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Full text of "A correct history of the John Brown invasion at Harper's Ferry, West Va., Oct. 17, 1859"

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Book_+Z-B£_ 
Copyright N° 



COPYRIGHT DEPOSIT. 



I/OP'S KIGHT 1905, 

i:Y MRS. II. MINNIE KITTLE, 

Sil I : i ■ 1 1 i-:i;i>» town, \V. V \- 



A CORRECT HISTORY 



OF THE 



John Brown Invasion 



AT 



HARPER'S FERRY, WEST VA,, 

OCT. 17, 1859. 



COMPILED BY THE LATE 
CAPT. JOHN H. ZITTLE, of Shepherdstown, W. Va., 

Who was an Eye*- Witness to many of the 
occurrences, and 

EDITED AND PUBLISHED BY HIS WIDOW. 



Hagerstowx. Md.: 

Mall - Publishing Company, 

1905. 








CAPT. JOHN H. ZITTLE. 



PREFACE. 

The first overt act that led to the Civil War was 
the midnight raid at Harper's Ferry, Virginia, made 
by John Brown and his command on the Seventeenth 
day of October, 1859. This was the signal gun of the 
great war that began in less than two years afterwards. 
Brown attempted to start an armed invasion of Virginia, 
for the purpose of setting the slaves free and confiscat- 
ing the property of their owners, proved a failure, 
on account of the sickness of the officials of the State 
in defending her soil and the slowness of the friends of 
John Brown in furnishing him the material and finan- 
cial aid which they had promised. 

Brown and his followers were captured by the mil- 
itary, tried in the courts of the State, convicted and 
executed in due course of law. The United States Gov- 
ernment sent its marines to Harper's Ferry to protect 
the property of the Government, but as soon as Brown 
and his men were captured, they were turned over to 
Virginia for trial, as they had made the raid upon 
her territory. Such was the regard, at that time, for 
State's Eights, that the general government would not 
supercede the authority of the State or even send its 
troops over its boundary line without first obtaining per- 
mission from the Governor of the State. An investiga- 
tion of Brown's movements was undertaken by Congress, 
but events came along so rapidly and so furiously al- 



most before the Government was aware of it, the coun- 
try was involved in a civil war. The investigation was 
never completed. 

Forty-six years have elapsed since Brown's raid was 
made and the startling events that so quickly followed 
it have prevented the people of the country from fully 
realizing its character and significance. The histories 
of the war and our school books generally ignore Brown 
and his raid and avoid any discussion of the object it 
had in view, so that the present generation knows little 
of the momentous circumstances that led to the war. 

This book, compiled from the records of the times, 
when the whole scene was before the eyes and the events 
immediately before and after the raid, were fresh in 
the memory and the actors in the drama and their tiis- 
tories well known and' their motives well understood 
and not concealed by them, gives a full, true and faith- 
ful account of the raid from its conception by Brown, 
the Ossawatamie of Kansas fame, to its tragic end with 
the execution of the last invader at Charles Town. Jeff- 
erson county, Virginia, in the month of March, 1860. 

The writer and compiler of this book was an eye- 
witness of the occurrences, being an officer of one of the 
State's Volunteer Military Companies that first reach- 
ed Harper's Ferry to repulse the raiders; hence the book 
presents a living picture of the occurrences as they ap- 
peared to the people of the community at that time. 
This matter lias never before appeared in book form 
and is now published that the people of today may have 
a true account of the thrilling events thai immediately 



preceded the late civil war and precipitated Virginia into 
the great conflict which raged for four years. 

From the fact that a new generation has grown 
up since John Brown invaded Virginia for the purpose 
of emancipating the slaves and thousands of our young 
men merely having heard of the John Brown raid and 
nothing more, never having fully understood the partic- 
ulars and by whom the invasion was inaugurated, this 
book, giving the only true and correct account of one 
of the most important events that has ever occurred in 
American history, that of the causes and commencement 
of the late civil war, should be placed in every household 
in the United States and be handed down to future 
generations as one of the most important and eventful 
epochs in the history of the United States. 



» ' '";.;^*- ■,*- -■' . 




;% *a. 



"OSSAWATAMIE" BROWN. 



HISTORY OF "OSSAWATAMIE" BROWN, 



We copy from the New York Herald the following 
history of the leader of the insurrection at Harper's 
Ferry. It will be read with interest and is important 
in forming correct conclusions as to the real character 
of the outbreak and the extent of its ramifications; 
"Capt. John Brown emigrated to Kansas from Central 
New York in the fall of 1855, and settled in the town- 
ship of Ossawatamie. He was accompanied by seven 
sons, the youngest being old enough to earn his liveli- 
hood. The birthplace of Brown is not positively known 
to the writer, but renort has . it that he was born in 
Kentucky. At the time of his death he was about 
sixty years of age. He was about medium height, slim, 
muscular, thin visage, Boman nose, and possessing an 
iron constitution. He had "blue-greyish" and fu|l 
eyes, sharp features, and long grey hair, wearing a full 
beard, and rather inclined to be stooped. In December, 
1855, during the "Shannon war," Brown first made his 
appearance among the free State men at Lawrence. 
His entrance into the place at once attracted the atten- 
tion of the people towards him. He brought a wagon 
load of cavalry sabres and was accompanied by twelve 
men, several of whom were his own sons. He first exhib- 
ited his qualities at the time the free state and pro- 
slavery parties, under the lead of Governor Robinson 
had stated to the people who were gathered around 



the hotel the terms of the peace. Brown took the stand 
uninvited and opposed the terms of the treaty. He was 
in favor of ignoring all treaties, and such leading men as 
Eobinson, Lane and Lowry, and proceeding at once 
against the border ruffian invaders to drive them from 
the soil, or hang them if taken. Gen. Lowry, who was 
chairman of the committee on safety, and also com- 
mander of the free state troops, ordered Brown under 
arrest. The latter made no physical resistance, but 
it was soon discovered that he was altogether too com- 
bustible a person to retain as a prisoner, and a compro- 
mise was made with the free State men, and he was 
released. He was informed by the leaders of that 
party that his remarks were intended to undo what they 
were trying to accomplish by means of the treaty; 
that he was a stranger in Lawrence and Kansas, and 
ought not by his rash remarks to compromise the people 
of Lawrence until he had known them longer and knew 
them better. One of his sons, who was elected to the 
Legislature in February, 1856, was seized and taken 
from Ossawatamie to Lecompton in ciiains, a distance 
of thirty miles. His feet and hands were chained to- 
gether with a large heavy chain, the size that were used 
upon ox teams. He was compel led to walk the whole dis- 
tance beneath a burning sun. The irons wore the flesh 
from his ankles; he was attacked with the brain fever, 
was neglected, and died in two or three days. He was 
a companion of Gov. Eobinson Jenkins (since shot by 
Lane) and some eight or ten others. Another son of 
Capt. Brown was shot at Ossawatamie by a marauding 



9 

party from Missouri. After the death of his first son, 
occasioned by the tortures and fatigue of his forced 
march. Brown swore vengeance upon the pro-slavery 
party, and it was frequently observed by the more pru- 
dent of the free State men that he was evidently insane 
on the subject. He was always considered by them as 
a dangerous man. was never taken into their councils, 
and never consulted bv them with reference either to 
their policy or movements. The destruction of the 
Free States Hotel and presses at Lawrence, in May, 
1859. incited him anew to actioD, and he organized a 
small company, composed chiefly of men who had been 
robbed, or whose relatives had been murdered by the 
pro-slavery party, and at the head of this band armed 
with Sharp's rifles, bowie knives and Colt's revolvers, 
he scoured Southern Kansas, and the name of "Old 
Brown" became a terror to all who opposed his will in 
that region. While he was thus marauding, five pro- 
slavery men were taken from their cabins at Pottawa- 
tamie Creek, in the night time, and shot dead. The 
pro-slavery party charged this deed upon old Brown, 
while the free state party asserted that they could prove 
him in Lawrence, forty miles distant, when it hap- 
pened, and that the horrid deed was perpetrated by 
"Buford's Georgia Ruffians," supposing that the victims 
were free State men. *The news of this massacre reach- 
ed YVestport, Missouri, the place of the rendezvous of 
the '"border ruffians," the same evening that the Kansas 
Commission, sent out by the United States Houses of 
Representatives, arrived at that place. The excitement 



10 

was intense, and was induced almost as much by the 
appearance of tlw Commission as by the news of the 
massacre. The "ruffians" swore vengeance upon the 
members and officers of the Commission, declaring that 
their blood should recompense for the slaughter at 
Pottawatamie Creek, and but for the intercession of Mr. 
Oliver, the pro-slavery member of the Commission, and 
others, it was believed that the Commission would have 
been attacked. It was at this time that the notorious 
H. Clay Pate organized a band of men in the streets of 
Westport, with the avowed purpose of entering the 
Territory and capturing "Old Brown." He raised about 
30 men and went into the Territory about twilight one 
evening and was surprised at sunrise the next morning 
by "Old Brown," who was in command of nine men, 
armed as stated above. Pate sent a flag of truce to 
Brown, who advanced some rods in front of his com- 
pany and ordered the flag bearer to remain with him, 
and sent one of his own men to inform Pate to come 
himself. Pate obeyed, when Brown ordered him to lay 
down his arms. Pate refused to give the order to his 
men, when Brown, drawing a revolver, informed him 
that he must give the order or be shot on the spot. 
Pate immediately surrendered with his men, and they 
were disarmed and marched into a ravine near by, and 
kept until liberated and sent bacfc to Missouri, by Col. 
Sumner, a few days subsequently, who also ordered 'Old 
Brown" to disband and go home. The latter agreed to 
-ii do if the Colonel would also agree to protect the settler 
in that region of the Territory. This was the celcbrat- 



11 

ed "Battle of Black Jack Point," made famous by the 
"H. C. P." correspondent of the St. Louis Republican, 
who was the heroic commander of the surrendering 
party. Capt. Brown was not much heard from again 
until the notorious Captain Hamilton made his incur- 
sions into Southern Kansas from Missouri in 1856, 
when he raised another company, and, with Capt. Mont- 
gomery, drove Hamilton and his companions back to 
Missouri, and, marching into that State, took possession 
of one of the villages, shot one or two men, and liberated 
several slaves. This course of Brown was repudiated 
by Gov. Robinson and the leaders of the free State party 
in and out of Kansas, which caused Brown to publish a 
letter explaining his position, in which he assumed the 
entire responsibilities of his acts, and relieved the free 
State men from any share therein. This letter was 
called the "Two Parallels," on account of the peculiar 
distinction made by the writer. Capt. Brown was a 
very strong believer in the doctrines of the Presbyterian 
church. He was fanatical on the subject of anti- 
slavery, and seemed to have the idea that he was spec- 
ially deputed by the Almighty to liberate slaves and kill 
slaveholders. It was always conceded to him that he 
was a conscientious man, very modest in his demeanor, 
apparently inoffensive until the subject of slavery was 
introduced, when he would exhibit a feeling of indigna- 
tion unparalleled. After matters subsided in Kansas, 
Capt. Brown intimated to some of his anti-slavery 
friends that he contemplated organizing an insurrection 
among the slaves in the States of Kentucky and Tennes- 



12 

see. This fact becoming known to some of the leading 
anti-slavery men of the country, they refused mm 
means with which to go on and discouraged his pur- 
posed undertaking. He spent a portion of the last sum- 
mer in visiting different Northern cities, and was ten- 
dered sums of money with the understanding that Vie 
wished to secure a little farm upon which to settle m 
his old age. It is supposed that he employed this 
money thus obtained to hire Lhe farm near Harper's 
Ferry, which he used as a rendezvous for the insurrec- 
tionists, and near which he so dearly paid the last debt 
of nature. 

Organization of the Provisional Government. — The 
"J. Henrie," conspicuous throughout the plot, appears 
to have been J. H. Kagi, who was among the slain at 
Harper's Ferry. 

Chatham, (Canada West.) 
Saturday, May 8, 1858, 10 A. M. 
Convention met in pursuance to call of John Brown 
and others, and was called to order by Mr. Jackson, on 
whose motion Mr. Win. C. Monroe was chosen Presi- 
dent; when, on motion of Mr. Brown, Mr. J. II. Kagi 
was elected Secretary. On motion of Mr. Delaney, Mr. 
Brown then proceeded to state the object of the Conven- 
tion at length, and then to explain the general features 
of the plan of action in the execution of the object in 
view by the convention. Mr. Delaney and others spoke 
in favor of the project and the plan, and both were 
agreed to by general consent. Mr. Brown then present- 
ed a plan of organization, entitled "Provisional Consti- 



13 

tution and Ordinances for the People of the United 
States/' and moved the reading of the same. Mi. Kin- 
nard objected to the reading until an oath of secrecy 
was taken by each member of the convention; where- 
fore Mr. Delaney moved that the following parole of 
honor be taken by all members of the convention: "I 
do solemnly affirm that I will not in any way divulge 
anv of the secrets of this convention, except to persons 
entitled to know the same, in the pain of forfeiting the 
respect and protection of this organization," which mo- 
tion was carried. On motion of Mr. Delaney, it was 
then ordered that those approving of the constitution 
as adopted sign the same ; whereupon the names of all 
the members were appended. On motion, the following 
officers were elected : Commander-in-chief, John 
Brown; Secretary of War, J. H. Kagi; Members of 
Congress, Alfred M. Ellsworth, Osbourne Anderson; 
Treasurer, Owen Brown; Secretary of the Treasury, 
Geo. B. Gill; Secretary of State, Richard Eealf. The 
following are the members of the convention, written 
by each person: Wm. Charles Monroe, G. T. Reynolds, 
J. C. Grant, A. J. Smith, James M. Jones, Geo. B. Gill, 
M. F. Bailey, Wm. Lambert, S. Hunton, C. W. MofTett, 
John J. Jackson, J. Anderson, Alfred Whipple, James 
M. Blue. W. H. Leeman, Alfred M. Ellsworth, John E. 
Cook, Steward Taylor, James W. Purnell, Geo. Akin, 
Stephen Dettin, Thomas Hickerson, John Caunel, Rob- 
inson Alexander, Richard Eealf, Thomas F. Cary, Rich- 
ard Richardson, L. T. Parsons, Thomas M. Kinnard, M. 
H. Delaney, Robert Vanvanken, Thomas M. Stringer, 



14 

Charles P. Tidd, John A. Thomas, C. Whipple, J. D. 
Shadd, Bobert Newman, Owen Brown, John Biown, 
J. H. Harris, Charles Smith, Simon Fislin, Isaac Hol- 
ler, James Smith, J. H. Kagi. 

Letter to Gov. Floyd. 
The following is the anonymous letter received by 
Gov. Floyd, Secretary of War, of which mention will be 
made 

Cincinnati, August 20, 1SS^. 
Sir : I have lately received information of a move- 
ment of so great importance that I feel it to be my 
duty to impart it to you without delay. I have discov- 
ered the existence of a secret association, having for 
its object the liberation of the slaves at the South by 
a general insurrection. The leader of the movement is 
old John Brown late of Kansas. He has been in Canada 
during the winter drilling the negroes there, and they 
are only waiting his word to start for the South to assist 
the slaves. They had one of their leading men, a white 
man, in an armory in Maryland ; where it is situated, I 
have not been able to learn. As soon as everything is 
ready those of their number who are in the Northern 
States and Canada, are to come in small companies to 
their rendezvous, which is in the mountains in Virginia. 
They will pass down through Pennsylvania and Mary- 
land and enter Virginia at Harper's Ferry. Brown 
left the North about three or four weeks ago, and will 
arm the negroes and strike the blow in a few weeks, 
so that whatever is done must be done at once. They 
have a large quantity of arms at their rendezvous, and 



15 

probably are distributing them already. As I am not 
fully in their confidence, this is all the information I 
can give you. I dare not sign my name to thia, but 
trust that you will not disregard the warning on that 
account." 

The Insurrection, Its Origin and Its End 

The origin of the insurrection, and the sources from 
whence the fanatical traitors derived their hopes of 
success in this audacious attempt, is wrapped in mysiery. 
All the insurgents, however, agree in saying that the 
plot has been in preparation for upwards of one year, 
during which time, young men were actually enlisted 
in several of the free States, and pecuniary contributions 
to the cause received from the same source. 

Brown, accompanied by his sons, appeared at Har- 
per's Ferry about eighteen months previous to the at- 
tack, calling themselves Smiths. Shortly after, they 
rented from Mr. Kennedy, of Washington county, Md., 
the farm and house which they occupied until the out- 
break; the twenty-two men composing the invading 
party, joined him shortly after he had settled himself 
in his new home about which period J. E. Cook, co- 
leader, with Brown, of the conspirators, and an associ- 
ciate of the latter through the Kansas difficulties, made 
his appearance and engaging in school teaching, 
continued to so ingratiate himself in the good graces of 
the community, that general confidence was reposed in 
his integrity, and he acquired a very fair share of pop- 
ularity. About a fortnight ago Cook gave out that he 
intended to visit Kansas, and left the Ferry in a cov- 



16 

ered two-horse wagon ostensibly for that territory. On 
Wednesday preceding the outbreak he returned, and 
drove his wagon, which appeared to be heavily loaded, 
to the farm of Smith (Brown) where it remained for 
two days. Early on Friday morning he commenced the 
moulding of bullets at the residence of his mother-in- 




law, whose suspicions he silenced by assuring her that 
they were designed Cor use against the Indians in Kan- 
sas. The entire parb of insurgeri -. ail of whom bore 
the appearance of poor and industrious farmers and 
citizens, were in habil of mixing will! their neigh- 

bors, and with the re idents of Earper's Ferry, with 
whose opinions, meane of defense, etc., they had thor- 
oughly familiarized i hemselves. 



17 

Slaves of Maryland Aware of John Brown's In- 
tended Invasion. 

Some two or three days previous to the insurrection, 
Mr. Geo. Jacobs residing near Finksburg, Md., became 
convinced that something was wrong among his negroes. 
He paid particular attention to their movements, and 
that night, with the assistance of his neighbors, over- 
took them as they were about leaving, in company with 
the slaves of Dr. Butler, a neighbor to Mr. Jacobs. 
Upon searching them it was discovered that they were 
armed with long knives made of old scythe blades. 
They had secured the horses of their masters, and upon 
being interrogated, confessed that they had been induced 
to leave their masters and join the attempt to be made 
somewhere in Virginia to liberate the slaves. Their 
destination, no doubt, was Harper's Ferry. 

Partial Testimony of Daniel Whelan. 

I live at Harper's Ferry, am 39 years old, and was 
a watchman at the armory gates on Sunday night. The 
gate was locked, and I advanced a little closer; I 
thought it was Mr. Mason, the head watchman, there 
were two men at the padlock striving to open it; I 
told them to "hold on." I went to the gate, and when 
I observed it was not Mr. Mason, I drew aside at the 
gate and looked until I observed them, and saw that 
they were strangers; when they all came into the yard 
I think there was about twenty-five men, they asked 
me to open the gate. I told them I could not open 
the gate by any means. "Open the gate,"' said they. 
I said "I could not if I was struck," and one of them 



18 

jumped up on the pier of the gate over my head, and 
another fellow ran and put his hand on me and caught 
me by the coat and held me. I was inside and they 
were outside, and the fellow standing over my head upon 
the pier, and then when I would not open the gate for 
them, five or six ran in from the wagon, clapped their 
guns against my breast, and told me I should deliver 
up the key. I told them I could not, and another fel- 
low made answer and said they had not time now to 
be waiting for a key, but to go to the wagon and bring 
out the crow bar and large hammer, and they would 
soon get in. They went to the little wagon and brought 
a large crow bar out of it ; there is a large chain around 
the two sides of the wagon-gate going in; they twisted 
the crow bar in the chain and they opened it, and in 
they ran and one follow. Cook, got in the wagon; they 
a J! gathered about me and looked in my face. I 
was nearly scared to death with so many guns about me; 
I did not know the minute or the hour I should drop 
they told me to be very quiet ami still and make no 
noise or else they would put me to eternity. One of 
them ordered the wagon to he marched in, and all got 
in the wagon except four who had me; they took the 
wagon flown the yard and passed the horses' heads to 
the gate where Col. Barbour's office is; after that the 
head man of them, Brown, ordered all the men to dis- 
patch out of the yard, but he left a man at each of the 
big gate along with himself, and then he said to me and 
Bill Williams, another watchman, I came here from 
Kansas, and this is a slave state. I want to free all the 



19 

negroes in this State. I have possession now of the 
United States Armory, and if the citizens interfere with 
me, I must only burn the town and have blood. I had 
a sword in my hand and when they all came in to run 
me, Cook took the sword out of my hand. I knew Cook 
well. 

Statement of W. W. Throckmorton. 
The clerk of the Wager Hotel, which is situated by 
the side of the railroad track, a young man named W. 
W. Throckmorton, makes the following statement : 

"About 10 o'clock Sunday night as I was about 
closing up the doors below, I noticed a one-horse covered 
wagon going- by, and from its appearance concluded 
it was a gypsy wagon. There were some four or five 
men following the wagon. I went below to shut up, 
and told one of our colored servants, whom I found up, 
that some gypsies were going by. He wanted to go out 
and see them, and seemed quite anxious, to go, but 1 
said I was going to shut up, and bade him go to bed. 
All was quiet after this, except some men walking along 
the streets till about 12 o'clock, when I went to call 
some men who were to go on the express train. Then I 
heard the report of a gun on the bridge aud a man 
running. I went down to the door when the watchman 
of the bridge, an Irishman, rushed in and said, lock 
your doors, there are several robbers on Lne bridge, 
several men. I did not think of the gypsy wagon at the 
time, but supposed some rowdies from the canal lock? 
had fired at him to frighten him. I the a went up 
and awoke the passengers, and tried to borrow a revolver 



20 

from some of the guests, but could not find one. I 
then walked out and went up to the railroad office to see 
Sheppard, the colored man, and borrow his revolver, as 
he always kept one, but his revolver was not loaded. 
As I came out of the office I saw two men on the 
bridge with guns in their hands. I went back to the 
hotel and kept quiet till the train came along. [ then 




ATTACK ON RAILROAD MEN. 

informed Capt. Phelps, the conductor, of what I had 
seen and heard, and he took four or five men and went 
to the bridge. Ilcyward Sheppard, the colored man, 
went in with them ahead, and as he got in, the)' called 
out "surrender." The man turned and ran, and the 
men on the bridge shot at him as he ran back tc the 
hotel ; we carried the wounded man into the ticket office, 
and I started for a doctor. I had a revolver then which 
I borrowed from a passenger on the train; just as I 
crossed the street, I met two men coming down the 
road ; the passengers were at this time running around 



21 

in excitement and women and children screaming in the 
cars. I supposed these men were passengers til! one 
of them presented his gun and said to me "you son of 
a > I will give you some too," and fired, but miss- 
ed me. I had no chance to run, but they both ran to- 
wards the armory, and as they were running I fired all 
the shots in my revolver at them. The men stopped 
about half way. to the armory gates. Then I got anoth- 
er revolver, and Capt. Phelps and some of the passen- 
gers went with me towards the armory. As we came 
out the men had got inside the gate and fired at us two 
or three times, but the distance or the darkness prevent- 
ed their taking good aim, and nobody was hurt. I then 
returned and got the passengers into the hotel. Soon 
after I walked out upon the platform with another gen- 
tleman, and then we saw two men with guns' coming from 
the armory. They walked past us towards the office 
where the negro Sheppard lay. As they reached the 
railroad bridge they called to us, .but we could not un- 
derstand what they said. Then we put the lights out in 
the hotel and watched from the windows. Soon after 
an old man named Grice, whom they had taken on the 
Shenandoah bridge, came up from the armory, and 
wanted to come in, but I sent him to the office where 
Capt. Phelps was. Afterwards I learned that he had 
been let out on condition of his going straight home, 
because of his age. He said he was directed by the 
men who had released him to tell the hotel keeper and 
railroad agent that nobody here should be harmed if 
they kept the peace and made no. resistance. About 



22 

three o'clock we saw a large four-horse wagon and a 
two-horse buggy (Col. Washington's) driven past and 
taken into the armory yard. We concluded then that 
a gang of robbers were plundering the armory, where 
I knew there was a large sum of money. We could 
hear them at work loading or unloading in the armory, 
and an hour later the wagon was driven out with four 
men in it, and two or three following with guns. I 
recognized one of the men as a man named Cook, who 
had lived around here and married his wife in this 
town. He was here on Friday last, and I saw him 
talking a long time with our boy, the one who was so 
anxious to see the gypsy wagon. At day-light, Dr. 
Starry started for Charles Town to get help, and after 
that from time to time we could see citizens coming up 
to the armory gates, one at a time, and taken in as 
prisoners. I saw a negro boy leave the yard and come 
to the hotel bringing a note which was directed to the 
hotel keeper, or clerk of. the Wager House, and read 
thus: "October 17 — You will furnish forty-five men 
with a good breakfast. Capt. Smith." I determined 
then to go to the yard. I went to the gate and two 
mulattoes conducted me to "Capt. Smith," who spoke 
very politely. He said, "I am Capt. Smith, I want 
prepared a breakfast for forty-five men." He took 
me into one of the shops and showed me a number of 
citizens whom he had captured, and asked me if I knew 
them. I said I did. Then he said he wanted breakfast 
for forty-five men, including these, my friends, as soon 
as possible. I told him I would do the best I could, 



23 

but it would have to be rather rough, as we had not 
expected anything like this, and were not prepared. 
Capt. Phelps then came into the yard and was brought 
to Capt. Smith. He annealed to him in the strongest 
terms to allow him to nass with the -train, saying he had 
women and children who were frightened nearly to 
death, and if he would let them pass they would do 
nothing to trouble him. Brown then said he could pass 
if he would hold his peace and say nothing along the 
route that anything was going on here, and he would 
go to the bridge himself and see that the train went 
through safely. Brown then came to the bridge and the 
passengers got on as fast as possible, and the train left. 
I went to some of the passengers and begged them to 
make an alarm, and have a military company sent here 
as soon as possible. Before leaving the armory, Brown 
told me thev came here to free the slaves, and said 
although he had so small a force he could have thou- 
sands as soon as he said the word. Said he, I am a mil- 
itary man, and I came here to free the slaves of your 
surrounding country, and I take possession of this 
government property and arms to assist me in doing so. 
I can have five thousand men here in less than twenty- 
four hours at my call. He gave me leave to pass back- 
ward and forward if I would keep quiet, and if not he 
would take possession of the hotel. Everyone supppos- 
ed of course he had a large force at hand. After the 
train left the bridge was still guarded, and Brown's men 
were marching backward and forward. I told Brown 
I could get him breakfast but only water to drink. He 



24 

said he must have coffee because he felt fatigued, and I 
must bring it immediately to the Armory yard. I ac- 
cordingly prepared breakfast and took it over in a 
basket. They all ate but Brown himself, who took good 
care not to touch it. I had intended to prepare a 
special breakfast for him as he treated me so genfe- 
manly, but I forgot it. I laughed and joked with him, 
deeming it best not to seem to fear him. After break- 
fast Col. Washington asked me to take care or bis 
horses, and said I might put them in the stable at the 
hotel. He then said, "There is another horse, pointing 
to his own, which was standing in the yard — I will put 
the horse in your stable ; keep him till I call lot him." 
I don't think he will call soon. I asked him about pay 
for the breakfast, and he said he should want dinner for 
200 men, and he would pay for the whole then. One 
of our servants, the one I spoke of as wanting to see the 
gypsies, appeared to know him very well, and had con- 
versation with him in the engine house. He had gone 
with me to carry the breakfast very willingly, though 
the other servants bung hack, and when I ordered him 
to take the breakfast things back to the hotel, he said 
he would when he got ready, and I must understand 
he was as much boss as I was. This amused old Brown, 
who laughed at me, and I told him there was no nigger 
blood in me, at all events. This boy was a slave belong- 
ing to some heirs, but has been doing for himself and 
counted free for some time. The fellow left on Wednes 
day and has not been seen since. He went away be- 
en use he knew, I suppose, that there were plenty around 



25 

who would take a crack at hini if they got a chance. 
His name was Charles Williams. About twelve o'clock 
I learned that the Charles Town Company had arrived^ 
and then I felt we were safe. T went and looked out 
of the window, and saw just then a shot fired at one of 
Brown's men, whose name is Stevens, and saw him fall. 
The shot was fired from the Gait House by Capt. Geo. 
W. Chambers. Thev called to me that they had spare 
guns, and asked me to come over. I went over, and as 
I passed seized Steven's rifle, which lay by his side. I 
tried also to get his pistol, they fired at me, and the 
bullets came too thick. The Charles Town Company 
had the bridge and called me to them, but I thought they 
were Brown's men, and ran into the hotel with the gun. 
After this, one of Brown's men got into the hotel by 
some means and demanded the gun, but just then the 
Charles Town men came through the hotel, and the 
man got out at the back way without any gun. Stevens, 
the wounded man. was then brought in, and another fel- 
low named Thompson was brought in a prisoner, and 
placed in the parlor tied hand and foot. All this time 
a sharp firing was kept up. About three o'clock Hey- 
ward Sheppard, the colored man, they shot in the 
morning died. Mr. Beckham, the agent, was greatly 
excited at his death, as the old man had had him ten 
or twelve years, and liked him very much. He went to 
the railroad platform beyond the railroad station, once, 
and was pulled back, but he went again, his hands in 
his pockets, and "-ot some distance beyond the water 
station, when they shot him through the heart. He fell 



26 

and never moved again. The man who shot him from 
the door of the engine house, was himself shot a moment 
afterwards by a Harper's Ferry man. 

Consternation Among the Passengers. 

The passengers, especially the ladies, were greatly 
alarmed, and feared the party was a gang of robbers, 
who intended to rob the Government Treasury which 
contains $15,000 and might also rob them. The infor- 
mation is that the rifles were brought down from the 
works on the Shenandoah, and the parties at the Ferry 
were armed with them, and the wagons which brought 
them down afterwards drove off with outsiders, and it 
was supposed, when the train left, that they had taken 
off the treasure in the wagon. The band appeared to 
be well drilled, and Capt. Anderson had entire control, 
as his men were very obedient to his orders. 
Cause of the Outbreak. 

This puzzles everybody. Some of the passengers, 
with whom we conversed, were of the opinion that the 
object was one of plunder, and others that the entire 
affair has resulted from malice. The Captain of the 
outlaws makes use of such expressions as these : "If 
you knew me and understood my motives as well as I 
and others understand them, you would not blame me 
much/' Again — "If you knew my heart and history, 
you would not blame me." But from the fact that ne- 
groes principally are in the fray, there can be no possi- 
ble doubt of its abolition aspect. 

Dismal Appearance of the Town. 

A gentleman from New York, who came a passen- 



27 

ger says: "Every light in the town had been previously 
extinguished by the lawless mob. The train therefore 
remained stationary, and the passengers, terribly af- 
frighted, remained in the cars all night. The hotels 
were closed and no entrance could be had into them. 
All the streets were in possession of tire mob, and every 
road, lane and avenue leading to the town guarded or 
barricaded by them. 
Statement of Conductor Phelps and His Officers. 
The following particulars of the affair have been 
obtained from the train, viz: Mr. Andrew J. Phelps, 
conductor; Mr. Jacob Cromwell, baggage-master; Wil- 
liam Wooley, engineer. They state that their train 
(the regular passenger train from the West) reached 
a point near the bridge at Harper's Ferry at 20 min- 
utes of one o'clock this morning, when it was stopped. 
They were informed by the night bridge tender that 
when he proceeded to relieve his colleague he discovered 
that the light on the bridge had been extinguished, and 
that his colleague had been murdered or waylaid. He 
was not left long in a state of suspense, as three men 
suddenly came upon him with violent outcries, which 
caused him to flee, whereupon the parties discharged 
firearms at him, which fortunately did not take effect. 
It further appeared that a colored man, well known as 
a baggage assistant upon reaching the Ferry was also 
shot at, several balls penetrating his back, inflicting 
wounds of a mortal character. At first Conductor 
Phelps was at a loss to act, and concluded to t send 
over a person to the vicinity of the Ferry to ascertain 



the cause of the proceedings, when the leader of the 
party, a man of rather prepossessing appearance, and 
supposed to he nearly 60 years of age, appeared, and 
stated that he preferred holding communication with 
the conductor. Mr. Phelps went over alone and was 
told by the same man that he and his party had deter- 
mined not to allow another train to pass over the road, 
but that they would give him five to ten minutes to get 
his train through. 

In the meantime, other persons from the train ven- 
tured across the bridge above the Ferry, and soon com- 
ing into contact with the rioters, (who were reputed at 
about two hundred in number, half of whom seemed 
to be black) one of the party, a passenger, was cap- 
tured. The train was delayed by the proceedings until 
half past six o'clock, when steam was raised and they 
reached Camden station, at Baltimore, at noon. 

Opon the train leaving. Mr. Phelps was particularly 
requested by the leader of the gang to state to the 
superintendent of the road, that under no circumstances 
would another train be permitted to pass Harpers Fer- 
ry. During the night a large two-horse wagon, laden 
with wheat came in from one of the neighboring coun- 
ties of the Siate. The rimers immediately seized the 
drivers, took possession el' the wheat and loading the 
vehiele with weapons from the Armory, sent it back up 
the country. 

The engineer elates that ainongsi them there were 
several strapping negroes vvho occasionally shouted out 
that they Longed for liberty, as they had been in bondage 



29 

long enough. The rin^ leader, who it is said is named 
Anderson, made his appearance at Harper's Ferry jive 
or six years ago and since that time has been driving 
around the place in an elegant barouche drawn by two 
horses. 

The officers report that the United States Armory 
and the neighboring country have been taken possession 
of by the rioters, all of whom are well armed with 
Sharp's rifles and other United - States arms. When 
the workmen of the Armory repaired there for the pur- 
pose of resuming work they were seized by the parties, 
forcibly dragged, within the gates and imprisoned. A 
number of the party proceeded to the proprietor of the 
hotel ,near the Armory, and in an authoritative tone 
ordered b'reakfast for fifty or sixty persons, adding that 
they were determined to keep possession of the place, 
and live in the best manner. 

More of the Bloody War. 

Samuel K. Thomas, one of the conductors of the 
railroad, and engaged in the storming of the paymaster's 
office, displayed unparalleled feats. He stood within 
fifty feet of the building, exposed to the fire of those 
within, and loaded and fired nearly some half a dozen 
times. His coat was perforated with ball, and the skin 
cut from the flesh of his person by the shot. His pres- 
ervation from instant death seems miraculous. 

Aaron D. Stevens, a captain of the rioters, shot 
at the bridge, was taken into the Carroll Hotel, where 
his dreadful wounds were dressed by Dr. McGarrity. 
Heavy bullets passed through his breast, head and one 



31 

arm. He said to those around him that as he expected 
to die before morning, he wanted somebody to telegraph 
to his father, at Norwich, Conn., to say to him that his 
Brown died at Harper's Ferry in an attempt at high 
treason against the State of Virginia. He is represent- 
ed as a remarkably fine looking man, six feet six 
inches high, and possessed of great nerve. While lying 
in bed a number of the outraged citizens crowded into 
the room and attempted to dispatch him, pointing 
cocked muskets at his head, but Stevens, as he lay help- 
less, folded his arms, and looked them calmly m the 
eye, without uttering a word. 

Slaves were sent into Maryland, to bring the arms 
deposited at Brown's house there to a point nearer the 
Ferry and more accessible. During Monday a large 
portion of the arms, consisting of carbines, pistols, in 
boxes, and pikes, were brought off in the wagon and 
deposited in a school house about a mile from the vil- 
lage of Harper's Ferry, on the Maryland side. The 
first alarm that was given, indicating the presence of the 
hostile party, appears to have been on the arrival there 
of the mail train of cars on the Baltimore and Ohio 
railroad, on its way from Wheeling to Baltimore, and 
which arrived at Harper's Ferry at its usual hour, about 
half past one in the morning. On the arrival of 
Brown's parfv. he had stationed two men, well armed, 
on the bridge, with directions to permit none to pass. 
This bridge is a viaduct for the railroad to cross the 
river, having connected with it a bridge for ordinary 
travel. Wnen the train arrived, it was arrested by this 



32 

guard, and very soon afterwards, a negro named Hay- 
ward, a free man, who lived at Harpers Ferry and was 
in the service of the Eailroad Company as a porter, was 
shot by this guard, and died in a few hours. His 
statement was, as shown in the testimony, of Dr. John 
D. Starrer, one of the witnesses, "that he had been out 
looking, on the railroad bridge, after a watchman wiio 
was missing, and he had been ordered to halt, by some 
men who were there; and instead of doing that, he 
turned- to go back to the office, and was shot m the 
back." When daylight came, as the inhabitants left 
their houses, consisting chiefly of workmen and others 
employed in the public works, on their way to their 
usual occupations, and unconscious of what had o'.cuvred 
during the night they were seized in the streets by 
Brown's men and carried as prisoners to the engine 
house, until, with those previously there they amounted 
to some thirty or forty in number. Pikes wen; put 
in the hands of such of the slaves as they b.id taken 
and they were kept under the eyes of their captors, as 
sentinels, near the buildings they occupied. But their 
movements being conducted at night, it was not until the 
morning was well advanced that the presence and char- 
acter of the party was generally known in the ullage. 
The nearest towns to Harper's Ferry were Charles town, 
Shepherdstown and Martinsburg, the latter 20 miles. 
As soon as information could reach these points, the 
citizens assembled, hurriedly enrolled themselves into 
military bands, and with such arms as they could find, 
proceeded to the Ferry. Before their arrival, however. 



33 

it would seem that some four or five of the marauders, 
who were stationed at Hall's rifle works, were driven 
out by the citizens of the village, and either killed or 
captured. In the course of the day, an attack was 
made on the engine and watch-house by those a r med 
citizens of the adjoining country who had thus hurried- 
ly arrived, and the prisoners in the watch-house, aomin- 




ATTACK BY CITIZENS. 



ing the engine-house, were liberated. The attacking 
parties were fired on by marauders in the engine 
house, and some were severely wounded. It should 
have been stated that during the night Brown selected 
ten of those whom he considered the principal men of 
his prisoners, and carried them into the engine house, 
where they were detained. The rest thus left in the 
watch-house were those who were liberated during the at- 
tack spoken of. The engine house was a strong build- 
ing, and was occupied by Brown with seven or eight of 



34 



his men. During the day it appears that all of Brown's 
party, who were not with him in the engine-house, were 
either killed or captured, except those who were on the 
Maryland side engaged in removing the arms, as above 
stated. Before however they were thus captured or de- 
stroyed, they shot and killed two persons, citizens of 
Virginia, in the streets. One of them, a man named 
Boerly, who lived in the village, by a rifle shot, near his 
own house. He had taken no part in any of the attacks, 
and does not appear even to have been armed. The 
other, Mr. George W. Turner, was a gentleman who 
lived in the country some ten miles distant, and who 
it appears, had gone to the village upon information that 
his neighbor, Mr. Washington, had been seized in his 
house and carried off during the night. It would seem 
that, for his safety, he had taken a gun offered to him 
by some oue in the village, and was proceeding along the 
street, unattended, with it in his hand, when he also 
was killed by a rifle ball. The party immediately under 
Brown remained barricaded in the engine house during 
the whole of that day. Monday. They had confined with 
them ten most respectable and valued citizens, kept, as 
stated by Brown, in the nature of "hostages,'* for the 
security of his own party, he assuming that a regard for 
the safety *of the "hostages" would deter their friends 
and neighbors from attempting their rescue by force. 
During the day an irregular fire was kept up against 
the engine house by the people who assembled, and 
which was returned by the party within through loop- 
holes made in the wall, or through the doorway, martially 



35 

opened. In this maneuver two of Brown's men were 
killed at the doorway ; and in the afternoon a gentkman 
of the village, Mayor Beckam, was killed by a shot from 
the engine house. It was clearly shown that he was 
entirely unarmed, and had exposed his person only for 
an instant on the railroad bridge opposite to the engine 
house. As soon as intelligence could be conveyed to 
Washington, of the state of things at Harper's Ferry, 
the marines on duty at the navy yard were ordered to 
the scene of action, under the command of Col. Kobert 
E. Lee, of the army. 

Col. Washington's Statement. 
Col. Lewis Washington, who is a great nephew to 
George Washington, gives the following account of his 
arrest and imprisonment : "Between one and lwo 
o'clock on Sunday night I was in bed at my home, five 
or six miles from Harper's Ferry. I was awakened by 
hearing my name called in the hall. I supposed it was 
some friends arrived, who, being acquainted with the 
house, had come in through the kitchen without making 
any noise. I got up and opened the door into the hall, 
and before me stood four men, three armed with Sharp's 
rifles, levelled and cocked, and the fourth, this man 
Stevens, with a revolver in his right hand, and in his 
left a lighted flambeau; made of pine whittlings. As I 
opened the door one of the men said, "Is your name 
Washington?" Says I, "that's my name." Pexhaps 
Cook, who was one of the crowd, also identified me, as 
he told me afterwards, he was taken there for that pur- 
pose. I was then told that I was a prisoner, and one 



37 

of them said, "Don't be frightened." I replied, "Do 
you see anything that looks like fright about me." "No," 
he said, "I only want to say that if you surrender and 
come with us freely you are safe." I told them I under- 
stand that sufficiently, and there was no necessity for 
further explanation. But I was struck with the number 
of men sent against me, and asked what need there was 
of so many, as there was no danger of an unarmed man 
in his night shirt resisting an armed force. I was told 
to put on my clothes, and of course complied. "Per- 
haps/' said I, "while I am dressing you will be so good 
as to tell me what all this means." I inquired what the 
weather was outside, and one of them advised me to put 
on an overcoat, as it was rather chilly. Another said 
they wanted my arms, and I opened the gun-chest for 
them to help themselves. They then explained their 
mission which they represented to be purely philan- 
thropic, to- wit : the emancipation of all the slaves in the 
country. After I was dressed Stevens said to me, "Have 
you got any money?" I replied, "I wish I had a great 
deal." "Be careful, sir," said he. I told him if I had 
any money I knew how to take care of it, and he could 
not get it. Said he, "Have you a watch?" My reply 
was, "I have, but you cannot have it. You have set 
yourselves up as great moralists and liberators of slaves ; 
now it appears that you are robbers as well." "Be care- 
ful, sir," said he again. I told him I was dressed and 
ready to go. They bade me wait a short time, and my 
carriage would be at the door. They had ordered my 
carriage for me, and pried open the stable door to get 



38 

it out. They had harnessed the horses on the wrong 
side of each other, and I tried to induce them to cor- 
rect the mistake, which thev did after driving a short 
distance; but still, being harnessed wrong, and rather 
spirited animals, they would not work well. My servant, 
whom they had forced along, was driving. I suspected 
they were only robbers, and was expecting all along 
that they would turn off at some point, but they drove 
directly to the Armory. Brown came out and invited 
me in, saying there was a comfortable fire, and I shortly 
afterwards met with Mr. Allstadt, whom they had ar- 
rested on the way and brought along in my buggy wag- 
on. While coming along, the horses being restive, I 
got out and walked up a hill with one of the men, who 
took occasion to ask my views on the subject of slavery 
in the abstract. I declined an argument on the subject, 
but he still pressed it unon me, and I was obliged to 
refuse the second time. "Brown told us to make our- 
selves comfortable," and added, "By and by I shall re- 
quire each of you gentlemen to write to some of your 
friends to send a stout negro man in your places.'*' This 
was by way of ransom. He told us he must see the let- 
ter before it was sent, and he thought after this was 
effected they could make an arrangement by which we 
could return home. I determined in my own mind not 
to make the requisition, but he never made application 
for it. having other matters before the day expired at- 
tracting his attention. My sword, which had been pre- 
sented by Frederick the (J rent to General Washington, 
was taken from my house, with other arms. This man 



39 

Cook had been at my house sometime before and seen 
the arms, and at this time I beat him at shooting, and 
he told me I was the best shot he had ever met. On 
the way to Harper's Ferry he asked me if I had shot any 
since that time, and said he owed me an apology for 
being with this party, after being so well treated by me. 
I told him that it was of no consequence about the 
apology, but I would ask one favor of him, which was 
to use his influence to have returned to me the old sword 
and an. old pistol which, in the present improved state 
of arms, were only valuable in consideration of their 
history. He promised to attend to it, and shortly after 
reaching the Armory I found this sword in old Brown's 
hands. Said Brown, "I will take special care of it, and 
shall endeavor to return it to you after you are released." 
He carried the sword in his hands all day Monday until 
after the arrival of the military. Upon the first an- 
nouncement of the arrival of the militia Brown came 
into the room and picked out ten of us whom he supposed 
to be the most prominent men. He told u.4 we might 
be assured of good treatment, because in cay? he got 
the worst of it in this fight, the possession of us would 
be of service in procuring good terms ; we could exercise 
great influence with our fellow citizens, and as for me, 
he knew if I was out I should do my duty, and in my 
position as aid to the Governor I should be a most dan- 
gerous foe. Then we were taken into the engine house 
and closely confined. Two of our number wnf back- 
wards and forward repeatedly, to confer with citizens 
during the various negotiations, and finally remained 



40 

out altogether, leaving the eight who were iubide when 
the building was finally assaulted and captured by the 
marines. During Monday various terms of capitulation 
were proposed and refused, and at night we requested 
our friends to cease firing during the night, as, if the 
place should be stormed in the dark, friends and foes 
would have to share alike. In the morning Col. Shrivcr 
of Frederick, announced the arrival of the United States 
Marines. During the night he had brought in Dr. Ty- 
ler, of Frederick, to look at the wounds of old Brown's 
son. The surgeon looked at the man and promised to 
attend him in the morning, if practicable, but about the 
time he was expected hostilities had commenced. Col. 
Lee, who commanded the United States forces, sent up 
Lieut. Stuart to announce to Brown that the only tcn^s 
he would offer for surrender were that he and his men 
should be taken to a place of safety and kept unmolested 
until the will of the President could be ascertained. 
Brown's reply was to the effect that he eculd expect no 
leniency and he would sell his life as dearly as possible. 
A few minutes later the place was assaulted and taken. 
In justice to Brown, I will say that he advised the pris- 
oners to keep well under shelter during the tiring, and 
at no time did he threaten to massacre us or place us in 
front in case of assault. It was evident he did not ex- 
pect the attack so soon. There was no cry of ''surren- 
der" in his party except from one young man, and then 
Brown said "only one surrenders." This "e!low r after 
he saw the Marines, said he would prefer to take his 
chance of a trial at Washington. He had t'iken his 



41 

position and fired one or two shots when he ciied "sur- 
render." There were four of Brown's party able to 
fight when the Marines attacked, besides a negro, making 
five in all'. This negro was very bold at first, but when 
the assault was made he took off his accoutrements and 
tried to mingle with the prisoners and pass himself off 
as one of them. I handed him over to the Marines at 
once, saying he was a prisoner then at all events/' 
How the Slaves Received Brown's Proposition. 
A negro boy belonging to Col. Lewis Washington, 
who was taken by the insurgents at the time his master 
was, when he reached the Ferry was offered a Pike which 
he refused, When one of the insurgents told him that ho 
was free and should fight the whites, the -boy replied, 
"I don't know anything about being free. I was iree 
enough before you took me, and 1 am not going to figho 
until I see Massa Lewis fighting, and then I fight for 
him." This boy was among the prisoners in the engine 
house. 

Ripening of the Plot. 
A fortnight or more prior to the occurrence which 
has resulted so fatally, Cook accompanied by Stevens, 
who it has subsequently been ascertained, had a Cap- 
tains commission among the insurgents, and was quite 
influential among them appeared at the residence of 
Col.. Lewis Washington and requested permission to see 
his cabinet curiosities, and library. The roquest was 
readily granted, and during the conversations which 
their visit gave rise to, the theme of skil 1 in the use 



42 

of fire arms was introduced, and Cook proposed to test 
his excellence as a shot, with that of Col. Washington. 
The match was made up, and resulted in the defeat of 
Cook, who expressed much surprise at the skill of his 
competitor. On the Sunday night of his capture, Col. 
Washington recognized Cook among the party and up- 
braided him for the cowardice of the proceedings. The 
latter said he regretted the affair, but he could not help 
it. As the party were about to leave the house, Cook 
whispered to Stevens, the leader of the party, who then 
immediately demanded of him the key of his cabinet. 
It was yielded up in preference to having the costly fur- 
niture broken, as threatened in the event of a refusal, 
and the insurgents took therefrom a valuable sword and 
pistol, formerly the property of Gen. George Washing- 
ton, the former presented him by Frederick the Great, 
and the latter by G^n. Lafayette ; he also demanded the 
purse and watch of Col. Washington, which was indig- 
nantly refused. On Monday the Colonel observed the 
sword in possesison of Capt. Brown, who paced the floor 
with the weapon on his arm every moment that he was 
not engaged in shooting at the citizens and soldiers. He 
expressed to Col. Washington his high admiration of the 
character of the original owner of the sword, and assured 
him that it would be restored to him at the termination 
of the affair. During the bloody transaction of Tuesday 
morning, the sword lay upon one of the two engines 
which occupied the house in which the insurgents had 
entrenched themselves, and at, the conclusion of the at- 
tack, Col. Washington repossessed himself of the relic; 
the pistol, however, was not returned yet. 



43 

Testimony of John H. Allstadt. 
I am fifty-one years old, am a farmer and reside 
two and a half miles above Harper's Ferry. The first 
intimation, I had of them was a rapping at our chamber 
door, on the morning of the 17th of October, 1859, about 
3 o'clock. I was in bed. I immediately got up and 
inquired who was there they told me to open the door 
directly or they would burn mem I did not open the 
door, but at that moment they bursted the door open 
with a rail. The door was locked. When the door was 
bursted open I could see out. I had gotten up by that 
time, and my wife had gotten up also. I tried to shut 
the door. I saw five or six men with arms, rifles, stand- 
ing right at the door, but three of them came into the 
room and told me to dress myself directly. I asked 
them their object. They told me they intended to free 
the country of slavery. I asked them what they were 
going to do with me. They said they were going to take 
me to Harper's Ferry ; that they had the Armory in their 
possession, and said they had Col. Washington. They 
asked me if there were any more men about the house. 
None but my son, sail 1. In the meantime my so'i had 
come clown stairs, and they seized him by the collar and 
held him until I dressed myself. My son is 18 years 
old. I dressed myseLf and went to lh.p door, they had 
all my black men and boys tbero, waiting f r>r me and 
my son. There were seven of my slaves. We were or- 
dered out to the pike, and ordered to get into a four- 
horse wagon. I recognized the wagon to be Col. Wash- 
ington's. They said Col. Washington was right m front 



44 

of us in his carriage. We were driven to Harper's Ferry 

into the Armory yard. John Brown delivered us to a 

man who took us into the watch-house. 

Order to Ool. John T. Qibson. , 

Immediately upon the information of the Adjutant 

General, the following order was sent to Col. John T. 

Gibson : 

Richmond, Va., Oct. 17, 1859. 

Col. John T. Gibson, 55th Regiment, Charles Town, 
Jefferson County, Va. 
Sir: The commander-in-chief calls your attention 
to the provisions of the first sections of chapter twenty- 
nine of the code and directs that you call out immediate- 
ly a sufficient force from your Regiment to put down 
the rioters at Harper's Ferry. The commander-in-chief 
is informed that the arsenal and government property 
at that place are in possession of a band of rioters. You 
will act promptly and fully in this emergency, and com- 
mand the troops called out in person. By command of 

W. H. RICHARDSON, 
Adjutant General. 
Wholesale Massacre. 
A party of five insurgents armed with Minnie rifles, 
and posted in the Rifle Armory, it is said, were expelled 
by the Charles Town Guards. They all ran £pi the 
river, and one who was unable to swim, was drowned. 
The other four swam out to the rocks in the middle of 
the Shenandoah and fired upon the citizens and troops 
upon both banks. This drew upon them the muskets of 
between two and three hundred men, and not less than 



45 

400 shots were fired at them from Harpers Fferry, about 
200 yards distant. One was finally shot dead. The 
second, a negro, attempted to jump over the dam but 
fell short, and was not seen afterwards. The third 




VOLUNTEERS SHOOTING INSURGENTS. 

was badly wounded, and the remaining one was taken 
unharmed. The white insurgent wounded and captur- 
ed, died in a few minutes afterwards. He was shot 
through the breast, arm and stomach. He declared there 
were only nineteen whites engaged in the insurrection. 
The Town Approached on Every Side. 
The Shepherdstown Company, Hamtramek Guards, 
Capt. V. M. Butler, approached the town, over the hill, 
by the Bolivar road. The Frederick (Va.) company by 
the Shenandoah river way; and the Jefferson County 
company came down the Potomac river road ; while the 
Frederick, Md., companies and Baltimore Volunteers 
approached the town from across the railroad bridge. 



46 

Incidents of the First Battle— Interesting Statement 
of an Eye-Witness. 

A gentleman who witnessed the scene describes the 
storming of the bridge and town. The first attack was 
made by a detachment of the Charles Town, Va., Guard*. 
They crossed the Potomac river above Harper's Ferry, 
and reacted the building where the insurgents were post- 
ed, by the canal, on the Maryland side. A smart firing 
occurred, and the rioters were driven from the bridge. 
One man was killed here and anouier arrested. A man 
ran out of the building and tried to escape by swimming 
the river. A dozen shots were fired after him, and he 
partially fell, but rose again, threw his gun away and 
drew his pistol. Both snapped and he drew a bowie 
knife, cut his heavy accountrements off and plunged 
into the river. One of the soldiers was about ten feet 
behind, the man turned around, threw up his hands 
and said "don't shoot." The soldier fired and the man 
fell into the river with his face blown away. His. coat 
skirts were cut from his person, and in the pockets was 
found a Captain's commisison to Captain E. H. Leeman, 
from the Provisional Government. The commission 
was dated October 15, 1859, and signed by A. W. Brown, 
commander-in-chief of the Army of the Provisional Gov- 
ernment, of the United States. For nearly an hour run- 
ning and random firing was kept up by the troops 
against the rioters. Several were shot down, and many 
managed to limp away wounded. During the firing the 
women and children ran shrieking in every direction, 
but when they learned that the soldiers were their pro- 



47 



tectors they took courage, and did good service in, the 
way of preparing refreshments and attending the 

wounded. 

Our informant, who was on the hill when the firing 
was going on. says all the terrible scenes of a battle pass- 
ed in reality beneath his eyes. Soldiers could be seen 
pursuing singly and in couples and the crack of the 
musket and rifle was generally followed by one or more 
of the insurgents biting the dust. The dead lay on the 
streets where they fell. The wounded cared for. 
An Object of Horror. 
Within twenty steps of the engine-house, and in 
full sight of beseiged and beseigers, lay stretched along 
the pavement the body of a very fair mulatto, one of 
the insurgents, who, after inflicting several wounds upon 
several citizens with his Sharp's rifle and revolver, was 
shot by a young man of Harper's Ferry named Kirk 
Hammond. The wretch had been struck in two places 
in the breast and side of the throat, the latter wounds 
a most hideous one, gaping open quite large enough 
to admit the fore part of an ordinary sized foot. 
Killed and "Wounded. 
Killed Mayor F. Beckham, railroad agent; Hay- 
ward Sheppard, colored- porter at the railroad station; 
Thomas Boerly, grocer; Wm. Richardson, of Martins- 
burg; Geo. W. Turner, of Charles Town; Wm. Brown, 
son°of "old Brown," insurgent ; Stewart Taylor, insur- 
gent; J. C. Anderson, insurgent; E. H. Leeman, insur- 
gent; Albert Hazlett, insurgent; and several colored 
men; Dorsey, of Baltimore, and a Mr. McCabe, of Har- 
per's Ferry. 



48 

Wounded — Ossawatamie (old) Brown, and second 
son, insurgents ; Allen Evans, mortally, insurgent ; Pri- 
vate Quinn, IT. S. Marine, mortally; another Marine, 
slightly; Alex. Kelly, Martinsburg, slightly; G. N". 
Hammond, Martinsburg, slightly ; Geo. H. Murphy, , 
Martinsburg, slightly; Geo. M. Richardson, Martins- 
burg, slightly; Nelson Hooper and Clinton Bowman, 
also of Martinsburg. 

Colonel Lee to the Secretary of War 

Harper's Ferry Arsenal, Oct. 19, 1859. 

Upon a more deliberate examination of the wounds 
of 0. Brown, they are believed not to be mortal. He 
has three wounds, but they are not considered by the 
surgeon as bad as first reported. Please direct me what 
to do with him and the other white prisoners. I am, 
very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

B. E. LEE, Colonel Commanding. 
Hon. Secretary of War, Washington, D. C. 
Condition of the "Wounded. 

Adam B. Stevens, who was shot in the face and 
breast, on Monday, is sinking rapidly, his recovery is 
impossible. Old Brown is but slightly wounded; he 
owes his life to a trepidation which shook his heart at 
the last moment and made him fall almost unharmed 
at the feet of Lieut. Green. Col. Washington told us 
that while the Marines were hammering at the door, 
he said to him, "Brown, they are battering down the 
walls ; in one minute more they will enter, and you will 
be cut to pieces." He informed us that old Brown 
perceptibly quailed at this, and offered but little resist- 



• 



49 

ance afterwards, firing but one shot off of the twenty- 
five which were at his command. 

Col. Washington made a narrow escape from death. 
He was cheering on the Marines, and pointing out 
Brown, who stood beside him, to Lieut. Green, when 
one of the Marines mistaking his shouts for words of 
encouragement to the insurgents, leveled his piece at 
him and was about to fire, when he discovered his error. 
In the pocket of Brown was found, besides a number of 
letters, an envelope upon which was the following mem- 
orandum : "Jacob Fiery (!) 3 miles south of Hagers- 
town, widow of Kennedy, at Sharpsburg, on the way to 
Hagerstown." 

We give Uteratum et punctuatim,, the following 
scrap written by Watson Brown who was seriously 
wounded by one of the Martmsi-urg men, and found on 
the floor of the engine, house immediately after the 
storming: "Fight on, fight on, you Hell Kown of the 
Lower Begions! Your day has come. Lower your 
black flag, shout you Dogs, you Devils. Hell and 
furies go in for Death." 

Slave Insurrection at Harper's Ferry. 

Great Excitement. 

The Armory Seized and Trains Stopped. 

Cars Fired Into. 

A 7 irginia and Maryland Military Ordered Out. 

Citizens Killed and Others taken Prisoners. 

Blood Shed and Lives Lost. 

The Insurrectionists Bouted. 

Part of them Flee to the Mountains. 



50 

The Commander-in-chief of the Insurgents Cap- 
tured, &c, &c. 

The following dispatches were sent from Frederick, 
Md., to Baltimore, the wires at Harper's Ferry being 
cut east and west, at 2 o'clock, Monday morning, Octo- 
ber 17, 1859 : * 

Frederick, Oct. 17, 1859. — Information has just 
been received here this morning of a formidable negro 
insurrection at Harper's Ferry. An armed band of 
Abolitionists have full possession of Harper's Ferry an<d. 
the United States Arsenal. The express train east was 
fired into twice, and one of the hands, a negro, was 
killed whilst trying to get the train through the town. 

They have arrested two men who came with a load 
of wheat and took their wagon and loaded it with rifles, 
and sent them into Maryland. They are led by about 
fifty whites with a gang of negroes fighting for their 
freedom. They gave Conductor Phelps notice that they 
would not allow any more trains to pass. 

Residents Imprisoned— Citizens Killed. 

Frederick, Md., Oct. 17, 1859.— The engine and 
train from here have just returned, being unable to 
proceed through Harper's Ferry. A letter has just 
been received here from a merchant in Harper's Ferry, 
which was sent by two boys who had to swim the river 
to escape the insurrectionists. The letter states that 
most all of the leading people of Harper's Ferry 
were taken prisoners, and that several have been killed. 
The robbers have all the works in their possession, and 
have taken the money from the vaults. The Powder 



51 

house is in their possession, and they will not permit 
any one to leave the town. 

Mayor F. Beckham, the railroad agent, was shot 
twice by the gang and killed. They are said to be dis- 
guised, the whites being painted as blacks. The attack 
was first made about 12 o'clock last night. The watch- 
man at the railroad depot was shot dead. 

The Excitement in Baltimore. 

The bulletin boards of the newspapers were beseiged 
by anxious crowds the livelong day. "What's the news ?" 
was on every lip, and the utmost eagerness manifested 
everywhere to hear something. 

Rush of Volunteers. 

The rush of volunteers at the various armories, was 
absolutely immense. Every vacant uniform in some 
of the companies, of which any knowledge could be 
gained, was hunted up and filled an hour at least before 
starting. Hence, if any company in service is thin in 
its ranks, the cause is surely not the want of men, but 
of uniforms. One stalwart chap, at the armory of the 
Wells and McComas Eiflemen, begged piteously for a 
chance to go. His language was : "Captain, if you'll 
just let me go, dogged if I'll ever forget you. All I 
want is a rifle, and a fair shot, and I'll fetch 'em sure." 
But the Captain was heedless. 

Military Movement — The Bridge to Be Forced. 

Washington, Oct. 17. — On receipt of intelligence 
from Harper's Ferry this morning, orders were issued 
for three companies of artillery, at Old Point, and the 
corps of Marines, at the Washington barracks, to pro- 



52 

ceed thither without delay. The Marines, about 93 in 
number, with two twelve-pound Howitzers, and a full 
supply of ammunition, left on the 3 o'clock train this 
afternoon. It is reported that they are under orders to 
force the bridge at all hazards. Hon. C. J. Faulkner 
accompanied them. It is stated on good authority that 
some weeks ago Secretary Floyd received an anonymous 
epistle, stating that about the 16th of October, the 
Abolitionists and negroes, with other disaffected per- 
sons would make an attempt to seize the Arsenal and 
hold the place. This statement appeared so indefin- 
ite, impossible and ridiculous as to be regarded. as not 
worthy of any attention. 

State of Affairs at the Arrival of the Baltimore 
Troops. 

The train containing the Baltimore soldiery and 
the U. S. Marines, which left Baltimore at 5 o'clock 
on Monday, after creeping along the road at <t pace 
most tedious to the impatient spirits aboard, many of 
whom were sadly afraid that the town would be found 
plundered and deserted by the insurgents, reached San- 
dy Hook, a station about one mile east of Harper's 
Ferry, about 11 o'clock at night and was there halted. 
The intelligence which the military on board here re- 
ceived was well calculated to fire the blood of the 
coldest man, and scores of volunteers were for i^antlY 
pressing forward and attacking the building in which 
they learned the traitors had fortified themselves, when 
Col. Lee issued through Gen. Egerton positive orders 
that the troops, with the exception of the Marines and 



53 

the Independent Greys, should remain inactive. The 
Marines, after an half hour's delay or more, were march- 
ed across the bridge and posted in the arsenal yard , and 
the Greys ordered to relieve the Hamtramack Guards, 
Capt. Butler, of Shepherdstown, Va., in keeping guard 
over the entrance to the bridge. 

Disobedience of Orders. 

The instant upon the arrival of the train at Sandy 
Hook, several gentlemen proceeded forward with the 
intention of crossing over to the town. They were fol- 
lowed by W.Prescott Smith, and a companion, who were 
the first from Baltimore to cross the bridge. The first 
point to visit was the fortified position of the insurgents 
which was found entirely surrounded and carefully 
guarded by the United Guards of Frederick, whose com- 
mander, Capt. Thomas Linn, had but one instant before 
held a parley with the desperado Brown, and concluded 
a mutual agreement not to fire at each other during 
the remainder of the night. 

A Oold Watch. 

A cold penetrating rain had set in a few minutes 
before, rendering the outside watch duty most disagree- 
able, and in the event of a sally or attempt to escape, 
most dangerous, yet notwithstanding, the Frederick lads 
maintained their guard, with a perseverance and watch- 
fulness which would have defied every effort at escape. 

Defeat of the Insurgents— The Rioters Barricaded 
in the Armory. 

Harper's Ferry, 3 :15 a. m., Tuesday, 18th Oct. 
1859. — The town being in possession of the military, 



54 

the rioters are entrenched in the armory and hold Mr. 
Washington, Mr. Dangerfield, and others as prisoners. 
The insurrectionists were commanded by Capt. 
Brown, of Kansas' notoriety, who gave his name as 
Anderson, to Conductor Phelps. They numbered orig- 
inally seventeen white men and five negroes, but were 
reinforced during the day. Allen Evans, one of the in- 
surgents, a white man, is lying here dying, with a ball 
through his breast. He is from Connecticut, but has 
been in Kansas. He says the whole was got up by 
Capt. Brown, who represented that the negroes would 
rise by thousands, and Maryland ,and Virginia would 
be made free States. Col. Shriver, of Frederick City, 
Md., has just had an interview with Capt, Brown, in 
the armory. He asked to be allowed to march oul with 
his men, and avowed his intention to defend himself to 
the last. Tliev are very strongly pasted in the engine- 
house, and cannon cannot be used against them for 
fear of injuring the prisoners whom they still hold. 
Some sixteen persons are known to be killed. Mayor 
Fountain Beckham, the railroad agent, was shot dead 
from the Armory windows. Three rioters are lying- 
dead under the bridge, shot by the Shepherdstown 
troops, (Hamtramck Guards) in the charge on the 
bridge. 

The Armory was taken possesison of by the rioters 
about 9 o'clock on Sunday night, and was so quietly 
done that the citizens knew nothing of it until the train 
was stopped. Captain Brown had been about here and 
rented a farm four miles off, which was the rendezvous 



55 

of the rioters. Capt. Cook has also lived in the vicinity, 
and at one time taught school here. All the other 
white men are unknown, but are supposed to be men 
who have been connected with Capt. Brown in Kansas. 
Incidents of the Second Battle. 

Harper's Ferry, Oct. 18, 1859. — The town was 
thronged last night with military and rioters, and 
martial law prevailed throughout the entire community. 
No one could pass the bridge without arrest, unless 
permitted by Col. Shriver, commanding the Frederick- 
City military. The precaution was taken to prevent 
the possibility of escape of any of the disturbers of the 
peace of the town. Nearly the first object visible after 
passing the bridge was a dead negro lying outside the 
pavement with an ugly gash in his throat, and other 
wounds. No one seemed to notice him particularly, 
more than any dead animal. The citizens have not yet 
recovered from their astonishment at the Civil War 
which has so suddenly been engendered in their peace- 
ful community, nor their surprise at the boldness 
which characterizes the efforts of the conspirators 
who have so mysteriously alighted, full armed, in their 
midst. The insurgents are caged, however, after their 
work of violence and death, and me people with great 
anxiety awaited the results of the events of today. 
The Crisis. 

The anxiously looked for dawn of Tuesday morning 
broke slowly and dully, and throngs of citizens and 
soldiers crowded around the beseiged in ill-defined ex- 
pectation of the bloody traged}^ which they were assured 



56 

would ensue. About 6 o'clock the City Guard Battalion, 
Law Greys, and other troops of Baltimore, Hamtramck 
Guards of Shepherdstown, Charles Town Greys, and 
other troops, were assigned their positions. For half 
an hour or more the time was passed in disposing 600 
troops present in a manner entirely to surround the ar- 
senal yard, which was occupied exclusively by the Ma- 
rines — no one but a regular soldier or Marine being per- 
mitted within its gates. The Independent Greys were 
marched by Gen. Egerton to a position on the railroad 
bridge, directly facing the door of the engine house, 
and within range, though some thirty feet above the 
direct line of the fire which it was thought would be 
poured from the door when it should be broken open. 
The United Guard of Frederick occupied a position 
nearly at the iron gates of the armory yard. 

About 5 o'clock yesterday morning, the military 
companies, a part of which had been on duty at guard, 
during the night, were ordered out. The volunteers 
took possession of the streets surrounding the govern- 
ment buildings, and cleared them of spectators. The 
Marines were drawn up within the enclosure, under the 
command of Col. R. E. Lee, Lieutenant Stewart, of the 
army, and Major Russell, with their two Dahlgreen Im- 
pound Howitzers. The insurgents were in the engine 
room of the armory, a small building at the extreme 
end of the government works. They held as their pris- 
oners some half dozen negroes. One of the Baltimore 
companies, the Independent Greys, Lieut. Simpson, com- 
manding, occupied the railroad bridge directly in front 
of the unoccupied buildings. 



57 

The military companies of the adjoining towns and 
the Baltimore companies presented an imposing military 
display. The scene was exciting in the extreme. The 
most breathless suspense existed -for the half hour which 
preceded the attack. Death was anticipated, and the 
reckless daring of the few bold and foolish fanatics who 
set at defiance the authority of the general government 
and the whole military force in their view, created an 
intense indignation and a desire for the summary chas- 
tisement. The apprehensions for the safety of the gen- 
tlemen detained in the custody of the insurgents were 
also painful. The Marines in the yard commenced ma- 
neuvering towards a close proximity to the building. At 
length Col. Lee appeared in front of the enclosure with 
Lieut. Stewart, who, with a citizen, was deputed to bear 
a flag of truce to the insurgents. Every eye was upon 
the two latter as they approached the door of the build- 
ing. The conference was long, especially between the 
insurgents and the citizens and the patience of all pres- 
ent was nearly exhausted. At length they retired. 
The Summons to Surrender. 
About 7 o'clock a detachment of Marines, two of 
whom ' concealed heavy sledge hammers behind their 
backs, were brought up to the end of the offices of the 
department, separated from the engine house by 
six or eight feet, but, from their position, entirely con- 
cealed from the view of those within it. All beipg now 
m readiness, Col. Lee, dressed in citizens clothes, took 
a position outside the armory yard, concealed from the 
view of the fanatic insurgents, by a heavy brick column, 



58 

and beckoned to Capt. J. E. B. Stuart, who, accom- 
panied by an aged man holding an umbrella, to which 
was attached a white handkerchief, entered the yard 
and approached the engine house, the door of which was 
opened a few inches, and the parley commenced. The 
actions of the officers were watched with breathless at- 
tention by the vast throng, who thus gathered the prob- 
able result of the interview. 

It is understood that Col. Lee, in summoning them 
to surrender, offered them protection till the pleasure of 
the President of the United States should be made 
known, and that nearly all of the insurgents were in 
favor of accepting those conditions, but the powerful will 



'->.'• 




. MM m - E * j I 



MARINES STORMING ENGINE HOUSE. 

of the leader, Brown, overruled their wishes, and they 
refused to surrender. Major Russell then ordered 
Liut. Green, with a file of Marines, to force the large 
double iron doors. They rushed towards them and 



59 



attempted with their bayonets to force them open, but 
the strength of their fastenings defied the efforts. At 
this time a volley from within increased the excitement 
of the spectators. The marines then tried to force the 
doors with heavy sledge hammers, but they also proved 
ineffectual. A double file of Marines was then ordered 
to attack the doors with a heavy ladder. A few power- 
ful efforts shattered the strong doors of the engine-house 
of the government, which was filled with fire engines, 
and as they yielded to the force of this battering ram 
and flew in pieces, an extra shout went up from the 
multitude. The moment the upper part of the doors 
went down, Lieut. Green and his Marines fired a volley 
into the insurgents with deadly aim. Major Russell 
then sprang upon the ladder and preceded them. The 
conflict was terminated in a few moments. One of the 
Marines, Private Quinn, was borne off fatally wounded 
by a shot in the abdomen, and another private, Rupert, 
received a flesh wound in the upper lip and had one or 
more of his upper teeth knocked out. 
The Storming. 
Finally, the officer bowed and turned to depart, the 
door was closed quickly, and instantly Col. Lee elevating 
his hand, gave the signal of assault. The action scarce- 
ly perfeormed ere a dozen Marines sprang from behind 
the angle of the wall, and the blows of the two sledge 
hammers resounded through the entire enclosure. 
Strange, not a shot was fired from within, and the 
men began to suspect some bloody reception trick. Sud- 
denly, the men threw down the hammers, and quickly' 



60 

sprung behind the protecting angle of the adjoining 
building. A terrible pause of a minute ensues, and 
thirty unarmed Marines are seen to approach from the 
opposite end of the lengthy yard, bearing a ladder 
about thirty feet in length. Not a minute is wasted. 
Allowing a run of several yards, they dash their butter- 
ing ram against the door, the blow resounding with a 
heavy crashing noise, which denoted its effect. A sec- 




BATTERING DOWN DOOR WITH LADDER. 

ond and shorter run is taken. The battering ram is 
again applied, and a sharp crackling noise follows. A 
third time the battering ram is applied, and a vent is 
made in the stubborbn door barely sufficient to admit a 
man. Meanwhile not a shot has been fired by the 
insurgents within, and the crowd are in wondering ex- 
pectancy, as simultaneously with a breach, a party of £0 
armed Marines dash forward, led by a slightly built 
officer, Lieut, -Green, who was the first man to enten 
As they enter, the Marines each picking their man, fire. 



61 

Three Sharp's rifle reports and only three are heard in 
response, one of which was fired by old Brown beneath 
the engine, behind which himself and his gang were 
crouching, and in a few seconds after, a Marine appears 
leading out one of the citizen prisoners. Shout after 
shout rends the air after this signal of victory, and all 
is then commotion and. confusion. But the contest was 
over. From its commencement until its termination, 
not five minutes had elapsed. The work wis done, and 
well done, exclusively by the Marines. None other 
were permitted within the yard, and no person* not con- 
nected with that corps had the remotest agencv in the 
assault, or in its results. The first to enter the building 
after the volley were Drs. Dunbar and Henry C Scott, 
of the City Guards. The former caught Qftdnn the 
wounded marine as he fell, and Surgeon Srott rendered 
similar aid to private Rupert. 

Ball's Experience 
Mr. Ball, the master armorer, while a prisoner in 
the engine-house was the most excited in- 
tense and vivid in his description. Tie said Brown 
would not permit him to swear, though he felt dread- 
fully like it. He complained bitterly of his adipose 
conditions. "For the first time in my life, he remark- 
ed, I wished I was a thin man. Old Brown placed me 
in the corner, the brick wall forming an angle only thir- 
teen inches deep. I am seventeen inches in diameter. 
I prayed smartly then that the extra four inches had 
never belonged to me. I squeezed into the wall every 
time a ball came banging through the door. At first I 



62 

wasn't much frightened, but when old Ossawatamie told 
us he should place Col. Washington and the rest of us 
in front of them if the military fired, I really felt 
awful squeamish, and when I heard the door breaking 
in I thought I was a goner. One of the Marines was 
just going to poke me through with his bayonet, when 
Lieut. Greene, who was the first in, threw up his arm 
and said I was a friend. 1 could hear the teeth of 
young Brown grate together when the bayonet went 
through his body. When I got outside fairly 1 gave 
three cheers for the United States. I embraced my 
friends, eagerly, in fact everybody. In the delight of 
the moment I could have embraced anything but a 
negress, upon my honor, sir! I never was so happy in 
my life." 

Mr. A. M. Ball, one of the rescued prisoners from the 
engine-house, is a very large man. Considering his 
size and the great number of shots fired into the 
house, a friend inquired how he had managed to escape 
unhurt. He replied that it was explained by his pow- 
ers of contraction, and the faculty of "flattening himself 
like a sun fish, as he had done to escape bullets." 
Amidst all his troubles, Mr. Ball says, he was amused 
at an incident with a negro named Phil, belonging to. 
Mr. Allstadt. Old Brown desired Phil, with some suit- 
able tool, to make a hole in the wall, for his party to 
shoot through. Under a threat Phil went reluctantly 
to work, and while thus engaged the Martinsburg men 
made an attack. At a volley from their guns the negro 
dodged, dropped his tool, and exclaimed as he did so, 
"too hot here for Phil." 



63 

Coolness of Brown 
Col. Washington, who was a keen observer of Capt. 
Brown, during the events of Monday and Tuesday, ex- 
presses the highest admiration of the cool, calm, cour- 
age of the insurgent leader, and of his humanity, tie 
told us that he heard Capt. Brown give explicit orders 
to his men, not to injure, if possible, any women, and 
only to aim at those who carried guns. Capt. Brown's 
coolness and courage inspired his men with a like con- 
tempt of danger, and their conduct and conversation 
were marked by a remarkable calmness. Watson Brown, 
the younger son of "Ossawatamie" and who was des- 
perately wounded by the Maru'nsburg men. (and who 
afterwards died) on Monday forenoon, suffered in- 
tensely during Monday night, several times requesting . 
his comrade to dash out his brains wuli their guns, 
and thus relieve his sufferings. On Tuesday morning 
his agony apparently became unendurable, and seizing 
a pistol, he was about to shoot himself in the head, when 
his father staying his hand, calmly told him that the 
time had not yet arrived for such a deed as that, to 
endure a little longer, and he might die as befitted a 
man; we spoke with this young man a few minutes 
after the assault, and could not divest our heart of some- 
thing akin to pity for him. He feelingly inquired 
whether his father was alive, and on being answered in 
the affirmative, looked his thankfulness. He was in- 
formed of the death of his brother in the assault, but 
exhibited no emotion at this announcement. In reply 
to certain questions, he stated that his father had been 



64 

assured of the co-operation of several hundred of men, 
who were to have rendezvoused at the Ferry on Sunday 
night, and frequently affirmed his conviction of the 
. justness of the cause in which he had been so disastrously 
engaged. Edwin Coppie, the only one of the party ex- 
cept a negro, named Green, who escapeu unhurt, is too 
ignorant to appreciate his position. He spoke glibly 
and good-naturedly of the occurrences through which 
he had passed as if it was a matter upon which he 
should pleasantly congratulate himself. 

Col. Washing-ton says on Monday night, three of the 
party had advised a surrender, but that Capt. Brown 
quietly but firmlv opposed the proposition. Upon the 
entrance of the Marines into the building. Coppie shout- 
ed out, "I surrender." when Capt. Brown exclaimed in 
as loud a tone, "But one surrenders, give him quarter" 
Storming- of the Engine House. 
Most of the published accounts of the storming of 
the engine house in Avhich the insurgents had fortified 
themselves, convey an entirely erroneous idea of the 
affair. In nearly all of which have come under our at- 
tention, the assault is represented as having been a most 
desperate one, and the resistance equally stubborn, con- 
tinuing through ten or fifteen minutes. To those who 
witnessed the transaction it is needless to say, that while 
the accounts do credit to the descriptive powers of their 
writers, they are far beyond the facts, in truth as in 
dramatic effect. 

Conduct of the Martinsburg Men. 
Too little justice has been done, we think, to the 
volunteers of Martinsburg, and the citizens of Harper's 



65 

Ferry and Sandy Hook, in relation of their connection 
with the matter. To the former body of twelve or 
fifteen men, under the lead of Capt. Alburtis is due by 
far, the largest share of credit for true valor, and mili- 
tary spirit. After their arrival they entered the ar- 
senal grounds, and charged boldly up to the very win- 
dows of the building into which the insurgents were 
compelled to retreat. It was while in the act of firing 
through an open window into the arsenal that Conductor 
Kichardson was mortally wounded, after bringing down 
his man ; and Conductor Evan Dorsey was also wounded 
directly at a window through which he had a second 
before fired with fatal aim. 

Bravery of a Young Attorney. 
Geo. H. Murphy, Esq., son of Paymaster Murphy at 
Harper's Ferry, and Prosecuting Attorney of Berkeley 
county, a young man apparently not more than 21 yeais 
of age. accompanied the Martinsburg men, ard was 
one of the first to dash up to the window which he 
broke in with a blow from the butt of his gun. It was 
by this act. and through this window that some 40 pris- 
oners or more were released. Subsequently Mr. Mur- 
phy engaged in the fight with much determination, re- 
ceiving a rifle ball below the knee. The wound, how- 
ever, did not prevent him from further participation 
in the contest, and through the remainder of that, and 
during the events of the succeeding day, he was a con- 
spicuous actor in the exciting scenes limping around 
with a Sharp's rifle, which he had captured, . slung 
across his back, and cheering his associates on to the 
attack. 



66 

Statement of an Eye-Witness. 
Wlien the order was given for the Marines to 
storm the barracks, Adjutant G. W. Talbott, of the 
Fifth Kegiment, of Baltimore, mingled in with the 
Marines, and took an active part in the affray. Ihe 
insurgents were in a small house, the engine house, with- 
in the arsenal enclosures, and stubbornly refused to sur- 
render, preferring death to capture. The order was 
given to batter down the doors, which was speedily done 
with sledge hammers and a large ladder, when the 
doors flew open the insurgents poured a volley into the 
beseigers, which was returned with deadly effect. After 
the first fire, the Marines rushed into the barracks and 
captured five blacks and four white men, all of whom 
were wounded, with the exception of one white man. 

Upon entering the door, J. G. Anderson, one of 
the ring-leaders of the insurgents, discharged a minnie 
rifle at the Marines, and was in the act of firing his 
revolver, when a minnie ball struck him in the left side 
below the heart. He staggered back a few paces and 
appeared determined to sell his life dearly. He raised 
his revolver and was cocking it, when Adjutant Talbott 
rushed upon him, and succeeded in disarming him. 
This task, however, was not accomplished without a 
struggle, as Anderson, finding that his situation was life 
or death, used all his energies to accomplish as much 
harm as he was able. Finding himself overpowered, he 
yielded to Adjt. Talbott, and was removed to a place 
of safety, where he was attended by Prof. Dunbar, of 
Baltimore. Anderson died a few hours afterwards. 



67 

The pistol which Adjt. Talbott secured was one of 
the largest cavalry description, and was heavily loaded. 
On the butt end there was engraved the name of J. E. 
Cook. This individual was in second command of the 
insurgents, and made his escape to the mountains, with 
a few of his followers. When the barracks were cap- 
tured there were six dead bodies lying on the floor. On 
the body of one of the killed there was a copy of the 
By-laws and a constitution governing the abolitionists. 
A love letter was also found upon one of the killed, 
couched in the most affectionate terms, from a female in 
Illinois. In leaving for home, three dead bodies were 
discovered floating down the Potomac river. They were 
permitted to pass by, and no effort was made to bring 
them ashore. When the insurgents found that they 
were getting the worst of the battle, they secured them- 
selves in houses and shot down passers-by, by thrusting 
their rifles through windows and loop holes. 

Names of Those Held as Prisoners. 

Armstead Ball, chief draughtsman at the Armory; 
Benj. Mills, master of the Armory; J. E. P. Danger- 
field, paymaster's clerk; Col. Lewis Washington; John 
Allstadt and six servants, the last two named were seized 
on their farms several miles from the Ferry. 
Names of the Raiders, &c. 

The following is a list of the names of the Eaiders, 
as well as could be ascertained: Capt. John Brown, 
Watson Brown, Oliver Brown, Owen Brown, Capt. John 
E. Cook, Aaron D. Stevens, Edwin Coppie, Barclay Cop- 
pie, Albert Hazlett, Steuart Taylor, William Lehman, 



68 

William Thompson, John Kagi, Charles P. Tidd, Oliver 
Anderson, Jeremiah Anderson, Dolph Thompson, Dan- 
gerneld Newby, Shields Green, John Copelancl, Lewis 
Leavy; the four last were negroes or mulattoes. Capt. 
John Brown was about 60 years old, 5 feet 11 inches 
high, large boned and muscular, not fleshy. He, in his 
younger days, no doubt, possessed great physical 
strength. His hair had been dark brown, but at this 
period was gray. His beard was long, and on this day 
it hung in snowy waves to his breast, giving him a 
wild appearance. His eyes of a full dark grey; he was 
of quick temper and daring courage. His head was .>f 
conical shape and his physique corresponded with the 
traits of his character. Watson and Oliver Brown, 
sons of Capt. Brown, were killed in the engine house. 
Capt. John E. Cook was about 28 years old, 5 feet 8 
inches high. He had fair, long hair, and bright blue 
eyes, and was quite an intelligent looking man, and of 
slender build. 

Names of the Hostages. 

The nine citizens confined as hostage? in the engine 
house were as follows: Lewis W. Washington, John All- 
stadt, -farmer; John E. P. Dangerfield, paymaster's 
clerk; A. M. Ball, master machinist; Benjamin Mills, 
master armorer; John Donohoo, assistant agent of the 
B. & 0. railroad; Terence Burns, farmer in Washington 
county, Md. ; Israel Russell, merchant, and Mr. Shope, 
of Frederick, Md., who happened to be at the Ferry. 
One Good Turn Deserves Another. 

When Old Brown was wounded and supposed to be 



69 

dying, Major Eussell of the Marines, kindly ordered 
him to be conveyed to a room in one of the departments, 
and all attention paid him. Brown looked up and 
recognized Major Russell, said, "you entered first, I 
could have killed you, but I spared you." In reply to 
which the Major bowed and said : "I thank you." 
Seizure of Arms 
Shortly after the storming of the citadel of the insur- 
rectionists, several respectable looking citizens of the 
Ferry approached Major Warner excitedly, and declared 
that a large number of the insurgents, under the com- 
mand of J. E. Cook, one of the leaders, had entrenched 
themselves within an unoccupied log cabin, sometimes 
used as a schoolhouse, and had fired upon certain citi- 
zens a few moments before ; and the assistance of Major 
Warner was asked to dislodge them. The latter replied 
that his corps being under the command of General Eg- 
erton he could not act without orders from him, but 
that they were eagerly willing to volunteer for the 
service. Meantime Gen. Egerton having received intel- 
ligence to the same effect, as that communicated to 
Major Warner, had detailed the Independent Greys, 
Lieut. Simpson, of Baltimore, to dislodge and capture 
the party. The Greys proceeded at "double-quick" 
time, along a constantly ascending and rocky road to ex- 
ecute the order. About a mile from the Ferry, on the 
Maryland Heights, they arrived within sight of the 
school house ,a cabin situated in a gloomy hollow, and 
apparently closely barricaded. Halting for a few min- 
utes, the Greys formed into two platoons, under the 



70 

respective commands of Lieuts. Simpson and Kerchner, 
and, at a given signal, dashed down the declivity of the 
road, with the butt end of their muskets, battered in 
the doors and windows, through which they entered. 
The cabin was entirely empty of occupants, though on 
all sides were discovered evidences of recent occupation, 
and a hasty retreat of the inmates. Against the front 
,door were piled sixteen long and heavy boxes, one of 
which, upon being burst open, was found to contain ten 
newly finished Sharp's rifles, breech-loading, evidently 
fresh from the hands of their maker. There was also 
discovered one large square box, exceedingly heavy, 
which was suffered to remain, unopened; a large and 
heavy black trunk, a box filled with bayonets, and sabres, 
and several boxes of rifle cartridges and ammunition. 
There were 21 boxes, several of which were filled with 
Ma3 r nard's large sized patent revolvers, with powder 
flasks accompanying. 

The room was littered with Sharp's rifles, revolvers 
and pikes, evidently distributed with a view to their 
immediate use, either for the purpose of defense or an 
aggressive action. After satisfying themselves that the 
traitors had fled, the Greys proceeded to possess them- 
selves, each man, a rifle, and a pair of revolvers, the 
remainder being placed, together with a large number 
of pikes, &c, upon a large new wagon, purchased but a 
few days before by Smith, or Capt. Brown, to which the 
captors harnessed a pair of fine horses they caught 
grazing in the enclosure, and conveyed their valuable 
prize into the Ferry where they were received with loud 



71 

cheers by the citizens and military. The captured boxes 
were placed for safe keeping in the Arsenal of the 
United States, though the Greys asserted an exclusive 
right to their possession as the lawful prize of its cap- 
tors. The revolvers and rifles were entirely new, and 
evidently expressly manufactured for the insurrection- 
ists, the initials of one of the leader's name, "J. E. C," 
were stamped upon every weapon. 

The boxes in which the weapons were contained 
were marked thus, "By railroad via Pittsburg and Ilar- 
risburg 1 , J. Smith & Sons, Chambersburg, Fa. By 
American Express Company. Keep dry." One box 
was directed to "W. F. McClarney, Marine Bank Build- 
ing." The name of the town had been obliterated, but 
several legible letters indicated that Cincinnati was the 
place. One small box containing cartridges v/as inscrib- 
ed with the initials "J. B." written on the back of a 
nearly obliterated card, with the following printed ad- 
vertisement, "From Burr and Swift, wholesale and re- 
tail dealers and importers of groceries, fish, fruit, to- 
bacco, sugar, glass, salt, rope, wooden-ware, etc., com- 
mission and forwarding merchants, between Front and 
Second, Davenport, Iowa.''* Another unopened box, 
supposed to contain rifles was addressed to "T. B. Eld- 
ridge, Mt. Pleasant." The succeeding portion of the 
address, the name of the State perhaps, had been care- 
fully obliterated. 

It is shown that Brown brought with him for this 
expedition arms sufficient to have placed an effective 
weapon in the hands of not less than 1500 men; besides 



72 

which, had he succeeded in obtaining the aid he looked 
for from the slaves, he had entirety under his control 
all the arms of the United States deposited in the arsenal 
at Harper's Ferry. After his capture, besides the arms 
he brought in the wagon to the Ferry, there were found 
on the Maryland side, where he had left them, 200 
Sharp's rifled carbines, and 200 revolver pistols, packed 
in the boxes of the manufacturers, with 900 or 1000 
pikes, carefully and strongly made, the blade of steel 
being securely riveted to a handle about five feet in 




BROWN'S PIKE AND PISTOL. 

length, many thousand percussion caps in boxes, and 
ample stores of fixed ammunition, besides a large supply 
of powder in kegs, and a chest that contained hospital 
and other military stores, besides a quantity of extra 
clothing for troops. They were sent directly from 
Connecticut to Brown under his assumed name of Isaac 
Smith, first to Chambersburg\ Pa., there received by 
some of Brown's men, who were there placed also under 
assumed names, and by whom they were transported to 



73 

his abode near Harper's Ferry. It appears from the 
evidence that, in 1856, these 200 Sharp's carbine^ had 
been forwarded by an association in Massachusetts called 
the "Massachusetts State Kansas Committee," at first 
to Chicago, on their way to Kansas. At Chicago they 
were placed under the control of another association! 
called the "National Kansas Aid Committee." There 
being some difficulty, from the disordered condition of 
the country at that time in getting them to Kansas, they 
were sent by this last named association into Iowa, 
where they remained. In January, 1857, it seems there 
was a meeting of this National Kansas Committee in 
the city of New York. That committee was constituted 
of one member from most of the non-slave-holding 
States. At that meeting John Brown appeared, and 
made application to have these arms placed in his poss- 
ession. It seemed that he wanted them, as he expressed 
it, for the purpose of defense in Kansas," but as the 
troubles were nearly ended, such pretensions seem to 
have been discredited by those to whom it was addressed. 
Discovery of the Papers of the Insurgents 
The excitement attending this clever exploit had 
scarcely subsided, when another alarm was giver... that 
the leader Cook had a few moments before been seen 
upon the mountains on the Maryland side. A scouting 
party consisting of several members of the Greys, (the 
only foreign corps in the town, quite or nearly all of 
those present in the forenoon having left for their 
homes) some score or more of volunteers, and about 
twenty IT. S. Marines, under command of Capt. J. E. 



74 

B. Stewart, was instantly formed, and proceeded rapidly 
in pursuit. Following the same path which the Greys 
had pursued in making their discoveries, and which is 
known as the "County road," leading into the heart of 
Washington county, Md., the party continued their 
course for a distance of four miles from the Ferry, until 
they reached the farm and house bought and occupied 
by Brown, under the name of John Smith. Tbe duell- 
ing, a log house, containing two unpaved basement 
rooms, used apparently for storage, and in which were 
several empty gun boxes ; two rooms and a pantry upon 
the second floor; and one large attic room m winch weic 
about six husk mattresses, was discovered to be unoccu- 
pied, save a huge, savage looking mastiff, tied with a 
rope to the railing of a small piazza outside the house, 
but there were abundant evidences of its recent hurried 
vacation. The floors of all the rooms were littered with 
books, papers, documents and wearing apparel of scer.\l 
persons, hastily snatched from eight or ten trunks, and 
an equal amount of valises and coarse carpet bags, 
stivwn around, the fastenings all of which had been 
forcibly broken, as if their violators were too much 
hurried for time to adopt the tardier method of entrance 
by looking up keys. In the pantry, which appeared to 
have been used for kitchen purposes, beside an almost 
new cooking stove and an abundance of tin utensils, were 
two barrels of flour, a large quantity of sausage, meat 
and cured hams, together with several pounds of butter, 
lard, &c. The lire was yet smouldering in the stove, 
and the water in the boiler was quite hot at the time 
of the entrance. 






75 

But the most valuable discovery was a trunk belong- 
ing to Capt. Brown containing a great number of highly 
important napers, documents, plans and letters from 
private individuals throughout the Union, all revealing 
the existence of an extensive and thoroughly organ : zcd 
conspiracy, whose leaders were Capt. Brown and J. E. 
Cook, and the well-defined, determinedly expressed 
object of which, was the hastening of the "irrepressible 
conflict" predicted by Senator Seward, and recently by 
Gerritt Smith, which was to result in the "disenthrall- 
ment of the slaves of the South/' and the extinction of 
the slave power." The most undoubted evidences have 
been obtained, not only of the plans and hopes of this 
formidable insurrectional^, organization; but of the 
indisputable fact of its extension throughout the North- 
ern and Western States, from the influential citizens of 
whom the treasonable movement has received its sustain- 
ing surmort and encouragement. 

Among the most important documents discovered 
were pamphlets containing the Constitution of a Provis- 
ional Government for the United States, the treasonable 
purposes and objects of which if not directly put forth, 
are nevertheless so clearlv expressed as to be conclusive. 
Startling Revelation— The Points of Attack. 

In a trunk, supposed to have belonged to Capt. 
Brown, was found seven small though elaborate maps 
of as many different States, bearing peculiar marks, 
which would seem to indicate that the points of attack, 
and the course of the insurrectionary movement through 
the South, had already been carefully determined upon 



76 

by this well organized and confident league of traitors. 
Certain counties in the seven States, of which only 
these maps were obtained, bear cross-marks formed by 
a pen, and in several instances as if to command greater 
particularity of attention, or to suggest perhaps more 
available points of attack, circular lines are drawn 
around the crosses.. South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, 
Mississippi, Louisiana, Florida, Tennessee and Kentucky 
are the States mentioned to attack. The maps which 
are about 18 by 12 inches, are carefully and neatly 
pasted on stout cambric cloth. Upon the margin of 
each map is pasted the census returns of 1850, of its 
State; giving in detail the relative strength of th3 
white and slave population of each county, and the 
proportion of females to the whole number of inhabi- 
tants. By referring to the counties marked, it will be 
perceived that in them the slave population vastly 
preponderate, and might, therefore, have been deemed a 
safer field of operation for the abolition invaders. 
Important Letters and Notes. 
In the same trunk in which the maps were discov- 
ered, were found a number of highly important letters 
from certain well-known Northern abolitionists, con- 
veying both "aid and comfort" to the insurrectionists; 
among them was a letter from Gerritt Smith, of New 
York, containing some financial statements, and a 
cheque for $100, endorsed by the cashier of a New York 
bank, and a letter from Frederick Douglas, enclosing 
$10, a part contributed by a lady. These were read by 
Governor Wise to the crowd in the arsenal yard. There 



77 

are yet other letters not yet made public, which im- 
plicate several well-known politicians of Iowa, New 
York and Pennsylvania, in the conspiracy to create a 
slave insurrection throughout the Southern States. 
Among a quantity of papers in our possession, found in 
the house of Capt. Brown, is the following brief, written 
upon a scrap of paper, in a good, professional hand writ- 
ing: "At the right hour, by all you deem sacred, re- 
member me." (Signed) GEOBGE B. GILL. 

The following is in the handwiriting of Brown him- 
self, and is entitled, "Vindication of the Invasion, &c." 

"The Denver truce was broken. 

"1st. It was in accordance with my settled policy. 

"2d. It was intended as a discriminating blow at 
slavery. 

"3d. It was calculated to lessen the value of slaves. 

"4th. It was (over and above all other motives) 
Eight. 

"Duty of all persons in regard to this matter. 
. "Criminality of neglect in tms matter. 

In an envelope addressed to "Capt. John Brown, 
care of Dr. S. G. Howe, 20 Bloomfield Street," where 
a number of clippings from the New York Tribune, 
Cleveland Plaindealer and Bochester Union, referring 
to the Kansas exploits of "Ossawatamie" Brown. Scat- 
tered over the floor of the rooms were hundreds of 
copies of a pamphlet work entitled "extracts from the 
manual of the Patriotic Volunteer in active service in 
regular and irregular war. being the art and science 
of obtaining and maintaining Liberty and Independ- 



78 

ence. By Hugh Forbes." Certain passages in one of 
of the copies in our possession, referring to the duties 
of riflemen, is penciled down the margin and dog-eared 
as if for future reference. 

Discovery of Tents 
From the house of Brown the party proceeded to 
a log cabin, on the opposite side of the road, and but 
a few hundred feet higher up, where they discovered 
some eight or ten boxes filled with wearing apparel, 
boots, blankets, quilts, &c, amply sufficient to supply the 
wants of a formidable number of men. In the loft of 
the cabin nearly or quite 2,000 pikes were found, togeth- 
er with six or more tents, and a great number of axes, 
picks and shovels. The captured articles completely 
filled a large country wagon, and was with much diffi- 
culty drawn to the Ferry by two powerful horses. 
To the Victors Belong the Spoils. 
The entire contents of the house were appropriated 
by the scouting party, as legitimate plunder; barrels of 
flour were rolled away; the stove and its appurtenances 
removed, and on the re-entry of the expedition into 
Harper's Ferry, scarcely a man of its volunteer army 
but staggered beneath the weight of his spoils. 
Further Developments, 
It is stated that the Hon. Alexander R. Boteler, 
member of Congress, from this district, has collected 
from fifty to one hundred letters from citizens in the 
neighborhood of Brown's house, who searched it before 
the arrival of the Marines. The letters are in the 
possession of Andrew Hunter, Esq., who has also a large 



79 

number of letters obtained from Brown's house by the 
Marines and other parties. Among them is a roll of the 
conspirators, containing forty-seven signatures; also a 
receipt from Horace Greely for letters &c, received 
from Brown, and an accurately traced map from Cham- 
bersburg to Brown's house; copies of letters from 
Brown stating that the arrival of too many men at 
once would excite suspicion, that they should arrive 
singly ; a letter from Merriam stating that of the 20,- 
000 wanted G. S. was good for one-fifth. Brown told 
them to let the women write the letters, and not the 
men. There is also a pathetic letter from Elizabeth 
Leeman to her brother. Also a letter from J. E. Cook, 
stating that "the Maryland election is about to come off, 
the people will become excited, and we will get some of 
the candidates that will join our side." Then follows 
four pages in cipher. There is also a letter from Col. 
Craig, of the Ordinance Department, Washington, an- 
swering inquiries as to the disposition of the United 
States troops, &c. There is also a collection of auto- 
graphs. Important papers are also in the possession of 
the State and general government. 

Old Brown's Journal. 
"Old" Brown kept a daily journal, in which he set 
forth the details of his transactions, which show hin 
purchase of arms, in large quantities, and ammunition 
and stores of all kinds necessary to the success of an 
extensive insurrection-field spy-glasses, picks and shovels 
for throwing up temporary fortifications; calls, or 
boatswains' whistles of a new kind, being very shnJ and 



80 

capable of being heard at a long distance, which are 
supposed to have been intended for assembling his bands 
or warning them of danger, were among the stores in 
the wagon captured by the Greys. The whistles, as pur 
bill, found in his effects, were made in Philadelphia, and 
forwarded to an agent of his in Baltimore, last week, 
per Adams & Co.'s Express; some of them were found 
in his valise. There is nothing in the papers found, 
showing that negroes or others belonging to Harper's 
Ferry or its vicinity were partlceps criminis before the 
fact in Brown's conspiracy. 

The Excitement in Shepherdstown. 
On Monday whilst our Military were absent at 
Harper's Ferry, the greatest excitement prevailed. From 
any lip could be constantly heard, "What's the news 
from Harper's Ferry?" Flying and exaggerated rumors 
were frequently brought to town, which caused our citi- 
zens, for the protection of our own interests, to call 
upon, the Ma}'or, Dr. John Reynolds, to organize a 
Patrole, to be posted at the different thoroughfares 
leading into town. At 7 o'clock a meeting was held 
by order of the Mayor, at the Armory Hall, and five 
different squads of Patrole were appointed to guard the 
town during the night. No disturbance of any kind 
occurred through the night. About twelve o'clock at 
night a gentleman from Frederick, Md., passed through 
town on his way to Charles Town, bearing telegraphic 
dispatches Erom President Buchanan to Col. Gibson, of 
Charles Town, ami Col. Price, of Winchester, to order 
out the militia and proceed directly to Harper's Ferry. 



81 

The telegraphic wires being cut east and west of the 
Ferry, no connection could be made further than Fred- 
erick city. Tuesday morning (18th, Oct. 1859) the 
excitement was still greater. About 12 o'clock the news 
came to town that a band of insurgents and negroes, 
headed by Capt. Cook, were proceeding up the river to 
make a descent upon Shepherdstown. No soonei had 
this news reached us, than a company of armed men, 
composed principally of our oldest citizens, commanded 
by Col. Charles Harper,* marched through our streets, 
headed by fife and drum, and saluted with the cries of 
women and children, across the river and down the 
canal a mile or so in # the expectation of meeting and 
dispersing the advancing insurrectionists, but coining 
upon a canal boat, they were informed by the Captain 
of the boat that the insurrectionists had fled to the 
mountains and were closely pursued by the military, 
except those who were captured and forced into the 
engine house. In the evening of the same day, the 
llamtramck Guards returned to town from Harper's 
Ferry, marched through our principal streets, headed by 
fife and drum, and greeted with the cheers and bo- 
quets of our ladies, for the inflexible courage and un- 
daunted bravery displayed by them at Harper's Ferry 
in the midst of the hot firing of the insurrectionists 
upon them; happily all of them escaped unhurt. On 
Wednesday morning, a party of our citizens left town 
for the purpose of searching the mountain for Cook 
and his followers. They were not successful in captur- 
ing anyone of the band, but came upon their rendez- 



82 



vous and found several letters and a portion of their 
By-laws, which state that their sole object and intention 
was the liberation of the slaves. Another provision in 
their By-laws was, that the most liberally educated of 
them were to teach school in the neighboring counties 
in order that they might avoid suspicion and be both 
able to incite the slaves to rebellion. This same Capt. 
Cook was in our town last Spring, selling the "Life of 
Gen. Washington," and married a Miss Kennedy of 
Harper's Ferry, a few months ago. He passed here 
as a literary character, and contributed several poetical 
effusions to the columns of the Register. It is stated 
that Capt. Brown, commander of the insurrectionists, 
confessed that he intended to attack Shepherdstown 
on Tuesday evening had he been successful in Harper'? 

Ferry. 

Conversation With Capt. Brown 

Several persons and reporters availed themselves 
of an opportunity to be present at an interview which 
Senator Mason and Hon. C. J. Faulkner, of Virginia, 
had with Capt. Brown and Capt. Stevens, shortly after 
taken prisoners. The conversation is thus reported: 

Mr. Mason. Can you tell us who furnished money 
for your expedition? 

'Mr Brown. I furnished most of it myself. 1 can- 
not implicate others. I could have escaped. 

Mr. Mason. You mean if you had escaped immedi- 

Lt Mr Brown. No; I had the means to make myself 
secure without any escape, but I allowed myseli to be 
surrounded by a force by being too tardy. 



83 

Mr. Mason. If you would tell us who sent you here — 
who provided the means, that would be information of 
some value. 

Mr. Brown. I will answer freely and faithfully about 
what concerns myself. I will answer anything I can 
with honor, but not about others. 

Mr. Valandingham. Did you get up the expedition 
yourself ? 

Mr. Brown. I did. 

Mr. Valandingham. Did you get up this document 
that is called a constitution? 

Mr. Brown. I did. They are a constitution and 
ordinance of my own contriving and getting up. 

Mr. Valandingham. How long have you been engag- 
ed in this business? 

Mr. Brown. From the breaking out of the difnuclties 
in Kansas. Four of my sons had gone there to settle, 
and they induced me to go. I did not go there to settle, 
but because of the difficulties. 

Mr. Mason. How many are engaged with you in 
this movement? I ask these questions for youi own 
safety. 

Mr. Brown. Any questions that I can. honorably an- 
swer I will, not otherwise. So far as I am myself con- 
cerned I have told everything truthfully. I value my 
word, sir. 

Mr. Mason. How do you justify your acts ? 

Mr. Brown. I think, my friend, you are guilty of a 
great wrong against God and humanity. I say that 
without wishing to be offensive. It would be pcneetly 



84 

right for any one to interfere with you, so far as to 
free those you willfully and wickedly hold in bondage. 
I do not say this insultingly. 

Mr. Mason. I understand that. 

Mr. Brown. 1 think 1 did right, and that others will 
do right who interferes with you at any time, and at 
all times. I hold that fln "-olden rule, do unto others 
as you would that others do unto you, applies to all who 
would help others to gain their liberty. 

Mr. Valandingham. Where did your men come 
from? Did some of them come from Ohio? 

Mr. Brown. Some of them. 

Mr. Valandingham. From the Western Reserve? 
Of course'none from Southern Ohio? 

Mr. Brown. Oh, yes. I believe one came from 
Steubensville, down not far from Wheeling. 

Mr. V. Have you been in Ohio this summer r 

Mr. B. Yes, sir. 

Mr. V. How lately? 

Mr. B. I passed through Pittsburg on my way in 
June. ' 

Mr. V. Were you at any county or State fair there? 

Mr. B. I was not there since June. 

Mr. Mason. Did you consider this a military organ- 
ization in this paper (showing a copy of the so-called 
constitution and ordinances), I have not read it? 

Mr. B. I did in some measure. I wish you would 
give that paper your close attention. 

Mr. M. You consider yourself the comamnder-in- 
chief of this provisional military force? 



. 85 

Mr. B. I was chosen, agreeably to the ordinance of a 
certain document; commander-in-chief of that force. 

Mr. M. What wages did you offer? 

Mr. B. None. 

Lieut. Stewart. The wages of sin is death. 

Brown. I would not have made such a remark to you 
if you had been a prisoner and wounded in my hands. 

Mr. Valandingham. Were you - ever in Dayton, Ohio ? 

Brown. Yes, I have been there. 

Mr. V. This summer? 

Brown. No, a year or two ago. 

Mr. Mason. Does this talking annoy you at all? 

Brown. Not in the least. 

Mr. V. Have you lived long in Ohio? 

Brown. I went there in 1845. I lived in Summit 
county, which was then Trumbull county. My native 
place is New York State. 

Mr. V. Do you recollect a man in Ohio named 
Brown, a noted counterfeiter? 

Brown. I do. I knew him from a boy. His father 
was Henry Brown, of Irish or Scotch descent. The 
family was very low. 

Mr. V. Have you ever been in Portage county? 

Brown. I was there in June last. 

Mr. V. When in Cleveland did you attend the Fugi- 
tive Slave Law Convention there? 

Brown. No. I was there about the tune of the sit- 
ting of the Court to try the Oberlin rescuers. I spoke 
there publiclv on that subject. I spoke on the fugitive 
slave law and of my own rescue. Of course so far as I 



86 

had any preference at all I was disposed to justify ilie 
Oberlin people for rescuing the slaves, because I have 
myself forcibly taken slaves from bondage. 1 was con- 
cerned in, taking eleven slaves from Missouri to Canada 
last winter. I think that I spoke in Cleveland before 
the Convention. I do not know that I had any conver- 
sation with any of the Oberlin rescuers. I was sick part 
of the time I was in. Ohio. I had the ague. I was 
part of the time in Ashtabula county. 

Mr. V. Did you see anything of Joshua E. Giddings 
there ? 

Brown. I did meet him. 

Mr. V. Did you consult with him ? 

Brown. I did. I would not tell you, of course, any- 
thing that would implicate Mr. Giddings, but I cer- 
tainly met with him and had a conversation with him. 

Mr. V. About that rescue case ? 

Brown. Yes, I did. I heard him express his opin- 
ion upon it freely and frankly. 

Mr. V. Fortifying it? 

Brown. Yes, sir. I do not compromise him in say- 
ing that. 

A Bystander. Did you go out to Kansas under the 
auspices of the Emigrant Aid Society? 

Brown. No, sir, I went under the auspices of Old 
John Brown, and nobody else's. 

Mr. V. Will you answer this? Did you talk with 
Giddings about your expedition here? 

Brown. No, sir, I won't answer that because a de- 
nial of it I could not make; and to make affidavit 
of it I would be a great dunce . 



87 

Mr. V. Have you had any correspondence with 
parties at the North on the subject of this movement? 

Brown. I have had correspondence. 

Bystander. Do you consider this a religious move- 
ment ? 

Brown. It is in my opinion the greatest service a 
man can render to his God. 

Bystander. Upon what principle do you justify your 

act? 

Brown. By the golden rule. I pity the poor in 
bondage ; that is why I am here ; it is not to gratify any 
personal animosity or feeling of revenge or vindicative 
spirit. It is my sympathy with the oppressed and 
wronged, that are as good as you, and as precious in the 
sight of God. 

Bystander. Certainly, but why take the slaves 
against their will? 

Brown (warmly). I never did. 

Bystander. You did in one instance at least. 

Stevens, (to the inquirer interrupting Brown) . You 
are right, sir: in one case I know the negro wanted to 
go back. (To Brown) Captain the gentleman is right. 

Bystander, (to Stevens.) Where did you come 
from ? 

Stevens. I lived in Ashtabula county, Ohio. 

Mr. Valadingham. How recently did you leave 
Ashtabula county? 

Stevens. Some months ago, I never resided there 
any length of time. I have often been through there. 

Mr. V. How far do you live from Jefferson ? 



88 

Brown, (to Stevens). Be very careful, Stevens, 
about an answer to that; it might commit some 
friend. I would not answer it at all. 

Stevens. f Mio had been groaning considerably, as if 
the exertion necessary to conversation affected him) 
seeme.d content to abide by "my captain's" decision. 
He turned over and was silent. 

Mr. V. (to Brown). Who were your advisers in this 
movement ? 

Brown. I have numerous sympathizers throughout 
the entire North. 

Mr. V. In Northern Ohio ? 

Brown. No more than anywhere else in all the free 
states. 

Mr. V. But you are not personally acquainted in 
Southern Ohio? 

Brown. Not very much. 

Mr. V. Were you at the convention last June ? 

Brown. I was. I want you to understand, gentle- 
men that I respect the rights of the poorest and weak- 
est of colored people oppressed by the slave system, just 
as much as I do those most wealthy and powerful. 
That is the idea that has moved me, and that alone. 
We expected no reward; we expected the satisfaction of 
endeavoring to do for them in distress — the greatly op- 
pressed — as we would be done by. The cry of distress 
and of the distressed is my reason, and the only one, 
that impels me. 

Bystander. Why did you do it secretly? 

Brown. Because I thought it necessary for success, 



89 

and for no other reason. 

Bystander. You think that honorable, do you? 
Have you read Gerritt Smith's letter, in which he 
says, "that it is folly to attempt to strike the shackles off 
the slave by the force of moral suasion or legal agita- 
tion," and predicts that the next movement made in 
the direction of negro emancipation will be an insur- 
rection in the South? 

Brown. I have not ; but I presume from your remark 
about the gist of the letter that I should concur with it. 
I agree with Mr. Smith that moral suasion is hopeless. 
I don't think the people of the slave states will ever 
consider the subject of slavery in its true light until 
some other argument is resorted to than moral suasion. 

Mr. V. Did you expect a general uprising of the 
slaves in case of your success? 

Brown. No sir, nor did I wish it. I expected to 
gather strength from time to time; then I could have 
let them free. 

Mr. V. Did you expect to hold possession here until 
then ? 

Brown Well, probably I had quite a different idea. 
I do not know that I ought to reveal my plans. I am 
here a prisoner and wounded because 1 foolishly allow- 
ed myself to be so. You overrate your strength when 
you suppose I could have been taken if I had not al- 
lowed it. I was too tardy after commencing the open 
attack in delaying my movements through Monday 
night and up to the time I was attacked by the Govern- 
ment troops. It was all occasioned by my desire to 



90 

spare the feelings of my prisoners and their families, 
and the community at large. 

Mr. V. Did you not shoot a negro on the bridge, or 
did not some of your party? 

Brown. I knew nothing of the shooting of the negro, 
Haywood. 

Mr. V. What time did you commence your organiza- 
tion over in Canada? 

Brown. It occurred about two years ago. If I re- 
member right, it was, I think, in 1858. 

Mr. V. Who was the Secretary? 

Brown. That I could not tell if I recollected, but I 
do not remember. I think the officers were elected 
in May 1858. I may answer incorrectly but not inten- 
tionally. My head is a little confused by wounds, and 
my memory of dates and such like is somewhat con- 
fused. 

Dr. Biggs, (of Sharpsburg). Were you in the party 
at Dr. Kennedy's house? 

Brown. I was the head of the party. I occupied the 
house to mature my plans. 

Dr. Biggs. What was the number of men at Ken- 
nedy's ? 

Brown. I decline to answer that. 

Dr. Biggs. Who lanced that woman's arm? 

Brown. I did. 1 have sometimes practiced surgery, 
when I thought it a matter of humanity or of necessity 
— when there was no one else to do it; but I have 
studied surgery. 

Dr. Biggs, (to persons around). It was done very 



91 

well and scientifically. These men have been ve. y 
clever to the neighbors, I have been told, and we had no 
reason to suspect them, except that we could not un- 
derstand their movements. They were represented as 
eight or nine persons on Friday. 

Brown. There were more than thirty. 

Questions were now put by almost every one in the 
room, as follows : 

Q. Where did you get arms? 

Brown. I bought thein. 

Q. In what State? 
Brown. That I would not tell. 

Q. How many guns? , 

Brown. Two hundred of Sharp's rifles and two 
hundred revolvers — what is called the Massachusetts 
Arms' Company's revolvers — a little under the navy 
size. 

Q. Why did you not take that swivel you left in the 
house ? 

Brown. I had no occasion for it. It was given to 
me a year or two ago. 

Q. In Kansas. 

Brown. No. I had nothing given to me in Kan- 
sas. 

Q. By whom and in what State? 

Brown. I decline to answer that. It is not properly 
a swivel; it is a very large rifle on a pivot. The ball 
is larger than a musket-ball; it is intended for a slug. 
If you do not want to converse any more I will remark 
to these reporting gentlemen that I claim to be here 



92 

carrying out a measure 1 believe to be perfectly justifi- 
able, and not to act the part of an incendiary or ruffian ; 
but, on the contrary, to aid those suffering under a 
great wrong. I wish to say further that you had better, 
all you people of the South, prepare yourselves for a 
settlement of this question. It must come up for set- 
tlement sooner than you are prepared for it, and the 
sooner you commence that preparation the better for 
you. You may dispose of me very easily; I am nearly 
disposed of now ; but the question is still to be settled — 
this negro question. I mean the end is not yet. 

Q. Was your only object to free the negro? 

Brown. Absolutely our only object. 

Bystander. But you went and took Col. Washing- 
ton's silver watch? 

Brown. Oh, yes, we intended freely to have appro- 
priated the property of slaveholders to carry out our 
object. It was for that, only that, we had no design 
to enrich ourselves with any plunder whatever. 

Report of Col. Robert E Lee, Colonel Commanding, 

to Col. Samuel Cooper, Adjutant General, 

U. S. Army, Washington City, D. O. 

Headquarters, Harper's Ferry, Oct. 19, ISoO. 
Colonel : I have the honor to report, for the infor- 
mation of the Secretary of War, that on arriving here 
on the night of the 17th instant, in obedience to Special 
Orders No. 194 of that date from your office, I learned 
that a party of insurgents, about 11 P. M., on the 16th, 
had seized the watchman stationed at the armory, ar- 
senal, rifle factory, and bridge across the Potomac 



93 

and taken possession of those points. They then dis- 
patched six men, under one of their party, called Capt. 
Aaron D. Stevens, to arrest the principal citizens in the 
neighborhood and incite the negroes to join the insurrec- 
tion. The party took Col. L. W.- Washington from 
his bed about 1:30 A. M. on the 17th, and brought 
him, with four of his servants, to this place. Mr. J. 
H. Allstadt and six of his servants were in the same 
manner seized about 3 A. M., and arms placed in the 
hands of negroes. Upon their return here, John E. 
Cook, one of the party, sent to Mr. Washington's, was 
dispatched to Maryland, with Mr. Washington'^, wagon, 
two of his servants and three of Mr. Allstadt's, for 
arms and ammunition, &c. As day advanced, and the 
citizens of Harper's Ferry commenced their usual avo- 
cation, they were separately captured to the number of 
forty, as well as I could learn, and confined in one 
room of the fire-engine house of the armory, which 
seems early to have been selected as a point of defence. 
About 11 A. M. the volunteer companies from Virginia 
began to arrive, and the Jefferson Guards and volun- 
teers from Charles Town, under Captain J. W. Rowan, I 
understand were first on the ground. The Hamtramck 
Guards, Capt. V. M. Butler, Shepherdstown ; the Shep- 
herdstown Troop, Capt. Jacob Eeinhart, and Capt. 
Alburtis' company from Martinsburg, arrived in the 
afternoon. These companies, under the direction of 
Cols. R. W. Baylor and John T. Gibson, forced the 
insurgents to abandon their positions at the bridge and 
in the village, and to withdraw within the armory in- 



94 

•closure, where they fortified themselves in the fire- 
engine house, and carried ten of their prisoners for the 
purpose of insuring their safety and facilitating their 
escape, whom they termed hostages, and whose names 
are Col. L. W. Washington, of Jefferson county, "Va. ; 
Mr. J. H. Allstadt, of Jefferson county Va. ; Mr. 
Israel Russell, Justice of the Peace, Harper's Ferry; 
Mr. John Donahue, clerk of B. & 0. railroad; Mr. 
Terrance Bvrne, of Maryland ; Mr. Geo. D. Shope, of 
Frederick, Md. ; Mr. Benjamin Mills, master armorer, 
Harper's Ferry; Mr. A. M. Ball, master machinist, 
Harper's Ferry arsenal; Mr. J. E. P. Dangerfield, pay- 
master's clerk, Harper's Ferry arsenal; Mr. J Burd, 
armorer, Harper's Ferry arsenal. After sunset mere 
troops arrived. Capt. B. B. Washington's company from 
Winchester, and the companies from Frederickt^wr., 
Maryland, under Col. Shriver. Later in the evening 
the companies from Baltimore under Gen. Charles C. 
Edgerton, second light brigade, and a detachment of 
Marines, commanded by Lieutenant J. Green ,accom- 
panied by Major Russell of the corps, rea hed Sandy 
Hook , about one and a half miles east of Hamper's Fer- 
ry. At this point I came up with these last mimed 
troops, and leaving Gen. Edgerton and hi- command 
on the Maryland side of the river for the night, 
caused the marines to proceed to Harper.V Ferry, and 
placed them within the armory grounds to prevent the 
possibility of the escape of the insurgents. Having 
taken measures to halt, in Baltimore, the artillery com- 
panies ordered from Fort Monroe, I made preparations 



95 

to attack the insurgents at daylight. But for the fear 
of sacrificing the lives of some of the gentlemen held 
by them as prisoners in a midnight assault, I should 
have ordered the attack at once. Their safety was the 
subject of painful consideration, and to prevent, if pos- 
sible, jeopardizing their lives, I determined to summon 
the insurgents to surrender. As soon after daylight, 
as the arrangements were made, Lieutenant J. E. B. 
Stuart, 1st cavalry, who had accompanied me from 
Washington, as staff officer, was dispatched, under a 
flag, with a written summons, (a copy of which is here- 
to annexed, marked A.) Knowing the character of the 
leader of the insurgents, I did not expect it would be 
accepted. I had therefore directed that the volunteer 
troops, under their respective commanders, should be 
paraded on the lines assigned them outside of the ar- 
mory, and had prepared a storming party of twelve 
Marines, under their commander Lieutenant Green, 
and had placed them close to the engine house, and 
secure from its fire. Three Marines were fuimched 
with sledge hammers to break in the doors, and the 
men were instructed how to distinguish our citizens 
from the insurgents; to attack with the bayonet, and 
not to injure the blacks detained in custody unless they 
resisted. Lieutenant Stuart was also directed not to 
receive from the insurgents any counter propositions. 
If they accepted the terms offered, they must immedi- 
ately deliver up their arms and release their prisoners. 
If thy did not, he must, on leaving the engine house, 
give me the signal. My object was, with a view of 



96 

saving our citizens, to have as short an interval as 
possible, between the summons and attack. The sum- 
mons, as I had anticipated, was rejected. At the con- 
certed signal the storming, party moved quickly ta the 
door and commenced the attack. The fire-engines 
within the house had been placed by the beseiged close 
to the doors. The doors were fastened by ropes, the 
spring of which prevented their being broken by the 
blows of the hammers. The men were therefore order- 
ed to drop the hammers, and, with a portion of the 
reserve, to use as a battering-ram a heavy ladder, 
with which they dashed in a part of the door and gave 
admittance to the storming party. The fire of the in- 
surgents up to this time had been harmless. At the 
threshhold one marine fell mortally wounded. The rest 
led by Lieutenant Green and Major Russell, quickly 
ended the contest. The insurgents that resisted were 
bayoneted. Their leader, John Brown, was cut down 
by the sword of Lieutenant Green, and our citizens 
were protected by both officers and men. The whole 
was over in a few minutes. After our citizens wore 
liberated and the wounded cared for, Lieutenant- 
Colonel S. S. Mills, of the 53rd Maryland Regiment, 
with the Baltimore [independent Greys, Lieut. B. F. 
Simpson commanding, was sent on the Maryland side 
of the river to search for John E. Cook, and to bring 
m the arms, &C, belonging to the insurgent party, 
which were said to be deposited in a school house two 
and a half miles distant. Subsequently, Lieutenant J. 
E. B. Stuart, with a party of marines, was dispatched 



97 



to the Kennedy farm, situated in Maryland, about W 
and a half miles from Harper's Ferry, which had been 
rented by John Brown, and used as the depot for his 
men and munitions. Col. Mills saw nothing of Cook, 
but found the boxes of arms, (Sharp's carbines and beifc 
revolvers) and recovered Mr. Washington's wagon and 
horses. Lieut. Stuart found also at the Kennedy farm 
a number of sword pikes, blankets, shoes, tents, and all 
the necessaries for a campaign. These articles have 
been deposited in the government storehouse at the 
armory. From the information 'derived from the papers 
found upon the persons and among the baggage of the 
insurgents, and the statement of those now in custody, 
it appears that the party consisted of nineteen men— 
fourteen white and five black. That they were headed 
by John Brown, of some notoriety in Kansas, who in 
June last located himself in Maryland, at the Kennedy 
farm where he has been engaged in preparing to 
capture the United States works at Harper's Ferry. He 
avows that his object was the liberation of the slaves 
of Virginia and of the whole South; and acknowledges 
that he has been disappointed in his expectations of aid 
from the black as well as the white population, both in 
the Northern and Southern States. The blacks whom he 
forced from their homes in this neighborhood, as far 
as 1 could learn, gave him no voluntary assistance. 
The servants of Messrs. Washington and Allstadt, re- 
tained at the armory, took no nart in the conflict, and 
those carried to Maryland returned to their homes as 
soon as released. The result proves that the plan was, 



98 

the attempt of a fanatic or madman, which could only 
end in failure; and its temporary success was owing to 
the panic and confusion he succeeded in creating by 
magnifying his numbers. I append a list of the insur- 
gents (marked B). Cook is the only man known to 
have escaped. The other survivors of the expedition, 
viz : — John Brown, A. C. Stevens, Edwin Coppie and 
Shields Green, (alias S. Emperor) I have delivered 
into the hands of the Marshal of the Western district of 
Virginia and the Sheriff of Jefferson county. They 
were escorted to Charles Town by a detachment of ma- 
rines under Lieut. Green. About nine o'clock this 
evening I received a report from Mr. Moore, from Pleas- 
ant Valley, Md., that a body of men had, about sunset, 
descended from the mountains, attacked the house of 
Mr. Gennett, and from the cries of murder and the 
screams of the women and children, he believed the 
residents of the valley were being massacred. The alarm 
and excitement in the village of Harper's Ferry was 
increased by the arrival of families from Sandy Hook, 
fleeing for safety. The report however, was so improb- 
able, that I could give no credence to it, yet I thought 
it possible that some atrocity might have been com- 
mitted, and I started with twenty-five marines, under 
Lieut. Green, accompanied by Lieut. Stuart, for the 
scene of the alleged outrage, about four and a half 
miles distant. I was happy to find it was a false alarm. 
The inhabitants of Pleasant Valley were quiet and un- 
harmed, and Mr. Gennett and his family safe and 
asleep. I will now, in obedience to your dispatch, of 



99 

this date ,direct the detachment of the marines to re- 
turn to the navy yard at Washington on the train t!at 
passes here at 1 :15 A. M., tonight, and will myself take 
the advantage of the same train to report to you in 
person at the War Department. I must also ask to ex- 
press my thanks to Lieut. Stuart, Major Russell and 
Lieut. Green, for the aid they afforffded me, and my 
entire commendation of the conduct of the detachment 
of the marines, who were at all times ready and prompt 
in the execution of any duty. The promptness with 
which the volunteer troops repaired to the scene of dis- 
turbance, and the alacrity they displayed to suppress the 
gross outrage against law and order, I know will elicit 
your hearty approbation. Equal zeal was shown by the 
president and officers of the Baltimore and Ohio Rail- 
road Company in their transportation of the tDops, and 
in their readiness to furnish the facilities of their well- 
ordered road. A list of the killed and wounded, as 
far as came to my knowledge, is herewith annexed 
(marked C) and I enclose a copy of the "Provisional 
Constitution and ordinances for the people of the United 
States/' of which there were a large number prepared 
for issue by the insurgents. 

I am, very respectfully, your obedient servant, 

R. E. LEE, Colonel Commanding. 
COLEXEL S. COOPER, Adjutant Genreal, U. S. 
Army, Washington, D. C. 

(A) Headquarters Harper's Ferry, October IS, 1859. 
Colonel Lee, United States Army, (^niraandmg the 
troops sent by the President of the United States, to 

L Of C 



100 

suppress the insurrection, at this place, demands the 
surrender of the persons in the armory building. If 
they peaceably surrender themselves and restore the 
pillaged property, they shall be kept in safety to await 
the orders of the President, (James Buchanan.) Col. 
Lee represents to them, in ail frankness, that it is im- 
possible for them to escape; that the armory is sur- 
rounded on all sides by troops ; and that if he is com- 
pelled to take them by force he cannot ans-vei for their 
safety. ' 

E. E. LEE, 
Colonel Commanding United States Troops. 
(B). List of the Insurgents. — John Brown, of New 
York, commander-in-chief, badly wounded, prisoner; 
Aaron D. Stevens, Connecticut, captain, badly wounded, 
prisoner; Aaron D. Stevens, Connecticut, captain, badly 
wounded, prisoner; Edwin Coppie, Iowa, Lieutenant, 
unhurt, prisoner; Oliver Brown, New York, captain, 
killed; Watson Brown, New York, captain, killed; Al- 
bert Hayzlett, Pennsylvania, lieutenant, killed; William 
Lecman, Maine, lieutenant, killed; Stuart Taylor. Can- 
ada, private, killed; Charles P. Tidd, Maine, private, 
killed: William Thompson. New York, private, killed; 
John Kagi, Ohio, private, killed; Jeremiah Anderson, 
Indiana, private, killed; John E. Cook, Connecticut, 
captain, escaped. Negroes — Dangerfield Newby, Ohio, 
killed; Louis Leavy, Obcrlin, Ohio, killed; Green 
Shie'ls, New York, unhurt, prisoner ; Copeland, Oberlin, 
Ohio, prisoner; 0. P. Anderson,- Pennsylvania, unac- 
counted for. 



101 

List of killed and wounded by the Insurgents, 14 — 
Fountain Beckam, railroad agent and Mayor of Har- 
per's Ferry, killed; G. W. Turner, Jefferson county, 
Va., killed; Thomas Boerly, Harper's Ferry, killed; 
Hey wood Sheppard, negro, railroad porter, killed; Pri- 
vate Quinn, marine corps, killed ; Geo. W. Murphy, Mar- 
tinsburg, wounded ; Mr. Young, of Charlestown, wound- 
ed; Mr. Richardson, wounded; Mr. Hammond, wound- 
ed; Mr. McCabe, wounded; Mr. Dorsey, wounded; Mr. 
Hooper, wounded; Mr. Wollet, wounded; Private Ru- 
pert, marine corps, wounded in lip. 

It is very certain from the proofs before the com- 
mittee, that not one of the captured slaves, although 
arms were placed in their hands, attempted to use them, 
but on the contrary, as soon as their safety would admit, 
in the absence of their captors, their arms were thrown 
away and they hastened back to their homes. 

(A). Governor Wise and staff arrived at Charles 
Town on Sunday evening, 19th, and were made the 
guests of Mr. Wells J. Hawks. The staff consisted of 
Gen. W. C. Scott, Col. S. T. Bailey, Col. N". A. Thomp- 
son, Col. Christian White, Col. Wm. H. Brown, Major 
T. Bryan, Surgeon, J. S. D. Cullen and Assistant Sur- 
geojis E. Mason, C. W. P. Brook. On Monday after- 
noon Governor Wise reviewed the regiment, and on 
Tuesday morning left Charles Town with his staff. 
Interview Between Gov. "Wise and Oapt. Brown. 

On Tuesday evening Governor Henry A. Wise, who. 
had arrived by the afternoon train, from Richmond, held 
an interview with Captain Brown, at the office of the 



102 

Superintendent of the Arsenal whither he was borne 
immediately after the assault. He held a second in- 
terview with him on Wednesday morning^ the results of 
both interviews may be summed up in the following . 
Statement of the Insurgent Leader. 
For upwards of one year, the affair which has just 
culminated, has been in constant preparation. Tne 
necessary expenses of the undertaking was born exclu- 
sively by himself, though he received frequent words 
of encouragement from friends of the cause. Governor 
Wise informed him of the capture of his correspondence 
and desired to have him mention the names of the 
most prominent. In reply to the Governor, Capt. 
Brown said he was in possession of his correspondence 
and was "welcome to all the intelligence it conveyed, but 
he declined adding any to it. The Governor pointed 
out the folly and temerity of the insurgents hoping to 
maintain their ground at Harper's Ferry. Captain 
Brown smiled peculiarly, and said that had he not per- 
mitted the train to pass of which Mr. Phelps was the 
conductor, his plan would have proven entirely success- 
ful. He had been promised, he said, reinforcements 
of 5,000 men at a word, and had not the mihtaiy come 
upon him so soon, or had he not been delayed at Har- 
per's Ferry longer than he intended, he should have had 
them. In reply to Governor Wise's' questions as to 
where he would obtain his recruits from, Brown iepl'cd 
from Maryland, Virginia, Kentucky and North and 
South Carolina. Governor Wise said the assertion was 
impossible. When the old insurgent tartly replied that 



103 

the Governor was surrounded by ignorance, and that on 
that subject he (Brown) was far wiser than the Gover- 
nor. He said he was glad he was entitled to a jury 
trial, and he should demand his rights. 

In reference to the Government funds, he said he did 
not know of their presence here, or he should certainiy 
have taken them; and that had he found money or 
provisions necessary to his cause, he should have levied 
upon the inhabitants of the South without compunc- 
tions of conscience. The Governor told him if such 
were his sentiments of honesty, he had better prepaie 
to meet an impartial Judge. The old "Border Ruffian'* 
replied that he had no favors to ask, no apologies to 
offer to anybody, that he had well weighed the cost of 
his expedition before engaging in it, and that he would 
as lief hang as to die in any other manner. lie did 
not deny that the organization of which he had been the 
leader, was a most extensive one; on the contrary he 
affirmed to Governor Wise his entire conviction that the 
work would go on until the entire South would be in 
a state of insurrection. He had preparations, he o.iid 
to arm 1,500 men; the pikes he intended for the negroes, 
whom he was afraid to trust with fire arms, lie spoke 
with some show of feeling of the extinction of his fam-- 
ily; two of his sons he said had been killed in Kansas 
by Southerners, two had been butchered at Harper's 
Ferry by the General Government, and a fifth was he 
did not know where. His wife was somewhere in the 
State of New York. Of the twenty-two who composed 
the invading party, 15 have been killed and two serious- 



104 

]y wounded. Edwin Coppie has been consigned to the 
jail at Charles Town, the capitol of Jefferson county, 
whither "old Brown" is to be carried today. Governor 
Wise said they should both be tried before the Circuit 
Court of Jefferson county, which meets next week, aud 
that at the conclusion of their trials there ioi murder, 
the General Government would be welcome to what was 
left of them. 

The people of Virginia are bitterly incensed against 
'old Brown," and even did the law fail io claim his 
life, he could not possibly escape beyond the borders of 
the State. 

John Brown Excitement 
(A). Harper's Ferry, November, 21, 1S59. 

Major General Taliaferro arrived here today by the 
express train, from Gloucester county, and hdS assumed 
by the direction of Governor Wise, to command all 
forces. * General Taliaferro does not supersede Col. 
Davis, but was entitled by rank to command tho v.hola 
forces. Colonel Davis has been disfranchised under the 
anti-duelling act from holding any office, civil or mili- 
tary, in Virginia. He has acted here as an advisoi-y of- 
ficer. There are now about one thouusand tioops in 
arms here. A rumor was afloat today that there w.is a 
party of outlaws in the mountains near Cherry Run, 
but it is not credited. The sentinels at Charles, Iovvl 
are reported to have been fired on last night. Governor 
Wise exhibits no sort of fears of a rescue being attempt- 
ed. He thinks it best to have a good force out. In 
reply to a gentleman this morning he stated that he 



105 

never had the least fear on the subject, bat considered it 
the finest opportunity ever offered to put the State in 
military training. I can now, he said, teach my boys 
how to carry biscuits in their knapsacks and arrange 
bullets in their cartridge boxes. 

(D). At Harper's Ferry, Nov. 22, 1859. 

The following companies arrived from Richmond: — 
Greys, 86; Blues, Lieut, Mall, oldest company in the 
State. 80; Co. F., 75; Montgomery Guards, 50, Vir- 
ginia Rifles, 35; Young Guards, 40; Howitzer Corp, 
infantry, 4G; all under command of Wyatt M. Elliott, 
of the Whig, as Colonel commanding. Also Fetersburg 
Greys, 40; Petersburg Artillery, 35; City Guards, 40; 
Rock Ridge Rifles, 35; all under command of Colonel 
Weisinger. Mr. O. Jenning Wise was a private in Co. 
F. 1st Reg.; Hon. Roger A. Pryor, elect to Congress, 
was a private in Petersburg Greys. 

(C). From Martinsburg, Extract from a letter. — 
"We have now four companies on foot, of Riflemen 120, 
commanded by Capt. J. Q. A. Nadenbousch. A com- 
pany of artillery of two pieces, Capt. E. G. Alburtis, 
Geo. Woilet, 1st Lieutenant, Geo. H. Murphy, 2nd Lieu- 
tenant, with 64 members. A company of cavalry, John 
Blair Hoge, Captain, 50 members. Our military men 
are up every night and ready for anything that may 
turn up." 

(B). During Governor Wise's interview with the 
condemned insurgents, the other day, Brown declared 
himself prepared to die. He justified his course only 
regretting his error in not allowing the train to pass 



106 

without interruption. Cook said he was willing io be 
shot, but always had a great pugnance to hanging. 
Governor Wise said that Coppie was the only one he had 
ever thought of commuting, but he had now determined 
to hang them all. 

Trial of the Insurgents. 

Charles Town, Va., Oct. 25, 1559. 

The Magistrate's Court assembled here this morning 
to examine the prisoner captured in the recent insurrec- 
tion. The following magistrates were on the bench: 
Colonel Braxton Davenport, Presiding Justice; Dr. 
Alexander, John J. Lock, John F. Smith, Thomas H. 
Willis, Geo. W. Eichelberger, Charles H. Lewis and 
Moses W. Burr. 

At half past ten o'clock the Sheriff was directed to 
bring in the prisoners, who were conducted from the 
jail under a guard of eighty armed men. A guard was 
also stationed aroimd the Court House, their bayonets 
bristling on all sides. 

Charles B. Harding, Esq., Attorney for the county, 
was assisted by Andrew Hunter, counsel for the com- 
monwealth. 

The prisoners were brought in amidst profound si- 
lence. Brown and Coppie were manacled together. 
Brown seemed weak and haggard, with his eyes swollen 
from the effects of the wounds on his head. Coppie is 
uninjured. Stevens seemed less injured than Brown ; 
tmt looked haggard and depressed. He lias also a num- 
ber of wounds on the head. John Copeland is a bright 
mulatto, about 25 years of age. Green is a dark negro 
about 30 years of age. 






107 

Sheriff Campbell read the commitment of the pris- 
oners on the charge of treason and murder, when Mr. 
Harding, the State's Attorney, asked that the Court 
might assign counsel for the prisoners if they had none. 
The court inquired if the prisoners had counsel, when 
Brown addressed the Court as follows: "I did not ask 
for any quarter at the time I was taken. I did not 
ask to have myself spared. The Governor of the State 
of Virginia tendered me his assurance that I should 
have a fair trial, and under no circumstances whatever 
will I be able to attend to a trial. If you seek my 
blood you can have it any moment without the mockery 
of a trial. I have had no counsel. I have not been 
able to advise with one. I know nothing about the 
feelings of my fellow prisoners, and am utterly unable 
to attend in any way to my defence. My memory don't 
serve me. My health is insufficient, although improv- 
ing. There are mitigating circumstances, if a fair 
trial is to be allowed us, that I would urge in our favor. 
But if we are to be forced Avith a mere form of a 
trial to execution, you might spare yourselves thai trou- 
ble. I am ready for my fate. I do not ask a trial. I 
plead for no mockery of a trial. ^ T o insult, nothing 
but that which conscience gives over cowardice would 
drive you to practice. 1 ask to be excused from the 
mockery of a trial. I do not know what the design of 
this examination is. I do not know what is to be the 
benefit of it to the Commonwealth. I have now little 
to ask other than that I be not publicly insulted as 
cowardly barbarians insult those who fall into their 
hands." 



108 

The Court assigned Charles J. Faulkner and Lawson 
Botts as counsel for the prisoners. 

After more consultation with the prisoners, Mr. 
Faulkner addressed the Court, stating that he declined 
the right of this Court to assign counsel for the pris- 
oners, and that he could not under any circumstances 
enter upon the defence of these prisoners on such a 
short notice ,as it would be a mockery of justice. Mr. 
Botts said he did not feel it his duty to decline the 
appointment of the Court. lie was prepared to do his 
best to defend the prisoners, and he hoped the Court 
would assign him some experienced assistant if Mr v . 
Faulkner declined. 

(A). Brown's Jurors. — The following is a list of the 
jurymen who tried John Brown: Isaac Dust, Joseph 
Myers, Jacob I. Miller, Richard Timberlake, John C. 
McClure, Wm. Rightstine, Win. A. Martin, Thomas 
Watson, Jr., Thomas Osbourn, Geo. W. Tabb, Geo. W. 
Boyer, John C. Wiltshire. 

Brown Sentenced. — Sentence of death was passed on 
Capt. Brown on Wednesday evening, November 1st, 
1859, by Judge Richard Parker, and on Friday, the 
2nd of December, fixed for his execution, between the 
hours of 9 and 4 p. m. When he was asked to say why 
sentence should not be passed upon him, he spoke sev- 
eral minutes adhering to the righteousness of his course. 
He said that those acting with him did so voluntarily, 
some of them without compensation. He bore testi- 
mony to the truthfulness of most of the witnesses. 
Brown stood up, and in a clear distinct voice, said, "I 



109 

have, may it please the Court, a few words to *say. In 
the first place, I deny everything but what I have all 
along admitted, of a design on my part to free slaves. 
I intended certainly to make a clear thing of that mat- 
ter, as I did last winter when I went into Missouri and 
there took slaves without the snapping of a gun on 
either side, moved them through the country and finally 
left them in Canada. 1 designed to have done the same 
thing on a larger scale. That was all I intended. I 
never did intend murder, or treason, or the destruction 
of property, or to incite slaves to rebellion or to make 
an insurrection. I have another objection, and that is, 
it is unjust that I should suffer such a penalty. Had 
I interfered in the manner which, I admit, has been 
fairly proved (for I admire the truthfulness and can- 
dor of the greater portion of the witnesses who testified 
in this case) had I so interfered in behalf of the rich 
and powerful, the intelligent, the so-called great, or in 
behalf of any of their friends, either father or mother, 
brother or sister, wife or children, or any of that class, 
and suffered and sacrificed what I have in this interfer- 
ence, it would have been all right, and every man in 
this court would have deemed it an act worthy of re- 
ward rather than punishment. This court acknowledges 
too, as I suppose, the validity of the law of God. I see 
a book kissed here which I suppose to be the Bible ,or 
at least the New Testament. That teaches me that all 
things "whatsoever I would men should do to me I 
should . do even so unto them." It teaches me 
further to "remember them that are in bonds as 
bound with them.". I endeavored to act 
up to these instructions, I say I am yet too young to 



110 

understand that God is any respector of persons. I 
believe that to have interfered as I have done, and as I 
have always freely admitted I have done in behalf of His 
despised, poor, was no wrong, but right. Now if it 
is deemed necessary that I should forfeit my life for 
the furtherance of the ends of justice, and mingle my 
blood further with the blood of my children, ant! with 
the blood of the millions in this slave country, wnose 
rights are disregarded by wicked, cruel and unjust en* 
actments, I submit. So let it be done. Let me say one 
word further, I feel entirely satisfied with the treat- 
ment I have received at my trial. Considering all th§ 
circumstances, it has been more generous than I expect?; 
ed; but I feel no consciousness of guilt. I have stated 
from the first what was my intention, and what was 
not. I never had any design against the life of any 
person, nor any disposition to commit treason, or excite 
the slaves to rebel, or make any general insurrection. I 
never encouraged any man to do so, but always discour- 
aged any idea made by some of those connected with me. 
I fear it has been stated by some of them that I have 
induced them to join me. But the contrary is true. I 
do not say this to injure them, but as regretting their 
weakness. Tbere is not one of them but joined me of 
his own accord, and the greater part at their own ex- 
pense. A number of them I never saw, and never had 
a word of conversation with, till the day they came to 
me, and that was for the purpose I have stated. Now, 
I have done." 

G-uards of John Brown and His Raiders. 
The following is a list of the men who guarded John 



Ill 

Brown and his raiders in the jail during their trials: 
Henderson Bishop, J. 0. Tutwiler, John Sheets, John 
W. Taylor, John E. Hildebert, Hiram O'Bannon, D. H. 
Cockerell, David Heck, Geo. Hawks, John F. Blessing, 
Charles Trussell, John Gallaher, Tutwiler and Hiid- 
bert are the only two who are yet living. 

Old Brown. — This old Pos-a-wattamie exhibited more 
impudence on Friday last, says the Charles Town Free 
Press, than we have ever seen or heard of. After sev- 
al days of incessant labor and effort by his counsel, 
Messrs. Botts and Green, taking advantage of every 
quibble susceptible of the law in his behalf, and an 
unusual leniency to him by the Court and opposing 
counsel, he exhibited the ingrate in declaring that he 
had not confidence in his counsel, and discharged them 
and procured Shelton, of Washington; Hoyt, of Boston, 
and Griswold, of Ohio. He has had more latitude al- 
lowed him than any other criminal that has ever been 
arraigned in this court. 

(A). The petition of John Brown for a writ of 
error was refused by the Supreme Court of Virginia, 
at Richmond, on the 19th of November, to the judg- 
ment rendered by the Circuit Court of Jefferson county, 
the Court being of the opinion that the judgment is 
plainly right, therefore the execution of the prisoner 
takes place on the 2nd of December, 1859. Judges 
Allen, Daniel, Moncure, Lee, Robertson on the bench. 
Mrs. Doyle's Letter to Brown. 
The following is a letter from Mrs. Doyle to Brown 
in jail: 



112 

Chattanooga, Term., Xov. 20, 1859. 
John Brown : — 

Sir :"Although vengeance is not mine, I confess 
that I do feel gratified to hear that you were stopped in 
your fiendish career at Harper's Ferry with the loss of 
your two sons. You can now appreciate my distress in 
Kansas, when you then and there entered my house at 
midnight and arrested my husband and two boys and 
took them out of the yard, and in cold blood shot them 
dead, in my hearing. You can't say you did it to free 
our slaves ; he had none and never expected to own one ; 
but has only made me a poor disconsolate widow with 
helpless children. While .1 feel for your folly, 1 do 
hope and trust you will meet your just reward. Oh, 
how it pained my heart to hear the dying groans of nw 
husband and children. If this scrawl gives you any 
consolation you are welcome to it. My own, John Doyle, 
whose life 1 begged you to spare, is now grown up, and 
is very anxious and desirous to be at Charles Town, that 
he might adjust the rope around your neck, if Governor 
Wise would permit it. 

MAHALA DOYLE." 

Characteristic Letter From John Brown. 
A gentleman of New York who bas received the 
following letter from John Brown handed it for publi- 
cation to the X. Y. Times: 

"Charles Town. Jefferson Co. Nov. {*, . L559. 
My Dear Young Friend: I have just received your 
most kind and welcome letter of the loth instant, but 
did not get any other from you. I am under many 



113 

obligations to you and your father, for all the kindness 
you have shown me especially since my disaster. May 
God and your own consciousness ever be your awarders. 
Tell your father that I am quite cheerful, that I do not 
feel myself in the least degraded by my imprisonment, 
my chain or the near approach of the gallows. Men 
cannot imprison or chain or hang the soul. I go joy- 
fully in behalf of millions that "have no rights" that 
this great and glorious, this Christian Republic is bound 
to respect. Strange change in morals politicial as weli 
as Christian, since 1776! I look forward to other 
changes to take place in God's good time, fully believing 
that the "fashion of this world passeth away." Fare- 
well ! May God abundantly bless you all. 

Your friend, 

JOHN BROWN." 

The Independent publishes a longer letter from 
Brown, written in response to a note from Rev. H. L. 
Vaill Litchfield, Ct. The italics are Brown's own : 
"Charles Town, Jefferson Co., Va., Tuesday, Nov. 15, 

1859. 
Rev. H. L. Vaill. 

My Dear Steadfast Friend: Your most kind and 
welcome letter of the 8th instant, reached me in 
due time. I am very grateful for all the good feeling 
you express and also for the kind counsels you give, 
together with your prayers in my behalf. Allow me to 
say, that notwithstanding 'my soul is amongst lions,' 
still I believe that 'God in very deed is with me.' You 
will not therefore feel surprised when I tell you that I 



114 

am 'joyful in all my tribulations,' that I do not feel 
condemned of him whose judgment is just, nor of my 
own conscience. Nor do I feel degraded by my impris- 
onment, my chain or prospect of the gallows. I have 
not only been (though utterly unworthy) permitted to 
suffer 'affliction with God's people,' but have also had a 
great many rare opportunities for 'preaching righteous- 
ness in the great congregation.' I trust it will not all 
be lost. The jailor, in whose charge I am, and his fam- 
ily, and assistants, have all been most kind; and not- 
withstanding he was one of the bravest of all who 
fought me, he is now being abused for his humanity. 
So far as my observation goes, none but the brave men 
are likely to be humane to a fallen foe. 'Cowards prove 
their courage by their ferocity.' It may be done in that 
way with but little risk. I wish I could write you about 
a few only of the interesting times I have experienced 
with different classes of men, clergymen among others. 
Christ, the great captain of liberty as well as of salva- 
tion, and who began his mission, as foretold of him, by 
proclaiming it, saw fit to take from me a sword of steel 
after I had carried it for a time, but he has put another 
in my hand, (the sword of the Spirit) and I pray God 
to make me a faithful soldier, wherever he maj r send me, 
not less on the scaffold than when surrounded by warm- 
est sympathizers. My dear old friend, I do assure you 
1 have not forgotten our last meeting, nor our retrospec- 
tive look over the route by which God had then left us, 
and I bless His name that he has again enabled me to 
hear your words of cheering and comfort, at a time when 



115 

I at least am on the brink of Jordan." See Bunyan's 
Pilgrim. God in his infinite mercy grant us soon an- 
other meeting on the opposite shore ! I have often pass- 
ed under the rod of Him whom I call my Father and 
certainly no son ever needed it oftener; and yet I have 
enjoyed much of life as I was enabled to discover the 
secret of this somewhat early. It has been in making 
the prosperity and the happiness of others my own. 
so that really I have had a great deal of prosperity. I 
am very prosperous still, and looking forward to,a time 
when 'peace on earth and good will to man' shall prevail. 
I have no murmuring thoughts or envious feelings to 
fret my mind. I'll praise my Maker with my breath. 
I am an unworthy nephew of Deacon John and I love 
him much; and in view of the many choice friends I 
have had here, I am led the more earnestly to pray 
gather not my soul with the unrighteous. Your assur- 
ance of the earnest sympathy of the friends in my native 
land is very grateful to my feelings; and allow me to 
say a word of comfort to them. As I do believe most 
firmly that God reigns, I cannot believe that anything 
I have done, suffered, or may yet suffer, will be lost to 
the cause of God, or of humanity. And in the worst 
event, it would certainly pay. I often expressed that 
belief, and I can now see no possible cause to alter my 
mind. I am not yet, in the main, at all disappointed. 
I have been a good deal disappointed as it regards my- 
self ; in not keeping up to my own plans; but I now 
feel entirely reconciled to that event; for God's plan 
was infinitely better, no doubt, or I should have kept 



116 

to my own. Had Sampson kept to his determination of 
not telling Delilah wherein his great strength lay, he 
would probably have never overturned the house. I did 
not tell Delilah, but 1 was induced to act very contrary 
to my letter judgment; and I have lost my two noble 
boys, and other friends, if not my two eyes. But God's 
will, not mine, be done, I feel a comfortable hope that, 
like the erring servant of whom 1 have just been writing, 
even I may yet die in faith. As to both the time and 
manner of my death, I have but very little trouble on 
that score and I am able to be (as you exhort) of good 
cheer. Farewell, till we meet again. 

Your friend in truth, 

JOHN BEOWK" 
Letter From Mrs. Child to John Brown. 
r "Wayland, Mass., Oct. 26, 1859. 

"Dear Captain Brown: Though personally un- 
known to you, you will recognize in my name an earn- 
est friend of Kansas, when circumstances made that 
territory the battle-ground between the antagonistic 
principle of slavery and freedom, which politicians so 
vainly strive to reconcile in the government of the 
United States. Believing in peace principles, I cannot 
sympathize with the method you choose to advance the 
cause of freedom. But I honor your generous inten- 
tions. I admire your courage, moral and physical. I 
reverence you for the humanity which tempered your 
zeal, I sympathize with your cruel bereavements, your 
sufferings, and your wrongs. In brief, I love you and 
bless you. Thousands of hearts are throbbing with sym- 



117 

pathy, as warm as mine. I think of you night and day, 
bleeding in prison, surrounded by hostile faces, sustain- 
ed only by trust in God, and your own strong heart. I 
long to nurse you, to speak to you sisterly words of 
sympathy and consolation. I have asked permission of 
Governor Wise to do so. If the request is not granted, I 
cherish the hope that these few words may at least 
reach your hands, and afford you some little solace. 
May you be strengthened by the conviction that no 
honest man ever sheds blood for freedom in vain, how- 
ever he may be mistaken in his efforts. May God sus- 
tain you, and carry you through whatsoever may be in 
store for you. Yours with heart-felt respect, sympathy 
and affection, 

"L. MAEIA CHILD." 
Spirited Rebuke. 

In a letter to L. Maria Child, on the subject of 
sympathy for old Brown, Mrs. M. J. C. Mason, of King 
George County, Va., says : 

"But, if, indeed, you do lack objects of sympa- 
thy near you, go to Jefferson county, to the family of 
George Turner, a noble, true-hearted man, whose devo- 
tion to his friend, Colonel Washington, causing him to 
risk his life, was shot down like a dog. Or to that of 
Mr. Beckam, whose grief at the murder of his negro, 
subordinate, made him needlessly expose himself to the 
aim of the assassin Brown. And when you can equal in 
deeds of love and charity those around }'ou, what is 
shown by nine-tenths on the Virginia plantations, then 
by your "sympathy" whet the knives for our throats and 



118 

kindle the torch for our homes. You reverence Brown 
for his clemency to his prisoners. Prisoners f and how 
taken? Unsuspecting workmen, going to their tiai 1 y 
•duties ; unarmed gentlemen, taken from their beds at the 
dead hour of night. by six men doubly and trebly armed. 
Suppose he had hurt a hair of their heads do you 
think one of the band of desperadoes would have left 
the engine house alive? And did he not know that the 
treatment of them was the only hope of life then, or 
clemency afterwards? Of course he did. The United 
States troops could not h^vr. prevented him from being 
torn limb from limb." 

Letter Prom a Quaker Lady to John Brown. 
"Newport, Ehode Island, Oct. 27th, 1859. 
Capt. John Brown, Dear Friend: Since thy arrest 
I have often thought of thee, and have wished that like 
Elizabeth Frv toward her prison friends, I might conpole 
thee in thy confinement. But that can never be, so I 
can only write thee a few lines, which, if they contain 
any comfort, may come to thee like some little ray of 
light. You can never know how very many dear friends 
love thee with all their hearts, for thy brave efforts in 
behalf of the poor oppressed and though we, who are 
non-resistants, and religiously believe it better to reform 
by moral and not by carnal weapons, could not approve 
of bloodshed, yet we know thee was animated by the 
most generous and philanthropic motives. Very many 
thousands openly approve thy intentions, though most 
Friends would not think it right to take up arms. 
Thousands pray for thee every day; and oh, I do pray 



119 

that God will be with thy soul. Posterity will do thee 
justice. If Moses led out the thousands of Jewish 
slaves from their bondage, and God destroyed the 
Egyptians in the sea because they went after the Isra- 
elites to bring them back to slavery, then, surely, by 
the same reasoning, we may judge thee a deliverer, who 
wished to release millions from the more cruel oppress- 
ion. If the American people honor Washington for 
resisting, with bloodshed, for seven years, an unjust tax, 
how much more ought thou to be honored for seeking to 
free the poor slaves. Oh, I wish I could seek to defend 
thee. If I had now the eloquence of Portia, how I 
would turn the scale in thy favor. But I can only pray 
"God bless thee," God pardon thee, and through oar 
Eedeemer give thee safety and happiness now and al- 
ways. 

'•'From thy Friend, E. B" 

John Brown's Reply. 
"Charles Town, Jefferson Co., Ya., Tuesday, Nov. 1, 
1859. 

Dear Friend E. B., of Ehode Island: Your most 
cheering letter dated the 27th of October, 1859, is re- 
ceived, and may the Lord reward you a thousand fold 
for the kind feeling you express toward me, but more 
especially for your fidelity to the poor that cry, and 
those that have no help. For this I am a prisoner in 
bonds. It is solely my own fault, in a military point 
of view, that 'we met with our disaster— I mean that I 
mingled with our prisoners and so far sympathize with 
them and their families, that I neglected my duty in 



120 

other respects. But God's will, not mine be done. You 
know that Christ once armed Peter. So also in my case. 
I think he put a sword into my hand, and there contin- 
ued it, so long as he saw best, and then kindly took it 
from me. I mean when I first went to Kansas. I wish 
•you could know with, what cheerfulness I am now wield- 
ing the Sword of the spirit, on the right hand and on 
the left. I bless God that it prove mighty to the pull- 
ing down of strongholds. I always loved my Quaker 
friends, and I commend to their regard my poor bereav- 
ed widowed wife, and my daughters and daughters-in- 
law, whose husbands fell at my side. One is a mother, 
and the other likely to become so soon. They, as well 
as my own sorrow-stricken daughter, are left very poor, 
and have much greater need of sympathy than I who, 
through Infinite Grace and the kindness of strangers, 
am joyful in all my tribulations. Dear sister, write 
them at North Elba, Esssex county, New York, to com- 
fort their sad hearts. Direct to Mary A. Brown, wife 
of John Brown. There is also another, a widow, wife 
of Thompson, who fell with my poor boys in the affair 
at Harper's Ferry, at the same place. I do not feel 
conscious of guilt in talcing up arms; and had it been 
in behalf of the rich and powerful, the intelligent, the 
great, as men count greatness, if those who form en- 
actments to suit themselves and corrupt others, or some 
of their friends that I interfered, suffered, sacrificed and 
fi'll, it would have been doing very well. But enough 
of this. These light afflictions, which endure for a 
moment, shall work out for me a far more exceeding and 



121 

eternal weight of glory. I would be grateful for anoth- 
er letter from you. My wounds are healing. Farewell. 
God will surely attend to his own cause in the best 
possible way and -time, and he will not forget the work 
of his own hands. Your friend. 

Insanity in Brown's Family. 
John Brown and several of his family have resided 
near Akron. Ohio, for many years. Insanity is heredi- 
tary in the family. His mother and sister died with it, 
and a daughter of that sister has been two years in the 
lunatic asylum. A son and daughter of his mother's 
daughter have also been confined in the lunatic asylum, 
and another son of that brother is now insane and 
under close restraint. These facts can be conclusively 
proven by witnesses residing there who will doubtless 
attend the trial if desired. Signed, > 

A. a. LEWIS. 

Personal Interview With Capt. Brown's "Wife. 
The New York Independent published an account 
of an interview of a correspondent with Mrs. Brown, the 
wife of Capt. Brown. Mrs. Brown is tall large and 
muscular, giving the impression at first sight of a 
frame capable of great strength and long endurance. 
Her face is grave and thoughtful, leaving even in this 
hour of her trial, an expression of solemness rather than 
sadness. She is a native of Whitehall, near Lake Cham- 
plain, and has been the mother of thirteen children; 
but not withstanding the cares of her numerous family 
and her many privations and struggles, independent of 
household burdens, she still appears fresh and hale as 



122 

if she were only now in the prime and vigor of life. 
While living in Ohio, four of her children died from 
dysentery within eleven days, three of whom were car- 
ried to the grave together on the same day. I referred 
incidentally to the design upon Harper's Ferry as hav- 
ing been premeditated for two years, to which she im- 
mediately replied, "Not for two years but for twenty." 



-i 



*S 




JOHN BROWN'S WIFE. 

He had been waiting twenty years for some opportunity 
to free the slaves; we had all been waiting with him, 
the proper time when he should put his resolve into 
action; and when at last, the enterprise of Harper's 
Ferry was planned, we all thought that the time had 
now come. Mr. Brown was sanguine of success. We 



123 

were all equally confident. He had no idea, nor did any 
of the family that the experiment would result in de- 
feat. We all looked to it as fulfilling the hopes of 
many years." I then put the question which 1 had 
been chiefly solicitous to ask: "it is the common talk 
of the newspapers that Capt. Brown is insane— what do 
you say to that opinion?"' "I never knew of his insan- 
ity," she replied, until I read it in the newspapers— he 
is a clear-headed man. He has always been and now is 
entirely in his right mind. He is always cool, deliber- 
ate, and never over-hasty, but he has always considered 
that his first impulses to action were the best and saftest 
to be followed. He has almost always acted upon his 
first suggestion. No, he is not insane. His reason is 
clear. His last act was the result, as all his other acts 
have been, of his truest and strongest conscientious con- 
victions." 

A Northerner's Visit to John Brown in Jail. 
A correspondent of the Boston Traveler, who made 
a visit to John Brown says: "During my interview 
with Brown at the jail, he repeated what he said in 
court, that he was satisfied with the fairness of his 
trial and the kindness of his treatment. He said that 
Capt. Avis, his jailor, showed as much kindness in 
treating him, as he had shown courage in attacking him ; 
it is what 1 should expect from every brave man." 
Seeing one of the deputy jailors was present, he added : 
"I don't say this to flatter, it is not my way ; I say it 
because it is true." Judge Parker appears to have con- 
ducted the trial with remarkable candor, dignity and 



impartiality ; and when we consider what a servile in- 
surrection the self control of the people is wonderful. 
Brown has not been in irons since the first night and 
every possible indulgence is shown him, except the 
indulgence of delay. He speaks well of his medical at- 
tendants, but rejects the offered counsel of all ministers 
who believe that slavery is right. He will die as fear- 
lessly as be has lived. Brown attributes, his defeat to 
a want of military skid, and foresight, but insist that 
he took up arms in a righteous cause, and expresses his 
firm conviction that bis motives are just.'" 

Brown was visited yesterday afternoon by Rev. 
James H. March, of the M. E. Lnurch. The Reverened 
gentleman having advanced an argument in favor of 
the institution of slavery as it now exists, Brown replied 
to him, saying: "My dear sir, you know nothing about 
Christianity: you will bave to learn the A B C's in 
the lesson of Christianity, as I find you are entirely ig- 
norant of the meaning of the word. I, of course, 
respect you as a gentleman, but it is as a beat ben gentle- 
man.'" The n*verend gentleman here thought it best to 
draw such a discussion to a close, and therefore with- 
drew. 

Capt. Brown and Capt. Pate. 

('apt. Henry ("lav Pate of Kansas notoriety, but a 
residenl of Petersburg, Va., came to see Brown while 
in prison. It wili be remembered by the intelligent 
reader thai Capt. Pate commanded the pro-slavery forces 
at the battle of "Black Jack." whilst the abolition forces 
were arranged under Capt. Brown, who through a piece 




JOHN BROWN IN JAIL. 



126 

of strategy not recognized in honorable warfare, made 
captives of Pate and his party. The interview between 
the two captains was conducted in as peaceable a manner 
as could have been expected, but it is evident that they 
have no particular love for each other. Capt. Pate 
who is quite a young man returned home on Tuesday. 
Brown's Last Letter to His Family. 

"My Dear Beloved Wife, Sons and Daughters, 
every one: 

"I am awaiting the hour of my public murder with 
great composure of mind and cheerfulness, feeling the 
strong assurance that in no other possible way could I 
be used to so much advantage to the cause of good and 
of humanity, and that nothing that either I or all my 
family have sacrificed or suffered will be lost. The 
reflection that a wise and merciful as well as just and 
Holy God, rules not the affairs of the world, but of all 
the world, is a rock to set our feet upon under all cir- 
cumstances, even those more severely trying ones which 
our own feelings and wrongs have nlaced us. I have 
now no doubt but that our seeming disaster will ulti- 
mately result in the most glorious success; so, my dear 
shattered and broken family, be of good cheer, and be- 
lieve and trust in God with all your heart, and with all 
your soul, for He doeth all things well. Do not feel 
ashamed on my account, nor for one moment despair 
of the cause or grow weary of well doing. I bless God 
I never felt stronger confidence in the certain and near 
approach of a bright morning and a glorious day than 
I have felt, and do now feel, since my confinement here. 



127 

I am endeavoring to return, like a poor prodigal as I 
am to my Father, against whom I have always sinned, 
in the hope that he may be kind and forgivingly meet 
me, though a very great way off. Oh, my dear wife and 
children, would to God you could know I have been 
travailing in birth for you all, that no one of you may 
fail in the grace of God, through Jesus Christ — that 
no one of you may be blind to the truth and glorious 
light of His Word, in which life and immortality are 
brought to light. I beseech you every one to make the 
Bible your daily and nightly study, with a childlike, 
honest, candid, teachable spirit of love and respect for 
your husband and father. And I beseech the God of 
my fathers to open all your eyes to the discovery of the 
truth. You cannot imagine how much you may soon 
need the consolations of the Christian religion. Cir- 
cumstances, like my own for more than a month past, 
have convinced me bevond all doubt of our great need 
■of some theories treasured up when our prejudices are ex- 
cited, our vanities worked up to the highest pitch. Oh 
do not trust your eternal all upon the boisterous ocean 
without even a helm or compass to aid you in steering. 
I do not ask any of you to thrown away your reason; 
I only ask you to make a candid, sober use of your rea- 
son. My dear young children, will you listen to this 
last poor admonition of one who can only love you? 
Oh, be determined at once to give your whole heart to 
God, and let nothing shake or alter that resolution. 
You need have no fears of regretting it. Do not be 
vain and thoughtless, but sober-minded; and let me en- 



128 

treat you all to love the whole remnant of our once 
great family. Try and build up again your broken 
walls, and to make the utmost of every stone that is 
left. Nothing can so tend to make life a blessing as 
the consciousness that your life and example bless and 
leave you the stronger. Still, it is ground of the ut- 
most comfort to my mind to know that, to as many of you 
as have had the opportunity have given some proof of 
your fidelity to the great family of men. Be faithful 
unto death, from the exercise of habitual love to man 
it cannot be very hard to learn to love his Maker. I 
must yet insert the reason for my firm belief in the 
divine inspiration of the Bible, notwithstanding I am 
perhaps naturally skeptical, certainly not credulous. I 
wish all to consider it most thoroughly when you read 
that blessed book, and see whether you cannot discover 
such evidence yourselves. It is the purity of heart feel- 
ing our minds as well as work and actions, which is 
everywhere insisted on, that distinguished it from all 
the other teachings, that commends it to my conscience. 
Whether my heart be willing and obedient or not the 
inducement that it holds out is another reason of my 
convictions of its truth and genuineness; but I do not 
here omit this my last argument on the Bible that 
eternal life is what my soul is panting after this mo- 
ment. I mention this as a reason for endeavoring 
to leave a valuable copy of the Bible to be carefully 
preserved in remembrance of me, to many of my 
posterity instead of some other book at equal cost. I 
beseech you all to live in habitual content men! with 



129 

moderate circumstances, and gains of worldly store and 
earnestly to teach this to your children and children's 
children after you, by example as well as precept. Be 
determined to know by experience as soon as may be 
whether Bible instruction is of divine origin or not. 
Be sure to owe no man anything, but to love one anoth- 
er. John Rogers wrote to his children, ''Abhor that 
arrant whore of Borne." John Brown writes to his 
children to abhor, with undying hatred alrfo, that sum 
of all villians— slavery. Eemember, he that is slow tc 
anger is better than the mighty, and he that ruleth in 
spirit than he that taketh a city. Remember, also, that 
they, being wise, shall shine, and they that turn many 
to righteousness as the stars for ewr and ever. And 
now, dear beloved family, to God and the work of His 
Grace I commend you all. Your affectionate husband 
and father. 

The Will of John Brown 

Charles Town, Va., Dec. 1, 1859. 
I give to my son, John Brown, Jr., my surveyor's 
compass, and other surveyor's articles, if found; also 
my old granite monument, now at North Elba, N. Y., 
to receive upon its two sides a further inscription, as I 
will hereafter direct, said stone monument, however, to 
remain at North Elba so long as any of my children and 
my wife may remain there as residents. 

I give to my son, Jason Brown, my silver watch 
with my name engraved on inner case. 

I give to my son, Owen Brown, my double spring 
opera glass and my rifle mm. if found, presented to me 



130 

at Worcester, Mass. It is globe-sighted and new. I 
give, also, to the same son fifty dollars in cash, to be 
paid him from the proceeds of my father's estate, in 
consideration of his terrible sufferings in Kansas, and 
his crippled condition from his childhood. 

I give to my sou, Solomon Brown, fifty dollars in 
cash, to be paid from my father's estate, as an offset to 
the first two cases above named. 

I give to my daughter, Euth Thompson, my large 
old Bible, containing the family record. 

I give to each of my sons, and to each of my other 
daughters-in-law as good a copy of the Bible as can be 
purchased at some book store in New York or Boston, 
at a cost of five dollars each, in cash; to be paid out 
of the proceeds of my father's estate. 

I give to each of my grand-children that may be 
living when my father's estate is settled, as good a copy 
of the Bible as can be purchased as above, at a cost of 
three dollars each. 

All the Bibles to be purchased at one and the same 
time, on the best terms. 

T desire to have fifty dollars cash paid out of tne 
final proceeds of my father's estate, to the following 
named persons, to-wit : to Allen Hammond, of Kockville, 
Tolland county. Conn., to Geo. Kellogg, former agent 
of the New England Company, at that place, for the 
use and benefit of that company. Also fifty dollars to 
Silas Havens, formerly of Lewisburg, Summit county, 
Ohio, if he can be found; also fifty dollars to a man 
of Stark county, Ohio, at Canton, who sued my father 



131 

in his lifetime, through Judge Humphrey uid Mr. 
Upson, of Akron, to be paid by J. R. Brown, fco the 
man in person if he can be found. His na-ae I cannot 
remember. My father made a compromise with the 
man by taking our house and lot at Mannerville. I 
desire that any remaining balance be paid in equal 
amounts to my wife, and to each of my chiianc, and to 
the widows of Watson and Owen Brown, by my brother. 

JOHN BB0W.N7' 
Will of John Brown. 
The following is a true will of John Br-;wn revok- 
ing all others as published in the papers, and written 
with Brown's own pen, in the Charles Town jail. "J. 
John Brown, will and direct that all my property being 
personal property, which is scattered about in the 
States of Virginia and Maryland, should be carefully 
gathered up by my executor, hereinafter appointed, and 
disposed of to the best advantage, and the proceeds 
thereof paid over to my beloved wife, Mary A. Brown. 
Many of those articles not of a warlike character, and 
I trust as to such and all the property that I may 
be entitled to, that my rights and the rights of my 
family may be respected. And lastly, I hereby appoint 
Sheriff James W. Campbell, executor ol ..as my true 
last will, hereby revoking all others. Witness my hand 
and seal this 2nd day of December, 1859. I wish my 
friends, James W T . Campbell, Sheriff, and John Avis, 
Jailor, as a return for their kindness, each to have a 
Sharp's' rifle of those belonging to me, or if no rifle 
can be had, then each a pistol." 



132 

Approach of Brown's Execution. 
Many strangers^ from the North and West are ar- 
riving to see Brown yet alive, and many suspicious look- 
ing characters are upon the streets. Brown has written 
to his wife to come on. He continues to he in good spir- 
its and says he wants no minister to accompany him 
to the scaffold nor does he want the mockery of prayers. 
Yesterday he sent for Mr. J. F. Blessing, who was 
extremely kind to him in dressing his wounds and pay- 
ing other attentions, and requested him to accept as a 
token of regard his pocket Bible. The edition is the 






-/-*-M .-"^*4S-;.<^ ***** 









JmL 



c)rh*i J/huvL 



fUu- /tttii) &P+ -4~*kA 



uoa 



FLY LEAF IN BROWN'S BIBLE. 



common bible-clasp edition, bound in calf, and of the 
cheapest description. It bears upon the fly-leaf this 
dedication: "To John F. Blessing. Charles Town, Va., 
with the best wishes of the undersigned, and the sincere 
thanks for many acts of kindness received. There is 
no commentary in the world so good in order to a right 
understanding of this blessed book as an honest, child- 



133 

like and teachable spirit. John Brown, Charles Town, 
29th November, 1859." Upon the opposite page is the 
following inscription: "John Brown. The leaves were 
turned down and marked by him while in prison at 
Charles Town, Ya. But a small part of these passages, 
which in the most positive language condemn oppress- 
ion and violence are marked." Many hundred passages, 
which can by any possibility of interpretation be tor- 
tured into a support of his peculiar theory, are carefully 
marked both by having the corners of the pages turned 
over, and by being surrounded by heavy pencil marks. 
Execution of John Brown. 
Capt. John Brown, convicted of the high crime of 
treason, insurrection, and murder, met his doom on the 
scaffold, at Charles Town, Ya., on Friday, the 2nd of 
December, 1859. in purusance of the sentence of the le- 
gal tribunal before which he was tried and convicted. 
The proceedings attending the execution were character- 
ized by due solemnity, and the best of order and de- 
corum. About two thousand troops were present. The 
arrival of Mrs. Brown, the wife of the condemned, at 
Charles Town about -1 o'clock on Thursday afternoon, 
on the day previous to the execution, created a decided 
sensation. She was dressed in black, and closely veiled, • 
and seemed to manifest considerable fortitude under 
the painful circumstances. She was accompanied to 
Harper's Ferry by two friends or relatives, a gentleman 
and lady and was escorted from Harper's Fer- 
ry, in a carriage, by a detachment of twelve 
of the Richmond Montgomery Guards, Capt. Moore, 
with whom, 'during the trip she conversed freely, and 
with great composure, on her arrival at Charles Town, 



134 

the canon in front of the jail, were wheeled around to 
allow the passage of the carriage and eight military 
companies were ordered to clear an open space in front 
of the jail. The whole population of the place gathered 
in the vicinity to see her pass into the jail. They were 
disappointed however, in not seeing her features, as she 
kept her veil, closely drawn, and escorted by the officer 




FAREWELL IN JAIL. 

who accompanied her in the carriage from Harper's Fer- 
ry, she hastened up the steps and into the prison. Prior to 
introducing Mrs. Brown to the cell of her husband, her 
person was searched by the wife of Jailor Avis, to see 
that no poison or weapon was concealed about her to 
be conveyed to Brown to enable him to commit suicide. 



135 

Nothing, however, was found. During this scene, Mrs. 
Brown seemed calm and collected, but bore on her fea- 
tures the evidence of internal anguish. She was met 
at the step of the jail by Sheriff Campbell, who took 
her arm and escorted her within the walls to take her 
last interview with her husband. Gen. Taliaferro in- 
quired of Brown how long he would like the interview 
to last. Brown answered, "Three or four hours." Gen. 
Taliaferro intimated 'that the interview must be short. 
"Oh, said Brown, coolly, I don't ask any favors of the 
State of Virginia. You must execute your duty." As 
Mrs. Brown entered, Brown arose and extended both 
his hands, but she flew to him, and throwing her arms 
around his neck, exclaimed, "My husband!" Brown 
was perfectly calm, and collected, but Mrs. B. appeared 
to be deeply, but quietly affected. The sheriff was the 
only person present at the interview. Mrs. B. is about 
50 years old. She returned about 7 P. M. to Harper's 
Ferry, under the escort of Capt. Moore, to await the 
arrival of the body of her husband. 

Visit to Brown's Family. 
Eev. T. W. Higginson, of Worcester, Mass., has 
just returned, November 4, 1859, from a visit to the 
family of John Brown. He found them up among the 
Adirondack Mountains, in New York, near Lake Cham- 
plain, opposite Burlington, Vermont. Mrs. Brown and 
four of her surviving children, three daughters and one 
son. She is a second wife and has been the mother 
of twelve children. Brown had eight children by a 
previous wife, making twenty in all. She leaves today 



136 

for" Virginia to see her husband in the Charles Town 
jail. 

During the interview between Mrs. Brown and her 
husband, John Brown, in jail, the subject of the deai 
of their two sons was spoken of, and Mrs. Brown re- 
marked that she had made some effort whilst at the 
Ferry for the recovery of their bodies, to which object 
she said Col. Barbour had kindly consented to give his 
assistance. Cant. Brown remarked that he would also 
like the remains of the two Thompsons removed, if 
they could be found, but suggests that it would be 
best to take his body with the bodies of his two sons, 
and get a pile of pine logs, and burn them all together 
that it would be much better and less expensive to thus 
gather up all their ashes together and take them to their 
final resting place. Sheriff Campbell told him that this 
would not be allowed within the State, and Mrs. Brown 
objected to the proposition all together. 
Brown's Interview With His Fellow- Prisoners. 
Sheriff Campbell bid the prisoner farewell in his 
cell, and Brown returned thanks to him for his kind- 
ness, and spoke of Capt. Pate as a brave man. He was 
then conducted to the cells of his fellow-prisoners, 
desiring to take his leave of them. Entering the cell 
of Copeland and Green he told (hem to stand up like 
men and not betray their friends. He handed each a 
quarter of a dollar, saying that he had no more use 
for moriey, and having said this, he bid them a final 
farewell. Next he visited Cook and Coppie, who were 
chained together. Addressing Cook he remarked, 



137 

"You have made false statements." Cook asked, 
"What do you mean?" Brown replied, "Why in stat- 
ing that I sent you to Harper's Ferry." Cook replied, 
"Did you not tell me in Pittsburg to come to Harper s 
Ferry and see if Forbes had made disclosures ?" . Cap- 
tain Brown. "No sir. you knew I protested against 
your coming." To tins Cook only responded: "Captain 
Brown, we remember differently." As he said this he 
dropped his head, and Brown, as if in contempt, turned 
away, and addressing Coppie you also made false state- 
ments, but I am glad to hear you have contradicted 
them. Stand up like a man." Brown also handed him 
a quarter, and then shaking both by the hand, parted 
with them. The prisoner was taken to Steven's cell, 
and kindly interchanged with him a good-bye. Stevens 
said: "Good-bye Captain, I know you are going to a 
better land." Brown replied. "I know I am," and urged 
Stevens to bear up, and not betray his friends. He also 
gave Stevens a quarter, and then took leave of him. 
He did not visit Hazlett, as he has always persisted in 
denying any knowledge of him. 

Oapt. Brown on His Way to Execution, &c 
On his way to the scaffold, Mr. Sadler, the under- 
taker, remarked to ('apt. Brown. "You are a game man 
certain." To which Capt. Brown replied, "Yes, I was 
so trained— it was one of the lessons of my mother, but 
it is hard to part from friends, though newly made." 
Then he remarked, "This is a beautiful country,I never 
had the pleasure of seeing it before." On reaching the 
field in which the gallows was erected, Brown said, 




a~> 



< 

O 



o 

H 
< 



o 



OR 



139 

"Why are none but military allowed in the enclosure?" 
"I am sorry the citizens are kept out." As he reached 
the gallows he observed Win. Hunter and Mayor Green 
standing near to whom he said, "Gentlemen, good-bye/' 
his voice not faltering in the least. While on the 
scaffold Sheriff Campbell asked if he wanted a handker- 
chief in his hand to dron as a signal when he was ready. 
He replied, "No, I do not want it, but do not detain me 
any longer than is actually necessary." 
Troops Present. 
On the day of the execution of John Brown at 
Charles Town, the troops numbered upwards of two 
thousand — fifteen hundred at Charles Town, and the 
remainder were placed at different noints in the neigh- 
boring counties. These troops contained a number of 
the most prominent and distinguished citizens of the 

State. 

The -Exeoution. &c 

At an early hour on Friday morning the town was 
in more than usual stir, even for the stirring times 
tnat have fallen upon this neighborhood. Soon the 
movements of the military drew all the citizens of the 
place and all others who had been able to gain admit- 
tance to the town, to the vicinity of the place assigned 
for the execution. The prisoner was brought out of 
the jail at 11 o'clock. Before leaving he bid adieu to 
all his fellow prisoners and was very affectionate to all 
except Cook. He charged Cook with having deceived 
and misled him in relation to the support he was to 
receive from the slaves. He said he was led by him 








o 

PQ 
O 



O 

O 
< 

I 

Q 
•J 
O 



u 

en 



141 

to believe that they were ripe for insurrection, but he 
had found that his representations were false. Cook 
denied the charge, and made but little reply to Brown. 
The prisoner then told the sheriff he was ready, when 
his arms were pinioned, and he walked to the door ap- 
parently calm and cheerful. He wore a black slouch 
hat and the same clothes worn during the trial. As 
he came out he was taken under guard of the military. 
Six companies of infantry and one troop of horse, with 
Gen. Taliaferro and his entire staff, were deploying in 
front of the jail. At the door of the jail, an open 
wagon, with a pine box. in which was a fine oak coffin, 
was waiting for him. He looked around and spoke to 
several persons whom he recognized, and walking down 
the steps, was assisted to enter the wagon, and took his 
seat on the box, containing his coffin, along with Jailor 
Avis. He looked with interest on the fine military dis- 
play, but made no remark. The wagon moved off as 
soon as he had taken his seat, flanked with two files of 
riflemen in close order. On reaching the field, the 
miliary had already full possession, and pickets were 
stationed at various points. The citizens were kept back 
at the point of the bayonet, from taking any position 
except that assigned them — nearly a quarter of a mile 
from the scaffold. Through the determined persistence 
of Dr. Kawlings. of Frank Leslie's paper, the order ex- 
cluding the press was partially rescinded, and the re- 
porters were assigned a position near the General's staff. 
The prisoner walked up the steps firmly and was the 
first man on the gallows. Jailor Avis and Sheriff 



Campbell stood by bis side, and after shaking hands and 
bididng an affectionate adieu, thanked them for their 
Kindness. He then put the cap over his face and the 
rope around his neck. Mr. Avis then asked him to seep 
forward on the trap. He replied, "You must lead me, 
for I cannot see." The rope now being adjusted, and 
the military order given, the soldiers marched and 
counter-marched, and took their positions as if an enemy 
was in sight. Nearly ten minutes was thus occupied, 
the prisoner standing meanwhile. Mr. Avis inquired if 
l,i' was not tired. Brown remarked, "Xo, but don't keep 
me waiting longer than necessary." At fifteen minutes 
past eleven the trap fell. A slight grasping of the 
hands and twitching of the muscles was visible, and 
then all was quiet. The body was several times exam- 
ined, and his pulse did not cease beating for thirty-five 
minutes. It was then cut down and placed in the coffin 
and conveyed under military escort to the depot, and 
there put in a car to be conveyed to Harper's Ferry, 
by special train at -1 o'clock. The whole arrangements 
were carried out with a precision and military strict- 
ness, that was most annoying. The general conviction 
is everywhere entertained that the rumors of intended 
rescue were altogether an egregious hoax. This morning 
Capt. Brown executed an instrument empowering Sheriff 
Campbell to administer on all property of Ids in the 
state, with directions to pay over the proceeds of the 
sale of his weapons, if recovered, to his widow and chil- 
dren. 

The Last words of John Brown, according to the 
i 'hiladelphia Enquirer, were as follows : 



143 

"I die alone responsible for my own operations, and 
ask no sympathy. I am satisfied in my own belief — 
but desire no other man to believe as I do, unless his 
conscience and philosophy approve. I am singly re- 
sponsible for my own a:ts. good or bad. If right or 
wrong, the consequences rests only upon myself." 
Remains of John Brown, 

About three o'clock the body of Brown, which after 
the execution, had been placed in a coffin and reconvey- 
ed to the jail, was examined by den. Taliaferro, and 
several physicians. It presented some remarkable 
phenomena. The eyes were fully unclosed, and possess- 
ed almost their natural luster, retaining even something 
of the peculiar glaring expression which had character- 
ized them m life. The limbs were pliant and flexible, 
with nothing of the rigidity of death about them, and 
with the exception of the nose and feet, which were 
covered with two pairs of woollen socks, the body was 
quite warm. A consultation of all the physicians pres- 
ent in Charles Town was immediately held — both Dr. 
Mason and Gen. Taliaferro, declaring that the body 
should not under the circumstances leave Charles Town 
until it was entirely extinct, and various tests resorted 
to, for the purpose of determining whether the doomed 
traitor yet retained any nickering of existence. Liquid 
ammonia was applied to his eyes, and strange to say 
they exhibited immediate indications of congestion ; a 
lighted candle was then held near the nose for the pur- 
pose of ascertaining its effect upon the sensitive mucus 
membrane of that organ, but no evidence of life could 



144 

be discovered. A number of other tests were applied 
with like effect, and he was finally pronounced quite 
dead by all the physicians in attendance. Nevertheless, 
when at six o'clock, the corpse was again examined, 
just prior to its departure on the train for Baltimore, 
the eyes and countenance presented the same life-like 
appearance before observed, although the body had then 
become quite cold and stiff. The physicians confessed 
their inability to account for the phenomena, though 
several similar cases are recorded in medical works. 
While at Harper's Ferry, Mrs. Brown, accompanied by 
Col. Barbour, Dr. Murphy and other citizens of that 
place, proceeded to the spot where her two sons were 
buried. It was however, ascertained that the body of 
Watson Brown had been carried oif by surgeons for dis- 
section. They found two bodies, one supposed to be 
that of Oliver Brown, but far gone in decomposition, 
and Mrs. Brown thought herself unequal to the task 
of recognition. So the bodies were interred. 
Brown's Body in Philadelphia. 
The mortal remains of John Brown passed 
through Philadelphia Saturday afternoon from diaries 
Town, to Essex county. New York. The remains were 
in charge of the widow of Brown, and Messrs. Hector 
Tindall and Miller MeKim. of Philadelphia, who had 
gone Soul li with Mrs. Brown. A large crowd had as- 
sembled ;it the depot. previous to the arrival of the 
Baltimore train. In order to avoid the crowd, the body 
remained in the baggage ear until after one o'clock 
when it was taken out. the depot having been pre- 



145 

viously cleared of all persons except policemen. The 
body was in a box which was covered with a blanket of 
coarse cloth. A fur robe was lashed upon top. m A 
double line was formed by the police and the box was 
carried to an old wagon covered with canvass and drawn 
by an old bay horso. Into this wagon several policemen 
got, and the wagon was driven out of the gate upon 
Broad "street. It was followed by an immense crowd, 
composed principally of colored people. The appear- 
ance of the vehicle with the body of Brown was greeted 
with cheers, and the crowd made chase after the wagon. 
It left at 2 o'clock for New York. 

The Burial of John Brown. 
The fact that John Brown was buried at North 
Elba. Xew York. Thursday, December 8. 1859, has been 
stated. Of the arrival there of Mrs. Brown, with the 
remains, a correspondent of the Herald writes : "The 
meeting between Mrs. Brown and the surviving mem- 
bers of the family was not characterized by any loud 
demonstration of grief. Tears did not flow so profusely' 
perhaps as might be expected under the circumstances, 
but a close observer could perceive that the anguish of 
the household was intense. One by one they silently 
embraced their mother. First came Euth, the eldest 
daughter, who married Henry Thompson; then follow- 
ed Salmon and his sister. Anna. Sarah and Ellen, the 
latter being only five years old. Martha Brown, wife 
of Watson Brown, who was killed at the Ferry, was also 
present. The coffin was brought into the house and 
deposited in one of the upper rooms, where it was the 



146 

object of much curiosity among the neighbors who had 
crowded in. After tea the family surrounded Mr. Mc- 
Kim and learned from him the particulars of the late 
scenes at Charles Town and Harper's Ferry. The Rev. 
gentleman testified to the courtesy of several prominent 
citizens in Virginia and Maryland, and the sympathy 
that was felt for Mrs. Brown, all along the route from 
Harper's Ferry to North Elba. He said they had been 
treated with all proper respect, and made favorable 
mention of Mr. Garrett, president of the B. & 0. rail- 
road; Col. Shutt, Mr. Phelps, Capt. Lenn, Col. Lee, 
Capt. Moore, Col. Barber, Dr. McDougai, U. S. Army, 
Mrs. Foukc, of the Ferry, and others, who aided them 
materially in their mission South. At the close of the 
evening the lid was raised from the coffin and the body 
was examined by all present. The countenance of the 
deceased -was more natural than it appeared in Xew 
York, and bore a placid and serene expression. At the 
funeral Mr. McKim read a letter to Mrs. Brown from 
Coppie in which he said: "I was with your sons when 
they fell. Oliver lived but a \erv few moments* after 
he was snot. He spoke no word, but yielded calmly to 
his fate. Watson was shot at ten o'clock on Monday 
morning, and died about 3 oVioek on Wednesday morn- 
ing. He suffered much. Though mortally wounded 
at ten o'clock, yet at 3 o'clock Monday afternoon he 
fought bravely against the men who charged on us." 
Another Account of John Brown's Funeral 
The funeral occurred at North Elba, New York, 
8th December, 1859. The body was born by six of his 



147 



neighbors, from his own roof to a rock near by, under 
the shadow of which he had directed to be laid. The 
coffin had been previously placed in front of Ms door- 
step, when his neighbors came .in crowds to take a last 
look. The face was hardly changed, and wore its 
usual expression. Before leaving the house, his favor- 
ite hymn, "Blow ye the Trumpet, blow," was sung, and 
prayer was offered by the Eev. Mr. Young, of Burling- 
ton. Vermont. Remarks were then made by J. M. Mc- 
Kim, of Philadelphia, and Wendell Phillips, of Boston. 
At the grave Mr. Young quoted Paul's words, "I have 
fought the good fight," and pronounced a benediction. 
A Piece of John Brown's Coffin. 
Coming upon the train we noticed a cadaverous 
looking personage sitting alone on one of the seats, and 
by the side of him a large piece of composite stone on 
which was painted. "A piece of John Brown's coffin." 
We asked him where he got it. He replied, "In Essex 
county ; Brown's grave was bored in the solid rock, and 
this piece I broke out myself." He looked upon. it as 
a sacred relic, and we have no doubt will always consid- 
er it so. 

John Brown's Piety. 

John Brown has been held up by abolitionists gen- 
erally, as a paragon of piety. A gentleman who was a 
candidate for office in the county of Washington, Md., 
where John Brown resided whilst he was planning his 
murderous midnight incursion into Virginia, happened, 
in canvassing the county, to call at Brown's house one 
morning before breakfast. He had hardly entered the 



148' 

house before Brown took down his Bible, remarking that 
it was always his custom to have family devotion before 
breakfast. He then read a chapter of the Bible and 
knelt down and offered up a most fervent prayer. The 
gentleman was struck with his devoutness and came to 
the conclusion that he was one of the most pious Chris- 
tian men he had ever met with, and left with that im- 
pression. A few days afterwards, he happened along 
by Brown's' house again, and was attracted at a volley 
of most horrid oaths, proceeding from one of the two 
men standing at Brown's yard. Judge of his surprise 
when he rode up to discover that the man who utteicd 
them was no other than the pious John Brown, a few 
mornings before. Such was this old miscreant's piety. 
Brown as a Preacher. 

The Danville, Ya., Register stated that John Brown 
once travelled through Virginia as a peddler. He 
came to that place under the assumed name of McLane, 
and passed himself off as a Baptist preacher. Brown 
acknowledged that he had traveled as far South as the 
North Carolina line. 

Another of the Martyr Brown's Virtues. 

Having exposed the hypocrisy of ■ John Brown's 
pi<iv. we have still another leaf of his character to un- 
fold. Some two months before his raid at the Ferry, 
he purchased a cow of a neighbor, residing about a mile 
from him, upon condition that if she suited him lie was 
to pay $20, and if she did not he was only to pay a 
reasonable compensation for the time he should keep 
her. On the Saturday before his onslaught upon the 



149 

Ferry, he returned the cow to the owner, stating that 
she did not exactly suit him, but he was willing to pay, 
as promised, for the time he had her in his possession, 
and told the gentleman to come to his house the next 
Monday morning, and he would settle the amount. 
Now, the purchase of the cow upon these conditions, and 
his promise to settle the amount after his intended raid, 
was of course nothing, from first to last, but a piece of 
low rascality, to obtain the milk upon the clear. Yet 
he is held by pious abolitionists as the pink of 
Christian virtue. 

Character of John Brown. 

The following is a copy of a letter received by a 
prominent citizen of this State : 

Kansas City, Mo., Nov. 2, 1S59. 

"Though unknown to you personally, the motive 
which prompts me, a desire to see an unexampled vill- 
ain receive his deserts at the hands of Justice, will, I 
hope, be my pardoned excuse for this letter. By the 
telegraph I see John Brown's pluck, as exhibited in his 
trial and the late disturbance at Harper's Ferry, have 
excited in your breast, as would naturally be the case 
with any chivalric man, an admiring sympathy. My 
purpose is to relate to you a passage in Brown's life 
that you may place his true character before you. He 
stated in his conversation with Senator Mason, Mr. 
Vallandingham, and others, that save in a fair fight, he 
had never shed human blood. In June, 1856, a series 
of the most dastard murders were perpetrated on Po- 
towatamie Creek. Mr. Wilkinson, an inoffensive and 



150 

quiet farmer, who had never taken up arms in Kansas, 
was dragged from the side of his wife, who had been 
confined but two or three days before, and had his head 
split open, his throat cut, and his hands cut off, and 
his body and his members thus mutilated, thrown back 
into the house at the feet of his wife. On the same 
night, the house of two brothers named Doyle, were 
entered by the same band, eight in number, they were 
taken from their beds and foully murdered. That 
night five murders were committed by that party of 
eight Kansas outlaws. These murders brought on the 
difficulties that devastated the territory in the summer 
and autumn of 185G, as you may remember. Mr. Wil- 
kinson, a younger brother of the Doyles, and every one 
conceded these brutal murders were committed by John 
Brown, who has just been convicted in Jefferson county, 
V-a. Brown took his son and six more men, making 
eight, and went off, and the next morning old John 
Brown rode up to a wagon, and threw into it a sabre, 
bloody from the hilt to the point, saving at the time 
with a fiendish delight, don't that look like it had done 
some work? These were the most brutal murders L 
ever heard of. Those are simple facts, and will, I 
hope, disabuse your mind of any mistaken feeling 
of mercy you may have entertained for this human 
fiend." 

The Cleveland, Ohio, Democrat says: 
"A holder or worse man than that same Ossawa- 
tamie Brown the world never know. His single virtue, 
linked with a thousand crimes, was hull-dog courage. 



151 



Fanatic to the highest degree— a -pupil in politics, of the 
Giddings school, he has been taught to believe that the 
killing of a slave holder was an act God would approve. 
When in this city last spring, in his lectures, he told of 
his stealing negroes and running them to Canada, of his 
stealing horses which he then had with him for sale, 
of his shooting down slaveholders, and other acts equally 
atrocious. "And now, said Brown, I approve of what 
I have done. Those who approve of my acts will say, 
"aye," and more than one-half of his audience, com- 
posed of Abolitionists, shouted "aye," while not a single 
"nay"" was uttered by any one present." Such ap- 
proval as this, and the question was put at all his lec- 
tures, gave Brown confidence that his party would sus- 
tain him in whatever he might do against the South, 
and thus emboldened the miserable wretch, by servile 
insurrection, sought to overthrow the Government and ^ 
bring himself to its head. 

The New Dispensation 
The Eev. McKim pronouncing Brown's funeral 
oration at North Elba, N. Y., speaking of the foray 
upon Harper's Ferry, said, "Brown wielded the sword 
of the spirit against slavery with wonderful effect." On 
this the New York Express remarked: "The sword of 
the spirit" referred to combined Sharp's rifles, Colts 
revolvers and pikes. The definition, although differing 
so widely with the one- commonly taught by theologians, 
is nevertheless, in unison with the command first given 
in 1856, to go into all the free states and shoot the 
Gospel into every creature. We never expected this 



152 

new gospel put into practice, but taking Jobn Brown's 
acts at Harper's Ferry, and the translation rendered by 
the Eev. Mclvim at North Elba, of the true meaning of 
the sword of the spirit, and who will deny this gospel 
has begun to bear fruit. Brown is the first deity rec- 
ognized by this new school of divinity. All that a cer- 
tain class of people now have to do to be saved is to 
believe in John Brown and wield the sword of the 
spirit as he wielded it ; who says this is not the age of 
progress ? 

Parson Brownlow made a speech at Lynchburg, 
Va., on the John Brown raid, and it was "intensely 
southern." He said "he would rather be with the South 
in Pandemonium than with the Abolitionists in Heav- 
en." The Parson also remarked that he intended to 
give his family instructions* not to bury him in a 
Yankee coffin, but in case of an emergency they must 
leave both ends open so that when the devil or abolition- 
ist came at one end he could crawl out at the other end. 

A gentleman accosted an old negro in the village 
of Urbanna : "Well Butler, do you think old John 
Brown has gone to Heaven?" "I think it doubtful 
Massa; but if he has he will be put in de kitchen, as 
he is fond of niggers." 

A fugitive slave from Harper's Ferry went into 
Auburn, New York, on his way to Canada, and while 
walking about he strolled into an oyster saloon, and 
saw a U. S. Marshal from Harper's Ferry, who lived 
within three doors of him at the Ferry. The fugitive 
was the slave who guided John Brown into the engine 
house. The negro left immediately. 



153 

Realf, Brown's Secretary of State, barely escaped 
lynching, twice on his way from Austin Texas, to Gal- 
veston, in charge of the officer dispatched for him, by 
the United States Investigating Committee at Washing- 
ton city. An interesting sketch of the life of Realf, 
shows him to have been a man possessed of fine poetic 
and sculptural abilities, a great traveler, a mad adven- 
turer, a crazy abolitionist, a bigoted Roman Catholic, 
and finally travelling Methodist preacher. He seems 
to have been everything by fits and starts, but nothing 

long. 

- Allen, a slave of Gen. Harman, of Staunton, took 
up his musket and marched to Charles Town in one 
of the Augusta Companies. Allen said all he wanted 
was a pop at the abolitionists. He was with Gen. Har- 
man in Mexico. 

J. R. Giddings, in a lecture in Philadelphia, on the 
Harper's Ferry conspiracy; says that he knew nothing 
of Brown's movements in Virginia; that Brown was 
not as radical in his notions of slavery as he was, that 
he had for years given fugitives money and arms and 
taught them how to use them, and that he would strike 
down a slave catcher at his door. 
Oassius M. Clay Suspected of Abetting the Plot. 
The Lynchburg Virginian, in speaking of the com- 
plicity of Gerritt Smith, and Giddings, with the out- 
break, says : "By a private source, we learn that Cassius 
M. Clay has also been mentioned in the same connec- 
tion. Should these suspicions prove well founded, we 
would favor a requisition upon the Governors of their 



154 

respective States, for the apprehension and delivery into 
custod}- of the parties. We trust that Gov. Wise will 
prosecute this matter to the utmost." 

Henry Clay Pate on Old Brown. 

H. Clay Pate, the border-ruffian hero of Black Jack 
has published a card in reply to the charges of having 
showed the white feather to his old Kansas conqueror, 
Ossawatamie Brown. His letter closes with the follow- 
ing allusion to the imprisoned insurrectionists : ''As 
to old Brown, he has been an outlaw all his life. Pro- 
fessing to be a zealous Christian, he is a fanatical hypo- 
crite. Living at different times in almost every state 
in the Union, he has been everything by starts and 
nothing long, except as mean a man as a horse thief can 
be, and as treacherous as an heir of hell and a joint 
heir of the devil." 

A Nut to Crack. 

It is stated on reliable authority that the slaves of 
a widow in Shenandoah county, Va., were furnish- 
ed with arms by the abolitionists, and a night appointed 

hem to start to Harper's Ferry, [nstead of doing 
i the time came, they held a consulta- 
tion, ami. taking those very arms, kept guard from dark 
until dawn around their mistress 1 house. In the 
morning they showed her the anus, told her what they 
bad done, and went to work as usual. 
Abolition Sympathy 

The \V\v Ynik Tribune states that Wendell Phil- 
Lips, "ii receiving one hundred dollars lor his recent 
lecture at Plymouth Church, upon the Harper's Ferry 



155 



raid, immediately paid over the whole sum as a contri- 
bution to John Brown, to promre for him such com- 
forts as he may need in the few remaining days of his 

life. 

Forbes and Seward. 
The New York Journal of Commerce has learned 
from Forbe's own lips that he did unfold to Senator 
Seward last year all about John Brown's intended in- 
vasion at Harper's Ferry. This is the key to the "irre- 
pressible conflict" speech of Seward, and to the con- 
venient absence of that person from this country. 
False Statement. 
Geo. H. Hoyt, of Boston, one of the counsel of 
John Brown, at Charles Town, made a most violent 
speech at New Bedford. Mass. He denounced the Vir- 
ginians in round terms, declared that Brown did not 
receive a fair trial, that he was put on trial contrary to . 
the customs of all civilized people, and that Caleb 
Gushing in declaring that Brown had justice done him 
told a "deliberate, malicious and premeditated false- 
hood." The latter assertion was received with alter- , 

nate cheers and hisses. 

Anonymous Letter. 

The following letter was addressed to the clerk of 

this county, from New York city, Oct. 23, 1859, as fol- _ 

lows : • 

"You had better caution your authorities to be 
careful about what you dp with John Brown; as sure 
as you hurt one hair on his head, mark my word, the ^ 
following day you will see every city, town and village , 



156 

south of Mason and Dixon's line in names. We are 
determined to put clown slavery at all odds, forcibly if 
it must, peaceably if it can. Believe me when 1 tell 
you, the end is not yet, by long odds. All of us at 
the North sympathize with the Martyrs of Harper's 
Ferry." ' 

Sympathy For Brown 

Many exhibitions of sympathy for Brown came 
off in New England and Northern states. Churches 
were opened, and bells tolled, and addresses delivered. 
On all hands Brown was represented as a martyr in a 
glorious cause. At Cheever's Church, New York, a Mr. 
Gooodall declared that Brown was a greater man 
than Gen. Washington. Old and young threatened to 
follow in the footsteps of the illustrious Brown, to 
abolish slavery. A meeting at Cleveland, Ohio., of 
5,000 commemorated the day in honor of its hero. At 
Manchester, New Hampshire, a* party collected to toll 
obsequies of Old Brown from the City bell. It had 
struck four or five times when the Mayor, Mr. Harring- 
ton, appeared among the sympathizers in the belfry and 
ordered the men to desist. James B. Straw refused to 
leave, when the Mavor dropped him through the scuttle 
by the most convenient mode, and the bell didn't ring 
any more. 

Old Brown "Crucified." 

Some of the New York sensation preachers, on 
Sunday, instead of preaching Christ, spoke of "Old 
Brown" as crucified. At th Hope Chapel, Rev. Geo .F. 
Noyes held forth on "The Irrepressible Conflict between 



- 157 

Freedom and Slavery/' and allusion was made to the 

same thing in the sermons of Rev. Dr. Cheever, Rev. 

Mr. Frothingham, and (last but not least) Eev. Henry 

Ward Beecher, at the Plymouth church., Brooklyn. 

An Appropriate Prayer. 

At 'a prayer meeting held at Groton, Connecticut, 

one of the Republicans prayed with great unction, for 

the peace of John Brown's soul.' After he had finished, 

a brother from the "other side of the house" offered up 

his petition to the throne of Grace— in the course of 

which he prayed "that all men might live together in 

the love of the Lord, that wars might cease, and that 

'swords might be beaten into plough shares, and spears 

into pruning hooks,' more especially Lord, those 1200 

pikes manufactured by that traitor to his country— Old 

John Brown." 

A Minister's Prediction. 

Rev. Geo. W. Bassett, of Ottawa, Illinois, in a let- 
ter to the Chicago Times says : 

"Dark as the present day is for our country, if 
Captain Brown and his confederates are hung by the 
State of Virginia, as they will be, the sod will not be 
dry over their new-made graves ere a reaction will take 
place in the popular heart, and the blood of those noble 
but unfortunate men will constitute the seed of a 
revolution that will drive slavery from the American 

soil." 

Take Care of the Widows. 

Wendell Phillips, Rev. Cheever, and another red 

hot Brown Christian bv the name of Rev. Prof. Matti- 



158 

son, are out with a call in New York for a meeting at 
the Cooper's Institute, to take up a collection for the 
benefit of the widows and orphans of John Brown. As 
an offset a similar meeting is proposed for the purpose 
of getting up some sort of a testimony for Mrs. Mahala 
Doyle, whose husband and two sons it is said Old Brown 
helped to murder in Kansas. 

"Widow of John Brown. 
The Shepherdstown Register, dated Sept. 1865, con- 
tains the following: 

"A subscription is being made to purchase a lot 
for the widow of John Brown, who lives at Eed Bluffs, 
California, entirely dependent on her labor for sup- 
port. The New York Times commends the project, but 
cannot forego a little bitter raillery at some of John 
Brown's admirers; "But where are Mr. Phillips and his 
rich friends of Massachusetts that they permit this 
'relict' of their 'representative man' to suffer? They 
could 'purchase a house and lot for her in a little town 
on Sacramento river' and not forego a single luxury. 
Why have they lost sight of her? The fact is, that 
having seen poor old John's knapsack strapped upon his 
back, and set his soul 'a marching on,' they fancy, like 
so many of these voiex prae erca nihil philanthropists, 
that their work was finished with their last speech, and 
they 'turn in' and take it comfortably. A very good 
adage for old Mrs. Brown would be to 'up and die,' then 
would she come into notice once more. If she didn't 
gel 'bread' she would have at least a famous 'stone,' and 
a most soul-stirring oration from a first-class orator at 
the laying of the foundation." 



159 

Brown's Son. 
Jason Brown, a son of John Brown, is now living, 
(May 1894) at the age of 71, on a spur of the Sierra 
Maclre Mountains, not far from Passadena, California. 
He makes his living by exhibiting a little museum of 
animals. 

-John Brown's Grave Decorated. 
The following dispatch we clip from the Baltimore 
Sun of May 31, 1891: 

Saranac Lake, New York, May 30, 1891. 
At North Elba the grave of John Brown, who led 
the invasion at Harper's Ferry, was decorated. Though 
it rained the celebration was one of the largest ever seen 
at the grave of Brown. 

Monument to John Brown 
The following letter, dated Philadelphia, Dec. 6, 
1859, has been received by Horace Greely, of the New 
York Tribune : 

"Many persons would be glad to contribute to a 
fund to build a monument to Capt. Brown. It is too 
soon to do this, as the only suitable spot is not now 
available. To ask contributions to a fund for that 
purpose now moreover, might cut off donations for the 
benefit of Mrs. Brown and her family, and the families 
of the others yet to be executed. Let me suggest that 
$2,000 be collected and converted in some way, by which 
it shall draw compound interest and that it shall remain 
untouched for a century, until say, the 2nd day of De- 
cember, 1959, that then the proceeds be devoted to build- 
ing a monument to the memory of John Brown, on the 



160 

spot where the gallows stood on which he was executed. 
The fund would then amount to $1,000,000." 

John Brown, Jr., son of Old John Brown, lectured 
at Gustavus, Trumball county, Ohio, on the night of the 
15th of March, I860, on the "Influence of Slavery." 
His brother, Owen Brown, who was at Harper's Ferry, 
made remarks after the lecture was over. 

The wife of Oliver Brown, killed at Harper's Ferry, 
died on the 2nd of March, I860, at North Elba, New 
York, of child-birth, the child also died. She was but 
18 years old and had been married only five months 
when her husband went to Harper's Ferry. 

John Brown's Fort Desecrated, 

John Brown's Fort, which was taken to Chicago Lo 
be exhibited during the World's Fair, in the fall of 
1893, has fallen into the hands of a State street firm, 
in that city, which intends to use it as a stable. An 
appeal was made to the colored people of America to 
save this historic relic from such an ignominious fate. 
Death of Capt. John Brown, Jr. 

Capt. John Brown. Jr., son of Capt. John Brown, 
who started the insurrection at Harper's Ferry, and 
who participated in the raid, died at his home on the 
hinnd of Put-in-Bav, Ohio, on the 2nd day of Maw 
1895, aged 71 year.-. 

The Hatchet That Made The Scaffold and Cut 
the Rope. 

The hatchet which was used to make the scaffold 

and cut the ropes winch were used in the hanging of 

John Brown and the other insurgents, is now in the 



161 



possession of Miss Mary. Cockrell, daughter of (Japt. 
David Cockrell, deceased, Charles Town, W. Va. This 




photograph is an accurate picture of the same. 

The Cooking Stove. 

Mr. Spencer, residing on the Maryland side, at the 
Canal,, opposite Harper's Ferry, has in his possession, 
the cooking stove upon which John Brown and his men 
cooked their meals while located at the school house, on 
the Maryland Heights, near the battle grounds of An- 
tietam and Burnside's Bridge. The stove is in good 
preservation and a good meal can be served from it. Mr. 
Spencer prizes it as' a valuable relic. 

The horse that John Brown rode at the battle of 
Ossawata'mie. Kansas, was sold in the streets of St. 
Joseph, Mo., at auction. Col. Samuel, of Balls county, 
was the purchaser. 



162 

Brown's Big G-un. 

We saw in the possession of Hon. Alexander R. 
Boteler, member of Congress, a gun belonging to Brown, 
taken from his rendezvous on the mountains in Mary- 
land, which weighed 34 pounds, and was worked by 
means of a pivot, attached to the barrel and was made 
for the purpose of shooting slugs. Mr. Boteler has also 
in his possession one of the pikes belonging to the 
band, the blade of which is somewhat like that of a 
bowie knife, or the end of a Roman sword, very heavy, 
on the end of a six foot ash staff. It is a very formid- 
able weapon, both to cut and to thrust. The big gun 
was in possession of the Petersburg Artillery, when 
they left Charles Town. It is to occupy a conspicuous 
position in the Old Dominion in the future, by being 
placed in the rotunda of the State House at Richmond, 
as a trophy of the late war upon her borders. It is a 
Sharp's rifle, and takes a stout man to level it; the 
barrel is two inches in diameter, with a 3-4-inch bore, 
and 1 feet in length. 

Insolent Letter. 

A special dispatch from Washington to the New 
York Serald, dated Oct. 23, 1859, says: 

"The Secretary of War has received, since the affair 
at Harper's Ferry, an insolent letter, purporting to come 
from the notorious Cook, dated at Chambersburg, Pa., 
inform ing him that it is his intention to march an army 
of several thousand men and take Harper's Ferry and 
Charles Town, and liberate the prisoners, and to per- 
form sundry other ridiculous feats. 



163 

Oapt. Cook and His Wife. 

Hagerstown, Md., Oct. 20, 1859. 

A gentleman, just from Harrisburg, Pa., says that 
Cook's wife came into that town day before yesterday, 
and stopped at the same place where old Brown's son's 
wife was boarding. 

Hagerstown, Md., Oct. 20, 1859. 

The statement must be true. Cook's wife is not at 
Harper's Ferry. She left some days ago. The Sheriff 
of this countyjracked Cook as far as Greencastle toda}', 
and the impression there was that Cook had left for 
Chambersburg. The opinion here entertained is that 
Cook passed through last night. The Sheriff was cred- 
ibly informed at Greencastle that a load of boxes pass- 
ed through there on Tuesday for Washington county, 
loaded with rifles, pistols and pikes. Sheriff Hawk is 
now on the look-out for them. A gentleman named 
John Cuthberton, who resides in Chambersburg, Pa., 
informs us that Cook's wife certainly did go to Harris- 
burg on Tuesday, and took lodging at the same place 
where Brown's daughter-in-law has been lodging for 
the last two or three weeks. Cook's wife left the Ferry 
several days before the disturbance broke out. The 
stage driver of the Chambersburg line also confirms the 
statement in regard to her going to Harrisburg. 

The Chambersburg, Pa., Times, of the 4th of No- 
vember, 1859, says: 

"We have been told that three men were in town 
begging for bread the night after the Sharp's Eifles 
were found in Beaty's woods. They were almost starv- 



164 

ed, and devoured gluttonously what a good woman set 
before them. The morning following a farmer in 
Green township saw three men bearing a wounded 
comrade from his barn. The general belief is that the 
party belonged to Cook and that the wounded man was 
one of Brown's sons, whom they had carried from Har- 
per's Ferry. 

Gov. Wise has offered a reward of $1,000 for the 
apprehension of Cook, who is said '^ be hemmed in 
among the mountains, from whence it is barely possi- 
ble he ma} r escape. He is a man of very small stature, 
blue eyes and light curly hair. Indeed it is a notable 
fact that, with two exceptions, all of the white insur- 
gents had long light hair and blue eye?. 
Arrest of Oapt. Cook. 

John E. Cook was arrested at the Mount Alto Fur- 
nace, near Clarksburg, by Messrs. Logan and Fitzhugh, 
on Thursday night, 26th October, 1859, at 9 o'clock. 
Cook went to the furnace under the pretense of pur- 
chasing bacon, when he was identified and apprehended. 
Hunger had driven him to the Furnace, as he had not 
eaten but six apples for sixty hours. 

Oapt. Cook Arrested 

Chambersburg, Pa., Oct. 26. 1859. 

The notorious Capt. Cook, of the Insurrectionary 
band of outlaws, under John Brown, has at last been 
captured, beyond doubt, and has been fully committed 
to jail to await the requisition of the Governor of Vir- 
ginia. He was brought to this town last evening. 
There is not a doubt of his identity, as a captain's com- 



165 

mission, with prisoner's signature and clerk's name was 
found on his person. He came down from the moun- 
tains to get provisions, having, from his haggard appear- 
ance, suffered greatly from want and exposure. He 
admitted that three others of Brown's party are in the 
mountains, on the strength of which information parties 
are now out in pursuit of the fugitives. Cook had on 
his person a parchment memorandum, formerly attached 
to Mr. Washington's person, and says the pistol is in 
his valise, which he left in the mountains. He was 
fully armed when arrested, and attempted to make re- 
sistance, but being exhausted, was soon captured, at a 
point eight miles from this place. 

Capture of Cook. 
The arrest was made in Franklin county, Pa., near 
the Mount Alto Iron Works, about eight miles from 
Chambersburg, by Messrs. Claggett Fitzhugh, of Hag- 
erstown, a nephew of the Hon. Gerritt Smith, and John 
Logan, brother of the ex-sheriff of Washington county, 
Md. He had gone to the iron works for the purpose 
of getting provisions, having been in the mountains for 
ten days. He made considerable resistance, but was 
overpowered by the superior strength of the two men. 
On his person was found a commission as Captain in the 
Provisional Army, a daguerreotype of his wife, and 
several articles taken from the house of Col. Washing- 
ton. A telegram was sent to Gov. Wise, who immediate- 
ly sent an officer to bring him to Charles Town, and 
he was accordingly lodged in the jail of the county 
about half past one o'clock at night. 



166 

John E. Cook, to account for his escape from Har- 
per's Ferry, during the prevalence of the insurrection, 
says that he was detailed with three others of the insur- 
gents to guard the arms at Brown's house, and that 
when he returned to the Ferry, he found Brown and his 
men had been driven into the armory; he then fired a 
few shots across the river and took to the mountains 
which he followed, travelling at night and hiding in the 
bushes during the day, until he reached the place of 
arrest. 

Speeches of Cook and Coppie. 

The Court room on Thursday morning was crowd- 
ed. The prisoners were directed to be brought into 
Court to receive their sentences. It was a scene of most 
feeling and solemnity, and caused quite a thrill in every 
heart, that was sensible to feeling. The prisoners were 
directed to stand up, when the Clerk read to them each, 
the crimes for which they had been committed, viz: 
Coppie, for treason, advising and conspiring with slaves 
and others to rebel, and for murder in the first degree. 
Cook, Green and Copeland, not guilty of treason, but of 
advising and conspiring with slaves and others to rebel, 
and for murder in the first degree. The clerk then ad- 
dressed the prisoners severalty, to know if they had 
anything to say why sentence according to the terms of 
the verdict, should not be passed. Edwin Coppie arose 
with much composure and in a clear and distinct voice, 
declared his innocence of any intent to commit treason, 
murder or robbery. He said he had been induced to 
come here at the instance of Capt. Brown, under the 



167 

impression that the negroes were anxious to escape from 
bondage, and his whole purpose when starting from, 
home was to liberate the slaves Previous to the day 
of the night upon which the attack was made upon Har- 
per's Ferry, he had no knowledge of any Constitution or 
By-laws for a Provisional Government, and had never 
signed it up to that period. He had shot no one, and 
had done no man any injury, but he knew he violated 
the laws of the State, and must be held responsible there- 
for. If those who desired his life sought it, he had 
nothing more to say. The clerk then pronounced the 
same interrogatory to John E. Cook, who, though appar- 
ently a youth of some 26 years, of feminine, rather than 
masculine appearance, arose without emotion and said 
in substance as follows : "If it may please the Court, I 
have but few words to say, and should scarcely express 
that, did I not think some of your own citizens have 
testified against me wrongfully, though without inten- 
tion, I have no doubt. I deny ever having come into 
your community as a Spy; I had no such intention or 
design. Having met with John Brown in Kansas, some 
two years or more ago, I was induced through him to 
locate here, to ascertain if- possible the extent to which 
the exposition of Forbes in his (Brown's) favorite 
schemes to liberate the slaves of Virginia, had effected 
(Brown's) ulterior objects. With one solitary excep- 
tion, to which he had referred in his confession, he had 
never attempted or coerced any slaves to leave his or 
her master. He admitted that he had been deceived as 
to the desire of the slaves for freedom, for whilst he 



168 

had been almost a pro-slavery man up to his visit to 
Kansas, yet there he had been induced to believe the 
slaves of Maryland and Virginia were eager and anxious 
for liberation. He solely came for that purpose, and no 
other. As to the relics which had been taken from Col. 
Washington (which he now regretted) they were taken 
only as the moral prestige of success of freedom, as our 
fathers of the Eevolution had done before us. Tiiai 
they were not taken by his command, as has been stated, 
but by the express orders of Capt. Brown. He had 
neither committed or connived at any violation of law, 
but he supposed it was for the good of humanity and the 
best ends of the Government. I have done." The ne- 
groes, Green and Copeland, made no response, when 
Judge Parker evidently laboring under much feeling, 
proceeded to pronounce the sentence. 

A correspondent at Charles Town, of November 
10, 1859, to the Baltimore Clipper, says: 

"Leaving Baltimore on the morning train. I arriv- 
ed at this place at noon today just in time to hear the 
Judge pronounce sentence of death on the prisoners 
Cook and Coppie, Green and Copeland. No emotion 
was visible on any except Cook, the muscles of whose 
face showed thai be was nearly broken down. Thcj 
were then taken to prison and a strong guard placed 
over them. I visited them this afternoon. 1 called 
on John Brown. I told him Dr. Dunbar sent his com- 
pliments and also to Stevens. They both thanked me 
very kindly, and in the next breath Brown said: "Well 
I suppose you have come to see the monkey show." 



169 

Sketch of Capt. Cook. 

The New York Times contains a letter from Mr. 
John N". Stearns, of Williamsburg, in whose office Cook 
was once engaged as a law clerk. Mr. Stearns says: 

"He was born in Hadden, Conn., about the year 
1833, of highly respectable parentage, and was reared 
amidst the religious and moral influences which charac- 
terize the rural population of Connecticut. His general 
education was good, so that he had spent one or two 
winters as a successful teacher of public schools, before 
his majority. He had also been through most of the 
States of the Union, in the pursuit of a mercantile 
agency. He had a great passion for minerology, and 
for the collection of mineral cabinets, nurtured no 
doubt, by his spending his early pastimes amidst the 
stone quarries worked on his father's estate and in the 
vicinity. While with me he showed specimens of ore, 
and, as he supposed, of gold, found by him more than 
five } r ears since in the neighborhood of Harper's Ferry, 
Va. So that I am inclined to believe that the alleged 
purpose of his going to Harper's Ferry to dig ore was 
truthful not feigned. More than five years since he 
expressed the purpose of going there some time for that 
object. And I am strongly of the impression that this 
Harper's Ferry rebellion was an incident of special 
temptation that crossed his path, rather than the result 
of a long settled and matured purpose. In March, 1854, 
he came to reside with me, as a student and law clerk, 
and was employed in my office, and continued an inmate 
of my family for a year. But he had no taste for the 



170 

law. Though generally faithful to his duties as a copy- 
ist, the law, in its facts and principles, was destined to 
remain to him a blank obscurity. The most persever- 
ing drill on my part could not fix in his mind the most 
simple elements of legal knowledge. I was disappointed 
in the result of my experiment with him. Possessing, 
as he appeared to have, so fair a share of general intelli- 
gence, it was a mystery to me to find in him so much 
reluctance to intellectual analysis. His knowledge, 
however, was the fruit of a wide extended superficial ob- 
servation of men, matters, and things, rather than of 
reflection and reasoning. And still, in his elegant pen- 
manship, correct orthography, and ready knowledge of 
arithmetic and grammar, and there was evidence that in 
his early life he studied to some purpose and effect. 
The truth, when discovered, was this. He had nurhired 
the fancies of a poetic imagination for years, and his 
mind wandered in a land of dreams. The world and 
life were scarcely ap icl as realities. "While he 

could not draw a complaint or a promissory note, a 
score of fancy verses for a lady's album would be 
thrown off withoul t, as by intuition. The use of 

guns and pistols was with him a kindred passion to his 
!•;/. as a marksman lie was a dead shot. 11 thrown 
in the. midst of a strife and contention, he would nat- 
urally become a soldier as by the force of this pas.-ion, 
without personal motive or inducement, and indeed, as 
against his own welfare and happiness. Ami still he ap- 
peared kind to every one; and during tin 1 year he was 
with me, though often abstracted from his proper em- 



171 

ployments by his poetical infatuations, he was never 
guilt)', to my recollection of a disobliging act or unkind 
word toward myself or family. I never knew him to 
drink a glass of intoxicating liquor, or to utter a pro- 
fane oath. He would do anything and everything rea- 
sonable to oblige us, except to learn law. He went to 
Kansas during the year 1855, and is said to have had 
something to do with the defence of Southern Kansas 
from the border ruffians. How much or what, I have 
no means of knowing. He was once at the East after- 
wards for a short time, but his family and friends short- 
ly afterwards lost all trace of him, and for two or 
three years have supposed him dead. While with me, I 
never discovered in him any special interest in abolition- 
ism, nor any special sympathy for the colored race. If 
he was 'ever converted to that faith, it must have been 
through the teaching of Burford and other border 
ruffians in Kansas. I know of none of his family 
friends who are specially infected with anti-slavery sen- 
timents. Gov. Willard, of Indiana, is his brother-in- 
law, and he has certainly been no "heretical" teacher 
to this end. I can well conceive, from my knowledge of 
the character of Cook's mind, how that without a pur- 
pose of crime, he would become the parasite of the 
first leader in a romantic adventure that might solicit 
his aid. If anybody is killed or injured it is a conse- 
quence not intended by Cook, but a necessity arising 
from the circumstances into which he has been led. 
Cook was, in fact, the Blannerhasset of Brown's enter- 
prise, without Blannerhassett's estate, but more of cour- 
age and skill.'" 



172 

The following lines are respectfully dedicated to 
MISS II. VIRGINIA W. 
By J. E. COOK. 

"A trav'ler on the road of life, 
Full often meets upon his way, 
To cheer him 'mid the ioil and strife, 
Some friendly beacon's golden ray 

Some beaming light, which, like a star, 
May shine amid his life's dark sky; 
To cheer his pathway, when afar, 
With its undying memory. 

And so, the hours, I've spent with thee, 
And the bright friendship, thou hast giv'n, 
As sacred mem'ries, dwell with me, 
Or glimpses of a fairer Heav'n. 

And bright, forever bright will be, 
Their record on my changeless heart, 
In life, and death — Eternit}'', 
Will find them, of my soul a part. 



TO MY SISTERS. 
By J. E. Cook. 

"Distance divides us. But the chain 
Of Friendship and affections bright, 
Remains unbroken. Moons may wane, 
And years may pass in winged flight. 

And Earth may change. Yet still the same 
Will be forever flowing — 



173 

The soul's deep love ; a bright, pure flame, 
No change, or distance knowing. 
"And as adown life's vale I go? 
Mid joy and grief to speed along, 
Full oft to you my thoughts shall flow, 
And love's bright tendrils grow more strong. 

Full oft to you, my mind will turn, 
While mem'ry fond recalls the hours, 
YVho^ joy, a beacon bright will burn, 
And bloom, like amaranthine flowers. 

Oh, yes, to you, what e'er my lot, 
My thoughts shall turn, my heart shall glow. 
My soul shall speak, forget me Not; 
Whatever changes, you may know. 
For I, though distant from you here, 
In thought, am passing o'er again, 
Those happy hours to mem'ry dear, 
Wnose light, will never beam in vain. 

And though I wander thus away, 
And wide, our pathway's sever 
My Love, shall never know decay, 
Forever and Forever. 



THE EXILE. 
By J. E. Cook. 
"With footsteps worn and weary, 
He wandered home to die, 
When the summer flowers were blooming 
And the winds went softly by; 



174 

t 
For his heart was fondly yearning 
For his own bright sunny skies, 
Where loving hands might smooth his brow 
And close his dying eyes. 

"He pined for those home voices, 

To hear each kindly tone 

Thrilling once more upon his ear, 

A joyous welcome home. 

To meet a wife's beaming smile 

A sister's warm caress; 

0. these he deemed might death disarm 

Of half its bitterness. 

"Once more that quiet home-path 
The weary wanderer prest; 
And his sinking form was palsied 
Close to each yearning breast 
A sister's smile, a sad wife's tears, 
Were mingled with his own; 
The first, for many weary yeas, 
His care-dimmed eye had known. 

"When the autumn winds were wailing 

Amid the forest trees, 

And the withered leaves were falling 

In every passing breeze. 

Coldly and tenderly 

They laid him down to rest, 

And kind friends placed with gentle hands 

The green turf on his breast. 



175 

SILE.NT MEMORIES. 
By J. E. Cook. 

"Silent memories are stirring, 
Thoughts of years, which long have flown. 
In my ear, are voices ringing, 
Voices, which long since have gone. 
"Gone forever, souls that wander, 
Through Elysian's happy Bow'rs, 
Angel spirits, who may ponder, 
O'er this darkened world of ours. 
Silent memories, how they rush, 
O'er the spirits trembling chords, 
While ray very breath, I hush, 
List ning to departed words. 
Oh, their music, low and sweet, 
As it breaks upon my soul, 
Voices loved, my heart will greet, 
SiJent menrries o'er me roil. 
Silent memories, of the hours, 
Which in youthful joy have past; 
Bright spots, mid our darkened bowers, 
Thoughts, that through all time shall last. 

Memories bright, of word and stream, 
Gushing music, with its thrill, 
Beauteous landscape, happy dream, 
Scenes like these, my spirit fill. 

Scenes which sweeping Time, can never 
Blot, from my undying soul ; 
Ties, which Death will fail to sever, 
Growing bright, while ages roll. 



176 

TO MARY. 
By J. E. Gook. 

••"'!">- evening: and the setting sun, 
Sheds its brij ry o'er the sky; 

Its hues are beaming, one by one, 
In golden light and purple dye. 

"'Tis evening; and my thoughts to thee 
Like fleeting clouds, r I the sun 

To catch each beam of love, I see, 
Or glory, e're the day is done. 

"And so to thee, my love will turn. 
To gather beauty from the light, 
Of those blue eyes, that brightly burn 
Like stars upon the brow of night. 

"And so to tlio'. I turn my eye. 

To catch each beam of love that's given 

To light the darkness of my sky. 

And point me to a brighter Heaven. 



WASHINGTON'S B1ETIIPAY 
By J. E. Cook. 

Hail consecrated mora ; whose light 
1- hallowed by our thought of one, 
Who will while ages take their flight 
Remember'd be Our Washington. 
Remember'd ever, for enshrined, 
Within a Nation's grateful heart. 
For glory bright, His chaplel twined. 
Of Fame's undying wreath a part. 



177 

Her brightest garland, on his brow, 
Her fairest song for him was giv'n, 
The Hero's wreath he's wearing now, 
Amid the golden light of Heav'n. 

"A mourning Nation bends above 
His ashes, in their silent tomb, 
And shrined within his children's love, 
He dwells amid eternal bloom. 

And here, beside Potomac's stream, 
He wandered oft in days of yore; 
Its blue waves, murmur'd- happy dreams, 
To him, who dwells with us, no more. 

To him, who oft in days gone by, 
Guarded our homes from ruthless wrong 
When wars dark clouds o'er cast our sky, 
And Battle's tempest, swept along. 

He stood amid the carnage then, 
To guide our warriors to the light, 
That shines so pure, and clear, and fair, 
O'er this, our Freedom's Home, so bright. 

Immortal man whose deathless fame, 
Will live, while Sun and Moon shall shed 
Their flowing light, or silver flame, 
Above our Conquering Hero's bed. 

And just, forever just will dwell, 
His mem'ry blest, and o'er his name, . 
A grateful Nation's Anthem swell 
]n worship of his glowing fame. 



178 

Peace to Him now, who always stood 
The first in war, the first in Peace, 
Who only sought his Country's good, 
And in his Country's' heart, will rest. 

Confession of Cook. 
"He (Brown) came to Harper's Ferry about the 
last of June (1859) though I did not see him till late in 
July or the early part of August, when we met on 
Shenandoah street, Harper's Ferry, opposite Tearney's 
store. I do not know who were his aiders or abettors, 
but have heard him mention in connection with ic, 
the names of G-erritt Smith, of New York, Howe, of 
Boston, and Sanborn and Thaddeus Hyatt, of New York 
city. The attack at the Ferry was made sooner than it 
was intended, owing to some friends of Brown in Bos- 
ton writing a letter, finding fault with the management 
of ('apt. Brown, and what to them seemed his unneces- 
sary delay and expense. I do not know who those per- 
sons were, or how far they were cognizant of his (Capt. 
B's.) plans. But 1 do know that Dr. Howe gave Capt. 
Brown a breech-loading carbine and a pair of muzzle- 
loading pistols, all of government manufacture. They 
were Left cither at the house, of Capt. Brown, or at the 
school 1 mi i>c where most of the arms were conveyed. A 
short time before the attack on the Ferry, Capt. Brown 
requested me to find out in some way, without creating 
suspicion, the number of male slaves on or near the 
roads leading from the Ferry, for a distance of eight 
or ten miles and to make such memoranda that it would 
be unintelligible to others, but in such a manner that I 



179 

could make it plain to him and the rest of the corn- 
pan}*. The remainder of the confession relates princi- 
pally to the abortive attack on the Ferry. I ascended 
the mountain in order to get a better view of the position 
of our opponents. I saw that our party were completely 
surrounded, and as I saw a body of men on High street, 
firing down upon them, they were about a half mile 
distant from me, 1 thought I would draw their fire 
noon myself. I therefore raised my rifle and took the 
best aim I could and fired. It had the desired effect, 
for that very instant the party returned it, several shots 
were exchanged. The last one they fired at me cut a 
small limb I had hold of just below my hand, and gave 
me a fall of about fifteen feet, by which I was severely 
bruised "and my flesh somewhat lacerated. I descended 
from the mountain and passed down the road to the 
Crane on the bank of the Canal, and about fifty yards 
from Mrs. W's store. I saw several heads behind the 
door-post looking at me; I took a position behind the 
Crane, and cocking my rifle beckoned to some of them 
to come to me ; after some hesitation, one of them ap- 
proached and then another, both of whom knew me. I 
asked them if there were any armed men in the store. 
They pledged me their word and honor that there were 
none. I then passed down to the lock-house, and went 
down the steps to the lock, where I saw William Mc- 
Gregg, and questioned him in regard to the troops on 
the other side. He told me that the bridge was filled 
by our opponents, and that all our party were dead but 
seven, that two of them were shot while trying to escape 



180 

across the river. He begged me leave immediately. 
After questioning him in regard to the position and 
number of the troops, and from what source he received 
his information, I bade him good-night and started up 
the road at rapid walk. I stopped at the house of an 
Irish family, at the foot of the hill, and got a cup of 
coffee and some eatables. I was informed by them that 
Capt. Brown was dead, that he had been shot at 4 
o'clock in the afternoon. At the time I bche\ed this 
report to be true. I went on up to the school house 
and found the shutters and door closed; called to lidd 
and the boys, but received no answer; cocked my nile 
and then opened the door. It was dark at the ame. 
Some of the goods had been placed in the middle of 
the floor, and, in the dark looked like men crouching. 
I uncocked my rifle and drew my revolver, and tien 
struck a match; saw that there was no one in the 
school house; went into the bushes back of the school 
house and called for Lhe boys. Receiving no answer I 
went across the road into some pines and again called, 
but could find no one. I then started up the road 
toward Captain Brown's house; I saw a party of men 
coming down the road; when within fifty yards, I 
ordered them to halt; they recognized my voice, and 
called me. I found them to be Charles P. Tidd, Owen 
Brown, Barclay Coppie, F. J. Merriam and a negro 
who belonged to Washington or Allstadt. They asked 
me the news and I gave the information that I received 
at the canal lock and on the road. It seemed that 
they thought it would be sheer madness in them to 



181 

attempt a rescue of our comrades, and it was finally 
determined to return to the house of Capt. Brown. I 
found that Tidd before leaving the school house to go 
for Brown, Coppie and Merriam, had stationed the 
negroes in- a good position in the timber, back of the 
school house. On his return, however, they could not 
be found. We therefore left for Capt. Brown's house. 
Here we got a few articles winch would be necessary, 
and then went over into the timber on the side of the 
mountain,a few yards beyond the house, where the 
spears were kept. Here we laid down and went to 
sleep. About 3 o'clock in the morning one of our party 
awakened and found that the negro had left us. He 
immediately aroused the rest of the party, and we con- 
cluded to go to the top of the mountain before light. 
Here we remained for a few hours and then passed over 
to the other side of the mountain, where we waited till 
dark, and then crossed the valley to the other range 
beyond. Cook's acquaintance with Brown commenced 
at the battle of Black Jack, in Kansas, in 1856. In 
[November 1857 the attack on Harper's Ferry was first 
made known by Brown, at Tabor, Iowa. Cook says: 
"Our party now consisted of Capt. John Brown, Owen 
Brown, A. D. Stevens, Charles Moffet, C. P. Tidd, Eich- 
ard Kobertson, Col. Richard Realf, L. F. Parsons, fm. 
Leeman and m} r self. We stopped some davs at Tabor, 
making preparations to start. Here we found that 
Capt. Brown's ultimate destination was the State of 
Virginia. Some warm words passed between him and 
myself in regard to the plan, which. I supposed was to 



182 

be confined entirely to Kansas and Mississippi. Eealf 
and Far^ons were of the same opinion with me. Alter 
a good deal of wrangling, we consented to go. as we had 
not the means to return, and the rest of the party were 
so anxious that we should go with him. In the winter 
of 1857 the party spent the winter in military drill, 
under Stevens, at Pedee, Iowa; in the Spring of 1858, 
all went to Chatham, Canada, where a convention was 
held, after the adjournment of which, Cook, as a spy 
went on to and remained at Harper's Feriy. The at- 
tack which was intended directly after the Chatham 
convention was delayed by news received that Col. H. 
Forbes, who had joined in the movement, had given 
information to the Government. The outbreak finally 
was hastened by th? impatience of certain prominent 
abolitionists who seemed to think that Brown was fool- 
ing them. The only names mentioned as cognizant of 
Brown's plan are those of Gerrit Smith, Fred Douglas, 
Dr. Howe, of Boston ; and Thaddeus Hyatt and San- 
born, of New York. Cook denies, most positively, the 
rank in the "provision army" conferred upon him 
by the newspapers. He says, "I have been represented 
as Capt. Brown's chief aid. This is incorrect. Kagi 
was second in command, Stevens third, Hazlett fourth. 
Further than this I do not know that Capt. Brown had 
made known any preference as to superiority of rank. 
Edward Coppie and Dolphin Thomas were the only lieu- 
tenants he commissioned. Owen Brown. Barclay Cop- 
pie and F. J. Merriam were not at the Ferry during the 
time the attack was made, but remained by order of 



183 

Capt. Brown to take charge of the premises, and guard 
the arms left at Brown's house in case of an attack. I 
do not know of any person in the Ferry, or its neigh- 
borhood, who knew of our plan, save our own party, and 
they were pledged to keep it secret." 
Confession. 
John Copeland, the mulatto prisoner from Oberlin, 
Ohio, has made a full confession to the U. S. Marshal, 
Martin, of Virginia, and Marshall Johnson, of Ohio. 
He also states that a similar movement was contemplat- 
ed in Kentucky about the same time. 

Copeland, one of the condemned negroes, has writ- 
ten a letter to his father and mother, in which he 
justifies his conduct in going to Harper's Ferry, as 

follows : 

"Dear Parents : My fate, as far as man can seal it, 
is sealed ; but let not this fact occasion you any misery, 
for remember the cause in which I was engaged— re- 
member it was a holy cause, one in which men in every 
way better than I am have suffered and died." 

The people of Oberlin, Ohio, propose to erect a 
monument to Copeland and Green, the negroes who 
were hung at Charles Town, and Lewis Leavy, who fell 
in the fight at the Ferry, all of whom were students 

at Oberlin. 

Card of Cook and Ooppie. 

The following is a card from Cook and Coppie, ex- 
plaining the manner in which they tried to make their 
escape from jail on the night previous to their execu- 
tion, written a few hours before they were executed: 



184 

Charles Town Jail, Dec. 16, 1859. 
"Having been called upon to make a fair statement 
in regard to the ways and means of our breaking jail, 
we have agreed to do so from a sense of our duty to the 
Sheriff of the county, to our jailor, and to the jail guard. 
We do not wish that anyone should be unjustly censured 
on our account. The principal implements with which 
we opened a passage through the wall of the jail were a 
Barlow knife, and a screw which we took out of the 
bedstead. The knife was borrowed from one of the 
jail guards to cut a lemon with. We did not return it 
to him. He had no idea of any intention on our part 
to break out, neither did the Sheriff, Jailor, or any of 
the guard have any knowledge of our plans. We receiv- 
ed no aid from any person or persons whatever. We 
had, as we supposed, removed all the bricks several days 
before, but on the evening previous to our breaking out 
we found our mistake in regard to that matter. We 
had intended to go out on the evening that my sisters 
and brothers-in-law were here; but I knew that it 
would reflect on them and we postponed it. But I 
urged Coppie to go and I would remain. He refused. 
We then concluded to wait I got a knife blade from 
Shields Green and made in it some tolerable teeth with 
which we sawed off our shackles. We had them all off 
the night previous to our getting out. Coppie went out 
first and I followed. We then got upon the wall, when 
I was discovered and shot at. The guard outside the 
wall immediately came up to the wall. We saw that 
there was no chance of escape, and as it was discovered 



185 



that we had broken jail, so we walked in deliberately 
and gave ourselves up to the Sheriff, Capt. Avis, and the 
jail guard. There was no persons who aided in our 
escape. This statement is true so help us God." 

JOHN E. COOK, 
EDWIN COPPIE. 
The sentinel who fired at Cook whilst endeavoring 
to make his escape from the Charles Town jail, is nam- 
ed Thomas William Guard, a very appropriate name, 
and was at the time a member of the Clarke Guards, of 
Berryville, and is a tailor by trade. He will be richly 
compensated by the State for his noble and vigilant act. 
He was just the man to be on guard at the time. He 
used the Minnie rifle, and the wonder is that the ball 
did not pierce Cook's head. 

Capt. Cook, under sentence of death, addressed a 
letter dated November 26. 1859, to Mr. and Mrs. Sellers, 
of Cleveland, Ohio, as follows: 

"One short month more and he whom your gener- 
ous hospitality welcomed to your happy home will stand 
upon the scaffold to take his last look of earth. The 
dread of death with me is small, for I have faced it oft 
before, unflinching and untrembling. I only dread the 
mode in which it must now come, and the disgrace at- 
tending it. The only ties that bind me are the tics 
of kindred and affection. These, it is true, bring with 
them death's deep agony, and almost crush the spirit 
with their weight of woe. Brave men have fallen in 
this brief fatal struggle. Comrades who to me were 
brothers, companions of many a scene of danger, and 



186 

many a happy hour sleep in their bloody grave, with 
the cold earth above them. They died as they had ever 
lived, brave men and true. Eleven of twenty-two fell 
in the contest. Five more were already doomed. An- 
other but awaits his trial to meet the same fate. Those 
who fell, died like brave men. Those who yet remain 
will not shame, I trust, their comrades who are gone. 
We, I trust, shall calmly meet our doom untrembling 
and unshaken." 

Another Letter Prom Capt. Cook. 

The following letter was sent by Cook to his 
brother-in-law in New York : 

Charles Town Jail, Nov. 21, 1859. 

"My ever dear sister and brother : Your kind and 
welcome letter, postmarked Nov. 14, I received the fol- 
lowing day. I have no words to tell the deep, pure joy 
it gave me. So kind, so full of love and affection, that 
while it gave me new life, still made me feel that I 
was all unworthy of such a fond and devoted sister. 
You cannot know my feelings as I read over and over 
again the dear lines your hands had penned. Confined 
within my Lonely cell, shut out from society, your let- 
ter came Like the "olive branch" of love to those who for 
long, long days has floated over a deluged world. It 
came to me as the "olive branch" of love, borne from 
a dear sister's heart. Those lines came to me but to 
wake responsive echoes to your tones of love, which 
thrilled through all my soul like some wild burst of 
seraph music, over whose sounds we love to linger. 
Those dear lines are engraved on my heart core and 



187 

on my memory, stamped in bright eternal characters. 
It made my lonely cell more cheerful, for, from every 
word and line beamed love's own sunshine over my 
heart. It woke to newer life every cord of affection and 
every kindred tie. I know that you do not believe that 
any stain of murder rests upon my soul. Though doom- 
ed to die for such a crime, I feel a conscious innocence 
from such deep stains of blood. Whatever may be my 
fate, I shall meet it calmly. If we are thus early parted 
here, I hope that we again may meet where partings 

are no more." 

John E. Cook, in a letter to his mother-in-law, at 

Williamsburg, New York, says: 

"It had been represented to me and my comrades 
that when once the banner of freedom should be raised, 
they would flock to it by thousands, and their echoing 
shout of freedom would be borne to the breeze to our 
most Southern shore, to tell of freedom there. I gave 
heart and hand to the work which I deemed a noble and 
a holy cause. The result has proved that we were de- 
ceived, that the masses of the slaves did not wish for 
freedom. There was no rallying beneath our banner. 
We were left to- meet the conflict all alone to dare 
to do, and die. Twelve. of my companions are sleeping 
now with the damp mould over them, and five are in- 
mates of these prison walls." 

Mrs. Kenendy, the mother-in-law of Cook, visited 
him in jail. Upon her approach they embraced affec- 
tionately, recognizing each other as mother and son. 
She remarked that he was looking thin. He replied, 



188 

he was well, at least as well as could be expected under 
the circumstances. After a general conversation, she 
said, "Had I only known your business at Harper's 
Ferry, you would not have been here, John." He re- 
plied, "I knew that very well, you knew nothing of it." 
In conversation, Mrs. K. said, she had gone down into 
the Ferry to find him twice on the morning of the 17th, 
and referred to the narrow escape of a young friend, 
who came near being killed from Cook's fire from the 
opposite side of the river. In speaking of his arrest he 
said, "Had I got possession of my pistol, I would not 
have been here." Mrs. K. replied, "Perhaps, John, it 
is better than if you had used it." After his arrest 
Mr. Logan, under promise of absolute secrecy, obtained 
from him his name, and also his commission as Captain 
of John Brown's forces. He spoke in terms of eulogy 
of his lawyers and said they had done their duty, the 
evidence being so positive against them. His mother- 
in-law before leaving, exhorted him to keep nothing 
back, and said tell all you know. Cook replied, "I 
have nothing further to tell, 1 have told all I know 
about it." 

Gov. Willard, of Indiana, accompanied by Mrs. 
Crowley, a sister of Cook, and the Hon. Daniel W. 
Voorhees, Attorney-General of Indiana, arrived at 
Charles Town, on Tuesday, and visited Cook, as did 
also Dr. Stauuton and wife, of Indiana, and Miss 
Hughes. Mrs. S. is a sister of Cook, and Miss H. is 
a cousin. The interview betwfeen the stricken relatives 
and the condemned man is said to have been of a most 
affecting character. 



189 

Another Letter From Cook 
Cook entertained strong hopes of executive clem- 
ency, up to a late date. The following is an extract of 
a letter written to his wife : 

"Though now confined in these prison walls, I still 
have hopes that we again may meet ; that through exec- 
utive clemency I may again see our child, and clasp 
its mother to my yearning heart; and I once more feel 
the warm kiss on my lips, and read within thine eyes 
affection all untold ; that I may know once more a 
mother's dear caress, receive a father's welcome, and 
the embraces of my sister and my brothers; to meet 
once more in joy around the social hearth of my child- 
hood's home; to see the companions and playmates of 
my youth, and hear their voices of welcome to those 
dear familiar scenes; to bury my evening hours in 
Lethe's streams, and in future live for thee and Heaven. 
But if stern fate should decree that I must die, I hope 
that we may meet amid the radiance of eternal homes. 
If so, then all is welJ." 

Cook's Last Letter to His Wife 

Charles Town Jail, Dec. 16, 1859. 
"My Dear Wife and Child: For the last time I 
take my pen to address you for the last time, to speak 
to you through the tongue of the absent. I am about 
to leave you and this world forever. But do not give 
way to your grief. Look with the eyes of hope beyond 
the vale of life, and see the dawning of that brighter 
morrow that shall know no clouds or shadows m its 
sunny sky — that shall know no sunset. To that eter- 



190 

nal day I trust, beloved, I am going now. For me 
there waits no far-off or uncertain future. I am only 
going from my camp on earth to a home in heaven; 
from the dark clouds of sin and grief, to the clear blue 
skies, the flowing fountains and the eternal joys of that 
better and brighter land, whose only entrance is through 
the vale of death, whose only gatewa} r is the tomb. Oh, 
yes, think that I am only going home; going to meet 
my Saviour and my God; going to meet my comrades, 
and wait and watch for you. Each hour that passes, 
every tolling bell, proclaims this world is not our home. 
We are but pilgrims here, journeying to our Father's 
house. Some have a long and weary road to wander; 
shadowed o'er with fears and doubts, they often tire 
and faint upon life's roadside, yet still all wearied, they 
must move along. Some make a more rapid journey, 
and complete their pilgrimage in the bright morn of 
life; they know no weariness upon their journey, no 
ills or cares of toil-worn age. 1 and my comrades are 
among this number. A few more hours and we shall 
be there. True, it is hard for me to leave my loving 
partner and my little one, lingering on the rugged road 
on which life's storms are bursting. But cheer up, 
my beloved ones; those storms will soon be over; 
through their last lingering shadows you will see the 
promised rainbow. It will whisper of a happy land 
where all storms are over. Will you not strive to meet 
me in that clime of unending sunshine? Oh, yes, I 
know you will, that you will also try to lead our child 
along that path of glory ; that you will claim for him an 



191 • 

entrance to that celestial city whose maker and builder 
is God. Teach him the way of truth and virtue. Tell 
him for what and how his father left him, ere his lips 
could lisp my name. Pray for him. Eemember that 
there is no golden gateway to the realms of pleasure 
here, but there is one for the redeemed in the land that 
lies starward. There "I hope we may meet, whenever you 
have completed your pilgrimage on the road of life. 
Years will pass on and your journey will soon be ended. 
Live so that when, from the verge of life you look back, 
you may feel no vain regrets, no bitter anguish for mis- 
spent years. Look to God in all your troubles, cast 
yourself on Him when your heart is dark with the night 
of sorrow and heavy with the weight of woe. He will 
shed over you the bright sunshine of his love, and take 
away the burden from your heart. And now farewell. 
May that all-wise and eternal God, who governs all 
things, be with you to guide and protect you through 
life, and bring us together in eternal joy beyond the 
grave. Farewell, fond partner of my heart and soul. 
Farewell, dear babe of our love. A last, long farewell, 
till we meet in Heaven. I remain, in life and death, 
your devoted husband. JOHN E. COOK. 

Verses "Written by John E. Cook. 
■One of the last acts in this world, by Cook, was to 
write an affectionate letter to his wife and child, enclos- 
ing the following verses : 

If upon this earth we're parted, 
Never more to meet below, 



192 

Meet me, oh, those broken hearted, 

In that world to which I go. 

In that world where time nnmending, 

Sweeps in glory bright along, 

Where no shadows there are blending, 

And no discord in the song. 

Where the Saviour's flocks are resting, 

By that river bright and fair, 

And immortal glory cresting 

Every head that enters there. 

Where the anthem loud is pealing 

Songs of praise to Him alone; 

Where the seraph bands are kneeling, 

'Mid the radiance of the Throne. 

There at last I hope to meet thee 
Never, never more to part; 
In those happy bowers to greet thee, 
Where no farewell tears shall start. 
And again in Heaven united, 
'Mid those fair Elysian bowers, 
We'll perfect the love we plighted, 
In this darkened world of ours. 
Then look forward to thai meeting, 
Which shall know no blight or woe — 
Thai eternal joyous greeting, 
'Mid Elysian's endless flow. 

Another Attempt to Bribe Jailor Avis. 
It is Baid thai some days ago, Mr. Avis, the jailor 
at Charles Town, received a letter offering him a large 



193 

some of money to favor or permit the escape of Cook 
and Coppie. He immediately communicated this to 
Mr. Hunter, the lawyer employed in the trial, who 
wrote to Hon. Alexander E. Boteler, member of Con- 
gress from this district. The party making the propo- 
sition requested an answer to be sent to the postoffice at 
Washington. Mr. Boteler immediately went to the 
city postmaster, had the clerks put on the alert, and 
policemen in citizens dress stationed to watch, the per- 
sons who might come for such a letter addressed as Mr. 
Avis had been directed to address it. 

Last Hours of Cook, Coppie and Green. 
On the morning of the execution, Cook came to 
Steven's door and extended his hand without speaking. 
Stevens then responded, "be of good cheer, give my love 
to all my friends in the spirit land." Cook said, "we 
were brothers in this world and will be in the next." 
Stevens then said, "you must die like a man, in a few 
weeks I will follow you." Cook replied, "I hope not; 
I see by the papers you are not to be tried by the U. S. 
Court, but by the court of Jefferson county," to which 
Stevens responded, "it makes no difference by what 
court I am tried." During the conversation, Green 
said to Cook, "you had. better pray and prepare for an- 
otber world." Cook in his remark asserted that a negro 
was as good as a white man and ur^ed those present to 
reflect, (who were Virginians) and to take into consid- 
eration freedom of slavery, and reflect upon it well, 
and then I known you will be with me. A few moments 
before leaving the jail, Copeland said, "If I am dying 



194 

for freedom I could not die in a better cause; I had 
rather die than be a slave." A little son of the jailor, 
who had been kind to him, requested Copeland's auto- 
graph. On the morning of his execution he handed the 
little fellow a paper, upon which he had written these 
lines : "John A. Copeland, was born at Raleigh, North 
Carolina, August 15, 1834." 

Military Present at the Hanging of Cook, Ooppie, 
Green and Copeland. 

Petersburg City Guard, Capt. May; Petersburg 
Greys, Capt. Scott; Washington Guards, Capt. Lener; 
Portsmouth Greys, Capt. Dean; Wythe Grays, Capt. 
Kent ; Richardson Guards, Capt. Welsch; Clarke Guards, 
Capt. Bowen; Mountain Guards, Capt. Bushing; Fin- 
castle Rifles, Capt. Anthony; Woodie Riflemen, Major 
Lamb; Tenth Legion Artillery, Capt. Seibert; Jefferson 
Guards. Capt. Rowan; Alexandria Artillery, Major Duf- 
|V\ : Black Horse Rangers, Capt. Scott; Black Hawk 
Rangers, Capt. Ashby ; numbering about 800 troops. 
The Hamtramck Guards, Capt. Butler, Shepherdstown, 
guarded the prisoners to the scaffold. 
Execution of Cook, Coppie, Green and Copeland. 

On Friday, the 17th day of December, 1859, the 
above condemned conspirators against the Common- 
wealth of Virginia, paid for their folly upon the scaf- 
fold. In the morning between 11 and 12 o'clock, the 
two negroes, Green and Copeland, were taken from the 
jail, and under a strong guard were marched to the 
field of execution. They ascended the gallows accom- 
panied by Sheriff Campbell, Jailor Avis, Messrs Waugh, 



195 

Leech and North. They had nothing to say, and the 
noose was adjusted to their necks. Rev. Mr. North 
offered up a fervent prayer. All the ministers exhorted 
the criminals to trust in Christ, as the only hope. Both 
the negroes were apparently calm and collected. At 
ten minutes past 11 o'clock, everything being ready, the 




GREEN AND COPELAND. 

drop fell, and John Copeland and Shields Green were 
launched into eternity. With Green the drop seemed 
to be instant death; scarcely a struggle was nerceptible. 
Copeland died much harder, and his struggles indicated 
much suffering. They were permitted to hang for 
thirty-five minutes, when life being pronounced extinct 
by the surgeons, they were cut down and placed in their 
coffins. As soon as the execution of the negroes was 



196 

over and their bodies properly disposed of, the Sheriff 
and Jailor, with a number of the military, returned to 
town after the remaining prisoners, John E. Cook and 
Edwin Coppie. We are informed that when the Sheriff 
and his guard reached the jail, the prisoners were en- 
gaged in washing their feet and preparing themselves 
for the fate that awaited them. Mr. Avis the Jailor, 
asked them if they had anything to say, and told them 
they would be permitted to make any statement they 
desired. Cook responded, that he was 'truly grateful 
for the kindness shown him by Sheriff Campbell, Mr. 
Avis and family, Revs. Waugh, North, Little and Leech, 
and other ministers who had called upon and prayed and 
talked with him. Also to Messrs. John J. Lock and 
John F. Blessing, and to the citizens of Charles Town 
generally." There were some eighteen or twenty per- 
sons present. Cook then gave directions as to the dis- 
position he desired to make of one or two articles which 
he had in his possession. A small breast-pin which he 
wore in his bosom he desired after his execution, to be 
taken out of his shirt and given to his little boy if 
he should live. "Within my shirt bosom, said ho, will 
be found my wife's daguerreotype and a lock of my little 
boy's hair, and these I desire also to have sent to my 
wife." They both then made the request that their 
arms should not be ninioned so tightly as to interrupt 
the circulation of the blood, and their requests were 
granted. A blue talma was thrown over Coppie and 
a dark one over Cook, and these they wore to the scaf- 
fold. Coppie, just previous to leaving the jail, gave 



197 

to Mr. Thomas Winn, an elderly gentleman, from Iowa, 
a slouch hat, which he desired Mr. W. to give to his 
friends. The dark one which he intended to wear to the 
scaffold, he said, was a present from Gov. Willard, of In- 
diana. Cook made the request that the position of his 
hat be changed, which was done by Eev. Mr. North. 
During the whole time, Coppie seemed to be struggling 
to suppress his emotions, and Cook, though endeavoring 
to be calm, was evidently much affected. Some one made 
a remark to which Coppie replied, "it is parting with 
friends, and not the dread of death that moves us." 
The prisoners before leaving the jail, were permitted to 
.visit the room occupied by Stevens and Hazlett alias 
Harrison. These advanced and shook hands with Cook 
and Coppie and bade them good-bye. Stevens in part- 
ing with them, said "Good-bye friends! Cheer up! 
Give' my love to my friends in the other world !" Cop- 
pie made a remark to Stevens, which was not understood 
by others, to which the latter responded, "never mind." 
Neither Cook nor Coppie called Hazlett by name, but 
shook hands with him, and took their final leave. Near 
the jail door they recognized and took leave of others. 
On the way to the held of execution, and after they had 
entered the gate, the prisoners conversed with the Shei- 
iff and others who were in the wagon with them. When 
they reached the scaffold, they ascended the steps with- 
out assistance, and approached tbeir doom with appar- 
ent coolness. A short prayer was offered up by Rev. 
Mr. North, and the two prisoners were assigned to 
their places on the drop, and the white caps drawn over 



198 

their faces. The exhortations of the ministers were 
earnest and tender, and they directed the prisoners to 
Christ as the atonement for sin, and the hope of the 
sinner. They then shook hands with those upon the 
scaffold, and took their leave of the ministers. Whilst 
the noose was being adjusted to the neck of Coppie he 
said, "'be quick as possible." Whilst the Sheriff was 
placing the rope around Cook's neck, he said, "Wait a 
moment. Where is Ed's hand?" Coppie's hand was 
then extended to him, and grasping it heartily he said, 
"Good-bye, God bless you." He then waved his hand 
to the crowd around the gallows, and said, "Good-bye 
all." These were the last words of John E. Cook. In 
less than one minute the drop fell, and with his con- 
federate in crime, Edwin Coppie, lie was transported 
from time to eternity, and from the judgment of the 
Court below to that of the Bar above. They both died 
without a struggle, and in one minute after the drop 
fell, no indication of life was left. Thus ended, for a 
time at least, the expedition of John Brown, an expedi- 
tion conceived in sin, and inaugurated in bloodshed. 
After hanging thirty minutes, they were examined by 
the same physicians who performed a similar duty in 
reference to the negroes, and being pronounced dead, 
the bodies were taken down and placed in their coffins, 
that of Cook bring an improved metallic, encased in a 
wooden box, directed to A. P. Willard, care of Robert 
Crowley. Williamsburg, New York, per Adams Express. 
The coffin was sent on from New York, the afflicted rel- 
atives not being able to procure one to suit them in 



199 

Charles Town. The body of Coppie was put in a plain 
mahogany coffin, encased in a box directed to "Thomas 
"Winn, Springfield, Ohio." His uncle endeavored to 
procure a metallic coffin, but was unable to succeed, 
and therefore was compelled to take the best that Charles 
Town could afford. The body of Coppie was taken di- 
rectly from the gallows to Harper's Ferry, by the turn- 
pike, arriving there at 3 o'clock. It was handed over 
to his uncle, a highly esteemed old Quaker gentleman, 
who did not sympathize in the least with the misguided 
and 'errant young man, and by him conveyed to the 
home of his afflicted mother, leaving the Ferry on the 
regular express train at 7 o'clock. The old gentleman 
expected to reach home with the body on Monday eve- 
ning. The body of Cook arrived at the Ferry at a late 
hour, and passed through Baltimore early the next 
morning, reaching his heart stricken relatives m the 
evening. It is said that nearly all the immediate rel- 
atives of Cook are in Williamsburg, and they intend 
interring the body in a private lot of his brother-in-law 
who resides there. After Cook and Coppie were taken 
from the cell, a number of papers were taken from the 
table occupied by the latter during his imprisonment, in 
writing. One-half sheet of fools-cap on which was in- 
scribed in a beautiful hand all manner of things-promi- 
nent among which were the words "My Dear Wife." 
"Mrs. Mary Virginia Cook." "J. E, Sellers, of Cham- 
bersburg, Pa*." has the daguerreotype of my poor moth- 
er," and many other endearing epithets. On the reverse 
side was written in a different hand and in pencil the 



200 

following: "Give me an accurate description, as possi- 
ble as you can of the age, and personal appearance of 
Owen Brown, Barclay Coppie and J. T. Merriam. 
Signed, J. W. Avis." Below this was written, in 
Cook's hand-writing, the words, "I revealed the secret 
only to a woman and that under a solemn pledge of 
secrecy." 

Last of John B. Cook. 

Cook was buried in Williamsburg, Xew York, on 
Tuesday, December 20, 1859. On Saturday evening 
previous, the father of Cook arrived at Williamsburg 
from Haddam, Conn., where he lives. Cook's mother 
would have come also but was unable from indisposition. 
Mr. Cook is a plain Down East farmer. He said he had 
not heard from his son in two years, but supposed he 
was at Pike's Peak, having seen in the papers that there 
was a firm of that place called "Cook & Brothers," and 
he knew that the brothers to a firm were often made 
up of anybody. "But. said he in conversation, I little 
thought my son was at any such work as this, and it is 
but little in accordance with the teachings he received 
from his parents. But he always was a wild boy, and 
I have had much trouble on his account. I have scarcely 
slept for the last few weeks." Sunday morning he vis- 
ited Mr. Kendricks, but it was deemed advisable that 
he should not see the corps of his son until it was em- 
balmed. The consistory of Dr. Porter's Dutch Reform- 
ed Church, of which Mr. Crowley, Cook's brother-in- 
law, is a member, refused to allow holding the funeral 
services in the church, unless upon good guarantee that 



201 



the face of the deceased should not be exposed to public 
view The funeral took place from the residence of 
Samuel I, Harris, where some of the relatives were 
stopping. Gov. Willard, of Indiana, and Robert Crow- 
le y 3 i n .otl ; er,-in-lav of Cook, accompanied the body to 
Williamsburg. The body was dressed in a black suit, 
and had suspended from its heck a miniature of an 
onlv child of me deceased. Mrs. Cook with her child 
was stopping in Williamsburg. It is but 17 months 
since she was married, and her first acquaintance with 
the Northern relative, of her husband was at the -rave. 
Thousands of people, many of whom had been person- 
ally acquainted with the deceased, while a resident, call- 
ed' at the undertaker's with the hope of seeing the re- 
nrains, but the face was so much discolored that it was 
not thought advisable to expose it until embalmed. 
TJ. S Senator Daniel W. Voorhees. 
"Oath," a correspondent to the Cincinnati Enquir- 
er, under date of July 14, J 804. says: Senator Voor- 
hees. of Indiana, who defended Cook as one of Brown's 
men came to my room in Washington several years 
ago at my request, and said to me: "When I defended 
John Cook I did it upon the theory that the only way to 
save his life was to abuse John Brown. I thought to 
save his neck by haranguing the people there and the 
Jury upon the influence that bad old Brown had exerted 
upon his adolescent mind. While I was giving it to old 
Brown hard I happened to glance around and saw Cook 
looking into my face as if to say, "What humbug, my 
principles are those of Captain Brown, and I hold them 



£02 

yet." "That ,said Mr. Voorhees, was the expression of 
Cook." I replied that Cook's principles were probably 
those of Voorhees at the sai te tinae, though the one 
followed his political loader in Brown and the other in 
Bright. Yet Cook is the only one of Brown's men 
whom the people around Charles Town dislike. His 
atfempt to escape the gallows, his settling in the neigh- 
borhood and acting as a spy, and his cowardice when 
he might have escaped from the walls of the jail by 
jumping hack instead of forward, all tell against him. 
Meantime he lost the confidence of John Brown by 
assenting, however slightly, to the line of defense mark- 
ed out by his brother-in-law, Gov. Willard, and Voor- 
hees. In attempting bo extirpate his character as an 
Abolitionisl they were wiping out his only cause of her- 
oism." 

The hackles which bound Cook and Coppie, and. 
which they fill d ! hrough ' I heir 

escape from I he < h; i Les Tov l jail, daced in 

the show win \o\ - of a jewel] in Xew York and 

attra 

Joh] on the L6th of May. 1830, 

was sentence the L61 h of \o, iml r, i 

iited r, and his child was horn 

on the Kill: day of Jid\ L859. 

Marriage of Capt. Cook. 

Married on Wednesday, the 27th of April. 1859, 
Mr. John E. Cook to Miss Mary V. \\r\)))iu}\\ both of 
Earper's Ferry. Mrs, Cook married again to a gentle- 



203 

man named Johnston in Illinois and her son, John 
Cook, is a prominent young lawyer in New York city. 
Edwin Ooppie. 
A correspondence to the New York Tribune from 
Salem, Ohio, Nov. 1. 1859, says: 

"The young man, Edwin Coppie, is a native ol this 
place, where he resided until some seven years ago, 
when he went to Iowa. He was left an orphan at an 
early age and was provided with a home in the family 




EDWIN COPPIE. 

of a Quaker.. a friend of the Coppie family, who were 
Quakers. He remained with them some time during 
which he gave evidence of such a depraved and vicious 
nature that his benefactor turned him loose. After a 
few years more spent in various [.laces he went to Iowa, 



204 

• 

where he remained until the commencement of the 
troubles in Kansas. He enjoyed the reputation of a 
reckless character; afterwards he was engaged with 
Brown in running off slaves in Missouri." 
Coppie's Jury. 

Joseph E. Bell. G. T. Licklider, Wm. A. Marshall, 
Wm. B. Henson, 3aines V. Moore, John Snyder, John 
Criswell, Eeter Bowers. Daniel Eeffiebower, Eezin Shu- 
gert, S. L. Minghini, Wm. E. Easterday. 
Coppie's Testimony. 

In the House >! Representatives, in the course of a 
few remarks, made by Hon. Alexander E. Boteler, of 
third district, on the effect of preaching of abolition 
doctrines, by tb i Northern officials, and their "misrepre- 
sentation of facts, relative to the condition of the 
Southern slaves, he said : 

"I can illustrate this by an incident in my own 
county the other day. That poor man. Connie, a week 
or two before his execution, stood at the window of his 
prison, pressing Ids brow against the iron bars across 
it, looked out intently in the street at the happy group 
of negroes assembled there, and after some time, he 
turned away and sobbed, "Oh, sir. he said, I have seen 
day after day, the negroes in your streets, and they 
are better clad than the laboring people of the State 
from which I came; they are well cared for in every 
way. and see, oh see, how happy." Said my friend, 
"what did yon expect, or what can you expect?" Oh, 
said he. I had been taught in believe that they were 
down-trodden and oppressed, and weve ready to clutch 



205 



at liberty; but tbey refused it when we offered them the 

boon." 

Letters From Coppie and Cook. 

The Iowa papers give publicity to an extract of a 
letter from Edwin Coppie. The letter is addressed to 
his father and mother, as follows: 

"It is with much sorrow that I now address you, 
and under very different circumstances than I ever ex- 
pected to be placed; but I have seen my folly too late, 
and must now suffer the consequences which I suppose 
will be death, but which I shall try and bear as every 
man should It would be a source of much comfort to 
me to have died at home. It had been always my desire 
that, when I came to die, my last breath should be 
among my friends; that in my last moments they could 
be near me to console ;> but alas ! such is not my fate. I 
am condemned and must die a dishonorable death among 
my enemies and hundreds of miles from home. I hope 
you will not reflect on me for what has been done, but 
I am not at fault; at least my conscience tells me so, 
and there are others that feel as I do. We were led 
into it by those who ought to have known better, but 
we did not anticipate any danger. After stopping at 
Harper's Ferry we were surrounded and compelled to 
save our own lives, for we saw our friends falling on all 
sides, our leader would not surrender, and there seemed 
to be no other resort but to fight. I am happy to say 
that no one fell by my hand, and sorry to say that I was 
induced to raise a gun. I was not looking for such a 
thing. I am sorry, very sorry, that such has been the 



206 

case. Never did I suppose that my hand would be 
guilty of raising a weapon again ray fellow man. After 
our capture which was on the morning of the 17th, we 
were kept there until the next morning when we were 
removed to Charles Town where we have been ever since. 
We are well cared for. the jailor seems to do all he can 
to make us comfortable." 

Funeral of Coppie. 

Kdwin Coppie's funeral took place near Hanover, 
Ohio. Dec. 18, 1859. Thousands of people were pres- 
ent. Coppie's friends and members of the Society of 
Friends, and of course the funeral was conducted accord- 
ing to their rules. All could not gain admittance into 
the house to see the corpse. It was taken into the yard 
and placed on a table, and as each one came to the side 
of the coffin they appeared to linger over it with more 
than usual interest and sympathy, notwithstanding the 
disliguration of the face caused hj the mode of death. 
The Re- Interment of Coppie. 

The remains of Edwin Coppie were disinterred 
on Monday, the 26th Dec. 1859, from the burying 
ground about five miles from Salem, Ohio, where they 
had been quietly buried by his Quaker relatives, for a 
more imposing burial by his sympathizers in the neigh- 
borhood, on Friday the 30th- The body was placed in 
the hands of experienced persons to prepare it for the 
occasion. The wooden coffin from Virginia was replac- 
ed by a handsome metallic one. the body being robed 
in white flannel, and taken to the town hall in Salem, 
where, on Friday it was exposed to view for four hours. 



207 

The hall accommodating six hundred, Mas filled, and 
then some four thousand persons, it was estimated, pass- 
ed through the room to view the corpse, several ladies 
on seeing the blackened face, bnrsted into tears. In 
the procession to the burying ground, in sight of the 




ALBERT HAZLETT. 



town, relations followed first, then the colored people, 
and then the citizens generally A monument is to be 
erected to the memory of the deceased. 

Harrisburg, Pa., Oct, 26, 185S. 
Hazlett was arrested here the 24th instant. Gcv 
Packer today gave orders that Capt, Cook, now confined 



208 

in Chamltersburg, and Hazlett, held in custody at Car- 
lisle. Pa., be both delivered np to the authorities of 
Virginia, for trial. 

Stevens' Jury. 

Joseph Welshans, John T. Cowley. Morgan Pultz, 
Daniel Coleman, Jacob Kemp. A. C. Timberlake. Geo. 
W. Anderson, James L. Roberts. James A. Adams, John 
Gaunter, Thomas F. Harris. John W. Packeti. 

Trials and Sentences of Stevens and Hazlett. 

The demeanor of Stevens was marked composure 
from the time he entered the court room until he heard 
his doom pronounced by the Judge. Hazlett seemed less 
possessed, yet he was not much daunted ; he has not so 
intelligent a face as Stevens, the latter is a fine specimen 
of manhood, alas, a manhood so fallen. Both Stevens 
and Hazlett made short addresses to the Court, Steven* 
disavowing in the strongest language the evidence of one 
of the State's witnesses, declaring he (Stevens) bad ad- 
vised Brown to conflagrate Harper's Ferry and commit 
all the sanguinary horrors of the most savage warfare ; 
he said those who knew him best would acquit him of 
such brutal acts. Hazlett deified the testimony in his 
case as to ilie attempts lie made to disguise nimself, 
omitting however, to deny his being one of the Brown 
men at the Ferry on the noted 17th of October, 1859. 
The mien of the Judge, during the delivery of his sen- 
tence on the condemned, was most impressive ; and be did 
it in tears, his voice almost unart ieulat ing when lie 
pronounced "to be hanged till you are dead." 



209 

• 

Stevens' Antecedents. 
Stevens, the accomplice of John Brown, in his 
Harper's Ferry foray, is, like his leader, not without an- 
tecedents. The records of the War Department show 
that he was in the regular army in Mexico, that while 
there he and several others mutined against their cap- 
tain for which he was sentenced to be shot, but was 
pardoned by President Polk, that he was afterwards sent 
in the regular army to Kansas at the time of the trou- 
bles there, where he deserted the service and joined 
the marauding party of John Brown. Like his leader 
he was severely wounded at Harper's Ferry, but like 
him survives to end his life on the gallows. 
The Augusta. Ga.. Dispatch says: 
fr We published yesterday a list extracted from a 
Virginia paper of the places in the Southern states 
marked on Brown's map. designating, as it is supposed, 
the points of the designed insurrection. Among them, 
Crawfordsville. in this State, is to be found. We have 
been informed that the man Stevens, who was wound- 
ed, and made prisoner with Brown, resided in and 
about Greensboro for some weeks last year. For tam- 
pering with the negroes he was arrested by Judge Lynch, 
blacked and rode on a rail. Thence he went to Craw- 
fordsville and was compelled to leave for the same of- 
fence."' 

Execution of Stevens and Hazlett. 
Another, and it is to be hoped the final act in the 
Harper's Ferry tragedy has been enacted, and Aaron I). 
Stevens and Albert Hazlett have been sent to "that 



210 

bourne from which no traveler returneth." Although 
it is known that at least four of the Brown party 3 r et 
remarh unwhipped of Justice, still the desire is that no 
more blood be shed, and that the remaining wretches 
be permitted to wander through the world. The near 
approach of the day of execution seemed to have little 
effect on the prisoners, and for the last few days they 
were unusually cheerful, Stevens declaring that it was 
his wish to be free, and therefore desired the day of 
execution to arrive. Mrs. Pierce, the sister of Stevens, 
was with him, and made a fine impression on all with 
whom she was thrown by her ladv-like denortment and 
conduct. On Thursday, a Miss Dunbar, of Ohio, arrived 
in town. It is said she was engaged to be married to 
Stevens at the time of the invasion of Harper's Ferry, 
and has corresponded with him since his imprisonment 
in this town. She is a lady of much intelligence and 
Leant v. A brother of Ifazlett, who resided in Arm- 
strong county, Pa., also arrived, and was present with 
his brother. He advised Hazlett to make a full con- 
fession of his connection with the Brown party. Yes- 
terday morning the table was set in the passage for the 
criminals to eat. and seated around it were the two mu>, 
who in a few hours were to be launched into eternity, a 
sister, and the betrothed of one, and the brother of the 
other. A solemn feast, and one which was, seemingly, 
enjoyed by but two, the condemned. After breakfast, 
lb.' Eriends of the criminals bade them a long farewell, 
and took a carriage for Harper's Ferry, where they 
remained until tbe bodies of the executed reached that 



211 



place. At eleven o'clock (17th of March, 1860) the 
field on which the scaffold was was occupied by a large 
number of spectators a still larger number, however, re- 
maining in the town to accompany the sad procession. 
Col. John T. Gibson was in command of the military, 
which made a magnificent display. The following com- 
panies were posted around the scaffold before tlw arriv- 
al of the prisoners; Clarke Guards, Capt. Bowen; 
Berkeley Border Guards, Capt. Nadenbousch, Floyd 
Kiflemen, Capt. Geo. W. Chambers; Lloyd Kiflemen, 
Capt. Campbell; Continental Morgan Guards, Capt. 
Haines; and Litcher Kiflemen, Lieut. Link. At ten 
minutes to 12 o'clock the prisoners made their appear- 
ance on the field, escorted by the Hamtramck Guard-o, 
Capt. V. M. Butler, of Shepherdstown ; Jefferson 
Guards, Capt. Rowan; Botts Greys, Capt. Lawson Botts. 
The prisoners waited to the scaffold, Haziett was in 
advance and ascended the steps with an easy, unconcern- 
ed air, followed by Stevens. Both seemed to survey, 
with perfect indifference, the large mass of persons in 
attendance, and neither gave the least sign of fear. A 
short time was spent in adjusting the ropes properly 
around the necks of the prisoners, which was improved 
by them taking an affectionate farewell of the Sheriff, 
Jailor, and the jail-guard, after which -the caps were 
placed over their heads, and they were launched into 
eternity, to be dwelt with by a Judge who doeth all 
things right. There was no religious exercise with the 
' prisoners, as they declined all offers from the clergy. 
Just before the caps were drawn over their heads, Ste- 



212 

vens and Hazlett embraced each other and kissed. The 
fall broke the neck of Hazlett and he died without a 
struggle, whilst the knot slipped on Steven's neck, and 
he writhed in contortions for several minutes. They wcie 
permitted to hang about half an hour, when they were 
examined and pronounced dead. The bodies were placed 
in neat walnut coffins, and forwarded to Mr. Maicus 
Spring, South Amboy, New Jersey. It is understood 
Mrs.. Spring sent money here for the purpose of paying 
a portion of the funeral expenses. 

The remains of these two men were buried at Eagle- 
wood, New Jersey, on Sunday, 19th March, 1860 ; about 
150 persons 'were present and brief addresses were made 
by Eev. Dr. Aaron T. Tiiton, Mr. and Mrs. Spring, and 
others. Among those present was the lady to whom 
Stevens was engaged to be married. 
An Incident. 

A large number of negroes were allowed by their 
masters to witness the execution of Stevens and Hazlett. 
Whilst awaiting the approach of tbe prisoners at the 
jail door, a number of the presumed-to-be maltreated 
darkies, congregated near by, evidently waiting a sight 
of the condemned. We overheard the following con- 
versation between two of them, one an old grey-bearded 
darky, and the other quite a boy. 'The elder remarked, 
''Pete, how'm it cum you Mis' 'low you heah today, vet- 
ter bin Inline plow i n y" Pete replied, "Mas" alers 'lows 
dis chile cum to circusses on de tight ropes/' 
Oapt. Leeman's Commission. 

The following is a fac simile of I lie Commission 



213 

found on the body of Capt, Leeman. after he was killed 
in the middle of the river, while trying to make his 
escape to Maryland. The original is in possession of 
Col. John T. Gibson, at Charles Town., who has the 
rare document framed and hung up in his parlor. It is 
the only one in existence, and is highly prized: 
No. 9. Greeting Headquarters. War Department, Near 
Harper's Ferry, Md. 
Whereas, Win. H. Leeman has been nominated a 
Captain m the Army established under the Provisional 
Constitution. Now, Therefore, in pursuance of the au- 
thority vested in us by said Constitution, We do hereby 
Appoint the said Win. II. Leeman a Captain. Given at 
the office of the Secretary of War, this day, Oct. 15, 
1859. JOHN BPOWN, 

H. KAGI, Commander-in-Chief. 

Secretary of War. 
J. II. Kagi, one of the conspirators killed at Har- 
per's Ferry, was at one time the Kansas correspondent 
on the National Era. and associated editor of the Topeka 
Tribune. 

Touching Letter From a Sister 
William Leeman, who was killed on Monday night 
while attempting to lord the Potomac and reach the 
Maryland side, was a native of Hallowell, Maine, where 
his mother and sister reside. Several letters addressed 
to him by his mother and sister, have come into our 
possession revealing the fact that he visited the South 
and West for the purpose of bettering Ms fortune, and 
that his absence from home was a source of deep ana 



214 

affectionate anxiety to his family. We copy below a 
touching letter from his sister, written while he was in 
Kansas. 

My Dear Brother: I received your letter, and was 
most happy to hear from you ; also to know that you were 
well ; that is a great blessing, to enjoy good health. We 
are all well as usual but our mother. She is much bet- 
ter now than when I wrote last, although she is not able 
to leave her room. Her mind is much more settled ; she 
begins to move her fingers a little. The doctor says 
she will get better when the warm weather comes; 
she worries herself a great deal about you, and I don't 
know, my dear brother, how you expect your mother and 
sister to do otherwise, when we think where you are so 
far from your home — so long since we have seen you, 
and so long before we shall see you, (by your writing) ; 
but I hope it may not be but a short time before you 
will think it best to come to the loved ones at home. 
I -do not like to write so very discouragingly to you, 
brother, when you are trying your best to encourage 
your folks, but if you knew how much we wanted you to 
come home, you would not blame us for writing such 
letters. Would you come home if you had the money 
to come with? Tell me what it would cost. Oh, 1 
would be unspeakably happy if it were in my power to 
send you money, but we have been very poor this winter. 
Mattie has had a very good place, where sin 1 lias had 
75 cents a week! She has not spent any of it in the 
family, only a very little for mother. Father has had 
very small pay , but 1 think he has more now; he is 



215 

watchman on the Eastern Queen, that runs from here 
to Boston. I should have worked in the straw factory 
at Natick this winter had mother been well. Mattie has 
left her place, and talks of working in this mill, but 
she will not if she can possibly do anything else. Hal- 
lowell is still as dull as ever. There is no kind of bus- 
iness going on at all. Most all of those that think 
anything of themselves have left. I do not think you 
would know mother. We try to make her as comfort- 
able as we can; she has everything that she wants; the 
folks m this place have been so very kind to us, our 
neighbors too; it seems as though they could not do too 
much. Father says he wants you to come, if you have 
to go back again. Ah, my dear brother, you can never 
know how much your folks want you to come home. 
My dear brother, I want you to be sure and write and 
often, and as soon as you receive this, for we are so very 
anxious when you don't write. Tell me who you are 
going to fight, if you are going to interfere with the 
Mormons. I rather thought so, for I know times are 
peaceable in Kansas. 

Whatever may be thy lot on earth, thy mission here 

below, 
Though fame may wreath her laurels fair, around thy 

youthful brow; 
Though you would rise from earthly things and win a 

deathless name. 
Let all your ways be just and right, let virtue be your 

aim — 



216 

Though you may oft be scorned by men, or those who 

bear the name, 
Let all your ways be just and right — let virtue be your 

aim. 

George Mitchell is dead, he died one month ago. 
Dr. Allen is dead. Mr. Bart Xason fell dead in the 
meetinghouse. David Wallock (Mamma Butter's hus- 
band) was drowned in California a short time ago. It 
has been very sickly here this spring. We are having a 
very great revival. Mattie and I have concluded to get 
our miniatures raKen together for you — we will send 
them to you soon. We all send much love to you, 
brother and son. Accept this from your affectionate 
sister LIZZIE." 

L. Leeman, Hallowell, Maine. 
John Brown. 

It will be remembered that a short time ago, Rev. 
W. G. Brownlow, of Tennessee, went to the North, and 
had a discussion on the subject of slavery with a certain 
Rev. A. Pryne, the champion of abolitionism. The 
meeting of the two Reverences was Like the collision of 
two locomotives, going at the rate of sixty miles an hour. 
Brownlow, owing to an attack of bronchitis, was unable 
to deliver his phillipic orally, but it was read for him 
by a friend, and was so solid in facts and arguments, as 
well as acrid and stinging in invective, that the Rev. 
A. Pyrne was completely dismasted, and was forced to 
haul into port for repairs. Having sufficiently recover- 
ed to receive another broadside from his clerical com- 



217 



petitor, Parson Brownlow, in the last Knorville Whig, 
lets fly at him two and a half columns of grape, slugs, 
chain 'shot and canister, upon the subject of the Har- 
per's Ferry invasion. He reminds his antagonist that, 
in their late debate, he charged him with assisting in 
raising funds to send out to certain murderous ruffians 
in Kansas. He quotes from Pyrne's reply the follow- 
ing: "And let me tell you, freedom in lvan=as was 
secured by a firm resistance to this spirit of slavery. Do 
you think it was Congressional speeches that secured 
freedom in Kansas? You are greatly mistaken; it was 
Glorious aid John Brown with his armed men, The 
Demon of slavery was beaten back, because he and his 
bravo band were on the ground to let her minions know 
that they had caught the spirit of '75, and were ready 
to fight for freedom. While on this subject, excuse a 
Jitth seeming egotism. I am proud to say that before 
John Brown went to Kansas, I had the privilege, in an 
Anti-Slavery convention at Syracuse, of moving a reso- 
lution to buy rifles for him and his boys. I made a 
speech in favor of the resolution, and though it did not 
escape opposition, it was carried through enthusiastie- 
' ally; the collection was taken up. and John Brown and 
]ti s boys were appointed to buy rifles." Brownlow then 
says to the Reverend Mr. Pyrne: "Had you as a preach- 
er' of Righteousness, exhorted the old scoundrel and his 
villianous boys to repentance and faith, they, might have 
been religious instead of dying in this disgraceful act of 
rebellion and going to hell, as they doubtless have done. 
Shame on you, you vile hypocrite! How do you feel you 



218 

hypocritical philanthropist, when you reflect that you 
have urged this old murderous vidian on to death and 
hell? The Eev. Mr. Browniow next informs the Rev- 
erend Mr. Pyrne that he believes him to be engaged in 
this same insurrection. He says that Pryne exactly 
answers the description of one of the prisoners who 
escaped, and who is said to be about 5 feet 7 inches 
high; sallow complexion, dark hair, inclining sandy 
beard on his face, and chin long, but not heavy. This 
description says Browniow, suits Eev. Mr. Pryne, and 
so does the cowardice in absconding, and leaving glor- 
ious old John Brown 'to help himself.' I honestly be- 
lieve, concludes Mr. Browniow, you have been at Har- 
per's Ferry in person, and ingloriously fled when danger 
stared you in the face. If you were not there in person, 
your letters to glorious old John Brown, are in the pos- 
session of Gov. Wise, showing that you were aiding and 
abetting in this murderous work. I hope the letters 
will be published, and that a requisition will be made 
upon the New York Governor for you. Should you be 
brought to Virginia and hung, it will he a curious fact, 
if I am there, and present on the scaffold, to administer 
to you. in your dying agonies, the consolations of the Gos- 
pel ! You recoiled that in our discussion at Philadelphia, 
only thirteen months ago, you notified me the slavehold- 
ers in the Smith would be made to sleep with revolvers 
under their pillows a1 night. This 1 l;irp t"- Ferry in- 
surrection is the opening 6i the campaign, resulting 
disastrously to the scoundrels associated with you. We 
have put some of your party to sleep with cold planks 



219 

under their heads, and others of you we intend shall 
sleep with ropes around your necks. Hoping to hear 
from you soon, I have the honor to he, &c. 

W. G. BKOWNLOW, 
Nov. 1859 Editor of the Knoxville Whig.*' 

Noble Conduct of a Lady. 
An incident of the occasion is thus referred to by 
Mr. Throckmorton of the Ferry: "When Mayor Beck- 
ham was shot our men became almost frantic. They 
rushed into the Wager hotel, where the prisoner 
(Thompson) was, crying "Shoot him," and had it not 
been for a lady who was in the room, (Miss Catherine 
Fouke, sister of the landlord, Mr. Isaac Fouke) he 
would have been killed, on the spot. They cocked their 
guns and pointed at him, crowding around, but she 
stood over him, telling them, "For God's sake, save 
him; don't kill him in that way, but let the law take 
its course !" She said they had him a prisoner, bound, 
and he could not get away, and begged that they would 
not kill him. The man said he was willing to die; 
knew he had to die, and wanted to be shot. They finally 
got hold of him, took him out on the platform and shot 
liim. He had more than forty balls fired into him. 
The citizens around were chiefly concerned m this, but 
I cannot say who shot him, I could not have saved him 
if I had tried. 

Interesting Letter From Miss Christine Fouke, of 
Harper's Ferry. 

The St. Louis Republican publishes the following 
letter as having been received at that office from Miss 



220 

Fouke, of Harper's Ferry, a lady whose name has been 
widely published in connection with a thrilling incident 
in the Harper's Ferry tragedy: 

"Harper's Ferry, Nov. 27, 185:). 
"Mr. Editor: I anticipate your surprise when your 
eye shall rest on the signature attached to this sheet; 
but that surprise shall vanish when you learn the why 
and wherefore I have taken the liberty of writing you 
a few lines. I have learned from the Daily Missouri 
Kepublican, that you were under the impression that I 
saved the life of Thompson, the insurgent, when he was 
taken captive. He was brought into the public parlor 
of the hotel some time before I knew that he and Ste- 
vens had been captured. When I first saw Thompson 
he was seated in an arm chair with his hands tied behind 
his back, guarded by some of the citizens. Several 
questions wen- put to him in regard to his motives and 
expectations, when he enrolled in the Provisional Gov- 
ernment. His answers were invariably the same; that 
he had been taught to believe the negroes were cruelly 
treated and would gladly avail themselves of the 
first opportunity to obtain their freedom, and that all 
they had to do was to come to Harper's Ferry, take pos- 
session of the armory and arsenal, which would be an 
easy matter, and then the colored people would come 
in a mass, backed by the non-slave holders of the. val- 
ley of Virginia. Some one remarked, do you regret that 
you did not succeed in running off the darkies? He 
replied that he regretted having engaged in the at- 
tempt, and if it were to do over again he would decl'ne. 



221 



Very soon after, Mr. Beckam, one of our most esteem- 
ed citizens, was shot down unarmed as he, was. I went 
into the parlor and heard one of the guards ask T. if 
he were a married man; his answer was that he had 
been married six months only. I walked up to where 
the prisoner sat. and said to him : "Mr. Thompson, you 
had better have stayed at home and taken care of your 
wife and pursued some honest calling, instead of com- 
ing here to murder our citizens and steal our property ; 
that their first act was to kill a free colored man, be- 
cause he would not join them in their wicked scheme." 
He said I spoke truly; but they had been basely de- 
ceived. Whilst I was talking to Thompson, several of 
the friends of Mr. Beckam, who were justly enraged at 
his cold-blooded murder, came in, with the armed deter- 
mination to kill Thompson on the spot. As they ap- 
peared with leveled rifles, I stood before Thompson and 
protected him, for three powerful reasons :" First, my 
sister-in-law was lying in the adjoining room very ill 
under the effects of a nervous chill, from sheer fright, 
and if they had carried out their design, it would ha\e 
proved fatal to her, without a doubt. In the second 
place. I considered it a great outrage to kill the man 
in the house, however much he deserved to die. Third- 
ly, I am emphatically a law and order woman, and 
wanted the self-condemned man to live, that he might 
be disposed of by the law. I simply shielded the terri- 
bly frightened man without touching him, until Coi. 
Moore, I think it was, came in and assured me, on his 
honor, that he should n'ot be shot in the house. That 



222 

was all I desired. The result everybody knows. One 
other error I wish to correct. Philip B. Foukc, of 
Bellville, Illinois, is my cousin only. I am happy to 
assure you that I have .a birthright in the "Old Domin- 
ion." Respectfully yours, 

C. C. FOUKE/' 

The New York Sun says : 

It is rumored that a powerful organization was 
formed in this city whose purpose it was to aid Brown 
and his colleagues in their abolition scheme, and that 
aid for the Kansas work was furnished, by not only 
Gerritt Smith, but persons' resident in this city." 

The following is an extract of a dispatch received 
by Superintendent Barber, at the Ferry, dated: 

New York, Oct. 24, 1859. 

"I would not be surprised if from what I have 
heard, that there % will be an attempt made by the Abo- 
litionists of the North to release Brown and his asso- 
ciates from the Charles Town jail. I do not desire to 
add to the excitement already great, but write to caution 
you. If the attempt is made it will be a hidden move- 
ment by a party of armed desperadoes employed by 
leaders in the free States. Signed, 

"HENRY HILL." 

A Minister Offering Himself as a Sacrifice. 

A certain minister of Cincinnati, who is a radical 
on the slavery question, wrote to Gov. Wise, begging 
the privilege of taking Brown's place on the gallows. 
He set forth that Brown was a hero, and his life should 
be spared for future brave deeds. If that could be done, 



223 

he, the minister, was ready to sacrifice himself, and 
would gladly die the ignominious death. It is further 
stated that the minister was not very well pleased with 
the answer of Gov. Wise, which was to the effect that it 
was now out of his power to save the life of John Brown, 
but if the minister was very anxious to be hanged, and 
would come to Virginia, the Governor would try to have 
him accommodated." 

A petition to Gov. Wise is in circulation at Man- 
chester, New Hampshire, praying him to postpone old 
Brown's execution until the meeting of the next legisla- 
ture of Virginia, in view of getting Brown's reprieve. 
Old Brown. 

Hon. Fernando Wood, of New York, has written to 
Gov. Wise, of Virginia, to know if the Governor intends 
to pardon or commute the sentence of old Brown. The 
Governor has replied to ex-Mayor Wood that old John 
Brown will certainly be hung on the 2nd day of Decem- 
ber, 1859, when his body will be handed over to the 
surgeons to be taken from the State, so that the carcass 
shall not pollute the soil of Virginia. 

Threats Against G-ov. Wise and Virginia 

Gov. Wise continues to receive incendiary letters 
from the Northern hive of abolition demons, as the fol- 
lowing : 

"Kandolph, Vermont, Nov. 21st, 1859. 
"Gov. H. A. Wise: 

"Sir: I improve the present opportunity to warn 
you of your danger, and the consequences attending the 
execution of John Brown, now under sentence of death. 



224 

Mark it well ! Just as sure as John Brown swings from 
the scaffold, or is in any way injured or dies while in 
your prison, or under any circumstances sufficient to 
warrant the belief that he has met with foul play at 
your hands, or at the hands of the slave minions of the 
South, then just so sure, so help me God. in a moment, 
when you think not, you will be launched into the eter- 
nal world. This is no idle threat, for I solemnly swear, 
by Almighty God, that I will not rest, day or night, 
until I have taken your life, with the lives of four of 
your associates. At the same time I will assist (even to the 
lighting of the matches and placing them .at the fuse) 
in carrying out a favorite and well matured plan here 
at the North, which is this: That of burning Harper's 
Ferry, Charles Town, and a few other places, which I 
am bound by oath not to reveal, to the ground, and also 
to set fire to every village, town and city south of Mason 
and Dixon's line as soon as practicable after the execu- 
tion. You are then, aware how matters stand. Proceed 
as you choose, but have a care how you sign your own 
death warrant, and the warrants of at least four of your 
associates in crime. I withhold my name, practically 
because I desire my liberty, thai in case John Brown 
is injured in the least at your hands, or at the hands of 
your government officials, my dagger, or bullet, or 
poison, may he forthcoming, to send you for trial before 
the bar whee the murdered Thompson has already been. 
I f yon should wish to address me, I here is only one way ; 
through the columns of Hie Weekly New York Tribune, 
addressed to the Green Mountain Boy of Ethan .Mien 
Descent" ' 



225 



Letter From Mrs. Child to Gov. Wise. 

"Wayland, Mass., Oct 26, 1859. 
Gov. Wise: I have heard that you were a man of 
chivalrous sentiments, and I knoAv that you were oppos- 
ed to the iniquitous attempt to force upon Kansas a con- 
stitution abhorrent to the moral sense of her people. 
Relying upon those indications of honor and justice in 
your character, I venture to ask a favor of you. Enclos- 
ed -is a letter to Capt. John Brown. Will you have the 
kindness .after reading it yourself, to transmit it to the 
prisoner? I, and all my large circle of abolition ac- 
quaintances, were taken by surprise, when news came 
of Capt. Brown's recent attempt, nor do I know of a 
single person who would have approved of it, had they 
been apprised of his intentions. But, I, and thousands 
of others, feel a natural impuse of sympathy for the 
brave and suffering man. Perhaps God, who sees the 
inmost of our souls, perceives some such sentiment m 
your heart also. He needs a mother or sister to dress 
his wounds, and speak soothingly to him. Will you al- 
low me to perform that mission of humanity? If you 
will, may God bless you for the generous deed. I have 
been for years, an uncompromising abolitionist, and I 
should scorn to deny it, or apologize for it, as much as 
John Brown himself would do. Believing in peace prin- 
ciples, I deeply regret the step that the old veteran has 
taken, while I honor his humanity towards those who 
became his prisoners. But, because it is my habit to be 
open as the daylight, I will also say that if I believed 
our religion justified men in fighting for freedom, 1 



226 

should consider the enslaved, everywhere, as best entitled 
to that right. Such an avowal is a simple, frank, ex- 
pression of my sense of natural justice. But I should 
despise my self utterlv, if any circumstances could tempt 
me to seek to advance these opinions, in any way, direct- 
ly, or indirectly, after your permission to visit Virginia 
had been obtained on the plea of sisterly sympathy with 
a brave and suffering man. 1 give you my word of 
honor, which was never broken, that I would use such 
permission solely .and singly for the purpose of nursing 
your prisoner, and for no other purpose whatever. 
Yours Respectfully, 

L. MARIA CHILD." 
Gov. Wise's Reply to Mrs. Child, 

Richmond, Va., Oct. 29, 1859. 
Madam : Yours of the 2Gth was received by me 
yesterday, and at my earliest leisure I respectfully reply 
to it, that 1 will forward the letter for John Brown, a 
prisoner under our law, arraigned at the bar of the Cir- 
cuit Court for the county of Jefferson, at Charles Town, 
Va.. for the crime of murder, robbery and treason, which 
3'ou ask me to transmit to him. I will comply with 
vour request, in the only way which seems to me proper, 
by endorsing it to the Commonwealth's Attorney, with 
the request that he will ask the permission of the Court 
to hand it to the prisoner, now in the hands of the 
Judiciary, not of the Executive of this Commonwealth. 
You ask me further to allow you to perform the mission 
"of mother or sister, to dress his wounds and speak sooth- 
ingly to him." By this course, you mean to be allowed 



227 

to visit him in the cell and to minister to him in the 
offices of humanity. Why should you not be so allowed, 
Madam? Virginia and Massachusetts are involved in 
Civil War, and the Constitution which unites them in 
one Confederacy, guarantees to you the privileges and 
immunities of a citizen of the United States in the 
State of Virginia. That Constitution I am sworn to 
support, and am, therefore, bound to protect your privil- 
eges and immunities as a citizen of Massachusetts com- 
ing into Virginia for any lawful and peaceful purpose. 
Coming as you propose, to minister to the captive in 
prison, you will be met, doubtless, by all our people, not 
only in a chivalrous but in a Christian spirit. You have 
the right to visit Charles Town, Va., Madam, and your 
mission, being merciful and humane, will not oniy be 
allowed but be respected if not welcomed. A few unen- 
lightened and inconsiderate persons, fanatical in their 
modes of thought and action to maintain justice and 
right, might molest you, or be disposed to do so, and 
this might suggest the imprudence of risking any ex- 
periment upon the peace of a society very much excited 
by crimes with those whose chief author you seem to 
sympathize so much; but, still, I repeat, your motives 
and avowed purpose are lawful and peaceful, and I 
will, so far as I am concerned, do my duty in protecting 
}rour rights in our limits. Virginia and her authorities 
would be weak indeed, weak in point of folly and weak 
in point of power, if her State faith and constitutional 
obligations cannot be redeemed in her own limits to the 
letter of morality as well as of law, and if her chivalry 



228 

cannot courteously receive a lady's visit to a prisoner. 
Every arm which guards Brown from rescue on the one 
hand and from lynch law on the other, will be ready to 
guard your person in Virginia. I could not permit an 
insult even to woman in her work of charity among us, 
though it be to one who whetted knives of butchery for 
our "mothers, sisters, daughters and babes." We have 
no sympathy with Brown, and we are surprised that you 
were "taken by surprise" when news came of Capt. 
Brown's recent attempt. His attempt was a natural 
consequence of your sympathy ought to make you doubt 
its virtue, from the effect on his conduct. But it is not 
of this I should speak. When you arrive at Charles 
Town, if you go there, it will be for the Court and its 
officers, the Commonwealth's xittorney, Sheriff and 
Jailor, to say whether you may see and wait on the 
prisoner. But, whether you are permitted or not, (and 
you will be, if my advice can prevail) you may rest 
assured that he will be humanely, lawfully, and merci- 
fully dealt by, in prison and on trial. Respectfully, 

HENRY A. WISE." 

Vindication of Citizens of Harper's Ferry From 
Slanders of Gov. "Wise. 

Harper's Ferry, Oct. 28, 1859. 
The smoke and excitement of the conflict having 
passed, and having been an eye-witness of and an actor 
in the scenes of the tragedy, I am unwilling that the 
great injustice done our citizens by the remarks of Gov. 
Wise should go without correction. The fads arc these: 
On the morning of the 17th of October, 1859, at an 



229 

early hour, our people were startled by the intelligence 
that the Arsenal and Musket and Rifle factories were in 
the hands of a large body of armed negroes and whites, 
and that they had the principal streets leading or run- 
ning in front of the government buildings, and were 
shooting down such of our citizens as they found outside 
their dwellings. Very few of our citizens had arms of 
any sort, and what few they had were fowling pieces, and 
those who had them had neither powder nor shot — bul- 
lets were out of the question — so that our town, for the 
time being, was at the mercy of the insurgents. The 
arms, and what little ammunition the government had 
at this place, were in the hands of the enemy. At this 
juncture of affairs two resolute men, employes of the 
Armory — John McClelland and William Copeland, crept 
stealthily into the enclosure of the Armory, and entered 
one of the buildings and procured from it two single 
ball bullet moulds, and all the percussion caps in that 
department; next they proceeded to a building outside, 
but contiguous to the enclosure, called the stock-house, 
to which arms had been removed, to secure them from 
damage from the late freshet, and thus after great delay 
our "citizens were armed. Next powder and ball must 
be procured — the balls had to be cast in two pair of 
single-ball bullet moulds; this again occasioned great 
delay; the casting was necessarily a very 'slow process; 
powder was soon procured. Our citizens were assembled 
on Camp Hill, a height overlooking the Potomac river, 
eagerly awaiting their equipment. They were quickly 
organized as a body of citizen troops, under the com- 



230 

mand of Capt. John Avis, of Charles Town, Ya, As 
soon as three rounds of ammunition were furnished, this 
body of citizen troops, they were divided into four de- 
tachments and ordered to %ake position at the following 
important points around the enemy. Capt. Wm. H. 
Moore was ordered with a detachment of 18 men to 
cross the Potomac river, at the Old Furnace a mile 
and a half above Harper's Ferry west, and descend 
the river on the Maryland side, and take, if possible, the 
Baltimore and Ohio railroad bridge, which the insur- 
gents had in their possession. At Pitchers Mill Capi. 
Moore received orders to stop the trains going east or 
west, to prevent reinforcements reaching the enemy by 
the cars, or the escape of the insurgents by the o^nie 
means. After executing this order, Moore's command 
was reinforced by several gentlemen from Dufneld's de- 
pot, making the entire force 25 men; this force crossed 
the river, marched to the bridge, cleared it to the Vir- 
ginia side, killing one man and capturing another pris- 
oner, thus obtaining an important point on that side 
of the town, as it cut off the retreat of the outlaws by 
the avenue they had entered the town. Capt. Moore 
left one-half of his force with Lieut. Hunter to hold the 
bridge, and entered, with others, the hotel and other 
buildings adjacent to the railroad, firing upon the insur- 
gents from ihe front windows. Capt. Hezekiah Roder- 
ick with another detachment of citizens, were ordered to 
take possession at the west; end of the Armory yard. 
This order he executed promptly, his command killing 
one of the insurgents, that was seen escaping across the 



231 

Potomac river. The position of Capt. Koderick pre- 
vented the escape of the enenry in a westerly direction, 
thus securing that position of the town. Capt. H. Med- 
ler with another detachment of citizens, was ordered to 
march and take position on the bridge crossing the 
Shenandoah river, on the east side of the town, which 
he did, thus cutting off the rest of the retreat of the 
enemy in that direction. Capt. Medler also acted with 
an independent citizen force which were engaged with 
the insurgents, at the Rifle Works, some half mile above 
Medler 's position. The enemy was driven from the 
Rifle factory into the river, and all either killed or cap- 
tured. Commander Avis, with the remainder of our 
armed citizens, took position in the upper part of Mr. 
Butler's house, in front of the Arsenal, where his com- 
mand killed the neerro sentinel in the street, and by his 
sharpshooters cleared the enemy from the Arsenal, which 
he immediately seized and held, thus gaining position 
that drove the enemy into the watch house and fiom 
which they could not escape. This was all accomplished 
by the citizens of the Ferry before assistance arrived, 
and yet Gov. Wise sees proper to stigmatize us with cow- 
ardice. Could he, under the circumstances, have made 
as good arrangements, and accomplished the same re- 
sults? Many acts of individual gallantry un the part 
of our citizens were performed by Capt. Chambers and 
Mr. Percival, in what is called the Gait House, where 
they had posted themselves, shooting down the enemy 
from a wooden building that was no barrier from the 
enenry's balls. Personal gallantry of Edmund Cham- 



232 



bers and Edward McCabe, who was shot through the 
shoulder, &c. mighl be mentioned. 

What Gov "Wise Intended. 

At a dinner in Richmond, Gov. Wise gave an expla- 
nation of his course in sending so large a force to 
Charles Town during the troubles of John Brown. The 
Governor fully intended to carry the war into Airiea, if 
an attempt had been made to rescue Brown and his 
party. 

Gov. Wise, in bis impromptu speech at Richmond, 
on his return from the Ferry, dwelt with an appropriate 
anti-climax, on the fact tbat Brown had armed himself 





BROWN'S SWORD. 

with a sword which Frederick the Great bad sent to 
Gen. George Washington. The sword belonged to Lewis 
Washington one of Brown's prisoners. 



233 



Gov. Wise and the Brown Invasion. 

Gov. Wise, on his return to Richmond made a 
speech on the deck of the steamer at Aquia Creek. 
Among other things he said: "When we arrived at 
Harper's Ferry I found that there had been double more 
than ample forces. The gallant volunteers of Jefferson 
were the first on the ground, and soon after them the 
noble men of Berkeley were there. Farmers with single 
and double shot guns, and with plantation rifles, were 
there. The people with arms and without arms, rushed 
to the scene. For what? What had happened? What 
summoned them to shoulder musket and snatch weapons 
as they could? What had disturbed their peace? What 
threatened their safety and to sully their honor ? Alas ! 
to the disgrace of the Nation— not of Virginia, I repel 
all imputation upon her— -but to the disgrace of— some- 
body— fourteen white ruffians and five negroes have been 
permitted to take the United States arsenal, with all its 
arms and treasure, and to hold it for 24 hours, at that 
Thermopylae of America, Harper's Ferry, on the con- 
fines of two slave States, with the avowed object of eman- 
cipating their slaves, at every hazard, and the very per- 
petration of the seizure and imprisonment of the inhabi- 
tants, and of robbery and murder and treason. You will 
indignantly ask : How could such outrage and disgrace 
be brought upon a country like this, strong as it is in 
everything? I will briefly inform you. Congress had 
by law, displaced the regular army from the superintend- 
ence of its own arms, as if it was unworthy of the trust 
of its own affairs, and its officers very naturally turned 



234 

away in disgust from giving attention to this arsenal A 
civil superintendent was placed in charge, and I know 
the gentleman, a Virginian,, is as worthy of it as any 
civilian can be. He was absent on official duty to 
Springfield, Mass., and I have great confidence that Had 
he been at the arsenal it could not have been captured 
and held as it was. And now I do not mean to go into 
the dispute or question whether civil or military super- 
intendence is most proper over a manufactory and Arsen- 
ei of arms. But this I do say, emphatically and indig- 
nantly, that whether the superintendence was civil or 
military, there ought to have been an organized and 
sufficient military guard there; and there was nothing 
of the kind. There was no watch even; worth narui/ig, 
and no guard at all. Thus an arsenal, which ought to 
be a depot of arms and munition of defence, for the 
citizens at all times to flee to for means of protection, 
became a depot for desperadoes to assail and a positive 
danger to our people. It, would be better for Virginia 
and Maryland to have the arsenal removed from their 
borders, than to allow it thus to become a danger of be- 
ing unguarded. The Civil Superintendent was not re- 
sponsible for a military guard. The question, who is 
responsible? 1 leave to (lie proper executive authorities 
of the United States. By the grossest negligence some- 
where — which it is imt my duty to look after or to cor- 
rect, except to proclaim it and complain of it foi the 
sake of the protection <\\\<' to our own people— nineteen 
lawless men have seized this arsenal, with its arms and 
spoils, and have imprisoned and robbed and murdered 
our inhabitants ! 



235 

Letter From Fred Douglas. 

Fred Douglas,** black republican 

f$£B&!6m*& letter to the editor of the Eochester 
Democrat, dated Canada West, October 31, 1859, in 
which, after denying that he furnished anybody to be 
at Harper's Ferry, and declaring that he was too great 
a coward to go there, or promise to go, continues in the 
following strain. We give it as a curiosity : 

"The time for a full statement of what I know, and 
of all I know, of this desperate but sublimely disinterest- 
ed effort to emancipate the slaves of Maryland and A 7 ir- 
ginia, has not yet come, and may never come. In the 
denial which I have now made, my motive is more a 
respectful consideration for the opinion of the slaves' 
friends than from any fear of being made an accomplice 
in the general conspiracy against slavery, when there 
is a reasonable hope for success. I may be asked why 
I did not join John Brown, the noble old hero. My 
answer to this has already been given, at least, impliedly 
given, "the tools to those who can use them/' Let every 
man work for the abolition of slavery in his own way. 
I would help all and hinder none. My position m re- 
gard to the Harper's Ferry insurrection may be easily 
inferred from these remarks. I have no apology for 
keeping out of the way of those gentlemanly United 
States Marshals, who are said to have paid Eochester a 
somewhat protracted visit lately, with a view to an in- 
terview with me. If I have committed any offence 
against society, I have done so on the soil of New York, 
and I should be perfectly willing there to be arraigned 



236 

before an impartial jury but I have quite insuperable 
objections to be caught by the hands of Mr. Buchanan 
and "bagged" by Gov. Wise. For this appears to be the 
arrangement — Buchanan does the fighting and hunting, 
and Wise "bags" the game. Some reflections may be 
made upon my leaving on a tour to England, just at this 
time. I have only to say that my going to that country 
has been rather delayed than hastened by the insurrec- 
tion at Harper's Ferry. All I know I intend to leave 
here the first week in November." 

Fred Douglas sailed from Quebec for England on 
Saturday last, leaving his country for his country's good, 
and more especially for the safety of his own neck. 
Fred Douglas Fled. 

Fred Douglas failed to meet his engagement to lec- 
ture in Syracuse on the 21st inst., on "Self-Made Men." 
The Syracuse Banner think the disclosures at Harper's 
Ferry have induced him to take the underground rail- 
road to Canada. 

Historical Reminiscence. 

Extract of a speech by Hon. Alexander R. Boteler, 
in Congress. The following touching passages are con- 
tained in a speech delivered by Hon. A. R. Boteler, on 
the 25th of January. I860. 

"That country made famous by the raid of Brown 
was the first, the very first in all the South, to send 
succor to Massachusetts. In one of the most beautiful 
spots in that beautiful county, within rifle shot oi my 
residence, at the base of the hill, where a glorious spring 
leaps out into sunlight from beneath the guarded roots 



237 

of a thunder-riven oak, there assembled on the 10th 
of July, 1775, the very first band of Southern men who 
marched to the aid of Massachusetts. They met ther?, 
and their rallying cry was, "a bee-line for Boston." That 
beautiful and peaceful valley had never been polluted 
by the footsteps of a foe ; for even the Indians themselves 
kept it free from the incursion of the enemy. It was 
the hunting range and neutral ground of the aborigines. 
This band assembled there, and, a "Bee-line for Boston" 
was made from thence. Before they marched they made 
a pledge that all who survived would assemble there 
fifty years after that date. It was my pride and pleas- 
ure to be present when the fifty years rolled around. 
Three aged, feeble, tottering men — the survivors of that 
glorious band of one hundred and twenty — were all 
who were left to keep the trust, and be faithful to the 
pledge made fifty years before to their companions, the 
bones of many of whom were bleaching on the Northern 
hills. Sir. I have' often heard from the last survivor 
of that band of patriots the incidents of their first meet- 
ing and their march; how they made some six hundred 
miles in twenty days, thirty miles a day, and how, as 
they neared their destination, Washington, who hap- 
pened to be making a reconnoisance in the neighborhood, 
saw them approaching, and recognizing the linsey-wool 
sey hunting shirts of old Virginia, rode up to meet and 
greet them to the camp ; how, when he saw their captain, 
his old companion-m-arms, Stephenson, who stood by 
his side at the Great Meadows, on Braddock's fateful 
field and in many an Indian campaign, and who report- 



238 

ed himself to his commander-in-chief, as "from the right 
bank of the Potomac, " he sprang from his horse and 
clasped his old friend and companion-in-arms, with both 
hands. He spoke no word of welcome; but the elo- 
quence of silence told what his tongue could not articu- 
late. He moved along the ranks,, shaking the hand of 
each, from man to man, and all the while, as my 
informer told me, the big tears were seen coursing down 
his manly cheeks. A}\ sir, Washington wept ! And 
why did the glorious soul of Washington swell with 
emotion? Because ne saw that the cause of Massachu- 
setts was practically the cause of Virginia; because he 
saw that citizens recognized the great principles involv- 
ed in the contest. These Virginia volunteers had come 
in response to the words of her Henry that were leaping 
like live thunder through the land, telling the people of 
Virginia that they must fight, and fight for Massachu- 
setts. They had come to rally to Washington's side, 
to defend your father's fireside, to protect their homes 
from harm. Well, the visit has been returned! John 
Brown selected that very country as the spot for his 
invasion, and, as was mentioned in the Senate yesterday, 
the rock where Leenian fell was the very rock over which 
Morgan and his men marched a few hours after Hugh 
Stephenson's command had crossed the river some ten 
miles further up. May this historical reminiscence re- 
kindle the embers of patriotism in our hearts! Why 
should this nation of ours be rent in pieces by this ir- 
repressible conflict? Is it irrepressible? The battle 
will not be foughl out here. When the dark day comes, 



239 

as come it may, when this question that now divides 
and agitates the hearts of the people can only be decid- 
ed by the bloody arbitrament of the sword, it will be the 
saddest day for us and all mankind that the sun of 
heaven has ever shone upon." 

John Brown's Pocket Knife. 

A citizen of the Ferry forwarded, for presentation 
to Gov \Yise, the veritable pocket knife of John Brown. 
It is an old jack-knife, a bone handle and two blades, and 
has evidently seen much service. A small brass plate 
on the handle is engraved with the name of "John 
Brown." On one side of the large blade are now in- 
scribed the words "'-'Pirate Chief and Robber of Kansas'* 
taken from his person. Attack on Harper's Ferry, 17th 
of October, 1S59.*' On the other side of the blade: 
"Presented to Gov. Henry A. Wise, of A'irginia, by A. 
M. Kitzmiller." 

Theft of U. S. Arms, 

Some TOO Minnie guns and rifles belonging to the 
United States, have been missed from the Armory at 
Harper's Ferry, supposed to have been appropriated by 
the volunteers who were present during the occurrences 
of the 17th and 18th mst. Parties having them, render 
themselves liable to a criminal prosecution upon detec- 
tion. Lieut. Simpson, of the Independent Greys, made 
a demand we understand, for the arms captured by his 
corps, in the old school house, but as a matter of course 
it could not be entertained, the Greys, at the time of 
the successful scout, being in Government employ, and 
in fact Government troops. Col. Lee, commanding the 



240 

expedition cheerfully assented however ro the Grey's 
retaining such of the Sharp's rifles and revolvers as were 
taken before the spoils were consigned into the keeping 
of the authorities. 

Investigation Committee. 
The U. S. Senate eoinmitttee had before them 
Messrs. Giddings, Plumb and Dr. Howe. Hon. M r . 
Giddings gave at some length his views concerning 
slavery, but touching the John Brown raid nothing new 
was elicited. Dr. Howe, when called before the com- 
mittee, declined taking the oath to testify unless he was 
permitted to enter his protest against the whole pro- 
ceedings. The permission was granted. He then testi- 
fied that he had known John Brown during the trou- 
ble in Kansas, and had sent him money and arms. They 
were raised by contributions made for the aid of the 
inhabitants of Kansas ; that he expected that Brown 
would repel armed invasion by armed resistance ; that 
Brown had gained his entire confidence ; that he was 
a man of tried honesty as well as courage. That after 
the trouble had ceased in Kansas Brown devoted himself 
to advance the cause of practical anti-slavery. Dr. 
Howe knew nothing of the convention in Canada. He 
was not privy to the attack on Harper's Ferry, but 
thoughl i lie arms used were the same as were in 
Brown's bands in Kansas 

The Plight of Red Path 
The flight of dames Red Path, who was summoned 
t" appear before the investigating committee was noticed 
Monday. Before leaving, it seems, he assigned five rea- 



241 

sons for doing so, but the principal one was fear ; on the 
eve of his flight he wrote to Senator Mason as follows : 
"l do not believe that either nry life or liberty would 
be safe were I to go to Washington. Were I req direct 
to appear at Charles Town as a witness, you would know, 
Senator, what the result would be — I would be mur- 
dered by the mob. 1 think it would be very unwise for 
any anti-slavery man to voluntarily put himself in the 
power of such a people. You do not promise to protect 
me from going to Virginia, and I will not 'walk into 
your parlor, Mr. Mason." 

Senate Report. 
On the 14th of December, 1859, the United States 
Senate, then in session, upon motion of Senator James 
M. Mason, of Virginia, a select committee of the Senate 
was appointed to inquire into the invasion and seizure 
of the public property at Harper's Ferry, by John Brown 
and other insurgents. The committee consisted of 
Senator James M. Mason. Senator Jefferson Davis, and 
Senators J. E. Doolittle, G. N. Fitch and J. Collamer. 
In conducting this inquiry the committee examined a 
number of witnesses, who were summoned before them, 
at Washington city, from different States of the Union. 
Among the witnesses were John H. Allstadt, A. M. Ball, 
Terrance Byrne, Capt. Geo. W. Chambers, Martin F. 
Conway, Lind F. Curry, Hon. Andrew Hunter, A. M. 
Kitzmiller. Dr. John D. Starry, John C. Unseld, Hon. 
Lewis C. Washington, of Harper's Ferry and neighbor- 
hood, and John A.' Andrew, W. F. McArmy, Charles 
Blair, W. H. D. Callendar, Samuel Chilton, Hon. John 






242 

B. Floyd, Secretary of War, Joshua H. Giddings, Sam- 
uel G. Howe, James Jackson, Benj. B. Newton, Ealph 
Plumb, Richard Kealf, Charles Robinson, Theodore 
Byndus, Edward K. Schaeffer, Hon. Wm. H. Seward, 
Geo. L. Stearns, Augustus Wattles, Daniel Whelan, 
Horace White, Hon. Henry Wilson, from different' parts 
of the country, some among the latter were abettors of 
John Brown. 

The Committee find, from the testimony, that this 
so-called invasion, originated with a man named John 
Brown, who conducted it in^person. It appears that 
Brown had been for some previous years involved in the 
late difficulties in the territory in Kansas. He went 
there at an early day after the settlement of that Terri- 
tory began, and either took with him or was joined by 
several sons. and. perhaps, sons-in-law. and as shown 
by the proofs, was extensively connected with many of 

lawless military expeditions belonging to the history 
of those linns. It would appear, from the testimony 
of more than one of the witnesses, that, before leaving 

territory, lie fully admitted that he had not gone 
there with any view to permanent settlement, but that, 
finding all the elements of strife and intestine war, 
there in lull operation, created by the diversion of sen- 
timent between those constituting what were called the 
free State and slave State parties, his purpose was. by 
participating in it. to keep the public mind Inflamed on 
the subject of slavery in the country, with a view to 
effect such organization as might emtble him to bring 
ahoul servile in-unvet ion in the slave states. To 



243 

carry these plans into execution, it appears that, in the 
winter of 1857-58, he collected a number of young men 
in the Territory of Kansas, most of them afterwards 
appeared with him at Harper's Ferry, and placed them 
under military instruction at a place called Springdale, 
in the State of Iowa, their instructor being one of the 
party thus collected, and who, it was said, had some 
military training, These men were maintained by 
Brown; and in the Spring of 1858 he took them with 
him to the town of Chatham, in Canada, where he 
claimed to have summoned a convention for the purpose 
of organizing a provisional government, as preliminary 
to his descent upon some of the slave States. The pro- 
ceedings of this convention were taken amongst the pa- 
pers found with Brown's effects after his capture, (and 
will be found in this book.) So far as the committee 
have been able to learn from the testimony, the conven- 
tion was composed chiefly of negroes of Canada. r Ihe 
onlv white persons present were Brown and those who 
accompanied him. The presiding officer of the conven- 
tion was a negro, and a preacher. At the close of. the 
convention Brown returned with the partj he had ta- 
ken there back to Ohio, and permitted most of them, to 
disperse, upon the agreement that they would be it his 
command whenever called for. Two of them, however, 
to-wit : John E. Cook, afterw^ls executed in Virginia, 
and Bichard Bealf , were sent on the following missions : 
Cook was sent to Harper's Ferry, in Virginia, with di- 
rections to remain there and thereabouts subject to the 
future call of his chief. Bealf was sent to the city of 



244 

New York, as shown by his testimony, for the following 
purposes; it would seem from the testimony that a man 
named Hugh Forbes, an Englishman who, it was said, 
had the reputation of military experience in some of tne 
revolutions in Southern Europe, had been engaged by 
Brown to take charge of his military school in Iowa. 
Differences, however, arising between them, Forbes, who 
had gone West with that view, abandoned the project 
and returned to New York. Whilst the convention was 
si! Ling at Chatham, Brown received information vhich 
led him to believe that Foroos had betrayed his coun- 
sels, and Eealf was dispatched to New York with instruc- 
tions, if practicable, to get possession of such corres- 
pondence with Brown as might prove the facts of his 
intended descent upon some one of the --lave States. 
Should his plans be divulged — a mission which, for the 
reasons stated in the testimony of Eealf, altogether fail- 
ed. Not long after the explosion of Harper's Ferry, 
Forbes left the country, and the Committee were not 
able to procure his attendance before them. 

As to the attack itself at Harper's Ferry, the 
committee find that Brown first appeared m that neigh- 
borhood early in July 1859. Ee cap'' there tinder rhe 
assumed name of Isaac Smith, attended by two of his 
sons and sons-in-law. Be gave oul in the neighborhood 
that he was a farmer fr^i New York, who desired to 
nut or |unviia.M land in thai vicinity, with a view to 
agricultural purauits, and soon afterwards rented a 
small farm on bhe Maryland side of the river, and 
some four or five miles from Harper's Ferry, having 






245 

on it convenient houses, and began farming operations 
in a very small way. He had little or no intercourse 
with the people of the country; and when questioned, 
through the curiosity of his neighbors, stated further 
that he was accustomed to mining operations, and ex- 
pected to find deposits of metal in adjacent .mountains. 
He lived in an obscure manner, and attracted but little 
attention, and certainly no suspicion whatever as to his 
ulterior objects. Whilst there, he kept some two or 
three of his party under assumed names, at Chambers- 
burg. Pennsylvania, who there received, and from time 
to time forwarded to him, the arms of different kinds 
of which he was subsequently found in possession. Cook, 
one of his men, spoken of above, it appears, had resided 
at Harper's Ferry and its neighborhood for some 
twelve months before Brown appeared, pursuing various 
occupations. He left the Ferry a few days before the 
attack was made, 



The rest of the committee's report contained the 
circumstances and details, which have already been giv- 
en in this narrative, up to the time of the execution of 
John Brown and those persons implicated with him, 
and concludes as follows : 

The committee, after much consideration, are not 
prepared to suggest auy legislation, which, in their opin- 
ion, would be adequate to prevent like occurrences in 
the future. The only provisions in the Constitution 
of the United States which would seem to import any 



246 

authority in the government of the United States to in- 
terfere on occasions affecting the peace or safety of the 
States, are found in the eighth section of the first arti- 
cle, amongst the powers of Congress, "to provide for 
calling for the militia to execute the laws of the Union, 
suppress insurrections, and repel invasions;" and in 
the fourth section of the fourth article, in the following 
words: "The United States shall guaranty to every 
State in the Union a republican form of government, 
and shall protect each of them against invasion, and, 
on the application of the legislature or of the executive, 
(when the legislature cannot be convened), against 
domestic Violence." The "invasion" here spoken of 
would seem to import an invasion by the public force 
of a foreign power, or (if not so limited and equally 
referable to an invasion by one State of another) still 
it would seem that public force, or force exercised un- 
der the sanction of acknowledged political power, is 
there meant. The invasion (to call it so) by Brown 
and his followers at Harper's Ferry was in no sense of 
that character. It was simply the act of lawless ruf- 
fians, under the sanction of; no public or political au- 
thority—distinguishable only from ordinary felonies 
by the ulterior ends in contemplation by them, and by 
the money t<> maintain the expedition, and the large 
armamenl they broughl with them, had been contribu- 
ted and furnished by the citizens of other States of the 
I'liion. under circumstances that must continue to 
jeopardize the safety and peace of the Southern States, 
and againsj which Congress has no power to legislate. 



247 

If the several States, whether from motives of 
policy or a desire to preserve the peace of the Union, 
if not from fraternal feeling, do not hold it incumbent 
on them, after the experience of the country, to guard 
in future by appropriate legislation against occurrences 
similar to the one here referred to, the committee can 
find no guarantee elsewhere for the security of peace 
between the States of the Union. 

So far, however, as the safety of the public prop- 
erty is involved, the committee would earnestly recom- 
mend that provision should be made by the executive, 
or if necessary, by law. to keep under adequate military 
guard the public armories and arsenals of the United 
States, in some way after the manner now practised at 
the navy-yards and forts. 

Before closing their report, the committee deem 
it proper to state that four persons summoned as wit- 
nesses, to-wit : John Brown, Jr., of Ohio; James Kcd- 
path, of Massachusetts; Frank B. Sanborn, of Massa- 
chusetts, and Thaddeus Hyatt, of Xew York, failing or 
refusing to appear before the committee, warrants were 
issued by order of the Senate for their arrest. Of these 
Thaddeus Hyatt only was arrested; and on his appear- 
ance before the Senate, still refusing obedience to the 
summons of the committee, he was by order of the 
Senate committed to jail of the District of Columbia. 
In regard to the others, it appeared by the return of 
the marshal of the northern district of Ohio, as deputy 
of the Sergeant-at-Arms, that John Brown, Jr., at first 
evaded the process of the Senate, and afterwards, with a 



248 

number of other persons, armed themselves to prevent 
his arrest. The marshal further reported in his return 
that Brown could not be arrested unless he was author- 
ized in like manner to employ force. Sanborn was ar- 
rested by a deputy of the Sergeant-at-Arms, and after- 
wards released from custody by the judges of the su- 
preme court of Massachusetts on habeas corpus. Bed- 
path by leaving his State, or otherwise concealing him- 
self, successfully evaded the process of the State. 

And the committee ask to be discharged from the 
further consideration of the subject. 

J. J. MASON, 

Chairman. 
JEFFERSON DAVIS, 
G. N. FITCH. 
There was also a minority report signed by Sena- 
tors Collamar and Doolittle. 






SUPPLEMENTARY. 



Proclamation of Emancipation. 

On the 22nd day of September, 1862, five days after 
the battle of Antietam. which occured on the 17th of 
October, 1SG2, President Abraham Lincoln issued the 
following Emancipation Proclamation : 

I, Abraham Lincoln, President of the United 
States .and Commander-in-chief of the Army and Navy 
thereof, do hereby proclaim and declare that hereafter, 
as heretofore, the war will be prosecuted for the object 
of practically restoring the constitutional relation be- 
tween the United States and the people thereof in those 
States in which that relation is, or may be, suspended 
or disturbed : that it is my purpose upon the next meet- 
ing of Congress to again recommend the adoption of a 
practical measure tendering pecuniary aid to the free 
acceptance or rejection of all the Slave States, so-called, 
the people whereof may not then be in rebellion against 
the United States, and which States may then have vol- 
untarily adopted, or thereafter may voluntarily adopt, 
the immediate or gradual abolishment of slavery within 
their respective limits, and that the effort to colonize 
persons of African descent, with their consent, upon the 
continent or elsewhere, with the previously obtained 
consent of the government existing there, will be con- 
tinued ; that on the first day of January, in the year jf 



250 

our Lord, one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, 
all persons held as slaves within any State, or any des- 
ignated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be 
in rebellion against the United States, shad he then, 
thenceforward and forever, free; and the military and 
naval authority will recognize and maintain the freedom 
of such persons, and will do no act or acts to repress sucn 
persons, or any of them, in any efforts they may make 
for actual freedom; that the Executive will, on the first 
day of January aforesaid, by proclamation, designate 
the States and parts of States, if any. in which the peo- 
ple thereof repsectively shall then be in rebellion 
against the United States ; and the fact that any State, 
or the people thereof, shall on that day be in good faith 
represented in the Congress of the United States by 
members chosen thereto, at the election wherein a ma- 
jority of the qualified voters <>f such States shall have 
participated, shall, in the absence of strong countervail- 
ing testimony, be deemed conclusive evidence that such 
State and the people thereof have not been in rebellion 
againsi the Omied Slates. 

That attentidii is hereby called to an act of Con- 
gress riii il led. "An act to make an additional article of 
war," approved March 13. 1862, and which act is m the 
words and figures following: "/'<■ H enacted by the 
Senate and 1 1 mis,- of "Representatives of the United 
Slah's of America, in Congress assembled, That here- 
after the following shall lie promulgated as an addition- 
al article of war lor the governmenl of the Army of 
Hi'' United States, and -bail be observed and obeyed as 
such : 



251 

"Article — All officers or persons of the military 
or naval service of the United States are prohibited from 
employing any of the forces under their respective com- 
mands for the purpose of returning fugitives from ser- 
vice or labor who may have escaped from any persons 
to whom such service or labor is claimed to be due, and 
any officer who shall be found guilty by a court-martial 
of violating this article, shall be dismissed from the 
service 

"Section 2. And be it further enacted/ ».M this 
act shall take effect from and after its passage." Also 
to the ninth and tenth* sections of an act entitled, "An 
act to suppress insurrection, to punish treason and re- 
bellion, to seize and confiscate property of Eebels, and 
for other purposes." approved July 17, 1862, and which 
sections are in the words and figures following : 

"Section 9. And be it further enacted, That all 
slaves of persons who shall hereafter be engaged in re- 
bellion against the Government of the United States, 
or who shall in any way give aid or comfort thereto, 
escaping from such persons and taking refuge within 
the lines of the army; and all slaves captured from such 
persons or deserted by them, and coming under the con- 
trol of the Government of the United States, and all 
Slaves of such persons found on, (or being within) -any 
place occupied by Eebel forces and afterward occupied 
by the forces of the United States, shall be deemed cap- 
tives of war, and shall be forever free of their servitude 
and not again held as slaves. 

"Sec. 10. And be it further enacted, that no 



252 

slave escaping into any State, Territoy, or the District 
of Columbia, from any of the States, shall be delivered 
up, or in any way impeded or hindered of his liberty, 
except for crime, or some offence against the laws, un- 
less the person claiming said fugitive shall first make 
oath that the person to whom the labor or service of 
such fugitive is alleged to be due, is his lawful owner, 
and has not been in arms against the United States 
in the present rebellion, nor in any way given aid or 
comfort thereto; and no person engaged in the mili- 
tary or naval service of the United States shall, under 
any pretense whatever, assume to decide on the validity 
of the claim of any person to the service or labor of any 
other person, or surrender up any such person to ihe 
claimant, on pain of being dismissed from the service." 

And I do hereby enjoin upon, and order all persons 
engaged in the military and naval service of the United 
States to observe, obey and enforce within their respec- 
tive spheres of service the act and sections above recited. 

And the Executive will, in due time, recommend 
that all citizens of the United States who shall have 
remained loyal thereto throughout the rebellion, shall 
(upon the restoration of the constitutional relation be- 
tween the United States and their respective States 
and people, if the relation shall have been suspended or 
disturbed) be compensated for all loss by acts of the 
United Stales, including the loss of slaves. 

In witness whereof, 1 have hereunto set my hand 
and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed. 
Done at the city of Washington, this twenty-second day 



253 

of September, in the year of our Lord one thousand 
eight hundred and sixty-two, and of the Independence 
of the United States the eighty-seventh. 
By the President, 

ABRAHAM LINCOLN. 
WM. H. SEWARD, Secretary of State. 

On the first day of January, 1863, the expected 
Proclamation, completing this great work and giving 
it actual vitality, was promulgated in the following 
terms : 

Whereas, On the twenty-second day of September, 
in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred 
and sixty-two, a proclamation was issued by the Presi- 
dent of the United States, containing, among other 
things, the following, to-wit : That on the first day of 
January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight 
hundred and sixty-three, all persons held as slaves with- 
in any State, or any designated part of a State, the 
people whereof shall be in rebellion against the United 
States, shall be thenceforward and forever free, and 
the Executive Government of the United States, includ- 
ing the military and naval authority thereof ^ will recog- 
nize and maintain the freedom of such persons, or any 
of them, in any efforts they may make for their actual 
freedom. 

That the Executive will, on the first day of Janu- 
ary aforesaid by proclamation, designate the States and 
parts of States, if any, in which the people thereof 
respectively shall then be in rebellion against the United 
States, and the fact that any State, or the people there- 



254 

of, shall on that day be in good faith representee' in the 
Congress of the United States by members chosen thereto 
at elections wherein a majority of the qualified voters 
of such State shall have participated, shall, in the ab- 
sence of strong countervailing testimony, be deemed 
conclusive evidence that such State and the people there- 
of are not then in rebellion against the United States 
Now, therefore, I, Abraham Lincoln, President of 
the United States, by virtue of the power in me vested 
as Commander-in-Chief of the Army and Navy of the 
United States, in time of actual armed rebellion against 
the authority and Government of the United States, and 
as a fit and necessarv war measure for repressing said 
rebellion, do, on this first day of January, in the year 
of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-three, 
and in accordance with my purpose so to do, publicly 
proclaimed for the full period of one hundred days from 
the day of the first above-mentioned order, and desig- 
nated, as the State and parts of States wherein the 
people thereof respectively are this day in rebellion 
against the United States, the following to-wit: Arkan- 
sas, 'Texas, Louisiana, except the parishes of St. Bernard, 
Plaquemines, Jefferson, St. John, St. Charles, St. 
James, Ascension, Assumption, Terre P«>i me, Lafourche, 
St. Mary, St. Martin, and Orleans, including the city 
of New Orleans, Mississippi, Alabama, Florida, Georgia, 
South Carolina, North Carolina and Virginia, excepl 
the forty-eight counties designated as West Virginia, 
and also the counties of Berkeley, Accomac, Northamp- 
ton, Elizabeth City, York, Princess Ann and Norfolk, 



255 

including the cities of Norfolk and Portsmouth, and 
which excepted parts are, for the present, left precisely 
as if this proclamation were not issued. 

And by virtue of the power and for the purpose 
aforesaid, I do order and declare that all persons held 
as slaves within said designated States, and parts of 
States, are and henceforward shall be free; and that 
the Executive Government of the United States, includ- 
ing the military and naval authorities thereof, will rec- 
ognize and maintain the freedom of said persons. 

And I do hereby enjoin the people so declared to 
be free, to abstain from all violence unless in necessary 
self-defense, and I recommend to them, that in all 
cases, when allowed, they labor faithfully for reasonable 
wages. 

And I further declare and make known that such 
persons of suitable condition will be received into the 
armed service of the United States to garrison forts, 
positions, stations, and othej places, and to man vessels 
of all sorts in said service. 

And upon this, sincerely believed to be an act of 
justice, warranted by the Constitution, upon military 
necessity. I invoke the considerate judgment of man- 
kind and the gracious favor of Almighty God. 

In vvitneSs whereof, I have hereunto set my hand 
and caused the seal of the United States to be affixed. 

Done at the city of Washington, this first day of 
.January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight 
hundred and sixty-three, and of the Independence of the 
United States of America the eighty-seventh. 
By the President: 
[Seal] ABRAHAM LINCOLN". 

WILLIAM H. SEWARD, Secretary of State. 



256 

Until the close of the Civil War, Harper's Ferry 
was a busy place from a military standpoint. Today 
passengers on the railroad trains passing the picturesque 
town look with eagerness for the white monument that 
marks the spot on which John Brown's Fort stood. It 
is along side the tracks, not more than fifty yards from 
the railroad station. 

The fort was taken down in 1893 and transported 
to Chicago as an exhibit in connection with the World's 
fair. Through the efforts of Mrs. Kate Fields the 
structure was returned to Harper's Ferry when tiie 
Columbian Exposition was a thing of the past, but its 
present location is about two miles from the town. 
The original site has been filled in with a railroad em- 
bankment. 



APPENDIX, 



Judge Eichard Parker, of Winchester, and Judge 
Kenny, of Harrisonburg, Va., at intervals, presided at 
the trials and passed sentence upon the insurgents. 

Col. J. Lucius Davis was first in command of the 
military at Charles Town, and afterwards Major Gen- 
eral W. B. Taliaferro, and the last in command was 
Col. John T. Gibson now residing at Charles Town, Hale 
and hearty and a fine specimen of a soldier. 

Charles B. Harding, Esq., was the Prosecuting At- 
torney at the time and was assisted by Hon. Andrew 
Hunter, in prosecuting the insurgents. Messrs. Sen- 
nett and Ho}i:, of Boston, and Messrs. Lawson Botts 
and T. C. Green, of this county, defended the insur- 
gents, and the Hon. Daniel W. Voorhees, U. S. Sena- 
tor of Indiana, defended Capt. Cook in a very able and 
pathetic speech. 

Mr. Eobert T. Brown, who was the clerk of the 
Circuit Court for many years previous as well as after- 
wards, filled the duties of his office very ably, during 
the whole time of the trials. 



258 

James W. Campbell, Esq., was Sheriff of the coun- 
ty, and performed the services of the hanging of a 1 ! the 
insurgents himself, and upon the same scaffold. 

Mr. James K. liickard, Locksmith, who manufac- 
tured the handcuffs and hobbles, which were placed upon 
Brown and his insurgents, after their capture is still 
living in Shepherdstown. W. Va., and is carrying on his ' 
business, and is hale and hearty. 

The farm house in which Capt. John Brown held 
his headquarters previous to his invasion upon Harper's 
Ferry is yet standing and is situated within two miles 
of the battlefield of Antictam in Maryland. 

Col, B. E. Lee and Capt, J. E. B. Stuart, mention- 
ed as in command of the U. S. Marines at the storm- 
ing of the Engine House, were afterwards the famous 
Generals in the Confederate Army in the Civil War. 

The compiler and publisher of this book was well 
acquainted with Capt. Cook. Cook frequently visited 
his office in Shepherdstown, W. Va., and the compiler 
of. this book has now in his possession a copy of "Head- 
ley's Life of Washington" which he purchased of said 
Cook, who canvassed the country selling books, previous 
to the invasion of Harper's Ferry. 

John H. Zittle, compiler of this book. Shepherds- 
town, W. Va„ was an eye-witness and participated in 
the hostilities, being Orderly Sergeant in the Ham- 
tramck Guards, of Shepherdstown, Va., and editor of 
the Shepherdstown Register, from which paper he has 
gathered the only true and correct account, from be- 



259 

ginning to the ending of the invasion. It will be a 
valuable publication for the present generation as well 
as future generations. It gives a correct account of the 
first gun fired by John Brown for the emancipation of 
slavery, and the commencement of the late civil war 
between the States. 



FINIS. 



MAY 14 1907