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Full text of "Correspondence with the United States ambassador respecting the treatment of British prisoners of war and interned civilians in Germany. ..."

Jij 0. 8 '^ 



MISCELLANEOUS. No. 19 (1915). 



CORRESPONDENCE 



WITH THE 



UNITED STATES AMBASSADOE 



RESPECTING 



--HE TREATMENT OF BRITISH 

PRISONERS OF WAR AND INTERNED 

CIVILIANS IN GERMANY. 

[In continuation of "Miscellaneous, No. 15 (1915)."] 



Presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of His Majesty. 

December 1915. 



LONDON: 

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Tel 



Walter Clinton Jackson Library 

The University of North Carolina at Greensboro 

Special Collections & Rare Books 



World War 1 Pamphlet Collection 



No. 



Name. 



10 
11 

12 

13 

14 
15 



16 

17 

18 



To Mn Page 



j> »» 



Mr. Pa are 



To Mr. Pao-e 



»» »T 



Mr. Paore 



»» 11 



" »t 



»» »» 



j» )> 



To Mr. Pao-e 



Mr. Pag-e 



To Mr, Page 

Mr. Page 
To Mr. Page 

Mr. Page 
[1196] 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Date. 



Subject. 



jPage 



May 24, 1915 
June 12, 

26, 

29, 
July 2, 

6, 

6> 

7, 

12, 

12, 
16, 

16, 
17, 

17, 
20, 

24, 
Aug. 2, 

10, 



Prisoners of war at Lille. Sir E. Grey has heard 
that they are undergoing hardsliips ... 

vVcunded British officers at Frankfurt. Suggests 
a visit by United States official to Frankfurt 
ill view of complaints of ill-tieatment of a 
fcutish officer 

Wounded British officers at Frankfurt. Refers 
to No. 2. Dr. Ohnesorg has visited British 
wounded, Avho are quite content with their 
treatment 

Wurzburg camp. Conditions are said to be bad. 
Suggests visit of inspection 

Wounded British officers at Frankfurt. Refers to 
No. 3. Sir E. Grey would be glad if complaints 
as to recreation ground could be investigated... 



German regulations for maintenance of prison 
of war. Transmits letter from United 
Ambassador at Berlin respecting impro 
in feeding arrangements, &c. 



ison^M^ 

f 



Transmits reports on camps at Mainz, Heidelberg, 
Villingen, ingolstadt, Stuttgart, Ulm, Ntirn- 
berg, and WUrzburg 

Wurzburg camp. Refers to No. -4. Camp has 
been visited, and letter on this subject will be 
forwarded 

Wurzburg camp. Refers to N'o. 8. Mr. Gerard 
prefers to see what can be done to improve 
matters before sending any report ... 

Transmits reports on camps at Steudal, Zerbst, 
and Wittenberj"' ... 



Camps at Ingolstadt and Wtlrzburg. Refers to 
No. 7. -Sir E. Grey does not doubt that 
Mr. Gerard's efforts will improve matters in 
certain respects ... ... ... 12 

Transmits report on British wounded in hospitals 
in Hamburg ... ... ... ... 13 

Major Vandeleur's report. Transmits reply of 

German Government to points raised ... 14 

Transmits report on camp at Augustabad ... 21 

Stendal and Zerbst camps. Refers to No. 10. 
Sir E. Grey understands some of the prisoners 
are entitled to repatriation. Protests against 
punishment of a British prisoner at Zerbst by 
tieing to a stake ... ... ... ... 22 

Transmits reports on camps at Friedburg, 
Hannover-Muuden, Limburg, and Giessen ... 23 

Hannover-Munden camp. Sir E. Grey has never 
received eaft-lier report alluded to. He trusts 
it was through an oversight that it was not 
sent him, and not because it was unfavourable | 26 

Prisoners of war at Lille. Refers to No. 1. | 
Transmits report. There are no military 
prisoners there at present ... ... ... 26 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



Ill 



No. 



Name. 



Date. 



OUBJECT. 



Page 



19 
20 

21 

22 
23 

24 
25 
26 
27 

28 

29 

30 

31 

32 

33 
34 

35 
36 

37 

38 

39 

40 
4J 

42 



Mr. Page 
To Mr. Page 

Mr. Page 
To Mr. Page 

11 J? 

Mr. Page 

J5 J) 

To Mr. Page 

Mr. Page 

To Mr. Page 

Mr. Page 
To Mr. Page 
Mr. Page 

?i J) 
To Mr Page 

Mr. Page 



J1 V 



») »» 



1 ») 



*I )) 



To Mr. Page 



Ml-. Page 



Aug. 14, 1915 
j6 

.20 

2o, 

28, 

28, 

28, 

Sept. 3, 

4, 

10, 

14, 

22, 

24, 
27, 

27, 

29, 

Oct. 1, 
1, 

18, 

19, 

20, 

23, 

26, 

27, 



Reports on camps at Beeskow, Sagan, Sprottau, 
Gruben, aud Urossen 

Sir E. Grey would be glad to have full list of 
camps in Germany containing British prisoners 
ot war ... 

Beeskow and Sagan camps. Sir E. Gre.y suggests 
certain improvements in former and removal 
of four British soldiers at present in latter to 
some other camp ... 

Reports on Meschede and Wahmbeck camps 

Meschede camp. Refers to No. 22. Sir E. Grey 
desires to learn names of British soldiers who 
are not receiving parcels from England 

Gardelegen camp. Sir E. Grey is desirous of 
receiving full report 

Transmits reports on camps at Neisse and 
Gnadenfrei 

Transmits list of camps in Germany containing 
British prisoners ... 

Neisse and Gnadenfrei camp. Refers to No. 25. 
Calls attention to certain points for improve- 
ment 

Meschede camp. Refers to No. 23. Replies to 
Sir E. Grey's enquiry as to parcels. Ten men 
have been transferred to Giessen 

Bischofswerda camp. Sir E. Grey understands 
that conditions are no longer satisfactory. 
Requests report ... 

Reports on Minden, Paderborn, Sennelager, and 
Bad Blenhorst camps 

Halle camp. Sir E. Grey understands conditions 
are very unsatisfactory 

Neisse and Gnadenfrei camps. Refers to No. 27. 
Steps have been taken to improve matters 

Transmits report on Glausthal camp ... 

Minden, Sennelager. and Bad Blenhorst. Sir E. 
Grey desires to thank Mr. Jackson for his 
reports ... 

Transmits report on Gardelegen camp... 

Transmits reports on Fort Zorndorf camp at 
Ciistrin ... 

Halle camp. Mr. Gerard reports that conditions 
are far from satisfactory ... 

Transmits reports on camps at Amberg, Bay- 
reuth, and fortress of Rosenberg at Kronach... 



Beeskow camp. Refers to No. 21. All officer 
prisoners have been transferred to Wurzburg ., 

Transmits report on Bischofswerda camp 

Amberg camp. Refers to No. 38. Suggests 
two British prisoners should be moved else- 
where ... 

Transmits report on camp at Schneidemiihl 



( 



27 
31 

31 
31 

33 
34 
34 
37 

38 

38 

39 

39 

42 

43 
43 

45 
45 

46 

47 

48 

50 
50 

51 
51 



IV 



TABLE OF CONTENTS. 



No. 


Name. 


Date. 


Subject. 


Page 


43 


Mr. Page 


Oct. 27, 1915 


Transmits reports on camps at Chemnitz, 
Bautzen, Lauban, Neuhammer, Konigsbriick, 
Zwickau, and Gorlitz 


53 


44 


To Mr. Page 


Nov. 3, 


Sir E. Grey siigg^ests that in cases where only a 
few British prisoners are together in a camp 
they .should be moved elsewhere where there 
are more of their countrymen 


56 


45 


Mr. Pago 


3, 


Transmits reports on camps at Crefeld, Wahn, 
Dulmen, Osnabruck, Friedrichsfelde, Herverst- 
Dorsten, Dorsten, and Wesel 


57 



t 



Correspondence with the United States Ambassador respecting 
the Treatment of British Prisoners of War and Interned 
Civilians in Germany. 



[In continuation of " Miscellaneous, No. 15 (1915)."] 



No. ]. 
Sir Edward Grey to Mr. Page, United States Ambassador in London. 

THE Secretary of Sto.te for Foreign Affairs presents his compliments to the United 
States Ambassador, and has the honour to state that he has been informed that there 
are a number of British prisoners of war at the citadel at Lille who, it is feared, are 
undergoing great hardships. 

Sir E. 'Grey would be grateful if Mr. Page would request the United States 
Ambassador at Berlin to make any enquiries he can in regard to the matter. 

Foreign Office, May 24, 1915. 

No. 2. 
Sir Edward Gi-ey to Mr. Page, United States Avibassador in London. 

THE Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs presents his compliments to the 
United States Ambassador, and has the honour to inform his Excellency that letters 
have been received from a British officer who is a wounded prisoner of war at 
Frankfurt, complaining that although until recently he has been kindly treated and 
well attended to medically since he has been allowed to be out of bed, to which he had 
been confined for a period of 176 days, his treatment has gradually become worse, until 
he has been compelled to make a formal protest to the German authorities. 

The oiBcer in question states that he and the other wounded officers are insulted 
daily by the privates and orderlies as they pass from their rooms to the court-yard into 
which they are admitted for two hours each day. When the officers reach the court- 
yard they are subjected to being constantly pelted with filth by the public, who make 
use of an open grille for this purpose. The German authorities appear to have taken 
no steps to stop the outrage. 

During the portion of the day which is not spent in the court-yard this officer is 
confined to a small room where the temperature during the hot weather is well over 
80°, and as a consequence of his weak condition he suffers acutely from the heat, and 
suffers from increasing pains in the head, while his eye, which was seriously affected, 
gets no better, and he is stone-deaf in one ear. 

In addition to the unjustifiable hardships enumerated above, the officer states that 
he is being starved, and implores his friends in this country to send him constant 
supplies of food, as he is not allowed to purchase food except jam in Germany with his 
own money. 

In informing Mr. Page of the substance of the complaints referred to, Sir E. Grey 
wishes to point out that such accounts of the treatment of British prisoners of war 
cannot fail to arouse in this country anxiety and indignation, which had to some extent 
been allayed by the reports furnished by Mr. Gerard on many of the detention camps 
in Germany, and he would therefore be grateful if Mr. Page would inform Mr. Gerard 
by telegraph of the substance of the complaints, and request his E.xcellency to bring 
the matter to the attention of the German Government with a view to securing for 
the British officers concerned the treatment which is demanded alike by humanity and 
international obligations. Sir E. Grey would be greatly obliged if it were possible for 
a member of the American Embassy at Berlin to visit as soon as possible the British 
wounded officers at Frankfurt. 

Foreign Office, June 12, 1915. 

[1196] • B 



No. 3. 

Mr. Page, United States Ambassador in London, to Sir Edward Grey. — {Eeceived 

June 27.) 

THE American Ambassador presents his compliments to His Majesty's Secretary 
of State for Foreign Affairs, and, with reference to Sir Edward Grey's note of the 
12th instant* relative to the treatment of a certain wounded British officer and other 
British officers at Frankfurt-on-Main, has the honour to acquaint Sir Edward Grey 
with the purport of a telegram just received from the Ambassador at Berlin, 
through the Department of State in Washington, to the effect that the British 
wounded prisoners at Frankfurt-on-Main have just been visited by Dr. Ohnesorg, who 
states that he found there two officers in the second reserve hospital, namely. 
Major E. Archibald Birley, of the Field Artillery, and Captain John Macdonald 
Henderson, of the London Scottish Regiment ; also a man, Private John Rose, of 
the Lancashire Fusiliers. 

Dr. Ohnesorg reports that the officers are satisfied with their treatment, and have 
no complaint to make. They occupy a large room, which is well ventilated and well 
lighted, and are daily taken out into the grounds of the hospital. Two other British 
officers previously there have been discharged, and are now interned in the officers' 
camp at Fiiedburg. 

Private Rose is found to be well treated, and states he has no complaint to 
make. 



American Embassy, London, 
June 26, 191.5. 



* See No. 2. 



No. 4. 
Sir Edicard Grey to Mr. Page, United States Ambassador in London. 

THE Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs presents his compliments to the 
United States Ambassador, and has the honour to state that he is informed that the 
conditions obtaining at Wiirzburg camp are very unsatisfactory. The Secretary of 
State understands that there are five Englishmen at this camp, four officers and one 
civilian, and that there are a large number of French officers, the accommodation 
being very limited. 

The Secretary of State would be grateful if Mr. Page would kindly request the 
United States Ambassador at Berlin, if possible, to depute a member of his staff" to 
visit this camp at an early date. His Excellency might, perhaps, be able to secure 
the transfer of the British officers to some other officers' camp, where the conditions 
are more satisfactory, and of the civilian to Ruhleben. 

Foreign Office, June 29, 1915. 



No. 5. 
Sir Edward Grey to Mr. Page, United States Ambassador in London. 

THE Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs presents his compliments to the 
United States Ambassador, and, with reference to Sir E. Grey's note of the 12th ultiraot 
respecting the treatment of British prisoners of war at Frankfurt-ou-j\Iain and to his 
Excellency's note of the 26tli ultimo]: in reply thereto, has the honour to observe that 
Dr. Ohnesorg's report appears to contain no reference to the complaints about the 
recreation ground referred to in Sir E. Grey's note of the 12th ultimo. Sir E. Greyt 
would be very grateful if Mr. Page would draw the attention of the United States 
Ambassador at Berlin to this point, in order that Mr. Gerard may cause further 
investigation to be made into the matter, should oj)portunity offer. 

Foreign Office, July 2, 1915. 

t See No. 2. t See No. 3. 



No. 6. 

Mr. Page, United States Ambassador in London, to Sir Edward Grey. — (Beceived 

Jidy 7.) 

THE American Ambassador presents his compliments to His Majesty's Secretary 
of State for Foreign Affairs and lias the honour to transmit herewith enclosed a copy 
of a letter he has received from the Embassy at Berlin, dated the 24th ultimo, referring 
to the letter transmitted to Sir Edward Grey on the 7th May,* and relating to the 
alimentation of prisoners of war in Germany. 

American Embassy, London, 
July Q, 1915. 

* See " Miscellaneous, No. 14 (1915)," No. 7. 



Enclosure 1 in No. 6. 
Mr. Gerard to Mr. Page. — 

Sir, American Embassy, Berlin, June 24, 1915. 

REFERRING to my letter of 2Sth April, 1915, in which was enclosed a copy of 
new German regulations in regard to the maintenance of prisoners of war, I have the 
honour to inform you that, as already mentioned casuallj^ in reports in regard to visits 
made to camps where prisoners of war are interned, a course of instruction was given 
several weeks ago to a large number of German non-commissioned officers and soldiers 
who had been selected from those who had already been on duty or were to be sent to 
the various camps for work in connection with the management of the kitchens. Since 
the general introduction of the self -management system in feeding the prisoners, under 
the auspices of these men, there has been much improvement in the food, both as 
regards qiiantity and quality. The contract system is being done aw'ay with. 

In continuation of the plan to administer the prisoners' camj)s on systematic lines, 
a course of instruction was arranged by the Prussian Ministry of War, which is now 
going on in Berlin. To attend this course about 150 " Verpflegungsoffiziere " 
(commissariat-officers) have been specially selected. The course itself comprises 
sixteen lectures on subjects having to do with camp administration, in particular with 
regard to the commissariat (" Ernahrung"), kitchen and canteen organisation, and 
providing occupation for the prisoners. By invitation, together with the Spanish 
Ambassador, who is charged with the protection of Belgian, French, and Russian 
interests, I attended one of these lectures to-day and found it most interesting and 
instructive. 

This course of lectures is to last foiir days (to-day was the third) and each day a 
luncheon is provided showing the avei'age character, and c[uantity, of the food given to 
the prisoners. A copy of the menu for to-day is enclosed herewith, which shows the 
exact nature of the food provided and its scientific composition. I tasted the samples 
of food provided for the morning and midday meals, and was assured by Mr. Jackson 
who accompanied me that it was exactly similar to that which he had tasted frequently 
on his visits to prisoners' camps. The quantity provided seemed ample, and the food 
itself was palatable. The obvious objections from an English point of view is that, as 
knives are not permitted in the camps, the food is always prepared so as to be eaten 
with a spoon, and consequently there are no large pieces of meat or fish, but otherwise 
it seems to me that no exception could properly be taken to it. 

I should be glad to have you bring the foregoing to the attention of the British 
Government. The German military authorities have now satisfied themselves that 
German prisoners in England are being treated as well as the conditions admit (except 
with regard to the confinement on board ships, which is still a sore point), and they 
are showing every disposition to treat British prisoners (both officers and men) in the 
most favourable manner possible, and to pay attention to their wishes in so far as can 
be done consistently with the principle that all the prisoners (of whom there aro 
considerably more than 1,000,000) must be treated in practically the same manner. As 
a concrete instance of this I may mention the fact that all the British prisoners at 
Ohrdruf (compare report of visit to that camp, dated 24th Aprilj) have now been 
brought together into the compound where there is a place for football. 

I have, &c. 

JAMES W. GERARD. 

t See " Miscellaneous, No. 14 (1915)," No. 8. 
[1196] B 2 



Enclosure 2 in No. 6. . 
Officers' Diet in Internment Camps. 



Test Meal 

Menu for Thursday, -June 24, 1915. 

Specimen Breakfast : Soy-starch Soup. 



Quantity 
per head. 


Food. 


Percentage of each Component. 


Price 
per 

Kilog. 


Total of each Component. 




Albumen. 


Fat. 


Carbon 
Hydrates. 


Albumen. 


Fat. 


Carbon 
Hydrates. 


Price. 


Grs. 

30 
60 
10 


Soy-flour ... 
Potato-starch flour... 
Margarine 


37-0 
0-9 
0-5 


2-'l 

0-2 
84-4 


28-5 

30-7 

O-o 


Pig. 

75 

99 

160 


11-1 
0-5 
0-1 


0-7 
0-1 
8-4 


8'6 

48-4 

0-1 


Pfg. 
2-3 
3-0 
1-6 



Specimen Mid-day Meal : Salted Fish loith Potatoes and Mustard Sauce. 



200 

750 

30 

15 



Salted fish 
Potatoes .. 
Margarine 
Mustard .. 



20-0 


2-0 




65 


40-0 


4-0 




1-5 


0-2 


20-0 


10 


11-3 


1-5 


150-0 


0-5 


84-4 


0-5 


160 
100 


0-2 


25-3 


0-2 



13-0 
7-5 
4-8 
1-5 



Specimen Evening Meal : Ehubarh and Rice. 



100 


Kice 


6-4 


0-5 


77-0 


56 


6-4 


0-5 


77-0 


6-6 


250 


Rhubarb ... 


1-5 


0-2 


2-2 


8 


3-8 


0-6 


5-5 


2-0 


50 


Sugar 


• ■• 


• ■• 


100 -0 


41 


■ ■• 




50-0 


2-0 


300 


Bread 

Spices and various 
accessories 


4-3 


0-4 


47-3 


■ ■• 


12-9 


1-2 


142-0 


6-0 












86-3 


42-2 


481-8 


48-3 



No. 7. 

Mr. Page, United States Ambassador in London, to Sir Edward Grey. — [Received 

July 7.) 

THE American Ambassador presents his compliments to His Majesty's Secretary 
of State for Foreign Affairs, and has the honour to transmit herewith enclosed a copy 
of a letter he has received from the Embassy at Berlin, dated the 29th ultimo, enclosing- 
reports made by Dr. Ohuesorg and Mr. Rivington Pyne of A'isits made to the camps for 
officer prisoners of war at Mayence, Heidelberg, Villingen, and Ingolstadt, and to the 
camps for non-commissioned officers and men at Stuttgart, Ulm, Ingolstadt, Niirnberg, 
and Wiirzburg. 

American Embassy, London, July 6, 1915. 



Enclosure 1 in No. 7. 

Mr. Gerard to Mr. Page. 

Sir, American Embassy, Berlin, June 29, 1 915. 

I HAVE the honour to forward to you, herewith enclosed, for transmission to 
His Majesty's Government, reports made by Dr. Ohnesorg and Mr. Rivington Pyne of 



visits made to the camps for officer prisoners of war at Mayence, Heidelberg, Villingen, 
and Ingolstadt, and to the camps for non-commissioned officers and men at Stuttgart, 
Ulm, Ingolstadt, Niirnberg, and Wurzburg. 

I have, &c. 

JAMES W. GERARD. 



Enclosure 2 in No. 7. 
D7\ Ohnesorg and Mr. Pyne to Mr. Gerard. 



Sir, American Embassy, Berlin, June 28, 1915. 

WE have the honour to report on the following prisoner-of-war camps for enlisted 
men, recently visited by us : Stuttgart, Ulm, Pucheim, Ingolstadt, Niirnberg, and 
Wiirzbarg. 

The general plan and organisation of all of these camps are alike, and similar to 
ones previously reported upon, so a detailed description of them will not be made. 

Stuttgart. — Two camps have been established in the city. The prisoners in each 
were housed in abandoned factory buildings, in only one of which were English 
soldiers interned : Lance- Corporal Ramsbottom, 20th Hussars ; Sergeant T. Roxby, 
20th Regiment ; and Private Vickery, 12th Lancers. 

The buildings comprising this prison camp were of brick, of rather modern 
construction. The outbuildings had in a great measure been torn down, affording a 
large yard for exercise and recreation. The prisoners were housed in large rooms, 
which were well lighted and ventilated, and no overcrowding was observed. The 
ground floor of the main building — a huge hall-like room — was used as a mess room, 
long tables and benches being provided for messing arrangements. Opening off 
this space was a large wash room for clothing, and adjoining this was a room supplied 
with about twenty-four showers — hot and cold water — with a neighbouring dressing 
room. Bathing was compulsory, and the use of these showers was permitted at all 
hours of the day. 

The kitchen was in a separate building in the courtyard, a German non- 
commissioned officer in charge, with cooks and assistants from among the French 
prisoners. A small canteen was provided, and at the extreme end of the yard, as well 
as in a room of the main building, was various athletic apparatus. The latrines were 
of the ordinary sink type. 

The non-commissioned officers were quartered in a separate part of the building 
in a large room. A tailor and shoe shop was part of the equipment, as well as a barber 
shop, j)risoners being employed in all of these departments. 

Ulm. — This camp is placed on the outskirts of the town and is of the usual barrack 
type. Only one Englishman was found here. Private Jos. Powell, Northumberland 
Fusiliers. This man, after his capture, developed tj^phoid fever, and when convalescent 
had been sent to the hospital in Ulm with German wounded and sick. He had entirely 
recovered from his attack of typhoid, but on physical examination he was found to be 
suffering with a right inguinal hernia. The attention of the commandant was called 
to his condition, and the man was advised to undergo an operation. A visit was made 
to the " Garnison Lazarette," where there are several French wounded and sick under 
treatment. This garrison hospital was attractively situated on a hill overlooking the 
town, with a spacious garden. The buildings were of brick, with clean, spacious 
wards, well lighted and ventilated. Sisters and hospital orderlies were in attendance. 
The treatment, diet, &c., accorded these prisoners were the same as those given the 
German wounded and sick. 

Pucheim. — This is a large camp, built to accommodate 12,000 prisoners. It is 
situated about 20 kilom. to the north of Munich in the small village of Pucheim. 
The compound in which the camp is placed has been used for some years past as a 
flying field. A stucco wall surroimded the svhole enclosure. Wooden barracks housed 
the prisoners. There was in process of erection a large wooden building to be used for 
bathing and washing of clothes. A separate enclosure with wooden barracks was 
placed in one corner of the compound for hospital purposes. A German " Chef-Arzt " 
was in charge, assisted by French military surgeons ; the attendants from the German 
hospital corps assisted by prisoners [sic]. 

Four Englishmen were here interned : Elias Round, Private Staffordshire 
Regiment ; Geo. Harvey Kelly, Corporal King's Royal Rifle Corps ; Wm. Stocks, 
[1196] ' ' B 3 



Private 3rd South Staffordshire Regiment ; and Fred Tudor, Private Gloucestershire 
Regiment. 

The camp was equipped with a verj- good tailor shop, which turned out 
comfortable, serviceable uniforms, made of drill, for hot weather. 

Ingolstadt. — The camp for the enlisted personnel in this city is placed on the edge 
of the town, and had also been a flying field. It is of the usual barrack type. Three 
English privates were found in the camp. In the town were two hospitals, in one of 
which were nine English. All of them were convalescent from their wounds, and were 
shortly to be traasferred, either to the camp for enlisted men or to one of the many 
officers' camps in the neighbourhood, where they would serve as orderlies. 

Niirnberg. — This large camp is somewhat different in its plan, the barracks 
forming the sides of a quadrangle instead of being placed in parallel rows, which is the 
usual arrangement. In tlie centre of the compound was a large barrack for the camp 
guard. On two sides of this were the two kitchens, and on the other two sides were 
two large latrines. Forty-eight English prisoners were found here. Near the prison 
compound, among the garrison buildings used for the artillery, was a hospital for the 
prisoners of war. These hospital facilities consisted of two large rooms, with an 
adjoining operating and dressing room, and below a kitchen. The sanitary 
arrangements were good. The wounded and sick prisoners were given good care and 
treatment. IsTine wounded Englishmen were among the j)atients. 

Wiirzhurg. — This camp, of the usual barrack type, is placed outside of the town 
on the summit of a high hill ; twenty-one English were among the prisoners. The 
latrines, sink type, were not altogether satisfactory, and the attention of the 
commandant was called to this fact. ,,,., 

In the city itself, in the Schiller Schule, which had been requisitioned for hospital 
purposes, were found three English wounded. They were quartered in rooms with 
French prisoners, were allowed the liberty of the courtyard, and were given excellent 
treatment and care. 

In the camps visited, all of the English pxusoners were seen. They were 
questioned regarding their treatment, and asked if they had any complaints to make. 
We were permitted to talk Avith them without the hearing of the German officers. 
There is no discrimination made in any way against them. 

The food is in accordance with the recent regulations established by the Prussian 
War Ministrj'. The men get the bread given to the German soldiers, which they are 
not accustomed to and do not like. Under the existing conditions, this cannot be 
improved upon. 

They are all badly in need of uniforms, some of them being dressed in French 
uniforms or the clothing supplied by the Germans. Some few of them are deserving 
of money. A list of those who require rmiforms and need money will be made out and 
given to the British Department. 

In the majority of these camps, manj- of the prisoners are detailed for work in the 
surrounding country. The work, as a rule, is optional, and few English volunteer or 
are commandeered for this purpose. 

We have, &c. 

KARL OHNESORG. 
RIVINGTON PYNE. 



Enclosure 3 in No. 7. 

Dr. Ohnesorg and Mr. Pijneto Mr. Gerard. 

Sir, Avierican Embassy, Berlin, June 26, l'J15. 

WE have the honour to report the following observations recently made in visiting 
the foUowiag camps for officer prisoners of war : — 

Mainz. — This camp is in the citadel in the city. The details have previously been 
reported upon. Since the previous visit there has been a change in the personnel of 
the English officers ; the present ones, sixty-three in number, weie formerly confined in 
Burg. The senior in rank. Colonel Jackson, spoke well of the treatment, food, &c. 
There is one officer of the Royal Army Medical Corps, Lieut. -Colonel Thompson, 
confined there. 

Heidelberg. — The officers, 280 in number, 15 of whom vvere British, including 
1 Canadian and 1 Indian officer, were confined in a modernly constructed barracks, 



which had not been previously occupied by the Germans. The structure is of brick 
covered with stucco. The rooms were spacious, well lighted and ventilated, and 
were not overcrowded, the larger rooms furnished for nine officers. Among the 
Russian and French were several higher officers, -^vho had rooms by themselves. 
Commander Barrow, R.N., was quartered alone. The sanitary arrangements were 
good. Each officer had an iron bedstead with a straw mattress, the higher officers 
being given hair mattresses. A wardrobe was also supplied each officer. 

In an adjoining building were the kitchens and a large room where the officers 
messed together. Each officer paid 48 M. -per month for his food. The evening meal 
was seen, and appeared to be of good quality. At the further end of this same 
building, entirely separated, with an entrance from the outside, were the shower baths, 
with hot and cold water. Comfortable reclining and steamer chairs were furnished for 
the officers' use out of doors. Two tennis courts were provided. A canteen, where the 
usual articles could be purchased at current prices, as well as light wines and beers was 
established in the buildiug used for messing. The whole enclosure was surrounded by 
a high barbed-wire fencing, the guard being stationed -without this fence Religious 
services are regularly held, and a room had been rigged up as a chapel. Sixty 
enlisted men from among the French and Russian prisoners served as orderlies for the 
officers. Surgeon King Brown, R.N.V.R., was among the English. The Indian officer 
— a Mahommedan — was given special food in accordance with his religion. A library, 
with Russian, French, and English books, was part of the equipment. 

Villingen. — -For the purposes of an officers' camp the barracks of the town was 
used. The buildings, of stone, were placed about the four sides of a quadrangle. The 
rooms were of different sizes, the largest quartering about twenty officers. Officers of 
higher rank, colonels, lieutenant-colonels, and majors, Avere given separate rooms or 
rooms with one or two companions. The higher officers messed together in a special 
dining room, while the remainder had their mess in a large hall, which also served as 
a reading and common room. It was suj)plied with a piano and small library. The 
sanitarj" arrangements were satisfactory, shower baths watli hot and cold water 
supplied. Only two English officers, Lieutenant Fritz Roy and Lieutenant Greenslade, 
were found here. They both desired and asked not to be removed to another camp. 
The commandant. Major von Schoenebeck, had recently inaugurated a daily excursion 
for the imprisoned officers. In bodies of fifteen or twenty they were permitted to walk 
around the surrounding country under the charge of a non-commissioned officer with 
three or four of the guards, while those who sketched or painted were permitted to go 
out alone or in smaller groups with a single guard. The two English officers had been 
offered the privilege of sharing a room with two French officers, but they preferred to 
remain as originally placed. 

Ingoldstadt. — Surrounding this city are a number of fortifications, built originally 
about 1S75, which are now used as prison camps for officers. Two Eugiish officers, 
Squadron-Commander Briggs, R.N., Lieutenant Allsop, of the London Scottish," the 
former in festung No. 8 and the latter in festung No. 9, were interned here. The 
quarters were in the casemates of the forts, those of festung 9 communicating with 
one another. Large windows gave good light and ventilation. Sanitary conditions 
were not of the best ; the latrines were placed in two of the casemates away from the 
quarters, and were of the ordinary sink type, absolutely open, and giving no privacy. 
The attention of the commandant v/as called to this, and he was asked to remedy it, if 
possible. He was also requested to coniine the two English officers in the same 
fortress. 

In the two courtyards of each fort tennis courts had'been rigged. Each fort was 
surrounded by a moat filled with water, od the further side of which was placed a high 
barbed-wire fence. 

The kitchens were in a casemate opening off of the court, and removed from the 
living quarters. There was no separate mess room, the officers messing in their living 
rooms. Shower baths, with hot and cold water, the use of which was permitted at all 
times, had been installed. The usual canteen facilities were given, the officers being- 
able to purchase articles not kept in stock from the stores of the cit.y. 

In the city, in one of the lazarettes. Lieutenant Ratcliffe, of the West Yorkshire 
Regiment, was under treatment for a wound of the right arm, involving the ulnar 
nerve. He had been operated on, and spoke well of his treatment and care. 

In all of these officers' camps the usual rules as regards correspondence were 

enforced. The officers received their mail and packages regularly. Medical care was 

given them. Lieutenants receive GO M. a month in pay, captains and officers of higher 

rank 100 M. The average cost per month of mess was about 45 M. The food was of 

[1196] E 4 



good quality and sufficiently A^aried, bnt German cooking is not popular aroeng the 
French and English. 

Appended hereto is a list of the British officers at Heidelberg. 

We have, &c. 

KARL OHNESORG. 
RIVINGTON PYNE, 



Enclosure 4 in No. 7. 

List of British Officers at Heidelberg. 

Groves, J. Osborn, Sub-Lieutenant, Royal Navy. 

jMcLurg, J. Ernest, Lieutenant, II Canadian. 

Jolliffe, Gerald, Captain, Scots Guards. 

Smith, Lyndon, Captain, 3 Infantry. 

Barrow, Benjamen, Commander. 

Harvey, Harold, Lieutenant. 

McWilliam, Henry, Lieutenant. 

Rhodes, Philip, Lieutenant. 

King-Brov7u, William, Medical Officer. 

Coker, Frederic, Lieutenant. 

Young, Leonard, Lieutenant. 

Strettel, Eric F. D., Lieutenant, 3 Infantry, E. Kent Regiment. 

Krook, Campbell, Captain.* 

Gibbs, J E., Captain, Coldstream Guards. 

* iVo?f. — Presumably Captain A.D.C. Krook, Royal Highlanders. 



No. S. 

ilr. Page, United States Ambassador in London, to Sir Edward Grei/. — (Received 

July S.) 

THE American Ambassador presents his compliments to His Majesty's Secretary 
of State for Foreign Affairs, and, with reference to the note Sir Edward Grey was 
good enough to address to him on the 29th ultimo'" respecting the conditions obtaining 
at Wurzburg camp, has the honour to inform him that a telegram has just been 
received from the Ambassador at Berlin, stating that Dr. Ohnesorg and Mr. Rivington 
Pyne visited the officers' camp at Wiirzburg ten days ago, and that a letter on the 
subject is being sent to London. 

Mr. Page will not fail to forward Mr. Gerard's communication as soon as it is 
received. 

American Embassy, London, 
July 7, 1915. 

* See No. 4. 



No 9. 

Mr. Page, United States Ambassador in London, to Sir Edward Grey. — [Received 

Jidy 13.) 

THE American Ambassador presents his compliments to His Majesty's Secretary 
of State for Foreign Affairs and has the honour to transmit, herewith enclosed, a copy 
of a letter he has received from the Embassy at Berliu, dated the 5th instant, referring 
to Sir Edward Grey's note of the 29th ultimo,! ^^^ ^^^'- Page's note to the Foreign 
Office of the 7th instant,^ respecting the conditions obtaining at the prisouers' camp at 
Wurzburg. 

American Embassy, London, 
July 12, 1915. 

t tree No. 4. | See No. 8. 



Enclosure in No. 9. 
Mr. Gerard to Mr. Page. 

Sir, American Embassy, Berlin, July 5, 1915. 

I HAVE the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 30th ultimo, 
in which was enclosed a copy of a note from the British Foreign Office stating that the 
conditions at the Wurzburg camp are verj'- unsatisfactory. 

I enquired at the Prussian Ministry this afternoon and foimd that the matter in 
question had been taken uj) with the Bavarian military authorities, and that one of the 
officers, who expects to he in Munich next week, will follow it up. Consequently, 1 
prefer to wait and see what can be done to improve matters before sending any report 
on this camp. 

In regard to the lazaret in the Schiller Schule, in Wlirzburg, Dr. Ohnesorg and 
Mr. Pyne reported as follows : — 

''' In the lazaret in Schiller Schule were found one officer, Captain Rex T. Miller, 
Manchester Regiment, and three enlisted men of the English Army : Charles Beare, 
private, 1st Lincolnshire Regiment ; Michael Claffey, private, Royal Irish Regiment ; 
and Edwin Firth, private, 1st Lancashire Regiment. 

" This school made a very good hospital. The privates were quartered with other 
French enlisted prisoners ; the officer was quartered with five French officers in a large 
room, and these officers had a French orderly detailed to Avait upon them. They all 
spoke of the courteous treatment and good professional care which they were receiving 
in the hospital. There was no sentry or giiard stationed without their quarters, and 
they were permitted free access to the spacious court-j^ard. 

" In the Citadelle, at Wurzburg are : Lieutenant C. G. S. Irvine, King's Own ; 
Lieutenant E. W. S. Foljambe, Rifle Brigade; Captain R. A. Reddie, 3rd Norfolk 
Regiment ; and Gr. Parke, an engineer in the Mercantile Marine. Lieutenant Irvine 
and Mr. Parke were both in Germany at the outbreak of the war and were arrested 
and have been confined in this fortress since August last." 

I have, &c. 

JAMES W. GERARD, 



No. 10. 

Mr. Page, United States Amhassador in London, to Sir Edward Grey. — (Received 

Jidy 13.) 

THE American Ambassador presents his compliments to His Majesty's Secretary 
of State for Foreign Affairs, and has the honour to transmit herewith enclosed a copy of 
a letter he has received from the Embassy at Berlin, dated the 3rd instant, transmitting 
copies of memorandum reports made by Mr. Jackson of visits to the prisoners of war 
camps at Stendal, Zerbst, and Wittenberg. 

American Embassy, London, 
Jidy 12, 1915. 



Enclosure 1 in No. 10. 

Mr. Gerard to Mr. Page. 

Sir, American Embassy, Berlin, July 3, 1915. 

I HAVE the honour to transmit herewith, for communication to the British 
Government, copies of memorandum reports made to me by Mr. Jackson of visits to the 
prisoners of war camps at Stendal, Zerbst. and Wittenberg, and to be, Sir, &c. 

JAMES W. GERARD. 



10 

Enclosure 2 in No. 10. 
He'port hij Mr. Jackson on Visit to Prisoners' Detention Camp at Stendal. 

ON sandy soil, in what were cavalry exercise grounds, a camp has been built to 
contain 15,000 prisoners of war. Dependent upon this camp are a large number of 
" Arbeitslager " containing men in groups of various numbers from ten or a dozen 
up to 2,000, and at the time of my visit there were only about 7,200 in the parent 
camp. In that number were included sixty-four British and Canadians, all of whom 
had been more of less severely wounded, who had been brought during the past few 
weeks from hospitals at Cologne and Wittenberg. All said that they had been well 
treated in the hospitals, and several mentioned the fact that they had been treated 
with great kindness in the temporary hospitals to which they had been brought 
immediately after tlieir capture. Four British prisoners from this camp were included 
in the recent exchange of severely wounded, but there remain a number who have lost 
a limb or are on crutches, and who could be of no further active military service. 
None of these British prisoners are called on to work outside and only a few do light 
jobs in the camp. One of the non-commissioned officers (Corporal Frazer) has recovered 
from his Avounds to such an extent that he is to take part in a boxing match with tlie 
French camp champion in a few days. I talked with all the British prisoners and none 
had any important complaint. A few thought that their letters were not coming 
through promptly, but on investigation I found that their mail (letters and parcels) was 
still being sent by their friends to the hospitals in which they had been before coming 
to Stendal. Tliey all said that their mail had been received promptly while they 
were in the hospitals. A few wanted boots or underclothing, but they admitted that 
they had not made their wants known to the German authorities, and as soon as I 
called attention to the matter the commandant said they would be supplied. There is 
a large tailor shop (Russian prisoners) in the camp where quantities of outer garments 
(dark blue for summer, and dark blue or black for winter, with yellow piping) are being 
made to replace worn-out uniforms. In my conversation with the prisoners there was 
no complaint about the food, and not one of them even mentioned that subject. The 
kitchens are large, Avell arranged and scrupulously clean. The menu for the week is 
appended hereto.* The canteen seemed well supplied, and " lemonades" and alcohol- 
free beer are purchasable. There were no British patients in the lazaret, whei'e one 
British private helps keep the place in order. The building was clean and well 
ventilated. In the lazaret all the sick have beds, and in the ordinary barracks iron beds 
are also provided for such of the severely wounded as might find it difficult to use the 
ordinary mattresses which are used by the other prisoners as well as by the German 
guards. The barracks are of the ordinary wooden type, clean, well aired and not 
over-crowded. The camp is divided into eight company enclosures each of which has 
its own wash and clothes drying rooms (there are also open-air washing facilities), and 
latrines, which ai'e far enough from the barracks to be unobjectionable and connected 
with the city water system so that they can be flushed as often as is desirable. There 
is one bath room (about forty douches with hot and cold water) Avith disinfecting ovens, 
through Avhich the men and their clothes pass about once a Aveek. An open-air 
swimming bath is being arranged. Tub baths are provided in the lazaret Avhere there 
is also a croquet ground. 

The commandant. Colonel Krause, has had charge of the camp ever since it was 
opened last October, and he seems very much interested in his work and is evidently 
respected by the prisoners. He has made use of large plots of ground in the neighbour- 
hood of the camp to grow potatoes, cabbages, lettuce, &c., the profits being used for the 
benefit of the prisoners as a body. 

June 30, 1915. 

* Not printed. 



11 

Enclosure 3 in No. 10. 

Eeport by Mr. Jackson on Visit to Prisoners' Detention CamiJ at Zerhst. 

THE camp at Zerbst is built on what was formerly the infantry drill ground. 
"When full it would contain about 15,000 prisoners. It is built on the usual plan, and 
divided into two battalions of eight companies each. The kitchens (\n ell arranged) and 
disinfecting plant are outside the company enclosures, each of which contains its own 
canteen, baths, and wash room (hot and cold water) and latrines. The prisoners and 
their clothes are disinfected every ten days or so (causing their clothes to deteriorate 
rapidly), and the English suldiers told me that they could bathe as often as they liked. 
The latrines are on the trench system, built with an intention to have them flushed, but 
it was f)und impracticable to do this on account of the flatness of the neighbouring 
country, so dry " moss" is now used, and the trenches are cleaned out by hand. In the 
company enclosures there are tailor, shoemaker, and carpenter shops, and several 
(French) artists have the use of small rooms as studios. Throughout the camp there 
are taps for drinking water. 

On the camp's books there are now between 12,000 and 13,000 prisoners, many of 
whom, including a few Englishmen, have been sent ofi" on working parties, in the mines 
and elsewhere. In the camp there remain about seventy British prisoners at present, 
who are distributed among the dift'erent companies. Those in the same company are 
permitted to live together in one part of the barracks. The banacks are whitewashed 
on the outside and the air in them seemed good. With the exception of one of those 
which I saw, they did not appear over-crowded, and the commandant explained the 
condition of this one by saying that he had had to make room for a number of newly 
arrived Russians, who had already been quarantined and disinfected, but who, he 
thought, should still be kept apart from the other prisoners for the present. Senior 
non-commissioned ofiicers share small rooms with French and Russians of similar rank, 
having beds. As there are few British non-commissioned ofiicers of higher rank, and 
as there are very few German guards in the camp itself, much of the camp discipline is 
in the hands of the French and Russians, which does not give satisfaction to the British 
prisoners. 

Several cases of punishment for breaches oF discipline had occurred, and one 
British soldier told me that he had been tied to a stake — last December. The 
commandant explained that this was the regulation punishment for the prisoners and 
for German offenders as well, in places where there are no cells, and that two hours at the 
stake (all that is given on any one day) is considered as equivalent to twenty-four hour^' 
solitary confinement. French non-commissioned officers control the quantity of food 
prepared, which appears to give satisfaction to all but the English prisoners who, as 
usual, do not find it to their taste. They seemed to be in goad condition, but they 
claimed that this was due to the receipt of large packages from home. Mail and 
parcels come through in a generally satisfactory manner, but there were, as usual, some 
complaints that parcels had not arrived, or that they came in bad condition. The 
German oflicials called attention to the fact that, while there had been considerable 
improvement, a large number of parcels from England are still insecurely packed. 

The catijp was opened in November, and it was in quarantine during a part of 
the winter, but the epidemic had been comparatively light and the camp was declared 
free from typhus fever several weeks ago. Major Long and a number of men 
belonging to the R.A.M.C. had left for England a few days ago. In the lazaret 
there were three British soldiers who said that their treatment was good. There 
was also one civilian, by the name of Nykiel (tuberculous), who claims that he is an 
Australian, but is under suspicion of being a Polish spy, and consequently has not been 
sent to Ruhleben. In each company enclosure a part of one of the barracks is 
partitioned off" so as to provide a room in which the cooks (Avho must be up earlier than 
the other prisoners) may sleep by day. The cooks and those who do extra (special) 
work, have beds while the other prisoners sleep on the usual straw mattresses. Rooms 
with beds are also provided for the severely wounded who do not need treatment, and 
these same rooms are also used by men suffering with slight ailments whom it is not 
thought necessary to send to the lazaret. Men in the lazaret are given special diet, 
and in the lazaret enclosure there is a tennis court. A number of British soldieis were 
ready to make complaints in regard to treatment at the time of their capture or soon 
thereafter, but most of them said tha,t conditions had improved and none were willing 



12 

to say that their treatment had heen different from that of other prisoners or that 
the Germans had discriminated against them, although I tallied with them freely and 
out of hearing of the officials. Clothing has been furnished to those who needed it and 
who made their wants known. 

July 2, 19] 5. 



Enclosure 4 in No. 10. 
Report hy Mr. Jackson on Visit to Prisoners' Detention Camp at Wittenherg. 

AT Wittenberg I was told that there were no longer any prisoners of war (officers 
or men) in any of the local lazarets, although a number had been there earlier in the 
war. It is said that most of the lazarets are comparatively empty at the present 
moment. 

The prisoner of war camp is just beyond the city at Klein Wittenberg, but as it is 
still in quai'antine on account of typhus fever, I was unable to go inside. I was able to 
look over the camp, however, and to see many prisoners at a distance. It appeared to 
be clean and in good order, and the men looked in good condition. The camp contains 
at present about 13,000 prisoners, of whom more than two-thirds are Russian, and has 
been in quarantine since early in the winter. Among the prisoners are about 800 
British soldiers and thirty-nine British civilians, who are to be transferred to Ptuhleben 
as soon as it can be done without, risk — probably in a few weeks, as there are only a 
small number of cases of typhus remaining and as the general health of the camp is 
said to be otherwise good. The prisoners are allowed to receive their mail and parcels, 
and for several weeks they have been permitted to write letters, which are forwarded 
after being disinfected. The commandant said that complaints had not been made to 
him about food, and he told me that he had recently had a military band play (just 
outside the camp) for the benefit of the prisoners, which had seemed to give them much 
pleasure. 

Most of the medical work inside the camp is done by captured medical officers, 
principally French and Russian, but among the number are Captain Priestley and Captain 
Surgeons Vidal and James La Fayette (?), of the R. A.M.C., of whom the last two are to 
be sent back to England when the quarantine is raised. Major '[sic] Priestley will be 
detained until certain proceedings against him are closed. A considerable number of 
Indian prisoners had been sent to Zossen (see report dated the 8th April) in January, 
shortly before the epidemic bi'oke out. 

July 2, 1915. 



No. 11. 

Sir Edward Grey to Mr. Page, United States Amhassador in London. 

THE Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs presents his compliments to the 
United States Ambassador, and, with reference to his Excellency's note of the 
6th instant,* transmitting copy of a despatch from the United States Ambassador at 
Berlin, enclosing reports made by Dr. Ohnesorg and Mr. Rivington Pyne, on visits to 
various camps in which British prisoners are interned, has the honour to request that 
an expression of his thanks for these interesting reports may be conveyed to these 
gentlemen. 

Sir E. Grey notes that the sanitary arrangements at the officers' camp at Ingolstadt, 
and at the camp for non-conimissioued officers and men at Wiirzlmrg are not 
satisfactory, but feels no doubt that the steps taken by Mr. Gerard in this matter will, 
as in so many 'other cases, lead to a speedy improvement in the state of affairs 
described. 

Foreign Ofice, Jidy 16, 1915. 

* See No. 7. 



13 



No. 11 



Mr. Page, United States Ambassado)- in London, to Sir Edicaixl Grey. — (deceived 

Jtdy 17.) 

THE American Ambassador presents his compliments to His Majesty's Secretaiy 
of State for Foreign Affairs, and has the honour to transiriit herewith enclosed a copy 
of a letter he has received from the Embassy at Berlin, dated the 8th instant, enclosing 
a copy of a letter from the consul-general at Hamburg reporting on a visit made by him 
to the different lazarets in that city, and enclosing a list of the British wounded 
prisoners of war who are being treated in them. 

Avierican Embassy, London, Jidy 16, 1915. 



Enclosure 1 in No. 12. 

Mr. Gerard to Mr. Page. 

Sir, American Embassy, Berlin, Jidy 8, 1915. 

I HAVE the honour to transmit herewdth, for the information of the British 
Government, a copy of a letter dated the 5th instant from Mr. H. H. Morgan, the 
American consul-general at Hambui-g, reporting on a visit made by him to the different 
lazarets in that city, and enclosing a list of the wounded British prisoners of war who 
are being treated in them. 

I have, &c. 

JAMES W. GERAKD. 



Enclosure 2 in No. 12. 
American Consul-General at Hamburg to Mr. Gerard. 

Hamburg, Jidy 5, 1915. 

IT is only to-day that 1 have been able to visit the different lazarets in 
Hamburg which have British wounded prisoners. 

The lazarets in question are : the one situated on the Ericastrasse, the one at 
Fuhlsbiittel, and the marine lazaret at the Veedel. 

At the first named I found ten wounded prisoners, at the second also ten, and 
at the third there were three. For your guidance I am sending you hereAvith a table 
showing the names of the different prisoners and the different lazarets, together with 
their home address and the regiment to which each belonged. 

It is not necessary for me to enter into the details of the different lazarets which 
I visited, beyond stating that they are all in the most up-to-date condition, and every- 
thing is being done for the wounded that could be done anywhere. 

I was accompanied on my rounds by an officer who spoke English, but I was 
convinced, from the hearty response which I received from all the wounded in reference 
to their treatment at the different lazarets, that every possible care is being given to 
them. They are only in need of tobacco, j)ipes, and cigarettes, and English literature. 
all of which I have promised to send them. If you think that I wovdd l>e authorised 
in expending from time to time say 500 M. or 600 M. for the purchase of tobacco for 
these prisoners and charge the same up to the British Government, I would be very 
glad if you would let me know. I have a fund here, however, from which I can supply 
them with these articles, provided the British Government will not do so. 

A number of the wounded have not been able to get into communication with their 
families in England, or they have written without having received any replies, and I am 
writing a personal letter to all their different families to-day. I believe that most of 
the wounded whom I saw have not been very severely wounded, and at least 90 per 
cent, of them were already up and about. 

Very sincerely yours, 

H. H. MORGAN. 



14 

Enclosure 3 in No. 12. 
List of English Wounded Prisoners. 



, Name. 



Home Address. 



Regiment. 



LaZARETTE EUICASTIIASSE. 



George Alibot 
[?J Palmer 

Basil Baik . . 
Arthur Windrim 
Thomas Brayshaw 
Arthur Dawson 
Harold Hall 

Charles Halifax 
^N^alter Parkinson 
John Henry Duffy 



1-1, Edward Road. A\^althamsto\v, Loudon .. 

6, Bois Cottage, Borsmoor Road, Chesham, Bucking- 
hamshire 

24, Milton Avenue, Highgate, London. N. . . 

•'^Oth Street and Laycock Avenue, Philadelphia 

17, Albnny Street, Middleton, Lancashire .. 

158, Park Road, Adlington, Ijancashire 

c/o Henry Blacklock and Co., Albert Square, Man- 
chester 

10, Dornfell Street, West Hampslead, London, N.W. 

53, Vernon Street, Darwen, Lancashire 

51, Huntsworth Mews, Upper Park Place, Marjde- 
bone Road, London 



13th London. 

2nd Battalion Rifle Brigade. 

13th London. 
Royal LanCcTster. 



East Kent (Buffs). 
Royal Ijancaster. 
7th Royal Fusiliers. 



Lazaeette Fuhlsbuttel. 



Charles Page 

Herbert Petts 
Joseph Dalton 
Leonard Elsmore 
Robt. Denyster 
Harry Horry 
Horace Sheldrake 
Thomas Codd 
John Dickson 

Ebenezer Lawson 



83, Round Hill Crescent, Brighton, Sussex 

Chillenden, near Canterbury, Kent 

9, Ascot Road, Tooting Junction, London, S.W. 

5, Lindley Avenue, East Sonthsea, near Portsmouth. . 

104, Great Eastern Road, Glasgow 

23, Marlborough Street, Gainsbury, Lincolnshire 

Forncett St. Marj', near Norwich, Norfolk . . 

Doncormick, County Wexford, Ireland 

19, Campbell Street, New Wortley, Leeds, Yorkshire 

3, Cliveville Grove Mews, South Kensington, London, 



Royal Irish Rifles (2nd 

battalion). 
2nd Buffs. 
East Lancashire. 
Ro^'al Engineers. 
Gordon Highlanders. 
Lincoln. 
1st Norfolk. 
18th Royal Irish. 
1st Battalion Cameron 

Highlanders (79th). 
13th (;ondon. 



Marine Lazaeette at Veddel. 



William Wogan 
James Wishart 
William Thompson 



15, Danes Park, Clontarf, Dublin, Ireland ,, 
210 B, Van Home Street, Toronto, Canada .. 
52, Ashwood Street, New Brancepeth, Durham 



Royal Irish Rifles. 
15th Canadian Battalion. 



No. 13. 

Mr. Paqe, United States Ambassador in London, to Sir Edward Grey. — {Received 

Jnhj 1.8.) 

THE American Ambassador presents his comjjliments to His Majesty's Secretary of 
State for Foreign Affairs, and, with reference to the note Sir Edward Grey was good 
enough to address to him on the 26th December, 1914,"''- enclosing a report by Major 
C. B. Vandeleur respecting the treatment of prisoners of war in Germany, has the 
honour to enclose lierewith a copy of a letter he has just received from the Embassy at 
Berlin, together with a copy of a note verbalc from the German Government containing 
reports made by the German military authorities of the investigation of the incidents 
in question. 

American Embassy, London, 
July 17, 1915. 



See " Miscellaneous, No. 7 (1915)," No. 44. 



15 

Enclosure 1 in No. 13. 

Mr. Gerard to Mr. Page. 

Sir, American Embassy, Berlin, July 8, 1915. 

WITH reference to my letter to you of the 11th January, in reply to yours of the 
29th December, 1914, in which was enclosed a copy of a note from the British Foreign 
Office, dated the 26th December, relative to the treatment of prisoners of wa,r in 
Germany, particularly as reported by Major C. B. Vandeleur of the _ 1st Cameronians, 
I have the honour to enclose herewith, for transmission to the British Government, a 
copy of a note from the Imperial Foreign Office, dated the SOth ultimo, with enclosures 
containing reports made by the German military authorities of the investigation of 
the incidents in question. 

I have, &c. 

JAMES W. GERAED. 



Enclosure 2 in No. 13. 

Note verhale. 
(Translation.) 

THE Foreign Office, replying to the note verhale of the Embassy of the 
United States of America, dated the 11th January, regarding complaints formulated 
by the British Government of alleged bad treatment of British prisoners of 
war in Germany, has the honour to state that these complaints have been made the 
object of a thorough investigation by the German military authorities. The result is 
set forth in the annexed statement and enclosures, which may be communicated 
according to discretion to the British Government. 

Berlin, June 30, 1915. 



Enclosure 3 in No. 13. 
(Translation.) 

Statement hy the German Military Authorities in ansicer to the Complaints ahout the 
Bad Treatment of Prisoners of War, transmitted by the Embassy of the United 
States of America in their Note verbale of January 11, 1915. 



(I.) 
THOROUGH investigations into the complaints by Major Vandeleur, an 
escaped British prisoner of war, have estabhshed the following facts : — 

(A.) — Captitre and Journey to Germany. 

On account of the great number of prisoners and of the period (six months) which 
has elapsed since the events under discussion, it has not been possible to go into the 
facts one by one. This much, however, is certain, that the statements are pretty untrue 
and partly immeasurably exaggerated. Major Vandeleur appears to take not the 
slightest account of the peculiar conditions imposed by war. 

The following remarks apply to specific allegations : — 

1. Douai being a very advanced halting place and full of German troops, accommo- 
dation even for German soldiers offered great difficulties. It is obvious that prisoners 
of war cannot expect better accommodation than the enemy's own troops. • 

2. That the prisoners received no attention must be considered out of the question. 
Equally so that representatives of the French Red Cross were obstructed in distributing 
food and drink. On the other hand, ladies of the French Red Cross were found 
offering alcohol to the prisoners, which of course is prohibited. In the field hospitals, 
as, for instance, at Mons (Bergen), prisoners of war were treated on the same footing as 
cur own troops. 

3. As regards Major Vandeleur's declaration that our German officers spat at him 
and another took away his overcoat by force, the German military authorities hold such 



16 

occurrences to be simply beyond the bound of possibility, having regard to the mentality, 
up-bringing, and social status of the whole class of German officers. 

4. The same applies to the statement that prisoners' overcoats were taken away 
from them. 

5. No official information has been received of prisoners of war at Douai being 
sworn at by German soldiers. In order to obviate henceforth the possibility of such 
occurrences, unauthorised persons are kejDt at a distance from prisoners' camps, and 
sentries are set from time to time with this object in view. There certainly did exist 
a strong and justifiable feeling of bitterness against the English, as wounded 
German soldiers returning from the front brought back large numbers of English bullets 
with a "dum-dum" action, and brutal weapons (two-edged dirks, " Doppeldolche"). 

6. As regards Major Vandeleur's statement that he was put into a cattle truck, 
together with private soldiers, mention must be made of the following: — 

In those days there was brought to Douai as a prisoner of war an English officer 
who, perhaps wrongly, was set down as a " colonel " ; like the other Engtish officers, 
however, he liad no sign of rank on his uniform. 

When interrogated by German officers, he declared that he would speak with no 
German officer — at most, he would spit at one. He remarked to another German 
officer at the station at Mons that he would respect no German officers except those of 
the Horse Guards. This ill-bred behaviour was rightly requited by making the offender 
travel in a cattle-truck. There is much to be said for the belief that the officer in 
question was Major Vandeleur, particularly so as this was the only disagreeable incident 
with an officer prisoner of war which occurred in the course of months. 

7. In view of the cleanliness which prevails without exception in German, 
railway carriages, it is out of the question that the floor of the carriage can have 
been " covered 3 inches deep with fresh dung " ; it must be that the prisoners them- 
selves at once defiled the carriage by relieving themselves. All the carriages have 
ventilators, moreover. 

That on occasion fifty-two instead of forty-eight men were put into one carriatre is 
possible, given the deficiency of carriages that existed at the time. It must be noted 
also that the Englishmen's alUes — the French — put German army doctors, who had 
fallen into their hands, by preference into cattle-trucks. Apart from this, the 
prisoners, on many occasions, as, for instance, in talking to the station commandant at 
Mons, spoke in grateful terms of their good treatment. 

8. If the English pretend that they were attended to during the journey only 
after the French, the reason is to be found in the quite comprehensible bitterness of 
feeling among the German troops, who respected the French on the whole as honourable 
and decent opponents, whereas the English mercenaries had, in their eyes, adopted a 
cunning method of warfare from the very beginning, and, when taken prisoners, bore them- 
selves with an insolent and provocative mien. That any such distinction of treatment 
was ordered by superior officers is an untruth. 

(B.) — hlfe in the Internment Camp. 

Major Vandeleur admits himself that there was " not so much to complain of" in 
this matter. The following details deserve remark : — 

9. In the early days there was only one orderly to serve every fifteen officer 
prisoners ; later, while Major Vandeleur was still there, the number of rank and file 
was so greatly increased that evei'y five officers had one orderly. Even in the 
early days the officers were not obliged to make their own beds and clean their own 
boots. 

10. German soldiers' beds must be good enough for prisoners of war. The size 
of the rooms occupied by seven officers is proportionate to the number of occupants. 

11. The- sale of beer and light wines has since been sanctioned in officers' 
camps. 

12. As regards officers' pay, the negotiations now in course should be referred to. 
That sums of money of a considerable amount ai-e not left in the officers' possession, 
but are kept for them, a receipt given, and the money paid out as required, needs no 
explanation. As for the price of board. Major Vandeleur was himself one of the 
spokesmen on the occasion when the price was settled by general consent. He seems, 
moreover, to hold the view that any dishes not known in England or not prepared in 
the English way are bad. 



17 

13. The reason given by the Enghsh officers for not desiring any more visits from 
the Evangelical minister of religion was not " his disagreeable remarks about the late 
King," but his indistinct pronunciation. 

14. The English soldiers did not have their overcoats and tunics "taken away 
from them" ; they may, perhaps, have sold them, or lost them at play in many insttinces 
to more pecunious Frenchmen or Belgians. As they had to be clothed, French and 
Belgian uniforms were given them when English uniforms ran out, and they were 
similarly provided with missing underwear. Sabots were issued as substitutes for 
boots. The German military authorities cannot be expected to provide new 
boots straight away for prisoners of war numbering now over a million. Officers had to 
hand over their civilian belongings, but only after they had been replaced by items of 
uniform. This regulation is thoroughly sound. 

15. For the rest, Germany lives well up to her obligations under article 7 of The 
Hague Convention. The idea of supplying articles of clothing to the generality of prisoners 
of war cannot, therefore, be entertained. There is no lack of clothing or coverings. 

It is certainly possible that British prisoners still possess the clothes which they 
wore at the time of their capture. The prisoners naturally wear their clothes as long as 
they are wearable. 

The bedding-straw in the men's camps is regularly changed. 

16. It is, with a few exceptions, untrue that English orderlies were afflicted with 
lice. Only three of them have suffered from scabies. The truth is, however, that 
the English private soldiei's, like the Russians, but in distinction from the French and 
Belgians, always arrive in the internment camps filthy and lousy in the highest degree 
and have to be freed from vermin with the greatest trouble. 

17. The English rank and file are sufficiently fed. None of them have been in a 
" half-starved condition." They have, moreover, declared unanimously that no 
difference has been made between their own treatment and that of the French and 
J3elgians. 

18. If it is a fact that English soldiers were especially employed on disagreeable 
work, the cause thereof is explained by the following facts : Prisoners of war are put to 
particular work in accordance with their particular training and ability. Most French 
and Russian soldiers have learnt a handicraft or something of the sort, belonging, as 
they do — as the result of universal military service — to some or other civilian trade, 
and can, therefore, be employed accordingly ; in their work, they are mostly handy, 
willing, and industrious. The soldiers of the English standing paid army, on the contrary, 
have usually learnt nothing, and are fit for no particular employ outside the care of 
horses and farm work ; they are besides frequently lazy, arrogant, and obstinate. Even 
those of them who know a little German pretend not to. 

According to the "Daily Mail" of the 17th April, 1915, an English prisoner of 
war stated to an American engaged in making a report : " We absolutely refuse to 
speak their language, although we know a little of it." It is not to be wondered at, in 
these circumstances, if the common jobs requiring no particular skill fall in many cases 
to the English. 

19. Arrangements for the correspondence of prisoners of war are regulated 
uniformly in all camps. 

20. Nothing is known in Crefeld of officers and men having been killed after capture 
and of proofs thereof having been collected there. The question refers perhaps to 
individuals who have been found by German soldiers in the act of killing helpless 
German wounded and have met with their just reward. 

21. Major Vandeleur liked to grumble, but he never made complaint of his 
treatment or housing in the camp at Crefeld. It is significant that his own comrades 
considered him not quite normal. The same opinion about him was expressed in a 
letter i'rom the wife of an English colonel in the internment camp at Crefeld written to 
her husband, based, moreover, on what Major Vandeleur had been relating in England 
about his experiences as a prisoner. 

22. Two neutrals, the Swiss deputy Eugster and the Spanish consul Palmaroli, 
inspected the camp of Crefeld on the 2nd March, 1915, and passed very favourable 
judgment on the arrangements ; this, too, after conversing free from observation with 
officers and men. 

23. Letters from Major Vandeleur's relations are in our possession which show that 
he himself, while a prisoner, sent favourable reports about his state of treatment. 
Further, on the 6th March> 1915, Lieutenant-Colonel Bolton of the Scots Guards and 
Lieutenant-Colonel Gibbs of the Duke of Wellington's Regiment, expressly declared to 
the camp-commandant at Crefeld that all the English officers there were satisfied with 

[1196] C 



V 18 

their treatment and that no distinction was made between^ them and the French. 
Many Toluntary statements exist to prove that in German hospitals no difference is made 
between friend and foe. Copy of a letter of this sort from an English prisoner of war, 
B. Thompson, who was treated in the reserve hospital at Bensheim is herewith enclosed. 

II. — Bemarks on the General Complaints of the British Government. 

24. British officer prisoners of war seem to find it disagreeable to be put together 
with Russian officers. The German Government see no reason whatever why any 
separation should be made among captured enemy officers in their quarters. Since 
England does not blush to use coloured troops of all races against Germany in the 
present war, English officers must not be surprised if they are brought into close contact 
in prison with their comrades in arms of other nationalities. 

As regards the specific complaint about the officers' internment camp at Stralsund, 
reference is made to the annexed report by the commandant of that camp. 

25. The only officers in Sennelager are a few army medical officers. These are 
allowed to write and i-eceive letters in the same way as elsewhere. 

26. Direct communication between Major Vandeleur and the Ambassador of the 
United States, America, in Berlin, was forbidden with perfect right. The register of 
British officers at Crefeld asked for by the Embassy was sent to them by the Acting 
General Commanding the Vllth Army Corps on the 8th December last. 

27. The imputation that on Germany's side prisoners of war were the objects of 
inhuman conduct, and that the provisions of international law concerning their treat- 
ment were utterly ignored, must be repudiated. Reports and descriptions of the 
condition of enemy prisoners of war in Germany by the American Ambassador, the 
Swiss deputy Eugster, and other trustworthy persons state the contrary. That English 
prisoners were not "singled out for bad treatment" is proved in the first instance by 
the fact that they are everywhere housed together with their Allies of different nation- 
alities and races. 

28. Details about the camp at Minden appeared in the " Morning Post " of the 
15th December, 1914, and the necessary work of verification on the part of the German 
authorities was accomplished in January. 

No " French clergyman " was ever released from this camp, and such a person 
cannot, therefore, have given information. 

Finally, attention is drawn, in connection with this point, to the report annexed to 
the German note verbale to the Embassy of the 23rd February. 

III. 

29. With reference to the description by a " Citizen of the U.S.A." of Doberitz, it 
is to be noticed that the visit which must be the one in question was undertaken at the 
most unfavourable time conceivable, seeing that at that period the prisoners were stilL 
living in tents, many of which were blown down or damaged by the autunmal storms. 
On account of this circumstance and the wetness of the season the camp apparently 
gave the visitor the impression of being particularly unlivable in. 

Even if the report does not contain an actually untruthful description of what he 
saw, he at any rate judges everything without making the slightest intelligent allow- 
ance for the peculiar conditions of war. It will suffice in this respect simply to point 
to the obviously far worse conditions which prevailed during the autumn of that year 
in the internment camp for Germad civilian prisoners at Newbury, in England. The 
following particular points must be noticed with regard to the above-mentioned American 
description : — • 

30. It is untrue that the 9,000 prisoners were " very miserable (or sickly) men." 
Except for a few dozen sick or wounded they were all strong and healthy. 

31. The stable tents are better and warmer than others. Whether or not the 
patched parts were of " colours that clashed " is entirely beside the point. Many 
German prisoners in the enemy's countries have been lodged in tents even in the depth 
of winter, and still are so to some extent, although none of the enemy countries has to 
provide for a number of prisoners even approximately equal to those in Germany. 
In fact, very considerable sums are expended on the maintenance of prisoners in 
Germany. 

32. Although the English prisoners found their lives intolerably monotonous, as the 
report states, yet here, as iu other camps, they ''^ried to escape froip even the lightest 
task, 



19 

33. The general observations of the author of the report concerning the war give 
proof of an utter lack of comprehension of military necessities. 

34. The prisoners of war had daily opportunity for washing the whole body most 
thoroughly. 

35. As regards the prevalence of Hce among the English, see above, No. 16. 

36. A certain number of fights have taken place between the Enghsh and other 
prisoners. Besides this, the various nationalities avoid each other carefully. If the 
Allies find each other unattractive when they are brought into closer contact, it is no 
fault of the Germans. 

37. The author of the report, having " hastily examined the prisoners' soup," 
found it " a dreadfully unappetising sort of food." ilere again it is apparent how an 
arbitrary judgment was pronounced on the strength of a very superficial inspection. 
German officers, who often sample the food, find it good. It may well happen that the 
English do not find new dishes so palatable as the extravagant fare which England 
provides for her mercenaries. Groats, which English soldiers are reported to have 
spoken of as too bad to give to pigs, are readily eaten by many Germans, and are even 
a favourite dish in certain parts of England. 

38. The tents which incurred such unfavourable judgment from the American 
visitor were thoroughly inpected at about the same time by another neutral observer, 
Sven Hedin, whose verdict was one of approbation in every respect. The present camp 
of huts was likewise inspected not long ago by two Rumanian visitors. Another 
favourable report of this camp is contained in the Madrid newspaper " Tribuna " 
(No. 1151 of the 23rd March last), under the heading "En el Campamento de 
Doberitz." 

Berlin, June 30, 1915. 



Annexes. 

(1.) 
Sir, Bensheim, February 23, 1915. 

I, Bernard 1'hompsou, declare that since I have been under treatment; by the 
Germans I have been treated in the most civil manner. I have had my wounds 
properly attended to at all times, and I have also always had plenty of something to 
eat • in fact, I could not have been better treated by my own people. I was under 
German doctors in France, where I was treated as well as anyone could be, no matter 
what nationality they were. On leaving Cambrai I was properly attended to before I 
left, and visited occasionally by the doctor before arriving at Bensheim. I got food and 
coffee at certain stations on the journey, and it was always served in a most civil 
manner. I have not been treated like a prisoner at all, but as one of your own people ; 
and I think any English prisoner who grumbles at the treatment I have seen them get 
onght to be ashamed of himself; as for myself, I have never heard anyone complain 
yet. If anyone has been insulted or ill-treated in any Avay, I think it must have been 
their own fault. 

All the prisoners I have been with, both French and English, have alw5,ys been 
very well satisfied in the way they have been treated. 

You may use this letter in any way you think fit. 

I wish to state that everything written in this letter is the absolute truth and 
nothing exaggerated, so I will conclude, and remain 

Your obedient Servant, 

B. THOMPSON, English Prisoner of War. 



(2.) 
Internment Gamp for Officers. 



To the Ministry for War, Berlin. 

Of the newspaper articles received here, the first of those written by Dr. Swaginzew, 
of Petersburg, and another published by a doctor in the " Rjetsch," deal with conditions 
in the officers' internment camp on the Island Danholm, near Stralsund. 

Dr. Swaginzew, and probably also the author of the second article, were in the 
[1196] __ ' C ?, 



20 

Danholm camp between the 12th November and the 3rd December, 1914. They had 
been sent to Stralsund from Soldau, together with other members of the medical corps, 
and received lodging and treatment in the camp on the same terms as the Kussian 
officers who were prisoners there. As they refused to serve any longer as doctors 
among the Russian prisoners, they were released and sent to Russia, via Sweden, 
on the 3rd December, 1914, by order of the acting general in command, dated the 
25 th November, 1914. 

The conduct of these doctors was, from the start, provocative. They asserted 
that their internment in an officers' internment camp was illegal according to the 
Geneva Convention, and submitted unwillingly to the camp regulations. One of tlie 
doctors went the length of complaining, in a loud and unseemly fashion, to a sergeant 
on duty, saying that the doctors and officers were lodged in JDarrack-rooms ordinarily 
inhabited by German soldiers. After the unseemliness of his behaviour had been 
suitably -brought to the attention of this doctor no further opposition was made to the 
camp regulations. 

In Dr. Swaginzew's article the camp regulations at Danholm are likened to " prison 
routine." It is to be noted, with reference to this, tliat safety and the maintenance of 
order in the separate barracks scattered over the island makes it necessary to post 
sentinels, the more so as the island, besides being used for the internment of prisoners, 
serves also as an exercise ground for the local battalion of Ersatz troops and is lived on 
by military officials. All sentinels are supplied with precise instructions concerning 
their behaviour towards the Interned officers, so that up to the present no troubles have 
arisen. The number of sentinels is restricted to the lowest possible figure. 

It is a pure lie that German soldiers forced their way into the Russian officers' 
room with their caps on their heads and proceeded to whistle and shout, as the writer 
of the article asserts. The camp regulations prohibit everyone from entering the 
room, and the only persons who have a right to enter are the inspecting officials on 
duty. It is just as much of an invention that an interned officer was punished with 
imprisonment for refusing to obey a sergeant. No such punishment has yet been 
inflicted in the camp. When little acts- of this kind take place — they generally arise 
in the course of quarrels between the Russian officers themselves — the officer involved 
Is sent to other barracks with the consent of the senior interned officer (in each camp 
the officer of highest rank is appointed as senior officer). 

As concerns the officers' clothing, whlcb the writer of the article describes as 
pitiful, it Is a matter which has nothing to do with the German officials of the camp, 
but concerns the interned officers themselves, who receive their pay for the purpose of 
providing themselves with clothes, and are allowed to enlarge their wardrobe as much 
as they like. Camp shoemakers and tailors, taken from among the Russians, are at the 
officers' disposal for this purpose. 

The complaints about the food, made In this and the other article, have as little 
foundation and truth as the other accusations brought against the management of the 
camp. The commandant has a contract with the canteen-keeper, who Is chai'ged with 
the catering for the Prussian officers, whereby they have to be provided for at 1"50 M. 
a head per diem. The price Is deliberately fixed so low as this in order that officers of 
the rank of lieutenant may have enough of their war-pay left over to meet their other 
needs, such as washing. It is obvious enough that with the price so low as this, and 
imder existing conditions, the food cannot be such as many of the officers are, perhaps, 
used to at home. It must be taken into account, too, that Russians are accustomed to 
a different sort of diet. The catering for the Russian officers is most carefully over- 
seen by the camp commandant, and every reasonable griev;uice has been at once 
rectified. 

It Is stated in both articles that the British officers, of whom there were six at 
Danholm during the period between the 3rd November and the 15th December, 1914, 
were treated in manner inspired by quite peculiar hatred. If the guards did In fact 
show less sympathy for these than for the prisoners of other nationalities, it is quite 
Intelligible considering that In the early da3^s the English officers behaved in a very 
haughty and Insubordinate fashion. It must, on the other hand, be put down as an 
untruth that the English experienced treatment such as Is described in the two articles 
written by the doctors. The ]i^nglish were not put into separate rooms, nor were they 
forbidden to hold intercourse with each other, except In so far as the camp regulations 
prohibited it generally. The distribution of the English among the several barracks 
was regulated by a general order ; for the rest, they were treated in the same way as 
the other Interned officers. As regards the incident concerning the visit of one of the 
British officers, and the statement that one of these officers was even struck by the 



21 

camp-officer, these matters will be returned to in the course of some observations about 
the second article. 

The assertions of the writer about the retention of Russian letters is just as much 
a fiction as his statements that the treatment of the prisoners changed after the alleged 
Ptussian victories of that time. 

The second article which is said to have appeared in the " Ejetsch," and whose 
author is unknown, but was beyond doubt one of the doctors released at that time, 
makes an attempt to view the condition of the interned Russian oflScers at Danholm 
from a more objective standpoint. But it too, like the first article, contains untrue 
and incorrect statements on many points. ' 

First of all, all the conversations which the doctor pretends to have had with the 
oflScer on duty in the camp are absolutely invented. Such conversations never took 
place, as is proved by the fact that the camp-ofiicer has no relative who has been 
dragged off to Siberia. Similarly, the stories of the dragoman who intercepted letters 
and of the volunteer from Heyking are devoid of truth. 

The war-pay of the doctors and of the officers has always been paid out to them 
in the manner prescribed by the regulation concerning war-pay. 

As regards the incident of the English officer who, as the writer himself admits, 
had been taken by the doctor, contrary to the regulations of the commandant, from 
barracks 2/3 to barracks 4, together with the sick man, and had not, as Dr. Swuginzew 
asserts, come there by chance, this occurrence certainly did take place, but not in the 
manner described by the doctor. The camp-officer was perfectly justified in lecturing 
in the severest terms both the doctor and the English officer for their breach of the 
camp rules. He did so in a manner quite in keeping with the circumstances. The term 
" deliberate falsehood " must be applied to the statement that the camp-officer went so 
far in his hatred of the Enoflishman as to strike an officer of the English Guard on the 
chest, as the author of the article declares. Such an event never occurred, nor anything 
in the least similar which could have been exaggerated into an incident of the sort. 

As mentioned above, the English were treated strictly according to the rules, like 
the prisoners of other nationalities. None of the guards nor officers, nor the com- 
mandant, ever had the desire, as is stated, to vent their fury on defenceless prisoners. 

The generals, colonels, and other officers who were interned hei'e for a long time 
and are now at Heidelberg, Villingen, and Friedberg, departed from here with regret, 
and, before going, expressed their thanks to the acting commandant of the camp for 
their good treatment. 

Danholm, Stralsund, January 26, 1915. 

No. 14. 

M7\ Page, United States Ambassador in London, to Sir Edward Grey. — (Received 

Jid.y 18.) 

THE American Ambassador presents his compliments to His Majesty's Secretary 
of State for Foreign Affairs, and has the honour to enclose herewith a copy of a report 
of a visit made by the Honourable J. B. Jackson to the officers' camp at Augustabad, 
near Neubrandenburg in Mecklenburg, together with three post-cards* showing the 
building in which the British officers are interned and its location. 

American Embassy, London, 
July 17, VJ15. 

* Not reproduced. 



Enclosure 1 in No. 14. 

Mr. Gerard to Mr. Page. 

Sir, Ame7-iean Embassy, Berlin, July 10, I^IS. 

I HAVE the honour to transmit herewith, for communication to the British 
Government, a copy of a report of a visit made by Mr. Jackson to the officers' prisoner 
of war camp at Augustabad, near Neubrandenburg in Mecklenburg, on the 9th instant, 
with which are enclosed three post-cards showing the building in which the British 
officers are interned and its location. 

JAMES W. GERARD. 



[1196] 



C 3 



"Enclosure 2 in No. 14. 

neport by Mr. Jackson on lits Visit to Detention Camp at Neuhrandenhurg. 

ABOUT a month ago the " Kiirhotel Augustabad" on the Tollense See,, neat' 
Neubrandenburg In Mecklenburg, was taken over by the military authorities as a place 
of detention for officer prisoners of war, and a few days later about 190 officers 
(principally from Halle a/d Saale) were brought there. The establishment consists of 
one good-sized hotel and several villas. It is separated from the Tollense Lake by a 
road, and is surrounded by woods. The view is attractive in every direction, the air is 
good, and the place is healthy. Twenty-four British officers, all of whom came from 
Halle, were brought here originally, but two (Surgeon Greig and Lieutenant Gordon 
Barker) have been sent home in the meantime, and one. Lieutenant Hardy, who made 
an attempt to escape, is soon to be sent elsewhere. All these officers live in the hotel- 
proper, Colonel Enderbey and Major Haig (compare report of visit to Halle on the 
1st April, 1915) sharing a room on the lake side of the building, and all the other 
Englishmen being by themselves in rooms holding from two to seven persons each. 
None of the rooms are overcrowded as compared with other places of internment either 
in Germany or England, and all are well ventilated. The hotel is heated by steam so 
that it could be used in the winter. On each floor there are water-closets and a bath 
(tub with shower), as provided for the usual summer guests, wdio were of course fewer 
in number than the present occupants. On the ground floor of the hotel are three 
dining-rooms, one of which is used by all the English officers, who sit together. I took 
luncheon (the regular midday meal) with these gentlemen, having almost exactly the 
same menu (soup, meat balls, and potatoes, fruit, coffee, and beer) that I had when I 
lunched with the German officer prisoners of war at Holy port on the 29th January. 
The officers pay 50 M. a month for their food, the kitchen being in charge of the 
regular hotel staff. They are at liberty to order extras within reason at their own 
expense. The hotel and a good-sized garden are enclosed with a barbed wire and high 
board fence. In the garden there are trees and flower beds and a broad oval path of 
about 200 yards in length. There is also a horizontal bar for exercise. The officers are 
permitted to have steamer chairs. There are no guards -within the enclosure, in which 
I spent about three hours in unrestricted intercourse with the interned, none of whom 
wished to make any complaint. Until a few days ago the officers were permitted to 
use a tennis court outside the enclosure, to swim in the lake, and to walk in the 
neighbouring woods. As four officers (one Englishman) made an attempt to escape 
(from the bath-house), these privileges were temporarily suspended, but I was told by 
the commandant, whose relations with the prisonei's are of the best, that they would 
be restored at an early date. 

As all the British prisoners are in touch with their friends at home, and have 
received letters and parcels since their transfer to Neubrandenburg, I did not consider 
it necessary to take a list. All were in good physical condition and in good spirits. 
One or two spoke of twinges of rheumatism, but others who have had tendencies to 
lung troubles are in better health than they were before. 

In the camp are two or three British soldiers among the officers' servants, who are 
entirely satisfied with their present treatment. 
JnJy 9, 1915. 



No. 15. 

bir Edioard Grey to Mr. Page, United States Amhassador in London, 

THE Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs presents his compliments to the 
United States Ambassador, and, with reference to his Excellency's note of the 12th 
instant,"^ transmitting copies of reports by Mr. Jackson on visits to prisoners of war 
camps at Stendal, Zerbst, and Wittenberg, which have been read with much interest, 
has the honour to state that his attention has been particularly attracted by a state- 
ment made in the report on Stendal camp, that there are there a nimiber of British 
prisoners who have lost a limb or are on crutches, and who could be of no further 
active military service. In the circumstances it would appear that some at least of 
these men are entitled to repatriation, and Sir E. Grey would be glad to learn whether 
the German authorities are considering such action with regard to them. 

* See No. 10. 



23 

Sir E. Grey also notes that at 2erbst there is a British prisoner who had beeii 
punished by being tied to a stake in December last. The infliction of a punishment 
of this nature in an internment camp would be hard to justify even in cases where no 
punishment cells exist, and Sir E. Grey trusts that, as the organisation of the camps 
has now been completed, this method of punishment has been definitely abolished. 
Sir E. Grey also trusts that measures have been taken to do away with any justification 
for complaints by prisoners as to their treatment at the time of capture or soon there- 
after,*such as which a number of British soldiers at Zerbst were ready to make. 

Foreign Office, July 20, 1915. 



No. 16, 

Mr. Page, United States Ambassador in London, to Sir Edward Grey. — (Received 

July 25.) 

THE American Ambassador presents his compliments to His Majesty's Secretary 
of State for Foreign Affairs, and has the honour to transmit herewith enclosed a copy 
of a letter he has received from the Embassy at Berlin, dated the 17th instant, enclosing 
a copy of a report made by Dr. Karl Ohnesorg of visits made by him to the officer camjjs at 
Friedburg and Hannover, Miinden, and soldier camps at Limburg and Giessen. 

American Embassy, London, 
July 24, 1915. 



Enclosure 1 in No. 16. 
Mr. Gerard to Mr. Page. 

Sir, American Embassy, Berlin, Jidy 17, 1915. 

I HAVE the honour to transmit herewith, for transmission to the British Govern- 
ment, a copy of a report made by Dr. Karl Ohnesorg, Surgeon, United States navy, of 
visits made by him to the officer camps at Friedburg and Hannover, Miinden, and 
soldier camps at Limburg and Giessen. 

In this connection I beg to call attention to the fact that the Irish soldiers in the 
camp at Limburg are all Roman Catholics, and that several priests have been sent 
especially to care for them, at the instance, as I am informed, of His Holiness the Pope. 

I have, &c. 

JAMES W. GERARD. 



Enclosure 2 in No. 16. 



Dr. Ohnesorg to Mr. Gerard. 
Sir, Jidy 17, 1915. 

I HAVE to report that on the 13th, 14th, and 15th July I visited the following 
camps : Friedberg (officers), Giessen and Limburg (men), and Hannover, Miinden, 
(officers). All of these camps had been previously visited : Friedberg by the late 
Mr. Michelson, American consul-general at Cologne, and the others by me in April 
last and fully reported upon, so a detailed description of the camps will not now be 
made. 

Friedberg. — The camp here is situated on the extreme outskirts of the town. 
The buildings used for the purposes of the camp are stone barracks, completed just 
before the outbreak of the war and the officers were their first occupants. This group 
of buildings is placed upon a high hill, affording a Avide expanse of view over the 
surrounding countrJ^ The buildings are of stone and attractive in appearance. Two 
large three-storey buildings are used for housing the interned officers and their 
orderlies, a smaller building contains the kitchen, messroom, and shower-baths, and a 
fourth building, the "exercise hall," is a large, high-vaulted structure in one end of 
which are parallel bars, horizontal bars, &c., for gymnastic exercises. In the winter 
a tennis court had been placed in this building. 

The officers' rooms are large, well ventilated by two large windows, lighted 

[1196] 4 



24 - 

artificially by electricity, and supplied with good furniture. The beds are of iron with 
steel sj)rings and each supplied with a good mattress. There was no overcrowding.' 
The senior officers had rooms by themselves or were quartered with another officer. 

In one of the buildings is a small infirmary for the treatment of mild cases of 
illness ; any serious case of illness or wounds are treated in the hospital in the town. 
In the larger barrack is a large room fitted up as a chapel. Greek, Roman Catholic, 
and Protestant services were held here weekly. 

There are interned hei-e at present 300 officers, foiirteen of whom are British. I 
saw all of them and talked with the majority alone, the senior two of the number, 
Lieutenaut-Colonel Earle and Major Morrison Bell, accompanying me on my inspection 
of the grounds and buildings. I asked them concerning their treatment, messiug 
arrangements, &c., and they all seemed to be satisfied and had no complaints to make. 

Bathing facilities were excellent. Numerous showers had been installed, as well 
as two bath tubs. Warm water was supplied and baths permitted at any and all times. 

These buildings are placed upon three sides of a large court. The space affords 
an excellent recreation ground. A tennis court had been laid out, and at the extreme 
end the space had been divided up into several small gardens, each of the officers 
having his own little flower garden. The officers spoke to me of the possibility of 
their being allowed to go out through the surrounding country for walks, imder the 
guard of a German officer or non-commissioned officer. I spoke to the commandant 
concerning this and he said it was not within his power to grant this request, but ho 
would speak to the Ministry of War concerning it. 1 would suggest that this be taken 
up with the proper authorities to see if this privilege cannot be granted them. 

The following is a list of the British officers here interned : — 

Maxwell Earle ... ... Lieutenant-Colonel. 

Morrison Bell .... ... Major. 

Eric Skaife ... ... ... Captain. 

John Shore ... ... ... Captain. 

Cecil Hutchison ... ... Captain. 

Herbert Master ... ... Captain. 

Ronald Dare Gillespie ... Lieutenant. 

Sidney Taylor ... ... Lieutenant. 

Jocelyn Mortan Lucas ... 1st Lieutenant. 

William Colquhoun ... ... 1st Lieutenant. 

James Allison ... ... 2nd Lieutenant. 

Montague Chidson ... ... Lieutenant Aviator. 

Oswald Mansell-Moullin ... Lieutenant Aviator. 

Hannover, Miinden. — It was most gratifying to see the improvements which had 
been accomplished in this camp. During my visit in April last it was far from 
satisfactory. Sanitary arrangements were poor, there was limited space for exercise 
and the building was overcrowded. The opposite of this I found on my recent visit. 
The camp is situated on the outskirts of the town of Miinden, on the banks of the 
Weser river. The prison is a factory building, built of brick, situated on a main 
highway. It contains COO ofiScers, only two of whom are British ; a third British 
officer had been transferred the day previous to Mainz. 

The large rooms in the building have been divided by wooden partitions into 
rooms of about 35 ft. in length and 20 ft. in width. Not more than twelve officers 
occupy any one room. _ The two British officers have a room to themselves. The beds 
are of iron, steel springs, with straw mattresses and pillows ; the bed linen was clean. 
Tables and chairs and a washstand completed the furniture of the room. Small lockers 
and hooks for the hanging of clothing, &c., were supplied each bed. 

On the first floor was a large room used for messing purposes. The officers ate at 
small tables, seating eight. There was a large canteen with a Avell-assorted stock, 
articles being sold at moderate prices. The messing arrangements were very good. 
A committee of five, appointed by the officers themselves, managed their own mess. 
This scheme had only been inaugurated a short time before and the officers were 
satisfied with the food and the arrangement. 

In one of the basement rooms of the building had been rigged several showers 
and bath tubs. Hot Avater was supplied and baths could be had Avhenever desired. 
The commandant compelled each officer and orderly to take a weekly bath. 

In another room in the basement had been rigged a small chapel. Adjoining the 
building, and connected with it by a small passageway, was a wooden building which 
bad been erected for a recreation hall. This building had one large room and four 



'25 

smaller ones ; in the latter I saw officers playing chess and, in one of them, a class of 
officers who were studying French and English. A library of well-selected books in 
Russian, French, and English was supplied. This building was erected by the Young 
Men's Christian Association, under the supervision of Mr. Hart, and had added 
materially to the comfort of the officers. 

The grounds have been extended in area. A tennis court has been laid out as 
well as a space for bowling, and horizontal bars furnished. The extreme end of the 
enclosure has been cleared and numerous paths made through the trees with seats and 
small shelters. 

The latrine, which was the source of much concern on my previous visit, was 
undergoing alterations, a flushing system being installed. 

The whole compound is surrounded by a double line of barbed wire fencing, the 
space between beiug patrolled by sentries. There are no sentries within the compound. 

The two British officers here confined are Major J.- R. Ritson, Durham Light 
Infantry, and Lieutenant E. 0. Bath, of the 4Sth Canadian Highlanders. Second 
Lieutenant J. J. Russell, Sussex Regiment, had been transferred the day previous to 
Mainz. I spoke with both of these officers outside of the hearing of the German 
officers. They said that their treatment had been in every respect correct and generous 
and that they had no complaints to make. 

Fourteen British soldiers were interned here and acted as orderlies for interned 
officers. The majority of them needed uniforms ; a list of their needs has been supplied 
the British department. 

Limhurg. — In this camp there are about 2,300 Irish troops. They are quartered 
together and form the second battalion. Conditions were much the same as when I 
visited the camp in April last. I inspected thoroughly the barracks in Avhich the Irish 
prisoners are confined, and talked with many of them alone, outside of hearing of the 
German officers. There was the usual complaint aboiit the food. They all looked 
well nourished and appeared to be in good physical condition. 

In the lazaret adjoing the camp were a few of the Irish troops who were under 
treatment for wounds and mild cases of illness. 

Giessen. — My visit to this camp confirmed the first impression I received of its 
being one of the best organised, neatest, and most contented camps which I have 
visited. It contained only British and French prisoners, with a few Belgians; the 
Russians had been all removed. 

The camp, as I stated in a previous report, is divided into three battalions and 
each battalion into companies. Each company compound is fenced off and no 
communication is permitted between the various companies. French and British are 
housed together in these various barracks. They were segregated in the sense of one 
end of the building being reserved for the French and the other half for the British. 
Each barrack was under the direct supervision of a non-commissioned officer of the 
prisoners, who was responsible for its cleanliness and order. Seventeen hundred 
British troops were interned here, and of these 450 were Canadians. The latter 
were sadly in need of uniforms. 

Since my previous visit in April an addition has been built to the camp, consisting 
of a large enclosure containing five large barracks, with separate kitchen. This was 
built for isolation purposes. Adjoining this was a newly erected disinfecting plant ; 
each prisoner admitted to the camp was first received here and his clothing and 
person thoroughly disinfected. There had also been established the rule that a weekly 
disinfection of each prisoner's clothing and person should be made. In the adjoining 
lazaret were a few British prisoners under treatment for wounds (all convalescing). 

In both of these men's camps I found that many of the prisoners had been 
detailed for work in the surrounding country, i.e., in working camps. Giessen alone 
has 150 of these working camps under its control. . I spoke with many of the 
prisoners alone concerning their treatment in these camps and the work they had to 
do. They said it was not hard, and before been allotted to these various working 
camps they underwent a thorough medical examination, and those who were found 
in an unfit physical condition were not detailed for this work. They are fed and 
housed by their employer, have a guard detailed over them, and in one instance I 
met a complaint of insufficient food. The commandant said that officers were detailed 
to inspect these various working camps, and when conditions such as improper 
housing or poor food were noticed, steps were immediatelj^ taken to remedy same. 

I have, &c. 

KARL OHNESORG, Surgeon, 
United States Navy, Assistant Naval Attache, Berlin. 



26 

No. 17. 

Sir Edward Grey to Mr. Page, United States Amhassador in London. 

THE Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs presents his compliments to tlie 
United States Ambassador, and has the honour to acknowledge the receipt of his 
Excellency's note of the 24th ultimo,* enclosing reports by Dr. Ohnesorg on the 
prisoners' camps at Friedberg, Hannover-Munden, Limburg, and Giessen which have 
been received from the United States Ambassador at Berlin. 

With regard to the report on Hannover-Munden, Sir E. Grey has failed to trace 
the report by Dr. Ohnesorg of his visit to this camp in April last. 

Sir E. Grey fears that the absence of this report might possibly give rise to the 
impression that unfavourable news about the British prisoners in Germany is being 
withheld. Such an impression would greatly increase the public uneasiness on this 
subject, and would also put His Majesty's Government in rather an aAvkward position. 

Sir E. Grey hopes therefore that he is right in assuming that Dr. Ohnesorg's first 
report was not sent him, owing to some accidental oversight, and that His Majesty's 
Government can continue to assure the public that they may rely on the completeness 
of the information in the reports so kindly furnished by the United States Embassy 
for which, as for all their other exertions. His Majesty's Government are unfeignedly 
grateful. 

Foreign Office, August 2, 1915. 

* See No. 16 



No. 18. 

Mr. Page, United States Ambassador in London, to Sir Edward Gh^ey. — {Received 

August 11.) 

THE American Ambassador presents his compliments to His Majesty's Secretary 
of State for Foreign Affairs, and has the honour to transmit herewith enclosed a copy 
of a letter he has received from the Embassy at Berlin, dated the 3rd instant, referring 
to Sir Edward Grey's note of the 24th May last,* and enclosing a copy of a letter from 
the consul at Roubaix respecting the- conditions obtaining at the Citadel at Lille. 

American Embassy, London, 
August 10, 1915. 

* See No. I. 



Enclosure 1 in No. 18. 

Mr. Gerard to Mr. Page. 

Sir, American Embassy, Berlin, August 3, 1915. 

WITH reference to your letter of the 25th May last, with which was enclosed a 
copy of a note from Sir E. Grey of the 24th May last, to the effect that a number of 
British prisoners of war at the Citadel at Lille are believed to be undergoing great 
hardships, I have the honour to forward to you, herewith enclosed, for transmission to 
His Majesty's Government, copy of a despatch which has been received from the 
consul at Roubaix, who visited the Citadel on the 9th idtimo. 

I have, &c. 

JAMES W. GERARD. 



Enclosure 2 in No. 18. 
Mr. Watson to Mr. Gerard. 



Sir, Roubaix, France, July 10, 1915. 

I HAVE the honour to inform you that in accordance with your instructions, 
dated the 31st May, 1915, and received 1st July, 1915, I obtained permission yesterday 
morning from the German military authority to investigate the condition of the 
English prisoners of war in the Citadel of Lille. The investigation was made 
yesterday afternoon, and 1 hereby submit a report of same. 



27 

In tke first place, the Citadel is only a temporary prison. The prisoners brought 
from the front are kept there one or two days at the most, before being sent to 
Germany. This is done in order to give them a little rest, as well as to arrange for 
their railroad transportation, for they are generally tired out when they arrive in Lille. 
The building in which the prisoners are confined is over 200 years old, and no 
conveniences have been installed. However, the place is clean and sanitary. There 
are no military prisoners in the Citadel at present. 

The officers are quartered in separate rooms on the second storey, unless there is 
an unusually large number of them. In any case, each officer has a bed. The rooms 
are clean and there is sufficient furniture for the actual needs of the prisoners. The 
private soldiers are put into large rooms, averaging about 15 feet square. Straw 
n:attresses are provided for them. All the windows are barred, as a matter of military 
necessity. There are two small courts, one for the use of the officers and the other for 
the soldiers. Both officers and soldiers are allowed to walk about in their respective 
courts during the day. This is the only means of exercise they have. 

The food is plain, -but wholesome, judging from Avhat was shown. As there are 
no prisoners there just now, I could not learn what they thought of it. Three meals a 
day are given to all prisoners. Breakfast consists of coffee, tea, or cocoa and bread ; 
dinner of soup, a piece of meat, vegetables and bread ; and supper of bacon or eggs, 
Ijread and cheese. The prisoners are allowed to buy extra articles of food, tobacco, &c., 
in the Citadel canteen. 

There is a hospital adjoining the prison, where the sick prisoners are cared for. 
Every morning at 9 o'clock those who are sick can have medical attendance. 

The prisoners are not allowed to write letters in the Citadel, but as they are only 
kept there such a short time, this would not seem to be a hardship. From what I saw 
and heard, there is no foundation for the charge that the prisoners undergo great 
hardships. The officer in charge afforded me every facility in making this 
inspection. 

I have, &c. 

JOHN J. C. WATSON. 



No. 19. 

Mr. Page, United States Ambassador in London, to Sir Edward Gh^ey. — {Received 

August 15.) 

THE American Ambassador presents his compliments to His Majesty's Secretary 
of State for Foreign Affairs, and has the honour to transmit, herewith enclosed, a copy 
of a letter he has received from the Embassy at Berlin, transmitting copies of reports 
upon visits to camps at Beeskow, Sagan, Sprottau, Guben, and Crossen. 

Avieriean Embassy, London, 
August 14, 1915. 



Enclosure 1 in No. 19. 

Mr. Gerard to Mr. Page. 

Sir, American Embassy, Berlin, August 10, 1915. 

WITH reference to previous correspondence, I have the honour to forward to you, 
herewith enclosed, for transmission to His Majesty's Government, copies of reports 
upon visits to camps in Germany where British" prisoners of war are interned, as 
follows : — • 

Mr. Jackson's report of his visit to the camp for officer prisoners of war at 
Beeskow on the 5th instant ; and 

Dr. Ohnesorg's reports of visit to the camps at Sagan, Sprottau, Guben, and 
Crossen, on the 6th and 7th instant. 

I have, &c. 

JAMES W. GERARD. 



-28 

Enclosure 2 in No. 19, 
Report hy Mr. Jaclison on his Visit to Camp for Prisoners of War at Beeshow. 

THE officer prisoners at Beeskow are housed in an old building which was the 
" Schloss " of the local bishop in the sixteenth century. The building itself, which is 
rather antiquated, and its outhouses form four sides of a good-sized court. The 
accommodations are primitive and there is no electric light or ruiming water except 
in the baths (hot and cold — shower and tub) which have been installed recently. The 
latrines, which are built over a cesspool, are also new, and they seem adequate and 
clean, affording more privacy than is visual. There is, however, no space for exercise 
outside the court itself, as since several officers attempted to escape no ontside 
privileges are permitted. The " camp " was opened in the autumn of 1914, and for a 
long time it contained none but Russian officers. It is arranged to accommodate 
120 prisoners, but at present there are only 112 in it. Captain J. H. Coulston, King's 
Own Regiment, who is still borne on this camp's books, was transferred to the hospital 
at Kottbus several weeks ago. Lieutenant J. R. Whyte* (see the British Foreign 
Office's note to the American Embassy in London of the 5th November, 1914), the 
only British officer present, was brought here from the men's camp in Doberitz in 
March. As companions he has several Russian officers (one of whose father was an 
Englishman) who speak English. Two of these Russian officers, with Lieutenant 
Whyte, attended a religious service held by the Reverend Mr. Williams, British 
chaplain in Berlin, who accompanied me on my visit. I talked freely with Mr. Whyte 
as well as with several Russian and French (of whom there are six in the camp) 
officers, and the one Belgian officer who was brought here recently from Blankenburg. 
None of the officers made any particular complaint except about the restricted exercise 
grounds. Several spoke of the lack of precaution in case of fire, and when I brought 
this matter to the attention of the commandant he promised to make an application to 
be supplied with fire extinguishers. 

Lieutenant Whyte occupies a room with thirteen other officers, in which the beds 
are arranged in two tiers and are rather uncomfortably close together, although the 
air space in the room appears to be sufficient. The room has two barred windows, 
with an outlook on the garden surrounding the "Schloss." The officers who live in 
this room eat in it, there being no common mess-room for all the prisoners. There is 
a separate wash-room (basin and pitchers). There is also one room in which a con- 
siderable number of officers eat together, which is open at other times as a common 
room in which all may meet and smoke. 

Officers pay 1'30 M. for their food, which the Belgian officer said was better than 
it had been at Blankenburg. The food is prepared by women cooks, and the self- 
management system has not been introduced. Two lieutenant-colonels (one French, 
the other Russian) occupy a room by themselves. The canteen seemed well stocked. 
Officers are permitted to buy beer and light wines, and to smoke freely. Mail and 
parcels appear to be received without unusual delay. The relations between the 
commandant and the officer prisoners seemed to be good, but the commandant told 
me that they were not so good as they had been when there were only Russian 
prisoners in the camp and , before there had been any attempt made to escape. Four 
Russian officers, who had escaped from Neisse, but who had been caught before they 
had been able to cross the frontier, were brought here not long ago, and it would 
appear that the camp is to be used, more or less, for those who have shown that they 
do not appreciate more desirable quarters. In the camp there are twenty-four officers' 
servants, none of whom are English. 

August 5, 1915. 

* Note. — Second Lieutenant .James Ryan Whyte (North Staffordshue Regiment) formerly sergeant, 
the Manchester Regiment. The ensuing reference ia to a note addressed to the United States Ambassador 
requesting that steps might be talien with a vi^vv to this ofEcer being treated similarly to prisoners of war of 
his rank. 



Enclosure 3 in No. 19. 

Dr. Ohnesorg to Mr. Gerard. 
Sir, August 10, 1915. 

I HAVE the honour to report that, on the 6th and 7th August, I visited the 
following prisoner of war camps : Sagan, Sprottau, Guben, and Crossen. 

These camps are similar in construction to other German camps, being divided 
into units of 500 to 1,000 men. The greater -per cent, of the prisoners of war, two- 



29 

thirds or three-qnarters, had been detailed for work in " Arbeitslagern " in the 
surrounding country. The prisoners so detailed were Russians and French, the 
former making up the greater majority and volunteering for this work. In none of 
the camps visited did I find any British prisoners detailed in these working camps. I 
conversed freely with all of the British prisoners out of the hearing of any German 
ofBcer, hearing the usual criticism of the food but no important complaint on other 
grounds. They were all clothed well and were in imiform, with the exception of three 
in Guben. Shoes were in good condition. The German authorities show no discrim- 
ination against them. The usual mail privileges are permitted, and they all receive 
their letters and packages regxilarly from home. They all appeared to be in good 
physical condition and only one was confined in the hospital, for some trivial complaint. 
All of the British prisoners in the camps are quartered together in the same barracks. 
The four interjied at Sagan desired to be transferred to some other camp where there 
were more of their own countrymen. 

Crossen. — The plan of this camp is different from those previously seen. In the 
centre of the compound is a large circular space in the middle of which is a large 
mound surmounted by a tower, around which are jjlaced three 3-inch field pieces 
whose fire would control the whole camp. Radiating off from this, like the spokes of 
a wheel, are the company compounds. These courts are surrounded on three sides by 
the barracks, large wooden buildings housing 500 men each. There are bunks placed 
in either end ; these are arranged in three tiers— three-deckers. The space in the 
centre of each building is furnished with tables, chairs, &c. There is no overcrowding 
and light and ventilation are good. Latrines are sanitary. The cooking, bathing- 
facilities, &c., are good. The men must bathe and have their clothing disinfected 
once a week. 

A large tailor and shoe shop was part of the equipment of the camp, prisoners 
being employed in the work. A feature of interest was a large carpenter shop where 
Russian and French were employed in making furniture, &c. All of those employed 
in the camp in these shops and those employed in the kitchen receive pay for their 
work — 30-00 pfennige per diem. I was shown the bank, where there was on deposit, 
according to the commandant, 125,000 M. to the credit of the prisoners. This is in 
charge of a German officer (" Feldwebel ") with assistants from among the prisoners. 

_ Mr. Harte, of the Young Men's Christian Association, has erected here a building 
similar to the one described at Gottingen. This is used as a reading hall, &c. A 
library of French, Russian, and English books— several hundred volumes — was seen. 
An orchestra of twenty-two pieces, the instruments supplied by Mr. Harte, gives daily 
concerts. This building is also used for religious services. 

The hospital facilities were good. Four Russian surgeons with hospital coi'ps 
men. from among the Russians and Germans, all imder the direction of a German 
surgeon, form the personnel of the lazaret. The camp crowns the top of a high 
hill; the "surrounding acres are under ciiltivation, the work being accomplished by 
prisoners 

The camp at Gnhen is placed about 8 kilom. from the city. Its general plan is 
exactly like that of the camp at Crossen. There were here interned thirteen British 
prisoners — all Irish. 

The camps at Sagan and Sprottau are similar in construction and organisation to 
the camps so often described. The barracks are solidly built of wood on stone 
foundations. The prisoners are divided into battalions, each battalion further divided 
into companies. A prisoner non-commissioned officer is in direct charge of each 
barrack, and each company is under the command of a German " Unteroffizier." The 
kitchens, bathing facilities, canteen, and latrines are sufficient in number and well 
kept. 

The many working camps which are dependent on these parent camps are 
scattered throughout the country adjacent to these parent camps. Crossen had 1.50. 
Officers are constantly engaged in visiting these camps, each camp receiving a weekly' 
visit. Special regulations governing these "Arbeitslagern " are in force. 

Appended are lists of the British prisoners of war. I would suggest that an 
effort be made to have the four interned at Sagan transferred to another camp, as it is 
their wish to be where there are a greater number of their countrymen. 

I have, &c. 

. KARL OHNESORG, 

Surgeon, U.S.N., 
Assistant Naval Attache, Berlin. 



30 

Enclosure 4 in No. 19. 
British Prisoners of War interned at Crossen, Guben, Sagan, and Sprottau. 



Crossen. 

Callan, Patrick, private, Royal Irish. 

Collier, John, private. Royal Irish. 

Coombs, Harold, drummer,' Royal Irish. 

Curley, Thomas, private, 2nd Connaught Rangers. 

Denton, Jean, private, Royal Irish. 

Dunlop, Patrick, private. Royal Irish. 

Ellas, William, private, Royal Irish. 

Emerson, Arthur, lance-corporal, 2nd Connaught Rangers. 

McLane, John, private, Royal Irish. 

Layton, Michael, corporal, Royal Irish. 

Mellow, William, sergeant-major, Dublin Fusiliers. 

McMurrough, Francis, 109th Leinster Regiment. 

Smith, Henry, drummer, Royal Irish. 

Ouben. 

Walsch, William, corporal, Royal Irish Dev. Comp. B. 

"Walsh, James, sergeant, Royal Inniskillings, Dover. 

Merigan, William, private, Connaught Rangers, Aldershot. 

Chartin, Joseph, lance-corporal, Dublin Fusiliers. 

Murray, Charles, private, Royal Irish. 

Murphy, William, private. Royal Irish. 

MacKillop, Thomas, private, Connaught Rangers. 

Cullen, Michael, lance-corporal, Connaught Rangers. 

Brennon, Edward, corporal. Rifle Brigade. 

Burne, Joseph, lance-corporal, Royal Irish. 

Harnelt, William, sergeant-major, 4th Royal Irish Dragoon Guards. 

Mowill, Alfred, sergeant, Welsh Fusiliers. 

Hart, Thomas, private, Dublin Fusiliers. 

Sagan. 

Lister, George, sergeant, 1st West Yorkshire Regiment. 
Burmiston, J. W., corporal, 1st West Yorkshire Regiment. 
Doury, Wm. Henry, private, 1st West Yorkshire Regiment. 
Towler, Robert, private, Royal West Yorkshire Regiment. 

Sprottau. 

Browne, John, sergeant-major. Royal Munster Fusiliers. 

Murphy, William, sergeant. Royal Munster Fusiliers. 

Cannon, John, sergeant, 2nd Leinster. 

Rabjohn, Arthur, corporal. Royal Field Artillery. 

Fitzgerald, John Francis, corporal, 2nd Royal Munster Fusiliers. 

Byrne, John, corporal, 2nd Connaught Rangers. 

Caddell, Alexander, private, 2nd Connaught Rangers. 

Breen, Arthur, private, 2nd Royal Irish. 

Brodrick, Thomas, private, 2nd Royal Irish. 

Dolan, John Edward, corporal, 2nd Royal Dublin Fusiliers. 

Lowry, Bernard, private, 2nd Connaught Rangers. 

Bollard, John, private, 2nd Connaught Rangers. 

Bennett, Thomas, private, 2nd Royal Irish. 

Bulger, John, private, 2nd Royal Irish. 



31 

No. 20. 

Sir Edward Gh-ey to Mr. Page, United States Amhassador in London. 

THE Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs presents his compliments to the 
United States Ambassador, and, with reference to his Excellency's note of the 23rd 
April last, transmitting a list of the camps in Germany at which British prisoners of 
war are interned, has the honour to state that he would be grateful if Mr. Page would 
enquire of the United States Ambassador at Berlin whether that list is still complete 
and accurate, and, if not, whether Mr. Gerard would be good enough to transmit a 
revised list. 

Foreign Office, August 16, 1915. 



No. 21. 
Sir Edward Grey to Mr. Page, United States Ambassador in London. 

THE Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs presents his compliments to the 
United States Ambassador, and, with reference to his Elxcellency's note of the 14th 
instant"--' transmitting reports on the prisoner of war camps at Beeskow, Sagan, Sprottau, 
Guben, and Crossen, has the honour to state that he would be glad if Mr. Page would 
be good enough to convey his thanks to the United States Ambassador at Berlin to 
Mr. Jackson and to Surgeon Karl Ohnesorg for the trouble they have taken in the 
compilation of these reports. 

Sir E. Grey has the honour to observe that the report on the camp at Beeskow 
discloses somewhat unsatisfactory conditions as prevailing there, and he would be 
grateful if Mr. Gerard would approach the proper authorities with a view to an 
improvement being effected in the treatment of the prisoners, more particularly 
with a view to securing to them a larger exercise ground and better sleeping and 
messing arrangements. 

It is not clear, moreover, why Lieutenant J. R. Whyte should, on promotion, have 
been sent to a camp which is apparently to be used, more or less, for prisoners of war 
who have shown that they do not appreciate more desirable quarters. 

Sir E. Grey has also the honour to express the hope that it may be found possible 
to remove the four British soldiers at Sagan to another camp where there are a greater 
number of their countrymen. 

Foreign Office, August 20, 1915. 

* See No. 19. 



No. 22. 

Mr. Page, United States Amhassador in London, to Sir Edward Grey. — (Received 

August 26.) 

THE American Ambassador presents his compliments to His Majesty's Secretarj^ 
of State for Foreign Affairs, and has the honour to transmit, herewith enclosed, a copy 
of a letter he has received from the Embassy at Berlin, dated the 16th instant, 
enclosing two reports upon visits made by Mr. Jackson to the camp for prisoners of 
war at Meschede, Westphalia, and to the officers' camp at Wahmbeck. 

American Embassy, London, 
August 25, 1915. 



Enclosure 1 in No. 22. 

Mr. Gerard to Mr. Page. 

Sir, American Emhassy, Berlin, August 16, 1915. 

I HAVE the honour to forward to you, herewith enclosed, for transmission to His 
Majesty's Government, two reports upon visits made by Mr. Jackson on the 11th August 
to the camp for prisoners of war at Meschede, Westphalia, and on the 12th August to 
the officers' camp at AVahmbeck. 

I have, &c. 

JAMES W. GERARD. 



32 



Enclosure 2 in No. 22. 

L'cport by Mr. Jackson on Visit to Detention Camp at Meschede, in Westphalia. 

THE camp at Meschede, on a hill near the railway station just outside the town, 
was opened in the early auttimn of 1914. It is beautifully situated in a healthy place, 
and the water is particularly good. This camp was one of the first constructed, and 
the former commandant tried to be economical in its construction, but even so its 
original cost was more than a million marks. The present commandant, who has been 
in command for only a few weeks, seems to take more interest in the camp, and he 
expects to be able to spend almost as much more in its improvement. The camp is 
arranged for 10,000 prisoners of war, who are divided into two battalions and housed 
in barracks, which accommodate 500 men each. All the barracks are provided with 
stoves, which are, of course, not in use at this season of the year. All Russian 
prisoners were transferred to other camps some time ago, and. many others have been 
sent off on working parties, so that at present there are only about 2,000 in the camp, 
most of whom are French, and most of whom are imfit for agricultural work. Of this 
number there are only thirteen English and Canadian soldiers, eight of whom are in the 
lazaret, whose names are appended hereto. A few weeks ago, about 130 Biitish 
prisoners had been transferred to the camp at Giessen. With all the British soldiers 
except three, who are in the infections ward of the hospital, I talked freely, out of 
hearing of any German, and none had any important complaint to make. The food, 
which I tasted, was good, and the menu for the week was varied. The French cooks 
told me that the material "furnished is good, and I saw that the kitchens are clean and 
well arranged. Meat is provided about three times a week. The canteens seemed well 
stocked. The baths are well arranged, each prisoner being obliged to bathe once a 
week, and there is also a disinfection plant. The latrines are clean and sufficient, but 
are situated at a considerable distance from some of the barracks. Throughout the 
compound there are hydrants, from which water can be obtained for drinking and 
washing purposes. Owing to the fact that the camp is built on a hillside, there is no 
suitable ground for games, but the commandant himself has provided " Faustballe " 
(footballs), which the men seem to appreciate. The men have planted gardens near their 
barracks, and in this they are encouraged by the authorities. After a rain the roads in 
the camp and the gangways between the barracks get bad, on account of the quality of 
the soil and the kind of stone (shale) which was used in building, but new corduroy 
roads (railway cross-ties) are to be built before the winter. 

The lazaret is in a neighbouring compound, and is clean and well arranged. 
The sick have beds and a special diet. Attention appears to be paid to the tastes of 
the prisoners, for when we tasted the hospital food the commandant expressed the 
opinion that one dish was not sweetened enough. To this the French cook replied that 
the soldiers preferred it that way. 

Corporal Clarence Wood, 10th Canadian Battalion. 

Armour-Corporal Peter McGovern, lOth Canadian Battalion. 

Private Harry Ramsey, Royal Field Artillerj^ 

Private John Workman, Royal Highlanders of Canada. 

Private James Gibson, 1st East Lancashire Regiment. 

Private Sidney Beckett, 12th London Infantry, 

Private Isaac Jamfrey, 8th Durham Light Infantry (right leg amputated). 

Private William Kean, 1st Royal Warwick Regiment (left leg amputated). 

Private Eustace Chappelow, lOth Canadian Battalion (right leg amputated). 

Private John C. Finley, 14th Royal Montreal Regiment. 

Corporal Walter Haydon (628), 2nd London Heavy Artillery. 

Corporal W. H. Walsh (27849), 48th Highlanders, 1st Canadian Contingent. 

Michael Wright (30855), Royal Field Artillery. 



Notes. 

(a.) Private Gibson would like a new cap and a suit of uniform ; height 5 ft. 6 in., 
chest 38 inches. Private Finley would like a suit of uniform ; height (i feet, chest 
37 inches. He would also like a pair of boots, as his feet are large, and those furnished 
by the German Government are too small for him. 



33 

(6.) As several of these men had received no money or parcels from home, I felt at 
liberty to leave 100 M. (British fund) with the commandant of the camp, to be 
distributed among them. 

August 11, 1915. 



Enclosure 3 in No. 22. 
Beport hy Mr. Jackson on Visit to Detention Gamp at Wahmheck an der Weser. 

THE officers' camp at Wahmbeck was opened just eight weeks ago, and is as yet 
not entirely in order. The building is an old-fashioned hotel, lately frequented as a 
summer resort by persons of moderate means. Under former conditions it would 
accommodate about sixty guests, but at present it contains 99 officers (8 British, 
7 Belgian, 40 French, and 44 Russian), all of whom were transferred from Osnabriick 
in June. With the British and several of the other officers I talked freely. They live 
in rooms of various sizes, accommodating from three to ten each, which would be 
overcrowded in the winter, but which cannot be considered as over-filled at this season, 
when the windows are open most of the time. The officers were permitted to choose 
their own room mates, and although all the Englishmen do not room together, there 
was no complaint on this score. The dining rooms are bright, but there are no other 
common rooms for general use. There is a piano in the building, the use of which is 
permitted. The officers said that the food was good, and that, as my time was limited, 
they did not think it necessary for me to inspect the kitchen. The baths are open at 
all times, and the officers may take shower baths (warm and cold water) whenever they 
like. They are also permitted to swim in the Weser river at certain hours. The day 
latrines are clean, and afford more privacy than is usual, and there is to be an 
improvement in the water-closet for use at night, which is at present not altogether 
satisfactorj^ I learned that several minor wishes on the part of the prisoners, which 
they brought to my attention, had already been considered by the commandant who, 
I found, was inclined to fulfil them when practicable and to make conditions generally 
as agreeable as possible. There had been some delay in the receipt of letters and 
parcels, but this question was rectifying itself. The prisoners are encouraged to plant 
vegetables in individual garden plots, and many of them have done so. The garden, 
however, is not large, and the prisoners complained of lack of space in which to 
exercise. The commandant has already taken up this question with the authorities, 
and he is already arranging to have certain gymnastic apparatus provided. In general, 
the officers found their prolonged confinement irksome, but that is inevitable in the 
case of those who have now been prisoners for almost a year. The names of the 
British officers in this camp have already been communicated to the British 
Government. 

There are at present only ten officers' servants (one British) in this camp, but an 
increase in the number has been recommended by the commandant. 

August 12, 1915. 



No. 23. 
Sir Edward Grey to Mr. Page, United States Ambassador in London. 

THE Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs presents his compliments to the 
United States Ambassador, and with reference to his Excellency's note of the 
25th''^instant"" transmitting reports on the prisoners' camps at Meschede, Westphalia, 
and Wahmbeck, has the honour to state that he would be grateful if Mr. Page would 
convey to the United States Ambassador at Berlin and to Mr. Jackson, Sir E. Grey's 
appreciation of the trouble which they have taken in the compilation of these 
reports. 

Sir E. Grey has the honour to state that he would be greatly obliged if Mr. Gerard 
could ascertain, through the senior British non-commissioned officer at the Meschede 
camp, the names of the British soldiers interned there who are not receiving parcels 
from this country, and that he learns with satisfaction that Mr. Jackson left 100 M. out 
of the British Relief Fund for the benefit of these men. 

Foreign Office, August 28, 1915. 

* See No. 22. 

[1196] D 



u 

No. 24. 
Sir JEclward Grey to Mr. Page, United States Amhassador in London. 

THE Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs presents his compliments to the United 
States Ambassador, and has the honour to inform his Excellency that serious complaints 
have reached His Majesty's Government in regard to the conditions prevailing at the 
prisoner-of-war camp at Gardelegen, as to which some account was given in the reports 
enclosed in Mr. Page's note of the 23rd April.* 

The Army Council are anxious to obtain, if possible, information as to the 
clothing of the prisoners; the opportunities afforded them for recreation, and any 
restrictions which may be imposed on it ; the ventilation of the rooms ; the facilities 
for washing ; and the quantity and quality of the latrine accommodation. 

Grave statements have also reached this country as to the conditions which obtained 
at Gardelegen owing to the typhus epidemic, to which Surgeon Ohnesorg refers as 
having rendered it impossible for him to make a complete personal inspection at the 
time of his visit in April. 

As it is very desirable to obtain a full report on the camp, Sir E. Grey will be 
grateful if Mr. Page will communicate with the United States Ambassador at Berlin on 
the subject, and ask if Mr. Gerard will be good enough — on the assumption that the 
epidemic has now ceased — to send a representative of the Embassy to visit personally 
the camp at Gardelegen, and to report on the conditions which he may find there. 

Foreign Office, August 28, 1915. 

* See "Miscellaneous, No. 11 (1915)," No. 6. 



No. 2.5. 

Mr. Page, United States Amhassador in London, to Sir Edward Grey. — (Received 

August 29.) 

THE American Ambassador presents his compliments to His Majesty's Secretary 
of State for Foreign Affairs, and has the honour to transmit, herewith enclosed, a copy 
of a letter he has received from the Embassy at Berlin, dated the 23rd instant, 
transmitting copies of a report made by Surgeon Karl Ohnesorg, U.S.N., and 
Mr. Ellis L. Dresel, of a visit paid by them to the officer prisoner of war camps 
at Neisse and Gnadenfrei, in Silesia, on the 20th instant. 

American Embassy, London, 
August 28, 1915. 



Enclosure 1 in No. 25. 
Mr. Gerard to Mr. Page. 



Sir, American Embassy, Berlin, August 23, 1915. 

I HAVE the honour to transmit herewith copies of a report made to me by 
Surgeon Karl Ohnesorg, U.S.N. , and Mr. Ellis L. Dresel, members of my staff, 
of a visit paid by them to the officer prisoner of war camps at Neisse and 
Gnadenfrei, in Silesia, on the 23rd instant. 

I have, &c. 

JAMES W. GERAED. 



Enclosure 2 in No. 25. 
Mr. Dresel and Surgeon Ohnesorg to Mr. Gerard. 

Sir, August 23, 1915. 

WE have the honour to submit the following report on the prisoner of war 
camps for ofBcers at Neisse and Gnadenfrei. These two camps were visited on the 
20th August, 1915: — 

Neisse.— Ii^ the centre of the town are the barracks and parade ground. It is 
upon the latter that the camp has been built. Two-storey frame buildings house the 



35 

oiBcer prisoners. The entrance is on the side, and longitudinal partitions divide the 
building into four rooms. The eight British officers occupied one room, and were not 
over-crowded. Iron bedsteads with springs, a mattress of sea-grass, with blanket, 
pillow, and a spread of calico, chaii's, tables, shelves, and hooks for hanging clothes, &c., 
completed the furnishings of the room. 

The new system of messing has been inaugurated' here. Committees from among 
the prisoners had direct charge of the mess and canteen. The British and French 
officers refused to serve on these committees, and both were made up of Russian officers. 
These arranged a weekly menu, which was submitted to a German officer, who bought 
the food. They messed in a building within the compound which in ordinary times 
served as a " casino " for German non-commissioned officers. The mess-room was small, 
necessitating two "sittings." Russian cooks were employed in the kitchen. 1-50 M. 
was allowed each officer per diem for food. A canteen, in which various toilet 
articles, beer, light wines, fruit, &c., were sold at moderate prices, was placed in 
the same building. In the German officers' part of the permanent barracks were the 
bathing facilities. These consisted of a dressing-room adjoining the room, in which 
was placed eight shower-baths, hot water being supplied. Each officer prisoner had 
an opportunity for a weekly bath. The latrines were brick buildings in the rear of 
the compound, and were too few in number. Additions had been built, but the work 
there had been stopped because the commandant informed us that the camp was soon 
to be given up. 

Stretching across- the compound was a new brick building, which was erected as a 
stable. The floor was cement ; the rooms clean, and free from odour. It had the 
appearance of never having been used for stabling horses. In this building were 
housed the seventy orderlies, the majority being Russian, a few French, and a British 
enlisted man. These men received the ration of the German soldiers forming the guard 
of the camp. 

The riding-ring was used as a chapel. Services of the Church of Rome, the Greek 
Church, and Protestant services were held here every Sunday, one of the British 
officers reading the service of the Church of England, an interned Russian priest 
conducting the services of the Greek Church, and priests of the Roman Catholic Church 
from the town of Neisse being entrusted with the spiritual welfare of those of their 
faith. 

The area for e.xercise within the compound was very limited ; no games, such as 
tennis, were permitted in the open, and an old riding hall used for this purpose was 
very unsatisfactory. The officer prisoners — a company at a time, under guard — were 
twice a week given a two-hour walk through the country around the city, and those 
who were crippled because of wounds had been permitted to hire carriages, and, with a 
guard, drive about the country, and thus gained some relief from the monotony of 
prison life. 

BeiT-use of attempts made on the part of some Russian officers to escape, some of 
the liberties of all the interned officers had been cui'tailed. The space between the 
officer barracks and the buildings on the east side of the compound was not permitted 
to be used after 6 '30 P.M. They were not permitted out of their barracks after 9 p.m. 
The toilet facilities for use during the night consisted of a closed stool placed in the 
main hallway of the building. Lights (electric) were ordered out at 10 p.m. 

This prison camp is far from being satisfactory, and it is a relief to learn that it 
is soon to be given up. It is only fair to the German authorities to state that 
improvements — such as the additions to the latrines, and the installation of showers 
in a room in the building within the compound — have not been undertaken because 
the camp is soon to be vacated. 296 officers and 70 orderlies are interned here, 
228 being Russian, 60 French, and 8 British officers. A list of the latter is appended. 

Gnadenfrei. — A modern stone and brick building, used in times of peace as a 
school for boys, under the direction of a Lutheran brotherhood, is used for the prison 
camp. 350 officers (Russians, 227 ; French, 60 ; British, 8 ; and Belgians, 5) and 
78 enlisted men (l British soldier) used for orderlies are interned here. The camp 
had only been established since the 2nd August, the officers and men being transferred 
from Neisse. The building is modern, built of stone, heated by steam, and lighted by 
electricity. This is the only camp (officers or men) which we have visited where we have 
found the guard of German soldiers living in the same building with the prisoners 
of war. As a result of the space allotted for housing them (100 in number), it has 
greatly reduced the amount of room for the interned officers, and they are overcrowded. 
The eight English officers occupy one room, 21 feet by 22 feet by 13 feet — entirely too 
[1196] D 2 



36 

* 

small. This is the case throughout the whole building. The rooms are, however, well 
lighted and ventilated. 

The same scheme of messing as that met with in Neisse is in force here, and the 
British have one officer on the committee. The dining-room is small, necessitating 
three "sittings," so that the midday meal is in progress for some two hours and a half. 
Morning coffee and the evening meal are usually had in the officers' rooms. We had 
the midday meal with the British officers — a soup, a very good fish, boiled potatoes, 
with a sauce and cheese and crackers. Beer, light wines, &c., are purchasable in the 
canteen. There was no complaint on the part of the officers regarding the food. 
The kitchens were in the basement, and there was need of additional cooking utensils 
which the commandant informed me had been ordered. He also said that French 
cooks would be sent there. The bathing facilities were found in one of the basement 
rooms ; they consisted of a dozen showers, hot- water supply, and an adjoining dressing- 
room. The latrines were placed at one corner of the compound, in a wooden building 
with trench system, entirely too small for the number of officers. We were informed 
by the commandant that as soon as an additional water supply was lurnished by an 
artesian well now being sunk this disagreeable feature would be obviated by using the 
toilets in the building. 

In the rear of the building was a small court ; a tennis court had been laid out, 
and some of the French officers were playing at bowls in another corner of the compound. 
A small building fitted up as a gymnasium was placed at one side of the court. This, 
at the time of our visit, was temporarily closed, because of an unsuccessful attempt 
made to escape by tunnelling under the building. 

The complaints of the officers were those of a minor nature, and we discussed them 
with the commandant later. 

We are most strongly of the opinion that the German guard should be removed 
from the building. The principle seems wrong, and its removal would greatly lessen 
the overcrowdina; of the interned officers. A list of the interned British officers is 
appended. 

We have, &c. 

E. L. DRESEL. 
KARL OHNESORG, 
Surgeon, U.S.N., Assistant Naval Attache. 



Enclosure 3 in No. 25. 
List of Bi'itish Officers interned at Neisse and Gnadenfrei. 



Neisse. 



Captain G. M. Smith, 1st East Lancashire. 

Lieutenant C. G. Dodwell, 1st East Lancashire. 

2nd Lieutenant W. Hilpern, 1st East Lancashire. 

Lieutenant R. F. Burrows, Manchester Regiment. 

2nd Lieutenant G. W. F. Leicester, Cheshire Regiment. 

2nd Lieutenant M. B. Hope, 60th Rifles. 

2nd Lieutenant J. S. Poole, 60th R,ifles. 

2nd Lieutenant F. Judge, Royal Scots Fusiliers. 

Gnadenfrei. 

Major H. R. Charley, Royal Irish Rifles. 

Captain F. M. Colville, South Lancashire. 

Captain F. H. Span, Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry. 

Captain R. G. S. May, Sherwood Foresters. 

Captain H. O. Sutherland, Northumberland Fusiliers. 

Lieutenant C. H. Woodhouse, Dorset Regiment. 

Lieutenant J. R. Wilkinson, Lancaster Fusiliers. 

2nd Lieutenant C. H. Russell, Duke of Cornwall's Light Infantry. 



37 

No. 26. 

Mr. Page, United States Ambassador in London, to Sir Edward Grey. — {Received 

September 4.) 

THE American Ambassador presents his compliments to His Majesty's Secretary 
of State for Foreign Affairs, and, with, reference to the note Sir Edward Grey was 
good enough to address to him on the 16th ultimo,* has the honour to transmit 
herewith enclosed a copy of a letter he has received from the Embassy at Berlin dated 
the 30th ultimo, enclosing a copy of a list of the camps in Germany in which British 
prisoners of war (officers, men, and civilians) are interned. 

American Embassy, 

London, September 3, 1915. 

* See No. 20. 



Enclosure 1 in No. 26. 

Mr. Gerard to Mr. Page. 

Sir, American Embassy, Berlin, August 30, 1915. 

IN compliance with the wish expressed in the British Foreign Office's note of the 
15th instant, of Avhich a copy was inclosed in your letter of the 17th, I have the honour 
to enclose herewith a copy of a list of the camps in Germany in which British prisoners 
of war (officers, men, and civilians) are interned, which was furnished by the Prussian 
Ministry of War imder date of the 28th Aug-ust. 

I have, &c. 

JAMES W. GERARD. 



Enclosure 2 in No. 26. 
List of Gamps in which British Prisoners of War are Interned. 

(a.) Men's Gamp. 



Army Corps. 


Place. 


Place. 


Place. 


Garde 


Doberitz . . 


Zossen 


Ruhleben (Zivilisten). 


11 


Altdamm . . 


Sclmeidemtihl. 




III 


Crosseu . . 


Guben. 




IV 


Alteno^rabow 


Gardelegen 


Merseburg. 




Quedlinburg 


Salzwedel 


Wittenberg, Bez. Halle 




Zerbst. 






V 


Gorlitz 
Sprottau. 


Lauban . . 


Sagan. 


YI 


Neuhammer (Queis). 






VII 


Dillmen .. 


Friedrichsfeld (bei Wesel) . . 


Minden II. 




MUnster I. 


Munster II 


Munster III. 




Senne I , . 


Senne 11 . . 


Senne III. 


VIII 


Wahn 






IX 


Gusti'ow ,. 


Parchim. 




X 


Hameln . . 
Soltau. 


Munster . . 


Scheuen bei Celle. 


XI 


(Jassel-Niederzwehren 


Erfurt .. 


Gottingen. 




Hassenberg-, Bez. Coburg 


Langensalza 


Ohrdruf. 




(Zivilisten) 






XVIII 


Darmstadt 
Meschede. 


Giessen . . . . . . 


Limburg. 


XX 


Arys. 






Bayern 


Bayreuth . . 


Hammelburg . . 


Ingolstadt. 




Puchheim. . 


Wurzburg 




Wurtemberg 


Stuttgart II 


Ulm. 




Sachsen 


Bautzen . . 
Zickau II. 


Chemnitz . . 


Konigsbrtick. 



,1196] 



D 3 



38 





(b.) Officers' Gamp. 




Army Corps. 


Place. 


Place. 


Place. 


II 


Stralsund. 






III 


Beeskow . . 


Blankenburg (Mark) 


Kiistrin. 


IV 


Burg b/Magdeburg 
Torgau. 


Balle a/d Saale 


Magdeburg. 


VI 


Gnadenfiei i/Schles. 


Neisse II. 




VII 


Crefeld .. 


Gutersloh. . 


AVerl. 


IX 


Augustabad bei Neiibranden- 
burg i/M 






X 


Clausthal . . 
Blenhorst. 


Osiiabriick 


Wahmbeck. 


XI 


Hann. Miiiiden. 






XIV 


Heidelberg 


Villingen . . 




XVIII 


Friedberg 


Mainz. 




Bayern 


Ingolstadt 


Kosenberg (Veste) b. Kronach 


Wurzburg (Paste Marieaberg). 


Sachsen 


Bischofswerda 


Konigstein. 





No. 27. 
Sir Edward Grey to Mr. Page, United States Amhassador in London. 

THE Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs presents his compliments to tlie United 
States Ambassador, and with reference to his Excellency's note of the 28th ultimo,* 
transmitting reports by Surgeon Karl Ohnesorg, U.S.N. , and Mr. E. L. Dresel, as to 
visits paid by them to the officer prisoner of war camps at Neisse and Gnadenfrei, 
has the honoiir to state, in regard to the former camp, that the report of these gentle- 
men does not seem to invalidate the grounds of complaint to which attention was 
drawn in his note of the 20th ultimo, t Sir E. Grey notes, however, that the camp is 
about to be given up, and he trusts that no time will be lost in transferring the British 
prisoners to more suitable quarters. 

In regard to the camp of Gnadenfrei, Sir E. Grey is much obliged to Dr. Ohnesorg 
and Mr. Dresel for drawing attention to the housing of the guard in the same building 
as the prisoners of war, with the result of greatly overcrowding the already limited 
space available for the latter, and of the eight British officers being thus obliged to 
inhabit a room much too small for the purpose, and for their remarks as to the 
insufficient latrine accommodation. 

Sir E. Grey trusts that he may be informed at an early date that the improve- 
ments contemplated by the commandant have been productive of satisfactory results. 



Foreign Office, September 4, 1915. 
* See No. 25. 



t See No. 21. 



No. 28. 



Mr. 



Page, TJidted States Amhassador in London, to Sir Edward Grey. — {Received 

September 11.) 

THE American Ambassador presents his compliments to His Majesty's Secretary 
of State for Foreign Affairs, and has the honour to transmit, herewith enclosed, a copy 
of a letter he has received from the Embassy at Berlin, dated the 4th instant, 
respecting the transfer of ten British prisoners of war from the camp at Meschede to 
that at Giessen. 

American Embassy, London, 
September 10, 1915. 



Enclosure in No, 28. 

Mr. Gerard to Mr. Page. 

Sir, Ame7'ican Embassy, Berlin, September 4, 1915. 

WITH reference to your letter of the 31st ultimo, enclosing a copy_ of a note from 
the British Foreign Office, dated the 28th August,* I have the honour to inform you that 

* See No. 23 



39 

ten British prisoners of war were transferred from the camp at Meschede to that at 
Giessen on the 30th August, and that the only EngHshmen who remain in the Meschede 
camp are Privates Isaac Jamfrey, William Kean, and Eustace Chappelow. (See list 
appended to report enclosed in my letter of the 16th August.) Of these men 
Mr. Jackson's memorandum shows that Jamfrey had received parcels from home, but the 
other two had not. As each of these men had lost a leg, it is probable that they will 
be sent to England with a "severely wounded" transport as soon as they are able to 
be moved. 

In this connection, I beg to say that, as men in the lazaret as Meschede are not 
permitted to smoke, the commandant of that camp has, of his own notion, forwarded to 
the camp at Giessen the cigarettes (1,000) which had been sent to him for the British 
prisoners, with a request that they be distributed among ten men who had just been 
transferred, as a gift from the Imperial Tobacco Company, transmitted through the 
Prisoners of War Help Committee and this Embassy. 

I have, &c. 

JAMES W. GERAPtD. 



No. 29. 
Sir Edward Grey to Mr. Page, United States Amhassador in London. 

THE Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs presents his compliments to the 
United States Ambassador, and, with reference to his Excellency's note of the 28th 
May* transmitting a report by Mr. Jackson in regard to the conditions prevailing in 
the prisoners of war camp at Bischofswerda, has the honour to inform Mr. Page that 
His Majesty's Government have grounds for fearing that since the date of Mr. Jackson's 
visit the conditions at that camp have undergone some change for the worse, and that 
the treatment of officer prisoners is no longer so satisfactory as when described by 
that gentleman in May. 

Sir E. Grey would be grateful to the United States Ambassador at Berlin if his 
Excellency would be good enough to bear this matter in mind, and to take steps to 
ascertain the present state of the camp at Bischofswerda as soon as an opportunity for 
obtaining direct and reliable information presents itself. 

Foreign Office, September 14, 1915. 

* See "Miscellaneous, No. 15 (1915)," No. 3. 



No. 30. 

Mr. Page, United States Amhassador in London, to Sir Edward Grey. — {Received 

September 23.) 

THE American Ambassador presents his compliments to His Majesty's Secretary 
of State for Foreign Affairs, and has the honour to transmit herewith enclosed a copy 
of a letter he has received from the Embassy at Berlin, dated the 11th instant, together 
with a copy of a report of visits paid by Mr. Jackson to Minden, the lazarets in Pader- 
born, the military and civilian camp at Sennelager, and the officers' camp at Bad 
Blenhorst. 

American Embassy, London, 
September 22, 1915. 



Enclosure 1 in No. 30. 

Mr. Gerard to Mr. Page. 

Sir, American Embassy, Berlin, September 11, 1915. 

I HAVE the honour to transmit herewith a copy of a report of visits imid by 
Mr. Jackson to Minden, the lazarets in Paderborn, the military and civilian camp at 
Sennelager, and the officers' camp at Bad Flenhorst, and to be, &c. 

JAMES W. GERARD. 

[1196] D 4 



40 

Enclosure 2 in No. 30. 

Eeport hy Mr. Jackson on Visit to Detention Gamp at Minden. 

ALTHOUGH Minden was mentioned on the list recently furnished by the 
Prussian Ministry of War as among the places where British prisoners of war were 
interned, I was met on my arrival at the railway station by the commandant, who told 
me that all the British prisoners had been transferred within the last few days, and 
that the last had left one of the lazarets yesterday. He said that there were no longer 
any British prisoners in the camps or lazarets in Minden, and that the camps were to 
be used for Russian prisoners only in the future. 

September 9, 1915. 



Enclosure 3 in No. 30. 
Beport hy Mr. Jackson on Visit to Detention Camp at Paderhom. 

IN Paderborn there is no " prisoners' camp," but there are a number of lazarets in 
which British prisoners of war are being treated, all of which (four) I visited to-day. At 
the Briiderhaus there were two Canadian ofScers, Lieutenants William A. de C. O'Grady 
and C. R. Scott (who are permitted to occupy a small room by themselves, for which 
they pay 3 marks per day apiece) and three men, one of whom is no longer undergoing 
treatment, but is kept on — in accordance with his expressed wish — to help care for 
the others. In this hospital the death took place recently of Lieutenant B. ■ H. 
Richardson, Durham Light Infantry, whose family has already been informed of the 
fact. In the Kaiserhof there were eighteen men, in the Franziskaner there were a 
Lieutenant Evans and fifteen men, and at St. Vincents there were Lieutenant F. H. Ellis, 
2nd Battalion King's Own (Royal Lancaster Regiment) and five men. As the names of 
all these men have already appeared on lists which have been fui'nished to the British 
Government I did not take a list of them. All the men, with the exception of one — of 
Swedish origin — in the Kaiserhof, who had written no letters, are in touch with their 
friends at home. Most of these lazarets had been visited yesterday by Mr. Harte, of 
the American Y.M.C.A., who had either left money or purchased games (dominoes, 
checkers, lotto, &c.) for the men. There are no longer any British prisoners in the 
Leo Konvict. Besides the Ena:lish there are officers and men of other nationalities in 
all these lazarets. 

In none of these lazarets did the men have any complaint to make, and all said that 
they were being treated with great care and kindness. The only criticism which I 
heard Avas at the Kaiserhof where one or two men said that it was difficult for them 
to keep clean-shaven as they were not allowed to have razors in their possession. Some 
of the men said to me that it would be necessary to drive them away (that they would 
make no attempt to escape), because they are so well cared for and so comfortable. As 
the men become convalescent they are sent to the Sennelager. Officers are generally 
sent to Gutersloh. 

Septemher 9, 1915. 



Enclosure 4 in No. 30. 

Report hy Mr. Jackson on Visit to Detention Camp at Senne. 

AS a report had been made of the Sennelager Camps by Mr. Osborne, after a visit 
on the 20th April, as no unfavourable criticism of them had come to the attention of 
the Embassy in the meantime except with regard to Camp No. 1, and as ray time was 
limited, I did not visit Camps 2 and 3. In Camp No. 1, I talked on the 9th September 
with the senior British non-commissioned officer, Company Sergeant-Major W. Crack, of 
the 2nd Suffolk Regiment, and several men. In this camp there are about 340 British 
prisoners, one of whom claims to belong to the R.A.M.C., but who has as yet been 
unable to prove it. This m.an's case has been brought to the attention of the Imperial 
Foreign Office. These men appeared to be in good physical condition as a rule, and 
none of them had any important complaint to make about their present treatment. 



41 

The senior non-commissioned officer accompanied me, together with the commandant, on 
my inspection of the camp, and at his request I paid especial attention to the men in 
the Revier-Stube — a kind of lazaret where men are put when slightly ill, in which I 
found one man who had been a prisoner since the beginning of the war whose wound (in 
the left arm) had not healed. The commandant told me that this man's case would be 
brought especially to the attention of the military doctor who attends this camp daily 
but who was absent at the time of my visit, with a view to his being sent to a lazaret 
in Paderborn. There had recently been a change in the medical officer and the men 
said that the new one was a great improvement over his predecessor. In this camp 
the men bathe in rotation, an obligatory bath being taken every ten to fourteen days. 
In the camp there have been no epidemics. Some of the men complained of being forced 
to work, but they appeared to be satisfied when I told them that I understood that 
the German authorities had the right to compel them to do so. Rev. H. M. Williams, 
British Chaplain in Berlin, had held religious services in the Senne camps about a week 
before my visit. 

Adjoining Camp 1, there is a civilian camp in which there are about 3,000 prisoners, 
198 of whom are British, Most of these men are sailors or British subjects who were 
brought from Belgium. About twenty of them are men who claim to have been 
combatants and who say that they exchanged their uniforms for civilian clothes in 
Belgium and were captured while trying to cross the frontier to Holland. The 
commandant told me that he would investigate these cases, and would transfer to the 
military camp all those who could convince him that they had actually belonged to the 
fighting force. 

In this camp, as is usual where civilians are detained, the atmosphere is one 
of depression. Most of the men have been prisoners for at least a year, and they 
cannot understand why they are detained. Besides, many of the non-British prisoners 
are men who were taken from jails in Belgium, with whom the British prisoners 
do not like to associate. The prisoners are not housed by nationalities, and, in 
consequence, the British prisoners are distributed throughout the several barracks. 
Each barracks has a prisoner " adjutant," only one of whom is an Englishman. 

The question of bringing all the Englishmen into one barracks has been brought 
to the attention of the Prussian Ministry of War, where it was said that it would be 
taken into consideration, but that all the English would be transferred to Euhleben as 
soon as there should be sufficient accommodation for them there, which, it is anticipated, 
will be at an early date in view of the number of invalids who are to be released and 
sent to England. In principle, civilians are not compelled to do work outside of the 
camp, but here an opportunity for work (with small remuneration) is provided. 

Some confusion has been caused by the fact that the non-British " adjutants" have 
announced Englishmen as volunteers for work (intentionally or owing to misunder- 
standing), who said that they had not volunteered, and who refused to go to work 
when called on to do so, and have been punished in consequence. One of the punish- 
ments has been enforced drill, marches with knapsacks filled with bricks, which is one 
of the regular German forms of punishment for insubordinate soldiers, but which is 
objected to strenuously by the civilians. On my calling attention to this matter, the 
commandant said that he would see that no misunderstanding should take place in the 
future, and that the Englishmen would not he called upon to work except in connection 
with the camp itself unless they actually volunteered. 

There were some complaints, as usual, in regard to the food. I had arrived in the 
camp just after the mid-day meal was served, and while some of the men said that the 
meat had been bad, and they wished that I had had an opportunity to taste it, others 
said that the meat had been particularly good, because the officers had heard that I was 
coming. None of them knew that I had actually eaten a plate of their soup and had 
found it excellent, both palatable and nutritious, and that my visit to this particular 
camp had not been announced in advance. The menu for the day had been made out 
at the beginning of the week, and could not have been changed after my presence in 
the camp was known, and I had a bowl of the soup which was left over after the prisoners 
had been served. Mr. Harte, of the American Y.M.C.A., visited these civilians on the 
day before my visit, and left a small amount of money for distribution among them. 
An amount of ] ,000 M. had been sent to them by the Embassy from British funds in 
July, and arrangements will be made to send them money from time to time as seems 
necessary in the future. Clothing has been furnished to them by the German authorities 
when necessary. 

September 11, 1915. 



42 

Enclosure 5 in No 30. 

Report hy Air. Jackson on Visit to Detention Camp at Blenhorst, near 

Nienhurg a/d Weser. 

BAD BLENHOKST is situated on the edge of the so-called " Liineburger Heide," 
about 8 miles from the railway station at Nienburg a/d Weser. Its mud baths enjoy 
considerable reputation as being good for cases of rheumatism, ischias, and gout. 
About six weeks ago the local Kurhaus was opened as an officers' camp, and 96 officer 
prisoners are now housed in it (46 Russian, 38 French, 8 Belgian, and 6 English). 
These officers had been especially selected as being likely to be benefited by the 
" cure," and under the care of a German military surgeon they are taking regular 
courses of baths. The quarters occupied are rather cramped, but the officers are 
willing to put up with this inconvenience because of the other advantages and 
attractions of the place. The Kurhaus is in a good-sized park, partially wooded, which 
is surrounded by a barbed wire fence. There are no guards on duty within this 
enclosure, in which there is an open lawn where the prisoners may sit in the eun, 
a tennis court, bowling alley, and a pond in which fishing is permitted. The sanitary 
arrangements are primitive but appear to be sufficient. The house is lighted throughout 
by electricity, and a central heating system is about to be installed. The baths are on 
the opposite side of the country road, in the neighbourhood of the houses occupied by 
the German officers and guards. Within the main enclosure there is a second wire 
fence surrounding the house, which is closed at night. There is much wood throughout 
the house, and on speaking of the possible danger of fire the commandant said that 
extinguishers were to be provided, and that various improvements and alterations are 
to be made in the house itself before winter. Officers pay 1'50 M. per day for their 
meals, and they spoke well of them. The catering is done by the proprietor of the 
Kurhaus, and there is a canteen which seemed well stocked with miscellaneous articles 
at moderate prices. With the exception of the general mess room, the only common 
room is a small one, in which there is a piano which the officers are permitted to use. 
Another (better) piano has been ordered at, I understand, the officers' expense. The 
officer prisoners sleep in the regular guests' rooms in the hotel — from two to sis in a 
room. The English officers do not all room together, but they are satisfied with the 
existing arrangement, although the rooms are so crowded that the wardrobes and some 
of the washstands ai'e compelled to be in the corridors. Any officer who objected to 
this would, however, probably be permitted to return to his former camp at once if he 
wished to do so. The relations between the officer prisoners and the commandant 
appeared to be exceedingly cordial, and the commandant is ready to do all that he can 
to make matters comfortable for them. While any officer is at liberty to approach him 
and to make known his individual wishes or complaints, a regular committee has been 
formed to confer with the commandant on matters of general interest. I talked freely 
with all the English and several of the Belgian, French, and Russian officers. There 
had been some delay about mail, owing to the fact that it is censored in the camp at 
Soltau and not at Blenhorst itself. 

The English officers present were Major Ernest Doughty (Suficilks), Captain 
George Bellville (l6th Lancers), Lieutenant Herbert Meredith (4th battalion King's 
Regiment), and R. S. Moore (1 6th Lancers), who had come from Osnabrlick, Captain 
A. S. Fraser (Dorset Regiment), and a Captain Ward, who had come from Crefeld, 
and who spoke in very complimentary terms of the conditions existing in that camp at 
present. 

Among the officers' servants is one English soldier, who had come from Osnabrlick 
with Major Doughty. 

September 10, 1915. 



No. 31, 

Sir Edward Grey to Mr. Page, United States Ambassador in London. 

THE Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs presents his compliments to the United 
States Ambassador, and has the honour to state that he continues to receive very 
unsatisfactory reports of the conditions obtaining at the officers' camp at Halle. 

Sir E. Grey would be much obliged if Mr. Page would request the United States 
Ambassador at Berlin to be good enough to make a further attempt to visit this camp. 



43 

and if the conditions have not materially improved, to draw the attention of the German 
Government to the matter. 

Foreign Office, September 24, 1915. 

No. 32 

Mr. Page, United States Ambassador in London, to Sir Edward Grey. — (Received 

September 28.) 

THE American Ambassador presents his compliments to His Majesty's Secretary 
of State for Foreign Affairs, and has the honour to transmit herewith enclosed a copy 
of a letter he has received from the Embassy at Berlin, dated the 16th instant, referring 
to Sir Edward Grey's note of the 4th September,* respecting the conditions obtaining 
at the camps at Neisse and Gnadenfrei. 

Ainerican Embassy, London, 
September 27, 1915. 

* See No. 27. 



Enclosure in No. 32. 

Mr. Gerard to Mr. Page. 

Sir, American Embassy, Berlin, September 16, 1915. 

IN reply to your letter of the 6th instant, I have the honour to inform you that 
since the visits paid to the camps at Neisse and Gnadenfrei by Dr. Ohnesorg and 
Mr. Dresel, those camps have been inspected by an officer from the Prussian Ministry of 
War, and steps have been taken to remedy the overcrowding and to remove other 
causes^ for complaint. The number of officer prisoners at Gnadenfrei is likely to be 
reduced, and in any event the guard is to be housed in a separate building as soon as 
one can be constructed, which will probably be at an early date. 

I have, &c. 

JAMES W. GEKARD. 



No. 33. 

Mr. Page, United States Ambassador in London, to Sir Edward Grey. — (Received 

September 28.) 

THE American Ambassador presents his compliments to His Majesty's Secretary 
of State for Foreign Affairs, and has the honour to transmit, herewith enclosed, a copy 
of a letter he has received from the Embassy at Berlin, dated the 21st instant, enclosing 
copy of a report made by Dr. Karl Ohnesorg of a visit paid to the officers' camp at 
Clausthal on the 16th instant. 

A.viei'ican Embassy, London, 
September 27," 1915. 



Enclosure 1 in No. 33. 

Mr. Gerard to Mr. Page. 

^^''j American Embassy, Berlin, Septeviber 21, 1915. 

1 HAVE the honour to enclose herewith a copy of a report made to me by 
Dr. Karl Ohnesorg, surgeon. United States navy, of a visit paid to the officers' camp 
at Clausthal on the 16th instant. 

I have, &c. 

JAMES W. GERAED. 



Enclosure 2 in No. 33. 
Br. Ohnesorg to Mr. Gerard. 

^1^' American Embassy, Berlin, September 21, 1915. 

I HAVE the honour to report that on the 16th September I visited the officers' 
prisoner of war camp at Clausthal. 

The building used for interning these officer prisoners of war is a "kurhaus." It 
IS a wooden building, on stone foundations, placed on a main highway on the outskirts 
of the town- 



44 

I found here interned a total of 174 oflQ.cer prisoners and 24 men acting as 
orderlies and servants for the officers : 37 French, 74 Belgian, 42 Russian, and 
21 British officers. Of the 24 men, 3 were British soldiers. 

The building was modern, eight years old, and in peace time was used as a hotel, 
being one of the many " kurhauses " which abound through this section of the Hartz 
Mountains. It is situated, as stated previously, on a main highway, the camp being 
screened off from this roadway by a high board fence, topped with the usual barbed 
wire. A moderate-sized yard, approximately 100 yards long by 90 yards broad, in 
the rear of the building served as a recreation ground for the officers. The space in 
front of the building was laid out with walks, on which were placed benches and 
steamer chairs. In pleasant weather the roll-call was held in the space in front of the 
building. At one side of the main building was being erected a small building, which, 
I was informed, was to be used as a squash racket court by the English officers. I 
found several of the English officers amusing themselves in the yard with golf balls and 
sticks. An open-air bowling alley had been erected, and a tennis court was in process 
of construction. 

I talked freely with all the English officers outside the hearing of any of the 
German officers. They had no complaints to make concerning their treatment. 
They messed together in a large hall in the building, and informed me that their 
food was of good quality and sufficiently varied. An adjoining canteen gave them 
an opportunity of purchasing necessary articles at modei'ate prices, and other articles 
could be purchased on requisition from the stores in the town. 

The officers of various nationalities were housed together in rooms of various sizes, 
and the only criticism I might make of the camp is that it was a bit overcrowded. 
This condition is recognised by the German authorities themselves, and on a recent 
visit of the general inspector of the 10th Army, in which district the camp is placed, 
he remarked on this fault, and promised to remedy it. It is their intention to 
remove the Russian officers, forty-two in number, which will solve this question of 
overcrowding. 

At present the officers have to walk a distance of half a mile for their weekly 
baths, but several showers with hot and cold water had recently been installed in 
a large room in the building, and this would be shortly opened for the use of the 
interned when an additional water supply— 7 an extra tank — could be installed in the 
building. ' 

The twenty-four orderlies lived together in a large room in the attic. I talked 
with the three English soldiers ;' they were satisfied with their surroundings and 
treatment, and preferred to remain where they were, instead of being sent to some 
prisoner of war camp for men. 

The house was heated by hot-water system. The open porches on the various 
floors, the commandant informed me, were to be enclosed with glass for the winter. 

The usual privileges concerning mail were permitted, and the packages and other 
incoming mail were received regularly and censored in the usual way. 

The situation of the camp is ideal, being placed in the midst of the Hartz 
Mountains; with a wide expanse of view, and my visit gave me a very favourable 
impression in general. 

Appended is a list of the interned British officers, and the names of the three 
British soldiers acting as orderlies. * 

I also append a small photograph of the " kurhaus," 

I have, &c. 

KARL OHNESORG, 
Surgeon, U.S.N., Assistant Naval Attache, Berlin. 



List of English Officers and Men at Clausthal. 

Lieut. -Colonel Reginald C. Bond, King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry. 

Major Arthur S. Peebles, Suffolk Regiment. 

Major Gerald S. Tweedie, Royal Scots. 

Major Bryan Chetwynd Stapylton, Cheshire Regiment, 

Major Frank Wilson, Suffolk Regiment. 

Major Gordon S. Higginson, Royal Dublin Fusiliers. 

Major Philip G. Lyster, Royal Field Artillery. 

Major Joseph A. L). Bell, Army Service Corps. 

Major Douglas R. McCuaig, 13th Canadians Infantry Battalion, 



45 

Captain Percival Lowe, West Yorkshire Regiment. 

Captain Alexander Fitzg. Ramsay, 22nd Cavalry (Indian). 

Captain Frederic Bell, Gordon Highlanders. 

Captain Christopher H. Rawdon, King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry. 

Captain Wm. H. Unett, King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry. 

Captain Thomas Marshall, Welsh Regiment. 

Captain John B. B. Macky, Royal Warwickshire Regiment. 

Captain Hon. Alexander A. Fraser (Master of Saltuon), Gordon Highlanders. 

Lieutenant Oswald B. Sanderson, 4th Dragoon Guards. 

Lieutenant Hon. Ian Hay, 5th Royal Irish Lancers. 

Lieutenant Gray H. Gillieland, Loyal North Lancashire Regiment. 

Lieutenant Bertram Y. Hayes Newington, Cheshire Regiment. 

2925 Trooper Cyril Eowe, 2nd Life Guards. 
6782 Private Joseph W. Allen, Dorset Regiment. 
6938 Private George J. Newman, Dorset Regiment. 



No. 34. 
Sir Edward Grey to Mr. Page, United States Ambassador in London. 

THE Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs presents his compliments to 
the United States Amhassador, and has the honour to acknowledge the receipt of 
his Excellency's note of the 22nd instant* enclosing reports by Mr. Jackson on the 
prisoners' camps at Minden, Sennelager, and Bad Blenhorst, and the prisoners' hospital 
at Paderborn. 

Sir E. Grey would be much obliged if his thanks could be conveyed to Mr. Jackson 
for the reports in question. 

IPoreign Office, September 29, 1915. 

* See No. 30. 



No. 35. 

Mr. Page, United States Amhassador in London, to Sir Edward Grey. — [Received 

October 2.) 

THE American Ambassador presents his compliments to His Majesty's Secretary 
of State for Foreign Affairs, and has the honour to transmit herewith enclosed a copy of 
a letter he ha,s received from the Embassy at Berlin, dated the 23rd ultimo, enclosing 
a copy of a report made by Mr. Jackson of a visit to the prisoner of war camp at 
Gardelegen. 

American Embassy, London, 
October 1, 1915. 



Enclosure 1 in No. 35. 

Mr. Gerard to Mr. Page. 

Sir, American Embassy, Berlin, September 23, 1915. 

WITH reference to the note to you from the British Foreign Office of the 
28th August*, and to my letter to you of the 4th instant, I have the honour to enclose 
herewith a copy of a report made to me by Mr. Jackson of a visit paid to the prisoner 
of war camp at Gardelegen yesterday. 

I have &c. 

JAMES W. GERARD. 

* See No. 24. 



Enclosure 2 in No. 35. 

Heport on Visit to Detention Gamp at Gardelegen. 

ALTHOUGH Dr. Ohnesorg was unable to go inside the camp when he visited 
Gardelegen in April, he described its general character fully in his report, and all the 



46 

R.A.M.C officers who were interned therein, and who have now been sent back to 
England, ai'e in a position to supplement that report if additional information is 
desired by the British Government. Within a day or two after Captain Williams, 
R.A.M.C, left, nearly all the British soldiers were transferred to the camp at Stendal 
or sent off on working parties, so that I found only nine Englishmen in the camp 
to-day. With each of these men I talked individually, out of hearing of any German, 
and none of them had any complaint to make, although I told them particularly that 
I had come to ask them if anything was going wrong. They said that their relations 
with the German soldiers now are much better than they had been before the 
quarantine was raised. They do not like the clothing which is given them and they 
expressed themselves as dissatisfied with the food, but said that that made no difference, 
as they lived almost entirely from what was sent them from England. I had tasted 
the midday soup in the kitchen of one battalion before it was served out, and had 
tasted what was left in one of the kettles after serving in the other. The soup was 
the same and good in both cases. All the men looked in good physical condition and 
seemed to be in fairly good spirits, although they have been prisoners for the greater 
part of a year. They are all in communication with their friends at home, and receive 
letters and parcels frequently. The rule which was in force in regard to correspondence 
while the camp was in quarantine has not been changed as yet, and the men are not 
permitted to send letters out of camp, but instead are allowed to send an extra number 
of post-cards. Two of these men are in the lazaret, with wounds in their legs. Their 
cases are known to Captain Williams. In one case the wound has opened again owing 
to the presence of a splinter of bone, Avhich the German and Ptussian surgeons say 
could easily be removed if the man were willing to have it done. The lazaret was 
clean and well kept. There are still French and Russian medical officers in the camp, 
one section of which is again in quarantine owing to the fact that cholera has been 
found to exist among some Russian prisoners who had been brought in recently. The 
disease did not spread to the rest of the camp and it has already disappeared. 

The camp is arranged to accommodate 14,000 prisoners, but is relatively empty at 
present, owing to the fact that most of the men are off on working parties. Most of 
the Englishmen sleep together in one barracks, which did not seem overcrowded. I 
was told that the two British non-commissioned officers are to be moved to other 
quarters (a small room) in a few days. The latrines are primitive, but were remarkably 
free from odour. 

The commandant, Colonel Griiner, and the senior German medical officer 
accompanied me in my inspection of the camp. My visit had been announced by 
telegraph the evening before. 

September 22, 1915. 



No. 3G. 

Mr. Page, United States Ambassador in London, to Sir Edward Grey. — {Received 

October 2.) 

THE American Ambassador presents his compliments to His Majesty's Secretary of 
State for Foreign Affiiirs, and has the honour to transmit herewith enclosed a copy of a 
letter he has received from the Embassy at Berlin, dated the 24th ultimo, enclosing a 
copy of a report made by Mr. Jackson on the officer prisoners of war camp at Fort 
Zorndorf at Ciistrin. 

American Embassy, London, 
October 1, 1915. 



Enclosure 1 in No. 36. 
Mr. Gerard to Mr. Page. 

Sir, American Embassy, Berlin, September 24, 1915. 

I HAVE the honour to enclose herewith a copy of a report made to me by 
Mr. Jackson of a visit paid to the officer prisoners of war who are interned in Fort 
Zorndorf at Ciistrin, yesterday, and to be. Sir, your obedient Servant, 

JAMES W. GERARD. 



47 

Enclosure 2 in No, 36. 
Report on Visit to Detention Gamp at Gilstrin. 

AT Ciistrin two of the forts which form part of the fortress have been arranged to 
accommodate officer prisoners of war. In the " Fort Gorgast " there are about 
200 Russians, but no Enghsh, and, in consequence, I made no inspection. In the " Fort 
Zorndorf " there are 147 Russian and thirty-three French officers, and one Enghshman, 
Major Eric Jackson, of the Cheshire Regiment. In so for as the French are concerned, 
this fort is a " reprisal camp," and Major Jackson was accused of an attempt to escape 
from Halle before his internment here last November, and while here he has also made 
an attempt to get away. The officers' quarters are in the casemates of the fort, and the 
rooms, as a rule, seem overcrowded. Major Jackson has a room to himself in the upper 
storey of the fort, and he said particularly that he did not care to have an effort made to 
have him transferred to another camp. He suffers from stifihess in his shoulder, caused 
by a bullet wound, and he would like, if possible, to be sent to some place in 
Switzerland for a cure in the event of an arrangement being made for the internment 
of prisoners of war in that country. Some of the rooms on the ground floor of the fort 
appeared to be damp, and all are rather dark, as is usual in buildings of this kind. The 
lighting is by oil lamps. The latrines are primitive and dark, but apparently not 
insanitary. The bathing and washing facilities are limited, but the water supply is to- 
be increased by an artesian well, which is now being sunk. Formerly the officers were 
permitted to play tennis outside the fort, but that privilege has been stopped owing to 
attempts which were made to escape, and now their opportunity for exercise is limited 
to certain gymnastic apparatus, and to promenades on the walls of the fort itself, which 
are surrounded by a deep (dry) moat. 

The officers receive the usual pay, according to their rank, and are charged at the 
rate of 1'50 M. per day for their food. Major Jackson said that he lived principally on 
what was sent him from home. But French and Russian officers, with whom I talked 
freely, said that they were able to live on the food supplied to them without having 
recourse to the canteen, which appeared to be very well stocked although there was 
some complaint in regard to prices. In my inspection of the fort, where I spent 
more than two hours, I was accompanied by the general commanding the Fortress of 
Ciistrin, as well as by the commandant of the " Gefangenenlager," Major Jackson being 
with us most of the time. Before leaving I had " coffee " in the commandant's quarters, 
Major Jackson and a French officer being invited to join the party and sitting at the 
table with the German officers and myself. Some of the French officers who were sent 
here as " reprisal " prisoners, said that they preferred to remain rather than to be sent 
back to the camps from which they had come. In general the " atmosphere " of the 
camp was good ; the German officers treat the prisoners like unfortunate comrades and 
the relations between the Germans and the prisoners appeared to be of the best. A 
number of officers expressed wishes in regard to mattei's of slight importance, of all of 
which the general made a note. 

September 23, 1915. 



No. 37. 

Mr. Page, United States Ambassador in London, to Sir Edward Grey.-^{Iiecei'Ved 

October 19.) 

THE American Ambassador presents his compliments to His Majesty's Secretary 
of State for Foreign Affairs, and has the honour to transmit herewith enclosed a copy 
of a letter he has received from the Embassy at Berlin, dated the 12th instant, referring 
to Sir Edward Grey's note of the 24th September,* x-especting the conditions obtaining at 
the officers' camp at Halle. 

American Embassy, London, 
October 18, 1915. 

* See No. 31, 



48 

Enclosure in No. 37. 
Mr. Gerard to Mr. Page. 

Sir, American Embassy, Berlin, October 12, 1915. 

I HAVE the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your letter of the 25th ultimo, 
with which was enclosed a copy of a note from the Foreign Office in regard to conditions 
prevailing at the officer's camp at Halle, and i beg that you will inform the British 
Government that this camp will again be visited in the near future. 

The last report which you have received in regard to the camp in question was 
made, as you know, by Mr. Jackson on the 1st April. The camp, however, has been 
visited since that date. On the 30th July last, accompanied by Mr. Russell, T went to 
Halle for the third time, as on the occasion of my two previous visits I was informed 
that I could not speak to the British officers in English and out of the hearing of the 
camp authorities. On these two occasions, therefore, I left the camp without making 
an inspection. 

The impressions which I got of the camp on the 30th July were on the whole far 
from favourable. The conditions were very much the same as those described in 
Mr. Jackson's report of the 1st April. Officers were housed in rooms containing as 
many as fifty-two pei'sons, and none of the rooms struck me as being particularly 
clean. 

It is true that certain minor improvements have taken place, but conditions in 
general remain much as they were. The situation of the camp, in the midst of a city, is 
not attractive, but I do not think it is unhealthy. The enclosure for exercise leaves 
much to be desired, and there seems to be no facilities for exercise other than walking. 
On windy days, we were told, the dust in the courtyard became very bad. There is no 
grass field of any sort, as there is at most officers' camps, where football or other games 
can be played. 

The food is the same as that provided at other camps M^here officers are interned, 
and there were no complaints in regard to it, beyond the fact that it grows very 
monotonous. 

There were many complaints in regard to the amount of time which letters written 
in the camp take to reach their destination, and I have also heard from other sources 
that such letters are often not posted at Halle, in many cases, until considerably over 
the usual ten days' time. 

From time to time British officers have been transferred from Halle to other and 
better camps, and certain officers have asked the Embassy if they might be included 
among the persons so transferred. If I were in a position to inform the German 
Government that German officers in England are transferred from one camp to another 
at their own request, I should be hopeful of obtaining the same privilege for British 
officers here. 

I have, &c. 

JAMES W. GERARD. 



No. 38. 

Mr. Page, United States Avibassador in London, to Sir Edward Grey. — {Received 

October 20.) 

THE American Ambassador presents his compliments to His Majesty's Secretary 
of State for Foreign Affairs, and has the honour to transmit herewith enclosed copy of 
a letter he has received from the Embassy at Berlin, dated the 9th instant, transmitting 
reports on the camps at Amberg and Bayreuth, and the fortress of Rosenbei'g at 
Kronach. 

American Embassy, London, 
October 19, 1915. 



49 

Enclosure 1 Id No. 38. 

Mr. Gerard to Mr. Page. 

Sir, American Embassy, Berlin, October 9, 1915. 

I HAVE the honour to enclose herewith a copy of a report, dated the 8th instant, 
of visits made to the prisoner of war cauips at Amberg and Bayreuth (men), and in the 
fortress of Rosenberg at Kronach (officers), in Bavaria; by Surgeon Karl Ohnesorg, 
United States navy, and Mr. Lithgow Osborne, members of the staff of this Embassy, 
and to be, &c. 

JAMES W. GERAED. 



Enclosure 2 in No. 38. 

Dr. Ohnesorg and Mr. Osborne to Mr. Gerard. 
Sir, October 8, 1915. 

WE have the honour to report that, on the 5th and 6tli October, we visited the 
following camps for prisoners of war in Bavaria : Amberg and Bayreuth (men), and 
Kronach (officers). 

Amberg. — In this camp there are two British prisoners of war, Privates James 
Humphries (King's Own Yorkshire Light Infantry) and Alexander Mackenzie (Cameron 
Highlanders), both of whom have recently been moved from the detention camp near 
Nuremberg. The plan and organisation of the camp, which is on rising ground near some 
new Bavarian barracks, are similar to other camps in Germany, and the camp is built 
to accommodate 5,000 prisoners. At the time of our visit it contained only 2,500, the 
majority being French. Fifteen hundred of the prisoners were engaged in work, mostly 
agricultural, throughout the surrounding country. Private Mackenzie was one of those 
detailed to work in a neighbouring ere mine ; Private Humphries has been released 
from working, as he is physically unfit because of an- old wound in the chest. The only 
ground of complaint which he mentioned were the long hours which this work in the 
mine demanded. The prisoners, according to his statement, which was substantiated 
by the commandant, leave the camp daily at about 5 a.m. and return at 4 p.m., walking 
7 kilom. each way. The commandant also informed us, however, that quarters for the 
workers were being constructed in the vicinity of the mine. A general inspection of 
the camp proved satisfactory. 

Bayreuth. — The camp is situated on the outskirts of the city, on the military 
manoeuvring field. The men are housed in wooden barracks, holding 150 men each ; 
one-fourth of the buildings are at present occupied by a battalion of Bavarian troops, 
which would be removed, should the space be needed for other prisoners. An addition 
to the camp is contemplated, which will bring the capacity up to 5,000. Near the 
camp is a large compound containing wooden isolation barracks for possible infectious 
diseases, heretofore unused, but in which it is now intended to house wounded prisoners 
of war. No British prisoners were in the camp, but in a hospital in the town there 
were four lightly wounded British enlisted men. A large stone drill hall, within the 
limits of the garrison compound, is used for hospital purposes. Besides the four British, 
there were 104 other wounded in the building. The bedsteads were of iron, with 
comfortable mattresses ; the place was clean ; the care and treatment afforded the 
prisoners were good. Three of the British, i.e., Private Charles Green (Black Watch, 
wounded in right arm), Private James Watford (9th East Surreys, wounded in both 
legs), and Sapper Henry Turner (Royal Engineers, wounded in right thigh and left 
thumb), were captured on the 2nd October near Loos, placed on a hospital train, 
together with German wounded, and brought directly to Bayreuth. They all spoke 
well of their treatment, professional and otherwise. The fourth man, Private Patrick 
Corcoran (Royal Inniskilling Fusiliers), was convalescent from a wound received in 
November last. The wounded in this hospital are to be removed to the former isolation 
harracks, mentioned above, near the camp. , 

^ Kronach.- — The detention camp for officers at Kronach is in the former fortress of 
Rosenberg, situated on a hill above the town, and commanding a fine view. Two 
wings of this huge citadel are used to quarter the interned officers, between two and 
five assigned to one room. There is no overcrowding ; the rooms are all on the outside 
and, though a trifle dark, are clean and airy ; there is a stove in each bedroom and 
[1196] E 



50 

artificial illumination is obtained from spirit lamps. Toilet and bathing facilities are 
good ; shower-baths and tubs, with hot and cold water, have been installed and can be 
used practically when desired, as we Avere informed by the officers themselves. They 
mess together in one large, hall. The only complaint about the food was that sausage 
■was served too frequently at the evening meal. There is an excellent, small vacant 
ward to be used in case of sickness. There are facilities for exercise in the courtyards, 
on the ramparts, and on a newly ujade tennis-court ; the suggestion was made to the 
commandant that the outer ramparts be included in the space allotted to the officers. 
Of the forty-eight officers interned here, three are English, i.e., Captain Pteginald 
T. Miller (Manchester Eegiment), Lieutenant Ed. W. S. Foljambe (Rifle Brigade), 
Lieutenant (Jhas. Gerard Irvine (King's Own). Eighteen enlisted "Russians and four 
French soldiers are detailed as orderlies. 

"We have, &c. 

KARL OHNESORG. 

LFTHGOW OSBORNE. 



No. 39. 

Mr. Page, United States Ambassador in London, to Sii- Edward Gh'ey. — [Received 

October 21.) 

THE American Ambassador jiresents his compliments to His Majesty's Secretary 
of State for Foreign Affairs, and, with reference to the note Sir Edward Gray was 
good enough to address to him onthe 20th August* last relating to the officer prisoners' 
camp at Beeskow, has the honour to acquaint him that he is in receipt of a 
communication from the Ambassador at Berlin to the effect that the commandant of 
the camp at Beeskow has written sa3dng that Lieutenant J. R. Whyte was transferred 
to Wtitaburg b/Weissenburg in Bavaria, on the 2nd October, together with all the 
other officer prisoners who were in Beeskow on that date. Captain J. H. C. Coulston, 
who had been sent back to Beeskow from the hospital at Cottbus on the 21st September, 
appears to have been transferred to Wtltzburg at the same time. 



American Emhassij, London, 
October 20, 1915. 



* See No. 21. 



No. 40. 

3Ir. Parje, United States Ambassador in London, to Sir Edward Grey. — {Beceived 

October 24.) 

THE American Ambassador presents his compliments to His Majesty's Secretary- 
of State for Foreign Affairs, and has the honour to enclose herewith a copy of a letter, 
dated the 18th instant, from the Ambassador at Berlin, together with a report made by 
Mr. Lithgow Osborne, on a visit made to the officer prisoners of war camp at' 
Bischofswerda. 

American Embassy, London, 
October 23, 1915. 



Enclosure 1 in No. 40. 
Mr. Gerard to Mr. Page. 



Sir, American Embassy, Berlin, October 18, 1915. 

IN reply to your letter of the 15th ultimo, in which was enclosed a copy of a note- 
from the British Foreign Office, dated the 14th September,*' I have the honour to 
enclose herewith a copy of a report made by Mr. Lithgow Osborne, a member of my 
staff", to the officer prisoners of war camp at Bischofswerda, Saxony, and to be, &c. 

JAMES W. GERARD. 

• See No. 29. 



51 

Enclosure 2 in No. 40. 
Report on Visit to Detention Camp at Bischofswerda. 

THIS camp for officers was visited by Mr. John B. Jackson in May, and rejiorted 
on. In regard to the general asjaects of the camp, I can only substantiate his report. 
I found no evidence, through conversation with the British officers interned there, that 
their circumstances had become less tolerable — rather the reverse. Through subscription 
one of the tennis-courts has been put in first-class condition, and is now reserved for 
them alone ; they are also now playing football in that part of the barracks mentioned 
by Mr. Jackson as " probably soon to be given over to the officers for use as a football 
ground." A committee has been formed which now has some superintendence of the 
food, and on the 1st January, when the present contract expires, this whole matter will 
be in its hands. The British representative on the committee is Captain Lord James 
Stewart Murray, Cameron Highlanders. 

The number of British officers Is the same as at the time of Mr. Jackson's visit, 
namelv forty-one ; Lieutenant Anderson, of a Canadian regiment, recently escaped, but 
Lieutenant George T. Button, Oxford and Bucks Light Infantry, formerly at Festung 
Konigstein, has been removed to Bischofswerda ; there are accordingly no longer British 
at the former place. 

The complaints which I heard were in regard to a recent ruling prohibiting the 
wearing of "shorts" for football as not being military clothing, and reducing the 
opportunities of taking baths to once a day. At my suggestion the commandant 
promised to allow " shorts," and to permit an afternoon bath, if desired, at least as 
long as football is possible. There also seemed much dissatisfaction with the English 
interpreter, largely on account of apparent non-arrival and slowness of arrival of some 
letters from England ; the commandant informed me that he had noticed the dissatis- 
faction and that he had already arranged for another interpreter who would arrive 
shortly. 

In comparison to the two British orderlies at the camp when Mr. Jackson visited 
it, there are now five, and, following the request of the Canadians made through 
me, the commandant promised to endeavour to secure three Canadian orderlies from 
Giessen. 

LITHGOW OSBORNE. 

BeHin, Octoler 18, 1915. 



No. 41. 
Sir Edivard Grey to Mr. Page, United States Ambassador in London. 

THE Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs presents his compliments to the 
United States Ambassador, and has the honour to acknowledge the receipt of his 
Excellency's note of the 19th instant,* transmitting copies of reports on the camps at 
Amberg and Bayreuth and the foi-tress of Rosenberg at Kronach, by Surgeon Karl 
Ohnesorg, United Stales navy, and Mr. Lithgow Osborne, of the United States 
Embassy at Berlin. 

Sir E. Grey would be much obliged if the United States Ambassador at Berlin 
could be requested to convey his thanks to Dr. Ohnesorg and Mr. Osborne for their 
reports. He would be glad if Mr. Page would at the same time suggest to Mr. Gerard 
that it might be possible to secure the removal of the two British prisoners of war at 
Amberg to a camp where there are other British prisoners. 

Foreign Office, Octoher 26, 1915. 

* See No. 38. 



No. 42. 

Mr. Page, United States Ambassador in London, to Sir Edward Grey. — (Received 

Octoher 28.) 
THE American Ambassador presents his compliments to His Majesty's Secretary 
of State for Foreign Affiiirs, and has the honour to enclose herewith a copy of a letter 
from the Ambassador at Berlin, dated the 15th Instant, together with a report made 
by Mr. Jackson of his visit to'the prisoners' camp at Schneidemlihl, 

Ainc7-ican Embassy, London, 
October 27, 1915. 

[119G] "~~ '■ F 



52 

Enclosure 1 in No. 42. 

[ Mr. Gerard to Mr. Page. 



Sir, American Evibassy, Berlin, October 15, 1915. 

I HAVE the honour to enclose herewith a copy of a visit made by Mr. Jackson to 
the prisoners' camp at Schneidemuhl yesterday, and in this connection I beg to inform 
you that a copy of the enclosure in the British Foreign Office's note to you of the 27th 
ultimo, which was transmitted in your letter of the 28th September, has been sent to 
the Imperial Foreigri Office for such consent and reply as may be found appropriate. 

I have, &c. 

JAMES W. GERARD. 



Enclosure 2 in No. 42. 
Report on Visit to Detention Camp at SchneidemUhl. 

THE camp at Schneidemiihl is located about 3 miles outside the city on higher 
ground, sandy soil, and surrounded by woods. It is built to accommodate about 30,000 
prisoners, and was opened in September 1914. Its plan is not so regular as the newer 
camps, but the arrangement of buildings is good, and there is ample space for exercise. 
The buildings are lighted by electricity and heated by iron stoves, and there is water to 
be had throughout the camp. There are veiy few permanent sentries inside the camp, 
but a patrol goes through it nearly every hour or so. The administration of the interior 
of the cam}) is mainly in the hands of the prisoners themselves, and the canteen is run by 
them (Russian) entirely. The bathing facilities and latrines appear to be satisfactory. The 
latrines (trench system) are cleaned by the Russians. The camp was in quarantine all 
last winter (typlms and cliolera), but has been free from disease since August. 

At the time of my visit there were about 46,000 prisoners on the camp books, 
about 40 per cent, of whom were off (living outside) on working parties. In the camp 
there were 312 English with 174 more at work outside. About 200 of these men had 
been in the camp since October 1914, and most of the others I had seen during iny 
visits at Zossen and Altdamm ; 21 Englishmen had died in the camp since it was opened, 
mainly from typhus or cholera. All the members of the R.A.M.C. and several wounded 
men have been sent home. In the lazarets there were two Englishmen — one of whom 
is convalescing after an attack of pleurisy and who told me that he had no complaint to 
make of his treatment. The other man, Folwell, appears to have lost his reason, as he 
could make no reply to my questions. He was to have been sent back to England when 
the wounded left, but was unable to go because of an attack of dysentery. He is to be 
sent home when able to travel. Under arrest I found six men, who had appealed from 
the sentence pronounced against them because of an offence against discipline, and were 
awaiting their new trial. They were housed in pairs in small cells, and complained of 
lack of opportunity for exercise, and they said that the man (a Russian) who had acted 
as interpreter at their trial, had not been satisfactory. 

The camp is divided into three unequal parts, in the first of which there were 
about 200 English, there being about 100 in the second, and none in the third. When 
I arrived a football match was going on in camp 1. I talked freely, out of hearing of 
the German officers and men, with the senior English non-commissioned officers and 
many of the men, and all agreed that there had been much improvement in conditions 
generally since last spring. The men who came from other camps in August were 
pleased at the change. They all said that they were treated in the same way as the 
prisoners of other nationalities. The senior British sergeant accompanied me in my 
rounds of camp 1. In it the J]nglish soldiers occupy three large huts by themselves, 
and there is no overcrowding. The sergeants told me that they would prefer to sleep 
apart from the men, but said that they had never asked for permission to do so. On my 
speaking of this matter to the commandant he said that it would be arranged. In 
camp 2 all the English occupy one large hut, and here again I talked freely with the men. 

Although there were some complaints as to the time which it takes to get answers 
to letters sent to England, the post seemed to be operating regularly. Large numbers 
of parcels are received by the Englishmen, who claim — as usual — that they cannot eat 
the food provided (although I saw some of them doing it), and that they depend 
absolutely upon what is sent them and what they can buy in the canteen. In any 
event, all the men, Englishmen and others, looked in good physical condition. The 



53 

evening soup, of which I ate a plate, was good, if not particularly attractive looking, 
and I can well understand the prisoners tiring of it, as of their generally monotonous 
life. None of the men had any important complaint to make of conditions as they now 
exist. They said that they would like to have unrestricted intercourse between the 
camps, but the commandant said that this could not be permitted, for disciplinary 
reasons. Individual permits to make visits are frequently granted, however, and 
football matches take place between teams belonging to the different groups. 

Religious services were held in the camp by the Eev. H. M. Williams in 
September, and the men are in the habit of holding services of their own about twice 
a week. 

Many of the men who were in the camp last winter have no longer any uniforms, 
and are wearing the black clothes furnished by the German authorities, and nearly all 
would like to have overcoats and boots. Some lists showing clothing clothing require- 
ments have already been forwarded, and others are to be sent in, but the men are 
rather uneasy owing to the regulation that clothing may not be sent by the War OfSce 
in bulk. In order to ensure clothing reaching the men for whom it is intended, it 
should be sent in parcels addressed to them individually through the Prisoners of War 
Help Committee, or some other similar body, or by private persons, and not through 
official channels. 

' Octoher 14, 1915. 



No. 43. 

Mr. Page, United States Amhassador in London, to Sir Edioard Grey. — {Received 

Octoher 28.) 

THE American Ambassador presents his compliments to His Majesty's Secretary of 
State for Foreign Affairs, and has the honour to enclose herewith a copy of a letter, 
dated the 19th instant, from the Ambassador at Berlin transmitting copies of reports 
made on the camps at Chemnitz, Bautzen, Lauban, Neuhammer, Konigsbriick, Zwickau, 
and Gorlitz. 

American Emhassy, London, 
Octoher 27, 1915. 



Enclosure 1 in No. 43. 

Mr. Gerard to Mr. Page. 

Sir, American Embassy, Berlin, October 19, 1915. 

I HAVE the honour to enclose to you herewith, in triplicate, reports of inspections 
on the following detention camps for British prisoners of war in Saxony and Silesia, made 
by Mr. Lithgow Osborne, a member of my staff: — 

Chemnitz. 

Bautzen. 

Lauban. 

Neuhammer. 

Konigsbriick. 

Zwickau. 

Gorlitz. 

I have, &c. 

JAMES W. GERARD. 



Enclosure 2 in No. 43. 
Report on Visits to Detention Gamps. 



Chemnitz. 

THE camp is situated in the hills above the town in newly built barracks. The 
men are housed in the concrete stalls, which have never been used, and are scrupulously 
[1196] F 2 



54 

clean. The lazaret and offices, &c., are in the buildings built for the German non-com- 
missioned officers' casino. The most notable features of this camp are the central 
steam-heating throughout, and the special building for washing clothes, containing tubs 
of hot water, a large wringing machine, and a drying room. These features I found 
repeated in other Saxon camps. 

There are 6,000 prisoners at Chemnitz, though a large number are temporarily at 
work outside. This total is made up of about 1,000 Russian prisoners of war, 
4,000 French prisoners of war, about 1,000 French civilians, and one Englishman, a 
civilian, Henry Lifton, of Birmingham, who was in permanent residence at Noyon, 
France, at the outbreak of the war. Mr. Lifton informed me that he had absolutely no 
complaints, and that he preferred staying at Chemnitz to being moved to a camp with 
other English. The commandant informed me that Lifton is employed as an 
interpreter. 

Kdnigshriick. 

This is a large camp, containing 15,000, its full capacity, situated among pine woods, 
on sandy soil, a short distance outside the town. There are only three British in the 
camp : Corporal William Taylor, 2nd Life Guards, No. 2488 ; Private Arthur Hart, 
18th Hussars, No. 238 ; and Private William Leyland, King's Royal Rifles, No. 4944. 
None of these men had any complaints to make, except that there were so few English 
prisoners in the camp. Private Leyland, who was in the hospital being treated for 
abscesses on his leg, reported the medical attention he received all that could be 
desired. 

The camp is complete in all respects and adheres to a high standard in regard to- 
the kitchens, theatre, washing places, canteens, supply-room for clothing, &c. There is 
a particularly large establishment in this camp, where the prisoners can employ them- 
selves in any useful or amusing trade which they wish, such as sketching, decorating, 
wood carving, &c. 

Bautzen. 

This camp contains about 3,200 prisoners, of whom over 2,000 are Russians. The 
men live in the cement stalls of some artillery barracks which were comjaleted just prior 
to the war. In one half of each building the men sleep and in the other half they 
have their living room for the daytime, each man having a small cupboard and a special 
place at one of the tables. According to this arrangement, the men have less floor 
space for their mattresses, but they are not compelled to spend any of their time during 
the day in their sleeping quarters. This camp has a special disinfecting room, where 
garments are disinfected by being subjected to a temperature of 100 degrees Celsius. 
Li most other camp? which I have inspected the disinfection is done in special steam 
disinfecting machines. 

In the canteen at Bautzen, as in that of Zwickau, hot coffee is kept on tap. This 
seems to be the arrangement in most camps. In other respects Bautzen is arranged 
and run similarly to other camps for men. It had a particularly well-arranged lazaret. 

There are only two British prisoners of war at Bautzen : Corporal William Pike, 
Wiltshire Regiment, No. 8584, and Corporal Fox, Scots Guards, No. 8308, both of 
whom expressed themselves as entirely satisfied with the treatment accorded to them, 
only regretting that they were not in a camp with other English. 

Zwickau. 

At this camp there are two British prisoners of war : Private Robert Sheldrake, 
1st Norfolks, and Driver Raymond Mansfield, Royal Horse Artillery, Battery L. 
The former has a crippled left arm, and expects to be included in the next exchange of 
incapacitated. The only complaints these men had to make were in regard to the 
insufficiency of the meat rations and the qualitj^ of the bread. The first is probably 
explained by the fact that all meat is finely minced and appears in the soup at the 
midday meal. I tasted the soup being prepared at the time of my visit and found it 
excellent in quality and evidently containing a considerable quantity of meat. 

The camp is excellent in regard to organisation, &c. ; the usual wooden barracks 
are clean and airy, there is plenty of space for exercise, the cooking establishments, the 
bathing facilities, the latrines, the lazaret, the canteen, are all adequate and well 
arranged; the theatre, which is just being completed, is particularly good. Zwickau 
also contains two features which I have neither seen nor heard of in any other camp in 
Germany : outside each barrack is a specially built stand where the mattresses are 



55 

aired every day, weather permitting, and within the confines of the camp are several 
acres of vegetable gardens, which aid the general aspect of the camp and furnish ligb.t 
work for the prisoners, in which the French take particular interest. 

Both Private Sheldrake and Driver Mansfield stated that they had received the 
best of medical treatment and care while they were still suft'ering from wounds, and the 
former expressed himself as particularly grateful for being allowed to live in one of 
the separate rooms with some French non-commissioned officers who spoke English. 

Four thousand prisoners are at present assigned to Zwickau, of whom about 1,000 
are now at work, mostly in agriculture, in the neighbourhood. The capacity of the 
camp is 6,000, which is soon to be increased to 10,000. French form by far the largest 
percentage of the prisoners, though there is also a large number of Russians. 

Lauban. 

This camp is comparatively small, holding at most 4,000, and is further reduced by 
the work-camps, where many of the prisoners now are. The numbers are about evenly 
divided between French and Russian ; there are only thirteen English, nearly all from 
Irish regiments, of whom six were, at the time of my visit, absent at work.^ The 
complaints they made were relative to the quality of the food, which they said was 
dirty and badly cooked by the Russians, though the quantity was sufficient. They also 
requested information concerning non-commissioned officers having to work outside the 
camp. During my inspection of the kitchen I tasted the food, which seems not to 
justify the complaint as to its quality, though it was evident that it might become 
tiresome as a continued diet. The cleanliness of the kitchen left something to be 
desired, and the cleanliness of the Russian personnel something more. The commandant, 
when I mentioned the matter, said that half the kitchen force would be replaced by 
Frenchmen, and this arrangement, when I repeated it to the British prisoners, seemed 
to satisfy them. The commandant further stated that the non-commissioned officers 
would not be compelled to do work outside the camp, and would only be asked to do 
clerical work inside the camp. The British further stated that the English interprets 
was sometimes sick or absent, and that their letters were delayed in leaving the camp. 
The commandant promised that a second English interpreter, who was in the camp, 
could be used to censor the letters of the British when the regular interpreter was 
unable to do it. The British, who live in two groups of six and seven, asked if the 
Russians housed with them might be removed, but this request the commandant, 
when I mentioned it, did not seem to regard as justifying fulfilment. The British also 
regretted that they, were in a camp with so few of their countrymen. 

The organisation and general arrangements of the camp are the same as in other 
camps. The barracks are newly built of wood, the latrines are sanitary, the lazaret 
clean and complete ; there is a bathing and disinfection establishment and the other 
usual arrangements. On the whole, this camp did not impress me as favourably as 
others, though it is impossible to specify any particular feature in which it falls below 
the standard, with the exception of the kitchen. 

On my way from the camp I saw and spoke to two of the British prisoners 
employed in the electrical plant of the near-by barracks ; these men voiced the same 
complaints as the others, and, like them, stated that, aside from the points mentioned, 
their treatment was kind and satisfactory ; they expressed themselves as glad to have 
an opportunity to work. 

Strictly speaking, the camp at Lauban has at present no commandant ; the 
gentleman whom I have mentioned above as the " Kommandant," a captain of the 
reserves, has been in charge since some time in September, when the former commandant 
gave up his post. 

Goriitz. 

This is a big camp of French and Russians, together with thirteen British 
prisoners. At present there are only a couple of thousand men in the camp, though its 
capacity is 14,000, which will probably be reached in the course of the winter, when the 
prisoners from the surrounding work-camps are brought in. Of the British, seven were 
in the camp, being non-commissioned officers from Irish regiments, formerly at Limburg ; 
the six other men were at work-camps. The complaints of the seven non-commissioned 
officers with whom I spoke were concerning the quality of the food— a complaint not 
sustained by the thorough taste I gave the meal then being served — and concerning 
the difficulty of making themselves understood to the authorities and to their fellows- 
prisoners, since only one of them speaks a little French, and none of them German or 
[1196] F 3 



56 

Russian, and there is only one English-speaking interpreter in the camp ; this complaint 
was coupled with the request to be removed to a camp where more British prisoners are 
interned. The question of the food again comes down to a matter of sameness, and to 
the difference between the Russian cooking and the British taste. One of the 
British had not been receiving certain packages of late, but he was certain that they 
had not arrived at the camp, as he had received packages from a different source in 
England. 

The barracks at Gorlitz are of a different form than any I have yet seen. They 
are much broader than the usual barrack, and the roof, instead of sloping gradually to a 
point, has an extra piece built into it, so that down the middle of the barrack the ceiling 
is more than half again as high as in the ordinary barracks ; a much greater air 
space is thus given, and the windows built into the extra half-storey give an excellent 
opportunity for good ventilation without inconvenience from draughts. 

The soil is more loamy than in many camps, and plank walks and roads liave been 
built throughout the whole camp. There are the usual arrangements of all kinds in the 
camp, which in all details struck me as being exceedingly good. 

Tsleuhammer. 

There is here another big camp in which there were over 6,000 prisoners when 
I visited it, though over 4,000 more were expected the next day. They are practically 
all Russians. Neuhammer is the clearing-house for prisoners in Upper Silesia ; there 
are 100,000 prisoners nominally assigned to it, many of whom have never been there, 
and many others who have been there only temporarily on their way to work-camps. 
There are seven British in the camp, including one Canadian, and there are fifty-five 
others who are assigned to the camp, but are at present living at work-camps. The 
only complaint the British prisoners in the camp laid before me came from three of 
them who had been moved from Schneidemiihl to a mine and thence to Neuhammer, 
and whose parcels had not followed them ; the commandant promised to write to the 
work-camp at the mine regarding the matter. They also complained of being too 
closely housed, but this proved to be because of the rebuilding of a barrack where 
they had formerly lived, and to which they are again to be removed. One of the 
British was suffering from tuberculosis ; he was housed in a special barrack, where he 
said he received excellent treatment. 

The camp at Neuhammer adjoins a camp where German ti-oops are now in training, 
and a large number of the present buildings used for the prisoners are the barracks 
and stalls of a cavalry or artillery regiment. The two barracks, used by the soldiers 
in peace time are now occupied largely by the interned non-commissioned officers ; 
there are in addition a number of brick stalls and another set of wooden stalls with 
cement floors where the men live. Those of wood have very small windows very high 
up, but in good weather the big doors can be folded back, as they were at the time of 
my visit, and more light and air is admitted than in regular barracks ; this advantage 
would be a disadvantage in cold weather, but it is intended to remove the whole camp 
to three new camps being at jjresent erected in the neighbourhood, and which will be 
capable of holding a total of 14,000 men. 

Outside the usual arrangements and appliances of the camp, the lazaret deserves 
extra mention, if only on account of its size, as it contained 627 patients at the time 
of my visit, being the invalids from between 50,000 and 60,000 prisoners in Neuhammer 
and the neighbouring work-camps. The patients are divided among various barracks, 
newly built, each one according to the severity and nature of his illness. There are 
two German doctors in charge, with eleven Russian physicians and a large number of 
Russian sanitary personnel under them. The one British prisoner in the lazaret, 
suffering from a wrenched leg, said he had received entirely satisfactory treatment. 

LITHGOW OSBORNE. 

Berlin, October 18, 1915. 



No. 44, 
Sir J^Jdiuard Grey to Mr. Page, United States Amhaseador in London, 

THE Secretary of State for Foreign Affairs presents his compliments to the 
United States Ambassador, and, with reference to his Excellency's note of the 27th 



57 

ultimo,* transmitting reports by Mr. Lithgow Osborne on various internment camps 
in Germany, has the honour to request that an expression of his thanks may be 
conveyed to the United States Ambassador at Berlin for these interesting 
communications. 

Sir E. Grey observes that at the camps visited by Mr. Osborne on this occa- 
sion there is none, with the exception of that at Neuhammer, at which the number 
of British soldiers interned exceeds thirteen, whilst at three camps (those at Konigs- 
briick, Bautzen, and Zwickau) the numbers are three and two respectively. It is 
obvious that the situation of the British prisoners in these cases must necessarily be 
much ao-gravated bv their isolation amongst such larsre masses of prisoners of other 
nationalities, witli whom they are practically unable to communicate or to nnd thena- 
selves in complete sympathy, and that such is the fact is abundantly shown by the 
representations made to Mr. Osborne in this connection during his recent visits. 

Sir E. Grey thinks that the German authorities will have no difficidty in appre- 
ciating the justice of the complaints put forward by the men if they consider what would 
be the position of a few German soldiers interned amongst large numbers of prisoners 
of alien race, say, for instance, with Ottoman troops, and he will be greatly obliged if 
Mr. Gerard will be good enouo-h to bring; the matter again to the notice of the German 
Government, with a view to bringing about the removal of such British prisoners as 
may desire it to camps where they will enjoy the advantage of associating to a greater 
extent with their fellow-countrymen. 

■Foreign Office, November 3, 1915. 

* See No. 43. 



No. 45. 

Mr. Page, United States A7nbassador in London, to Sir Edward Grey. — {Received 

November 4.) 

THE American Ambassador presents his compliments to His Majesty's Secretary 
of State for Foreign Atl'airs, and has the honour to transmit herewith enclosed a copy 
of a letter he has received from the Embassy at Berlin, dated the 26th ultimo, trans- 
mitting copies of reports on the camps at Crefeld, Wahn, Diilmen, Osnabriick, 
Fried richsfelde, Herverst-Dorsten and Dorsten, and the lazaret at Wesel. 

American Embassy, London, 
November 3, 1915. 



Enclosure 1 in No. 45. 

Mr. Gerard to Mr. Page. 

Sir, American Embassy, Berlin, October 26, 1915. 

I HAVE the honour to transmit herewith copies of reports of visits made by 
Mr. Jackson to the prisoner camps at Crefeld (officers), Wahn and Diilmen (men), and 
by Mr. Lithgow Osborne to those at Osnabriick (officers), Friedrichsfelde, Herverst- 
Dorsten and Dorsten (men), and to the lazaret at Wesel. 

I have, &c. 

JAMES W. GERAED. 



Enclosure 2 in No. 45. 
Beport by Mr. Jackson on Visit to Prisoners' Detention Camp at Crefeld. 

THIS camp was fully described by the late Consul Michelson in a report dated the 
10th April, 1915, and since that time it has undergone no material change. When 
visited by Mr. Osborne and myself on the 20th instant, it contained 740 officer prisoners 
of war of various nationalities, including 160 British officers, among whom is General 
Bruce. There are also 180 officers' servants, of wdiom thirty-nine are English. 
General Bruce and Colonel Bolton each occupy separate rooms ; staff officers generally 
[1190] ■ F 4 



58 

live in pairs, and junior officers occupy larger rooms in varying numbers. As some of 
the English officers objected to sleeping in rt)oms with those of other nationalities, 
because of differences of opinion in regard to ventilation, they had been permitted to 
move their beds into the corridors of the barracks. On speaking to the Commandant 
about this, he said that he v^as not authorised to allovs^ the English to room by them- 
selves, but on bringing this matter to the attention of the superior officer at Miinster 
to-day, I was told that tlie desired ari-angement Avould be permitted, both at Crefeld 
and at Glitersloh. At Miinster 1 also spoke of clothing for the British soldiers, in 
regard to which there appeared to be some misunderstanding. The Commandant 
thought that these men should wear clothing furnished to them by the German 
authorities when their own is worn out, while the English officers would naturally prefer 
them to wear British uniforms. Letters to the Embassy on this subject had not been 
forwarded, but at Miinster I was given to understand that the matter would be arranged 
satisfactorily. ]\lr. Osborne and I talked freely with all the officer prisoners who wished 
to say anything to us, and no complaint was made in regard to other matters. Mess 
charges had been reduced from 60 M. to 51 M. per month without change in the quantity 
or quality of the food, except that the allowance of butter, sugar, and milk was smaller 
than it had been, the alteration having been made to comply with the wishes of the 
officers — Russian and others — of limited means. The articles mentioned can, however, 
be purchased in the canteen, which appeared to be well stocked. In the parcel-room 
the arrangements showed that about half the total number of parcels received are for 
British officers. The health of the camp is good, and the general " atmosphere " seems 
satisfactory. 

I tasted the men's food and found it very good, and all with whom T spoke said 
that they prefer to remain at Crefeld as officers' servants rather than to be sent to 
other camps. 

October 21, 1915. 



Enclosure 3 in No. 45. 

Report by Mr. Jackson on Visit to Prisoners^ Detention Gamp at Walin. 

IN a report dated the 18th April, 1915, the late Consul Michelson wrote at length 
in regard to the general character of this camp, which has not changed in the mean- 
time. On the 20th October, when Mr. Osborne and I visited it, there were only about 
5,000 men in the camp, but about 35,000 more, carried on its books, were absent on. 
some 600 working parties of various sizes. Recently captured prisoners of war had 
not been brought into the camp itself, but had been sent forward at once to Giessen 
and other places. Most of the English prisoners (about 500) had been in the camp for 
a year or more, and all now occupy one block together. Many of these men are 
wearing clothing (often French or Belgian uniforms) which had been furnished by the 
German authorities. Every man has been given two suits of warm underclothing and 
such outer garments as have been needed. One man called attention to the pair of thin 
trousers which had been given to him in the summer, but on being questioned he said 
that he was wearing them in order to get a new pair. In the store-rooms there were 
large quantities of clothing of all kinds ready for use, and we were told that overcoats 
would soon be distributed to all who needed them. A considerable number (said to be 
400) of dark British military overcoats were in stock. Boots, such as worm by German 
soldiers, have also been furnished. The general health of the men seemed good, and 
while there was more or less criticism of the food, of the usual kind, none of the men I 
saw looked in poor condition. Only six men, rheumatics or slightly wounded, were in 
the lazaret, and all said that their present treatment was good, as had been that in the 
hospital at Cologne. Prior to their arrival in Cologne, early in the war, they said that 
there had been some rough handling, but no discrimination between them and other 
prisoners. Many English soldiers are at Avork in the camp offices and parcel-room — a 
larger proportion than in any other camp which I had visited. I was told that a 
considerable number of parcels continue to arrive from England in bad condition, and 
there was some complaint in regard to delay in the receipt of parcels during the last 
few weeks, which is probably attributable to interrupted Channel traffic. Only one 
Englishman was at work, among many French and Russians, in the tailor shop, and at 
his request I asked that he might be given employment elsewhere, among comrades of 
his own nationalit3^ The couuTiandant gave an order at once for this to be done. A 



59 

game of football was going on at the time of our visit, one of the players being Second 
Lientenant C. Wells, now of the Dorsetshire Regiment, who had been promoted since 
capture from the Wiltshire Regiment, and who said expressly that he wished to remain 
where he is and no't to be transferred to an officers' camp. We talked freely with 
Lieutenant Wells and many non-commissioned officers and men, and heard no important 
complaints. For our benefit the orchestra, thirteen of whose members are British 
bandsmen, played a selection from Gounod's " Faust," a young Frenchman and a 
Pi,ussian taking the vocal parts. In the camp there is also another orchestra, the 
members of which showed us stringed instruments which they had made themselves. 
A large riding hall has been arranged for theatrical performances. 

October 21, 1915. 



Enclosure 4 in No. 45. 
Report hy Mr. Jackson on Visit to Prisoners' Detention Camp at Dillmen. 

THIS camp (see note from the British Foreign Office to the American Embassy in 
London of the 7th October) was opened in May, its capacity being 3,000, which is being 
increased to 5,000. On its books there are now about 700 British non-commissioned 
officers and men. among them being Lieiitenant D. Condon, Northumberland Fusiliers, 
who was captured in non-commissioned uniform, whose promotion was formally notified 
to the German Government on the 25tii September as advised in the British Foreign 
Office's note of the 2Lst, and who will probably be transferred to an officer's camp at an 
early date. The camp is in a healthy situation and well arranged, on the usual systero. 
The English occupy large huts, housing from 120 to 140 men each, with small rooms for 
senior non-commissioned officers, of whom there are a good many in the camp who have 
been transferred from Senne. Eight Englishmen are at work in the kitchens, and they 
said that the food is good, although there was a certain amount of criticism of it by 
others. " Sick call " was going on at the time Mr. Osborne and I arrived in the camp, 
and waiting to see the doctor there were a number of English, most of whom complained 
of colds or had slight bruises or cuts received when at work. Men were apparently 
excused from work on very easy terms. Working parties leave the camp about 7 A.M. 
and return for the midday meal, going out again about 2 (after a two hours' rest), and 
returning again at sundown. Parties who work at some distance from the camp have 
their midday meal brought to them, but they are also allowed to rest for two hours. 
Under the circumstances the hours were longer in the summer than they are at this 
season, but the work cannot be called "hard labour," and is usually nothing more than 
" occupation." As it is understood that German non-commissioned prisoners are made 
to work in France, the French non-commissioned are compelled to do so here, and 
owing to what seemed to be a misunderstanding some of the British non-commissioned 
have also been sent to work. The commandant promised to correct this, however, 
upon his attention being called to it. A number of attempts have been made to escape 
from this camp, and at least two Englishmen have been able to get away. Prior to 
their successful venture, an attempt had been made by tunnelling, for which some 
twelve or fourteen men who had accepted the blame {and not sixty) had been punished, 
according to the story as told me by the senior British non-commissioned officer in the 
camp. The punishment for an attempt to escape is fourteen days' (increased to tvi^enty- 
one for a second offence) solitary confinement, during which the fare for three days out 
of four is bread (900 grammes, or three times the usual allowance) and water. On the 
third day the prisoner receives the ordinary evening meal, and the next day he has the 
usual morning and midday meals, so that he is actually on bread and water only two 
days out of four. The cells are small but well ventilated, and there is an inclined 
plank bed without bedding which they may use both day and night. The punishment 
is of the same character as that given to German soldiers. 

There were seven Englishmen in the cells when we visited the camp to-day, and I 
talked freely with all of them, and only one said that he felt badly as the result of his 
confinement. These men had overcoats with them in the cells, which they could wear 
or use as covering. All had made attempts to escape except one who had been 
sentenced to seven days' imprisonment for refusing to work at a dynamite factory. 
This work, as the men told me, was not in connection with the manufacturing or 
handling of explosives, but consisted of loading empty boxes on waggons and in preparing 
the foundations for a furnace. In the lazaret there were several slightly wounded men 



60 

who had he&a recently captured, and who said that their treatment had been good. 
They had been brought from the front in a German Red Cross train together with 
German wounded, and had been treated in exactly the same way as the Germans. 
Most of the men whom we saw in this camp were well dressed in British uniforms. 
Clothing is distributed when required, and the senior British non-commissioned officer 
said that a list had been taken of all the men who had no greatcoats. The commandant 
said that these coats were to be distributed in a few days. 

The huts are airy and clean, and there is the usual disinfection apparatus to remove 
vermin (lice) from the prisoners and their clothing, as men who come in from the 
trenches are apt to bring vermin with them. There are no Russians in the camp, and 
there have been no epidemics. The men are obliged to bathe once a week, but are 
permitted to do so more frequently. The mail, parcel, and banking arrangements are 
good. The prisoners may have any amount to their credit, but are not permitted to 
have more than 1 M. in their possession at one time. 

We talked freely with the men as we went through the camp, and at length with 
the senior non-commissioned officers. On the road from Diilmen to the camp we saw a 
number of parties at work, and all the men were decently dressed and looked in good 
condition. One man (Private B. Matthews, No. 981, Welsh Regiment), has lost 
his left eye, and complains of .pains in the head, but he is able to be about. He has 
been excused from all work, and his case is under consideration for exchange, although 
he is not strictly entitled to repatriation under the existing agreement. 

October 21, 1915. 



Enclosure 5 in No. 45. 

Report hy Mr. Osborne on Visit to Prisoners' Detention Camp at Osnabriick. 

ON the 21st October I visited the artillery barracks at Osnabriick, where officer 
prisoners of war are interned, which was formerly inspected and reported on by 
Mr. John B, Jackson under date of the 5th April. There are now 400 officers at 
Osnabriick, but only eighteen British, as against twenty-tive at the time of 
Mr. Jackson's visit, those mentioned by him as waiting for exchange having probably 
returned home ; the four Indian officers are still there, and are all in one room. I 
understood that they wished to go to Zossen, where some of their own people are 
interned, as they have evidently now heard that there are officers as well as men there. 
This request can be taken up with the Ministry of War, and will probably be complied 
with. 

The general arrangement of the camp was as described by Mr, Jackson, except that 
a further portion of the yard is now at the disposition of the officers, on which 
tennis courts have been constructed. The riding barn is used for a concert-room and 
theatre, and a rehearsal was in progress during my visit. The officers have a lai'ge 
dinino'-room and two smaller ones, used as a sittino--room and for afternoon tea. In one 
of these I had a cup of coffee with Colonel Christopher, the ranking British officer, 
while in the other a large number of French and Russian officers were having a German 
lesson from a professor from Osnabriick. 

The sleeping rooms were clean and not overcrowded, though certainly filled to 
their capacity. The only complaint which the British had to make was in regard to 
the mixing of nationalities, the junior officers being entirely separated, each living in a 
room whose remaining occujmnts were of other nationalities. Colonel Christopher had 
had a room to himself, but recently a Russian lieutenant had been put in with him. I 
understood that a committee of officers had been formed to assist in the food question, 
and that the quality had been consequently improved. Owing to the camp being filled 
to its capacity, hot baths are possible at only stated intervals once in the week. Cold 
baths are, however, obtainable each morning. 

I asked the commandant whether it was not possible to lessen the mixing of the 
nationalities (if it could not be done away with entirely) by putting three or four 
British together. He said lie would try to do something of this kind, and that, if 
Colonel Christopher could not be given a room to himself, a French major, a friend of 
Colonel Christopher's, could replace the Russian lieutenant at present sharing the 
latter's room. 

Berlin, October 2G, 1915. 



61 

Enclosure 6 in No. 45. 

Report by Mr. Osborne on Yisil to Prisoners' Detention Gamp at Frkdrichsfeld. 

ON the 22nd October I visited the camp for non-commissioned officers and men 
at Friedrichsfeld, near Wesel on the Rhine, which was visited by the late Mr. Michelsun, 
former American consul at Cologne, and reported on by him under date of the 4th June, 
1915. Since the time of Mr. Michelson's visit a few changes have taken place, but I 
tound the camp in general as he described it. Its capacity has been increased to 
35,000, although there were only 15,000 in it at the time of my visit, of which 300 
v/ere British ; another 100 British were at work camps connected with Friedrichsfeld. 
The charged wire bariier dividing the camp, mentioned by Mr. Michelson, must have 
been done away with, as it was certainly not there when I inspected the place. There 
is a particularly large open space in the centre of the camp, where the men play 
fi)otball ; I also saw them playing tennis on three or four courts, which had been 
marked out in the most convenient area, and some French were engaged in playing a 
game with a small rubber ball which they struck w^Ith their fists. The men who will 
not exercise of their own accord are given " setting up drill " to assure their general 
health. 

The postal and package arrangements were as Mr. Michelson described them, only 
I imagine the volume of the work has increased owing to the increase in the number 
of men belonging to the camp. The barracks where the men live have brick walls, 
boarded over on the outside, and struck me as being very substantial. As opposed to 
the arrangement described in Mr. Michelson's report, the mattresses now occupy only 
the central portion of each barrack ; an aisle is thus left down each side, about 
12 feet wide, where the men have tables and benches. When 1 visited the barrack in 
which the English were all quartered they were seated at these tables eating, and 
apparently enjoying, their midday meal. It consisted of thick vegetable soup with 
square portions of meat served separately. I tasted the soup and found it, as the 
men admitted, very good ; the meat looked clean and well cooked. 

The camp lazaret is situated a quarter of a n)ile away and is in charge of a staff of 
young German doctors with French and Russian assistants. The barracks are clean 
and well heated by stoves and lighted by electricity. The cases are divided according 
to their nature and seriousness. The lazaret was by no means full, and the health of 
the camp is evidently very good. The head doctor informed me that there had been no 
deaths among the British. The English who were in the lazaret at the time of my 
visit were very satisfied with the treatment and care accorded to them, with the 
exception of one man who had been ill practically from the time of his capture, and 
who complained of the nature of the food. The Belgian assistant in this ward said that 
this patient was an irreconcilable. The head doctor informed me that he w'as not 
eligible for exchange, as there was no reason to believe that he would not ultimately 
completely recover his health. One other British private was worried because he had 
been given no medicine, but admitted that he was much better than when he had come 
to the lazaret a short time before. The establishment has suitable consultation and 
supply rooms, bathing arrangements, and closets with running water, and its own 
kitchen. Besides the lazaret there are several large isolation barracks, to be used in 
case of contagion. 

I also visited the school spoken of by Mr. Michelson, and also a large new school, 
probably instituted after his inspection, where seriously wounded and crippled prisoners 
were being instructed in useful trades. Some of these were waiting for exchange, I 
understand, and others were not badly enough hurt to be eligible. Many were learning 
watchmaking and others bookbinding, &c. Several who had lost the use of their right 
arms were being given opportunities to learn to use their left arms for writing, &c. 
There were no British in this establishment. 

When I spoke with the British I foimd the sum and substance of their complaints 
to be the matters of the quantity of the food and the supply of overcoats and shoes. 
The meal they were then eating did not bear out the first complaint, and I could not 
find evidence that it was better than the avera.ge. The names of the men who were in 
need of overcoats had been taken down, and the representative of the camp authorities 
who was accompanying me assured me that they would be given out within a week or 
two. The men who did not work outside the camp were furnished only with wooden 
shoes, though for the present those within the camp still had leather boots. 

The question of securing underclothes, socks, trousers, and coats seemed to be 
satisfactorily taken care of. 



62 

I informed the commandant of the complaint of the men in regard to the food, but 
he seemed to think it unjustified and that tlie nourishment contained in the rations 
supplied was sufficient for maintaining the health of men not leading an active life. 
The good health of the camp, even among that part which does not receive parcels from 
home, would certainly seem to confirm this opinion. I further requested the 
commandant to give his attention to hastening the supplying of overcoats, which he 
intimated that he Avould do, though he seemed to regard the want as certain of early 
fulfilment. 

Berlin, Octoher 2G, 1915. 



Enclosure 7 in No. 45. 

Heport hy Mr. Oshorne on Visit to Trisoners' Detention Camps at Herverst-Dorsten 

and Dorsten. 

THESE are the names by which two work camps are known ; the first Iving between 
the villages of Herverst and Dorsten, and the second situated in the latter village. 
Both are offshoots of the concentration camp at Diilmen. 

At Herverst-Dorsten I found about 700 prisoners, of whom 200 were English, and 
the rest French and Russian. They were lodged in some model working-men's houses, 
never before occupied, the British occupying a special group of houses. The sleeping 
accommodations are good, about nine or ten to a room ; stoves in each room were being 
installed as I was there, and light is furnished by lamps. There is a closet in each house, 
and a special squad of men has the job of keeping this clean, with no further work to 
do. Each house has a small room about 7 feet square, built into it at the back, probably 
intended for a toolhouse, which now serves as a cell ; a small grated window looks into 
the camp yard ; the cell is furnished with a large quantity of straw, which seemed to me 
quite as comfortable as a straw mattress. One English soldier was seridng a fourteen- 
day sentence for attempted escape, and another a shorter sentence for pretended 
sickness. As the men are outside of the canip for most of the day, the area 
enclosed is comparatively small ; besides the houses where the men live it contains a 
partially open building for religious services, and a kitchen, brick-floored and clean, and 
with the usual large kettles and other cooking apparatus. The senior British non- 
commissioned officers informed me that the food had shown great improvement of late, 
and that it was superior to that in the concentration camps ; this superiority is due to 
the extra rations allowed for men in work camps, I presume. The men are now 
working largely at agricultural jobs, leaving the camp at 6-30 and returning at 5, and 
having an hour's respite in the middle of the day, their meal at that time being cooked 
at the place where they work. There seemed to be no complaint about the present 
work, but the men had been employed in the coal-mine near the town, and had struck in 
sympathy with the French, some of whom had received the idea that they were making 
themselves liable to severe punishment in doing work in a mine. It also appeared that 
some of the British non-commissioned officers were being made to work. The names of 
the men needing overcoats had been noted, but there was uneasiness in their minds as 
to whether they would be forthcoming. I saw the stores of underclothing, trousers, and 
jackets, the latter of heavy dark material ; there seemed to be no difficulty about 
obtaining these articles as needed. But the only supply of footwear in the camp 
consisted of wooden clogs, and the Oberleutnant temporarily in charge during the 
absence of the commander was ignorant of any possible additions to the supply in the 
way of leather boots, though the British there "all are at present provided with these. 

A large barrack outside the enclosure is for use in case of contagious diseases. 
There is a French doctor within the camp, but any serious cases are sent to Diilmen for 
treatment. The men get shower baths once a week at the bathing establishment at 
the coal-mine. In each house is a pump from which water is obtained for daily bathing 
purposes, and also for washing clothes. 

At the smaller camp of Dorsten I found conditions less satisfactory. About 180 
men are housed in one large room, a club-room in peace time, and on a small stage 
Avhich adjoins it. Of these twenty are British non-commissioned ofiicers and men. 
The floor space was badly overcrowded, though the great height of the room would 
probably bring the cubic air-space per man up to the requirement. The area enclosed 
also is too small, even considering the fact that most of the day is spent outside at 
work. The latrines are good, having running water. The kitchen is at the back, in 



63 

some basement rooms, and seems satisfactory, though there were particular complaints 
about the food. This was the more inexplicable as tlie management of this camp is the 
same as that of Herverst-Dorsten, from where the supplies are each day fetched, and in 
which the food question seemed satisfactorily arranged. Parcels from England have 
come through regularly, though there have been delays recently. The washing 
facilities are adequate, but the space in which to make use of them is too limited. The 
men get a weekly bath in the town. The non-commissioned officers in this camp are 
also compelled to work. 

I recommended to the temporary commandant the removal of some of the men 
from this camp, and he promised to reduce the number by at least thirty and to 
endeavour to include the British in this number. He also said he would investigate 
the rule as to non-commissioned officers doing work outside of the camp, as he had 
behoved that British, like French, non-commissioned officers were not excluded from 
working. The complaints as to the food he did not think justified. 

Berlin, October 26, 1915. 



Enclosure 8 in No. 45. 
Eeport hy Mr. Osborne on Visit to Lazarets at Wesel. 

ON the 22d October I visited two hospitals in Wesel, where prisoners of war are 
cared for, including 200 British non-commissioned officers and men, largely captured in 
the late days of September. In the Festungslazarett were a few over 100 men, and in 
the " Gymnasium," under the same general direction, there were a few short of that 
number at the time of my visit. The Festungslazarett was used for hospital purposes 
in peace times, and the main buildings now contain German wounded. The wounded 
prisoners of war are housed in a set of newly-constructed wooden barracks, of the usual 
size and shape, placed in the immediate vicinity of the older buildings. Each barrack 
contains a double row of cots, standing 5 feet apai't and with a middle aisle of about 
12 to 14 feet; in some cases another line of cots placed lengthwise runs down the 
middle of the building. There are windows at frequent intervals on both sides, and 
electric artificial lighting ; the heat is furnished by stoves. In each barrack is a room 
containing supplies, and for consultations, &c. ; in a second room the sanitary personnel 
sleeps. The barracks were all perfectly clean, and the general appearance of the 
bed-linen was clean and fresh. The British were divided among three difierent wards, 
and in my rounds I spoke to at least thirty. Many of them were very uncomfortable 
from their wounds, but all replied that their present treatment, as well as that which 
they had received at the front and on the way from the front, was, and had been, 
entirely satisfactory, and that they had nothing of which to complain. One man alone, 
well on the way to recovery, complained that the food was insufficient ; others whom I 
questioned especially on this subject did not bear out this complaint, although in a 
similar state of health. All those consulted in regard to the matter said that they had 
come from the front on a German lazaret-train, together with German wounded, 
and that, as nearly as they could tell, they had i-eceived exactly similar treatment and 
care as accorded to the German wounded. Their only request was fur books and 
tobacco. 

The direction and management of the two divisions of the lazaret are the same, 
and this includes kitchen arrangements, &c. In a room of the main building itself 
were three wounded British officers, the ranking one being Captain Middleton, of the 
7th Royal West Kents. Both he and his two companions gave the same report of 
their treatment as had the men. Everything possible had been, and was being, done 
for them. Their wishes were confined to English literature, of which they had obtained 
a certain amount, partly through a French priest. Everything else they wanted, 
including tobacco, it was possible for them to buy. In the same room was one 
wounded French officer, and also a slightly wounded French non-commissioned officer, 
who helped to attend to the officers, acting as a kind of orderly. The five beds took 
up a very small portion of the big room they were in, which was well lighted, naturally 
and artificially, and well heated. 

Half a mile away a newly-built gymnasium (school) has been turned into a hospital 
for prisoners of M'ar, for which purposes it is marvellously suited. The whole estab- 
lishment is steam-heated, electric-lighted, and well ventilated and clean, and evidently 



64 

easy to keep clean. The rooms are exceptionally high, and have many windows. The 
establishment is run as a separate unit, I understood ; though it is under the same 
supervision as the Festungslazarett, it is certainly superior to either branch of that 
hospital. The British, who were for the most part, as at the Festungslazarett, from 
Scotch regiments, were likewise unanimous in their reports of their good treatment. 
As far as 1 could gather practically all were wounded on the same day, the 25th September, 
and were probably picked up and taken care of by the same general organisation. The 
men I spoke to included many from the Cameron Highlanders, and a few from the Black 
Watch. Several spoke of being first taken to the French hospital at Douai before being 
brought to Germany. 

The medical and military staff in charge of these prisoners impressed me particularly 
favourably, and as though they were endeavouring to do everything possible to make 
their charges comfortable and to restore them to health, and as though they were 
exceedingly keen on their job. 

Berlin, October 26, 1915. 



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