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Full text of "The correct pronunciation of Latin according to Roman usage"







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THE CORRECT 
PRONUNCIATION 



OF 



LATIN 



ACCORDING TO 
ROMAN USAGE 



Publishers: 

ST. GREGORY GUILD. Inc. 

1705 Rittenhouse Square 

Philadelphia 3, Pa. 



57 



Boston University 

ColJega of Music 

Library 

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THE CORRECT 
PRDIVUIVCIATIDIV OF LATIIV 
ACCDRDIIVG TO RDMAIV USAGE 

Rev. Michael de Angelis, C.R.M., Ph.D. 

With Phonetic Arrangements of the Texts of 

THE ORDINARY OF THE MASS 

REQUIEM MASS 

RESPONSES AT MASS 

BENEDICTION HYMNS and 

HYMNS IN HONOR OF THE BLESSED VIRGIN MARY 

Edited by 
Nicola A. Montani 

Copyright 1937 by the ST. GREGORY GUILD, Inc. 
Printed in U. S. A. 

Price $1.00 net 

Discount for quantities — Postage extra 



%. 



vijii^'yrsi. 



GPiiege of Music 
Ubraiy 



NIHIL OBSTAT 

C. J. KANE 

Censor Deputatus 

IMPRIMATUR 

t THOMAS JOSEPHUS WALSH 

Episcopus Novarcetisis 

22 juLii 1937 



f A 

F 3 1 



Editor's Note: Father De Angelis was born in Anagni (ancient capital city 
of the Hernici), situated thirty 'Seven miles southeast of Rome. He received his 
early education at the Gymnasium (Grammar and High School) and at the 
Seminary of Anagni. In 1904 he went to Rome to pursue his studies in 
Philosophy and Canon Law at the Gregorian University. He remained in that 
Institution for eight years during which he received the degree of Ph.D. and 
the Doctor's degree in Theology. Father De Angelis was ordained by Cardinal 
Respighi in the Basilica of St. John Lateran in 1908. In 1912 he was appointed 
pastor of the largest parish in Anagni and held that position until he was called 
to Rome to establish the new parish of Monte Sacro. 

Father De Angelis had for his teachers such renowned professors as Canon 
Zapponi, Rector of the Seminary in Anagni and Professor of Greek and Latin; 
Canon Professor Anelli and Monsignor Verghetti (renowned Latin scholar and 
Hymnographer of the Sacred Congregation of Rites), both students of the 
CoUegio Pio at Rome, and Doctors in Theolog}^ After almost a decade of 
service in Rome, Father De Angelis came to the United States at the request of 
the Most Reverend Thomas J. Walsh, Bishop of Newark, N. J. 

He occupied the post of Professor of Latin, Itahan and Liturgy at the Immacu- 
late Conception Seminary, Darlington, N. J., and at Seton Hall College, South 
Orange, N. J., for some years. He was chaplain of Villa Lucia for six years and 
w^as Professor of Latin and Apologetics at the same Institution. He was also 
instructor of Latin at the Newark Diocesan Institute of Sacred Music. He 
has conducted special classes for the teachers of Latin in the Diocesan Schools, 
Academies and Colleges and as a result, greater uniformity has been achieved in 
the pronunciation of Latin throughout the entire Diocese of Newark. At the 
present time he is Rector of St. Joseph's Church, Lodi, N. J. 

The publication of this work is timely and acquires particular importance in 
view^ of the repeated requests on the part of the Holy See for the universal 
adoption of the Roman pronunciation of Latin in speaking and singing the 
Liturgical text in Ecclesiastical functions. 

It is issued in response to a general demand on the part of scholars, 
teachers, choirmasters, organists and singers who desire to obtain the opinion of 
a qualified authority on the much-debated question of the true Roman 
pronunciation of Latin. 



The Correct Pronunciation of Latin 
According to Roman Usage* 

REV. MICHAEL DE ANGELIS, C.R.M., Ph.D. 

CHAPTER I 

>^^HE main purpose of this work is to cast light on the intricate and involved 
^^y question of the correct pronunciation of that noble language which has exer' 
cised such a great influence on our living languages, not excluding English, which 
derives about one'half of its roots from the Latin. 

The following statements are addressed to all who are interested in this question, 
but are intended particularly for Catholics who are all in some manner or another 
concerned in this vital subject. 

The brevity of this work does not permit us to refer to the response of the Epis' 
copate to the wishes of the Holy See in this matter, but for all there is much to be 
gained from a perusal of the following letter addressed to the Archbishop of Bourges, 
Louis Ernest Dubois (later Cardinal Archbishop of Paris), by Pope Pius X. 

TO OUR VENERABLE BROTHER LOUIS ERNEST DUBOIS 
ARCHBISHOP OF BOURGES 

VENERABLE BROTHER: 

Your letter of June 2 1 last, as well as those which We have received from 
a large number of pious and distinguished French Catholics, has shown Us to 
Our great satisfaction that since the promulgation of Our MOTU PROPRIO 
of November 22, 1903, on Sacred Music, great 2;eal has been displayed in the 
different dioceses of France to make the pronunciation of the Latin language 
approximate more closely to that used in Rome, and that, in consequence, it 
is sought to perfect, according to the best rules of art, the execution of 
the Gregorian melodies, brought back by Us to their ancient traditional form. 
You, yourself, when occupying the Episcopal See of Verdun, entered upon 
this reform and made some useful and important regulations to insure its 
success. We learn at the same time with real pleasure that this reform has 
already spread to a number of places and been successfully introduced into 
many cathedral churches, seminaries and colleges and even into simple country 
churches. The question of the pronunciation of Latin is closely bound up with 
that of the restoration of the Gregorian Chant, the constant subject of Our 
thoughts and recommendations from the very beginning of Our Pontificate. The 
accent and pronunciation of Latin had great influence on the melodic and 
rhythmic formation of the Gregorian phrase and consequently it is important 
that these melodies should be rendered in the same manner in which they were 
artistically conceived at their first beginning. Finally the spread of the Roman 
pronunciation will have the further advantage as you have already so pertinently 
said, of consolidating more and more the work of liturgical union in France, a 
unity to be accomplished by the happy return to Roman liturgy and Gregorian 
chant. This is why We desire that the movement of return to the Roman 
pronunciation of Latin should continue with the same ::eal and consoling success 
which has marked its progress hitherto; and for the reasons given above We hope 
that under your direction and that of the other members of the episcopate this 
reform may be propagated in all the dioceses of France. As a pledge of heavenly 
favors to you. Venerable Brother, to your diocesans, and to all those who have 
addressed petitions to Us in the same tenor as your own, We grant the Apostolic 
Benediction. 

From the Vatican, July 10, 1912. Pius PP. X. 

* Copyright, 1937, The St. Gregory Guild, Inc. Philadelphia, Pa. Printed in U. S. A. 



His Holiness Pius XI in a letter to Cardinal Dubois added his approval to that 
of his predecessor in the following words: 

To Our Dear Son, Louis Dubois 

Cardinal Priest of the Holy Roman Church 

OF THE Title of Sancta Maria in Aquiro, 

Archbishop of Paris 

POPE PIUS XL 

To Our dear son, Health and Apostolic Benediction: 

* * * We also esteem very greatly your plan of urging all who come under 
your jurisdiction to pronounce Latin more romano. Not content like Our 
predecessors of happy memory, Pius X and Benedict XV, simply to approve this 
pronunciation of Latin, We, Ourselves express the keenest desire that all bishops 
of every nation shall endeavor to adopt it when carrying out the liturgical 
ceremonies. 

Lastly, as a pledge of heavenly favors, and in testimony of Our goodwill, 
We grant in all charity in our Lord, to you Our dear Son, as also to the clergy 
and faithful of your diocese, the Apostolic Benediction. 

Given at Saint Peter's, in Rome, Nov. 30, 1928, the seventh year of Our 
pontificate. 

Pius XI, Pope. 

OTHER OFFICIAL DOCUMENTS ON THE ROMAN 
PRONUNCIATION OF LATIN 

A letter addressed by his Eminence Cardinal Gasparri, to Abbe J. Delporte in reference to 
his booklet on Roman pronunciation of Latin : 

Vatican, June 10, 1920. 

Monsieur TAbbe: 

I have not failed to present to the Holy Father your booklet on the Roman 
pronunciation of Latin. His Holiness being aware of the decisive results obtained 
on this point in your region, congratulates you for your contribution in the matter. 
Joining his compliments to those you have already received from numerous Bishops 
and illustrious personages in France. He hopes that your new work will obtain 
all the success you expect and that it will unify the pronunciation of Latin, taking 
for basis that which is always alive in the center of Christendom and that which 
you have so clearly fixed, even the most elementary rules. 

:!: ^ H: H: 

By this unity of pronunciation of a language so widely known, the people of 
today like those Christians of bygone days, would at last possess this unique and 
universal language, that we have looked for and vainly sought elsewhere. This 
greater possibility of mutual relations would be most attractive and would con- 
stitute another link for the society of nations, that with other anxious seekers so 
ardently desire an unbroken peace. 

Since your booklet also tends to this goal, the Holy Father cannot but wish to 
your labors a wide success. Its reward and guarantee will be the Apostolic 
Benediction that he has charged me to transmit to you. 

In fulfilling this agreeable duty, I beg you to accept my personal greetings and 
the assurance of my religious devotion in Our Lord. 

Cardinal Gasparri. 



6 The Correct Pronunciation of Latin 

There are also two letters from the pen of his Eminence (then Cardinal Secretary of State) 
addressed to Dom Marcet, O.S.B., Abbot coadjutor of Notre Dame of Montserrat in Spain. 
We will note that it is not only in France where the reform is most necessary, for w-e find these 
pressing invitations of the Holy See addressed to all Catholic countries. We will limit ourselves 
in reproducing only the essential passages. 

Vatican, July 31, 1919. 
Most Reverend Abbot : 

In his unending solicitude the Holy Father has not lost sight of the happy and 
timely initiative taken by you a few years ago by your introduction in your 
Monastery of the Roman pronunciation of Latin in order to bring about the 
desired uniformity. 

His Holiness, having resolved to insist on this point in Spain and in other 
countries, would be happy to learn what reception has been given to this wise 
reform. . . . 

Cardinal Gasparri. 



Vatican, September 13, 1919. 
Most Reverend Abbot : 

I have received your letter of the twelfth of August by which you inform me 
of the reception given to the adoption of the Roman pronunciation of Latin in 
your Monastery, where according to your report the said pronunciation has been 
happily introduced. . . . 

I have not failed in notifying His Holiness at once of all that you have reported 
to me in the letter in question, and His Holiness has commissioned me to inform 
you of his satisfaction, not only to you personally, but also to the other religious 
of the Abbey who in following your initiative have given proof of a filial and 
enlightened respect to the desires of the Holy Father. 

Cardinal Gasparri. 

aCCORDING to the clearly-expressed wish of our Holy Mother Church our 
first aim should be directed toward the attainment of the Roman pronimcia'' 
tion of Latin, whatever one's personal opinion might be. 

If we had no other reason for observing and adopting the Latin pronunciation 
according to Roman usage, the motives of discipline and obedience should be suffi' 
cient, for they invite us to unify the various, more or less scientific and more or less 
reasonable pronunciations of the same noble language which are in use among the 
cultured classes in different parts of the world. 

CHIS sense of discipline should be felt particularly by teachers (reHgious and 
lay), choirmasters and singers, since they are called upon to sing in the Latin 
language the praises of God, and celebrate by means of the divine art of song, the 
sublime mysteries of reHgion, in the same rite, using the same Scriptural texts, the 
same psalms and prayers that the Holy Mother Church uses in all her Liturgy. 

ONE may ask if the Roman pronunciation in actual use corresponds perfectly 
to the phonetics of the Classic period. We answer, that according to 
scientific proofs, no one particular class of people has exactly preserved that pro- 
nunciation, but, it is safe to conclude that the pronunciation which is closest to it is 
the Roman, and the one preferred. 

It is natural to presume that the pronunciation of the classic or golden period did 
not come to us in its entirety. We state that it is natural, because all languages 
have their history, changes and evolution. The same thing happened to the Latin 



According to Roman Usage 7 

« 

language, and even to a greater degree, because of the circumstances that accom^ 
panied and surrounded it in its origin, its development and decadence. It suffices to 
say that during the golden age (100 B.C. to 14 A.D.) there were three accents: 
tonic, musical and literary or poetical, the latter consisting of short and long vowels. 
Now, the tonic alone remains. 

Setting aside the consideration of accents, which also have great weight in 
phonetics, it is quite certain that even during the golden period the language was 
not uniform for the "substrati" particularly in the cities along the coasts, in the La2;io 
district and in upper Italy. Along the coasts, the influence of the Greek was strongly 
felt, in the La2,io the Etruscan, and in upper Italy the Gallic. The same applies to 
the Itahan language. It is spoken well by all the cultured people of the Peninsula, 
but their pronunciation differs slightly or to a greater degree according to the region 
to which they belong. For example: the Tuscan pronunciation of Italian is different 
from the Roman, and this, again, is quite distinct from the Neapolitan or Sicilian. 
We have the sam.e condition in America where English is pronounced somewhat 
differently than in England and where the East, West and South have their indi- 
vidual pronunciations and colloquialisms. 

It was previously stated that the Latin pronunciation closest to the ancient is 
the Roman and therefore to be preferred. May we offer the following reasons: 

1. Because the Latin language had its home uninterruptedly in Rome for the 
works of the Church, consequently it has never been a dead language but has 
always lived and still lives enriched with new concepts and words. Even 
the phonetic evolution which has certainly occurred, is most natural and 
homogeneous to the language itself. 

2. Because the other pronunciations do not have greater claims to authenticity 
or certainty in this conformity to Classic Latin since scientific proofs are 
lacking. The tact is that for centuries Latin remained unknown amongst the 
masses (outside of Italy), but, during this entire period the language was 
cultivated, taught grammatically and was spoken generally throughout Italy 
and especially in Rome. 

3. Because Rome is the center of Catholicism and since the pronunciations are 
too varied throughout the world it is necessary to adopt only one. It is of 
cultural advantage to have a unified Latin pronunciation according to Roman 
tradition in order that learned men throughout the world may easily under- 
stand one another. 

Unus Cultus Uims Cantus Una Lingua 

One Worship One Chant One Language 



RULES FOR THE CORRECT PRONUNCIATION OF LATIN 

1. The letters of the Latin Alphabet are as follows: 

Aa Bb Cc Dd Ee Ff 

ah bee chee dee eh eff 

G g H h I i J j K k LI 

^ gee aXkah ee eeloongo \ahppah ell 

b08toi"i [JiiJi/arsJty 

Oolle-Z} of [vlusic 

liorajy 



8 The Correct P r o n u n c i a t i o m of Latin 

Mm Nn Oo Pp Qq Rr 

emm enn awe pea \oo erreh 

Ss Tt Uu Vv Xx Yy 

ess tee ooh vee ec\s eepseelawn 

Z z 
dzettah 

2. Vowels: The Vowels are 6 in number, viz;.: A, E, I, O, U, Y. 

A-a 

A a is pronounced as "a" in father (not faw, and never as in the word fan or 
han). There is no mixture of vowel quality. The Latin AH is a pure, open vowel, 
resounding in the upper part of the mouth (hard palate) instead of the throat. It is 
not a nasal sound, but when sung or spoken correctly has great resonance and 
carrying power. Lips are drawn back slightly (in smihng position) and the jaw is 
relaxed. This relaxation of the jaw is probably the most important factor contrib- 
uting to the true vocal timbre in the Roman Pronunciation of Latin. 

Note — Syllables capitaHzed in the following examples indicate accent: 

Ex.'^MPLES 

A-men — AH-mehn; not ah-meen or Ah-mane (as given by certain choirs and even 
heard in phonographic records of Chant) . 

Alleluia — AhMeh'LOO-eeah; Sdnctus — SAH?s[K'toos (not Sa)tl('tuhs) ; Gloria 
Patri — GLAW'Tccah PAH'tree. (Note — The position of the vowel in the syllable, 
or the syllable in a word, does not change the color or timbre of the vowel.) 

E-e 

E e (eh) is pronounced as in let, met, rent, bent, tent, went, etc. There is never 
any deviation in color or timbre from the short exclamatory "eh!" sound. In 
singing, the lower jaw needs to be relaxed somewhat and the tongue should be kept 
down (tip touching the front lower teeth) . Never give "e'' the long sound "a" as in 
"way," "bay," etc. Examples 

de — DEH; et — EHT; erat — EH-raht: Kv-ri-e — KEE-ree-eh (not KEE- 
ree'"ay"); Domine — DAW-mee-neh; Deus — DEH'Oos; Christe — CHREE-steh (not 
CHREE'"stay"); miserere — mee'seh'REH'reh (never mee'2;ay'RAT'ray) as recom' 
mended in certain text books) . 

I-i 

I i (ee) is pronounced like "ee" in meet or "i" in machine. The correct produc 
tion of this vowel depends upon the control of the lips. The edges of the lips should 
be drawn back as when smiling (without grinning, however) . The tip of the tongue 
should touch the lower part of the front teeth, but lightly and in no strained manner. 
There is no modification of the "ee" sound of "i" in Latin. The sound of "i" as 
in the words "tin," "is," "milk" is not to be given to this vowel. It is to be spoken 
and sung in a positive manner of "ee" without exception. Final syllables containing 
this vowel are softened but there is no loss of vowel quantity in so doing. 

Examples 
Christe — CHREE-steh: Gloria — GLAW-ree-ah; Domine — DAW-mee-neh; 
in — EE7<[; nobis — NAW-bees; Dei — DEH^ee; Filii — EEE-lee-ee; Patris — PAH- 
trees. ♦ 



According to Roman Usage 9 

O-o 

O (aw) is pronounced like '"''o''' in ''order,'' or like ""a" in "awe." It is never 
given the "o" sound as in "oh" or as in "go." The jaw should be loose and the lips 
extended only slightly, never as much as when producing the "oo" sound required 
for the proper production of the vowel "u." 

Examples 
Domine — D A W'mee-neh ; Gloria — GL AW'ree-ah ; voluntatis — Vawloon-T AH' 
tees; quoniam — Koo A W'nee'ahm; non — NAWN; mortuos — MAWR-too'aws; 
NEVER — Doh-mee-neh; Glow-ree^dh; Voh-lun-tdtis; Koo-o/pnee-ahm; nohn; mohr^ 

too'ohs. 

U-u 

U u (oo) is produced with the lips extended almost in the position of whistling. 
It has the sound of "oo" in "moon," "doom" or "room": never as "u" in "dumb" 
or "numb." It is never given the exaggerated sound of "eeooh," or the French 
vowel color of "u." Examples 

cum — KOOM; Spiritu — SPEE-ree-too: tuo — TOO-aw; iDium — OO-noom; 
Dominum — DA W'mecnoom ; Christum — CHREE-stoom ; Edctum — EAHK-toom ; 

incar?idtus — een-cahr-TN^AH-toos. 

Y-y 

T y (ee) is ponounced exactly Hke the Latin "i — "ee. It is found mostly in 
Greek words. 



CHAPTER II. 

Consecutive Vowels Diphthongs Double Vowels 

General Rule 

J^=^ HE general rule regarding the pronunciation of consecutive vowels, diphthongs 
\ ^ , J and double vowels is to give each vowel its proper sound. With two excep' 
tions, viz,., "^" and "CE," each vowel in the word is heard distinctly, particularly 
when the consecutive vowels belong to separate syllables. 

^— CE 

The digraphs oz and ce are pronounced -eh- exactly like the Latin "e." ExaM' 
ples: Caelum (or coelum) CHEH-loom; not CHAY'luhm. Practice fluently — 
coelum et terracCHEH-loom EHT TEHR'reh. (Repeat five or six times with loose 
jaw and with active movement of lips and tongue.) 

Exercises 
Qui moerebat et dolebat — Kwee mehREHbaht eht dawLEHbaht; Et ascendit in 
coelum — Eht ahSHEN-dit een CHEH-loom; Haec dies — Eck DEE-ehs; Et laetemur 
— Eht leh'TEH-moor: Quaecumque voluit — Kooeh-KGOM-kooeh VAW-loo-eet; 
Requiem aeternam — REH-kwecehm eh-TEHR'nahm; Ab hoedis — AB EH-dees. 

Exceptions 
(A) Ae and ce are given two distinct sounds whenever the second vowel has a 
diaeresis on it and (B) in words derived from the Hebrew language. Examples: 
(A) Poesis — paw'EH'sees: Poema — paw-EH-mah: Aer — AHehr; Aerope — ah-EH- 
raw'peh: (B) Michael— MEE-kah-ehl: Raphael— RAH-fah-ehl. 



10 



The Correct Pronunciation of Latin 



AI— OU 

Vowel sounds are very clearly differentiated in such words as laicus — LAH'ee' 
koos; ait — AH^eet; coutuntur — Kawoo'TOON-toor; prout — PRAW-oot. 

AU— EU— AY 

These vowels generally form one syllable but both are distinctly heard. Should 
there be a series of notes on this syllable the singer is obliged to vocali2;e the passage 
on the first vowel (without conglomerating the sounds), introducing the second 
vowel at the very last instant before singing the next syllable. 

Examples 
Pauli — PAHoo'lee; Lauda — LAH*oo'dah; laudamus — lah^-oo-DAH-moos; 
exaudi — eg'SAHoo'dee; euge — EH'OO'jeh; euntes — eh-OON'tehs; Eusebii — 
ehoo'SEH'bee'ee; Eustachii — Eh'00'STAH'kee'ee;Raymundi — Rah-ee-MOOiJ-dce. 
See Musical Illustrations 1'2'3. 

MO. 1 

*■ Iz: 



4P3r 



34; 



-Ji 



lET^ 



■ %^'^i 



'J- ^^.^ 



y. Lduda, 



^=^?fl^ 



:5-r 



Lie- lu- ia. 






Je-ju saiem, Doriinurn | lau- 



- da JDe- um 



--^ 3 OJ^ i^^ 



-tcg^ 










_ — -4-— c4fl- 

. oo^^oiaJL 



m.i 



y\i^"^> , ' j^^^,^jt—t-% 



fsssi 



vs- 



tem Dominiim 






t^^^^^^^^ 



4 









The "h" is silent; it is here introduced solely to insure the correct pronunciation of ah (a). 



According to Roman Usage 



kl 



A/0.3 



Ant. ^ 
l.D _ 



T^-y-^ 



e 



-* — - — ■ — = — ■- 



U- Qe, * serve bone et fide- lis. qui- a in pau- 



('['iinnrniTt^iP 



EI 

In such words as mei, did, deltas, the vowels are clearly and separately sounded, 
viz.: MEH-ee, dee-EH-ee, DEH'ce-tahs; but when treated as an interjection Hei, 
it is sung or spoken as one syllable, viz;.: EHEE. 

UI— UE— UA— UO 

When ''U" is preceded by Q or NG and followed by another vowel as in the 
words ''Qui," "Sanguis,'' etc., the weight or pressure is placed on the second vowel 
(in contrast to the rule given for the pronunciation of AU, EU). Examples- Qui 
— KooEE; Quae— KooEH; Quam— KooAHM; Quod— KooAWD; Sanguis— 
SAHN'goo-ees; Quoniam — Koo-AW-nee-ahm; Loquebar — Law-kooEH-bahr. 

See Musical Illustrations 4'5.. 



AiOH- 



ciWs: 



. . ' .^^^^ 



■ n ; ^ . -i^'A. I . \^,, J 



Spf- ri-tus, A- qua, et San-guis : et hi 

ft . , ^.^ /s 



?irT]n"ni'^4-hr' rirrn i ji^^n-i\ 



s 









- - - s, 



Afor 



'!La^-^ ^ 



St: 



>.-J 



est 



psal- li- te no- mini e- jus, quo- ni- am su- 









12 The Correct Pronunciation of Latin 

In other instances when ''U" is followed by another vowel the general rule 
applies; both vowels are clearly heard and are differentiated only in the accentuation 
or stress (the last vowel is always softened). 

' Examples 
Tua— TOO-ah; Tui— TOO-ee; Tuae— TOO-eh; Tuo— TOO-aw. 

Exceptions 

Cui — KOO-ee is generally treated as a word of two syllables but in the hymn at 
Lauds for the Feast of the Epiphany because of the metre it is necessary to treat the 
word as one syllable. ("Major Bethlem cui contigit.'') KWEE (almost like 
qui'KWEE). See Musical Illustration No. 6. 

\J s6-la magnin<7« urbi- um Mi-jor Bdthlem, cui c6nti-git Diicem sa-lu-tis cadli- tus 



CONSECUTIVE VOWELS 

When like or different vowels follow in consecutive order it is often the case 
that one or the other is ehded. For clear cut speech it is essential that each vowel 
be distinctly uttered — not in a staccato fashion, but in a manner that will serve to 
equalise the vowels in color if not in intensity. 

Examples 

incorrect correct 

Filii — generally sung Fill FEE-lee-ee 

Evangehi — generally sung Evangeli Eh-vahn-JEH-lee-ee 

AAron — generally sung Ahron AH-ah-rawn 

Ait — generally sung Aht AHeet 

Alleluia— generally sung AlleluYAH AhWeh-LOO-eeah 

Gloria — generally sung GZoryah GLAW-ree^ah 

In atriis — generally sung Inatris Een^AH-tree'ees 

VOWELS AT THE CONJUNCTION OF WORDS 

Among speakers and singers there is also a tendency to connect vowels at the 
end of a word with the beginning of the next word, particularly when these happen 
to be like vowels. A gentle but clear separation of vowels is essential to good 
diction. 

Examples incorrect correct 

justi in conspectu . . . Justiin or Justin conspectu . . YOO-stee een Kawn-SPEK-too 

Domine exaudi Dominexaudi DAW'mecneh eg-SAHoo'dee 

Lauda anima mea. . .Laudanima mea LAHoo-dah AH-nee'mah 



According to Roman Usage 13 

CHAPTER III. 

Consonants 

Consonants serve the purpose of opening and closing the doors to the vowel 
sounds. They are generally "sounded with" the vowels. They have little vocal 
sound of their own, but serve to initiate or bring to a close the vowels with which 
they are associated. Consonants should never obstruct the vowel sounds. On 
the contrary, they should give right of way to the vowel and be so articulated as 
to give impetus and direction to the usually prolonged vowel sound. Singers and 
speakers depend upon the consonants to project the tone to the proper resonators 
in the facial mask. Consequently, it is not only essential to good diction to know 
how to produce the vowels correctly; it is equally important to understand the 
vocal principles involved in the correct articulation of consonants whether in Latin 
or in other languages. 

The Latin consonants are: B, C, D, F, G, H, K, L, M, N, P, Q, R, S, T, 
V, X, z. 



B 

B is articulated as in English. The lips are first closed to obstruct the breath 
which fills the mouth. An explosive effect is achieved by the sudden opening of the 
lips. The vowel sound which follows is clarified when the lips are tightly com' 
pressed and released very sharply in articulating the initial consonant of a syllable. 

Exercises 

BAH— BEH— BEE— BAW— BOO 

ba — be — bi — bo — bu 

Staccato: Repeated 5 to 10 times with increasing speed. 

Avoid a laggard motion of lips. There should be no undue movement of the jaw 

in making these sharp strokes with the lips. 



3ah Beh .BtE,Bavtr'£ro-9 "" '0Ai3AH,3/VH Bah, "Beh, 3EH,B£H,B£H,-5££,oe£ Bc-e,3fE;BAv^B/(vvfiAwJifliv;.pa<? 

Examples 
Amabat — ah'MAH-bat; docebat — daw-CHEH-baht; benedicta — beh-neh- 
DEEK'tah; bonae — BAW-neh. 

C 

C has two sounds, either the hard sound of K as in ""common," "curtain," etc., 
or the soft sound of c as in "check," "cheer," "church," etc. The soft sound of C 
is used in Latin when the letter precedes the vowels "e," "i," "y" and the diph' 
thongs "ffi," "oe" and "eu." 

Examples 

Luceat — LOO-cheh-aht; civitas — CHEE-vectahs; caelum (or coelum) — CHEH' 
loom; amici — ah-MEE-chee; cives — CHEE-vehs; certus — CHEHR-toos; vocet — 
VAW'chet; fecit — FEH-cheet; societatis — sawchee-eh'TAH-tees; cithara — 
CHEE'tah-rah; benedicimus — beh-neh-DEE-chee-moos; crucifixus — croo-chee- 
FEE'Xus; procedenti — prawcheh-DEHN-tee; cernui — CHEHR'noo-ee; cym-balum 
— CHEEM'bah'loom (not SEEM-bah-loom) . 



14 The Correct Pronunciation of Latin 

C is given the hard sound of K when it precedes the vowels a-o-u, and before 
consonants. 

Examples 

Caterva — kah'TEHR'vah; caro — KAH-raw; corda — KAWR-dah; s^cula — 
SEH'koO'lah; caecus — CHEH-koos; cruce — KROO-cheh; credo — KREH-daw; 
sanctus — SAHNK-toos (not sank-tuhs); amicti — ah-MEEK-tee; cuncta — 
KOONK'tah. 



CC 

The sound of double C before e, i, ae, oe, and y is like "tch" in the word "fetch." 

Examples 

Ecce — EH'tcheh (a sharp separation of syllables is to be made in order that 

the second C may be given a decisive stroke with tip of tongue); accipe — 
AH'tchec'peh. 



CH 

Ch before any vowel is given the hard sound of K without exception. 

Examples 
Charitas — KAH-ree-tahs: charta — KAHR-tah; Cham — KAHM; machina — 
M AH-kecnah ; chimaera — KEE'meh'rah . 

C at the end of a word is generally sounded as K. 

Examples 
Huic— OO-eek; nunc— NOONK; haec— ECK; hoc— AWK; illuc— EEL-look. 



D 

Whether found in the beginning or at the end of a syllable, this consonant must 
be crisply articulated. The tongue prepares for the sound by touching the upper 
gums near the junction of teeth and gums and by a quick movement downwards 
releases the accumulated breath. The more incisive the stroke of the tip of the 
tongue the more distinct will be the articulation. Care must be taken not to 
anticipate the consonant by the introduction of a preliminary humming sound or a 
sound that approaches the peculiar ''Uh" quality often heard in singing and speak' 
ing. (UhDominus Vobiscum — Caused by forcing the breath against the palate 
while the tongue is held against the upper gums.) 

Examples 

D as initial consonant of syllable or word: de — DEH; Domino — DAW-mee-naw; 
laudamus — lah-oo-DAH-moos; Deus — DEH-oos; mundi — MOON-dee; dexteram 
— DECKS'teh-rahm. 

D at the end of the syllable: Ad — AHD (not Ahd-duh); idipsum — ee-DEEP- 
soom. 

Two d's at conjunction of words: ad dexteram — AHD-DECKS-teh-rahm (not to 
be exaggerated into Adduh'DECKS-teh'rahm). llie two d's are clearly articulated 
— the ending "d" enunciated softly while the initial is given a more decided stroke. 

Exercises 
It will be of some benefit to practice repeated strokes of the tongue, reciting or 
singing the same exercise as given for B, using D in place of B, viz: dah, deh, dee, 
daw, doo. For the singer it will also be worth while to change the exercise to an 
ascending and a descending series of five notes of the scale, viz: 



According to Roman Usage 



15 



"RctJCtvt-. tcsini, a-tl^^^-"''"^^'^'^V^yv^ ^-S/vpiCATeJ) i^Cncfijenc sty^^S'Oj. e,f-s ti^^^ tfYMjuJL) 



IfVH, De«, Dee. , 7ah', Dffo '^1>Ati, Ten, Jee, Jai*', Po^ 

7ah, Tth_, Tte, P/i^, "^ec r- Tah , ^£rf, t-£E:,-l-/tvi/, Too. 

K+H Keh Ke£ Kw/in/, /Coo. rP Knn /fest K^he-, <=»v*' ^c" 

' --^ --^- — ,V o j. o r, ' '• ■■■ — — 






F and V 

F, a labial, like B, P and V, is produced by stretching the lower lip for a con- 
siderable extent under the upper teeth, and with a rapid movement forward explod' 
ing the accumulated breath into a vocali2,ed sound of F (eff). Both consonants 
generally suifer in production from a '"too-lackadaisical" movement of the lips. It 
is necessary to energize the lips sufficiently to cause them to move apart or forward 
with the instantaneous action of a gun-trigger or a rubber band when released from 
high tension. 

Exercises 

Fah, feh, fee, faw, foo. (Sung or spoken rapidly.) The exercises given for other 
consonants may be utilized. 

Vah, veh, vee, vaw, voo. Good results in speaking or singing so far as clarity in 
articulation is concerned will depend upon the development of the lip and tongue 
muscles, through well planned exercises, which should be practiced daily. 



G like C has two sounds: (a) soft like g in general, gender, or (b) hard like g in 
get, go, garden, govern, etc. 

It is soft before e, i, oe, ae and y. 

Examples 

Genus — JEH-noos (j, in these examples is given the usual English pronuncia- 
tion) : genitori — jeh-nee-TAW-ree; unigenite — oo-nee-JEH-nee-teh; regina — reh- 
JEE-nah; intingit — een-TEEN-jeet. 

It is hard in every other case except when followed by n. (See GN.) 

Examples 

Gladius — GLAH-dee-oos; gloria — GLAW-ree-ah; sanguis — SAHN-gooees; ego 
— EH-gaw; plaga — PLAH-gah; ergo — EHR-gaw; Gallia — GAHL-lee-ah. 



GN 

The English equivalent to the sound of the Latin gn is found in the combination 
of ny with the vowels (as in cafiyon). The last syllable of the word Dominion 
gives a fairly accurate impression of the sound. However, when "Gn" occurs at 
the beginning of a word it is given the natural English sound. 

Examples 

Agnus — AH-nyoos ( AH-neeyoos) ; igne — EE-neeyeh (Note — the last syllable is 
quickly amalgamated in one sound); magnam — MAH-neeyahm; dignum — DEE- 
neeyoom; magnificat — mah-NEEYEE-fee-caht; Gnaeus — GUHNEH-oos. 



H 



H is not exactly a consonant. It should never be aspirated as in English. It is 
heard (a) when it is joined with p (ph) and is pronounced as f. Example: 



16 The Correct Pronunciatiox of Latin 

Philosophus — fee'LAW'saw'foos. (b) When it is between c and the vowels 
e, i and o. Examples: chirografus — kee-RAW'grah'foos; pulcher — POOL'kehr; 
chorus — KAW-roos. (c) In two words, mihi and nihil where the h is pronounced 
as ch (k)— MEE'kee; NEE-keel. 

(It is worthy of note that the spelling of these words in ancient manuscripts was 
michi and nichil (meekee and neekeel) . 

It is also to be observed that the spelling of Hosanna in the old Graduales and 
early Chant books was "Osanna." 

In all other cases the H is silent. 



J 

J, often written as I, is ponounced as Y -ee. It is combined into one sound with 

succeeding vowels, vi2;: Jesus — eeYEH'SOOs; jam — eeYAHM; Jerusalem — eeyeh' 
ROO'sah'lem; major — MAH'eeyohr; ejus — EH'ceyoos: judicium — eeyoo DEE' 
chee-oom; adjuva — AHD-eeyoo-vah; Joannes — eeyoh-AHNess; Jacobi — eeyah- 
CAW'bee. 



K 

K is found in two words: Kalendae — kah-LEN'deh, the first day of the month, 
and Kaeso — KEH'saw, a proper name. It is pronounced the same as in English. 



L 

In articulating this consonant the tongue tip touches the point at the junction of 
upper teeth and palate and makes a rapid downward stroke to its normal position. 
Energetic action of the tip of tongue is necessary for crisp attack. In words con' 
taining the double 1 the tongue should remain at rest for an instant before attacking 
the second 1. A common fault is to permit the tip of the tongue to return to the 
roof of the mouth immediately after having articulated the consonant. There 
should be no preliminary sound in anticipation of the stroke, viz;: uhl-lah. 

Examples 
Lauda — LAH-oodah; laeva — LEH'vah; liberasti — lee-beh'RAH'Stee; lucis — 
LOO'chees; alleluia — ahMeh-LOO-eeyah; illuc — EEL'look; illud — EEL-lood. 

M 

HOR the proper articulation of this consonant the hps are first pressed tightly 
together then quickly released in a sharp explosive manner. The crisp move' 
ment of the lips in breaking apart is essential to the effective projection of the vowel 
which generally follows this consonant. This sharp stroke is indicated particularly 
when the consonant initiates the word. 

Examples 
M^'a — MEH'ah; meus — MEH-oos: mihi — MEE-kee; mater — MAH-tehr; 
mori^'tur — mawree'EH-toor; 7nz/lier — MOO'lee'ehr; M as a part of a secondary 
syllable is not given as sharp a stroke: the lips move apart in a gentler manner. Amen 
— AH'mehn (not AH'mane or AH'main) ; Dominus — DAW'mee-noos; laudamus — 
lah'OO'DAH'moos. M at the end of a word is given a still lighter stroke. There 
should be no additional vowel (as is often heard) at the close of the word. Ex.: 
mrtgnam — MAH'neeyahm (not MAH'neeyahm'muh) ; gidriam — GLAW'ree-ahm; 
d^'xteram — DECKS'teh-rahm ; deprecationem — deh'preh'cah'tsee-A W'uem . 



According to Roman Usage 17 

Note: Avoid anticipating the consonant in such words as Amen — AHM-en; 
Ddminus — DAWM'eC'noos; homznibus — awm'EE'nee-boos. For effective speak- 
ing or singing it is necessary to prolong the vowel in each syllable to at least two- 
thirds the length of the consonant. 

N 

What has been said regarding the articulation of the letter M applies equally well 
to the consonant N with the exception that the tongue is utiHzied for the stroke in 
place of the lips. 

A sharp downward stroke is made by the tip of the tongue beginning at the hard 
palate close to the teeth and then descending to its normal position in the mouth. 
There should be no simultaneous movement of the jaw. The jaw simply remains 
devitali2;ed, permitting the independent movement of tongue or lips. 

Examples 
T^on — NAWN (the closing n is silent; the tongue moves against the hard palate, 
producing a humming sound. The exaggerated vowel ending should be avoided — 
vi2;., NAWN-nuh); 7Tomine — NAW'meC'neh; ?7obis — NAW-bees; )idstro — 
NAW'Straw; nuy7c — NOONK; mundi — MOON-dee; sdnctus — SAHNK-toos 
(never SANK'tuhs). Double n's are to be clearly differentiated, e.g.: hosmma — 
aw'SAHN-nah; nonne — NAWN^neh; innoc^'ntes — een-naw-TCHEN'tehs. 

Exercises 
The exercises given in the first part of this chapter may be used with benefit in the produc 
tion of the remaining consonants, either with music or without. The main object is to acquire 
facihty in the rapid articulation of the consonants which involve the use of tongue and lips. 
Increasing the speed gradually will greatly assist the student in overcoming the throaty, 
raucous quality of tone which proceeds from a lack of co-ordination between the lungs, the 
tongue and lips. 

P 

When the letter P occurs at the beginning of a word it is sounded briskly with a 
preparatory closed-lip action (lips are pressed tightly together and given a corrc 
sponding quick release) . Avoid any lackadaisical movement, particularly when this 
letter coincides with an accented syllable. 

Examples 
Pax— PAHCKS; pl^'ni— PLEH-nee; jb^'ter— PAH-tehr; /^rt'Imis— PAHL-mees; 
/^zHchra — POOL-krah; p^'tre — PAH-treh; propter — PRAWP-tehr; bapt/sma — 
bahp'TEE-smah; spfritu — SPEE-ree-too; spir/tui — spee-REE-too-ee; perp/tua — 
pehr-PEH'too-ah. 

PH 

PH is pronounced as f — vi2;.:phrenetici — freh-NEH' tee-tehee. 



Q 

Q is best produced by extending the lips as in the position of whistling. The 
lips initiate the sound of Koo which precedes the vowel. As in other instances 
the rapid action of lips insures the projection of the tone to its proper focal point in 
the hard palate. 



18 The Correct Pronunciation of Latin 

Examples 
qui— KWEE; qu/a— KWEE-ah; qtnd— KWEED: qiimn— KWAM; quae— 
KWEH; quaes/vi— kweh'SEE'vee; qiirtjido— KWAHN-daw; quos— KWAWS 
quare — KWAH'reh; loqu^'tur — law-kooEH'toor; tib/quae — tee-BEE'kweh 
qudniam — KWAW'nee'ahm; quotiesciimque — kooawtzee'es'KOOM'kooeh 
3.equdlis — eh'kooAH'lees; in/quitas — ee-NEE'kooee'tahs; usquequaque — oos'kweh' 
KWAH'kweh. Note: Where the "Koo" is indicated in the phonetic arrangement 
this sound should be quickly merged into the succeeding vowel. "KW" is also used 
to convey the same impression and to facilitate a more rapid fusion of sounds. 

Exercises 
In rapid succession sing or speak the follovv^ing words: que, qui, qua, quo: 
KWEH, KWEE, KWAH, KWAW. Repeat with increasing speed and with 
sharper movement of the lips. 

R 

The R is rolled slightly when it occurs at the beginning of a word: it is not rolled 
so decidedly when it occurs in the middle or at the end of a word or syllable. 

The vibration or trilMike movement of the tongue takes place at the forward 
upper portion of the hard palate and is caused by the pressure of breath against the 
tip of the tongue which oscillates back and forth against the palate. Many are 
incapable of rolling the r. Energetic action of the breath is required to create the 
regular movements of the tongue'tip through focussed pressure. It is needless to say 
that the over'roUed r savors of pure affectation. 

Examples 

R^gnum — RREH'neeyoom; regma — rreh'GEE-nah; rt'spice — RREH-spee-cheh; 
refulsit — rreh-FOOHL-seet; rer^'la — rrehWEH'lah; personae — pehr^SAW'neh; 
)2d5tra — NAW'Strah; aet^'rna — eh-TEHR-nah; cor — CAWR; sniper — SOO-pehr 
(not suh'purr) ; conse qu^mur — cawn'seh'KWAH-moor. 

Note: The rule already given, vi2;., that a consonant should never he anticipated, 
apphes with particular force to the r. For instance, Kyvie should not be pronounced 
KYRR-eceh but KEE'receh; te'rram — pronounced Teh'rahm, not TERRR'ahm; 
mdrtuis pronounced MAWR'tocees, not MOHRR-too'ces: gloria is GLAW^recah, 
not GLAWRR-ee-ah. 

Another common fault is the overemphasis given to the final 'V in such words as 
"super," etc. Semper is often pronounced sem-purrr instead of SEHM-pehr. Con- 
fundar is incorrectly pronounced confiDidarr instead of cawn'FOON'dahr. 



S 

S is given the same sound as in the English words son, sound, sing and case. It 
should never be given the sound of Z as in raise, praise or da^e. 

Examples 

Sapientiae — sah'pee'EHN-tzee'eh; sentire — sehn'TEE reh: sicut — SEE'koot. 

Reges — REH'jehs (not rayjayz); caedes — TCHEH-dehs (not tchaydays); itrbes 
— OOR'behs; homines — AW-mee-nehs; dies — DEE-ehs (not DEE^ays); res — 
REHS (not raise) . 

Note: When s is found between two vowels it is sHghtly softened, e.g., 
mise?v're — mee-seh'REH'reh (not mis'Crr'rayray) ; misericordiae — mee'seh'rec 
CAWR'dee-eh. 



According to Roman Usage 19 

SS 

The rule regarding double consonants (which generally demands a clear'Cut separa' 
tion of each consonant), is somewhat modified in the case of the double "s" in the 
middle of words, such as ''altissimus,"'"' "sublet'dsset," ""cessassent," "misericordiS' 
simae," "esse," "possideat,"" etc. The tip of the tongue is raised to the hard palate 
on the first '"'"s" and is held for an instant, then released for the articulation of the 
second "s"; e.g., Ahl'TEES'see-moos, soob4eh'VAHS'seht, chehs-SAHS-sent, mee' 
seh-rec'cawr-DEES'see-meh, EHS'seh, paws'SEE-deh-aht. An elongation of the "s" 
is thus effected, but this should not approach an exaggerated hissing sound. 

SC 

SC before e, i, y, ae, oe, eu has the sound of sh in shed, shall, she or shore. 

Examples 

Desc^'ndit — deh'SHEN'deet; v/scera- — VEE'sheh'rah; asc^^'ndit — ah-SHEN'deet; 
scelus — SHEH'loos; requie'scet — reh'kwecEH'shet; tabescet — tah'BEH'shet; 
5//5cipe — SOO'she-peh; s//5citans — SOO-she-tahns; 5c/mus — She-moos; 7T('7scitur — 
NAH'shee'toor; quiescit — kwee-EH'sheet; scio — SHEE-aw; 5C<^na — SHEH-nah; 
Francisce — Frahn'TCHEE'sheh; Damasci — dah-MAH-shee. 

SC 

SC before A, O or U is pronounced as sc in the English word scope or scholar, 
or as s\ in skull. 

Examples 

Scabellum — skah-BEHL-loom ; sciito — SKOO-taw; requie'scat — reh-kwecEH' 
skaht; Pischa — PAH-skah; cogndsco — cawneeAW'skaw; abscdndito — ahb' 
SKAWN'dee'taw; obscur^'ntur — awb'skoo'REHN-toor. 

SCH 

Sch has the same sound as in Enghsh. Schdla — SKAW'lah; Schol(istica — 
ska W'L AH'Stee'kah . 

T 

(The rule for ti appears under a separate heading) 

T at the beginning of words is given the same sound as in English. It is articulated 
in a crisp manner but without any explosive or blowing sound. The tip of the 
tongue releases the accumulated breath by a rapid movement from the hard palate 
to the normal position. 

Examples 

Tempord. — TEHM-paw-rah; tfbi — TEE-bee: tuo — TOO-aw; te-TEH; t^'rra — 
TEHR-rah; to'Ilis — TAWL-lees; trt)itum — TAHN-toom; testain^'ntum — teh-stah- 
MEN-toom: t^'rrae — TEHR-reh. 

At the end of words the t is clearly defined by the tip of the tongue, but not in 
such an exaggerated manner as to give forth an added vowel sound, e.g., et — EHT, 
not ETTUH: ut— OOT, not OOTTUH. A softer sound is given to the t in such 
words as e'tenim — EHT-eh-neem; utraque — OO'trah'kweh; uterque — oo'TEHR' 
kooeh, etc. 

General Rule 

Within the sentence, when words end with a consonant and the following word 
begins with another consonant, both must be pronounced separately, e.g., et c^'tera 
— "EHT TCHEH'teh-rah; laud^'bunt te — lahoo-DAH-boont teh; qui ti'ment 
Ddminum — kwee TEE-mehnt DAW-mee-noom. 



20 The Correct Pronunciation of Latin 

On the contrary some prepositions must be jointly pronounced when words 
which follow begin with a vowel, e.sj.: et <^'it — EHTAH-eet; ab ilh — AHB-EEL- 
law; ut ipse— OOHT'EEP'seh; Deus^et homo— DEH-oos-EHTAW-maw. 

TH 

Th is pronounced simply t as in the English words: to, ten, Tom, tent; never as 
in thought or then. 

Examples 

Cat/io'licam — Kah-TAW-lee-cahm; Thes^'itrus — teh'SAHoo-roos; Thdrsis — 
TAHr-sees; Theos — TEH-aws; Thomas — TAW'mahs; thema — TEH-mah. 



TI 

(a) When the syllable ti is followed by a vowel and preceded by any letter except 
S.T. or X it is pronounced tzee or tsee (not tee). 

Examples 
Gr<7tia — GRAH-tbce-ah; deprecationem — deh'preh'cah-tsee'AW-nem (not day 
praycah'tee-OH-nem) ; t^'rtia — TEHR-tsee^ah; sper^ntium — speh-RAHN'tsec 
oom; laet/tiam — leh-TEE-tsee-ahm; satiet^tis — sah'tsee-eh'TAH-tees; redemptionis 
— reh'dehmp'tsee'AW-nees; p^'tii — PEH-tsee-ee; tdtius — TAW-tsee-oos; ^'tiam — 
Eh'tsee-ahm; trist/tia — tree-STEE'tsee-ah; hquentium — lawKWEN-tsee-oom ; 
morie'ntium — mawree'EHN-tsecoom; malignaVitium — mah'lee'neeAHN-tsee' 
oom : innoce'ntior — een-awTCHEN'tsecawr. 

(b) When ti is followed by any vowel and is preceded by s, t or x it retains its 
own sound. 

Examples 
lustior — eeOO'Stee-awr; mod^'stia — mawDEH'Stecah; rtttius — AHT'tecoos; 
mixtio — MEECKS'tee-aw. 

(c) Ti (or ty) retains its own sound also in certain Greek words, e.g.: Ti^'ra — 
tee-AH-rah; asty<'zges — ah-stee-AH'jess; asty<7nax — ah'Stee-AH-nahcks. 

(d) Ti also retains its normal sound in the case of the infinitive of the deponent 
and passive verbs when enlarged. 

Examples 
Prttier — PAH'tee-ehr; tv'rtier — VEHR'tec'ehr (from pati — PAH'tee and verti 
— VEHR'tee). Corn; Mi — cawhn'VEHR-tee; convertkr — cawn^VEHR'tee'ehr; 
patior — PAH'tee'awr. 

V 

V is treated exactly as in English (see exercises at letter F) . 



X 

X is a double consonant; a combination of cs, gs, or ks. It is given the softer 
sound of gs at the beginning of words when X is preceded by e and followed by a 
vowel — or when between x and a vowel there occurs the letter h or s. 

Examples 

Exalto — eg'SAHL'taw (not eck-ZAHL'taw) ; exe'rceo — eg-SEHR'cheh-aw; 
exdpto — eg'SAW'ptaw; exsulto — eg-SOOL'taw; exhibeo — eg-SEE-beh-aw; 
exsupero — eg'SOO-peh-raw; e'xsules — EG-soO'lehs; exsiirge — eg'SOOR'jeh; 
vexilla — veg-SEEL'lah. 

In every other instance it takes on the harder sound of X (eck). 



According to Roman Usage 



21 



Examples 

Excelsis — eck'SHELL'sees; pax — PAHCKS; vox — VAWCKS; excussdrum — 

ecks'koos'SAW'room; Xavier — CKSAH'vee'ehr; or ZAH'vee'ehr; lux — 

LOOCKS; exce'ssus — eck-SHEH-ssoos; ex — ECKS; resurre'xit — reh'soo'RRECK' 

seet: exposcite — ecks-PAW'shee-teh; tutrix — TOO'treecks; praednxit — preh' 

CHEENCKS-eet. 

Y (Same as I) 



Z is pronounced dz,. Examples: Laz^arus — LAH-dzah-roos; 2,iz<inia — dzee- 
DZAH-nee-ah; 2;flus — DZEH-loos; Zebedae'o — dzeb-eh'dah'EH-aw. 



CHAPTER IV 

THE ORDINARY OF THE MASS 

Phonetically arranged** 

ASPERGES ME 

On Sundays, except during Eastertide. 

Asperges me, Domine, hyssopo, et mun- Ah-SPEHR'gesMEH,* DAW^mee-neh, 

ee- SAW -pah, EHT moon-DAH- 
dabor; lavabis me et super nivem deal- bawr; lah'VAH-bees MEH, EHT 

SOO'pehr HE&wehm deh-ahl-BAH- 
babor. bawr. 

Ps. Miserere mei, Deus* secundum Ps. Mee-seh-REH-reh MEH-ee, DEH- 

oos,* seh - K007\[ ' doom MAH-nee- 



magnam misericordiam tuam. 
(1) Gloria Patri, et Filio, et Spiritui 
Sancto.* Sicut erat in principio, et 
nunc, et semper, et in saecula saecu- 
lorum. Amen. 



yahm mee'seh'ree'KAWR'decahm 
TOO-ahm. 
(1) GLAW-ree-ah PAH-tree EHT 
FEE'lee-aw, EHT spee'REF-too'ce 
SAHNK'taw.* SFE'koot FH-raht 
EEKl Preen-CHEF'pee-aw, EHT 
KOOHK EHT SFHM'pehr, EHT 
FEN SFH'koo'lah seh-koo-LAW- 
room. AH'mehn. 

(Asperges is repeated from the beginning (Asperges is repeated from the beginning 
to the Psalm.) to the Psalm.) 

VIDI AQUAM 

(Sung on Sundays during Eastertide) 

Vidi Aquam* egredientem de templo a VFF-dee AH-kooahm* eh-greh^dec 

FHN'tehm DFH TFHM-plaw, AH 
latere dextro, alleluia; LAH-teh-reh DFCK-straw, AhMeh- 

LOO-eeah; 
et omnes ad quos pervenit aqua ista, FHT A WM^nehs AHD kooAWS pehr' 

VFH-neet AH'kooah FF-stah, SAHL- 
salvi facti sunt, et dicent: Alleluia, vee FAHK-tee-SOONT', FHT DFF- 

chehnt; AhMeh-LOO-eeah, AhMeh- 
alleluia. LOO-eeah. 

* The "Gloria Patri" is omitted on Passion and Palm Sundays. 

** Phonetic arrangement Copyright 1937: The St. Gregory Guild. Phila., Pa. 



22 The Correct Pronunciation of Latin 

Ps. Confitemini Domino quoniam bonus; 
quoniam in saeculum misericordiam 



ejus. 
Gloria Patri, et Filio, et Spiritui Sancto,* 

Si'cut erat in principio, et nunc et semper, 
et in saecula saeculorum. Amen. 

("Vidi Aquam'"" is repeated from the 
beginning to the Psalm.) 



Ps. Kawn'fee-TEH'mee'nee DAW'mee- 
naw KooAW'nee-ahm BAW^noos; 
KooA W ' nee ' ahm ££7\[ SEH-koo- 
loom mee'seh'ree'KAWR'dee'ahm 
EH'yoos. 

GLAW-ree-ah PAH-tree EHT FEE-lee- 
aw, jEHT spee-REE'too-ee SAHNK- 
taw* - 

S££'koot EH-raht EEH preen-CHES- 
pee-aw, EHT KlOOliK, EHT SEHM- 
pehr, EHT EEH S£H'koo4ah seh- 
koo'LAW'room. AH'mehn. 

C'Vidi Aquam" is repeated from the 
beginning to the Psalm). 



RESPONSES AFTER THE ASPERGES OR THE VIDI AQUAM 



1 — Celebrant: V. Ostende nobis, D6' 
mine, misericordiam tuam. (During 
Eastertide "Alleluia" is added.) 



1 — Choir: R. Et salutare tuum da nobis. 
(During Eastertide ''Alleluia'' is 
added.) 

2 — Cel.: V. Domine exaudi orationem 
meam. 

2 — Choir: R. Et clamor meus ad te 

veniat. 
3 — Cel.: V. Dominus vobiscum. 

3 — Choir: R. Et cum Spiritu tuo. 

4 — Cel.: V. Oremus, etc. (Prayer clos- 
ing with "Per Christum Dominum 
nostrum." 

4 — Choir: R. Amen. 



1— Celebrant: V. Aw'STEHN'deh 

T^^AW'bees, DAW-mee-neh, mee-seh- 

ree-KAWR'dee-ahm TOO-ahm: 

(During Eastertide add AhMeh- 

LOO-eeah.) 

I— Choir: R. EHTsah-loo-TAH-reh 
TOO-oom DAH NAW-bees. (Dur- 
ing Eastertide "AhMeh-LOO-eeah" 

is added.) 

2— Cel.: V. DAW-mee-neh eg-SAHoo- 
dee aw-rah-tsee-AW-nehm MEH^ahm. 

2— Choir: R. EHT CLAH-mawr MEH- 
oos AHD TEH VEH-nee-aht. 

3— Cel.: V. DAW-mee-noos vaw-BEE- 
skoom. 

}>— Choir: R. EHT KOOM SPEE-ree- 
too TOO-aw. 

4 — Cel.: V. Aw-REH-moos (Prayer 
closing with PEHR CHREE-stoom 
DAW-mee-noom Js^AW-stroom.) 

4— Choir: R. AH-mehn. 



Kyrie eleison (3 times) 
Christe eleison (3 times) 
Kyrie eleison ( 3 times) 



KYRIE ELEISON 



K£E-ree-eh eh-LEH-ee-sawn (3 times) 
KREE-steh eh-LEH-ee-sawn (3 times) 
KEE-ree-eh eh-LEH-ee-sawn (3 times) 



According to Roman Usage 



23 



GLORIA IN EXCELSIS DEO 



Celebrant: Gloria in excelsis Deo. 

Choir: Et in terra pax hominibus bonx 
voluntatis. 

Laudamus te. Benedicimus te. Adora' 
mus te. Glorificamus te. Gratias agi' 
mus tibi propter magnam gloriam 
tuam. 

Domine Deus. Rex coelestis, Deus Pater 

omnipotens. Domine Fili unigenite, 

Jesu Christe. 
Domine Deus, Agnus Dei, Filius Patris. 

Qui tollis peccata mundi: miserere nobis. 

Qui tollis peccata mundi, suscipe deprc 

cationem nostram. 
Qui sedes ad dexteram Patris, miserere 

nobis. 
Quoniam tu solus sanctus. Tu solus 

Dominus. Tu solus altissimus Jesu 

Christe. 
Cum Sancto Spiritu in gloria Dei Patris. 
Amen. 



Celebrant: GLAW-ree-ah EEH eck- 

SHELL'sees DEH'aw. 
Choir: EHT EEH TEH-rrah PAHCKS 

awMEE-nee-boos BAW'neh vaw 

loon-TAH'tees. 

Lah'OO'DAH-moos TEH. Beh-neh-DEE- 
chee-mooS'TEH. Ah-dawRAH-moos 
TEH. Glawree-fee-KAH-moos'TEH. 
GRAH'tsee-ahs AH-jee-moos TEE- 
bee PRAWP'tehr MAH-neeyahm 
GLAW-ree-ahm TOO-ahm. 

DAW-mee-neh DEH-oos. RREHCKS 
cheh'LEH'Stees, DEH-oos PAH-tehr 
awm-'7\[EE'paw'tehns. DAW'mee- 
neh EEE'lee oo'nee-JEH'nee-teh, 
TEH'Soo KREE'Steh. 

DAW-mecneh DEH-oos AH^neeyoos 
DEH^eQ, FEE'lee-oos PAH-trees. 

KooEE TAWL'lees Peck -KAH- tab 
MOON'dee, mee-seh-REH-reh 
NAW'bees. 

KooEE TAWL'lees Peck -KAH- tab 
M007\['dee SOO-shee-peh deh-preh- 
cah'tsee-AW'nehm T^^AW-strahm. 

KooEE SEH'dehs AHD DECKS-teh- 
rahm PAH'trees, mee'seh'REH-reh 
NAW'bees. 

Koo-AW-nee-ahm TOO SAW-loos 
SAHNK'toos. rOO SAW'loos 
DAW-mee-noos. TOO SAW4oos 
ahl'TEES'see-moos, TEH-soo KREE^ 
steh. 

KOOM SAHNK'taw SPEE-ree-too 
EEH GLAW-ree-ah DEH^ee PAH- 
trees. AH^mehn. 



RESPONSES BEFORE THE COLLECT AND OTHER PRAYERS 

1 — Gel.: V. Dominus vobiscum. 



1 — Cel: V. DAW-mee-noos vaw'BEE' 

skoom. 
I— Choir: R. EHT KOOM SPEE-ree- 
too TOO-aw. 
2— Gel: V. Or emus. (Here follow the 2— Cel: V. awREH-moos. (Here fol- 



1 — Choir: R. Et cum spiritu tuo. 

-Cel: V. 
orations.) 
2 — Choir: R. Amen. 



low the orations.) 
2 — Choir: R. AH-mehn. 



24 



The Correct Pronunciation of Latin 
RESPONSES BEFORE THE GOSPEL 



1 — Cel.: V. Dominus vobiscum. 
1 — Choir: R. Et cum spiritu tuo. 



1— Cel.: V. DAW-mee-noos vaw'BEE- 
skoom. 

1— Choir: R. EHT KOOM SPEE-ree- 
too TOO-aw. 

2 — Cel.: V. Sequentia sancti Evangelii 2 — Cel.: V. Seh-kooEHN'tsecah 

SAHNK'tee Eh'vahn'JEH4ee'ee seh- 
secundum Liicam. K007s['doom LOO-kahm. 

2— Choir: R. Gloria tibi Domine. 2— Choir: R. GLAW-ree-ah TEE-bee 

DAW-mee-neh. 



CREDO 



Celebrant: Credo in unum Deum. 



Choir: Patrem omnipotentem factorem 
coeli et terras, visibilium omnium, et 
invisibilium. 



Et in unum Dominum, Jesum Christum, 
Filium Dei unigenitum. 

Et ex Patre natum ante omnia saecula. 

Deum de Deo, lumen de lumine, Deum 
verum de Deo vero. 

Genitum, non factum, consubstantialem 
Patri; per quem omnia facta sunt. 



Qui propter nos homines, et propter nos- 
tram salutem, descendit de coelis. 



Et incarnatus est de Spiritu Sancto ex 
Maria Virgine: 

Et homo factus est. 

Crucifixus etiam pro nobis: sub Pontio 
Pilato passus, et sepultus est. 



Celebrant: KREH-daw E£A[ OO-noom 
DEH'Oom. 

Choir: PAH'trehm awm-nee-paw 
TEHN 'tehm fahk - TAW - rehm 
CHEHAee EHT TEH-rreh vee-see- 
BEE'lee-oom AWM-nee-oom, EHT 
een-vee'see'BEE'lee-oom . 

EHT EEH OO-noom DAW-mee-noom, 
TEH'Soom KREE-stoom, FEE-lee-oom 
DEH-ee oo^nee-JEH-nee-toom. 

EHT ECKS PAH'treh NAH-toom 
AHN'teh AWM-nee-ah SEH-koo-lah. 

DEH'Oom DEH DEH-aw, LOO-mehn 
DEH LOO-mee-neh. DEH-oom VEH- 
room DEH DEH-aw VEH-raw. 

JEH' nee 'toom TsJAWN EAHK-toom 
kawn-soob'Stahn'tsee-AH'lehm PAH- 
tree; PEHR kooEHM AWM - nee- 
ah FAHK'tah SOOHT. 

KooEE PRAWP'tehr HAWS AW- 
• mee-nehs, EHT PR AWP-tehr N AW- 
strahm sah-LOO-tehm, deh-SHEHT^- 
deet DEH CHEH-lees. 

EHT een-kahr-NAH'toos EHST DEH 
SPEE-ree-too SAHNK-taw ECKS 
mah'REE-ah VEER-jee-neh: 

EHT AVV-maw EAHK-toos EHST. 

Croo'chec'EEECK'SOos EH 'tsee-ahm 
PRAWNAW'bees: SOOB PAWN' 
tsee'aw pee-LAH-taw PAH-ssoos, 
EHT seh'POOL'toos EHST. 



According to Roman Usage 



25 



Et resurrexit tertia die, secundum Scrip' 
turas. 



Et ascendit in coelum : 
Patris. 



sedet ad dexteram 



Et iterum venturus est cum gloria, judi' 
care vivos et mortuos: cujus regni non 
erit finis. 



Et in Spiritum Sanctum Dominum et 
vivificantem: qui ex Patre Filioque 
procedit; 



qui cum Patre et Filio simul adoratur et 
conglorificatur: qui locutus est per 
Prophetas. 



Et unam sanctam catholicam et apos' 
tolicam Ecclesiam. 

Confiteor unum baptisma in remissionem 
peccatorum. Et exspecto resurrection 
nem mortuorum. 



Et vitam venturi saeculi. Amen. 



EHT reh'Soor-REHCK'seet TEHR-tsee- 
ah DEE-eh, seh'KOO>^'doom skreep- 
TOO-rahs. 

EHT ah'SHEHN'deet EEH CHEH^ 
loom: SEH'deht AMD DECKS-teh- 
rahm PAH'trees. 

EHT EE'teh-room vehn-TOO-roos 
EHSr KOOM GLAW-ree-ah, yoo- 
dee ' KAH - reh VEE - vaws EHT 
MAWR'too-aws: KOO-yoos REEK" 
yee A[AWN EH-reet EEE-nees. 

EHT EEH SPEE-ree-toom SAHNK- 
toom DAW'mee-noom EHT vee'vee' 
fee-KAHN'tehm: kooEE ECKS 
PAH'treh fee-lee-AW'kooEH praw 
CHEH'deet; 

kooEE KOOM PAH'treh EHT EEE- 
lee-aw SEE-mool ah'dawRAH-toor, 
EHT kawn'glawree'fee'KAH'toor: 
kooEE law'KOO'toos EHST PEHR 
praw'FEH'tahs. 

EHT 00 -nahm SAHNK-tahm kah- 
TAW'lee-kahm EHT ah-paw 
STAW'lee-kahm eh-KKLEH-see-ahm. 

Kawn-EEE'teh-awr OO-noom bahp' 
TEES-mah EET^l reh-mees-see-AW' 
nehm peck -kah- TAW -room. EHT 
ecks ' PEHK - taw reh ' soor ' reck - t2,ee ' 
AW-nehm mawptoo'AW-room. 

EHT VEE'tahm vehn-TOO-ree SEH^ 
koo'lee. AH-mehn. 



RESPONSES BEFORE THE OFFERTORY 



1 — Cel.: V. Dominus vobiscum. 
1 — Choir: R. Et cum spiritu tuo. 
2 — Cel.: V. Oremus. 



1 — Cel.: V. DAW/'mee-noos vaw- 
BEES'koom. 

I— Choir: R. EHT KOOM SPEE-ree- 
too TOO-aw. 

2— Cel: V. AwREH-moos. 



Choir proceeds with the Proper Offertory of the Day, after which an 
appropriate motet may be sung. 



26 The Correct Pronunciation of Latin 

RESPONSES BEFORE THE PREFACE 

1 — Cel.: V. Per omnia saecula saeculo 

rum. 
1 — Choir: R. Amen. 
2 — Cel.: V. Dominus vobiscum. 



1— Cel.:. V. PEHR AWM-nee-ah- 
SEH'koO'lah seh-koo'LAW^room. 

l—CJioir: R. AH-mehn. 

2 — Cel.: V. DAW-mee-noos vaw 
BEES'\oom. 

2— Choir: R. EHT KOOM SPE&ree^ 
too TOO-aw. 

3_CeI.: V. SOOR-soom KAWR-dah. 

3— Choir: R. Ah-BEH-moos AHD 
DA W'mee'noom . 

4 — Cel: V. Gratias agamus Domino 4 — Cel.: V. GRAH-tsee-ahs ah'GAH- 
Deo nostro. moos DAW'mee-naw DEH'aw 

?v^AW'Straw. 

4 — Choir: R. Dignum et justum est. 4 — Choir: DEE-neeyoom EHT TOO' 

stoom EHST. 



2 — C/ioir: R. Et cum spiritu tuo. 

3 — Cel.: V. Sursum corda. 

3 — Choir: R. Habemus ad Dominum. 



SANCTUS 

Sanctus, Sanctus, Sanctus Dominus SAH7s[K'toos, SAH7\[K'toos, SAHJ\[K' 
Deus Sabaoth. toos DAW-mee-noos DEH-oos SAH- 

bah'awt. 

Pleni sunt coeli et terra gloria tua. Ho- PLEH^nee S001<iT CHEHAee EHT 
sanna in excelsis. TEHR-rah GLAW-ree-ah TOO-ah. 

Aw'SAH-nnah EEH eck-SHELL- 

sees. 

BENEDICTUS 

Benedictus qui venit in nomine Domini. Beh'neh-DEEK'toos kooEE VEH'neet 

EEKl JV^AW-mee-neh DAW'mee-nee. 
Hosanna in excelsis. AwSAH-nnah E£7\[ eck-SHELL' 

sees. 



RESPONSES AT THE PATER NOSTER 
I— Cel: V. Per omnia saecula saecu' 1— Cel.: V. PEHR AWM-nee-ah SEH- 



lorum. 
1 — Choir: R. Amen. 



koo'lah seh'koo'LAW'room. 
I— Choir: R. AH-mehn. 



2 — Cel: V. Oremus, etc. — Et ne nos 2 — Cel.: V. AwREH-moos, etc., EHT 

HEH HAWS een-DOO'kahs EEN 
tehn-tah'tsee- A W'nehm . 

2— Choir: R. SEHD LEE-beh-rah 



inducas in tentationem. 
2 — Choir: R. Sed libera nos a malo. 



HAWS AH MAH'law. 



According TO Roman Usage 27 

RESPONSES BEFORE THE AGNUS DEI 

i—Cel: V. Per omnia saecula saecu- 1— CeL: V. P£HR AWM-nee-ahSEH- 
lorum. koo'lah seh-koo-LAV/'room. 

{—Choir: R. Amen. 1— Choir; R. AH-mehn. 

2—Cel: V. Pax Domini sit semper 2—Cel.: V. PAHCKS DAW-mee-nee 
vobiscum. SEET SEHM-pehr vawBEE-skoom. 

2— Choir: R. Et cum spiritu tuo. 2— Choir: R. £HT KOOM SPEE-ree- 

too TOO-aw. 

AGNUS DEI 

Agnus Dei qui tollis peccata mundi: AH'neeyoos DEH^ee kooEE TAWL' 

lees peck'KAH'tah MOON'dee: mee- 
miserere nobis (Repeat.) seh-REH-reh ]\[AW'bees. (Repeat.) 

Agnus Dei qui tollis peccata mundi: AH-neeyoos DEH^ee kooEE TAWL- 

lees peck'KAH'tah MOON'dee: 
dona nobis pacem. DAW-nah ^AW-bees PAH-chehm. 

RESPONSES BEFORE THE POST COMMUNION 

1 — Cel: V. Dominus vobiscum. 1 — Cel: V. DAW-mee-noos vaw-BEE- 

skoom. 

I— Choir: R. Et cum spiritu tuo. 1— Choir: R. EHT KOOM SPEE-ree 

too TOO-aw. 

2—Cel: V. Oremus (here follow the 2—Cel.: R. awREH-moos (here follow 

orations). the orations). 

2— Choir: R. Amen. 2— Choir: R. AH-mehn. 



RESPONSES AT END OF MASS 

1 — Cel: V. Dominus vobiscum. 1 — Cel.: V. DAW-mee-noos vaw-BEE- 

skoom. 

1— Choir: R. Et cum spiritu tuo. I— Choir: R. EHT KOOM SPEE-ree- 

too TOO-aw. 

2— Cel.: V. Ite missa est, or Benedica- 2— Cel: V. EE-teh, MEE-ssah EHST, 
mus Domino, or Beh - neh - dee -KAH' moos DAW' 

mee'naw. 
2_Choir: R. Deo gratias. 2— Choir: R. DEH-aw GRAH-tsee-ahs. 



28 



The Correct Pronunciation of Latin 
PONTIFICAL BLESSING 



I— Cell V. Sit nomen Domini bene- 1— Cel.: V. S££T N A W-mehn DAW- 
dictum. mec'nee beh'neh-DEEK'toom. 

I— Choir: R. Ex hoc nunc et usque in 1— Choir: R. ECKS AWK HOOHK 



saeculum. 

2 — Cel.: V. Adjutorium nostrum in 
nomine Domini. 

2 — Choir: R. Qui fecit coelum et 

terram. 
3 — Cel.: V. Benedicat vos omnipotens 

Deus: Pater, et Filius, et Spiritus 

Sanctus. 

3 — Choir: R. Amen. 



EHT OOS'koo£H EEli SEH-koo- 
loom. 

2 — Cel.: V. Ahd-yoo-TAW-ree-oom 
NAW'Stroom EEX NAW-mee-neh 
DAW'mec'nee. 

2— Choir: R. KooEE FEH-cheet CHEH- 
loom EHT TFH-rrahm. 

3— Cel: V. Beh-neh-DFE-kaht VAWS 
awm-TsJEF-paw'tens DEH-oos PAH- 
tehr EHT EEE-lee-oos, EHT SPEE- 
ree-toos SAH7\[K'toos. 

^— Choir: R. AH-mehn. 



CHAPTER V 

THE REQUIEM MASS AND ABSOLUTION 
(INCLUDING PARTS OF THE BURIAL SERVICE) 

SUBVENITE 

Subvenite* Sancti Dei, occurrite Angeli Soob-veh-^^EE-teh* SAH7s[K'tee DEH- 

ee, awk-KOOR-ree-teh AHTsJ-jeh-lee 
Domini: DAV/'mecnee: 

*Suscipientes animam ejus: *SoO'shee'pee'EH?\['tehs AH'necmahm 

EH'yoos: 

fOiferentes earn in conspectu AJtissimi. jAwf'feh'REHTvJ'tehs EH 'ahm £EA[ 

kawn'SPEHK'too ahl-TEES-see-mee. 

V. Suscipiat te Christus, qui vocavit te: V. Soo'SHEE'pee'aht TEH CHREE- 

stoos, kooEE vaw'KAH'veet TEH: 

et in sinum Abrahae Angeli deducant EHT E£7\[ SEE 'noom AH'brah-eh 

AHN'jeh'lee deh-DOO-kahnt TEH. 

te. (Repeat "Susdpientes" to "AltiS' (Repeat "Suscipientes'' to "Altis- 

simi"). simi"). 

V. Requiem aeternam dona ei Domine: V. REH 'kooee-ehm eh' TEHR -nahm 

DAW - nah EH - ee DAW - mee - neh : 
et lux perpetua luceat ei. EHT LOOCKS pehr-PEH-too-ah 

LOO'cheh-aht EH^ee. 

fRepeat "Offerentes" to "Altissimi." fRepeat "Offerentes" to ''Altissimi." 



According to Roman Usage 
INTROIT 



29 



Requiem aeternam dona eis Domine: REH'kwee'ehm eh-TEHR'nahm DAW' 

nah EH'ees DAW'mee'neh: 

et lux perpetua luceat eis. EHT LOOCKS pehr-PJEH-too-ah LOO^ 

cheh'aht EH-ees. 
(Psalm) Te decet hymnus Deus in Sion, (Psalm) TEH DEH-cheht EEM-noos 

DEH'Oos EElsl SEE^awn, 

et tibi reddetur votum in Jerusalem: EHT TEE-bee reh-DDEH-toor VAW' 

toom EE]\[ yeh'ROO'sah'lehm: 

* exaudi orationem meam, * eg-SAHoo-dee awrah'tZiee'AW'nehm 

MEH-ahm, 
ad te omnis caro veniet. AHD TEH AWM ' nees KAH - raw 

VEH-nee-eht. 
(Repeat "Requiem" to the Psalm.) (Repeat "Requiem" to the Psalm). 



Kyrie eleison (three times). 
Christe eleison (three times). 
Kyrie eleison (three times). 



V. Dominus vobiscum. 
R. Et cum spiritu tuo. 

V. Oremus, etc. 

Per omnia saecula saeculorum 

R. Amen. 



KYRIE 

KEE'ree-eh eh - LEH ' ee - sawn (three 

times) . 
CHREE 'Steh eh -LEH-ee- sawn (three 

times) . 
KEE'receh eh ' LEH ' ee ' sawn (three 

times) . 

RESPONSES 

V. DAW-mee-noos vawBEES-koom. 
R. EHT KOOM SPEE-ree-too TOO- 

aw. 
V. Aw-REH-moos, etc. 

PEHR AWM-nee-ah SEH'koo4ah 

seh'koo'L A W-room . 
R. AH-mehn. 



GRADUALE 



Requiem aeternam dona eis Domine 

et lux perpetua luceat eis. 

V. In memoria aeterna 

erit Justus 

ab auditione mala 

non timebit. 



REH'kwee-ehm eh-TEHR-nahm DAW- 

nah EH-ees DAW-mecneh 
EHT LOOCKS pehr-PEH-too-ah LOO^ 

tcheh-aht EH-ees. 
V. EETi meh-MAW-ree-ah eh-TEHR- 

nah 
EH-reet TOO-stoos 

AHB ahoo'dee-t^ee-AW-neh MAH-lah 
HAWn tee-MEH'beet. 



30 The Correct Pronunciation of Latin 

TRACTUS 
Absolve Domine, animas 



omnium fidelium defunctorum 
ab omni vinculo delictorum. 
V. Et gratia tua illis succurrente, 
mereantur evadere judicium ultionis. 

V. Et lucis aeternae 
beatitudine perfrui. 



Ahb'SAWL'veh DAW-mee-neh, AH- 

necmahs 
AW7S['nee'Oom fee-DEPi'lecoom deh- 

foonk'TAW-room 
AHB AW-mnee V£EN'koo4aw deh- 

leek'TAW'room. 
V. EHT GRAH't^ee-ah TOO-ah EEL 

lees sook'koo'R£H7s['teh, 
meh'reh'AH7\['toor eh-VAH-deh-reh 

yoo'D££'chee'Oom ool't2,ee'AW' 

nees. 
V. EHT LOO'chees eh-TEHR-neh 
beh-ah'tee-TOO'dee-neh PEHR-froo-ee. 



SEQUENCE 

1 — Dies irae, dies ilia, 

Solvet saeclum in fa villa: 

Teste David cum Sibylla. 
2 — Quantus tremor est futurus, 

Quando judex est venturus 

Cuncta stricte discussurus! 

3 — Tuba mirum spargens sonum 
Per sepulcra regionum, 
Coget omnes ante thronum. 

4 — Mors stupebit et natura, 
Cum resurget creatura, 
Judicanti responsura. 

5 — Liber scriptus proferetur, 
In quo totum continetur, 
tJnde mundus judicetur. 



—DIES IRAE 

1— D££'ehs E&reh, DEE^ehs EEDhh, 
SAWL'vet SEH'cloom EEH fah- 
V££L'lah: TEH'Steh DAH-veed 
KOOM See'B££L4ah. 

2— KooAHN'toos TREH-moor EHST 

foo'TOO'roos, 
KooAHN'daw TOO-decks EHST 

vehn'TOO'roos 
KOONK'tah STREEK'teh dee- 

skoos'SOO-roos! 

3— TOO'bah MEE-room SPAHR^ 

gens SAW'noom 
PEHR seh'POOL'krah reh-gee- 

AW-noom, 
KAW'jet AW-mnehs AHN'teh 

TRAW-noom. 

4— MAWRS stoo'PEH'beet EHT nah- 

TOO-rah, 
KOOM reh'SOOR'jet kreh-ah- 

TOO-rah, 
yoo'dee'KAH7\['tee reh' spawn' 

SOO-rah. 

5 — LEE'behr SKREEP-toos prawfeh- 

REH'toor, 
EE7\[ KooAW TAW'toom kawn- 

tee'7s[EH'toor, 
OON 'deh MOON'doos yoo-dee- 

CHEH'toor. 



According to 
6 — Judex ergo cum sedebit 

Quid'quid latet apparebit 

Nil in ultum remanebit 
7 — Quid sum miser tunc dicturus? 

Quern patronum rogaturus? 

Cum vix Justus sit securus 
8 — Rex tremendae majestatis, 

Qui salvandis salvas gratis, 

Salva me, fons pietatis. 
9 — Recordare Jesu pie. 

Quod sum causa tuae viae; 

Ne me perdas ilia die. 
10- — Quaerens me, sedisti lassus: 

Redemisti crucem passus: 

Tantus labor non sit cassus. 
11 — Juste judex ultionis, 

Donum fac remissionis; 

Ante diem rationis. 
12 — Ingemisco, tamquam reus, 

Culpa rubet vultus mens 

Supplicanti parce Deus. 
1 3 — Qui Mariam absolvisti, 

Et latronum exaudisti 

Mihi quoque spem dedisti. 



Roman Usage 



31 



6— TOO'decks EHR'gaw KOOM seh- 

DEH'beet 
KooEED'kooeed LAH-tet alvpah- 

REH'beet 
l^EEL EEJ<i OOL'toom reh-mah- 

NSH'beet 
1—KooEED SOOM MEE-sehr 

TOONK deek'TOO-roos? 
KooEHM pah'TRAW-noom raw 

gah'TOO-roos? 
KOOM VEECKS TOO-stoos 

SEET seh'KOO-roos 
8—REHCKS treh'MEHN'deh mah^ 

yes'TAH'tees, 
KooEE sahl'VAHN'dees SAHL- 

vahs GRAH'tees, 
SAHL'vah MEH, FAWNS pee- 

eh'TAH'tees. 
9— Reh-cawr-DAH-reh TEH-soo 

PEE^eh, 
KooAWz3 SOOM KAHoo'sah 

TOO-eh V££'eh; 
HEH MEH PEHR'dahs EEL-lah 

D££'eh. 
10— KooEH-rehns MEH, seh-DEE-stee 

LAH'Ssoos: 
Reh'deh'MEE'Stee KROO-tchem 

PAHS'Soos. 
TAHN'toos LAH'bawr NAWN 

SEEr KAHS'Soos. 
11— TOO'Steh TOO 'decks ool-tzee- 

AW'nees, 
DAW-noom FAHK reh-mee-ssec 

AW'nees; 
AHN'teh DEE'chm rah'tsee-AW- 

nees. 
12— Een'jeh'M££'skaw, TAM'kwahm 

REH'Oos, 
KOOL'pah ROO'beht VOOL'toos 

MEH'Oos 
Soo'plee'KAHN'tee PAHR'tcheh 

DEH'Oos. 
13— KooEE Mah'REE'ahm ahb-sawl' 

VEE'Stee, 
EHT lah'TRAW-noom eg'sahoo- 

DEE'Stee 
MEE'kee KooAW-kooeh SPEHM 

deh'DEE'Stee. 



32 The Correct Pro 

14 — Preces meae non sunt dignae; 

Sed tu bonus fac benigne, 

Ne perenni cremer igne. 
1 5 — Inter oves locum praesta, 

Et ab hoedis me sequestra, 

Statuens in parte dextra. 
16 — Confutatis maledictis, 

Flammis acribus addictis, 

Voca me cum benedictis. 
17 — Oro supplex et acclinis, 

Cor contritum quasi cinis, 

Gere curam mei finis. 
18 — Lacrimosa dies ilia, 

Qua resurget ex fa villa. 
19 — Judicandus homo reus; 

Huic ergo parce Deus. 

20 — Pie Jesu Domine, 

dona eis requiem. Amen. 



NUNCIATION OF LaTIN 



14_PR£;H'tches MEH-eh NAWN 

SOOHT DEEN-yeh; 
SEHD rOO BAW-noos FAHK 

beh'N££N'yeh, 
HEH per-EHN-nee KREH-mehr 

EEH^yeh. 
15— EEN'tehr AW-vehs LAWkoom 

PREH'Stah, 
EHr AB EH'dees MEH seh- 

KWEH'Strah, 
STAH'too-ehns EEK PAHR-teh 

DFCK'Strah. 
16 — Kawn-foo'TAH'tees mah'leh 

DEEK'tees, 
FLAHM-mees AHK^ree^boos 

Ahd^DEEK'tees, 
VAW'kah MEH KOOM beh-neh 

DEEK'tees. 
17— AVV-raw SOOP-plecks EHT ahk- 

KLEE-nees, 
KAWR kawn-TREE'toom 

KooAH'see TCHEE-nees, 
JEH-reh KOO-rahm MEH-ee FEE^ 

nees. 
18— Lah'kree-MAW'sah DEE - ehs 

EEL'lah 
KooAH re-SOOR'jet ECKS fah- 

VEEL'lah. 
19 Yoo ' dee - KAHTi - doos AW-maw 

REH'Oos: 
OO-eek EHR 'gaw PAHR-cheh 

DEH'Oos. 
20— PEE-eh TEH'Soo DAW-mee-neh, 
DAW-nah EH-ees REH-kooee- 

ehm. AH'mehn. 



RESPONSES AT THE GOSPEL 



V. Dominus vobiscum 
R. Et cum spiritu tuo. 



V. Sequentia Sancti Evangelii 

secundum Mattheum. 
R. Gloria tibi Domine. 



V. DAW'mecnoos vawBEE'skoom 
R. EHr KOOM SPEE-ree-too TOO^ 

aw. 
V. Seh'kooEHN'tsee-ah SAHNK-tee 
Eh'vahn'fEH'lee-ee 
seh'KOON'doom Maht-THEH-oom. 
R. GL A W-rec-ah TEE-bee DAW-mee- 
neh. 



According to Roman Usage 
OFFERTORY RESPONSES 



33 



Celebrant: Dominus vobiscum. 
R. Et cum spiritu tuo. 



Cel.: DAW'mee'noos vawBEE'skoom. 
R. EHT KOOM SPEE-ree-too TOO- 
aw. 



OFFERTORY 



Domine Jesu Christe, 
Rex gloriae, libera animas 

omnium fidelium defunctorum 

de poenis inferni et de 

prof undo lacu: 

libera eas de ore leonis, 

ne absorbeat eas tartarus, 

ne cadant in obscurum: 

sed signifer sanctus Michael 

repraesentet eas in lucem sanctam: 

Quam olim Abrahae promisisti, 

et semini ejus. 

V. Hostias et preces tibi Domine 

laudis oiferimus: tu suscipe 

pro animabus illis, quarum hodie 

memoriam facimus: fac eas, Domine, 

de morte transire ad vitam. 

(Repeat QUAM OLIM to ^'ejus") 



DAW-mee-neh TEH-soo KREE-steh, 
REHCKS GLAW-ree-eh, LEE-beh-rah 

AH-nee'mahs 
AWM'nee-oom fee'DEH-lee-oom deh- 

foonk'TAW-room 
DEH PEH-nees een-EEHR-nee EHT 

DEH 
praw'EOON'daw LAH-koo: 
LEE'beh-rah EH-ahs DEH AW-reh leh- 

AW'nees, 
HEH ahb'SAWR'beh-aht EH -ahs 

TAHR'tah-roos, 
HEH KAH'dahnt EEH awb-SKOO- 

room: 
SEED SEEN -yee-fehr SAHNK-toos 

MEE'kah-ehl 
reh'preh'SEHN'teht EH-ahs EEH LOO^ 

chehm SAHNK-tahm: 
KooAHM AW'leem AH-brah-eh praw 

mec'SEE'Stee, 
EHT SEH^mee-nee EH-yoos. 
V. AW'Stee-ahs EHT PREH-chehs 

TEE'bee DAW-mee-neh 
LAHoo'dees awf-EEH-ree-moos: TOO 

SOO'shec'peh 
PRAW ah - nee - MAH - boos EEL - lees, 

KooAH-room AW-dee-eh 
meh-MAVV-recahm EAH-tchee-moos; 

EAHK EH>ahs, DAW-mee-neh, 
DEH MAWR'teh trahn-SEE-reh AHD 

VEE'tahm. 
(Repeat "QUAM OLIM" to "Ejus") 



RESPONSES TO THE PREFACE 

Cel: Per omnia saecula saeculorum. Cel.: PEHR AWM-nee-ah SEH-koo- 

lah seh'koo'LAW-room. 

R. Amen. R. AH^mehn. 

V. Dominus vobiscum. V. DAW-mee-noos vawBEE'skoom. 

R. Et cum spiritu tuo. R. EHT KOOM SPEE-ree-too TOO- 

aw. 



34 



The Correct Pronunciation of Latin 



V. Sursum corda. V. SOOR-soom KAWR-dah. 

R. Habemus ad Dominum. R. Ah - BEH - moos AHD DAW - mee - 

noom. 
V. Gratias agamus Domino Deo Nostro. V. GR AH ' tsee - ahs ah ' G AH ' moos 

DAWmee-naw DEH-aw NAW- 

straw. 
R. DEE-neeyoom EHT TOO-stoom 

EHSr. 



R. Dignum et justum est. 



Sanctus, Sanctus, Sanctus 

Dominus Deus Sabaoth. 

Pleni sunt coeli et terra 

gloria tua. 
Hosanna in excelsis. 



Benedictus qui venit 
in nomine Domini. 
Hosanna in excelsis. 



SANCTUS 

SAHNK'toos, SAHNK'toos, SAH^K- 

toos 
DAW ' mee - noos DEH - oos SAH - bah- 

awt. 
PLEH-nee SOOHT TCHEH-lee EHT 

TEHR-rah 
GLAW-ree-ah TOO-ah. 
Aw'SAHTv^-nah een eck-SHELL-sees. 

BENEDICTUS 

Beh-neh'DEEK'toos kooEE VEH-neet 
£E7s( NAW-mee-neh DAW-mee-nee. 
Aw'SAHN-nah EET^ eck-SHELL-sees. 



RESPONSES AT THE PATER NOSTER 



Cel.: Per omnia saecula saeculorum 

R. Amen. 

V. Oremus, etc. Et ne nos inducas 

in tentationem. 
R. Sed libera nos a malo. 

V. Dominus vobiscum. 

R . Et cum spiritu tuo 

V. Pax Domini sit semner vobiscum. 



R. Et cum spiritu tuo. 



Cel: PEHR AWM-nee-ah SEH-koo- 

lah seh-koo'LAW-room. 
R. AH-mehn. 
V. Aw REH' moos, etc. EHT HEH 

HAWS een-DOO'kahs 
££7\[ tehn-tah'tsee-AW-nehm. 
R. SEHD LEE 'beh' rah HAWS AH 

MAH'law. 
V. DAW'mee-noos vawBEE'skoom. 
R. EHTKOOMSPEE-ree-too TOO-aw 
V. PAHCKS DAW-mee-nee SEET 

SEHM'pehr vawBEE-skoom. 
R. EHTKOOMSPEE-ree'tooTOO-aw. 



AGNUS DEI 



Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi: 

dona eis requiem. 

(Repeat '"'" Agnus" and ''dona eis") 

Agnus Dei, qui tollis peccata mundi: 

dona eis requiem * * sempiternam. 



AH-neeyoos DEH^ee, kooEE TAWL- 
lees peck'KAH'tah MOON'dee: 

DAW-nah EH-ees REH-kooee-ehm. 

(Repeat "Agnus" and ''dona eis.") 

AH-neeyoos DEH-ee, kooEE TAWL- 
lees peck'KAH'tah MOON'dee: 

DAW'nah EH-ees REH - kooee - ehm 
sehm-pee-TEHR-nahm . 



According to Roman Usage 



35 



COMMUNION 



Lux aeterna luceat eis, Domine: 

*Cum Sanctis tuis in aeternum, 

quia pius es. 

V. Requiem aeternam dona 

eis Domine, 
et lux perpetua 



LOOCKS eh'TEHR-nah LOO-cheh-aht 
£H'ees, DAW-mee-neh: 

*KOOM SAHNK'tees TOO-ees EEH 
eh'TEHR-noom, 

K\V££'ah PEjE'oos ESS. 

V. R£H 'kwee-ehm eh-TEHR-nahm 
DAVV-nah 

EH-ees DAW-mee-neh, 

£HT LOOCKS pehr-PEH'too-ah 
luceat eis. (Repeat ''Cum Sanctis" to LOO-cheh-aht LH-ees. (Repeat "Cum 



''pius es/') 



Sanctis" to "pius es.") 



RESPONSES 



Ccl.: Dominus Vobiscum 

R. Et Cum spiritu tuo. 

V. Oremus, etc. 

V. Per omnia saecula saeculorum 

R. Amen. 

V. Requiescant in pace. 

R. Amen. 



Cel.: DAW'mee-noos vaw'BjEL-skoom. 
R. LHTKOOMSPLL-ree'tooTOO-aw. 
V. Aw'RLH-moos, etc. 
V. PEHR AWM-nee-ah SLH-koo-lah 

seh'koo'LA W'room . 
R. AH-mehn. 

V. Reh'kwee-LH'skahnt een PAH-cheh. 
R. AH-mehn. 



ABSOLUTION 



Libera me, Domine, de morte 

aeterna in die ilia tremenda; 

Quando coeli movendi sunt 

et terra: Dum veneris judicare 

saeculum per ignem. 

V. Tremens factus sum ego, 

et timeo, dum discussio venerit, 

atque ventura ira. 

(Repeat "Quando coeli" to "terra.") 

V. Dies ilia, dies irae 

calamitatis et miseriae, 

dies magna, et amara valde. 

Dum veneris judicare saeculum 

per ignem. 



LEE'beh-rah MEH, DAW - mee - neh, 

DEH MAWR'teh 
eh'TLHR-nah EEH DEE-eh EEL-lah 

treh'MEHN'dah; 
kooAHN'daw CHEH-lee maw V£HN' 

dee SOOHT 
EHT TEH-rrah: DOOM VEH-neh- 

rees yoo'dee'KAH'reh 
SEH'koo'loom PEHR EEH^yehm. 
V. TREH-mehns EAHK-toos SOOM 

EH'gaw 
EHT TEE-meh-AW, DOOM dees- 

KOOS'see-aw VEH-neh-reet, 
AHT'kooEH vehn-TOO-rah EE-rah. 
(Repeat "Quando coeli" to "terra.") 
V. DEE-ehs EEL'lah, DEE-ehs EE-reh 
kah-lah-mee-TAH'tees EHT mee-SEH- 

rec'ch 
DEE-ehs MAH-neeyah, EHT ah-MAH- 

rah VAHL'deh. 
DOOM VEH-neh-rees yoo-dee-KAH- 

reh SEH'koo'loom 
PEHR EEN-yehm. 



36 The Correct Pronunciation of Latin 

Requiem aeternam dona eis Domine; 
et lux perpetua luceat eis. 
(Repeat "Libera" to "Treme^is.") 



REH-kooee-ehm eh-TEHR-nahm DAW- 
nah £H'ees DAW'mee'neh: 

EHT LOOCKS pehr-PEH-too-ah LOO^ 
cheh'aht £H'ees. 

(Repeat ''Libera" to ^'Tremens.'') 



RESPONSES AFTER THE "LIBERA" 
Kyrie eleison, Christe eleison, 



Kyrie eleison. 

Cel. : "Pater noster," etc. 

V. Et ne nos inducas in tentationem. 

R. Sed libera nos a malo. 

V. A porta inferi. 
R. Erue Domine animam ejus 
(or "animas eorum"). 

V. Requiescat in pace. R. Amen. 

V. Domine exaudi orationem meam. 

R. Et clamor meus ad te veniat. 

V. Dominus vobiscum. 

R. Et cum spiritu tuo. 

V. Oremus, etc. 

V. Per Christum Dominum nostrum. 

R. Amen. 



KEE-ree-eh eh-LEH-ee-sawn, CHREE' 

steh eh'LEH'ec'sawn, 
KEE'reh'eh eh'LEH'ce'sawn. 
Cel: PAH'tehr NAW-stehr, etc. 
V. EHT 7\[£H NAWS een-DOO-kahs 

EEKl ten-tah'tsee-AV/'nehm. 
R. SEED LEE'beh-rah NAWS AH 

MAH'law. 
V. AH PAWR'tah EEN'felvree. 
R. EH-roo-eh DAW-mee-neh AH-nee- 

mahm EH'ceoos (or "AH-nee' 
mahs eh'AW'room"'"'). 
V. Reh'kwee-EH'skaht een PAH-cheh. 
R. AH-mehn. 
V. DAW'mee'neh egs-AHoo-dee aw 

rah'tsee'AW-nehm MEH'ahm. 
R. EHT KLAH-mawr MEH-oos AHD 

TEH VEH-nee-aht. 
V. DAW-mee-noos vaw-BEE-skoom. 
R. EHT koom SPEE-ree-too TOO-aw. 
V. Aw'REH-moos, etc. 
V. PEHR KREE - stoom DAW - mee- 

noom NAW'Stroom. 
R. AH-mehn. 



BENEDICTUS 



Cel.: Ego sum. 

Choir: Benedictus Dominus Deus Israel: 

quia visitavit, et fecit 

redemptionem suae. 
2 — Et erexit cornu salutis nobis: 

in domo David pueri sui. 

3 — Sicut locutus est per os sanctorum; 

quia saeculo sunt, 
prophetarum ejus: 



Cel: EH-aawSOOM. 
Choir: Beh-neh-DEEK-toos DAW- 
mecnoos DEH'Oos EE'srah'chl: 
kooEE-ah vee'see-TAH-veet, EHT 

EEH'cheet 
reh'dehmp'tsec'AW'nehm SOO-eh. 
2— EHT eh 'REHCK' sect KAWR- 
nooh sah'LOO'tees 7\[AW'bees: 
EEK DAW-maw DAH-veed 
POOH-eh-ree SOO^ee. 
3— SEE' koot law'KOO'toos EHST 
PEHR AWS sahnk'TAW-room: 
kooEE-ah SEH'koo'law SOOKT, 
prawfeh'TAH-room EH'ceoos. 



According to 
4 — Salutem ex inimicis nostris, 

et de manu omnium qui oderunt nos 

5 — Ad faciendam misericordiam 
cum patribus nostris; 
et memorari testament! sui sancti. 

6 — Jusjurandum, quod juravit 

ad Abraham patrem nostrum, 

daturum se nobis. 
7 — Ut sine timore, 

de manu inimicorum 

nostrorum liberati, 

serviamus illi. 
8 — In sanctitate et justitia 



coram ipso, 

omnibus diebus nostris. 



9 — Et tu puer, propheta 

Altissimi vocaberis; 

praeibis enim ante faciem 

Domini parare vias ejus, 
10 — Ad dandam scientiam 

salutis plebi ejus; 

in remissionem peccatorum eorum: 

11 — Per viscera misericordiae Dei 

nostri: 

in quibus visitavit nos, 

oriens ex alto. 



Roman Usage 



37 



4— Sah'LOO'tehm ECKS ee-nee-MEE- 
tehees T^AW'Strees, 
EHT DEH MAH-noo AWM-nee- 
oom KWEE awDEH^roont 
NAWS 

5 — AHD fah' tehee 'EH7\['dahm mee- 
seh'ree-KAWR'dee'ahm 
KOOM PAH'tree-boos NAW- 

strees; 
EHT me-maw'RAH'ree teh-stah' 
MEHN'tee SOO^ee SAHNK- 
tee. 

6— Yoos-yoo'RAHN'doom, KooAVVD 

Yoo'RAH'veet 
AHD AH'brah-ahm PAH-trehm 

7s[AWS'troom, 
dah'TOO-room SEH NAW-bees. 
7_00T SEE -neh tee-MAW-reh, 

DEH MAH-noo ecnee-mee' 

KAW-room 
naw'STRAVV-room lee-beh-RAH- 

tee, 
Sehr'vee'AH-moos EEL-lee. 
8— EEN sahnk'tee-TAH'teh EHT 

yoos'TEE'tsecah 
KAW-rahm EEP-saw, 
AWM' nee 'boos dee -EH -boos 

NAW'Strees. 
9— EHT rOO POO-ehr, prawEEH- 

tah 
Ahl'TEES'see-mee vawKAH-beh- 

rees; 
preh'EE'bees EH -neem AHA['teh 

EAH-checehm 
DAW-mee-nee pah-RAH-reh VEE^ 

ahs EH-yoos. 
10— AHD DAHN'dahm shee-EHN' 

tsee-ahm 
sah'LOO'tees PLEH-hee EH-eeoos; 
EEKl reh-mees'see'AW'nehm pehk- 

kah'TAW-room eh-AW-room: 
11— PEHR VEE'sheh-rah mee-seh-ree- 

CAWR'dee-eh DEH^ee 
NAW'Stree: 
EEJi kooEE'boos vee'see'TAH-veet 

1<[A\VS 
AW-ree-ehns ECKS AHL-taw. 



38 The Correct Pron 

12 — Illuminare his, qui in tenebris, 

et in umbra mortis sedent: 

ad dirigendos pedes nostros in viam 

pads. 
13 — Requiem aeternam 
dona eis (ei) Domine. 



14 — Et lux perpetua, 
luceat eis (ei). 



Ego sum resurrectio 
et vita: qui credit in me, 



UNCIATION OF LaTIN 

12— EeMoo-mee-NAH-reh EES, KWEE 
EEKi TEH-neh'brees 
EUr EEH OOM'brah MAWR- 

tees SEH'dehnt: 
AHD dee-ree-JEN-daws PEH-dehs 
NAWS'traws EEN VEE-ahm 
PAH'chees. 
13— REH'kooee-ehm eh'TEHR-nahm 
Dawnah EH-ees (Eh-ee) DAW- 
mec'neh. 
14— EHT LOOCKS pehr-PEH-too-ah 
LOO'cheh-aht EH-ees (EH^ee). 



ANTIPHON — EGO SUM 



etiam si mortuus fuerit, vivet: 

et omnis qui vivit et credit 

in me, non morietur in aeternum. 



EH'gaw SOOM reh-soo-RRECK-tsee-aw 
EHT VEE'tah: kooEE KREH-deet EE7\[ 

MEH, 
EH 'tsee-ahm SEE MAWR - too - oos 

EOO-eh-reet, VEE-veht: 
EHT AWM-nees kooEE VEE - veet 

EHT KREH'deet 
EEH MEH, HAWrM mawree-EH'toor 

EE7i eh'TEHR-noom. 



RESPONSES 



Cel.: Kyrie eleison 
Chon: Christe eleison 

Kyrie eleison. 
Cel.: Pater noster, etc. 

Et ne nos inducas in tentationem. 

Ch.: Sed libera nos a malo. 

V. A porta inferi 

R. Erue, Domine, animam ejus. 

V. Requiescat in pace. R. Amen. 

V. Domine exaudi orationem meam. 

R. Et clamor meus ad te veniat. 

V. Dominus vobiscum. 
R. Et cum spiritu tuo. 
V. Oremus — Per Christum Dominum 
nostrum. 



Cel.: KEE'ree-eh eh'LEH'ee-sawn. 
Choir: KREE-steh eh-LEH-ee-sawn. 

KEE-ree-eh eh-LEH-ee-sawn. 
Cel.: PAH'tehr NAW'Stehr, etc. 

ET HEH NAWS een-DOO'cahs 
EEJ\l ten-tah'tsee-AW-nehm. 
Ch.: SEED LEE'beh-rah HAWS AH 

MAH'law. 
V. AH PAWR'tah EEN'feh-ree. 
R. EH-roo-eh, DAW-mee-neh, AH-nee- 

mahm EH^yoos. 
V. Reh'kooee- EH 'skaht EE7<[ PAH- 

cheh. R. AH'mehn. 
V. DAW-mee-neh eg-SAHoo-dee aw' 

rah'tsee-AW'nehm MEH-ahm. 
R. EUr KLAH-mawr MEH-oos AHD 

TEH VEH-nee-aht. 
V. DAW'mee-noos vaw-BEES-koom. 
R. EHT KOOM SPEE'ree-tooTOO-aw. 
V. aw'REH-moos — PEER KREE- 

stoom DAW'mee-noom J^AW- 

stroom . 



According to Roman Usage 



39 



R. Amen. V. Requiem aeternam dona R. AH-mehn. V. REH-kooee'ehm eh' 

TEHR-nahm DAW-nah EH^ee 
DAW'mee'neh. 
R. EHT LOOCKS pehr - P£H - too - ah 



ei Domine 
R. Et lux perpetua luceat ei. 
Chanters: Requiescat in pace 



Choir: Amen. 

Cel.: Anima ejus et animae 

omnium fidelium defunctorum 

per misericordiam Dei requiescant 

in pace. R. Amen. 



LOO'cheh-aht EH-ee. 
Chanters: Reh - kooee - EH - skaht ££7\[ 

PAH'cheh 
Choir: AH'mehn. 

Cel.: AH-nee-mah EH-yoos EHT AH- 
nee-meh 
AWM'nee'Oom fee 'D£H' lee 'oom 

deh'foonk'TAW'room 
PEHR mee'seh-ree'CAWR-dee-ahm 
DEH-ee-reh-kooee'EH'skahnt 
EEK PAH'cheh. R. AH-mehn. 



IN PARADISUM 



In paradisum deducant te Angeli; 
In tuo adventu suscipiant te 
Martyres, et perducant te in 
civitatem sanctam Jerusalem. 
Chorus Angelorum te suscipiat, et 
cum Laziaro quondam paupere aeternam 
habeas requiem. 



EEn pah-rah'DEE'Soom deh-DOO-kahnt 

TEH AHNieh'lee; 
EEH TOO -aw ahd-VEHN'too soo- 

SHEE'pee-ahnt TEH 
MAHR'tee-rehs, EHT pehr-DOO-kahnt 

TEH EEH 
Chee-vee-TAH'tehm SAHNK-tahm 

Yeh'ROO'sah'lehm. 
KAW-roos ahn-jeh' LAW -room TEH 

soo'SHEE'pee-aht, EHT 
KOOM LAH'dzah-raw kooAWN' 

dahm PAHoo-peh-reh eh-TEHR-nahm 
AH'beh-ahs REH-kooecehm. 



CHAPTER VI 

Jienebiction ||pmnsi 

O SALUTARIS HOSTIA 



O Salutaris Hostia 
Quae coeli pandis ostium, 

Bella premunt hostiha. 

Da robur, fer auxihum. 



AW sah'loo'TAH-rees AW-stee-ah, 
KooEH CHEHAee PAHN'dees AW- 

stec'oom, 
BEHL'lah PREH-moont awSTEE-lee- 

ah. 
DAH RAW'boor, FEHR ahoo-XEE- 

lee-oom. 



40 The Correct Pronunciatiox of Latin 

Uni trinoque Domino 00 -nee tree-TsJAW-kweh DAW-mee- 

Sit sempiterna gloria, 

Qui vitam sine termino 



naw 



SEET sehm-pee-TEHR'nah CLAW- 

ree^ah, 
Koo££ VEE'tahm SE&neh TEHR- 

mee'naw 
Nobis donet in patria. Amen. NAW- bees DAW-neht EEN PAH- 

tree'ah. AH-mehn. 



Adoro te devote, latens Deitas, 
Quae sub his figuris vere latitas: 
Tibi se cor menm totum subjicit, 
Quia te contemplans totum deficit. 

Visus, tactus, gustus in te fallitur 
Sed auditu solo tuto creditur: 
Credo quidquid dixit Dei Filius: 
Nil hoc verbo veritatis verius. 
Jesu, quem velatum nunc adspicio, 
Oro fiat illud quod tarn sitio: 
Ut te revelata cernens facie, 
Visu sim beatus tuae gloriae. Amen 



ADORO TE DEVOTE 

Ah'DAW-raw TEH deh-VAW-teh, 

LAH'tehns DEH-ee-tahs, 
KooEH SOOB EES fee-GOO-rees VEH- 

reh L AH'tee-tahs : 
TEE'bee SEH CAWR MEH-oom 

TAW'toom SOOB-yee-cheet, 
KooE£'ah rEH kawn-TEHM-plahns 

TAW'toom DEH'fee-cheet. 



VEE ' soos, TAHK - toos, GOO - stoos 

EEJi TEH FAHL'lee-toor 
SEHD ahoo'DEE'too SAW-law TOO^ 

taw CREH'dee-toor: 
CREH'daw kooEED'kooeed DEECKS^ 

eet DEH-ee EEE-lee-oos: 
HEEL AWK VEHR 'baw veh - ree - 

TAH'tees VEH-ree-oos. 
TEH'Soo kooEHM veh - LAH - toom 

HOOHK ahd'SPEE'chee-aw, 
AW-raw EEE-aht EEL-lood kooAWD 

TAHM SEE't^ee-aw: 
OOr TEH reh'veh'LAH'tah CHEHR^ 

nehns EAH-tchec'eh, 
VEE'soo SEEM beh-AH-toos TOO-eh 

GL A W-ree-eh. AH-mehn. 



PANGE LINGUA— TANTUM ERGO 

1 — Pange lingua gloriosi 



Corporis mysterium, 
Sanguinisque pretiosi, 
Quem in mundi pretium 
Fructus ventris generosi 
Rex efFudit gentium. 



1 — PAHT^^'jeh LEE]\( 'gooah glawrec 
AW'see 
CAWR' paw rees mec'STEH'ree' 

oom, 
Sahn-gooec'TsJEE'skooeh preh'tsec' 
AW'see, 
KooEHM EEn. MOON'dee PREH- 
tsee'oom 
EROOK'toos VEHN'trees jeh-neh- 
RAW'see 
REHCKS ehf'EOO'deet JEHN'tsee- 
oom. 



According to Roman Usage 
2 — Nobis datus, nobis natus 



41 



Ex intacta Virgine, 
Et in mundo conversatus, 
Sparse verbi semine, 
Sui moras incolatus 
Miro clausit or dine. 

3 — In supremae nocte coenae 

Recumbens cum fratribus, 

Observata lege plene 

Cibis in legalibus, 

Cibum turbae duodenae 

Se dat suis manibus. 
4 — Verbum caro, panem verum 

Verbo carnem efficit: 

Fitque sanguis Christi merum, 

Et si sensus deficit, 

Ad firmandum cor sincerum 

Sola fides sufficit. 



2— NAW'bees DAH-toos, NAW-bees 

NAH'toos 
ECKS een-TAHK'tah VEER-gee- 

neh, 
EHT EE7<i MOON'daw cawn-vehr- 

SAH'toos, 
SPAHR'saw VEHR-bee SEH-mee- 

neh, 
SOO^ee MAVV-rahs een-cawLAH- 

toos 
MEE-raw KLAHoo-seet AWR-dee- 

neh. 

3— EEN soo'PREH-meh NAWK-teh 

TCHEH-neh 
REH'koom-behns KOOM ERAH- 

trec'boos 
AWB'sehr-VAH'tah LEH-jeh 

PLEH-neh 
TCHEE'bees EEH leh-GAH-lee- 

boos, 
TCHEE'boom TOOR-beh doo-aw 

DEH-neh 
SEH DAHT SOO-ees MAH-nee- 

boos 
4— VEHR'boom KAH-raw, PAH-nehm 

VEH-room 
VEHR'baw KAHR-nehm EHE-fee- 

cheet: 
EEET'kooeh SAHN'gooees KREE^ 

stee MEH'room, 
EHT SEE SEHN'Soos DEH-fee- 

cheet 
AHD feer-MAHN'doom KAWR 

seen-TCHEH-room 
SAW'lah EEE'dehs SOOE-fee-cheet. 



TANTUM ERGO 



5 — Tantum Ergo Sacramentum 
Veneremur cernui: 
Et antiquum documentum 
Novo cedat ritui: 
Praestet fides supplementum 
Sensuum defectui. 



5 — TAH7s[ ' toom EHR - gaw sah - krah' 

MEH7\['toom 
Veh-neh-REH-moor TCHEHR-noo- 

ee: 
EHT ahn-TEE'koo-oom dawkoo- 

MEHN'toom 
NAW'vaw TCHEH'daht REE-too- 

ee: 
PREH'Steht EEE -dehs soo-pleh- 

MEHN'toom 
SEHN'Soo'Oohm deh-EECK-too^ee. 



42 The Correct Pronunciation of Latin 

6 — Genitori, Genitoque 



Laus et jubilatio, 

Salus, honor, virtus quoque 

Sit et benedictio: 
Procedenti ab utroque 

Compar sit laudatio. Amen. 



6— Jeh-nee-TAW-ree, Jeh-nee-TAW- 

kooeh 
LAHoos EHT yoo-bee-LAH'tsee' 

aw, 
SAH'loos, AW-nawr, VEER^toos 

kooAW'kooeh 
SEET EHT beh-neh-DEEK'tsee-aw: 
Praw'tcheh'DEH7\['tee AHB oo- 

TRAW'kooeh 
KAWM'pahr SEET lahoo-DAH-tsee-- 

aw. AH-mehn. 



V. PAH-nehm deh TCHEH-law preh- 
stee-TEE'Stee EH-ees. 
(T. P. AhMeh'LOO-eeah.) 
R. Omne delectamentum in se habentem. R. AWM •- neh deh ' leek - tah ' MEH?\[ ' 



V. Panem de coelo praestitisti eis. 
(T. P. Alleluia.) 



(T. P. Alleluia.) 



toom EEK[ SEE ah-BEHTv^-tehm. 
(T. P. AhMeh'LOO-eeah.) 



PANIS ANGELICUS 
Panis Angelicus fit panis hominum; 
Dat panis coelicus figuris terminum: 
O res mirabilis! manducat Dominum 
Pauper, servus, et humilis. 



PAH-nees Ahn - JEH - lee - koos FEET 

PAH-nees AW'mee-noom; 
DAHT PAH-nees TCHEH-lee-koos fee- 

GOO-rees TEHR'niee-noom 
AW REHS mee-RAH-bee-lees! mahn- 

DOO'kaht DAW-mee-noom 
PAHoo ' pehr, SEHR - voos EHT 00^ 

mee'lees. 



Te trina Deitas unaque poscimus, 
Sic nos tu visita, sicut te colimus: 
Per tuas semitas due nos quo tendimus, 
Ad lucem quam inhabitas. Amen. 



TEH TREE-nah DEH-ee-tahs OO-nah- 

kooeh PAW'shee'moos, 
SEEK HAWS TOO VEE-see-tah, SEE^ 

koot TEH KAW'lee-moos: 
PEHR TOO^ahs SEH-mee-tahs DOOK 

HAWS KooAW TEHN^dee-moos, 
AHD LOO'chehm kooAHM een-AH- 

bee-tahs. AH'mehn. 



AVE VERUM CORPUS 



Ave verum Corpus natum 

de Maria Virgine: 

Vere passum, immolatum in 



AH'veh VEH-room KAWR-poos 

7\[AH'toom 
DEH Mah'REE-ah VEER-gee-neh: 
VEH-reh PAHS-soom, eem-mawLAH- 

toom EEK 



According to iIoman Usage 



43 



cruce pro homine: 
Ci'ijus latus perforatum 

fluxit aqua et sanguine: 

Esto nobis praegustatum 
mortis in examine. 

O Jesu dulcis! O Jesu pie! 
O Jesu fili Mariae. 

ADOREMUS IN AETERNUM 
Adoremus in aeternum 
Sanctissimum Sacramentum. 



KROO'tcheh PRAW AW-mee neh: 
KOO-yoos LAH'toos pehr-fawRAH- 

toom 

FLOOCK'Stet AH-kooah EHT SAHN' 

gooee^neh: 
EH'Staw 7s[AW'bees preh-goo-STAH' 
toom MAWR'tees EEH egs-AH- 
mee'neh. 
AW TEH ' soo DOOL - chees! AW 

TEH'Soo PEE-eh! 
Aw TEH'Soo FEE'lee Mah-REE-eh. 

AND LAUDATE DOMINUM 

Ah ' daw ' REH ' moos EEN eh - TEHR- 

noom 
Sahnk' TEES' see -moom Sah - krah - 

MEHN'toom. 



Laudate Dominum omnes gentes: 

Laudate eum omnes populi. 

Quoniam confirmata 
est super nos 
misericordia ejus: 
Et Veritas Domini 
manet in aeternum. 
Gloria Patri, et Fiho: 

et Spiritui Sancto. 
Sicut erat in principio, 



Lahoo ' DAH - teh DAW - mee - noom 

AW-mnehs JEHN'tehs: 
Lahoo'DAH'teh EH-oom AWM-nehs 

PAW'poo'lee. 
KooAW-nee-ahm kawn-feer-MAH-tah 

EHST SOO'pehr HAWS mee-seh- 

ree-KAWR'dee-ah EH-yoos: 
EHT VEH ' ree - tahs DAW - mee - nee 

MAH-neht EE7<[ eh-TEHR-noom. 
GLAW-ree-ah PAH-tree EHT EEE-lee- 



aw: 
EHT Spee-REE'too-ee SAHNK-taw, 
SEE'koot EH-raht EEH preen-CHEE- 

pee-aw, 
EHT HOOHK EHT SEHM-pehr, 
EHT EEH SEH'koo'lah Seh-koo-LAW- 

room. AH-mehn. 

Note: The "Adoremus in aeternum," etc., can be repeated at the end of Psalm and also inserted before 
the "Gloria Patri" if desired. 

ANTIPHONS IN HONOR OF THE BLESSED VIRGIN 

AVE MARIA 



et nunc, et semper, 

et in saecula saeculorum. Amen. 



Ave Maria, gratia plena: 
Dominus tecum, benedicta tu 



AH'veh Mah'REE-ah, GRAH-tsee-ah 

PLEH-nah: 
DAW'mee-noos TEH'koom, beh'ueh' 

DEEK'tah rOO 



44 The Correct Pronunciation of Latin 

in mulieribus, et benedictus ££7^ moo'lee'EH'ree-boos, EHT beh' 

neh'D££K'toos 
fructus ventris tui, Jesus. FROOK - toos VEHT^ - trees TOO ' ee, 

TEH'Soos. 
Sancta Maria, Mater Dei, SAH'HK^ah Mah-REE-ah, MAH-tehr 

DEH^ee, 
ora pro nobis peccatoribus, AW-rah PRAW 7s(AVV'bees pehk-kah- 

TAW-ree-boos, 
nunc, et in hora mortis nostrae. Amen. 7<[007<IK, EHT ££7\[ AW - rah 

MAWR'tees NAW-streh. AH-mehn. 



ALMA REDEMPTORIS MATER 



Alma Redemptoris Mater, 
quae pervia coeli porta manes, 
Et Stella maris, succurre cadenti, 
suigere, qui curat populo: 
Tu quae genuisti, natura mirante, 
tuum sanctum Genitorem: 
Virgo prius ac posterius, 
Gabrielis ab ore sumens illud Ave, 
peccatorum miserere. 



AHL-mah reh-dehmp-TAW-rees MAH- 
tehr, 

KooEH PEHR'vee- ah CHEHAee 

PAWR'tah MAH-nehs, 
EHT STEHL'lah MAH-rees, soo- 

KKOO-rreh kah-DEHN'tee, 
SOOR'jeh-reh kooEE KOO-raht PAW- 

poo'law: 

TOO kooEH jeh-noo'EE'Stee, nah-TOO- 

rah mee-RAHN'teh, 
TOO ' oom SAHA[K ' toom jeh ' nee ' 

TAW-rehm: 

VEER 'gaw PREE 'oos AHK paw 

STEH'ree-oos, 
Gah'bree'EH'lees AHB AW-reh 

SOO-mehns EEL-lood AH-veh, 
peck'kah'TAW'room mee-seh'REH-reh. 



AVE REGINA COELORUM 



Ave Regi'na coelorum, 
Ave Domina Angelorum: 

Salve radix, salve porta, 

Ex qua mundo lux est orta. 

Gaude Virgo gloriosa. 

Super omnes speciosa: 



AH'veh reh'JEE-nah cheh-LAW-room 
AH'veh DAW-mee-nah ahn-jeh-LAW- 

room: 
SAHL'veh RAH-deecks, SAHL-veh 

PAWR'tah, 
ECKS kooAH MOON'daw LOOCKS 

EHST AWR'tah. 
GAHoo'deh \^EER'gaw glawree AW- 

sah, 
SOO'pehr AWM-ness speh-chee-AW- 

sah: 



According to Roman Usage 
Vale, o valde decora, 

Et pro nobis Christum exora. 



45 



VAH'leh, AW VAHL'deh deh-CAW- 
rah, 

EUr PRAW NAW'bees KREE- 
stoom eg'SAW'rah. 



REGINA COELI 



Regi'na coeH laetare, alleluia: 
Quia quern meruisti portare, alleluia, 
Resurrexit, sicut dixit, alleluia: 
Ora pro nobis Deum, alleluia. 



Reh'JEE-nah CHEH-lee leh-TAH-reh 
ahHeh'LOO-eeah: 

Koo££'ah kooEHM meh-roo-EE-stee 
pawr-TAH-reh, ahl-leh-LOO-eeah: 

Reh'Soor'RECK'seet, SEE-koot 
DEECK'seet ahMeh-LOO-eeah: 

AW-rah praw 7S[AW'bees DEH-oom, 
ahMeh'LOO-eeah. 



SALVE REGINA 



Salve, Regina, mater misericordiae: 
Vita, dulcedo, et spes nostra, salve. 
Ad te clamamus, exsules, filii Hevae. 
At te suspiramus, gementes et flentes 
in hac lacrimarum valle. 
Eia ergo, Advocata nostra, illos tuos 
misericordes oculos ad nos converte. 



Et Jesum, benedictum fructum ventris 
tui, 

nobis post hoc exsilium ostende. 

O clemens: O pia: O dulcis Virgo Maria. 



SAHL'veh Reh-JEE-nah MAH-tehr 
Mee-seh-ree-CA WR'dee-eh : 

VEE 'tah, dool'TCHEH'daw, EUr 
SPEHS NAW'Strah SAHL-veh. 

AHD TEH clah'MAH-moos, ECK-soo- 
lehs, EEE'lee-ee EH-veh. 

AHD TEH soo'spee-RAH-moos, jeh- 
MEHN'tehs EHT ELEHN'tehs 

EEK AHCK lah-kree-MAH-room 
VAHL'leh. 

EH-eeah EHR-gaw, Ahd-vawKAH-tah 
NAW'Strah, EEL-laws TOO-aws 

mee'seh-ree-CAWR'dehs AW-kocK 
lawss AHD HAWS kawn-VEHR- 
teh. 

EHT TEH'Soom beh-neh-DEEK-toom 
EROOK'toom VEHN'trees TOO^ee, 

NAW'bees PAWST AWK eck-SEE- 
lee'oom avv^-STEHN'deh. 

AW KLEH-mehns, AW PEE-ah, AW 
DOOL'chees VEER-gaw mah-REE- 
ah. 



46 



APPENDIX 



Some Practical Suggestions For Reciting 
The Office Well 



By O. S. U. 



In order to recite the Office well, a good 
pronunciation is above all necessary, for it is 
the only means of attaining a harmonious 
whole. And for this there must be : 

(1) Purity of tone; (2) Uniformity in pro- 
nunciation and in time, neither hurrying nor 
dragging; (3) Uniformity in ceremonies: ris- 
ing, sitting down, bowing all together; this 
alone is a great help to all the rest. 

A good pronunciation is arrived at by the 
following means: 

Equality of the syllables. In Latin all the 
syllables have about the same value (time) in 
recitation as well as in singing. They should, 
therefore, all be pronounced distinctly, without 
either hurrying or dragging. When two vowels 
occur together in a word they must be pro- 
nounced separately (ho^-di^-e^, not ho^-die-). 

Accentuation. Uniformity of pace, once es- 
tablished, we must watch carefully over our 
accentuation, which consists of a light and 
rapid stress on the accented syllable, without 
however delaying on it. Raise the accented 
syllabic, do not crush it. It must not be a 
sudden jerk, but a little push forward, slightly 
crescendo and rendered more noticeable by the 
softening of the unaccented syllables which 
follow. The accent must not be regarded as 
anything forced, but as a slight raising of the 
voice. It will then be a real outburst of the 
soul, a veritable song; thus keeping something 
of its primitive nature, and giving life to the 
recitation or the singing. 

Good accentuation will also facilitate uni- 
formity, by marking out certain accented syl- 
lables which by their frequent recurrence will 
serve as landmarks, to keep the harmony of 
movement. 

In Latin the accent is never on the last syl- 
lable. It falls on the first in words of two 
syllables, and on the syllable marked with an 
accent in words of more than two syllables. 
In psalmody, whether recited or sung, the ac- 
cents are not all equal. The most perfect way 
is to begin in such a manner that the strongest 
accent is the last one before the mediant or 
in cadences with two accents, the last two; i.e., 



Crescendo, and then to go on from there de' 
crescendo to the end of the verse. 

These delicate shades of sound, though more 
noticeable in singing, can be made in simple 
recitation. We should at least tend towards 
their realisation in order to get a recitation 
with some life in it and not too monotonous. 

In the hymns the pace should be a little 
quicker and care must be taken to observe the 
metrical accent which, in the hymns of the 
Little Office, consists of a noticeable, but not 
exaggerated, prolongation of the last accented 
syllable in each line. 

Tliis prolongation is made also, but less 
markedly (without doubling the value) on the 
last accented syllable before the asterisk * 
which marks the mediant in the Psalms. The 
prolongation of the metrical accent necessarily 
affects the last syllables of the verse. It is not 
so much a stress as a very slight slowing down 
of the time; that is to say, it should not give 
the idea of a pause or a stop. 

Of the Rhythm 

Rhythm is the regulation of movement; and 
movement includes action motion and rest. 

(Do not confuse rest and rests. You rest on 
your right foot while you swing the left leg 
forward in order to make a step in advance; 
and then you rest on your left foot in order 
to swing the right leg forward for the same 
purpose. But you are walking all the time, 
not reposing.) 

Rests in music are signs for silence. 

Practical Remarks 

One thing above all necessary, is the choice 
of a tone which best suits the Choir. It will 
depend on the nature of the voices and will 
be the one most suitable to the majority. It 
should be neither too high nor too low, but 
rather higher than lower, if the tone is to be 
kept up well all through the OfRce. This of 
course necessitates sustained effort, without 
which nothing can be done. The time, or pace, 
neither too slow nor hurried, should be given 
out clearly and firmly at the "Deus in adju- 
torium." This versiclc must be recited or sung 



47 



without pauses or rests, but simply with the 
mora vocis, or sUght ritardando and diminu' 
endo. A very ordinary fault, which must 
be avoided, is cutting it up into parts. The 
Invitatory should be said at a slightly quicker 
pace, but calmly and without hurry. Mark the 
great pause well from the very beginning, that 
the Choir may take up without hesitation; the 
verses of the Psalms must be well accented and 
the rhythm well marked. 

The Hymns should move at a brisk pace, 
with due regard to the influence of the metrical 
accent. 

The Antiphoyis must be recited in perfect 
concord, paying attention to the different 
pauses. 

In the Psalms care must be taken to keep 
up the pitch, avoiding taking up the first syl' 
lable after the mediant, and the first one of 
the next verse on a lower pitch. 

Endeavor to give some life to the psalmody 
by good accentuation, graduated according to 
the rules already given. 

The versicles are always recited or sung in 
one breath; avoid splitting them up, a very 
ordinary fault. 

The Lessons must be read or sung calmly, 
with a very distinct pronunciation and perfect 
accentuation, noticing all the pauses marked, 
and ma\ing them; so that everyone may be 
able to follow without even looking at the 
book. 

The Responses are made up of two parts: 
(a) the body of the Response; (b) the versicle. 
The body of the Response is again divided by 
an asterisk, which demands a great pause of 
two beats. For the versicles, keep to the pauses 
indicated. 

The Choir should take up the reply (2nd 
part of the Response) firmly and without hesi- 
tation. 

The Prayers need to be recited or sung 
evenly, without hurry, and with good accentua' 
tion, quite unaffectedly, with freedom and 
ease, but keeping the meaning of the text clear 
by exact conformity to the signs. The words 
well (but not too much) articulated, the pray 
ers being said by one voice for the whole 
Choir. 

N. B. — Whether the OfEce be sung or sim- 
ply recited, and whether entirely or in part 
only, all these rules hold good. The only dif- 
ference is, that when it is sung, the move- 
ment will be a little slower and the pauses will 
consequently be longer, as they are determined 



by the amount of impetus given at the be- 
ginning. 

The rests are marked by pauses and it is all 
important to know where to place these pauses 
and how to make them and where to make 
them. The effect of pauses made with dis- 
cernment is: 

(a) To render the text more intelligible, by 
the very fact of the good rhythmic pronuncia- 
tion. 

(b) To make the recitation or the singing 
easier and more agreeable by the perfect order- 
ing of motion and rest. 

(c) And at the same time to facilitate the 
blending of the voices when several have to 
recite or sing together. 

There are several kinds of pauses: 

(1) The smallest (mora vocis) or simple 
delay of the voice without taking breath. 

(2) The little pauses (mora vocis) with a 
respiration taken off the value of the doubled 
syllable. 

(3) The great pauses, with respiration and 
a silence of one or two beats, over and above 
the doubled value of the syllable. 

To sum up all that regards the pauses, we 
may say that a silence of one beat must be 
observed : 

( 1 ) After every intonation. 

(2) Before each choir answers the other. 

(3) At the end of each verse of the Psalms. 

(4) In the middle and at the end of each 
strophe of the Hymns. This rest in the middle 
of the strophe consists in doubling the value 
of the last (accented) syllable and in adding 
thereto a time of silence before taking up the 
third line. 

(5) Before the Amen said by both choirs 
at the end of the Hymns. If there is no change 
of Choir, as at the end of the Gloria Patri, 
the Amen follows straight on without any 
pause. 

A Silence of 2 heats must be observed at the 
asterisk : 

(1) In the Invitatory before the reply. 

(2) In the Psalms at the mediant of each 
verse. 

(3) At the Responses, in the middle of the 
response. 

Great care must be taken to observe all these 

rests perfectly. 

(From the Catholic Choirmaster) 



^ ■*'<^ 



Date Due 






PA 2117 ¥37 



AUTHOR 

de Angelis, Eev. Michael 



■"^'-^ The Correct Pronunciation 
of Latin ace. tQ Rogian .Usage 



DATE DUE 



BORROWER'S NAME 






1.. d 7 2 2 



Id 






JCA N .EVA NS 



1 -^ . • r^, <-\ /-^ 



F3 7 



■4 



BOSTON UNIVERSITY 



III 



1719 02753 772-