
of these students all with two exceptions advocated petitioning in order to have 


such examination deferred until the students had returned to Rush in the fall 
but because of the objections of two self-confident men such a petition was not 
presented. These two self-confident men failed to secure the prizes and The 
Corpuscle takes pleasure in congratulating their successful competitors. 

The Corpuscle had hoped in this issue to present a complete statement 
of the work done in the various departments of the college this year including 
the hospital and dispensary, but our statistician was called away from the 
city before finishing his task, hence it is omitted. We are able, however, 
from his notes, to state authoratively that this has been one of the most sue 
cessful and eventful years in the history of the college and marked by the 
greatest accomplishment and development in every department. 

Owing to the great length of the program presented at the late meeting 
of the Alumni Association, it will be impossible for the Corpuscle, in this 
issue to give all of the many interesting papers which were read. We shall 
however, in response to numerous requests, publish them in succeeding num- 
bers, for it is a source of satisfaction, no less to the Corpuscle, than to the 
alumni and faculty that the recent reunion was such a decided success, and 
we are anxious that the alumni in general, recognizing this, may join us in 
greater number next year and help us by their active support and presence 
to place our Alma Mater where she belongs — at the front of the procession 
and leader in all great things, 

Lack of space has also crowded out reports of the various special clinics 
which were presented for the benefit of the alumni and which were so highly 
appreciated by all attending. Complete reports will follow later. 

In view of the general interest taken in athletics this season, we trust an- 
other season may not pass before the permanent organization in Rush of a 
college athletic association. Among the seven or eight hundred of our stu- 
dents, there are certainly enough, who are interested in athletics, to project 
and sustain such an enterprise. With the encouragement, support, and en- 
thusiasm of such an association, we might have a prize team in both foot ball' 
and base ball. All we seem to need is organization. We have enough ath- 
letic enthusiasts, we have enough trained men to fill every place, we have the 
favor and approving smile of the faculty; and it becomes us now, while all is 
so favorable to take hold of the matter. For it is not beyond possibility that 
with organization and earnest effort the early future might develop a gym- 
nasium, with training rooms, baths, lockers, and all the "fixtures." 

Why not have a foot ball team for next year from among the following 
students, who are either experts or enthusiasts in the game — Doane, Par- 
meter, and Wagner, of the senior class; Duncan, McNary, Metzger, Fullen- 
weider, Marshal, Johnson, Huizenga, Wallace, and Schreiter from the middle 
class. In addition to these we hear of other players who enter the college 
next year, among whom is the captain of the '93 eleven at U. W., who would 
ikely make an excellent ally for our next year's team. 


We present in this issue a very fine half-tone of the college (Freshman) 
base ball team, which, we are assured, will be gladly receievd and preserved 
by the numerous students who have been interested in the season's game. 

With the earliest warm day of March came the '94 team, and though rap- 
idly and quietly formed, their work in the various games played showed them 
capable of holding their own with any team. 

Their lack of opportunity for preliminary training, having no gymnasium 
or field of their own, has placed them at a serious disadvantage when playing 
with those who have had the benefit of all such facilities, and their successes 
have therefore been gained more upon the excellence of individual work than 
upon the combined team work. No one of the boys is without some previous 
experience in this line— most all having come from similar organizations in 
literary schools. 

Manager R. C. Fullenweider, who has proven himself to be thoroughly 
efficient, and to whose untiring and continuous effort is due much of the 
team's present high standing, is from the Illinois Wesleyan University, at 
Bloomington, where he was quite prominent in athletic affairs. 

Capt. Shultz held third base in the University of Wisconsin team during 
his attendance at school there and occupied the same position with us, play- 
ing at all times an eminently satisfactory game. — His self possession at criti- 
cal moments, his heavy batting and steady playing makes him a valuable man 
in any team. 

Andrews, who pitched for us in the early part of the season, played for- 
merly with the Canton (111.) team and is at present pitching for the Rock Is- 
land team of the Western Association. In the box, at the bat, or on bases he 
is equally efficient. He is an exceptionally fine player. 

Herman comes from the Buffalo (N. Y.) Athletic Association; pitched in 
the Association team for two seasons and at one time filled an engagement 
with the Allegahney team. When in trim, he pitches a fine game. He has 
considerable speed and some very deceptive curves. 

McNary, who caught mostly for Rush this year, is from Lake Forest 
University where he occupied a place on both the base ball and foot ball teams. 
Mc. is an earnest, hard worker and always puts up a good game. 

Wallace is of Monmouth college, (111.,) and does well either in the field or 
on first base. 

Beebe's long training with the Wisconsin University team developed in 
him a fine player. As short stop he was one of the especial stars in Rush 
team's firmament, this year. 

Smith, who won so fair a name with us. both as a batter and fielder, is 
from the well known Oberlin (Ohio) college. 

Blake also comes from the University of Wisconsin, where he stands well 


as a player. He pitched very successfully for Rush in several games last 
year and did good work in left field this season. 

Duncan, who early in the year played first base, comes from Perdue col- 
lege where he was also a base ball player, though he prefers ''chasing the 
pig skin." He makes a very solid basemen and is noted for getting along all 

Frost comes from the Plattsburg (Mo. ) team . He was substitute most of 
the season, but played well when called out. He is a good batter or fielder. 

Richardson, of Minnesota, is also a very satisfactory fielder, and will 
doubtless take a place in the team next year. 

Sheldon (Middler), also from the University of Wisconsin, and who 
played in several of the Freshman games, is a fine catcher, a substantial base- 
man, and a good batter. 

Appendicitis — the Latest Fad. — [The following was read by Hon. Clark 
Bell, of New York, pending the restless moments just before the flash light 
photographer took the pictures of the two thousand railway surgeons at 
Galveston on the 10th inst. It brought down the crowd:] 

Have you got the new disorder? 
If you haven't, 'tis in order 

To succumb to it at once without delay. 
It is called appendicitis — 
Very different from gastritis 

Or the common trash diseases of the day. 

It creates a happy frolic, 

Something like a winter colic, 

That has often jarred our inner organs some; 

Only wrestles with the wealthy, 

And otherwise most healthy- 
Having got it, then you're nigh to kingdom come. 

Midway down in your intestine, 
Its interstices' infestin', 

Is a little alley, blind and dark as night. 
Leading off simply nowhere, 
Catching all stray things that go there; 

As a pocket it is clearly out of sight. 

It is prone to stop and grapple 
With the seed of. grape or apple, 

Or a soldier button swallowed with your pie. 
Having levied on these chattels, 
Then begin internal battles 

That are apt to end in mansions in the sky. 

Once located, never doubt it, 
You would never be without it, 

It's a fad among society that's gay; 
Old heart failure and paresis 
Have decamped and gone to pieces, 

And dyspepsia has fallen by the way. 

Then stand back there, diabetes; 
For here comes appendicitis, 

With a brood of minor troubles on the wing; 
So, vermiform, here's hoping 
You'll withstand all drastic dosing, 

And earn the appellation, "Uncrowned King!" — The World 



Tuesday morning was devoted to a general reunion of the Alumni and a 
great number of them including several from the classes of the late forties 
and early fifties were present who participated in the festivities of the occa- 
sion with great enthusiasm. 

The clinic of the morning by Prof. Bridge was highly interesting and 
instructive, and conducted after the doctor's' usual method as followed in 
regular school work. The ovaiton given Dr. Bridge upon entering the arena 
was both a welcome for his return to the college and an acknowledgement of 
the high esteem in which he is held by the students. 

Immediately after Dr. Bridge's clinic the Alumni were tendered a recep- 
tion at the new laboratory. They seemed to be highly pleased with what 
they saw and spoke in enthusiastic terms of the numerous evidences of 
thorough and painstaking work. Every arrangement had been made to make 
the occasion one of unalloyed enjoyment and to show them that in her prac- 
tical laboratory courses their Alma Mater was abreast with the times. 

The various departments were in full operation. In the laboratories of 
histology, pathology and bacteriology, Drs. Weaver and LeCount with a num- 
ber of student assistants presented alarge series of microscopical specimens of 
normal and pathological tissue, cultures of the various types of bacilli and 
their presence in various tissue. The modus operandi and clinical importance 
of the hemocytometer and hemoglobiuometer were also explained and a large 
number of micro-photographs, for use in the stereoptican, shown. 

On the third 'floor, Professor Haines and his assistants showed the vis- 
itors about the chemical laboratory and gave several interesting experiments 
including the test for hydrochloric and lactic acid in the stomach. 

On the next floor the quiz rooms were inspected and numerous kindly 
words were heard in approval of the adoption of this method of teaching. 

The dissecting room on the top floor was thoroughly appreciated by the 
older Alumni who remembered the old room and recognized the decided con- 
trast between it and the present thoroughly equipped ball with its every 
appliance for convenience. Adolph had placed cadavers in the room to show 
the new method of injection and during the morning Prof. Be van gave illus- 
trations of femoral hernia — a description of the anatomy of the appendix, 
the surgery of the kidney, resection of the ankle joint and the amputation of 
the entire upper. 

The sight seeing finished the doctors were directed to the physiological 
laboratory on the first floor, where a fine lunch of sandwiches, coffee, pickles, 
ice cream, and cake was served by Eckhardt, the caterer, and toward the 
enjoyment of which every man devoted himself with becoming earnestness 
and vigor. Some two hundred and fifty of tne alumni were present and quite 
a number of students. Among those present were, L. D. Ray, Blakesburg, 


Iowa '87; J. A. Rutledge, Fielding, 111. ; 86; C. A. Armstrong, Boscobel, Wis. 
'87; Chas. D. Camp, city '79; F. D. Morse, Lawrence, Kans. '67; Philip R. 
Fox, Madison, Wis. '70; Wm. Kennedy, Leland, 111. '81; E. Schifferle, Creston, 
Iowa '84; J. G. Meachem, Jr., Racine, Wis. '65; A. DeBey, Orange City, Iowa 
'84; C. R. Warren, city '76; W. Meacher, Portage, Wis. '62; H. E. Lindsay, 
Whitewater, Wis, '69 and numerous others. 

Mr. President of the Lake Forest University; Ladies and Gentlemen : 

It is my pleasing duty to announce a fact that has not been heretofore 
thus publicly noted. During the past year Mr. Nathan M. Freer has placed 
in the hands of the trustees of Rush Medical College the sum of two thousand 
dollars, as a perpetual foundation, of which the annual income, amounting to 
one hundred dollars, is to be bestowed in the form of prizes of fifty dollars 
each, upon the two members of the upper classes who shall furnish the best 
theses upon medical topics assigned by the faculty of the college. These 
prizes, thus established are henceforth to be awarded each year in memory of 
two of those remarkable men who have made Chicago what it is: the Honor- 
able L. C. P. Freer, father of the donor, and for many years the president of 
of our board of trustees, and Professor Joseph W. Freer who successively- 
filled the offices of professor of anatomy, professor of physiology, and pres- 
ident of the college until his death in 1876. To this sum Mr. Nathan M. 
Frear has also added, for this year, fifty dollars more, enabling the faculty to 
award a second Freer prize of twenty-five dollars to the second highest can- 
didate in each of the upper classes. 

The conditions of the contest were such as to make it one of uncommon 
difficulty. To the candidates from the two classes was assigned a subject 
upon which they were to prepare themselves by special study. To the senior 
class was assigned the subject of diphtheria; to the middle class the subject 
of Placenta Praevia. 

At the appointed time the candidates were required to meet in the pres, 
ence of the members of the faculty detailed for this duty, and then and there 
in the space of one hour, to write their theses without assistance of any kind 
excepting the pen and white paper that was placed before each one. The 
essays were then subjected to the most rigid scrutiny by the faculty, accounts 
being taken of chirography, punctuation, spelling, style, losseness of expres- 
sion, fullness and accuracy of detail, symmetry and completeness of treatment 
of the subject as a whole. The result simply astonished me. Several of the 
essays, would have done credit to any treatise of medicine; all were so 
excellent that my only feeling after examination was one of regret that there 
was not a prize for each one of the competitors. It was comparatively easy 
to award the first place in the senior class, but the next two papers were so 
nearly alike in excellence that I would not give the snap of my finger for the 
difference. Having mentioned this fact to Mr. Freer, he with characteristic 
munificence, placed in my hands the sum of twenty-five dollars more, enabling 
us to award a third Freer prize of twenty- five dollars to a member of the 
senior class. I do now, therefore, among the candidates from the senior class 
award the first Freer prize of fifty dollars *o Dr. Charles D. Center ; the 


second Freer prize of twenty-five dollars to Dr. Alexander Fraser Stewart; 
and the third Freer prize of twenty-five dollars to Dr. Charles Ammides 
Helvie. In the middle class the first Freer prize of fifty dollars is awarded 
to Mr. T. R. Welch and the second Freer prize of twenty-five dollars to 
Mr. H. B. Bartholomew. 


Following the beautiful and well established custom of previous classes 
our class has had a tablet made bearing our motto and our inscription. We 
hope it may be accepted by you as expressing our feeling of thankfullness to 
our Alma Mater for the privileges of learning we have here enjoyed; we hope 
that it may be an assurance to future generations of students that we carefully 
sympathize with them as they are passing along the pleasant though often 
very difficult pathway which leads to the practice of medicine; but above all 
we hope that as a class and as individuals we may never forget our motto and 
that our lives may be ever devoted to the interests of science and humanity. 

Remarks of President Holmes on receiving the class tablet. 
Mr. President and Gentlemen of the Class of 1894: 

In behalf of the Trustees and Faculty of our college I thank the class of 
1894, with sincere appreciation for this beautiful memorial tablet, which 
graces this amphitheatre. 

I trust that it will ever remain to decorate these walls, and that the noble 
sentiment of its motto shall inspire all future classes that enter here, so long 
as the bronze of which it is composed shall endure 

Pro scientia et humanitate ! Science, the means, by which your life work 
is to be performed — humanity the end and object! 

For four years you have endeavored to learn how to fight, as best you may, 
the battle of life in the arm y corps you have volunteered to enter. Now you 
go forth as brave soldiers, utterly dependent for further knowledge upon the 
books you may have on military tactics, if you may call them so, and upon 
your own mental resources. 

Your teachers have attempted to do their duty in aiding you to forge the 
offensive weapons you are to carry and to acquire in their use. Possibly they 
may have been remiss in not dwelling sufficiently on the value of the defensive 
arms you should possess. 

In whatever you undertake remember the sufferer — the patient — must be 
on your side of the struggle as a firm ally. Now if you possess only your 
offensive arms, your knives, gouges, hooks and so many others with which 
you will exterminate the microbes and parasites which are the great enemies 
of mankind you will terrify your patients and cause them to flee to the 
banner of some other leader. So you must keep all these instruments of tor 
ture carfully concealed from view in your knapsacks. Patients place confi- 
dence in such qualities as courage and firmness — let these be your breastplat- 
ing on self-relience — let this be your helmet; on knowledge and wisdom — let 
this be your shield. 


All these might not quite calm your patients: If you possessed these 
alone they might think what some are bold enough to say of some soldiers in 
the army medical: "He would as lief kill a patient as cure him." So let your 
armor of courage — self reliance and knowledge be strong, ribbed and riveted, 
as may be : Let it also be adorned with decorations no time, nor wear, nor 
battering can deface. These decorations are — a good character — gentle 
manners — cheerfulness and smiles without a trace of levity- — sympathy — a 
delicate hand and motives so upright and pure that no one may question them. 

In addition to all this military equipment, you should have some thought 
of your duties as citizens, neighbors and friends. Study how to perform these 
duties. Let me urge you to have constantly at hand on your office table a 
few volumes of our choicest literature, of history, of ethics and philosophy. 
Read and reread them. 

Never before did young men enter the strife with greater need of true 
culture than do you. Live in the spirit of your motto. Armed with the 
panoply I have suggested you cannot fail. 

Again I thank you for the sentiments which have prompted the exercises 
of this class day and for your part in securing for these walls the life like 
portraits of two honored teachers of our college. 


To this day the class of '94 has anxiously looked forward. Realizing the 
importance of the occasion, we have waited with many hopes and many fears 
for its arrival. On this day, the last with our Alma Mater, and the first of 
our career as physicians and as surgeons, we feel as though life for us is, in 
fact, at its commencement. 

, Four ye ars ago we began the study of that ' ' science which may relieve 
suffering and prolong life." During these years, we have passed 
through all the transitional stages from student to doctor of medicine. Look- 
ing forward from the beginning, this day seemed far away. Looking back- 
ward, we know not where the time has gone. Some one has said " the year 
passes quick though the hour tarry, and time bygone is a dream though we 
thought it never would go while it was going," 

As to the profession which we have chosen, we believe it to be the science 
of all those sciences which have for their only object the welfare of our 
fellowman. Truly is our motto "Scientia et Humanitas." 

And now, when as recognized and as authorized practitioners we are 
about to start upon our life's work, when our knowledge laden bark is about 
to be launched upon the sea of time, comes that saddest of all sad hours — 
that of parting. Today ties of friendship must be broken. Friend shall meet 
with friend no more. During our college life many attachments have been 
formed. Some have been severed. One of our honored instructors and three 
of our beloved classmates have gone to that shore from which there is no 
returning. We mourn not for their future state — only for their departure. 


If there is a life beyond the grave, we know that they are living; and what to 
us has been a loss, to some place has been a gain. 

But our farewells today are not with the dead but with the living — with 
those who have been our constant daily companions — with those who are 
assembled here with us. 

To you, Pres. Holmes, to you who have been both kind and gentle, to you 
who have been more friend than instructor, to you we say farewell. 

To you, Members of the Faculty of Rush Medical College, thanking you 
for your many kindnesses, and for your careful guidance of our footsteps over 
highway and through byway of our brief medical journey, to you also do we 
say farewell. 

To you, classmates, to you who have stood shoulder to shoulder and have 
braved all the stormy battles together, to you who have been friend, class- 
mate, roommate, brother, to you what shall we say? Friend who can never 
cease to be our friend, with you the parting is the saddest. What is the pain 
and what the sorrow, each heart alone can tell. To you, one and all, whose* 
future the chisel of time has yet to carve, we trust and hope success and hap- 

And now, dear old Rush, to you whose every room and corner is a friend' 
to us, whose every hallway has been a place of meeting for classmate with 
class mate and friend with friend, to you whose fifty-one years of activity rests 
so lightly upon your shoulders, with our farewell go hopes of many more 
years of usefulness and worth with constant advancement, so that in time 
your dear old name shall be first amongst such institutions. 

And now to President, to Professor, to Class-mate, to Friend to all we say 
a sad farewell Frank E. Andre. 


Dr. G. F. Butler, lately Director of Laboratory of Materia Medica at 
Rush, has accepted the chair of Materia Medica and Clinical Medicine at the 
P. & S. Our loss is their gain. 

A majority of the members of the Faculty have left the city for their 
summer vacations. 

We learn that E. J. Senn, '93, has been tendered a chair of Surgical 
Anatomy and Clinical Surgery in the St. Louis Medical College. We do not 
know of his decision in the matter, but should he accept the offer we wish him 
every success though we Would be sor«:y to lose him from among us. 

Another Missouri College. — The Central Medical College of St. Joseph, 
Mo., has been organized to replace the Northwestern Medical College of that 
city — suspended because of the refusal of the Missouri State Board of Health 
to recognize it diplomas. 

By Wm. S. Forrest, Esq. 

Justice can not be administered in our civil or criminal courts without the 
aid of medical science. In the detection of crime, in the demonstration of in- 
nocence, in determining the probable cause, nature and extent of personal 
injuries, in shedding light upon the validity of wills, in ascertaining the ex- 
istence and degree of mental impairment, the courts are compelled to lean 
upon the special research, observation, and experience of the physician. 

Originally, in England the medical expert aided the court by reporting to 
him his conclusion somewhat as is now done by a master in chancery. In 
those days he was selected by the judge and not examined by counsel. That 
system failed, and in its place arose the present system, which requires the 
expert to respond to a subpoena, if his reasonable charges are tendered him, 
and to submit under oath to examination and cross-examination. There is 
nothing, however, in the law or practice to-day that prevents a trial judge, 
of his own motion, from selecting and compelling any physician to give ex- 
part testimony as to the masters in issue, in any case when his testimony is rele- 
vant, if the court tenders him his reasonable fees. A fund to be provided by the 
county board in any county is all that is required to invest the courts of that 
county with full power to introduce in every case the testimony of that phy- 
sician, whom the presiding judge may deem the most competent, within his 
jurisdiction, to elucidate the controverted medical question. 

Of late, there have been frequent complaints of medical expert testimony. 
Most of these complaints, in the judgment of lawyers, are based on prejudice 
and the want of full and accurate information. Sometimes they are prompted 
by the bias and the enthusiasm that now from the zeal of partisanship. 

American journalists have ceased to be impartial reporters and reviewers 
of legal proceedings . They are advocates in a forum, in which no effective 
reply can be made by persons who are not editors or proprietors of news- 
papers, and where usually the contentions of one party are maintained by 
argument, evidence, rumor, and suspicion, while the contentions of his op- 
ponent are assailed by the truth, in so far as the truth is serviceable, but when 
it fails to hit the mark, by appeal to prejudice, by insinuation, by caricature, 
and even by the coinage of the imagination. 

Their tone indicates that they know the whole truth. The greater 
number of their readers, especially those whose literature is exclusively the 
newspaper and the magazine, assume their expressed degree of certainty as 
to the actual truth and, when "gravelled for lack of matter" in ordinary con- 
versation, earnestly state and warmly discuss their opinions concerning the 
last or the approaching trial of a great case. This agitation in the press and 
discussion in society lead nearly the whole body of the people to prejudge 
the controverted point's in all celebrated causes, civil and criminal, and to 
cling with pertinacity to their prejudgments, regardless of the evidence, un- 


til the final order is entered, and the actors in the legal drama pass from the 
stage. Hence arises a long train of mischiefs, not only to the medical wit- 
nesses, but also to all persons in any way connected with modern jurispru- 

Some of these complaints, I have said, are groundless; others, however, 
and those not commonly noticed, are fully warranted by the experience of 
men acquainted with recent litigation. 

Although medical expertism is not what it ought to be, it is by no means 
what it is represented to be. Yet, it must be conceded that it has fallen from 
its former estate in popular opinion. The prevailing notion as to its char- 
acter is due, in my judgment, to impertinent and improper cross-examination, 
to improper rulings by the trial judges as to the competency of certain ques- 
tions and as to the scope of the cross-examination, and to the imperfect, if 
not incorrect, reports of medical testimony in the daily newspapers, as well 
as to the short-comings of the experts themselves. 

Within the past year a physician, who was called to answer a hypothet- 
ical question as to the nature and effect of certain wounds, was cross-exam- 
ined for several hours on psychology, neurology, chemistry, anatomy, physio- 
logy, and histology. Objection to the latitude of the cross-examination was 
promptly overruled. If such an examination is permissible, then any indus- 
trious lawyer, who has been instructed by a learned coach, can make the av- 
erage medical expert in any case appear ridiculous. If such a method of in- 
terrogation is admissible, then no medical expert can pass creditably through 
the ordeal of cross-examination in any trial, unless he is prepared to answer 
questions not only on the subject on zvhicli he offers himself as an expert and 
what is fairly involved in it, but also on the whole science of medicine with all 
its ramifications. 

Although willingly admitting that the bar, the judiciary and journal- 
ism are in this way partly responsible for the want of public confidence in 
medical expert testimony, still, I claim, that its chief cause will be found in 
such intellecturl deficiencies of the average medical expert as are disclosed by 
the legitimate cross-examination daily conducted in our courts. These intel- 
lectual deficiencies are: (1) unfamiliariiy with the minutise of the particular 
subject on which he is called to give testimony; (2) his lack of reasoning 
power; (3) his apparent incapacity to test the opinions, which he seeks 
to maintain, by the cardinal rule of all scientific investigation, namely, that 
no theory is proved, unless it is consistent with all the genuine facts, and 
excludes, to the degree of certainty required, all other theories. 

The daily practice of the physician, which requires him to do the best he 
can in view of the symptoms disclosed, results in habits of mind, which, if 
not corrected by earnest endeavor, unfit him for scientific investigation and 
scientific statement and, therefore, render him incapable of presenting his 
opinions in a logical form and of maintaining them in a contest with a thor- 
oughly equipped lawyer, who has a clear advantage, because he is the ques- 
tioner, and is fresh from a special study of the subject, 

In the sick chamber, not to appear to know and to act accordingly, is 
failure. In a court of law, not to give an opinion unlessyou a le < ( i :i i that 


it is sustained by the facts presented and the teachings of medical science, is 

Assuming, then, that the cause of the prevailing opinion of medical ex- 
pertism has been correctly stated, what is the remedy? 

A board of medical experts to be appointed by the judges of our courts of 
record, is often proposed. 

In the nature of things, this scheme can be a remedy for so much of the 
complaint only as is caused by the partiality toward the defense of the ex- 
perts retained by it. If such partiality be the cause or the chief cause of the 
complaint, then the remedy suggested is appropriate; and, whenever the de- 
fendant is poor and without influence, will be decidedly effective. 

On the other hand, if our analysis is correct, that remedy will be merely 
sweetened water given to cure a deep seated-difficulty. 

If it were possible to organize and maintain a board or college of experts, 
whose knowledge and skill embrace and completely cover in all its parts the 
whole field of medicine and its accompanying sciences, and who are endued 
with that form of moral courage which inspires a man to tell the truth, in ab- 
solute disregard of public opinion, when it is his duty to do so, I do not know 
of any measure, within the range of posssible egislation, that would be of 
more enduring benefit to the administration of criminal justice, considered 
from the point of view of the defense as well as the prosecution. 

I insist, however, that there is not resident in Illinois any responsible 
public authority that is competent to select such a board, and that, if there 
were such an authority, politics would prevent the selection of the most com- 
petent physicians . 

Besides, the science of medicine to-day is too varied to be represented by 
any number of physicians possible to be gotten together in any board that 
can be created and supported at the public expense. 

It may be replied that we ought not to expect perfection. True. Do 
not forget, however, that under the powers with which the judiciary is now 
invested, if your county board will appropiate the requisite funds, any trial 
judge may compel any physician to testify, upon whom a subpoena can be 
.served within the jurisdiction of the court. For all practical purposes, there- 
fore, more efficient service can be had in the present state of the law than 
would be rendered by the proposed board of medical experts, provided, the 
judges exercise their powers and the county board makes a sufficient appro- 

We have, in effect, now a board of medical experts, which consists of the 
entire medical professiou of Cook county. Why limit it by creating a legal 

Furthermore, such a board, if created in Cook county, would furnish tes- 
timony that would be more imperfect in the respects in which medical ex- 
pertism is now imperfect than the system which at present obtains. 

Gentlemen who favor the creation of such a board admit that our gover- 
nors and state boards of health are not competent to select it, but they claim 
that our judges are. 


I cannot agree with them, yet I yield to no man in my respect for the 
ability, impartiality and uprightness of our local judiciary. 

No set of men are competent to select a board of medical experts with 
the proper qualifications, unless they are acquainted with the leading phy- 
sicians, able justly to estimate their proficiencies, sufficiently prescient of the 
future to know the medical questions that will arise during the term of office 
of the members, and strong enough to resist and overcome the pressure of 
politicians and the insistence of personal friendship. 

In urging that our judges are incompetent to perform the duties under 
consideration, I merely insist that they are human and have the usual limita- 
tions of good lawyers, who have assiduously. devoted themselves to the prac- 
tice of their profession, and are now dependent for their official existence 
upon votes cast in political conventions. They, like the rest of mankind, 
ought not to be led into great temptation. 

Suppose our judges were empowered to organize such a board. In what 
proportion would they divide them among the different schools of medicine? 
Who would finally be appointed? Physicians named by politicians. How do 
we know? By experience. Our judges now name the south park commis- 
sioners and justices of the peace. Do you know a south park commissioner 
or a justice of the peace that does not owe his position to politics? Did not 
our circuit judges lately divide into two sets respecting the appointment of 
one of those commissioners, and did not one set refuse to meet and confer 
with the other, until the seceding set had their way as to the politics of the 
new appointee? 

If our judges were empowered to appoint a body of medical experts, is it 
not morally certain that no physician would be considered whose application 
was not supported by political influence? Would not the applicants be so 
numerous that combinations would be formed among them and their friends? 
Would not the different nationalities also put in their claims for recognition? 
And, would they not obtain it? 

All the past records of the human race teach that the appointing power 
tends to weaken and corrupt its possessors. Let us not, therefore, attempt 
to elevate modern expertism by increasing the patronage of our judges. 
Rather, let us elevate the judiciary by relieving it of the appointing power 
with which it is now burdened. 

Remember, too, that each one of our trial judges constitutes a tribunal that 
is finally to pass upon the sufficiency as well as the credibility of the expert 
evidence. The tribunal that is to determine these two questions is not the 
one that should be permitted to select the witnesses. Every one has an in- 
clination to credit the witness whum he selects. 

In Germany there is an official board of experts, but its members are not 
named by the judges. 

Another objection to a board of experts to be appointed by any public au 
thority is, that it would be compelled to decide questions submitted to it in ac- 
cordance with public clamor and its members would be more or less controlled 
by the politicians who secured their appointment. 

The common supposition is that persons who hold quasi- judicial positions, 


elective or appointive, perform their duties in a fearless and impartial man- 
ner. This ancient notion ought to be classed with the old superstitions, with 
which the ignorant are silenced, if not convinced and controlled. Our prose- 
cuting officers are intended by the law to be impartial; but what prosecuting 
officer in this country ever hesitated to avail himself of public opinion in or- 
der to obtain a conviction? In so doing have they been always right? Your 
supreme court has frequently found that they were radically wrong. 

Five physicians of this city, distinguished for their learning and integ- 
rity, of large experience in treating the insane and acknowledged to be in the 
first rank of their profession, within the past year, were retained by the pros" 
ecution to examine a man, indicted for murder, whose defense was insanity. 
They made the examination, and, they say, were compelled by the evidence 
to conclude that he was insane. They so reported to the prosecuting offi- 
cer, were not called as experts on behalf on the prosecution, and, afterwards 
went upon the witness stand in obedience to a subpoena by the defense and 
testified that the accused was insane. Had they concluded that he was sane 
and so testified, they would have been well paid out of the county treasury. 
As witnesses for the defense they waived compensation, on account of the 
poverty of the accused, and gave their testimony as experts without fee and 
without the expectation of any reward, except that which ought to follow the 
discharge of public duty . 

This beautiful act of humanity, this splendid manifestation of manhood, 
has been stigmatized by the press as "treason to the state." And these five 
physicians are regarded in certain quarters, because of this charge, not as 
men who served the public well, but as physicians who betrayed their trust- 
and basely served a cowardly assassin. 

Scientia et humaintas is the motto of your graduating class. Young gen- 
tlemen, the story of your generation, when told, will contain no better exem- 
plification of yonr motto than the conduct of these five physicians.. 

Suppose these five physicians, at the time -they gave their testimony, 
constituted the board of medical experts for Cook county and that their term 
of office expired a few days afterward. Could they have been reap- 
pointed? What pitiless attacks would have been made upon them, and what 
revenge would be threatened against the judges who should vote for their re- 

Some of the members, not fitted by the kindly offices of their profession, 
to endure a storm of detraction would seek refuge in withdrawal, or if their 
term had not expired, in resignation. 

Other members would not wish to be re- appointed, because of their dis- 
taste for the fierce conflicts, incident to all forms of public life. In their 
places would appear five medical politicians , who would enter upon the du- 
ties of their high office with the unexpressed feeling that, in order to avoid 
the abuse heaped upon their predecessors, it would be necessary for them to 
formulate their opinions, in the next criminal case, in accordance with the 
edicts registered in the columns of the newspapers and echoed by the cries of 
the populace. Thereafter, the tendency would be from silence to evasion 


thence to trimming, then acquiescence, and finally abject willingness to let 
the crowd have its way. 

It has ever been so. Now and then the course of events makes necessary 
the sacrifice of some human being in the courts of law. Jurors and judges 
have seldom been able to render true verdicts and just judgments on the first 
trial of those cases that stir deeply the passions of the people. Humane leg- 
islators have provided courts of appeal, partly, in order that there may be a 
tribunal with revisory power, distant from the passions and influences to 
which the trial courts are always subject. 

Athens, at the height of her greatness, condemned Socrates as a criminal 
and put to his lips the cup of hemlock; even Socrates, the good and wise and 
pure, was judiciously murdered by a jury of his fellow citizens, every one of 
whom knew him personally. How the jurors were applauded for their ver- 
dict as they filed into the ecclesia at the first meeting of the citizens convened 
thereafter! Public opinion had demanded the removal of Socrates, and the 
Athenians honored the men who removed him. 

Jesus of Nazareth was put to death in obedience to the wild shouts of the 
populace, "Away with him." 

In staid and justice-loving England, Titus Oates and his fellow witnesses 
supplied the perjured evidence, which dragged innocent men to the scaffold, 
in compliance with the rage and excitement of London Town. 

Down in old Salem among the picus and sober-minded Puritans, good 
mothers confessed in open court that they were witches and the juries and 
judges believed their confessions and hanged them. Public opinion had so 

Heads dropped from the guillotine in France, sent thither by tribunals 
that quailed before the wild mob and the master politicians of the age. 

These instances of the sacrifice of human life to public prejudice and pop- 
ular clamor are taken from the histories of the great nations of the earth, the 
nations that have given modern civilization its philosophy, its religion, its 
humanity, its sweetness and light. 

Varied were the issues and unlike the accused in these trials. 
Very different also were the laws, the manners, and the characters 
of the people in whose courts the judgments were rendered. But in one es- 
sential and supreme aspect they were all exactly alike— in all of them the 
verdict was determined and dictated by popular fury. 

History repeats itself, also, in criminal jurisprudence. What happened 
then, happens now. The difference is that you and I are too near to the 
trials that have taken place in our generation to view and discuss them in the 
manner in which they will be viewed and discussed by posterity. 

When there is proposed a measure which may effect the fortunes, the lib- 
erties and the lives of great numbers of the citizens, it behooves us to deal 
with the evils, we seek to correct, in the light of the experience of mankind. 

Any change is order to be effective must be made with reference to the 
directing and dominating forces of the times. 

Our age is ruled by newspapers as the feudal age was ruled by the great 
barons. As our courts and juries are influenced and, in great trials intimidated 


by public clamor, so will any board of experts, created by any popular auth- 
ority, be controlled in the end by the same clamor. Relief may be obtained 
in the courts of appeal from the errors committed by judges and juries; but 
there is not any tribunal on earth that can right the wrong done by a board of 
medical experts, who should yield to the madness of the hour and testify, 
against their judgments, to that which will tend to convict a man on trial for 
life or liberty. 

Within the past ten years, a physician, then connected with the county 
physician's office, testified in a murder trial, on his direct examination, to the 
theory of the prosecution, and on the cross-examination, fully and equivoc- 
ally to the theory of the defense. I inquired of him after the trial the cause 
of this great discrepancy. He replied that his real opinion was stated in his 
answers on the cross examination; that before the beginning of the trial he 
had informed the state's attorney of his opinion, and that that attorney had 
threatened to ruin him, if he gave it in evidence. He then reminded me of 
the savage attacks on him in the columns of the newspapers that followed his 
departure from the witness stand as proof that the State's Attorney had at- 
tempted to execute his threat. 

An effective remedy for the evils of medical expertism in Illinois will not 
be found in any change or modification of the system by which experts are 
selected. I care not what the system is, if there be in the community any 
objectionable experts, of push and energy, these experts will become a part of 
that system. Force and persistence win in the scramble for office, in spite of 
all safe-guards. What is needed is not a change in the system of selecting ex- 
perts but greater ability, skill, and knowledge on the part of the average 
medical expert, and the average medical expert is the average physician. 

The only adequate remedy for the evils of medical expertism, in so far as 
a remedy is required, must come from the co operation of the legislature, the 
judiciaiy, the bar, the medical profession and the editors of our great daily 

First, then, I suggest that the legislature enact that a medical expert wit- 
ness is one who has actual knowledge of the subject on which he is called to 
testify, derived from clinical experience. No physician, for example, should 
be- accounted a medical expert in cases where insanity is the issue, unless he 
has actually treated the insane. Under the law at present any physician can 
qualify as an expert in any civil or criminal case, if he is in practice and ac- 
quainted in a general way with the literature of the subject involved in the issue. 

The judges should restrict the hypothetical questions to the facts in evi- 
dence, except in so far as such questions are permitted in order to test the 
competency of the expert. The cross-examination should be confined to what 
is germane to the phase of medical science involved in the case on trial. 
When such a law is enacted and the judges enforce it and the rules of evidence 
as they now exist, the lawyers will be constrained to do their duty on the trial, 
and thus they will contribute their part to the restoration of public confidence 
in medical testimony. 

The medical colleges may raise the standard of medical expertism by de- 


voting more time to medical jurisprudence and by increasing the requirements 
for admission and graduation. 

Rush medical College has done its duty. Recently it increased the re- 
quirements for admission, lengthened the course of study to four years, and 
extended each year's work one-third. 

As to the lack of the power of logical statement and of the capacity to 
reason in accordance with the method of science, which, I have urged, char- 
acterize the medical expert, nothing will supply this, except that which ad- 
vances a man in any profession, whether he be self-made or college- made, ap- 
plication and severe self -discipline. 

Finally, our genial and learned editors may render great assistance by 
not permitting the publication of reports of medical testimony that are so in- 
complete as to amount (unintentionally, of course), to the suppression of the 
truth and the suggestion of what is false. 

It is not sufficient, our editors should remember, to administer the laws in 
a just and even-handed manner. It is indispensable that the people should 
believe that they are so administered. 

Such concurrence of effort will enable us to leave the jurisprudence of 
our state in a better condition than we found it and restore medical expert- 
ism to the canfidence of the people. Nay, more, it will place the medical ex- 
pert in a position in our courts closely akin to the sacred relation which the 
family physician now bears to the American home. 


A few generations ago a small company of explorers left the primitive 
settlements of our Atlantic shores, to penetrate westward as far as might be 
the pathless forests. They were to solve some of the mysteries of a bound- 
less reach of hills and woods. One might well ask what could induce the peo- 
ple of the sparsely settled coast to covet lands which could scarcely be richer 
or more beautiful than those immediately around them. 

The explorers were to live almost entirely upon the game which they 
migh* secure from the forests anpl streams. In addition to a few articles of 
necessity, they happened to take with them a quantity of fruit which has ever 
been highly prized as a luxury. There was one man in that little company, 
who in the kindness of his heart thought of the generations who might follow 
in the path he was treading. So day by day as he marched with his compan- 
ions, he gathered after each repast the fragments and sought a favorable spot 
in which to commit them to the loving care of nature. 

This expedition returned and was soon altogether forgotten. Only the 
casual student in consulting the written records of the past, might read the 
history of the expedition and of the kind act of the thoughtful explorer. 

Many years after, when the vast stream of humanity began to move west- 
ward, pioneers were surprised to find at long intervals groups of wild apple 
trees. Here and there would be one exceptionally stately, bearing fruit of 
unusual beauty and exquisite to the taste. 


So they who afterward left their homes not to explore but to seek new and 
wider fields, carried with them the love of the institutions they left behind 
and the germs of the new, which might rival the old. Scattered through the 
broad states, which in succession came into existence, were laid the founda- 
tions, insignificant though they might be, of many an academy and college. 
Some remain as almost useless foundations. Others it may be thrived for a 
time but were overcome in the struggle for continued existence. 

Here and there as in the case of the fruit which the explorer planted, 
were placed the germs of institutions which grew slowly, perchance previous- 
ly, till in the end they became veritable monuments to the courage and energy 
of those who founded them and an honor to those who followed as rulers of 
their destinies. 

The history of Rush Medical College may well arrest the attention of all 
who have at heart the diffusion of medical knowledge. And yet, it is not my 
wish to lead you now in this path. You all know the story. It has been recent- 
ly and surprisingly well told. The class that this day takes your places in 
our college has produced, as a gracious labor of love for their Alma Mater, a 
work which I am confident no medical college in the world can rival. All 
that careful pens could write, all that skillful pencils, aided by the magic 
touch of sunbeams, could portray has been combined in this work — a lasting 
memorial of the loyalty of the class of 1895. Unnecessary, therefore, it is for 
me to trace the material history of this institution. 

I do wish however to lead you back fifty years, when there stood where 
you now stand, a young man — solitary and alone — the first graduate of this- 
college. I wish to place before you a remarkable contrast — not in things ma-' 
terial, but in things intellectual — -not so much the single graduate of 1844 with 
the 163 graduates of 1894, not so much the single small room in a clapboard 
house with the two superb edifices of to-day, not so much the few test tubes 
of that primitive lecture room, with the rich appliances of our great labora- 
tories — not the twelve cases of minor surgery presented to the class in the 
course of the whole winter with the thousands of patients in our present dis- 
pensary and hospitals, nor in fine the four teachers in contrast with the sixty 
in the faculty at this time. 

The contrast which I wish to emphasize and make vivid in your imagina- 
tion is in what that young graduate carried with him into his active life as 
compared with what you have stored in your minds. His teachers had told 
him and showed him a few important things; he had read a few books; but he 
had been required to perform scarcely one act which would really teach him 
the use of a single instrument, or give him facility in a single manipulation. 
I need not dwell on the opportunities which have been freely placed in your 
control and of which you have been required to make the best use. 

Upon this phase of medical education I wish to speak at some length. 
What greater folly can characterize a system of education and training than 
that which has prevailed till quite recent times in this college, I am sorry to 
say, and in all American medical colleges. Let us endeavor for the moment 
in imagination to prepare a class of young men for active work as mechanics 
in their trades, as medical teachers have endeavored to educate young men 


for the duties of physicians. We will take our apprentices into an amphithea- 
ter and require them to listen daily for months to master-mechanics who will 
carefully in their respective lectures tell how to take a worn out machine to 
pieces, how to examine its various parts and study their functions and how to 
recognize and repair broken and disarranged wheels and shaftings. Then we 
will conduct the class to another hall and require them to spend hours for 
weeks watching master-mechanics making various machines, In the first hall 
they were told how, in the second they were shown how to use tools. As yet 
no young man had been permitted to use the tools himself. Finally the ap^ 
prentices were required to perform practical laboratory work. With chemi- 
icals, crucibles, and microscopes, they were taught to investigate the proper- 
ties of woods and metals used in the construction of machines. With models 
and other apparatus they studied the structure and functions of each part of 
every machine and with reagents and cultures they sought to penetrate the 
mysteries of the moisture, microbes, and corroding gases and, liquids that in- 
jure the surface and strength of materials. Four years of this work would 
teach our young apprentices many interesting and useful facts. Could one of 
them make a shoe, a watch, or a steam engine, or any part of them? The 
young artisan has never been trained so foolishly in his trade, as the medical 
student in the art of medicine and surgery. He has always been compelled 
on the first day he enters the shop to work with tools, aud to continue day by 
day to work till he acquires skill in the use of every implement employed in 
his calling. 

It is precisely the lack of this kind of manual discipline in which the med- 
ical schools of America have wof ully failed. 

Till within a very few years medical students have gone forth to perform 
the active duties of their profession utterly untrained in manipulations and in 
the use of instruments, compelled to practice — yes practice indeed upon their 
patients, often at the expense of their sufferings and even of their lives, to 
learn the simplest procedures. The reproach of our system of medical edu- 
cation has been not so much that our colleges did not teach the science, but 
that they have not taught the art of medicine. 

Notwithstanding all this, one may well be proud of American medical 
literature, of the achievements of American surgeons and physicians and of 
the present condition of some of our colleges. Physicians and surgeons how- 
ever, have become distinguished writers, teachers, and practitioners in spite 
of the system in whtch they recived their collegiate educations; by their 
great abilities, by their industry and often by seeking the advantages of for- 
eign schools and of foreign hospitals. 

What have been the causes of this fundamental deficiency in our system 
in Rush Medical College as in all others? It is because the government has 
done nothing in aid of medical education; the wealthy have been indifferent 
to the welfare of medical colleges and because the schools themselves have 
been without means to provide adequate instruction. 

The Faculty of this college have long been convinced that to remain in- 
active in this matter was criminal. After vain attempts to persuade the af- 
fluent of Chicago to endow the college or enable it to erect a new building and 


equip it with apparatus, they determined themselves to erect the spacious 
edifice of which you, the class of '94 received the first benefits. I am proud 
to say in this presence that the faculty has presented this building to the cor- 
poration after expending upon it $64,000. Moreover, I am proud to state that 
the faculty had donated previously the sum of more than $30,000 to the hos- 
pital which so largely aids the clinical instruction of the institution. 

Now, for what stand these two expensive structures and the costly ap- 
paratus collected within their walls. To what from this time is the corpora- 
tion of Rush Medical College pledged! It is pledged to changes which will be 
almost radical and will be of incalculable advantage to those who follow you 
year after, let us hope, as long as the college shall have existance; and yet 
no violence shall be done to the traditions of the past and to those methods 
which are founded on common sense and experience and must therefore abide. 

The didactic lecture will not be discontinued. It will be restricted close- 
ly to those subjects which can be well taught. The living voice and the en- 
thusiasm it may inspire, its impressiveness, are valuable in this mode of 
teaching. Yes, as of old, the medical student will still be told and will be 
shown many valuable truths. Work in laboratories wiU be systematized and 
increased. Recitations and the subjects taught by them will be carefully ar- 
ranged. All in fact that is possible will still be accomplished to perfect the 
method of teaching the science of medicine. In addition to all this, hereafter 
a certain part of each day shall be devoted to the art of our profession, man- 
ual training. No longer shall it be said that the graduate of the manual train- 
ing school or the young journeyman in any trade at the close of his apprent- 
iceship is more skillful in the use of his tools than the young physician from 
Rush Medical College in the use of the most common and simple instruments. 
Weak attempts may have formerly been made to overcome this evil in our 
colleges. All such attempts, it must be acknowledged, have been sadly in- 
adequate. Now we have room sufficient, appliances in abundance, teachers 
numerous and skillful and time ample for this training. We will not fail to do 
our duty! 

It is with no vain glory I believe that the friends of this institution are 
proud of its position at this time. We have labored long for its welfare — to 
secure this position. A rich inheritance came into our hands from those who 
have guided the destinies of the college during the past half century. We 
could not be content to deliver to those who are to follow us this trust with- 
out some impress upon it of our gratitude and reverence for those who did so 
much and have passed away. 

These sentiments shall result in acts and not be empty words. Already 
new courses in manual training have been initiated and others arranged for 
the coming year. There remains, however, still one great step in advance 
which this, as all other medical colleges, must take. They must demand of 
their candidates for admission a higher standard of literary and scientific edu- 
cation, than is now required. The average medical student with his limited 
knowledge and limited mental training cannot derive the full benefits offered 
to him in our curriculum. Unfortunately there is need of wise action in re- 
arranging the plans of instruction in our common schools, in our high schools 


and in our literary colleges. In the efforts to develop a higher education 
pupils are detained in the grammar schools till about the age of fifteen years: 
in the high schools four years longer; in the literary colleges four years more 
and in the medical school four years . The young physician must usually 
wait ar least four years for sufficient practice to secure a livelihood. All this, 
if it were compulsory, would place a medical education beyond the reach of 
all except the few. 

The efforts to raise the standard of education in our universities and col- 
leges of the higher grades, together with this tendency in our medical col- 
leges, has reduced, temporarily at least, the relative number of college grad- 
uates in our medical schools. While our medical colleges have been content 
with a standnrd of preliminary education altogether too low, educators gen- 
erally attempt to set the standard too high. 

In nearly all of our primary schools, high schools, and colleges, too much 
time is consumed in teaching too many subjects superficially at the expense 
of teaching a smaller number well. 

It is my firm conviction, in the present state of American civilization, that 
one may simply advise a young man, who will study medicine to "go to col- 
lege" if he has the means, but to demand of him at least as thorough an 
education as may be obtained at a high school of the highest grade. 

Unfortunately again, this college has not the funds nor the annual income 
from tuition sufficient to enable it to make even this demand upon the candi- 
dates for admission to its curriculum. For this ideal, however, all will strive. 
Your motto shall be ours: Pro scientia et humaitas. 


The reception and banquet held at the Grand . Pacific Hotel on Wednes- 
day evening was one of the most successful within the history of the alumni 
association both in point of numbers and in the elegance of the menu which 
was so thoroughly satisfactorily discussed. There were about 450 present, 
and every delight which springs from a participation in such an event was 
their's, thanks to the thoughtful providence of the worthy secretary of the 
association. Dr. J. E. Rhodes. 

The banquet finished, all were ready to listen to the intellectual feast to 
follow, when after an excellent selection by the now well known Russell 
Quartette, the following program was given, Vice President W. W. Tor- 
rence, M. D., '80, presiding: 

Music, Russell Quartette. 

Our Work and Mission — "The Heavenly Twins" (Madame Grand) 

W. W. Torrence, M. D. 
The University— "Our Mutual Friend" (Dickens), Pres. James A. Coulter. 
Music, Russell Quartette. 

When Doctors Agree— "A Foregone Conclusion'' (Howells) 

Rev. A. K. Parker, M. D. 
Medical Experts — "All Sorts and Conditions of Men" (Besant) 

William. S. Forrest, Esq. 
Music, Russell Quartette. 

What Shall We Do With It?— "His Level Best" (E. E. Hale) 

E. K. Morris, M. D., '94 
Music — "Good Old Rush." Everybody is requested to join in singing. 

The addresses were all of a most interesting and highly entertaining 
strain and were punctuated by enthusiastic applause. After a tuneful rendi- 
tion of the college song the banqueters shook hands all around and parted, 
declaring as they left, their determination to return on every subsequent like 

By O. B. Will, M. D. Peoria, 111." Class of '69. 
Mr. President and Gentlemen: 

By way of giving variety to the proceedings and a slight contribution to 
the professionally practical features of this meeting, I wish in the brief time 
at my disposal to call your attention to three or four points developed in my 
observation and experience, relative to the trite subject of Vaginal Tampon- 
ade. As the latter is the. only means we have of approximation, therapeu- 
tically, the exact seat of many pelvic disorders in women, it is worthy of 
careful consideration in any of its aspects. I am aware of the ordinary rou- 
tine practice in this line, arid look upon much of it as an abuse. Where there 
is no definite object to be accomplished, and no equally definite indication, it 
had better not be resorted to. The hap-hazard practice of putting a cotton 
plug into the vagina for every form of ailment to which female flesh is heir, 
is quite reprehensible, but seems to be almost the sole gynecological armem- 
entarium of the ordinary general practitioner. My first thought then, (my 
hobby if you please), is to insist upon and argue for, the importance of posi- 
tion as one of the most potent elements in the succeseful practice of the pro- 
cedure under consideration. I am aware that the advantages, if not necessity, 
of certain positions have been recognized and pointed out, but not with that 
force upon which I wish to insist, and to the exaggerated extent for which I 
appeal. To place the patient in t-he left lateral, or so-called "Sim's" position, 
is usual during the use of tamponade, but I have become thoroughly con- 
vinced that a more extreme measure is necessary in order to assure the at- 
tainment of the very best possible results. There must be practiced a degree 
of inversion sufficient to attract, or ra.ther abstract, if you please, the mobile 
pelvic organs from their normal, or at least usual, position, to that of a higher 
plane in the abdominal cavity. Not only so, but this position must be main- 
tained for a greater or less time, according to conditions, both immediately 
prior to and immediately succeeding the tamponade, as well as during the 
time of its adjustment. Usually the matter of position is considered essential 
only for the moment. I believe the feature of prolonged inversion to be es- 
sential to not only the best, but an acceptable result. In this maneuver the 
force of gravity is brought into play in relieving the congestion and engorge- 
ment of the pelvic viscera. The veins are emptied, the organs are lightened, 
and a better circulation secured. The approximately normal position of or- 
gans is for a time at least obtained, and the vagina distended to an extent 
presenting the possibility of applying a sufficiently large mass of material 
without considerable mechanical irritation, and its adjustment to a plane in- 
accessible under ordinary horizontal positions . A long time is consequently 
required to permit of the return of prolapsing organs and distending fluids, 
and in the meantime tomicity of the parts is increased, their nutritive func- 
tions approximately restored, and a better condition, all told, developed. It 


is truly astonishing to observe what a difference is occasioned in results by 
a strict adherence to this principle of more or less complete inversion, in the 
treatment of the pelvic disorders to which this practice of vaginal tamponade 
is at all applicable. 

If I am an enthusiast on this matter, it is because the practical results 
have shown me the overcrowning success of the practice. I have seen women 
under treatment for months in the ordinary way, for pelvic engorgements, in- 
flammatory affections and prolapses, without benefit, and at once, almost, 
show improvement in all respects following the adoption of the plan indicated. 
Suspension in the knee-chest position, or inversion at an angle of forty-five 
degrees for half an hour preceding the tamponade, and for half that time sub- 
sequent to it, will prove to those who please to try it so forcible an argument 
in its favor, that no further -expatiation upon its merits will be needed. I am 
aware that considerations of time and other economies serve to detract from 
the probability of an entire practical acceptance of the truth of the proposi- 
tion advanced, but it remains, nevertheless, a most salient feature in the ad 
justment of means to ends in the relation at issue. 

During further investigation in the line of this subject of vaginal medica- 
tion, and the practical application of the various agents to the end sought, I have 
found, as doubtless many of you have, in the use of the ordinary wool and 
glycerine tampon applied for purposes of depletion, in some cases, the most 
intense smarting and indescribable distress; even where there was no ocular 
evidence of irritation or unusual sensitiveness. Where the necessity exists 
for the peculiar form of depletion occasioned by the use of glycerine in 
this way, the condition described becomes particularly annoying and detri- 
mental. I have found, however, that by previously brushing over the vaginal 
surface with a ten per cent, cocaine solution, and following it with a light film 
of boric acid from the powder-blower, the peculiar disagreeable effect of the 
glycerine is obviated entirely, and does not reappear with the disappear- 
ance of the temporary cocaine anaesthesia. This is a feature of the therapy of 
great practical importance, and has been to me a wonderful aid in securing 
desirable results in cases wherein I was formerly obliged to desist from all 
attempts of the kind. Again, where it is desirable to use ichthyol in concen- 
trated solution, sufficient under ordinary circumstances and conditions to ex- 
coriate the vaginal mucous membrane, the preliminary application of the co- 
caine will prevent, in the majority of instances, the separation of the epithel- 
ial layer. Through the action of cocaine, in paralyzing, probably, the senti- 
ent nerve filaments, constricting the capillaries and retarding the capillary 
circulation, effusion is prevented until the irritating effect of the ichthyol 
is succeeded by its absorption, and anodyne influence, thus preserving the in- 
tegrity of the membrane. At all events, the result mentioned is thus ob- 
tained, and this remarkable influence is an almost invaluable therapeutic aid, 
in that it enables the operator to manipulate his forces in a way to not only 
simplify measures and minimize suffering, but facilitate results. The normal 
condition of the vaginal lining being preserved, applications may be multi- 
plied with comparative impunity, and the generally recognized sorbefacient and 

yne properties of this valuable agent be secured in their maximum ratio. 


Another valuable auxilliary influence in vaginal tamponade, making it 
more certain and more effective in the whole range of its application, is that 
of galvanism. Under the action of the latter, two conditions favorable to the 
therapeutic manifestations of agents used in tamponade, are produced. An 
anaesthesia of the deeper tissues, and an endosmotic action favoring the more 
rapid absorption of the medicaments with which the tampons may be charged. 
This has been proven by me time and time again, first by accident, and again 
in connection with efforts inaugarated to ascertion the facts in the case. It is 
an interesting and profitable experimental observation, to see with what in- 
creased rapidity either cocaine or morphia and other agents as well, are 
taken up under such action, as exhibited in the early manifestation of their 
peculiar effects. There is no doubt at all of this predisposiug effect of the 
galvanic current, and when it is followed by the use of judicious tamponade, 
the result is vastly in the direction of improved conditions. I am in the ha- 
bit, for this purpose, of using in the vagina a cotton- covered ball or cylinder 
as the positive electrode, and some one of the numerous pads over the abdo- 
men as the negative. For ten minutes the current is kept up in the strength 
of fifteen miliamperes, or even less, and then the medicated tampon is placed 
well and firmly against the vault or wall of the vagina, the inverted position 
of the patient here-in-before insisted on also favoring the more complete in- 
troduction of the remedy into the tissues of the parts involved in the disor- 
dered processes. The fact of anaesthetic influence of the galvanic current 
favorably effecting the success of vaginal tamponade, in some cases, was first 
exemplified in the observation of the writer some years ago, when dry tampo- 
nade was advocated by sonte leading practitioners as an efficient method of 
treatment under certain circumstances and conditions. My efforts in the direc- 
tion were followed in many instances by complaints of considerable distress, 
and a feeling of uncomfortable stiffness and -soreness. Finally, in order to 
satisfy myself that the fault did or did not lie with me or my lack of concep- 
tion of the principles involved, I visited an eminent gynecologist of this 
country who was reporting much success in the use of the dry tamponade, and 
witnessed a dozen or more applications at his hands. In view of the fact that 
he was in the habit of applying electricity first to his cases, I was convinced, 
af tei some observation, that therein lay the cause of his patients' freedom from 
the disagreable effects mine had experienced. He had not thought of the rela- 
tion, but a further trial under similiar circumstances deleloped in my own 
cases a tolerance of the treatment never before experienced, and my convic- 
tions were confirmed at once. Since that time I never resort to the dry tarn 
ponade without the preliminary application of the galvanism. 

I have purposely refrained from making any allusion in this connection to 
the preparation or handling of tampons, or the varied indications for their use 
other than with respect to the features just advocated, and developed in the 
course of my own personal experience. The necessity does not exist for my 
so doing. I have utilized my time and accomplisoed my purpose in emphasiz- 
ing the import of the auxiliary influences enumerated. I do, however, want 
to register an objection to the usual habit of stuffing the vagina as full as can 
be with any of the materials used as tamponade. I believe that often more 


harm than good results by so doing. The practice of using long strips of ma- 
terial and distending the vagina therewith is in my opinion a reprehensible 
one. I greatly prefer a roll of wool equal in diameter to about fonr-fifths 
that of the presenting cavity, using tannic acid as an astringent to draw the 
vaginal walls in contact with the tampon before permitting the patient to as- 
sume an upright position . In this way the density and tonicity of the tissues 
are increased rather than diminished and the more nearly normal relationship 
of the parts restored. That the measures described have great weight with 
me goes without further saying, and that they will have equal weight with 
those who may be pleased to attempt their verification, is equally certain. 
The extreme inverted position advocated in connection with the applications 
considered, is a factor of such importance that I should like to be able to 
give each one of my hearers ocular evidence of its utility, knowing as I well 
do that to those who have never employed it its results would prove a revela- 
tion of convincing force. Suspend your patient for as long a time as possible, 
apply your vaginal tamponade with care and a judicious selection of medica- 
ments with which to charge it, coupled with the other auxiliary influences 
mentioned when occasion requires, and you will have in the treatment of this 
class of cases a success beyond your most sanguine expectations. 


It is with the greatest pleasure we learn of the appointment of Dr. A. C. 
Cotton to full professorship of Diseases of Children. Professor Cotton has 
been an ardent worker in advancing Materia Medica in "Rush" and now that 
he enjoys a chair, will undoubtedly make it one of the most important 

branches from a didactic and clinical standpoint. 


* * 

Any one desiring cuts from which photo-engravings that appeared in the 
Pulse were taken, can secure the same by addressing W. H. Lewis, Rush Med. 

Space will not permit the publication of a full report of the Alumni Asso- 
ciation meeting, but that this has been an epoch year is shown by the fact 
that the Association has increased in members from 31 in 1892 to 92 in 1893 
and to 511 in 1894. And notwithstanding the fact that there have been many 
demands for expenditures of money, there is a balance on hand of 1313.03 as 

compared with 121.03 at the beginning of the year. 

* * 

The deaths of Drs. John Henry Murphy, Wm. M. Haworth, and Plymmou 

Sanford Hayes were reported by committee on necrology. 


* -X- 

Election of officers resulted as follows: Pres., A, T. Wright, 74, Carroll, 
la.; 1st Vice-Pres., J. W. McLean, '69, Fayette, la.; 2nd Vice-Pres., C. D. 
Wescott, '83, Chicago, 111,; Sec. and Treas., J. E. Rhodes, '86, Chicago, 111.; 
Necrologist, A. I. Bouffleur, '87. 


"Am interested in tracing some of my old classmates and am pleased 
with The Corpuscle." J. May, Bridgeport, Conn. 

* * 

"Shall try to be with you next commencement." J. F. Bradshaw, 79, 
Superior, Neb. 

Palid ebildrep 

with capricious appetites require a strengthening tonic which should be especially rich in grape 
sugar — the most assimiable form of sugar. This strengthening tonic should at the same time 
be a nutritious food, containing the proteids, carbo-hydrates, salts, acids and other proximate 
principles of human food, and these desirable qualities are all combined in the 

Sapitas <3fape pood 

which closely resembles human milk. By chemists it is regarded as a vegetable milk. It is 
nature's own pure food, delicious as a bunch of ripe grapes. Each bottle represents a gallon 
of juice from the ripe grapes. It is prepared without boiling, quenches the thirst, tones up 
the depleted system and is an especially valuable food, drink and tonic in fevers, dyspepsia, 
nervous debility, and as a strengthening tonic for 

New York, 145 Broadway. 

]^uf sipg jVlothers 


The softest and purest drinking water and the most effective in its action 
on the kidneys. Contains less than 1^ grains of Bicarbonate of Calcium to the 

We are the pioneers in an attempt to sell a water of the nature of the 

^Juireifa J^ifchia 

fV - - Spiting Wateit 

in bulk and at a price that would permit of its free use by all as a pure drink- 
ing water. We, however, have easy access to a plentiful supply of this water 
enabling us to conduct a profitable business on the basis of 10 gals, for $1.00, 
the same price at which the ordinary Waukesha waters are sold. 

Many of the leading physicians of Chicago are already using this water at 
their homes and are also prescribing it in their practice. There are, however, 
as yet many physicians who have not had an opportunity of becoming 
acquainted with its merits, and to any such as reside within our delivery limit 
we will be pleased to deliver a can free of charge. 

Send for descriptive pamphlet and analysis. 

Put up in 10 gal. cans and half gal. bottles. 

AURORA LITHIA SPRING CO., 292 Jackson Boul . Chicago, III. 

Samuel C. Benedict, M.D. Richmond and Danville, 

surgeon. Macon and Northern, 



Georgia Railroads. 

ATHENS, GA., APRIL 13th, 1894. 








Besides ANTIKAMNIA" in 
our list now includes: 
One Grain Tablets 
Two Grain Tablets 
Three Grain Tablets 
Five Grain Tablets 
Ten Grain Tablets 

• • ALSO • • 

(2/4 Grs. Each Antikamnia and Quinine) 

(2/4 Grs. Each Antikamnia and Salol ) 


Miami Medical College, Cincinnati, Ohio. 

N. B.— Physicians prescribing, should specify 


The Antikamnia Chemical Co., 





i> c,i:.«v: : :*i , >:* p 


Editors of Corpuscle: You asked me for an article when I was back at 
the old college for commencement. Perhaps you thought my gray hairs 
ought to indicate gray matter beneath them, and that I could tell you some- 
thing that would be valuable. 

Well, just to take one little department of one of the big departments of 
medicine, I am going to tell you something about Hay Fever, because I do 
know something about that disease. Be careful what you promise the man 
who has Hay Fever! This letter may catch the eye of some of you younger 
practitioners, who are the new doctors of the town. And some of the well-to- 
do old "sneezers," who begin their annual Hay Fever purgatory about the 
middle of August, perhaps, are going to call on the new doctor and see if 
there isn't some new scheme for relieving him. He has had his nasal mem- 
brane burned and tortured, he has snuffed all colors and varieties of snuff, 
and injected and dosed until he is desperate and "wonders if that there new 
feller won't be onto something to help him." 

And you will look up in Prof. Ingals' text book, but you find that he has 
tried cocaine and carbolic acid and opium and all the rest. My boy, tell him 
that you can relieve him temporarily, and place stress on the "temporarily," 
and then tell him no one could do more, not Ingals or Mackenzie themselves. 
Tell him he must leave home and not return until frost comes to stay. Have 
him go up to northern Wisconsin on Lake Superior. Don't try to ' 'pull him 
through a season" and don't wait until he is having those distressing parox- 
ysms. It is an easy thing for him to go up to Ashland, Wisconsin, and from 
there to find resorts, where he can adapt himself to almost any kind of life he 
may prefer. The physicians of this region about Chicago are fortunate in 
having so near at hand a place exempt from this disease. 

The Wisconsin Central railroad, that runs in an almost direct line from 
Chicago to Ashland, gives you a quick, inexpensive, and comfortable means 
for reaching this section. I have sent many patients over this line, even 
while they were suffering severe paroxysms and I am glad to recommend this 
means of reaching certain relief. 

Once at Ashland, your prtient, if he be socially inclined, can find fash- 
ionable hotels; if he cares for sport, the hunting and fishing are excellent, 
while the picturesque scenery of that region would delight any lover of nature. 

You, young man, must not be too anxious to write for those drugs you 
have been learning about. If you can give your patient as sure and pleasant 
a cure as the one I have sketched above, it will be the source of remarks 
about "level-headed young fellow," "knows his business" — and may mean 
dollars in the end, if the dogs do have the physic thrown to them for a time. 

I wish all these bright, young doctors from Rush, a happy, successful 
life. '67. 


DeLASKIE miller, m. d. 




VOL. 3. JULY, NO. 10. 


A. T. HOLBROOK, '95, President. 
W. D. CALVIN, '95, Secretary. C. A. ALLENBURGER, '95, Treasurer. 

E. M. ECKARD, '96. ' P. C. HONNOLD, '96. 

W. J. ANDERSON, Publisher. P. M. PERCY, Business Manager, 

N. W. Cor. Congress and Honore Sts 

Membership in the Alumni Association op Rush Medical College is obtainable at any time by 
graduates of the College, providing they are in good standing in the profession, and shall pay the annual 
dues, $1.00. This fee includes a subscription to The Corpuscle for the current year. This journal is the 
official organ of the Association. 

Dues and all communications relating to the Association should be sent to 

JOHN EDWIN RHODES, M. D., Sec'y andTreas., 34 Washington St., Chicago. 

College Anniversaries— 

Doctorate Sermon, Sunday, May 20th, 1894. 

Special Clinics and Class Day Exercises, Monday, May 21st, 1894. 

Scientific Meeting of the Alumni Association, 10 A. M. and 2 P. M., Tuesday, May 22nd, 1894. 

Business Meeting of the Alumni Association, 10 A. M. f Wednesday, May 23rd, 1894. 

Annual Commencement 2 P. M. Alumni Banquet 7:30 P. M. 

Ruby Red and Black: Colors of Lake Forest University. Yellow: Color of Rush Medical College. 


The Corpuscle takes great pleasure in placing in this issue the photo- 
engravings of two of Rush's oldest and best friends, Drs. Ephraim Ingals and 
De Laskie Miller. They were with Rush in her infancy. They have worked 
for her with unceasing energy many years, and to these two veterans is she 
much indebted for the position she now occupies in the first rank of American 
medical colleges. 

It would be needless to attempt enumerating their many deeds of virtue 
and kindness as they are well known to every friend and acquaintance of the 

Their portraits, painted by the well known artist Mr. Healey, will look 
down upon all future classes from the art wall of the larger amphitheater, 
having been placed there and presented to the college by the class of '94. 

For nearly forty years have these ''grand old men in medicine" been as- 
sociated together in their professional work as practitioners, journalists, pro- 
fessors; and now during their days of deserved retirement in the evening of 
life, do they spend many pleasant moments together Holmes-like over the tea- 


We take pleasure in announcing to the alumni and students of the college 
that the business management, and in part the general policy, of the Cor- 
p.uscle have been changed. Under the new regime the paper will be exclus- 
ively under the immediate control of the student editorial board, an arrange- 
ment which, in the light of past experience will, we feel satisfied, result more 

In the interests of the great body of the alumni — to whose favor and as- 
sistance we are so greatly indebted — there was chosen, at the last regular 
meeting of the association, one of their number to represent and assume con- 
trol of the alumni department, an action which we sincerely hope may result 
in the development of greater interest in the college and its work among the 
members of the association and alumni in general. 

As a representative of the college and as the official organ of the Alumni 
Association we shall endeavor to issue a better and more satisfactory paper 
hereafter than ever before, if by continuous and painstaking work from the 
editorial board such a thing is possible — And we think it is. 

The great majority of the faculty have individually assured us of their 
approval of our efforts in extending the interest and utility of the Corpuscle, 
and are anxious to extend to us all the assistance possible to aid us in accom- 
plishing our desires in this direction . 

Looking to such further success and attainments for the paper as shall 
be commensurate with the stable growth and rapid advancement of the col- 
lege, we ask you both as alumni and students to aid us in placing The Cor- 
puscle to the front in the list of journals par excellence. 

In lending such help — let it be substantial — first subscribe for the paper 
and have it as a regular visitor to your office or desk and then when full of 
news or good thoughts such as will interest, amuse or instruct a fellow work- 
er, perhaps less fortunate than you are, write them up — send them to us and 
let us give them broadcast and perhaps in after years there will be those who 
will rise up and call you blessed. 

A greater number of students than usual are spending the summer in the 
city doing special laboratory work, attending clinics, assisting in sub clinics 
or are filling positions on the Board of Health. The latter have been having 
a rare series of experiences as indicated by the individual reports, everything 
from small-pox down having been seen. The work has been practical and 
has done that which the books can not do— given an excellent opportunity to 
study human nature, a knowledge of which can not be too highly valued es- 
pecially by a medical student. It seems as though there ought to be chair in 
every medical college whose occupant would give instruction along this line. 


We have all seen individuals in the various vocations of life, who, notwith- 
standing the fact that they possessed even much more than the average 
amount of professional or vocational knowledge still because of their inability 
to understand the natures of their fellowmen were unable to place their stock 
in trade in a good market. Extremes are the border lines of life's pathway 
that can never be passed and should not be too nearly approached. We 
should not exalt theory to the degree of ignoring practice, nor vice versa. The 
various cases seen by the medical student are usually of interest to him in 
proportion as he has studied such cases theoretically. All the practical must 
first be born of -theory and all those things that we have not ourselves 
demonstrated or seen demonstrated are as far as we are personally concerned 
theoretical. Dunglison defines theory as ''The abstract principles of any art 
or science.'' 

From the legions of experimenters and discoverers of the past we have 
compiled in numerous forms the results of their labors, we study these and 
acquire in a few years what could not be acquired by an individual life though 
it were to be as drawn out as that of Methuselah. 

Could any study be more beneficial than that of the Theory and Art of 
Human Nature, embracing as it would the subjects of psychology, parts of 
sociology and showing the relationship of these to the sciences of biology, 
physiology, anatomy and pathology? Surely we would be much benefitted 
by a study of the experiences and observations made by those who have 
preceeded us, such as those recorded in a book entitled, "The Physician 
Himself," and others of its kind in which the rocks and shoals that prevent 
what would otherwise be a successful and smooth journey. 

It has been characteristic of a number of our professors and instructors 
in time past to occasionally deviate from the strictly scientific facts of the 
question at hand and speak of the application of such knowledge, in other 
words they have given the students ' ' practical pointers ' ' as they have been 
termed and that they have always been most welcomely received has been 
evident and we trust that they may become more frequent in the future either 
as side thoughts or in the form of special instruction . 

Causes originating in time past have joined hands with present causes in 
making this year an exceptional one from a monetary standpoint. All boom- 
ing towns must have a relapse before they can adjust themselves to the laws 
a steady, healthy, normal growth; and during those critical periods they 
experience "hard times" or a relapse. So it has been with our country, since 
1860 she has been a "boom" country, but that period is now passed and she is 
experiencing a great difficulty in adjusting herself to the more conservative 


and stable laws. The capitalist desires to continue his former rate of 
accumulating property, and the laborer feels that a cut in wages is an injus- 
tice. This all tends to confusion and people in every vocation are made to 
suffer, nor is the man of medicine an exception. If his practice is among the 
laboring classes and the wages of these wage-earners are lessened or the 
wage-earner is unable to procure labor it is utterly impossible for him to pay 
the doctor even though he finds his assistance absolutely necessary and at 
such times he is much more liable to think such services unnecessary. The 
result is that the doctor is either not called or if he is, is informed that he 
must ' book it until times are better." Several doctors have said that they 
are booking more than ever before and cashing less. Without doubt this is an 
exceptionally difficult year to begin practicing and those of us still on the 
benches hope for better times before we enlist in this salvation army of 

However, there are some influences that should be carefully studied — 
influences that will affect the practitioner more, in the future than in the past. 

The public education is yearly improving . The self -limiting diseases are 
becoming better understood by the public. "Training Schools for Mothers" 
are being established. The elements of hygiene and physiology are receiving 
more attention in the schools of all grades and in every state and territory. 
For the above named reasons and for others not mentioned it seems very 
evident that the demands of the future will be for fewer doctors in proportion 
to the number of inhabitants and that these shall be the better qualified and 
able to cope with those diseases and cases that the skilled alone are competant 
to handle. 

All correspondence pertaining to the business department of the Cor- 
puscle after this issue should be addressed to Calvin & Honnold, Rush 
Medical College. 





Today is a happy and memorable day for our class. Class day in most 
universities and colleges is the day of days during the commencement season 
and we too are trying to make it interesting and enjoyable for all who may at- 
tend. Today will be memorable principally because we are about to establish 
a precedent which we hope will often be followed in the future, which will un- 
doubtedly give pleasure to many and add interest and enthusiasm to the class 
day exercises . 

In private as well as public life we are only too prone to cringe and crawl at 
the feet of those who are in power, even though they be entirely unworthy of our 
homage and often only too slow in paying tribute to the truly worthy until it 
is too late. We of the class of '94 have never bowed our heads or bent our 
knees to any one no matter how influential, unless he was fully deserving of 
our highest regards and yet as a class we are among the first to honor as best 
we can some of those who are especially worthy of our admiration and esteem. 

Through the kindness of two of our professors it has been made possible 
for our class to present to the college portraits of two of the most noted and 
highly esteemed members of our faculty. We have often regretted during 
our course that we could nob see these men more frequently, receive from 
their own lips more of their vast store of knowledge, and yet we are glad to 
know that it is possible for them to spend the afternoon and evening of' their 
most useful lives in well deserved leisure and repose. 

It is our wish that these portraits may ever remain in tnese halls, that 
future students sitting on these benches may often look up at their kindly 
faces and by so doing be aroused to think nobly and act bravely. Nature is a 
wonderful artist and each kind and good deed done has helped to mould the 
lines which express firmness of purpose, serenity of mind, and nobility of 

It is my great privilege to present to the Faculty and Trustees of Rush 
Medical College, in behalf of the class of '94, these beautiful portraits of Pro- 
fessors DeLaskie Miller and Ephriam Ingalls. 

Prof. Henry M. Lyman accepted the portrait of Prof. Ingals, on behalf of 
the faculty, and Prof. John B. Hamilton accepted that of Prof. Miller. 

Prof. Lyman said: 

Mr. President, Gentlemen of the Trustees; Faculty and Students of Bush Medical' 

In the palmy days of ancient Greece, when Pericles and Pheidias, and 
Aeschylus and Sophocles and Socrates and Plato were making Athens glorious, 
with everything that renders a city great and magnificent, if some vaporing- 


young blade in a fit of enthusiasm was extolling the present at the expense of 
the past, it was usual for the wise old men to wag their heads, and to say, 
"Yes, but there were great men before Agamemnon." 

So, when you feel impressed with the present dignity of your alma mater, 
and grow warm with zeal as you behold Professor Senn, or Professor Hamil- 
ton, or Professor Etheridge wading through seas of blood to glory and fame, 
remember that "there were great men before Agamemnon." 

We are especially favored on this occasion by the fact that we have with 
us two honored representatiues of that former generation, and that you can 
for yourselves trace the accuracy of the likeness in their counterfeit present- 
ments, the portraits now presented to the college. It is because these men 
have lived and labored, it is because they devoted their lives to the work of 
medical teaching, that Rush Medical College is today what she is — one of the 
greatest medical colleges in the United States of America — ' 'There were great 
men before Agamemnon." 

Prom this pleasing incident, moreover, I gather comfort for the future. 
Sometimes I say to myself, "What will we do when President Holmes goes the 
the way of all flesh, and we have his faithful supervision no more? What 
will become of the college when Dr. Hyde and Dr. Bevan and the rest of us 
have to lay down the scalpel and the stethoscope?" But an instant of 
reflection reassures me, and I believe that as there were great men before 
Agamemnon, so there will be great men after him. Some one will be always 
found ready to lift up the banner of progress, and to bear it triumphantly 
onward forever. Yes, these were great men before Agamemnon, and after 
him there will be great men still so long as time shall endure." 

Dr. Hamilton said: 

We accept from the original himself, at your hands, this faithful repre- 
sentation of an ideal teacher, an accomplished obstetrician, a scholar, a 
sagacious counselor and a patriotic citizen . Prof. DeLaskie Miller has been 
identified with Rush Medical College almost from its beginning, and although 
still vigorous in mind and body, he has been actively associated wilh every 
movement which step by step has placed this college in the advance rank of 
American educational institutions. His early career as a medical journalist 
and his Presidency of the Section on Obstetrics of the International Medical 
Congress at Washington extended a knowledge of his worth and ability 
beyond the confines of his city to other lands; for at the close of that now 
historic Congress, he had acquired friends and admirers almost to the ends of 
the earth. I need scarcely speak in his presence, of his long and faithful 
service as a professor in this college; hundreds of Alumni have heard his 
voice, and thanks to the instruction those Alumni received, thousands of 
American citizens that otherwise might have blighted as mere experimental 
suggestions, were born to the glory of God and the increase of 
the population of the Republic. We need not enlarge on this topic; 
we need only say that in the presentation of this picture, the 
generous donor has added another jewel to the Rush Medical 
College collection. We read in northern mythology of the Walhalla, that the 
building itself whose dome was so high that its summit could scarcely be 


seen, was as marvelous as the heroes whose virtues it was built to commem- 
orate; that its location was in the midst of the grove "Mansur," where all the 
trees bore leaves of gold. In time this will become our Walhalla, although 
we lay no stress on architectural display as did those who designed that 
famous structure. In years to come Alumni visiting Rush Memorial Hall of 
the future may truthfully say of this picture, as of the " animated bust " and 
"storied urn" of song: 

"Bright Fancy, hovering o'er, 
Scatters from her pictured urn 
Thoughts that breathe, and words that burn, " 

By Rt. Rev. Samuel Fallows, D. D. 

Lord Bacon has termed the hindrances we meet with in the acquisition 
of truth. Idols. He has classified them as "The Idols of the Race, the Den, 
the Market Place, and the Theatre." Men worship these idols instead of 
truth itself. The most conspicuous of these objects of idolatrous regard are 
the resultants of imperfect knowledge, of putting into language an arbitrary 
and improper meaning, and of fabulous and visionary theories. 

I am to dwell at length this afternoon upon an illustration of the idols of 
The Market Place and the Theater of which Bacon knew nothing when he 
wrote the Novum Org anon. 

They are idols in which the arbitrary meaning of words plays an impor- 
tant part, along with a most fabulous and visionary theory. 

They are idols before which scores of thousands in our own day have 
bowed. Many of the worshipers have been elect and honorable women, not a 

These idols have been embodied in a system of teaching which has been 
erected into a religio-medico, or a medico-religious cult. An infinitesimal por- 
tion of a half truth has* been lifted up as a divinity by whose oracular inter- 
preter every medical college in the world has been declared worse than use- 
less, nay morally wrong, and the fundamental teachings on which the church 
of Christ rests as thoroughly false. It is a system which allows many of its 
votaries to put "Rev." before their names and "C. S." after them. 

I am so profoundly convinced of the perniciousness of this philosophy 
masquerading under the name of "Metaphysics" or "Christian Science," that 
I deem it my solemn duty to unfold its errors and inconsistencies so far as it 
is possible within the limits of a single discourse. The founder of this sys- 
tem was a member of the Christian church. One day she had a fall. It was 
of such a severe nature that her life was despaired of. She had the benefit 
of the prayers of her clergyman and of the attendance of a homeopathic phy- 
sician. The physician said she could not live over three days. The clergy- 
man bade her a final farewell as he thought, on the third day, which was the 
Sabbath. She replied to that farewell by asking him to call again, for she 
had such faith in God that she thought he would raise her up. After request- 


ing everybody to retire from the room, she took her Bible and opened to the 
third chapter of the Gospel according to St. Mark, where the accouut of the 
healing of the man with the withered hand is given. As she read, a change 
passed over her. Her limbs, hererofore ' 'immovable, cold, and without feel- 
ing, became warmer;" she rose from her bed and stood upon her feet and 
was well. She thought at the time that the good work was done, ' 'according 
to primitive Christian healing by a certnin action of mind on the body, through a 
holy uplifting faith." But she ' 'wanted to find the science that governed it," 
and so '-for three years thereafter" she "sought day and night the solution of 
that problem; searched the Scriptures, read nothing else, not even the news- 
paper, kept aloof from society," and "devoted all her time and energies to 
discovering a rule for that demonstration." "And," she triumphantly adds? 
' 'by the help of God, and no human aid, we did find it, and were reminded of 
the shepherd's shout, 'For unto us a Child is born,' a new idea has birth, and 
'his name is Wonderful.' " 

We have some interesting points here regarding the genesis of this 
"Metaphysics" or "Christian Science." The woman who found it out was 
not healed by it . She was healed ' 'according to primitive Christian healing 
by a certain action of mind on the body, through a holy uplifting faith." 
She knew nothing of the "Science" or the "Philosophy" or the "Methaphys- 
ics" of the process. 

After three years of intensest study of the Scripture, with the help of 
God, and no human aid, she claims she did find it. Yet after all this study of 
the Scriptures with Divine aid, she was not able to quote Scripture accurately, 
but actually confounded a part of Isaiah's sublime prophecy with the simple 
talk of the shepherds to each other. A divine aid that cannot keep a woman 
from making such a stupendous blunder, with the record before her eyes (no 
newspapers being around to distract her attention) we can hardly believe gave 
her the inspiration to reveal the very "Science of being" to men. 

The presumption that would prompt her to use the language describing 
the advent of the one upon the earth, as applicable to the birth of her idea 
borders very closely upon lunacy or blasphemy. 

Before this wonderful retirement into solitute, and its remarkable outcome 
the fair discoverer had been dabbling with "attenuations." She had a patient 
"sinking in the collapsed stage of typhoid fever." She took some common 
table salt attenuated it "until there was not a single saline property left" — 
(the salt had 'lost its savor,') — and "with one drop of that attenuation in a 
gobletful of water, and a teaspoonful of the water drank at intervals of three 
hours cured the case." 

"A case of dropsy given up by the faculty," she says, "fell into our 
hands; it was a terrible case; tapping had been employed and the patient 
looked like a barrel in the bed . " Some medicated pellets were given and the 
patient began to improve. Then she thought the patient needed no more 
medicine, and told her so. To this the sick woman demurred. The pellets 
were then given without the medication. Still the patient improved. "They 
were discontinued one day at the patient's request, who fancied she was 


taking medicine, and then two days more; but the patient grew worse. The 
unmedicated pellets were then resumed until full recovery took place." 

The fair oracle of "metaphysics" took this knowledge with her into her 
sacred seclusion, having learned "that mind governs the body." 

But these two cures as remarkable in the way she puts them, as any 
alleged to have been cured by "Metaphysics," were performed when she 
believed that women have bodies as well as minds, that there is a personal 
God, a personal man and a material world. 

But if a teaspoonful of water taken every three hours cured a collapsed 
state of typhoid fever then, why won't it now? If unmedicated pellets cured 
a terrible case of dropsy then, why won't they now? What is the use of 
taking and paying for a course in "Metaphysics," when water and pellets will 
do such good work? 

John Fiske in his "Idea of God," referring to the use of certain meta- 
physico-theological terms, and carrying out Bacon's thought says, "Such epi- 
thets are often regarded with favor and freely used, as seeming to obviate the 
necessity for that kind of labor to which most people are averse, — the labor of 
sustained and accurate thinking. People are too apt to make such general 
terms do duty in place of a careful examination of facts, and are thus some- 
times led to strange conclusions." 

Ruskin more emphatically states the same truth. "People with shallow 
powers of thought, desiring to natter themselves with the sensation of having 
attained profundity, are continually doing the most serious mischief by intro- 
ducing confusion into plain matters, and then valuing themselves on being 
confounded." The more confounded they are, the higher is the estimate of 
their self valuation, and as this estimate rises in themselves they transfer by 
a species of telepathy the same valuation to the minds of their disciples. The 
greater the confounding in the system taught is the appreciation of it by their 
docile followers. 

A Scotch clergyman had a stranger preach for him one day. Meeting his 
beadle, at the close of the service, he said to him "Well Saunders, how did 
you like the preaching?" "I watna sir, it was rather o'erplain and simple for 
me. I like the sermon that jumbles the judgement and confounds the sense. 
Ah sir, I never saw one that could come up to yourself at that." 

Hear the words of the fair oracle. "In the 19th century I affix for all 
time the word science to Christianity and error to personal sense and call the 
world to battle on this issue.". Vol. II, p. 174. 

"In putting forward this system of ethics we have wrought alone. The 
envy and malignancy of certain of our students have endeavored to stop our 
work, or plant our metaphysical healing on a false basis. None could take our 
place even if they would." 

The Rev. Wm. I. Gill, A. M., for awhile was a student and a preacher 
under her. She hoped to have him for her Elisha when the time should 
come for her translation. But after a time they had a falling out. He had 
published a book on "Philosophical Realism," which was supplanting in some 
quarters her "Science and Health." She ordered him to suppress it, and de- 


manding the absolute submission of his intellect and conscience to her, as he 
avers, she wrote him a letter containing the following words: 

' 'Yours is a human philosophy. Mine is divine philosophy without a hu- 
man taint, that cannot be misguided" Mr. Gill said, "this was the knell of all 
confidence and hope. The writer of that I could never more respect or trust. 
Neither intelligence nor moral sense could co- exist with that in these days." 

Milton sang: 

How charming is divine philosophy . 

Not harsh and crabbed as dull fools suppose, 

But musical as is Apollo's lute; 

And a perpetual feast of nectared sweets, 

Where no rude surfeit reigns. 

Let us now see the charms of this "divine philosophy." 

"The various opinions and beliefs of mortal mind, culminating in dogma, 
doctrine and theory, among which are materia medica, physiology, hygiene, 
etc., are predicated of matter, and afford not a single idea of God, Truth." 
p. 23. 

Concerning Materia Medica she says: "Materia Medica, like its narcotics, 
pacifies mortal mind, and so helps the body, but it leases both mind and body 
worse for the stupor and abnormal state it induces." 

"To employ drugs to destroy disease manifests no faith in God." 

'•'To examine our body that we may learn what the state of our health is, 
or what our prospect for life is, is morally wrong.'' 

"Materia Medica substitutes drugs for the power of God." p. 53. 

"Our systems of religion are governed by our systems of medicine. Idol- 
atry and priestcraft have uprooted faith in God, Spirit, and instituted faith in 
matter. The schools have rendered it fashionable to have faith in drugs in- 
stead of Deity, therefore such systems are devoid of Christianity." p. 54. 

"Materia Medica originated in idolatry." p. 58. 

"Physiology is the forbidden fruit of knowledge against which Truth 
warned man." 

••Physiology is anti- Christian; it teaches us to have other gods before 
'Me, ' the life of man. " And again, "Not more sympathy exists between phy- 
siology and Christianity than between God and Belial." 

Now let us see what Physiology is. 

Physiology as defined by Dr, John C. Dalton, "is the study of the phe- 
nomena presented by organized bodies, animal and vegetable." 

Huxley says, ' 'The body of a living man performs a great diversity of 
actions, some of which are quite obvious; others require more or less careful 
observation; and yet others can be detected only by the employment of the 
most delicate appliances of science." ■ * * 

"The sum of the facts and generalizations at which we arrive by these 
various modes of inquiry, be they simple or be they refined, concerning the 
actions of the body and the manner in which those actions are brought about, 
constitutes the "Science of Human Physiology." As defined by Webster, 
Physiology ' 'is that department of natural science which treats of the organs 
and their functions in plants and animals." 


As an integral portion of so called "Christian Science."' then, all this ob- 
servation of the organs and of their functions, as illustrated by Prof. Huxley, 
all the notings of the changes, movements, and manifestations of our phys- 
ical frame, of the difference between sleep and death, and of the signs by 
which death, health, or sickness may be known; all investigations bearing 
upon hygiene, sanitation, and the like, are anti-Christian, and morally wrong. 
Marvelous modesty for one claiming to be the head of a new theology, and 
who evidently does not know what the definition of Physiology is, to use such 

David taught physiology and thanked God for the knowledge of the 
science which he possessed. He sang: "O Lord thou hast searched me and 
known me. For thou hast possessed my reins; thou has covered me in my 
mother's womb. I will praise thee, for I am fearfully and wonderfully made; 
marvelous are thy works and that my soul knoweth right well. My substance 
was not hid from thee, when I was made in secret, and curiously wrought in 
the lowest parts of the earth. 

Thine eyes did see my substance yet being imperfect ; and in thy book all 
my members were written what day they should be fashioned, when as yet 
there was none of them." 

The fascinating physiology of life and birth he has here sketched with a 
bold, free hand. It has been reserved for a priestess of the nineteenth cen 
tury to lump it with all other physiology as anti-christian and idolatrous. In 
this connection we have further the pre-eminently lucid statement, ' 'that the 
inharmony that calls for physiology is the result of physiology." An ardent 
worshipper of the fair oracle gravely assures us ' 'Physiology was the original 
sin of the race." 

We may proceed further to consider some of the teachings of this divine 
philosophy — this Christian Science — and apply the laws of syllogistic reason- 
ing to find out their meaning. 

We are told, "Mortal man has no soul, but is a belief of sense first and 

"The five personal senses are simply beliefs of mortal mind." 

We have then this clean cut proposition: Mortal man is a belief of sense. 
Sense is a belief of mortal man or mind. The most complete illustration it 
seems to me, of a man swallowing himself. 

"The five personal senses are simply beliefs of mortal mind." But "Evil 
and error are mortal mind." Therefore the five personal senses are beliefs 
of evil and error . 

But I read on page 3 of Vol. II. , ' 'Evil has neither identity nor individu- 
ality and is a belief." But the five personal senses are the beliefs of evil and 
error . Therefore the five personal senses are the beliefs of a belief. 

Now we have found that it is taught that "Mortal man is a belief of sense 
(or the five personal senses)." But the five personal senses are the belief of a 
belief. Therefore mortal man is a belief of the belief of a belief. 

That mysterious thing called Electricity has baffled the acutest research 
of our most patient and devoted scientific investigators, but the fair oracle of 


"Christian Science'' comes before us with a discovery that must startle and 
astound the world. 

"Electricity," she says, "is the essence of mortal and erring mind." And 
as mortal mind is the belief of the belief of a belief, electricity is the essence 
of the belief of the belief of a belief. 

But lest any one should dare to use this peculiar essence it is stated on 
the same page that this electricity "counterfeits that essence of the unerring 
and eternal mind, termed Holy Ghost," the great difference being "that one is 
divine and holy, and the other, (the electricity) human and unholy." After 
making the great discovery, alas, alas, it must not be used, because it is un- 
holy. It seems that this, as we have heretofore considered it, most valuable 
force, must not be used because it is a counterfeit. This teaching we must 
remember too is of the very warp and woof of this new "Christian Science," 
for we have struck the essence of "Mortal Mind," one of the cardinal catch 
words and catch alls of the whole system. 

But a still more remarkable discovery than even that of this electric es- 
sence has been made and announced in this same "Science and Health'' but it 
is the discovery again, alas, of another tremendous counterfeit. We are told 
that "the self destructive forces of mortal thought expressed in the earth- 
quake, the Wind, the wave, the lightning, fire and the ferocity of beasts are 
the counterfeits of divine justice." And further "All that is material is a 
product of mortal thought, and is governed by that thought." 

Now mortal thought of course proceeds from "Mortal mind" and as we 
have found "Mortal mind" to be the belief of the belief of a belief, therefore 
the mighty force which has producee all the material universe is the thought 
of a belief of the belief of a belief. But we have also found tnat "electricity 
is the essence of mortal mind, '' it must therefore be the quintessence of "mor- 
tal thought," therefore the power of the thought of a belief of the belief of a 
belief, which has made all things and governs all things, is electricity. But 
this electricity which is 'human and unholy" "counterfeits that essence of 
tne unerring and eternal mind, termed the Holy Ghost." Therefore this 
counterfeiting, shadowy thing has made and governs all things. 

Bat in the old-fashioned Bible I read "In the beginning God created the 
heavens and the earth." It was left to the "Christian Science" of the present 
age to tell us that a counterfeiter, which was the great grand-father of a be- 
lief, took the place of God. 

"Belief is mesmerism" is the definition given in Vol. I p. 18. Then elec- 
tricity is the great grand-father of mesmerism. Our eminent scientists have 
been hard at work to find the relation of the two forces. It must therefore be 
a matter both of edification and congratulation that the nature of the one and 
the paternity of the other are so clearly taught by "Christian Science." 

Again we are told: "The children of metaphysicians, if they should have 
any, must be improved models of mortal thought. " But as "mortal thoughts" 
according to the teachings of "Christian Science," are the thoughts of the 
belief of the belief of a belief, and furthermore, as "evil and error are mortal 
mind," as we have seen, and as the quintessence of mortal thoughts is electric- 
ity, these children must be the improved models of that great grandfather of 


a belief, "electricity," of the grandfather of a belief, "evil and error," and of 
the father of the belief . "mesmerism." We shall be looking with anxious 
feelings for the improved models of these paternal ancestors. 

But I am interested in knowing still more where these "improved mod- 
els of mortal thought" are to come from, and what they are going to be. On 
page 175; Vol. 1., I read that "mesmerism is the right hand of humbug or of 
crime;" it is one of the "delusions or frauds." And on page 39, Vol:, II., I 
find the following definition of the devil: "That mind comprehends, feels, ex- 
ists, an entity beneath the cranium, and suffers and sins ad libitum is the only 
personal devil their is." (I give the exact grammar of the sentence). And 
then comes the other definition: "A lie is all the Satan there is." 

Now the essence of delusions or frauds is a lie. The essence of mesmer- 
ism therefore is the devil. And in consequence, the children of metaphysi- 
cians are to be "improved models" of the devil. We sincerely hope they will 
be an improvement on him. 

Again we are informed that "Adam, error, forms every material sense of 
things, and names them accordingly. * * * Adam is the creator of this 
creation." And on page 81 we are informed that Adam, or error, is a dream 
without a dreamer." The whole account of the creation of "Mortal man," 
Adam, is mythological. It is a dream without a dreamer (whatever that may 

It never seemed to have occurred to the fair oracle, that since the whole 
history of Adam is a dream without a dreamer, so the whole of her system 
based on this dream, is a Philosophy without a Philosopher, a Science without a 
Scientist, and ' 'Metaphysics" without a Metaphysician. 

A word further about this Adam. On page 82 vol. II we have the ety- 
mology of the term Adam given which I commend to Dr. Harper and the 
teachers of both the Higher Criticism and Lower Criticism. "The word Adam 
divided into two syllables and reading A damn, indicates more closely the 
character and the curse that the Divine Spirit or Mother of Man bestowed up- 
on the mythological history of man." 

Mr. Gill, when he broke with the system-maker and the system, felt as 
though the exegesis which was given of the word Adam indicated more close- 
ly than anything else he could express his opinion of "the divine philosophy, 
which was without human taint and that could not be misguided." It was 
self-confessed to be "A damn." 

A part of the fundamental theory of this system is that everything of the 
nature of evil, (which is but a belief) in the material world (which is only a 
belief) results from the belief that evil exists in it. A book has just been 
written in elucidation of this particular theory of "Christian Science" that is 
belief only that, gives poisonous properties to? plants or minerals. It is 
claimed that if people from the first had not believed that arsenic or strychnine 
or henbane would kill, they would be as harmless as flour or rice and pota- 

A "professor" holding this theory was interviewed a short time since by 
a Chicago reporter. He was asked the question: "Do you suppose a rattle- 


snake's bite would be poisonous even though the person bitten thought it was 
the bite of a mosquito?" 

"Of course it would be poisonous" was the prompt reply, "because it is 
universally agreed to be so, and the minds that have formulated this conclu- 
sion are more powerful than the mind cf the sufferer." 

Then came the question: "How was it with the first man that was ever 
bitten by a rattle snake? There was no previous opinion in regard to the ef- 
fects of the bite, and he did not know whether the bite was dangerous or not. 
Did the poisonous fangs prove fatal to him?" 

The professor said, "Young man, I see you are an unbeliever, and you'll 
find the door right behind you." 

In the advice given to mothers it is stated "Yielding one's thoughts to 
contemplate physical wants surely produces them. The condition of the 
stomach, bowels, food, clothing, etc., is of no serious import to your child. 
Giving drugs to infants, or constantly directing your mind to them, laden with 
beliefs of disease, laws of health, sickness and death, conveys your mental 
image to their bodies (?), and stamps it there, making it probable at any time 
to be reproduced in the disease you fear. Your child can have worms if you 
say so." We are further taught that the child will be in no danger from in- 
fected clothing if the mother will only think so. 

But if the mother's mind can exert an influence to the extent that is here 
claimed, then, when the child is hungry and is crying for its mother's breast 
or for food, why cannot we just as well say that the mother by refusing to 
contemplate this physical want, can satisfy the cravings of the little clamor- 
ous petitioner. Just let her try to convey "a mental image" of a full stom- 
ach "to the bodies" of her little ones and see how soon they will imagine them- 
selves to be filled. 

It is of no serious import to the child what the condition of the stomach 
is! Ah indeed! 

Dr. Johnson, to express the height of helpless misery, said, "Just imagine 
a man shut up in a tower with a baby!" Just imagine him pressing it to his 
paternal bosom, and endeavoring to feed it with this new Infant's Panacea of 
"Christian Science." A lady once asked him why he had given such a defin- 
ition of the word "furniture" in his dictionary. He thundered out "Ignorance 
madam, ignorance!" What supreme ignorance the world has been guilty of 
since Eve nursed her first baby. If she had only been taught the wonderful 
discovery of this priestess of a new dispensation of things, "that to contem- 
plate physical wants surely produces them," and had steadily refused to con- 
template the physical wants of the infant given her; the Cain she raised might 
have been of a different kind. And if this profound truth had only been 
handed down and acted upon, through the ages, the occupation of the manu- 
facturers, who are making in the United States alone, scores of thousands of 
nursing bottles each year, would never have been taken up. 

I have studied a little the philosophy of worms, and their relation to ani- 
mals and to infants.. I have found a wide-spread belief of "mortal mind" 
to be that a vast number of pigs have worms, and an equally extended belief 
that "the condition of the food" has to do with the intra-porcine existence of 


the worms. But if we can only make the pig producer have the "understand- 
ing," of this fundamental "truth" enter his "mortal mind" that "the condition 
of the food is of no serious import" to the pig, and if he can only send it into 
the species of "mortal mind" the pig may have, and produce there the "chem- 
icalization" which "the conflict of Truth with error causes," then he may feed 
the pig, with perfect impunity the offal, full of the incipient and developing 
and developed worm life, just as well as with the sweet, nutritrious, Indian 
corn, which makes a flesh so firm, and savory that even a punctilious Isralite 
might be tempted to break the ceremonial law of Moses, when the odor of its 
roasted portions entered his nostrils. Our health commissioners ought to be 
sent to learn, at the public expense, the esoteric secret of this new philoso- 
phy, and then be required to establish a school for the training of the men 
employed in our stock yards to expel worms from pigs If this school of 
instruction can only be successfully carried out, a deserved immortality will 
await the founder of the unique worm-expulsion system. 

It is a very general belief of "mortal mind" as found among the medical 
profession of all schools, that the peculiar cause of the worms, which trouble 
little children, the oxyures vermicular es, the Ascarides lumbricoides, and the 
Tcenia, arise in general from improper food. Then again it is also a very 
thorough conviction of the "mortal mind" of those unhappy persons who have 
eaten "measly pork," — (the pork infested with worms) that the fearful pains, 
convulsions, and bodily torments which they experience from the eating and 
burrowing of the trichinae in their muscles are all due to "the condition of 
food." And the belief of the "mortal mind" of the medical fraternity is 
rapidly gaining ground, that it is very probable that a large number of the 
cases of rheumatism are due to this cause.. The belief of the " mortal mind" 
of statesmen, and legislators is so great on this worm subject that national 
laws have been passed, prohibiting the importation of such food, and even 
international difficulties have been threatened because the clean pork of one 
country has been excluded by another country, through excessive caution. 
Worms have caused all the mischief. 

The reputed author of the mental process, or the verbal say so 
of creating or annihilating worms, who claims also to be the author 
of "Science and Health" says with a charming modesty, "If the Bible, 
and 'Science and Health,' had the place in schools of learning that 

physiology has, they would revolutionize the world It requires more 

study to understand and demonstrate what they teach than to learn the 
doctrine of theology, philosophy or physics." (Christian Science Journal, p, 
288.) But there is an equally charming unconsciousness of the contradiction, 
on the subject of food between the Bible, and this other book, lifted by the 
graceful feminine hands which are supposed to have written it, to a co-ordi- 
nate position with the Book of books. 

In the "mortal mind" of Moses and the Jews, there was a belief that "the 
condition of food" was of "serious import." God himself forbade them to eat 
pork for the best of climatic reasons. "Science and Heallh" therefore would 
find that hated thing, physiology, still taught in the schools, if the Bible should 
be the textbook. But where would "Science and Health" be? 


Again the Bible, in its bearing upon the Israelites dwells with a minutiae 
rarely to be found in text books of physiology upon the serious import of 
' 'the condition of clothing." It has anticipated the best physiological and 
hygienical teachings of the day regarding the inspection of clothing, and the 
methods by which contagion may be prevented. 

The "mortal mind" of every civilized community shares the belief of these 
divinely enlightened Jews on this subject of infection. Rigid quarantine laws 
have been passed against small pox, yellow fever, cholera, and the like. The 
sublimated, transcendental idea taught by "Christian Science" and carried 
out at the time of this delivery in the Bohemian portion of Chicago, by the 
mothers of children covered all over with the pustules of the loathsome small 
pox that "the condition of the clothing is of no serious import," and that 
therefore the well child can put on the garments of the sick child with im- 
punity, is having its practical baleful test. 

Just glancing merely at the theological side of this system, every funda- 
mental teaching of Christianity is set aside. Prayer, faith, forgiveness of sin 
are all denied or derided. Christian Science without either Christianity or 
science! It was said of the Hegelian philosophy, "Its fundamental principle 
is, A is not A." That is the clearest statement that can be made of this new 

For every case alleged to have been cured by "Christian Science" there 
can be found one cured by faith. The old theology and the old beliefs in a 
personal God, and a personal man, and the philosophical reality of matter, and 
the inspiration of the scriptures, and the harmony of the first two ch&pters 
of Genesis, and the fatherhood of God, and the atonement of Christ, and the 
power of prayer, and the forgiveness of sins, are, all held and cherished 
by those so cured, What becomes then of the -'demonstration' of "Christian 
Science," as "the only curative agent." 

I have scores of cases of Faith Healing given in journals in my posses- 
sion. I have conversed with persons who claimed to have been, as it seemed 
to them miraculously restored. I have the personal acquaintance of those 
who are claimed to be the most successful faith healers on the continent, and 
have had the assurances from them that the most marvelous cures have been 

A great international Faith convention was held some years ago, in Lon- 
don at which delegates from the United States, Canada, most of the coun- 
tries of Europe and Australia were present. The persons attending 
the conference were so numerous that it was found necessary to hold the sit- 
tings in the vast agricultural hall, one of the very largest in the great me- 
tropolis. Tne London papers devoted much space to the proceedings of these 
meetings. The testimony given at this conference in proof of the cure of 
diseases that had long baffled the skill of the most celebrated masters of the 
healing art, would fill volumes. Some of it was given by persons occupying 
good social positions, and possessed of a reputation for honesty and integrity. 
The papers generally admitted that the persons who gave the testimony were 
sincere. There was apparently no motive for them to state an untruth. Here 
then is this great overshadowing system of Faith Healing dwarfing into in- 


significance the healing done by "Christian Science." What then becomes of 
the vaunted philosophy of Christian Science as demonstrated by its cures? 

One word of exhortation in closing: You gentlemen representing the 
medical profession above all others ought not to be worshipers of idols. The 
facts of Psychology you are to take into the account as well as those of Phy- 
siology. You are ever to remember the supreme fact that man has a mind. 
You must recognize the soul of good in things evil, and you will therefore 
recognize the soul of good in the system which I have taken so long to exam- 
ine and criticise. 

Mind does act upon the body. Mind does act upon mind. Wonders have 
been performed by the power of imagination, of the spoken word and by the 
influence of the silent thought. Dr. Hack Tuke, and Hudson in the ' 'Law of 
Psychic Phenomena" have shown this- The ridiculous assumptions of this new 
pseudo philosophy but call the attention of earnest and thoughtful minds to 
the causes of the phenomena which are produced in spite of the absurd posi- 
tions taken. My esteemed friend, the Rev. Dr. E. P. Thwing, late president of 
the New York Society of Anthropology, says, "It is one sign of advance in 
the study of Psychic phenomena, thai not only reputable men, but those of 
the highest position in the scientific world, are now busy in their investiga- 
tions into this department of Biology, which, as Dr. George M. Beard ob- 
served, was, as unknown a realm a few years ago, as the interior of Africa, 
and as little understood as chemistry in the Sixteenth century. 

Dr. Thwing forcibly asks, "Shall we, surrounded by this boundless 
ocean of mystery, stand still like islands, or move like ships?" 

Your profession is ever to furnish the Columbus who shall pioneer the 
way to new worlds of discovery. You are bound by every obligation of your 
noble pursuit to see that no man or no woman take your crown. 

Whatever there is in the law of suggestion, or the law of influence, call it by 
what name you please, hypnotism, mesmerism, or Braidism — whatever there 
is in spiritual dynamics — in mental therapeutics, you are to know. You are to 
be masters. You are not to be simply healers of bodies, you are, as your 
very title means, to be doctors, teachers. More than that, you are M. D's. You 
are to be masters of teachers. Every profession has to come to you. Its 
votaries have to learn from you how to get well, and how to keep well. You 
are thus to destroy disease and to prevent disease. There is not a single fact 
you- can afford to ignore, not a single truth you can afford to obscure, not a 
single prejudice you can afford to cherish. 

I pray, and it is the highest blessing I could ask for each of you, that you 
may follow in the footsteps of Him, who as "God manifest in the flesh" our 
Elder Brother, Saviour, and Exemplar, healed the bodies of men while 
healing their souls, — that your every thought may be brought into captiv- 
ity to the obedience of Christ, that you may be presented by him and 
through him perfect before God the Father, "And the idols He shall ut- 
terly abolish." 


Delivered, at Alumni Banquet by 

W. W. Torrance, M.D., Keithsburg, 111., Class of '80. 

Mr. President and Members of the Faculty, Honored Guests and Gentlemen of 
the Alumni: 

It is my pleasant duty and privilege to thank the guests for their 
presence, and to offer to the President and Professors of the Faculty hearty 
congratulations for having made possible this meeting. 

The duty has been assigned me, made pleasant by your presence, of wel- 
coming you to this hall. 

As dutiful Alumni we meet tonight. We are glad to meet each other for 
reasons personal to ourselves as well to show our interest in our Alma Mater. 
Those of us who are oldej know something of the feelings and sentiments 
that swell the bosoms of the younger Alumni. 

You, gentlemen of the class just graduated, appreciate, I'm sure, the 
advantages you possess over previous classes; with increased hospital 
facilities, practical methods in clinical work, the finest laboratory of practical 
anatomy in the United States, personal contact with teachers, second to none 
in the medical world, it must be a mediocre indeed who does not take with 
him rich stores of knowledge, and a fair idea of what his life wort should be. 

We must not over look the fact that to our Alma Mater we owe much. As 
students we enjoyed opportunities of which we were not fully aware, and 
which fitted us for work . We enjoyed the privilege of wide acquaintance 
with men of noted capabilities, and in various ways we attained a broader 
mental platform from which we could view in a better way the field of 
medicine and surgery. This being true, it is our duty to be loyal to the 
college which gave us medical life. We do well to thus let our hearts tnrn 
toward our first love, our Alma Mater, and meeting thus annually, keep her 
image close to view. We should stand tonight pledged as one man to watch 
over her welfare, and resolve that our lives shall help spread abroad her 
fame. We may thus see her continue to maintain her honorable rank against 
all odds! 

This Alumni association is growing in number, but it is not nearly so 
large as it ought to be. The number of graduates that have gone out from 
Rush is about 6,000 of these many have died. A certain proportion have left 
the profession, but there is still a large number who have not joined our 
ranks. Let us see to it that our membership does not shrink in numbers or 
enthusiasm. It is by each one doing his part that we shall go forward With 
noted medical men all over the United States as graduates, how is it possible 
that such a host of intelligent, energetic and successful men should perma- 
nently exclude themselves from our membership? There are many advan- 
tages gained as members of the same family; we are linked by ties of a bind- 


ing character and no professional man can afford to stand aloof from his 
colleagues; then join us, mingle in our meetings, give us of your cheer, and 
let us go forward with a devotion to the higher interests of our profession. 

In the name of the Alumni, I welcome you all. I am deeply sensible of 
the honor conferred upon me as vice president of the association. We all 
deplore the death of our worthy president, Dr. J. H. Murphy, of St. Paul, 
who did his part in life with a faithful zeal, and who helped make the lustre 
that shines around the Alumni of dear old Rush. Others of our number, 
death has taken from us, and as we think of the influence some of them have 
exerted, let us be made stronger by it, and press forward with unfaltering 
courage and determination to so live that the world may be better for our 
having lived! 

Members of the Faculty: — The good that has resulted to the people of the 
United States, and especially of the great northwest, from your individual 
and associated efforts, have long ago been recognized and acknowledged. 
There may have been some doubts a few years ago as to which was the lead- 
ing medical institution in the northwest, but that Rush possesses today 
superior advantages, clinical and didactic, is not doubted, and she is thus, far 
in the van of any competitors in this soon-to-be-metropolis of the western 

This enviable position has not been obtained through mere chance; only 
those intimately associated with her growth know the failures and disappoint- 
ments which have occurred during the past years. We see the success crown- 
ing your efforts . Many of the fathers of our Alma Mater are no longer present. 
We would be ungrateful indeed not to acknowledge their efforts. We love 
them tonight as thoughts of them "touch the key of memory and stir the 
hidden springs of sorrow" — fond and tender memories! We do well to thus 
cast a retrospective glance, remembering their lives, teaching us lessons of 
patience and hopefulness. They were men of undoubted ability, courage and 
energy, who by virtue of their environments were bold thinkers and self- 
reliant, the pathfinders and pioneers of what has followed. 

This meeting marks an era in the existence of our association; the first 
half century of its life has passed into history, and tonight we have met once 
more, as is oar annual custom, to inaugurate the beginning of its second half. 
We enter it under most auspicious circumstances, with almost every facility 
needed in the way of appointments and opportunity for clinical observation. 
No one recognizes as does the present faculty, that with increased facilities, 
come larger obligations, and to all alike should come the inspiration that we 
are linked together, and that as an association we have become a power and 
must- continue to elevate our profession. It is along that line of thought that, 
as suggested by our worthy president, Dr. Holmes, I shall endeavor to throw 
out a few suggestions as to the duties of our association— Faculty and Alumni 
— toward Rush in the future in the way of perfecting and upbuilding of 
medical education; that has been Rush's idea and plan right along, and if I 
mistake not, she was the first college to plead for the four year course. 

This subject of higher medical education has been gone over pretty 


thoroughly, but it is the one of first importance, and where better than at 
such a meeting as ours to consider it? 

The first purpose of the founders of our college was, no doubt, to provide 
for students, within a reasonable distance, a fair medical education. Those 
associated with the college since, have ever kept abreast with the needs of 
the age. 

I think I voice the sentiments of all true friends of Rush Medical College 
when I say the time must soon come when she will have to take still higher 
ground in the way of medical education. She has reached a high standard, 
but not the one which is being demanded today by the teachers and thinkers,, 
and admitted by all progressive medical men as necessary. The tendency 
grows stronger every year for universities to take charge of the medical 
teaching. This must be in fact as well as name, and unless the leading medi- 
cal colleges elevate medical education to its true place, popular sentiment 
through legislation will require more stringent measures. To accomplish 
this and secure from the states and government the endowment necessary, 
much must be done in the way of preparation. There is an absurd dispropor- 
tion of medical schools in the United States and as absurd a number of 
medical men. According to recent statistics: (New York World) "Germany, 
whose population is about 50,000,000, has 21,621 physicians in 1893, against 
20,500 in 1892; that is an increase of 1,521. That makes about 4.37 doctors 
for every 10,000 inhabitants." The United States "With a population not 
more than 25 per cent, in excess of Germany, has nearly jive times as many 
physicians." Illinois alone has between 8,000 and 9,000 physicians. 

How the friends of advanced medical education rejoiced a little over a 
year ago when it was proposed to form a grand medical university in this city, 
and how we all regretted that this was not accomplished! We all know the 
principal reason; lack of funds to sufficiently endow it. This accomplished 
would have made Chicago the centre of medical learning in this country — her 
7'ight, as she is already the centre of other great interests ! 

We hear on all sides and read frequently that " medical education should 
be endowed if a high standard is to be attained." With the amalgamation of 
colleges under the university idea, plentifully endowed by the state, with 
picked men as professors, a decided advance would be made all along the 
lines, aud we would escape the scathing criticism of Europe, and even 
Mexico, who requires a six years course! 

Any one who has visited the European schools, is struck by the thorough- 
ness pervading medical study and practice, and he feels that at home there is 
too much "fevered haste." Scientific preparation with us is lacking; more 
should be made of biology and physics, less of botany and zoology; special 
attention should be paid to pathology, morbid anatomy, microscopical work 
etc., instruction should be given in smaller classes, where, as in our univer- 
sities, every branch is taken, with precision, and no important question goes 
unanswered; where one's individuality is maintained, and never lost sight of ; 
more thorough work in the laboratory, and clinical experience at the bedside 
are needed — the thorough, frequent quizzes, and the "consulting staff" of the 


surgical clinics, are instances of practical work, and are decided advances 
over methods in vogue a few years ago. 

Yes, there has been a decided advance as to methods, and there will be 
still greater, in proportion a s students can observe more individual cases, and 
thus study more carefully the history of morbid conditions. While much de- 
pends upon the start a man makes in his profession, that depends on what his 
opportunities have been for getting a start. 

In pleading for class instruction by recitation, it is not meant to do away 
altogether with lectures. There are certain subjects in the practical and 
clinical parts of a course that would be most useful; but by recitation, exact 
technical knowledge is acquired, and practical demonstrations can be given of 
every subject which admits of illustration by experiment or otherwise. 

Whenever the student by daily markings and final examinations proves 
himself qualified, he is then, and not till then, advanced to the next grade of 
study; his educational qualifications alone thus determine his fitness for grad- 

As one writer has said, "There are deficiencies in professors as well as 
students." With the schools amalgamated, there would be a choice as to 
teachers, and a generous rivalry be maintained among them. One would not 
secure a chair because of blood relationship with one of the college trustees. 
A mental equipment would be demanded. Many of the reforms must come 
from within the colleges themselves. 

The whole question is a large one, and demands serious thought, as it ef- 
fects all. No one knows so well as the qualified, intelligent physician, what 
a power for evil .the unskilled practitioner is and it is our privilege and duty 
to do everything in our power to educate and legislate until the marked de- 
ficiencies now existing, shall be done away with. Our profession is at stake, 
and should put itself on record by resolution through associations, and speak 
a true and decisive word. 


Delivered on Class Day May 21st. 

Mr. President, Fellow Glass-mates, Professors, Ladies and Gentlemen: 

College life with its ever changing cycle of classes, its myriads of suc- 
cesses and failures, its triumphs and disappointments, its pleasures and 
drudgery has forced three classes from Rush's threshold since we became her 
children, and but a few days remain until the class of '94 will be launched up- 
on life's battle-field to join our alma-mater's working children of the world 
A few reminiscences of the past, a few facts to be ever remembered; a few 
words of sadness to record the lives of those who have passed on before, a 
few items jotted from each mile-stone of the short medical highway which we 
have traveled, a few pages to be filed away among the archives of Rush Medi- 
cal College literature; and the historian of the class of '94 will have fulfilled 
his mission. 

As medical students for decades had read in the office of a "regular" ph-y 


cisian for a year previous to reveling in the medical atmosphere which en- 
gulfs a medical college, so we alike pur predecessors delved deeply into an- 
atomy, physiology, chemistry and materia medica for the required twelve 
months. But as we were then widely separated and as many of us had years 
before developed the idea of becoming physicians, and had studied in literary 
colleges preparatory to our medical education; the medical life of these stu- 
dents may be said to date far beyond the four years required for graduation 
so we will begin the history proper with the gathering of the class three 
years ago. 

In the autumn of 1891 we shook the parental dust from our feet, grasped 
the hands of our relatives and friends in a last goodby, boarded the train, and 
soon reached the city where all was new, the only familiar object being the 
sun and he in all his wisdom and brightness deceived us by habitually setting 
in the north. We demonstrated our enthusiasm by calling the college clerk 
up at midnight to receive our fees. We called at the Cook County hospital 
for lodgings thinking it was a hotel, but the watchman kindly informed us 
that they were all sick abed and we could not be accommodated. The follow- 
ing day we secured a room, and after asking every senior if he had a room- 
mate we accidentally run across a partner in misery and then secured a room- 
mate. The college clerk secured our money, we secured our seat (which a 
senior usurped the following day). We secured a meal ticket at a restaurant^ 
we secured a note book as large as the family bible and thus began the life of 
a medical student in earnest. 

We were all present to hear the opening address, we came early and after 
we had listened to the piercing yells and war-whoops of the seniors for a short 
time, we expected to see the college course opened with a scalpel in true 
medical style and feared that a junior might be selected as a sacrifice. Final- 
ly the faculty marched in and all the noise soon died away and we listened 
with wonder to the sound advice delivered in polysylabic words by the lectur- 
er. That night we returned to our room feeling that the medical atmosphere 
was very noisy and that reveling in those long words would be a duty rather 
than a pleasure. We spent half of the night looking through our new diction- 
ary for one of those words but failed to find it. The next morning we ar- 
rived at the college early and with our ticket in our hand we inarched direct- 
ly past the janitor without showing him our ticket or giving him a tip, which 
we learned afterward was a very difficult accomplishment. It was about this 
period of our medical course that we assumed the title of D. J., which tradi- 
tion tells us signifies sacrilegiously that we were juniors. Before the end of 
our first week came we were surprised to learn that we were expected to 
know so much about the four principal branches and that our previous year's 
reading amounted to so little. 

Prom the very first lecture we became very much in love with our pro- 
fessors, and each man conceived the idea to work a "pull" if an opportunity 
offered, the result being that each "pull" had, at least, a score of faithful 
workers. This admiration for our professors was the cause of one of them 
resigning his position in the faculty at the early part of our course. We 
would not now find fault or reprove our class-mates for things done when we 


were not versed in the code, but we do think many of those expressions of ad- 
miration were too forcible and the lecturer, of course, failed in health and was 
compelled to give up the work. These expressions of admiration came down 
to him in showers of notes and it occasionally took him all the following night 
to read them, thus impairing his health so he could not withstand the hearty 
reception with which the students were wont to greet him as he entered the 
lecture room. We did little else to distinguish ourselves during the first year. 
Of course we formed the acquaintance of Lamb and McLain; asked a druggist 
for Virginia Prunes in connection with our study of materia medica, dissected 
with a broadax, worked in the dispensary, exploded half the chemicals in the 
laboratory and in fact covered ourselves with glory and nitric acid. Individ- 
ually some members of the class need more than passing comment for the 
work which they did in bringing the class into prominence. "Tensor Tarsi" 
established the fact that a muscle was much longer than was formerly sup- 
posed. "Here sah" answered to his name so promptly that he became a shin- 
ing light even if he did at first try to make us believe that he was a senior. 
"Frog eater" distinguished himself over on Milwaukee avenue. The profess- 
ors finally learned to pronounce Warnshuis' name, Wilbur moved because the 
landlady refused to call him Doctor, and Artie borrowed two dollars of a 
senior. The exceeding brilliancy of these and a few other members of our 
class made it necessary for the professors who lectured exclusively to us. to 
wear smoked glasses. 

The first meeting of our class was a very sad one indeed, for we had 
scarcely become familiar with the halls and rooms of the college until it was 
annonnced that one of our number had passed to his heavenly reward and we 
were called together to draft resolutions in rememberance of Henry Field. 
The class had no other meetings during the first year and no organization of 
the class was deemed necessary. Finally the examinations came and we were 
reminded that we had reached the first mile-stone on the road of medical 
science and we were now to be examined to determine how much we had 
gleaned by the road- side. 

During our first vacation we were startled to hear the sad news that one 
of our beloved professors had closed his lips forever, that another brilliant 
star in the firmament of Rush had fallen, and that upon our return to college 
we would miss the thoughtful, careful lectures of Prof. Knox. Very soon 
after the opening of our second term we learned that not only a professor but 
one of our own number was missing and had answered the summons of the 
Maker of Peace. We learned that James Gagnon had succumbed to typhoid 
fever and the class was again called together in rememberance of one of her 

The class of '94 now looked forward to prosperity and advancement, and 
concluded that in order to work in harmony a class organization must be ef- 
fected, so C. D. Center was elected president; F. E. Shaykett vice president; 
and H. F. Thompson secretary. The meetings of the class during this year 
were few and not important as very little business came before the class, and 
the orators of the class did not develop until the last year. In the class room 
we seemed to out- c] ass our predecessors who had traveled the road before and 


should have discovered what we so easily demonstrated. A new tumor which 
was called a "neurolgia" was found by one of our class, we saw a glass eye 
which could see, we conducted a skin clinic in the dispensary, we worked all 
the available "pulls," we fainted in the maternity, we bribed the janitor and 
secured a good cadaver, we passed the juniors up, in fact we had a fine time. 
Early in this year we were gratified to hear that among our sedate hard-work- 
ing class were accomplished dancers and that in conjunction with other medi- 
cal colleges in the city we were to have a ball where all care and trials would 
be banished by pleasure, and where the image of the glaring eyes and ghastly 
grin of a cadaver would be replaced by feminine beauties enshrouded in love- 
liness and fashion. We awaited patiently until we heard the first strains of 
the orchestra and the delicate patter of the dancer's feet before we believed 
the medical students could have so nice a ball as was predicted. The ball was 
a success and when the prizes were awarded we noticed the same ardent 
spirit manifested by our class-mates which had characterized their work in 
arranging for the ball. The superiority of the class had been noticed on sev- 
eral occasions but being very modest we never appeared in public until at the 
commencement exercises of the class of '93 when one of our members, Mr. 0. 
B. Bock, received the Daniel Brainard gold medal for the best dessection. 

This class being enthusiastic over literary work, not only furnished two 
editors of the Corpuscle, one member of the editing board of the Lake 
Forrest College annual in 1892, but it was this class which conceived the idea 
and began the work of publishing an annual for Rush. Oar annual was 
dropped for lack of time and support from the other classes, but the work 
was not abandoned for the succeeding class began the work in time and in 
earnest, and having the support of the whole school produced a book of which 
every man connected with Rush feels proud. The following class has also 
taken up the work of editing a similar book next year so that in succeeding 
years we may expect to have a publication which will represent Rush in all of 
her varied phases. The annual like The Corpuscle was the first publication 
of its kind produced in America by medical students, 

The end of the second year soon came and it was here that so many of 
our fellow students concluded that it was a long narrow road that led to a 
Rush diploma and that it did not take so much "pluck" to secure a diploma in 
an adjoiding city, so a special train was secured for the land of moon-shiners 
and fast horses. We also lost several members at the end of the year who 
feared that the medical profession with a large practice would be too trying 
on their constitutions, and that the farm promised a more quiet, luxuriant life. 

The next year promised more for our class than the previous one for this 
was the year of the great exposition. Many of our class secured positions as 
guides and guards at the Fair and besides sleeping in water soaked bunks, 
wrapped in worse soaked blankets, they kept their friends from the rural dis- 
tricts off the grass, from killing the foreigners on the Midway, and from being 
buncoed out of their return tickets . During this vacation several of the boys 
sold bibles to the people of Iowa and Nebraska, one became a Pinkerton de- 
tective and came very near arresting a real burglar, a few got married, while 
others only rested and waited for the last term. 


The beginning of the senior year was ominous for the class of '94. The 
new building was soon to be completed and the best facilities for instruction 
were to be used, the recitation system in divided classes was new, and the 
class soon saw the superiority of this plan over all others. New special 
courses were added, and improved methods were added to nearly every prac- 
tical course: plenty of room was now secured for all the different classes. The 
only thing lacking was time, and the faculty then made the spring term corn- 
pulsatory thus making one continuous term of study eight months in length. 

The seniors concluded to have an election after the term had fairly opened 
and all the members had returned from their vacation. In about ten days of 
adjourned meetings, postponements, and lobbyings all the offices were filled. 
The wire workers got together and after the chief mogul and lesser lights had 
made a slate and whipped the rabble into line it looked like folly to hold an 
election, but the mogul and his clan did not want to fill all the offices and 
they were eagerly seized by those on the outside. The result of the balloting, 
oratory, and perspiration was as follows: E. H. Ochsner, President; J. B. 
Canavan, Vice President; H. M. Hayes, Secretary; E. B. McAllister, Treas- 
urer; T. E. Andre, Valedictorian; A. T. Corliss, Chaplain; John Ross, His- 
torian; F. W. Miller, Prophet; J. V. Russell, Chorister; O. B. Bock, Sargeant 
at arms and E. P. Lierle, E. L. Wyckoff, B. N. Clark, W. E. Nichols, and C. 
H. Manning members of the executive committee . 

During this year we have had a great many new ideas advanced by our 
class, especially in the arena where each one was desirous of displaying his 
various accomplishments were these new opinions often introduced. A sliver 
as large as a tree was spoken of by an embryo surgeon; tuberculosis of the 
lung was found as pus in the left axilla; absence of hairs in the eye-lashes was 
a prominent symptom in a certain case; immobilization by a plaster of paris 
splint was recommended for treating an ankylosed joint; tracheotomy has 
been recently performed on the SBSophagus in operative surgery; ligation of 
the sDSophagus was classed as a capital operation by one of our number; warts, 
corns and bunions were considered formidable affections; a new dance was 
learned on the midway and reproduced in the arena; twenty- two set of whisk- 
ers were raised each set being valued at fifteen hundred dollars; a visit was 
made to the insane asylum at Dunning where osculation and dancing were 
freely indulged in; one student is puzzled about feeding a patient through an 
intubation tube; when an actor called out, " Is there a medical man in the 
house? 5 ' one of our men was there; one of our men spelled skin with two N's 
and now wishes he had written hide; we have wandered about unconsciously 
for a month and finally came to our senses in a hospital, and the surgery of 
the marriage covenant has been ably discussed by one of our classmates . 

In the Cook county hospital examinations our class has maintained the 
high reputation of the college by furnishing four of the eight interres. In 
other hospitals where pulls were not considered our class secured many posi- 
tions. The faculty offered two prizes exclusive^ to seniors for the best theses 
upon diphtheria. 1 he first was awarded to Mr. C. D. Center and the second 
to Mr. A. T. Stewart. In the competition for the Daniel Brainard gold medal 
we again showed our superiority as dissectors for the first two places were 
secured by Mr.F. W. Byrnes and Mr. G. C. Waiss respectively. 


The most attractive features of our senior year was our class meetings of 
which we had many. We will append an account of one meeting: The presi- 
dent was in the chair. "Rain in the face" with a blood curdling whoop moves 
that the class roll be put on the invitations seconded by " Sharp and Smith." 
The president puts the motion and 187 of the 138 present arises to speak and 
each one speaks. "Tarsi" being deaf sits still. " Warhorse " objects for no 
one can pronounce his name if it were all over the invitations, ' ' Mrs. Gan- 
son's" ankylosed face will not move and she sits down, "Tensor" wants Mrs. 
G. to speak, " Sliver" objects, Kirby begins to study, Trueman lashes his 
arms, roars, perspires and hurling a threat at the opposite side wants to 
wager his chances for getting plucked that he will never have his name on the 
invitation. " The-youngman-afrad-of-the-professors" wants anything but a 
position at the stock yards, "Riordan " says, " Vy are ve all here togedder 
anyhow." "Whiskers" wants to be heard, "Shortv" wants to read a com- 
mittee report, "Chrysalobin" asks the president to call him Doctor. The 
"Boodler" calls for business. "Papa" says this is worse than a whole 
nursery of babies, Artie requests the loan of two dollars. "Cope" pulls his 
whiskers, "Lottie" sings Ta-ra-ra, the president calls for silence and says n*t 
more than 117 would be allowed to talk at once for that annoyed him, "Flag 
pole" calls for blood, "Delia" objects, "Lord Fauntelroy" wants silence so he 
can sleep, Jewell tells a story, "No. 15" takes his seat, "Mrs. Lease" still 
speaks loudly, "Jerry Baldy" pulls his back hair, "Windy" dances his favor- 
ite ballet, "Medical Man" arrests "Frogeater," and the meeting adjourns with 
123 men talking. These items were partly taken from the secretary's report 
and are substantially correct. 

College life with its pleasures and happy surroundings has many dark 
places and three times in our course we were reminded that life at most is 
short. Only a few months ago we were apprised that Mr. E. L. Wyckoff was 
dangerously sick in the Presbyterian hospital. Day after day when inquiry 
was made at his room the nurse or attending physician could give us no hope 
that he was growing better. Finally it was announced that his mother had 
arrived to see him and only a few hours later that he was dead. No one, not 
in contact with the class can imagine our sadness when we held a meeting 
that bright morning and made arrangement to pay the last tribute of respect 
to the life of our fellow classmate, which had so suddenly gone out just in the 
morning of his usefulness, and in the prime and vigor of life. He was 
honored by receiving a position as class officer, respected by all of his class 
for his frankness and liberality. Mr. Behle was sent to accompany the 
remains to his home at Rock Rapids, Iowa, resolutions of condolence were 
drafted, and the class did all in their power to console the sorrowful friends 
and relatives. 

As we leave Rush our life of study has only begun. We have laid only 
the foundation for a medical education, we must continue to study if we 
expect to keep pace with the rapid advances in medicine. We ask your best 
wishes for our future success, and promise to strive faithfully to maintain the 
high reputation of Rush, and to hold sacred the dignity of our chosen profes- 
sion, ever looking upward to our motto, "Scientia et Humanitas." 

John Ross. 


Delivered on Class Day, May 21. 

Mr. President, Honorable Faculty, Classmates, Ladies and Gentlemen: 

Now it came to pass as I tarried with my books that the hour did arrive 
in which I must of necessity hie me to my couch. 

That meal which the landlady extolled in words such as are becoming 
only to landladies did gnaw and even tear away at my vitals. 

It sooth it was that of baser sort that incites a feeble stomach to rise and 

In was well-nigh the hour when church yards yawn and solid girls do 

Then I replaced my books upon their shelves and taking off my garments 
did retire — my head all filled with epiblastic tumors — my stomach with things 
much worse. 

Verily I was weighed down and sorely grieved for slumber visited not 
mine eyelids neither did sweet Morpheus come my way. 

At length after much tossing and weariness, I slumbered, but my 
slumbers were not such as a babe sleepeth for gruesome things did harmt me 
— thoughts weird and ghastly chased each other across my wearied brain 
scorpions did rend my flesh and shiny serpents with fork's tongues did crawl 
upon me and make me to writhe. 

Now it came to pass as I wrestled with these things unnatural and 
uncanny that at length I found myself in a forest dark and thick, 

I know not how I got there nor yet where it was. It mattered little. No 
sound to break the silence so oppressive save the occasional hoot of a distant 
owl and the sighing of the wind in its course through the tree- tops. 

Yes, verily it was dark — so dark in fact that e'en one of Pharaoh's own 
body guards might well hav£ lost his way. 

And as I sat and did commune with myself — lo there did appear a small 
uncertain light shining through the underbushes and when I did behold it I 
straightway took heart and smiting my thigh with my palm said, ' 'By the 
sword of the prophet this is my deliverance " and as I thus did commune with 
myself the light e'en so drew near unto me and as it came still closer I saw 
that it was a torch of pine knot that a form all bent and tottering carried in 
his withered hand. 

He was old, yea very old, his hoary locks did fall in great abundance 
from his temples now so hollow, until anastomosing with his beard still more 
white, almost concealed his face. 

He came upon me. He must have known of my presence for there was no 
surprise when he beheld me. 

Now it came to pass that as he gazed upon me he did draw himself up to 
the full statue of manhood and placing his thumbs in the auxiliary spaces of 


his togs viewed me in the most oppressive way — and having gazed did shake 
his head and say in tones most sarcastic, ' ' So you indeed are he whom the 
class of '94 hast sent to me that their future might be revealed. It behooves 
me to say that I am in truth surprised and disappointed. Suffer me, I pray 
thee, to see thy credentials." Thereupon with thrembling I did hand him a 
letter that our worthy president had given unto me as I set forth upon my 
journey. He read it in silence and having finished it said, "Very well. First 
I will tell you who I am. My name is Future. The past I know not of. The 
present lasteth but a moment. While I, Future, contain all the probabilities 
and possibilities of the destinies of man. I live only in the things that are to 
come. This portion of the earth and the fullness thereof is mine and in it are 
all these things contained you shall tonight, if eyes and ears you use, a lesson 
learn that will abide within your memory so long as the Nile runneth to the 
sea and the soil of the Sahara is athirst. Follow me and e'en these things 
shall be shown unto you," and girding up his loins he lead the way. And it 
came to pass after we had journeyed over fallen trees and briars that did 
scratch and e'en forsooth tear my rainment, that we at length did come before 
a cavern large and still and even blacker than the Stygian darkness 'round 
about us, set between two boulders, large and awful in their greatness. Bats 
and winged animals, the like of which I ne'er had seen did fly against the 
light and made it to flicker e'en more than before. 

I was in sooth sore stricken and sick at heart and methought: "Verily I 
have bitten off more than I can chew and pe- adventure some accident will be- 
face me. "Suffer me I pray thee to depart and forbid me not." But he only 
laughed and mocked my cowardice. Seeing that it availed me naught I 
straightway took my hypodermic out and did inject a sixteeth of stry chine 
into my arm e'en unto the deeper tissues. He then moved calmly forward — 
I followed but not with eagerness — On and on and still downward we did go 
towards the very center of the earth. 

The air coming from Plutos sulphurous realm was thick and stifling but 
that strychnia was getting in its work and nothing daunting I followed. 

At length we suddenly stopped, a large rock did block our way. He 
made a few passes strange and Hermanlike and the gigantic boulder was 
rolled away and there before me did appear a sight that only Dante and myself 
have ever seen. 

A caldron huge and dirty sputtered and tried to boil over a sickly fire. 
I stepped forward and peered in and there in shapeless confusion did I see 
bits of matriculation and general tickets for Rush and those odious sealed 
envelopes. I added a tear or two to the boil and hurried after the old man 
who was restlessly awaiting me. Before another rock — still greater than the 
one before we stood. 

The old gentleman sticking his torch in a crevice of the rock and turning 
to me said, "Behold this adamantine rock. Behind it is concealed the future 
of your class. To thee alone it shall be revealed if you but write the things 
just as you see them and then if your classmates fain would let their angry 
passions rise reason with them saying. Keep your tunics on for whom the 
faculty destroy they first make mad." Now he did make the passes as before 


and the massive rock parted and as I gazed with exophthalmic eyes through 
the fissure that was made I saw even these things that I now give unto you. 

Now it came to pass as I gazed through the crevice that was made that 
there did appear before mine eyes a sign board fifteen cubits wide and thirty 
cubits long and written thereon with red pigment were these words that all 
might read, "Chas. D. Center, Manicure and Chiropodist" and as I gazed upon 
this sign behold there did appear this man and lifting up his voice said unto 
me, "So these many years have I toiled and tried to be professional but my 
purse waxed not fat neither did anything stick to my ribs but now I have 
changed and shekels in great abundance are mine and likewise houses and lands. 

The next scene that appeared was at a patients bedside and there I did 
behold one Keith (commonly known as Stock Yards Willie). A large rope he 
held in his nerveless fingers. On his face were signs of supreme agony. The 
patient was growing paler and paler, she was evidently bleeding to death and 
Keith seemed powerless to prevent it. I ventured to ask him why he tarried 
thus and he said in tones so weak as to be scarcely understood, "Forsooth I 
have forgotten where the post-partum artery doth reside for I fain would tie 
it but now alas she hath perished and I alone am the cause of it." I was 
about to ask him if he remembered of having ever heard while at Rush, of 
compressing the aorta. But another slide was now put in. 

This one was down in Posey county where the paw- paws grow and the 
grasshoppers become a burden. It was a typical farmyard scene such as 
Eggleston describes and seated in the midst thereof ana on an everted basket 
was Noah Thompson apparently happy and contented. He was busily 
engaged in trying to find out how much back salary was due him from the 
Big 4 railroad and would occasionally take time enough to look up and 
rebuke one of many small dirty-faced children that were playing around, that 
resembled him considerably and were very prone to do evil. 

How changed thought I and yet another beautiful example of the eternal 
fitness of things I could not help but shed a tear, for he was once my room- 
mate and as I gazed with tear- stained eyes on the picture now fast disappear- 
ing behold there come to view a scene of different nature. 

It was on the north-side. There was a mammoth building with a sign 
board of large dimensions which read, "Windmueller and Bock's Summer 
Garden. Performance now going on." I, of course, stepped inside. The 
first one I met was Emil. His body large and encumbered with flesh, his face 
like unto a fullmoon. He took me into the concert hall and there I saw a 
large multitude of our classmates seated in small groups around the tables 
and drinking a peculiar liquid of an amber hue on the top of which a white 
foam like unto that made by barbers. While listening in horror at their 
jibberings and comments on the merits of each respective star as he appeared 
one Von Bismarck stepped upon the stage. After the applause had died out 
he took a cough drop and sang with wonderful pathos and feeling that 
beautiful ballad written by himself entitled, " I am the man who won the 
Brainard prize." The emphasis on the /was particularly noticeable. 

We then did go outside into the barroom. Emil said there is another of 
our classmates here perhaps you would like to see him, and taking me to the 


box-office I saw W. L. Thompson selling seats. Windy said, "You see he was 
such a good man with seats that we could not get along without him." 

He then showed me some large oil paintings of his friends. One par- 
ticularly do I remember, it was that of Eades. All it needed was a wind 
machine fastened to it to make it as natural as life. "This," he said, "I value 
most highly for he was my dearest friend." 

We now went outside the building and Emil called my attention to two 
old men sitting on the pavement asking alms of passersby. "Do you see 
hose fellows there," said he, "They are Best and Baker. They exhausted all 
of their nerve while at Rush and have been total wrecks ever since.' 
Methought, "The mills of the gods grind slowly but they grind exceedingly 

I bade Windmueller a hasty adieu and started down the street and as I 
strolled along whom should I meet but our own sweet Torsi. He said in tones 
convincing that he now did hold a chair in Rush. I plucked my button from 
my coat and cast it from me, but when he told me that this chair he fain did 
hold was in the coal department I did compose myself for Rnsh was saved and 
we might again rejoice. Now it came to pass as I talked with Torsi that 
sweet strains of Wagnerian music did fall upon my ear and as I listened behold 
the vibrations did increase until at length there did come upon the scene one 
DeVere the mighty man from Montana. His whiskers being tossed by the 
festive breeze that seemingly did enjoy its gambols with his hirsutes. At last 
methought those whiskers are of some avail. 

The next I saw was our most worthy Ex-Com.and even now I did perceive 
that they hath on a beautiful and picturesque jag, and when I did inquire the 
cause of this undue hilarity one Nichols, nicknamed the Short, then did say 
"E'en so we got our names on the invitations and now we do rejoice." 

There now did appear a store on Clark street and over the entrance there- 
to hung three golden balls and still above these were the words, "Collins and 
Dawney, Loan Brokers. " 

Then I did see Weston (that pretty creature not made for profane hands 
to touch) lecturing at the Woman's Medical College. He was telling the 
young creatures where the duct of the spleen did empty, whereupon one 
ancient maid did swoon and faint away and was regaled to the outer air until 
she did revive. 

The next I saw was in a Sunday school. And there before the young 
innocents stood Skinner telling them the beautiful story of Ananias and 
Saphira. While Morris played the organ and King passed the hat. I also 
notice Allen, Hickman and Hammond teaching classes. I suppose "there was 
a method in their madness," 

After Supt. Skinner had finished his story and the moist eyes had been 
dried and the sobs had died out. He said, "Now children I want to show you 
what drink will do for men so that you seeing may take warning from their 
dreadful example." He thereupon lead forth Mammon and Peters, both look* 
ing like the pictures one sees in the W. C. T. U. papers and both alike ready 
for drunkards graves It was indeed a sad sight to behold and while they 
stood before the audience Mammon was trying to kill a couple of snakes he 


had seen crawl out of Peter's shoe." Supt. Skinner then said ' 'Children no 
words are necessary. It speaks for itself. Now let us rise and sing in closing 
the first and last stanzas of that beautiful hymn by Bro. Truman entitled, 
"Let not your angry passions rise." 

The next scene was quite different in its character. A penitentiary and 
there behind the bars in clothes that would make a tennis blazer blush for 
shame, were Hunt and Russell. Their beautiful whiskers all shaved off, their 
hair likewise and it was very evident that getting their daylight in little 
square chunks did not agree with them. I only had a word with them for 
they were hurried off to their work. Hunt to painting wheelbarrows and 
Russell to the laundry. I inquired of Warden Elkington what they were in 
for and he told me in that same wise way that Russell had been caught steal- 
ing from his own trunk and Hunt was in for bigamy. 

The next I saw was Copeland. He had a large basket in his hand and 
when I asked him what he did with it he told me that he had a job carrying 
microbes from the dispensary upstairs on clinic days and on the other days 
he carried them down again, 

I next saw Rowe, the man with the anchylosed face. He told me that he 
and Ganson were divorced for whenever they worked the faculty Ganson 
always got the biggest slice. 

I looked at my watch and found that if I wanted to be in time for the 
lecture I must hurry back. I started and stumbled over a large stone. I 
awoke. I found myself on the floor. I had fallen from bed. P. W. Miller. 


To the Alumni: — We are pleased to announce that the business manage- 
ment of the Corpuscle has been placed in the hands of Messrs. W. D. Calvin 
and F. C. Hoimold, members of the Senior and Middle classes, who are 
thoroughly competent to manage it and that the journal will hereafter be sent 
out from the office of the Corpuscle in the College Laboratory building. We 
are confident from what we know of the gentlemen that there will be no oc- 
casion for-complaint as to the regular publication of the journal, or the failure 
to receive it promptly. 

We ask those who were members of the association last year to kindly 
forward to us without delay, one dollar, which includes the subscription to 
the Corpuscle and pays the dues for 1894-'95. We also ask that any items 
of interest with reference to the graduates of the college be noted down and 
forwarded to the secretary of the Alumni association, in order that they may 
be placed in the hands of the editor of the Alumni department. Hereafter 
this department will be in charge of a competent alumnus, and we hope that 
it may be one of great interest to the members of the association. 

John Edwin Rhodes, M.D., Sec'y and Treas. 

34 Washington St., Chicago. 

L. M. Squire, class of '91, located at Poynette, Wis., speaks regretfully 
of having missed the last commencement and hopes to be present next year. 


Among those who attended Alumni meeting and commencement this year 
were the following: 

Class '47. 
Ephraim, Ingals, 34 Throop St. 

Ives, F. B., 125 State St., Chicago. 
Dunn, L. D., Moline, 111. 
Muncey, Jas., Jesup, Iowa. 
McLean, John, Pullman, 111. 

Brown, W., 873 Polk St., Chicago. 
Quinlan, Chas. H., Avenue House, Evanston 

Class '66 
Ayers, S. B., Louisiana, Mo, 

Class '50. 

Class '57. 

Class '62. 

Meacher, W., Portage, Wis. 
Class '63. 

McNeil, J. H.. Fond du Lac, Wis. 
Class '65. 

Godfrey, H. T., Galena, 111. 

Morse, F. D., Lawrence, Kan. 

Babcock, A., New Hampton, Iowa. 
Gemmell, C. H„ Markle, Ind. 
Hagey, W. H. H., Norfolk, Neb. 

Broughton, B. , D wight, 111. 
Lindsay, H. E., Whitewater, Wis. 
Unseth, W. A., 210 W. Indiana Ave. 

Hutchins, J. H,, Hampton, Iowa. 
La Grange, B. , Marion, Iowa. 

Bennett, F., Chicago. 
Lord, F. H., Piano, 111. 
Wright, A. L., Carroll, Iowa. 

Kauffman, J. S., Blue Island, 111. 

Bowen, D. H., Waukegan, Iowa. 
Meyer, H, Win. 

Baldwin, A. E., 826 W. Adams St. 

Salisbury, J. H., N. W. Univ. Worn. Med. School 

Class '79. 
Camp, Chas. D., 209 E. Madison. 
Verity, W. P., 62 E. Chicago Ave. 

Class '67. 

Class '68. 

Barnett, J. B., Neenah, Wis. 

Henrotin, F., 353 La Salle Ave. 

Murphy, T. C, Manito, 111, 
Class '69. 

Fricke, Gustav, H. , Park Bidge, 111. 

McLean, J. M. , Fayette, Iowa. 

Will, 0. B., Peoria, 111. 
Class '71. 

Ingals, E. Fletcher, 34 Washington St. 

Class '74. 

Goble, E. T,, Earlville, 111. 
Small, A. B., 3300 State St. 

Class '75. 

Schrieber, A. F., May wood, 111. 
Class '76. 

Griffin, B. W., Glencoe, 111. 

Class '78. 

Cotton, A. C, 34 Washington St. 

McDonald, Ed., Cuba City, Wis. 

Cazier, M. H., 75 43rd St. 
Mc Arthur, L. L., 70 State St. 
Neil, Wm. J., 296 N. Lincoln St. 
Torrence, W. W., Keithsburg, 111. 

Boss, C. F., Saunemin, 111. 

Burres,W. F., Sidney, 111. 
Besharian, J, H., 3037 Indiana Ave. 
Dodson, John M., 631 Jackson Boul. 

Bevan, A. D.,31 Washington St. 
Leavens, D. C, Lee Centre, 111. 
O'Shea, D.. 709 W. 21st St. 
Westcott, C. D., 551 Jackson Boul. 

Class '80. 

Johnson, C. W., 107 E. Chicago Ave. 

McKitterick, N„ Burlington, Iowa. 

Oliver, N. E., Thornton, 111. 

Camerer, J. J. , Kinmundy, 111* 
Class '81. 

Semple, W. F., 1301 Belmont Ave. 
Class '82. 

Bennett. E. R., 446 Seminary Ave. 

Confer, F. M.. Monroe, Wis, 

Hequemboug, J. E., 515 Fullerton Ave. 
Class '83. 

Billingsley, J, S., Belleville, Kan. 

Locke, B. D,, Chicago. 

Stahl, E. L., Chicago. 

Wiley, F. D.. Fond du Lac, Wis.