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j 



Ml STATES CATHOLIC HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

MONOGRAPH IV 



THE 



CO-^.MOGRAPHl.€ 

iNTRODUCTIO 

OF 

%■ ARTIN WALDSEEMULLER 

IN FACSIMILE 

jwed by the Four Voyages of Amerigo Vespucci, 
with their Translation into English ; 

to which are added 

Waldseemuller's Two World Maps of 1507 
With an Introduction 



BY 

Pior, JOSEPH nSCHER, S.J., and Prop. FRANZ VON WIESER 

EDITED BY 

Prof. CHARLES GEORGE HERBERMANN, Ph.D. 



NEW YORK 

PUBLUHtD BY 

THE UNITED STATES CATHOLIC 

HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

1907 



/' 



COPYRIGHT, 19 

■T 

THE UNITED STATES C 
HISTORICAL SOC] 



LIST OF OFFICERS 

Honorary President 
Most Rev. John M. Farley, D.D. 

President 
Charles George HERBERMANN,Ph.D., LL.D., Lit.D. 

Vice-President 
Stephen Farrelly 

Treasurer 
Richard S. Treacy, A.B. 

Recording Secretary 
John £• Cahalan, A.M. 

Corresponding Secretary 
Joseph H. Fargis, LL.B. 

Librarian 
Rev. M. J. Considine 

Trustees 

Rt. Rev. Mgr. Joseph F. Mooney, V.G. 
Rt. Rev. Mgr. James H. McGean, LL.D. 
Henry Heide Hugh Kelly, LL.D. 

Peter Condon, LL.B. Thomas S. O'Brien, LL.D. 

Thomas F. Meehan, A.M. 

Councillors 

Hon. Edward B. Amend, LL.D. William R. King 

Rev. Thomas J. Campbell, S.J. 

Edward J. McGuire, LL.B. 

Rev. John J. Burke, C.S.P. 

Rev. Joseph F. Delany, D.D. 



PREFACE 

Four hundred years ago, in the little town of 
St. Di6 in Lorraine, the geographer, Martin 
Waldseemaller, published two world maps, one 
for use as a globe, the other a flat projection 
of the then known world. These two maps 
were the first that gave to the new world the 
name "America,** which it bears to this day. 
At the same time, WaldseemttHer published a 
pamphlet of forty pages whose purpose was to 
explain the world map and its various features, 
its bearings on geographical sides, and its record 
of new discoveries. Here the author set forth 
his reason for calling the newly found continent 
" America/' The pamphlet bore the title, Cos- 
mographia Introductio or Introduction to Cos- 
mography. By cosmography was meant geog- 
r^hy, but WaldseemuUer's little work has 
special reference to the world map published at 
the same time. As part of the Cosmographia 
Introductio appeared a Latin version of the 
four voyages of Amerigo Vespucci. It was to 
serve as a justification for calling the new world 
^'America.** 





Preface 

The United States Catholic Historical Society, 
;sirous of commemorating the four-hundredth 
■niversary of this notable event, publishes here- 
ith a little memorial volume consisting: 

First. Of an excellent facsimile reprint of 
e 1507 edition of the Cosmographia Intro- 
ctio, which is one of the treasures of the 
niversity Library of Strasburg. This also in- 
udes the four voyages of Amerigo Vespucci, 
mslated into Latin by Jean Basin of Sendacour. 
his copy belonged in 1 510 to the celebrated 
imanist Beatus Rhenanus of Schlettstadt as ap- 
;ars from his name at the foot of the title-page. 



Preface 

various problems raised by WaldseemflUer's pub- 
lications by Prof. Joseph Fischer, S.J., the dis- 
coverer of the WaldseemUller map, and Prof. F. 
von Wieser of the University of Innsbruck, 
whose authoritative scholarship on all questions 
touching Martin WaldseemUller is recognized 
everywhere. 

It is needless to say a word on the appropri- 
ateness of this publication at the present time. 
Besides its sentimental value, the publication will 
oflFer the reader a copy of the oldest map cut in 
wood, and probably of the oldest wall map ever 
published. The map will exhibit a picture of 
the world such as it was known four hundred 
years ago and, we may add, substantially such as 
it was known to Columbus himself, while the 
facsimile of the pamphlet will present us with a 
piece of early Strasburg black letter. 

The Editor desires to express his warm recog- 
nition of the courtesies of Professors Fischer, 
S.J., and von Wieser in preparing their authori- 
tative exposition of the history and significance 
of the Cosmographia Introductio and the accom- 
panying documents. He also returns his sincere 
thanks to Dr. Leigh Harrison Hunt, Professors 
William Fox, August Rupp, and Dr. J. Vincent 
Crownc of the College of the City of New 
York for valuable assistance given in the prepa- 
ration of this work. 

vu 



INTRODUCTION 

By Prof. JOS. FISCHER, S.J., 
AND Prof. FR. v. WIESER, Ph.D. 

Four hundred years ago, on the 25th of April, 
1507, there appeared in a little out-of-the-way 
Vosges village, St. Di6, in Lorraine, a little book 
destined to attain great historical importance — a 
book which later became of the utmost interest, 
particularly for America. The title of the book 
is as follows: 

COSMOGRAPHI^ INTRODVCTIO, 
CVM QVIBVSDAM GEOMETRIC AC 
ASTRONOMIC PRINCIPIIS AD EAM 
REM NECESSARIIS. 

Insuper quatuor Americi Vespucii Navi- 
gationes. 

Universalis Cosmographiae descriptio tam in 
solido quam piano, eis etiam insertis, quae 
Ptholomaeo ignota a nuperis reperta sunt. 

As appears from the title, this book consists 
of two distinct parts: a geographical introduc- 
tion {Cosmographia Introductio)^ and an account 
of the four voyages of Amerigo Vespucci {^a- 
tuor Americi Vespucii Navigationes) . Moreover, 





Introduction 

!C see that two maps belong to the boult — a 
lobe and a plane projection, on which, in 
ddition to what was already known to Ptolemy, 
11 newly discovered lands are laid down. 

This work in its four parts was destined to 
itisfy, in great measure, the lively interest 
vinced by all classes of that day in geograph- 
:al research, and particularly in the marvelous 
ccounts of the discoveries recently made by 
be Spanish and Portuguese. 

The publication met with instant success, and 
1 a few months several editions of the text 
/ere issued. The map, as WaldseemuUer him- 



Introduction 

Of the Cosmographia Introduction printed at 
St. Di6, in 1 507, omitting mention of later re- 
prints/ we have two chief editions: one of the 
25 th of April, 1507 (wV KaL Maii)^ and the 
other of the 29th of August, 1567 (//// Kal. 
Sept.).* Of each of these editions there are two 
variants. In one Martinus Ilacomilus (the 
GrsBcized form of the name of Waldseemiiller), 
and in the other the Gymnasium Vosagense are 
named as the editors. These variations appear 
in the dedication of the work to the Emperor 
Maximilian I: 

1 . Divo Maximiliano Casari Augusto Martinus 
Ilacomilus f (elicit atem lOptat. 

2. Divo Maximiliano Casari semper Augusto 
Gynnasium ^(J^f^Vosagense non rudibus indoctisve 
artium humanitatis commentatoribus nunc exultans 
gloriam cun [\) faslici desiderat principatu. 

The Gymnasium Vosagense was composed of 

' The Strasburg edition appeared in 1 509, the undated Lyons 
edition about 1518. 

' Detailed statements regarding the differences in the two 
editions and their readings may be found in the following : [M. 
D* Avezac] , Martin Hylacomylus WaltzemulUr, ses ouvrages et ses colla- 
horateurSi Paris, 1 867 ; H. Harrisse, BibUotheca Americana Vetustis- 
sima. New York, 1866, and Additions, Paris, 1872 ; Ed. Meaume, 
Richerches critiques et bibliographiques sur Americ Vespuce et ses Voy- 
ages (Mdmoires Soc. d'Arch6ologie Lorraine, 3* serie, t. xvi, Nancy, 
1888; J. Boyd-Thacher, The Continent of America, Its Discovery 
and Its Baptism, New York, 1 896 ; F. v. Wieser in his introduction 
to the fiicsimile edition of the Cosmographia Introductio in the col- 
lection, Drucke und Holzschnitte des XV. und XVL Jahrhunderts in 
getreaer Nachbildung, Strasburg, T. H. Ed. Heitz, 1907. 



Introduction 



I small group of humanists' which Canon 

■alter Ludd, secretary to Duke Rene II of 

prraine, had gathered about him, and which 

Iblished his works in the printing-house erected 

Bere by Ludd himself.' Besides Walter Ludd, 

literary circle counted among its most 

Bominent members Nicholas Ludd, the nephew 

I Walter, Joh. Bastnus Sendacurius, Philesius 

Ingmann, and Martin Waldseemiiller. The 

It two, it is true, entered the service of the 

3 Ludds' only as paid printers; but there 

1 be no doubt that Waldseemuller and Ring- 

pnn were the most learned members of the 



■a^ 



Introduction 

We know that Walter Ludd, the head of 
the Gymnasium Vosagense, had not only es- 
tablished, as previously mentioned, a printing 
office at St. Di6 and was an author, but had 
also furnished the money for the publications 
produced by other members of the Gymnasium, 
and that in the present case he had moreover 
procured the necessary scientific material.* 

As literary collaborators in the Cosmographia 
Introductio are to be mentioned Philesius Ring- 
mann and Joh. Basinus Sendacurius. The 
former contributed two poems — a shorter dedi- 
cated to Emperor Maximilian I, and a longer 
intended for the reader. The latter furnished 
the Latin version of the four voyages of Amerigo 
Vespucci, and as a pre&ce a decastich and a 
distich ad lectorem. 

There can be no doubt, however, that Mar- 
tinus Waldseemiiller (Ilacomilus) must be recog- 
nized as the real publisher of the entire work; 
for not only did the treatise on cosmography 
originate from his pen, but the two maps going 
with the work were designed by him. Both 
parties, therefore, in a way had the right to 
pose as authors of the work. In view, however, 
of the fact that Martin Waldseemiiller under- 
took the principal task, and that the work 
represents in all its scientifically significant parts 

' Sec D'Avezac, I.e., p. 65. 



1 


Introduction 

intellectual property, we consider it a point 
honor to connect his name forever with the 
blication of the Cosmographitx Introductio. 
For this reason, also, we have chosen the 
iding of the edition of the 25th of April, 
07, containing his name and which must 
lographically be regarded as the editio princeps, 

reproduction in our facsimile edition. 
Martin Waldseemiiller' was born between 
70-1475, probably at Radoltszelt on Lake 
instance. It is established by documentary 
dence that his father had lived in Freiburg 
ce 1480, at least, and that in 1490 he became 



Introduction 

was therefore a clergyman in his native diocese 
of Constance. Subsequently, he became Canon 
at St. Di6, which position he occupied* until his 
death, about 1522. Probably Waldseemuller, as 
far back as 1505, was engaged at Strasburg, 
jointly with Philesius Ringmann, in the study of 
the geography and the maps of Ptolemy.' It is 
likely that before 1 507 he also spent some time in 
Basel and collated in its libraries manuscripts for 
the proposed edition of Ptolemy. While there 
he became a friend of the printer Amerbach.' 
In 1 507 we find both Waldseemuller and Ring- 
mann in the printing establishment of Walter 
Ludd at St. Di6. There Waldseemuller dis- 
played his many-sided activity. He was em- 
ployed as a printer — in his letter to the Duke 
Ren6, previously mentioned, he styles himself 
^^imprtmeur'' — and together with other mem- 
bers of the Gymnasium Vosagense he prepared 
a new edition of Ptolemy. At the same time, 
he worked on various portions of the important 
work now engaging our attention. 

We shall now proceed to examine more 
closely the several portions of the Waldsee- 
maller publications of 1507. 

'See Gdlois, Bulletin^ I.e., 221 sqq. 

*See Ringmann's letter from Strasburg, dated August i« 1505, 
in his edition, relative to the third expedition of Amerigo Vespucci, 
Di $ra Antarctica ^ Argentina 1505. 

'See Waldseemuller' s letter to Amerbach, cited above, dated 
April 5, 1507. 



1 


I 

THE OUTLINES OF COSMOGRAPHY 

Cosmographieg Introductio 

In the nine chapters of his Cosmographia 
•ttroductio, WaldseemQller treats the chief teach- 
igs of cosmography essentially according to 
aditional views. 

In the introduction he discusses the principal 
leorems of geometry as far as they are needed 
ir the understanding of geography; and he 



Outlines of Cosmography 

The original words of the two passages above 
referred to run thus: 

r . (p. 25) " ^arta orbispars [quam quia Amer- 
icus invenit, Amerigen quasi Americi terram sive 
Americam nuncupare licet)." 

z. (p. 30) "Sl^arta pars per Americum Vesputium 
{ut in sequentibus audietur) inventa est, quam non 
video, cur quis jure vetet, ab Americo inventore 
sagacis ingenii viro Amerigen quasi Americi terram 
sive Americam dicendam, cum et Europa et Asia 
a mulieribus sua sortita sint nomtna." 

WaldsecmQller himself carried out this pro- 
posal in his publication of 1 507, when he 
inscribed on both maps belonging to the Cosmo- 
graphia Introductio the word America as the 
name of the newly discovered continent. Both 
maps are stated to belong to the work not 
only on the title-page of the book, but also 
in several passages of the text ; in fact, 
Waldseemiiller declares outright that the out- 
lines of geography, called " Cosmograpkia Intro- 
ductio" was but an explanatory text for his large 
map of the world, — " Generate nostrum, pro cuius 
intelligentia hac scribimus." ' 

* See p. 13 of tbia fiiaimile edition. The expression •• gtnerak" 
u ilfo used eliewhere u synonymous with " Map of ihe World " and 
may be found in the letter of WildseemuUer to Amerbach, previoutly 
cited, and in the poem of dedicadon by Ringmann to the Emperor 
" (S= I.e., p. 2.) 



AMERICO VES 
§luatuor Americi Vespuci 

On the title-page of t\ 
which contains the account c 
of Amerigo Vespucci/ the tr. 
he had done it into Latin fr 
" de vulgari Gallico in Latini 

The dedication prefacing' 
of the journey runs thus: 

^^ Illustrissimo Renato Iherus. 
duct Lothoringia ac Bamensi^ 
humilem reverentiam et debitam 

According to this, Amerij 
evidently have sent the sto: 
written in French, to Ren6, t 
Jerusalem and Duke of Lorra 

Walter Ludd, too, declares 



Four Voyages of Vespucci 

work Ludd also informs us that it was he who 
urged its translation into Latin, and that he 
had entrusted Joh. Basinus with its execution: 
^^Sluarum etiam regionum descriptionem ex Portu- 
gallia ad te^ Illustrissime rex Renate^ gallico sermone 
missam "Joannes Basinus Sendacurius insignis poeta^ 
a me exoratus qua pollet elegantia latine interpret 



tavitr ' 



Now it seems very strange that an Italian like 
Amerigo Vespucci should have sent an account 
of his voyages from Portugal to the Duke of 
Lorraine and in the French language. It may 
be conceded that Duke Ren6 may have received 
the account of Amerigo Vespucci from Portugal 
at the same time when he received the Portu- 
guese • sea-charts, a question we shall consider 
later. It is possible, also, that Vespucci wrote 
his report in French, for we know that in his 
youth he sojourned in France for some time 
as secretary of one of his relatives, who was the 
Florentine envoy at the court of Louis XI.* 
But it is inconceivable that Amerigo Ves- 
pucci should have addressed his report to the 
Duke of Lorraine. With Duke Ren6 Vespucci 

* Concerning this work of the utmost rarity and interest see R . H. 
Mi^or, Memoir on a mappemonde by Leonardo da Vinci Archseologia 
Vol. XL. (London, 1865) p. 21 and 31; Harrisse, B,A,F. p. 99 
scq. D'Avczac, I.e., 65 ; F. v. Wicser, Magalhaes-Strasse, p. 118. 

•Cf. on this point G. Uzielli, Toscanelli 1893, p. 13 et seq., 
23 et seq.; L. GdUois, I.e., Bulletin 1900, p. 72. 

TI 



of his uncle, G. Antonio Ves 
we can entertain no doubt tl: 
send his account to Duke R< 
know that Vespucci was an 
fellow-student of his countr 
rini, subsequently Gonfalon 
The passage quoted from 
well as the address used, " Vut 
in the Italian edition of th 
tiones is quite applicable t< 
passages as well as others r< 
were inadvertently reprodu- 
translation, while all other 
the recipient of the letter w< 
fit Duke Rene of Lorraine. 

It seems more than prob 
wrote the account of hi{ 
Soderini in Italian. As a n 



Four Voyages of Vespucci 

exists a very ancient printed edition of the work 
which, while undated, must belong to the six- 
teenth century, judging from its typography.* 
This original Italian edition was then translated 
into French and thence into Latin by Basinus 
Sendacurius at St. Di6. Waldseemttller in the 
Cosmographia Introductio (p. i8) explicitly states: 
** ^atuor Navigationes ex Italico sermone in Gallic 
cum et ex Gallico in latinum versa'' It must 
be left undecided whether the French version 
was actually translated in Portugal as intimated 
by Walter Ludd, or whether it was made 
in Paris, a city with which Duke Ren6, of 
course, was in constant communication. It is 
also doubtful whether the flattering substitution 
of the name of Ren6 as the intended recipient 
of the report was made while it was being 
translated into French or by Basinus Sendacurius.' 

* In regard to the different edidons of the Vespucci letters and the 
literature dealing therewith, read besides the works cited above, 
D'AvezaCy Meaume, Gallois, and particularly Harrisse Bibliotbeca 
Americana Vetustissima^ p. 55 et seq., and Additions p. xxii et seq., 

F. A. de Vamhagen, Amerigo Vespucciy son car act ere, ses ecrits (m ernes 
lis moins authentiques), sa vie et ses navigations, Lima 1865, P- 9 ^^ 
seq. amd 27 et seq., amd the introductions of the 2 facsimile-edidons of 
the *«Lettera" by B. Quaritch, London 1885 and 1893. 

* The Latin text of Sendacurius was included by Simon Grynxus in 
hit well-known collection of voyages, Nov us or bis (Basel 1532, Paris 
1532, Basel 1537 and 1555; a German edition appeared 1534. In 
more recent times M. F. Navarrete reprinted the endre Latin text in 
his Coleccion de los viages y descubrimientos. III, Madrid 1829, 
p. 191 et seq.; F. A. de Vamhagen, Amerigo Vespucci p. 34 et seq.; 

G. Bcrchet Fonte Italiane per la storea della Scoperta del nuovo 
mondo, Rome 1893, et aq.; J. Boyd-Thacher, I.e., reproduces the 
report of the first voyage. 

13 



of the South American Contii 
ing to his own statement, c 
voyage he reached as far so 
second degree of latitude and 
inhospitable coast. 

In a separate account, dealir 
voyage and published in num< 
tions, he conceived the vast t 
southern hemisphere to be one 
and called it the "New \\ 



novus.'' 



It is therefore not surprisin 
mflller got the impression that h 
was the discoverer of the nev^ 
conceived the idea of calling tl: 
AMERICA in his honor. 



Ill 

WALDSEEMULLER'S LARGE WORLD 

MAP OF 1507 

Plate I 

The map of the world which belongs to the 
Cosmographia Introductio is called Universalis 
Cosmographia descriptio in piano on the title-page 
of the book.* Until quite recently this map was 
thought to be lost. From reduced copies 
made* by the Swiss cosmographer, Henricus 
Glareanus, which have but lately come to light, 
it was possible, however, to obtain a fair 

* The two maps belonging to the Cosmographia Introductio are 
fi^uently referred to in the text as " Totius orbis typus tarn in solido 
quam piano ^^* also " Cosmographia tarn soHda quam plana ^^^ or by 
other terms. Sec pp. 3, 4, 20, 37, etc., of our fiicsimile. 

• Of the two reductions of this map by Glareanus the one was 
found by Fr. v. Wieser in a copy of the Cosmographia Introductio 
belonging to the University Library at Munich, the other by A. Elter 
in a copy of the Ulm-Ptolemy of 1482 belonging to the University 
Library at Bonn. In this latter work it is explicitly stated, " Secutuj 
Geographum Deodatensem seu potius Vosagensem^ See Fr. v. Wieser, 
MagalhaeS'Strasse und Austral- Continent ; Innsbruck, 1 88 1 , pp. 1 2, 
26; A. Elter, De Henrico Glare ano geographo et antiquisstma 
forma ** America " commentatio ; festschrift der Bonner Universitat, 
1 896, p. 7 et seq. Sec also E. Oberhummer, Ztaei handschriftliche 
Karten des Glareanus in der Munchener- Universitatsbibliothek ( Jahres- 
bericht der Geogr.-Gesellschaft in MUnchen 1892, p. 67 sq.), Edw. 
Heawood, Glareanus, his Geography and Maps (in the Geographical 
Journal, London, 1905, p. 647 et seq.). C. F. Cloat, Glareanus 
(in the Royal Engineers Journal, 190$, p. 303). 

15 



oo 



the princely house of Waldburg 
A facsimile edition of this r 
the utmost importance to the h 
raphy and of the age of transn 
was published in 1903, togeth 
haustive commentary by Jos. Fi 
Wieser in both German and En 
Although Waldseemaller in t 
Introductio remarks that his mj 
dimensions than the globe; an< 
eanus in the Munich edition c 
more sharply emphasizes the 
Waldseemiiller's map/ the newlj 
print nevertheless caused a sensai 
of its impressive size, abundant 
the artistic merit of its adornm< 
consists of twelve sections engr; 

* Die alteste Karte mit dem Namen Amerih 



Waldseemuller' s Large Map of i^oj 

and is arranged in three zones, each of which 
contains four sections. Each section measures 
to its edge 45.5x62 cm. (18x24^ in.). The 
map, covering thus a space of three square 
meters — about 36 square feet — represents the 
earth's form in a modified Ptolemaic coniform 
projection with curved meridians. On the lower 
edge, in capital letters, the title is thus inscribed : 
^'UNIVERSALIS COSMOGRAPHIA SE- 
CUNDUM PTHOLOMMI TRADITIO- 
NEM ET.AMERICI VESPUCII ALIOR- 
UM^UE LUSTRATIONESr 

The name of the author of this work is no- 
Avhere stated nor the date or place of its pub- 
lication. By circumstantial evidence, however, 
it can be proved without the shadow of a doubt 
that at last we have Waldseemttller's long-lost 
large map of the earth, belonging to the Cosmo- 
graphia Introductio. Among these proofs are 
the following : 

1. Its perfect agreement with the two copies 
of Glareanus, both in projection and in the out- 
line of the several countries. 

2. The conformity of the map to all the 
statements made regarding its details in the 
Cosmographia Introduction such as: 

a. The title. Universalis Cosmographia. 

b. The designation of the several countries by 

means of the coats of arms of their re- 

17 



of Egypt, the Go! 
ing Irons of the 
Anchor of the G 
the Red Cross of 
Royal Arms of { 
the newly discove 

c. The use of small < 

places dangerous i 

d. The name of "An 

newly discovered 

e. The fact that the 

named and depict 

f. The agreement of i 

chart with those i: 

graphia Introductit 

3. The explicit referen 

by Waldseemiiller himself 

of \t\f\ wViirVi Viae i\\t^ c 



W aldseeniuller' s Large Map of i^oj 

quern ante annos paucos absolutum non sine grandt 
labore ex Ptolomei traditione^ auctore profecto pra 
nimia vetustate vix nostris temporibus cognito^ in 
lucem edideramus et in mille exemplaria exprimi 
curavimus. . . . Additis non paucis^ qua per mar- 
cum civem venetum . . . . et Cristoforum Colum- 
bum et Americum Vesputium capitaneos Portugal- 
lenses lustrata fuere . 

The antithesis of the Ptolemaic tradition and 
the new discoveries of the Spaniards and Portu- 
guese is pictorially expressed on the Waldsee- 
mailer map of 1 507 by the busts of Ptolemy 
and Amerigo Vespucci. 

The principal basis of Waldseemflller*s large 
mappemonde were no doubt the maps of 
Claudius Ptolemy, which Waldseemiiller knew 
from the Ptolemy edition published at Ulm in 
i486. The Tabula modema of the same edi- 
tion gave him additional aid in the representa- 
tion of Italy, Spain, France, and the territories 
of the North. In designing Germany, he made 
good use of Ezlaub's map for travelers,* pub- 
lished a short time previously. Another source 
of information were the travels of Marco Polo, 
which he utilized for his designs of northern 
and eastern Asia as well as of the southern and 

* Sec A. Wolkcnhaucr, Vber die alt est en Reisekarten von Deutsch- 
land aus dem Ende des Tf. u, ' dem Anfang des i6. Jahrhunderts 
(Deutsche Geographischc Blatter, vol. xzvi, fiisc. 3 & 4, Bremen^ 
1903). 

19 



— »' • A ' i^ •*& v« 



on the Globe of Martin Bel 
representation of the interio; 
was at Waldseemiiller's disp< 
Special Map of Abyssinia^ wl 
however, he wrongly localize 
Blue Nile appear to discharj 
the White Nile from the left 
the territory about Lake Tar 
South Afi'ica. 

For his designs of the Ian 
by the Spaniards and Port 
miiller, according to his o\^ 
lowed certain sea-charts, cart 
sumus* We can prove positiv 
miiller made use of two Por 
in preparing his large map of 
of them must have been of th< 
Hamy map, formerlv known as 



Waldseemuller' s Large Map of i^oj 

WaldseemuUer's principal cartographic source 
of information, however, regarding the newly 
discovered territories was, as we have shown in 
our earlier work,* the Canerio map^ From Canerio 
Waldseemuller borrowed both the outlines and 
the legends for the representation of the coasts 
of the New World and South Africa. 

The agreement of the two charts is so marked 
and extends to so many minor details of drawing 
in precisely the same places — as, for instance, 
the placing of the Padrios, of the elephant m 
South Africa, of the armorial bearings, etc., in 
precisely the same positions — that it could not 
have been a map of the Canerio type which served 
Waldseemuller as the chief reference for his great 
work, but must have been Canerio's map itself, 
now preserved in the Naval Archives of Paris. 

W aldseemuller' s great map of the world produced 
a profound and lasting impression on cartography ; 
it was a map of wholly new type and represented 
the earth with a grandeur never before attempted. 

Ere many years had elapsed, many reduced 
copies of the work appeared; for instance, in 
1 5 1 o the above-mentioned manuscript reproduc- 

Etudes hist, et geogr,, Paris, 1896. Sec also Nordcnskiold, Periplus, 
plate xlv. 

* Fischer and v. Wieser, The Oldest Map, p. 27 ct seq. 

• L. Gallois, Le Portulan de Nocolas de Canerio, in the Bulletin 
de la Societe de g'eogr, de Lyon, 1 890 ; G. Marcel, Reproductions de 
cartes et de globes, Paris, 1 893 ; Harrisse, Discovery of North America, 
pK »v. 

21 






the busts of Ptolemy and 
the upper edge of the larj 
reproduced in the origins 
by Joh. Stobnicza in his 
Cosmographiam^ printed in 
in manuscript form by G 
Manster. 

Waldseemiiller's map c 
widely spread by numeroi 
those of Joh. Schoner, '. 
Vadian, Sebastian Miins 
Kaspar Vopelius, and Abr 

In the little mappemor 
graphia^ attached to the 
the Rudimenta Cosmographic 
humanist, Joh. Honteru 
thence into other works, \ 
Map continued to exist ] 



IV 



WALDSEEMULLER'S GLOBE OF 1507 

Plate II 

The reference made in the title of the Cosmo- 
graphia Introductio to a ** Universalis cosmographia 
descriptio tarn in solido quam piano'' has been vari- 
ously interpreted by scholars studying Waldsee- 
maller's works. On the one hand the view was 
taken that the expression referred to two maps, 
one of which, in solido^ represented a small chart 
in the form of a planisphere ; while on the other 
hand it was contended that the words " tarn in 
solido quam piano *' signified but one complete map, 
on which small hemispherical supplementary 
maps had been inscribed in addition to the large 
chart.* This latter contention was apparently 
justified by the rediscovery of Waldseemuller's 
map of 1507; for here are actually two small 
supplementary maps above the large one, repre- 
senting, respectively, the Eastern and Western 
Hemisphere. On closer examination, however, 
it is clear that these two hemispherical charts 

* Breusing, Leitfad^n durch das Wiegenalter der Kartografhie^ 
Frankfurt, 1883, p. 31. 
•Eltcr, I.e., pp. 21, 23. 



grees of latitude; for whil 
equator is marked in accon 
tion derived from sea-charts 
the voyages of Vespucci, on 
according to the system oi 
however, we compare the '. 
with the main map, no dif 
ceived in their location of 
to the countries of the worl 
noticeable on the western o 
There exists, however, in 
tenstein Collection at Vien 
sentation of the terrestrial 
only one hitherto found,' wl 
statements published in -the 
duetto. The coast of Guinc 
proaches about ten degrees c 
than on the large map of 



fValdseemuller' s Globe of l^oy 

small charts representing the hemispheres. In 
Central America the Tropic of Cancer appears 
to the south of Hayti, while on the large map 
of the world its course is laid directly through 
the island of Isabella, or Cuba, as it is now 
called. 

In the representation of America on the 
Hauslab'Liechtenstein globe the degrees of lati- 
tude correspond exactly with those found on 
contemporary Spanish and Portuguese maps such 
as those of Juan de la Cosa, of Bartholomeo 
Colombo, of the Hamy map, of the Cantino, 
and of the Canerio maps. 

While the degrees of latitude of Africa do not 
exactly follow those of the Portuguese maps, 
Waldseemiillcr still being greatly influenced in 
these by Ptolemy, the Hauslab- Liechtenstein 
globe-strips correspond in every other particular 
with the details of the large map of 1 507. 

Attached to an edition of the Cosmographia 
Introductio published in Lyons there is a small 
printed chart representing the globe, which 
corresponds with the Hauslab- Liechtenstein copy 
not only in the drawing and the disposition of 
the various territories, but also in the degrees of 
latitude above mentioned. 

From all these fects we may safely infer that 
in the Hauslab-Liechtenstein globe-strips we 
possess the long-sought-for Waldseemiiller globe 

25 



u 



by John Grieninger, an extn 
and publisher, on which WaL 
milus) name appears as d 
Grieninger, who was give 
literature, at the same time ] 
translation of the S^uatuor Na 
two editions appeared in cl 
about Mid-Lent, the other 
supplement to this German 
an account of the four voyag 
pucci, a small booklet was f 
inger, entitled Der welt 
[Description of the Globe). ^ 

^ F. A. de Varnhflgeiiy Jo, Scbdmr < 
Infiuencia de um o outro e de varies de set 
1872, p. 47 et teq. L. Gtllois, Les 
Renaissance^ Paris, 1 890, p. 48 et seq. , tn< 

• Cosmographia Introductio P. 

opus Ingeniosus vir Joannes Griniger, 
super sesquimillesimum ncno. Harrisse, B 



Waldseemuller^s Globe of i^oj 

A few months later, toward the end of Au- 
gust, 1509, another publication by Grieninger 
appeared, entitled Globus mundi declaration which 
is a Latin translation of T>er welt kugel Beschry^ 
bung. In both these descriptions of the globe, 
reference is made not only to a small sphere 
belonging to the work but also to " unser grosse 
Mappa.''^ Considering all that has been said 
we cannot resist the conjecture that by this small 
globe and this large " Mappa*' are meant Wald- 
seemtlller's two charts and that they are new 
impressions from the original woodcuts of 
1507/ 

As regards the large map of the world this 
may be unhesitatingly admitted, for there is 
nothing whatever known of a later edition ; and 

tnUhs hie angezogt und vergUicht iiner rotunden kuglen, die dan 
jnnderlich gematht hie zu gehirende, darin der Kauffman und ein 
ietiicher sehen und mercken mag^ toie die menschen unden gegen uns 
wemen und wie die son umhgang, herin beschriben mit vil seltzamen 
Jimgen, Getruckt zu Strassburg. Von Johanne Gruniger im yar 
M.D. IX uffostern, Johanne Adelpho castigatore, Harrisscy Add,, 
p. 43 ct acq. 

' fFsi toeit aber also sei von einem ort zu dem andern, daz ist 
mjsslich in dieser kleinen Kuglen zi toussen der grad halb so alhie nit 
mogen beschriben noch beziichnet werdenn, sonder so du das begerest 
zg missen, Mustu unser grosse Mappa anschautoen, ** Der welt Kugel 
Bisebrybung,** Ctp. zu. 

In the Latin edition. Globus mundi declaration this pftragraph reads 
ct foQows : Quantum vero locus unus a reliquo distat, difficile cognitu 
4tt in hoc parvo globo propter gradus qui assignari omnes non possunt in 
40. Si vero idipsum scire volueris mappam majorem considerabis cos' 
Mographia plarnt, in quacertius ac verius apprehendes secundum longum 
at latum extensos. 

'This o|»nion was ab-eady (1900) set forth by L. Gallois, 
Bulletin^ I.e., p. 78 et seq. 

27 



of the small globe in Germa 
this important aid to the s 
coveries accessible to the ge 
representation of the globe 
both the German and Lati 
point to this. This vignette 
sphere on which the varioi 
tributed in exactly the same 
large globe of i 507, but w 
The small slice of the newly 
Continent does not bear the 
ica," but that of "niiw welt 
From this it must not, 1: 
that the German globe did : 
word "America," as in th 
tion of the globe both e: 
indifferently to designate t\ 

prpH hv Vesnucci. 



W aldseemuller s Globe of j^oj 

Tabula terra nova of the Ptolemy edition pub- 
lished in Strasburg, 1 5 1 3, the map of the world 
in the Strasburg edition of the Margarita philo- 
sophica of 1515, and the large Carta Marina of 
1516. 

Waldseemuller subsequently became con- 
vinced that Amerigo Vespucci should not be 
regarded as the true discoverer of the New 
World as he believed in 1507. His attempt, 
however, to withdraw the word ^^ America^' a 
name he himself invented and used, proved a 
failure; for his works, published in 1507, had 
been rapidly spread far and wide in numberless 
prints, copies, and versions. As early as 1508 
Waldseemuller wrote with just pride to his 
friend and co-worker, Philesius Ringmann, that 
his globe and world-map of 1507 were dis- 
seminated and known and highly commended 
throughout the whole world.* In accordance 
with the proposal made by Waldseemuller in 
1507, the name America was, for the time 
being, restricted to the southern part of the 
New World. After the lapse of three decades, 
however, another German cartographer applied 
the name America to the northern portion of 
the Western Hemisphere. On Gerhard Mer- 

* " Cosmographiam universalem tarn solidam quam planam non sine 
gloria et laude per orbem disseminatam.^* These words are found in 
Waldsccmliller's treatise, *' Architecture et Perspective Rudimentay^ 
published, 1 508, in the Strasburg edition of the Margarita philosophica, 

29 



Mercator, the great reforr 
who knew the New Worl( 
tinent, was the first to introc 
ical literature the names Is 
South America. 



* This map of Mercator, only one a 
library of the American Geographical Sod 
the Facsimile-Atlas of Nordenskiold, plate 



u 




COSMOGRAPHIAE INTTIODV; 

CTIO/CVMQ.VIBVS 

DAM GEOMB 

TRIAE 

AC 

ASTRONO 

MIAE PRINCIPIISAD 

BAM RJEM NECESSARa& 



Infuperquatuor Amend V<* 
(puci) nauigaciones* 

VnmcrraIfs'Co(mographif dcfirfptia 
tarn in (blfdo q^ ptano/ds etiam 
infertis quf Pcholom^o 
ignota a nupeiis 
' reperta funt» 



* 



OISTICHOR 




Cum deus aflra regat/S^ terrae di'mata CaeGir 
Nee tellus nee ds (ydera maius habent^. 

Eft: fopciW K^vtrT^rn ifM^t^tlTTl, 






M c> X. - 



I 



Atc]^ freta Herculeo nomine m 
Q^tiac^ dies medius flagranti fydi 

Congelat Sc Septem terga maj 
Aciubeas regu magnorum maxii 

Mida ad arbicrium iura fubire t 
Hinc tibi deuoca generale hoc me 

Quimirapra^fens arteparauic 



DIVO MAXTMILIANOCAESARIAV 

GVSTO MARTINVS ILACO 

MILVS FOCLICITA 

TEMOPTAT. 

Simultasadpfliregiones/Sfpopuloruvltimos 
Vtdifle/no folu voluptariu fed etiam in vita coduci 
bile eftcquod in Platone/ApoUonioThyanaEO 
atcpalrjs multis philofophis/quiindagandarureR: 
caufaremotifTiiTias oras petiucrut /clarum euadit) 
quis oro inuifliffime Ca:far Maximiliane / rcgio 
jiSatc^vrbiumfitus/Sfexttrnorum hominum 
Q^aos vid£ t condens radios Tub vndas 
Phodius extremo venicns ab orcu : 
Quos pronunt Sepcem gelidiTriones : 
Q_uos Nothus ficco violcntus jftu 
Tomrt ardcntes recoquens harenas. Quis inqui 
iUotuomniiiritus ae mores ex libris cognofcere in 
cundii ac vnle efTe inficias ibitfSane ( vt dica quod 
nieafert opinio }Gaitlongt{nmcperegrinari lauda 
bile efi/ ita de quis cui iple terraru orbis vel ex Tola 
^arcara traditione cognitus eft/no abfurde repeti 
identidc poteft illudOdilTea: caput quod doflidi Home* 
fnuspoetaruHomerusdeVlinTefcriprit. rus 

Die mihi muTa viru captse poR cempora Troia: 
Qlli mores hominu multorum vidit Sc vrbes. 
HincfaAiieflvtmelibros Pcholom^i adexeplar 
Grjcii quorandl ope p virHi recognorcete/& qua 
tuorAmetidVelpucii nauigaaonulun:ra;ioes sdi) 
<iete:tociusorbiscypiicSinfoUdo^pIano(veluc A H 



fiflimo in eis rebus iudicio aliqu 
mc fatis foecifTe intellexcro ♦ Va 
Ex oppido diui Deodati* Anno 
tcm hipra fefquimillefimu feptir 

TRACTANDORVW 

Cu Cofmographia:! noada fii 
aftronomif cognitione/et ipa et 
Gcometria? pridprjs pignc habe 
primo in hac fuccic^a inrodudliS 
mctrig inchoamentis ad (pherj n 

t Deide gd fphera/axis/ poll &o 

J De coeli drculis; 

^ Ciuanda ipfius fpherj (ecundu g 

5 De quinc^ Zonis c^Ieftibus 
carandec]^ & graduu codi ad tcr 

* De ParaleDis^ 

7 De dimatibus o Ais^ 

* De ven tis cii eoRz et aliai^ rem fi j 




DE PRINCIPnS GEOMETRIAE AD 
SPHBRAE NOTICIAM NE* 
CESSARIIS 
CAP VT PRIM VM, 

j VIA IN SEQ.VENTIB VS 

I metri/et I'd genus alionim crebra 
I mentio fiet : ideo primum nobis 

J fingillatim de lalibus breuiflime 

tra(5landum venit 

EH igitur Circulus / ligura plana vna quidcm 
circumdu(fla linea contencarin cuius medio pun« 
<!lus tft/ a quo omnes rcSx lineae ad circudantem 
lineam eduAdt adinuicem funt gquales. 

Figura plana/efl cuius mediii no fubfultat/ne^ 
ab extremis egreditur. 

Circuferentia/eft linea circulu contincns ad qui 
omnes rcAx lineg a centra circuit eie^% inter fe fljc 
zquales/quac & ambitus/& circuitus/curuaturacp 
ac circulus a latinis/gr^ce autem pen'pheria didtur. 

Ccntru circuli/eit punifhis illea quo omes reftg 
adlineaciinil(icontinenteedu(5lx adinuicem Tunc 
{quales. 

Oimidius drculus/efl figura plana diametro cir 
Culi 8^ medietate drcuferentix content a. 
• Diameter circuli/ eft qu|c5^ linea refla per ecu 



crafiguraepaiticulaalincf com 
ncm lurgc ns, 

Angulus re(niis/crt: angulus ( 
cadcnte/8^ vtrinCp altiin(ccus t 
les angulos Bidente caufacusiqi 
tineiic rc<f^Uncus:fi curu§/curu i 
Obtufus c d c re<flo maior. A 

Solidii/cft corpus longicudii 
dUiec^ dimenfum. 

Alritudo/craflidcs /profundi 

Integrum eft res coca/aut reipa; 
parcicione non prouenic. 
jMinutum/eft fexagefima integ 
Sccundum/fexageUma pars mi 
Tcrriu fexagefima fccundi/& it 

CAPVT SECVNDVM Q 

axis/poli S^c.ftricflifTim 
Anteacp aliquis Cofmograp 



nr n r % 



INCHOAMENTA 
fputio lafias illufirata fadlius intelKget.Ig?. 

Spheracvt ea TJieodoflus inlibro de fpheris dcB 
niOefolida&corporeafigura vuaquidc couexaTnW* 
fuperficiecotenta/inoJius medio pu(fhis c/aquo^ofiust 
omnes reds ad circuferenria «du<!lj adinuicc funt 
fquaies.Eccucvc neoterids placet )decem ii'miphe 
ne coeleftes fit matciialis Iphera ad inftar 0(fiau;(q 
quod Itellifera fit aplanes didtur)exclrculis artitid 
dalirer adinuicem iun<f^is per virgulam & axe me 
dium centrannquj terra eft Jtangctem copofita. 

Axis fpherap/eftlineapcrcentru fpher^traliens 
ex vtra(^ parte fuas extremitates ad fphcrx drcu^ 
fcrentia applicas:drca quam fphera /ficut rota dr« 
ca axem cam( qui ftipes teres eft) intorqtui Sc cS 
tiertitur/eftcp ipfius drculi diamctrus . De ^ Mani 
Bus ita loquitur. M, 

Aera per gelidum tenuis dedurituraxij 'jis, 

Sydereus medium drca quem voluiturorbis 

Poli c qui &r cardines & vertices dicuntur ) funt 
punifla coeli axem terminantia/ita fi'xa ut nu^ mo 
ueantur fed perpetuo code loco maneant. Et qu{ 
liic de axe ac polis dicuntur ad oiflaua Ipherara re 
lereda funt . Ciuoniam in prfTentiarum materiaUs 
fphera; detetmiationf/q (ut diximus) o dtau; Iphe 
lae Cmilitudinem habet/fyfcjpimus.Sunt ita<p eo# 
riiduoprindpales/vnus Septemtrionaliscqui 8; 
>jkdicus ScBorealis apclbtur/alcer Auftralis/que 
A iiij 



ro maiorcVrfa q 8C Califco 8C 

ptetiionalis a feptc ftellis plaul 

-J ,|. tancz&rucminoris Vrfa^/qua 

^*P^'^ adpeUant . Vnde Mantuanus 

K^axtae. j*^ nobis Elicc nobis Cynofur 

Te duce vela damus«&G Item 

nJcus ab eius mudi parte vcnto 

lis vocare adieuerunr.Huic op 

cus/vn & nome (ordt. Nam ai 

ne cotra (ignificat As & Nochi< 

cus dicic: ac<^ a nobis propter i 

dcuexus videri non poteft/fed 

cffe copertu e)cerni£. Vbi & ob 

Deuexu/rei fphericf tu more^ 

Coucxuj^o cius cotrariu e(l/i 

Sunt pr^terea duo alf) poll ip(ii 

coelo circulos ar(flicrLf.& antar 

Veru quia zodiaci & arcftici at( 

<celo rut circuIi)mentionc foecu: 



RVDIMFNTA 

ditunt (n fpera & coelo no reucra qui'dein exilf en> 
tes fed miaginabiIes:maiorcs.f.& minores. 

Maior circulus is eft/qu j in couexa fupficic Cpht 
ti defcriptus ipfam in duo ;qua diuidit/ horn luiit 
fex.Aequacor.r. Zodiacus/Colurus xquino(flio« 
lU/Cohmis rolfticioi«/ Meridianus /& Horizon; 

Circulus minor in fphera c qui in cade fpher; fu 
jiaficit defcriptus fpheram itiinime in duo {qua di 
uiditTales funt quatuor. Ariflicus/ Cancri/ Capri 
comi/& Antari^icus. Ita fummacim (lint decc de 
quibus debita fcrie et primo quidcm de maioribuK 
dicemus. 

AequatorcquiStTprimimobilisa'ngulus/etfquI 
noAialis dicit ) eft circulus maior fpheram in duo 
sequalia diuidens/fecuiidum quamlibet fui partem 
ab vtro^ polo f que diilans.Sic dictus quonia fo f 
!e ipfum rranfeuntec q uod bis in anno in prindpio 
arietis.f.mcfe Mariio/8^ prlcipio librj mcnfefep^ 
tembri contingit) toto tcrraru orbc acquinotflium 
iC dies no(fli iequalis eft. 

Aequinodliu Marci) /arietis/vcmale; 

AequinodliumScptembris/libr^/authumnale; 
^odiacus/eftciratlus maior xquatorcm in duo 
bus pun<ftis(qu{ funt principia arieris & librae )dirj 
mens/cuius vna medictatu ad feptcmcrione/altera 
veroadAuftrumdecIinat.Ita diAusvela zodion 
^uodaninialfignificac/qin duodccim animalia in 



In media zodiaci latitudine c 
in duo gquaparticsct vitro cj 
reliaqns itcUigitiqua Ediptid 
^ (blis aut lunx dcliquiii Sc e< 
eofum vtertp fub ea linca in e 
gradibus decurrat.In eodem d 
quiumJnoppofitis vero fi ipfi 
per (ub'ea linca mcdius incedi 
Luna aut Sc cxteri planetarur 
dtra vd vltra c^qjaciati vagant 

Duo funt in fphera coluri/q 
itodHa diftinguuclta a Colon 
brum Ggnificat/8d vris bobus( 
Caefar^ Elephantu Ca^far cSmentarioi 
filuaeffe ait) dicfh/qm ficut cau 
crecfla femicirculu dC non com] 
colurus fempcr imperfecflus ap 
dietas|videtur/cum alia fit occu 
& ^ Colurus folftidoru oui 8c d 



RVDIMENTA 

ellperprindpiaarietis aclibrae/S^mudipoIos tiS 
Hens. 

Meridianus efl: ctrculus maior per pisnAu verd 9 
CIS & polos munditranfiens. Tales in gcneralibus 
|ioftris tarn fblido 9P piano decern gradibus abin^ 
nice diftinximus^ Efl aut pudu verddscquod 8C 
zenith didt }in ccdo pu(fhis direifle rd fuppoficus^ 

Horizoncquem finitore quo^ dicunt) eft fphe^ ^ 
tx drcuius maior fuperius hemiipherium (id eft dl 
midiu {phera^)ab infeiiori diuidens.EftCjp is in que 
(ub diuo cDnnftentiu /drcuducendumc^ oculos vi 
det obtutus deficeretqui et partem coeli vifam a no 
vifa dirimere cernitunDiucrfaru aut regionu vanV 
us eft horizon : &r omniu horizondu capitis ver-^ 
sex/ polus didt * Nam tale pun^u omniqua<]p ab 
finitore atc^ ipfo hohzonte ^que diftat. Et hare de 
circuHs maioribtis/nuncadminores veniamus'^ 

Circulus ar(fticus e circulus minor que polus zo^ 
diad admotupriniimobilisdrcapolu mundi ar# 
ifticum defcribit^ 

Antardlicus / eft drcuius minor que alter polus 9 
zodiad drca polii mundi antardhcii caufat at^ de 
loibitlSiucupamus autpolu zodiad( de quo etiS 
fuperiori capite diximus )pun(fHi vndecuc]^ ab edt 
pnca (que diftante* Sut em poli zodiad axis eclip# 
dc^ extreitates . Et ^ta e maxia fblis declinado(de 

gmoj; plursi)tataepoIizod a polomudidiftati» 



X] 





SPHERAE MATE. 

ropicusCancricft/circuIus minor cjucmfbl in 
cipi'o cancri exiftes ad motu primi mobilis dc* 
it/qui & {blflricium eftiuu dicinir. 
ropicuscapricorni/eftdrculus minor cjue fol 
i capricorni tcncns ad mocii primi mobtlis de* 
icHunc ettam circulii brumg dicimus. 
^tcrum quia decUnacionis mentionc fccdmus 
annotandii. 

ecb'nationc eiTe quando To! de ^quinotTtiali aA 
picS cancri fcandic/vcl ad capticorni tropiaiii 
315 dcfcendit. 
fcenfionc pro cotrario accipimus/qn.r a rro* 



(RVDIMEIOTA 

QuiiiJp«iicritcodu'2onae:<i|Uii5vfla Wrufeo : 
Semper folc rabens/ & torrida fempcr ab igni eft 
Q^uam circu cxcremx dextra Ixuace trahuntui 
Cerulea gtade concrete ac(^[himbriDus atris/' 
Has inter mediam<^ dua; morcali^us xgris 
Munereconcen[{diuu:& viafeflaperambas 
Obliquus qua fe fignorij veneret ordo. 

i3e quam qualitate in fequentibus plura dicent^ 
C^uii-^o fupcriustctigimus qjpolus ^odiacijcic 
culii arcflicu dcfcnbatrideo pro vlteriori Tpeculacio 
neickndu hocdefuperioh Zodiici polo ( qui in 
tftf.gradu &.9,min.elcuatiois fitus c/at(^ a polo ar 
^co.25i.gradibusac.ji.mi.diftat5TtelIigioportere; 

Vbi Sc illud non ignorandfi Gradum criccfimS '^'*~ 
figni partem clTe . Et Signu duodecimain circuU> Sign* 
Ac trigtnta duodecies mTtiplicata. jso.redduc 
Quare liquiduenaditquodgradusiteru tricente 
(tma et fexagelima cii culi pars efle defiriiri pofTet. 

Circulum aut. Ancariflicum polus Zodiaci infe 
rior dercribit:qui in eodc gradu dcclinationis fitus 
cd: ct ;que a polo antaraico diftatficut fupetiot 
abarAico. 

Tropicucancri/eclipticxreflexio/fiuc maxima 
folis iKas feptemtrione dee1ijiaiio( qu; ab (quiilQ 
diaUad3}:grad:&.;i.miii.Gtaefl:)de(!gnat. 

Tiopicu capricomt alia Eclypticaejrcflexio/ Guc 

B 



SPHERAE MATE. 

na foils y(usAuifatimdcdiruti6(qu;adtO» 
ngradusGcutprfdiiflaGu eft)defchbic, 
Ittancia inter cropicucanm& drcqlu arAicu 
jz. graduu & .i3 .min. Totidcm cQ'am graduii 
liftantia inter tropicu capiicomi 8c drculum 
l-iflicuin. 

equatoremmedjscoeUampIicudo apolis ma 
Juediftans elfidt. 

tvCcp de quincp zonJs 8c earum abinuicem di^ 
lia.ccirequenterctiamftrii%mdeteU(]uis qu{ 
Itradrmus. 

1 zodiad eiiis ipGus poli oft<ndut/a qui« 



RVDIMENTA 

Iphaiu hoUru ab alteto per folis orcu 8C OCcaCuau 
His veroquj Tub xquinoiftiali funt per vtrofqr mu 
di polos.ct diflat femper lenithinomnihorizoce 
Jib ipHus circuferentia.^b.gradibus qui funt quarts 
pars drcuM.Bdcp peripheria hohzontis quacer di* 
Aantiam inter zenith &honzontaruperaiis* 

Id demij animaduerfione no eflindignum axem 
sniidi in maten'ali fphera diametralitcr ab eiufdem 
|>oU5 per ceiitru mundicqug eft terra) tranfire. 

Axis vero zodiad in fphera no apparet fed intel 
ligendus eft.& hie axem mundi medium ad angtw 
los impares Cue obliquos in centro iiiterfecat. 

Hoc mo do in ipfa mundi fabnca mirabilis feri<s 
& reru ordo pr^dpuus efl* videturtcuius imagine 
veteres aHTOnomi defcribentes faAoris ipfius qua 
turn fieri potui'c veftigiacqui omnia in numero p6« 
dere 3^ menrurafoccit)fequuti funt.Nos quocp ea 
de re craiflantes fpacrj tniquitate fic exdufi vt ratio 
minutoru non vel vix poflit obferuari/& G obfer^ 
uaretur etiam tedium cum errorc gigticret/ a pl«# 
nis^aduumannotationibus circulorum poGtio^ 
nem (umemus. Nam non multum didat inter .51* 
tnin. &C plenum gradum qui fexagtnta minuta con 
tinet ficuti fupradiximus/atc^ in libro de fphera 8C 
aliubi ab harum rerum ftudiofis examufUm deda^ 
ratur.Itacpin figuraquam pro talium intelUgen* 
tiahoctoco fubiungemus ipfi bin! tropici cancri.fl 

B q 



RVDIMENTA 

Dc qui'n^ Zonis cccleflibus /cimniantf 

&craduu coeli ad terra applicadonc. 
CAPVTQVINTVM 
Hadlenus brcuidime dc nonullis Gcomettifpit 
fjpiis/dcfphcn/polisyquinqjZonis/atcpipfismB 
a circur/rcrucp taliu <)uada7 hcorica diximus:nuc 
Te<f}o(nifallor)ordinedcappticatione horu dmi« 
loru & graduu ad ipam terra fufripiendadetctmi^ 
natio vcnit.Hrgo i^j ffcicndu cfl in terra <{ui<p pla Oubdf 
gas per zonas pr«diftas diftingui. Vnde ct Ouidii 
us in Methamoiphofi ait. 
Vtc^ dux dextra cotlum toridcmj^ GniOra 
PaxtcGxant zon<r/quinca efl ardentiorillis 
Siconus inclufum numcro diftinxit codem 
Cura dei:totidcmqj plage tdlureprcTOunttir 
Q^uatu que media til non ell habitabilis {fhl 
Nix regit alta duas/totidcin inter vtraf<J locanit 
Tcmperiemfp dedit mixta eu frigore flamma. 

Et\tresapertiorfiat/quatuorininores drcnli 
Arfticus/cantfri/eapricormV & antan^'cus difter* 
ininant diftinguiitq;quin<poxK zonas. Vt(verbi 
caura)eflo in Kqnenti figura.a. pohis mundi arAV 
cus/b.c.eircrus Borcus/d.e.rirculus Cancri/f.g.cir 
«uluseapiicorni/Ji.k.atar<3icus/I. ifopolnsNothJ 
cus.Erit pnnia2ona.f. Borea arflicatB totn inter.b 
a.e.intereeptu fpaciu/queperpemo mgorcrigeDS 
inhabitata ed. Sectida erit totuinlntcr.b.c.et.d.ri 

B ii) 



t^uarta elt totu intcnl.g.et.h» 
ztcp habicabilis/n aquaru vafl 
cics id impune Gnat. Q^uinca i 
tntcrdufum fpaciu (rigore fern 
^ Cum aut dicimus aliqua coe 
nam vel habicata vd mhabitai 
nema{imilizona tcrrae illi coe 
intelligi voIumus:& qn habiCi 
dmus/bene & facile habitabil 
tatam vcl inhabitabile/egre di 
intdliomus.Suntemqiu exu 
nam nuc hadbicanc mulct. Vt qi 
team incoiut/vtTaprobanen( 
xima pars terrg femper incogr 
CD Vcfputio r^ercf^Qua de i 
iungennir nauigationes ex lea 
licum/&exGallico in latinun 
Itaq^ (aendu quod ( vt 8c fu 
ffa)prima zona q polo ar(flico i 



RVDIMENTA 
Qaarta qu{ par eft /totidein 
Quintajfo torrida & media gradia.«7;8(,ju> mt. 
Scd horii quendam cypum ponamus. 



PolusAi^cus 




PolusAatar& 





SPHERAE MATE. 

CAPVT SEXTVM 
DE PARALELUS 

iralelli(qui 8c Almucanttiarat dicunftrunt cir 
r^tinegquoquo verfus/at^ ex omni parte 
?diftantes/& nuncp (i poBent etiam in infini4 
{Mrahl cScurrentcs.Q^ualis eft in fphcra cqu» 
Lun alrjs quatuor circulis minoribus. No quii 
itu primus afecundo/cantum fecundusa t^rf 
iftet :nani hoc falfum cft/vt ex prjcedetibus \i 
/fcdtpquilibct duo ciroili Hinuliuncli fcfun* 
iSlibec (uigtc jque abinuice fine diftatcs. Na 
cft^qaatorex vna partealtero tropicoru^ 



PanlcUi gradus Hor^dicf QuotmilU; 

abtquat. cceli riima. fa.gra. vnm 



t»Di»taes8 \sf {lo 



1I5T 



JJ8_ 



I 



IjH. 



\!L 



f° 



ija^ 



Ji2_ 



-hi. 



jisDiarhi p.7 |;t.i [ ig-j 



3j: 



Jjg-ii I 'y.J fg 



uDiarho.y'J ) flo.i.t.ti {ty 



)8.1rf |i<i.i.it |«6.i 



loDiarhod.jt |jg \ifui {fo 



aPiaalex.} | ?0.^ 1 1» 



1S.4 



tr.ii |-?.ia 



tPialienesi [i?.i.^ |i3.i 



aPiamero.i |i<>.tii |ij 



jni3r 



IS.4 



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J 3 

I a. 



lt» I oc l»cT Inn 5" 



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Ae^torapolisjqdiOansliacotinue 


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RVDIMBNTA 

De difflatibm caput, vij. 

Licet dimaproprifregio iataprffetar/hoe ta 
meii loco fpadu tor; inter duas (quediftantes ap4 
pellatur/in quo porrecHiflim; did ab initio dimada 
vfcp adfinemdimidi9lior£variatioeft.Etquott3 
aliquod clima ab {quatore (uerit/tot fonihoris Ion 
oifCmacius loci dies fupcrat diemno^ {qualem. 
bunta ipfonim Septemgemiiia:Snis ad auftnim 
noritreptimumadhucIultratum.SedBoreamver Q 
fusPtholomeusterramfeptemlemihorani fpacio 3^ 
ho&italem Sc habitabile inuenit:qu{ feptem clima S 
a ab inligni aut Vibe/aut fluuio/autmote fua no i< 
minafuntfoitita. 

PrimudidturDiaMerocs/adiaquodapudm ^ 
COS per Ggnificat/& cafu patrio iungit. Ate^ a Me 
toe qu{ e Africj ciuica: in torrida zona citra ;qua< 
toreafi.gradibus (ita/in quo paralello & ipfe Ni< 
Iuse(reinuemtur.Eius/& fubfequetiumetiaimtiS 
medium & finem at<^ maxim; did in quolibet ipo 
turn horas generale nolhnicpro cuius intelligentiii 
hfcrcribimusltibiliquido oflcndet. 

OiaSienes a Siene Aegipti vrbe/quod e^uTd£ t 
Th^aidos prindpium 

OiaAlexandrias .Ab Alexandria infignivtbe j 
Afifcse Aegipti Metropoli: quam Alexander Ma 
gnuscondidit:dequodii!lueftapoeta;Vnus Pd 
Itoluoeoinonfulficicoibis. 

aij 





SPHERAE MAX 

iaRhodon/aRliodoAfi?minorisinruh;qu{ 
linomioisinearitamnoftra tempeftate darS 
atcmhabct/foniterThurcaru cfferos bcllicof 
ipctus rudincncem/atc^ profligantcm gencro 
nc. 

iaRfiomcs /abvrte Europe notiffima/itcrlta 
maximc clara/& infigiii olim gentiu domitru 
t<^ orbis capitf/nucpatris patru maximi fedc. 
liaBorifcbcnes /amagnoScytharu fluuio qui 
[uartus ab Hiftro. 

'laRhiphcon/a Riphcis montibus qui in Saw 
ica Europa infiones funt perpetua niue candc 

l^bis inrionibus fods pcrqugfermc climamm 



RVDIMBNTA 

Rhomes/ antidiaBorifHienes: a gr^a gtfeula ami 
q op{K>(kthrd cocra denocat* Atc^ in fexto dimate 
AntarcSku verrus/&paxs exorema Afrioe ntiper 
vepe]ta&/Ziamzibar/Iaua iiunor/& Seula inuil£ 
dCquarcaorbisparscquaihquiaAmericusinueuk ^ 
Ameiigen /qwm Amend terra / (uie Amenca nua Afflcri 
cupare licet) {it»{unt:*De quibus Auftrak1>ns di^ ge 
tnatibiis hf c P<Mnponij Mdig Geographi verba in 
tdligeda (unt /vbi ait.Zon| habitwiles parta ag^ Popo; 
aanitempora/vetunopariter.Antidithones alte# Mdlse 
xam/nos alteram incoiumis«IlItu8 iitus ob ardore in 
tercedends plag9 incogmtus/huiiss dicendus e-H:* 
Vbi animaduertendumeft quoddimatu quod(|i 
alios ^ aliud pleru<p foetus ^ducat/dx diuerf^Cut 
natiur^^ alia atc^ alia iyderii virtute moderentim 
VndcVirgflius* 

Nee veraterr^ferreomnes omnia poflunc VergiV 

Hie fegetes/illic veniunt fixlidus vug lius 

Aibord fcetus a]ibt/at(|r iniuila vire(cunt 
Gramia.Noilt vides croceos vtHimolus odores 
India mittit eburCmittut (itathura Sabfi 
AtC^ybes nudi ferrtbvirofac^ pontus 
Cofterea.Eliadu palmas Ep iros equaru &c, 
OCTAVVM CAPVT DE VENTTS, 

• Q,aoniI in fiipenonbus vimtoru aliqiiando in# 
ddentermemores fuimns( cii€ poluBoreii/polii 
Nothidi/atc^id genus silia d6dmus)&; iprorace^ 

€1 ii) 



XXV 



Venfo 
rii (on 

ma* 



terrain mota&c. 

Quia vero fol fecundu I 
jqtorc triplice ortu ditcp oa 
<fbaie/ac hyemaic feruatieti 
feptctrionis vtrinc^ fint lat 
priu vcnru habetrio fumati 
entis/rres ocddentis/totidi 
&is toddciex gbus qtuor c 
diu locu tenebut pricipalio 

< 



Collate 
McdijT 



CoUat. 



| 1rop>Canc )i 
lAequator* jSi 

TropXiapTJEi 

i& 



CoUat. 



Mcdii 



T 



Mem 
iuro 



jAuft< 



,RVDIMENTA 

P6tt^ tri mius prldpales ( j et cbtfaf ales dicS^ 
i> prindpalioribus ex Ucendac vc fuus Chi mos eftl /% • jf^ 
^i«parcc5fueu«untHtac&Ouidiu.aft ^"^ 

Eunis ad Aurora Nabathgai!^ i^gn^ recefliC 
PerHdacB Sc radt)s iuga fubdica matudtiis. 
VcQxnr oC Occjduo qu^ litcora (ble tepefamt 
ProximafutZcphirocScydiiam/feptec^ Triones 
Hornfer iuiiafit Boreas/contraria tellus 
Nubibus a(nduis/pluuio<^ madeCat ab Auftio 

Eft auce Subfolani aura faiubenitna /qug aCble 
purior & fubdiior alijs efficicur. 

Zephirus Calons et humoris temperiem babes xr^^Qt. 
mondu pruinas refbiuit. Vn e illud Vergiii) Liqui ^ 
tur et punis Zephi'ro fe gl^ba refoluit* 

Auftri flatus crebro tempcdatu/^cellaru /at^ 
lunbriu pfagus e.'Q.uarc 8c Nazo infit. Madidis Qu^sr. 
JNothus euoiat alis. 

Aauilo fuo rigorc aquas Iigat/atque condringit 
Vtr. cc gladalis hyems Aqutloibus a(perat vn£ts Vtr^* 

tin deventisGailinariunodru mtdt^ do(5bin9 Galluia 
virii (equetes quatuor edere verficulos meminL nus, 
Eu nis et Eoo flat. Sublblanus ab ortu* 
Fladbus occafum ZephiruCcp Fauonius impfenti; 
Aufter in extremis Lybia? etNothus $ftuatoris* 
Sudificus Boreas Aquitoc;^ minatur ab axe. 

Et licet ved feptentnonaies Tint natura fngidt/ 
nihilotainen minus quando tOnidamzonampcr a Jiff 



xxvn 





COSMOGRAPHIAE 

rennt/mitigantuKficut&rdeAuftK) torriJam 

lam antea^ ad nos veniat Iranfcuntc/copmS 

!2.uod fequentibus verfibus infinuatur. 

0(5^ loco prodit gdidusforitAuftcr/&aK3is 

ft aquas vindis/at dum per torrida flam 

Era tranficrit/noftras captandus in oras 

ieat:&Bore^(euifTimatela rtcorquet 

c contra Boreas nobis grauis/orbc fubimo 

atione pari moderatis leuior alis. 

era mox varies quacurfus flaminamittum 

an: propria naturamfcdiseundo. 

jcufcp de ventis dicSS fuffidat-Ponannis nuc 

omniii figuravniuerfalc:in qua fint poU/axes/ 

hc^najore^mcnamminores/ori^^ 




<Ksr%-^^^ 



5 



RVDIMENTA 

Euiopa aS ocddete man Athlantico/a (ept&Bti 
tSnico/ab oricteThanai/Meotide paliide/et poto: 
a mexidie man meditenaneo daudl^ /hshetCp tn (e 
Ht(paniam/GaIUam/Geniiama/Rh$tiam/Italiam/ 
Grfdam/ 8c Saniiadam.Sicdidlaafiliarefiis Agcfi 
noris dns nominis:qu^ dum vtrginibus Jurjs co^ 
mitatain mannolittorepuellari Audio luderet Sc 
caniftra floiibus jRiparet/ab loue in thaui^ niueum 
Verio rapta HUus tergo infedifle /& per ^quora po 
ti in Cr^tamddataterrg contra iacenti nomen de« 
diflecreditur. 

A£ncaabocddentemari Athlantico/a mendie 
oceano Aethiopico/a Septemtrione man mediter 
raneo/S^ ab ortu Nili flumine terminatur. Ea in fe 
cople<fHnir Mauritanias Tingitanam & Cairfarien 
fem/Libiam interiorem/Numidiamcqua Sc Mapa 
liam dicunt)minorem Africam( in qua eil Charta^ 
go Rhomani imperii olim peninax armula )Cyre^ 
ndca/Marmaricam /Lybiam (quo etia nomine to 
ta Africa a Libe rege Maurithii^ appellat ) Aethio 
piam interibre/Aegiptu &cEt didt Aiiica quod 
frigo ns riglditate careat. 

Afiacqu^ carteras magnitudine 6C opibus Iog](# 
iime vindt)ab Europa j hanai fluuio/atc^ ab AIki 
ca irdimo( qui in Auftralcm pl<^ diftentus Ara^ 
hi^ Sc Aegpti (mum petiondit) (ec^rni^ * H^ prin 
dpahflimas regioncs habct Bithiniamy Gaiatiam/ 



XXIX 



/ Nuc)^o Sfhg partes funt I; 
quarta pars per Americu Vc( 
bus audiemr )inuenta eft/qua 
iure vetec ab Amenco inuenti 
AitlCti** xo Amerigen quafi Amend t 
ca dicenda:cu 8C curopa 8c Afia 

dca ftnt npnunauEius fitu Sc g 
nis Amerid nauigadonibus c 
intelligidatur* 

Hunc tti modu terra iam qi 
fd&ec fiuic cres prime partes c< 
infularcu omni quaic^ man drc 
licet mare vnu Qt queadmodu < 
tamen finibus diftinAum / dc 
Pi{fcj[ji in(uIisvaria(ibinoiaa({umit:< 
mu^ phiae tabulis co(pidunt/& Pri 
Djonili) talibus enumerat veri 
Circuit Oceani gurges tamen 



Marc 

Eouiii^ 

IndkSi 

Actlilo 

pkiiiiM 



RVDIMENTA 

Vndctamen piunoconicendithiinine^Tittait 
Eoum(]p vocant ztcp Indum nofninc pontum 
Sed qua deuexus caJidu poltis cxdpit Auftnim* 
Acthiopum^ fimul pdagus Rubiii^ vocatinr 
Circuit occanus Jic tocu maximus oibcm 
Nominibus vaiijs cdcbratu8» 
Perfecac Hefperia piimus qui pOTgi( vndxi 
Pamphilcute lams Lybi^ pr^tendit ab oris 
Sicminor eA rdiquis/maior quein Cafpiatdhis 
Sulcipit intrance vaifa's Aquilonis ab vndis 
Nomine Satumi quod Thetis poflidet £quor 
Cafpius ifte finus fiimil Htrcanufcft vocatur 

At duo qui veniunt Auflralis ab f quore ponti n!!!?^ 
Hie (upiiacurrens mare Peiiicuseffidtaltum "cnicii 
Er^one Otus/qua Cafpia voluitur vnda 

Hu<fHiat a ft idter Paneh^a cp Uttora puKat 
Euxeni contra pelagus protentus in Anftro 

Ordineprincipiu capiens Athlantis ab vnda 
Herculeo edebraht quam m^te munere]Gades« 
Csliferafep tenet ftans Athlas monte columnas 
Eft primus vaftis qiii pontus Hibericus vndis 
Diuidit Europen Lybia comunis vtxicp 
Hinc atc^ hinc ftatuf funt: amb; littora cemunt 
H{cLybie$h{cEuropes adueiiatuendo* 



licunu' 

Cafpiu 

Hifct: 



AtKfan 
ticum 
Heicu# 
leum* 



Gallicus hunc ourges.'qui Celtica b'ttora pulfat 
Fxdpit:hunc (equitur Liguru cognomine didus 
Q^uadominirerum terriscreuerc Latinis, 
Ad petram leucen Aquilonis ab axe redu^us 



Gallicu 



XXXI 



;5tcul(l Sicatii^ g^^g^^ toll's deflexu 
Qui prodil effufus Pachyn 
Ad Cr^tcn fumma( qug pro 
Qua Gortynapotes medij 
Arietis hanc ruperti fimilatit* 
Pro meritograi] Criu dixen 
Hoc mare Gargani coiicludi 
Adria ^ Illinc incipiens extendicur 
ticiinu^ Ad Boream penetrans pela^ 
Ionium lonius paricer Onus hie pei 
Diuidit 8c geminas diuerHs ^ 
Q^uas tamen excremas coiur 
UiiticUr Ad dextram parte proten< 
Poft hanc Dalmatig populor 
Ad Iguam Aufbni^porreAus 
Q^uetria circundant maria v 
Tyrrhenum/Siculum/ necno 
Fuiibus at proprijs exceptani 
Tvrrhenum S^#*n1ivfv%»S«/»"»i" 



RVDIMENTA 

Maiorem poftquam minor exdpiCfquoralonge 
Atcp (inu gemino refonantia littora pulTanc 

Finibus a Siculis Crct^m tenditur $quor Marc 

Ad foils veniens ortua Salmonida pofcens Cr|t(U] 

Dicitur Eous qui Cr^tf terminus cfie: 

Poft hanc eft geminu marcvafl u flu(flibus atris 
Fludtibus Hifmarici Boref quod ninditur atris^ 
Q^uod ruit aducrfus celf? de partibus Arifti 
Quodprius eft Phariu perhibct : hoc littora tagit Pbanu 
Prjdpitis cafu mo ntisrpoft vnda fccunda 
Sidoniu eft pelagusrpenetrat qua gitrgitc pontuS# Sidoni 
Ificus Arcfloas ad partes f quore vcrgens* um 

Non longe reiftus: Ciliaim nam frangitur oris. 
Hinc Zephiros pofcens veluti draco fieiflit vndis 
Q^uod iugamontiuagus vaftatrfiluafqj fatigac 
F^anibus extremis Pamphilia dauditur ifto; 
AtC^ Chelidonig rupes dnguntur eodem 
At procuIhunczephymshnitPatareide fumma; 

Poft h^e Arcfloas ad partes afpice rurfus 
Afgeum/fuperat qui Bucfnbus cquora cunc^a: Aecni 
Difpcrfas vafto qui gurgite Cychdas ambit 
Teiminat hucimbrospariterTenedofcp coerces 
Angufta trahit qua fauce Propontidis vnda 
Afiarquam fupra populis diftenditur amplis 
Ad Notiam pancmrqua latus duritur Ifthmos! 
Threicius fcquimr poft Bofphorus oftia ponti; bofpho 
Hoc nullum pcrhibent terras anguftius oibis nis« 



XXXIII 



uicinir aultrali:red contra 

Pronn'net Europe hunc cri 

' Ergo conucniunt aduerfi 

Diftantcs quantu ccrnis tn 

Eualeat nauisibimarcm fie < 

Aipictas {unilem cornu que 

Ncruo curuati diHrento de* 

AfTtmilat'reiflo trahicurnaii 

Extra quam Boream quo fc 

Scd fermam cornu gcminai 

-- ^ Lictus:quodpontumdngit 

leotis In quam Mcotis penetrans 

Quam Scydiig gentes circu 

Et matrem pond perhibent j 

Sdh'cec hie pond vis exit gui 

Thfta> Cimmenu torrens per Boipl 

W* Cimmerrj gclidis habitant fu 

Hf e maris eft (pedes fplendc 

Eft aiitvtprgdiximus mar< 

bus maximg 8c prindpaliore 



RVDIMENTA 

J^iontpLf 8C Britannia Sc Angiat. 
Sardiraain man mediterraneo 
Candia qu{ & Creta in finu Aegeo 

Sdandia 

JSidlia inmari meditetranco 

CoHyca 

Cipnis 

Extra Ptholom^am 

M ada oafcar an man Prafodo 

Zamz^ar 

laua in Oceano Indico oriental! 

Angama 
Peuta In oceano Indico 

Seula 

Zipangiiin Oceano oceidentali p ,0 , 

H? (unt ingentes quas cingit Tetliyds vnda yrnca$ 

In{ul{:adhuc ali? diueifis partibus orbis# ** 

Oiuerffplures famalatuereminores 
Auris difficiles nautis velponubus apt$ 
Q^uaru non facile eft mihi promere nomiha verfu; 
Cpietu vt vnius loei ab altero diftantiam cQgno 
(cerepoilis poli eleuado tibi cuprimis coHderaxida 
venit. Annotanduigit paueis quod(vt ex (uperiori 
bus liquet ) vitientibus Tub p^ralello cquinoAiali 
VterC^ polus in horizonte eft.Eunti autf ad fepte/ 
trionemeoniagisfubleuatpolus quantoplus ali^ 
^uisii>^quatoredirce{fcrit«Quf poll elcuatiore^ 



XXXV 



plicaueris. Veru rn no funt 
centia milliaria a circulo cc 
<p genu fquales.Na a prin 
ad duodcciinu/qlibetgrad 
liana codner quf faciut.iy ( 
cin quaruor italica pro vnc 
Eta.u.gradu vfc^ad.zy.qii 
qu? fufit Germain's,! fl.i.i^ 
poncmus formulam fequer 
Gradus Gradus ■ I 



Aequa 

Cor. 


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IZ 


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12 


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2f 


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4 




ft )A 


52 



RVDIMENTA 

£t iti. quocp ab ^quino^b' iHus polot Cam tn^ 
tar^cum^ar<flicumfiradiiuhnicudinis c6uneo# 
ria variatur. Q,uod meat voloctis quot ab vno 
loco ad alium mtiUana Gnt/pctpcnde ddigenter In 
quibus gradibus latitudinis (mctalialoca Sc quoc 
gradus medient/ deinde vide in formula iupen'ori 
quot milliana talis gradus habeat & nniltipLicai nu 
meru milliariu per numeni medk>tu graduu/ atqf 
tnilliahu nutnerus refultabic qu( cuitaltca (ueiiiK 
diuidas per quatuor/ Sc Germatrica habdbis» 
H^c ^ indu<fhone ad Cofmograpbiaidiifla (iiflidat . 
fi te modo amonuenmus prius/nus in depingendis ^^^^ 
tabulis typi generalis no omnimodo iequutos effi: 
Pchotomfu/pr^fcrcini circa nouastenrasvbitn car 
tismarinisaliteranimaduertimusfquatorehi cofti 
tu i cjp Ptholom^s f(^ceriLEt^pindeno dd)ct nos 
(Htimculparequi tllud ipm notauerint. Confulto 
ein fecQmus quod hie Pmolonieu/alibi cartas ma^ 
rinas fequuti {umus.Cu & ipfe Ptholom^ quin^ 
tocapiceprimilibrLNonoinnes continends paw ^'"'Oia 
cesobfugmagnitudinisexcefRunadipfiusperue^ ^^* 
niife noticiam dicat/ et aliquas quemadmodum (c 
habeanc ob peregrtnantium negligentiam (ibi nii<» 
cms diligenter traditas /alias eflequas aU'ter acc;^ alj 
ter fe hs>ere cotingat ob corrupticnes 8c mutatio 
nes in quibus jp parte cormiife cognit^ (unt. Fuit 
jgit neceilecquod ipfe fibictta fadundu ait)ad nc^ 

b 



XXXVII 



APPEP 

Annciflamus adhuc ( 

Jptui canamus elcuadoni 

centrihorizontis Sc din 

gon 8c quodda corolarii 

uderauerinms is quadrai 

ad has res impenines. C 

me poll* (iipra caput elei 

mata cognofircrc oporte 

drans hocpado. Diuu 

tcs quacuor/ita quod du 

«ngiilo$ reAos inter fe« 

lui parte ptnaulas habet: 

tera'^quatOTtm (Igjufical 

qu? eft inter femiaxem p 

tarn (cmidiamctnim in p 

pofita in totidem/ figafcjp 

fif paratus trit quadrahs. 

euita vtg pinnulai^fora 

Sc ad quod^ma atcit in i 




HaSenus ocequuti capita propofita/fuVipras Ion 
Pinquas expaciaciones fequctcrintroducamus Ve 
Iputi^ /ringulonim hiioTum exitum circa inflitutii 
tradences. 

Finis tntroduAionis 



DSchi ^^^^^^"^ Acthiopcs i\ 
1^ /. Aphrica confuroit qui! 

* , . Afiians cum Libico I 
^^^^ Ex alia populo Vulturi 

Atsfiri '"^<^* velod per firct 

P Subiacethic^quonodli 

1^ ^ . BaiTaqp PraJbdo ccn 

UMIS - Non nota c tabulis o 
Vumir Comigcri Zenith tropi 
J?** Atcp comes multg f u 

lapro Dcxtrorfum immenfb ti 
jy^^ Tdlus/quam recolic r 
p p Hanc quei9 <^^sl (uum i 
p' ®* Inuenicmiflapervad: 
*?*?*t Sedquidplurarfitu/gen 

umt"^' Anicridparuamolclil 

A . Gandide f)raccro voluas 

™^ EilcgenoiinafumRfa 



Q.VATVOR AMERia VE> 
SPVni NAVIGATION68 

Eius quffubfcqucmcta^ 

cedevulgari 

Galiicoin 

Latinti 

traftu 



Decaftidion ad ledorem: 

A(pides tenuem quifquis fortafle logiam 

Naui^um memorac paginatiofha placcna* 
Continet inuentas oras/genter(]^recenter 

Lftificare (tia qug nouitatc queant» 
H(c erat altilo quo prouinda danda MaronI 

Qui daret cxcelfg veiba politarei. 
Itte quot ambiuit &eta cantat Troius herOs: 

Sic tua Ve(puti vela canenda feren^ 
Has igiturledhi terras vidirus/inilltt 

Materiam libra:nonfadentisopus; 
* Item diflichon ad eundetn 
Cum noua deledlent fama teftantc loquad 

Quereaeare queunthicnoualedorhabct 



XLI 



datioiie 
Fieri pot illuftriflimc F 
ifta temeritate ducaturm 
Jjuod ha(cc licteras tarn pr 
lubucrcar/cum tamcnfd 
is confilijs 8c crehris reipu 
GttumuAt<p exiftimabot 
ptuofiis/fcd ctiam odofus 
cans/vt res ftatui tuo mini 
kdabiK fed barbaro ^ua 
humanitatis cuitu alienus) 
gem nominatim fcriptas/* 
ca qua in tuas ^ tutes habe< 
fequentiu rem nccp ab and 
ptarum Veritas me corltl* 
Mouit meimprimis ad fail 

8cneuenutus.Mthuniilis 
IIS no pcenitendus/qui dun 
precatus eitvt.t.Alreifupc 
onibus in diun^i's nUnH, «*., 



(uium ocdclcnte ^^fus foeaVafteras dfiias ludu Ma* 
nuelis Luficanif regis ad Auftiii Jtacp me ad id nc# 
goci] accinxi fperas g? .t- M. mc de clientuloi?^ nu^ 
merono exdudecvbi recordable cj> olimutuaha 
buerimus inter nos amidcia tepore iuuentutis nrf 
cu oramaticf rudimeta imbibentes fub ^baca vita 
&do(fh-ina venerabiPSf religiofi fratris de.S^Mar 
CO FnuGeorgi^ Anthonrj Vefputi) auunculi met 
pariter niilitaremus « Cuius auunculi veHrigia vti^ 
nam fequi potuiflfem/alius profeAoc vt & ipfe Pc 
trarcha ait) eflem qp fum» Vtcuq^ tn fit/no me pu^ 
dct efle qui fum. Semper em in ipfa j^tute & rebus 
ftudiofis fummahabuideiecflatione* Quod fi tibt 
h^ narrationes omnino non placuerintidicamOcuC 
Plinius ad Mg cenate fcnbit Olim facetijs meis de^ 
kiflari folebas.Et licet. M.t. fine fine I reipublicg ne 
gacf)s occupaca fit/niliilominus tantu tepons qii* 
cp fuffiiraberis/vt has res ^iiis ridiculascqug tame 
fua nouitate iuuabut)pellegere poffis.Habebis em 
hiGxineis Iris pofl curaru fometa Sc meditameta 
negodoru no modica deleftatione/ficut et ipfe foe 
niculus prius fumptis efculentis odore dare SC me 
liore digefbone facere afueuit.Enim vero fi plus g^ 
^lixus fiiero / venia peto* Vale* 

Incl^iiime rexfciat.t.M.quodadhasipfas re# 
gioncs mercadi caufa primu venerim *Dum(^ ptM 
qdrennii reuoJutlone J cis rebus negodofus eiTeni; 



XLIII 



fibus cxandatis iftiufinod 

oru laborum finem in res 1 

wlcs poncrclta diQwfui n 

tK»c6cetnplandas/& diuc 

das. Ad qua rem fe 8C tcpi 

tu(it,fpfecm Caftilig rex F 

parabat naues ad terras no 

<li(a)operiendas/aiiiis ceMi 

gatlda in ipfam fodetate d( 

ma die Mai). Mcccc. xcvi).< 

ftfii per ma^u oceani finii 

RdHone.xviij9cDa(umauini 

lucntes terras firmas/^ini 

fesvtplurimu habitatas/qu; 

Honem nuUam fceccmnt V 

taliii non habuifle noticia a 

ite me fallat memini me in al 
t€ vacuum et fine hominibu 
l>pinionis ipfeDantes Poe 
deuigefimo capitc deinferis 



PRINCIPIVM 

TERRARVM INSVLARVMQVE VA. 
fianim Dcfcriptio :quaruin vcftuti no monincnie 
aucons Nupa ab anno incainatj domini M.cccc 
scvij.bis geminis nauigadonibiis in maridiTcurfls/ 
inuentanEduabus videlicet in man ocddentali pet 
domin u Femandum Cafhlif/rdiquisveio duabus 
in Auilraliponto perdominQ Manude Poitiigal 
lif (axnidimos reges/ Americo Vcfpucio vno ex 
Naudcris nauiumcp prjfecflis prjdpuo/ fubreque 
tern ad prjfiinim doniinu Fernandum Cailillif rr^ 
gcm/de huiufmodi terris & iiiTulis edente nairatio 

NNO DOMINI . M. CCCa 
I xcvij.xx.menfis Mai) die/nos cum 
j iiij.conreruanti^nauibusCaliduiD 
I exeuiitespomun/adin(uIas(|oliin 
j fortunatas/nucvnomagnam Ca 
"nariam ditflas )in fine ocddentis ha 
bitati polhas in teitio climateifup quo/ extra ho« 
rizontcnieaium/re.xxvi).giadibusciiduobus ter 
(i)S/(«ptentrionali3 rieuat polus/diftaref<^ ab hae 
ciuitate Lifbona in qua colcriptum exn'tic hoc pr; 
fens opufc(iIum.cc.lxxx.Ieuds:vento inter meri« 
diem &C Lebeccium ventum (pirante/curfu phmo 
pertigimus. Vbicnobis dc lignis/aqua/cfterifcp n« 
ceflfariis proiudendo ) cofumptis oAo fere diebus 
nos ifa^inprimis ad deuinorationc) deuatis d£4 




(vel drdtcr) leudsrextn 

habitatu eft .Quod ex e 

trionalepolu extra huiu( 

xvLgradibus fe deuare/i 

cp magiif Canarif iTulas 

musi^ut inftrumeta oia 

Ais de prora achoris)da( 

media diftante/reftare co 

phafelis armis 8c gete fti 

ad littus attigimus.Quo 

nudam fecundu littus eui 

•nus. Vnde no paruo afRr 

cm qui nudi incedere con 

Cp propter nos ftupcfacli 

< vt arbirror)(^ veftitos /a 

nosefle incuitifunt.Hi) f 

gnouerunc/omnes in pro 

aufugeriitia quo tunc nee 

ct anucid^Uis/vt ad nos ; 

lucnte vero int^rra nrt/><. 



PRIMA 

ma/vt fimccmane fac!lo)difcedercmu8!exqufrere# 

fnufej^poituquempiafii/vbiiioflras i^ationein tu 

tacoUocaremus naues* Quadeliberatioe arreptal 

nos vcnto (ccundu colic (pirantitraditis yebs/poiv 

^iviCu terrain ipfam fcqucndo/at^ ip(o plag^ in 

lictore/gences cctinue percipiendo)duos intcgroft 

lUtuigauimus diesilocum nauibus fatis aptum com 

pcrimusjn quo media tan tu leucadiilantes ab ari* 

da/conn:iumiis:vidimurq; tuncinibi innumerabM 

lemgentiu turbam/quamnoscominus infpicere/ 

& alloqui de(iderantcs:ipraiiiet die littpri cii cym# 

bis & nauiculis nojflns appropiauimus:necnon 8C 

tunc in terram exiuimus/ordine pulchro«xldrcitet 

viri hiiiufcemodi gente fe tamen a nobis & c6{br# 

do noflro penitus alienam pr^bcteJca vt nullis ea 

modis ad coUoquiu comunicadonemue noftra altt 

cere valuerimus : prater ex illis paucos/ qs multos 

podlabores ob liocfufceptos/tandem attraximus 

ad nos dando eis nolas/fpccula/ ccrtos criftallinos 

alia^ (unilia leuia/ qui turn fecuri de nobis efiedti/ 

CDndliatum nobifcum/necnon de pace& amici^ 

da tradlatum vencrunt* Subeunte autem interim 

noifle/nos ab illis nofmet expedientes (relicflis eisJI 

noflras regrefli fumus ad naues.Poftea vero fubi^ 

fequentis lummo diluculo diei/infinttai7i.iii littotB 

^orum 8c mulierum paniulos fuos Tecum v€^ 

jdlgntfum gentem rurfum confoeximus cosnouv 



XLVII 



nacantes obuiam/fufcfpet 
ca fecuritatc Sc confidenti 
mifcuenint ac R nobifcu d 
vC pariter frequencius pra 
tuncperpanim obleAad i 
ribus(quales cos habere v] 
dem fe comoditas oflfert/ir 
mus. 



De monbus ac c 
viuendimodis. 



VANTVM AC 

q Cp mores omnes:t2 

dipenitus incedui 

*end& & cum ex vtero todl 



PRIMA 

« 

pc^roi nigrcnrctcfq? gerunt/& prcfertim rocmiag 
<)u^ propcereafut tall fongo nigroCp nine decoi |» 
Vultu non multu fpcciofi lUnt qm latas fades car^ 
tarijs adfimilacas habcr/nuUos fibi fiiiunt iti (iipm 
cilt)5 oculonimue palpcbris ac corporc totO( crinU 
bus deinptis)excrefcerc villos/ob id quod habitos 
in corpore piles quid bcdialcbrutalec]^ rcputant* 
Omnes cam viri ^ mulicrcs fiue meando fiuc cur^ 
rendo leues admodum ztcp vdoces exinui:qm( vt 
frequenter expcrti fuinius)in ff etiam mulicrcs vn^ 
aut duas pcurrcre Icucas nihiliputat/ Sc iiihocnos 
chnflicolas multu pr^cellunt. Mirabibtcr ae vicra 
^ Gt credibilc natant:muIto qxiocp melius focmine 
^ mafculi quod (requeuti expehmento didicimus 
cum ipfas etia fccminas omui prorfus fufteatami^ 
ne deiicicntes duas in ^quoreleucas pematare per 
fpeximus. Armi eorum arcus funt 8C fagitt?/quas 
multu fubtihter fabricarc norunt* Ferro metallifc]^ 
alijs carentrfed pro ferro beftiarum pifciumue den 
cibus fuas fagitcas armant/quas ctiam(vtfortiores 
exi{l:ant)viia quoq? fepe pr^urunt*Sagittarrj funi 
certiCTimLltavt quicquid voluerint iacuUs fuis fcri 
antnionnuiiifq; iiilocis muUercs quoq; optim^ fa^ 
gittat rices extant. Alia etiam arma habei veluii Ian 
ceaspraeacutafuc fudes/ necno 5^ dauas capita mi 
rificc laborata habcntcsr.Pugnarc potiflfimu afTue " 
ii (iinladuerfus fuos alienigenc lingue ronfmes cd 



XLIX 



1 . 

imponere poflfit /& deinde 
here( profit ipfi fgpe vidimu 
a terra leuare quea&Nuila 1 
fedlos habenc/quinymmo(< 
dominus extet)nuUo feniai 
regnandi domiiiiuue fuum i 
tnordiiiac^cupidicatis gratis 
(bluin ob iiiimiddam in illis 
iufquidem in jmicici^ caufatr 
indicant iiiG vt fuorum moi 
(brum.H{cgens fua in liben 
diens nee regem nee dominu 
fe potidimum animant 8c ac 
ftes ex eis quempiam aut cap 
teremeruni^Tuc em eiufdem 
confanguineus fenior quifcj^ 
plateas 8c vicos padim clami 
8C (liadens vt cum eo in prfli 
necem vindicaturi propereni 
ne moti mox ad pugnam fe a 



PRIMA 

nitint/iqiiinymmo nee parmtesfpfi panndosfiips 
«docenc auccorripiunt. MirabiUtcr eos inter (e(c 
conqdcftionari nonnunc]^ vidimus. Simpliceslnlo 
quda (e oftentant,verani callicB mulcum ac^ tftu^ 
ti funtPerraio /& fununifla voct loqaucur / d[<& 
<]uibu8 vtimur accentibus vtentes. Suas vtpluti# 
saum voces inter dentes & labra C;>tmante8:alijs 
vtuntur vocabulis ^ nos.Horiiphirioif iiint ydio 
natu varietates quonia acentenario leucanim fii 
centenariu diuerGtatemlinguartimie mutuo nulla, 
tenus intelligentiu reperimus* ComeiTandi modu 
valde baibarurn retinentinec quidem notatis man 
4ucant horis/fed Cue no<fle fiue die iquotiens edenr 
^i libido fuadecSolo manducantes accund>unt/dC 
nulla mantflia nuliaue gaufapaccu lineamenns pan 
nifcp aliys careant) habent.Epulas Gias atc^ cibarta 
in vafcuht terrea quf ipfimet cpfingunt/aut in rae# 
dtas cucuibitarum.ceftas ponunt*lnretiacuiis qui# 
bufdam magnts ex bombice jBuflis Sc in aere Aup^ 
fis donnitant :qui modus <|(uis infolitus dC a(peri# 
or fortftflis videriqueas /ego nihilominus tale dor 
mitandimodum fuauem plunmumiudico.Etenint 
cum in eifdem eoru retiaculis mihi plerumc|p dor# 
smcafle- contigerit/in illis mihimetipfi melius cp in 
tapeabus quas habebamus efleperfend Corpore 
valde mudi (uc et expoliti/ex eoj^ feipos fire^ntifll 



LI 



cum uquidem illos nobif 

iwfitos fiiamfmpudidlTi 

ariflc pCT(pcxcriraus.Null 

ri focdus I (uis conubijs ol 

quot mulieres quiTcj^cocu 

4eiIIas quandocucp void 

tia aut opprobrio habcam 

hac re vticp tarn viri cp mu 

untur.Zcclofi paru/Iibidii 

tnagifc^ fcemin^ ^ mafcul 

tiabili mg fariffadant libid 

fubticcndaccnfuimus.Ej i 

lis icecund§ admodu funt 

(iintpenas autl(d>ores euit 

dolore paiiunt^lta vt in era 

vhicp ambulcnt:prgfeitim< 

quodpiam fcfe ablutu vad 

tf ep inde( vcluti pifas)appj 

odio malfgno adco deditf 1 

cxacerbaucrint viri/ (ubico 



PRIMA 

roram paniuTipeieantVenu Ao ^ elegani^^por 
tEione copacflocorporefuntltavc inillis qu(tqiil 
deferme niillo infpid modo poflit Et quauis di(V 
mideambulencinteriamriinatameti earuin/pui3i# 
bunda fie honede repofta funt vt nuUatenus vide 
riquean t prf tcrquatn regiuncula tUa anterior qua 
Verccundiorevoeabulo pedhifeulum ymu voca# 
mus quod & in i^is vti^ non alicer ^ honefle na^ 
tiira ipfa videndum reliquit Sed & hoc nee quide 
curant qm vc pauqs expediam n5 magis in fuoru 
^^on^ piidendorumouentcp nos in oris no flri/ 
Siucvultus odentencacioe. Admiranda pervalde 
sem diiccrent muliere in eis manimillas pulpas ve 
laxas aiit ventrem rugatu ob nimiu partu habente 
ciim omnes equse integre ac (blide po ft partu fern 
perappareant acG niicp peperifTent* Hee quidcm 
fe noftri cupicotiflimas ede mondrabant. Ncmi^ 
neminhac genre legem aliqu am obferuarevidi'^ 
mus nee quidem iud^' aut maun nuiicupari (bli^ 
de qneuut cuin ipfis gcntilibus aut paganis mul^ 
to deleriores fint Etenim no perCenfimus cf facnfi 
davUafadantautq^loca orationifue domos ali^ 
quas habeant«horum vitac qu^ omnino voluptu^ 
ofaeft)Epycuream exiftimoillorum habitant"" 
fingulis ipfis (unt communes/ Ipffcp illorumdo^ 
mus campanarum in/larcoftruAe funt firmiter ex 
magnis arbonbus folidatepalmaru foli)s dcfvpct 



LIII 



NAVIGATIO 

ntt&e 8C actuerlus ventos & temprllaces tutifll 
InonuUirA in locis tarn magnj vtia illaru vnica 
Icentas effe perfonas tnuenerimus .Inter qwuf 
fto populofiliimas effe coperimus Gc vt in eis e& 
It habitarent<^ pariter animarii dece inilia.O(!l3 
1 quolibet aut feptennio fuas Cedes habitationef 
rranifemt/qui eius rei caufam incerrogati natu« 
rrefponGimdedemtdicences c|jphebivehemS 
tdus occaGon^ hoc faceret ob id cp exilloRzIoa 
Ire in eodem loco relideiitia aerinre<fhis corru# 
m<p redderetur qug res in eorii corporibus vati 
lauTaret jgritudines quf quidc eoru ratio no ma 
limpta nobis vifa eft Eorumdiuirijiutvarion 
bru auium plume aut in modu lapjHomin illoR 



PRIMA 

Iwnlcs {iiiit fie in petoido & acc^cn^ cwictilQ 
Biipoft^fecuiquam amicos cxhunictint , Mud* 
imim podflimumcp amiad{(uc fignum in hocpct 
hbent q> tarn vxores & filial proprias amlds An* 
pro libitohabendasolFerunc in quare parens vtcT 
^felongchonoratiiih cxlllimatcumnataeius 8C 
uvirginonadconcnbitiifuiiniquirpiam dignatut 
& abducit & in hoc luam inter le amidam potidw 
mumcodliant.Vanisineoi^decefla multiqsmo^ 
dis neqaiis vnihtur.Poiro (iios nonulli detudlos 
inhumocumaquarepehiit&inhuniantillisad ca 
put vic^abaponcntes quibus cos poirevefd SC 
sdimcntaripucantnullumddnde jsptcT cos alium 
planiflum aut alias cniraonias cfhdrntes. ^Vlij qui 
bufdam in lods barijanflimo atcp inhumaniifimo 
fepcliendi vtunturin6do.Q^uippe cu eotum que* 
piam monis momento proxunum autumant illii 
cius pFopinquiores in Uluani ingentem quamdam 
defcrunt vbi eii in bombiceis reciacubsiUis in qui* 
bus doimitant impolitum & recubantead duas 
atboresinaerafu^jcnduntacpodmodum du^fas 
area eu Cc fulpenlumvha totadie chorcis itruente 
iteritn no Ae ei aqua vii&cp aliu <s q^uatuor auc 
circif dies viuere qat ad caput apponut & ddnde 
lie inibi (bio pendete t^liAo ad fuas habiratioes re 
deut cnjibusitapa(!tisfiirde»n>tuspofteamadu 
cct&bibatacindeadcouale&ntiamfamtatem^ 



NAVIGATIO 

lat&adhabitatione,ppriamr«ne(t 3lu ciai 

5 acpropinqui/oi maximis fafcipiut cerimo 

\t pcrpanci fuut qui ta grandc prjtereant pe 

jcu cos ibidem nemo pofteavilitct quid tuc 

Ji forfan decedut nulli aliam habencpoftea fir/ 

lura. Alios quocp compluresbarbaros habent 

1 quoseuicande^lixitatis hicomit^imus gra< 

jiuerfis variifcp medicamibus in iuis n^orbis 

rimdinibus vtuntqujficanofbi's difcrepant 

coueniuntvcmirarcmurhaudparii qualitcr 

\ quis euadere poflet Nempe vt frcqucnri didi 

us experientia cii eorij quempia febncitare co^ 

rit hora qua fcbris eum aiperius tnquietat ipm 

i immerpiic 8c balneantc 



PRIMA 

eccafiSc ^<cx ndicibus/lni<!libus;tin]]isAraii|M 
pifdbus (iu3iint,Omni fanis granorSch alionim te 
nunecaKnt Comunis veto coram palfau Cue vi« 
fiusaiborca radix quedam eft qoainfarrlnaradt 
bonScomiauunt&hancradicemquidam conini 
iudia all) diambi alij veto ygnami vodtant. Alij* 
camibus/prfcer^hominuperratoverctintinquj 
buTquidem hominucamibus vorandis (tc in hums 
nifunt&ininanruetivtinhocomneferalem om« 
nem ve beftiale modii liipetent. omncs em hoftes 
fuosquos autpciimuntautcapcos detincttam vi 
ros ^ fsminas indiftindc cum ea fetitatc deglutio 
unt vt nihil rerum/nihil vcbrutu magis did vel in 
(pid queat quofquide iic efcros imanefcp (ore / va 
rrjs in lods inihi nxquentius contigit afpcxilTc mif 
rantibu$ illis q> inimicos noftros uc qxtocfi ncquaf 
quammanducaremus.Echoc ptoccno maieftas 
vtcdra regia tcncat Eoqt cofuetudinescquaspluri^ 
mas habejii)ricbaibarcrunt.vt hie nunc fuflicicn* 
tcr facis enairari no valcacEt qm in mds hifce bis 
geminis nauigac5ibus/tam vatia diucrfac^ ac tarn 
anoftris rebus & modis difTcrecia perfpexi Iddrf 
CO Iibellu quepiam (que quattuor dictas fiuc qua« 
tuor nauigatioHcs appcllokofcriberc pataui con» 
Icripficp in quo maioiem reru a mc viCaru pane di 
(UnAcfatisnuxtaingcnioIimdtcnuitate/coUc^ 
Youtamoinonadbucpublicauiilninoveio <|^ 





NAVIGATIO 

111 panicularitcr magis ac fingillatim tangenmr 
irco vniuerfalia hk;{olumodo j>fcqu<:ns adna» 
;ationon noftra priorem perGciendi a qua put 
er digrrfTus fiieram iam redco. 
J HOC NA VIGU NOSTRl PRIMORdio 
rabircomoditaus rts/no vidimufida'rco(vtopl 
rtqj eoRi linguS no capiebamus prjtercp nonuU 
iih dcnotanda/quod n5nuUa indicia in tellure A 
(Te monftrabant . Heccinc ^o tcUus quo ad fuj 
i poGtioneq^ tarn bona e(i vt vix melior queat» 
•cordauimus aut vt ilia derelinquetes logius na^ 
atione^duccremus.QuavnanimrtatcIulccp* 
109 dehincarida ipam collateraliter femg CeAi 
necno gyros mFtos fcalafc^ plures circueuntes 



PRIMA 

fiint magno propter nos timore affisfti [ant/t^hi 
ran liios confelh'm pontes omnes cotra no j eleua 
uenint&feredrindeinfuis domibui abdidcrunc 
Qua rem^fpeAantibus nobis & baud pai« adml 
fantibus ecce duodedm eoru lintres vrdrciter/ fin 
gulas ex folo arboris caudice cauatas(quo nauium 
genere vtunt)ad nqs interim per jquor aduentare 
confpezimus/quorenauderi effigiemnoffa-ahabi 
ta<p mirantes ac fere circu nos vndi^ recumferen 
tes nos emiaus afpiciebatQuos nos quocp ex ad 
oerfo profpidentes/plurima ds amiddj Qgna de« 
dimus/quibus eos/vt ad nos intre^ndt accederent/ 
cxhortabamur/quod tn efficere cotepferunt.Q^uS 
rem nobis pdpiemibus mox ad eos remigare inc£ 
pimtisy qiii nequa^ nos pr({iolati fi^c quinymmo 
oinscofefhmiiiterramtugAtdatis nobis interim 
fignis vt illos paulifper expeAaremus, Ipi em exte 
plo reuerfuri forent.Tumcpin montc quenda i>pe 
>aueft/a ^ edu As bis<o Ao iuuencuf & i lintribus 
fills pfads vna fecu aflfiiptis mox )^s nos regrefo 
fi fuc. Et pofl h^ ex iuuecuFipis qtuor i iinguf na 
liiix nf aqt pofuert/que fadedi modu noshaud pajtt 
admirati tuc (iiimus/jjut vra.ratis ^pedere pt ma< 
kftas.C{teTii^ cu lintribus fuis pmilTis inf nos na 
nefi^ nf af comixti fut & nobifcu flc padfice locutj 
£u vt illos amicos nf os fidelidtmos eflc reputare« 
«iit<Jn&a]^0'eccc4<$exdointbufcoi)ipmeoratif 

c tiii 



1 


NAVIGATIO 

anon modica per mare natiouu aduentarc ce; 
ijuibuslcaadueniencibiu Sfnauibiunfis tana 
tropincjuare incipientibus nectn proinde mali 
t<5 adhuc fufpicaremurnirfu ad earudc domo 
omforn/vcnilas nonullas cofpeximua qu^iin 
liter vociferantcs &ccdu magnis damordius 
ilent«« fibimet/in magnj anxietatis indiciu pra 
>s eueUebat capillos quires macna mali fulpe* 
incm nobis tunc attulit Tum(^ fubitoiafiu eft 

X i mare^ filerent ac ilK qui in hntnbus erant ic 
nobis elongantcs mox contra nos arcns itios 
inderent nof^ duriflime fagittarcnt. Qoi -jfa 
>niibnspermarenatantesa4luenid>anc fingidi 



PRIMA 

(dmos van i cis quitquacnifi vetulas duas et egia* 
tibtem vim vnicuMoninuenimus.quarcjUidc to* 
tundofflos igni fuccendcre no voluimus ob id q> 
rolcicnu(fcnipuluhocipfuincirc formidabamus 
Hofth(canteinad nauesnoftrascu pr^ta^'s m 
ptiuis quinip remcauimus & eordecaptiuos/pr{7 
tcr^hiuenculasipfas/incompcdibusietTnsalliga 
uimus Eede ^o iuuenculc captiuoi«cp viroi% vnus 
penicnienti no Ac a nobis fubtiliflinie euafcrut his 
Stacp ptraAis,Sequcnri die concordauimus vt r» 
li^opoituillolongiusrecunducoUcm proccdere 
IDUS pncutfir<p.Ixxx.fere leucis gentem alia quam 
damcopcrimus b'ngua& conuerTationfpjnitus a 
priore diuctfam Couenimufcp vt claflem inibi no 
ftram anchoraremus & deinde in terram ipam/cu 
nauiculis nodris accedcremus. Vidimus autcnuic 
ad littus in plaga gentiu turbam.iii). M. pcrfonam 
Vel drcitcrexiitcre qui cunos appropriare perfen 
ferunt nequacp ncs pr; (lolati funt quinymmp ciui 
Ais oat habcbaiit reliifiis omnes in filuas & nemo 
ta dittugeriit Turn vcro in terra pn>riUetes/& vi2 
Vnam in filuas tendente /^tus eft batifle iaAus /{; 
•mbulantes mox tcDtoria plura inuenim'us quf ibi 
dem ad pifcandu gens ilia teicndcrat& inillis co# 
piofos ad de coquendas rpulas luas ignes accende 
lat/arsfeAo beftias ac pFrs variai;: fpeciciv pilres 
inn aflabu Vidimus au(c inibi cenu aflaii aiiiinal 





NAVIGATIO 

odcrit(c3cmptis alis quibus carebatjferpenti (i 
Jiinu tamep bnitu ac filucftrc appaicbat vtdut 
modicu mirarcmur feritate . Nobis vero per ea 
n tentona longius ^grcdientibus plutimos hu 
rcmodi fcrpetcs viuos iiiuenimus qui ligao's pe 
us ora quocp finibus ligatanc cade aperirc pof 
t habebat/^ut deeanibus aut feris alijs ne mot 
c qucant effici folet. Afpeftii tam fcru eadeprj 
rut animalia vc nos ilia vencnofa puianrcs nul 
nus audcremus cotingere.Caprcolis in magni 
(nc bracliio vero cii medio in longitudinc f qua 
unc.Pedes longos materialcfcp niultu ae foni* 
vngulis armatos ncenon &r difcolore pellc di* 
infima habet/roilru'^ ac facie veh fcrpetis gc« 



PRIMA 

pUindenobts recutifiactiau&m voluimtu qob 
ByinniomdrdE«>i|!taitoriisgmKa deretultsos 
ImimloidsqpetpedercpoUentdciduiquetet ad 
na^ei nfas Tub node rcpedauimus. Sequent! Vo 
dic«5exorirititanindpercc(nfimtiuilittore gal 
te odftere gcgiinnu ad 4s in terra tuc acccfflmuK 
Eti^uisfenfitiniidosoftedemfeipostniter no* 
permifcuerut 8c nobifcu pradicare ac coucrfari cS 
fecuritate c^perut amicos nfos fe plurima fote pet 
Gmulantes/infinuantefc]pilIichabuati5eseomnoii 
dTe/veif! cf pifcandi gf a aduenerIt.Et iddrco tod 
tZtes vt ad eoi^ pagos cu eis accederemus ipi etem 
nos tamfp amicos redpere vcUent ct h3c qiiide de 
Jlob£s cdc^erat amidcia captiuoi^ duoi^E jUoi^^ 
tcncbamus )occa(i6e/qui eoi):ininudeiSt,Viraac 
(OD! magna rogadiimporcunitate cocordauinnit. 
sxiij.ex n obis eu ilfi bono apgatu cu ftafaili nunte 
(fi cogcrct nece(Gfa9}oes ftr^nue moiiGi itaa no 
bifcii per tres extitilTent dies & tres cu eis g p*S,i 
tefric^illa excellifrcmus leucas/ad paguvnu noue 
dumtaxat domoHt venimus vbi cii tottamcp bat> 
baiis ceiimonijs ab eis fufcepti fuimus vt fcribeic 
paaa novalcat A^tputa cu doreis & catids acpS 
Abushilaritate &lftidamixtis/necn5ciJfeMurci 
bat^Cep mTtis.Ec ibide node ilia rcquieuimus vbl 
^TOiias vxores fuas nobis cu pi j>3iga]itate obtule 
tut/q quidenosficiportiicfolicitabacvtviiceifdE 





^IEi4H 


NAVIGATIO 

im fufflcercmus poftcp iSt illif notrt vna ru 
hi die pctflirimm/ingei ad mirabiTqt ppTs abf 
lAitiocfhiporecpadnos infpidedos aducnic 
xniorcs nos ^qt rogabac vt fecti ad alios eons 
>s(qui logius in terra erac)c6mearenius quod 
lide ris anuimujHic diflu facile no e ^tos ipi 
is ipcdcrt honores Fuimus a6t apud ^mFcu 
1 populatSes/perltegtos nouedies cii ipis eun 
>b quod nobis nri q in nauibus remaferat retu 
foci) fe idcirco pleruqp i anxietate timore<^ no 
lo excitide. Nobis autbis noueleucis aut circi 
coru terra cxiftetjbus ad naucs nras repcdarc 
pofuimus Et quide noftro in rcgrelTu tarn co* 



PRIMA 
IbitunatulcSzlicciii^pDtaliuqui intnnlmauu 
dis aquu nos in coSo dotCo veCio nSfiirAarc po{ 
tcru QuJfprimu autc ad mare pcniginins BCmct 
bs noftros conlcenderc voluimus in ipfo faTdotu 
noftroru afccnfu tanta ipfonim nos comitanriu et 
nobilcu afcendere cocntanriu acnaucs noftias vi 
doe cocupifcentiS prefliira Hut vt npflri Idem fafe 
lip^nepreponderefubmergerent/in ipfis auteno 
mis dldem fafdis recepimns ex eis nobiTcu quot 
qnotpotuimusac eosadnaues noftras vfc^p per/ 
diudmusTandedam illoruper marenatantes &- 
Tnanoscocomitantesaduenerut vttot aduenta/ 
remoleftiulculeferrcmuscu fiquide pluref^ mil/ 
kin noftrasnaues licet nudi& inermes intn>iui& 
raitA^paracumaitificiuc])noilTunecno& navin 
i^iarumagiu'tudinem minuices Aft tunc quiddam 
tiludignuacciditNamcu machinam/tormentorS 
qtbcUicorunodrotuquedaexonerare cocupere* 
inuset^pterhoc(impontoigne>maclunjipr{hor 
lidiilime teiiuiflent pars illoru maximac audito hu 
ju(ixmoditommio)rereinmare natjtans percipi« 
tanit veluti fok'te liint rane in ripa Qdetes qu; fi foi 
teffis tumultuoliim quitqua audiun^ feie in j3fun/ 
diimlutiIatitatur(immergut/quemadinoduni& 
gens ilia tuncfecerunrillii^ eoriiquiad naues au« 
bgerantrfic tunc pert emti fijeru t vt nos fa(fh J10» 
ftrinoCnetrephendercmus.Vemillos mox (eciv 





^^^EpIHH 




NAVIGATIO 

efle ftcimus nee ampbus ftupidos eflepermiQ 
i infinu antes eis cp cu talibus armis hoftes Dot 
•s perimercmus.Pofi:^ aut lUos ilia tota die in 
ibus niis feftiug iradauimus ipfos a nobis abi 
)S cfle monuimus qiii feqnti noiSenos ab hinc 
redfrecupiebamus.Quoaudito/ipicufumma 
ciaa beneuoIenria<J mox a nobis egrcffi funt. 
acgenteeorucp terra cpmultoseoR! ntus vidi 
rioui<« inquibushicdiutiusimorarinS cupio 
npofteanofle vfitequeat maieitas qualiter 
uauis nauigationu hare mf aru magis admiran* 
nnotacuC^ digniora co(cnp(ehm ac in Iibelhim 
ftilo geographico coUegerem que libellu qua# 
' dietas mntulaui & in quo Ijngula particulanf 



PRIMA 

(nmmodoriiiceotom pfnnarii^ tfilibut fteudi 

fuhtvt idfitvifiienammip mirabileregio Gqui# 

Manilla multum amena (hiAifcraCp eft/liluis ac ne 

inonbusmaximispl{naqua:omni tempore virct 

riec coram vm<i^ (olia fluunt, Fra<!fais rdam innu« 

mnabiles 8C nolbis omnino diflimiles habent hee 

dne tellus in corrida zona {ita e(l dircAe (ub para# 

IcUo qui cancri tropicu deictibit vn polus orizon* 

tis eiu(He (e.xxiri.gradibus deuacin fine climacis (e 

cundi Nobis autinibi exiftcntibus nos coteplatS 

populus mulcus aduenit efflgiem albedinemq^ no 

(bam mirantes quibus vnde veniremus (aicitantj 

bus e codoinuilendetcrrc gratia nos defcendifle 

refpondimus quod & vn'c^ ipfi credcbat in hac td 

lure baptiiletia fontelu^ facros piures inflituimus 

inquibuseoruminfinitjfeipfbs baptifari fecerunc 

fe eorii lingua charaibi hoc efl: magn; fapienti{ vi* 

tos vocantes Et prouincia ipfa Paiias ab ipGs nun 

cupata eft .Poftea aijt portu ilium terramcp dere< 

linquncs acreaindacoUetranrnauigantes& ter 

ram ipfam vilu lemper {equentes.Dcce.Ixx.Ieuca3 

aportuiUo percurrimus fadentes gyros drcuitu& 

c^ interim miiltos 8C cum gentibiis multis conuer 

fantes praAicantefip. Vbi in plerifcp lods auf^cfed 

no in grandi copiakmimus cii nobis terras illas re 

perire & fi i eis aunz foret tuc fufficeret cognofcere 

£t quia tuncxiij.iam menfibiu in nauigation; nfa 



NAVIGATIO 

h'teramus et nauab'a nr a apparatufc^ noRri to 

n^condimptieranthominefc^labore perfra^ 

pomunem inter nos de rellaurandt? nauJcuUs 

as qugaqua vncli(^redpicbant&rcpctunda 

bania iniuimus cocordiam in qua dum perfidc 

s vnatumitatgprope portu vnu crainus tori* 

Irbis optimu in quern cu nauibiis noibis intra 

Ites'Tgctem ibide inB'nica inuenimus qug nos cu 

Piiamfcepitamidda in terra auteilla nauicuia 

Icumreliquis nauiculis nofcris ac dolrjs nouam 

Hcauimusipfafcpmachiiiasnoftras ac tormcn 

Jellica qu^in aquis viidicppfneperibant in tcr# 

I lufcepimus noftrafcp naucs ab cis exoneraui^ 

1 terra traximus c 



PRIMA 

quamdX vaMt fnocc & tb infcftam aifterr/4|ii{ 
ccrto anni tempore per viam maris in ipCun com 
tenSperinfidiasingrelfimmc^ditorie/nncfivin 
Qmultoscoruinterimercntmanducafenu^ dcin* 
de,Aliosi^oin(uateiTiruar<p domos captiuatos 
ducerent/conm quos ipi Ce vix defendcre pollait 
nobi^infinuanicsgentcillam cjuamdj inhdueuv 
mfula qu( I man leuds centu aut drciter eracQui 
remipfi nobis cu canto afleAuacquennioniacain 
mcmorauerutvreisexcondolentiaimgna CTedc» 
rcmus/^mitteremurcy vt de tands cos vindieaie» 
musimun^s/jjptcrquodillilcetantesnopaiu cRe 
&/ feie nobiicum ventures fponte fua propriaob 
nilctut/quodpluresobcauras acceptarerecufauir 
mm demptis fepcon q<ios data conditione rec(pi 
mus vt foli in fuis lintribus i propriaremearet/ qni 
rcducendoru coru cura fufcipere nequaqua inten« 
debamus cuiconditioniipli cpgratanter acquieuc 
rat.EtttaiUos amicos noftros plurimu tRe£tos dc 
Klinquetes ab eis abceflimus.Rcdauratis aiitrcpg 
Wifcp naualibus nofttls/fepte pergym maris(vni 
tbinfgrjcu&leuantenos ducence) nauigauimin 
dies Poft quos plurimis obuiauiihus infidis quarS 
quide alij habitatf a]i{ ^o defeitj erat.Haiu igitur 
Vnitande appropinquates & naues noHras inibi 
fiftcfefadentes/vidimus ibidem ^maxunu gen« 
litaccniuquiinfulamiUaltynuncuparem quibus 

d 



NAVIGATIO 

oCpe^i 8f nauiculis phafelift^ noftris Viris vjtfl 
t Sc machinis thbus ftipatts terrg eidem vicinius 
propiquatcs.iiii.C.viros eu mulicnbus cpmlcisl 
tta littus efTe confpexinius qui vt /deprioribus. 
bitu eftoms niidimeantcs/coi^cflTjnuo erat/ 
pno bellicofi plurimu validicp apparcbanr/cuiu 
Juidc orns armis fuis arcubus videlicet & fagiu 
lanceifcp armari eflct/ quorum quofp coplurcs 
rmas etia qdrataue fcuta gereb at gbus fie opor 
le fefe pmunieb.it vt cos i iaculadis fagittis fuis 
lliquo no impedirct, Cumcp cu phafelis noflris 
jipfi cptus eftfagittg volatus appro piaflTemu* 
s citiiis in mare^filiemnt & infmitis emiffis (a* 
1 terra defccndc* 



PRIMA 

pugnarc quod 8f quidefsdmu*. Na tu aduttrum 
Hlosinterramcuartnisnofhisprofiluimus/cotra 
chilli fie icfc nobis oppofucrt vtduabus fermc ho 
lis codnuu inuice geflehmus bellu/pter id cp de eis 
»nagnafacei'cmusvi<floriamdemprisconjprrpau 
ds quosbalillan)colubnnarfi^ notlri fuis ititere^ 
mcruiU telis quod iddrco ita enecftu c quia feipfos 
anobis aclaceis enfibufc^ noftris (iibuliter fubtra^ 
fiebac. Verutamen tanta demii in eos incum'mus 
violenaavtilloscugladtis mucronibufcp noftris 
cominus attingeremus .Q^uofquidecupfenrifTent 
omcs in fuga per liluas 8c nemora conuerH funt/ac 
noscampi viftorescinterfe(fhsex eis vuinerztiCfp 
plurimis)dereruenint.Hos aucprodieilla longio/ 
re fuga nequaqua infequi voluimus/ob id q» hxii 
gati nimiu tuc eOemus quinpotius adnaues nfas 
cum tanta feptem illonim qn^ nobifcum veneranc 
remeauimus Iicticia vc tantum in fc gaudium vise 
iprirufcipepo(fent.Sequeti auc aductate die vidi 
musperinfulam ipfam copiofam gentium appro 
pinquare cateruam cornibus inRrumentifi^ alrjs 
quibus in bellis vtunturbucdnantem/qui & quo^ 
quedepiffti omnes ac varrjs volucru plumis omaf 
cierancltavciatuerimirabileforet quibus percg^ 
pciseximtorurfuiafnosdeliberauimus couliovc 
fi gens hgc nobis inimiddaspararet/nofmet cms 

d ij 



pia perpctua facercmu* 

tuimus circa plaga ipfai 

Jijvero (vtputo prg ma* 

fios in terram tunc mini 

iuimus i&turin cos in t( 

lvij.WriSmguIi decurio 

longu manuale geilimu 

diucumam pugna plurii 

tcrcmptos ex cis multo< 

fit ad vCcp populatione 

mus vbi comprehenGs 

corum popuktione igni 

naucs nofiras cu ipfis.x 

in(crfe<flis exeademgei 

ex nfis aut inccrcpto dui 

scxij.qui oes ex dci adiut 

rut.C;gtcru aut recurfu ii 

dinatp^ viri fcptem illi < 

quorii quincp in pr^fli 

phafclo vno in infula ilia 



8ECVM3A 

fituvirianoIbamai}mintH>nereglien!!(St.Nol^ 
HyQsanicviamrequaites Ciliciutandan repeiiul 
mas poRU cum. CC.xxq.captiuatis palbnis.x7« 
O^biis die Anno dni.M.caxlxxxxix.Vbi Ijdfli 
mefiitc^tifuimus/acvbieordecaptiuos noftras 
vcndidimus.Ec h^cfunt qugin hzc nauigatioe no; 
flia piiorc anno tatu digniora colpeximus. 

Oc lecundarij nauigatiois cuifii 

VANTVM AD ^CVNDARIB 
nauigationiscurrum&caqufiniUaine 
q moratu digna conljjcd /dicecin fequen 
tibus.Ean£migitmchoantes nauisario 
ncm Calidum exiuimus portu Anno dm M.cccc 
lxxxix,Maij dtcCJuo exitu hQo nos cuifum no* 
ftnim Campiuiiidis ad infulas arripientes necnS 
ad infularammagnj Canari{ vifum tranfabeun* 
tcsintantunauigauimus vtinful{cuidamqu£ ig« 
lusinfuladidtappUcaremiu/vbifaifla nobis de li/ 
mis &aqua^uiGone&nauiigaa'onenolb-aTU» 
lum|!Lcbccduvctuinc{ptaeft.Poft enauigatos 
xix.dies terra quadanoua tandetcnuimus/quam 
quidc fitma exiilere cenfiumus cotra ilia de qua & 
Ctamlupnioiibusmecioeft/&quf quidetetraia 
aDnatomdantttaUnearojquinoifildnnad panS 
AnflniltacCipta^ttiineridioiulis ^lusfcv.cx 



na fubmeifam necnoi 

*fl€ iuuenimus/qu^ ec 

dem etpn>c(rasaldflj 

ftrabat vndc nemine i 

Turn veto cofhtimus < 

inus (bhitis nonnulli^ t 

ipCsan accedere temaui 

feni qarmes & drcu c; 

pi^UMfHicftficflumini 
venuniis vt nuf^ loa 

nounmadercerecVidir 
ipf^ figna ^mulca qoen 
tnhabitata cflTct &: incol 
dc figiia coGdcraturiin i 
fcamus/ad naues nras r€ 
fif quidc ffdmiis.Quib 
poKeainf Leuance 8c S 
icaindu teiramc fie ipmi 

pertencantes fgpnis intci 
bus Iif»ii4^'e a in. im.r».^ 



8ECVNDA 

lenSpr^cnt Quibus «>gnii|i ituSoti^aaSsas 
confiUo {ado couenimus/vc nai^u noftru g ma/ 
ic ad Magiftratf rcflcSeremiu. lumcii fecudu tef 
rafflipamintatunauigauinnn vttande ponuivni 
■pplicaremus/qui beUillimlinruIam h^Simqf 
iinuqucndamindusingreflu tcncbat/Iiipra que 
nobis naiiigaiuibus vt in illu introiK poflcmiis iiw 
menfam ininCulaipfagenautuibamainari quam 
or Icuds aut drdcer diltace vidimus . Cuius ret ^i 
({Catinopariiextianius.Igicpatatis pauicuUs nfis 
vt in cande infula vaderemus lintrc quadi in qua g 
Ion; complures crant ex alto man voiire vidimus 
;ppter quodtuccouenimusvtcisinuafis^os c6> 
prjhendemnus . Ec tuc in illos nauigareingytum 
(neeuaderepoflenOdrciidare occgwnus/ quibus 
Ciaquocp vice nitennbus vidimus illos(anra ton; 
perata manete)remis fuis oibus furliun ete^ qua 
li firmos ac reCdentes fe fignificare velle/qua re Ge 
iddrco fllos efficere piitauimus vt inde n6s in adml 
lationrm couerteret; Cu j^o fibi nos cominus apji 
pinqrecognouidentremisruisiaquacoueriis ler 
laj^iusremigareTcepef.Ann nobifdiaabafu vni 
xlv.doliorii volatu celenimu educebamus/qu( tuc 
tali nauigio ddata ell vt fubito ventu fu^ eos obd 
IKKt£umcpirrucndi in illos adueniflet c5modi< 
tas ipfi fefe apparatu<]p Giu inphalcio luo ordinate 
Ipargetes'/fequocpad nauigandu acdnxeft Ita^ 
cu cospr(teriiircmus/'ipi(u£eTcconatiiat.Atnos 

d iii) 



1 


NAVia ATIO 

atgradibus extra quod<uncpdima°diAat(^ ea/ 
rn terra a pr^ominatis infulis vt per Lebecdum 
itu coflabat leuci$.ccccc.ln qua terra dies cu no 
>U9 {quales.xxvij.Iunij cum fol in cancri tropw 
cftexiftere repoimus.EandeteiTain aquis oI< 
fubmerfamneaionmagnisfluminibus gfufam 
: iuuenimus/quf ct quidem femet plurimu vim 
n etproc^rasalciHimarcpaiborcshabentenion 
ibat vnde ncminein ilia elTe tunc percfpimut. 
m veto coftitimus &: clalTem noftra anchorauj 
s folutis nonnullis phafebs cu quibus-in tcrram 
un accederc tentauimus.Porro nos aditum in H 
I qoeretes & circii earn ^pius gyrantes ipain vt 
ta*ftu eft fie fluminiivndisvbicpperfulam im 



SECVTTOA 

knSpt^Ktet Quibus cognitii iflcSMnicntibus 
confiUo fado couenimus/vt naiitew noftni ^ nu< 
re ad Magiftrale rcfleSeremu*. Tumcp fccudu tc( 
cam ipam intatu nauigauiimu vt tandc pomii vni 
applicaremus/ qui beUiflimamfulam Uliffimiuy 
linuqucndaminciusingreflu tcncbat/fiipra que 
nobis nauigantibus vt in illu intrain poiTemns iiw 
menfam ininfulaipragendutuibamaniari quam 
orleucis aut drdter diltate vidimus .Cuius rei gra 
l{catinopaiuexndmus.Igicpaiads pauiculis nfis 
vtincandeinfulavadercmuslinncquadlinquag 
Ibnjcomplures ctant ex alto man v<nire vidimus 
;ppter quodtiiccoueniinus vteisimiaCs^s co> 
prjhenderemus . Et cue in illos nauigaretagyniai 
(oeeuadetepoflcnOdrcudare occepimus/quibus 
Giaquocp vice nitenabus vidimus iUos(ann(em« 
perata manetc)reniis fuis oibus furfum eredis qua 
u firmos ac refiftentes fe fignificare velle/qua ri Cc 
iddrco flios efficere piitauimui vt inde n6s in adm< 
lationem couerteret. Cu ^o flbi nos cominus apj> 
pinqrerognouiflentremis fuis i aqua couerfis tec 
ri j^lus remigare Icepef. Attn nobifcu catbafii vnj 
xlv.doliom votatu celetrimu educebamus/qu{ tu( 
uU nauigio delata eft vt fubito ventu fu^ eos obii 
IKletjCumcpiiruendi in illos adueniflet comodi< 
las ipG fefe apparaturp Ciu inphalHo fuo ordinate 
lpai;getes/requo^ad nauigandu acdnxcft. Ita^ 
CU cospr(tcTi)(Icmus/ipi(ugcrcconati(ut.Atnos 

d iiii 





NAVIGATIO 

iisiliscunccxpedttisphafclis/validis viris ftipa 
llos tunc coprehendcrc pucantcs mox in cos in 
imus contra qs bis geminis fere hoiis / nobis 
ntibus/nifi carbalusnollraqu^curru eospr;^ 
erat rurfum fuper cos rcucrfa fuiflct/illos pem> 
amittebamus.Cumveroipdfc eifdem noOris 
ifelis carbafocp vndiqj conftricTtos efle peripice 
c oms cj circit.xx.crai & a terra duabus ferelcU 
Jiftabat/in mare faltu ^filierunt .Quos nos ca 
ifelis noftris tota^fcqucntcsdie/nullos ex cis 
tantumodo duos prjhcdercpotuimus aIijsoi« 
i in terram faluis abcuncibus.ln lintre autc eoru 
Lmdeferucrantbisgeminiiuuenesextabantno 
lorum gente geniti fed quos in icUutc alienani 



SECVNDA 

inus du(ftis nobiTcum duobus Ulis ^os in Imtre ^ 
nobis inuafacoprehenderamus. Qua primu aute' 
tenram ipfam pcde contigimus oms trepidi Sc fe^ 
ipfos abdituri in vicinas nemorii latebras difl[iige# 
nint • Turn vero vno ex illis qaos prf hendera^ 
mus abire permiflb dC plurimis illi amiddg (ignis 
necno nolis cymbalis /ac(peculisplcrir(^ datis/di 
scimus ci ne ^pter nos c^teri qui aufugetant expa« 
ue(cerent/qin eora amicos efle plurimum cupid>x 
mus/quiabiens iuffanofha foleftcrmipleuitgeni 
tcilla tota.cccc .videlicet fere viiis/cum hmdnis 
multis a (iluis fecu ad nos edu(flis» Qui inermes ad 
aos vbi cum nauiculis nofHis eramus omnes vene 
fant/& dx quibus tuic amiddam bona firmauimus 
reftituto quoq^ as aUo qucm captiuu tenebamus 
& pariter eorum lintrem quam inuaferamus p na^ 
iiiu noftrarii fodos apud quos erat eis reih'tui man 
dauimus*Porro bgceomlinterqu^ ex folo atboris 
trunco cauata dC muttu (ubtih'cer effecfhi (uerat/16^ 
ga.xxvipafribus et fata duobus braclii}s cratHac 
cu a nobis recuperaffent Sc tuto i loco ftuminis re 
poiuident oins a nobis repente (ugerunt nee nob j 
icum amplius conueHari voIuenintQuo tarn bar 
baro fadlo comperto illos mala? fidei mali^cp con« 
dtdonis exiftere coguouimus. Apud eos aui^ diita 
satpauculu quod ex auribus geftabant vidimus.^ 

hz^ plaga ilU rdi^a dc kcandvaa cam^ nauigatis/ 



LXXVII 





^^KSrflH 




NAVIGATIO 

it.a'ititcrleuds ftattdnequ.-mdS nam'ralis totf 
mmus/jn quam introeuies tantas inibi coperi> 
! gctes vtidmirabilr forrt.Cu gbus fafta ami 
1 iuimus ddnde m as ad plures eoR! pagos vbi 
ufccuremftucphonefVcabds fufc^pti (iii'mut 
lb CIS iterim.ccccc.vnion«s vn ica nola cnu'mus 
1 auto modico quod eis ex gratia coculimus. In 
terra vinu ex fruc^bus femctibufcp exprefTum 
iccram ccruifiamue albam et rubcnte bibuf /me 
aut ex myrrc pomisyaldc bonis cofeAu crat 
|uibuscumuIascpbonis alijs fru(fVibus gudui 
dis & corpori fahibribus habudancer comedi^ 
!/^pterea q> tepeftiue illuc aduenetamus .H{C 
z infulaeoR: rebus fuppellccVihue cpmulcu ha# 



SECVNDA 

gnouunut ^ut et maiedas vra poiUi^c ampliiisiii 
idllgefe poterit.ReIi<flo aut pomi illo 8c fecundu 
plaga eande in qua cotiiitie genies afilucre ^{pide 
bamus ctniu no Aro ^u<f^o poitii <]0endl aliu ie« 
iidedf vnius naukalf noilrg gra/in quo gete ihu U 
tS efle coperimus /cu quibus nee vi net amidda co 
uerfatione obtinere valuimus/fllis fi qn^ in tcrrS 
cu nauiculis noftm deicenderemus (e cocraaiperc 
defendentibns/& (i qnctt nos fuflinere no valerec 
in {iluas aufjgientibus/& nos ncquac^ expe<fhu)ti 
lni8/quoi)2 tanta barbaric nos cognokenres ab e^ 
cxhinc diiceflimus.T'unccp inter nauigandu infuli 
qoanda in man leuds a terra.xv. diftante vidimus 
<ptam n in ea populus quifpia eflet inuifere cocor^ 
^bn]imus.In fllam i^t aecderantes quanda inibi in/ 
oenimus gencem/qu^ oim beftialifluna (implidfli^ 
mai^/omtiiuquocp gratioHfluna benigni(nmac|| 
crat/euiufquide gentis ritus et mores dufmodiluCft 
X)< dufdem gentis ritu & moribus» 

U WLTV AC GESTV CORPO 

ll lis brutales admodum extant/ Onguli^ 
maxillas heiba quada viridi ittordim re« 
pt ftSB habebat/qua pecudum indar vfcp rumina^ 
banc/ttavt vixquic^ eloquipoflenr/quoruquo^ 
tp finguli ex coUo pufillas uccatafcp cucuibitas du 
as/alteram earum hetba ipfaquam in oreienebar/ 
tLixaamveso cxi^Os faxinaquadam albidagipfo 



LXXIX 





NAVIGATIO 

no linuti pl;nam gertbant/habi to bacfllo quo 
qucinorefuomadefaftiimafticatumm fgii* 
cucurbitam farrina replni mitt«bant/&: drin 
im eo de f adcin farrina cxtrahebat/ quam fibi 
hjc morevtramqjponcbant/hcrbam ipfam 
in ore gcftabani eade farrina refpcrgitado/ SC 
freque.itidime paulatimcp cf£ciebat/'qua rem 
admiran/illius caufam fccretucp/aut cur ua fa# 
t faiis ncqiuiiinus coprfhcdcrc Hcccinc gens 
•xpcrimenco djdicimus)ad nos adeo familiarly 
duenit/acfi nobifcu Tepius antca ncgodati fii* 
t&long^uaamidciahabuitTcnt. Nobis aurc 
>Iagam ipfam ca eis ambulantibus colloquen^ 
u^ Sc interim necentem aquam bibere dclide< 



SECVNDA 

phra ip toru loca drfincbantHecdnc gens vifiiK 
alibus qu^in terra foUda funt |>«iitiu carent quin» 
ymmo ex pifdhus quos in man pifcantur viuunt. 
Etcnim apud eos qui magni pifcatares exiihint pi 
rdum.ingens habundat copia/ex quibus ipfi pluri 
mos tunures ac ^bonos pifees aUos plures/vltro 
nobis obtulerunr.Eorumvxoresliexbaquain ore 
viri ipfi gcrebaiit nuf^ vtebantur.Verum (ingul9 
cucuibitam vnam aqua impletam ex qua biberent 
habebanc.Nullos domorum pagos nulla ve tugu 
Tia gens hgc habent prgcercp folia grandia quedam 
iub quibus a Iblis feniore fed no ab ymbtibus fe^ 
cegunt/propterquodaucumabite eftq> parum in 
eeira ilia pluitet. Cum aute ad pifcandu mare adie^ 
tint folium vnuadeo grandefecumquifcp pifcatu 
lusef&rt vt illo interramdefixo&adiolismea; 
turn verfato fub illius vmbra adu erfus {llu tocum 
(e abfco dat.Haccinc in infula qjmulta varioTU ge^ 
ncrumanimaliafunt qu; omnia aquam'lutulentl 
bibut , Videntes aut q> in ea comodi nihil nandfc e 
tcmur/nos reli Aa ilia alia quamda infula tenuimus 
in quam nos ingredientcs & rcccntem vnde bibe« 
(emus aquainueftigantes/putantcs inttlimipfam 
tandem terra a nuUis efle habitatam/proptcrca q> 
ineanemineinteraduenicodum.pfpexeramus/dii 
per arena deambularemusveftigia pedum atmt 
gna nonuUa vidimus/ex quibus cefuimus q> )i cif< 



1 


NAVIGATIO 
1 pedibus rcliqua membra rcfpon^ebant/lio* 
icsin eadem terra grandiirimi habitahanc.No* 
aut ita per arcnam dcambulantibiis/via vnam 
nram diicente coperimus fcnindum quam.ix. 
lobis elites infulam ipfam iiiuiferc parauimus 
dc^nonc^rpadofam illamncc^multasin c< 
itaregentcscxiilimaiumus.PcrerrataigtturR; 
du camdem viam vna fere leuca quincp in con 
eqiiadam(qu£popiiIatgapparebant) vidimus 
s/in quas introcuntcs quincp in illis repenmus 
icrcs/vetulas vidcli cct duas & iuuenculas tres 
quidein oms fie ftatura ,pccres erac vt indc val 
niraremur.Hgautproa'nusvtnosintuicg funt 
3 ftupefrdg permanferut yt aufiigiendi animo 



SECVNDA 

&aBei!l>Iiuniustut1>atioevtiatiiuapidiuaid» 
las nfas 2^ cu tali gentt clle duxiflanus. Hrj SCtm 
irtgcntcsarcus & fagittas neenon & fiidet i;dca& 
uc magnas inftai'clanaru fcrebant/quiiogRiQlo; 
qaebanturquo<:pintcrremutuoacunos tompK 
hendere veUecQiuo tali pcricido pcrc^to diueflii 
ctiiiternos tuc fjcimus cofiUa. Vnis vtillos i ipla 
«adecafainuadcremus/a]i)S]^ nequa^ fed foris 
potim & iplatea/& altjs vtnufcp adu^Hlis eospu 
gnamqn^reremusdonecquidagercvdlct'itelligf 
icmui alleuerantibus.lntcr quf cofilia caliun ilia fi 
mulatr exiuimus & ad naucs nrasmncaTe occg>i 
mus ipficpc^tus elllapidis iadus)mutuo ig loque 
ta nos infecuti funt/haud minore^ nos vt autiii> 
mo trepidances formidinc/cu nobis mirantibus ipi 
4]aocpcmiiiusmanCT<cnt/&niG nobis ambuIanaV 
OUS no ambularent.Cu j^o ad naucs nollras pati* 
gillemuS &in illas ex ordineitroiremus/mox ocs 
in mate prolilierunt/& ^multas pqft nos Cigittas 
fuas iaculati fun t/fed tuc eos gpaucn me tucbamus 
Namtummadunamnraruduasineoscpotius vt 
terreiff cp vt itdiret)emifimus/quaiuquide tumul 
tu pc;pto/oes cofeftim in mote vnu^piquu lliga 
abiert/etitaabeisereptifuimus difrefGnlufip pit 
Hi) oes nudl vt de poiibus hitu e eunt, Appellaui« 
muTcp Jfiili iHa/gigatii(ob^ccritateeois)ifula.No 
bis atvlfius ct a f ra paulo diftatiuf (rafremigatibut 





NAVIGATTO 

lis intcrdum cu m eis pugnaHe nobis acddit ob 
. quic^ a tcBuri: {i; a fibi toUi ncquaqua permit 
vellEnt.Et vticp quide repcc undg CaftiUif j)* 
cura iani nobis in mentem (ubierat/ob id potif 
im (J vno iam fere anno inVnari perftitcramus 
nifi tenucm SlintcntoriJ neceffariorucp alioiii 
riitione retincbamus . Q_uj & quide adhuc ex 
lementibus/quos pcmilcramus foUs calonbiM 
otaminata inquinatawerac/cu ab exitu noftro 
ampiuiridisinliilis v(qjtunccotinuepcrtoni# 
n nauigauifTcmus zonam/& traniuerum per U 
m 5quinofliaIembis/vt prjhabiEueft.ln qua 
Jem voluntate nobis perfeuerantibus/nos a la 



SECVNDA 

ijaiSC quidemaftreoIasihquibiiB narciinc nohls 
plufes largiti (antJBt paritef nonnuilas mercad fui 
tnus/vbi in quibufdam ^C.SC xxx;vniones in quu 
bufdam vcro no taddem reperiebanb Noueitkc^ 
maieftas veHra/qi nifi permatuii Qnt 8c aconchi^ 
Iqs in quibus gignuncper fcfe exddant omoine.^ 
fedli n5 Cunt. Q^uinymmo in breuic vtCaspiM ipfe 
expertus rum)emarcercut/& i nihil reda<fti futCu 
vero maruri fuerint in oftrea ipla inter carnes( prg 
ter id q> ipfis carnibus h^eanOfe feparant/ 6c hu^ 
iufcemodi optimi CuuERuxis tgit.xlvi).dicbu8 nee 
non gente ilia quam nobis plurimu arnica efffcera 
mus relicHra hinc ab eis exceilimus ob pluhmarum 
rerum noilrarii indigentiam/venimuG:]^ ad Anti^ 
g(if infulam quai paucis nuper ab annis Ctiflopho 
rus Coiumbus diTcoopeniic in qua reculas noflras 
ac nauaiia reficiendo menlibus duobus Sc diebus 
totide pcrmanfimus/plures in terdum ChriHicola^ 
rum inibi conuerfantiii contumelias perpetiendo 
quasprolixus ne nimiu fiam hie omicco.Eande )^o 
in(uIanLxxtj.luli) deferences /percurfa vnius men^ 
fis aim medio nauigaaone Caliciu tandem portu 
vicf.men(is Septenmiis &biiiimus /vbi cumhono 
re^Fe^cjp fufcf pti fiiimus^Ec ficpet dei placinmi 
finemnoma c^it fecundanauigatiD* 

De tertio facfb nauigatione 



LXXXV 





NAVIGATIO 

EIN SIBILLIAIEXISTENTE/ ET 
n a pccnis Atcp laboribus quos Iter pmemo 

ratas pcrtulera nauigationes paulifperre 
cfccntc/dcfidcrateCppofthfcin pcrlaru terrara 
icarc:fortuna fetigationu mcamnequa^ adhuc 
ira fcrcnifRmo illi dno Manueli Pomigallij Re 
tufitincorcncfoo vtquid) vtdeftinato nurido 
rras^Tcoales fuas ad mc trafnuttcret qiubus plurf 
urogabat vt adeuapudLifbona celerius me 
lifcrrc/ipe etem mirabilia mihi plim'ma facerct; 
jer qua re nondu tunc delibcraui quinymmo ci 
eundcmmctnunciu/ me minus bene difisoGcti 
uncmale habere figmficauLVcrufi quando^ 



TERTIA 

tumeo not! paruam vifus e(l cottCfptflle[[tcirtidfam 
plurimiimetnterdumrogitans/vtvnftcum ttibidi 
du8 cofeniantig nauibus/ qug ad exeundtun 8C ad 
nouaruterraruminquifidone prfparatf etanc pm 
k&Cd vellem* Et ica( qiu'a regum preces pr$ccpta 
fttuOad dm vonim confenlL 



Tempus profe^onis terdg 
IQTVR AB HOC LISBONE PORTV 

cum thbus con(eruanti§ fiau3>us die Maij ded* 
iiia.M.cccc&& primo abeuntes /curium noftninp 
verfus magng Canari^ififutasarripuimus: fecund 
diiquas & ad earu profpet^u mdancer enauigates 
idem nauigiu noflru coHateraltter fecundu AffiiV 
cam occidente T^Cus fecuti fuimus * Vbi pifciii quo^ 
TundamcquosParghi nuncupant)multitudin€ ma 
ximam in (quorepfendidimus/tflbusinibi diebus 
mofam facientes . Exinde autem ad partem illam 
Ethopi$/qu9 Befilicca dici^ deuenimus/ qu$ quide 
iubtorrida 2oiiapc(itae(l/& (liper quam»xiii}ir 
gradibus fe Septemtrionak's erigit polus in dimaf 
ce pnmo vbi diebus.xi.nobis de lignis & aqua pto 
Uifioneparantesreftitimus/^pccridq^ AuftriJi if" 
(us p Athianticu pelagus nauigandi mihi ineflet af 
UwisAuip portu Etiuopi^ illu pod h^c rclinquen 

e XI 



LXXXVII 



lent Ijpp^ ventoru nimb 
rima nobis intulere' gra 
nofbru line^ prgfcrtim e^ 
(iiiclnibic^ in menfe iur 
{iihus equates funt/atq 
verflis tnciidiem erant^' 
IJ placuic noua vnam ik 
fcilicct AugufbViuxca q< 
cum media>r€(Vicimus/< 
nonuUts id ipfa vifuri fi i 
musrquam 8c quideine 
pcrimus qui be(li|s pra 
maicftas regia vcftra pc 
introitus noftriprindpi 
afiqua/^uisoram ipfan 
dimus)popuio mukot 
De qua<]uid€ orapro4{ 
gepoITeflrohii c^pimus 
amoen^ac vcridc cflc 2 
t€ extralineam^quuioi! 



TERTIA 

tidMintir/concordauifmisitentm tcrrS altemdi^ 
reuerti vt nobis de neceOahjs ^uidcremus: inqua 
qufdem nobis extantibus/v idimus fiantes in vraV 
us moiitis cacumine gentes qug dcorrumdcfccile^ 
te non audercnt/ crantc]^ nudi omnes netno confi 
milis efTigid colonTcp vt de fu^ionbus habitu cfti 
Nobis aut fatagentibus vt nobifcii conuerfatu ao 
cederet/ no ficlccuros cos cfficere valuimus vtdc 
nobis adhuc n5 diffiderent^Quorii obRinatioe^ 
teruiac^ cognica/ad naues Tub nocflc remcauimu^ 
rdi(flis in tcrrac vidcntibus illis)noIis fp^cviiCcp no 
nuUis ac rebus alfjs« CiiC]^ nos in man eminus efle 
profpicerct/oins de ip(b ni6te(^pter reculas quas 
cchqucrdmus)dercenderunt plurima inter (e adml 
rationis figna facicntes.Nec tunc de aliquo nifi de 
aqua nobis ^uidimus. Craft ino ante eflkcflo mane 
vidimus e nauibus gcntem eandem numero ^ an 
tea maiof e paflim per terram ignes (umofq^ fade^ 
*em» Vnde nos exiftimanteis cp nos per hoc ad fe in 
uitarcnttutmus ad cos in tcrram/vbi tuncpopulii 
plurimii aduenifle cofpeximus:qui tamen a nobis 
longe feipibs tenebant/figiia facicntes interim no 
nulla vt cum dsinterius in infulii vaderemus. Pro 
pterquodfadueftvtex Chrifticolis nris duo^^^ 
I jnus ad hocparati periculo ad tales eundi femet^ 
ipfos exponerent/ vt quales gentes eedem forcnt/ 
autfiquas diuitias (pectefuearomaticas vilas habe 

C II) 



LXXXIX 





NAVIGATIO 

r/ipfi cognofcercnttquapropter in tantu naufil 
:ofem rogitauctunt/vt ei's quod poftulabat an 
ret.Tum veto iUi ad hoc feie acdngetes necno 
aft^ de rebus fuis ininutis fecii fumetites/ vl in 
gcnnbus cifdem mcrcarcnt alias/abicriit a no* 
dataconditionevtadnos poftquinq; dies ad 
imu rcmeare foliciti eflct / nos etcntm illos tarn 
expedlaremus. Et ita tuc iter fuum in terra arri 
runt/atcpnosadnauesnoftras regreflrum cc* 
lus vbi expe<5tando cos diebus . vti) . perftm f 
i.In quibus diebus gens per miilta noua dictim 
ad plaga ipfam aduenicbat / fed nuf^ nobifcu 
oquivolucrutSeptimaigicaduentiitc die nos 
nram ipam itcru tendentcs /gente ill am mulic» 



TERTIA 

pads vi>i iuuenis ipfe erat apptopiauit/tali eu vd 
U {lii ichi a tergo percuflit vt Tubico meituus in toe 
cam exddetetique confeftim mojicres a]i{ corripiV 
tntesiSiu in montl a pedibus ^traxerut/viric^ tpS 
qui in nionte crSt ad littus cum arcubus & fagitds 
•duenictes isc faunas iuas i nos cotjcietes tal^ctS 
noftrii afijcerut miporecob id <f nauicuI^iDj i qui 
buseditharcnS.nauigandoradebat/neccclcrifaa 
fugne tunc poteranOvt (iimendoru arnionnn fuo 
Turn memoiiam nemo tunc habem. Et ita ^plu« 
rescotranosfagittasluas ciacuIabantur.Tumve 
tio in cos quatuor macbinanun noifa-ammiulmina 
licet hcminem attingetia emiOmus / quo audito to 
nittdo omnes lurlum in monte (ugetunt /vbi mu« 
tieresipffctat/qufiuuenenoffarum quemtrudda« 
uerant(nobis videntibu$)in 6ulbt lecabant/nccnS 
ituftaipfa nobis oflentantes /ad ingentem quern 
(ucopiderantl ignem torrcbaut/& deinde ponbae 
in^nducabut. viriquocp ipfifigna nobis fimilitel: 
£K)ciites / geminos Chrimcolas noilros alios (e 
paiifininiterpcTeinifle manducaflecpinCmiabant 
quibus qui& vticp veraloquebantur/inhociplb 
<r<didimus,Cuius nos improperij vehementius pi 

guit/cuminmanitatcmquaminmoituum exerce* 
ant/oc|iIis intueremuripfiprpprijs . Quamob« 
temphires^quadraginta de nobis in anirao fta« 
biliuctamui vtomcsparitertciramipfam impeta 



impunitis illis abcclf imu 
rchqufmus/mox iter Lei 
(fccudu quos fe corinet t 
plurimos ambitus plurir 
<l%ances /quibus duratibi 
fiobifcu praAicare aut a( 
hierintjii tantu ^o naui 
Douac qu§ fecundu Leb< 
rimus.ln qua cu campu i 
<fti Vincenti) campo nor 
Lebecciu ventu poftihfc 
ftatcjp idem fandti Vina 
tUa vbi Crifticolg tioflTi 
ds ad partem Leua tis; Q 
gradil>us extra linream < 
Itrum eftrCumigitita V 
copiofam gentiu multin 
ftrarum vailitatc miran 
feeximustapod quos tu 
oC deinde itiierram iplu 



TERTIA 
dfa iHis diu cUbomiimiu/anucos ttme nolfaot CQf 
tandem cd^cunuscum quibiisnegodandopnfii' 
cando(|i varie.v.inaiifiinus dkbus vbi cauas fiftiM 
las virides plunmu groflas/& ctiam nSnuUas mar 
borucacuiniiubusuccas inuaiimiu.Conconlaui> 
mua aut vt ex eadem gcnte duos qui nos com Ua* 
guam edoccrent inde tnductranus.C2,uainobRm 
aa ex CIS vt in P ortugallia venirent nos vitro co 
mitati lunt.Et qin me omniaprorequi ac dcfaibo 
re p^et/dignetur veftra noflc maieftas ^ nos per 
lum lUum Unquentes/per Lebecciu ventu/& in vb 
III tcn| femper tranfcurrimus plurcs continue (acj* 
cndo fcalasplurcTi^ambinis/acintcnlucuniuhif 
populis loquendordonec tandem veifus Auftram 
extra Capicorhi tropicii (tiimus .Vbi (u( hOiizon 
tailliininidlonalis pohis,xxxii.fefeextoIlcbat gn 
dibus/an^ minorcm iam perdideramus viiam/ipa 
tf maior vrTa multu infima vidciiat fere in fine Ho 
Cizontis fe oAentans :& tiic per ftellas altenus mc 
lidionaiis peli nofmetipros dirigebamus /qu j mul 
to plurcs mTtoip niaiorcs ac luddiores ^ noftnpo 
li ItcUf cxiftut .-propter quod plurimani jllaiii ^H 
ns confinxi /& prjfertim earu qu; piioris ac qjaiq 
(if magnitudinis crani/vna cu dcdinationc dianic 
tioru quas circa polumAuftri effidunt/QC vnacS 
dcnotadone earudemdiameacfuSC t(Diic&anic# 
notu canun piDutinmcis quatuordicns Guciuwi 



fnagni comodi res inueni 
fif aiboribus:ct pariter p 
tasproducunt/cii quibui 
ta vidimus que faftidiofa 

^piacDgnito ^ mincralia 
uenimus vna vt ab inde I 
caremor.Q^uo inito iter 
fuit ac in omnem c^u no 
VI tali nauigatione pr^cif 
ftegriter ficreLproptcr q 
Vicp vhic^ vt de lignis & 
nirione omnes fibi parar^ 
^ftros nos^cum nauibus 
nauigare poflc indicatu < 
xcraiti)fiiAa protddone/ 
inde nauigauone noftrai 
antes Fdbruaii) ,Tdr\* vii 

iasn hnor€%nintiu»ret et a 



TBRTIA 

fiibftmatuihuenainius Jta Tt neemioofii vtfftKC 
maioiis (ldlaeafnmodotn(pidvalefcnt.Namtuc 
aportuilIoa<|uo pcrS«x>cciim abicfaaiiis xcocc 
Icucis longeiam faaicramu8.it). viddlcct ApriUt*' 
Qua die tempedas acpfocdlain mari tarn vdi€# 
mens exotta eft/vt vela nofha ommacoU^cfe SC 
cum folo nudo£p malo remigare copdieremur pet 
flante vehementi(fime Lebecdo ac mari intume# 
fcere & aere tutbulentiflimo extante.Propter qoc 
tuibinis violenriflimu impetum noHrates omnes 
non modico a({e<fli (iierunc (hipore. No<f^ quo# 
€p tunc inibi cpmaxime erancEcem Aprilis. vi).(b« 
k drca arietis finem extante ipHe e^dem no Aes ho 
tarum.xv.efle repett^ (untihyems <p edX vac in£bi 
erat vc veflra fads perpcdere poteft maieftas. No 
bis autem Tub hac nauioaubus tutbulentia/cerram 
vnam Aprilis.i). vidimus penes quam. xx. cirdtcr 
leucas nauigantes appropiauimus. VeraiUamom 
tiimodo brutalem Qc extraneam eCTe comperinius 
in quaquidem nee pottu quempiam necgentet alf 
quas fore c5(peximus:ob id (vt aibitror)^ ca a(pe 
rum in ea frigus algerec vt tam acetbum vix quiiV 
quapeipeti poiTecPorro in tanto periculoin tafi« 
tacp tempedads importunitate nofmet turn repeti 
jnus/vc vix alceri alceros pr; grandi turbine nos vi 
dcrcmus.Q^uamobrem demum cum nauium prf« 
toreparicercoticordauimus vt comiauitis noflris 



xcv 



lequentf tempeilas in m; 

obrui perdite metuerem 

pcregiinacionu vota nc< 

nlascpit^uc nautis mos eJ 

^o tempeftatis iforttiiii 

detniflis omnfno vclisJr 

oc»e&Lin man penetrauir 

iquinodialj necno mart < 

perappropinquando/pc 

pere pcriollis altidimo d 

moditiodra hatri^tio at 

cr{cu/ob id q> ad Ethtop 

Damusta quo ^ maris At 

Coc*di(labamu$ Ieuds» A 

ri^ gratiam Mai) b^squin 

plaga voa ad iatus AuHr 

xv« diebusi nofipfos rt(ri 

hft curdim nodrum vcrf 

anipuimus/qu^ide ihf 

Bc*l kuds d!<niaba(ir/ad 



OVARTA 

bonfRoftr^recutTumnosatemximns/aquaadoe 
Ctdends pancm.ccc.reponri leucts eramus/ct cuiui 
tandem deinde portum.M.D.ii.ci2 profpera falua^ 
tione ex cundlipocends nutu nirfum fubiuimus/ca 
duabus dumtaxat nauibus:ob id (f ttrriain Satae 
lionacqm ampltus nauigareno pofleOigni com* 
bufleramus.In hac aute nollra terdo cuiia nauigsr 
tione.xvi.dra'ccrmenrespemiafimus/cquibus.xb' 
abrcptranfmdncanf flell^necnon & ^aioris vrCf 
minorifiie afpeAu nauigauimus/quo tempore nof 
medpfos per ab'am meiidionalis poli flellam rege* 
bamus.Quj fuperius commemoraa fum/inea* 
ckm noftra terdo faAanauigadone rclatu mag> 
d^aconTpexi. 

Oe quart; nauigatiom's carSi 

ELIQ.WM AVTEM EST / VT 
r qu9 ill tenia nauigatioiie noflra profpc*' 

xerim.edi(Iera.Q,uia ^oiapr^Iohganar 
(atione&tifco/etquocphfc eadem noilranauiga 
do ad fperatum a nobis fine miru'me produifla en/ 
obaduerGtatem infonuniuue quoddam quod tit 
maris Athlantid nobis acddit Tinuridcirco breuior 
fiam-lgicurexLifbon^portu cumfcx coferuantiE 
pauibus exiuimus cii propoGto infulam vnam vcl 
£u boiizootem pofitaminuiTendi /qu£ Melcha di 

fiij 




^Si 



▼ ¥ 



«|ui atj uiiciKcin occiden 

prout dc hoc ipfo per Cj 

quidem infula Mdcha pi 

^o ipfa plus ad mcridjem 

gnouimus quia ipfa in afj 

antar<!tid fita cft.Dccima 

nobis vnde fupra egrcdie 

infulas virides nuncupat. 

fettifn necedariaru munin 

uerfbrumodoru rcfrigcra 

Cerdum inibi dicbus ccflTar 

poft h<fc cuani^arc occf pi 

ftcrtamcp pr^rumptuofus 

fitatem 5f omniu noftrum 

vt fcfenoftri & fex nauiii i 

fit vtin Scrraliona Auftra 

deremus. Ad qua nobis ac 

dem in cofpciflu habcntibi 

ba fuboita tcmpef^as eft/a 

fottuna aducrfa inualuir/vi 



Q.VARTA 

mur.Q.U!unqt]idem nos per SuducfiunK <pd vtB» 
tus ell inter fneridiem et Lebecou > rcaflumoitcs 
rccperillam maris arritudine nauigauimus kucas 
Vnde faSu eft vt nobis extra lineanifquino^liw 
lem nibus pene gradibus iam tunc exiftcnabus ta 
n quedamca qua.xii.difl:abainus leaas) apparae* 
rit/qu( apparitio no parua nos afF;dt admiratione 
Terra eteniilla/infula in medio maiimuhu ahafiC 
admirabilis erat/qu{ leucis duabus longior & vna 
dilacatior no exiftebat : in quaquidem terra nuqui 
quifcp hominu aut fuerat aut babitauerat; &nihi!o 
minus nobis infoclieiflimafuit.In illaciri p AolidS 
confiliu fuum & regimen prjfe^his nauium nofter 
nauem fua perdidit. Nempe iUa a feopulo quodam 
«hra/&inde^pterhoeinrimas diuifafan^ti Laii« 
rctnnoAe(qu^ Aiigu(^i.x.efl3inmari penitusflib 
merfa extitity nihil inde faluo manente demptis tan 
tumodo nautis.Erarc^ nauis eadem dolioru.ccc.iii 
^anoflrgtotiustuili; totalis potentiaerat. Cum 
aut omnes circa illam fatagerrmus vt (i forte ipam 
3L periculo (ubtrahere valeremus:dedit mihi in man 
liatis idem nauium pr;fe<fhis/vt cu uauioila vna in 
Kceptu quempia mbonuvbipupes noftras fecure 
omnes redpere polTemus apud inlulam eande in^ 
venrii pergerc /nolens tamen iple idem prffcflus 
vt nauem raeacqu^ uouem nautis mcis llipata*/ 8C 
in nauis pericUtantis adiutorio intetaforct)mecfi 

f iiii 



mum inhi poica/vbi dafl 

tis fufdpcrepoflcmus inv 

Ibidem diebus eunde nai 

luAa ttcpedUdo perftiUi 

lefte no perum pettuli7at(; 

Itupefcebant vt nuUo con 

bis autin hac esdftentibus 

pupptm vna per jquor adi 

vt nos perc^ere pofTent n 

iidentes CpenteCcpvm que 

Jpfam nos (ecu duceret. Q i 

lemu8/&: vidflim nos «ra 

nobis/ciufde prgfeA' nn na 

ptis nauds^dita extitiffir: < 

^potr^inaieftas)me 
ftia/cii liUlbonacad qua rei 
cxiftens lends in longo rem 
«»wn»Nihflominus tamen 1 
cnies vltertus ^jceffimus/re 
sd memorarSf nfitls <4»' ..^i 



OyARTA 

fiiamlniBafcatariente/cum Infinitb aiboribuiM 
nuinaif<|ivolucribiuinaTlnis &tciRflnbus/qu( 
adeo lunplic^ cnuit vt fjefe numu comprchcndi 
intrepide penmncTcnt.Pn>pt« quod tot nicprdi 
didiinusvtiualciiliviuunexillis adimptcuctmut 
Incaant«nii]balialnucniniasaiumaliapter3 nm 
tcs2^niaximo9/ctlaccttasbifiunmcaudaini»be 
tcs com nontillis Cnpoit&tts quos etiani in ea vidi 
inus.Igiturparata nobis inibiproliifione fubvcn* 
to inter mmdiem & Ltfaccdu ducete potadmus 
obid q> a ivge mandatu acc^rramu s/vt qttalicun 
<^ non obftante periculo prjcedcntis nauigadonis 
viam in fequcmnur. InccptO ci^ fairiufconodi na 
li^io pomun tandnn vnuminuenimus que. om« 
nium fanAoiu Abbadam nucupauimus/ad qucm 
(profpnam annnente nobirauram altifGnioMnfn 
xvi).p<itigimus di<s.DiftatJ^idan pditiaiocc.a p 
ba infula leuds/in quoquide portu nee pr^fedhim 
liollni nee quemqua de tmba alium repnimus/SC 
fi tame in illo menfibus duobus & dicbus quatuor 
expeSauerimos / quibus rfluxis vifo qiilluc nemo 
veniRtconfetuantia nofba tunc & ego coeordaui 
mus/vtfeciidu latus longitu ptogfeoeremur. Per 
cuifisitacp.cclx.leucispoituicuidamaiii applicui 
musin quo calidlum vnu erfgere prupoitinnusf 

Sod&quide^re(flof{dmusrdi(%sinlllo.xxiiti> 
itiibcolisnobiTcuintxiilentibiB/qutexptf&fii 



mus.Quibus (lipcriorib 

uimus poft hf cin Portu^ 

pergrgcu tranTmoncanu 

<«it cfRccrc^ReliAis igiti 

fiJcolis.xxutj.ec cum illis. 

bus annis vna cu prouiCu 

ndente/nccno pacaca nol 

te(dequa hicminimafiti 

hi cue viderimus/et cum i 

acLfere leucas cum.xxx.cx 

fictrauimus. Vbi inrcrdu 

€fa% nunc fubticdcens Iibc 

Mcruo.Eftcjp cadcm terr; 

Icm ad partem Auftiixvi 

Donf mcndianu ad ocdde 

inftrumencanoflra morifl 

nem noftraperNomordc 

cranimontanuqr vcntus cl 

ad hanc Lifbon^ citiitatci) 

dem poft multos laborcs r 



Q.VARTA 

«einulcu Sc vlcra^fit crtdibile ftfHof CuCcfpiifii* 
lnus:6b id gi ipfa ton ciuitas nos in man dijpnidv 
tos cflc cxiltimabat/qiKadmodu rcliqui omnes de 
fuiba no Ara p pkAi nri nauiu ihiiti pr{iumpcio« 
nccxdtrrat.Quo fuperbia mode iulhis omniu cc 
ibr dcus copenfac . Et ica iiiic apud Lifl)oni ipliun 
fubtido igiiorans quid dc mc ierentfTinius ipie rex 
dcincrps cfficcrc cogitet/q a lantis laboiibus mm 
iam exnunr requiefcere plurimu p<raptarcm/ hue 
nunciu maieftaci vcRrf plurimu quoip intcrdu c5 
mendans. Ameriou Vdp"''''^ *" I-idjoiUc 

< 




Fi'mtu.vi).krMai| 
Anno fuprafefqui 
nuUe{ununi.vij. 



Is 



I- 



INTRODUCTION 
TO COSMOGRAPHY 

With Certain Necessary Principles 
OF Geometry and Astronomy 



TO which are added 

THE FOUR VOYAGES OF 
AMERIGO VESPUCCI 

A Representation of the Entire World, both in 
THE Solid and Projected on the Plane, 
IncliUding also lands which were Un- 
known TO Ptolemy, and have been 
Recently Discovered 



distich 

Since God rules the stars and Caesar the earth. 
Nor earth nor stars have aught greater than these. 



31 





^^EBHH 




) MAXIMILIAN C^SAR AUGUSTUS 

HJLESIUS, NATIVE OF THE VOSGES 

ce thy Majesty is sacred throughout the vast world, 

.ximilian Csesar, in the farthest lands, 

lere the sun raises its golden head from the eastern 

waves 
d seeks the straits known by Hercules' name, 
lere the midday glows under its burning rays, 
lere the Great Bear freezes the surface of the sea; 



PREFACE 

TO HIS MAJESTY 
MAXIMILIAN CiESAR AUGUSTUS 

MARTINUS ILACOMILUS WISHES 
GOOD FORTUNE 

If it is not only pleasant but also profitable 
in life to visit many lands and to see the most 
distant races {a fact that is made clear in Plato, 
Apollonius of Tyana, and many other philos- 
ophers, who went to the most remote regions 
for the purpose of exploration), who, I ask, 
most invincible Maximilian Ciesar, will deny 
that it is pleasant and profitable to learn from 
books the location of lands and cities and of 
foreign peoples. 

Which Phcebus sees when he buries his rays be- 
neath the waves, 
Which he sees as he comes from the ferthest east. 
Which the cold northern stars distress, 
Which the south wind parches with its torrid heat. 
Baking again the burning sands? 

(Boethius.) 

Who, I repeat, will deny that it is pleasant and 
profitable to learn from books the manners and 

33 





^^^U^H 




Preface 

stoms of all these peoples? Surely — to express 
J own opinion— just as it is worthy of praise 

travel far, so it can not be foolish for one 
lo knows the world, even from maps alone, 

repeat again and again that passage of the 
lyssey which Homer, the most learned of 
ets, wrote about Ulysses: 

Tell me, O Muse, of the man who after the 
capture of Troy 

Saw the customs and the cities of many men. 

Therefore, studying, to the best of my ability 
i with the aid of several persons, the books 
Ptolemy from a Greek copy, and adding 



ORDER OF TREATMENT 

Since no one can obtain a thorough knowl- 
edge of Cosmography without some previous 
understanding of astronomy, nor even of astron- 
omy itself without the principles of geometry, 
we shall in this brief outline say a few words : 

( 1 ) Of the elements of geometry that will be 
helpful to a better understanding of the material 
sphere ; 

( 2) Of the meaning of sphere^ axis, poles^ etc. ; 
{3) Of the circles of the heavens; 

(4) Of a certain theory, which we shall pro- 
pose, of the sphere itself according to the system 
of degrees ; 

(5) Of the five celestial zones, and the appli- 
cation of these and of the degrees of the heavens 
to the earth ; 

(6) Of parallels; 

(7) Of the climates' of the earth; 

(8) Of winds, with a general diagram of 
these and other things ; 

(9) Of the divisions of the earth, of the 

various seas, of islands, and of the distances of 

' The won] dimatt u here uied in iu Mcknt (ente of t zone of 
the e«nh'i nir&ce comprued between two (pedfied pualleb of latitude. 

35 



^H 


IHCUHH 


1 


Order of Treatment 

ces from one another. There will be added 
) a quadrant useful to the cosmographcr. 
!^astly, we shall add the four voyages of 
lerigo Vespucci. Thus we shall describe the 
mography, both in the solid and projected 
the plane. 



CHAPTER I 

Of the Principles of Geometry Necessary 
TO AN Understanding of the Sphere 

Since in the following pages frequent men- 
tion will be made of the circle, the circum- 
ference, the center, the diameter, and other 
similar terms, we ought first of all briefly to 
discuss these terms one by one. 

A circle is a plane figure bounded by a line 
drawn around, and in the middle there is a 
point, all straight lines drawn from which to 
the surrounding line are equal to one another. 

A plane figure is a figure, no point of which 
rises above or £ills below the lines that bound it. 

The circumference is the line that so bounds 
the circle that all straight lines drawn from the 
center to the circumference are equal to one 
another. The circumference is also called in 
Latin ambitus, circuitus, curvatura, circulus, and 
in Greek periphereia. 

The center of a circle is a point so situated 
that all straight lines drawn from it to the line 
bounding the circle are equal to one another. 

A semicircle is a plane figure bounded by the 

37 



^^M 


IHBdHH 


1 


Principles of Geometry 

meter of the circle and one half of the cir- 
nference. 

rhe diameter of a circle is any straight line 
sing through the center of the circle and ex- 
ding in both directions to the circumference. 
K straight line is the shortest distance be- 
;en two points. 

^n angle is the mutual coming together of 
D lines. It is the portion of a figure increas- 
; in width from the point of intersection. 
A. right angle is an angle formed by one line 
ing upon another line and making the two 
jles on either side equal to each other. If a 



CHAPTER II 

Sphere, Axis, Poles, Etc., Accurately 
Defined 

Before any one can obtain a knowledge of 
cosmography, it is necessary that he should 
have an understanding of the material sphere. 
After that he will more easily comprehend the 
description of the entire world which was first 
handed down by Ptolemy and others and after- 
ward enlarged by later scholars, and on which 
further light has recently been thrown by 
Amerigo Vespucci. 

A sphere, as Thcodosius defines it in his book 
on spheres, is a solid and material figure bounded 
by a convex surface, in the center of which 
there is a point, all straight lines drawn from 
which to the circumference are equal to one 
another. And while, according to modern 
writers, there are ten celestial spheres, there is 
a material sphere like the eighth (which is 
called the fixed sphere because it carries the 
fixed stars), composed of circles joined together 
ideally by a line and axis crossing the center, 
that is, the earth. 

The axis of a sphere is a line passing through 





Geometrical Definitions 

: center and touching with its extremities the 
cumference of the sphere on both sides. 
iQut this axis the sphere whirls and turns like 
: wheel of a wagon about its axle, which is a 
oothly rounded pole, the axis being the 
meter of the circle itself. Of this Manilius 
:aks as follows: 

Through the cold air a slender line is drawn, 
Round which the starry world revolves. 

The poles, which are also called cardines 
inges) and vertices (tops), are the points of the 
avens terminating the axis, so fixed that they 
rer move, but always remain in the same 



Geometrical Definitions 

the seven stars of the Wain, which are called 
Triones; there are seven stars also in the Lesser 
Bear, sometimes called Cynosura. Wherefore 
fiaptista Mantuanus says: 

Under thy guidance, Helice, under thine, Cynosura, 
We set sail over the deep, etc. 

Likewise, the wind coming from that part of 
the world is called Borealis and Aquilonicus 
(northern). Sailors are accustomed to call 
Cynosura the star of the sea. 

Opposite to the arctic pole is the antarctic, 
whence it derives its name, for avri in Greek is 
the equivalent of contra in Latin. This pole is 
also called Noticus and Austronoticus (southern). 
It can not be seen by us on account of the 
curvature of the earth, which slopes downward, 
but is visible from the antipodes (the existence 
of which has been established). It should be 
remarked in passing that the downward slope 
of a spherical object means its swelling or belly; 
that convexity is the contrary of it and denotes 
concavity. 

There are, besides, two other poles of the 
zodiac itself, describing two circles in the 
heavens, the arctic and the antarctic. Since we 
have made mention of the zodiac, the arctic, 
and the antarctic (which are circles in the 
heavens), we shall treat of circles in the follow- 
ing chapter. 

41 



1 


CHAPTER III 

Of the Circles of the Heavens 

There are two kinds of circles, called also 
mina by authors, on the sphere and in the 
avens, not really existing, but imaginary; 
mely, great and small circles. 
A great circle is one which, described on the 
Qvex surface of the sphere, divides it into two 



The Circles of the Heavens 

the first point of Aries, in the month of March, 
and at the first point of Libra, in the month of 
September), it is the equinox throughout the 
world and the day and night are equal. The 
equinox of March or of Aries is the vernal 
equinox, the equinox of September or of Libra 
the autumnal. 

The zodiac is a great circle intersecting- 
the equator at two points, which are the first 
points of Aries and Libra. One half of it in- 
clines to the north, the other to the south. It 
is so called either from t,<^iov, meaning an 
animal, because it has twelve animals in it, or 
from ^0)7, meaning life, because it is understood 
that the lives of all the lower animals are gov- 
erned by the movements of the planets. The 
Latins call it signifer (sign-bearing), because it 
has twelve signs in it, and the oblique circle. 
Therefore Vergil says: 

Where the series of the signs might revolve obliquely. 

In the middle of the width of the zodiac 
there is a circular line dividing it into two 
equal parts and leaving six degrees of latitude 
on either side. This line is called the ecliptic, 
because no eclipse of the sun or moon ever 
takes place unless both of them pass under that 
line in the same or in opposite degrees, — In the 
same, if it is to be an eclipse of the sun ; in 

43 



other. 

There are two coh 
are distinguished as 
They are so called fro 
means a member and 
oxen), which Caesar s 
his "Commentaries," 
ian forest and are of 1 
cause, just as the ta 
makes a semicircular 
so the colure always a 
for one half is visible 
concealed. 

The solstitial colure 
circle of declinations, 
through the first poin 
corn, as well as throug 
and the poles of the w 

The eauinoctifll rol 



The Circles of the Heavens 

the point vertically overhead and the poles of 
the world. These circles we have drawn ten 
degrees apart in our world map in the solid and 
projected on the plane. There is a point in 
the heavens directly over any object, which is 
called the zenith. 

The horizon, also called jin//or {limiting line), 
is a great circle of the sphere dividing the 
upper hemisphere (that is, the half of a sphere) 
from the lower. It is the circle at which 
the vision of those who stand under the open 
sky and cast their eyes about seems to end. It 
appears to separate the part of the heavens that 
is seen from the part that is not seen. The 
' horizon of different places varies, and the point 
vertically overhead of every horizon is called 
the pole, for such a point is equally distant in 
all directions from the Jinitor or the horizon 
itself. 

Having thus considered the great circles, let 
us now proceed to the small circles. 

The arctic circle is a small circle which one 
pole of the zodiac describes about the arctic 
pole of the world by the motion of the primum 
mobile. 

The antarctic is a small circle which the other 
pole of the zodiac makes and describes about 
the antarctic pole of the world. We mean by 
the pole of the zodiac {of which we spoke also in 

45 



1 


The Circles of the Heavens 

e preceding chapter), the point that is equally 
itant from any point on the ecliptic, for the 
les of the zodiac are the extremities of the 
is of the ecliptic. The distance of the pole 
the zodiac from the pole of the world is 
ual to the greatest declination of the sun (of 
lich we shall say more presently). 
The tropic of Cancer is a small circle which 
: sun, when at the first point of Cancer, 
scribes by the motion of the prir/mm mobile. 
lis point is also called the summer solstice. 
The tropic of Capricorn is a small circle 
lich the sun, when at the first point of Capri- 



CHAPTER IV 

Of a Certain Theory of the Sphere 
According to the System of Degrees 

The celestial sphere is surrounded by five 
principal circles, one great and four small — the 
arctic, the circle of Cancer, the equator, the 
circle of Capricorn, and the antarctic. Of these 
the equator is a great circle, the other four are 
small circles. These circles, or rather the 
spaces that are between them, authors are wont 
to call zones. Thus Vergil, in the Georgics, 
says: 

Five zones the heavens contain ; whereof is one 
Aye red with flashing sunlight, fervent aye 
From fire ; on either side to left and right 
Are traced the utmost twain, stiff with blue ice. 
And black with scowling storm-clouds, and betwixt 
These and the midmost, other twain there lie, 
By the gods* grace to heart-sick mortals given, 
And a path cleft between them, where might wheel 
On sloping plane the system of the signs. 

Of the nature of the zones more will be said 
in the following pages. Inasmuch as we have 
mentioned above the pole of the zodiac that 

47 





A Certain Theory of the Sphere 

;scribes the arctic circle, therefore in place of 
Tther consideration this must be understood to 
ean the upper pole of the zodiac (situated at 
1 elevation of 66° g', and distant from the arctic 
>le 24° 51''). It must be recalled also that a de- 
ee is the thirtieth part of a sign, that a sign is 
le twelfth part of a circle, and that thirty multi- 
ied by twelve gives three hundred and sixty. 
) it becomes clear that a degree can be defined 

the three hundred and sixtieth part of a circle. 

The lower pole of the zodiac describes the 
itarctic circle, which is situated in the same 
^gree of declination and is at the same distance 
DiT^h^antarcti^pol^a^h^jPDe^pol^o^h^^ 



A Certain Theory of the Sphere 

Hitherto we have spoken of the five zones 
and of their distance from one another. We 
shall now briefly discuss the remaining circles. 

The circle of the zodiac is determined by the 
poles of the zodiac. From the poles to the 
tropics {that is, to the greatest declinations of the 
sun or the solstices), the distance is 42° 1 8'. 
The width of the zodiac from the ecliptic toward 
either of the tropics is 6°, or in all 1 2°. 

The solstices and the equinoxes mark the 
colures of declination and ascension. These in- 
tersect under the poles of the world along the 
axis of the heavens at spherical right angles; 
likewise along the equator. But the equinoctial 
colures going along the zodiac make oblique 
angles, while they make right angles along the 
zodiac of the solstices. The meridional circle, 
which is movable, is contained by the same axis 
under the poles themselves. 

The circle of the horizon is determined by 
the zenith, for, as its upper pole, the zenith is 
everywhere equally distant from it. The circle 
of the horizon also divides our hemisphere from 
the other from east to west, but for those who 
are beneath the equinoctial, through the two 
poles of the world. The zenith of every hori- 
zon is always distant 90<', which is the fourth 
part of a circle, from the circumference of the 
horizon, while the circumference of the horizon 

49 





A Certain Theory of the Sphere 

tour times as great as the distance between 
e zenith and the horizon. 

It is worthy of notice that the axis of the 
orld in the material sphere passes diametrically 
3m the poles through the center of the world, 
hich is the earth. 

The axis of the zodiac, however, is not appar- 
it in the sphere, but has to be conceived. This 
tersects the middle of the axis of the world, 
aking unequal or oblique angles at the center. 

In this way, in the very creation of the world 
ere seems to be a wonderful order and ex- 
lordinary arrangement. The old astronomers. 



A Certain Theory of the Sphere 

we shall here insert for the better understanding 
of these matters, the tropics of Cancer and Cap- 
ricorn and the greatest declinations of the sun 
will be distant 24° from the equinoctial, the 
same as the distance of the poles of the zodiac 
or the arctic and antarctic circles from the poles 
of the world, situated at an elevation of over 66°. 

Arctic Pole 




Antarctic R>le 

5' 



1 


CHAPTER V 
F THE Five Celestial Zones and the Ap- 
plication OF These and of the Degrees 
OF the Heavens to the Earth 

Up to this point we have spoken very briefly 
■ several geometrical principles, of the sphere, 
le poles, the five zones, the circles of the 
orld, and of a certain theory in regard to these 
alters. Now, in regular order, if I am not 



The Five Celestial Zones 

state that the four small circles, the arctic, the 
circle of Cancer, the circle of Capricorn, and 
the antarctic, divide and separate the five zones 
of the heavens. 

In the following diagram let a represent the 
arctic pole of the world, be the arctic circle, de 
the circle of Cancer, _^ the circle of Capricorn, 
hk the antarctic circle, and / the south pole. 

The first zone, or the arctic, is all the space 
included between bac. This zone, being frozen 
stiff with perpetual cold, is uninhabited. 

The second zone Is all the space included be- 
tween he and de. This is a temperate zone and 
is habitable. 

The third zone is all the space included be- 
tween de and^. This zone, on account of its 
heat, is scarcely habitable; for the sun, describ- 
ing circles there with a constant whirling mo- 
tion along the line fe {which for us marks the 
ecliptic), by reason of its heat makes the zone 
torrid and uninhabited. 

The fourth zone is all the space included be- 
tween y|^ and hk. This is a temperate zone and 
is habitable, if the immense areas of water and 
the changed conditions of the atmosphere per- 
mit it. 

The fifth zone is all the space included be- 
tween hkl. This zone is always stiff with cold 
and uninhabited. 

53 



The Five Celestial Zones 

I When we say that any zone of the heavens is 
Ither inhabited or uninhabited, we wish it to 
p understood that this applies to the correspond- 
zonc lying beneath that celestial zone, 
rhen we say that any zone is inhabited or in- 
■bitable, we mean that it is easily inhabitable, 
ftkewise, when we say that any zone is unin- 
Ibited or uninhabitable^ we understand that it 
I habitable with difficulty. For there are many 
Kople who now inhabit the dried-up torrid 
such as the inhabitants of the Golden 
ihersonese,' the Taprobanenaes,' the Ethiopians, 
Id a very large part of the earth which had 



The Fm Celestial Zones 
Let us here insert the diagram. 



Arctic Pole 




Antarctic Pole 



55 





CHAPTER VI 
Of Parallels 
Parallels, which are also called Almucantars, 
s circles or lines equidistant in every direction 
d at every point, and never running together 
en if extended to infinity. They bear the 
ne relation to one another as the equator does 
the four small circles on the sphere, not that 



Of ParaiUU 

it has seemed to us most convenient, as it seemed 
to Ptolemy also,in our representation of universal 
cosmography, both in the soUd and projected on 
the plane, to separate the parallels by as many 
degrees from one another as the following table 
shows. To this table a diagram also will be 
subjoined, in which we shall extend the parallels 
through the earth on both sides to the celestial 
sphere. 



57 











■ 










Of Parallels 




?inlkli iioro tbc 


"■j::^''- 


GnnUDginlia 

ofhounim 

d-jr 


Number irf 
mUaiaunc 




OfThuleS 


63 


20 


•8* 






61 


'9 




t 




58 


18 


3'i 




S6 


>7 


i ("") 


\ 




S* 


17 


371 


i 


or the Rhiphcan 


S'l 


"i 


♦■4 


I 


Oftlic Bnrysthenci 
(Dnieper) 6 


^n ; '6 


4»t 


B 




4S 


'51 


44 


1 




43A 


'!J 


45 


§ 


Of Rome s 


4<'(( 


1! 


47 


g- 


1 iH 1 


tAi 


.Rl 


" 




■ 



Of Parallels 



ClimatM Degreei Honn Milet 


, And-Climate 
" of Sycn. 


ni 


nA 52 


7 


^TA 


■3¥ 



vitA the Anttrctic Pole, u the fbllowing diagram ihont; 

Arctic Pole 




Antarctic Pole 

59 



Although the word climatt 
region, it is here used to me; 
earth between two equidistant f 
from the beginning to the eni 
there is a difference of a half-h 
day. The number of any c 
from the equator, indicates the 
hours by which the longest da 
exceeds the day that is equa 
There are seven of these clima 
the south the seventh has not y 
But toward the north Ptoler 
country that was hospitable an 
distance represented by seven h 
seven climates have obtained tt 
some prominent city, river, or i 

I . The first climate is called 
Meroe, modern Shendi), fron 
Greek means through and gove 



Of Climates 

show you the beginning, the middle, and the 
end of this first climate and also of the rest, as 
well as the hours of the longest day in every one 
of them. 

2. Dia Sienes (of Syene, modern Assuan), 
jfrom Syene, a city of Egypt, the beginning of 
the province of Thebais. 

3. Dia Alexandrias (of Alexandria), from 
Alexandria, a famous city of Ajfrica, the chief 
city of Egypt, founded by Alexander the Great, 
of whom it has been said by the poet : 

One world is not enough for the youth of Pella.* 

— (Juvenal, x, 168.) 

4. Dia Rhodon (of Rhodes), from Rhodes, 
an island on the coast of Asia Minor, on which 
in our time there is situated a famous city of the 
same name, which bravely resisted the fierce 
and warlike attacks of the Turks and gloriously 
defeated them. 

5. Dia Rhomes (of Rome), jfrom a well- 
known city of Europe, the most illustrious 
among the cities of Italy and at one time the 
famous conqueror of all nations and the capital 
of the world. It is now the abode of the great 
Father of Fathers. 

6. Dia Borysthenes (of Borysthenes, modern 
Dnieper), from a large river of the Scythians, 
the fourth from the Danube. 

'A city in Mtcedonia, the birthplace of Alexander. 

61 



biNCE in tne preceaing pag< 
tioned the winds now and 
spoke of the north pole, the 
and as it is understood that a ki 
is of some importance, or ra 
vantage, to cosmography, w< 
reasons say something in tl 
winds, also called spintus and^ 
wind, therefore, as defined by 
is an exhalation, warm and c 
ally around the earth, etc. 

Now, inasmuch as the sun 
and setting, the summer risin: 
equinoctial rising and setting 
rising and setting, according 
the two tropics and the equa 
as there are also two sides — 1( 
the south, all of which have 
them ; therefore it follows th 

¥»rtn/1c in all tViree eiisfprn. th 



Of the Winds 



£a8t 



West 



Side 


Tropic of 
Cancer 


Kaikias 


Chorus 


Principal 


Equator 


Subsolanus 


Favonius or 
Zephyros 


Side 


Tropic of 
Capricorn 


Eurus or 
Vultumus 


Africus or 
libs 


South North 



Side 



Euronotus 



Septentrio 



Principal 



Auster or 
Notus 



Aquilo or 
Boreas 



Side 



Libonotus 



Trachias or 
Circius 



The poets, however, by poetic license, ac- 
cording to their custom, instead of the principal 
winds use their secondary winds, which are also 
called side winds. Thus Ovid says: 

Far to the east 
Where Persian mountains greet the rising sun 
Eurus withdrew. Where sinking Phoebus* rays 
Glow on the western shores mild Zephyr fled. 
Terrific Boreas frozen Scythia seiz'd, 
Beneath the icy bear. On southern climes 
From constant clouds the showery Auster rains. 
— (Metamorphoses, i, 61-66, translated by Howard.) 

65 



V ergu s verse : 

Melts from the mountain's hoar, j 
Unbinds the crumbling clod. 

— (Gcorgics, i, 44, tran 

The south wind (Auster) fr 
storms, hurricanes, and sho^ 
Ovid says: 

Notus rushe 
On pinions dropping rain. 

— (Metamorphose 
by Howard.) 

The north wind (Aquilo), 1 
severity of its cold, freezes the 

And frosty winter with his north t 
doth wear. 

— (Vergil, ^neid, iii, 285, transl 

In regard to these winds, ] 
poet Gallinarius, a man of grea 
posed the following : 




S.OVi'^VV 



Of the Winds 

Although the north winds are naturally cold, 
they are softened because they pass through the 
torrid zone. This has been found to be true of 
the south wind, which passes through the torrid 
zone before it reaches us, as is shown in the 
following lines : 

Wherever the cold south wind goes, it rages 
and binds the waters with tight fetters. But 
until with its blast it passes through the torrid 
regions, it comes welcome to our shores and 
hurls back the merciless shafts of the north 
wind. The latter wind on the contrary, which 
deals harshly with us, slackening its flight, be- 
comes in like manner gentler in the lowest part 
of the globe. The other winds, where they 
direct their various courses, soon change, as they 
go, the natures which are proper to their homes. 

We have said enough about winds. We shall 
now insert a general map, indicating the poles, 
the axes, the circles, great as well as small, the 
east, the west, the five zones, the degrees of 
longitude and latitude, both on the earth and in 
the heavens, the parallels, the climates, the 
winds, etc. 



67 



KJF CERTAIN Elements o 

It is clear from astronomic 
that the whole earth is a poi 
with the entire extent of the 
if the earth's circumference h 
size of the celestial globe, it r 
to have absolutely no extent, 
fourth part of this small regi 
which was known to Ptolemy 
by living beings like ourselves, 
been divided into three partJ 
and Asia. 

Europe is bounded on the w< 
Ocean, on the north by the I 
the east by the river Tanais (m< 
Maeotis (modern Sea of Azov 
Sea, and on the south by th 
Sea. It includes Spain, Gaul, 
Italy, Greece, and Sarmatia. I 



Of Certain Elements of Cosmography 

Jupiter, who assumed the form of a snow-white 
bull, and after being brought over the seas to 
Crete seated upon his back to have given her 
name to the land lying opposite. 

Africa is bounded on the west by the Atlantic 
Ocean, on the south by the Ethiopian Ocean, 
on the north by the Mediterranean Sea, and on 
the east by the river Nile. It embraces the 
Mauritanias, viz., Tingitana (modern Tangiers) 
and Caesarea, inland Libya, Numidia (also called 
Mapalia), lesser Africa (in which is Carthage, 
formerly the constant rival of the Roman em- 
pire), Cyrenaica, Marmarica (modern Barca), 
Libya (by which name also the whole of Africa 
is called, from Libs, a king of Mauritania), in- 
land Ethiopia, Egypt, etc. It is called Africa 
because it is free from the severity of the cold. 

Asia, which far surpasses the other divisions 
in size and in resources, is separated from 
Europe by the river Tanais (Don) and from 
Africa by the Isthmus, which stretching south- 
ward divides the Arabian and the Egyptian seas. 
The principal countries of Asia are Bithynia, 
Galatia, Cappadocia, Pamphylia, Lydia, Cilicia, 
greater and lesser Armenia, Colchis, Hyrcania, 
Iberia, and Albania ; besides many other 
countries which it would only delay us to enu- 
merate one by one. Asia is so called after a 
queen of that name. 

6q 



justly object to calling this p: 
the land of Amerigo, or Ameri 
its discoverer, a man of great 
tion and the customs of its in 
clearly understood from the 
Amerigo, which are subjoined. 
Thus the earth is now kno^ 
into four parts. The first thr 
tinents, while the fourth is an 
as it is found to be surroundec 
the ocean. Although there is 
just as there is only one earth, 
by many seas and filled with r 
it takes various names. Thei 
found in the Cosmography, ar 
translation of Dionysius enumi 
following lines: 



Of Certain Elements of Cosmography 
the Saturnian Sea, and by others the Dead Sea, 

« lie 4( # lie lie lie 

Where, however, the sun rises with its first 
light, they calJ it the Eastern or the Indian Sea. 
But where the inclined pole receives the burn- 
ing south wind, it is called the Ethiopian or the 

Red Sea, 

« « « « « 4^ « 

Thus the great ocean, known under various 

names, encircles the whole world; 

««««««« 

"Of its arms the first that stretches out 
breaks through Spain with its waves, and extends 
from the shores of Libya to the coast of Pam- 
phylia. This is smaller than the rest. A larger 
gulf is the one that enters into the Caspian land, 
which receives it from the vast waters of the 
north. The arm of the sea which Tethys (the 
ocean) rules as the Saturnian Sea is called the 
Caspian or the Hyrcanian. But of the two gulfs 
that come from the south sea, one, the Persian, 
running northward, forms a deep sea, lying op- 
posite the country where the Caspian waves 
roll ; while the other rolls and beats the shores 
of Panchaea and extends to the south opposite to 
the Euxine Sea. 

" Let us begin in regular order with the 
waters of the Atlantic, which Cadiz makes 

71 



blue arc iiic piiiarb. jjulii lin 

one looking toward Libya, i 
Europe. Then comes the ( 
beats the Celtic shores. Afl 
called by the name of the Lij 
masters of the world grew up 
tends from the north to Leucc 
island of Sicily with its curvi 
strait. Cyrnos (modern Cors 
the waters that bear its name 
the Sardinian Sea and the C< 
the surging tide of the Tyrrhi 
toward the south ; it enters 1 
which turns toward the east 
from the shores of Pachynum 
a steep rock, which stands out 
powerful Gortyna and Phaestun 
midst of the fields. This rock 



Of Certain Elements of Cosmography 

Sea, famous throughout the world. It separates 
two shores, which, however, meet in one point. 
On the right fertile Illyria extends, and next to 
this the land of the warlike Dalmatians. But its 
left is bounded by the Ausonian peninsula, whose 
curving shores the three seas, the Tyrrhenian, 
the Sicilian, and the vast Adriatic, encircle on 
all sides. Each of these seas within its limits 
has a wind peculiar to itself. The west wind 
lashes the Tyrrhenian, the south wind the Sicil- 
ian, while the east wind breaks the waters of the 
Adriatic which roll beneath its blasts. 

" Leaving Sicily the sea spreads its deep ex- 
panse to the greater Syrtis which the coast of 
Libya encircles. After the greater Syrtis passes 
into the lesser, the two seas beat far and wide 
upon the re-echoing shores. From Sicily the 
Cretan Sea stretches out toward the east as far 
as Salmonis, which is said to be the eastern 
end of Crete. 

" Next come two vast seas with dark waves, 
lashed by the north wind coming from Ismarus, 
which rushes straight down from the regions of 
the north. The first, called the Pharian Sea, 
washes the base of a steep mountain. The 
second is the Sidonian Sea, which turns toward 
the north, where the gulf of Issus joins it. This 
sea does not continue far in a straight line ; for 
it is broken by the shores of Cilicia. Then 

7i 



** Next look again toward 1 
hold the iEgean Sea, whose v 
of all other seas, and whose vj 
the scattered Cyclades. It en 
Tenedos, near the narrow stn 
the waters of the Propontis is 
Asia with its great peoples ex 
where the wide peninsula stn 
comes theThracian Bosporus, 
Black Sea. In the whole wc 
is no strait narrower than thii 
the Symplegades, close togeth 
east the Black Sea spreads 
northeasterly direction. Fn 
promontory stands out in t 
waters; one, coming from As 
called Carambis ; the other oi 
juts out from the confines 

called Kotnu ufrmTrnv Irctm^Q 



Of Certain Elements of Cosmography 

is bent when the string is drawn tight. The 
right side resembles the string, for it forms a. 
straight line, outside of which line is found 
Carambis only, which projects toward the north. 
But the coast that encloses the sea on the left 
side, making two turns, describes the arc of the 
bow. Into this sea toward the north Lake 
Masotis (modern Sea of Azov) enters, enclosed 
on all sides by the land of the Scythians, who* 
call Lake Masotis the mother of the Black Sea^ 
Indeed, here the violent sea bursts forth in a 
great stream, rushing across the Cimmerian 
Bosporus (modern Crimea), in those cold regions 
where the Cimmerians dwell at the foot of 
Taurus. Such is the picture of the ocean ; such 
the glittering appearance of the deep.'* 

(Priscian, Periegesis, 37, foil., ed. of Krehl.) 

The sea, as we have said before, is full of 
islands, of which the largest and the most im- 
portant, according to Ptolemy, are the fol- 
lowing : 

Taprobane (modern Ceylon), in the Indian 
Ocean under the equator ; Albion, also called 
Britain and England ; Sardinia, in the Mediter- 
ranean Sea; Candia, also called Crete, in the 
iEgean Sea ; Selandia ; Sicily, in the Mediterra- 
nean Sea ; Corsica ; Cyprus. 

Unknown to Ptolemy : Madagascar, in the 
Prasodes Sea ; Zanzibar ; Java, in the East Indian 

75 



smaller islands, scattered abou 
of the world, that are unkn- 
either difficult of access to ha 
able for harbors. Their nam 
express in verse." 

(Perieg 
In order to be able to find 
between one place and anothei 
the pole must first be consic 
therefore be briefly remarked 
from what precedes, both pole 
izon for those who live on th 
equator. But as one goes tow: 
elevation of the pole increases 
goes away from the equator, 
the pole indicates the distance 
the equator. For the distance ( 
the equator varies as the elevati 
that place. From this the nui 



* 1 * 



• /• 



Of Certain Elements of Cosmography 

first degree of the equator up to the twelfth 
contains sixty Italian miles, which are equivalent 
to fifteen German miles, four Italian miles being 
generally reckoned equal to one German mile. 
Any degree from the twelfth degree up to the 
twenty-fifth contains fifty-nine miles, or fourteen 
and three-quarter German miles. 

In order to make the matter clearer, we shall 
insert the following table : 

Degrees Degrees Italian Miles German Miles 



Equator — 


I up to 


1 12 cont'ng 


60 


15 




12 


25 


59 


H^ 


Tropic — 


25 


30 


54 


i3>4 


• 


30 


|37 


50 


12)4 




37 


4> 


47 


i.^' 




41 


5> 


40 


10 




5' 


57 


32 


8 




57 


63 


28 


7 




63 


66 


26 


6j4 


Arctic Circle^ 


66 


70 


21 


5K 




70 


80 


6 


^H 


Arctic Pole — 


80 


90 








* Error for 11 J^. 

In like manner from the equator to either 
arctic or antarctic pole the number of miles in 
a degree of latitude varies. If you wish to find 
out the number of miles between one place and 
another, examine carefully in what degree of 
latitude the two places are and how many de- 
grees there are between them ; then find out 
from the above table how many miles there are 
in a degree of that kind, and multiply this number 

77 



merely advise you that in desi 
of our world-map we have not i 
in every respect, particularly a^ 
lands, where on the marine cl 
that the equator is placed others 
represented it. Therefore thos< 
ought not to find fault with 
<ione so purposely, because in t 
lowed Ptolemy, and elsewhere t 
Ptolemy himself, in the fifth cl 
'book, says that he was not acq 
parts of the continent on accc 
size, that the position of some 
of the carelessness of travelers ^ 
handed down to him, and that 
parts which happen at difFerer 
undergone variations on accoi 
clysms or changes in consequen 
are known to have been partly 



Appendix 

the plane projection we have followed Ptolemy 
as regards the new lands and some other 
things, while on the globe, which accom- 
panies the plane, we have followed the 
description of Amerigo that we subjoin. 

APPENDIX 

Before closing, we shall add to the forego- 
ing, as an appendix or corollary, a quadrant, by 
which may be determined the elevation of the 
pole, the zenith, the center of the horizon, and 
the climates; although, if rightly considered, 
this quadrant, of which we shall speak, has a 
bearing on this subject. For a cosmographer 
ought to know especially the elevation of the 
pole, the zenith, and the climates of the earth. 
This quadrant, then, is constructed in the fol- 
lowing way. Divide any circle into four parts 
in such a way that the two diameters intersect 
at the center at right angles. One of these, 
which has sights at either end, will represent 
the axis of the poles of the world, the other the 
equator. Then divide that part of the circle 
which is between the semi-axis that has the 
sights and the other semi-diameter into ninety 
parts and the opposite part also into the same 
number, fix a plumb-line to the center, and 
your quadrant will be ready. The quadrant is 
used as follows : turn it so that you will see the 

79 



#-1 k^ I ^/-•I'l 




Appendix 

Having now finished the chapters that we 
proposed to take up, we shall here include the 
distant voyages of Vespucci, setting forth the 
consequences of the several facts as they bear 
upon our plan. 

THE END OF THE OUTLINES 



8l 



Moon give birth to mighty 
are the mountains of lus, D: 
at the foot of which dw< 
From this region rises Africi 
which with Libonotus (w< 
blows over the heated lands 
direction blows Vulturnus (c 
upon a sweltering people, cc 
its rapid course over the Ind 
under the equator lies Tapr 
is seen in the Prasodes Sea. 
and Bassa in the sea lies a Ian 
maps, Ptolemy, situated ur 
Capricorn and its companior 
right lies a land encircled by 
inhabited by a race of nakeci 
was discovered by him wh 
boasts of as her king, and wh 



THE FOUR VOYAGES OF AMERIGO 

VESPUCCI 

TRANSLATED FROM THE FRENCH INTO LATIN 



The translator's Decastich to the Reader. 

You who will read, perchance, this slender tome 
Will find within a voyage deftly told. 
It tells of lands and peoples lately found ; 
A novel tale well suited to amuse. 
A worthy task for Maro's lofty pen, 
Which dressed in noble words a theme sublime. 
He who the Trojan heroes wand'ring sang 
Should eke have sung thy voyages, Vespucci. 
When in our book you've visited these lands. 
The contents probe ; *tis not the writer's care. 

Distich to the Reader. 

Since what is new and well told pleases you, 
I bring you what's amusing here and new. 

THE END. 



83 



A A XV 



xx-#j.vAVJvy VI2i 



To THE most illustrious R 
salem and of Sicily, Duke of 
Amerigo Vespucci pays hui 
presents appropriate recomm< 

Perchance, most illustriou 
esty will be astonished at my 
cause I feel no apprehension 
you the present long letter, cv 
you to be incessantly occupiec 
the highest importance and wil 
of State. And I shall be co. 
a presumptuous man but one 
plished a useless work in unc 
you also a story which hard 
position, addressed by name to 
of Castile, and written in an 
quite unpolished style, as if 1 
acquainted with the Muses ant 



The Four Voyages of Amerigo Vespucci 

I was urged to write chiefly by the bearer of 
the present letters, Benvenuto, an humble servant 
of your Majesty and a friend of whom I need not 
be ashamed. When this gentleman found me at 
Lisbon, he begged me to acquaint your Majesty 
with the things seen by me during my four 
voyages to different quarters of the globe. For, 
you must know that I have completed four 
voyages of discovery to new lands : two of them 
were undertaken by the order of Ferdinand, the 
illustrious King of Castile, and carried me 
toward the west, through the Great Gulf of the 
Ocean; the other two were undertaken at the 
command of Manuel, King of Portugal, and 
carried me toward the south. 

I have therefore prepared myself for the task 
urged upon me by Benvenuto, hoping that your 
Majesty will not exclude me from the number 
of your insignificant servants, especially if you 
recollect that formerly we were good friends. I 
refer to the years of our youth, when we were 
fellow-students, and together drank in the ele- 
ments of grammar under the holy and vener- 
able friar of St. Mark, my uncle. Friar 
Giorgio Antonio Vespucci — a man of good life 
and tried learning. Had it been possible for me 
to follow in his footsteps, I should be quite a 
different man to-day, as Petrarch says. How- 
ever that may be, I am not ashamed of being 

85 





The Four Voyages of Amerigo Vespucci 

lat I am ; for I have always taken pleasure in 
tue for its own sake and in scholarship. If, 
;n, these narratives give you no pleasure what- 
;r, I shall repeat the words which Pliny once 
ote to Maecenas, " Formerly you were wont 
take delight in my pleasantry." Your 
ijesty, it is true, is ever occupied with 
lirs of State ; still, you can secretly steal just 
ittle time in which to read these accounts, 
ling though they be. I assure you that their 
y novelty will please. You will find in these 
res no slight relief from the wasting cares and 
iblems of government. My book will serve 
1 as the sweet fennel, which, when taken 



PREFACE 



Most illustrious King ! Your Majesty must 
know that I came to this country primarily as 
a merchant. I continued in that career for the 
space of four years. But when I observed the 
various changes of fortune, and saw how vain 
and fleeting riches are, and how for a time they 
lift man to the top of the wheel and then hurl 
him headlong to the bottom — him, who had 
boasted of wide possessions ; — when I saw all this, 
and after I had personally suffered such experi- 
ences, I determined to abandon the business 
career and to devote all my efforts to worthier 
and more enduring ends. 

And so I set about visiting different parts of 
the world and seeing its many wonders. Both 
time and place were favorable to my plans. For 
Ferdinand, King of Castile, was at that time 
fitting out four ships to discover new lands in 
the west, and His Highness made me one of that 
company of explorers. We set sail from the 
harbor of Cadiz on the 20th of May, 1497, 
making our way through the Great Gulf of the 

87 





Preface 

;an. This voyage lasted eighteen months, 
ing which we discovered many lands and 
.est countless islands (inhabited as a general 
:), of which our forefathers make absolutely 
mention. I conclude from this that the 
ients had no knowledge of their existence, 
lay be mistaken ; but I remember read- 
somewhere that they believed the sea 
be free and uninhabited. Our poet Dante 
iself was of this opinion, when, in the 
h canto of the Inferno, he pictures the 
th of Ulysses. From the following pages, 
vever, your Majesty will learn of the marvels 



The First Voyage 
The First Voyage 

In the year of Our Lord 1497, ^^ ^^^ 20th 
day of May, we set sail from the harbor of Cadiz 
in four ships. On our first run, with the wind 
blowing between the south and the southwest*, 
we made the islands formerly called the Fortu- 
nate Islands, but now the Grand Canary, situated 
at the edge of the inhabited west and within the 
third climate. At this place, the North Pole 
rises 2j% degrees above the horizon, the islands 
themselves being 280 leagues from the city of 
Lisbon, in which this present pamphlet was 
written. There we spent almost eight days, 
providing ourselves with fuel and water and 
other necessary things. Then, after first offer- 
ing our prayers to God, we raised and spread our 
sails to the wind, shaping our course to the west, 
with a point to southwest. We kept on this 
course for some time, and just as the 27th day 
was past we reached an unknown land, the main- 
land as we thought. It was distant from the 
islands of the Grand Canary 1 000 leagues, more 
or less ; it was inhabited, and was situated in the 
Torrid Zone. This we ascertained from the 
following observations: that the North Pole 
rises 1 6 degrees above the horizon of this new 
land, and that it is 75 degrees more to the west 

'Vespucci names the wind according to the point toward which 
it blows. 

89 





The First Voyage 

an the islands of Grand Canary — at least so all 
ir instruments showed. 

Here we dropped the bow anchors and sta- 
ined our fleet a league and a half from the 
ore. We then lowered a few boats, and, fiU- 
g them with armed men, we pulled as far as 
le land. The moment we approached, we re- 
iced not a little to see hordes of naked people 
inning along the shore. Indeed, all those whom 
e saw going about naked seemed also to be 
:ceedingly astonished at us, I suppose because 
ley noticed that we wore clothing, and pre- 
nted a difi^erent appearance from them. When 
ley realized that we had actually arrived, they 



The First Voyage 

ships, where we anchored only one-half a league 
from the land. Here we again saw countless 
hordes of people. Desiring to see them close by 
and to speak with them, on that very day we 
approached the shore in our boats and skiffs, and 
then we landed in good order, about forty 
strong. The natives, however, showed them- 
selves very loath to approach us or have any- 
thing to do with us. We could do nothing to 
induce them to speak with us or to enter upon 
any kind of communication. But finally, by 
dint of much labor undertaken with this one 
purpose in view, we managed to allure a few of 
them by giving them little bells and mirrors and 
pieces of crystal and other such trifles. In this 
way they became quite easy about us. They now 
came to meet us, and in fact to treat concerning 
terms of peace and friendship. At nightfall we 
took leave of them and returned to our ships. 
The next day, when the sun was quite risen, we 
again saw upon the beach an endless number of 
men and women, the latter carrying their chil- 
dren with them. We furthermore noticed that 
they were bringing with them all their house- 
hold utensils, which will be described below in 
their proper place. The nearer we approached 
the shore, more and more of the natives jumped 
into the water (for there are many expert 
swimmers among them), and swam out the dis- 

91 



The First Voyage 

coarse and animal-like to have hair on the 
body. 

All of them, both men and women, are grace- 
ful in walking and swift in running. Indeed^ 
even their women (as we have often witnessed) 
think nothing of running a league or two, 
wherein they greatly excel us Christians. They 
all swim remarkably well, in fact better than 
one would believe possible ; and the women are 
far better swimmers than the men, a statement 
which I can make with authority, for we fre- 
quently saw them swim in the sea for two 
leagues without any assistance whatsoever. 

Their weapons are the bow and arrow, which 
they have learned to make very skillfully. They 
are unacquainted with iron and the metals, and 
consequently, in place of iron, they tip their 
arrows with the teeth of animals and fishes, and 
they also often harden the arrows by burning 
their ends. They are expert archers, with the 
result that they strike with their arrows what- 
ever they aim at. In some places also the wo- 
men are very skillful with the bow and arrow. 
They have other weapons also, such as spears or 
stakes sharpened at the ends, and clubs with 
wonderfully carved heads. 

They are wont to wage war upon neighbors 
speaking a different language, fighting most 
mercilessly and sparing none, except to reserve 

93 



\ 



.•••• * '«^ V^AI 



them can place on h 
thirty or forty leagu< 
man (and even a str( 
ground. They have 
tains; in fact, sine 
leader, they go forth 
They never fight for 
any other improper 
for war is an enmity c 
in them from olden 
concerning the cause 
no other reason excej 
death of their ancesto 
perfect liberty, and ob 
have neither king noi 
They are, however, 
and gird themselves f< 



The First Voyage 

him to avenge the death of his kinsman. All 
are quickly stirred to the same feeling, gird 
themselves for the fight and make a sudden dash 
upon their enemies. 

They observe no laws, and execute no justice. 
They do not punish their evildoers; indeed, not 
even the parents rebuke or chastise their chil- 
dren ; and, wonderful to relate, we several times 
saw them quarrel among themselves. They are 
simple in their speech, but very shrewd and 
crafty. They speak rarely ; and when they do 
speak, it is in a low tone, using the same sounds 
as we. On the whole they shape their words 
either on the teeth or the lips, employing, of 
course, different words from those of our lan- 
guage. They have many different idioms, for 
we found such a variety of tongues in every 
hundred leagues that they do not understand 
one another. 

They observe most barbarous customs in their 
eating ; indeed, they do not take their meals at 
any fixed hours, but eat whenever they are so 
inclined, whether it be day or night. At meals 
they recline on the ground, and do not use either 
tablecloths or napkins, being entirely unac- 
quainted with linen and other kinds of cloth. 
The food is served in earthen pots which they 
make themselves, or else in receptacles made out 
of half-gourds. They sleep in a species of large 

95 





The First Voyage 

et made of cotton and suspended in the air ; 
id though this mode of sleeping may appear 
id and uncomfortable, I testify that, on the 
sntrary, it is very pleasant ; for it was frc- 
iiently my lot to sleep in such nets, and I had 

feeling of greater comfort then than when 
iider the coverlets which we had with us. 

In their person they are neat and clean, for 
le reason that they bathe very frequently. 
***** 

In their sexual intercourse they have no legal 
aligations. In fact, each man has as many wives 
. he covets, and he can repudiate them later 
henever he pleases, without its being considered 



The First Voyage 

whole and as clean as fishes. However, they 
are of such a cruel nature and harbor such vio- 
lent hatreds that, if the husbands chance to anger 
them, they immediately commit some wrong. 
For instance, to appease their great wrath, they 
kill the fetus within their own wombs, and thea 
cause an abortion. In this way countless off- 
spring are destroyed. They have handsome, well- 
proportioned and well-knit figures; indeed, no 
blemish can possibly be discovered in them. . . . 

No one of this race, as far as we saw, ob- 
served any religious law. They can not justly be 
called either Jews or Moors ; nay, they are far 
worse than the gentiles themselves or the pagans, 
for we could not discover that they performed 
any sacrifices nor that they had any special 
places or houses of worship. Since their life is 
so entirely given over to pleasure, I should style 
it Epicurean. 

They hold their habitations in common. 
Their dwellings are bell-shaped, and are strongly 
built of large trees fastened together, and covered 
with palm leaves, which offer ample protection 
against the winds and storms. In some places 
these dwellings were so large that we found as 
many as six hundred persons living in a single 
building. Of all these dwellings we found that 
eight were most thickly populated ; in fact, that 
ten thousand souls lived within them at one and 

97 





The First Voyage 

,e same time. Every eight or seven years they 
ovc the seat of their abodes. When asked the 
ason for this, they gave a most natural answer, 
hey said that it was on account of the con- 
lual heat of a strong sun, and because, from 
veiling too long in the same place, the air 
;came infected and contaminated, and brought 
lout various diseases of the body. And in truth, 
eir point seemed to us to be well taken. 
Their riches consist of variegated birds' 
athers, and of strings of beads (like our pater 
sters), made of fish bones, or of green or 
bite stones. These they wear as ornaments on 
e forehead, or suspended from their lips and 



The First Fey age 

friendship is this : that they place at the disposal 
of their friends their own wives and daughters, 
both parents considering themselves highly 
honored if any one deigns to lead their daughter 
(even though yet a maiden) into concubinage. 
In this way (as I have said) they seal the bond 
of their friendship. 

In burying the dead they follow many differ- 
ent customs. Some, indeed, follow the practice 
of inhumation, placing at the head water and 
food, for they believe that the dead will eat and 
subsist thereupon. But there is no further grief 
at their departure^ and they perform no other 
ceremonies. In some places a most barbarous 
and inhuman rite is practised. When any one 
of their fellow-tribesmen is believed to be at the 
point of death, his relations take him into some 
great* forest, where they place him in one of 
those nets in which they are accustomed to 
sleep. They then suspend him thus reclining 
between two trees, dance around him for a 
whole day, and then at nightfall return to their 
habitations, leaving at the head of the dying 
man water and food to last him about four days. 
If at the end of this period the sick man can 
eat and drink, becomes convalescent, regains his 
health, and returns to his own habitation, then 
all his relations, whether by blood or marriage, 
welcome him with the greatest ceremonies. But 

99 





The First Voyage 

ere are few who can pass safely through so 
vere an ordeal. Indeed, no one ever visits 
e sick man after he is abandoned in the 
oods. Should he, therefore, chance to die, he 
ceives no further burial. They have many 
her savage rites of burial, which I shall not 
ention, to avoid the charge of being too 
olix. 

In their sicknesses they employ many dlffer- 
it kinds of medicines, so different from ours 
id so discordant with our ideas that we woD- 
;red not a little how any one could possibly 
rvive. For, as we learned from frequent ex- 
:rience, if any one of them is sick with fever. 



The First Voyage 

many other cures and remedies which it would 
be tedious to enumerate. 

They arc full-blooded and phlegmatic, owing 
to the food they eat, which consists chiefly of 
roots, fruits, herbs, and fishes of diflferent kinds. 
They do not raise crops of spelt or of any other 
grain. Their most common food is a certain 
root which they grind into a fairly good flour 
and which some of the natives call iucha^ others 
chambi^ and still others ygnami.^ They very 
rarely eat flesh, with the exception of human 
flesh ; and in this they are so inhuman and so 
savage as to outdo even the wild animals. In- 
deed, all the enemies whom they either kill or 
capture, without discriminating between the men 
and the women, are relished by them with such 
savageness that nothing more barbarous and 
cruel can either be seen or heard of. Time and 
again it fell to my lot to see them engaged 
in this savage and brutal practice, while they 
expressed their wonder that we did not likewise 
eat our enemies. Your royal Majesty may rest 
assured on this point, that their numerous cus- 
toms are all so barbarous that I can not describe 
them adequately here. Therefore, considering 
the many, many things I saw in my four voy- 
ages — things so entirely diflferent from our cus- 
toms and manners — I have prepared and com- 

* The Italian text gives iuca^ cazabi, and ignami. 

lOI 





The First Voyage 

leted a work which I have entitled " The 
our Voyages." In this book I have collected 
le greater part of the things I saw, and have 
ascribed them as clearly as my small ability 
ould permit. I have not, however, published 

as yet. In this work, each topic is given 
lore careful and individual attention, and therc- 
)re in the present pamphlet I shall merely 
)uch upon them, making only general state- 
lents. And so I return to complete the ac- 
3unt of our first voyage, from which I have 
lade a short digression. 

In the beginning of our voyage we did not 
:e anything of great value except a few traces 



The First Voyage 

covered that their whole population, that is to 
say, the entire village, had houses built in the 
water, as at Venice. There were in all about 
twenty large houses, built in the shape of bells 
(as we have said above), and resting firmly upon 
strong wooden piles. In front of the doors of 
each house drawbridges had been erected, over 
which one could pass from one hut to another 
as if over a well-constructed road. As soon as 
the inhabitants of this settlement noticed us they 
were seized with great fear, and immediately 
raised the drawbridges to defend themselves 
against us, and hid themselves within their 
houses. While we were watching their actions 
with some degree of wonder, lo and behold 
about twelve of their boats (which are hollowed 
out of the trunk of a single tree) came over the 
water to meet us. The occupants of these 
boats looked at us and at our clothes with 
wonder, and rowed about us in every direction, 
but continued to examine us from a distance. 
We on our part were similarly observing them, 
making many signs of friendship to urge them 
to approach us without fear. But it was of no 
avail. Seeing their reluctance, we began to row 
in their direction. They did not await our 
arrival, but immediately fled to the shore, mak- 
ing signs to us that we should await their return, 
which (they signified) would be shortly. There- 

103 



may well believ< 

Then they went b 

with their canoe 

kindly manner th 

our trusty friends. 

behold a large crc 

houses (already de 

direction. Thoug 

further, and thoug 

ships, we entertain 

of their actions. I 

some old women s 

houses, shouting w 

their cries, and tearj 

We now began t 

danger was threatej 

who had been place 



The First Voyage 

water. This was sure proof of their treachery, 
and we began not only to defend ourselves with 
spirit, but also to inflict serious injuries upon 
them. In fact, we wrecked and sank many of 
the canoes, with great loss of life to their occu- 
pants, — a loss which became even greater be- 
cause the natives abandoned their canoes entirely 
and swam to the shore. About twenty of them 
were killed and many more were wounded. Of 
ours only five were injured, all of whom were re- 
stored to health, with the help of God. We 
managed to capture two of the girls and three 
men. Later we visited the houses of the settle- 
ment, and upon entering found them occupied 
only by two old women and a sick man. We 
did not set fire to the houses for this reason, 
that we feared lest our consciences would prick 
us. We then returned to the ships with our 
five captives and put them in irons, except the 
girls. At night, however, both girls and one 
of the men very shrewdly effected their escape. 
On the following day we agreed to leave that 
port and to sail on along the coast. After a run 
of about eighty leagues we came to another 
tribe entirely different from the former in lan- 
guage and customs. We anchored the fleet and 
approached the shore in our small boats. Here 
we saw a crowd of about 4,000 persons on the 
"beach. As soon as they realized that we were 

105 



-.^v^Mc «.o xai cijsi a (Ji 

upon many tents v^ 
by that tribe for 
them, many fires 
their meals, and aj 
kinds were being n 
we saw that a certa 
which looked very 
for the wings whic 
so strange and so t< 
dered at its wild app. 
through their tents, 
pents, whose feet w 
were muzzled so tha 
as is done with dogs 
they may not bite 
was so savage that 
poisonous, did not d 



The First Voyage 

the back) with a kind of bristle, from which we 
decided that they were truly serpents. And yet 
the above-mentioned tribe cats them. That 
same tribe makes bread from the fishes which 
they catch in the sea, the process being as fol- 
lows : First of all they place the fish in water 
and boil it for some time ; then they pound it 
and crush it and make it into small cakes which 
they bake upon hot ashes and which they then 
eat. Upon tasting them we found them to be 
not at all bad. They have many other kinds of 
food, including different fruits and herbs, but it 
would take too long to describe them. 

But to return to our story. Although the 
natives did not reappear from the woods to 
which they had fled, \ye did not take away any 
of their possessions, in order that we might in- 
crease their confidence in us. In fact, we lefr 
many small trifles in their tents, placing them 
where they would be seen, and at night returned 
to our ships. On the next day, when Titan 
began to rise above the horizon, we saw a 
countless multitude upon the shore. We im- 
mediately landed; and though the natives still 
appeared to be somewhat afraid of us, yet they 
mingled among us, and began to deal and to 
converse with us with complete security. They 
signified to us that they would be our friends, 
that the tents which we saw were not their real 

107 



bAAV/V XtC 



arrest of those two ] 
be enemies of thei 
sistence with which 
of us decided to go 
with the firm resolv 
After remaining 
marched inland wit) 
came to a village co 
tions. There we 
numerous and such 
my pen is too weak 
stance, we wereweh 
songs, with lamentat 
joy and of happines 
banqueting. Here \ 
the natives most g 
wives. . . . Al 



V « 



The First Voyage 

showered upon us here. In short, we went 
about in their company for nine whole days, 
visiting very many of their settlements, with the 
result that (as we afterward learned), our com- 
panions whom we had left in the ships began to 
be very anxious about us and to entertain 
serious fears for our safety. And so, after hav- 
ing penetrated about eighteen leagues into the 
interior of the country, we decided to make our 
way back to the ships. On our return a great 
crowd of men and women met us and accom- 
panied us all the way to the sea, — a fact which 
is of itself very remarkable. But there is more. 
Whenever it happened that one of our company 
would lag behind from weariness, the natives 
came to his assistance and carried him most 
zealously in those nets in which they sleep. In 
crossing the rivers, too (which in their country 
are very numerous and very large), they were so 
careful with the contrivances they employed 
that we never feared the slightest danger. More- 
over, many of them, laden down with their 
gifts, which they carried in those same nets, ac- 
companied us. The gifts consisted of feathers 
of very great value, of many bows and arrows, 
and of numberless parrots of different colors. 
Many others, also, were bringing their house- 
hold goods and their animals. In fine, they all 
reckoned themselves fortunate if, in crossing a 

109 



—••* • ^\^ AAA t^AA^Xl dLI 



further and to em 

^hips, that our boa 

j the load. We took 

I as we could accomn 

our ships. In addit 
on board, so many < 
j swimming that we 

!i their approach ; for 

boarded our ships ( 
;i they were), and e: 

equipment and arraj 
of the ships themsel 
thing happened. W 
of our war engines 
put a match to the | 
such a loud report 
natives, upon hearinj 



The First Voyage 

cned that we repented and chid ourselves for 
what we had done. But we quickly reassured 
them, and did not permit them to remain any 
longer in ignorance, explaining that it was with 
these guns that we killed our enemies. 

After entertaining them the whole day upon 
our ships, we warned them to depart because we 
intended to sail during the night; whereupon 
they took leave of us in a most friendly and 
kindly manner. We saw and learned very many 
customs of this tribe and region, but it is not 
my intention to dwell upon them here. Your 
Majesty will be in a position to learn later of all 
the more wonderful and noteworthy things I 
saw in each of my voyages ; for I have collected 
them in one work written after the manner of a 
geographical treatise and entitled "The Four 
Voyages.** In this work I give individual and 
detailed descriptions, but I have not yet offered 
it to the public because I must still revise it and 
verify my statements. 

That land is very thickly populated, and 
everywhere filled with many different animals, 
very unlike those of our country. In common 
with us they have lions, bears, stags, pigs, goats, 
and fallow deer, which are, however, distin- 
guished from ours by certain differences. They 
are entirely unacquainted with horses, mules, 
asses, dogs, and all kinds of small cattle (such as 

III 



r 
■ f 



•^xivio, vviiiun are 
have plumes of si 
that to see and 
wonder. The cl 
perate and the [ 
forests and groves 
the leaves never i 
and entirely difFen 
self is situated in 
of the second clin 
which marks the 
Pole rises twenty-t 
zon. During this 
us, marveling at 
And when they as 
answered that we h 
pay the earth a visi 
lieved on all sides. 



The First Voyage 

along shore and keeping land always in view. 
We sailed for 870 leagues, making many tacks 
and treating and dealing with numerous tribes. 
In many places we obtained gold, but not in 
great quantities ; for it sufficed us for the present 
to discover those lands and to know that there 
was gold therein. And since by that time we 
had already been thirteen months on our voyage, 
and since the tackle and rigging were very 
much the worse for wear and the men were re- 
duced by fatigue, we unanimously agreed to 
repair our small boats (which were leaking at 
every point) and to return to Spain. Just as we 
had reached this conclusion, we neared and 
entered the finest harbor in the world. Here 
we again met a countless multitude, who re- 
ceived us in a very friendly manner. On the 
beach we built a new boat with material taken 
from the other ships and from barrels and casks, 
placed upon dry land our rigging and military 
engines, which were almost rotting away in the 
water, lightened our ships and drew them up on 
land. Then we repaired them and patched 
them, and gave them a thorough overhauling. 
During all these occupations the inhabitants of 
the country gave us no slight assistance. Indeed, 
they offered us provisions out of friendship and 
unasked, so that we consumed very little of our 
own supplies. This we considered a great boon, 

'^3 



4 

I 

« 
1 

i 



Liic ii'duvcs aiiu u 

by each and ever 
last expressed oui 
and to resume 
plained to us thai 
hostile tribe, whic 
came over the j 
through treacher 
and devoured a gi 
added that otheri 
the enemy^s cour 
could not defend 
mies, making us 
habited an island 
at sea. They rel 
plaintive tones t 
and believed thei 
exact punishment 



The First Voyage 

for we did not by any means intend to take the 
trouble of bringing them back. To this condi- 
tion they gladly assented, and so we took 
leave of the natives, who had become our dear 
friends, and departed. 

We sailed about in our refitted ships for seven 
days, with the wind blowing between the north- 
east and east. At the end of this period we 
reached many islands, of which some were in- 
habited and others not. We thereupon ap- 
proached one of them ; and while endeavoring 
to anchor our ships we saw a great horde of 
people on the island, which the inhabitants call 
Ity. After examining them for some time, we 
manned the small boats with brave men and 
three guns, and rowed nearer the shore, which 
was filled with 400 men and very many women, 
all of whom (like the others) went about naked. 
The men were well built, and seemed very war- 
like and brave, for they were all equipped with 
their usual arms, namely, the bow and arrow 
and the lance. Very many of them, moreover, 
bore round shields or even square shields, with 
which they defended themselves so skillfully 
that they were not hindered thereby in shooting 
their arrows. 

When we had come in our boats to within a 
bowshot of the land, they leaped into the sea 
and shot an infinite number of arrows at us. 



enemy were very 
on our side, howev 
and twenty-two w 
have regained thei 
God. 

Our arrangemen 
erland were now 
natives who had co 
land (five of whon 
aforesaid battle), w 
men and four woi 
in a boat which th 
returned home fillc 
great admiration fc 
for Spain, and at 
Cadiz with our tv 
prisoners, on the 2 

xrf^or nf Onr T ,nrd 



The Second Voyage 

The Second Voyage 

The following pages contain an account of 
my second voyage and of the noteworthy inci- 
dents which befell me in the course of that voyage. 

We set sail from the harbor of Cadiz, in the 
year of Our Lord 1489 (sic), on a May day 
As soon as we cleared the harbor, we shaped 
our course for the Cape Verde Islands; and 
passing in sight of the islands of the Grand 
Canary group, we sailed on until we reached the 
island called Fire Island. Here we took on sup- 
plies of fuel and of water, and resumed our voyage 
with a southwest wind. After nineteen days we 
reached a new land, which we took to be the 
mainland. It was situated opposite to that land 
of which mention has been made in our first 
voyage ; and it is within the Torrid Zone, south 
of the equinoctial line, where the pole rises five 
degrees above the horizon beyond every climate. 
The land is 500 leagues to the southwest of the 
above-mentioned islands. 

We discovered that in this country the day is 
of the same length as the night on the 27th of 
June, when the sun is on the Tropic of Cancer. 
Moreover, we found that the country is, in great 
measure, marshy and that it abounds in large 
rivers, which cause it to have very thick vege- 
tation and very high and straight trees. In fact, 

119 



there and back aj 
been said, found th 
with water that th 
was not submerge 
the banks of those 
the land was nol 
very thickly popul 
bark to examine s 
and therefore ag 
which we did. V 
along the coast wi 
southeast, trying t 
more than forty 1 
island itself. Bui 
found in that part 
rent flowing from 
the sea was quite 



The Second Voyage 

We sailed across the outer harbor that we 
might enter the inner haven. In so doing, we 
noticed a horde of natives on the aforesaid 
island, about four leagues inland from the sea. 
We were greatly pleased and got our boats 
ready to land. While we were thus engaged, 
we noticed a canoe coming in from the open 
5ea with many persons on board, which made 
us resolve to attack them and make them our 
prisoners. We therefore began to sail in their 
direction and to surround them, lest they might 
escape us. The natives in their turn bent to their 
paddles and, as the breeze continued to blow 
but moderately, we saw them raise their oars 
straight on high, as if to sqy that they would 
remain firm and offer us resistance. I suppose 
that they did this in order to rouse admiration 
in us. But when they became aware that we 
were approaching nearer and nearer, they dipped 
their paddles into the water and made for the 
land. Among our ships there was a very swift boat 
of about forty-five tons, which was so headed that 
she soon got to windward of the natives. When 
the moment for attacking them had come, they 
got ready themselves and their gear and rowed off. 
Since our ship now went beyond the canoe of the 
natives, these attempted to effect their escape. 
Having lowered some boats and filled them with 
brave men, thinking that we would catch them, 

121 





The Second Voyage 

'. soon bore down on them, but though we pur- 
sd them for two hours, had not our caravel 
lich had passed them turned back on them 
ey would have entirely escaped us. When 
ey saw that they were hemmed in on all sides 
our small boats and by the ship, all of them 
lOut twenty in number) leaped into the water, 
)eit they were still about two leagues out at 
1. We pursued them with our boats for that 
tire day, and yet we managed to capture only 
of them, the rest reaching land in safety. 
In the canoe which they had abandoned, there 
:re four youths, who did not belong to the 
lie tribe, but had been captured in another 



The Second Voyage 

fled in great fright to the groves near by and 
hid in their recesses. We then gave one of the 
captives permission to leave us, loading him 
with very many gifts for the natives with whom 
we desired to be friends, among which were 
little bells and plates of metal and numerous 
mirrors. We instructed him, furthermore, to 
tell the natives who had fled not to entertain 
any fear on our account, because we were 
greatly desirous of being their friends. Our 
messenger departed and fulfilled his mission so 
well that the entire tribe, about four hundred 
in number, came to us from out of the forest, 
accompanied by many women. Though un- 
armed, they came to where we were stationed 
with our small boats, and we became so friendly 
that we restored to them the second of the two 
men whom we had captured, and likewise sent 
instructions to our companions, in whose pos- 
session it was, to return to the natives the canoe 
which we had run down. This canoe was hol- 
lowed out of the trunk of a single tree, and had 
been fashioned with the greatest care. It was 
twenty-six paces long and two ells (bracchia) 
wide. As soon as the natives had recovered 
possession of their canoe and had placed it in a 
secure spot along the river bank, they unex- 
pectedly fled from us and would no longer have 
anything to do with us. By such an uncivilized 

123 





The Second Voyage 

t, we knew them to be men of bad faith. 
Tiong them we saw a little gold, which they 
jre suspended from their ears. 
We left that country, and after sailing about 
^hty leagues we found a safe anchorage for our 
ips, upon entering which we saw such 
imbers of natives that it was a wonderful 
;ht. We immediately made friends with them 
d visited in their company many of their vil- 
^es, where we were honorably and heartily 
;lcomed. Indeed, we bought of them five 
mdred large pearls in return for one small 
11, which we gave them for nothing.' In 
at land they drink wine made from fruits and 



The Second Voyage 

people would come to us to marvel at our ap- 
pearance, the whiteness of our skins, our clothes 
and weapons, and at the great size of our ships. 
Indeed, they even told us that one of the tribes 
hostile to them lived further to the west, and 
possessed an infinite number of pearls ; and that 
those pearls which they themselves possessed 
had been taken from these enemies in the course 
of wars which they had waged against them. 
They gave us further information as to how the 
pearls were fished and how they grew, all of 
which we found to be true, as your Majesty 
will learn later on. 

We left that harbor and sailed along the 
coast, on which we always saw many people. 
Continuing on our course, we entered a harbor 
for the purpose of repairing one of our ships. 
Here again we saw many natives, whom we 
could neither force nor coax to communicate 
with us in any way. For, if we made any at- 
tempt to land, they resisted most desperately; 
and if they could not withstand our attack, they 
fled to the woods, never waiting for us to ap- 
proach any nearer. Realizing their utter sav- 
ageness, we departed. While we were thus 
sailing on, we saw an island fifteen leagues out 
at sea and resolved to visit it and learn whether 
or not it was inhabited. Upon reaching it we 
found it to be inhabited by a race of most 

125 





The Second Voyage 

imallike simplicity, and at the same time 
ry obliging and kind, whose rites and customs 
: the following: 

THE RITES AND CUSTOMS OF THIS TRIBE. 

They were animallike in their appearance and 
:ions, and had their mouths full of a certain 
:en herb which they continually chewed 
on as animals chew their cud, with the result 
It they could not speak. Moreover, each one 
them had suspended from his neck two small 
led gourds, one of which contained a supply 
that herb which they were chewing, while 
: other contained a kind of white flour re- 



The Second Voyage 

the while, and expressed our desire to drink 
some fresh water. To which they answered, by 
signs, that there was none in their country, of- 
fering us in its stead some herb and flour such 
as they were chewing. We now understood that 
since their country lacked water, they chewed 
that herb and flour to quench their thirst. And 
so it happened that, though we walked along 
that shore in their company for a day and a half, 
we never came across any spring water, and 
learned that such water as they did drink was 
the dew which gathered upon certain leaves hav- 
ing the shape of a donkey's ears. During the 
night these leaves were filled with dew, of which 
the people then drank, and it is very good. But 
in many places these leaves are not found. 

This tribe is entirely unacquainted with the 
solid products of the earth, and live chiefly on 
the fish which they catch in the sea. Indeed 
there are many expert fishermen among them, 
and their waters abound in fish, of which they 
offered us many turtles and many other most 
excellent varieties. The women of the tribe, 
however, do not chew the herb as the men do ; 
in its place, each one of them carries a single 
gourd filled with water, of which they partake 
from time to time. They do not have villages 
composed of individual houses, nor do they have 
even small huts. Their only shelter is made of 

127 





The Second Voyage 

rge leaves, which serve indeed to protect them 
;ainst the heat of the sun, but are not a suffi- 
ent protection against the rains, from which it 
ay be deduced that there is Uttle rain in that 
.untry. When they come down to the sea to 
h, each one brings with him a leaf so large 
at, by fixing one end of it in the ground and 
en turning the leaf to follow the sun, he pro- 
ires underneath its shade ample relief from the 
eat heat. In this island, finally, there are 
luntless species of animals, all of which drink 
e water of the marshes. 

Seeing, however, that there was nothing to 
; gained on that island, we left it and found 



The Second Voyage 

and apparently inhabited. Entering them we 
found five women, two of them old and three 
young ; and all of them were of such large and 
noble stature that we were greatly astonished. 
As soon as they laid eyes upon us they were so 
overcome with surprise that they had no strength 
left for flight. Thereupon the old woman ad- 
dressed us soothingly in their own tongue, and, 
gathering in one hut, oflfered us great quantities 
of food. All of them, in truth, were taller than 
a very tall man ; indeed, they were as tall as 
Francesco degli Albizi, and better knit and 
better proportioned than we are. When we had 
observed all this, we agreed to seize the young 
girls by force and to bring them to Castile as 
objects of wonder. 

While we were still deliberating, behold 
about thirty-six men began to file through the 
door of the house, men much larger than the 
women and so magnificently built that it was a 
joy to see them. These men caused us such 
great uneasiness that we considered it safer to 
return to our ships than to remain in their com- 
pany. For they were armed with immense 
bows and arrows, and with stakes and staflfs the 
size of long poles. As soon as they had all en- 
tered, they began to talk among themselves as 
if plotting to take us prisoners, upon seeing 
which we, too, held a consultation. Some were 

129 





The Second Voyage 

' the opinion that we should fall upon them 
St where they were, within the hut itself; 
ihers disapproved of this entirely, and sug- 
;sted that the attack be made out of doors and 
the open ; and still others declared that we 
lould not force an engagement until we learned 
hat the natives decided to do. During the 
scussion of these plans we left the hut disguis- 
g our feelings and our intentions, and began 
• make our way back to the ships. The natives 
llowed at a stone's throw, always talking among 
lemselves. I believe, however, that their fear 
as no less than ours; for, although they kept 
i in sight, they remained at a distance, not 



The Second Voyage 

little further off shore than before and being 
compelled to engage with the enemy every now 
and then because they did not want us to take 
anything out of their country. By this time 
thoughts of revisiting Castile began to enter our 
minds, particularly for this reason, that we had 
now been almost a year at sea and that we had 
very small quantities of provisions and other 
necessaries left. Even what still remained was 
all spoiled and damaged by the extreme heat 
which we had suffered. For, ever since our de- 
parture from the Cape Verde Islands, we had 
continually sailed in the Torrid Zone, and had 
twice crossed the equator, as we have said above. 
While we were in this state of mind, it pleased 
the Holy Spirit to relieve us of our labors. For, 
as we were searching for a suitable haven where- 
in to repair our ships, we reached a tribe which 
received us with the greatest demonstrations of 
friendship. We learned, moreover, that they 
were the possessors of countless large Oriental 
pearls. We therefore remained among them 
forty-seven days, and bought 119 marcs of 
pearls at a price which, according to our esti- 
mation, was not greater than forty ducats, for we 
gave them in payment little bells, mirrors, bits 
of crystals, and very thin plates of electrum. 
Indeed, each one would give all the pearls he 
had for one little bell. We also learned from 





The Second Voyage 

lem how and where the pearls were fished, and 
lev gave us several of the shells in which they 
row. We bought some shells in addition, 
nding as many as i 30 pearls in some, and in 
thers not quite so many. Your Majesty must 
now that unless the pearls grow to full matu- 
ty and of their own accord fall from the shells 
1 which they are born, they cannot be quite 
effect. Otherwise, as I have myself found by 
xperience time and again, they soon dry up and 
;ave no trace. When, however, they have grown 
) full maturity, they drop from the fleshy part 
ito the shell, except the part by which it 
ung attached to the flesh ; and these are the best 



The Third Voyage 

the harbor of Cadiz on the 8 th of September, 
where we were received with great honor. 
And so ended my second voyage, according 
to the will of God. 

The Third Voyage 

I HAD taken up my abode in Seville, desiring to 
rest myself a little, to recover from the toils and 
hardships endured in the voyages described above, 
intending finally to revisit the land of pearls. 
But Fortune was by no means done with me. 
For some reason unknown to me she caused his 
most serene Lordship, Manuel, King of Portu- 
gal, to send me a special messenger bearing a 
letter which urgently begged me to go to 
Lisbon as soon as possible, because he had some 
important facts to communicate to me. I did 
not even consider the proposition, but immedi- 
ately sent word by the same messenger that I 
was not feeling very well and in fact was ill at 
that moment; adding that, if I should regain 
my health and if it should still please His Royal 
Majesty to enlist my services, I should gladly 
undertake whatever he wished. Whereupon 
the King, who saw that he could not bring me 
to him just then, sent to me a second time, 
commissioning Giuliano Bartolomeo Giocondo*, 

* Probably a relative of Fra Giovanni, a Dominican, later Franciscan 
£iar, architect, and archaeologbt, associated with Raphael and Sangallo 
in the erection of St. Peter's, builder of a bridge across the Seine and 
collector of more than 2,000 ancient inscriptions (i430?-i5i5 ?). 

133 





The Third Voyage 

en in Lisbon, to leave no stone unturned to 
ing me back to the King. Upon the arrival 
' the said Giuliano I was moved by his en- 
:aties to return with him to the King — a deci- 
in which was disapproved of by all those who 
lew me. For I was leaving Castile, where 
) small degree of honor had been shown me 
id where the King himself held me in high 
teem. What was even worse was that I de- 
irted without taking leave of my host. I soon 
esented myself before King Manuel, who 
emed to rejoice greatly at my arrival. He 
en repeatedly asked me to set out with three 
ips which had been got ready to start in search 



The Third Voyage 

the Torrid Zone, within the first climate, and 
at a spot where the North Pole rises fourteen 
degrees above the horizon. We remained here 
eleven days to take on supplies of wood and of 
water, because it was my intention to sail south- 
ward through the Atlantic Ocean. We left that 
harbor of Ethiopia and sailed to the southwest 
for sixty-seven days, when we reached an island 
700 leagues to the southwest of the above-men- 
tioned harbor. During these days we encoun- 
tered worse weather than any human being had 
ever before experienced at sea. There were high 
winds and violent rainstorms which caused us 
countless hardships. The reason for such inclem- 
ent weather was that our ships kept sailing 
along the equinoctial line, where it is winter in 
the month of June and the days are as long as 
the nights, and where our own shadows pointed 
always to the south. 

At last it pleased God to show us new land 
on the 17th of August. We anchored one 
league and a half out at sea, and then, embark- 
ing in some small boats, we set out to see 
whether or not the land was inhabited. We 
found that it was thickly inhabited by men who 
were worse than animals, as Your Royal Majesty 
will learn forthwith. Upon landing we did not 
see any of the natives, although from many signs 
which we noticed we concluded that the country 

^35 





1 

The Third Voyage 

ist have many inhabitants. Wc took posses- 
>n of the coast in the name of the most serene 
ng of Castile, and found it to be a pleasant 
d fruitful and lovely land. It is five degrees 
ith of the Equator. The same day we re- 
"ned to our ships; and since we were suffer- 
; from the lack of fuel and water, we agreed 
land again the following day and provide 
rselves with what was necessary. Upon land- 
l we saw on the topmost ridge of a hill many 
uple who did not venture to descend. They 
rre all naked and similar in both appearance 
d color to those we had met in the former 
yages. Though we did our best to make 



The Third Voyage 

that they were thus inviting us, we rowed to the 
land. We now saw that a great horde of natives 
had collected, who, however, kept far away 
from us, making many signs that we should go 
with them into the interior. Wherefore two of 
our Christians declared themselves ready to risk 
their lives in this undertaking and to visit the 
natives in order to see for themselves what kind 
of people they were and whether they possessed 
any riches or aromatic spices. They begged the 
commander of the fleet so earnestly that he gave 
his consent to their departure. The two then 
prepared themselves for the expedition, taking 
along many trifles, for barter with the natives, 
and left us, with the understanding that they 
should make sure to return after five days at the 
most, as we should wait for them no longer. 

They accordingly began their journey inland, 
and we returned to our ships, where we waited 
for eight whole days. On almost each of these 
days a new crowd would come to the shore, but 
never did they show a desire to enter into con- 
versation with us. On the seventh day, while 
we again were making our way to the shore, 
we discovered that the natives had brought all 
their wives with them. As soon as we landed 
they sent many of their women to talk with us. 
But even the women did not trust us sufficiently. 
While we were waiting for them to approach, 





The Third Voyage 

; decided to send to them one of our young 
en who was very strong and agile ; and then, 
at the women might be the less fearful, the 
St of us embarked in our small boats. The 
ung man advanced and mingled among the 
jmen ; they all stood around him, and touched 
d stroked him, wondering greatly at him. At 
is point a woman came down from the hill 
rrying a big club. When she reached the 
ice where the young man was standing, she 
uck him such a heavy blow from behind that 
: immediately fell to the ground dead, Thc 
ii of the women at once seized him and 
agged him by the feet up the mountain. 



The Third Voyage 

fire which they had made, and eating them. 
The men, too, made us similar signs, from 
which we gathered that they had killed our twa 
other Christians in the same manner and had 
likewise eaten them. And in this respect at 
least we felt sure that they were speaking the 
truth. 

We were thoroughly maddened by this^ 
taunting and by seeing with our own eyes the 
inhuman way in which they had treated our 
dead. More than forty of us, therefore, de- 
termined to rush to the land and avenge such an 
inhuman deed and such bestial cruelty. But the 
commander of our ship would not give his con- 
sent ; and so, being compelled to endure pas- 
sively so serious and great an insult, we departed 
with heavy hearts and^with a feeling of great 
shame, due to the refusal of our captain. 

Leaving that land we began to sail between 
the East and South because the coast line ran in 
that direction. We made many turns and land- 
ings, in the course of which we did not see any 
tribe which would have any intercourse with 
us or approach us. We sailed at last so far that 
we discovered a new land stretching out toward 
the southwest. Here we rounded a cape (to 
which we gave the name St. Vincent) and con- 
tinued our voyage in a southwesterly direction. 
This Cape St. Vincent is 150 leagues to the 

139 



<J 



a safe place and then, em 

boats, we reached land. 

much kinder than the oth 

efforts to make them our 

crowned with success. V 

among them trading and < 

them, and discovered lar^ 

most of them still green, 

dry on the tops of the tr 

take along with us two o 

might teach us their tongi 

of them volunteered to 

with us. 

But, since it wearies me 

in detail, may it suffice yo 

that we left that harbor, 

westerly direction, keeping 
^r 1 J — -.. — : 1 — 1 



The Third Voyage 

lost sight of the Lesser Bear, and the Great 
Bear itself appeared so low as to be scarcely vis- 
ible above the horizon. We were then com- 
pelled to guide ourselves by the stars of the 
South Pole, which are far more numerous and 
much larger and more brilliant than the stars of 
our Pole. I therefore made a drawing of very 
many of them, especially of those of the first 
magnitude, together with the declinations of 
their orbits around the South Pole, adding also 
the diameters and semi-diameters of the stars 
themselves — all of which can be readily seen in 
my ** Four Voyages." In the course of the 
voyage from Cape St. Augustine, we sailed 700 
leagues — 100 toward the west and 600 toward 
the southwest. Should any one desire to de- 
scribe all that we saw in the course of that voy- 
age, paper would not suffice him. We did not, 
however, discover anything of great importance 
with the exception of an infinite number of 
cassia trees and of very many others which put 
forth a peculiar kind of leaf. We saw, in ad- 
dition, very many other wonderful things which 
it would be tedious to enumerate. 

We had now been on our voyage for almost 
ten months; and, seeing that we discovered no 
precious metals, we decided to depart thence 
and to roam over another portion of the sea. 
As soon as we had come to this conclusion, the 

141 



captains had informed mc 
remain at sea only that m 
As soon as my orders 
left that coast and began c 
on the 1 3 th of February, 
the sun was approachin 
4ind returning to this No 
ours. We sailed so far th 
fifty-two degrees above 
could no longer see the si 
Lesser Bear. For we v 
April) 500 leagues dist 
from which we had begt 
age. On this day so vio. 
we were forced to gather 
vas and to run on with 
^west wind blowing fierce 
in ereat billows, in the n 



The Third Voyage 

your Majesty is very well aware, it was the be- 
ginning of winter in that latitude. In the midst 
of this tempest, however, on the 2nd of April, 
we sighted land, and sailed along shore for 
nearly twenty leagues. But we found it en- 
tirely uninhabited and wild, a land which had 
neither harbors nor inhabitants. I suppose it 
was for the reason that it was so cold there that 
no one could endure such a rigid climate. 
Furthermore, we found ourselves in such great 
danger and in the midst of so violent a storm 
that the different ships could scarcely sight one 
another. Wherefore the commander of the fleet 
and I decided that we should signal to all our 
shipmates to leave that coast, sail out to sea, and 
make for Portugal. 

This plan proved to be a good and necessary 
one ; for, had we remained there one single 
night longer, we should all have been lost. The 
day after we left, so great a storm arose that we 
feared we should be entirely submerged. For 
this reason we then made many vows to go on 
pilgrimages and performed other ceremonies, as 
is customary with sailors. The storm raged 
round us for five days, during which we could 
never raise our sails. During the same time we 
went 250 leagues out to sea, always getting 
nearer and nearer the equinoctial line, where 
both sea and sky became more moderate. And 

143 



of God we reached that 
May. We rested there 
stretch of coast facing 
Sierra Leone. Then we 
the Azores, which are 7 
Leone. We reached t 
July and again rested 
then set sail for Lis 
were 300 leagues to t 
in the year 1502, we 
of Lisbon, in good hea 
only two ships. The th 
at Sierra Leone, because 
worthy. 

In this third voyage, 
nearly sixteen months, 
we sailed without being 

Oa.^— ^^mm «-VkA o«>/i«-c r\Ttr\f^ 1 



The Fourth Voyage 

The Fourth Voyage 

I MUST still relate what I saw in my third 
(sic) voyage. But, in truth, since I have already 
been tired out by the length of the preceding 
narratives, and since this voyage did not at all 
end as I had hoped, on account of an accident 
that befell us in the Atlantic Ocean, I may be 
permitted (I trust), to be somewhat brief. 

We left Lisbon in six ships with the inten- 
tion of exploring an island situated toward the 
horizon and known as Melcha. This island is 
famous for its wealth, because it is a stopping 
place for all ships coming from the Gangetic 
and Indian Seas, precisely as Cadiz is the port 
for all vessels going from east to west, or in the 
opposite direction, as is the case with those ships 
which sail hence for Calicut. This island of 
Melcha is further to the west than Calicut and 
more to the south, which we knew from the 
following fact : that it is situated within sight 
of the thirty-third degree of the Antarctic Pole. 

And so, on the loth of May, 1503, we set 
sail from Lisbon (as I have said above), and 
made for the Cape Verde Islands, where we 
took on some needed provisions and many other 
necessary stores. We remained there twelve 
days, and then set sail with a south wind, be- 
cause the commander of the fleet, who was 

145 



command of us and the 
good speed, and just as \^ 
within sight of our destii 
lent a tempest arose, and 
to rage, and Fortune be 
for four days we could m 
fact that we could see the 
of that time. Finally 
give up our attempts and 
should have been our 
ginning. 

We therefore resumed 
Suduesius wind blowing ( 
between the south and 
sailed through those diffici 
In consequence we went 
almost three degrees, whc 



The Fourth Voyage 

was to us a most unfortunate island. Upon it 
the commander of our fleet lost his ship, all 
owing to his own obstinate mind and will. 
His ship struck upon a rock^ sprung leaks, 
and sank during the night of St. Lawrence, the 
loth of August. With the exception of the 
crew nothing was saved. The ship was of 300 
tons, and the strength of our whole fleet lay 
in her. 

While we were all exerting ourselves to see 
if we could not, perhaps, float her again, the 
above-mentioned commander ordered me (among 
other things) to go in a rowboat to the island 
in search of a good harbor where we might all 
draw up our ships in safety. That same com- 
mander, however, did not wish me to go with 
my own -ship, because it was manned by nine 
sailors and was then busily engaged in assisting 
the endangered ship. He insisted that I go and 
find such a harbor, where he would restore my 
ship to me in person. Upon receiving these 
orders, I went to the island as he desired, taking 
with me about half the number of my sailors. 
The island was four leagues away, and hastening 
thither I discovered a very fine harbor where 
we might safely anchor our entire fleet. I had 
now discovered the harbor, and there I spent 
eight days waiting for the said commander and 
the rest of our company. I was greatly dis- 

147 



order that they might sc 
and at the same time he 
take us with them to some 
we had gotten near and 
ings, those on board info 
mander's ship had been 
alone being saved. Yoi 
imagine the great anxiet 
this report, when I reali 
leagues distant from Lis 
needs return) in remo 
Nevertheless, we resignc 
that had come upon us a 
First of all we returned 
gathered supplies of w< 
ship. The island, inde 
ited and most inhospita 
At^n\ nf Rnringr water, co 



The Fourth Voyage 

island were very large mice, lizards with forked 
tails, and several serpents. 

When we had got our provisions on board, 
we set sail toward the south and southwest; for 
we had received orders from the King, that, un- 
less some great danger made it impossible, we 
should follow in the path of our former voyage. 
Setting out, therefore, in this direction, we at last 
found a harbor which we called the Bay of All 
Saints. Indeed, God had granted us such favor- 
able weather that in less than seventeen days we 
reached this port, which is 300 leagues distant 
from the above-mentioned island. In the har- 
bor we found neither the commander-in-chief 
nor any one else of our company, though we 
waited for them for two months and four days. 
At the end of this period, seeing that no one 
arrived there, my companions and I decided to 
sail further along the coast. After sailing for 
260 leagues, we entered a harbor where we de- 
termined to build an outpost. Having done so, 
we left behind in this fort the twenty- four 
Christians who had been the crew of the luck- 
less ship of our commander-in-chief. We re- 
mained in that harbor five months, occupied in 
constructing the said fort and in loading our 
ships with brazil-wood. We tarried thus long 
because our sailors were few in number and 
because, owing to the lack of many necessary 

149 



^^M. V %^ C V4A10 



and supplying them with 
six months. During ot 
friends with the tribes of 
we have here made very li 
standing that we saw gr 
and had frequent dealings 
we went about forty leagi 
company with thirty of t 
expedition very many thir 
over in silence, reserving t 
titled " The Four Voyag< 
eight degrees south of th< 
five degrees west of the m 
cording to our instrument 
We set sail hence wit 
wind (which is between 
northeast) shaping our cc 



T • -1 



T}^ Fourth Voyage 

reason was that the entire city thought that we 
had been lost at sea, as was the case with all 
the rest of our fleet, who had perished owing to 
the foolish haughtiness of our commander-in- 
chief. Behold the manner in which God, the 
just Judge of all, rewards pride! 

I am now living at Lisbon, not knowing 
what next your most serene Majesty wil! plan 
for me to do. As for myself, I greatly desire 
from now on to rest from my many hardships, 
in the meantime earnestly commending to your 
Majesty the bearer of the present letter. 

Amerigo Vespucci, 

in Lisbon. 

Grfctiiigs from Walter Lud, 

Nicholas Lud, 

uid Manin Ilacomilui 




.. .5^' 







The borrower must return this item on or before 
the last date stamped below. If another user 
places a recall for this item, the borrower will 
be notified of the need for an earlier return. 

Non-receipt of overdue notices does not exempt 
the borrower from overdue fines. 



Harvard CoUege Widener Library 
Cambridge, MA 02138 617-495-2413 








Please handle with care. 

Thank you for helping to preserve 
library collections at Harvard. 




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