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Full text of "The correspondence of William I. and Bismarck : with other letters from and to Prince Bismarck"

THE CORRESPONDENCE of 

WILLIAM I. 
& B ISM ARCK 

WITH OTHER LETTERS from 
and to PRINCE BISMARCK 




BISMARCK. 



THE CORRESPONDENCE of 

WILLIAM I. 
BISMARCK 



WITH OTHER LETTERS from 
and to PRINCE BISMARCK 

TRANSLATED BY J. A. FORD WITH 
PORTRAIT AND FACSIMILE LETTERS 

IN TWO VOLUMES- VOLUME TWO 




NEW YORK- FREDERICK A. 
STOKES COMPANY PUBLISHERS 





4. 



Copyright, 1903, 
BT FREDERICK A. STOKES COMPANT. 

Published in May, 1903. 
All rights reserved. 



SYNOPSIS OF THE LETTERS 

IN VOLUME II 

NUMBER FAG* 

1. BISMARCK TO ALBERT VON BULOW i 

April 12, '48. 

The Landtag has passed a vote of two million pounds under 
the influence of fear. David Hansemann's supreme power 
over the tax-payer's purse. 

2. FREIHEKR OTTO v. MANTEUFFEL, PRUSSIAN PRIME MINISTER 

AND MINISTER FOR FOREIGN AFFAIRS, TO BISMARCK . 3 

Berlin, June 7, '51. 

Czar Nicholas an opponent of constitutionalism. The 
policy of Austria and of Prussia. 

3. FREIHERR EDWIN v. MANTEUFFEL, PRUSSIAN FIELD-MARSHAL, 

TO BISMARCK . 3 

Berlin, June 9, '51. 

The question of the pay received by Prussian officers; a 
better way to raise the status of the Prussian officer 
would be to disabuse the officers of other German con- 
tingents that they are his equals. 

4. Orro v. MANTEUFFEL TO BISMARCK . ' . . . 4 

Berlin, August 15, '51. 

The King has no objection to Bismarck coming as far as 
Mayence to meet him. 

* v 5. OTTO v. MANTEUFFEL TO BISMARCK 5 

Berlin, October 4, '51. 

Enclosing a statement by Prince Schwarzenberger on the 
Prussian-Austrian relations. 

*^6. GENERAL v. ROCHOW TO BISMARCK 8 

St. Petersburg, November I, '51. 
Current topics of interest. 

7. OTTO v. MANTEUFFEL TO BISMARCK 10 

Berlin, November 3, '51. 
The question of the succession to the Danish throne. 

f 6. OTTO v. MANTEUFFEL TO BISMARCK 12 

Berlin, November 23, '51. 

The enthusiasts on the fleet question. The policy of 
Prussia and of Austria; Prince Schwarzenberg the only 
man who keeps Austria together. 

9. BISMARCK TO OTTO v. MANTEUFFEL IS 

Undated. (February, '52.) 

Enclosing a letter received by Councillor Fischer, giving 
the views of the Austrian Conservatives on Prussia's 

v, 



vi SYNOPSIS OF THE LETTERS IN VOL. II 

KUMBER PAGB 

political aims. Suggesting that measures be taken to en- 
sure a favourable criticism in the Prussian military 
journals of Prince Windischgratz's statement in his own 
defence. 

10. OTTO v. MANTEUFFEL TO BISMARCK 19 

Berlin, April 20, '52. 

The King's dissatisfaction at Manteuffel's opening speech. 
Bunsen's theory of the future organisation of Europe. 

11. OTTO v. MANTEUFFEL TO BISMARCK 20 

Berlin, April 24, '52. 

Postponement of the date for the commencement of the 
debates on the bill constituting the First Chamber. 

12. BISMARCK TO OTTO v. MANTEUFFEL 21 

Frankfurt, April 24, '52. 

Do not the reasons advanced compel Bismarck to remain 
at Frankfurt? 

13. OTTO v. MANTEUFFEL TO BISMARCK 21 

Berlin, April 24, '52. 

The reasons advanced do not necessitate Bismarck's re- 
maining at Frankfurt. 

14. BISMARCK TO Orro v. MANTEUFFEL ..... 21 

Frankfurt, April 25, '52. 
Announcing hour of arrival in Berlin. 

15. KARL v. MANTEUFFEL, UNDER-SECRETARY OF STATE IN THE 

MINISTRY OF THE INTERIOR, TO BISMARCK . . 21 

(April, -52.) 

An amendment respecting the constitution of the First 
Chamber. 

16. OTTO v. MANTEUFFEL TO BISMARCK 22 

Berlin, May 19, '52. 

Summoning Bismarck to Berlin to be presented to Czar 
Nicholas. 

17. OTTO v. MANTEUFFEL TO BISMARCK 22 

August 4, '52. 

Congratulations on the birth of Bismarck's second son, and 
acceptance of the sponsorship. 

18. OTTO v. MANTEUFFEL TO BISMARCK 23 

November 19, '52. 

Austria's policy. Hanover's attitude towards Prussia. 
The English memorandum. 

19. OTTO v. MANTEUFFEL TO BISMARCK 25 

Berlin, December 30, '52. 

Requesting an opinion on the application of the Rothschilds 
of Frankfurt to be appointed bankers to the court. 

/ 20. FREIHERR v. PROKESCH-OSTEN TO BISMARCK ... 26 

Vienna, January 18, '53. 

Appreciation of Bismarck's character and capabilities; the 
pleasure in prospect of working with him at Frankfurt. 



SYNOPSIS OF THE LETTERS IN VOL. II vii 

NUMBER PACK 

21. QUEHL (OFFICIAL IN CHARGE OF THE PRESS BUREAU IN 

BERLIN), TO BISMARCK . .... 27 

Berlin, March II, '53. 

The Minister agrees with Bismarck's course of procedure 
in respect to Prokesch. Austria's wish for a joint pro- 
test against England. Request that Bismarck will use his 
influence to encourage the Prime Minister to more per- 
sonal activity. 

22. OTTO v. MANTEUFFEL TO BISMARCK 29 

Berlin, March 15, '53. 

The sale of two ships belonging to the German fleet. Man- 
teuffel coincides with Bismarck's view as to the attitude 
to be adopted by Prussia towards Austria. Prussia's at- 
titude towards the middle German states. The Prince of 
Prussia's unfavourable criticism. Count Thun, and the 
proposed note against England. 

23. KING FREDERICK WILLIAM IV. TO BISMARCK ... 32 

Riidersdorff, September 12, '53. 

Concerning a misunderstanding under which Prince Wil- 
liam is labouring. 

24. OTTO v. MANTEUFFEL TO BISMARCK 32 

Berlin, January 6, '54. 

Warlike threatenings in the East. Pourtales' mission to 
England; a split in the English Cabinet. The order 
to the fleet to enter the Black Sea. 

25. COUNT EBERHARD zu STOLBERG-WERNIGERODE TO BISMARCK . 35 

Berlin, February I, '54. 
Requesting Bismarck to come to Berlin as soon as possible. 

26. OTTO v. MANTEUFFEL TO BISMARCK 35 

Berlin, February 24, '54. 
Austria's ultimatum to Russia. 

w27. BISMARCK TO OTTO v. MANTEUFFEL 38 

Frankfurt, February 27, '54. 

Conclusion of a treaty between Austria and France. 
NOTES BY BISMARCK, POSSIBLY FOR AN INTERVIEW WITH THE 

PRINCE OF PRUSSIA 36 

March, '54. 

The attitude Prussia must assume towards Austria in re- 
spect of the steps the latter is taking. Austria can 
demand military assistance from Prussia only when 
Germany is menaced by war without Austrian provoca- 
tion. 

29. OTTO v. MANTEUFFEL TO BISMARCK 37 

Berlin, April 27, '54. 

The threatening attitude of the Western powers. The 
Prince of Prussia's wish to have a government building 
in Darmstadt offered to him as a residence by the 
Hessian Government. 

30. OTTO v. MANTEUFFEL TO BISMARCK 39 

Berlin, April 30, '54. 

The treaty with Austria, its value as regards Russia, 
Austria, and the Western powers. The removal of Bun- 
sen from London. 



viii SYNOPSIS OF THE LETTERS IN VOL. II 

NUMBER PAGE 

31. Orro V. MANTEUFFEL TO BISMARCK 41 

Berlin, May 27, '54. 

Austria wishes to avoid the war with Russia, and to divert 
pressure of the Western powers on to Prussia. The 
Prussian programme. The French fleet off Kiel. 

32. BISMARCK TO OTTO v. MANTEUFFEL 44 

Frankfurt, July 3, '54. 

All the middle states, with the exception of Wurtemburg, 
agree to the treaty of April 20. An English note to the 
Bavarian government. 

33. OTTO v. MANTEUFFEL TO BISMARCK 45 

Berlin, July 7, '54. 

Favourable reception of the Russian reply in Vienna. Ir- 
ritation in London against Prussia. 

34. N. v. NIEBUHR, CABINET-COUNCILLOR, TO BISMARCK . . 46 

Potsdam, July 10, '54. 

Austria offers to use its influence in London and Paris 
in favour of peace. 

/35. BISMARCK TO OTTO v. MANTEUFFEL . ., . .46 

July 25, '54- 

Prussia cannot permit an expansion of Austria unless she 
grows at least at the same rate. The question of the 
re-establishment of Poland. 

36. OTTO v. MANTEUFFEL TO BISMARCK 48 

Berlin, September 7, '54. 
Extension of leave granted. 

37. COUNT R. VON DER GOLTZ TO BISMARCK .... 48 

Berlin, October 31, '54. 

Complaining of the growth of un-Prussian feelings, and 
the decline of noble virtues. 

38. OSCAR v. ARNIM TO BISMARCK 50 

Berlin, December 6, '54. 

Urging Bismarck to come to Berlin, where the complicated 
political situation renders his presence necessary. 

39. Orro v. MANTEUFFEL TO BISMARCK 51 

Berlin, January 5, '55. 

The utmost secrecy to be observed in connection with the 
proceedings in Vienna. The Western powers desire 
peace, but not before Sebastopol has been taken. 

40. OTTO v. MANTEUFFEL TO BISMARCK 52 

Berlin, February 5, '55. 

Prussia's position in view of an invasion of South Germany 
by France. The French threat to blockade the Baltic 
ports if Prussia continues to allow the export of arms 
to Russia. 

41. COUNT ALEXANDER KEYSERLING TO BISMARCK ... 54 

Raikiill, February 13-25, '55. 

Recollections of his own and Bismarck's youth recalled by 
the sight of the latter's handwriting. Interesting descrip- 
tion of his life as an Esthonian estate-owner. 



SYNOPSIS OF THE LETTERS IN VOL. II ix 

NUMBER PAGE 

42. OTTO v. MANTEUFFEL TO BISMARCK 56 

Berlin, May ip, '55. 

Recommending Bismarck to be extremely cautious in his 
remarks, owing to the gossipping propensities of the 
representatives of the smaller German states at Frankfurt. 

43. OTTO v. MANTEUFFEL TO BISMARCK . . . . .56 

Berlin, November 26, '55. 

The King leaves Bismarck to judge whether he can come 
to Berlin for the opening of the Landtag. 

44. FREIHERR v. ROSENBERG TO BISMARCK 57 

Paris, May 9, '57. 

Prince Napoleon's visit to Berlin. Napoleon III. entangled 
by Lord Palmerston in all sorts of English quarrels. 
The Grand-Duke Constantine in Paris. 

45. COUNT KARL VON DER GOLTZ TO BISMARCK ... 59, 

Berlin, December 15, '57. 

Prussia's impolitic attitude towards Prussian estate-own- 
ers, Hamburg, and Lubeck. Female influence exerted 
on the Prince of Prussia to induce him to visit England. 

46. COUNT KARL VON DER GOLTZ TO BISMARCK 6a 

Baden, July 28, '58. 
The Prince of Prussia's travelling plans. 

47. FREIHERR v. SCHLEINITZ, PRUSSIAN MINISTER OF STATE, TO 

BISMARCK . 60 

Berlin, November 7, '58. 

Announcing his appointment as Minister for Foreign Af- 
fairs' in the place of Freiherr v. Manteuffel. 

48. BISMARCK TO MINISTER v. SCHLEINITZ 61 

November 9, '58. 

Congratulating Freiherr v. Schleinitz on his appointment 
as Minister for Foreign Affairs. 

49. J. L. MOTLEY TO BISMARCK 61 

Rome, February 16, '59. 

Asking if Bismarck is really going to St. Petersburg. His 
own plans and work. 

50. v. GRUNER, PRIVY COUNCILLOR AND UNDER-SECRETARY OF STATE 

IN THE FOREIGN OFFICE, TO BISMARCK .... 64 

Berlin, February 28, '59. 

Topics of political interest. The post of Minister at St. 
Petersburg is anything but an honourable exile. 

51. BISMARCK TO MINISTER VON SCHLEINITZ 65 

St. Petersburg, May 12, '59. 

Bismarck's views on the political situation, as it affects 
Prussia and Austria, gained during the eight years he 
passed as representative of Prussia at Frankfurt. His 
opinion as to when the word " German " may be substi- 
tuted for " Prussian " on " our flag." 

52. BISMARCK TO GENERAL GUSTAV. v. ALVENSLEBEN 70 

St. Petersburg, May 14, '59. 
On certain diplomatic relations. 



x SYNOPSIS OF THE LETTERS IN VOL. II 

NUMBER PACK 

53. BISMARCK TO MINISTER v. SCHLEINITZ .... 71 

St Petersburg, May 29, '59. 

Characteristics of the other German diplomats at the Rus- 
sian court. 

54. BISMARCK TO MINISTER v. SCHLEINITZ .... 74 

Berlin, September 25, '59. 

Russian wishes respecting the place where the Czar and 
the Prince Regent are to meet. A change of opinion in 
democratic circles in favour of Prussia. 

55. MINISTER v. SCHLEINITZ TO BISMARCK 76 

Baden, September 29, '59. 

The Prince of Prussia accepts Bismarck's suggestion that 
Breslau is the most suitable place for the interview with 
the Czar. Messages to Bismarck from distinguished 
ladies. 

56. MINISTER v. SCHLEINITZ TO BISMARCK 77 

Berlin, December 31, '59. 

The importance of the St. Petersburg post necessitates the 
appointment of a special substitute during Bismarck's 
absence from duty through illness. 

57. MINISTER VON SCHLEINITZ TO BISMARCK .... 79 

Baden-Baden, June 25, '6b. 

Prussian-Russian-French relations. The excellent impres- 
sion made by the Prince- Regent (afterwards the Em- 
peror William I.) on the other German Princes. There 
is no reason why Prussia should not support Russia's 
Oriental policy. 

58. MINISTER VON SCHLEINITZ TO BISMARCK .... 82 

Berlin, August 3, '60. 

The effect of the Teplitz meeting. The despatch-bag. 
Personal matters. 

59. BISMARCK TO PRINCE GORTCHAKOFF 84 

St. Petersburg, September 3, '6b. 

Handing over the works of Frederick the Great, as a present 
from the Prince Regent. 

60. MINISTER VON SCHLEINITZ TO BISMARCK .... 85 

Berlin, September 21, '60. 

The Warsaw meeting must not assume the character of 
an anti-English demonstration. The recall of the Rus- 
sian Minister from Turin is a " logical hiatus." 

61. UNDER-SECRETARY OF STATE v. GRUNER TO BISMARCK . . 87 

Berlin, September 28, '6b. 
Miscarriage of despatches. 

62. PRINCE KARL OF PRUSSIA TO BISMARCK .... 88 

November, 18, '6b. 
Declining an invitation. 

3. PRINCE KARL ANTON zu HOHENZOLLERN TO BISMARCK . . 88 

Berlin, November 22, '6b. 

Forwarding an essay on historical art by Prof. Andreas 
Miiller for the Academy of Arts. The necessity for the 
army reforms. 



SYNOPSIS OF THE LETTERS IN VOL. II xi 

NUMBER PACK 

64. MINISTER VON SCHLEINITZ TO BISMARCK .... 89 

Berlin, December 25, '60. 

Germany's interest in the retention of Venice by Austria. 
The dangers to Germany of the national movement in 
Italy. The kingdom of Italy will always be an unsatis- 
factory ally for Prussia. 

65. COUNT NESSELRODE TO BISMARCK 92 

December 18-30, '60. 

Thanks' for a present of a Pomeranian goose. Request 
i that Bismarck will grant an interview to Mr. Reutern, 

Russian Secretary of State. 

66. BISMARCK TO THE GRAND-DUKE CONSTANTINE ... 92 

St. Petersburg, February 6, '61. 
Requesting an audience for a German merchant. 

67. MINISTER VON SCHLEINITZ TO BISMARCK .... 93 

Berlin, February 14, '61. 

The King's reply to the address of the House of Deputies. 
The cool reception of the Holstein affair in the Chamber. 
The capitulation of Gaeta. 

68. MINISTER v. SCHLEINITZ TO BISMARCK 94 

Berlin, June 21, '61. 

Bismarck's wish to leave his St. Petersburg post for a time. 
The King has enjoyed reading Bismarck's interesting 
letters from St. Petersburg. 

69. BISMARCK TO THE PRINCESS MENCHIKOFF .... 95 

(Autumn, '61.?) 

Asking for the loan of a copy of Czar Nicholas I.'s Statut 
organique. 

70. THE PRINCESS MENCHIKOFF TO BISMARCK .... 96 

(Autumn, '61.?) 

The Princess no longer possesses the volume referred to in 
the preceding letter. 

71. COUNT v. BERNSTORFF TO BISMARCK 96 

Berlin, March 17, '62. 

Communicating to Bismarck the news of his recall from 
St. Petersburg. 

72. BISMARCK TO COUNT VON BERNSTORFF 97 

St. Petersburg, March 22, '62. 

The Czar's congratulations for the King. Thanks for the 
communication of the I7th. 

73. THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK TO BISMARCK ... 97 

Off Marseilles, October 21, '62. 

Thanking Bismarck for letters, and anticipating with great 
interest Bismarck's further communications respecting 
the progress of events at home. 

74 GENERAL VON SCHWEINITZ TO BISMARCK .... 98 

Naples, November 10, '62. 

The Crown Prince's gratitude for Bismarck's letters on the 
political situation; his susceptibility to attentions. The 
Crown Prince on Mt. Vesuvius. 



xii SYNOPSIS OF THE LETTERS IN VOL. II 

NUMBER PAGE 

75. THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK TO BISMARCK ... 99 

December 21, '62. 

Wishes respecting the notification of the sittings of the 
Ministry of State. 

76. MINISTER VON DER HEYDT TO BISMARCK . . . -99 

Berlin, January 24, '63. 

Requesting the Star of the Hohenzollern Order as a sign 
of his Majesty's satisfaction. 

77. THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK TO BISMARCK . . . 100 

February 24, '63. 

Announcing early departure for England; offering to take 
over any important political papers. 

78. BISMARCK TO THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK . . . lot 

Berlin, February 25, '63. 

Will send despatches for Count Bernstorff; asking if the 
Prince, before leaving for England, wishes Bismarck to 
report to him on the political situation. 

79. FREIHERR SENFFT VON PILSACH, OBER-PRASIDENT OF THE 

PROVINCE OF POMERANIA, TO BISMARCK . . . ioi' 

Stettin, May 9, '63. 

The Crown Prince and the Progressist party ; the necessity 
for eradicating the dangerous idea that his Royal High- 
ness would summon a democratic Ministry as soon as 
he came to the throne. 

80. MINISTER VON DER HEYDT TO BISMARCK .... 102 

Berlin, June 7, '63. 

Congratulations on the adoption of the new Press Regula- 
tions. The Danzig incident a regrettable event. 

81. PRINCE HENRY VII. OF REUSS TO BISMARCK . . . 103 

Paris, June 21. '63. 

The Emperor Napoleon on Prussia's attitude in the Polish 
question. The reason for France's interference in Polish 
affairs. Prince Metternich on Austria's political attitude. 

82. THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK TO BISMARCK . . . 105 

Stettin, June 30, '63. 

The Prince complains that Bismarck, by command of the 
King, has not officially communicated to the Ministry 
of State his protest against a recent Government measure. 
He warns Bismarck of the probable disastrous conse- 
quences of the system at present pursued by the Govern- 
ment, and declines to be present at any future sittings 
of the present Ministry. 

83. BISMARCK TO THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK . . . io8> 

Carlsbad, July 10, '63. 

Bismarck replies to the preceding letter that the decision 
of the Crown Prince not to attend future sittings of the 
Ministry is of such great import that it would be advis- 
able to mention it to the King only when his Majesty 
is completely restored to health. 



SYNOPSIS OF THE LETTERS IN VOL. II xiii 

NUMBER PAGE 

84. THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK TO BISMARCK . . . 109 

July 14, '63. 

A peremptory request to Bismarck not to mention to the 
King the subject of the letter of June 30 until the 
Crown Prince has done this himself. 

85. BISMARCK TO THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK . . .no 

Berlin, July 16, '63. 

Promising compliance with the request contained in the 
preceding letter; communications in the press respecting 
the contents of the Crown Prince's correspondence with 
the King. 

86. BISMARCK TO GEN. VON MANTEUFFEL no 

Berlin, July 16, '63. 
Request not to mention the Crown Prince's letter. 

87. WAR MINISTER VON ROON TO BISMARCK . . . .in 

Berlin, January 20, '64. 

The instructions for Field-Marshal von Wrangel can be 
adapted to diplomatic considerations. Urging forbear- 
ance with respect to momentary misunderstandings. 

88. KING WILLIAM TO WAR MINISTER VON ROON . . . 112 S 

Berlin, April 2, '64. 

The question of the reduction of the troops which had been 
placed on a war footing. Reasons against the reduction. 

89. THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK TO BISMARCK . . . 113^ 

Headquarters at Flensburg, April 5, '64. 
The troops sent to Jutland suffice for the purpose. His 
Royal Highness is unable to support the Prussian policy, 
as he is unacquainted with the aims it is pursuing. 

90. THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK TO BISMARCK . . . 114 * 

Headquarters at Flensburg, April 17, '64, 
The necessity for a definite Prussian programme. The 
principle of acting according to circumstances suggests 
the idea that a secret policy of expansion is being fol- 
lowed ; the dangers attending the prosecution of this 
policy. 

91. PRINCE HENRY VII. OF REUSS TO BISMARCK . . . .115 

Cassel, June 6, '64. 
The friendly feeling in Lippe towards Bismarck. 

92. PRINCE GORTCHAKOFF TO BISMARCK 116 

Kissingen, June 22, '64. 

The Czar's and Gortchakoff's travelling plans. London 
and Paris newspaper reports of statements allegedly 
made by Gortchakoff and Bismarck. 

93. THE DUKE OF MORNY TO BISMARCK 118 

Paris, July 7, '64. 

Napoleon III. coincides with Bismarck's opinion that no 
conference should be held. 

94. PRINCE HENRY VII. OF REUSS TO BISMARCK . . . . 118 

Cassel, September 21, '64. 

The satisfaction of the Empress Eugenie at the Emperor's 
visit. Why the Elector of Hesse-Cassel will not go to 
Berlin. 



xiv SYNOPSIS OF THE LETTERS IN VOL. II 

NUMBER PAGE 

95. GENERAL COUNT VON NOSTITZ TO BISMARCK . . . .119 

Zobten, Silesia, November 26, '64. 

Welcoming Bismarck among the Knights of the Order of 
the Black Eagle. 

96. ADOLPH VON KLEIST, PRESIDENT OF THE COURT OF APPEAL, TO 

BISMARCK .- 120 

Berlin, June 7, '65. 

In his opinion, and in that of all men of honour with 
whom he has discussed the matter, the insult (the 
Virchow affair) is in itself not so serious as to require 
such an issue. 

97. VON NATZMER TO BISMARCK 121 

Berlin, June 7, '65. 
Offering his services in the duel. 

98. BISMARCK TO PROF. VIRCHOW 121 

. Berlin, June 8, '65. 

Demanding satisfaction for a personal insult in the Second 
Chamber. 

99. GENERAL VON ROON, MINISTER FOR WAR, TO BISMARCK . . 122 

Berlin, June 8, '65. 
Failure to meet Virchow. 

100. GENERAL VON ROON, MINISTER FOR WAR, TO VIRCHOW . . 122 

Berlin, June 8, '65. 
Asking for a brief conference. 

101. GENERAL VON ROON, MINISTER FOR WAR, TO BISMARCK . . 122 

Berlin, June 8, '65. 

The President of the Second Chamber states that it is for 
the House itself to decide whether a Minister has been 
insulted. 

102. MINISTER COUNT F. zu EULENBURG TO BISMARCK . . 123 

Prenzlau, June 8, '65. 
Asking for immediate news. 

103. BISMARCK TO MINISTER F. zu EULENBURG .... 123 

Berlin, June 8, '65. 
No statement yet received from Virchow. 

104. VON HENNIG TO ROBERT VON KEUDELL 123 

Berlin, June 8, '65. 

Prof. Virchow's view of the case, and his promise to make 
a statement in the House on certain conditions. 

105. VON KEUDELL TO GENERAL VON ROON 124 

Berlin, June 8, '65. 
The tenor of the reply made to the preceding letter. 

106. GENERAL VON ROON, MINISTER FOR WAR, TO BISMARCK . 124 

Berlin, June 8, '65. 

As Prof. Virchow has not kept the appointment he made, 
the incident may be regarded as closed. 

107. PROF. VIRCHOW TO GENERAL VON ROON, MINISTER FOR WAR 125 

Undated, Postmark June 8, '65. 
Prof. Virchow defines his attitude towards the duel. 



SYNOPSIS OF THE LETTERS IN VOL. II xv 

NUMBER PACK 

108. GENERAL VON ROON, MINISTER FOR WAR, TO BISMARCK . 125 

June 8, '65. 

As Prof. Virchow has declined to fight the duel, further 
negotiations are unavailing. 

109. COUNCILLOR ZITELMANN TO BISMARCK 126 

June 8, '65. 

Signs that the scene in the House of Deputies took place 
with Virchow's previous knowledge. 

1 10. COUNCILLOR ZITELMANN TO BISMARCK 126 

June 8, '65. 
Prof. Virchow's statement that he refuses the duel. 

in. COUNT ARNIM-BOYTZENBURG TO BISMARCK .... ^26 

Berlin, June 8, '65. 
Offering his services in the Virchow affair. 

112. GENERAL COUNT NOSTITZ TO BISMARCK 127 

Berlin, June 9, '65. 
Asking how the Virchow affair stands. 

113. MINISTER F. zu EULENBURG TO BISMARCK .... 127 

Stralsund, June 9, '65. 
Anxiety concerning the Virchow affair. 

114. GENERAL VON ROON, MINISTER FOR WAR, TO BISMARCK . . 128 

Berlin, June 18, '65. 

What is the reason for the Crown Prince's return from 
Pomerania to Potsdam? 

115. BISMARCK TO GENERAL VON ROON 128 

June 18, '65. 
Bismarck is invited to dine with the Crown Prince. 

116. BISMARCK TO THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK .... 128 

Carlsbad, July 15, '65. 

The political situation; the necessity for secrecy with 
respect to the situation and to the measures about to 
be taken. 

117. GENERAL VON ROON, MINISTER FOR WAR, TO BISMARCK . . 130 

Berlin, December 14, '65. 
Request respecting the sittings of the Ministry of State. 

118. THE MARQUIS WIELOPOLSKI TO BISMARCK .... 130 

Dresden, May 8, '66. 

Congratulations on the failure of Blind's attempt on Bis- 
marck's life. 

119. COUNT A. zu EULENBURG, COURT CHAMBERLAIN, TO BISMARCK 131 

New Palace, Potsdam, May 24, '66. 
The Crown Prince's regret at having missed Bismarck. 

120. PRINCE FRIEDRICH KARL TO BISMARCK 131 

Headquarters at Gorlitz, June 15, '66. 

Query whether the Government has decided that the troops 
shall march into Saxony, and whether war is to be de- 
clared on Bavaria. 

121. PRINCE FRIEDRICH KARL TO BISMARCK 132 

Headquarters at Gorlitz, June 17, '66. 
How the Prussian troops were received in Saxony. Re- 
quest for the services of Herr von Radowitz as diplo- 
matic adviser. 



xvi SYNOPSIS OF THE LETTERS IN VOL. II 

NUMBER PAGE 

122. PRINCE HENRY LXVII. OF REUSS TO BISMARCK . . .133 

Gera, June 21, '66. 

Entreaty that no hostile measures may be taken against 
him or his country. 

23. THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK TO BISMARCK . . . 134 
Y Heringsdorf, August 9, '66. 

Manifestations of Napoleonic hunger. 

124. THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK TO BISMARCK . . .134 

August 12, '66. 
The Crown Princess desires an interview with Bismarck. 

125. THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK TO BISMARCK . . . 135 

Berlin, February 21, '67. 

The Crown Prince fully agrees with the aims of Bis- 
marck's policy. The Military Convention with Saxony. 
The danger of France's ambition and malevolence. 
The significance of the forthcoming Reichstag session. 

126. THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK TO BISMARCK . . . 136 

Potsdam, May 13, '67. 

Concerning the projected visit of the Crown Prince and 
Princess to Paris. 

127. PRINCE HENRY VII. OF REUSS TO BISMARCK .... 137 

St. Petersburg, May 28, '67. 

The friendly feelings of the Grand-Duchess Helene 
towards Prussia. Prince Gortchakoff s political trans- 
formations. Public opinion on the Czar's visit to Paris. 

128. PRINCE HENRY VII. OF REUSS TO BISMARCK .... 138 

St. Petersburg, June 7, '67. 

Prince Gortchakoff on political worries, and on the Prus- 
sian financial question. Diplomatic appointments. 

129. THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK TO BISMARCK . . . 139 

Misdroy, August I, '67. 

The annexed countries and South Germany are losing 
confidence in Prussia, owing to the reactionary measures 
of Eulenburg and Lippe. The reasons of the dissatis- 
faction. The French despatch on North Schleswig. 

130. THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK TO BISMARCK . . .141 

Misdroy, August 2, '67. 

Enclosing a treatise on the misrule in Hanover, with sug- 
gestions for remedying the same. 

131. PRINCE CARL OF ROUMANIA TO BISMARCK .... 142 

Bucharest, January 15-27, '68. 

Thanks for the interest taken by Bismarck in Roumania. 
Demetre Bratiano's indiscretions in Vienna. 

132. THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK TO BISMARCK . . . 142 

March 6, '68. 
Desiring an interview with Bismarck. 

133. MARTIN SIMSON TO BISMARCK 143 

Frankfurt-on-the-Oder, January 31, '69. 
Thanks for the appointment as President of the Court of 
Appeals at Frankfort. 



SYNOPSIS OF THE LETTERS IN VOL. II xvii 

-v 

NUMBER PAGE 

134. THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK TO BISMARCK . . . 144 

February 25, '69. 

Urging the inexpediency of removing Freiherr yon 
Miinchhausen from his present post of Ober-Prasi- 
dent of Pomerania. 

135. COUNT A. EULENBURG, COURT CHAMBERLAIN, TO BISMARCK . 145 

Headquarters at Schoneberg, September 10, '69. 
The Crown Prince wishes to have an interview with Bis- 
marck. 

536. THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK TO BISMARCK . . .145 

Konigsberg, September 15, '69. 

Preparations for the journey to Vienna, Cairo, Turkey, 
and Palestine. The Prince protects the President of the 
Province. 

737. COUNT PUCKLER, COURT CHAMBERLAIN, TO BISMARCK . . 146 

Berlin, September 28, '69. 

The King's decision to open the Landtag in person. The 
arrangements for the Crown Prince's journey. 

138. PRINCE CARL OF ROUMANIA TO BISMARCK .... 147 

Weinburg, October 22, '69. 

Announcing his betrothal with the Princess Elisabeth zu 
Wied. The change of the representative of Prussia in 
Bucharest. 

139. H. VON THILE, SECRETARY OF STATE, TO BISMARCK . . 148 

Berlin, July 8, '70. 

Benedetti's lengthened visit to Coblenz, where the Queen 
is staying. 

140. PRINCE HENRY VII. OF REUSS TO BISMARCK . . . 149 

St. Petersburg, January, '71. 

The Grand-Duchess Helene understands why the war is 
being carried on; the attitude assumed by the Czar 
Alexander is correct, in spite of the influence of the 
ladies of the court. 

141. FIELD-MARSHAL VON ROON, MINISTER FOR WAR, TO BIS- 

MARCK 149 

Gitiergotz, July 3, '72. 

Need for rest. Requests that his resignation may be ac- 
cepted. 

142. PRINCE GORTCHAKOFF TO BISMARCK 150 

Berlin, November 15, '72. 

Regret at not being able to see Bismarck, on account of 
the latter' s illness. 

143. BISMARCK TO PRINCE GORTCHAKOFF 151 

Varzin, November 20, '72. 

Thanks for Prince Gortchakoff's attention. Bismarck's 
sentiments towards Gortchakoff. It is the strain of in- 
ternal affairs that is using up Bismarck's strength. 

144. COUNT H. VON ARNIM, AMBASSADOR IN PARIS, TO BISMARCK. 152 

Paris, January 17, '73. 

Dr. Evans communicates his suspicions of the existence of 
a plot to assassinate Bismarck by means of a poisoned 
cigar. 



xviii SYNOPSIS OF THE LETTERS IN VOL. II 

NUMBER PAGE 

145. MINISTER B. VON BULOW TO BISMARCK 153 

Klein Flottbeck, June 29, '73. 

Acceptance of the post of a Secretary of State in the 
German service, after resigning a position hitherto held 
in the Mecklenburg Government. 

146. PRINCE CARL OF ROUMANIA TO BISMARCK .... 154 

Bad Imnau, July 26, '73. 

Request for an interview to discuss the state of affairs 
on the Lower Danube. 

147. COUNT VON ROON, MINISTER FOR WAR, TO BISMARCK . . 155 

Neuhof, near Oeslau (Coburg), October 12, '73. 
Requesting Bismarck to second his application to be al- 
lowed to resign on account of failing strength. Sugges- 
tion of a successor. 

148. PRINCE GORTCHAKOFF TO BISMARCK , 157 

Berlin, November 10, *73- 
Suggesting a meeting with Bismarck at Dirschau. 

149. BISMARCK TO PRINCE GORTCHAKOFF 158 

Varzin, November 10, '73. 

Bismarck's regret that his state of health prevents him 
from leaving the house. 

150. PRINCE GORTCHAKOFF TO BISMARCK 158 

Berlin, November n, '73. 

Regrets not to have the opportunity of seeing Bismarck; 
urges the latter not to expose his health to any risk. 

151. KING ALBERT OF SAXONY TO BISMARCK .... 158 

Dresden, November 19, '73. 

Asking for support and advice on ascending the throne. 
Promising to support to the utmost of his power all that 
Bismarck undertakes for the welfare of the Empire and 
the German people. 

152. B. VON BULOW, SECRETARY OF STATE, TO BISMARCK . . 159 

Berlin, July 14, '74. 

The congratulations of the Foreign Office officials on Bis- 
marck's escape from imminent danger. The impression 
made by the outrage; the connection between it and 
the Ultramontane incitations. The attitude of the 
Ministers. 

153. PRINCE ALBRECHT OF PRUSSIA TO BISMARCK . . . 162 

Hanover, April I, '75. 
Congratulating Bismarck on his sixtieth birthday. 

154. MINISTER VON- "MITTNACHT TO BISMARCK .... 162 

Stuttgart, June 7, '75. 

Suggesting that the diplomatic committee of the Federal 
Council should be consulted before the Emperor uses 
his prerogative to declare war in the name of the Empire. 

155. BISMARCK TO MINISTER VON MITTNACHT .... 164 

Varzin, June 16, '75. 

Bismarck fully appreciates the value of the suggestion 
contained in the preceding letter. He will gladly con- 
sider any proposal for the modification of the diplo- 
matic committee of the Federal Council made by a Gov- 
ernment represented in it. 



SYNOPSIS OF THE LETTERS IN VOL. II xix 

NUMBER PAGE 

156. BISMARCK TO MINISTER VISCONTI VENOSTA . . . 166 

Varzin, October 13, '75. 

Bismarck regrets that the state of his health does not per- 
mit him to accompany the Emperor to Italy. 

157. THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK TO BISMARCK . . . 167 

December 5, '75. 

The sympathy of the Crown Prince and his family on the 
occasion of the death of Count Wendt zu Eulenburg. 

158. PRINCE CHLODWIG zu HOHENLOHE TO BISMARCK . . 168 

Paris, January i, '76. 

Prince Hohenlohe's attitude towards the so-called Arnim 
clauses. 

159. THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK TO BISMARCK . . . 169 

Berlin, January 5, '76. 
Recommending Prof. Dr. Geffcken to Bismarck's notice. 

160. BISMARCK TO THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK . . . 169 

Berlin, January 8, '76. 

Bismarck explains his objections to receiving Dr. 
Geffcken. The latter's connection with the Ultra- 
montanes, and his hostile attitude towards the interests 
of the state. 

161. THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK TO BISMARCK . . . 170 

Berlin, January 12, '76. 

The Crown Prince was unaware of Dr. Geffcken's lean- 
ing to Catholicism, and cannot think he is inspired with 
deeply rooted animosity to Prussia. 

162. COUNT VON ROON TO BISMARCK 172 

Crobnitz, near Reichenbach, February 15, '76. 
Requesting the promotion of his son-in-law, Regierungs- 
rath von Brauchitsch. 

163. CARDINAL G. VON HOHENLOHE TO BISMARCK . . . 174 

Rome, March 5, '76. 

Cardinal Ledochowski's remarks on the Prussian Church 
quarrel. 

164. THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK TO BISMARCK . . . 175 

Potsdam, May 9, '76. 
Request for an interview. 

165. THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK TO BISMARCK .... 176 

May 12, '76. 

Recommending H. Friedberg, Under Secretary of State, 
as the most suitable person for the new post of Imperial 
Secretary of State for Justice. 

166. THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK TO BISMARCK . . . 176 

Potsdam, June 30, '76. 

A further intervention in favour of Friedberg and of his 
appointment as Imperial Secretary for Justice. 

167. BISMARCK TO COUNT MUNSTER 177 

Kissingen, July 6, '76. 

The effect on the Emperor of the communications respect- 
ing the imminent war between Russia and England con- 
tained in a report made direct to his Majesty. The 



xx SYNOPSIS OF THE LETTERS IN VOL. II 

NUMBER PAGE 

Emperor's instructions to exert a pacifying influence on 
the English Cabinet. Request that reports for the 
Emperor may be sent through the Ministry. 

168. BISMARCK TO COUNT HOLNSTEIN 179 

Berlin, January 27, '77. 

Thanks for the change of the diplomatic representative of 
Bavaria in Berlin. The Russo-French rapprochement. 

169. GAMBETTA-BISMARCK. 1877, 1878. 

I. COUNT HENCKEL DONNERSMARCK TO BISMARCK . . . 180 
Chateau de Pontchartrain (Seine et Oise), October 17, '77. 
Offering his services to bring about a personal meeting 
between Bismarck and Gambetta. 

II. COUNT H. BISMARCK TO COUNT HENCKEL DONNERSMARCK 188 

Yarzin, October 30, '77. 

In Bismarck's opinion it is not advisable for Gambetta to 
receive direct communications from him. The Repub- 
lican form of government is the only one capable of 
maintaining permanent peaceable relations with Germany. 
The consequences to be feared if the Ultramontanes get 
the supreme power into their hands. Bismarck's strong 
disinclination to provoke war at all. 

III. COUNT HENCKEL DONNERSMARCK TO BISMARCK . . 184 

Neudeck, December 23, '77. 

Proofs of the desire on the part of France to cultivate 
friendly relations with Germany. Count Henckel offers 
to bring Gambetta to Varzin, either publicly or secretly. 
Gambetta' s authority and power in his party. 

IV. BISMARCK TO COUNT HENCKEL DONNERSMARCK . . 186 

Varzin, December 28, '77. 

Expressing pleasure at the change of the person of the 
French Ambassador in Berlin. Bismarck is not dis- 
inclined to meet Gambetta, but thinks that, in the latter's 
interest, the present time is hardly suitable. 

V. COUNT HENCKEL DONNERSMARCK TO BISMARCK . . 187 

Paris, April 12, '78. 

A telegram intimating that Gambetta has left Paris sud- 
denly, and that his whereabouts cannot be discovered. 

VI. COUNT HENCKEL DONNERSMARCK TO BISMARCK . . 187 

Paris, April 12, '78. 
Explaining and enlarging on the foregoing telegram. 

VII. BISMARCK TO COUNT HENCKEL DONNERSMARCK . . 188 

Berlin, April 14, '78. 

Bismarck is ready to come any day from Friedrichsruh 
to Berlin to meet Gambetta. 

VIII. GAMBETTA TO COUNT HENCKEL DONNERSMARCK . . iN8 

Paris, April 22, '78. 

Gambetta explains why letters have not reached him, and 
expresses a wish to see the Count in order to discuss 
matters. 

COUNT HENCKEL DONNERSMARCK TO BISMARCK . . 189 
x Paris, April 23, '78. 

r A telegram announcing the time of Gambetta's departure 
from Paris and arrival in Berlin. 



SYNOPSIS OF THE LETTERS IN VOL. II xxi 

NUMBED PAGE 

X. COUNT HENCKEL DONNERSMARCK TO BISMARCK . . 189 

Paris, April 23, '78. 

A letter confirming the above telegram, and asking Bis- 
marck to fix the hour when it will be convenient for 
him to receive Gambetta. 

XI. GAMBETTA TO COUNT HENCKEL DONNERSMARCK . . 190 

Paris, April 24, '78. 

Gambetta regrets that an unexpected important debate in 
Parliament compels his presence in Paris, rendering it 
necessary to postpone the visit to Berlin. 

XII. TELEGRAM TO COUNT HENCKEL DONNERSMARCK . . 190 

Berlin, April 24, '78. 
Announcing that Bismarck is too ill to travel to Berlin. 

170. BISMARCK TO PRINCE HOHENLOHE igr 

Varzin, January I, '78. 

New Year's wishes, and thanks for able and loyal repre- 
sentation of the German policy. 

171. PRINCE HOHENLOHE TO BISMARCK 192 

Munich, January 5, '78. 

Thanks for appreciation of diplomatic and political work. 
Assurance of unqualified co-operation in the future. 

172. THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK TO BISMARCK . . . ipa 

Berlin, January 28, '78- 

Enclosing report on mission to Rome to attend the 
funeral of King Victor Emanuel. Cardinal Hohenlohe. 
Prince Jerome. 

'173. THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK TO BISMARCK . . . 194 

February 17, '78. 
Arranging for an interview. 

174. COUNT H. BISMARCK TO COUNT HOLNSTEIN .... 194 

Berlin, February 22, '78. 

Bismarck's views on the question of the Bill for providing 
a substitute, when necessary, for the Imperial Chan- 
cellor. 

175. THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK TO BISMARCK . . . 197 

Potsdam, May 14, '78. 

The Prince is prepared to accept the office of Statthalter 
in Alsace and Lorraine. 

176. KING LUDWIG II. OF BAVARIA TO BISMARCK .... IQ7 

Partenkirchen, September 30, '78. 
Congratulations on the engagement of Bismarck's daughter. 

177. THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK TO BISMARCK . . . 197 

October 10, '78. 

Recommending President Simson as the most suitable 
person for the post of President of the Supreme Court 
of the Empire. 

178. PRINCE HOHENLOHE TO BISMARCK 198 

Paris, December 10, '78. 

Hhanks for the bestowal by the Emperor of the insignia of 
the Order of the Black Eagle, 



xxii SYNOPSIS OF THE LETTERS IN VOL. II 

NUMBER PAGE 

179. PRESIDENT SIMSON TO BISMARCK 198 

Frankfurt-on-the-Oder, March 19, '79. 
Accepting the post of President of the Supreme Court of 
the Empire. 

180. THE EMPEROR WILLIAM TO STATE SECRETARY VON BULOW . 199 

Babelsberg, August 29, '79. 

Bismarck is to be informed that a visit to Vienna is im- 
practicable. 

181. BISMARCK TO STATE SECRETARY VON BULOW .... 199 

Gastein, August 30, '79. 

As the visit to Vienna has been announced it must take 
place, otherwise serious political consequences would 
ensue. 

182. STATE SECRETARY VON BULOW TO BISMARCK .... 200 

Berlin, August 30, '79. 
The Emperor acquiesces in Bismarck's visit to Vienna. 

183. COUNT ANDRASSY TO BISMARCK 200 

Schonbrunn, September i, '79. 

The Emperor of Austria agrees with the tendency and the 
result of the discussions at Gastein on the subject of a 
defensive treaty between Germany and Austria. The 
Czar Alexander himself desires peace, but he is under 
the influence of persons in his immediate entourage who 
are of a different opinion. The new treaty will be a 
guarantee for the future of Germany and Austria. 

V 184. BISMARCK TO COUNT ANDRASSY ... . 202 

Gastein, September 3, '79. 

Geographical and political difficulties retard the negotia- 
tions with the Emperor William on the subject of the 
new defensive alliance. Change in the views of the Czar 
Alexander, confirmed by his invitation to send Prussian 
officers to Warsaw. The necessity for the alliance for 
which both statesmen are working, and the beneficent 
results anticipated from it. 

185. BISMARCK TO COUNT ANDRASSY 205 

Gastein, September 20, '79. 

The Emperor William is ready to give his consent to the 
defensive alliance between Germany and Austria. 

186. CARDINAL G. VON HOHENLOHE TO BISMARCK .... 206 

Rome, November 26, '79. 

The hopes of the Clerical hotspurs to smuggle the Jesuits 
into Prussia again. 

;l87. GENERAL COUNT LEHNDORFF, AIDE-DE-CAMP TO THE EMPEROR 

WILLIAM, TO BISMARCK 207 

Berlin, December 15, '79. 

The Emperor William's anxiety concerning the state of 
Bismarck's health. 

188. BISMARCK TO COUNT LEHNDORFF 207 

Varzin, December 15, '79. 
Bismarck reports on the state of bis health. 



SYNOPSIS OF THE LETTERS IN VOL. II xxiii 

NUMBER PACK 

189. KING LUDWIG II. OF BAVARIA TO BISMARCK .... 208 

Schloss Berg, May 17, '80. 

Thanks for sending the Ecclesiastical Bills, and for the 
lucid explanation of the situation. The King's grief 
at Bismarck's contemplated retirement 

190. KING LUDWIG II. OF BAVARIA TO BISMARCK .... 209 

Schloss Berg, June 15, '80. 
Thanks for Bismarck's kindly attention. 

191. THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK TO BISMARCK . . . 209 

Wiesbaden, November 18, '80. 
Report of impressions received on the Russian journey. 

192. CARDINAL GUSTAV VON HOHENLOHE TO BISMARCK . . 210 

Villa d'Este, March 25, '81. 
Birthday congratulations. 

193. LORD AMPTHILL TO BISMARCK 211 

Berlin, April i, '82. 

Birthday congratulations. Lord Granville's appreciation 
of Count Herbert Bismarck. 

194. THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK TO BISMARCK . . . 212 

Berlin, May 7, '82. 

Announcing the birth of a son to Prince and Princess 
William. 

195. BISMARCK TO THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK . . . 212 

May 7, '82. 
Congratulations on the birth of a grandson. 

196. COUNT VON SECKENDORFF TO BISMARCK 213 

Berlin, January 25, '83. 

Enclosing the medal commemorative of the silver wedding 
day of the Crown Prince and Princess. 

197. THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK TO BISMARCK . . . 213 

The New Palace, Potsdam, May 14, '84. 
The Crown Prince wishes to discuss some questions with 
Bismarck. 

398. GENERAL VON ALBEDYLL TO BISMARCK 214 

Ems, July 7, '85. 

The Emperor seized with a fainting fit at Ems. The state- 
ments of the Crown Prince respecting his decision to 
inaugurate no changes should he be called upon to 
assume the crown, and respecting his wish for an under- 
standing with Bismarck. The Emperor better. 

199. BISMARCK TO GENERAL VON ALBEDYLL 216 

Varzin, July 16, '85. 

Bismarck describes his interview with the Crown Prince 
on the subject referred to in the preceding letter. 

200. THE CROWN PRINCESS FREDERICK TO BISMARCK . . . 217 

Berlin, December 24, '85. 
Sending a Christmas present of wine. 

201. HERR VON PLESSEN, AIDE-DE-CAMP TO THE EMPEROR WILLIAM, 

TO BISMARCK afl} 

The Palace, Berlin, May 15, '86. 

Reporting that the Emperor has had a slight paralytic 
Stroke. 



xxiv SYNOPSIS OF THE LETTERS IN VOL II 

NUMBER PAGE 

202. COUNT LEHNDORFF, AIDE-DE-CAMP TO THE EMPEROR WILLIAM, 

TO BISMARCK 218 

Berlin, March 4, '88. 
The Emperor's illness; a crisis anticipated 

203. COUNT LEHNDORFF TO BISMARCK 219 

Berlin, March 5, '88. 

The Emperor somewhat better; an injection of morphia 
was, however, necessary during the night. 

204. HERR VON BROESIGKE, AIDE-DE-CAMP TO THE EMPEROR WIL- 

LIAM, TO BISMARCK 219 

The Palace, Berlin, March 6, '88. 

The Emperor is sleeping quietly; it has not been necessary 
to inject morphia during the day. 

205. HERR VON BROESIGKE TO BISMARCK 220 

The Palace, Berlin, March 8, '88. 
The Emperor's condition is very serious. 

206. HERR VON LIPPE, AIDE-DE-CAMP TO THE EMPEROR WILLIAM, 

TO BISMARCK 220 

March 8, '88. 
The Emperor is fast losing his strength. 

307. HERR VON PETERSDORFF, AIDE-DE-CAMP TO THE EMPEROR 

WILLIAM, TO BISMARCK 220 

The Palace, Berlin, March 9, '88. 

The Emperor's condition has taken a turn for the worse; 
the members of the Imperial family have been summoned 
to the bedside. 

208. COUNT RADOLINSKI, COURT CHAMBERLAIN, TO BISMARCK . 220 

Landshut, March n, '88. 

The Emperor Frederick will receive the Ministers in the 
train, on his way to Berlin. 



BISMARCK TO ALBERT v. BELOW. 

April 12, '48. 
DEAR ALBERT, 

The rush of business, consequent on the Landtag being 
closed earlier than was anticipated, has prevented me from 
finishing this letter sooner. The final sitting was held the 
day before yesterday; after I alone had protested in a long 
speech, in the interests of the agricultural portion of the 
country's against Hansemann's * extravagance in favour of 
the panier perce of industry, the House, carried away by a 
very good speech by v. Vincke, voted a credit of 40 million 
Marks by a large majority. The Landtag passed this vote, 
as it has passed everything since April ist, under the influ- 
ence of fear for what might happen, and ag.ainst the con- 
viction of the majority. Hansemann did, indeed, in his 
reply to me, make a kind of promise that no extraordinary 
taxes should be imposed until after the elections, but he 
was evidently actuated only by an apprehension concerning 
the voting. I am somewhat anxious as to what use he 
will make of the supreme power he has thus obtained over 
the taxpayer's purse, as justice and considerateness are the 
last qualities to be looked for in him. It is an unheard-of 
thing for the Landtag to treat the country in this way, by 
permitting Hansemann (for he outwits the other Ministers) 
to raise these forty millions in any way he chooses, either 
by increasing the old or by imposing new taxes. The 
money might have been granted, if the necessity for it were 
proved, but explanations ought to have been demanded as 
to how it was intended to find the money, in case it could 
* David Hansemann, Minister for Finance. 



2 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1851 

not be raised by means of a loan. You see I am still in the 
midst of political worries. Au revoir. 

Your affectionate cousin, 

BISMARCK. 



OTTO v. MANTEUFFEL TO BISMARCK. 

BERLIN, June 7, '51. 

Agreeably to your wish, I send you in the bearer of this 
letter, Assessor Rudloff, a person whom you may employ 
for literary and other purposes. I should like to know as soon 
as possible what you think of him. I found him very will- 
ing, but somewhat impetuous, and liable to make mistakes. 

You must, with your usual kindliness, excuse me for 
having been prevented by the extraordinary stress of busi- 
ness and of events, in which I feel as if I were on a tread- 
mill, from replying to ycur interesting communications. 
The excessive work has had such an unfavourable effect 
on my nervous system, that Barez insists on my going to 
Detmold to drink the waters. I do not yet see how that can 
be arranged, and for the present I am going for three days 
to the Lausitz. I am quite satisfied with my visit to War- 
saw, although it was very fatiguing. Czar Nicholas was in 
excellent health, our master unfortunately not so well. The 
Czar was like an ichneumon towards the crocodile's egg 
of constitutionalism, though he appreciated my plea that to 
use forcible measures in attacking this system, which is play- 
ing itself out, would only tend to supply it with the vigour 
it now lacks. 

I am not quite satisfied with the way things are going 
at Frankfurt, and will shortly write to Herr v. Rochow 
officially on the subject. I will also inform you more fully 
of my views than I am able to do at present. 

Count Thun seems to adopt the good old Austrian method 



1851] CORRESPONDENCE 3 

of avoiding difficulties, and of desiring to settle matters de 
facto; that is not our position however, the questions must 
be probed to the bottom, and if they really cannot be man- 
aged we must withdraw more and more from the whole 
affair. 

In view of her disordered internal conditions, Austria is 
far more interested than we are in accomplishing everything 
by force ; our policy, however, is to fight with arguments of 
reason, and by this means, as also by our firmness, to make 
an impression on the smaller states. 

My wife sends her kindest greetings. 

Adieu, dear Bismarck, and continue to think affection- 
ately of your Faithful servant and friend, 

MANTEUFFEL. 

Your letters are always very welcome to me, please con- 
tinue them. 

3 

EDWIN v. MANTEUFFEL TO BISMARCK. 

BERLIN, June g, '51. 
ESTEEMED PATRON, 

I have received two letters from you, the first dated the 
middle of May, from Warsaw, and the second dated May 
2Oth. I communicated both of them to Manteuffel; with 
respect to the first he told me that the necessary steps have 
already been taken in connection with England and France, 
and he returned me the second yesterday. I have not yet 
had an opportunity of discussing this one with him. I did 
not show the letter to Stockhausen,* as he is perfectly well 
acquainted with the subject matter.t I consider this one of 
the most difficult questions. If you search through the 
whole history of the Prussian army you will find that the 

* Minister for War. 

t Concerning the pay received by Prussian officers. 



4 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1851 

Prussian officers have always been worse paid than any 
others, but that they have always starved with decorum, 
and yet played a role in society. Instead of making special 
money allowances, I think it would be much better to do 
away with the nonsense that a Bavarian, a Darmstadt, or 
any other German officer is to take equal rank with a Prus- 
sian officer. This has never been the case until within the 
past few years, and it is now killing the Prussian officer. If 
he is to remain a Prussian officer, his position as such must 
be authoritatively assured to him. When I was a lieutenant, 
I was offered the appointment as tutor to a little German 
Prince, with a captaincy in his army ; I regarded this as an 
insult, and nowadays the Prussian officer is, according to his 
patent, to rank with all these people ! This he cannot digest, 
and I regard the point as far more important than all money 
questions. I received a very friendly letter yesterday from 
General Rochow. I will tell General Gerlach that he wishes 
to see the list of decorations. My wife wishes to be kindly 
remembered to you. In sincerest attachment, 

EDW. MANTEUFFEL. 



4 
OTTO v. MANTEUFFEL TO BISMARCK. 

BERLIN, August 15, 51. 

I will only reply now to your kind letter of the I2th. mst., 
reserving the other points for a later occasion, that the 
King's majesty told me it was his intention to receive you 
in Frankfurt, but that there would be absolutely no objec- 
tion to your coming as far as Mayence to meet him. 

His Majesty does not wish to prescribe anything to you, 
but leaves you to do as you think best. 
With expressions of the highest esteem, 

Your obedient servant, 

MANTEUFFEL. 



1851] CORRESPONDENCE $ 

5 
OTTO v. MANTEUFFEL TO BISMARCK. 

October 4, '51. 

Your wife has given mine the pleasure of calling on her, 
and offered to take a letter to you; I hasten, therefore, to 
write you a couple of lines that they may reach you by this 
best and safest of opportunities. 

I take the liberty of enclosing for you a copy of a some- 
what remarkable effusion of Prince Schwarzenberg's, which 
Prokesch has shown to me. Count Schlieffen * had pre- 
pared a very strong despatch as a reply for Count Arnim,t 
in which he said that we had taken the good advice offered 
to us very much amiss, as we had not asked for it, that we 
are perfectly well able to find our own way and to take it, 
and that we know well enough that the important and 
difficult tasks resulting from the disordered condition of their 
own country leave Austrian statesmen neither the time nor 
the opportunity to reflect on our relations and to offer advice 
on them. Although I thoroughly agreed with it in many 
respects, I did not permit this despatch to be sent off, but 
decided to write privately to Arnim and explain our stand- 
point. Lack of time prevents me from fully explaining 
my reasons for acting thus, but you will understand them; 
they are essentially that I consider it of importance to avoid 
offering any provocation to Austria at the present moment, 
and that I have a particular disinclination to fight only with 
sharp words. 

It would greatly interest me to know whether similar 
admonitions have been sent to other States, and, if so, how 
they were received. I have just received your telegraphic 
despatch relating to the secession of our Provinces. 

* Count Albert v. Schlieffen, the official in charge of German matters 
in the Ministry for Foreign Affairs, 
t Prussian Envoy in Vienna. 



6 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1851 

The Earl of Westmoreland,* who has just returned from 
Hanover, told me yesterday that the old King f is in a most 
distressful mood and in great bodily suffering. 

I would like to write more, but my wife is anxious to 
take the letter to your wife. 

With expressions of the highest esteem, 

Your obedient servant and friend, 

MANTEUFFEL. 



(Enclosure.) 
PRINCE SCHWARZENBERG TO BARON v. PROKESCH-OSTEN. 

VIENNA, September 20, '51. 
ESTEEMED BARON, 

The presence of his Majesty the King of Prussia in Ischl 
has given the Emperor, our most gracious master, the grati- 
fying opportunity of learning personally the impression 
made on his Majesty's illustrious confederate by the re- 
cently issued Imperial note on the Austrian form of govern- 
ment. The King and his Prime Minister have offered their 
most friendly congratulations on an event which re- 
stores to the Empire the conditions of its stability and its 
welfare. 

We must probably attribute a portion of this praise to 
the idea that the Prussian kingly power regains an indispen- 
sable point of support in the monarchical basis of the Aus- 
trian constitution, and we may hope, therefore, that Prussia 
will regard those Imperial decisions as still another instiga- 
tion to a closer union with Austria. 

Prussia's King and the statesmen who assist him have al- 
ready taken so many courageous and decisive steps along 
the path leading to the re-confirmation of the power of the 

* John Fane, Earl of Westmoreland, English Ambassador in Vienna, 
f Ernst August. 



1851] CORRESPONDENCE 7 

government in Prussia, and thereby also in the rest of Ger- 
many, that we have no fear of being confronted by a serious 
difference of opinion on the part of the Berlin Cabinet, when- 
ever there is a question of bringing the influence of both 
powers to bear on the course of events in Germany. 

Many other German Governments have also intimated to 
us unreservedly their satisfaction and their joy that the full 
executive power is placed in the Emperor's hands. They 
regard the removal of the so-called representative system in 
Austria as an important step towards the consolidation of 
the political conditions also outside the Austrian state, and 
do not conceal the wish that advantage may accrue there- 
from to their own situation, which in many cases is still tot- 
tery. They tell us, however, that it is only the example of 
the German great powers which can give them strength for 
a radical move in their own domain. 

On the other hand, the revolutionary party is eagerly 
cherishing the hope that a fundamental antagonism will 
grow up between Austria and Prussia. This party would 
reconcile itself for the time being to what it is pleased to call 
the return to absolutism in Austria, if it would thereby en- 
tangle Prussia in the net of its fallacies, defraud Prussia of 
her real life-power, bring her into contradiction with the 
demands of her political position, and finally drag her 
against her will into the abyss of revolution. 

The value of the present moment for strengthening 
monarchy in Europe, and for tightening the internal bands 
which unite the two German powers, and thus for the return 
of better times generally, will undoubtedly have been recog- 
nised in Berlin. We must hope that in Prussia also it may 
be the King's will which will decide on the direction politics 
shall follow for the benefit of all. 

Since the old close alliance was restored and confirmed, 
Prussia has given us absolutely no cause for complaint on 
this score. We all the more readily exchange with the 



8 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1851 

Prussian court considerations which are but natural in view 
of the present condition of affairs. 

Communicate this despatch, therefore, to Baron von Man- 
teuffel. Receive, etc. 

F. SCHWARZENBERG. 

To His EXCELLENCY, 

FREIHERR VON PROKESCH. 

BERLIN. 



GENERAL v. ROCHOW TO BISMARCK. 

ST. PETERSBURG, November i, '51. 
MY DEAR SIR AND FRIEND, 

I have received your intellectual, extremely interesting, 
and copious letter of the 18-21. ultimo, and cannot describe 
the pleasure it has afforded me. I greatly enjoyed hearing 
about you and your work. I see, however, that much re- 
mains as of yore, and although you, as an indefatigable 
champion, have replaced the old withered stem by a young 
and vigorous plant, you will become ever more conscious 
of the fact that it is very difficult to set in motion the 
ponderous treadmill in the Eschenheimer Gasse. There is 
much more agreement between Vienna and Berlin than there 
will ever be between the representatives of the two great 
powers at Frankfurt, as the Presidency there is influenced 
by such subordinate forces. It is chiefly subaltern influences 
which dominate the negotiations of the experts. Prince 
Schwarzenberg is no doubt goaded on in all kinds of ways, 
but he returns to his own manner of thinking, and we 
should get along very well with Austria were there not a 
Prokesch-Osten in Berlin, and if there were not a Herr v. 
Beust to come in between. The latter has laid a very bad egg 
in connection with the Hanoverian treaty. Neither Saxony 
nor Bavaria can dispense with the Zollverein. 



1851] CORRESPONDENCE 9 

Both these gentlemen are animated by the desire and the 
necessity to put themselves prominently in the foreground 
in political matters; the super-clever Herr v. Beust in par- 
ticular, for whom the Saxon coat is too small, would like 
extremely to play the role of intermediary between Prussia 
and Austria, which are being arbitrarily provoked against 
each other. Such assumption of political importance, and 
such instigation, are inconvenient, but at ordinary times 
they do no great harm ; they might, however, be dangerous 
during a crisis. 

If I were at Frankfurt, and possessed as much intelligence 
as you, I should take an opportunity of speaking plainly to 
Count Thun on all such obstacles. 

Minister Manteuffel has sent me a very good detailed 
statement of the Hanover treaty. The new tariff is not yet 
published in Austria, and the Government there will have 
much trouble in carrying it out in their own country. 
Minister Bruck, who gave the present direction to Austria's 
commercial-political affairs, was a visionary, and Hock * 
is no better without positive knowledge. 

You wonder at the scanty attainments of Munch? He 
has not many, but he is not so narrow as diffident and petty. 
You must not look among the gentlemen of the Bund for 
clear-sighted statesmen. 

Biilow,t Oertzen $ and Schele are the most intelligent. 
The first is the most capable of your colleagues, the two 
others have only a restricted horizon. 

I read to Count Nesselrode the passage in your letter 
referring to your negotiations with Augustenburg.H He 
laughed very much at your " either hang him or be polite 
to him." 

* Ritter v. Hock, member of the Austrian Ministerial Council. 
t Danish lord in waiting, Envoy for Holstein and Lauenburg in the 
Bundestag. J Mecklenburg Envoy in the Bundestag. 

Russian State-Chancellor. 
T Duke Christian August of Schleswig-Holstein-Augustenburg. 



io FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1851 

The Danes have done us good service with their bad 
Ministry, for Russia is indignant at the democratic tendency 
of the Copenhagen Cabinet, and is turning towards us. 

Thank faithful Rudloff for his careful abstract, which 
I have found very useful ; give him and Wentzel my kindest 
regards, and remind Kelchner of my existence. How the 
poor man must have been run off his legs to reach your villa. 

How is Lion Lynar, and does Waldersee* still compose 
as many poems ? Hearty greetings to Count Thun, to your 
neighbour Nostitz, and to Cowley.f 

It is a question whether I shall be able to get away this 
winter. I am in despair, and cannot put up much longer 
with the life of a hermit. 

Things look very bad in France, and there must be no 
delay in producing order in Germany; the creation of a 
central police department is absolutely imperative. We 
must not run the risk of being surprised. 

If the Bundestag does not now secure compliance to its 
will, it will be a serious matter for Germany. 

Place me in the usual way at your wife's feet, and do not 
forget your 

old admirer and friend, 

R(OCHOW). 



OTTO v. MANTEUFFEL TO BISMARCK. 

BERLIN, November 3, '51. 

I beg to make some confidential observations respecting 
the Royal autograph letter of yesterday's date. 

The proposal to settle the succession on the Duke of Au- 
gustenburg in the event of the male descendants of Prince 

* Prussian plenipotentiary in the Military Commission of the Bund- 
estag. 
fLord Cowley, British Envoy to the Bundestag. 



1851] CORRESPONDENCE n 

Christian dying out has been presented at Copenhagen and 
St. Petersburg. According to the report of Freiherr 
. . . ,* the Danish Cabinet does not sympathise with 
the idea. It cannot be denied that the acknowledgment of 
Prince Christian and his descendants by his marriage with 
the Princess of Hesse has the great practical advantage of 
removing all complicated and controversial questions. This 
advantage of simplicity would be lost if a stipulation were 
introduced in favour of the possible succession of the Duke 
of Augustenburg and his brother. The possible claims of 
the brothers and sisters of Princess Christian, and of the 
other members of the Glucksburg line, would then also have 
to be regulated, and this is a task which it would be very 
difficult to solve. The passage in the Royal letter in which 
his Majesty states that he cannot guarantee your wishes 
being carried out is to be especially accentuated. According 
to the latest news, the Danish Cabinet is ready to accede to 
the demands urged by Prussia, Austria, and Russia, so that 
the bad feeling which certainly existed in St. Petersburg 
will now be removed. Finally, I beg you to read the pas- 
sage : " the Duke may leave the settlement entirely in his 
Majesty's hands," as implying that the Duke will in any 
case follow his Majesty's advice. The Royal Cabinet can- 
not undertake the independent vindication of the Duke's 
claims nor be answerable for the results of his endeavours, 
especially as it appears that the Duke has made some mis- 
take in estimating the revenues of his estates. It is possible 
that the Danish Government deducts the charges on the es- 
tates, while the Duke gives the gross proceeds. This would 
explain the difference in the estimates. 

MANTEUFFEL. 

* The name is indecipherable in the original. 



12 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1851 

8 

OTTO v. MANTEUFFEL TO BISMARCK. 

BERLIN, November 23, '51. 

I am much obliged to you for your kind communication 
of the 1 9th inst. 

I not only entirely agree with you in the fleet question but 
also subscribe to your general remarks. 

In the matter of the fleet we have to do with the vision- 
aries who cherish an undefined idea of a new Germany, and 
who succeed in working much harm, of which we have 
just had a sad specimen in the form of an effusion ad- 
dressed by the ex-King Louis * to the King. He regards 
the dissolution of the fleet as an act of treason to the 
country, etc. If we were to yield to these enthusiasts we 
should be aground in a week. I represented this standpoint 
to the Prince of Prussia, who viewed it with considerable 
favour. 

I took a special opportunity which offered, before the 
arrival of your letter, for writing to Prince Schwarzenberg 
direct on the general relations with Austria. I told him 
that I did not believe he was the source of this machination, 
but that I was of opinion he could prevent it, and if he did 
not soon utter a quos ego! breath to utter mine would fail 
me ; there would then be fighting on both sides and, as I be- 
lieved, to Austria's disadvantage. To this I have received 
no reply; Count Arnim writes me, however, that the Prince 
is very much embarrassed. 

I quite approve of your not starting or taking up any 
quarrel with Count Thun. There may be some truth in 
what Herr v. Nostitz says, but the fact must not be over- 
looked that any unanimous procedure on the part of the 
great powers is fatal to the middle states. 

* Of Bavaria. 



1851] CORRESPONDENCE 13 

So long as Germany is two-headed, nothing will be at- 
tained unless we are in accord, and we should get on very 
well together if Austria were not such a wonderful partner, 
in whose composition an immoderately large body, and even 
strength, are combined with repulsive diseases produc- 
ing temporary weakness and uncouthness, Conservatism with 
Radicalism, true distinction with vulgarity, cunning with 
coarseness, and subtlety with foolhardiness. The removal 
of these drawbacks seems to be as desirable as it is impossi- 
ble, for they are deeply rooted in the inmost nature of this 
state. As Austria cannot be ignored, nothing remains for us 
but either to proceed to extremities or to put up with it as 
best we can, taking care that no advantage is taken of us. 
The superior power must be made to feel something ; when 
occasion offers the giant's fingers must be rapped in such a 
manner that he experiences merely a sensation of pain, with- 
out getting into a rage at the idea that his vanity is offended. 
The serious side of the intercourse with Austria is that as 
far as its power reaches no dependence can be placed on 
it, and it is always ready to play va banque. This must not, 
however, restrain us from opposing Austria when such an 
attitude is considered permissible and advisable; but a cer- 
tain reserve should be adopted, by means of which one would 
lose no more than when a prudent, moderately well-to-do 
man declines to be a party to a transaction proposed to him 
by a great spendthrift. The latter is vexed that the other 
will not hazard the object of his envy, the assured existence; 
but in the long run the careful man will come off best, and 
finally have to assist the grandee. It is not, however, to the 
interests of either the one or the other to hasten the time 
when this must take place. Although I do not close my 
eyes to the intrigues of Austria, and am, consequently, not 
her friend, I see with great apprehension the approach of the 
moment when this Empire might break lip; unfortunately, 
my reports from Vienna, both official and unofficial, confirm 



14 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1851 

me in this belief. No one can foresee the consequences of 
the collapse of such a colossus, which may seriously affect 
the destinies of the whole of Europe. Affairs are in a very 
critical state; and even if we do not undertake any mining 
operations from our side, thus designedly directing the fall 
on our own house, it is possible that the ruins will do us 
some injury. What I ardently desire is for the year 1852 
to have passed by, and that by that time there may be some 
stability in France. Rochow writes me that on the whole 
the Czar * is satisfied with the course of events in Austria, 
but that Nesselrode disapproves of much, and both regard 
Schwarzenberg as an unreliable and irregular politician ; he 
apprehends that conflicts with Russia are inevitable. I, on 
the other hand, consider that Schwarzenberg is the only 
man capable of holding Austria together, until the Emperor 
perhaps is able to do so later, and I should have no sort of 
interest in his fall. 

I do not think the Bundestag is qualified to make anything 
of Germany, and regard it merely as a means of covering 
the internal ruin; it also serves a useful purpose for the 
smaller states, whose existence cannot be simply ignored, 
by offering them a fixed point on which they can save them- 
selves from completely sinking in the slough of their own 
conditions. I doubt whether it will be possible to improve 
these conditions without great European convulsions. 

In future I shall be very sparing with proposals to be 
introduced conjointly with Austria. 

I have just received your enquiry respecting the opening 
of the Chamber. I should very much wish you to be present, 
but hesitate to summon you by telegram ; please do your best 
not to be too late, and if possible be here for the election of 
the President, which will take place on December I or 2. It 
seems to me that there will be no particular disadvantage in 
your being missed a little at Frankfurt. 

* Nicholas I. 



1852] CORRESPONDENCE 15 

As the King is going to Hanover for the funeral,* he 
will not open the Chamber in person; I shall do it instead 
of him, but my opening remarks will be restricted to ques- 
tions of internal administration, and I shall endeavour to 
avoid a debate on the address. 

Excuse this voluminous statement, I could add much 
more, but reserve it until we meet. I would give your 
kindest regards to Count Stolberg if I did not consider it su- 
perfluous. In grateful attachment, 

Your obedient servant, 

MANTEUFFEL. 

9 

BISMARCK TO OTTO v. MANTEUFFEL. 

Undated, but evidently written in February, '52. 

YOUR EXCELLENCY'S 

favour, with the enclosure from Herr von Schele, reached 
me by way of Cologne yesterday. 

Dr. Fischer, formerly State-Councillor in Oldenburg, who 
will be known to your Excellency as the author of sev- 
eral political works, is now living here, and is occupied, 
among other matters, with working up petitions for the 
rights of the Standesherrn. 

Partly by this means, and partly through other relations of 
older date, he has opened up a correspondence with several 
members of the old-Conservative party in Austria, especially 
with Prince Windischgratz and Count Wurmbrandt. He 
regards Prince Windischgratz as the head of the said party 
in Austria, and as this party's candidate for the succession 
to Prince Schwarzenberg. There seems to be no doubt that 
Prince Windischgratz is held in high esteem by all the Con- 
servative opponents of the present Austrian Prime Minister, 
and I hear from good sources that the Prince's relations with 
* Of King Ernst August, who died on Nov. 18, 1851. 



16 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1852 

the Emperor have been much improved through the medi- 
ation of the Grand-Duchess Sophie. In one of the letters 
which Councillor Fischer showed me, Prince Windischgratz 
gives especial prominence to the necessity of the understand- 
ing with Prussia, and Herr Fischer added orally that accord- 
ing to his information the clumsy inconsiderateness in the 
treatment of German affairs is held up as a reproach to 
Prince Schwarzenberg, just as the failure of his Hungarian 
campaign was used to represent Prince Windischgratz to his 
Majesty the Emperor as being incapable. In order to dis- 
prove the statements made against him, the Prince recently 
published over his name an account, taken from official 
documents, of his operations in Hungary. As is perfectly 
natural, he is most eagerly awaiting the judgment of foreign 
military experts, and especially the verdict of the Prussian 
military reviews. It cannot but be advantageous, even if 
the present political combinations in Austria are not con- 
sidered, to meet any Prussian sympathies shown by one who 
in any case is a prominent personality in Austria. I ven- 
ture, therefore, most obediently to suggest to your Excel- 
lency the advisability of taking measures through the Min- 
istry for War or General von Gerlach, so that the criticisms 
on Prince Windischgratz's personal defence, appearing in 
those military reviews which are generally believed by out- 
siders to reflect the opinion of our official circles, may if 
possible be favourable, but at all events couched in a spirit 
of forbearance and good-will. 

The impression made upon me by the letters from Count 
Wurmbrandt was that the Austrian nobility belonging to 
this party have hitherto occupied themselves less with the 
endeavour to acquire political importance than with their 
irritation at and their struggle against the material losses 

inflicted on them. 

v. BISMARCK. 



1852] CORRESPONDENCE 17 

(Enclosure.) 
COUNT WURMBRANDT TO COUNCILLOR H. FlSCHER. 

(Copy) LIBLIN, December 27, '51. 

MOST ESTEEMED COUNCILLOR, 

I hasten to reply to your letter of the 23rd. inst, which 
I have just received, but warn you beforehand that you will 
most probably find my answer unsatisfactory, as customs 
duties and commerce are out of my domain. I must first 
make my standpoint clear to you. I believe I am quite right 
in my opinion that a struggle is going on between movable 
and immovable property. Because I am a Conservative I am 
on the side of immovable property, and hope it will gain 
the victory. As I am no connoisseur, I can only judge by 
what my own five senses tell me of the means which will lead 
to victory. My simple practical sense names free-trade as 
the means, and protection as the way to reach this aim. It 
is evident that the protective duties must be arranged on a 
constantly decreasing scale, and must be spread uniformly 
over the greatest possible extent of country. I sent an 
article containing this view to the Kreuz Zeitung, which 
printed it last March, but added comments of its own which 
made a very bad impression in this country, and raised the 
suspicion that the Conservatives in Prussia would not hesi- 
tate to use any pretext to make Prussia more powerful and 
greater at Austria's expense, and to secure it an advantage. 
It was noticed even then that legitimacy and the idea of 
justice end where specific Prussianism begins. 

If a customs union would be desirable between Oldenburg 
and Croatia were the latter country inhabited by Germans, 
it is also desirable when Croatia is inhabited by Slavs, 
and if the union between Oldenburg and the Slavonic Croatia 
is not to be desired, the same would apply if the Croatians 
were suddenly transformed into Brandenburgers. 

I candidly confess that it appears to me that another 



18 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1852 

political question, viz, dualism, is behind Prussia's proposals 
in the customs question. And this seems to me to mean in 
Prussia that all Germany is to become Prussian, with the 
exception of Austria's possessions in Germany, which are to 
be left to her for the present at least. 

It is possible that a customs union between the Slovaks 
and the Croatians would be detrimental to the political atti- 
tude of Germany, though we must be very clear as to what 
Germany was, and will be in the future. 

The real Germany ceased to exist as soon as there was 
no united German church. We have for some time past had 
a confederation of the different mid-European states under 
the quite unsuitable and inaccurate name of " Germany." 
In Austria we now desire a still closer confederation, to in- 
clude larger states, in any case all Austria, and for the sake 
of the good objects we have in view are willing that this 
confederacy of mid-European States shall be styled Ger- 
many, if this name contributes towards the speedy and per- 
manent accomplishment of the confederacy. But anybody 
who declines to include Croatians in this confederacy of 
states will virtually exclude all Austria. 

If, under some plausible pretexts or other, and not sud- 
denly but gradually, Austria is actually excluded from Ger- 
many, the neck also of Catholicism in Germany will be 
broken; and then it will not be difficult to amalgamate the 
smaller states with Protestant Prussia. 

I have now explained to you quite candidly, and with 
perfect trust in your fairness, my opinion on the customs 
question and on the policy followed by Prussia in this 
question. 

I cannot say that this is the opinion of the entire party, 
but it is shared by the most eminent of my political com- 
panions in faith. I am far from expecting that a man of 
your experience will at once adopt our view; I must, how- 
ever, reply to your definite question whether you would 



1852] CORRESPONDENCE 19 

be serving the interests of the Austrian Conservative party 
by opposing the Austrian Zollverein, with a perfectly de- 
cided " No." To make things surer, I will send your letter, 
to-morrow, with a copy of my reply, to Count Wolkenstein, 
and will request him, after he has spoken with any men of 
the party who may be in Vienna, to write himself if he 
should not agree, or should only partially agree to what I 
have written to you. 

You will gather from what I have said that I must agree 
with Prince Hohenlohe's speech. 



10 
OTTO v. MANTEUFFEL TO BISMARCK. 

BERLIN, April 20, '52. 

I have forwarded to the Minister of the Interior the letter 
respecting Week,* and will discuss the matter later. I beg 
only to remark that the said Week is personally known to 
me, and that he is an extremely untrustworthy person, who 
has frequently obtained money from me on the promise of 
revelations, and has never done anything. He has boasted, 
in London, Paris, and Carlsruhe, of his acquaintanceship 
with me, and has even threatened to publish my relations 
with him: this I could calmly wait for, as he has nothing 
of mine in his possession, and could but prove the undis- 
puted fact that I was imposed upon by him as I have been 
by so many others. Herr von Glinka f should, therefore, 
be recommended to exert the utmost caution. It may be 
true that Week is in possession of letters from other Envoys, 
for he has obtruded himself on many in order to get money, 
and he is as accessible to the Prussian thaler as to the rouble 
and the Austrian twenty kreuzer piece. 

* A Breslau tradesman, who in 1851 had offered his services to the 
representative of the Prussian Minister Resident in Frankfurt to watch 
the Frankfurt democrats. 

t Russia's representative at the Bundestag. 



20 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [185:1 

You will have received my opening speech ; the King was 
indignant at it, considering it far too weak. You know 
why I was so moderate; moreover, I do not regard use- 
less reservations, such as the King desired, as a proof of 
strength. 

Bunsen is urging the King more and more into the arms 
of the peerage. He maintains that the greatest statesmen in 
England believe that in the course of a few years the con- 
tinent will fall into two great divisions: a. the Protestant 
states with a constitutional system whose main support is 
the peerage, and b. Catholic Jesuitical democratic abso- 
lute states. He includes Austria, France, and Russia in the 
latter category. This I consider to be quite a mistake; 
there are no such categories, for each state follows a course 
of development of its own. Frederick William I. was 
neither Catholic nor democratic, and yet he was absolute. 
But such things create a great impression on his Majesty. I 
regard the constitutional system, where majorities have the 
dominion, as anything but Protestant. 

My wife sends greetings, and has your room always ready 
for you. Write as soon as you can, as you wish to take part 
in the First Chamber question. I should like to have a com- 
munication in writing. 

Your devoted servant and friend, 

MANTEUFFEL. 

ii 

OTTO v. MANTEUFFEL TO BISMARCK. 

(Telegraphic despatch.) 

BERLIN, April 24, '52. 

The debate in the Second Chamber on the bill dealing 
with the constitution of the First Chamber does not begin 
to-day, but probably next Monday or Tuesday. 
Please let me know whether you are coming. 

v. MANTEUFFEL. 



1852] CORRESPONDENCE 21 

12 

BISMARCK TO OTTO v. MANTEUFFEL. 

(Telegraphic despatch.) 
CmssiME, FRANKFURT, April 24, '52. 5 : 15 p. M. 

I am to come. Does your Excellency consider the Au- 
gustenburg affair, or that of Prince Friedrich of Baden 
about which General Gerlach wrote to me, reasons for my 
staying here ? v. BISMARCK. 

13 
OTTO v. MANTEUFFEL TO BISMARCK. 

(Telegraphic despatch.) 

BERLIN, April 24, '52. 8 : 55 P. M. 

No, I do not consider them reasons. The debate begins 
on Monday, April 26th, at noon. MANTEUFFEL. 



BISMARCK TO OTTO v. MANTEUFFEL. 

(Telegraphic despatch.) 
CmssiME, FRANKFURT, April 25, '52. 10 A. M. 

To his Excellency, Herr von Manteuffel, Berlin. 

I hope to complete the necessary arrangements in order 
to leave to-day. I should then arrive in Berlin to-morrow 
evening. v. BISMARCK. 

'5 

KARL v. MANTEUFFEL TO BISMARCK. 

April, '52. 

Count Burghausen, in accord with 'my brother and the 
Ministry, will move as an amendment : 



22 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1852 

" The First Chamber shall be constituted by a Royal ordi- 
nance which has the force of law." 

Will you please arrange for a similar amendment to be 
moved by the right side of the Second Chamber ? 

Your 

MANTEUFFEL 

16 
OTTO v. MANTEUFFEL TO BISMARCK. 

(Telegraphic despatch.) 

BERLIN, May 19, '52. 10:45 A. M. 

If your business permits, will you arrange to be here next 
Saturday or Sunday, as that will probably be the best time to 
.wait on his Majesty the Czar. 

Kindly inform me by telegraph whether and when you 
will come. MANTEUFFEL. 

17 
OTTO v. MANTEUFFEL TO BISMARCK. 

BERLIN, August 4, '52. 

Gratulor ex animo* gratefully accept the sponsorship, am 
just starting (the horses have been waiting a whole hour) 
for Crossen, from which place I return here on the I4th. inst. 

Stir up Canitz f to take a strong stand in the Customs 
question, especially in Nassau, where he can assume a threat- 
ening attitude. Unchangeably yours, 

MANTEUFFEL. 

*On the birth of his second son William. 

t Prussian Minister Resident to the Grand-Duchy of Hesse, the 
Duchy of Nassau, and the free city of Frankfurt. 



1852] CORRESPONDENCE 23 

18 
OTTO v. MANTEUFFEL TO BISMARCK. 

November 19, '52. 

Your favour of the day before yesterday impels me to 
say a few words to you regarding the stage at which our 
Customs question has now arrived. 

When Herr v. Prokesch launched forth here into high- 
sounding phrases, saying that Austria, moved by higher po- 
litical considerations, desired above all things an understand- 
ing with Prussia, and was willing to sign any commercial 
treaty even if it were drawn up by the hostile pens of the 
Ministry of Finance, but that only Prussia, which was specu- 
lating on revolution, was the cause of this easy and beneficial 
arrangement not being made, and when similar expressions 
reached me from St. Petersburg and from MeyendorfFs pen r 
I instructed Count Arnim in Vienna to ask in the right quar- 
ter what all this signifies. We had a double interest, firstly, 
in guarding ourselves against unjust accusations, and sec- 
ondly, in warding off intervention offered to us in an un- 
favourable manner, especially by Hanover. 

Count Arnim found Count Buol quite dejected; the offer 
made to us was the relinquishment of the Customs union, a 
commercial treaty advantageous to both parties, not en- 
croaching on the liberties of either and valid for twelve 
years; we are not required to go to Vienna, they will 
send to Berlin or wherever we wish. They desire to treat 
only for Austria and not for the coalition states, but only 
with Prussia, reserving the right to admit the rest of the 
states later. 

The only difficulty remaining is the all-important ques- 
tion of time, but there is every prospect that this also will 
be overcome. We have already concluded an agreement with 
Brunswick, and hope to do the same with the Thuringian 
States during the next few days. As soon as this is done 



*4 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1852 

we can consider the Zollverein as reconstructed, that is to say 
the Coalition States as excluded ; and then we can negotiate 
with Austria without being inconsistent. Count Buol has 
already addressed a note to Count Arnim on this point, and 
the reply is being drawn up here, it will not be sent off, how- 
ever, until the re-construction of the Zollverein is completed. 
So the matter stands. All Herr von Dalwigk's talk about 
negotiations is deliberate lying ; one cannot speak of negotia- 
tions being conducted when Austria has expressed a wish to 
negotiate with us and we have not even replied. 

It is quite true that when once negotiations are opened up 
the matter may probably and perhaps must be settled very 
quickly. 

Hanover plays a very bad role in the affair, and only the 
necessity for preserving the agreement restrains me from 
speaking my mind to Herr v. Schele. It not only refuses to 
send a plenipotentiary here, but has actually agitated against 
us in Oldenburg, and warned Brunswick against ratifying 
the treaty. The Hanoverian gentlemen wish us to negotiate 
direct with Austria; do they really not see that the possi- 
bility of negotiating is the preliminary condition to the at- 
tainment of the wish? 

I shall be grateful to you, dear friend, if you will soon 
give me your opinion on the subject, and especially tell me 
if you see any objections to be raised against the course I 
am pursuing. 

His Majesty has suddenly become very anti-Napoleon, 
and thinks that the President makes common cause with 
every revolutionary. 

His Majesty finds the long English memorandum against 
figure III * excellent; I find it confusing, and all the more 
insufficient as I know already that the English repent it. 
Nevertheless, I agree with the idea, that if it is at all pos- 
sible, the English must be kept to their word. For this rea- 
* For Louis Napoleon. 



1852] CORRESPONDENCE 25 

son we shall take up the question of the conference in London 
which you have proposed. Austria does not seem inclined 
to join. MANTEUFFEL. 

If an arrangement with Austria is to succeed, it is very 
necessary that silence be maintained, and passions and the 
newspapers be kept away from the subject. Hence I con- 
sider it folly for Herr v. Dalwigk to deliver such speeches, 
and would rather disavow than sanction them. 



OTTO v. MANTEUFFEL TO BISMARCK. 

BERLIN, December 30, '52. 

About a year ago Messrs, von Rothschild, the Frankfurt 
bankers, were here, and expressed the wish to become our 
court-bankers; in reply to an enquiry on the subject you 
then stated that Messrs, v. Rothschild had been adequately 
compensated by loans for anything they had done in the 
Prussian interest. 

In consequence of this report the matter was allowed to 
drop. It has been brought up again recently, and I should 
therefore be glad to know from you whether the conditions 
are now changed. I may remark that in my opinion it would 
not be very easy to ascertain what monetary advantages are 
secured by such a great banking house. 

Should you now pronounce for the bestowal of the title of 
banker to the court, kindly draw up an official document 

giving the reasons for your opinion. 

MANTEUFFEL. 

(Postscript.) 

I would add that it is not necessary to report officially on 
the matter, it will suffice if I know that you have no objec- 
tion to the bestowal. Should the Rothschilds still follow a 



26 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1853 

predominately anti-Prussian tendency, I should certainly re- 
gard this as such an objection. 

I may tell you, in the strictest confidence, that the matter 
is so far of interest to me as Rothschild will thus be to 
a certain extent diverted from his fervent efforts to improve 
the Vienna valuta, and will be favourably inclined towards 
a railway loan we are thinking of raising. 

The best wishes of the season to you and yours. 

Unalterably your 

MANTEUFFEL. 

20 
FREIHERR v. PROKESCH-OSTEN TO BISMARCK. 

VIENNA, January 18, '53. 
MOST ESTEEMED FREIHERR, 

While I bring the very best intentions into the position 
assigned to me by his Majesty the Emperor, I do not go to 
Frankfurt without hope, as I shall find you there among the 
collaborators in the common work. 

I have already learned in Berlin to esteem the uprightness 
of your character and of your mode of thought, your gift 
of intuition and of comprehension, your eloquence and your 
kindly manners, and the experience gained at Frankfurt will 
place it in the power of your good will to render me greatly 
beholden to you. You have always appreciated my en- 
deavours to further the union between Austria and Prussia. 
I will also in future continue to keep the same end in view, 
an end which quarantees the strength and the dignity of Ger- 
many, and most effectually secures the orderly development 
of the interests of the two countries. I shall meet you on 
this path, and we will pursue it together. It is in this belief 
that I am coming. 

The date of my arrival is as yet uncertain, but I expect it 
will be in the last week of this month. I shall probably 



1853] CORRESPONDENCE 27 

take the shortest route; my wife will accompany me, and 
we shall be able to profit by your advice in domestic matters. 

When I look back over my stay in Berlin, recall the 
gracious expressions of his Majesty your exalted King and 
master, and reflect on the pleasure which awaits me in going 
hand in hand with you, I am inclined to look forward to 
Frankfurt with tranquility and cheerfulness. 

Accept the expression of my highest esteem, with which 
I have the honour to be, 

Your most faithful, 

v. PROKESCH-OSTEN. 



21 

QUEHL TO BISMARCK. 

BERLIN, March u, '53. 
YOUR EXCELLENCY, 

I am directed by the Minister President to inform you 
that he quite agrees with your views and procedure in respect 
of Herr v. Prokesch. Herr v. Manteuffel will speak to his 
Majesty in this sense, and this will probably be a good op- 
portunity although his Majesty is much inclined towards 
joint steps with Austria against England to draw the at- 
tention of Austria to the inept procedure of the diplomatic 
poet. A long note came yesterday from Austria, which 
wishes to join Prussia (against England). Although our 
hotspurs have for long been very impetuous in their de- 
mands for " energetic measures " against England as if 
England could be annihilated with a forcible speech, like a 
clause in a bill in the Second Chamber. Herr v. Manteuffel 
meets these onsets with great coolness and tranquillity. In 
his opinion a refusal will now have to be given to Austria, 
though in a most friendly manner, and some marginal notes 
for Prokesch can be interwoven. His Excellency is par- 
ticularly glad at your remarks respecting Bavaria, and em- 



28 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1853 

powers you to cultivate the most friendly relations with the 
Bavarian Envoy. Although this will be immaterial to you, 
I cannot help expressing my great pleasure that your and 
the Minister President's views meet so regularly, and that 
Prussia has such a thoroughly Prussian representative at 
the only place at which she is displaying any activity. A 
representative who, fortunately, is not only able to perceive 
the right but possesses the energy to pursue it, an energy 
which can neither be acquired nor bought, but which, as we 
must acknowledge with humility, is a gift from God. It 
is certainly most regrettable that you cannot both be divided 
into a hundred parts, so as to supply all the diplomatic posts 
with Manteuffels and Bismarcks. Unfortunately, the pros- 
pect of this co-operation bearing gratifying fruit is some- 
what troubled by complications and developments here. The 
doctrinaire-feudal-pietist party on the one hand, and the 
good Herr v. Hinckeldey, who it is true has the advantage 
of representing no principle but only his noble self, on the 
other hand, not only render Herr v. Manteuffel's position 
difficult, but I fear are shaking it more and more. And then 
come our chief's excellent colleagues, some of whom are as 
short-sighted as they are weak, and the others (in reality 
only Herr v. Bodelschwingh) are intriguers, and imagine 
themselves called to do great things. 

How can a kingdom exist which is disunited within itself? 
But I will leave this subject to-day with a request that is 
suggested by my interest in the matter and finds its excuse 
in the same. Your Excellency's way of looking at things, 
your words and your advice mean much to the Minister- 
President, perhaps as much as any voice can ever mean to 
this rare character. It is impossible even to think of any 
influence being exerted on Herr v. Manteuffel against his 
own intentions, but encouragement to act according to these 
intentions would be possible and perhaps necessary. I con- 
sider that if Herr v. Manteuffel does not soon develop more 



1853] CORRESPONDENCE 29 

activity he will not be able to escape the fate of the Moor.* 
This would be no great harm to himself ; on the contrary, if 
I followed personal feelings for him I could only wish that 
he might soon be released from his position to enjoy better 
times. But a pessimistic policy is and always remains a bad 
one, and as a system would fall with Herr v. Manteuffel 
which in given circumstances seems to be the only right one, 
I have no more ardent wish than that he should remain under 
more favourable conditions. My request to your Excellency 
is no other than that you will encourage him to be more 
active, to remove unserviceable friends or dangerous oppo- 
nents, and to seek to carry out what he himself considers 
necess-ary. It is at all events more glorious and better to fall 
in the midst of the battle, than to be gradually removed by 
intrigues. Apart from your personal relations with the 
Minister President, however, I credit you with possessing 
the highest degree of that statesmanlike foresight which will 
make you wish, both in a general way and in your own in- 
terests, that Prussia's action towards the outside world may 
not be robbed of all basis by internal disorders. Excuse 
these hasty lines. 

Your Excellency's most obedient servant, 

QUEHL. 

22 

OTTO v. MANTEUFFEL TO BISMARCK. 

BERLIN, March 15,. '53. 

You will have received yesterday a telegraphic despatch 
relating to the sale of two ships t belonging to the German 
navy. This was sent off at the urgent request of his Royal 
* Refers to the passage in Schiller's " Fiesco," III, 4. 

" Der Mohr hat seine Schuldigkeit gethan ; 
Der Mohr kann gehen." 

The Moor can go, now that he has done all that he was required to do. 
fThe "Hansa" and the " Erzherzog Johann." 



30 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1853 

Highness Prince Adalbert. As I could not discuss the 
matter beforehand with either the War Minister or the 
Finance Minister I did not give any definite instructions; 
my personal opinion is, too, that it will be a good thing when 
the affair is finally settled, as there is little prospect of our 
acquiring the said vessels on our own account. Kindly 
communicate as soon as possible on the state of affairs. 

I consider that what you write about Prussia's position 
towards Austria is perfectly right. That is our Court's 
traditional policy; it is being resumed as the old track is 
found again which could have been lost only in a furious 
snowstorm and by ignorant charioteers (Radowitz and von 
der Pfordten). I have long recognised this, and although 
his Majesty, stung by the temporary feeling of being 
wounded, does not quite agree with me, I hope to lead things 
into their proper direction. 

I have, therefore, as you will have seen, designedly spared 
the middle German states in the Zollverein matter, and more 
than Austria wished, though, as I believe, without prejudic- 
ing Prussia. These states can go only with us, and they 
must be made to feel that our guidance will not be with- 
held from them whenever they seek it. Once things are in 
progress our material and still more our intellectual force of 
gravity will make itself felt in a manner more effective than 
all treaty stipulations. My procedure is bearing good fruit 
already; the states are beginning, so to say, to want to eat 
out of our hands. Notwithstanding everything, I receive a 
letter from his Royal Highness the Prince of Prussia to-day, 
with a request from the high Olympus that I will give an ac- 
count of my deeds, which he stigmatises concessions to Aus- 
tria. It is certainly discouraging to have such a verdict 
passed after all one's trouble, solicitude, and goodwill. I 
have his Majesty's consent to adopt an especially com- 
plaisant attitude towards Bavaria, and beg you to act in the 
same sense. 



1853] CORRESPONDENCE 31 

It is again Hanover, among the Zollverein states, which 
is raising difficulties for us ; I look forward most eagerly to 
the time when a stop will be put to all these tracasseries. 

My wife desires me to tender her best thanks for your 
kind and entertaining letter, which she received while she 
was seriously indisposed. The poor woman has been suffer- 
ing for more than three weeks from what Barez describes as 
an inflammation of the periosteum of the face, but what is 
called in good German Ziegenpeter (mumps). 

The ceremonious election of Prince Karl to be a Master 
of the Order of the Knights of St. John took place yester- 
day; although I had much more important things to do, I 
was obliged to figure at it. 

The debates in our Chamber are slowly following their 
course. We shall not be finished till the middle of May. 

I consider it only natural that you should have consider- 
able trouble with Prokesch, and hope he will run himself 
firmly aground. 

I get on very well with Count Thun ; he is very sharp in 
catholicis, however. I have a despatch from him in which 
he endeavours to win us over to take joint measures against 
England, but not for the reasons contained in the instructions 
addressed to you. It will be no easy matter to sugar the pill 
of the refusal. I shall admit all the premises and only most 
unassumedly call all the conclusions into question. I shall 
first state that the post chicanes are no worthy, and also no 
effectual means, and then point out that Switzerland is closer 
to us than England, then that England quickly expressed 
her readiness to comply in the matter of a stricter super- 
vision of the passports, (which is true), and finally add that 
I have reason to doubt whether France and even Russia 
will act with us. I should certainly advise against bringing 
the German Bund on to this dangerous terrain. 

With expressions of the highest esteem, 

Your faithful servant, MANTEUFFEL. 



32 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1854 

23 

KING FRIEDRICH WILHELM IV. TO BISMARCK. 

RUDERSDORFF, September 12, '53. 
DEAREST BISMARCK, 

My brother Wilhelm is labouring under a misunderstand- 
ing, which it will be to everybody's advantage to have re- 
moved. At Doberan I received a letter from him containing 
a wail of woe at Manteuffel's resignation, which is said now 
to be certain, and which he rightly described as a calamity. 
I demanded from Wilhelm the solution of this riddle, as 
everything was adjusted only three weeks ago, when my 
perseverance conquered. He replied about a week ago that 
you, my dear Bismarck, had received a letter from Putbus, 
from the contents of which you as well as he would come 
to no other conclusion. I enquired of him at Sans-Souci 
yesterday who was the writer of this letter, and he named 
Gerlach. I have questioned Gerlach to-day, and he assures 
me by all that is dear to him that he has written no such 
letter to you from Putbus. There you have the whole 
puzzle. Unravel it for me and for Wilhelm and as soon 
as possible. Vale. F. W. R. 



OTTO v. MANTEUFFEL TO BISMARCK. 

BERLIN, January 6, '54. 

I have long wanted to write to you, but have been unable 
to find time. Even to-day these few lines are only to assure 
you that I think of you with the old friendship. 

Ex oriente lux, says Prokesch, but this light is at present 
considerably obscured, at least I see only darkness there, and 
the possibility of a volcano developing. My own opinion is 
that the Czar personally desires neither war not conquest; 
but I am no longer so firm in my conviction that England 



1 854] CORRESPONDENCE 33 

does not want war. The English seem to be really in earnest 
in the matter since the affair at Sinope, though in general 
they probably prefer peace. France is just now perceptibly 
cooler than England, Baraguay d'Hilliers * is saying quite 
openly in Constantinople that it is not France's vocation to 
make war on the Persians for the benefit of England's In- 
dian possessions, and Drouyn de L'Huysf is adopting a 
much more elegiac than dithyrambic tone in his utterances. 
The most wretched role in the affair is assuredly played by 
Austria which, like a mouse in a trap, peeps out first from 
one opening and then from another, and hurriedly withdraws 
its nose whenever anyone strikes at it. Count Buol contra- 
dicts to-day what he said yesterday, though one cannot re- 
proach him much for doing so. Apart from the fact that 
the position of Austria, as an immediately interested power, 
with a reduced army, her credit ruined, and her peoples un- 
organised, is a desperate one, I have most reliable informa- 
tion from Vienna that the central management of affairs 
there is in a truly sad state. Count Buol has authority 
neither with the Emperor nor with his colleagues, his Maj- 
esty's Military Cabinet meddles from time to time in diplo- 
matic affairs and disconcerts everything, and besides all this 
Meyendorff is as ill-natured and peevish as possible. It is 
difficult to know what Austria really wants. Apparently 
she wishes to keep out of the business until necessity drives 
her into it. Everything is being done to remain on good 
terms with the Czar, and at the same time Herr v. Hiibner J 
is making the most extraordinary statements in Paris, so 
that even the police reports contain the assurance that, in 
order to avert the blow from her Italian frontier, Austria 
has proposed to cede our Rhenish province to France. I do 
not believe this, but in view of previous proceedings on the 

* French Ambassador in Constantinople, 
t French Minister for Foreign Affairs. 
J Austrian Minister in Paris. 



34 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1854 

part of the house of Habsburg-Lothringen I do not regard 
the idea of such an arrangement as quite impossible. 

We have practically maintained our original position. 
The object of Count Pourtales' mission to London is to 
investigate the terrain there better than the unpractical Bun- 
sen* is able to do in the Prussian interest, and to provoke 
confidential statements. He will soon return. He has found 
a decided split in the English Cabinet, for whereas Aber- 
deen is decidedly for Austria, Clarendon will have nothing 
to do with that country. Count Pourtales has, moreover, 
emphasised the fact that if we wish to remain neutral not 
even a devil will be able to deter us from doing so. 

It will be very important to know what impression will 
be made in St. Petersburg by the order to enter the Black 
Sea. Judging from previous information, I anticipate that 
it would be answered by a declaration of war, but remark 
that Budberg's language and Rochow's reports have become 
much more moderate in tone. 

As regards our domestic affairs, the family scenes in the 
Chamber have not yet begun; to-morrow a start will be 
made with the Westphalian parish regulations. On Mon- 
day I bring in the treaty with Oldenburgf in connection 
with Jahdehaven. I shall make as short a story of it as 
possible in order not to excite passions, but it will not be 
viewed with favourable eyes in England. 

Minister von Beust, the commis voyageur, was here dur- 
ing the last few days, allegedly to pay a visit of condolence 
to his uncle, old Werther, in reality however to spy out the 
land, and to cloak the Munich journey. The King, to whom 
Minister v. Beust expressly reported himself, invited him 
to dinner but treated him as badly as possible. He tried 
to talk politics with me, too, but I entertained him with the 

* Prussian Minister in London. 

f By a treaty dated July 20, 1853, Prussia obtained by purchase two 
strips of land on the Jahde basin, for the construction of a naval port. 
(Wilhelmshaven.) 



1854] CORRESPONDENCE 35 

Elbe navigation and the constitution of the courts of justice. 
He is stated to have gone away very discontented with his 
visit ; I should regret this extremely if there were anything 
left in him to spoil. 

I wish you, your wife, and your children much happiness 
in the new year. My wife sends greetings. Write soon 
to me, and do not take it amiss if I do not reply punctually. 

With the highest esteem and old friendship, 

Your faithful servant 

MANTEUFFEL. 



COUNT EBERHARD zu STOLBERG TO BISMARCK. 

BERLIN, February i, '54. 

Polde* and my father f beg you to come here as soon 
as possible, you will have or will easily find a good reason 
for doing so. There is a hellish muddle here, and a decision 
must be arrived at during the next few days, as soon as 
replies are received from England and France. I don't 
vouch for your having a pleasant time here, but I believe 
your presence is almost as necessary as it was in '50, before 
the Austrian business. 

With kindest remembrances to your wife, 

Your faithfully devoted 

E. STOLBERG. 

26 

OTTO v. MANTEUFFEL TO BISMARCK. 
(Telegraphic despatch.) 

BERLIN, February 24, '54. 

Austria intends to send Russia an ultimatum, to the effect 
that if she does not evacuate the Danubian Principalities by 

* General Leopold v. Gerlach. 

t Count Anton zu Stolberg-Wernigerode, Lord High Chamberlain and 
Minister of the Royal House. 



36 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1854 

a certain date, war will be declared. We shall be required 
to have an army corps in readiness. 
This information is secret, but sure. 

MANTEUFFEL. 

27 

BISMARCK TO OTTO v. MANTEUFFEL. 
(Telegraphic despatch.) 

FRANKFURT, February 27, '54. 

According to some telegraphic messages between Vienna 
and the French Ministry, which were read as they passed 
through Carlsruhe, a treaty was concluded between Austria 
and France on Friday. BISMARCK. 

28 
NOTES * IN BISMARCK'S HANDWRITING. 

March, 1854. 

We cannot give Austria the general assurance that we 
will proceed with her, and also help to incline the Bund to 
the same object, when we do not know what Austria's inten- 
tions are. 

A defensive alliance mutually guaranteeing the frontiers, 
with further stipulations, would be possible, if Austria were 
inclined to remain neutral; if she intends to go to war, we 
must know against whom, for what object, and with what 
means, before we can make our decisions dependent on hers. 

Our interests hitherto have been defensive, an extension 
of our defensive is dependent on our duties to the Bund; 
we do not decline to defend German interests, but we have 
as yet no means of judging whether what Austria intends 
to undertake with the united Prussian-German-Austrian 
forces comes within German interests. 

Is Austria bent on conquest, does she intend to attack 
the Russian army? She cannot demand our co-operation 
* For an interview with the Prince of Prussia ? 



1854] CORRESPONDENCE 37 

for either of these objects; but if she only contemplates 
restoring order within her own frontiers, and for this pur- 
pose wishes to obtain promises from Russia, and the per- 
mission to suppress disturbances in Turkish territory within 
certain lines of demarcation, and also to occupy certain ter- 
ritory, we will help her with word and with pen. She can 
demand actual military assistance only when Germany is 
threatened with war which has not been provoked by wilful 
aggression on the part of Austria herself. Neither our duty 
nor our interest goes beyond this ; if we are to go further, 
Austria must name a definite, joint aim, and state exactly 
what she purposes. 

Quid et ubi, quibus auxilus, cur quomodo quando. 

Written on the back of an invitation to attend a conference on March 
14, 1854, at 76, Wilhelm Strasse. 

The Government is resolved that under all circumstances 
Prussia shall assert her indubitable right to co-operate in 
maintaining the balance of power in Europe, although we 
must admit that Prussia's geographical position and her 
over-sea relations have not yet entitled her to an equal 
right with the other states. 



29 
OTTO v. MANTEUFFEL TO BISMARCK. 

BERLIN, April 27, '54- 

I thank you very much for your letter of the 24th inst. 
Nothing fresh has occurred here, for I do not regard as 
a novelty the unpleasant and threatening attitude assumed 
"by the Western powers through the Ministers towards our 
Envoys in London* and in Paris,f and through the En- 

* Bunsen. 

f Count Maximilian v. Hatzfeldt 



38 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1854 

voys * here towards me. Count Esterhazy.f is hinting here 
that we deliberately forced Austria into the arms of the 
Western powers, by withdrawing our support and creating 
difficulties for her. According to communications from 
Vienna, we shall soon be rid of this unpleasant mortal and 
shall see Count Thun here again. 

In what was not altogether a satisfactory conversation, 
the Prince of Prussia mooted the idea that Darmstadt, if 
it really entertained the desire to be on a better footing 
with us, might perhaps take the opportunity of his ap- 
pointment as Governor of Mayence to offer him for his 
residence a government building in Darmstadt, which he 
says is at present standing empty. The Prince requested 
me to have the idea suggested. I remarked, and in this 
the Prince quite agreed, that such an offer, if not made 
with other declarations, would by no means suffice, but that 
I did not deny that it would be an appropriate opening for 
further declarations on the part of Darmstadt. The Prince 
left it to me to write to OtterstedtJ on the subject. This 
did not, however, seem to me quite the right thing to do; 
I prefer to pass the idea on to you, leaving it to you to 
utilise in the way you judge best, though not to the ex- 
clusion of Otterstedt. 

I shall be glad to be informed of what you do in the 
matter. 

The Prince is at present at Weimar, but will be return- 
ing in a few days to Coblenz. He may refer to the subject 
as he passes through, in which case please mention my letter. 

With expressions of the highest esteem, 

Your faithful servant, 

MANTEUFFEL. 

*Lord Bloomfield and the Marquis Moustier. 

f Austrian Envoy. 

t Formerly Prussian Minister Resident at Darmstadt. 



1854] CORRESPONDENCE 39 

30 
OTTO v. MANTEUFFEL TO BISMARCK. 

BERLIN, April 30, '54. 

I have to thank you for two letters. Some remarks you 
made in letters to General von Gerlach on pending questions 
had already come to my knowledge. 

Above all, I would beg you to regard the affair as a fait 
accompli. It is useless to rack one's brains over accomplished 
facts, our task is to manage what we have in hand. 

In my opinion we are not particularly implicated, and 
when it is said that there are certain hooks in the affair 
to which we can be fastened, I retort that two persons are 
interested in the fastening operation, the one who holds and 
the other who is held fast, and also that these hooks are re- 
ciprocal; if we had given none to the Austrians we should 
have received none in return, and it is just this mutual 
system of hold-fasts that we desire. We must carefully 
guard against it appearing from this that our object is only 
to restrain Austria from proceeding in her action against 
Russia. Two evils would result from this. In the first 
place, nothing that we said to Russia would then carry 
weight ; for if we did not know it already, one needs only 
to read Meusebach's * reports to become convinced that 
mere words are nothing to the Russians, who themselves 
are in no way bound by them, and indeed follow the path- 
way of facts, brutally disregarding all promises and treaties, 
and at the most excusing with a shrug of the shoulders the 
lack of bienveillance on the grounds of necessite de guerre. 
There is, however, some difficulty in admitting this excuse 
when it is a question of tearing off Prussian cockndes, etc. 
One must eventually also speak to such people with facts. 
*v. Meusebach was Prussian Consul at Bucharest 



40 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1854 

The second, and more important, evil would be that we 
should draw all the weight of the western powers on our- 
selves alone. I need not explain what use Austria would 
make of that eventuality. With a little liveliness of imag- 
ination it may be supposed that the western powers might 
reason somewhat as follows: Prussia does not fulfil its 
vocation as a bulwark against the advance of the Slavic ele- 
ments. Prussia is therefore a useless member of the family 
of European states, and it would be better to strengthen 
Austria's power alone; moreover, Prussia would furnish 
excellent material to be divided among Austria, Saxony, 
Bavaria, etc. I know perfectly well that speeches in this 
tenor are already being held in very influential places. It 
does not follow that matters are serious, and still less that 
the affair should be regarded as settled, for various other 
people still have something to say and something to do in it; 
we must, however, have every eye open, and not delude 
ourselves into believing that such a siren-song would find 
wax in every ear. 

You will know that in the meantime Bunsen's removal has 
been worked. I cannot but admit that at the present 
moment this is a serious matter; with things as they are 
now, a brief resolution had to be arrived at and carried out. 
This has been done, though not without difficulty. The 
Prince of Prussia is much displeased at it, but I cannot 
alter that. 

Baron von Werther will probably go to St. Petersburg, 
lie arrived here to-day. 

Adieu, my wife sends kindest regards to yours. 

With expressions of the highest esteem, 

Your faithful servant, 

MANTEUFFEL. 



1854] CORRESPONDENCE 41 



OTTO v. MANTEUFFEL TO BISMARCK. 

BERLIN, May 27, '54. 

I am extremely obliged to you for your letter of yester- 
day. There is no objection whatever to the alliance affair 
following its slow course; we only gain by a lapsus 
temporis, and I should be very grateful to German thorough- 
ness and the dignity of the middle states, if they succeeded 
in keeping things in suspense until the ice in the Baltic and 
the snow on the Balkans began their campaign. I fear 
only that events will not be held back by these Germanisms, 
but will pass over them to the order of the day. 

Count Alvensleben sends me good reports from Vienna. 
The Emperor, while entertaining a certain mistrust against 
Russia, has expressed himself with moderation, and not 
in the spirit of the western powers. Count Buol also has 
followed the Emperor's directions, has dropped his former 
irritable manner, and with his master lays more emphasis 
on the independence of the alliance. From other symp- 
toms also I gather that Austria uses no mere figure of 
speech when she says she is avoiding war with Russia. 
I know from a sure source that Herr Hiibner threatened in 
Paris to publish documents proving that Austria would 
have struck out long ago if Prussia had not acted as a 
brake. I have no idea what documents these are, but it is 
evident that Austria is desirous of shifting the pressure of 
the western powers on to us; the nimbus of the German 
readiness to make sacrifices is also beginning to fade, and 
it looks as if another Shibboleth were being sought for. 
The raising of the 95,000 men is certainly a symptom which 
gives cause for reflection, though the ground from which 
they have sprung is, in my opinion, that of financial frivolity. 
The Austrian measures seem to be regarded in Russia as 
being very serious. The newspaper accounts of the with- 



42 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1854 

drawal of the Russians and of their being posted on the 
Sereth, and also of their war material having been trans- 
ported back again over the Pruth, are confirmed by the Con- 
sular reports. On the other hand, more troops are contin- 
ually being concentrated in southern Poland, on the Galician 
and Transylvanian frontiers. Judging from the course fol- 
lowed hitherto by this unfortunate affair, I regard it as by no 
means impossible that Russia and Austria are coming to 
blows merely as a result of mutual mistrust and misunder- 
standing. If we too should then be engaged on the Rhine, a 
very unpleasant tit for tat would be performed, and a far less 
difficult seat of war would be offered to the French, as 
well as a good opportunity for them to reconstruct the map 
of Europe. We must, without throwing ourselves into 
Austria's arms, avoid letting her feel that she is isolated; 
in this lies our only hope of influencing her action. Austria 
is much exasperated at the Darmstadt conference; there is 
no harm in this, but we must be careful that no portion of 
the odium falls on us. Cool blood and not too much action, 
seems to be our program for the present. Once it is be- 
lieved in Vienna that we are identified with the Darmstadt 
conference, we shall lose our influence, which from the be- 
ginning has been beneficial. I cannot understand the short- 
sightedness of many who are eternally urging resoluteness. 
This resoluteness would mean nothing else than the sur- 
render of the Prussian standpoint, and self-sacrifice for one 
of the two parties. Let us quietly wait : le jour viendra. 

Herr v. Meyendorff has expressed his complete ac- 
quiescence with the last report of the proceedings of the 
conference; I consider, too, that the recognition of the 
relative standpoint at the commencement is not purchased 
too dearly with the final clause. 

It is reported privately that Meyendorff is to be replaced 
by Brunnow; he is a man of documents, however, not of 
war. 



1854] CORRESPONDENCE 43 

The prolonged stay of the French fleet off Kiel excites 
some surprise; it is stated in certain quarters that the inten- 
tion is to threaten us. Moustier's language lately is cer- 
tainly tinged with dejection, but it is fairly friendly. 

I enclose for your information a letter from Nostitz on 
Hanoverian relations. 

With expressions of the highest esteem, 

Your faithful servant, 

MANTEUFFEL. 

(Enclosure.) 

COUNT NOSTITZ TO OTTO v. MANTEUFFEL. 

HANOVEK, May 26, '54. 

I am deeply obliged to your Excellency for the extremely 
friendly and complete manner in which you were kind 
enough to comply with the request made in my last letter. 
I am attached body and soul to the weal and the honour of 
Prussia, to maintain which I have often gladly hazarded 
my life; your Excellency can imagine, therefore, the great 
interest I take at the present crisis in all the transactions 
of our Cabinet. Viewed from this standpoint the following 
will be sure of a friendly reception. 

Prussia's only policy can now be to exert every influence 
to restrain Austria from taking any step until the end of the 
autumn, when the warlike operations both on sea and on 
land must be brought to a conclusion, which might result 
in active interference on one or the other theatres of war. 
In case of a collision we must act as the constant mediator 
between Austria and Russia. 

If this is done in the right way we can cherish the hope 
that a peaceable solution of the European crisis will be 
arrived at in the course of the winter. 

The alliance concluded between Austria and Prussia is a 
right basis for such a policy of peace. 



44 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1854 

If, as we are justified in hoping, this alliance gives Prussia 
a real influence on the decisions of the Vienna Cabinet, thus 
enabling her effectively to exert efforts towards keeping 
the war within its present limits, everything must be care- 
fully avoided that would either directly or indirectly shake 
the treaty . . . We must exert an influence on the 
attitude of Austria, and on the decisions of the warring 
powers, not by loosening the alliance contracted with 
Austria, but by means of the moral and physical force with 
which the alliance provides us. This is my opinion, and I 
have endeavoured to influence the Cabinet here in that direc- 
tion. 

Herr von Liitcken * has assured me to-day most positively 
that he considers that the welfare of the other states in 
the Bund depends on the internal agreement of the two great 
powers, and will sanction no measure that might shake the 
alliance between Austria and Prussia. Herr von Lenthet 
has also received instructions in this sense for Bamberg. 

Will your Excellency kindly treat this letter as confi- 
dential. 

COUNT v. NOSTITZ. 

3* 
BISMARCK TO OTTO v. MANTEUFFEL. 

Confidential. (Draft.) 

FRANKFURT, July 3, '54. 
YOUR EXCELLENCY, 

All the German Governments, with the exception of Wur- 
temberg, have signified their agreement with the Alliance of 
April 20. According to Herr v. Reinhardt, Wurtemberg 
declines, at least pro temporc; he hopes that when the voting 
takes place in the Bundestag the King will accede, in order 

* Hanoverian Prime Minister. 

t Hanoverian Minister for Foreign Affairs. 



1854] CORRESPONDENCE 45 

not to remain in the minority with Denmark. ... A. 
Malet * communicated to me a sharply worded English note 
addressed to Munich, in which the Cabinet there is informed 
that it is interfering in matters which do not concern it, and 
that further resistance against the policy of the great powers 
is absolutely harmless.! A similar note has been sent to 
Dresden. . 

v. BISMARCK. 

33 
OTTO v. MANTEUFFEL TO BISMARCK. 

BERLIN, July 7, '54. 

Will you kindly have the enclosed note given to my 
brother, who, I believe, is in Frankfurt. It contains nothing 
of importance, merely my congratulations on his birthday, 
which falls on the ninth instant. Should you not be able 
to find him, please return me the letter. I am going into 
the country to-day, but return the day after to-morrow. 

I have tolerably good news from Vienna; Count Alvens- 
leben telegraphs that the Russian note has made a good 
impression there too, though Count Buol has not yet men- 
tioned it to Baraguay. I have avoided communicating the 
details to the foreign diplomats here, saying that this would 
be done as soon as we have exchanged views with Vienna 
on the matter. 

Count Henckel telegraphs that the irritation in London 
is extreme, and that coercive measures were contemplated 
against Prussia. Voyons! We must preserve an appear- 
ance of unity with Austria as long as possible. But I will 
not write a political letter. 

Adieu. With expressions of the highest esteem, 
Your faithful servant, 

MANTEUFFEL. 

* English Envoy to the Bundestag. 

f This word is given in English in the original. 



46 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1854 

34 
CABINET-COUNCILLOR NIEBUHR TO BISMARCK. 

POTSDAM, July 10, '54. 
MY MOST HONOURED FRIEND, 

You will know that the Russian note has been well re- 
ceived in Vienna, and that the offer has even been made to 
bring influence to bear in Paris and London in favour of 
peace. The advance into Wallachia has been counter- 
manded. 

I will write fully and frankly through Councillor of Lega- 
tion Wentzel. 

Remember me kindly to your wife. 

Most faithfully yours, 

N. 

35 
BISMARCK TO OTTO v. MANTEUFFEL. 



25, '54- 

The system of a Germanising centralisation 
at present in vogue in Austria requires for the solution of 
its task a closer organic union with, and a firmer hegemony 
in Germany. The strivings of the Ultramontanes go hand 
in hand with those of the Viennese at present. Prussia's 
position of power in Germany is the hardest and heaviest 
stumbling block for both. Apart from all other motives for 
our line of action in the oriental question, we cannot permit 
an expansion of Austria unless we grow at least at the same 
rate. 

If Austria comes to war with Russia, she will not be able 
permanently to resist co-operation in any plans of the 
western powers for the restoration of Poland. Such plans 
have never been honourably disclaimed in London and Paris, 



1854] CORRESPONDENCE 47 

and will probably sooner or later come more into the fore- 
ground, as being the only means towards a lasting diminu- 
tion of the Russian power. Austria's interest against the 
re-establishment of Poland is less deep than that of Prussia 
and Russia, and is hardly so deep as to constitute a ground 
for quarrelling with the western powers after the rupture 
with Russia. I believe even that Austria would gladly 
choose the Danubian countries if she had the option of these 
or Galicia. The former are more accessible than the Polish 
province to the German language and government, and the 
population is inoffensive ; they are capable of richer develop- 
ment, and go better with Austria geographically and com- 
mercially than Galicia, which is stuck on to the Empire on 
the other side of the Carpathians. Galicia, with its open 
frontier, is easily accessible to the Russian forces, and to any 
Polish insurrection. The dangers which the neighbourhood 
of the Poles would offer to the tranquillity of Hungary are 
counterbalanced by the increase of the elements hostile to 
the Magyars, viz. the Servians and the Wallachians. Besides 
this, the re-establishment of Poland in itself would secure 
the following advantages to the Austrian system: 

1. Prussia will be weakened, and held in check. 

2. The danger of Panslavism disappears when two 
powerful Slav states exist with a different religion and na- 
tionality. 

3. Europe has one more state with a pure Catholic con- 
fession. 

4. Poland, re-established with Austria's aid, will begin by 
being Austria's firm ally. 

5. The re-establishment of Poland offers Austria perhaps 
the only permanent guarantee against effective retaliation 
on the part of Russia as soon as the Italian affair leads to 
a quarrel between Austria and France, or the former is other- 
wise in an awkward position. At the worst, the Vienna 
Cabinet would help with proposals for a fresh partition of 



48 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1854. 

Poland, but without giving up the Danubian countries. I 
will not go so far as to assert that Austria will voluntarily 
urge the restoration of Poland; but if the western powers 
seriously take the matter in hand, she will defend herself 
only with blunt nails, provided she has a prospect of being 

rewarded with the Danubian countries. 

v. BISMARCK. 

36 

OTTO v. MANTEUFFEL TO BISMARCK. 

BERLIN, September 7, '54. 

You will find enclosed a copy of a telegraphic despatch 
which I have just received from Herr Wentzel. As matters 
now stand, I see no necessity for prolonging the session. 
This being the case, you might extend your stay in the 
country by a few days. The journey to Dresden seems to 
me now to be less urgent, but I should like you to return 
by Hanover in order to talk over matters with Herr v. der 
Liitcken, who appears to be quite Austrian. I should not 
advise making your return too late. 

My kindest regards to your wife, and to your father-in- 
law, who will perhaps still remember me. 

MANTEUFFEL. 

37 
COUNT R. VON DER GOLTZ TO BISMARCK. 

BERLIN, October 31, '54. 
ESTEEMED FRIEND, 

I leave Berlin to-day for my new destination,* and can- 
not do this without sending you a few very hasty words 
of farewell. In the first place I must thank you heartily 
for your share in my re-instatement. I must regard the ap- 
* Athens, as Prussian Minister Resident 



1854] CORRESPONDENCE 4? 

pointment as being, in the present circumstances, a most 
desirable one, although in itself it is so disagreeable. To 
leave Berlin behind as quickly as possible, to get as far away 
as possible, to have as little occasion as possible to act 
for Prussia must, unfortunately, be the wish to-day of 
everyone who does not desire to see Prussia ruined or 
sink slowly deeper into the mire, and least of all to be led 
into the temptation to assist in bringing about this result. 
It is difficult to express my feelings at leaving. . . One 
must despair, when one sees that not only is the conduct 
of affairs to be regretted that might be a temporary mis- 
fortune but the poison of un-Prussian feeling is ever 
spreading, and has already entered into the soul of what 
were once the noblest elements of the country, that the core 
of the Prussian nobility is beginning to take delight in 
filth and to cast eager, sympathetic glances to where the 
meaning of the word " gentleman " is quite unknown. Mis- 
takes and ignorance can be forgiven ; but to forget all Prus- 
sian traditions, to decide all justified Prussian ambition, the 
servile adoration of a foreign monarch, the cowardly love 
of peace of Louis Philippe Epicier, are too much in a 
Prussian Junker. The way cannot but be prepared to the 
democratic dominion when the elector shows a cleaner sheet 
than the would-be aristocracy, when thanks to the preach- 
ing of half-mad parvenus the latter gradually lose all sense 
of military honour, patriotism, and loyalty. 

Why do I write all this to you? Because I think of 
hardly anything else, and because I believe that you are 
favourable ground for the reception of such considerations 
as these. You have gained valuable experience during the 
past four years, and especially just lately, and your practical 
sense must show you the impossibility of certain sophistical- 
doctrinaire theories. The results of these, too, are clear 
enough before us. What have we come to? 

You, more than anyone else, are in a position to assist in 



50 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1854 

annihilating this suicidal system. Your forces would be 
more to be regretted than any others, if they were cast in 
with those who for five years have been working systematic- 
ally to change the great power of Prussia back again to the 
Electoral State of Brandenburg, and who may almost hope 
to have attained their aim. All that I ask is that you will 
avoid even the appearance of throwing in your lot with 
these people, and will turn against them as soon as the 
opportunity arises. I do not think I can make a better re- 
turn for your friendship towards me than by candidly urging 
this on you. 

My letter is very disconnected, but I am in the greatest 
haste. May we meet on the same ground in better times! 

Always yours, 

GOLTZ. 

38 
O. v. ARNIM TO BISMARCK. 

BERLIN, December 6, '54. 
DEAR OTTO, 

In view of the very important resolutions which we must 
soon take, I am writing to ask if you cannot make it pos- 
sible, under some pretext or other, perhaps as a member 
of the First Chamber, to come here for a time. I believe 
that we need the cool and sober calculation of a clear intelli- 
gence, which leaves all sympathies and antipathies out of 
the question, to bring us safely out of our present situation, 
which is more complicated than ever. Here you will cer- 
tainly be able to do much good and to prevent much harm 
being done, in Frankfurt you will at most accomplish the 
latter ; come, therefore, if you possibly can, and soon, before 
it is too late. 

In the Second Chamber where the Right, thanks to the 
Ministry for removing a large number of the members for 
the formation of the First Chamber, is in a brilliant minor- 



1855] CORRESPONDENCE 51 

ity, Vincke has introduced a motion to reply to the speech 
from the throne with an address. It is easy to foresee what 
form this will take. 

Greet Nanne heartily from 

Your sincere brother-in-law, 

ARNIM. 

39 
OTTO v. MANTEUFFEL TO BISMARCK. 

BERLIN, January 5, '55. 

IN THE SECOND CHAMBER. 

I thank you for your last two letters, the contents of 
which were kept in view when I was drawing up the note 
for Vienna. His Majesty would absolutely not admit one 
nuance of your view, viz. that we should tacitly withdraw. 
The King considers this quite impossible, and gave me 
clearly to understand that he believes this view was sug- 
gested to you from here, and by General v. Gerlach, with 
whom his Majesty recently had an animated discussion on 
this affair. 

I beg you to observe the strictest silence and the utmost 
discretion concerning the proceedings in Vienna. There are 
two reasons for this; in the first place the communication 
itself is based on very confidential information, but secondly 
that worse abuse would be made of the truth here in order 
to drive Austria and the Emperor more quickly into the 
other camp. 

The hopes for peace are on the whole very scanty. The 
western powers make no secret of the fact that they wish 
for it, but not until Sebastopol has been taken. As this 
result is far distant, and as I hear even that the Russians 
will assume the offensive on January I2th, I see no prospect 
of peace. In my opinion Prince Gortchakoff did not act 
very wisely at the conference itself, although he has done 
well enough since then. 



52 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1855 

The King suggested that I should send for you, in order, 
as his Majesty expressed it, to drink " at the source." I 
question whether it would be best to do this now, as you 
are perhaps most needed where you are; consider the mat- 
ter, however, and let me know your opinion by telegraph. 

We have just been thoroughly beaten on the election of 
the President, and the question of the dissolution of the 
Chamber is becoming a serious one. Perhaps we might 
merely close the House. 

But I must close. Wishing you and yours every happi- 
ness in the new year, I remain, 

Your faithful servant, 

MANTEUFFEL. 

40 
OTTO v. MANTEUFFEL TO BISMARCK. 

BERLIN, February 5, '55. 

I thank you most sincerely for your communication of 
yesterday. 

Everything that is possible shall be done from here to- 
wards accomplishing your plans. One circumstance, how- 
ever, as you know, is both our weakness and our strength, 
viz., that we can quickly raise large bodies of troops but are 
not in a position to keep them standing. 

There is, nevertheless, absolutely no doubt that in case 
of a French invasion of South Germany we should not only 
raise troops, but also march them, and I do not anticipate 
that any difficulties would thereby be raised here. A diffi- 
culty could arise only in case the French troops are collected 
in France, and then the South German Governments are ex- 
horted or threatened in increasingly stronger language, with- 
out the frontier being touched or a single man set in move- 
ment. It would be almost impossible for us to dispose our 
troops during this time, which could be extended at will. 



l8 55] CORRESPONDENCE 53 

I am, moreover, firmly convinced, and it will be important to 
let the South German Governments know it, that no 60,000 
Frenchmen must march to the Danubian Principalities, still 
less establish themselves in South Germany, before our 
opinion in the matter has been heard, provided always the 
South German States do not undertake to guarantee their 
own safety and join their armies with the French. These 
gentlemen should at least affect some courage. 

I cannot warn you sufficiently against placing too much 
trust in those gentlemen and their Envoys. Half an hour 
after I had received your letter of the day before yesterday 
I heard that the exact words were known in the French 
Embassy which you had used in that letter, and probably also 
in the conversations * referred to in it. I was told also 
that you had proposed to allow Herr Prokesch a glance 
into the arsenal which the Bund constitution has at its dis- 
posal against Austria's procedure, and had given the as- 
surance that a few army corps would be mobilised in the 
western provinces of Prussia. Herr Moustier assured me 
that this had been communicated to him direct by one of 
the gentlemen whom you regard as your best friend. You 
will be best able to judge whether this is possible. 

The chief danger, notwithstanding all our recent successes, 
still is that in a real crisis we cannot depend on our Con- 
federates in the Bund, but must expect them to desert us. 
This circumstance must not determine our line of action, 
but it has to be taken into consideration. 

The western powers are again pressing more actively. 
The French give notice that they will blockade the Baltic 
ports if we continue to allow the export of arms to Russia, 

Adieu. With expressions of the highest esteem, 

Your faithful servant, 

MANTEUFFEL. 

*With the Envoys of Wurtemberg, Saxony; and Mecklenburg at 
the Bundestag. 



54 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1855 



COUNT ALEXANDER KEYSERLING TO BISMARCK. 

RAIKULL, February 13-25, '55. 

DEAR COMPANION OF MY YOUTH, 

Your letter of Deer. 2Qth was handed to me at Mitau r 
where I was enjoying a few days with some old acquaint- 
ances. You contributed in such a degree to carry me back 
to the time of our youthful dreams, that Mr. Layard did 
not feel greater joy on discovering the first cuneiform char- 
acters of old Nineveh than I did at the sight of your hand- 
writing. This has become firmer, but is otherwise un- 
changed, and reveals more character than a diplomat can 
conveniently use, at least such is the experience I have 
gathered at the various courts which I have been able to 
observe with eye of a paleontologist. Do you not remember 
that you once predicted to me, probably in a lucid moment, 
that a constitution was inevitable, that by this we should at- 
tain to external honours but that we must be pious at heart ? 
I thought to find your starred Excellency a wise pilgrim, 
a poor brother, or sunk in the joys of the eternal spirit. 
Fate has ordained that I have been weaker than you in 
fulfilling our youthful dreams. After I had made a geog- 
nostic survey of Russia in close alliance with the President 
of the Geological Society of France and England which, by 
the way, has been better preserved than the corresponding 
political alliances and had followed the solitary paths of 
science in arrogant self-satisfaction, seeking to make fresh 
conquests for the human understanding, I bound myself 
to make a woman happy, to manage an estate with profit 
while fulfilling the customary governmental obligations at- 
taching to it, to bring up children, and to improve clowns and 
boobies. On the one hand were thousands of extinct, but 
extremely interesting animals, on the other hand my fellow 



1851] CORRESPONDENCE 55 

beings, many of them unquestionably great bores. Only the 
dire necessity of earning something would have driven me 
to set my hands, spoiled in the Capua of the world of 
thought, to the hard reality. After a severe struggle I have 
succeeded in breaking in my proud intelligence, and in 
rightly esteeming the tasks of the heart. My wife now 
thinks very highly of me, my peasants are more contented 
under my government than ever before, as a true naturalist 
I have secured one child of each sort, a female and a male, 
with whom I like to occupy myself and who love me for it. 
I breed excellent horses, fine sheep, noble pigs, and moderate 
cattle ; I increase the yield from fields and meadows by drain- 
ing and irrigation, have done away with the Frohne,* and 
have assumed the office of President of the Esthonian Asso- 
ciation of estate-owners. An Esthonian estate-owner is a 
universal person, and above all a lawyer. I therefore ad- 
minister justice to the ten thousand people of my parish, and 
the pastor records my sentences. I am listened to in the 
Landtags, and I sit in the council of the men of Reval. I 
also have learned on a small scale that politics is a field in 
which the least is produced with the greatest expenditure of 
character and intelligence. If you want to see a country 
where we live without bureaucracy, and much better than 
with learned lawyers and writers, come here. I shot over a 
wolf about six weeks ago, as I am still an imperfect hunter. 
Write to me when your time permits. May God have 
you in His keeping, and if ever He should bring us together 
it will be a glad day for your old friend. A new friend is 
like new wine, both are best when they 'are old! 

ALEXANDER KEYSERLING. 

* Compulsory service rendered to the lord of the manor. 



56 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1855 

42 
OTTO v. MANTEUFFEL TO BISMARCK. 

BERLIN, May 10, '55. 

You will to-day receive a circular-despatch which I trust 
will meet with your satisfaction. Permit me, however, pri- 
vately to request you to be extremely cautious in what you 
say in this matter. 

You know your ground, you know that Frankfurt-on-the- 
Main is the worst gossiping shop in the world, and that 
the little German diplomacy is the most miserable that exists. 
But you can hardly imagine how wonderful and how warped 
the echo that reaches us from Frankfurt is, how the bad 
spirits here hawk your utterances about, twist them into all 
manner of shapes, and deduce simply incredible consequences 
from them. 

Fellows ike Meysenburg and his confederates delight in 
purchasing favour with the French Minister with reports 
and comments on your utterances, and much as I despise 
this, I think that as little opportunity as possible should be 
given to such scoundrels to commit these infamies. 

Adieu. More soon. 

With expressions of the highest esteem, 

Your faithful servant, 

MANTEUFFEL. 

43 
OTTO v. MANTEUFFEL TO BISMARCK. 

(Telegram.) 

BERLIN, November 26, '55. 9:9 p. M. 

The King's Majesty would be very glad to see you here 
for the opening of the Landtag, but leaves you to judge 
whether important reasons stand in the way of your coming. 

v. MANTEUFFEL. 



1857] CORRESPONDENCE 57 

44 
FREIHERR v. ROSENBERG TO BISMARCK. 

PARIS, May g, '57. 
MY MOST ESTEEMED PATRON, 

You will have been particularly pleased at hearing that 
the visit of Prince Napoleon * was so soon realised, though 
I have an idea that you are not quite innocent in the matter. 
The affair was treated with such secrecy here that the diplo- 
matic corps and especially Kisseleff t heard of it first through 
the Berlin newspapers, and have not even yet grasped the 
true reason of this political demonstration. They all im- 
pute one motive or another, but are completely in the dark. 
The Austrians console themselves with the fact that Plomb- 
plomb $ was chosen as mediator for a new (conservative) 
alliance relation, and the English regard Prince Napoleon's 
visit when the Russian Grand-duke was present as a dem- 
onstration against Russia in their favour; in reality, how- 
ever, both Austria and England will see in it a hint that 
France has other strings to her bow, and they are probably 
more vexed at this advance towards Prussia than our Berlin 
old-conservatives are. 

Shortly before he started, Prince Napoleon asked for 
special renseignemento with respect to the Berlin terrain, and 
in that I was able to be of use to him. In my opinion he 
will be more inclined to appear as homme de sciences and as 
an admirer of our military institutions than to enter into 
any political question whatever. I advised him to make use 
of his diary of his last journey to Lapland and Iceland to 
excite the King's interest. Furthermore, he should not 
speak much, but always, if possible, in German. I do not 

* To Berlin. 

t Russian Minister in Paris. 

J The nickname for Prince Napoleon. 

Constantine. 



58 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1857 

know what impression he will make, particularly on the 
ladies of the court. Hatzfeldt has been invited to Fontaine- 
bleau, an exceptional circumstance which may probably be 
taken as a material rather than a personal attention. It 
seems clear to me that the Emperor is beginning to reckon 
less on England in forming his new plans. Hitherto Lord 
Palmerston has only entangled him in all sorts of English 
quarrels, and will continue to do so until the idea of a joint 
responsibility on the part of the western powers is replaced 
by other political necessities which are already arising. We 
need only think of the Danubian Principalities and the Scan- 
dinavian question. For our part we must be careful to 
show no very great empressement (a la Orloff*), and to 
smooth the ways leading from Paris to us and past us on 
to St. Petersburg; the European situation will do the rest. 

Rothan f has heard with great pleasure that you spoke 
favourably of him to Count Walevski. He has also furthered 
our interest in respect of the visit of Prince Napoleon, and 
it would be an extreme satisfaction to him if you should 
succeed in procuring for him the Order which has long 
been destined for him. A request addressed to Manteuffel 
direct would have more chance of success than if it went 
through the ministerial offices. The journey of Prince 
Napoleon might be made the outward occasion for it. 

If you should give me the pleasure of writing to me, 
kindly address me by my name only, omitting my official 
title, to 115, rue de Lille. . . . 
Adieu. 

Yours most sincerely, 

ROSENBERG. 

The Grand-Duke Constantine has been extremely well 
received here, although the reception is not quite devoid 
of a certain amount of consideration for England. The 

* The representative of Russia at the Paris Congress. 

.t Secretary of Legation at the French Embassy in Berlin. 



1857] CORRESPONDENCE 59 

Russians, who are somewhat inclined to be arrogant, are 
reminded from time to time that great attention must be 
paid to England. (??) 



45 

COUNT KARL VON DER GOLTZ TO BISMARCK. 

BERLIN, December is, '57. 
MY ESTEEMED FRIEND, 

It is stated that in Prussia alone two hundred manors 
are going to the devil, and if this is true for the half of 
them it is sad enough. The Hamburgers are not inclined 
to help, and now the votes of thanks go over our heads 
to Vienna. I do not consider this very politic. The Lii- 
beckers are here too, and want only 600,000 Thalers, which 
they will not get, although there are 30 millions in specie 
in the cellars of the bank and seven to eight millions in the 
State treasury. The Prince * is better again, but everything 
remains as before at Charlottenburg ; the condition changes 
from hour to hour, and hence the contradictory rumours. 
Nobody can judge how matters will stand in January. 
Probably the worst will happen, i. e. the prolongation of 
the deputyship for a further period of three months, i. e. 
the prolongation and confirmation of the ministerial omnip- 
otence. In the meantime, the journey of the Prince-father 
to the wedding t is being pressed forward. I consider it 
folly to cross the water at such a critical time, and do not 
think it looks well. It would not, however, be the first time 
that I had succumbed to female influence, so I anticipate 
defeat in this question, although the Prince has arrived at 
no decision. We have a great ministerial dinner to-day. 

Remember me to your wife, and be assured of the sincere 
friendship of Your faithful, 

K. v. D. GOLTZ. 

*Of Prussia. 

t Of his son Friedrich Wilhelm to the Princess Victoria. 



60 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1858 

46 

COUNT KARL VON DER GOLTZ TO BISMARCK. 

BADEN, July 28, '58. 

The Prince replies as follows to your proposals repeated 
with your usual persistence: 

1. The Prince wishes to see the King; he will therefore 
stay an hour at Wiesbaden, and continue his journey to 
Riidesheim by special train. 

2. The Princess Karl has been requested from here to 
be at Eltville an hour later to join the Prince on the journey 
to Riidesheim. 

3. Will you kindly let the King know that the Prince 
will be wearing a travelling suit, and arrange to have a 
room kept ready at Wiesbaden, in or near the station, in 
which the two exalted gentlemen can talk without being 
disturbed. 

Will you please inform the railway people that the Prince 
will require an extra train, and that it must stop at Eltville. 
In conclusion I beg to state, in order to facilitate the 
course of business in similar cases, that my humble person, 
and not Alvensleben, is the Prince's personal adjutant, and 
that all matters such as the foregoing and all matters con- 
nected with the journey are under my charge. 

Faithfully yours, 

C. v. D. GOLTZ. 

47 
MINISTER v. SCHLEINITZ TO BISMARCK. 

BERLIN, November 7, '38. 

His Royal Highness the Prince Regent has been graciously 
pleased to appoint me Minister of State for Foreign Affairs, 
in the place of his Excellency, Freiherr von Manteuffel. 



1859] CORRESPONDENCE 61 

At the same time that I have the honour to inform you 
of this I would express the hope that I may be enabled 
through your kind co-operation to justify, by the admin- 
istration of the post entrusted to me, the confidence that has 
been placed in me. Will you kindly address all despatches 
etc. in future to me. 

Receive the assurance of my highest esteem. 

SCHLEINITZ. 

48 

BISMARCK TO MINISTER v. SCHLEINITZ. 

(Draft) November g, '58. 

YOUR EXCELLENCY, 

I have to-day had the honour of receiving your Ex- 
cellency's notification respecting the taking over of the 
business of the Ministry for Foreign Affairs. With my 
thanks for the kind communication I unite my respectful 
congratulations, and the assurance that I will at all times 
endeavour to justify and to retain the confidence expressed 
in your letter. I venture to hope that in view of the favour 
your Excellency has shown towards me hitherto, and of the 
consciousness of my active zeal in the Royal service, you 
will exercise indulgence when judging my official work. 

With etc. 

v. BISMARCK. 

49 
J. L. MOTLEY TO BISMARCK.* 

ROME, February 16, '59 
MY DEAR BISMARCK, 

Are you really going to St. Petersburg? I have seen 
rumours to that effect from time to time, in the news- 
papers, but I always took it for granted that they were 
only rumours. But now, it seems to be stated so formally 
that it must be a settled thing. I wish you could find 
* This letter is reproduced in the original English. 



62 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1859 

time, (I know you have very little to spare) to write me 
a single line, just to say if the fact is really so. I can't 
tell you how much disappointed I am. I really don't know 
whether it is a political advancement for you or not but 
it seems to me that you and Mme. de Bismarck are so happy 
and contented in Frankfort, and that you have so much 
less of the " pomp and circumstance " of courts which I 
know is a bore to both of you to make me doubt whether 
you will be at first much gratified by plunging into the arctic 
circle whither you seem to be bound. 

But I confess that my emotions on the subject are very 
selfish. I always thought that I had you safe in Frankfort 
and that I was sure to see you very often as long as I 
remained in Europe, which off and on is likely to be for 
the greater part of my life but now that you are going 
to Petersburg, it seems to me as though you were about 
migrating to the planet Jupiter. 

Russia is so much farther off, in every respect, than 
America. Does your wife like the idea of removing from 
Frankfort? Pray give her my kindest regards and good 
wishes, and say to her how deeply disappointed I am to lose 
the opportunity of seeing you all again I wished so much 
to introduce my wife and children to you and yours, and 
we even have talked of spending a year or two in Frank- 
fort, as I don't think that Rome agrees much with any of us. 

Do write me a word or two, if you can spare a few 
moments' time, and tell me what your plans are, why you 
are going to Russia and when, how your wife likes it, and 
all the other ifs and ands I haven't written to you before, 
because I knew that you didn't care much for correspond- 
ence, and would be glad perhaps not to be obliged to write. 
Now you must write, for I don't like to think that I 
have lost my hold upon you for ever. 

I have seen Canitz here this winter. He seems desirous 
of getting appointed to this place, but I infer from what he 



1859] CORRESPONDENCE 63 

says that he is likely to remain at Naples. There is a young 
English lady here to whom it is said that he is engaged 
to be married but it is not officially announced. She is a 
Miss W , very young, pretty, and with a handsome for- 
tune. The family occupy apartments in the same palazzo 
with us, and we have exchanged calls and cards but we 
have not yet seen very much of them. I am sure I wish 
Canitz every happiness, for he is certainly one of the best 
hearted, most excellent fellows in the world. We had the 
pleasure of seeing him very often during his brief visit here 
rather the oftener, you will infer, from the propinquity of 
lodgings, to which I have alluded and my wife likes him 
as much as I do. 

Pray tell me if you have heard of Keyserling * and if 
you know his address. He owes me a letter since May, 
having let our correspondence drop in the most flagitious 
manner. I don't know his address now, or I would write 
to him again but I am quite ignorant whether he has 
returned to Courland or has remained in Paris. Who is 
to be your Prussian minister here? You were kind enough 
to give me a letter of introduction to Mr. von Thiele, but 
he had already left his post before we arrived, and, as I 
understand, is not to return. If the new minister whoever 
he may be happens to be an acquaintance of yours, per- 
haps you would not object to send me a line of introduction 
to him. 

Thus far, I have not been able to get into the papal 
Archives, and doubt very much whether I shall succeed. 
Our minister here is very obliging, and is doing all that 
he can, but I suspect that there is no key which will 
unlock those secrets to a protestant. Meantime I am work- 
ing hard at the materials which I brought with me from 
other Archives particularly those of Belgium, Holland, 
Spain and England, and have got enough, work on my hands 
* Count Hermann Keyserling. 



64 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1859 

to last me for years. Nevertheless I shall have finished two 
or three volumes, I suspect, before you will have read the first 
work.* Pray tell Madame de B. that I hope one of these 
days she will read the work for " old acquaintance sake." 
If she objects to reading English, there is a German trans- 
lation published in Dresden and two French translations, 
one published in Brussels, the other in Paris. Pray forgive 
this egotism for it is the egotism of friendship, not of 
vanity. I can't help wishing that you would both some- 
times recall me to your memory, and I know no better way 
than by asking her to sometimes read a chapter or two of 
my writings. I am sure I shall never forget her and you 
our early friendship, and the to me delightful days we 
have passed together since it has been renewed. I always 
feel when I am with you, as if twenty years had rolled off 
my back in one lump, like a knapsack, as if my shoes were 
not covered with the dust of the long life's turnpike along 
which we have been trailing since the early days. 

God bless you and yours, my dear Bismarck. May you 
prosper and succeed as you deserve to succeed domi 
militiseque. Write me half a dozen lines, as soon as you 
conveniently can, and with best regards to your wife and 
children, believe me, 

Most sincerely your friend 

Address J. L. MOTLEY. 

aux soins de Tarlonia & C ie . 
Rome. 

50 
UNDER-SECRETARY OF STATE v. GRUNER TO BISMARCK. 

BERLIN, February 28, '59. 

As a safe opportunity offers I am sending you a few 
hasty lines. 

" The Rise of the Dutch Republic." Motley was then writing his 
"History of the United Netherlands." 



1859] CORRESPONDENCE 65 

Rechenberg was never seriously thought of for the secre- 
taryship at the Legation, it was he who wished to go to St. 
Petersburg. I communicated to Herr von Schleinitz your 
request that no decision might be taken until your arrival, 
and believe he acquiesces. 

The St. Petersburg post is extremely important, and its 
importance increases every day. I by no means fail to 
appreciate the value of the Frankfurt post, but the general 
political importance of the St. Petersburg post is incompar- 
ably greater. We are expecting very much from your work 
there; they have confidence in you, and you will be able to 
render the most important services there to the Crown and to 
the country. St. Petersburg is anything but the " honour- 
able exile " you described it when you were here, and I am 
confident you will soon alter your opinion. 

I hope the contents of the note despatched to-day are 
to your satisfaction^ 

You are, I trust, better again in health. It would be of 
the utmost advantage if you would be kind enough to 
remain with Herr v. Usedom for a few days, the place and 
the post can hardly ever have been less difficult than they 
are now. 

I once more beg your indulgence for the nastiness of these 
lines. 

With expressions of the highest esteem and devotion, 

v. GRUNER. 

51 

BISMARCK TO FREIHERR VON SCHLEINITZ, MINISTER OF 

STATE. 

ST. PETERSBURG, May 12, '59. 

YOUR EXCELLENCY, 

I am extremely obliged for the long and interesting 
despatch I received the day before yesterday through 
Feldjager Hahn. In the course of yesterday I found an 



66 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1859 

opportunity to speak expansively to Prince Gortchakoff 
in the tenor of the communications I have received. My 
enclosed report* contains full details of the conversation, 
but I beg in this letter to bring forward another side of 
the question which I dare not touch officially with the 
same frankness, as I do not yet know whether it will not 
appear to your Excellency to be rank heresy. 

My eight years' experience at Frankfurt has convinced 
me that the Bund institutions are shackles on Prussia, gall- 
ing in times of peace, and absolutely dangerous to her 
existence at critical periods, and that Prussia does not ob- 
tain equivalents for this such as Austria, which enjoys an 
incomparably greater freedom of movement, draws from 
the institutions. The two great powers are not measured 
with the same standard by the smaller states and govern- 
ments, and the aims and the laws of the Bund are made 
subservient to the needs of Austrian politics. Your Ex- 
cellency is so well acquainted with the facts of the case, 
that I can refrain from going into the history of the policy 
of the Bund since 1850 to prove my standpoint; I will 
only mention the German fleet question, the quarrels on 
the customs duty question, the legislation affecting trade, 
the press, the constitution, the Bund fortresses of Rastatt 
and Mayence, the Neuchatel and the Oriental questions. 
We have always had to face the same compact majority, 
the same demand for compliance on the part of Prussia. 
Austria's force of gravity was so superior to ours in the 
Oriental question, that even the conformity of the wishes 
and inclinations of the Bund governments with Prussia's 
strivings was powerless against her. Our confederates in 
the Bund, almost without exception, gave us to under- 
stand, or even stated openly, that if Austria pursued her 
own path they would be unable to keep the Bund for us, 

* A footnote in the German edition says that " Bismarck's reports 
from St. Petersburg have, unfortunately, not yet been published." 



1859] CORRESPONDENCE 67 

although there was no doubt that the right, and that the 
real interests of Germany were on the side of our peaceable 
policy; such at least was then the view of almost all the 
Bund princes. Would the latter ever sacrifice in this 
manner their own inclinations and interests to the needs or 
even the safety of Prussia? Certainly not, for their ad- 
herence to Austria is dictated essentially by interests which 
prescribe to both as the permanent basis of their joint 
policy that they hold together against Prussia and curb 
any development of Prussia's influence and power. The 
natural aim of the policy of the German Princes and their 
Ministers is the evolution, with Austria at the head, of the 
conditions prevailing in the Bund; this aim can be pros- 
ecuted only at the expense of Prussia, and is of necessity 
directed against Prussia only as long as Prussia does not 
restrict herself to the useful task of securing her confeder- 
ates in the Bund against Austria obtaining too great an 
ascendancy, and to tolerating the disproportion between 
her duties and her rights in the Bund with an unwearying 
deference to the wishes of the majority. This tendency in 
the policy of the middle states will recur with the con- 
stancy of the magnetic needle after every temporary diver- 
sion, as it is not the arbitrary product of individual cir- 
cumstances or persons, but is, as far as the little states are 
concerned, a natural and necessary result of the Bund re- 
lationships. The Bund treaties do not provide us with any 
means for dealing with it permanently and satisfactorily. 
Perhaps I go too far when I suggest that we should 
eagerly seize every lawful opportunity offered us by our 
confederates to assume the role of the offended party and 
out of this to attain the revision of our mutual relations 
which Prussia needs in order that she may live perma- 
nently in satisfactory relations with the smaller German 
states. In my opinion we ought readily to pick up the 
glove which Bavaria seems to wish to throw to us, and to 



68 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1859 

regard it not as a misfortune, but as a step towards the 
crisis which will clear the way for an improvement, when 
a majority in Frankfurt passes a resolution in which we 
might discover a breach of the Bund treaties; the more 
obvious the breach is, the better. It will be long before the 
conditions in Austria, France, and Russia are again so 
favourable for our improving our position in Germany, 
and our confederates in the Bund are in a fair way to 
provide us with a fully justified opportunity to do this, even 
without our lending a helping hand by our own adroitness 
in an inconspicuous manner to their superciliousness. 
Even the Kreuz Zeitung, as I see by its Sunday edition, is 
puzzled, in its blind zeal, by the idea that a Frankfurt 
majority could calmly dispose of the Prussian army. This 
is not the only paper in which I have observed with uneasi- 
ness what an influence Austria has gained over the Ger- 
man press by a cleverly laid net, and how skilfully she used 
this weapon. Without this the so-called public opinion 
would hardly have reached its present height; I say the so- 
called public opinion, for the great mass of the population 
is never in favour of war until it has been stirred up by 
actual suffering caused by severe oppression. Things have 
reached such a stage that a Prussian newspaper hardly 
dare, even under the cloak of general German feeling, con- 
fess to Prussian patriotism. The universal Piepmeierei * 
(I beg your Excellency's pardon for using this character- 
istic expression) play a great role in all this, though the 
role played by sovereigns, which Austria never lacks for 
such a purpose, is a no less important one. Most of the cor- 
respondents write for their living, the chief object of most 
of the newspapers is to make a good profit, and an experi- 
enced reader can easily see in some of our Berlin and other 
newspapers whether these have recently received another 
subvention from Austria, whether they expect one, or 
* Piepmeier was, in the forties, the type of a characterless muff. 



1859] CORRESPONDENCE 69 

whether they are giving a threatening hint that they wish 
for one. The Kreuz Zeitung does gratis anything that 
Koller * can wish for. The others combine their ten- 
dencies with the considerations they have to pay to the 
subvention on the one hand and their subscribers on the 
other. 

I do not know whether we have not reduced our semi- 
official influence on the press too much, and I believe we 
could produce a great change of opinion if we struck the 
note of an independent Prussian policy in the press, as an 
offset to the overweening attitude assumed by our German 
confederates in the Bund, especially by Bavaria. Events 
may, perhaps, occur in Frankfurt which will provide us 
with full opportunity for this. It is impossible for Bavaria 
to keep its 108,000 men for a long time demonstratively 
on their legs; the Munich Cabinet will now attach itself 
still more closely than heretofore to Austria, if Schrenk 
is not- unfaithful to his past, and Pfordten will feel the 
necessity of directing the attention of the world to the 
debates of the Bund assembly. 

In these eventualities the wisdom of our military pre- 
cautionary measures may, as your Excellency has already 
mentioned in your telegraphic despatch, be manifested in 
other directions also, and emphasise our attitude. Then 
Prussian self-confidence will strike as loud a note as that 
of the Bundestag, and one that will perhaps have more 
important results. I should like to see the word " German " 
written instead of " Prussian " on our banner only when 
we are bound more closely and more expediently to the 
rest of our countrymen than we are at present; it loses its 
charm when it is used too much in its Bundestag nexus. 

I fear that your Excellency will exclaim in spirit ne sutor 
ultra crepidam to this epistolatory expedition into the 
^domain of my former work ; it was not, however, my inten- 

* Austrian Minister in Berlin. 



yo FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1859 

tion to make an official report, but only to give the testi- 
mony of an expert against the Bund. In my eyes our 
relationship with the Bund is an infirmity of Prussia's 
which, sooner or later, we shall have to heal ferro et igni 
if we do not take a favourable opportunity to combat it in 
time. If the Bund were simply dissolved to-day, and 
nothing else set up in its place, I believe that even on the 
basis of this negative achievement better and more 
natural relations between Prussia and her German neigh- 
bours would result. If our relations to them were analo- 
gous to those which Austria, by virtue of the treaties which 
ere now contested, had with the Italian Duchies, it would 
be, mutatis mutandis, a great progress for us. 

v. BISMARCK. 

52 
BISMARCK TO GENERAL GUSTAV v. ALVENSLEBEN. 

ST. PETERSBURG, May 14, '59. 
DEAR ALVENSLEBEN, 

The enclosed copy of a letter to Schleinitz was originally 
intended for the Prince of Hohenzollern ; * when it was 
ready, however, I became doubtful as to how his High- 
ness might regard the matter in his inmost heart, and 
whether he would not take amiss my sending him a copy 
of a letter to his colleague Schleinitz, as if I did not give 
the gentlemen credit for being on sufficiently intimate terms 
to communicate to each other what it would profit them to 
know. I believe, too, that Schleinitz will show my letter 
to his Royal Highness the Regent, although I hardly hope 
that it will be relished there. If you have the inclination 
and the opportunity to inflame the spark of Royal ambition 
in the Prince, kindly use the contents of the enclosure as il 
1 had written in a special letter to you exactly what I wrote 
* President of the Ministry of State. 



1859] CORRESPONDENCE 71 

to Schleinitz; it is only a question of the heading and the 
ending. There is always an element of mistrust when I 
write to Schleinitz, and at the same time send you a copy of 
the letter, and the Prince allows this to transpire. 

I expect my wife has by this time at last torn her bleeding 
heart away from Frankfurt, and has had the pleasure of 
seeing you again in Berlin. I hope to fetch her in June or 
July from Pomerania, as I cannot leave her to her fate 
among a population ignorant of the German language and 
customs. 

Adieu, and greet the few who deserve it, from 

Your faithful 

v. BISMARCK. 
The letter was addressed : 
To Herr von Alvensleben 

Major General and Adjutant to his Royal Highness 

the Prince Regent, 

Berlin. 

On the back of the envelope was written in pencil by the 
Prince Regent : 

Found in the despatch-bag during your absence, and 

opened by me. 

W. P.(rince) R(egent). 

53 
BISMARCK TO MINISTER v. SCHLEINITZ. 

ST. PETERSBURG, May 29, '59. 
YOUR EXCELLENCY, 

With reference to my request for permission to be absent 
'from St. Petersburg for four days, I most obediently an- 
nounce that Prince Gortchakoff goes to Tsarskoe Selo on 
U.une 1st, for a fortnight, to undergo a " cure " which he 
needs on account of constant throat trouble and hoarseness. 
He has expressed the wish that during this time we will call 
on him only when most urgent matters of business demand a 



72 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1859 

personal interview. There is thus all the less reason to ap- 
prehend that the service will suffer through my short 
absence. The city is rapidly emptying, owing to the great 
heat, and we diplomats are being more and more reduced to 
our own society, which is a state of affairs not always par- 
ticularly agreeable. My German colleagues, in particular, 
are a chronic sore point for me. Although, by reason of 
Frankfurt antecedents and slanders, I am no persona grata 
with them, they claim the right of countrymen to fall back 
on me for political communications, as they hardly ever 
see Prince Gortchakoff themselves, and he discusses higher 
politics with them only within the narrowest official limits. 
Their assurance in putting the most indiscreet questions to 
me a brule-pourpoint passes the conception of a well-trained 
politician, and Count Karolyi * in particular develops the 
most inconsiderate determination in this direction, always 
under the pretext of our friendly Bund relations. What- 
ever attitude I assume towards these questions, my answers 
are always abused. If I colour my remarks with a certain 
consideration for the questioner, i. e. in the Austrian-Middle- 
State sense, I hear the very next day from Gortchakoff that 
he has learned through Belgian, English, or Greek (Prince 
Soutzo is a favourite of the Minister's) channels that Prus- 
sia is after all beginning to yield to the majority of her con- 
federates, as even I now appreciate the justice of their 
standpoint. If I evade an answer, it is stated that I associate 
only with Russians, French, and English, but play the re- 
served, great-power representative towards my German 
countryman. If I honourably take the standpoint of our 
Government, that the initiative in Germany is to come from 
us, and endeavour to remove illusions, and to give no en- 
couragement to impassioned hopes, I am accused, in German 
circles here, and in reports to the home Governments, of 
being a Bonapartist, and of conspiring against Germany, 
* Austrian Minister at St Petersburg. 



1859] CORRESPONDENCE 73 

with all the exaggerations and misrepresentations to which I 
became accustomed in the Frankfurt days, and which during 
the past eight years have so often found expression in com- 
plaints against me, even in the private correspondence of 
the Princes themselves. The whole evil results from the 
circumstance that the representatives of the smaller states 
have nothing to do, or take no interest in the business con- 
nected with the protection of their countrymen, but concern 
themselves with higher politics, about which they know 
nothing but what they glean from chit-chat. Fortunately, 
Count Minister* is leaving on Wednesday. Under his 
outer covering of Low-Saxon indifference he is the most 
excitable of all, and it is doubly difficult for me, owing to our 
intimate personal acquaintanceship, to reply as a diplomat 
to the questions he brings up as a " good friend," in such a 
manner as to give him as little material as possible for his 
reports or for complaints. Konneritz f professes extreme 
enthusiasm for Prussia, abuses Beust and Austria, and talks 
as if he were acting under a Carlowitz ministry. Mont- 
gelas $ is in a great state of vexation at the depreciation of 
Austrian securities, and seems, strangely enough, to consider 
that the only means of remedying this is to be found in a 
general war. When I suggested that collections might be 
made in Germany in aid of our benevolent society here he 
replied that not a single kreuzer would be forthcoming in 
Bavaria, as all the wealthy people there were on the verge of 
ruin; his father-in-law, he said, had been obliged to reduce 
his establishment of six horses to two, and the rich Count 
Schonborn was in a most painful situation, as everybody 
had realised their investments. "This," he added, "ac- 
counts for the angry feelings in our country against Na- 
poleon." 

* Hanoverian Minister at St. Petersburg, 
f Saxon Minister at St. Petersburg. 
t Bavarian Minister at St Petersburg. 



74 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1859 

Prince Gortchakoff read me to-day a note to Budberg on 
his last conversation with Karolyi, and asks me to write to 
your Excellency that Budberg may communicate it, if re- 
quested to do so; it agrees with the contents of my last 
direct report to his Royal Highness. 

Your Excellency's 

most obedient 

v. BISMARCK. 



54 
BISMARCK TO MINISTER v. SCHLEJNTTZ. 

(Draft.) 

BHUJN, September 25, '59. 

YOUR EXCELLENCY, 

I have the honour to report, as arranged, on the con- 
versation I have had here with Budberg.* I gather from 
what he said that the question whether and how the two ex- 
alted personages could meet had already been considered, 
and had been the subject of communications to Budberg; also 
that while the Czar on the one hand eagerly wishes for the 
meeting, he does not, on the other hand, see how it can take 
place in the immediate vicinity of his Majesty the King, so 
long as the condition of the latter is such that he is not per- 
mitted to receive anybody. 

The Czar's view is, that not only would he himself feel 
it keenly, but a painful impression would also be made on 
public opinion if he paid a visit to the Court here without 
being able to show his sympathy with such a near relation 
as the King in his sufferings. 

Knowing the Czar's mode of thought, I quite believe 
that Budberg's version is the simple truth, and that the en- 
deavour to shift the meeting to Warsaw has no connection 
* At that time Russian Minister at Berlin. 



1859] CORRESPONDENCE 75 

with his utterances against me, although he hinted that the 
appearance of the Emperor Franz Josef at Warsaw was 
within the bounds of possibility. At all events, I told him 



that in my personal opinion a fresh visit of his Royal High- 
ness the Regent to Warsaw would not produce the impres- 
sion in the political world which we should think desirable. 
He then suggested Breslau, and asked if there were troops 
enough there to give the Czar a review. I replied that it 
did not seem to me that there was any need for the obvious 
pretext of seeing a few regiments, but that the former visit 
of his Royal Highness the Regent, the intimate family re j 
lations, and the pending political questions would make a 
meeting between the Czar and his august uncle appear per- 
fectly natural to everybody. Budberg coincided with this, 
is anxious for it, and added only that a confidential sug- 
gestion or hint that his visit would be welcome might be 
given to the Czar, perhaps through Loen.* If the King's 
condition compelled him to be out of Berlin there would be 
nothing to bring the Czar here; in that case Breslau seems 
to me the only suitable place. 

Prince Gortchakoff will arrive at Warsaw a few days 
before the Czar. Should his Royal Highness perhaps think 
it expedient that I should be at the Court there when the 
Czar arrives, and be the means o-f conveying the invitation, 
I would beg to be favoured with the necessary orders, so 
that I can make my arrangements in good time. I can 
only most dutifully repeat that I feel convinced that the in- 
terview will politically create a very favourable impression. 

My friend Unruh called on me here yesterday; he says 
that the effect of the reply to the Stettin address is favour- 
able, and told me, as an indication of the feelings which 
now prevail, that Metz, the very advanced democratic chief- 
tain from Darmstadt, had exclaimed in Frankfurt : " Rather 
the most rigorous Prussian military rule than the misire of 
* Prussian Military Attache at St. Petersburg. 



76 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1859 

the little states." He hoped soon to read in the newspapers 
a reply to the Austrian note to the Duke of C(oburg), in 
which at least the defectiveness of the Bund Constitution 
would be admitted. 

I leave to-day for Reinfeld in Pomerania; I would like 
to arrange for a large diligence to take me and my family 
from the frontier to St. Petersburg. As this has to be 
ordered ten days ahead, I should be very grateful to your 
Excellency if any instructions tending to expedite or delay 
my departure could be sent to me at Reinfeld. 

v. BISMARCK. 



55 
MINISTER v. SCHLEINITZ TO BISMARCK. 

BADEN, September 29, '59. 
ESTEEMED FRIEND, 

The manner in which you treated the subject of the in- 
terview with Herr v. Budberg is in complete accord with 
our most gracious master's ideas and wishes in the matter. 
His Royal Highness says, however, that as no one, not even 
his immediate family relations, see the King, the Czar of 
Russia might also take the same position, and need not make 
this a reason for not visiting Berlin. But the Prince, too, 
is of opinion that in the present circumstances a third place 
might be preferable for the meeting, and he quite agrees 
that this should be Breslau. I will now put the matter into 
the hands either of Loen (neither the Prince nor I know 
whether he will accompany the Czar or not) or of Budberg, 
so that it may be settled as soon as possible. As it is now 
most probable that the idea will be carried into effect, de- 
corum seems to demand that you should be at Warsaw when 
the Czar is there; it appears to me, therefore, that it would 
be better if you delayed your departure for St. Petersburg 



1859] CORRESPONDENCE 77 

for a time, which I hope will not seriously add to tfie in- 
conveniences attendant on the removal of your family there. 

Unruh's communication confirms a fact which is as re- 
markable as it is gratifying. We shall, I imagine, soon be 
able to comply with the wish for the publication of our 
reply in the matter of Austria contra Coburg. 

In conclusion, I execute the commissions of two fair 
ladies ; I have to express to you on the part of her Majesty 
the Queen of Holland * her extreme regret that, owing to 
an alleged alteration of your outward appearance, she did 
not at once recognise you on the promenade here, while the 
Princess Obolenski has requested me to tell you how much 
she misses you here, and in her name to say all sorts of nice 
things to you. 

In fulfilling this agreeable mandate, which I do with pleas- 
ure, though through lack of time and space only summarily, 
I am, 

Your most faithful 

SCHLEINITZ. 

56 

MINISTER v. SCHLEINITZ TO BISMARCK. 

BERLIN, December 31, '59. 
ESTEEMED FRIEND, 

I need not tell you how sincerely glad I am that you 
can now be considered as reconvalescent f in the fullest 
sense of the word. My joy would, it is true, be still greater 
if your health had permitted you now, or in the near future, 
to resume a post where you are at the present moment 
simply indispensable, and where, in my opinion, you cannot 
be replaced even provisionally. Things cannot remain as 
they are, both on their own account and in view of the re- 

* Sophie, the daughter of King William L of Wurtemburg. 
t Bismarck was laid up with severe inflammation of the lungs from 
the beginning of November, 1859, to the beginning of March, 1860. 



78 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1859 

peated hints that we have received from St. Petersburg. 
As a matter of fact, we are practically not represented at all 
at the Russian Court; that this, at a time when Austria 
has given Count Thun * carte blanche to re-establish the 
old relations with Russia on any condition, and when it is, 
therefore, of extreme importance for us to watch these en- 
deavours which are so closely united with Prince Gort- 
chakoff 's personal position and future, must be characterised 
as an absolutely inadmissible state of affairs, no one, my 
esteemed friend, will be more ready to recognise than your- 
self. The congress has been extremely doubtful ever since 
the brochure de I'Empereur, but even if Gortchakoff should 
not leave St. Petersburg for the present, we cannot longer 
postpone making at any rate a provisional arrangement. 
The candidates who could be considered are very few. 
Harry Arnim would be a very suitable person, but as he is 
only a Secretary of Legation we could not, without giving 
mortal offence, appoint him over the first Secretary and 
acting Charge d' Affaires at St. Petersburg,! unless another 
post could be found for the latter, which for the moment 
is impossible. In these circumstances the only suitable and 
also available person seems to me to be Count Perponcher, 
on whom the choice of the Prince Regent also has fallen, and 
who is to proceed about the middle of next month on a 
special mission to St. Petersburg. The object of my official 
letter of to-day is to inform you of this decision, which I 
hope will meet with your approval. The domestic and 
pecuniary arrangements will also undoubtedly be settled in 
a manner satisfactory to you; I will certainly do all that 
lies in my power to bring this about. I need not repeat 
that in making these arrangements both the Regent and my- 
self are actuated chiefly by the wish to reconcile the require- 
ments of the service as much as possible with consideration 
for what you deem advisable, and especially with your 

* Austrian Minister at St. Petersburg. t Prince Croy. 



i86o] CORRESPONDENCE 79 

health. If, as it seems almost probable, you will not be able 
to return to St. Petersburg during the severe winter months, 
we should be very glad to see you here, at least as soon as 
possible, and your offer to place the qutstions of foreign 
policy in a right light before our honourable peers is even- 
tualiter gratefully accepted. 

With best wishes for as rapid a recovery as possible, and 
in sincere friendship, 

Your faithfully devoted 

SCHLEINITZ. 

57 

FREIHERR VON SCHLEINITZ, MINISTER OF STATE, TO 

BISMARCK. 

BADEN-BADEN, June 25, '60. 
DEAR FRIEND, 

My best thanks for the two interesting private letters, 
which I have not found leisure to answer until the present 
moment; there is very little leisure even here, however. 

In the first place I must protest decidedly against your 
conjecture, formed from some remarks of Gortchakoff's, 
that we made overtures to the St. Petersburg Cabinet 
some months ago which were taken as being invitations 
to establish a coalition against France, and were answered 
in the negative. We have racked our brains in vain to dis- 
cover what could be meant by this, and for the sake of 
greater security I have also questioned Perponcher ad 
articulos on the alleged conatus. He, too, cannot remem- 
ber having said or written anything that could by any 
stretch of imagination be made to bear the interpretation 
mentioned above. If the whole matter is not based on a 
misunderstanding on your or Gortchakoff's part, an 
endeavour should be made to trace the object underlying 
these poetic insinuations. The report of your audience 
with the Czar has made a pleasing, and at the same time 
a painful impression. Pleasing, in so far as all the Czar's 



8o FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1860 

utterances reflect his noble, disinterested feelings and his 
friendly disposition towards Prussia; painful, in so far as 
the eminent gentleman exerts himself to win us over to an 
idea which, at least in his own opinion, does not promise 
to be of much practical value. He wishes for a more 
intimate relationship between us and France, chiefly on the 
grounds that the Emperor Louis Napoleon might be 
kept from unbecoming things by the respectable society 
into which he would thus be removed. With this we can 
fully accord, and to this end we will always give Russia our 
most sincere and zealous co-operation. For a long time 
past we have persistently laboured, with the same object 
that impels the Czar Alexander, to live with our western 
neighbour in the most friendly relations possible. We 
shall persevere in these endeavours, but will the Imperator 
on the Seine be satisfied in the long run with a relationship 
that does not assume a more or less exclusive character, and 
that does not pursue quite special aims, furthering France's 
aims? I hardly believe this will be the case, and am more 
inclined to surmise that by a preferential intimacy with 
France we should gradually, without knowing it and with- 
out wishing it, be drawn within the sphere of her policy. 
An examination of the individual political questions which 
occupy public attention at present shows at once that in 
no single case are the aims of France also ours, or our aims 
also those of France. It seems to me that there is, or at 
least ought to be, this same lack of agreement between the 
Russian and the French policy. Russia can approve the 
policy of France neither in the Savoy nor in the Italian 
question, and if she does not oppose it she is actuated by 
what will perhaps be the very delusive hope of obtaining 
valuable compensation, preferably in the Orient, for her 
complaisance. France will not quit her hold in the 
Oriental question, however, until she thinks she can do so 
with the best advantage to herself. The entente even be- 



1860] CORRESPONDENCE 81 

tween Rtissia and France would thus rest upon a very weak 
foundation, and what sort of a role should we play, as the 
third party in the alliance, and with no compensation in 
view? The impossibility of a special alliance or a special 
entente with the Emperors of the east and the west does 
not, however, preclude, I repeat it, our endeavouring to 
place ourselves on the most friendly footing with both of 
them. This is, fortunately, the natural and normal relation- 
ship with Russia. With respect to France, the recent 
interview at Baden will, as Prince Gortchakoff rightly says, 
hardly fail to exert a beneficent influence on the near 
future. The mot d'ordre has been given on all sides in 
France, with the object of attaining this effect; the press 
and his Majesty's entourage repeat a Venvie the expression 
of the Imperial satisfaction at the complete success of the 
Baden rendezvous. Careful observers are of opinion that 
the Emperor had looked for a heartier and warmer recep- 
tion, and that he felt the indifference of the German public, 
which bordered on coolness, all the more keenly as he had 
no reason to complain of similar symptoms of the public 
opinion when he travelled to Stuttgart three years ago. 
But ri importe, it is a parti pris that the interview was 
successful beyond all expectations, and contributed con- 
siderably towards assuring peace, so that we too will 
endeavour to exploit it in this sense. It is especially grati- 
fying to us that the Prince-Regent has, on this occasion, 
been so successful from all points of view. Everyone 
praises his simple, natural, dignified demeanour towards 
the Emperor, who, as we learn from Paris, was greatly 
pleased with and much impressed by him. His manly, 
frank, and energetic procedure has made an extremely 
beneficial impression also on the German Princes. They 
are now convinced that they will not succeed in getting 
him to dance to their tune, or in prevailing on him to in- 
augurate a change of system, as several of them had already 



82 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1860 

made tentative efforts to do. All these gentlemen have, 
more or less, appeared here not only in the light of Prus- 
sian vassals, but as such in their own feelings, and that, at 
all events, is a gratifying and new sign of the times. How 
matters will develop depends on various external circum- 
stances, but especially on the form the great political re- 
lationships will take. With regard to these and in specie 
with regard to the Orient, I do not see why we should 
not do our utmost to support the Russian policy; this will 
be all the easier and less dangerous the more we convince 
ourselves that as a matter of fact it is a question de rattacher 
et non pas de faire tomber la proie. 
In sincere friendship, 

Your faithfully devoted, 

SCHLEINITZ. 

58 

FREIHERR VON SCHLEINITZ TO BISMARCK. 

BERLIN, August 3, '60. 
ESTEEMED FRIEND, 

Receive my best thanks for the numerous and interest- 
ing private communications with which you have favoured 
me recently, and do not deny me the general pardon for 
the sins of omission I commit now as heretofore in not 
ansvering these communications as punctually and as fully 
as they are made to me. 

We have every reason to be satisfied with the Teplitz 
meeting.* On the one side a certain tranquillity, a feeling 
of greater security, has been produced, the effect of which 
is already perceptible in general business life; on the other 
side (France) a stimulus has been given to the conviction 
that an encroaching and aggressive policy on this side of 

* July 36, 1860. 



i86o] CORRESPONDENCE 83 

the Rhine, and, it is to be hoped, a little on the other bank 
of the Rhine too, would encounter a fairly compact and 
well-organised resistance. This is very important, not 
alone for Germany, but also in regard to those smaller in- 
termediate countries which naturally lean on Germany, 
and which but too easily lose their courage when they feel 
the ground there slipping away from under their feet. A 
good impression could not but be made here by the fact 
that in St. Petersburg full justice has been done to our 
intuitions with respect to the Teplitz meeting, and the 
opportunity used to make such friendly representations on 
our behalf to the Vienna Cabinet; our acknowledgments 
for this are especially due to Prince Gortchakoff, and I beg 
of you to give them fitting expression. Until now little 
more has been observable on the part of the Austrian 
Cabinet than good resolutions, with which, as is well 
known, the way to hell is paved. The future will show in 
how far they are meant seriously, and we shall have to be 
guided, in rendering our return services, by what actual 
form those resolutions take. Now that Russia has dropped 
her article additionel to the Syrian treaty, there is nothing 
to prevent the latter being signed; we, on our part, would 
willingly have met the Russian wishes in this matter, and 
it appears to me that the English, in their mistrust, went 
too far when they considered it necessary to reject them 
even in the fairly inoffensive form in which they were 
finally proposed. ... I have taken the necessary steps 
to put an end to the misuse of the despatch-bag, and am 
grateful to you for drawing my attention to the matter. 
I have already informed you of the connection between 
this and the case containing the continuation of the works 
of Frederick II. Since the matter has been mentioned 
to Prince Gortchakoff, there is nothing to be done but to 
complete it; the Prince thinks, however, that it will be 
sufficient if you accompany the present to the prince- 



84 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1860 

ministre with a few complimentary words on the part of his 
Royal Highness. 

I wish I deserved, more than is the case, your thanks for 
having received the last instalment of your salary in full. 
During my stay at Baden the draft was laid before me of 
an instruction to you, in which you were called upon to 
refund a very considerable sum. I hesitated to sign this 
instruction, as the whole affair seemed to me somewhat 
questionable, until I had made further enquiries respecting 
it. The matter is thus still in abeyance. Whatever I can 
do conscientiously towards settling it in a manner satis- 
factory to you shall certainly be done. Perhaps you could 
equip me sub rosa with some arguments, which I shall 
gladly urge in your favour. 

The crab-apple Montgelas and his no less crabbed wife 
are no enviable acquisition for us, and we have made a 
very bad exchange for Bray. It is incredible that such a 
choice can be made at Munich, especially at a time when 
very friendly feelings towards Prussia are expressed, 
although perhaps re vera they do not exist. 

In sincere friendship, 

Cordially yours, 

SCHLEINITZ. 

59 
BISMARCK TO PRINCE GORTCHAKOFF. 

(Draft) 

ST. PETERSBURG, September 3, '60. 
MOST ILLUSTRIOUS PRINCE, 

At last I have received the works of Frederick the Great, 
which his Royal Highness the Regent told me in Berlin in 
the spring would be sent off directly after my departure 
for this place, as a confirmation of the sentiments towards 
you which you know me to have readily and frankly rep- 
resented for years past. 



i860] CORRESPONDENCE 85 

Some weeks ago a misunderstanding led me to suppose 
that a case containing a copy with supplements, intended for 
his Majesty, also contained your copy, which I now have 
the honour to hand to you. 

Accept the expression of my unalterable esteem. 

v. BISMARCK. 



60 

FREIHERR VON SCHLEINITZ TO BISMARCK. 

BERLIN, September 21, '60. 

ESTEEMED FRIEND, 

The various communications you have recently ad- 
dressed to me in the form of private letters have reached me 
in the country, in Thuringia, where I had no lack of time 
but of favourable opportunities and of material to answer 
them. On my return to the Residence two days ago 
I found such an immense accumulation of diplomatic 
reports and documents that even to-day I must limit 
myself to a few lines, the chief object of which is to thank 
you for your interesting letters, and to let you know that I 
have succeeded, though not without a hard struggle, in 
averting the deduction from your salary that has long been 
hanging over your head. 

The object of the autograph letter from the Prince, 
which is being sent off to you to-day for presentation to 
the Czar, is to designate the course which our most 
gracious master has followed hitherto in his meetings, and 
which he desires not to depart from at the Warsaw 
rendezvous. Whether this quite accords with the views 
of the Czar and Prince Gortchakoff, with which we are as 
yet somewhat in the dark, remains to he seen. We take it 
as a matter of course that the Warsaw meeting must not 



86 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1860 

assume the character of a demonstration directed against 
England, though this is a danger which, in view of Prince 
.GortchakofFs repeatedly emphasised Continental interests, 
has perhaps been too intentionally hinted at to permit of 
the possibility of the existence of a more deeply laid plan on 
the part of the Russian Cabinet. In any case, we must be 
on our guard, even if France should not perhaps be repre- 
sented at Warsaw in person, which appears to me not 
to be without the bounds of possibility, but only in 
spirit. 

Your yesterday's telegram respecting the recall of the 
minister from Turin arrived here safely yesterday. Bud- 
berg had spoken to me on the subject shortly before. We 
have agreed to await the communication giving the mo- 
tives, which cannot be here until next Tuesday. Prima facie 
the affair seems to me to be of great import. What is being 
carried on between Piedmont and Rome before our eyes 
is of such a nature that Hugo Grotius, Pufendorf, Vatel, 
and the deceased Wheaton would have something to say 
to it, only it is, in effect, a new edition, and not an enlarged 
one, of what, in respect of Tuscany, the Duchies, the 
Romagna, and lately of Naples, has been issued as current 
coin of the Piedmontese policy without the members of the 
European Areopagus having attained the height of even 
a modest protest. The recall by reason of an analogous 
attitude towards Rome would, therefore, appear to me to 
be a logical hiatus, which would be all the more serious 
as it might be brought into an undesirable causal-nexus 
with the French example, which, especially in this case, 
could not, for many reasons, be recommended for imita- 
tion. All these, however, are only temporary impressions, 
and we must in any case wait for the Russian communi- 
cation before we arrive at any definite decision. 

The Grand-Duchess Helene, who received me to-day 
and honoured me with a long interview, leaves for St. 



i86o] CORRESPONDENCE 87 

Petersburg on the evening of the day after to-morrow; 
the Prince-Regent starts at the same time to receive Queen 
Victoria at Aix. 

With sincere friendship, 
Your 

SCHLEINITZ. 

61 

UNDER-SECRETARY OF STATE v. GRUNER TO BISMARCK. 

BERLIN, September 28, '60. 
MOST ESTEEMED HERR v. BISMARCK, 

We have just received most unpleasant news. A week 
ago a Feldjager was about to leave for you on board a 
Russian ship, when we were informed by the English Lega- 
tion that the English Minister at St. Petersburg was return- 
ing 1 to St. Petersburg by this vessel, and we might make 
use of this safe opportunity. Thereupon the despatches 
which you will receive with this letter were sent to the Eng- 
lish Legation. While we were imagining that you would 
long ago have received these despatches, and especially the 
letter from his Royal Highness the Regent to his Majesty 
Czar Alexander, we suddenly receive them all back again. 
The despatch-box belonging to the English Legation had re- 
mained at Stettin, and has only just been returned ; our des- 
patches, which were found in it, were at once handed to one 
of our messengers who happened to be at the English Lega- 
tion at the time. There is no time to lose, the despatches 
must go off at once, and I hasten to send you these few 
words of explanation (in addition to a short official note) 
to enable you to explain and to offer excuses for the delay 
in handing over the letter to the Czar. 

We will telegraph as soon as we have learned the actual 
facts of the case, and if fresh explanations are forthcoming. 



88 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1860 

I must close or we shall be too late. 
With expressions of the highest esteem and devotion, 

v. GRUNER. 

62 
PRINCE KARL OF PRUSSIA TO BISMARCK. 

November 18, '60. 
SUNDAY, 9 A. M. 

I have just received an invitation to dine with Michail 
Nikolagevitsch to-day; I at once sent to my younger 
brother * that we should agree in declining, to which he re- 
plies that we cannot do this, as the birthday of a little Grand- 
Duke is to be celebrated en famille. He tells me also that he 
has already declined your invitation. In these circum- 
stances I must also do likewise, unpleasant as it is for me ! 

The younger brother might first have sought my assenti- 
ment before he decided to decline, but that he never does. 

I beg to be allowed to repeat my apologies to you and 
your wife between twelve and one o'clock. 

With kindest regards, 
CARL. PRINCE v. PREUSSEN. 

63 

PRINCE KARL ANTON zu HOHENZOLLERN TO BISMARCK. 

BERLIN, November 22, '60. 
YOUR EXCELLENCY, 

Will you kindly have the enclosed forwarded to its des- 
tination? It contains a treatise on historic art, written at 
my instigation, in which an attempt is made to prove that 
Raphael also practised the art of copper-plate engraving. 
I have promised to do what I can for the author, Prof. An- 
dreas Miiller, of Diisseldorf, and sending it to the Academy 
* Prince AlbrechL 



i86o] CORRESPONDENCE 89 

of Arts is merely an attention to which he is entitled on 
account of the novum of his discovery. 

Everything is very quiet here, and all energies are being 
applied to preparation for the coming fight in the Landtag. 
The external situation will have to come to the aid of the 
internal affairs, for we have spent much money and will still 
need much more to make the army reform a reality. . . . 

With cordial wishes for your Excellency's continued well- 
being, I remain, 

Respectfully yours, 

FtJRST ZU HOHENZOLLERN. 

64 

FREIHERR VON SCHLEINITZ TO BISMARCK. 

BERLIN, December 25, '60. 
ESTEEMED FRIEND, 

I have just heard that your Feldjager has arrived at 
Gumbinnen, and I have decided to send him back to St. 
Petersburg at once with some documents which have been 
waiting for a safe means of conveyance to you. The docu- 
ments relate particularly to the Warsaw interviews and the 
four points. In the reply to the Thouvenel despatch to 
Montebello* we restrict ourselves to taking note of what 
is acceptable in the contents, that is to say, of the assurance 
that military measures for the protection of German ter- 
ritory, and on German territory, will not be regarded by 
France as a breach of neutrality in a war between Austria 
and Italy. I also consider it necessary to intimate at 
the same time that we did not wish, by doing this, to 
prejudice Germany's attitude in case of such a war break- 
ing out. In my opinion, however, Germany's attitude will 
depend chiefly on what she can do, without over-estimat- 

* Napoleon Aujjuste, Duke of Montebello, was French Minister in 
St. Petersburg; Thouvenel was French Minister for Foreign Affairs. 



90 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1860 

ing her powers, to retain Venice for Austria, for I am ever 
more persuaded that Germany is interested in the reten- 
tion of this Austro-Italian possession not only for reasons 
of military security, but also on account of the inevitable 
consequence of dismemberment. The present disposition 
of fortresses could not, in the opinion of all experts, be 
improved on in the interest of Germany. Moreover, there 
seems to be no reason why the Italian national movement 
should cross the Austrian frontier with impunity and 
respect the German frontiers, for, as a matter of fact, these 
territories are as decidedly Italian as Venice can ever be. 
It should be clear to everybody, after what passes before 
our eyes and in view of the disgraceful principles acknowl- 
edged without shame even by great powers, that no 
security can be afforded against such a transgression by 
treaties, guarantees, or similar paper pledges. Finally, 
however, and this is the main point, it is neither more nor 
less than a revolutionary movement which is being pro- 
moted, under the cloak of nationality, simply in the inter- 
ests of imperial France, whose object is to set in commo- 
tion all the nations and people inimical to Germany, and 
when it has succeeded, and we are confronted from the 
Adriatic to the Baltic with a girdle of separating and hostile 
elements, to fish quite comfortably in troubled waters in 
the neighbourhood of the Rhine. The revolution will not 
be ended by the disjunction of Venice, but will thereby 
receive a fresh and dangerous impetus. Russia, too, will 
have said all this to herself. I cannot share your favourable 
anticipations respecting the future united kingdom of 
Italy. I will admit that, under certain circumstances, it 
might one day be our ally; I believe, however, that we shall 
see it more frequently in the ranks of our enemies, espe- 
cially in the train of France, than among the number of 
our friends. Furthermore, as an ally it could render us 
no important services in any direction, while as an adver- 



i860] CORRESPONDENCE 91 

sary associated with others it may be very inconvenient 
and even dangerous. It is therefore impossible for us to 
accede to England's wish and press Austria to sell Venice, 
or to make one single proposition to Austria which if made 
to us must cause us to fling the proposer out of the door. 
I quite agree with you that it is none of Prussia's business 
to pose outside her own frontiers as the champion or the 
Don Quixote of legitimacy. That is no reason, however, 
why we should not proceed against revolution with all the 
means at our disposal when it makes its way into our 
sphere of power or of interest. Whether, and to what 
extent, we shall do this in Italy, is, as I have mentioned, 
less a political than a military question; and the unfortu- 
nate part of the situation is that in the present condition of 
affairs in Austria no one can say how far this power is to 
be reckoned on in a general tohu bohu. 

The news received from you yesterday of the death of 
Minutoli * pains me greatly, as he has become the victim 
of his perhaps exaggerated zeal in the service. His death 
is a serious blow to his large family and his aged mother. 

Excuse the hastiness and the defects of this letter; I will 
only add my best wishes for your welfare in the coming 
year and at the present Christmas time, which is probably 
a less pleasant one for you than for your children. 

In sincere friendship, 

Your faithful 

SCHLEINITZ, 

My best thanks for the caviare brought by Prince Croy. 
I must add, however, that repetitions of this kindness must 
be accompained by the respective bills, if my enjoyment of 
them is not to be troubled with stings of conscience. 

* Prussian Minister in Teheran. 



92 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1861 

65 

COUNT NESSELRODE * TO BISMARCK. 

December 18-30, '60. 

Hearty thanks, esteemed Herr von Bismarck, for the 
Pomeranian goose. I accept it all the more gladly, as I 
regard it as a specimen of the genuine old Pomeranian 
species. Fattening geese is, in my opinion, a far more use- 
ful occupation than delivering high-flown Liberal speeches in 
the Chambers. 

I have yet another request to make to you, viz. that you 
will grant an interview to State-Secretary Reutern. He is 
a member of the Excise Commission, and wishes to ask 
you for information on this subject, which is such an im- 
portant one for Russia. Would you be so kind as to appoint 
a day and a time when he might call upon you? 

Your faithful 

GR. NESSELRODE. 

66 
BISMARCK TO THE GRAND-DUKE CONST ANTINE.! 

(Draft). 

ST. PETERSBURG, Feb. 6, '61. 
MY LORD, 

I venture to depart from the customary procedure, and 
to address directly to your Imperial Highness the request 
of a Prussian subject for an audience. It is Mr. Aug. 
Luhdorf, an Elberfeld merchant, who solicits this honour, 
in order that he may submit to your Imperial Highness the 
result of the observations he has made during a five years' 
sojourn on the Amur. He is staying at the Kaiser Hotel. 

The extreme interest taken by your Imperial Highness 
in the maritime establishments of Eastern Siberia encourages 

* Formerly Russian Imperial Chancellor, 
t Translated from the original French. 



1861] CORRESPONDENCE 93 

me not to refuse my intervention in circumstances which 
are devoid of any official character, and in which only the 
indulgence of your Imperial Highness can render it ad- 
missible. I remain, etc., 

BISMARCK. 
67 

FREIHERR VON SCHLEIN*TZ TO BISMARCK. 

BERLIN, February 14, '61. 
ESTEEMED FRIEND, 

It is to be hoped that no undue importance, i. e., no im- 
portance outside the four walls of the House of Deputies, 
is attached in Russia to Vincke's amendment.* The King 
left no doubt on the subject in his reply to the address, 
which re vera was couched in much sharper terms than 
appear in the newspapers. The Lazarus Order would 
be quite a suitable reward for the Westphalian Freiherr, on 
which he could be cordially congratulated. 

I fully share your view in the Holstein affair, and spoke 
in this sense during the debates in committee, at first 
against an intractable majority, but finally amid general 
concurrence. In the House itself the feeling for the whole 
affair was so cool that, in view of the Danish rodomon- 
tades, it did not seem to me expedient to pour more cold 
water into this lukewarm kettle, while, on the other hand, 
I could not consider myself called upon to brandish the 
ministerial war-torch. My silence, in these circumstances, 
seemed to be more than gold. Our deputies have not 
gained much in public opinion by the protracted throes 
through which the address has had to pass, and by the 
final result of the latter, which expresses nobody's true 
opinion. 

The Austrian-Russian ambassador question seems 
gradually to be approaching a settlement. From all that 

* Freiherr von Vincke's amendment added to the address of the 
House of Deputies a clause stating that the consolidation of Italy was 
a European necessity. 



94 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1861 

I hear of Stackelberg, we can congratulate ourselves on 
this choice. 

For some time past the public here has been very 
peaceably inclined, and it is scarcely probable that there 
will be an early outbreak. It remains to be seen whether, 
now that Gaeta has capitulated, the Piedmontese will lose 
their heads, and the peace programme be thrown over- 
board. Some uneasiness seems to have been felt at first 
in Paris concerning the King's alleged warlike speeches, 
but this is evidently now entirely removed. 

In sincere friendship and esteem, 

Your faithfully devoted, 

SCHLEINITZ. 

68 

MINISTER v. SCHLEINITZ TO BISMARCK. 

BERLIN, June 21, '6r. 
MY DEAR BISMARCK, 

The more old sins of omission I have on my conscience, 
the more anxious I am not to burden it with new ones, and 
I therefore hasten to reply to your friendly lines of the 
fifteenth instant. I thoroughly appreciate the numerous and 
well-founded motives which make it desirable for you to turn 
your back for a time on your northern residence, and will at 
once apprise his Majesty the King of them, and advocate 
them to the utmost of my power. The question of a substi- 
tute will, it is to be hoped, be arranged satisfactorily. Croy 
has, with patriotic self-sacrifice, expressed his readiness to 
return to St. Petersburg at once, notwithstanding his 
father's illness; I have, however, endeavoured to cool this 
noble zeal as considerably as possible, as you will have seen 
from the copy which has been forwarded to you of the note 
to the Westphalian Ritter de Lorge. I hope Schlozer will 
perfectly suffice for a not too long interim, and that your 
absence on leave will not occasion you any pecuniary sacrifice 



1861] CORRESPONDENCE 95 

beyond the customary extra expenses incurred by the sub- 
stitute. 

The question of swearing allegiance still causes great 
difficulty, as there is a divergence of opinion between his 
Majesty the King and the majority of his advisers as to 
the form the ceremony shall take. It is, however, already 
certain that it will not take place before the beginning of 
October. Your wish to be present at it, whether as a faith- 
ful vassal or as a citizen, will not, I hope, deter you from 
following up your idea of taking your regular leave earlier. 

If the state of public business permits it, the King con- 
templates leaving Berlin at the end of this or at the begin- 
ning of next month, most probably for Baden, where his 
Majesty intends to take a course of Kissingen waters. As 
soon as his Majesty grants your leave of absence, I will in- 
form you by telegraph, in order that you may be able to 
leave St. Petersburg with as little delay as possible. Finally, 
I must express my warmest thanks for your frequent private 
communications during the past spring, which I ought to 
have done long ago. The many and interesting facts con- 
tained in them, and the humour with which they are told, 
have provided not only me, but also our most gracious 
master, to whom I felt justified in showing your private 
correspondence, from time to time with a bright intermezzo 
in an anxious and difficult time, for which we have always 
been grateful. With sincere friendship, 

Cordially yours, 

SCHLEINITZ. 
69 
BISMARCK TO THE PRINCESS MENCHIKOFF.* 

Saturday. (Late Autumn, '6l. ?) 

MADAME, 

An indisposition a little more serious than usual pre- 
vents me from traversing the short distance which separates 
* Translated from the original French. 



96 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1862 

us, to ask you personally if you still have the copy of the 
Statut organique* which the late Czar intended to grant 
to the Kingdom of Poland, and which I saw at your house 
a few weeks ago. As it appears that this statute is destined, 
after being buried in portfolios for nearly thirty years, to 
at least a partial resurrection, I should be extremely obliged 
if you would lend it to me for a quarter of an hour, should 
it still be in your possession. 

The last book I borrowed from you, at Baden, was the 
analysis of an imaginary wound in the heart of an egoist; 
to-day I am asking you to give me the recipe of the poultice 
which a heart, not egoist enough, proposes to apply to a 
real but incurable sore. 

I entreat you to pardon me, Madame, if you find me an 
importunate neighbour, and to accept the expression of 

my sincere devotion. 

v. BISMARCK. 

70 

THE PRINCESS MENCHIKOFF TO BISMARCK. t 

(Autumn, '61. ?) 

I regret extremely that I cannot send you the little volume 
in question ; it belonged to my father-in-law, who left this 
morning for Moscow. As it is of interest to you, I will 
try and obtain it for you elsewhere. I fear the concessions 
will be granted too late, they were anything but liberal. I 
am sorry to hear of your indisposition. With kindest re- 
gards. 

psse. MENCHIKOFF. 

71 

MINISTER COUNT v. BERNSTORFF TO BISMARCK. 

(Telegraphic despatch.) 

BERLIN, March 17, '62. 

His Majesty destines you for another diplomatic appoint- 
ment, and commands me to request you to make arrange- 

* Of February 14-16, 1832. 

t Translated from the original French. 



1862] CORRESPONDENCE 97 

ments for leaving St. Petersburg, and to come here, as soon 
as you receive your letters of recall, which are now before 
his Majesty for signature, and which will be forwarded 
to you immediately. Count Goltz has been chosen as your 
successor; kindly enquire if he will be acceptable. 

v. BERNSTORFF. 

72 
BISMARCK TO MINISTER v. BERNSTORFF. 

(Telegraphic despatch.) 

ST. PETERSBURG, March 22, '62. 

Prince Gortchakoff has just called on me by command of 
the Czar to bring his Majesty's congratulations for the 
King's Majesty, and to invite me to dinner. At the same 
time, I beg your Excellency to place at his Majesty's feet the 
most respectful congratulations of the Legation. A dinner 
is being given at the Court in honour of the day. 

Telegram of seventeenth received with thanks; am now 
ready to leave as soon as I have had the final audiences after 
the arrival of my letters of recall. 

v. BISMARCK. 

73 
THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK TO BISMARCK. 

OFF MARSEILLES, ON BOARD H. M. 
THE QUEEN OF ENGLAND'S YACHT " OSBORNE." 

October 21, '62. 

I thank you very much for the letter which I have re- 
ceived to-day through Major von Schweinitz. 

May you succeed in bringing about the understanding 
with the Chamber, which you describe as being so urgently 
necessary in the present difficult phase of the life of the 
constitution. 



98 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1862 

I follow the course of events at home with the most eager 
attention, and shall be grateful to you if you will keep me 
informed of the further progress of the discussions in the 
Ministry of State, and also of the state of foreign affairs. 

I remain, 

Your obedient 

FRIEDRICH WILHELM. K. P. 

74 
ADJUTANT-MAJOR v. SCHWEINITZ TO BISMARCK. 

NAPLES, November 10, '62. 
DEAR HERR v. BISMARCK, 

His Royal Highness the Crown Prince has instructed me 
to thank you for your communications, and to say that lack 
of time prevents him from replying, but that he would be 
glad to receive further letters. I remarked to his Royal 
Highness that it was not your intention to compel him to 
enter into a political correspondence, but that you only con- 
sidered it necessary that he should be acquainted with the? 
course of events. The Prince then said that I should write 
you that he would communicate to you orally the impres 
sions he has received here. 

Now that I have fulfilled my instructions, I beg to add 
the following in confidence: 

The Crown Prince, who is accustomed to being ignored 
or slighted by his uncles, and especially by the late King's 
highest officials, appreciates your attentions ; your first letter, 
which I brought, and still more the sending of a courier, 
have pleased him very much. 

That his Majesty has not gone to England,* as it was 
his wish to do, is ascribed on board the " Osborne " to your 
influence ; the Crown Princess regrets this extremely. 

The Prince has accepted nothing here that was offered on 
the part of the Government ; only, when their Royal High- 

*To visit the Exhibition. 



1863] CORRESPONDENCE 99 

nesses expressed their intention of ascending Vesuvius, I 
mentioned it to General LaMarmora, and suggested that 
some measures might be taken to ensure their safety ; he at 
once ordered several companies of Bersaglieri to exercise 
right up to the crater. The General dined on board yes- 
terday evening, and both the Princes* are going to call on 
him to-day. Sincerely yours, 

v. SCHWEINITZ. 



75 
THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK TO BISMARCK. 

December 21, '62. 

In reply to your enquiry of yesterday I shall be glad still to 
receive the usual announcements of the sittings of the Min- 
istry of State; when confidential or particularly important 
matters are to be discussed, I wish to have special notice. 

I am prevented by several audiences from attending to- 
day's sitting. Your obedient 

FRIEDRICH WILHELM. K. P. 

76 
MINISTER VON DER HEYDT TO BISMARCK. 

BERLIN, January 24, '63. 

YOUR EXCELLENCY, 

(Permit me in few strictly confidential words in a per- 
sonal matter. 

On the day of my retirement from office your Excellency 
was kind enough, without any suggestion from me, to re- 
mark that a Minister who has served to the sovereign's sat- 
isfaction for fourteen years would most certainly not be 
dismissed without a public mark of the sovereign apprecia- 
tion. On several subsequent occasions your Excellency, 

*The Prince of Wales and the Crown Prince. 



ioo FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1863 

again without any suggestion on my part, held out prospects 
of a public acknowledgment, adding the last time that the 
execution of his Majesty's intention was only postponed 
until it was seen whether I would re-enter the Ministry; 
it is now decided that this will not be the case. When your 
Excellency asked me, on the day of my retirement, what 
distinction I should prefer, I took the liberty of saying, with 
culpable frankness, that I should value very highly the one 
which was promised me before the coronation, allegedly 
by his Majesty's instructions, through Herr v. Auerswald, 
viz. the star of the Hohenzollern Order. 

Other more important matters have no doubt caused all 
this to escape your Excellency's memory. 

As, with the exception of Herr von Manteuffel, who, hav- 
ing been dismissed from office against his will, declined any 
acknowledgment of his services, and of some who resigned 
to obtain a higher position, no Minister has retired from 
office without a public acknowledgment, and as I draw 
neither pension nor half-pay, I may, without being indis- 
creet, take the liberty of addressing these lines to you in con- 
fidence, in case the non-fulfilment of his Majesty's wish is 
not intentional. 

In any case, I rely on your kindly using this letter with 
discretion, and would not have troubled your Excellency 
with it, if you had not shown such a friendly feeling to- 
wards me on my retirement. 

With expressions of the highest esteem, 

VON DER HEYDT. * 
77 

THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK TO BISMARCK. 

February 24, '63. 

As I am starting a few days earlier for Carlsruhe, en 
route for England, I wish only to let you know that I leave 
to-morrow morning. 

* See letter No. u. In Vol. x. 



1863] CORRESPONDENCE 101 

Should you wish me to despatch any important matter in 
England, or to send any documents, my Adjutant, Lt. Col. 
v. Obernitz, leaves on Sunday evening, and is, therefore, 
at your service, for he meets me on the way. 
/4w revoir after March loth. 

Your faithful 

FRIEDRICH WILHELM. K. P. 

78 

BISMARCK TO THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK. 

BERLIN, February 25, '63. 

YOUR ROYAL HIGHNESS, 

I tender my respectful thanks for the gracious letter of 
yesterday's date, which I have just received, and will ask 
Lt. Col. von Obernitz to take with him on Sunday despatches 
for Count Bernstorff. 

At the same time I beg most humbly to ask if your Royal 
Highness commands an oral report from me on the present 
situation before starting. What I can submit in writing 
contains the draft of a despatch which was sent to Count 
Goltz yesterday evening, and of which I do not, unfor- 
tunately, possess a fair copy. Will your Royal Highness 
therefore be indulgent towards the externals of the enclosure. 
In deep respect, I am, 

Your Royal Highness's 

Most obedient 

v. BISMARCK. 
79 

QBER-PRASIDENT SENFFT VON PILSACH TO BISMARCK. 

STETTIN, May 9, '63. 
YOUR EXCELLENCY, 

I beg to be permitted to accompany the enclosed report 
to the Royal Ministry of State with this letter. The object 



ioa FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1863 

of tills fefter is to explain a considerable portion of tne re- 
port, and I address it personally and confidentially to your 
Excellency only because I do not wish it to follow the usual 
course through the bureaux. 

It appears that the progressive party have circulated the 
report that his Royal Highness, the Crown Prince, is 
favourably inclined towards them. It is certain that this 
is widely believed, and consequently all the efforts of the 
Government to regain influence in certain circles are in vain. 
The exhortation to be loyal to his Majesty the King, and 
to his Majesty's Government, is frequently met, not only 
by the lower classes, but also by educated men, with the 
retort that the King's Majesty is old, and that his Royal 
Highness the Crown Prince will summon a democratic Min- 
istry as soon as he comes to the throne. 

This pernicious prejudice must be eradicated if the great 
dangers which threaten the Fatherland are to be removed. 
What is required is that in some way or other his Roval 
Highness, the Crown Prince, shall decisively and publicly 
declare that he is in complete accord with the King's politi- 
cal principles. There appears to be further urgent neces- 
sity for this, as the dangers of a fresh outrage, which so 
seriously threaten the precious life of his Majesty the King, 
would thereby be counteracted. I most humbly suggest, 
therefore, that the Royal Ministry of State should beg his 
Royal Highness, the Crown Prince, to issue such a state- 
ment. 1 remain, 

Your Excellency's most obedient servant, 

SENFFT v. PILSACH. 
80 

FREIHERR VON DER HEYDT, MINISTER OF STATE, TO 

BISMARCK. 

BERLIN, June 7, '63. 

Your Excellency will permit me to offer my congratu- 
lations on the recent measures,* which were unfortunately 
* The Press regulations of June I, 1863. 



1863] CORRESPONDENCE 103 

requisite. An energetic exercise of authority seems now 
to be the first desideratum, to which all other considera- 
tions must be subordinated. 

The occurrence at Danzig, the result no doubt of in- 
judicious promptings, is therefore all the more regrettable 
and disconcerting. A King must be master in his own 
house now more than ever, and everyone must be con- 
vinced that such is actually the case. In my opinion the 
inspection tour should be broken off, Duncker and Brun- 
nemann should be at once removed from their posts by a 
Royal order, and his Royal Highness should be prohibited 
by an order from making any official statement on politics 
that might suggest a censure of the measures taken by the 
Government. This I regard as an absolute and immedi- 
ate necessity. 

If only there is no irresolution on any side, the effect 
looked for will soon be apparent. 

Your Excellency's 

Most obedient 

v. D. HEYDT. 

81 

PRINCE HENRY VII. OF REUSS TO BISMARCK. 

PARIS, June 21, '63. 
MOST ESTEEMED CHIEF, 

You will see from my reports which leave here to-day 
that the Emperor only briefly referred to our attitude to- 
wards the Polish question; he spoke in a strikingly dry 
and somewhat embarrassed tone, as if he found it disagree- 
able to blame something to which he was aware no blame 
could be attached. He made no remark when I showed 
him how clearly justified we are in the position we have 
adopted. Several reasons might be advanced for his de- 
clining to enter into a discussion of the matter; my im- 
pression is, however, that he is convinced there is nothing- 



104 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1863 

with which he can reproach us, and he certainly refrains 
from laying down principles, as his minister* found it 
necessary to do to Count Goltz recently in my presence. 

Herr von Budberg, on whom I called yesterday immedi- 
ately on my return, told me in confidence that when he 
pressed Drouyn recently to give the practical reason for 
French interference in Polish affairs the latter quite naively 
owned that an independent Poland would be of great ser- 
vice to France when she desired to exert pressure simul- 
taneously on Prussia and on Austria. Although I have 
not the least doubt that this is the only motive for the 
French policy, it is singular that they have not been at 
greater pains to keep the cloven foot out of sight. 

All the opinions that I have been able to collect here 
agree that Drouyn de Lhuys is a most violent agitator 
in Polish affairs, and at the same time cherishes the most 
unfriendly feelings towards us. His great ambition to 
immortalise his name, as his predecessors did, by some 
great action, may be urging him onwards. Furthermore, 
he believes that this zeal will advance him in the Emperor's 
favour, and he has an extravagant dread of having to re- 
turn to his silkworms and his yaks. If only he does not 
meet with the fate of so many of his predecessors who, in 
the idea that they were pleasing the Emperor, let them- 
selves go, and were left in the lurch once they shot out 
beyond the goal. 

I have made a point, during my stay at Fontainebleau, 
of relating as many hitherto unknown stories of atrocities 
committed by the Poles as possible, and these will, directly 
or indirectly, reach the Emperor's ears. Heeckeren.f the 
well-known trumpeter of the terrain here, has rendered me 

* Drouyn de Lhuys, Thouvenel's successor as Minister for Foreign 
Affairs. 

f Baron Heeckeren, a French Senator, whom the Emperor Napoleon 
III. frequently employed on confidential missions. 



1863] CORRESPONDENCE 105 

great assistance in this matter. As he is always mixed up 
in great speculations he needs peace; he has, therefore, 
daily preached to the Emperor the strong aversion exist- 
ing in the Departments to a war for Poland. His reports 
have a certain worth, for he won a good victory for the 
government when he was sent on a special mission to 
Alsace during the elections. 

I have told Metternich* privately that by his political 
attitude here he is arousing the suspicion of all the Cabi- 
nets, and especially of the Conservatives in Germany. 
He replied that he knew this quite well, but that he could 
not act otherwise as Austria needs peace and she would 
be threatened on all sides if France wished. He was con- 
vinced, moreover, that Austria's participation in the col- 
lective steps of the western powers would rather retard than 
further them, etc., etc. As may be imagined, he is now very 
much cajole; I do not, however, agree with the others who 
maintain that Metternich sacrifices the Austrian policy to 
his agreeable position in court; he carefully cherishes his 
position at court, in order thereby to serve his policy. 

I see in the newspapers that you are not going to Carls- 
bad, but to some other watering-place. I regret this for 
the res publica, though it may be better for your health. 

I trust you will derive great benefit from your visit, and 
am, 

Your most obedient, 

H. VII. REUSS. 

82 
THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK TO BISMARCK. 

STETTIN, June 30, '63. 

I learn from your letter of the tenth inst. that, by com- 
mand of his Majesty the King, you have abstained from 
communicating officially to the Ministry pf State my pro- 
* Prince Richard Metternich, Austrian Ambassador to Paris. 



106 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1863 

test against the Press-restrictions decree, which I sent you 
from Graudenz on the third instant. 

I can quite imagine that you would not find it unde- 
sirable to treat as a purely personal matter a procedure 
which, as you yourself acknowledge, might acquire general 
importance in its consequences. It would avail nothing if 
I insisted on that communication being presented, 1 and, in- 
deed, as I gather from your letter, this will already have 
been done on-officially. It is, however, of importance to 
me to speak my mind clearly to you in respect of the alter- 
native you put to me: to facilitate or to render more diffi- 
cult the task before the Ministry. I cannot make it easier 
for you, as I am on principle opposed to the decree. 

^The principles which, in my opinion, must guide every 
Government in its treatment of the country are: loyal ad- 
ministration of the laws and the constitution, esteem for and 
benevolence towards an easily guided, intelligent and capable 
people. I cannot reconcile with these principles the policy 
evinced in the regulation of June 1st. 

You seek to prove to me that that decree is in accordance 
with the constitution, and to assure me that you and your 
colleagues are mindful of your oath. I think, however, 
that a Government needs a firmer foundation than what are 
at least extremely questionable interpretations, which do 
not appeal to the healthy common-sense of the people. You 
yourself refer to the fact that even your opponents esteem 
the honesty of your convictions. I leave this statement un- 
discussed 2 , but if you attach any value to the opinion of 
your opponents you must be impressed by the circumstance 
that the decided majority of the educated classes of our 
people denies that the contents of the regulation in question 
are in accord with the constitution. The Ministry knew be- 
forehand that this would be the case, as it also knew that 
the Landtag would never have sanctioned the contents of 
that decree; therefore it did not lay the matter before the 



1863] CORRESPONDENCE 107 

Landtag, but settled it itself, and a few days afterwards pub- 
lished the regulation by virtue of the powers granted by 
Clause 63 of the constitution. 

If the country does not recognise in this procedure a loyal 
administration of the constitution, I should like to ask what 
the Ministry has done to win public opinion over to its 
own view. It has found no other means of coming to an 
understanding with public opinion than by imposing silence 
on it. 

It is useless to waste words on the question as to how 
the regulation can be made compatible with the esteem and 
the benevolence due to a willing, loyal people, which, how- 
ever, as the Government will not hear its voice, is con- 
demned to assume the role of the mute. 

And what results do you anticipate from this policy? 
The pacification of agitated feelings, and the restoration of 
peace ? 

Do you imagine that you can pacify agitated feelings by 
means of fresh violations of the sense of justice? 

It is true, you expect to be more successful in the new 
elections. 3 It appears to me to be contrary to human na- 
ture to hope for a change of opinions which are constantly 
being roused and irritated by the procedure of the Gov- 
ernment. 

I will tell you what results of your policy I foresee : You 
will tamper with the constitution until it loses its value in 
the people's eyes, and in this way you will incite anarchist 
.endeavours which go beyond the constitution. You will 
also be driven, whether you wish it or not, from one ven- 
Ituresome interpretation to another, until finally the naked, 
undisguised breach of the constitution is recommended. 

I regard those who lead his Majesty the King, my most 
gracious father, along such ways, as the most dangerous 
jadvisers for the Crown and the Fatherland. 4 6 

FRIEDRICH WILHELM. K. P. 



io8 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1863 

P. S. Even before the first of this month I made a very 
limited use of my right to be present at the sittings of the 
Ministry of State. 

After the convictions I have expressed above you will 
not be surprised that I shall ask his Majesty the King to per- 
mit me to abstain altogether in future from taking part in 
the sittings during the continuance of the present Ministry. 

To be constantly giving public and personal expression to 
my opposition to the Ministry would accord neither with my 
position nor with my inclination. I shall, however, impose 
no constraint on myself in respect of expressing my opinion 
in all other relations, and the Ministry may reckon on the 
fact that it depends entirely on itself and on its further action 
whether, notwithstanding my great reluctance to do so, I 
shall feel compelled not to shrink from taking other public 
steps, should duty seem to demand this. 

F. ,W. K. P.* 
July 2, '63. 

Marginal notes by Bismarck: 
1 No. 

8 Not very polite. 
8 No. 
4 I not. B Youth is always ready with words! 



BISMARCK TO THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK. 

(Draft) 

CARLSBAD, July XQ, '63. 
YOUR ROYAL HIGHNESS, 

I beg to announce that I have had the honour to receive 
the letter of June 30, July 2. 

Your Royal Highness says in it that a constant personal 
expression of your opposition to the Ministry would accord 
*The postscript was added at Putbus. 



1863] CORRESPONDENCE 109 

neither with your position nor your inclination. I believe, 
therefore, that I shall be complying with your Royal High- 
ness's wishes if I respectfully refrain from replying to the 
judgment which your Royal Highness passes on the pro- 
cedure of his Majesty's Government. 

As regards the position which your Royal Highness 
wishes to take in future towards the Government of His 
Majesty the King, this is a matter of such great bearing on 
the welfare and the future of the State, that, in my most 
humble opinion, it cannot be brought up for discussion be- 
fore the conclusion of the present "cure" without preju- 
dicing the good effects looked for from the same on the 
King. v. BISMARCK. 

84 

THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK TO BISMARCK. 

July 14, '63. 

While thanking you for your letter of July loth, I 
hasten, with reference to the concluding sentence, to re- 
quest you most decidedly not to mention my intention to 
his Majesty the King until you hear from his Majesty, or 
from me, that his Majesty is already acquainted with it. 
When I wrote to you that I would ask his Majesty to 
relieve me from attendance at the sittings of the Ministry 
of State, it was by no means my intention that his Majesty 
should learn of my decision through you. I know quite 
well that his Majesty must be spared all mental effort, 
both now and after the " cure," and will myself discuss 
my views and plans with his Majesty at a time which seems 
to me suitable. 

I expect, therefore, that you will not speak to the King 
on this subject until you hear that his Majesty is acquainted 
with my purposes. 

FRIEDRICH WILHELM. K. P. 



no FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1863 

85 
BISMARCK TO THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK. 

(Draft.) 

BERLIN, July 16, '63. 

I have just had the honour of receiving your Royal 
Highness's letter of the i4th, and hasten most respect- 
fully to inform your Royal Highness that I have not men- 
tioned your Royal Highness's letter of the 2nd inst. to his 
Majesty the King, and in accordance with your Royal 
Highness's command will abstain from taking the initia- 
tive in the matter. Some reports, respecting the contents 
of your Royal Highness's correspondence with the King, 
which have been circulated by the newspapers since the 
2nd inst., unexpectedly came to the notice of his Majesty 
the day before yesterday. In consequence of this his 
Majesty summoned me again just before my departure 
and commanded me to make investigations, with the 
object of discovering how these communications found 
their way into the Weser Zeitung. 

I beg most respectfully to report to your Royal High- 
ness that I leave Berlin again on Saturday, to join his 
Majesty's suite at Regensburg, en route for Gastein, as the 
King has commanded me to be present at the approaching 
meeting with the Emperor of Austria. 

v. BISMARCK. 

86 
BISMARCK TO GENERAL v. MANTEUFFEL. 

(Telegram.) 

BERLIN, July 16, '63. 

To GENERAL VON MANTEUFFEL, 

Carlsbad. 

I have not mentioned the letter* and beg you also not to 
do so. Sender has expressly requested this. 

v. BISMARCK. 

* Of June 30 (July 2) from the Crown Prince. 



1864] CORRESPONDENCE in 

87 
GENERAL VON ROON, MINISTER FOR WAR, TO BISMARCK. 

BERLIN, January 20, '64. 

Enclosed I return you the papers. I hope to see the 
King to-morrow, and to find him calm. No hindrance what- 
ever must be placed in the way of the military action which 
is already in progress, as it has determinative political 
significance. If, therefore, there are any justified doubts 
as to how far Austria shall participate I should like to ob- 
ject to their being immediately formulated. As soon as the 
war " concerning the occupation of Schleswig " actually 
breaks out the probe will have to be applied, but not before 
that happens. The most energetic joint operations in 
Schleswig are not thereby precluded, and, in view of the 
endeavour on the part of diplomacy to localise the war 
within the boundaries of the Duchy, the military possibility 
of such a modified aggression will have to be taken into 
serious consideration. I doubt this possibility; I will, how- 
ever, gladly omit from the instructions,* at least for the 
present, everything that might hint at the continuation of 
the war beyond the K6nigs-Au. It is easy to make good 
afterwards any omissions on this score. I will have the in- 
structions re-written, and will send them to you to- 
morrow. 

Permit me again to say how deeply I regret to-day's in- 
cident, for which, though against my will, I am partly to 
blame. This misunderstanding must not, however, be al- 
lowed to work the ruin of Prussia, nor must it serve as a lad- 
der on which revolution may mount to power. Now I under- 
stand your objections. When you advanced them in the 
Cabinet meeting to-day I did not understand them, and no 
person with a military training would have understood 
them. If, therefore, they were also not understood in the 

*For Field-Marshal von Wrangel. 



iia FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1864 

highest quarter, and called forth expressions of impatience, 
you must exercise justice and forbearance. 

It will absolutely not do for you, for the sake of such 
misunderstandings, to give up the game as lost and leave 
the way clear. This is no reason, however, why the at- 
tempt should not be made to discover in how far certain 
ill-humour indicates a lack of confidence, and this attempt 
I will make to-morrow. If such a lack of confidence ap- 
pears actually to exist, nothing would remain to be done 
but to regain what has been lost or to decline to do this 
and retire from the field. As the latter is out of the ques- 
tion, the first part of the alternative must be kept in view. 

We must overcome all difficulties, or we shall be scoffed 
and cursed. And why should we give up the game for lost? 
Simply because in a few cases the proposal is not received 
in the sense in which it is made, and things are looked at 
through differently coloured glasses? Certainly not! 

Therefore, my noble bear-hunter, be coolly calm, and 
keep the aim preservation from democratic anarchy in 
view; away with fretful agitation! Ask for equanimity and 
a calm Jieart I ought perhaps to have written nothing but 
this one last line. 

Your faithful 

v. ROON. 

88 

KING WILLIAM TO GENERAL VON ROON, MINISTER FOR 

WAR. 

BERLIN, April 2, '64. 

The Minister for Finance has repeatedly suggested to me 
that it would be very desirable, with a view to relieving the 
finances, if circumstances permitted the reduction of some 
of the troops which are now on a war footing; he men- 
tioned, in particular, the infantry belonging to the sixth 
army corps, pointing out that the object for which it was 
augmented has now been attained. The latter is true 



1864] CORRESPONDENCE nj 

enough, but it has already been necessary to remove a 
brigade of this corps to Frankfurt-on-the-Oder, in order, 
on account of assuring the safety of the situation in Berlin, 
to replace the ninth brigade. It is, therefore, impossible 
to reduce the numbers of that brigade. Bismarck has also 
repeatedly drawn my attention to the fact that by the em- 
ployment of the greater part of the guard division before 
Diippel the force occupying Jutland has become too weak, 
so that the political object which it is intended to attain with 
this occupation cannot be accomplished. He urges, there- 
fore, an increase of the troops there. If the necessity 
for the despatch of an infantry brigade on this account is 
acknowledged, this would again be a reason against reduc- 
ing the number of troops which have once been aug- 
mented. The growing movement in Posen and West 
Prussia must also be taken into account, and the outlook 
there demands rather an increase than a reduction of the 
troops, while the coast defence will permit of no weaken- 
ing of the forces there. 

I charge you, therefore, at once to arrange for a con- 
ference with the Prime Minister and the Minister for Fi- 
nance in order to discuss the points of view raised above,, 
and to send me a joint report. 

WILHELM. 

89 

THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK TO BISMARCK. 

HEADQUARTERS, FLENSBURG, April 5, '64. 

I thank you very much for the political communications,, 
and for your letter of March 30. I was interested at see- 
ing from the latter that you wish to hear the opinion of the 
constitutional representatives of the Duchies on the suc- 
cession question, and also that there is a prospect of the 
Bund troops co-operating in the defence of the east coast 
of Holstein. 



ii 4 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1864 

As regards the question you put to me, whether it would 
not be advisable to take more effective possession of Jutland 
with the forces at our disposal, or whether it will be neces- 
sary to draw in reinforcements for this object, to which you 
join the request that I will assist in the occupation of the 
whole mainland of Denmark, I have the following reply to 
make. 

From the military standpoint the troops at our disposal 
seem to me sufficient to force contributions from Jutland by 
means of expeditions, so that effective pressure can be put 
on this country. There seems to me to be no reason as yet 
for bringing up troops merely to perform such services. 
I cannot, however, decide definitely on this question until 
our brave troops have had the opportunity, for which we 
have been waiting for eight weeks, to inflict a decisive blow 
on the Danes, as after that we shall probably be able to 
reckon on greater compliance on the part of the enemy than 
has been the case heretofore. 

I regret that I am unable to give you my support in 
respect of the political side of the question you have ad- 
dressed to me, as I am unacquainted with the aims of our 
policy. 

Your faithful 

FRIEDRICH WILHELM. K. P. 

90 
THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK TO BISMARCK 

HEADQUARTERS, FLENSBURG, April 17, '64. 

I thank you very much for your letters of the nth and 
1 2th inst. Your communication of the nth interested me 
greatly, although I cannot obtain from it a view of the aims 
of our policy which would enable me, from my standpoint, 
to countenance any definite measure with conviction. 

I do not consider that it is too early to appear before 
public opinion with a fixed programme, and I fear that we 



1 864] CORRESPONDENCE 115 

shall gain nothing by seeking to postpone the definite solu- 
tion, and indeed that we should thereby only increase the 
European complication. 

However this may be, we ought to have a fixed pro- 
gramme at least for ourselves, the realisation of which 
would still depend on circumstances. Instead of that the 
only programme I find in your communication is that we 
must " act according to circumstances," unless I am to draw 
conclusions from indications of certain secret intentions 
which are attributed to you, and with which it is true many 
of your former utterances, especially in the last Councils at 
which I was present before leaving to join the army, seem 
to harmonise. 

With regard to these secret ideas of a Prussian policy of 
expansion, I will only state briefly that my opinion is that 
the prosecution of them would entirely falsify our whole 
German policy, and would probably place us in an un- 
enviable position before Europe. It would not be the first 
time that Prussia had tried to be better than everybody 
else, only finally to find herself placed between two stools. 

I have repeatedly seen the Bavarian General Freiherr von 
der Tann, but have not discussed politics with him. 

You will have received the last despatches through Herr 
von Alvensleben. 

Your most faithful 
FRIEDRICH WILHELM. K. P. 



PRINCE HENRY VII. OF REUSS TO BISMARCK. 

CASSEL, June 6, '64. 

MOST ESTEEMED CHIEF, 

I returned from Biickeburg this morning, and think you 
might like to hear that you have very warm friends in that 
little State. This was told to me in a way that leaves me 
no room to doubt the sincerity of the feelings. The Prince, 



u6 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1864 

it is true, is regarded as being somewhat eccentric, and is 
very much d cheval on the subject of his rights and the un- 
impeachableness of the Bund rights; he takes the perfectly 
correct standpoint, however, that it is no part of the task 
of the smaller sovereigns to remind the great State of their 
existence by means of useless pin-pricks, and thus to foster 
in the latter the wish to see the former disappear. . 

If you have a faithful friend in the Prince, you are re- 
garded by his mother * as a higher being, and have become 
a sort of article of belief to her. She gave me special instruc- 
tions to remember her to you, and to say that she would be 
very glad to see you again at Carlsbad. 

Prince Frederick of Holstein-Gliicksburg, whom I met at 
(Biickeburg, had just returned from a conference at Cologne 
with his brother, the Duke. He told me they had agreed to 
remain quiet and on their brother the King's f account to 
engage in no demonstrations. Should the powers decide to 
give the succession in the Duchies to the Augustenburg line, 
they, he said, would be the first to acknowledge the decision. 
The brothers would then, it is true, be placed in a position 
to come to a " friendly " agreement with the new Duke with 
regard to the family estates. 

With ever the same esteem, I am, 

Your very faithful 

H. VII. P. REUSS. 
92 
PRINCE GORTCHAKOFF TO BISMARCK. 

KlSSINGEN, 22 J J '64. 

MOST ESTEEMED FRIEND, 

Loe'n has been welcome. I will do my best to have him 
fulfil your expectation in the capacity of telegraph-sta- 
tion .or carrier-pigeon, although for the moment the move- 
ment of daily events is slow. 

* Ida, nfe Princess of Waldeck and Pyrmont. 
t Christian IX. 



1 864] CORRESPONDENCE 117 

As to the principal lines and questions of the future 
which appear on a distant horizon, though it is not well to 
lose sight of them, I reserve them for conversation with 
you with the freedom which has warranted the excellent 
relations which have always existed between us. In the 
spirit of such relations I have received with peculiar pleas- 
ure, by a telegram from Oubril, a confirmation of my hope 
that on the occasion of our stay at Berlin you will make 
an appearance. Loen* has sent you the Emperor's itiner- 
ary. I shall not accompany His Majesty on the little ex- 
cursions which he will make. I shall leave here the 3-15 
July, so as to be in Berlin the 4-16, at the latest the 5-17, 
and I shall leave with His Majesty on the evening of the 
7-19. 

The artists of Paris and London have made us speak of 
many things to which neither of us have given any 
thought. I do not trouble myself further with this 
manoeuvre, of which the strings are visible. After a brief 
contradiction we will abstain from all explication which 
would have the air of a justification of which we have no 
need. 

Will you, I pray, lay my respects at His Majesty's feet. 
I have been very happy to learn, as usual by Oubril, that 
His Majesty has decided to forego the fatigues of a visit 
to Vienna between the two cures of Carlsbad and Gastein. 
It is impossible to surround with too many precautions 
a health so precious and the conservation of the finest 
chivalric character of our epoch. 

I am unwilling to fatigue you with political affairs which 
will naturally find their place in the personal chat upon 
which I reckon ; but I would not close without begging 
you to count invariably upon the sentiments of sincere 
attachment which I feel toward you. 

GORTCHACOFF. 

* Military attache at St. Petersburg. 



n8 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1864 

93 
THE DUKE OF MORNY * TO BISMARCK. 

PARIS, July 7, '64. 

MY DEAR MINISTER, 

I have seen His Majesty, as I had promised you, and 
have related to him our conversation. The Emperor is 
very grateful to you for the sentiments which you have 
expressed to me; on his part he has altogether approved 
my objections. He believes that not to stir will best 
suit the situation of the whole world this year; after the 
events of all kinds which have occurred in the different 
countries, and the impressions which these events have 
caused, any step would give rise to interpretations more 
or less absurd and embarrassing. Tranquillity will then be 
preferable. 

Nevertheless he thoroughly understands your scruples 
as to the impression to which a conference of three would 
give rise. He thanks you for the efforts which you make 
to hinder it, and should it occur in spite of you, employ 
such means as in your opinion would remedy the situation. 

Here is the resume of my action, which I give you al- 
together in confidence and solely for yourself, delighted 
to have had the occasion of meeting you at Baden: al- 
though you have not given me any flowers, as the " In- 
dependence " claims, I beg you to believe in my distin- 
guished and devoted sentiments. MORNY. 

94 
PRINCE HENRY VII. OF REUSS TO BISMARCK. 

CASSEL, September 21, '64. 

MOST ESTEEMED CHIEF, 

I returned yesterday from my journey to Schwalbach, 
where I found the exalted ladyf very satisfied with out 

* President of the French legislative body, son of Queen Hortense 
and Count Flabault. 

tThe Empress Eugenie. 



1864] CORRESPONDENCE 119 

King's visit. She has a great tendre for him personally, and 
was quite touched by the empressement his majesty showed 
in finding out where she was. This, and her reception gen- 
erally in Germany, have made a very favourable impression, 
which it is hoped will be permanent. 

The Empress's attention was less agreeably occupied with 
the consideration of the question whether she would go to 
Baden or not. The Queen has invited here there through 
the Duchess of Hamilton, but she could arrive at no decision, 
and wished first to write to the Emperor on the subject. 
" Si le roi y etait, firais certainement," she said to me. 

As the Empress intends to prolong her " cure " into the 
month of October, it is not at all improbable that the King 
will be there before she leaves. 

The reason why the Elector is not going to Berlin after 
all is that he fears that Czar Alexander might be unfriendly 
towards him. When he and his Arcadian * Prince once re- 
ceived the Czar at the station here, the latter treated him 
very coolly, and he fears the same may happen again. He 
will, nevertheless, greet the Czar as he passes through to-day. 
Everything was settled and arranged for the journey to 
Berlin, when the Elector was seized with this apprehension 
which nobody can understand. 

I should be very grateful to you if I could soon have my 
letters of recall, and am, with the most sincere esteem, 

Your very faithful 

H. VII. P. REUSS. 

95 
GENERAL COUNT v. NOSTITZ TO BISMARCK. 

ZORTEN, NEAR LoEWENBERG, 

SILESIA, November 26, '64. 
YOUR EXCELLENCY, 

It will be a satisfaction to your Excellency to know that a 
man who has given frequent proofs of true patriotism dur- 
*/. c. Of unequal birth. 



120 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1865 

ing a long and momentous life heartily rejoices at the well- 
earned honour bestowed on you in being created a Knight of 
the Order of the Black Eagle, and greets you cordially as a 
colleague. Supported on the battle-field by his brave army, 
and in the Cabinet by your wise and energetic counsel, our 
illustrious King has restored to Prussia her former position 
in Europe, the firm foundation for which was laid by Fred- 
erick the Great. 

The Fatherland will ever be grateful to its King, and 
to those who rendered him such powerful assistance, and 
Prussian history will make their names immortal. 

With genuine esteem, 

Your Excellency's sincerely devoted 

COUNT v. NOSTITZ. 

General of Cavalry. 

96 

ADOLF v. KLEIST, PRESIDENT OF THE COURT OF APPEAL, TO 

BISMARCK. 

BERLIN, June 7, '65. 
MOST ESTEEMED FRIEND, 

I dare not interfere unrequested in this extremely delicate 
matter,* and least of all draw your wife into it ; when, there- 
fore, she referred to it yesterday evening I did not enter into 
it. I feel bound, however, to bring to your notice a letter 
which I have just received from Gerlach, and tp remark 
that I quite agree with it and do not consider the insult in 
itself is of a nature to demand such an issue; all men of 
honour with whom I have discussed the affair are of the 
same opinion and also are of opinion that a very serious 



* Bismarck had challenged Virchow to a duel with pistols for having, 
in the sitting of the Chamber of Deputies on June 2, reproached the 
Minister- President with lack of veracity. 



CORRESPONDENCE 121 

precedent would be established for all the Ministers of his 
Majesty the King if such affairs had to have such an issue. 
.With the old esteem, 

Your faithfully devoted, 

v. KLEIST. 

Kindly return Gerlach's letter without any answer; my 
services in any capacity are, of course, at your disposal. 

97 
v. NATZMER TO BISMARCK. 

BERLIN, June 7, '65. 
ESTEEMED BISMARCK, 

You will pardon me, and attribute it to the great esteem 
in which I hold you, if I meddle in your affairs without being 
asked to do so. My object is to ask permission to step into 
your place if an insidious bullet should prevent you from 
continuing the fight. The caprices of fate are inscrutable, 
and my excitement over your affair is so great that I can- 
not express it to you. 

Once more I beg you to forgive my obtrusiveness, not to 
misconstrue my intention, and to permit me the assurance of 
my devotion in any eventuality. 

With expressions of the highest regards, 

Your 

C. E. NATZMER. 
98 
BISMARCK TO PROF. VIRCHOW. 

BERLIN, June 8, '65. 

During the sitting on the 2nd inst. you personally in- 
sulted me by casting doubt upon my veracity. On the fol- 
lowing day I requested you, through Herr v. Puttkamer,* 
to grant me the satisfaction to which I consider myself en- 
titled. Your reply led me to hope that you would settle the 
matter with an apology, but the negotiations which have 
been interrupted by your absence have not produced this 
result. 
*Bernhard v. Puttkamer, Captain in the second Guard regiment 



122 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [186$ 

I am, therefore, compelled to repeat my demand for sat- 
isfaction made on the 3rd inst., and to ask you to state if 
you are ready to comply with my demand made to you 
through Herr v. Puttkamer. In this case I beg you to name 
one of your friends to make further arrangements respecting 
place and time with the Minister for War, who will be kind 
enough to act as my witness. 

Awaiting your kind reply, I am, 

Your obedient servant, 

V. BlSMARCK-SCHONHAUSEN. 

99 
WAR MINISTER v. ROON TO BISMARCK. 

BERLIN, June 8, '65. 

DEAR B., 

I have just been to Virchow's and found that he had gone 
out at 7 o'clock. I am now going to the Chamber, where, 
if possible, I will execute my commission. All things con- 
sidered, it seems to me that you can hardly settle the busi- 
ness in question in time to leave for Stralsund this evening. 
I will do my best, however. Your 

v. ROON. 

100 

WAR MINISTER v. ROON TO VIRCHOW. 

BERLIN, June 8, '65. 

As I have endeavoured in vain yesterday evening and this 
morning to find you at your home, in order to execute a 
commission I have undertaken, I beg you to grant me a mo- 
ment in the Ministers' room. I leave you to choose the most 
convenient moment. Faithfully yours, 

v. ROON. 
101 

WAR MINISTER v. ROON TO BISMARCK. 

BERLIN, June 8, '65. 

The President [of the House of Deputies] has declared, 
on the motion of Forckenbeck, that Virchow may not fight, 



1865] CORRESPONDENCE 123 

and that it is for the House alone to decide whether a Min- 
ister is insulted. I replied : " A man is the guardian of his 
own honour." 

The discussion on the subject has been going on for three- 
quarters of an hour. At the present moment the lion of the 
tribe of Judah is roaring. The shorthand report shall be 
sent to you as soon as possible. 

v. ROON. 

My letter to Virchow cannot be delivered, as he has not 
returned home. I enclose it herewith. 

102 
MINISTER F. zu EULENBURG TO BISMARCK. 

(Telegraphic despatch.) 

PRENZLAU, June 8, '65. 

Send news to Stralsund immediately. 

EULENBURG. 

103 
BISMARCK TO MINISTER F. zu EULENBURG. 

(Telegraphic despatch.) 

BERLIN, June 8, '65. 

Several hours' debate this morning on Forckenbeck's mo- 
tion declaring duels inadmissible for deputies. No statement 
yet obtained from Virchow as to acceptance or refusal. 

BISMARCK. 
104 

v. HENNIG TO v. KEUDELL. 

BERLIN, June 8, '65. 

I have received no further intelligence as to whether you 
consider that there is no longer a prospect of the difference 
between Herr v. Bismarck and Prof. Virchow being 
adjusted. 

Prof. Virchow wishes to end the matter and has charged 
me to inform you that he considers that he has done every- 



124 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1865 

thing possible on his part towards a settlement in expressing 
his readiness to make the statement desired by Bismarck 
on one condition, at which no offence can be taken. As no 
reply has as yet been received to this I am further charged to 
inform you that Prof. Virchow decidedly declines to fight a 
duel, the more so as the affair has been made public through 
no fault of his, and has even been discussed to-day in the 
Chamber of Deputies. His political friends, and also the 
President of the House, have imposed on him as a duty the 
non-acceptance of the duel. 

Kindly acquaint Herr von Bismarck with this, and at the 
same time inform him that Prof. Virchow is ready to make 
the promised statement in the House, with the condition 
formulated by me ; I would add explicitly that only the sense 
and not the wording of the latter is of moment to him. 

Respectfully yours, 

HENNIG. 

105 
v. KEUDELL TO WAR MINISTER v. ROON. 

BERLIN, June 8, '65. 
YOUR EXCELLENCY, 

I have the honour to submit the enclosed for your infor- 
mation, and most obediently to state that I have replied to 
Herr von Hennig that I am no longer empowered to receive 
statements from Prof. Virchow. v. KEUDELL. 

1 06 

WAR MINISTER v. ROON TO BISMARCK.* 

BERLIN, June 8, '65. 

Herr Virchow replied by my messenger who took the 
letter of which you are acquainted, that he would come to me 
this evening between 7 and 8 o'clock. Until now, 9 o'clock, 
* Affixed to v. Keudell's letter. 



1865] CORRESPONDENCE 125 

he has not appeared. In these circumstances I consider the 
affair, in view of to-day's proceedings in the Chamber of 
Deputies, as essentially settled. v. ROON. 



107 
PROF. VIRCHOW TO GEN. VON ROON, MINISTER FOR WAR. 

(Undated. Postmark, July 8, '65, 9 A. M.) 

YOUR EXCELLENCY, 

I beg to reply to your favour of to-day's date that Herr v. 
Hennig has to-day informed Herr v. Keudell in my name: 

1, that I decline the duel. 

2, that I am ready to make the statement in the House 
desired by the Minister-President as soon as I receive the 
Minister-President's assurance that there was no personal 
insult intended to the members of the committee in his re- 
marks on Hannibal Fischer. 

As I have gone to the utmost bounds of possibility in 
making this concession, I should be glad if any further nego- 
tiations respecting the wording of the statement might be 
conducted, as heretofore, through the medium of Herr v. 
Hennig. 

Accept the assurance of my highest esteem, with which I 
subscribe myself 

Your Excellency's most respectful 

R. VIRCHOW. 
Member of the House of Deputies. 

1 08 

WAR MINISTER v. ROON TO BISMARCK.* 

It is sufficient in my opinion that Herr Virchow 'declines 
the duel. . . Further negotiations for which I am, of 

* Marginal note to Virchow's letter. 



n6 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1865 

course, always at your disposal will lead to nothing. 
There is no doubt of that, especially as Herr Virchow re- 
fuses personal negotiation with me, and interposes Hennig, 
who is responsible for to-day's parliamentary comedy. 

v. R. 



109 
REGIERUNGSRATH ZITELMANN TO BISMARCK. 

June 8, '65. 

Virchow was in the Charite Hospital until about twelve 
o'clock ; the red Becker * called for him there, bringing with 
him a letter from Hennig, and the two drove off to the 
House of Deputies. It is evident from this that Virchow 
was privy to the scene in the Chamber. 

ZITELMANN. 

no 

REGIERUNGSRATH ZITELMANN TO BISMARCK. 

June 8, '65. 

Virchow told Faddel f at two o'clock that he declines the 
duel, and that Herr v. Hennig will write to Heir v. Putt- 
kamer on the subject to-day. 

ZITELMANN. 

in 

COUNT ARNIM-BOYTZENBURG TO BISMARCK. 

BERLIN, June 8, '65. 
YOUR EXCELLENCY, 

I have just heard of the Virchow affair, on my return 
from the country. As many of your Excellency's intimate 

* Hermann Becker, member of the Progressist party, afterwards 
Burgomaster of Cologne, 
f Member of the Progressist party in the Chamber of Deputies. 



1865] CORRESPONDENCE 127 

acquaintances are away, I beg of you to dispose of me if I 
can be in any way useful; otherwise do not take up your 
time with replying to me. 
May God be with you! 

Your 

COUNT ARNIM-BOYTZENBURG. 

112 
GENERAL COUNT NOSTITZ TO BISMARCK. 

BERLIN, J*ne 9, '65. 
YOUR EXCELLENCY, 

The sincere sympathy I feel towards you keeps me also in 
a state of apprehension concerning the result of the step you 
have taken against Herr Virchow, and excuses my indiscre- 
tion in asking you for a few confidential lines on this affair. 
I hope you will not refuse me this. 

With true respect and esteem, 

COUNT v. NOSTITZ. 



MINISTER F. zu EULENBURG TO BISMARCK. 

STRALSUND, June 9, '65. 

Many thanks for your telegram, my dear friend. You 
cannot think how anxious we were during the whole of 
yesterday; I was unable to swallow any food until a reas- 
suring telegram came from Roon, and finally your own 
late in the evening. Do telegraph or write to me again 
telling me how the affair is definitely settled. I shall be at 
Putbus to-day and to-morrow. Everything went off well 
here yesterday, only the thought of you disquieted your 
friends. 

Most cordially yours, EULENBURG.* 

* Prof. Virchow made the apology, referred to above, in the Chamber 
of Deputies on June 17th, 1865. 



128 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1865 

114 
WAR MINISTER v. ROON TO BISMARCK. 

BERLIN, June 18, '65, 

It is stated in this morning's National Zeitung that 
the Crown Prince arrived at Potsdam yesterday from Pom- 
erania. Do you know of this? Is it at your suggestion, 
on account of to-morrow's meeting of the Council? 

Should you know nothing about it I will endeavour to 
find out by a telegraphic enquiry, though I should prefer 
not to do so owing to the attendant fuss. I am not at all 
well. Good morning ! Your 

v. ROON. 
"5 

BISMARCK TO WAR MINISTER v. ROON. 

June 18, '65. 

I have just learned by telegraph that the Crown Prince 
is at Potsdam, where he will remain until to-morrow morn- 
ing. I shall request his Royal Highness to grant me an 
audience after the dinner, for which I leave at 2 o'clock. 
Shall I say that you would like to see him, too, or are you 
not well enough for that? In any case I heartily wish that 
you will soon be better. Your 

v. BISMARCK. 

116 

BISMARCK TO THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK. 

CARLSBAD, July 15, '65. 
MOST ILLUSTRIOUS CROWN PRINCE, 

Your Royal Highness will gather from the enclosed ex- 
tracts the essential contents of the notes which, by com- 
mand of his Majesty the King, were addressed to the Vienna 
Cabinet on the nth inst. and yesterday. Lack of time and 
an insufficient staff here render it impossible to give the 
courier a more complete statement of the extensive cor- 



1865] CORRESPONDENCE 129 

respondence which has passed during the past few days be- 
tween Berlin and Vienna. The enclosure gives the result- 
ing situation, however. In order to be prepared for all 
eventualities, the King's Majesty intends to direct that the 
funds necessary for a possible mobilisation shall be pro- 
vided without contracting a loan, and at the same time to 
give instructions that such improvements of the military 
equipment as were already decided on shall be pushed for- 
ward as much as possible. In order that the requisite reso- 
lutions may be taken, a meeting of the Council will be held 
at Regensburg on the 2ist inst, to which, by his Majesty's 
orders, I am to-day summoning the Ministers. His Maj- 
esty was of opinion that the distance will prevent your Royal 
Highness from being present; I consider, however, that I 
ought to inform your Royal Highness of the position of 
affairs as quickly as is possible without a telegram cypher. 
Should your Royal Highness not come to Regensburg, I beg 
most respectfully to be allowed to make a further report 
after the Council meeting, and after the interview I shall 
have the next day with Baron von der Pfordten. At the 
same time I beg to ask whether your Royal Highness will 
not order a cypher to be sent by the Ministry for Foreign 
Affairs, to render the telegraphic correspondence more 
secure. One of your Royal Highness's adjutants will no 
doubt understand how to use the cypher. I beg most 
humbly to suggest that your Majesty's commands in this 
matter be sent direct to Herr v. Thile. I take the liberty 
of most respectfully pointing out the necessity, both from a 
political and a financial point of view, in order to prevent 
a fall in the quotations of the stocks the State intends to 
realise, of preserving the most rigid secrecy with respect to 
the situation and the steps it is proposed to take. 
Your Royal Highness's 

Obedient servant, 

v. BISMARCK. 



130 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1866 

117 
WAR MINISTER v. ROON TO BISMARCK. 

BERLIN, December 14, '65. 

I was at your door, but not at your bedside, at half past 
twelve to-day to ask you perhaps superfluously not to fix 
any sitting of the Ministry of State, at which my presence 
might be desired for Friday evening or Saturday, as I wish 
to be out of town for thirty-six hours. 

I hope your sleep was as good as it was long ! 
His Majesty seems inclined to withdraw two infantry 
regiments from Schleswig. Your 

v. ROON. 
118 

THE MARQUIS WIELOPOLSKI TO BISMARCK. 

DRESDEN, May 8, '66. 
COUNT, 

Since it has been given to me to make the acquaintance 
of Your Excellency, I have never ceased to follow with 
a constant and sympathetic interest the phases of your 
noble and courageous career. 

The news of the crime* against your person has keenly 
stirred me; and I hasten to assure Your Excellency of my 
delight in the preservation of your life, and sincerely to 
congratulate you. 

With many others I frame the most ardent wishes that, 
God helping, your grand work shall be accomplished, in 
order to become a shelter to the true civilisation and a 
bulwark of social order, which anarchistic intrigues, prac- 
tised by opposing factions as well in the lowest dregs of 
society as at its summit in the name of a blind power, cause 
to-day to totter upon its foundations. 

Accept, Count, the assurance of my true and profound 
respect. THE MARQUIS WIELOPOLSKI. 

*Of May 7. Blind's. 



1 866] CORRESPONDENCE 131 

119 

THE CHAMBERLAIN OF THE CROWN PRINCE'S HOUSEHOLD, 
A. ZU EULENBURG, TO BlSMARCK. 

NEW PALACE, NEAR POTSDAM, May 24, '66. 

I am commanded by his Royal Highness the Crown Prince 
to express his regret that he did not see you and the Count- 
ess to-day. His Royal Highness sent me to find your Ex- 
cellency, but your carriage was just leaving the Palace. 
With the highest esteem and respect, 

Your Excellency's most obedient 

A. zu EULENBURG. 

1 20 

PRINCE FRIEDRICH KARL TO BISMARCK. 

HEADQUARTERS OF THE FIRST ARMY. 

GORLITZ, June 15, '66, 10 A. 1C. 

YOUR EXCELLENCY, 

I still do not know what decisions have been arrived at 
by the Government, especially whether the troops are to 
march into Saxony on the i6th, after war has been declared. 
We shall no doubt receive the necessary orders and com- 
munications to-day. 

I also do not know whether we shall declare war against 
Bavaria as well. With respect to this point I send you these 
lines, which are possibly superfluous, if you yourself have 
already thought what I shall say. 

Should we declare war against Bavaria, I consider it de- 
sirable, from a military standpoint, that we should induce 
Italy, which has a much superior force available against 
Austria, to make as strong a diversion as possible towards 
the Bavarian Tyrol and towards Bavaria generally. 
Your Excellency's faithful servant, 

FRIEDRICH KARL. 



132 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1866 

121 

PRINCE FRIEDRICH KARL TO BISMARCK. 

HEADQUARTERS OF THE FIRST ARMY. 

GtfRLiTz, June 17, '66, midday. 
MY MOST ESTEEMED COUNT, 

I received your yesterday's letter this morning, and your 
two telegrams yesterday afternoon and evening. 

The population in Saxony was extremely astonished at my 
entry with the troops, but was anything but hostile. It 
evinced the utmost willingness in the matter of billeting 
and of requisitions for the welfare of the troops. 

We have no orders to enforce contributions, which the 
enemy would certainly do in our territory. I have only had 
some public funds confiscated. 

General Count Bismarck (your cousin) will set out to- 
morrow with a regiment of the Bliicher Hussars and of the 
1st Pomeranian Lancers, for a three days' expedition to- 
wards Dresden, to circulate false reports, to take possession 
of public money, to affix everywhere my proclamations to 
the Saxons breathing peace and love, and to let Prussians 
be seen everywhere. 

The railway to Lobau or to Bautzen will be ready by 
to-morrow. 

I know nothing of the Austrians, except what comes from 
Berlin. 

I am still without orders from his Majesty, but am grad- 
ually concentrating round Gorlitz, so that I shall be able, 
from the day after to-morrow, to execute any commission 
that may be given me. The weather is favourable for 
marching. 

I should be very glad if you would send me Herr von 
Radowitz to assist me in diplomatic matters. He considers 
that he can be spared from Paris now, and wishes to have 
this or a military appointment under me. 1 He could have 
the latter too, and I once more urgently request to have him. 



1866] CORRESPONDENCE 133 

I wish we could soon settle Hanover and Hesse. We 
know nothing here of Goben and Baier, and of Manteuffel 
only that he is marching via Hamburg into Hanover. 
Your faithful friend and servant, 

FRIEDRICH KARL. 

My opinion is that a large number of Bavarians will 
oppose us before the end of a fortnight, probably on the 
southern side of the Erz-gebirge if Herwarth is energetic. 

Marginal note by Bismarck: 
1 Yes. 

122 

PRINCE HENRY LXVII. OF REUSS, YOUNGER LINE, 
TO BISMARCK. 

GERA, June 21, '66. 
YOUR EXCELLENCY, 

I must apologise for troubling you with a letter at this 
grievous, evil time. 

As an old Prussian, and a faithful adherent of the Royal 
House, I would like to be sure that your Excellency has no 
hostile intentions towards me or my country ; I am convinced 
that my gracious patron, his Majesty the King, has none. 
Your Excellency will be aware of the fact that I did not vote 
against Prussia in the Bundestag; it was perfectly in order 
that I complied with the instructions of the then existing 
Military Commission, and sent to Rastatt. I beg and ex- 
pect, therefore, that no hostile attitude may be taken 
against me and my country; that is to say, that the latter 
may not be punished with having troops billeted upon it, 
etc., and that my battalion may remain quietly at Rastatt. 
With the highest esteem, 

Your Excellency's most obedient 

HEINRICH LXVII. FURST REUSS, J. L. 



134 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1866 

123 

THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK TO BISMARCK. 

HERINGSDORF, August 9, '66. 

The evidences of Napoleonic hunger you have sent me 
are most remarkable. While thanking you very much for 
the enclosures, I must admit that I should not have con- 
sidered such unheard-of demands possible in the present cir- 
cumstances. Either Napoleon does not think seriously of 
attaining them, or he has not told Goltz what he really in- 
tends to do or to abstain from doing. 

If Napoleon persists in hankering after the whole left 
bank of the Rhine, we shall have every reason to be grate- 
ful to him for helping us towards the speedy union of 
Germany under one head. For, even if they are reluctant to 
do so, the Germans could in that case do nothing but join 
the North-German Bund. . . . 

I meet my family on Sunday, the I2th, and, according to 
circumstances, continue the same night to Erdmannsdorf, 
or stay in Berlin and then go to Silesia for occasional " rest 
days." Your most obedient 

FRIEDRICH WILHELM. K. P. 

124 
THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK TO BISMARCK. 

August 12, '66, 7 p. M. 

The Crown Princess would be glad to see you to-day, as 
she resumes her journey to Silesia at n o'clock to-night. 

If your health permits you to come to me at 8 o'clock, I 
shall expect you in my palace ; but if you feel too done up, I 
will come to you. 

Verbal * answer requested. 

FRIEDRICH WILHELM. K. P. 

* Twice underlined in the original. 



1867] CORRESPONDENCE 135 

125 

THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK TO BISMARCK. 

BERLIN, February 21, '67. 

I am much obliged to you for sending me the memoran- 
dum on the subjects we discussed on January 3ist, and 
am extremely pleased by the views which underlie it. I 
quite agree that the formation of a great state, including 
also South Germany, should be the aim and the guiding- 
star of our policy, so that everything, even the Saxon ques- 
tion, must be subordinated to this point of view. 

I am also very pleased to find in the memorandum much 
that you then told me by word of mouth, although, if my 
memory serves me faithfully, you emphasised the necessity 
of national unity and the purely provisional character of 
the North-German Bund, etc., etc., much more strongly 
than appears from the memorandum. 

As I know nothing reliable about the conclusion of the 
military convention with Saxony, except what I have seen 
in the Saxon newspapers, I cannot give an opinion on the 
subject. I can only wish that Prussia has reserved to her- 
self an important right, permitting the King of Prussia to 
dispose at all times of the Royal Saxon troops equally with 
the Prussian army corps. 

There is no denying the fact that our policy is endan- 
gered by the malevolence and ambition of France. We 
must face this danger boldly, but it is too great for us to 
provoke; I am, however, greatly reassured by the decided 
manner in which you expressed the desire to me on Janu- 
ary 3 ist to avoid a war with France. 

Permit me only to express the hope that you may succeed 
in bringing those principles of national policy to bear in 
the treatment of our relations with South Germany and 
with the little rulers, who are tired of their sovereignty, 
and also in directing the affairs of the forthcoming Reichs- 



136 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1867 

tag; all this will certainly demand much patience, and 
perhaps also, to use your own words, will render it neces- 
sary for us to relinquish the idea of following our own 
natural impulses. 

With respect to the Reichstag, I regret that you found 
it necessary to oppose the bill for the protection of faithful 
reports of the debates in the Reichstag. I am looking for- 
ward with emotion to the opening day, and am firmly con- 
vinced that out of the debates of this Reichstag will pro- 
ceed a definite starting-point for the destinies of our great 
Fatherland. 

FRIEDRICH WILHELM. K. P. 

126 

THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK TO BISMARCK. 

POTSDAM, May 13, '67. 

With best thanks for your letter of Saturday, I would 
mention that the King yesterday (Sunday) expressed him- 
self against the Crown Princess's imminent journey, on the 
grounds that this would be a kind of empressement with 
which we ought not to honour Napoleon. 

The visit, however, which we both were to pay, has been 
so long talked about that, in my opinion, it would be very 
marked if the Crown Princess were now to remain behind. 
Furthermore, we wish to conclude our stay in Paris on 
May 3ist, so as not to meet the Russians. There has, too, 
always been a question of my paying a second visit, for the 
distribution of the prizes in July, on which occasion the 
Crown Princess could not accompany me, as she has been 
ordered to the sea-side. 

I wished to communicate these points of view to you, as 
his Majesty intends to discuss the question with you to-day. 
Your 

FRIEDRICH WILHELM. K. P. 



1867] CORRESPONDENCE 137 

127 

PRINCE HENRY VII. OF REUSS TO BISMARCK. 

ST. PETERSBURG, May 28, '67. 
MOST ESTEEMED CHIEF, 

I have not mentioned in my official reports the extreme 
interest with which the Grand-Duchess Helene has fol- 
lowed the last political phase, and that she has used her ut- 
most endeavour to exert her influence in her own peculiar 
way in our favour. 

She was, from the beginning, under no illusion as to 
the anything but friendly intentions of the French Cabinet, 
and even to-day she has no great confidence in the peace. 
She has never approved of the idea of the Czar's journey,* 
and was only won over to it when it was decided that the 
two gentlemen would go at the same time. She was quite 
beside herself when it seemed as if the King's visit were 
compromised, and I believe that she encouraged the Czar 
in insisting so strongly on the simultaneous presence of 
our most gracious master. She was extremely glad, there- 
fore, when I told her to-day that the King has decided to 
be in Paris on the 5th. 

I will not recur to the many transformations through 
which Gortchakoff has passed of late; I believe I have faith- 
fully reproduced them in my reports. I am inclined to think 
that he now honestly wishes that the Czar may not make 
his appearance in Paris without our King. He was really 
afraid of a coolness arising between us, and he feared this 
eventuality very much on account of his Oriental policy, 
as all the others were beginning to turn their backs on 
him; even Italy, with whom he had coquetted so much. 

Trepoff f has just told me of the view held by the public 
at large on the visit; I have heard it repeatedly myself, and 
will not withhold it from you. There is a strong feeling 

* To Paris for the Exhibition. 

t Chief of the Police in St. Petersburg. 



138 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1867 

against the Czar undertaking the journey. The people 
argue, however, that as the King of Prussia intends to go 
with the Czar, and as Count Bismarck will have advised the 
King to do this, there can be nothing foolish in it, and 
hence they quite agree that the Czar should pay the visit. 
With sincere esteem, 

Your obedient 

H. VII. P. REUSS. 

128 

PRINCE HENRY VII. OF REUSS TO BISMARCK. 

ST. PETERSBURG, June 7, '67. 
MOST ESTEEMED CHIEF, 

Prince Gortchakoff desires me to express his sympathy 
with you in your renewed indisposition. I am to tell you 
from him that you should not vex yourself about the Cham- 
bers; he maintains that it is much better for a Minister 
when he can reply in public to the attacks made on him and 
his policy, than when, as is constantly his own case, he feels 
himself attacked in the dark without being able effectively 
to defend himself. With respect to our financial position, 
he considers it decidedly wise of us not to think of living on 
our capital, and were he a Prussian Minister he would not, 
in view of the order prevailing in our finances, and of our 
reserves, take the matter so much to heart. 

The Prince thinks of commencing his leave at the begin- 
ning of July (new style), and will probably go to Baden 
to drink the Homburg waters; then he intends to rest a 
few weeks, and finally to undergo a grape-cure, perhaps on 
Lake Como. He would thus be back again here at the be- 
ginning of October. 

It is rumoured here that Count Chotek is to be appointed 
Austrian Minister, but nothing has transpired as to who is 
to be sent to Vienna. Shouvaloff believes that Gortchakoff 
destines Waloujeff for a diplomatic post, as he fears his in- 



1867] CORRESPONDENCE 139 

fluence here and regards him as a possible rival. Schouvaloff 
would like to see Waloujeff in the aged Paul Gagarin's po- 
sition, as president dn conseil. This gentleman, although 
he is eighty-one years of age, has, however, such a healthy 
digestion, that there seems no prospect of his either retiring 
or dying. 

With best wishes for your speedy recovery, and sincere 
esteem, Your obedient 

H. VII. P. REUSS. 

129 
THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK TO BISMARCK. 

MlSDROY, AugUSt I, '67. 

Whenever I have considered that the situation in our 
state was serious, I have come to you to set forth my views 
and to hear yours. It seems to me that matters are very 
strained just at present, so I am writing to you in the hope 
that you will send me a reply. 

From all that I read and hear, it becomes ever 
clearer to me that we are losing the confidence of the na- 
tional party, that this is especially the case with the an- 
nexed countries, and that South Germany can feel less 
sympathy towards us than ever. We are losing our pres- 
tige, to which our victories in 1866 contributed, and are 
aiding and abetting in a most welcome manner the in- 
trigues with which we are surrounded, and which are 
directed both from France and Austria as well as from 
Denmark. 

There is increasing discontent in the country at the 
measures of your colleagues, Eulenburg and Lippe, which 
is greatly fostered by the prosecution of such men as Twes- 
ten and Lasker. You know as well as I do what these two 
are responsible for during the sittings of the Reichstag, 
and I cannot understand how we are to be benefited by 
adopting severe measures against such persons. 



i 4 o FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1867 

In Hanover the bitter feeling that already prevails is 
aggravated by the judicial measures, and also by the fact 
that the Queen was allegedly personally annoyed before her 
departure. 

In Hesse there are loud and frequent complaints at the 
treatment of the question of the public funds, and at the 
replacement of the older officials by young- Landrathe.* 

In Frankfurt complaint is made of continued lack of 
consideration and of the excessive financial burdens laid 
on the town. 

I am not in a position to judge how much truth or how 
much exaggeration there is in these reproaches. There is, 
however, no denying the fact that an estrangement has 
arisen in circles which were once devoted to us, and which 
lent us support; one frequently hears the remark made also 
that it is inexplicable why the new territories were not at 
once incorporated, instead of their being subjected to a 
year's Royal dictatorship which has now degenerated into 
despotism and imposes trenchant measures of all kinds, 
producing the very worst impression. 

The prevalence of dissatisfaction in Schleswig-Holstein 
is as well known to you as is the frequently repeated re- 
proach that " there is a lack of organising talent in Prus- 
sia." Finally, one often hears it said that the promise to 
recognise justified peculiarities has become a mere phrase; 
the treatment thus far has been so defective that Prussia 
is bringing discredit upon herself. 

In matters relating to our foreign policy you are better 
informed than I. The French Government may have in- 
tended to soften down the despatch on Schleswig-Hol- 
stein; the said document has, however, not failed in its 
object to produce a disquieting effect ; I cannot but return 
to my old theme: why did we not draw the frontier lin^? 

* A Landrath is a government official placed at the head of a country, 
district 



1867] CORRESPONDENCE 141 

To revert once more to your colleagues, you must re- 
member that since July of last year you have characterised 
the Ministers of the Interior and Justice as pernicious and 
incapable. The mischief that these Ministers have accom- 
plished is now becoming more evident than ever, especially 
since the Upper House was compelled to perceive that 
nothing more was to be said in defence of Lippe. Can 
anything whatever be done with such Ministers for the wel- 
fare of the narrower and the wider Fatherland, especially 
when it is more than ever necessary for us to have peace at 
home in order to be as strong as possible against attack 
from outside, and we have to regain respect and confidence. 

I urgently bring these important questions home to you 
in the conviction that, if you wish it, you will find a solu- 
tion for them ; I am ready at all times to offer you my help 
if you feel you need it, and am, 

Your obedient, 

FRIEDRICH WILHELM. K. P. 



130 
THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK TO BISMARCK. 

MlSDROY, August 2, '67. 

My yesterday's letter had only just gone when I received 
from a third party a treatise written by a native Hanover- 
ian. The clear exposition of the present situation and of 
the means by which abuses might be remedied bears the 
stamp of truth, and it is at the same time a testimony to 
the Prussian tendencies of a new subject. For these rea- 
sons I will lose no time in having a copy of the treatise 
sent to you, so that, if you think it advisable, you can com- 
municate it to his Majesty. 
Your 

FRIEDRICH WILHELM. K. P. 

P. S. The writer has no idea that I have his treatise. 



i 4 2 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1868 



PRINCE CARL OF ROUMANIA TO BISMARCK. 

BUCHAREST, January 15-27, '68. 

MOST HONOURED COUNT, 

I am extremely pleased to see, from the reports of Fried- 
lander, my Cabinet Chancellor, how warmly you espouse 
Roumania's and my interests. I feel impelled to hasten to 
express to you my most hearty thanks for this, and to beg 
your Excellency to be convinced that I appreciate it very 
highly. Prussia, however, will always have in me a zeal- 
ous representative of her interest in the Orient. I keep 
Count Keyserlingk, who always places himself at my dis- 
posal in the most obliging manner, au courant of all that 
occurs, so that he will be able to send your Excellency full 
reports. 

I am indignant at the unauthorised indiscretions of 
Demetre Bratiano * in Vienna ; I have sent him definite 
orders to keep strictly within the limits of his mission, which 
is to deal with the Consular jurisdiction question and Post 
and Patent matters. The Chamber will soon begin its work, 
and I look for favourable results from it under Bratiano's 
able direction. 

With kindest regards to your Excellency, I remain, 
Most honoured Count, 

Your obedient 

CARL. 

132 
THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK TO BISMARCK. 

Friday, March 6, '68. 

I should be glad, if your time permits it, to see you on 
Saturday morning between 10 and 12 o'clock. 

I propose this time, as you told me recently that you can 
* Brother of Joan Bratiano, the Roumanian Minister. 



1869] CORRESPONDENCE 143 

now dispose of your mornings and evenings; tell me can- 
didly, however, if it is inconvenient for you, as I would then 
like to fix our interviews for next week. 
I shall come to you in your house. 

FRIEDRICH WILHELM. K. P. 



133 
PRESIDENT SIMSON TO BISMARCK. 

FRANKFURT ON THE ODER, January 31, '69. 

MOST HONOURED FEDERAL CHANCELLOR AND MINISTER- 
PRESIDENT, 

The King's Majesty has been graciously pleased, as I have 
just been informed by a telegram from the Minister for 
Justice, to appoint me first President of the Court of Appeals 
here. 

I know quite well to whom and to whom alone I owe 
this promotion, which crowns my official career in a manner 
affording me the most intense satisfaction. In deciding to 
propose me for this important position, your Excellency 
must have exerted great forbearance in many points, and 
have magnanimously forgotten very much. 

The feeling of deep gratitude which your Excellency has 
imposed on me, and which I bear gladly, becomes only all 
the more inextinguishable in me. My hope is that I may 
still be permitted to co-operate however modestly in the 
great plans which fill your soul, and of the partial realisa- 
tion of which we have already been admiring and aston- 
ished witnesses. 

With every good wish for your Excellency, and trusting 
that you may be pleased to continue your favour towards 
me, I am, in deep respect, 

Your Excellency's obedient servant, 

PRESIDENT SIMSON. 



144 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1869 

134 
THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK TO BISMARCK. 

February 25, '69. 

I understand that serious consideration is being given 
to the question of transferring Miinchhausen from the post 
of Ober-Prasident of Pomerania to that of Ober-Prasi- 
ident of East Prussia. 

Considering the special relations in which I stand to the 
Province of Pomerania, you will not take it amiss if I ex- 
press the wish that this project may not be carried into 
effect. 

During the two years of his administration of his present 
office Miinchhausen has succeeded, by his tactful and con- 
ciliatory attitude, in removing many unpleasantnesses, and 
in introducing a spirit of reconciliation among the parties. 

Now that he has made himself thoroughly acquainted 
with the business affairs and internal conditions of the 
Province, it would be eminently desirable for Miinch- 
hausen to have the opportunity of devoting his energies 
for a series of years entirely to that part of the country 
which he has studied so carefully, and where he feels so 
much at home. 

I have communicated these arguments to his Majesty, 
who recognised their force, and empowered me to inform 
you of my wishes. 

I would mention, in conclusion, that in all probability 
my army corps will be reviewed by the King this autumn, 
so that the presence of the Ober-Prasident who is familiar 
with the existing conditions is a matter of urgent necessity. 

I therefore herewith recommend to your serious con- 
sideration the advisability of keeping Miinchhausen in 

Pomerania. 

Your most obedient 

FRIEDRICH WILHELM. K. P. 
Statthalter and General in Command in Pomerania. 



1869] CORRESPONDENCE 145 

135 

COUNT A. EULENBURG, CHAMBERLAIN IN THE CROWN 
PRINCE'S HOUSEHOLD, TO BISMARCK. 

HEADQUARTERS, SCHONEBERG, September 10, '69. 

8.45 p. M. 

His Royal Highness the Crown Prince regrets extremely 
that he missed your Excellency to-day, and particularly 
wishes to speak to you during the manoeuvres to-morrow. 

His Royal Highness quite agrees to the tour via Vienna, 
but has serious objections to Rome. 
In the greatest esteem, 

Your Excellency's most obedient 

A. EULENBURG. 

136 
THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK TO BISMARCK. 

KONIGSBERG, September 15, '69. 

The preliminaries for the journey are being conducted 
most satisfactorily, since, with his Majesty's consent, I sent 
for Admiral Jachmann to discuss and arrange everything 
with me verbally. I have also telegraphed to Balan to an- 
nounce my arrival in Constantinople in the middle of Octo- 
ber. Notice has not yet been sent to Vienna and Cairo, 
and I wish to ask you if it would not be advisable first to en- 
quire in the former city, quite confidentially, whether my 
visit will be agreeable, and, eventuaMter, where the Court 
will be in residence at the beginning of October. 

According to present arrangements, I start on my journey 
on October 5th, so as not to leave too little time for Turkey 
and Palestine before I arrive in Egypt for the opening of 
the Suez Canal, which is fixed for November I7th. 

You referred at Pausin to some probable diplomatic 
changes, but did not mention a definite candidate for Con- 



146 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1869 

stantinople. As it will be necessary to have a Charge d' Af- 
faires there, during my visit, who is acquainted with the 
Orient, I should like to propose Count Keyserlingk, now at 
Bucharest, who has already done long and good service in 
the Orient. Perhaps the absence of the Prince of Roumania 
will render it easier for Keyserlingk to undertake this mis- 
sion. 

In conclusion I wish to say a word to you from here in 
favour of Ober-Prasident von Horn. The most vehement 
complaints are raised against him by a section of the great 
land-owners, and all kinds of things are said of him. I have 
been able personally to convince myself, however, that the 
animosity against him is really unjustified, and that he has 
rendered much valuable service to the Province. Should 

his adversaries succeed in bringing about his fall, a very use- 
ful official would be lost, who, though he may possess many 
faults of form, will certainly be a blessing to this Province. 
I herewith, therefore, recommend him warmly to you. 
I am, 

Your obedient 

FRIEDRICH WILHELM. K. P. 



137 
COUNT PUCKLER, LORD CHAMBERLAIN, TO BISMARCK. 

BERLIN, September 28, '69. 
YOUR EXCELLENCY, 

I hasten, in reply to your favour, to inform you that his 
Majesty the King has yielded to the urgent wishes of the 
Ministers, and will return to Berlin on the 6th, in order 
to open the Landtag in person. 

Why the Ministers have altered their plans, for even 
Minister von der Heydt had advised his Majesty not to 
come to Berlin for the appproaching opening of the Land- 



1869] CORRESPONDENCE 147 

tag, I have not been able to ascertain, as each of the gentle- 
men advances a different reason. 

In any case his Majesty intends to return to Baden for 
a few weeks immediately after the opening. 

I am very glad that the Queen also is charmed with your 
Excellency; a few insignificant attentions would suffice to 
maintain these good terms. 

Her Majesty the Queen does not at all like Count 
Beust. 

The King has decided to-day that, besides General von 
Stosch, Count Lehndorff shall accompany the Crown 
Prince on his journey.* The Crown Prince proposes to 
leave on the 3rd, so as to take farewell of the Queen at 
Baden. 

.With best wishes for your well-being, I am, 

Your Excellency's most obedient servant, 

PUCKLER. 



138 

PRINCE CARL OF ROUMANIA TO BISMARCK. 

WEINBURG, October 22, '69. 
YOUR EXCELLENCY, 

I am seeking you out in your rural stillness in order to 
announce to you my approaching marriage with the 
Princess zu Weid. As I know what a great interest 
your Excellency takes in my fate, and in that of 
my country, I am convinced that I shall have your 
good wishes for this marriage; the bearing of the 
latter on my life will be all the greater as I 
am following only the impulse of my heart, and my de- 
cision has been in no way influenced by political consider- 
ations. 

*To Egypt. 



148 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1870 

While I was away I heard of the appointment of Count 
Keyserlingk as Minister in Constantinople. Although I re- 
gret that I thereby lose a faithful adviser, I am glad to be 
able to regard the Count's promotion as a recognition of 
his work at Bucharest; I hope that in his more influential 
position at Constantinople he will continue to cherish loyal 
feelings towards me, so that, should occasion require it, 
he may do what is possible towards supporting and further- 
ing my interests there. 

With respect to the post that is now vacant at Bucharest, 
I should be very glad if circumstances should permit of its 
being rilled by someone with whom I am already ac- 
quainted. I beg, therefore, to mention Herr von Rado- 
witz to your Excellency as being a man whom I believe to 
be eminently qualified to represent the Prussian Govern- 
ment worthily in Bucharest, and whose character especially 
fits him to maintain the most friendly relations between 
the government of his Majesty the King and my own. 

With sincerest wishes for the complete restoration of 
your Excellency's health, I remain, 

Your Excellency's obedient 

CARL. 

139 

SECRETARY OF STATE v. THILE TO BISMARCK. 

BERLIN, July 8, '70. 
HONOURED CHIEF, 

Benedetti, who told me as he was starting for Wildbad 
(before the Spanish bomb exploded) that he was going to 
stay at Coblenz only one day " pour se rendre a une ancienne 
invitation de la Reine," seems, according to the newspapers, 
to be extending his visit there. His intention is evident. 

Obediently and faithfully, 

v. THILE. 



1872] CORRESPONDENCE 149 

140 
PRINCE HENRY VII. OF REUSS TO BISMARCK. 

MOST HONOURED CHIEF, ST. PETERSBURG, January, '71. 

In accordance with your telegraphic instructions I have 
to-day presented your congratulations to his Majesty the 
Czar and to the Grand-Duchess Helene. His Majesty di- 
rected me to thank you. The Grand-Duchess answered me 
with a most friendly letter, which I enclose, as you will be 
glad to read in her own hand the expression of her feelings. 
She is still exactly the same. She understands why we are 
carrying on war, and knows that we cannot break off the 
fight like a play at the theatre. She takes no part, therefore, 
in all the sickly whining which is the fashion now among 
the ladies here who follow the example set by her Majesty. 

Although the Czar would like to see peace restored he 
does not let himself be infected by these wailing women, and 
is correct. He is still under the influence of the sad im- 
pression caused by an accident which happened while he was 
bear-hunting a few days ago. Scariatin, the chief hunts- 
man, was shot, through his own carelessness, before the 
Czar's eyes. He was creeping through the underwood after 
a bear that had been hit, and the trigger of his rifle evidently 
caught in a twig. The Czar was beside himself, and the 
episode has made him very sad. 

From my whole heart I wish you good health in the new 
year, and that you will soon place your name under a glor- 
ious peace. 

With most sincere esteem, 

Your very faithful 

H. VII. P. REUSS. 
141 

GEN. v. ROON, MINISTER FOR WAR, TO BISMARCK. 

GUTERGETZ, July 3, '72. 

I cannot let the long official letter, with which I threatened 
you on the i8th ultimo, and which I fling, and indeed am 



150 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1872 

compelled to fling, to-day into your Tusculum, go without 
most humbly begging your forgiveness for this outrage on 
your rest and your pleasure. I cannot, however, resist the 
necessity which drives me to it. The affair is a serious 
matter for me, a very serious matter, and perhaps also a little 
serious for you, my illustrious old friend. And as, thanks 
to your kindliness, I may call you this, you will also not 
refuse my request for two words of dictated reply; I need 
them to authenticate myself. You will understand me when 
I tell you that a copy of my official letter has gone to Ems. . . 

And now my cordial greeting! You will know how 
warm and sincere my wishes are and must be for your re- 
covery. 

The crazy Boger insists on my going to Marienbad in 
about ten days' time; he has driven my wife there already. 
I shall certainly not get any younger there, but perhaps not 
much older. 

May God be with you and yours! I kiss the Princess's 
hand in deepest and warmest veneration. May you all re- 
turn fresh and invigorated to the old rack! For, if God 
wills, you must endure it for a time yet, until another is 
found whom your left-off shoes fit to some extent. 
Your cordially devoted, old 

ROON. 

142 
PRINCE GORTCHAKOFF TO BISMARCK. 

BERLIN, November 15, '72. 

DEAR PRINCE, 

I cannot quit Berlin without expressing to you my re- 
gret at not having been able to clasp your hand, and above 
all at the cause which made your absence necessary. All 
my wishes are for a speedy re-establishment of your health. 
No one, in private or in public life, fails to recognise its 
value. I do not wish to be indiscreet enough to fatigue 



1872] CORRESPONDENCE 151 

you; but I should not have fulfilled the wish of my heart 
did I not recall by a few lines your kind remembrance 
and renew the expression of the invariable sentiments 
which I have always borne toward you. 

Permit me to lay my homage at the feet of the Princess, 
and believe me ever yours, GORTSCHAKOFF. 



143 
BISMARCK TO PRINCE GORTCHAKOFF. 

VARZIN, November 20, '72. 
DEAR PRINCE, 

I thank you with all my heart for having thought of me 
in passing through Berlin. Among the privations which 
the state of my health imposes, that of not having been 
able to clasp your hand on your journey is one of the most 
keen. I have formed many official relations during my 
life; but that with you, my dear Prince, is the only one 
which my heart would desire to continue after the cessa- 
tion of official relations, and if God should give us a period 
of repose before death I should be very happy to spend it 
with you as neighbour in the country. Pardon this ebulli- 
tion of German sentimentality, for it is sincere; you are the 
only statesman in Europe with whom I can look back over 
twenty years of business without recollecting a moment 
of bitterness. There has not always been community of 
interests; but always gentlemanly uprightness and good- 
will. It is not only in the position of a Minister over- 
burdened with affairs that I have learned to appreciate all 
the kindnesses and all the indulgences which you have 
shown me while I was at Petersburg, and among my defects 
I do not reckon that of ingratitude. 

My health compels me always to hold myself aloof from 
affairs, but I am convinced that I could re-enter if only my 
colleagues would leave me two months of repose without 



152 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1873 

interruption. I always hope that the King would be will- 
ing to agree to my request to be relieved definitively from 
participation in the interior affairs of Prussia, and to re- 
strict my occupations to the administration of foreign 
affairs and those of the German Empire. Interior affairs 
are those which use up my strength, because they impose 
upon me a responsibility without other authority than that 
of prayer and persuasion. v. BISMARCK 

144 

COUNT H. v. ARNIM, GERMAN AMBASSADOR AT PARIS, 
TO BISMARCK. 

PARIS, January 17, '73. 

Dr. Evans has informed me that his suspicions that Count 
Cavour was poisoned by means of a cigar have now been 
positively confirmed. 

Some remarks which he has overheard lead him to be- 
lieve also that certain fanatics of his religion Evans is a 
Catholic are not disinclined to perform the same opera- 
tion on your Excellency. He urged me, therefore, to warn 
your Excellency. 

The expression which he overheard, he added, left him in 
no doubt that there are persons who would use your Ex- 
cellency's " pet habit " to bring about your death. " Does 
Prince Bismarck smoke much ? " * he asked me. On my 
replying the affirmative, he said that he was now quite sure 
that the Cavour cigar was to play a role. I remarked in- 
cidenter that poisoned cigars played a role in Lisbon in 
the year 1872, when so many members of the Royal family 
died. 

To me the thing seems improbable. It would not be a 

very difficult matter, however, to present you with a box of 

poisoned cigars, especially if the donor does not shrink from 

causing the death of several other persons at the same time. 

* Given in English in the original. 



1873] CORRESPONDENCE 153 

Dr. Evans seemed to be fully convinced that his appre- 
hensions were well founded, and for that reason I felt that 
I ought to mention the matter. ARNIM. 

145 

MINISTER B. v. BULOW TO BISMARCK. 

KLEIN FLOTTBECK, June 29, '73. 
MOST HONOURED PRINCE, 

With cordial thanks for the time allowed me for consider- 
ation, I can now inform your Excellency that I am pre- 
pared to accept your honourable proposal as soon as my 
resignation has been accepted by the Grand Duke of Meck- 
lenburg. I will not again refer to the scruples which I en- 
tertain in respect of mistrust in my powers, and of so many 
other considerations; after conscientious reflection I find 
most consolation in the fact that your Excellency is ac- 
quainted with these scruples, and, much as I am wanting in 
so many respects, I know the value of your Excellency's 
confidence in me, and can appreciate the honour of serving 
the Emperor and the Empire under your direction and in 
such a position. 

May I request to be informed when I must ask to be re- 
lieved from my present post, and whether, when making this 
application, I shall refer to the proposal that has been made 
to me. 

I should be glad to know when I am to enter on my 
duties, and what my program for the next few months is; 
my own plan was to go from here to Marienbad, and in view 
of an arduous future, this is almost a necessity. I beg only 
to add that some freedom would be a gratefully acceptable 
present, though, of course, I am at your Excellency's dis- 
posal. 

Accept the expression of my faithful devotion and esteem, 
in which I am, 

Your Excellency's most obedient 

B. BULOW. 



154 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1873 

146 
PRINCE CARL OF ROUMANIA TO BISMARCK. 

BAD IMNAU, July 26, '73. 
MOST ILLUSTRIOUS PRINCE, 

I could not visit the Hohenzollern countries without think- 
ing of the man who has guided Germany to unity and to 
hitherto unknown greatness. These feelings could not stir 
me without, at the same time, producing the wish to greet 
your Excellency on this journey, and to give personal ex- 
pression to my esteem for you. I believe that, as Prince of 
Roumania, I have not disowned the qualities of a German 
Prince, and would esteem myself fortunate if I could discuss 
with your Excellency the state of affairs on the Lower 
Danube. The influence of Germany's power has, thanks to 
your Excellency's policy, attained a periphery extending far 
beyond the Roumanian frontiers, so that the conditions 
existing in Roumania cannot but be of special interest to 
your Excellency. 

With expressions of the highest esteem, I am, 

Your Excellency's most obedient 

CARL. 

Marginal notes by Bismarck : 
Where is Imnau? 
How long is the Prince staying in Germany, and where? 

I. 

(Enclosures.) 
REPORT MOST OBEDIENTLY: 

Bad Imnau is in Hohenzollern-Hechengen, is a posting 
station, nearest railway station Eyach. 

Prince Carl remains, according to information given by 



1873] CORRESPONDENCE 155 

his brother, Prince Frederick of Hohenzollern, for another 
fortnight, or three weeks, at Imnau, and then intends to 
return to Bucharest. RADOWITZ. 

August 4, '73. 

Remark in Bismarck's handwriting: 

Please discover, if possible, what the Prince's object is,* 
whether he expects me to go to Imnau, which is impossible, 
whether he will do me the honour of calling on me here, or 
whether he reckons on seeing me in Berlin on September 2. 

v. B. 

II. 
REPORT MOST OBEDIENTLY : 

Prince Carl of Roumania left yesterday, August loth, for 
Sigmaringen, where he will stay until the 2ist inst. The 
Prince will commence his return journey to Roumania on 
the 25th from Vienna; it was not his intention to come to 
Berlin. According to the newspapers, the Prince thought 
he might perhaps meet your Excellency in Vienna f during 
this time. RADOWITZ. 

August ii, '73. 

Remark in Bismarck's handwriting: 

Please drop a reply with suitable phrases and re- 
grets, that the state of my health keeps me here. 

147 
THE WAR MINISTER VON ROON TO BISMARCK. 

NEUHOF, near OESLAU, (CosuRG) October 12, '73. 
A few days ago I addressed to his Majesty a request to 
be relieved of the public offices entrusted to me, and I now 
turn to you, my dear Prince, in the name of our old friend- 

* Prince Carl intended to ask Bismarck's advice with regard to his 
proposed declaration of independence. 
tThe International Exhibition was then open. 



156 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1873 

ship, to beg you most earnestly to do your utmost to fur- 
ther my request. I have quite exhausted my scanty 
abilities for public service, and have therefore firmly re- 
solved on retirement; my sense of honour will not permit 
me to continue to appear what I cannot be, or at least can- 
not be any longer; it would be an offence against duty and 
conscience if I continued to enjoy all the honours and priv- 
ileges of my position knowing that I am totally incapaci- 
tated, at least for any official position that demands from 
the holder of it a regular and constant activity, and not 
merely occasional impromptus or a casual, rhapsodical ef- 
fort. I have also arrived at the conclusion perhaps too 
late that I can be easily dispensed with, and this convic- 
tion is too strong in me to be ignored. 

My decision will surprise nobody, and least of all you, 
my esteemed friend, who for years past have been able to 
observe my increasing infirmity for which my seventy-one 
years and the last fourteen years of my life sufficiently 
account. 

I have begged his Majesty to appoint Gen. von Kameke 
Minister for War in my place, as the present method of 
administering the office must, in the long run, become in- 
tolerable to him, and no provisional arrangement could be 
of long duration. At the same time I also urgently re- 
quested to be relieved of the Premiership, my holding of 
which has likewise been from the beginning a provisional 
arrangement. I quite see that it may be expedient for 
political reasons that the Ministry should undergo no 
change before the elections. But and even if on this ac- 
count my name must still figure for a short time in the 
Ministry of State I am utterly incapable of resuming the 
duties of office, and therefore begged his Majesty to 
permit me to extend my leave of absence, in order that I 
may follow the doctor's advice to spend the winter in the 
south. 



1873] CORRESPONDENCE 157 

His Majesty may perhaps regard my decisions as suffi- 
ciently weighty and confer with you on the subject; in that 
case I appeal to your friendship to urge my standpoint of 
non possum, as I should not like either to anger or to vex 
the master, but attach the greatest importance to the reten- 
tion of his gracious feelings towards me. If his Majesty 
should command such an inconsistency as that an old 
servant must continue to serve even when, as is the case 
with me, he cannot do so I will, of course, tender my very 
last breath; there would not, however, be any great object 
in this. 

In concluding this letter, which you must not regard as 
official, as it is par excellence private and friendly, you will 
permit me again to give you from a full heart my "Ade- 
lante adekmtador atrevido" and to implore God's bless- 
ing on your further beneficial and noble work; and this I 
will continue to do until the end of my life, which is perhaps 
not so very far distant, whether my place happens to be on 
the stage or among the spectators. 

Your ever faithful 

v. ROON. 
148 
PRINCE GORTCHAKOFF TO BISMARCK.* 

(Telegram.) 

BERLIN, November 10, '73. 
To THE CHANCELLOR, 

PRINCE BISMARCK, 

VARZIN. 

Regret that health and the season prevent me from com- 
ing to Varzin. If yours permits, should be glad to meet you 
at Dirschau. Could be there Thursday morning. Kindly 
telegraph to me if this is convenient to you. Should unfore- 
seen delay arise, would let you know in time by telegraph. 

GORTCHAKOFF. 

* Translated from the original French. 



158 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1873 

149 
BISMARCK TO PRINCE GORTCHAKOFF.* 

(Telegram.) 

VARZIN, November 10, '73. 
To THE CHANCELLOR, 

PRINCE GORTCHAKOFF, 

BERLIN. 

A sore throat which is fairly painful and which, according 
to the doctor, is somewhat suspicious, has kept me indoors 
for the past ten days. To my great regret I am at present 
unable to travel, and cannot greet you en route. 

v. BISMARCK. 

150 
PRINCE GORTCHAKOFF TO BISMARCK.* 

(Telegram.) 

BERLIN, November n, '73. 
To THE CHANCELLOR, 

PRINCE BISMARCK, 

VARZIN. 

I am sorry to lose the opportunity of seeing you, but 
am convinced that we shall continue to understand each 
other, even at a distance. The most essential thing is that 
a health so valuable to the state and to your friends should 
be exposed to no risk. I leave Berlin to-morrow evening. 
Kindly tender my sincere regards to the Princess. 

GORTCHAKOFF. 



KING ALBERT OF SAXONY TO BISMARCK. 

DRESDEN, November 19, '73. 

HONOURED PRINCE, 

The friendship which you have shown towards me ever 
since we became acquainted with each other, but especially 

* Translated from the original French. 



3874] CORRESPONDENCE 159 

during the time when it was granted to me to assist, though 
only in the quality of an inferior foreman, in the work of 
our time, the newly-established German Empire, draws me 
to you at the most important period of my life my assump- 
tion of the Government. 

In this difficult situation, which is rendered more difficult 
by my succeeding a King who not only enjoyed the love of 
his people, but exerted a far-reaching beneficent influence, 
I am in need of support and especially of good counsel. 
What could I do better than turn to the Chancellor of the 
German Empire, who has so often stated that he belongs 
equally to all the Federal Princes? I turn to you, there- 
fore, whenever I require help and whenever I need wise ad- 
vice. Be assured, on the other hand, that I shall support, 
with all my slender means, everything that you undertake 
for the weal of the Empire and of the German people, and I 
hope to be an efficacious member, a firm supporter of the 
structure, in the erection of which I was permitted to help 
with my sword. 

While requesting that you will not take this letter amiss, 
which perhaps disturbs you in your Tusculum, I remain, 

Your obedient 

ALBERT, K. v. SACHSEN. 



152 

BERNHARD ERNST VON BULOW, SECRETARY OF STATE, TO 

BISMARCK. 

BERLIN, July 14, '74. 

Your Excellency will, I trust, permit me to comply with 

the wish of the Foreign Office officials to offer their sin- 

-cere and respectful congratulations on your Excellency's 

deliverance from such imminent danger. The sympathetic 



160 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1874. 

agitation aroused by the news among all connected with 
the Foreign Office was great and universal; it was most 
marked in the case of the old house-servants. The more 
I learn of the details the more clearly it appears to 
me that this time again the hand of God has ruled over 
your precious life; this is a blessed foreboding of all that 
God has yet in store for your Excellency to accomplish 
and to attain. 

I am exceedingly glad that it was I who received the 
communications from Kissingen, and that I could at once 
do in Berlin everything that was necessary. The despatch 
referring to the measures against Pastor Hauthaler was 
also at once communicated further, and the reply came 
early this morning that everything was attended to in 
Vienna by nine o'clock. 

The general impression here is the desired and the right 
one; no one doubts but that the open and well-circulated 
incitations of the Ultramontanes have placed the weapon in 
the murderer's hand. The newspapers have not yet been 
able to express an opinion. The enclosed English press 
comment will be welcome to your Excellency, (to-day's 
National Zeitung has no word on the subject, although the 
London morning papers have already given their opinion). 

I had quite a definite presentiment that something like 
this was going to happen, and, with Herr von Wertheim 
and Herr von Madai, took certain steps but what is the 
use of precautionary measures when the right assistance 
does not come from above! About a fortnight ago I got 
Councillor (of Legislation) Aegidi to make a collection of 
expressions relating to your Excellency's end which have 
appeared in the Germania:* how much more of this sort 
of thing, which they dare not print, will have been whis- 
pered and preached. I have just said to the Ministers in 
this connection that for a certain class of Catholic priests 

* The Berlin organ of the Catholic party. 



1874] CORRESPONDENCE 161 

the way from the event which is well-pleasing to God to 
the work which is well-pleasing to God and to the instiga- 
tion to the same has never been a long' one. 

The Vice-President [of the Ministry of State] intends to 
report to your Excellency on the sitting of the Ministry 
of State, which, I may mention, is to be resumed to-mor- 
row; I will therefore only remark that Count Eulenburg's 
representative made a sorry picture of apathy and 
helplessness, that Herr Camphausen* and Herr Friedbergf 
spoke well and practically, and Herr Falk$ in somewhat 
too legal language; the general impression was that the 
result of this infamous deed will be a decided defeat for the 
Ultramontanes. Herr Tessendorf, who is fortunately 
available, will make a good impression on your Excellency 
and be of use. Herr Friedberg stated twice, and without 
meeting with contradiction, that his courageous and suc- 
cessful procedure against the Socialist associations in Ber- 
lin had met with only obstruction on the part of the Min- 
istry of the Interior. 

The majority of the members of the diplomatic corps 
have been here to offer their congratulations, in some cases 
also in the names of their governments. 

May I add how much my wife and I feel for the Princess, 
and how much we hope that, in spite of everything, and in 
spite of your enemies, your Excellency will continue the 
" cure " with success. That a German allowed himself to 
be misled into committing the outrage is a stain on our 
history; that God so ordered it will be also political good- 
fortune. 

With the old esteem, 

Your Excellency's most obedient, 

B. BULOW. 

* Minister of Finance. 

t Minister of Justice. 

t Minister of Public Instruction. 



162 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1875 

153 
PRINCE ALBRECHT OF PRUSSIA TO BISMARCK. 

HANOVER, April i, '75. 

Your Excellency will, I trust, permit me to offer my con- 
gratulations on your completing your sixtieth year, and on 
the many and great things which your life, and especially 
the last ten or twelve years of the same, contain. My con- 
gratulations take the form of a wish that it may 
be granted to your Excellency to see the work 
which you have completed develop into grandeur, 
and with the help of God to carry out what you 
have begun to the welfare and to the advantage of Prussia, 
of Germany, indeed to the whole of Christendom and civil- 
ised mankind. What Prussia conquers Germany gains 
Jias hitherto been the word. What Germany acquires bene- 
fits all Christendom is the word now. May your Ex- 
cellency long further us in this path. 

ALBRECHT, PRINZ VON PREUSSEN. 

154 

H. VON MlTTNACHT, PRESIDENT OF THE WURTEMBURG 
MINISTRY OF STATE, TO BISMARCK. 

STUTTGART, June 7, '75. 
YOUR EXCELLENCY, 

Will your Excellency kindly permit me to write directly 
and privately on a subject which I do not wish to moot to 
my colleagues in the diplomatic committee of the Federal 
Council without your Excellency's previous knowledge? 

The fact that, whereas apprehensions of an imminent war 
have disturbed Europe in such a strange manner of late, 
the German Federal Governments have had to depend on 
unreliable newspaper reports for their knowledge of the 
existence, cause, and import of a crisis, should fully justify 
the representatives of the Governments in considering the 



1875] CORRESPONDENCE 163 

question whether such a state of things is not in need of 
and capable of improvement, and whether they are not 
competent and in duty bound to set this matter in motion. 

Germany places the utmost confidence, an unprece- 
dented confidence, in his Majesty the Emperor's represen- 
tation of the rights and privileges of the Empire, and in the 
conduct of the German policy by your Excellency's firm 
and fortunate hand. It is true that the assent of the Fed- 
eral Council is necessary before war can be declared in the 
name of the Empire when the territory of the latter is not 
threatened with attack, and that in evident connection with 
this there exists a special committee for foreign affairs in 
the Federal Council. 

This committee is not entitled to take any part in the 
conduct of foreign affairs, and communications respecting 
complications or negotiations cannot always and in their 
every stage be made to it. In view, however, of the obvi- 
ous impossibility of keeping all the Federal Governments 
informed, by correspondence or through diplomatic agents, 
on the subject of the foreign policy of the Empire and 
especially at times when complications arise that commit- 
tee might perhaps be regarded as an efficient means to- 
wards the attainment of the object I have in my mind. 
That is to say, all suitable communications might be made 
to those representatives of the Governments that have a 
seat and a vote in the committee, and opportunity might be 
given to such representatives to state their views at times 
when the destinies of the nation have to be decided. It is 
only when the Governments receive prompt information, 
which they cannot obtain otherwise owing to the restric- 
tions that have been placed on their own diplomatic rela- 
tions, respecting the development of complications which 
arise, that the Federal Council can make effective use of its 
vote on war or peace. It is only in that case that the respon- 
sibility falls on all, and not alone on the initiated controllers 



164 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1875 

of the policy. At your Excellency's call the Ministers of 
the Governments represented in the committee would 
themselves certainly hasten to take their places in the latter, 
and the peculiar circumstance that Prussia is not actually 
a member of the committee would not stand in the way of 
a proper treatment of the matters laid before it. 

I do not know whether your Excellency considers the 
present a suitable moment for bringing up this subject, 
whether your Excellency regards the idea as feasible, and 
places the necessary confidence in the persons affected. I 
have ventured thus to broach the topic, as I know from ex- 
perience that your Excellency is always ready to listen to 
and always favourably disposed towards the wishes and 
everything affecting the interests of the Federal Govern- 
ments. 

With the assurance, etc., 

MITTNACHT. 

ISS 

BISMARCK TO HERR VON MITTNACHT. 

VARZIN, June 16, '75. 
MOST ESTEEMED COLLEAGUE, 

Your favour of the 7th instant affords me a welcome 
opportunity to express my views, which I would have done 
by return of post had not medical considerations prevented 
me. I regard your letter as an expression of friendly con- 
fidence towards the Empire, and regret that such has not 
been given from other quarters as well. The German Em- 
pire can successfully pursue no policy that is not recog- 
nised as the right one by the predominant factors in the 
interior the Federal Council and the Reichstag. In 
order to keep these latter in a position to form a judgment 
on the policy, it is necessary that there should be constant 
feeling on the part of the nation represented by them with 
the Imperial policy, and, in so far as a documentary ground- 






1875] CORRESPONDENCE 165 

work is unavailable, this feeling is wrongly influenced by 
the publicists. In this respect the Imperial policy does 
not meet with the trustworthy support which the Govern- 
ments of other countries can, as a rule, rely on in matters 
concerning their foreign relations. 

During the last few months, in which an attempt has 
been made by all the opponents of the Empire in and out 
of Germany to give a false impression of the European 
situation, I have repeatedly been tempted to make a state- 
ment in the Prussian Landtag, which was then sitting, 
.showing the real situation and the probable origin of the 
misrepresentation of the same. In this perfectly authentic 
way I should have put a spoke in the wheels of our lying 
opponents. I have refrained from doing this, as I did not 
wish to set an example in Prussia which every Minister of 
a Federal state might then have considered himself justified 
in following with regard to his Landtag. I should have been 
glad if I had then been interpellated from one of the quar- 
ters which have an influential voice in the latest develop^ 
ment of German politics; I could then have shown the 
true state of affairs in my reply. The diplomatic commit- 
tee of the Federal Council is a constitutional and, in my 
opinion, when its relations to the Imperial executive are 
rightly adjusted, also an extremely useful institution in the 
Empire. If I had the right to summon it, I should cer- 
tainly have exercised this right four or six weeks ago. I 
do not mean to say that I should have anticipated the re- 
sults of co-operation with the committee, constituted as it 
is at present, to be such as might, in my opinion, have been 
attained with an analogous institution that had undergone 
some reforms. I can only say that, in making responsible 
decisions in important questions, I would gladly, before 
submitting the matter to his Majesty the Emperor, avail 
myself of the expert advice of friendly statesmen, and that 
J feel the need of the testimony of the latter when there is 



i66 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1875 

a question of counteracting misrepresentations publicly cir- 
culated on the authority of the adversaries of the Empire 
and of correspondents working solely for their own 
gains or in the service of individual diplomats. I should 
be able to give your Excellency and your colleagues in the 
Empire fuller information verbally and also to prove how 
far removed his Majesty the Emperor is from every tempta- 
tion to pursue a foreign policy which does not comply with 
the peaceable interests of the Empire and also with the in- 
tentions of all the high Imperial confederates. I shall at 
all times be ready, with the consent of his Majesty the Em- 
peror, unhesitatingly to discuss freely the aims and meas- 
ures of the Imperial policy, if this can be done with the 
leading ministers of the sovereigns represented in the diplo- 
matic committee ; the only question would be that of bring- 
ing about the meeting. I would gladly consider any sug- 
gestions for modifying the existing diplomatic committee 
in such a way that it might further this object, especially if 
they came at first confidentially to me from your Excel- 
lency or from such a well-represented government as that 
of Wurtemberg or through their Ministers in residence. 
In any case I am officially and personally grateful to your 
Excellency for broaching in such a friendly manner a sub- 
ject of such importance to the development of the Em- 
pire's institutions. 

With the assurance, etc., 

v. BISMARCK. 

156 
BISMARCK TO THE MARCHESE DI VISCONTI VENOSTA. 

VARZIN, October 13, '75. 

To his Excellency, Monsieur Visconti Venosta, His Ma- 
jesty the King of Italy's Minister for Foreign Affairs. 

MONSIEUR LE MINISTRE, 

It grieved me sorely that I was compelled to forego the 



1875] CORRESPONDENCE 167 

honour of accompanying his Majesty the Emperor and 
King, but my doctor, whom I sent for from Berlin in the 
hopes of finding in his advice the encouragement refused 
me by his colleagues here, is also of the latter's opinion that 
the present state of my health renders such a journey im- 
possible for me, and I have no choice but to submit to his 
decision. It is with deep regret that I relinquish the hope, 
cherished to the last moment, of accompanying my august 
master, of paying my respects to his Majesty the King, of 
renewing the political and personal relations with your 
Excellency, and of seeing your beautiful country once 
again. Desiring as I do to cultivate the friendly relations 
which exist between Germany and Italy, and the mainte- 
nance of which is a matter of such import to the two coun- 
tries, it was with difficulty that I was prevailed upon to 
abandon the prospect of an interview with your Excellency. 
I beg of you to be the interpreter of my sentiments to 
H. M. the King, and am, 

Your obedient servant, 

v. BISMARCK. 



157 
THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK TO BISMARCK. 

December 5, '75. 

The Crown Princess and I beg you to tell your daughter 
in our names, that we sympathise with her most deeply in the 
pain which is caused her by the unexpected and sudden death 
of her intended husband.* 

The terrible reality of such a loss, after anxious weeks of 
alternating despair and hope, comes as a truly cruel blow to 
the young fiancee ! 

We also think of you and the Princess with sincere sym- 

* Count Wendt zu Eulenburg. 



i68 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1876 

pathy, and can well imagine what your feelings must be, now 
that such glad hopes for the welfare of your beloved only 
daughter are shattered. 

The great Christian festival which we are approaching 
will find your two households in the deepest mourning ; may 
you, however, all receive that strength to bear your cross 
which brings the only true light into afflicted souls ! 
Your most obedient 

FRIEDRICH WILHELM. K. P. 

158 

PRINCE CHLODWIG zu HOHENLOHE TO BISMARCK. 

Imperial German Embassy 
in France. 

PARIS, January I, '76. 
MOST ILLUSTRIOUS PRINCE, 

The report is current in Ultramontane circles, and has 
even found its way into a few newspapers, that I have ex- 
pressed myself as being decidedly opposed to the so-called 
Arnim clause in the Penal Code. I attach too great a 
value to the confidence with which your Excellency is kind 
enough to honour me to run the risk of its being shaken 
by malevolent rumours. I beg, therefore, to state that this 
story is a pure invention. 

I regard the clause in question with the utmost equanim- 
ity; were this not the case I should have taken the liberty 
of placing my views before your Excellency myself. I know 
and appreciate the motives which have led your Excellency 
to introduce the said bill. I am in no way affected by its 
provisions relating to Foreign Office officials, for I am al- 
ways guided by the principle that an Ambassador can re- 
main in office only as long as he retains the confidence of 
the Emperor and of the leading statesman. 

This statement is perhaps superfluous. It will, however, 
prove to your Excellency how great is the value I attach to 



1876] CORRESPONDENCE 169 

the favour you have always shown towards me. I beg that 
the same may be continued to me in the future, and con- 
clude by offeringto your Excellency my cordial New Year's 
wishes. May God give you strength and energy to admin- 
ister your difficult office for a long time to come, to the wel- 
fare of the Emperor and the Empire ! 

Your Excellency's most obedient 

C. F. V. HOHENLOHE. 

159 
THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK TO BISMARCK. 

BERLIN, January 5, '76. 

I have had a long discussion to-day with Prof. Dr. 
Geffcken, of Strassburg, on his book " Church and State," 
with which you will be acquainted. The views he expressed 
would, I feel sure, interest you, as Geffcken is a man who 
reflects deeply and who has gathered a vast experience; I 
should like, therefore, to draw your attention to him, in 
case you wish to receive him. 

Your very obedient 
FRIEDRICH WILHELM. K. P. 

1 60 
BISMARCK TO THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK. 

BERLIN, January 8, '76. 

Actuated by your Imperial Highness's gracious letter I 
have had a compilation made of some of the notices on Dr. 
Geffcken contained in the Foreign Office records, and this 
I beg to enclose with No. 187 of last year's National 
Zeitung. 

Dr. Geffcken belongs to that section of the EvangeKcal 
Church which, like President von Gerlach and a few other 
Protestants, is associated with the Centre party and the 
Jesuits, and which has opposed and still opposes every 
phase of development of the German Empire. When the 
negotiations were suggested last summer Dr. Geffcken was 



FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1876 

mentioned to me by the Ultramontanes as being the man 
who had been chosen to represent the Ultramontane 
wishes and interests. I can give a fairly dispassionate 
judgment on his book, as I am not responsible for the 
special purport of the May laws, though I do not imply 
by this that I find fault with them; I took no part 
at that time in the work of the Prussian Ministry, 
and was also neither Minister for Public Instruction 
nor President of the Ministry. I can, therefore, all the 
more impartially state that Dr. Geffcken's book is char- 
acterised by men competent to give an opinion as a shallow 
compilation, and that his criticism of the Falk laws is a 
testimony to his presumption, but not to a searching exam- 
ination of the matter. 

I proposed Herr Geffcken, at his wish, for the professor- 
ship at Strassburg, in the firm belief that he was honour- 
ably bent on scientific work, and thsft his Augustenburg and 
Hanseatic particularism was propitiated by the establish- 
ment of the Empire. 

I hear with regret that I was mistaken in this, and that 
even at such a sore place as Alsace he pursues a policy of 
animosity to the Imperial interests. 

All this would not restrain me from seeing him, as I do 
so many of my opponents, if I did not fight shy of an inter- 
view with him without witnesses, and if I were not afraid 
that any intercourse with this tool of confessional intrigues 
must awaken the distrust of public opinion and especially 
that of my colleagues against me. 

v. BISMARCK. 

161 

THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK TO BISMARCK. 

BERLIN, January 12, '76. 

I thank you for informing me of the reasons which in- 
duced you not to receive Prof. Dr. Geffcken, and for the 



1876] CORRESPONDENCE 171 

notices from the Foreign Office records enclosed with your 
letter. I confess that I should not have suggested your 
seeing my former fellow-student at Bonn University 
if I had known what opinions you hold with regard 
to him. During my long, though frequently inter- 
rupted intercourse with Dr. Geffcken I have never 
observed in him either a leaning towards Catholicism 
or a deeply-rooted antagonism to Prussia. On the 
contrary, the impression made on me by his entire 
attitude and by his frequent public and private state- 
ments is that there can be as little question of his zealous 
Protestant feelings as of his patriotism, although his pro- 
pensity for adverse criticism seemed from time to time to 
expose him to the danger of being included, against his 
will, among the enemies of the Imperial Government. 

For this reason I could not but believe that it might be 
of interest to you to learn the views, on an exceedingly 
important question which claims your almost daily atten- 
tion, of a man whom I knew, it is true, to be an opponent 
of our present Church policy, whose opinions in this matter 
I, too, was by no means inclined to share, but whom, on 
his own assurances, I regarded as still more determinedly 
opposed to the Ultramontanes. I am therefore all the 
more surprised to hear that Dr. Geffcken was mentioned 
to you as being the man chosen by the Ultramontanes to 
represent their wishes and interests, and it is scarcely neces- 
sary for me to say that in these circumstances, although I 
still cherish the hope that this intimation was made without 
his knowledge and resulted from a complete misjudgment 
of his views, I must consider the reasons you advance 
against granting him an interview as being perfectly 
justified. 

Your very obedient, 

FRIEDRICH WILHELM. K. P. 



FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1876 

162 
FIELD-MARSIJAL COUNT VON ROON TO BISMARCK. 

CROBNITZ, NEAR 

REICHENBACH, OBERLAUSITZ, February 15, '76. 
MOST HONORED FRIEND, 

I am approaching you to-day with the sentiments ex- 
pressed in these words, for it is only the privilege of old 
friendship that can justify me in molesting the much-occu- 
pied Imperial Chancellor. 

In the first place, accept my hearty congratulations on 
your comparative restoration to health and on the becom- 
ing dismissal of the almost intolerable Reichstag. May the 
two corpora both be healthier at their next meeting! 

The object of this letter is, however, neither to assure 
you of my self-evident sympathy, nor to speak on political 
matters of which I have perhaps lost touch, but to remind 
you of a kind promise you made me when we last saw each 
other, in November, '74, in respect of my son-in-law, 
Brauchitsch. 

Nepotism and place-hunting may be considered equally 
reprehensible, I consider them so myself; it is impossible, 
however, when one obtains a little experience of the world, 
to close one's eyes to the fact that personal considerations 
often exert a great influence on the distribution of roles in 
this world, and that perhaps appreciation on the part of 
like-minded persons, but rarely practical success, is at- 
tained by following Catonian principles. 

Permit me, therefore, to repeat that Brauchitsch, for- 
merly Landrath at Genthin, for the last four and a half 
years Regierungsrath in Potsdam, Prefect in Versailles dur- 
ing the French war, in all these posts, especially the last- 
mentioned one, under your own eyes, should certainly be 
fitted for higher and for independent administrative posts. 
When I mentioned this to you verbally you were of opinion 
that Brauchitsch ought to have been promoted to a Presi- 



1876] CORRESPONDENCE 173 

dentship, and promised that the omission should soon be 
rectified. 

The ministerial pair who are united in an unnatural mar- 
riage for the official production of Presidents, vice-Presi- 
dents, etc., and who as you know are still imbued with 
very unfriendly feelings towards me, agree much more 
easily on what they shall abstain from doing than on what 
they shall do; until now they have always agreed that 
Brauchitsch is net to be considered. 

Would matters remain thus if the Imperial Chancellor 
and President of the Ministry really expressed a request 
that Brauchitsch should shortly be preferred? This is 
hardly possible. 

As far as I can learn, the next vacant posts will be those 
of Vice-President at Cassel and at Schleswig. It is of 
course for the soldier to go, without a murmur, wherever 
he is sent; in the official world, however, this rule is not so 
strictly followed. 

When I mentioned that my daughter was dangerously 
ill last summer with acute rheumatism, from which she is 
not yet quite recovered, it will be easily understood that I 
cannot wish for her removal to Schleswig, a northern town 
surrounded by water and exposed to harsh winds, but that 
I would heartily rejoice at the removal of my son-in-law to 
Cassel. 

And that is the whole matter. It has not been easy for 
me to supplicate, and it was only to you that I could do it. 
Shall this request from a tried old friend find no echo? It 
is true I am no longer the Ziska-skin on the drum, but 
enough! Self-praise would be either superfluous or 
ridiculous. 

I may finally add for your information that your old, 
shunted companion may perhaps continue to vegetate for a 
while, like a dying cactus, sheltered from the winds in his 
corner of the conservatory until the death-worm gnawing 



i 7 4 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1876 

at the roots has severed the last fibre. But he is of no 
more use, for the sharp prickles have fallen off with the 
meagre blossom. In this purely vegetating condition I 
rejoice over my past, many as are the leaves in it that 
are sullied, torn, or empty; I hope, however, for a future 
corresponding with God's gracious promises, in which 
the prosperity and the glory of this world seem 
nothing but dross testifying to vivifying warmth or con- 
suming fire. But pardon this afternoon-preacher tone 
which to you, who are still an important factor in 
the world's machinery, like the mainspring in the 
watch, will of course appear insipid. I most ardently 
hope and wish, however, that with or after the toils and 
tribulations attendant on your great role the consciousness 
may be preserved or reanimated within you that all tri- 
umphs and successes of human greatness, that all the joys, 
all the brilliance and glitter of our earthly existence are 
nothing in comparison with the eternal glory promised us 
in Jesus Christ. 

That I wish you from my whole heart and with the inter- 
est I have devoted to you in unswerving fidelity for a dec- 
ade. I am, and remain, 

Your faithfully devoted old friend, 

v. ROON. 

163 
CARDINAL G. VON HOHENLOHE TO BISMARCK. 

ROME, March 5, '76. 

Cardinal Ledochovski, who arrived the day before yes- 
terday, was received by his Holiness the same evening, and 
greeted also by the Papal court, came yesterday evening to 
the Princess Odescalchi's (ncc Branicka), where a few peo- 
ple had been invited. Cardinal Ledochovski expressed 
there his appreciation of the manner in which he had been 
treated at Ostrovo, of the beautiful garden that was placed 
at his disposal for his walks, etc.; he also said that no 



1876] CORRESPONDENCE 175 

further measures would be taken in Berlin against the 
Catholic Church, and that, if not immediately, the Imperial 
Chancellor would certainly later make peace with the 
Catholic Church. I said to the distinguished gentleman 
who told me this that " Cardinal Ledochovski might well 
now be sent to Berlin as Legate." His reply was that it 
was as yet too early; that a less bitter attitude was 
already observable here, and that no more speeches and 
allocutions would be held against this " Prussia." I an- 
swered : " We will hope so, and a stop should also be put 
to the doings of the Centre party; instructions should also 
be given to the Bishop of Germany to come to an under- 
standing with the Government wherever it is possible." 

This was promised me by the eminent, influential gentle- 
man, but it is a question whether the promise will ever be 
fulfilled. The whole mischief is ascribed by the eminent 
gentleman to the late Cardinal Reisach, who always incited 
the Pope and Antonelli against " Prussia," and who 
planted the seed of what has now grown to be such a great 
evil. 

It is difficult to give a clear representation of the situa- 
tion here; I restrict myself, therefore, to citing the above 
facts, and remain, with best wishes for your welfare, 

G. CARDINAL VON HOHENLOHE. 

164 
THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK TO BISMARCK. 

POTSDAM, May g, '76. 

I should like to come to you again before the Czar and 
the three Chancellors meet in Berlin, and if it is convenient 
to you about half-past nine on Wednesday evening next. 
Should you prefer another day or another time, kindly let 
me know. 

Your obedient 

FRIEDRICH WILHELM. K. P. 



176 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1876 

165 
THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK TO BISMARCK. 

May 12, '76. 

After mature reflection on the conversation I had with 
you on the evening of the loth inst., I cannot recommend 
too strongly the idea of conferring on Friedberg the Im- 
perial Secretaryship for Justice. 

Should the Emperor, as you anticipate, advance the well- 
known scruples against Friedberg, I should like to draw 
your attention to a circumstance which must certainly 
carry weight, viz., that it was he who at the time urgently 
disadvised me from making known my dissenting political 
views of the Government measures, whereas his Majesty 
seems to be of the contrary opinion that Friedberg advised 
me to do this. 

I leave it to you to communicate this fact to his Majesty 
in any form that in your opinion seems appropriate or de- 
sirable. 

I spoke to Biilow after the dinner to-day, and after 
Prince Gortchakoff had told me how the negotiations now 
stand. If Biilow could inform me 1 of the further course 
of the affair I should be very grateful. 
Your obedient 

FRIEDRICH .WILHELM. K. P. 

Marginal note by Bismarck : 
1 Fiat. 

166 

THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK TO BISMARCK. 

POTSDAM, June 30, '76. 

As I shall be abroad for a considerable time I should like, 
before leaving Potsdam, to address a few words to you on 
behalf of the Under-Secretary of State, Dr. Friedberg, in 
order to fulfil a duty I owe to this man, who, by the ser- 



1876] CORRESPONDENCE 177 

vices often entailing great difficulties and sacrifices on his. 
part he has rendered me with true devotion for a long 
series of years, has acquired a claim on my gratitude. 

I know well that, when the said Friedberg is taken into 
the Imperial service, you will devote careful and kindly 
attention not only to the question of his official duties and 
the organisation of the office that is to be entrusted to him, 
but also to that of his personal position. I hope, however,, 
that you will consider it quite natural if, in respect to the 
latter, I do not abstain from giving expression to the fer- 
vent wish that the said Friedberg may be accorded an ele- 
vation of rank not only corresponding with his position at 
the head of the German Imperial judicial affairs and with 
regard to the Ministers of Justice in the separate states, 
but which is also calculated to afford him a well-earned 
satisfaction. I would like, therefore, to submit to your 
consideration a proposal to bestow on the said Friedberg 
the rank and title of a Minister of State. This is what I 
should deem most desirable. If there are objections to 
this of which I am not cognisant there could hardly be any 
against making him a Privy Councillor with the title of 
" Excellency." 

I should be exceedingly grateful if you would bestow a 
friendly interest on this matter, which 'has an important 
bearing beyond the personal side to which I restrict myself. 
Your very obedient 

FRIEDRICH WILHELM. K. P. 

167 

BISMARCK TO COUNT MUNSTER, GERMAN AMBASSADOR 

IN LONDON. 

KISSENGEN, July 6, '76. 

DEAR FRIEND, 

The Emperor writes me to-day concerning the contents of 
your report to his Majesty, and wishes me to make a verbal 



178 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1876 

statement to him on the matter within the next few days. 
From a letter I have received from his entourage I learn that 
his Majesty was very much moved and excited by your first 
report, and that this excitement was communicated to Czar 
Alexander, whose mistrust of England has considerably in- 
creased. This has induced her Majesty the Empress to 
write to her Majesty Queen Victoria on the subject. I am 
glad to see by this that the foreign service has not suffered 
in any way from my retirement. I shall not be able to say 
much to his Majesty about the contents of your report, as 
only the future can decide whether and in how far pre- 
dictions come true. 

A breach between England and Russia would be a great 
calamity, and a misfortune to Europe; a breach between 
Russia and Austria would be more dangerous for us in par- 
ticular. I assume, from the marginal notes, that his Maj- 
esty will direct you to endeavour to exert a pacifying in- 
fluence on England, whose eager desire for war appears to 
his Majesty to be analogous to that of Napoleon in 1870. 
If it should really come to a rupture, I believe the verdict 
of our most gracious master would coincide with that of all 
who are fully acquainted with the matter. If his Majesty 
commands pacifying representations to be made, you could 
keep fairly closely to the text of the English circular ad- 
dressed to us in the spring of 1875. 

I am using a courier, in order to give you this private in- 
formation concerning his Majesty's intentions. Permit me 
to add a friendly request. The Emperor writes me that 
your reports go to him direct, and not through the Ministry, 
and, as a matter of fact, those sent me by his Majesty are 
stamped only with the word " Presented." His Majesty 
perhaps personally prefers this, so long as no unpleasantness 
thereby arises, such as that with Arnim, into which the Mon- 
archs are also drawn; between us, thank God, that is im- 
possible. It is, however, contrary to the practice of the serv- 



1877] CORRESPONDENCE 179 

ice, and I know of no case, except that of Arnim, in which 
it has happened during the past fourteen years. We are too 
old friends to be punctilious in such matters, but if Biilow 
were in office now, he would make a Cabinet question of it. 

Do not take it ill of me that I mention the matter, but as a 
rule it will really not do, much as our Sovereign master per- 
sonally likes it. 

Please give my kind regards to the Countess. 

Yours, 

v. BISMARCK. 

168 

BISMARCK TO COUNT HOLNSTEIN, MASTER OF THE HORSE 
TO THE KING OF BAVARIA. 

BERLIN, January 27, '77. 

ESTEEMED COUNT, 

I am extremely obliged to you .or your letter of the 25th 
instant, and beg you, if you think they will meet with fa- 
vourable acceptance, to present to his Majesty the King my 
most respectful thanks for this gracious decision,* which 
will tend to expedite business on both sides. 

In begging you to give my wife's and my kind regards 
to the Countess, I cannot suppress my admiring apprecia- 
tion, based on my own experience as well as on the judg- 
ment of experts, of the Bavarian fruit culture. 

In politics it would appear, after the removal of the Turk- 
ish danger, that the negative pole in Paris and the positive 
pole in St. Petersburg are feeling a certain attraction to- 
wards each other; we hope, however, that the Czar Alex- 
ander will remain isolated from this electric current. The 
next pressure of the combination seems, it is true, to be 
directed against Austria; this may also be assumed from 
the disposition of the Russian troops, which have lately 
taken Chotim in preference to Kischeneff as a pivot. In 
* The change of the diplomatic representative of Bavaria in Berlin. 



i8o FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1877 

view of such symptoms I should be very glad to have some- 
one here through whom I can, in perfect confidence, keep 
his Majesty, King Ludwig, regularly informed, and intend 
shortly to summon Baron Werthern here for a preliminary 
discussion. 
With cordial greetings from mine and me, 

Yours, 
v. BISMARCK. 

169 
GAMBETTA-BISMARCK. 

1. COUNT GUIDO HENCKEL DONNERSMARCK TO 
BISMARCK. 

CHATEAU DE PONTCHARTRAIN, 

(Seine et Oise ), October 17, '77. 
MOST HONOURED PRINCE, 

I beg to inform your Excellency, in case it should be of 
service to you in arranging your plans, that my relations 
with Gambetta are such that he visits me here in the coun- 
try. The southerner is so loquacious that one has more 
opportunity of listening than of speaking; he is, however, 
the only Frenchman who has a trustworthy and accurate 
knowledge of German conditions, and this he acquired by 
spending some time in Germany on several occasions dur- 
ing the past few years. 

While on these visits he kept his eyes well open, and 
most of the persons with whom he came in contact prob- 
ably had no idea of his personality. If someone who knows 
how to keep in the shade, and who is devoted to you heart 
and soul, can be of any use to your Excellency in this mat- 
ter, he is now as ever quite at your service. 

At the end of last August I requested Radowitz to let 
your Excellency know that I had reliable grounds for esti- 
mating that the result of the' French elections would be a 
similar composition of the Assemble Nationale, with a re- 



1877] CORRESPONDENCE 181 

duction of the Republican majority by at least twenty 
votes. The probability of such an outcome of the elec- 
tions was vigorously disputed at the time, and only two 
eventualities the success of the Prefets a poigne or an in- 
crease of the Republican majority were considered pos- 
sible. In the meantime my prediction has been verified. 
Your Excellency's sincerely devoted, 

HENCKEL DONNERSMARCK. 

II. COUNT HERBERT BISMARCK TO COUNT HENCKEL 
DONNERSMARCK. 

VARZIN, October 30, '77. 
ESTEEMED COUNT, 

My father is extremely obliged to you for your kind 
letter of the I7th inst., which he received a few days ago. 
He begs you to excuse him for replying through me; in 
the present state of his health all letter-writing still severely 
affects his nerves. 

The relations you maintain with Gambetta interest my 
father very much. My father considers, however, that it 
would not be advantageous to Gambetta himself or even 
advisable for him to receive direct communications from 
here, even through your intervention. If it were to be 
known in France or only by the Republicans there that 
Gambetta held any kind of intercourse with the German 
Imperial Chancellor it would most probably injure him in 
the eyes of his countrymen generally, but especially in 
those of his party, and he himself would perhaps soon find 
it irksome if the result of such contact with k Prussien 
Bismarck should be that in many respects he could no 
longer free himself from the ascendant of the latter. 

My father is very pleased that the impressions gained 
by Gambetta during his repeated visits to Germany seem 
to have convinced him that the entire German nation 
wishes for peace; it can only be of advantage to the 
development and prosperity of the two neighbouring 



182 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1877 

countries when such an influential and pre-eminent 
politician as Gambetta becomes confirmed in this con- 
viction, and seeks to communicate it to the best of his 
ability to his countrymen. As you will know, my father is 
of opinion that the Republican form of government, such 
as that which followed its tranquil development until May 
1 6th, is the only one under which France can permanently 
cultivate peaceable relations with Germany. As is the case 
in every country in the world, the great mass of the people 
in France and Germany is peace-loving, and if the Pari- 
sians and the Jesuit elements are excepted it can be boldly 
asserted that the French nation is as much disinclined for 
a fresh warlike entanglement as the German nation is. My 
father does not believe, however, that it is only through the 
national hatred and the desire for revenge on the part of 
our western neighbours that we might be placed in a posi- 
tion soon to be compelled to ward off a fresh French at- 
tack. The only danger lies in the French army, in the 
event of a successful coup d'etat, being summoned in the 
service of the Vatican to a crusade against Germany, either 
under those at present in authority or under a pretender 
who had arrived at the supreme power. None of the pre- 
tenders should one of them obtain forcible possession of 
the throne by a bold stroke would long feel secure against 
the hostility of the other monarchical parties that had been 
pushed into the background, and of all the Republicans. 
Once arrived at power, every pretender would, however, 
before throwing up the cards, try to relieve the internal 
fermentation by creating a diversion abroad, and would 
stir up a quarrel with us. An Ultramontane government 
whatever might be the name given to it would most as- 
suredly be unable not to wage a war on us as soon as the 
Jesuits considered that their purposes would be served by 
waging it. The wishes and plans of such a government 
need not be taken into account, for it would simply have 



1877] CORRESPONDENCE 183 

to obey instructions from Rome; under a clerical regime 
the French army is nothing but " soldiers of the Pope," 
who march at his orders wherever the Jesuits wish to direct 
them. 

This we have already experienced, in the summer of 
1870. It is now among the aims of my father's policy to 
prevent such a possibility arising as far as we can do so 
without interfering in France's internal affairs. He be- 
lieves that this aim can be attained, and is by no means 
one of those Germans who say: "There must be a war 
with France within the next few years; it is better, there- 
fore, to have it as soon as possible, while France is still 
weak, and we are sure of defeating her again." This is the 
raisonnement of a certain military party, which has a hear- 
ing, it is true, but no power. 

My father has always opposed this style of reasoning; 
he considers that there are absolutely no incontrovertible 
grounds for assuming that a war with France is inevitable 
within the next few years, for no one can act the part of 
Providence and know what the world will look like some 
years hence. It is indubitable that every war, even a vic- 
torious one, is a calamity, and so long as it is not absolutely 
unavoidable my father will not advise it. It would be too 
dangerous a game to try to drive out the devil with the 
help of Beelzebub. It would not be such a very difficult 
matter to begin a war; one can never definitely know, how- 
ever, how it will end. The fortune of war is variable, and 
the most clear-sighted military men are occasionally at 
fault in their anticipations and calculations. There is a 
striking example of that just at the present moment in 
Bulgaria. We need and wish for no war with France, and 
we also believe that there is no reason why it must of 
necessity break out so long as the Pope is not supreme 
there. When this happens, there will be hardly any pros- 
pect of a long peace. 



184 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1877 

I have endeavoured in the above to give you the tenor 
of some utterances of my father's. He empowered me to 
do this, and added that you might make whatever use 
you wished of this letter. 

My father sends you his kindest regards, and I am, 
Your most obedient, 

COUNT HERBERT BISMARCK. 



III. COUNT HENCKEL DONNERSMARCK TO BISMARCK. 

NEUDECK, December 23, '77. 

MOST ESTEEMED PRINCE, 

Your Excellency will no doubt already be acquainted 
with the secret history of MacMahon's change of mind in 
all its curious details, and also with the fact that it was 
Gambetta alone who directed the Committee, although he 
carefully avoided coming prominently forward. 

I heard from Gambetta the day before yesterday through 
a safe intermediary. In the middle of November, he said, 
I had told him that it was my personal opinion that the 
Imperial Chancellor would never believe in the sincerity 
of a French Government towards Germany so long- as its 
foreign policy was in clerical hands and Gontaut was Am- 
bassador in Berlin. He had, he continued, then answered 
me to the effect that by the end of the year these obstacles 
would be removed; the appointment of a Protestant * to 
assume the conduct of French foreign affairs and the re- 
placement of Gontaut by St. Vallier, who was designated 
by Hohenlohe as a person who would be sympathetic and 
acceptable to Germany, had in the meantime been carried 
out as manifestations of the desire on the part of France 
to cultivate good relations with Germany. He enquired 
whether, on the other hand, an official expression of sym- 

* Waddington. 



1877] CORRESPONDENCE 185 

pathy towards the present French Government, perhaps in 
connection with the forthcoming exhibition, we abiding, 
however, by our original intention not to take any active 
part in it, might be hoped for. Such a demonstration 
would be very welcome to the Ministry at the present mo- 
ment. 

I answered him to-day that I was not in a position to 
give an opinion in this matter, adding, however, that a de- 
termined attitude against Rome was unquestionably the 
surest means of furthering the rapprochement. 

At the end of October your Excellency wrote me 
through your son that it would evidently injure Gambetta 
in the eyes of his countrymen if he maintained any inter- 
course whatever with Bismarck, le Prussien; to this I can 
only say that Gambetta's prestige in his party is unquali- 
fied; the dictator of Tours is still an autocrat there. 

If you give me permission to do so, I would take it upon 
myself to bring Gambetta to you at Varzin, and, according 
as you decide, either publicly or without letting anyone 
know of it. All that is necessary is a hint from you. The 
pater Joseph of the present Government, the holder of the 
majority in the Assemblee generate and in a congres of the 
two parliamentary bodies, will proffer you to its fullest ex- 
tent the friendly co-operation of France, in order to attain 
what he considers indispensable for the re-establishment 
of settled relations and the restoration of mutual con- 
fidence in Europe, and for relieving the commercial 
and industrial distress viz., the adoption of a common 
attitude on the part of Germany and France against 
Rome, the revival of confidence between the two nations, 
and a mutual understanding with respect to the military 
budget. 

With sincere esteem, 

Your Excellency's most obedient 

HENCKEL DONNERSMARCK. 



186 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S ^877 

IV. BISMARCK TO COUNT HENCKEL DONNERSMARCK. 

VARZIN, December 28, '77. 
HONOURED COUNT, 

I am extremely obliged to you for your letter of the 2yd 
inst., which I have read with great interest. 

The change of the person of the French Ambassador 
has pleased me intensely; if anything was calculated to pro- 
mote our confidence in the peaceable sentiments of France, 
it was the recall of Gontaut, who had identified himself 
with all the movements hostile to the Empire, and I only 
wish some practicable means could be found of outwardly 
manifesting our pleasure. It is impossible for us to re-open 
the question of the Exhibition, as it is now too late for 
our exhibitors to make any arrangements; I hope, how- 
ever, that without this Gambetta will be set completely at 
ease with regard to our intentions. I should be very glad 
to enter into personal relations with him; for the mo- 
ment, however, that would greatly alarm the Emperor, as 
his Majesty has been well worked upon by Gontaut and 
other influences in respect of Republican propaganda, and 
has been rendered very mistrustful. Moreover, I should, 
in Gambetta's own interest, consider it precipitate if he 
were foolish enough to compromise himself with me; I 
attach too great importance to his retaining his authority 
unimpaired to be inclined to facilitate his sharing it. He 
is one of the few authoritative natures still existing in 
France, and in view of his peaceable sentiments and of 
the power, which is still considerable, of the parties op- 
posed to him, I think that the capital hoarded in him 
should be husbanded for the present. In any case I am 
very much obliged to you for establishing in this way 
indirect relations which I shall gladly use and cherish. I 
am pleased that you think kindly of me, and I beg of you 
to reckon on my readiness to reciprocate. 

Yours, v. BISMARCK. 



1878] CORRESPONDENCE 187 

V. COUNT HENCKEL DONNERSMARCK TO BISMARCK. 

(Telegram.)* 

DESPATCHED FROM PARIS, April 12, '78. 

PRINCE BISMARCK, 

Berlin. 

Early fruits requested cannot at the moment be lound, 
notwithstanding most careful search been made. Con- 
signment cannot arrive within a week. Details leave this 
evening. HENCKEL. 

VI. COUNT HENCKEL DONNERSMARCK TO BISMARCK. 

25, AVENUE DBS CHAMPS ELYSEES, 

PARIS, April 12, '78. 
MOST HONOURED COUNT, 

In view of the Reichstag recess beginning to-morrow I 
telegraphed to your Excellency to-day: 

"Early fruits," (etc., as above), and beg to report as 
follows. 

Immediately after arriving here on the evening of the 
6th I sent to the person in question, but was informed 
that, in consequence of the death of his aunt, Gambetta 
had gone to Nice, and would be away at least until the end 
of this week; nobody knew his address. 

The next morning (Sunday) I got one of his best friends, 
who first introduced me to him, to try and ascertain where 
letters and telegrams for him should be addressed, or, if 
his whereabouts had to be kept secret, if they could be 
forwarded. Enquiries among his most intimate friends 
proved that no one knows where he is staying; he is cer- 
tainly not at Nice, and has probably hidden himself some- 
where to obtain a little rest. As soon as he returns here 
I will make the necessary arrangements, and will at once 
inform you of the day of the arrival in Berlin. 

I have the honour to be 

Your Excellency's faithfully devoted 

HENCKEL DONNERSMARCK. 

* Sent in French. 



i88 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1878 

VII. BISMARCK TO COUNT HENCKEL DONNERSMARCK. 

BERLIN, April 14, '78. 
HONOURED FRIEND, 

I am very much obliged for your communications, and 
shall always be glad when we can see our arrangements 
carried into effect. But for the rheumatism, I should be at 
Friedrichsruh already. I am going there as soon as I can 
travel, and remain there until May ist, unless I have to 
spend a day in Berlin when the King of Sweden passes 
through, I believe on the 2Oth instant. The journey oc- 
cupies only four hours ; I could, therefore, also at your wish 
take the train for Berlin at any time before the first of May 
and be home again on the same evening. My wife does 
not yet know whether she will follow me; she is Very grate- 
ful for and intensely pleased with the wonderful Marechal 
Niels,* which that polyglot European of a gardener of 
yours has transplanted here in perfect condition and in the 
full glory of their bloom. Everybody who knows anything 
about the matter is greatly impressed at the sight of them. 

With friendly greetings, 

Yours, 

v. BISMARCK. 

VIII. GAMBETTA TO COUNT HENCKEL DONNERSMARCK. f 

PARIS, April 22, '78. 

MY DEAR COUNT, 

I am extremely sorry that you should hfave had the an- 
noyance of writing to me on April 6th without receiving 
an answer. Please excuse me; the painful loss I had sus- 
tained kept me away from Paris for three weeks without 
communicating with anyone. I should like to see you to- 
morrow, about half-past one in the afternoon, to express 
my regrets and to converse with you as you desire. 
With my kindest regards, 

L. GAMBETTA. 
* Roses, 
f Translated from the original French. 



1878] CORRESPONDENCE 189 

IX. COUNT HENCKEL DONNERSMARCK TO BISMARCK. 

(Telegram.)* 

PARIS, April 23, '78. 

PRINCE BISMARCK, 

Friedrichsruh. 

Consignment leaves Sunday, arrives Berlin Monday 
evening, will be at your disposal Tuesday, details follow. 

HENCKEL. 

X. COUNT HENCKEL DONNERSMARCK TO BISMARCK. 

25 CHAMPS ELYSEES, 

PARIS, April 23, '78. 

MOST HONOURED PRINCE, 

I have had the honour and the pleasure of receiving your 
kind letter of the I4th instant. Gambetta, who returned 
here yesterday evening, has just left me, and I have sent 
the following telegram to Friedrichsruh : 

" Consignment leaves Sunday, arrives Berlin Monday 
evening, will be at your disposal Tuesday, details follow." 

Gambetta's aunt, who stinted herself to provide for his 
education, and to whom he was most fondly attached, died 
quite suddenly and unexpectedly. He was so shaken by 
the death that for several weeks he shut himself up away 
from everyone. He is ready to come to Berlin at any time 
that may be most convenient to your Excellency; he would 
like, however, not to be away too long after the Asseniblee 
Nationale resumes its sittings (April 29th). 

In order to spare you the unnecessary journey from 
Friedrichsruh to Berlin and back, I have arranged our 
departure from here on Sunday evening, and our arrival 
in Berlin (Hotel Kaiserhof) on the evening of Monday the 
29th. On the 3Oth, the day on which the Reichstag re- 
opens, Gambetta will be at your disposal, and I trust to 

* Sent in French. 



190 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1878 

receive at the Kaiserhof intimation as to the time which 
will suit you best. The whole matter has ? of course, been 
kept a close secret here. 
I have the honour to be, 

Your Excellency's faithfully devoted, 

HENCKEL DONNERSMARCK. 

XL GAMBETTA TO COUNT HENCKEL DONNERSMARCK.* 

PARIS, April 24, '78. 

DEAR COUNT HENCKEL, 

Man proposes . . . parliament disposes. When I 
accepted with eagerness yesterday I had not reckoned with 
the unforeseen which holds us all in check. 

Questions relating to the Ministry for War have as- 
sumed a serious aspect, and I am informed that an im- 
portant debate will be opened on the Ministry for War as 
soon as the Chambers meet. 

I cannot desert my parliamentary post at such a time, 
and leave behind me an incident entailing such important 
consequences. 

I am, therefore, under the dire necessity of postponing, 
at least until after the session, which will probably be very 
short, the execution of a project to the realisation of which 
you have so efficaciously and so sympathetically con- 
tributed. I am extremely grateful for this, and when the 
Chambers separate you will perhaps, if there is still time, 
again permit me to solicit your kind intervention. 

Accept, etc. 

L. GAMBETTA. 

XII. TELEGRAM TO COUNT HENCKEL DONNERSMARCK. 

BERLIN, April 24, '78. 
COUNT HENCKEL, 

Champs Elysees, Paris. 

Recipient of your yesterday's telegram is ill, and desires 
* Translated from the original French. 



1878] CORRESPONDENCE 191 

you to be informed that, in the opinion of his doctors, it 
will be ten days or a fortnight before he can return to 
Berlin. 

A footnote in the German edition says: 

" Prince Bismarck and Gambetta never met, nor was a meeting be- 
tween them ever again mooted; Gambetta was once, however, at Fried- 
richsruh incognito as a tourist, and was shown over the house. Prince 
Bismarck was away at the time." 



170 

BISMARCK TO PRINCE CHLODWIG zu HOHENLOHE. 

VARZIN, January i, '78. 

YOUR EXCELLENCY, 

I should like to add to my New Year's congratulations, 
already expressed to you en clair, my most cordial thanks 
for the clear-sighted and courageous support you have given 
me at all times, and especially with such great success dur- 
ing the past few months. Unfortunately, I do not always 
find the ability to represent our policy united with a loyal 
inclination to do so, and I am all the more grateful for the 
exceptions where this is the case. I shall always acknowl- 
edge with gratitude that, during the whole time we have 
worked together, I could always count on your Excellency's 
certain and successful co-operation, without which it would 
not be possible, in the face of all the animosities and in- 
trigues of which I am the object, to attain the indispensable 
and to render the dangerous innocuous. 

For some days past I have been ill again and am com- 
pelled to keep my room. Owing to the fact that I am treated 
with such scant consideration in respect of business affairs, 
I cannot recover from the effects of what is, in itself, an in- 
significant cold. 

I beg your Excellency to place me at the Princess's feet, 
and am, Yours 

v. BISMARCK. 



i 9 2 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1878 

171 

PRINCE HOHENLOHE TO BISMARCK. 

MUNICH, January 5, '78. 
MOST ILLUSTRIOUS PRINCE, 

I have had the honour to receive here the friendly words 
which your Excellency was kind enough to address to me 
at the beginning of the New Year. I thank you most 
heartily for them ; they have given me great pleasure. The 
less contented I am myself with what I have achieved politi- 
cally and diplomatically, the more gratifying to me is the 
extremely kind manner in which your Excellency appre- 
ciates it. I shall preserve your letter for my children and 
grandchildren, as the most valuable document my family 
possesses. 

I need hardly add that your Excellency may also in the 
future count on my full and unqualified co-operation. 

I know better than many others the animosity to which 
you are exposed, for your enemies were always mine and 
will also remain so. I will continue the fight to the utmost 
extent of my powers, and shall be proud to be permitted to 
work under your direction. May God preserve you in health 
and strength, still to conduct the affairs of Germany and of 
Prussia to the welfare of the Fatherland. 

Again wishing that the year which is beginning may be a 
happy one for you and yours, I have the honour, with sincere 
esteem, to be Your Excellency's most obedient 

C. F. v. HOHENLOHE. 

172 
THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK TO BISMARCK. 

BERLIN, January 28, '78. 

The enclosure contains the political portion of my report 
to his Majesty on my mission to Rome on the occasion of 
the death of King Victor Emanuel, which I think will be of 
interest to you. 



1878] CORRESPONDENCE 193 

I am not yet ready with my description of the ceremonies, 
though this does not matter much, as the newspapers report 
much more accurately than I, and my work will have only 
documentary value. 

The impression I have obtained from the journey, which 
was arranged and carried out in such a short time, is that 
it was quite right, in such exceptional circumstances, to send 
me to Rome. 

The Italians feel flattered, the Court is honoured, and the 
young King has one reason more to convince himself as 
to who are his friends. 

French bungling and Jesuitical explosions of rage fav- 
oured my appearance in the Eternal City, as did also the re- 
pulse given by the Pope to the Queen of Portugal and the 
Archduke Rainer. 

Hohenlohe * gave me to understand that he was at my 
orders, but that a meeting with me might be prejudicial to 
him. This was reason enough for my not seeing him- I 
sent him a message, however, to the effect that he might take 
an opportunity of informing the Pope that I always recall 
with pleasure the old gentleman's kindness and amiability 
towards my wife and myself when we were in Rome on 
former occasions; that I did not intend to visit St. Peter's 
or the Vatican galleries this time; and that I was sorry to 
hear he was so ill. 

King Humbert expects an old, blunt Italian from the Con- 
clave. Crispi made emphatic reference to your question of 
1870, " whether we would count on him and his party," and 
to his meeting with you this autumn. The old, blind Duca 
di Sermoneta was at no pains to conceal his sympathies with 
us, and Depretis, in spite of his taciturnity, seemed to me to 
be well disposed towards us. 

Prince Napoleon (Jerome) is animated with a love of 
peace, and discussed the events of the war of 187071 as un- 
*The Cardinal 



194 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1878 

constainedly as Canrobert did; the latter hates the Re- 
public. 

Hoping to see you again soon, 

Your very obedient, 

FRIEDRICH WILHELM. K. P. 



173 
THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK TO BISMARCK. 

[BERLIN], February 17, '78. 

If it would not disturb you too much, I should like to come 
to you this evening at 8 o'clock, in order to obtain my in- 
formation before the excitement of the feast. 

I leave at 9 o'clock for Potsdam, to meet their Belgian 
Majesties, and arrive with them here at 10:15. 

It would be nothing short of a crime if I were to come 
to you after this evening ceremony ! 

Your very obedient, 

FRIEDRICH WILHELM. K. P. 

174 

BERLIN, February 22, '72. 

COUNT HERBERT BISMARCK TO COUNT HOLNSTEIN. 
HONOURED PATRON, 

The Bundesrath voted yesterday on the Substitute Bill, 
with what result you will already know. The Bill was 
passed unanimously in the form in which it left the Com- 
mittee. My father sacrificed the original form of the Bill 
to attain this unanimity, but it still gives him what he 
needs from a business point of view; more than this he 
does not desire to obtain, and Herr von Pfretzschner* has 
expressed to him his especial thanks for accepting the 
amendments in Committee. 

* A Bavarian statesman. 



1878] CORRESPONDENCE 195 

The whole affair has produced so many newspaper 
articles, and consequently misunderstandings, that it 
seemed as if really a great number of difficulties even if 
only imaginary ones were arising against it. Many per- 
sons have acquired quite a wrong impression of the sig- 
nificance of the Bill, and my father has had much trouble 
to expose the real kernel of the matter. He is all the more 
grateful to your exalted master [the King of Bavaria], 
whose gracious confidence enabled him to secure the una- 
nimity of the Governments in the Bundesrath which is in- 
dispensable if the Reichstag is to remain within bounds. 
My father's views on the development of the Empire have 
not changed since he explained them to his Majesty from 
Kissingen last summer. The whole Substitutes Bill has no 
bearing whatever on the independent Ministries in the 
Empire. The rights of the Bundesrath remain intact 
whether the authority of the Chancellor is transferable or 
not; his substitutes can never have more rights than the 
Chancellor himself has possessed hitherto. 

Many words have been wasted by the newspapers in the 
discussion of plans which never existed, and which, ac- 
cording to the Constitution, are impossible. My father 
desires no more than the possibility of being represented 
and of having leave of absence, or of being relieved of 
some of the current business. 

A change of the Constitution and a curtailment of the 
rights of the Bundesrath are impossible, and even if they 
were possible my father would always most determinedly 
oppose the carrying out of this immature idea, which must 
necessarily have a most seriously injurious effect on the 
whole administrative machine of the Empire and the in- 
dividual states. The only question in all the documents has 
been that the possibility of the Imperial Chancellor being 
replaced by a substitute has become a necessity. 

It has fallen to me to write letters from Varzin, at my 



196 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1878 

father's direction, to the Minister Biilow, in which this point 
was made perfectly clear. My father has also empowered 
me to communicate all this to you, as he is very desirous 
that you should be acquainted with the exact state of 
affairs. I can only repeat that my father, now as hereto- 
fore, has nothing to do with Imperial Ministers, and that 
the support given to his standpoint is at all times welcome 
to him. There is absolutely no idea of the present Bill ever 
becoming a bridge to Imperial Ministries. As long as the 
constitutional rights of the Bundesrath are not impaired 
or diminished, such Ministries, which vegetate in the phan- 
tasies of journalists, are simply impossible. 

It must, however, be made indisputably possible for my 
father to be represented, otherwise he cannot continue to 
be Chancellor, and no one can be Chancellor in his place. 
Beside this one chief point the special clauses which have 
been introduced into the bill are fairly immaterial to him. 
He proved this yesterday, by most readily accepting the 
alterations made in the Bundesrath. 

During the week that we have been here my father has 
again been compelled to work very hard, and his health 
is already beginning to suffer in consequence. Owing to 
the fact that he cannot have a substitute, the latter is worse 
than it was ten months ago. As he had to treat everything 
in writing while he was on leave and in the health-resort 
exactly as if he were in Berlin, he could obtain no rest or 
recreation. It was not merely the foreign policy which 
devolved upon him alone. His constant endeavour is to 
maintain peace, and although he is not supported in this 
by all the powers that are friendly toward us to the extent 
that he might have expected, he still hopes that we at least 
will remain at peace. 

My parents wish to be remembered to you and your 
wife. 

H. BISMARCK. 



1878] CORRESPONDENCE 197 

175 
THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK TO BISMARCK. 

POTSDAM, May 14, '78. 

I must, to my extreme regret, relinquish the idea of see- 
ing you before I start for England. As it is possible that 
the Alsace-Lorraine affair may be advanced a step during 
my absence from Berlin, I feel in duty bound to make the 
express statement to you, that, should his Majesty decide to 
summon me to the post * in question, I will be ready to 
obey the summons with pleasure. 

Your very obedient, 

FRIEDRICH WILHELM. K. P. 

176 
KING LUDWIG II. OF BAVARIA TO BISMARCK. 

(Telegram.) 

PARTENKIRCHEN, September 30, '78. 
To HIS EXCELLENCY PRINCE v. BISMARCK, 

GERMAN IMPERIAL CHANCELLOR, BERLIN: 
I send you my warmest and sincerest congratulations and 
good wishes on the joyous family event, f in which I take 
the keenest interest, as I do in everything that concerns 
you, my dear Prince, and your house. 

LUDWIG. 



THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK TO BISMARCK. 

October 10, '78. 

Enclosed are my impressions collected in South Ger- 
many and on the Rhine, which are at your disposal. 

One thing I forgot to refer to the other evening, viz., 
whether the President of the Court of Appeal at Frankrurt- 
on-the-Oder, Simson, would not be the most suitable per- 
son for the new post of President of the Supreme Court 

* Of Statthalter of Alsace and Lorraine. 

t The betrothal of the Countess Marie von Bismarck with Count 
Kuno zu Rantzau, on September 22, 1878. 



198 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1878- 

of the Empire at Leipzig. The matter is not yet pressing, 
but I wished to put forward and strongly recommend my 
candidate in good time. 

A person with such a past and of so much political 
weight has assuredly the talent required to recognise our 
Supreme Court and then to conduct it. 
Your 

FRIEDRICH WILHELM. K. P. 

178 

PRINCE CHLODWIG zu HOHENLOHE TO BISMARCK. 

PARIS, December 10, '78 
MOST ILLUSTRIOUS PRINCE, 

The Cabinet Order, with which his Majesty was gracious 
enough to send me the insignia of the Order of the Black 
Eagle, speaks in such flattering language of my public serv- 
ices that I cannot refrain from expressing my deeply felt 
thanks to your Excellency, to whose friendly feelings to- 
wards me I must ascribe this Imperial appreciation. 

If I have succeeded in administering the offices I have 
held to the satisfaction of the Emperor and your Excel- 
lency, it is owing chiefly to the forbearance and benevolence 
you have been good enough to exercise towards me in judg- 
ing my work from the commencement. This gave me the 
courage and the self-confidence of which I stood in need. 

While requesting your Excellency still further to extend 
your favour towards me, I am with the most sincere respect, 
Your Excellency's most obedient servant, 

C. F. v. HOHENLOHE. 

179 

PRESIDENT SIMSON TO BISMARCK. 

FRANKFURT-ON-THE-ODER, March ig, '79. 

MOST ILLUSTRIOUS PRINCE AND IMPERIAL CHANCELLOR, 

The arguments urged by your Excellency yesterday 

have deeply affected me; in the conversation permitted 



1879] CORRESPONDENCE 199 

me with my family and friends my scruples were all re- 
moved; I place myself unreservedly at your Excellency's 
disposal.* 

I wish I could in some measure express the gratitude 
with which my soul is filled for the favour again vouch- 
safed to me by your Excellency. 

I remain, most illustrious Prince, in deep and faithful 
veneration, 

Your Excellency's most obedient SIMSON, 

President of the Court of Appeal. 

1 80 

THE EMPEROR WILLIAM TO B. VON BULOW, SECRETARY 

OF STATE. 

BABELSBERG, August 29, '79. 

I see to my great astonishment that Andrassy started 
for Gastein yesterday before he has laid down his office 
and Haymerle appointed. You will, therefore, please tele- 
graph to Prince Bismarck as follows: 
" To Prince Bismarck, 

" Gastein. 

" Agree to everything, and Manteuffel despatched. Con- 
sider journey to Vienna, however, now impossible, even 
if Warsaw passes off satisfactorily." To be signed, 

" Wilhelm." 

Even if this intimation arrives too late to prevent a com- 
munication of the travelling plan to Andrassy, it is abso- 
lutely necessary. WILHELM. 

181 
BISMARCK TO B. VON BULOW. 

(Telegram.) 

GASTEIN, August 30, '79. 

Telegram received. Kindly report to his Majesty that I 
have promised Count Andrassy to pay my return visit to 
* For the office of President of the Supreme Court. 



FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1879 

him in Vienna, on the way back. Shall I now write to him 
that his Majesty forbids my doing this? I cannot accept 
the responsibility myself of the political consequences of 
sending such a message to Vienna in the present state of 
affairs. I think, therefore, that I must start on my return 
journey via Vienna in about a fortnight. 

v. BISMARCK. 

182 
B. VON BULOW TO BISMARCK. 

(Telegram.)' 

BERLIN, August 30, '79. 

Report submitted this evening. His Majesty instructs 
me to inform your Excellency that, after explanations 
given, he readily agrees to return visit in Vienna in about 
a fortnight's time. That telegram crossed his Majesty's 
letter containing the grounds of objections. The telegram 
transmitted to your Excellency was all that is to hand 
respecting the notification of the Czar's visit on the 3rd. 
The Czar said he could not, on account of the proximity, 
decline to receive the Emperor Franz Josef there. 

v. BULOW. 

183 

COUNT ANDRASSY TO BISMARCK. 

SCHONBRUNN, September i, '79. 
HONOURED PRINCE, 

I have communicated telegraphically from Gastein in nuce 
to my most gracious master, who is proceeding direct from 
Prague to Bruck, the tendency and the provisional result of 
our interview. I pointed out in particular that the question 
is of a defensive agreement, a sort of insurance between our 
two sovereigns in view of the armaments and of the corn- 
minatory language which we and Germany hear in turn, the 
idea of the same being that any attack on one of the two 
empires is to be repelled with the entire joint forces, and 



1879] CORRESPONDENCE 201 

that the casus foederis is to come into force if one of the two 
empires is attacked by a third power, and Russia should co- 
operate with the latter. 

I also pointed out that I had warmly advocated this com- 
bination, but I did not in any way try to influence his Maj- 
esty's decision. 

To this I received, on my arrival, a telegram from 
Prague, in which the Emperor states that he fully accords 
with the tendency and the provisional results of our in- 
terview, and invites me to come to him in the camp at 
Bruck. I was in Bruck yesterday and had the opportunity 
of making a detailed, verbal report. 

I found the Emperor so convinced of the utility, and, 
indeed, of the necessity of such an agreement, that it was 
superfluous to advance any further reasons in its support. 
His Majesty regards it not only as no deviation from the 
project of maintaining peace in the three Empires, but as 
being now the only possible means of removing the Damo- 
cles sword which constantly hangs over our relations, and 
of assuring peace for the welfare of the third party as well 
as of ourselves. 

That my Emperor is always glad to see you here, and will 
be especially glad now, is a matter of course. In the mean- 
time, I am empowered to receive a text of the proposed 
agreement as soon as his Majesty, the Emperor William, 
has sanctioned it in principle, and also to draw one up for 
approval myself. 

I will remain in office until this matter is concluded, al- 
though my successor has been initiated by myself, and is 
quite in accord with our project. 

I have no doubt whatever of the personal intentions of 
Czar Alexander, and am convinced that he does not wish 
for war. As a Minister of a neighbouring State, I cannot, 
however, forget that he did not wish for the war which has 
just ended, and that from the beginning to the end of 



102 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1879 

it he vainly endeavoured to stem the current proceeding 
from his immediate entourage. 

I consider the removal of these dangers to be a European 
necessity; and, difficult as it is now for me to postpone my re- 
tirement, it would be extremely agreeable to me, as the serv- 
ant of my Emperor and of my country, to sign with you, 
honoured Prince, such a guarantee for the future of the two 
Empires. 

Austria has made the mistake in the past of refusing 
Germany's offers, which would have assured the interest of 
both the countries. I am glad that we are not this time com- 
mitting such a mistake. 

In sincere friendship and true esteem, 

Your most obedient, 

ANDRASSY. 

184 

BISMARCK TO COUNT ANDRASSY. 

GASTEIN, September 3, '79. 
HONOURED COUNT, 

I received your letter of the ist yesterday evening with 
great pleasure and satisfaction, and hasten to take advantage 
of the return of the bearer of it to send you a provisional 
answer. In the first place, I beg you to place at the feet 
of his Majesty the Emperor my most respectful thanks 
for the gracious manner in which his Majesty has thought 
of my intention of coming to Vienna. I am glad to learn 
from your letter that our project has already one foot in 
the stirrup, and do not doubt that our joint work will suc- 
ceed in getting it firmly in the saddle. Owing to the nature 
of things, geographically as well as politically, my share of 
the task cannot, unfortunately, be despatched as expedi- 
tiously as yours. A verbal report has not only the advan- 
tage of gaining time, it also enables the minister to restrict 



1879] CORRESPONDENCE 203 

his replies to the questions actually raised by his Sovereign. 
In the written statement, on the other hand, I must antici- 
pate all the misunderstandings which I fear may arise. I 
have thus dictated exactly sixty folio pages to my son, who, 
with your kind permission, is writing this letter, and yet 
was obliged to explain the contents fully in a subsequent 
telegraphic message. In spite of all my care, however, I 
have not succeeded in completely obviating the misunder- 
standing that there must be some idea of an aggressive ten- 
dency behind our peaceable plan. This idea is, of course, 
very uncongenial to amore than eighty-two-year-old gentle- 
man, but I hope to be able completely to remove it, even if 
it should cost me a fairly long postscript to the said sixty 
pages. There is less probability of my overcoming my 
master's disinclination to adapt himself quickly to new situa- 
tions. 

His Majesty regards the recent step of the Czar Alex- 
ander as the first, lightning-like elucidation of a situation 
which / have been compelled frequently to realise during 
the past few years. And then, after all this, the Czar 
Alexander whether as the result of outside influence or 
of his own resolution, I do not know endeavours to force 
Jupiter tonans into the background again by a quick transi- 
tion to sunshine. Thus the last menacing utterances were 
followed, within a week, by a friendly invitation to send 
Prussian officers to Warsaw. My Emperor accepted, and 
announced that he would send Field-marshal Manteuffel 
with a suite. Baron Manteuffel's reception at Warsaw has 
been a most gratifying one, both personally and politically. 
. . . I do not know whether the meeting arranged for 
to-day at Alexandrovo is due to his or to Russian initiative. 
The objections raised here to a meeting on Russian terri- 
tory were met with the rejoinder that provision could not 
be so quickly made outside Russia for assuring the per- 
sonal safety of the Czar. As far as I know, this meeting 



204 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1879 

takes place to-day; our Emperor is accompanied only by 
his adjutants, and in Minister v. Billow's opinion his chief 
object is to obtain from the Czar an explanation of his 
threatening attitude. 

I dare not .hope to receive before this an answer to my 
report made to the Emperor on the 2nd, and which has only 
been acknowledged by Biilow telegraphically. I gather 
from Billow's telegram that the Emperor agrees to my 
resuming the discussions with you, my most honoured 
friend, in Vienna, but that I must " settle nothing without 
his sanction." This is a matter of course, and you will not 
be impatient if his age, his habits, and the novelty of the 
perspective combine to make my master need time in which 
to arrive at a decision. Furthermore, and this is favourable 
to our plan, his Royal Highness, the Crown Prince, has 
been consulted in the matter by his father, so that time is 
needed for an exchange of ideas between the two exalted 
gentlemen. 

As is the case with you, each day's reflection strengthens 
my conviction that the work we have undertaken is not 
only beneficial, but necessary, and I hope that God will grant 
it to us to assure to our two great Empires the guarantee 
of external and internal peace for which they are striving. 
I have considered it my duty to let you know how far I 
have advanced with my work, and will again do so, as soon 
as I receive my master's promised statement. If his Maj- 
esty should put it into writing, at Konigsberg, on the 4th, 
I shall be in possession of it on the 7th, or the 8th at the 
latest. I was sorely tempted to go to Berlin myself, directly 
you had started back, in order to plead our cause verbally; 
but the state of my health and my strength did not allow 
me to undergo this strain, and, moreover, my experience 
is that I arrive at an understanding with my exalted master 
in important and difficult matters far more surely, if not 
so quickly, by written than by verbal intercourse. It hap- 



1879] CORRESPONDENCE 205 

pens so frequently that difficulties crop up in the latter case 
which do not necessarily belong to the subject. 

I hope to finish my cure here in fifteen to sixteen days, 
and by that time to be again ready for the coming winter. 
Hoping that we shall soon meet again, I am, with most 
friendly esteem, 

Your most obedient 

v. BISMARCK. 



BISMARCK TO COUNT ANDRASSY. 

GASTEIN, September 20, '79. 

HONOURED COUNT, 

I have the honour now to supplement my reply of the 
3rd inst. to your Excellency's favour of the ist. I have 
repeatedly and fully reported on the situation in accordance 
with the tenor of our discussions here, and the fact that my 
colleagues who represent me entirely accord with my views 
has enabled me to overcome the difficulties produced by 
the geographical distance and by opposing influences from 
another side, in so far that the Emperor now agrees in prin- 
ciple to the view which guided me in our recent discussions. 
My substitute, Count Stolberg-Wernigerode, informs me 
that the Emperor is prepared to consent to an understanding 
according to which both powers mutually promise to do 
their utmost for the maintenance of peace, and especially 
towards fostering peaceable relations with Russia, and 
that, should one of them be attacked by one or more powers, 
they will repel this attack with their entire joint forces. 

I am thus empowered by my most gracious master to 
propose a Defensive Alliance between Austria-Hungary and 
the German Empire, without stipulating any conditions, and 
for a definite or indefinite period. I beg your Excellency 
to arrange to discuss this proposition verbally with me, and 
I would then submit the result of our deliberations to my 



ao6 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1878 

most gracious master. I have no doubt of obtaining his 
Majesty's sanction if your Excellency is in a position to 
assent, in the name of his Majesty, the Emperor Franz 
Josef, to our proposition in the simplest and general form 
in which it is made. 

In any case, I shall esteem myself happy if our delibera- 
tions produce this result or any other which might promote 
the common interests of the two Empires, and further the 
cause of peace in Europe. 

With the most friendly esteem, I am, from my heart, 
Your most obedient 

v. BISMARCK. 

186 
CARDINAL GUSTAV VON HOHENLOHE TO BISMARCK. 

ROME, November 26, '79. 

HONOURED SIR, 

I again take the liberty of writing to your Excellency. 
I am told here that the peace negotiations with Cardinal 
Jacobini are making favourable progress, and I thank God 
for this satisfactory turn of affairs. Nevertheless, certain 
" clerical hotspurs " flatter themselves that the Jesuits will 
again be smuggled into Prussia by means of some such 
passage as the following: " Religious associations and so- 
cieties have free entry into Prussia." 

Although the Jesuits are not named, people flatter them- 
selves that the passage will get through, and the Jesuits 
will follow. Happy naivete! It is always a good thing to 
guard our Fatherland against this public calamity. 

With heartiest wishes for your well-being, and in deepest 
respect and veneration, 

Your Excellency's 

most obedient servant, 
G. CARDINAL v. HOHENLOHE, Bishop of "Albano. 



1879] CORRESPONDENCE 207 

187 

COUNT LEHNDORFF TO BISMARCK. 

(Telegram.) 

BERLIN, December 15, '79, 10.9 A. 1C. 

To HIS EXCELLENCY PRINCE VON BISMARCK, VARZIN. 

Various, and partially contradictory, reports concerning 
your Excellency's state of health have reached his Majesty 
the Emperor and King, and have made him so anxious that 
his Majesty urgently desires to have telegraphic news of 
the same. His Majesty is all the more anxious as your 
Excellency has had to receive visits from two important 
personages * within the last few days, and he awaits with 
exceeding eagerness and sympathy the assurance that the 
mental efforts consequent on these visits have had no ill 
effect. His Majesty sincerely wishes and hopes that this is 
so, and sends your Excellency most cordial greetings. 

COUNT LEHNDORFF, 

Adjutant-Major. 

188 
BISMARCK TO COUNT LEHNDORFF. 

(Telegram.) 

VARZIN, December 15, '79. 

To GENERAL COUNT LEHNDORFF, 

THE ROYAL PALACE, BERLIN. 

I beg you to place at his Majesty's feet my most respect- 
ful thanks for the gracious solicitude. 

I am still very weak, and recover but slowly ; visits such 
as the recent ones retard my recovery, but I felt that in the 
interest of the service I could not decline them ; there is no 

* Count Peter Schouvaloff, and Lord Dufferin, English Ambassador 
to the Russian court. 



208 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1880 

danger of their causing a relapse, for my intercourse with 
those two gentlemen involved no anxiety and no mental ex- 
citement, and it is the latter which, in my doctor's opinion, 
I must chiefly avoid. More by letter. 

v. BISMARCK. 



189 
KING LUDWIG II. OF BAVARIA TO BISMARCK. 

SCHLOSS BERG, May 17, 'Bo. 
MY DEAR PRINCE BISMARCK, 

I thank you most heartily for sending me the bill respect- 
ing the Church Laws, which is to be introduced into the 
Prussian Landtag, and for accompanying it with such a 
lucid exposition of the situation. I am deeply grieved, how- 
ever, my dear Prince, to find that you have subjoined the 
announcement of your intended retirement from office. You 
know the measure of sincere esteem and of unqualified con- 
fidence which I bear unquenchably in my heart towards 
you, and can judge from that how keenly I must feel the 
realisation of your purpose. Although affairs in the Reichs- 
tag may not always assume the most desirable form, the 
Federal Council will always, my dear Prince, gladly stand by 
you unchangeably on the federative basis of the constitution. 
My Government, which never for a moment deviated from 
that basis, was always supported by the consciousness that 
it was at one with the man to whose eminent statesmanlike 
foresight and labours Germany owes her new greatness, 
which has been achieved in such a manner that the necessary 
independence and strength of the individual States have 
not only not been curtailed, but have been increased through 
the Federal consolidation. 

The continuance of such principles assures to the common 
Fatherland times of peace and of power. The more ardently 



i88o] CORRESPONDENCE 209 

I desire this, and the more I am resolved always to do my 
utmost towards this end, the less willing I am to relinquish 
the hope that the affairs of Germany may remain for long 
years to come under your irreplaceable guidance. 

Receive, my dear Prince, the renewed assurance of my 
especial esteem, with which I am, 

Your sincere friend, 

LUDWIG. 
IQO 

KING LUDWIG II. OF BAVARIA TO BISMARCK. 

SCHLOSS BERG, June 15, '80. 
MY DEAR PRINCE BISMARCK, 

I tender you my best thanks for your letter of the gth 
inst.,* the enclosure to which interested me exceedingly. 
I esteem your communications very highly, both for the 
extreme importance of their contents, and for the fact that 
they are a mark of kindly attention, and trust you will con- 
tinue them. I hear that you will soon be at Kissingen. 
You know, my dear Prince, how sincere is my wish for your 
welfare; I shall always rejoice at the fulfilment of these 
wishes, for I am, 

Your sincere friend, 

LUDWIG. 

191 
THE CROWN PRINCE WILLIAM TO BISMARCK. 

WIESBADEN, November 18, '80. 

Soon after my return from St. Petersburg I made copious 
notes of the impressions I had received there. I was so 
frequently interrupted, however, that I decided to postpone 
* The draft has not been found. 



sio FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1881 

until late in the autumn the task of writing them out in 
full. 

This is now done, but I was persuaded to use duplicating 
ink so that I should not be obliged to give my work into the 
hands of a third person to be transcribed. The result, how- 
ever, has been disastrous. 

As the mischief was done, I preferred to reckon on your 
forbearance rather than to try and repair it, so that my 
report comes with the request that you will pay more atten- 
tion to the contents than to the colour of the ink, the hand- 
writing, and its general appearance. 

This remarkable manuscript is at your disposal, and it 
supplements the conversation I had with you shortly after 
my return from Russia. I shall probably find opportunities 
during the coming years to revert from time to time to my 
interview with the heir-apparent! 

Trusting to see you on New Year's Day, 
Your very obedient 

FRIEDRICH WILHELM, K. P. 



192 
CARDINAL GUSTAV v. HOHENLOHE TO BISMARCK. 

VILLE D'ESTE, March 25, 'Si. 
MOST ILLUSTRIOUS PRINCE, 

Will your Excellency permit me to offer my sincerest con- 
gratulations on your birthday. Every respectable German 
must thank God on that day for having given you to the 
Fatherland, and must pray that you may still live many, 
many years in ease and happiness after so many cares, toils, 
and unpleasantnesses. I do this daily; on your birthday I 
shall specially pray for you, and have prayers said for you 
throughout my diocese of Albano. I am thinking of going 
there now, for some time, and to leave the Vatican alone, 



i882] CORRESPONDENCE 211 

so that it may gradually come to itself and approach more 
and more to the German Government. 

Please remember me to the Princess, with the assurance 
of my true devotion and friendship. I have the honour 
to be, Your Excellency's 

most obedient servant 

G. CARDINAL v. HOHENLOHE. 



193 

LORD AMPTHILL TO BISMARCK.* 

PRIVATE AND PERSONAL. BRITISH EMBASSY, 

BERLIN, April I, '82. 

DEAR PRINCE BISMARCK, 

My wife and I join in heartily wishing you many happy 
returns of your birthday, with health and prosperity to 
enjoy them to the joy of your family and the happiness of 
your great Fatherland. 

On your birthday I think I may venture to commit an in- 
discretion, and submit privately to you a few extracts of a 
private letter just received from Lord Granville. 

He says : " Count Herbert Bismarck goes to-morrow, 
and there is a rumour that he is likely not to return at all, 
or at all events only for a short time. This we must sin- 
cerely regret. He has made himself exceedingly popular, 
and there are many, certainly including Lady Granville and 
myself, who would be very sorry indeed to lose him. 

" He has been successful in circles where success was diffi- 
cult and not absolutely to be reckoned upon. He shows 
great interest, and is energetic in making acquaintance with 
all classes of people; but, as you know, it requires some 
time to get hold of the kernel, and as he is likely to play a 
very considerable part in the politics of his own country, 
* Given in the original English. 



212 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1882 

and as one of the obstacles to the better understanding of 
the two nations has been the want of knowledge of each, 
which some politicians display, I venture to think his early 
departure a mistake, and to entertain the earnest hope that 
he may return and dwell among us as long as possible." 

In thus committing an indiscretion, my object is to show 
how much Count Herbert has been appreciated in England. 

.With every good wish, believe me, dear Prince Bismarck, 
Yours gratefully, 

AMPTHILL. 

194 
THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK TO BISMARCK. 

(Telegram.) 

BERLIN, May 7, '82, 1.20 p. M. 

To THE IMPERIAL CHANCELLOR, 

PRINCE BISMARCK, FRIEDRICHSRUH. 
The Princess William has been safely delivered of a son. 
FRIEDRICH WILHELM, KRONPRINZ. 



195 



BISMARCK TO THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK. 

May 7, '82. 

I thank your Imperial Highness most respectfully for the 
gracious intelligence, and beg to proffer my most humble 
congratulations on this event, which is so extremely grati- 
fying to the Imperial House and to the whole country. 

BISMARCK. 



1884] CORRESPONDENCE 213 

196 

COUNT v. SECKENDORFF TO BISMARCK. 

BERLIN, January 25, '83. 
YOUR EXCELLENCY, 

I am commissioned by their Imperial Highnesses the 
Crown Prince and the Crown Princess to send you a medal 
commemorating this day * January 25, 1883 which their 
Imperial Highnesses hope your Excellency will give them 
the pleasure of accepting as a mark of their extreme friendly 
feelings and unqualified gratitude. 

Accept the expression of my highest esteem, with which 
I have the honour to be 

Your Excellency's most obedient 

COUNT SECKENDORFF, 

Lord in Waiting. 

197 

THE CROWN PRINCE FREDERICK TO BISMARCK. 

THE NEW PALACE, POTSDAM, May 14, '84. 

With many thanks for sending me the fair copy in the 
Schleswig-Holstein affair, I wish to ask you if we can speak 
on other questions here or in Berlin. 

Should you decide to come here, I will only mention that 
two o'clock is our dinner hour, and eight o'clock that of the 
so-called the. 

Should you prefer not to take any " nourishment " with 
us, only let us know which of your free hours you can spend 
with us here in the country. 

We could receive you in our house in Berlin to-morrow, 
Thursday, May I5th, between twelve o'clock and a quarter 
to one. 

In view of the approaching " reverements," I am ex- 
tremely desirous of speaking to you quite confidentially, 
* The Crown Prince and Princess's silver wedding. 



214 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1885 

Jjefore the appointments are definitely made, about filling 
our German post. 

Your very obedient, 

FRIEDRICH WILHELM, K. P. 

198 

GENERAL v. ALBEDYLL TO BISMARCK. 

EMS, July 7, '85. 
YOUR EXCELLENCY, 

I feel that I ought to tell you the substance of an inter- 
view I had yesterday with his Imperial Highness, the Crown 
Prince. 

It was the outcome of a report I made to. his Imperial 
Highness a fortnight ago, on the fainting-fit with which 
his Majesty the Emperor was seized after his arrival at 
Ems. 

It appears that in consequence of this report very serious 
deliberations have taken place in the Crown Prince's house- 
hold. The result of these deliberations is, as I gathered 
from the remarks made by his Imperial Highness, the 
Crown Prince, in our yesterday's interview, that it has been 
decided, in case of a change in the occupancy of the throne, 
that everything concerning the Government shall remain as 
it is at present. 

The Crown Prince stated this most decidedly, in a man- 
ner which showed perfectly clearly that it was not alone 
his view, but that it had been carefully weighed with the 
Crown Princess. 

The chief idea running through what the Crown Prince 
said, however, was that of the arrangement and the under- 
standing with you. He said repeatedly that he urgently 
desires this understanding, and that he regards it as an 
absolutely necessary and indispensable condition for his 
future government. 



1885] CORRESPONDENCE 215 

In reply to questions as to what attitude I thought your 
Excellency might assume towards this, I could only say that 
I was unable to give any opinion whatever. 

I do not think it necessary to mention here the other 
matters discussed by his Imperial Highness, but simply to 
inform your Excellency of the views at present held in the 
Crown Prince's household. 

His Imperial Highness told me that your Excellency will 
be at the New Palace to-day. You will certainly find my com- 
munications confirmed by the impressions you will obtain 
there. Your Excellency will also, no doubt, consider what 
standpoint you will take towards the advances which may 
be confidently expected from the Crown Prince and Prin- 
cess. I live and die as your Excellency knows in the 
conviction that a future without such an understanding is 
not to be thought of, and this conviction increased my 
obligation to bring the above to your Excellency's notice. 

My first idea was to come to Berlin, in order to speak to 
your Excellency myself ; I gave up that idea, however, as it 
would have been noticed, and am writing, as I think it will 
be of extreme importance to your Excellency to know the 
views held by the Crown Prince and Princess. 

His Majesty the Emperor feels better every day; the only 
alterations that can be noticed are diminished power of 
movement, and frequently recurring attacks of weariness. 
There are no evidences on which apprehensions of a recur- 
rence of such seizures could be based. I cannot but say, 
however, that the last fainting-fit has left a very deep im- 
pression on me, especially as it came without any previous 
warning, and that the seizure was a very severe one, and 
was very close to the moment in which a recall to life would 
have been no longer possible. 

In most sincere devotion, with the highest esteem, 
Your Excellency's most obedient 

v. ALBEDYLL. 



ai6 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1885 

199 

(Draft.) 
BISMARCK TO GENERAL ALBEDYLL. 

VARZIN, July 16, '85. 

As you rightly presupposed, I was in the New Palace on 
the 7th, and his Imperial Highness spoke to me in the same 
tenor as to you, in a very gracious manner, and with un- 
qualified confidence, during a walk in the garden. I was ex- 
tremely gratified by the kindliness of feeling he showed 
towards me, though it also somewhat embarrassed me. In 
the first place, such interviews are painful to me, in view of 
my personal feelings towards the Emperor ; I say to myself 
that they could not take place in his presence, and I cannot 
simply assume that I shall outlive his Majesty. I am 
younger than he is, but not so well-preserved. Moreover, 
my powers for work are no longer equal to what is required 
of them; I am eating into the capital. I cannot leave my 
old master's service against his will and in disgrace; that 
became clear to me when I saw him stretched on the ground 
by Nobiling's bullet. It was, however, my hope and my 
wife's that if, by God's will, I outlive the Emperor, I would 
pass the rest of my life in the country, and, like a pensioned 
court-actor, would exchange the stage for the stalls. On 
the other hand, if I live until he assumes the Government, 
the Crown Prince will be my King. Thinking as I do, I 
cannot deny him what remains to me of my powers to work, 
if he considers that he needs my services, and demands them 
of me, without expecting from me actions prejudicial to the 
country, to the dynasty, or to my honour. I was gratified 
by the cordial manner in which the Crown Prince expressed 
his confidence in me, but the feeling of being much more 
used up than he and the world imagine, is strong in me. As 



i886] CORRESPONDENCE 217 

the Emperor is so much stronger since he has been at Ems, 
I may hope that God will leave him with us much longer 
yet, and spare me the ultra posse. 

With the old friendship, Yours, 

v. BISMARCK. 



200 

THE CROWN PRINCESS FREDERICK TO BISMARCK. 

BERLIN, December 24, '85. 
HONOURED PRINCE, 

When you dined with us recently, you liked the taste 
of the Moselle wine which was served; it would give us 
great pleasure if you will accept a few bottles from us for 
Christmas. 

We have heard with extreme regret that you have been 
so ill, and only hope that it is not due to your having over- 
tired yourself when you were out last. 

With best wishes to the Princess, your 

CROWN PRINCESS. 

2OI 

ADJUTANT v. PLESSEN TO BISMARCK. 

THE PALACE (BERLIN), May 15, '86. 
YOUR EXCELLENCY, 

It is my duty to report that, while at tea yesterday evening, 
at half-past nine, with the Empress, and the Grand-Duch- 
ess, and Prince Ludwig of Baden, his Majesty the Emperor 
and King was seized with a kind of paralysis, became con- 
fused in his utterances, and finally lost the power of speech. 
He was conveyed to his bed, and recovered shortly after- 
wards. The night was a good one. At seven o'clock this 



218 FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1888 

morning the Emperor drank a cup of tea in his bed, and 
was quite clear in mind and speech. When he arose at nine 
o'clock, some confusion in his remarks and a certain un- 
natural excitation were observable. The condition has ap- 
parently improved during the morning; the Emperor is less 
agitated, but he complains of headache and feels exhausted. 
Your Excellency will receive news again this evening. 
Your Excellency's 

most obedient 

v. PLESSEN. 
r Adjutant-Major on duty. 



202 

ADJUTANT-MAJOR COUNT LEHNDORFF TO BISMARCK. 

BERLIN, March 4, '88, 5 p. M. 

YOUR EXCELLENCY, 

I beg to report that his Majesty the Emperor and King 
has not left his bed to-day, and is suffering from intermittent 
pains proceeding from an affection of the bladder. Every- 
thing, unfortunately, points to the imminence cf a crisis 
similar to those experienced several times during the past 
few months. Narcotics have not yet been administered, and 
the pains are not such as to render this necessary f-r the 
moment; their application will be delayed as long as possi- 
ble, and it is hoped may be avoided altogether. TTe Em- 
peror is not very uneasy, and not at all low-spirited; the 
trouble was first observed about forty-eight hours aeo. 

Her Majesty the Empress commands me to tell you that 
all these things which have happened lately weigh so very 
heavily on her ; and that she is convinced that you feel with 
her. Your Excellency's most obedient 

COUNT LEHNDORFF. 



CORRESPONDENCE 219 

203 

ADJUTANT-MAJOR COUNT LEHNDORFF TO BISMARCK. 

BERLIN, March 5, '88, IO.IOA. M. 

His Majesty passed the rest of yesterday fairly favour- 
ably, although he was troubled with fitful pains. The last 
attack, at five o'clock this morning, rendered an injection 
of morphia necessary ; both before and after that, however, 
the Emperor obtained a considerable amount of sleep, so 
that the night cannot be considered quite a bad one. The 
obedient undersigned was with his Majesty for some time 
early this morning, and was surprised to find how well his 
Majesty was, both in appearance and spirits, as compared 
with previous similar occasions. 

It is to be hoped that this favourable condition is not 
entirely to be ascribed to the reaction of the morphia ; in any 
case it was very gratifying and ought to be mentioned. 
There is no means of judging the extent to which narcotics 
must be used. The appetite is still fairly good, and there 
are no other unfavourable symptoms. 

COUNT LEHNDORFF. 

Adjutant-Major on duty. 

204 

ADJUTANT-MAJOR v. BROESIGKE TO BISMARCK. 

THE PALACE, March 6, '88. 

The physicians are not satisfied with the way in which his 
Majesty the Emperor and King has passed the afternoon. 

His Majesty has eaten very little, but sleeps on the whole 
quietly. 

Morphia has not been administered during the day; it is 
still questionable whether it will be necessary in the night. 

C. BROESIGKE. 
Adjutant-Major on duty. 



aao FROM PRINCE BISMARCK'S [1888 

205 

ADJUTANT-MAJOR v. BROESIGKE TO BISMARCK. 

THE PALACE, March B, '88. 

The night has not given the invigorating sleep the physi- 
cians hoped for. 

In consequence of this the forces and the pulse are no 
t>etter, and the condition continues serious. 

C. BROESIGKE. 

206 
ADJUTANT-MAJOR v. LIPPE TO BISMARCK. 

March 8, '88, 8.10 A. M. 

His Majesty is becoming very considerably weaker; the 
pulse ceases from time to time. 

His Royal Highness Prince William has been summoned 
to the Palace at the request of the physicians. 

v. LIPPE. 
Adjutant-Major. 

207 
ADJUTANT-MAJOR v. PETERSDORFF TO BISMARCK. 

THE PALACE, March 9, '88. 2.55. 

According to the physicians, there is again a change for 
the worse in his Majesty's condition, so that notice has just 
been sent to the Imperial family. 

VON PETERSDORFF. 
Adjutant-Major on duty. 

208 
COUNT RADOLINSKI, COURT CHAMBERLAIN, TO BISMARCK. 

(Telegram handed in at Landshut, March n, 1888, at n A. M.) 
To THE IMPERIAL CHANCELLOR, PRINCE BISMARCK, 

BERLIN. 

His Majesty has again commanded me to beg your Ex- 
cellency to ask those of the Ministers who would wish to 



CORRESPONDENCE 221 

greet his Majesty, to come as far as Leipzig, as his Majesty 
can see nobody after the train has passed Bitterfeld. It is 
left to your Excellency's option alone to greet his Majesty 
either at Leipzig or Bitterfeld. All the gentlemen are re- 
quested to wear undress uniform. Receptions or leave- 
takings at Charlottenburg are out of all question. 

RADOLINSKI. 



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