Skip to main content

Full text of "Coshocton County Centennial history, 1811-1911"

See other formats







3 1833 02410 4934 

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

Allen County Public Library Genealogy Center 


dgnt^trntal IjtBtorti 


1811 ^^M 1911 


The Coshocton County Centennial Commission 



Ilistoriciil Committee 



W. L. RrssKi.L, Solicitor 

Photographs by A. E. Riley Paper furnished by Central Ohio Paper Co., Columbus, O. 



It has been my chief purpose in the preparation of tliis work to so 
preserve the chronology of events and connect them as to make a 
continuous story of our history. 

In the many histories that have appeared the plan of treatment has 
been subjective, thus giving the younger readers a distorted idea of 
proportion and a chaotic view of the order of events. 

It has next been my purpose to confine the historical portion to 
such events and characters as have moulded, or produced marked in- 
fluence upon, the various phases of our county's progress. Other 
things and persons that produced rather incidental effect I have 
striven to keep in their proper proportion by treating incidentally and 
have therefore eliminated them from the story of the growth and 
progress of the county. 

The limitation to thirty thousand words has made it necessary to 
omit many things of interest which would cast strong side lights on 
the struggles of a new civilization and the building of the commercial 
character, but I trust I have succeeded in giving a fairly graphic pano- 
ramic view of the settlement and development of the county from 
an unbroken forest to its present proud state. I have written with 
the hope that familiar details might not prove tiresome to the well 
informed and the omission of essential general history and local inci- 
dents may not leave the local history vague in the minds of the j'outh- 
ful and uninformed. 

If my efiforts shall inspire in the minds of the youth of the county 
a desire to learn its early history and a pride in the achievements of 
her sons whose life work has ended, I shall not have written in vain. 

Coshocton, Ohio, June 6, 191 1. 

The Author 


That I am a proper person to undertake the history of Coshocton 
County, in this its centennial year, with my official duties and private 
affairs en my hands, and with no special training in this line, I enter- 
tain the gravest doubt. 

The uncertainty surrounding many so-called historic facts will de- 
mand much research and the collection of legends and folk-lore will 
require much more. 

I have, however, been long interested in the subject and have long 
regretted that someone in the past generation had not given the neces- 
sary time to it, as the passing of each generation renders the period 
of cur e?rly history more uncertain. As we see th.e subject to-day, 
the line which separates historic truth from imaginative fiction is dim 
and tortuous. 

Some years ago I resolved to undertake this work, if another better 
qualified did not soon do so, as a labor of lo\e for my son's delectation. 

Learning recently that Dr. Wm. E. Hunt had declined, at his time 
cf life, to re-write his Coshocton Historical Collections, I have decided 
to undertake the work in the year of the county's centennial and pre- 
sent the manuscript and its copyright to the Coshocton Centennial Com- 
mission to make such use of it as they may deem proper. 

I am reminded, however, of the exclamation of that spiteful old 
philosopher, "Oh ! that mine enemy should write a book." So I ap- 
proach the subject with fear and trembling. 

In attempting to compile from our historians a fairly authentic his- 
tory of Coshocton County, probably the most embarrassing circum- 
stance is the careless statement by them of important facts. This is 
well illustrated by reference to that usually reliable work, "Howe's 
Historical Collections of Ohio." On page 466 of A'olume I the au- 
thor tells us that the Indian village Goschachgunk (Coshocton) stood 

north of the mouth of the Tuscarawas River in the fork formed by 
its junction with the Walhonding," while on the very next page he 
says this village "occupied the lower street of Coshocton, stretching 
along the river bank below the junction." 

As a further illustration of this, the story of the murder of the 
white woman known as the New Comer is in point. 

Air. Howe tells us, on page 468 of his Historical Collections, tliat 
this woman was killed by the Indians in White Woman's town ( near 
the mouth of Killbuck), December 26, 1761, wdiile Christopher Gist 
was in the town. This story is accepted and detailed as fact by Air. 
Mitchener on page 108 of his "Historic Events in the Aluskingum and 
Tuscarawas VaUeys," except as to the date, while on page 38 Air. 
Alitchener copies from the journal of Air. Gist under date of Wednes- 
day, December 26, 1750, the story of a white woman who had long 
been a prisoner of the Indians and who was on that date brought into 
Goschachgunk, and not into White Woman's town, and there murdered 
in revolting cruelty, thus confounding two entirely different and dis- 
tinct events, for on this date Air. Gist had not yet met Alary Harris, 
nor had the white woman known as the "Xew Comer" yet made her 
appearance in this part of the country. 

It was not, according to Gist's journal, until Tuesday. January 15, 
1 75 1, that he arrived at White Woman's town and there for the first 
time met Alary Harris, the historic and erratic white woman; more- 
over, we have no intimation anywhere in Air. Gist's Journal, nor in 
any other work, that Air. Gist was in this part of the country in 1761, 
cr that he ever saw the "New Comer," and the spot now called New- 
comerstown was not known by that name till about 1755. 

So confused, indeed, had Air. Alitchener's mind become on this sub- 
ject that on page 108 he has Andrew Burney, the blacksmith, at White 
Woman's town burying the body of the New Comer, when, in fact, 
Air. Gist tells us that Andrew Burney was the blacksmith at Coshocton, 
and that it was he who buried the bofly of the unfortunate white woman 
murdered at Coshocton, December 26. 1750. 

I might continue these illustrations almost endlessly, but this much 
will serve to emphasize my difficulties and account for my failure to 
speak with confidence of matters by many students of the subject 
thought to be sufficiently established to be regarded as historic. 

Sam'l H. Nicholas. 

Coshocton, Ohio, April i, 191 1. 


The earliest history of Coshocton County, like every 
other spot, is written upon and under the surface of 
its soil, but unfortunately in a language little under- 
stood. Hence, speculation as to who built our mounds, 
pur circles, our crescents and other evidences of a dead 
civilization, whether of earth or stone or both, is lim- 
ited and fashioned by the health of our imagination. 

This much is known, that an impenetrable veil hides 
the mystery of their origin, their age and their purpose. 
The historian, therefore, must curb his curiosity and 
his imagination, and content himself with their loca- 
tion, description, composition and present condition 
of preservation, leaving the rest to the poetic imagina- 
tion of the archaeologist and the novelist. 

The earliest settlement of mankind in this county, 
of which we have any certain history, was that of a 
small tribe of Shawaneese Indians on Wakatomika 
Creek, at a point about five miles from its mouth. 
When this settlement was effected we have no reliable 
information, as the headquarters of this tribe was on 
the Ohio River, near the mouth of the Great Kanawha, 
and the Indians were probably attracted to this lo- 
cality by reason of the great droves of moose and elk 
that roamed these forests in that day and the grow- 
ing scarcity of game near the headquarters of the great 

The advent, however, of the Delaware Indians into 
the country in large numbers a little later, in their en- 
forced migration westward, seems to have checked an 
extensive immigration of that tribe. 

The two tribes, the one coming from the southeast, 
the other from the east, met at this point the Cherokees, 



i O i 





















cJ5 S 

•n t? u 


the Wyandots and other tribes from the north and west, 
and all dwelt together in a savage peace. 

When the Delawares arrived at the "Forks of the 
Muskingum," impressed with the abundance of game 
and fish and the fertility of the soil of the valleys, 
they stopped in their migration until finally forced 
westward by the advance of Christian civilization, as 
represented by the rum-selling, unscrupulous trader 
and the hardy frontiersman. 

That these Indians tilled the soil of these valleys, 
I am persuaded to believe, for when I was a very small 
boy, my grandfather, Samuel Hutchinson, himself an 
early settler in this valley, told me that when General 
Broadhead came into the valley in 1780 the field across 
the canal, just east of the Empire Mills, was in maize, 
planted and tilled by squaws. And by way of com- 
mentary on the fertility of the soil of these valleys, I 
may say it has produced a crop of corn or wheat 
practically every season since, unless prevented by 
high water. 

Numerous villages were established by the red man 
in the county, many of which we have no means of 
identifying, some uncertain as to name, and nearly 
all doubtful as to exact location. The exact location 
of the principal and largest village, Gosch-ach-gunk, 
(Coshocton), as shown in my Foreword, being in- 
volved in some uncertainty. All the writers, however, 
I think are right, in a measure, as to its location. The 
Indian was not given to crowding or building compact 
or orderly towns, so that I think it quite likely that 
they occupied both sides of the rivers and the forks 

White Woman's Village is variously located by the 
writers at three to seven miles above the Forks, near 
the mouth of Killbuck Creek. This discrepancy has 
lent some credit to the probably mythical legend of 
the White Woman's Rock. 

If this was the true location of White Woman's 
Village, I find no writer willing to give credence to 
the story of a white woman springing from that rock 
into the swollen waters of the river to preserve life 
or virtue. Certainly it was neither Mary Harris nor 
the New Comer. Accuracy of location or statement 
of exact distances was a matter of but little conse- 

quence in those days, so that exact locations of most 
of these villages must ever remain in the shadows of 

As much confusion is found in attempting to locate 
the other Munsey village up the Walhonding. It is 
said by some to have been located ten miles, and by 
some twice that distance above the Forks. This village 
was known by the two names of Tullihas and Captain 
Pipe's Town. The latter name was given to it be- 
cause after Chief White Eyes had driven Captain Pipe 
out of the village of Ko-gue-thog-ach-ton, near West 
Lafayette, he moved to Tullihas and there remained 
for some years, active always in his efforts to array 
the Delawares against the colonists. 

This town was probably located at the confluence 
of the Kokosing and Mohican. 

The name Tullihas, we are told, means in the Dela- 
ware tongue "Owl town." 

The only villages we know anything at all about 
were along the streams. Whether this is because the 
Indian built only upon or near the water, or whether 
the early expeditions, travelers, adventurers, traders 
or trappers followed the streams as the natural trail, 
we cannot tell. 

From all sources of information we learn that when 
the Anglo-Saxon first came into these valleys, he found 
the Indian happy, contented and prosperous, so far as 
his demands on life went, living in perfect accord for 
a hundred years with his French trading brother. 
True, he went on more or less frequent forays into 
Pennsylvania and Virginia, collecting scalps and de- 
stroying settlements, but these were but the instincts 
of nature's first law, self-preservation, working out 
through his savage nature. 

The finger of the Anglo-Saxon ever pointed west- 
ward for the Indian, and the word ever ready on his 
tongue was "Go!" William Penn had made his 
grandfather his faithful and devoted friend by buy- 
ing his land of him, for it was with this tribe that 
Penn had dealt, but those that cam.e after him seized 
the land and ordered the red man away. 

I have searched the records in vain to learn of a 
drop of French blood spilled by an Indian or an In- 
dian's life taken by a Frenchman prior to the advent 
of the Anglo-Saxon, and I am reminded that in Canada, 

where the Indian was introduced to Christian civili- 
zation by the French, that the same harmonious rela- 
tion has always obtained. The Frenchman, however, 
did not build towns or settlements; he did not seize 
the lands of the red man, though the country at that 
time was under the dominion and control of the 
French crown, nor did he seek to drive his red brother 
from the best hunting, fishing and trapping, but con- 
tented himself with an honest and mutually beneficial 
commerce. He was not a colonizer or settler, but a 
trader, so that we look to the Anglo-Saxon race for 
the first settlers in the county. 

In this we firid some little confusion again, but not 
so great as to render reconciliation impossible. 

Mr. Mitchener, at page 267, tells us that Colonel 
Charles Williams was the first settler in this county; 
that he came here in 1800 from the salt works on the 
Muskingum, having originally come there from Wash- 
ington County, Maryland, via Wheeling, where he had 
married Susannah Carpenter. On page 114, he tells 
us that the Reverends David Zeisberger and John 
Heckewelder, with eight families, had settled at 
Lichtenau (two and one-half miles below Coshocton), 
as early as 1776, and again, on page 37, he tells us 
that when Captain Christopher Gist came to Coshoc- 
ton in 1790, he found there Colonel George Crogan, 
Andrew Mantour, Barney Curran and Thomas Burney, 
the blacksmith, and that Burney was settled there. 

As Captain Gist, who came here in the interests of 
the Virginia Land Company, of which George Wash- 
ington was a member, was the first visitor to the coun- 
try who kept any record of his travels, we may safely 
say that until these four men are accounted for, we can- 
not definitely decide who was our first settler. Mr. 
Mitchener leaves these men with no further informa- 
tion as to who they were, where they came from, or 
what afterward became of them. 

Colonel Gist tells us, however, that Crogan and 
Mantour left with him. Curran and Burney therefore 
remained. I find Curran two years later as one of the 
escort of General Washington up the Allegheny River, 
but Burney is no more heard of in any of the annals 
of that period. He was the only one of these four 
men who had become a settler. Can there therefore 

be any doubt that this burly blacksmith was our first 
settler so far as written history furnishes any light'? 

With considerable pains I have collected sketches 
of the other three, which will appear in another part 
of this work. 

They were all interesting characters, living active, 
eventful and useful lives, and I think the reader will 
agree with me when he has finished reading the 
sketches above referred to, that they were all three at 
the Forks at that time in the interest of others higher 
in power than themselves, though they appeared on 
the surface to be but traders. 

Burney left no posterity surviving him, so far as I 
have been able to discover, but Colonel Williams left 
a family, and his descendants are still citizens of the 
county, notably Paul Johnston, the present chief of 
police of the city of Coshocton. 

We know Burney, as a settler, for less than a month, 
during the time Captain Gist was here. We hear no 
more of him. 

Certain it is that Colonel Bouquet, coming into 
the country later (1764), has nothing to say of any 
white settlers at the Forks or elsewhere in the county. 

This circumstance, however, may be accounted for 
by the fact that Colonel Bouquet, though a skillful 
and capable soldier of fortune, brave and self-reliant, 
was selfish and austere, caring little for others, and 
thoroughly devoted to his own ambitions. But Major 
Hutchins was of a different type, somewhat loquacious, 
and to his pen we are indebted for nearly all we know 
of that expedition. He also makes no mention of 
white residents at the Forks or elsewhere in the county. 
We quite naturally inquire what had become of 
Burney? Had he sought a home elsewhere or what 
effect on his life had the tomahawk or the stake had? 
We cannot tell. Certain it is that no mention is ever 
made of him after ly^O by Colonel Gist, not even by 
Colonel Broadhead, who led his famous but odious ex- 
pedition into this region in the summer of 1780. 

From the time that the Virginia Land Company sent 
Colonel Gist as its representative in 1750 into this 
country, claiming all this territory as its own under a 
grant from the British crown, and hence as a British 
possession, as against the claim of the French that it 
owed allegiance to the French crown, this country had 

been the scene of a constant struggle between the two 
nationalities of white men, in which the red man had 
been enlisted and was inextricably involved. Plied 
with liquor and lied to, he was incited first by one and 
then by the other to deeds of savage cruelty and blood- 
shed, for commercialism placed the same value on 
human life then as now. 

This struggle continued till 1795 (although 
France had ceded the territory to Great Britain in 
1758), when the French were finally ousted and the 
United States became the recognized sovereignty. 

Possibly it is fortunate for us that the historian has 
not painted in too vivid colors this awful forty-five 
years when the Frenchman and the Englishman were 
locked in an embrace of hatred, trying to determine 
who should enjoy the sacred privilege of robbing his 
red brother, and appealing at the same time to the 
savage nature of the red brother to drive his com- 
mercial adversary out of the country. How much it 
smacks of the commercialism of the present day! 

To understand the nature and character of this com- 
mercial tragedy between the Frank and the Anglo- 
Saxon, it will be necessary to glance into the general 
history of this period. 

The claims of the two European monarchs to the 
various portions of the western continent were based 
upon prior discovery by their subjects. 

As early as 1673, ^^^^ zealous French missionary, 
Pere Marquette, began explorations south from Mack- 
inac Island, passing down the Wisconsin River to its 
junction with the Mississippi, and thence to the junc- 
tion of this river with the Arkansas, claiming the ter- 
ritory for the French crown. In 1679 the famous M. 
de la Salle followed along a portion of this trail, and 
on Peoria Lake, now in Illinois, built a fort, thus tak- 
ing formal possession in the name of the French king. 

Later, after a visit to France, and having induced 
the French government to fit out an expedition, he 
started in 1683 to establish a post at the mouth of the 
Mississippi. This failed, owing to the murder of de la 
Salle by his own men. Shortly afterwards the plans 
of de la Salle to take formal possession of all this 
country in the name of the French crown, were carried 
out by M. D'Iberville, and forts were built in numer- 
ous places in the Mississippi valley, one of which was 

erected somewhere northwest of the Ohio River, but 
just where we are not informed. 

Certain it is that from the days of D'Iberville and 
Marquette the building of forts seems to have obsessed 
the French. In the years following, we are told, they 
built a line of them from Fort Duquesne (now Pitts- 
burg) , to the lakes, and some even south of Fort 
Duquesne along their frontier, the Ohio River. 

Long years before this, in 1609, the British monarch 
had made public his claim to the greater part of this 
territory by granting to the London Company all the 
territory along the Atlantic coast for two hundred miles 
north and south of Point Comfort, and "up into the 
land throughout from sea to sea, west and northwest." 
Later, in 1662, Charles II granted to certain settlers 
on the Connecticut River all the territory between the 
parallels of latitude which include the present state 
of Connecticut, from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and 
thirty years later Massachusetts received a similar 
grant between parallels of latitude which include that 
state. Later grants of this same territory were made 
by the British crown to other of its subjects, and con- 
fusion of claims was truly confounded. 

In this turmoil of claims of sovereignty and of pri- 
vate rights, poor "Lo's" rights were not considered. 
He was but a means to an end, and that end was money 
or its equivalent. 

Into this beautiful valley with every acre of its 
fertile soil in dispute, commercial rights to be gained 
and maintained by sheer force, no recognized authority 
to enforce order, no laws to protect personal or property 
rights, came the conscienceless, unscrupulous trader, 
the adventurer, the pioneer, the minister of the gospel, 
the Indian hater, and, above all, the Indian's worst 
enemy, "fire water." 

At the "Forks of the Muskingum," as I have said, 
dwelt the great Delaware tribe of Indians. Here stood 
their council house, and here was the center of the 
best hunting, fishing and trapping grounds then known 
on the continent. Here with their French cousins they 
traded in peace and lived in plenty, till the Briton put 
in his appearance, and warfare between him and his 
French brother began. The restless, migratory spirit 

of the Britisher was as active in that day as at any 
period of his life, and he began crowding upon and 
across the Ohio River at every ford and ferry. 

Long years ot close association with the Frenchman, 
fair dealing in trade, intermarriage with their sisters 
and daughters, had made the Frenchman their friend 
and neighbor, but the black bottle appealed to the 
savage nature of the red man's heart in a way and with 
a force inconceivable to our race. At first the sober 
Indian was always the Frenchman's friend; drunk, 
he was every man's enemy. He became demoralized 
by frequent use of it, until at last he lost all power 
of discernment between friend and foe. His savage 
nature answered to the call of the wild and he could 
be incited to any act of cruelty or horror if his craving 
for liquor was supplied. 

The Frenchman saw the futility of his efforts to 
stop the British immigration into this country, rich 
in furs and trade; he saw the friendship of the red 
man alienated by the Briton's barrel of rum, and he 
took up the Briton's weapon. The red man became 
the slave, the appointed assassin, the tool, the terror, 
in turn, of each. A crisis had arrived and it became 
necessary to send an expedition to the headquarters 
of the Delawares to awe them into submission, as the 
treaty of the year before at Sandusky did not include 
the Delawares. Colonel Henry Bouquet was chosen 
to head that expedition with Captain Thomas 
Hutchins second in command. 

A word about these two men before taking up that 
extraordinary expedition, for, probably, the success 
of the expedition depended more upon their person- 
ality than upon all else beside. Before General Grant 
fought the Campaign of Vicksburg and before Na- 
poleon went into Egypt, Colonel Bouquet illustrated 
the feasibility of an army carrying its base of supplies 
with it, insead of maintaining a connection therewith 
by numerous garrisons, which would have so depleted 
his forces as to have insured the failure of his under- 

Colonel Bouquet was born in Switzerland, though 
probably of French extraction, on the north shore of 
beautiful Lake Geneva, in the year 1719. That his 
tastes were military is evidenced by his enlistment as 
a cadet in the army of Holland at the age of 17. Sub- 

sequently he entered the Servian army as a lieutenant, 
and by his skill and daring, in Servia's struggle against 
the combined armies of France and Spain, he won pro- 
motion. The Prince of Orange, learning of his ability 
and courage, engaged him in the service of the Re- 
public, with the rank of Lieutenant Colonel, when he 
was but 29 years of age. In 1754 he joined the British 
army and was sent to America. From that time till 
his incursion into this country we know but little of 
him, opportunities for his activities seeming few. 
True, in 1758 he was a member of the Forbes' Expe- 
dition against Fort Duquesne, but in a subordinate 

His value as a commander, however, had been 
demonstrated at Bushy Run in Pennsylvania the year 
before coming here. The results of that campaign had 
stamped him as a man of military genius, courageous 
almost to daring, resourceful and self-reliant, but, 
above all, cautious and cool of head. 

So happily were all these characteristics blended in 
him that he was looked upon as a commander, espe- 
cially equipped and qualified for this hazardous and 
important mission. He was now forty-five years of 
age, slender in build and of medium height. 

Captain Thomas Hutchins was a man of admirable 
character and lived rather an eventful life. At the 
time of the expedition, of which he was so important 
a part, he was thirty-four years of age, but had then 
spent eighteen years in the British army. On the 
breaking out of the Revolution he sided with the colo- 
nists, though he was in England at the time. He was 
thrown into prison because of his loyalty to his native 
land, and his estate of about sixty thousand dollars 
confiscated. On his release he slipped across the chan- 
nel into France, whence he shipped for Charleston, S. 
C, and joined General Nathaniel Green's army and 
was commissioned Geographer-General of the army. 
He was the author of many books on geographical sub- 
jects, and while a commissioner of Pennsylvania he 
ran and established the line between that state and 
what is now Ohio. In 1786, as Geographer of the 
United States, he established and put into practice the 
plan of laying off the public domain by parallel lines 
instead of following the tortuous courses followed in 

the east. It is said that he first conceived this plan of 
survey while on this expedition. 

I shall deal with this expedition as with all other 
subjects, confining myself to local phases, leaving 
other matters to students having more time and space. 

Colonel Bouquet's command consisted of about five 
hundred regular troops, one thousand Pennsylvania 
militia, a corps of Virginia volunteers variously esti- 
mated at from two hundred to five hundred, and along 
with them were some camp followers of both sexes in 
search of missing relatives and friends, who it was 
hoped might be still alive. 

After many delays caused by non-arrival of troops, 
cunning inventions of some Delaware Indians visiting 
there at the time, and other causes, Colonel Bouquet 
set out from Fort Pitt, October 3rd, 1764, through a 
forest traversed part of the way by a narrow trail made 
by the moccasined foot of the Indian and the trapper, 
away from streams of water which might furnish con- 
venient means of transportation, driving before him 
cattle and sheep sufficient to subsist his army going and 
returning, entering a strange country, infested by a 
savage, cruel and cunning foe, momentarily expecting 
attack, night and day, rivers to cross, steeps to climb 
— a proceeding novel in that day and without prec- 
edent. But this self-reliant, courageous, resourceful 
but cautious man never hesitated in his purpose and 
returned to Fort Pitt with the loss of but a single man, 
he having been slain at Coshocton. 

We are told that the frosts of the early fall had 
painted the trees and bushes a splendor of colors so 
remarkable as to attract the attention and challenge 
the admiration of those rough soldiers and hardy 
pioneers. So charmed were they with it that the woods 
were made to resound with stirring song and merry 
laughter. This was not, however, a mob idling its 
way through the forest, but an organized, drilled 
and disciplined army, imbued with the serious 
importance of the sacred undertaking before 
them, and alive to its dangers, a resolute body 
of men determined to do or die. They knew of more 
than two hundred of their friends and neighbors, cap- 
tives in the hands of the crudest beings on earth, and 
they had pledged their lives to restore them to their 

sorrowing families and friends. To do this and return 
alive, they knew that no precaution for their safety 
dare be neglected. 

Two companies of axmen traveling parallel to the 
trail and on either side of it, cut paths; preceding them 
were the Virginia volunteers, who were themselves 
preceded by three scouting parties, one deployed in 
front and one on either side, while a scouting party 
guarded the axmen on either side. Following these 
came the regulars in the middle path in double file 
flanked by militia on either side, and behind them the 
reserve corps and the second battalion of Pennsylvania 
militia followed by the officers and pack horses. Fol- 
lowing this military organization came the cattle and 
sheep driven along the trail by light cavalry, while in 
the rear of all was the rear guard. This decorous dis- 
position of the forces was maintained throughout the 
journey. How the Indian heart must have quailed 
at its approach, for so formidable a command had never 
been seen in their country. Indeed for the first time 
was now the white man invading their country with a 
formidable force, and its significance must have been 

On Tuesday, October 23rd, the little army with all 
its camp equipage and followers crossed into Coshoc- 
ton County at a point on the line between Bucks 
Township, Tuscarawas County, and Crawford Town- 
ship, this county, and went into camp about seven miles 
from Coshocton near Chili. 

A good deal of confusion as to the location of this 
camp has occurred, growing out of the assumption by 
many writers that Colonel Bouquet followed the 
Moravian trail from Painted Post on a branch of 
Yellow Creek. At Painted Post Colonel Bouquet 
took the right hand or northern branch of the trail, 
the left one being the Moravian trail. This carried 
him to the Tuscarawas River at the point where Fort 
Laurens was afterward built on the Great Trail from 
Fort Pitt to Sandusky, to the Indian village, Tuscara- 
was. Here he left the trail and continued his march 
through the unbroken wilderness without trail or 
stream to guide him to Camp Fifteen at the point I 
have described at near Chili. Here they remained till 
Thursday, the 25th, when they moved on to a point 
about a mile above the Forks and built their last camp 


in their advance movement, having been on the way 
just twenty-two days. The length of time consumed 
on the trip is easily accounted for by the delay in the 
first stages awaiting the return of his envoys to San- 
dusky, the slowness with which his cattle must travel, 
time consumed in cutting the way through the for- 
est, delay in crossing streams and marshy grounds, 
necessity at times to rest cattle and men and the ex- 
treme caution necessary in invading an enemy's coun- 
try under such unusual circumstances. The time now 
consumed between these points by the usual course of 
travel is about three hours. 

Colonel Bouquet had now reached his goal, the heart 
of the Indian country. True, there were Indians to 
the west, north and south of him, but Colonel Brad- 
street the year before had eifected a treaty at San- 
dusky with the Wyandots, the Ottawas and other 
tribes to the north and west, and only the Delawares 
and Shawanees remained of the important tribes. The 
Shawanees dwelt mainly on the Ohio near the mouth 
of the Great Kanawha and on the Miami, a small 
village being situated on Wakatomika in this country. 

Formal negotiations for a treaty had been opened 
by the Indians with Colonel Bouquet at his Camp No. 
13, which was situated on the plains between the city 
of Canal Dover in Tuscarawas County and Bolivar, 
but, while he accepted some eighteen prisoners de- 
livered to him at this point by the two Delaware chiefs 
Beaver and Castaloga, and sticks representing eighty- 
three more held by the Wolf and Turkey, sub-tribes 
of Delawares, he refused to take any of the Indians 
by the hand and make peace with them till he had sat- 
isfactory terms with Kiyastrula, chief of the Senacas 
and Keiffiwantchtha, the Shawaneese chief, who were 
present at the conference voicing the desire of their 
respective tribes to join in a treaty with the com- 
mander. No treaty was entered into at this point and 
it was not until his conference at Camp No. 16 near 
the Forks that Colonel Bouquet accepted the proffered 
hand of his Indian friends, in token of friendship, and 
had received the balance of the two hundred and six 
prisoners there turned over to him that he closed his 
campaign and turned his face toward Fort Pitt. 

These were not all the prisoners held by these 
tribes, but the season was now far advanced, his pro- 

.■■■'•i,;i .'t^ ^ A ^v/j 

visions were running low and he knew the Indian 
character well enough to know that they could not 
be trusted. Impending danger appeals strongly to 
the savage heart. He accepted a small stick, repre- 
sentative of each captive held by each tribe, with the 
promise that in the spring following all would be 
brought to Fort Pitt. I may digress long enough to 
say that early the next spring this promise was ful- 
filled and my memory is that some two hundred and 
fifty more were restored to home and friends. 

I shall not undertake to describe the heart-melting 
scenes that followed the delivery of prisoners either 
at Coshocton that fall or at Fort Pitt in the spring. 
Such scenes are painful when pictured in maddening 
reality. The average imagination will readily repro- 
duce them with sufficient accuracy to the reader. 
Should you desire to know more of these harrowing 
details, I would refer you to Captain Hutchins' graphic 
description, where this human drama is enacted before 
your very eyes. 

The results of this expedition furnish fruitful proof 
of the havoc played over Western Pennsylvania and 
Virginia in the forays of the marauding, drunken 
Indians in the years preceding. 

Colonel Bouquet remained at the camp at the Forks 
till November i8th, twenty-four days in all. The 
return to Fort Pitt was accomplished in ten days, less 
than one-half the time required in the advance. The 
expedition covered a period of fifty-six days from the 
start to its completion. 

I have devoted so much space to the Bouquet expedi- 
tion because of its historic interest, importance of its 
results and its unique character. 

British supremacy no longer depended upon mere 
paper title, but was now established by conquest, and 
when our war for independence closed what had been 
Great Britain's was now ipso facto ours and no for- 
eigner stood between us and the Pacific Ocean. True, 
by the treaty of Utrecht, France had ceded all her 
domain to the west of us to Great Britain, but we could 
rest easier, now that we knew the fact of possession 
was accomplished. The importance of this accomplish- 
ment was to be seen a little later. The attitude of 
France at the close of our Revolution bears unmistak- 
able evidence that not only had she 3delded her pos- 

sessions to Great Britain reluctantly, but that by her 
kindly offices in that struggle she hoped, possibly ex- 
pected, to resume her sway over the broad Mississippi 
and on to the setting sun. 

From this period on, French influence with the In- 
dians declined and the Anglo-Saxon resumed his labors 
in what is now denominated the "benevolent assimi- 
lation" of the red man; the difference between which 
and annihilation is too fine for my mental grasp. 

After the Bouquet expedition the next voluntary 
visitation to this region by a white man, of which we 
have any reliable information, was that of the Rev- 
erends David Zeisberger and John Heckewelder in the 
early spring of the year 1776. These two Moravian 
missionaries, with eight families, numbering thirty- 
five persons (we are not informed of what race, but 
probably Indian), came from the Moravian missions 
in what is now Tuscarawas County, and located a mis- 
sion about two and a half miles below Coshocton on the 
banks of the Muskingum. 

They called the village Lich-te-neau, "the pasture 
of light." According to Doctor Hunt this was about 
opposite the Randies bridge on the lands now owned 
by Charles Huff and Abraham Foster. 

Mr. Mitchener tells us that this village, like those 
generally established by the Moravians, was laid out 
in the form of a cross with a chapel at the junction of 
the streets. Here it was, in April, 1776, that the 
first Christian sermon was preached in the county so 
far as we have any authentic account. We do know 
that twenty-six years before on Christmas Day, 1750, 
Captain Gist had read the Protestant Episcopal 
service at the Forks to the Indians and the few whites 
dwelling there at the time and, moreover, knowing the 
habit of the French Catholic clergy in that day as well 
as since, of ever keeping the sign of the cross in the 
van of advancing civilization, it is quite likely that 
the name of the Saviour had been heard there many 
times and long before, for the French had been in this 
locality then for a hundred years. 

Mr. Mitchener further tells us that this village was 
built on the site of the remains of the earth works of 
the ancient mound builders. If this be true, these re- 
mains have entirely disappeared. I am disposed to 
doubt this statement, as no other writer on the subject 


mentions this circumstance. He has quite evidently 
confounded this spot with the one further down where 
stands the mound so familiar to us all. 

I think Dr. Hunt much more reliable on this sub- 

Mr. Mitchener falls into another error at this point 
of his narrative in saying that among the first converts 
to Christianity at Lichteneau was Netawatwees. 
Netawatawees was at this time head chief of the Dela- 
ware tribe. He had formerly lived near Newcomers- 
town and had frequently visited Zeisberger at 
Gek-el-e-muk-pe-chunk at the mouth of Stillwater, had 
assisted Zeisberger in establishing his mission at Schoen- 
brun and had embraced Christianity under Zeisberger 
before the building of Lichteneau, either at Schoen- 
brun or possibly in Pennsylvania or Virginia, where he 
had known Zeisberger before the advent of the Mora- 
vians into Ohio territory. Certain it is that he was 
one of the earliest converts to Christianity among the 
Delaware chiefs. It was he who persuaded Zeisberger 
to come west of the Ohio River. 

The Lichteneau mission was short lived, for in 1779, 
three years after its establishment, it was abandoned, 
not for want of material on which to work, nor for 
failure of conversions, nor for lack of zeal in its mis- 
sionaries, but because the war then being waged be- 
tween Christian nations negatived every teaching of 
Christianity. Constantly were the emissaries of each 
arousing the savage nature of the Indian and inciting 
him to the commission of the most revolting crimes. 
All the good accomplished by these noble, self-sacri- 
ficing missionaries was dissipated. From their lips the 
Indian heard the blessed message, "Peace on earth, 
good will toward men" ; from every other quarter they 
were taught violence and bloodshed. With heavy 
hearts and bowed heads they returned to the old mis- 
sions where their lives would be safer. This was the 
first, and so far as I can learn, the last effort in this 
county by a Protestant denomination to establish the 
cross among the Indians. 

If there were any white settlers in this county at that 
time Zeisberger and Heckewelder fail to make note of 
them. It is, indeed, more than doubtful that there 
were any or that any came in for some years after. 
The Frenchman had lost influence with the Indian and 

in his place had come the Briton and the American. 
The hatred of these for each other had increased the 
supply of liquor and proportionately the savage cruelty 
of the red man. Heckewelder tells us in his journal 
that after the breaking out of hostilities between them, 
it became practically impossible for a white man to 
get into the Delaware country to trade, trap, preach 
or tor other purposes. The Delawares themselves, 
together with the Shawanees, were inclined to be 
friendly to the colonists, but the other tribes were with 
the British in sentiment. Every trail that led into 
the Delaware country was watched by both sides, and 
prisoners were an encumbrance. Hence, to enter the 
country meant death at the hands of an allied enemy. 
Emboldened by the infrequence of the white adven- 
turer into their territory, tribes friendly to the British 
were induced to make frequent incursions into Mr- 
ginia and Pennsylvania, where they perpetrated 
fiendish and revolting crimes and by artifice threw sus- 
picion upon the Delawares. 

An incident occurred about this time (1778), with- 
out some mention of which a history of Coshocton 
County would be sadly incomplete, and is usually 
spoken of as Heckewelder's ride. The war of the 
Revolution was on. From Detroit, the British, 
through the Delaware sub-chief Captain Pipe, the rene- 
gades Simon Girty, Alexander McKee and Matthew 
Elliott and some deserters from Fort Pitt, were bending 
every energy to induce the Delawares to join the 
Shawanees to the south, the Wyandots and other tribes 
to the north and west, in a united effort to attack the 
colonists in the rear while the British engaged them 
at the front. Three times during the preceding sum- 
mer and fall had the tomahawk been sent from the 
north, and each time had the eloquent tongue of Cap- 
tain Pipe rehearsed to his brethren the wrongs done 
them by the white man, reminding them that the burial 
grounds of their tribe where lay the sacred bones of 
their forefathers, were now the tilling lands of the 
white man ; that since the days of Penn the price paid 
for their lands had been the blood of their wives and 
children, and charging all upon the colonists. To 
meet this all the force of character and eloquence of the 
great White Eyes and Killbuck, aided by others, was 
required. Each time the tomahawk was refused, but 


each time with a lessened vote. The future certainly 
looked dark and foreboding. Should this scheme suc- 
ceed and this hostile alliance be effected, the colonial 
army thus taken in the rear by thousands of blood- 
thirsty savages, urged on to deeds of inhuman cruelty 
by scarcely less savage British influence, all that had 
been gained by the heroic little army in two years of 
a desperate struggle with a nation second to none in 
the world in military power and achievement would be 
lost in a day. Victory would have been snatched from 
their hand in the very hour of its achievement. 

The gaunt, half-starved and weakened soldiers had 
just staggered from that awful camp at Valley Forge. 
Shaking off the memory of its sufferings and privations, 
repairing its wasted energies from the first fruits of a 
new-born spring, its heart leaped once more at the 
thought of again following its beloved Washington 
to the final achievement of its heart's desire, inde- 
pendence of the British yoke. France had acknowl- 
edged our independence, but how much did that mean 
with Philadelphia in the hands of the British on the 
east of them and this horde of threatening savages to 
the west'? 

A general conference of the Indians was arranged 
for in the early spring at the Forks. A crisis had ar- 
rived. The Delawares, at that conference, were told 
by Captain Pipe, Girty, the British emissaries from 
Detroit and the representatives of the Wyandots, the 
Shawanees and the other tribes, that General Wash- 
ington had been slain, his army destroyed and the 
colonists without hope of success, that if they did not 
join this alliance they would be treated as a common 
enemy by the British and the other tribes of Indians. 
Some eight hundred warriors were assembled and the 
Delawares seemed confronted by their doom. 

The eloquent White Eyes, Netawatwees, Killbuck 
and others, true to their promises, still opposed the 
alliance, but at length seeing their efforts beaten down 
by this appeal to the fears of their people, they ob- 
tained a postponement of the decision for ten days 
till the truth might be learned. News of the crisis was 
sent to Fort Pitt, a hundred and twenty-five miles 
away. Ten days only were allowed for covering the 
two hundred and fifty miles and obtaining the neces- 
sary information. General Hand, the commandant. 

recognizing the gravity of the situation, promptly of- 
fered a liberal reward to any one who would go to 
Goschachgunk in the interest of peace. Heckewelder, 
the devoted missionary, taking an Indian convert, 
Schli-bosh, undertook the hazardous task. Traveling 
day and night without stopping, except to feed their 
horses, momentarily expecting attack by some one of 
the many marauding war parties, they reached 
Gnadenhutten on the eighth day of the armistice, with 
two days left of the ten accorded by the agreement to 
White Eyes. Here the Indian, Schlibosh, exhausted, 
refused to proceed further, but not so the devoted, 
determined Heckewelder. With difficulty able to re- 
tain his seat in the saddle, accompanied by his faithful 
Indian servant, John Martin, whom he found here, he 
pressed on and in the morning of the next day he 
reached Gosch-ach-gunk to meet the lowering faces of 
savages more determined than ever to join their British 
cousins and their supply of whiskey. Heckewelder 
was at this time thirty-live years of age, quiet, unas- 
suming and of a retiring disposition, but fully im- 
pressed with the importance of his mission. Loving 
both his white brother and his red cousin, all the 
fire of his nature was aroused. Rising in his stirrups, 
bare-headed, with face flushed, he waved in his hand 
the communication from General Hand. At first even 
White Eyes refused to take his hand, so successful 
had been the cunning inventions of the enemy. By 
force of his powerful personality, though physically 
exhausted, Heckewelder at length commanded atten- 
tion, then interest and finally conviction of the truth 
of his message that General Washington still lived, 
that in the season before he had defeated the British 
army under General Burgoyne, that he had led a sur- 
viving army of determined, though lean and hungry, 
men from their winter quarters ready to take the offen- 
sive, and that the colonists greeted them not as ene- 
mies but as brothers. The impending catastrophe 
was averted. The British envoys returned to Detroit. 
Captain Pipe slunk back up the river to Owltown. 
The Wyandots and other hostile tribes ceased their 
threats and hope was again restored. 

To me this is a scene of surpassing beauty. John 
Heckewelder, who had traveled four thousand miles, 
bringing the sign of the cross to a nation of savages. 



^IV \^ 

. w.w 

C<if,ii(.i-tiix & Mkati.vo ( II 

and by the quality of his teaching and example had won 
their confidence, arrives on the eve of a tremendous 
crisis, when the future of his adopted country seemed 
trembling in the balance; exhausted, travel-stained 
and anxious, he becomes unconsciously the central 
figure in an ever-memorable human drama that shapes 
the future of a nation and averts unutterable suffering. 

Much doubt as to the date of this ever-memorable 
ride has arisen, some writers fixing the date as late as 
the early winter. I am convinced, however, that Doc- 
tor Hunt, who relies upon the statement of Doctor 
Schweinitz, is more nearly correct. He fixes the date 
of the conference as the latter part of March and the 
end of the ten days as April 7th. 

Indians began their campaigns in the spring and 
could rarely be persuaded to take up the tomahawk in 
the late fall. Moreover, in the spring of this year 
gloom overspread this new-born nation deeper and 
more universal than ever before. The winter at Val- 
ley Forge had left but a single military asset, the un- 
conquerable courage of its army and its leader and the 
confidence of the people in both. Though the toma- 
hawk had been thrice refused in the summer and fall 
before, now seemed the psychological hour. By fall, 
indeed by midsummer, the battle of Monmouth had 
been fought and won and in the fall General Wash- 
ington had driven the British army under Lord Clinton 
out of Pennsylvania and had gone into camp at White 
Plains, New York. It would be too late to deceive the 
wily Indian, while in the early spring all circumstances 
seemed to point to the truth of their fabrications. 

By the spring of 1780, General Broadhead, the com- 
mandant of Fort Pitt, giving credence to the stories 
still told against the Delawares, was persuaded to be- 
lieve that they had forgotten their promises and had 
joined their brethren to the north in an alliance against 
the colonists. An expedition was fitted out from 
Wheeling, General Broadhead assuming command in 

General Broadhead was an experienced Indian 
fighter, of resolute character, prompt in action, cruel 
and of commanding presence. 

This expedition is known in history as the Coshocton 
Campaign. General Broadhead, with Colonel Shep- 
herd of Wheeling second in command, left Wheeling 

with about eight hundred regulars and militia. When 
they struck the Moravian country near Salem the mil- 
itia were with difficulty restrained from attacking these 
friendly Indians. The hatred ot the Indian had be- 
come so intense that an Indian was an Indian, whether 
friend or foe, and a dead Indian, if not a good one, 
was at least a safe one. 

Traveling with great speed, General Broadhead en- 
countered his hrst Delaware Indian on White Eyes 
plains, and him they took prisoner. Soon after two 
more, whom they were unable to apprehend, were ob- 
served and General Broadhead, knowing that they 
would give the alarm at Coshocton as quickly as their 
legs could carry them, ordered his men forward at 
double quick in the hope that he might reach the vil- 
lage ahead of the two Indians and by surprise capture 
this village. In this he was successful. The army ap- 
proached the village in three divisions, one striking it 
above, one below and the other in the center. Every 
inhabitant of the village, together with some ten or 
twelve braves from a village further up stream, were 
made prisoners without the firing of a gun. 

The campaign had been splendidly planned and ex- 

The river, being very much swollen by recent rains, 
rendered it impracticable to lead the army across, so 
that the villages on the other side and their inhabitants 
escaped being captured also. 

That there were villages on the west side of the river 
at this time is fully established by notes of the expedi- 
tion taken by Mr. Doddridge, and in a slight degree 
corroborates the opinion expressed by me that probably 
this was true as early as 1764, on the arrival of Colonel 
Bouquet and his command, for that was but sixteen 
years before. 

Note the striking contrast between the leaders of 
these two great expeditions into this country, though 
both were soldiers of high renown and each achieved 
complete success. 

Colonel Bouquet conducted an army through a hos- 
tile country to the very heart of a savage nation, ef- 
fected a lasting treaty which saved the lives and homes 
of many settlers in Pennsylvania and Virginia and 
Eastern Ohio in the years following, restored some tour 
or five hundred captives to home and family, accom- 

plished all that was desired without the shedding of a 
drop of blood. 

General Broadhead on the very night of his arrival 
in the home of a presumably friendly people, called a 
council of war and on the word of a single Indian con- 
demned to death sixteen Indians and had them toma- 
hawked and scalped. On the next day an Indian, 
calling to him from across the swollen waters for an 
interview, was guaranteed his safety should he come 
over for the conference. While the conference was be- 
ing held the very celebrated Indian lighter, Lewis 
Wetzel, who had come from Wheeling with General 
Broadhead, struck the Indian in the back of the head 
in the presence of General Broadhead with a toma- 
hawk he had concealed in his hunting shirt, killing him 
instantly, and Wetzel was not so much as reproved 
by his heartless commander. 

About noon of the day after his arrival at Coshocton 
and after burning the villages on the east side of the 
river, General Broadhead started on his return, carry- 
ing with him some twenty or more prisoners. Why he 
took prisoners we are left to speculate, as we are why 
he had committed murder and worse within the past 
twenty-tour hours. 

His prisoners General Broadhead placed in the cus- 
tody of his militia, the same men, who, he tells us, in- 
sisted on murdering the friendly Christian Moravians 
at Salem on the journey out and men of about the same 
humane impulses as Lewis Wetzel who had but a few 
hours before committed cold-blooded murder in his 
presence, and of which body of militia this same Wet- 
zel was a member. 

Before they had gone half a mile the militia began 
murdering the prisoners and near a spring on the east 
side of the Collier hill near Sixteenth Street the bal- 
ance, excepting a few women and children, were 
cruelly slain. My reason for fixing this as the true 
spot whereon that wanton massacre occurred will ap- 
pear in a copy of a letter in my possession written by 
Thomas H. Johnson of Pittsburg to the Honorable E. 
O. Randal, president of the Ohio Historical Society, 
September 14th, 1908, a copy of which Mr. Johnson 
very kindly sent me a few days later, and which with 
Mr. Johnson's consent will be found in another place 
in this volume. The few women and children who es- 

Ojsiioiros C 

caped the fiendish cruelty of the militia were carried to 
Fort Pitt and afterward exchanged for a like number 
of white prisoners. 

Can the imagination conjure up a scene more cow- 
ardly, dastardly or inhuman? Little wonder that we 
blush when we remember that such scenes as this were 
enacted time after time in our dealing with the red 
man from almost our earliest contact with him. 

After the scene above described is there much won- 
der that it was twenty years before a white man came 
into this region to settle? And doubtful it is if any 
would have ventured then had it not been that this 
cruel, heartless, blood-thirsty scene convinced the red 
man that he could not live near his white brother, and 
their emigration toward the setting sun again began. 
They did not await the coming of the settler; they 
began at once, and when a new century was ushered 
in but a remnant of that once powerful race remained 
in little scattered groups, hardly remembering their sub- 
tribal names. 

We scoff at the "noble red man." Possibly we are 
right, but we do not know. As he is now he certainly 
is not noble, but who and what made him what he is? 
The dominant race in a country where different races 
commingle ever has been, and ever will be, held re- 
sponsible for the results of the subordinate race and 
why should it not? It fixes the environment and sets 
the example. Before we condemn this race wholly 
and as a race, let us read his character as written by 
those who knew him before he was affected by our 
boasted Christian civilization, when his thirst was ap- 
peased at the bubbling spring, when he killed to sat- 
isfy his hunger only, when he invited his white brother 
to occupy his lands in common with him, enjoying to- 
gether the chase and its fruits, before he had been 
taught that a lie was preferable to financial loss, that 
a treaty of peace was not for mutual benefit, but was 
to enable the stronger and wiser and more cunning to 
triumph over the weaker and more trusting. It is too 
late to m.ake recompense to him, but we may still do 
justice to his memory by placing the blame where in 
justice and humanity it belongs. 

We know of one somewhat famous character who 
came into the county before the new century. I refer 
to the white woman, Marv Harris, the wife of sub-chief 

Coshocton Daily Age. 

Eagle Feather. Mr. Gist describes her as being up- 
wards of htty years of age when he met her in January, 
1751, and says that in his talk with her he learned that 
she had been with the Indians since she was about ten 
years old. Where she came from or by whom she was 
captured we are unable to learn, and indeed so much 
ot her career is legendary that I shall speak of her in 
that branch of this work. She was brought into the 
country a captive and I am now about to interest my- 
self with settlers, not with captives, tor we have about 
reached the period when settlement began in earnest. 

That the blacksmith Burney, spoken of by Mr. Gist, 
strictly speaking, must be considered and is entitled to 
be known as our first authentic settler, there can be lit- 
tle doubt, yet the public, I opine, will continue to look 
upon Colonel Charles Williams, sometimes called King 
Charley, as our real first settler, and I am not surprised 
that they should. The name Burney means nothing 
to us; no one ever saw him save Captain Gist and he 
does not devote a half dozen lines to him in his journal. 
The personality of Colonel Williams touched and in- 
fluenced everything in this valley. His was the domi- 
nant spirit. Friends depended on him, enemies feared 
him. A man of robust, powerful physique, bubbling 
over with health and nervous energy, rough and un- 
couth of speech, ready and willing to fight anybody 
anywhere, cunning, resourceful, self-reliant and self- 
assertive, a pioneer in every sense of the word. 

As I have said, he came by water from Wheeling 
via the Ohio and Muskingum Rivers at least as early 
as the year 1798 and settled in this county first at 
the village of the White Woman. I realize that in 
making the statement that Colonel Williams came 
into this county before the year 1800 I am in conflict 
with both Mr. Mitchener and the Reverend Dr. 
Hunt, who agree that he came in the latter year, but 
neither of these gentlemen had seen a copy of Colonel 
Williams' autobiography.^ I am indebted to James 
R. Johnson of this city for a copy of it, and in it 
Colonel Williams says that he moved from the salt 
wells on the Muskingum to White Woman ^'illage, 
that sometime thereafter the Indians in a foray from 

^ Since this was written Dr. Hunt has informed nie he liad seen 
Col. Williams' antobiography bnt he was not imjjressed witii its re- 
liability on this point as I was. 

Lower Sandusky stole his best clothes and his horse, 
. together with the horses of some others, that soon after 
the Indians stole several more horses and then he and 
two Indians started in pursuit, followed the Indians 
to Lower Sandusky, where they got the horses, eight 
or nine in number, and brought them back. After this 
he says he began having ague, which lasted for nine 
months, and then he moved to Coshocton where "I 
have lived thirty-two years." The autobiography 
was written in the winter of 1830 and 1831, so that 
he must have moved to Coshocton as early as 1799 
and lived for a year at least at White Woman Village, 
before that. Hence, I conclude he must have ar- 
rived in this county not later than 1798. 

If there were other white settlers either at White 
Woman or at Coshocton when Colonel Williams 
arrived, he fails to make any mention of them. He 
does not say specifically that there were none, but 
I am inclined to the belief that there were none, for 
in his earlier pilgrimages he takes much pains to men- 
tion white men whom he met and gives their names. 

This was not the hrst trip Colonel Williams had 
made into this valley, however. He tells us of two 
trips, one alone and one with his brother-in-law. 
Carpenter, some time about the year 1793 or 1794, as 
near as I can figure it, to Newcomerstown, trading 
with the Indians. In these commercial transactions 
whiskey, largely diluted with water, was his chief 
merchandise. On the second trip they found a man 
named Robert Higgins at Newcomerstown who was 
anxious to get married. They found "an old woman" 
willing to marry him and he and Carpenter then 
opened up the first matrimonial bureau in the valley 
of which I have any authentic data, for they con- 
ducted negotiations and attended to the details of the 
wedding, finally wrapping up the newly made bride 
and groom in a bear skin and putting them to bed. 
Whether this woman was red or white the colonel does 
not tell us. 

The restless, migratory nature of this extraordinary 
man is shown by his wanderings over Western Yiv- 
ginia. Eastern Ohio, down the Ohio River to Marietta, 
then with surveying parties into the interior of the 
wild country, back and forth to his home. In the 
fall and early winter of 1792 he is at Fort Miami, near 

tela! ottsas}} 

Cincinnati, with General Anthony Wayne; later in the 
dead of that winter he is poling a sick man, one 
William McDaniel, up the Ohio from Marietta nearly 
three hundred miles, then back to the Muskingum at 
Marietta, and up the Muskingum as far as the salt 
wells, thence to White Woman, back to Coshocton, up 
to Sandusky, looking for stolen horses, driving cattle 
and sheep across the mountains to Pittsburg, and when 
the war of i8i2 breaks out he joins General Harrison 
and crossing the lake in a row boat, he arrives at De- 

I have devoted so much space to Colonel Williams 
for a variety of reasons. As a typical frontiersman, 
restless, energetic, yet ambitious to accumulate 
worldly goods, he furnishes a splendid example; the 
influence of such men on their surroundings, the last- 
ing character of that influence being recognized the 
world over. It was to the sturdy, unyielding nature, 
physical prowess, cunning sagacity of this man more 
than all else that white men were induced to take ad- 
vantage of the fertile soil, the boundless game, hshing 
and trapping advantages that awaited them in these 
valleys. Rough and domineering though he was, yet 
the settler moving into the country soon recognized in 
him a strong sense of crude justice and a familiarity 
with the Indian character that meant protection to 
family and property. 

Until this period the white settler had avoided this 
spot as if accursed, though every soldier or traveler 
who had visited it had returned to the east with stories 
of its extraordinary advantages. In every settlement 
it was regarded as one of the favored spots of the conti- 
nent, but their admiration and zeal to possess it was 
more than offset by knowledge of the forbidding sur- 
roundings. Who could hope to live in a place so long 
known as the headquarters of so formidable a foe as 
the Delawares'? 

Colonel Williams came; he not onh^ lived in it a 
year, but during that year he followed Indian horse 
thieves to Lower Sandusky on foot, entered a war 
dance in which between three hundred and four hun- 
dred armed and painted braves were engaged, de- 
manded the horses, threatened them with dire punish- 
ment if the horses were not immediately delivered up, 
obtained the horses, delivered a lecture to them on 

I'llDMPiiix. M( KkhWN & (_'l).. 1)UV (iOODS. 

horse stealing and its punishments and returned to his 
home with his own and seven others belonging to other 
people, and this, he tells us, was the last horse stealing 
indulged in by the Indians in this county. The In- 
dians recognized a master spirit and so did their white 

In the year following his removal to Coshocton from 
White Woman's Village the stream of immigration set 

On March 20th, 1800, John Adams as president of 
the United States issued a land patent to Elijah 
Backus for thirty-one hundred and thiry-eight and 
eight-tenth acres of land covering the present site of 
the city of Coshocton. In the spring following the 
town of Tuscarawas, stretching as I remember from the 
river to Fifth Street, was laid out. In 181 1 the name 
was changed to Coshocton. 

In the spring of 1800 many settlers put in appear- 
ance in different parts of the country. Ebenezer Buck- 
ingham, a Connecticut Yankee with a large family, in- 
cluding two sons-in-law and their families, arrived 
early in the spring, coming from Cooperstown, New 
York, having started on their journey on Christmas 
Day, 1799, overland to Pittsburg, and the balance of 
the way by water. In this same year came the Car- 
penters, brothers-in-law of Colonel Williams, the 
Morrisons, William and Samuel, Isaac Evans, who 
settled in Oxford Township and gave the name to the 
village of Evansburg, and many others. So rapid, in- 
deed, was this influx of people that by April 1 st of the 
year 1811 the legislature deemed it wise to form a new 
county with Tuscarawas village as the county seat. 
The name of which village was in the same year 
changed to Coshocton as I have already said. 

War with Great Britain was again impending. 
Nursing her chagrin and refusing to be comforted. 
Great Britain sought to renew the conflict and seized 
upon the subterfuge of searching our vessels on the 
high seas for deserters from her own. 

A call to arms followed. That call was heard at the 
Forks. In the years that had preceded the martial 
spirit of the early settlers had been active and com- 
panies of militia had been formed in different parts of 
the county. These were voluntary organizations, with 
no express authority from the state, and were viewed 

Coshocton Natio.nai. I1a> 

Inikriok Comioc. ion Xatio.nal Kank. 

in two aspects, the first and more prominent being that 
of a general frolic and secondarily protection. 

In the eastern part of the county Isaac Evans had 
early organized a company and so well were they 
drilled and trained that at the first call to arms they 
were ordered to a point near Columbus, mustered into 
the service, provided with uniforms and United States 
muskets and later j-oined General Harrison who had 
succeeded to the command of the northwest following 
the surrender of General Hull. 

This company remained with General Harrison's 
command until the following spring, taking an active 
part in all its operations. 

In the northwest part of the county Captain Isaac 
Meredith had organized a company, while in the 
southern part Captain Tanner had organized another. 

At Coshocton Captain William Beard and Captain 
Adam Johnson had each organized a company. These 
troops were provided with no uniforms and each man 
provided his own firearm. 

After the departure of Captain Evans with his com- 
pany word was received at Coshocton that General 
Winchester, who was in command of the American 
troops guarding the Michigan frontier like General 
Hull, had met with crushing defeat and that the In- 
dians, instigated by the British, had fallen upon the 
settlers in Northern Ohio and had destroyed everything 
before them as far south as Mansfield. 

The Coshocton County troops, Colonel Charles 
Williams in command, were hurriedly marched to 
Mansfield. Colonel Williams it will be remembered, 
had been there before when on his way, in 1 798, to San- 
dusky in pursuit of Indian horse thieves. It may 
readily be imagined that his name had not been entirely 
forgotten in the lapse of time, for in a month the pur- 
pose of their presence there had been accomplished and 
they were returned home. 

At another place in this work will be found the 
muster rolls of Captain Beard's and Captain Johnson's 
companies, they being the only ones extant, the roll of 
Captain Beard's Company, for which I acknowledge 
obligations to James R. Johnson, never having been 
printed before. 

This seems to comprise the services rendered by 

Coshocton County's sons in this war of 1812, so far as 
we have any definite, reliable information. 

I have sought, with rather discouraging success, to 
learn the number of men at this period and earlier be- 
longing to these various military organizations for a 
variety of reasons. First of all, it would enable us 
to approximate within reasonable bounds the number 
of inhabitants of the county at the time. Until the 
close of the preceding century I have been able to say 
with full assurance that the tide of immigration had 
not yet set in, and by reference to the circumstances of 
the establishment by Mr. Backus, of the town of Tus- 
carawas at the Forks in 1.802, the formation of the new 
county of Coshocton by the legislature in 1811, the 
organization of these military companies in all parts 
of the county prior to 1812 and their readiness for 
service in the following year, that the tide had by this 
time reached the flood. Modes and means of travel 
were limited; the boomer, the speculator of modern 
times was unknown, so that the immigrant came with 
the purpose of establishing a home and adding to the 
material development of the country and not to specu- 
late with a view to moving on when he had cleared a 
profit on his investment, as does his modern imitator. 

Our race, our civilization, in this short period, had 
supplanted the redman's, but it must not be forgotten 
that the best exponents of race or civilization are rarely 
found among the pioneers. He may bring dauntless 
courage, a rude but wholesome honesty, a crude but 
human sympathy, generosity, wisdom and the many 
essentials or adornments of character, but usually the 
finer, more ethical and spiritual elements are sadly 
wanting, and Coshocton County pioneers were not ex- 
ceptions to this rule. 

The itinerant protestant preacher, as is usual, was 
found making his visitations in the private homes, 
holding services in the cabins and public houses and 
in the summers and falls in the wood, but among a 
community of hardy pioneers struggling to establish 
agriculture to the point of producing sufficient to insure 
against the grip of hunger in the long winters, conduct- 
ing their commerce by barter and trade by reason of 
the scarcity of currency, and with facilities for supply- 
ing their wants for things which they did not produce 
themselves limited to the water courses and the wagon 

iJ. Worth Rtcketts. 

trails across the mountains, the building ot church 
buildings, thereby establishing the gospel in the com- 
munity, which was to bring the softening and refining 
influences ot a true civilization to these people, was a 
slow and very laborious process. 

The minister ot that day must be a man of versa- 
tility. He must own a horse or be capable of travel- 
ing on foot many weary miles through all kinds of 
weather, sufficiently adaptable to be willing to take 
"pot luck" at the table and sleep with the children or 
the hired hand; when he found his meeting invaded 
by a crowd of young roughs, drunk and bent on dis- 
persing his congregation, he must be able to either dis- 
courage them by a powerful appeal to their better 
nature or to lick the ring-leaders; but above all and 
over all, to achieve success in his calling he must be 
able to paint the tortures of the damned in colors so 
litelike that the smell of brimstone would last in their 
nostrils until his next visit. 

Generally these men, if not logicians and profound 
students, were possessed of splendid physiques, great 
lung capacity, vivid imaginations and a picturesque 
vocabulary. Their plan of salvation was largely emo- 
tional and full of dynamic power. A camp or brush 
meeting was an event. People came many miles, on 
horseback, in wagons and on foot, carrying provisions 
to last many days. The woods resounded with their 
songs and shouts of praise. After a week or more of 
this kind of devotion they returned home physically 
exhausted, but with spiritual strength renewed. It 
was not always that the man who seemed to get the 
largest share of this kind of inspiration that retained 
it best. Inoculation was not always accomplished with 
the loudest and most demonstrative. The dynamic 
force often exploded in these people and they were 
ready at the next meeting of the kind to absorb another 

At this day and date we are inclined to look back 
upon these scenes with slight approval, but remember- 
ing the boundless good accomplished in Europe by that 
austere man of God, John Calvin, with a plan of sal- 
vation the very antithesis of the emotional, and real- 
izing the absolute necessity for such a man and such 
a theology at that time among those people, we are 
moved to exclaim in the language of the old hymn. 


^r., Coshocton. 

CosirorTON Provision Co 

"God moves in a mysterious way His wonders to per- 
form." The difference in the times and the people 
required different treatment of the subject. Both 
plans have served their purpose. 

The beneficial that was in Calvin's is preserved to 
us, that which is at war with our ideas of a true democ- 
racy and the universal love of God have become but 
ecclesiastical history. But little of the emotional is 
left in our church service. A base imitation is at times 
served to us by some mountebank, who, for a consid- 
eration, enormously disproportioned to his intellectual 
attainments, but in just proportion to his vituperative 
language and reckless disregard of truth, imposes upon 
us a week or two of his worse than valueless time. 
This, however ,is not emotional religion. It is a prosti- 
tution of the name of Him who came to earth to call 
sinners to repentance and bear the glad tidings of the 
Father's love for all his children. 

In the early years of the nineteenth century, in spite 
of all discouraging surroundings, these devoted min- 
isters succeeded in forming little congregations or so- 
cieties all over the county, and finally in i8l l a church 
of the Methodist Episcopal denomination was erected 
in Washington Township and known as Chalfants. 
Built of logs, I understand it is still standing. Another 
building at another location has since been built, but 
the same church organization is in existence to-day. 

In another place I shall treat the subject of church 
extension more at length. What I have said I hope 
may furnish some idea of the early struggle of those 
splendid characters doing the Master's work. 

During all these years the settlers found plenty for 
busy hands to do. Forests of giant trees were to be 
cleared for farming, temporary houses were to be made 
permanent, permanent homes to be built. Roads were 
to be established and built connecting the various set- 
tlements. Roads to the outside world for the purposes 
of trade were needed. 

When a clearing was to be made, a road to be cut 
through the forest, or a house to be raised, all the able- 
bodied men in the neighborhood assembled, bringing 
wives and daughters. Contests in the work were in- 
augurated. Feats of skill, strength and daring were 
indulged in in friendly contests, resulting occasionally 
in loss of temper at the chagrin of defeat followed by 

rilur,. CoLorv, Ll'mbki 



a fight or two, but even these were more than half 
friendly, for it was but another way of expressing con- 
fidence in individual prowess. 

In the evening a dance or frolic followed. Such 
assemblies constituted the principal social intercourse 
of the day. At such, many a husky young frontiers- 
man met for the first time the apple of his eye, and 
after spending most of the evening in the dance or 
frolic he hoisted her to his horse behind him and accom- 
panied her to her home, where he spent the remainder 
of the evening in the rude courtship of the times. 

Modes and means of entertainment were limited. 
The general muster which was inaugurated about 
this time was another great event in the lives of these 
people of simple tastes. 

On general muster day Colonel Williams or one of 
his successors would appear on the scene, mounted on 
the showiest steed in the county, wearing a three 
cocked hat surmounted by an enormous cockade of 
feathers, shining brass epaulets of heroic size on his 
shoulders, a broad sash from shoulder to waist, and a 
sword at his side that required the full length of his 
arm to draw. Line officers on foot decked in showy 
raiment and the rank and file, armed with as many dif- 
ferent kind of arms as there were men in line and each 
dressed to suit his own taste. During the drill hours, 
lined up on either side, were the wives, daughters and 
sweethearts of the militia men, giving expression to 
their admiration and excitement by sly glances and 
much tittering and simpering. When the drill was 
ended a few visits to the whiskey barrel and then real 
war began. Old grudges were warmed over, new ones 
created, and few men returned home unaccommodated 
if he really wanted to fight. Bloody noses, black eyes, 
and so forth, had disappeared, however, by next gen- 
eral muster day and the scene was again enacted. 

The husking bee, where the corn of the neighbor was 
"husked out" by the neighborhood, brought together 
the belles and beaus for a frolic. The finder of each 
red ear of corn was privileged to kiss the girl of his 
choice, and I am told that no young man ever thought of 
going to one of these functions without having at least 
one red ear concealed on his person, and some of them 
many more. Indeed, at times a single red ear was made 
to serve its purpose at every husking bee in a neighbor- 

hood. Taffy pullings, quilting bees, log-rollings, 
wood choppings, and every other subterfuge was re- 
sorted to to bring the people together, and in this way 
was the dull life on the frontier made merry and life 
worth living. They worked hard and they need must 
play hard. 

The thrift and rigid economy of these enterprising 
people had soon accumulated more cattle and other 
live stock than would supply the home demand. 
Colonel Williams and others gathered up the surplus 
and soon opened a market at Pittsburg, driving herds 
of cattle, flocks of turkeys and droves of other domestic 
animals across the mountains, bringing back the pro- 
ceeds on their persons, thus exposing themselves to at- 
tack by footpads, who began to put in an appearance 
as soon as this traffic was established. Few of them 
were robbed, however, as they rarely traveled singly, 
and to attack a party of these resolute, self-reliant men 
required a degree of reckless daring, rare even in those 
rough days. 

At first the settler was compelled to depend largely 
on game with which the forests abounded and fish with 
which the rivers teemed, but when a crop had been 
raised, corn, potatoes, wheat and other cereals and veg- 
etables were added to his food supply. While the 
corn was in the roasting ear he enjoyed the succulent 
morsel from the cob, but when fall came he followed 
the plan which his race had learned from the red man 
of macerating it in the hollow of a stone or stump 
rudely fashioned for that purpose. Some time after 
the hand mill made its appearance and then his wants 
were readily supplied. 

When crushed by either of these methods the finer 
particles were baked into cakes, while the coarser were 
used as hominy. By 1811 Jacob Waggoner and 
Thomas Johnson had built quite a mill (a four burr 
affair) on Wills Creek in Linton Township, which I 
am informed was the first regular mill established in 
the county. Others, however, were soon after built in 
various parts of the county. 

Salt to preserve meat and hides, as well as to season 
vegetables and other articles of diet, was from the first 
of great concern. Salt parties were organized twice 
a year. Taking a rude, flat-bottomed boat or raft with 
provisions to last a week or longer, they "poled" the 

Mitchell & Co., (Iknkral Mkki handise. 

cratt down the river to the salt wells in Muskingum 
County, where they were permitted to evaporate the 
salt on the shares — dividing equally with the owner 
of the wells. On the return the proceeds were divided, 
each man taking a share and each boy a half share. 
Any surplus the individual might have, alter supplying 
his own needs, he could readily dispose ot to families 
not represented in the party. This plan was depended 
on tor many years. George F. Cassingham, father ot 
former Congressman John W. Cassingham, told me 
many years ago that when a boy he had made the trip 
several times, receiving his half share on the return. 

Until about the year 1808 the settlers depended 
largely upon the crude Indian plan of curing hides 
for making their foot wear. Quite probably some 
leather and possibly some tinished stock had been 
brought over the mountains before this, but the reliable 
supply was the home made product. 

About this time Andrew Lybarger, grandfather of 
General E. L. Lybarger, started a tannery at Coshoc- 
ton, which under various changes of ownership con- 
tinued to run until recent years. This was the first 
tannery established in the county. In the years imme- 
diately following the Carharts started a tannery at 
Roscoe, Thomas Johnson one at Plainfield, George 
Wolf at Keene and numerous others followed. 

At first clothing was made largely either of the skins 
of fur-bearing animals or of cloth spun and woven at 
home. Like leather and shoes, probably some came 
across the mountains but the chief supply was home- 

A carding mill was started at a very early date at 
Plainfield, but when, by whom, how successful or how 
long it tiourished, I am unable to learn. 

These simple facts are sufficient to assure us that the 
early settlers were soon supplied with many of the 
necessities and some of the, to them, luxuries of life. 

I have said that the establishment and opening of 
roads early engaged the attention of the settlers. 
They had entered the county either by way of the river, 
by the trail made by Colonel Bouquet, or by the old 
Moravian trail, which had been followed by General 

Before the establishment of the county the road from 
Marietta via Coshocton to Cleveland had been made. 

R. X. Kirk. General ("iintra< H'Ii. 

liii: A. II. Thomson lV Son Warkiiouse. 


»» ll ■» 1 ll . Irw ii l ir » ii| » : 

'I in. IIkima.n Heating anij I'li-mhinc Co. 

By 1812 the legislature had provided for the state road 
from Coshocton to Cadiz and Cambridge. In the years 
following and ever since, indeed, Coshocton County has 
been pretty busily engaged laying out and establishing 
public highways. 

Public ferries were also designated and established 
at a very early day, notably at Coshocton, below New- 
comerstown and near Plainheld. I cannot leave the 
subject of the early struggle for comfort, convenience 
and wealth of the citizens of that day without some 
reference to the exalted importance entertained by 
them of the Muskingum River. That it was a navi- 
gable stream as far as Coshocton they entertained no 
doubt, notwithstanding many of them had ascended it 
for a long distance on their way hither. 

Mr. Backus in dedicating the town plat of Tuscara- 
was had taken infinite pains to reserve to lot owners 
along the river front the right to build dockage, etc., 
though he dedicated the land in the rear of the same lots 
for a public common. 

This conviction of its navigability was entertained 
for a great many years, during which time quite a traffic 
with shallow boats had been established and the depth 
of the river learned, but so tenacious were they of this 
conviction that they were loath to relinquish the ridicu- 
lous idea. 

I have been endeavoring to picture in a concrete form 
the conditions, surroundings, mental processes, activi- 
ties and development of the people who dwelt here 
during the period I have covered. 

If I have shown an almost ideal social democracy, 
with all the elements of society which inspire in one 
direction and retard in another the onward niarch of 
Christian civilization, the heroic struggle of a people 
to conquer the elements of nature which stood in the 
pathway to prosperity, with no aid from the outside, 
simple in their wants, childish in their tastes and 
amusements, frugal and industrious, living almost en- 
tirely to themselves without inspiration from the out- 
side world, I shall not confess to entire failure. 

Until 1820 provisions for the education of their 
children had scarcely claimed the attention of the 
settlers, so busy had they been with the material affairs 
of life. Having been denied more than a mere smatter- 
ing of learning themselves, they had not been quick to 

^KN i.i.i I. Lii;kak\ 

J'akk \'n \v I'.im.iaku anu Smmkim, I'aki 

recognize the importance of education. Many young 
men and probably young women, thirsting for educa- 
tion, had made noble individual effort, but books and 
teachers were scarce and the state up to this time had 
made but little intelligent, effective effort in the as- 
sumption of its duty of general education. The gen- 
eral government as early as 1803 had granted the one 
thirty-sixth part of all its military lands for educational 
purposes, but a silly effort by the state to play landlord 
and rent those lands had rendered the grant useless. 
The organization of schools and school-districts, even 
after 1820, was slow and unsystematic, but this fact 
must not be charged to the want of appreciation of the 
necessity and advantages of education in the people 
alone. Until 1827 the state continued to hold its 
school lands for rental, getting practically no income 
from them. The people were poor and easily fright- 
ened at the prospective expense. Moreover, the legis- 
lature early began the enactment of the stupid legisla- 
tion on school matters which they have so persistently 
followed ever since. The experience of nearly a cen- 
tury has taught them little or nothing on the subject. 
At the present day our school laws cannot by any 
stretch of the imagination be regarded as a system. 
Having their inception in ignorance of the necessities 
of the people, they have since been patched and supple- 
mented as suited the selfish desires of those in power. 

In another place I shall devote more time to the 
details of the establishment of our schools and the 
representative teachers from time to time engaged. 

To return to the material development of the county. 
The rush into the state of Ohio after its evacuation by 
the Indians had begun, can hardly be appreciated at 
this day when we consider the primitive means of 
travel. Sometime before the year 1825 the people 
throughout the state had become impressed with the 
truth that mere ability to produce with no markets in 
which to dispose of the surplus products and transpor- 
tation facilities so primitive as to consume the profits of 
production, could not mean wealth or development. 
The wagon roads, the trails and the rivers would no 
longer meet their requirements. 

As an indication of the condition of the local 
markets at that time, permit me to quote a very few 
prices. Cured hams sold at three cents a pound, eggs 

Till: Ghav ITakhwake Co. 

four cents a dozen, flour one dollar a hundred pounds, 
whiskey twelve and one-half cents a gallon. These 
figures are taken from the writings left by William 
Wing who recently died at Columbus, Ohio, and are 

The Ohio Canal from Cleveland to Portsmouth was 
proposed. It was an enterprise of colossal magnitude 
for that time, but the new state was blessed with men 
of financial as well as physical courage. The state de- 
cided to undertake it, and on the fourth of July, 
1825, at Licking Summit in Licking County the first 
shovelful of earth was taken in this great work. Fur- 
ther adding to the above quotations of prices, I may 
say that the workmen received eight dollars for each 
full month's work, or thirty and three-fourths cents 
per day with boarding and lodging and four "jiggers" 
of whiskey per day. At the end of three or four 
months, however, the "jiggers" were withdrawn, as 
they were interfering with the progress of the work. 

On the 21st day of August, 1830, the first boat en- 
tered the county via the canal. It was the Monti- 
cello from Cleveland. She tied up at the foot of Bou- 
quet hill where she remained several days creating much 
excitement and drawing a multitude of wild-eyed vis- 

As soon as the canal was finished as far south as 
Dresden, boats began carrying freight and passengers 
north. Wheat immediately rose to seventy-five cents 
a bushel and other products in proportion. Towns 
already on the line of the canal began to assume a 
new importance and new ones to spring up. They be- 
came at once the centers of trade. Whatever was to 
be sold abroad must come to them for shipment. 
Soon it was learned that it would pay better to ship 
flour, meal and other mill products than to ship the 
grain. Mills were accordingly built along the line, 
operated by water drawn from the canal. Towns in 
the vicinity of the canal but not near enough to receive 
its advantages, saw their trade diverted and new com- 
petition built up. 

In competition with this new water course the 
natural water courses with their irregular currents, 
shallows and unstable supply of water lost their im- 


Lynlie & GossHR, Clothiers. 

' .^[■i^S'i^^''' 


Cleveland, always a good market, Cincinnati and 
other growing cities were now accessible by the best 
artery of trade in the whole western country. 

This was no longer an exclusively agricultural com- 
munity. Commerce had established itself among us. 
Evansburg, Canal Lewisville and Roscoe were im- 
portant shipping and receiving ports. As Roscoe took 
on airs of importance Coshocton's star began to wane. 

Six years later, 1836, the canal was begun from 
Roscoe up the fertile valley of the beautiful Walhond- 
ing. On its completion in 1842 Warsaw, Walhonding 
and Cavallo were added to the shipping points in the 

The commercial importance of these waters con- 
tinued until in the late sixties when the railroad sys- 
tems of the state had assumed overshadowing im- 
portance and that of the canals was retiring. 

In 1853, the Steuben ville and Indiana railroad, now 
a part of the Pennsylvania system, was built through 
Coshocton from Steubenville to Newark. At first its 
influence was hardly felt, but in a few years it super- 
seded the canal as the principal means of transporta- 
tion and the pendulum of commerce moved away from 
the canal towns. 

In following the drift of the commercial growth of 
Coshocton County I have wandered past the period of 
the Mexican War, not because it was overlooked, but 
because a digression at that time would likely have 
broken the proper contemplation of the subject then in 

War with Mexico had long been impending. Mex- 
ico had become an independent nation in 1821. 
Adventurous American spirits crossed over into the 
Mexican province of Texas and became settlers there. 
In 1836 she threw oif Mexican allegiance and became 
an independent nation, very much to the chagrin of 
Mexico. On December 29, 1845, at her own request, 
she was admitted to and became a part of our Union. 
In the year following the impending storm of war 

I shall not go into the merits or demerits of the causes 
that led up to that struggle. For the first time in our 
nation's history partisan politics affected the prosecu- 
tion of a war. One of the great political parties fa- 
vored it and the other opposed. 

The loyalty of the people of Coshocton County was 
appealed to and the first call to arms was responded to 
with alacrity. 

By the hfth day of June Captain Jesse Meredith's 
company, one hundred and ten strong, embarked on a 
canal boat at Roscoe for the front. Though the call of 
the president for volunteers was for only hf ty thousand 
and Ohio's quota but about twenty-four hundred, an- 
other company began forming soon after the departure 
of the first. Captain James Irvine, a member of the 
Coshocton County bar and later in the war of the 
Rebellion, was finally captain of this second company. 
This company, however, was composed only in part of 
Coshocton County men ; how many I am not able to say. 
Serious doubt of their acceptance by the government 
had prevented many from entering. At the general 
rendezvous of the Ohio troops at Cincinnati every 
time a call was made a riot had started among the sol- 
diers to decide who should have the privilege of going. 

I shall not attempt to follow either of these com- 
panies through the services rendered by them. It is 
enough to say that each did its full duty. 

Of all the men who entered the service of their coun- 
try in that war from this county Joseph Sawyer alone 
survives. Of him I shall have more to say at another 
place in this work. 

Whether in sympathy with the war with Mexico or 
not, we cannot contemplate the loyalty, bravery and 
devotion of these troops without a swelling of pride in 
our hearts that on all occasions when called upon our 
people have been ready to respond. 

To all save a very few the Mexican War is now no 
more than a dim memory, an epoch in our history. 

To once more take up the thread of the commercial 
side of life. I hope I have made it clear that the open- 
ing of the Ohio Canal had put this county in commer- 
cial touch with the outside world. No longer was the 
local market to fix prices on their products, but the 
same were to be regulated by the outside demand. 
This brought a new element into the problems of life, 
the real value of money as contra-distinguished from 
its nominal value. To us to whom a dollar in Maine 
is a dollar in California, it is difficult to appreciate a 
currency which enjoyed only a local circulation and 
was of uncertain or no value outside that localitv. 

Tfy^Tnci. Qooxx^rxno 


Inukpknuknt I'fH Company. John 1). Stevkn-son, 1 


"Reddog," "wild cat," script and all kinds of mediums 
of exchange were in use. True, markets were then con- 
trolled by the natural law of demand and supply. 
Trusts, cold storage companies, wheat and corn pits 
and other combinations for the artificial control of 
prices had not come into our commercial life, but an 
insufficient general currency had made some other 
means of representing value essential to the carrying 
on of business. 

State banks issued currency of their own, merchants 
issued script to their customers, and at lirst no ques- 
tions were raised. The dishonest soon saw in this a 
plan to get rich quick. Before long the currency was 
flooded with fraudulent, so called, money. The hon- 
est but unskilled were victimized on every hand. A 
panicky condition seized the commerce of the country 
and business was paralyzed in some localities. By dint 
of industry and economy our people were increasing 
their earthly possessions, but they were defrauded in 
this manner of the profits. This condition of affairs 
continued till state banks were prohibited from issuing 
currency, and private script abolished, by law. 

I speak of this episode in the life of our people, not 
because it was peculiar to them, for the effect was gen- 
eral throughout the land, but because it incidentally 
robbed them of the profits of earnest endeavor on the 
one hand, while it aroused them to the necessity of a 
uniform currency on the other. A new nation, founded 
on new ideals, was meeting new conditions, the natural 
outgrowth of all this novelty. Had I the time and 
space how interesting it would be to trace it along its 
tortuous course through this labyrinth of semi-darkness 
to the light of day which shone when a dollar was worth 
a hundred cents wherever found, whether stamped on 
metal or printed on paper. 

This, of course, would not be a proper place for such 
a discussion, and I am only referring to it as an element 
which came into the affairs of the people of this county 
at that time and produced important effects on their 

I find myself now approaching the most eventful pe- 
riod in our nation's life, the War of the Rebellion. To 
those yet living it can never become "but a mere mem- 
ory," an episode in the nation's life. To them it is 
not a mere page of history, a scene or act in the drama 


of life. To those of us who bear the deep impressions 
which such memories leave on the mind of tender youth 
it is a living, breathing monster; stripped of teeth and 
claws it is no longer able to wound or hurt, but, unable 
to die, its repulsive presence keeps us ever mindful of 
its horrors and the desolation it wrought. 

For a myriad of reasons I cannot follow my inclina- 
tion to go into a general discussion of the questions 
that throng my mind. My task is with local conditions 
and events and I shall digress only where necessary. 
A half century has rolled away since the first gun was 
fired and with it has disappeared all feeling of bitter- 
ness and hatred. It is only when I hear or read some 
slighting word of the old soldier that I find myself 
unable to control a feeling of resentment, but it is not 
toward the brave man who wore a gray uniform, for 
such remarks do not emanate from such sources. Four 
years under the guns of the boys in blue taught him 
to respect and honor them as the man in blue learned 
by the same token to respect him in gray. 

At the birth of our nation was sown a seed of discord 
which sooner or later was certain to ripen into strife, 
the fruits of which must be bloodshed and desolation. 

As subjects of Great Britain we had instituted and 
established slavery. Simultaneously had grown up 
with it a strong sense of its moral shame and the com- 
mercial error of this kind of labor. These warring 
elements had for years preserved a sort of armed neu- 
trality. When our constitution was written this an- 
tagonism was irrepressible and irreconcilable. The 
nation, exhausted physically and financially by its 
struggle for independence, a compromise, which could 
be no more than an armistice, was effected. The con- 
stitution was silent on the subject of slavery. This 
left the question where it always had been. Each 
partv assured that it could get nothing better than con- 
stitutional silence, yielded a dissatisfied assent and 
the contention, no nearer settlement than in the be- 
ginning, was left to accumulate virulence and heed- 
less frenzy. 

For a third of a century it smouldered. In the 
homes, the stores, the shops, the offices, in the churches 
it was the fruitful, the inexhaustible subject of dis- 
cussion. But not till 1820 did it assume the absorb- 
ing interest politically it ever afterward maintained. 

Metzler and Kobkktson Drug Store. 

The passage of the Act by Congress known as the Mis- 
souri Compromise, which undertook to, and did tempo- 
rarily, fix the line of division between free and slave 
territory brought to the surface the irrepressible char- 
acter of the conflict so long waged beneath the surface. 
The flames burst forth and though many efforts in 
the years following were made by patriotic men to 
control them they continued to burn until quenched 
at Appomattox. The Omnibus Bill of 1850, the 
Kansas-Nebraska Bill of 1854, the Dred Scott De- 
cision by the U. S. Supreme Court in 1857 were a 
series of incidents that served only to irritate the peo- 
ple to the point of frenzy. I use this latter word with 
a full appreciation of its significance. 

All logical, patriotic consideration of slavery and its 
relation to the welfare of the country, its moral and 
social aspects, its effects upon the laboring classes, the 
seriousness of the impending crisis to the nation, in- 
deed every consideration that appreciative, sober 
thoughtfulness would suggest was silenced by extrava- 
gant denunciation and vociferous defiance. The man 
who saw in slavery a crime against the laws of God and 
morals was denounced as a "Nigger lover." He who 
pleaded for the laboring classes, was a heartless 
wretch, willing to destroy the property of another that 
he might profit by it. One who conscientiously be- 
lieved it were better that the nation be severed than 
that it try longer to exist half slave and half free, 
or than to take the chance of slavery being recognized 
as an institution all over the land, or than that we risk 
our very national life in a struggle that might so ex- 
haust our resources as to render us an easy prey to a 
foreign power, and who therefore said "Let them de- 
part in peace," was in the eyes of his neighbor dis- 
loyal to his country. 

Discussions of the various and varied aspects of the 
subject, on the stump, in Congress, from the pulpit, 
were in intemperate and inflammatory language. In- 
stead, therefore, of people coming closer together, by 
thoughtful consideration of a subject which meant so 
much to all, the breach only widened and soon became 

In the south the minister of the Gospel saw in the 
negro race the sons of Ham destined to be the hewers 

'I'liE Luna Tiieatre. 

of wood and the drawers of water, the servants, not of 
the Most High, but of men. 

In the north Wendell Phillips, with matchless 
dramatic power, had pictured him as typihed in Tous- 
saint L'Ouverture, the negro hero of San Domingo, 
whom he elevated to a place above Washington him- 
self in these extravagant but moving words, "Fifty 
years hence, when Truth gets a hearing, the Muse of 
history will put Phocion for the Greek, Brutus for the 
Roman, Hampden tor England, Fayette tor France, 
choose Washington as the bright consummate tiower of 
our earlier civilization, then, dipping her pen in the 
sunlight, will write in the clear blue, above them all, 
the name ot the soldier, the statesman, the martyr 
Toussaint L'Ouverture." 

The southern planter saw in the negro the tempera- 
ment and heat-resisting power which had made and 
could maintain cotton as king. This meant to him 
wealth, position and power. 

To the northerner, slavery meant the ultimate de- 
struction of white labor; to the moralist, degradation of 
both the white and the black races. The true states- 
man saw in the severance of the nation the end of its 
greatness and usefulness as a civilizing power. Every 
man looked trom his own point of vantage and was in- 
tolerant of the views of others not in harmony with his 
own. How we wish at this late day that the cup might 
have passed, that blind fury might have received light 
in some other way and the blood and tears and anguish 
been spared. 

The election of Abraham Lincoln to the presidency 
made this impossible. An overt act of treason as de- 
fined by our constitution followed and the curse of 
civilization, civil war, was on. 

I have spoken of the period covering the breaking out 
of the civil war not in a spirit of criticism or of apology, 
but in an etfort to picture the conditions, showing the 
varieties of view, intolerance of adverse opinions and 
the mental and nervous energies of a young giant na- 
tion on the verge of madness. Why revive or attempt 
to revive the memories of that appalling time'? Mis- 
takes were common on every hand. The passing years 
have softened the asperities. There can be but one 
opinion now, — however great the suffering and sacri- 
fice, the results justified them all. The south rejoices 

with the north that slavery is no more, and the events 
of each recurring year emphasize the necessity to the 
tuture of mankind that this nation should ever remain 
as the fathers intended, "one and inseparable." 

Secession was formally begun by South Carolina, 
December 29th, i860. This was quickly followed by 
Mississippi, Florida, Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana and 
Texas, all by the first of February following. But like 
"Articles of Nullification," that had preceded seces- 
sion, this was but an overt act of treason. 

On Friday, April 12th, 1861, Fort Sumter, off 
Charleston harbor, was fired on by the confederate 
forces under General Beauregard, an overt act of 

On the Monday following, April 15th, President Lin- 
coln issued his proclamation declaring a state of war 
and calling for seventy-five thousand militia volun- 
teers to support the government in upholding the 
dignity and sovereignty of the nation. On the next 
day word of the proclamation reached Coshocton and 
immediately a meeting was held at the law office of 
Nicholas and Williams, in a little one-story frame 
structure where the Realty Building now stands. At 
this meeting were present John D. Nicholas, (late Com- 
mon Pleas Judge), Addison M. Williams (the other 
member of the law firm), Richard M. Voorhees (at 
present Judge of the Circuit Court) , A. L. Harris (then 
editor of the Coshocton Age), Reason F. Baker, Cap- 
tain James Irvine (a member of the Coshocton bar, a 
former Mexican soldier and later Colonel of the 16th 
O. V. L), Dr. A. L. Cass, and probably others, but 
whose names I am unable to learn. 

Judge Voorhees was made chairman and Mr. Harris 
secretary of the meeting. A committee consisting of 
R. M. Voorhees, Reason F. Baker, A. M. Williams, 
Captain Irvine and A. L. Harris, was appointed to is- 
sue a call for a public meeting at the court house to 
take action upon the proclamation of the president. 
This meeting was accordingly called for Friday, April 
19th, at 2:00 o'clock. When that hour arrived the 
capacity of the court room was overtaxed and a large 
overflow stood on the outside. Every section of the 
county was represented, loyal Democrats and Re- 
publicans joining in patriotic fraternity. 

Stirring patriotic speeches were made by John D. 

Nicholas, Josiah Given, (afterwards Judge of the Su- 
preme Court of Iowa), and Richard Lanning, (after- 
ward Major of the 8oth O. V. I) . 

A muster roll for volunteers was started and Judge 
Voorhees enjoys the proud distinction of being hrst to 
attach his name to the roll. A sufhcient number of 
volunteers was obtained by Wednesday of that week 
to form two companies. It will be remembered that 
this meeting was held on Friday. On the following 
Friday the companies went to Camp Jackson at Co- 
lumbus, Ohio, and the next day, Saturday, April 27th, 
were mustered into the service. 

In the regimental organization James Irvine was 
made Colonel, David W. Marshall Adjutant, John D. 
Nicholas, Captain of Company A, and Richard W. Mc- 
Clain, Captain of Company D, all Coshocton County 
men, and the companies were attached to the 16th 
O. V. I. 

The term of service of this regiment being short, three 
months in length, it saw, as a matter of course, a very 
limited service, but we may say in passing that it did 
well all that was required of it and at the expiration of 
its time, August 18th, was mustered out, most of its 
members, however, immediately volunteering in three- 
year organizations then forming. 

In the short space both of time and space allowed me, 
it will be impossible to even briefly outline the serv- 
ices rendered by each organization from this county, 
though it certainly would be a labor of love to do so. 
One incident, however, occurred in the service of these 
two companies, or rather the regiment to which they 
belonged, the 16th O. V. I., so unique and interesting 
in its character that it deserves to be somewhere re- 
corded, and as it has never been printed I cannot resist 
the temptation to here preserve it. 

On the 3rd day of June, 1861, the 16th O. \. I. and 
batteries D and F of the First Regiment Ohio \"olun- 
teer Artillery attacked the confederate forces at Phil- 
lippi. West Virginia. At the first discharge of the 
artillery the confederate forces broke and ran. In the 
pursuit members of Companies A and D drove some 
confederate cavalrymen from a barn where they had 
stabled their horses. Blood was discovered in the barn. 
On looking about the gruesome sight of a cavalry boot 
with part of a human leg still inside of it was dis- 

^LLll UruS. I-IjiI KIM, ,\l I 

Coshocton Automobile Compan 

covered. Inspection ot the haymow disclosed the poor 
soldier to whom but a few moments before they had 
belonged. He was lying on the hay, where his com- 
rades had hurriedly placed him, in a tainting condition. 
He was carefully handed down, the regimental surgeon 
called and after his injured leg had been properly 
dressed, he was sent to the hospital at Washington 
City. His leg had been shot away by a cannon ball. 
He was the only confederate soldier wounded on that 
day, and so far as we have any history he was the first 
confederate soldier to shed blood lor the confederate 
cause, certainly the first to be struck by the discharge 
of artillery. 

The incident was, of course, soon forgotten, but in 
July, 1903, the 16th Ohio, to which after the death of 
my father I had the honor to be elected an honorary 
member, held a reunion at my residence. Learning 
that that one-legged soldier was still alive, he was in- 
vited to be present. Very much to our surprise and 
joy he came. The meeting of those grizzled old vet- 
erans was one ot the most touching scenes I have ever 
witnessed. All the hate and venom of forty years ago 
had melted into love and patriotic fellowship. As I 
saw those old "Yanks" showering that old "Reb" with 
atfectionate attention I could not realize that they had 
once been bitter enemies seeking the life of each other, 
and when I heard the old ex-Confederate's address, full 
of patriotic sentiment to the boys in acknowledgment 
of their address of welcome to him, I could hardly be- 
lieve he had ever raised his hand against the old flag 
which his forefathers and theirs had baptized with their 
blood and shook into the breeze more than a hundred 
years before. Good old Ben Wiggins, when intro- 
duced to Mr. Hanger on that day, with tears in his 
eyes, while shaking his hand, said, "Forty-two years 
ago in an old stable in West ^'irginia I saw a part of 
a man and to-day for the first time I see the balance of 

The cannon ball that on that day cost Mr. Hanger 
his leg and very nearly his life was afterwards to be 
the foundation of a large fortune. Being poor, after 
leaving the hospital he made his own artificial leg. 
This he improved from time to time until the Hanger 
artificial legs were patented and sold all over the civi- 
lized world. At the time he was here he had retired 

from business and was enjoying the fruits of his in- 
ventive genius, which, he said in his address, had been 
first awakened by the discharge of the artillery on that 
ever-memorable third day of June, 1861. 

Before President Lincoln's second call for volunteers, 
the heroic patriotism of Coshocton County was again 
manifest. Indeed the events of the entire period from 
the beginning to the end of that awe-inspiring struggle 
prove the patriotic devotion of Coshocton County's 
sons. Hardly had the 16th Ohio moved to the front 
than other organizations began forming. 

By June 6th, 1861, Captain Josiah Given had re- 
cruited a full company in the county awaiting the an- 
ticipated call for their services, and on the 13th started 
for the front where they were attached to the 24th 
O. V. I. as Company K. They had no sooner left than 
Captain Wilson M. Stanley went into camp at the same 
point, the old fair ground, with his company, afterward 
assigned to the 32nd O. V. L, and awaited'orders to go 
to the front. 

At every demand for more men at the scenes of strife 
Coshocton County was found in the forefront with her 
volunteers. I am saying this in full memory that later, 
in 1863, a draft was instituted and enforced in this 
county, but I shall have more to say on that subject 
later on. 

On the second call of the president for volunteers 
Coshocton County was ready and responded. 

As soon as the three months or First Call Men, as 
they love and deserve to be known, had returned in 
August, 1861, Captain John D. Nicholas began re- 
cruiting a new company for the three years' service. 
This effort was at once joined by others. In a short 
time live full companies had been recruited with Cap- 
tains Nicholas, B. F. Heskett, William Fatton, D. W. 
Marshall and James M. Crooks in command. These 
companies were assigned to the pst O. V. I. and Rich- 
ard W. McClain, a Coshocton County man was later 
made its colonel. This regiment was ready for service 
early in October. 

Soon after. Captains Pren Metham, George W. Pep- 
per, William F. Marshall and others began recruiting 
for additional companies. By the beginning of the 
new year enough men had volunteered to fill three com- 
panies and by the time they were ready to go into camp. 

O. Ei'VD Insuranci^ ()kfh;k. 

Jai k.-,(..\ 6c WlsL.XUUUl,, rAlL.iKl.. 

Smith Drug and Book Company. 

which they did early in February, enough more had 
volunteered to make nearly another company. All 
were assigned to the 8oth O. V. I., of which regiment 
Captain Metham afterward became the Colonel. 

At the opening of the new year Captain John V. His- 
lip began recruiting a company and by the I2th of 
January reported with a full company at Newark and 
was assigned to the 69th O. V. I., and by February 9th 
Captain James Stewart had recruited a company and 
was assigned to the 76th O. V. I. 

In July and August following two more companies 
were recruited in the county and assigned to the 97th 
O. V. I., Captains C. C. Nichols and Emanuel Shafer 
commanding. Besides these two companies a large 
part of Company F of the same regiment was recruited 
of Coshocton County boys. 

In the fall Captains B. F. Sells and O. C. Farquhar 
recruited two companies, which were assigned to the 
122nd O. V. I., and in October, 1862, started for the 
front from Zanesville. 

By the end of November Colonel James Irvine had 
organized a company of cavalry which in a few days 
was assigned to the 9th O. V. C., Colonel Irvine later 
becoming colonel of this regiment. 

During this period of time, so anxious to enlist were 
Coshocton County's sons, that many of them, failing to 
get into organizations being formed in the county, 
crossed the line into adjoining counties and became 
members of companies being recruited at those points, 
and were not credited to this county. 

This demand on the resources of the county for men 
had about exhausted it, and no organizations were re- 
cruited for the field until the 69th Battalion was called 
out and left for the front about the 10th of May, 1864. 
This organization having been formed many months 
before as a home guard, was called into the service by 
the governor of the state and was assigned, two com- 
panies of the original hve to the 142nd and three to 
the 143rd. 

This chronology of events cannot fail to impress the 
reader with the tireless energy and devoted patriotism 
of our people of that day and to inspire the question, 
why was it necessary in 1863 to levy a draft on the 
county to fill our quota of troops. No county in the 
state, we can safely say, sent a larger proportion of 

soldiers to the front as measured by the number of 
men able to bear arms. No county lost credit for so 
many men by enlistments outside the county as did this 
one. No county was more nearly depleted by the 
spring of 1863 of her sons able to bear arms. Was it 
because the state of Ohio failed to respond to the call 
of the president for volunteers'? The Roster Commis- 
sion of Ohio, composed of Ex-Senator J. B. Foraker, 
Ex-Adjutant General H. A. Axline and J. S. Robin- 
son, tells us that "the State of Ohio exceeded her quota 
by 13,387, that in this respect Massachusetts and Illi- 
nois alone of all the states can boast as proud a rec- 
ord." Hence, how could Ohio be subject to draft at 
all, but if so why should Coshocton County be involved 
in it with a record so proud as her history shows'? 

An investigation of the credit records in the office of 
the Adjutant General of the state furnishes evidence 
of most stupendous frauds in crediting soldiers of one 
county to some other county in which the soldier ac- 
credited had never set foot. As late as the year 1881 
I made collection of several thousand dollars from 
counties in the northern part of this state for bounties 
due Coshocton County soldiers who had been surrep- 
titiously credited to those counties, and for whose serv- 
ices they received credit, and to whom they refused to 
pay the promised bounty until an act of the legislature 
was passed compelling them so to do. 

I am not emphasizing these facts to excuse the man 
who resisted the draft, but I am speaking but the naked 
truth to clear my county from the imputation that a 
draft was necessary to induce her sons to perform their 
sacred duty to their country. It is true that there were 
some men in the county, as in all the counties in the 
nation, who could only be induced to enter the army in 
this way, but they were not sufficiently numerous in 
this county to have so involved it in shame. 

In the presence of all these facts I am privileged to 
say, and I say it with a heart swelling with pride, that 
Coshocton County as a people was loyal to the old flag, 
that she made history for herself in those dark and 
trying years of which her sons and daughters will ever 
be proud. If thus we feel for our citizenship in gen- 
eral, what are we to say of the men who suifered and 
died, of those of them with us still and of the wives and 
mothers of that heart-straining period? The most elo- 


^i: 1 



^ ^ 




i S 


/ A --^-^^j/ 

quent lips that have learned to speak our language have 
tried in vain to find language to express our gratitude, 
our pride in their achievements and point out the far 
reaching benefits to mankind of their devotion and 
noble self-sacrifice. The inadequacy of words is only 
emphasized by the fruitless attempts. But away down 
in the silent recesses of the heart lies graven on the 
living tissue the ever present prayer to an ever loving 
God that he may at that last day remember what they 
did for His cause. 

It I have digressed too far and too often from the 
purely historical narrative of events to speak of the na- 
tion's defenders, let my love of my country and of her 
sons who have fought her battles and defended her 
honor on every battlefield of her history be my apol- 

The war over, a million lives sacrificed, untold 
millions of dollars lost forever, the people exhausted 
by the fierce strain of the four years' struggle, our 
foreign commerce demoralized, our finances in an ap- 
parently inextricable tangle, agriculture, manufac- 
turing and local commerce appealing for muscle and 
brains to reestablish them to meet our wants, every- 
thing indeed in a chaotic condition, the future looked 
but little less hopeless than the past. To the surprise 
of the outside world, the ex-soldier had seen all the 
war he wanted, his prayer for peace had been an- 
swered and soon the hand that had steadied the gun 
was directing the plow, swinging the hammer or tend- 
ing the loom, and the brain that but recently was di- 
recting an army was directing some matter of com- 
merce, manufacture or agriculture. Again the hills 
and valleys of old Coshocton County wore the con- 
tented smile of peace and plenty. 

In 1871 Coshocton capital built her first pretentious 
factory, the Coshocton Bridge and Axle Works. The 
grist mills of the county had depended largely on local 
trade and had met with only indifferent success. 
None had attracted more than local attention. The 
old distillery of Love & Hay had made itself known 
but had retired from business. The Bridge and Axle 
Works, built by Coshocton capital, was of but little 
importance at first and soon got into financial trouble. 
After its forced sale and purchase by Houston Hay 

Thomas Carton's Suns Shok .Storf. 

it became and remained for many years quite a manu- 
facturing asset of the town. Other small institutions 
like the paper mill sprang up and benehted the town 
to some extent, but it was not until two newspaper 
men, editors and owners of the two weeklies then 
published in the county, saw a future in the novelty 
advertising business, that Coshocton began to take on 
the appearance of a manufacturing town. These men 
were Henry D. Beach of The H. D. Beach Company 
and J. F. Meek of The J. F. Meek Company. The 
public achievements of these two men are too well 
known to justify my recounting them here. 

The success of the advertising business is due in a 
very large measure to the personality of these two 
men, in some respects much alike, but in many more 
very dissimilar. I very much enjoy as a pastime the 
analysis in private of my friends and acquaintances, 
and these two men furnish fruitful material, but many 
reasons restrain me, not one of which, however, is that 
I should fear by public analysis the loss of the esteem 
of either. The building up of these two institutions 
was soon followed by the founding of the Novelty 
Advertising Company by William Shaw and now un- 
der the management of L. P. Gallagher, another man 
to whose quiet, thorough and careful business methods 
Coshocton owes not a little. These institutions were 
followed by many others in a similar line, meeting 
varying success. Enough, however, has been accom- 
plished in this line to place Coshocton at the head of 
the advertising business in America. 

In 1899 a Board of Trade was founded and as the 
result of its efforts, together with those of its corps 
of boosters, Coshocton began to reach out in other di- 
rections than the advertising line. The Pope-Gosser 
factory was established and as a result of the superior 
quality of their ware Coshocton has been placed at 
the head of the manufacture of china in the United 

The Coshocton Glass Works has reached a very 
prominent place in its line by the quality of its ware, 
as has the Coshocton Brick Works. It would, how- 
ever, occupy too much of my alloted space were I to 
go on with the list of manufacturing institutions of 
which Coshocton boasts and of which its citizens are 
justly proud. I cannot, however, pass the Central 

The Cusiiucton Ice Company 

fj^ -ML 

TiiF. Cash Store, Cv.tttMAi. Mkr 


Heating Company, of which W. A. Himebaugh is 
president, in entire silence. From a broken down 
electric light plant has grown the modern electric 
plant, furnishing light, power and heat to the city, 
with a steam power plant in Coshocton and a water 
power plant above Roscoe, and capable of meeting all 
the present and prospective requirements of the city. 
Again I should like to indulge my propensity for 
analysis of character in speaking of Mr. Himebaugh, 
but am compelled to refrain. His generous public 
spirit seems almost to demand it. 

The Clow Works, established some two or three 
years ago, promises to be a great boon. The best as- 
set of the city of Coshocton, however, is her optimistic, 
self-reliant, energetic, courageous, intelligent citizen- 
ship and their unalterable faith in the future of their 
city. To find a man in Coshocton who does not hope 
to live to see her a city of twenty-five thousand people 
you must hunt for a very aged person or one suffering 
with a speedy, fatal malady. 

In the early days of May, 1910, the idea of holding 
a Centennial Celebration of our county's birth was 
suggested for the first time so far as I am able to learn. 
After discussing its various aspects, it was found that 
the only apparently insurmountable difficulty was the 
question of financing the project. This the gentle- 
men having the matter under consideration were 
unwilling to assume. For a time it looked as if the 
enterprise would have to be abandoned, for we were re- 
minded that centennials, beginning with that of the 
nation in 1876 at Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, had 
proven to be enormously expensive and had yielded 
receipts inadequate to meet them. 

Neither the county nor the city, through its officers 
was authorized to undertake the responsibilities. We 
did not feel justified in calling upon private citizens 
to do that which we were so pronounced in our views 
would be a failure financially. At last it was sug- 
gested that we call upon some secret order and ask it 
if it would be willing to assume this grave responsi- 
bility. The Elk's lodge had just "put on" a success- 
ful Fourth of July celebration and our attention was 
naturally attracted to them. In open lodge the proj- 
ect was carefully, and as fully as possible at that early 

day, outlined to them. The iinancial dangers were 
gone into fully, but it was clearly stated that the Cen- 
tennial was to be a county affair and the commission 
having it in charge would act as citizens of Coshocton 
county and not as members of any organization, fra- 
ternal, political, religious or otherwise. That if finan- 
cial failure followed, the lodge would have the debts 
to pay, that if financial success crowned our efforts, 
the commission would be free to dispose of its funds 
as it deemed fit and wise. 

And let it be said to the unassailable civic pride of 
that order that it did not ask a promise or statement 
even from the gentlemen having the enterprise in hand 
that those profits should be handed over to that lodge, 
and no such promise has since been made and never 
will be. The lodge has relied on the sense of justice 
and honor of the commission to deal fairly with it, in 
event the balance is found on the right side of the 
ledger. Speaking for the commission, I can say that 
so far as they are concerned there would have been no 
Centennial Celebration if some responsible body had 
not assumed this financial risk. 

The commission is satisfied with its efforts up to the 
present and publicly expresses through this channel 
its obligation to the members of its various subordi- 
nate committees for their intelligent, tireless energy 
in making successful its aims and desires; to the mis- 
guided who have from time to time tried to impede its 
progress to success it wishes to express its sympathy 
and forgiveness and begs to remind them that the 
kicker only gets exercise for his legs which are thereby 
strengthened for future efforts at kicking at the ex- 
pense of want of exercise of head and heart and that 
these organs v/ill continue to atrophy and shrivel up. 

A plan has been adopted to place in the court yard 
a monument to this occasion. In this will appear a 
picture of the present day as perfect as human hands 
can make it. This will be sealed for one hundred 
years and when that has rolled by the generation then 
living here may open and read the annals of this day 
and view with swelling hearts the civic pride of their 
ancestors and predecessors, and we hope it may prove 
to them the stimulus for the achievement of a loftier 
and more perfect civilization. 

The Legend of The White Woman, Mary Harris 

That a white woman named Mary Harris came intu this county 
some time about the year 1710 there can be no doubt. Where she 
came from, who were her parents or when, where or how she died 
we have not even rehable tradition. 

In some of the forays of the Indians about the year mentioned she 
had been captured and brought into the valley when she was about 
ten years of age. Soon afterward she was married in the Indian 
fashion to an Indian of the Delaware tribe named Eagle Feather, 
who was a Munsey Indian and hence belonging to the rougher class 
of this tribe. 

She and her husband lived together for many years in apparent 
Indian domestic felicity. She was very much admired by all the In- 
dians of the tribe, not only because of her white blood, but because of 
her adaptability to their ways and habits of life, her shrewdness and 
cunning and sympathy with their wrongs, and by reason of her strong 
personality which manifested itself in entire self-reliance. 

Her sympathy with the redman and his wrongs, as she saw them, 
finally made of her a very savage of savages. To Mr. Gist in 1751 
she complained bitterly of the cruelty and mendacity of the white men 
in their relation to the Indian. To her Indian spouse and his asso- 
ciates when on the war path she urged vengeance against her own 
race and delighted in decorating her home with their scalps. 

An Indian woman in the presence of warriors was silent and retir- 
ing. Mary Harris was loquacious and self-assertive. At first this 
was resented by the braves, both she and her husband reproved for 
it, but at last her right to be heard was established and her advice and 
criticism listened to. 

So wide was her renown that the village in which she and her hus- 
band lived and the river on which it was located became known as 
Walhonding village and river, or, in our tongue. White Woman village 
and river. 

Eagle Feather, though a drunken fellow of no particular value, as 
the husband of so renowned a woman, began shedding a certain 
amount of reflected light and received attentions not merited by his 
achievements. He was what is, in this age, called a "hen pecked hus- 
band." Occasionally resenting the insinuations against his manhood 
he and his wife came to blows, the final result of which encounters 
depending largely on the quantity of fire water Eagle Feather had 

Whatever the results, however, Mary Harris continued to exert a 
powerful influence over the braves of the tribe and Eagle Feather 
only grew more intolerant of the gibes of his associates. 

Along in the early fifties of the eighteenth century Eagle Feather, 
returning from a foray east of the Ohio River in quest of scalps and 
plunder, brought with him a young white woman whose name and 
place of capture are unknown. 

This woman was, we are told, both young and beautiful, wdiile Mary 
Harris was by this time past fifty years of age, and whatever beauty 
she may have had when Eagle Feather was charmed by her, the life 
of hardship and exposure she had lived had obliterated. 

On the way home Eagle Feather, with his captive, stopped at the 
Forks to finish the carousal he and his friends had begun about the 
time they started for home. From the Forks they went up the river 
to White Woman's Village, and there Eagle Feather notified Mrs. 
Eagle Feather of the addition to their family. The average white 
man would require no detailed description of what followed in that 
household. It is enough for us to know that Eagle Feather and his 
companion, whom Mary Harris had already christened the New 

Comer, spent the balance of the day in the woods near the village in 
company with a bottle of whiskey Eagle Feather had brought along. 

After nightfall the two returned to his house and crept softly to 
bed, not wishing to disturb the peaceful slumbers of the wife. Next 
morning Mary Harris aroused the village with her cries, and when 
the neighbors came in she pointed to the body of Eagle Feather with 
the head cleft with a hatchet, and told the astounding story that the 
"New Comer" had slain Eagle Feather and fled. Pursuit was quickly 
inaugurated and the New Comer captured at the village, ever after 
until the present day known as Newcomerstown on the Tuscarawas. 

She! was brought back, and being questioned described Mary Harris 
as coming in the night to the bed occupied by her and Eagle Feather 
and of her taking flight and leaving. By a law of the Delaware tribe 
the effort at escape justified the taking of a prisoner's life, and as the 
New Comer had run away they slew her and later considered the 
question as to her guilt of the death of Eagle Feather. Mary Harris's 
influence at that time was sufificient to protect her from any charge of 
murder and the incident was soon forgotten. 

An effort has been made in times past to, in some wise, connect 
these two women with the large stone lying near the Walhonding 
River and known as White Woman Rock, the story being that one 
of them sprang from that rock to save her life or virtue and was 
drowned, but this can hardly be the case, as the New Comer was slain 
in White Woman village with a hatchet or tomahawk, and Mary Harris 
was not of the kind who flee for any reason. 

The name given to that rock, I am persuaded to believe, grows out 
of a mistake as to the location of White Woman village. For many 
years it was supposed that that was its location, but in later years it 
is pretty generally believed to have been quite a distance further up 

The French King and Colonel WilHams 

An old legend has dwelt in diis county, resurrected every once in 
a while in different clothes, which I shall relate in the manner most 
usually told. 

Colonel Williams had opened a tavern or place for "accommodation 
for man and beast" about the time the first traveler came into the 
country. This tavern was on Water Street just north of its junction 
with Chestnut. Whiskey, the Colonel tells us, was one of his prin- 
ciple articles of merchandise. 

A Frenchman of unusual presence, education and refinement came 
into the French hills seeking a school to teach, and was known as 
the French Count. One night some of the settlers from Wills Creek 
with the Count came into the Colonel's bar and after sampling the 
Colonel's liquors became boisterous and refusing to be quieted at his 
request, he lost his temper and pitched the entire crowd into the street, 
giving the Count a little extra force to impress the French nobleman 
with American independence and disregard for the titles of foreigners. 
That it afterward developed that this French nobleman was Louis 
Phillippe, afterwards known as the Citizen King of the French. 

H this episode ever occurred. Colonel Williams either never knew 
the personal importance of his guest on that occasion, or booting a 
future king was a circumstance too insignificant to claim the Colonel's 
attention in writing his memoirs, for he makes no mention of the event 

I am inclined to give but slight credence to the entire story. That 
Louis Phillippe was in the United States at some time between the 
years 1793 and 1814, I am inclined to believe, and this for the reason 

CiiSHdCToN C\i\ Hospital. 

i Ian I.I IX I-'i'KN 11 rui- ( ' 

Mi:Miil;ii- 1,1- I'Ai.riM; [i.\\>. KnsK/i:, (), 

that on his escape from France in the former of these years into 
Switzerland, penni'ess and with no means of earning a hvelihood, he 
began teaching school. School teaching in Switzerland was as near 
the brink of starvation as one inured to hardships dare venture at 
that time, but by one accustomed to the luxuries of life could not be 
endured for long. 

About this time French sympathizers with the Bourbons were cross- 
ing to this country as rapidly as they could obtain the means of com- 
ing, and such people were always ready to divide their smallest store 
with their recognized monarch and the members of his family. How 
long Louis remained in Switzerland no one seems to know, some 
writers taking the view that he remained there till the restoration, 
while others locate him in England and elsewhere at different times. 

He and the Marquis de Lafayette were warm friends. Indeed, it 
was through the personal efforts of Lafayette that Louis was placed 
on the French throne in 1830, when restored to the place vacated by 
his father's family. How natural that Lafayette should have sug- 
gested the new country to the prince, especially as Lafayette held so 
deep an interest in American affairs and was so extravagantly loved 
in this country. 

At any rate, when Mr. Silliman of Zanesville went to the French 
court in the early thirties, and there recognized the king and was 
recognized by him, it would seem the last suspicion of doubt of the 
king's visit to this county is removed, but why the sil'y story of 
Colonel Williams' assault on him should be invented I am at a loss 
to understand. 

The Murder of the Post Boy 

Contributed by Jauics R. Johiisan. 

This tragic event created a great excitement at the time and has*'' 
not lost its interest to all who look into the county history. 

John Cartmell, who had built a squatter's cabin a mile east of town 
and a few rods northwest of where Judge S. H. Nicholas' barn now 
stands, had a contract for carrying the mail. His son William, a 
mere lad, used to go occasionally in his father's place to carry the mail. 

On September 9, 1825, as he was journeying on his horse from 
Westchester to Coshocton, when just east of the county line, a man 
by the name of Johnson was seen to be traveling with him on foot. 
"Where there was a bend in the road, Johnson took a by-path into a 
hollow to get a drink at a spring. While there he heard the crack of 
a rifle, and as he came again into the road he saw a man with a gun 
standing beside the dead boy. 

"Someone has shot this boy," says the stranger as Johnson comes 
up. What exclamation of horror and surprise Johnson made we are 
not told, but he had no doubt as to who had shot the boy. They were 
agreed that the}' must go at once and tell the neighbors. They ac- 
cordingly started together, Johnson keeping a sharp lookout for fear 
the man might shoot him. The stranger remarked that they had better 
go in different directions. They then separated and Johnson gave the 
alarm at the nearest neighbor's. The stranger disappeared and John- 
son was arrested on suspicion and was kept for a time in the Tusca- 
rawas County jail, stoutly protesting his innocence. Fie gave as good 
a description of the stranger as he could and said he would know him. 

Something fixed suspicion on John Funston, who was induced reluc- 
tantly to go to New Philadelphia, with a number of men from that 
part of the county. These were lined up and Johnson brought out of 
jail to pass along the line. 

MAKSilALI, MaMTAi TIT 1 Ni, Cm.. I' 1 1 KK M i IM K TERS. 

Jai OB \V'i-:kxi.r. I'kiN 1 1 k. 

I'That is tlie man," he said, stopping in front of Funston. 

"You are a liar," said Funston. 

"Now I know more certainly than ever," said Johnson, "because I 
recognize his voice; and if you will look at his hand you will see a 
peculiar scar which I saw as he held his gun." 

Sure enough, there was the scar. The officers were at once con- 
vmced that they had the right man. After trial and conviction he 
confessed and Johnson was released. The sherifif's return tells the 
rest : 

"1825, December 28th received this writ; and on the 30th day of 
December, a. d., 1825, between the hours of 12 o'clock noon and 2 
o'clock p. M.. I executed this writ by hanging the within named John 
Funston until he was dead. No fees charged. 

"Walter M. Blake, Sheriff." 

William Burns, Sr., witnessed the execution and was familiar with 
the whole story. From him have been obtained some of the above 
mentioned details which have not yet found their way into the printed 

The boy was buried near his father's cabin, several rods northwest 
of where Judge S. H. Nicholas' barn now stands. - The Cambridge 
Road at that time ran close by the house and some five hundred feet 
farther west than it now runs. In the sandy ground the road may 
have worn down several feet lower than the land on each side. The 
subsequent leveling down by cultivation will account for the skull 
being brought to the surface by William Sprinkle's plow a few years 
ago, a smallish, delicate skull, evidently the Post Boy's skull. 

There was a large family connection of the Cartmells. Our fellow 
townsman, Jacob Richards, is the grandson of one of them. The 
name of Nathaniel Cartmell occurs on the Militia Roll in 18 12. 

The Oxford Township Stone Fort 

On the plains in Oxford Township between the villages of Orange 
and Isleta stands a stone building fourteen feet square, ten feet to 
the eaves and with gabled roof. The walls are of sandstone twentv- 
two inches thick, showing the marks of the mason's tools, and with 
a smooth, broad stone lintel above the doorway which shows distinct 
evidence of having been rubbed smooth with another piece of stone. 

The single doorway above referred to is in the east wa'l, with 
walnut jambs and head two inches thick and twenty inches wide, and 
fitted for a door on each edge of the jamb, the one on the outside and 
the other on the inside, thus providing the opening with double se- 

Coshocton Ciiurches 

To the north of this doorway and about two feet from the ground 
is a hole about eight inches square. The first story was about seven 
feet high and the second about two feet at the eaves and six or seven 
at the gable. In the north, south and west walls in the first story 
and about midway from the corners are slits, each two feet up and 
down, two inches wide on the outside and eighteen inches wide on 
the inside. In the north gable is a doorway about two feet by three 

The building is in a bad state of dilapidation at present, the roof 
and fioor of the second story entirely gone, the west wall fallen away 
and the north wall split almost from top to bottom. There is no evi- 
dence of there ever having been a chimney or of any other provision 
for fire within. 

On the outside walls, in various places, thin films of lead in small 
blotches are found where leaden bullets have struck and Battened on 
the stone. These are most numerous near the slits above described. 

That the structure was built and used as a retreat for safety from 
an outside foe there cannot be a shadow of doubt. That it is of 
very ancient origin is equally true, but when or by whom built we 
are left without a scrap of information. 

Of all the persons who have written of the early history of this 
section of the country, this is the first time the subject has been men- 
tioned, and this circumstance is of itself most remarkable. 

The Indians built nothing of its kind. The early settlers were not 
known to use stone in building, and especially are we disinclined to 
ascribe its erection to them when we reHect that they found an abun- 
dance of timber in the immediate vicinity, while the sandstone of 
which this is built could only be obtained across the river. 

Moreover, the building of a structure so novel in its character would 
have attracted the attention of other early settlers in other parts of the 
county, but no one seems ever to have heard of it, and its appearance 
bespeaks an earlier origin. 

DTberville, the successor to de la Salle, who built the French forts 
in the seventeenth century throughout the Mississippi valley, in de- 
scribing them, locates one "northeast of the Ohio River." Can this 
be one of his famous forts? I cannot say. No matter when nor by 
whom built it is one of the genuine wonders of this valley famous for 
its myths, mysteries and historic interest. 

Seeing the First Railroad Train 

A ludicrous, but very characteristic, story of our early settlers is 
told by W. A. Himebaugh, President of the Electric Light and Heating 
Company, as detailed to him by his father. 

In the years while the first railroad. The Sterbenville and Indiana, 
afterward the Pennsylvania, was building into this county, the county 
fair was held in the court yard. A track was marked around the 
outer edge, the people occupying the circle within. 

There was no fence around the ground, so that when tlie fair 
opened the grounds were surrounded by a rope to keep the public 
outside until they had paid the admission fee. On the Thursday of 
the Fair in the fall, immediately after the railroad was built through, 
a big crowd had assembled within the ring and preparations were made 
for a great time. So dense was the crowd, indeed, that the officials 
had been delayed in getting things into order for the grand display. 
Just as they had brought out all the premium stock for display, the 
great show of the occasion, and the event for which everybody had 
been waiting on tip-toe of excitement, the engine which drew the cue 



imiiii? ■- 

Fssn;." ALBEWl^t.FO 

I.-l l.-UA.l,riE KisiiJK.vcra 

daily train blew her whistle ; Init few of the crowd had ever seen a 
train of cars, and all were at once seized with the desire to see it, so, 
forgetting the fair and all its attractions, they started pellmell for the 
railroad, and in the rush they broke down the ropes around the ground, 
upset everything in their way, and when they returned later it was 
found that there was not time enough left of the day to restore the 
breakage, so that the fair was discontinued luitil the foilowine; day. 

Location of Certain Historic Spots 

Regret that the precise location of many of the historic places and 
events in this county have been lost by the carelessness or want of ap- 
preciation of their importance, led the Coshocton County Centennial 
Commission to appoint a Historical Committee to fix as nearly as pos- 
sible such locations as any evidence might be found to establish. Hav- 
ing examined all the evidence obtainable, they feel warranted in saying 
that they have been able to locate the following with reasonable ac- 

The final camp of Colonel Houquet, where his treaty with the Dela- 
w^are Indians was effected, though somewhat in doubt, this committee 
feel warranted in saying was on the crest of the hill north of the mid- 
dle basin, about a mile above Coshocton, on what is familiarly known 
as Johnston's hill. 

The Broadhead Massacre was northwest about one hundred feet of 
the big spring on the Collier land between the present site of Coshocton 
and Hardscrabble. 

The old Indian burying-ground was in the immediate vicinity of the 
intersection of Locust and Fourth Streets, where bones are still taken 
from the ground at every excavation to any considerable deptli. 

The Captain Fleehart Block House was on the river bank west of 
Water Street and north of Main Street, the stockade extending into 
the present location of both streets and for some little distance up the 
river. The house itself was of logs in the usual form, while the stock- 
ade was of logs placed in the form of an abatis. When this blockhouse 
was built or how long maintained, we are unable to say, but are of the 
opinion that it was of recent origin — probably in the early years of 
the past century, and was not long maintained. 

The tavern kept by Colonel Williams, the first tavern in the county, 
was a double log building situated on Water Street a short distance 
north of its intersection with Chestnut. Here was not only the first 
tavern, but this building was also the first court house of the county. 

Colonel Williams' body lies buried in Oak Ridge Cemetery just to 
the left of the entrance within a paling fence. 

The point at which Lewis Wetzel killed the Indian chief in the pres- 
ence of General Broadhead in 1780 is about fifty feet west of the north- 
west corner of the Hanley mill very near the south side of Main Street. 

All the writers having this part of the country and the Indian ti ues 
as a portion of their subject, make frecjuent reference to the Indian 
Council House, thus establishing the fact of its existence, but here re- 
liable information ceases. 

Its location, size and composition are all matters of speculation. 
We are told that it was on the second elevation above the river. This 
would locate it probably between Second and Third Streets. The town 
being quite all south of Main Street, it was likely also in that section. 
As the council house was used only on rare occasions, possibly once or 
twice a year, it was likely built of poles set into the groun 1. and wdien 
in use, covered with boughs. The .size of the crowd might in some 
degree affect the size of the council house, but it was re'|uired to cover 
only those having seats in the council of the nation or tribe, and hence 
was not necessarily large. 

West Lafayette College and ('iiuKcHts. 

The Coshocton County Bar 

It is left for me to write the obituary of the bar as a profession. 
The years of my practice have spanned tne immeasurable chasm which 
lies between a profession and a business. 

When I came to the practice thirty years ago, the practice of the 
law was as much a profession as in the days of Cicero and Demosthenes. 
Few men without forensic power dared to enter the profession, and 
if they did they quietly accepted the retired corner allotted them and 
left the then real matters worth while to the management of other 
more fortunate members of the profession. 

The convening of court was then an event. The members of the 
profession gathered around the bench, dressed in double-breasted frock 
coats, and there was an air about tlie court room known to the bar 
and appreciated by the general public, but which it is impossible to 
picture in words. 

As a youth I frequently attended the opening days of the term and 
shall never forget the depth of the impression of those scenes. It 
was not, however, till later that I came to know the men well enough 
to appreciate the dift'erence in their temperaments and attainments and 
recognize the strong and weak points in their moral and mental struc- 

Not all of them were especially strong men, but some of them were. 
To my mind E. T. Spangler was quite the ideal lawyer of the old 
school. Slightly above medium height, dark hair and eyes, wiih a 
face of faultless masculine beauty, carrying slightly more than a 
proper supply of flesh, but with a splendid pose of both head and 
body, scholarly and cultured, a Lord Chesterfield in manners, but abso- 
lutely free of cant, always dressed neatly and in excellent taste, his 
appearance in the court room was an inspiration to the younger mem- 
bers of the profession. 

His deep voice was resonant, and though he would have spurned to 
use it to charm his hearers, yet it did so by its matchless quality. His 
discussion of any legal question was interesting because of his logical, 
analytical mind, and his influence with a jury was always effective 
because of the purity and beauty of his English, richness of his voice 
and elegance of his manners. 

Associated with him during most of the years I knew him was 
Judge J. C. Pomerene, very unlike Spangler in most ways, but pos- 
sessing many of the elements wanting in Spangler's composition. Dur- 
ing the long years of their association Spangler usually attended to 
matters in court while Judge Pomerene held in his mind every detail, 
large and small, in their large and varied practice. 

Few men in practice, in his day, held in mind a!l the authorities 
accessible to this bar on so many and diverse subjects. A tireless 
student, thoroughly in love with work, always conservative, never 
satisfied until he had read the last word on a subject, and even then 
temperate in his statement and claims of the law. 

The semi-austerity of Spangler's nature was well compensated by 
the affability, urbanity and social impulsiveness of his partner, as was 
his disposition to depend upon the application of general principles 
balanced by Judge Pomerene's painstaking care in seeking the latest 
reported case. They always impressed me as an unusually well bal- 
anced combination, safe, strong and thoroughly competent. 

For a few years after leaving the bench before his death I saw a 
little of Judge William Sample, but so little that I can give but a 
glimpse and that rather a boy's impression. Tall, slender, with gray 
hair, traveling in an ambling walk as if affected by approaching age, 
is the distinct impression I carry of him. What had been his hard- 
ships or disappointments in early life, I know not, but the lines of 
his face carried rather a forbidding aspect. My imagination could 

West Lafayette Bank 

i.'. iLRioR West LAFAVtirE Ua 

hardly picture to me Judge Sample's face breaking into a smile. 
Hence, I am quite sure I have been harsh in judging him, for 1 can 
hardly conceive of such a picture being a true or fair one. 

That he was a splendid lawyer of his time, dignified, honorable, con- 
scientious, there can remain no doubt. Speakuig with a halt in his 
voice, no musical note in it, compelling rather by the force of his 
vigorous character than by artifice, he was a curious combination of 
power impeded by his own imperfections, but wonderfully successful 
ni making his hearers listen and in persuading them to follow. 

1 saw a great deal of another character just before and for many 
years after i came to the bar, whom it is a great pleasure in later years 
. to remember, because I did not then realize how rare such characters 
are. I refer to Colonel James Irvine. He and his brother John had 
been in practice when I was a child, but the brother I only remember 

As I have said, I saw much of the colonel the last ten or a dozen 
years of his life, and became very warmly attached to him. He was 
not so successful in the practice as his friends had prophesied for him, 
and this is readily accounted for by the fact that he was never in 
love with the protession or its learnmg. His taste was entirely out- 
side of a law book or the law courts. 

The most brilliant conversationalist and versatile entertainer with- 
out outside helps this section of the country has ever known, he 
possessed the pungent wit, broad humor, exhaustless vocabulary, warm 
sympathetic nature that has made many men and women great, but 
it made him only beloved by those to whom he chose to exhibit this 
side of his nature. He possessed no deceit and if thrown among men 
with whom he did not care to exhibit the richness of his talents, no 
sort of subterfuge could call him out. He became positively prosy, 
but when with those whom he enjoyed he became a fountain of 
sparkling wit, repartee, illustration and charm. 

Judge John T. Simmons was also a member of the Coshocton bar 
when 1 was admitted, but he had about retired and I had but little 
opportunity to form an estimate of him. 

Captain G. H. Barger was another, but before he became fully 
identified with the bar he removed to Columbus and I know personally 
but little of him after that. 

Of the firm of Nicholas & James I feel some diffidence in speak- 
ing. 1 read law with them and was always, while they were together, 
more or less about their office. 

The preparation of a law suit for trial in their office was worth 
going to see and hear. Every scrap of known testimony was analyzed 
m advance, appraised, properly tabulated and made thoroughly fa- 
miliar ; then the law was chased in its elusive flight through the books, 
criticised, applauded or condemned. 

Differences of opinions were encountered by the partners at every 
turn,' but never abandoned until they agreed, and when all this was 
done they were ready to enter court, and I can truly say that I have 
never seen cases so well prepared. Try as I might, I never could do 
it myself. Their cases were always so well prepared that they could 
devote most of their time to the small things, and in jury cases the 
experienced lawyer knows what this means. 

This firm was not a balanced firm in any sense of the word. They 
were litigating lawyers and gave but little heed to anything else in the 
profession. In the days they spent together in the practice they worked 
almost ceaselessly, yet I never heard either of them speak of hard 
work. Indeed, they both enjoyed it. The advance of age, however, 
had its inevitable effect and the lives of neither reached the goal to 
which they aimed. 

I shall not speak of the living members of the profession, but shall 
content myself with these few words concerning those who have 
passed to a higher and juster judge, except to say that my acquaintance 
with the bar of the present day has not lessened my appreciation of the 

I-AtA^ ; 1 r I S I AM I'l 


East Enamel Plant. 

W'fcsT I.afavkttk .Manu.-actukino Company, Mantkac tuklus uf Enamellu Kitchen Ware, 
West Lafayette, Ohio 

noble and honorable profession to which we belong; that while a bnsi- 
ness has risen from the ashes of a profession, yet the men who have 
assumed the responsibility of that new business are of the same class 
and character as their predecessors, and it behooves us all to see that 
the cjuality is ever kept at that high standard. 

The first term of court held in the county was in an old log building 
which stood until a few years ago near the northeast corner of Water 
or First Street and Chestnut. This court convened on April ist, 
1811. The judge (Honorable William Wilson of Newark, Ohio), fail- 
ing to appear, his associate justices Isaac Evans, Peter Casey and 
William Mitchell, organized the court with impressive solemnity, ap- 
pointed justices of the peace in Washington, Tuscarawas, Newcastle 
and Franklin Townships, and adjourned. After that the courts started 
off with the usual dignity and have continued ever since. 

John Chapman, "Johnny Appleseed" 

This quaint character was born in Massachusetts, probably at Spring- 
field. Ihe year is not known. 

in very early times his lather brought his large family to Marietta, 
Ohio, and settled, John, however, not coming west for some years 

In early life he became a very devout member of the Swedenburg 
church and took to an ascetic, outdoor life. His religious convictions 
induced him to devote his lite to the welfare of others, and his love 
of the forests called him from the more densely settled portions of the 

His time was at first spent in New England, later along the banks 
of the Potomac, then to i^ennsylvania, to Ohio and finally m Indiana, 
keeping all the time in the van of advancing civilization. 

His first appearance in this section was siiortly before the breaking 
out of the War of 1812. 

After he had decided to devote his life to the welfare of his fellow 
man, being wiihout means, he conceived the idea that to plant fruit 
trees on the borderline of civilization would be doing a great work 
without requiring much capital. Accordingly he would visit the crude 
cider mills in the east, gather the seeds, put tnem in little leather sacks 
which he made himself, carry them to the frontier where he could 
obtain all the free land necessary for his purpose, and set out small 

When the trees had reached a proper size they were disposed of 
to the settlers in trade if the settler had anything he wished, but if 
not the trees were given him if he desired them. All this time he 
was teaching his strange religion, both by word of mouth and by books 
and tracts, which he made frequent pilgrimages east to obtain, and 
for the purchase of wdiich he sold his young trees. 

Johnny was a favorite everywhere, in the home of the settler as well 
as in the wigwam of the red man. Many highly colored stories have 
been told of his early life and much mystery thrown around the reason 
for his unselfish devotion to mankind, but he seems to have been only 
a plain, sympathetic, eccentric creature with an exalted purpose, but 
with a distorted view of his sphere of usefulness. 

After crossing the Ohio River the valleys of this county were very 
attractive to him. Whenever he reached the Ohio he would fit a 
raft, po'e down to Marietta, visit his father's family and ascend to 
the Forks, for from this point he had a water route back near the 
cider presses and on to Mt. Vernon and Mansfield via the Walhonding 
and north via the Tuscarawas. 

He "was restless, stopping only long enough in each place to attend 
what he had in hand, th.e planting or trimming of a nursery, disposing 


Mi.Ki: Hants' Hank, Warsaw, Oi 

of some trees, distributing his tracts, relieving a suffering settler or 
Indian, carrying news about a neighborhood of some threatened out- 
break or busying himself in some other way along the lines adopted 
as his hfe work, and he was on to another point. 

There were things stranger in the life of this peculiar man than 
we can understand. The average frontiersman was a man of more 
than ordinary courage, yet he carefully barred his doors at night and 
observed constant caution to protect himself and family from the sav- 
age and the wild beast. If he traveled across the country he was 
armed and at nightfall sought a secluded spot to spend the night and 
refrained from starting a fire lest the hostile red man be attracted by 
the smoke. The prevalence of poisonous snakes made leather foot- 
wear of some sort necessary for travel in the forests. 

Wild animals were everywhere, but John Chapman went anywhere 
and everywhere barefooted, except when the severest weather forced 
him to provide moccasins. He never carried a gun, he often spent 
one night with Indians on the war path and the next with their intended 
victims, but never sought safety from man or beast. 

Some Noted Indians 

A fairly accurate appreciation of conditions in this part of the 
country at the advent of our race here can scarcely be obtained with- 
out some understanding of the character of the leading spirits of the 
Indian race of that time. 

For a great many years the head chief of the Delaware tribe was 
an Indian known by the name of Netawatwees. His village was for- 
merly near Newcomerstown and latterly at Coshocton. Netawatwees 
had become acquainted with the Moravians, Zeisberger and Heck- 
ewelder and others at Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, and orobably united 
with that Christian church at that place. At any rate, on the establish- 
ment of Moravian Missions later in Tuscarawas County, he was reco<^. 
nized as a brother in the church and aided in the establishment at 
Lichteneau. He was a man of strong character, exerting a powerful 
influence over his people in a quiet and dignified way. From his con- 
tact with the Moravian missionaries he had become thoroughly ob- 
sessed by the idea that the future of his race depended on a complete 
change in their mode of life, that they should give up their migratory 
and warlike habits and settle down to the pursuits of agriculture. 

He was not a great orator, but swayed his people rather by the 
force of his vigorous character and splendid example. In the later 
years of his life three powerful characters were developed in his 
tribe. I refer to Captain Pipe, White Eyes and Killbuck. Before 
speaking of them, however, I desire to correct an unaccountable error 
that has crept into the history of the life of Netawatwees, which does 
him a grave injustice. Without assigning any reason therefor the 
writer of Col. Bouquet's Expedition tells us that before his return to 
Fort Duquesne, Col. Bouquet deposed Netawatwees as head chief 
of the Delawares, but does not say for what reason or who was placed 
in his stead. 

This statement has cast a cloud on the memorv of the old chief by 
arousing the inquiry, why did Col. Bouquet do so ? What had Neta- 
watwees done to gain the disfavor or lose the confidence of Col. 
Bouquet? Mr. Heckewelder assures us that this is an error, that 
Netawatwees continued head chief up to the time of his death in the 
autumn of 1776. 

Of the three characters above referred to much might be said of 
deep interest had I the time and space. Captain Pipe had never 
allowed himself to forget the wrongs done his race bv the white man. 





Ox THE Muskingum. 

had the custom of cutting off the legs of the deceased at the knees, 
and thus is the siiort stature accounted for. 

Such speculation, though innocent in purpose, leads to grotesque 
results and tends to deflect the vision from the truth. 

The facts known to us are that this burial ground covered about ten 
acres, that before it had been disturbed by the cultivation of the soil it 
exhibited regular rows of little mounds such as mark graves in the 
present day, covering almost the entire surface of the ten acres, that 
on excavating human bones were found, lying in proper place with 
feet to the east, and covering a space about four to four and a half feet 
in length, that on exposure to the air the bones immediately disinte- 
grated, that in one or two cases the body bore evidence of having been 
encased in wood, fastened together with iron nails. Whether these 
latter bodies were interred at or about the same time as the many 
thousand others, or whether or not other bodies were similarly interred 
as these, we do not know. Near the city of St. Louis a similar bury- 
ing ground has been found with the dift'erence that some of the bodies 
there were enclosed in stone. 

With only these facts before us, it would seem we are unwarranted 
in any conclusion as to the people who made the interments in this 
ground. If they are the bones of a pygmie race or of any unknown 
race, why are their cemeteries so few and far apart? What other 
evidences of their presence here are to be found? The perfect regu- 
larity of this ground argues strongly in favor of a people well ad- 
vanced in some form of a civilization, a race, however, which left but 
two evidences of its existence in all this broad land, and those being 
burial grounds of the dead and as near the center of the continent as 
Coshocton and St. Louis, have been too successful in concealment to 
justify our flattering ourselves with the idea that we have uncovered 
iheir identity in any respect. 

Had they been the bones of the Indian dead carried about from 
place to place, disinterred every time the tribe moved, we would 
hardly expect regularity in any respect, but if so very regular in every 
other respect why should the stature be reduced when laid in the 
ground so as to deceive as to the height? Before we may be justified 
in the assumption that the legs were disarticulated at the knee, some 
evidence must be adduced. Such a course has been pursued in the 
past, but it was done by races who placed the bodies of the dead in 
some sort of receptacle and the bodies were thus shortened to adapt 
them to the size of the receptacle. 

It is enough for us to know and chronicle the facts, and we must 
leave speculation to the individual imagination. 

Elisha Compton and Joseph Sawyer 

Two men, Elisha Compton and Joseph Sawyer, at this time occupy 
prominent positions in the public mind, the former as the oldest man 
and probablv longest living resident in the county, and the latter the last 
survivor in the county of the veterans of the Mexican War. 

Mr. Compton was born in Culpepper County, Virginia, September 
9, 1816, and is therefore in his ninety-fifth year. He settled in Jack- 
son Township in April, 1830, where he has lived ever since. 

In T841 he was married to Hulda Ann Hayes, who died in 1880, and 
is the father of seven or eight children. 

Mr. Compton was one of a party of twenty-five, consisting of his 
four brothers, Richard, John, Thomas and George, two sisters. Henri- 
etta Ricketts and Delilah Tucker, and their families, together with 

Salt Peter Cave. 

neighbors wlio drove across the country from their X'irginia homes to 
this county. They crossed the Ohio River at Wheeling and were nine- 
teen days on the way. 

Mr. "Compton is in many respects a very rare man. Never robust, 
indeed rather delicate in appearance, he has survived to a ripe old age, 
with his faculties still quite well preserved. His sight and hearing are 
somewhat impaired, but his memory of people and events of recent, as 
well as the earlier periods of his life, is truly re narkable. 

He takes two daily newspapers, which he has read to him regularly, 
and with these together with his daily contact with men, he keeps in 
close touch with the happenings of the outside worLl, in which he 
evinces the same lively interest he has always maintaine 1. 

He was always a great talker and listener, and in this regard I see 
no change in him of forty and more years ago. Of an unselfish dispo- 
sition, his chief desire in life seems to be to know th:.t his old friends 
are prosperous and happy. 

Asked as to his h.ealth, he said he had neither an ache nor a pain, that 
his infirmities were those of old age only, that he ate and slept well and 
enjoyed good health. He seems to think but little of himself, making 
no complaints of the ravages ,of old age. He does not see the country 
or the people going to destruction because of the changed conditions 
around him, but, on the other hand, recognizes them as the natural se- 
quences of the growth and development of the country and the progress 
of the people. He dees not talk of the short time he has to live, but of 
the events of the day and accomplishments of the past and the hopes 
of future achievements. He is certainly a most lovable old man and a 
splendid example of what a life of rectitude and correct living leads to. 

Now in the evening of life, his last labors done, with his mental 
faculties fully preserved, his physical powers such as to enable him to 
come and go as he pleases, he looks backward over a well spent, indus- 
trious life and sees no enemy by the wayside, no wrong done to any 
man and feels no regret for folly of youth or overzeal of manhood. 
Loving all mankind, he is by all beloved, and when the last summons 
shall come his only regret will be that the cord that binds him to his 
fellow men must be severed and their companionship loit. 

The quiet, modest lives of such men as Elisha Compton mean much 
to a community. They are the finger boards along life's highway, but 
so much is our attention attracted by the more blustering, self-assertive 
man who purposely attracts attention, that we are prone to overlook- 
such characters and be dazzled by the more brilliant but less substantial 

It is the custom to point the youth to some great character in our his- 
tory and invite or command him to emulate his example, heedless that 
there may be some glaring defect of character or habit as marked as the 
one that made the example great. The youth, lacking the faculty that 
made the example great, may possess the one wdiich proved a cloud to 
his career, and emulating the latter, the best he could do, we express 
surprise at the disastrous results. But to such careers as Elisha Comp- 
ton's we may point without fear of danger, for they have employed well 
such talents as have been given them and have hidden or abused none. 

Joseph Sawyer was born in Suiifolk County, England, September ii, 
1825, and is therefore in the eighty-sixth year of his age. He landed 
in America February 12, 1836, and reached Coshocton in ]\Iay of that 
year, where he has resided ever since. 

When the war with IMexico broke out Mr. Sawyer volunteered in 
Captain Meredith's company, which was assigned to the Third Ohio in 
command of Colonel Samuel R. Curtis. This company was afterward 
commanded by Captain James M. Love, a member of the Coshocton bar 
and later a justice of the Supreme Court of Iowa. This regiment was 

Indian Mound. 

Four National 7Ii(;iiwAys. 

not required to do very heavy duty, and on its return after its services 
were finished it left Charles McCloskey, one of its members, in Mexico 
convalescing from his wounds. 

On April i8, 1848, McCloskey returned and his old comrades in 
arms prepared a reception for him. Procuring an old cannon, they 
began firing a salute, and on the fourth discharge, which occurred pre- 
maturely, the left arm of Mr. Sawyer and the right arm of John 
Richards, who was assisting Sawyer in ramming, were blown off. 

Mr. Sawyer was married to Hannah Montgomery March 21, 1854, 
and notwithstanding his loss by the discharge of the cannon has raised 
a family of eleven children. 

In the survey of the Steubenville and Indiana Railroad Mr. Sawyer 
carried chain from Coshocton to Newark and was for many years 
afterward in the employ of that company. 

At the annual state reunion of Mexican War veterans last year only 
thirteen still survived. 

This year the reunion is held at Newark, Ohio, June 15th, when but 
very few will assemble, as the already thin ranks have been further re- 
duced in the past year. 

Joseph Sawyer has been a familiar figure about Coshocton all these 
years, as he has always been active, energetic and faithful in the dis- 
charge of his duties. Of a jovial, unselfish disposition Mr. Sawyer is 
universally liked. In the later years, however, the memories of other 
days rushing back upon him, the tenderness of his nature is deeply 
stirred, and he makes a very pathetic, if admirable, figure, while he talks 
of the scenes and people of his younger and more active life. 

Early Settlers of Note 

Contributed by James R. Johnson. 


Ebenezer Buckingham, Sr., was born in Greenfield, Conn., Novem- 
ber I, 1748; married Esther Bradley, October 20, 1771 ; removed to 
Cooperstown, N. Y., and thence to the Muskingum in the early part of 
1800. They poled their boat up the river, and located on the White 
Woman River at the mouth of Killbuck, — we may suppose at or near 
the Newton Speckman farm, so as to be on high ground beyond the 
reach of floods. Here they lived from the spring of 1800 till the 
autumn of 1802, when, on account of sickness, they removed, with 
their large family of children, to Athens County. After the death of 
Ebenezer Buckingham, Sr., October 12, 1824, Mrs. Buckingham lived 
with her son, Ebenezer Buckingham, Jr., at Putnam, until her death, 
June 25, 1827. 

This was a remarkable family, who cut a large figure in the history 
of this valley and of the state. 

(The above is condensed from J. Buckingham's letter from Zanes- 
ville, June 24, 1878, published in the Age, July 10, 1878.) 

The ague, which drove away the Buckingham family in 1802, was 
a most distressing factor in this new country. The rich soil was full 
of decaying vegetable matter, and when turned up to the sun produced 
malaria, the cause of chills and fever and bilious disorders. Almost 
everybody suflfered from it, and it greatly interfered with work and 

It had to be met with heroic doses of calomel, jalap and Peruvian 
bark in the form of bitters. Many of the settlers preferred to live 
on the ridges, to get away from this most discouraging plague. It 
gradually disappeared with the clearing of the land and the cultivation 
of the soil. 


The first resident physician did not come any too soon. He came 
on horseback from Pouhney, A'ermont, to Granville in the spring of 
iSog. in company with Rev. Timothy Harris, a Congregational min- 
ister. Two vears later, in 1811, just one hundred years ago, he lo- 
cated in Coshocton. I'or some years he was the only physician. His 
practice covered the whole county, and, of course, was ver}' laborious. 

He lived for many years on the southeast corner of Fourth and 
Main Streets, and owned nearly all the scpiare bounded by ^^lain. 
Walnut, Fourth and l~ifth Streets. He also owned a large farm east 
of town. He served for one term as county treasurer, and was in 
the state senate, i8j(>-iS27. He was one of the charter members of 
the Presbyterian Cliurcli in 1818, and served as a ruling elder from 
1831) to 1874. 

When tile time came to erect a church building, in 1834, he headed 
the list with the largest individual subscription, one hundred dollars. 
He was a lineal descendant of Miles Standish, married Sabra Case of 
Granville, and his grandchildren and great-grandchildren are still with 
us. He died March 10. 1874, eighty-nine years of age lacking four 


The grandfather of policeman Johnston, was one of the leading citi- 
zens in the early days of Coshocton. 

He was born in lualtimore in 1773. At the age of twenty-seven he 
came to Belmont County, Ohio, where he had many relations living. 
Here he clerked in a store and taught school. In September, 1810, 
he came to Coshocton. November 12, 1812, he married Sarah, the 
daughter of Colonel Charles Williams, — the girl who, at the age of 
twelve years, used at times to ride on horseback to the White Eyes 
plains to buy a bushel of wheat. The next day she would go with it 
to Zanesville to have it ground and return with the flour the third day. 

Mr. Johnston was a merchant, surveyor, politician, county clerk, 
county recorder, and successively captain, major, colonel and brigadier- 
general in the State Militia, in the days when all the able-bodied men 
had to muster once or twice a year. 

His clear, beautiful handwriting in the records of the clerk's and 
recorder's offices will cause him to be favorably remembered as long 
as our records are preserved. He was a man of force and character, 
trusted for his integrity, and a leader in public affairs. Flis grand- 
daughter, Miss Louella Johnston, says that he ])lanned and helped to 
build two forts on the Maumee in the War of i8i_>. 

lie built the brick house on lot 235 (did number). Water Street, 
wlu-re jacoli llarringer now lives. The one-story frame addition on 
the south side was built for clerk's and recorder's offices, and .so used 
for years. 

He died }u\k- 8, |82(;, fifty-six: vears of age, leaving five children. 

Muster Roll of War of 1812 

.\IL'STh:k POLL 

(Ji Capt. Arlam Johnston's Com])any of Pitlemen belonging to the 
Second P.attaliun -if the Second Regiment in the Fourth Brigade and 
Thirrl Division nhi(j .Militia ;.t a Muster of said Company held at 
(Joshr,cton on the thirrj day of .\].ril. Anno Donn'tu' 181 ^ 

Contributed by James R. Johnson. 

1. Adam Johnston, Captain 

2. William Morrison, Lieut. 

3. Abraham Miller, Ensign 

4. Thomas Foster, ist Sergt. 

5. John M. Miller, 2nd Sergt. 

6. Fred'k Markley, 3rd Sergt. 

7. Rob't Culbertson, 4th Sergt. 

8. John H. Miller, ist Corp'l 

9. Zebedee Baker, 2nd Corp'l 

10. J. M. Bantham, 3rd Corp'l 

11. John D. Moore, 4th Corp'l 

12. George Arnold 

13. Samuel Morrison 

14. Michael Miller 

15. Edward Miller 

16. Isaac M. Miller 

17. John Steerman 

18. Basil Baker 

19. Joseph McFarlane 

20. James Winders 

21. Isaac G. Miller 


John G. Miller 
banie! Miller 
Windle Miller 
Henry Carr 
Thomas Miller 
Benjamin Workman 
jMatthew Boner 
Benjamin Markley 
Isaac Hoagland 

31. James Bucklew 

32. John Baker 

33. Matthew Williams 

34. Andrew Lybarger 

35. Abel Cain 

36. Joseph Nefif 

37. John Williams 

38. John G. Pigman 

39. George McCullough 

40. John McKearn 

41. Allen Moore 

Copied from the original Cluster Roll by James R. Johnson, ]\Iarch 
30, 191 1. 


Of a company of volunteers composed of the 2nd Battalion, 2nd Regi- 
ment, 4th Brigade and 3rd Division Ohio Militia, who volunteered for 
the defense of the Mansfield frontiers under Captain William Beard, 
commencing the 26th of August, Anno Domini one thousand eight 
hundred and twelve, by order of his excellency. Return J. Meiggs, 
Governor of the State of Ohio. 

Contributed b\ James R. Johnson. 

William Beard, Captain 
Richard Fowler, Lieutenant 
Solomon Vail, Ensign 
Lewis Vail, ist Sergeant 
Isaac Meredith, 2nd Sergt. 
Thos. P. James, 3rd Sergt. 
William Biggs, 4th Sergt. 
Samuel Elson, ist Corporal 
Abram Fry, 2nd Corporal 
Thos. Workman, 3rd Corp'l 
Sam Fleharty, 4th Corporal 

1. William Clark 

2. Reuben Smith 

3. Wm. Rawlings 

4. George Titus 

5. Elijah Shaw 

6. James Willis 

7. Obed Meredith 

8. Henry Hull 

9. Thomas Horton 

10. Thomas John 

11. Wm. Hankins. 

12. Martin Cox 

13. Joseph Butler 

14. Jonathan Darling 

15. Robert Giffin 

16. Rich Willis 

17. Joseph Sovrens 
Stephen Miller 
John Keasler 
Wm. Darling 
James Miller 
George Mason 
Henry Miller 

24. Robert Beaty 
2v John Norris 


2(5. John Elson 38. Moses Alusgrove 

2-. Daniel McLane 39. David Maples 

2%. Hugh Aiklv 40. Constant Boan 

JO. Robert .-Vddy 41. James Lisk 

30. ^^'m. Jones 42. Nicholas Miller 

31. Gabriel Evans 43. James Oglesby 
},2. Sam Xorris 44. George Emery 

33. Sam McFarling 45. John Hill 

34. John W'olgomott 46. Thos. Cantwell 

35. John Hartley 47. Henry Preston 
yc'. John Mnlvane 48. James Clark 

2^~. John ^^'aggoner 49. Joseph Beckworth 

Copied from the original Cluster Roll by James R. Johnson, Alarch 
30. 191 1. 

Letter of Thomas H. Johnson 


Office of the Consulting Engineer 

Thos. H. Johnson. 

Pittsburgh, Pa., October 24, 1908. 
Hon. Samuel II . Xicholas. Coshocton. Ohio. 

Dear Sir: I'ollowing your suggestion. I have made, and enclose 
herewith, a fresh copy of my letter to ^Nlr. E. ( ). Randall, and appended 
my autograph signature, for the purpose of filing with the records of 
the newly organized Historical Society. 

Ydurs truly, 

Thos. H. Johnson. 


Office of the Consulting Engineer 

Thos. H. Johnson 

Pittsburgh, Pa.. September 14, 190S. 


Mr. E. O. Randal, 

I'irsidiiit Ohio flistorical Society, 
. i "hiinhtis. Ohio. 

De.\r Sir: I'he generation who were active ])articipants in the 
events wdiich constitute the early history of (_)hio having passed away, 
it_ seems to mc the imperative duty of those now living, whose early 
lite overlapjjcd the survivors of the active participants in the stirring 
events of that earlier period, to place of record anv recollections they 
may have of the stories told by those old surviv(jrs' tending to identif'v 
the localities connected with such historical events. I therefore ven- 
ture to submit the following communication relative to certain locali- 
ties of historical interest, at and near the town f)f Coshocton, with a 
view of its preservation in the Archives of the Societv. 

In so doing, it is proper to state, in exjilanation 'of my source of 
information, that I was born and raised in that town; that my grand- 
mother, the wiflow of David Johnson, of Countv Tvrone. 'Ireland, 

married James Renfrew, of Coshocton, and brought her five children 
to that_ place about 1820, while some of the Indians still remained in 
the vicinity. 

From statements of my father, W. K. Johnson, and my uncle, John 
Johnson, and also of some of the older settlers who still survived in 
my boyhood days, among whom I may mention Captain Neff and 
Jesse Workman, I have information which I feel should be placed in 
record before it is wholly lost. 

First. The Indian Village of "Cush-og-wenk" * (improperly writ- 
ten "Gosh-og-wenk" in some of the early documents) was situated 
in that part of the present Town plat lying to the southwest of the 
Court House, the street of the village being not far from, and probably 
a little to the south of Main Street. 

Second. The Burying Ground of the Village was on the rising 
ground or natural terrace east of Fourth Street, at and in the vicinity 
of Locust Street. Of this I have personal knowdedge from having 
seen human bones exhumed from excavations for cellars in that vicinity. 

Third. Col. Broadhead's expedition of 1780, which resulted in the 
surprise and capture of the Village of "Cush-og-wenk," was marked 
by two disgraceful incidents — the treacherous murder of an Indian 
Chief, by Louis Wetzel, while the Chief was in conference with Col. 
Broadhead; and the equally treacherous and disgraceful massacre of 
helpless prisoners. 

The former incident occurred while Col. Broadhead and the Chief 
were standing in the street of the Indian Village. According to re- 
ported statements of Mr. Abraham Sells during his life, the spot where 
this occurred was a little south of the present Main Street, and east 
of Water Street. This is probably as definite as the location can now 
be fixed. 

In Howe's "Historical Sketches of Ohio" it is stated that the mas- 
sacre of the prisoners on the return march began when the\' were 
about one-half mile east of the Village and continued along the line of 
march until all were killed. 

This differs from the story as told me by old settlers, which was 
that the army halted at a spring about one mile east of the \'illage, 
and that during the halt the prisoners were killed, and that the Indians 
had marked the site of this massacre by cutting a tomahawk and scalp- 
ing knife in the bark of a beech tree growing on the spot. 

The stump of this tree still existed in my younger days, and was 
often pointed out to me by my uncle, John Johnson, who never did so 
without expressing regret that the tree had been cut, and waxing in- 
dignant at the wanton sacrilege of the act. 

It seems to me that the latter version is the more probable. This 
act of barbarism is far more likely to have occurred while the military 
formation was broken during the halt at the spring than while on 
the march ; and the incident of the symbols cut on the tree is a very 
strong confirmation of this version. 

Fourth. Col. Bouquet's expedition, in 1764, established its camp 
"on the highlands about one mile north of the mouth of the White 
Woman (or Walhonding) River." These "highlands" consist of a 
narrow ridge extending for about three-quarters of a mile in a south- 
westerly direction, with the valley of the Tuscarawas River on the 
one side, and of Mill Creek on the other. 

The exact site of the camp cannot now be determined. I have been 
told that, as late as about 1840, the lines of earthwork could still be 
traced, and that skulls and horns of cattle and sheep still marked the 
site where these animals had been slaughtered for food. But, un- 
fortunately, no one thought to mark the spot, nor to leave a record 
that would make the site recoverable. 

The selection of this site is a testimony to Col. Bouquet's military 
genius. The top of the ridge is comparatively flat or eentlv round- 
ing, and well adapted to the purposes of the camp. The sides are 

quite steep, made more so near the top, especially on the Mill Creek 
side, bv an outcropping ledge of sandstone. In all that region there 
is no other spot that could be so easily defended against attack. The 
extreme end of the ridge falls off with a more gentle slope, affording 
an easv approach for those having lawful business with the camp or 
its commander. 

I enclose a blue print map of the region, showing the localities re- 
ferred to in this communication. The site of Col. Bouquet's camp 
must be taken as only indicating the ridge on which it was located. 
The actual site may have been anywhere within, say, a half-mile 
along the ridge. 

* Xote. In the records of the several expeditions into this region, 
the name of this Indian Village is generally misspelled Gosh-og-zcciik. 
In the Delaware tongue "Ciish" is Bear. "Ciisli-Oi/" is Black Bear, 
and "zi'Oih'' is toz^'ii. In Central P'ennsylvania the word survives in 
the names of certain streams, in the following forms, viz. : "Ciisli 
Creek" is Bear Creek; "Cusliiaii Creek" is Cub Creek ; "Ciisli-Cusliian" 
is Bear and Cub Creek. The termination "zcetik" was Anglicized by 
the early settlers, and the place became known as "CusIi-OQ-tozeu." 
from which is derived the later and present form "Coshocton." 

Trusting that this may be deemed worthy of a place in the iiles of 
the Historical Society, I am 

Yours uKist respectfully. 

Thos. H. Johnson.