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IN THE YEARS 1585 AND 1586. 


JOHN BRUCE, F.S.A. treasurer of the camden society. 




'-/ *- 

[no. XXVII.] 




FOR THE YEAR 1843-4. 


THOMAS AMYOT, ESQ. F.R.S. Treas., S.A. Director. 



JOHN BRUCE, ESQ. F.S.A. Treasurer. 









WILLIAM J. THOMS, ESQ. F.S.A., Secretary. 



The Council of the Camden Society desire it to be under- 
stood that they are not answerable for any opinions or observa- 
tions that may appear in the Society's publications ; the Editors 
of the several Works being alone responsible for the same. 


In the year 1840 Frederic Ouvry esquire kindly placed at 
the disposal of the Camden Society a MS. volume which had 
been found amongst certain old papers preserved in the office 
of a solicitor in the city of London. Besides a treatise upon 
another subject, Mr. Ouvry's volume contains a transcript of a 
collection of letters of Robert Dudley earl of Leycester, written 
between the 3rd of April and the 25th of October 15S6, during 
his first mission to the Loav Countries as lieutenant-general of the 
forces sent by queen Elizabeth to the aid of the united provinces 
in their great contest against Spain. 

In the course of inquiries instituted by the council of the 
Camden Society, it appeared that the originals of these letters were 
not known to be in existence, but that there were preserved in 
the national collection at the British Museum certain other letters 
written by and to the earl of Leycester during that same mission 
to the Low Countries, which tended to complete the corres- 
pondence of which the letters contained in Mr. Ouvry's volume 
formed a part. 

Such being the case, it was proposed that a selection from 
those letters in the British Museum should be published together 
with those in Mr. Ouvry's volume, in such manner as to present, 
as nearly as possible, a complete view of the correspondence 
between the earl and the English government during the mission 
alluded to. This proposal was agreed to by Mr. Ouvry and the 



Council of the Camden Society, and is carried into effect in the 
present volume. 

Mr. Ouvry's MS. is a folio volume containing 7± leaves. It 
commences with the earl of Leycester's letters, which are entitled, 
" Letters from the earle of Leycester to the lords of the councell, 
Mr. secretarie Walsingham, and others, &c. 1586." They are 
copied book-wise, in a hand-writing of the beginning of the seven- 
teenth century, and extend fromfol. 1 to fol. 62, both inclusive. The 
remainder of the volume is occupied with a narrative entitled, " A 
relation written by sir Daniell Dunne knight, doctor of the civilllawe, 
of the whole prosecution of the nullitie between the earle of Essex 
and his then wife the lady Frauncis Howard." This is written in 
a hand of a little later date. 

The transcript of the earl's letters was all made by one scribe, 
and, from occasional corrections in the hand of an older person, 
may be concluded to have been examined. 

The transcriber was not a practised hand, which especially appears 
from his mistakes in the copying of numerals. Obvious blunders 
in his transcript prove, also, that he was not acquainted with the 
names of the persons and places in the Low Countries mentioned 
by the earl. In some instances he endeavoured to supply the place 
of a word which he was unable to decypher by a poor attempt at 
a facsimile, which has frequently increased the difficulty. 

It was thought, at first, that the transcript was a book kept by 
the earl for the entry of his letters before they were despatched, 
which seemed to be rendered the more probable by the circumstance 
that in no single instance has the transcriber copied the signature 
to a letter. But besides the inference deducible from the mis- 
takes in the transcript and especially from those in the names of 
places in the neighbourhood of which the letters were written, an 
entry on fol. 14 proves that at any event one of the letters was 
copied after it had passed through the hands of the person to 
whom it was addressed. At the place referred to (see page 255) 
there ends a long letter from the earl to Walsyngham, and imrae- 


diately afterwards there follows, as if it had been a postscript 
to the letter, an abstract of its contents, which the transcriber 
no doubt found written on the back of it. From a comparison 
of one item in this abstract — " meaneth to send over so much as I 
have prested/' with the parallel passage in the letter, — " I will 
speedely send over to you for that you have prested," — it is clear 
that the abstract was made by Walsyngham, and, if so, of course 
after the letter reached its destination, and that it must have been 
copied afterwards. If that was the case with one of the letters, it 
was probably so with all of them. 

Within the left-hand board of the binding of Mr. Ouvry's 
volume is written the name " H. Powle," which a comparison of 
hand-writing proves to be the autograph of Henry Powle of 
Shottesbrooke, in the county of Berks, speaker of the house of 
commons and master of the rolls in the reign of William III. 
Mr. Powle was an antiquary of some eminence, very learned in 
precedents and parliament-journals,* and a great collector of MSS. 
principally those relating to English history. Upon his death, in 
January 16'92, his collections were added to those of lord-chan- 
cellor Somers, and when his noble library was divided between sir 
Joseph Jekyll, then master of the rolls, and sir Philip Yorke, 
afterwards lord-chancellor Hardwicke, portions of Mr. Powle's 
collections were assigned to each of them. In 1739, shortly after 
the death of sir Joseph Jekyll, his MSS. were sold by auction, 
and certain lots which originally formed part of Mr. Powle's col- 
lection were purchased by Mr. Umfreville, and are now in the 
Lansdowne Collection in the British Museum. It is probable 
that Mr. Ouvry's volume was sold at sir Joseph Jekyll's sale, but 
to whom does not appear. Some entries on its blank leaves show 
it to have been in the possession of one " G. Eld," in the year 
177^, but who he was, or in what manner it came to the place 
where Mr. Ouvry found it, is quite unknown. What is known ? 
however, is sufficient to establish the genuineness of the volume, 
a Burnet's Own Time, ii. 82, ed. 1823, 8vo. Oxon, 


Mr. speaker Powle's autograph carries it back to about 100 years 
after the letters were written, and the hand-writing reduces that 
period to about from 30 to 50 years. 

If the original letters should hereafter be discovered, which is 
very likely to be the case now that attention is drawn to them, there 
will probably appear to be some slight inaccuracies in the present 
publication, arising out of the incompetency of the transcriber, 
and the circumstance that he generally omitted the stops, which 
no doubt exist in the originals, and often made no distinction 
between the end and the beginning of sentences. I have conse- 
quently been obliged to insert such stops, and, occasionally, to 
make such division into sentences, as I have thought to be in 
accordance with the sense. 

The other letters inserted in the present publication are princi- 
pally derived from four volumes of MSS. in the British Museum, 
the Harleian MS. No. 285, and the Cottonian MSS. Galba, C. 
vin. ix. and x. 

The first of these is a singularly valuable collection of letters 
relating to the affairs of the Low Countries, principally written 
by the earl of Leycester to secretary Walsyngham. Of these 
letters some precede and others follow those contained in Mr. 
Ouvry's volume. They are all originals, in the best preservation. 
The present volume contains forty-six letters derived from this 
important MS. 

The Cottonian MSS. Galba, C. vin. ix. and x. contain part of a 
great body of diplomatic correspondence between England and the 
Low Countries, arranged under the titles of Galba, B. C. D. and 
E. i. This invaluable collection extends over a period of nearly three 
hundred years, from the reign of Edward III. to that of James I., 
and is a vast treasury of knowledge upon all subjects connected 
with the affairs of the Low Countries. From this source are 
derived seventy-six letters printed in the present work. 

Sixteen other letters have been selected from miscellaneous 
volumes in the national collection. 


Having explained the origin of the present volume, and the 
sources whence it has been compiled, I might now leave it to 
receive the small share of notice which falls to the lot of collections 
of this description, but, valuable as such collections are to the 
writer and to the student of history, they are pretty nearly of all 
books the most unreadable, and I hope, therefore, I shall do 
what will neither be unacceptable to the members of the Cam- 
den Society, nor useless to the reader who consults this volume 
with a view to any specific inquiry, if, before I dismiss the subject, 
I give a general notion of the historical bearing of the documents 
which are here printed. 

There were circumstances connected with the war of inde- 
pendence in the Low Countries which occasioned it to be re- 
garded with peculiar interest in England. The oppressions of the 
duke of Alva, the executions of counts Egmont and Horn, the 
cruelties of the inquisition, and the fortitude and endurance of the 
besieged citizens of Haerlem and Leyden, excited feelings of ab- 
horrence against the oppressors, and of commiseration for the 
oppressed, wherever they were heard of; but in England, the 
people felt that, in the issue of that tremendous contest, they had 
something of a personal concern. The principal and ultimate 
object sought to be attained in the Low Countries by Philip II. 
was the suppression of a form of christian doctrine which was 
dearly prized, and was then dominant, in England; but only a 
few years had elapsed since that same sovereign was king-consort 
of England, and then multitudes of Englishmen, and amongst them 
some of the most venerable men in the country, had been driven 
into exile or consigned to the fagot for the maintenance of that 
very form of doctrine, and its continued preservation in England 
depended, under Providence, upon the life of the queen, and 
her ability to withstand the power which could be brought 
against her by the oppressor of the united provinces. Recol- 
lection of the past and dread of the future in religious matters 
were at the bottom of all the great political questions of the 


reign of Elizabeth. The men of that day had witnessed the prac- 
tical effects of the ascendancy of Roman principles, and feared 
nothing so much as a return to them. Hence the question of the 
succession was one of such great anxiety during the life of Mary 
queen of Scots, hence the long-standing popular hatred against 
Spain, and hence the peculiar interest felt in the success of the 
Low Countries in the contest in which they were engaged. 

Nor was it a mere dread of a possible, a distant, or a contingent 
danger by which the minds of English protestants were excited. 
The contest was one in actual progress, although not exhibited in 
the form of warfare. It was want of power, and not of will, which 
prevented the execution of the papal bull by which Elizabeth 
was declared to be excommunicated and deposed, and her sub- 
jects to be absolved from their allegiance. Before the issuing of 
that bull, Mary had acted in its spirit ; she had treated Elizabeth as 
virtually a usurper by assuming the title of queen of England, and, 
although it became politically necessary to lay aside that preten- 
sion, Mary did so by secretly transferring her claim before she 
openly renounced it. When her misfortunes as queen of Scots 
deprived her of direct political power, the eyes and hopes of the 
English adherents of Rome were turned towards Spain, and it was 
declared for years before the sailing of the armada, to be the 
intention of Philip to invade England and drive the heretical 
usurper from the throne. To hasten the coming of that day, and 
to keep alive in the minds of the people the expectation of the re- 
ascendancy of Rome, were objects of the bands of seminary 
priests and Jesuits by whose plottings the government of Eliza- 
beth was disturbed. The contest in the Low Countries was 
the greatest, if not the only, obstacle in the way of Philip's 
meditated expedition, for, great as was the power of Spain, it 
seemed insufficient to maintain at one time a crusade against pro- 
testantism in England as well as in the Netherlands ; and hence 
it was, that not merely an abstract community of religious opinion, 
but a practical regard to the safety of the queen, to the peace of 


the country, and to the preservation of protestantism, pointed 
out to Elizabeth's government, that it was policy, if not duty, to 
keep alive the cause of liberty in the Low Countries. 

These considerations were rendered greatly more cogent by the 
assassination of the prince of Orange. At first that atrocity 
seemed to be a death-blow to the patriot cause; but, like all 
similar acts, which are as impolitic as they are wicked, it 
ultimately increased the popular feeling of which the prince 
was but the impersonation, and being considered as a consequence 
of Philip's infamous offer of a large reward to any one who 
would bring the prince to him, "dead or alive," it aggravated 
the political hostility by an augmented personal dislike of the 
Spanish monarch. 

Elizabeth had before given assistance to the patriot cause ; she 
was now counselled by her ministers to do so more openly. They 
advised her to decline the offered sovereignty of the Low 
Countries, but to send over a considerable body of auxiliary 
forces, and to place them under the command of some eminent 
person, who should not merely direct the military operations, 
but should also assist the states-general with his counsel, and 
put them in the way of correcting many errors of government 
into which they had fallen. 

It was with great difficulty that the queen was brought to adopt 
this advice. As a support of subjects against their sovereign, it 
was a precedent which she disliked. She spoke hardly of the coun- 
cillors who favoured the interference, even although overborne 
by their weight and authority. Their high mightinesses the 
states-general, a many-headed government which had fallen into 
disrepute amongst its own subjects, formed a theme for her con- 
temptuous ridicule. She doubted whether a contest which was 
subject to the controul of such persons could ever be successfully 
conducted. She distrusted the policy of sending away her best 
soldiers at a time of anticipated invasion, and, with a very custo- 
mary and characteristic caution, she feared that in the end " the 


•whole burthen of the charges" would light upon her, or that, after 
years of struggle and expenditure, she should be forced to aban- 
don the cause " in respect of charges." 

As soon as a consent was "wrung" from her by her patient 
ministers, the proposed military aid was despatched under the 
command of general Norris, and a declaration was published 
in many languages/ in which it was announced to the world that 
the causes " moving the queen to give aid to the defence of the 
people afflicted and oppressed in the Low Countries, were not any 
desire of aggrandizing either herself or her subjects, but to aid the 
natural people of those countries to defend their towns from sacking 
and desolation, and thereby to procure them safety, to the honour 
of God, whom they desire to serve sincerely as Christian people, 
according to his word, and to enjoy their ancient liberties ; to free 
herself from invading neighbours ; and to ensure a continuance of 
the old-standing intercourse of friendship and merchandise be- 
twixt her people and the inhabitants of those countries." 

In the selection of u the person of eminence " to be sent over as 
lieutenant-general of the queen's forces, and adviser of the states- 
general, I have not found that there was any doubt. Leycester's 
previous interference in the affairs of the Low Countries, and his 
position in this country, as a leader of the low-church party and an 
acknowledged favourite of the queen, rendered him peculiarly 
acceptable to the people whom it was desired to succour, whilst 
his fondness for magnificent display, and the circumstance that, 
although powerful in the government, he held no office which made 
his personal attendance at court indispensable, rendered his 
acceptance of the honourable dignity agreeable to himself and 
not inconvenient to his colleagues. 

The present correspondence opens in September 1585, when 
the queen's intention to appoint the earl had been notified to the 
commissioners of the Low Countries, who "were waiting in London 

a There are in the British Museum copies printed in English, Latin, French, ami 


to arrange the terms upon which her majesty's assistance was to 
be granted, and Leycester was in the full bustle of preparations 
for departure, summoning his friends to accompany him (p. 5), 
and purchasing armour and provisions (p. 6). Of a sudden, some 
previously unconsidered difficulty occurred to the mind of the 
queen, and she ordered the earl to suspend his preparations (p. 4). 
He received the mandate in bed, at one o'clock in the morning, 
and immediately returned two letters to Walsyngham, through 
whom the order had been transmitted, one evidently intended to 
be shown to the queen, all submission and respect (letter II.), the 
other designed for the eye of the secretary alone, full of disap- 
pointment and annoyance, a genuine expression of the feelings of 
a jaded courtier, " weary," as he says, " of life and all. " (letter III.) 

The hinderance, whatever it was, was soon removed, and the 
earl's preparations were resumed, his friend Walsyngham warning 
him of the difficulty which would be sure to arise with the queen, 
if his requests " should minister matter of charge." (p. 9.) The 
earl protested that he had no such design, that he sought nothing 
by his journey but to do service to her majesty and the realm, 
and had no desire but to go properly accompanied. With that 
view he obtained permission to levy 500 of his own tenants and 
servants to attend upon his person (letter V.). 

The documents which follow, numbered VI. VII. and VIII. con- 
tain the heads of the earl's instructions, the advice given him by the 
commissioners of the states-general, and his own paper of memo- 
randa as to the points to which his attention should be directed. 
These papers prove with what different intentions the queen 
despatched the earl, and the earl himself went upon this important 
mission. In his instructions it is obvious that he was sent with 
an express disavowal on the part of the queen of any intention 
to govern the Low Countries, either directly or through the 
medium of the earl. Both had been offered to her, and both had 
been refused. '* She would not take so much upon her as to com- 
mand them in such absolute sort;" but, she told the states-general, 



that unless she found them ready to listen to the advice to be given 
to them by her lieutenant-general for the remedying of the dis- 
orders in their government, and the more speedy attainment of a 
peace, she should esteem her favours unworthily bestowed. The 
advice of the commissioners and the earl's own private minute 
proceed upon an entirely different basis. The administration of 
the government by the earl was clearly anticipated by the com- 
missioners, and an authority as large as that of the prince of Orange 
or any previous governor was considered necessary by the earl. 

Even after every thing had been settled, the queen delayed to 
dismiss the earl, either, as he suspected, from a mistrust of his 
discretion in pecuniary matters (p. 21), or, as is more likely, from 
some suspicion of his real intentions in reference to the assump- 
tion of the government of the Low Countries. At length all diffi- 
culties were overcome, and on the 4th of December 1585, having 
taken leave of the queen, and gratified the citizens of London 
with a review of a body of 600 horse, the earl set off to Harwich, 
the place of his intended embarkation, and was received by 
the corporate towns on his road with honours only paid to 
the most distinguished visitors. His farewell letter to Lord 
Burghley, written on the road (p. 21), and the reply of the veteran 
statesman (p. 29), are of importance, and will be read with interest. 
They emphatically express the deep sense which the writers 
entertained of the importance of the earl's mission. The earl 
reiterates the most earnest entreaties for Burghley's assistance, 
and adjures him to maintain the cause in spite of the queen's 
occasional mislike. Burghley, with a solemnity which cannot be 
doubted, pronounces himself an accursed person in the sight of 
God, if he omitted to advance a cause which tended to his glory, 
to the safety of the queen, and the preservation of the realm. 

In the appendix (No. 1.) will be found a journal of the earl's 
voyage, written by the distinguished seaman who had the charge 
of the accompanying fleet. Even in this narrative are found traces 
of that hasty, uncertain, and impetuous temper, which so often 
marred the success of the earl's best designs. He had omitted to 


give notice of the port at which he designed to disembark, and 
was "greatly offended" with the admiral because he had not pro- 
vided a sufficient number of pilots to carry all the fleet to any 
place he might appoint. Upon a meeting of such pilots as could 
be procured, the earl was advised that the Brill, the place where 
he declared it was his "will and purpose " to land, was not a 
suitable harbour for his fleet. Leycester dismissed them with a 
peremptory declaration that to the Brill he would go. The sub- 
missive pilots professed their willingness to do their best, but 
within a few hours the earl changed his mind, and agreed to adopt 
the advice which he had before despised (pp. 461, 462). 

On Friday the 10th December, Leycester's fleet, consisting in 
the whole of nearly a hundred sail, neared the low land of Flush- 
ing, and shortly after noon he disembarked with a very gallant and 
noble body of attendants (p. 464). His accomplished nephew sir 
Philip Sydney was there to welcome him, and upon his removal 
on the following day to Middleburg, the chief persons of Zealand 
assembled around him, and amongst them the widow of the 
prince of Orange and his illustrious son Maurice, then a boy of 
about eighteen. At Flushing began a course of rejoicing and 
feasting which marked Leycester's course for a considerable time. 
Bonfires, fireworks, acted pageants, and all the grotesque accom- 
paniments of civic rejoicing, awaited him at every town. The 
triumphal pomp of his reception at the Hague was celebrated in a 
series of engravings. The people of Rotterdam availed themselves 
of this joyful occasion to erect the well-known statue of their towns- 
man Erasmus. The inhabitants of Amsterdam sent forth to wel- 
come him a shoal of monsters of the deep, " whales and others of 
great hugeness," who seized upon the ship in which he sailed, and 
towed it in safety to the shore. The cities and towns emulated 
each other in the warmth of his welcome, the burghers formed 
themselves into a body-guard for him, and the streets resounded 
as he passed with cries of " God save queen Elizabeth !" uttered as 
heartily " as if the queen herself had been in Cheapside." (p. 31.) 


The earl's correspondence during this period of public gratifica- 
tion has little reference to the main objects of his mission. 
It seems rather designed to interest the queen on behalf of the 
people of the Netherlands, by setting before her the exuberance 
of their gratitude, and the strength of their trust in her powerful 
support. All sorts of people, from the highest to the lowest, 
assured themselves, he declared, that, having the queen's good 
countenance, they should beat all the Spaniards out of their 
country (p. 30). " Never was there a people," he exclaims, "in 
the jollity that these be. I would be content to lose a limb that 
her majesty did see these countries and towns as I have; she 
would then think a whole subsidy well spent but only to have 
the good assurance and commandment of a few of these towns. 
I think there be not the like places again for England to be found/' 
The earl is constant in this story (pp. 29, 46), but the queen's deep- 
seated prejudices could never be removed, and his representations 
worked not " that good effect that were to be wished," (p. 35.) 
which Walsyngham attributed to the unpleasantness of " all things 
that minister matter of charges." (ibid.) 

Other countries regarded the queen's interference with admira- 
tion. It was a throwing down the gauntlet to the king of Spain, 
which in a female sovereign seemed an act of heroism. The pro- 
testant princes of Germany were loud in her praise (pp. 35, 48) ; 
even out of Italy there came kindly messages (p. 35) ; and the 
king of Sweden declared, with astonishment, that Elizabeth had 
taken the crown from her head and suspended it upon the 
uncertain chances of the war. 

For some time after the arrival of the earl the forces of the 
Dutch and English were dispersed in winter quarters, but the 
enemy still kept the field with 4000 foot and 1500 horse, scouring 
the country, now here now there, and putting in danger the un- 
protected frontier towns (p. 6'4). The states agreed to form a 
camp in order to bridle these incursions ; and the earl, in antici- 
pation of an active compaign, solicited permission to levy a body 


of the " Irish idle men." He also entreated the queen to advance 
a portion of the stipulated payment for her troops, and to send 
over sir William Pelham, an experienced soldier whose services 
he desired to use. But all these things were interrupted by an 
incident which turned the thoughts of men, both at home and 
abroad, into another channel. 

In the earl's letter of the 14th of January, 1586, (p. 57.) he de- 
scribes himself as taken by surprise, on new year's day, by a 
visit paid to him by a solemn deputation from the states-general, 
headed by the chancellor and accompanied by heralds, who came 
to offer him the absolute government of the united provinces. 
Through Mr. Davison he replied to the deputies in French, that 
this was a matter not provided for by the contract between the 
queen and the states ; that he had already more laid upon him 
than so weak shoulders were able to bear ; that the queen had sent 
him only to serve them, which he had promised to do faithfully 
and honestly, and that he wished it rather to be in the way 
already agreed upon than in that now proposed. 

This answer only stimulated them to further entreaties. The 
people of all classes supplicated him to yield to the general wish ; 
and finally, with the advice and concurrence of Davison, sir Philip 
Sydney, and the other Englishmen there present, who thought it 
a proceeding likely to advantage the public service, the earl accepted 
the offered authority. On the 25th of January he was solemnly 
installed, taking an oath to preserve their religion and maintain 
their ancient rights and privileges, whilst the members of the 
states-general, and other persons in authority, bound themselves 
by an oath of fidelity to him. On the same day, which was the 
6th Feb. N. S., a public placard, or proclamation, certified to the 
people the consummation of this important proceeding, and that 
the authority given to the earl over and above that vested in him 
by her majesty, was that of "the highest and supreme command- 
ment and absolute authority above and in all matters of warfare/' 
with the administration and use of policy and justice over the 


united provinces, " to execute and administrate the same, with 
such power and authority as have had in times past all the other 
governors of the Low Countries before him . . . also with power 
to collect profits and receive and administrate all contributions 
towards the maintenance of the war." In conformity with this 
authority all persons were admonished to acknowledge " his 
foresaid excellency," as governor and captain general, and to 
" honour, respect, and obey him as they ought to do." 

When the earl determined to accept the proffered authority, he 
also resolved to send Mr. Davison home to explain to the queen 
" upon what necessity" he had acted. This intention was an- 
nounced on the 14th January (p. 63) during a long-continued 
easterly wind, which would have brought Davison to England in 
a few days, but for some reason which does not appear, his 
despatch from the Hague was delayed until the 5th of February, 
(p. 94.) He was detained at the Brill " five or six days" (p. 117) 
by stormy weather, and did not arrive in London until the 13th 
of February. Four weeks had then elapsed since Leycester first 
announced to Burghley his intention to accept the government. 
During that period his few letters had been principally occupied 
with other matters, contenting himself with general and rather 
flippant allusions to the acceptance of the government, and the 
reasons to be yielded " when Mr. Davison comes." In the mean 
time the act of assumption had been formally concluded, and the 
principal persons in the country, both Englishmen and others, 
had taken the oath of fidelity to the new governor. 

Leycester must have known little of the temper and disposi- 
tion of Elizabeth, or must have presumed upon the possession of 
far more authority over her mind than he really had, if he thought 
she could be thus treated with impunity. The first whisper of 
the earPs intended acceptance of the government aroused her in- 
dignation. To do so was to contradict not only his instructions 
and her verbal command, but also her published declaration, in 
which she had protested that she sought not to obtain any autho- 


rity over the people of the Low Countries, whom she still recog- 
nised as subjects of the king of Spain, but merely designed to 
assist them in maintaining their ancient privileges against his 
oppression, and the exercise of their faith against the tyranny of 
Rome. " Such an act," she declared, " would make her infamous ; " 
and she determined to prevent the acceptance of the obnoxious 
authority, or, if it were too late to do that, to compel the earl to 
lay it down. Burghley, Walsyngham, and Hatton, strove in 
vain to mitigate the fury of their mistress. They argued that 
the action was both honourable and profitable ; honourable, that 
a servant of hers should command such a people, and profitable, 
as placing all their resources at her controul. Such arguments 
admitted the justice of the queen's complaints, and were con- 
sequently altogether ineffectual to appease her anger. And although 
the earl did not write to her, which was another cause of complaint 
against him, persons about the court received glowing narratives 
of his proceedings in the Low Countries, and reported them to 
the queen, not always with the best feeling towards the absent 
governor. One circumstance which thus came to her ears espe- 
cially displeased her. She was told that the countess of Leycester 
was about to go over to the earl with a train of ladies, and such 
rich " coaches, litters, and side-saddles/' as should make a court 
which should surpass her own. (page 112.) This information 
stirred the impatient queen to " extreme choler and dislike of all 
the earl's proceedings ;" and she declared " with great oaths" that 
she would have " no more courts under her obeysance than her own, 
and that she would revoke the earl with all speed. " (ibid.) The 
earl's friends denied the report most vehemently, perhaps with 
more vehemence than truth,* and succeeded in pacifying the queen 

* It seems clear, from a passage in a letter of sir Philip Sydney's, dated 24th March, 
1586, (Harl. MS. 287, fol. 1.) that the countess certainly at one time designed to 
join the earl in the Low Countries. Sir Philip Sidney disapproved of her intention, 
and wished that " some way might be taken to stay my lady," as he terms her, " in 


upon that point ; but still the retention of Davison, and the earl's 
omission to write to her, with the constant arrival of messengers 
bearing letters from him to persons about her court, offended her 
majesty more and more. Perhaps her anger was never so much 

The first rumour of this state of things in London reached the 
earl on the 7th February, two days only after Davison had been 
despatched. " A flying tale," as he expresses it, was then told 
him, that her majesty disliked his assumption of the title of " ex- 
cellency." He immediately wrote to Walsyngham upon the 
subject, most injudiciously defending that assumption by alleging, 
that, if he had delighted in titles, he might have taken a higher one, 
which Mr. Davison could tell them had been offered to him (p. 94). 

On the following day the character of the coming storm was 
made more apparent to him by the receipt of a joint letter from 
the treasurer, the chamberlain, the vice-chamberlain, and secretary 
Walsyngham, written by the queen's command, and in which the 
earl was informed that her majesty greatly misliked his acceptance 
of the government, and would " disavow wholly that which 
was done therein/' (p. 96.) This letter was written in London 
on the 25th January, the very day when Leycester's glory attained 
its summit, in the acceptance of the government at the Hague. 
Never did bubble burst more suddenly. The earl instantly per- 
ceived that he had gone too far, that he had raised a spirit against 
which it was impossible for him to contend, and in two letters, 
one to the lords who had written to him (p. 95), and the other a 
private letter to Walsyngham (p. 99), with most commendable 
pliancy submitted himself to her majesty's pleasure, but with an 
evident hope that the reasons to be assigned by Davison would 
work a change in her opinion. To aid those reasons, he indulged, 
also, in some little rhetorical flourishes, by which we must j)resume 
that Elizabeth was occasionally weak enough to be moved, for 
they are common to all letters designed for her eye. 

Leycester's friends at court, and indeed all the members of the 


government, and especially Burghley and Hatton, made most 
strenuous exertions on his behalf, but his own folly in detaining 
Davison had ruined everything. Such defence as they could make 
the queen would not hear (p. 104), and all that Burghley could do 
was to beseech her " to keep one ear" for the reasons to be 
rendered by Davison (p. 113), whilst Hatton and Walsyngham 
studied day by day how to delay her meditated purposes in the 
hope of Davison's arrival, (ibid.) 

On the 7th of February further delay was found to be unattain- 
able, and instructions in conformity with the queen's angry views 
were begun to be prepared for sir Thomas Heneage, whom she 
determined to send off immediately into the Low Countries. Burgh- 
ley, the only person who on such an occasion possessed any in- 
fluence over the queen, was at this time absent from the court, and 
was not expected to return until the 13th. It was hoped that he 
might be able to procure some modification of her fiery instruc- 
tions, and every possible artifice to gain time was resorted to by 
Hatton and Walsyngham. On the 10th the instructions were com- 
pleted (p. 105), and on the same day the queen wrote that celebrated 
letter to the earl which stands pre-eminent amongst her majesty's 
specimens of royal objurgation (p. 110.) Still Davison had not 
arrived, nor had Burghley returned, and Hatton and Walsyngham, 
to gain a few days' longer delay, went the length of altering a letter 
written by Leycester to Hatton, blotting out some things which 
they thought would be offensive, and mending some other parts 
as they thought best (p. 1 13). In that shape they shewed or read 
it to the queen, and by that or some other manoeuvre succeeded in 
still further delaying the departure of Heneage. Early on Sunday 
the 13th February, Davison arrived. Thunderstruck at the tidings 
which awaited him, this unhappy minister, whose hard fortune it 
was to be made the scape-goat in the only two transactions of 
great moment in which he was engaged, immediately presented 
himself at the court. He was doubtful whether the queen would 
admit him into her presence, but as soon as she was informed of his 



arrival, she "retired into her withdrawing chamber," whither Davi- 
son was immediately ushered. The scene which followed is related 
by him in letter XLIII. p. 118, although with less particularity 
than could have been desired. He was so anxious to detail his 
own speech, that, in comparison with it, he esteemed " the bitter 
and hard terms" used by the queen, and " the old griefs" into 
which she " oftentimes digressed," to be unworthy of notice. It 
is clear, however, from his own statements, that Davison, like the 
ministers at home, altogether failed in answering the queen. He 
proved, as they had done, that it was politic and expedient for the 
earl to accept the government, but her objection was, that it im- 
peached her honour, and she added, in aggravation of the earl's 
conduct, that he had taken the authority without consulting her, 
"as if her consent had been nothing worth" (p. 118), and in a 
way which shewed that " he respected more his own greatness 
than her honour or service." 

Davison tendered the earl's letter, of which he was the bearer, 
but in her anger the queen refused to receive it, and, soon after 
Davison had left her, she ordered Heneage to depart with his 
memorable instructions and letter, the substance of which was, 
that the earl was to resign his authority with the same publicity 
with which he had received it. 

Alarmed for the consequences of this determination, Davison 
again sought an interview, and so far prevailed that the queen 
received the earl's letter, opened and began to read it, and then 
put it into her pocket, " to read," says Davison, " as I think at 
more leisure/' (p. 122.) Its contents we know not, but the 
same evening she stayed Heneage until he heard her further 

The next day Burghley returned, and " laboured very earnestly," 
but in vain, to procure the revocation of her angry message. All 
that he could obtain was an authority to Heneage to withhold 
a letter which the queen had written to the states if he thought its 
delivery would be prejudicial to the public cause, and a withdrawal 


of that portion of his instructions which imposed upon the carl the 
disgrace of a public resignation. 

Heneage being long detained by contrary winds, (p. 152,) did 
not reach Flushing until the 3rd of March, when he immediately 
intimated to the earl, that he had been sent, "both most suddenly 
and unlooked for," to deliver to him her majesty's pleasure, 
(p. 149.) He was an old friend of Leycester's, and the two courtiers 
proceeded very amicably to concoct, out of the discretion given to 
Heneage by his second instructions, such a case as would justify 
them in neutralising as much as possible the queen's displeasure. 
Leycester, also, strove to divert the storm from himself to Davi- 
son. He wrote to the lords of the council (p. 162), to Walsyng- 
ham (p. 165), and to Davison himself (p. 168), bitterly complaining 
of the insufficient way in which Davison had defended his conduct, 
and urging that he himself was earnest to acquaint her majesty be- 
fore he accepted the office, but that Davison and others, presuming 
upon the urgency of the case, persuaded him against his will to 
take the authority at once, and that Davison undertook to satisfy 
her majesty. Davison's comments upon this mean-spirited accu- 
sation are a complete answer (p. 168). He intimates that the earl 
needed very little entreaty to induce him to accept the honour, and 
asserts that he concealed from those who persuaded him to do so 
the all-important fact, that the queen had commanded him to the 
contrary. They thought that they were merely dealing with a case 
in which the earl doubted whether the queen would approve ; the 
earl knew that the queen had already considered the question and 
expressed a most authoritative adverse opinion. Leycester's best 
friends at court saw the fallacy of his subterfuge (p. 206), but, 
between the queen and the earl, Davison was obliged to absent 
himself from court for a considerable period, and was recalled only 
to fall into greater trouble. 

The earl's next messenger to the queen was sir Thomas Sherley, 
whose letter, No. LXII. in the present volume, (p. 171?) will take 


its place amongst the best extant accounts of Elizabeth's mode of 
dealing in state affairs. It presents also the reasons of her dis- 
pleasure with Leycester in a more tangible form than the similar 
letter from Davison, No. XLIII. p. 117. It is impossible to read 
this letter of sir Thomas Sherley without feeling admiration for 
the great qualities of the sovereign whom it portrays. Her acute 
perception of those moral consequences from Leycester's act which 
the practised politicians around her treated with too much dis- 
regard, her ready way of disentangling the sophistical webs in 
which the clever and unscrupulous advocate endeavoured to 
inclose her, her firmness in adhering to opinions which, although 
opposed by all her ordinary advisers, were clearly right, and the 
spirited way in which she defended her own views, offer incontesta- 
ble proofs of her fitness for the high office in which she was placed. 
Two of her brief and forcible sentences contain the pith of the 
whole question between her and Leycester, and as long as they 
remain will justify her opposition to his vainglorious attempt at 
self-aggrandisement. " It is sufficient to make me infamous to all 
princes, having protested the contrary in a book which is translated 
into divers and sundry languages ;" this was one point : " I may not 
endure that any man should alter my commission and the authority 
that I gave him, upon his own fancies and without me ;" this was 
the other. 

Whilst this question remained open there was the greatest dif- 
ficulty in engaging the queen in any other business relating to the 
Low Countries. Men and money were wanted, but she was immov- 
able until she heard from sir Thomas Heneage. Confusion and 
danger necessarily ensued, which renewed and increased the 
queen's desire for peace, and induced her to listen to proposals 
made by various merchants who offered to open negotiations with 
the prince of Parma (p. 231). They turned out to be but in- 
discrete negotiators. Their employment became known, and did 
infinite harm by giving rise to jealousies and suspicions in the 
minds of the people of the Low Countries (p. 247). 


The report of sir Thomas Heneage's proceedings was brought 
by Mr. Vavasour, whose account of his reception (letter LXXII.) 
is printed at p. 195. He does not state the contents of his 
despatches, but it is evident from other letters that the alterations 
which Burghley procured in Heneage's instructions were taken 
advantage of to defeat the queen's intention. Heneage set before 
her that he found that great danger was likely to result to the 
public cause from compelling the earl to resign, and that he 
therefore thought it best to delay acting upon his commission 
until he received further instructions. The ministers at home 
determined to take advantage of this representation in order, if 
possible, to procure Heneage's recall, and, accordingly, Burghley, 
in the presence of Walsyngham, startled his royal mistress by a 
very solemn tender of his resignation unless she would consent 
to change her course of policy towards the earl. The experienced 
statesman expressed himself in language which the queen deemed 
to be presumptuous. His " round speech " amazed her, but after 
several other interviews and some vacillation she consented " to do 
anything she might with her honour." Burghley proposed that 
she should consent that the earl should continue in his government 
" until the state of the matter might be better considered by her," 
which she at first agreed to. A little reflection seems to hav$ 
shewn her that such a consent was in effect a ratification of that 
very authority which she had so vehemently opposed, and she 
sought to modify her acquiescence in a way which brought on fresh 
arguments, and ultimately terminated in her agreeing that the earl 
should continue in his office " until the council of state could 
devise some such qualification of his title and authority as might 
remove her objection without peril to the public welfare." Heneage 
was also directed to communicate to the states, in reference to 
the underhand negotiations for peace, that in any treaty between the 
queen and Spain, she would have no less care for their safety 
than for her own. Two letters of lord Burghley's (LXXIII. 
p. 196, and LXXV. p. 204,) contain the particulars of these trans- 


actions related in his usual copious manner. There are other 
letters also upon the same subject from Walsyngham to the earl 
(p. 205), and from the queen to Leycester (p. 209). 

This change in the queen's mind was received by Leycester and 
Heneage as if it had amounted to an absolute confirmation of 
the earPs authority, leaving the question of qualification to be 
considered by the council of state at some future time, and He- 
neage, after communicating the queen's pleasure to the states- 
general in such manner as was the least disagreeable to the earl, 
and making in her name such promises in reference to the nego- 
tiations for peace as were likely to be most pleasing to the people 
of the Low Countries, prepared to take his departure for England. 

But they were reckoning without their host. The queen was 
anxiously waiting to hear what was done by the council of state, 
(p. 233,) and, when she found that Heneage was returning without 
effecting any qualification whatever, all her former angry feelings 
were re-excited. She summoned Burghley and Walsyngham to 
her presence, and insisted upon their sending letters to Heneage 
prohibiting his return until he had executed her former commands. 
Burghley argued against doing so, he contended that nothing had 
been done contrary to her majesty's direction, he begged her to 
await the return of Heneage who was already on the road, he pre- 
dicated all kinds of evil if she persisted, but in vain ; " she grew 
so passionate in the matter as she forbade him to argue any more." 
(p. 240.) The official letter written on this occasion is printed 
at p. 241, and was accompanied by the one that follows it, No. 
LXXXIX. p. 243, which was written by the queen herself to sir 
Thomas Heneage. This is another of those singular letters which, 
like that to Leycester, before commented upon, and others which 
are well known, give us such a vivid perception of the character of 
this extraordinary woman. " Do that you are bidden," she says to 
Heneage, " and leave your considerations for your own affairs ; for 
in some things you had clear commandment, which you did not, 
and in other none, and did Think you I will be bound by 


your speech to make no peace for mine own matters without their 
consent? It is enough that I injure not their country nor them- 
selves in making peace for them without their consent. I am 
assured of your dutiful thoughts, but I am utterly at squares with 
this childish dealing.' 5 These terse and forcible sentences may 
indicate qualities which in a woman are not amiable, and which 
may have made Elizabeth a very disagreeable person within the 
narrow circle of her court, but they indicate also powers of under- 
standing and moral qualities, which, in a state of society like that 
in which Elizabeth lived, and in a government like that of which 
she was the head, fitted her to be a great and popular sovereign. 

These fresh instructions reached Heneage at Flushing, where 
he was detained by illness on his route homewards. Leycester 
professed the greatest readiness to obey her majesty's commands. 
All Holland and Zealand, he protested, should not make him keep 
the obnoxious authority one hour after Heneage' s arrival, and 
nothing would better content him than to leave not only the title 
but all authority of government, (p. 262.) 

Heneage's illness gave Leycester's friends at home an oppor- 
tunity of still further trying their influence over the queen on his 
behalf. Burghley laboured to procure from her a permission for 
Leycester to continue for the present in his authority, and that 
Heneage, " being sick," might return home ; but no inducement 
could prevail upon her to forego a public manifestation of her 
dislike to the earl's government. Insisting upon that, she yielded 
thus far, that Heneage should confer with the council of state in 
what manner, without damage to the state, the earl might resign 
the title and authority of absolute governor, having granted to him 
in his character of her majesty's lieutenant-general the direction of 
the martial affairs of the Low Countries, (p. 267.) After con- 
ference upon this point Heneage was to return home and report to 
her majesty the resolution of the council of state. 

With these new instructions Heneage returned to Arnheim to 
hold the directed conference (p. 280). Leycester's letters are 


silent as to the result, but it appears in a letter from the 
council of state to the queen, printed in the appendix, (p. 473.) 
After the most humble acknowledgment of the blame-worthy pre- 
cipitation with which they had originally granted the authority, 
they set before her the difficulty and peril of revoking it in the 
existing position of their affairs, and entreat her not to insist upon 
their doing so, until, their affairs being more settled and the cir- 
cumstances of the whole business fully discussed, they might 5 
with greater security, confer with her majesty, and determine what 
might be most honourable to her and most conducive to the wel- 
fare of their commonwealth and religion. 

Here this matter ended. Incidents of a more stirring character 
fully occupied the attention of the council of state and the queen 
during the few months which intervened between the date of the 
letter of the council of state and the period when the correspond- 
ence in this volume closes. Heneage returned to London, and 
was favourably received (p. 307), and Leycester retained his bubble 
dignity. By the successive comparatively trifling alterations and 
modifications to which the queen was induced to yield by the prac- 
tised statesmen about her, there is no doubt that she was driven 
from her first position ; but, in effect, she was as successful as if 
Leycester had been instantly deposed. She had made her displea- 
sure known, and, in doing so, had far more than vindicated herself 
from any suspicion of collusion. No sooner was the state of her 
feelings whispered in the Low Countries than the council began to 
watch with jealousy every exercise of the authority they had be- 
stowed. Neither Leycester's prudence nor his temper was fitted 
to withstand a hostile scrutiny. Bickerings ensued on both sides; 
he began " to set the better leg afore " with them, and to handle 
" my masters/' as he termed them, " somewhat plainly and 
roughly too." Crouch as he might to the queen, he was unwilling 
to be " over-boarded by churls and tinkers " (p. 312) ; but even 
that he was obliged to submit to. He soon found that it was f( a 
monstrous government where so many heads do rule" (p. 367) ; 


that " her majesty was wont most rightly to hit them off" (ibid.) ; 
and that, although willing enough to promise allowances and con- 
tributions, they reduced the amount by a variety of deductions, 
and delayed the payment in such way as to make the sum received 
of little avail (p. 426). At one time he took "a little conceit " to 
absent himself from their deliberations (p. 378) ; a political expe- 
dient which has seldom answered, nor did it in that instance. He 
returned, but it was, as he says, to use flattery to men who ought 
to have sought him (p. 393). Soon his greatest anxiety was to be 
recalled. " Would God I were rid of this place \" (p. 392) became 
the burthen of his letters, and when at length he was enabled to 
announce to the council of state that he was about to leave them, 
they mortified his vanity, and convinced him of his unpopularity, 
by using ee but slender entreaty " to him to stay. " My credit 
hath been cracked," he truly remarked, " ever since her majesty 
sent sir Thomas Heneage hither." (p. 424.) 

The dispute Avith his royal mistress considerably distracted the 
attention of the earl from the more active duty of his govern- 
ment, that of protecting his subjects against the incursions of the 
Spanish troops under the command of the prince of Parma. When 
the earl landed in Holland the Spaniards possessed the whole of 
Flanders and Brabant, with the exception of some few fortified 
towns. The Waal was the general boundary between the oppos- 
ing parties ; but the states, and their ally the deposed elector of 
Cologne, possessed Grave, Venlo, Rhineberg, Ostend, and some 
other places on the south of that river, whilst the Spaniards held 
Doesburg, Zutphen, and other places on the north. When Ant- 
werp fell, in the autumn of 1585, it was anticipated that the prince 
of Parma would immediately advance into the northern provinces, 
but the early approach of winter, and the gallant defence of Grave, 
prevented his doing so. Some inroads were made by the Spa- 
niards into Friesland during a frost which occurred in February 
1586 (p. 86), but the first considerable exploit of the campaign 
was the capture of Werle in Westphalia, by Schenck, an indefati- 



gable soldier then in the service of the states (p. 139). The cu- 
rious stratagem by which this achievement was effected will be 
found detailed in a paper printed in the appendix (p. 475). Shenck 
captured the town but not the castle, and being consequently 
unable to maintain his conquest, gained nothing ultimately by his 
daring exploit but the destruction of a place in the possession of 
the enemy. In a few days after the town was taken, a considerable 
force advanced to attack the intruder, when, finding himself be- 
tween two enemies, he sallied forth, defeated the advancing army 
to their great loss, and fought his way in safety to Nuys (p. 167). 

As the spring advanced, attention became fixed upon the move- 
ments of the prince of Parma. Rumours of various kinds were 
soon afloat as to his intentions, and several points of attack were 
successively suggested. In the meantime the earl determined to 
make an attempt to relieve Grave, the siege of which began to be 
pressed. A body of Dutch and English troops, commanded by 
Hohenlohe and Norris, undertook the perilous duty, and accom- 
plished it under circumstances which I have related in a note at 
p. 225. The relief was effectual. It seemed to place this im- 
portant town in a state of security (ibid.), and, being the first blow 
of the campaign, inspired the defenders of the Low Countries 
with confidence, and, as the earl believed, " appalled" the 
Spaniards. Advantages of various kinds were sanguinely anti- 
cipated from it. The earl even seemed to fancy that the prince 
was about to retreat in despair into Flanders, whither he talked of 
following him " at an inch." (p. 245.) He had not yet learned to 
know his enemy. 

The prince, having sent out bodies of troops in various direc- 
tions, whence arose the contradictory rumours respecting his 
intended movements, suddenly drew his forces together, and 
whilst the earl was holding a St. George's day festival at Utrecht 
(pp. 235, 238), and reviewing the troops which he dreamt of leading 
into Flanders (p. 251), tidings were brought to him that the 
prince was in full march towards Grave. 

On the 3d of May, the earl was fully apprised of the prince's 


design. " God send him no better speed than his predecessors 
had \" was his ejaculation, but he made no mention of any inten- 
tion to use the human means of prevention at his command. 
This was written at Amersfort, where he had mustered his troops. 
Three days afterwards he was still at the same place, but talked 
of " going" to the succour of Grave, which the prince, he says, 
was coming to batter with eighteen cannons (p. 258). On the 
8th the earl had advanced to Arnheim, but was quite uncertain as to 
the movements of the enemy (p. 262) . On the day following he wrote 
that Grave had been actually attacked (p. 265), and that he him- 
self was proceeding, not thither, but towards Nimeguen, in order 
to divert the prince from his design. Three weeks were spent in the 
expedition to Nimeguen, and the capture of a few forts of little value 
was its only result ; but, in the meantime, the prince gathered 
his men around Grave without any attempt at interruption, and, 
in the end, after a furious battery of three hours and a half, and 
a feigned assault, the timid and inexperienced governor, baron 
Hemart, rather precipitately capitulated (p. 284, and see note) 
upon honourable terms. 

A panic fear ran through the country, when this disastrous 
event became known (pp. 287, 291). Grave was the key of the 
northern provinces. It gave the prince the command of the 
Waal, and the power of marching forward when he pleased. All 
the advantages of Leycester's first success were lost at once, and 
the ridiculous exaltation which ensued upon that petty triumph, 
was succeeded by a depression not less unwarrantable. The 
anger of Leycester against the governor was unbounded. He not 
only subjected him to a public trial for treason against the states, 
of which there does not seem to have been any proof, but with 
revengeful enmity sent the unhappy man to the scaffold, in oppo- 
sition to the advice of all the principal persons of the country* 
This sacrifice terrified the people rather than inspired them with 
courage,* and if the prince had advanced at once, it seems likely 

* The circumstances of Hemart's trial and execution are related at pp. 308, 309, 


that his success would have been considerable. Caution, and the 
entreaties of the elector of Cologne, made him determine rather 
to follow up his success by clearing the country in his rear, and 
he first directed his march to Venlo. No effort Avas made for its 
relief, except a daring but very inadequate attempt of Schenck 
and Williams, related at p. 319; indeed the prince had scarcely 
commenced the siege when the inhabitants, actuated by fear, seized 
the gates and let in his forces (p. 322). 

The general terror was now at its height, and, as is usual 
amongst incompetent men in a time of trouble, dissension and 
mutual recrimination took the place of action. Leycester's letters 
are mere complaints of every thing and every body. At home 
and in the Low Countries, the queen, the council of state, sir 
John Norris, count Hohenlohe, prince Maurice, the treasurer, the 
auditor, everybody, was out of favour with him. 

The sinking courage of the people was for a while arrested by 
the surprise and capture of Axel, by prince Maurice and sir Philip 
Sydney ; an heroic action, the particulars of which are related by 
the earl at p. 337. The place was important, and the mode of 
securing it highly creditable to those concerned; but its cap- 
ture had no effect upon the movements of the prince of Parma, 
who, still bent upon clearing the country in his possession of all 
the enemy's garrisons, had now set himself down before Nuys. 
The earl, apparently abandoning all hope of arresting the prince's 
progress, scattered his men about in the fortified towns which 
were in no danger (p. 350), and trusted in the strength of Nuys, 
and the inspiriting character of its historical recollections, for its 
defence. The result may be anticipated. It followed the fate of 
Grave and Venlo, but with horrors from which they escaped, and 
which, even in that cruel war, were not common. It was sacked 
and utterly destroyed (p. 369). 

The prince, still pursuing his design of clearing the country north- 
ward, now advanced from Nuys to Berck, or Rhineberg, which 
was occupied by a strong garrison of English and Dutch troops, 


commanded by Schenck. From this time an obvious change took 
place in the conduct and policy of the earl. Influenced by the 
better counsels of sir William Pelham, who had now joined the 
army in the character of marshal of the host (p. 352), compelled 
to silence his paltry bickerings and complaints by a letter from 
the queen, who set them all down to jealousy and other un- 
worthy motives (p. 384), inspirited by supplies of money both 
from the queen and the states, and urged by strong neces- 
sity, he once more determined to gather together the troops 
scattered about the country, and proceed to the field, in the hope 
of saving Berck. " We are driven to the last refuge," he re- 
marked, " to try it by force, or all our towns will be gone." 

The muster of the troops took place on the 28th August. The 
earl inspected his army with great ceremony, and every thing 
seemed to indicate an immediate advance to drive the prince from 
the siege of Berck, which Schenck was prolonging with unparal- 
leled activity and valour. But a council of war, held after the 
assembly of the troops, determined that which might just as well 
have been discovered before, that the earl's force was insufficient 
for a direct attack upon the prince ; and that it was consequently 
better to endeavour to compel him to raise the siege of Berck by 
suddenly marching upon Doesburg, an important fortified town to 
the northward of the Waal, in the possession of the Spaniards 
(p. 400). This determination was prosecuted with unwonted stea- 
diness and vigour, and the earl was rewarded by the surrender 
of the place on the 2nd September (p. 406). He then advanced 
to the siege of Zutphen, and of two forts situate on the opposite 
bank of the river. 

This policy was successful. The prince, tired out by the un- 
ceasing activity of Schenck, and alarmed for the safety of his gar- 
rison towns in Guelderland, relinquished the siege of Berck and 
marched to their succour. The memorable contest in which sir 
Philip Sydney was wounded took place on the 22nd September, 
upon an attempt made by the prince to throw a supply of provi- 


sions into Zutphen. Being repulsed, he withdrew his troops, and 
shortly afterwards retired into winter quarters. Leycester kept 
the field for a few weeks longer, during which time the forts oppo- 
site to Zutphen were taken by the extraordinary bravery of sir 
Edward Stanley (p. 428) ; and Deventer was garrisoned by a pro- 
ceeding neither less extraordinary nor less courageous on the part 
of sir William Pelham. The narrative of this last exploit writ- 
ten by Archer, which is printed in the appendix (p. 478), will be 
found well worthy of attention. 

Here ended the military exploits of a campaign which neither 
added to the stability of the Low Countries nor conferred any 
glory upon Leycester. It was not devoid of brilliant actions, and, 
except an accusation which the earl brings ostensibly against the 
English troops, but really against sir John Norris, and which 
is not therefore much to be depended upon (p. 244), there is no- 
thing in the present volume which indicates any want of valour 
in the newly levied forces which were under the earl's com- 
mand. Whenever engaged with the enemy they were successful ; 
but the inactivity which prevailed at head quarters, and the extra- 
ordinary policy of throwing the troops into towns not in danger, 
instead of leading them to the succour of places actually invested, 
are altogether unaccountable. The poor fellows suffered many 
varieties of hardship. Leycester's disputes, first with the queen and 
afterwards with the states, interposed great difficulties in the way 
of procuring supplies, and reduced " the old ragged rogues," who 
had been in the service for several months, into such miserable plight 
for want of clothing, that when the raw recruits, just landed from 
England, came to see them, they ran away by hundreds (p. 388). Ley- 
cester hanged "divers of" these runagates, and desired good watch 
to be kept at Dover and at Sandwich for those who returned to Eng- 
land without his passport (p. 33 8), but even the fear of hanging could 
not retain men who were actually famishing. They joined the service 
with "the gladdest minds," (p. 347) but " tasting of want," "the 
poor starved wretches," (p. 260) endeavoured to find their way 


home again (p. 389), or went over to the enemy (pp. 365-389). 
At one time five hundred ran away in two days, of whom two 
hundred were brought back from the sea-side (p. 338). At an- 
other time four hundred deserters were taken and some executed 
" for example," but " not many," adds the earl, K for that in con- 
science they suffer overmuch." (p. 365.) At the close of the cam- 
paign their miseries still continued unredressed, for, in a letter 
from sir William Pelham to Leycester, which is not printed in 
the present collection, but which is dated the 15th October 1586 
" at the camp before Zutphen ;" the gallant lord-marshall thus 
describes the condition of his troops : " To say rightly, such are 
their miseries as I know not how to turn me to satisfy them, for 
some wanting wherewith to feed them, others almost naked, many 
falling daily sick, and all in general barefoot wanting hose or 
shoes, do by hundreds flock about me if I stir abroad amongst 
them, crying for relief of these extremities." a 

The conduct of one portion of his recruits drew from the 
earl an observation the accuracy of which has been confirmed by 
the experience of military men in all ages. After stating to Wal- 
syngham the grief of his heart to see " your youths in England 
how clean they be marred and spoiled for ever being able to serve 
her majesty and the realm," the earl proceeds thus : "I am 
ashamed to think, much more to speak, of the young men that 
have come over. Believe me, you will all repent the cockney kind 
of bringing up at this day of young men. They be gone from 
hence with shame enough, and too many that I will warrant shall 
make as many frays with bludgeons and bucklers as any in London 
shall do : but such shall never have credit with me again. Our 
simplest men in shew have been our best men, and your gallant 
i bludd and ruffin men' the worst of all others." (p. 228.) 

Besides containing a narrative of the important events of which 
I have given an outline, the present collection presents many of 
those brief but vivid glimpses of the minds and morals of promi- 
a Cotton. MS. Galba, C. x. fol. 65„ 


nent persons, and of the general state of society, those living exhi- 
bitions of men and manners, which constitute the chief value 
and the great charm of original letters. Of the character of Eli- 
zabeth herself a more valuable exhibition can scarcely exist. At 
all times she took a great share in the actual business of govern- 
ment ; but in reference to the transactions in the Low Countries, 
whether on account of her feeling of interest in whatever related 
to Leycester, as some persons may insinuate, or on account of 
the importance of those transactions in her estimation, as I 
incline to think, she retained "the whole direction of the causes of 
that country to herself," and would " by no means . . endure" that 
they " should be subject to any debate in council otherwise than 
as she herself should direct." (p. 237.) This circumstance obviously 
gives the present work an unusual degree of importance. We 
here see this celebrated sovereign practising the art of govern- 
ment, not through the dim and often deceptive medium of official 
forms, but, being herself, from the commencement of the book to 
its conclusion, the moving spring, the real and actual governor. 
We hear that in her anger against Leycester for accepting the go- 
vernment she gave way in a most unseemly manner to " great 
oaths" (p. 112), and "bitter and hard terms" (p. 118), and "great 
threatening words " (p. 151), and " most bitter words" (p. 172), 
and "stormy speeches" (p. 199), forms of language too common 
in those days amongst all classes, and in which her father's daugh- 
ter must have found it rather difficult not to indulge, but the book 
contains many better things relating to her than these, and no one 
who would penetrate into her character, or find out the secret of 
her extraordinary popularity, can do better than study the 
evidences which are here presented of the Avorking of her mind in 
its calmer moments. 

But these evidences must be regarded with a proper appre- 
ciation of the characters of the several persons from whom 
the letters proceeded. There is a great difference, for example, 
between the statements of Walsyngham and Burghley. The 


former writes to Leycester with the freedom which might be 
expected to be found in a correspondence between two members 
of the government united by relationship and by a community of 
opinion and purpose both in politics and religion ; but his style is 
hard, his nature suspicious, his judgments severe and conse- 
quently often mistaken. He is apt to refer all the queen's de- 
cisions to her little-understood feeling of parsimony, and even 
insinuates that her mind was failing, when the defect was probably 
merely a momentary one in his own temper (p. 279). Burghley's 
letters are quite of a different character. The absence of the 
same entire confidence is supplied by a great increase of courtesy 
expressed with something of the verbosity of age. There is a 
manly plainness in all his statements, whether of facts or opinions ; 
but all that he says of the queen is tempered by a courtier-like 
respect and deference, and even when he obviously thinks her 
wrong he strives to make the best of her opinion, and writes with 
due consideration for her station and her sex. Between the two 
writers it is not difficult to form an accurate estimate of her con- 
duct, and indeed in this respect we have advantages which they 
themselves did not possess. For example, they both in the first 
instance attributed her opposition to Leycester's acceptance of 
the government to underhand advice, and wrote under that im- 
pression. Walsyngham, in his blunt way, exclaims, " Surely 
there is some treachery amongst ourselves, for I cannot think 
that she would do this of her own head" (p. 240), whilst Burgh- 
ley, less positively, remarks that she acted " as one that had been 
by some adverse counsel seduced." (p. 198.) This notion throws 
a tinge over several of their letters, and historical writers, building 
upon those letters alone, might draw very positive and yet very 
erroneous conclusions, since it is clear from the result that both 
Walsyngham and Burghley were mistaken. Sir Walter Ralegh, 
who was suspected to be the queen's private adviser, took mea- 
sures to vindicate himself (pp. 193, 207) 5 the queen herself assured 
Leycester " upon her honour," that in the time of her displeasure 
Ralegh dealt earnestly on his behalf (p. 207). Ultimately Walsyng- 



ham admitted his mistake, and wrote to Leycester that he was 
persuaded that the opposition proceeded from the queen alone, 
and was not prompted by any person whatever (pp. 269, 279). 

In like manner Elizabeth regulated every step that was taken. 
All Leycester's requests were submitted to her, and we find her 
determining, directing, controlling every thing, with characteristic 
decision, combined with forethought, watchful care for the wel- 
fare of her people, attention to popular opinion, correct appre- 
ciation of the character of her agents, and unquestionable energy 
of mind. I would not be misunderstood to assert that she 
was always as right as I think she was in the dispute respecting 
Leycester's absolute governorship. The very contrary is my 
opinion ; but even in her mistakes there were generally mixed up 
some of the elements of greatness, and we often stand in need of 
the clearer light of the present age to enable us to discover her 
errors, a 

In such an introduction as the present it is obviously impossi- 
ble, even if it were desirable, to dwell upon a point of this kind, 
but I will select a few evidences of the interference I have asserted. 
At one time Leycester wanted money; the queen was consulted, 
she refused to allow it to be remitted until she had received an 
account of the expenditure of the sums which had been sent 

a One very striking proof of the enlarged and liberal character of the queen's 
political views occurs in reference to Leycester's proceedings in the Low Countries, 
although the authority for it does not appear in the present correspondence. Her 
majesty complained to the earl that he had greatly discouraged the papists, "being 
good patriots," and " having no less interest in the cause than the protestants them- 
selves," and that by his exclusive conduct in reference to that portion of his subjects, 
and his new impositions and exactions generally, he had lost much of his popularity. 
The earl answered, that he had used the papists indifferently as the rest, but that he 
found them nothing different from those at home, " for both desire change, both love the 
pope above all things, and no longer hide it than severe laws keep them under." The 
authority for this will be found in Dr. Birch's note of a letter of Leycester's, dated the 
2u'th June, 158G, contained in the Addit. MS. 4105. If the Camden Society are not 
weary of the subject I shall hope at a future time to be permitted to publish the original 
authority with other letters relating to the conclusion of the earl's career as an absolute 


already. Again, men were wanted ; she consented that they might 
be enlisted, but limited the number to one or two thousand, 
because her subjects began to murmur at the employment of so 
many people of this realm in defence of others at a time when 
this country was threatened with invasion. For the same reason 
she objected to sending experienced military men out of the 
island. She directed the earl to make arrangements for a supply 
of additional sailors for the English navy in case the Spanish 
fleet should sail for England. She not only held personal inter- 
views, as we have seen, with Davison, Sherley, Vavasour, and 
other messengers from the earl, but instructed those who were 
sent to him with a business-like precision, which Burghley thus 
describes in the instance of Wilkes when he went over in July 

"After long debate had before her majesty, it was thought 
most necessary to send one specially from her majesty unto your 
lordship, having named two or three, but, in the end, her majesty 
made choice of Mr. Wilkes, the bearer of these my letters, who 
is instructed not only by some writings as memorials delivered, 
unto him, but also by long speeches of her majesty herself, 
which she hath recorded in her own tables, and, nevertheless, 
caused him to put the same more at length in writing, so that he 
cometh very well informed of her majesty's mind, and appointed, 
also, to be informed by your lordship of many necessary things 
for satisfaction of her majesty. And, besides this, he hath letters 
from her majesty for assurance of her constant persisting in this 
common action." (p. 360.) 

With her own hand she wrote letters containing practical direc- 
tions, and official letters and instructions were prepared in pursu- 
ance of her verbal directions, and probably often in her very 
language, of which letter LXXVII, p. 208, is a clear instance. 
When a communication was to be made from the queen to the 
council of state in the Low Countries, and Leycester's secretary, 
who was then in England, had been selected by Burghley and Wal- 


syngham as the bearer of it, " her majesty misliked that Mr. Aty 
should, being your secretary, impart her pleasure to the states in 
things that might concern yourself" (p. 313), and " suddenly com- 
manded sir Thomas Cecill to be the messenger." Many instances 
occur of her refusal to adopt the advice of her ordinary ministers. 
" I have advised her majesty," says Lord Burghley, " to permit my 
lord of Leycester to continue in the government of those countries 
wherein God hath lately prospered him, and that you [sir Thomas 
Heneage] being sick, might return without following that hazar- 
dous course that is appointed to you; but her majesty will neither 
allow of the one or the other, but she saith you shall go back 
and do that she hath commanded you." One instance more of the 
nature of her personal interference will suffice. When the early 
approach of winter suspended military movements, the meeting of 
the English parliament, and the uneasiness of Leycester's posi- 
tion in his government, determined him to "hie him home," 
at once, "leaving all things as well as he could." (p. 446.) 
Without waiting for the queen's permission, with his usual 
impetuosity, he immediately announced his determination to 
the states-general (p. 443), stopped the sailing of some of the 
queen's ships which chanced to be at Middleburgh (p. 444), in 
order that he might return with them, and entered into a nego- 
tiation with the English merchants to make an advance of money, 
(p. 439.) Shortly afterwards the queen's reply to his application 
for permission reached him. Her majesty was willing that he 
should return, but not until a proper arrangement had been made 
as to how the government should be carried on during his absence 
" without harm to the public cause, and how her own army, con- 
sisting of her people, might also be ruled and directed." (p. 449.) 
Two days after notice of this determination had been sent to the 
earl, the queen was apprised of his proceedings at Middleburgh, 
and that he was expected to sail from thence on the following 
Friday, (p. 455.) She instantly despatched another messenger 
with a letter written by her secretary, in which, after referring to 


" a few lines of her own hand/' and the reasons which made her 
conclude that it was u neither for the earl's honour nor the surety 
of the cause" that he should leave his government before the 
arrival of his successor, the secretary continues, " she hath com- 
manded me again to iterate her former order unto you by this 
bearer, for your continuance on that side till you hear further from 
her in this behalf." (p. 455.) The earl was too wise to disobey. 

The letters of Walsyngham are shrewd, full of facts and busi- 
ness details, and occasionally contain excellent advice and impor- 
tant private information. Like all men who have a genius for 
plotting or for unravelling plots, he writes about his proceedings 
in a dark mysterious way, of which the passages in his letters 
relating to the discovery of Babington's conspiracy, and especially 
those in letter CXXVIII, p. 340, are examples. Walsyngham 
wished his correspondent " to make a heretick " of that letter as 
soon as he had read it (p. 342), but the earl contented himself with 
running his pen through the more important sentences. I fear 
they bear a construction not over favourable to the English go- 
vernment, but I must content myself with merely directing atten- 
tion to them. In the course of Walsyngham's secret inquiries we 
find that he occasionally stumbled upon information as to little 
underhand dealings of the queen and other members of the go- 
vernment, which they endeavoured to conceal from his inquisi- 
tive eyes. (pp. 223, 231.) He complains of the queen that she 
trusted too much to fortune, and anxiously wishes that " she did 
build and depend upon God." (p. 276.) His own practice makes 
one fear that, in public affairs, his confidence was reposed in a 
Machiavelian subtlety of which very discreditable persons were 
the instruments. 

Lord Burghley's letters are altogether of a higher order. They 
partake of the wordy character of the compositions of all cau- 
tious men ; but abound in information upon practical political 
subjects, expressed with something of the tone of authority which 
is natural to i( old experience." His lectures upon coin and cur- 


rency (pp. 41, 356, 357), upon the value of sea-ports to Spain 
(pp. 39, 40, 359), and upon the removal of the woollen staple (pp. 
157, 160,398), will be read with interest. One regrets to find him 
advising Leycester to flood the enemy's country in order to destroy 
their harvests (p. 315); and to read such a sentence as this, " the 
matter would be evil spoken of, to erect up a coinage in a foreign 
country of our current money ; but, if the gain might be sure, the 
profit would answer the speech." (p. 153.) 

But by far the most important letters in the present volume 
are those of lord Leycester. In them we not only find the de- 
tails of the incidents of his government and campaign, but they 
are the most ably written, and the fullest of information upon 
every point for which we refer to compositions of this kind. The 
style in which he wrote is often the simplest, the freest, the 
most colloquial that can be conceived, and at every turn we find 
some phrase which we meet with only in the Elizabethan drama- 
tists, or in the compositions of authors who have professedly writ- 
ten in the language of the people. As we read we feel compelled 
to remember that the earl was an eminent patron of the drama, and 
that even Shakspere himself was in all probability one of "lord Ley- 
cester's players." That his lordship picked up phrases in the same 
school of language as the dramatist is evident from the following 
brief quotations. " I am loth to have squares with him now." 
(p. 12.) "This fellow .... took it in such snuff as he came 
proudly to the states and offered his letters." (p. 47.) " They so 
shook him up, and with such terms, naming her majesty in scorn, 
as they took it, as they hurled him his letters and bid him content 
himself." (ibid.) " It shall go hard but I will win the young 
count and get the knave about him removed." (p. 74.) " The 
count Hollock ... in a great rage . . . sware by no beggars that 
he would drive his priest in the haven before his face." (ibid.) 
" He hath some matter a-brewing that will be worth ' God-a- 
mercy ! ' " (p. 75.) " I have no cause to have played the fool." 
(p. 17.) " I am threatened to be used as the prince of Orange 


was, but I am at a point for that." (p. 141.) "I am sorry to 
trouble you with the discomfortable dealings of our treasurer here ; 
I assure you it passeth." (p. 264.) " He playeth the knave with 
me, that being my servant and saying he would follow me, but 
never came. He is a tall fellow and a good soldier." (p. 304.) 
" I have now at a pinch helped them, when all their own power 
and forces are not able to stand them in stead." (p. 312.) " The 
state of causes here I have written to her majesty at length. 
They stand uppon tickle terms." (p. 322.) " It is reason they do 
allow me . . . yet it is no reason for me to stand hucking with 
them for myself." (p. 323.) " Suddenly made a pay to his foot- 
men . . . and since to his horsemen : a part he never play before 
now." (p. 331.) " Fourteen towns moe . . . had been gone at a 
clap." (p. 349.) " I will be master while I remain here, will they 
nill they." (p. 380.) " Trusting in papists and knaves for the 
nonce." (p. 389.) " As for the states, I warrant you they see day 
at a little hole." (p. 21 7.) Such extracts might be multiplied, but 
I have quoted enough. 

Nor is it only for the use of popular phrases that the earl's 
letters are conspicuous ; they abound in passages of forcible, 
manly, energetic writing. Where, in the prose writers of that 
day, can we find any thing more simple and effective than the 
following explanation addressed to the lords of the council ? 

" If your lordships will know the cause of so sudden defection 
of these towns, I must pray you to consider withall, that not only 
these towns but the whole provinces are in the same wavering 
estate ; yea, the principal men also, and those that have most 
especial cause to repose themselves upon her majesty, that, to tell 
you the truth, I know not where I set a sure foot, nor with whom 
of these countries I may confidently confer of these matters. 
And requiring of the cause, both by myself and with others of 
judgment, I rind it is not corruption from the prince, for he hath 
little to give ; not desire of the Spanish government, for even the 
papists abhor it; not mislike of being under her majesty, or her 


officers, for they desire nothing more than that it will please her 
majesty to take the sovereignty of them ; but, indeed, the cause 
cannot be imagined to be any other than a deep impression in the 
wiser sort, and such as look most into the doing of things, that 
her majesty careth not heartily for them ; and then being left or 
weakly assisted by her they must fall, for which they had rather 
provide in time than by delay to expect the war one after another 
in their own doors. This conceipt took beginning two or three 
months since, but now bringeth forth its effects, and wanteth not 
politick heads to nourish it on, which even then laid their plots 
that they now follow. And yet, my lords, though the case be very 
dangerous, and such as for duty's sake and for my own discharge 
I thus lay plainly and truly open to you, I do not make it des- 
perate, but do accept it easily recoverable if remedy be used in 
time. But the remedy must be according to the nature of the 
disease, which, growing of the mistrust of her majesty's effectual 
dealing for them, must be cured not with a shew but by a plain 
demonstration of the contrary by deed, and presently, the means 
whereof your lordships can better consider of than it shall boot or 
be fitt for me to prescribe. For my own part, what a man with- 
out money, countenance, or any other sufficient means, in case so 
broken and tottering every way, may do, I promise to endeavour 
to do to the best of my power." (p. 350.) 

In the narration of events the earl writes with ease and con- 
siderable descriptive power. Witness his account of the wound- 
ing of sir William Pelham and of sir Roger Williams in the trenches 
before Doesburg (pp. 401, 407). The latter was the same person, 
whose narrative of Actions in the Low Countries was published 
under the editorship of sir John Haywarde, and who is elsewhere 
described by the earl as " worth his weight in gold, no more 
valiant than wise, and of judgment to govern his doings." (p. 430.) 
With all this he had some little spice of foppery or heedlessness, 
and often running in and out of a trench " with a great plume of 
feathers in his gilt morion " became so conspicuous that many 
shots were fired at him, and it was a marvel he escaped with only 


" a blow thorough the arm." See also the account of Edward 
Stanley's exploits at Zutphen (p. 428). 

Equally skilful is the earl's delineation of character. With 
a few words he hits off the men around him better than many 
historians have accomplished by laboured description. The fol- 
lowing contain his first impressions of the celebrated count Hohen- 
lohe, or Hollock as he was more frequently termed ; " The count 
Hollock [is] surely a wise, gallant, gentleman, and a right soldier, 
and very well esteemed with many of the captains and soldiers ; 
he hath only one fault, which is, drinking, but good hope that he 
will amend it." (p. 61.) " He is a plain gentleman ... a right Almayn 
in manner and fashion, free of his purse and his drink." (p. 74.) 
"A very noble soldier." (p. 75.) 

Prince Maurice, then a lad of eighteen, to whom Leycester 
left the task of establishing the freedom of the Low Countries, is de- 
lineated not less clearly, although, perhaps from some little feeling 
of jealousy, not quite so fairly. "He hath a sullen, deep wit, 
and shrewd counsellors of his father's about him." (p. 71.) "He 
hath a solemn, sly wit ; but in truth if any be to be doubted toward 
the king of Spain it is he and his counsellors." (p. 74.) " He stands 
upon making and marring as he meets with good counsel." 
(p. 374.) 

Truchses the elector of Cologne deposed for protestantism is 
the subject of several descriptive passages in letters CXXXVI 
and CXXXVII. He found an asylum in the united provinces, 
but was deprived of all his means of support by a law- suit with 
the count de Meurs and the successes of the prince of Parma. In 
his destitution, not having " a groat to live on " (p. 378), " his 
heart almost broken through want" (p. 374), he submitted to play 
the undignified and not over honest part of an intelligencer be- 
tween the count Hohenlohe, who wholly imparted " his secret 
heart" to him, and the earl of Leycester. The earl repaid him with 
money "and other helps," and pictured his hard case to the queen 
in the vain hope of procuring him a pension. " He is a gentleman 



she would like as well as any man I have seen come to her being 
a stranger. His wisdom,, his behaviour, his languages, his person 
and all will like her well, and as great affection he beareth her as 
any man, not her own subject, can do. . . . He begins to fall 
toward a palsy, and yet he is but a young man." (pp. 3/3, 3/4.) 

Some of the most striking passages of this kind relate to sir 
John Norris and Paul Buys. They are too long to quote, but 
can be found through the index, and at once lead to an impor- 
tant question in connection with these letters, What light do they 
throw upon that great mystery of the reign of Elizabeth, the cha- 
racter of Leycester himself? My own impression is that it is an 
unfavourable one. They place his intellectual power beyond a 
doubt, but with equal clearness they exhibit moral qualities which 
sufficiently account for the fear and hatred in which he was held 
by so many of his contemporaries, and which if they had been con- 
joined with greater power would have made him a most formidable 
tyrant. The commencement of his inglorious government was a 
mere vanity fair, and its progress was distinguished by unstates- 
manlike neglect of his instructions (pp. 109, 437), and a suc- 
cession of disputes, conducted on his part, except in the instance 
of that with the queen, with a feeling of rancorous hatred which it 
is painful to conceive possible. To fall out of favour with Ley- 
cester was to become the object of his unsparing abuse, and, if in 
his power, of vindictive persecution. Paul Buys, who in the 
first instance was the earl's chief adviser (p. 386), shortly after- 
wards became in his estimation " a devil, an atheist, and the only 
bolsterer of papists and ill men," and of " late used a detestable 
practice against me, in respect of religion and to please the papists. 
But give me countenance," continues the earl, "his head shall pay, 
perhaps, for it and other villainous parts towards her majesty, which 
shall be justified when my authority shall serve." (p. 303.) a If her 
majesty mean to stand with this cause I will warrant him hanged, 
and one or two of his fellows, but you must not tell your shirt of 
this yet" (p. 291.) This man was subjected by the earl to a per- 


secution which excited a great outcry throughout the states, and 
which would have gone hard with its victim but for the inter- 
ference of the queen, (p. 436). 

Notwithstanding the eminent services of sir John Norris in the 
relief of Grave, services which the earl is compelled to admit 
although he strives to lessen them by insinuations, sir John soon 
fell into disfavour (p. 306). The earl found himself eclipsed 
by Norris's military talents, and nothing could exceed his anxiety 
to get rid of him. Amongst many accusatory passages there 
is one in which the earl makes his tenacious hatred of the earl 
of Sussex, who had then been dead nearly three years, a vehicle 
for more effectively conveying to Walsyngham a notion of the 
bad qualities of sir John Norris. "John" he says, "is right the 
late earl of Sussex' son ; he will so dissemble, so crouch, and so 
cunningly carry his doings as no man living would imagine that 
there were half the malice or vindictive mind that doth plainly 
his deeds prove to be." (p. 301.) In this letter the earl earnestly 
begs and entreats, over and over again, that Norris should be 
recalled, and in a subsequent letter, after describing him as " a 
most subtle dangerous man, not having a true word in his mouth" 
(p. 379), the earl begs Walsyngham to deal with Norris's father, 
but especially with his mother, to procure his return, (p. 379.) 
But the queen knew Norris's value and would not listen to the 
request. In her reply she attributed Leycester's mislike of Norris 
to some private feeling, whereupon the earl with his accustomed 
pliancy suddenly discovered that no man was more careful or 
forwarder in all services than the person he had so recently ma- 
ligned, that no doubt he was an able man, and he declared that 
he should want no encouragement (p. 385). 

The earl's mean-spirited accusation of Davison, and his vindic- 
tive execution of Hemart have been noticed already. From the 
first tidings of the surrender of Grave he seems to have determined 
upon the death of that unhappy man. " I will not complain any 
further, and yet / will never depart hence till, by the goodness of 



God, I be satisfied some way for this villain's treachery done, 
how desirous soever I am to come home/' (p. 285.) He seems at 
one time to have meditated some violent attempt to extort supplies 
from the states ; "Ifwe have force," he remarks, " we will have 
money." (p. 303.) The same lawless spirit was manifested on many- 
other occasions. When apprised that one Csesar an Italian was 
coming over to him, and, as was suspected, " for some mis- 
chief," he writes, " by his description it should be a surgeon, for 
there were two Italians, both surgeons, and both their names 
Caesars, and be both of Rome, and very villains, yet found they 
great favour of me in England. If it be either of them, as he 
saith this man confessed he served me, it were not amiss he and 
his companion were stayed there, or else, if they desire earnestly 
to come over to me, give me warning and Avrite your letters by 
them to me and then / will handle them well enough here" 
(p. 409.) 

Perfectly in character with all this were the earl's repeated 
entreaties for the speedy, even if irregular, execution of Mary 
queen of Scots (pp. 431,* 447) ; and many other similar circum- 
stances will occur to the reader of the volume. They manifest a 
violent, ill-regulated temper, an unprincipled recklessness as to 
means, a harsh revengeful spirit which might be hurried by cir- 
cumstances into the commission of the very worst of those crimes 
which have been popularly attributed to Leycester. Elizabeth 
declared that " there lacked a Northumberland in his place/' 
(p. 388.) If the earl did not possess the bold and commanding 
temper of his father, it is to be feared that he too certainly inhe- 
rited both his subtlety and his meanness. 

It is a delight to turn from the character of the earl to that of 
his illustrious nephew sir Philip Sydney. The present volume 

* This letter reveals to us that in 1569, during the rebellion in the North, the 
great seal was put to a warrant for the execution of Mary queen of Scots. The dis- 
persion of the rebels probably rendered it unnecessary to act upon the warrant, and 
the fact of its existence remained unknown to historical writers until the discovery of 
Mr. Ouvry's volume. 


contains a brief account by the earl of the capture of Axel, one 
of those achievements in the accomplishment of which Sydney 
gave such glorious promise for his future life (p. 337). The 
closing pages possess a melancholy interest from the details of 
the contest in which he was wounded (p. 413), his long sufferings 
which gave rise to fallacious hopes of his recovery (pp. 415, 421, 
429), his death (pp. 442, 445), and, finally, the miscarriage of his 
wife, brought on by her attendance upon him after his wound 
(pp. 446, 480), and the manner in which his affairs were embroiled, 
and his honorable intentions as to the payment of his debts 
defeated by the strict rules of law. It is but justice to Wal- 
syngham, especially after my former observations upon his letters, 
to direct attention to his conduct in reference to Sydney's debts. 
Walsynghanr's letters, CLXVIII. and CLXX., prove that, apart 
from his official duties, he had a kind and generous heart. 

The facts here published relating to Sydney not only add to 
the materials for his biography, but rectify errors into which 
writers upon that subject have fallen. The same remark may be 
extended to all the subjects treated of in the following correspon- 
dence ; indeed, the mistakes of our most distinguished histo- 
rians in reference to the circumstances of Leycester's conduct 
in the Low Countries, and especially in reference to his accept- 
ance and retention of the government, are not a little extra- 
ordinary. It was thought desirable that I should point out 
some of the more glaring of those mistakes, and I made some 
progress in an attempt to do so, but I found the task so distasteful 
and invidious that I soon abandoned it, and now only recur to the 
subject as a notice to future inquirers. 

In closing this introduction, which has extended to a length 
I never anticipated, I must remark that I alone am responsible 
for whatever it contains. The Council of the Camden Society 
have permitted me, subject to their usual regulations, to prefix 
such observations as in my judgment are likely to render the 
book more useful ; but their desire to add to the utility of the 



book ought not to make them responsible for the correctness of 
my opinions or the accuracy of my statements. 


York Crescent, Clifton, 
28th Feb. 1844. 



Archer, Henry. 

Letter to sir Thomas Heneage, 
dated 23rd October, 1586 .... 478 
Baker, Christopher. 

Letter to the earl of Leycester, 

dated 22d October, 1586 444 

Borough, Stephen. 

Journal of the earl of Leyces- 
ter's passage from England 
to the Low Countries in Decem- 
ber, 1585 461 


Letter to sir Thomas Hene- 
age, dated 13th May, 1586. ... 266 
Letters to the earl of Leycester, 

dated 6th December, 1585 

... 24 

26th „ ,, 

.... 38 


... 44 

12th January, 1585-6 

... 50 

17th „ „ 

... 66 

7th February, ,, 

... 103 

6th March ,, 

... 152 

The same date .... 

... 154 

31st March, 1586 .. 

. .. 196 

1st April ,, 

... 204 

8th June ,, 

... 293 

10th „ „ 

.... 296 

... 306 

20th June ,, 

... 313 

21st July „ 

... 354 

Letters to the earl of Leycester, 

dated 18th August, 1586 396 

15th September, 1586.. .. 411 
1st October ,, .... 420 

4th November ,, .... 449 
Burghley, lord, and secre- 
tary Walsyngham. 
Letters to the earl of Ley- 
cester, dated 21st June, 1586 316 

28th October, 1586 447 

Clerk, Bartholomew. 

Letter to the earl of Ley- 
cester, dated 22nd October 

1586 441 

Davison, William. 

Letters to the earl of Ley- 
cester, dated 17th February, 

1585-6 117 

28th February, 1585-6 .. 142 

2nd July, 1586 331 

4th November, 1586.... 451 
6th ,, „ .... 454 

Comments on a letter of the earl 
of Leycester, dated 10th March, 

1585-6 168 

Duddeley, Thomas. 

Letter to the earl ot Leyces- 
ter, dated 11th February, 
1585-6 1U 



Elizabeth, Queen of England. 
Letters to sir Thomas Heneage, 

dated 27th April, 1586 241 

The same date 243 

Letters to the earl of Leyces- 
ter, dated 10th February, 1585-6 110 

1st April, 1586 209 

Letters to the States General 
and Council of State of the 
Low Countries, dated — No- 
vember, 1585 20 

13 February, 1585-6 468 

— April, 1586 469 

Heneage, sir Thomas. 

His Instructions when sent into 
the Low Countries, dated 10th 

February, 1585-6 105 

Letters to the earl of Leyces- 
ter, dated 3rd March, 1585-6. . 149 
15th October, 1586. 437 
Hohenlohe, count. 

Letter to sir Edward Norris, 

n. d 474 

Leycester, earl of. 

His Instructions when sent into 
the Low Countries, dated De- 
cember, 1585 12 

His Minute of what things he 


Letters to Lord Burghley, dated 

5th December, 1585 21 

17th 28 

14th January, 1585-6 57 

7th February, „ 90 

29th September, 1586 418 

Letters to the Lords of the 
Council, dated 1st March, 

1585-6 145 

9th March, 1585-6 163 

27th „ „ 189 

23rd April, 1586 233 

15th July, 1586 349 


Letters to Mr. Davison, n.d. Fe- 

bruary, 1585-6 ••••••••« 


10th March, 1585-6 


Letter to the Corporation of 

London, dated 3rd February, 



Letter to the Lord Treasurer, 

the Lord Chamberlain, the 

Vice-Chamberlain, and Mr. 

Secretary Walsyngham, 

dated 8th February, 1585-6 


Letters to Mr. Secretary Wal- 

syngham, dated 27th Septem- 

ber, 1585 


The same date 


n. d. about 28th September, 1585. . 


n. d. about December, 1585 


dated 15th December 1585 


26th „ 


31st ,, ,, 


3rd January, 1585-6 .... 


15th ,, 


22nd ,, 


31st ,, ,, 


1st February ,, .... 


3rd „ , 


4th „ „ 


6th „ 


7th „ ,, .... 


8th „ „ 


14th „ , 


15th „ „ 


18th „ 


21st „ „ 


22nd „ „ 


24th „ 


26th „ 




1st March, 1585-6 


3rd „ „ 


9th „ „ 


17th „ „ .... 




Letters to Mr. Secretary Wal- 


n. d. March or April, 1585-6 .... 202 

3rd April, 1586 211 

5th ,, 214 

The same date 219 

16th „ , 225 

24th ,, „ 235 

28th ,, „ 244 

30th 249 

1st May „ 255 

3rd „ „ 256 

6th „ ,, 258 

8th ,, , 261 

9th ,, „ 264 

17th „ , 271 

23rd ,, „ 276 

25th ,, „ 280 

29th „ „ 282 

31st ,, „ 284 

6th June ,, 287 

7th ,, „ 290 

10th „ ,, 297 

18th „ 309 

26th June, 1586 321 

27th „ „ 326 

1st July, ,, 330 

8th „ , 337 

Hth „ „ 345 

15th „ , 348 

27th „ „ 362 

29th „ ,, 365 

30th ,, „ 375 

7th August, 1586 383 

The same date 384 

8th „ „ 390 

10th „ ,, 394 

31st „ ,, .... 399 

4th September, 1586 .. 405 

12th „ „ .. 410 

27th „ ,, .. 413 

28th „ ,, .. 415 

29th „ „ .. 419 

Letters to Mr. Secretary Wal 


dated 2nd October, 1586 .. 

22nd December 
23 rd 

Low Countries, Commissioners 
of the. 
Their advice to the earl of 
Leycester, n.d. November, 


, Council of 



4 '2 7 





State of the. 

Letters to Queen Elizabeth 

dated 18th March, 1585-6 

1st May, 1586 

11th June „ 

Merchant- adventurers of Eng- 
land, Company of. 
Letter to the earl of Ley- 
cester, dated 18th October, 


Norris, sir Edward. 
Letters to count Hohenlohe, 

n.d. November, 1586 474 

Another ib. 

Ralegh, sir Walter. 

LettertoTHE earl of Leycester, 

dated 29th March, 1586 

Schenck, sir Martin. 

Narrative of his capture of Werle, 
and of Leycester' s reception at 
Amsterdam, March, 1585-6. . . . 
Sherley, sir Thomas. 

Letters to the earl of Leyces- 
ter, dated 7th March, 1585-6.. 
14th „ „ 

21st „ „ .. 

Sydney, sir Philip. 

Questions and legal opinions, 




touching the execution uf his will, 

November, 1586 481 

Vavasour, Thomas. 

Letter to the earl of Leycester, 

dated 31st March, 1586 194 

Walsyngham, Mr. Secretary. 

Letters to the earl of Leycester, 

dated 26th Septeml >er, 1585.... 4 

27th „ „ .. 8 

n.d. December, 1585 .... 34 

20th March, 1585-6 .... 178 

21st „ „ 184 

The same date 185 

24th March, 1585-6 .... 186 

28th March, 1586 190 

1st April 205 

11th „ „ 221 

21st „ „ 229 

25th „ „ 236 

The same date 239 

14th May , 269 

20th „ „ 272 

The same date 275 

23rd 278 

Letters to the earl of Leycester, 
dated 26th May, 1586 281 

3rd June ,, 


22nd „ „ 


24th „ „ 


30th „ „ 



8th July, 1586 


9th „ „ 


11th „ „ 


20th ,, „ 


30th „ „ 


15th August , 



2nd September , 


n.d. „ , 


5 th November , 




Warwvef,, Ambrose earl of. 

Letter to the earl of Leycester 

dated 6th March, 1585 



Wylkep, Thomas. 

His Instructions when sent into 

the Low Countries, 




C4L1F, g 




A.D. 1585 AND 1586. 

The assassination of the prince of Orange on the 10th July, 
1584, reduced the defenders of protestantism in the Low Coun- 
tries almost to despair. Deprived of their only leader, exhausted 
by a long continued war, opposed to the power of Spain, then the 
greatest empire in the world, and that power directed by the con- 
summate military skill of the prince of Parma, the states ge- 
neral regarded the further prosecution of their unequal contest 
with despondency, and looked anxiously around for some helper 
in their distress, some potentate at once powerful enough and 
zealous enough to come to their aid. Their first application was 
made to France ; but, tempting as the notion of the annexation 
of the Netherlands has always been to the holders of the crown of 
that kingdom, and inclined as Henry III. was to adopt any course 
of policy which had a tendency to reduce the power of Spain, he 
felt that, in the unsettled state of his own kingdom, he dared not 
undertake the defence of protestant interests abroad. Upon his 
refusal, the sovereignty was tendered to queen Elizabeth, who 
received the offer with complacency, and referred it to the consi- 
deration of her council. 

In the mean time, the prince of Parma urged the war with 
vigour, and, after some considerable successes, advanced to 

camd. soc. B 


the siege of Antwerp, the richest and most populous city in 
the revolted provinces, and the one which had exercised the 
greatest influence over their proceedings. The fate of the con- 
test seemed to hang upon the determination of this memorable 
siege, and, with the instances of heroic perseverance and long- 
continued submission to privations exhibited by the citizens of 
Haerlem and Leyden still fresh in men's minds, it was confi- 
dently anticipated that, if it were possible, still nobler achieve- 
ments would crown the defence of this most important city. 

Whilst this momentous siege was still pending, Elizabeth and 
her advisers deliberated as to the course which she ought to 
adopt. Of her willingness to assist the protestants in the Low 
Countries no one could entertain a doubt ; she had already done 
so when their affairs were in a more promising condition, and now 
her own safety, and the preservation of her dominions from inva- 
sion, were in some degree dependent upon the occupation which 
the continuance of this contest afforded to the forces of Spain. 
On the other hand, Elizabeth entertained high notions of the 
indefeasible nature of the royal authority, and was not without 
fear that the precedent of interference which she was establishing 
might be urged against herself, on behalf of her own Roman 
catholic subjects. Her deliberations, and those of her advisers, 
were long and anxious, and, in the end, she decided upon the 
adoption of a middle course. The sovereignty was absolutely 
refused, but military assistance was determined to be given, and, 
with a view to fill that great void which had been occasioned by 
the murder of the illustrious prince of Orange, it was resolved 
that the English auxiliary troops should be placed under the 
command of " a person of quality and esteem/' one well inclined 
to the protestant faith, and who was not merely to be the lieute- 
nant-general of the queen's troops, but also a member of the 
council of state, and, with the council, to have power to redress 
certain abuses, and to have regard to whatever concerned the pre- 
servation of the common weal of the United Provinces. 


The selection of a proper person to fill so important an office, 
and the completion of the arrangements to which he was a 
party, occasioned considerable delay, and, in the mean time, the 
want of military assistance, and the necessities of Antwerp, 
daily became more urgent. The stipulated auxiliary force of 
4000 foot and 400 horse was raised immediately after the con- 
clusion of the treaty, and was placed under the command of sir 
John Norris, a soldier of established reputation,* but before he 
could pass out of England, the event which this armament was 
primarily designed to prevent had taken place. After some hard 
fighting, and many wonderful exhibitions of the science of the 
military engineers on both sides, St. Aldegonde, the governor of 
Antwerp, a nobleman long distinguished for his zeal for the pro- 
testant cause, was compelled by popular clamour to enter into 
treaty with the besiegers. The prince of Parma offered most 
favourable terms of accommodation, and ultimately the city was 
yielded, upon payment, by the citizens, of a fine of 400,000 guilders, 
the Spaniards releasing all prisoners and granting a general 
amnesty. The joy of the Spaniards at this result, and the depres- 
sion of the inhabitants of the United Provinces, were alike 
unbounded, and, if the prince of Parma had been able to fol- 
low up his success by an immediate invasion of the northern 
provinces, the consequences might have been most disastrous. 
But time was allowed to escape unimproved; the protestant 
inhabitants of Antwerp removed into Holland, and carried with 
them the commerce of which Antwerp had been the centre; 
Elizabeth agreed to increase her auxiliary forces to 5000 in- 
fantry and 1000 horse, b and, as successive bodies of English 
troops landed at the ports of Holland, and proceeded to the 
stations assigned to them, the hopes of the people revived, and 

a The treaty was concluded on the 10th August, 1585, (Dumont, corps diplomatique, 
v. 454. General collection of treaties, 8vo. 1732, vol. ii. p. 85,) and sir John Norris 
was appointed two days afterwards. (Murdin's state papers, 783.) 

b Galba, C. vui. fo. 134. 


all eyes were turned with eager anticipation towards the lieu- 
tenant-general whom the English queen was about to send to 
their assistance. 

It soon transpired that Elizabeth designed that high office for 
the earl of Leycester. The treaty by which she agreed to increase 
the number of her auxiliaries was dated on the 2nd September, 
15 85 , and before the end of that month it will appear by the fol- 
lowing letters that she had communicated her pleasure to the earl. 
It is just after that communication had been made that the follow- 
ing correspondence opens, and this brief notice of the political 
position of the Low Countries has been prefixed, in order that the 
real historical value of the letters to which we now proceed may 
be more clearly understood. 




The queen desires the earl to forbear his preparations for the 
Low Countries until he speaks with her. 

My verry good lord, her majestie sent me woorde by M r 
Da*** that I shoold speak unto your lordship that her plesure is 
you forbeare to proceed in your preparatyons untyll you speake 
with her. How this commethe abowt I know not. The matter 
is to be kept secreat. Thes chaynges here may woorke somme 
sooche chaynges in the Lowe Contrye as a may prove irreparable. 
God give her majestye an othur mynde and resolution then in 
proceadyng otherwyse yt wyll woorke bothe hers and best 

» is in MS. 


affected subiects ruine. And so I most humbly take my leave. 
At the courte, the 26*. September, 1585. 

Your lordships to command, 

Fra: Walsyngham. 
To the right honourable 
my verie good lord 
the earle of Leycester. 



27TH SEPTEMBER, 1585. HARL. MS. 285. FOL. 135. ORIG. 

Answer to the last letter — statement of the earl's preparations 
— Ms submission to the queen's will. 

I have this night, at j a clok, received your letter, which doth 
signyfie that her majesties pleasure ys, I shuld stey my prepera- 
tions untyll I doe speake with her. I wyll lett you knowe how 
farr I have gonne, and than I shall obey hir majesties comand- 
ment, being knowen from you, for stey of the rest, and to undoe 
of that ys donn, as hir wyll shalbe. 

First ; uppon hir first order geven, both from hir self and also 
confirmyd further by your letters by hir majesties comandment, I 
dyspached, betwene Thursday night and yesternight iiij a cloke, 
above ij c lettres to my servaunts, and sondry my frends, to prepare 
themselves, according to the order I had my self, with all the 
spede the could possible, to serve hir majestie, under me, in the 
Low Countreys. I am sure ther be a c of these alredy delyvered, 
and the rest wylbe before I can revoke them; having apointed 
the xviij. and xx. of the nsxt month for ther repayr hether with 


all ther furnyture. I have since, and before I cam my self to the 
Tower, taken upp both armours and stele saddelles, as many as 
must cost me a good pece of money. 1 have sett in hand sondry 
furnytures also for my self. I have taken upp ij or iij vessells to 
carry away presently certen provissions, as bear and other neces- 
saryes, which must be ther before me. 

And, lastly, that I am most sorry for, the states that were at 
court a cam hether to me this morning by ix a cloke, and spent ij 
owres with me, touching my dyspach, in so much as they werr 
redely to knele to me for to make what hast for my none aryvall 
on the other syde that I could possibly, yea by all perswasions 
pressing me that I wold not stey tyll my full preparations werr 
made, and my companyes, but to be knowen once to be aryved at 
Mydelborow, or Flushing, with such as may sonest be reddy, for 
by that meanes I shuld be the cause of stey of greter matters 
than wold be wyshed thorow longer delay, for, they sayd, yt was 
very long alredy. They offerd me with all, that many things 
shuld be ther made reddy to receave me, even so sone as yf I 
went within vj days I shuld be prepared for. I did, hereuppon, 
tell them what streyt comandment I had received from hir 
majestie to hast me over, and what good wyll they shuld now 
fynd in me to performe the same. We agreed that I shuld send 
som servant of myne to have ther lettres over to se all things 
made ther reddy for me, yf I shuld followe within 14 or 15 days ; 
I dyd so, and sent D. Doyly, whome ye know, who hath ther 
lettres, and, except my messenger find him, he ys gonn this 
morning tyde before iij a cloke; yet have I, uppon the sight of 
your lettre, sent one to seke him and to stey him. This farr 
alredy have I proceded. I told the states, also, that I steyd here- 
about tyll I shuld prepare for my owne speedyer dyspach. 

Whereuppon this sudden change doth groe, M r secretary, I 

a Certain commissioners who were sent by the states general of the Low Coun- 
tries into England to supplicate the assistance of Elizabeth. Their authority is 
printed in the Foedera, xv. 798. 


can not imagin, nether wyll I meddell withall, but must obey her 
majesties pleasure yf she have determyned any alteration, which 
I desyer to hear from you, for yf I com to the court yt must more 
easyly breake out, as yt wyll notwithstanding, and I can but greve 
at the myserable estate of the pore aflycted ; as for my owne, hit 
must be as the potters vessell, &c. 

For that I know this forenoon some of the estates wyll com 
ageyn to me about this cause, I wylbe absent somwhear tyll after 
none, by which tyme I wyll hope to receive further dyrectyon 
from you, which God grant to be best for her majesties own 
servyce and hir realme, by whose wysdom and government we are 
all lyke ether to stand or faule. Thus in much hast, praing you to 
excuse the imperfectyon of yt, being scrybled in my bed this Mon- 
day morning almost ij a clok. 

Your assured frend, 

R. Leycester. 
To the right honourable 
M r secretary Walsingham, 
hast, hast, 



27TH SEPTEMBER, 1585. HARI, MS. 285, FOL. 146. ORIG. 

Private letter sent with the one preceding — surprise at the altera- 
tion in the queen's mind — if the matter alters he cannot come to 
court, or look upon any man — urges him to let him hear again 
speedily, to send sir Philip Sidney to him, and to learn, if pos- 
sible, the cause of the change. 

This ys one of the strangest dealings in the Avorld. I find yf 


any lytle stey be longer, the alteration on the other syde wylbe 
past remedy. They ar so importunatt uppon me as I was feyn to 
promys them to be reddy my self to goe within xv days. I have 
don as I have wrytten, both in dyspach of my lettres and taking 
upp of the other necessaryes, which comes to no smale som, and 
now, was I in my money matters, and have my frends abrode for 
yt ! a What must be thought of such an alteration ! For my parte, I 
am wery of lyfe and all. I pray you let me hear with spede. I 
will goe this morning to Wansted, to se som horses I have ther, 
where I wyll tary tyll iij a clok, and than retorn hether ageyn, 
and, yf the matter alter, I can have no hart to com at court, or 
look uppon any man, for yt wylbe thought some myslyking in me 
doth stey the matter. Send Philip b to me, and God kepe you, 
and, yf you can possible, lern out the cause of this change. 

Your assured, 

R. L. 



27TH SEPTEMBER, 1585. HARL. MS. 285. FOL. 133. ORIG. 

Will acquaint the queen what comfort the earl received from her 
gracious communication to him touching his employment in the 
Low Countries — the council are willing to further the service, 
but in any matter of expence there will he difficulty with the 
queen — proposed removal of the queen of Scots to Chartley — the 
earl's presence greatly desired in the Low Countries. 

My verry good lord, I wyll not fayle to acquaynt her majestye 
with the great compforte your lordship tooke thorrough her 

a This obscure sentence is printed as it stands in the original. 
b Sir Philip Sidney. 


grateowse dealyng towardes you, at sooche time as she dyd dely ver 
her plesure unto you towelling the imployment of you in the 
Lowe Contryes. 3 

My lords have semed to be verry wyllyng to further any thinge 
your lordship shall require for the advauncement of the servyce. 
But yf your lordships requests shall mynister matter of charge, 
thowghe yt be for publycke servyce, the impedyment wyll be 
fownde in her majestye, with whom I have had verry sharpe con- 
flyctes abowt the Scottyshe causes, and all for charges. 

I wyll excuse your lordships absence in respecte of the neces- 
sytye of your being at London for the better expedytyon of your 
preparatyons. Sir Amyas Paulet proceaded forther in the prepa- 
ratyons at Chartley then I lookd for. I wyll doe what I can to 
staye the intended remove thither, but I feare neyther ser Wat. 
Ashetons howse, nor Gyffordes, wyll be founde so apt. b I wyll 
cause a sayll to be made of the felling of the quenes woodes, and 
of the used of hir stuffe. 

I fynde by the comyssyoners that they desyre greatly your 
presence on the other syde the seae, for that they dowbt, in respect 
of the present confusyon of governement, and the practyces in 
hand to drawe them to gyve eare to the prince of Parma, ther may 
faule owt somme dayngerowse alteratyon in thos contryes. 

I knowe your lordship wyll make what speed you may, and yf 
your good wyll myght have taken place, the daynger they feare by 
delaye had ben avoyded. 

I wyll doe my best indevor to see your lordship somme tyme to 
morrowe, or next daye, at your howse in London, and so, in the 

a It would seem that between the writing of letters II. and III. and this letter, the 
earl of Leycester had an interview with the queen, and that the suspension of his pre- 
parations had been withdrawn. 

b At the date of this letter Mary queen of Scots was confined at Tutbury castle, in 
the custody of sir Amyas Paulet ; but upon the interference of M. de Mauvissiere, the 
French ambassador, a promise had been given, that she should be removed to a more 
healthy and commodious place. She was removed to Chartley in January 1586. 


meane tyme, I most humbly take my leave. At the courte the 
xxvij tn of September, 1585. 

Your lordships to command, 

Fra: Walsyngham. 
I woold be glad to undarstande 
whether your lordship hathe had 
sir Thomas Cicell a in remembraunce. 
To the right honorable my 
very good lord the earle 
of Leycester. 



N. D. HAUL. MS. 285. FO. 147. ORIG. 

Answer to the last letter. He will not increase her majesty's 
charges — hopes he may have five or six hundred of his own 
tenants, whom he will reckon as good as a thousand others — 
requests Walsingham to protect a poor man whom loi'd Hunsdon 
threatened to send to prison. 

Sir, I doe not meane to make any request that shall encreace 
any neu chardge, albeyt hir majesty, I trust, shalbe well provided 
to have hir own chardges saved in the end. b You know what my 
sutes ar lyke to be, only to se me go accompanyd with such suffy- 

a The eldest son of lord Burghley. He served in the Low Countries during Leyces- 
ter' s government as governor of Brill. Foedera, xv. 802. 

b It was stipulated in the treaty between the queen and the Low Countries, that she 
should advance the pay and other charges of her troops, and that the sum thus 
expended should be repaid within five years after the conclusion of peace. The town 
of Flushing, the castle of Rammekins in Walcheren, and the town of Brill, were deli- 
vered into the queen's hands as security for the repayment of her advances. 


cyent persones as shalbe requysytt in so weighty a servyce as this 
ys. And herein, good Mr. secretary, stand fast to me in dede ; 
for I wyll seke nothing, by my jorney, in this world, but to doe 
servyce to hir majestie and this realme, and nothing I am in sure 
hope wyll hinder yt but letting me from such able persons as I 
shall desyer. I gave my nephew Philip this morning som notes 
to conferr with you about. 

I hope, sir, I may have that I made you acquantyd with v or vj c 
of my owne tenauntes, whom I wyll make as good reconing of 
a[s] of 1000 of any that ar yet gonn over, and no way to encreace 
hir majesties chardges,a and whan I shall speak with you, which I 
much desier, I wyll further satysfye you. 

Sir, my lord of Hunsdon b hath sent his comandment, uppon his 
sonn Hobbyes c informacion, for a bayly of Hersam, d who had a 
book concerning ther own lybertyes and myne also, delyvered 
them by a stuard of myne only for a tyme to pleasure them, and 
now they have retornyd the booke ageyn to my offycer, and my 
lord, he sends, wyll comytt him for yt, but I trust that justycee 
wyll not be, for I must rather inform hir majesty ; and this being 
the truth of the cause, I pray you, sir, help to kepe the pore man 
from prison, as I know yf you send to my lord that the party hath 
opened the cause to you, I know he wyll forbear him. I am 

a Power was given to Leicester to raise five hundred men " of his tenants and 
servants" to attend his person during the time of his absence in the Low Countries. 
The letters patent for that purpose, dated the 2nd October, 1585, are printed in the 
Foedera, xv. 799. Leicester's commission as lieutenant-general, dated the 22nd Octo- 
ber, 1585, is also printed in tbe same work, xv. 799. 

b William Carey, lord Hunsdon, cpieen Elizabeth's cousin ; being, not her sister's 
son as is stated by mistake in Dugdale's Baronage, ii. 397, but the son of William 
Carey and Mary Boleyn, sister to queen Elizabeth's mother. 

c Margaret, second daughter of lord Hunsdon, was married to Sir Edward Hoby, 
knight. Dugd. Bar. ii. 398. 

d This word is doubtful in the MS. 

e i. e. punishment, vindictive return. 


loth to have squares 3 with him now. God kepe you, and so I 
rest your assured, 

R. Leycester. 
To my honorable 
good frend Mr. 
secretary Walsingham. 



DECEMBER 1585. MS. COTT. GALBA, C. VIII. FO. 119, b. AND FO. 215. b 

Abstracts of the earle of Leicesters instructions, appointed by her 
majestie to be her lieftenaunt-generall of her forces in the Low 

To have care that her majesties subjectes serving under his 
lordship maie be well governed, and to use all good meanes to 
redresse the confused government of those countreys, and that 
some better forme might be established amongst them. 

Touchinge the good ruling of her majesties subjectes, his lord- 
ship is directed to bend his course, during his charg there, rather 
to make a defensive then an offensyve warr, and not in any sort 
to hazard a battaile without great advantage. 

To establish martiall discipline, and see those severlie ponished 
shall not duelie observe such orderes as shalbe made, and the inso- 
lencies of the soldiers against the common people to be reformed. 

That the captaines be not suffred to lett their bandes decay, but 
see that their number be full, and check rolles to be kept of euerie 

a " To have squares ; " is to have a disagreement or contention. 

b This paper has been divided and misplaced by the binder of the volume in which it 


That his lordship uppon his arnvall doe cause an exact view to 
be made of all the English forces, and to have speciall care to paie 
the bandes by the head, and by generall paymentes to the captaines. 

That the abuses of captaines, and their under officeres, be nar- 
rowlie looked into and severelie ponished. 

That of the bandes under her majesties paie such as shalbe found 
weake and decaied to be cashed, a and with the nomberes remayn- 
inge to suplie the defects of thother bandes, or elles those bandes 
to be renforced by other her majesties subiectes serving in those 

To see that the garrisons of the cautionarie townesb maie be 
duelie paid euerie moneth, aswell for avoiding discontentments as 
for their better maynetenaunce, in respect that they paie accise 
which the soldieres of the camp paie not. 

To have care that the cautionarie townes maie be suplied with 
greater forces, such as the governores shall require, in case they 
shall dowbte of anie revolt, or perceive that the enimye shall 
draw his force that waie. 

For the second part, touching the reformacion of their govern- 
ment, to deale with the states that, for avoidinge the confusion 
which soe manie councelles doe breed, they wold make choice of a 
lesse nomber of wise, discreete, and well affected persons, to whom 
the directions of matters of policie maie be comitted, and for cutting 
of the tediousnes and delaies in matters of councell, to move them 
that the deputies of the severall provinces maie have authoritie to 
consult and conclude, and cutt of the often references to the parti- 
cular states. 

To appoint some well chosen persones to collect the contributions 
made towardes the maynetenaunce of the warres, and to see them 
dulie ymploied and yssued for the publique service. 

■ i. e. quashed, cashiered. 

b Flushing, llaminekins, and Brill; vide p. 10, note b. 


That the abuses of the officeres of the receipt maie be reformed, 
and they to be charged with their deceiptes, and theruppon to re- 
quire to understand how the ymposicions and taxacions have ben 

To cause a view to be taken of the cautionarie townes, in what 
state they stand, and that there maie be magazines appointed for 
them, with a sufficient proporcion of municion and victuall to be 
kept in redines there att the charges of the states. 

To appoint in euerie of the cautionarie townes certaine well 
chosen persones to compound such differences as maie happen to 
grow betweene the garrisons and the townesmen, to thend they 
maie be kept in good union and agrement, and remove such as 
they shall understand to be evill affected. 

His lordship to enforme himself of all the forces both of horse 
and foote entertained by the states both by sea and land, where 
they are placed, how they be paid, and what meanes they have 
to contynue and defraie those charges. 

To advise in what sort the abuses in raisinge and abatinge the 
value of money maie be reformed, and the coynes reduced to one 
certaine value, to thend the soldieres maie receive and paie their 
money att one rate. 

To restraine the transporting of victualls to the enimie, and to 
see the offendores that waie seuerelie ponished. 

To deale with the states that the Dunkirkes maie be better 
looked unto, and the passadges unto that countrey cleered. 

That the nobilitie of that countrey in the states entertainement, 
especiall the prince of Orenges children, 3 maie by his lordship be 
ymploied into places of creditt and honorablie respected. 

a William prince of OraDge left issue four sous and eight daughters. His eldest son 
Philip William was at this time, and for many years afterwards, a prisoner in Spain ; 
Maurice succeeded his father as stadtholder, and ultimately established the independence 
of his country : Henry Frederic succeeded Maurice. Of his daughters it will be suf- 
ficient to remark that Mary was married to count Hohenlohe ; Louisa Juliana was mar- 


To recommend unto the states the estate of Truxes, archbisshopp 
of Collen. a 

To lett the states understand, that, where by their commis- 
sioneres they made offer unto her majestie, first, of the soueraintie 
of those countreyes, which for sundrie respects she did not accept, 
secondlie, unto her protection, offring to be absolutelie gouerned 
by such as her majestie wold appoint and send ouer to be her lief- 
tenaunt. That her majestie, although she would not take soe much 
uppon her as to comaund them in such absolute sort, yet unlesse 
they should shew themselves forward to use the advise of her 
majestie to be delivered unto them by her lieftenaunte, to work 
amongst them a faire unitie and concurrence for their owne de- 
fence, in liberall taxacions and good husbanding of their contribu- 
cions, for the more speedie atteyninge of a peace, her majestie 
wold think her favours unworthelye bestowed upon them. 

To offer all his lordships travaile, care, and en devour, to under- 
stand their estates, and to geve them advice, from tyme to tyme, 
in that which maie be for the suretie of their estate and her ma- 
jesties honour. 



A. D. 1585. MS. HABX. 285. FO. 137. ORIG. 

The commissioners of the Lowe Countryes advise. 

To serve his excellence, accordinge to his desire, by waye of 
advys, for better directyon of the affaires of the Low Countryes, 

ried to Frederic IV., elector palatine ; Elizabeth was married to Henry de la Tour, duke 
de Bouillon, and was the mother of the great Turenne ; Catharine was married to 
Lewis, count de Hanau ; Charlotte Brabantina to Claude, duke de la Tremouille, 
and was mother of the celebrated Charlotte countess of Derby. 

a Gebhard Truchses, archbishop of Cologne, elected in 1577, but deposed by the 


the deputes of the sayd countryes remayned a here thinke, under 
correctyon, most convenient that his excellence first arryve in 
Zealande, makinge his resydence at Middlebourghe, and there to 
keepe his court till such tyme that, uppon the assuraunces of the 
townes and forteresses mentyoned in the treatye, shall deu con- 
tentment be gyven unto her majeste. 

To which end., and for to proceade to the fulfillinge of the other 
pointes of the foresayd treatye, to hale, b first, ample commyssyon 
from the states generall of all the provinces to him, authorytye 
sufficient as her majeste hath don, yt may please his excellence 
presentlye to advertyse the states of the united provinces of his 
arryvall there, and desire of them a generall assemblye at Middle- 
bourghe aforesayde, or at least to send anye of there especyall 
commyssyoners wyth full power and authorytye for the better 
proceadinge and effectuatinge of the foresayd poyncts. 

That yt allso please his excellence to cause, with the first, c a 
college or councell of estate to be established, for to serve and 
assyst his excellence dewtefullye in all thinges, whereto yt shalbe 
good to putt her majeste in mynde to nomynate and appoint twoe 
in the sayd councell, accordinge unto the treatye, yf such be her 
majestes pleasured 

And, forasmuch as at this present the service of her majeste, and 
preservation of the unyted Lowe Countryes, with that which de- 
pendeth thereof, princypallye consysteth in the admynystration 
and conducte of the martyall affaires and warres, aswell offensive 
as defensive, by sea and lande, and that in the same countryes, 

pope in 1583, on account of his adoption of the opinions of the reformers. He sought 
protection in Holland. L'art de verifier les dates, xv. 283. 

a Several of the commissioners from the states general had returned home. 

b i. e. to procure by solicitation. 

e i. e. in the first place. 

d The cpieen appointed Bartholomew Clerk, LL.D. and Henry, afterwards sir Henry, 
Killegrew, to be members of the council of state in addition to the earl of Leicester. 
Clerk and Killigrew, who were both distinguished men at that period, had been em- 
ployed before in foreign embassies. Galba, C. vm. fol. 116" ; Strype's Life of Parker, 
ii. 183 ; Annals, i. partii. 268. 


by fault of authorytye, comaundement, and dew order, is fownde 
greate confusyon, fraude, negligence, and dysobedience, to greate 
advauntadge of the enemye and noe lesse harme, losse and daunger 
of the foresayd countryes in severall respectes, that, therefore, yt 
please his excellence, as before, to hale authorytye, with the 
first, to declare him selfe unto all and everye unto whome yt shall 
appertaine, chiefe head and gouvernour generall, accordinge to the 
chardge and comyssyon of her majeste. 

And forthwith to take information of the nomber, quallytye, 
and circumstaunces of the souldiers in generall, as allso of the 
commaunders, captaines, and officers of the same in particular, 
with all other officers and commyssyoners of warre and martyall 
affaires, namelye, vyctualls, admunytyon, and others thereon de- 
pen dinge, whereof must be delivered unto his excellence a generall 
declaratyon aswell of the footemen and horsemen as the com- 
maunders and officers of the same, wyth their names, surnames, 
and wages. 

To th'end that thereuppon order maye be gyven for the inter- 
taynementes of those that are most meete and fytt for the service of 
her majeste and the countryes, and chaunged or dyscharged all 
needelesse and unable persons ; for the more proffitt of her ma- 
jeste and conservation of the countries, wythout respect of an ye 
person whosoever ; causinge the foresayd souldyers to be kept 
under their auncients a at a competent nomber, and the auncients 
to be placed under certayne good colonells, prouydinge the same 
with sufficient officers, which actuallye doe their dewtyes and 
dyschardge themselves honestlye, to th'end that the better 
government and martyall dyscipline maye be kept amonge soul 
diers, and the better service had at their handes. 

Lykewyse, to take such regard uppon the reveus, mosteringes 
and paymentes, that her majeste nor the states aforesayd be on the 
one syde not defrauded, nor the commone souldiers on the other 



deceaved of their dew and competent wages, by the captaines or 

The like maye be done with the shippes and marryners of warre, 
and of the rigginge of the same, by sea and uppon the ryvers. 

His excellence shall allso please sufficientlye to enquire of all 
sortes of artillerye, weapons, and other prouyson of admunytyon, 
especyallye of those that are ordayned for the commone service of 
the countrye, and might be employed in the commone cause, 
whereby his excellence and the countryes maye at all tymes knowe 
whereuppon to trust in tyme of necessytye. 

Allso, that yt please the same to holde a vigilant eye uppon the 
state of all the townes and forteresses, especyallye uppon the bor- 
deres, or them that are before others in anye daunger or attempt of 
the enemye, to th'end that the same townes, forteresses, or bor- 
deres, maye be repayred and strengthened in tyme with good and 
needeful garnyson, victualls, and other necessaryes, to the better 
resistaunce of th' enemye, and, as neare as ys possible, actuallye 
to cause the same to be provyded against all surpryses, and sod- 
dayne sieges, and, before all other, such places which in winter 
season and in frost hardelye maye be succoured wyth men or pro- 

There needeth, likewyse, greate regarde uppon all manner of 
contributyons graunted for the better maintenaunce of the warres, 
whereby the same maye well and dewlye be handeled, receaued, 
and payd, and that in the same all possible egalitye maye be kept 
betweene the foresayd provinces, and not to see the money em- 
ployde otherwyse then to the martial affaires, where unto they 
are appropriated and destinated by the estates. 

And to the end that in the provinces aforesayd, betweene the 
inhabitaunts and citizens in the townes and villages, good order, 
and rest and Concorde maye be kept, to the encrease of God's 
honor and maintenaunce of the commone wealthe, yt maye please 
his excellence to have in singular commendatyons the churches 
and the reformed evangelyke religion, and by all dew meanes to 


advaunce, confirme, and to cause the same to encrease so muche 
as ys possyble, not admyttinge or sufferingc anye of contrarye or 
papystycall rcligyon to anye offices or chardge of importaunce. 

That yt likcwyse please his excellence to see, within the sayd 
countryes, good justice and pollitique gouvernement to be adrni- 
nistred and mainteyned, restoringe and establishinge, wheare 
neade doth require, the lawfull authorytye of magistrates and 
officers respectivelye, so well in townes as without, and lykewyse 
to provyde uppon all other necessarye matters with advyce of the 
councell of estate which shalbe ordeyned to assyst his excellence 
in all occurrences, for the better service of the commone wealthc, 
accordinge unto the lawes, priviledges, and lawdable customes of 
the aforesayd countryes, provinces, and townes respectivelye. 



A. D. 1685. MS. EARL. NO. 285. FOL. 144. ORIG. IN THE EARL's II AND WRITING. 

What thinyes ar most necessary to understand touching the estate of 
these Low Countreys. 

First, to be satysfied how they have byn gouerned since the 
death of the late prince of Orange. a 

■ After the death of the prince of Orange, the government of the Low Countries 
was carried on by a council of state, created for a period which expired in the 
autumn of 1585. Previous to its expiry, Walsyngham intimated to Davison, the 
English ambassador in the Netberlands, that, as the queen could not immediately send 
over the nobleman whose advice the states general were to use in the settlement of 
their government, she wished them to renew the authority of the council of state. In 
opposition to this advice, the states gave the government provisionally into the hands 
of Prince Maurice, alleging a previous understanding upon the subject, and directing 
their deputies in London to acquaint her majesty that " the counte Maurice should 
respect my lord of Leister as a generall, and be under his conduct." MS. Cotton. 
Galba. C. vin. fo. 115, b. 


What councellors and officers they have had, and have. 

What there authorytye was. 

What forces they have had, and have, in their pay, for defence 
of the countreys in all places. 

What certeyn meanes they have to mainteyn the same, and how 
they be collectyd. 

What the countres be indebtyd synce the princes death, and 
what order ther ys taken for them, and all other ther debtes. 

What gouernment ys requysytt to be apointyd to him that shalbe 
ther governor. 

First, that he have as much authorytye as the prince of Orange 
had, or any other gouernor or captain generall hath had heretofore. 

That ther be as much allowance by the states for the seid. 
gouernor as the prince had, with all offices aportenaunt. 

That the generall contributions and collectyons for the expence 
of the warr be apoyntyd at his dispocytyon. 

That ther be a certeyn nomber of the best sort of persons 
apointyd for councellors of estate. 




The queen's affection for the Low Countries, and her regard for the 
earl of Leycester. 

Her affection towards them to be seene in sending the earl of 
Leister, a personage whom she did make more accompt of then 
anie of her subiects ; him she appointed to be generall of her 
forces there, to assist them in their affaires. 

3 A copy of the letter itself has not been found. 





The earl presses for the completion of the arrangements for supply- 
ing him with money, — offers the queen the security of his own 
lands against misapplication of her advances. 

Wondereth and complaineth that the queen will not seale his 
booke of assurance. He can nor will not goe without monie. Her 
majestie meaneth he would deceive her. If she putteth anie mis- 
trust in him, he offereth her to sell his land unto her for 30.000 
or 26,000 li . which is either 30 or 26 yeare purchase, and the same 
at such rate as her own officers shall saie themselves it is well 
worth 60 5 OOO n . besides the wood, which is worth 5,000!', so that 
her majestie shall gaine by him 40,000^. 



5TH DECEMBER 1585. HARL. MS. 6993. FO. 119. ORIG. 

A letter of farewell on the earl's departure towards the Low Coun- 
tries, most earnestly entreating the lord treasurer to have the 
cause of the United Provinces at his heart, and not to allow the 
earl to be thwarted by want of supplies. 

My very good lord, I am sorry I could not take my leave of 
you before my departure, 13 but I hard, which I am sorry for, that 

* A copy of the letter itself has not been found. 

b " December 4th. — The earl of Leicester having taken leave of her majesty, and 
caused six hundred horse to pass muster in London, departed thence for Harwich, in 


your lordships paines encreaced after my going from the court, 
and dyd lett your intended coming to London ; but, seing that 
oportunyty taken away, I have thought yt my parte to byd your 
lordship fare well by these fewe lynes, whearin I shall wyshe your 
lordship perfect health, and many yeres to serve hir majesty, 
com ending you for the same to the mighty e protectyon of the 

My good lord, I may not, having this occasion, be unmyndfull 
of these thinges also, which I did think at my leave taking to 
have remembred to your lordship, albeyt I know the care you 
always have of hir majesties good servyces. Your lordship can 
not but remember the cause for which hit hath pleased hir 
majesty to send me into the Low Countreyes. Hit was not only 
by your lordship, but by the hole nombre of councellors agreed 
uppon, how mete and necessary hit was for hir highnes to yeld 
ayd and assistance for the relyfe of those aflicted countreys, her 
neghbours and most auncyent frendes : hit hath grown synce to 
nerer termes and resolucyons, aswell by hir majesties own wordes 
of comfort to them, as by contractes sett down betwen hir and 
them, by hir majesties comyssioners apointed for the purpose. I 
trust, my good lord, now that I have taken this voyage uppon me 
to serve hir majestie as she hath commanded, your lordship will 
be myndfull of me, poore man, but of the cause comytted now to 
my delinge chifely. 

Albeyt I have no mystrust but in so great absence, and such a 
servyce, I might greatly relye uppon your partyculer good wyll 
and regard of my self, but in this case I desier no respect nor 
regard of me, but of the cause, which I besech you, my lord, I 
may at this farewell recomend to your wysdome and great care. 
Hit cannott be but whatsoever lack shall happen to me in this 
servyce, but the want must turn to hir majestie ; and, as ther can 

order to cross the sea to Zealand." MS. journal of Leycester's proceedings in the 
library of the college of arms, printed in Retrospec. Rev. i. 277. 2nd series. 


no good, or honor, fall to this actyon, but yt must be wholy to the 
prayse and honour of hir majestie, so whatsoever disgrace or 
dyshonor shall happen (growing for lacke of our good main- 
tenaunce) but yt wyll redownde to hir majestie also. Hir majestie, 
I se, my Lord, often tymes doth fall into myslyke of this cause, 
and sondrye opinions yt may brede in hir with all, but I trust in 
the Lord, seing hir highnes hath thus farr resolvyd and groen also 
to this farr executyon as she hath, and that myne and other 
mennes pore lyves and substances ar adventured for hir sake, and 
by hir comaundement, that she wyll fortefie and mainteyn hir 
owen actyon to the full performance of that she hath agreed on. 
Than shall ther be no dowbt, but assured hope, of all good 
success, to the glorye of God and perpetuall honour to hir ma- 

My good lord, you may conceave my meaning without more 
wordes used to you, and the rather for that I desiered Mr. secre- 
tary to imparte a lettre to yow I wrote to him. I besech your 
lordship have this cause even to your hart, as yt doth appear yow 
have donn by consentynge to the adventure of your eldeth sonne 
in this servyce ; for this I must say to you, yf hir majesty fayle 
with such suplye and maintenance as shalbe fytt, all she hath 
donn hetherto wylbe utterly lost and cast away, and wee hir pore 
subiectes no better than abiectes. And, good my Lord, for my 
last, have me only thus farr in your care, that in these thinges 
which hir Majesty and yow all have agreed and confirmed for me 
to doe, that I be not made a metamorphocys, that I shall not 
know what to doe. 

And so the Lord have you in his keping, preserve hir majestie 
for ever, and send me good spede in this servyce. In som hast 
this 5th of December, on my way to the sey syde ; 

by your lordships assured frend, 

R. Leycester. 

My lord, no man feleth comfort but they that have cause of 


grefe, and no men have so much nede of relyfe and comfort 
as those that goe in these dowbtfull servyces. I pray you, my 
lord, help us to be kept in comfort, for we wyll hazard our lyves 
for yt. 

To the right honourable 

my very good lord, the 

lord Burley, lord treasurer 

of England. 




Reply to the last letter. Lord Burghley will promote the earVs 
proceedings as if he were his kinsman — would deserve to be an 
accursed person if he did not strive to advance the cause — had 
dealt earnestly with the queen to favour the earl. 

My very good lord, I have receaved your courtess ** letter, 
wherein your lordship doth commend to me your honorable ca** 
that your state and service now in hand doth require, whereof 
truly, my lord, I do assure yow, no less a portion of my care and 
travell for many respects to the furtherance of your own honor 
than if I war a most neare kynsman in bloode; and for the 
avancement of the action, if I should not with all the powers of my 
hart contynually both wish and work avancement therunto, I war 
to be an accursed person in the sight of God ; consideryng the 
endes of this action tend to the glory of God, to the savety of the 
queens person, to the preservation of this realme in a perpetuall 
quietnes, wherin for my particular interest, both for my self and 


my posterity I have as much interest as any of my degree. And 
this I pray yow, my lord, mak a perfect accompt of me and for 
my doyngs. I referr the report to Mr. secretary, who hath this 
afternoone hard me, in most ernest sort, dell with hir majesty to 
favor and maynteane you and your action, as the only meanes at 
this tyme to bryng hir to savety. 

From my couch in my chamber, not yet hable to rise from it. 
God send your lordship a spedy good passadg. a This vi. of De- 
cember, 1585. 

Your lordships 
assured as any, 

W. Burghley. 



15TH DECEMBER 1585. HARL. MS. NO. 285. FO. 167. ORIG. 

The earl wishes to have the treaty between the queen and the Low 
Countries sent to him — requests explanations of the allowances 
made to himself and the commissioners — and to be informed how 
the queen accepts his proceedings — wishes some Irish recruits 
to be sent to him — and two leases to be granted to him — St. Al- 
degonde's treachery — desires sir William Pelham may be sent to 

Sir, I have not the contract which passed betwene hir majesty 
and the states, which you promysed me I shuld have, and of 
necessyty I must nedes have yt sent to me, and, yf yt may be, the 

a The earl sailed from Harwich on the 8th December, and on the 10th arrived at 
Flushing. On the 11th he again embarked, and proceeded to Middleburgh, where he 
was received with great honour, and remained until the 17th. Stowe's Annals, 710, 
and Retros. Review, i. 277. 2nd ser. 



very oryginall ys best, whearatt ther handes be ; you may cause 
the coppye to be exemplyfied yf ye lyst. 

I have also perused the rates for the armye, which you sent me 
by Lloyd my secretarye, wherein you sett down my rate as 
generall without my ordynary company, as a gard, phisytyon, 
chaplen, clerkes, drom, fyfe, and such lyke, as other lyvetenauntes 
had, and as you dyd delyver me before, at the beginning ; for all 
other great offycers, as marshall and such lyke, you told me yt 
must be alowed by this countrey chardges ; which I meane to 
deale accordingly, &c. 

You sett doun all Mr. Kyllegrew and Mr. J). Clerk lx s a pece 
per dyem, which ys more than the governors of Flushing and 
Bryall have, and, as I remember, you told me that their allowance 
shuld be xl s a pece. I pray you lett me be answered of these iij 
matters with as much spede as may be. 

My laste is, to hear from you as ofte as may be, and to take 
ordre for your ordynary passenger a on that syde, and to lett me 
hear how hir majesty acceptes of my doinges and wrytinges. 

The longer the winde doth holde our shipps the more occasion 
I shall howerly have to wryte. The greatest of all ys, first, to 
pray you to gett hir majestys favor that I may have yj c . or a 1000 
of your Iresh idell men, such as be not only in her majestyes pay 
but very mete to be out of that countrey. The cause of my desier 
to have them ys, for that they be hard, and wyll abyde more pains 
than our men, tyll they have byn well trayned with hardnes as 
they have byn. My desier only ys, that hir majesty wryte a 
letter to my lord deputye to gyve such leave to come as he shall 
not imploye ther, and to further the beror that ys sent thether in 
all reasonable sort for his conveying and transportacion of them, 
without any chardge to hir majesty. Herein ye shall [do] hir 
majesty very great servyce, for I assure you ther be many dedd of 

a The word passenger is used here in the sense in which it occurs in a document 
printed in the Rutland Papers, p. 71, namely, as a vessel for the conveyance of passen- 
gers, a passage boat. 


our souldyeres, and the enymye hath contynevall intellygence 
from us, only they think I have brought a mervelous suply, by 
the nomber of vesselles that cam over with me, and the rest that 
went into Holland, thinking my company ther and her ys not 
under iiij m at least. Ther be tyckettes also sent from London 
hether which no dowbtes past to the enymye quykly, and wyll doe 
no hurt, setting done the names of such as com with me, wherein 
there ys ij c . names of my none gentlemen sett down, and they, 
hearing I have so many gentlemen in my company, imagyn they 
are not without servauntes, and so owr nomber must be great ; 
which opinion hath doon no harm, but yet yt wyll not long hold, 
and therfore, I pray you Mr. secretary, ether gett me this suply 
or elles 6 or 700 at the least out of England, to fill up our bandes, 
elsewyse you wyll be sorry to hear of the want and dyshonor that 
ys lyke to follow. 

Ther ys an other matter which I wold gladly be asuered of; I 
wrote yt in an other lettre, touching the allowance of the souldyer, 
at what rate he shalbe payd, whether after viij d the day Stirling, 
or after Flemysh money, which maketh much adoe here. 

For our selues here, also, I trust you wyll remember, you ther 
may hereafter have cause to fele that we doe, and shall doe ; there- 
fore doe as you wold be done unto. 

Ther ys a pore matter of my none I left with you, Mr. secre- 
tary, which ys, a byll for ij leases, an ordinary matter, and I wyll 
pay for them ; but my chefe care ys, there ys a statute of forfeture 
uppon yt of iij. m ti., or ij m . ti. at least, yf yt be not gotten before 
Crystmas day and delyvered to the party. I dyd once tell you of 
yt, as also comandyd Tho. Dudley to inform you therof ; I pray 
you, sir, doe me the favor to dyspach yt, or yf hir majesty think 
you styll to partyall toward me, I pray you desier and beseche 
certeyn to do yt; yt standeth me so much uppon me as I tell 

I wrote somwhatof sir Aldagond to you in putting his case; but 
this ys certeyn, I have the coppy of his very letters sent hether to 


practyce the peace not ij days before I cam, and this day one hath 
told me, that loves him well, that he hates our countreymen unre- 
couerably. I am sorry for yt. So the Lord kepe you this Wenys- 
day the xv. of December. 

Your loving frend, 

R. Leycester. 
I pray you, sir, lett me know whether I shall have sir Wylliam 
Pellam, a or no ; for I hear he sayth he dowbteth now Avhan. 




The earl requests the lord treasurer's interference on behalf of 
certain merchants of Middleburgh, one of whose ships bound to 
Havre de Grace had been captured by English cruisers. 

My very good lord, the love and affection that I finde in this 
people of Middelbourch to my souveraigne, and the good will and 
desier they shewe to do me honour for her majesties sake, do the 
rather persuad me to recommend unto your good lordship a cause 
of certain merchantes of this towne, towchinge a ship of Vlussingue 
that was loaden with oyles and cottens, and bond for New Haven, 
but mett by the way, in their course, by three Englishe shippes, 
and by them taken, and carried into England. This was donn 
within these fifteene dayes ; but because the marchantes have one 
their that doth follow and solicite the cause, and will wayte upon 
your lordship to impart the particulars hereof unto you, I will not 
troble you therwithall. I hartely praye your good lordship to 

a Sir William Pelham was an experienced soldier of this period, who will be fre- 
quently mentioned hereafter. He was at this time in disgrace with the queen. 


shewe them your good favour for the releasing of their shippe, 
and recovering of their goods, and the rather at my earnest re- 
quest unto your lordship, for which you shall allwaies find me very 
thankefull in all I maye. I am now here amongst them, where I 
wold be very glad to requite their good wille, and to contynewe 
their affection, by accomplishing their reasonable requestes, and 
therfore once againe I am bold to put your lordship in mynd of 
my request. Thus leaving your good lordship to God, who send 
you as well and as good health as to my self, I end. At Middel- 
bourgh, this xvij th of December 1585. 

Your lordships ever assured frend, 

R. Leycester. 
To the right honorable 

my very good lord, the lord 

Burghley, lord high 

treasurer of England. 



26TH DECEMBER 1585. HARL. MS. NO. 285. FO. 171. ORIG. 

Gratitude of the people of the Low Cotmtries to queen Elizabeth for 
her assistance, — the earl recommends a suit of the bailiff of Dort, 
whose son was a prisoner with the enemy, — also wishes letters of 
thanks to be sent to Dort, Rotterdam, and Delft, for their cordial 
reception of him, — narrates the manner of his reception at Delft, — 
desires a pursuivant to be sent to him, Segar having made excuses, 
— effects of the earVs coming upon the German states, — complains 
of want of assistance, — insufficiency of Dr. Clark, — notices of 
Ruddykirke, Walke, and Paul Buys, — intreatsfor St. Aldegonde. 

Mr. secretary, albeyt I wrote lately to you from Dordrick, having 


thes convenyent messengeres, who doth meane to goe presently into 
Englande, I wold [not] lett them pass without letting you know 
where I am/ and how greatly hir majesty ys in all places reve- 
renced and honored, of all sortes of people, from hiest to the 
lowest, assuring themselves alredy, now they have hir majestyes 
good countenance, to beatt all the Spanyards out of their coun- 
trey ageyn. Never was ther people I think in that jollyty that 
these be. I could be content to loose a lymme that hir majesty 
dyd se these contreys and towens as I have ; she wold than think 
a hole subsedye well spent, but only to have the good assurance 
and commandment of a few of these townes. I think ther be not 
the lyke places agayn for England to be founde. I am now going 
to the Hage, whear I shall have matter to wryte to hir majesty 
shortly. In the meane tyme I meane not to trowble hir majesty 
with any lettre, having written from Dort also unto hir. 

Thys sute I am to recomend unto you most ernestly. Ther ys 
a gentleman, one Jacob Muys Van Holy, who ys one of the 
ablest men in all these partes to serve hir majesty, both for his 
credytt and wysedome. He hath a sonne prisoner with the 
enymye, and very yll used. He besought me, yf ther were any 
Spanyard taken among our seamen, as he heareth ther ys, he 
wold be a proude man to have him, or any, to redeme his sonne,b 
for they wyll not sett him at any ransom, for the hate to his 
father ; who in dede hath, by his credytt, donn notable service 
in this cause, and no man better able at this day to serve her 
majesty. I assure you, in my opinion, hit were a good tern to 
bestow Seburo uppon him, and yt ys my sute ; I know it shall 
doe more good with all than xx m crowns in money. He ys 
chefe bayly of Dordryght, where they have ij m and iiijc able sol- 

a The earl sailed from Middleburg for Dort on the 17th December, but owing to 
calms, a thick fog, and contrary winds, he was five days on the voyage. Retros. Rev. i. 
277. 2d ser. His arrival is dated on the 22d December in the journal printed in the 
Retrospective Review, but by Stowe, more accurately, on the 21st. Annales, p. 713. 

b The earl has added in the margin, u Yf Steuen be not redemed this may redeme 
him also." 


dyers of the very townes men as ever I saw in any place, and the 
kindest people ; beside there ys belonging above ij m maryners to 
this town alone. I assure you yf such a parte might com to him 
uppon the sudden, with a letter of thankes to the hole towne be- 
sides, for ther honorable usage of me, hir majesties lyvetenant 
here, you shall wynn her more frends withall thorow all this coun- 
trey than a c Spanyardes be worth. 

I must besech hir majesty, also, that ther may be party culer 
letters wrytten of thankes to those towns who have so honorably 
and chargeably receaved me in hir majesty's name, as Dordryght, 
Rotradame, and this towne Delf, a which ar all iij notable fair 
towns, and all trafyquers with England. Flushing andMydelborow 
had letters, which makes me the bolder to crave these. The worst 
of these towns presented me with xv c shott b and armed men, at 
the least, and dyd conduct me from town to town with vj and vij c 

This town ys an other London almost for bewty and fairnes, and 
have used me most honorably, as these berors can tell you ; with 
the greatest shewes that ever I sawe. The mett me along the ryver 
as I cam, v c shott ij myles of ; at my landing ther was not so few 
as xv c shott more, standing in a row from my landing tyll I cam to 
my lodging, which was nere a long myle ; by the way, in the great 
merkett place, they had sett a squadron, at the leaste of viij c or a 
1000 pikes, all armyd, which was a mervellous fayr sight, and tall 
able personages as ever I saw. Ther was such a noyse, both here, 
at Rotradame, and Dordryght, in crying, " God save queen Elisa- 
beth," as yf she had ben in Chepesyde, with the most harty coun- 
tenances that ever I sawe ; and therfore, whatsoever hath byn sayd 
to hir majesty, I beleave she never bestowed hir favor uppon 

a The earl proceeded from Dort to Rotterdam on the 23d December, and on the 24th 
to Delft. The ceremonies and rejoicings at his reception into these and other chief 
towns, may be read in Stowe's Annates, and in the Life of Robert Earl of Leicester, 8vo. 
Lond. 1726. 

b Shott were soldiers armed with firelocks. 


more thankfull people than these countryes of Holland; for the 
states dare not but be queen Elyzabethes, for, by the lyving God, 
yf ther shuld fall but the least unkindness, thorow ther default, 
the people wold kyll them, for these towns woll take no dyrectyon 
but from the queen of England, I assure you ; and yf hir majesty 
had not taken them at this nede, but forsaken them, she had lost 
them for ever and ever, and now hath she them, yf she wyll kepe 
them, as the cyttysens of London, in all love and affectyon. 

All our horses, that have byn uppon the water at London and 
here above xxvj days, ar as well aryved as yf they had never byn 
travelled, and not so fayr when they wer shipt as they be now. 

Lastly, sir, I besech send me a pursevant ; he that I apointed, 
and desyered to goe, made sute a day before I cam away to tarry at 
[home,] with xx excuses, his name ys Segar. I prey you, sir, lett 
some one, and an able boddy, be apointed with spede. Yf you 
call for clarencius 3 he wyll name some fytt man to you. I have 
great nede of such a one. Yf he have French, or Duch, or Latyn, 
yt shall suffyce. 

I perceave not only these people here dowbtyd of hir majesty 
dealing thus with the king of Spayn, but the princes of Germany 
also, of whome one yesterday hath told me, that they know alredy of 
my coming, and so mervell at yt as he thinkes her majesty shall 
fynd them in an other tune than ever she found them yet; shortly 
I shall hear more, and, uppon this, yf the matter of Segaro werr 
satysfyed touching Cassamere, she wold shortly dyrect them all. 
I speak yt not for any respect for my self (God ys judge), but you 
wyll not beleave what a reputacion this dealing in the Low Coun- 
treys hath alredy gotten hir. 

I have most cause to complayn, that was sent out as I was, and 
yet stand, without help, or assistance, of such persons as I hoped 
for. I hear nothing of Sir William Pellam, nor Mr. Kylligrew, 

s Cooke was clarencieux at this time. It would seem that Segar, then portcullis, 
ultimately went to Leycester. Stowe's Annales, 717. 


and, for my parte, yf I lak them one weke longer, I bad as leave 
the taryed styll, for now am I at the worst, even at the first ; for 
now wyll all the busynes be : yt were to much pytty to lose so 
great good thinges for lack of some help at the first. Yf yt were 
not for Mr. Davison a I shold be very farr to seke, God knows. 

I find no great stuffe in my lytle colleage, b nothing that I looked 
for. Yt ys a pytty you have no more of his profession able men 
to serve. This man hath good wyll, and a pretty skollers wytt ; 
but he ys to lytle for these bygg felloues, as heavy as hir majesty 
thinks them to be. I wold she had but one or ij such as the worst 
of half skore here be. 

I find Ruddykyrke a very grave, wyse, honest man ; now, in 
the fayth, he confesseth, he was almost out of belefe of hir ma- 
jesties goodnes. Walke dealeth most honestly and painfully. 
Paule Buys I find greatly envyed and myslyked; but he must 
nedes be had, albyt all devyces ar used to putt him out from being 
a councellor. 

Now a few wordes for St. Aldegonde. c I wyll besech hir ma- 
jesty to stay hir judgement tyll I wryte next. Yf the man be as 
he now semeth, hit were petty to loose him, for he is in dede 
mervelously frended. Hir majesty wyll think, I know, I am easily 
pacyfied, or ledd, in such a matter, but I trust so to deall as she 
shall gyve me thankes. He hath made my nephew d and Mr. 
Davison deall with me ; he hath sent his sonn, also, to me, to 
gyve him to me, but I forbare, tyll I had good advyce in dede, to 
send one to him, which was Gilpyn, and doe looke every oure to 

* William Davison, afterwards so well known in connection with the execution of 
Mary queen of Scots, was sent into the Low Countries on a special embassy from Eli- 
zabeth, in August 1585. Murdin's State Papers, 783. 

b Dr. Bartholomew Clerk ; the profession alluded to was that of the civil law. 

c Elizabeth and the states general were greatly, but very unjustly, displeased with St. 
Aldegonde on account of his surrender of Antwerp. Watson's Philip the Second, 
407, edit. 1839. 

d Sir Philip Sidney. 



hear from him agayn. Once yf he doe offer servyce yt ys sure 
inough, for he ys esteemed that way above all the men in this 
countrey, for his word yf he gyve yt. His most enymyes here 
procure me to wynne him, for sure just matter for his lyfe ther ys 
none. He wold fayn come into Englond ; so farr he ys com alredy, 
and doth extoll hir majesty for this work of hirs to heaven, and con- 
fesseth, tyll now, an angell could not make him beleave yt. Well, 
I hope you shall hear that wyll not myslyke you hearin. Fare 
you well, this Sonday morning, at Delph. 

Your assured, 

R. Leycester. 
I never herd out of Englond yet synce 1 cam away. 
To my honourable good frend 
sir Francis Walsingham, 
knight, her majesties principall 



DECEMBER, 1585. HARL. MS. 285, FOL. 152. ORIG. DRAFT. 

Answer to the last letter — the queen's dislike of all things that occa- 
sion expence — desirableness of contribution by the states — increase 
of reputation to tlie queen in Germany and Italy, arising from 
her interference in the affairs of the Loiv Countries — the unpopu- 
larity of that interference in England — son of the bailiff of Dort 
— the queen and lord treasurer dislike St. Aldegonde — Leycester 's 
complaint of want of assistance — the queen's displeasure against 
sir William Pelham — Killegreiv detained by adverse winds — 
allowances — letters of thanks. 
My verie good lord, your letters sent by Mr. Henrie Astell and 

your servante Underhill, I have receaved, by the which I am verie 


gladd to understand that your lordship hath ben so honourably 
used in those places where you nowe are, and that they stand so 
greatlie devoted towardes her majestie as by all owtward shewe 
dothe manyfestlv appeare, which ought to move her majestie to 
like the better of the actyon, and to countenance the same in such 
sorte as maie both encourage your lordship and increase the love 
and goodwill towardes her, of those well affected people. But, 
as farre as I can learne by such of my frendes as are acquainted 
with our court proceadinges, it wourketh not that good effect that 
were to be wished, so unpleasant are all thinges that mynister 
matter of charges. I praie God frame an other minde in her ma- 
jestie, as well for her owne honour and safetie, as for the encou- 
ragement of such as are emploied in publicke service. 

I am verie gladd that the promised contribution by the states 
carrieth likelyhood of perfourmance, which stoppeth the mouthes 
and practises of those that sought to wourke an other conceipt in 
her majestie, by bearinge her in hand that she was abused, and 
that the burthen of the charges would light uppon her, or at least 
that she should in the ende be forced, in respecte of charges, to geve 
over the cause. I would to God their meanes might have ben 
found such as some parte of her owne charges might have ben 
diminished, whereby she might have ben the rather encouraged to 
have put on a resolution to have proceded constantlie in the main- 
tenance of the cause. 

As your lordship heareth out of Germanie that this enterprise 
of her majesties hath greatlie encreased her reputation in those 
partes, so do we here the like out of Italie, and I thincke that, if 
they might stand assured that her majestie would throughlie pro- 
secute the cause, they might be drawne in some sorte both to 
yeald supporte and to kyndell some fyer ther; so necessarie do 
they find it that the king of Spaynes greatnes should be abated in 
respect of their owne perryll. 

I perceave by your lordships letters that if you had not come 


at thattyme you did, there would have fallen out some dangerouse 
alteration in that countrie, and therefore all honest and well 
affected subiectes here have cause to thancke God that you arrived 
there so seasonablie as you did ; for, houesoever we mislike of the 
enterprise here, all England should have smarted if the same had 
not ben taken in hand. 

If the princes of Germanie could be drawne to congratulate 
your lordships repayre into those partes, as your lordship is put 
in hope they will doe, it will greatlie countenance the cause. 

Touchinge your lordships request to have Sebur gewen in ex- 
change for the bayliffe of Dortrechtes sonne, I will doe my utter- 
most endevor to bringe the same to effecte, wherein I hope there 
wilbe found no great difficulty, for that his releasement, beinge 
a man of no great capacitie thoughe otherwise malliciouslie af- 
fected, can wourke no great preiudice to this estate. 

This daye, I understood by Mr. vice-chamberlaine, a who came to 
vissitt me, that her majesties mislikes towardes St. Aldegonde 
contynuethe, and that she taketh offence that he was not restrained 
of his libertie by your lordships order. I did acquainte him with 
the letter he wrote unto your lordship, which carryinge a true pic- 
ture of an afflicted mynde, cannot but move an honest harte, wey- 
inge the rare partes the gentleman is endued withall, but to pittie 
his distressed estate, and to procure him releif and comforte, which 
Mr. vice-chamberlaine hath promised on his parte to perfourme. 
I thought good to send St. Aldegondes letter unto the lord threa- 
surer, who heretofor hathe carryed a harde conceipt of the gen- 
tleman, hopinge that the viewe of his letter will breed in his 
lordship some remorse towards him. I have also praied his lord- 
ship, if he see cause, to acquainte her majestie with the said letter. 

Sorie I am that your lordship should have that iust cause you 

■ Sir Christopher Hat ton was at this time vice-chamberlain of the queen's house- 


JFQ ] 

have to complaine of lacke of assistance. There falleth out daylie, 
as I am informed, newe discoverie of abuses touchinge the office of 
the ordenance, as that there should be a hundred brasse peeces 
missinge, which doth so much agravatt her majesties displeasure 
against sir William Pelham, in that he did neglect, with that care 
that appertained, to oversea the inferiour officers, as she can hardely 
endure anie man to deale for him. Yett, notwithstandinge, my 
lord threasurer hathe of late sent the gentleman woordd, that he is 
nowe in some hoape that her majestie wilbe content to extend 
some grace towardes him, whereby he maie be sent unto your 
lordship, who canne never come to late, in respecte of the con- 
tynuall use your lordship shall have of his advice and assistance, 
so longe as you shalbe emploied in those countries in a martyall 

Touchinge a coppye of the originall contracte that your lordship 
writeth of, I am assured the same was delyvered either to Mr. 
Atye, or to Mr. Fludde ; in the meane tyme, until the same maie 
be found, your lordship maie use a coppie I delyvered to Mr. 
Killegrewe, who hathe been long at the seae syde for a wynde. 

The allowance gewen to doctour Clarcke and Mr. Killegrewe is 
mistaken by the writer, for that it ought to be onlie 40s. per diem. 
And, as touchinge your lordships allowance as generall, it is true 
that the enterteinement due to all such necessarie attendantes all 
other generalls have had, was omitted. Your lordship therefore 
shall do well to write a joynte letter to the lord threasurer and to 
me, to move the rest of the counsell to geive warrant to the threa- 
surer for the paiement thereof. 

The letters of thanckes your lordship desireth unto the townes 
of Dortrecth, Rotterdam, and Delft, I will not faile to procure : as 
also that ther maie be provided a passage boate for the transporta- 
tion of letters. 





Continuance of adverse winds — relief of Sluys and Ostend — import- 
ance of sea-ports to the Spaniards — export of provisions from 
Kent — loss upon the exchange of English money— reformation of 
the mints in the Low Countries — preparations of the king of Spain 

for the invasion of England, and the queen's anxiety to make 
ready a fleet to withstand the Spaniards — her majesty's desire 
that the earl should ascertain what assistance she can procure 

from the Low Countries. 

My very good lord, sence the retorn of Mr. Gorge from your 
lordship, who cam the next daye after his shippyng, we have not 
hard from your lordship, nether I thynk hath your lordship hard 
from hence ; the lack of both hath bene in default of passages. 
And now, as soone as any shippyng cold be made redy, which, 
though I wryte these letters this Mo[nday] being the 26. yet, 
untill Wednesday, the officers of the admyralte say, the shippyng 
cannot be redy, and if it than shall be, I d [oubt] of nothyng but 
want of wynd to bryng over to your lordship a gret nombre of 
your good frendes and servantes, and amongst them my son, 3 
who hath bene liable and redy these x dayes, if he cold have 
gotten shippyng, which he cold not get untill your shippes 

By Mr. Gorge and others I receaved two letters from you, the 
on of the xj th the other of the xiij th , both wrytten at Midelburg. 
By the former, your lordship signefyeth your saff arryvall, and the 
perswasion that your coming hath wrought in that nation of hir 
majesty's mynd to help them, wherof they war in doubt afor. 
By the second, your lordship wryteth in what state Sluse and 

a Sir Thomas Cecil. 


Ostend ar, and how much yow fynd above your formar opynion 
the importance of those ij places ar for the service ageynst the 
enemy, and therfor your lordship hath entred into consideration 
how to releve ther wantes ; wherin, in my opynion, 1 think your 
lordship hath no on thyng, now at your first coming, mor nedefull 
for avoyding of that danger, which, if it shuld happen, will not be 
remedyed without gret charges and hazard. For I have allweise 
thought, that ther was nothyng more nedefull for the kyng of 
Spayn than to have mo and better places on Flanders syde than 
he yet hath for shippyng, as well to send ayde of men, mony, and 
victells, from Spayne, or from France by frendshipp, as to kepe 
shippes of warr to offend all passengers betwixt England and 
Zelland or Holland ; as, by experience, the possessyng of Dun- 
kyrk haven hath served, with a few beggarly vessells, to have 
done gret dammage by sea, presyng of men, shippes, merchan- 
dise, and victells ; and suerly, my lord, if Sluse shuld be lost, the 
Spanyards might incress ther strength by sea with shippyng hable 
to overmach both Flussyngars and a good nombre of our 
shippes, for if the haven shuld be thers, they might kepe as well 
j c sayle as x., and what cost will a kyng of Spayn spare, to be a 
master on the sea, wher he now is commanded ? But I am to 
long herin, although I might wryte much more ; but I know and 
perceave by your lordships own wrytyng, yow look depely into 
this matter, which in dede can not be to spedely looked unto, that 
both these places he victelled, manned, and ther weaknes also 
spedely strengthened, and, in my opinion, the states ought, at this 
tyme, more largly to contribut to this chardg than to a doosen of 
other towns in any part of Holland, and therfor, good my lord, as 
you have begon to take care hereof, so procure the states to yeld 
monny plentifully, to pay a sufficient nombre there whylest the 
imperfections of the places may be reenforced, and than the 

a In the margin there is written by Lord Burghley, " The Flushyngars valiantly 
[pre]ssed ij vessels [of] Dunkyrk within [si]ght of the town." 


nombers may be the fewar afterward. I wold to God that your 
lordship cold procure such a releff, as ether of those ij towns 
might have but j c horsmen, who, joyning togither, might ether 
spoyle the country, or might cause the ennemy bryng a great 
force to that frontyer, wherby ther own nombres shuld also 
dammag ther own towns, as Bruges, Newport, &c. by reason of 
ther lack of victells. 

Mr. Wylford wrote a letter to Partridg of Kent, to help send 
hym some victells, and therwith he sent a letter of your lordship to 
the commissioners of Kent, and so I have procured letters from the 
counsell to the commissioners, to authorise on Mr. Avyer to send 
it over, with bond to have it saffly sent, wherof Mr. Brown your 
lordships servant is by me made a prive. 

Your said servant also required my warrant for sendyng of 
ce[rtain] victell uppon your lordships letters wrytten to hym, and 
I was v[ery] willyng so to have doone of myn own authorite, but 
I am otherwise directed by a warrant signed by hir majesty afor 
your lordship departed, wherof, it is sayd, that your lordship was 
prive ; but it bredeth, in [my] opinion, some hyndrance with the 
circumstances ; for, first, it is by the warrant apoynted, that your 
lordship must, first, by your letters to me, signefy what quantite 
yow require, and than ther must be an other letter procured from 
four of the counsell to me, also, for allowance therof, and than am 
I authorised to gyve warrant to the portes, but yet with condition 
that bondes must be put into the chequer for the retorn of trew 
certificat from that syde. With all these circumstances I am circum- 
scribed more than in former tymes hath bene thought necessary, 
but I fynd no lack in that I am so directed, but sometyme ther 
will be required more spede than this manner doth prescribe. Of 
this Mr. Brown is now prive, and yet I have ventured to gyve 
hym warrant, havyng also gotten a letter from the counsell, for 
such a proportion as he required, which was, for j m quarters of 

a made made, in MS. 


wheat, as much malt, j c ton of beare, xl bulloks, vj oxen, j c 
shepe, vj barrells of tallow candells, a hoy with wood and cole. 
And he sayth, he will wryte to your lordship to have yow here- 
after to signefy your mynd in particular wrytyng to me, for such 
thynges as yow shall have nede, wherin 1 wish your lordship 
caused accompt to be made of the charges of our prises, with 
charges of transportation, with the lyk kyndes there to be had, 
for I here report that manny thynges ar to be had ther with easyer 
prices, and, of those thynges, I doot not but your lordship will 
forbeare to require any provision from hence, which will also be 
good for our country, wher, by collor of these provisions, prises 
will ryse without reason. 

I heare also, my lord, that there is gret gayne made of our coyn, 
both of gold and silvar ther, to the loss of our countrymen uttryng 
the same for that country monnyes, and the gayn sought by mer- 
chants both of that country and of England, by choppyng and 
changyng therof under the trew vallew ; for, in truth, our monny, 
both gold and silver, is worth in eschange above xxxiiij s . the 
pownd, and yet the marchant holdeth the eschange but at xxxiij s . 
iiij d , and therfor, my lord, yow may do a good dede to cause some 
honnest skillfull men to make a trew assaye of the monnyes of 
that countrye, and rate both our gold and silver at the same price, 
and to cause our people to be well instructed at what prices they 
ought to utter our monnyes for the monnyes of those con [tryes] . 
In this matter, I thynk a servant of alderman Martyns, that went 
over with the tresorer, can inform your lordship, or any of your 
counsell ther, what order war to be taken. 

And I wish, also, that your lordship wold deale with the coun- 
sell of the states for reformation of ther myntes, which, being 
many in nombre, serve only by fraude to gayne to them that ar 
the officers of the myntes, and to the decept of the people. 

Your lordship, also, is to be advertised, which I do by hir majes- 
ties direction, that she understandeth very certenly, that the king 
of Spayn maketh all the provision that he can possible, to mak a 



mighty navy for a great army to come by sea, to annoy hir ma- 
jesty, and, for the furniture therof, beside his own shippes and 
gallyes, both of Spayne and Itally, in Millan, Naples, and Sicilly, 
he is promised ayd of men and gallyes from the pope and the 
dukes of Savoy and Florence, and, some report, from the Vene- 
tians, but therof I dout, so as, in conclusion, it is here found 
most necessary that hir majesty shall also make preparation of all 
the strength that she can mak by sea, and, for that purpooss, it is 
here resolved, that hir own shippes shall be removed to Portes- 
mouth in March next, and a gret nombre of hir subjectes shippes 
shall also be made redy to come, ether to Portesmouth, or to 
Plymmouth, or to other places in our west partes, as, by further 
intelligence of the king of Spayns preparations, shall be requeset. 
And for this purpooss hir majesty thynketh it most nedefull that 
your lordship shuld presently procure some persons of under- 
standyng, such as here is named, Mr. Nicholas Gorge, to repayre 
to the portes of Holland and Zelland, ether with the pryvety of 
the states or without it, as your lordship shall thynk best, and to 
attayn to a certen knolledg of the nombre of shippes provisable 
for warre, as to be about ij c tons or vij or viij xx , and of ther fur- 
nitur, and what nombre of marrynors ar also in every port, and 
whyther any nombre of marrynors might be had to be hyred, to 
help to supply our lack that may happen in the queen's navy, 
wherof we have cause to dowt, because of the gret nombre absent 
with Sir Francis Drak, a and abrod with our merchantes shippes 
being adventurers, and after that your lordship shall have under- 
standyng hereof, than hir majesty wold have your lordship to im- 
part to the states, or to ther counsell, how and in what sort hir 
majesty looketh to be this sommer, and that very tymly in the 

a Sir Francis Drake sailed on the 14th September 1585, with a fleet of twenty ves- 
sels of various kinds carrying 2300 soldiers and sailors. They took their course to the 
West Indies, captured St. Jago, St. Domingo, and Carthagena, and returned to Ply- 
mouth on the 27th July 1586, bringing 240 captured cannon and about 60,000/. in 
prize-money. Vide Camden's Annals, anno 1585 ; Stowe's Chronicle, 709. 


spryng, assayled by a gret army of the king of Spayns, and how 
nedefull it is, that all meanes possible be used to have a navy 
liable to withstand the same, and specially to impeach the com- 
ming of this Spanish navy towardes those Low Countryes, for 
which purpoos, as hir majesty will spare no chardg to arm hir own 
navy to the seas, and hir subjectes also, which must prove an 
unknowen chardg, so wold she have your lordship to exhort them, 
accordyng to the necessite of this tyme, to put in order spedely 
as gret a navy as maye a be by them fully furnished, to be redy to 
come to the narrow seas by the end of March, or the midd of 
Aprill, if by the king of Spaynes hasty preparations hir majesty 
shall be therto so spedely provoked. And though, by an article 
of the treaty, they ar bound hereunto in a certain quantite, as by 
the article wherof I send your lordship a copy, (I know not why- 
ther you have the same,) yet the tyme requiring all help possible, 
to match with so puissant army as the king prepareth, your 
lordship may with reason soll[icit] them to a farder proportion, if 
it may be. And hir majesty is desyrous to be advertised hereof 
with such spede as your lordship may procure. 

Thus, my lord, consideryng Mr. Aty maketh hast to depart, and 
I am as yet not so hable to wryte as I have bene, I pray your 
lordship that I may mak an end, with my assurance to your 
lordship that, in any thyng that in my pow T er lyeth to plesure you 
and furder your service, I will be as redy as any frend that is here 
behynd yow. And to conclud, I hartely thank your lordship for 
the trust you have committed to me joyntly with my lord chan- 
cellor for your office of the forrest, b but we must have some direc- 
tions from your lordship what to do, or els we shall not know 
what to doo. 

I nede not wryte to yow of our common news here, because so 

a they maye be in MS. 

b The earl of Leycester was justice in eyre of the forests south of Trent. Amongst 
the Burghley papers is an account of the fee deer due to the chancellor and treasurer as 
the earl's deputies. Lansd. MS. 47. art. 1. 


many come over at this tyme fully fornished with such matters. 
From Grenwich, the 26th of December, 1585. 

Your lordships to be commanded, 


To the right honorable my very good 
lord the erle of Lecester, lord 
[lieutenant of] the queens majestys forces 
[in the] Low Countres of Holland, Zelland, 
&c. and of hir majesty's prive counsell in England. 




Letter sent by sir Thomas Cecill, whom lord Burghley recommends 
to the earl's protection — the queen's anger with sir William Pel- 
ham and her hard usage of him — advice to the earl to search out 
the intention of certain works in progress at Antwerp. 

My very good lord, whan I wrote my letters on Sonday, which 
I do send by Mr. Aty, I wrote the same in hast, as I am forced 
by multitude of causes to do allweis, but the rather because Mr. 
Aty told me, that he wold come for them as yesterday, and depart, 
which, fyndyng hym not to come, as I thynk by some necessary 
lett, and havyng my sonn here redy to pass towardes his ship- 
pyng, I have thought good to wryte a few thynges by hym. 

First, I am so assured, and my sonn also, of your lordships 
honorable good will towardes hym, more than in common sort, as 
I forbeare to wryte any more, but, breffly, to recommend hym to 
your protection, and to wish [him] Godes grace to do as well as 
I am sure your lordship will wish hym. 


My lord, now Mr. secretary being absent, I am occasioned to 
deale with hir majesty in manny thynges, and suerly I am gretly 
discoraged with lack of hir resolutions. For Mr. Pelham, I have 
delt ernestly with hir majesty to dismiss hym with hir favor to 
come thyther to your lordship, but hir majesty refuseth ether to 
pardon hym, wherof he hath most nede, or to stall a his dett, which 
he also requireth, yea to take as much of his land as resonably 
may satisfy his dett, so as he may, with the rest, live and pay his 
other dettes, but hir majesty peremptorely commandeth me to 
chardg hym to depart, and to hope uppon hir favor at his retorne. 
Herwith he is so discontented as he offreth rather to go to the 
Tower: in this hard terme his cause resteth. Hir majesty sayth, 
he nede be at no chardg ther, for he shall bot as a privat man 
attend on your lordship. I saye, 1 thynk your lordship meaneth 
to mak hym mar shall. She sayth, that therin she will not deale, 
for she will charg hym with no service, but only to attend on 
yow. In these termes is this poore gentleman ; and yet I will 
continew, with all importunite I can, to obteyne hir majestys 
more favorable opinion of hym, because I know how nedefull his 
service is to your lordship. 

Good my lord, serche the intention of the works in Antwerp by 
the carpynters that work uppon shipps, in secret sort. I feare 
ther is ment to mak some multitude of flatt botes to bryng 
people into the flatt seas, to attempt Tergooss and Zyrecksea. 
Uppon the purposs of the ennemy your lordship is to provyde 
some conterwork to withstand such enterprises. I have hard that 
ther ar manny papistes in Tergooss. 

And thus, the tyde callyng my sonn awey, maketh me and my 
letter in hast. At Grenwych, 27 December, 1585. 

Your lordships at command, 


" i. e. to forbear for a time. 




31ST DECEMBER, 1585. HAEL. MS. NO. 285. FOL. 160. OKIG. 

The earl's reception at the Hague — treatment of a French ambas- 
sador — deliberations of the states general in reference to the set- 
tlement of their government and the power to be given to the 
English queen — her popularity in the Low Countries — news out 
of Germany — treatment of the king of Navarre. 

Mr. Secretary, I cam h ether to the Hay, uppon Monday last, a 
whear I was very honorably receaved, all the states being assem- 
bled together for that purpose, to make as much shew as they 
could devyse of their good wylles to hir majesty, as in many ora- 
tions, pagentes, and such lyke, was expressyd, besyde the people 
with great joye cryed, " God save the quene, God save the 
quene/' in every place of the stretes as I passed. 

The next day all the hole states generall cam to me, and ther 
openly ageyn ther chauncelor Leonius (some call him Longonius) 
made a longe oratyon in thankes and prayses to the quenes ma- 
jesty for hir great clemency, bounty, and goodnes, shewyd to 
these pore aflycted countreys ; attrybuting all their good and hap- 
pines, under God, to hir majesty only. As sone as he had donn 
than cam comyssioners from partyculer provinces, as from Utrycht, 
Geldars, and Fresland, besides sondry spetyall towens, as Anster- 
dam, Leydon, Auchuson, and others, all which must nedes use 
ther gratulacion, with oratyons, as the other dede, and much to 
the same effect all with thankes and prayse to hir majesty. 

a Leycester removed from Delft to the Hague on the 27th December 1585, not on 
the 28th, as is stated in the journal published in the Retrospective Review, i. 277, 
2nd series. The ceremonies of his reception are largely dwelt upon by Stowe and 
Holinshed, and form the subject of a series of twelve engravings published with the 
title of " Delineatio pornpse triumphalis qua Robertus Dudlseus comes Leicestrensis 
Hagse Comitis fuit receptus." 


At all this cerymony-doing was ther a French secretary, sent 
hether v or vj [days] before with lettres from the king. He sayd 
yt was about merchantes matters, but in dede contrary, only to 
have impeched, yf he could, this bynding themselves to hir 
majesty as they doe. But the states gave him no audyence all 
the while, alleaging they were occupied about the servyce of the 
quene of Englond, which they wold dyspach before all princes in 
the world. This fellow, being present at all this solemne dealing 
with me, tooke yt in such snuffe a as he cam prowdly to the states, 
and offred his letters, saing : " Now I trust you have donn all your 
sacrafyces to the quene of Englond, and may yeld me some ley- 
sure to rede my masters letters." They so shooke him upp, and 
with such termes, naming hir majesty in skorn, as they tooke yt, 
as they hurld him his letters, and bidd him content himself, 
they wold first dischardge all the least dewtyes whatsoever to hir 
majesty before they wold hear him. So they have every day synce 
sett about the contract with hir majesty, spetyally how to gyve 
me answere for hir full satysfaction touching ther abyllytye to 
maynteyn ther warrs, whearin I hear credybly hir majesty shalbe 
well satysfied, and further then any of us looked for. And both 
roundlye and frankley they goe to worke, that ye shall se they 
wyll doe indede more than ever they promysed, considering her 
majestes denyall [of] the souerauntye and name of protector. 
Por they meane, and must doe yt, for the hole people wyll have 
yt, that hir majesty shall have in hir handes the hole bestowing 
aswell of ther money and contrybucions as of ther men of warr ; 
and the desire no longer hir good favour to them than they shall 
deall in all sincerytye with hir. Wherein yt apperes that all the 
corny ssioners have wonderfully sett fourth her majesty to them 
all here, and Paull Buys hath donn his parte thorowly, so hath 
Walk also. And all thinges alredy [are carried on] with the most 
unyversall obedyence of hir majestys name that ever I sawe. And 

a To take in snuff, is to be angry, to express resentment by contemptuous motion 
of the nostrils. 


flatly yt apperes now, they wyll no other authorytye but under 
hir majesty, nor that their treasure nor lyves shalbe at the dys- 
posing of any but hir majesty, which, yf you saw that we se here, 
ye would wonder at [what] these people doe, and ar able to doe, 
and yf God had not moved hir majesty to send when she dyd, 
the prince of Parma had byn by this tyme in the best and greatest 
tounes they have ; but ye shall hear others in this and not me. 

And as I wrote before how hir majestyes dealinges here ar 
alredy blowen into Germany, so this day the elector 3 brought me 
letters agayn newly com there, whereby they wryte most honor- 
ably of hir majesty, and the duke of Sax geues much better eye 
than he did, synce his wyfes death, and lyke to marry ageyn with 
the hows of Hanalt, b a great protestant and a great howse. He 
hath sent to speak with Seiguro, and very lyke to joyn with the 
other princes, who ar agreed, not only to send a messenger to the 
French king, but to lett him know, that they will com to the ayd 
of the king of Navare, who ys most iniuriously delt withall 
by the practyce of the pope and king of Spayn. The ellector 
vowede to me that they have donn more in these causes within 
this xx dayes, synce they understood of her majesties resolucyon 
agaynst the king of Spayn, aswell by Sir Francis Drakes going 
into the Indyes as her sending into these countreys, than they 
have don this x yeres, or wold have don this twelmonths yet. God 
send hir majesty to think of his mercyfull dealinges accordingly. 
The king of Denmark also hath joyned and encouraged greatly 
these princes. Hit ys told me by the elector that dyvers of them 
meane to send hether to me, to congratulate hir majestyes gra- 
cious doings toward this countrey. 

I have no other nues tyll these states have fully ended ther 
consultacions, which wylbe to morrow, as I hear, and wholy, with- 
out contradyctyon, to be at the devotyon and dispocyon of hir 

a i.e. the elector of Cologne. See p. 15, note 8 . 

b Anne, daughter of Christiern III. king of Denmark, and wife of the duke of Saxe, 
died 1st October, 1585. On the 3rd January, 1586, he married Agnes Hedwig, 
daughter of Joachim Ernest, prince of Anhalt. 


majesty absolutly. Of this ye shall hear as sone as I shall know 
ther further answere. Two of our men of warr of Flushing hath 
taken ij Dunkirk men ; one sonk and drouned all the souldyers 
and maryners. Thus fare ye well, sir, this last of December. 

Your assured frend, 
R. Leycester. 
Hit ys sayd that the princes ar resolvyd to entreate Cassymere 
to be generall, and shall have xxv m men levyed by the princes to 
goe with him into France. 



3RD JANUARY 1585-6. HARL. MS. 285. FO. 174. ORIG. 

The earl forwards letters omitted on a former occasion — he wishes 
the secretary to exercise his discretion as to shewing St. Alde- 
gonde's letter to the queen — the earl is at Leyden. 

Good Mr. secretarie. I had forgotten in my former letters to 
send unto you theis letters which I therein mencioned, which I 
presently send unto you herinclosed ; and so committ you to the 
blessed tuicion of the Almightie. From Leyden, this iij. of Januarie, 

Your assured loving frend, 

R. Leycester. 

I leave yt to your self whether you think yt good hir majesty 
se St. Aldagondys letter or no. I cam hether to Leydon whilst 
the states ar fynyshing all thinges ageinst my retorn, which wylbe 
to morrow: this ys a goodly town and very strong, and most 
loving people. Cassimers letter ys not here. 

To the right honourable 

my very good frend, sir 

Francis Walsingham, knight, 

principall secretary to her majesty. 





12TH JANUARY 1585-6. COTTON. MS. GALBA, C. IX. FOL. 15. OR1G. 

Interruption of communication with the Low Countries by contrary 
winds — delay of Sir Thomas Cecill and his great expences — refer- 
ence to former letters — the queen has agreed to advance money 
towards an army to be conducted by don Casimir into France to 
the assistance of the king of Navarre — state of affairs in Scot- 
land— doubts respecting the threatened Spanish armada — proposal 
to stay a convoy of provisions intended for the Spanish army, with 
the queen's special directions to the earl of Leycester upon the 
subject — sir William Pelham's difficulties with the queen and 
his creditors — the queen consents that lord Grey should join the 
earl — lord Burghley's illness — sir Thomas Cecill' s horses taken 
by the Spaniards. 

My very good lord, though ther ar manny difficulties both for 
your lordship ther, and for us here, to concurr to the furderaunce 
of this noble necessary service under your chardg, yet ther is no on 
thyng that more annoyeth the expedition than the advers wyndes, 
that somtyme kepeth us from understandyng of your proced- 
ynges, not many dayes but manny wekes ; but, that most greveth 
us, the contrariete also of the wyndes stayeth us from sendyng 
to your lordship, not only of letters but of men, horse, victells, and 
monny. Amongst which evill accidentes my son, Thomas Cecill, 
feleth at this tyme the burden and greff therof, as he shuld have 
bene less damnefyed with an agew of on or two monthes. As 
soone as he had recovered his evill fate he went towardes the sea 
syde, the secound day after Christmas daye, shipped about lx 
horses and ij c foote men, besyde lx other servantes and followers, 
about the tyme your lordships secretary, Mr. Aty, went also as I 
thynk with some monny of your lordships. Henry Killigrew, also, 


and William Knolls and sir Thomas Parrot went anon after. All 
these have lyne at Margat in Kent ever sence, to this 12. of Jan- 
uary, for any thyng that I can heir to the contrary, savyng they 
have bene on to the seas three or four sondry tymes, and put back, 
ether with chang of wyndes or lack of wyndes, and, at this present, 
we have had these five or six dayes constant esterly wyndes with 
frostes, so as I feare a longer contynuance of the impedimentes, 
but hereof ther is no remedy. Whan God shall please to send 
them passadg, your lordship shall of ther own report here more 
particularetyes of ther incommodytes. 

My son feleth very gret charges herby, for, as he wryteth 
hyther, victellis ar dearer wher he lyeth than at London, and, as 
he thynketh, at the Brill. He kepeth at his chardg, with his 
horses, his band of footemen being ij hundredth, and with his 
howshold servantes, and dyvers gentillmen that accompany hrym, 
above iij c mouthes. If your lordship be not good lord to hym for 
allowance, ether for wages or for charges of this transportation, or 
rather, I may saye, of this retardation by occasion of the lack of 
wyndes, he shall mak a shipwrack of his jornaye ; but I wryte not 
this to move your lordship to do more than I knowe you will of 
your self consider what is mete, and what you may doo. 

Now, my lord, I will leave this long preface, and come to some 
matters in my former letters. Whan Mr. Aty went from hence I 
wrote, 3 that hir majesty was desyroos to have your lordship to 
deale with the states to put ther navy in order to joyne with hirs, 
which shall be at Portesmouth in March next. Hir majesty also 
wold that your lordship shuld procure knolledg of the state of ther 
shippes mete for warr in every of the portes, and what nombre of 
marryners might be spared from thence, if the navy of England 
shuld have nede therof, which we dowte of, because of a gret 
nombre gon with Sir Francis Drake, from whom, sence he de- 
parted from the cost of Spayn, we never hard word, nether do we 

• See p. 42. 


look to here afor March. Inlik sort, to your lordship to have in- 
quisition made in Antwerp to what purpooss the vessells war made 
by a nombre of shipwryghtes that lately cam out of Itally, from 
Janua. These thynges I do repete to your lordship, not know- 
yng how my formar letters may come to your handes. 

Now the rest that shall follow ar of thynges not mentioned 
before. The queens majesty hath yelded to procure a some of 
monny to be on hir part redy at Frankforth, towardes the levy of 
an army that, we hope, don Cassymyr will conduct into France, 
for the releff of the king of Navarr and Christes flock ther perse- 
quuted ; a hereof monsieur de Grytry, that cam from Germanny 
afor your lordship departed, will inform your lordship. 

In Scotland, to outward apparance, all thynges procede well. 
The kyng hath kept a parlement at Lythquoo, wher the lords that 
war bannished ar restored to ther states, and ar by the kyng 
cleared of the crymes imputed. He hath sent a gentleman of his 
chamber, named Kyth, b therof to advertise her majesty, and to 
offer all frendship that he can to his power yeld to hir majesty; 
he desyreth to have the leag that was begon to be fynished. 
Arrayn, now called but James Stuard, lyveth on the west seas, 
hoveryng ther, from whom the kyng requireth his Jewells, which 
he, at his fleyng away, took out of Edenburgh castell, but he will 
not delyver them without a pardon to comeback, which is denyed, 
but with condition that he will appeare to justyce, which he as 
yet declyneth. Mr. Randolf is to go to the Scottish kyng, and so 
the treaty, as I thynk, shall go forward. Tyme must trye these 
thynges, for we fynd that the French kyng hath sent, by sea, a 
baron of France, the son in law of Pynartes, a man of gret lyvyng 
but of lytle understandyng, and therfor he hath a shrewd instru- 
ment with hym, called Courselles, whom your lordship did, I 

a The party of the league had taken arms against the king of Navarre, with a view 
to his exclusion from the succession to the crown of France. 

b Sir William Keith. See a narrative of these transactions in Tytler's History of 
Scotland, vm. 276. Randolph arrived in Edinburgh on the 26th February 1586. 


thynke, know here with Malvesyn, a notable servitor to the 
Scottish quene and the house of Guise, and, addyng to this, that 
we understand how Lyddyngton, the secretary in Scotland, and 
Robert Melvyn, who both remayn in good creditt with the kyng, 
ar devoted to the kinges mother and to France, we may dout of 
the eventes. 

Sence the puttyng of our shippes in order ageynst March, it 
was ment to have sent this next month ten shippes of warr, 
wherof five of hir majesty's and five marchantes, to have lyne 
uppon the cost of Spayn, to have impeached the coming togither 
from sondry portes of ther victells and shippyng, and also to have 
discovered the truth of the reportes of the gret preparations of a 
Spanish navy and army, accompted for iij c sayle of shippes and 
gallyes and nere to iij xx thousand men, by meanes of the helps 
out of Itally, from the pope, the duke of Florence, duke of Savoye, 
from Naples and Sicilly ; but, lately, advertisement is come out of 
Itally, that ther is no such preparation made there, nether of 
men nor shippes, but why ther we be duly advertised I am yet in 
dout. Nevertheless, I did never thynk it lykly that any such 
nombres, ether of men or shippes, cold be sett forth by the king 
of Spayn as was reported, specially for want of victells for such 
a nomber; but hir majesty, uppon this advertisementes, stayeth 
the sending forth of the sayd ten shippes, but yet both they, and 
all the rest of the navy, contynew ther equippage to be in Portes- 
mouth afor the end of March. 

Now, my lord, I will resort to a speciall matter, whereof hir 
majesty hath sent me chardg to wryte sence I began this letter. 
A gentleman of the duk of Bullyon, 3 whom your lordship 
knoweth, named de Sevilly, cam two dayes past to hir majesty 
from the duk, to inform hir of a gret preparation of grayn and 
other victell provyded in Louvayn and Champayny, for to be sent 
down by the ryver of Maze to the Lowe Countreys, for the prince 

a Robert de la Marck, duke of Bouillon from 1574 to 1588. After the battle of 
Coutras he commanded the army of the king of Navarre against the league. 


of Parma's army, which mass of victell is to come by the dukes 
castell of Sedan, under his bridg ; and though he have good will 
to stay it, yet he dar not so doo, for feare of offence to be 
intended ageynst hym, but if he cold devise how to by it of the 
owners, with collor to serve both for his own provisions to store 
his own castells and houses, and to distribut amongst his neigh- 
bours that do want, he sayth he wold aventur the staye with that 
collor, and though the vallew may be, as it is thought, above j c 
thousand crowns, yet his desyre is to borrow but forty, or thirty, 
or, I thynk, twenty thousand crowns, towardes that purpos. And 
herin hir majesty hath gret lykyng to have this stayd, as a matter 
of very gret moment, as your lordship hath gret cause so to thynk 
by the want of victells presently in Flaunders andBr[abant], but 
hir Majesty, fyndyng hir charges otherwise so great, she doth 
not yeld to this loone, but hath thought of some other meanes, 
as hereafter followeth. 

First, she wold have your lordship to impart this matter, as 
you shall thynk mete, to the states ther, in secret sort, for which 
purpos the gentillman Sevilly offreth to come to your lordship, as 
he sayth he also ment to have doone, as sent from the duk his 
master, and hir majesty thynketh this intention to stay this pro- 
vision of such a moment to weaken the adversaryes forces, as, in 
very truth, a power of men ageynst them hyred with j c thowsand 
crowns cold not so much annoy the adversaryes, and, if the states 
might yeld to the loone of the some of xxx thousand crowns to 
this purpooss, hir majesty wold thynk very well of them, the con- 
sideration wherof hir majesty hath willed me, in hir name, to be 
left to your lordship. 

And besyde this meane, as if it shold not take place, hir 
majesty hath also commanded me to instruct our ambassador in 
France to understand the duke of Bullions mynd, whyther he 
shall not lyk that the French kyngbe moved from hir majesty, very 
ernestly, ether to impeach this great convoye, consideryng the 
great derth of victells in France, or consideryng how hir majesty 


hath bene hertofore animated to enter into this action, to sa-ve the 
Low Countreys from the conquest of the Spanyardes, and to 
impeach the king of Spayns gretnes ; and, therfor, to move hym, 
in honor, to prohibitt the frequent convoy of victells out of 
France, or els that he will not mislyk if the duke of Bullion can stey 
this convoye. And in these two sortes, hir majesty hath thought 
to devise meanes to stay this convoy, but whyther the same will 
be stayd I do dout, and yet, truly, I know not how the adversary 
might receave a greter blow, without drawyng of any weapon. 

Wher your lordship hath had gret desyre to have had sir Wil- 
liam Pellham, and also my lord Graye, your lordship shall under- 
stand that I have done my uttermost for Mr. Pellham, but hir 
majestes offence appeareth such towardes hym as she wold in no 
wise yeld ether to acquit hym of his dett, or to stall it as he 
desyred, and so he, alledgyng his dishabillite to passe for want of 
furnytur, though he confessed to me, and some others, that he 
had receaved v cl of your lordship towardes his furnytur, which he 
had layd out, and so was indetted to your lordship; but his 
gretest impedyment was, that he did ow to other persons about 
v M1 which he cold not pay, as he had a desyre, by sellyng of some 
landes, but that no man wold by of hym whylest he was in hir 
majesties dett; and in this sort his stey remayned xv or xvj 
dayes, notwithstandyng that I never cessed, I thynk, any iij whole 
dayes together, without movyng and intreatyng of hir majesty to 
shew hym favor, in remittyng part and stallyng the rest, but I 
cold not obteyn my request, and yet she willed that he shuld be 
commanded to depart; whereto he answered, that, as a privat 
soldier, he wold go, so commanded, but to tak any chardg, he 
was so unhable, as he offred hymself to be ether a prisoner or a 
banished man. In this sorte the poore gentillman being afflicted, 
he fell sodaynly and daungeriosely sick, whereof I informed hir 
majesty, and thereby to have pitte of hym. Wheruppon hir 
majesty yelded only to have his dett stalled, without remission of 
any part, addyng that he shuld not go over to your lordship, but 


that the lord Gray shuld come to jow 3 whose case I also reported 
for his dett to hir majesty, but therunto she hath yelded to remytt 
hym a part, and to stall the some that he borrowed whan he went 
into Ireland, 3 which was ij M1 . Hereof I have even this daye 
wrytten to Mr. secretary, to advertise my lord Graye. 

My lord, all this letter I have bene forced to wryte in my bed, 
which I have kept these two dayes, not, as your lordship hath 
knowen, for payne of my gout, but in dede havyng seven dayes 
past rubbed of a good deale of skyn uppon my shyn, I did 
neglect the healyng of it whan I shuld, and so am I now forced 
to kepe my bed without any hose, or without any salve, hopyng 
within two dayes more to have it whole; and, therefore, I pray 
your lordship to accept my scriblyng in a rude sort in good part, 
and, doutyng of passadg, I mynd to dooble b this letter, and to 
send it by some others. From the court at Grenwych, 12. Janu- 
ary, 1585. 

Your lordships most assured, 


After I had wrytten this letter thus farr, I have hard of the 
takyng of a hoye of Holland, wherin are taken ten or twelve 
horses of my sons. God send better luck for his own passadg. 

My lord, we heare dayly that the Hollanders carry vyctells to 
Calliss under pretence of cockettes c to come to England. I 
assure your lordship ther can be no more care taken than is to 
stey carryadg out of England. 


a Arthur lord Grey of Wilton went to Ireland as lord deputy in 1580. 

b i. e. to make a duplicate of it. 

c A cocket was a certificate that goods had paid duty, which was granted by the 
authorities at custom-houses to merchants, and without which no taxable commodities 
could be exported. The name is thought to be a corruption of " quo quietus" 
words which occurred in the Latin form of the document. 




14TH JANUARY, 1585-6. HAUL. MS. 285. FOL. 17G. ORIG. 

The earl reports conferences with the deputies of the states general, 
in which he was offered the absolute government of the Loiv 
Countries — the chancellor's address to him — his answer through 
Mr. Davison — the earl's expectations of success in the contest 
with Spain — devotion of the soldiers to the queen — characters of 
count Hohenlohe, count William of Nassau, and count Maurice — 
representations made by the states to the earl to induce him to 
accept the government — intended mission of Mr. Davison to 
England, to state more fully the reasons why the earl should 
comply with their request. 

Mr. secretarie, I know yow think long to hear of some certein 
proceeding here, which, for my parte, I doe as greatly hasten, 
assuring yow, that, since I came to the Hage, I have not ceassed 
calling upon the states for their resolution, which they will in no 
wise make other then that I must be absolute govern our, both of 
warre and peace, over all their provinces. 

As upon new yeers day in the morning they came all to me, 
and brought with them a heralt and trumpettes, meaning as soone 
as they had delyvered their speech, which D. Leoninus had to 
make for them, which was to offer to me, with many good woordes 
for her majesties sake, the absolute governement of the whole 
provinces, and to proclaime the same immediatly. I was skarce 
readie, when one brought me woord of their being all in my great 
chamber, desyring to speake with me. Not knowing or thinking 
it had ben for any such matter, I made haste to goe to them, and 
so did, having the best of my company there with me. As soone 
as I came to them, by and by Leoninus began an oration to me, 
and, even as he began, one told me in mine eare, that they were 



come to offer this matter, and had brought heralt and all, &c. I 
was so bold presently to interrupt the chauncelour, telling him, 
that I heard he had some matter rather to deale more privately in, 
than so openly, and therfore prayed him and the rest, to come in 
with me to my chamber, where they should have a more conve- 
nient place. He turned abowt and said, " Yow hear my lord 
desyers us to withdraw with him into his chamber/' and so they 
all went with me into my bedchamber, and I called such of the 
best of my companie as I thought meetest for v or vj, wherof Mr. 
Davison and Mr. Dr. Clerk were ij. 

And there the chauncelour began again, and proceeded with his 
matter, which was, indeed, after a long discourse of her majesties 
goodnes, of the love of the country to her, of the trust they had 
in her above all the world, of the necessity they had for safetie of 
their state and countreys, albeit her majestie would not take the 
soveraigntie upon her, which they yet desyred might be, to choose 
some person of honour and creditt to be their governour. And as 
there was no prince in the world whom they ought obedience and 
duety unto, but to her majestie, so seing the creditt and trust it 
pleased her to putt me in here alredie, and the favour, creditt, and 
I cannot tell what, so many good woordes they used of me, they 
tooke knowledge of that I had long had at her majesties handes, 
with manie yeers contynuaunce in her service, as appeered, they 
said, both now by her own commendation by lettres, as also to 
their commissioners in England, that had reported the same of 
her own mouthe : they did not know any person whom they could 
desyre so much to take this office in hand as my self, and, ther- 
fore, with one whole consent they did there beseech me, even for 
the love her majestie bare them, and for the help of so afflicted a 
countrey, that was ever a faithfull frend to the crowne of Eng- 
land, that I would take the place and name of absolute governour, 
and generall of all their forces and souldiers, with their whole re- 
venues, taxes, composicions, and all manner of benefittes that they 
have, or may have, to be putt freely and absolutely into my 


handes, disposition and order, with so ample woords and termes 
as here were too long to recite, seing I will shortly send you the 
whole by Mr. Davison. 

As soone as he had ended I aunswered by Mr. Davison, whom 
I required to delyver it in French, as they all speak only French, 
that, as this was a matter unlooked for, being further then had 
past in the contract with her most excellent majestie heretofore, 
so was I presently very farre unprovided to give them aunswer to 
this matter, albeit, in her majesties behaulf, greatly to thank them 
for their ernest goodwills and great affeccion borne to her majestie; 
and very true it was they did all acknowledge, that her highnes 
had shewed herself a most loving princesse and neighbour to 
them, as did well appeer to their embassadors in England, that 
what she did was only for the good will she bare to this afflicted 
countrey, and for no private respect or commoditie to her self. I 
did also give them most hartie thankes for myself, that did con- 
ceive so well of me, being but a straunger to them, that they would 
hazard so great a matter upon me, as all their state, both well and 
ill dooing, should depend therupon. But as her majesties gra- 
cious favour towardes me ledd them to this conceite of my abilitie, 
farre more then was in me to deale in any such cause, so I prayed 
them not to take it in ill parte, that I desyred at their handes, to 
proceed with them in thoes cawses which I had to doe in her 
majesties behaulf with them, and give me time, or els some of them 
to come unto me, to hear what I had to delyver unto them touch- 
ing the contract alredy past betwixt her majestie and them, wherin 
I thought they should finde I had more alredy layed upon me, 
than so weake shoulders were able to bear, and well to goe thorow 
withall. That her majestie had sent me only to serve them, and 
so I promised I would, both faithfully and honestly, even as her 
majestie had commaunded and willed me to doe. So they returned, 
after Mr. Davison had made this aunswer for me, not leaving, at 
their departure, to insist upon their former request very ernestly. 

The next morning they appointed v or vj to come to me, which 


were of the chief of them, and, leaving the former matter, as not 
to speak of it at all, I delt with them upon certain pointes and 
questions, such as her majestie had willed me principally to re- 
member; as, first, to know what their forces were, who were their 
chief governours, and had charge of townes and fortes, what 
meanes they had to contynue and mainteyne their forces, how 
their people and garrisons were paied, what debtes they were in 
to their souldiers. Theis, and sundry other, which are sett downe 
for her majestie, ye shall receive : leying before them what a 
mighty enemy they had against them, it behooved them to shew 
good force and good means to withstand such an enemy. To 
theis thinges, and all other questions, I think their wilbe good 
satisfaction given to her majestie, to cawse her think their state 
not so hard as hath ben doubted, nor for her majestie to repent 
her cost or charge adventured for them. I doe assure myself it 
will proove the best expences that ever shee bestowed in her life, 
and the best repayed againe to her coffers, if God overthrow not 
the world. 

I did never see greater probability in my life of assured good 
successe, and protest unto you, I like the matter xx tymes better 
then I did in England, and so I beleeve any man here of judge- 
ment doth the like. And yet is it nowe at the verie woorst, as well 
for the decaie of our men, as for the season of this time, which is 
such as we cannot, till the wether break, send by water or land 
almost to any place. I could not hear owt of Zeland but by long 
seas, all the ryvers be ycie and frozen, but not to bear any horse 
or cariage. 

Tlrenemy hath attempted sundry places, but repulsed at all, 
and I dare presume thus much for her majesties name only, that 
if her comfort had not come, yow had heard of many a revolt er 
this daie, and the poor garrison-men, the straungers chiefly, 
suffer presently the greatest miserie in the world for all thinges, 
and yet send good comfort daily hither to me, that for the queen 
of Englandes sake they will suffer more yet. The queen of Eng- 


land they would serve as their mistris, and under me as her 
minister here, with a better will then ever they served under the 
prince of Orange ; yet they loved him well, but they never hoped 
of the libertie of this countrey till now. 

It is assured me the. states are verie well able to perfourme their 
charge, and with great ease. The count Hollock a [is] surely a wise, 
gallant gentleman, and a right souldier, and verie well esteemed 
with many of the capteins and souldiers ; he hath only one fault, 
which is, drinking, but good hope that he will amend it. Some 
make me believe I shalbe able to doe much with him, and I meane 
to doe my best, for I see no man that knowes all theis countreys, 
and the people of all sortes, like him, and this fault overthrowes 
all. Here is another little fellow, as litle as may be, but one of 
the gravest and wisest young men that ever I spake withal! ; it is 
the count Guilialme of Nassau, 15 he governes Frizeland; I would 
every province had such another. He had noe lettre from her 
majestie yet, nor his father, but that makes not so great matter as 
for this young gentleman. Her majestie may doe well also to con- 
tynue some kindenes from time to tyme with this howse of Nassau, 
especially to shew to take care for the count Maurice, who hath 
ben greatly laboured to have barkened to a composition, I can tell 
you, and I see him much discontented with the states for certein. 
He hath a sullen, deep witt, and shrewd counsellours of his fathers 
abowt him, now that they see the hope of Holland and Zeland taken 
awaie, which was the marke was wholy by the father shotte at, 
and almost hitt, as I am sure you have heard. The young gen- 
tleman is yet to be wonne only to her majestie, I perceive, of his 
owne inclination. The howse is merveilous poor, and litle regarded 

» i. e. Count Philip of Hohenlohe, who married Mary of Nassau, one of the daugh- 
ters of the late prince of Orange. When the states elected prince Maurice, then only 
eighteen years of age, to succeed his father as stadtholder, count Hohenlohe was ap- 
pointed his lieutenant or deputy. 

b William Lewis, stadtholder of Friesland, brother of Ernest Casimir, count of 
Nassau Dietz, and son of John brother of William prince of Orange. 


by the states hitherto, and if they gett any thing it is like to be by 
her majestie, which I wishe should be altogether, and she maie 
easily doe for him to wynne him sure ; I will undertake it. 

Well, now I will returne a litle backe again, to tell you what 
followed since my former conference with the states. They went 
to their fellowes and told them what had passed'; they aunswered 
me again, and brought me an act sett downe in writing by them 
all, that I should be pryvie to all their state, as well for their forces 
as their means, and that I should see very flatly that they abused 
not her majestie, neither with the offer of sovereigntie, nor yet 
with the state of their abilitie to mainteine their cawse, but better 
then ever they told her of, and referred to me what I thought of 
the strength and force of theis countreys. " Well, now we will 
say, and make your lordship know," say they, " the people bear- 
ing the love wee see they doe to her majestie, if she had taken 
the sovereignty over us, she should have had monethly 300,000 
florens, certeinly payed to her purse, which is 30,000 u sterling, 
every moneth, beside the customes of merchauntes, and Flaunders 
if it might be recovered, which did yeeld as much and more alone; 
and her majestie should doe more good, and defend th'enemy farr 
easilyer, with 100,000 than we shall with 200,000, for the obe- 
dience and reverence to her majestie would be as great as in Eng- 
land, and that we doe is even with feare and force among them, 
which bringeth such confusion as there is no remedie, but either 
your lordship must take the whole governement upon you, at our 
humble suite, and at the request of all the rest, or els all wilbe 
yet lost;" confessing that confusion of officers hath undoon their 
governement, and not to be recovered but by som one to take it 
that is so backt as I should be by the countenaunce of her ma- 
jestie, whom the people only trust and love, for unto no other 
will they committ that which they will to her majestie, or one of 
hirs ; and so doe they flatly conclude the matter upon me. 

All the lords here have ben in like sort with me, and all the 
captens, and governors, and magistrates of townes, pressing me 


most earnestly, if I love her majestie, if I love the good of Eng- 
land, and theis countryes, to take it, and that forthwith, bycawse 
the souldiers be unpayed, and no man will contribute any longer 
but to her majesties minister, and to him all places doe promis, 
and have sent their procuratours, as they told me alredy, to bind 
themselves and all their townes for the payment of ij c m. florens 
monethly, beside the admiraltie to be discharged by their cus- 
tomes, as it is alredy. They will also make their oath to me, and 
all officers, to returne presently to paie all sommes to me. Thus 
it standeth presently, as either all must be hazarded and lost, or 
els I must take it, which, as farre as I can see, and all here with 
me, as the case enforceth it, must needes be best for her majesties 
service everie waie. 

The reasons Mr. Davison shall delyver you, who hath seen how 
I have proceeded, and upon what necessitie either this waie must 
be taken, or els all overthrowne. It is doon for the best, and if 
so her majestie accept of it, all wilbe to the best. I have had 
none other scope herein, nor shall have, but her majesties service 
above all worldly respectes, and well knowne to the wisest here 
with me, how desperatly both the lords and capteins were and are 
bent, if I should not take this upon me, to have left and given over 
the whole service of theis states, which had made an easie con- 
quest for th'enemie, but a most dangerous for her majestie. Thus 
referring the full declaration of our doinges here to Mr. Davison, 
who shall shortly be with you, doe take my leave, and commytt 
you to the Lords protectyon. At Leyclen, this xiiij. of January. 

Your assured frend, 

R. Leycester. 




15TH JANUARY 1585-6. HAUL. MS. NO. 285. FO. 180. ORIG. 

The earl earnestly entreats a remittance of money — the enemy are 
active, and have put several important toivns in danger — they are 
now upon " Zeland syde" — the states have agreed to form a camp 
to restrain the incursions of the enemy — an important enterprise in 
hand — if the queen continues favourable to the cause, the earl tvill 
be able to ease her charges — Mr. Davison coming over. 

Mr. secretary, as you shall shortly hear of our hole procedinges 
by Mr. Davyson, so must I entreat you most ernestly, even as the 
well doing of my poore servycehere may be tendred, but spetyally 
for the honor and servyce of hir majestie, that you wyll be meanes 
that ther may be a good quantytye of money sent over, as ther ys 
behind of the hole some her majestie dyd sett done, as I take yt, 
above lxx m li. So you wyll procure, as much as in [you] may lye, 
that the most parte may be sent over. Hit shalbe the worst, and 
the most, she shalbe charged with, but, at the beginning, xx m li. 
shall stand in more stead than xl m li. iiij monthys hence, and I am 
well perswaded, as you shall se at Mr. Davysons coming, that they 
here have good meanes to maynteyn ther warrs, and Avhen we 
make reconing at home of a defencyble warr, hit must be so de- 
fencyble, as we must be able to have always vj or vij m men, horse 
and footemen, to frunt the enymye, who, all this hard wether, hath 
gon from place to place with iiij 111 footemen and xv c horse, and at 
this day he kepes the fyld, and hath putt in danger iij or iiij townes 
of great importance, as Brabee, Wenloe, Vianna, and Bomeley, as 
also now he ys come uppon Zeland syde, and wyll doe what he 
can to Lylle and Lyskinshook, whear ther hath byn much decay 
of soldyers, but ther ys doing all that ys possible for defence, for 
otherwyse we ar no way able to resist them, which they know, 


and doth make them presume the more at this tyme. But the 
states have agreed, and doe find ther ys no remedy, but we must 
erect a camp to brydell this lyberty of the enymye, or ells he wyll 
kepe a warr this xx yere, and make us all wery, and, this way 
being taken, I warrant ye we wyll shortly wery him as well, and 
yet never hazard any battell, which he wyll be as loth to come to 
as we. 

I am in hope of an enterpryse to tak place shortly which ye 
wylbe gladd to hear of. God send yt to fall out as I looke for, 
and that ye may provyde us spedyly with a good some of money, 
being all one to hir majestye, and I wyll undertake she shall com 
to no furder chardge whatsoever. I wyll help to ease hir, before 
the end, of a good parte of this, yf she doe but contynew hir fa- 
vour and good countenaunce to this cause only, as I trust she wyll, 
or elles she knoweth not the lacke she wyll fynd of the frendshipp 
of these countreys. As, uppon my honour and truth to you, they 
were almost utterly gonn yf I had not aryved when I dyd. 

Thus, referring ye for the rest to Mr. Davyson at his coming, I 
wyll take my leave, protestyng my hole care and endeavour his to 
doe hir majestie acceptable servyce, or elles God not to lett me 
lyve, yf otherwyse yt shuld be. In much hast this xv. of Januery, 

Your assured frend, 

R. Leycester. 

To my very honorable good frend 

sir Francis Walsingham knight, 

principall secretarye to her majesty. 

leyc. corr. 





Lord Burghley re-states his inquiries respecting the amount of as- 
sistance which the states can give towards repelling the armada — 
also as to the works carrying on secretly in the churches of Ant- 
werp — OrteWs proposals as to trade between the Low Countries 
and France — news from Lisbon. 

My very good lord, as matters do rise so I am bold to wryte 
unto yow, and yet I se so many misaventures in savety of arryvall 
of lettres, as 1 se it necessary to repete thynges in second lettres, 
wherewith your lordship may be troobled by readyng, but I had 
rather, so woole your lordship, than leave it undoone. 

In my former lettres I have shewed yow that hir majesty wold 
have your lordship to cause inquisition to be made of the nom- 
bre and power of the shippes of warr in Holland and Zelland, 
and with what nombre they wold be content, uppon ther charges, 
to serve this yere with hir majesties navy agaynst the king of 
Spaynes power, which hath bene reported greater than I can beleev, 
but hir majesty is resolved to have hir navy redy at Portesmouth 
before the end of March. Hir majesty, also, wold gladly have your 
lordship discover to what purpooss the Itallien carpyntors do 
work, as it is sayd, very secretly in chirches, in Antwerp, about 
shippes or gallyes. 

Of late Ortell, that remayneth here agent for the states, pro- 
pounded certain questions uppon the trade to be used by the 
shippars of Holland and Zelland ; the articles I do send herewith 
to your lordship, with an answer by us here gyven, under your 
lordships advise, uppon conference with the states. We fynd 
here, that, under collor of any trade with merchants to any part of 
Pycardy, the enemy is succored. Nevertheless, as your lordship 


shall ther fynd the states conformable, we here will prescribe that 
same order to be kept. Truly, my lord, it is most necessary that 
all kind of victells, or matters for shippyng, be utterly forbydjden. 

We have advertisementes from Lyshborn by sondry come from 
thence, that all English men ar at liberty ther, and that the prepa- 
ration is as yett not grett, only all manner of great hulkes ar stayd. 
And so I end from any farther trooblyng of your lordship. 17. 
January, at Grenwych. 

Your lordships most 


To the right honorable my 
very good lord, the erle of 
Lecester, lieutenant generall 
for all hir majesties forces in 
the Low Contreys. 



22ND JANUARY, 1585-6. HARL. MS. 285, FO. 182. ORIG. 

The earl is dissatisfied with the treasurer of the army— entreats 
that money may be remitted — knows the difficulty of obtaining it 

x from the queen, but offers reasons why she should send it — the 
devotion of the people to her majesty, and their determination that 
the earl should be their absolute governor— Mr. Davison's services 
— proceedings of the prince of Parma upon hearing of the arrival 
of the earl — rumours spread by the prince that the earl had merely 
come to bring about a peace — arguments in favour of carrying on 
the war in the offensive — the earl wishes for more troops — notices 
of the characters and designs of Villers, count Maurice, St. Aide- 


gonde, Mallory, Meddykirk, Paul Buys, count Hohenloe — enter- 
prises in meditation — the earl ivishes lord North to be appointed 
to some office or else recalled — Dr. Barth. Clerk is of little use. 

Mr. secretary, I can wryte nothing to ye touching the state of 
the tresure or tresorer. I wyll not blame him yet, nor excuse 
him, but I dowbt he hath a conning under-tresorer. This vj wekes 
can I gett no reckoning, nor the awdytor any bookes from them, 
tyl this last vveke. Our money goeth very low, and I beleive ye 
will not be best pleased Avith the former expences, and yet am I 
forst to dysburs much of this money for relyfe of the souldyers 
not payd, and, as I wrote of late to you, so doe I now also to my 
lord tresorer by Mr. Davyson, to besech ye both, yf ye wyll 
have any hope of good of our servyce here, to gett us a good pece, 
or rather the hole somme, of that ys behind of hir majestys al- 
lowance. Yf hit be not well ordered and husbanded, lett the 
blame light hevyly uppon me. 

My thinkes I hear your answere alredy, that no man knoweth 
better than I the dyffycultye to gett money from hir majesty, and 
so I must satysfye myself. But, as I confes yt ys hard to pro- 
cure great sommes from hir majesty, so must I lett you know, 
and more now than whan I was partaker of those dyffycultyes 
ther with you, that yf hir majesty doe not deall now gratyously 
and princely with these people, and consider how infynyttly hit 
doth import her highness to bring these causes to a good end, 
whan yt ys in such forwardnes as they be, and that yt ys only the 
expence of a lytle money, and no more than she hath alreddy 
contractyd and agreed with them for, and for which she hath such 
a pawen as she may assure hirself, by them alone, to have all 
hir charges ageyn, yf the worst fall owt that can be. And here I 
say to ye Mr. secretary, and I speak yt in the presence of God, 
I am veryly perswaded, yf hir majesty had not donn this she hath 
donn, these hole countreys had byn gonn by this day ; and, se the 
good providence of God ! yf I had not come when I dyd, the wynd 


turned the next daye, and hath so contyneued ever synce, that, 
this being the xlij day since my aryvall, I never hard word from 
Englonde ; I trust, therfore, whan yt comes y t shalbe good. But, 
if I had steyd tyll this day, all hope had byn gone of hir majesty, 
and all the practyces of the enymye had byn sett afoote, for I 
founde them very well onward at my aryvall ; yet, I testyfye a 
truth, as sone as hir majestys favour hether was sene and known, 
I thinke from the beginning of these trowbles the people were 
never hotter ageinst the enemye than at this day, nor better 
devotyd to hir ; in so much as she may now dyspose of all, and 
dyrect all, that otherwyse had lost all, both countryes and credytt, 
yea, with a mortall hate for ever to our natyon ; and yf the case 
be thus for hir majesty, for Gods sake lett hir comfort all here, 
and lett hir be sure the enymye was never so dowbtfull, nor so 
perplexed, as he ys at this day ; for he stoode in great hope, be- 
fore my coming, to have had certen places delyvered unto him of 
great importance, and I think hit was so promysed to him in dede, 
but as sone as the souldyers hard of hir majesty taking the cause 
in hand, and that I was com, they setled themselves wholy this 
way, and so doe contyneue, and have resisted the enymyes at- 
temptes most faythfully ; yet have they not byn payd a long while, 
nether wold have trusted the states but for hir majesty, takyng 
my word only that they shalbe payd ; and so they shalbe forth- 
with, I have wroght so for them. Nether wold they wyllingly 
trust the states touching hir majesty, but that I must have the ab- 
solute government, and the recept of their reveneues, or elles 
they wold not be pacyfyed, nor trust to their paymentes more; 
which suerly hath byn yll handled, for they have meanes and 
meanes ageyn to meyntayn all these charges, but their careless 
iiTj ploying of yt hath hindred all; but this requyres a hole wekes 
informacion of Mr. Davison, who hath donn hir majesty notable 
servyce here, and doe pray ye, and as ever ye tender the success 
of this servyce, retorn him hither, with the more credytt the 
better, for without him I confes myself quyte maymed. His 


credytt ys mervelous great here that ever I sawe of any stranger 
in any countrey, in my lyfe, and he lyves lyke a gentleman and 
chargeably every way. And my nephew Sydney, I assure ye, ys 
notably estemed, and I think within a few months shalbe able to 
doe hir majesty here other manner of servyce than may well be 
looked for. 

The prince of Parma, uppon my aryvall, and hearing of the dys- 
posicion of these countreys wholy bent to shew their good trust of 
hir majesty, by comytting allchardge and confydence to me, being 
hir servaunt and subiect, he assembled the counsell, the presydent 
&c. ther opened the matter, shewing the great dyffycultyes hap- 
pened unto them unlooked for, for yt was a matter assured them 
that the queen of England wold never attempt any thing, ether 
here or elleswhere, but he saw now yt was otherwyse, and that she 
had sent Drake to the Indyes, and the erll of Leycester into the 
Lowe Countreys, alleaging all he could do. The president an- 
swered him : " Now sir/' quod he, " ye may se what yt was for 
the king our master to forsake the councell was geven him, and 
the offer the people made of these countreys to have had a peace, 
and whether yt had byn better to [have] accepted that, or elles to 
consume his treasure and people in vayn ; for yt was never other 
lyke whan all such meanes as the queen of England made accompt 
of was taken away, as the prince of Orange that was at hir devo- 
tyon, and Monsieur who was in stryct league with hir, but she 
wold rather defend and kepe these countreys hir frendes, then 
suffer our master to enioye them, being afreyd of his greatnes to 
be so nere hir as these countreys shuld be, except there were better 
love betwene them than ther ys. But refusing that peace his 
people offred him to have had religyon fre, was the cause of all 
these warrs, and losse now of thes countreys, which than he had byn 
sure of, yea, and, after a while, to be sure also to have putt down 
the herytykes and protestantes, as he might have used the matter . 
but now," saythe [he], "yt ys to late for councell, the queen of 
Englond ys not so easy to be removyd, being received as she ys 


among them, nether doe I ever looke now for so good an end 

Synce that, ther cam within these ij daies one from Antwerp, 
beside here ar sondry letters from thence of yt, (which ys donn of 
purpose to bring this people in dowbt of hir majesty s dealing for 
them,) that there was a howse in Antwerp, the Englysh howse, 
preparing for me ; that she made but a shew of warr, her intentyon 
ys only to make a peace, and that I had instructyons to prepare 
the myndes of the states to conformetye, and to be reconcyled to 
the king. I assure ye a pestylent practyce yt ys, and no one 
thing under heaven so lykely to cutt my throte, but yt doth agre 
well with a tale that was wrytten also from Bruxelles to the cont 
de Hollock here. That the prince of Parma, hearing of my aryvall, 
chaft very much, and semed greatly to be deceaved that hir ma- 
jesty wold send as she hath donn, "but," sayth he, "ther ys no 
remedye but one; we must gyve out brutes that the queen of Eng- 
land hath offerd talk of peace, which wyll brede presently jelosye 
in the states heads, and some devyces we must have to make de- 
vyssion among them, to breake this resolucyon to lett the govern- 
ment be at the queen of Englands dyspocytion." This letter cam 
to him, which he shewyd me, above iij wekes agoe, and, as the 
cont sayd, from a very credyble place; so that he presumeth styll 
of the umore a of Englond. But God defend hir majesty shuld 
loose the honor, credytt, and saftye, she ys in so good way to ob- 
teyn, and lett me have shamfull death and utter reproch, yf hir 
majesty goe princely and couragiously forward, yf ever she receive 
the lyke porcyon of all these as she shall doe by this actyon here. 
And 1 assure you yf ye saw these places, with the dysposicion of 
the people, as I doe, ye wold think, even for hir majestys own 
safty sake, but for her own tyme only, beside the respect of Eng- 
lond, that more money than yet she hath leyd out to be most hap- 
pely spent yf ther were no gage or hope to have yt payd ageyn. 

* i. e. humour. 


Lett me retorn, therfore, once ageyn, to pray ye, and entreat ye, 
to stand ernestly for the spedye sending away of money ; and to 
send yt by dryblettes causeth yt to be consumed to lytle purpose, 
and no honour or credytt, nor yet relyfe in dede of the soldyer. 
Touching this I have wrytten in a scedule enclosed, which I pray 
ye break after ye have redd yt. 

And touching the opinion of a defensyve warr, I know ye 
wyll now chang yt, for ther ys no wey to overthrow this state but 
that. Experience doth teach yt, for the enymye goeth where he 
wyll, he makyth skours now in every place; as, ferst, in Flanders, 
about Ostend and Sluce, he hath made so many, as no man can 
sturr out to anoye the enymye any way, nether can they be taken 
with all the garasons ther. He hath byn synce about Grave, a 
place of great importance for us, not farr from Boldukea in Bra- 
bant ; he hath attemptyd yt iiij or v tymes this frost, but mysh- 
ing b of yt, he hath buylt iij or iiij forts about yt, that no vyttell 
can com to yt. He hath donn the lyke at Venlou, and ys pre- 
sently in doing ther, and hath ther iij m men and a 1000 hors ; all 
the garasons we have ther ys not able to deale with him. So from 
this place he wyll to some other, but yf he follow these ij so 
strongly as he may doe, I se no way we ar able to mach him yet 
in the fild to relyve them, and, lett him alone, he wyll surely have 
them. Therfore ther ys no remedye for us but to make a camp, 
which wylbe, with those we have alredy, without any great chardg 
donn, whereby we may be masters of the fild, for he dares not 
draw his garasons fourth of his great towens, so shall we relyve the 
places thus beseged, and recover the skonces and fortes he hath 
buylt to anoye us. Besides he doth spoyll all countreys that ar 
most frutefull and help us most, by his contynewall incursions, 
which is a great matter I se here, to loose the servyce of the 
bours, c and yt ys also a dyscouraging warr to this people that ar 
dayly charged with taxes and contrybucions, to se an endles warr, 

a i. e. Bois le Due. b i. e. missing. c boors. 


as they caule yt when yt ys altogether defensyve, and so yt ys in 
dede ; and we ar sure the enymy ys more ferfull to adventure than 
we ar, for yf we loose, we have styll strong townes able to defend, 
yf he loose, he hath no townes to hold him, for all he hath ys 
alredy by the force of his garasons. 

I have sent to ye, sir, also, for leave that sondry gentlemen 
may have leave to take upp som men in Englond, without any 
peny charge ether to hir majesty or the countrey, and our eny- 
myes ar the bolder for that they know the decaye of our soldyers. 
I wold be gladde, also, to have leave for v c of my none servantes 
more, not in Wales alone, but of my other tenantes, where I shall 
think mete; for I tooke but iiij c of the v c hir majesty dyd graunt, 
and I wyll not gyve those iiij c for the best v c & 1. that I se or 
can hear of here, nether shall ther any man have charge, by my 
good wyll, but such as shall have good cause to care for his men. 
I think xv c wyll skant well furnyshe all the bandes clecayd here, 
and I wold ernestly desier ij m more, such as wyll wyllingly com. 
Ye have people to many, and ye nede not fear any attempt to 
Englond in assaling yt by force, as long as hir majesty hath these 
countreys, I warant ye; therfore help us yf ye wyll styll be 
quyett. And yf I may be able to wander a while with ij m horse, 
and 4 or 5000 footemen, about Easter ye shall hear, without any 
meting withall, all those skonces shalbe caught, our own places 
putt in good sewrty, and the enymye as well spoyled. And I 
pray ye, for these things, beleave us pore men that serve, and 
have best cause to know what course in reason ys best. 

When Mr. Davyson comes he shall tell ye at lardge of some 
partyculer thinges ye wold have lytle beleved, but I know them 
to be most true. That Vyliers ys a most vyle trayterous knave, 
and doth abuse a young nobleman here extremely, the conte 
Morys ; for all his religion he ys a more ernest perswader secretly 
to have him yeld to a reconcylliacion than St. Allagonde was, and 
hath an instrument about the young gentleman, one that pleasyth 
his affectyons, that ys a very dangerous man. The young man 



hath a solem, slye wytt; but, in troth, yf any be to be dowbtyd 
toward the king of Spain, yt ys he and his counsellers, for they 
have byn altogether so farr French, and so farr in myslyke with 
Englond, as they cannot almost hide yt, and this umore ys styll 
kindled by this prest, and some say yet St. Allegonde, but I doe 
not beleve yt, for that he hath geven his word for yt to me. The 
other shall not tarry ten dayes nether in Holland nor Zeland; he 
ys greatly hated here of all sortes. And yt shall goe hard but I 
wyll wynn the young conte, and gett the knave about him re- 
moved, whose name ys Mallorey, one the prince himself dowbtyd 
of before his deth. 

Old Medykyrk was farr gonn ageinst hir majesty, and our 
natyon also, and so farr dowbtyd, as now, at the nomynacion of 
councellors, I named him for one, thinking he had good credytt 
among the states, and I found them all ageinst him, and made 
request to me to leave him out, which I mervelled at, and doe 
plainly chardge him with his yll mynd to hir majesty. Paule Buys, 
I lern, certenly was putt from his offyce in Holland only for stand- 
ing agenst the French, and preferring Englond alweys, and in- 
dede he passeth them all for sky 11 and judgement. 

The cont Hollock deserveth great countenaunce at hir majestys 
handes, for he ys a plaine gentleman, and one that always delt 
flatly with the prince for the French, even tyll his death ; and was 
also so reddy and had best power to delyver both Flushing and 
the Bryll into hir majestys handes, and yt ys most true that he 
was greatly pressed to stand agenst yt, and the yong count was 
not wyllyng to have yt rendred, only by Vyllyers meanes, and the 
cont Hollock perceving told the cont Morrys, in a great rage, 
that yf he tooke any other course than the queen of Englond, and 
swear by nob eggers he would drouen his prest in the haven before 
his face, and turne himself and his mother-in-law out of there 
howse there, and thereuppon went with Mr. Davyson to the dely- 
very of yt. This man must be cheryshed; he ys sound and fayth- 
full, and hath indede all the chife holdes in his handes, and at 
his comandment. Ye shall doe well to procure him a letter of 


thankes, taking knoledge in generall of his good wyll to hir 
majesty. He ys a right Almayn in manner and fashion, fre of his 
purse and of his drynk, yet doe I wysh him hir majestyes pen- 
cyoner before any prince in Germany, for he loves hir, and able 
to serve hir, and doth desyer to be knowen hir servant. He hath 
byn sought and labored by his nerest kinsfolkes and best frendes 
in Germany, to have left the states, and to have the king of 
Spaines pencyon, and very great reward, but he wold not. A 
cheyn of ij c li. wold be well bestowd uppon him in the meane 
tyme ; and uppon his further desart, which I think wylbe shortly, 
I trust hir majesty wyll accept of his offer to be hir servaunt during 
his lyfe, being in dede a very noble soldyer. He hath some mat- 
ters a-brewing which he hopeth well of ; for my parte I have an 
other, brought to me by Mr. Davyson, which yf yt fall out as I 
verylye looke for yt, that wylbe worth ' God a mercye !' and nerer 
home, and of exceding great consequence for hir majesty and this 
cause, and or xx days ye shall hear of yt, I trust in God. 

Ther ys another matter and I must trowble you withall, and 
full fayn I wold have yt redressed ; hit ys my lord North. Hir 
majesty hath comaunded him hether in my company ; he doth 
certenly doe me all the honor he can devyse, and he hath not the 
best boddy for such a place, spetyally he having no chardge, nor 
any allowance in the world, and surely his expences cannott be 
lytle, albeyt his grefe must be more to have no countenance at all 
but his own estate, and a man of his yeres and long servyce. a He 
doth take yt hir majesty doth place him for some respect of myne, 
which wyll gender an inward grudge to me at length. I am not 
the cause of yt. He ys a wyse gentleman, and for any nede I se I 
shall have of Mr. Bartholomew Clerk, I assure ye I had farr 
rather have my lord Northes councell and assistance ; and for lawe 
here ys one, the other lytle Clerk, who ys much beyond Bartho- 

a Roger, the second lord North, succeeded to the title on the death of his father in 
1564, and died in 1600, Camden describes him as " vir vivido ingenio, animo consi- 
lioque par." Annales, sub anno 1600. 


lomew in all lerninges of lawe, as hath well appered here alredy. Yf 
at Mr. Davysons coming ye can, ether with honour and allowance 
kepe my lord here, or elles in some good sort by hir majesty 
cauled for home, rather than to attend here without any charge 
or countenaunce, I wold gladly wysh yt. That in the mean tyme 
yt wyll lyke ye to wryte to my lord how carefull and myndfull 
I have byn of him, shall doe me a great pleassur. And thus hav- 
ing bin long, as I cannott others a chuse having so much to imparte 
to you, I wyll byd ye farewell, longing styll to hear from ye. At 
the Hage, this xxij. of January. 

Your assured frend, 

R. Leycester. 

Bycause I se how the wynd kepes back all hearing from ye, 
being xlij days synce I hard from England, sir, Grant Herns hath 
a man that doth bring dayly fishe from this cost, and when no 
shipp goeth out he wyll shift ageinst the wynd, and he comes very 
safely. I pray ye bear with the faultes of my letter, hit ys so 
long I cannott peruse yt. 

I am afrayd ye will compare me shortly to Wylliam Herll. b 
To Mr. secretary 




31ST JANUARY 1585-6. HARL. MS. 285. FO. 190. ORIG. 

Mr. Davison is returning home to explain the earl's proceedings— the 
earl begs Mr. Davison may be allowed to rejoin him — great value 

« So in MS. 

b Herle was at this time occasionally employed in public affairs. Many of his 
letters are in existence which are generally extremely long, and are written in a very 
illegible hand. See Cotton MS. Titus, B. vn. fo. 44. 


of his services — sir William Pelham no longer expected — lord 
Grey would be very serviceable, especially if any mischance befel 
the earl — entreats that money may be sent — refers to Mr. Davison 
for matters of state — exploit of Schenck — the earl's care for Os- 
tend — the queen may procure any number of seamen in the Loiv 
Countries — begs that the merchants of those countries may be 
better treated in England. 

Mr. secretary, Mr. Davyson doth now retorn home, which I 
coulde hardly have yelded unto but only to have hir majesty fully 
answered and satysfyed touching all our proceedinges here synce 
my aryvall, 3 and noe man able to doe yt but himself, praing ye, 
good Mr. secretary, yf hir majesty wyll shew me any favour, that 
thys may be one, to have Mr. Davyson retorn ageyn to me, who 
I assure you ys the most sufficient man to serve hir majesty that 
I know of all our nation ; for he knoweth all partes of these coun- 
treyes, and all persones of any accompt, with all ther umores, and 
hath great credytt among them all here. And the better servyce 
shall he be able to doe yf yt may please hir majesty to gyve him 
such countenaunce as may encrease his credytt here, for here hath 
byn many brutes and reportes of hir good intentyon toward him, 
and he wyll deserve any goodnes she shall bestow uppon him, 
whatsoever yt be. ? 

a The principal object of Davison's mission was to reconcile the queen to Leycester's 
assumption of the government of the Low Countries ; an important step, for the 
taking of which his recent letters were evidently designed to prepare his friends at 
home. On Tuesday the 25th of January the earl was installed at the Hague in a very 
solemn manner, in the presence of count Maurice and the other principal per- 
sons, both natives and Englishmen, then in the Low Countries. The ceremonies may 
be seen in Holinshed, iv. 647, and in Stow's Annals, 715. The placard or grant by 
which the states-general appointed Leycester to be supreme and absolute governor 
over all the United Provinces, with like authority to that exercised by governors in the 
time of Charles V. is printed in the General Collection of Treaties, (8vo. 1732,) ii. 89, 
and in Holinshed, iv. 648. A copy of the oath taken by the earl to his new subjects 
is in the Cotton MS. Galba, C. x. fol. 345. 


As for sir Wylliam Pellam, I look not for him ; I se his delayes 
be such. When I departyd thence he promysed me fay th fully 
that he wold follow me, what end soever he had, and theruppon 
he had v c li. prest, a but I se his joynders and reioynders doth 
seke all delay, and spetyally that I saw in his letter to hir majesty 
of late wrytten, wherein he asketh ageyn a new suply of hir 
majesty, to sett him furth ; a matter I know, of old, what yt wyll 
doe. Therfore, sir, yf you find this diffyculty styll, lett me no 
longer expect his uncerteinty. My lord Grey for many respectes 
I wold be gladd of, but I can as lytle hope of him, and except I 
might have one of them by the end of this month, I shall after 
not much nede any of them, and therfore I thought good to sig- 
nyfye thus much unto ye; and the only cause I wysh for my 
lord Grey, yf God call me, ther might be such a one reddy here 
to command as he ys : but lett me know, I beseche ye, with 
spede, what to trust unto. 

Now, sir, to my old sute, and more than tyme that yt were 
grantyd, or rather here, which ys, for money; for I told ye, 
before my coming, ther was no more payd than wold serve the 
end of this month of February next, and you all there made a 
stryckt reckoning how farr all your money wold strech, not ac- 
compting the horsmen, nor sondry other charges leid out by all 
your warrants to the tresorer before yt cam over, and yf we had 
the full of that was delyvered for the armye, without these pay- 
mentes, yet had yt payd no further than the end of February. 
And I pray ye remember what I wrote touching the tresorer and his 
deputye ; I doe send over the audytor to you, who I take to be an 
honest man, he wyll tell ye as much as I wrote, for I had yt of 
him. But yf yt wyll please hir majesty to send over the hole 
some behind for the yere, yf I make yt not strech as farr as pos- 
sibly yt may, and to serve the torn for this yere, lett yt lye uppon 
me and all that I have to answer yt. But yt shalbe otherwyse 

3 i. e. iniprested, ready money advanced on account. 


handled than this was. Ther ys to to much pryvatt gayn soght, 
more than ever I wold have beleavyd, and all leyd uppon hir 
majesty, for hir proffytt, they say. 

Touching any procedinges here for the matters of this state, I 
leave to Mr. Davyson to declare to you. I trust very shortly to 
send ye some good nues of some enterprise uppon our enymyes, 
who of late, in the frost, went into Freseland, and ther overthrew 
iij or iiij c of conte Wylliams soldyers, and tooke sondry boores 
prisoners. Synce that, Schenk a hath mett twyce with them ; at 
the first, he overthrew a cornett of Italians, and tooke xl horse 
and men prisoners ; the second tyme, being this last weke, he 
overthrew v c of the bravest soldyers they had, and kyld iij c in 
the place, and took a captain and xv prisoners. I doe not hear of 
any man that dealeth so lustyly with the enymye as he doth. I 
wyll cherysh him accordingly, and wyll shortly be at Utryck and 
vyssett those places. Albeyt I hope ye shall here some nues 
from me ye look not for or I com thether. 

I assure ye Wylford b ys to busye in adverty singe of that 
place at Ostend ; hit ys in good case, and yet have I taken order 
for to better yt : he ys not to have credytt to all hys wrytinges. 
The soldyers ther of late have taken uppon the river vj boates, 
loden with corn and other vyttelles coming from Dunkirk and 

My lord thesorer wrote to me to know, what nombre of shipps 
and maryners here be to be had, yf nede werr. I have wrytten to 
my lord, here be many more than hir majesty shall nede to beat 

a Martin Schenck, whose indefatigable exertions, first on the side of the Spaniards 
and afterwards on that of the United Provinces, are the theme of general admiration 
amongst the writers of the time, was a native of Guelderland and nobly born. Con- 
ceiving himself to be neglected by the prince of Parma he quitted the service of Spain 
in 1585, and distinguished himself on the other side by some most gallant achieve- 
ments. Meteren and Strada, writers of opposite parties, unite in their praises of his 
bravery and skill. 

b Thomas Wylford was an intelligencer in the employ of the English government. 
See Cott. MS. Galba, C. vin. fo. 209. 


the king of Spain and all his frendes. Uppon small warning 
ye shall not want inough to serve hir majesty, I warrant ye. 
I pray ye make more of the merchantes of these countrey people 
ther ; they begyn a lytle to complayn of some hard dealing, but I 
have satysfied these for this tyme. Ye wyll find these people 
are worthe the cheryshing. So farewell, good Mr. secretary, in 
much hast, this last of Januery. 

Your assured frend, 

R. Leycester. 
I will have care to do for captain Veall, your servant. 
To my honourable good frende sir Fraunces Walsing- 
ham knight, principall secretarye to the queenes 




Reasons which Mr. Davison, on his return to England, is to urge 
in explanation of the earl's acceptance of the absolute govern- 
ment of the Low Countries. 

Remembrances for Mr. Davison. 

First, how all the states here in every place, from my first ary- 
vall, receaved me as well for there generall and governour as for 
hir majesties, pressing me very ernestly at my coming to the 
Hage, to take uppon me the same absolute goverment of all these 
provinces unyted; nevertheless I deferred yt by as many meanes 
as I could, tyll I was fully informyd by the knoledge and meanes 
which Mr. Davison had gotten of ther estate and abyllytye, 


whereby beinge fully satysfied, hit was thought best service for hir 
majestye any way to accept ther ernest offer. 

The causes which moved me to accept this place werr these. 
By hir majesties apointement, I was hir generall of all hir forces in 
these countreys, and by a contract, lykewyse generall of their 
armye, and ther first counsellor. The confusion that was amonge 
the states-generall bredd many dysorders almost uncurable amonge 
them, as the discontentation of the captens, governors and sol- 
dyers, in all places becom desperatt for lack of pay, the yll im- 
ploying of ther treasure, whereby all matters most necessary for 
the warrs and defence of the countrey was utterly neglectyd, the 
unyversall hate and myslyke which both these and all the people 
had conceaved ageinst them, being such as, yf hir majesty had 
not sent when she dyd, ether they must have chosen some one 
governor, to have taken this charge in hande to remedy there con- 
fusions, or elles have reconcyled themselves to the enyme, for 
avoyding the further ruyn and hazard of themselves. And yf 
they had had any other governor then myself, hit ys most certen 
hir majesty could not have these countreys so fully at her com- 
mandment as now she ys lyke to have. Nether might she con- 
venyently have kept, ether an armye, or any nobleman here, to be 
hir generall, but must have byn at the directyon and dysposytion 
of that governor. Besides, how the contractes and agrementes 
could be so well kept, ether for paymentes or otherwyse, that ys 
betwene hir majesty and these countreys, ys as dowbtful, or rather 
owt of dowbt. Beside yt had byn by that meanes also very dan- 
gerous that a peace might have byn procured and concluded with 
the enymye without hir majesties consent or prevety, hir people 
and captens, and towns dely vered for hir seurty, in great danger to 
be all lost. The enymye offeryng any revenge to any hir majes- 
ties domynions she might be depryved also of such helps and 
succors as these countreys may well asist hir now withall, the 
governor being at hir majestie comandment, with all other 
services lykewyse. But, the governor being at hir majesties dys- 



posytyon and dyrectyon, these wantes aforeseyd ar provyded 
for and suplyed ; hir people ar to be in all sewrty and to be well 
treatyd ; hir contractes and agrementes ar always to be well 
observyd and kept to hir majesties most advantage. He also, 
having the placyng and disposing of these garysons, the paymentes 
and other condycyons toward hir majesty ar most lyke to be 
better kept. No treaty or peace to be made or delt in but by hir 
majesty. No attempt can be made by the enymye ageinst hir 
majesties domynyons, but she may dyspose and have all such 
succors as shalbe nedefull for hir. The last, and chefe, ys, that 
hir majesty having hir one servant, whome she may comaunde, to 
be ther governor and comaunder, she ys sure to comande them as 
absolutly as he hath his authorytye from them to comand other 
under his charge. So for this first parte, these ar reasons that 
pers waded the acceptance of this goverment, seing of necessyty 
this state dyd require one, and hir majesty having so nerely 
placed me therein before, and being so farr interressed in these 
countreys as she ys alredy. 

For the secound, which was the reconcylliacion to the enymye, 
hit nedeth no argument ; he ys sensles that conceaveth not that 
yf the king of Spain had these countreys at his comandment, 
lett hir majesty have the best peace that ever was or can be made, 
and wee shall find, as the world now standeth, that he wyll force 
the queen of England and Englond to be at his dysposytion. 
What with Spain for the west and what with these countreys 
for the est, England shall traffyqe no furder any of these ways 
than he shall gyve leave, without every voyage shall aske the 
charge of a whole navye to pass withall. 




1ST FEBRUARY 1585-6. HARL. MS. 285, FO. 190. ORIG. 

If the queen intends the earl to remain in the Low Countries, he 
wishes to have the assistance of Mr. Daniel Rogers. 

Mr. secretorye, amongest my manye letters unto you of other 
matters, I have forgotten one. I would gladly have Daniell 
Rogers a here, for some good services which I thincke he is fitt for. 
Yf you fynde that her majestie meane to continue me in service 
here, I hartely pray you that Daniell Rogers may be sent to me. 
And so, with my right harty commendacions, I bid you farewell. 
From the Haghe, the first of February, 1585. 

Your very loving frende, 

R. Leycester. 
To my honorable good frende sir Fraunces 
Walsingham knight, principall secretory 
to the quenes majestie. 



3RD FEBRUARY 1585-6. HARL. MS. 6993, ART. 66. COPY. 

The earl informs the citizens of his success in his service — the 
kind disposition of the people of the Low Countries— recruits 

» Daniel Rogers was a man of considerable celebrity both as a literary man and a 
statesman during the reign of Elizabeth. He was employed on several foreign embas- 
sies in which he acquitted himself to the satisfaction of the government. He was also 
one of Camden's intimate friends, and assisted him in the composition of his Bri- 
tannia. Many of his papers remain in MS. in our public libraries. He died on the 
11th February, 1590, and was buried at Sunbury, in Middlesex. 


wanted — the devotion of the people to the queen had led them 
to appoint the earl their absolute governor — benefits to England 
from this arrangement — the enemy had entered Friesland, but had 
been repulsed with loss. 

My lord and loving frends, as I ame for many curtesies much 
beholding unto you, so cann I nat forgett, in most hartie and 
friendlie sorte, to salute you ; and for that I perswade myself you 
will not bee unwilling to heare of thestate of thynges here, and 
of our proceding in them, I will make bold to report somewhat 
therof unto vow. 

And for the people, I must nedes saie, I never came among 
any so kynde and so loving towards hir majestie, and our cuntry 
of England, in my lyf ; great afflictions have they suffred, and 
almost at the poynt not onely of discouragment but of utter 
dispaire of hir majesties favour, till at my aryvall they perceaved 
hir goodnes towardes theim ; whereupon, although they had many 
workers to have drawne theim to a reconciliation with the king 
of Spayne, with faire promisses made them, yet, as soone as 
they founde hir majesty to thinke upon them, they have taken 
new spirits, and as forward myndes as ever I sawe, to defend hir 
cause, and will committ cuntry, goodes, lyf, and all, into hir 
majesties handes, and to no prince els in the world. And most 
ashamed and angry are they that ever they were ledd to seeke 
frendship with Fraunce, and are perswaded hir majestie was never 
well dealt with all on their behalf, for they beleve nowe, that shee 
hath had ever this good mynde towardes theim to releive them, 
and most joyfull are they uppon hope of contynnewaunce of this 
amitie with hir majestie and the realme, and so hartned be they 
now in hir majesties favour (next God) as thei seeme to make no 
accompt at all of the mallice and force of the enemie. And I 
doubt not, that after our bandes here that are decayed be filled 
agayne with some supplie of more men, without further charg to 
hir majestie or the realme, but yow shall heare of good successe 


of our service ere it be longe. For myn owne parte, as I had 
very good will to the cause before my comminge, (in respect of 
the dutifull love to the queenes majestie, my sovereigne, and my 
cuntry,) so, since I have sene the cuntry and people, I have tenn 
tymes better lyking to proceede in it. And I must saie, as they 
have geven me grate encouragment thereunto, so have they geven 
iust cause to move hir majestie to thinke, that they both trust 
hir and love hir, for I being sent hither but as hir minister and 
officer, they have, even for hir sake, made me their governour 
and generall absolut, with the whole commaunding, not onely of 
all their provinces, their townes, and men of warre, in all places, 
but lykewise have geven me power and authoritie to dispose of all 
their revenewes, compositions, impostes, customes, and what ells 
that yeld them money, theyre receivours, mynt-masters, with all 
other officers, at my appoyntment and disposition. A very great 
shewe of trust and love in hir majestie, that do so absolutlie 
committ so greate a charg to one of hir subiects and servauntes, 
as a mere straunger every waye to them and theire cuntry; 
whereby it playnlie appeareth, that thei hide not their devotion 
they beare to hir majestie, that by this meanes make themselves 
at the commaundement of no prince, but hir majestie onelie. 
And surely so long as these cuntries maie be held in their ernest 
good will, I warraunt yow in England maie sleepe quietly for any 
greate harme yow shall take, eyther by sea or by land, as no doubt 
yow shall daylie fynde it more and more. God graunt good suc- 
cesse to my hartes entent. From the Hagh, the 3. of Februarie, 

Your very frend, 

Robt. Leicester. 21 

In the tyme of the little froste the enemy entred into Freesland 
and gave a little overthrowe to a fewe soldiers, and some of the 

a So in the MS. which professes to be a copy, but the earl's signature was invariably 
" R. Leycester." 


boores of the cuntrey, but they have well payde for it since. A 
full reveng hath beene had, both of some of theire horsemen and 
some of their best footemen. 

To the lord maior of the citie of 

London and thaldermen his brethern. 



3RD FEBRUARY 1585-6. HARL. MS. 285, FO. 192. ORIG. 

The earl has written to the lord treasurer for 1000 pioneers, in the 

levy of which he requests Walsyngham to give his aid — he wants 

100 of them to be miners, respecting whom he has written to sir 

Walter Raleigh — the remainder to be single men and of able 

bodies — they are wanted by May — the treasure is all gone. 

Mr. secretory, I have written to my lord treasourour for his 

healpe to procure that I may have one thousand pioners out of 

Englande, men very necessary for the service here, and not to be 

well had in these partes. Whereof one hundred I would have to 

be myners, and have written to Sir Walter Rawleighe to healpe 

procure them out of his jurisdiction in Cornwall and Devon. For 

the other nyne hundred, I hartely pray you to conferre with my 

lord treasourour, and to put to your healpe that they may be had 

out of dyvers shyres in Englande, here and there, where you shall 

thincke they may be best taken. There was abuse in the levye of 

those that were sent before, many of them being househoulders, 

and maryed men, and of bodye not fit for this service. I pray 

you lett there be care had in these, that they may be single men 

and of apt bodyes. And I woulde be gladde to heare from you 

with speade, whether they be to be had or not, that I may cause 

mony to be readye at London for them. And yf they be to be 

had, yf the taking of them up may be gone in hande with in the 


meane tyme it shalbe well, for I would have them here abowt the 
ende of Aprill, and not before. And so with my right harty com- 
mendacions, I bid you farewell. From the Haghe in Hollande, 
the 3d. of February, 1585. 

Your very loving frende, 

R. Leycester. 

Yf I may have these pioners, I desier to have them in a redynes 
agenst the mydst of May. 

I besech ye lett me hear oftener from you. 

I must lett ye know all our tresure ys gonne, and have leyd 
out iij or iiij m li. beside my expences, only for the causes and 
service here. And how the tresure hath byn payd out lett the 
awdytor tell ye, and yet he ys not able to tell ye all, but before 
I cam, all was gonn, and many debts owing, and the soldyers reddy 
to sterte, yet yt was thought that ther had byn inough here tyll 
the end of Decembre, of the first money ; nether cam ther, as I 
now I find, over with the treasurer above 14,000 li. of the xxm., 
and he had but warant of me for 2,000 or therabout, whereof 
xvij c li. was for our shipping, yet he sayth he broght but 14,000 
with him. 

To my honourable good frende sir Fraunces 

Walsingham knight, principall secre- 

torye to the queenes majestic 



4TH FEBRUARY 1585-6. HARL. MS. 285, FO. 194. ORIG. 

The earl begs earnestly for a supply of money with all speed — 
uncertainty of communication between England and the Low 


Countries — sir John Norris going to Utrecht — The prince of 
Parma circulates delusive reports of an ambassador coming from 
England to treat for peace. 

Good Mr. secretary, even as ye love the furtherance of this 
servyce, send us money with all spede, for, as you shall under- 
stand by Mr. Davy son, all our treasure ys gonn, and ye may 
se, by experyence, how dowbtfull the wyndes ar to pass at your 
wyll. I pray you also that you wyll obteyn lycence that we may 
have men, and the captens I have sent over may be dyspached 
only with hir majestys authorytye for the leavy of them. 

Mr. Norrys a doth this day departe hence to Utrycht, whether 
also I send all my horsmen. Yf we may have money and men 
from Englond only to abyde the first brunt this sommer, I trust 
you shall hear of great servyce to the honour and quyett of hir 

The prince of Parma gyves yt out styll, and hath sent ageyn to 
Antwerp, to provyde for hir majesties embassador, ether to com 
thether or to Brusselles, only to make shew of yt, to brede busses b 
in these mens heddes here. The preparacion at Antwerp for 
shipping ys not as ye have hard, for certen, nether his forces to 
be feared, spetyally yf we may once gett before hand with our 
men this spring. Here ys a man that doth offer to cure your 
decease uppon loss of his lyffe. Fare ye well ; in much hast, 
this 4. of February. 

Yours assured, 

R. Leycester. 
To my honourable good frende 

Mr. secretory Walsingham. 

a Sir John Norris is said to have " left for Utrycht " on the 5th February. Retrosp. 
Rev. i. 280. 2nd series. The enemy was at this time engaged in besieging Grave, a 
place which was almost the only barrier between him and the northern provinces, 
and Norris was sent to its relief. t> i. e . Buzzes, idle fancies. 




6TH FEBRUARY, 1585-6. HARL. MS. 285, FO. 198. ORIG. 

The earl, on the return of M. de Sevilly, explains the reasons why 
the states declined the offer of the duke de Bouillon mentioned in 
letter xxi. — services of the Low Country shipping. 
Mr. secretory, this bearer, monsieur Civile, retourneth well 
inoughe, I thincke, satisfyed with the dealinges here. Yet do not 
the estates thincke good to goe throughe with the matter offred by 
him on the duke his master his behaulfe, a partly because they do 
not take it to be of so great importaunce as the duke thincketh, and 
more specially because mony at this present groweth skant with 
them, being to satisfye me for my allowaunce monethly, and to paye 
their ould debtes, (which I covenanted they shoulde do before I 
would take the gouvernment on me,) and having some other paye- 
mentes to make ; so that, by their former desordre and confusion 
in all thinges, a litle money is nowe at the first more unto them 
then a great deal wilbe hereafter, when they have overpassed these 
paymentes, and thinges shalbe settled in good ordre. I have a 
meaning also to do the duke ere longe some pleasure an other 
waye, which I hope shalbe well to his lyking. And so, with my 
right harty commendacions, I bid you farewell. From the 
Haghe, in Hollande, the vjth of February 1585. 

Your very loving frende, 

R. Leycester. 

I have partly remembred my lord tresorer of a matter wherein 
I have at large wrytten to my lord admyrall, wherein both you 
there and we here may be better servyd, and hir majesty farr less 
charged. I pray you further yt to my lord admyrall, who I know 
wylbe very reddy therto. 

a This was the proposal to ititercept a convoy of provisions intended for the Spaniards 
mentioned at page 53. The bearer of this letter is there termed de Sevilly. 


And for those portes here, I can assure you they have doun 
great servyce, both in taking and burning of sondry of the Dun- 
kerkers, as also in reskewing dyvers shipps taken by the enynrye, 
both Englysh and Flemysh, and ij of the best and greatest were 
cast away uppon the Goodwyns lately, with all ther men and 
artyllery, save 4 or 5 maryners ; iij small barkes on your side wold 
ease all, as ther ys also on this side as many and moe sett out, 
but ther ys more trust x tymes to ours to kepe Dunkirk, than 
these here, for they mete with many frendes whom they lett slypp. 

To my honourable good frende sir Francis Walsingham knight, 
principall secretory to the queenes majestic 




7TH FEBRUARY 1585-6. LANSD. MS. 46, ART. 62. ORIG. 

The earl recommends to lord Burghley the case of certain Low 
Country merchants, whose ship had been seized by English cruisers, 
and explains the artifices by means of which trade ivas carried 
on between the Low Countries and Spain. 

My lord, there are two marchaunts of this countree, the one of 
Middlebourge, called Mr. Jehan Cooman, bourgmaster of that 
towne, the other, Jehan Berrhee, eschevin and senatour of 
Amsterdam, who have a shipp with merchaundise taken coming 
from St. Lucars in Spayne, by certeine shipps of warre of England 
in October last, under pretence that they were the goods of the 
king of Spaynes subjects, because there was found in the shipp a 
bill of lading making mention that the goodes appertayned to a 
marchaunt of Anwerp, which indeade was done to thintent that 
the goodes should not be confiscat in Spayne ; for that, since the 


taking of Anwerp, all Anwerp-men are free from arrestes in Spayne, 
and this manner of lading in other mens names is used here, and 
allowed by an order of the estates, to thintent thereby the goods 
and monie of this countreemen arrested in Spayne and Portugall 
maie be gotten thence, and that those that are here against the 
king maie have some kynd of trade thither. 

Theise two marchaunts are verie honest men, of good religion, 
devoted to her majestie, and have suffred verie much for theis 
countrees service. He in Anwerp, though he dwell in Anwerp, 
and be therefore taken as reconcyled to the king of Spayne, yet is 
he an honest man accompted, and doth no hurt but great good to 
the cause. Theire humble suite to me is, to be meane to your 
lordship that the said goodes, being a 100 pypes of oyle and 19 
balles a of cotton, maie either be delivered to themselves upon 
good caution and assuraunce, or at least sequestred till sentence 
be geven, doubting greatlie least yf their adversaries, who are John 
Bird, Jo. Wattes, and John Stokes, should gett the possession of 
them, they would distract them at meane pryces, and dryve of 
thise men with long processe ; which request seemeth to me verie 
reasonable. I doe earnestlie praye your lordship to cause good 
consideracion to be had of it, the rather the men being so well 
affected. And so, with my right hartie commendacions, I comitt 
your lordship to thallmightie. From the Hage in Holland, the 
7th of February 1585. 

Your lordships loving frende, 

R. Leycester. 
To the right honourable my very good lord, the 
lord Burghley, lord highe treasourour of Englande, 
knight of thordre, one of the lords of her majesties privie 
counsaile, and master of her highnes wardes and liveryes. 

"■ i. e. bales. 




7TH FEBRUARY 1585-6. HARL. MS. 285, FO. 200. ORIG. 

Receipt of a letter from England — loss of sir Thomas CecilVs 
horses — proposal of the duke de Bouillon — the earl regrets that 
the queen will not let him have the Irish soldiers he requested — 
he is afraid that the rumours of the queen's desire for peace will 
prove true — strongly urges the impolicy of any present treaty for 
peace — the enemy have information of the queen' 's speeches 
against the advisers of the military assistance given to the Low 
Countries — their personal enmity against the earl, and his conse- 
quent danger — he will adhere to the course at the risk of his life 
— has heard rumour that the queen dislikes his assumption of the 
title of " excellency " — that title has been given him ever since 
he was created an earl — he has refused a higher title — has sent 
over the auditor with the accompts. 

This vij. of February I receive your letter, with a pece of lead 
in yt a lyke a patern of a booke ; I know not what yt meanes, 
nether have ye wrytten any word of yt. 

The master of the hoye that lost Sir Thomas Cecylles hors, b 
I have putt him in prison, and great presumtyons ar ageinst 
him, which shalbe tryed to the uttermost, for such felloes have 
doon much harme, but no more than your great recourse to 
Calles now of your merchauntes doe, which ys so notable as wyll 
cause all here to runne at lyberty yf ye hold yt on, for all thinges 
doth pass to Calles. I besech ye consider of yt. 

R The lead was probably inclosed to ensure the sinking of the letter, in case the mes- 
senger were taken at sea and threw the pacquet overboard, which was not at all an 
uncommon occurrence. See Cotton. MS. Galba, C. viii. fo. 206. 

b See p. 55. 


For the duke of Bullyns matter I wrote somwhat to ye of 
yt, but ther ys no aparaunce in dede that yt can be trew that so 
much vyttell can come to that place. I beleave ther ys some 
other matter in yt. 

I am sorry hir majestie wyll not suffer the Ireshe soldyers to 
come hether ; a hir majestie shuld not have byn at a peny charge 
for them ; ther servyce in Ireland wyll not doe hir that servyce 
that ther want here wyll hinder hir in a hier degre. 

I fear the brutes the prince of Parma doth gyve out wyll prove 
trew, which ys, that hir majesty lookes rather for a peace than to 
goe any further into any warr, and making no questyon at all, 
whan he doth se the worst we can doe, but to have what peace 
he wyll at hir handes, at all tymes. What hurt yt doth, ye 
wyll, I fear, se to sone, for yf [it] be once setledd in these mens 
heddes, I warant ye they wold provyde for themselves, yf they 
had ther forces in ther handes, well inough ; yt ys the thing hir 
majestie nedeth least desier, and sonest wylbe offred hir, yf she 
hold fast a lytle for the warr ; otherwyse, farewell all these 
countreys, and ye shall never have peace but a shamfull one. 
And yf that shalbe thought mete, yf I bring not an offer, and a 
seking to hir for peace, or half the rest of hir money be spent, 
lett me loose hir favour and my credytt with hir majestie. But 
to make shew of your parte to desier a peace, and procede not in 
manyfest actyon of warr first, and with that ernest shew indede 
which apperteynes to so weighty a cause, look for no peace for 
England, whosoever elles can have yt : and be not deceaved, for I 
know yt, and doe fear the sequell of yt. 

The enymye doth as asuredly know what conferences have byn 
about sir Jo. Smyth's imbassage, and how ernest hir majesty 
ys for peace, how hardly she hath spoken ageinst the councellors 
of this enterprise of the Low Countreys, as any ye that ar at 
home ; and by devyces ys brought hether, to corrupt men of best 

H See p. 26, 


credytt. But finding by my preparatyon to the contrary, and my 
sending for men into England, doth hold them all here back from 
any thought yet that waye, wherein someway I know I endanger 
myself at the enymyes handes, for his practyces to my none 
hurt, for he ys perswaded that I am a great hinderar to peace, 
and much of this here donn leyd uppon me. Beside, he hath 
intelligences partyculer out of Englond of me, whereby yt may 
the rather provoke him to seke my ryddance. But I am resolvyd 
of the protectyon of the Almighty ageinst all devylls and his 
enymyes, and that he wyll defend all that constantly trust in him. 
I have no interest, God doth know, in desier of warr ; but the 
state of our prince and countrey requyring that ys done to be for 
there safty, I think this lyfe well imployd for there servyce, and xx 
tymes shall I be more wylling to be imployed in an honorable 
and good peace for them, which may be, I think, yf hir majesty 
take the way and follow yt. 

Some flyng tale hath byn told me here, that hir majesty shuld 
myslyke with the name of " excellencye." Suerly I know the 
great encreace hit hath geven me, but that I had the same 
at all straungeres handes that ever cam into England, synce 
I was made by hir majesty an erll, and abrode where she hath 
sent me. Yf I had delighted, or wold have received tytles, I 
refused a tytle hyer than excellency, as Mr. Davyson, yf you ask 
him, wyll tell ye ; and that I my none self refused most 
ernestly that, and, yf I might have donn yt, this also, but I have 
had this both wrytten and spoken to me whan I used but the 
place of hir majesties master of hir horse, and both then and now 
asmuch to hir majesties honor as any advauncement to me, as 
one that desyreth no name but my none name, longer than I may 
serve hir majesty to hir honour and good lyking. 

I have sent the audytor over a with the accomptes here, and, yf 
hir majesty wyll looke for my good servyce, there must be hast of 

a Davison and the auditor left the Hague for England, by the way of Brill, on the 
5th February, 1586. Retrosp. Rev. i. 280. 2nd series. 


money h ether, for here ys none left, and we have now above viij c 
horse to pay. 

So, in som hast, I comytt ye to God ; at the Hage, this vij. of 

Your assured frend, 

R. Leycester. 
To Mr. secretary Walsingham. 



8TH FEBRUARY 1585-6. HAUL. MS. 285. FO. 205. ORIG. 

The earl has received notice of the queen's great dislike of his ac- 
ceptance of the government of the Low Countries — the queen gave 
little favour to the earl before his going, but he hoped she would 
not have condemned him until she had heard his reasons, which 
he protests were not his own glory but her advantage — beseeches 
that the reasons to be slated by Mr. Davison may be examined — 
if they are not deemed sufficient he will submit to the queen's 
pleasure— begs that some nobleman may be sent out to supply his 
place — the appointment was unanticipated — and has been a cause 
of great loss to him — will retire to some corner of the world and 
languish out the rest of his days — will await her majesty's plea- 
sure — begs the mediation of their lordships on his behalf. 

My very good lords, I have to my great discomfourt receyved 
from you a her majesties great mislyke of my acceptaunce of this 

a It appears from an indorsement upon this letter that the communication here 
referred to was written on the 25th January 1585-6. 


gouvernment, and that she will by no meanes avowe, but rather 
disavowe wholy, that which is done therein. I was some way es a 
very unfortunat man, I must confesse, that founde scant of her 
majesties wonted favour towardes me before my going to take so 
great and weightye a charge as this in hande, not being ignorant 
of the infinite hazardes that I must put my own poore estate unto, 
bothe lyfe and all. Neverthelesse, the Lord God doth knowe, 
unto whose mercye I do appeale, the very aboundaunce of my 
faithfull harty love, borne even to the preservation of her sacred 
person, and the care of her prosperous raigne over our poore 
endaungered countrye, was only cause thereof. But, my lords, 
thus muche hope had I all way es notwithstanding, in the great 
goodnes of her majestie, that in so weightye a cause as this is, her 
majestie would, before she had condemned me so farre, have 
hearde what reasons have moved me to do this I have done, 
above her commission or commaundement. And I doubt not but 
her majestie and you all shall well fynde, that I have adventured 
more to do her majestie acceptable service thereby, then to do my 
selfe eyther honour or good. And as your lordships have had 
good experience heretofore of the uncertaintyes of these passages ; 
so was I here xliij dayes before I did once heare worde out of 

And, for this matter, to satisfye eyther her majestie or your 
lordships as it ought to do, must stand upon sondry reasons which 
necessitye brought fourthe at this tyme to cause me to accept of 
this gouvernment, which I had delivered to Mr. Davison to declare 
bothe to her and to your lordships, I do moste humbly beseche 
your good lordships to examine all those reasons but indifferently. 
Yf they seame to your wisdomes other then suche as might well 
move a true and a faythfull carefull man to her majestie to do as 
I have done, I do desire for my mistaking offense to beare the 
burden of it, which can be no greater then that which her majestie 
hathe allreadye decreed, to disavowe me with all displeasure and 
disgrace ; a matter of as great reproche and griefe as ever can 


happen to any man. And according to her will, which I perceyve 
is ment by her majestie, I wilbe readye (seeing it is not otherwise 
to be presently used) to obey her pleasure, yf it were presently to 
give it, without any more adoe, over agayne to them. But respect- 
ing what hinderaunce it may be to her majesties service at this 
tyme, and to the whole cause, I trust I shall not offende your 
lordships, nor her majestie, to give this simple advise, that it may 
pleas her to send somme nobleman with all speade whome it shall 
lyke her to supply my place, according to her first meaning, and 
to revoke me, which I will humbly obey, and take it as a matter 
from God, who can and will correct the wayes of synners. pro- 
testing in his presence, and by the beliefe I have in Chryste, that 
I have done nothing in this matter, but, to my iudgement, of suche 
consequence for her majesties service, besides the furderaunce of 
the cause here, as, yf lyfe, lande and goodes had lyne upon it, I 
must have adventured it as for an acceptable service. And yet 
when I sett my foote on lande I no more imagined of any suche 
matter to be offred me, or more then was by her majesty and the 
estates contracted, then I thought to be king of Spayne ; nor till 
I came to this town xij dayes after : and yet was there some were 
affinitye with this by that contracted betwene her and the estates. 
I have no cause to have played the foole thus farre for myselfe ; 
first, to have her majesties displeasure, which no kyngedome in the 
worlde culd make me willingly to deserve ; next, to undoe myselfe 
in my later dayes ; to consume all that should have kept me all 
my lyfe, in one haulfe-yeare. And so muche gayne have I heare 
by it as I have lyved and spent only of my own since I came, 
without ever having pennye or groate from them, neyther shall 
gett so muche by them all here, yf I had served them this xij 
monethes, as I have spent since I sawe her majestie and your lord- 
ships laste. But I must thancke God of all, and am most hartely 
grieved at her majesties heavy displeasure. I neyther desire to 
lyve, nor to see my country, with it. For yf I have not done her 
majesty good service at this tyme, I shall never hope to do her 



any, but will withdrawe me into some out-corner of the worlde, 
where I will languishe out the rest of my fewe, to many, dayes, 
prayng ever for her majesties longe and prosperous lyfe, and with 
this only comforte to lyve an exile, that this disgrace hathe hap- 
pened for no other cause but for my mere regarde of her majes- 
ties estate, being driven to this choyse, eyther to put myselfe into 
her handes for doing that which was moste probably best for her 
service, or elles loose her that advantage which, at that present 
lett slippe, was not possibly to be gotten for her agayne. 

I doubt not but ere this Mr. Davison hathe presented to her 
majestie my own letter, and acquaynted all your lordships with 
suche reasons as have moved me to deale as I have done, who 
was dispatched hence fower dayes before I receyved your lord- 
ships letters, leaving me in opinion yf her majestie had not thus 
conceaved of it as she nowe dothe, that I would have thought my 
service had deserved more thanckes. I shall nowe attend her 
majesties furder pleasure, not daring wryte to herselfe being thus 
offended, but will humbly desire your lordships good constructions 
of my doinges to hir highnes, yf you shall fynde the consideration 
worthie, with your honourable and frendly meanes in my behaulfe, 
being a man absent, but moste faythfull and loyall to my moste 
dread soveraigne mistres, and so wilbe to my lyves ende, and to 
my power humbly thanckefull to your lordships all, for the good 
favour you shall shewe herein towardes me. And so will pray 
unto God to keape you all in his feare with longe lyfe. From the 
Haghe, the 8 th of Februarye, 1585. a 

To the right honourable my very good lords the lord highe 
treasourour of Englande and the lord chamberlayne, and 
my very good frendes Mr. vice-chamberlaine and Mr. 
secretory Walsingham, and to every of them. 

:l The following memorandum is written on the back of this letter in the handwriting 




8TH FEBRUARY 1585-6. HARL. MS. 285, FO. 202. OR1G. 

Letter sent at the same time as the last — the earl is wounded to the 
heart — if some other man had rendered the services he has per- 
formed, they would have been better accepted — the queen would 
not have condemned any other man unheard — refers to the queen's 
opinions before he left England — the authority given him by the 
queen's treaty with the Low Countries necessarily led to his 
appointment — regrets his employment on this service — as her 
majesty's favour is withdrawn, he craves leave to retire to some 
obscure corner of the earth, where he will end his days in prayer 
for her majesty. 

Mr. secretary, being lothe to trouble my lords with to longe a 
letter, maketh me thus bould to use some addition to you, being 
not only grieved but wounded to the harte. For it is more then 
death unto me, that her majestie should be thus ready to inter- 
pret allwayes hardly of my service, specially before it might pleas 
her to understande my reasons for that I do. For my own parte, 
I am perswaded hitherto there could not any better service be 
done unto her majestie in these partes, and yf some other man had 
done it, yt coulde not be but it had bene muche better accepted : at 
the least I thinke she would never have so condemned any [other] 
man before she had heard him. And, undre her highnes pardon and 
favour, I dare referre the judgement of this matter, when it shalbe 
duely examined and hearde, to her majesties own selfe, or to my 
worst enemyes, wheresoever they be, muche rather to any or to 
all her privye counsayle. All her majestie can laye to my charge 

of Lord Burghley : "Nota. This letter is not signed by my lord." The letter, it may 
be added, is sealed with the earl's seal, and is in the handwriting of his secretary. The 
next letter, which was no doubt despatched at the same time, was also unsigned. 


ys going a little furder then she gave me commission for. Yf the 
matter be well considered, the steppe forwarde is not so great, 
yf my authoritye contracted before betwene her majestie and the 
states be well perused, and I thancke God there is no treachourye 
nor falshoode in this I am blamed for. The Lord graunt her 
majestie paciently to consider by this my doing wherein she is any 
waye damnefyed, or furdur engaged to the estates then she was 

Her majestie I do remember well indeade, and so may you, 
howe before all my lords she seamed to mislyke that I should 
take any other charge then as her generall, or to make any othe 
to them here, any manner of waye. I tould her majestie lyke- 
wyse, in the same presence, it was then to no purpose for me to 
goe into these countryes ; for yf it were but to be her generall 
only of v m . men, Mr. Norrise had that charge alreadye, and better 
able to discharge it then I. I did lykewise put her bothe in 
remembrance of her contract with the states, which had allowed 
me farre more authoritye then that, and of the dealing of my lord 
treasourour and of yourselfe also with them abowt a furder 
enterteignment for me, as in respect I should be their officer as 
well as her majesties, in which I referre myselfe to both your re- 
portes, being then present. For they alwayes aunswered me, there 
was no doubt but they would deale with me as well as ever they 
did with the prince of Orange. But her majestie indead then would 
not heare of it, thoughe I made petition to be discharged of the 
journey. Yet, afterwards, in speaking with her, I founde her very 
well content I should receyve any thinge from their handes what- 
soever, so it mought not proceade from herselfe, but of them- 
selves. I did desire you, sir, at that tyme, to move her majestie 
most earnestly for my stay at home, telling you howe much I 
should undoe myself, and do her majestie no service, going after 
that manner. And, yf I be not forgeatfull, it seamed then to you 
lykewise, that her majestie was willing inoughe that I should 
receyve suche charge and enterteignment as, of themselves, the 


estates would lay upon me and give me : but I will not stande 
greatly hereupon. 

But, admitt me to be even acccording as her majestie did con- 
tract with the estates, ys it not there agreed I should be the gen- 
erall of their warres and armyes, as well as of her majesties? 
Was I not there placed as chiefe counsailour of the estate amonge 
them, and two nominated also by her majestie to assist me? 
I suppose in this place it was not ment, neyther for me nor them, 
as counsailours for the warres only, for then I am sure there should 
have bene named more famous captaines to assist me. Besides, 
I am there authorized to deale in monye matters, and myntes, 
with such lyke, which are mere civile causes. Yf, then, it be so 
that this authoritye was given me before, by her majesties and the 
estates contract, and that they would, partly for the honour borne 
to hir majestie, and partly for that they would have the worlde 
knowe they relye wholy upon her, ymake choyse of me, so farre 
interessed allreadye amonge them, and give me a tytle and place 
which some other must have had, as shall playnly appeare to her 
majestie by Mr. Davison, and that hir majesty is neyther furder 
charged therby, nor by any means drawen into any furder action 
or bonde, then she was before, and that of necessitye some one 
must have had the place, I woulde fayne knowe, yf any other had 
had it but one wholye hir majesties, whether she had not bene 
disappointed of every parte of that she looked for: specially 
for a good peace for herselfe and Englande ? And whether the 
sure payement of her waged souldiors by them, or the strengthe 
of all the garrisons placed by them, or the navye and mariners of 
these countreyes, had bene, without this authoritye to one of hers, 
at hir majesties commaundement or no ? Yf then, by taking this 
place upon me, hir majestie being thereby no waye to be charged, 
eyther by the king of Spayne or otherwise, since it was the estates 
own election, and a matter merly done by themselves, to offre 
these great advauntages to one of her own, methinckes it should 
not receyve so harde a construction, seing by the placing of me, the 


only benefite and greatest honour dothe growe to hir majesties 
selfe every waye. 

For my own particular, I knowe it had bene farre better an- 
other had had it then I. But for hir majestie, yf hir gracious 
good opinion were not prejudiced allready against me in this mat- 
ter, bothe hirself and all others must thincke it is muche better 
for hir service in the handes of one of hir own, then of any other 
whosoever. But yet I am nowe sory that ever I was employed 
in this service. For yf any man of a great nomber elles had 
brought suche a matter to passe for hir, I am sure he should have 
had, instead of displeasure, many thanckes. But suche is nowe 
my wretched case, as for my faythfull, true and loving harte to hir 
majestie and my countrye, I have utterly undone myselfe ; for 
favour, I have disgrace ; and for rewarde, utter spoyle and ruyne. 
I could have taken warning of this before, yf I Avould have 
doubted so muche of hir majesties goodnes, or have cared more 
for my quyet and ease at home then for hir service abroade. 
And I am not so riche but I might bothe well have spared my 
charge, and saved the labour of so daungerous a journey. 

But, to conclude, yf to make hir majestie to have the whole 
commaundement of all these provinces, of their forces by sea and 
lande, of their townes and of their treasure, with knowledge of all 
the secrettes of their estate, yea and to have brought her what 
peace she woulde, besides divers wayes and meanes lykely to have 
eased a great parte of her charges, only by taking upon me the 
name of gouvernour, is so eveill taken as it hathe deserved dishon- 
our, discredite, disfavour, with all grefes that may be laide upon a 
man, I must receyve it as deserved of God and not of my quene, 
whome I have reverenced with all humilitye, and whome I have 
loved with all fydelitye. Hit shall ende thus, that as I fynde 
myselfe moste deapely wounded, and seeing hir majesties good 
favour and good opinion drawen from me, that she conceyveth I 
have or do belyke seake rather my own glorye then her true ser- 
vice, not forgetting that some suche wordes were used of me when 


I made suyte to her majesty to have a fewe lords over with me, I 
do humbly beseche her majestie by you, for T know my wryting 
to hirselfe having these conceipts of me shall but trouble her, to 
graunt me leave, as soone as she shall appoint one here to supplye 
my place for her better service, which I desire with all speade, 
and the sooner the better, to go lyve in somme obscure corner of 
the earthe, where I will ende these grievous dayes in true prayer 
to God for her. And, as the Lord doth knowe, when she thought 
me any way touched with vayne glorye, I had no cause of vayne 
glorye to boste of. Yf I may glorye in any thinge, it must be, I 
see, in the crosses of this worlde, whiche allmightye God 
strengthen me unto. And so, thincking every daye a yeare till I 
may receave ordre and dispatche of this place, I bid you hartily 
farewell. From the Haghe in Hollande, the 8 th of February 1585. 

Your loving frende. a 
To my honourable good frende sir Fraunces Walsingham, 
knight, principall secretorye to the queenes majestie. 




Lord Burghley acknowledges the receipt of the earl's letter of the 
29th January — long continuance of adverse winds — the queen so 
discontented with the earth acceptance of the government that she 
will not hear any speech in defence thereof — Lord Burghley will 
continue to move her to alter her opinions. This letter sent by 
Hor. Pallavicino. 
My very good lord, Your last letters come to my hands war by 

your lordship written at the Hage the 29. of Jan vary, by which I 

a See note page 99. 

b A mistake of the transcriber has occasioned this letter to be a little misplaced. It 
should have preceded the letters numbered xxxv. and xxxvi. The mistake is of 


was glad to perceave [you] had receaved my letters sent by Mr. 
Atye a and my son; h which war made old letters by the contrary 
wynd, which of late hath bene so constant to hang long in on 
cost, as ether your lordship there have cause, or we heare, to wish 
it ; for it holdeth strongly ether west, which pleseth vs to send, 
but not to heare ; or els in the est, which discontenteth ether of 
~vs in contrary manner. 

By your lordships letters I fynd manny thyngs of my letters 
answered, and so I shall be hable to satisfye hir majesty ; but, to 
be playn with your lordship, in a few words, I, and other your lord- 
ships poore frends, find hir majesty so discontent with your accept- 
ation of the government ther, befor you had advertised and had 
hir majestys opinion, that, althovgh I, for my own part, judg 
this action both honorable and profitable, yet hir majesty will not 
endure to heare any speche in defence therof. Nevertheless, I 
hope a small tyme shall alter this hard concept in hir majesty, 
whereunto I have allredy and shall not desist to oppose myself, 
with good and sound reasons to move hir majesty to alter her hard 

But, to end this wrytyng, I could not but to accompany 
this gentilman, Horatio Palavicino, c with my letter, whom, for his 

little consequence, as the present letter could not have reached the earl of Leycester 
until long after those two letters were written. 

a Letter xvii. b Letter xviii. 

c Horatio, afterwards sir Horatio Pallavicino, was a well-known commercial and 
political agent of the government of Elizabeth. He came into England from Italy 
about the middle of the sixteenth century, and becoming a convert to Protestantism 
settled here, having lands and a residence at Babraham, in Cambridgeshire, where he 
died on the 6th of July, 1600. Many stories are told to his discredit, especially one 
respecting his misapplication of certain papal treasure, which, being in his hands upon 
his conversion to Protestantism, he is said to have applied to his own uses, and by 
the loan of a portion of it to Elizabeth, to have laid the foundation of his connection 
with the government and of an immense fortune. Whether it be true or not that " he 
robbed the pope to lend the queen," he certainly did good service at the time of the 
armada, to oppose which he fitted out and commanded a ship of war. His portrait was 
amongst those of the principal persons engaged in the defeat of the armada given in the 
tapestry destroyed at the burning of the late house of lords. 


wisdom and all other good quallites, I nede not to commend to 
your lordship, being so well knowen and approved to your lord- 
ship as he is. From my house in Westminster, 7- February 1585. 
Your lordships assuredly at command, 





To inform the earl how highly the queen is offended at his acceptance 
of the government of the Low Countries, as being contrary to her 
commands and his instructions, and the more so because he had 
accepted such office without acquainting her beforehand, and had 
delayed sending Davison to her with his reasons for doing so — 
that his acceptance of that office impeached her honour as being 
contrary to her published protestation, and that the world would 
not believe that it was done without her concurrence — that he is 
publickly to resign his authority — sir Thomas Heneage is to 
inform the states that the queen thinks herself wronged by their 
inducing her officer to contemn her commands, and by offering 
to her minister an authority which she had refused. 

Instructions for sir Thomas Heneadge. 

Youe shall lett the earle understande, how highly, uppon just 
cause, we are offended with his last late acceptacion of the govern- 
ment of those provinces, beinge done contrary to our comaun de- 
ment delivered unto him, both by ourselfe in speche, and by par- 
ticular letters from certaine of our counsaile written unto him in 
that behalfe by our expresse direction, which wee do repute to be 



a verie great and strange contempt, least looked for at his handes, 
beinge he is a creature of our owne ; wherwith we have so much 
the greater cause to be offended, for that he hath not had that 
regarde that became him, to have, at the least, by his letters 
acquainted us with the causes that moved him so contemptuously 
to breake our said comandement, nor vised that diligence that ap- 
perteyned in sendinge our servante Davison unto us with instruc- 
tions how to answer the said contempt, which hath greatly aggre- 
vated the faulte, though for our owne parte we cannot imagine 
that any thinge can be alledged by him to excuse so manifest a 
contempt, at the least to make yt appeare that there was any 
such necessitye in the matter, as Ave doubt not that wilbe greatly 
prevented, but that thacceptacion might have bene stayed untill 
our pleasure had bene first knowen. 

You shall let him understande, that we howld our honour greatly 
touched by the said acceptacion of that government, and least as 
we may not with our honor endure, [f]or that it caryeth a manifest 
apparance of repugnancy to our protestacion set out in print, by 
the which we declare, that our only intent in sending him over 
into those partes was to direct and govourne thenglish troopes that 
we had granted to the states for their ayde, and to assiste them 
with his advice and counsell for the better orderinge both of their 
civill and marshall causes, as is contayned in the late contracte 
past betwene us and their commissioners that weare here, a so as 
the world may justly thereby conceave. 

You shall say unto him, that men of judgment will conceave 
another course taken by him ; that the declaration published by 
us was but to abuse the world, for that they cannot in reason per- 
swade themselves that a creature of our owne, havinge for that 
purpose given him expresse comandement, uppon paine of his 
allegance, to procede, all delayes and excuses layd apart, to the 
present demission thereof, consideringe the great obeydience that, 
even from the beginninge of our raigne, hath bene generally yelded 
us by our subjectes, would ever have presumed to have accepted 

■ him, in MS. 


of the said governement contrary to our comaundement, without 
some secret assent of ours, or at least they will thinke that there 
is not now that reverent regarde caryed to our comandement as 
[hereto] for hath been, and as in due coorse of obedience ought 
to be. 

For the removinge of which hard conceite that the world may 
justlye take, uppon consideration either of the said abuse or con- 
tempt, you shall let him understande, that our expresse pleasure and 
comandement is, uppon paine of his allegancie, that, all delayes and 
excuses sett apart, without attendinge any further assembly of the 
states then suche as shalbe provided present with him at the time 
of youre a accesse there, or in some other convenient place, he shall 
make an open and publycke resignation in the place where he 
accepted the same b absolute governement, as a thinge done 
without our privitie and consent, contrary to the contract passed 
betweene us and ther c comissioners, lettyng them notwithstandinge 
understande, that this direction of ours given unto the said earle 
for the demission of his absolute aucthority proceadethe not of 
any decay or alteration of our owne good-will and favor towardes 
them, whos welldoinge we doe no les tender then our owne 
naturall subjectes, as yt hath manifestly appeared unto them by 
our former actions, havinge for their sakes apposed ourselves to 
one of the mightiest prynces of Europe, assuringe them therefor, 
that we doe meane the continuance of the same towardes them, 
and our intent is, that the said earle should howld that forme of 
goverment both lykely to towch us greatly in honnor, We see, 
you maie tell him, no other way but the said election must be 
revoked with some suche solemnytie as the same svas published, 
and the states and people let understande, that our meaninge 
is not he shall hould or exercise any other sorte of gover- 
ment, duringe the time of his aboade there, than as is expressed 
in the said contracte, which we doe purpose inviolably to observe 
according to our promise, not doubtinge but that thassistance 
they shall receave that way wilbe as effectuall for their safetye 

a theare, in MS. b same the, in MS. c her, in JUS. 


and benefit, or rather more, for some causes best knowen to our 
self, as thoother coorse. 

After the delivery of which messuage to thearle, we thincke 
meete, to thend the states, or suche as shall assiste the erle at the 
time of your arrival, may knowe the cause that moveth us to dis- 
lyke of the said acceptance, and to have the same revoked, that 
you shall advertise yourselfe to them and let them understand, 
that we fynde yt a strange that a nobleman, a minister [of] ours, sent 
thether to execute and holde suche a course of governement as 
was contayned in the said contract, should, without our assent, 
be pressed to assent to accept of more large and absolute autho- 
ritye over the said countries then was accorded on by vertue of 
the said contract, espetially seeing that ourselfe beinge oftentimes 
pressed by their comissioners to accept of thabsolute government 
did alwayes refuse the same, and therefore by this manner of pro- 
ceedinge we hould ourselfe two sondrye wayes wronged by them, 
greatly to our dishonnor : thone by provokinge a minister of 
ours to comit so notorious a contempt against us, thother in that 
they shew themselves to have a very slender and a weake con- 
ceipte of our judgment, by pressinge a minister of ours to accept 
of that which wee refused, as thoughe our longe experience in 
governement had not yet taught us to discover what were fitt for 
us to doe in matters of our state. And though we cannot thinke 
but that this offer of thers b proceded of the great good-will they 
beare us, and so consequently acknowledge the same with all 
thankfullnes, yet maie it minister cause of suspicion to suche as 
are apt to judge the worst of thinges best-meant, that the said 
offer, under color of good-will to us, was made by some, thoughe 
not by the generalitye, of a malitious purpose, supposinge the 
same would have bene refused, and that theire would thereby have 
followed a change and alienacion of the heartes of the common 
sorte, when they shall see a playne refusall of an offer that con- 
tayned so evident and manifest a staied argument of their good- 
will and devocion towardes us. 

* yet, in MS. b thes, in MS. 


You shall further let them understand, that, forasmuch as we 
conceave that the said acceptacion hath greatly wounded our 
honor, for the causes above specified, we have resolved to have 
the said earles aucthoritye revoked, requiringe them therefore in 
our name to see the same executed out of hand. 

And, to thend they may not enter into any hard or jelious con- 
ceite uppon knowledge of this our purpose, you shall, on our 
behalfe, assure them, that the promised assistaunce, accordinge to 
the contentes of the a contract, shalbe faithfully performed, and that 
the said earle, duringe his abode there, shall second and assiste 
them with his best advice and councell accordingly, as is above 
expressed, and is also at large conteyned in our owne letters 
diiected to them. 

Youe shall also lett the said earle understand, that whereas by 
his instructions he hath spetyall directyon, uppon his first aryvall, 
to enforme himselfe of the particular state of their forces there, 
both by sea and land, as also of their meanes and liability to main- 
tayne the same, and of the likelyhood of their contynuance of the 
said meanes, we fynde it very strange, that, in all this tyme of his 
aboade there, we heare yet nothing thereof, consideringe how often 
he hath otherwise written hether since his aryvall there, and that 
he cannot be ignorant how muche it importeth us to have know- 
ledge of thes thinges, which maketh the fault of his slacknes 
therein so much the greater. 

And whereas, in the late governement in those contryes, thear 
hath bene great abuse comytted, as well in the collection of the con- 
tributions as in the distribution of the same, which hathe breade no 
less b offence and mislyke in the people then hinderance in the pub- 
lycke service, you shall, in our name, chardge c bothe the earle 
and suche as by the states are appoynted to assyste him, to have 
an espetyall care the said abuses [be] redressed, and the offenders 
punished ; for the better performance whereof yt shal be necessary, 
that the earle doe presse the states to graunte him extraordenary 
power and aucthority, in their name, aswell to displace such 
* this, in MS. b litle, in MS. c shewinge, in MS. 


officers as shalbe founde to have comitted the said abuses, as to 
take chardge of the destribucion of the said contribucions, which we 
knowe may be well ynoughe performed without carreynge the title 
of an absolute governor. 




Reproving him for his acceptance of the government of the Low 
Countries, and directing him to obey her commands intimated 
through sir Thomas Heneage. 

To my lord of Leycester from the queen by sir Thomas 

Howe contemptuously we conceave ourselfe to have been used 
by you, you shall by this bearer understand, whome we have 
expressely sent unto you to charge you withall. We could never 
have imagined, had we not seen it fall owt in experience, that a 
man raysed uppe by ourselfe, and extraordinarily favored by us 
above anie other subiect of this land, would have in so contempti- 
ble a sort broken our commandment, in a cawse that so greatly 
toucheth us in honor ; whereof, although you have shewed your- 
selfe to make but little accompt, in most undutifull a sort, you 
may not therefor thinck that wee have so litle care of the repara- 
tion thereof as we mynd to passe so great a wronge in sylence 
unredressed : and, therfor, our expresse pleasure and command- 
ment is, that, all delay es and excuses layd apart, you doe presently, 
uppon the dutie of your allegiance, obey and fullfill whatsoever 
the bearer hereof shall direct you to doe in our name : wherof 
fayle you not, as you will answer the contrarye at your uttermost 





The queen's discontent at the non-receipt of any letter from the 
earl and at the delay in the arrival of Davison — rumour that the 
countess of Leycester was about to go over to the Low Countries, 
and that a court was to be kept there — the queen's extreme anger 
on hearing this rumour, and her remark thereon — endeavours of 
the earl's friends to delay the departure of sir Thomas Heneage 
and moderate the tone of his instructions — determination to alter 
a letter recently written by the earl to sir Christopher Hatton and 
shew it to the queen in order to pacify her — the earl is advised to 
write to the queen and to send her a present of some rare thing 
— how rumours are brought to the queen by the women about her 
— lord North discontented. 

I have long forborne to write vnto your excellencie of the great 
dyslykes hir majestie hath conceyved of your honours doyngs 
there, towching thacceptacyon of the absolute government of 
those contries, hoping, long before this time, your excellencie 
would have sent awaie Mr. Davison to have satysfied hir majestie 
towching your hole proceedinges in those causes, as yt pleased 
your excellencie to wryte unto me, in your last letter, dated the 
10th of Januarie, you wold doo. But, forasmuche as neyther Mr. 
Davison ys as yet come, neyther hathe your honour hytherto 
written to hir majesties selfe of those cawses, which hir majestie 
takyth in so yl] part as all your honourable frends heare haue muche 
adoo to satysfie hir majestie in, and to staie her frome suche pro- 
ceedinges to the overthrow of your lordships doynges ther, as wold 
not onlye brede your great dyscontentment, but also be the vtter 
ruyen of that service and countries, and withall to aggravate hir 
highnes dislikes of that actyon. 


It was told hir majestie that my laclie was prepared presentlye 
to come over to your excellencie, with suche a trayne of ladies 
and gentylwomen, and such ryche coches, lytters, and syde- saddles, 
as hir majestie had none suche, and that ther should be suche a 
courte of ladies, as shuld farre passe hir majesties court heare. 

This informacyon (thowghe most falce) dydnotalytle sturrehir 
majestie to extreme collour and dyslike of all your doynges there, 
sayng, with great othes, she would haue no more courtes under hir 
obeysance but hir owen, and wold revoke you frome thence with 
all spede. This Mr. vice-chamberleyn fyrst told me in great 
secrette, and afterwards Mr. secretary, and last of all my lord 
treasurer. Vnto them all I answeryd, that the informacyon was 
most falce in euery degree, and that ther was no such preparacyon 
mayd by my ladie, nor anye intencyon in hir to goe over, neyther 
had your lordship anye intencyon to send for hir, so farre as I 
knewe. This beyng told hir majestie by my lord treasurer, and 
Mr. vice-chamberleyn also, thowghe not bothe at one tyme, dyd 
greatlye pacifie hir stomach ; and trewlie I doo knowe, by verey 
good meanes, that my lord treasurer delte most honourablie and 
frendlye for your lordship to hir majestie, both to satisfy hir 
highnes in this report, as in thother great accyon, and so hathe 
Mr. vice-chamberlain donne also. But the long stay of Mr. 
Davysons commyng, and your honours forbearing to write to hir 
majestie all this while, notwithstanding so many messingers as 
commythe frome thence, dothe greatlye offend hir, more and more, 
and in verey truthe makythe all your frends heare at ther wyttes 
ende, what to answere or saye in yourbehalfe. 

Hir majestye hath, these ten or twelve daies, devysed and bene 
in hand with manye courses how and in what manner to over- 
throwe that which your honour, to your infynyte fame and hir 
majesties greatest savetie and service, that euer any subiecte dyd 
to there soveraygne, hathe most gravelye and polytykelye be- 
gunne, and hathe set downe many plattes for that purpose, which 
I hope your excellency ys not ygnorant in. And trulie the lord 


treasurer hatlie alwaies besowght hir majestie to kepe one eare 
for your answere to hir dyslykes, and to suspend hir judgment 
tyll Mr. Davyson come, or that your honour dyd write unto hir 
majestie. The lord treasurer having bene frome the courte thes 
eight daies, hir majestie hath, four daies agone, purposed to send 
sir Thomas Hennege vnto you, with what commissyon I knowe 
not; but Mr. vice-chamberlen and Mr. secretorie verey honour- 
ablie bothe delaie his dyspatche by all the meanes they can, and 
hopyth to put it ofe tyll Sondaie nexte, at which time the lord 
treasurer wylbe at the courte, and then, by his helpe, they hope 
to qualifie some part of hir majesties intencyons ; looking before 
that tyme that Mr. Davyson will aryve and satysfie all furies. 

Mr. vice-chamberlen hath of late told me of the letter your 
honour wrote vnto him, which he acquaynted Mr. secretorie with- 
all, and tooke his oppynyone whether to shewe yt to hir majestie 
or no, but fynding hir majestie in such hard tearmes for your 
lordships not wryting to hirselfe, they thowght yt better then to 
conceale it; but yesterdaie, fynding hir majestie styll dyscontentyd 
and hastnyng them to send awaie sir Thomas Hennege to your lord- 
ship, they conferred of the letter agayne, and blotting out some 
thinges which they thowght wold be offencyve, and mending some 
other partes as they thowght best, Mr. vice-chamberlen resolved 
yesterdaie in the afternone (I beyng with him) to shewe yt to hir 
majestie, hoping yt wilbe some satysfaccyon to hir majestie in 
some poyntes vntyll further matter doo comme. All this they doo 
to put ofe sir Thomas Henneges dyspatche, and yet, yf he doo 
come, I hope he shall bryng no evyll newes, for I am sure hir ma- 
jestie could not have sent anye gentylman of this courte that 
lovythe you more dearlye, and would be more lothe to come with 
anye vn pleasant message unto you. Mr. vice-chamberlen thinkythe 
that your honours owen letters to hir majestie will do more good, 
and better satysfie hir majestie in all thinges, than all that they 
can doo or saie ; and wysheth withall, that you wold bestowe some 
leyc. corr. Q 


two or three hundred crownes in some rare thing for a token to hir 

There be divers of that syde which wrytythe to ther frends here 
at the courte of suche thinges as fallethe out ther, and so com- 
mythe to hir majesties knowlege by the women, which breadythe 
some offence, and were better they wrote more wyselye, or not at 
all. The lord North seamy th to be a malecontent, and hath so 
wryten to hir majestie, and also to my lord of Warwick, and, as yt 
ys sayd heare, commythe awaie very shortlye. Thus your excel- 
lencie seythe how your honourable frends of the cowncell doth 
mayke me acquaynted with some of thos secrettes that concernythe 
your honour, which I thowght yt my diwtie to aduertyse you, 
hoping your excellencie wyll take it in good parte, and so prayng 
thalmightye to blesse all your doynges, and send you most prose- 
perous success in all your attemptes. Leycester howse, this xjth 
of Februarye, 1585. 

Your honours humble servant, 

Tho. Duddeley. 



14TH FEBRUARY 1585-6. HARL. MS. 285, FO. 207. ORIG. 

Letter sent by sir Robert Jarmine, recommending him to the favour 
of secretary Walsyngham — reference to a former letter on 
behalf of Mons. de Meux, whose son had been taken by the 

Mr. secretory, this gentleman, sir Robert Jarmine, a hathe in my 
knowledge causes of great weight which force him at this tyme to 
come over. He myndeth to retourne hither within a moneth or 
therabowtes, and for that tyme he may be best spared hence. I 

a Sir Robert Jermyn, of Rushbrook, in the county of Suffolk, father of sir Thomas 
Jermyn, comptroller of the household to Charles I., and grandfather of the well- 
known Henry lord Jermyn, Earl of St. Alban's, and K.G. 


have founde him to be very wise and stowt, and most willing and 
ready to this service, and he hathe come hither as well appointed 
as any that hathe commen over. I very hartely pray you to ac- 
compt of him as of one specially recommended to you from me, 
and yf he shall neade your favour in his causes, that you will the 
rather affourd it him for my sake : I wilbe behoulden to you for 
it. And so with my right harty commendacions I committ you to 
the Allmightye. From the Haghe in Hollande, the xiiijth of 
February, 1585. 

Your very loving frende, 

R. Leycester. 

I nede not commend this gentleman to ye, but assuredly he ys 
gretly to be estemed. I besech further him yf he shall nede your 

I did wryte very ernestly to ye, a and I think to my lord tre- 
surer also, touching a request one munsieur de Meux made unto 
me at Dort; he ys the hye-bayly b ther, a very honest, religious, 
constant, stout gentleman, one that hath gonn thorow all these 
troubles with great constancy. His only sonn ys taken by the 
enymye ; they wyll not release him, nor sett him at any ransome, 
for the fathers sake. He desyred Saburo, by whose meanes he 
hoped to redeme him. The gentleman ys worthy of a greater 
favour, and able to serve hir majesty many ways in this countrey ; 
he thinkes some lack in me that he receaves no answere or com- 
fort all thys while. I pray ye, sir, favour him further, and ye shall 
do hir majesty a good service in yt, and yet I dout not to get 
some other in Dunkirk also with him. c 

To my honourable good frende sir Francis 
Walsingham knight, principall secretorye 
to the queenes majestie. 

a Letter xv. p. 30. b i. e. the high-bailiff. 

1 The postscript is in the earl's own handwriting ; the letter in his secretary's. 




15TH FEBRUARY, 1585-6. HARL. MS. 285, FO. 209. ORIG. 

Letter sent by a messenger who was the bearer of letters from lord 
Willoughby— the earl advises that the contents of those should be 
kept from the queen until she had fully determined upon the course 
to be adopted as to the Low Countries after hearing Mr. Davi- 
son — ivant of a man of judgment in martial affairs. 

Mr. secretorye, I opened the packett which this bearer com- 
ming from my lord Willoughbye will deliver you, because there 
was a letter in it for me. By that letter I fynde but doubtfull aun- 
sweres from the king of Denmarcke, a and therefore do thincke it 
not amisse yf you staye the imparting to her majestie of the con- 
tents of these letters, untill her pleasure shalbe fully knowen 
touching the matters of these countryes, nowe after the arrivall of 
Mr. Davison. Yf she go throughly on with these causes, she shall 
not need to make doubt of having frendes inowe. So, with my 
harty commendacions, I bid you fare well. From the Haghe the 
xv th of February, 1585. 

Your very loving frende, 

R. Leycester. 

If sir William Pellham be not hastened hither, or some suche 
man of judgement in martiall affayres, we shall hardly do that 
good I wishe for here. 

To my honourable good frende sir Francis Walsingham knight, 
principall secretorye to the queenes majestie. 

a Lord Willoughby had been sent to solicit the king of Denmark to give his assist- 
ance to the United Provinces in their war against Spain. 





Davison reports the circumstances of his voyage, arrival in London, 
and discovery of the extreme anger of the queen against the earl 
for his assumption of the government, and against himself and sir 
Philip Sydney as his advisers — his first interview with the queen 
— her objections, and Davison's reply — his second interview, when 
she received the earl's letter to her, which at the first intervieiv 
she refused, and now merely broke the seal and put it in her pocket 
— Davison's further explanations — sir Thomas Heneage stayed — 
Davison's interview with the lord treasurer, who obtained from 
the queen some modifications of Heneage 's instructions — Davison's 
third interview — sir Thomas Heneage on his way to the earl — 
the earl advised to write more frequently to the queen, and not to 
seek permission to return — the earl's supply of money stopped by 
the queen's anger — sir William Pelham still anxious to join the 

My singuler good lord, after my departure from your lordship 
I was detayned at the Briell some 5 or 6 dayes by the wind and 
weather. The Fryday following I put to the seas, and, by God's 
goodnes, had so happy a passag as the next morning, by x or xi 
of the clock, we ankered at the Recolvers within Margate, and the 
same night, about mydnight, came to Gravesende, and from thence 
ymediatly, with the tyde, hither, wheare I arrived the next morn- 
ing early. Within an hower after I sent to Mr. secretary, to sig- 
nify so much unto hym, and to know his pleasure wheare I might 
wayte on hym befor my access to the queen, that I might the 
better understand in what termes they stood in court, and ac- 
comodat my course therafter. He returned me answer, that your 
lordships long detayning me theare had wounded the whole cause, 
that he thought her majesty would not speak with me, and yet 


wished me to come fourthwith to the court, least her majesty, 
knowing of myne arryvall before I presented myself, might thearat 
take occasion to encrease the offence. 

The same afternoone I repayred unto him, finding him utterly 
discomforted with her majestys hard opinion and course against 
the cause. He let me understand how haynously she took your 
acceptacion of the gouvernment, how she had resolved to dispatch 
sir Thomas Henneage to commaund you to resigne it upp, and 
to protest her disallowaunce therof to the states. That she had 
threatened sir Phillip Sydney and myself as principall actours and 
perswaders therof, for which it seemes we owe our thankes to 
some with your lordship. I was amased at his discourse, as a thing 
farr from that I looked for, and let him see, as clerely as I could, 
what reasons and necessity had drawen, both the states to press 
your lordships acceptaunce of the governement, and yourself at 
length to yeld unto yt, assuring him that, if her majesty took the 
course she pretended, not only yourself should be therby most 
unhappely and unworthely disgraced, but the cause withall utterly 
overthrowen, with the perpetuall stayne of her honour and detri- 
ment of her estate. Within a while after he went upp to her ma- 
jesty, and myself, in the meane tyme, to Mr. vice-chamberlain, 
whither one of the groomes of her privy chamber came for me. 

I found her majesty above, retyred into her withdrawing cham- 
ber, which I tooke for some advantage. She began in most bitter 
and hard termes, first against your lordship for taking that charge 
upon you, not only without warraunt but (that which she urged 
greatly) against her express commaundment, delivered unto you 
sondry tymes, as she said, both by her owne mouth and confirmed 
by her counsell, as a thing done in contempt of her, as if either her 
consent had bene nothing woorth, or the thing no way concerned 
her, agreaving your fault herin by all the circumstaunces she might. 
And, for my particuler, found herself no les offended, in that I had 
not openly opposed myself against it, wherin I had, as she pretended, 
greatly deceaved her opinion and trust she had reposed in me. 
To all which before I tooke uppon me to make any aunswer, I 


humbly beseecht her majesty, first, to retayn that gracious opinion 
of my poore duty as to thinke, that no particular respect whatsoever 
could cary me to deale otherwise with her then became an honest 
and dutifull servaunt, resolved faithfully and truly to report unto 
her the true causes and circumstaunces of your lordships procead- 
inges in this behalf; and next, that it wold please her to lend me a 
patient and favourable eare, which obteyned, I doubted not but 
that her highnes would conceave more equally both of your person 
and proceading then she presently appeared to do. And here fell 
to discourse unto her the estate of the country before your lord- 
ships coming, the generall discomfort and discouragement conceaved 
uppon the length and newes of your stay, the doubtfull termes 
wherein you found thinges at your arryvall, not only some townes 
of singuler importaunce but some whole provinces inclyning to a 
peace with thenemy, as despayring of any sound or good fruict to 
grow of her majesties cold begynnyng ; the generall hatred and 
contempt of their govern ement, taxed with corruption, partiality, 
and confusion ; the continuall proffit and advantage thenemy made 
thereof, with the infinit hurt and perrille of their estate by no 
meanes able to subsist or stand long, if it were not the more 
tymely and discreately refourmed. That to help this and save 
themselves, they found no way either so safe or so proffitable as a 
to set some person of wisdome and authority at the helme of ther 
estate. That amongst themselves there was none qualified for so 
great a charge. The lord Maurice being a child, poore, and of 
litle respect amongst them, the elector, the countes of Hohenloe 
and Nuenar, b strangers, and incapable of the burden. That theis 
consideracions had moved the estates by their deputies to insist so 
earnestly and peremptorily uppon that point with her majestie, 
beseeching her to vouchsafe some principall person of hers to take 
the charg, as the thing without which all the rest of her goodnes, 
benevolence, and favor was to litle purpose. That themselves 

a as as, in MS. 

b Adolphus count of Nienar, in the archbishopric of Cologne, better known by his 
other title of the count of Meurs. 


(howsoever the woordes of the contract appeared not in full and 
plaine termes to express so much) did and had alwaies taken it as 
a matter graunted, and theruppon not only intended the same to 
your lordship long before your comming, but plainely disposed all 
their doinges to that end, leaving their estate in manner without 
all forme of governement (as your lordship found yt) tyll your ar- 
ryvall, and, therefore, did the more importunatly press your lord- 
ship to accept therof. Wherin, though you had under one pretext 
or other longe forborne and delayed to satisfie them, neither fiattly 
refusing yt for the dangers sake, nor willing to accept therof till 
her majesties pleasure had bene knowen, and yourself in the 
meane tyme thoroghly informed of their estate, fynding yourself 
at the length weryed with ther importunityes, moved with their 
reasons, and compelled with necessity, unles you would have lyved 
theare as an eye-witnes of the dismembring and division of the 
whole country, not otherwise to be contynued and kept together 
then by a reposed hope in her majesties found favour, which had 
not only bene called in question but utterly dispayred of by your 
refusall, you thought it better to take the course ye did, carieng 
with itself encrease both of honour, proffit, and suerty to her ma- 
jesty, and good to the cause, then, by refusing therof, to have 
utterly hazarded the one and overthrowen the other ; the neces- 
sary consequence of which I proved unto her by a nomber of 
plaine and particuler circumstaunces. 

Against which, albeyt she could in truth reply litle., yet could I 
not leave her much satisfied, at this first meeting, with any thing I 
could alleag in your behaulf, but, persisting still in her offence, brak 
many tymes fourth into her former complaintes ; one while accusing 
you of contempt, another while of respecting more your particuler 
greatnes then either her honour or service, and oftentymes digress- 
ing into old greeves which were to long and tedious to wryte. And, 
bycause she had often and vehemently charged myself to have for- 
gotten my duty, in that I had not disswaded or opposed myself 
against your fact, being theare as her ambassador, and knowing, as 


she pretended, her pleasure and meaning, I let her see that I never 
deemed so meanely either of her owne favour towardes your lord- 
ship in the sending of you, or of your owne iudgementin coming over 
so meanely authorised and backe[d], as to take the commandement 
of the reliques of Mr. Norris his worne and decayed troupes, as a 
charg very unfitting to a person of your quality, and utterly dis- 
agreing to the necessity of the tyme and state wheare you were ; 
letting her see the dishonour and perrille must of necessity have 
growen, if either the action had bene longer suspended, or any 
other course taken to establishe their governement then by your 
lordship, both commaunder, soldier, and subject refusing all other 
meanes, and protesting rather to ronne headlong to the Spaniard 
then to fall againe into ther former disorders and confusions : and 
herewithall tooke occasion to remember unto her, that being at 
the most part of the conferences the last yere betwene my lords 
her majesties commissioners and ther deputes, I had heard some 
one of my lords, if not her majesties self, answer the deputees to 
that point, that, albeyt her highnes, for her owne part, intended 
not to take any further authority then was agreed uppon, yet 
would she not restrayne them to give what authority and com- 
maundement they should find expedient and necessary for ther 
estate, to him that should by her majesty be sent over to take the 
charg of her owne, a thing which (I told her) had bene confirmed 
unto me by some of ther commissioners since ther returne home : 
adding withall, for my further iustificacion, that I never receyved 
lyne, either from herself or any counsellour she had, tending to any 
such charge or commaundement, without which, I might have bene 
accused of madnes to have disswaded an action in myne owne 
poor opinion so necessary and expedient for her honour, suerty, 
and greatenes. Protesting unto her majesty, that, if I were yet 
theare, and myne opinion demaunded, I could not tell what other 
advise to give your lordship then that you had taken, especially 
having no contrary direction or commaundement from her high- 
nes. And thus, after long and vehement debate, for the first; 



night departed, leaving her, as I thought, much qualified, though 
in many pointes unsatisfied. 

The next morning, notwithstanding, sir Thomas Henneage was 
dispatched in great heate, which so soone as I understood of I 
repayred againe unto her, and, so much was I perplexed, with 
teares besought her to he better advised, laying before her the 
dishonorable, shamefull, and dangerous effectes of so unseason- 
able and unhappy a messag, and humbly craving at her handes, 
that, howsoever shee stood hardly perswaded of your lordships 
dealing, in conscience, as I told her, without cause, she would 
yet forbeare to take a course so violent, not only to the utter dis- 
grace and dishonor of one she had heretofore so highly estemed, 
and now specially deserved better measure at her handes, but also 
to the utter ruyn of the cause, loss of her best neighbours, and 
discomfort of her good subiectes, with her owne dishonour and 
undoing ; and here she fell againe into her former invectives, 
aggreeving your fault the more in that all the tyme this matter was 
on foote yow had never vouchsafed to impart it with her, which I 
excused with all the art I had, and at this tyme tooke occasion to 
presse her majesty to receive your lordships lettre, which the day 
before she utterly refused. And now, after she had opened and 
begonne to peruse, putt upp into her pocquett, to read, as I think, 
at more leysure. At length, having againe, by many insinuacions, 
prepared her to lend me a more patient and willing eare then she 
had vouchsafed me the day before, I renewed unto her my former 
dayes discourse in excuse of your lordships action, which, if she 
did respect either honour, sucrty, or proffitt, she would rather 
esteme a service of singuler desert, then any wayes worthy of her 
discountenance, letting her plainely to understand, that there was 
no meane course to be taken, either for them or for your lordship, 
without a willfull hazard of all; that their miseryes grew especially 
from the lack of order and authority, and therfore dryven to seeke 
their cure from the contraryes; that the fact, besides, did proceed 
from a singuler affection, confidence, and devotion to her majestie, 


and therefore worthy her gracious construction. That in your 
lordships behaulf I could not, in my poor iudgement, conceave 
what might justly offend her, for, if she would be pleased to con- 
sider the necessity, as well of her particuler service as of the estate 
of those poor countries, left desperat if your lordship had refused 
them, she should fynd you had no other remedy ; if her honour, 
what greater might be done her by a subject then, without en- 
crease of her eharg, to bynd unto her the devocion and hartes of 
so strong, rich, and populous countries, whose good or ill neigh- 
bourhod might of all others most profntt or annoy her; if her 
suerty, what might be greater then to have the disposicion of that 
whole estate, so as she might give the law to the one syde and 
other, and either lengthen or shorten the warr at her own appe- 
tite ; and here, urged her majesties scope and end in this action, 
which, if tending to the releif and delivery of her poor neighbors, 
ther was no other way ; if to abate the greatnes of a suspected and 
dangerous neighbour, ther could be no greater or more happy op- 
portunity offered her ; if to a peace, a thing (I told her) comonly 
feared and suspected, what other way had she to make a peace, 
either good for the poore countries or safe and honorable for her 
self; with a thowsand other thinges to lyke effect. Against all 
which she had litle els to replye then her alleaged complaintes of 
the forme and manner of your proceading, confessing that if you 
had taken the same thing in substance, " which," said she, " the 
contract offered you," without the title, she would have bene, for 
her owne part, better satisfied, and her doinges, if she should allow 
of yours, the better justified. Wherto when I had replyed, that it 
was not to be thought that thenemy might be more offended, or 
her case more empayred, by the name then by the thing itself, 
she began to break of, letting me first understand how litle she 
looked for so peremptory, and, as she termed, partiall dealing at my 
handes, of whom she had conceaved better opinion, and towardes 
whom she had intended more good then now she found me woor- 
thy of; for the which, after I had given her majesty my most humble 


and dutifull thankes, taking herself to witnes how farr of I had 
bene ever from affecting or seeking any such grace at her handes, 
I concluded with this humble sute unto her highnes, that she 
would be pleased, in recompence of all my travaills, to vouchsafe 
me her favorable leave to retyre myself home to bestow the rest 
of my dayes in prayer for her, whome, in all appearance, salvation 
itself was not able to save, if she contynewed the course she was 
in, and therfor esteemed hym happiest that should have least in- 
terest in her publique service. And thus ended my secound dayes 
audience, which, howsoever she disguised the matter, wrought 
thus much effect, that the same night late she gave order to stay 
sir Thomas Henneage till he heard her further pleasure. 

The next morning early I repayred to my lord treasurer, whome 
I mette uppon the way and followed downe to the courte, wheare 
I acquainted him with the whole course and reasons of your lord- 
ships proceading, leaving him as little as I could unsatisfied in any 
particuler and necessary circumstaunce. From me he went upp 
directly to the queen, and, as I certenly understand, laboured very 
earnestly, first, to revoke sir Thomas, which failing of, he insisted 
uppon the qualificacion of his messag, whereof grew her majesties 
secound lettres to Mr. Henneage, to inhibit the delivery of the 
first lettres addressed to the states, if he found it might hurt the 
common service, and that, howsoever she rested offended with 
yourself, he should forbeare your publique and open disgrace. 

The same afternoone my lord treasurer procured my therd au- 
dience, before whome I confirmed my former discourse, which I 
found her majesty to conceave somewhat better, and the same 
night obteyned leave to retyre myself home for some few dayes. 
Since, I heare sir Thomas Henneage is in Kent, awayting the shyp, 
intending to go forward if the tyme yeld not some new occasion of 
his stay, which I have the better hope of, bycause I find the heate 
of her majesties offence towardes your lordship to abate every 
day somewhat, and herself disposed both to hear and speak more 
temperatly of you, and, when all is done, if thinges be well caryed 


theare, will, I trust, dealemore graciously both with yourself and the 
cause then she hath of late seemed affected, which your lordship 
may help somewhat by a more dilligent enterteigning her with 
your wise letters and messages, your slacknes wherein hitherto 
appeares to have bredd a great part of this unkindenes. And 
albeyt some of your frendes, discouraged with her majesties pro- 
ceadings in your behalf, do happily perswade you to seeke to with- 
draw yourself thence, and to gett leave for your returne as soone 
as you might, yet dare I not, under your lordships correction, 
second their opinion, notwithstanding I know it proceades on 
their partes of an honorable affection to yourself, and dispaire 
of our sound dealing here, by cause I see no other fruict can grow 
of that course then utter [un] doing the cause, dishonour to her 
majesty, and discredit to yourself: whereas, on the contrary, 
the tyme may woork some better effect in her majesties dis- 
posicion towardes both yourself and your service. The traf- 
ficque of peace goeth on underhand, as I am advertised ; but 
whether to vise it as a secound string to our bowe, if the first should 
faile, or of any settled inclinacion thereunto, I cannot afhrme ; 
howsoever it be, I have not let to tell her majesty that the diffi- 
culties, for any thing I can observe, wilbe infinitly great to make 
any safe or honnorable peace, either for them or herself, without 
an honnorable warr, which every man heer apprehends not. 

Your lordships supply of men and mony hath bene cooled and 
hindered by the other accident of offence taken at your procead- 
inges, and yet lyve I in good hope that her majesty will gothorogh 
with her promis, and give order for your satisheng, when this 
storme is a litle more overblowen. I have herin dealt exceeding 
earnestly both with herself and my lord treasurer, letting them see 
how greatly it importeth her honour and service, and have here his 
faithfull promis to hold good hand to the furtheraunce thereof. 

Of sir William Pelhams comming over I wote not what hope to 
give your lordship ; he is now at his house in the country afflicted 
both in body and mynd. I have once or twice allready heard from 
him, and find the gentleman exceedingly troubled with the Strang 


and hard measure he hath receyved, ynough to break the hart of 
any gentleman in the world of his sort and deserving, that were 
not armyd with his vertue and constancy, but, amongst all his 
other woes, he doth protest to me there is no one that greves him 
more, then, by the malice of his ennemyes and unhappines of his 
fortune, to be kept and detayned here from the person and cause 
he so much affectith, as I think your lordship shall at more length 
perceave by his owne lettres. 

For all other matters leaving your lordship to the report of such 
as be better infourmed then myself, and craving your pardon for 
so long and tedious a discourse, I will here conclude, with my 
most humble prayers to God to bless your honnorable laboures 
with happy and honnorable success. At my poore house in Lon- 
don this xvijth of February, 1585. 

Your lordships ever bounden and assured to 
do you humble service, 

W. Davison. 
To his excellencie my singuler goode lorde. 



18TH FEBRUARY 1585-6. HARL. MS. 285, FO. 211. OR1G. 

Proposal on behalf of the people of the Loiv Countries that a mart 
for the sale of English cloth should be established at some town in 
Holland or Zealand — the like for English wool — advantages an- 
ticipated from such a commercial arrangement — money wanted — 
Sir William Pelham. 

Mr. secretary, these men here doe very ernestly press me to be 
a sutor to hir majesty, that hit will please her to consider of the 
traffyq of hir marchauntes for clothes, whether these tounes in 
Holland and Zeland may not be thought convenyent places for the 


utterance of ther clothes, as they hope all yt wyll ; and, yf yt so be 
found good, than wold they be sutors to have them com hether, 
o firing all manner of good usage, and in what place or places so 
ever the merchantes wyll lyke best they shalbe provyded for to 
ther contentacions, without tax, or talliage, or any manner of 
charges uppon ther merchandyzes. For my none parte I have 
somewhat travelled to understand what vent they may have, and I 
find plainly, yf you hold your hand from lycenses, and forbid going 
to any other places eastward from Hamboro hetherward, and to 
the Haunces but only some suche nomber of clothes as heretofore 
ye have allowed them, that here wylbe a notable mart for them. 

Amsterdame, or Enchuson (a place I lyke best for some causes), 
or Rotradame, any of these iij, wylbe very apt places, and, with 
Mydelborow in Zeland, ye shall not only be sure our clothes shall 
have spedy utterance but greatly content these people, and I am 
perswaded yf all other places be well examyned ye wyll fynd this 
the surest every way. For alredy our clothes goe aM'ay apace from 
Mydelborow, but yf the hole trade come hether, all the east partes 
wyll seke hether, and here ys no fear of any arestes or exactyons, 
except we offer them to to much wrong. I pray ye, sir, consider 
of yt, and with some spede, for that the king of Denmark hath 
promysed to deall for the Stedes, a and ye had nede take hede of 
them, the king of Spain hath a great hand over them, spetyally of 
the Count de Embden, who, I can assure you, ys wholy at his 
comaundment; his letters hath byn taken. 

These men, also, doe offer some place, or places, for your woll 
of England, and wyll deall with nether French nor Spanyesh woolles 
yf hir majesty wyll, and ye may utter here a great quantyty to 
those that make sayes, and bayes, and other wollen workes, which 
shall only spend our Englysh wooll : and I wyll warrant your 
merchantes never found such markettes for ther clothes as they 
shall doe here, yf they wyll not skatter to other places. Thys 
being a matter of great weight I thought to wryte yt to ye, and 
that I may hear from ye as sone as may be, at least that hit be 
a The people of Stade in the duchy of Bremen. 


not forgotten to these folkes, howsoever ye deall with the lord 
lyvetenant here. God preserve and kepe hir majesty from all evyll, 
and with longest and happiest yeres to rayne. From the Hage, 
this xviij. of February. 

Your assured frend, 

R. Leycester. 

Hit is thought, that yf our woolles cam over hether into Hol- 
land, that yt wold draw a great nomber out of Flaunders hether 
that occupie wollen occupacions from the parte of the enemye. 
For God's sake remember money, with all possible spede ; and sir 
Wylliam Pellam. 

To my honourable good frende sir Fraunces Walsingham, 
knight, principall secretorye to the queenes majestic 



21 FEBRUARY, 1585-6. HARL. MS. 285, FOL. 214. ORIG. 

The return of lord Willoughby from Denmark, and his favourable 
report of the disposition of the king, who offers to send 2000 horse to 
Leycester 's aid — interference of the German princes on behalf of 
the king of Navarre — the count d'Emden and his brother count 
John — Hamburgh favourable to Spain — the states general well 
inclined and liberal — Paul Buys a villain — Ortell wholly his. 

This Monday, the xxj. of February, after I had dyspatched my 
other letters to ye, my lord Wyllowby aryved here very well, and 
doth tell me how very well affected he hath left the king of Den- 
marke toward hir majesty, that, for hir owen service, he wyll mak 
warr uppon any prince, and ys content, uppon any least word from 


me, to lett ij m of the best horsmen in all his countrey to com to me, 
and they may better com that way, I find, than any way out of 
Jermanye, to serve this countrey, spetyally in East Fresland and 

I perceave, also, that the princes of Germany ar mervellosly 
gladd of hir majesties dealing with the king of Spayn. The duke 
of Sax ys becom a new man synce his mariage, a and hath sent very 
playn messages to the emperour ; he hath lykewyse agreed with 
sondry princes to send to the French king, and to perswade him to 
leave his prosecuting the king of Navare and the protestantes ; yf 
not, they protest not only to stey all succors for him out of Ger- 
many, but to ayd and asyst the sayd king of Navare, with all the 
force they may. 

I fynd yt plainly, yf her majesty send any man of countenance 
now to them, and to com this way, though yt werr but boddeleye, 
I dare warrant ye shall find them in an other manner of tune then 
ever they werr yet, synce hir majesties tyme. 

The ellector of Culloyn received letters ij days [ago] to the 
same effect, touching the princes of Germanyes devotyon, as also 
of the duke of Sax August. 

The count of Emden ys stark naught, and the king of Spains for 
lyfe, only I wyshe hir majesty to send some one to his brother, 
count John, whos hart ys almost kyld synce he was in England, 
and languysheth in great mallincholly, finding so small comfort 
ther, as he sayth, yf hir majesty had geven him any good comfort, 
his brother shuld never have don any thing but what she wold. 
He is so decayd and out of comfort, as yt ys thought his brother 
wyll shortly gett the Nort, and another place next the sea called 
Gryte, of good importance, but the other called Denord ys able to 
doe very great servyce agenst the enymye now, yf yt werr at hir 
maj esties dewtye, but ther must be no tyme lost in yt. 

Hamborow ys a villanous town, and wholy the king of Spaynes ; 

a See page 48, note b. 


my lord Wyllouby was in great danger to be taken in their terri- 
torye. But, yf yt please hir majesty to bestow hir merchants in 
other places, I beleive veryly more to their proffytt but far more 
for ther surety, which, yf yt may be, I besech ye give me but a 
spedy incling. 

We ar here in good forwardnes as well for sea as land ; ye shall 
hear shortly that our contrybutions wylbe very much encreased, 
spetyally yf her majesties countenance contynew. I have wonne 
them to dyvers very large pointes alredy, for they se I only serve 
hir majesty and ther cause, and do venture both my lyfe and my 
lyving for them, and I assure ye I find great favour with them, 
spetyally with the honest councellors and the comon people. 

Paule Buys ys a very vyllayn, a dissembler, an athest, and a 
practyser to make himself rych and great, and no boddy elles ; 
but ye shall see I wyll doe well inough with him, and that shortly. 
He ys the most hated man generally that ever I knew in any state : 
but kepe this, I pray ye, to yourself. Ortell ys holy his, and he 
hath alredye newes of hir majesties myslyke of me, and I warrant 
ye he hath taken advantage of yt, and yet wyll not seme to me to 
know any thing ; but I am here every way to hard for him. He 
wold seme altogether to be for Englond, and in troth he doth 
skorn us. 

Hir majestie never had such a waye unto the world to daunt hir 
enymys as she hath now. I pray God she may take the offers of 
hir parliament in tyme : she wyll find herself happy. And, in hast, 
fare ye well, the shypp steying this beror. 

Your most assured, 

R. Leycester. 

To my honourable good frend sir Frauncis TValsingham, 
knight, her majesties principall secretarie. 




22ND FEBRUARY 1585-6. HARL. MS. 285, FOL. 215. ORIG. 

Although uncertain whether he shall continue in his service, the earl 
has made preparation for the levy of an army, the opinion being 
in favour of an offensive war — 40 ships and 25 smaller craft in 
preparation, and 4000 horse — the earl's politic mode of procuring 
the concurrence of the states in these levies — advantages to her 
majesty from this service — she should send to the German princes, 
especially to the duke of Sauce — bad effects ofPallavichio's delay — 
pay for the soldiers ivanted — count Hohenlohe. 

I must nedes trowble ye as oft as occasion may serve, albeyt I 
can hear nothing from you, whether I shall contynew in my ser- 
vyce or be cashed, and being loth to loose tyme whilst I am hear, 
I have alredy proceded with these men for the leavy of an army, 
as the only way in dede to help and save all; for, whatsoever dis- 
course men may make to you ther, I find by all the wysest and 
best experymented men here, that if we stand but uppon a de- 
fensyve warr, all wyll be lost, as all was almost quyte gonne when 
I cam hether, as I wrote unto you, and chifely for that men were 
out of hope to resyst the enymye in the fyld, but he had way to 
doe what he lysted in all places ; he was able both to besiege towens, 
and to anoye all places where he lysted, and no man to make hedd 
with force ageinst him, every man looking but to his singell charge, 
in this towen and that towen, and none to commaunde or dyrect 
for the hole : and ye shall se now, that a meane comander shalbe 
able to doe more than was donn this good while. 

We have alredy, concluded and in making reddy, almost xl good 
shippes and good cromsters, beside xxv smaler vesselles to runne 
upp and down the ryvers, well furnyshed ; so that, for the sea, we 
wyll provyde well inough. 



For the land hit ys almost concluded, also, that we shall leavye 
iiij m horse, the most reyters, beside those we have alredy, for yf 
we may mach the enymye with horse, I dowbt not for the rest ; yet 
he hath iij m . Spanyardes aryred a month agoe, and I hear he ys 
preparing men in Germany. 

Much adoe have I had with these men to bring them to consider 
of this matter, for they imagyn ther places inpregnyble, and doe 
not remember how the people groe wery of ther contynewall 
burden, and standing only uppon defence. They contynewally 
lost towens, cyttyes, and almost ij hole provynces, Flanders and 
Brabant, all which, yf they had had but yj m men in the fyld, they 
had saved ; but I may boldly say it, for I am well informyd of yt, 
they were both carelesly and neglegently lost, and assuredly many 
more had byn gonn but for hir majesties comfort and countenance, 
and yet wylbe, yf we shall doe but as others have donn. Wherefore 
I have byn very round, and the rounder, to be playn with ye, that 
I wold rather torn myself out of service for such a cause than to be 
torned OAvt otherwyse, as perhapps ye among ye ther have re- 
solyd. And my dealing hath taken such good success, as now they 
procede very willingly in all thinges that I move to them for ther 
defence, and every man wylling to contrybute, and to enlardge 
their contrybutyons, now they hope somwhat shall be donn for 
ther money, as, God wylling, ther shall, yf I tarry by yt; 
praing ye, ageyn and ageyn, to send away sir Wylliam Pellam. 
They here have hard so much of him as almost they beleave in 

Hir majesty must think that this servyce standes hir more 
uppon than all hir debtes, yf they be a C m li., and the prosperity 
therof must bring hir, not only safetye to hir state and person, 
but the saving of many a C m li. hereafter. Besyde, sir, yf my 
poore advyce may be hard, as I have wrytten yt to ye and my 
lord tresorer heretofore, hir [majesty] shuld send with all spede into 
Germany to the princes, to encourage them, spetyally a gentleman 
of some quallyty to the duke of Sax, to congratulatt his mariag 

I .\ ! V 


with the howse of Hawnalt, who is the ablest and noblest gentle- 
man in all Germany and a great prince ; and, beside that he wyll 
take himself bound to hir majesty, the old duke wyll take it most 
kindly, for he loveth his yong wyffe so well as whosoever sendes 
to him therabout he useth all the thankfullnes in the world to him. 
He hath sent of late a stout messag to the emperour, and hath 
refused to gyve any audyence or access to the French kinges 
comyssary. Seguro hath ben greatly enterteyned at his handes, 
and loged in his own howse. 

Yf Palavasyn com not away ye marr all. a Gyttory ys almost 
madd, having wrytten into Germany of hir majesties gracyous 
dealing in their cause, and that Pallavasyn and he were both on 
the way; now Gyttory lyeth styll at Harlem, and almost despe- 
ratt, yet doe I comfort him by messages, to lett him know that I 
myselfe have not hard this month from England. God send them 
better whan they com next. 

The king of Denmark doth marvellously love hir majesty, as my 
lord Wyllowby telles me ; he hath sent me very kind messages by 
my lord, and doth offer to let me have ij m of his best horsmen, 
and best captens to lead them ; and lykewise to send his own 
sonne, yf I think yt good, and that it may any way advance hir 
majesties servyce. 

Thus ye may se how greatly hir majesty may further both hir 
own good servyce and the servyce of all christendome, yf hit shall 
please hir. And bycause she hath alwayes harped uppon a peace, 
lett all wyse men judge whether ther be any way in the world for 
hir majesty to have a good peace but this way ; yea, and the more 
show of princes good wylles that she may procure, the better and 
surer must yt be for hir. Well, I can doe no more but open my 
pore conceattes, and pray to God to dyrect hir majesties hart to 
doe that which may be most for his glorye and best for hirselfe 
and realme, and so commytt you to his safe protectyon. At the 

» See page 104. 


Hage, from whence I goe toward Utrycht uppon Saturday next ; 
this xxij. of February. 

Your assured frend, 

R. Leycester. 

I besech ye, Mr. secretary, lett not the pore soldyers be for- 
gotten, and the rather for that we shall goe very shortly to the 
fyld ; at the least to have a flying camp of iij or 4000 men, to doe 
very necessary and nedefull servyce. 

The count Hollock ys a most wylling and obedient servant, and 
surely wyll doe well, and begyns to leave his drynking. Hir ma- 
jesty is much beholden to the elector Truxy, and he ys able to doe 
great servyce ; he ys very pore but very wyse. 

To my honourable good frend Mr. secretarye Walsingham. 



24TH FEBRUARY 1585-6. HARL. MS. 285, FO. 217. ORIG. 

The states have doubled the earl's allowance — -payment of the troops 
to the 10th February — fortification of Lillo and Lief kenshoeck — 
anticipated breach between France and Spain — report of the 
muster-piaster as to the state of the English troops — he is a very 
useful officer — satisfaction of the people with the earl's prepara- 
tions — sir William Pelham much needed — as Ireland is not likely 
to be troubled by the Spaniards, the earl would yive one of his 
fingers to have sir Richard Bingham for four months — the count 
d'Embden — money, money ! 

The messenger which had my last letters was reternyd back by 
whether ageyn, which causeth me to make my letters as freshe to 
ye as may be, sty 11 ; and, touching the encrease of allowance to 


our former rate sett down, which was ij cm florins by the month ; 
fynding yt very skant to descharge that which this sommer ser- 
vyces shall require, I have procured at the states handes, and with 
best wyll at the countreyes handes, to gyve for iiij monthes ij cm 
florins more, with which I trust ther wylbe good servyce donn, 
and I have not byn idell nor neglygent in cauling uppon these men 
for this matter, and other very nedefull, though I find many of 
them slak inough in furthering those thinges that be nedefull for 
themselves. I cannott blame the countreys to myslyke with them 
as they have donn. Well, I hope now the gretest matter ys past, 
this money being so redyly agreed unto at length ; and whosoever 
shall suplye the place for hir majesty here, shall find a good pre- 

I have, lykewyse, mustered all our men, and to be paycl untyll 
the xij. of February, but not our horsemen. I stey tyll I com to 
Utryght, which shalbe within viij days after this, yf wether wyll 
suffer me. I have changed many garisons upon some smale 
suspition, but, I thank God, I find all men wylling to serve for hir 
majesties sake, and I trust no place at this day to be feared, where 
any garyson ys. I am about to make Lylle and Lyfskynhose 
somwhat stronger ; places of great importance. I have lerned to be 
of a good nature synce I cam hether, for I hope to sett the French 
king and the king of Spain together by the eares, as well as they 
love, or this day month, and cost hir majesty never a grote. I 
trust ye shall very shortly hear of som towns of importance to be 
had into our handes. 

I find by the muster-master that the bandes be wonderfully 
decayed, though many sleyttes were used, as he saith, to deceave 
him, and wyll save hir majesty a good deall, I think ; he ys not 
yet retornyd, but a very wyse stout fellow he ys, and very care- 
full to serve thorouly hir majesty. I am gladd I named him to yt. 
I wold he had byn here at the beginning ;a but yf I tarry here I 

a Thomas Dygges was the muster-master referred to. His report of the state of the 
English troops here alluded to is iu the Cotton MS. Galba c. vm. fo. 37. 


wyll be sure we wyll have men for our money. Hetherto I was 
not able to use the servyce of v c . Englyshe soldyers beside the 
garrysons of Flushing and Bryll, which places I styrr not. Ther 
are ij lytle places which I meane to gett the government of, and 
shalbe no charge to hir majesty, and yet of as great importance as 
any of the other almost. 

These men be mervellously pleasyd with me that they perceave 
I prepare forces for the fyld, for yt ys the only way to brydell and 
overthrow the enymy, and to putt in hart these people, who care 
not what they gyve so they know they have men in the fyld to 
defend them, spetyally in the somer tyme. Wherefore, Mr. secre- 
tary, yf hir majesty wyll looke for honour and good servyce, send 
away Mr. Pellam ; we have no such man to govern the armye of 
all the men they have here, nor any comparable to those I have 
brought alredy. They have very few that ar any thing able. I 
wold I had the ij Italians that Pallavasyn promysed me; but, seing 
I trust the Spanish shall have no cause to trowble Irland, I wold, 
yf I shuld tarry here, gyve one of my fingers to have Mr. Bingam a 
here but iiij months. I dyd think ther had byn both more and 
better choyce of captens than I can find here, and therfore ther ys 
the more nede of such as he ys, for surely I am in very good opi- 
nion of happy success, I find all men so willing to this servyce. 
I besech ye, yf ye find hir majesty well disposyd, remember 
Bingam, but first dispatch away sir William Pellam, whose abode 
one month now may hinder us greatly here. 

There ys an other matter concerning Emden of very great im- 
portance ; I have wrytten alredy thereabout to ye ; he ys a very 
enymye to this countrey, and fast to the king of Spayn, and doth 
chifely vyttell the enymye; yf he were not, we shuld get Groyning 
in xx days, and all that part of Freseland the enymye nowholdeth. 

a Sir Richard Byngham was a celebrated soldier of the reign of Elizabeth. He was 
of an ancient family in Dorsetshire, and a man "eminent both for spirit and martial 
knowledge, but of a very small stature." See Camden's Annals, sub anno 15.98; 
Thoms's Anec. and Trad. p. 18. 


Thus, having scrybled in much hast, I comytt you to the Lord. At 
the Hag this xxiiij. of February. 

Your assured frend, 

R. Leycester. 

I pray you remember that I may receive answere to the partes of 
my letters, for I have no coppy of my requestes. Forget not money, 
money; and I wyll never press for any more than hir majesty 
hath promysed these countreys alredy for this yere. 

To my honourable good frend Mr. secretary Walsingham. 



26TH FEBRUARY 1585-6. HARL. MS. 285, FOL. 219. ORIG. 

The earl reports an interview between himself and one of the council 
of the Low Countries, respecting a report that the queen ivas en- 
deavouring to bring about a peace ivith Spain by indirect means — 
Pallavicino not yet arrived. 

Mr. secretary, yesterday being the xxv. a of February, I wrote 
unto you. This day, having occasion of a messenger going over, 
I thought good to lett you knowe, that there came one of this coun- 
cell to me, and in verye honest sort told me, that I could not 
forgett what brutes the prince of Parma had geven out touching 
hir majestyes disposytion for to have peace with the king of Spain. 
" I have received," sayth he, " now a lettre from a frend of myne 
in London, who dothe wryte, that a Spanish marchant, one Lewis 
de Pace, was gonn into Spain with all hast, uppon a sudden, a 
month agon, and thought to be not without the knowledge of some 
councellor, and that some secretly devyned, that hit was to pro- 
a xxvj. in MS. 



cure some spech of peace, but/' sayth he, " I wyll not beleave yt, 
for yf hir majesty had had that minde, I am suer she wold never 
have gon thus farr with us here, nether can all the Paces in Eng- 
land or Spain cause the king of Spain to speake or seke a pece so 
sone as this course she doth take with him. And we trust that 
hir majesty wyll never doe herself so much dyshonour, nor us that 
have comytted ourselves unto hir so much wronge, as to take any 
such course whereby that king shall receive so great encourage- 
ment, to hir owen harme and ours ; for," quod he, " hir majesty 
knoweth not the pryde of the Spaniard, yf he be any way sought 
unto, how inderectly soever. I doe not beleave it, nether wyll I 
speake of yt, but to tell your lordship of yt, to know yf ye have 
hard any such thing." 

I told him, uppon my truth, no, (no more dyd I in dede) nor 
I could not beleave yt whosoever shuld wryte yt, bycause I knew 
hir majesty had meanes inowe offred hir to have herkened to a 
peace or this, yf she had lysted ; and he and the rest here might 
assure themselves she wyll never deall or herken to peace but their 
parte wylbe in yt as well as for hirself. " Seurly," sayth he, " I 
wyll beleave so, for hir majesty hath bounde us by treaty and con- 
tract that we shall no waye speake of peace without her pryvytye 
fyrst, which, God wylling, wylbe truly observed. For now ys yt 
in her majesties power both to save us, next unto God, or to 
undoe us for ever." I dyd all I could to putt any such conceatt 
out of hys head, for I wold be as loth to have yt in myne owen, 
knowing how utterly hit wold both overthrow hir majesty and 
thes countreys also ; and how easily hir highnes ys like at all 
tymes, whansoever she wyll, to have a peace at that kinges hand. 
Nevertheless I could not be quyett but to advertyse you hereof, 
trusting that ther wylbe no such matter in hand but you wyll gyve 
your frend som knoledge wherby to govern himself the better, and 
I wold be sorry my credytt werr so yll, seing I dyd putt hir ma- 
jesty in a better hope, and wyll perform yt, when any good cause 
shalbe, than by such a meane to bring hir to a peace. And so 


having donn all my arrand for this tyme, I wyll byd you fare- 
well this xxvj. of February. 

Your assured frend, 

R. Leycester. 

Yf Pallavasyn come not, Gyttery wyll home to his master, and 
com into England as he goeth, and so to his master. He wyll not 
into Germany. He ys wonderfully greved, but I satysfie him all I 
can, with the lacke of wynd to com out of England. 

To my very honorable good frend sir Francis Walsingham, 
knight, principall secretary [to] her majesty. 



27TH FEBRUARY 1585-6. HARL. MS. 285. FO.221.ORIG. 

Schenck has taken Werle in Westphalia — and, upon information 
privately given to the earl, the count de Meurs has put down a 
conspiracy to deliver up Deventer to the enemy — the earl is wait- 
ing for the queen' 's pleasure — prosperous state of affairs — good dis- 
position of the count de Meurs and colonel Schenck — the number 
and zeal of the protestants is on the increase — religious condition 
of the country. 

This day, being the xxvij. of February, having wrytten yesterday 
another letter unto you, I have received intelligence from Gel- 
derland. Coronell Shenkes hath ageyn donn a notable pece of 
servyce. He hath taken a towen and castle of great importance 
for impeching the enemye in those partes, a place we have bynn 
busye about this good while to gett, and now by his dyllygence 
and dyscrete handling brought to effect. Hit ys a town in West- 


falia, the principall town of all that provynce, called Werle, be- 
longing to the byshop of Colloyn, but in the enymyes handes, and 
dyd us here great dyspleasure. This good fortune, God be thankyd, 
ys now com to us. 

Beside, the count de Meurs hath donn a notable pece of servyce 
very lately uppon a lettre I wrote unto him, beinge discovered 
unto me from a man of Deventer that was one of their councell 
and of the religyon, a place of mervellous importance to this state, 
who opened a full conspyracye of certen magystrates of that town 
to delyver yt upp to the enymye, and had sworne a company 
among themselves for the purpose. The honest mans letter I sent 
to the count, who presently without delaye repayred thether, at 
whose coming they wold not lett him entre but with vj persons, 
for indede they wold never yet receive garyson into the towen, 
albeyt they held for this state always, and beside they had co- 
mytted the party that wrote to me to pryson before the countes 
coming, for that he semed to refuse to joyn with the rest, being one 
of the chefe of the towen, in this conspyracye. And the count hath 
so well behaved himself, as he hath overthrowen all this practyce, 
and hath changed all the magystrates, to the great lykyng of all 
the towen and the full assurance of the same as at any tyme before, 
which, God wylling, shall [be] better assured or long, uppon this 
occasion. I trust ye shall hear of other manner of places taken 
or long. 

Myself had byn at Utrycht or now, but expecting sty 11 hir ma- 
jesties pleasure from England, which tyll this day I hear nothing ; 
and yt ys most requysytt that I repayr into those partes about 
Utrycht, for, tyll the houer of hir majesties pleasure knowen, I 
wyll not neglect the servyce of this aflycted countrey, which God, 
I trust, wyll prosper, yf not by me, yet by som other that hir 
majesty shall apoint more fytt. For very fezeable yt ys at this 
present, yf God putt into hir majesties hart to procede in geving 
hir good countenance to them. I dare undertake this v yeres they 
werr not in so good towardnes of well doing as synce they tasted 


of her majesty s good favour, which God Almighty sty 11 contynew 
her in toward them. 

I am thretned to be used as the prince of Orang was, but I am 
at a point for that, and yet, yf yt be founde that hir majesty wyll 
go thorow with all how many soever shalbe so delt withall, they 
wyll leave those practyces. I besech you procure a gracious lettre, 
first to the count de Meurs, and next to coronell Shenkes, who 
hath notably deservyd synce my coming ; he hath now donn iij 
exployttes uppon the enymye synce I cam to the Hagu, and he 
desyers nothing more than to have her majesty e know his good 
hart toward hir. The count de Meurs, whome som call Newener, 
ys lykwyse very greatly affected to hir majesty, and he ys the best 
protestant that I here of in all these partes, and doth most earnestly 
deall in causes of relygyon. And those at Utrycht begynne ex- 
cedingly to encreace in relygyon, who werr lately the worst of all 
these provinces, Even synce my coming they have shewed great 
frutes of yt ; and so hath some other places, also, that lyved new- 
traly before. The mynesters begynn to be bolder than then they 
durst be before hir majesties authoryty was here, for fewe did care 
for relygyon in dede, and they have prospered accordingly, but 
only the meaner sort, and God be thanked they be manny, and 
the work of God doth appeare in them, by ther trade of lyfe from 
all others. The mynysters be not many lernyd, but those that be 
ar very honest and dylligent, and I am perswaded, within vj 
months, you shuld heare that these provynces wylbe equall with 
any countrey for religyon, they doe so dayly encreace. 

Thus, for this tyme, meaning to goe to morrow toward Amster- 
dam and so to Utrycht, I wyll byd you farewell ; in much hast, 
trusting shortly to send you more as good newes as this. At the 
Hag, this xxvij. of February. 

Your most assured, 

R. Leycester. 

I pray you bear with my scrybling ; this berer can informe ye of 


all our state here. I wold hir majesty had many such, and so able 
men, and of lyke good wyll. 

To the right honorable my very good frend sir Francis 
Walsingham, knight, principall secretary to her majesty. 




The storm at court on Davison's arrival has blown over — sir Tho- 
mas Heneage is thought to have embarked on the 27th February — 
good offices done by the lord treasurer — the queen is in reasonable 
good terms, but will not seem satisfied — all the earl's friends 
complain of his not ivriting to the queen — advice how to proceed 
with sir Thomas Heneage — lady Leycester greatly troubled with 
the tempestuous news from court. 

My singuler good lorde, yesterday I receyved your lordships letter 
of a , and even nowe another of the x th of this present. 

By them both I see how much your lordship longeth to heare 
how thinges have succeaded with me since my return, wherein, 
by cause I have written at some length in my letters of the x[vij th ], 
corny tted for suerty sake to this bearer, one of the captain es that 
wafted [me] over, though detayned here ever since by the contra- 
rety of wynd and weather, I shall not neade in theis to make any 
new or long rehersell. 

Since my second and therd dayes audience, the stormes I mett 
withall at myn arryvall have overblowen and abated dayly ; sir 
Thomas Henneage, notwithstanding, continueth his journey, and, 
as we think, is yesterday embarqued. He intendeth to go by 
Flushing, wheare I wish he might not fayle of sir Philip Sydney- 
* The MS. burnt. 


Since the qualificacion of his message, I do not heare of any 
change, neither hath her majesty or himself imparted any thing 
therof to Mr. secretary. The most I have learned therof hath 
bene from my lord treasurer, who, I can assure your lordship, 
hath herein done good offices, though he have not bene able to 
do all that he wished. 

On Satterday last, uppon some newes out of France, wherein it 
seemes they grow jealous of your lordships interest in that go- 
vernment, her majesty fell into some newe heate, which lasted not 
long. This day, I was myself at the court, and found her in rea- 
sonable good termes, though she will not yet seeme satisfied to 
me, either with the matter or manner of your proceading, notwith- 
standing all the labour I have taken in that behaulfe : howsoever 
it be, I am jealous of the success of things theare uppon the 
bruites delivered abroad, especially when they shalbe confirmed by 
sir Thomas his arry vail, if he cary not himself very temperatly and 
discreetly, which I have the better hope of, as well for the common 
opinions had of his judgement, as for the love he beares both to 
your person and the cause. It shall not be amyse, in my poore 
opinion, that, in your next letters to my lord treasurer, your lord- 
ship take knowledg, as from myself, of his good offices done in your 
behalf; in the meane tyme I do not forgett to labour him all that 
I may. I had no speach with him this day, by reason both him- 
self and divers others of the councell were o[ccupied] together 
in hearing the old difference between my lord presedent of the 
north and my lord Mountjoy. Mr. vice-chamberlain protesteth, 
that he hath, and will, deal honorably with you, and, for any 
thing I heare, hath perfourmed yt. Mr. secretary hath bene be- 
hind hand to no one of the rest in an honest and honorable defence of 
your doings, but thopinion of his partiality to your lordship hath 
somewhat prejudged his credit with her [majestie]. Both he and 
the rest of your good frendes do fynd a great lack in your lord- 
ship seldom enterteyning her majestie with your owne letters, 
and think it a speciall helping cause to all the offence and myslyke 


here against you, which I find to be true, and wish your lordship 
would labor to refourme. 

Though I dare not take uppon me to give advise to your lord- 
ship how to proceade with sir Thomas Henneage, yet, would I 
wish, under your correction, in case he have order to proceade in the 
delivery of any other letters then to yourselfe, that they were re- 
tayned till, uppon the information of your lordship and others, 
[lie] had signified the danger and inconvenience therof to her ma- 
jestie, and receyved her full pleasure ; bycause, in the mean tyme, 
I hope thinges may be wroght here as you wish them, so your 
lordship forgett not to amend your noted fault in her majesties 
behaulf;for, in particular, I find not her majesty altogether so 
sharp as some men look, though her favor [hath] outwardly 
cooled in respect both of this action and of our plaine proceading 
with her here in defence thereof. In your supply of men, &c. there 
is nothing yet resolved, though her majesty promised to deter- 
myn something this day. 

I am sorry your lordship hath cause to myslyke the partie I 
recommended you, not without some forewarnings of his parti- 
cular wantes, which your lordship will in your wisdom either 
help or beare with. The man I know is able to do you very good 
service, but his long use to gouverne alone doth make him some- 
what incompatible fellowship. 

I have not seen my lady theis x or xij dayes; to morrow I hope, 
God willing, to do my duty towardes her. I found her greatly 
troubled with tempestuous newes she receaved from court, but 
somewhat comforted when she understood how I had proceaded 
with her majestie. It hath been assured unto me by some great 
ones, that it was putt into her majesties head that your lordship 
had sent for her, and that she made her preparacion for the jour- 
ney, which added to a nomber of other thinges, cast in by such as 
affect neither your lordship nor the cause, did not a litle encrease 
the heat of her majesties offence against you. But theis pas- 
sions overblowen, I hope her majesty will have a gracious regard 


both towardes yourself and the cause, as she hath not let sometymes 
to protest since my returne, knowing how much it importeth her 
in honor, suerty, and necessety, which recommending to the bles- 
sing of God, and your lordship to his gracious protection, I do 
here most humbly take my leave. At my poore house in London, 
this last of February, 1585. 

Your lordships ever bounden, 

and devoted to do you humble [service,] 

W. Davison. 



1st march 1585-G. harl. us. 285. fo. 278. orig. 

The earl, upon the representation of the merchants at Middle- 
burgh, requests their lordships to interfere with the queen for an 
enlargement of the privileges of the compamj of merchant-adven- 

My very good lords, I remember, a while ere my cominge over, 
upon certayne requestes and articles delivered over to the coun- 
cell-boarde by the governor of the marchaunts-ad venturers for 
enlargment in some respect of theire priviledges, theire booke was 
committed to the view of her majesties solliciter and attorney, 
whose aunswere and advice thereupon had, fyndinge the sute rea- 
sonable and allowable, I movyd her majestie, in the marchauntes 
behalfe, in hope to have obteyned that desyred ; but, ere her 
highnes pleasure knowne thereof, I departed thince towards these 
contries, leavinge yt unresolved. Now, forsomuch as the mar- 
chaunts of Myddleborowe have made earnest sute unto me, de- 
claring^ how diverslye there trade is hyndered, and they endo- 



maged, by thindirect and coullorable dealings of interlopers and 
disorderlye bretheren of theire societie, contrary to the trewe 
meaninge and construction of the priviledges by her majesties 
charter geven them ; which they could not remedye, unlesse by 
the favor of her majestie they might be assisted to bare a hande 
and hynder sutch disorderous courses; consideringe theire de- 
maund founded on reason, and knowinge the sarvice duringe 
theire beinge a corporation doun to their prince and contrie, also 
theire willing readines to continew in the lyke, thought good to 
recomend theire cause unto your lordships, most earnestlie de- 
syringe [you] to be so favorable unto them as to deale so effec- 
tuallye with her majestie that theire longinge and wished desyre 
may take effect, a and your lordshipps shall not only, in my opi- 
nion, do a good deed, but also bynd them to do their indebvor by 
all meanes to be most readye allwayes at commaundment. Wher- 
with, expecting some good aunswere from you, I ende, and co- 
mytt your lordships to the tuition of thalmightie. From Harlem, 
this first March, 1586. 

Your lordshippes to commaunde, 

R. Leycester. 

To the moste honorable my very good lordes 

the lordes of her majesties most honorable privy councell. 

a The company of merchant-adventurers first termed merchants of St. Thomas a 
Becket, was one of those commercial corporations for which England has long been cele- 
brated. Less ancient than the merchants of the staple, the adventurers eventually 
superseded them, by procuring chartered privileges through which they were enabled to 
trade with greater advantage than their less-favoured rivals. The application to which 
this and the following letter refer was successful. The queen confirmed all the pre- 
vious privileges of the merchant-adventurers, and gave them the same right of trading 
to Germany, in exclusion of all persons except merchants of the staple, which they 
had before possessed in reference to the Low Countries. 



1st march 1585-6. harl. ms. 285, fol. 280, orig. 

The earl, on the application of the merchant-adventurers, requests 
Walsyngham to use his interest to procure an enlargement of their 

Mr. secretarye, I wryte presentlye to my lords of her majesties 
counsell, in the behalfe and for the furderinge of the marchaunt- 
adventurers sute, touchinge the inlargment of theire priviledges. 
The cause is to you sufficientlie knowne, and of yourself recom- 
mended, for the good-will you bare them, and yett, thinkinge that 
my commendation may stand them in some steed unto you, I was 
willinge, at theire sute, by a fewe written lynes to desyre, that, 
the rather at this my request, you will stand theire honorable 
freend in preferringe theire booke and petition, and speake so ef- 
fectually with fytt oportunitie, that her highnes graunt may the 
sooner passe. And, besydes the good which you shall doe unto 
them, which I am sure they will indebvor themselves by sarvice 
to desarve, I shall also take yt very freendlye, and wilbe as wil- 
linge to pleasure any at your desyre in the lyke or otherwyse. 
Wherewith I ende, and commytt your honour to the tuition of 
the Almightie. From Harlem this first March, 1586. 

Your lovinge assuryd freend, 

R. Leycester. 
To my honorable freend sir Frauncys Walsingham, knight, • 
her majesties chief secretarye. 




3rd march, 1585-6. harl. ms. 285. fol. 223. orig. 

The earl has received intelligence that one Hyman has been sent by 
the prince of Parma into England upon a secret service, which 
the earl insinuates is to assassinate the queen. 

I have received intelligence this day, from a very honest man 

that hath remayned in Bruges tyll now he ys retyred to Myddel- 

borow, that ther ys a man, called Hyman, somtyme pencyonar 

of Bruges, and was the dealer for the Fleminges in London v or 

vj yeres agoe. Thys Hyman ys now sent by the prince of Parma, 

into England, to some servyce of his, and hath undertaken som- 

what. He was once an offycer of the councell of state here 

among them, and did than great servyce for the king of Spain, for 

which he ys much esteemed. And this man that hath dyscovered 

this ys one that redd with his eyes the offer this Heman made 

to the prince for his servyce in England, and therin used wordes 

which did shew that matters of great secresye had passed from 

him when he was in England. You shall do well to enquire for 

him, and yf he be ther, you may be bold to clapp him upp. I 

understand credybly, that the Prince fedes himself in great jolytye 

that hir majesty doth rather myslyke than allowe of our a doinges 

here, which, yf yt be trewe, lett hir be sure hir own suete self 

shall first smart, and, as I hear, he doth now provyde accordingly. 

Fare you well, in all hast, at Harlem, this 3. of March. 

Your assured, 

R. Leycester. 
To my honourable good frend sir Francis Walsingham, knight, 
her majesties principall secretarie. 
a her, in MS. 



3rd march, 1585-6. cotton, ms. titus, b. vii. fol. 86. orig. 

Announcing his arrival at Flushing on a special message from her 
majesty to the earl, and requesting that a lodging may be ap- 
pointed/or himself and his company near the earl. 

It may please your lordship, both most soclenly and most un- 
looked for, I have been appoynted by her majesty to coomme into 
these contryes to delyver her majesties pleasure to your lord- 
ship, etc., and now, desyrous to be lodged near your lordship I 
have sent by this bearer my servant hearwith, humbly to beseech 
your lordship, that, by your harbynger, I may be appoynted some 
convenyent place for myself and my servantes ; my company in 
all ys not above xviij tcn persons. As soone as I can I mean to be 
with your lordship, being desyrous, now I am coommen, not to be 
long from your lordship, having tarryed for passage at Marget a 
fortnyght, and lyen on the sea 2 nyghtes. 

All the newes I can send your lordship at this tyme that will 
best please you ys, that her majesty the xxvhj th of this last moneth 
was in very good helthe, which the Lord Jesus long contynew, with 
all good to your lordship. From Flysshing this iij rd of Marche, 

Your lordships most assured at comandment 
in all I may ever, 

T. Heneage. 
To the right honorable the erle of Lecester, 

her majesties lieutenant generall in the Lowe Contries. 




6th march, 1585-6. cotton ms. galea, c. ix. fol. 113, orig. 

Congratulations on Leycestefs successes, a continuation of which 
would make England the only flourishing realm of Christendom — 
Warwyke scorns the notion of Englishmen becoming slaves to 
Spain, the vilest nation in the world, and thereby losing the true re- 
ligion — the queen's rage rather increases — Leycester is advised to 
make the best assurance he can for himself, and not to trust to 
her oath, or to the friendship of others — he was never so honoured 
amongst good people as now — if the queen persists in revoking him, 
Warwyke, if in his situation, would, go to the farthest part of 
Christendom rather than return to England — Warivyke will take 
such part as Leycester does. 

My dear brother, I have receaved your letter by syr Thomas 
Sherley, a whereby I doe perceave some good exployte hath byn 
donne off late, for the which I am nott a lyttell glad, and I pray 
God make us thanckfull here, both for thatt and for all thinges 
els, the which our good God hath made you the instrument, for 
the saftye of our contrey. Yf all thinges prosper as you have be- 
gonne, there is no dowtt but ytt wyll make Englande the only 
florysshinge relam of crystendom, since yt liethe in her majesty es 
hande to be a most stronge prince, and by this meanes to bryd- 
dell the radge of all enemyes she hath, and wyll nott acceptt of 
ytt. What shall we thincke, butt this nobell contrey of ours to 
be ruynated for ever, yea and to become slaves to the vyallest 
natyone of the worlde, besydes oure soules greff, the whytch 
passeth all the rest, and that is, the true religioune of Jesus Christ 
to be taken from us ; and what is ytt that we have nott desserved 
for our unthanckfullnes, therfore lett us make evyn wyth God, 

a Sir Thomas Sherley was sent into England by Leycester, to urge forward the de- 
sired supplies of men and money. His proceedings will be found detailed in his own 
letters inserted hereafter. 


and loke for our payment pressently. Yt may be, that these 
gallauntes, and others lykewyse, for lacke off care in tyme, shall 
curse the tyme that ever they werr borne. 

Well, our mystrys extreme radge dothe encrease rather then 
any way dymynishe, and givethe out great threatninge wordes 
against you, therefore make the best assuraunce you can for 
yourselff, and trust not her awthe, for that her malyce is great 
and unquenchabell, in the wyssest off their opynyons here, and, as 
for other fryndshipp, as far as I can learne, is as dowtfull as the 
other ; wherefore, my good brother, repose your wholl trust in 
God, and he wyll deffende you in despytt of all your enemyes, 
and lett this be a greate comfortt to you, and so ytt is likewyse 
to myselff and all your assured friendes, and that ys, you warr never 
so honored and loved in your lyff amongest all good peopell as you 
ar att this daye, only for dealinge so nobly and wysely in this 
actione as you have done, so that, whatsoever comethe of ytt, 
you have done your part. I prayse God from my hartt for ytt. 
Once againe, have great care of yourselff, I meane for your saftye, 
and yff she wyll nedes rovoke you, to the overthrowinge of the 
cause, yff I werr as you, yff I cold not be assured there, I wold 
goe to the furdest partt of crystendom rather than ever come into 
Englande againe. I pray you make me no sotche straunger as 
you have done, butt deall franckly with me, for that thatt 
towcheth you towcheth me lykewyse. I have sentt you dyvers 
letters of importaunce and as ytt never had answer off them. Take 
hede whome you trust, for that you have some fallss boyes abowt 
you. Lett me have your best advyce what is best for me to doe. 
for that I meane to take sotche partt as you doe. God bless you, 
and prosper you in all your doinges. In hast, this pressent 6. day 
of Marche. 

Your faithfull brother, 
A. Warwyke. 

Make motch of this powre jentellman Rychard Candyss for that 
he is most assured to you. 




6th march, 1585-6. cotton, ms. galba c. ix. fol. 115. orig. 

The queen's disinclination to have any speech of the business of the 
Low Countries since the departure of sir Thomas Heneage — 
Burghley's continued but unavailing applications to her — answers 
to the earl's letters to be sent in another paper written by Burgh- 
ley's ' man,' himself being disabled from writing by an acci- 
dent — the queen disinclined to a proposal for gaining thirty or 
forty thousand pounds by a foreign coinage of rose-nobles. 

My very good lord, I shuld be ashamed greatly for not oftenar 
wrytyng to your lordship of late, having receaved so manny from 
yow, but that I have an excuse more sufficient than I lyke of, which 
also this beror can inform yow of. 

Since Mr. Hennadg was sent from hence, who tarry ed very 
long at the sea-cost, for want of convenient wynd, hir majesty 
wold never be content to have to any speeche of the state of 
thinges nedefull to be knowen for your chardg. I have not de- 
sisted to move hir to gyve eare, but she contynued hir offence 
as in no sort I cold attayn to any answer mete to be given to 
your lordship. And now of late having had a myshap by a fall, 
wherby I have bene and still am to kepe my bed, I have at sondry 
tymes wrytten to hir majesty. I have also sent my mynd by Mr. 
vice-chamberlen, who hath ernestly vsed my name to hir majesty, 
specially to send monny and men to supply the broken bandes, 
but no answer to purpooss can be had, and yet I mynd not so to 
cess, but, being pushed thereto with conscience and with care of 
hir honor, yea, of her savety, I will still sollicit hir majesty, hopyng 
that God will move hir to barken to necessary motions, prynci- 
pally for hirself. 


Now, my good lord, though I can gyve yow no answer to many 
thynges, for lack of her majesties good disposition, yet I will re- 
membre the matters conteaned in your lordships lettres, and 
wryte somewhat therof, in another paper her included, 3 with my 
mans hand, because, in very truth, the payne of my broosed forad 
dishableth my hand to wryte as I wold. 

My lord, I imparted to hir majesty the secret offer made to 
yow for to yield to hir majesty the gayn of xxx or xl m pounds by 
the yere, for the permission to coyne the ross-nobles ther, but 
hir majesty wold not be tempted therwith ; and suerly, my lord, 
I marvell how such a gayn can be made therof, for though for a 
reasonable porcion to be coyned there, at the first uttrance the 
same might be uttred for great gayn, yet when ther should be any 
plenty, the gredynes of them will be stayd, and the trew vallewe 
wold be knowen, and the estymation would abate. 

It w r old be knowen to what quantitie he wold monthely or 
quarterly coyne, and if it should be taken in hand, and within a 
few months quayle for want of uttrance, the matter wold be 
evil spoken of, to erect up a coynadg in a forrayn country of 
our currant monny ; but if the gayne might be suer, the proffit 
wold answer the speeche. As I may heare more from your lord- 
ship, so will I procede herin. 

And so I tak my leave of your lordship, praying yow to take in 
good part my devyding of my lettre, by wryting part with myn 
own hand and part with my servantes. 

From the court at Greenwych, the 6 th of March, 1585. 
Your lordships allways assured, 


a includ, in MS. 



6th march 1535-6. cotton ms. galba c. ix. fol. 116. 

Answer written by Burghley by the hand of his secretary to various 
points in the earl's correspondence — hire of foreign sailors — the 
lord-admiral refuses to have them — return of Mr. Davison un- 
likely — auditor's accounts — increase of allowance by the states — 
arrangements for coinage of rose-nobles — levy of troops for the 
earl — count d'Embden — purchase of armour — Seburo — consider- 
ations respecting the merchant-adventurers and the proposed re- 
moval of the staple into Holland — skill of the people of the Low 
Countries in making a profit of coinage — sir William Pelham — 
— Killigrew — arrival of sir Thomas Shirley. 

An awnsweare of divers matters mentioned in sondrie lettres 
of the erle of Leicesters. 


I have informed hir majestie, that his lordship is assured that 
theire maye be shippes and mariners enough to be hired to serve 
hir majestie uppon reasonable warning, whearein is required to be 
understood, what nombres of shipps of warre may be had to joine 
in consort with hir majesties shippes uppon the seas, and whea- 
ther it be not ment the same shall be at the charg of the states, 
otherwise hir majesty hath noe meaning to increase hir charge ; 
and though, at the first, it was thowght meete, for supplie of our 
lacke of mariners, to hire sum from thence for the navie of 
Englande, yet nowe, my lord-admirall and the officers doe reso- 
lutelie awnsweare, theie will never have anie mariners, being 
strangers, to be matched with the Englishe. As for the request 
that M r . Davison might retorne, I find noe likelood to geve your 
lordship anye hope thereof. 


The awditor Hunt hath shewed a forme of an accompt of the 
treasurer for the expence of the treasure delivered to him, which 
commeth to lij m u , with v™ u delivered to M r . John Norris at the 
beginning. In this accompt theare [are] sondrie thinges dowbt- 
full, spetiall for manie paimentes made by the treasurer withowt 
anie warrant either from M r . Norris or from your lordship. 
Theare is, also, noe good reckoning made by the treasurer of the 
v mii fi rs t delivered to M r . Norris, whie the same is not repaid by 
the states ; neither of such monie as he hath laide owt for the 
pioners serving the states ; other particular dowbtes theare be 
whereof M r . secretarie hath made a colleccion, which shall be, 
either by Hunt the awditor or sum other, sent over thither to 
be awnsweared ; but that which I waie more of than all this is, 
that I find certainelie, uppon the vewe of this accompt, that the 
treasurer had not sufficient for a monethes paie before the end 
of Januarie, so as he lacketh both for Februarie and for this pre- 
sent moneth of Marche, for which purpose it is more than good 
time the treasure weare on the waie thither. 

I have informed hir majestie of the 200,000 florins accorded to 
be monethlie paid by the states, to be clearelie expended, besides 
discharge of their former debtes, and the charges of the sea; thes 
thinges weare mentioned in the former lettre. 


A matter concerning coinage shall be awmswered in a lettre of 
mine owne handes, yet your lordship shall understand what bar- 
gaine hath been made heare before the threasurers departure, with 
him and alderman Martin, that is, that hir majesty should be 
awnsweared for the coinage of everie pownd, vizt. of gold in roze- 
nobles, the summ of xxx s , wheare before theare ware paid for the 
coinage but vj s . so as nowe the encrease is xxiiij s ., which by rec- 
koning cometh in tale to x d . for every xx s ., that before was but ij d .; 
thus much for matters of the second lettre. 



Concerni nge the levienge and sending of 1000 pioners, of 
[whom] one hundred to be miners, bicause I thinke it weare verie 
necessarie for your service theare, I have furthered it the best of 
my power, but ho we it proceadeth your lordship shall understand 
from M r . secretarye. 

That which your lordship writeth of the comte of Embdens af- 
fection to Spaigne I am sorie to thinke it to trewe, although since 
your lordships departure from hence the comte sent spetiall let- 
tres to hir majestie, with grevous complain tes against the Hol- 
landers by spoilinge of his people with their shippes in the river 
of Emps, requiringe hir majestie to write hir lettres to the states 
in Holland to reforme the abuses of their shippes and men of 
warre, with an offer to showe his good will to the cawse which 
hir majestie had taken in hand for them, and, for this purpose, 
hir majestie wrote hir lettres unto him of cumfort to procure the 
redresse, and lettres to them of Holland to performe the same ; 
at which time, also, theare weare lettres written to your lordship 
to [take] sum meanes to compound the same controversie be- 
twixt them, [all] which lettres as I thinke Ortellius had to send 
into Holland; what was done thearebie I knowe not, but yet, 
within a few daies, Ortell reported, that all thinges weare well 
compounded betwixt [the states] of Holland and the comte, and so 
I thought thei had been, untill nowe that I doe otherwise under- 
stand from your lordship, as likewise sir Thomas Shurlee reporteth 
the same. 


I find that our merchant-men doe greatlie misuse themselves in 
enhaunsing up the prices of armour theare, and, according to 
your advise, I wishe the provision that is to be made for hir ma- 
jestie might be made from thence with your assistaunce. 

Your lordship writeth to have one Seburo, a Spaniard that is a pre- 
sonar heare, to be delivered in exchange for the sonne of the bailii 


of Dort, whearein what to awnsweare your lordship at this time I 
knowe not, for that theare hath been great motion made to pro- 
cure for him the deliverie of Stephen le Sire, which I thinke M r . 
secretarie hath furthered. And if he might free them both [it] 
weare noe ill bargaine for England, for that Seburo is a man of 
small valeue to do either good or hurt, onelie his kin [sman] the 
governour of Dunkirke doth desire him for frendshipp. 


Your lordship moveth to have our merchantes to trade into 
Holland with theare cloathes, and also with theire woolles, which 
thing hath been moved unto them heretofore, and theie of the 
staple for wooll have alledged, that theie have noe hope to have 
anie great vent for theire woolle, considering theie have had good 
quantetye of theire woolles lieng long at Middleborough, for the 
which, theie saie, thei never could have vent but to their great 
losse : and I moved them to change their staple to Brill, accord- 
ing to the request of the towne of Brill sent hither the last som- 
mer by M r . Davison, but I could not at that time induce them to 
loke thereof. Nevertheles, I will assaie them nowe uppon your 
lordships newe motion, with the offer of the Hollanders that 
theie will leave draping of the Spanish woolles and occupiours, 
whearebie I thinke, in truthe, our woolle maiehave good utterance. 
For the merchaunte-ad venturers, I will also deale with them for 
theire trade thither, with theire cloathes, considering neither Ham- 
borough nor Embden are fitt places for them as the worlde shapeth, 
but I feare the greatest lett will be, that theire will be noe safe 
passag for theire cloathes to be carried upp into Germanie by the 
river of the Rhein, speteallie considering the towne of Newmeg- 
gen is in the enemies hand, and the convoies of such against the 
streame will be subject to dangers in divers places, being waited 
for by the enemie : but if our merchantes could be content to 
keape theire martes in thes Lowe Countries, withowt seeking to 
conveie them upp into Germanie themselves, it is likelie that both 


Italians and Germaines would com into thos cuntries and buie 
them at the first hand themselves, and by meanes of safe con- 
ductes would make theire passages free. By this your lettre, also, 
your lordship doth confirme your opinion of the comte Embden 
to be Spanishe. 


I was glad to perceive that your lordship hath obtained a 
grawnt of 100,000 florins more for fowre monethes, and yet I am 
gladde to understand, by report of sir Thomas Shurleie, that yt 
should be 200,000, so as then your lordship shall have by 
the moneth xl m n . sterling, which surelie is a great yeld, and an 
argument of the liking of your government. I am glad, also, 
that you have obtained the erecting of the howse of finances, 
whearein I dowbt not but you have men of sufficient conning for 
the guiding thereof : but I feare theire subteltie, for theire be noe 
people can better skill to make a gaine of coinage than thos Lowe 

In that your lordship is so desirous to have sir William Pelham 
theare, I thinke you have great reason, for, in truthe, I knowe noe 
one man borne in England of more sufficiencie than he is, but 
the lett of his not comming I thinke this bearer can fullie informe 
yowe, which, for my part, I have sowght to remedie in all that I 
can, as well for the releef of the gentleman himself, as for the prof- 
fit of the service that might growe by his being with you. 

I am glad that yowe have the use of my brother Killegrewe, 
who, as he is of great experience, so I knowe he cloth of verie, 
meere affection towardes your lordship serve theare at this time, 
which otherwise noe reward could provoke him, such desire I 
knowe he hath to live privatelie and unoccupied. 3 

My good lord, in this sort hytherto have I eased myn own 
hand to releve my evill forhed. And now, since sir Thomas Shyr- 

» Up to this place this paper was written by a secretary. The remainder is in the 
hand-writing of Lord Burghley himself. 


leys coming, which was on Fryday at night, I must leave to hym 
to send yow report of his actions. Hopyng, that, within some 
few dayes, he shall have more matter to wryte of than that he 
hath. And so I end at this tyme, overcom with feare of sham 
that I may have to wryte but on lettre, to so manny as I have 
receaved from your lordship, and manny of them of your 
hand : but the fault is not lack of good will to wryte oftenar, if 
oftenar I might have a subject of matter. I dout not but by M r . 
secretory your lordship doth understand of the proceadynges both 
forward and syde-wey in Scotland, of which variete truly the cheff 
cause cometh from hence. God amend it, whan it shall please 
hym to thynk us worthy of better. From the court at Grenwych 
the 6. of March, 1585. 

Your lordships assuredly, 
as anye, 



7th march 1585-6. cotton ms. galba c. ix. fo. 120. orig. 

The queen's humour of mislike still continues — she refuses to see 
Sherley or receive Leycester's letters sent by him — commands him 
to deliver his messayes to Hatton and Burghley — Lewis de 
Pace — count d'Embden and the merchant-adventurers — objec- 
tions to payments made by Leycester's orders — sir Thomas Ce- 
cill — urged to write frequently to the queen and the body of the 

May yt please your good lordship, bycawse by this tyme your 
lordship hath receaved her majestyes disposytyon by sir Thomas 


Hennage, I forbeare to trubble your lordship wyth longe dys- 
coorce of those stormes, espetyallye fyndynge Mr. Candysshe 
allso so well instructed therin, who canne, allso, very well enforme 
your lordship of the good affectyon of the lords of the councell 
in this case, and of soome noe good offyces donne from thence, as 
yt is heare thowght, towardes your lordship. 

I fynd, that the quene contyneweth near in the same humore 
of myslyke of your lordships acceptance of the government ther, 
that shee was in when sir Thomas Heneage went hence, and hath 
hytherunto refused to speake with me, or to receave your lord- 
ships letters, thowghe Mr. vyce-chamberlayne hath most nobly 
and carefully solycyted her hyghnesse therin. 

Uppon saterdaye in the afternoone, shee dyd commaund me by 
Mr. vyce-chamberlayne, that I shold delyver suche matter as I 
had to saye unto my lord-tresewrer and hym, whyche I dyd, and 
therin I labored most to sett forthe unto them the necessytye of 
your lordships acceptaunce of that government, and then pro- 
ceedyd to treat for men and monney, and concequently to all the 
rest of my instructyons. My lord-tresewrer put all my proceed- 
ynges wyth them into artycles, and delyvered yt unto Mr. vyce- 
chamberlayne to relate unto the quene, for his selfe is lame, and 
cold nott goe unto her. Wheruppon she sayd, she wold as yes- 
terdaye speake wyth my lord-tresewror, but that is nott yeat 

I spake only unto Mr. secretory towchynge Lewes de Pace, who 
doth assure me that ther is noe dowght of that matter : so as, by 
his advyce, I forbeare to saye anny thynge therof unto my lord- 

My lord-tresewror myslyketh not that her majestye shold wryte 
unto the earle of Emden, but sayth, that to remove the coorce of 
marchantes from thence to Holland and Zelland were nott good, 
bycawse ther is noe good meanes to convaye marchantdyce from 
thence to Collen and those partes, except your lordship were 
possessed of Newmegyn and the rest uppon the ryver. Ther 


shall present order be taken for somme shyppes and pynnyces to 
chastyce the Dunkerkers. 

In the accomptes of the quenes tresewror yt is myslyked, that 
your lordship hath made full allowaunce of paye unto every cap- 
tayne, allthowghe they wanted somme of them more then the 
halfe of theyre men, as yt is sayde heare. I wysshe your lord- 
ship, ether by a letter unto my lord-tresowror or by somme other 
meanes, to make somme answer therunto. I had noe instructyon 
or acquayntaunce howe to answere yt. Mr. secretory doth wysshe, 
that your lordship had taken order for the paye or imprest at 
Brylle, equally with other places, and that you wold, allso, use 
kynesse unto sir Thomas Ceycell, for he doth assure me, that my 
lord-tresewror doth deale very dyrectly and honerably towards 
your lordship and that whole cawse. 

Fynally, all your frendes doe wysshe your lordship to wryte 
more often unto her majestye, and that, at all tymes when ther 
is cawse, you wold please to dyrect one large letter unto the boddy 
of the councell, as unto pryvate frendes. A present letter is allso 
wysshed from your lordship unto her majestye uppon the message 
of sir Thomas Hennage, and then, yf ther be cawse, and a your 
lordship please to send me anny addytyon unto my instructyons, I 
wyll contynewe suche faythfull care therin as becommeth me to- 
wardes your lordship. And I dowght nott, in the end, but all 
wyll be well, and her majestye will be reduced by reason to allowe 
well of that whyche your lordship hath donne. 

I deale only with my lord-tresewror, Mr. vice-chamberlayne, 
Mr. secretorye, and my lord Buckehurst. I doe assure your lord- 
ship I fynd them all very honnorably affected in this cawse, and 
carefull to doe in yt accordynglye. I am, and ever will be, at 
your lordships servyce, and I doe for ever wysshe your lordship 
all happynesse. At coort this 7- of March, 1585. 
Your good lordships ever most 

assured at commaund, 

Thomas Sfierlev. 

a that, in MS. 



9th march, 1585-6. harl. ms. 285, fol. 228. orig. 

The earl thanks them for their mediation with the queen — will not 
excuse his acceptance of the government without first acquainting 
her majesty — he ivas earnest to consult her, but yielded to the per- 
suasions of Davison and others — denies with imprecations the accu- 
sation of having acted contemptuously — complains of Davison's 
answers to the queen — desires to be recalled, and to serve her 
majesty with his prayers. 

My verye singuler good lords, I am to render most hartye and 
humble thankes unto you, for that, I am informyd, hit hath 
pleaside you to be meanes to hir most excellent majesty, to qual- 
lyfye hir hard conceatt agenst my pore servyce donne here. 

I wyll not excuse myself of a great fault, that I dyd not first 
aquaint her highness before I dyd accept this office, and to re- 
ceave hir good pleasure therin, but what I may alleage for myself 
I trust Mr. Davison hath delyvered, or elles hath he greatly both 
deceaved me and broken promys with me. How ernest I was, 
not only to aquaint hir majesty, but, imedyatly, uppon the first 
mocion made here by the states, to send him over to hir majesty 
with my letters and his report of the whole state of these matters, 
I dowbt not but he wyll truly affyrme for me, yea, and how farr 
ageinst my wyll it was, notwithstanding any reasons delyvered me, 
that he and others persisted in, to have me accept first of this 
place. Albeyt, I must confes, all that he dyd, presuming the ex- 
stremytye of the cace to be such as he thought himself fully hable 
to satysfie hir majesty, as a matter either than to be taken with- 
out all delaye or to fall utterlye to the ground, and his knowledge 
therof I know to be farr beyond myne, having byn contynewally 


beatena here among them, long before my coming, and most carefull 
was he to bring all to the best pass for hir servyce. Uppon which 
exstremytye of the cace, as yt was, and being perswaded that Mr. 
Davy son might better have satysfyed hir majestie than I perceave 
he can, caused me, nether arrogantly nor contemptuouslye, but 
even merely and faythfully, to doe hir majesty the best servyce. 
And as I say not thys to worke any blame to Mr. Davyson, whose 
most sincere honest minde toward hir servyce I must acknow- 
ledge, so yet may I not leave so greatt a conceatt remayne in hir 
majestyes minde of my undewtyfullnes, whan I did not only re- 
member my dewty as I have told you, but dyd urge the per- 
formance therof as I have wrytten. But my yelding was my 
none fault, whatsoever his perswasions, or any others, might be, 
seing the reasons be no more acceptyd of hir majesty than they 
be ; but farr from a contemptuous hart, or elles God pluck out 
both hart and bowelles, with utter shame. 

And finding hit thus hardly to light uppon me, which I thought 
should have wonne a more favorable constructyon, the doing hav- 
ing wholye tended to the advauncement of hir majesties most ho- 
norable servyce, as all men here hath and doth see, I doe most 
humbly besech your good lordships, to contynew your good fa- 
vors towards me, and to wey whereuppon hir majesties offence 
hath groen, only uppon presuming to much of hir good opinion of 
my fidellytye toward hir, and partly by Mr. Davisons over- great 
slacknes to have answered soner and better for me, as he promysed 
he wold. And being greatly dyscouraged, albeyt I could allege 
for the cause and place very much to satysfie your lordships for 
my honest servyce therby to hir majesty, yet wyll I not seme to 
travell ageinst the groundes of hir majestyes so depe conceatt, but 
leave yt to God and your lordships most frendly medyation to 
conceave, that I am hir most loyall faythfull bondman, and had 
never ether contemptuous or unworthy thought of hir sacred ma- 
jesty, but as becam so bounded a servant and subject as I am, and 
* i. e. stationed as upon a beat. 


ever wylbe to hir, lett hir use me as shall please hir. And, yf 
withowt offence and with hir favour, hit ys not only the leaving of 
this place I shall humbly desier, but to serve hir majesty where elles 
soever by my humble and dayly prayer, which shall never ceas 
for hir most happie preservacion and long contynewance, finding 
myself very unfytt and unable to wade in so weighty a cause as 
this ys, which ought to have much more comfort than I shall 
ether find or desarve. Thus, beseching God to bless and govern 
all your councelles to his glorye and hir majestyes best servyce, I 
humbly take my leave. At Harlem this ix. of March, 1585. 
Your lordships most assured 
pore frend, 

R. Leycester. 

As far as I can perceave, hir majesty doth think, that by this 
place I tooke I have engaged hir in some further sort than she 
was before, but your lordships shall find, I did both forsee that, 
and ther ys no such cause to think yt; for yt ys most certen, 
ther ys no more donn on hir majestyes parte than hir owne con- 
tract doth bynd hir, only she hath hir own servant to comaund 
here, whear some one other must, which wold, I think, more have 
myslyked hir. 

To the right honourable my very good lords, the lords 
of her majesties moste honourable privye counsaile. 



9th march, 1585-6. harl. ms. 285, fo. 225. orig. 

The earl complains of the imperfection of Davison's explanations to 
the queen — protests that he accepted the government only upon 
his earnest persuasions and his promise to discharge him to the 
queen — hopes the cause will take no harm — Heneage proceeds 
warily — the earl has advanced above £11,000 — miserable state 
of the soldiers — the earl anxious to be rid of his " heavy high 
calling" and be at his poor cottage again — Schenclc's exploits. 

Mr. secretary, I thank you for your letters, though you can 
send me no comfort ; I trust God wyll not leave those that meane 
truly, and trust in him. Hir majesty doth deall hardly to De- 
leave so yll of me. Hyt is true that I faulted, bycause I dyd not 
advertyse hir majesty first or I shuld take such an authorytye 
uppon me, but she doth not consider what comodyttyes she hath 
withall, and hirself no way engaged for yt, either one way or other, as 
Mr. Davison myght have better declaryd yt, yf yt had pleasd him. 
And I must thank him only for my blame, and so he wyll con- 
fess to you, for, I protest before God, no necessyty here could 
have made me leave hir majesty unacquantyd with the cause be- 
fore I wold have acceptyd of yt, but only his so ernest pressing 
me, with his faythfull assured promys to dischardge me, howso- 
ever hir majesty shuld take yt. For you all se ther, she had no 
other cause to be offended but this, and, by the Lord, he was 
the only cause, albeyt yt ys no suffycyent allegacion, being as I am. 

And as for the importance of the cause I did adventure, so 
considering the importance of hindering the cause thorow the dys- 
pleasure that doth fall uppon me, hit had byn an honest part yet 
to have lett hir majesty know how ernest I was, and how resolute, 


to acquaint hir with the cause or I would have taken the place ; 
and hit could not have had any blame almost, doing yt, as he did 
indeede, for hir great servyce, and assuredly all had byn lost yf I 
had not than acceptyd of yt as I dyd, and, accepting yt as I dyd, 
with my former resolucyon and myndfullnes to advertyse hir, he 
had, I think, saved all to have told hir, as he promysed me. But 
now yt ys leyd uppon me, God send the cause to take no harm, 
my grefe must be the less; though yt toucheth me as nere as doth 
hir majesties so hard dyspleasure, yet have I no way, I thank God, 
tyed hir majesty to any inconvenyence by my acceptance. How 
farr Mr. Henneages comyssion shall deface me here I know not; he 
ys wary to observe hys comyssyon, and I content withall. I know 
the tyme wylbe hir majesty wyll be sorry for yt. In the meane 
tyme I am to to wery of the high dygnyty, I wold any that could 
serve hir majesty werr placed in yt and I to sytt down with all 
my losses. 

I assure you, uppon my fidelity, I have spent and leyd out for 
hir majesty's servyce above 11,000 U sterling alredy, in these iij 
months. I thought yt wold have served me v months longer 
here. I tell you truly my howse alone hath cost me a 1000 11 a 
month, and some month more. I have also payd hetherto v c and 
1. men ; of my owne purse these, and furnyshed them of my none 
chardges. And for the horsmen, I am sure all these countreys 
enymyes, or other, have not such vj c . horse as I have. I receavyd 
but for iiij c . as you know, and I have payd, both for the other ij c . 
and, synce I cam hether, a c. and 1. moi*e ; so that I have above 
iij c . and 1. that myself hath raysed, above the iiij c . hir majesty 
payd for at London. And all this ys lyke to light uppon me, in- 
stead of better happ. I am sure ther hath not a gentleman past 
hence, ether of my none or otherwyse, but the least hath had xl>. 
some xx 11 ., some xxx 11 ., and the most xx. Well, so I might have 
gott any more money for my land that ys left, I wold as well have 
spent more, for ther be many here have spent much. 

But, sir, whatsoever become of me, gyve me leave to speake for 


the pore soldyeres. Yf they be not better mainteyned, being in this 
Strang countrey, ther wyll nether be good service donn, nor be 
without great dishonour to hir majesty, and the less she shall 
send at once the more unproffytable for hir, and she shall find yt 
so, and xx mli . to send now, I doe assure you yt ys all dew alredy, 
and you se what lettes you have by the wynd. Ther was no sol- 
dyer yet able to buy himselfe a pair of hose, and yt ys to to great 
shame to se how they goe, and hit kills ther hartes to shew them- 
selves among men. Well, you se the wantes, and hit ys one 
cause that wyll gladde me to be rydd of this hevy high cauling, 
and wyshe me at my pore cottage ageyn, yf any I shall find. But, 
lett hir majesty pay them well, and apoint such a man as sir Wil- 
liam Pellam to govern them, and she never wann more honour 
than these men here wyll doe, I am perswaded. 

For newes, I wrote you of late that Shenkes had taken a town 
and castle in Westfalia called Werl. Synce that, the enymyes 
of that countrey gathered together, both the gentlemen and ablest 
men, and offred a kind of siege of the towne, but Shenkes issewed 
out and sett uppon them, slewe that [there] ley ded in the fild 2500 
persons ; he toke a great nomber prisoners, among which wer 25 of 
very good cauling, and the ij chife captens beside. Surely this ys 
a noble fellow, having done this he fecht in all ther vyttells, and 
vytteled the towen and castell, and left a good garison, and putt 
himself now safe into Nuse, which we doubtyd to be besiged 
shortly. Ostend ys thought wylbe beseged, but I fear yt not. 

Thus, having spent my paper and all my news, I betake you to 
God, &c. At Harlem 9. March. 

Your assured frend, 

R. Leycester. 

To my honorable good frend sir Francis Walsingham, 
knight, principall secretary to her majesty. 




10th march, 1585-6. harl. ms. 285. fol. 230. orig. 

The earl complains, that he having unwillingly accepted the govern- 
ment, upon Davison's persuasion, and his promise to satisfy the 
queen, Davison had procured him displeasure by not stating those 
facts — Davison answers, in the margin, by insinuating that the 
earl was not unwilling, and that the queen's anger proceeded upon 
the ground of her having expressly commanded the earl not to 
accept such an authority, which command the earl never mentioned 
to Davison and the others who advised him to the contrary. 

Hit hath not greved me a lytle, that, by 

Den y ed - your meanest I have fallen into hir majesty's 

so depe displeasure, but that you, also, have 

I appeale to the testimony of s0 carelesly dyscharged your parte, in the 

dew declaracion of all thinges as they stoode 

in troth. Knowing most assuredly, that, 

yf you had delyvered to hir majesty indede 

The contrary appeares. the troth of my dea l ingj Mr highnes could 

never have conceavyd, as I perceave she 

doth. For, by the letters, and message I 

He was dispatched the same have rece ived by Mr. Hennaqe, nether doth 

night 1 arrived. _ J a J 

Let sir Philip Sidney and mr majesty know, how hardly I was drawen 

others witnes. t acce pt this place before I had acquainted 

hir, wherein no man living knew so much 

as yourself to have satysfied hir, as you 

faythfully tooke uppon you and promysed 

I did my best to satisfie her vou wo ld, in such sort as you wold not only 
majestie, whenn I appeale to ^ 

a The words printed in Italics were underscored in the original by Davison. They 
indicate the points to which his marginal observations principally apply. 


gyve hir majesty full satisfaction, but WOld^er owne conscience, and 
. .. , tvt ,t testimony of others. 

procure me many great thankes. Nether ys This had beene a woorke of 
hir majesty informyd rightly what authorytye **£™™t^*d' ilk™ tll6n * 
I have received; for yf you had don that As truly and particulerly as 
certenly as yt was, she wold not be offended him , s flf or any man theare 

, - 7 7 7-^7 7 C0Uld h£lVe d0Ile - 

as she ys, for, as you dyd chifely perswade His ende in coming ovei . ; 
me to take this chardge uppon me, so yet with some other circum- 

..._„.,. . . M , . stances, may decide this ques- 

did 1 not deal! so vamlye as yt semes hir tion. 
highnes conceaves, as though I was so gladd 
of the place I did not care how I engaged 
hir majesty, contrary to hir wyll and plea- 
sure, by my acceptance of the place, of which 
no man knew better how to dyscharge me 

of that than yourself, who can remember, For the clearing of some 
how many treatyes you and others had with scruples depending on that 
the states before I agreed, for all yours and se if. 
their perswasions to take yt soner ; and no- All this while theare was no 
thing dyd I seke more, as both the doctors m ° a u nc iement;» 
Clerkes can also tell, than to have hir ma- 
jesty clere from conclusions in this matter 

every way, and so dyd you all assure me, A11 this makes nothing to the 
elles had I never taken yt as I dyd ; which, purpose against me. 
when I found hir majesty no wey bound 
nor tyed by my doing, and by the accept- 
ance of this place I might so greatly, as I 
have indede, advaunced hir servyce, (yf yt 
be so considered) and withall help this 
countrey from the present imenent danger 
yt stoode in, made me more wylling to doe 
as I have done, and to adventure, uppon 
that assurance you gave me to satusfie hir As far fourth as I was able ; 

. . , . T , , 7 , t , as much as any privat frend 

majesty, but 1 se not that you have done any he hath. 
thing. Spetyally, I, aquainting you with all 



A doubt bewrayed, T confess, m y comvssions and instructyons before, and 

but no commande merit to the ' . , _ . . . 

contrary. «y« ?*o/ hide from you the dowbt I had or hir 

majestyes yll taking yt, except you dyd tho- 
rowly make her know indede, both my care 
to please hir majesty before all thinges in 

standing with her majestyes the world, and the cause of hir servyce, 

honour and service, not c i n f e i y w ithout engaging hir any way, caused 
against her express com- J ° ° ° j j ■> 

maundement. me yeld to your persivasions here. Ther- 

As a man honestly affected to f ore I conclude, charging IJOU With your C011- 
the cause, and more to him- . . 

self then this dealing meriteth. science how you doe deall now with me; 

Absolutely denyed. seeing you chifely broght me into yt, and to 

suffre me to rest mysjuged of by hir majesty, 
which could no wey have byn heavy to you 

IWfrt&SEC**"** V" had tM the Mermosi of your 

many men would beare for own doing, as you faythfully promysed me 

you wold, and, rather than hir majesty shuld 

mysconceave of me, you wold lett hir know 

It is done. the hole troth in dede ; for that / dyd very 

Herof let the world judge, unwillingly come to the matter, dowbting that 

to fall out that ys com to pas, more thorow 

on causa pro c ^^ ^ good and substancyall making hir 

majesty trewly understand the cace, than 

for any offence in reason comytted, and all 

]:: & t J£ t 2 Ich! a™ ** i »* f«"° °>< tb >j y<""- *»»»' •*•- 

you siioid have employed lesnes, whereof I many hundred tymes told 

some other in the journey, t , T . 771,1 .t j 

which I had no reason to af- you of, that you ivold both marr the gOOd- 
fect much, preseing well nes f t ] ie ma tter and brede me hir majesties 

ynough how thankles it wold • 

be. dyspleasure. But, housoever yt fall out, she 

So let it be; so the endes of shall know all my reasons, and Mr. Hennege, 

ep ' I trust wyll [declare] his knowledge, and than 

referr all to God and hir majesty. Thus fare 

you well, and, accept your embassages have 

better success, I shall have no great cause to 


comencl them. In som haste at Harlem, 
this x. of March, 1585. 

Your loving frend, 

R. Leycester. 
To my cousyn Davyson 


14th march, 1585-6. cotton, ms. galba c. ix. fo. 128. orig. 

Sherley reports that he had had an interview with the queen, in 
which she used most bitter words against the earl — Sherley's 
reply — the queen insists that Leycester's proceeding was suffici- 
cient to make her infamous to all princes — Sherley praised the 
policy of Drake 's expedition, and pointed out that it was more of- 
fensive to Spain than the course taken by the earl — the queen 
replied that Drake would not care if she disavowed him — Sherley 
suggested that neither ivould Leycester care for her disavowal of 
his government if she still retained her favour towards him — 
Sherley' s stratagems to induce the queen to receive Leycester's 
letter but in vain — he reports a subsequent interview, in which he 
worked upon her regard for Leycester, by representing that he ivas 
ill, and soliciting permission for a medical man to go over to him, 
ujhich the queen granted — difficulties as to procuring men and 
money— feelings of the queen's advisers towards Leycester— Hat- 
ton has at length induced her to receive Leycester's letter — Sher- 
ley's anticipations. 

May yt please your good lordship, after eight dayes I spake 
with her majestye, beynge browght unto her by Mr. vice-cham- 


berlayne, into the pryvy chamber, when she used most bytter 
wordes agaynst your lordship for your receavynge that govern- 
ment, affirmynge, that shee dyd expressly forbyd yt unto your 
lordship, in the presence and hearynge of dyvers of her councell. 
I aleged the necessytye of yt, and your lordships intent to doe all 
for the best for her majestyes servyce ; and I told her, how those 
countreyes dyd expect you as a governor at your fyrst landynge, 
and that the states durst doe noe other but to satysfye the people 
allso with that oppynion ; whose myslyke of theyr present go- 
vernment was such and so great, as the name of states was growen 
odyose amongest them, and that the states, dowgthynge the furyose 
rage of the people, conferred the authorytye uppon your lordship 
wyth insessaunt sewt unto you to receave yt, notwythstandyng, 
your lordship dyd deney yt untill you sawe playnely bothe con- 
fusyon and reuyne of that countreye, yf your lordship shold refuse 
yt: and, of the other syde, when you hadseene into theyre estates, 
your lordship found great proffyt and commodytye like to come 
unto her majestye by your acceptaunce of yt. And that, by this 
meanes, her majestye shold have the commandment bothe of theyr 
monney, shippes, and townes ; that they of themselves hence- 
foreward cold doe nothynge to prejudyce her hyghnesse; howe 
her owne people in those partes were lyke to be in so muche 
the better assuraunce to be well used; howe her hyghnesse 
myght have garrysones of Inglysshe in as manny of theyr 
townes as pleased her, wythowght any more charge then 
she is now at ; how noe peace canne, at any tyme hereafter, be 
made wyth Spayne, but throwghe her, and by her. I put her 
majestye allso into remembraunce, that, if anny of another natyon 
had bene chosen, it myght have wrowght great dawnger, besydes 
the indygnytye that her levytenaunt-gennerall shold, of necessytye, 
be under hym that so shold have bene elected; fynally, that this 
ys a stopp to any other that may affect the place of government 
ther. But all my speeche was in vayne ; for shee persysted, say- 
inge, that your lordships procedyng was suffycyent to make her 


infamose to all prynces, havynge protested the contrary in a booke 
which is translated into dyvers and soondrye languages ; and that 
your lordship, beynge her servaunt, owght nott, in your dewtye 
towardes her, to have entred into that coorce, wythowght her 
knowlege and good allowaunce. 

Then, to draw her into soome better consyderatyon of your 
doynges, I told her majestye, that the world had conceaved a 
hyghe jugement of her great wysdome and provydence, whyche 
shee shewed in assaylyng the kynge of Spayne at one tyme both 
in the Lowe Countreys and allso by sir Frauncis Drake ; I dyd 
assure myselfe, that the same jugement of hers whyche, at the 
fyrst, dyd cawse her so to take it in hand, dyd lykewyse con- 
tynewe a certayne knowlege in her majestye, that one of these 
actyons must needes stand muche the better by the other ; and that, 
yf sir Frauncis dyd prosper, then all was well ; and thowghe he 
shold nott prosper, yeat this hold that your lordship had taken 
for her uppon the Low Countreyes wold allwayes assure her of an 
honnerable peace, yf yt shold at anny tyme stand so wyth her 
majestyes pleasewre. I besowght her hyghnesse, allso, to re- 
member, that, to the kynge of Spayne, this government of your 
lordship made noe greater matter then to be her majestyes levy- 
tenaunt-gennerall ther, but that the vyage of sir Frauncis was of 
muche more offence unto hym then this. To that shee sayd, shee 
cold very well answere for sir Frauncis, " but, yf nede be/' sayde 
shee, " the gentleman careth nott yf I shold dysavowe him." 
" Even so," sayd I, " standeth my lord, yf your dysavowynge of 
hym may allso stand wyth your hyghnesse favour towardes hym." 

Then I told her majestye, that, yf this brute of her myslyke 
of your lordships awthorytye theyre shold comrae unto the eares 
of those people, beynge a natyon both suddayne and suspytyose, 
and havynge heretofore benne used unto stratagem, I feared that 
yt myght worke somme straunge notyon in them, consyderynge 
that, at this tyme, ther is an encrease of taxatyon raysed uppon 
them, the bestowynge wherof perhapes they knowe nott of, nether 


were lyke to judge the best of yt ; and that your lordship gyvynge 
upp of that government shold leave them alltogyther wythowght 
government, and in worce case then ever they were in before, for 
nowe the awthorytye of [the] states was dyssolved, and your lord- 
ships government is nowe the only thynge that holdeth them to- 
gythers; I dyd, therfore, l:>eseche her hyghnesse to consyder well 
of yt, and that, yf there wer anny pryvate [cause] for whyche 
shee tooke greefe agaynst your lordship, yeat that shee wold 
please to have regard unto the pupplyke cawse, and to have care 
of her owne saffetye, whyche, in manny wyse menes oppynions, 
stoode muche uppon the good mayntenaunce and upholdynge of 
this matter. Shee wold nott beleve me in the dyssolvynge of the 
awthorytye of [the] states, but sayd, shee knewe well inowghe, 
that the states dyd remayne states styll, and sayd, shee ment nott 
to doe harme unto the cawse, but only to reforme that whyche 
your lordship had donne beyond your warraunt from her. And 
so shee leaft me. And this is the effect of all that passed then, 
but your letter in no wyse her majestye wold then receave, 
thowghe I dyd often beseche yt; and in dyvers thynges that she 
asked of me I semed more ignoraunt then I was, and told her, 
that I thowght your lordship had wrytten therof, bycawse I wold 
have herr to receave your letter, but yt would nott be. 

Uppon Frydaye last, as her majestye walked in the garden, I 
thowght to tast her affectyon unto your lordship by an nother 
meanes, and stepped unto her and sayd, that your lordship beynge 
in dowght of fallynge into a dyssese that Goodrowse a dyd once 
cure you of, your lordship was now an humble sewtor unto her high- 
nesse, that yt wold please her to spare Goodrowse, and to gyve 
hym leave to comme unto your lordship for soome tyme. I as- 
sure your lordship yt moved her much, and shee answered me, 
that with all her hart you shold have hym, and that shee was sorry 
that your lordship had that need of hym. I told her that shee 

a Goodrowse was a physician in the confidence of the earl of Leycester, and a legatee 
under his will. Sydney Papers, i. 75. 


was a very gratyose prynce, that pleased nott to suffer your lord- 
ship to perryshe in your health, thowghe otherwysse shee tooke 
offence agaynst you, wherunto shee answered me, " You knowe 
my mynd. I may nott endewre that my man shold alter my 
commyssyon, and the awthorytye that I gave hym, uppon his 
owne fancyes, and wythowght me ;" and therwithall shee called 
an other unto her, dowghtynge, as I thynke, that by degrees I 
wold agayne have treatyd wyth her abowt the other matters, 
whyche indeede I had donne, espetyally to delyver your lordships 

Thus I have trubbled your lordship longe, and I have told 
you all and every part of the speeche that I have yeat had wyth her 
majestye, savynge soome speeche of my lady your wyffe, not ma- 
teryall to wryte of. I have ever synce, and styll wyll, attend 
uppon Mr. vyce-chamberlayne, to knowe her hyghnesse pleasewre 
abowt men and monny, but, by reason of cold that shee hath 
taken, her majestye keepeth her chamber thes three dayes, and 
is very unapt to be dealt wyth in these matters, as Mr. vyce- 
chamberlayne tellyth me. My lord-tresewror is allso lame, so as 
lie cannot goe to her, and wythowght hym I perceave shee wyll 
conclude nothynge, but, as farr as I canne gather from army of 
them, your lordship is lyke to have but a verie poore supply of 
monney at this tyme, she talketh of x. thowsand, but, yf yt comme 
to xx. thowsand, yt wyll be all, I beleve. To be playne with your 
lordship, I feare shee groweth weerye of the charge, and wyll 
very hardly be browght to deale throwghly in the actyon. 

Uppon Saterdaye last, her majestye commaunded Mr. vice- 
chamberlayne to conferr with my lord-tresewror and Mr. secre- 
tory, abowt monney to be sent thyther, but they concluded nott. 
I fynd them all very well dysposed in this matter, but Mr. vyce- 
chamberlayne is the man that dealeth most, or rather only, with 
her majestye therin ; for shee wyll hardly endewre Mr. secretorye 
to speake unto her therin, as he telleth me. And trewly, my lord, 
as Mr. secretarye ys a noble, good and trew friend unto you, so 


doth Mr. vyce-chamberlayne shewe hym selfe an honnerable, trew 
and faythfull gentleman towardes you, and doth carefully, and most 
lyke a good frend, for your lordship. Yeasterdaye he told me 
that her majestye was now perswaded by hym to receave your 
lordships letter, whyche I then delyvered unto hym. He hath, 
allso, moved the quene for Goodrowse to comme unto you, and 
shee hath confyrmed her promyse made unto me for him ; so as 
ther is no dowght of his commynge unto your lordship. 

I have herin declared unto your lordship thynges just as they 
stand. Your lordship is exceedynge wysse. You knowe the 
quene and her nature best of anny man. You knowe all men 
heare. Your lordship canne juge the sequell by this that you 
see ; only this I must tell your lordship, I perceave, that feares 
and dowghtes from thence, are lyke to worke better effectes heare, 
then comfortes and assuraunce. I thynke yt my part to send 
your lordship this as yt ys, rather then to be sylent. I wyll 
wayght for better, and your lordship shall have a messenger 
from me as often as anny thynge ys worthy the wrytynge. And 
when thynges be ether effected or resolved, I wyll wayghte uppon 
your lordship myselfe by the grace of God, and take my part in 
your fortunne in that servyce. I wyll nott goe hence, nor forbeare 
anny solycytatyon of frendes, or travayle of my owne, to doe your 
lordship servyce. I beseche your lordship to pardon my longe 
lynes. I suppose you canne be contented to heare these mat- 
ters at large, therfore I am bold to use yt so. And so I doe most 
humbly commytt your good lordship to God. At coort this xiiij. 
of March, 1585. 

Your good lordships most assured, 
ever at commaund, 

Thomas Sherley. 

My lady your wyffe is well, but had now noe cawse to wryte. 
1 wayghtid uppon her yesterday to know her pleasewre. 



17th march 1585-6. hari. ms. 285, ro. 232. ORIS. 

The earl complains that Anto. Poyntz, whom he had employed to go 
into the enemy's camp, had been sent by Walsingham into Spain. 

Mr. secretorye, touching Pointes, of whome you wryte, I am 
sory he is sent any other waye. I delivered him an hundred 
poundes, and he promised me to have gone into the enemyes 
campe. And so, with my harty commendations, fare you well. 
From Amsterdame the xvij. of Marche. 

Your very loving frende, 

R. Leycester. 

I am forst to use a secretary, 11 but yet, perhapps, you wyll not 
very plainly understand whome I meane ; hit ys Anto. Poyntz, 
whome I sent over to gyve you knoledge how I had imployed 
him to the enymyes camp, a matter of most nede for me, and I 
mervelled that I never hard from [him,] and within these iiij. days, 
my nephew Phillip told me he received a letter from him that you 
had sent him into Spayn, whereof I am hartyly sorry, having 
greatly dysapointyd me, having not one to suply that place nowe, 
and a great tyme lost, also, that you dyd not at the first gyve me 
knoledge of yt. 

To my honourable good frende Mr. secretory Walsingham. 

■ The letter is in the handwriting of the earl's secretary, the postscript in that of 
the earl himself. 





20th march 1585-6. cotton, ms. galba, c. A r ni. fol. 63. orig. 

All speed is being used in procuring the money resolved by the 
queen to be sent to the earl — her majesty cannot be induced to 
resolve as to the levy of men — she is disposed to allow certain 
discharged e bands' in Ireland to be transported thither — the earl 
is advised to take advantage in part of the offer of the master of 
Gray— disposition of the French king towards the king of Na- 

My verry good lord, theire is [all convenient speed used in the 
preparation] and putting in a ready [ness] the money resolved 
on by her majestye to bee sent over, which I am sorrye fawleth 
not owt in proportyon large as the necessytie of the servyce re- 
quirethe, so that your lordship, contrarye to your own lyking, 
shall be forced to stand uppon a defencyve warre : yt wyll be 
verry discompfortable to the people of thos contryes, espetyally 
when they shall see there townes lost, which your lordship for 
lacke of hennowghe assistance, shall not be able to prevent. 

Suche gentlemen as your lordship appoynted to levye men ar 
tyred with long attendaunce here, for that her majestye cannot 
be drawn to resolve therin. Her awnswer is, that shee wyll see 
an accompt of thos allreadye sent over, before she yeld her assent 
to the sending over of any more. I shewed un[to] her highness the 
hard estate the towne of Grave stands in, which coold not be 
releeved withowt an encrease of forces, which moved your lord- 
ship to presse my lords of the cownsell here to take some care for 
the speedye dyspatche of the gentlemen. I dyd also shew unto 
her, that the losse of that towne woold woorke some changing 
in the peoples hartes, when they shoold see themselves subject 


to lyke misfortune as they were before her majestye tooke uppon 
her to protect them. But nothing that can be alleaged can drawe 
her majestye to yeld to any thing that tendeth to the further- 
aunce of the servyce there, otherwyse then led by mere neces- 

I fynde her dysposed to lyke that certeyn cashed bandes in 
Ierland, uppon dowbt that otherwyse they wyll put her to some 
charge here, shall be transported into the Lowe Coun treys, so yt 
may be don withowt her burden. I have caused Mr. Davison 
[to] sette downe with what charge the same may be performed, 
which I wyll send unto your lordship, 

Seing her majestye is no better dysposed to send over her owne 
subiectes, I thinke your lordship, in case you resolve to contynewe 
your servyce there, shall doe well to take part of the master of 
Grayes offer, whoe, as my cosyn Randollph a sendethe me woord, 
sendethe an expresse gentleman unto your lordship to knowe 
your lordships resolutyon therin. I fynde the gentlemen that 
your lordship hath appoynted to make the levye are lothe to take 
upon them that charge with the allowance of xx s . the man, and 
herof your lordship shall doe well, in case her majestie may be 
drawen to assent that any levyes shall be made here, to move the 
states to increase the somme. 

By the inclosed copy of sir Edward StafTordes b letter your lord- 
ship shall see, howe resolutely the king ther is bent to prosecute 
the warre, with the uttermost of his power, agaynst thos of the 

Ther hath ben certeyn offers made unto her majestye, and by 
her rejected, and yet of no great charge, that carryed great proba- 

a It has been noticed already (p. 52.) that the well known sir Thomas Randolph, 
whom Walsyngham here styles his cousin, was sent upon an embassy to Scotland in 
February 1585-6. The master of Gray had just entered upon public life, and was in 
great favour with the young king James VI. 

b Sir Edward Stafford was at this time ambassador at the court of France, 


bylytie to have withstoode both Godes and her enemyes. I praye 
God, the lacke of fealing and compassion of others myseryes, doe 
not drawe uppon us hys heavye hande ; to whos protection I com- 
myt your lordship, most humbly takyng my leave. At the coorte, 
20. Marche, 1585. 

Your lordships to commaunde, 

Fr.\c Walsyjvgham. 



21ST MARCH 1585-6. COTTON". MS. GALBA, C. IX. FOL. 136. ORIG. 

The queen has signed a warrant for £24,000, to be sent to the earl, 
and consents that lie shall have 1000 men oat of Ireland — she 
will not consent to any Englishmen being se?it, but it is hoped 
she will alloiv the going of volunteers —directions solicited as to 
payments for clothing, arming, and transporting — the earl urged 
to write to the council on these matters not merely to his friends 
— lady Warwick will send a company — sir Thomas Cecill 
has leave to return home — letters from the earl and sir Tho- 
mas Heneage anxiously' looked for — the queen has forborne to 
sjjetik openly against the earl since Sherley's interview with her. 

May yt please your good lordship, her majestye sygned a war- 
raunt yeasterday, for fowre and tAventye thowsand pooundes to be 
presently sent unto your lordship, and her majestye is pleased 
that your lordship shall have one thowsand men, and perhapes 
more, oavt of Ireland. Yt ys required, that your lordship shold 
take order in London for monney for transportatyon and other 
neccessaryes for them, and that your lordship allso Avoid appoynt 
some suche as pleaseth you, for the levyinge and convayinge 
of them from thence. Amonge whom, if your lordships pleasewre 


be to imploye * * * Chester, he is well acquaynted in that 
coountrye, and I heare wyll otherwysse nott be provyded of a band, 
for I dowght muche that he wyll procure none hence ; and yf, by 
your lordships favor, he may be imployed to hys good amonges 
these Irysshe, 1 shall very well provyde my self e otherwyse of an 
offycer in my regyment, yf I have anny. 

Her hyghnesse wyll nott yeat consent to send anny men from 
hence by commyssyon, but only to mayntayne the contract; 
nether doth throwghlye agree to suffer voluntaryes to passe thyther, 
neverthelesse your lordships frendes doe hope that shee wyll be 
wonne to alowe of the goynge of voluntaryes, and that ther shall 
be allso letters into sheeres from the lords of the coouncell for 
the ferderaunce of yt. But very hard yt wyll be, certaynely, to 
levye manny voluntaryes, the jorney standeth so slawndered heare, 
and men stand in dowght of good usage, and espetyally of paye 
ther; suche vyle brutes have bene raysed heare. Yt wyll, allso, be 
very chargeable to rayse bandes in that sort, for yt is heare consyder- 
edthat suche as wyll in that manner make anny, he shall be enforced 
to imploye dyvers in the pursewt of yt. And as yt wyll be charge- 
able to gather men togythers, so is yt iinpossyble to procure anny 
great noomber at one tyme, or wythin few dayes ; so as dyvers 
must rest uppon the charge of the capetayne, whyles others be 
in gatherynge. And to everye small companye ther must soome 
one offycer be imployed, for yf monney shall be delyvered unto 
suche soldyars owne handes for prest and conduct, they wyll 
sewrely rune awaye, bycawse ther is noe suche lawes to meete 
wyth them as is for men prest by commyssyon. Yt ys, therfore, 
wysshed by Mr. secretorye, and trewly, in my poore oppynion, 
yt is most neccessarye, that your lordship wold please to wryte 
hyther, what allowaunce of monney shall be made by the states 
for the levye of suche men, for cootynge and for transeportatyon 
of them, and allso for armynge of them, bycause soomme per- 
hapes wyll arme heare. Yt is thowght heare, that xx s . for every 
man is over lyttell to make cootes and for conduct monney, and 


that under xxx s . yt cannott be donne, besydes the armynge of 
them, for whyche, lykewysse, yt is wysshed ther shold be a suffy- 
cyent allowaunce, for the better encoragement of suche as shall 
take yt in hand, and the avoydynge of the oppynion that is heare 
had of the beggerye of these warres. And then somme order 
from your lordship for monney to be had heare for that purpose. 

Agayne I must put your lordship in remembrance, that, in 
this and such lyke, yt ys looked for, that your lordship shold 
wryte one letter unto the bodcly of the councell, as well as to 
pryvate frendes, for I have benne so sayd unto by soome of your 
lordships frendes, that, in these cases, they are to cleale for your 
lordship as councellors, and nott as pryvate frendes ; that pry- 
vate letters be nott taken knowlege of in councell. Yt ys hoped 
by your lordships frendes, that, uppon your next letters unto her 
majesty e, shee wyll stand better qualyfyed towardes you, and 
consequently better affected to the generall cawse. Mr. vyce- 
chamberlayne most honnerably persysteth and contyneweth his 
frendly coorce towardes your lordship, and I fynd myselfe very 
wellcome unto a hym, whensoever I attend hym in your lordships 
servyce. Mr. secretorye, lykewysse, as a trewe and noble frend, 
fayleth in nothynge that he can doe for your lordship and the 
cawse, but, as I wrote unto your lordship in my last, hys speeches 
in these matters be nothynge gratyose unto her hyghnesse. 

Uppon knowlege of your lordships mynd I wyll streche my 
credytt and my frendes to levye men for you. And I trust your 
lordship wyll be well pleased, that suche gentlemen as shall be 
wyllynge and able to brynge men, shall have your lordships coun- 
tenaunce and good favour to be captaynes over suche as they shall 
brynge, for that waye indeede I intend to proceede, that, in such 
a sheere as I thynke myselfe to have frendes and meanes to levye 
men, I wyll in that sheere choose owt a gentleman that inhabyteth 
and is frended ther, and I wyll joyne my creddytt wyth his, and make 

a unto unto, in MS. 


hym capetayne of suche as in that sheere may be had ; wherin, yf 
your lordship please to leave yt to my poore dyscressyon, I wyll 
doe you the best servyce that I canne. My lady of Warwyke a 
wyll send your lordship one company e of her procurement, under 
the conduct of a kyseman of hers, one Mr. Mawryce Dennys ; 
shee allso desyreth to understand of the allowaunce. 

Sir Thomas Cecyll hath leave of her majestye to retorne to 
Ingland for the recovery of his health. Mr. secretory told me 
this evenynge, that he sawe a letter of his very honestly and well 
wrytten unto her majestye, towchynge your lordship in those 
matters nowe standynge so hardly in her fancye, wherunto shee 
gave good allowaunce. Mr. secretorye dothe wysshe that your 
lordship wold use hym with all kynesse. Mr. Ward is this daye 
come hyther, he speaketh of capetayne Vavyster his comynge 
wyth letters from your lordship and sir Thomas Hennage, for 
whyche wee longe, but he is nott yeat landed, for anny thynge 
that is yeat knowne heare. 

Yf your lordship doe not bestowe the regyment of the Irysshe 
uppon sir Wylliam Stanley, then is theyr here sir Henry Harryng- 
ton whome I fynd desyrose to serve your lordship, yf yt please 
you to imploye hym. Soe I doe, wyth my clay lye prayers for 
your lordship, and my most humble dewtye unto you, commytt 
your good lordship to God. At coort this xxj. of Marche, 15S5. 

I beleve veryly that her majestye wyll uppon your lordships letter 
be browght to better [mind], but, untyll then, wythowght dowght 
she wyll be all one as shee noAve is; therfore I wold to Chryst your 
letters were come. When the world doth amend your lordship 
shall know immedyatly. She forbeareth anny evill speeche of 
your lordship openly, ever synce I spake wyth her hyghnesse. 
Your good lordships most faythfully 
ever at commaund, 

Thomas Sherley. 

8 Anne countess of Warwick, third wife of Leycester's brother Ambrose earl of 
Warwick, and daughter of Francis earl of Bedford. 





Walsyngham transmits to Leycester an application made by the 
Duke de Never s for a license for his subjects to procure salt from 
Holland and Zealand. 

My very good lord, thincloased hath of late [been] written 
unto me by the duke of Nevers, conteyning a r[equest], as your 
lordship may perceave by the same, that, by my means, the sub- 
jectes of his dutchy may obteyne licence to be served of salte for 
their owne necessarye use out of the countryes of Holland and 
Zelland, with sufficient ca[ution] that the sayd salte shall by no 
meanes come into the [hands] of thenemy. The nobleman is 
one to whom I [was] greatly behoulding in the tyme of my im- 
ployement [in] Fraunce, for the which I would be glad to shew [my] 
self thanckfull towardes him with any service I [can] do him, 
which moveth me earnestly to pray your lordship, that, uppon 
consideracion of the said request, and communicating of the same 
to the states, yt may please you to returne an aunswer unto me, 
whether yt [can] be graunted or no, to thend I may accordinglye 
satisfye the duke, according to his expectacion and myne owne 
promise. And so I humbly take my leave. At Grenwich the xxj th 
of March, 

Your lordships to commaunde, 

Fra. Walsyngham. 




21ST MARCH, 1585-6. COTTON MS. GALBA, C. IX. FOL. 135, ORIG. 

Walsyngham, having understood from sir Thomas Sherley that the 
Irish troops are to be commanded by sir William Stanley, re- 
commends Mr. Dautrye as his lieutenant-colonel to proceed with 
the levies in the absence of sir William — proposed allowances 
— captain Tiry sent to London by the master of Gray for an 
answer to his offer to levy four or five thousand Scots. 

My very good lord, there are einowe here who [having] know- 
ledg that hir majesty is intent that there shalbe a [levy] made in 
Ireland for the states, have offered ther services [to] take that 
chardg uppon them, nevertheless understanding [from] sir Tho- 
mas Shirley that your lordship meant the sayd chardg unto sir 
[William] Stanley, I have theruppon geven all others their an- 
swer. And, because your lordship, as I suppose, cannot well 
spare sir William Stanley himself from thence, to come and make 
the sayd leavye [in] Ireland, I have thought good to move you in the 
behalfe of Mr. Dautry, who offireth his service in that imploye- 
ment. He may, withall, have the chardg of lieutenant-coronell 
[for sir] William Stanley of thes Irish troopes. The gentleman 
[is] one that loveth sir William Stanley well, who I heare [doth] 
also make verye good accompt of him. I have conferred with 
him about the chardges of the leavy, his demaund is .[three] 
pound a man, and myn offer but fifty shillinges, he sayeth, [that] 
part therof may be defalked out of their enterteynment, [and] he 
telleth me, that two thousand maie well be had out [of the] coun- 
trie where he is to make the leavy, by meanes of [sir] Henry 
Harringtons credit, who is liable to make up [two] thowsand. 



Yt may please your lordship to returne aunswer of [the] states 
disposicion, whether they can be content to be servid with [that] 
country people, and how many they are willing to enterteyne ; 
[and] what chardges they shall yeld to allowe for the leavyeng of 

The master of Gray hath lately sent one captain Tiry hether, 
[to] sollicit your lordships aunswer to thoffer he hath hertofor 
made to [find] fower or fyve thowsand Scottes to the service of 
the states under your lordship, with direction ether to stay here 
or to passe [over to] your lordship for this purpose, as I should 
advise him. And, for I am uncerten how your lordship may be 
resolvid touching your continuance or discontinuance in that ser- 
vice, uppon occasion of the late accident that hath fallen out, I 
have therfor directid the party to stay untill I may heare from 
your lordship, wherof I pray your lordship to [be] myndfull, 
for the better satisfaction of the master. And so I now humbly 
take my leave. At Grenwich this xxj th of March. 

Your lordships to commaunde, 

Fra. Walsyngham. 


24th march, 1585-6. cotton, ms. galba, c. ix. fol. 137. orig. 

Hyman, mentioned in the earl's letter of 3rd March, has been stayed 
at Calais — the queen delays her determination as to the levies 
until she hears from sir Thomas Heneage — Randolph' 's success in 
Scotland — the Spanish preparations will prove nothing this year — 
rumours of successes of sir Francis Drake — overtures for peace. 

Your lordships of the 3. of this [present ] sent by your ser- 
vant Wyllyam, I have receyved, by the [which] you desyre 


that an eye be [given] unto Iman ; yt may please your lordship 
to understand, that Iman, abowt a two monthes past, was at Cal- 
las, and sent over for a save-conduct, which being denied unto 
him, he stayed his commyng into this realme. 

I doe daylye sollycyt her majesty for the lycensyng of sooche 
gentlemen as were recommended by your lordship to make ther 
levyes of [such] nombers as were by you appoynted, but she de- 
layethe her resolucyon therin untyll she heare from sir Thomas 
Henneage, whos letteres are not yet come to this coort, thowghe, 
as I understande, master Vavaser, to whom they were commytted, 
was dyspatched from thence the 10 th of this present. Mr. Warde, 
whoe was dyspatched thence about that tyme, arryved the xx th . 
He imbarked at the Brill, and Mr. Vavaser went to Flusshing, 
wharby he lost the benefyt of the wynde. 

By letters of 17. of Marche owt of Scotlande, we heare, that 
the king there dothe yelde all satysfactyon unto her majestyes 
mynister, Mr. Randolphe, and contrary e measure unto the 
Frenche kinges mynister, which he takethe in extreme yll parte. 
I wyll send your lordship the coppie of soche letteres as we have 
receavyd from Mr. Randolphe, whoe receyvethe at the kinges 
handes far better usage then he looked for. I praye God this 
opportunytye be not lost, as others before have ben. I fynde a 
greater cowldenes then the state of the present time requyrethe. 

The Spanishe preparatyons, as they reporte that came from Lys- 
bon the x th . of this present, wyll prove nothing this yeare, and I 
hope lesse the next, yf yt be trewe that is wrytten also from the 
Spanishe coorte to an Englyshman in Andelesya. The sub- 
staunce [is], that sir Francis Drake hath 6000 Semironets a repayred 
unto him, whoe have chosen and crowned him king, and that he 
hathe great store of them sure. I doe not desyre to be awthor 
of thes news for that methinkes they are [too] good to be b trewe. 

a i. e. Cimarrones, Symerons, or Maroons, negroes who had escaped from slavery 
and established themselves in freedom on the isthmus of Darien. On his first voyage 
Drake received much assistance from them. See Camden's annals, sub anno, 1580. 

b my, in MS. 


Somewhat I am induced to belyve them for that Don Antonio 
de Cas * * * } late imbassator for the cardynall-king of 
Portugall, hathe [made], by letters dyrected unto my [self], some 
overture for a peace, wherein he desyrethe to be imployed, for 
that he fyndeth the king of Spayne, as he saith, desyerowse 
thereof. I [would] to God her majestye woold put on a good 
cowntenaunce for only fowre monethes, and I dowbt not but 
Spayne woold seake peace greatly to her majestyes honor and 
advantage. But God for owre synnes sake wyll not suffer us 
to doe that which myght owre most good. And so I most humbly 
take my leave. At the coorte the 24 th . of Marche, 1585. 

Your lordships to command, 

Fra. Walsyngham. 

To the right honourable my verie good lord the erle of Ley- 

cester, lord lieutenant-generall of her majestyes forces in the 

Lowe Countries. 


27th march, 1585-6. haul. ms. 285. fol. 234. orig. 

Sir Thomas Heneage abstained from proceeding in his commission 
to the states, and wished the earl to continue in his government 
until he again received instructions from the queen, whereupon 
the earl had gone to Amsterdam, and thence to Utrecht, and ivas 
then engaged in the relief of Grave, ivhich was besieged by the 
enemy — want of money for the soldiers. 

My verie good lords, althoughe I doe expect her majesties 
good pleasure daily for my revocacion hence, yet will I no waie, 


in the meane time, neglect my duety to my service in the charge 
committed by her highnes to me, nor leave your good lordships 
unadvertised what hath past since my last letters, which as I re- 
member was from Harlem upon the arryvall of sir Thomas He- 
neage, before whoes coming I had determined this journey to 
Utrecht, and was onward so farre in my waie. 

And, for that sir Thomas Heneage would not proceed with any 
resolucion here with the states touching his commission, till he 
had received againe hir majesties pleasure, nor yet thought good 
I should staie my journey, by cause it was of verie great conse- 
quence, and the assembly of all our souldiers that maie be spared 
owt of garrison, as well horse as foot, appointed here by a certein 
daie, I did follow the former determinacion accordingly, the rather 
being commaunded by her majestie to take my direccion from sir 
Thomas Heneage, who in any wise wished me to proceed on, till 
I should hear again from her majestie. So I went to Amsterdam, 
and there remained iiij or v dayes, and from thence, hither to 
Utrecht, where I am taking order for the present service now to 
be sett foorth, which is for the releef of a town called Grave, a 
place of verie great importaunce. We have other places to deale 
in like sort with, as also to doe what I can to drawe thenemies 
forces owt of Brabant and Flanders hitherward, which it is like 
they will, for the defense of such fortes as they have left garded, 
and by which indeed they doe besiege Grave, albeit they have 
layed no battry to it, for there be five skonces that they built 
abowt it before I arryved here : yet have I by stelth intelligence 
from thence, and, upon some good oportunitie, have cawsed it to 
be both vitteiled and 300 men putt into it, notwithstanding their 
skonces : and now I hope it shalbe fully releeved. I have sent 
the horsemen alredie onward, being 1500, very strong. The foot- 
men are also marching to the randevous, and wilbe there too mor- 
row night, all of them, being dryven to separate them for a time, 
and, till the service of Grave be past, our horsemen lie at a vil- 
lage called Nycark, and our footmen at Amaron. 

Now am I most ernestly to recommend to your good lordships 


the nedefull estate of the capteins and souldiers here. I have ben 
driven to borrow for their relief and for this journey, to helpe 
them, 4000 11 . of the merchantes of Middleburghe, and what I have 
disbursed of mine own purse is not unknown here, I thinke, to all 
men. I would the full estate of the disbursing of her majesties 
treasure heretofore were certeinly knowne to your lordships. I 
wishe it for sundrie respectes, but it will requier a very skillfull 
man to examine it. Her majesty cannot loose by it &c, and yt 
wold be a very good satysfactyon to me. And thus, prainge to 
the almighty God to preserve all your good lordships, do take my 
leave. At Utryeht, this 27- of March. 

Your good lordships always 
to comaunde, 

R. Leycester. 

To the right honourable my verie good lords, the lords of her 
majesties most honourable pryvie councell. 


28th march, 1586. cotton, ms. galba, c. viii. fol. 66. orig. 

Receipt of the earl's letters of the 9th and 20th March — Mr. Vava- 
sour, the bearer of the former, being a person very agreeable to 
the queen, had wrought in her a better conceit towards the 
earl — the queen unwell with a cold — the treasure to depart on 
the morrow — more money not to be looked for unless sir Francis 
Drake's successes work favourably on the queen — " the sparing 
humor " on the increase— treasurer 's accounts to be investigated 
— sir T. Cecill to return to the Brill — sir P. Sydney out of 


favour — Burghley dissatisfied with the earVs treatment of his 
son — Walsyngham weary of his place. 

Your lordships of the ixth of [this present] and of the xx 11 ', the 
one sent [by] Mr. Vavisor, the other by * •* * , I have re- 

The choyce of Mr. Vavasor, [who is] a person very agreable 
unto her majestye, hathe wrowght in [her] a better conceipt to- 
wardes your lordship then any other sent from the[nce] . Besydes, 
the gentleman hath performed the charge commytted unto hym 
by your lordship in so goode sorte as owre stormes begin a to 
caulme, so as I hope I shall have cause to chaynge my style, 
which heretofore hath ben verry dyscompfortable unto your lord- 
ship. Her majestye hathe not yet read the letters browght by 
Mr. Vavisor, being trobled with an exstreeme cowld and defluxion 
into her eyes, so as she cannot indure to reade any thing. 

The treasure departs hence to morrowe, but no increase of the 
somme, nor non doe I looke for, howesoever the stormes be over- 
blowen. Yf the inconvenience lykely to insue therbye be not 
helped thorrowghe sir Francis Drakes good successe, which is a 
matter accydentall, I feare your lordship shall receave very scarce 
measure from hence, for you wyll not beleve how the sparing 
humor doth increase uppon us. 

The audytor retornethe with the threasure, whoe is dyrected, 
with sooche assystaunce as your lordship shall thinke meate to 
yeld unto him, to examyn strycktly the imparfect items of the 
threasorers accompt, who, yf he shall not yeld good satysfactyon, 
as I thinke he can in no sorte performe, then is yt meant that he 
shall no longer supplye the place. 

Ther are letters wrytten unto hym, that he shall make no dys- 
bursementes but as he shall be dyrected by your lordship, and, yf 
he shall doe contrary wyse, he can no way be dyscharged, for 
that withowt your lordships warrant he owght to make no paye- 

a being, in MS. 


Towelling the governement of the Bryll, which your lordship 
wyssheth unto the lord Northe, I fynde her [majesty] most 
resolute that sir Thomas [Cycell] after the recoverye of his 
[health] shall returne thither. I think she coold lyke better of 
the removing of sir Philip Sydney [towards] whom she hathe 
put on a very hard conceypt. The lord thresorer dothe some- 
what] complayne that there hathe ben better contentement 
yelded to other garrysons then that of [the] Bryll, which I fynde 
he taketh unkyndely. Of late her majesty e shewed me a letter 
wrytten from sir Thomas Cycell, to as goode purpose in defence 
of your lordships acceptinge of the governement as any other I 
have seene wrytten by any thence. 

The opynion of my partyalytie conytnewethe noryshed by fac- 
tyon, which makethe me weerye of the place I serve in, and to 
wysshe myself emongst the trewe harted Swy * * . And so 
in hast I most humbly take my leave. At the coorte this xxviij th 
of Marche, 1585. 

Your lordships to commaunde, 

Fra. Walsyngham. 

The inclosed towelling Ryngowt cam from a person of good 
credyt, and therfor your lordship shall doe well to have an eye to 
his doinges. 

To the right honourable my verie good lorde the earle of Lei- 
cester, lord lieutenaunt-generall of her majesties forces in the 
Lowe Countries. 



29th march 1586. harl. ms. 6994. art. 2. orig. 

In reply to the earl's request for pioneers, to ivhich the queen con- 
sented, but which had since been stayed — Ralegh reported at 
court to be opposed to the earl, which he strongly denies, and 
hopes the earl will not let any "poeticall scribe" make him. doubt 
of Ralegh's sincerity — the queen is reconciled to the earl, and 
calls him again her " sweet Robyn." 

My very goode lorde, yow wrate unto me, a in your laste letters, 
for pioners to be sent over, wheruppon I moved her majestye 
and found her very willing, insomich as order was geven for a 
cummishion ; but since, the matter is stayd, I know not for what 
cause. Also, according as your lordshipe desired, I spake for on 
Jukes for the office of backhowse, and the matter well liked. 

In ought elce your lordshipe shall fynde me most asured to my 
poure to performe all offices of love, honor, and service towards 
yow. But I have byn of late very pestilent reported in this 
place, to be rather a drawer- bake then a fartherer of the action 
wher yow govern. Your lordshipe doth well understand my af- 
fection towards Spayn, and how I have consumed the best part 
of my fortune, hating the tirannus prosperety b of that estate, and 
it were now Strang and monsterous, that I should becum an 
enemy to my countrey and conscience. But all that I have de- 
sired att your lordshipes hands is, that yow will evermore deal 
directly with mee in all matters of suspect dublenes, and so ever 
esteme mee as yow shall find me deserving good or bad. In 
the meane tyme, I humbly beseich yow lett no poeticall scrib 
worke your lordshipe by any device to doubt that I am a hollo 
or could sarvant to the action ; or a mean wellwiller and follower 

a See Letter XXX. p. 86. b sprosperety, in MS. 



of your own, and yeven so I humble take my leve, wishing yow 
all honor and prosperety. From the court, the xxix. of March, 

Your lordships to do yow service, 

W. Ralegh. 
The queen is in very good tearms with yow, and, thanks be to 
God, well pacified, and yow are agayne her " sweet Robyn." 



31ST MARCH, 1586. COTTON. MS. GALBA, C. IX. FO. 153. ORIG. 

Vavasour reports his arrival at court, his interview with the queen 
and delivery of the earl's letters— her majesty's desire for peace 
— remark respecting lord North. 

May yt please your excellency, after I had bene longe stayed at 
Flushing, by the contraryete of the wynd, I aryved at court, wher, 
making my first repayre to Mr. secretarye, as to hym whom I did 
think most assured to your excellency and best affected to this 
action in truth, although other make noe lesse shewe of forwardnes 
than he cloth, who sent unto hir majesty that I had letters from 
your excellency, I was presently sent for, being something dis- 
couraged as well by ser Thomas his usage, who was ther fowr or 
five dayes ere he could deliver your letters, as also by Mr. secre- 
tarye, who towld me how yll her majesty was affected to the dispatch 
of any thing. I presented your letters, and delivered the message 
yt pleased your excellency to commytt unto me, in as good sort 
and as effectually as my wytt and duety to your excellency, or my 
affection to the cause, could teach or instruct me ; wherin, if the 
effect hathe not fallne out according to your expectation, I canne 
be but sory with the rest who wish all forwardnes to the action 
and all happy contentment to your excellencye. 


For the perticulerytes of my proceedings, for that it were long 
to wryte, I have committed them to ser Thomas Sherly, who hath 
followed your excellencyes business with noe lesse care then be- 
cometh an honourable and honest gentleman. Onely this, if under 
correction I may be so bould, I thought good to advertise your 
excellency, yf you know yt not alredye, that I gather by hir ma- 
jesty that an indifferent peace wyll not be refused, whereof you 
are onely used for an instrument; for talking with hir majesty of 
the necessity to put men into feald, to the which I fond hir eares 
altogether stopped, especially blaming the chardges, " and what," 
quoth she, " yf a peace should come in the meane tyme ?" I 
answered, yf she ment a convenyent peace, yt was the readyest 
way ; for yet the king had no reason to feare hir, but dayly to 
looke when hir owne slacknes should give hir an overthrowe, be- 
side they were souldgers, and Avere not to be moved with shadowes. 

Pardon me, I humbly besech your excellency, yf I have been 
overbould to wryte unto yow, and excuse me yf I have not per- 
formed yt with effect, which my desires were to have done, as- 
suring your excellency I wilbe as redy to serve yow in any thing 
I may heare, yf my fortune be to stay, as forward to serve yow 
there if my happe shal be to retorne, beseching you to contynue 
me in your grace, and accept of this my first service not according 
to the effect but after my care and desire to serve yow in all things, 
humbly thanking your excellency for the favour yow did me in 
commending me to hir majesty with the which hirself did acquaynt 
me, and humbly taking my leave wishing your excellency all 
prosperity ther and myselfe some meanes to serve you heare ; not 
forgetting that one question, which perchance may import yow to 
know was demanded me, which was, how you used and esteamed 
my lord North. I answered, so well as yt was impossible to use 
any better. Answer was made me, and by great persons, " I pray 
God he deserve yt." What ther meaning was, I know not; your 
excellency may best gather. 

Thus I humbly, with all reverence, once agayne commytt you to 


God, who send your excellency your hartes desire in all things, and 
happy successe in your pryvate affayres. From the court, this last 
of March. 

Your excellencies most assured to be commanded, 

Tho. Vavasour. 
To the right honorable and his singular good lord 
thearle of Leicester, leavetenaunt-generall of hir 
majestyes forces in the Low Contryes. 



31 MARCH 1586. COTTON. MS. GALBA, C. IX. FO. 149. ORIG. 

After conference with Mr. Vavasour, Burghley, in the presence of 
Walsyngham, protested to the queen against her conduct to Ley- 
cester, and tendered his own resignation if such a course were to be 
persisted in, whereupon her majesty became calmer and more ready 
to qualify her displeasure — that she afterwards relented " as one 
by some adverse councell seduced" — that Burghley and Walsyng- 
ham then very boldly remonstrated with her and procured a fa- 
vourable answer, although not to their liking — on the unexpected 
receipt of a letter from the earl they again saw her, and after 
a strong appeal agreed that the earl should continue in his office 
until the matter were farther considered— her farther relenting 
towards the earl upon receipt of letters from him — Burghley 
advises him to ' throw over his shoulders' what is past — more 
money not to be expected — Drake is said to have captured seven 
rich ships — trade between Hamburgh and Spain — Champig?iy , s 
negociations — return of sir Thomas Cecill — unprotected state of 
the Brill. 

My very good lord, although of late many crossees or stormes 


have happened to trooble your lordships mynd, to the hyndrance 
of the commen utillite of the servyce of God and of hir majesty 
in that countrye, yet sence your conscience doth testefy and war- 
rant your doynges to have bene ment for the furderance of the 
weale therof, and the successes also, exceptyng the thwartes from 
hence, do make good proffe that your actions do prosper, I wish 
your lordship to contynew your disposition, and to comfort your- 
self with your own integrite, which God will not have oppressed, 
though he may exercise your patience, and prove the fortitude of 
your mynd to contynew well-doyng and suffer reprooff for a 
time. Thus much for a small preface, and now to the matter. 

I dout not but this bearor shall come with some better satisfac- 
tion, both for yourself and for the cause, than the enemyes therof 
have looked for. Suerly unto a Mr. Vavasor cam, we here that 
ment well both to yourself and the cause found dayly litle com- 
fort, and yet suerly your frendes here did not omitt any oppor- 
tunite. But, uppon such conference as I had with hym, of the 
doutfull state of that country, I, in presence of Mr. secretory, 
used some boldnes with hir majesty, and protested to hir as a 
counsellor, that for discharg both of my conscience and of my 
oth of hir counsellor, I. cold not forbeare to lett her know, that 
this couers that she held ageynst your lordship was lyk to en- 
daunger hir in honor, suerty, and profitt ; and that, if she con- 
tynued the same, I prayed hir majesty that I might be discharged 
of the place I held, and both afor God and man, be fre from the 
shame and perill that I sawe cold not be avoided. I used boldly 
such bold language in this matter as I found hir dowtfull whyther 
to chardg me with presumption, which partly she did, or with some 
astonishment of my round speche, which truly was no other 
than my conscience did move me, even in amaritudine anhnce. 
And then hir majesty began to be more calm than befor, and, as 
I conceaved, redyar to quallefy hir displesur and hir opinion. 
And so, finding sir Thomas Shyrley redy to wryte, about three dayes 
past, I willed hym to advertise your lordship, that I douted not 

a For until ; into, in MS. 


but that matters wold not contynew in that evill state wherin they 
were ; and so, as he can tell yow, he did wryte, but stayd the sendyng 
therof on daye, in which tyme, to my great greff, lookyng for 
some good resolution, I and Mr. secretory found hir gon back- 
ward, as on that had bene by some adverse counsell seduced, to 
thynk that all shuld do well in those countryes though your lord- 
ship war displaced ; and so he with greff stayd his wrytyng. 

But yet, I did not thus leave the matter, and so, yesterday, 
Mr. secretory and I aventured very boldly to declare our censures 
of perill to come, which no councell nor action shuld recover, and 
hereuppon, we obteyned a favorable answer, though not to our 
full lykyng, but yet such as she commanded to put in wrytyng, 
and so we war therin occupyed. And then, unlooked for, cam 
a letter of your lordship to Mr. vice-chamberlen, wherewith he 
made hir majesty acqueynted, and she told hym, that she had 
declared hir resolution to Mr. secretory and me, and so willed 
hym to come to my chamber, and so he did, and there we fynd- 
yng some new occasion to seek a better resolution of hir majesty, 
we all three went to hir majesty, and there I told hir very playnly, 
that I did see that if she used not spede to content the states 
and the people of those countryes, she wold not only lose them, 
but hir honor in the world, and she shuld fynd certenly as 
gret daunger from those countryes, as she had looked for comfort. 
Herewith she was greatly troobled, and so being thereto moved, 
she assented to do any thyng that she might with hir honour. 

In fyne, we moved hir to assent that your lordship shuld con- 
tynew your office for some tyme, untill the state of the matter 
might be better consydered by hir, and so letters were appointed 
to be spedely wrytten, both to your lordship and the counsell of 
the states, and that Mr. Shyrley might be sent awey with all 
spede. And whan the letters war redy wrytten, came Poyntes 
from Mr. Hennadg, with letters from your lordship to me, in- 
cludyng a letter to hir majesty, which I spedely delyvered with 
such good speches as in honesty becam me for your excuse. 
She red your letter, and, in very truth, I found hir princely 


hart touched with favorable interpretation of your actions, af- 
fyrming them only offensyve to hir in that she was not made 
prive, not now mislykyng that you had the author ite. Suerly I 
had cause, and so I did, commend hir pryncely nature, in this 
sort, of allowing both of yow for your good intention and excus- 
ing yow of any spott of evill meaning. And having hir majesty in 
this sort calmed, though it was not possible to mak your lord- 
ship amendes, yet I thought good to hasten hir resolution, which 
your lordship must now tak to come from a favourable good 
mistress, for so truly she doth profess, and yow must stryve with 
your natur to throw over your sholders that which is past. 
Thus your lordship seeth I have bene somewhat long, to shew 
you the course to bryng this honest gentleman, sir Thomas Shyr- 
ley to this messadg, who suerly hath very honestly behaved hym- 
self for your lordship, and truly so hath Mr. vice-chamberlen, 
and Mr. secretory, and bydden many stormy speches. And 
now I will write no more hereof, but of some other particular 
advises, the consideration whereof I leave to your lordship as 
leisure may serve yow. 

My lord, untill the state of the queenes army by muster book, 
and hir monthly charges, may appear more cleare, here will be no 
further meanes for any more monney. At this present ther is paid 
24,000/. and that, added to hir majestyes former chardg of 52,OOOZ. 
maketh 76,OOOZ. which some hir majesty doth often repeat with 
gret offence. 

My lord, I am very glad to see a disposytion of sendyng some 
shippes from thence to impeach the Spanish king towards hislndyes. 
It is a matter that many yers past I did project to the princes of 
Oranges ministers to have been attempted. We here that sir 
Francis Drake is a fearfull man to the king, and that the king 
cold have been content that sir Francis had taken the last yers 
flete, so as he had not gone forward to his Indies. We here that 
he hath taken seven rych shippes on the coast of the Indyes. I 
wish they war saf in the Thamiss. 


We ar here troubled to understand, that from Hamborg, and 
Dansk, Lubeck, &c, there ar a gret nombre of hulkes laden 
for Spayn, and do meane to pass about Scotland and Irland, as 
some of them did this last yere, which they do attempt to avoyd all 
steyss in our narrow seas. I wold to God your flete, now intended 
from these countryes, cold mak a good prize of them, for so 
shuld the king of Spain be unliable to defend his seas, or to offend 
any other. 

My lord, wher yow wryte to me of that yow heare of Cham- 
pygnyes arantes, I will tell yow what I know thereof, and what els 
is knowen to any other, I cannot wryt of. There is an Itallion 
merchant in Antwerp that pretendeth acqueyntance with Cham- 
pigny, and he hath wrytten hither to another merchant to know, 
whyther hir majesty can be content to come to peace with the 
king of Spayn. The answer is made, that, by the publication 
published, it is to be sene wherfor hir majesty hath sent hir 
forces into the Low Countreys, and, if the king of Spayn shall 
satisfye hir majesty in honor, accordyng to hir protestation, by 
restoryng to these countryes liberty and peace, and remove all 
men of warr from thence, and restore to hir own subjectes ther 
losses, she can be content to heare any honorable offer from the 
king, and otherwise, she myndeth to persist in defence of hir 
neighbors, and recovery of hir subjectes losses. This answer is 
made by wordes only, but not from hir majesty, and whyther 
Champigny will any farther procede I know not, but suer I am, 
he hath no cause to make any avant hereof, and I trust ther 
nede shall mak them sooner yeld than any cause to come of this 

It may be that ther are other lyke motions made to hir ma- 
jesty, but I thynk suerly hir majesty myndeth not to show any 
yelding, for, God be thanked, she hath no cause but to expect 
the yelding to come from the king of Spayn and his mynisters. 

And, wher your lordship wryteth, that the comming of my son 
from the Bryll in this tyme may brede some dowt in mens concepts, 


suerly, my lord, sir Thomas Shyrley can tell yow, that, uppon his 
report of his sickness, with daunger not to recover without chang- 
yng the ayre to come into England, the queens majesty hearyng 
therof, without any motion of me, commanded Mr. secretory to 
send hym hir licenss, with all possible spede, and, as I under- 
stand from hymself, he is much discomforted with the noy somes 
of the place, wher the water is not only brakkish, but, being 
heated on the fyre it stynketh. He also fyndeth the town in a 
manner utterly unfurnished of ordonnance, and without powder and 
bollets, so as, in very truth, it was as good out of hir majestyes 
handes, by reason of the chardg, as to have it only in a name. 
But how this should be remedyed I know not, for hir majesty will 
not yeld to any more chardg, and I see the states unwillyng to 
paye that which they ow ; and by a clause in the treaty, they ar 
bound to furnish both the towns of Flushyng and Brill uppon your 
lordships demand, as hir majestyes governor-generall, and, if there 
be any hope furder, it must procede from your lordship as 
governor of the provynces with the counsell of the state. I 
thynk sir Philip Sidney hath also some want of ordonnance, but 
nothyng lyk to that of the Brill, wher ther ar not above seven 
peces, few ynough for one bullwark, but the daunger is not to be 
feared as long as your lordship shall prosper in your government. 
My son, also, brought thyther two hundred footmen and fifty horss, 
but he never cold get penny for them, nor on penny to that 
garrison sencehe had the chardg; and yet it may be that hath had 
some help of late, for the tresorer did wryte that your lordship 
gave hym order to help them with some monny. I am now in 
dowt to wryte any furder for troublyng of your lordship, know- 
ing how infinitt your occupations be to wryte and to reade, besides 
contynuall actions. 

By such letters as shall come from hir majesty you shall fynd 
as much comfort from hir majesty as you have receaved discomfort, 
though ther be gret differencees in the effect, for the former I 
know hath depely wounded your hart, and these cannot sodenly 



synk so low as the wond is, but your lordship must add to this 
your own fortitud of mynd. And so I most hartely wish yow to 
be strengthened by Godes speciale grace. 

Your lordships most assuredly, 


31. Martii, 1586. 



MARCH OR APRIL, 1586. HARL. MS. 285. FOL. 157. ORIG. 

The earl has received intelligence of an intended attempt to be 
made to assassinate the queen by two foreign Jesuits, young men 
who are about to visit England as merchants — he advises that 
the queen should for safety pass the summer at Woodstock or 

Sir, I have mett with dyvers letters and inteligences that the 
pope hath greatly labored some desperatt persons to doe vyolence 
to hir majesty. The prince of Parma of late dyd use very brode 
speches, saying, that he dyd not fear the Englyssh ayd, yt wold 
not contynew many wekes, meaning hir majesties lyfe. I wold 
not putt yt into my letters for yt wold [fear] hir majesty I know, 
albeyt I doe not mystrust yt, yf you hold a good course at home. 
God hath and wyll defend hir, I dowbt not, but gett hir from 
London into som countrey well affected for this somer, and the 
soner the better. Woodstock wer a good place, and a holsome, 
or to Farnam, for yt ys hard for any suspected persons to com so 
farr but som or other wyll gyve knoledge ; and, as I hear, hit ys 
merit now to use some straunger, and, under collor of merchants, 
to make sute at the court, and an Italian that cam iiij days past 
from Antwerp told me, that a dere frend of his declared to him, 


that ther wer two jesuyttes of Bruges, one a Walloun, and the other 
of those partes lykewyse, had undertaken a great enterprise in 
Englond, and did say they had pretences inow to com to the 
court. I am promysed they shalbe dyscrybed to me, but you 
must banyshe your popish Low Countreymen that suckes all 
honye ther and be lazy drones and worse, and lett good wach be 
leyd among the merchantes for such ij fellowes. They be yong 
men, and seme as merchantes, but very lewd and wyked. I be- 
sech you, for Godes sake, lett no respect of comodyus lying about 
London cause hir saftye to be neglected, and albeyt she is in all 
places in the handes of God, yet yt ys good to advoyd the most 
lykliest places for harme. Ther be few careful about hir. And 
you kepe hir tyll Mychelmas, by the grace of God, all ys past for 
those thinges. 

Yf hir majestie meane to use my servyce, I trust you will send 
som boddy, that yt may appere here to men that you sett a lytle 
more store by me than hetherto ther ys cause for them to think, 
for ther was never yet so much as a letter wrytten to any person 
here of any thankes for those curtesies I had received before you 
hard any thing of this place. And, how yll soever hir majestie may 
conceave of me, yet these men have deservyd great thankes for 
there good wyll to hir, as ever any people could doe. And these 
many letters you must remember ; first, to the states generall, 
than to the councell of estate, and one to the councell and towen 
of Utryght. I wold fayn have more but I fear yt wyll hinder the 
rest. The rest may be hereafter. 3 

a This letter was evidently left imperfect by the earl ; it was probably inclosed in 
another letter. I judge from its contents that it was addressed to Walsyngham, and that 
it was written about the end of March or the beginning of April 158G, certainly before 
the earl received the letters from England dated on the first of the latter month. The 
earl's advice respecting the queen's residence at Woodstock or Farnham during the 
summer was not followed. 





A farther change in the queen's resolution — an interview thereon 
between her majesty and Burghley and Walsyngham, when she 
agreed to abide by her former determination — arrival of sir 
Thomas Cecill — state of the garrison at the Brill. 

My very good lord, aftir that I had yesterday wrytten my letter 
unto yow, being perswaded that sir Thomas Shyrley shuld tak his 
leave that morning, as hir majesty promised over night, whan she 
also agreed uppon certen letters redy to be signed, as they war 
joyntly by Mr. secretory [and] me devised to content hir, I went 
to London, and comyng back this morning, I found by Mr. secre- 
tory a chaung of the former nightes resolution alltogither very 
absurd and perilloose. 

And so this morning, at sermon tyme, we cam to hir majesty, 
and, for myn own part, I told hir majesty, that I marvelled she 
should so chaung to the worss, but, after manny argumentes, she 
yelded [to] alter ageyn to hir formar resolution, as by the letters 
sent both to yourself, to sir Thomas Hennadg, and to the counsell 
of [the] states, may particularly appeare, which, though all be 
[not] as I wold, yet it is as neare therto as hir majesty [can] be 
brought unto ; for wher hir majesty, by hir alteration yesterday e, 
wold have yow assembled the generall states, and [upon] ther 
advise to have gyven you a quallefyed power, without any other 
title than as hir lieutenant, I found that both perilous] and ab- 
surd, and therfor did draw to this form, that yow [should] con- 
tynew in your office untill the counsell of states cold devise how to 
quallefy this matter. And, for that I presume that [they] cannot 
in any congruete, nor, with the good quietnes of ther state, devise 
any such, I rest satisfyed in opinion [that] the country shall con- 


tynew in your government, for the m [ost] benefitt of the country 

My son a is at Gravessend, but not hable to com to the court ; I 
am sorry of the cause of his comming. He sendeth me word, that, 
for want of monny, he hath left a lamentable company of his sol- 
diers at Bryll, and he hath disbursed of his own so much, as he 
cam home with v 11 . The tresor is redy to be imbarked this even- 
ing. From Grenwich, primo Aprilis, 1586. 

Your lordships most assured, 


To the right honorable my very good lord, the erle of Leicester, 
lieutenant and governor-general of her majesties forces in the 
Low Contryes. 




Walsynyham never knew her majesty better affected towards the 
earl — she has assented to the levy of volunteers, but is very un~ 
willing to supply treasure — sir Thomas Heneage's friendly conduct 
towards the earl — Davison's grief on account of the earVs dis- 
favour — Ralegh wished to justify himself against rumours that he 
had fomented the discord between the queen and the earl — the 
queen assures the earl e upon her honour ' that it was not so — 
advice to the earl touching the qualification of his authority which 
the queen desires — the master of Gray — complaint of the lord- 
admiral respecting commissions granted by the earl — Poyntz sent 
into Spain at his own request. 

My very good lord, I pray [that] the compfort you now re- 
* lord, in MS. 


ceyve come [not] to late bothe for your selve and [the] cause. 
I never knewe her [majesty] better affected towardes you [than] 
she seemethe to be nowe, [and], for that she dothe now testefye 
[the] same unto you by her letter wrytten with her owne hand, I 
shall not need to dwell uppon that matter. I pray [that] this 
favor may be accompag[ned] with effectes by well farth[ering] of 
the cause. 

She h[ath] alreadye assented to the [levy] of voluntaryes, but 
[still] she wyll be fownde strayte [in the] supplye of threasure. 
[Your] lordship shall doe well by your letters to herselve to lay 
[before] her the dysproffyt she [receiveth] by sending over threa- 
sure [in such] scant measure as ther [can be] no full paye made. 
The * * that regardethe more his pu[rse than] his dutyelykethe 
better of [credit] then of thorroughe paymentes. 

I may not forget to tell you, that sir Thomas Henneage hath 
dealt towardes your lordship [like a] most honest faythefull gentle- 
man, having left nothing undon, by letters and message, that might 
woorke your good towardes her majesty e, whom, next after God, I 
doe assure your lordship I thinke you have cause to esteem to be 
a pryncypall instrument in the recovarye of her favor, in that comp- 
fortable measure you now receyve the same. This I wryte uppon 
verry goode grownde, to the ende your lordship may use the gen- 
tleman with that thankefulnes that apperteynethe, and as he 
worthely deservathe. 

Poore Mr. Davyson dothe take yt verry grevowsely that your 
lordship shoolde conceyve so hardly of him as you doe, whoe I doe 
beleve, by the great protestatyons he hathe made unto me, hathe 
acquyted himselve honestly towardes your lordship. I fynde the 
conceapt of your lordships dysfavor hath greatly dejected him. At 
sooche time as he [arrived] her majesty e was so incensed agaynst 
your lordship as all the argumentes and orators in the world 
could not have wrought any satysfactyon ; and yt [may] be ther 
hathe ben some [yll] reporte made unto your lordship of the 
poore gentleman from [hence.] 


At the tyme of her majesty e [sig]ning of the dyspatche she let 
me understand, that Rawley, hearing of some [rumours] geven 
owt here in coorte [that] he had ben an yll instrument] towardes 
her agaynst [your] lordship, dyd humbly desyre [to] have ben sent 
awaye vv[ith this] dyspatche, to the ende [he might] have justefyed 
himselfe towardes your lordship, in case [any] sooche synister [in- 
formation] had ben gyven unto you agaynst him : which her [wish] 
was that I shoold signe[fy unto] your lordship, and to assure you, 
[upon] her honor, that the gentleman hathe don good offices [for 
you], and that, in the tyme of hir dyspleasure, he dealt as earnestly 
for you as any other in this world that professythe most good wyll 
towardes your lordship. This I wryte by her majesties commaund- 
ment, and therfor I praye your lordship to take knowledge therof, 
in suche sorte as you shall thinke good. 

Touching the qualyficatyon her majesty so greatly affectethe, I 
woold to God yt could be brought to passe accordingly as she 
desyrethe, but I feare sooche a motyon at this present may breed 
in the peoples heades there somme unnecessary jealowsye ; espe- 
tyally for that yt can not be don withowt an assembly of the states 
generall. For her majesties contentement yt shall be well don for 
the counsell of estate to sett downe sooche reasons as may shew 
the inconveniences lykely to insue uppon sooche a motyon, and to 
delyver them unto sir Tho. Henneage at the tyme of his depart- 
ure from thence. And I dowbt not but [your] lordship wyll in 
tyme doe yo[ur] indeavor to brynge this to [pass] which her 
majesty desyrethe, [and that] you wyll by your next [letters] put 
her in compforte [thereof], yf your lordship shall see [any] lyke- 
lyhocle to perfor[m the same]. 

Ther are dyvers here [frequently] with me to know what [allow]- 
aunce will be gyven for [the] levye of voluntaryes, wherein I woold 
be glad to know from your lordship [how] to answer. 

The gentleman that the [master of Gray] sent unto you meanethe 
to repayre [unto] you owt of hande [for] your full resolutyon 
towching his masters [offer]. 


The lord-ad myrall com[plaineth] that the commyssions your 
[lordship] grawntethe to her majesty[es subjects which hawnt 
those [countries] dothe woorke somme [prejudice] to his jurys- 
dyctyon. He [would] be lothe any waye to offend your lordship, 
and wyll be [ready], for the savyng of his ryght, to grawnte hys 
commyssyon to any that your lordship shall recommend unto him. 
Towchyng the party that is gon to Spayne, a whom your lord- 
ship wysshed rather to have ben imployed emongest the malcon- 
tentes, yt grewe of himselfe, uppon a conceypt that, being re- 
commended by the kyng of Spayn unto the prince of Parma, he 
shall be the better able to serve your lordships torne. 

And so, prayeing your lordship to exscuse thes scrybled lynes, 
wrytten with bothe a tyred head and hande, I most humbly take my 
leave. At the coort, the fyrst day of Aprill, 1586. 

Your lordships to commaund, 

Fra. Walsyngham. 
To the right honorable my very good lord thearle of Leicester, 
lieutenant-generall of her majestyes forces in the Lowe 




The queen and the earl are both grieved, he at her displeasure, she 
that a creature of her own, one that had always received an ex- 
traordinary portion of her favour, should give the world cause to 
think she is had in contempt by him — the earl is to confer with 
sir T. Heneage and others as to the relinquishment of his title of 

a Ant. Poyntz, see page 177. 


absolute governor, retaining the same authority, but only as the 
lieutenant-general of the queen's forces — if it is thought that this 
change will be attended with present peril the queen will, if it 
be absolutely necessary, tolerate the continuance of his govern- 
ment for a time. 


Right trusty and right welbelovid cousin and counseled we 
grete you well. It is alwayes thought, in the opinion of the 
woorld, a hard bargayn when both parties ar leasers, and so doth 
fall out in the case betwene us twoo. You, as we heare, ar greatly 
grieved, in respect of the great displeasur you find we have con- 
ceved against you, and we no less grieved, that a subject of ours, 
of that qualite that you ar, a creature of our own, and one that 
hath alwayes receved an extraordinary portion of our favour 
above all our subjectes, even from the begynning of our reign, 
shuld deale so carlesly, we will not saye contemtuously, as to geve 
the woorld just cause to think, that we ar had in contempt by him 
that ought moost to respect and reverence us, from whom we could 
never have looked to receve any such measure, which, we do as- 
seure you, hath wrought as great grief in «s as any one thing that 
ever happenid unto us. 

We ar persuaded that you, that have so long knowen us, cannot 
think, that ever we could have ben drawen to have taken so hard 
a course herin, had we not ben provoked by an extraordinary 
cause. But for that your grievid and woundid mynd hath more 
nede of comfort then reproof, whom we ar persuaded, though the 
act in respect of the contempt canne no waye be excused, had no 
other meaning and intent then to advaunce our service ; we think 
mete to forbeare to dwell upon a matter wherin we ourselves do 
fynd so litle comfort, assuring you that whosoever professeth to 
love you best taketh not more comfort of your well doing, or dis- 
comfort of your evill doing, then ourself. 

Now to cum to the breach itself, which we woold be glad to 



repayr in such sort as may be for our honnor without the perill 
and danger of that countrey, we do think mete, that you shall, 
upon conference with sir Thomas Henneage, and such others whose 
advise you shall think mete to he used therin, think of sum waye 
how the point concerning the absolut title may be qualified, in 
such sort as the authorise may, notwithstanding, remayne (which 
we think moost nedefull to contynue, for the redres of the abuses, 
and avoyding of confusion, that, otherwise, is likely to ensue) 
which, as we conceave, may be parformid, if the states may be 
induced to yeld that authoritie unto you carying the title of lieu- 
tenant-general of our forces, that they do now yeld unto you under 
the title of an absolut governor. 

And, for that we ar persuaded that you may be best able, know- 
ing the dispositions of all sortes of people there, as well of the in- 
feriours as the superiors, to judg what is fitt to be don to bring 
such a qualificacion as we desire to passe, we think mete, that the 
whole of proceding should be referred to the good consideracion 
and extraordinary care of you and sir Thomas Henneage, and such 
others whose advise you shall use in this matter. For we must 
needes confes it is a thing that we doe greatly desier and affect, 
and therefor, we do looke that you should use all the best endevor 
that possibly you maye, to bring the same presently to passe. And 
yet, notwithstanding, if by conference with sir Thomas Henneage 
and others whose advise you shall like to use therin, you shall fynd, 
that any such mocion for the present may woork any peril of con- 
sequence to that state, then do we think mete it be forborn, and 
ar content to yeld that the gouvernement shalbe continud as it 
now doth, under you, for a tyme, until we shall heare from youe, 
how the said qualificacion we so greatly desier, touching the title, 
may be brought to passe without breding any alteracion in those 
countrees ; for our meaning is not that the absolut gouvernement 
shall contynue, though we can be content, if necessite shall so 
requier, to tollerate the same for a tyme, and so we think mete the 
counsel of state be geven to understand, for that they may be the 


rather drawen thereby to devise sum way to yeld us contentement 
in this our desier. 

And wheras, by our letter directed to our servant sir Thomas 
Henneage, we have appointed that the aunswer to the request of 
the counsel of estat there conteyned in their letters directed unto 
us for the stay of the revocacion of your authoritie, shuld be de- 
livred by him unto the counsel of state there, according to such 
resolution as shuld be taken betwene you ; which, if it shall fall 
out to be such as you shall think meet that our assent be yelded 
for the contynuance of your gouvernement as it nowe standeth 
for a tyme, then woold we have the sayd sir Thomas, in the de- 
livery therof, let the said counsel of state understand, how we ar 
drawen for the love we beare towardes them, and the care we have 
that nothing shuld procede from us that might any waye work their 
peril, to leave all respectes unto our own honnour, hoping that the 
consyderacyon therof will drawe them the rather to devise sum 
waye how to satisfie us in the point of qualificacion, as also to be 
more redy from tyme to tyme to cary that respect and regard to 
you, our minister, during the tyme of your imployement there, as 
may be both for our honnour, your comfort, and the particulier 
benifit of themselves. 

Geven under our signet at our manour of Grenewich the [first] 
day of [April] in the xxviijth yere of our reigne. 




The earl sends an act passed in the Low Countries for the stay of 
all traffic with Spain — executions for carrying victuals to the 
enemy — -false rumour that the earl had granted licenses to export 


provisions — siege of Grave — apprehension of John Jentile, a 
poisoner — the earl warned of persons hired to poison him. 

Mr. secretary, I doe send you an act that is past here touching 
the stay of all traffique with Spayne, which is determined here to 
be kept very strictly, and how you doe hold your determinacons 
there I knowe not, but, at my coming away, you were then all of 
that mind also. They heare, that [is], the councellours, are very 
forward and willing to doe all thinges that may annoy the kinge of 
Spayne, and there is verie strait order taken for conveyance of 
vittell. There was executed * * a about vj weekes past for 
carying of vittell to the enemie ; there be iiij more ready for it 
againe, and yesterday I heard there was certain vessells stayd at 
the Bryll, and the merchant withall whoe frayted them ^>, being of 
Rotradame,how c rich or great soeuer he be, he is like to hange for it. 

Here was a practice used to haue made me to loose many good 
willes, giving it out that I had granted manie licences for carying 
of vittell out of the countrey, and greatly was it beleeued, and 
good cause was there, for in troth I was much pressed here by 
sondrye councellers to haue granted many licences to passe out of 
North Holland, but I vtterelie refused it, and will doe, by the 
grace of God ; yet these councellers would fayne have perswaded 
manie countreymen here to find it necessarye, by which they ima- 
gined I had agreed therevnto. And as I trust to hold my hand 
safe ynough if I tarry here, soe 1 hope her majestie, and you all 
there, will consider, that the enemie is vtterlie vndone if he be a 
little longer restrayned from victuayles, which, I beseech you, re- 
member. And beware that such pretty devises as Tomsons intyce 
you not to breake it. I doe assure you, you neuer hard people so 
rayle as the Flushingers did against you and my lord-admirall, 
thinking that you in England had giuen licence to releeue the 
enemy, as by your pasport and letters they might, but I sent to 
them and have satisfied them, I doubt not. 

■ A blank in the MS. b then, in MS. c who, in MS. 


I looke euery hower to heare somethinge to be done touching 
Graue, or taking some necessary pece for vs. Yf God would put 
into her majestyes heart to goe princlie forward in this cause, I 
would suffer death if the enemye were not soe weakened this 
sommer as he should not recover it agayne this three yeares, but 
it must not thus be handled as now it is, for we are in a good way 
to overthrowe all. 

Here is apprehended yesterdaie one John Jentile ; he had the 
coppy of a letter about him written to you ; he pretended his 
arand to the princes of Pynoy, a as hired to poyson her by her 
husband ; he seemes to be a very villayne ; he hath such store of 
false dyce, and so many severall poysons, as noe doubt we will 
find somwhat from him. He brake the matter to the princes, and 
shee sent presently to me, and I sent Mr. Killigrew and one other 
of the councell to examine him. He confesseth to haue bine in 

I haue more warning from the prince of Parma's court, and from 
Antwerpe, and out of Germany, that there was some hired to 
poyson me, but I am at a point for all these matters. Her ma- 
jestyes displeasure, and the feare of the ruyn of this noble cause, 
is all my care and feare ; for all other perills I rest vppon the pro- 
vidence of God. Thus, having written of late to you, [IJ doe bid 
you farewell, praying you to lett me heare sometimes of your 
advises, as also answere to such things as concerne b this countrey 
causes when I writte. In hast, at Vtrycht, this 3. of Aprill. 
Your assured freynd. 

I meane to goe visit our campe within ij or iij dayes at furthest. 
This berer repayres home having his health very ill here. 
Yf the style of the act I send you shall offend, I pray you make 
a coppy as you shall thinke good. 

a So in the MS., but it appears afterwards that it was the princess Symeye, who is 
also mentioned by Stowe as having been at Utrecht on the 23d April 1586. See 
Stowe's Annales, p. 717. 

b corcerne, in MS. 




5TH APRIL, 1586. OUVRY MS. FO. 2. A COPY. 

The earl complains of practices out of England to discredit him, 
which are believed in consequence of the ivant of letters to him 
from the council and the queen — he relates what had been repre- 
sented respecting him to merchants of Amsterdam, who had sent 
to the English merchants at Middleburgh to search out the truth 
— diminution in the affection of the States General towards the 
earl — danger of a mutiny occasioned by reports to his prejudice 
— communication made to the earl by the countess of Nienar — 
apprehension of captain Carsey, charged with a design to betray 
Ostend to the enemy — count Hohenlohe has taken a fort near 
Grave — Norris sent to join him. 

Mr. secretory, as I wrote in my last letters to you, soe haue I 
cause more and more to call vppon you, if you doe wish anie good 
to this cause. I protest, before the Lord, I doe not dissemble 
with you, nor vse these vehement speeches for anie indirect fur- 
therance, but it is to be a well knowen to all sorts here, what 
hazard is of the whole matter, vppon this her majesty es late dis- 
pleasure. Some by-practises out of England, and not only vsed 
here into this countrey very diligently of late but imediatly vppon 
my arrivall, [have] written to Loveyne, and to Antwerpe, as I 
thinke I did advertise you. Theie haue giuen assurance to mar- 
chants of great creditt in Amsterdame, but I cannot haue them 
yet confesse from whome, that her majesty had not this longe 
while anie liking of me ; that I was in noe creditt with the councell 
of England, as might well appere by her majesty and their 

a " to be well knowen," in MS. but perhaps the earl wrote " to to well knowen." 


sending to me ; that she had refused to send anie more men over, 
nor anie more moneie then shall pay only vntil this time ; that 
my estimacion in England was nothinge, and that I had consumed 
all my living, and now a bankerout, and, if I had taried but two 
monethes longer in England, I had gone with a man and a boye ; 
that the queens majestie did wish her men at home againe, and 
that her meaning was never that I should haue anie other autho- 
ritye or government here then Mr. Norrys had ; and that she did 
not care for the loosinge of me, nor anie that is now with me, but 
rather glad that she had such a cause to be ridd of me, when she 
sent me hether, and without anie meaning that the states should 
call me to anie place of government, as doth well appeare by that 
that she cannot abide that there was name of "excellency" vsed 
to me ; and that her majestie will not heare of me, much lesse 
either herself or her councell write or send to me. And the 
party enquire, whether I did ever since I came shew to the states, 
or the councell, her majestys hand to myself, or whether she did 
ever write thanks or comendacions to them, either for me or of 
me, which is a matter, I must confesse, hath both astonyed me 
and marvelled at by nombers here. Insomuch as these men, 
vppon such particuler lessons and informacions, haue not lett to 
make inquisition, yea some gone as farr as Midleborow to their 
friends of the English marchants, to learne what degree I was of 
in England, and what abilitye, what fauor with her majestie, why 
I would leave Ingland if I had bine a man of so great qualitye as 
was here reported, why I should be here thus longe and to heare 
noe word from the queenes majesty, nor noe more Englishmen 
to follow me, as was looked for, and spoken of, before my cominge ; 
whether I had anie lands in England, or office but master of the 
horse, with manie such like questions. In the end, playnly telling 
his freind, that theie were advertised to looke to themselves, for 
theie should never find anie help or good by me ; that the quenes 
majestie would doe nothinge in respect of me ; and that theie 
should find all but a shew of mine owne, for neither men and 


mony more then is come shall come, and that she had forbidden 
all men coming over, specially noblemen and gentlemen, as I had 
procured at first some to grant to come, but her majesty would 
not suffer it ; and that she harkened for a peace, which, "if this 
had bine so," quod he, " we are well handled/' and spake his mind 
very frankly, saying, in the end, that if her majestie had sent a 
disgraced man to abuse them, or to entertayne them, whilst she 
wrought a peace, when theie, being offered a peace at my cominge 
over, vppon confidence of her majestyes goodnes quite brooke of 
with the instrumentes that dealt for it, yt wil be remembred to 
the end of the world, and we never abide the name of England 
againe. But the marchant did deale verie wiselye with the party, 
and did satisfye him thorowlie, as he thought. But yet, he sayd, 
such matter was more comonlie written of late out of England 
into euery towne of Holland, then anie other newes, and you may 
ghesse what fruit it will bringe forth. 

I doe faithfully assure you, I haue some cause greatly to doubt 
the affeccion of the states-generall, and some bussing a there is 
amongst them, whatsoever it be; God tome it to good. Theie 
begun ne to deale very stranglye within these few dayes ; yet I sett 
the best countenance I can of the matter. I maie feare her ma- 
jestyes countenance may come to late ; if it doe, I am like enough 
to beare a shrewd parte, but all as please God. I shalbe able to 
say more by my next ; but this I must say, a straunge course was 
like to haue followed, even amonge our owne, by some ill deal- 
inge ; whosoever was the doer, I hast to find it out. But a com- 
mon mutiny in all places was like to haue ben, and the culler, 
only that my lord of Leicester had abused the quenes majestie, 
and that she would send noe more monie ; he had spent all for 
his owne private causes. I am sure I haue not had hetherto iijC h 
of her majestyes, and I haue disbursed among her souldiers here 
vC 11 of my monie ; and, before the Lord I speake it, I am sure 

a Buzzing, see p. 88. 


some of these good townes had bine gone ere this, but for my 
monie. As for the states, I warrant you theie see day at a little 
hole. Theie will wayt vppon her majestyes pleasure and example 
at any tuch. Perhapps if a wiser man had bine in my place 
thinges had bine ill enough, and God doth knowe what a forward 
and a ioyfull countreie here was within this month ; God send her 
majestie to recover it soe againe, and to take care of it, on the 
condition she sent me after sir Francis Drake to the Indies, my 
service heere being no more acceptable. 

I must lett you knowe, and I hope to catch the man or to 
morrow night, the countes of Newenor a told me yesterday, whoe 
is a marvellous wise and well-spoken gentlewoman and a grave, 
that an English merchant that doth haunt Antwerpe sayd to a 
gentleman, a seruant of hers, within these iij or iiij days, that 
theie must looke for noe good heere by me, for he and all England 
knewe the quene[s] majestie loued me not, and had refused both to 
send men and money, and he told his freindes here so at the first ; 
yet, in respect of the povertie of her souldiours, she will send a 
pencion for them, but to maintaine noe further warres here, and 
that he should heare of another matter shortlie, meaning [there]by 
peace, "and," saith he, "I wyshed men at the first, after Antwerpe 
was taken, to take hold of the offer made to these countreys ; and 
warne your master," quod he by the count de Newenour, " that he 
looke to himself in time, and be not ledd with the shewes of the 
earle of Leicester, for the queene cannot abid him ;" and withall 
fell into infinit prayses of the prince of Parma, whab a man he 
was, and the kinge of Spayne wold haue these countreys in 
despite of all men again. That the prince of Parma was to re- 
ward both noblemen and others at his masters hands ; as for my 
lord of Leicester, he may commend what he will, but theie shall 
fare the worse that he shall commend. The other replied, as my 
lady told me, very honestly, telling the man b what her majesties 

a Wife of Adolphus count of Meurs and Nienar ; see pp. 119, 141. 
b men, in MS. 
LEYC. CORR. ' 2 F 


forces and greatnes might doe, and had done already, making such 
a full quiett in all these provinces as she had done, and that men 
here tooke my lord to be of anie other manner of calling then he 
reported, and of better credit with her majestic "Well!" sayth 
this companion, "doe but marke and enquire what graces she hath 
shewed him this iiij monethes that he hath bine here, and tell me 
when you see me next what you find of my wordes." You maie 
see, sir, what I am subiect vnto, and what advantage men take 
vppon princes wordes and doinges. I assure [yon] it makes me wery 
of my life, for I see theie say trew in manie of their speeches, how 
little soeuer I ioy to heare of it, but I trust to haue this com- 
panion furthwith, but it will little help the matter. I beseech 
God to make her majestie doe one thinge or other, for her owne 
best service, either to disgrace me cleane, or discredit these lewd 
bruits and devices. 

I haue this day apprehended captain Carsey, whoe is discouered 
vnto me by a partie that dealt with him on the other side, to haue 
sold Ostend, and must haue 30,000/. for his parte ; he was one 
of the captens there. The matter had bine better deferred x 
daies longer, as was agreed betwene thother and me, to haue taken 
him with an act to confirme the accusacion, but some inclying was 
giuen to the governour of Ostend, and knowen to iij or iiij, and 
coming hether with letters sent of purpose by the governour, I did 
take him, and haue him very close, and I am made beleeue he is 
like to confesse the matter, but true it is in my opinion. He doth 
wonderfully lament and weepe, but doth not a yet confesse anie 
thinge. It was but this morning I took him. 

I receaued a letter yesterday that the cont Hollocke hath taken 
the greatest fort that kept vs from Grave by force, and, because 
the knaves within raild at her majestie, he wrott to me he would 
hang them all. I trust Mr. Norris be with him, for I sent him to 
meet him nere that fort, with as manie English companies as we 

a doth yet, in MS. 


might spare here. I hope the next wilbe of the relife of Grave, 
for the messinger left them going to the skale of an other fort 
nerer Grave. After this, if God send good speed, you shall here 
of other maner of maters of greater consequence. But why doe 
Tsay so till I heare of men and monie, and knowe what I shall 
doe myself? God keepe you. At Vtrycht, this 5. of Aprill. 
Your assured. 



5TH APRIL, 1586. OUVRY MS. FO. 4 b . A COPY. 

The earl acknowledges the receipt of Walsynghams letters of the 
20th and 21 st March — sir William Stanley is gone into England 
in order to proceed to Ireland to conduct the Irish levies — 50s. a 
man is too much — the earl would like to bargain with the master 
of Gray for 2000 Scots — wishes the application of the duke de 
Nevers to be declined — regrets her majesty tvill not authorise a 
levy of men in England — hopes of relieving Grave — the earl at 
his wit's end for want of letters from the council. 

Mr. secretory, this vth of Aprill I received your three letters, 
one of the 20th of March, a and two of the one and twen- 
tith of the same ; b in an s were whereof, touching the Irishmen, 
sir William Stanley I hope by this time is arrived in England, to 
departe from thence into Ireland, and soe to bring the men with 
him with all speed, for soe the case requireth here, being soe 

"Seep. 178. b See pp. 184, 185. 

c by this time I hope, in MS. Sir William Stanley was the same person who was 
afterwards seduced into the treasonable surrender of Deventer to the Spaniards. 
See Camden's Annals sub anno 1587. 



scanted out of England as we are ; for his lieutenant, I haue left 
it to himself to take some man of good service. I doe thinke he 
is bent a vppon Haultree, and I pray you presse him not for anie 
captaynes or officers except they be fitt men indeed, for that we 
haue to many young and vnskilfull captaynes and officers here 
already, and doe every day see and feele the want that groweth to 
the service by them ; and for the offer you haue made of 50s. for 
a man, I am sorry you haue made it soe great, and doubt not but 
he will bringe them much better cheape. 

Touchinge the master of Gray, I haue receiued two or three 
letters and messages of the self same offer from himself, and haue 
sent agayne my answere to him, being willing to haue two thou- 
sands Scottes, of whome indeed I would be glad, and am not 
much willinge to haue anie moe then that nomber, and for theis I 
must knowe what he will also. 

For the salt for the duke of Neverrs, I pray you, if you can 
possibly, excuse it in some good sort, for ye will not beleeue what 
a doe here is for carying of victuall ; a matter we knowe will cutt 
the enemyes throat if we can hold it, but every man is soe for his 
particuler as all [orders] ar broken almost, yet we dayly hange 
poore men for it, and, aboue all things, salt is the cheife want they 
haue, and your marchant Tompson dealt not well with you; iijC 11 
worth of salt that he would haue caried to Dunkirk, besides other 
victualls and provision of municion in his shipp. 

The Flushingers are quit out of patience with you and my lord- 
admirall for the license, and it is not to be tould why it was ; I 
devised the next best excuse that might be for it. There is 
nothinge here so odious as licenses for victuals, and forced we 
shalbe now to restrayne all places, Fraunce, &c. I am sorry her 
majestie cannot be pleased to grant levye to be made of men for 
this seruice, being indeed her one most speciall service ; for my 
owne parte, I shall beare the want of this, as of all other things, 

a spent, in MS. 


the best I may. But if anie come, either prest or voluntary, I 
hope convenient order shalbe taken here for the reasonable satis- 
faccion of their charges. 

Yesternight I haue newes come from the count Hollock, that 
he hath taken [the] forte, which a was one of the enemies cheife 
sconces about Grave, and that theie are in good hope to doe some 
good presentlie to the towne. And so, with my right hearty com- 
mendacions, I comitt you to the Almightye. At Vtricht, the 
5. of Aprill, 1586, stilo Anglice. 

Your loving frend. 

I pray God you doe not deferre matters so longe as you loose all 
here; for my parte I am so at my wittes end, as I knowe not what to 
say. I thanke God I neuer receaued lettre from my lordes of the 
councell but two, and one I durst not for shame shew, it was by her 
majestyes commandement in the bitterest sort ; the other was to 
send William Herll to Vindon. I never yet receaued instruccion, 
advice, nor order, from you there, whereby either to direct myself 
or to satisfye these I hue here with all. God send some of you better 
comfort when you shalbe in service so far of. It b is strange a 
generall, a councellor, a true man, for soe will I be in despite of 
all malice, shall neuer receaue more in iiij monthes. 



llTH APRIL 1586. COTTON. MS. GALEA, C. IX. FO. 172. ORIG. 

Mutiny of Utrecht — censure o/Norris — Walsyngham will endeavour 
to procure sir W. Pelham to be sent over — difficulty of the levies 

a Taken forte was was, in MS. b In, in MS. 


— master of Gray's offei — iveakness of Spain — eagerness of the 
queen for a peace — Salesberye shall be arrested on his return to 
England — deaths of gaol-fever in Devonshire. 

My very good lord, as I have alwaies thowght, sythence your lord- 
ships first entrie into the charge you now howld, the assystance of sir 
William Pelham most necessarye for your lordship, so have I just 
cause, wayghing the late mutiny happened at Utreck by a bande 
perteyning unto coronel Norryce, to thinke the removing of the one 
as necessarye as the placyng of the other. I see some reason to 
dowbt that the grownde of the seyd coronells caryag of himself to- 
wardes your lordship grew by practyce from hence. The nurishing 
of factyon at home and abroade is thowght here the best coorse of 
pollecye, but the myschefe yt wyll breed I feare wyll prove irre- 

I fynde, as your lordship wrytethe, that the partyes that doe 
chefely possesse the coronell are but bad instrumentes, thowghe I 
must neades confes that I have ben a chefe preferrer of somme of 
them unto him. I woold to God that with his valewe and cou- 
rage he carryed the mynde and reputation of a relygyowse sowldyer. 
The chefe exsperyence and nuryture that he hathe receyved in 
the warre hathe ben in thos contryes where neyther dyscyplin- 
mylytarye nor relygyon carryed any swaye, and therefor yt hathe 
tawght him nothing elles but a kynde of a lycensyowse and corrupt 
governement, sooche as being weyed eyther in pollecye or rely- 
gyon can never prosper. I wyll, therfor, doe my best indeavor, 
as well in respect of the cause as for the honor and love I professe 
to bare unto your lordship, to procure the speedye sending over 
of sir William Pealham, hoping that, nowe your lordship standeth 
in verry gratyowse termes with her majesty e, she wyll be pleased, 
for your sake and her owne servyce, to send him over. 

I feare your lordship shall be greatly dysapoynted in the leavye 
of the voluntarye men, bothe in respect that many of the partyes 
appoynted by your lordship to make the seyd levyes have no 


abylytye nor meanes to furnishe them, as also for that there are 
verry harde brutes geven owt here of evyll usage of sowldyers 
there, and of the great pauwryll and exstremytye they endure. Yf 
your lordship coold fynde the meanes to furnishe the master of 
Graye with an imprest of 2000' », to be sent hether, he myght ba 
able to bryng over with him 3000 footmen and 200 lyght horse. 
I am of opynion that your lordship shoold be more ready ly served 
from that, than owt of this realme. Besydes the imployment of 
that natyon in thos cuntryes (the same being with the good allow- 
aunce of the king) cannot but greatly further and grace the cause, 
for, as I am informed, the brute thereof, as also that there shoold 
be an offre made of certeyn reysters to be sent by the king of 
Denmarke to serve under your lordship, doth verry greatly troble 
the prince of Parma. The provysyons of money promysed him 
owt of Spayn faule not owt accordyng to his expectatyon. 

The enterpryse of sir Francis Drake layethe open the present 
weakenes of the king of Spayn, for of late he bathe sollycyted the 
pope and the dukes of Florence and Savoye for a loane of 
500,000 A,a but cannot obteyne neyther the whole nor parte of the 
sayd somme. The Genuoyse merchauntes that were wont to fur- 
nishe him with money in tyme of necessytye, for that they feare a 
revolt of the Indians, begyn to drawe backe. 

The repayre of thos of Bomel and Deventrye unto your lord- 
ship, to offer themselves ther servyce and obedyence unto her 
majestye, dothe shewe most manyfestly, that yf the cause myght 
have ben thorrowghly countenaunced, the most part of the 
provynces now possessed by the enemye woold have revolted er 
this. But we heare are so greadye of a peace, in respect of the 
charges of the warres, as in the procuring thereof we neyther 
weyghe honor nor savetie. Somewhat here is a dealing under 
hande, wherin ther is great care taken that I shook! not be made 
acquaynted withall. 

I wyll not fayle, according to your lordships request, to take 
order for the apprehensyon of Salesberye immedyatly uppon his 

a Ducats. 


returne hether. I have alwaye held a dowbtfull opynion of him, 
having received somme informatyons ageynst him that gave just 
cause of suspytyon. According as your lordship desyerethe I have 
an espetyall care of sooche letters as your lordship desyerethe to have 
pryvat to myselve, and therfor am perswaded that parte of the ad- 
verticement your lordship maketh mentyon of, taken owt of somme 
letter of yours sent hyther, was, I dare assure your lordship, owt of 
non of thos sent unto me, and therfor I praye your lordship caul 
to mynde to whom you dyd wryte to lyke effect. For the pro- 
ceadings in Fraunce and Scotlande I refer your lordship unto the 
inclosed coppyes, and so I most humbly take my leave. 
At the coorte, the xj th of Aprell, 1586. 

Your lordships to commaund, 

Fra. Walsyngham. 

Sir Art. Basset, and Sir Jhon Chichester, and thre justices 
more in Devonshire, are dead thorrowghe the infectyon of the 
gaole. Baron Flowerdewe, one of the justyces of that cyrcute, 
is also dead. a The takyng awaye of well affected men in this cor- 
rupt tyme shewethe that God is angrye with us. b 



16th APRIL, 1586. OUVRY MS. FO. 5 b. A COPY. 

Sir William Russell, the bearer, returns to seek permission to raise a 
band of horse — the relief of Grave has been effected to the great joy 
of the people — the queen is considered the Messias of the country 
— sir Thomas Heneage's mission — the earl complains of want of 

a In Holinshed's chronicle (iv. 868) there is a full narrative of this sad event writ- 
ten by Hooker alias Vowell of Exeter. The infection was carried from Exeter through- 
out the county, and occasioned an immense number of deaths. Hooker's account 
contains a frightful picture of the condition of the gaol. 

b Some passages in this letter which are defective in the original have been supplied 
from an original draft in Harl. MS. 285, fol. 149. 


countenance at home — recent want of money — the earl has raised 
4000/. — Shenck has been with the earl, who presented him with a 
gold chain as from the queen — the earl is astonished that the queen 
does not summon a parliament, the people desiring it and offering 
an aid — "cockney kind of bringing up" of the young Englishmen 
complained of— the French ambassador is " a very naughtie man 
towards her majesty e" — Niochus, a mischievous fellow. 

Mr. secretorye, I haue written to her majestie how things have 
passed here, God be thanked, greatlie to her honour and her poore 
soldiours here. I haue thought good to send this berer, sir Wil- 
liam Russell,* as well to informe her majestie more particulerly, 
as also to desire you in his behalf to deale with her majestie for 
him, that he rayse there a band of horsmen, for I assure you 
horse are growen here very scarce, not that the bred is decayed, but 
that there is such continuall vse of them as theie are not so soone 
able to serue but theie are bought vpp. This gentlemen is worthy 
to be cherished, for he is a rare man both of courage and govern- 
ment ; it were pitty but he should be encouraged in this service, 
where he is like to learne that knowledge which three yeres perhaps 
in other places wold not yeld to him. In few words, there canot 
be to much good said of him. 

Touching our present affaires, God hath blessed vs with a most 
comfortable beginning. I wrote of late what hath happened vppon 
our attempt for the relife of Grave. We first tooke the myll 
sconce, after Battenbourg castell, and now, God be highly thanked, 
we haue done that we can, which is, that Grave is relived tho- 
rowly already, with 28 hoyes loden with as much as can serve them 
every way. !) This good successe, with the great losse the 

1 Afterwards deputy of Ireland, and created in the 1st James I. lord Russell of 

b From its situation, Grave was a place of great moment, being, after the loss of 
Antwerp, one of the few fortified towns which restrained the Spaniards from advancing 
into the northern provinces. The success of the endeavour to relieve it fully justified 


Spaniards had for losse of his men, which was noe lesse then you 
have heard, hath so comforted all these countreies as you will not 
beleeue what ioy theie make. Her majestie is taken for the only 
Messias of these countries. 3 God grant theie be estemed as theie 
be worth, howsoeuer theie maie be disgraced thorow ill handlinge 
of some men here. 

Sir Thomas Heneage hath vsed himself here exceedingly well, 
and I must humbly thanke her majestie to allow some liberty in 
her limitacion, otherwise, I assure you, I had bine noe able man 
to haue served here, as I should doe. Well ! God send me her 
fauour, and I will leaue nothing vndone ritt for a faithfull servant to 
doe for her. Albeit, I must say, that this c yeres there was never 
man soe weakly assisted as I haue bine, from my first day til this. 
I haue bene one of you ere now, but none of you as I haue beine 
and am here. I would God some of you had felt that half that 
I haue these iiij monethes. I never had good word, good coun- 

therefore the exultation of Leycester and the people. The garrison, which consisted of 
*' about eight hundred Dutch and Netherlande souldiours," under the command of 
baron Hemart, had been besieged ever since December, and their communication with 
the army of the states cut off by a series of forts erected by the Spaniards on the banks 
of the Maes. To accomplish its relief it was necessary to take possession of those forts, 
which was very skilfully managed by the troops under Hohenlohe and Norris, after 
some sharp fighting, in which the English auxiliaries distinguished themselves, Norris 
and sir John Burroughes being wounded, and " six or seauen score " of " our men " 
slain, whilst the Spaniards are said to have lost five hundred men killed, and about two 
hundred wounded, who were taken prisoners. " After this fight the count Hollocke 
battered and tooke Battenbourge castle, and the forte de Guanden, and the strong 
house of Empell, and then his victual being come he victualed Grave by water twise, 
went himselfe into it, supplied the garrison with newe men, and left it furnished with 
all prouisions sufficient, by acknowledgement of Hemart the captaine himself, for nine 
monethes." I quote these particulars from the scarce tract entitled, " A briefe report 
of the militarie services done in the Lowe Countries by the erle of Leicester : written 
by one that serued in good place there, in a letter to a friend of his. Imprinted at 
London, by Arnold Hatfield, for Gregorie Seton, 1587 ; " with the loan of a copy of 
which for the purposes of this publication I have been favoured by Bolton Corney, 

a these countrey, in MS. 


sell, nor anie help at all, from England, since I came hether, which 
was the x th of December, and this is the xvj tb of Aprill. I pray 
God send others more comfort then I haue had. 

I haue written humbly to her majestie that we maie not fall into 
our former lackes hereafter agayne as heretofore, from January, we 
haue felt. I protest before the Lord, there hath not bine one 
penny of her majestyes here since January, and to be sure that we 
should haue no creditt for anie more, our treasurer went his 
way, by collour to make pay at Flushinge and ells where, but they 
were neglected, and I heare forgotten, for neither there nor here 
could a penny be gotten, till I did writt myself to the merchants 
at Midleborow. But only from January till this time, my money 
and my credite releeued the poore men. And if I had not bor- 
rowed this last somme of 4000 11 it had been vnpossible this service 
had taken place, for there was not a groate to be had to sett them 
forward but that I did provide for them ; noe not one groat. I 
thanke God Almighty for it that so good successe is followed. 

Here hath bine corinell Shenke with me, I assure you a wor- 
thy gentilman, and hath done notable service here since my com- 
ing : he protesteth to serve noe creature but her majesty. Sir 
Thomas Heneage told me her majestie meant to send him a 
present by him ; I haue deliuered him a chain as brought by sir 
Thomas from her majestie ; yf you shall heare it is thought to 
much, whatsoeuer shalbe soe thought, I wold beare the rest, rather 
then anie mislike should happen. 

Mr. secretary, I marvell that all this time is lost at home, that 
her majesty doth not call her parliament ; and, albeit she doth 
not meane to send anie more then she hath agreed vnto, yet doth 
not her majestie knowe what need of monie she shall haue in this a 
troublesome world ? What harme is it to have iij or iiij cm* 1 lying 
by her ? Hir countreie and people is rich, and, if God should 
putt her to anie need, monye is not so easily gottin. I find by 

» these, in MS. 


these men here, what it is for a prince to be before hand. Such 
a prince shall doe more with a cm 1 ' then others shall doe with a 
million. When parliaments be called vppon suddens we have 
sene what effect they worke ; but too loose such opportunityes, as 
now that her majestie is sought and sued to to call a parliament, 
and offers infinitly made a of her good subiects to assist and help 
her, and with as good thanks to take their offer as to refuse it, I 
am sorry to heare and see it. 

As also, to the greif of my heart to see your youthes in Eng- 
land, how cleane theie be marred and spoiled for ever being able 
to serue her majesty and the realme. I am ashamed to thinke, 
much more to speake, of the younge men that haue come 
over. Beleeue me you will all repent the cockney kind of 
bringing vp at this day of young men. Theie be gone from 
hence with shame enough, and to manie that I will warrant will 
make as many frayes with bludgeons and bucklers as anie in Lon- 
don shall doe ; but such shall never haue creditt with me againe. 
Our simplest men in shew haue bine our best men, and your gal- 
lant bludd and ruffin men the worst of all others. I pray you 
esteme them there accordingly, except I commend them to you, 
and yet no one b hath iust cause to complayne to my knowledge. 

Well, sir, to retorne to this gentleman, I praie you helpe that 
he maie haue allowance to make c horse ther, according to her 
majestyes contract, which was, to furnish this armye with 1000 
horse, and there is not one horse made since I came, but onlie 
fifty by sir Thomas Cecill, and the company of my nephew Sid- 
ney, which I thinke is fiftye or lx. more. I assure you the tre- 
sorer is a negligent man ; but I thinke it be others fault, for the 
money hath bine a-land this xv dayes and yet he comes not 
with all. 

God send sir William Pelham over shortlye. Sir Thomas 

a need, in MS. 

b not, in the MS. which I take to be a mistake of the transcriber. Probably the 
ear] wrote "no j." 


Heneage will departe here shortly. Thus with my heartie com- 
mendations, I bidd you farwell. [In] hast, this xvj. of Aprill. 

Your assured frend. 

I pray you remember that you put vs not to wind and weather 
anie more for moneye. He gets her majestie nothing, and puts 
her whole service in hazard. And I beseech helpe to speed this 
gentilman with some money for his horsmen, that he maie retorne 
with them in tyme. 

One thinge more of greatest weight I had almost forgott. 
Your French embassador there is a verie naughty man towards 
her majestie, and doth dangerous offices. He doth writ to many 
places of her majestyes mislike of this countrey causes ; he as- 
sureth alteration or it be longe, and vaunts of his credit there 
amonge you, and how gladly you vse him to further your peace. 
Wold God you would vse such men ther as other princes vse 
evell instruments. You must take heed of Nixhus, he is disco- 
uered to be a mischeiuous fellow. 



21 ST APRIL, 1586. COTTON. MS. GALBA, C. IX. FOL. 179. ORIG. 

Joy of the queen upon the earl's restoration to favour — her con- 
currence in the levy of troops for the Low Countries — alloivances 
— negociations for peace — Grafini — Champigny — message from 
the queen to the council of the states — Kersey's treachery — Wal- 
syngham advises the earl to take the lead in negotiating for a 
peace, the queen being determined to bring one about — punish- 
ment of Weldon for libelling the earl — the queen longs to hear 
what is done upon the last direction to sir Thomas Heneage. 

My verry good lord, [I am glad to perceive the] great chaynge 


in your lordships letters, the one wrytten the v th the other the 
vij th of this present, the fyrst full of dyspayre in respect of 
the harde coorse helde here, the other full of compfort uppon 
the receypt of her majesties gratyous letters, and the happye 
success in the late conflyckt with the ennemye. I doe assure your 
lordship I think her majesty tooke as muche joye uppon the 
viewe of your letter, in seing you restored to your former compforte 
grownded uppon her favor, as she dyd [in] the overthrowghe of 
the enemye. 

Her highness is now pleased that [a] comyssyon be gyven for 
the levy of the 300 men in northe . . wherin before she made 
great dyffycultye. She hathe also commanded that all dylygence 
be used in the sending over of the voluntarye men. I dowbt 
greatly for lacke of money the captain wyll not be able to levye 
them, and yf your lordship, besydes the imprest of the 1000 u I 
caused sir William Stanley to be furnyshed withall, doe not also 
gyve order for a supplye of 500 u to be sent unto him, he shall 
never be able to brynge them of Irelande. He cannot get them 
to be transported under xx s the man. 

I am earnestly desyred by Mr. Edward Dyer to move your lord- 
ship that his brother Andre we, thorrowe your good favor, may be 
allowed after xx s the man for sooche nombers as he shall bryng over. 
The states have offered unto him, by Mr. Ortell, only xiij s iiij d the 
man, wheras in verry deede they cannot be sett owt in that good 
sorte yt were fytt under xxx s the man ; and yt were muche better 
to have an armye compounded of 10,000 well furnished men, then 
15,000 in sooche slender sorte as heretofore they have been sent 
from hence. I doe heare, by somme come from thence, that the 
harde allowance now made for the levyes intended hathe growen 
owt of coronell Norryce advyce, whoe notwithstanding, as he 
himself towld me, hathe ben allowed by the states heretofore for 
all manner of charges after the rate of . . . the man, which 
is verry skant. 

To the ende your lordship may see what instrumentes are used 


in owre medyatyon of peace, I sende you the coppyes of certeyn 
letters by good happ come to my handes. I have let her majesty 
understande howe dangerowse and dyshonorable yt is for her to 
have sooche base and yll affected mynisters used therin. Norryce, 
the controwlers man, is bothe a notable papist and hathe served 
Mounsyer heretofore as a spye. Yf eyther your lordship or my- 
selfe shoold use sooche instrumentes I knowe we shoold beare no 
small reproche : but yt is the good happ of hollow and dowbtfull 
men to be best thowght of. But, to returne to the desyred peace, 
your lordship shall understand that Grafini, sometymes Spinolas 
servaunt, having ben of late at Antwerp is nowe returned, whoe 
reportethe that the prince of Parma, understanding that he was to 
returne into England, sent for him, and, after long speeche had 
of the awntyent amytye betwen the howse of Burgundye and this 
crowne, the great myschefe that bothe contryes were lvke to indure 
by the coorse nowe held, and of the great good wyll he bare unto 
her majestye, he prayed him to let eyther her majestye or somme 
of her cownsell understande, that, althowghe he myght be thowghte 
more inclyned rather to contynewe the warres then to affect peace, 
yet no man woold be more wyllyng then himselve to be a medyator 
therof, and, for that purpose, yf he myght understand that her 
majestye wold lyke therof, he woold send somme well chosen in- 
strumentes unto her to make some sooche overture in that behalf 
as she shoold have cause to lyke of. He dyd, for the incorage- 
ment of Grafyni, assure him that the king shoold bestowe some 
honorable rewarde on him, so as he coold bryng the same to passe 
that some myght be sent over with her majestyes good lykyng. 
He dyd, also, let him understande that Champigny tooke uppon 
him [too much] in the matter, and that he had intellygence with 
some person of qualytye within this realme [of] the same, but 
that he dyd not lyke that he shoold be a dealer therin, but woold 
rather imploy a contryman of his owne. This myche have I 
receyved from her majestye towching Grafyinis proceading, wher- 
with her plesure was I shoold acquaynt your lordship, whoe doth 


think meet that you shoold, yf you shall see no cause to the con- 
trarye, acquaynt the cownsell of the state there, that certeyn over- 
tures for peace are dayly made unto her, but that she meanethe 
not to proceade therein without ther good Irking and privyty, being 
perswaded that ther can be no peace made profitable or suer for 
her that shall [not] also stande with ther savetye, [and] that 
she dothe acknowledge [hers] to be so lynked with thers as [no- 
thing] can faule owt to ther prejudyce but she must be partaker of 
theire harme. Her pleasure ys, that you shall not acquaynt them 
with the partycularyties of the overture, but woold have you deale 
with them in generall termes, usyng the matter in sooche sorte as 
they may not enter into any jealouse conceypt of any alyenation 
of her good meaning towards them. 

I am glad that Kerseys trechery was dyscovered in tyme ; I praye 
God ther be no more of that crewe as lewdly dysposed as he. I 
feare the lyttle hope that OAvre martyall men have of rewarde wyll 
drawe somme of them to fayle in their dutye, and therfore yt wyll 
behove your lordship to have a watchefull eye of the looser sorte 
of the capteyns. But, to returne ageyn to the peace, seing her 
majesty is so inclyned unto yt, and is fownde altogether unapt to 
prosecute the warres, I cannot but wyshe your lordship to be a 
pryncypall dealer therin, as well in respect of your own honor as 
that I hope yt wyll be performed with bothe honorable and pro- 
fytable condytyons : wheras I dowbt, yf yt passe to others hands, 
yt wyll not be so carefully dealt in. 

I cannot but let your lordship understande that the lord-cham- 
berlyn hathe dealt verry honorably and frenly towards your lord- 
ship of late, in causyng Weldon, sometyme pensyoner, 3 to be 
punished for delyvering, as he is charged thowghe by him denyed, 
lewd speeches of your lordship. I fynde that bothe the lord- 
admirall and he doe take yt verry kyndly that your lordship 
dothe wryte so at large unto them, as you have of late don. 

a Probably this was an ancestor of sir Anthony Weldon, the author of " The court 
and character of king James." See Thorpe's Reg. RofF. p. 1005. 


Her majestye dothe longe to heare what is don uppon the 
last dyrectyon geven to sir Thomas Henneage. I praye God 
owre nyce dealyng therin doe not more a harme, in respect of 
the lewde brutes geven owt there, then may afterwarde be well 

I cannot but put your lordship in mynd to returne your speedy 
awnswer to the master of Graye, towching the imprest I last wrote 
of, for the levye. I wyll seeke to satysfye the duke of Nevers 
towching the salt, in sooche sorte as he shall notwithstanding 
thinke himselve behowlding unto your lordship. 

The Flusshingers have dealt hardely bothe with the lord- 
ad myrall and me ; wee shall be forced, for the relefe of Thomson, 
to take some other waye of redresse. Eyther her majestye must 
increase her garyson in that towne, or elles tber must be somme 
devyce to imploye thos rude barbarouse maryners in some longe 
vyage. And so, fearing I have over-tyred your lordship with thes 
scrybled lines, I most humbly take my leave. At the coorte, the 
xxjth of Aprill, 1586. 

Your lordships to commaunde, 

Fra: Walsyngham. 



23rd APRIL, 1586. OUVRY MS. FO. 7 b. A COPY. 

Letter sent about the time of sir Thomas Heneage's meditated return, 
having faithfully discharged the service committed to him — 
further exploits of count Hohenlohe — sir John Norris has reco- 
vered from his wound — the prince of Parma is on his way to 
the siege of Grave. 
My very good lords, because sir Thomas Henneage is a very 

sufficient gentleman, well knowen vnto your lordships, and tho- 

a Moche, in MS. 


rowly instructed in all matters here, I shall not need to trouble 
your lordships at this time with anie longe discourse. Although 
his cominge hether at the first brought me noe great comfort, yet 
her majestys gratious dealinge with me sithens hath very well in- 
couraged me. He hath taken very great pains since his coming 
hither, and very well and faithfullie discharged the service com- 
mited to him; wherefore, because I will not anie way hinder his 
sufficiencye, I referre all to his declaracion. And soe committ 
your lordships to the gratious gouernment of the Almightye. 
From Utrecht, this xxiijth of Aprill, 1586. 

Your lordships to comand. 

Since sir Thomas Henneage departed yesterdaie morning, I 
haue heard from the count Hollocke, whoe after he had fullie vit- 
telled and furnished Grave, wherin he hath done notable good ser- 
vice, he went toward Bolduke, and hath taken two fortes held by 
the enemie and did vs much displeasure, the one called Knoles 
skonce and thother Embell, and is now reterid with his companies 
to refresh them. Sir John Norris is now cleane whole of his 
hurt, and for that I am enformed for certen that the prince of 
Perma is on the way toward Grave, to defend the succour if he 
can, but shall come to late, and, lest he attempt some other place, 
I will cause him to be waited on with all the litle force we haue at 
an ynch, and though our forces are not able for him, yet I hope to 
keep him from doing anie great harme. I trust after your lord- 
ships shall heare of our estate here by sir Thomas Henneage, that 
you will favorably consider of it, even as it is most requisit. 




24TH APRIL, 1586. OUVRY MS. FOL. 8. A COPY. 

The prince of Parma has advanced from Brussels to Bergen op 
Zoom on his way to Grave — his recent losses turn out to be greater 
than was supposed — insufficiency of the money brought by the trea- 
surer and anticipations of coming difficulties on that account. 

Good Mr. secretarie, I am so extreamly overtoiled with busines 

that I am inforced to vse a secretary in writinge to you at this 

time ; but the greatest matters sir Thomas Heneage and this berer 

are so well instructed in, as I shall have the lesse need to write of 

them myself. I receiued aduertisment this day, that the prince 

of Perma hath gathered his forces togither, and is come from 

Bruxelles nere to Berges, pretending to goe to Grave himself in 

person, and not to trust other men anie longer ; wherevpon I haue 

sent to take order with those that we haue at Graue, and then, if 

he doe come thither, he shall come to late, for the towne is both 

sufficiently vittelled and manned allready. I heare say he is 

4,000 stronge of horsmen, and we are not aboue 1500 horse here 

in all, for we want of her majesties nomber 200 yet ; I would her 

majesty had graunted forth comissions in time that we might haue 

had more men here, for some of them that went ouer for men, 

without comission, haue alreadie brought over their nombers, which 

are but few, but if we had had some 3 or 4000 men more here at 

this present, we might haue bine able to haue shewed our faces 

in some abler sort to him. Yet, with theis few that we haue, we 

meane he shall not be vnattended. The losse he had in this late 

conflict was full as great as I wrote vnto you, for we haue lately 

intercepted diuers of their lettres, some this daye, whereby we 

perceaue the overthrow was not lesse, but rather greater, then we 

thought, and that of his best capteins and men of name. Thus 


with my hearty comendacions, for this time I committyou to God. 
From Utrecht, this xxiiij th of Aprill. 

Your assured frend. 

I pray you giue credit to this berer, he can informe you of all 
things. By that time Mr. treasorer came hether to me he brought 
but 8000 H with him, nor hath anie more, and yet hath payed but 
only Flushing, Brill, and Ostend, and our horsmen are S00, and 
nere v m footmen vnder her majesties pay beside, and some ij 
moneths, and some 3, behind ; what case we shalbe in iudge you, 
and how we can tarry in the feild. For my none parte, I take 
God to record, at this instant I have not ij . 1 ' in my purse, neither 
doe fynd anie care of men, and yet doe I neither spare paine, tra- 
vell, nor chardge, here. 



20TH APRIL, 1536. COTTON. MS. GALBA. C. IX. FOL. 191. OIUG. 

The queen's reception of letters brought by sir TV. Russell — her de- 
sire for peace — the excuse of the lords of the council for writing 
to the earl so seldom — cost of the transport of troops from Ire- 
land— designs of the enemy — the earl advised to avoid a battle 
— sir TV. Pelham about to be sent over. 

My very good lord, the news browght by sir William Russell 
was verry welcom unto her majestye, yet dyd she not greatly lyke 
to be pressed for the supplye of horsemen agreable with the con- 
tract; she sty 11 harpethe after peace, bothe in respect of charges, 
as of some dowbt she hathe that somewhat wyll be attempted 
ageynst her own person, and, therfor, seing she dothe so greatly 
thirst after yt, I cannot, as I wrote unto you in my former, but 


wyshe your lordship to be a chefe dealer therm ; yt were a grete 
wronge, consydering the brunte and burden of warres your lord- 
ship susteynethe, that peace shoold be made withowt you. Yt 
were not amysse that your lordship tooke somme apt ocoasyon, by 
your owne letters unto her majestye, to let her understand no les. 

I have let my lords here understande, how unkyndly your lord- 
ship takethe yt that you heare so seldom from them, and that 
sythence your charge there you never receyved any letter of ad- 
vyce from them. They awnswer, as yt is trothe, that, her majes- 
tye reteyning the whole dyrectyon of the causes of that contrye 
to herself and sooche advyce as she receyvethe underhand, they 
knowe not what to wryte or to advyce. She can by no meanes, 
as I have heretofore wrytten unto your lordship, in dure that the 
causes of that contrye shoold be subiect to any debate in cownsell, 
otherwyse than as she herself shall dyrect, and therfor men for- 
bear to doe that which otherwyse they woold. 

I sende your lordship sooche thinges as were yesterdaye pro- 
pounded to ther lordships in cownsell, with theire resolutyons taken 
thereuppon. Mr. Dawtrye tellethe me, who attendethe here by sir 
William Stanleys appoyntment, your lordships resolutyon towching 
a further supplye of money besydes the lOOO 11 alreadye delyvered 
unto sir William Stanley, that they cannot be conveyed owt of 
Ireland under xl s . the man. The only transportatyon will cost 
a 10001*. Yf your lordship cannot drawe the states to yeld that 
allowance, then were yt meet sir William Stanley were speedyly 
made acquaynted withall, to the end he may forbeare further pro- 

I learne by letters owt of Flawnders, that the enemye meanethe 
to sende all his forces towardes Guelderlande, in hope to drawe you 
to a fyght, which I hope your lordship wyll geve order that the 
same shall be avoyded, unles yt shall be uppon a mervaylowse 
advawntage. Yf an overthrowghe shoold happen yt woold put in 
hazarde the whole cause, for we are not armed here with that 
constancy that shook! endure sooche a revers without dysmay. 


My lords mean shortely to sende sir William Pelham unto you 
with there best advyce in this wayghtye poynte. I thinke yf your 
lordship dyd convert some of your soldyeres into pyoners, you 
shoold have great use of them, bothe for defence and tobryng you 
to fyght uppon advauntage. 

And so, having for the present no other thinge to imparte unto 
your lordship, I most humbly take my leave. At the coorte, the 
xxvth of Aprill, 1586. 

Your lordships to commaunde, 

Fra: Walsyngham. 

Ther hathe fawlen owt no electyon this S*. Georges feast. a 


To the right honourable my verie good [lord] the earle 
of Leycester, lord lieutenaunt-generall of her majesties 
forces in the Lowe Countries. 

a Although Saint George's day passed over undistinguished in the court of Eliza- 
beth, it had been far otherwise in the earl's court at Utrecht. Segar the herald com- 
municated to Stowe a narrative of the earl's princely doings upon that occasion, which 
the chronicler has inserted in his Annals, (p. 717,) and which, but for its length, we 
should like to quote entire. The earl proceeded " to the cathedrall church called the 
Dome " with a very royal retinue all mounted, and comprising, amongst many others, "6 
knights, 4 barons, with the counsell of estats, the earl of Essex accompanied by the 
bishop of Cullen prince elector, and the prince of Portugale rode by himselfe ; next 
proceeded the captaine of the guard, the treasurer and controller of the houshold, 
bearing their white staues ; after whom followed two gentlemen ushers, and Portclose 
herault in a rich coat of the amies of England : then came my lord most princelike, 
invested in his robes of the order, guarded by the principal burghers of the towne, 
which offered themselves to that seruice, besides his owne guard, which were a fifty 
halbarders in scarlet cloakes, guarded with purple and white veluet. Hee being thus 
honourably brought unto the church, after due reverence done unto the queenes maies- 
ties state, which was erected on the right hand, he tooke his own stall on the left, by 
certaine degrees lower : then began prayers and a sermon made by master Knewstubs, 
my lords chaplaine, after which my lord proceeded to the offering, first for her maies- 
tie and then for himselfe, the which he performed with such decorum and princely 
behauiour that all generally spake most honorably of him." He returned in proces- 
sion to his court, a large house which formerly belonged to the knights of Rhodes, and 




26TH APRIL, 1586. COTTON. MS. GALBA, C. IX. FOL. 193. ORIG. 

Walsyngham announces a sudden change in the queen's mind adverse 
to the continuance of the earl's authority as supreme governor — 
Burghley's remarks to her, whereupon the queen greiv " so pas- 
sionate as she forbad him to argue any more" — Walsyngham sus- 
pects treachery at home and harm done by letters from the Low 
Countries — a safe-conduct sent to Champigny to come over and 
treat for peace. 

My verry good lord, howe this unlooked for alteratyon happen- 
ethe at this tyme, when the goodnes of God, thorrowghe the most 
happye coorse and successe thinges take there, owght to have led 
her majesty e to have proceaded most resolutely in the cause, I 
knowe not, nor can by no meanes imagen how the same shoold 
be wrowght. Ther was only cauled unto the resolutyon the lord 
thresorer and I. He moved her to staye the resolutyon untyll sir 
Thomas Henneages returne ; he shewed her that ther was nothing 
don contrarye to her dyrectyon ; he protested unto her, that, yf 
she dyd goo forwarde with the resolutyon, yt woolcl utterly over- 

in which was " a very great hall richly hung with tapistrie." Here, in the presence of 
a splendid assembly, he knighted Martin Schenck; after which "the ushers marshalled 
the feast," which was " most princelike and abundant," and was adorned with many 
rare and magnificent devices, baked meats in the shapes of lions, dragons, leopards, 
and such like, and " peacocks, swans, pheasants, turkie-cocks, and others in their 
naturall feathers spread as in their greatest pride." The feast was succeeded by dan- 
cing, vaulting, tumbling, and " the forces of Hercules," which last " gave great delight 
to the strangers, for they had not seene it before.'' The supper was as plentiful as the 
dinner, and was succeeded by jousts and feats of arms, and the day's amusements were 
closed by a sumptuous banquet of " sugar meates for the men-at-armes and the ladies." 
Leycester does not make any mention of this splendid festivity in his letters to his 
friends in England. 


throwghe the cause. She grewe so passyonat in the matter as 
she forbad him to argue any more. Suerly there is somme tre- 
cherye amongest owreselves, for I cannot thinke that she woold 
doe this of her a owne heade. I conceyve also, that ther are bad 
offyces don from thence by secreat letters sent hether, by the 
which they doe advertyce that the states shall not be able to yeld 
the contrybutyons promysed, so as the burden of the warres wyll 
lyght on her majestye. She is the rather confyrmed in this opi- 
nion, for that your lordship dyd sygnefye unto her, that the con- 
trybutyons came verry slowly in. Now hereuppon I gather, that 
her majestye, dowbtyng that a greater charge wyll be cast uppon 
her then she shall be able to beare, wherby she shall be forced to 
abandon the actyon, she conceyveth yt may be don with lesse dys- 
honor, being an assyster, then when her mynister shall carrye the 
tytle of absolute governor. I conjecture also, yt may growe upon 
a hope of a peace ; for that, as I am secreatly informed, ther is a 
save-conduct sent over unto Champigny, eyther for himselve or 
some other, that shall secreatly repayre into this realme. Sorrye 
I am, that your lordship shook! be so yll handeled as not to be 
made acquaynted with the proceadinges here, having ingaged your- 
selve so far as you have don for her majestyes servyce. I looked 
that her majestye woold have wrytten letters of thankes, bothe 
unto your lordship and others there of good desert, bothe strayn- 
gers and her own subiectes, but we are more apt to wownde then 
to compfort. God geve your lordship pacyence to beare thes 
crosses, to whos protectyon I commyt you, most humbly takyng 
my leave. At the coorte, the xxvj th of Aprell, 1586. 

Your lordships to commaund, 

Fra: Walsyngham. 

To the right honourable my verie good lorde the 

earle of Leycester, lord lieutenant-gen erall of 

her majesties forces in the Lowe Countries. 

a Owr, in MS. 





The queen's dissatisfaction that nothing has been done towards the 
qualification ofLeycester's title of absolute governor — Heneage is 
commanded, wheresoever this letter should find him, to return to 
Leycester, and with him to confer with the counsell of estate how 
the said title might be qualified, and the power be given to Leycester 
not as governor of the country, but as the queen's lieutenant- 
general — the queen complains o/Heneage's delay in the delivery of 
her letters to the states — and also that fie had assured the states 
that she would make no peace with Spain without their privity 
and assent. 

Trusty and welbeloved, we grete you well. Upon perusall of 
your late letters, and of the coppy of the speach in oure name 
unto the states, we fynd yt very strange, that in that matter that 
doth so greatly touch us in honor, and the contynuance of the 
title of absolute governor, there is nothing yet done for the quali- 
fication thereof, for any thing we have yet receaved from you. 
For we did looke, accordingly as we directed, that there would 
have bene some resolution taken in that behalfe, between the 
counsel of estate, oure cosin of Leycester, and you. Which 
being not performed, falleth out farr contrary to oure expectation, 
and the regard we looked you would have both had to oure ho- 
nor and contentment, being a thing by us so much affected. And 
therfore owre pleasure ys, wheresoever thies oure letters shall 
fynde you, you shall with all convenient spede retorne to oure 

a The MS. is entitled, " Copye of her majesties letter." 


cosin of Leycester, and to ioyne with him in conference, and with 
the counsell of estate there, howe the said qualification in poynct 
of title may be performed accordyngly as we desyer, and yet the 
autority reserved unto oure cosin the earle under the title of oure 
lieutenant-generall, which we see no cause to dowbt but that the 
same will worke as good effect for the avoyding of the confusion 
of governement ther, as the other title of absolute governor. 

We are further to lett you understand, that we have cause 
greatly to mislike of too poynts in your proceding there. The 
one, that there was stay made in the delivery of our letters unto 
the states, for the doing wherof we gave no speciall direction, 
nether to oure cosin of Leycester nor unto you, nor yet do see 
any cause to allow therof for any thing conteyned in your letters. 
The other ys, the assurance geven by your speach unto the states, 
that we would make no peace with the king of Spaine without 
their privitie and assent, wherin we ether thinke that you have 
farr exceded your commision, or els oure secretary had greatly 
mistaken our direction geven unto him in that behalfe ; for that 
oure meaning was, that they should only have ben assured, that, 
in any treaty that might fall out betwen us and Spaine, we would 
have no les care of their safetie then of oure own. And wheras, 
by your letters unto us, you do lett us understand, that you re- 
ceaved a short answer from the counsell of estate to the poynts by 
you propounded, we mervaile greatly why you forbare to send the 
same unto us, importing us so much as yt doth to have some 
spedy resolution in the said poynt of qualification, wherin we do 
assure you we shall receave no satisfaction untill the same be per- 
formed as we desyer. And therfore oure meaning ys not that 
you shall retorn unto us before the same be accomplished; and, 
in the mean tyme, we do looke to heare often from you touching 
your proceading therin. Geven under our signet at oure manor 
of Grenwich, the xxvij t]l day of Aprill, 1586, in the xxviijth year 
of our reign. 





This letter was written to sir Thomas Heneage by the queen with 
her own hand and sent at the same time as the last — she reminds 
him that a man who has faulted will not willingly retreat — 
she orders him to do what he is bidden, and leave his considera- 
tion for his own affairs — she will not be bound not to make peace 
by his speech to the states — it is enough if she does not injure 
their country — she dislikes his childish dealing. 

What flegmaticall reasons so ever were made you, how hap- 
peneth yt that you will not remember, that when a man hath 
faulted and commetted by abettars therto, that nether the one nor 
the other will willingly make their own retrait. Jesus, what 
availeth witt when yt failes the ownar at greatest nede ? Do that 
you are bidden, and leve your considerations for your owne af- 
fayres ; for in some things you had cleare commandement, which 
you did not, and in other none, and did, yea, to the use of those 
speaches from me that might oblige me to more than I was bounde, 
or mynde ever to yelde. We princes be wary enough of our bar- 
gaines, thinke you I will be bounde by your speach to make no 
peace for myne own matters without their consent ? It is enough 
that I iniure not their countre, nor themselves, in making peace 
for them, without their consent. I am assured of your dewtifull 
thoughts, but I am utterly at squares with this childish dealing. 1 " 1 

a Sir Thomas Heneage has written under the copy from which we have printed, 
" Thys above ys the copie of her majesties lettre wrytten with her own hand to me." 




28TH APRIL, 1586. OUVRY MS. FOL. 8 b. A COPY. 

The earl has received many of Walsynghani 's letters at one time — 
further successes of count Hohenlohe — misbehaviour of English sol- 
diersat Grave — Hohenlohe" s great services and merit — the prince of 
Parma has relumed to Brussels, but still intends to proceed to- 
wards Grave — desertions from the Spaniards — Graffyn — negoci- 
ation for a peace — the earVs advice us to the proper course to 
be taken to procure a peace, and as to who are proper persons 
to be negotiators. 

Mr. secretary, I haue receiued the xxvijth of Aprill manie letters 
from you at one time. Theie will require some time to answere 
them all, which I will doe. In the meane time, I haue thought good 
to lett you knowe, that, besides the ij fortes which the count Hol- 
lock hath taken since the vitellinge of Grave, the one called 
Knoles sconce and the other Embell, this morning I have receaued 
assured intelligence by coronell Shenkes, whose lieutenant brought 
him the word and was present at the fact, that, on Tuesdaie last, 
certen of his horsmen issued out of Venloe and mett with v c of 
the enemye belonging to Mastrickt, and charged them and over- 
threw them, kild fiftye, tooke a c prisoners, with their ainsigne, 
which doth shew that God doth blesse this action of her majesties 
clearly. Both the count Hollocke and this Shenke are two no- 
table servantes, and, next God, wee must thanke the count Hol- 
locke in all trueth for the victorye at Grave ; for he did not only 
most valiantly in his owne person, but very wisely and souldier- 
like governe the matter, when, in secret be it spoken to you, and 
as sir Thomas Heneage can tell you, v c Englishmen of our oldest 
Flemish trayning ran flatly and shamfully away. And how farr 
this count hath saved some mens credites I know most assuredly, 


and soe can sir Thomas Heneage tell you, if he will ; but I 
doubt he will not, for he was at the place, and indeed had the 
salutacion of enemyes cannon, and he had the truth of all, but 
not fitt to be knowen to many. But the count Hollock, of all 
men, hath deserved most iust commendacion, whome I pray God 
her majesty maie in some honorable sort remember ; for he hath 
giuen over service of the states, and will serve none but her ma- 
jestic, and soe declared long since to them, and keeps his promise 
faithfullie. He is both a valiant man and a wis man, and the 
painfullest that ever I knewe. I beseech you be meane to her 
majestie to remember him. If he had her picture in a tablett, 
which might be worth ij cU , would content him as much as 1000 !i 
in money. He hath, for hir majestyes sake, greatly left his drink- 
inge, and amonge the souldiers greatly beloued. 

The enemie, we heare, was a daies iourney outward toward 
Grave, as I wrote to you, with all his forces, and xv canons. He 
heard then of his losse at Grave, which so appauld him as he re- 
torned back to Bruxells, but with intent, as wee heare, againe to 
come into those parts presently. The losse of the nomber of 
Spaniards were certenly more then I wrote, and soe confirmed to 
him, which, with the losse of so many his best captaines, and as yet 
we hear it still confirmed that don John de Aquilaue, a thair cheif 
leader and master of camp, b was slayne ; if it be trew, as we 
knowe not the contrarie, and all lettres from Antwerpe and Bruxells 
confirme it, he hath lost his cheiftest capten and greatest souldier he 

This overthrow hath drawen them from Newes, and as I am 
perswaded will rayse the rest from Grave, except the princes 
coller presse him to seeke revenge, whereof I haue noe great feare, 
speciallye yf he continue collerick, for be you assured we will giue 
him litle advantage, and yett will we waitt vppon his pleasure at 
an inch, whersoeuer he goe ; yea, perchance, if God send vs 

a Aquitave, in MS. b The word is illegible in the MS. 


money, which is our whole want, either bring him, or led him, into 
Flanders, and if moneie faill nott here shalbe noe doubt of it ; yet 
are we many fewer then he, both for horse and foote. 

There is at this hower a notable capten of the Albaneses gone 
from the enemy e, and doth offer to serve me vnder her majestie, 
and to drawe ij cil of the best Albeneses that doth serve him to 
serve here and furthwith. Theie be the best men he hath. 

You gave a pasport to one Aug. Graffyn to goe to Antwerpe 
of late, he had letters to me to giue him leave alsoe, but he speed 
soe well as he neuer sent me my letters till he had done all his 
busines, and returned with a great masse of merchandizes, and 
then he sent me my letters and a dish of plumes, which I will 
boldly say to you, by the liuing God, is all that ever I had since I 
came into these countreys. This man I vnderstand ys great with 
the prince of Parma, and receaued great favors for the dispach of 
his merchandises, and the rather as it is secretly and assuredly 
giuen me to vnderstand from my intelligencer, for that he hath 
vndertaken to sett abroch the peace betwene her majestie and the 
kinge of Spayne, a matter for my parte I doe not mislike, soe that 
it be not mard in the handlinge. For, as it is not vnfitt for 
princes to heare anie offers that may be made, soe is it most ne- 
cessary to make their best bargaine that anie way maie be pro- 
cured, but I beseech you lett these advantages be considered that 
her majestie now hath, and to assure her, she may bringe the kinge 
of Spaine to anie peace if it be princly and well handled, but if 
you relent one iotte all is overthrowen. I meane not, that you 
should not entertayne and heare, in some sort, to these offers 
made, but not to shewe to haue to great a desire to it, as in troth 
it is here geuen out, to to much to the disadvantage of her ma- 
jestyes service. What sending, what practising there is, on every 
side, some in Spayne, some in the Low Countreys, from some 
of yourselues in England, it is a world to heare. But, for my 
none parte, both before I came hether and since my coming, I 
take God to record, I haue and doe wish a good and a sure peace 

1 ij di , in MS. 


for her majesty, and haue taken no other waye here amonge these 
councellors then such as I maie alway turne to that course, being 
ripe and ready for her majestie and them ; but I haue ever said 
that, and doe still say it, that doe you all you can, with all the in- 
struments you can haue, and, except a necessitye drive it, you 
shall never haue a good peace with Spayne, and your best waie 
and meane must be to force them in this sort by a hard warre. 
Whereby, if it shall please her majestie to back me princly, and 
to shew a care indeed to settle these countreys in good securitye, 
I will adventure my hedd of it, that her majestie shall haue what 
peace she will. And it shall not grow by a merchants brokerage, 
but from the verie states of Heynalt, Flaunders, and Artoys them- 
selues, wherevpppon there maie be good ground taken indeed to 
worke uppon, which otherwise thother is dellitorye and equall, 
and he that seeks maie leaue vppon anie advantage, as he likes 
best. And I haue not doubt but to bringe such a manner of deal- 
ing to passe, soe that you by paultring dealing, by beggerly instru- 
ments, be cutt of; which at all times maie be vsed, if God should 
send our case harder than it is. And beside, when it is sought by 
men of creditt, whoe are interessed in the cause, you are like to 
obteine better conditions then when it shall growe by a broker ; 
beside the honor is as much worth almost as the matter. I can 
assure you, by all faith and trueth, that the brutes of your treat- 
inge vnderhande hath done more harme to the cause here then 
anie one thinge in the world, ioyned with the mislike geven out 
by lewd fellowes, that her majestie had noe care what became of 
these countreys, and that she sought but for a peace for herself, 
and till sir Thomas Henneage last assurance geuen to the councell 
here thereof, I knew theie all feared it, almost to their vtter greife, 
but now it stands well, and theie well perswaded, wherein sir Tho- 
mas Henneage hath done her majestie exceeding great service, in 
satissfyng these men in many things. 

To conclude, if her majestie doe wish a peace, as I beleeue she 


doth, this is the only way to cause the enemie to seeke hir, which 
neuer beleeue me if he doe not. So that there, as I saied before, 
[be] geuen the enemy noe hope of by and vnderhand dealinge, 
and that her majestie doe deale playnly and franklye with these 
people, as sometimes in sending some men of creditt to visitt 
them, and to see their estate, to comfort them, and me also, as 
her servant amonge them ; and having such a one here, I could 
call him sometimes a to breake that with them which were meete, 
and yet not soe fitt for myselfe to doe. Hit is but iij monethes 
dealinge to bring what her majestie will to passe, and with great 
honor ; beside, I doe [believe] this last conflict hath marvellously 
appaulled the Spaniards, and theie doe daylie run away by good 
nombers. Well, I pray you let vs lack noe moneie. If I liue till 
August, yf I take not order, if her majestie will haue a peace, that 
she shall likewise haue all her money in verie short time, lett me 
be blamed. Thus, having bine longer then I meant, I will take 
my leaue. In som hast this 28. of Aprill. 

Your assured frend. 



30TH APRIL, 1586. OUVRY MS. FO. 11. A COPY. 

Tlie earl has received Walsyngham's letter of the 2\st April, which 
was the first letter of comfort he had received since he left Eng- 
land — laments his late hard condition — will send money for the 
troops to be raised in England and Ireland — has acquainted some 
of the council with the proposals for peace made to the queen — 
by using her advantage her majesty may have offers far more 

a to sometimes to, in MS. 


advantageous — dejection of the prince of Parma — exploits of 
count Hohenlohe and Shenck — the earl has knighted the latter 
and Norris — anticipated desertions from the Spaniards — the 
earl would creep on his hands and knees to procure a good 
peace — rumour of interference of the king of Denmark to stay 
trade with Spain — it will turn out that Jentile designed to poison 
the earl. 

Mr. secretary, I did writt ij dayes past to you at some lenght, 
and in that letter by chaunce haue answered some thinges that 
your last letter of the xxj th of Aprill a doth require, which letter I 
receaued this last of Aprill; but one thinge I must cheifly remem- 
ber and thanke you for, which is, that I neuer receaued letter, or 
word, of comfort from you, since I came over, but by this letter. 
I would be sorrie my enemie, much lesse my freind, should suffer 
such a time as I did, almost foure monethes together ; but the 
blessednes of England I see hath made manie forgett the miseries 
of others. God grant me his grace to strengthen me in this 
service, and that he will send her majestie victorie over all her 
enemyes ; and that poore men, whoe doe hazard there life, honor, 
and liveing, maie be better remembred then I haue bine. But 
now that her majesties good favor is promised me, and is the 
onlye worldlie thinge I begge of God, I doe greatlie quiet myself, 
and doe protest, even before the majestie of the eternall judge, 
that I haue sought nothinge in this service of mine, but, first, the 
glory of God, and, next, the saftye and service of her majestie, 
for which respect He doth knowe, and I doe feele, I haue lost the 
sweet comfort of her majesties presence, my most gratious soue- 
raigne, the safe protection of my happy countrey, the contented 
life among my deere and loveinge freinds, and the libertye with 
all comfort in a most blessed state. What I purchase here, in- 

a See p. 229. 


steed of all theis, lett my companies and beholders witnes. But 
if x times worse were possible to be felt, and maie doe my gratious 
mistress but half the service I desire, with enioying her favor, all 
would be pleasure, ioy, and comfort ; for I knowe, if God be 
pleased, this accion must needs turne to her majesties great se- 
curitie, or ells was I vnhappy to enter into it. Well, sir, I thanke 
you now, at last, that I receaued some lines of comfort from you ; 
as that her majestie is my good ladye, that she will assist me in 
her service here, with licensinge of voluntary men to come over, 
in favoring sir Wylliam Stanleys fechinge men out of Ireland, in 
imparting to me the offers for peace. 

For the voluntaries, I trust noe way to chardge her majestie, 
but shall all be borne here, and shortlie to send moneie over ; 
there are v or vjc come already, whoe had prestes out of my owne 

For sir William Stanley, also, I will speedily send over to you 
for that you haue prested, as also to send him a further prest, 
wishing of God that it had pleased her majestie to haue sent, or 
yet to send, sir William Pelham over. I knowe, I say I knowe 
it, that all the debt he oweth had bine saved another way if he 
had bine here, beside the great service to the whole cause, as you 
shall find in a tickett, &c. a 

Touching the matter of peace, I haue, I thinke, said in my 
other letter as much as I now can say. And I doe most humbly 
beseech her majestie to consider well of it. I perceaue that I 
heard here is true, and confirmed by your letter, soe that there 
is dealing for peace as well by Grefyne as others, which intelli- 
gences being so knowen caused me to take that course which I 
perceaue her majestie doth will me, which is, to let the councellers 
vnderstand of the meanes which are offered her majestie, as, in 
very troth, I haue done but to the wisest sort of them, alwaies to 

a Either some paper was inclosed or there is some error in the MS. 


prevent the hearing of it ; for theie he very subtill, and as sus- 
picious people as ever I delt withall, which made me to vse some 
speech of this matter to them ; how greatly her majestie is sought 
for peace, and how carefull I knowe she wilbe to doe anie thing 
to their hurt. And theie beleeue she is soe, for I tell you theie 
knowe it, and I am sorry I haue not heard sooner, for I haue 
often writen what I haue heard of this matter, that I might haue 
authority to say somethinge, as, I thanke God, I did it sondry 
times of myself, to avoid the iealousye. And I knowe it hath 
done great good, and sir Thomas Henneage declaracion thereof, 
also, did exceeding much good, and confirmed in good time, and 
fully, that I had said before to them. 

But to the peace, what I thinke I referre you to my other 
letter, protesting, before God, I desire nothing more in this 
world then a good and sure peace for her majestye, being I knowe 
most agreable to her best liking, whome, next God, I would in all 
dewtifull service most please, and, beside, I am most perswaded 
that all good Christians ought to seeke and preferre. My onlie 
advice doth tend to haue her majestie haue as sure peace as in 
reason may be gotten. And I doe verilie thinke, as matters stand 
here, if her majestie will vse her advantage, she shall bringe the 
kinge, and specially this prince of Perma, to seeke it in other 
sort then by waie of merchantes. I can assure you he was never 
soe deiected, nor soe mallancholy, since he came into these coun- 
treys, as he is at this daye, nor so far owt of courage. I protest 
vnto you, I would gage my life and creditt, if I were supplied as 
were but reasonable, I would haue Antwerpe towne and Burges 
or midd June. This last overthrow is greater then you there can 
imagin, with the vitelling of Grave, being a towne of greatest 
importance of all the places we hould in theis provinces, for 
Brabant, Gelders, Vtryckt, and Over I sell, being the very passage 
into all those places, saving into Gelders the enemie maie goe an- 
other way, but far worse and more discomodious, and the prince 
made as sure accompt of it as ever he did of anie skonce that he 


tooke in hand. His men doe marvellously beginn to mutinie ; 
manie run away, specially Spaniards. 

I thinke I wrot to you, how Shenks lieutenant very latlie again 
hath overthrowen, nere Mustryckt, aboue v c footmen, whereof 
onlie 1 are kild, and a c with their cheif ainsynes taken and 
brought awaie,a with losse of five or sixe at most ; he himself was, 
and is, here with me, about a service presentlye to be done, in 
building a fort whereby we will choke vpp Newmeagen, and stopp 
all vittells that waie to the enemie. 

The count Hollocke is here also, a most noble gentleman, and, 
to deale plainlie, geuing every man his right, he was the cheife 
cause, vnder God, of our days victorye, wherein, beside his valiant 
behaviour, he deit as like a good souldier as ever I heard of, and 
afterwards, for the vitellinge the towen, in his person he did most 
desperatlye adventure it, and went into it himself, where he past 
a 1000 shott of muskett and caliver, and a c shott of cannon and 
great ordinance ; surelye he is to be honored and cherished. 
Shenks is a worthy fellow. I made ij knights as theie shuld be, 
one having a bloodye wound, thother not whole of a shott thorow 
his thigh at the overthrow at Werll, where he slew almost iij m men 
of the enemies, which was Shenke, thother Mr. John Norris, 
whoe was but newly hurt, and is as valiant a gentleman as ever 
liued, and he giues this commendacion to the count Hollock that 
I tell you for that dayes service, whome, before his face, he saw 
kill a Spaniard with his pistell, when thother was ready to throst 
his pike thorow him ; these two knights deserved it well. 

I am likewise in assured hope to drawe awaie from the 
enemie furthwith ij c of his best Albanesines, whoe be his cheif 

a Stowe, writing upon the authority of H. Archer, who was present in the Low 
Countries, describes this incident as follows : " The 2G of Aprill, the lieutenant of sir 
Martin Skinke, his master being with my lords excellencie, knowing of a company of 
footmen Spaniards, hee with certaine of his horse layd themselves in ambush, set upon 
them, killed thirty of them, and tooke 81, and caried them to their garrison." An- 
nates, p. 713. 


horsmen. I haue spoken this daie with the capten, whoe is 
secretlie stollen hether to me, being within a dayes iourney or 
litle more of their troupes, being not farr of Grave ; he is as man- 
like a gentleman as euer I looked vppon, and Shenks tels me, 
the onlie leader among them. He asketh me nothing till he 
brings his bandes to me. I assure you there cannot be a thinge 
will frett the prince more at the heart. This man doth tell me for 
all troth, vppon his owne knowlege, that there is three hundred 
Italians and Spaniards of his best cauallery gone to the duke of 
Guise against his will, and that he hath written to the duke 
against them, but he keeps them, and hath done this moneth. 
This capten was in hight of the fraye at Grave, but the waters 
kept all the horsmen off; he doth assure me that there was not 
so few as vj c Spaniards kild, and the verie flowre of all their 
campe, but don John de Aquilau is alive, whoe we thought was 
kild ; soe that for peace, you maie see whether it be not like that 
it wilbe sought in better sort at her majesties hands then by mer- 
chants. I am borne in hand of all, the lords and cheif gentlemen 
of Heynalt, Arteyes, and Flaunders will seeke it, and presse the 
prince for it, and there is one that will giue me knowlege verie 
shortlie thereof, and, if I be not abused, the prince and kinge 
both will dailie, as longe as theie can, to entertain, talke of peace, 
and to discourage these countreys thereby, before theie will 
either harken indeed to a peace, or to treat of anie. And, vnder 
corection be it spoken, if these men here conceave once her ma- 
jestie to be in hand with a peace, theie are gone without once 
looking back, and will make their men, and overthrow her ma- 
jesties, or lett me suffer for it. God I take to record, vppon that I 
haue conceaued, and what you haue written, of her majesties dis- 
position, I would creepe vppon the ground as farr as my hands 
and knees would bere me, to haue a good peace for her majestie, 
but my care is to haue a peace indeed, and not a shew of it to 
devid her freinds and her insonder ; they loaue her not that wish 
that kind of weake dealing. Yf all the Spanish faction in Eng- 


land procure her majestie a peace fitt for hir, in any respect, lett 
me be hanged for it. Nay I thinke, if you or I should shew to 
haue so much creditt that waie as some doe as I heare of in 
England, I doubt whether we should be thought worthy to be 
hanged or noe ; but I haue not to doe with other mens doings, 
God preserve her majestie, and send her trew faithfull councellors. 
And the best waie for a good peace, I thinke still, is to bring it 
by a good sharp warr ; and if I had monie, noe more but that her 
majestie hath promised to imploye here for this yeare, if her ma- 
jestie be not sought and sought againe, as she should be, lett me 
beare the blame. But, soe long as pedlers and merchantes be 
seking and paultringe in so weighty a cause, the enemy will make 
his profitt of it, or, if it were knowen that I did but advise thus 
much, the enemy would be in the greatest prid in the world, and 
hold out to the vttermost houre, whereas now, hard handling must 
doe the feate, without conceat of hasty or easy beleeuing. Thus, 
I pray you beare with my tedious writinge, and lett me certenly 
knowe her majesties will and pleasure therein indeed, for what 
her will is must be obeyed, and, after I knowe it, I will deall 
accordingly, by the grace of God, to the vttermost of all my 

I receaue even now a lettre from Amsterdam, by which it is 
written, that the kinge of Denmark hath stayed in the Sound a 
great nomber of shipps, and will suffer none to passe except he 
promise, or put in bands, not to goe either to Spaine or to Por- 
tugall ; if it be true, as I doe verilie hope it is, hit is a verie 
happy matter for her majestie. 

I thinke it will fall out plainely that [John] a Jen tile which I 
wrote to you of, that came to the princes of Symeye,t> seining to 
discouer that he was hired to poison her from her husband, came 
onlie to doe it to me; all circumstances of his speeches leanes to 
it. He was not yet put to anie torture, but he shalbe, his tales 

» A blank is left in the MS. b See page 213. 


be so full of contrarietyes and doubtes as he beginnes now to wish 
himself dead, and craves mercye. He confesseth now his mean- 
ing was to serve me, and he doubteth there be others that haue 
comission for the matter, though he hath not ; but all is one for 
him or anie other, my God hath chardge of me, and will not suffer 
their malice to take place. Yf it should, welcome be his blessed 
will, hit is for a good cause and soe I am at a point, and yet will 
I be as carefull as I may be. Thus God haue you in his good 
keeping. From Vtrickt this last of Aprill. 

Your assured freind. a 


1st may, 1586. ouvry ms. fo. 14 b. a copy. 

The earl has reason to distrust the information lately given to him 
respecting Ralph Salisbury, and therefore ivishes that his former 
letter may not do him any prejudice. 

Albeit I wrote of late vnto you what informacion I had giuen 

a There follows this letter in Mr. Ouvry's MS. the following abstract of its con- 
tents : 

" Meaneth to send over so much as I haue already prestid to sir "William Stanley, 
with some further increase. 

" Wisheth that her majestie had sent sir William Pelham over, whose service might 
haue bine to great purpose. 

" Hath acquainted some of the counsell with the ouertures of a peace made to her 
majestie, thereby to take all occacions of iealousy and suspicion from them. 

" Her majestie, by prosecuting the action roundly, maie haue many advantagable 
offers of a peace made vnto her. 

" The prince of Parma greatlie deiected in mind. 

" Grave a place of very great importance, which barreth thenemie from an easye 
passage into all those parts. 


me against Raph Salsbury,a yet have I noe good proofe of it, for 
the partie doth giue me no satisfacion that accused him. He came to 
me hether to offer service, and first to retorne into England about 
his earnest busines, which I haue licensed him to doe, and I pray 
lett not my former letters doe him preiudice, except you shall 
heare further from me, or knowe, by some good meanes, anie 
iust cause against him. Thus, having written at large to you in 
another letter at this time, as also ij daies past another by a man 
of Edmund Cares, I committ you to the Lord, meaning to writ 
to her majestie within two daies by an expresse messinger. At 
Vtrickt, this first of May. 

Your assured frend. 

I wold God you would help me to Boddyby, or such a one as 
he is, that hath good language ; none of the Da. b I like. 


3rd may, 1586. ouvry ms. fo. 15. a copy. 

The earl requests that money may be advanced to the jjersons em- 
ployed to levy men — sir William Stanley shall have more than 
30s. a man for the men from Ireland — the prince of Parma has 
advanced to the siege of Grave — the treasurer disliked — sir Wil- 
liam Pelham longed for. 

Good Mr. secretary, lett me intreat you, for that I hope moneie 

" The kinge of Spain and prince of Perma will entertaine a longe time the speech 
of a peace before theie enter into it, onlie to discourage the states. 

" Yf the states have anie inciing that her majestie beginneth to hearken to a peace 
it will overthrow the cause. 

" To knowe her majesties disposicion touching the matter of the peace." 

■ See p. 223. 

b Perhaps this should be " Du." for Dutch. 


wilbe sent shortly to vs, that you will cause some prestes to be 
deliuered to such as I shall write vnto you for, to be paid there, 
for the leavye of voluntaries. And I shall, without all faile or 
delay, pay that moneie here againe to the treasorer vppon your 
letter, though it come to a 1000 or 1500 11 . I shall hardly make it 
over so sone, and it a shalbe all one, to be parceli of other sommes 
that you send, to haue it answered here. I beseech lett it be done 
for me. 

Sir William Stanley shall haue aboue xxx s . ; if I can, hit b shalbe 
xl s . for euery man he brings out of Ireland, and if you help him 
with v c 15 , beside that you haue imprestid him, hit shalbe also paid 
here as you shall appointe. 

The prince of Parma is come to Grave to ley the cannon to it. 
God send him noe better speed then his predecessors had. 

I like not the proceeding of the treasorer here; the auditor, 
but for me, had come back againe. I am sorry for it, but it is to 
badd, and without helpe. 

I will take the best order I can to impech our enemyes. I lack 
fitt instrumentes. Sir William Pelham will neuer come. I am 
well assisted, both for warr and peace, God help me. And soe 
God be with you. In hast, hauing written lately at large. At 
Amersfort this 3. of May. 

Your assured frend. 

I praie you, sir, further this noblemans suit for men, and lett 
him receiue ij c ' for prest. 

a he, in MS. b hit it shalbe in MS. 





6th may, 1586. ouvry ms. fo. 15 b. a copy. 

The prince of Parma has advanced in person to the siege of Grave — 
the earl will obey her majesty's command, and will take it more 
than thankfully to be revoked —arrival of men from England — 
embassy from Denmark into England — bad management of the 
money transmitted to pay the army. 

Mr. secretary, I could not answere your letter which came by 
the pursevant before this, for that I haue bine two dayes busie at 
the musters, 3 and giuing order for the paiment of soldiours, which 
falleth out soe short as hit is pitty to see it; but T am going now 
into the feild with such forces as I am able to make. The cheifest 
cause, to withstand the prince of Permas enterprises in these 
parts, coming, as I am credibly aduertised, in person, with xviij 
cannons to batter Grave, which if he doe, I trust to prevent his 
intention. Some other causes there be of great necessitye to 
settell these partes, and I see, except I goe myself with these 
companies, this campe will hardly be mainteined or kept together. 
There is some emulacion amonge the commandours, and captens 
over-hard to their souldiors, and, by my will, there shalbe noe 
advantage giuen the enemye throwe our disorder. I will take the 
more paine myself among them, by the grace of God. 

For the matter your pursevant brought, I haue answered in a 
letter by Aty to her majestic I will not fail! to obey her comande- 
ment very precisely. And, for my owne parte, I was at the point 
at the first time sir Thomas Henneage came, and offered most 

a Stowe says, upon the authority of Archer, "The 4. of May his excellence did 
view all his horsemen, being in number about 13 or 14 hundred, by Newkirke, on a 
great heath betweene Newkirke and Amerford." Annales, p. 718. 


reddily to satisfye her majesties comandement, but much more 
now I trust her majestie is not offended with me, and I care not 
how sone I be deliuered of this burthen, speciallie since I find it 
noe way acceptable to hir majestie, the service of this countrey, 
for, I thanke God, I haue neither done her majestie anie dishonour 
here, nor haue had anie ill successe for her service, yet haue I had 
as little thankes, and as great blame, as he that had lost a countrey 
or a battell. Well ! for the obseruing of her majesties pleasure 
for this last commandement, albeit we had very good warrant for 
it, hit shalbe done, as soone as sir Thomas Henneage comes. And 
if I maie find anie grace to be honestly revoked, I will take it 
more thankfullie then some men that should receave x ra u for a 

T trust in this voyage, if God lett me liue, to settell all these 
partes thorowly for a good while. I will then retorne to Hage 
except I heare of anie sege, either of Berges or Ostend. Of 
Ostend I cannot thinke ; Berges is more like, and yet if he take it 
not in 2 dayes, which I thinke he shall never, without treason 
bringe aboue ij c men in it, I will warrant we will reliue it well 

There be allready viij or ix c men come over, and the states will 
entertaine them all, and the rest that come, and I am in good 
hope the meanes will rise verie great for the maintenance of all 
theire charges here, yf her majestie will goe thorow with this 
matter. I would God my lord Gray, or some other noblemen, 
were here to supply this place, not doubting but theie should farr 
better accomplish this service then I can, and their service farr 
better accepted then mine is. Hit sufficeth me that my conscience 
doth witnes with me that I doe serve her majestie as in the pre- 
sence of the Almightie ; I pray God send me but her majesties 
reasonable fauor for it. 

I am sorry I had not knowledge enough to send you worde of 
the great embassage the kinge of Denmark doth send to her 
majestie, which, as it is reported, is the greatest that euer went 


out of the east countreys ; a his expectacion is great of her majes- 
ties forwardnes in their causes. I praie God he maie receaue that 
comfort I wish. He hath again made offer to me of his ij m royters, 
and I beseech you, sir, lett it be acknowledged there to his embas- 

I am here perplexed in my soule for the vntowardly dealing for 
our money. I assure you here is not a full moneth to pay the 
soldiours at this time, and there is none paid but Brill, Ostend, and 
Flushing. I doe protest to you, if I were as well encouraged to 
serve as ever I was, I would not deale anie more with her majes- 
ties servants here, hauing such disbursers of the monie. I doe 
assure you it is enough to ouerthrow all our whole service here, 
and there is noe speaking nor warning, theie presume either vppon 
chaunge or favour, or som what, for never man hath dealt soe 
playnely nor soe rigorously as I haue done, but theie care not one 
pennie for it; theie say theie must and will answere it. You shall 
doe well, whosoeuer haue the chardge here, to direct the treasor 
to his chardge vntoucht or vnbroken vpp, and thin the treasorer 
to make his reconing, and to receaue out, that which is due to be 
paid, and that which remaines to be locked vpp vnder ij keys ; 
for my parte if anie come before my departure, surely I will neither 
make pay nor warrant if he delivered any penny before yt come to 
me. The auditor is both simple and fearefull, and, except you 
appoint another comission, I dare vndertake her majestie shall 
loose xx m mark, at least, in this already past. What a thinge is 
this, Mr. secretary, that the poore stervid wreches that have sus- 
teined penury this iiij monethes almost full, shall haue but one 
moneths pay, and not that, now to goe to the feild. Withall, by 
your leaue, I must say it againe, you did her majestie and your- 

a Henry Ramelius, the ambassador alluded to, arrived in London on the 8th May. 
He was lodged in Crosby place, and remained in England until the 30th May. (Stowe's 
Annales, p. 720). Holinshed, with the precision which renders the narratives of our 
chroniclers so valuable, describes his person and entertainment (Chron. IV. 894) ; 
Camden explains the nature of his business and the answer he received from the queen. 
(Annales sub anno 1586.) 


self wronge, when you appointed such officers, so vnited, as you 
did, specially being interessed as theie were. For my parte, I 
trust I shall stay noe time here ; yf I should, I would never agree 
to haue this man deall with the money agein, I will command noe 
souldiours * * * a and, as the souldiers hath noe pay but for 
a moneth, soe is there no officer in the feild paid anie thinge but 
myself. It is verie late, yet I wish there were care in time. 

As for peace, I am at a point. My care was for hir majestie and 
the realme, and I wilbe hanged when she shall haue a good peace 
but as I wrote to you, and therefor there needes noe hast, matters 
going as theie doe ; but I am noe fitt councellor in this. God 
speed it well, and keep you alwaies. At Hamersford this 6. of 

Your assured freind. 



8th MAY, 158G. OUVRY MS. FOL. 17. A COPY. 

The earl is with the army ready to withstand the prince of Parma, 
who makes great preparations, the object of which is uncertain — 
the earl will, in obedience to her majesty, resign his title of 
absolute governor ivithin an hour of the arrival of sir Thomas 
Heneage, who is detained by illness at Flushing — the earl craves 
to be recalled — warns the queen of the perilous consequences of 
underhand dealing for peace. 

Sir, when I receaued her majesties letter I was at Amersford, as 
I doubt not but my servaunt Aty hath or this made knowen vnto 
you, as well to muster and put our men there in readines, as for 

s A word in the MS. that is illegible. 


myself to goe into these parts where now I am, to withstand the 
pretence of the enemie, whoe was once removed from Bruxells 
one dayes iourney, and then retired agayne, and yet after went to 
Antwerpe, which is the last newes I haue of him. Great prepa- 
racion he makes, some say to continue his enterprice at Grave, 
some saie to beseige Berges op Some ; whether of both he shall 
attempt I am ready to releue them, and if he doe nether, then doe 
I hope to sett these parts freer and in better securitie then theie 
were these vij yeres, for I trust to clere the Reyne, and to stopp 
him from anie releif, either to his campe at Grave or for Newme- 
gine ; of these things you shall heare more verie shortly. 

Now, touching the satisfing of her majesties pleasure for the 
title of absolute gouernor, which title is not soe, though absolute 
gouernment is granted, indeed, with the title of gouernor of all the 
prouinces united, an office that, if I could haue bine ridd of with- 
out the hazard of all the rest, I told you longe agoe I was most 
vnwillinge to take it, and most ready to be quitt of it, and with a 
lesse caution then her majesties mislike ; but to satisfie that, as 
my deuty is, all Holland and Zeland with all their appurtenaunces 
shall not make me keep it one howre longer then I heare of Mr. 
Henneages arrivall, whoe, as I heare, was ill at Flushinge, but I 
looke for him within vj or vij dayes. In the meane time, being 
provided and appointed for this jorney, I thought it good to pro- 
ceed in it, for that it concernes noe peace of the other matter of 
title, for I execute now only the authoritye of her majesties lieu- 
tenant, and lieutenant for these countreys according to the con- 
tract. And, I pray you, lett her majestie, and all my lords, 
knowe, that, yf she maie be soe pleased, there was never thing 
that better contented myself then to leaue, not only title but all 
authoritye of gouernment withall. And what service her majestie 
shall comand me I will not faile to obey her. I am not ceremo- 
nious for reputacion, soe longe as I doe nothing reprochfull to my 
prince, myself, or my cuntrey, for I am to serve her majestie here 
vnder God, and, soe farr as my poore abilitye, and my decaied 


yeres will suffer me, I wilbe as hit shall please her majestie to 
direct me, trusting in God it will please her to haue consideracion 
of me, and to remember she said I should staie here but a while. 
And I am perswaded, for this short time, all thinges here are in as 
good estate as theie were this xij yeres. And her majestie may 
doe what she will for the stay of this gouernment, soe she deall 
not vnderhand with anie peace, as I see noe cause why she should, 
for then I beleeue she shall loose all these coun treys, and never 
the nerer of the kinge of Spaines freindshipp ; for, if theie may 
gett anie prince in the world of anie countenaunce, theie will 
rather take him, and offer that to him, then make anie hard peace 
with Spayne, to yeild him anie footinge here, or gouernment for 
his ministers of Spayne, by their good wills. And, truelie, I am 
thorowly perswaded that a good warr, held but this sommer, shall 
drive him cleane to forsake the countrey, or to be content to be 
receaued there lord onlie, without anie gouernor appointed by 
him to rule over them, but such a one as theie shall like of. 
There is noe way to ouerthrow this but ther certen knowledge 
that her majestie is desirous of a peace with him, as dailie brutes 
come hether to them, both from Antwerpe and London. This 
might worke a pei'illous end, both to them here and to her majestie 
there, for, without a necessity, indeed, to make the kinge to 
harken willingly to a peace with both, and to ioine so together as 
he must take anie reason offered to him, lett it be a peace dis- 
iunctive, and I warrant both will repent it. And, therefore, I 
perceaue these men should growe desperate, if her majestie deall 
weakly or carelesly for them. I would you knewe how eselie her 
majestie might goe forward with these causes here now. This 
xx yeres theie were not at this point. But what haue I to doe, 
but only to wish a good peace, or to crave a speedy retorne home. 
I am wery, indeed I am wery, Mr. secretary, but neither of paines 
nor travele ; my ill happ that can please her majestie noe better 
hath quite discouraged me. God graunt me her gratious favor, 
with a speedy revocacion, but neuer to torne her princlie mind 


from helping these poore oppressed people. Farr you well, this 
8th of May, at Arnham. 

Your assured freind. 

Oh, that her majestie knew how easie a mach now she hath 
with the kinge of Spayne, and what millions of afflicted people 
she hath reliued in these countreys. This sommer, this sommer 
I say, would make an end, to her immortall glorie. 



9TH MAY, 1586. OUVRY MS. FOL. 18 b. A COPY. 

The earl complains of the conduct of the treasurer of the army — 
unsuccessful attempt by the Spaniards to take possession of a 
suburb of Grave — the earl is in the field ready to succour any 
place the prince of Parma may attack — the earl designs to stop 
all carriage by water between Nimeguen and the enemy. 

I am sorry to trouble you with the discomfortable dealings of 
of our treasurer here ; I assure you it passeth, and our auditor a 
foole in comparison to mete with there subtelties. I saw this day 
an abstract. I see there is yet due to souldiers aboue x m . u when 
all this monie almost shalbe paid that cam last. This cornel Norris 
doth mach the late earle of Sussex, of all men that euer I haue 
sene, for such matters, and sett countenaunce withall vppon them. 
I trust you will provide for my speedye cominge home ; but, if I 
tarrie, either lett an other dispencer of the monie be appointed, or 
lett it be deliuered into my custodye, that their be noe paiments 
made before a perfect reckoning cast vpp ; for, if it goe on with 
the rest as with this past, I will warrant a full third parte lost 


from her majestie and the souldiers now. I haue so often spoken 
I haue done, for I will not beare anie burthen at the souldiers 
and captens hands, for all the treasure in this countrey. And 
howsoeuer the matter is, the treasurer hath some back hope, and 
little doth care what fault I find. 

This day I heard for certen, that, vpon the new supplie of men 
I caused to be sett into Grave, which was 350 with 4 or 5 very 
good captens, the enemye attemptinge to take and spoyle a 
subvrbe to Grave, a being about 1000 Spaniards, theie haue lost 
dead in the place 400, all Spaniards, such as they lost before for 
gallant fellowes, soe that there is a good abatment of them of 
late. We heare the prince doth meane to follow that seige still, 
but now I little feare that place, for this 350 fresh lusty souldiers 
having vittels, store, and munition, is a good assurance ; beside, 
the place is stronge, and well fortified, and hath more with these 
last, beside burgers, which are stout and willing fellowes and well 
trained. Their is 1000 able souldiers, and the burgers stronge 
800. And I am now here, provided to rescue anie place the 
prince shall attempt. I am v m . footmen and 1500 hors. b This 
day I haue sent most of my horsmen into the Betowe c toward 
Newmeagin. I sent Shenks two daies since with 1000 footmen 

a " The base towne of Grave." Stovse's Annates, p. 718. The prince of Parma had 
on this occasion a very narrow escape. Having advanced to view the town, prepara- 
tory to the attack, a cannoneer aimed at him and " tooke away the hinder part of his 
horse." Ibid. 

b The earl's movements are thus related in the " Briefe Report." " The earl of Ley- 
cester hearing of the princes preparations towards Grave, being as yet unreadie and 
destitute of all meanes to furnish a campe sufficient to meete with him on equall ground 
in fielde, yet to the entent to be neere at hand with the forces he had, and to waite 
such advantages as occasion might offer, with a small campe of about three thousand 
foote and one thousand horse, he passed in person the river of Rhyne at Arnham in 
Gelderland, into the province of the Bettowe, with intent from thence to passe the 
river of Wale also, and so to approch to Grave itselfe." Briefe Report, sig. B 2. 

c " The Bettowe is a province in Gelderland, lying between the rivers of Rhyne and 
Wale, verie fertile, and then whollie held by the enimie, or at least infested by him 
with his fortes of Luytesforte and Berckshoofe and the two castles of Alon and 
Bemell." Briefe Report, sig. B 2. 



to take a peice of ground called Mellin, where I haue appointed a 
fort to be made, which shall stopp all cariage by watter betwene 
Newmeagin and their campe at Grave. It maie be that I will 
putt that towne in hazard, at the least I will [ leave ] them noe 
places to hinder vs vppon the Reyne betwene Newes and this 
towne. Yf the enemie attempt Burges vp Some, as a brute there 
is, I will sone relieve it, by the grace of God, and yet there is 
both good store of men and victells in it, neither doe I greatlie 
mistrust anie place now that I am in the feild, that, either by 
watter or land, I can recover anie place, nether doe I thinke that 
the prince can well tell what yet to doe. God send me good suc- 
cesse this iorney, and well to acquit me of this countrey, and 
some happier man to stepp into it. Soe God be with you, and to 
morow I will lodge toward Newmeagin, with my companie alto- 
gether, from whence you shall heare as occasion will serve. In 
some hast at Arnham, this ix. of May, without money or ware. a 
Your assured freind. 

Yf you send not speedlye a nimbler fellow then this auditor 
there will neuer fault appere. 


13th may, 158G. cotton ms. galba, c. ix. fol. 225. ORiG. b 

Lord Burghley has advised the queen to permit lord Leycesler to 
continue in the government of the Low Countries, and that Hene- 
age might return, but she will not agree to the one or the other — 

a wart, in MS. 

b This letter is not signed, but it was written by the hand of lord Burghley's secretary, 
and is, I think, the original. In the catalogue it is erroneously stated to be a letter 
from sir Thomas Heneage to lord Burghley. 


Heneage is to confer ivith the earl and the council as to his 
relinquishment of the title — after such conference the queen wishes 
Heneage to return home and report the result to her — Burghley 
has had more difficulty in this matter than in any other since he 
was a counsellor. 

Good Mr. threasurer, a although theare is heare matter mines [ti- 
ring?] plentifullie to write uppon concerning the subiect of your 
charge, yet, bicause the same conteineth noe such resolucion as both 
I have advised and wished, I doe forbeare to enlarge the discours 
thereof by particulers, and breefelie doe concurr with Mr. vice- 
chamberlaine, whoe nowe writeth to youe such an imperfect reso- 
lucion as hir majesty hath delivered unto him, nothing agreable to 
our advises. 

Uppon manie urgent and poignant cawses, as I maie so terme 
them, I have advised hir majesty to permitt my lord of Leicester 
to continue in the gouverment of thos cuntries, wherein God hath 
latelie prospered him, and that you, being sick, might retorne 
without following that hazardous course that is appointed to 
you : but hir majestie will neither allowe of the one nor of the 
other, but she saith, that you shall goe backe, and doe that she 
hath commaunded you, which she is content to interprete in this 
sort, that though she still misliketh that my lord of Leicester 
hath accepted the title of governor-generall of thos provinces, yet 
she meanethe not that he should presentlie or hastelie leave it, 
bicause of the inconveniences that might happen to the publique 
cawse by want of gouverment ; and yet hir mind is, that you should 
conferre with his lordship and the counsell theare, yea, you should 
also further the same, that it might be devised there by autho- 
rise of the states, howe my lord might forbeare the title and abso- 
lute authoritie of the gouvernor of thos provinces, and yet, remain- 
ing with the title and authoritie of her majesties lieutenant- 

1 Sir Thomas Heneage was treasurer of the queen's chamber. 


generally to have, by the graunt of the estates, authoritye according 
to the articles of the mutuall treatie with the counsell of the 
states, to order, governe, reforme, and direct the martiall affaires 
in like sort as his lordship nowe maie doe, by the comission of 
the states whearebie he is made theire governour-generall ; and 
this is that hir majestie desyreth, and wisheth to be done, and, 
to that ende, would have by your meanes conference had betwixt 
my lord and the counsell, howe this maie be brought to passe, 
and thowgh, if it can be so compassed, it cannot by anie likelood 
be browght to passe without sum length of tyme, and manie cir- 
cumstances and difficulties, yet hir majesty willeth you to retorne, 
with the report of such conclusion as shall fall owt uppon this 
conference betwixt my lord, yourself, and the counsell of the 
states : and further, also, hir majestie plainely saith, that she 
would not have my lord to leave this authoritie untill she shall, 
uppon your retorne, understand howe, and in what manner, this 
devise shall be thowght faisible to be done, withowt anie evident 
danger of the common cawse. In this sort you see howe I take 
hir majesties wordes and mind, and so also I thinke you shall 
perceive the like, or equivallent, from Mr. vice-chamberlaine and 
Mr. secretarie, for with noe other would hir majestie deale in 
this cawse, as I could understand. 

This matter hath been more cumbersome and more severe to 
me and others that hath at sundrie times delt therin with hir 
majesty, than any whatsoever since I was a counselor; the will 
of God be, to bring it to some better resolucion, both for his 
owne glorie and for the quiet and weale of hir majestie and hir 
estate, to which ende I se my praiers must be hereafter accommo- 
dated to God rather then advise as a counselor to hir majestie, 
and yet I mind not to leave either of them as God will geve me 
grace. I praie you praie my lord to excuse me for my short 
writing, and my lord North for my not writing, for truelie I am at 
this time overtoiled. 13° Maij 1586. 



14th may, 158G. cotton, ms. galba, c. ix. fol. 236. orig. 

The queen is resolute in her determination to have the question of 
Leycester's title submitted to the council of state — she has been 
fully warned of the danger — this strange proceeding groweth of 
her majesty's own self. 

My verry good lord, I had hoped that your letters sent by 
Mr. Atye woold have drawen her majesty e to have revoked sir 
Thomas Henneage, and to have stayed the motyon for the qualy- 
ficatyon of the tytle, in respect of the alteratyon that the same is 
lykely to woorke there. But nothing that can be sayd can woorke 
any staye here, so resolutely is her majesty bent to have the 
matter propounded to the counsell of state ther ; whoe, I doe 
assure myself, wyll be greatly perplexed with the motyon, and, as 
I take yt, they have no awthorytye to treate uppon yt, but must 
refer the consyderation therof unto an assembly of the states, 
which wyll woorke sooche a busse in the peoples heades, and 
mynister to the evyl-affected there sooche a plotte to woorke on, 
as to mans judgement may perryll the whole cause. Ther hathe 
ben as muche sayd towching the daynger as myght be alleaged. 
And truly, my good lord, I am now perswaded that thys 
straynge proceading growethe from her majestye selve. I have 
prayed this gentleman, who is honest, to acquaynt your lordship 
with my opinion herin ; and so I most humbly take my leave. 
At the coorte, the xiij th . of Maye, 1586. 

Your lordships to commaund, 

Fra: Walsyngham. 

By the coppye of Mr. Randolphes letter your lordship may see 
the present state of Scoteland. 




17th may, 1586. ouvry ms. fol. 19 b. a copy. 

Proceedings of the army — Schenck has erected a fort at the junction 
of the Rhine and Waal — attempt to divert the prince of Parma 
from Grave by a movement towards Nimeguen — surrender of a 
fortified place to Leycester — want of pioneers — and of money — 
the earl has borrowed 5000/. of the merchants. 

Mr. secretory, I sent my companies as I wrote vnto you of 
late, some to make a fort nere Tolhowse, in a little iland a where 
the rivers of Reyne and Wale do b deride, for which matter I 
appointed coronell Shenks, whoe hath performed it most notably. 
He had xv c men with him, and in xiiij dayes he hath brought 
the fort to that perfecion as he feareth not the enemie with all his 
forces ; to morrow I goe to se it. I sent the rest of my forces 
hether to Newmegyn, as well to divert the prince of Parma from 
his seige at Grave as to sett this ryver clere and free hereabout 
from all impediments, as, a few forts being taken, it wilbe. And, 
if the states had kept promise with me, I had had the fort there or 
this time, but it will not be many dayes or you will heare of it. 
I haue bine here these ij dayes, and pervsed all our trenches and 
skonces our men haue made to anoy the other, and this day haue 
giuen some new order, I hope, for the speedier getting of this fort. 
We have taken ij or iij castles and vnhappy places against vs here, 
whereof one yelded yesterday to myself ; c hit had not past 35 

a " Called Grauenswest." Briefe Report, sig. B 2. b to, in MS. 

c These places are termed Luytesforte and Berckshoofe in the " Briefe Report," and 
in the attack of them it is said that Leycester himself ordered " the batteries at some 
of them, and without respect of trauel or danger," put "his owne hand to the 
trenches and other workes to be made for the approches." Sig. B 2. The capture 
of these places cleared the province of Bettowe of the enemy. 


men in yt, but it was very stronge and well vitelled, and a very 
large deepe water about it. They only desired life, which I was 
willing to yeild them, albeit they abode x shott of such ordinance 
as we had, which was very simple, for our cannons and good 
ordinance were not come, neither was this castle the worse for our 
battery, yet theie yeilded it at length only for life. 

I will se our busines here sett in some forwardnes and then 
write againe. We are lost for lack of pioners ; we have not had 
ij c pioners all this yere, and, at this present, not j c , and not de- 
caied by death but many stolen home, and many taken secretly 
into bands, but I beseech you help vs to v or vj c pioners. You 
will say, we maie haue them here ; I assure you, not possible, for 
all such as should be pioners be of these countreys, Gelders, 
Vtrict, and such soylls of husbandry, theie a all are as newtralls, 
and dwelling out of anie towne takes himself so and pay tribute 
to both sides, therefore there is not a pioner to be had here. I 
beseech you remember it, and the states will and shall pay for it. 
All thinges goeth soe well here as I trust you may shortlie help 
me home ageyne. 

Of our want .of moneye I haue sent so often as I am weary. 
I haue borrowed against we remove hence v™. 11 of our merchants, 
which I will pray you may be answered, as the last was, vppon 
our paiment there. Well, sir, my encouragment is soe great, as, 
with her majesties lawfull favor, I desire home, with all my losses. 
God keepe you for euer. In some hast this xvij. of May. 

Your assured freind. 

I send her majestie a lettre, and doe send it by the way of 

a but theie, in MS. 




20th may, 1586. cotton, ms. galea, d. i. fol. 11. orig. 

The queen has written to the earl complaining of his acquainting 
the council of state with the offers made her for a peace, although 
Walsyngham declares that she commanded him to direct the earl 
to do so — she will not allow the levy of any more volunteers, it 
being said that the subjects of this realm complain of so many 
Englishmen being employed in the defence of others, to the 
weakening of their own country — Walsyngham will endeavour to 
procure the earl's recall — the queen gives good ear to the com- 
plaints against the treasurer, but will not appoint another — sir 
Valentine Brown — sir Thomas Shirley — the queen will not send 
more money until she has an account of the treasure last sent. 

My verry good lord, her majestye hathe made me acquaynted 
with the letter she wrytethe with her owne bande unto your 
lordship, and where she chargethe your lordship with the ac- 
quaynting the cownsell of state there with the overture of peace 
made unto her by the prince of Parma as a faulte, herin your 
lordship is wronged : for the fault is myne, yf any were com- 
mytted, but, in verry trothe, she gave me commaundment to 
dyrect you to acquaynt them withall, thowghe nowe she dothe 
denye yt. I have receyved within thes fewe dayes many of thes 
harde measures. 

Her majestie dothe, also, revoke her resolutyon towelling the 
sendyng over of voluntary men in sooch nomberes as doe nowe 
goe ; she saythe, she was content that a 1000 or 2000 shoold be 
permytted to goe, but no greater nombers. Sooch as are alreadye 
levyed shall, notwithstanding, be permytted to passe, but the rest 
are ordred to be stayed. This chayng as I learne growethe uppon 


a malytyouse inforraatyon, that the subiectes of this realme shook! 
murmore greatly at the imployement of so many people of this 
realme in defence of others, to the weakening of the seyd realme ; 
wheras, contrarywyse, all men of judgement, lookyng into the 
persons that are imployed, being for the moste parte loose men 
and having nothing to take to, or into the present dearthe, doe 
thinke her majestie happye to have so apt an occasyon to imploye 
them in so necessary a servyce. So lyttle love is carryed to the 
contynewaunce of this actyon as the weakest argument that may 
be used wyll suffyce to woorke an hinderaunce to the cause. I 
wyll, therfor, doe my best indevor to procure your lordships 

The thre last letters your lordship sent unto me, by Browne 
the messenger, I thowght good, for sundrye causes, to shewe 
them unto her majestye, but espetyally to the end she myght see 
the yll husbandrye used by the thresorer, and how necessary yt 
was, both for her proffyt and her servyce, to have another sub- 
stytuted in his place. I fownde her disposed to geve good eare 
thereunto, and thereuppon I moved her for the sendyng of sir 
Valentyn Browne, for that your lordship fownde the audytor 
nowe imployed there verry weake, but coold not drawe her to any 
resolutyon. For, fyrst, towching sir Valentyn Browne, she 
alleaged two impedymentes ; the one, that she was necessarily to 
use his present servyce in Ireland abowt the peoplyng of Monster. 
The other, that yt woold be a matter of great charg to have two 
audytors imployed there at one tyme. For the fyrst, yt is trewe 
that he cannot be well spared, being, as he is, best acquaynted with 
the plott for the peopling of Monster; towching the charge, I 
shewed how that the benefyt she shoold reape therby woold 
verry largely requyt the charge. The audytors here be so soft- 
spry ted men as I dowbt there wyll not any one be fownde owt 
emongest them more suffytyent then he that is now imployed. I 
fynde her majestyes dysposytyon to be sooche, as rather than she 
wyll entre into an extraordynarye charge of an hundrethe pownd 



she can be content to be deceyved of 5000 u . I suppose when the 
fchresorer shall be dysplaced your lordship wyll make choyse of 
sir Thomas Shurley, whoe, I doe assure your lordship, is a most 
constant affected gentleman unto you, and deservethe an extra- 
ordinary good usage at your lordships handes. 

This daye the lord-thresorer and I dealt with her majestie 
for the sendyng over of money, in sooche a proportyon as ther 
may be a thorrowghe paye made, which we shewed her woold 
Droffyt her at the least thre thowsand pownd ; but we coold no 
vaye prevayle, she sty 11 standethe uppon the returne of the ac- 
.'ompt of the threasure last sent. Your lordship therfore shall 
! oe well to hasten the sending over of the same. The next 
hreasure that shall be sent over shall be chested under two lockes, 
as your lordship advysed, to the ende you may be assured to see 
le imployement thereof. 

I doe rejoyce greatly, notwithstanding the dyscowntenancyng 
jf your lordship every wave, that God dothe blesse your care and 
avayle with most happye successe, which suerly faulethe owt so 
.iiyche the better for that your lordship hathe cause to ascrybe 
the same to the goodnes of Almyghtie God, to whos protectyon 
I commyt your lordship. At the coorte, the xx th of Maye, 1586. 
; Your lordships to- command, 

Fra: Walsyngham. 
To the right honorable my 

verie good lord the earle of Leycester. 



20th may, 1586. cotton ms. galba. c. ix. fol. 241. orig. 

Walsyngham has advised the master of Gray to desist from his 
levies for the Low Countries on account of the uncertainty of 
Leycester's continuance there — the queen's dangerous policy 
towards Scotland — difficulty of preserving peace with that 
country — the queen presumes too much upon her good fortune — ■ 
distress in Flanders and Brabant. 

My verry good lord, fyndinge the uncerteyn coorse helde [here] 
towchyng thos cuntrye causes, [and] that her majestye dothe 
rather [wish] to weaken then strengthen your awthorytye there, I 
[have] dyswaded the master of Graye from his further proceading 
[in] his preparatyon for thos cuntryes, lettyng him playnly un- 
derstand howe greatly your servyce is crossed, wherby your lord- 
ship shall not be able to perform that good usage, both towards 
himselve and sooche troopes as he shoold bryng with him, as you 
desyre, for lacke of cowntenaunce and awthorytye ; [and,] for his 
better satysfactyon therein, I have sent unto my cosyn Randolphe 
one of your last letters, by the which your lordship desyreth to 
be revoked, wherby he may see that ther is no cause whye your 
lordship shoold incorage him to imbarque himselve in the servyce, 
seing you mynde yourselve to geve it over. I have desyred sir 
Philip Sydney to put your lordship in mynde to wryte somme 
letter of thankes to the master of Graye, and to assure him of 
your good affectyon towards him. 

How hazardowsly her majestye dealethe in causes of Scotland 
your lordship may perceyve both by Mr. Randolphe and the 
coppye of the kinges owne letter unto hir majestye. The master 
of Graye dothe assure me, that she never had so weake a partye 
in Scotland as she hathe nowe. I fynde yt a verry harde matter 


to conserve the amytye of that contrye in the coorse now held 
heare, and what daynger may growe by the losse thereof, a verry 
mean-wytted man may see. She greatly presumethe [on] fortune, 
which is but a [very] weake foundatyon to buylde uppon. I woold 
she dyd buyld and depend uppon God, and then all good men 
shoold have les cause to feare any chaynge of her former good happ. 
The myserye growethe so great in Flaunders and Brabant, as, 
yf the Dunkerkers might be restrayned, yt woold owt of hande 
woorke a great chaynge there. I hope the G * * a wyll doe 
more good in one monethe, then the shyppes set owt by her ma- 
jesty e hathe don all this year. Ther is daylye carryed owt of 
Holland and Zelland both merchandyce and vyctualls to Calles, 
which dothe greatly offende oure merchauntes here that are re- 
strayned. I wishe to God ther coold be some coorse taken to 
prevent this mischefe of transportyng of vyctualles. And so I 
most humbly take my leave. At the corte the xx th of Maye, 1586. 
Your lordships to commande, 

Fra: Walsyngham. 

To the right honorable my [very good] lord the earl of 

Leycester, lord [lieutenant-gene]rall of hir majesties 

forces in the Low Countryes. 



23rd may, 1586, ouvry ms. fo. 20. a copy. 

The earl, not having been able to procure the treasurer's accounts 
of the expenditure of the money transmitted from England, has 

a The word is gone in the original, and it is not easy to guess what it may have been. 
Walsyngham evidently alludes to the distress occasioned to the enemy, and the pro- 
vinces in his possession, by the prohibition of the export of provisions thither from 
the united provinces and from England. 


sent him and the auditor over to the lords of the council — various 
complaints of negligency, insufficiency, and mismanagement 
against them both. 

Mr. secretary, I perceaue there wilbe noe monie sent hether 
before the accompt be sent over. I haue done what I can to 
cause the treasorer and auditor to make it vpp. Theie promised 
me hue weekes agoe to end it within hue dayes. This day I called 
for it, and found them as far as at the first day theie tooke it in 
hand, soe that I cannot see theie will end it befor Michelmas as 
theie proceed. I haue, therefore, thought good to send them both 
over to my lords, and lett them end them there, for in the meane 
time the souldiers shalbe in great extremitye, for of all the money 
that last came there was but a moneths pay, save to Brill, Flush- 
ing, and, till March, Ostend. The treasorer deliuers bookes one 
day, and fetcheth them away another day, and till this day noe 
perfect booke geuen the auditour, as he told the treasorer before 
me this day ; besid, you shall see a badd manner of reconing, 
and find Mr. Norrys, his nephew, is gotten well aforehand for 
their paiments, and all the Norryses. Ther is a bad fellow, the 
vnder-treasorer, one Mr. Norrys fauoreth of all men, whoe is cause 
of all this ; beside the treasorer hath delt coningly with me, which 
I tooke him with the manner,a foysting into my warrant, made 
for the bandes in her majesties pay, iij or iiij captens at the states 
pay, and only to make his disbursmentes for the states great, when 
it will fall out that neither the monie is paid for the one nor for 
thother ; a fowle practice and a lewd. This berer shall tell you of 
it, and other foule things sett downe into his other accompt, which 
I wrote to you of then, and desired Mr. Davison should be called 
to declare yt, whoe was previe to it, and opened it to me, and the 
auditour also, whoe, if he did not revell h it, is worthy to lye by 

a " We commonly use to say, when we find one doing of an unlawful act, that we 
took him with the maynour or manner." Les termes de la ley, p. 439. edit. 1721. 
b rebell, in MS. 


the heeles, for he knew it, and hath it in his booke sett downe. 
For my parte, if I should remaine here I will noe more deall with 
him, and doe pray that these reconings be delt substancially in, 
for it wilbe thought 1 am the ill husband. 

As for such prestes as I haue made warant for, such as I speake 
of before excepted, I will take order for such as the states must 
pay, to pay it againe, as to such as capten Read, and sir William 
Stanley, &c. and yet haue I prested out of my none prest v m u . a 
amonge both sortes, and surely Mr. Davyson dealinge here so far 
as he did in these first reconings, and to giue informacion of them 
before the auditor to me here, did not well, that he did not, at least 
secretly, acquaint you or my lord-treasorer with it ; but, betwene 
the auditor and the muster-maker, you will easilie find the faults, 
which some of them be open, and very grossly sett downe, but 
others you shall haue enough to doe with all. Thus, in hast, I 
comitt you to the Lord, being much troubled with busines, this 
23. of May. 

Your assured. 


23rd may, 1586. cotton, ms. galba, c. ix. fo. 245. orig. 

Walsyngham believes that the opposition to Leicester proceeds en- 
tirely from the queen's oion disposition, and is not fomented un- 
derhand by e some great personage ' — departure of the Danish 
ambassador — his master not willing to interfere agaynst Spain or 
France — the Germans cold. 

My verry good lord, sythence I last wrote unto your lordship 
there is nothing come to my knowledge worthye to be imparted 

a It is "vv mli " in the copy, which may be a mistake for "xv mli ," but I rather 
think, from the appearance of the MS. that the first " v " is altogether surplusage. 


unto your lordship, and yet, having so convenient a messenger, 
I woold not suffer him to passe without a fewe lynes. There is 
no man here dealethe more honorably and faythefully towardes 
your lordship then this bearers master, and yet, as he tould me 
secreatly yesternight, he hathe ben informed that there are some 
that seeke malytyowsely to [persuade] your lordship to conceyve 
otherwyse of him. But he reposethe that confydence in your 
sownd conceypt of him as yt dothe not greatly troble him. 

I begyn now to put on an opinion that the only thwartes your 
lordship receyvethe growethe owt of her majestyes owne dyspo- 
sytyon, whom I doe fynde dayly more and more unapt to imbrase 
any matter of weyght. And, wheras I dyd by Mr. Barker let 
your lordship to understande, that I thowght you were crossed 
under-hand by some great personage, I doe nowe quyte him of yt, 
and am perswaded that he dealethe honestly in the cause. 

The imbassator of Denmarke departythe hence within a daye or 
two. He hath ben honorably used. a I doe not fynde by him 
that his master is greatly inclyned to doe any thing that may 
offend Spayne, or to attempt any thing in favor of the king of 
Navar. By late letters from Palavicino her majestye is adver- 
tysed, that thinges goe cowldly forwarde in Germany. By former 
letters from him we were in better hope. The wyne is so weake 
this yeare as yt dothe not revyve ther spirytes. 

The king of Navar is drawen towardes Kochell. And so I 
most humbly take my leave. At the coorte, the xxiij tb of Maye, 

Your lordships to commaund, 

Fra: Walsyngham. 

a " The said Ramelius, during the time of his tariance, had attendance doone him 
conueuient for his person, both by water and land : the queenes maiesties barges and 
seruants imploied about him to and from London, the court then being at Greenewich ; 
whither alwaies when he came, the nobilitie of England failed in no point of courtesie 
that might be shewed. "Which he seemed (as he could no lesse) verie acceptablie to 
take." Holinshed, iv. 894. 




25th may, 1586. ouvry ms. fo. 24. a copy. 

Leycester having come to Arnheim to meet sir Thomas Heneage, 
count Hohenlohe had proceeded to attack Berckshoofe, the garri- 
son of which had desired to capitulate upon conditions which the 
earl refused — tidings just received of a furious assault upon Grave, 
in which the Spaniards had been repulsed with great loss. 

Having written to hir majestie of our doings before Newmegyn, 
and that I had giuen order to the count of Hollock, my lieutenant, 
to goe to with the canon to Berkshoofe, nerer to this towne then 
the other fort was, for that I came myself hether vppon sir 
Thomas Henneage letters to meet him here at Arnham, I thinke 
it not good to trouble her again with the successe of the rest, 
but to desire you to lett her majestie knowe, that, after theie had 
suffered 8 or 10 shott of the cannon, they offered parley, which 
the a count sent to me, and I did retorne him word agein, that I 
would haue no condicion at all yeilded, for that theie did suffer 
the cannon, but either simply to yeild or ells h to prosecute the 

Herevppon I haue receaued word again, theie simplie yeilded, 
either to be hanged or to be saved, as I will. I doubt some must 
hange, for example. I heard, also, even now, that the enemie 
attempted Grave [on] Monday with all furie, from midnight till 8 a 
clock yesterday morning, beginning both their battery with such 
an assayly as hath not bine heard of, noe breach being made, but, 
at the instance of the shott of xv canons, twice or thrice attempted 
a kind of assault withall, with all the shott he had ; at which 
attempt he was not onlie repulsed, but the messinger reportith, 

a theie, in MS. b ell, in MS. 


that he lost v or vj c men at it, which cannot be soe few, being so 
longe a fight, and in such furie, and to continew fiue howres after 
day, and I am pers waded I shall heare of a farr greater losse to 

The Albanese I wrote of wilbe with me within ij or three dayes 
with the company, &c. 

Thus, hoping you will help me hence, and that God will send 
noe worse successe to this cause hereafter ; meaning, whilst I doe 
stay, to loose noe opportunity, I comitt you to the Lord, in much 
hast, this xxv th of May. 

Your assured freind. 



26th may, 1586. cotton, ms. galba, c. ix. fol. 251. orig. 

Walsyngham sends the earl letters lately received from the master 
of Gray— he has answered them advising the master to desist 
from his levies on account of the queen's change of mind in 
reference to Leycester's authority — Burghley and Walsyngham 
had urged upon the queen the necessity of the earl's governorship, 
with a view to the master of Gray's employment, but in vain. 

My verry good lord, I send your lordship her encloased such 
letters as I have lately receavid from the master of Gray. In 
aunswer wherof, fynding hir majesty so couldly disposed still 
towardes that action, I have thought good to acquaint him 
directly with the change of her majesties resolution towching the 
continuaunce of your authoritye, being a matter not secreat but 
oppen and common, which I do tell him proceadeth thorough the 
practise of ill instrumentes here, that favour the Spanish pro- 
ceedinges, and seeke to crosse your lordship, letting him withall 



understand, that your authoritye be[ing] by such meanes so 
weakened as you shall not nowe be hable to yeld him that satis- 
faction and good enterteynement for himself and his company 
that aperteyne, you have just cause not to encourage him to 
come over to the service, least, yf he should fynd any want, yt 
[might] geve him occasion to blame your lordship, and breede in 
his company a mislyke of him that had brought them to so [bad] 
a bargayn. This aunswir in effect I have made to the master, to 
whom my lord thresurer hath also written to lyke purpose. His 
lordship and I have dealt earnestly with her majesty about the 
matter of the masters imployement, letting her understand how 
necessary yt weare that hould weare taken of his offer, in respect of 
thimbarking of the king his master into the action, which, we 
tould hir majesty, could not be don, unles yt might pleas hir to 
mayntayne your lordships authoritye in the title of governement 
geven you there, but she conceaveth still that the matter might 
well enough be performid by vertue of your authority of generall 
only. And so I humbly take my leave of your lordship. At 
Grenwich, the xxvj th of May, 1586. 

Your lordships to commaund, 

Fra: Walsyngiiam. 


29th may, 15B6. ouvry ms. fol. 21 b. a copy. 

The bearer, Mr. Darcij, offers to levy 500 horse if the queen will 
(jive him some little pecuniary help — the queen's number of 
cavalry stipulated to be furnished by the treaty is not complete — 
inconveniences resulting therefrom— effects of the treating for 
peace upon the enemy — queen's mislike of the earl's ccmmunicat- 


ing thereon with the council of the states — the earl regrets that 
they know what they know, and he too. 

Mr. secretary, this gentleman, Mr. Darcy, is, as you wrote, 
verie willing to serve, and doth offer to bring, within vj weeks, c 
light horse, whereof we haue great need ; he doth only desire to 
haue some helpe of monie, yf but a parte, not the half of the 
allowance ; and her majesty hath not performed her nombers of 
1000 horse yet, my onlie vj c horsse and Mr. Norris is all we 
haue. Two or iij gentlemen here haue made vpp, some xx some 
xxx, but not able to rayse a band, and, till her majesties band be 
performed, I cannot prese these men to levye anie of our nacion, 
which theie would willinglie doe but theie call dayly for her ma- 
jesties band to be full, which I can doe noe more but advertise. 
But I see the goodnes and offers of God is despised, what hope 
then is to be had ? Well, I recommend this gentleman vnto you. 
If he may be releeued with a little,a and assured promise of the 
rest, I knowe he will goe thorow with his offer. I can say noe 
more but your dealing there hath made the enemy prowd, and 
giues out manie threatenings to this countrey, as though theie 
shall shortly be left, and turnd to thir handling, which God 
defend ! Thus, praying to God to direct her majestie with his 
spiritt of wisdom, I take leaue, lettinge you knowe, for the matter 
her majestie wrote in mislike, to imparte to these councellors the 
dealinge for peace, I am sorry theie know that they doe knowe, 
and I both ; I trust it is more then her majesty knoweth, or ells 
the case is harder with you then I tooke it. In some hast, this 
xxix. of May. 

Your assured poore frend. 

a letter, in MS. 




31 ST MAY, 1586. OUVRY MS. FOL. 22. A COPY. 

Loss of Grave by surrender, after a battery of three hours and a 
feigned assault — however desirous to come home, the earl will 
never return without satisfaction for this villainous treachery — 
pioneers wanted — the soldiers are ragged and torn, but it is a 
folly to ask for money. 

Good Mr. secretary, I will pray you give creditt to this gen- 
tleman for all matters here ; he knoweth them better then I. He 
hath bine as carefull a man as euer I saw to satisfie her majestie, 
and surely he hath exceedlye well behaued himself here. 

I trust the traiterous losse of Grave a shall not gether anie ill 
opinion of vs here ; for my parte I haue a clere conscience. I 
haue iij times bine only the help and releif of it, beside my none 
coming in person now to giue all assistance to it. The circum- 
stance sir Thomas Heneage can tell you as much as I ; but, to be 
shorte, being the best fortified place thorowlye of all theis pro- 

a The loss of Grave came like a thunderbolt upon the defenders of the Low Coun- 
tries, whose career, from the time of Leycester's arrival up to that moment, had been 
one of uninterrupted success. It is clear that the prince of Parma out-generaled 
them. Whilst Leycester, Hohenlohe, and Schenck were scattered about the country, 
each occupied upon a separate object of comparatively trifling importance, the prince 
suddenly drew his forces together and came down upon Grave with an overwhelming 
power. The soldiers, animated by the presence of their general, and the example of 
his personal courage, attacked with a fury which entirely confounded the young and 
inexperienced Hemart. There can be little doubt that the prince would have taken the 
place at whatever sacrifice, but Hemart's courage failed him before the moment of ex- 
tremity arrived, and, forgetting the boastful letters which he had written to Leycester, 
up to that very day, in a sudden fit of despair he offered terms of surrender, which the 
prince was delighted to accept. See Briefe Report, sig. B 2. Strada, vol. ii. lib. vii. 


vinces, none like it, being full-manned, vitelled, and stored with 
all manner of artillery and municion, having but iij howres battery 
layd to it, and a shew of an assalt vppon Thursdaie last in the 
morning, gaue it vpp at afternoone. What hath corrupted them 
there I know not, but what hath altered nombers here lett this 
gentleman vppon his deuty and fidelitye declare. I will not com- 
playne anie further, and yet will I neuer departe hence till, by the 
goodnes of God, I be satisfied some way for this villaines trechery 
done, how desirous soeuer I am to come home. But of anie 
cause that waie lett me referre you, also, to this honest gentle- 
man, not for parciallity I desire at his hands, but I see he is a 
man of conscience, and loues her majestie truelie and most faith- 
fullie. God send neuer generall out of the realme soe little com- 
fort as I haue had all this whole time of my being here, till 
within theis iiij dayes. What harme it doth me it is not to be 
cared for, but what is donn to the cause is already easilie found. 
I wrote most earnestlie to you for some pioners. Once againe I 
beseech you, lett vs haue either 1000 or 6'00. All charges shalbe 
allowed here, and with all the hast that maie be, and with Mr. 
Rawleys 100 myners, b whoe writes to me are ready to come. 

Hit is follie to speake for moneie, though our men be ragged 
and torne, and like rogues ; pitty to see them. Specially those 
of hir majesties pay be wors. I haue sent you all our officers for 
reconinge, and you knowe our care. Would God some of you 
were heare to see it, then would you speedily help vs. Thus, 
with my heartie commendacions, I bidd you farr well. In hast, 
this last of May. 

Your assured freind. 

a myoners, in MS. 




3RD JUNE, 1586. COTTON. MS. GALBA, C. IX. FOL. 254. ORIG. a 

Wahyngham apprises the earl that it is the purpose of the prince 
of Parma to attack Sluys — refers to a communication from sir 
William Pelham as to the importance of the sea-port towns. 

My verry good [lord, I think] good by the opportunyte of this 
gentleman to let your [lordship] understande, that I am advar- 
tysed that the prince of Parma is determyned to attempt some- 
what agaynst Sluse, which maketh me to doubt that he hathe 
some intellygence within that towne. He meanethe to commit 
the executyon of the matter unto the count of Egmonde, b governor 
of Flaunders, and unto La Mota, c in whom [he] reposethe his 
chefest trust. I am greatly affrayde, unless ther shall be some 
Englishmen placed there, that that towne wyll be lost. By [sir] 
William Pelham your [lordship] shall understande howe greatly 
yt importethe her majestye to kepe the porte townes owt [of] the 
Spaniards handes. And so I most humbly take my leave. At 
the Barnealmes, 3. June, 1586. 

Your lordships to command, 

Fra: Walsyngham. 

This gentleman hathe verry well acquited sooche favor as yt 
hathe pleased your lordship to shewe him. He was verry de- 
syrowse to have levyed a bande of footemen, but could not per- 
forme yt for lacke of meanes. 

a This letter is not mentioned in the catalogue of the Cottonian MSS. 

b Son of Philip count of Egmont, whose execution in 1568 was one of the many 
scandalous atrocities perpetrated by the duke of Alva. The son here mentioned was 
not restrained by his father's fate from taking the side of the Spaniards. In 1580 he 
was taken prisoner by the Dutch, who offered him, together with the baron de Selles, 
in exchange for La Noue, but Philip declined to accede to the exchange until 1585. 
During his imprisonment Egmont suffered under a melancholy which affected his 
reason, but was restored to health by the affectionate attention of a beloved sister who 
was permitted to share his confinement. 

c " Valentinus Pardiseus Motta dominus," Strada, vol. ii. lib. i. La Motte was ac- 
tively and successfully engaged in the siege of Sluys which took place in 1587. 




6th JUNE, 1586. OUVRY MS. FOL. 22 b. A COPY. 

Some captains as much to blame for the surrender of Grave as baron 
Hemart — effect of the surrender upon the neighbouring towns — 
little damage done by the Spaniards before the surrender — pre- 
sumptions of treachery against the governor — harm done by the 
agents employed by the queen to treat for peace — Davy Hamilton, 
late a Jesuit, gone into England on some secret matter — the earl 
is set by his friends in England " in the forlorn hope" 

Sir, I haue written out myne eies already, but this berer, your 
old servant, I must needs write by, whoe hath delt honestly and 
painfully, having bin at Antwerp and Bruxells, and learnid manie 
thinges whereof he will informe you ; and retorne him againe, I pray 
you, with speed. 

Of the lewd villaines giving vpp of Grave, with all the declara- 
cions of the souldiers and some captens against him, finding some 
captens as deepe as himself in fault, and shall pay with him. a 

This towne b was terrible at the first, for that c the villainous 
and traiterous manner of giuing it vpp did amaze many other 
weaker places, for theie knew Grave so fortified, and soe stronge, 
as noe man doubted but that the prince should take the greatest 
foyle in the world there ; and seing it so sone taken, with a shew 
of only force, could not blame weaker places to feare ; but, in all 
troth, there was neither sufficient breach made for anie assault, 

a This sentence is printed as it stands in the MS. The meaning seems to be, that 
finding, upon investigation of the circumstances of the surrender of Grave, that some 
captains were equally in fault with the governor, the earl determined that they should 
suffer with him. 

b Bomell, whither Leycester repaired after the surrender of Grave. Briefe Report, 
sig. B 2. 

c that by the, in MS. 


nor anie assault geuen, but a more shewe made onlie to discouer 
the brech, where there was the capten kild that gaue the attempt, 
and a souldier seeing him well-apparrelled lying in the ditch, went 
out, downe the brech, to spoile him, which he did, and the place 
was soe stepe that the rest within were fayne to help him vpp 
with their pikes, and to drawe him by the hand with much adoe 
in againe ; yet the governor would needes render it. Noe cause in 
the earth for women to have left it ! And one of the captens hath 
sett it downe, and another souldier also, that, vppon their Hues, 
the battery did them soe little hurt as that place of the towne was 
as stronge as any other parte of it when they lett the enemye in. 
And whatsoeuer bruts are spread, there cam none in at a the 
brech but such as the gouernor caused to be helpt vpp, some 
with ladders and some with pikes, and that the prince and others 
there captens came in at the gate, which did argue there was noe 
brech saltable or passable, for if it had bine, they would for glorye 
sake, and for the more feare to others, haue entred all there. 
And one that came thence this last night doth assure me, the b 
Spaniards hath made noe alteracion at all at that place, and is as 
defensible as anie other parte not at all touched. 

One presumption against the gouernor of some trechery in him 
is this, that a Spanish capten, one Martino, was taken in October 
last, and, being a prisoner in Grave, he practised with a capten 
Wallen there, and did corrupt him, and some of his officers. The 
matter was discouered as I wrote longe since to you, by a little 
tickett written by count Manxfyeld to a clarke of the count Hol- 
lockes band, which was brought to my hands, and did aduertise 
both Hemert, the governor of Grave, of it, as also apprehended 
the dark, wherevppon execution was done of many there, and of 
the clarke here. This Spaniard, Martino, notwithstanding, found 
such favor after with Hemert as he gaue him libertie, as is told 
me now, and made him goe to feasts with him, and to go frelie 

* all, in MS. b they, in MS. 


round about the towne. And, without either making me previe, 
or the count Hollock, a litle before the prince came before the 
towne, he licenced the Spaniard to goe his waie vppon hostage, 
which was but a collor. This matter he answereth very slenderly, 
as he doth all the rest, a but this doth argue some practice, or 
dealing, with the prince, deliuering him soe lately before, and now 
to giue vpp the towne so suddenlye, in the worst manner, from 
vs, that could be ; for I had rather farr, that he had manifestly 
traterously geuen it vpp, and sett open the gates, then to doe it 
with a shewe of such terror to these people as he did it; but not- 
withstanding, albeit at the first it amazed manie, it is now well 
knowen, and men resolved, as appears by many good letters I have 
alreadye receaued from manie townes, crying for justice against 
the governor and captens, and promisinge to liue and dye in de- 
fence still of this cause. Only the trouble and greif is, the feare 
of her majesties leaveing them, wherein the enemy hath fully playd 
his parte, in practisinge with many townes to make them knowe 
her majestie will not maintaine their cause, that she is sorry for 
that 'she hath don. 

Divers particularities I haue written to Atye, b to whome I praie 
you call [for] them, which I assure you be most trewe, beside that 
your man Charles can tell you. Among others this late coming 
into Antwerpe of August. Grafino and Andreas de Lope, who 
make noe secret talke of it, but doe imparte to the merchants 
flatly, that the peace betweene her majestie and [the] king is agreed 
on. Graffyn is at the campe with the prince, having ij English 
geldings to present him, and a brace of greyhounds. These newes 
being certen, as theie be, for I haue them brought me also by an 
Englishman from thence purposely, you maie imagine what care 

a After the surrender of Grave, Heniart, the governor, repaired to Bomell, where 
he was immediately placed under arrest and conveyed to Utrecht for trial. Briefe 
Report, sig. B 9. 

b Atye, who was one of Leycester's secretaries, was sent to England about this 
time. See a letter of lord Burghley's dated 20th June ir>86* and printed hereafter. 


it will cast these people in; specially hit will appere what an 
alienacion it will worke in the wiser and higher sort here, perhapps 
cause you haue but a badd peace, and that is it the prince seeks 
to make with you, and perhaps some care not much for, soe it 
beare the name of a peace. Well, I am noe fitt councellor ! 

Sir, you shall also vnderstand, that this merchant brought me 
worde, both from a zelous man in Antwerpe, and from Pigott, 
that there is one Dauy Hammilton gon into England, latelie a 
Jesuit, a miseheiuous fellow, in the company of an Englishman, 
and doth goe like a merchant, a square thicke fellow, with a redd 
beard; he is imployed by Cosmo, the princes cheife secretary, and 
being knowen to be soe ill a man, makes them carefull to haue 
advertised that serch be made for him, for he hath some great 
mater in hand. 

For myself, I will write noe more. I thinke you all mene me a 
forlome man, as you sett me in the forlorne hope. Gods will be 
done, and to his great mercy I commend you, and vs all. In 
much hast, this 6th of June. 

Your assured freind. 



7th JUNE, 1586. OUVRY MS. FOL. 24 b. A COPY. 

Complaints of the conduct of the agents for treating of a peace — 
consequences of the loss of Grave — villainy of Paul Buys — pre- 
parations for further levies — master of Gray. 

This dealing vnderhand, and yet most openlie, for peace, doth 
marr all ; yt dishonoreth her majestie, hit overthroweth all here. 
Yt is to much to appoint such instruments as must lay so open all 
our councels ; for, vppon my dutie to her majestie, the doings for 


this peace is as particulerlie knowen here, as with them that hath 
the managing thereof. 

This matter of Grave was fearfull at the first, onlie by the 
manner of it, that it appeared the enemy had with his great force 
and violent batteryes gotten it, which being trew, all the townes- 
gates in this countrey might be sett open to him, for there is noe 
more such places for strength. But theie found it otherwise, that 
very trechery and vilianie hath betrayd it and delivered it. There 
is noe way to remedye this but her majesties countenance towards 
this countrey, and some speciall wise person to be sent, with all 
possible speed, hether, to comfort them, wherein you shall see 
better successe then you can imagin, Yf that be not done, then 
all is lost, and xx millions will never bringe such a countrey 
wholie at her majesties devocion agayne. 

Here be some very villaines, among whom Paul Buis a is the 
greatest and most traytor to his countrey, but to her majestie, 
and to me, her minister, a most vnthankfull man. Yf her majestie 
meane to stand with this cause I will warrant him hanged, and 
one or two of his fellowes, but you must not tell your shirt of 
this yet. 

Lett her majestie never feare that anie further charge shalbe 
cast vppon [her], than she hath contracted, and, if I doe not see 
all our English paid by these men, and as manie other strangers 
as I shall entertaine, lett her majestie both disauow me and 
banish me. 

And, now, for manie respects I like to haue the master [of] Gray 
come over; from whome, as God will, I haue this day receauved a 
messinger of purpose, from him, of the continuance of his old 
desire. And I meane to send over to you verie shortlie money 
to imprest him. I haue, also, given comission to levye ij M royters, 
and hartilie angry that I had not the kinge of Denmarks offer 
takin, and yet, as I see practises in hand, it falleth out well 

a Paul Buys was one of the commissioners deputed by the united provinces in 158.5 
to supplicate the assistance of Elizabeth. He was the deputy for the state of Utrecht, 
and is described in the instrument of authorization as a doctor of laws. Foed. xv. 793. 


enough otherwise. 51 And when I haue the supply of the Scotts, 
with the ij M royters, and our English master sir William Stanley, 
which aboue all other I desire, I doubt not, if her majestie leaue 
vs not, but to haue all things better then ever it was. Though I 
myself am discouraged, yet the cause doth encourage me, know- 
inge it to be not onlie for the service of God, but for my prince 
and countrey. And feare you not, if I doe bringe all these states 
about to better devotion, and good dewtye to, then ever theie 
were yet, lett her majestie thinke she hath bredd me to the least 
purpose that euer she did anie man, and I wilbe ashamed of my 
soe longe bringing vpp yf I doe her not this service I speake of. 

The master [of] Gray wilbe readye to passe his men in xx days. 
I will not lay out a peny of her majesties to him, nor anie man ; 
lett her onlie giue present stout countenance to [the] cause, and 
send with all speed a man of wisdome and creditt to deall with 
these men, if what she will haue be not done, lett it light vppon 
me. But, my masters, your instruments must a litle be touched, 
for theie haue deeply touched her majesties honor, and worthy to 
be hanged though theie were instruments appointed for such a 
matter, for this is a worse battery a good deall then that at Grave, 
and will peirce deep, and make another manner of brech, how 
light soeuer you make at home of it. Now is the time, if it be 
not almost to late. 

I pray you lett me heare from you by Coks. I will send more. 
Use this as it maie doe good, for God doth know, I deale simply 
as the cause provoketh, and litle doe I looke vppon my none case; 
to God I remitt that. In hast, this 7 th of June. 

Your assured. 

I pray you be good to this your old servant ; he hath spent 
well xv xx b in hazard for this service. 

a Otherwise out, in MS. 

*> A word in the MS. which is illegible. The copyist did not understand what he 
was copying, and, as in many similar instances, made a very poor attempt to represent 
it in fac-simile. 






8TH JUNE, 1586. COTTON MS. GALBA, C. IX. FOL. 256. OR.IG. 

The queen disposed to alloiv greatly of the earl's service, although 
she had been " sowre " — confusion in the treasurer's accounts — 
treaty with the merchant-adventurers to pay money to the earl 
in the Low Countries so as to save the expence and risk of car- 
riage — the earl is advised to establish the rates at which English 
money shall pass — and is apprised that the lords of the council, 
of the want of whose countenance he complains, have more to say 
in their defence than is convenient, as it would remove the fault 
from them to (as is insinuated) the queen — the earl is advised now 
the queen is pleased to turn his griefs into comfort, and to endea- 
vour to abridge her charges — complaint of the merchants respect- 
ing the interference of the Dutch in their traffic with Emde?i — 
lease to the earl of the fines upon alienations objected to by the 
queen, with Burghley's reply. 

My very good lord, the soddayn comming to me this afternoone 
of ser Nicholas Gorge, with declaration of hir majesties meaning 
to send hym with spede to your lordship, forceth me to scrible a 
a few lynes, though I have cause to wryte very manny. What hir 
majesty wryteth I know not, but I hope very comfortably, for so 
I lately found hir majesty disposed to allow greatly of your 
service, howsoever she had bene in manny thinges sowre, if I 
may so term it. At this presence, uppon the comming of the 
tresorer and the auditor, hir majesty hath shewed some mislykyng 
of hir charges ther, and evill content to heare how more than 
nedefull it is to send monny thyther. As yet we cannot by any 
accompt fynd what is dew, ether now or till any tyme past, 
though in apparance for the footemen the pave is full till the 


xj. of Aprill, but how farr the horsemen ar behynd we cannot 
conjectur, for lack of any certenty at what tym ther pay begann, 
and the mo dowtes ar therin, because it is not known how the 
rest besyde your lordships own nombres, did enter ; but of these 
thynges, and manny more, Mr. Aty is partly informed, and shall 
be of manny mo. 

But now at this present, by hir majesties commandment, I am 
treatyng with the merchantes-adventurors, to make payement of a 
mass of monny ther, and to receave the lyk quantite here, therby 
to avoyd the carriadg of tresor in monny out of the realm, and 
yesterday I found them redyar than this daye, uppon the news by 
them receaved of the loss of Grave. Besyde this, I fynd it very 
hard to mak any bargayn with them, except the certenty of the 
valews of our monnyes and of the currant monnyes ther might be 
knowen and stablesshed certenly, and therin, truly, my lord, your 
lordship shall do an honorable act to publish a certenty in those 
countreys, wherin it is sayd ther is great abuse, not only to the 
monnyes of England, but of manny other countreys. 

To be short in this poynt, my lord, I fynd, that, if our aungell 
might be rated at ] 6 s . 8 d ., and our shyllyng at xx d ., the eschang 
wold be at xxxiij s . iiij d . Flemmish for our pownd, and in very 
truth this is the trew vallew of our monnyes and no more, havyng 
respect that the floryn or gildern ther is currant but for ij s ., and, if 
your lordship shall stablish this matter for our monnyes, I dout 
not but our merchantes shall be brought to mak over monthly 
v m . sterlyng, wherby both transportation of our monnyes shall 
be stayd, and the chardges of carriadg, both by land and sea, shall 
be saved. 

This daye I perceave your lordship hath procured from our 
merchantes v m ., wherof I am glad, and I wish it had bene x m ., 
and, though the v m . be not payable befor the end of this month, 
yet, my lord, I hope to have warrant to paye it to our merchantes 
by Fryday next. 

Your lordship hath no few causes of greff, as partly appeareth by 


your lordships late letters sent by Mr. Barber to Mr. vichamber- 
len, Mr. secretory, and myself, and, in truth, I cannot blame your 
lordship, ether in thynkyng or wrytyng hardly of your state, con- 
sidering the small comfort from hence, notwithstandyng your 
good desertes ther, and the good successes of your service ther ; 
but yet, my good lord, we here have more to saye in our defence 
and purgation than is convenient for us to say truly, by removyng 
the fault from ourselves, and so I hope your lordships own minis- 
ters here can declare and express unto your lordship, for, other- 
wise, truly, for my own part, if I war not cleare of all fault, I 
might lyve with a conscience tormented. Wherfor, my good lord, 
howsoever your lordship feleth cause of much greff, yet condemn 
not your frendes here, that ar not liable to remedy such accidentes 
as ar out of ther power. Good my lord, now that hir majesty is 
disposed to allow of your honorable servyces, torn your greves 
into comfort, and, in on word, ther is no way so redy to con- 
tynew hir majesties good lykyng therof as to help to abridg hir 
extraordinary chardges, the natur wherof, truly, doth make here 
gret changes with hir majesty. 

I will leave now this humor, and end with the other matter of 
our merchantes. They complayn grevoossly of the Hollanders 
shippes of war, that kepeth the ryver of Embden in such sort as 
they can have no trade to Embden, the lett wherof empeacheth 
ther trade so as they are less a liable to help you with monny ; and, 
truly, my lord, if yow can help that, and by placard stablish the 
rates of our monnyes ther, yow shall not want ther help with 
monnyes from hence, the carryeng wherof thyther, is here very 
evill spoken of, and gretly mislyked of hir majesty, and, as it is 
here comenly reported, by the over-vallewyng of our gold ther, it 
is stollen over thyther, and partly chested up ther, or molten and 
converted into bass gold, and of this here is very lowd speche by 
persons malcontent. 

Mr. Dudley can wryte to your lordship in what case your lord- 

a so as ther less, in MS. 


ships leass is for the matter of the alienations and fynes for 
wryttes of covenant. Hir majesty hath bene by some lewd busy 
persons very hardly informed of the great gayn made therof, which 
being by me affirmed to be untrew, she answereth, that your 
servantes hath gayned more than your lordship, and I have 
answered, that, in truth, the principall dealer therin, which is Mr. 
Thomas Dudley, is of that honesty that I durst shewe for hym 
that he gayneth nothyng wherof your lordship may [not] allweise 
be prive. 

To end ; my lord, I pray your lordship to advertise hir majesty, 
as soone as vow may, what vow thynk of the mocion that my sonn 
hath made for the chang of his chardges of Brill for Harlyngham, 
for, uppon that answer made, he will depart hence within 3 dayes. 
And so I take my leave, meaning to wryte of manny mo thynges 
hereafter. 8. Junii, 1586. 

Your lordships at command, 




10TH JUNE, 1586. COTTON. MS. GALBA, C. IX. FOL. 260. ORIG. 

English merchants have complained to lord Burghley of 
certain silver coins stamped at Amsterdam in imitation of the 
queens silver testern, but which, not being of the value of 12 
pence, ivill occasion loss to English perso7is taking it — lord 
Burghley requests the earl to rectify this fraud. 

My good lord, after that I had inclosed my letters herwith sent, 
ther cam to me some of our marchantes shewyng to me certencoynes 
of silver stamped at Amsterdam, alltogither in form answerable 
to hir majestyes testern of silver, both for hir majestyes person, 
and hir armes, only it had a privet mark by the mynt-master of a 


litle splayd egle. It is thought that this kynd of coyne shall be a 
grete fraude to our English people, who receavyng it for xij d . 
sterlyng, shall lose therby if they send it into England, or els the 
subjectes of England receavyng the same in pay here, shall also 
suffer detriment. I thynk your lordship shall do very honorably 
to look into these indignytes, for, in very truth, this realme hath 
hertofor suffred gret losses by the lyk imitation of our coynes, 
embassyng the same in substance, and yet gyvyng a resemblance 
such as may a long tyme deceave vulgar people. 3 I wish therfor 
that your lordship shuld, in this time of your government ther, to 
cause some regard to be had. 

Mr. secretary hath promised to send for Palmer to come over 
to your lordship, and I movyng hym within these 3 dayes, 
he semed very loth to take the jorney, but he sayd, that he cold 
instruct Mr. Aty as perfectly to the purpooss b as hymself shuld do 
if he cam. How Mr. Aty shall understand the same I know not. 
From my house in Westminster, the 10. of June, 1586. 

Your lordships most assured, 


To the right honorable, and my verie good lord, the erle of 
Leicester, lieutenant-generall of hir majesties forces in 
the Lowe Cuntries. 


10th June, 1586. ouvry ms. fo. 25 b. a copy. 

Mr. John Nor r is favourably mentioned — details of the treasurer & 

a Lord Leycester has written against this passage in the margin of the letter, " Md. 
that. I wrote for Palmer of the mint and had no answer." 

b Lord Leycester has written against this passage, " not possible." 


alleged misconduct — the earl wishes to have the rest of the money 
agreed by the queen to be advanced for the year paid at once — 
proceedings against Hemert — great complaints against sir John 
Norris — he is " right the late earl of Sussex sonne " — Norris's 
anxiety to save Hemert, and the reasons he assigned — the earl 
entreats that if he is to remain Norris may be recalled — would 
have him sent to Ireland — examination and escape of Hemert s 
" woman " — growth of a general selfishness — the earl has agreed 
with the master of Gray for two or three thousand men, and is 
levying all the cavalry he can — " if we have force we will have 
money " — intrigues of Paul Buys — " his head shall pay, perhaps, 
for it " — the earl requests the queen to countenance him by send- 
ing (i a sufficient man . . . with favourable ivords" — other per- 
sons to be sent over — the people begin to take heart again notwith- 
standing the plotting of Paul Buys — earnest appeal to Walsyng- 
ham to procure the recal of Norris. 

I pray you breake or burne this. 

I thinke Mr. John Norris will doe service here. He is best 
acquainted with all the parts of this countrey that I knowe anie 
man. He tooke some vnkindnes, but all is well now, and I doe 
find him willing to doe all service. 

I would I had geuen you lOOO 1 * that you had not tied me to 
the choyce of this tresorer; you and I both shalbe sorry for it, 
specially for some respects. I see there wilbe noe assurance to 
keep money from disbursinge. Mr. Da: a shall tell you, or can 
tell you, more. I dare not advise to haue the treasure committed 
to anie of his, no, not himself. I can assure you, of the former 
money deliuered, all was payd or I came, longe. Many souldiers 
vnpaid, the mony laid out, noe defalkacions at all brought in, nor 
like to come, that I see. The money I brought was fayne to pay 
of that the other should haue done ; a good deall. Yf anie cer- 

" Either Mr. Dawtrye, see p. '237, or Mr. Darcy, see p. 283. 


tificate be made to my lord-tresorer, or yourself, I am not privye 
to it ; noe more is the auditor. There is noe allowance demanded 
one way, but paiment is made, and, if great chance had not bine, 
ij m ]i . had bine payd also, without either my warrant or knowledge, 
for levying a horse-band, which you knowe was not to be allowed 
out of this monie, yet, but for me, had it bine ; vppon a bare 
word and surmise, it had bine deliuered. I assure you the dealing 
[is] so great b and disorderlye for her majesties comoditie and ser- 
vice, as I haue vtter mislikinge, and, if you send monye hereafter, 
either make it by exchange, or send it in siluer and coine, ex- 
pressly the soldier to be paid therwith, whatsoeuer sophisticall 
declaracion may be made, except her majesties gaine be marvellous 
great. I pray you let no man perswade you to keepe from the 
poore souldier his gaine, which is this, he shall for his English viij d 
in silver haue more meate, and every thinge ells, then for x penny- 
worth of this coine. The treasorer saith, he must make proritt 
for her majestie of the gold ; of the siluer, he, or his deputie, hath 
it. Truely the dishonor is great to be laid to her majestie, for to 
get, in vij or 8000 H , 4 or 500 1 '. If all her monie had bine turnid 
into the great dowble rose-nobles, the gaine had bine great indeed 
to her majestie, and some quantitie of siluer withall would doe well, 
but your angell gets noe gaine here, nor our siluer to be exchanged 
here, to her majestie, then were it pittye that the siluer, and the 
angell, should not be paid to the poore souldier. For his naughty 
monie he receaues, he can haue but naughty and dere ware for it. 
Beside here is a new exaction vsed vppon the souldier, he payeth 
the c penny, which, though it seeme little, ys ij M marke a yere to 
the treasorer ; but I do not thinke you meane anie new exactions 
vppon the souldier. What with that, and the paying for their 
armour, although the countrey hath paid in England for them, 
theie haue paid manie a bodie into the grave for hunger and cold, 
and yet her majestie hath not a pennie answered. Judge you, 
then, what dealinge there is. I pray you appoint a substanciall 
1 Perhaps it was gross in the original. It is great in our MS. 


discreet person to bringe the moneie, and to take note here of the 
states of our paiments. The auditor here is an honest true man 
I suppose. He told me, that the c peny of euery souldier, with 
the gaine of the siluer and monie as he deliuereth it, beside her 
majesties dew, comes to more then all my rents of land in Eng- 
land, a good deale ; but his honest gaines I am not against, but 
his careles paiments, of which, if I should complayne, he were 
vndone. But I haue spoken enough, and yet helpes not, nor anie 
help wilbe. He presumes so much of freindshipp, and soe ready 
to pleasure his freinds, trusting withall to the coming of his de- 
putye, which will deceaue him. I pray you consider of this, and 
to move a Mr. Da. to tell you what he knowes of this matter. 

If you help vs now with the rest of the monie, or at lest with 
50,000 u , her majestie shall not be called vpon for so manie 
monethes againe, and it will stand vs here in a c Mli at another 
time, and I will deliuer her majestie at the end of this yere 
30,000 u into her cofers, if not 40,000, b soe she shall saue so much 
of her 120,0()0 a ; and, if these warrs shall continue anie longer 
then a yere, as I hope theie will not, her majestie shall not be 
charged with anie more, and yet, perhaps, deliuer her as much 
against the next yere. 

Since my other letter by your man Charles the matter of 
Hemert was proceeded in ; and this was the course, by the 
advice of all men. The count Hoilock, being my lieutenent, was 
chief in comission, and other the next best offycers of the feild, 
besides all the collonells, were called also to it. And, albeit both 
he and others seemed the most vehement in the world before 
to haue iustice done vppon him, yet, when it came in triall, there 
was as many cavillacions found as could be, and the count him- 
self wrought as farr as the best to delay the iustice, but, as I was 
and am credibly informed, none hath secretly more wrought 
it then sir John Norris, who, in all troth, because I would 

a The word in the original which is here printed " to move," is very doubtful. It 
looks like " comerce." 
» 14,000^. in the MS. 


not like of his vncles a doings and his, and haue bine bitter to 
him in these matters, doth not farther at all my service, na, 
I will not now tell you how it hath bine, and is, hindred 
onlie by him. I assure you, vppon my fidelitie, I cannot 
heare that he can brooke either capten, gentleman, or souldier, 
that came over with me. Mutines haue bine offered by some 
vnder him, and the fowlest spoyles that may be, and yet, except 
I should devide our army and companies, I see noe helpe, vnlesse 
I should be quite deliuered of him. His brother Edward [ys] as 
ill as he, but John ys right the late earle of Sussex b sonne; he 
will soe dissemble, so croch, and soe cunninglie cary his doings, 
as noe man living would imagine that there were half the malice 
or vendicatiue mind that doth plainely his deeds prove to be. 
And, for this matter of Hemert, knowing that by the examinacion 
of some captens, yea, of some that sett their hands to Hemerts 
agrement, of divers lieutenents, and of all the souldiers almost, hit 
fell out flatly that there was noe cause in the earth why he should 
giue vpp the towne, as the proofes shall all be brought to you, 
but both traiterouslie and villainously deliuered it, yet Mr. Norris 
soe cuningly carieth himself, one while in respect of the gentle- 
mans blood, fearing offence that way to the people, which is very 
ridiculous, and another while, which is lesse honest, but to his 
freinds it is very trew and good proofe for it, he shames not to 
say, he louecl his aunt, and for her sake he will neuer sett his 
hand to the death of soe nere a man of hir blood. 

Beside this, I must deall plainly with you, since the losse of 
Grave, I protest before God, he is as coye and as straunge to 
giue anie councell, or anie advice, as if he were a mere stranger to 

a The treasurer was uncle to sir John Norris. See page 277. 

b This and a similar passage at p. 264 are singular outbreaks of the old hatred be- 
tween Leycester and Sussex. The latter nobleman died just three years before the date 
of this letter ; but it is evident that his rival still retained that enmity towards him 
and his which prompted Sussex upon his death-bed to warn his friends " to beware of 
the gipsy," as he termed Leycester on account of the darkness of his complexion. 
Dugdale's Bar. ii. 287. 


vs ; wherefore, before I enter further into Hemerts matter, I pray 
you, if you thinke I shall tarry here, if it be but ij monethes, lett 
me haue better assistance, for he doth contemne all our souldiers 
here, both old Reade, sir William Stanley, Roger Williams, coro- 
nells Morgan, Edrington, Wilford, and all but ij or iij ruffians 
that be brought vpp, being his owne servants, and some of them 
his boyes within this vij yeres, be the only servants of the world, 
and, in very troth, such men as be the most riotous and disordered 
persons of this campe, and not one man that ioynes with him but 
yonge Burrow. Our service hath bine vndone for lack of Pellam, 
or my Lord Gray. Norris is borne in hand he is like to be 
general! againe here, after I be gon ; but I can tell you thus much, 
doe you there appoint him what you will, there is none here, I 
meane of the states, will accept him. As for our Englishmen, I 
warant for anie more then his owne bands that will tarrie with 
him. If there had bine anie possible way to haue wonn him, I 
would not haue troubled you in this sort, with this matter ; but, 
beleeue me, there is noe hope, he is soe subtle, and soe extreamly 
geven to factionne. I beseech you get him hence, and send him 
to Ireland againe, you haue cause enough soe to doe ; for my parte 
I will not serve with him, for, whatsoeuer I haue to doe, I meane 
not to vse him anie otherwise, but will a send him to some place to 
gouerne till I heare further. 

Now to Hemert. He was yesterday so freinded by the count 
Hollock and others of that countrey, for that I see theie will not 
haue losse of townes punished, and, as I tell you, by Mr. Norris 
vnderhand, as the proceeding is put of for ij dayes, the pretence 
openlie very good, but the intent indeed starke naught, and to 
deliuer him from iustice. But, before he be so, I will cary him to 
all the townes in Holland, for, since I was borne, I never heard 
man so cryed out on, and manie letters, which I send you, haue 
I receaued from all places, to haue severe iustice executed. His 
woman, whoe [is] thought to be his perswader, and so was it in- 

a will and send, in MS. 


formed me, I caused to be committed and examined, and the next 
day stolen away, which doth argue there was some guiltines, or 
why should she steall awaye, being a gentlewoman of a very good 
house ? But, what signe all this is, I leaue to you to iudge, that 
such a matter could be so fauored. But there is a feare of some 
side a that a chaung wilbe, and theie beginn in all places to thinke 
vppon this brute of peace, and what dainger I am like to be in 
you maie consider. I feare everie man will speedlie seeke for 
himself, and noe waie to help other, the cause, and vs her majes- 
ties subiects here, but a stronge force to comand here, with all 
speed. I haue thought good to call the master [of] Gray with 
ij or iij m . I am leveing all the horses I can beside here. The 
master of Grey hath a gentleman now with me, latly arrived, with 
his offers still to me, whome I will retorne hastelie ageine. If we 
haue force we will haue monie, both for them and all the rest. 
And, beside, I doubt not but to recompence Grave or I haue 
done, and the way for all this is, if you can procure her majesties 
countenaunce but till Michaelmas, that, by her good dealinge in- 
deed, this countrey may be releiued, and myself haue creditt ac- 
cording as you shall thinke the cause worthy. 

Paule Buys is a very knave, even to her majestie. Remember, 
in my other letter I wrate for some person of creditt to be sent 
hether to this purpose, and to her majestie also, I pray you forgett 
it not, it importeth all. I am this day taking a new order for 
Hemert, which I trust shall take place, and I beleeue, er it be 
longe, if my credit stand and be countenanced by her majestie, 
you shall heare Mr. P. B. shall follow. He is a devill, an atheist, 
and the. onlie boulsterer of all papists and ill men, and of late vsed 
a most daingerous and detestable practice against me, in respect 
of religion, and to please the papists. But, giue me countenance, 
his head shall pay, perhapps, for it and other villanous parts 
towards her majestie, which shalbe iustified when my authority 
shall serve. The whole countrey, save his colleages, detest him. 
a So iu the MS. but perhaps the earl wrote ' sign.' 


Now is the time, or never, to help this countrey, and only a 
sufficient man sent with favorable words from her majestie, to 
encourage these men, will doe it. Lett me alone for forces, and 
all things ells, save the monie her majestie hath promised, to sett 
these countreys in better state then theie were at anie time since 
I came; but speedye comfort must come, and another man in 
Mr. Norris place. Yet, if Pellam come, yea, I wish him the man, 
or my lord Grey, to bringe her majesties good favor and pleasure, 
it is yet time to doe great good. As also to send Rowland York 
away, whome 1 haue written for. I would I had Bryan Fitzwil- 
liams here, and Edward Barkley. I will provide place or good 
entertainment for them, to their liking, and, if there be anie good 
souldiers there that haue servid here, I pray you procure them 
hether with all speed, iij or 4 of them. And there is a man of 
mine, muster-master in the west countrey, called Huddy, I pray 
you lett him not serve there. He playeth the knave with me, 
that, being my seruant, and saying he would follow me, but never 
came. He is a tall fellow, and a good souldier, but I will not 
seeme to call for him, but rather to be offended with him, and, 
for his ill dealing at this time, [desire] you and others my lords to 
displace him, and shall doe well to reprehend him sharplie, and 
send him to service. 

And, where her majestie doubteth that I will either bringe the 
charge vppon her, or vppon myself as her minister, if I doe either 
of them I will haue no trust or creditt but vtter displeasure rather. 
If her majestie a supply this necessitie with her fauor, as I haue 
tould you, I shalbe better able to proceed in this service then ever 
I was heretofore, for heretofore I haue neither had favor, counte- 
nance, creditt, nor supply, from hir majestie, and by that meanes 
almost as little here otherwise. The people beginn to gett hart 
againe, and seeke, by letters from all places, to encourage me, and 
acknowledge the villany of there owne countreymen. Theie de- 

a The MS. stands thus " displeasure nether of her majesties supply." There is 
clearly some mistake. In the text I have ventured upon a conjectural emendation. 



sire now in all places to haue English garrisons, and where Mr. 
Paul Buys had secretly practised, to haue made these people to 
mislike of the coming of our nacion over in such nombers as 
theie did lately, theie all aske for more, and wish that all their 
souldiers were English and theie would double their reuenew. 
And the states now offer me verie larglie to gather and levie men, 
both horsse and foote, and I hope to gether them soe as I will leaue 
but a little releif in all the enemies cheif countreis er longe. But 
I beseech you remember to send me those captens I writt [for,] 
with all hast, and if you geue them prest of the treasure there, it 
shalbe allowed againe ; for, lett men say what theie will, giue me 
a good tresorer, and haue away Mr. Norris, and, if you find fault 
with lack of makinge these men to answere all charges dew by 
them, lett me pay it with my bodie and life, for, if God lett me 
liue v weeks, I am already sure of the meanes, and but for the 
contempt that some places of Holland, and these not past ij, and 
one in Zeland, Midleborrovv, haue vsed by the practise of the 
former partye, a all had bine had or this day. For, as soone as he 
found her majesties favor declined both from them and me, he 
lost noe time to sett it fourth, secretly, in many places ; but, I 
thanke God, his creditt is not so generallie good as that he hath 
overthrowen all hope, though mischeuously he hath shaken mens 
minds, but, with one messinger of credit, her majestie maie help 
and salue all. And if your peace proceed without this manner of 
dealinge, God help vs all, and cheifly her majestie. 

I haue imparted to Coxe, Mr. vice-chamberlens secretary, some 
matter concerninge this, both to tell his master and you. I pray 
you giue creditt to yt, and consider weightily of it, and, lastly, 
I most earnistly entreat you, even as you first tooke the cause and 
her majesties service here, and next as you beare good-will to me, 
and wish me good successe, that you ridd me of Mr. Norris. You 
have good cullor to doe it to haue him to Ireland. I had rather 

R Paul Buys. 


be without the others that I would haue, than to haue him remaine 
anie longer. Yt is trew he adventured his lief at Grave, but how 
you shall better one day knowe, and yet he is a very hardy gentle- 
man. Yf you can revoke him for the cause of Ireland, I desire 
not anie way his hinderance, or harme, and, for that, I thinke you 
may doe it, his office there is great and honorable. Beside, 
beleeue me never yf you thinke to make him a seruant gratfull to 
these countreis. I knowe hit will neuer be. His creditt is wholy 
gonn. and hath bine longe, and I speed the w r orse for him. 

I am sending with all speed to Cassamir. a I heare nothing of 
that preparacion, but some would make me doubt Palavicino, that 
he dealeth not sincerely but hath an intrest. b Thus, having 
trobled you longe, and praying you not to find yourself trobled 
with dew consideracion of the matter, I bid you farewell. Hast, 
at Gorkom, 10th of June. 

Your most assured. 



10TH JUNE, 1586. COTTON. MS. GALBA, C. IX. FOL. 267. ORIG. 

Sir Tliomas Heneage arrived at court the preceding night, and, ac- 
cording to a general report, the queen is very well contented with 
him and his message — treaty ivith the merchants for the payment 
of 30,0001. in the Low Countries, so as to avoid the carriage of 
money in specie — difficulties alleged by the merchants — Burghley 
ivishes the earl could make the Rhine free. 

My very good lord, though I wrote late on Wednesday at night 
to your lordship, uppon Mr. Nicolas Gorge comming to me with 

•' Cassamore, in MS. b See page 104. 


signification that he was to depart erly in the next morning, and 
therfor I wrote more hastely, yet now, being lykwise moved by 
Mr. Unton, the beror hereof, to know if I would have any thyng 
to your lordship, who is also moved to tak shipp this evening, 
with commodite of a western wynd, I am also occasioned to wryte 
in lyk hast, and yet, as the tyme falleth out, if I had mor leasur, 
I shuld not wryte of such matters as war mete, because I am here 
at Westminster, being Fryday, and have hard that sir Thomas 
Hennadg cam to hir majesty yesternight, and that, in a generall 
report, I here that hir majesty is very well contented with hym 
and his messadg ; for which cawse, untill I shall be at the court, 
which I mynd to be to morrow at nyght, I am unfurnished what 
to wryte of such matters as his retorn shall minister cause, so as, 
untill that tyme, I cannot so conveniently wryte to your lordship 
as Mr. Hennadg and others at the court may doe. 

But yet, my lord, I have thought good to lett you know, that 
I had, by hir majestyes commandment, on Teusday last, treated 
with our marchantes-adventurers to mak payment ther, on that 
syde, of the some of xxx m a . wherby to stey the carriadg out of 
monny in specie, and, about the same tyme, I did also deale with 
some marchantes straungers to the same effect, that, if they cold 
mak payment ther of some good somes of monny, I wold repay 
the lyk here, and herof I was in good hope to have spedd, by the 
manner of ther answers, so as our monnyes, namely our aungell 
and xij d . might be ther stablished at ther just valleus in certenty, 
namly, the aungell at xvj s . viij d . and our xij d . at xx d ., and so 
ratably other monnyes, wherof I gave them hope, uppon report 
made, that your lordship was purposed to publish a placard ther 
for the lyk purpooss. And to comfort our merchantes, I did 
also promiss payment of the v m u . presently, that was last payd 
ther by your lordships request, though the same was not 
payable befor the last of this month ; but yesterday, both our 
own and the straungers cam to me, with declaration, that, 
by this mishapp of Grave, they both, but specially the straungers, 
cold not possibly perform that which I required of them ; and 


so I was perplexed, and yet I so pressed our marchantes- 
adventurors as I told them, if they wold not now strayn ther 
credittes to pay ther xx m u . within xiiij dayes, I wold procure from 
hir majesty a licenss for the straungers to carry out clothes un- 
dressed, wherby I hoped both to vent our clothes, which is a 
thyng very nedefull in this tyme, and to obteyne my request for 
payment of monny. By this threatning of them they have bene 
styrred to mete togither, and do offer to send awey this night a 
post to provide xx m u . to be ther within xiiij dayes, if it be possible, 
and, for certenty, they offer, that monthly they will be liable to 
paye x ra u . Thus your lordship seeth how uncerten thynges pass 
here, but knowyng how great nede ther is to have monny ther, 
rather than ther shuld be want any long tyme, I will press hir 
majesty that monny may be sent in specie, wherof your lordship 
shall shortly here. 

Our marchantes do alledg another gret difficulte, in that ther 
shippes can not have fre passadg to Embden by reason of the 
Hollanders shippes in that ryver, wherof I have gyven them hope 
that your lordship had delt therin betwixt the cont of Embden 
and the Hollanders, and so I hope your lordship hath doone some 
good therin, for so indede our marchantes shuld be more liable to 
pay you monny from thence than at Midleburgh. 

I wish your lordship that good success that yow cold mak the 
ryver of the Rhen free, as by your late takyng of the sconce in 
the duke of Cleves contrey, I hope a gret furderance. 

And so now, prayeng your lordship to accept this my hasty 
kynd of wrytyng in good part, I wish you success of all your 
honorable actions. 

Your lordships most assuredly, 


10 Junii, 1586. 

To the right honorable my very good lord, the erle 

of Leicester, lieutenant-generall of hir majesties 

forces in the Lowe Cuntries. 




18TH JUNE, 1586. OUVRY MS. FOL. 30. A COPY. 

Proceedings against Hemart — manner of his trial and condemnation 
— executed that day ivith two others — arguments used to intimidate 
the earl from executing him — conduct of sir John Norris — 
establishment of a chamber of finances — conduct of Paul Buys — 
request that Ortell, who is Buys's intelligencer, may be sent out 
of England into the Low Countries — Buys's slanders — the earl 
has been obliged " to sett the better legg afore " towards the 
council of state — he will not be " overborded by theis churles 
and tinkers " — nobody shall remove him from his authority but 
the queen. 

Sir, this berer can well informe you of all our present state, 
speciallie of the proceedinge with the vngratious Hemert, governor 
of Grave ; against whome there was many manifest parts of his 
trecherous dealinge leyd, both by confession of captens, lieute- 
nents, souldiers, and the very minister of the towne. Manie 
freinds he had, and I was made to feare proceeding with him, for 
that he was of a good howse, well allied, and of great freindshipp ; 
that there was none proceeded against in all the prince of Orange 
his time, nor he durst not, albeit divers townes were ill geuen vpp 
and lost in his time, but, notwithstandinge, knowing the vilenes 
of the act, and the necessity of such an example, for that indeed 
there is noe more made in giuing vpp a towne then to forsake a 
mans howse, and how earnist the people are to see some example 
for loss of their townes and fortresses, I haue proceeded soe farr 
as by all the lords that be rulers here present, as count Hollocke, 
and Newynor, with many coronells and officers of the feild, I had 
him tried and condemned, and this day, he and two other captens, 
the one called Dubaud, and the other Robuckom, were executed 


here, publickly, loosing their heads, for that theie were all gentle- 
men and captens. a He confest his fault, I meane Hemert, and to 
be worthy to dye, but would not confesse the treason, or practice 
to giue it vpp, which most manifestly apperes by all his whole 
doings ever since he was last releeued, when the overthrow of the 
Spaniards warre. And to haue holpen this man, I doe assure 
you, you will not beleeue except you had sene it, how many 
devices one of our owne companie, Mr. Norris, vsed ; which, 
aboue all other things, doth argue a notable matter in that man, 
but, I trust you will find meanes to retorne him to his owne 
charge, for he is neither for this countrey nor for our souldiers 
liking. I assure you I will hope of noe good if he remain here, 
and yet I am loth to harm him, therefore lett him be revoked for 

I haue latly altered the fynancs, and brought now to a chamber, 
and haue setled officers and all ; yet some spurne at it, and theie 
that first cheifly sett me on for it, which is Paul Buis, a most lewd 
man as ever liued, and a most hated man to all sorts here. He 
is about some matter, whatsoeuer it be. He hates the queen and 
vs all. I shall knowe it, I am sure. Yf there fall out good matter, 
he shall be removed from his place, and perhaps committed fur- 
ther. Yf you knewe what I haue done for him here, you would 
thinke him the most vngratefull wretch that liues. He hath 
biased the queen es majestie secretly e of late, from place to place, 
to son dry capitall ringleaders, as, after I get sure knowledge, I 
will not lett slipp. He bidds them not trust her, she deceaues all 

a The Briefe Report mentions " what difficultie the matter was thought to do this 
execution, the party being a baron, of a barons liuing, and great by birth and alliance 
in those parts ; his excellencie, a stranger ; the estate in broken termes ; and the 
example there scant seene before. But the fact fell out so plaine, that his excellencie 
would not be intreated but that iustice should proceed : the iudges could not but con- 
demn him, and the people though sorye for the man yet much reioiced to see the 
iustice done." Sig. B. 2. Neither that writer, nor, I believe, any other English 
author, mentions the execution of the two others, but Strada says that " una cum 
duobus centuiionibus, capite plecti jussit Leicestrius." II. lib. 7. 


the world with hir words, she performes nothinge she promiseth, 
she hath vsed them only for her owne turne, and to sett them fur- 
ther into danger, whilst she might make her owen peace with 
Spayne, and delivered them particularities to bite vppon. That 
she cared not a strawe for me, nor what became of me. (By the 
way, least I forgett yt, send away Ortell. He is his intelligencer, 
and I haue written twice for him and he comes not. Use my 
name and send him waye, without anie ill words, but that I haue 
great want here of him.) That I was mistaken, for I was not the 
man in such favor as they thought, nor as I must stand them in 
stead. And askid of them, what one grace or speciall fauor had 
they received since I came over? Or what strength haue I 
brought, but a few horsmen ? It was neither horsman nor foot- 
man theie so greatly wantid, but a man of speciall fauor with her 
majestie, and such a one as she would haue countenanced in his 
gouernment here, which she hath not done, nor liked I should 
haue so great authority, as appeared by her own letters which she 
sent both to the states and the councell, but the states letter was 
held back by my sute, and they faine to dull the matter for me 
to her majestie by thir lettres, and yet she would not be satisfied, 
but retornid Heneage in great collor again e. That she had de- 
nied her monie and her men to come over. Thus vyly hath this j 
knave secretlie wrought, saying, that I was a puritan, and had; 
almost made a great broyle in England for religion, and that her 
majestie was gladd to be ridd of me, and to send me hether. But, 
since the people doth see our nombers come over so fast, and be 
doubtfull that he a speaks of practice and malice, for even so did 
he deall with the prince of Orange when he saw him growe to 
great, as except he rule all he will adventure to overthrow all, 
theie beginn to mutter owt thes matters against him, and thinke 
he would haue another change, not being pleased with this, for 
that he hath not his will ; and I will tell you whie that I did not 


take all such councellors as he did name vnto me at the first, which, 
if I had, I had left out all the best protestants, and haue taken 
in none but papists of his comendacion, but good patriotes he 
cald them, and yet doth not remember, as Dauison can tell you, 
all against them heare I tooke him in, being spoken against by all 
the states, and his owne provinces most of all; but, having a 
naughty, ambicious, covetous mind, there is nothing can content 
him but to governe all. I thinke he was workinge, at least till 
now he seeth the peoples hearts to her majestie, to make an 
alteracion, whatsoeuer that was ; some thinke St. Allagend a busy 
ageine. I shall knowe more within ij dayes, but [for] once Zeland 
is worst out of order of all the rest. Paul Buis doth flatly fauor all 
the worst papists, and vtterlie mislike all honest protestants, 
either ministers or councellors ; but, if her majesties fauor hold, 
and that you send with speed, as I wrote to you to procure, a wise 
discreet person to come over from her majestie to the states, and 
that you coniure Ortell a little, and to tell him her majesties dis- 
posicion to be increaced rather then diminished toward this 
countrey, you shall see I will course b Mr. Paul Buis he was not 
soe this xx yere. 

I haue been faine of late, thorow his meanes, to sett the better 
legg afore, to handle some of my masters somwhat plainelie, and 
roughlye to, for theie thought I would droupe, but I will rather 
be overthrowne by her majesties doings then overborded by theis 
churles and tinkers. Theie find I will beare noe badd dealinges 
at their hands, and theie see, I knowe, I am better able to deall 
then heretofore I was with them, and theie find I haue care of 
them, and that I haue now at a pinch helpt them, when all their 
owne power and forces are not able to stand them in steed. And, 
whatsoeuer become of me, you shall heare I will keep my repu- 
tacion here amonge them, or dye for it ; and, if her majestie 
remove me not, all theie heare cannot, from the authority I haue, 

" St. Aldegonde, see p. 3. 

b This word is doubtful in the MS. It has been altered and left very indistinct. 


(which if I had now wanted, her majestie had found what it had 
bine, even for her owne service,) no more shall all this world 
make me keepe it an houre if her majestie shall not both like it 
and comand me to it. 

Thus, not knowing what I haue scribled, I wall end with manie 
thanks for your good freindshipps, and to pray you to hast sir 
William Pellam, or ells all is mard, I can assure you, and I would 
God her majestie would, for countenaunce sake, lett some noble- 
men and young gentlemen come over for a moneth or ij, to see 
some service, which a moneth hence wilbe somwhat warme, and 
worth the sight. God keepe you ever. Hast, this xviijt h of June. 

Your assured freind. 



20TH JUNE, 1586. GALBA, C. IX. FOL. 274. ORIG. 

The queen objected to the emploijment of the earl's secretary, Mr. 
Atye, as her messenger to the council of the states, and has ap- 
pointed sir Thomas Cecill — the queen is well-affected to the cause, 
but she wishes the risk of a battle to be avoided, and dislikes all 
extraordinary charges — letter from sir Edward Stafford — the 
earl advised to destroy the harvests in the enemy's country — 
Scottish affairs — colonization of Munster. 

My very good lord, tymes do alter matters in all places, and 
therefor this forenoone, when Mr. secretory and I had taken care 
for makyng some instructions for Mr. Aty, wherof some part 
tended to declare som thynges beside hir letters to the counsell of 
the states from hir majesty, and some part to yourself, hir ma- 
jesty mislyked that Mr. Aty shuld, being your secretary, impart 



hir pleasure to the states in thynges that might concern yourself, 
and therefor soddenly she gave Mr. secretory order to command 
my sonn, a who was redy to take shippyng towards Holland, to 
stey and to he informed of those matters that concern the speches 
to the counsell of the states, and that he shuld be directed with 
those to your lordship, and as your lordship shuld thynk mete 
upon perusal of them, so to direct hym in hir majesties name to 
utter the same ; and this was the very cause that Mr. Aty was 
not employed therin. 

I se still hir majesties disposition very resolute to continue hir 
first purpooss for the defence of that action, and therin she is with 
good cause fully perswaded of your lordships honorable mynd to 
prosequut the same to hir honor and surety, but allweiss I fynd 
two obstacles in hir majesty. On is, she is very carefull, as a 
good naturall prynce, although in such a case as this somewhat 
too scrupulooss, to have hir people adventured in fightes. The 
other is, she will not have any more expended on hir part, [than] 
that she hath yielded unto, mislyking all extraordinary charges. 
And therefor she still calleth on us to wryte ernestly to your lord- 
ship, that yow shuld now, hauyng that generall authorite which 
yow haue with hir good lyking, press and command that the 
conimen collections of that countrey shuld answer all manner of 
charges, to the disburdening of hir majesty, otherwise than to the 
sums assented unto. And so hir majesty doth often repeat that 
your lordship hath wrytten hyther that yow wold so doo. 

By a letter which this daye Mr. secretary hath gyven my sonn, 
sent out of France from sir Edward Stafford, to be showed unto 
your lordship, yow may see how dilligent the enemyes and their 
party ners ar to disperss news for ther advantages, not regardyng 
how they mint lyes with truthes. That which in that letter is 
most marquable for your lordship is that of Utryct, which I doot 
but your lordship will regard. 

a Sir Thomas Cecill. 


I know no better waye to impeache these excursions of the 
prince of Parma, with his nombre of soldiers, wherwith he semeth 
that he will kepe the felch, than by all pollycy to distress his 
victell, which enterprise must now be taken in hand afor harvest. 
For suerly, my lord, I understand all the countreys in Flanders 
and Artoiss ar well taken with corn, and lyk to yield great plenty 
to serve all the wynter and spryng followyng. Surely, if the 
ennemy did not thus avance hymself towards you ther in Holland 
by the waye of Braband, wherby I see your lordship is forced to 
kepe your strengthes there also, to defend your frontier townes^ as 
Bommell, Nuiss, Gorcum, and such lyk, your lordship might, 
with a small band of horsmen to be leyd at Sluse and Ostend, 
compell the towns of Bruges and Gant to revolt, for I know 
suerly the people ther are bent so to doo for want. 

I doubt not but Mr. secretary advertiseth your lordship of the 
state of Scotland, where Mr. Randolf fyndeth none better nor 
more constantly disposed to kepe good amyty with hir majesty 
than the kyng hymself. The lords that war here bannished ar, 
as the Scottes termeth it, somewhat drye, which I impute to fear- 
fullness. Of them all, the master of Glames is most cold, joyn- 
ing himself stryctly with the secretory ageynst the master of Gray 
and Archebold Dowglass, which twoo men remayn constant to 
the quenes majesties frendshipp. 

Out of Spain we here that the kyngs navy, so long prepared to 
have followed sir Francis Drak, ar newly stayd, and all other 
preparations out of Italy. 

In Irland all thynges are quiet, and a nombre of gentilmen of 
Somersett, Devon, Dorcett, Cheshyre, and Lancashyre, are making 
themselves to go to Monster, to plant two or three thousand 
people, mere English, there this yere, a and it is pretended by them 

a Stowe records the names of the " honorable and worshipfull gentlemen" who 
made the attempt to colonize Munster, and " wherof some went into the said countrie, 
others according to order taken sent their people, amongst which were sir Christopher 
Hatton, sir Walter Rawly, sir Wil. Courtney, sir Richard Mollineux, sir George 


to plant about twenty thousand people, English, within a few 

And thus, my good lord, I beseeche God prosper you, for his 
honor, to govern those countryes as your noble hart can desyre, 
and I beseeche your lordship to contynew my sonn in your favor, 
as he desyreth. 

From the court at Grenewych, ready to pass to London, the 
the a of June, 1586. 

Your lordships assuredly to my power, 


To the right honorable my very good lord the erle of 
Leycester [lieutenant-generall] for hir majesty in 
Holland, &c. 
20 Junii, 1586. 



21ST JUNE, 1586. COTTON. MS. GALBA, C. IX. FOL. 272. OIIIG. 

The ivriters recommend to the earl to procure some compensation 
for the bearer Richard Tomson, a sea-faring man, whose cargo 
had been seized and partly destroyed at Flushing, upon suspicion 
that it was intended for the relief of the Spaniards. 

After our right hartie commendacions to your lordship, the 
bearer hereof, Richard Tomson b , hath a longe tyme beene a sutor 

Bourcher, sir Edward Fitton, sir Valentine Browne, sir Walter Luson, John Popham 
her majesties attorney-generall, and other." (Annales, p. 718.) It was at this time 
that Spenser the poet obtained his grant of the castle of Kilcolman. 

a A blank in the original. 

b See pages 220 and 233. 


unto us for some recompence of his losse sustained by those "of 
Flushinge, and we have beene desierous to releive the poore [man 
by] some convenient course, in takinge satisfaction upon such 
Netherlanders as goe daylie and usuallie to Callis, and other portes 
adjoyninge, with comodities no lesse helpfull to the enimie than 
those which were transported by himself. But since, havinge 
considered the inconveniences that may ensue by such our 
graunt sundrie waies, we have thought good to remitt the said 
Tomson to your lordship, prayinge that yt may please you to 
extend your favour towardes him, eyther by way of entreatie or 
commaundement to those of Zealand, and, allthough he cannot 
have full restitution of all such goodes as he loste, by reason a 
great parte thereof was consumed and wasted by such as tooke 
the same, that yet he may have redelivered unto him, by your 
lordships direction, so much as was taken from him, with licence 
to embarke the same for any forreine country not inhibited. 
And, if yt may stand with your good likinge, in consideration of 
his hindrance, to permitt him to transporte from Holland some 
quantetie of graine, fishe, and cheese, for this realme, your lordship 
shall releive this poore man greatlie. We have thought good to 
write the more earnestlie unto your Lordship in the behalf of 
this man, for that he attempted the action by our consentes and 
permission, for some service pretended, and not of contempte, for 
we doe conteinue our restraynt of trafique for thos countryes 
without violation, allthough we understand, that the shippes of 
Holland and Zealand doe passe daylie to Callis, with commodities 
not a little helpefull to the countryes of Flaunders and Arthois. 
And thus we bid your lordship most hartelie farewell. From the 
courte, at Greenwich, this xxj th . of June, 1586. 
Your lordships verie lovinge frendes, 

W. Burghley. Fra: Walsyngham. 

To the right honorable our verie good lord the erle of 

Leicester, lieutenant-generall of hir majesties 

forces in the Lowe Countries. 





Recommending his servant, the water-bailiff of Flushing, to the 
earVs favourable consideration. 

My verry good lord, I am to recommend unto your honorable 
favor this bearer, my servaunt, that by your lordships good meanes 
he may enioye lyke benefyt of his offyce of water-bayly in Flussh- 
ing, as the water-baylye in Bryll dothe presently enioye. I hope 
he wyll deserve any favor yt shall please you to bestowe on him, 
and I shall thinke myselve greatly bovvnde unto you for the same. 
And so I most humbly take my leave. At the coorte, the xxij th 
of June, 1586. 

Your lordships to command, 

Fra: Walsyngham. 

To the right honourable my verie good lord the 
earle of Leycester, lord lieutenant-general of her 
majesties forces in the Lowe Countries. 



24TH JUNE, 1586. COTTON. MS. GALBA, C. IX. FOL. 246. ORIG. 

Arrival of Grafigna and Bodenham from the prince of Parma as 
messengers in relation to a peace — Grafigna" s report of an attack 
made by Schenck and Roger Williams upon the Spanish camp — 


the prince intends to attack the earl — the prince in his letters to 
the queen treats the subject of peace as if it had been sought at his 
hands by the queen, which she takes most offensively — the prince 
says that he has no commission to treat, but if her majesty desires 
a peace, upon knowledge of the terms she proposes, he will be 
ready to further it. 

My very good lord, yt may please your lordship to hould me 
excused yf I use the hand of annother in writing unto you, being 
[at] this present meself overburthened with other busynes. The 
cause of this my dispatch is to acquainte your lordship with the 
late comming of Augustin Grafigna and Bodenham from the 
prince of Parma with some overture of a peace, though but in 
generall termes, having only yet delyvered, that, yf the king of 
Spayne can lyke to have a peace, the prince, for his part, who hath 
now receaved honner enough in that countrye, will very willingly 
undertake to becom an instrument and dealer in yt, for which 
purpose he meaneth to send over hether some personage of quality 
yf the matter go forward, but to other parti cularityes they descend 
not. And whether the prince have any commission or authoritye 
from the king to treate appeareth not. Bodenham seemeth to 
have some further directions, and a letter for her majestyes self, 
theffect whereof your lordship shalbe made acquainted withall so 
soone as yt is knowen. 

Grafigna telleth me, that he was lodged in Cosmos lodging when 
Skinck and Roger Williams gave the camisado to the campe, a and, 

a After the capture of Grave it was at once suspected that the prince of Parma 
would turn his course towards Venlo, a town in the government of Schenck, who was 
himself engaged elsewhere. It was occupied by a garrison of seven hundred Dutch 
soldiers, but Schenck was desirous of himself getting into it, and he and Roger 
Williams, a well-known, brave, and experienced Welshman, the very prototype of 
Fluellen, determined to make the attempt. But the prince was not a general whom 
it was likely to take by surprise. All the passages were found to be occupied 
by the enemy with overpowering force, and Schenck and Williams became convinced 
that their design was impracticable ; but, in the mere madness of a reckless bravery, 


by that meanes, was prevye that the disorder and confusion was 
so great as there appeared no smaule lykelyhood, that, yf they had 
ben followed by their horsemen, the whole campe might have ben 
overthrowen ; and yet that there weare not so many slayne as was 
otherwyse reported, the whole number being not above three or 
fower score, and of our people betwin thirty and forty taken and 
slayne, which happened for that, by reason of their longe taryeing, 
they gave the prince tyme to pursue them with his horsemen. They 
gave our men the prayse to have guided thenterprise with no lesse 
skill and good discretion then yt was hazardously undertaken. 
He telleth me, that, to shunne the danger of Berges up Zome, 
he was constrayned to returne by Mastrich, Liege, and thos quar- 
ters, where he understood that the people had violently resistid 
the carriadg of the intended provisions of vittalls to the campe, in 
respect of their owne want and necessitye ; by meanes wherof 
the prince cannot long continue before Venloo. He understood 
that the merquis of Pescara, who was looked for with 1500 horse 
and 3000 footmen, bringeth now with him butan hundreth and fyfty 
horse and eight hundreth footemen. The prince of Parma, as he 
telleth me, was informed, that your lordship should have 18,000 
fotmen and 3,000 horse, wheruppon, calling his captens to coun- 
sell, yt was, at the first, advised to go from Ventloo and hazard 
the battell with your lordship, and in thend resolved to leave some 
strength before Venloo, and yet go forward with their purpose to 

they determined to make a sudden midnight attack upon the prince's camp, in the 
forlorn hope that "they might possibly breake through the gardes." The daring 
attempt was made, and the passage in the text informs us with what success. The 
Briefe Report, which states the circumstances rather more particularly, says, that 
they " slue many, euen neere to the princes owne lodging. But directing them- 
selves towardes the towne, and finding the turnpikes shut, and garded with strong 
watch of muskeyteires, and the campe nowe all up in armes, and the day drawing on, 
they turned their course towards Wachtendoucke, a towne of the estates, seauen or 
eight miles of, where themselues and mauie of their companie entred, and saued them- 
selues from the whole cauallarie of the enimie, now pursuing them. Some thirtie or 
fortie of their company were slaiue and taken." Sig. B. 2. 


bid your lordship battell ; wherof I have thought good to geve 
your lordship speedy knowledge. And so I most humbly take my 
leave. At Greenwich, the xxiiij th of Juin, 1586. 
Your lordships to commaund, 

Fra: Walsyngham. 

The prince of Parma, in his letter to her majestye, which I 
have seene, doth use the matter in sooche sortt as thowghe sooche 
as have ben dealors in this peace had sowght the same at his 
hands in her majesties name, which is taken most offensyvely 
agaynst both the prince and the mynisters ; for her highnes 
protestythe, that she naver gave any sooche commyssyon. The 
prince protestethe, that he hathe not any comyssyon, neyther 
generally nor perticularly, to deale in the matter, and yet, yf her 
majestye shall be dysposed to have the seyd peace proceaded in, 
uppon knowledg in what sorte she wyll have the same performed, 
he wyll be ready to further so good a worke. Your lordship may 
see what effectes are wrowght by sooche weake mynisters. They 
that have ben the imployers of them are ashamed of the matter. 
I praye your lordship that this advertycement towching the con- 
tents of the prynces letter may not be made publycke. 



26th JUNE, 1586. OUVB.Y MS. FOL. 31 b. A COPY. 

The earl wishes 2,000/. to be sent to the master of Gray — capture 
of Venlo by the prince of Parma through the treachery of the 
burghers — great complaints of want of assistance and of proper 
allowances, and of general neglect on the part of the government 



in England — treasure not arrived — mismanagement and dis- 
honesty of the treasurer — -frauds upon the soldiers — leases de- 
sired by the earl. 

Mr. secretary, I thanke you for your remembrance to stay ij m n . 
for the master [of] Grey. I pray you procure it to be sent to 
Mr. Randoll, a or to some in his place, if he be come away. I haue 
written the like of this by Hekerstone ; if he take the way of 
England, I beseech you to hast awaie the monie as soone as may 
be, and to write that I looke for his owne presence, ells I should 
be to sorry. 

The state of causes here I haue written to her majestie at length. 
Theie stand vppon tickell termes, b and but for my late come forces, 
I thinke all had bine gon, speciallie all these parts without Hol- 
land. There is a generall conceit of her majesties leaving this 
countrey, which hath done all this harme. I haue done, and doe, 
what I can, to satisfy men, and I thinke I haue done some 
good. Venloe I heard had suffred an assalt, but I now knowe 
the whole troth. There was neuer brech made saltable, nor anie 
assault offered. The burgers onlie armed themselues, and opened 
a gate, and lett in viij c Spaniards, and iij c horse, and some souldiers 
were slaine, the rest let goe. c This place, Grave, and sundrey other 

» Sir Thomas Randolph, see pp. 52 and 179. He was often called Randall. 

b The word here in the original is " townes," but that seems clearly to be a mis- 
take for " termes." " To stand on tickle terms" was a common phrase for " to stand 
insecurely." An instance in proof of this occurs in the " Briefe Report," sig. B. 2., in 
reference to Leycester's proceedings immediately after the surrender of Grave : " Un- 
derstanding also that almost all the townes nere aboute, as Bomell, Arnham, Amers- 
fort, Deuenter, and the rest of Guelders and Ouerissell, stoode in tickle tearmes, likely 
to yeelde if the enimie came neere them.'' Another example of the use of the same 
phrase was adduced by Steevens from " The True Tragedy of Marius and Scilla, " in 
illustration of Meas. for Meas. Act. i. sc. iii. where Shakspere has, " Thy head stands 
so tickle on thy shoulders, that a milk maid, if she be in love, may sigh it off." Malone's 
Shakespeare, ed. Boswell, ix. 26. 

c It does not appear that any attempt was made to avert the capture of Venlo, ex- 
cept the fool -hardy exploit of Shenck and Williams which has been alluded to at page 


townes, were agreed on two monethes since to yeild to the prince, 
and some of them I doubt yet. I will doe my parte, being fayne 
for doubt a of some of these, to put in vj m men of our nation ; theie 
were quit lost ells. I trust in few day[s] you shall here some 
what better of vs. 

I perceaue by Aty, b that I shall neither haue the allowance for 
horsage, nor for myself. I am sorry you haue such an opinion of 
my follie, or simplicity, that you thinke such a man as I, whose 
abilitie is right well knowen to you all, that you will lay a burden 
vpon him more then I doe beleeue v of the best of you will take 
in hand. Did my forwardnes to serve perswade you all that I 
would vtterlie vndoe myself ? I pray God I maie see some others 
sett to the like, to see what theie will doe, or how theie would 
looke to be considered. Though you would seeme to be good 
husbands for hir majestie, yet, my thinks you should haue taken 
some order with the states for my entertainment there ; but will 
you neither allow me as all generalls haue bine, nor yet provide 
for me at thir hands to whose service I am sent ? Is it reason, 
that I, being sent from so great a prince as our soueraigne is, that 
I must come to strangers to begg my entertainment ? Albeit I 
know it is reason theie doe allowe me, and soe I thought you had 
contracted with them in England, yet is it noe reason for me to 
stand hucking with them for myself, beside I looke for the same 
answere theie doe make for other principall officers serving vnder 
me, which you say they must pay, and theie say the queene must 
pay them. Yf thei are to pay me, and the rest, why is there noe 
remembrance made of it to them, either by her majesties letters 

319. On the occasion of its surrender, the prince of Parma distinguished himself 
by two acts of generosity, which are so much at variance with the ordinary practice of 
this savage warfare that they deserve to be remembered, i. By his own personal inter- 
ference he saved the town from being plundered by his excited and victorious soldiers. 
ii. Finding amongst the prisoners the wife, sister, children and household of Schenck, 
he furnished them with conveyances for themselves and their effects, and sent them 
forth attended in a most honourable manner to join his daring and vindictive enemy. 
a hast, in MS. b Aly, in MS. 


or some of my lords ? I am blamed for imprests, and yet you 
would haue men serve vnder me. If you agree with the states 
that theie shall pay vs, lett them be so treated withall, and I will 
deall for the paiment thereafter. For my parte, I knowe not 
what theie will allow me, but I haue had, God is my iudg ! but 
one 1000" of them from my first till this daye, and you knowe 
what case I was in by her majesties displeasure long continuing, 
all which while I remained here like a man of noe accompt; and 
I blame them not to haue byit[s] meanes what they could. Theie 
had need to allow me well, or ells I pray you I maie sitt downe 
with my losses already, for I can make noe more. I will abid out 
the brunt of this service now, and will adventure my life to settle 
things well j but if I be noe better considered of by nether side, I 
must leave all, if I Hue and passe this brunt. 

I heare nothinge of anie treasure, yet my lord-tresorer wrote 
there should haue bine xx m u deliuered by exchange at Middle- 
borrow ; hit is time it were come. And for your tresorer, yf he 
continue, I will medle noe more, for he must haue his old in- 
struments, or ells himself wilbe vndone, for he is caryed by them, 
and all the world canot make them doe well. If he cannot make 
his accompt without this pay, as I thinke he shall haue need to 
be at it, yet lett some other haue charge to disburse the treasure, 
for I will never deall with these men more, nor never giue them 
my hand, for, as I thought before, soe was I abused. He may be 
here well enough, and be at the pay of all men, and call for his 
dew all the wayes he can, and to haue that accordingly, but there 
shalbe other manner of examinacions, if there be some other, then 
either wilbe or can be, yf he be the tresorer and paymaster. I 
knoAve what I saie, and I see how the poore souldier is handled 
and abused, and noe man living can devise to help it where a 
tresorer and his ministers are only sett vppon gaine and skraping 
from the souldiers. And for his bills he shewes of the captens pay, 3 

* wey, in MS, 


there is noe one thinge in the world whereby he hath more fowly 
abused both hir majestie and the souldiers then in that. But I 
perceaue there is noe man dare speake. The auditor doth knowe 
it, and, I will gage my credite, at this next pay sett another to be 
tresorer and paymaster, and yet this man to haue all he can de- 
mand, being right, and lett him be present, and he shalbe found a 
third parte of these bills not payd, nor the souldier answered the 
tenth parte of his dew. I shewed the tresorer hir majesties order 
and instruccions for the pay of the souldiers, but he would not 
obey it, nor could bringe him to it. For one while, when he was 
to pay, he had thus much money, or more then he was to reckon 
with them, and theie were in his debt. The captens being poore, 
and desirous of moneie, cared not what bills theie signed, so there 
souldiers know not of it, but if there fall not out to much fowle 
matter, trust me noe more. Beside you shall see what service 
this is. He hath bills of the capten to serue his torne, he cares 
not how the souldier is payd. I will prove, that these captens he 
hath delt cheifly withall doe owe all their whole wages for their 
souldiers yet to be paid to the townes where theie lye. Sir John 
Norrys himself, that is best paid of all men, doth owe, in this 
towne alone, for his horsband and for his footmen aboue xxij c ! i 
sterlinge, and thus is thir owing in every towne great somes. 
Reason is, that, either the souldier receaue monye or his meat 
paid for, but I can assure you theie make their souldiers Hue in 
garrison for iiijf/. or iiijd. ob. a daye, the rest should buy them 
apparrell. I assure you theie neither pay for their victuall nor giue 
them apparell, except shewes, or sometimes a paire of stockes, 
which theie pay truelye for. I doe shame to see them, and the 
oldest capten [s] keep thir men worst, I meane the capten [s] that 
were here before ; only Lambert that came from Ireland hath his 
men well trimed. I doe not thinke, except such monie as I haue 
paid them, that ever anie souldier hath receaued at one paiment 
aboue ijs. Judge you then, what cause the poore wretches haue 
to complayne. I pray you, lett me find that freindshipp to make 


proofe of this I say. Yf I doe wrongs I will aske forgiuenes, and 
make amends for it. 

Thus, w r ith my heartie commendacions, praying you to haue 
better remembrance of me, being in this desperate thankles ser- 
vice, as you would haue others doe in like, I commit you to God. 
In much hast this xxvj. of June. 

Your loving freind. 

I perceaue you haue done nothing for my leaces. I assure you 
I forgive a to him that will take all extremity ij m H for the one of 
them, and I haue but a month now left, and one forfeited alredy, 
and I desire them not of guift, but to pay as my lord-tresorer and 
Mr. Milmay shall sett downe ; though her majestie did indeed 
grant them me at my coming away frely. The rent of both are 
but lx 11 a yere and therabout. 



27th JUNE, 1586. OUVRY MS. FO. 34. A COPY. 

The earl requests to have Rogers and Boddyly sent to him — cham- 
ber of finances established in spite of Paul Buis— Rugolt. 

Mr. secretary, I doe very heartily pray you that you will help me 
to Rogers that was with Shenks, not D. Rogers the lawyer; he 
maie doe me great pleasure, and I will see him well considered. 

I would, also, most gladly haue my old servant Bodyly, whoe 
I suppose is idle now ; he may likwise stand me in good steed. 
Good Mr. secretarye, procure these two with speed. I trust you 
shall heare well from vs dayly after x or xij dayes, that some 
townes be quieted and better setled. 

* forgett in MS, 


I haue stablished the chamber of finances against Paul Buis 
will, and yet hath he vnderhand shifted to let it all he could ; hit 
is our only way of helpe, which he would not haue. I see Rugolt 
is a notable man. 

The two men in Zeland her majestie liketh not of are, I feare, 
starke naught, and in a dangerous practice with the young prince 
pallatine ; you shall heare more shortly, but keepe this. Far you 
well; in much hast, this 2f. of June. 

Your assured freind. 



30TH JUNE, 1586. COTTON. MS. GALBA, C. IX. FOL. 280. 

Rectification of former account given of the contents of the letter 
from the prince of Parma brought by the agents for a peace — 
the master of Gray discouraged — his presence usefid in Scotland 
— anxiety as to Venlo — Mr. Bryan Fitzwilliams recommended — 

My verry good lord, wheras [in] my former a I dyd sygnefye 
unto your lordship, that sooche mynisters [as] were imployed to- 
wards the prince of Parma had used the matter so, as by the 
princes letter unto her majestye yt seemed, that peace had ben 
sowght for by them in her name : but, uppon the perusing of the 
letter, which before I had not seene, yt appearethe not in playn 
[words] that any sooche motyon hathe ben made by them, but dyd 
shewe [only] unto the prince that, uppon any motyon that shoold 
be made, eyther by him or any other fyt to deale in sooche a 
cause, that her majestye was not so [alyened] in good wyll from 

■ See page 321. 


the king of Spayne but that she wold be content to geve eare unto 
the same. To this, his aunswer is, that he hathe no awthoryte, 
neyther in generall nor in partyculer, to deale therm, but, when he 
shall understande how her majesty is enclyned, he wyll not fayle, 
as one affected to her servyce, to imploye himselfe to the utter- 
most of his power in compownding the differences betwen her 
and the king of Spayne. To this what wyll be aunswered I knowe 
not. But the desyre of peace, for the easyng of charges, is so 
great, as I dowbt the awntswer wyll not be so honorable as were 
fyt, and so, consequently, wyll hynder a good peace, for lacke of 
countenauncyng the warre. 

To the ende your lordship may see what resolucyon the master 
of Graye hathe taken towelling the levye, I send you sooch let- 
ters as I have receyved from him. The gentleman, as yt shoold 
seeme, is muche dyscoraged thorrowghe the uncertayne coorse held 
here. The state of Scoteland, notwithstanding our leage which is 
now concluding, standethe but uppon dowbtfull termes. The yll 
usage of the noblemen and mynisters that were retyred hether 
hath greatly alyened the hartes of the natyon. The chefe assu- 
raunce of the amytye dependethe uppon the king himselve, 
strengthened by [the] good perswatyons used by the master of 
Graye, and Mr. Duglass, and, therfor, yt is to be dowbted that 
the masters absence from thence myght doe harme. 

We attend here with great devotyon the successe of Venlo, 
whereof there is the more dowbt conceyved for that there are no 
[English] troopes there. For the more savetye of the frontyer, 
your lordship shall doe well to place Ynglisshe garysons. The 
only dowbt is, that oure capteynes, being but young, knowe not 
what belongethe to the defence of a towne. I thinke Mr. Brian 
Fytswyllyams were fytt a man to be a governor in anie of the 
frontyer townes, being an owld sowldyer and skylfull in matters 
of fortyfycatyon. 

I cannot yet get her majestye resolute towching Seburo. And 
so, for the present, having no further matter to troble your lord- 


ship withall, I most humbly take my leave. At the coorte the 
xxx th of June, 158G. 

Your lordships to commauncle, 

Fra: Walsyngham. 

To the right honourable my verie good lord, the 
earl of Leicester, lord lieutennant-generall of 
her majesties forces in the Lowe Countries. 



30TH JUNE, 1586. COTTON MS. GALBA, C. IX. FOL. 282. ORIG. 

Burgliley and Walsyngham have -procured from the queen, and now 
forward, five letters of thanks and encouragement, to be sent by the 
earl to such towns in the Low Countries as he shall think fit — 
Mr. KyngsmiW s friends desire to ransom him. 

My very good lord, upon knowledge receaved from Mr. Aty 
here, of a motion made by your lordship, that, in case it would 
please hir majestie to write some letters to certein of the townes 
in that countrey, it could not but in all lykelyhoode be a thinge 
of good consequence, and very expedient for the comforting and 
encouragement of the saied townes : my lord threasurer and I, 
acquainting hir majestie with the mater, have founde hir very well 
enclyned to yeeld therunto, as your lordship may perceyve by the 
enclosed, which is a copie of the five letters that are sent herwith, 
signed by hir majestie ; wherin if your lordship shall thincke good 
to have any thinge added or altered, or any more letters to be 



written to the same effect, I will not faile, upon knowledge of 
your pleasure and desire herin, to procure the same to be dis- 
patched with expedition. And so I humbly take my leave of 
your lordship. From the court at Grenewich the xxx tua of June, 

Your lordships to commaunde, 

Fra: Walsyngham. 

The brethern of yong Mr. Kyngesmell being geven to under- 
stande that he shold be of late taken prysonar, have desyred me 
most earnestly [to represent the same] unto your lordship, that 
by your favorable meanes his libertye may be procured. They 
can be content, rather then he shoold remayn long prysoner, to 
paye sume reasonable ransom. It is left to your lordship to 
direct the letters as you shall thincke meete. 



1ST JULY, 1586. OUVRY MS. FOL. 34. A COPY. 

The English soldiers are deserting, which is attributed to the in- 
trigues of sir John Norris — alleged fraud practised by him in 
payment of his soldiers out of the treasure during the treasurer's 
absence — the earl entreats that Norris may be recalled. 

Mr. secretary, since my last letter to you I vnderstand, from 
all places where our men are placed, that there be many gon to 
the enemy e, and a mere practice, either made in England or ells 
by Mr. Norrys, whom b I haue soe vehement cause to distrust, 
seing his nature, as, except he be revoked, looke to heare of some 

a xxxj" 1 , in MS. b whence, in MS. 


mischeuous practises to scatter vs here. I see the devill worketh, 
and he so detesteth these worthy men here, as, vnder a marvellous 
dissimulacion, he intendeth some ill ; for this I find, all the per- 
swaders of our men away are a his old shifting souldiers, whom b 
he hath dispersed craftely almost in every band some ; and, but 
even now knowen to me, he hath vsed another fraud to beguile 
all your officers and muster- masters ; he hard that the tresorer 
was not like to come, and, because he would both be sure of full 
pay without correction, and to bread a mutinie among the rest, he 
hath, without commision, without muster, sodenly made a pay to 
his footmen, which are decaied greatly, and since to his horsmen ; 
a parte that he never play before now, when his men were redye 
to starue, and now is it for no other end in the world but to gett 
his whole bands payed, being thus layd out by him, and to make 
our men mutine, if it be possible, in the meane time. Either gett 
him hence, in as good sort as you can, or ells I will surely send 
him to some place where he shall noe wayes comand in the feild. 
I beseech you doe it, if you loue the cause and my well doinge. 
These things be so grosse as all men see them. God keepe you. 
In all hast, this 1. of Julye. 

Your assured. 




Excuses his long silence on account of sickness, and absence from 
court — now writes by his dear friend sir William Pelham, to 
justify himself against some persons who have accused him to the 

a or, in MS. b whence, in MS. 


earl of having omitted to defend his acceptance of the government 
of the Low Countries, and also of having been the author of the 
earl's recent disgrace — both accusations are solemnly declared to 
be untrue, and he states what he really had said and done upon 
the occasions referred to, appealing to the queen for the truth of 
his statements. 

My singuler good lorde, I have so longe forborne to write unto 
your excellence as may here make my duty prejudged and sus- 
pected, the rather in letting passe as well my owne [servante] 
lately sent over from Mr. secretary, as Mr. Aty since departed 
hence, without one lyne or [word] from me ; but, as my sycknes 
for the most parte of the tyme since my retorne, my absence 
from court and ignoraunce of the doinges there, togither with the 
lyttle comforte I have els had to trouble your excellencie with 
those thinges which I could not without greif heare, and weare 
otherwise to commonly brought unto you, may, on the on 
syde, in truth pleade for me, so may the sudden nes of my 
sayde servauntes dispatch, without gyvinge me so muche as one 
howers warninge, beinge then sycke in my bedd, and lyke de- 
parture of Mr. Atye the same nighte I came hither from my poore 
countrye house, meetinge late and by chance only at sir William 
Pelhams, on the other side, justly excuse me. Howbeyt, least my 
longer sylence should confirme the impression which some of my 
wellwyllers have, as I heare, indevored to settle in your excellencie 
against me, I would not omytt so fytt an opportunytie as the 
departure of my deare frende sir William Pelham cloth offer me, 
to repayre my former wantes with some lyne or two. Wherin, 
albeyt I could have wished a more pleasinge argument then to 
enter into the defence of my poore doinges, against the suggestion 
of suche as, envyinge that lyttle interest I have had in your excel- 
lencies favoure, have laboured what they may to supplant the 
same ; yet, because I have nothinge deerer then the preservinge 
of myne owne honest reputacion, which I heare is in some sorte 


drawen in question, I have taken the boldnes, under your cor- 
rection, as well for the iustyfyenge of myne owne innocencye as 
the satisfyinge of your excellencie, of whose honnorable favour 
and good oppynion I would be lothe theire malice shoulde un- 
justly bereave me, to aunswer those thinges, in a woorde or two, 
which I heare to be specially forged and suggested unto you 
against me. Whereof some are only so generall as might be suf- 
ficiently aunswered with a generall deniall, others more speciall, 
thoughe in lyke degree of truthe or probabylitye. The generall 
thinges objected against me are chiefly two ; one, that I shoulde 
deceave the trust reposed in me, in dysclayminge, as they saye, 
your defence ; the other, that I should be author of all the dis- 
grace and hard procedinges offered to your excellencie and the 
cause from hence. Which accusacions, as they appeare straunge 
unto myself, having so many testymonies as I have to the con- 
trarye, so do I Avonder what humor might move the reporters to 
bringe thinges so improbable to your eares, whose owne iudgment 
and informacion from hence might suffice to convince them of 
slaunder and untruthe. 

For the first, if to iustifye the cause with the uttermost of my 
poore reason and hazarde of that lyttle credyt and favour I had 
with her majestie, a thinge apparaunte to all men ; yf to confesse 
plainely and without difficulty myne owne consent and allowaunce 
thereof; if to protest, that, in case I were yet theare, being not 
expresslie commaunded the contrarie, I shoulde still perswade the 
course you had taken, as a thinge standinge with her highnes 
service and myne owne dutye ; if to be disgraced and condempned 
of partialitye and faction for persistinge in this defence of your 
doinges, as most honnorable, safe, profitable, and necessarye for 
her majesties service, warrantable by the contract, and, as I un- 
derstood, iustifyable by her owne commission, beinge well con- 
sidered of ; yf to affirme, that without this course fortified by her 
majesties favoure and countenaunce she coulde attend no better 
fruicte of all her charge then utter undoinge to the cause, with 


dishonor to herself and perill to her service ; yf to protest, that 
all the good she pretended towardes myself could no waye satisfye 
or grace me yf this cause, wherein consisted the good or bad 
success of all my laboures, were disgraced and overthrowen ; yf 
this, I saye, were to disclayme your defence, then had myne ene- 
mies some reason. But, that I have faythfullye and confidentlie 
performed theis honest duties, with a thousande more, in your 
behaulf, howsoever I stande otherwise censured and reported of, 
I appeale to the testimonie of your best, yea and most partiall, 
frendes heere, who, of their owne knowledg, can cleare me of 
this sclaunder. 

As for the other pointe, that I should be author of all the dis- 
grace befalne to your excellencie and the cause theare, which I 
protest before God I have bene otherwise most hartely sorie for, 
thoughe yt be a matter so farr from likelihoode as is utterly un- 
worthy the aunsweringe, yet would I be glad to knowe what pre- 
text of reason my accusers have for them. Howe ready, willinge, 
and carefull I was, to testifie the contrarie, by all the honor and 
service I mighte do you for the tyme I continewed on that syde, 
I appeale to your excellencies owne knowledge. Yf, since my 
returne, I have otherwise carried myself, they should have done 
well to give some instance, and shewe in what particular. But 
how farr I am, in truthe, from the touche of this accusacion, the 
stormes I founde heere at my retorne, which I fayled rather in 
credytt then in will to appease, may aunswer for me, yf neyther 
thexperience of my behaviors past, both publiquely and privately, 
my owne interest in the present action, nor your owne triall of my 
dutye and respect to yourself, can satisfie ; besides the testy- 
monyes you have had from hence, alone sufficient to refute theis 
generalities, which therefore I pass over the more lightly. 

As for the particulers alleaged against me, I finde only two 
worth the aunswering : the one, that I should reporte unto her 
majestie that I utterly misliked and disswaded the course you 
tooke ; the other, which I learne from sir Thomas Henneage, that I 


should saye to her highnes, I thought you would never have accepted 
that charge unles you had bene assured of her allowaunce thereof. 

For the first, thoughe yt may receave a sufficient disproof by 
that is allreadie alleaged, and to be proved of my contrarie asser- 
tion to her majestie, yet am I content to be judged herin by her 
highnes self, who, I am sure, neyther can or will charge me 
withall, howsoever myne adversaries may abuse her name for 
theire credittes sake. 

For the other pointe, thoughe I shoulde graunte yt, yet do I 
not see how yt can muche prejudge me, but the woordes which 
happelie they ayme at are, I thinke, those I used to her majestie 
when, as charginge me with abusinge the trust she had reposed 
in me, in that I had nott sett myself against that action of youres, 
and threatninge upon me that I knewe her express pleasure to be 
suche, I asked, howe her highnes would have me understande yt, 
havinge neyther from herselfe nor anie person els the least inkling 
thereof, and leavinge her, as I dyd at my departure over, other- 
wise resolved, unles she woulde have me imagyne so meanly, 
either of her favour towardes you, beinge as you were both to her 
and otherwise, or of a your owne respect to your credytt and 
honour, as to come over only to succeade Mr. Norris. And what 
offence may be justlie gathered hereof I leave to anie indifferent 
construction ; sure I am, and God he knoweth yt, I dyd not 
wittingly lett fall herein one woorde with other meaninge then to 
lett her majestie see howe hardlie and straunglie you were, in 
myne owne poore opynion, dealt withall, howsoever theis, and the 
rest, may be otherwise aggreaved by such as happelie seeke to 
grace themselves by defacinge of me. 

But, as I do protest before God that I have in this action dealt 
uprightlie, as one tendringe both your honour, the service of her 
majestie, and good of the cause, wherein I have had as muche 
interest as some other poore man, so do I most humbly beseech 

a yf in MS. 


your excellencie to retayne so indifferent an oppynion of me, and 
to shewe that equall favour towardes me, that, howsoever my 
yllwillers go aboute to blemishe and deface my poore credytt with 
you, I may yet receave that indifferent measure that I be not, 
unheard, preiudged and condempned, which is the speciall and 
only sute I have herein to make unto your excellencie, whose 
greater occupacions I am lothe to interrupt with anie moe woordes 
in my defence. And, therfore, reposinge myselfe uppon your 
honorable and equall favour, and hope of your pardon, if the 
jealous care of preservinge my poore reputacion have made me 
herein forgett myself, I will ende with my most hartie and humble 
prayer to God for your long and happie life. At London, the 
seconde of July, 1586. 

Your excellencies most humble, and 

ever bounden to do you service, 

W. Davison. 




Walsyngham recommends to the earl Dr. Michaell, a physician, who 
can give him information respecting the Low Countries of great 

My very good lord, this bearer doctor [Michaell], a phisition, 
being lately retourned into England [is about to] repaire into those 
partes, about certein * * , and, bycause I knowe him to be a 
* * , and to cary an earnest devotion towardes [your] service 
there, I have the rather thought [fit to] accompany him with thease 
my letters of [recommendation], praying your lordship to give 

a The name is gone in the MS. but it is endorsed in a contemporaneous hand, " Sir 
Fra. Walsyngham touching D. Michaell." 


him favorable accesse at his repaire unto you, for that he can 
acquaint your lordship with some particularites of that countrey 
[of great] importance, and fitt to be knowen. And so [remitting 
your] lordship to his reporte theirin, I humbly take my leave. 
[From the] court at Grenewich, the viijth of July, 1586. 
Your lordships to command, 

Fra: Walsyngham. 


To the right honorable my very good lord, the erle 
of Leicester, lieutenant-generall of hir majesties 
forces employed in the Lowe Contries. 



8th JULY, 158G. ODVRY MS. VOL. 34 b. A COPY. 

The town of Axel taken by surprise by sir Philip Sydney and 
count Maurice — insufficiency of the treasure remitted — desertion 
of the English troops and capture of some of the deserters — the 
new men frightened by the appearance of the " old ragged rogues " 
— sad condition of the troops and danger of mutiny — evil conse- 
quences of the belief that the queen would forsake the people of 
the Low Countries and make peace for herself. 

Yt is like you shall heare of it before this comes to you, that 
we haue taken Axell, a towne in Flaunders, nere Ternous, a 
forte of our side. Your sonne Philip with his bands had the lead- 
inge and entringe the towne, which was notably handled, for theie 
caused xxx or xl to swime over the ditch, and so gett vpp the 
wall and opened the gate; yet, or theie could enter half their 
nombers, the souldiers were in amies, and came to resist our men, 

camd. soc. 2 x 



but they were overthrowen, and most of them slaine, being vj c , as I 
heare, souldiers in thattowne, beside burgers ; iiij scon[c]es beside 
are taken. The count Morrice was there, and my lord Willoowby, 
and young Mr. Hatton, for his first nuselinge. a God send we 
may hold it, vittell is so hard to come by there; but all is done 
that can be possible. b 

I see wee shall starue on everie side. I here now, that there is 
x ml » sent over by exchange, and other x m in the middest of 
August; you wrote vnto me that her majestie had appointed 
xxxij tn li to come over. It is no marvell our men runn fast awaye. 
I am ashamed to write it, there was v c ran away in two dayes, 
and a great manie to the enemye, of which sort I haue taken 
sixe, and Welch is taken, that went with Pigott, where the count 
Hollock and Robin Sidney overthrew a good cornett of horse of 
Camilles, beside Breda, kild and tooke 28 prisoners, and horse. 
This Welch was one. There is of our runagates ijc brought 
againe from the coast- side. Divers I hanged before the rest, and 
I assure you theie could haue bine content all to haue bine 
hanged rather then tarry. Our old ragged roggues c here hath soe 
discouraged our new men as, I protest to you, theie looke like 

a Noselyng, nouselyng, or nuzlyng, i. e. nursing, earliest education. 

b The capture of Axel was one of the most gallant achievements of this campaign. 
After a long silent march in the dead of the night, Sydney and his band of 2000 foot 
reached the limits of the fortification, and, according to our previous accounts, at 
once scaled the walls with ladders in various places, and rushed forward to the market- 
place, which had been appointed as a station of rendezvous ; but we learn from Ley- 
cester's report that the attacking party encountered greater difficulties than these, and 
that the seizure of the place was effected by a far more daring manoeuvre. The men 
who swam across the ditch must have carried their ladders with them, and have exe- 
cuted their bold attempt with admirable coolness and silence. The design was at- 
tributed to Sydney, and he is said to have rewarded the brave fellows who executed it 
out of his own private fortune. See Greville's Life of Sydney, p. 135. Zouch, p. 249. 
The " Briefe Reporte," after praising the secrecy and valour of Sydney and his sol- 
diers, states that they " slue and put to flight foure bandes of footemen in the towne, 
had rich spoyle, brought away flue ensignes of the enimies, left coronell Pyron, with 
eight or nine hundred souldiours in garrison, and came their way." Sig. B. 2 

c roggues ragged in MS. 


dead men. God once deliuer me well of this charge, and I will 
hange to, yf I take charge of men and not a be sure of better pay a 
forehand. I assure you it will frett me to death or longe, to see 
my souldiers in this case, and canot help them. I cry now, 
peace ! peace ! for neuer was there such a warr, and a cause so 
slenderly countenanced ; but God will help vs I trust. And you 
must looke to yourselues there what you will doe, you see the 
yeare runns on apace. 

I will not now hold you longer ; but, Mr. secretary, I tell you, 
if our people shalbe noe better releiued, by the Lord, I looke for 
the fowlest mutiny that euer was made, both of our men and 
these countrey souldiers, and I am sure I can doe as much with 
them as ever anie man could, and I doe but wonder to see theie 
doe not rather kill vs all then runn away, God help vs ! And I 
would God you were all here one moneth, to see our handling 
from ourselues. I doe assure you, if our paiments come thus, 
you must looke to heare I and theie shalbe come shortly Martin 
Rous and his companie, for men will not starue, and for such monie 
as the states owe I look verie shortlie to haue [it] . The enemie 
doth vse his old practice ; he hath conveied above ij c of our men 
by Callice, and I beseech cause good wait at Dover, and Sand- 
wish, for such as come without my pasport, and that some example 
be made, or we shall never keep them here. 

I haue good hope of the count Hollock. Paul Buis, a very 
knave, more and more. 

The opinion conceaued that you will leave vs will vndoe all, 
and past help shortlye. Yf help doe come in sort to pull out this 
late deep-rooted conceat, lett me loose life, and all I haue in the 
world, yf these countries be not brought free of this warr within 
one yere, and, before the Lord I speake, I doe thinke it had bine 
this yere if matters had bine well followed and supplied ; but, as 
you deall, I knowe not what to say, nor what councell to giue, but 
a to in MS. 


to pray to God, and looke for ruin of all here or longe, for you 
must thinke these conceats cause matters to alter more in a weeke 
then heretofore in iij monthes. And yet is there life. God be with 
you. In hast this 8. of July. 

Your assured. 




The earl's late letters to the queen, in which he lays before her the 
consequences of the loss of Grave and Venlo, and urges her to 
assume the sovereignty of the country, and send a large army 
thither, have greatly perplexed her — consultation thereon between 
Burghley, Hatton, and Walsyngham, and their meditated advice 
to the queen — allusion to the discovery of Babington's conspiracy, 
by the " traveyl and cost " of Walsyngham. 

My verry good lord, your [last] letters unto her majestye [in] 
which your lordship hathe layd before her the present alteratyon 
[in that] cuntrye, as well in the gene[ral] thorroughe the losse of 
Grave and Venlewe, as also in [certain] partyculer persons of # * 
cauling there, as the count [Maurice] and count Hollocke, for 
somme knowen respectes, hathe g[reatly] perplexed her, and the 
[more] for that she gatherethe uppon the vyewe of your lordships 
letter, that the only salve to cure this sore is to [make] herselve 
propryetarye [of] that cuntrye, and to put [in] sooche an armye 
into the [same] as may be able to make head to the enne- 
myes. The[se] two thinges being so contrarye to her majestyes 
dysposytyon, the one, for that ytbreedethe a dowbt of aperpetuall 


war, the other, for that yt requireth an increas of charges, dothe 
merveylousely dystrackt her, and make her repent that ever she 
entred into the actyon. 

She hathe only made the lord-thresorer and Mr. vyce-cham- 
berlyn acquaynted, as they tell me, with parte of thos letters, and 
gave them order to consyder what wer fyt to be don nppon this 
alteratyon. To this conference by her majestyes order I was 
cauled. The resolutyon is not yet taken, but hangethe in suss- 
pence for that the lord-thresorer, being trobled with the gowte in 
his hande, canot repayre unto her. The advyce that wyll be 
gyven her wyll faule owt to be this ; fyrst, that she must pro- 
secute the actyon without respect of charges ; secondaryly, that a 
gentleman of sound judgement be sent over unto your lordship, 
to confer with you howe bothe the generall and pertyculer dyscon- 
tentment reygning theare may be removed, as, also, to be informed 
of dyvers poynts towching the state of that cuntrye ; and, lastly, 
that yt shall in no sorte be fyt for her majestye to take a[ny] re- 
solutyon in the cause until sir Francis Drakes returne, at lest 
untyll the successe of his vyage be seene ; wheruppon, in verry 
trothe, dependethe the lyfe and deathe of the cause according to 
mans judgment. She is also advysed, in the mean tyme, to make 
no shewe of her dyslyke, but rather to countenaunce the cause 
by all owtwarde meanes she may, which, contrarye to her naturall 
dysposytyon, she doth verry well performe, [forced thereto by 
mere necessytye upon the dyscoverye of some matter of import- 
aunce in the hyest degree thorrowghe my traveyl and cost,] a by 
the which yt apperethe unto her most playn, that, unles she had 
entred into the actyon, she had ben utterly undon, and that, yf 
she doe not prosecute the same, she cannot contynewe. 

I have acquaynted this gentleman with the secreat to the ende 
he may imparte the same unto your lordship. [I dare make 

a This and two subsequent passages in this letter printed within brackets were erased 
with a pen, probably by the earl. They have been made out with difficulty. 


none of my servants here privy thereunto. My only feare is, that 
her majestye will not use the matter with that secreacye that ap- 
perteynethe, thowgh yt import yt as greatly as ever any thing dyd 
sythence she cam to this crown,] and suerly, yf the matter be well 
handeled, yt wyll breacke the necke of all dayngerowse prac- 
tyces duryng her majestyes reygne. [I pray your lordship make 
this letter an heretyke after you have read the same.] I mean, 
whan the matter is growen to a full ripenes, to send some confy- 
dential person unto you, to acquaynt you fully with the matter. 3 
And so, in the mean tyme, I most humbly take my leave. At the 
coorte, the ix th of Julye, 1586. 

Your lordships to commaunde, 

Fra: Walsyngham. 



llTH JULY, 1586. COTTON MS. GALBA, C. IX. FOL. 302. ORIG. 

The queen has not yet determined upon the course advised to be 
adopted in reference to the matters mentioned in the earVs last 
letter to her — probably in the end Mr. Wolly or Mr. Wylkes will 
be sent to the earl — she is disposed to appoint Mr. Davison to as- 
sist Walsyngham in the secretaryship — master of Gray — pioneers 
— levies in Ireland — the treasurer to be sent into theLoiv Countries, 
that certain charges against him may be examined there — Norris's 
friends anxious for his recall — want of money, and public dissatis- 
faction as to the war — the queen's inclination to be discontented 
with sir Philip Sydney — treaty with Scotland concluded. 

a These mysterious sentences contain an allusion to Babington's conspiracy, which 
was discovered by Walsyngham at this time, although the persons engaged in it were 
not apprehended until nearly a month afterwards. 


My verry good lord, by my last [letter], by sir William Pelham, 
I dyd let your lordship understand what advyce I thowght woold 
be gyven to her majestye, uppon the poyntes of your lordships 
last letters unto her ; sythence which tyme, reporte thereof hathe 
ben made unto her, but she not resolved as yet, what advyce to 
geve unto your lordship uppon the sayd poyntes. She is lothe to 
sende a spetyall person to your lordship and the counsell of state 
there, in respect of charges; and y[et], in the ende, for that the 
matter is of wayght, I thinke she wyll be drawen to assent there- 
unto. I suppose Mr. Wolley or Mr. Wylkes wyll be used in 
that servyce. She seemethe to be dysposed to make Mr. Davyson 
my assystaunt in the place I serve. The gentleman is very muche 
greeved with the dyslyke he understandethe your lordship hathe 
of him. For my own parte, I doe not fynde but that he hathe 
dealt well, bothe for the cause and [also] towards your lordship, 
whos good opinion and favor he dothe greatly desyre. 

The v th of this present captain Haggarston arryved here, whoe 
departed hence the daye following. 

He had accesse unto her majestye, and was verry gratyousely 
used by her. He layd before her sondrye reasons to move her 
to thinke that the master of Grayes imployement in the Lowe 
Contreys myght yeld more proffyt to the generall cause, and 
furtheraunce to her servyce, by imbarquing the king his 
soverayn, then his contynewaunce in Scotlande. But nothing 
that he coold saye coold lead her majestye to be of his opinion, 
being perswaded that his absence from thence may breed some 
daj r ngerowse alteratyon in that realme. I fynde, bothe by the 
master of Graye and captain Haggerston, that, without he goe in 
person, he shall not be able to send over sooche nombers as your 
lordship desyrethe, and, therfor, I have thowght good to staye 
the sending of the 2000 ]i . untyll I heare from them. 

Her majestye styll makes verry great dayntye to send over any 
of her own subjects to serve, eyther as pyoners or sowldiers. My 
lord-thresurer, Mr. vyce-chamberlyn and I dyd deale verry effect- 


tually with her for the sending over of the COO pyoners, but coold 
not wyii her to assent thereunto. The pyoners provyded by Mr. 
Rauley are no we come to London and are ready e to imbarque. 

Sir William Stanley, as the lord-deputye and secretary Fenton 
doe advertyce me, hathe ben greatly hyndered and crossed by 
dyvers malytyowse and sedytyowse brutes geven owt in that realme, 
in the levye of the 1000 men, as thowgh ther were an intent and 
meaning to bryng them to the butchery. Were yt not that the 
deputye dothe assyst him to the uttermost of his power he shoold 
not, as I am informed, be able to rayse halfe the nombre. I hope 
the next westerly wynde wyll bryng him and his troopes unto your 

What resolutyon is taken for the thresorer your lordship may 
perceyve by the coppye of a letter wrytten by her majestye unto 
yourself. By sir Thomas Shurley your lordship shall receyve 
the originaule letter, as also sooche matters as the sayd thresurer 
hathe ben charged withall, and Leyster his deputye, together with 
ther awntswers. And, for that ther are certeyn espetyall matters 
wherwith he standethe charged, and are by him denied, yt is, ther- 
for, thowght meet, that they shoold be examyned there. I sup- 
pose he wyll himselve be a suter to be dyscharged of the place, 
and the rather yf coronell Norryce returne, whos frendes are verrye 
earnest for his revocatyon, in respect of the dyslyke your lordship 
hathe of him. Her majestie dothe yet oppose herselve thereunto, 
but I hope, in the ende, wyll be drawen to assent, which shall not 
lacke any furtheraunce I can yelde, for, being a person dyscon- 
tented, and not lyked of by the most part of the marshall men 
serving there, his contynewance in that servyce cannot but doe a 
great deale of harme, by maynteyning of factyon. I wyshe also 
bothe his brethern here, in case he leave the servyce, espetyally 
Edwarde, whoe I dowbt dothe advertyce but hardly of the pro- 
ceadinges there. 

Towchyng the I500 !l dysbursed by your lordship in the levye- 
ing of the 650 horse, over and besydes the 8000 1 ' alreadye re- 


ceyved, I doe assure yonr lordship that the contrybutyon of the 
recusentes, and the charges, dothe not suffyce to supplye the 
sayd somme of SOOO 11 dysbursed by her majestye. And owr 
people in this realme, by the malytyowse practyces of the yll- 
affected, begyn to murmure at the warres, so as yt is thowght 
meet for a tyme to staye the makyng of any newe levyes, eyther 
of men or money. I doe assure your lordship there are very 
dangerowse humors reygnyng here amongest us, and we not dys- 
posed to take sooche a pryncely coorse to kepe the yll-dysposed 
under, as the present tyme requireth. 

I praye your lordship, for that her majestye dothe geve owt that 
the count of Hollocks dyscontentment growethe in respect he 
was removed from the coronellshipp of the footemen serving in 
Zeland, and the same bestowed uppon sir Philip Sydney, that her 
majestye may be satysfyed in that poynte, for that she layethe the 
blame uppon sir Philip, as a thing by him ambytyowsely sowght. 
I see her majestye verry apt uppon every lyght occasyon to fynde 
fault with him. 

Owre treatye in Scotland was concluded the vj th of this pre- 
sent, and the commyssyoners dysmyssed with good contentement. 
Sooche advertycementes as I hav lately receyved owt of France, 
Flaunders, and the ennemyes camp, I send your lordship her- 
with. And so I most humbly take my leave. At Barnelms, the 
xjth of Julye, 1586. 

Your lordships to commaunde, 

Fra: Wal. 



llTH JULY, 1586. OUVRY MS. FOL. 35b. A COPY. 

Arrival of sir William Pelham in the Low Countries — the prince of 



Parma is besieging Nuys — the earl will not answer for any town 
which is not defended by Englishmen — projected -pursuit of the 
prince if he should remove to Flanders — dismay of the new sol- 
diers — the earl wishes to be trusted with the remainder of the 
queen's stipulated payments — he has never been unthrifty of the 
queen's money, although he has been liberal of his own — disad- 
vantages that will arise if the master of Gray does not come him- 

I vnderstand sir William Pellam is come, and wilbe with me 
this night. Our late good happ in Flaunders doth much amaze 
and stir the enemies coller ; there is not now for vs a fitter in all 
the countrey to anoy him. I haue giuen order for 1000 horse 
and 2000 footmen more to goe into those parts, and, if the prince 
remove his force thether, I will furnish those parts thorowly. In 
the meane time Sluse and Ostend are the safer. This towne of 
Axell is [of] very great importance ; we shall haue way to get at a 
Antwerpe and Bruges by it. God send our other purpose good 
successe, for it is now in hand. The prince of Parma is still be- 
fore Nuce, but vseth yet noe battery ; some thinke he is at the 
mine. The capten doubteth it, and doth countermyne. 

I will answere for no towne now, how stronge soeuer it 
be, that be furnished only with these countrey people. Berks, 
Gelders, Waghtenden, Arnham, Amersfort, and divers others, I 
haue sett some English men into them, and I doe send Mr. John 
Norris to haue the charge of all those places, with a nomber of 
footmen and horsmen beside, and if the prince remove into Flan- 
ders with his forces, then shall he follow with all such force as 
now I am forst to leaue behinde for garding all these parts, which 
is at least 7000 footmen and 800 horse, which [if] the enemie 
withdrawe, we maie [and] will bringe them into Flanders. I looke, 
also, by the 10th of August and soner, to haue 2000 royters. Theie 
haue receiued thir first pay a moneth agoe, soe that, by the grace 

•' Verj doubtful in the MS. 


of God, if we maie receaue comfort and maintenance, you shall 
here of good successe ; but our wants hath stricken all men dead, 
specially our new men, who cam with gladdest minds over, and 
soe some tasting of want beginne to dispaire, and yet doth there 
appere as great courage in them as euer I saw in men. I am 
here onlie at Hay for getting of monie, and am not vnmindfull to 
see her majesties monie paid, that is disbursed, vppon the first 

I beseech you lett her majestie trust me with the spending of 
your litle remayne, that it maie be here, that, vppon all needes, we 
may relieue our people. If there be not as good husbandry vsed 
as may be possible, lett me beare the blame. I trust that I 
I never vsed anie vnthriftines or prodigalitie in her majesties trea- 
sure ; yf I haue bine over liberall of my none that she hath giuen 
me, hit was but that I meane to doe for her honor and service 
as far as it will stretch. Touching the master [of] Grey, I per- 
ceaue by his letter that he will send me 2000 men, and meanes 
not to come himself, which is the onlie thinge I did wish for, 
otherwise, without him, 1 desire not the men, for thir wilbe both 
more comber and more danger thereby ; therefore, I pray you 
write soe to him. And his abode here may be the lesse while 
though he come. 

I did write to you by Hegerston touching the monie for him, 
for that you wrote to me that you had staied soe much for that 
purpose, as, also, by another letter by another messinger for the 
same purpose. I haue noe liking of Balford here, he is a bad 
fellow, and wholy at others direccion and not mine ; indeed and 
if the master of Greie come not, he will looke to be collonell- 
generall over them all, which I will no way consent to. Thus, 
being in hast, comits you to the Lord. In much hast this xjth of 

Your assured freind. 

What a worke I haue had here you will hardlie belieue, the 
alteracion and alianacion so sodenlie as I was faine to bestur me, 
as you shall heare shortlie. 




15TH JULY, 1586. OUVRY MS. FOL. 37. A COPY. 

The master of Gray having expressed some disinclination to leave 
Scotland, the earl ivishes, if money has not been sent to him, 
that it be retained ; if it has been sent, that he be urged to fulfil 
his engagement — Axel victualled — the enemy is borrowing money 
at Cologne — letters of thanks to towns received — others needed. 

Vppon the vewe of the master [of] Greys letter I fell into some 
doubt of some matters told me a good whyle since, though I be- 
leeued it not, which was, that there was a plott laid to bringe 
manie Scotts over, by a device of some here, to make a bridle of 
our nacion to strengthen some other. If he haue not the monie 
already from you, hit may please you to stay it, and to send my 
letter. If the monie be paid, then I pray you write earnistly, and 
charge him with his promise, and my expectacion of his cominge, 
and you must procure a letter from her majestie to the king of 
Scots, or els it will not be. I had rather, as the time is, and as 
matters fall out, that you had the monie with you, and to hold 
him in his mind to stay at home ; but, otherwise, make the best 
of it, and hasten himself awaie with his ij m men, all you may. 
Soe far you well, in hast, this xv t!l of July. 

Your assured freind. 

We have vitelled Axell for iij moneths. Our enemie is begging 
monie at Colen. Yf her majestie hould hard, and giue yet good 
hope and comfort to these men here, she may sett all in tune 
againe ; but some one of very good credite, a councellor at lest, 
must needs come. You are to spare there of your letters to 
noblemen and to the states. I thanke you for your letters to towens, 


but I must haue half a dozen more, but speciallie to Morris, Hol- 
lock, and Meures. 

I can yet promise noe great matter for our abilitie here. 



15TH JULY, 1586. OUVRY MS. FOL. 37. A COPY. 

The earl describes the panic and insecurity which prevail through- 
out the country in consequence of the successive losses of Grave 
and Venlo — progress of the siege of Nuys, the safety of ivhich is 
almost despaired of by the earl — the sudden defection of the 
people attributed to an opinion that it is the intention of the 
queen to desert them, the remedy for which is to demonstrate 
the contrary — thanks for sending sir William Pelham — Paul 
Buys has been arrested by the townsmen of Utrecht ivithout the 
connivance of the earl. 

After my right heartie commendacions to your lordships, synce 
the losse of Grave and Venloe, my businesses in this troblesome 
rent estate of these countreys haue bine such as my leisure hath 
little serued me to write, or almost to thinke, of anie other thinge 
but how, by all the possible meanes and ways I could, to sett 
some stopp, such as for the time and in my want of all necessa- 
ries therefore I mought, to the violent overthrow of all, which then 
seemed to be presently at hand. For I assure your lordships, 
that, if I had not sodenlye provided, and that with effect, by Gods 
goodnes aboue my expectacion and hope, 14 townes moe, as 
good every of them for the most parte as anie of these that are 
lost, had bine gone at one clapp. But the Englishmen that then 
arrived, though vntrained and vnarmed, came in good time, 
whereof I haue distributed to the nomber of 4 or 5,000 in garry- 


son, into the townes in those parts wherevnto the enemy is most 
like to make next approch. As into Bercke, with some Dutch, 
1,500; into Gueldres, 800; into Waghtendonck, 1000; into 
Arnham, 1,500; into Vtreicht, which for the present, also, hath 
need of them, 1,200; beside some other companies here and there, 
in other townes and fortes. And thus haue I placed the English 
in places of most need, for that after the treasonable losses of 
Grave and Venloe, two most stronge townes and well provided of 
all necessaries, myself haue no confidence, neither will I putt 
your lordships in hope, of the keeping of anie where Englishmen 
are not. 

Nuyse is now beseiged of the enemie. It kept out Charles the 
duke of Burgundy, a and Charles the emperor, with all their 
powers; yet it is now stronger than ever it was. Yt is out of my 
charg, b yet, being so nere a neighbour, and the articles of league 
betwene the elector and these countreys so requiring, I haue pro- 
vided sufficiently for it, yf theie be men that be within it. They 
are 1,500 men stronge, all souldiers, few burgers or none, but noe 
Englishman amongst them. Theie are provided of all thinges 
necessary, yet can I not promise myself, nor assure your lord- 
ships, that it wilbe kept, but, by the princes manner of dealing, 
I am rather induced to coniecture the contrary. For, hauing 
lyen now a fortnight or more about it, he hath not vsed, hetherto, 
batterie or assault, but by semblant of mines, and other lingring 
showes, soe vseth the matter as it cannot be thought but that he 
maketh his ground vppon some partie within it. 

Yf your lordships will knowe the cause of so sodaine defection 
of these townes, I must pray you to consider with all, that not 

a The earl alludes to the celebrated siege in which Charles the rash met with his 
first reverse, and by which he was prevented joining Edward IV. in his invasion of 
France in 1475. Nuys withstood his power for a full year, and was ultimately relieved 
by the emperor. 

b Nuys was situate in the electorate of Cologne, and at this time was held for 
Gebhard Truchses the deposed archbishop-elector. 


onlie these townes but the whole provinces are in the same wauer- 
inge estate, yea, the principall men also, and those that haue most 
especiall cause to repose themselues vppon her majestie, that, to 
tell you the truth, I knowe not where I sett a sure foote, nor with 
whome of these countreis I maie confidently conferre of theis 
matters. And requiring of the cause, both by myselfe and with 
others of iudgment, I find it is not corrupcion from the prince, 
for he hath little to giue ; not desire of the Spanish gouernment, 
for even the papists abhore it ; not mislike of being vnder her 
majestie, or her officers, for theie desire nothinge more then that 
it will please her majestie to take the soueraigntye of them ; but, 
indeed, the cause cannot be imagined to be anie other then a deep 
impression in the wiser sort, and such as looke most into the 
doings of things, that her majestie careth not heartily for them, 
and then, being left, or weaklie assisted by her, theie must fall ; 
for which theie had rather provide in time, then by delay to expect 
the warr, one after an other, in ther owne doores. This conceipt 
tooke beginning 2 or 3 monethes since, but now bringeth forth his 
effects, and wanteth not politique heads to nourish it on, which, 
even then, layd their plotts that theie now follow. And yet, my 
lords, though the case be very daingerous, and such as, for duties 
sake and for my owne discharge, I thus lay plainlie and truelie 
open to you, I doe not make it desperate, but doe accept it easilie 
recoverable, yf remedie be vsed in time. But the remedye must 
be according to the nature of the disease, which, growen of the 
mistrust of her majesties effectuall dealing for them, must be 
cured, not with a showe, but by a plaine demonstracion of the 
contrary, by dead and presently, the meanes whereof your lord- 
ships can better consider of then it shall boote or befitt for me 
to prescribe. For my owne parte, what a man without money, 
countenaunce, or anie other sufficient meanes, in case soe broken 
and tottering everie waye, may doe, I promise to endeuor to doe, 
to the best of my poure. 

As soone as I can gett anie leisure I will, by the next, aduertise 


your lordships of the nombers of the English that are here. Sir 
William Pellam is come, whoe wilbe a good aide and comfort to 
me. I heartilie pray your lordships from me to thanke her raa- 
jestie humbly for it. 

I haue not anie other news at this present to write to your 
lordships, saving that Mr. Paule Buyse 3 or 4 daies since is ar- 
rested prisoner by the townsmen of Vtreicht, at the verie time 
that I departed the towne, without my knowledge, I assure your 
lordships. But, indeed, being done, I am not much sorry for it, 
for, as he is a most odious man to those of Vtreicht, for whome he 
is counsailor and hath bine continuall dealor, and soe likwise to 
all these countreie people, [save] to a few badd followers of his owne, 
soe, ever since Mr. Davisons going hence, hath he bine a practiser 
against her majesties doings, and a crosser of all the English 
here. Soe was he to his good freind the prince of Orenge in the 
end. And so is his nature to be to all gouernment here, except 
he, by [being] the onlie staye of the affaires, may make his pro- 
fite, as he hath greatly done alreadye. Had not these townsmen 
thus prevented me, I meant myself here, at the Haghe, to haue 
sought redresse of diuers his late badd dealings. But now I will 
see how the matters will goe first betwene him and these townes- 
men, who are indeed honest men, zealous in religion, and most 
devoted to her majestic 

Soe I comitt your good lordships to the Almightie. From the 
Haghe, the xv th of Julye, 1586. 

Your lordships loving freind. 





Letter sent by the treasurer on his return to the Loiv Coun- 
tries, in which the earl is requested to order colonel Morgan to 
give the treasurer certain acquittances, ivithout which he cannot 
clear his account. 

My very good lord, I understand by this gentleman, her ma- 
jesties thresorer there, that he cannot have coronnell Morgans 
acquittances to be delyverid, [as] usually unto him by all the captens 
and others that have chardg vppon receipt of their paye, for that 
yt is required that a defalcacion be made out of his enterteynement 
for the armour of his companyes, as hath be don to the other 
captens, which the coronnell refuseth to yeld unto, alleadging that 
he hathe sent backe the armour providid by the countrye, and 
furnished his companyes himself. Whereuppon the gentleman 
standeth chardgid with so much as the sayd paye amounteth 
unto, and hath nothing to shew for the same, that may dischardg 
him in his accomptes. I pray your lordship therfore to geve 
order, that Mr. Morgan maye delyver unto him his acquitaunces, 
as aperteyneth for his indemnitye; and, towching the matter 
ytself, the armour that he hath sent backe being refused by the 
country, I do not see howe he can be releevid unles some vent 
maye be found for the same, or that he will come over himself to 
make suite and take some order in yt. And so I most humbly 
take my leave. At Richmond, the xx th of July, 1586*. 
Your lordships to commaunde, 

Fra: Walsyngham. 

To the right honorable my very good lord, thearle 

of Leycester, lieutenant-generall of her 

majesties forces in the Lowe Countryes. 





21ST JULY, 158C. COTTON. MS. GALBA, C. IX. FOL. 313. 

Proposed change of Harlingen for Brill, abandoned on the earl's 
advice — chamber of finances — cause of the delay of sir William 
Pelham — equalization of the values of English and Flemish monies 
— gain upon coinage — the merchant-adventurers, being alarmed by 
the loss of Grave and Venlo, decline making patjments to the earl — 
treasurer's accounts — sir Thomas Shirley sent with the treasurer 
as overseer of his accounts — count of Em den's determined neu- 
trality — importance of the river Ems to the Spaniards, also of 
Dunkirk and Nieuport, the capture of which latter is recom- 
mended to the consideration of the earl — Mr. Wilkes sent over 
on a special mission to encourage the states and confer with 
the earl — sir William Stanley has just arrived from Ireland — 
his levies of troops thought to have reached Flushing — state of 
France — master of Gray intends to send his troops to the earl. 

My verie good lord, I will first beginne to awnsweare your 
[lordships] letter of the xviij th of June, which doth conteine your 
advise verie circumstantially] geven for my sonne to have con- 
sideration of the matter that hath been [moved] to your lord- 
ship from hence, for the change of Brill for Harlingham, a and for 
that [he] was come over thither before the receipt of your [lord- 
ships] letter, I could not conferre with him theareuppon, but if I 
had, by the reasons alledged in your lordships letters, which are 
verie manie, I should have counseled him to have continued in 
the Brill, than to have gon so farre of as Harlingham is, being 
owt of the limits both of Holland and Zeland ; and the rather, 
also, I would have advised him to have continued at the Brill, 
bicause I perceive by your lordships letter, you can be content 

a Harlingen in Friesland. 


that, with the Brill, he maie have the governement of the Hand, 
which maie be very commodious for him, for the strengthening of 
the place ; and so nowe, meaning not to trowble your lordship with 
this matter, I dowbt not but he himself hath commoditye to 
receive your lordships resolucion thearein, which I leave to him- 
selfe to accept, and conforme himselfe to your advise. 

In the postscript of your sayd letter I perceive, that by the 
establishing of the chamber of finances your lordship shall be 
more liable to make necessarie paimentes for all thinges requisite 
under your charge then heretofore you have been, the opinion of 
which lack hath most cheeflye bread dowbt in hir majestie of the 
good sequel of the cawse ; and therefore the sooner your lordship 
maie make it appeare to hir majesty, that the contribucions here- 
tofore offred by the states maie be nowe performed, which spe- 
tiallie will be best credited by hir majestie if she maie perceive, 
that such sommes of monie as have been paiable by the states to 
yourself for your enterteinement, and to satisfie the debtes due to 
hir majestie for hir treasure defraied to their uses, [have been paid,] 
the more resolute shall you find hir majestie to stand fast and 
firme in the prosecution of this action. 

Your lordship doth in that end of the letter, also as in manie 
others, make mention of your desire to have sir William Pelham 
theare, which surelie hath not been by me omitted, nor by himself 
delaied, but as now he can tell your lordship, whoe I trust hath 
arrived theare sum fewe daies past, in whom the lett hath been, 
partlie for not yelding to the acquitall of his debtes, and partlie, 
as hir majestie did often awnsweare us, that she could not well 
spare such a man from the service in the office that he hath, con- 
sidering both the absence of sir Philip Sidney, and the unhabilitye 
of my lord of Warwick, your brother, to travell. But my awnswere 
was theareto, that, for anie spetiall service in the field at home, 
in that kind of office, I thowght, as longe as you weare well 
occupied in thos cuntries against the common enemie, and might 


prosper theare, we should not have any great neade of his pre- 
sence heare. 

Nowe, ray lord, for awnsweare of sum matters conteined in 
your other longe letter. Your lordship writeth, that I, in my 
former letter, did sett a rate of the angell and the shillinge, the 
one at xv s the other at xx d , and you did doubt wheather I ment 
it to be the valewe of sterling or otherwise. But I did, and doe 
still meane it, to have our angell, that is heare x s , to be currant 
theare for xv s Flemishe, and our sterling shilling that is heare 
xij d , to be theare currant for xx d Flemishe. And wheare the 
great rose-noble was theare in estimation farre above his valewe, 
and nowe is fallen out of that reputacion, I was ever of that minde, 
and shall be, that newe coine in anie cuntrie wheare knowledg is 
of minting, will have a higher estimacion than his ritches will yeld 
him, and so I think your lordship should have proved. The ex- 
perience of him that offred yowe so great sommes for the coinage 
of the rose-nobles in that cuntrye would have tended to a fall of 
his great offer within one moneth or lesse ; for, trewlie, it is a 
natural reason in all thinges, that ex nihilo nihil fit, and noe great 
gaine can ever be made to last, but wheare the cawse and grounde 
of the gaine shall last. We had heare the like experience for a 
while, of an offer made by alderman Martin, to yeld to hir raajes- 
tie for the coinage of everye pownd weight of gold into rose-nobles 
the sum of xxx s , wher otherwise was never paid above iiij s , for 
other the best gold ; and, having commission to coine the same, he 
was forced to leave of within the monethe, for that the estimacion 
of them did sodenlie decaie, and so the coinage perforce did staie, 
and yet, for that short time, her majestye had awnswered unto hir 
neare m 1 * for coinage. I perceive your lordship hath the stampes 
of the said rose-nobles which your offerer had provided, and, I 
thinke, if the matter weare renewed unto him againe, he could not 
mainteine any reason to yeld unto your lordship anie extraordi- 
narie proffett by coinage of them, more then of other gold of like 


fines, whearein I praie your lordship cawse him to be tempted 
anewe, and lett me knowe his awns weare, for if hir majestie might 
have the gaine thearebie, I should be right glad thereof, and would 
also further it, so as it might be sett downe to what quantitie the 
coinage should be. 

And, for that I sent your lordship word of summ shillinges coined 
in that cuntrie, the partie that browght them unto me said, he 
had them from Amsterdam, as being coined theare ; but, as your 
lordship writeth, it might be at summ other towne, as Gorcum, or 
such like : but this maie be held for a rule generall, that wheare- 
soever our monies, either gold or silver, be coined in anie other 
cuntrie, if the same coines be in waight and fines as good as ours, 
theare will be noe longe continuance of coinage thereof; for the 
proffett of the coinage, which is the sufferantie to the prince, is so 
small as [it is} hard for privatt men to continue such coinage ; 
but if, otherwise, theie be coined of lesse valewe, then, thowgh for 
summ time, people may be abused to receive them, yet such monies 
will not have longe continuance in theire estimacion. 

Your lordship maketh mention of my writing that I had delt 
with the merchantes- adventurers to paie therxxx m u , which indeade 
theie weare contented to promise, at that time when I did write 
so, but, afterward, uppon the losse of Grave and Venlo, theie 
semed to have had intelligence from there factors on [that] side 
the seas, that the trade of merchandize began to change [and] 
staie, and so theie started from theire promise : and yet, after 
that, theie helped your lordship with v m u which was verie hap- 
pelie taken upp [by] your lordship, in that it semeth, though the 
some weare little, the poore soldiers weare more releved with that 
small portion than theie had been with the paie of a great deale more 
before. And, trewlie, if your lordship could bring it to pass, that 
the poore soldiers might be paied by [the] poll, sometimes one 
monethes paie would doe more good in that sort, than two 
monethes paie to the capteine, and, in like sort, I see your lord- 
ship hath care, that theie which shall have the disposing of the 


treasure [may] be directed so to dispose it as it maie cum trewlie 
and indifferentlie to the use of the soldier. 

The paiment made to the states of monie by the threasurer, 
whereof your lordship maketh mencion that it was paied without 
your warrant or assignment, hath been hard to be excused, [any] 
otherwise then that the threasurer saith, he made the warrant by 
the forme of another, written before by Mr. Atye, your lordships 
secretarie. I am of opinion, as your lordship is, that the states 
would not agree [to] make the rembursement of these thinges, if 
your lordships warrant had not past for the same ; and one thing 
I find hath been greatlie forgot theare, that, according to an article 
of the contract, the states commissaries have not been made 
privie to our musters and paiements, whearebie the issue will be, 
respondence for repaiment to bee^jade [here]after to hir majesty. 
At this time hir majestie hath appointed sir Thomas Shurleie to 
cum over with the threasurer, and to be privie of all receiptes of 
monie that he shall have, heare or theare, and shall joine with the 
threasurer in all paimentes to be directed by your lordship, and 
not otherwise, so as it shall be in your lordships power, for this 
time, to see and have perfect knowledg to whome anie monie 
shall be paid, and how much he shall have to paie, and, uppon 
the paiments of this money now delivered to them both in charge, 
the threasurer is determined to leave the place, and so I have of 
long time advised him, and would have had him so to have done 
heare, by ending his whole accompt [on] this side, but hir ma- 
jestie would have a him come over to make an ende of his 
broken paimentes theare, whereof, uppon his accompt heare, many 
dowbtes have been made, and he left in suspence and respect almost 
of xi m u , though he showeth divers matters for his warrantiz to be 
allowed thereof, as by his peticions which at this time are sent 
over thither by sir Thomas Shurleie, maie appeare : which are of 
sundrie natures, for that he sheweth good warrantes for paiment 
of divers sommes, but noe perfect acquittances of the receivors, 

n would neaver have, in MS. 


though he saie theie be left theare on that side now to be pro- 
duced, and, for sum part, he sheweth acquittances of sommes 
due and paied but hath not heare shewed warrantes for the same, 
for the which he is to receive your lordships favour, as the justice 
of the paimentes shall require. 

Your lordship maketh mention of the sending of William Herle 
to Embden, from whome, at the writing of your letter, your 
lordship had noe awnswere. But nowe of late I have seen, in 
Mr. secretaries handes, the whole negotiation of William Herle, 
by objecting and expostulating with the comte of Embden for 
verie manie thinges, and of the awnsweares made thereunto ; 
whearebie it appearethe, that manie thinges have been spread 
otherwise to his condemnacion than was trewe. But yet, I see 
the sequell will be, that, although our merchantes maie have traf- 
fique thither, yet he will keape still a newtralitie, both towardes 
the king of Spayne and thos provinces, for aiding and victualing 
of either of them. I wishe he might be otherwise recovered in 
favor of thos states, consideringe the benefitt that might growe 
to thos provinces under your government, if the river of Ems 
might be kept free from the trade of the Spanishe side, whoe 
surelie have great cawse to attaine to the possession of that river, 
thearebie to have sum passage open to the sea, as well to have 
entrance from the sea thither as to passe to the sea from thence, 
the lack of which commoditye is one of the principall impedi- 
mentes that impeacheth the king of Spaines actions. Having, for 
all his great cuntries in that part of christendome, noe commoditye 
to passe and repasse the seas but by Graueling, which is not worth 
naming, and by Dunkirke, and Newport, which two, in my opinion, 
weare of as a great moment to be wonn from him as either Gant, or 
Bruges, or both. And, if I knew howe to geve counsell for such 
an enterprise, I would preferre it before anie other in this time, for 
I doe conclude that the king of Spaine never can be a full master 
of thos cuntries without he have sum owt-gate and in-gate by the 
sea. And, whilest I am writing thus, I praie your lordship thinke 

a as of, in MS. 


howe such service might be done by your maritime forces and 
flie-boates theare, that are fittest to impeche thos kind of havens. 
Thus having been longe in trowbling your lordship, withowt anie 
great matter of substaunce, but uppon conclusions taken by 
perusing your lordships letters, and nowe, considering what 
thinges have hapned since the writinge of your letters, I will 
breefly make sum mention of thinges latelie passed. 

By sum late letters written from your lordship to hir majestie, 
and by sum conference had with Coxe, whoe browght the same 
letters, hir majestye hath had sondrie ernest consultacions with 
Mr. vice-chamberlaine, Mr. secretarie, and me, uppon divers 
thinges contained in your lordships letters, and for that hir ma- 
jestie perceiveth you are verie desirous to be advised and directed 
by hir for your govemement in that place, which is accompanied 
with manie great difficulties at this time, thearefore, after longe 
debate had before hir majestie, it was thowght most necessarie 
to send one spetiallie from hir majestie unto your lordship, having 
named two or three, but in the ende, hir majesty made choise of 
Mr. Wilkes, the bearer of thes my letters, whoe is instructed, not 
onelie b) T sum writings, as memorialls, delivered unto him, but, 
also, by longe speches of hir majestie hirself, which she hath 
recorded in hir owne tables, and nevertheles caused him to putt 
the same more at length in writing, so that he commeth verie well 
informed of hir majesties mind, and appointed also to be informed 
by your lordship of manie necessarie thinges for satisfaction of 
hir majestie. And, besides thes, he hath letters from hir majestie 
for assuraunce of hir constant persisting in this common action, 
and, bicause your lordship shall at length understand by himself 
the matters committed to his charge, I doe thearefore forbeare to 
make any further mention thereof. 

At the writinge hereof sir William Stanley was come hither, 
and meaneth with hast to repaire to your lordship, judging that 
his men are before this time at Flushing. 

Mr. secretarie, I thinke, doth advertise you of the dowbtfull 
estate of the affaires in Fraunce, altogether in great calamitie. 


And, which is most of us to be dowbted and feared, by the long 
delaie of the armie to cum owt of Almaign, we maie dowbt that 
the king of Navarre will yeld to sum peace not profitable for the 
religion, but yet unprofitable for the Frenche king, for that the 
duke of Guise and all his partye, by sum mediation of the duke 
of Nevers and Montmorency, offer great frendshipp to the king 
of Navarre, meaning to seperatt themselves both from depending 
uppon the Frenche king or his mother, against whome the duke 
of Guise professeth open hatred, as thinking himself also secretlie 
hated by the king. And so, by thes strange accidentes, it cannot 
be but France must suffer great calamities, and so as the poore 
flock of Christ might be safe, whilest thes great bulls of Bazan 
shall rage one against the other, I care not for the rest that maie 
followe to that wicked nation. 

I understand by Air. secretory, that the master of Gray in Scot- 
land contynueth his purposs to send forces out of Scotland to your 
lordship, and myndeth to come unto England first hyther. But 
I dout how he shall be helped with that mony that I had purpoossly 
stayd, being ij m u for hyni, for that, as Mr. Shyrley can tell your 
lordship, hir majesty was grevoussly offended with me for steying 
of it ; and, even this daye, I moved hir majesty ageyn, that it 
might be stayd, or otherwise the master of Gray shuld be dis- 
apoynted therof, but in no wise she wold yeld, as Mr. secretary 
can advertise your lordship. 

And so, with a good hart and yet an evill head, 1 am forced to 
end, besechyng God to prosper yow, and enhable yow to hold the 
feld, but I wish not that yow shuld hazard any fight, for, as your 
case is, a small loss may be a gretar to yow than the lyk to the 
ennemy. From Rychmont, the 21. of July, 1586. 

Your lordships most assuredly, 


To the right honorable my verie good lord, the erle of 
Leicester, lieutennant - generall for hir majesties 
forces, and governor of the provinces united. 





27th JULY, 1586. OUVRY MS. FOL. 39. A COPY. 

Growth of dissatisfaction amongst the people of the Low Countries, 
and dangerous courses adopted by them — questions raised as to 
the earl's jurisdiction, especially over the finances — capture of 
Nays by the enemy after " a great fight," in which he lost 3,000 
men — difficulty of getting money from the states — Bur grave's 
usefulness to the earl — the earl's doubtful state — a spy taken at 
Utrecht — papists banished thence — Paul Buys's lamentations on 
the seizure of his papers, which he got back again by favour of 
the countess de Meurs — lord Buckhurst wished for. 

Mr. secretary, I feare it be thought longe till some well-in- 
structed come here, having giuen notice of the doubtfullnes of this 
state, which hath growen within these two monethes in strange 
sorte, and yet cannot find that their is anie intencion to receaue 
hastelye the Spanish, but such an absurd daingerous kind of 
dealinge among these we caull " states," as noe marvell though 
they loose more in a yere then theie will gett in three. Paul Buys 
hath bine a great instrument to seeke to make an aiteracion, by 
his subtile practises in working discontentacion in the peoples 
minds, but he is much hated, and trewly the common people [are] 
better then the superiour sort. 

Her majestie was offended with me for being absolute gouer- 
nour, but I feare she will shortlie find fault with my litle authoritie. 
Theie have incroched vppon megreatlie within this vor vj weekes, 
and, to be plaine with you, if theie had their former rule againe, 
which theie had before my cominge, I would warrant the kinge of 
Spain setled in the heart of Holland or Hallontide ; and yet theie 
would it not, nor doe feare it, but, if you saw what courses theie 


take, you would nothing doubt it. Theie are growen now to tye 
me to her majesties contract with them, and would faine, by that 
meanes, as thinkinge it will not mislike her majestie, to draw from 
me all other iurisdiccion, specially the gouernment of the hnancs, 
or distribution of ther tresure, for therin consisteth all ther benefitt 
and aime. They haue latelie restrained the paiment of the ex- 
traordinary monie for the maintenance of the army, which should 
haue bine paid in March, Aprill, May, and June, and c m . florins 
a moneth, but not one pennie received yet, assigning this monie, 
for the receipt of it, the beginning of the last moneth. Notwith- 
standinge theie see the force of the enemie in ther countreie, that 
he doth what he list, and noe resistance against him, theie are noe 
whitt hastened to prepare for it. I will send her majestie by Aty 
all I knowe. 

Newce was gotten the xvjth daie a of this moneth ; a great 
fight there was, from iiij a clock in the morninge till v at night, 
without restinge ; iiij great breches was made. The prince had 
45 cannons to batter it, whereof the bishopp b did lend him xxv ; 
he hath lost iij m of his souldiers, and as manie hurt. The old 
count Mannfild we heare to be kild thir. 

I hope this day to be dispached here for some mony ; how I 
haue delt for it, and of my determinacion, Aty shall bringe you. 
I knowe not what may chaunge, but, as matters presently stand, 
I haue little hope of anie good, but yet I stay anie iudgment till 
you heare againe, but never man, I thinke, hath had such a 
monethes toile and travell as I haue had amonge them. 

I haue found one man here a most faithfull, honest, wise, ser- 
vant ; his name is Burgrave. I knowe not a more sufficient man 
among them all then he is. I could not spare him for anie good ; 

a Strada makes it the 26th, which is no doubt right. 

b Ernest, son of the duke of Bavaria, elected to the archbishoprick of Cologne, upon 
the deposition of Gebhard Truchses. It was upon his solicitation that the prince of 
Parma undertook the seige of Nuys, which a little interfered with the prince's design 
of proceeding to attack the northern provinces. 


he hath a brother in London called Lodovike Burgrave, I pray 
you, sir, shewe him your good fauor wherin he shall haue cause to 
vse [it], and I shall take it most kindly, for I was neuer more be- 
holdinge to a stranger then to his brother. 

I am full, and yet I dare not discharge myself ; I find all things 
soe vncertain here of late, yet not desperate. Thus much for 
this time withall, to lett you knowe the advertisment her majestie 
sent of Vtryckt is fallen out true, for we tooke a spie this last weeke 
of the prince, and about him letters, a man of good behauior, and 
an auncient man, and appered plainelie that there is a man in 
Vtrickt, a potycary, whoe hath a howse vppon the wall of the 
towne, that hath intelligence with the enemie, to lett in as manie 
men as he will at anie time. This man I haue apprehended. The 
towne of Vtrickt haue banished a great sort of papists out of the 
towne, whereof some are great with Paul Buys. He is with them 
still, prisoner, and would needs haue cutt of his head of late. Theie 
be greiuously bent against him, and noe doubt he is a most ill 
man. The count de Meures, or rather the countis, hath done 
him a great fauor, for his writings, which were all taken, and seald 
vpp to be sent, but he soe bribed some folks as he gott his writings 
out ; before, he lamented, saying, " O, ma papiers ! O, ma papiers ! 
The queen of England will for euer hate me/' And, as farr as I 
can learne, it was something past betwene him and Ortell, but 
there was stuffe beside to haue cost him his head, and vily did 
that lord and his wife deall in it. 

Well, sir, of all these things I referre to the next, and heare 
leaue you, still hopinge to heare of some person of good qualitye 
to come hether speedilye, yf you thinke these causes worthy re- 
gard. My Lord of Buckhurst, my thinks, would doe gret good 
here. I feare her majestie will thinke every man to great to serue 
here, in such a case, but I pray God to meane be not sent ; it is 
for her owne self, I tell you, then, who is to good ? Hast, this 
27 th of July. 

Your assured. 

[( t 




29th JULY, 1586. OUVRY MS. FOL. 40 b. A COPY. 

Difficulty of procuring money from the states — desertions to the 
enemy — the earl's anxiety to be at home again — necessity for 
having an absolute governor — disclosures made by a discovered 
spy — the earl now finds the states' men to be what the queen ivas 
wont to hit them off — begs Walsyngham to further the proposal 
for sending some person of credit thither from her majesty — the 
spy confirms the treasonable surrender of Grave and Venlo — 
particulars of the taking of Nuys, and dreadful barbarities prac- 
tised towards the governor — consequences of the want of money — 
Axel secure — consequences of breaking the dykes — conduct of 
count Hohenlohe after the surrender of Grave — fidelity of the 
elector Truchses, who has reconciled Hohenlohe to Leycester — 
Hohenlohe s position and character — and that of Truchses — 
number of English in the Low Countries — Emden — Dr. Barth. 
Clerk — Henry Killigrew. 

Mr. secretarye, I must lett you knowe how daingerous a neces- 
sitie we haue bine latly drawen vnto for lack of monie for our 
souldiers, which the states here doth follow for theirs in such 
sort as noe marvell if all men were runn awaye, as I doe assure 
you there are to manie already gone to the enemie for very ex- 
tremitye, and for that I haue layd such waite for them to goe over 
as I haue taken aboue iiij c , and haue executed some for example, 
but not many, for that in conscience they suffer overmuche. 
Muse not though the enemie take townes, and doe what he list, 
for when we want men we are to weake, when we haue men we 
want money. I doe swere to you, by the living God, that if it 
had not bine for the monie which I borrowed and prested vnto 
them, now vj weeks past, we had had the fowlest and most re- 


prochfull revolt and mutiny amonge our people that euer had 
bine sene, and at this daye forst a to feed them with faire words 
and promises; "To morrow, to morrowe, they shall haue 5 ' — O, 
Lord ! whoe would thinke it possible for anie men sent as we are, 
and in action for that realme cheifly, and all christendome also, to 
be soe carelesly and overwillingly overthrowen for ordinary wants. 
Wishing cannot serve me to be at home, nor that I had never 
come here, but shame and dishonour will make me weary of my 
life. Lett all the world iudge here for me, and I am sure that 
they doe not thinke that my service and payns hath deserved soe 
little consideracion. What oportunityes we haue latly lost ! We 
are ready to eate our owne flesh for anger, but that cannot helpe. 

Her majestie shall now see the fruits of her displeasure, and 
whether there was iust cause or noe to haue absolute government. 
The hold was quickly taken to interrupt it, and of late very 
thorowly put in execucion, and the practises of Paul Buis hath 
greatly shaken the good trade of this government, and of a most 
hated man of all theis states and councellours before, he is now 
highly fauored for seeking to restore them to their authoritie 
againe. And, lett them say what theie will, theie will hardlie be 
brought againe to the point they were at, for as then the feare of 
the people, in which case theie yet stand, did much, so now the 
hope to pacifie them by meanes doth encourage them ; for theie 
loue to rule wholye, and not to be gouerned, and of late theie 
haue exceedinglie incroched vppon me, it now apperes, for as- 
suredlie theie will adventure to doe much to overthrow it, and 
speciallie findinge me so slenderlie backit. 

We had a spye of the enemies taken iiij dayes past, a man of 
good accompt, ancient, and verie wise, little suspected to be such 
a man. We found many matters by letters, amonge which the 
confirmation of her majesties aduertisment for the daunger of 
Vtryckt to be one. This man confessed to the marshall, sir Wil- 

a first, in MS. 


Ham Pelham, and others that examined him, that the cheifest 
matter the prince tooke care for was, that I were not absolute 
governour, nor the disposer of their treasure, which the prince 
did tell him he thought was altered, with other more particuler 
declaracions touching that cause of these things, and how this 
state doth stand. I meane more fullie to aduertise her majestie 
by Aty, as soone as I can well dispach him, for there be some 
causes yet to staye ; but all hast possible he shall make, albeit I 
haue not one man to doe me his service againe, but the matters be 
such as I cannot well sett downe in writinge. I did write to you 
for Bodely to be sent to me, and Rogers, for you knowe by your- 
self what it is to want able instruments in such service. I pray 
you yet help me to them ; yf they be vnwillinge, to some other, 
such as you knowe able and honest men. 

Well ! I will leaue my complaynts, and referre the remedy to 
God and her majestie, and likwise forbeare to lett you knowe 
what dealing I haue bine forst to vse of late with these states 
men ; you conceaving well enough what composicion theie are 
made of, as her majestie was wont most rightly to hitt of them. 
I find that trew all men before did. Hit ys a monstruous gouern- 
ment where so many such heads doe rule, and, except her majestie 
take another course, I must fall vnder this or longe. I hold out 
by mine owne poore creditt yet what I can, and haue won at last 
somewhat, but not so much as will serve at their hands. Divers 
honest men hold with me, as well councellors as others of the 
better sort ; and I must say, notwithstandinge all practises and 
backwardnes at this present, and of late, the case is not desperate 
if it will please her majestie to take vppon her, and looke gratiously 
into hit ; for only vppon her it will rest, and otherwise all wilbe lost 
and overthrowen, yea, soner then [by] you wilbe thought. Hit is 
the cause that made me so earnist and bold to write to her majestie 
to send some person of creditt and countenance hether, that she 
maie more assuredly vnderstand the state of all things than 
perhapps I am anie way able to doe. And I beseech you, for her 


service and the cause sake, further it with expedition. You maie 
take occasions inow, especially her majestie not being satisfied 
from me for ther abilitye to mainteine their charges in warr, and 
hearing the contracts for paiments of her people at their chardge 
and officers is not performed, and the doubt is hard of their 
countenance and holding out anie longe time, doth move her 
majestie, as reason is, to knowe it, being offered such offers as 
she hath bine for herself, and the hope she hath to doe for them 
if theie be in such weake estate as she heareth of, and doth feare, 
seeing the slowe paiments theie make, and the great hazard theie 
haue putt themselues of late in for lack of monie. This is a iust 
and a weighty cause to send to them, beside other very great and 
effectuall which he shall find here, to be impartid at his coming, 
worth the travell of a right good man, for the sure service of her 

I forgott to lett you knowe, writing of the spye, how he hath 
flatlie confirmed the intelligence betwene the prince and Hemert 
for Grave, being concluded before the overthrow geven the 
Spaniards ther, as likewise for Yenloe by the magistrates, and 
that the prince was sorreye Shenks was not within, as he hoped, 
for, at his coming thether, the prince said, that, if he had knowen of 
Shenks attempt with noe greater nomber, he should haue had leaue 
to[have] gone in, for it was promised to haue deliuered him into the 
princes hands, as it appered theie were able, for theie deliuered all 
the souldiers to him, being vj c ; he had also the like promise of 
Newce, and Berks, and three other places, whereof Ytrickt was 
one most accompted of, and myself to haue bine, as he saith, 
assuredlie trapt in it. 

Yet hath the gouernor a of Newce deceaued him, for he did 
defend the towne very manfullye to the last, the assalts continu- 
ing from 4 in the morning till 5 at night, without intermission, 
and being only ij c men left, and the others greatlie consumed, to 

" Gouernment, in MS. 


the nomber of 3000 dead in ditches, besides infinit hurt. The 
prince offered a parley, and made a retyre a ; in the meane time, 
sodanly, a traitor ran out at the brech, told the enemy that all 
the souldiers were kild and hurt within, save a very fewe, and 
that the capten was hurt sore, as he was. Theie gaue a new 
furious assault, vppon this, with all the fresh men theie had left, 
and so the others, to weake, were overthrowen. The capten was 
the next daye fetch [ed] to the markett place, and was charged, not 
onlie with brech of promise, but with the cause of the destruc- 
cion and losse of his people, as indeed he was, and if Grave had 
held but half his time the prince had neuer bine able to haue held 
vpp his head. After he was brought to the markett- place, being 
sore wounded before, theie layd him vppon a table, and bound 
him, and nointed him with tarre all over his bodie, and half- 
strangling him, burnt him cruelly. This cruell death doth argue 
the informacion to be true that he had gevin some hope to the 
prince and the bushopp before, for ells theie would never have 
vsed a souldier in that sort, beinge noe subiect borne to the kinge 
nor to the bishopp. The town of Newce between the soldiers is 
burnt downe to the ground, not a house left. b Hit apperes the 

a relyue, in MS. 

b The destruction of Nuys, although one of the most terrible incidents of this dread- 
ful war, was not quite so total as is represented by the earl, nor was the death of the 
governor, although one of infamous barbarity, precisely of the kind above described. 
A dangerous wound received by Cloet, the governor, at an early period of the siege, 
threw the operations of the defenders into confusion, and after the furious battery 
described by Leycester, led to a proposal for surrender. The prince of Parma joyfully 
entertained the proposal, and was in the act of conferring with the deputies for the 
town when his troops, determined not to be deprived of their expected plunder, as they 
had been in the instance of Venlo, rushed forward, in defiance of the prince's autho- 
rity, and gained possession of the town. A work begun thus irregularly proceeded 
only from bad to worse. Crimes of every degree of atrocity were perpetrated without 
remorse ; and after having satiated fury, avarice, and lust, the wretches completed 
their devilish labours by setting fire to the houses in which they had committed then- 
crimes. A high wind favoured the conflagration, and, after a few hours, two 
churches, crowded with trembling fugitives, were all that remained uninjured 
of a populous and flourishing town. The governor was seized in his bed-chamber 


losse is great, for the prince is come away to Antwerpe, and his 
armie is risen, and 1,500 foote with 300 horse gone toward Fres- 
land, with Taxes, whoe is sore hurt. The rest, some saye, are 
marching toward Flaunders. Some say, for as yet we haue not 
the certenty of this, that theie remaine at Casarswart for pay, and 
most certen when he cam to Grave the souldiers had but a duckett 
a peice till now, and what is done, this night I shall heare, or 
to morrow. It is constantlie reported old Mansfeild is slaine, 

The oportunity we haue lost now, for lack of our monie, you 
may see, for bothe the townehad bine saved, and the enemy could 
not but hardly escape. I had iij weeks past appointed 6000 foote, 
beside horse, to goe, the captens and all readye, but could not 
gett a pennie of the states, nor had we one groat of hir majestie, 
till this last weeke x m u , which I darst not speake of, it was soe farr 
to short to helpe, without more to it, neither dare I, nor will I, 
make anie pay of a penny of her majesties monye to anie but to 
those in her owen charge. I haue bine here this xv dayes for 
monie, and did, at my comyng from Vtrickt, appoint another as- 
sembly to be the xx th of this moneth, not fearing Newce then, 
for, though it was besieged, yet was it not battered, nor any bat- 
tery begon to it, but all had bine one, for we coold haue noe 
monye. I then appointed another assembly for our armie to 
meete, in hope of monie, not knowing neither Newce to be yet in 
that dainger, to be the 1st of August. It is now the xxix tu of this 
moneth, and I cannot haue monye to bringe men but to the feld, 
soe that I am at my witts end, and sir William Pelham mervells I 
haue not left all, that hath found such dealinge here, and soe 
little comfort from home, as I haue donne ; but I thanke God he 

and hanged out at the window, " with some note of unsoldierlike usage," adds the 
writer of the Briefe Reporte (sig. C. 1.) See Strada, vol. ii. lib. viii. Stowe's (p. 
734) account of this matter, which is said to have been derived from Archer, is very 
inaccurate. He makes the town to have been set on fire by the " lackies and boys be- 
longing to our soldiers ;" but it does not appear that there were any English troops there. 


is come, I find already great comfort in him. And, albeit I haue 
many discomforts, I will pray to God to giue me both strength 
and patience to serve him and hir majestic And one token he 
giueth me, of great hope, for I never had my helth better to abide 
travell, nor all my company more willinge to adventure their 

This dispersinge of the princes armie is of great imputacion, 
and most unhappy are we here that are soe impeehed by want that 
we cannot direct ourselues as we should, but, noe dowts, I trust 
yet we shall doe well. The matter of Axell doth greiue him to 
the heart, and he would faine pretend some revenge in these parts, 
but to my vnderstandinge he will be deceaued. That place is safe 
enough now, and yet was there councell geven to haue burnt it 
and to abandon it. But I would not consent to it. The brech a 
hath wrought such effect as it hath damnified the country to the 
value alreadye of ij millions, in graine, grasse and cattell. There 
hath bine great practice vsed of late to gett Lyllo, and Lyfekins- 
hoofe. I haue giuen my best order to withstand all, and yet all 
things are made light there with you. Hit is imagined that 
such places are impregnable, what for their scituacion and 
strengths theie are not to be feared, but if these that soe imagine 
were here, and to see not onlye the infinite practises of the ene- 
mye by gifts and rewards to corrupt men, but also the hard and 
streite dealings vsed towards the captens and souldiors to drive 
them to yt, theie would mervell more that theire is anie place at 
their disposition out of the enemyes hands, then why anie accompt 
shall be made of the holding of them. And noe prayse, or anie 
dew thanks, can be yeilded to these states men of the countrey 
for it, but onlie to the affeccion and obedience to the queens raa- 
jestie, for whose sake theie doe and haue suffered much, I assure 

I did write lately very doubtfully to hir majestie of the count 

a This alludes to a cutting of the dykes which had been had recourse to in the neigh- 
bourhood of Axel. Stowe, 733. Holinshed, iv. 881. Briefe Report, sig. B. 2. 


Hollock, whome, after the losse of Grave, I found greatly chaunged, 
and, where he was till that time my lieutenant-generall, he begann 
to make some excuses, finding some wants in himself, then lack 
in the states, and, lastly and cheifly, dowbt of hir majesties favour 
and liking of this cause. Paul Buis hath bine the onlie director 
of this man a good while, and was the cause, as you haue heard, 
of his first dealing to make a mislikeing of the capten here, which 
was at my first having this charge. For after Paul Buis could 
not place whorne he would here in councell, nor rule all, he fell 
streit to faction, to overturne all againe, insomuch as then the 
count Hollock found it so playnly as he went to his howse to kill 
him, as the ellector Truxis told me, whoe is her majesties most 
faithfull servant, and I must say, is the most honest true gentle- 
man that I found of anie since I came, yet could I never gett him 
thanks from her majestie, albeit, by my dewty to hir majestie, he 
hath deserved far great [er] consideracion, for he hath done her 
majestie xx m u worth of good service, and the best wach over all 
theis men that I can finde, and in this matter of the count Hol- 
locke hath delt most honestly and honorably. I beseech you, 
amonge so manie great rewards as her majestie is to giue abroad, 
help this gentleman to somwhat. He is exceedinge poore, and 
the worse for this losse of Newce, which was in controversye be- 
twene him and the count Newenor, a as Berks is yet. Her majestie 
in her life never bestowed anie benefitt more deservedly. 

He hath delt with the count Hollock soe farr as he is very well 
come about ageine, and hath bine these xx dayes better then ever 
he was, and the very cause indeed he confesseth, Paul Buis told him 
her majestie would quite forsake this countreie, and cared not 
what became of it, and as for me much lesse. This gentleman 
having a great minde, and having longe servid this countrey con- 
tinually in warre, cannot be blamed if such a perswacion should 
trouble him, never hearing from her majestie but at my first 
comynge, nor anie comfort whereto he maie trust, yeilding himself 
a Newces, in MS. See page 376, note a. 


wholie to her majestie, as he did indeed ; yet soe well inclyned is 
he to her majestie, as not onlie he will still proceed in her service 
vnder me, as he did, hut hath secretly giuen me knowledg, but 
vnder exceeding great secresy, that he is greatly afferd the count 
Morrice is drawen to harken to some daingerous course, onlie 
vpon the like earnist perswasion that her majestie will forsake 
this countrey, at least not soe to proceed with them as may giue 
them hope and assurance ; which practice with these is most pes- 
tilent, for these ij haue manie freinds and dependants, the one 
thorow the countrey for his fathers sake, the other with manie the 
souldiers for his authority sake, having bine manie yeres the late 
prince of Oranges lieutenant, and greatly esteemed by him, for 
doubtles he is a most valiant gentleman, and an exceeding good 
soldier for these countreis, and alwaies esteemed for a plain e 
faithfull man, where he betakes himself; and the more he is 
regarded in these countreys, for that it is like he shall marry the 
lady of Burren, the princes daughter by his first wife, and heire 
to all the count Burrens lands yf hir brother in Spain faile, whoe 
doth presently, also, enioy all those lands in theis parts. a I haue 
bine carfull to keepe this gentleman, and I trust now I haue him 
in good termes againe, and shall doe the better that the vile wretch 
Paul Buis is from him ; next whom, of all men, he is most [led] 
by the ellecter, whome I praie God her majestie may some wayes 
honorably consider. I doe meane to write to her majestie touch- 
ing him very shortlie. He is a gentleman she would like well as 
anie man I have seen com to hir being a stranger. His wisdome, 
his behauiour, his languages, his person, and all will like her well, 
and as great an affecion he beareth her as anie man, not her owne 
subiect, can doe. He is presentlie in great mallancholye for his 
towne of Newce, and for his pouertie, having a verie noble mind. 
I doe feare if he find not comfort the soner he wilbe lost, and 

a The lady alluded to was Mary of Nassau, daughter of the prince of Orange by his 
first wife Anne of Egmont, countess of Buren. The "brother in Spain" was the 
prince's eldest son, for many years a prisoner in that country. 


her majestie were better loose a c mli , yf she continue this cause. 
He beginnes to fall toward a palsey, and yet he is but a young 
man ; his heart is almost broken thorow want. 

This day the count Hollocke and sir William Pelham are gone 
to certen places in Brabant ; he is greatlie in love with Mr. Pellam. 
Theie meete me againe at our place of assemblie a Tewseday next. 
The count Morrice is here a now with me, andmaketh all good shew. 
I haue delt already vppon verie good occacion very plainly with 
him ; he stands vppon makinge and marringe, as he meets with 
good councell. The count Hollock will deall also plainely with 
him, yf he haue not this daye alredy. The keeping of theis men 
in good tune must only be hir majesties gratious vsage, spetiallie 
the count Hollocke and the ellector. I would to God sir Francis 
Drake were come with some millions, that her majestie might 
bestow some liberalitie vppon theis ij noblemen in time. 

Touching our late nombers come over, you shall see what need 
we had. I assure you we are not able, of xj m English footmen to 
draw out v m men to goe to the feild, except we leaue such places 
vnfurnished as we are most sure as sone as our men be out theie 
will shutt the gates against vs ; every towne doth seeke so to be 
at his owne libertie, that he maie deall as the world shall goe, and 
yet, of all men, theie covett in all places Englishmen most. And 
one great lacke we had, that our men came not [at] once ; the 
most of them arrived but latelie, and at least 2,500 vnfurnished, 
and yet it is thought that we are able to make x m Englishmen to 
the feild. Wold God without hazardinge places of great im- 
portance we maie make 6,000 English footmen strong to the feild, 
and, yf 12,000 haue arrived, I am sure ther is 2,000 gone and slipt 
awaie of our nomber. 

Thus praying you to further the sending of some man of creditt 
hether, I bidd you, good Mr. secretary, farwell. From the Hage, 
this xxix. of July. 

Your assured freind. 

a nere, in MS. 


I haue had much adoe here for the matter of Emden as ever 
[I] had in anie thinge in my life, and faine herein to vse authority- 
enough. I trust I hauedeltto our merchants content, and for her 
majesties service, but theie of Emden will not agree. I assure [you] 
Dr. Barthelmew Clerk doth serue exceeding honestlye and pain- 
fullie, and doth increase greatly in vnderstanding. Ha. Killegre\v a 
is a quicker and stouter fellow then I tooke him for, he can deall 
roughly enough when it pleaseth him. Yf you doe not send the 
muster-master over it wilbe much to our b hindrance. 



30TH JULY, 1586. OUVRY MS. FO. 45. A COPY. 

Critical condition of affairs — particulars of the intrigues of Paul 
Buys, and of the conduct of the elector Truchses in reference to 
them, with a character of the latter, and suggestion that the queen 
should grant him a pension secretly — conduct of count Hohenlohe 
— the earl has taken " a little conceate " to absent himself from 
the council — the jealousy entertained of sir William Pelham by 
sir John Norris and encouraged by sir Thomas Cecill — general 
muster of troops about to take place— Norris 's complaints — sir 
Francis Drake's return — treaty for the merchants as to Emden. 

Sir, I haue written a letter to you by my servant Heydon, and 
one to her majestie, but in her majesties letter at this time noe 
matter, but referrs to yours, for that I meane within v or vj dayes 
to send Aty over ; but I thought good to send this before the rest 
to you, being for your owne informacion onlie. 

This state stands verie tickell, and only by the dowbt of her 
majestie, and, most assured, without some present good dealing 
a Killigrave, in MS. b her, in MS. 


all wilbe lost. You knowe it stands me vppon to deall plainelie 
in this case. You will not beleeue what a sodaine alteracion here 
grew vpon this conceat of her majesties leaving them, and what 
deep practises were streit in hand to prevent this government. 
The plott [was] first layd by Paul Buys, and he began with Hol- 
lock, to discourage him ; then with Morice, to advance him ; 
thirdly with some his owen faction of the states-generall, to 
wrangle with me for divers points of my authority ; still geuing 
out slanderous speeches of her majesties covetousnes, and her 
deceuing all men, and that he knew she ment not to reliue these 
countrys anie further ; that my authoritie now should but vndoe 
them all, for that I sought onlie to make great forces of English- 
men to gett their townes vppon their pay, that thereby, whenso- 
euer her majestie should thinke good to treate for peace, as she 
was in hand with it, I should hereby be able to compell them to 
what end she shuld thinke good. He leyd before some of them, 
what charges theie must be at with me, for my particuler, and how 
it was looked for by her majestie, and that all theie had must now 
be bestowed vppon English that shall ouerrule them as they list. 

Divers other particulerityes of his lewd dealinge is discouered 
to me by one that, but for the cause sake, and her majesties, 
would not doe it for x m u . He is the most honest and noble 
gentleman that I haue meet withall in all these parts ; it is the 
ellector Truxey. He loves her majestie with his heart, and the 
religion, for he professeth it truely. He wisheth altogether the 
prosperitye of this cause, and I haue found most true aduertis- 
ments from him of anie man, and most sound advise alwaies, for 
he is a very deepe wise man. He governes greatlie the count 
Hollocke, whoe doth imparte wholy his secrett heart to the ellec- 
tor ; beside Paul Buis hath made shew to depend vpon him, and 
is his councellor in the cause of Berks and Newce a between the 
count Meures and him, and Paul Buis hath entred as farr as he 

a Berck, or Rhineberg, and Nuys, were both situate in the diocese of Cologne, but had 
been secured by the count de Meurs for the deposed elector. The dispute between the 


durst, fearinge our freindshipp, to alienate this good gentleman 
both from her majestie and me, and by this man haue I knowen 
the whole of this practice, and, as he hath done notable offices 
herein to prevent Paul Buys, so hath he done it verie wisly, that 
he is not mistrusted. And, for to drawe the suspicion from him, 
I semed still to knowe Paul Buys doings by those of Vtrickt, 
whome I encouraged all I could still against him, whoe are ex- 
ceedinglie bent against him to the vttermost, and others also hath 
giuen me much light of his speeches vsed at tables, but this noble 
gentleman hath delt most deeply to seeke out the bottome, and to 
withstand it. He finds for certen, that, except her majestie will 
declare herself to mainteine this people and countreys, theie wilbe 
gone. And I haue found all the manner of proceedinge true, as 
he did informe me, touching there meaning to revoke the authori- 
tie giuen me by litle and litle ; as well for their restraint of pai- 
ments to wery our men, as to drive them to mutinie, and soe 
away; to hold fast all their townes, but only froynter townes, 
from garisons ; to shake of Gelders, Vtrickt, and Brabant, with 
Over Isell, by little and little, from the charge of Holland and 
Seland ; to make their owne contribucions serve their owne turne, 
for defensive warr, till either theie may gett some prince able to 
defend them, or ells make a better end for themselues then now 
theie can. Particuler princes are named, as Denmark, cheifly 
with Paul Buys ; himself told me of [this] at sir Thomas Heneage 
being here, but I thought him wiser then to meane it earnistlie. 

These plotts, specially touchinge the count Hollock, this gen- 
tilman hath prevented well ; and where the count gaue me warn- 
ing, vppon the losse of Grave, he could serue noe longer as liue- 
tenent vnder me, and prest me earnistly to receaue backe his 
patent, I did very earnistlie againe presse him to know the cause, 
he vsed other then I knewe indeed were iust causes, and he grew 
solemne, and withdrew himself much from me, the cause was that 

elector and the count had reference to the profits which resulted from the possession of 
these towns. In the Briefe Report it is said that shortly after the loss of Venlo " his 
excellencie . . . quieted the strife betweene those two.'' (sig. C. 1.) 


I tould you before, Paul Buys had perswaded him vtterlie from 
trustinge to her majestie anie more; yet by this noble gentlemans 
dealinge, the ellector, he hath brought the count into as good 
mind as euer he was, and I neuer saw him more dilligent or care- 
full then he is now at this present, insomuch as he hath taken 
vppon him to bringe Moryce to good tune a againe also, who is with 
me now here. I pray God, this gentleman cheifly may receaue 
some good consideracion from her majestie, in time, for he hath 
not a groate to hue on, and you knowe what estate he was of. 
I assure you that he hath had 4,000 florins in monie of me, beside 
other helps, and, as I am able, I will reliue him, but all I brought, 
and much more, is gone since ; ljOOO 11 as a present from her ma- 
jestie would bind him much, he hath deservid x mli in respect of 
these matters, for, by him only, I accompt the stay of all things, 
but it must not be knowen, for he is vndone here then. Would 
to God, secretlie, he were her majesties penconer, if he had 2,000 
crownes a yere, though it be to little, and a yeres rent aforehand, 
hit wilbe a relife to his estate that is soe poore. I meane to 
write of his service to her majestie, albeit I dare not write all 
things as I wold to her, which made me wryte soe earnistlie to 
haue some man of qualitie to come over, whoe shall see plainlie 
that all shalbe trew I write or advertise, which is, that all wilbe 
lost if her majestie deall not speedilie and substanciallie, and all 
wilbe saved and most surely established, yf she will protest yt, 
and yet not to be at anie great charges more then she is at. My 
lord of Buckhurst would be a very fitt man ; I praie you furder 
him to it ; he shall neuer Hue to doe a better service. 

Lett it appere as it will, I growe now a stranger in councell here. 
I haue taken a little conceate, but iustly, vppon great cause, to 
forbeare, for I find my authority is secretly shaken, which I cannot 
bere because it wilbe dangerous to the cause ; otherwise I care not 
vj d , but to giue 5,000 6 d , and 6,000 shellings, to be rid of it, and hit 
is not to be delt withall, this place, except I be thorowly backt 
by her majestie. I doe hope it shalbe found that I haue done 
3 This word is uncertain in the MS. 


as much as a man with so manie wants, and being so much dis- 
graced as I haue bine, could well doe. 

I will not write anie more of Mr. John Norris backwardnes ; he 
hath to good freinds, and soe hath all that like not me. He 
stomacks greatlie the marshall, a but I see he will not away. He is 
of like sett for an agent. It skills not, for he shall not doe much 
hurt now, I warrant you. I heare the tresorer doth come ; I praie 
God you haue sent the muster-master also, or ells all is mard, and 
in all hast possible must he be sent. 

Sir John Norris doth altogether b now follow sir Thomas Cecill ; 
and, for that the marshall is before himself, he setts sir Thomas 
Cecil to take the place, which the marshall doth noe way impunge, 
though the other play the foole. My lord North, Audleie, yea, 
and Essex, doth offer the marshall the place, and will not other- 
wise, yet Cecill doth take it. I assure you this Norris is a most 
subtile daingerous man, not hauing a true word in his mouth, nor 
any brother. He hath factious and lyinge fellowes, I would God 
you could ridd vs of them ; but I see theie are the better allowed 
for that theie are thought to mislike me. I praie you deall with 
ther father, but speciallie ther mother. I feare my lord-tresorer 
doth make his sonne fauor them. All such dealings, good Mr. 
secretary, you are better able to discouer and prevent then I am, 
and therefore I must referre the care of my poore credite to you 
for such matters. Sir John Norris came one day to me, and told 
me, that you had written to him, that you vnderstood that there 
was noe good agrement betweene him and me, and gaue him 
councell to good purpose, as he reported it. " For my parte," 
saith he, " I haue done all I could to haue gone into England, to 
haue satisfied Mr. secretary in this and other things for my ac- 
compts ; but hir majestie hath flatlie denied me leaue, but will 
haue me continue my service here/' which his manner of speech I 
noted, that you, hearing of our mislike, &c. yet hir majestie would 
not suffer him to retorne at his owne sute and his freinds. Surely 

a The office of marshal of the field had been given to sir William Pelham. 
b doth altogether doth, in MS. 


her majestie doth herself, this countrey, and this whole companie, 
the more wronge ; I will not say, myself. I am sure you doe, and 
will doe, what you can, and soe it must rest, and you shall see 
master Thomas, his patron, shall beare small rule here. I could tell 
you of such parts at Bryll alredy, as you would thinke much of. 

This next weeke, either Tuesday or Wednesdaye, we meet all 
our companies, both horse and foote together, to beginn our 
campe, allbeit we haue but a litle monie, only so much, na, 
skant so much, as shall bringe vs together ; our randevous shalbe 
at a place called Ameron, a village nere Reynye and not far from 
Wyke. There we will liue in hope to receaue more monie ; all 
other things we haue geuen order for. 

Mr. Norrice vseth a speech here which perhapps may come to 
you there, that he is now the v. officer in the feild, of late he was 
first. He sayth, also, all men are advanced but he ; as the erle of 
Essex to be generall of all the horse, both English and Duch ; 
that the marshall is also over all ; that the sargant-maior is likwise 
ouer all; that the master of our campe is over all. In very troth 
he doth it onlie to bred quarrels, and to cause some mislike, for 
my lord of Essex is none otherwise than over the English horse, for 
the count de Meurs is over the rest ; the sargent-maior was neuer ap- 
pointed but over the English, albeit he is forst in the feild to exercise 
that for both, because theie haue noe man fitt for it ; the marshall, 
indeed, is over all, for soe the whole states and countrey desires 
it, because of his sufficiency, and there is noe man to equall with 
him, neither can there be any more generall-marshalls, but our 
other marshalls thir may be, and more for the horse than one, as also 
light horses, and launces, and every nacion maie haue a generall of 
the horse ; soe, likewise, of footmen may there be divers coronels- 
generall, as the nacion s be ; soe for the master of the campe, everie 
nacion maie haue one ; but he seeks thwarts in everie matter : but, 
now I haue Pellam and Stanley, you shall se all doe well enough 
though my younge master would countenance him. I wilbe 
master whilst I remaine here, will theie nill theie. My desire is, 
if anie back-bitinge be vsed, I may knowe it and answere it. 


Now to your good newes of sir Francis Drakes safe arrivall. I 
thanke God for it, and I beseech Him, that his winings be such as 
may supply the common cause. Your advertisment of one that 
came from him doth not please me much ; but it cannot be that he 
should spoile so many places and gett noe more. He would never 
goe anie a more voyages if it be soe, but I will [hope] the best, 
and trust to heare shortlie from him. 

I haue had dealing here for Emden. I had made a very good 
end, greatly to the likinge of our merchants, and now the embas- 
sadors for the count refuse it. Yf it be possible to gett another 
place for our men yt were a happy turne, for most certen it is, 
their countenance of Emden doth almost overthrow the traffique 
of all theis parts wholie. And yet, for her majesties sake, and to 
pleasure our merchants, theie offer them this, that theie shall haue 
frely, traffique to Emden with their clothes and all other English 
commodities ; that they shall frelie, in their English bottoms, retorne 
from Emden all other commodities which theie shall either bye 
or barter ther, to all places whethersoeuer, only theie will, 
that all other strangers which shall bringe or retorne anie como- 
dities shall pay such customes as theie doe, and haue done ; but 
theis embassadors will not yeild, as yt yet seemes, except theie 
may haue the whole river free, without all interrupcion, for all 
persons ; which, if it should be, before God this whole countrey 
were vtterly vndone, wherein you must haue grave and gratious 

In my other letter yt is like I haue written confusedly, for I did 
write also to my lord-tresorer and others with my owne hand, 
but I haue here written for your best informacion till Aty comes, 
and I haue litle leisure, and, therefore, I pray you [accept my] 
scribling and tedious letters. Soe far you well, and God keepe 
you, and send vs well to meete, either here or in heaven. From 
the Hage, the xxxth of July. 

Your assured. 
a have anie goe anie, in MS. b batter, in MS. 


Whatsoeuer it meanes, the states were never so slacke and hard 
to bring: out monie as nowe. 



30TH JULY, 1586. COTTON. MS. GALBA, C. IX. FOL. 326. ORIG. 

Walsyngham recommends to the favour of the earl one Brune, ivho 
had erected breivhouses and bakehouses for the supply of victual 
for the troops in the Low Countries, but whose dealing was 
sought to be interfered with under a commission from the earl. 

My verie good lord, whereas my servant Brune hath, since sir 
John Norryces departure last out of this realme, employed him- 
self in victualling a great part of hir majesties forces in the Lowe 
Countries, and for that purpose hath been at great charges, as hee 
advertiseth me. in erectinge bruehouses and bakehowses, whereby 
the souldier is much better served, especiallye in drincke and bread, 
than otherwise hee would bee, so it is, that I am enformed, there 
bee some whiche intend to sue to your lordship for a commyssion 
to authorize them speciallye to serve in those victualling causes, 
whereby my sayd servant is lyke to bee undone. Wherefore, as 
before I have recommended my servant to your lordship, so I 
humblye praye you to continewe your honorable favour in suche 
sort towardes him as he maye not bee forbidden, but permitted 
still to vittall the souldiers as hee hath done ; for whiche I shall 
thincke myself beehoulding to your lordship, and so I humblye 
take my leave. From the court, the xxx th of Julye, 1586. 
Your lordships to commaund. 

Fra: Walsyngham. 




7th august, 1586. ocjvry ms. fol. 48. a copy. 

The earl reiterates former requests to have Daniel Rogers and Bodely 
sent to him — Berck is besieged — difficulty of getting money from 
the states — " We must to the field, or this towne will follow the 
rest" — sickness amongst the garrison of Berck. 

Mr. secretary, I haue written to you before now to lett you 
knowe the great need I haue to vse more secretaries and other 
ministers about me, and did earnistly pray you to procure me 
Daniell Rogers, and Bodely my old servant ; there payns shalbe 
well considered, and noe charge to hir majestic I beseech you 
send them to me with all speed, and I will place them both to 
there likinge. Yf you knew the great necessitye I am in for such 
you would remember me, and satisfie me. Thus, in hast, [I] bid 
you farwell, with hearty commendacions, this 7- of August, at Ter- 
goad, ready to retorne to Vtrickt this daie. 

Your assured freind. 

Wylkes hath exceedingly wisely and wel behaued himself. Her 
majestie doth not know what a iewell she hath of him. I would 
I suffered a great payne I had such a one to ioyne withall here. 

Berks is beseiged/ and till verie now could we gett [no] assu- 
rance of monye of the states. Assuredly there be some great 
traytors among them. We haue bine ready, ever since Newes was 

a Berck from its situation on the Rhine was justly regarded as a place of great 
importance, and was garrisoned by 1200 English and " seaven or eight hundred other 
souldiers," under the command of Schenck and Morgan. Before the prince entered 
upon the siege the walls were repaired, the town victualled, and considerable pre- 
paration made for an energetic defence. Briefe Report, sig. C. 1. 


beseiged, to goe to the feild, but could never gett penny from the 
states of that was dew, neither had we anie of hir majesties till 
now, for I did not medle with the merchants xm'i till now that the 
treasure [r] and the rest is come. There is noe remedie. We must 
to the feild, or this towne will follow the rest. I heare most of 
the souldiers there are very sore sicke of an infeccion fallen so- 
danlie ; God comfort them, and send vs spedily to them, as I 
doubt not we shall. 



7th august, 1586. ouvry ms. fol. 48. a copy. 

The earl replies to letters of her majesty in which she attributed 
his complaints against the treasurer, sir John Norris, and Paul 
Buys, to various bad feelings — Norris has become tractable — 
further particidars of P. Buys's misconduct, and denial of any 
collusion on the earl's part in procuring his arrest — the earl 
denies that either Hohenlohe or prince Maurice have been " lost 
or discouraged" through his misconduct, as the queen seems to 
have supposed— Wilkes's proceedings with the states — want of 
money — desertion of English troops — meeting of the German 
electors at Luneburg. 

Mr. secretary, I haue receiued letters of late from her majestie 
greatlie to my comfort, albeit I may well perceaue, both by them 
and her messingers, that euery thing I doe is drawen hardly touch- 
ing the tresurers cause. 3 God is my iudge, there was noe par- 
ticuler cause in the world betwene him and me ; and I dare ap- 
peale to yourself, whether anie man comended him more at my 

a treasure at warrs, in MS. 


being in England. And what hath bine the cause since ? Lett the 
cause itself defend my doings, being for her majesties service only. 
For Mr. Norris, there was neuer priuate matter yet betwene 
him and me ; but the first mislike I am sure grew about these 
money and reckoning matters, which concerned hir majestie, and 
I, being advertised thereof by Mr. Davison, delt in that sort as 
he advised me ; notwithstanding I loued Mr. Norris aboue all the 
gentlemen of this companie, my nephewes excepted, for I had 
great cause to wish his well doing, and to take comfort of it, 
being brought vpp with me, and preferred by me cheiflye, to all 
his former charges, specially in this countrey. Beside, there grew 
much mislike betwene him and divers that came over with me, 
whome I knowe to be both able and worthier men, and, perhapps, 
seeming rather to deale to indifferently then parcially, I encreased 
some mislike, whereby finding very slacke service to follow, and 
knowing what depended vpon me, that such a man should carye 
a misliking mind, and how much hinderance might growe to this 
service, hath caused me to vse verie plaine speeches of all sides, 
and I thinke pleased none. But not for anie one pece of matter 
for myself, was there euer anie ill word to him from me. And I 
knowe not how matters may be imagined by men at home, that 
looke butt to their freinds and themselues, but I am perswaded 
few men that had supplied my place would haue vsed more temper 
than I haue done ; but I will harme noe man, neither loose the 
service of anie man whome I may thinke will doe the meanest 
parte of his dewtye, and for Mr. Norris I doe nothing doubt but 
to haue his good service hereafter, as need shalbe, whatsoeuer I 
haue doubtid heretofore, for I doe find great tractablenes in him, 
and, since sir William Pelham came, when [there were] those that 
would prick forward such a mind to discontentacion, he carieth him- 
self very well, and as well as I can wish, and he shalbe assured I 
will never doe him but right, even to the most honor or credite 
that he can deserue. And, as I could not like when I saw other 
cause, so must I say that I find noe man more carfull or forwarder 



in all services now then he is, and noe doubts an able man he is, 
and he shall want noe incouragement at my hands. The cause 
I haue to note is, howsoeuer I haue had cause to mislike, the happ 
is to haue me blamed. 3 

Touching Paul Buis, I perceaue her majestie supposeth that I 
haue wronged him, and not b that I haue iust cause indeed to 
mislike him, for her owne sake. He is comended, and thought to 
be a worthy instrument. Well ! I had need of some good spokes- 
men on my side; hetherto I haue had few, but this I will say, till 
I found to to manifest matter against him, ye, and beare to to 
manie faults in him, because I would wynn him, knowing the 
abilitie and sufficiency of the man, and spared not to tell him of 
some of them, onlie betwene himself and me, in freindliest man- 
ner, verie playnely, her majestie shall truelie and most assuredly 
vnderstand that I neuer vsed anie of these men equall to him ; noe, 
nor in anie degree nere him; no, nor I thinke, [if] her majesties 
honor and the whole weale of this state had not stood vpon it, I 
had not yet detected him of anie fault. As soone as I was assuredly 
informed of his manie lewd dealings, remembring those I knew of 
my none knowledge before, and bare with all, I did then aduertise 
you, and partlie her majestie, what I hard of the man, for finding 
the state by his practises sodanly to decline to the present danger, 
yt was like I thought it high c time to signifie it, and send my 
iudgment to you what I thought he would come vnto ; but, God 
is my iudge, as I haue written since, I noe more knewe of, nor 
procured, this his apprehension in Vtrickt, then you did, but theie 
knew and hard daily better of his lewd dealings than I, and theie 
hated him deadly, and did veryly thinke I would not deall with 
him, and if he were not thus delt [with] he would hazard them all, 
and the whole state, and being a vassell borne to Vtrickt, as he is 
indeed, and yet most contemptuously dispisinge and dissolving 
them, and most falsly intruding d himself into the councellship of 

■ This sentence is printed as it stands in the MS. 
' J now in MS. <= her in MS. •' intending in MS. 


estate, made them adventure vppon his apprehension, he then going 
away after the other councellors, whoe were departed toward the 
Hage, whether also I was goinge, and did goe, the very same 
morning. And thus much must I add, for my owne determina- 
cion, that I was fully bent at my repaire to the Hage to displace 
him out of the councell; but God, how slowlie soeuer I proceeded, 
provided both for her majestie and this countrey farr better, for 
ther was neuer a worse instrument then he was for any good to 
this state. His doings therein are to longe to write ; her majestie 
shall see them all sett downe, and knowe the ground, and how he 
was discouered. I am sorry her majestie did thinke so hardly 
of me that I misliked him cheifly for the kinge of Denmarkes 
matter, and imputes a pece of ill nature that I should charge him 
with that matter that he brake with me in. Yf her majestie here 
truely the report I deliuered to sir Thomas Heneage, as also that 
I wrote, I vsed noe further that matter against him but to lett her 
knowe that there was like such a matter should come in question, 
because he dealt so farr with me therin. Hit was noe matter 
neither to accuse him of, nor to condemne him, for I could thinke 
noe lesse of him that thought her majestie would leaue these 
countreys but he must thinke of some other, a but my cause of 
mislike, to putt her majestie out of doubt, is for vsing ill and 
lewd speeches of hir and our nacion, and to seeke to sow sedi- 
tiously ill conceats in peoples heads against her, as wilbe proved. 
Sence he came into prison he hath not stuck to speake liberally. 
As also he went about dangerous practises. To prevent such a 
lewd person, I would thinke I had deserved thanks, and anie but 
myself should haue had them, and, that her majestie maie thinke 
I had no matter for myself, she shall see or longe, in writinge, 
what iust cause I had for myself against him before Dauison was 
landed in England, imediatly after he went hence, and yet never 
prosecuted anie thinge against him, when he thought he had left 

a some of other, in MS. 


Paul Buis the onlie servant faithfull and assured to hir majestie of all 
others, and I thinke I wrote then to you of it, and to Mr. Davyson 
also, what his parte was. 

There is one there now, I thinke, with you, whome you know 
to be honest, that can tell you somwhat, for it was Paul Buis that 
sett on the count Hollock first to make a kind of mutinie, and Mr. 
Fremyn, the gentleman I meane, was the counts interpreter to me, 
and lett him tell you how I vsed the count, being but a stranger 
here, as I was. I beseech you, aske him of it for my sake, because 
her majestie said, there hath lacked a Northumberland in my place; 
indeed I shall alwaies giue place to him, and I pray God able me 
for her majesties service sake to be as able to serue hir, but if I 
haue lost her anie thinge here, or myselfe, for lack of plaine dealinge 
with these men, I wilbe content to receaue a lack in hir opinion ; 
otherwise I shalbe greaued hir majestie should conceaue that I 
delt weakly in her service, albeit good cause have I, yf weake 
maintenance and faint backing of me [be considered], to be more 
discouraged then yet I have shewed to be, I thanke God. 

For the count Hollock, and count Morris, if anie of them, or 
either, [be] lost or discouraged through my default, in good faith 
I will take it for noe lesse then treason to me. No, Mr. secretary, 
hir majestie shall knowe full truely how theie were almost lost 
indeed, and I onlie, by my labor and meanes, haue recouered them, 
as I wrote in my last letters both to hir majestie and to you. Yf 
ever I deserued thankes at hir majesties hands I haue for the 
recouering of these two gentlemen : specially Hollock, and that 
wretch whome hir majestie is ready to doubt me for, was the onlie 
and cheif cause to alienate these two. Mr. Wilks and Atye both 
shalbe able to giue full satisfaction for these matters, and how 
much hir majestie is indeed behoklinge to the ellector Truxes for 
this matter and more, whome I praie God she maie somewhat 
remember for it. 

Wilks hath this day deliuered his letters to the councell of 
estate, and hir majesties message, which was noe lesse comfortable 


to them then delaied for manie respects in good time. Surely he 
behaued himself exceedingly well, and I thinke will doe more good 
then anie you sent this vij yeres. I thanke God, matters ar in 
meetly good case presently ; he can tell you, both what he finds 
and what it was within this moneth past. I think he will say there 
was cause for hir majestie to send, and that I haue not bine 
negligent to bringe matters to some better passe then was looked 
for. He shall deliuer all those himself, and, I trust, retorne with 
great satisfaccion to her majestie in many things. 

The only fault I now find is, the slacknes and great carelesnes 
in the states to haue monie provided to further our armie, which 
we haue bine readye for a longe while, and yet cannot haue to 
serue the present torne ; and, truely, except we haue monie, the 
soner both townes wilbe lost and our men will runn away. I am 
sorry and ashamed to tell you, the enemie hath ij or 300 of our 
ablest men gone to him, and I thinke it is not so much for myserie 
and want, though it be great, as by villanie and practice of some 
sett course in England, by trustinge in papists and knaves for the 
nonce, to cause our men to doe this, as I heare also a plott layd 
for the Iresh. There is one sent to a fronter towne nere vs, an 
Irishman borne, and a very lewd person, with a mind to corrupt 
others ; but all that can be done shalbe, and it shall goe hard but I 
wilbe reuenged or longe on some of theis that be gon. Beside 
nombers ar stolen home, and, except you be carefull to haue your 
ports watched, and some example made in England, I will warrant 
half our men at home within this moneth, our hard paiments haue 
bine such, both from you there and the states here. Ys it not much 
for poore men in a strange land to be iiij whole moneths vnpaid, 
and to be ragged and torne ? Well ! I trust this wilbe now holpen 
for her majesties parte, and I will make these men afraid but I will 
bring them of likwise, seing we shall doe nothing but loose townes 
ells. What other defects be in me I know not, but well I see all 
things are hardlie expounded against me, but I wilbe found other- 


wise vppon better examinacion I doubt not, and for my fidelitie 
inferior to noe man. 

This meeting of thes great princes at Luneburg was noe more 
sudden then strange to vs here. Litle we here but a flying tale 
that the king of Denmarke shalbe king of Romaines, a matter I 
thinke not possible, for want of some more ellectors, being but 
three onlie there. Thus, having noe more to you at this time but 
to desire both you, and my other good freinds, to help to keepe 
her majestie in such good conceate of me, as of him she hath had 
longe triall of to be hir trew and faithful servant, and made a 
stranger by hir owne commandement, both from her presence and 
my none countreie, subiect to many vntrue reports, but assisted 
with very few freinds to keep me from the hazard of it, and shall 
crave noe further fauor or proteccion but her majesties suspence 
till I be hard or tried, and soe will neuer cease to pray for her 
long and prosperous life, and comend you to the Almighty. At 
Tergowad, this vij. of August, to morrow going to Vtrickt. 

Your assured freind. 


8th august, 1586. ouvry ms. fol. 51 b. a copy. 

The earl reports a quarrel between count Hohenlohe and Mr. 
Edward Norris, which involved the marshal and sir John 
Norris, and from which the earl anticipated great dissensions 
between the English and Dutch — a general muster of the troops 
for the field now in progress — the earl laments his evil hap, and 
ivishes he were rid of his government. 

This for your owne information. 
Mr. secretary, since the dispach of my servant Killigrew yester- 


day, I haue mett with a matter at my arrivall here at Vtrickt 
which doth trouble me, even to my heart. There hath fallen out 
of late an accident of quarrell betwene the count Hollock and 
young Mr. Edward Norris, at a towne called Gurtrutenberge, 
where the count is gouernor, and had there, for an enterprize to be 
executed, the marshall, therll of Essex, capten Williams, and 
sondry others. And being newly retornid from an exploite which 
theie had done, my nephew Sidney, and Mr. Edward Norris in 
his companie, arived there also, before supper-time. Theie went 
all to supper, and I know not how, nor whye, but, as it is re- 
ported, yonge Norrys caried himself not all the best toward the 
marshal], and being full of words and speeches, the count Hollock 
found it was some mislike and therefore commanded Norys to 
silence. He, either not vnderstandinge the count or * * a in 
this matter proceeded, which soe misliked the count as he hurld a 
cover of a cupp at his face, and cutt him alonge the forehead as 
longe as half my finger. This sir John Norris taketh exceed- 
inglie, and not only toward the count, but, by the wronge informa- 
cion of his brother, against the marshall ; but this I must say, as 
manie as were present, except my two nephews, whoe are not here 
yet, doe all, vppon the examinacion of the matter, declare the 
greatest fault to be in Edward Norris, and that he did very arro- 
gantly and quarelsomly vse the marshall. 

I haue caused both sides to sett downe the matter, albeit I had 
taken present order betweene the marshall and Mr. Edward b Norrys 
in such sort as both doe promise me all quietnes, and to continue 
their service carefullie, for it could never haue happened in a 
worse time, we being now preparing our campe to the feild, and 
a great parte come together alredy, and these being ij of the prin- 
cipall men of the armye, beside the count Hollock my lieutenent- 
generall. There could not haue happened such a mischeif, but I 

» Owremest in the MS. a word copied in attempted fac-siuiile from something in 
the original not understood by the transcriber. b John in MS, 


see what troble is like to growe to me. I haue giueri warninge 
longe agoe of this, specially of Edward Norrys, one that hath not 
escaped the falling out with all the captens and officers in this 
companye, as coronell Morgan, Roger Williams, old Read, Payton, 
and diuers others ; and his brother by and by must be a partye, 
or ells he will neuer lett him be quiet. And it is strange to see 
soe stout and wise a man soe gouerned as he is by his rash 

I doe assure you I cannot but feare some marvellous mischeif 
to follow this. And though I can order the marshall and Mr. 
Norrys, yet can I not be able to stay that which may fall out yf 
the count Hollocke come, I see the quarrell toward him for the 
hurt of Edward Norrys so stomacked. The matter is by them 
soe giuen out amonge the English souldiers as I doe feare to haue 
the count come amonge them, and if he doe not, then must I 
looke for noe service at anie these countreymens hands at all. 
So that you may see my hard happ by this follie. Hit is like to 
bringe our quarrell from the enemie to a priuate revenge among 
ourselues. The count Hollock will take the matter the worse for 
that which he did was in respect of Edward Norrys ill-vsing the 
marshall, whome I think there was never a milder nor more 
corteous person to hue with all, and soe farr from misliking anie 
of them, as he most earnistly entreated me to haue good opinion 
of sir John Norrys, and in troth I was become againe very familiar 
with sir John, and he as forward and willing in service as I could 
wish. Euery way here may you [see] what cause of discourag- 
ment I haue, and whether it is like our matters shall goe well or 
noe, for I find, whatsoeuer I doe it is drawen to the worst in 
England, whatsoeuer others doe, or doe not, it is made the best. 
Lett her majestie sett downe whome she will haue serve, for I 
shalbe thought partiall yf I doe anie thinge. Would God I were 
ridd of this place ! Not that I would not most willinglie abide the 
worst to doe anie service, but I see how it will fall out for me well 
enough. What man living would sjc-e to the feild and haue his 


officers devyded almost into a mortall quarrell ? One blow but by 
anie their lackis brings vs altogether by the eares. And if I goe 
not, or the armie, we shall loose the towne of Berks. Well ! I 
will doe what I can ; and what with this matter, being the greatest 
that fell to me yet, and the ouerthwart dealinge of the states, 
whome I find most slack, or rather over-carelesse, with other cir- 
cumstances of late, which stands very tickell, and only vppon her 
majesties resolucion, doth not only make me wholy weary, and 
out of hope of anie good to be donn, but to wish good conside- 
racion in time of this state, for there is noe way but one which 
I haue euer written of, that is, her majestie must take it wholy 
vppon her. I see into it as farr as anie other, and I see thus 
much that her majestie must take either a suffranty or protec- 
cion, or ells you shall haue noe good dealinge here at all. For 
this longe tract of time that the enemie hath had his will to doe 
what he list, the people seeing and finding that neither releefe to 
come from England in time, nor from the states here, hath soe 
greatlie daunted them, as nothing but assurance of better defence 
at her majesties hands will satisfie. Of these matters you shall 
heare more by Mr. Wilks. In the meane time I pray you thinke 
of it, and marke what I say, for we shalbe deceaued of these men 
otherwise ; and soe, for this time, I will leaue to trouble you, be- 
ing full of troubles myself. From Vtrickt, this 8 th of August. 

Your assured freind. 

The fruit of faction here will fall out as it hath done in England. 
I am not so simple but I can see how [I] am handled, and how 
litle reckoning is made either of my requests or advises, and how 
those are most cherished that anie [way] can vse me worst ; but 
I will beare all for the cause sake, and my humble dewty to her 
majestie, which shall neuer be forgotten ; but if matters fall not 
well out, remember my prophecie long since. My conscience 
telleth me I haue deserued better fauor and more consideracion. 

I haue such encouragment as I am faine now to vse flattery to 



these that ought to haue sought me. Hir majesties great fauor[s] 
to them are so signified by letters, by messengers, and all, as 
either I must hazard all, or beare all, but I trust to end hono- 
rablie here and complayne neuer more. 


10th august, 1586. ouvry ms. fol. 53 b. a copy. 

Another letter of lamentation upon the subject of the quarrel be- 
tween count Hohenlohe and Mr. Edward Norris — the earl com- 
plains bitterly of his hard fortune, and of the way in which his con- 
duct is misjudged by the queen — all men have friends but himself. 

Mr. secretary, after I had despatched my servant Killigrew from 
Tergoad, I haue heard of a matter which hath troubled me not 
a litle, a falling-out at Gertrudenberge betwene Edward Norris 
and the count Hollock, a matter of greater weight then wilbe 
easily conceaved, for that the marshall was a party, whome you 
knowe what a man he is, and, as yet it appereth, to much abused 
by Edward Norris. The count Hollock is my lieutenant-generall, 
sir John Norris my coronel-generall of the infantry, the other, 
sir William Pelham, the marshall of the feild. These being de- 
vided, and at the instant of my going to reliue Berkes, which is 
beseiged, you may iudge what my case is. I will doe what I can 
posible to pach it vpp among them for the time, and either it 
shalbe soe or he that failes I will make him smart, and yet will 
I examin the matter at full, and lay the fault where it is truely. 
You may see my happ, and what presuming boldnes groweth 
thorow the pampering of some, and discreditt of me. 

It is well deliuered here by writinge and otherwise, how all my 
doings are thought of there, and taken by her majestic God soe 


deliuer me in the daie of his fearefull iudgment as I haue honestlie 
and faithfullie serued her majestie and this state ! Yf I haue 
wanted witt, the fault is hirs and yours amonge you for the choice, 
and that would not better assist me, but leaue me alone in a 
manner, even to my half being a stranger to all practises and all 
fortunes, not caring how to assist me, but rather most earnist how 
to deface me, which, how farr it reached, be not blind nor vn- 
willinge to vnderstand it. The fruit of it doth remayne to this 
day. And yet I must confesse the cominge of Mr. Wilks hath 
exceedingly stird things, I pray God not to late ; for we are driuen 
to the last refuge, to try it by force, or all our townes wilbe gonn. 
Well ! I must be short, (I haue made a great blert, thorow sudden 
dropps of rayne falling, as you may see,) and, as I will frame my- 
self to doe all that may content her majestie, soe I beseech the 
Lord God she may doe that which may be best for her owne self; 
and soe far you well. From Vtrickt this 10 th of August. 

Your assured freind. 

I trust I shall beare all my crosses, either to heaven by thend 
of life here, or by a priuate life, if God grant it longer ells, for my 
heart is almost broken, and more by the hard construccion I se 
made only of my doings against me, then for all the travells, 
paynes and dangers I past over beside. I see all men haue freinds 
but myself. I see most false suggestions help other men, and 
my vpright true dealinge cannot protect me. Na, my worldly 
protector faileth me. God for his mercie assist me ! 


15th August, 1586. cotton ms. galba, c. ix. fol. 363. orig. 

The queen has consented that the master of Gray shall go into the 


Low Countries, and requests that he may be well received by the 
earl — she also consents that £2,000 shall be advanced to him. 

My very good lord, by thineloased from the master of [Gray] , 
your lordship maye perceave howe much yt doth importe her 
majestyes [service] and his own credit, that the intended imploy- 
ment of hym in the Lowe Countryes do take place, the considera- 
cion whereof, hath now movid hir majesty to geve hir resolut con- 
sent therunto, for that she seeth thinconveniences that are other- 
wise lykely to grow, yf she do not imploy him, and judgeth very 
necessary for her owne behoof to have his credit in Scotland and 
devotyon towardes her mayntayned and continued, and therfor your 
lordship shall do a thing very acceptable to hir majesty, to have a 
spetyall care that he may fynd * * of enterteynement, and re- 
ceave that welcom and good * both for himself and those that 
accompanye him, that may satisfye his expectation and encourag 
him in his good disposicion. I have also movid hir majesty for 
an advance for him of the two thowsand poundes that he desyreth, 
[which she is] content to graunt a warraunt unto my lord-threasurer 
to disburse the same out of the next treasure that shalbe yssued 
for them ther, to be repayd agayn unto your lordship by the states, 
and * shall the somme be notwithstanding presentlye furnished to 
serve the masters present and necessary turne, as he desireth ; 
and so I humbly take my leave of your lordship. At Barnelmes, 
xv th of August, 1586. 

Your lordships to commaund, 

Fra: Walsyngham. 


18th august, 1586. cotton ms. galba, c. ix. fol. 374. orig. 

Receipt of the earl's letter of the 29th July — the queen's old rooted 
opinion that all this ivar will be turned upon her charge 
now appears to be likely to turn out to be the case — intercourse 


with Embden — importance af keeping the field against the prince 
of Parma — discovery of Babington's conspiracy. 

My very good lord, I have forborn to wryte to your lordship of 
any thyng sence Mr. Wylkes depeche, and sir Thomas Shyrley with 
Mr. Hudleston, and so contynued in expectation of some matter from 
that syde uppon their arryvall, and so we here did thynk the lack 
of hearyng from thence cam by contynvance of contrary wynds, and 
yet nevertheless yesterday cam, [in] on instant, two from your lord- 
ship, Mr. Haydon and Mr. Killigrew, and by Mr. Haydon I receaved 
your lordships letters of the 29 th of July from the Hage, which war 
wrytten befor the arryvall of Mr. Wilkes and sir Thomas Shyrley, 
so as by those your lordships letters I cold not understand any 
thyng in answer to matters committed to ther severall charges, 
but yet by a lettre of the 6. of August from sir Thomas Shyrley 
at Tyrgowss, I perceaved that he had spoken with your lordship, 
and at that tyme he had understandyng that the prince of Parma 
was not at Antwerp, as before was reported, but that he was gon 
to besege Berk, and that, as he thought, your lordship would pre- 
pare yourself to follow with an army. And whan I consider your 
letter, how difficultly you bryng the states and the contrye to yeld 
to yow monny, accordyng to their manny promises, for maynte- 
nance of so great an important service, tendyng to preserve them- 
selves out of the Spanish bondage, I do truly lament your case, 
to be so wrapped into the cause as for hir majesties securety you 
may not leave it soddenly, nor yet without more redy helpe of 
monny can prosequut the action with that lyff as it ought to be. 
And no on thyng doth more hynder hir majesties forwardnes than 
an old rooted opinion that she hath, that all this warr will be 
torned uppon hir chardg, by the backwardnes in payement by the 
states, ageynst which I did allweys oppose in answeryng to com- 
fort hir majesty, that I was assured, so as she wold contynew redy 
payement for hir nombres accorded, yow wold not fayle but recover 
such somes from the states, monthly, as they had promised your 
lordship shortly uppon the committyng of the government to your 
lordship ; and so suerly I contynued my hope, although, in truth, 


manny privat persons did advertise it very dowtfull, and so I am 
sorry to se it, as I do by your own letters, very difficult to be 
gotten. And yet I will not leave my hope, consideryng I presume 
your lordship will look into [the] impedimentes, which I thynk ar 
not the lack of good will in the people to yeld the aydes promised, 
but in the maliciouss covetoosness of such as ar knytt and con- 
federat with the states, who, I thynk, fynding ther lack of ther 
former gaynes, wold, if they cold, attayn to ther government ageyn, 
and for that purpooss seke to stopp the payment, therby to weary 
your lordshrp, and to induce yow to remitt the government, which 
suerly cannot be doon but with the ruyn of the whole cause, to 
the gretest daunger of hir majesties suerty. 

Your lordship hath don very honorably and proffitably to our 
country in procuryng oppen passadg for our marchantes to Emb- 
den, and yet, in the end of your lordships letter, your lordship 
wryteth that the ambassador for Embden will not assent to the 
matter, except the ryver may be fre for all other marchantes besyde 
English, but, I thynk, if it be well stycked unto, the conte of Emb- 
den will, [for] his own proffitt, consent to our merchantes access, 
though others shuld not come but by permission of the Hollanders. 
Suerly if ther might be passadge oppen by the Rhen out of 
Holland, I wold less care for our trade at Embden, for than a 
our merchantes saye they wold make a great trade by Hol- 
land, but yet, with the condition that our marchandise be not 
burthened with great taxes, for your lordship knoweth that no- 
thyng is so great a hyndrance to trade of merchantes as new toles 
and impositions, wherof our staplers of late complayned for the 
burden layd uppon ther wares at Midleborough. And yet, I con- 
fess, it is hard to gyve advise herin, for as resort of merchauntes 
to those countreys is proffitable, so how the common cause that 
is maynteaned by taxes may yeld a forbearance of taxes uppon 
marchandise, I gretly dout. 

I thynk by the accompt of Englishmen of late monthes past 
out of this realme, ther ar besyde the queenes own army, above 

a than without our, in MS. 


vj ra footemeiij so as, if your lordship may have wherwith to pay 
them, I would think your lordship shuld be liable so to kepe 
the feld as the prince of Parma shuld not be hable to contynew any 
sege to any town of strength, being also well-manned. And suerly, 
my lord, without yow shall be hable to kepe the feld, ther is no 
town so strong but the pry nee with his battery will wyn it. 

I am very glad that the town of Axell serveth to so good a 
purpooss. I am suer, if the prynce did not follow theise seges in 
Gelderland, &c. your lordship wold advance some horssmen to 
Sluse and Ostend to spoyle the countreys about Bruuges and 
Gant, which also wold make them revolt. Now, my lord, I dowt 
not but Mr. secretory doth at lardg acqueynt yow with the dis- 
covery of the late traytorooss conspyracies, the authors wherof, as 
farr furth as we do esteme, we have, savyng only ij, Thomas Salis- 
bury and Edward Abyndon, both which ar fled, but pursued.* My 
lord-chancellor and I ar here contynuyng at London, dayly occu- 
py ed, first in procuryng ther apprehension, and now in examyn- 
ing, &c. 

And so, my good lord, being urged with a weak gouty right- 
hand to leave wryting, I pray your lordship to accept these lynes, 
so evill scribled, in good part. 

Your lordships most assured, 


From my houss at Strond, 
18 Aug. 1586. 



31ST AUGUST, 1586. OUVRY MS. FOL. 54 b. A COPY. 

The earl has invested Duesbourg — particulars of an alarming wound 
received by sir William Pelham — want of money from the states — 

a Both were afterwards apprehended and executed. State Trials, i. 1132, 1158. 


arrival of Scots — the queen is advised to be at some point with 
these men, and to deal plainly ivith them. 

Mr. secretary, yesterday morning I wrote vnto you, and yet not 
fullie, of my determinacion touching my cominge to Dursborow, a 
towne that doth greatlie annoy vs, and hath garrison of horse and 
foot in it ; and, except I doe leaue a good parte of my company 
behind me in sondry places, I shalbe cutt of from our victells and 
cariages continually, wherevppon it was thought good by all the 
cheif officers here to stepp suddenly to this towne, a and, with hope 
in few dayes to take it, we accordingly yesterday by 2 a clock 
brought all our armie hether, and presentlie invironed it. Our 
artillery and vittells we sent by water, which came not till this day, 
now are we in hand with planting our batterye, and [will] not faill 
to make all haste b possible with this towne. 

a The siege of Berck had now continued nearly a month, but Schenck had made 
many sallies, and had interrupted the proceedings of the besiegers in such a variety of 
ways, that they had not been able to make much progress. In the meantime Leycester 
had been gathering his forces together with the announced intention of making a direct at- 
tack upon the prince's army. On the 14th of August Norris and Cecil, with the van- 
guard, passed the river Isell and advanced into Cleves ; on the 17th they were joined by 
another division of the army under Pelham ; ten days afterwards there arrived the troops 
under count Hohenlohe, and on the 28th Leycester himself proceeded from Utrecht to 
the camp, and reviewed the whole body of troops with all " the pomp and circumstance " 
which usually accompanied his movements. The review took place on a Sunday, and 
after it was concluded the English were formed into squares, " and two preachers made 
to them two sermons on the field, by the hill side," after which Leycester assembled 
the chief officers, and "fell into consultation what were fittest to be done." It was 
determined, that the force which had been collected together with so much parade, 
was insufficient for its object, and, instead of marching to give battle to the prince, it 
was thought better, by a sudden retrograde movement, to attack Duesburg in Guelder- 
land, a fortified town which it was unsafe to leave in the rear of an advancing army, 
and which was of such importance that, if it were in danger, it was likely the prince 
would withdraw from Berck, and come to its succour. The writer of the Briefe Report 
says, that on the day of Leycester's arrival before Duesburg " himselfe in person, 
within arcabuze shot, tooke viewe of the wals on al the east side, and that night set 
pyoners and soldiers to entrenching within halfe-arcabuze shot." Briefe Report, sig. 
C. 2., and see Stowe's Chron. 735. 
b hath in MS. 


But I must tell you of a marvellous losse we were like to have 
had yesternight at x a clock. I being weary, and ready to go to 
bedd, the marshall came to me, and tould me what beastlie pioneers 
the Duchmen were, and having begon their trench everie shott 
makes them run awaye, beside their gaird was not verie good; he 
told me he would back againe, and take some more men with him. 
I, much against his will, would needs goe with him, and we, having 
both our gards, went towards the trench that was begon ; hit was 
verie dark when we set out, and afterward somewhat starlight, 
insomuch as we found ourselves suddenly almost at the verie gate 
of the towne. The marshall perceiung he had mist a litle his way, 
he and I going before the rest vj or vij paces, a he stept afore me 
to see the right waie, with which instant a caliuer shott from the 
wall strake him in the belly. Thinking himself slayne, [he] turnid 
about, speaking verie cheerfully to me, and thanked God it was his 
happ to be betwene me and that blow, with very comfortable and 
resolute speeches to me. Soe, at his home-cominge, I had 
Goodrous b to see his wound, and hit was iij fingers iust, with the 
navell on the right side, and how farr the bullett entred we knowe 
not ; but, the Lord be thanked, hit apperes now without all danger 
of his life, for he hath had no evill accident at all, which if he had 
had anie perishing of his inward parts wold streight haue shewed, 
both vpward and downward; beside, in this time, their would haue 
bine some great alteracion ; but, I thanke God, he hath both slept 
well, and eaten that his surgeons appointid with good appetite and 
disgestion, beside he is in verie good temper, free from anie fever. 
Soe that the surgion doth fully resolue, whether the bullett be 
within his bodie or without, he is without danger for this bio we ; 
for which I thanke my Lord God most humbly, for, as my earnist 
sute brought him over, soe his going now with me was cause 
of his hurt. Thus we howrelie see in these cases how some be 
kild, some be hurt, and some narrowlie escape ; and yet men must 

» spaces, in MS. b See p. 174. 



adventure whan the seruice doth require, and by this service to 
make manie able souldiers and servants hereafter, whereas there 
was of late few or none. And lett her majestie thinke so much 
monie well spent as this cause hath cost her, if it were but for so 
many able servants as she shall winn by it. Thus, sir, I thought 
good to aduertise you, least you may here some vntruth that would 
greiue you touchinge this noble worthie gentleman, whoe, thanks 
be to God, amends so well as euen now he sends me word he 
trusts to ridd abroad with me to morow, and assuredly he is 
without anie danger. It was yesternight x a clock he had his hurt, 
and this letter is written this next day at night, viij a clock. 

We are hardlie handled by the states now for monie, yet are 
there Scotts arrived latly xij c , and as many more looked for ; our 
rutters I hope a shalbe with vs within viiij dayes. In the mean- 
while our dealinge here is like to cause the seige at Berks to 
levie ; we haue noe other waye, for we can haue noe vittells to put 
into it, yf we had gon thether ; then this course is the onlye waie, 
to seeke some of his townes that be our frontyers, that he would 
be loth to loose, as I am sure he would be this towne, being a 
proper towne, well walled and ditched double, very strongly seated 
and richly ; a towne of a mile and a half compasse, at lest. If 
God doe send it vs I will not change it for Berks, our men saved 
there, as I trust by this meanes theie shalbe, for, if the prince will 
doe anie thinge, he will seeke to releiue this towne, but it shall 
cost me dere but I will prevent him, and if our states deall care- 
fullie for themselues, I doubt not but, within ij inonethes, to abate 
the pride of the Spaniards in these parts, thorow Gods help and 
the goodnes of her majestie, if we may be abled to keepe our 
companies together so longe. But, except her majestie be at some 
point with these men, I see theie wilbe slacke, though theie harm 
themselves ; but if she will deall as planelie b with them as there is 
cause, aud that the whole countrey may know whome the fault is 

* I hope I in MS. b namelie in MS. 


[with], and not wholy to lay it vpon her majestie, albeit she is not 
free from a parte, I will warrant, at lest ells are theie vterlie vndone, 
that theie will come to a better order. I will write as soone as I see 
the end of our seige, how things past. And thus a will comitt you, 
good Mr. secretary, to the Almightie. In much hast, from her 
majesties armie before Dursborgh, this Wednesday the last of 

Your loving and assured friend. 




The earl standeth in good terms with the queen — regret for the 
quarrel betiveen Hohenlohe and Edward Norris —the lord-trea- 
surer and Walsyngham agree as to the revoking of sir John Norris — 
the bearer will apprise the earl as to what is intended against the 
Scottish queen. 

My very good lord, this gentleman hathe verry carefully and 
dyscretely executed the charge commytted unto him. In what 
good termes your lordship standethe with her majestie he can 
shewe you, I praye God contynewe yt, and that she may dyscerne 
the yll-affected from the sownde. 

Sorrye I am to see your lordship trobled with the pertyculer 
quarrels of thos that ought to be best united. The Lord geve you 
wysdome to appeese them, and patyence to beare this crosse ! 

The lord-treasurer hathe promysed to ioyne with me in the 

a he in #/6". 


revokyng of sir Ihon Norryce. I have imparted unto this bearer 
what is intended agaynst the Scottish queen. He is commanded 
to departe with speed, and my leysure wyll afoorde no more lynes, 
and therfore I most humbly take my leave. London, 2. Septem- 
ber, 1586. 

Your lordships to command, 

Fra: Walsyngham. 
To the right honourable my verie good lord the erle 
of Leycester, lieutenant-generall of her majesties 
forces in the Lowe Countries. 




Walsyngham 's occupation in the discovery of the accomplices in 
Babington's conspiracy — he trusts the queen will take advantage of 
it, and that the earl will use his influence with her to induce her 
to do so — sir John Norris — D. Rogers — Bodley — Truchses. 

My very good lord, * * can wytnesse unto you [how] greatly 
I was busyed at the tyme of his departure in the dyscoverye of 
the complyces of the late conspiracye, wherof I praye God her 
majestye may make [more] proffyt then of lyke opportunytyes 
thorrowghe Gods godnes appered unto h[er]. I knowe your lord- 
ships good advyce can greatly further the matter. She dyd never 
make greater [speech] of her love towardes you, [or] of the trust 
she reposethe [in] you then at this present ; therfor your lord- 
ships good cownecell will work good effects. 

Your last sent by young [Gor]ge of the vij th of this present 


I think meete to be communicated unto her majestye, that she 
may see howe hardely she dealethe with her best-affected servaunts. 

I am very glad that your lordship is growen to so good a lykyng 
of my cosyn Jhon Norryce. I praye God he may styll carrye 
himself towardes your lordship in sooche [sort] as may increase 
your good opynion conceyved of him. 

I have not been unmyndfull of your lordships request both for 
Danyell Rogers and your servant Bodley. Poor Rogers is forced 
to staye here to sollycyt the contrybution of the bishops towardes 
his ransom, which he fyndethe himselve bound in conscyence to 
see awntswered to sooche as became bounde for the same. I 
fynde the man well bent to serve your lordship yf this impedy- 
ment were not. Touching your servant Bodley, he hathe been 
owt of the towne a long whyle but is dayly looked for, at whos re- 
turne I will not fayle to deale with him. 

Touchyng her majestyes goodnes to be exstende towards the 
elector Truxies I wyll not fayle to sollycyt, thowghe [with] no 
great hoape thereof. And so I most humbly. a 




" Remember Seburo " — -Duesburg taken — sir William Pelham mends 
very well — sir Roger Williams wounded — count Nienar is bring- 

a The conclusion and the date of this letter are wanting, but there can be no doubt 
by whom it was written, and the contents indicate the time. It is evidently an 
answer to the earl's letters of the 7th August. See pages 383 and 384, and from 
its altered tone in reference to sir John Norris, it seems to have been written after 
letter CXLVI. 


ing up reyters out of Germany — assistance offered by the king of 
Denmark — number of troops under the earPs command — Cassimir 
the palatine and the duke of Cleves — warning respecting Ccssar 
the physician — anxiety of the earl to knoiv the queen's decision 
respecting this country — embassy from the states to her majesty — 
Menyn — Valck. 

Good Mr. secretary, remember Seburo, my honour and creditt 
lieth vppon it. 

The manner of our proceeding Mr. Gorge shall tell you, from 
our first going fourth of this iourney till he departed after the wyn- 
ing of Dorsborge, which was happilie gotten,* being so well walled 
and double ditched as it was, for the prince was come as farr as 
Eltons with his forces to reskew it, but he came to late, for the 
same day Ave had it. Hit is the first towne wonn by the cannon 
for the states these ix yeres, and it is a towne as fitt for vs as can 
be, for Zutphin b can now little harme vs, for it is environed of 

a The Briefe Report (Sig. C. 2,) and Archer's narrative printed in Stowe's Chroni- 
cle, (p. 736,) give some interesting particulars of the capture of Duesburg. Ten, or, 
according to Archer, nine, pieces of ordnance having been brought to bear upon the 
fortifications, a constant fire was kept up from break of day on the 2nd of September 
until two o'clock in the afternoon, and two breaches were made, which the defenders 
filled up, but through which it was determined to endeavour to gain an entrance. A 
contest arose for the honour of leading the way, which was determined by Leycester 
assigning one breach to count Hohenlohe and the other to sir John Xorris, and, under 
their command, the Dutch and Scotch on the one hand, and the English and 
Irish on the other, were about to enter the ditch, when the town was yielded, upon 
condition that " the soldiers should passe away with ther lives only, the burgers should 
have all they had at his excellency's mercy." The usual horrors ensued. The women 
who passed out with the soldiers were plundered and ill-used : " it was a grievous thing 
to see how they were ransacked, till the earl of Essex and divers other gentlemen came 
downe the breach, and by smiting the souldiers made them leaue off rifling them ;" and 
" the captaines and souldiers that were sent to saue the towne from spoyle did to the 
contrary, for they made havock and most horrible spoyle, wherwith his excellency was 
greatly displeased." 

b Qulphin in MS. 


euerye side ; Deventer and othir townes beneth it, and this towne 
and Arnham aboue it, all vppon one river. 

The marshall, I thanke God, mends verie well, and shall carye 
a bullett in his bellie as long as he Hues. God hath wonderfully 
delt for his saving aliue, and I escaped well, I thanke Him, the 
same instant. For saving me he had it, as I wrote vnto you, for 
I first spied the wall to be verie nere, a and he found he was past 
his marke, and stept before me, at which verie stepp he receaued 
the blow, which perhapps had lighted more daingerous vppon me, 
being higher then he, but God can defend whoe he will. 

Roger Williams hath gott a blow thorow the arme, one evil 
fire. b I warned him of it, being in trench with me, and would 
need run vpp and downe so oft out of the trench, with a great 
plume of feathers in his gylt morion, as so many shott coming at 
him he could hardlie escape with soe little hurt. He saw ther 
was [some went out] of my trench to gaze and were strait hit, and 
on kild out-right, that were [n]euer such marks as he was, and 
within point-blanke of a caliver. God be thanked, all things con- 
sidered, that we lost noe more. I thinke there is not xij kild since 
we came before the towne, and I beleeue never men lodged so 
nere a towne the first day as we did, and began our trench the 
first night, which had like to haue bine costly to some. We at- 
tend here looking for the enemie, but our stay is to strengthen the 
towne better, or I departe. 

This day I received letters from the count Newenor who is 
with the rutters, and tells me theie will march further with all 
[speed]. He sends me worde that old Ramelius c was sent vnto him 
by the kinge of Denmarke, to will the count to send me word, 
that, if the rutters stay, or vse delay, that he will furnish him with 
ij m of his best horse and iij m footmen, and shalbe with him within 
xv dayes ; and that her majestie had sent vnto him that he should 
help me if there were occasion, and her majestie should see he 

* new in MS. b wilfire in MS. c Ranilso in MS. 


was at her comandement. Though the yere be to far past now to 
levy those countrei horsmen, yet her majestie may see that kinges 
good devotion, which I pray you, sir, to remember to her majes- 
tie, that the kinge maie receaue thanks, and to keepe him in [t]his 
mind still ; for, if her majestie doe goe forward with this cause, 
than his offer will serue well against the springe, for, noe doubts, 
against that time, the kinge of Spaine will sett vpp his rest ; and 
truly, but for this armie of her majesties, at this time, now, the 
prince had prevailed this yere, to the verie townes of Holland. 
All these parts, Gelders, Overisell, the Vellow, Vtrickt, and 
Freseland, had bine gone cleane or this day, and for all the men 
that came over so fast, I doe assure you at Elten, our last campe, 
we had not 4,500 English footmen, nor xiij c horse, English, Duch, 
and all, nor aboue 1,100 Scotts and Duch foote. All which [is] 
a small army to defend such an enemie, as is at the lest at this 
howre 3,000 horse, and 8,000 footmen, if not 10,000. Neuer- 
thelesse, I trust not only to keepe all these parts safe, but, if our 
rutters come in time, make him seeke a new coast to dwell in. In 
the meane time, I am glad as he got ij townes of ours by reason, 
we haue gotten ij of his by force, and honorably, and, vppon my 
word, the states will not change these ij for iiij such as thother, 
theie be so fitt to annoy the enemie, as you will not beleeue the 
hurt Axell hath done him, and now we haue this towne, Zutphina 
wilbe nothing, considering how it shalbe beseiged by Deventer 
and this towne. We haue the whole river of Isell save Zuttphin, 
and the prince must now gett him another place for provision 
then Cullen, for Cassamer hath forbidden anie vittell to passe his 
countrey, either to Cullen or that waye. Soe that Cullen beginns 
to growe weary of the prince, and so doth the duke of Cleave, 
albeit he and his sonne hath giuen him all the help theie can, as 
well in deliuering vpp their towne to him, as euerie [way] ells, 
but he will double smart for it, the rutters once being come. 

a Qulphin in MS. 


I receaued a letter from sir Edward Stafford, wherin he doth 
giue me warning of one Ceesar, an Italian, that is gon into Eng- 
land, and doth meane to come over to me for some myschief. a By 
his description it should be a surgion, for their were ij Italians, 
both surgions, and both their names Csesars, and be both of 
Rome, and very villaines, yet found theie great fauor of me in 
England. Yf it be either of them, as he sayth this man confessed 
he serued me, it were not amisse he [and] his companion were 
staid there, or ells, if theie desire earnistly to come over to me, 
give me warninge and write your letters by them to me, and 
then I will handle them well enough here ; in the meane time, if 
theie linger there, for feare of her majestie clapp them vpp, for 
she is their principall mark. 

I trust, after Wilks be come home, I shall heare of her majes- 
ties resolucion. If she leaue of her hold that is offerd, all is gon ; 
and except she take vppon her all, all wilbe gon, and that shortly. 
For my none parte, I trust not to leaue anie dishonour behind me 
for her majestie ; and except she take the cause princly in hand, 
and call her parliament, and accept that hir subiects will offer 
her to maintayne this charge, hit will but consume her treasor and 
loose the countries. Yet better were it to make some secret con- 
federacy e first with Denmark, and, if I knew her pleasure onlie, I 
could deall by the count Hollock with the king of Denmark, 
quickly to knowe his mind. High time it is that her majestie 
did resolue one way or other, for our states growe stately, and 
wilbe high or low as God shall dispose of this iourney, for theie 
yet feare her majesties acceptacion further, and hir continuance 
with this charge doubtfull. b Theie be iumbling vnderhand, I 
dowbt. Theie doe send to hir majestie, as Wilks can tell you, 
touchinge this point. Menyn and Walke be appointed ; Valk is 
a shrewd fellowe and a fine ; Menyn is the deper man indeed, and 
I thinke the honester, and being well vsed the ablest man of all 
the states to seme her. He hath great credit as anie one man. 
* Myf, in MS. " Doubtles, in MS. 



Lett him be inwardly vsed ; and he is but poore, which you must 
consider, but with great secrecy. Thus far you well ; in hast, this 
4th September. 

Your assured freind. 

I doubt not but her majestie will shewe my letter touching 
these causes. 




Letter sent by sir Robert Jermyn — the queen is strongly advised to 
take the government of the Low Countries as the only way to save 
them — lord North recommended as successor to sir Thomas Cecill 
in the government of the Brill. 

Good Mr. secretary, this good gentleman, sir Robert Jermin, a 
one that hath declared euery way his hearty zeale and loue both 
to religion and to her majestie, I haue thought good, euen in 
manner against his will, to send him home, for winter is come to 
vs here alreadye, and he hath a sickly bodie, yet would not 
forsake the feild. I haue prayed him to deliuer some matter to 
her majestie, which he shall imparte also to you. 

There is noe other way for to saue theis countreis but for her 
majestie to take them wholy hirs, and that way in all reason a 
sound way, as she may alye and strenthen hirself, wherin I haue 
deliuered this berer my opinion, not doubting but Denmark and 
the cheife princes of Germany will ioyne themselues with her ; but 
you must ther be more diligent and carfull then heretofore you 

a See page 114. 


haue bine, for such princes must be otherwise delt withall then by 
meane and comon messingers. 

I vnderstand sir Thomas Cecill will giue vpp the Brill ; I did 
once commend my lord North to her majestie for it, though I 
will not willingly be sene in it, for that I heare he meanes to make 
my lord-tresorer deall for my lord Borrowe, a yet I beseech you 
put her [majestie in] mind of my lord North, whoe hath bine 
verie painfull and forward in all these services from the begining, 
and his yeres meete for it. I pray you faill not herein to speake 
for him, but not willing sir Thomas or my lord-tresorer to knowe. 
It may appere to be hir majesties choyce. God be with you, and 
keepe you; 12 th September. 

Your assured. 




Return of Mr. Wylkes — the occupation of the council with the pro- 
ceedings connected with Babington's conspiracy and a fear of 
Spanish invasion prevents their considering the affairs of the Low 
Countries — the queen of Scots to be removed to Fotheringhay for 
trial on the 27th — intention of the conspirators to murder Leyces- 
ter and Burghley — Seburo ready to be sent to the earl. 

My very good lord, Mr. Wylkes is come wherby hir majesty 
falleth into consideration of the state of those countryes, which 
suerly requireth no small consultation, the lett wherof is, at this 
tyme, more than is convenient, that we of the counsell ar throghly 

» Lord Burgh was appointed, but not until the 6th February 1586-7. Foed. xvi. 4. 


occupyed, some at London, some here, and some abrode, to deale 
partly in tryall of traytors, in serening for more, in lookyng to the 
sea-costes, to withstand the landyng of certen Spanish shippes of 
warr which ar come to Brest, but as yet we know not to what end. 
Some thynk they cam to have bene in redynes to have landed in 
ayde of this late conspyracy intended, some to joyn with the 
French in the recovery of Rochell. Within a few dayes we shall 
se what they meane. 

I understood your lordship did favorably stey, amongst others, 
my son from goyng to the assault of Dewsborogh. I do thank 
your lordship therfor, although I can be content that both he and 
I shuld spend our lyves for the queen and our countrye, but I 
wish it in a matter of more moment; and yet I judg the wyning of 
the town very necessary as the tyme was, but most of all if therby 
Zutphan might be gotten, which I thynk must be by perill of 

The queen of Scottes is lykly to come to Fodryngham castell 
the 27. hereof, and I thynk a nombre of the counsellors and 
others of the nobilitie shall have commission^ accordyng to the 
late statute 27°, a to heare and judg hir cause ther, so as in the 
next parlement, to begyn uppon a new summons the xv. of 
October, further order may be taken with that queen accordyng to 
part of hir desertes. Your lordship and I war very great motes in the 
traytors eies, for your lordship ther, and I here, shuld first, abowt 
on tyme, have bene killed ; b of your lordship they thought rather 
of poysoning than slayeng. After us ij gon, they purposed hir 
majesties deth, but God our defendor hath graciously prevented 
ther mallyce, and I hope will contynew his favor to mak voyd the 
relliques of ther mallyce, 

I will not fayle but remembre your lordships sute for the for- 

a Stat. 27 Eliz. cap. I. "An act for provision to be made for the suertie of the 
queenes majesties royall person, and the continuaunce of the realme in peace." Auth. 
ed. of Statutes, IV. 704. 

b See State Trials, I. 1140. 


fayted less of Salisbury a at Denbigh, being the land [of] your 

I can wryte no more at this tyme, wishyng to heare some 
comfortable news of Berk, ether of fredom from the sege or 
resonable composition for our people ther. 

From Wyndsor, xvth of September, 1586. 

Your lordships most assuredly, 


Seaburo, the Spanyard, hath bene redy this month to be sent 
to your lordship, and so I told Mr. Dudley iij wekes past. 




The prince has withdrawn from his attempt to relieve Zutphen — the 
earl has received from the surgeons a most comfortable letter of 
their very good hope of the recovery of sir Philip Sydney. 

Good Mr. secretary, this sommers service being in a manner 
overpast, I haue sent you these gentlemen home againe, now that 
the prince hath withdrawen his forces back againe from the succour 
of this towne,b whether to meet with our ruitters by the way 

a Salisbury was one of the parties to Babington's conspiracy. Upon his conviction 
the lease alluded to became forfeited to the crown. 

b The stout defence of Schenck, and the diversion created by the siege of Duesburg, 
compelled the prince of Parma to remove from Berck and advance to the defence of his 
frontier towns in Guelderland. In the mean time, the earl, animated by his recent 
success, determined to invest Zutphen, a strong town which commanded the river 
Isell, in the hope of taking it before the prince could arrive to its succour. It was 


cominge hitherwards, or no, we knowe not, but we keepe still our 
seate here before this towne, and, if he happen to returne hither 
againe, with anie further attempt to remove us, I doubt not but 
we shalbe well enough able to withstand him. Thus, for this time, 
I comend me heartily vnto you, and you to the blessed tuicion of 
th almighty. From the campe before Zutphen, this xxvij th of 
September, 1586. 

Your assured frend. 

My greife was so great for the hurt of your sonne, my dear 
nephew and sonne also, as I would not encrease yours by the 

a place of importance, and before the loss of Duesburg had formed, with that town, 
a strong defence against incursions from the northern provinces. Leycester invested 
Zutphen on the 13th September. Between that day and the 20th he visited 
Deventer, a neutral town at a distance of seven miles, from which Zutphen was 
supplied with provisions. On the 21st he learned, that, on the following morning, an 
attempt would be made by the prince to send a considerable convoy of supplies into 
Zutphen, which it was determined, if possible, to prevent, and for that purpose a 
body of English troops under the command of Norris and Stanley, and sup- 
ported by a reserve, were stationed on the road which the enemy must traverse. 
On the morning of the 22nd there fell a great and thick mist " that you might hardly 
see a man ten paces off," under cover of which the enemy advanced. Suddenly 
the mist cleared off, and the astonished Englishmen found themselves in the very 
teeth of an intrenched body of 3000 of the enemy. A band of noblemen and 
gentlemen who were stationed in front of the English foot received instantly the 
fire of a body of "muskets and arcabuzes," and as instantly, apparently without a 
moment's consideration, rushed forward to the attack of an enemy of whose strength 
they were altogether ignorant, and who really were greatly superior to their own 
troops in numbers. The result was glorious. The enemy were driven from their 
position, compelled to abandon their attempt to succour Zutphen, and to retreat 
with great loss in killed and wounded, On the part of the English about forty were 
killed, " but not any of name, saue onely ser Phillip Sidney, who first hauing one horse 
shot under him, and mounted upon a second, was shot with a musket in the left thigh, 
but came home on his horse, and died the 25. day after." Briefe Report, sig. D. and 
see Stowe, 737, and also an interesting paper by the late Mr. Beltz in the 28th vol. 
of the Archseologia, p. 28, in which is printed an account of the skirmish of Zutphen 
written by Leycester to Burghley a day or two after it occurred, and now preserved in 
the State Paper Office. A letter from Leycester to sir Thomas Heneage also giving 
an account of the same affair is partly printed in the Sydney Papers, i. 104. 


discomfort thereof ; but seing this is the vj tb day after his hurt, 
and having receaued from the surgions a most comfortable letter 
of their very good hope theie haue now of him, albeit yester-eve- 
ning he grew heavy and into a fever, about ij a clock he fell to 
exceeding good rest, and after his sleep found himself very well, 
and fre from anie ague at all, and was dressed, and did find much 
more ease then at anie time since he was hurt, and his wound very 
fair, with the greatest amendment that is possible for the time, 
and with as good tokens. I doe but beg his life of God, beseeching 
for his mercies sake to grant it. My hope is now very good. 




Sir Philip Sydney still goes on favourably and hopes are entertained 
of his life — sir Henry Unton and sir William Hatton the 
bearers of the letter are praised for general bravery and forward- 
ness, and especially for their exertions at Zutphen — narrative of 
the affair in which sir Philip Sydney was wounded — knights 
made by the earl — lord North's valour. 

Mr. secretary, I was loth to trouble you to your greife with the 
newes which greiued me, being an eye-witnesse at the first happ 
of it, which it pleased God to lett fall vppon your sonne and mine, 
but, for that I haue receiued great comfort and hope, from time to 
time, speciallie this day, being the vij th day, from his surgions 
and phisitions, I would not forbeare anie longer time in writing 
to you, since the Lord geueth me good cause to hope of his 
mercifull dealing in granting life to our dere sonne to remaine 
with vs, for he hath all good accidents that maie be wished. 

Now am I to recommend this honest and rare gentleman to 


you, sir Harry Vmpton, a whoe, with his companion b sir William 
Hatton, hath not failed anie iourney since theie came over hither/ 
either a horsback or foote, and none more forward then theie were 
at the wininge of Axell, at the seige of Dorsborge, and in the 
first ranke to giue the assault. Theie haue here bin in skirmish 
at our first coming with the enemie, as far and as daingerously as 
the formost. Theie were at the last, I thinke I may saye the 
most notable, encounter that hath bine in our age, and will re- 
maine to our posterity famous, the days fight, I meane, when our 
sonne was hurt, where these gentlemen were for hast driven to 
serue a foote, and sett themselues in the first rank [with] Mr. 
Rowland Yorke, who had the charge of that companie theie 
w T ere in. 

But I must retorne to that dayes service to lett you knowe, 
that, vpon my honor and credite, for I was the appointer myself 
of all that went forth, only those principall noblemen and gentle- 
men that staed by me in the mist (whoe was my lord of Essex, 
my lord Willowbye, sir William Russell, sir Phillip Sidney, sir 
Thomas Perrott, master, with their bands, but amonge themselues 
and their own servants) and ix or xij of name, in all to the 
nomber of 1, or xl, went on till theie found sir John Norris, to 
whome I had comitted this service, only to haue impeached a 
convoy ; but he, seeing these young feliowes, indeed ledd them 
to this charge, and all these ioined in front together, and what theie 
did the first charge, and after the second, doth appere by the 
nomber of men then slaine, which [is] confest by the enemy to 
be at lest 250, but others that haue reported of the enemies mouth 
theie were aboue 350, and theie were of the gallantest and best 

a A valuable memoir of this gentleman, who was " the last and most distinguished 
member " of a worshipful Berkshire family, with a notice of his friendship for sir 
William Hatton, nephew and heir of sir Christopher, will be found in ' The Unton 
Inventories,'' a work edited for the Berkshire Ashmolean Society with singular care and 
judgment by my friend Mr. John Gough Nichols. 

b Companies, in MS. e Overtake, in MS. 


sort. The odds you haue heard of, and capten George Gresier 
told it my none self, vppon mine honour, that theie were xv 
cornets of horsse and iij m foote. There was not in the feild of ours 
of horse in the whole ij c , whereof thes lords and gentlemen with 
their followers, to the nomber of iij xx at most, did all this feate, 
with the helpe onlie of sir William Stanley, who had but 300 for 
their 3,000 foote, and he did most valiantlye himself, and his owen 
horsse receaued viij shott of the muskett, and yet himself not 
hurt. He and old Read are worth there weight in perle ; theie 
be ij as rare a captens as anie prince liuing hath. Of our side 
we lost of horsse, as I thinke, 12 or 13, and of footmen 22 ; and 
if you saw the ground, with the nombers of the enemie, and the 
advantage theie had of the ground, you would mervell that euer 
anie one man escaped of our side, and but for the count Hollock 
we had had a most famous day. Beside the ouerthrow the enemie 
had, we tooke iij of their cornetts, whereof two I send her majestie, 
the other a knave cutt in peices, a present the enemie is ten times 
more greiued [at] then for the losse of xx captens. This hath flesht 
our young noblemen and gentlemen, and surely theie haue won 
her majestie at this day as much honour as ever so few men did 
their prince. 

The ij gentlemen, these berers, I made knights, having well 
deserved it, yet had I much a doe to gett Mr. Hatton to take it. 
I haue not bestowed it but, you shall hearej by due deserts ; others 
I meane to morrow to make, and not one but hath deserved it. 
My lord North being hurt the night before, hearinge of the en- 
counter, which lasted an houre and a half at least, being bedde-red, 
rose vpp and came to the end of it, and lost some of his men. 
There is noe man more forward then he is, and a very sufficient 
gentleman assuredly, and most resolute he is. Thus pray you 
[her majestie,] for my sake and her owne sake, to favour and loue 
this honest worthy gentleman. I comit you to the Lord ; in hast, 

this 28 Sept. 

Your most assured. 

» as of rare in MS. 




29TH SEPTEMBER, 1586. HARLEIAN MS. 6994, FOL. 37. ORIG. 

Objects for which Menin and Valck, commissioners from the states, 
are about to be sent to the queen — i. To know whether she wilt 
continue her favour to them, and ii. To solicit a loan — if the queen 
will persevere she should call a parliament and procure a contri- 
bution from her subjects — the earl will not endure such another 
year's service to gain as much as all these provinces are worth — 
he is anxious to know the queen's determination. 

My lord, I wrote to you before of certain commissionours ap- 
pointed to be sent to her majestie by the estates : who nowe I 
thinke wilbe very shortly with you. One cause of their comming 
wilbe, to advertise her majestie of their estate, and t6 be humble 
suytours to knowe her highness pleasure for the continewaunce of 
her gracious favour to them. But withall, a spetiall cause of their 
message wilbe, to borrow of her majestie a furder somme of monye, 
wherein I can saye litle. But according as her majestie shall lyke 
of the proceading with the cause, so must the advise be. And I 
do wishe, yf her majestie mynde to deale furder in this cause, and 
do thincke the maintenance of it to concerne the savetye of her 
own estate and realme, as it hathe bene allwayes so thought 
hitherto, that then bothe some loane of monye in this necessitye 
and all other effectuall courses were taken that may best furder 
the same. As, principally e, a parliament to be called, and that 
her highness do use the good willes of her subjectes to a francke 
contribution therto, to the which I nothing doubt but they wilbe 
founde moste agreeable and willinge. And no doubtes the case 
was never so good to deale in as nowe, and, as I trust you shall 
furder perceyve, yf other mayntenaunce fayle not nowe, being in 
good estate. But to goe on in suche sorte as it hathe hitherto 


bene proceaded in, is to lose all that is and shalbe spent, and, by 
litle and litle, to undoe the whole countrye, which the wise here 
see, and surely will do what they can to prevent in tyme, and it 
must neades be daungerous to her majesties estate, to lett it be 
thus weakelye dealt in on bothe sydes. For my own parte, I will 
not endure suche another yeares service, with so many crosses and 
wantes, and so litle asistaunce every waye, yf I were sure to gayne 
as muche as all these provinces are worthe. I hope God will put 
into her majesties and your lordships myndes, to do that which 
shalbe moste for his glorye, for the savety of her majestie, and 
benefite of her realme. And so, desirous to know with all spede 
some piece of her majesties resolucion, being hye tyme, I myselfe 
wilbe moste readye to performe the parte of a most duetifull ser- 
vant, and obey all her commandementes. And so, with my right 
hartye commendacions, I do bid your good lordship farewell. At 
the campe before Zutphen, the 29 th of September, 1586. 

Your lordships very loving frende, 

R. Leycester. 

To the right honourable my very good lord, the lord 
high-treasourour of Englande. 




The earl earnestly requests to be informed of her majesty's determi- 
nation respecting the Low Countries — the time is at hand to draw 
into garrison if the English troops are to remain. 

Mr. secretory, I haue written often and sent manie, desiring to 
knowe somwhat of her majesties resolucion for her proceeding in 


these countreis causes, but as yet I can receaue noe answere in 
that point. The time of peace now is presentlie at hand, to drawe 
into garrison. I would gladly be resolved whether her majestie 
meane that her people shall continue still here, or what elles her 
pleasure shalbe for them, whereof I heartily pray you that I may 
be advertised presently. And that you will send some speciall 
messenger away to me with the dispatch. And soe, with my right 
hearty commendacions, I bidd you farwell. At the campe before 
Zutphin, the 29 th of September. 

Your very loving freind. 




Letter sent by Mr. Killigreiv — Mr. JVylkes to return in a feio 
days with instructions from the queen — manifest guilt of the queen 
of Scots — and necessity for " direct and spedy procedyng" against 
her — thanks for permitting sir T. Cecill to come home. 

My very good lord, uppon this bearers * * Killygrews 
sodden departure, I cannot wryte so much as I wold; nether if he 
had lesur to tarry, cold I at this present wryte to myn own satis- 
faction. I dout not but Mr. Cavendish, whom I fynd a most ernest 
devoted creatur to your lordship, will, havyng lesur, wryt at length 
how he fyndeth her majesty disposed. For the commen causes ther 
under your government, Mr. Wylkes is to come from hence within 
these few dayes, instructed from hir majesty. 

For the gretest matter here in hand, we fynd the cause so 
manifest ageynst the party, the party so daungerous to our quene, 
our countrye, and, that is of most importance, to the whole cause 
of Godes chirch thrugh Christendom, as without a direct and spedy 


procedyng it had bene less daunger to have concealed then re- 
vealed this gret conspyracy. I hope that God, which hath gyven 
us the light to discover it, woll also give asistance to punish it, for 
it was intended not only ageynst hir majesties person, and yours, 
and myne, but utterly to have overthrown the glory of Christes 
chirch, and to have erected the synagog of Antychrist. I nede 
not to debate this argument. 

My lord, for a particular plesur, I thank you for licensyng [my 
son] to come home, for suerly otherwise his carcass had never 
bene brought alyve hyther ; he is yet, by the opinion of the physi- 
cians, not out of perrill, his ageu still contynuing uppon hym. 

And so, my lord, forbearyng untill Mr. Wylkes coming, I take 
my leave of your good lordship, whom I wish so to end your jornay 
in the feldes, as you may retorn hyther without daunger to the 
commen cause ther, a thyng so nedefull, as suerly, without your 
presence here, I know not how hir majesty will or can resolve uppon 
hir manner of procedyng. From Wyndsor castle, the first of 
October, 1586. 

Your lordships most assured, 


I hope well that Cassimyre shall enter into France. 

To the right honorable my very good lord the erle of 
Lecestre lieutenant-generall for the queens ma- 
jesty of England in the Low Country es. 



2ND OCTOBER, 1586. HARLEIAN MS. 285, FOL. 253. ORIG. 

The medical men report that " all the worst days be past " with sir 
Philip Sydney — he amends as well as is possible — Menin and 


Valck sent to the queen from the states — the earl has also sent 
doctor Clerk and Burgrave —great commendation of the latter — 
advice as to the course proper to be adopted towards these 
countries — character of Menin — the earl's credit has been cracked 
ever since sir T, Heneage was sent — these people having ever been 
under some prince are not content to be over-ruled by their bakers, 
brewers, and hired advocates — character of Valck — intrigues of 
Paul Buys — the earl's receipts from the states, and the way in 
which they have delayed their payments to him. 

Good Mr. secretary, I trust now you shall have longer enioying 
of your sonne, for all the worst days be past, as both surgeons and 
phisytians have informyd me, and he amends as well as ys possible 
in this tyme, and himselfe fyndes yt, for he slepes and restes well, 
and hath a good stomack to eate, without feare, or any distemper 
at all. I thank God for yt. 

Ther be certen personns desired to be sent to hir majesty, one 
of the states, which ys Mening, another of the councell, which ys 
Valk. I have thought good to have Mr. doctor Clerk goe also, 
who wyll deall truly with hir majesty, and he hath byn a dilligent 
observer of all that hath past among them. 

But I haue thought yt good for spetyall causes to send one 
Burgrave, and joyned him with the other, who of my knoledge ys 
a wyse, honest, and religious personn, and not one now amonge 
them that ys of better understanding of all the matters of this 
state than he ys, and whatsoever he doth know he wyll deall 
plainly with hir majesty, whome I pray you help he may haue 
conference with hir, and with you. You shall fynd him a sub- 
stanciall wyse man. He was, in the princes tyme, one of the 
chife for Flanders ; he hath byn also one of the prevey councell of 
estate, and used almost in all ther great causes. Since my coming 
he served first as master of requestes, after audyencer, and first 
secretary of the councell of estate. He ys born in Flaunders, and 
therefore those of Holland have byn lothe to lett him groe into to 


much credytt. Paul Buys could never lyke of this man, as one 
afrayd of him, for he ys a depe fellow ; yet wold this man never 
speak yll of him to hurt him, and yet no man can tell more of his 
doinges than this man, and he can tell you whether I dyd use Paul 
Buis, and deservyd well at his handes, or no. This man I recomend 
to you, as one best able to satysfye you what courses may be best 
to procede for the present, yf hir majesty doe meane to deall any 
further in these causes, but, except you think the cause worthye 
to be taken thorowly and princely in hand, never pach it upp any 
more ; rather take your owne courses betyme, and leave these to 
God, than to deall so as nether part shalbe the better ; for most 
faythfully I assure you, the fear among themselves, with the dowbt 
of hir majesties proceding, hath almost mard the fashyon of this 
actyon. And yet, what hart and contentacion the shew of hir 
majesties favor to these countreys hath bredd doth appeare by 
the king of Denmarkes and other princes furtherance hereof. And, 
no doubtes, yf hir majesty wyll goe to the chardge but for ij yeres, 
she may as assuredly stablysh these countreys as she shall please, 
as yf ther [were] no enymye able to gaynsay yt. 

Now, whether you ther conceave styll as you have done, that 
these countreys be of consequence for hir majesties safty and 
servyce, to be kept at hir devotyon, I must leave to yourselves ; 
but yf you be, than doth now your opportunytye well serve you, 
both to move hir majestye and to ease hir own charges. Yf that 
opinione be changed, then ether must you entertein them with 
hope, tyll you can know whether Denmark wyll deall or no, or to 
make a good peace or a bad peace for hir and them. And, albeyt I 
wyll never councell that way which may bring but a present shew 
of peace for a tyme than a perfect peace in dede, yet yf others shall 
think and per s wade that way as a necessarye way, than I say, I 
think hir majesty may have what peace she will at the king of 
Spains handes nowe. For the prince ys at his wyttes end at thys 
time, and a sounde and princely preparacion made for hym this 
wynter wold breake his backe the next yere, using such other 
meanes as hir majesty may with the king of Denmarke and the 


princes of Germany, with whome she may have the greatest 
reputacion of any prince in the world. 

These thinges I must leave, as he that must be dyrected ; and yf 
hir majesty doe procede with these men in the cause, you must nedes 
than have another manner of comission than was last, and other- 
wyse delt withall, both for hir majesties assurance here and a more 
fyrme establyshment of the government ; and as these men, all but 
Burgrave, are sent not only for to seke relyfe, but chyfely to dys- 
cover and understand hir majesties very full dysposytion in this 
cause, so ys hir majesty to consider with herself what she wyll doe, 
that she may use them accordinglye. 

Of those ij, Mening and Valk, Meninge ys the abler man every 
way, and I think the better affected to hir majesty. I dyd gyve 
him a cheyn, one of those you sent ; he was no lytle proud man to 
think himselfe remembered of hir majesty. For my owne parte, 
my credytt hath byn craked ever synce hir majesty sent sir Thomas 
Henege hether, as all men can tell you, for indede the government 
they semed they had geven from themselves to me stok in ther 
stomackes always, and but to have pleased hir majesty and satysfie 
the people, they wold never have donn yt. On the other syde, the 
towens and people they never could, nor yet can, well consent to 
be overuled by their bakers, and bruers, and hired advocattes, 
having byn always governed under some prince, and now spetyally 
under hir majesty, for so dyd they, and doe the most parte, yet 
take it, that they be only under hir majesties goverment and not the 
states, for, lett me never be trusted, yf, as sone as they shall flnde 
that they be not under her majesty es government, that they 
doe not refuse to obey the states, or to lyve under the name of ther 
goverment iij monthes. I know they hate them, and therin Paul 
Buys sought to wynn his credytt wyth the people ageyn, to make 
that shew he dyd, as indede he dyd above all other men here, to 
advance hir majesties goverment, by joyning with them to press yt 
so uppon me, as, unless that werr donn, they wold have no 
goverment by the states by no meanes. Of this you hard inough, 
but I never found yt was well conceavyd yet, for your owne 


authoryty from Englond was such as gave them all good cause 
both to thinke hir majesty ment yt, and for them to offer yt, and 
confyrm yt uppon me. 

Touching all these matters for these countres, I wyll referr you 
to Mr. Burgrave. I pray you make much of him, for he ys very- 
religious indede, and so ar not many here. Mening ys therin 
better than his fellow, and one you may deall with all frely, but yet 
you know he ys one of the states. Valk is subtyll, and seketh 
wholy to content the states ever synce my authorytye cam in 
questyon, for, before they hard of hir majesties myslyke, they all 
of the councell werr sworn to me as governour. After Mr. Henege 
cam, they all secretly sought to the states, and tooke new patentes 
from them, saving ij, who plainly answered that they wer sworn to me 
as governour over all the provinces, and they wold no other patentes 
from any boddy. 

The states have challenged those of Utryckt, also, for that they 
have contynewed themselves only obedyent to my authoryty, 
refusing any other comandment of ther states-generall ; and herein 
did Paul Buys deall most badly with me, and with hir majesty also, 
that knowing hir good pleasure, after did always seke to make wrang- 
ling and debates among us, yet did I never any thing but by his ad- 
vice, and used him above all other councellors here. I hear yt ys 
reportyd that he gave upp all offyces in the princes tyme for 
standing against Monsieur and for hir majesty, and how trew that 
ys all men here know, and that he had a course than in hand, nether 
for Monsieur nor hir majesty, but only for these countreys for the 
prince himselfe ; and whan he was dedd wold have had him buryed 
as erll of Holland and Zeland, and wrought all the states of the 
countrey in the heyt of yt to chuse his sonne governor, which being 
delayed, he, being in England, was the chife cause to hasten the 
confyrmacion of yt, and was donn indede, as you know, and none 
semed to myslyke yt so much as he, and yet he chifely procured 
yt. His reason than was, for that he feared hir majesty wold not 
goe forward, and than he ment to prevent all other practyces for 



the French ; and yet whan I cam he only sought to make a pyke 
between count Morris and me, and byd me take hede of him for he 
was only French. Indede I here that after the prince was ded, and 
[he] saw that his practyce that way was ended, he stoode for hir 
majesty before the French, for he knew the French was advertysed 
that he was the dealer against Monsieur ; but otherwyse yf he ether 
lost offyce or credytt for hir majesties sake, lett my credytt be lost 
with you and all the frendes I have ; so well have I enquyred of 
his doinges. But lett him and all these pass. I pray you lett spedy 
care be taken what course hir majesty wyll take, as a thing most 
nedefull, and tyme ys most precyous. 

And, though I have notbyn wylling to make the worst of thinges, 
yet wyll I not be thought so yll an husband as some I hear wold 
make me, that I have received of these states not only all the 
ordynarye allowed beforehand, but also the extraordinarye to the 
somme of 400,000 u sterling. First, I wyll say, I never received 
the therd parte of the ordinary, and for the extraordinary, hit was 
400,000 florins, and not poundes, which shuld have byn payd in 
March, Aprill, May, and June ; but the first of that we never 
received before August, and of that ther ys one 100,000 dewe yet; 
and of the 300,0000 disbursed, yf ther hath byn paid in money 
70,000 to the soldyers hit hath byn a myllion. But they doe 
make reckoning of all ther vyttell, of ther armour, and wepon, and 
of their lyke provissions, for which I dare asure yt to you, they 
have v, vj, viij month day for payment, and yet these provissions 
be of some their owen. Than judge you, what dealing this ys, or 
whether these somraes may be said " delivered " to us in 
money, or no. For the same tyme they take with the marchant 
for vyttell and munytion, the same might they use for the benyfyt 
of the soldyer ; for, before vj or v months come out, they myght 
make other money reddy for to pay the marchant, and relyve the 
soldyer in the meane tyme with that which they turn to their own 
benyfytt; but they deny all this, albeyt yt be playnly knowen. 

So, praing to the Lord to dyrect all your councelles to his glory 


and hir majesties saftye, I corny tt you to his protectyon. In hast, 
this 2. of October. 

Your assured frend, 

R. Leycester. 
To my honourable good frend sir Francis Walsingham, 
knight, her majesties principall secretarie. 




Capture of the Zutphen forts — extraordinary bravery of Edward 
Stanley — the earl wishes the queen had seen it — young Cooke, a 
gentleman of the earl of Warwick^ s, dangerously wounded — another 
of the forts taken by escalade in a way which no one ivho had not 
seen it ivould believe — " no walls of earth will hold these fellows " 
— sir Philip Sydney is " well amending " — Roger Williams worth 
his weight in gold — the earl never knew a worthier fellow than 
old Read. 

Sir, I thanke God he hath giuen vs this day a very happy suc- 
cesse of the ij principall forts here. We haue taken one by a 
gallant and a thorow-fought assault, and for a quarter of an houre 
we did looke for a very furious resistance, yet so it pleased God 
to daunt their heartes, and to animate those worthy souldiers whoe 
attempted it, as hit was entred, and the enemie, as many [as] did 
abide, kild, the rest fledd to the other fort. There was one gentle- 
man whome we all present did behold, that had the leading of all 
the rest that went to the assalt, which was Mr. Edward Stanley, 
lieutenent to sir William Stanley. Since I was borne I did neuer 


se any man to behaue himself as he did. First clime the brech, 
a pike-length before and aboue anie person that followed him, soe 
did he alone maintaine the fight, first with his pike, then with the 
stumpes of his pike, and afterward his sword, against at the lest ix or 
x, and everie man either brake his pike vppon his brest, or hit him 
with the shott of thir muskett, yet would he not back a foote, but 
kept himself in this sort without anie one man to gett vpp to him, 
the ground was soe false being all sandie, insomuch as we all gaue 
him [for] lost if he had a c lives; for I was within viij xx yardes and 
lese myself, and v in saw it besides, being all in yellow saving his 
curass. a When he had longe thus dealt most valientlie and wor- 
thilie, and none of his companie easily could come to him, at length 
theie all came so fast together as one bare vpp another even to 
to the topp of the brech, where that gentleman got a halberd and 
lept among the enemies, and then the rest with him, in so resolute 
manner as thei speedilie dispatched the enemye, and in the sight b 
of all the towne both placed their ainsignes and made this fight. A 
place theie little looked to be won so soone, and in all troth it is 
one of the strongest places for sure fights within, that euer I saw 
in all my life. But this gentleman shall I neuer forgett if I liue a 
c yere, for if he had fainted and tarried for his fellowes, as many 
one would haue done, we had bine like enough to haue made a 
new batterie for the rest ; but even so worthilie he did by Godes 
goodnes, as he was the cheife cause, of mans worke, of all the 
honour of this day, and he shall haue parte of my living for it as 
longe as he liues. c And I would God her majestie had sene this 

a curatts in MS. h highst in MS. 

c The bravery exhibited by Edward Stanley in this daring enterprise is highly and 
universally extolled, and must have been peculiarly gratifying to Leycester, whose plan 
of attack upon the Zutphen forts, devised " by his excellencies owneselfe," and adhered 
to " contrary to all and every their advises," was thus rendered successful. Leycester 
knighted Stanley "in the trenches, gave him fortie pounds sterling in golde, and sent 
him the next daie a patent of one hundred marks sterling by yeer, during the life of the 
said sir Edward, binding his excellencies own landes in England for the due paiment 
thereof." Briefe Report, sig. D. 2. 


enterprise, for hit was worthy her sight to se the willingnes of her 
subiects, their valour in performing, and with how little losse of 
them it was acheiued, notwithstandinge that we had all the artillerye 
of the town against them on the one side, and the other fort on 
the other, yet was there not slayne five persons in all, nor aboue 
vj hurt, whereof an honest proper yong gentleman of my brother 
of Warwicks is one, called Cooke, whoe even at the first attempt was 
by the shott of a canon thwart his belly stricken soe strangly as I 
neuer saw ; his armour broken with a hole as bigg as a bullett, 
himself with a piece of the armour cut alonge his bellye, ij inches 
deep, and yet his bowells whole, and I am in hope of his life. 

This good successe God gaue vs this Thursdaie. The last 
Thursdaie we tooke another of the fortes, which did vs most harme 
before, and at nine dayes, before the enemyes face, by a flat skal- 
lader ; and, if you had bine here and sene it, and that afterward a 
man had tould you hit had bine" taken, either without ladders or a 
mine, you would not beleeue it, the ditch was so deepe and the 
ramper so high, at the lest xx foote high, and our men had not a 
ladder, but one climing vpp still by an other ; for no walls of earth 
will hold these fellowes. The count Hollock was a yere and more 
about this fort, and had more helps then I haue, or shall haue, 
and as I haue already ij of the iij, soe I hope to haue the three or 
longe, and if I can haue that, I care not much for Zutphin, for it wilbe 
besett well enough, we having Deventer, Lockom, Shereberge, a 
Dotticom, and Doursborrow. I cannot see how it can be able to 
liue, or to be reliued, without a very great armie at euerie time hit 
hath need. God send it vs quicklye, for the winter is come here 
and foule weather alreadie, and how we be serued of our rutters 
I haue written to her majestie, but the king of Denmark hath de- 
serued great thankes at her majesties hands. 

Lastly, and that will not like you least, your sonne and mine is 
well amending as euer anie man hath done for soe short time. He 
feeleth noe greif now but his long lying, which he must suffer. 
a So in the MS. but perhaps it should be Herenberg. 


His wife is with him, and I to morrow am going to him for a start. 
But for his hurt, that Thursdaie may runn amongst anie of our 
Thursdaies, for there was neuer a more valiant dayes service seene 
this c yeres by so few men against so many, and the most of them 
such men as those were, lords, knights, and gentlemen, among 
others. In my former letters I forgott one, whoe not onlie at that 
clay, but at everie dayes service hath bine a principall actor him- 
self, a tall wise rare servant he is, as any I knowe, and of marvel- 
lous good gouernment and iudgment ; that gentleman may take a 
great charge vppon him I warrant you. 

The prince was here, but staied a onlie a night with all his forces, 
and brought I thinke xxx wagons of vittell with him ; he doth now 
logg ix mile of. I sent v c horsse this morning to vissett his campe, 
but there would none of his gallants come forth. Sir William 
Russell, Robert Sidney, Rogers Williams, b among them were 
the cheif, and that Roger Williams is worth his weight in gold, 
for he is noe more valiant than he is wise, and of judgment to 
gouerne his doings. Here wilbe manie worthie men as euer 
England had. Mr. Norrice is a most valiant souldier surely, and 
all are now perfect good freinds here. The old marshall neuer 
rests. Soe, good Mr. secretary, I will bidd you far well, and comit 
you to the Lord. Hast, this vj. of October. 

Your assured freind. 

I assure you I neuer knew a worthier old fellow then old Read c 
is, nor so able bodie to take pains ; he hath past all men here for 
pains and perill. 

a served in MS. b William Rogers Williams in MS. 

c Leycester knighted Reade at the same time as Edward Stanley. Stowe's Chron. 
p. 739. 




10TH OCTOBER, 1586. OUVRY MS. FOL. 6lb. A COPY. 

The earl urges the immediate execution of Mary queen of Scots — 
the great seal was sent for her execution ivhen she ivas suspected of 
a participation in the rebellion of 1569, how much more now — the 
earl hopes the queen will retain Candish, the bearer of this letter, 
an excellent old man, but who cannot be kept out of the field. 

I haue written very earnistly, both to her majestie and to my 
lord-tresorer, and partlie also to yourself and Mr. vice-chamberlain, 
for the furtherance of justice on a the queen of Scotts, and belieue 
me, if you shall deferre it, either for a parliament or a great session, 
you will hazard her majestie more than euer, for time to be giuen 
is that the traitors and enemyes to her will desire. Remember, 
how, vppon a lesse cause, how effectually all the councell of Eng- 
gland once delt with her majestie for justice to be done vppon that 
[person] ; for, being suspected and informed to be consentinge with 
Northumberland and Westmorland in the rebellion, you knowe 
the great seall of England was sent then, and thought iust and 
meete, vppon the sudden, for her execucion. Shall now her 
consent and practice for the destruccion of her majesties person 
be vsed with more, to her, more danger than the lesse former fault ? 
Surely I tremble at it, for I doe assure myself of a new more des- 
perate attempt yf you shall fall to such tempori singe solemnityes, 
and her majestie cannot but mislike you all for it. For who can 
warrant these villaines from her, if that person live, or shall Hue, 
anie time ? God forbid ! and be you all stout and resolute in this 
speedy execution, or be condemned of all the world for euer. It 
is most certen, if you will haue her majestie safe, hit must be done, 
for iustice doth craue it beside pollicye. Hit is the cause I send 

a in in MS. 


this poore lame man, whoe will needes be the messenger for this 
matter. He hath bidden such travell and paine here as you will 
not beleeue ; a faithfull creature he is to her majestie as euer liued. 
I pray you lett her reteine a him still now euer to saue his 
life, for you knowe the time of the yere is past for such a man to 
be in feild, yet will he needs be so, and meanes to retorne, and you 
must procure his stay as without my knowledge, or elles I loose 
him for euer. But if he come hether it is not like that he can 
continue. He deserves as much as anie good hart can doe. Be 
his good freind I pray you, and so God blesse you. Hast, written 
in my bedd vppon a cushion, this 10 th , erely in the morning. 

Your assured. 

I pray you lett not Candish knowe I wrote for his stay, but yet 
procure it in any wise. 




The queen sends £30,000, which is to be paid to her troops serving 
in the Low Countries and to the garrisons of Flushing and Brill 
— Wylkes is to take the place of Henry Killigrew as a counsellor 
in the council of state, communicating to the earl of Leycester 
whatever passes there concerning the queen's interest, and giving 
notice to the queen or her secretaries of any matter relating to her 
service wherein he cannot obtain redress upon application to the 
states — a placard of the earl restraining traffic to be revoked or 
qualified — Ringault and Ferret to be dismissed from the charge 
of the finances — Paul Buys either to be brought to trial or re- 

a lett her not reteine in MS. 


stored to liberty — Wylkes to urge and procure answers to letters 
written to the earl which have remained unanswered. 

Elizabeth R. By the Queene. 

Whereas we have appointed certaine of our treasure, amounting 
to the somme of 30,000 u . to be presentlie sent over into the Lowe 
Contries, for the payment of our forces serving in the said con- 
tries, and our garnisons in the townes of Vlissingen and Brill, 
parte wherof is to be made over by waye of exchaunge, and the 
reste to be delivered to your handes to be safelie conveyed into 
the said Lowe Contries, of the which we have also appointed 
8,000 h to be chested here aparte, meaning that the same shalbe 
issued for the payment of our said garnisons at Vlissingen and 
Brill, to whome our pleasure is, that a full paye be made untill 
the twelfth of this present and if the same 8000 ll shall not suffize 
to make unto our said garnisons [a full paye] to the xij th of Octobre 
aforesaid, then our will and further pleasure is, that out of the 
reste of our said treasure there be taken so much as may fur- 
nishe up the full paye unto the same daye. We doe, therfore, 
will and commaunde youe to receave and take the charge of all 
the said treasure, and see the same safelie transported unto the 
town of Midleburche in Zelande, and there lefte in the handes and 
custodie of the deputie of our marchantes-adventurers untill suche 
tyme as direction may be given to sir Thomas Shirley knight, 
appointed to exercise the place of our threasurer at warres, in 
thabsence of Richard Hudleston esquier,torepaire thither, and there 
to receive and make paye therof to our said garnisons, as is above 
specified, and that our cousin therleof Leycester, lieutenant-generall 
of our forces in the said contries, shall give ordre for the convey- 
ing and transporting of the reste of the treasure, made over either 
in spetie or by exchange, to suche other place as by him shalbe 
thought convenient. 

And wheras, for the good opinion we doe conceave of youe, by 
leyc. corr. 3 K 


reason of experience had of your sufficiencie and dexteritie in our 
former services, we have made speciall choice of youe, and thought 
youe fitt to be employed in our present service in the Lowe Con- 
tries, there to reside for our said services, and withall to exercise 
the place of our servaunt Henry Killigrew esquier, as a counseler 
and assistant in the counsel of state there, according to the con- 
tract heretofore passed betweene us and the states-gen erall of 
those contries. Our pleasure therfore and meaning is, that youe 
shall forthwith repaire thither, and there to abyde and continue 
until by our direction youe shalbe revoked, and besides our other 
services which from tyme to tyme shalbe committed unto youe, 
you shall lykewise give diligent attendance and be present in the 
said counsell of state at all tymes and uppon all occasions, as to 
give counsaile and advise for our service, and for the publique 
services of the said contries. Willing and expressly commaund- 
ing youe, that in all thinges that shall concerne us, the benefite 
and furtherance of our said services, and thadvaun cement of 
thaction presently in hand for the defence and preservacion of 
the said contries, youe doe according to your skill and judgement, 
without feare or dreade of any parson or parsons whatsoever, in- 
forme and advise our said cousin therle of Leycester, to the utter- 
moste of your power, of all and everie suche thinges causes and 
matters as youe, in your knowledge and experience, shall at all 
tymes see to be needfull and requisite, to thende that good ordre 
may be had and taken in the same accordingly. 

And wee doe hereby further will and commaunde youe, upon 
all occasions of our necessarie services, and in matters of import- 
aunce that shall concerne us and our state, wherin there cannot or 
shall not be remedie and redresse had on that syde, uppon 
your mocions and good indevours to bee used to the states and 
counsell in that behalfe, that youe faile not, after youe shall have 
imparted the same to our said cousin, to give knowlege therof 
unto us, or to one of our principall secretaries, to thende the same 


may be weighed and considered here, and direction therin given 
from hence as shall apperteyne. 

And wheras, by certaine articles wherewith Ortell hathe here ac- 
quainted us by ordre from the states, yt appeareth that they fynde 
themselfes somewhat grieved with the placard published by our 
said cousin in Aprill laste, in restrainte of their traffique, a matter 
which they thinke will greatly interesse the common cause, yf yt 
bee not all the sooner redressed, as well in regard of the decaye 
of their shipping and impoverishing of their townes, which stand 
altogither by sea trades, as by diminishing the proffites of their 
convoyes, which hathe hitherto yealded a greate parte of the meanes 
to defraye the charge and burthen of their warres, and must of 
necessitie faile yf their said traffique, a principall cause of the 
riches and welthe of those contries, be diverted to other partes, 
wherof they have already some experience by the course which 
the Esterlings and others have taken aboute the Orcades in con- 
veying their commodities into Spaine and other of the south 
partes, which were wont to passe from the said Low Contries, 
where they were first stapled to the great inriching of their 
estate, maintenance and encreace of their navigation. Forasmuch 
as they have required us to have some consideration therof, and 
to interpose our authority with our said cousin in that behalfe, 
youe shall lett him understand, that as well for the greate care we 
have of the said contryes, as for our own particuler interest in 
the state therof, we thinke yt meete some suche ordre be taken for 
the preservacion of this said traffique, and revoking or qualifieing of 
the foresaid placard, as with thadvice of the states-generall, or 
counsell chosen by them to assiste him, shall be found moste ex- 
pedient for the common good of the said countrey. 

And where, also, we are infourmed of a generall myslyke con- 
ceaved by the said estates uppon the preferring of Ringault and 
Perret to the principall offices and charges of the finances, as well 
for the condicions of the men, and manifold suspicions heretofore 
conceaved against them upon very probable cause, as for divers 


bad offices they are rioted to have done synce their employment 
by our said cousin, both in laboring to sett some difference betwixt 
him and others of thestates and counselers there, and in seeking 
to introduce newe formes of exactions under his authoritie, bothe 
hatefull and dangerous in regard of the tyme and present condi- 
cion of the broken and unsettled gouverment there, wherof may 
growe some unhappy consequence yf suche lewd instrumentes 
should be continued, and shrowded under his contenance and 
favour. Youe shall lett him knowe, that we thinke meete, as well 
for the better satisfyeng of the said states and people, as for pre- 
venting the hurt might otherwise growe therof, that he doe make 
better choice of men to occupie their roomes, or to take suche 
other ordre in that behalfe as with thadvice of the said estates, 
or counsell appointed to assiste him, shalbe thought moste agreable 
to the necessitie of the tyme and condition of their affaires. 

And, for that we are also born in hand, that they doe fynd 
themselfes much greved at the proceading used against Paul 
Buys, bothe for the manner of his apprehension and deteyning 
thus longe in closse prison, without proceeding to his tryall, or 
bringing him to his aunsweare, contrary to the priviledges and 
custoumes of that countrey, youe shall tell him, we thinke yt 
meete that some favourable regard be also had to their content- 
ment in this behalfe, the rather for the triall he hathe heretofore 
made of his loyaltie to the common cause, and particuler affection 
to oure state, howesoever nowe he be noted to have declined from 
the one or thother. And, also, to take lyke ordre that those gen- 
tlemen burgesses and others which have ben latelie banished by 
those of Utrecht in a populer tumulte and disordre (as we are 
infourmed), uppon some jalousie conceaved against them for reli- 
gion sake, may by his authoritie and mediacion be either charged 
or restored, the rather being (as we are given to understand) suche 
as against whose loyalties and fidelities no just exception can be 
taken, as appeareth by the testimonie of th'estates themselfes, 
from whom their cause hathe ben earnestly recommended unto us. 



And wheras, heretofore, many letters have ben written to our 
said cousin tlv'erle of Leycester, as well from us as from our privie 
counsell and secretary, requiring aunswere to many matters con- 
cerning our service, wherof by reason of his manifolde occupacions 
(as we take yt) there hathe seldome ben any aunsweare retourned, 
or mention of the receipte of the said letters, or matters thereby 
communicated unto him, for redresse wherof hereafter, even as we 
have appointed that notice shall be given unto youe of all suche 
letters as from hencefourth shall be sent thither concerning our 
publique services, so is yt our will and pleasure, that youe shall 
from tyme to tyme urge and procure aunsweare to the said letters 
and matters, whereof we meane to laye the charge and burthen on 
youe, and doe hereby will and commaunde youe, as ye will avoyde 
our displeasure, to take a speciall care and charge therof, and to 
sollicite our said cousin for aunsweare to all and everie the said 
letters, and matters, according to such particuler direction as youe 
shall receave from hence, a 

Fra. Walsyngham. 




Arrival of a messenger with tidings of the fight at Zutphen — the 
queen immediately sent a special messenger to sir Philip Sydney 
with letters of her own hand to comfort him — complaints against 
the earl for levying more men than he can pay and for want of 
accounts of the money he had received — sir Thomas suspects 

a This paper is not dated, but it appears from Galba, C. x. fol. 83, that Wylkes set 
out from London on the 14th October, 1586, having previously received this com- 


from whom this evil grows — the queen's reception of the standards 
taken at Zutphen — the council are at Fotheringay — no tidings of 
what has been done there. 

My lord, before yesterday that Martine [brought the] a newes, 
but very uncerten and false rumors were brought hether of your 
conflyct with the Spaniards, and of the great valeure b and greevous 
hurte [of your] noble nephewe, to whome her majesty presently] 
hath sent this bearer, both to cary her graciose letters of her 
highnes own hand to comforte hym, [and] to bring her word 
agayn how he doth as [soon] as he can. 

I shewed her majesty your lordships [letter to] me, which when 
e had redd, she fownd [fault] anew with your callyng of moe 
en into [those] servyses then ether you coold pay or fende, [and] 
began to reherse unto me again, how your [lordship] had of 
the states, besydes all the money [from] hens, syns January last, 
above 400,000 u ; [neither] with reason or trothe coold I allmost any 
thinge drawe her from so false perswasion, [nor] without sharpe 
wordes get her [to] heare how the states made ther own reconynges 
and abate [mentes out] of their own paymentes, at all tymes when 
[they] let your lordship have money. So still I find an injurious 
and prejudiciall perswasyon agaynst [you], and the cawse pos- 
sesseth her majesties judgment, [that] you have had, as appeareth 
by your own hand, so moch money from the states and owt [of 
this] contrye, and can make, or hath made, no reconyng of yt, nor 
have paid the garrisons of her [towns] . I wrote to sir Philip 
Sydney of late, from whe[nce I] guessed this evell grewe, and I 
have ever [the] more cawse to thinke yt came from the [same] 

Er I parted from her majesty yesterday, I left her very well 
pleased with the care she fownd to be in you for her servyse, and 

a This alludes to the receipt of Leycester's letter to sir Thomas Heneage, dated 23rd 
September, 1586, an extract from which is printed, as before mentioned, in the Sydney 
Papers, i. 104. b valewe in MS. 


the [valour] and the victory of the noble and gentelmen 
[whom she doth] exceedingly commend, and after shewed to 
soch of her cowncell as now be hear from Fotheringay the twoe 
cornettes that wear taken, a and I delyvered to her majesty from 
your lordship, the one of count Hannibals, b and the other Martyne 
coold not tell me to whom yt dyd apperteyne. The Lord Jesus 
graunte your lordship no wurse bargen whensoever you meet 
agayn with the Spanyard. Your lordships letters both to my lord 
threasurer and Mr. secretary Walsingam I sent presently to 
Fotheringay c to them, after Martine had delyvered them. What 
the lordes have doonne ther I yet knowe nothing, but whatsoever 
they doe thear, I have great cawse to feare that the forbearyng to 
doo hear (that is of all the most needfull) will, er we be ware of yt, 
quyte undoe us all. This is both my guesse and my greefe. And 
now all my prayer is, that God will preserve her majesty, [and] 
send your lordship victory thear, with most honour, and soone 
and safe home. At the court, this xiij 11 " of October, 1586. 
Your lordships all bownd at commandment, 

T. Heneage. 

To hys excellensye. 



18TH OCTOBER 1586. HARL. MS. 285. FOL. 256. ORIG. 

Upon the earVs letter to request them to make ready and forivard 
him £5,000, they sent part by the bearer of his letter, and caused 

a See page 417. 

b Count Hannibal Gonzaga, " a man for nobilitie and service of speciall account 
amongst them." Briefe Report, sig. D. 1. He was killed at Zutphen. 

c The commissioners for the trial of Mary queen of Scots assembled at Fotheringay 
on the 11th October, 1586. State Trials, i. 1168. 


every brother by oath to bring in all money he could procure, and 
also assessed every resident brother " by the poll," but without 
being able to make up the sum — their governor in London having 
agreed ivith lord Burghley to furnish the treasurer for the army 
with £10,000 by the end of October, they will do so, but must 
reckon the sum wanted by the earl as so much on account. 

Righte excellent our honorable good lorde, upon the receipt of 
your excellencies letter per your servaunt Mr. Henry Jones, we 
did in all readynes indebvor ourselves to make readye the fyve 
thousande pounde starling by your excellence requyred, parte 
whereof is sent per your sayde sarvaunt, and we use all meanes 
possible in provydinge the rest, and, to that end, have not onlye 
caused every brother by othe to bringe in all sutche monies as he 
eyther had or coulde by any meanes receave, but also have cessed 
every brother that are occupiers here with us by the poll, and yet 
we fynde ourselves unable to furnishe the rest as yet, partlye by 
meanes of our slacke trade at this present, and speciallye for that 
our appointed shipps, which should have bin here a monethe past, 
are not only as yet not come, but also, by meanes of the late 
stormes, have receaved greate hurte, and one caste awaye, and 
therefor not lykelye to be here this monethe or six weekes, where- 
by we are altogeather unprovyded to satisfie your excellencies 
expectation, notwithstandinge we have sought all meanes possible, 
as well by interest as exchaunge. 

Also, the righte honorable the lorde highe-tresorer of Englande 
hath delte with our gouernor at London, for the payment to sir 
Thomas Shurley knight [of] the some of £10,000 sterling by the 
last of this monethe, at xxxiij s . iiij d . Flemishe the pounde starling, 
which was yelded unto so farre fourthe as the coynes were not 
called doune, which some of monie, for the causes before alledged, 
will be very harde for us to furnishe, besyde the great losse which 
we shoulde susteyne by the losse of the exchange. Notwith- 
standinge, hopinge your excellencie will have dewe consideration 
thereof, we will do whatsoever possibly we maye to furnishe the 


sayde IOjOOO 1 * as soone as we cann, so farre as the some alreadye 
delivered to Mr. Jones, and the rest remayninge yet in our hands 
unpayde, may be by sir Thomas Shurley accounted as parte of 
the IOjOOO 11 ; otherwise, in truthe we fynde ourselves at this pre- 
sente altogeather unable to furnishe the same. Thus, desyringe 
your excellencie favorablye to construe our good meaninges, as you 
have alwayes bin accustomed, we cease, prayenge to the Almightie 
for your good successe and longe lyffe, to the glory of God. 
Amen. From Midleborch this 18 th of October, anno 1586. 
Your excellencies at comaundment, 

The deputie, assistants, and 
fellowshippe of marchaunts- 
adventurers of Englande 
rezident ut supra. 
Robarte Teylor deputye. 
To the righte excellent our very honorable good 
lorde, the earle off Leicester, her majesties 
lieutenant-generall in the Lowe Cuntries, 
to be delivered. 
At the campe. 




The writer has communicated to Valck and Menin, and to divers of 
the states, the earl's intention shortly to repair to England for a 
time — they all agree that it is vain for them to go before — con- 
dolence on the death of sir Philip Sydney — the states are free of 



speech, and have variety of judgments, but are easily persuaded 
by those of whom they have good opinion— a report that the queen 
means to take upon her the sovereignty — the states " in a maze" 
upon the intimation of the earl's sudden departure. 

Myne humble dewtie to your excellency premised; &c. accord- 
ing unto your goodd pleasure I have imparted the contents of your 
honorable letters, not only to my colleagues in this voyage, mon- 
sieur Valke and M r Menin, but allso to divers of the estates, signi- 
fieng unto them, that, albeit my stayenge heere is my extreeme 
hinderance in Englond, as indeede it is, yeat, for that your ex- 
cellency, for divers weighty affaires, are shortly in person for a 
time to repayre thither, I thincke it vayne for us to goe beefore, 
for that I assure my self e her majesty will determine nothing bee- 
fore your comminge, and that sithe shee hathe made choyse of 
your excellency for the mayne matter, it is lyke her highenes wille 
not wade farther withowte your especialle advowing and advizinge. 
They are heere in alle of mine opinion, and take most heavely, 
as wee all have cause to doe, the infortunat death of your noble 
nepheu, whose like, as far as I am liable to judge, for his time and 
years in all respects, I never fownde, nether in Englond, France, 
or Germany. I know I want judgement to reneue greefe by 
thease lines in your noble minde, but mine owne greefe wold not 
suffer silence. 

It resteth that wee heere bee doon to undrestand of your ex- 
cellencis pleasure, whether wee shalle awayte on yow at Utrecht 
or remayne heere, for that the estates are now fully assembled, 
untille your excellencis comminge. In my poore opinion it weare 
not amisse, in alle their assembles, to have soome of the cown- 
celle neere them that are gracius with them ; for, allbeit they use 
libertye of speeche, and have great varietee of judgements, as alle 
popular states have, yeat I finde they are easye to bee perswaded 
by those of whome they have goodd opinion. 


For that it is heere secretly bruted that her majesty meaneth to 
take uppon her the absolute goverment or soveraingnete, I have 
secretly fovvnde the meanes to gett owte of their regesters the 
treatise of Bowrdeaulx with the duke of Aniow, whereof 1 have 
written owte the whole negotiation. I have allso gotten the 
treatie with the Frenche king that now is, and have allmost copied 
it owte, which, under your honorable correction, wille serve us to 
great pourpose in England, encase her majesty shalle please to 
proceede eny farther in this action, for thearin shall wee not only 
see all the particularitees of their contry layd open, but allso how 
farre they went in their grawntes, and what dowbtes weare mooved 
uppon their articles, and how they weare answered. 

And so staying myselfe uppon your excellencis farther pleasure, 
and wisshing alle happines to your noble desseignes, I comitt the 
same to the Allmighty. The Hage, the xxij th of October. 

Your excellencis most bownden, 

Bartholo. Clerk. 

Allbeit all such of the states as I conferred withalle weare of my 
opinion that it weare to smalle pourpose for us to goe beefore 
your excellency, yeat, uppon the reading of your letters directed 
unto them, they finde themselves in suche a maze towelling divers 
poyntes, especially touching your soddein departure, [the] governe- 
ment in your absence, and the satisfieng of their soldiers, as I 
thinke they will not very speedely resolve eny thing. In my poore 
judgement your excellencis presence weare convenient emonge 
them, a by soome particulers to induce the generalle. In the 
meane time M r Valke, M r Menin, and myselfe, stand resolute to 

a On the 31st October the earl met the council of state and announced to them his 
determination to return to England, producing as the cause of this sudden determina- 
tion his writ of summons to attend the parliament then actually sitting at Westminster. 
Wilkes, who was present, says, that " the states and councell used but slender intreatie 


doe nothing but according to your excellencis good plesure, which 
I referre to the Allmighty. 
To his excellencye at Utrecht. 



22ND OCTOBER, 1586. HARL. MS. 285, FOL. 258. ORIG. 

That according to the earl's order he will await his pleasure at 
Middleburgh with the queen's ships under his command — the earl 
of Essex and other gentlemen have been waiting to have passage 
over with the writer. 

Right honorable my singler good lord, I have receved your 
excellences letter dated the 19. of this present, whereby I do 
understand your lordshipps pleasure is, that I shulde staie with 
her majesties barke the Charles, wherein I serve, with all the 
rest of the shippinge that are under my chardge, viz. the Spy, 
the Makeshifte, her majesties pynnace, and the Fortunate 
of sir Thomas Cicill, which, God willinge, I will do, till 
your excellences pleasure be further knowen unto me. All our 
victualles growe nere to an end. Beseaching your honor there 
maie be as much expedicion used as convenientlie maie. 

Here is my lord of Essex, sir Thomas Parrot, sir Phillip 
Butler, sir Thomas Cooke, with divers other gentlemen, who have 
stayed here to have passage over with me, which are nowe to 
seeke, except they will staie your honours pleasure. And so I 
comit your excellencie to the salfe kepinge of Almightie God, with 

to his excellencie for his staye and contynuance there among them, whereat his ex- 
cellencie and we that were of the councell for her majestie dyd not a lyttle marvaill." 
Galha, C. x. fol. 83. 


increase of honour unto your excellence and all yours. From 
Middlebrow, this 22. daie of October, 1586. 

Your excellences ever to comaunde, 

Xpof f Baker. 
To the right excellent my very honorable good lord the earle 
of Leicester, her majesties lieutenant-generall in the Lowe 
Cuntries, hast theis. 

At Utrecht. Hast. Hast. 




The earl's grief for the death of sir Philip Sydney — his widow 
is with the earl much exhausted by her long care of her husband 
— the earl will t( high him home now, leaving all as well as he 
can " — Deventer is secured — count Hohenlohe's treacherous cha- 
racter — the treasure much wanted — regrets for the delay in 
executing the queen of Scots. 

Sir, the greif I haue taken for the losse of my dere sonne and 
yours a would not suffer me to write soner of those ill newes vnto 
you, specially being in so good hope soe very litle time before of 
his good recouerie ; but he is with the Lord, and his will must be 
done. Yf he had liued, I dowbt not but he would haue bine a 
comfort to vs both, and an ornament to his howse. What perfec- 
tion he was growen vnto, and how able to serue her majestie and 
his countrey, all men here almost wondred at. For my none parte, 
I haue lost, beside the comfort of my life, a most principall stay 
and help in my seruice here, and, if I may say it, I thinke none 

» Sir Philip Sydney died on the 17 th October, 1586. 



of all hath a greter losse then the queens majestie herself. Your 
sorrowfull daughter and mine is here with me at Vtrickt, till she 
may recouer some strength, for she is wonderfully overthrowen 
thorow hir longe care since the beginning of her husbandes hurt, 
and I am the more carefull that she should be in some strength 
or she take her iourney into England, for that she is with child, 
which I praye God send to be a sonne, if it be his will ; but, whe- 
ther sonne or daughter, theie shalbe my children to. a She is most 
ernist to be gon out of this countreie, and soe I could wish her, 
seeing it so against her mind, but for her weaknes yet, hir case 

I will high me home now, leaving all as well [as] I can. I haue 
assured Deuenter at length, and with much coumber, b wherein the 
marshall hath shewed himself like a man of valour, as he is indeed. 
He is much esteemed of these coun trey men. The count Hollock 
is, for his hurt, like to doe well, but a very dangerous man, incon- 
stant, enuious, and hatfull, I see, to all our nacion, and, in my 
conscience, a very traitor to the cause, as I thinke the states begin d 
to find him now. There is noe dealing to winn him. I haue sought 
it, to my cost. His best freinds tell me he is not to be trusted. 
The tresorer is here, and sir Thomas Sherly gon, longe since, for 
England. The treasure is to be deliuered to the tresorer. The need 
is great with the souldiers. My none case e is not the best, but I 
referr that to the Lord, whoe hath sent me many crosses, which I 
acknowledge to deserue, with far more greater if my weaknes 
could beare it. 

I perceiue the conclusion of all your seruice is shutt from dew 

a This child was probably still-born. Two letters from the earl of Walsyngham 

printed in the appendix refer to an illness of lady Sidney's, perhaps a premature 

confinement, in December 1586. 

b The word in the MS. is very doubtful. It looks like " counder." 

c The garrisoning of Deventer may rank with the boldest and most successful strata- 

gems of warfare. A valuable letter which tells the whole story in a striking manner 

will be found in the Appendix. 

d begon in MS. e care in AJS. 


execution. God be mercifull to vs, and defend her majestie, of 
whose desperate state I am now more affraid then euer before. 
My hart cannot rest for feare since I hard that your matters are 
deferred. All the enemyes hir majestie hath cannot worke so 
great a perill against herself. Well ! God hath his work, and he 
wilbe knowen, and he will looke both to be sought and thanked 
for his mercies bestowed. I doe feare, if I had bine there with 
you, I should rather haue putt myself into her majesties place a 
then suffred this dreadfull mischeif to be prolonged for her de- 
struccion. Thus, praying for you as for myself, will comend you 
to the Lords proteccion. From Vtrickt, 25 October. 

Your assured freind. 




The queen having been informed that Richard Hurle stone the trea- 
surer was about to return home with the earl's licence, appointed 
sir Thomas Shirley to pay away the £30,000 sent by Wylkes, but 
Shirley having unexpectedly returned to England, the queen now 
directs that Hurlestone do issue the said treasure, and that pay- 
ment, be made up to a day certain. 

After our hartie comendaciones unto your lordship, where her 
majestie by her late letters dirrected to your lordship, as also unto 
sir Thomas Shurley, did, uppon information geiven unto hir that 

a The word in the MS. is " grace," but the sense seems to require " place." The earl ap- 
parently means, that, had he been in England, he would himself have taken upon himself 
the responsibility of ordering or procuring the execution of the queen of Scots, in lieu 
of allowing queen Elizabeth to be exposed to the great danger likely to arise to her 
from delay. 


Rychard Hurleston esquier, nowe thresaurer there, was mynded 
with your lordships lycence to retourne into this realme, about 
certeine necessarie affaires of his owne, appointe the said sir 
Thomas to take charge of the treasure last sent over by Mr. Thomas 
Wylkes, and to issue out the same by your lordships warrante. 
Forasmuch as sir Thomas Shurley is nowe retourned into this 
realme, contrarie to her majesties expectation, and cannot re- 
turne, as he saieth, to those partes, in respect of certeine of his 
owne privatte causes here, with that expedition that were conve- 
nient : her majestie hath comanded us to signifie in her name 
unto you, that her pleasure is, the said Rychard Hurlston, nowe 
thresaurer, notwithstanding her former letters to your lordship, 
and direction gewen to the said Wylkes, shall take charge of the 
treasure last sent, and shall issue the same by vertue of your lord- 
ships warrant, and according to such instructions as she hath 
gewen to the said Wylkes, touching her pleasure for the disposing 
of the said treasure. And, to thend the accompte maie be the 
more cleere at such tyme as sir Thomas shall take charge of the 
treasure that is to be hereafter sent into those countries, it is also 
thought meete by her majestie, that this treasure might be era- 
ploied to make a full paie unto a daie certaine without issuing the 
same out in imprestes, which thing her majestie conceaveth maie 
be donne untill the 12 th of this moneth of October, if it cannot 
be further, which her majestie referreth to your lordships good 
consideration, beinding the same as neare as maie be to procure 
unto a daie certeine a full paie under the charge of the nowe 
thresaurer, so as sir Thomas Shurley, or any other that shall suc- 
ceede him, maie beginne uppon a cleere reckoninge. And so we 
comend your lordship most hartelie to the protection of Almightie 

From the court at Rychemond, the 28 th of October, 1586. 
Your lordships assured loving frendes, 


Fra. Walsyngham. 





The queen is willing that the earl should return home, but she ivishes 
good order taken for the government of the country and the army 
during his absence— for the former she will probably send lord 
Grey — -for the latter some suggest count Maurice — some would 
join lord Grey with him — the queen wishes the government were 
given back to the states, as before the earl went — the earl will 
find the queen's mislikings disappear on his return and the good 
answers he can make to her objections — sentence perfected against 
the queen of Scots. 

My very good lord, this gentleman, Mr. Gorge, commeth thyther 
with such hast, as I have no lesur to wryte as otherwise I wold, 
but breffly. I have, accordyng to your lordships late lettres, moved 
hir majesty for your lordships licenss to retom, wherunto hir 
majesty is of hirself very willyng, as well for the desyre she 
hath to se your lordship, as for the dout she also hath that thys 
wyntar season yow might fall into some sycknes ; but yet herwith 
she also is very carefull how those countrees may be governed 
without harm to the public cause, and how hir own army, con- 
sistyng of hir people, might also be ruled and directed ; of both 
which, though hir majesty hath had some kind of speches, yet she 
myndeth not to mak any resolution