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Full text of "Costume design and illustration"

UNIVERSITY OF CAUFORNIA 
AT LOS ANGELES 




•r'7 



THE WILEY TECHNICAL SERIES 

FOR 

VOCATIONAL AND INDUSTRIAL SCHOOLS 

EDITED BY 

J. M. JAMESON 



4 17 



THE WILEY TECHNICAL SERIES 

EDITED BY 

JOSEPH M. JAMESON 

GiEARD College 



TEXTBOOKS IN DRAFTING AND DESIGN 



Decorative Design. A Textbook of Practical Methods. By Joseph Cummings 
Chase, Instructor in Decorative Design at the College of the City of New York 
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Agricultural Drafting. By Charles B. Howe, M.E. 8 by lof , viii+63 pages, 
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Agricultural Drafting Problems. A Manual to Supplement the text in Agri- 
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The Orders of Architecture. A IVIanual to Supplement the text in Architectural 
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Mechanical Drafting. By Charles B Howe, M.E., Bushwick Evening High 
School, Brooklyn, x+147 pages, 8Xiof 165 figures, 38 plates. Cloth, $1.75 net. 

Drawing for Builders. By R. Burdette Dale, Formerly Director of Vocational 
Courses, Iowa State College. v-f-i66 pages, 8 by lof, 69 figures, 50 plates. 
Cloth, $1.50 net. 

Costume Design and Illustration. By Ejhel H. Traphagen, Instructor and 
Lecturer at Cooper Union, etc. ix+145 pages, 8 by lof. Upwards of 200 
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Mechanical Drafting Manual. A Series of Lessons and Exercises Based upon 
the Fundamental Principles of Drafting. By Charles B. Howe, M.E. Part I. 
General Principles of Drafting and Working Drawings. 15 Lessons, with Illus- 
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page plates. 8| by 65. Printed in loose-leaf form, each Part in a separate 
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(Part III. Machine Drafting: (a) Elementary Principles, (b) Advanced. 
Part IV. Plan Drawing. Part V. Plot and Map Drawing. In preparation). 

Student's Manual of Fashion Drawing. Thirty Lessons with Conventional 
Charts. By Edith Young. Director of the Edith Young Art School, Newark, 
N. J. Formerly Art Director of the Albert Studio of Fashion Drawing, Albert 
Business College, Newark, N. J., and Instructor of Fashion Drawing at the 
Young Women's Christian Association Newark, N. J. vii-f 107 pages. 8 by 10 j. 
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For full announcement see lis! following index. 



Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2007 with funding from 

IVIicrosoft Corporation 



http://www.archive.org/details/costumedesignillOOtrapiala 




Drawing by Drian 



Frontispiece 



Courtesy of Harper's Bazai 



COSTUME DESIGN 
AND ILLUSTRATION 



ETHEL TRAPHAGEN 

Instructor and Lecturer at Cooper Union, The New 
York Evening School of Industrial Art, and Brooklyn 
Teachers' Association Classes; formerly on the staff 
of Dress Magazine and The Ladies' Home Journal 



'H' 



FIRST EDITION 



NewYork 1918 

JOHN WILEY & SONS, Inc. 

CHAPMAN & HALL, Limited Londok 



Copyright, 1918, by 
ETHEL TRAPHAGEN 



PRINTEBS 



^rr 



Art Library 

rr 

50'f 



THIS BOOK IS SINCERELY DEDI- 
CATED TO MY STUDENTS, WHOSE 
ENTHUSIASM AND SUCCESS HAVE BEEN 
ITS INCENTIVE AND INSPIRATION 



THEPREFAGE 

Costume Design and Costume Illustration are not always looked 
upon as distinctly different branches of what is termed fashion work, 
but in truth there is a marked difference between them. 

^ In the former, one must consider the judging of color, and all that this 
(\j includes by way of harmonies, contrasts, areas, etc.; the relation of spaces; 
(?) proper proportions; and the beauty and effect of line, balance and scale 
^ arrangements for the production of a design that is dignified, fanciful, 
^^ frivolous, dainty, formal, or subtle, to express the designer's conception 
Oft of the purpose of the costume and its suitability to the wearer. 

(^ The costume illustrator, on the other hand, has the privilege of 

, representing the garment after it has been designed — he must be able 

^ to render the material with his pen, pencil or brush in such a way 

^ that the actual design is not robbed of any of its charm. Of course, 

("V there are many ways of doing this, according to the technique and 

sensitiveness or temperament of the artist, as well as the different 

methods customary for the special use for which the design is intended. 

It can easily be seen how advantageous it is to any fashion artist, 

whether designer or illustrator, to have an understanding of both branches 

to get the best out of either, for they have much in common. 

The designer and the illustrator should both have a knowledge and a keen 
appreciation of the beautiful lines of the human form, to know what 
lines are important to emphasize and what to conceal in a figure which 
may not be perfect. Drawing from the nude is of great advantage to 
the student, and no serious costume illustrator should be without this 
valuable training. 

There are some books which may help the ambitious student in the life 
class to observe and impress on the mind fundamental facts which it is 
believed most life-class teachers will agree in thinking extremely useful. 
Among these are Dunlop's Anatomical Diagrams, Figure Draicing by 
Hatton, Anatomy in Art by J. S. Hartley, Richter, Marshall or Duval, and 
Drawing the Human Figure by J. H. Vanderpoel. If the student is studying 
without an instructor, Practical Drawing, by Lutz, will be found helpful. 

Ethel H. Traphagen, 

New York, 1918. 



THE CONTENTS 

CHAPTER PAGE 

I. Sketching 1 

II. Drawing without Models .... 13 

III. Methods 27 

IV. Color 63 

V. Design 75 

VI. The Fashion Silhouette ..... 83 

VII. Period Fabric Design 91 

VIII. Outline of Historic Costume ... 99 

IX. Bibliography .127 

X. A Reading and Reference List of 

Costume, Arranged Alphabetic- 
ally 137 

XI. Artists whose Work Has Bearing 

ON Period Fabrics or Costume . 185 

XII. Index 199 



SKETCHING 

CHAPTER ONE 



COSTUME DESIGN AND ILLUSTRATION 



CHAPTER ONE 



SKETCHING 



1. Forms. — In both lines of fashion farthest point out of the other oval, to 

work it is necessary to be able to eon- represent the skirt. Connect these and 

struct quickly a form on which to sketch you have a form. See Fig. 1. The bust 

or design a dress, and, like the forms in and hip should be on a line, and for the 



fufthat 





Fig. 1. — First steps in constructing a dress form. 



store windows, this should be constructed 
to enhance the good lines of the garment. 
Care must be taken, however, never to 
confuse this with the human figure, the 
structure of which is entirely different. 

The simplest way of obtaining this 
form is by drawing tw^o ovals. First, 
make a straight line for the shoulders, 
then swing an oval, somewhat foreshort- 
ened, from the shoulder line, to repre- 
sent the waist. Next, swing another 
more elongated oval, from near the end- 
ing points of the first oval, having the 
farthest part out always opposite the 



present-day silhouette the connecting lines 
should be but slightly curved. 

Next, extend the two lines for the 
sleeves, add the collar and put in the 
centre line, which, in the front, follows 
the outside line of the waist and goes 
straight in the skirt. See Fig. ^. (Of 
course, the proportions differ according 
to fashion; i.e., the normal waist would 
go but twice into the short skirt of the 
summer of 1916.) It is interesting to 
note how the reverse of this straight line 
and curve forms the back. In making the 
back, connect the ovals in the same man- 



Page Two SKETCHING 

ner, but note that the centre Hne goes the straight full front view, because of 

straight in the waist and curves in the the advantage of showing the side of the 

skirt. See Fig. 3. dress as well as the front. An examina- 

The waist and collar lines curve up. tion of fashion publications will prove 

The normal waist goes into the skirt about how general is this preference. 






Fig. 2. 



JlJlu 



Fig. 3. 



two and a half times, and the sleeves 
bend at the waist line or a little above. 
The supporting points at the shoulder, 
elbow, and hips should be marked, for 
it is these points that most affect the 
drapery. 

With a little application, these forms 
may soon be mastered, and the practice 
of doing them rapidly and turning them 
both ways makes for proficiency. See 
Pig. 4. Observe that three-quarter front 
and back views are used in preference to 




Fig. 4. 

2. Summary. — The main points to be 
remembered are that the bust and hips, 
for the present silhouette, should be on a 
line, that the arms bend at the waist line 
or a little above, and that the normal 
waist goes into the instep length skirt 
about two and a half times. 

In the front view remember that the 
centre line follows the outside line in 
the waist and goes straight in the skirt, 
that in the back the centre line goes 
straight in the waist and curves in the 



SKETCHING A GARMENT 



Page Three 



skirt. (The centre hne is the centre of 
the actual figure, not of the sketch.) 

The collar and waist lines curve up in 
the back and down in the front. The 
bottom of the skirt describes a circle; 
therefore, like the 









waist and collar, 
the line curves, but 
always downward. 
The shoulder lines 
should be made to 
slant as much as 
the silhouette re- 
quires. 

For this work 
use an H.B. pencil, 
Eberhard Faber, 
Ruby or Emerald 
eraser, and emery 
board pad. The 
point of the pencil 
should be kept 
very sharp by con- 
tinually pointing it 
on the pad. From 
the start great at- 
tention should be 
paid to a clean-cut 
and beautiful line 
and to the proper 
placement of the 
sketch on the 
paper. See under " Greek Law," page 27. 

3. Sketching a Garment. — After the 
form is mastered up to this point, the 
next step is the sketching of a garm^ent 
on the foundation drawn. If possible, have 
as a model a simple dress or suit on a 
coat-hanger, or preferably a dressmaker's 
form; then find the centre line of the 
garment and see that, in sketching it 
on the oval form first constructed, you 




jU 



Fig. 5. — Pencil sketch of a suit. 



have the centre line of your sketch cor- 
respond with the centre line of the gar- 
ment. You will find the proper observa- 
tion of the centre line an infallible guide 
in giving you the proper relation of the 
sketch to the gar- 
ment. 
im Next observe 

V- x\ the large, impor- 

' tant facts — such as 

length of sleeves, 
length of coat, the 
long, important 
lines— and be par- 
ticular to put in 
the seams; but 
leave details such 
as embroidery, 
lace, tucks, plaits, 
gathers, etc., until 
the last. See Figs. 
5, 6, and 7. 

After the lengths 
of the sleeves, 
waist, coat, etc., 
are determined, 
you must strive for 
skill in keeping 
your pencil line 
clean and sharp. 
This gives the 
much-desired, well 
pressed newness to the garment. To 
keep this effect, beware of too rounded 
curves. After the sketch is finished, 
some accents should be put in, in 
places where shadows would naturally be; 
this gives added interest to sketches. 
From the first, observe and work for 
texture. Notice how delicate, light lines 
express thin material better than heavy, 
hard ones. After ability of this kind is 



'[•]'"! ]''"".< ^ 



Page Four 



SKETCHING 



acquired, the next step is to work for 
speed. Garments in shop windows give 
excellent opportunity for sketching when 
the student is trying to acquire speed. 

4. Sketching from Memory. — Training 
the memory in 
sketching is also 
most important. A 
good way to do 
this is to sketch 
from memory 
what has been 
drawn from ths 
garment the day 
before. Another 
good way is to 
observe a dress 
either in a shop 
window or on a 
person, and then, 
without again 
looking to aid the 
memory, to try to 
put on paper all 
you remember. It 
is well to verify 
this sketch by 
comparing it with 
the garment, to 
find out how much 
you have forgotten 
and where you 
have made mis- 
takes. To be able 
to sketch from memory is a truly valu- 
able asset in costume work. So much 
can be carried away in one's mind from 
"Openings" and places where sketching 
is not possible. 

5. Sketching from Garments. — A knowl- 
edge of the proper way to sketch gar- 
ments such as gowns, hats, and acces- 




FiG. 6. — Preliminary pencil sketch of a gown 



sories, is absolutely necessary in fashion 
work. It is helpful, first for your own 
convenience when you see things you 
wish to remember, or when you wish to 
explain things seen to some one else, next, 
in gathering ideas 
to adapt to your 
own designs, and 
again, in doing 
sketching for news- 
papers or maga- 
zines. Designers 
for manufacturers 
find it a great 
boon to be able to 
sketch in their ex- 
ploring trips in the 
shops and along 
Fifth Avenue. 

Sketching for 
manufacturers is 
done for two pur- 
poses: To give 
Ihem the latest 
French models 
from the "Open- 
ings" from which 
to make exact 
copies or some- 
thing adapted to 
their special trade 
needs, and to give 
them an inventory 
of their own stock 
for their reference and convenience. 

Sketching for dressmakers is a little 
line of fashion all its own. The sketches 
for them must be daintily finished, as 
they are to be shown to the customer 
and play an important part in the sale 
of the gown represented. The simple 
ones (see Fig. 6) are done in pencil, with- 



SKETCHING FROM GARMENTS 



Page Five 




Fig. 7.— Illustrating a variety of details. 

but 



out heads, but with a styhsh foundation 
form under- 
neath, with 
sometimes a 
little color 
added in the 
background to 
throw the 
sketch out. 
Sometimes they 
are still more 
finished though 
without heads, Fiq. 8. 




as a rule the more finished dress- 
makers' sketches 
are done on 
figures express- 
ing some action 
and illustrating 
the presumed 
effect of the 
gown on the 
wearer. See 
Figs. 13 and 14. 
WTien sketch- 
es are being 



Page Six 



SKETCHING 



done for embroideries, an additional small 
detail drawing should be made of the 
embroidery at the side of the paper. Tex- 
tures and colors should always be noted 
on the sketch as well as details, such 
as the number of buttons, 
etc., in order that there 
may be no confusion when 
making the finished sketch 
at home or in your studio. 
A convenient size for 
rough sketches is six and 
one-half inches. Practical 
sizes for finished dress- 
makers' sketches are from 
ten to twelve inches when 
heads are included; with- 
out heads, six and one- 
half or seven inches. 
Wide margins lend dis- 
tinction. 

Some of the well known 
French designers are Paul 
Poiret, Cheruet, Beer, 
Callot Sceurs, Paquin, 
Martial and Armand, 
Francis and Drecoll. Al- 
ways note the designer's 
name on your sketch as 
well as the texture, color, 
and detail. The name of 
the design always en- 
hances the value of a 
sketch. Always place 
these sketches on the 
paper according to the Greek Law, i.e., 
most margin at the bottom of the paper. 

When making a finished sketch of this 
kind, a pretty pose should be chosen, 
and this should be thought out and 
practically finished in pencil; then draw 
in the garment carefully before putting 




on the color. The usual method is to put 
in the shadows first, the light big washes 
next, and the detail last. Clear color is 
used as a rule but opaque or tempera is 
often used in small areas combined with 
the clear color sketch; 
sometimes opaque paints 
are substituted. (See Page 
9 and description under 
Color, page 68.) Pen-and- 
ink outlines are often used 
for these sketches and kid 
bristol or illustration board 
is considered the best kind 
of paper. 

6. Hats.— Much of what 
has just been stated ap- 
plies also in sketching 
hats. Care should be 
taken to express the most 
characteristic side of the 
hat; in other words, catch 
its "feature." Be careful 
not to lose the relation 
of the crown of the hat 
to the head. When pos- 
sible, it is best to have 
some one pose for you to 
insure the right angles. 
See Fig. 12. 

Before going into this 
further, consult Section 
15, page 17. 

Theatrical designs and 
sketches are carried out in 
the manner of the other sketches of 
hats and dresses, but a greater liberty 
in the way of eccentricity and exaggera- 
tion is permitted. See Fig. 9. 

7. Accessories. — In connection with 
sketching, the student would do well to 
pay attention to accessories such as col- 



By William Gebhardt 
Fig. 9. — ^Theatrical design. 



SKETCHING FROM LIFE 



Page Seven 



lars, sleeves and 
shoes. It tends to 
much greater facility 
on the part of the 
student to arrange 
these according to 
the Greek Law of 
proportion, page 
27. For sugges- 
tions see Fig. 11 
on this page. 

8. Sketching from 
Life. — Sketching 
from life is strongly 
advised; drawing 
from the nude is of 
great advantage 
when done with un- 
derstanding. In all 
sketching and draw- 
ing it is advisable to 
block in, or in other 
words, sketch with 
light lines the general 
proportions, using 
tentative or trial 
lines and "feeling 
for" the form. See 
Figs. 15, 16, 18, and 
19. 

Never complete 
one part before 
another part is 
thought out; never 
fix your attention 
on the outline, but 
rather on general 
proportion, or the 
result will be un- 
happy. See Fig. 17. 
Decide where your 
drawing is to begin 



?.A*»S 




Courtesy of Gerhard Menncn Co 

Fig. 10. — Crayon drawing. 




Fia. 11.— Shoes drawn by Elfrida Johnson. 



on the paper, and 
where it is to end, 
leaving good mar- 
gins (more at the 
bottom than top), 
and block in between 
these spaces. After- 
wards make sketches 
from memory of the 
pose you have been 
studying. 

When doing rapid 
sketching to catch 
the action of a figure 
in motion, indicate 
the position of the 
head, hands, and feet 
and fill in the rest. 
Excellent practice is 
obtained in doing 
five, seven, ten, and 
fifteen minute poses 
from the nude or 
draped model. 
These quick sketches 
often afford good 
action poses that can 
be carried out and 
used to great advan- 
tage. See Figs. 40 and 
41. This sketching 
will be most helpful 
in assisting the stu- 
dent to obtain a pro- 
fessional touch and 
an individual style. 

More and more 
stress is being laid 
on the well-drawn 
figure underlying the 
fashion drawing and 
too much emphasis 



Page Eight 



SKETCHING 



cannot be put on the value of drawing 
this figure with understanding and appre- 
ciation. Great care should be given the 
study of hands 
and feet, as these 
play an impor- 
tant and telling 
part in fashion 
work. See Front- 
ispiece and Figs. 
10, 27, and 28. 

The student is 
advised to make 
copies, by way of 
study, from the 
hands in Vander- 
poeVs Human Fig- 
ure and then to 
make studies 
from life. It is 
important in this 
work to observe 
from which side 
the light is com- 
ing. (See Figs. 
28 and 29.) 

It is practical 
to make the life 
studies in a loose, 
artistic manner, 
in charcoal, chalk, 
etc., and after- 
wards to draw 
from this sketch 
another figure, 
copying the pose 
and keeping the 
action, but refin- 
ing it slightly, to make an attractive fashion 
drawing on which to put the dress from 
one's costume sketch . See Figs. 40 and 4 1 . 

Lutz, in his book entitled Practical 
Drawing, wisely says: 




Fig. 12. 



"When drawing from fife, it is a good 
plan to put yourself, in the same pose as 
the model; that is, imitate as well as 
you can, the ac- 
tion, the disposi- 
tion of the limbs, 
and the pose of 
the head. This 
mimicry — it will 
only be that some- 
times, as you will 
find that different 
persons have dif- 
ferent ways of 
carrying them- 
selves, and you 
can perhaps only 
approximate the 
pose of the model 
— will give you a 
better understand- 
ing of the pose 
and impress itself 
on you mentally 
and further the 
work of pictur- 
ing it. 

"Note how, 
when the hips 
slant one way, 
the shoulders, to 
counterbalance, 
incline the other 
way ; and the head 
again to preserve 
the balance, tilts 
away from the 
falling shoulder. This applies to the 
greater part of poses. Sometimes, though, 
models deviate from the general." This 
is valuable advice to observe in your 
work. 



Courtesy of N.Y. Globe 
An example of hat illustration. 



SKETCHING FROM LIFE 



Page Nine 



Figs. 13 and 14 show two treatments of 
the same kind of sketch. Fig. 13 is done 
in a reahstic way, in Fig. 14 the conven- 
tional method is used. In Fig. 13 hght 



in clear water color. The tempera paint 
is put on in one flat tone and allowed to 
dry ; the other colors are then put on over 
this The opaque paint has the advantage 




Fig. 13. — Complete dressmaker's sketch done in trans- 
parent water color. 

and shade have been considered while in 
Fig. 14 these have been eliminated. 

Fig. 13 has been done in transparent 
water color, Fig. 14 is done in tempera, 
an opaque or body color, except the chif- 
fon, flesh tones, and hair, which are done 
* With flat transparent washes, pencil lines often 




Courtesy of Henry Block. 

Fig. 14. — A dressmaker's or manufacturer's sketch 
in tempera colors. 

of being able to be worked over. It is best 
to avoid shading, and to keep to flat tones. 
In this sketch the folds are indicated with 
strong pencil lines ; this same line effect can 
be done with lighter or darker values of 
the tempera used for the garment.* 
are used most effectively in making a colored sketch. 



Page Ten 


^;v ■" 


- \. 





SKETCHING 



^-'V 



\ 



• h 



Fig. 15, 
The illustrations on 
this page show one of 
the most important 
things to be considered 
in all kinds of draw- 
ing, whether it be from 
life, from memory, 
chieing, or even copy- 
ing, and that is get- 
ting the general pro- 
portion and action of 
the whole, before con- 



CouTtesy of the Prang Co. 
First stage of sketch of dog. 



n 



V 



Courtesy of the Prang Co. 
Fig. 17. — Incorrect way to start a sketch. 



CoiirUsy of Che Prang Co, 
Fig. 16. — Second stage of sketch of dog. 

centrating on any 
one part in detail ; re- 
membering never to 
-- _._ finish one part before 

] the other parts are 

/ thought out. Fig. 17 

( shows the danger of 

fixing your attention 
on the outline. It is 
always advisable to 
block in. (See Figs. 
15 and 18.) 



) 



)<^^ 




'%^i»<^ 




Courtesy of the Prang Co. 

Fig. 18.— First stage of sketch of boy. 



Courtesy of the Prang Co. 

Fig. 19. — Sketch of boy completed. 



DRAWING WITHOUT MODELS 

CHAPTER TWO 



CHAPTER TWO 



DRAWING WITHOUT MODELS 



9. To Set Up a Well-proportioned Fig- 
ure.- — It is best to understand how to set 
up a well-proportioned nude figure "out 
of one's head" or chicing a figure as it is 
sometimes called. See Fig. 21. To con- 
struct this figure find the centre of the 
paper, through which run a vertical line. 
The head is the unit most useful in meas- 



using one inch as the unit of measure. 
This gives the height of the figure. Mark 
each of these divisions with a dot. The 
figure is divided into four important sec- 
tions; the head, torso, arms, and legs. 
To keep the drawing as simple as possible 
we will have to start, in some detail, 
with the head, it being our unit of measure. 




Dratm hy Reta Senger. 



CouTtesy of Good Homekeeptng, 



Fig. 20. — Editorial featuring infants' wear. 



uring the human figure, and in this 
instance, we will use it, making it, for 
convenience' sake, one inch long. (The 
dimensions we are using will vary slightly 
from those given in most anatomies, be- 
cause we are constructing a figure to 
use in fashion work, where slimness is 
the chief requirement.) Mark off on this 
line seven and one-half heads, in this 
case seven and one-half inches, as we are 



To construct the oval which will be 
used for the head, mark off the first inch 
and divide this one inch vertical line into 
three equal parts. At a point just a 
little below the first third just established, 
draw a light horizontal line of indefinite 
length and mark off on it a distance 
equal to a little less than two-thirds of 
the one-inch vertical line and so spaced 
that the vertical line exactly bisects the 



Page Fourteen 



DRAWING WITHOUT MODELS 



horizontal line. Construct an oval on this 
plan. 

Horizontal lines drawn through the 
points that divide the vertical line into 
thirds give the eyebrows and the tip of 
the nose. A horizontal line drawn through 
a point one-third of the distance between 
the eyebrows and the tip of the nose 
marks the centre of the eye socket, and a 
horizontal line drawn through a point 
one-third of the distance between the tip 
of the nose and the base of the oval 
marks the centre of the mouth. 

Divide the horizontal eye structure line 
into five parts; the middle space represents 
the width of the nose, and the nearest 
parts on each side the eyes. Guide lines 
dropped from the centre of the eyes, ver- 
tically, give the corners of the mouth. 
For the ears extend a line a little beyond 
the oval on each side of the head, from 
the first third to the second third, or, in 
other words, from the line indicating the 
eyebrow to the line indicating the end of 
the nose. 

Continue the bisecting vertical line 
down one-third of its length, to establish 
the pit of the neck. Draw a horizontal 
line through this point. Drop guide lines 
from the base of the ear to this line. 
Connect the extremities of these guide lines 
with arcs curving slightly towards each 
other, thus giving proper expression to 
the neck. 

10. The Torso. — Three-quarters of the 
length of the head gives the width of each 
shoulder and of each hip. Cut the dis- 
tance between the chin and the pit of the 
neck in half by a dot placed on the centre 
line. Connect this point with the point 
made in marking the width of the 
shoulders. The point where this line 



intersects the curved line of the neck is 
where the neck sets on the shoulders. 

The second "head" or unit of measure 
gives the bust line. Curve the line in- 
dicating the bust section. 

The third "head" gives the placing of 
the abdomen. 

One-half the distance between the bust 
and abdomen, or between the second and 
third head, is the waist line. Indicate 
this. The centre of the figure comes 
slightly above the fourth head, this is 
also the end of the torso. The line of the 
hip is halfway between the third and 
fourth head. Establish the width of the 
hip line by verticals from the shoulders. 

11. The Legs. The knees come half- 
way between the hips and the soles of 
of the feet. The ankles come at the 
seventh head. The width of the ankle 
is one-third the width of the hip line. 
The inside ankle is high, the outside ankle 
low. The calf of the leg is about one-half 
the width of the hip, the outside calf 
of the leg is higher than the inside calf. 

12. The Arms. — The length of the arms, 
stretched out horizontally including the 
shoulders and the hands, equals the length 
of the body. The wrist comes at about 
the end of the torso. The elbow comes 
at the waist lines. The pit of the arm is 
one third each shoulder. With these meas- 
urements established, block in the figure 
and features. 

13. Other Positions of Head and 
Figure.— The diagram of a woman's fig- 
ure on page 72 of Dunlop's Anatomical 
Diagrams will be found helpful to the 
student, at first, in blocking in the figure. 

After the proportions are well under- 
stood, the figure and head may be turned 
in other positions; for this the "tooth- 



THE FIGURE 



IsT HEAI> 



2nd head 



Sbd head 



4th head 



6th head 



6th head. 



7th head 



7iTH HEAD. 




Page Fifteen 



PIT OF ARM ONE-THIRD width 

OF SHOULDER 

THE WIDTH OF EACH SHOULDER IS 
THREE - FOURTHS LENGTH OP 
HEAD 

SHOULDER LINE ow pit of neck 

— ONE-THIRD HEAD BELOW CHIN 



BREAST LINE 



WAIST LINE ONE-HALF WAT BE- 
TWEEN 2nd AND 3rd heads 



ELBOW LINE 

ABDOMEN 



HIP LINE one-half way be- 
tween 3rd and 4th heads 



END OF TORSO a little above 
4th head whist line 



KNEE LINE is one-half way 

BETWEEN HIP LINE AND SOLES 
OF FEET 



ANKLE LINE 



SOLES OF FEET 



Drawn by Gertrude F. Derby. 

Fig. 21. — Construction of fashion figure without model. 



Page Sixteen 



DRAWING WITHOUT A MODEL 




Courtesy of Vogue. 



Fig. 22. — Modern fashions by Helen Dryden which show influence of Kate Greenaway. 



pick figures" (see page 22) make a 
good foundation, helping to make simple 
the foreshortening then necessary. For 
suggestions for turning the head in dif- 
ferent positions, see Fig. 23. 

14. Children's Proportions. — The chart 
shown in Fig. 24 illustrates the propor- 
tions found in various stages of devel- 
opment. In infancy, or at the age of 
about six months, the head measures about 
four times into the height; at four years, 
the head measures about five and one- 
fourth times into the height; at seven, 
approximately six and one-half times; at 
ten years, about six and three-quarter 
times; at fifteen, about seven times; and 
in the adult from seven and a half to 
eight times. Children's heads, therefore, 
it should be noted, are larger in propor- 
tion than those of the adult, the eyes are 
wider apart, the nose shorter, and the 
lips somewhat fuller. See Fig. 22, also 
Fig. 24 and Figs. 20, 94 and 95. 

Professor C. H. Stratz of The Hague, 
Holland, who is one of the greatest author- 

* See " Happy All Day Through," illustrated by Janet 
Caroline Hunt Rimmer. 



ities on the human body in the world, 
says a child grows as follows: 

First, in breadth and height from birth 
to the end of the fourth year. 

Second, in height from the fourth to 
the beginning of the eighth year. 

Third, in breadth from the eighth to 
the tenth year. 

Fourth, in height from the tenth to 
the fifteenth year, when the youth gets 
lanky, thin and angular; this is the period 
when the hands and feet look too big. 
Growth then continues to manhood or 
womanhood. 

In drawing children, great care should be 
taken to keep their legs, at the slim period, 
long and slender. Care must be taken not 
to make them developed, which detracts 
from their childlike charm and makes 
them look vulgar. In studying children, 
look at good illustrations by Kate Greena- 
way, Jessie Willcox - Smith, Elizabeth 
Shippen Green, Birch, and Helen Dryden.* 

15. Heads and Faces. — The general 
shape of the head is that of an oval 

Laura Scott, and also " Figure Drawing for Children " by 



HEADS AND FACES 



Page Seventeen 








Fig. 23. — Showing construction lines that help in drawing heads. 

with the greatest width at the top; ob- of the nose is halfway between the eye- 
serve this, too, in side, three-quarter and brows and chin. See Fig. 23. The eye- 
back views of the head. The eyes are brows are on a level with the top of the 
in the centre of the head, and the end ear, and the lower end of the ear on a 







H Year 



7 Years 10 Years 

Fig. 24. — Proportion of figure at different ages, 



Courteav 0/ Home Pattern Co. 
15 Years Maturity 



Page Eighteen 



DRAWING WITHOUT MODELS 



level with the nostrils. This forms a 
never-changing axis on which the head 
turns up and down. 
Note how the fea- 
tures are located 
in these changes, 
and how the fore- 
shortening is sim- 
plified by means of 
this method. In 
drawing heads al- 
ways use the centre c^"^ 
and other construc- 
tion lines. 

When the head 
is turned up, we 
see more chin and 
less forehead ; when 
turned down, more 
forehead and less 
chin. The eyes are 
one eye apart, and 
the lower lip ends 
at about half the distance 
between the nose and 
chin. A triangle is helpful 
in dividing the face into 
planes, and great care 
should be taken not to 
ignore the cheek, jaw and 
chin bones. Observe that 
the cheek bones come 
slightly below the eyes, 
the jawbone slightly below 
the mouth. 

In drawing the nose it 
is helpful to think of a 
little round knob; from 
which extend the nostrils, 
sketch in the sides, and 
extend a line suggestive of 
the planes. Afterwards everything can be 




Fig. 26, 



rubbed out except the nostrils, but they 
will appear more correctly placed than 
when put in with- 
out this foundation 
thought. See Fig. 
25. 

In drawing the 
mouth, think first 
of a Cupid's bow, 
the string of which 
is broken in the 
centre; then sug- 
gest the lower lip, 
shade the upper 
lip, which is always 
darkest as the 
lower catches the 
light, and you 
have the mouth. 
Never make a hard 
line around the 
lips, as it destroys 
the flesh-like qual- 
ity. See Fig. 25. 

In making the eye, al- 
ways hold the pupil in by 
the line of the lid. Block 
in the head, ears, hands, 
and everything before 
putting in the detail. 

Hair should be expressed 
in waves of light and dark, 
not by single lines (unless 
you are making a deco- 
rative, unrealistic draw- 
ing). Never draw a 
clean-cut line between the 
face and forehead, because 
the hair in many places 
blends in with the tone of 
the face. See Fig. 26 
and observe other drawings that show hair. 



Courtesy of Vogue. 



HANDS AND FEET 



Page Nineteen 



16. Hands and Feet. — The next step high, using the Greek Law of arrange- 

should be a careful study of the hands ment. It is well to use real shoes and 

and feet. The drawing of these is sim- slippers for models, but study also well- 

plified by looking for the large masses drawn examples to see how they are usu- 

first and blocking them in. See Figs. 27, ally rendered. Notice how the inside of 



10, and 28. For 
example, in draw- 
ing the hand, deter- 
mine the relation of 
the length of the 
fingers to the palm, 
and where the 
thumb comes in 
relation to the 
fingers. All knowl- 
edge gained by 
study or observa- 
tion from life will 
help in drawing or 
chicing them. Van- 
derpoel's Human 
Figure, mentioned 
before, has some 
splendid illustra- 
tions of both hands 
and feet that the 
student would find 
it helpful to study. 
One good way of 
studying them is 
to make careful 
drawings from these plates, and after- 
wards to try to making your own draw- 
ings first from life and then from 
imagination. See Figs. 28 and 29. 

Shoes are extremely important in fashion 
work, and should likewise receive the 
careful attention of the student. A good 
way is to group five or seven pairs of 
shoes, including sport shoes and slippers, 
in different positions on a sheet of bristol 
board about 11 inches wide by 14 inches 




Pig. 27. — ^Study of hands by Albert Diirer 



the foot is straight- 
er than the outside 
line, which has 
some curve. Ob- 
serve also liow 
much shorter the 
line of the inside 
of the shoe is than 
the outside line, 
which extends 
nearer the heel. 
See Figs. 25 and 
11. Note that the 
inside ankle is 
higher than the 
outside ankle. 

It is well to ob- 
serve what is ap- 
propriate and to 
select shoes of 
different character. 
There are shoes for 
shopping, for after- 
noon, for evening, 
for travel, and 
for sport. You 
must select the right shoe for the right 
dress. The footwear must be in keeping 
with the costume; not afternoon shoes 
or evening slippers with a sport suit. It 
is usually best to have evening slippers 
match the gown and hosiery unless you 
use a patent leather pump. 



In these days we cannot make the 
skirt cover up bad drawing of the feet 



Page Twenty 



DRAWING WITHOUT MODELS 



"^ 




^ 







Coinimy of The Inhuid Printer. 

Fig. 28. — Construction of Hand from Vanderpoel's " Human Figure." 



ARMS 



Page Twenty-one 



■ 






■ 




H 




■1^ 


^^|H 




^^^H 






|H 


^^^^^H 


^^^^^^H 


^^H . ^^^1 




^^1 


^^^^^^^^^^H 


^^^^1 


^^y^*^^H 




'^1 


^^^^P^H 


^^^H 






9 


^^^^^^^^kII^I^h 


H 


^Fsl^ 




<'!3^^^M 


^^fl 


I 


y^ J^^ 




J 


^H 


Hj 








^V 










^1 


^^^^Ik-'<' 




1 


L 


1 



Courtesy of The Inland PriTUer, 

Fig. 29. — Construction of Arm from Vanderpoel's " Human Figure." 



Page Twenty-two 



DRAWING WITHOUT MODELS 



Walking. 



and shoes. No longer can it be said of 
Dame Fashion that 

"Her feet beneath her petticoat 
Like little mice steal in and out, 
As if they fear the light." 

17. The Human Form 
Reduced to its Simplest 
Elements. — Relative propor- 
tions and helps to express 
action can perhaps best be 
acquired by observing the 
following facts in connection 
with toothpick 
figures : 

The trunk, 
thigh, and leg are 
each about one- 
third the length 
of the body with- 
out the head and 
neck, though the 
trunk is a trifle 
the longest. The 
trunk is about 
twice the length 
of the head and 
neck. The elbow 
reaches to about 
the waist and the 
hand half way 
down the thigh. 

Walking is best de- 
scribed on paper when 
both feet are on the 
ground, though in reality 
the greater part of the 
time the body rests on 
one foot. See Fig. 30. 

Running is best shown 




Fig. 30 



Running. 





Leaping. 



Fig. 31. 
Jumping. 




Fig. 33. — Illustrating balance. 



Leaping is best shown in the same 
manner as running (limbs ready for the 
next effort), but with the 
feet off the ground as in 
jumping. See Fig. 31. 

Jumping is best shown 
with the feet off the ground 
but gathered together to 
preserve poise and ready to 
alight safely. See Fig. 31. 

A stick stands when 
balanced on one end and also 
when supported 
on each side as 
shown in Fig. 31. 
The body may 
be bent at the 
hips so as to bring 
the head over 
either foot and 
maintain an up- 
right position un- 
til the weight of 
the body is bent 
beyond the line 
of support, when 
it must come to 
the ground as 
shown in Fig. 32. 
Kneeling fig- 
ures, leaning 
back, make it necessary 
that support be given 
behind as shown by the 
vertical dotted line in 
Fig. 33. 

The student should 
notice that a straight line 
extending from the neck 
to the floor comes just 




Standing. 



when one foot is on the 

ground, though in reality much of the time between the feet when the weight is 

both feet are off the ground. See Fig. 30, evenly distributed on both legs. When 



THE HUMAN FORM 



Page Twenty-three 





Figs. 34 and 35. 



Figs. 36 and 37. 



Toothpick construction applied to fashion drawing. 



the weight is on one leg, the plumb line 
begins at the pit of the neck (viewed from 
the front) and extends to the ankle of the 
supporting leg. On the other hand, when 
the figure is in action, the plumb line 
from the neck falls between the legs, pro- 
viding a proper balance; when this bal- 
ance is destroyed, the figure either has to 
be leaning against something or it falls to 
the ground. See Figs. 32 and 33. After 
studying these, it is well to build the 



figure on these foundations to acquire 
action. See Fig. 34. 

In Fig. 36 is shown a seated figure; 
the stool is the principal part of support, 
though the foot is extended to receive the 
weight of the body. Fig. 37 is this con- 
struction applied. 

Figs. 34, 35, 36 and 37 are given as 
illustrations of the use of the toothpick 
construction in giving action to the human 
form. 



\ /' 



-A- 




CouTtcsv of VoflJie 

From a drawing by Helen Dryden, in which pencil, wash 
and ink were used, on a rough texture paper. 



METHODS 

CHAPTER THREE 



CHAPTER THREE 



METHODS 



(a) 



18. The Greek Law. — In the sixteenth 
century, in the days of the Renaissance in 
Italy, Leonardo da Vinci with other artists 
worked out, through study of classic art, 
an ideal proportion which is commonly 
known as the Greek 
Law. Instead of 
using exact me- 
chanical measure- 
ments, such as 
the half, thu-d, 
fourth, etc., so 
easily measured 
in inches and 
easily grasped by 
the mind, this law 
supplies the idea of a consistent variety, so 
fundamental in all artistic things, stimulat- 
ing the imagination and lending interest to 
the object. Thus, if an oblong is divided 
horizontally in half, the equal areas will 
be found both mechanical and uninterest- 
ing, see (a), Fig. 38. On the other hand, 
if the difference in areas is great, as in 
(6), Fig. 38, the sizes are too incomparable 
to be satisfactory. In (c). Fig. 38, the 
oblong has been divided into thirds and 
then into halves, and a point found some- 
where between one-third and one-half, 
through which to draw a horizontal, shown 
by the heavy line. It will be seen that the 
relation of the areas above and below this 
line to each other are neither mechanical 
nor monotonous, but subtle and interesting. 



(c) 



Fig. 38. 



These same proportions may be prac- 
tically applied in clothing to tucks, hems, 
etc., as illustrated in Fig. 39. Suppose a 
line is drawn six inches long to repre- 
sent a muslin skirt. Divide by the Greek 
Law to find 
where any trim- 
ming (hem and 
tucks) should 
start. Re-divide 
the space given 
up to this trim- 
ming to obtain 
further good pro- 
portions (of the 
hem to the tucks). 
In Advertising — Its Principles and Prac- 
tices, published by The Ronald Press Co., 
the following statement is made : 

"This Greek Law of proportion is some- 
times crudely stated as the ratio of 
5 to 7 to 11. This is somew^here near 
correct, and perhaps near enough to 
work with. In applying this ratio to 
the margins of a page it will clearly be 
seen that the widest margin, or 11, should 
appear at the bottom, the next widest, 
or 7, at the top, and 5, the narrowest, 
alike on either side in all vertical com- 
positions of space. In horizontal com- 
positions the widest margin should still 
appear at the bottom, the middle size 
at the right and the left, and the nar- 
rowest at the top. This is so that the 



Muslin Tucks 



r 



^r 



^ 



H 



^ 



Fig. 39. 



Page Twenty-eight 



METHODS 



general form of the display within the 
composition shall preserve the same ratio 
as is found in the enclosing space itself. 

"Not only should the Greek Law of 
areas be applied to margins, but also, 
when possible with- 
out interfering with 
the meaning of the 
copy, it should 
apply to the width 
and strength of the 
various parts or 
paragraphs of the 
copy within the 
space. When it is 
possible to do this, 
the effect is doubly 
pleasing. There is 
also often a chance 
to apply these pro- 
portions to the 
blank space between 
different parts of 
the copy display. 
When it is possible 
to do so, this has an 
added value. Not 
enough attention is 
paid to the relative widths of these blank 
spaces. Blank space is often more eloquent 
than copy." 

Summarizing the above briefly, it is 
to be noted that : 

(1) Mechanical divisions are in- 
artistic. 

(2) Sizes too unrelated, such as a very 
large size and a very small one, fail to 
satisfy, as the mind does not see any 
relationship in things that emphasize each 
other's difference. 

(3) Areas or sizes near enough alike to 
be easily compared by the eye and yet 




y^^ 



Drawn by BstJier Wegman. 



different enough to interest because of 
their unlikeness, satisfy us. 

(4) Spaces are most pleasing together, 
when one is between one-half and two- 
thirds the length or space of the other. 
This gives quite a 
difference in size for 
individual treat- 
ment, but avoids in- 
harmonious lengths 
or sizes placed to- 
gether. In other 
words, when tv»-o 
lines are in good 
relation to each 
; other, the shorter 
line is between one- 
half and two-thirds 
the length of the 
longer line. 

The Greek law 
may be applied to 
the margins of draw- 
ing papers as well 
as to folds and coat 
lengths. The best 



/:■ 



Fig. 40. — Quick sketch from 
life. 



Fig. 41 .—Costume sketch arrangement of 

made from quick sketch. • p . • i 

margms tor a vertical 
lay-out is to have the greatest width at 
the lower edge, the next at the top, and the 
smallest at the sides ; while for a horizontal 
page the widest margin should still appear 
at the bottom, the second size at the sides, 
and the narrowest at the top. This is 
to preserve a like relation with the en- 
closed space. 

Design is selection and arrangement, 
and from the start of any work the details 
which make for good design should be 
kept in mind. If it is school work, even 
the name and the lesson should form part 
of the plan. Observe how the enclosing 



LAY-OUTS AND REDUCTIONS 



Page Twenty-nine 



form determines the shape within. The 
nearer one comes to the structural edge, 
the more nearly the 
lines should conform to 
it. Avoid lines that lead 
to corners, lines that 
lead to the centre, and 
lines that tend to be- 
come tangents. The 
lines of the background 
or setting should be 
less intense than those 
forming the object 
shown against them. 
The larger the area the 
less intense the color 
should be; the smaller 
the area the more 



Rectangles 
are in 



. , ,1 1 Fig. 42. — Enlarging and reducing. Rec 

mtense tne color may having the same line as a common diagonal 

be. In order to have two proportion. 

or more shapes hold together for unity, triangle. A 

the space between must be less than the process, using the dimensions just given 



the printed page is given to the artist 
(for example eight inches high by seven 
and one-quarter inches 
wide) and the number 
of figures to be put in 
that space (say five 
figures). The artist's 
work is to compose 
these figures in the 
most attractive group 
or groups. 

The first step is to 
enlarge the dimensions 
to a convenient work- 
ing size. In doing this, 
the original proportions 
must be kept. The en- 
larging is done by means 
of a drawing board, T- 
square, ruler and 
detailed statement of the 



smallest of these shapes. 
For illustration, the 
paths of a garden should 
be smaller than the di- 
visions of the garden 
shapes. 

19. Lay-outs and Re- 
ductions. — Lay-out is 
the technical name 
given to the composi- 
tion of a catalogue 
page, and the drawing 
of the figures which 
go on it. It is also ap- 
plied to the grouping of 
any objects to be put 
in a certain given space, 
whether for magazines, booklets or news- 
papers. The height and width of the 
space which the lay-out is to occupy on 




Fig. 43. — The rough lay-out. 



T-square blade, 
corner, measure 



is as follows: 

Draw a horizontal 
line, say two inches 
from the top of the 
paper, straight across, 
using the T-square, the 
head of which is held 
against the left edge 
of the drawing board. 
Next measure in, let us 
say, two inches from the 
left side of the paper, 
and draw the vertical 
line against the edge 
of a triangle, the base 
of which rests against 
the upper edge of the 
At the left-hand upper 
seven and one-quarter 



inches to the right and eight inches down 



Page Thirty 



METHODS 



with the ruler, using the triangle to per- 
fectly complete this little rectangle; then 
draw a diagonal and determine the height 
desired for working out the lay-out and 
extend a horizontal line wherever this 
horizontal touches 
the diagonal, erect 
a perpendicular and 
the dimensions of 
the large and small 
rectangles will have 
the same propor- 
tion. See Fig. 42. 
Catalogue pages 
often go through 
many hands before 
they come out a 
technically finished 
product, photo- 
graphically perfect 
but often stiff, in- 
artistic and unin- 
teresting. There is 
often a special 
artist who does 
nothing but lay- 
outs, grouping the 
figures and plan- 
ning the page as 
in Fig. 43 ; another 
who makes sketches 
of the garments; 
another who draws them on the laid-out 
figures; another who puts on the large 
washes; another who does details such 
as lace and embroidery; another who 
finishes the heads; and still another who 
finishes the hands and feet. See Fig. 44; 
the original of this was twenty-five inches 
by seventeen and three-quarter inches. 
When, however, this work is done through- 
out by one expert artist, a much more 




Fig. 44. — Conventional Catalogue drawing 
work of several artists. 



interesting effect is obtained. See Fig. 
45, the original size of which was 12^ 
inches wide by 17f high. 

Each line bounding the lay-out should 
be touched by some part of some figure. 
The better the lay- 
out artist the less 
space will be wast- 
ed. It will be found 
advisable to give 
the centre to the 
figure with the 
darkest clothes, as 
this is found most 
agreeable to the 
eye, and also sets 
off the other fig- 
ures to advantage. 
The law of per- 
spective requires 
that, if there are 
smaller figures, 
these should be 
nearer the top of 
the page. The 
effect is like a 
staircase ; when one 
stands below, those 
at the top seem 
smaller than the 
people nearer the 
foot of the stairs. 
For the principles of general composition 
which underlay all design, the student 
will find it helpful to read Pictorial Com- 
position, by Henry A. Poor; Principles 
o/Dmgrii, by Batchelder; Composition, by 
Arthur Dow, and Principles of Advertising 
Arrangement by Frank Alvah Parsons. 

20. Mechanical Helps and Short Cuts. 
— Before taking up ink and wash render- 
ing, certain mechanical helps and short 



Courtesy of John 



The combined 



MECHANICAL HELPS 



Page Thirty-one 



cuts to results and effects must be con- texture, the smooth white with black 

sidered, such as Ben Day rapid shading texture, and the cross-ruled blind with 

mediums, Ross Board, spatter, air brush black texture. A knife and pencil are the 

and silver prints. Ben Day is a great tools used to obtain effects with this 

time-saver, as can be seen from even the paper. See Fig. 48. In the first, the 
few samples shown 



in Fig. 49 of some 
of the complicated 
textiles and half- 
tone effects obtain- 
able in the line cut 
or ink drawing. 

When Ben Day 
is desired, the 
places where it is 
to be used are 
colored with a blue 
pencil or blue 
water - color wash 
and marked with 
the number of the 
texture wanted; 
the engraver with 
the Ben Day 
machine does the 
rest. See Fig. 49, 
and the floor and 
hat in Fig. 77, 
showing Ben Day 
stipple. Notice the 
difference between 
these and Fig. 50, 
done by hand; observe particularly the 
greater irregularity of line. When two or 
more printings are made the Ben Day can 
be put on in color, but this necessitates 
two or more plates according to the 
number of colors used. See Fig. 97 in 
which two plates were used. 

Ross Board comes in a variety of designs. 
The three most used kinds are perhaps 
the plain white with raised or embossed 




Fig. 45. 



stipple effect is ob- 
tained by rubbing 
the pencil over the 
plain white and 
the raised surface, 
which in this case 
consists of dots. 
These catch the 
lead and a stipple 
effect is the result. 
In the second, 
white can be ob- 
tained by scraping 
off the surface and 
a darker tone by 
rubbing a pencil 
on the rough sur- 
face. Two effects 
can be obtained 
with the third ; 
with the knife, the 
stipple surface; 
with the pencil, 
the fine check. 
Black can be put 
on with ink. This 
makes possible an 
even gradation from white to dead black. 
Fig. 48. Fig. 46 shows a finished Ross 
board drawing. 

Spatter work is done with a toothbrush, 
and makes good flat tone effects for tex- 
tures, posters and backgrounds. Cover 
the entire drawing, except the parts to 
be spattered, with paper, cutting out these 
to make what is practically a stencil 
(tracing paper fastened down with rubber 



Courtesy of John Wanamaker 
Catalogue drawing, the work of one artist from 
start to finish. 



Page Thirty-two 



METHODS 



cement is convenient). First, dip the 

toothbrush in a saucer of ink, hold it 

facing the paper and about three feet 

away, and draw the edge of a penknife 

or the handle of a pen or brush over the 

bristles toward 

you, letting the 

spatter fly onto the 

drawing. With a 

little practice this 

can be done very 

skillfully. See Fig. 

47. 

The texture of 
rough paper often 
gives interesting 
effects in the repro- 
duction of a draw- 
ing; for this rea- 
son crayon, pencil, 
charcoal, and even 
wash drawings are 
sometimes done on 
what is called a 
paper with a 
tooth, such as a 
charcoal or other 
Fig. 45. 

The air hnish gives either an even or a 
varied tone, as desired, and in the doing 
of half-tone shoes it is found very useful. 
It is really an atomizer run by pressure, and 
by its use a great variety of tone can be 
obtained. See Fig. 55. As in spatter work, 
the surface of the paper to be kept white 
is covered. Frisket paper, which is thin 
and transparent, is used for this purpose 
and pasted down with rubber cement. 
When the rubber cement is thoroughly dry 
it may be rubbed off, leaving a perfectly 
clean surface. The effect is photographic 
and mechanical. See Fig. 54. 




Fig. 48. — ^Drawing on Ross Board, reduced from an 8j 
high by 7" wide original. 



rough paper. See 



The silver print method is often used 
for making line cuc^ or pen drawings of 
shoes. For this purpose a silver print 
photograph is made in a size convenient 
to work over on Clemmon's plain salted 
"• paper and mounted 
on cardboard to get 
a smooth surface 
for drawing. Out- 
lines are then care- 
fully traced with 
the usual drawing 
pens and India-ink, 
doing deep shadows 
first and gradually 
working up to the 
high lights. When 
finished, the silver 
or photograph 
color is bleached 
away by pouring 
over it a saturated 
solution of bichlo- 
ride of mercury. 
This leaves the 
pen lines clean and 
upon a perfectly white sheet of 
When dry, the result should be 



Courtesy of QuiU Magazine 



sharp 

paper. 

compared with the original photograph 

and touched up where necessary. See 

Fig. 52. 

21. Tracing. — Tracing is often found 
necessary and is a time-saver in doing 
repeats, etc. Graphite paper gives a 
better line in transferring than carbon 
paper. 

The pencil should be kept very sharp 
when tracing and a hard pencil is good 
for doing the transferring through the 
carbon. Ruled squares are useful to put 
under thin paper in doing some kinds of 
designs. 



Page Thirty-three 




Fig. 48. — Ross Board: Embossed white, black and white texture and cross rules. 




"No. 317 


-9'4'f 


9H- 






WM\ 








Mt I 








^ii 





m 

No. 318.— 9^4 X 14^. 



No. 319.-9I4X14I4 



No. 337-— 9*4 X i4'4- 



No. 322.— 6 J4 XII. 






No. 323— 6^4 X ! 




No. 324-— 6M XII 



No. 325.-654x11. 



THn^ 




'- T 


=r ' 




Tf 
























































ti 


m 


:I 


i ; 




1 





No. 326. — 654x11 





No. 327-— 6J4 X I 



'mmmm 



y/.^^yy/yy/yyACf^yM 






No. 329-— 9J4 X 14:4. 










tt 


4= 








i 


J 




= = 



No. 330-— 9'A X 1454- 




No. 


33I.-9J4 X 14^. 







































No. 332.— 9'A X I4J4. 




^'o. 333-— 9^4 X 14!4- 



No. 334-— 9J4 X I4J4. 



No. 335-— 9^ X I4J4. 
Fig. 49. — Some samples of Ben Day. 



No. 336.— 9J4 X I4J4- 



No. 338.— 6^x11. 



Page Thirty-four 



METHODS 




Fig. 50. — Stipple work done by hand 



Stipple, which takes a 
long time, is done by dots 
made with the point of a 
pen. When a flat tone 
effect is desired, it is often 
produced by sets of 
circles running into each 
other. See Fig. 51. If 
large dots are required, it 
will be found convenient 
to use a ball -pointed pen. 
Artistic and interesting 
effects can be obtained in 
this manner. See Fig. 50. 

22. Silhouette. — In do- 
ing silhouettes the follow- 
ing statement made by 
Miss Harriet Lord, 
the silhouette portrait 
artist some time ago 
in the Tribune, is 
helpful commercially, 
and her permission 
has been secured to 
quote it: 

"Perhaps no one 
has demonstrated 
more clearly than 
Miss Lord the im- 
portance of the pose 




Fig. 51. — Detail of stipple. 




Fig. 52 



y ul Abraham js 

of a head, how much ac- 
tion, what varying humor, 
may be found in the way 
in which a head is perched 
on a person's shoulders. 
A little boy whom she has 
portrayed, Fig. 57, holds 
his neck perfectly rigid 
with head raised in the 
back and lowered in front. 
One can feel the restrained 
life in the little chap, the 
unusual quality of his 
attentive attitude fostered 
by some engrossing in- 
terest outside. 

"There are ever so 
many things to re- 
member in making 
silhouettes. Certain 
persons cannot be 
pictured in this posi- 
tion, for in many 
persons profile means 
little; it is the eyes 
or something in the 
drawing of the full 
face that is indicative 
of the true personality. 
Many faces are im- 



SILHOUETTE 



Page Thirty-five 



mobile and one must look to their eyes 
for character. They cannot be well sil- 
houetted. Little points must be re- 
membered such 
as in this little 
girl, Fig. 58. You 
see her hair is 
down her back, 
but I have allow- 
ed a spot of light 
to shine through 
to give the out- 
line in suggestion 
of her neck. Not 
to have done this 
would have made 
an awkward line 
and, more impor- 
tant, a line that 
was not satisfac- 
tory, for it al- 
most hinted at a 
falseness or ap- 
parent abnormal- 
ity. The chair 
on which a person is seated must be 
examined, for it must not melt into the 
person's figure with puzzling results. 
And it is well to break in with lights. 




Fig. 53. 



for they add character and life to the 
drawing. 

"And then, too," explained Miss Lord, 
"one is startled 
to find how much 
each line and 
curve of the face 
means. Nothing 
is ignored and a 
slightly upturned 
lip may be the 
touch that gives 
an unmistakable 
note of character- 
ization to the 
cutting or inking." 
The silhouette 
is a very quick 
method of gaining 
an effect, being 
merely an outline 
sketch, usually 
profile, filled in 
with black ink. 
See Figs. 57 and 
58. White is sometimes successfully added 
as in Fig. 5Q. 

Half-tone figures are said to be sil- 
houetted when the white paper appears 



Courtesy of John Wanamater. 
-Catalogue page. 




Fig 



Courtesy of J. J. Staler. 
54 — Shoes shaded with air brush. 



Fig. 55. — Effect produced by use of an air brush. 



Page Thirty-six 



METHODS 




as the background. A silhouette is a design 
sharply defined; the clear outlines of the 
drawing coming directly against the paper 
on which it is re- 
produced. Fig. 69. 
A vignette is a sil- 
houette having at 
the base or behind 
the figure, or in 
some part of the 
design of the figure, 
a wash that disap- 
pears in a vague 
shadowy effect. This 
wash is reproduced 
only in tone and has 
no definite line 
marking its edges, which end in an indefi- 
nite vagueness (such as the veil ends) 
and the shadow background. See Fig. 63. 
23. Construction of the Circle.— It is 
understood that a circle 
is made with a compass, 
and an ink circle usually 
with a ruling pen. In 
speaking of pens, we 
might say here that 
there are many kinds of 
lettering pens, which will 
be found serviceable, 
when such work is re- 
quired. Good books on 
lettering are : Writing and 
Illuminating and Lettering, 
by Edward Johnston, and 
the booklet called Book of 
Alphabets, by H.W. Shay- 
lor. There are other good 
books on this subject by 
Lewis F. Day and Frank 
Chauteau Brown. 
24. Constructing an 



Fig. 56. — Black and white silhouette used by the Fulton 
Theatre to advertise "The Misleading Lady." 



Councsy ofN. Y. Trttune. 

Fig. 57.— Silhouette 

by Harriet Lord. 



Ellipse. — With a compass measure from 
A to B, Fig. 59, then put the compass 
at C and strike a circle as indicated by 
the dotted line from 
D to E. Where the 
circle intersects the 
horizontal line at D 
and E, place pins. 
See Fig. 60. Also 
at the point C 
stretch a thread 
from E to D around 
C, and tie at C. 
Remove the pin at 
C, and, holding the 
pencil perpendic- 
ularly, describe 
the ellipse shown, see Fig. 60. 

25. Swipe Collections.* — Swipe collec- 
tions is the commercial and expressive 
term for what most artists call documents, 
and this is one of the most important 
items under the list of materials. It con- 
sists of examples clipped from all sources — 
catalogues, booklets, maga- 
zines and newspapers — 
illustrating different tech- 
nique and the expression of 
numerous textures, plaids, 
stripes, vel- 
ve t s and 
detail of all 
kinds. These 
are not to 
be used as 
copies, but 
as a teacher, 
showing ways 
that have 
been used 
with success. 

. . Courtesy of N . Y . Tribune. 

Copying IS Fig. 58 —Silhouette by Harriet Lord. 




* In classifying documents for reference in boxes or envelopes, these headings will be useful: Men, Women, Children, 
Animals, Flowers and Fruit, Outdoor Scenes, Furnitiu-e and Interiors, Decorative Subjects and Page Decorations, Color 
Plates and Booklets. 



TEXTURES 



Page Thirty-seven 



one way of studying, but is advisable 
only when done with intelligence. See 
illustration of a "swipe," Figs. 61 and 
62, 63 and 64, showing a case in which one 
drawing suggests the pose for another. 

26. Textures. — 
In illustrating 
black material in 
pen and ink, con- 
sideration must be 
given to whether 
it is a shiny tex- 
ture with many 
high lights, or a 
dull black silk or 
velvet, with little 
or no shimmer. 
The supporting 
points usually 
catch the light, 
and it is here that 
the whites are left 
or put in. The 
trimming has to 
be kept light, to 
show the detail. 
See Figs. 65 and 
66. 

Stripes and 
plaids are both 
done in a manner 
to give the best 
expression pos- 
sible to the special 
design to be re- 
presented. Complicated designs often have 
to be greatly simplified for reduction, 
and care must be taken to give the gen- 
eral effect in the most telling way. See 
Fig. 67. Shepherd plaid, when carefully 
done, is often made by drawing small 
cross stripes in pencil, and filling in 



Fig. 60. — Constructing an ellipse 



alternate square spaces with black. See 
Figs. 67, 68 and 93. 

Dotted and flowered materials should 
not be expressed in a helter-skelter manner, 
but, for satisfactory results, should be 
thought out in 
an orderly way, 
using imaginary 
squares or dia- 
monds for a foun- 
dation. See Figs. 
7, 8, 68, 69 and 83. 
Chiffons must 
keep their trans- 
parent quality, 
usually expressed 
by a delicate line. 
Chinese white, 
when used dis- 
creetly, is often 
helpful for this 
purpose. 

Laces and em- 
broideries are 
carried out either 
in detail or in 
sketchy way, ac- 
cording to require- 
ments. When the 
drawing is needed 
to advertise a 
particular lace, 
greater detail 
must be given 
than when ad- 
vertising the pattern of a dress in which 
any kind of lace can be used. See Fig. 72. 
When the lace is to be done for repro- 
duction in half-tone — in other words, when 
in wash drawing — in an elaborately worked 
out way, i.e., catalogue wash, a dark 
background is made (for white lace) and 




Page Thirty-eight 



METHODS 



the lace is worked out in Chinese white 
over this dark ground. See Fig. 68. 

Wash work embroidery 
is also done with Chinese 
white, but the background 
differs in tone according to 
the sheerness, while the 
solidity of the pattern is 
indicated by heavier lines 
on the shadow side. For- 
tunately, even in catalogues 
of the better character, 
more is being left to the 
imagination, giving a much 
less stilted effect. 

Side plaits, box plaits, 
tucks, gathers, etc., are all 
drawn the way they really 
look in realistic drawings. 
See Fig. 7 for decorative 
treatment. They are also 
made simpler, see Figs. 70 
and 71. 

Stitching is expressed by 
a straight line or a line of 
dots, though there are sev- 
eral different ways of 
making them. See 
Fig. 7. 

Fur is done in masses 
of lustrous dark and 
light with a soft irreg- 
ular edge, avoiding too 
"liney" an effect. The 
treatment, in fact, is 
much the same as for 
feathers and human 
hair. See Figs. 26, 74, 
and 75. In decorative 
drawings many different ways of 
rendering are used, sometimes a line, 
sometimes dots, and sometimes a com- 



bination 
Fig. 71. 



of the two being used. See 




Fig. 62 



Courtesy of Gimbel Bros 

The adaptation. 



To express textures well, 
the student should cultivate 
a love and appreciation for 
them. It is good to handle 
them, study them, and ob- 
serve them at home, in 
shops, in the street, at 
plays, in museums and in 
pictures, noticing the 
weight they have, the folds 
they make and the lines 
they take. Still-life studies 
of them are helpful. 

Very interesting for the 
study of drapery are the 
drawings of Albrecht Durer. 
See Fig. 109. Observe the 
supporting points. Of 
course there are many dif- 
ferent methods of treatment 
as, for example, the way 
one would treat a decora- 
tive drawing as opposed to 
how one would treat a real- 
istic one. See Figs. 70, 
71, and 72. 

27. Pen and Ink.— 
Pen and ink is a very 
interesting and much 
used medium in fashion 
work. It may be di- 
vided into several 
headings as, work for 
newspapers, for maga- 
zines, and for catalogues. 
And these again may be 
subdivided into groups. 
For instance, there is the pen-and-ink 
neicspaper proper style. This is paid for 
by the newspaper and is often done in a 



PEN AND INK 



Page Thirty-nine 



broad, bold way with no particular at- 
tention given to seams or texture. 
This is also known as editorial, be- 
cause under charge of fashion editors. 
See Fig. 73. 

There is newspaper pattern dravnng. 
This is paid for by the pattern com- 
pany, and here more attention is given 
to seams, tucks, darts, and the like than 
to texture. See Fig. 76. 

Again there is department store adver- 
tising. This is paid for by the de- 





FiG. 64. 



Courtesy ( 
-The adaptation. 



Courtesy of N. Y. Globe. 

Fig. 63.— The original— An example of vignette. 



partment store, and here seams 
are ignored and attention concen- 
trated on texture, and expression 
of the style. See Fig. 77. This is 
sometimes done in a more general 
illustrative way, as in headings, 
or for a service, when the same 
illustrations are used in stores 
throughout the country; then the 
idea is expressed in an abstract 
way. See Fig. 78. 

A good deal of space is often 
devoted to the newspaper's own 
drawing, while the pattern drawing 
is usually given a column or two, 
and there is not quite so much 
stress laid on the filling of space in 
either of these cases as in the de- 
partment store work. See Figs. 73 
and 77, Ben Day often, and wash 
sometimes, are combined with news- 
paper pen and ink. 

Magazines have the same three 



Page Forty 



METHODS 



classes of pen-and-ink drawings and the 
same principles hold true. See Figs. 70, 71, 
79, and 83. The 
magazines, how- 
ever, are printed 
on superior paper 
and with better ink, 
so that charming 
effects with deli- 
cate washes, 
which would be 
entirely lost in 
newspaper re- 
production, can 
be obtained. See 
Fig. 81. Ben 
Day is used with 
great success in 
magazines. See 
Figs. 79 and 97. 

In the best 
pen-and-ink 
work for cata- 
logues and ad- 
vertising, care is 
taken, not only 
to suggest text- 
ure and detail, 
but to express 
the general char- 
acterisfcs of the 
garment and its 
special charm. 
A good example 
isgiveninFig.72, 
which was used 
for catalogue and 
also magazine 
advertising. 

Pen-and-ink work for pattern catalogues 
is usually done in a stiffer way than that 
done for magazines and newspapers. This 




Counesy of Globe. 
Fig. 65.— Illustrating dull 
black material. 



is because, in the great care used to show 
every seam and detail ,^ much of spontaneity 
is often lost; nev- 
ertheless great 
improvement in 
this matter has 
been made of late 
by a number of 
the pattern 
houses, as is 
shown in the 
careful little 
drawing of un- 
derwear, Fig. 
82, but which 
still seems very 
stereotype in 
comparison to 
Fig. 97. 

Decorative, 
or more or less 
unrealistic tech- 
nique, has been 
used much more 
of late in both 
newspaper and 
magazine edito- 
rials and adver- 
tising work, but 
it is not often 
used in pattern 
drawing, be- 
cause of the ex- 
actness usually 
required for this 
type of work. 
This decora- 
tive work, while 
so simple and 
permitting of a certain uniqueness, 
requires even a greater knowledge of 
drawing to do it successfully than the 



-Illustrating shiny 



Fig. 66 

black material. 



PEN AND INK 



Page Forty-one 




p 


'» V 


■ 




\ 


^^K 


s "' 


\ 


KI76 


^ 



CourUsy of Stern Bros. 
Fig. ti7. — Lay-out illustrating methods of rendering, stripes, plaids, checks, etc. 



Page Forty-two 

naturalistic work, 
where mistakes 
are sometimes 
hidden. 

In this decora- 
tive work beauty 
of line and in- 
teresting spotting 
is given great 
consideration. 
The effect is ob- 
tained by the 
fewest lines pos- 
sible, and very 
interesting work 
of this type can 
be found in pen- 
and-ink, wash and 
color. This style 
of work was first 
made popular by 
Aubrey Beardsley, 
see Fig. 85, and 
the student would 
find it profitable 
to see his illustra- 
tions of Sir Thomas 
Mallory's Morte 
d' Arthur, Brunel- 
leschi's illustra- 
tions of La Nuit 




• « • • vlfe 
••• • •• 

1^ ••••••••• 



I •• •• t • •••• 




ings of George 
Barbier (some of 

which can be Fig. 68.— Catalogue 

* Also " East of the Sun and West of the Moon," a 







z 

F 








f 


ft.coHor 




r^ ' 


1 f *' 


i^ : ^ ; ^ ; ^. 


-.,_^_M. 




detail done by Samuel Cohen. 



METHODS 

seen in Album 
Dedie a Tamar 
Karsavia), Le- 
pape and Erte, 
all show the in- 
fluence of Aubrey 
Beardsley and 
should be studied 
by the fashion 
artist. See Figs. 
70 and 71. 

Headings and 
page decorations 
are often required 
by the department 
store fashion art- 
ist, see Fig. 84, 
and here is the 
place where good 
ideas are at a 
premium. For 
this reason, other 
people's ideas 
should be con- 
sulted, studied 
and weighed, and 
something plaus- 
ible and catchy 
worked up. The 
same thing holds 
true of feature 
cuts or, in other 
words, white 
sales, silk sales, 
toys, etc., and 
these do not want 
to be omitted 
from the swipe 
collection — not 
that you are 
going to copy 



d Fauy Tales by Hans Andersen illustrated by Harry Clarke. 



INDIVIDUALITY 



Page Forty-three 



them, but that they may give you an in- straight, even Hne is desired, satisfactory 

spiration. results will be obtained by keeping the 

In doing pen and ink the beginner will right arm, from the elbow, resting on the 



find Gillott's 170 
pen or Gillott's 303 
pen most useful. 
Because of their 
firmness, it is easier 
at first to gauge 
your line. After- 
wards the Gillott's 
290 and 291 pens 
will be found very 
-agreeable to work 
with because of 
their elasticity. 
Higgins' waterproof 
ink is useful where 
wash is to be com- 
bined with the pen 
and ink, but many 
people, for general 
use, prefer Higgins' 
non-waterproof and 
French black ink. 
Use two- or three- 
ply Bristol, plate 
(or smooth) finish 
if for ink alone, kid 
finish if washes are 
to be added. Very 
good effects can be 
obtained with ink 
and a brush, see 
Figs. 73 and 86. 

A large drawing 
board placed at the 
right angle against 
a table will give better results than the 
board flat on the table. Usually speaking, 
it is best to work from the top down 
and from left to right, but when a long, 




Drawn by Reta Senger. Courtesy of Good Housekeeping Magazine. 

Fig. 69. — A silhouetted half-tone drawing. 



board and drawing 
away from you. Do 
not get your lines 
too close together. 
Observe the differ- 
ence between a dry, 
harsh line and one 
full of variations 
of color. Practice 
beginning a line 
dark and ending 
light and vice versa. 
Make your line ex- 
press the soft deli- 
cacy of skin (see 
Fig. 65), the light- 
ness of chiffon or 
the heaviness of 
velvet. Make every 
line you put down 
tell or mean some- 
thing; this requires 
study and applica- 
tion. Compare Fig. 
82 showing a hard 
line with Figs. 20, 
22, 70, 71 and 97, 
showing a beautiful 
one, and be able to 
tell the difference 
and why. 

It is understood 
that a pencil sketch 
is made first and 
that the ink is put 
in afterwards. Reproductions in pen and 
ink are called line cuts. 

28. Individuality. — There are great dif- 
ferences in the make-up of different 



Page Forty-four 



METHODS 



people. Some of us seem born with a We cannot declare either of these manners 

strong mechanical bias and others with good or bad to the ex.clusion of the other, 

a delicate sensitiveness. In the one case for each of them, and all the gradations 

we will tend to draw strong and precise between, have their purpose. The great 




Courtesy of Harper's Bazar. 
Fig. 70. — Erie magazine editorial drawing — showing influence of Aubrey Beardsley. 



lines, in the other to draw lines that are 
light and subtle though by no means to 
be confused with the weak and broken 
lines of inexperience. The distinction is 
one that will be noted not only in our 
modern art, but also in old Japanese prints. 



thing is to find out the method that is 
most natural to you and improve that 
to the utmost. Do not be discouraged 
if your forte is the delicate, sketchy line 
and if you do not succeed with the pre- 
cise mechanical one. Find the place that 



INDIVIDUALITY 



Page Forty-five 



is waiting for you where your particular 
manner is needed. 

Too often those in charge of art de- 
partments do not appreciate any kind of 
work except that which they happen to 
use. Do not let them discourage you, 
but remember the words of Carlyle, 
"The block of granite which is an ob- 



Problem. — On a one-quarter size sheet 
of bristol board, held vertically, plan mar- 
gins according to the Greek proportions. 
Divide the space within the margins into 
four equal parts. In the upper left-hand 
corner draw lightly, with a compass, a 
well-related circle; in the upper right- 
hand corner draw lightly, free hand, a 




Courtesy cf Harper's Bazar. 

Fig. 71. — Magazine editorial decorative fashion drawings designed by Erte. 



stacle in the pathway of the weak be- 
comes a stepping-stone in the pathway of 
the strong." 

One way to cultivate the proper ap- 
preciation of beautiful lines is to begin 
by drawing the simplest kind of forms. 
This is certainly advantageous in the case 
of children, and a teacher of such a class 
would no doubt find it useful to give out 
such a lesson as this: 



well-related oval; in the lower left hand 
corner another well-related oval; in the 
lower right-hand corner a well-related 
ellipse. Then, with a very sharp pencil, 
go over these lightly blocked in figures 
with as beautiful lines as possible. This 
problem can then be repeated with the 
idea of filling in these spaces with con- 
ventionalized designs to be used for belt 
buckles or other ornaments. 



Page Forty-six 



METHODS 




Courtesy of Ellsworth Co. 
Fig. 72. — Pen and ink catalogue drawing which 
was also used for a magazine advertisement. 



^Courtesy of Brootlin Ea:,le. 
Fig. 73. — Illustrating newspaper editorial in which pen and ink 
fashion work is combined with brush work. 



WASH 



Page Forty-seven 



The power to make beautiful lines must first 
be obtained with the pencil, before the same 
result can be attained with ink. It is well to 
have the student really know what a good line 
is before beginning a problem of this kind. 
For this purpose have examples of different 
kinds of good and interesting lines, such as 
Japanese prints, some reproductions of good 
line drawings by McQuin, Erte, Dryden, Drian, 
etc. Too much must not be taken for granted 
about students or beginners knowing just what 
a good or beautiful line is, otherwise the mis- 
takes of trying to get a hard, inexpressive, 
mechanical line is often the result. For that 
reason it is well to have drawings made in a 





Cffurtesy of Stem 
Fig. 74. — A fur catalogue page. 



Courtesy of Glmbel Bros. 
Fig. 75. — Realistic treatment of feathers. 

tight, mechanical way to compare 
with those done with more feeling. 
Each student should start making 
a collection of line drawings with 
this comparison idea in view. 

29. Wash. — Wash is a very use- 
ful medium for fashion work, espe- 
cially where photographic effects are 
desired, as, for instance, in cata- 
logues. In newspapers it is not so 
often used as in magazines and cata- 
logues, because the poorer paper on 
which the newspapers are printed does 
not tend to successful reproduction. 

For magazines, just as there are 
different ways of using pen and ink, 
so there are three kinds of wash; the 
editorial, the pattern, and the adver- 



Page Forty-eight 



METHODS 



Using. These again can be divided into 
different styles of work, as the realistic, the 
sketchy, and the decorative. Still again, there 
is pure wash and there is wash combined 
with pen and ink or crayon. 

In the editorial 
type most attention 
is given to the at- 
tractiveness of the 
picture. See Fig. 89, 
done in a decorative 
way, and Fig. 90, 
done in a more re- 
alistic style. 

In the pattern 
type most attention 
is given to the seams 
and the way the 
garments are made, 
and less to the ex- 
pression of any 
particular kind of 
material; in other 
words, the textural 
and artistic sides 
are subordinated to 
the practical pattern. 
This is done in a 
realistic way. See 
Fig. 91. 

In wash for adver- 
tising, attention is 
concentrated on 
presenting the 
garment to the best 
advantage, bringing 
out its best features and its textures. This 
is done in a freer, more artistic manner, 
but often is done in a decorative way 
except in catalogues. The wash is com- 
bined with pen and ink, as in Fig. 92. 
Yet sometimes it is very much finished 




and approaches catalogue work in effect; 
in fact, sometimes the same drawing 
which has been used in a catalogue is 
also used to advertise in the magazines. 
See Fig. 81. 

Wash for cata- 
logues is usually very 
much finished and 
often done without 
much addition of pen 
and ink. See Fig. 53. 
These drawings are 
made with the in- 
tention of advertising 
the garments illus- 
trated, and for that 
reason great stress 
is laid on the mate- 
rials and details. 
Sometimes wash, 
pencil, crayon pencil, 
and pen and ink are 
all combined in a 
drawing; for this, 
careful reproduction 
is required. See 
Fig. 104. 

The materials 
used for wash are 
usually Steinbach or 
Curtis Board (Illus- 
tration Board), but 
for magazine wash, 
kid bristol and some- 
times even smooth 
bristol ( when only a 
light flat wash is desired) are used. You 
will find it good to have Winsor and 
Newton's Lampblack and four brushes. 
Numbers 3 and 4 and 6 and 7 are suitable. 
You should also have a blotter, some rags, 
a sponge for washing off all the color if a 



Courtesy of Home Pattern Co. 
Fig. 76. — Newspaper pattern fashions. 



WASH 



Page Forty-nine 




Fig. 77.- 



Cuurh SI/ uf Fri drrick Looser Co. 

-Department store advertising. 



mistake is made, and a large white saucer 
for mixing black. 

Most satisfactory results are obtained 
by having your figure and garment very 
carefully drawn first, then putting in 
your darks or shadows and after these 
darks are absolutely dry, your large 
washes. Give very careful study to the 
texture and the folds. 

It is well, when beginning, to get very 
good drawings showing examples of the 
materials you are endeavoring to express. 
Observe how each material is affected by 
light and how the light looks on the 
folds. See, for example, how in shiny 
black silk the dark side blends into the 
shadow, while on the light side there is 
a crispness and unblended look; also note 



how the small folds often end in a little 
hook. 

Practice putting darks in with one 
brush and blending then off with another. 
Get so you know just how much water 
you want on your brush to get certain 
effects. Always mix enough of the color 
which you intend to use as the large wash, 
and dip your brush into that instead of into 
the water and back into your paint, this 
lo avoid giving your wash a streaked look. 
The Eberhard Faber green or red eraser is 
a great help to pick out lights. Often a 
wash, when nearly finished, has a very 
discouraging appearance, and sometimes 
all it really needs is the intensifying of the 
blacks and some touching up of the edges, 
buttons and the like, with Chinese white. 




Courtesy of Dry Goods Economist Co. 
Fig. 78.— a department store cut service illustration. 



Page Fifty 



METHODS 



To practice large washes com- 
mence by drawing a large square 
and, tipping your board towards 
you, draw your brush very full 
of color across the top of the 
paper from left to right; refill 
the brush, taking up the rivulet 
on the edge of the first line and 
repeat the operation until you 
have covered the square. You 
should have enough paint mixed 
in your saucer to finish that 
square. Very beautiful wash ef- 
fects are often obtained with 
just flat washes. They are very 
artistic and lovely because of 
their simplicity and have none 
of the worked-over look of the 
catalogue work. See Fig. 89. ' 

There is always transparency 
and life to the first wash which 
is lost if you go over 
it often. Never be 
afraid if the wash 
looks too dark. Re- 
member that it will 
dry fighter and resist 
the temptation to 
work on it when part- 
ly dried. You must 
keep it clean and 
bold. Occasionally, 
stand off from your 
work and see how it 
looks. 

Such things as 
white dots or stripes 
on the dark ground 
of a suit are put in 
with Chinese white 
after the dark material 
is otherwise finished. 




Courtesy of Vogue. 
Fig. 79. — Magazine 
pattern drawing. 




ouTtesy of Dry Goods Economist d 
Fig. 80. — A department store cut service illustration 



Gray effects to be put on over 
black are obtained by mixing 
Chinese white with lampblack; 
this makes a body color and 
can be put on over dark in the 
same manner as pure white. 

If a light streak is desired, 
for instance up one side of the 
skirt, run a clean brush with 
very little water in it up that 
side while the wash is still quite 
wet; this will give the desired 
effect. 

Sometimes a color is added 
to a wash drawing effectively. 
This is put on like an ordinary 
wash, but for reproduction 
necessitates the using of two 
plates and two printings. See 
Figs. 98 and 99. 

Fig. 93 shows the method of 
procedure, or steps, 
in doing the conven- 
tional wash drawing 
for a catalogue. For- 
tunately this photo- 
graphic method is 
giving way to a more 
artistic one. 

30. Crayon Pencil. 
— Crayon pencil is a 
fascinating medium. 
It is used in pref- 
erence to pencil for 
reproduction, because 
it has not the shiny 
quality of the usual 
lead which prevents 
that from photo- 
graphing well, and 
therefore from being 
good for reproduction. 



CRAYON PENCIL 



Page Fifty-one 



Chalk, crayon and pencil, however, are 
handled in much the same fashion and 
have much the same effect, and by them 
great beauty and much feeling may be 
expressed. See frontispiece. Nevertheless 
chalk does not 
lend itself so 
readily to detail, 
famous as it is 
for its more illus- 
trative or sketchy 
quality. 

Wolf crayon 
pencils are very 
good. B and 3B 
Wolf crayon 
pencils and kid 
bristol board are 
the proper ma- 
terials. Kneaded 
rubber and Eber- 
hard Faber green 
or red rubber are 
useful, also an 
emery board pad 
to keep the pencil 
points sharp. 

It is best to 
sketch the draw- 
ing in first with 
the B pencil and 
then put the 
darkest darks in with the 3B and the 
more delicate finishing touches with the 
sharply pointed B. Sometimes stumps 
are used to rub the shadows in, giving the 
drawing less line texture. See Fig. 10. 
Sometimes wash is combined effectively 
with the crayon, then again the crayon 
drawing is carried out almost entirely in 
line. See Figs. 94 and 95. 

Sometimes crayon pencil is used on 




Fig. 81. 



rough paper, and the tooth or roughness 
of the paper gives an interesting texture 
to the drawing. See Fig. 45. 

In doing half-tone drawings, especially 
wash, and particularly in decorative work, 
it is well to limit 
oneself to a cer- 
tain number of 
tones or values 
and not to have 
a number of in- 
termediary tints 
and shades. This 
is best done by 
determining how 
many values are 
desired, mixing 
them in separate 
pans (as much as 
is to be needed of 
each) and then 
limiting the 
washes to these. 
This gives a simple 
distinction to the 
finished drawing; 
which is decidedly* 
desirable. See 
Fig. 89. This 
simplicity is lost 
in Figs. 81, 44, 
and 53, which are 
done in such a realistic way because of 
the almost photographic reproduction re- 
quired. Both simplicity and charm are 
lacking in some magazine illustrations, 
and much catalogue work where a realistic, 
or photographic effect is the chief aim. 
See Figs. 103 and 93. A pleasing com- 
promise between the strictly decorative and 
the absolutely photographic can be seen in 
Fig. 45, where line effect is used for shad- 



CouTtesy of Stern Bros. 
-Half-tone catalogue drawing, also used for magazine 
advertisement. 



Page Fifty-two 



METHODS 




Fig. 82. — Pen and ink pattern catalogue drawing. 



Courtesy of Butterick. 



ing, the flat washes being put on over the 
charcoal drawing. The mistake, however, 
of mixing these two styles in one drawing 
must be avoided. 

In instructing a class it is well for the 
teacher to give some simple problems to 
be done in two or more values of wash. 
Many good examples of this method are 
to be found in Composition by Arthur Dow. 



In considering methods the student must 
keep in mind what the purpose of his 
finished work is and then use the method 
which is best adapted to that end. But 
while this is true he must not let the 
method he is using interfere with the ex- 
pression of his own style and individuality 
of work. 

In doing brush work with ink, see Fig. 



BRUSH WORK 



Page Fifty-three 




Fig. 83. — Magazine pen 

86, it is well first to become acquainted 
with this medium and method, on some 
practice paper. The decorative effect of 
good spotting is very important, for the 
finished composition, and the student is 
again referred to Composition by Arthur 
Dow, a careful perusal of which will do 



Courtesy of Rawak Hats. 



and ink advertising. 

much for a more comprehensive under- 
standing of the possibilities there de- 
scribed and illustrated. These can in 
many instances be applied to fashion 
work. Fig. 73 and 83 are examples of 
fashion sketches where good spotting has 
been obtained with brush work. 



Page Fifty -four 



METHODS 



THE 


BVEIVINO 


MAIL, 


DECEMBER 19 1911 


» 


1 WANAMAKER'S 


1 WANAMAKER-S 


1 WANAMAKER'S 


1 WANAMAKERS 


1 Bio«dw«jr-Ei«hth to Tfnth St. 




W\)t Wiammaktv Cfjrigtmasf ^ale of iHsJeb l^iam^ anb ^(aper=3^ianos( 

Fig. 84. — An original idea for a musical heading. 



Cuurtesy of John Wanamater. 



Etching is a method lately used in fashion 
illustration. Drian and Miss Steinmetz 
have both obtained some charming effects in 
this way, but it is a difficult and expensive 
medium to have reproduced, and for that 
reason is not likely to come into general use. 

The student is recommended, in fact 
urged, to become familiar with the work 
and methods used by such artists as Drian, 
Soulie, Brunelleschi, Barbier, Lepape, 
Erte, McQuin, Steinmetz, Helen Dryden, 




Reta Senger, Fern Forrester, Claire Avery, 
and the other artists mentioned in the 
text, as good examples of the best work is 
often the best instructor one could have. 

It is still comparatively seldom that the 
costume designer or illustrator does much 
with textile designing, the field being con- 
sidered somewhat apart, but as a change 
in these matters appears imminent, it 
has seemed expedient to include the method 
of procedure. 




Fig. 85. — Drawing by Aubrey Beardsley. 



Courtesy of Abraham & Straus. 
Fig. 86. — Showing how brush work can be 
combined with pen and ink. 



TEXTILE DESIGNING 



Page Fifty-five 









° 1 



i 






4 






I Width 

Courtesy of Women's Wear. 
Fig. 87. — This illustrates the repeat of a design for silk 
or cotton printing. The dotted lines are not part of 
the design, but are to show that the unit of design is 
repeated in the length every three inches. 



TEXTILE DESIGNING* 

** The kind and color of paper used in sub- 
mitting designs is immaterial. But we 
would suggest that white be used and the 
ground painted in. Tempora paints are 
generally used. At least one full repeat 
and, if the design be small, two or three 
repeats should be shown. The design is 
a guide to the printer or weaver and must 
clearly indicate how the artist desires the 
finished fabric to appear. 

" The technique of woven designs is very 
complicated, but it is only necessary for 
the artist to remember that simple figures 
and few colors are best, that the size of 
each repeat should never exceed twelve 
inches and the repeat is across the web, 
not in the length as it is in printing. 

" The size of the paper, then, would de- 
pend on the size of your design. In order 



that you may clearly understand the part 
that dimension plays in the commercial 
value of a design, we will describe the 
roller over which silk fabrics pass in the 
process of printing: 

*' The roller is 16 inches in circumference 
and three-quarters of an inch in thickness. 
Its width is immaterial because the widths 
of different fabrics vary so greatly. The 
pattern to be printed is engraved in the 
copper. The roller revolves, takes up the 
color from the color box at the bottom; 
the color is removed from the smooth 




Fig. 88.— Illustrating three kinds of Ben 
* This is reprinted through the courtesy of Women's Wear. 



Day. 



Page Fifty-six 




Courtesy of Harper's Bazar. 

Fig. 89.— Decorative half-tone treatment used in magazine editorial. 

surfaces by the scraper, or 'doctor' at the 
side, and remaics only in the indented 
portions, which constitute the pattern. The 
cloth, passing just above the doctor, takes 
up the color that remains in the indented 
or engraved portions, and registers the 
design. 

" A new cylinder, as we have said above, 
is 16 inches in circumference. When a 
manufacturer wants no more goods printed 
from a certain pattern, the cylinder is 
polished off and engraved with a new pat- 
tern. With each polishing a thickness of 
copper is removed, and the circumference 
of the cylinder of course grows less. When 
a cylinder has been used for a number of 
patterns, the circumference has gradually 
been reduced from 16 to 15 inches, and when 
it becomes less than 15 inches it is junked. ^ FiT 9a 



METHOD 

"You will see, therefore, 
that a pattern (in order to 
be mathematically correct) 
must either take up the 
entire 15 or 16 inches of the 
roller, or must repeat an 
even number of times with- 
in 15 or 16 inches. In 
other words, the pattern must 
be 15 or 16 inches in length, 
or must be repeated at in- 
tervals evenly divisible into 
15 or 16. A three-inch 
repeat would register five 
times on the 15-inch roller; 
a four-inch repeat four times 
on a 16-inch roller; a 5 1 -inch 
repeat, three times on on a 
16-inch roller; there is prac- 
tically no limit to the pos- 
sible variations. A 12-inch 
repeat, on the other hand, 
would be impossible; it would 
have to be diminished to 




E. M. G. SteinmeU. Courtesy of Vogue. 

-Characteristic Editorial wash drawing. 



TEXTILE DESIGNING 

one-third or one-fourth its size to 
become practicable for printing. Most 
commercial designers work on a 7|-inch 
square for silk. 

" The above refers to the printing of 
silks. For printing cottons, the same / 
process is used. A cotton printing 
roller, however, is 18 inches in cir- 
cumference when new, and for suc- 
ceeding patterns is polished until the cir- 
cumference becomes 16 inches. When 
designing for cottons, therefore, the 
repeat must be figured on the basis 
of a 16- to 18-inch cylinder, corre- 
sponding to the 15- to 16-inch scale 
for silk printing. For example, a three- 
inch repeat could be used for silk or 
cotton being divisible into either 15 or 
18. On the other hand, a six-inch 
repeat could be used only for cotton; 
it is evenly divisible into 18 but is 



Page Fifty-seven 





Courtesy of Cheney Brus. 

Fig. 92. — Characteristic half-tone magazine advertising. 



Courtesy of CrU^on Magazine. 
91. — Magazine half-tone pattern drawing. 

not evenly divisible into 15 or 16. 
An 8|-inch square is the commer- 
cial standard for use in cotton design- 
ing for dress goods. 

" A pattern is expensive in propor- 
tion to the elaborateness of the 
engraving and the number of colors 
used. It is commercially important, 
therefore, that the arrangement of 
colors be effective and the actual 
number of them be kept down. 
It is better to limit the number 
of colors, if possible, to five or less 
although more colors can be used. 
This refers both to silk and cotton. 

" With no wish to restrict the art- 
ist, we suggest that museums and 
libraries be often consulted for ideas 
and we feel that the artist may 
with profit give some thought to 
the condition of mind of the women 
of America. For this is always 



Page Fifty -eight 



METHOD 




Fig. 93. — Illustrating steps in a conventional wash catalogue drawing. 



Courtesy of Henry Soncit: 



of great importance in determining the 
sale of decorated fabrics. Endeavor to 
make designs that are beautiful and 
original at the same time they are 
appropriate to certain definite fabrics. 
Remember that a design may be intri- 
cate and not beautiful, may even be 
beautiful and not appropriate. Do not 
be afraid to be simple and do not merely 



copy. 



Keep in mind that a textile design is not 



a picture, seen on a flat surface, but the 
decoration of a garment which will fall 
in folds. Visualize your design in the 
fabric, made up as some part of a woman's 
costume. That is the test of a good design." 
The chapters on Color, Design and 
Period Fabric Design should be care- 
fully consulted in connection with the 
mechanical method given above in re- 
gards to Textile Designing. For general 
Theory of Design such books as Design 



* In designing, scale of color and texture must not be overlooked. Certain colors that are too brilliant or crude for 
indoors are appropriate for sport wear out of doors; where the scale of everything is greater. 



TEXTILE DESIGNING 



Page Fifty-nine 




Fig. 94. Crayon pencil sketches. 



Courtesy ot Ladies Home Journal. 
Fig. 95. 



in Theory and Practice and Principles of 
Design by Ernest Batchelder, Handbook 
of Ornament by F. S. Meyer, Decorative 
Design by Joseph Cummings Chase, 
Theory of Pure Design by Denman Ross, 
200 Units of Design (plates), Henry 
Warren Poor, and Plant Form and Design 
by A. E. V. Lilley and W. M. Midgley 
will all be found helpful to the student. 



The peasant design must not be over- 
looked and such books as "A Magyar 
Nep Miiveszete," Molonyay, in four vol- 
umes, Peasant Art in Austria Hungary, 
Peasant Art in Sweden, Lapland and 
Iceland, and Peasant Art in Russia, 
edited by Charles Holme, will be found 
an inspiration to designers and stu- 
dents. 




Accessories drawn by Claire Avery. 



Courtesy oj Vogue. 




From an etchmg by E. M. A. Steinmetz. 



Courtesy of Harver's 



COLOR 

CHAPTER FOUR 



h 



CHAPTER FOUR 



COLOR 



31. General Theory. — The most con- 
venient and general theory * about color 
is that based on the three primaries, red, 
yellow, and blue. As these colors can- 
not be reproduced by the mixture or 
combination of any other colors, they are 
said to be pure or simple colors, i.e., 
primaries. 

The secondary or binary colors are 
orange, green, and purple. These are 
made by mixing two of the primary colors 
together. This mixture forms the com- 
plement of the remaining primary. Binary 
colors are halfway between the primaries 
on the color chart. 

Red and blue make purple, the com- 
plement of yellow, and directly opposite 
yellow on the color circle. 

Blue and yellow make green, the com- 
plement of red, and directly opposite red 
on the color circle. 

Yellow and red make orange, the com- 
plement of blue, and directly opposite 
blue on the color circle. 

Complementary colors, being directly 
opposite in the spectrum circuit, are 
wholly unrelated in their normal intensity. 
They show strong contrast and enrich 
each other. See Fig. 96. 

A color mixed with its complement 
makes gray. 

* Another Theory: There is another color theory which 
declares the elements of color to be red, green, and violet- 
blue. This is based on spectrum analysis instead of 
pigments and is preferred by some authorities. It changes 
the color wheel somewhat, regarding colors and their 
complements, making red the complement of blue-green, 
green the complement of red-purple, and violet-blue the 
complement of yellow. 

For further explanation see A Color Notation by A. H. 
Munsell. 



The coldest color is blue and the warmest 
is its complement, orange, which is the 
farthest away from blue in the color 
wheel. 

Tertiary Colors are those formed by 
the mixture of the secondary colors. 
Thus, green mixed with purple makes 
olive; orange mixed with green makes 
the tertiary citrine; and orange mixed 
with purple gives russet. 

The more a color is grayed the more 
neutral it becomes. 

By normal color is meant the foundation 
color of a scale of tone, the tones getting 
darker or lighter from this foundation. 

By tone is meant the modification of 
any normal color by the addition of 
black or white. 

By tint is meant the light tone of 
any color (formed by the adding of white 
or water to a standard color), 

By shade is meant the dark tone ^f 
any color (formed by the adding oi 
dark or black to a standard color). 

By scale of color is meant the grada- 
tion of a series of tones of the same color 
from the lightest tint through the normal 
or pure color to the darkest shade. 

By hue is meant the departure from 
the original scale of a certain color, to 
a greater or less degree, by the addition 
of a comparatively small proportion of 
another color. For hue think around the 
color sphere; the even steps between the 
binary and adjacent primary in the color 
sphere is called the hue. Thus the step 
between blue and green is blue-green, 
between green and yellow, yellow-green, 
both hues of green. In the same way 



Page Sixty-four 



COLOR 



there are two hues of violet, two of orange, 
and two of red. To change a color to 
a hue add the next-door neighbor (any 
color between two primaries), that is, 
change its place on the spectrum. 
By intensity or chroma is meant the 



think up and down the color sphere; 
yellow is lightest, violet darkest, in value. 
32. Harmonies of Likeness. — Har- 
monies of likeness may be classified as: 
1. Monochromatic, i.e., a group of dif- 
ferent tones, values or intensifies of one 




Drawing by Reta Senger. 



Fig. 97.- 



Courtesy o/Good Houaekeeptng. 
-Editorial magazine fashion work in which color Ben Day is used. 



strength or brilliancy of a color. For 
intensity think inward or across the 
sphere. To change intensity, add the 
complementary color; in other words, 
gray it. 

By value is meant the amount of dark 
or light expressed by a color. For value, 



color. This is sometimes called a one 
mode harmony. 

2. Analogous, i.e., made by colors that 
are next to each other in the color circle, 
and are harmonious because they have, 
in different quantities, a common element. 

3. Dominant Harmony, i.e., several colors 



HARMONIES OF DIFFERENCE 



Page Sixty-five 



all influenced or subdued by the same 
color. 

33. Harmonies of Difference. — The har- 
monies of difference are: 4. (a) Comple- 
mentary, i.e., two complementary colors 
used together with some unifying ele- 
ment, by the mixing of the one with the 
other or by mixing a little gray with 
both. 

(&) Split complementary harmony, i.e., 
the combination of a primary with the 
two colors on each side of its secondary 
complement; as yellow combined with 
redrviolet, and blue-violet, or blue com- 
bined with yellow-orange and red-orange, 
or red combined with yellow-green and 
blue-green. Always begin on the pri- 
mary and split on the complement; never 
split a primary color. 

(c) Double complementary harmony, i.e., 
that made by the combination of two colors 
side by side on the color wheel with their 
direct opposites, as, for instance, violet 
and blue-violet with yellow and yellow- 
orange. 

5. Triad Harmony, i.e., any harmony of 
three colors that make an equilateral tri- 
angle in the spectrum circle. Example: 
yellow-orange, blue-green and red-violet. 
In producing triad harmony, use hues 
and neutralize to make them harmonious. 
Only one of the three should be wholly 
intense. 

34. Laws for the Use of Color.— Law 
governing intensity. The larger the area 
the less intense the color must be and 
the smaller the area the more intense the 
color may be. 

Law of background. — Backgrounds must 
be more neutral than objects shown upon 
them. 

Neutralization. — Three parts yellow and 

* It is not well to combine colors in their full 



one part violet makes a neutralized yellow 
or gray-yellow. 

Three parts violet and one part yellow 
makes a neutralized violet or gray- violet 
halfway between violet and gray. This 
is true of the other colors.* 

35. The Color Chart. — To make a color 
circle which is composed of the full in- 
tense primary colors, yellow, red, and 
blue, and full intense binary or sec- 
ondary colors, orange, green, and violet, 
and the full, intense intermediate hues, 
yellow-orange, yellow-green, blue-green, 
blue-violet, red-violet and red-orange, 
with the inner circle showing these colors 
half neutralized and the center neutral 
gray, a paper should be used which holds 
water color (a "Keystone" Student's 
Drawing Block nine by twelve is good), 
on which to make the washes. These 
may be put on in small areas from two 
to four inches square. Satisfactory colors 
to use for this chart are Winsor & Newton's 
Gamboge for yellow, Winsor & Newton's 
Alizarine Crimson mixed with Milton 
Bradley's Standard Red for red, Winsor 
& Newton's New Blue for blue, Winsor 
& Newton's Cadmium Orange and Stand- 
ard Red for orange. New Blue and Milton 
Bradley's Standard Green for green, and 
Milton Bradley's Standard Violet for 
violet. 

(Don't mix standard red, standard 
green, or standard violet with other colors 
for use, except on the chart. They stain 
and settle. They can be used satisfactorily 
only in small areas. The ten-cent tube 
is the size to obtain for the color chart 
— the Winsor & Newton colors ditter in 
price and are more expensive. These are 
the colors that seem the best to obtain 
the desired result.) 

intensity unless relieved by black or white. 



Page Sixty-six 



COLOR 



To obtain the hues such as yellow orange, 
it is understood that a little yellow is 
added to the orange, for yellow-green a 
little yellow to the green, while for blue- 
green a little blue is added to the green, 
etc. The colors of the inner circle, which 
are known as colors at their half intensity, 
as, for instance, gray-orange or gray-yellow, 
are obtained by mixing the color with its 
complement. For example, about three 
parts yellow plus one part violet makes 
a neutralized yellow or gray-yellow. On 
the other hand, three parts violet plus one 
part yellow equals gray-violet, and this is 
true of all the other colors. The three 
primaries mixed give the center, neutral 
gray. (Alizarine crimson, gamboge and 
new blue.) 

Taking a neutral scale showing nine 
degrees of value from white to black, the 
equivalent color values should be found 
for the color chart; as for example, the 



Yellow 

Yellow-Orange 1 
Yellow- Green J 
Orange | 
Green j 
Red-Orange 
Blue-Green 
Red 1 
Blue J 
Red-Violet 
Blue- Violet 
Violet 



W. White 

H. L. High Light 

Light 

L. L. Low Light 

M. Middle 

H. D. High Dark 

D. Dark 

Low Dark 
B. Black 



This value scale should be used in 
selecting colors in order to keep them 
keyed correctly together according to 
value. 



Practice on the paper in these small 
squares about three inches in size until 
satisfactory results. are obtained; do not 
get your paint on too thick or too thin. 
Be sure your brush is perfectly clean and 
get one color at a time, always making 
four or five squares that you may be sure 
to obtain a satisfactory value for your 
choice of color. After you have finished 
cut your squares out and compare them 
with your value scale; half closing your 
eyes often helps this comparison. When 
a satisfactory selection has been made, 
use either a quarter, a nickel, or a dime, 
according to the size of the chart you 
wish to make and put these over the 
smoothest part of the washes, draw with 
a sharp pencil a circle, with the coin as 
a guide, and then cut out the colored 
discs. A compass should be used to 
make a guiding line for the placement of 
these small discs, which should be done 
very carefully. A good library paste 
should be used to mount the discs. 

36. Significance of Color. — In Prin- 
ciples of Advertising Arrangement the author 
says: "Color is one of the most interest- 
ing and important elements in nature, 
because the eye, the organ of one of 
the five senses of man, sees nothing 
but color. Form, as we call it, is seen 
only because one color is placed against 
another and by its position and contrast 
makes a shape. And every tone of color 
has a separate meaning — yellow speaks a 
definite thing to those who understand it. 
Blue cannot say what yellow says — 
neither can red or violet." 

In a folder gotten up by the Art in 
Trades Club of New York City, valuable 
information was given in a strikingly simple 
and concise way under the heading, The 



SOURCES OF COLOR SCHEMES 



Page Sixty-seven 



Principles of Color Harmony, which reads 
as follows: 

" Psychological Significance. — Color, as 
it varies in hue, value and intensity, by 
its intrinsic qualities and the association 
of ideas, excites certain definite thoughts 
and feelings in the human mind. 

Hues. — Blue — cold, formal and distant. 

Green — cool and restful. 

Yellow — cheerful, brilliant and unify- 
ing. 

Red — warm, rich and aggressive. 

Orange — hot, striking, but decorative. 

Violet — mournful, mystic, and darken- 
ing. 

Value. — Light color tones express youth, 
femininity, gayety and informality. 

Dark color tones express strength, dig- 
nity, repose, and seriousness. 

Intensity. — Colors in their full intensity 
are strong, loud, vital, and elemental in 
feeling. 

Colors that have been neutralized ex- 
press subtlety, refinement and charm. 

Balance in Color Harmony. — Colors to 
balance in harmony must be similar in 
intensity and area. If dissimilar, the in- 
tensity must vary in inverse proportions 
to the area. 

Backgrounds should be less intense than 
objects to be shown on them." (It is not 
well to figure a whole warm object on a 
cold background.) 

37. Sources of Color Schemes. — Many 
are the designer's sources for color schemes. 
With the knowledge of what harmony 
consists in, he may go to nature and find 
an endless variety in the animal, mineral, 
bird, reptile and flower kingdoms, and 
in atmospheric effects. Or he may go 
to museums and study china and glass 
and textiles, such as tapestries, rugs and 



old embroidery and laces. Again, he may 
go to picture galleries and get inspira- 
tions from old and new Japanese prints 
and from old and new masters in art. 
See illustration of the gown adaptation 
from Whistler's Nocturne, Fig. 102. 

In deciding what colors are becoming; 
it must be remembered that a color not 
only reflects its own tint on the face of 
the wearer, but also its complement (this 
is called simultaneous contrast) . Therefore, 
the eyes, hair, and skin of the wearer must 
be considered and such a color for the 
dress chosen as will neither give the per- 
son a faded, ghastly tinge nor too harsh 
and florid an appearance, but which will 
enhance his or her particular beauty. In 
large areas neutralized colors are always 
best — avoid the harshness of too much 
intensity. 

A very ugly combination may result 
from putting together two different hues 
of the same color. Simultaneous contrast 
can take place with a disastrous result. 
This is often what we mean when we 
say one blue kills another or one red kills 
another red. On account of this matter 
of hue, things that are the same color 
but of a different hue do not always 
harmonize. 

Be careful about using together colors 
of the same intensity, unless both or one 
is much neutralized. It is usually more 
satisfactory to use the more brilliant 
color in the smaller quantity. 

Modern colors have taken on many 
titles which they change from season to 
season, and which, while catering to the 
imagination of the public are quite over- 
whelming. This is wittily expressed in 
the following quotation from Dr. Frank 
Crane. 



Page Sixty-eight 



COLOR 



MODERN COLOR 

BY 

Dr. Frank Crane 

"Yes," said the saleslady, "we have all the new oflBcial 
Panama Exposition colors!" 

"For instance?" 

"Well, there's flagpole red, wall blue, exposition gold, 
travertine, lattice green, and " 

"But haven't you anything in just plain colors — red, 
green, or yellow and so on?" 

"Oh, no!" 

"Aren't those reds over there?" 

"We don't say red, you know, any more." 

"What then?" 



"Well, this is cerise and those are raspberry, brick 
dust, cardinal, crushed strawberry, carnation, and — let 
me see — this is old rose, this is ashes of roses, this is 
watermelon, this is sunset pink." 

"You interest me. How about blues?" 

"Why, there is navy blue, and Copenhagen blue, and 
Alice Blue, and old blue, and ultramarine blue, and sky 
blue, and robin's egg blue, and " 

"That's enough. I'm afraid you'll say Monday blue. 
Tell me some yellows." 

"Oh, lots of them! Straw, champagne, dust, tan, ca- 
nary, lemon, orange, tango, sand, and so on." 

"Goodness!" 

"Then we have in greens, Nile green, parrot green, 
lettuce green, Alice green, emerald green, Irish green. 
Reseda and others." 




ir 






>^ 



Fig. 98. — The reproduction from the color plate. 



CouTtesv of Criterion Magazine. 



SOURCES OF COLOR SCHEMES 



Page Sixty-nine 



"Isn't there any such thing as just plain, ordinary 
green?" 

"Oh no! It 's the shade, you know. Here, for example, 
are elephant's breath gray, and taupe." 

"Indeed!" 

"Yes; and then all the flower colors are represented — 
rose, violet, lavender, wistaria, nasturtium, pansy, daf- 
fodil, American Beauty, cherry blossom, and poppy 



"Charming! They appeal to the imagination." 
"Precisely. Half of the color-pleasure of dress goods 
is the pleased fancy. We strive for the unique, such as 



wood shades — walnut brown, mahogany, oak, and chest- 
nut; bird colors, such as coxcomb, chanticleer, dove, 
canary, yellow and parrot green; jewel tints, as ruby, 
sapphire, pearl, amber, topaz, coral, jade, and turquoise 
blue." 

"I am overwhelmed.'' 

"Oh, there are others — the most fantastic. You can 
have a claret necktie, a flame ribbon, laces of ivory or 
Isabella, a sash of cream, coffee, or chocolate color; a 
gown of mouse gray or steel gray, and other articles of 
your apparel, to assist you to perfect self-expression. 
Maybe the color of pomegcteiate, apple green, fawn, delfl 




Fig. 89.- 



Courtesy of CriteTion Magazine. 
-Reproduction showing the combination printing from the two plates. 



Page Seventy 



COLOR 



blue, lapis lazuli, taffy, salt and pepper, mustard, cinna- 
mon, mud, stone, cabbage, putty, string color, or wine 
color, besides Indian red or Pompeian red, sea green or 
pea green ! " 

" Thanks ! I think I'll take some ribbons, some of those 
advertised as "distinctly American in nomenclature" 5 
give me some Palm Beach, Piping Rock, Tuxedo brown, 
Arizona silver, Gettysburg gray, Oregon green, Delaware 
peach, Newport tan, and Rocky Mountain blue, if you 
please." 

38. Applying Colors. — In painting, be- 
gin at the top and color downward, from 
your left to your right. The edge of a 
color may be softened by a clean, damp 
brush; this is necessary in doing velvets. 
"Where shiny taffeta is desired, let the 
paints dry in a harder line to give crisp- 
ness and do not work over while still wet. 

Cold colors serve as shadows to warmer 
colors and should be laid on first; gen- 
erally, warm colors over cold should be 
the rule. After the sketch is finished 
and dry, unfinished-looking darks can be 
picked up with some darker darks and 
the high lights on the edges of coats, 
pockets, tucks, etc., can be brought out 
by thin, steady, crisp Chinese w^hite 
lines when detail is desired. 

Prussian Blue, Lake, and Sepia mixed 
make gray. One way of graying, or 
neutralizing, a color is by adding a little 
of its complement; but Payne's Gray 
and black are often of value for this use 
in dressmakers' sketches and commercial 
drawings. 

All brushes must be kept clean and rinsed 
after use. Never leave them in the water. 
Take plenty of color in your brush and 
try first on a piece of spare paper to see 
that you have the right tone and that 
the brush is not too wet or too dry. 

WTien you intend covering a space with 
a flat tone, have enough color mixed to 
go from the top to the bottom and from 

*See 



side to side without doing any more 
mixing or dipping your brush again in 
the water. Have the drawing board tilted 
toward you and enough color in your 
brush to ensure its keeping the little 
rivulet going without the danger of dry 
spots. For practice work it is well to 
make some eight-inch squares and to try 
covering their surfaces with a uniform 
tone. 

When you are making a dressmaker's 
sketch in white, it is sometimes helpful to 
put a little color in the background, up on 
one side and down on the other, not mak- 
ing it too intense, and taking care to 
soften the edge. 

When wishing to work in opaque (or 
body color), add a little Chinese White 
to your color. This is often useful for 
reproduction. What are known as Devoe's 
Show Card Colors are good for tempera 
fashion work. Theatrical costume designs 
are often carried out in this way.* 

Thompson's White has a stiff quality 
which makes it of value in doing dress- 
makers' sketches, where raised buttons, 
beads, embroidery, lace, etc., are desired. 
Put it on rather dry and let it stand 
until all moisture seems gone before touch- 
ing up these buttons, beads, or lace with 
color, gold or silver. Ink is often used 
with color, both for dressmakers' sketches 
and for reproduction. 

Have your sketch always carefully made 
in pencil, putting in the details last. 
Put in your big washes first and keep the 
whole sketch going, being particular not 
to concentrate too much on any one 
part. Avoid " niggling "; keep your wash 
clean and bold. 

Oramge Vermilion makes good flesh 
tones — vermilion, good lips and color in 

Page Nine. 



COLORS 



Page Seventy-one 



cheeks. There are two ways of putting 
this color on; one by putting the orange 
vermilion in a very light tone over all 
the flesh and then, when dry, adding the 
desired color to the cheeks (preferably 
having it high on the cheek bone) and 
quickly soft^ening the edge; the other 
way by stippling or putting on the added 
color with the tiny point of the brush 
while the all-over flesh tone is still 
wet. 

Always remember that colors dry much 
lighter. Blue and bluish gray make good 
shadows for white. In doing a dress- 
maker's sketch in dark blue or black, 
always keep the color transparent and 
lighter than the real material, though 
having the same effect, so that the detail 
will be shown. 

The following supplies will be found 
useful in doing this kind of water-color 
work : 

Colors. — Winsor & Newton colors are 
preferred. Less expensive but good stu- 
dent's colors are Devoe and Favor Ruhl. 
It is best to buy the box separately and 
fill it with the colors desired. Tubes dry 
up, therefore, unless colors are to be used 
constantly or in quantitj^ it is more eco- 
nomical to buy half pans, with the excep- 



tion of black and white; these should 
be bought in the tubes. 

One should have Prussian Blue and 
either New Blue, Cobalt, or Ultramarine, 
Payne's Gray, Emerald Green, Hooker's 
Green 1, Hooker's Green 2, Lemon Yellow, 
Yellow Ochre, Naples Yellow, Raw Sienna, 
Burnt Sienna, either Rose Madder, Car- 
mine or Crimson Lake, Vermilion, Orange 
Vermilion, Mauve, Sepia, Van-Dyck 
Brown, Gold, and Silver. In tubes, Lamp- 
black and \Miite, and Thompson's White 
if raised work is desired. This list is 
found convenient in saving the time of 
mixing in doing dressmakers' colored 
sketches. 

The best colors to get in the Devoe 
Show Card list are White, Light Yellow, 
Orange, Light Red, Magenta, Mauve, 
Dark Blue, Light Blue, and Green. Some 
artists use letterine when a shiny finish 
is wanted. 

Brushes. Rubens, and Winsor & New- 
ton red sable brushes are recommended. 
Good sizes for fashion work are Nos. 3 
and 4, and 6 and 7. Devoe or some less 
expensive brushes should be used for ink, 
Chinese white, gold, and silver, which 
are injurio\is to brushes. Bristle brushes 
are good for a steady, broad line. 




®y^ 



Drawn by Robert Henry for Felix Jungmann & Cie., Paris. 



-<^x«) 




C.BflR8;E.R x^lJ 



CouTtesv of Vogue, New York Rcpresmtalltes 
the Gaiette du Bon Ton. 



LES COLCHIQUES 

Manteau de voyage de Paquin 



From a color illustration by George Barbier. 



DESIGN 

CHAPTER FIVE 



CHAPTER FIVE 



DESIGN 



39. Fundamentals of Good Design. — 

Order is the law of all design, No matter 
how far we allow our fancy to go, we should 
never lose sight of the 
principles of design; 6a/- 
-imce, rhythm, and harmony. 
Furthermore, we should 
always aim at simplicity 
and appropriateness. 

Like the architect, we 
should study ancient and 
mediaeval examples as well 
as later ones. Like his, 
cur problem is two-fold: 
First, to find out the best 
and most beautiful that 
can be conceived, and 
second, to adapt it to our 
own present-day needs. 

Great heed must be 
given, fundamentally, to 
personal characteristics. 
The materials used for 
comfort or ornament can 
then be so chosen and so 
treated as to neutralize 
individual defects or de- 
ficiencies and to enhance 
every good point.* 

40. Facts Always to be 
Kept in Mind. — Common 
sense and observation 
show that stout people 
should avoid large head 

^ decorations, and hats which 
make a person appear 
shorter than their real height, as they 
enlarge the head proportion. They 
should also avoid sleeves that are very 




Courtesy of Mile JacQueline. 
Fig. 100. — Hat inspired by a bowl 
of crocuses. 



full at the shoulder and skirts that 

are very narrow at the bottom, as these 

accentuate the size of the hips and trunk. 

Horizontal lines make 

the figure look shorter 

and stouter; the shorter 

the vertical lines are 

made, the shorter the 

person will seem. Bands 

of contrasting tone or 

color accentuate the line 

effect. Stout people should 

avoid large figured goods 

and materials too bright 

or too light in color. 

Thin people with very 
narrow, sloping shoulders 
should avoid the exagger- 
ated kimona and shoulder 
seams drooping over the 
arm, and should keep to 
the horizontal shoulder 
lines, if they do not wish 
to emphasize this personal 
characteristic. 

Tall, thin people should 
avoid long vertical lines 
such as very definite or 
large stripes, for these lines 
accentuate height. This 
is not true of inconspicu- 
ous stripes. They should 
avoid a coat line which 
cuts them into awkward 
lengths Remember the 
Greek law: When two 
lines are in good relation to each other, 
the shorter comes between one-half and 
two-thirds of the longer line. 



* " Woman as Decoration " by Emily Burbank, will be found profitable reading in this connection. 



Page Seventy-six 



DESIGN 




Tall, thin people should 
avoid narrow-chested effects 
and clothes that fit too 
tightly. 

Everybody should beware 
of too conspicuous plaids and 
stripes or figured materials. 
As a rule do not combine 
large figured materials with 
small figured materials.* 

Small people, when se- 
lecting figured goods for themselves, 
should always get small figured materials, 
emphasizing their daintiness. Note this 
even in plain stuffs, as, for instance, 
how a narrow-ribbed corduroy suits a 
small person better than a wide-ribbed one. 

Figured, striped, or plaid materials, 
which approach plain material, will stand 
more trimming than those in which the 
designs are emphatically decorative. 

Equal or nearly equal amounts of dark 
and light are unsatisfactory unless they 
approach an "all-over" tone. 

When other things are equal, square 



Fig. 101. — Gowns that are in style to- 
day were in vogue five thousand years 
ago as a study of the figures at the 
Metropolitan Museum, New York, 
will show. 



Courtesy of New York Evenini World. 

shoulders give one an ap- 
pearance of being taller than 
sloping shoulders, and the 
higher the waist line the 
greater the apparent height . 
A narrow belt makes the 
waist appear smaller and 
longer, whereas a wide girdle 
gives the appearance of a 
broader, shorter waist (if 
above the waist line). 
Over-decoration is always bad. 
Broken line effects are always bad. 
(As, for example, waists and skirts with 
seemingly no connection.) 

A continuation of waist line into the 
skirt is good. 

Light colors near the face are good. 
When one striking note of color is used 
(as in a belt), it should have a repetition 
elsewhere (as in a touch on the sleeve 
and waist). 

41. Sources of Designs. Bearing the 
foregoing facts in mind, we may draw our 
inspiration from museums, libraries, things 



* Never mix scale in design. 



SOURCES OF DESIGNS 



Page Seventy-seven 



in nature, or from any source that appeals 
to us, and start our design. See Fig. 101. 

Fig. 100 shows us how 
Mile. Jacqueline found 
her inspiration for a hat 
in a bowl of tulips. As 
for the first prize evening 
dress of the Times Prize 
Contest for Original Amer- 
ican Designs, made by 
the writer and shown by 
Fig. 102, the Times has 
given the following de- 
scription of its source. 

Whistler s well-known Nocturne 
furnished the inspiration for this 
evening gown, which owes its 
distinction to subtlety of color 
and grace of line. It is, unfortu- 
nately, impossible in a sketch to 
do justice to the extraordinary 
feeling for color which the de- 
signer has shown in her selection 
and handling of materials, be- 
cause she has obtained her effect 
by using semitransparent color 
over contrasting color. 

She has secured a faithful echo 
of the Nocturne's blue-green, 
gray-brown harmonies by laying 
pastel-blue chiffon, faintly green 
tinged, over putty color. The 
girdle is in a deeper green-blue 
and its Oriental embroidery is 
worked out in blues and gold and 
the vivid flame color of which 
there is one single glint in the 
Whistler picture. 

Another note of blue is sounded 
in the necklace of wooden beads, 
the smaller beads catching up the 
wing shoulder draperies. 




The waist made for the 
Ladies^ Home Journal, 
shown in Fig. 103, was 
suggested by the Lily of the Valley. Fig. 
99, Pattern No. 8082, in the Criterion, 



Cuuru^y uj iSew York Times. 
Fig. 102. — Design for an evening dress in- 
spired by "A Nocturne" in Tate Gallery 
by Whistler. 



was adapted from an Arizona pine, and 
Fig. 99, Pattern No. 8079, from a Hopi 
Indian woman's dress. 

If the designer's imag- 
ination needs stimulating 
to get away from the 
commonplace, see what 
music or poetry will do 
to help. Notice how, 
when either are sad, one 
thinks in subdued grays 
and violets and dull blues; 
when they are joyous, 
pinks, yellows and less 
somber colors come into 
one's mind.* 

The designer has such 
an immense store-house 
from which to draw that, 
when his eyes are once 
opened to the endless 
treasures that are wait- 
ing to inspire him, his 
world is as full of wonders 
as the vaulted chambers 
of the Forty Thieves, or 
the untold treasures in 
the cavern of Aladdin. 

Appreciation is needful 
and it is necessary to 
gain this love and under- 
standing of the beautiful 
which really comprises 
what we call taste. We 
should know something 
of the art of the past 
as well as the costumes 
of these periods, so rich 
in material is that of the 
Egyptians, Greeks, Ro- 
mans, Assyrians, and Byzantines, as 
well as that of the cruder times of the 



*Paul Poiret truthfully says "There are gowns which express joy of life; those which announce catastrophe; gowns that weep; 
gowns romantic; gowns full of mystery; and gowns for the Third Act." 



Page Seventy-eight 



DESIGN 



Gauls and Franks. Beginning with the 
French costumes of the fifth century 
and the Enghsh after the Norman Con- 
quest in the eleventh century, we come 
down the centuries with a wonderful un- 
folding of both beau- 
ty and eccentricity of 
design. 

There are many 
wonderful costume 
books that may be 
consulted by the 
designer with both 
enjoyment and profit. 
A fairly compre- 
hensive list of these 
will be found on 
pages 127 and 128. 

42. Hats.— Wlien 
seen from the side, 
the lines of the crown 
of the hat should not 
extend beyond the 
line of the forehead 
nor beyond the hair 
in the back. If the 
hair extends far in 
the back, the hat 
should come between 
the head and end of 
the hair in order prop- 
erly to balance with 
the spinal column. 

People with small 
or narrow faces 
require smaller hats than those with 
large faces, to whom larger hats are 
becoming. Care should be taken not to 
accentuate undesirable lines or features 
by too strong repetition or opposition. 
Try rather to neutralize such. 

The milliner's problem is allied to that 




Courtesy of Ladles' Home Journal. 
Fig. 103. — Green and white blouse inspired by a lily 
of the valley. 



from the chin to 



of the sculptor in so much as the effect 
is to be viewed from every side and, ac- 
cording to Beau Brummel, the most 
important part of a woman's hat is the 
back. Beside this, the laws of propor- 
tion demand that we 
consider not alone 
the relation of the 
hat to the head, but 
also the relation cf 
the head and hat to 
the entire figure. 
(For illustration, 
headgear too large 
for the figure gives 
a clumsy, awkward 
appearance.) 

Thus, no matter 
what fashion decrees, 
the law of proper 
proportions for every 
individual should be 
sought out and 
obeyed, even if it 
brings about a dis- 
agreement with the 
prevailing modes. 

43. Designing 
Hats.— The height 
of any hat, generally 
speaking, should not 
be more than three- 
quarters the depth of 
the face. (That is, 
the length of the face 
the eyebrows.) The 
greatest width of a wide hat should not 
exceed three times the width of the 
wearer's face, including the ears and the 
hair at the sides of the head. The greater 
width is often at the left side. 

The crown of a hat is very important 



DESIGNING HATS 



Page Seventy-nine 



and must appear to cover the head and of clothes as studies in the flat and must 
also any puffs of hair. People with large aim to make them please from every 

side. At the 
same time we 
must not lose 



heads should 
not wear hats 
with small 
crowns. On the 
other hand, 
people with 
long, thin faces, 
and plainly 
arranged hair 
should not wear 
hats with 
crowns wider 
than the width 
of their faces 
and hair. If we 
are ever to 
overcome our 
bromidic ten- 
dency in dress, 
we shall have 
to cultivate an 
appreciation of 
personality and 
character and 
become so in- 
terested in type 
that we will 
resist our hith- 
erto sheep-like 
tendency to 
follow the 

modes, even when they distort and cari- 
cature us. 

The designs shown in Fig. 104 were 
made by Kelly for the Globe. In designing 
we must get away from the consideration 




sight of unity 
and must never 
let distracting 
details interfere 
with the centre 
of interest 
which is usually 
the head. In 
other words, we 
should aim to 
make personality 
dominate the 
clothes. 

For a most 
telling illustra- 
tion of this 
last point, 
study the paint- 
in gs of Rem- 
brandt. Note 
how all his 
wonderfully 
thought-out 
textures and 
tones of gar- 
ments are made 
subs er vient 
to his char- 
acterization, how all these lead up to the 
head and face and seem arranged to per- 
fectly reveal the individuality of the 
sitter, his occupation, his walk in life, and 
his inmost character. 

Scale must be considered in the combination of textures, for instance crystal bugles and pearl trimming 
that could be successfully combined with delicate chiffons or silk would be wholly inappropriate with serge, while an 
Indian bead ornament that would be suitable with the serge would be out of place with the chiffon. Fluffy chiffon and 
lacy things or baby pinks or blues are out of place with tailored or mannish things. These points should be given 
serious consideration in connection with such accessories as parasols, hats, shoes, gloves, jewelry and dress trimmings. 

Some books that bear directly on designing are Principles of Correct Dress by Florence Hull Winterburn, Color Harmo- 
nies in Dress by G. A. Audsley, What Dress Makes of Us by Dorothy Quigley, Textile and Costume Designing by Ellisworth. 



ic. 104. 



Courtesy of New York Globe. 
Drawing in which wash pencil, craj-on pencil and pen 
and ink are combined. 




Robe d inteneur 

Courtesy of Vogue, New York represeniattve of the i 
From a color illustration by George Lepape, 



THE FASHION SILHOUETTE 

CHAPTER SIX 



CHAPTER SIX 



THE FASHION SILHOUETTE * 



44. Value of the Silhouette.— The Sil- 
houette is the foundation of all fashions, 
and it is most interesting to study its 
varied aspect through the centuries. Taken 
in a literal sense, it so simplifies the cos- 
tumes of the period 
that the many errors 
now seen in the cos- 
tume world are un- 
necessary to even the 
novice. Much less 
necessary are the glar- 
mistakes 





Fig. 105. — ^The gorget. 



mg mistaKes we now 
see in print in regard 
to Moyen Age and Renaissance costumes, 
as well as those of the eighteenth and 
nineteenth centuries, that period of much 
uncertainty about the hoop and Empire, 
the crinoline and bustle. For 
this reason it seems advantage- 
ous, as well as interesting, to 
become thoroughly familiar with 
costume silhouettes of all ages. 

The silhouette classifies, sim- 
plifies, and so condenses details 
that both time and trouble are 
saved. Curiously enough, this 
saving is what its name sig- 
nifies, as it is taken from the 
name of Etienne de Silhouette, 
Minister of Finance to France 
in 1759, whose public economy in trying 
to avert national bankruptcy during the 
reign of Louis XV caused his name to 
be given to things ostensibly economical. 

45. Twelfth to Fifteenth Centuries.— 
To begin with, let us glance at Fig. 110, 



Fig. 107.— The 
wimple. 




Fig. 106.— XV Century 
horned head-dress. 



centuries (the tenth and eleventh were 
so nearly like the twelfth and thirteenth 
that drawings are omitted) . 
The effect is of everything 
hung from the shoulder 
and all garments rather 
loose. The head was usually 
more or less bound or wrap- 
ped around, though at 
certain times in certain 
localities the hair was worn 
in long braids. The four- 
teenth century shows the 
innovation of scallops, the 
fifteenth the increased length of hats and 
shoes, but in spite of these touches all 
belong to the Moyen Age, to things that 
are Gothic. 

It is interesting to see these 
clothes so beautifully described 
in the Gothic Tapestries and 
illuminated books of the time 
and the efiSgies in churches. 
See Fig. 108. In the eleventh 
century the wimple was wound 
around the head, not allowing 
the hair to show; about a 
hundred years later came the 
fashion of the chin band and 
forehead-strap. See Fig. 107. 
The hair was still hidden by the 
A hundred years later and this 
earlier headdress had been followed by the 
gorget — a piece of linen wrapped about 
the neck halfway framing the face. See 
Fig. 105. Around the wimple was some- 
times tied a silk band called a snood. The 
gown was still long and loose at the waist 



wimple. 



starting with the twelfth and thirteenth 

* This chapter is reprinted through courtesy of the New York Globe. 



Page Eighty-four 



THE FASHION SILHOUETTE 




Fig. 108. — Showing the houppelande or XV Century robe. Tlie Giving of the Rose, a Gothic decorative 
tapestry at Metropolitan Museum. 



with sometimes a girdle, remaining so 
until the fifteenth century. 

46. Religious Orders. A picturesque 
touch of this early costume may be noted 
today in the dress of the nuns and sisters. 
The Dominican nuns wear practically 
the same garb as when their order was 
instituted by Saint Dominic in 1218, 
including the rosary, which was his in- 
novation. Many religious orders were 
founded in the eleventh, twelfth, thir- 
teenth, and fourteenth centuries as, for 



example, the Sisterhood of the Annunci- 
ation at Bourges by St. Jeanne de Valois, 
daughter of Louis XI of France. Today 
they bring to us the legend, beauty and 
romance of those dark ages. They breathe 
castles, crusades, monasteries, and con- 
vents. 

In the fifteenth century, as the pointed 
arches of the Gothic architecture grew 
more pointed, the head covering or hen- 
nens (see Figs. 106 and 110) as well as 
the shoes followed suit, so that in this 



SIXTEENTH CENTURY 



Page Eighty-five 



century came the high-water mark of 
extremes. To this day we find left over 
traces of these headdresses in some of the 
costumes of the 
peasants in re- 
mote districts on 
the continent. 

47. Sixteenth 
Century.— The 
sixteenth cen- 
tury found 
great changes, 
on sea and land. 
Printing had 
been invented, 
America had 
been discovered 
and the first 
watches made. 
The silhouette 
was greatly 
changed. The 
Renaissance 
changed the 
architecture of 
dress as well 
as of every- 
thing else. Al- 
brecht Diirer 
has left us 
won d erf ul 
contemporary 
sketches of the 
early part of 
this century, 
the originals of 
which are in 
Nuremberg, see 
Fig. 109. 

We are all familiar with the slashed 
sleeves of Henry VIH and his queens 
(1509-1547) immortalized in the portraits 








'% 



by Hans Holbein. There was a stiffening 
of the figure and a tendency toward the 
smaller waistline in the sixteenth century. 
- - It might be 

well to say 
,-^^ . here that in the 

twelfth century 
lacing is sup- 
posed to have 
come in. Cal- 
throp tells us 
in his history 
of English 
Costume, "Not 
that the lacing 
was very tight, 
but it com- 
menced the 
habit and the 
habit begat the 
harm, and the 
thing grew un- 
til it arrived 
finally at the 
buckram, 
square-built, 
cardboard-and- 
tissue figure 
which titters 
and totters 
through the 
Elizabethan 
era." Up to the 
fifteenth cen- 
tury is notice- 
able a sense of 
looseness, of 
everything 
being more or 
less supported from the shoulders, giving 
the straight lines of the middle ages. 
The fifteenth century was transitional; 






Courtesy of Art Stvdent Magtuine. 
Fig. 109. — Late XV Century costume drawing by Albrecht Diirer. 



Page Eighty-six 



THE FASHION SILHOUETTE 



iHMm 



Fig. 110. — How the different centuries affected the fashion silhouette. 



Draim by Inez Casseau. 



after that the tight, long waists and women of that day. The Puritans and 

wide skirts came to stay until the nine- Pilgrims both are distinguished by the 

teenth century brought in the Empire costumes prevalent at the time they were 

style. organized (period of James I, 1603-1625, 

48. Seventeenth and Eighteenth Cen- and Charles I, 1625-1649, of England). 



turies. — The Eliza- 
bethan high collar was 
the forerunner of the 
Charles I (1625-1649) 
flat collar and cuffs 
of which the Crom- 
wellian period (1649- 
1660) was a simplifica- 
tion. The drawings 
of Hollar give excel- 
lent illustrations of 
these. The Quaker 
dress is the survival 
of the costume of 
Charles II period 
(1660-1685), although 
the hat is minus the 
feather — plain linen 
takes the place of 
lace. The shoes are the 
same, but without the 
ribbon or roses, really 
similar in every way 




Fig. 111. — ^Early XVI Century fashion drawing by 
Hans Holbein. 



The portrait painters 
have done nobly in 
preserving for us the 
fashions of the times 
through the costumes 
worn by their distin- 
guished sitters. Such 
men as Velasquez, Van 
Dyck, and Rubens in 
the seventeenth cen- 
tury, and in the eigh- 
teenth Watteau, 
Fragonard, Nattier, 
Romne}', Gainsborough, 
Lawrence, Raeburn, 
and Sir Joshua Rey- 
nolds have left us 
valuable documents. 

Thus we pass 
through the sixteenth 
and part of the seven- 
teenth centuries, 
leaving the time of the 



with the extravagance eliminated and Renaissance for the period of the Louis of 

simplicity emphasized. The beaver hat France. The stately dignity and truly 

and hood of the Quaker, then called the roya' magnificence of Louis XIV was fol- 

French hood, were both worn by the lowed by the less formal but luxurious 



NINETEENTH CENTURY 



Page Eighty-seven 



iUil^t 



Fig. 112. 



Courtesy of London Graphic. 



rococo period of Louis XV (1723-1774), the classic revival of the Greek and 
when Pompadour and du Barry set the Roman, modified to suit the climate and 
styles in the Parisian world of fashion, epoch. This revival was the natural out- 
Then followed the reappearance of the come of the interest people were taking 



hoop and the more extreme though re- 
fined attitude toward dress during the 
reign of Louis XVI and Marie Antoinette. 
In England at this time George III was 
reigning (1760-1820) and the Shakers 
came to this country 
wearing what con- 
stitutes their cos- 
tume to-day — the 
wide, pleated skirt, 
bonnet and apron 
of the English work- 
ing class. 

49. Nineteenth 
Century.— The 
third great change 
in the silhouette did 
not come until the 
Directorate in 1795, 
so that the early 
nineteenth century 




Fig. 113. — Quaint styles of Kate Greenaway. 



at that time in- the restoration work of 
the buried Pompeian cities, and one 
sees in the Empire style the classic type 
emphasized. It was an endeavor for 
something different, something essentially 
new, for anything 
suggesting the 
former royalty was 
frowned upon by 
Napoleon. It is in- 
teresting to note 
that it was back to 
this quaint period 
that Kate Green- 
away (1846-1901) 
loved to go for in- 
spiration. It was 
she who revived 
these costumes of 
the beginning of the 
nineteenth century. 



found the narrow skirts and short waists and it is truthfully said in this style, made 

conspicuous. See ^rst silhouette of Fig. still more beautiful by her naive touch, she 

112. Jacques Louis David, the court painter did dress, and still dresses, the children of 

of Napoleon, was a strong influence in two continents. See Figs. 113 and 22. 



Page Eighty-eight 

We have left now the hoop of the 
eighteenth century, and have come to 
the nineteenth century with its Empire 
and charming 1830 costume, which always 
makes one think of nosegays and old- 
fashioned valentines (see Fig. 112) and 
the crinoline of 1840, which made the 
skirt grow wider until 1864. (To get the 
atmosphere of this time, look at George 
Du Manner's illustrations of Owen Mere- 
dith's "Lucile.") Fashion then took a 
turn and the skirt began in 1865 to grow 
narrower until in the winter of 1869-1870 
the bustle and the draped skirts appeared. 
In this one century, therefore, with its 
narrow skirts, its bell skirts, its wide 
skirts, its bustles, and its draped skirts, 
there were really many more definite 
changes than in the ten centuries of sil- 
houettes we have been examining. 

While speaking of skirts, small mention 
has been made of sleeves, but they sil- 



THE FASHION SILHOUETTE 

houette quite as well as the other parts 
of the costume, with even the added in- 
terest of the fact that down through the 
centuries the sleeves of men and women 
were very much alike, no bigger no 
smaller, until the nineteenth century, when 
the leg-of-mutton sleeve was affected also 
by men. That seems to have been, how- 
ever, the time of emancipation, for then 
men's sleeves became small and have re- 
mained so ever since. 

The thirty beautiful little period dolls 
in the Metropolitan Museum illustrate 
how truly the silhouette has kept for us 
the fleeting shadow of the passing cen- 
turies. Let us then not deny or push 
- aside the silhouette as of small importance. 
Historically it is valuable, and the paths 
it leads us through in the study of cos- 
tume are full of beauty and varied interest. 
It is with the silhouette in mind that we 
should observe every fashion. 



1199 1350 IJ2J 1580 1640 1660 1723 1620 

Drawn by Maraaret Calderhead. 
How different centuries have affected the silhouette of men. 



PERIOD FABRIC DESIGN 

CHAPTER SEVEN 



CHAPTER SEVEN 



PERIOD FABRIC DESIGN 



50. Primitive Design. — Primitive de- 
sign, often so fresh and simple in treat- 
ment and character, does not differ much 
in units. The United States Government 
pubhshed in 1894 a report that the results 
of its researches showed 
that the san^e swasticka 
used in prehistoric America 
had also been found in 
India, Eastern Turkestan, 
Northern Europe, Southern 
Europe, Asia Minor, 
Greece, Rome, Northern 
Africa and Byzantium. So 
much symbolic significance 
is often attached, or some 
strict religious meaning, 
that design is a deep and 
interesting subject from an 
ethnological point of view, 
but "simple pictorial ex- 
pressions are of world 
usage and are not suffici- 
ently intricate to consti- 
tute original thought." 
In these the student of 
design, however, can find 
splendid motives for mod- 
ern treatment. See Fig. 114. This ma- 
terial was designed from a unit on an 
Indian basket. 

51. Influence in Design. — We know 
that the early civilized races had inter- 
course, and we see the influence of this 
in their designs. We find Greek influence 
in the art of China, and for hundreds 
of years B.C. the arts of Assyrians, Egyp- 
tians, and Persians were allied through 



Fig. 114 



wars and conquests, and their designs 
were often similar. 

The affinity between the Art of India 
and Japan is close on account of Bud- 
dhism, which exercises a strong influence 
over both peoples. The 
Art of Japan and China 
is also somewhat similar; 
indeed, at times the dif- 
ferences are difficult to 
determine. The Japanese 
have a greater love for 
detail and do not con- 
ventionaHze in as broad 
a way as the Chinese, 
but many of their forms 
are identical. It is inter- 
esting to know that, where 
this is the case, the in- 
fluence can be traced to 
India. 

The Japanese in their 
designs show a great love 
for nature — flowers, moun- 
tains, waves, dragons, 
tortoises, etc., and the 
method used is usually 
picturesque (in spite of 
its interesting conventionality) instead of 
formal. 

52. Early Fabrics and Designs. — In 
outlining period fabric design, Egypt must 
first be mentioned, where weaving was 
known 3000 b.c. Examples of ancient 
fabrics dating as far back as 1000 B.C. 
can be seen in the Louvre, Paris. While 
we know that checkered rugs were woven, 
we find that garments during the Old 




Drawn and designed by G. Rothschild 

Design motive from Indian 
basket. 



Page Ninety-two 



PERIOD FABRIC DESIGN 




Fig. 115. — Greek Doric 
cx)stume from Hope. 



Kingdom, Dark Ages, 
Middle Kingdom, 
Period of Shepherd 
Kings, and New 
Empire, i.e., from 
2980 B.C. until 945 
B.C., were usually 
made of linen and 
wool, woven by hand. 
While the dyes used 
were principally red, 
blue, and saffron, 
white seems to have 
been most worn. The 
material was plain, 
the decoration, if any, 
being embroidery at 
the hem. While fond 
of ornamentation, the 
people during this 
time seem to have 
depended on their 



wigs and headdresses, collars, hanging 
straps, armlets, and leg decorations, 
and not to have introduced figures in 
their weaves. See Fig. 116. 

The Copts or Egyptian Christians, 
like the Greeks and Romans, wore 
wonderfully woven or embroidered 
bands on their garments, the color 
and designs of which are most inter- 
esting. Good examples are to be seen 
in the Coptic Room, Metropolitan 
Museum of Art, and in the Cooper 
Union Museum. 

53. Greek Dress. — The Greeks used 
wool linen, and silk. Linen and silk 
were used for the more extravagant 
costumes of the later period, though 
they had cotton in small quantities. 
Cotton belonged to India; it did not 
become known to Europe until the 



invasion of Alexander the Great. It was 
too expensive for large garments and was 
a deep yellow in color.. 

The Doric and Ionic chitons, or dress, 
and the himation, or cloak, were used in 
different colors. Blue and Tyrian purple 
as well as red and yellow were popular. 
Different borders were often combined 
in the Greek costume with an all-over 
design. See Fig. 115. The designs were 
frequently emblems, and birds, animals 
or flowers. The garments were woven 
in one piece which was complete in itself. 
The long, graceful folds of this single 
garment produced a decorative and simple 
effect, and it is interesting to note also 
the different effects obtainable by chang- 
ing the position of the girdle. This was 
worn at the waist in the Archaic period. 




116. — Costume of man and woman of Egypt about 2500 B.C. 
from Kistoire de L'Art Egyptian. 



ROMAN DRESS 



Page Ninety-three 



over the hips in the Golden Age, and 
under the arms at the last period. 

Interesting and detailed accounts of 
Greek costumes may be found in Evans's 
Greek Dress and Edith Abraham's Greek 
Dress; good illustrations in Hope's Cos- 
tume of the Ancients. 

54. Roman Dress. — The Romans and 
Greeks imported much material from 
Babylonia. Some of the silk is described 
as having a nap on both sides (velvet), 
and as gold, scarlet and purple in color. 
The Roman women wore a tunic, a stola 
(like the Grecian chiton), and a palla, 
which corresponded to a Roman man's 
toga, or a Grecian woman's himation. 
The Roman women added a ruffle to 
their dress which was often elaborately 
decorated. Silk was at a premium, but 
was frequently mixed in weaving with wool 
or linen. With the exception of more 
elaboration, the fabrics did not differ 
much from the Grecian. 





Fig. 117. — Italian XIV Century costumes from Jacquemin. 



55. Influ- 
ence of the 
E a s t .— 
Fabrics 
seem always 
to have 
drawn their 
inspiration 
from the 
East. We 
find the 
Gauls after 
the conquest 
of Csesar, 
55 B.C., 
adopting a 
somewhat 
m odified 
form of the 
Roman cos- 
tume. The 
Franks in 
taking possession of Gaul gradually (from 
the third to the fifth century a.d.), while 
they did not part with their costume as 
a whole", the women retaining their veils 
for some ten centuries, adopted the Byzan- 
tine styles, for the Eastern influence of 
the Roman Empire continued after the 
arrival of the Franks. We find both men 
and women in the ninth and tenth and 
twelfth centuries wearing stuffs brought 
from the East, even after the art of 
embroidery became generally understood, 
and tapestry weaving and applique work 
was carried on in Europe. 

56. Weaving. — WTiile mechanical weav- 
ing was done in Egypt 2000 B.C., the more 
complex use of the shuttles by vhich 
figures were produced without embroider- 
ing was not known until 200 a.d. It was 
then done by the Syrian weavers in the 



Fig. 118. — XIV Century parti-colored 
dresses — from Jacquemin. 



Page Ninety-four 



PERIOD FABRIC DESIGN 



Eastern Roman Empire. 
For many years the devel- 
opment of weaving was 
slow, and the repeat pat- 
terns were of the simplest 
kind. Ornamental silks 
were first produced in 
Europe 500 a.d.; they 
were Roman and Byzantine 



to the twelfth century. 
These were sometimes 
linked together, large circles 




Fig. 120.— XVI Century trunk 
motive. 

The design consisting of 
a circle or square frame 
developed in the first cen- 
tury; for the next five 
hundred years circles or 
squares, sometimes filled 
with Persian or Syrian 
floral detail, persisted. 
This same design was used 
for centuries afterwards for 
stained glass. 

About 400 to 600 a.d. 
broken circles came in, the 
upper and lower segments 
spreading out to form 
bands. Circles continued 




Fig. 119.— XIII Century formal 
arrangement. 

being joined by small ones 
at points of contact, and 
the patterns often becom- 
ing quite elaborate. The 
Saracenic hexagon geomet- 




rically arranged was also 
used. Up to the thirteenth 
century a formal arrange- 
ment was often followed, 
consisting of balanced 
groupings of birds, beasts, 
and men placed face to 
face or back to back. 




Fig. 121.— XVII and XVIII 
Century scroll motive. 



Fig. 122.— XIV and XV Century 
animal arrangement. 

The ogival form is a 
form of design in which 
the joining circles are 
brought into acute juncture, 
forming ovals. This design 
came in about 800 a.d., 
and like most things that 
were pointed, it continued 
through the Gothic period. 

In 700 A.D. Spain was 
progressing with silk weav- 
ing. About this time also, 
merchants from Syria 
opened establishments in 
Paris. In 800 a.d., the 
Daughters of Charlemagne 



USE OF GOLD THREAD 



Page Ninety-five 



did silk weaving, but up to the eleventh 
century the making of fine fabrics was 
practically monopolized by Athens, Thebes, 
Corinth, and Constantinople. 

No great extravagance had reached 
France before 
this. In the 
tenth century 
we read of its 
king, Charles 
the Simple, 
possessing but 
three shirts 
In the four- 
teenth century 
Isabeau de 
Baviere, com- 
ing to marry 
Charles VI, 
was thought to 
be showing an 
extraordinary 
degree of lux- 
ury in having 
three dozen 
chemises in 
her trousseau. 

The return of the Crusaders initiated 
the nobility of France into the luxury of 
the Orient. 

57. Use of Gold Thread. — Drawn gold 
thread was not used in early fabrics, but 
gold leaf on paper rolled around a fine 
thread of silk was employed. Sicilian 
fabrics of the thirteenth and fourteenth 
centuries frequently show a purple ground 
of twilled silk with birds and foliage 
formed by gold thread weft. Saracenic 
or Hispano-Moresque fabrics of Spain are 
distinguished by splendid crimson or dark 
blue conventional patterns of silk upon 
a yellow ground, and by frequent use of 




Fig. 123. 



strips of gilded parchment in place of 
rolled gilt thread. Undoubtedly through 
the influence of the Crusades, the Sicilian 
weavers of the thirteenth and fourteenth 
centuries produced many fabrics enriched 

with winged 
lions, crosses, 
crowns, rayed 
stars, harts, or 
birds, linked 
together with 
floriations or 
armorial bear- 
ings. See Fig. 
117. 

58. Parti- 
colored Dress. 
— The same 
in f 1 uence 
which brought 
with the Per- 
pendicular 
Gothic the 
introduction 
of heraldic 
forms, such as 
shields, crests 
and badges, found women of rank wearing 
parti-colored dresses; a division which 
practically cut the figure in half, the right 
side representing the arms of the husband, 
the left that of the lady's own family. 
See Fig. 118. 

Late in 1200 a.d. this character of 
design was introduced into Northern Italy. 
Genoa adopted much that was Persian 
from the twelfth to the seventeenth 
centuries, and in the fifteenth century, 
when Louis XI encouraged the art of 
weaving in France at Tours, and later 
at Lj'ons under Francis I (1515), the 
Persian and Italian fabrics were closely 



Courtesy of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. 



Painting by Hans Memling of Betrothal of Saint Catherine 
showing surcot and fabrics used in XV Century. 



Page Ninety-six 



PERIOD FABRIC DESIGN 



followed, and the vase pattern was 
adopted. 

The Oriental character of design in 
textiles did not entirely disappear until 
the seventeenth century when the gardens 
of Versailles and the Trianons under 
Louis XIV inspired the use of European 
flora. 

59. Classification of Fabric Designs. — 
The following brief classification will be 
found helpful in placing fabric designs 
in their proper periods. 

Twelfth and thirteenth centuries, for- 
mal arrangement. See Fig. 119. 

Fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, ani- 
mal figures. See Fig. 122. 

Sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, 
trunk motives. See Fig. 120. 

Seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, 
scroll motives. See Fig. 121. 

For a more detailed outline we can refer 
to that given by Clifford, in his book on 
Period Furnishings, in conjunction with 
his well-chosen illustrations. 

"I. 200-400 A.D. The development of 
circle and geometric frames, sometimes filled 
with simple floral, bird or animal forms. 

"II. 400-600 A.D. The utilization of 
broken circles spread out to form bands. 

"III. 600-1000 A.D. The use of circles 
linked by smaller circles, with ornaments 
inside and out, developing at length the 
ogival form; often hexagon framework. 

"IV. 1000-1350 A.D. Repeated parallel 
bands or ornamentation, detached details, 
patterns animated and inanimated, en- 
closed in ogival framing and combination 
circles or scale patterns as well as geo- 
metric straight-line framing. 1200-1300 
introduced features of design, as eagles, 
falcons, etc. 



"V. 1350-1500. A characteristic design 
of the fifteenth century was the use of 
reversed curves so firranged that they 
made frames. (The panels of Jeanne 
d'Arc, painted by Boutet de Monvel and 
owned by Senator William A. Clark, give 
very fine illustrations of the textures used 
at this period; they may be seen certain 
days upon written request. Both the 
surcot, which was now gradually disap- 
pearing, and the houppelande, or robe, 
which was appearing, lent themselves 
magnificently to these fabrics.) 

"This form utilized the Hogarth line of 
beauty. Another form was the inter- 
section of a Hogarth panel by two bold 
curving stems coming up through the 
bottom of the panel and capped by a cone 
pineapple or fruit device. 

"Still another showed a serpentine stem 
or winding trunk which ran through the 
Hogarth pattern in the midst of a variety 
of botanical forms. See Fig. 123. 

"VI. 1500. Designs adopted a free treat- 
ment. The plans of previous centuries 
were combined and elaborated. Orna- 
ment was arranged with ogival frames, 
springing out of the frame to which it 
seems to be attached. Interlacing of 
two frames of which one is ogival. Ogival 
frames of leaves and flowers enclosing a 
large concentric pattern. Elaborate ogival 
frames caught together by crowns. The 
use of vases, urns, crowns and animals 
became common. 

"VII. 1600-1700. During this time we 
find an elaborate use of European garden 
flowers instead of purely tropical Persian 
verdure, following, however, the general 
ogival form arrangement. 

" VIII. 1700. Pictorial tapestries and 
prints. Pure Renaissance styles, or devel- 



SIXTEENTH AND SEVENTEENTH CENTURIES Page Ninety-seven 



opments of that style. Louis XIV or XV. 
Oriental characteristics of either the 
French or English styles as shown in the 
scenic bits of Chinese or East Indian life. 
Louis XVI classic revival examples as ex- 
pressed by the late Louis XVI. 

"Directoire or Transition period in 
France and the Adam school in England. 
This period overlapped into 1800 and was 
generally adopted in American colonies. 

"IX. Empire and Empire influence." 

60. The Sixteenth and Seventeenth 
Centuries. — In the sixteenth and seven- 
teenth centuries, three distinct types of 
design were seen, the Renaissance, the 
Oriental Renaissance and the European 
floral. The Renaissance brought a change 
from the accustomed following of Persian 
Oriental design, and such motifs as the Per- 
sian rose and pink, the Rhodian lily and 
pomegranate gave way to such Egyptian, 
Roman, and Greek motifs as the Anthe- 
mion. Acanthus, Lotus and Iris. The 
second or Oriental Renaissance was really 
Portuguese-Persian, or the spirit of the 
Renaissance influencing the East through 
commercialism. The third or European 
flora was developed about 1650 during 
the reign of Louis XIV, when the ferns and 
flora of the Royal Gardens came into use 
as motifs. 

In studying the periods it must not be 
overlooked that the Dutch brought East 
Indian types into England under Elizabeth, 
the Jacobean, and Queen Anne reigns, 
and that the influence of China was 
strong in France during the reign of 
Louis XV, and in England under the 
Georges. The East India Company in 
1609 reserved all strange fowls and beasts 
to be found there, "for the Council." 



This brought the parrot and cockatoo in 
wicker cages, and similar motifs, much into 
evidence in the embroideries and printed 
fabrics, so full then of animal and floral 
design of Eastern character. The British 
rule in India created a demand as early 
as 1760 for Indian goods, and India cot- 
tons, dimity, and gauze were used in both 
England and France. 

61. Paris Becomes the Centre of 
Fashion. — For centuries Italy was the ^ 
centre from which foreign courts adopted 
both fashions in clothes and customs. 
It was not until the seventeenth century 
that Paris became the centre and home of 
taste. Several things had much to do 
with bringing this about. First, a great 
and appreciative impetus was given in- 
dustry by Colbert, the able minister 
of Louis XIV. Secondly, at this time 
long dresses were abandoned and the 
vogue for large Italian patterns ceased. 
Thirdly, the discovery of a way around 
the Cape of Good Hope had much to 
do with the trade in silks turning from 
Italy to Asia. 

Under Louis XIV artists held high posi- 
tion; it was an ambitious period. World 
forces, conquests and statecraft, as well 
as the taste of Louise de la Valliere, Ma- 
dame de Montespan, Mile, de Fontanges 
and Madame de Maintenon influenced the 
arts of the time. The magnificent gardens 
that were built, besides the motifs sug- 
gested by European floriculture, brought 
in festoons, vases, architectural designs, 
etc. It was under this king and his 
minister, Colbert, that the highest achieve- 
ment in lace making was reached in 
France. Lace is supposed to have been 
introduced into France by Catherine de 
Medici, wife of Henry II, in 1547. 



Page Ninety-eight 



PERIOD FABRIC DESIGN 



On the other hand, the arts of Louis 
XV had the stimulus qi social life, and 
were full of ostentation and extravagance. 
We find much less symmetry or balance 
in the motifs, which were shells, feath- 
ers, ribbons, knots, garlands, and Chinese 
and Japanese fancies. Pronounced stripes 
I were affected as creations of Madame 
Pompadour, and many charming gowns 
were made of the flowered silks named 
for this favorite of the King. 

62. Period of Louis XVI.— By the end 
of the eighteenth century heavy materials 
\, had fallen from favor and less metallic 
effects were sought in weaving, but 
oriental foliation, which was used be- 
fore and during the Renaissance, again 
came in. 

Under Louis XVI the designers fol- 
lowed innumerable paths under the im- 
pulse of capricious fashion. We have 
Arabesque composition, foliage, flowers, 
figures, landscapes, country scenes, alle- 
gories and Chinese ornament. 

In the fabrics we find stripes and rib- 
bons combined with flowers. Stripes were 
so much used that in 1788 it was said that, 
"Everybody in the king's cabinet looks 
like a zebra." Unlike the Pompadour 
stripe, the Queen Marie Antoinette stripes 
1/ were interwoven wuth flowers and orna- 
ments such as feathers, medallions, lyres, 
columns, etc. Marie Antoinette liked 
flowers, the pink, the tulip, but best of 
all the rose, and the impetus she gave the 
production of lace in the beginning of 
her reign shows the influence of her taste, 
which is everywhere seen in the entwined 
ribbons and garlands. 

63 Directoire and Empire Designs.— 



The Revolution, 1789-99, brought in 
simpler materials; cotton, India prints, 
and law^n were used. Colbert had put a 
stop to their use in former years because 
it threatened his pet silk industry. 

The Directoire, 1795 to 1804, followed 
this Revolution, and this was the tran- 
sition period between the classicism of 
the late king and the stronger style of 
the Empire. The India shawl — introduced 
after the Egyptian campaign — was much 
worn. This led to a French imitation and 
then to the Paisley copy made in Scotland, 
the Persian design of which has been so 
popular. 

The transition period was largely in 
combination with much that was Egyp- 
tian in character. The bee, laurel branch, 
wreath, helmeted warriors, etc., w'ere now 
used as motifs and stripes were still 
popular. This had marked influence and 
effect upon laces now wholly lacking in 
freedom of design. 

The costume of the Empire was usually 
more or less Oriental in ornamenta- 
tion, texture, and color. Napoleon's cam- 
paigns resulted in bringing into France 
the accumulated treasures of centuries, 
which became a source of inspiration, 
and left a characteristic imprint upon 
the period. 

Fabric design reveals much of the his- 
tory and atmosphere of each century and 
is worthy of intelligent study and con- 
sideration, not only by students, but by 
all who wish to develop their knowledge 
and appreciation of beauty. 

See Die Gewebe Sammlung des Kunst- 
gewerbe Museum von Julius Lessing, and 
Seidenweberei, Otto von Funke. 



OUTLINE OF HISTORIC COSTUME 

CHAPTER EIGHT 



CHAPTER EIGHT 



OUTLINE OF HISTORIC COSTUME- 




History and Dress 

64. Egyptian Costume. — (a) Men. (1) 
Old Kingdom, 4th, 5th, and 6th Dynasties 
(2980-2475 B.C.) . Memphis, capital. 

Lower classes wore a belt tied 
around the waist with hanging 
ends down the 
front (see Fig. 
127), a kilt-like 
loin cloth (see 
Fig. 129), or a 
skirt apparently 
made of rushes 
(see Fig. 128). 

In the 5th 
Dynasty, trian- 
gular erection 
came in, being 
temporarily 
adopted by the 
king in this dy- 
nasty. See Fig. 
124 of Perneb, 
representing an 
Egyptian noble- 
man in full dress. 
Both men and 
women shaved 
their heads and 
wore wigs. Men 
appear to have 
gone nude when 
engaged in stren- 
uous exercise. 

(2) Dark 
Ages, 6th to 
12th Dynasty. 

No change in costume shown. 

(3) Middle Kingdom, 12th and 13th 
Dynasties (2160-1788 B.C.). Thebes, capital. 



Courtesy of Metropolitan Museum. 
Fig. 124. Fig. 125. Fig. 126. 

Egyptian costumes. Showing a woman's costume, the triangular 
erection and the leopard skin worn by priests. 




Courtesy of Metropolitan Museum 
Fig. 127. Fig. 128. Fig. 129. 

The costumes worn by men in Egvpt during the Old Kingdom 
(2980-2475"^ B.C.). 



Skirts became longer and narrower, 

and were closed in front, with one 

side lapping over the other. When of 

transparent material, a skirt of 

thicker material in the shape 

of the short kilt of the Old 

Empire was worn 

underneath. 

(4) Period of 
Shepherd Kings, 
13th to 18th 
Djnasty. Israel- 
ites came down 
into Egypt. 

No change in 
costume shown. 

(5) New Em- 
pire, 18th, 19th 
and 20th Dy- 
nasties (1580-945 
B.C.). Thebes, 
capital. 

In the 18th 
Dynasty a tunic 
was sometimes 
added. This was 
open on the 
right side and 
had a short left 
sleeve. 

Many changes 
in skir+s now 
took place, plait- 
ed effects be- 
came popular. 
See Fig. 131. 
Cloaks were 
worn from the time of the 4th Dynasty, 
but became generally used during the 
Middle Kingdom. See Fig. 130. 



Page One Hundred Two 



OUTLINE OF HISTORIC COSTUME 



Apron-like decoration 
was worn from the 4th to 
the 20th Dynasty. Men 
were clean shaven, and wore 
wigs and false beards. Ker- 
chiefs were often used. 
Leopards' skins were worn 
by priests. See Fig. 126. 

(b) Women.~^th to 18th 
Dynasty. 

All, with the exception of 
some servants and dancing 
girls, wore a simple costume 
from bust to ankles, very 
tight without folds, some- 
times held on by one, 
sometimes by two shoulder 
straps, and sometimes by 
a necklace. See Fig. 125. 
Embroidery was frequently used 

In the 18th Dynasty 
the dress was carried 
over the left shoulder, 
plaits became popular, 
and a left sleeve was 
introduced. In the 
20th Dynasty a thick 
under dress was used. 
White seems to have 
been in favor, also red, 
saffron, and blue. 

Both men and wo- 
men wore sandals in 
the street. The collar 
was an important dec- 
oration and was made 
of papyrus decorated 
with beads or embroi- 
dered in wool. 

Bracelets and leg 
decorations were 
largely used. These fig 




Courtesy of MetropolUan Museum. 
Fig. 130. — An Egyptian cloak. 



on borders. 




CouTtesy of Metropolitan Museum. 
131. — Plaited effects of the New Empire 



were of metal and em- 
broidery. 

(c) Emblems or Symbols. — 
Upper Egyptian crown, 
red. 

Lower Egyptian crown, 
white. 

When one king ruled 
both, he wore a combina- 
tion of the above. 

Lotus signified abun- 
dance. 

Globes signified eternal 
life. 

Vulture signified the roy- 
alty of a queen. 

Asp signified the kingly 
authority. 
Hanging straps indicated authority. 

Reference Books 

Bulletin of the Met- 
ropolitan Museum of 
Art, Vol. XI, No. 11, 
for Ancient Egyptian 
Kerchiefs, and The 
Dress of the Ancient 
Egyptians, both pub- 
lished by the INIetropol- 
itan Museum of Art; 
Prisse d'Avennes, His- 
toire de L'Art Egypt; The 
Book of the Dead, tac- 
shmleoi PapyrusofAniy 
in the British Museum; 
Wilkinson, The Ancient 
Egyptian; Erman, Life 
in Ancient Egypt, Chap- 
terX; Breasted,^ waeni 
Times; Racinet, History 
of Costume. 



GREEK COSTUME 

History and Dress 
65. Greek Costume. — (1) 
Pre - Hellenic otherwise called 
Minoan or Mycenaean Age 
(2800-1200 B.C.). See Fig. 132. 
]Men wore waist cloth with 
hanging ends. Women wore 
tight-fitting waists and flounced 
skirts. See Fig. 133. 

(2) Homeric or Heroic Age 
(1200 B.C.). 

Both men and women wore 
a simplified costume not unlike 
the classic. 

Dorian Invasion, 8th century 
B.C. Rise of Sparta, inhabitants 
called Dorians. Rise of Athens, 
5th century B.C., inhabitants 
called lonians. 

(3) Classic Period. Costume 
of Greek men and 
women was the same 
except that of the men 
was more abbreviated. 

(a) Chiton or dress. 

(6) Himation or 
cloak. See Fig. 135. 

(c) The chlamys or 
short coat was worn 
on horseback. The 
chiton or dress was of 
two kinds. The Doric 
chiton, worn by the 
Dorians, who were war- 
like and interested 
primarily in the phys- 
ical, made of heavy 
material and fell in 
few folds, had no 
sleeves, see Fig. 134. 

The Ionic chiton, 
worn by the lonians, fig. 




Courtesy of Metropolitan Museum. 

Fig. 132.— Costume of 

Mycenaean man. 




Courtesy of MetropolUan Museum. 
133. — Costume of Mycenaean woman. 



Page One Hundred Three 

a people fond of all things beau- 
tiful, made of finer material, fell 
in many and finer folds, had 
sleeves. See Fig. 135. 

Girdle was worn at the waist 
line during the Archaic period, 
sixth century B.C. Statues of 
people of this century adorn the 
Acropolis. This was the elabo- 
rate period when cascades of ma- 
terial are found in the statues. 
Girdle worn over the hip or 
below the waist in the Golden 
Age. This was sometimes called 
the Age of Pericles, 459-431 B.C. 
The maidens of the Parthenon 
frieze are of this time. 

Girdle worn under the arms 
during the last period. 

Wool, linen and silk were 
used, and the garments 
were dyed purple, red, 
yellow, and other col- 
ors. Sandals and shoes 
were worn when out of 
doors, and the women 
had many different 
kinds of jewelry and 
hair ornaments. 



Reference Books 

A Cretan Snake God- 
dess, Century Mag- 
azine, August. 1916; 
C.H.andH.B.Hawes, 
Crete the Forerunner of 
Greece; Hope, Costumes 
of the Ancients; Ra- 
cinet, Histoire du Cos- 
tume; Evans, Greek 
Dress; Edith Abra- 
hams, Greek Dress; 



Page One Hundred Four 



OUTLINE OF HISTORIC COSTUME 





Fig. 



Courtesy of Metropolitan Museum. 
134. — Greek Doric chiton. 



G. Baldwin Brown, Bur- 
lington Magazine of De- 
cember, 1905, and Janu- 
ary, 1906, How Greek 
Women Dressed. 




History 

66. Roman Costume. 
Rome founded 753 b.c. 

Rome was a kingdom 
753-509 B.C. 

Rome was a republic 
509-31 B.C. 

Rome was an empire 
31 B.C.-476 A.D. in West. 

Dress (Roman) 

Men wore a tunic; a 
toga, or cloak corre- 
sponding to the Greek 

, . , 1 . . • FromHope. 

mmation ; but cut semi- Fig. 136.— The costume of a Roman man and woman. 



Courtesy of Metropolitan Museum. 
Fig. 135.— iGreek Ionic chiton and himation. 



circular in form, whereas 
the Greek himation was 
rectangular. 

Only Roman citizens 
could wear the toga, 
which was a national 
garment, so the pwnula 
was worn by the work- 
ing class. This was 
like a cape, and some- 
times had a hood. This 
was worn by all classes, 
both men and women, 
to travel in. 

Women wore a tunic 
which was like that of 
the Roman men; a 
stola or dress corre- 
sponding to the Greek 
Ionic chiton (differing 
in that it had a border 
or ruffle at the bot- 
tom); a palla or cloak 



ROMAN COSTUMES 



Page One Hundred Five 



corresponding to the Grecian 
himation. 

Women of the lower classes 
could not wear the stola; 
they wore tunic and palla, but 
this palla was made like the 
Grecian Doric chiton. 

Roman men did not wear 
hats, except the lower classes, 
who wore tight-fitting caps. 
See Fig. 133. 

Roman women had far more 
jewelry than the Greek. They 
had all the precious stones we 
now have. They dyed, curled, 
and arranged their hair elabo- 
rately and wore sandals and 
fancy boots. They took ex- 
cellent care of their bodies. 

Books of Reference 
'RacinetiHistoire du Costume; 




Trom UoUenroth. 
Fig. 138. — Gallic costume be- 
fore coming under Koman 
influence, 55 b.c. 



Hope, Costume of the Ancients; 
Preston and Dodge, Family 
Life of Romans; Planche, 
General History of Costume in 
Europe. 

History and Dress 

67. The Gauls.— Csesar 
made a complete conquest of 
Gaul, 55 B.C. In ancient times 
the civilized races were un- 
trousered. (See Egyptians, 
Greeks, and Romans.) Un- 
civilized races were trousered 
(Gauls, Franks, etc.). 

(a) Men. — Wore trousers to 
the ankles, called braie; a 
mantle of wool fastened in 
front, called sai; a tunic to 
mid-leg with long sleeves; 
girdles; shoes to ankles. See 
Fig. 137. 




From Hottenroth. 
Fig. 137.— Gallic costume before coming under Roman 
influence, 55 b.c. 




From Hottenroth. 

Fig. 139.— Gallo-Roman costume 100 a.d. 



Page One Hundred Six 



OUTLINE OF HISTORIC COSTUME 



Later the men shortened the trousers 
and tunic and wore leggins and sandals 
with bands. 

(6) Women. — Inner tunic to ankles; 
short outer tunic with short sleeves; 
girdles; shoes. See Fig. 138. 

The women afterwards shortened their 
outer tunic and wore a mantle like a 
Roman paenula. See Fig. 139. Both men 
and women made their hair red with lime 
water. 

About a hundred years after the Roman 
conquest, the Gauls had become civilized, 
and had adopted a dress somewhat resem- 
bling the Roman costume, but the Roman 
dress was also influenced by that of the 
Gauls, as can be seen by the introduction 
of short trousers that were worn under 
the tunic. 

Reference Books 
Hottenroth, Le Costumes chez les Peuples: 





From Hottenroti^ 
Fig. 141. — ^Women's costume of the Franks about 
■ 8th century, showing fichu and veil. 



R a c i n e t, Le Costu me 
Historique; Zur Ge- 
schichte der Costume, 
Nach Zeichnungen von 
W. Diez, C. Frohlish, 
M. Heil, C. Haberlin, 
A. Muller, F. Rothbart, 
J. Waller Muchen. 



From HotleiiToth. 

Pig. 140. — Men's costume of the early Franks about Sth to 8th century. 



History 

68. Third to Elev- 
enth Centuries. — 

530 .? A.D. King 

Arthur in England 
m. Guinevere. 
871-901 A.D. King Al- 
fred the Great in 
England m. Ethels- 
witha, d. of Ethel- 
ran of Mercia. 



THIRD— ELEVENTH CENTURY 



One Hundred Seven 



742-814 A.D. Charlemagne m. 1st, Her- 
mengardg, m. 2d Hildegarde, in. 3d, 
Fastrade, 4th, Liutgarda. 

276 A.D. The Franks came down the 
Rhine, took possession of Gaul grad- 
ually, but made a complete conquest. 
The fifth century to the sixteenth 
century comprises the costume history 
of the Middle Ages. 

Dress {III to XI Century) 
(a) Men. — Wore a kind of tunic usually 
to the knee; mantle the shape of a cape 
which often had a hood; girdle; shoes. 
See Fig. 140. 

(6) Women. — Wore, like the women of 
Gaul, two tunics, also a veil (sometimes 
large enough to take the place of a mantle) . 
See Fig. 141. The women in England wore 
a similar head covering, called a wimple. 
The influence of the Eastern Roman 
Empire continued after the arrival of the 
Franks, who had become well established 



by the sixth century. By the ninth cen- 
tury gloves and handkerchiefs were some- 
times used. The outer tunic of both the 
men and women was now often decorated 
with a band called a fichu. This was 
sometimes set with precious stones and 
showed Byzantine influence. See Fig. 142. 
Reference Books 
Zur Geschichte der Costume; Quicherat, 
Histoire du Costume en France; Challamel, 
History of Costume in France from Gallo- 
Roman to the Present Time; Shaw, Dresses 
and Decorations of the Middle Ages; 
Jacquemin, Iconographie du Costume. 

History 
69. Eleventh Century. — 
1066-1087 William the Conqueror, King of 
England, m. Mathilda, d. of Baldwin 
V, E. of Flanders. 
1087-1100 William H, King of England. 
1031-1060 Henry I, King of France m. 
Anna, d. of Jaroslaw I of Russia. 




From Zur Geschichte der' Costume. 

Fig. 142.— French costume of 9th and 10th centuries. 



From Zur Geschichte der Costume^ 

Fig. 143. — King and Queen of the 11th century. 



£^age One Hundred Eight 



OUTLINE OF HISTORIC COSTUME 



1060-1108 Philip I, King of France, m. 
1st Bertha, d. of Florence I, C, of 
Holland, m. 2d Bertrade, d. of Simon 
I, C. of Montfort. 

Dress {XI Century) 

In the eleventh century the influence of 
the Crusades began to show in costume; 
apparently the costumes of the Orient 
influenced costume and men adopted a 
very long and inconvenient type of dress, 

(a) Men. — Wore a long under tunic down 
to the feet called a chemise; outside tunic 
long and full called a bliaud (pronounced 
bleo). This was held in bj^ a girdle. The 
bliaud had sleeves similar to those of our 
kimona (the extra fullness in the skirt was 
obtained by gores). See Fig. 143. 

Trousers and stockings were worn 
underneath. 

The long mantle now worn was fastened 
often on the left shoulder; up to this 
time it had been more conveniently fast- 
ened on the right shoulder, giving freedom 
to the right arm. 

Men wore two kinds of hats, one that 
resembled a Phrygian bonnet, and a cap. 
Men and women now dressed much alike. 

Reference Books 
Hilaire Billoc, Book of Bayeux Tapestry, 
Racinet, Costume Historique; Zur Geschichte 
der Costume; Blanche, Dictionary and Cyclo- 
pcrdia; Jacquemin, Iconographie du Co- 
stume; La Croix, Manners, Customs, and 
Dress During the Middle Ages and Renais- 
sance, and Ary Renan, Le Costume en France. 



History 
70. Twelfth Century.- - 
1100-1135 Henry I, King of England, m. 
1st, Mathilda of Scotland, m. 2d, 
Adelicia of Brabant. 
1135-1154 Stephen, King of England, m. 
Mathilda, d. of Eustace, E. of Boulogne. 



1154-1189 Henry II, King of England, m. 

Eleonora of Aquitaine. 
1189-1199 Richard I,. King of England, m. 

Berengaria, d. of K. of Navarra. 

1108-1137 Louis VI, King of France, m. 

Adelaide, d. of Humbert II, of Savoy. 

1137-1180 Louis VII, King of France, m. 

1st, Eleanor, d. of Guillaume X of 

Aquitaine, m. 2d, Constance, d. of 

Alphonso VII of Castile, m. 3d, Alice, 

d. of Theobald II, C. of Champagne. 

1180-1223 Philip II, King of France, m. 

1st, Isabelle of Artois, m. 2d, Ingeborg 

of Denmark, m. 3d, Marie, d. of 

Berthold V of Meran. 

Dress {XII Century) 
In the twelfth century the bliaud for the 
men became fitted and hoods were worn. 
The women's outer tunic became fitted, 
tricot and lacing were both introduced. 
This tunic had long bell-shaped sleeves. 
The sleeves of the chemise were long and 
fitted at the wrist. A smaller veil called 
an antique veil, held by a circlet or crown, 
sometimes embroidered, now took the 
place of the long veils. The shoes began 
to show points. See Fig. 143 and 144. 
Reference Books 
Calthrop, English Costume; Racinet, Co- 
stume Historique; Blanche, General History 
of Costume; La Croix, Manners, Customs, 
and Dress During the Middle Ages and Re- 
naissance; Quicherat, Histoire du Costume 
en France; Viollet-le-Duc, Dictionnaire du 
Mobilier FranQais,Y oh. 3 and 4; Bonnard, 
Costumes Historique; Fairholt, Costumes in 
England; Shaw, Dresses and Decorations of 
the Middle Ages; Hefner-Alleneck, Tracht- 
en, Kunstwerke und Gerdthschaften. 

History 
71. Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries. 
1199-1216 John, King of England, m. 1st 
Alix, d. of Hugo, C. of Mortain, m. 



THIRTEENTH-FOURTEENTH CENTURIES Page Oue Hundred Nine 



r 


L\^j^ ^ 




mff 


111 


i 

i 


IIH 1 






i 




1 




From Viollet-ie-Duc. 
Fig. 144— Fitted costume of 12th 
century. 

2d, Havoise, 



iiViTm VtoOetrle-iyuc. 
Pro. 146. — Parti-colored or 
armorial dress. 



From VioUel46-Duc 
Pig. 145. — 2nd form of surcot 
13th and 14th centuries. 



d. of D. of Gloucester, 

m. 3d Isabel, d. of C. of Angouleine. 
1216-1272 Henry III m. Eleanore of 

Provence. 
1272-1307 Edward I m. 1st, Eleanora of 

Castile, 2d, Margaret, d. of Philip III. 
1307-1327 Edward II m. Isabelle, d. of 

Philip IV, King of France. 
1327-1377 Edward III m. Philippa, d. of 

Wilhelm III, C. of Holland. 
1377-1399 Richard II m. 1st, Anna of 

Bohemia, m. 2d, Isabella of France. 
1399-1413 Henry IV, Lancaster (Red 

Rose), m. 1st, Mary Bohun, m. 2d, 

Jane of Navarra. 
1223-1226 Louis VIIT, King of France, m. 

Blanche, d. of Alphonso VIII of Castile. 
1226-1270 Louis IX (St. Louis), King of 

France, m. Marguerite, d. of C. of 

Provence. 
1270-1285 Philip III, King of France, m. 



1st, Isabelle, d. of King of Arragon, m. 
2d,Maria,d.ofHeinrichIII of Brabant. 

1285-1314 Philip IV, King of France, m. 
Jeanne, Queen of Navarra. 

1314-1316 Louis X, King of France, m. 1st, 
Margaret, d. of Robert II, of Bur- 
gundy', m. 2d, Clemence of Hungaria. 

1316-1322 Philip V, King of France, m. 
Jeanne, d. of C. of Meran. 

1322-1328 Charles IV, King of France, m. 
1st, Blanch, d. of Otho IV, m. 2d, 
Maria of Luxemburg, m. .'kl, Jeanne, 
d. of Louis, C. of Evreaux. 

1328-1350 Philip VI (Valois), King of 
France, m. 1st, Jeanne, d. of D. of 
Burgundy, m. 2d, Blanche of Navarra. 

1350-1364 Jean II, King of France, m. 
1st Bonne of Luxemburg, 2d, Jeanne, 
d. of William XII, C. of Auvergne. 

1364-1380 Charles V, King of France, 
m. Jeanne, d. of Duke of Bourbon. 



Page One Hundred Ten 

1380-1422 Charles VI, King 
of France, m. Isabella of 
Bavaria Ingolstadt. 

Dress (XIII and XIV Centuries) 

In the thirteenth century, 
more interest was shown in 
dress. Both men and women 
wore a semi-fitted garment 
called a surcot, hollowed out 
under the arms. 

(a) Men. — Wore close fit- 
ting trousers (braie) ; mantle; 
surcot ; tunic (chemise) ; cotte 
(tunic); stockings; hats or 
hoods. 

(6) Women. — Wore inner 
tunic or chemise, over this 
a cotte, or fitted chemise worn 
with a girdle, over this the 
surcot. The surcot had no 
sleeves, and those of the , 
cotte, usually of a con- 
trasting color, were an 
important feature of 
this robe; by degrees the 
arms-eye became larger 
and was trimmed with 
fur. See Figs. 123 and 
145. The skirts were 
very long and were held 
up as the woman walk- 
ed, showing the cotte 
again, which was the 
same material as the 
sleeves, making a pleas- 
ing repeat of the con- 
trasting color. In the 
fourteenth century the 
parti-colored or ar- 
morial dress was worn, 
see Figs. 146 and 118, 



OUTLINE OF HISTORIC COSTUME 




and the hennins or high head 
dress came in. Toward the 
last of the century the howp- 
pelande or one-piece dress 
replaced the surcot. See 
Figs. 147, 148 and 108. In 
this garment women are said 
to have discovered the nor- 
mal waistline. This had a 
V-shaped neck, widely off at 
the shoulders. The women 
were at this time wearing 
the wimple or head covering, 
and about the throat the 
gorget in certain localities. 

The surcot of the men grew 
shorter and had large sleeves. 
Their stockings were close- 
fitting and combined with 
T^omviouei.ie^i>uc. the trouscrs. The shoes were 
FiG.147.— 14th and 15th century costume more pointed. They added 

showing hennin and houppeland. i , i 

an houpplande or some- 
times long, sometimes 
short, outer garment 
with large sleeves. See 
Figs. 108 and 148. 
Reference Books 
Books mentioned under 
fifteenth century. 

History 
72. Fifteenth Century. 

1413-1422 Henry V, 
King of England, 
m. Catherine of 
Valois,d. of Charles 
VI of France. 

1422-1461 Henry VI, 
King of England, m. 
Margaret of Anjou. 

1461-1483 Edward IV 
(White Rose), m. 
Elizabeth of Wood- 
ville. 



;i 



a 





Fig. 



From Viollet-le-Duc. 
148. — Men of the 15th century. 



SIXTEENTH CENTURY 



Page One Hundred Eleven 



1483 Edward V, King of England. 

1483-1485 Richard III (White Rose), m. 
Anne Nevill. 

1485-1509 Henry VII (Tudor), m. Eliza- 
beth of York. 

1422-1461 Charles 
VII, King of 
France, m. 
Marie, d. of 
D. of Anjou. 

1461-1483 Louis 

XI, m. 1st, 
Marguerite, 
d. of James I, 
King of Scot- 
land, m. 2d, 
Charlotte of 
Savoy. 

1483-1498 Charles 

VIII,m.Anne 

of Brittany. 
1498-1515 Louis 

XII, m. 1st, 
Jeanne, d. of 
Louis XL m. 
2d, Anne, 
widow of 
CharlesVIII, 

m. 3d, Mary, d. of Henry VII, King 
of England. 

Dress 

The fifteenth century was an exaggera- 
tion of the modes of the fourteenth. More 
extravagant fabrics were used, and every- 
thing became more extreme, even to the 
points of the hats and shoes. 

Towards the end of this century came a 
transitional period. The toes of the shoes 
became round, the dresses became more 
semi-fitting, and were split up the front, 
showing the underskirt. They had square 
necks and were worn with a girdle. The 
close-fitting cap was the head-dress now 



used, and had probably been introduced 
into France by Anne de Bretagne, Queeii 
of France. See Fig. 150. The Fifth cen- 
tury to the Sixteenth century comprises 
the costume his- 




tory of the 
die Ages. 



Mid- 



FlG. 



Reference Books 
Calthrop, Eng- 
lish Costume; Znr 
Geschichte der Ko- 
stiime; Quicherat, 
Histoire du Co- 
stume en France; 
Pauquet Fr^res, 
Modes et Costumes 
Historiques; Hot- 
tenroth, Les Co- 
stumes chez les 
Peuples; LaCroix, 
Manners, Cos- 
tume, and Dress 
During the Middle 
Ages and Renais- 
sance ; Robida, 
Ten Centuries in 
Toilette; Racinet, 
Histoire du Co- 
stume ; Planch^, 
Dictionary and 
Cyclopedia; Viol- 
let-le-Duc, Dictionnaire du Mobilier Fran- 
gais,Yo\s. 3, 4; Raphael Jacquemin, Icono- 
graphie du Costume; Shaw, Dresses and De- 
corations of the Middle Ages; Piton, Le 
Costume Civil en France du XIIP au XIX" 
Siecle; Strutt, Sport and Pastimes of the 
People of England; Strutt, A Complete 
View of the Dress and Habits of the People 
of England;' Bonnard, Costumes Historiques 
des Xir, Xlir, XIV\ et ZP Siecles; 
Boutet de Montvel, Joan of Arc; Sanborn, 
Ann of Brittany. 



From ZUT Geschichte der Costume. 

149.— German costume of early iGth century. 



History 
73. Sixteenth Century. Renaissance. — 
1509-1547 Henry VIII, King of England 
m. 1st, Catherine of Aragon; m. 2d^ 



Page One Hundred Twelve OUTLINE OF HISTORIC COSTUME 




Tram Pauquet Freres. 
Fig. 150. — Costume of transition period. 
Anne of Brittany, 1500. 




P/K^.. 



From Pauqiut Freres. 
lu. ii/i. — Larlv Ftenaissance, 1530. 




From Pauquet Frires. 

Fig. 151. — Costume of 16th century, 1527. 




Frovt, Pauquet Freres. 
Fig. 153.— French gentleman, 1572. 



SIXTEENTH CENTURY 



Page One Hundred Thirteen 



Anne Boleyn; m. 
3d, Jane Seymour; 
m. 4th, Anne of 
Cleves; m. 5ths 
Catharine Howard; 
m. 6th, Catharine 
Parr. 

1547-1553 Edward VI. 

1553-1558 Mary Tudor, 
Queen of England, 
m. Phihp II, King 
of Spain. 

1558-1603 Elizabeth, 
Queen of England. 

1515-1547 Francis I, 
King of France, m. 
1st, Claude, d. of 
Louis XII; m. 2d, 
Eleanor, d. of 
Philip. 

1547-1559 Henry 
II, King of 
France, m. 1st, 
Catherine de 
Medicis; m. 
2d, morga., 
Diana, Duchess 
of Valentinois. 

1559-1560 Francis 
II, King of 
France, m. 
Mary Stuart, 
Queen of Scot- 
land. 

1560-1574 Charles 
IX, King of 
France, m. 1st, 
Elizabeth, d. 
of Emp. ^lax- 
imilian; m.2d, 
morga., Marie 
Touchet. 




Pig. 



From Pauguet Freres. 
154. — Late Renaissance silhouette, 1586. 




Fig. 155. 



From Pauquet Freres. 
-Late Renaissance costume, 1572. 



1574-1589 Henry IH, 
King of France, m. 
Louise of Lorraine. 
1589-1610 Henry IV 
(Bourbon), King of 
France, m. 1st, 
Marguerite of Va- 
lois; m. 2d, Marie 
de Medicis. 
Dress {XVI Century) 
Great changes now 
developed. The cos- 
tumes for men and 
women from this time 
on are no longer alike. 

The desire now seem- 
ed to be to alter in 
various ways the nor- 
mal shape of the figure. 
The women first wore 
a boneless corset, 
which they called a 
basquine, and a crin- 
oline which gave 
the appearance of a 
hooped skirt, which 
they called ihevertu- 
gale. See Fig. 152. 
The waistline 
was normal and 
slightly pointed in 
front. A piece of 
material was sewed 
on the vertugale to 
take the place of 
the cotte. The 
under-sleeves were 
made of the same 
material, and some- 
times slashed to 
show the chemise; 
sometimes this 



Page One Hundred Fourteen 



OUTLINE OF HISTORIC COSTUME 



same material was used 
as a panel in the front 
of the waist. The neck 
line was square but 
curved upward at the 
centre. The skirt was 
round length. 

Large mantles, usual- 
ly with hoods, were used 
for out of doors. The 
shoes were no longer 
pointed. Red was the 
popular color for shoes 
and stockings. Jewels 
were used in profusion 
to elaborate the cos- 
tumes; collars set with 
gems were favored. 

The men wore very 
short, often slashed, 
trousers, long stockings, 
a doublet with a 
square neck, slashed, 
round - pointed shoes, 
and a mantle. See 
Figs. 151 and 153. 

The first change 
came in the latter 
part of the century, 
when many women 
wore a waist which 
buttoned to the throat. 
The large over-sleeves 
were discarded for 
smaller ones with a 
padded roll at the 
arm-eye. The ruff now 
became popular. More 
width was given to 
the hfps by a barrel- 
shaped hoop which 
made a definite change 




From PauQuet FTcrta. 

Fig. 156. — Costume of the late Renaissance, 158G. 




in the silhouette. The 
waist became smaller 
in size. Both round 
length and long skirts 
were worn. Trains were 
worn on horseback, one 
of which was seventy 
feet long. The widely 
open bodice became 
popular, to which im- 
mense ruffs were added. 
The balloon-shaped 
sleeves, too, had grown 
enormous. It was at 
this time that ribbon 
came in. See Figs. 154 
and 155. 

Men's figures dimin- 
ished in size as women's 
figures increased. They 
also wore both corset 

and ruffs. See Fig. 

156. 

Reference Books 
See books mentioned 
under fifteenth and 
seventeenth centuries. 



From Pauguet Freres. 
Fig. 157.— Early 17th Century costume, 1633. 



History 
74. Seventeenth 

Century. — 

1603-1625 James I, 
King of England, 
m. Anne, d. of 
Frederick II, King 
of Denmark. 

1625-1649 Charles I, 
King of England, 
m. Henriette 
Marie, d. of Hen- 
ry IV, King of 
France. 



SEVENTEENTH CENTURY 



Page One Hundred Fifteen 




From Paugua Freres. 
Fig. 158. — Co.stume of the early part of Louis XIV reign. 




^ifujaEsamm^ 




brum rauqutl Frtrt.^. 

Fia. 159. — Costume of the reign of Louis 
XIV, 1670. 




'--^ -"A 



From Pauguet Freres. 

Fig. 160.— Costume of the later part of Louis XIV 
reigo showing Fontanges head-dress. 




From Pauguet Frires. 
Fig. 161. — Costume of the later part of 
Louis XIV reign. 



Page One Hundred Sixteen 



OUTLINE OF HISTORIC COSTUME 



1649-1653 Interregnum. 

1653-1658 Oliver Cromwell, Protector of 

England, m. Elizabeth, d. of Sir 

Thomas Bourchier. 
1658-1660 Richard Cromwell, Protector of 

Eng., m. Dorothy Mayor. 
1660-1685 Charles II, King of England, m. 

Catharine of Braganza. 
1685-1688 James II, King of England, m. 

1st, Anna Hyde; m. 2d, Mary, d. of< 

Alfonso IV, D. of Modena. 
1689-1702 William HI and Mary, King 

and Queen of England. 
1610-1643 Louis XIII, King of France. 

m. Anna of Austria. 
1643-1715 Louis XIV, King of France, 

m. Marie Therese of Spain. 
Favorites Mile, de la Valliere, Mme. de 

Montespan, Mile. Fontanges, Mme. 

Maintenon. 

Dress {XVII Century) 

The heaviness of the sixteenth century 
gave way by degrees to the more picturesque 
costume of the seventeenth century. 

(a) Men. — Men's trousers lengthened 
and they shortened the waistline and 
added peplum, and, like the women, used 
lace and ribbon profusely. They wore 
musketeer boots. Their hats w^ere high 
with a flat brim and decorated with flow- 
ing plumes. The hair w^as worn long. 
For an outer garment the cape was used. 

Men's costumes in the last quarter of 
this century changed greatly. The doub- 
let now turned into a waistcoat or vest 
and a new garment or outer coat was 
added. Sleeves had deep cuffs. The stock 
collar and jabot took the place of round 
collars. The chemise showed at the wrist, 
and under the jabot. The trousers were 
close-fitting and less decorated. They wore 
large muffs and w igs and a hat with turned- 
up brim and flat plumes. See Figs. 157, 
and 161. 

(6) Women. — Abandoned the hoop, and 



wore a round length under-petticoat and 
an overskirt whici was often trailing. 
The fullness was at the sides and back. 
Often the skirt opened in front. When 
this was done, a narrow panel of the same 
kind of material as the petticoat was used 
up the front of the bodice. The round 
neck line was used most at this period 
and the large, flat collar generally replaced 
the ruff. See Fig. 157. 

In some instances the waistline was 
raised and a short slashed peplum added. 
The woman often wore a string of pearls 
at the neck. Notice the simple way their 
hair was worn. See Figs. 157 and 158. 

In the latter part of the period, under 
Louis XIV, the skirt was looped up, the 
waist became longer, heels grew higher, 
waists grew tighter and fans were a neces- 
sity. See Fig. 160. 

Two kinds of neck lines were now pop- 
ular: The straight line decolletee, close 
to the neck, which seemed an extension 
of the panel front used with short sleeves; 
and the round neck line, which was off the 
shoulders. A shorter, fluffier sleeve was 
used with the round neck line. Both these 
are forerunners of the eighteenth century. 

The Fontanges headdress came in the 
late part of this century and clothes be- 
came very formal under the sway of Mme. 
de Maintenon. See Fig. 160. Large bro- 
cades that looked like furniture covering 
were much used in the latter part of the 
reign of Louis XIV, and the material was 
draped so that a bustle effect was obtained. 
The women carried small, round muffs. 

Reference Books 

Calthrop, English Costume; Pauquet 
Freres, Modes et Costumes Historiques; 
Robida, Ten Centuries of Toilette; Pierre 
Lamesangere, Costumes des Femmes Fran- 
daises; Zur Geschichte der Costume. 



EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 



Page One Hundred Seventeen 



History 

75. Eighteenth Century. — 

1702-1714 Anne, Queen of England, 
m. George D. Cumberland. 

1714-1727 George I, King of Eng- 
land, m. Sophia Dorothea, his 
cousin. 

1727-1760 George H, King of Eng- 
land, m. Carolina of Branden- 
burg-Ansbach. 

1760-1820 George HI, King of Eng- 
land, m. Charlotte of Mecklen- 
burg-Strelitz. 

1715-1774 Louis XV, King of France, 
m. Maria Leczinska. 
Favorites Marchioness de Pom- 
padour, Countess du Barry. 

1774-1792 Louis XVI, King of France, 
m. Marie Antoinette, d. of Franz 
I. Stephen, Germ. Emp. 





Fig. 163.- 



From Pamuet Frires. 
-Louis XV Watteau costume showing 18th century hoop, 1729. 



From Pauquet Frires. 
Fig. 162. — Draped costume of the late 18th century, 1763. 

Dress {XVIII Century) 
Early in the eighteenth century 
the hoop was revived (1711). 
This time it was a framework of 
cane, whalebone, or some similar 
material, and was called a panier. 
It was wide at the sides and flat 
in the back and front, but the 
fullness of the skirt gave the re- 
quired size at the back. During 
the regency, plain, full skirts of 
light weight material were in 
vogue; afterward, heavier* fabrics 
and more decoration appeared. 
The tj'pe was more frivolous 
than that used during the latter 
part of the reign of Louis XIV. 
When the bodice had a round 
neck, the sleeves were usually 
made of ruffles of lace; with the 
square neck, the sleeves were 



Page One Hundred Eighteen 



OUTLINE OF HISTORIC COSTUME 




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From Pauquet Frires. 

Fig. 164. — The costume of a man in 1740. 



usually close-fitting 
with decoration at 
the elbow. See Fig. 
166. Much lace, 
ribbon and artificial 
flowers were used. 
Mantles were cape- 
shaped with hoods. 
In the second 
quarter of the cen- 
tury the one-piece 
dress with a Watteau 
plait came in; this 
was then worn con- 
tempo raucously 
with the others, 
and made in differ- 
ent ways. See Fig. 
1 63 . Sometimes the 
waistline was not 
defined and the 




Painting by Nattier. 

Fig. 166. — 18th century round neck line and ruffle lace 
sleeves. 



From Pauquet Frires. 
Fig. 165.— Louis XVI costume, 1777. 



pleats were allowe<i 
to fall straif^-t from 
the shouldei to the 
floor; at other l1x._ 
the skirt was draped 
at the back and sides, 
showing the under- 
skirt. The dresses 
were often worn 
short, as much at- 
tention was given to 
shoes and stockings. 
The costume of 
the men of this pe- 
riod was strongly 
influenced by the 
paniers used by the 
women and the 
skirts of the coats 
were stiffened and 
boned. The shoes 



EIGHTEENTH CENTURY 



Page One Hundred Nineteen 





From ZvT GescMchte cler Costume. 
Fig. 167— Louis XVI costume. 1780. 



Fro?n Pauquet Freres. 
Fig. 1G9.— Directoire costume, 1798. 



m^ 





From ZuT Oeschicfite der Costume. From Patiquet Frires. 

Fig. 168. — British or masculine costume. Fig. 170. — The costumes of 1795 of the " Incroyables " 

(men) and " Merveilleuses " and "Impossibles" (women). 



Page One Hundred Twenty 



OUTLINE OF HISTORIC COSTUME 



had red heels, and a 
tricornered hat was 
worn. See Fig. 164. 

The costumes of the 
reign of Louis XVI 
from 1774 to 1792 were 
exaggerations of the 
costumes of the reign 
before. The bodices 
were extremely tight 
and stiffly boned, the 
skirts were elaborately 
trimmed, and immense 
headdresses were 
worn. See Fig. 165. 
Farming at the Petit 
Trianon brought in 
the dainty overdress 
adapted from the 
Watteau style, and the 




Fig. 171.— Fashions of the Consulate, 1799-1803. 



shepherdess crook. See 
Fig. 167. The next 
change was that 
brought in by the ap- 
proaching French Rev- 
olution. This was a 
more masculine cos- 
tume and was called 
British or English. See 
Fig. 168. 

The days of the Rev- 
olution (1789 - 1799) 
brought in simple 
fashions. Corsets were 
discarded, the waist 
became short and the 
skirt clinging, and 
cheap materials were 
used. During the Di- 
rectoire, the women 





Fig. 172.— Costume of the First Empire, 
1811. 



Fig. 173. — Costume of the First Empire, 
1813. 



NINETEENTH CENTURY 



Page One Hundred Twenty-one 



adapted the classic 
style, borrowing from 
both Greek and Ro- 
man fashions. These 
costumes were scanty, 
and frequently were 
split up the sides. 
The dresses were 
often transparent and 
worn without chem- 
ises. See Fig. 169. 
The gentlemen of this 
fantastic period were 
styled "Incroyables," 
"Unimaginables "; 
the ladies, "Merveil- 
leuses" and "Impos- 
sibles." See Fig. 170. 
The men wore an 
exaggerated copy of 
what had been previ- 
ously called the 
English fashion. 

Reference Books 
See books mentioned 
under seventeenth and 
nineteenth centuries. 



History 
76. Nineteenth 

Century. — 

1820-1830 George IV, 
King of England, 
m. 1st, morga., 
Mrs. Fitzherbert; 
m. 2d, Caroline 
of Brunswick- 
Wolfenbiittel. 

1830-1837 William 
IV, King of Eng- 
land, m. Adelaide of 
Saxe-Meiningen. 




Fig. 



From Pamuet Fr^ea. 
174. — Costumes of the Restoration, 1820. 




Pig. 175. — Costumes of the Romantic Period during 
reign of Louis PhUippe, 1830-1848. 



1837-1901 Victoria 
Alexandra, m. 
Albert, Prince of 
Saxe-Koburg and 
Gotha. 
1792-1795 Conven- 
tion. 
1795-1799 Directory. 
1799-1804 Consulate. 
1804-1814 Emperor 
Napoleon Bona- 
parte, m. 1st, 
Josephine Ta- 
scher, 2d, Marie 
Louise, d. of 
Franz I. German- 
Roman Emperor. 
1814-1824 Louis 
XVIII, King of 
France, m. Maria 
of Sardinia. 
1824-1830 Charles X, 
King of France, 
m. Maria Theresa 
of Sardinia. 
1830-1848 Louis-Phi- 
lippe of Orleans, 
King of France, m. 
Marie Amalie of 
the Two Sicilies. 
1848-1870 Louis Na- 
poleon III, m. 
Eugenie de Guz- 
man, Countess 
of Teba. 
Dress {XIX Century) 
It is said that the 
fashions of the Con- 
sulate, 1799-1804, 
which were much more 
restrained, kept all 
that was best in the 



Page One Hundred Twenty-two OUTLINE OF HISTORIC COSTUME 



fashions of the 
Directory. See 
Fig. 171. A beau- 
tiful quality of 
Indian lawns and 
muslins was used, 
and the shawl 
introduced by 
Napoleon became 
popular. 

During the Em- 
pire (1804-1814) 
materials became 
more elaborate. 
Things were mil- 
itary. Oriental 
silks and heavier 
materials were 
used, and the 
tendency was to 
be well covered. 
See Figs. 17£ and 
173. 

The Restoration, 
1814-1830 (reign 
of Louis XVIII), 
found the silhou- 
ette changing. 
See Fig. 174. 
Corsets had again 
come in and 
caused the waist- 
line to drop 
slightly. The skirts 
had more fullness, 
were elaborately 
trimmed and were 
worn quite short. 
(Charles X, 1824- 
1830.) In the 
twenties the waist 
found its normal 




Fig 176. — Costumes of the Second Empire, IS.jL 




Fig. 177. — Gjstumes of the Second Empire, 1852. 



waistline, the 
sleeves became 
large and gave 
width to the 
shoulders. Much 
interest was now 
being taken in 
bonnets. 

The reign of 
Louis-Philippe, 
1830-1848, was 
called the Ro- 
mantic Period. 
See Fig. 175. The 
waists were close- 
fitting with a 
very low neck, and 
were wide off at 
the shoulders. 
The popular ber- 
tha effect increas- 
ed this still more. 
The waistline was 
pointed in front, 
the skirt full but 
with less trim- 
mings, and floun- 
ces were some- 
times used. Shoes 
were low and had 
no heels. TheRe- 
[)ublic under Louis 
Napoleon, 1848- 
1852, found the 
i-kirts increasing 
in size, and by the 
Second Empire 
under Napoleon 
III, 1852-1870, 
the skirts were 
held out by stiff 
petticoats which 



NINETEENTH CENTURY 



Page One Hundred Twenty-three 



led up to the return of the crinoHnes and 
hoops of 1854. See Figs. 176 and 177. The 
long shoulder line persisted and sleeves 
were bell-shaped and full at the wrist. 
Jackets, shawls, and capes similar to those 
worn in the First Empire were used. By 
1870 the bustle had supplanted the hoops, 
and from that time to the present rapid 
changes have taken place. 

Reference Books 

Modes et Costumes Historiques, par Pau- 
quet Freres, two volumes; Portraits en 
Pied, Dessines par Sante Graves. Zur 



Geschichte der Costume; Iconographie du 
Costume, by Raphael Jacquemin; English 
Costume, by Calthrop; Fashions in Paris, 
1797-1897, by Octave Uzanne; Modes et 
Usages au temps de Marie Antoinette, 
Livre; Journal de Madame Eloffe, Le 
Comte de Reiset; Marchande de Modes; 
Dame Fashion, 1786-1912, by Julius M. 
Price; Galerie des 31 odes et Costumes Fran- 
gais, 1778-1787, par M. Paul Cornu; 
Die Mode; Modes and Manners of Nine- 
teenth Century, by Dr. Oskar Fischel and 
Max von Boehn, translated into English 
by M. Edwardes in three volumes, 1790- 
1878 and Godey's Lady's Book, 1830-1890. 




Drawn by Robert Henry for Felix Jungmann & Cie., Paris, 




From a crayon drawing by Soulie, 



Courtesy of Harper s Bazar. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Racinet. Histoire du Costume. 6 vols. Illustrated. 
French text. 

Dress of the Ancient Egyptians. Published by the 
Metropolitan Museum of Art. Illustrated. 

Ancient Egyptian Kerchief. Metropolitan Museum 
Bulletin, Vol. XI, No. 11. Illustrated. 

Prisse D\ivennes. Histoire de L'art Egypt. Illus- 
trated. French Text. 

Book of the Dead. Facsimile of Papyrus of Ani 
in British Museum. Illustrated. English text. 

Breasted. Ancient Times. Illustrated. English text. 

Abrahams. Greek Dress. Illustrated. English text. 

Evans. Greek Dress. Illustrated. English text. 

Hope. Costume of the Ancients. 2 vols. Illus- 
trated. English text. 

Notor. La, Femme dans L'Antiquit6 Grecque. 
French text. 

Van Rensselaer, Mrs. Schuyler. A Cretan Snake 
Goddess. Century Magazine. August, 1916. 
Illustrated. English text. 

Brown, G. Baldwin. How Greek AYomen Dressed. 
Burlington Magazine, December, 1905, and Jan- 
uary, 1906. Illustrated. English text. 

r'inche. Dictionary and Cyclopaedia. 2 vols. 
Illustrated. English text. 

Jacquemin. Iconographie du Costume. Illustrated. 
French text. 

Quicherat. Histoire du Costume en France. Illus- 
trated. French text. 

Hottenroth. LeCostumechez lesPeuples. Ancienset 
Moderns. Illustrated. German and French text. 

Rosenberg. Geschichte der Kostiime. 3 vols. Il- 
lustrated. German text. 

Hefner- Alteneck. Trachten, Kunstwerke, und Ge- 
rathschaften. 10 vols. Illustrated. German text. 

Hefner- Alteneck. Costume du Moyen Age Chretien. 
4 vols. French text. 

Boutet de Monvel. Joan of Arc. For XV Century 
Costume. Illustrated. French and English text. 

Braun, Diez, Froehlich, etc. Zur Geschichte der Ko- 
stiime. Illustrated. German text. English index. 

Viollet-le-Duc. Dictionnaire du Mobilier FranQais. 
Vols. 3 and 4. Illustrated. French text. 

Shaw. Dresses and Decorations of the Middle Ages. 

2 vols. Illustrated. English text. 

Bonnard. (Middle Ages) Costumes historiques des 
Xir, Xlir, XIV", et XV" Siecles. 2 vols. (1845). 

3 vols. (1861). Illustrated. French text. 
Piton. I>es Costume Civil en France de XIlP au 

XIV^ Siecle. Illustrated. French text. 



Herbe. Costume Frangais. Illustrated. French text. 

Renan, Ary. Le Costume en France. Illustrated. 
French text. 

Robida, A. Ten Centuries of Toilette. Illustrated. 
French and English text. 

Challamel. The History of Costume in France from 
Gallo-Roman to present time. Illustrated. Eng- 
lish text. 

Billoc. Bayeaux Tapestry. Illustrated. English text. 

La Croix. Manners, Customs and Dress during the 
Middle Ages and Renaissance. Illustrated. Eng- 
lish text. 

Calthrop. English Costume. Early English, Middle 
Ages, Tudor and Stuart, and Georgian. Published 
in 1 vol. and in 4 vols. Illustrated. English text. 

Strutt, J. Sport and Pastimes of People of England. 
Illustrated. English text. 

Strutt, J. A Complete View of the Dress and Habits 
of the People of England. 2 vols. Illustrated. 
English text. 

Pauquet Freres. Modes et Costumes Historiques. 
2 vols. Illustrated. French and English text. 

Hughes. Dress Design, an account of Costumes for 
artists and dressmakers. 1 vol. Illustrated. 
English text. 

Hughes. Old English Costume. Illustrated. Eng- 
lish text. 

Fairholt. Costumes in England. 2 vols. Illus- 
trated. English text. 

Smith, J. T. The Cries of London. (Character 
Costume.) Illustrated, English text. 

Aria. Costume. Fanciful, historical and theatrical. 
Illustrated. English text. 

Le Comte de Reiset. Modes et Usages au temps de 
Marie Antionette. Livre-Journal de Madame 
Eloffe. Marchande ' de Modes. Illustrated. 
2 vols. French text. 

Grand-Carteret. I>es Elegances de la Toilette. 
Louis XVI-Restauration, 1780-1825. Illustrated. 
French text. 

Wahlen. Moeurs, Usages et Costumes de tons les 
Peuples du Monde. Illustrated. French text. 

Lamesangere. Costume des Femmes Frangaises. 
Illustrated. French text. 

Sante Graves. Portraits en Pied. Illustrated. 
French text. 

Uzanne, Octave. Fashions in Paris, 1797-1897. 
French and English text. Illustrated. 

Price. Dame Fashion, 1786-1912. English text. 
Illustrated. 



Page One Hundred Twenty -eight 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Cornu, M. Paul. Galerie des Modes et Costumes 
Frangaises, 1778-1787. Illustrated. French text. 

Fishel arid Von Boehn translated by M. Edwardes. 
Modes and Manners of the Nineteenth Century, 
1790-1878. 3 vols. Illustrated. German and 
English text. 

Rhead. Chats on Costume. Illustrated. English text. 

Earle. Two Centuries of Costume in America. 
Illustrated. Published in 1 vol. and 2 vols. 
English text. 

McClellan. Historic Dress in America. Illustrated. 
Vol. 1, 1607-1800; Vol. 2, 1800-1870. English text. 

Webb. The heritage of Dress. Notes on the history 
and evolution of clothes. Illustrated. English 
text. 

Bakst, Leon. L'art decoratif. French text. 

Fales. Dressmaking. Chapter I on The Historic De- 
velopment of Costume. Illustrated. English text. 

Ellsworth Textiles and Costume Design. 

Peterson's Magazine, 1842-1898. English text. 

Godeys Lady's Book. 1830-1898. English text. 

Gazette du Bon Ton. Arts, Modes and Frivolities. 
French text. 

Journal des Dames et des Modes. Frencfrtext. 

Burbank. Woman as Decoration. English text. 

Lessing, Julius von. Die Gewebe Sammlung des 
Kunstgewerbe Museum. German text. 

Funke, Otto von. Seidenweberei. 2 vols. German text. 

Moore, N. Hudson. The Lace Book. Showing- 
Specimens of Lace, or its wear in famous por- 
traits. English text. 

Palliser, Mrs. Bury. A History of Lace. English 
text. 

Ricci, Elisa. Antiche Trine Italiane. Italian text. 

Pollen, Mrs. J. Hungerford. Seven Centuries of 
Lace. English text. 



Jourdain, M. Old Lace. English text. 

Lowes, Mrs. Chats on Old Lace and Needlework. 
English text. 

Laprade, Mme, Laurence de.' Le Poinet de France. 
French text. 

Jackson, Mrs. F. Nevill. A History of Hand-made 
Lace. English text. 

Lefebure, Ernest. Embroidery and Lace. English 

text. 
Whiting, Gertrude. A Lace Guide. English text. 

■Clifford, C. R. The Lace Dictionary. English text. 

Huish, Marcus B. Samplers and Tapestry Em- 
broideries. English Text. 

Modes et Maniers D'Aujourd'Hui. Illustrated by 
Lepape, 1912, Martin, 1913, and Barbier, 1914. 
French text. 

Nevill, Ralph. British Military Prints. Illustrated. 
English text. 

Falls, D. W. C. Army and Navy Information of the 
Warring Powers. English text. 

Wietz. Ecclesiastical Costume. 2 vols. German 
text. 

Villermont, Comtesse de. Histoire de la Coiffure 
Feminine. Illustrated. French text. 

Davey, Richard. A History of Mourning. Illus- 
trated. English text. 

Rhead, G. W. History of the Fan. Illustrated. 
English text. 

Redfern, W. B. Royal and Historic Gloves and 
Shoes. . Illustrated. English text. 

For Periodical References see Poole's Index and 
th; Readers' Guide. 

New York Public Library. Art Division. In prep- 
aration, Textile list and Costume list. Each not 
only lists books and articles, but parts of books 
and individual plates. 




ip 



Drawn by Robert Henry for Felix Jungmann & Cie., Paris. 



^p 



A READING AND 
REFERENCE LIST 
ON COSTUME 



BROOKLYN NEW YORK 

Published BY THE BROOKLYN PUBLIC LIBRARY 
FIRST PRINTING 1909 REVISED 1920 



PREFACE 

The primary purpose of this list is to furnish a partial guide to the resources 
of the Brooklyn Public Library on the subject of costume. Completeness 
has not been attempted. Practically no references to periodicals are 
included, as these are generally available through Poole's Index and the 
Readers' Guide. Post-cards, works of art, jewelry, and other articles 
primarily artistic in nature are not included. A few unindexed periodicals, 
especially useful in the study of costume, are listed. 

It is hoped that the list, in addition to its use to the patrons of the 
library, may serve as a contribution toward a bibliography of the subject. 



CONTENTS 



PAQB 

Abyssinia 143 

Afghanistan Hi 

Africa lU 

Albania. See Balkan States. 

Algeria 144 

Arab Costume 145 

Armenia. See Turkish Empire. 

Armor 145 

Asiatic Islands. See Malaysia, Philippine 

Islands. 

Assyria 146 

Australia 146 

Austria-Hungary 146 

Aztec Costume. See Indians of North 

America. 

Balkan States 147 

Bedouin Costume. See Arab Costume, Egypt, 
Turkish Empire. 

Belgium 148 

Bibliography 137 

Bohemia. See Austria-Hungary. 
Bosnia. See Balkan States. 

Bridal Costume 148 

Brittany. See France. 

Brooklyn 148 

Bulgaria. See Balkan States. 
Burma. See India. 

Canada 148 

Caricatures and Caricaturists 148 

Carthage. See Africa. 

Central America 149 

Central Asia 149 

Ceylon 150 

Children 150 

Chile 150 

China 150 

Colonial Costimie. See United States. 



FAGB 

Corea. See Koreia. 
Corsica. See France. 

Costume (in Poetry) 151 

Cuba 151 

Denmark 151 

Dutch Costume. See Nethi;rlands. 

Egypt 152 

England 152 

England. Military Costume 156 

Eskimo Costume 157 

Etruscan Costume 158 

Fancy Dress 158 

Fans 158 

Fiji Islands 158 

Flemish Costume. See Belgium. 

Foot-wear 158 

France 159 

France. Military Costume 160 

General Works 138 

Germany 161 

Germany. Military Costume 161 

Gipsy Costume 161 

Gloves , 162 

Greece 162 

Guatemala 163 

Hair, Hats. See Head-dress. 

Hawaii 163 

Head-dress 163 

Hebrew Costume. See Jewish Costume. 
Herzegovina. See Balkan States. 
Holland. See Netherlands. 
Hungary. See Austria-Hungary. 

India 164 

Indians of North America 165 



Page One Hundred Thirty -four 

PAGE 

Indians of South America 166 

Ireland 167 

Italy 167 

Japan 168 

Jewelry 168 

Jewish Costume 169 

Korea 169 

Lapland. See Norway, Russian Empire. 

Macedonia. See Balkan States. 

Malaysia 169 

Maori Costume. See New Zealand. 
Marriage Costume. See Bridal Costume. 

Mediaeval Costume 169 

Mexico 170 

Montenegro. See Balk.\n States. 

Morocco 170 

Nepal. See Tibet. 

Netherlands 170 

New Zealand 171 

Normandy. See France. 

Norway 171 

Oceanica 171 

Orders 171 

Palestine. See Turkish Empire. 

Peasant Costume 171 

Periodicals Useful for the Study of Costume ... 138 

Persia 171 

Peru 172 

Philippine Islands 172 

Poland. See Russia. 

Porto Rico 172 



CONTENTS 

PAGE 

Portugal 172 

Quakers 172 

Religious Costume 173 

Rome 173 

Roumania. See Balkan States. 

Russian Empire 174 

Samoa 175 

Savoy .' 175 

Scotland 175 

Servia. See Balkan States. 

Shakespearean Costume 176 

Shoes. See Foot-weAjI. 
Siam. See India. 

South America - 177 

Spain 177 

Sweden 177 

Switzerland 178 

Theatrical Costume 178 

Tibet 179 

Troubadours 179 

Tunis. See Africa. 

Turkish Empire 179 

Tyrol. See Austria-Hungary, Switzerland. 

United States 180 

United States. Military and Naval Costume. 181 

Venice. See Italy. 

Wales 182 

Weapons. See Armor. 

West Indies 182 

Zanzibar 182 



A READING AND REFERENCE LIST ON COSTUME, 
ARRANGED ALPHABETICALLY 



THIS OUTLINE OF HISTORIC COSTUME IS ARRANGED TO PROVIDE THE 
READER WITH COMPARATIVE DATES, UNDER THE HEADING OF "HISTORY," 
THE MAIN CHARACTERISTICS OF EACH CENTURY'S COSTUME, UNDER 
THE HEADING "HISTORY OF DRESS," AND WITH THE AIM OF FURTHER 
ELUCIDATION ON EACH PERIOD'S COSTUME, THERE WILL BE FOUND SELECTED 
DATA UNDER THE HEADING OF THAT CENTURY'S "REFERENCE BOOKS." 



Bibliography 



Barnard, F. P. Books for Reference on English 
Costume. (la his Companion to Enghsh History : 
Middle Ages. 190'2. p. 115.) Ref. 942B25 

Bibliography of Costume. (In Encyclopedia Ameri- 
cana. 1903-04. V. 5.) Ref. 031E56 

See article on " Costume." 16 titles. 

Bibliography of Costume. (In New International 
Encyclopaedia. 1902-04. v. 5. pp. 333-34.) 

Ref. 031l6lGi 

Annotated list of about 30 titles. 

Bibliography of Costume. (In New International 
Encyclopaedia. 1914. v. 6. p. 143.) 

Bibliography of Ecclesiastical Costume. (In New 
Internationa! Encycit^eedia. 1902-04. v. 5. 
p. 338.) Ref. 031l6lGi 

11 titles. 

Bibliography of Ecclesiastical Costume. (In New 
International Encyclopaedia. 1914. v. 6. p. 
148.) 

Bibliography of Jewish Costume. (In Jewish Ency- 
clopaedia. 1901-06. V. 4. pp. 294, 301, 303.) 

Ref. 933S61 

Brief lists. 

Bibliography of Roman Comedy Costume. (In 
Saunders, C. Costume in Roman Comedy. 
1909. pp. 143-145.) 391S25 

Bliimner, II. Costume. (In his Home Life of the 
Ancient Greeks. 1893. p. 533.) 913B65 

4 titles. 

Boutell, Charles. Bibliography of Costume. (In 
Encyclopaedia Britannica. 9th ed. 1875-88. v. 
6. pp. 478-79.) Ref. 032E56 

Classified and annotated list. 

Chubb, Percival, and others. Festivals and Plays in 
Schools and Elsewhere. 1912. 371.7C55 

Costume bibliography, p. 391. 



Dillon, H. A. Books Treating of Costume. (In 
Fairholt, F. W. Costume in England. 3d ed. 
1885. V. 1. pp. xi-xiv. Also 4th ed. 1896.) 

391F17 

Evans, M. M., Lady. List of Books on Greek Dress. 

(In her Chapters on Greek Dress. 1893. pp. 

vi-xvii.) 391E92 

Fletcher, A. C. Bibliography of Indian Adornment. 
(In Hodge, F. W. Hand-book of American Indians. 
1907. pt. 1. p. 20.— U. S. Bureau of Ethnology. 
Bulletin 30.) Ref. 970.1U58 

18 titles. 

Gipsy Costume. (In Journal of the Gipsy Lore 
Society. New ser. v. 1. p. 25. July, 1907.) 

Ref. 

Brief annotated list. 

Hough, Walter. Bibliography of Indian Clothing. 
(In Hodge, F. W. Hand-book of American Indians. 
1907. pt. 1. p. 313.— U. S. Bureau of Ethnology. 
Bulletin 30.) Ref. 970.1U58 

11 titles. 

Lipperheide, F. J., Freiherr von. Katalog der 
Freiherrlich von Lipperheide 'schen Kostiim- 
bibliothek. 2 v. 1896-1901. Ref. G016L76 

Annotated and illustrated. The most complete bibliog- 
raphy. 

Litteratur. Kostum. (In Brockhaus' Konversations- 
Lexicon. 14th ed. 1895. v. 10. p. 662.) 

Ref. G033B86 

14 titles. 

Luard, J. History of the Dress of the British 
Soldier. 1852. 355L92 

Brief list of authorities, pp. III-IV. 

McClellan, Elizabeth. Authorities Consulted. (In 
her Historic Dress in America, 1607-1800. 1904. 
pp. 405-07.) Ref. 391M12 



Page One Hundred Thirty-eight 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



New York City. Salmagundi Club. Catalogue of 
the Costume Books in the Library of the Salma- 
gundi Club. N. Y. 1906, R016No67S 

Peahody Institute, Baltimore. Catalogue of the 
Library. 

Costume. Part I, 18S3, pp. S07-8; 2d series, part II, 1897, 
p. 907; Ecclesiastical Costume, part I, 1883, p. 808; United 
States Costume, 2d series, part Vfll, 1905, p. 4875. 

List of books and periodical articles. 

Phillip, W. A. Bibliography of Costume. (In 
Encyclopaedia Britannica. 11th ed. 1910. v. 7. 

p. 247.) 

Quellen fiir die Kenntnis der Kostume. (In Meyer's 
Konversations-Lexicon. 4th ed. 1888. v. 10, 
pp. 120-21.) 

Brief list of works on costume. 

— Same. (In Same. 6th ed. 1904-08. v. 11, 
p. 539.) Ref. G033M61KO 

Preceding list revised and enlarged. 

Racinet, A. C. A. Le Costume Historique. 1888. 
Bibliography, v. 1. pp. 113-24. Ref. r390Rl2 

Classified list of about 400 titles. 

Rhead, G. W. Bibliography of Costume. (In his 
Chats on Costume. 1906. pp. 15-16.) 391R46 

Sargent, J. F. Customs and Costume: a list of 
books and magazine articles. (In his Reading for 
the Young. Issued by the Amer. Library Assoc, 
1890. pp. 9-10.) Ref. 028S24 

14 annotated titles of books, 88 references to periodicals. 

Select List of Works and References on Costume. 
(In Finsbury [England] Public Library quarterly 
guide. Jan., 1909. pp. 227-34.) 

Annotated and classified list. 

Thurston, Herbert. Bibliography of Clerical Cos- 
tume. (In Catholic Encyclopedia, v. 4. p. 421.) 

Ref. 282C363 

12 titles. 

Vinet, Ernest. Bibliographic du Costume. (In 
Racinet, A. Costume Historique. 1888. v. 1. 
pp. 113-24.) • Ref. F390R12 

Classified list of about 400 titles. 

Waern, Cecilia. Note: Bibliography of Fans. 
(In her Short Historical Sketch of Fans. 1895. 
pp. 28-29.) 391W12 

Brief annotated list. 

Weiss, Hermann. Verzeichniss der Abbildungen, 
nach ihren Quellen. (In his Kostiimkunde. 
I, Alterthum. 1881. pp. xxiii-xli.) G391W42 

Liit of works on ancient costume. 



Weiss, Hermann. (In his Kostiimkunde. 11, 
Mittelalter. 1883. pp. ii-xxviii.) 

List of works on mediaeval costume. 

— Same. (In his Kostiimkunde. III. 1. 2, 
14tes Jahrhundert bis auf die Gegenwart. 1872. 
pt. 2. pp. 1371-88.) 

List of works on costumes, 14th century to the present 
time. 

Periodicals Useful for the Study of Costume 

Delineator. 

Gazette du Bon Ton 

Godeys Lady's Book. 

Graham's Magazine. 

Graphic. 

Harper's Bazar. 

Ulustrated London News. 

Journal des Dames et des Modes. 

L'Hlustration. 

Ladies' Cabinet of Fashion, Music, and Romanes. 

Ladies' Home Journal. 

La Mode Ulustree. 

Le Costume Royal. 

Le Tour du Monde. 

National Geographic Magazine. 

Peterson s Magazine. 

Punch. 

Sketch. 

The Children's Costume Royal. 

Ueber Land und Meer. 

Vogue. 

Young Ladies' Journal. 

General Works 

This list includes tcorks dealing with a number of 
countries or subjects 

Accurate Historical Account of all the Orders of Knight- 
hood at Present Existing in Europe. 2 v. n.d. 

Ref. 929.7H25 

Descriptions of costumes and regalia of the different 
orders. 

Ammon, Jobst. The Theatre of Women. 1872. 

R391A51 

a reprint from the edition of 1586. Female costumes of 
all the principal nations and peoples of Europe. 

Aria, Mrs. E. Costume: Fanciful, Historical, and 
Theatrical. Illus. by Percy Anderson. 1906. 

391A69 

Historical, peasant, oriental, ceremonial, bridal, dancine, 
fancy, and theatrical costume. Colored plates and half- 
tones. 

Armies of To-day. Edited by W^esley Merritt and 
others. 1893. 355M57 

Articles, illustrated by wood-cuts, on armies of United 
States, Great Britain, Germany, France, Russia, Austria- 
Hungary, Italy, and Mexico. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Page One Hundred Thirty-nine 



Art of Dress; or Guide to the Toilette. 1839. 391A78 

6 plates of colored engravings. 

Aspin, J. Cosmorama: a View of the Costumes 
and Peculiarities of all Nations. 1826. 910A81. 

Illustrations are small , and are colored. 

Ballin, A. S. (Mrs. Berry.) Science of Dress in 
Theory and Practice. 1885. 613B19 

Belin, and others. Costumes de Su&de, Norw^ge, 
Danemark, HoUande, et AUemagne; dessines par 
Belin, Girardet, Sharles, Verveer. [About I860.] 

Ref. F391B43 

20 colored plates. 

Berghaus, Ileinrich. Die Volker des Erdballs. 
2 V. 1861. * G572B49 

Numerous colored plates. 

Beyschlag, Robert. Female Costume Pictures: fig- 
ures of female grace and beauty in costumes of 
various centuries, from twelve drawings in pastel. 
1886. R 391B57 

Blanc, A. A. P. C. Art in Ornament and Dress. 
1877. 646B63 

" Personal adornment," pp. 49-274. Many cuts and 2 
colored plates of head-dress and apparel. 

Boehn, Max von. Die Mode: Menschen und 
Moden im neunzehnten Jahrhundert. Ausge- 
wahlt von Oskar Fischel. Text von Max von 
Boehn. 1907. G391B67 

Covers the period 1818-1842. Many illustrations, 36 in 
color. 

— Modes and Manners of the 19th Century. 3 v. 
1909. 391B67 

Colored plates. 

Bonnard, C. Costumes Historiques des XII^, XIII®, 
XIV® et XV® Siecles. Dessines et graves par 
Paul Mercuri avec un texte historique et de.scriptif 
par Camille Bonnard. Nouvelle Edition avec ime 
introduction par Charles Blanc. 3 v. 1860-61. 
Ref. F391B710 

200 colored copper engravings. 

Brownell, H. H. Eastern, or Old World : embracing 
ancient and modern history. 2 v. 1856. 

909B88 

Has hand-colored wood-cuts, showing costumes from early 
times to 19th century. 

Burke, Sir Bernard. The Book of Orders of Knight- 
hood and Decorations of Honour of all Nations. 
Fully illustrated with colored plates. 1858. 

R 929.7B95BO 



Child, Theodore. Wimples and Crisping Pins. 1895. 

391C53 

Illustrated studies in the coiffure and ornaments of 
women, from ancient times through the early 19th century. 

Clothes and the Man; hints on the wearing and caring 
of clothes. 1900. 6-16C64. 

Discussion of modern male attire. 

Collier, John. Art of Portrait Painting. 1905. 

Ref. 757C69 

41 portraits in color and half-tone, showing costumes from 
Giotto to Watts. 

Costume. (In Encyclopedia Americana. 1903. 
V. 5.) Ref. 031E56 

Historical sketch with brief bibliography. 

Costume. (In Encyclopaedia Britannica. 11th ed. 
1910. V. 7. pp. 224-47.) R 

Historical. 51 figures. Bibliography. 

Costume. (In New International Encyclopaedia. 
1902. V. 5. pp. 328-34.) Ref. 031 161 Gi 

Historical. 2 plates (15 figures) and bibliography. 

Costume. (In New International Encyclopaedia. 
2d ed. 1914. v. 6. pp. 137-48.) R 

Historical. 3 plates (23 figures). 

Costume. (In Nouveau Larousse - Illustr*?. v. 3. 
p. 314.) R 

4 colored plates of civil and military costume. 

Costume of the Lower Orders of the Metropolis, n.d. 

391C84 

No text. Contains colored plates. 

Davis, R. H. Rulers of the Mediterranean. 1894. 

910D21R 

Half-tone plates and wood-cuts of costumes of Gibraltar, 
Malta, Tangier, Egypt, Athens and Constantinople. 

Davy, Richard. Furs and Fur Garments, n.d. 

391D24 

General historical sketch. 12 plates showing fur gar- 
ments, 9th-19th centuries. 

Decorum; a practical treatise on etiquette and dress 
of the best American society. 1880. 395D29 

Dewing, Mrs. M. R. Beauty in Dress. 1881. 

646D52 

^Esthetics of women's dress. 

Duller, E. Volkstrachten : Album von 50 Blatt 
Kostiimbildern. Ref. 391D88 

Colored lithographs taken from Duller's work. 

Ecob,H.G. Well-dressed Woman. 1892. 613E19 

Numerous half-tones and wood-cuts. 



Page One Hundred Forty 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Egerton, M. M., Countess of Wilton. Book of Cos- 
tume; or. Annals of fashion, from the earliest 
period to the present time. Newed. 1847. 

Ref. 391\V75 

Detailed descriptions of European and Asiatic dress. 
About 200 wood-cuts. 

Ellsworth, E. P. Textiles and Costume Design. 

Illustrated. 1917. 646E47 

Emerson, Edwin, Jr. History of the 19th Century. 

3 V. 1902. 909E53 

16 colored and 32 half-tone plates, some of use for costume. 

Erskine, Mrs. Beatrice. (Mrs. Stuart.) Beautiful 
Women in History and Art. 1905. 

Ref. 920E732 

37 half-tone plates, showing English and French dress, 
16th-18th centuries. 

The European Delineator. Containing brief but 
interesting descriptions of Russia, Sweden, Den- 
mark, Norway, etc. 1815. Ref. 914E89D 

20 colored engravings. 

Fales, Jane. Dressmaking. A Manual for Schools 
and Colleges. With chapter on the Historic Devel- 
opment of Costume. Illustrated. 1917. 646F18 

Fancy Dress. A Short Chronological Series of 
Costumes, n.d. 391F19 

Farnsworth, E. 0. The Art and Ethics of Dress. 
Illustrated. 1915. 177F23 

Ferrario, Giulio, and others. Le Costume, Ancien 
ctModeme. 18 v. 1815-29. Ref. F391F37 

Africa (2 v.), America (2 v.), Asia (4 v.), Europe (6 v. in 9). 
General sketch of history of costume for practically every 
nation of historic note. Illustrated with hand-colored 
copperplates. 

Finden, William. Finden's Tableaux. 1837. 

Ref. 769F49 

13 scenes of national character, beauty, and costume. 

Fo.v, G. P. Fashion, the Power that Influences the 
World. 3ded. 1871. 391F79 

Chiefly discusses modern male dress. 

Gale, E. C. Hints on Dress. 1872. 646G15 

Discussion of modern costume. 

Godwin, E. W. Dress and Its Relation to Health 
and Climate. 1884. 391G59 

Small wood-cuts of dress of various types, from early 
Egyptian times to about 1850. 

Grasset de Saint-Sauveur, G. Costumes, n.p., n.d. 

Ref. 391G76 

Hand-colored engravings of costumes of all countries. 

Grosvenor, G. H. Scenes from Every Land. Second 

Series. 1909. 910G87 

— Scenes from Every Land. Third Series. 1912. 

910G87S 
GuiUaumot, A. E. Costumes de I'Op^ra. 1883. 

Ref. F391G95C 

50 colored plates, 17th and 18th centuries. 



Haweis, Mrs. H. R. Art of Dress. 1879. 391H38 

Artistic principles of costume. Many wood-cuts. 

Heaton, H. A. Brooches of Many Nations. 1904. 

391H44 

78 wood-cuts of brooches, from Assyria to Scotland. 

Hefner- Alieneck, J. H. v. Trachten, Kunstwerke, 
und Gerathschaften, vom friihen Mittelalter bis 
Ende des achtzehnten Jahrhunderts. 5 v. 1879- 
89. R G709H46 

720 colored plates. 

Heyden, A. von. Die Tracht der Kulturvolker 
Europas, von Zeitalter Homers bis zum Beginne 
des XIX. Jahrhunderts. 1889. G39lHei 

222 illustrations (wood-cuts). 

Higgin, L. Art as Applied to Dress. 1885. 



646H63 



^Esthetics of dress. 



Hints about Mens Dress. By a New York clubman. 
1888. 646H66 

Principles of selection. 

Hooge, Romeyn de. {?) Costumes, n.p., n.d. 

Ref. 391H77 

43 copper-plates of costumes of many countries. 

Ho-pe, Thomas. Costume of the Ancients. 2 v. 
New cd. 1841. Ref. 391H79 

Brief descriptive sketch of Egyptian, Asiatic, Greek, and 
Roman costume, followed by 321 outline plates. 

Hottenroth, F. Trachten, Hans-, Feld-, und Kriegs- 
gerathschaften der Volker alter und neuer Zeit. 
2 V. n.d. G391H83 

120 colored plates and numerous woodcuts. 

Hughes, Talbot. Dress Design: an account of cos- 
tume, for artists and dressmakers. 1913. 

646H89 

Has 35 collotype plates and numerous other illustrations, 
900^1870 

Hughes, T. P. Dress. (In his Diet, of Islam. 
1895. pp. 92-99.) Ref. 297H89 

Mohammedan dress. 9 wood-cuts. 

Hunt, Mrs. M. (Averil Beaumont.) Our Grand- 
mothers' Gowns, n.d. 391H94 

Contains colored plates. 

Hutchinson, H. N. and others. Living Races of 
Mankind. 1902. Ref. 572H97 

Half-tones of nearly all extant nations, in modern dress. 

Iconographic Encyclopedia. 1886. v. 2. 

Ref. 033117 

See " Dress " and " Costume " in Index, and plates 34-38 
(80 figures). 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Page One Hundred Forty-one 



Ireland, J. B. Wall-Street to Cashmere: five years 
in Asia, Africa, and Europe, 1851-56. 1859. 

910IG5 

Colored plate of Arab costume, and wood-cuts of other 
costumes. 

Jacquemin, R. Histoire G6nerale du Costume 
Civil, Religieux, et Militaire du IV""'' au XIl''"'' 
Siecle.— Occident (.315-1100). Paris, n.d. (?188-.) 

Ref. F391J19 

Jeune, Lady. Dress for Motoring : dress for ladies. 
(In Harmsworth, A. C. and others. Motors and 
Motor-driving. 190'-2. pp. 66-71.) 621.4H^28 

4 cuts of motor costume. 

Johnson, John. A Journey from India to England, 
through Persia, Georgia, Ru.ssia, Poland, and 
Prussia, in the Year 1817. 1818. 915J67 

5 colored plates. 

Jones, William. Coronation Robes. (In his 
Crowns and Coronations. 1883. pp. 491-504.) 

394J79 

Wood-cuts of costumes. 

Joyce, T. A. Women of All Nations. 2 vols. 
1908. 572J89 

25 colored plates and many smaller illustrations of the 
women of all countries. 

Kohl, J. G. Die Volker Europas. 1872. 

G914K79 

8 colored plates. 

Koppen, F. von. Armies of Europe, illustrated. 
1890. 3.55K77 

20 double-page colored plates and many cuts of uniforms 
of modern Europe. 

Kostiim. (In Brockhaus' Konversations-Lexicon. 
14th ed. 1895. v. 10.) Ref. G033B86 

Historical sketch, with 4 colored plates Bibliography. 

Kostiim. (In Meyer's Konversations-Lexicon. 4th 
ed. 1880. v. 10. pp. 120-21.) 

Ref. G033M61KO 

Historical survey. 3 double- page colored plates (41 
figures). Bibliography. 

— Same. 10th ed. 1905. v. 11. pp. 537-39. 
V. 20. p. 242. 

3 colored plates with smaller figures than those in the 
4th ed. 

Kretschmei , Albert. Costumes of All Nations, from 
the earliest times to the 19th century. 1882. 

Ref. 391 K92 

lot colored plates in general chronological arrangement. 

— Die Trachten der Volker, vom Beginn der Ge- 
schichte bis zum 19ten Jahrhundert. 1864. 

Ref. G391K92T 



Lacy, T. H. Female Costumes, Historical, National, 
and Dramatic. 1865. Ref. 391H152C2 

Contains colored plates. 

— Male Costume, Historical, National, and Dra- 
matic. 1868. Ref. 391L152C1 

No text. Contains colored plates. 

Lechevallier-Chevignard, G. Costumes Historiques 
de Femmes du XIV^"*^ au XVIir"'" Siecle. 
1889. Ref. F391L45 

Colored plates. 

Lipperheide, F. J., Freiherr von. Katalog der 
Freiherrlich von Lipperheide'schen Kostiimbib- 
liothek. 2. v. 1896-1901. RG016L76 

03? illustrations from catalogued works, showing cos- 
tumes of all periods. Half-tones. 

Loemyer, J. F. N. (Auguste Wahlen.) Mueurs, 
Usages, et Costumes de tons les Peui)les du 
Monde.— Oceanic. 1843. RF919L82 

34 colored plates. 

Lord, W. B. The Corset and the Crinoline; a book 
of modes and costumes, from remote periods to 
the present time. 1865. 391L11 

54 full-page and other engravings. 

Louandre, Charles. Les Arts Somptuaires. 1857- 
58. 3 v. (1 V. text, 2 v. plates.) Ref. 

Special attention paid to French costume. Richly colored 
plates of costume, etc., from 5th-17th century MSS. 

Le luxe (Paris) Supplement. Ball, Winter, and Sum- 
mer Costumes for 1893-94. RF391L97 

Contains colored plates. 

Malerische Studien: eine Reise um die Welt, in 
200 farbigen Photographien. n.d. RG910M24 

Many of the 200 colored half-tones give the modern 
costumes of European and Asiatic countries. 

Malliot, Joseph. Recherches sur les Costumes . . . 
des ancicns peuples. 3 v. 1809. F391M25 

Marechal, P. S. Costumes Civils Actuels de tous 
les peuples connus. 4 v. 1788. RF391M32 

Mazny, M. A. Types et Caracteres Ancicns. 1841 . 

RF390M47 

21 colored plates. 

Menard, Rene. Le Vetement. (In his Vie Priv^e 
des Ancicns. 1881. v. 2. pp. 227-384.) 

F913M53 

Ancient, Oriental, Greek, and Roman costumes. Nearly 
300 outline illustrations. 

Merrifield, Mrs. M. P. Dress as a Fine Art; with 
suggestions on children's dress. With an introd. 
on head dress by Prof. Fairholt. 1854. 391M56 

Outline plates. 



Page One Hundred Forty-two 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Michel, F. F. F. (Antony Real.) Story of the 
Stick in all Ages and Lands. 1891. 391M62 

History of walking sticks. Several plates incidentally 
showing costume. 

Miln, L. J. When We were Strolling Players in the 
East. 1894. 914.39G35 

Costumes of India, China, and Japan. About 20 plates. 

Moore, N.H. Lace Book. 746M82 

Half-tone plates of lace and lace-trimmed costumes. 

Morris, Charles. Home Life in all Lands. 1907. 

910M97HO 

" In the World's Tailor-shop," chap. 2; " In the World's 
Dressing-room," chap. 3. Many half-tones of costume. 

Moses, H. Designs of Modern Costume, etc. ca. 
1815. R391M91 

29 plates. 

Murray, A. S. Costume. (In Encyc. Brit. 9th 
ed. 1878.) Ref. 032E56 

Historical and descriptive, with 52 wood-cuts and bibliog- 
raphy. 

National Beauties and their Costumes, n.d. 

391N27B 

1.5 photograph-s of women in various European and 
Oriental countries. 



National Types and Costumes, n.d. 



391N27 



Photographs of feriinine types and costumes of Europe 
and Asia. 

Oliphant, Mrs. M. 0. W. Dress, n.d. 646047 

.Esthetics of dress. Several illustrations. 

Parmentier, A. Album Historique, Publie sous la 
Direction de Ernest Lavisse. 4 vols. 1900-1907. 

Ref. F909P25 

Each volume has 1500 to 2000 wood-cuts. 

Pauquet Freres. Illustrations of English and 
Foreign Costume, from the 15th Century to the 
Present Day. 1875. Ref. 391P33I 

96 colored plates (Europe, Asia, Africa), without text. 

051P48 

Monthly articles on current fashions. Steel and colored 
plates of current female fashion. 

Pickering, C. Races of Man. 1854. 572P59 

12 colored plates of savage types. 

Pictures of Other Folks at Home. n.d. 914.6P37 

lUiistrations of typical costumes. 

Planche, J. R. Cyclopedia of Costume, from the 
Commencement of the Christian Era to the 
Accession of George the Third. 2 v. 1876. 

Ref. 391P69C 

Volume 1, dictionary; volume 2, general history of cos- 
tume in Europe. Many chroaio-lithographs, "plain plates" 
and wood-cuts. 



Petersons Magazine. 1856-98. 



Porter, Sir R. K. Travels in Georgia [Asia], Persia, 
Armenia, Ancient Babylonia, during the years 
1817, 1818, 1819, 1820. 2 vols. 1821. 915P84 

Illustrated with portraits, plates, and maps. 

Praga, Mrs. Alfred. What to Wear and when to 
Wear it. 1903. 391P89 

Esthetics of dress. S half-tones of head-dress and 
female costumes. 

Prichard, J. C. The Natural History of Man. 



1848. 



573P947N 



50 colored and 5 plain steel engravings, and 97 wood-cuts 
of native races. 21 of the colored are of American Indians. 

— Same. 4th ed. 2 vol. 573P947 
Quigley, Dorothy. What Dress Makes of Us. 1897. 

391Q6 

Many outline cuts. 

Racinet, A. Costume Historique. 6 v. 1888. 

Ref. F390R12 

500 plates (300 colored) of practically every country and 
period. Bibliography. One of the most complete and 
accurate works on the subject. 

Rhead, G. W. Chats on Costume. 1906. 391R46 

Colored frontispiece and 117 wood-cuts and line engrav- 
ings. Bibliography. 

— Modern Practical Design. 1912. 740R46M 

— Treatment of Drapery in Art. 1904. 743R46 

50 diagrams and line drawings, and 32 half-tone plates. 

Ridpath, J. C. Great Races of Mankind. 4 v. 
1892. Ref. 572R54 

See " Costume " and " Dress " in general index. Illus- 
trations include colored " type pictures " and many wood- 
cuts of many nationalities. 

— Universal History. 17 vols. 1896. 

Ref. 909R54U 

Practically same material as his " Great Races." 

Ritchie, Leitch. Beauty's Costume: female figures 
in the dresses of all times and rations. 1838. 

Ref. 391R59 

12 steel plates with brief descriptive text. 

St. John, J. A. Oriental Album. 1848. 

R916.2S1430 

A series of 30 lithographic plates, with a number of 
wood engravings. 

Songster, William. Umbrellas and their History. 
1871. 391S22 

Historical sketch, with caricatures. 

Seguin, L. G. Picturesque Tour in Picturesque 
Lands. 1881. Ref. 914S45 

Nearly 100 wood-cuts of European costumes. 

Shoberl, Frederic. World in Miniature. 42 v. 

1821-27. Ref. 

Colored engravings of costumes of all nations. (See 
under separate countries.) 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Page One Hundred Forty-three 



Simpson, William. Picturesque People: groups 
from all quarters of the globe. 187C. 

Ref. 915861 

18 colored plates. 

— The Seat of War in the East. 2 v, in 1. 1855- 
56. Ref. 947S61 

81 lithographs, introducing uniforms of Crimean War. 

Skeat, W. W. The Past at our Doors. 1911. 

390S62 
" The Story of our Dress." pp. 50-122 Illustrated. 

Spalart, Robert von. Versuch iiber das Kostum der 
vorziiglichsten Volker des Alterthums. 3 v. 
1796-98. RG391S73 

Contains colored plates. 

Steele, F. M. Beauty of Form and Grace of Ves- 
ture. 1892. 613.7S81 

iEsthetics of dress. 

Sturgis, Russell. Costume. (In Universal Cyclo- 
paedia. 1900. V. 3. pp. 209-12.) R03ir58 

Historical. 

Traphagen, Ethel. Costume Design and Illustration. 

"With outline of historic costume. Illustrated. 
Un Siecle de Modes Feminines. 1794-1894. Quatre 

cents toilettes reproduites en couleurs d'apres des 

documents authentiques. 1896. 391S57 

JJzanne, L. 0. The Sunshade, the Glove, the Muff. 

1883. 391U99S 

Historical. Numerous photogravures. 

Vackon, Marius. La Femme dans I'Art. 1893. 

Ref. F759V11 

400 wood-cuts, from paintings and sculptures, of women 
from early Egypt to the present time. 

Vecellio, C. Costumes Anciens et Modernes. 2 v. 
1860. RF391V41 

513 illustrations of all types of people. Text in Italian 
and French. 

Volbtandige Volker gallerie in getreuen Abbildungen 
aller Nationen. Vols. 1, 3. 1830-39. G910V92 

Colored illustrations of people in various countries of 
Europe, Asia, and .Vfrica. 

Wagner, L. Manners, Customs, and Observances. 
1895. Ref. 390W13 

Scattered notes on peculiarities of costume. See Index. 

Walker, Isaac. Dress: as It has Been, Is, and Will 
Be. 1885. 39nYl7 

General discussion. A few wood-cuts. 

Ward, Mrs. E. S. Phelps. What to Wear. 1873. 

No illustrations. 613W25 

Webb, W. M. Heritage of Dress; being notes on 
the history and evolution of clothes. Illustrated. 
1908. 391W36 



Weise & Co. 100 historische Kostum- and Volks- 
trachten-Bilder. n.d. R391W42 

Colored plates, no text. 

Weiss, Hermann. Kostiimkunde; Geschichte der 
Tracht und des Geraths. 3 v. in 4. 1872-1883. 

G391W42 

I. Die Volker des Alterthums. 2e. Auflage. 1881. 

454 wood-cuts and 8 chromolithographic plates. 

II. Das Mittelalter, vom 4. bis zum 14. Jahr- 

hundert. 2e. Auflage. 1883. 

367 wood-cuts and 8 chromolithographic plates. 

m. Vom 14ten Jahrhundert bis auf die 
Gegenwart. 2 pts. 1872. 

418 wood-cuts (900 figures). 

Whitcomb, Merrick. History of Modern Europe. 
1903. 940W58 

Several illustrations of costume. 

Whole Art of Dress. 1830. 391W62 

Engraved illustrations of hats, boots, neckwear, etc. 

Willemin, N. X. Choix de Costumes Civils et Mili- 
taires des Peuples de I'Antiquite. 2 v. 1802. 

RF913W69 

ISO engraved plates. 

Woolson, A. G. Dress-reform. Lectures on dress 
as it affects the health of women. 1874. 613W91 

A few wood-cuts. 

Young, J. R. Around the World with Gen. Grant. 
2 V. 1879. 910Y73 

Many wood-cuts of costumes. 

Zogbaum, R. F. Horse, Foot, and Dragoons. 1888. 

355Z85 

Wood-cuts of uniforms of France, Great Britain, Germany, 
and the United States. 

Zur Geschichte der Kostume; nach Zeichnungen von 
Wilhelm Diez [and others.] Herausg. und verlegt 
von Braun & Schneider, n.d. (Miinchener 
Bilderbogen.) Ref. G391Z96 

119 colored plates (Nos. 296-1212, not consecutive), 
showing costumes of Europe and .Asia, 4th to 19th centuries. 
No index or systematic arrangement. 

Abyssinia 

Halle, Clifford. To Menelek in a Motor-car. 1913. 

916.3H18 

72 illustrations from photographs. 

Skinner, R. R. Abyssinia of To-day. 1906. 

916.3S62 

Abyssinian costume, pp. 126-30, 135. 15 half-tone plates. 

Vivian, HerbeH. Abyssinia. 1901. 916.3V85 

80 illustrations. 



Page One Hundred Forty-four 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Afghanistan 

Bouillane de Lacoste, Major de. Around Afghanis- 
tan. 1909. 915.8B76 

83 illustrations, many of them showing costume. 

Egerton, M. M., Countess of Wilton. Toilette in 
Afghanistan. (In her Book of Costume. 1847. 
pp. 449-.56.) Ref. 391W75 

7 wood-cuts. 

Hamilton, Angus. Afghanistan. 1906. 915.8H21 

Costume in Kabul, pp. 380-84. Several half-tone plates 
of costume. 

Africa 

Adolf Friedrieh, Duke of Mecklenburg-Schw^rin. 
From the Congo to the Niger and the Nile. 2 v. 
1913. 916A23 

Angas, G. F. Kafirs Illustrated. Also portraits of 
other races inhabiting South Africa. 1849. 

Ref. 916.8A58 

Scattered references on costume. 30 colored plates and 
11 wood-cuts. 

Ferrario, Giulio. Afrique. (In his Costume. 1815- 
29. Afrique. v. 1-2. [v. 5-6.]) Ref. F391F37 

Colored copperplates of ancient and modern costume. 

Hall, R. N. Great Zimbabwe, Mashonaland, 
Rhodesia. 1905. 916.8H17 

Several half-tones of natives. 

Johnston, Sir Harry. Liberia. 2 v. 1906. 

966J22 

" Clothing," V. 2, pp 9.54-70. Several colored plates and 
numerous half-tones of natives. 

Kidd, Dudley. Essential Kafir. 1904. 916.8K46 

19 half-tone plates of costumes. 

— Savage Childhood: a story of Kafir children. 
1906. 572K46 

32 half-tone plates of children. 

Landor, A. H. Savage-. Across Wildest Africa. 
2 V. 1907. 916.6L26 

See " Costumes " in Index. Many half-tone plates of 
African and Moorish dress. 

Lloyd, A. B. Uganda to Khartoum: life and ad- 
ventures on the upper Nile. 2d ed. 1907. 

916.7L79 

Dress of the Gangs, pp. 173-77. Over 30 illustrations of 
costume. 

Mackintosh, C. W. Coillard of the Zambesi. 1907. 

BC679M 

About 25 half-tones of Zambesi natives. 

Neufeld, Charles. Prisoner of the Khaleefa. 1899. 

916.2N48 

25 half-tone plates of Soudanese Arab dress. 



Powell, R. S. S. Baden-. Natives of British East 
Africa. (In his Sketches in Mafeking and East 
Africa. 1907. pp. 140-46.) R916P88 

Numerous sketches and wash-drawings of natives of South 
and East Africa. 

Shoberl, Frederic. World in Miniature: Africa. 
4 V. (Vol. I missing.) n. d. Ref. 916S55 

45 colored engravings of Moors and Negroes. 

Sladen, Douglas. Carthage and Tunis. 2 v. 1906. 

916.1S63 

Numerous half-tones and one colored plate of costumes of 
Tunis. 

Stow, G. W. Native Races of South Africa. 1905. 

572S89 

See " Clothing " in index. 

Tully, Richard. Narrative of a Ten Years' Resi- 
dence at Tripoli in Africa. Also, An Account of 
the Domestic Manners of the Moors, Arabs, and 
Turks. 2ded. 1817. * 916.1J92 

6 of the 8 colored plates show costume. 

Vollstandige Volkergallerie. Erster Band, zweite 
Abtheilung.— Afrika. 1830. G910V92 (Vol. 1.) 

Colored illustrations. 

Werner, A. Natives of British Central Africa. 
1906. 572W49 

Dress of children, pp. 105-06. Most of the 32 half-tone 
plates show costume. 

Albania. See Balkan States 

Algeria 

Ayer, Emma B. A Motor Flight through Algeria 
and Tunisia. 1911. 916A97 

Illustrated from photographs Costumes of Arabs, of 
Arab women, and of dragomans described. 

Berbrugger, M. Alg^rie; historique, pittoresque, et 
monumentale. 3 v. 1843. RF965B48 

Lithographs and wood-cuts of natives and French soldiers. 
See also v. 1, pp. 13-15 (Moorish women), and v. 3, pt. 5 
(Algerian races). 



Leeder, S. H. The Desert Gateway. 1910. 



916.5L48 



10 plates, from photographs. 



Nesbitt,F.E. Algeria and Tunis. 1906. 916.5N45 

70 colored illustrations. 

Simpson, M. H. Hilton-. Algiers and Beyond. 
1906. 916.5S61 

9 half-tone plates of costume. 

Wilkin, Anthony. Among the Berbers of Algeria, 
n.d. 916.5W68 

See also Arab Costume and Africa 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Page One Hundred Forty-five 



Arab Costume 

PuTv.:hardt, J. L. Dress of the Bedouins. (In his 
Notes on the Bedouins and Wahabys. 1831. 
V. 1. pp. 230-35.) 915.3B94N 

Bury, G. Wyman. The Land of Uz. 1911. 

915.3B975 

Egerton, M. M., Countess of Wilton. Toilette in 
Palestine and Syria. (In her Book of Costume. 
1847. pp. 476-82.) Ref. 391W75 

3 wood-cuts. 

Ferrario, Giulio. Costumes Barbaresques. (In his 
Costume. 1815-29. Afrique. v. 1. [v. 5.] 
pp. 354-417.) Ref. F391F37 

6 colored copperplates of Arabs of Barbary States. 

Ireland, J. B. From Wall Street to Cashmere. 
1859. 910165 

Colored frontispiece of Arab costume. 

Lane, E. W. Arabian Society in the Middle Ages. 
1883. 915.3L26 

Dress, pp. 116-18, 157. 

Levati, Amhrogio. Arabes. (In Ferrario, G. Cos- 
tume. 1817. Asie. v. 3. [v. 3.] pp. 173- 
261.) Ref. 391F37 

8 colored copperplates of Arab costume. 

Neufeld, Charles. Prisoner of the Khaleefa. 1899. 

916.2N48 

25 half-tone plates of Soudanese Arab dress. 

Riiete, Emily. Memoirs of an Arabian Princess; 
tr. by Lionel Strachey. 1907. BR921S 

pp. 85-91. 6 half-tone 



Female fashions of Zanzibar, 
plates of Zanzibar Arabs. 

Sladcn, Douglas. Carthage and Tunis 

Several plates of Bedouins. 

See also Africa, Egypt, Turkish Empire 



2 V. 1906. 
916.1S63 



Armenia. See Turkish Empire 

Armor and Weapons 

Brett, Edwin J. Pictorial and Descriptive Record 
of the Origin and Development of Arms and 
Armor. 1894. R399B84 

Calvert, A. F. Spanish Arms and Armor. 1907. 

399C16 

3S6 illustrations. 

Davies, A. C. Fox-. Art of Heraldry; an Encyclo- 
paedia of Armory. 1904. Ref. 929.2D25A 

Plates (some colored) and cuts of armor. 



Demmin, Auguste. Illustrated History of Arms and 
Armor. 1877. (Bell's artists' library.) 

399D38 

Nearly 2000 outline illustrations. 

Druitt, H. Manual of Costume as Illustrated by 
Monumental Brasses. 1900. 391D79 

110 illustrations (half-tone) of English armor and dress of 
the 14th and loth centuries. 

Eccleston, James. Introduction to English Antiq- 
uities. 1847. 913E17 

See " Armor " in Index. Outline cuts of armor to about 
1660. 

Ffoulkes, Chas. Armor and Weapons. 1909. 

399F43 

52 figures and 11 plates. 

— The Armorer and his Craft, from the 11th to the 
16th Century. 1912. R399F43A 

69 diagrams and 32 plates. 

— Inventory and Survey of the Armories of the 
Tower of London. 2 v. 1916. R399L84 

Gardner, J. S. Armor in England, from the Earliest 
Times to the 17th Century. 1898. 399G22 

16 colored plates and more than 80 other illustrations. 

— Foreign Armor in England. 1898. 759S84 

8 colored plates and 44 illustrations in the text. 

Gosse, P. H. Assyria. 1852. 913G678 

" War," pp. 203-397. Cuts of Assyrian armor and mili- 
tary dress. 

Hewitt, John. Ancient Armor and Weapons in 
Europe, to the End of the 13th Century. 3 v. 
1855. 399H61 

Illustrations from contemporary monuments. 

Hodgetts, J. F. The English in the Middle Ages, 
from the Norman Usurpation to the Stuarts. 
1885. 914.2H68 

" Armor,'' pp. 111-43. 

Lacombe, P. Arms and Armor in Antiquity and the 
Middle Ages, 1869. 399L14 

— Same. 1870. 

Lacroix, Paul. Arms and Armor. (In his Arts in 
the Middle Ages. n.d. pp. 75-105.) 

Ref. 970L14 

Colored plale and wood-cuts.] 

MacJclin, H. W. Brasses of England. 1907. 

739M15B 

Wood-cuts and descriptions of armor, 1277-1625. 

739M15 

Wood-cuts from rub- 



Monumental Bras.ses. 1905. 

" Armor," 13th-17th centuries, 
bings. 



Page One Hundred Forty-six 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Michaud, J. F. ■ History of the Crusades. 2 v. 
n.d. Ref. 940M62H 

100 plates by Gustave Dor6. 

Saxon, Mrs. A. L. Belt and Spur: stories of the 
knights of the Middle Ages. 1883. 940S27 

16 colored illustrations from contemporary MSS. 

Scott, Sir J. S.D. British Army. 3 v. 1868-1880. 

355S42 

" Body armor," v, 1, pp. 192-222. Many plates, with 
notes. 

Seymour, T. D. Homeric Arms. (In his Life in 
the Homeric Age. 1907. pp. 629-82.) 913S52 

13 cuts of arms and armor. 

Stuyvesant, R. Collection of Arms and Armor of 
Rutherford Stuyvesant, 1643-1909. 1914. 

R399S93 

50 plates. 

Trumble, Alfred. Sword and Scimetar: the Ro- 
mance of the Crusades. 1886. 940T86 

The illustrations, by Dor6, show costumes of the Cru- 
saders. More plates in Michaud, " History of the Cru- 
sades." 

Viollet-Le-Duc, E. E. Military Architecture. 1879. 

623V79 

Many wood-cuts of fortifications and weapons of the 
Roman and mediseval periods. 

See also the entries under General Works 

Asiatic Islands. See Malaysia, Philippine 
Islands 

Assyria 

Ferrario, Giulio, and others. Costumes des Assy- 
riens, des Babyloniens. (In his Costume. 1817. 
Asie. V. 3 [v. 3]. pp. 351-81.) Ref. I391F37 

Colored copperplate of Assyrian costume. 

Gosse,P.H. Assyria. 1852. 913G678 

" Costume," pp. 437-87. 20 cuts. Military costume, 
pp. 203-397. 

Layard, A. H. Nineveh and its Remains. 1852. 

913L42 

Dress, pp. 248-63. A few wood-cuts show costume. 

Maspero, G. Life in Ancient Assyria. (In his Life 
in Ancient Egypt and Assyria. 1892. pp. 
194-376.) 913M41 

Cuts of costume from Assyrian antiquities. 

Australia 

Lumholtz, Carl. Among Cannibals in Australia, 
and the Aborigines of Queensland. 1889. 

919.4L95 

See " Costume " in index. Wood-cuts of aboriginal cos- 



Spencer, W. B. Native Tribes of Central Australia. 
1899. 572S74N 

" Clothing, weapons, implements, decorative art," pp. 
567-655. Many half-tones and wood-cuts of native cos- 
tumes. 

— Northern Tribes of Central Australia. 1904. 

572S74 

" Clothing and ornament," pp. 683-95. Half-tones and 
cuts of dress. 

Thomas, N. W. Natives of Australia. 1906. 

(Native races of the British Empire.) 572T45N 

" Dress," pp. 63-69. Half-tone ; 



Austria-Hungary 

An Accurate and Impartial Narrative of the War, 
. . . Comprising the Campaigns of 1793, 1794, 
and 1795. 1796. 821A172 

Has 2 colored plates of Hungarian foot-soldiers. 

Alexander, William. Picturesque Representations 
of the Dress and Manners of the Austrians. n.d. 

Ref. 391A37P 

50 colored engravings, with descriptive text. 

Bertrand de Moleville, A. F. Costume of the Hered- 
itary States of the House of Austria. 1804. 

R391B55 

50 colored engravings. 

Boner, Charles. Transylvania; its Products and 
its People. 1865. 914.39B71 

See " Costume " in Index. 2 plates (1 colored) and 3 cuts 
of costume. 

Colquhoun, A. R. Whirlpool of Europe; Austria- 
Hungary and the Hapsburgs. 1907. 943.6C72 

About 40 half-tone plates of costume, especially peasant 
costume. 

Egerton, M. M., Countess of Wilton. Toilette in 
Hungary. (In her Book of Costume. 1847. 
pp. 355-59.) Ref. 391W75 

2 wood-cuts. 

Eighty Club. Hungary: its people, places, and 
politics. 1907. • 914.39F34 

8 half-tone plates of national costume, peasant and official. 

Gerard, E. The Land beyond the Forest: facts, 
figures, and fancies from Transylvania. 2 v. 
1888. 914.39G35 

See " Contents " of each volume. 6 photogravures and 
15 wood-cuts of costume. 

Grohman, W. A. Baillie. The Land in the Moun- 
tains: past and present of Tyrol. 1907. 

943.7G87 

a few half-tone plates of costume. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Page One Hundred Forty-seven 



Hering, G. E. Sketches on the Danube, in Hungary 
and Transylvania. 1838. R914.39H53 

Lithographic illustrations, from drawings by the author. 
No text. 

Illustrirte Geschiehte der K. K. Oesterreichischen 
Armee. 2 v. 1888. G355I29 

62 colored plates. 

Koppen, F. von. Austria-Hungary. (In his Armies 
of Europe, illustrated. 1890. pp. 36-51.) 

355K77 

2 double colored plates (12 illustrations, including 1 of 
naval uniforms) and 4 text illustrations of Austrian uniforms. 

Kuhn, Gen. von. Austro-Hungarian Army. (In 
Armies of To-day. 1893. pp. 260-310.) 

35oM57 

13 cuts of uniforms. 

Mitton, G. E. Austria. 1914. 914.36M68 

Colored plates. 

IRossi, Francesco. Costume Ancien et Moderne des 
Hongrois. (In Ferrario, G. Costume. 1827. 
Europe, v. 6 [v. 17].) Ref. 391F37 

6 colored copperplates of Hungarian costumes, from Attila 
to peasants of 1825. Plates 3 and 4 show military uniforms. 

Serres, P. M. T. de. L'Autriche. 6 v. 1821. 

F914.36S48 

48 engravings, representing more than 105 different 
characters. 

Shoberl, Frederic. World in Miniature. Austria. 
2 V. n.d. Ref. 914.36S55 

32 colored engravings. 

Smith, F. B. Budapest; the city of the Magj^ars. 
1903. 914.39S64 

Colored plate and about 50 half-tone illustrations of 
Hungarian costumes. 

Trollope, Frances. Vienna and the Austrians. 2 v. 
1838. 914.36T84 

7 plates of costume. 

Uniforms of the Six Great Powers of Europe. (In 
Standard Dictionary. Sup. 1903. p. 2187.) 

Ref. 423F98SU 

Section of colored plates, showing 14 Austrian uniforms. 

Waring, G. E. Tyrol and the Spirit of the Alps. 
1880. 914.37W27 

13 wood-cuts of costume. 

Aztec Costume. See Indians of North America 

Balkan States 

Ashoth, J. de. Official Tour through Bosnia and 
Herzegovina. 1890. 914.39A73 

16 wood-cuts. Occasional references to costume. 



Brailsford, II. N. Macedonia: its races and their 
future. 1906. 914.96B814 

Several half-tone plates of costume. 

De Windt, Harry. Through Savage Europe. 1907. 

914.97D52 

About 30 illustrations of costume. 

Durham, M. E. Burden of the Balkans. 1905. 

949.6D96 

12 illustrations of costumes of Albania and Montenegro. 
— Through the Lands of the Serb. 1904. 

914.97D96 

Illustrations of costumes of Albania, Montenegro, Servia. 

Evans, A. J. Through Bosnia and the Herzegovina 

on Foot. 2d ed. 1877. 914.39E92 

Numerous wood-cuts and scattered references on dress. 

Fox, Frank. Bulgaria. 1915. 949.7F79 

25 colored pictures of costume. 

Eraser, J. F. Pictures from the Balkans. 1906. 

914.96F84 

Colored frontispiece and 40 full-page illustrations from 
photographs. 

Henderson, P. E. A British Officer in the Balkans, 
1909. 914.36H49 

Herbert, W. von. By-paths in the Balkans. 1906. 

914.96H53 

" Costumes and customs," pp.1133-46. 

Hering, George. Sketches on the Danube, in Hun- 
gary and Transylvania. 1838. R914.39H53 

Lithographic illustrations from drawings by the author. 
No text. 

Holbach, M. M. Bosnia and Herzegovina. 1909. 

914.39H72 

Photographs of costume. 

Hutchinson, F. K. Motoring in the Balkans. 1909. 

914.36H97 

Numerous illustrations of dresa, reproduced from photo- 
graphs. 

Jackson, F. H. The Shores of the Adriatic. The 
Austrian side: the Kiistenlande, Istria, and 
Dalmatia. 1908. 914.37J12 

32 half-tone plates, from photographs; many line-draw- 
ings. Consult Index under " costume." 

Koppen, F. von. Turkey and the States of the Bal- 
kan Peninsula. (In his Armies of Europe, illus- 
trated. 1890. pp. 73-78.) 355K77 

Colored plates of uniforms of Servia (5 figures) ; Bulgaria 
(4 figures); Roumania (10 figures, 82 text illustrations). 

Moore, Frederick. The Balkan Trail. 1906. 

9l"4.96M82 
Observer in the Near East. 1907. 949.7014 

About 30 plates of Balkan costumes. 



Page One Hundred Forty-eight 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Shoberl, Frederic. World in Miniature: Illyria and 
Dalmatia, and the adjacent countries. 2 v. 
1827. Ref. 914.37S55 

32 colored engravings of Balkan costumes. 

Singleton, Esther. Turkey and the Balkan States, 
as described by great writers. 1908. 949.6S61 

49 half-tone plates, Bulgarians, Servians, Croatians, 
Albanians, etc. 

Stratilesco, Tereza. From Carpathian to Pindus: 
pictures of Roumanian country life. 1906. 

949.8S89 

" CsstuTios," pp. 112-17. Most of the 63 half-tone plates 
show costume. 

Wace,A.J.B. The Nomads of the Balkans. 1914. 

914.96W11 

Chapter IV: " The Costumes of.Samarina." 

Wyon, Reginald. The Balkans from Within. 1904. 

914.97W99 
See also Turkish Empire 

Bedoxhn Costume. See Arab Costume, Egypt, 
Turkish Empire 

Belgium 

Anderson, Mrs. Larz. The Spell of Belgium. 1915. 

914.93A54 

Colored plates. 

Boulger, D. C. Belgian Life in Town and Country. 
1904. 914.93B76 

4 half-tones of costume. 

Edwards, G. W. Some Old Flemish Towns. 1911. 

914.93E26 

Colored illustrations, and others. 

Holland, Clive. The Belgians at Home. 1911, 

914.93H73 

Colored illustrations, and others. 

Koppen, F. von. Holland and Belgium. (In his 
Armies of Europe. 1890. pp. 70-72.) 355K77 

Colored plate (9 figures) and 2 text illustrations of Belgian 
uniforms. 

Omond, G. W. Belgium. 1908. 949.3056B 

Colored illustrations. 

— Bruges and W^est Flanders. Painted by Am^d^e 
Forestier. 1906. 914.93056 

13 colored plates of Flemish costume. 

Shoberl, Frederic. World in Miniature. The 
Netherlands, n.d. Ref. 914.92S55 

18 colored engravings of Dutch and Belgian costume. 

Bohemia. See Austria-Hungary 
Bosnia. See Baijcan States 



Bridal Costume 

Aria, Mrs. E. Of ceremonial and bridal dress. (In 
her Costume. 1906. pp. 211-24.) 391 A69 

Hutchinson, H. N. Marriage Customs in Many 
Lands. 1897. 392H97 

Cuts of bridal and other wedding costumes. 

Miln, Mrs. L. J. Wooings and Weddings. 1900. 

392M65 

Brittany. See France 



Brooklyn 

Vanderhilt, G. L. Dress of 
Social history of Flatbush. 



Flatbush. (In her 
1881. pp. 127-48.) 
974.72V22 



Bulgaria. See Balkan States 
Burma. See India 

Canada 
Campbell, W. W. Canada. 1907. 917.1C19 

Colored plates. 

Hind, H. V. Explorations in the Interior of Lab- 
rador. 2 V. 1863. 917.19H66 

Chromo-lithographs and wood-cuts of traprcns and 
Indians. 

— Narrative of the Canadian Red River Exploring 
Expedition of 1857 and of the Assiniboine and 
Saskatchewan Exploring Expedition of 1858. 
2 V. 1860. 917.1H66 

Chromo-lithographs and wood-cuts of Canadian Indians 
and their costume, (v. 2). 

Caricatures and Caricaturists 

Under this heading will bs found such works as arc related to the 
general subject of Costume 

Arnoux, C. A. d' {Bertall, pseud). La Comcdie de 
Notre Temps. La civilite — les habitudes — les 
maeurs — les coutumes — les manieres — et les man- 
ies de notre epoque. 2d ed. 2 vols. 1874. 

Ref. 741A76 

Pencil and pen studies by Bertall. 

Boyd, A. S. Glasgow Men and Women, Their 
Children, and Some Strangers within their Gates. 
1905. Ref. 741B78 

A selection from the sketches of Twym. 

Brinton, S. The Eighteenth Century in English 
Caricature. 1904. 741B85 

16 illustrations bj' Bunbury, Hogarth, Gillray, and 
Rowlandson. 2 colored prints. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Page One Hundred Forty-nine 



Carleton, G. W. Our Artist in Cuba. 1865. 

741C28 

Leaves from the sketch-book of a traveller during the 
winter of 1864-5. 50 drawings on wood. 



Our Artist in Peru. 1866. 



741C280 



Leaves from the sketch-book of a traveller during the 
winter of 18lJo-(j. 50 drawings on wood. 

Cary, E. L. Honore Daumier. A collection of his 

social and political caricatures, together with an 

introductory essay on his art. 1907. 741C33 

76 full-page illustrations, depicting types in France about 
the year 18i0. 

Ckesson, W. H. George Cruikshank. n.d. 

BC955C 

55 illustrations from his drawings, in the order of their 
date of publication. 

Cruikshank, G. Bachelor's own Book; or, the 
Progress of Mr. Lambkin (Gent.) in the pursuit 
of pleasure and amusement, and also in search of 
health and happiness. 1844. 741C955B 

— George Cruikshank's Omnibus. Ed. by Laman 
Blanchard, Esq. 1869. 820.8C95 

Illustrated with 100 engravings on steel and wood. 

— Cruikshank's Water Colors. With an introduc- 
tion by Joseph Grego. 1903. 741C955 

6S illustrations in color, illustrating Dickens' " Oliver 
Twist," Ainsworth's " The Miser's Daughter," Maxwell's 
" History of the Irish Rebellion in 1798," and Emmett's 
" Insurrection in 1803." 

Currier and Ives. Caricatures Pertaining to the 
Civil War; reproduced from a private collection 
of originals. 1892. Ref. 741C97 

Dore, P. G. Two Hundred Sketches, Humorous 
and Grotesque. 1867. Ref. 741D69 

86 pages, containing caricatures, chiefly of the French 
and E[uglish. 

Du Maurier, G. Pictures of English Society, from 
"Punch." 1884. 827D88P 

41 illustrations of English society. 

— Social Pictorial Satire : reminiscences and appre- 
ciations of English illustrators of the past gen- 
eration. 1898. 741D88S 

23 illustrations. 
Everitt, G. English Caricaturists and Graphic Hu- 
morists of the 19th Century: how they illustrated 
and interpreted their times. 1893. 741E93 

Many wood-cuts. 

Furniss, H. Confessions of a Caricaturist. 2 vols. 
1902. BF989 

Autobiography of Harry Furniss, with many illustrations 
from his sketches of English life. 

— Harry Furniss at Home. Written and illustrated 
by himself. 1904. BF989H 



Furniss, H. Pen and Pencil in Parliament. 1897. 

741F98 

Illustrated by the author. 

Gillray, James. Works of James Gillray, the Cari- 
caturist, with the Story of his Life and Times. 
Edited by Thomas Wright, n.d. Ref. 741G48 

Grego, Joseph. Rowlandson, the Caricaturist. A 
selection from his works, and a sketch of his life. 
2 vols. 1880. Ref. 741G81R 

400 illustrations. Wood-cuts. Political and social 
caricatures of his period. 

Hammerton, J. A. Humorists of the Pencil. 1905. 

741H22 

80 illustrations by the leading humorous artists of the day. 

Jerrold, Blanchard. Life of George Cruikshank, in 
two epochs. 2 vols. 1882. BC955J 

Numerous illustrations. 

Kay, John. A Series of Original Portraits and 
Caricature Etchings. With biographical sketches 
and illustrative anecdotes. 2 vols. 1877. 

Ref. 741K23S 

361 portraits, drawn and engraved by John Kay during the 
latter part of the 18th century. 

Parton, James. Caricature and Other Comic Art 
in all Times and Many Lands. 1877. 741P27 

203 illustrations in caricature from the time of the 
Romans to the present day. 

Paston, George. Social Caricature in the Eighteenth 
Century. 1905. Ref. 741P29 

Over 200 illustrations. 

Stephens, F. G. Memoir of George Cruikshank. 
1891. BC955S 

44 illustrations from his drawings. Frontispiece portrait. 

Thackeray, W. M. On the Genius of George Cruik- 
shank. Reprinted verbatim from " The West- 
minster Review." 1884. BC955T 

With upwards of 40 illustrations, including all the original 
wood-cuts. 

Carthage. See Africa 

Central America 
Davis, R. H. Three Gringos in Venezuela and 
Central America. 1896. 918.7D26 

3 plates of costume. 

Putnam, G. P. The Southland of North America. 
1913. 917.28P99 

Illustrations from photographs. 

Central Asia 
Hedin, S. A. Scientific Results of a Journey in 
Central Asia, 1899-1902. 6 vols. 1904-07. 

Ref, 508H45 

Vol. VI, Part III, has many illustrations of racial types 
from western and central Asia. 



Page One Hundred Fifty 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Ceylon 

Campbell, James. Excursions, Adventures, and 
Field-sports in Ceylon. 2 v. 1843. 91.5.4C188 

Dress, v. 1, pp 405-07. 8 colored plates of natives, and 
7 other plates of costume. 

Cave, H. W. The Book of Ceylon. 1908. 

915.4C37B 

Illustrations from photographs. 
— Golden Tips : a description of Ceylon and its 
great tea industry. 1900. 915.4C37G 

See "Costume" in Index. Several half-tone plates of 
costume. 

Corner, Caroline. Ceylon. 1908. 915.4C81 

See also India 

Children 

Auker, A., and others. Child-life in Pictures. 1876. 

Ref. 7o9A61 

Heliotypes of paintings, from Corregio to late 18th 
century. 

Boughton, G. H. Sketching Rambles in Holland. 
1885. 914.92B75 

Includes several wood-cuts of Dutch children. 

Bryson, Mrs. M. I. Child Life in China. 1900. 

8 illustrations of Chinese dress. 915.1B91 

Earle, A. M. Child Life in Colonial Days. 1899. 

390E12 

" Children's dress," pp. 31-62. Half-tone illustrations 
from photographs. 

Greenaway,Kate. (Various Elustrated Children's 

Books.) 
Kidd, Dudley. Savage Childhood. 1906. 572K46 

32 half-tone plates of Kafir children. 

Marston,A.W. Children of Lidia. n.d. 915.4M37 

Several wood-cuts of children. 

Menpes, Dorothy. World's Children. 1903. 390M54 
100 colored plates, by Mortimer Menpes. 

Merrifield, Mrs. M. P. Dress as a Fine Art; with 
suggestions on children's dress. 1854. 391M56 

Miln, Louise. Little Folk of Many Lands. 1899. 

910M65 

Numerous references in text. About 50 half-tone plates 
of children. 

Peary, R. E. Northward over the Great Ice. 2 v. 
1898. 919.8P362 

Includes several illustrations of Eskimo children. 

Schwatka, Frederick. Children of the Cold. 1899. 

919.8S41C 

" How their clothes are made," pp. 171-74. Half-tone 
and wood-cut plates of Eskimo children. 



Spielman, M. H. Kate Greenaway. 1905. BG798S 

53 colored plates and many sketches in black and white; 
nearly all of children. 

Wright, H. M. Handbook of the Philippines. 
1907. ' 919.1W94 

Includes several half-tone plates of Filipino children. 



Chile 

Schmidtmeyer, Peter. Travels into Chile, in the 
Years 1820 and 1821. 1824. Ref. 914S45 

30 plates (11 colored) of Spanish and Indian costumes of 
Chile. 

China 

Alexander, William. Picturesque Representations 
of the Dress and Manners of the Chinese, n.d. 

Ref. 391A37 

50 colored engravings, with descriptive text. 

Breton de la Martiniere, J. B. J. China: its cos- 
tume, arts, manufactures, etc. 4 v. in 2. 1824. 

Ref. 915.1B84 

About 80 colored engravings of costumes of China, Tar- 
tary, and Thibet. 

Browne, G. W. China. (In his New America and 
the Far East. 1907. v. 4-5.) 910B882 

13 plates (3 colored) and numerous cuts of costume. 

Bryson, Mrs. M. I. Child Life in China. 1900. 

915.1B91 

Several illustrations of costume. 

Carruthers, A. D. M. Unknown Mongolia. 2 v. 

915.1C31 

China in Miniature. Containing illustrations of 
the manners, customs, character, and costumes of 
the people of that empire. 1833. 915.1C539 

16 colored engravings. 

Chitty, J. R. Things Seen in China. 1909. 

915.1C543 

50 half-tone illustrations. 

Doolittle, Justus. Social Life of the Chinese. 2 v. 
1865. 915.1D69 

150 illustrations, wood-cuts, many showing costume. 

Egerton, M. M., Countess of Wilton. Toilette in 
China. (In her Book of Costume. 1847. pp. 
457-64.) Ref. 391W75 

6 wood-cuts. 

Eyries, J. B. B. La Chine: ou Costumes, moeurs, 
et usages des Chinois. (In his L'Angleterre. 
.d.) Ref. F391E98 

Illustrated by colored plates. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Page One Hundred Fifty-one 



Ferrario, Giulio. Costume Ancien et Moderne des 
Chinois. (In his Costume. 1815. Asie. v. 1. 
[v. 1.] pp. 37-366.) Ref. 391F37 

Over 20 colored copperplates of costumes of China and 
Formosa. 

Hardy, E. J. John Chinaman at Home. 1905. 

915.1H26 

7 plates (half-tones) of costume, pp. 91, 130-37. 

Hawks, F. L. Narrative of the Expedition of an 
American Squadron to the China Seas and Japan, 
1852, 1853, and 1854, under Commodore M. C. 
Perry, v. 1. 1856. Ref. 915.2U58 

Lithographs and wood-cuts of Chinese and Japanese 
costume. 

Kemp, E.G. The Face of China. 1909. 915.1K32 

A few colored plates. 

Little, Mrs. Archibald. Round about My Peking 
Garden. 2d ed. 1905. 915.1L77R 

" Official and rank distinctions," pp. 60-72. Several 
half-tones and one colored plate of costume. 

McNabb, R. L. Women of the Middle Kingdom. 
1903. 915.1M16 

" Dress," etc., pp. 25-33. 10 of the 18 half-tones show 
costume. 

Martin, W. H. P. Awakening of China. 1907. 

951M38A 

Several plates of costume. 

Mason, G. H. Costume of China; illustrated by 
sixty engravings [colored], with explanations in 
English and French. 1804. Ref. 391M39 

Contains colored plates. 

915.1B63 



Menpes, Mortimer. China. 1909. 

Colored illustrations in addition to 64 facsimile reproduc- 
tions in black-and-white. 

Milne, Mrs. Leslie. The Shans at Home. 1910. 

915.9M65 

Many photographs. 

Norman, Henry. Peoples and Politics of the Far 
East. 1895. 915N54 

Half-tone cuts of Chinese dress. 

— Same. 1904. 

Penfiekl, F. C. East of Suez. (Ceylon, India, 
China, and Japan.) 1906. 915P39 

Several plates of Chinese costume. 

Ralph, Julian. Alone in China. 1898. 915.1R16 

Several of the illustrations show costume. 

Shoberl, Frederic. World in Miniature. China. 
2 V. 1827. Ref. 915.1S559C 

30 colored engravings, with descriptive text. 



Thomson, John. Illustrations of China and its 
People. 1873. Ref. 915.1T481 

200 photographs, with descriptive letter-press. 

See also Japan 

Colonial Costume. See United States 

CoREA. See Korea 

Corsica. See France 

Costume (In Poetry) 

Fairholt, F. W. Satirical Songs and Poems on Cos- 
tume, from the 13th to the 19th Century. (Percy 
Society. Early English poetry. 1840-52. v. 
27.) * 820.8P43 

Cuba 

Browne, G. W. Cuba. (In his New America and 
the Far East. v. 6. 1907.) 910B882 

3 plates and several cuts of costume. 

Olivares, Jose de, and others. Cuba. (In Bryan, 
W. S. Our Islands and Their People. 1899. 
V. 1. pp. 9-256.) Ref. 917.29B91 

Half-tone and colored illustrations, showing costume. 

Denmark 

Belin. Prime du Journal les Modes Parisiennes. 
Costumes de Suede, Norv^ge, Danemark, Hol- 
lande, et AUemagne. n.d. RF391B43 

No text. 

Butlin, F. M. Among the Danes. 1909. 914.8B98 

Illustrations in color and in monotone. 

Colored Costume Plates. A series of 19 fine and 
characteristic illustrations of the costumes of 
Denmark. .?1810. R391C71 

Each plate has a short description in Danish and German. 

Egerton, M. M., Countess of Wilton. Toilette in 
Denmark. (In her Book of Costume. 1847. 
pp. 352-54.) Ref. 391W75 

2 wood-cuts. 

European Delineator. Containing brief but inter- 
esting descriptions of Russia, Sweden, Denmark, 
Norway, etc. 1815. R914E89D 

Koppen, F. von. Denmark. (In his Armies of 
Europe. 1890. pp. 59-60.) 355K77 

Colored plate (8 figures) and 2 text illustrations of uni- 
forms. 

Meyrick, S. R. Costume of the Original Inhabitants 
of the British Islands. 1821. Ref. 391M61 

Includes colored plate of 2 ancient Danish costumes. 



Page One Hundred Fifty-two 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Dutch Costume. See Netherlands 

Egypt 

Clark, E. L. Daleth; or, The Homestead of the 
Nations. 1864. 916.2C59 

Reproductions (some colored) of ancient Egyptian art, 
showing costume. 

Curtis, W. E. Egypt. (In his Egypt, Burma, and 
British Malaysia. 1905. pp. 11-222.) 910C98 

8 half-tone plates of modern Arab, Bedouin, and Egyptian 
costume. 

Davis, R. H. Cairo [and] the Englishmen in Egypt. 
(In his Rulers of the Mediterranean. 1894. 
pp. 102-77.) 910D26R 

Notes on costume and 10 plates and cuts of modern 
Egyptian dress and uniforms. 

Ferrario, Giulio, and others. Egypte Ancienne et 
Moderne. (In his Costume. 1815-29. Afrique. 
V. 1. pp. 26-247.) Ref. F391F37 

Colored copperplates of ancient and modern Egyptian 
costumes. 

Hope, Thomas. Costume of the Egyptians. (In 
his Costume of the Ancients. 1841. v. 1. 
pp. 1-9. pi. 1-11.) Ref. 391H79 

Outline illustrations of male and female costume. 

Kelly, R. T. Egypt. 1902. 916.2K29 

7 plates of costume. 

Lane, E. W. Account of the Manners and Customs 
of the Modern Egyptians. From the 3d ed. 
3 V. in 1. 1846. 916.2L26Ac 

Personal characteristics and dress, pp. 49-80. Female 
ornaments, pp. 211-28. Many wood-cuts. 



Same. 5th ed. 2 



1871. 



916.2L26A2 



Personal characteristics, v. 1, pp. 31-64. Female orna- 
ments, V. 2, pp. 312-24. Same cuts as earlier edition. 

Maspero, G. Life in Ancient Egypt and Assyria. 
1892. 913M41 

Outline cuts from Egyptian monuments. 



Mayer, Luigi. Views in Egypt. 1801. 



R916.2M46 



48 colored plates. 



Pdrie, W. M. F. Arts and Crafts of Ancient Egypt. 
1909. 709P49 

Photographs of jewellery, personages, etc. 

Salmon, P. R. The Wonderland of Egypt. 1915. 

916.2S17 

Thackeray, Lance. The People of Egypt. 1910. 

916.2T36 

32 colored plates; also 37 illustrations in black-and-white. 



Wilkinson, Sir J. G. Egyptians in the Time of the 
Pharaohs. Crystal Palace Egyptian collections. 
1857. 932W68E 

" Dress," pp. 32-43. 2 colored plates of textiles and mar.y 
wood-cuts of costume. 

— Manners and Customs of the Ancient Egyptians. 
Rev. ed. 3 v. 1878. 932\V68 

See " Dress " in index, v. 3. — Plates (2 colored) and wood- 
cuts of costumes. 

— Popular Account of the Ancient Egyptians. 2 v. 
1854. 932W68P 

See " Dress " in index, v. 2. Many wood-cuts. 

England 

Andrews, Alexander. Eighteenth Century; or, Illus- 
trations of the manners and customs of our 
grandfathers. 1856. 914.2A56 

" Costume," pp. 20-40. 

Ashhee, C. R. The Masque of the Edwards of 
England; being a coronation pageant to celebrate 
the crowning of the King. 1902. Ref. 822A81 

Large folio illustrated, printed in colors. 

Ashdown, Mrs. C. H. British Costume during 
Nineteen Centuries (civil and ecclesiastical). 
1910. 391A82 

450 engravings, 110 plates, and 9 colored reproductions. 

Ashton, John. Dawn of the 19th Century in Eng- 
land. 2 V. 1886. 942A82D2 

Men's dress, v. 2, chap. 30-31. Ladies' dress, v. 2, chap. 
31. Numerous caricatures from contemporary engravings. 

— Social England under the Regency. 2 v. 1890. 

914.2A82S2 

Numerous outline cuts and 7 plates of costume, 1811-20. 

— Same. 1899. 

— Social Life in the Reign of Queen Anne. 1897. 

390A82 

Wood-cuts of costumes. 

Barfield, T. C. Longmans' Historical Illustrations 
—England in the Middle Ages. 1909-10. 

R723B24 

72 plates, with explanatory text, showing examples of 
architecture and costume from the 11th to the loth century. 

Barnard, F. P. Costume, Military and Civil. (In 
his Companion to English History. Middle Ages. 
1902. pp. 90-115.) Ref. 942B25 

Wood-cuts. Bibliography. 



Benham, William. Tower of London. 



1906. 

942B46 

3 half-tone and 3 colored plates of costume before 16th 
century. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Page One Hundred Fifty-three 



Besant, Sir Walter. London in the 18th Century. 
1903. * 942.1B55 

" Dress," chap. 4, pp. 250-62. Half-tones, from con- 
temporary, sources, of costumes. 

— London in the Time of the Stuarts. 1903. 

* 942.1B55L 

" Dress and manners," " weddings and funerals," pp. 
298-310; " sports and amusements," pp. 328-337. Half- 
tones from contemporary sources. 

— London in the Time of the Tudors. 1904. 

* 942.lBo5Lo 

" Dress, Weddings," pp. 303-15; " soldiers," pp. 316-22; 
" prentice," p. 329. Numerous half-tones, mostly from 
contemporary sources. 

— Mediaeval Ixjndon. 2 v. 1906. * 942.1B55M 

Half-tones from contemporary sources. 

Boullon, W. B. Amusements of Old London. 2 v. 
1901. 790B76 

Includes colored plates showing costumes. 

Brinton, S. Eighteenth Century in EngHsh Cari- 
cature. 1904. 741B85 

2 color-prints, 13 half-tones, of illustrations by Bunbury, 
Hogarth, Rowlandson, Gillray. 

Burges, William. Architectural Drawings. 1870. 

R744B95 

Plates 70-74 exhibit male, female, military, and ecclesi- 
astical costumes, from Anglo-Saxon times to the late loth 
century. 

Calthorp, D. C. English Costume Painted and 
Described. 4 v. 1906. 391C16 

V. 1, Early English; v. 2, Middle Ages; v. 3, Tudor and 
Stuart; v. 4, Georgian. Civil costume only. 72 colored 
plates and numerous wood-cuts. 

Carter, John. Specimens of the Ancient Sculpture 
and Painting in this Kingdom, from the Earliest 
Period to Henry VIII. 2 v. 1786. 

Ref. 709C32 

Many of the 120 engraved plates show costume. 

— Same. Reprinted. 1887. 

Clark, J. C. The Characters of Charles Dickens, 
Portrayed in a series of Original Water Color 
Sketches. .?1898. ' * 823Co9 

21 plates. 

Clinch, G. English Costume from Prehistoric Times 
to the End of the 18th Century, n.d. 391C64 

Cook, C. C. Costumes of the Time of the French 
Revolution, 1790-1793; together with English 
costumes, 1795-1806. Drawn from the collection 
of Victorien Sardou. 1889. 391G95 

65 etchings, executed by Guillaumot fils, colored by hand. 
40 of French, 25 of English costume. 

Costumes of the University of Cambridge, n.d. 

R378C84 

24 colored illustrations, on one plate, showing the costumes 
worn in the dififerent colleges of the University. 



Couts, Joseph. Practical Guide for the Tailor's 
Cutting-room. 1848. 687C87 

The Cries of London, as they are Daily Exhibited in 
the Streets. 1804. Ref. 821C92 

Embellished with 48 elegant characteristic engravings, 
colored. 

Dallaway, James. Inquiries into the Origin and 
Progress of the Science of Heraldry in England. 
1793. Ref. 929.6D11 

12 plates (5 colored) and 1 text illustration of early English 
costume. 

Davenport, Cyril. English Regalia. 1897. 391D247 

Colored plates. 

Davey, Richard. Pageant of London. 2 v. 1906. 

942.1D248 

See " Dress " in index. 

Davies, R. English Society of the Eighteenth 
Century in Contemporary Art. 1907. 759D25 

4 illustrations in color and 33 in monochrome. 

Dawson, Thomas. Memoirs of St. George and the 
Order of the Garter. 1714. Ref. 929.7D27 

Engraving of George I, and extra illustration of the 
regalia. 

Day, T. A. Illustrations of Mediaeval Costume in 
England. 1853. R391D27 

Colored plates. 

Doran, J. London in Jacobite Times. 2 v. n.d. 

942.1D69 

Plates of dress of the period. 

Druitt, H. Manual of Costume, as Illustrated by 
Monumental Brasses. 1906. 391 D79 

110 half-tone illustrations of English armor and dress 
of 14th and 15th centuries. 

Dryden, Alice. The Art of Hunting; or. Three 
Hunting MSS. 799D799 

Co.stume, pp. 89-101, covers period from 13th to 17th 
centuries. A few wood-cuts. 

Dugdale, Sir William. Antiquities of Warwickshire. 
1656. Ref. 913D86 

Some of the illustrations show dress. 

Du Maurier, George. English Society. 1897. 

Ref. 741D88E 

89 plates, with an introduction by W. D. Howells. 

— English Society at Home. 1880. Ref. 741D88 

63 of Du Maurier's contributions to Punch, engraved by 
Joseph Swain, and printed on India paper. 

Eccleston, James. Introduction to English Antiqui- 
ties. 1847. 913E17 

See " Costume " and " Armor " in index. Outline cuts 
of English costume to about 1660. 



Page One Hundred Fifty -four 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Egan, Pierce. Tom & Jerry: Life in London; or. 
The day and night scenes of Jerry Hawthorn and 
Corinthian Tom. [Reprint, n.d.] 8^27E28T 

Colored plates, by I. R. and G. Cruikshank, of early 19th 
century costumes. 

Egerton, M. M., Countess of Wilton. Toilette in 
England. (In her Book of Costume. 1844. 
pp. 39-175.) Ref. 391W75 

Numerous wood-cuts. 

Eyriks, J. B. B. L'Angleterre, ou Costumes, 
Moeurs, et Usages des Anglais, n.d. 

Ref. F391E98 

Illustrated by colored plates. 

Fairholt, F. W. Costume in England; a history of 
dress, from the earliest period till the close of the 
18th century. 1846. 391F17C 

About 600 wood-cuts. 

— Same. 3d ed., enl. 2 v. 1885. (Bohn's artists' 
library.) 391F17 

V. 1. History; v. 2, Glossary. About 700 wood-cuts. 
Bibliography by H. A. Dillon. 



— SaTTie. 4th ed. 2 



1896. 



Gardner, J. S. Armor in England, to the 17th Cen- 
tury. 1898. 399G22 

16 colored plates and more than 80 other illustrations. 

Gihh, William. The Royal House of Stuart, Illus- 
trated from Relics of the Stuarts. 1890. 

Ref. 920G43 

40 colored plates, many showing wearing apparel. 

Godfrey, Elizabeth. Home Life under the Stuarts. 
1603-1649. 1903. 390G58 

" Dress and fashion," chap. 17. Illustrations showing 
dress. 

— Social Life under the Stuarts. 1904. 390G58S 

18 plates, engravings and half-tones. 

Gronoio, R. H. Reminiscences and Recollections of 
Capt. Gronow, 1810-60. 2 v. 1889. 

* 920G876R 

2.5 etched and aquatint illustrations, with hand-colored 
duplicates. 

Guillaumot, A. E. Costumes of the Time of the 
French Revolution, 1790-1793. Together with 
Engli.sh costumes during the years 1795-1806. 
1889. R391G95 

Plates, colored by hand. 

Haines, Herbert. Manual of Monumental Brasses. 
2 V. 1861. 739H15 

200 wood-cuts of costumes, 14th-17th century. 

Hall, Hubert. Society in the Elizabethan Age. 
1886. 942H17SO 

From contemporary documents. Wood-cuts of Henry 
VIII and Queen Elizabeth. 



Hardie, Martin. John Pettie, R.A„ F.R.S.A 
1908. BP511H 

50 illustrations in color, many of use for Scottish and 
English costume. 

Harris, M. D. Life in an Old English Town. 1898. 

942.4H31 

2 plates of dress. 

Haweis, M. E. Chaucer for Children. 1900. 

J821C496H 

Wood-cuts of early English costumes. 
Hill, Georgiana. History of English Dress, from 
the Saxon Period to the Present Day. 2 v. 
1893. 391H64 

13 engravings, with descriptive notes. 

Hodgetts, J. F. The English in the Middle Ages, 
from the Norman Usurpation to the Days of the 
Stuarts. 1885. 914.2H68 

Armor, pp. 111-43; civil dress, pp. 147-75. 

Holbein, Hans, the Younger. Portraits of Illustrious 
Personages of the Court of Henry VIII. 1828. 

Ref. 769H72 

Contemporary costume. 

Holt, E. S. Ye Olden Time; English customs in 
the Middle Ages. 1884. 914.2H75 

Clothing, pp. 72-98. Frontispiece, costumes of Henry IV. 

Hughes, Talbot. Dress Design. 1913. 646H89 

Illustrated from old examples. Includes 35 pages of 
collotypes. 

— Old English Costumes, 18th-19th Centuries. 
.?1913. 391H89 

Colored plates. 

Jerrold, Douglas, and others. Heads of the People; 
or. Portraits of the English. Drawn by Kenny 
Meadows. 2 v. 1st pub. 1838-40. 827J563H 

Characteristic pictorial sketches from every grade of life. 

Jewitt, Llewellynn. Half -hours among Some English 
Antiquities. 1877. 913J59 

Among arms and armor, pp. 102-13; among personal 
ornaments, pp. 203-33. Outline illustrations. 

— Same. Rev. and enl. ed. 1880. 

Jusserand, J. J. English Wayfaring lafe in the 
Middle Ages. 2d ed. 1889. 914.2J96 

Many cuts, from contemporary sources, of 14th century 
costumes. 

Knight, Charles. London. 6 v. 1841. 942.1K69 

See analytic contents to each vol. Many wood-cuts of 
costumes of all periods. 

— Same. 6 v. in 3. 1851. 942.1K69L3 



1851. 
2 V. 1845. 



R913.42K69 



— Old England. 

Colored plates. 

— Popular History of England. 8 v. Lond. 1858. 

See " Costume " in indexes of v. 4 and 8. Numerous 
wood-cuts. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Page One Hundred Fifty-five 



Lamed, J.N. History of England. 1900. 942L32 

Several cuts of typical costumes. 

Legg, L. G. W. English Coronation Records. 1901. 

Ref. 3941.51 

17 illustrations (1 colored) of early coronation scenes, from 
contemporary sources. 

Lennox, Lord W. P. Fashion Then and Now. 2 v. 
1878. 3901.56 

Many scattered notes on 18th and 19th century dress. 

Levati, Ambrogio. Costume des Habitans des lies 
Britanniques. (In Ferrario, G. Costume. 1827. 
Europe, v. 6 [v. 17].) Ref. 391F37 

20 of the 31 colcn-ed copperplates show costume from pre- 
Roman period to 19th century. 

Loftie, W. J. Kensington; picturesque and histori- 
cal. 1888. 942.1L82K 

6 of the colored plates show 18th century costume. 

London Society of Antiquaries. Vetusta Monu- 
menta. 6 v. 1747-1842. Ref. 913L84 

Nearly 100 of the 320 copperplates (including 28 colored) 
include costume to time of Elizabeth. Elizabeth's funeral 
procession (v. 3) and the Bayeux tapestry (v. 6, colored) 
are given entire. 

MacJclin, H. W. Brasses of England. 1907. 

739M15B 

Numerous cuts of costume and armor, 1277-1C23. Eccle- 
siastical dress. 



— Monumental Brasses. 1905. 



739M15 



Armor, dress, and ecclesiastical vestments, 13th-17th 
centuries. Wood-cuts. 



Maclise, Daniel. 
quest. 1866, 



The Story of the Norman Con- 
Ref. 741M16 



42 illustrations engraved on wood under Professor Griiner, 
from drawings by Maclise. " Coronation of Harold," and 
other scenes, showing Saxon and Norman costume. 

Malcolm, J. P. Anecdotes of the Manners and Cus- 
toms of London during the 18th Century. 2 v. 
1810. * 914.21M24 

" Anecdotes of dress and the caprices of fashion," v. 2, 
pp. 312-57. 12 engravings of dress, 1G90-1807. 

— Anecdotes of the Manners and Customs of 
London from the Roman Invasion to the Year 
1700. 3 V. 1811. * 914.21M24A 

" Dress," v. 2, pp. 279-341. 12 hand-colored engravings 
of dress, 1053-1675. 

Martin, Charles. Civil Costume of England from 
the Conquest to the Present Time. 1842. 

391M37 

Series of colored etchings. 

Meyrich, S. R. Costume of the Original Inhabitants 
of the British Islands and Adjacent Coasts of the 
Baltic. Imp. ed. 1821. Ref. 391M61 

24 colored aquatints, including Britons, Druids, Ancient 
Irish, Danes, and Goths. 



Montgomery, D. H. Leading Facts of English 
History. 1903. 942M78L 

See " Dress " in Index. 

Nayler, Sir George. Coronation of His Most Sacred 
Majesty, George the Fourth. 1839. Ref. 

42 colored plates. 

Nevill, Ralph. Old Sporting Prints. 1908. (Con- 
noisseur, Extra Number.) 760N52O 

52 plates, 36 in color, showing English costume at the end 
of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th centuries. 

New Bon Ton Magazine; or. Telescope of the times. 
V. 1-6. May, 1818— Apr., 1821. 052N53 

Colored caricatures of costume of period. 

Nicolas, Sir N. H. History of the Orders of Knight- 
hood of the British Empire. 4 v. 1842. 

Ref. 929.7N63H 

Colored plates of regalia, 5 portraits in full regalia. 

Oxford University. Oxford Historical Pageant. 
1907. 8220988 

35 half-tone illustrations, mostly contemporary. 

Parrott, Edward. The Pageant of English Litera- 
ture. 1914. 820P26 

Shows costumes, in color, of English writers, etc. 

Paston, George. (E. M. Symonds.) Social Carica- 
ture in the 18th Century. 1905. Ref. 741P29 

Colored frontispiece and over 200 half-tone caricatures of 
18th century costume. 

Paul, H. Queen Anne. 1906. Ref. 942P32Q 

Numerous portraits in Queen Anne costume. 

Perkins, Mrs. L. F. Robin Hood: his deeds and 
adventures. 1906. 821.04P44 

IlaS colored plates, etc., showing old English costume. 

Pictures of Society; Grave and Gay. From the pencils 
of celebrated artists and the pens of popular 
authors. 1866. 820.8P61 

95 plates, lithographs, a re-issue of the best engravings 
from '■ London Society." 

Picturesque Representations of the Dress and Manners 
of the English, illus. in 50 colored engravings, with 
descriptions. 1814. R391P61E 

Planche, J. R. History of British Costume, from 
the Earliest Period to the Close of the 18th Cen- 
tury. 1834. 391P69 

Numerous illustrations. 

— Same. 3d ed. Reprinted 1907. 
Price, J. M. Dame Fashion: Paris-London (1786- 
1912). 1913. * 391P94 

Pyne, W. H. The Costume of Great Britain. 1808. 

R391P99 

60 colored plates, with explanatory text, of various types 
of people. 



Page One Hundred Fifty-six 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Repository of Arts, Literature, Fashions, etc. By R. 
Ackermann. Ser. 1, v. 3-6, 9-14; Ser. 2, v. 1-14; 
Ser. 3, V. 1-12. Jan., 1810— Dec, 1828. 052R42 

Letters on London and Paris fashions. Colored steel 
plates of women's dress. 

Russell, W. 11. Memorial of the Marriage of H. R. 
H. Albert Edward, Prince of Wales, and H. R. H. 
Alexandra, Princess of Denmark. 1864. 

Ref. 394R96 

Includes several chromo-lithographs of court costumes. 

Schild, Marie. Old English Costumes: an epitome 
of ladies' costumes, from the 1st to the 19th cen- 
tury, n.d. 391S330 

40 steel plates and 4 colored engravings, many of histori- 
cal characters. 

— Old EngHsh Peasant Costumes. 1898. 391S33 

Shoberl, F. World in Miniature. England, Scot- 
land, and Ireland. Edited by W. H. Pyne. 4 v. 
1827. Ref. 914.2S559 

84 colored engravings. 

Smith, Albert. Gavarni in London. Sketches of 
London life and character. 1849. 914.21S642G 

Colored illustrations. 

— Same. 1859. 914.21S642 

22 wood-cuts. 

Stephenson, H. T. The Elizabethan People. 1910. 

914.2S83 

Stone, Mrs. E. Chronicles of Fashion, from the 
Time of Elizabeth to the Early Part of the 19th 
Century. 2 v. 1845. 914.2M55 

"Costumes," v. 1, pp. S94-434; v. 2, pp. 363-455. 15 
steel engravings. 

Strutt, Joseph. Complete View of the Dress and 
Habits of the People of England, from the Estab- 
lishment of the Saxons to the Present Time. 
2 V. 1842. Ref. 391S92 

Illustrated by engravings and colored plates. 

— Regal and Ecclesiastical Antiquities of England. 
1843. Ref. 913.42S927 

72 copperplate portraits, from Edward the Confessor to 
Henry VIII. 

— Sports and Pastimes of the People of England. 
New ed., by Wm. Hone. 1850. 790S92 

140 wood-cuts, representing popular diversions. 

Suffling, E. R. English Church Brasses, from the 
13th to the 17th Century. 1910. 739S94 

237 illustrations, reproduced from rubbings. Contains 
chapters on " Costume of Ladies," " Civilian Costume of 
Gentlemen," and " Ecclesiastical Vestments." 

Sydney, W. C. England and the English in the 
18th Century. 2 v. 1891. 942S98E 

" Dress and Costume," v. 1, pp. 89-130. 



Synge, M. B. Short History of Social Life in Eng- 
land. 1906. 942S99 

See " Dress " in Index. Brief references. 

Thornely, J. L. The Monumental Brasses of Lan- 
cashire and Cheshire. 1893. 739T51 

Engravings from drawings. 

Traill, H. D. Social England. 6 v. 1894-97. 

942T76S 

See " Costume " and " Dress " in Index of each vol. 



Same. Illustrated ed. 1901-04. 

Many colored illustrations. 



942T76 



Trowbridge, W. R. H. Court Beauties of Old White- 
hall; historiettes of the Restoration. 1906. 

920H8632 

32 Restoration portraits. 

Tuer, A. W. Follies and Fashions of our Grand- 
fathers, 1807. 1886-7. Ref. 914.2T91 

Digest of magazine material of 1807. 37 hand-colored 
plates. 

Walker, G. Costume of Yorkshire in 1814. 1885. 

Ref. 391W179 

A series of 41 facsimiles of original drawings. 

Wingfield, Leivis. Notes on Civil Costume in 
England, from the Conquest to the Regency, as 
Exemplified in the International Health Exhibi- 
tion of 1884. 1884. Ref. 394W77 

24 colored illustrations, lithographs, of the period 1066- 
1820. 

Woodward, G. M. Eccentric Excursions; or, 
Literary and pictorial sketches in England and 
South Wales. 1796. Ref. 827W89 

About 100 colored caricatures of contemporary dress. 

Wright, Thomas. The Celt, the Roman, and the 
Saxon. 1852. 913W95C 

Dress of Romans in Britain, pp. 326-33. 3 cuts of 
ornaments. 



— Homes of Other Days. 1871. 



914.2W953 



Many small wood-cuts, from contemporary sources, of 
costume from Anglo-Saxon times to 16th century. 



England, Military Costume 

Archibald, J. F. J. Blue Shirt and Khaki. 1901. 

355A67 

Many half-tones of English and American soldiers. 

Besant, Sir Walter. Soldiers. (In his London in 

the Time of the Tudors. 1904. pp. 316-22.) 

Ref. 942.1B55LO 

Several illustrations. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Page One Hundred Fifty-seven 



The British Army. By a lieutenant-colonel in the 
British Army. With an introduction by Major- 
General F. Maurice. 1900. 355B86 

colors) and 30 illustrations in 



R355C84 



27 full-page plates (13 
text. 

Costumes of the British Army. 1885. 

Colored plates. No text. 

Ellis, A. B. History of the 1st West India Regi- 
ment. 1885. 355E47 

2 colored plates of Negro uniforms. 

Groves, J. P. History of the 42d Royal Highlanders, 
" The Black Watch." 1729-1893. 1893. 

Ref. 355G88H 

Pp. 1-3, 14. 4 colored plates of uniforms, 1729-1893. 

Koppen, F. von. Army of the British Empire. (In 
his Armies of Europe, illustrated. 1890. pp. 
1-19.) 355K77 

Descriptions in text. 3 double colored plates (23 illus- 
trations, including 2 naval) and G text illustrations of 
uniforms of the period. 

Luard, John. History of the Dress of the British 
Soldier, from the Earliest Period to the Present 
Time. 1852. 355L92 

50 outline plates. 

Milne, James. Gordon Highlanders. 1898. 

355M65 

Includes half-tone plates, showing Highland uniforms of 
different periods. 

Perry, 0. L. Rank and Badges in Her Majesty's 
Army and Navy. 2d ed. 1888. 355P46 

Badges and uniforms of military and naval organizations. 

Robinson, C. N. Navy and Army Illustrated. 
1895-96. 2 V. 355N32 

Illustrations of British uniforms, including native troops. 

— Some Notes on the Costume of the Sailors of the 
Past. (In Swinburne, H. L. Royal Navy. 
1907. p. 338.) 359S97 

10 colored plates of seamen's dress, from 600 a.d. to 



Scott, Sir J. S. D. British Army. 



V. 1868. 

R355S42 

" Body armor," v. 1, pp. 192-222; " clothing of troops," 
V. 2, pp. 431-45. Many plates with descriptive notes. 

Smith, J. H. Historic Booke, to Keep in Remem- 
brance the Meeting of the Honorable Artillery 
Company of London and the Ancient and Honor- 
able Artillery Company of the Massachusetts. 
1903. Ref. 358S65 

Colored plates of Royal Artillery uniforms, 1660-1900, 
and numerous plates and text illustrations of 17th-19th 
century costume. 



Thornely, J. L. Monumental Bras,ses of Lanca- 
shire and Cheshire. 1893. 739T51 

Outline illustrations, from rubbings, of costumes of 145S- 
1650. 

Uniforms of the Armies of the Six Great Powers of 
Europe. (In Standard dictionary. Sup. 1903. 
p. 2187.) Ref. 423F98Su 

Section of colored plate, showing 18 English uniforms. 

Wolseley, Viscount Garnet. Standing Army of Great 
Britain. (In Armies of To-day. 1893. pp. 
57-96.) 355M57 

8 cuts of British uniforms. 

Zogbaum, R. F. Great Britain; a Home of Tommy 
Atkins. (In his Horse, Foot, and Dragoons. 
1888. pp. 49-74.) 355Z85 

10 wood-cuts, plates, and text illustrations of uniforms. 

England. See also Caricatures and Caricaturists 

Eskimo Costume 

Carstensen, A. R. Two Summers in Greenland. 
1890. 919.8C32 

Photogravures and cuts of Eskimo dress. 

Gilder, W. H. Schwa tka's Search: sledging in the 
Arctic in quest of the Franklin records. 1881. 

919.8G40 

" Arctic costumes," pp. 136-46. 4 or 5 plates of costume. 

Hanbury, D. T. Sport and Travel in the Northland 
of Canada. 1904. 917.1H23 

a few colored plates. 

Hutton, S. K. Among the Eskimos of Labrador. 
1912. 917.19H98 

Illustrations from photographs. 

Mikkelsen, E. Conquering the Arctic Ice. 1909. 

919.8M63 

Nansen, F. First Crossing of Greenland. 2 v. 

1890. 919.8Nl8Fi2 

Many wood-cuts. Consult Index. 

Nordenskiold, A. E. Voyage of the 
Asia and Europe. 1882. 

Consult Index. Wood-cuts. 

Peary, R. E. Northward over the " 
2 V. 1898. 

Many half-tone cuts of Eskimos. 

Schivatka, Frederick. Children of the Cold. 1899. 

919.98S41C 

Half-tone and wood-cut plates of costume. 

Stefansson, V. My Life with the Eskimo. 1913. 

918.8S81 

Illustrations from photographs. 



Vega round 
919.8N83V 

Great Ice." 
919.8P362 



Page One Hundred Fifty-eight 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Etruscan Costume 

Desvergers, M. J. A. N. L'Etrurie et les Etrusques. 
3 V. 1862-64. Ref. F913D47 

Two-color plates of objets-d'art, showing costumes. 

Magnetti, Carlo. Costume des Etrusques. (In 
Ferrario, G. Costume. 1820. Europe, v. 2. 
pp. 7-219.) Ref. 391F37 

Many of the 42 colored copperplates show dress. 

See also Rome 

Fancy Dress 

Aria, Mrs. E. Of Fancy Dress. (In her Costume, 
fanciful, historical, and theatrical. 1906. pp. 
178-189.) 391A69 

1 colored plate and 4 other illustrations of costume. 

Butterick Pub. Co. Masquerade and Carnival. 
1892. R391B98 

Compte-Calix, F. C. Fourteen Colored Lithographs 
of Fancy Dress for Ladies. .?1844. R391C73 

One design for a man's costume is given. 

— Travestissements ^l^gants. .'1864. *391C73T 

15 colored plates. 

Fancy Dress: a short chronological series of cos- 
tumes, n.d. 391F19 

Five Water Color Draioings of Fancy Dress for 
Ladies (crinoline pattern) about 1850. R391F56 

The drawings are heightened with gold and silver, 
and stamped " Mme. E. D6vy." 

Holt, Ardern. Fancy Dresses Described; or. 
What to wear at fancy balls. 3d ed., enl. 1882. 

391H75FD 

Outline illustrations, restricted to the costume of ladies 
and children. 16 models in color, as well as a new series of 
smaller illustrations. 

— -Same. 5th ed. 1887. R39lH75Fa 

— Same. 6th ed. n.d. 

— Gentleman's Fancy Dress; how to choose it. 
4th ed. n.d. 391H75 

Outline cuts. 

— Same. 6th ed. n.d. 

Lumm, E. G. Twentieth Century Speaker. 1898. 

808.5L95 

Several colored and half-tone plates of costumes for 
tableaux, etc. 

Morin, A. E. Twenty -one Colored Lithographs of 
Fancy Dress for Ladies. .?1850. R391M85 

The " Sketch." London, Jan. 2, 1907. 

Pp. 6-7. Carmen — Pompadour flower girl — Directoire — 
Soubretteof the Second Empire — Astartc — Mireille — Delilah 
— Louis XVI period — M^lisande — Empire court dress. 



Spielman, M. 11. Kate Greenaway. 1905. 

Ref. BG798S 

5.3 colored plates and many cuts of Kate Greenaway 
costumes. 

Weldon. Weldon's Practical Fancy Dress for Chil- 
dren. 1887. 391W34 

49 illustrations with descriptive text. 

Fans 

Flory, M. A. Book about Fans: the history of 
fans and fan-painting. 1895. 391F64 

29 wood-cuts and half-tones. 

Grolier Club {New York). The Fan in All Ages: 
a brief history of its evolution. 1891. 

Ref. 391G87 

19 wood-cuts. 

Mowrey, Gabriel. Modern Design in Jewellery and 
Fans. 1902. 745M93 

Rhead, G. W. History of the Fan. 1910. 

R391R46H 

— Modern Practical Design. 1912. 740R46M 

Includes a chapter on " Fans and Lace." 

Salwey,C.M. Fans of Japan. 1894. Ref. 391S18 

10 colored plates and 39 illustrations in black-and-white. 

Uzanne,L.O. The Fan. 1884. Ref. 391U99F 

Waern, Cecilia. Short Historical Sketch of Fans. 
1895. 391W12 

8 half-tones of fans. Brief bibliography. 

Fiji Islands 
BuHon, J. W. Fiji of To-day. 1910. 919.6B97 

Many photographs. 

Flemish Costume. See Belgium 

Foot-wear 

Becker, W. A. Shoes. (In his Charikles. 1845. 
pp. 326-31.) 913B39CH 

4 cuts of shoes of Homeric times. 

— Same. 5th ed. 1880. (pp. 442-52.) 

Hall, J. S. Book of the Feet: a history of boots and 
shoes. 3ded. 1847. 391H17 

4 colored plates (42 figures), and many wood-cuts of foot- 
wear. 

Lacroix, Paul, and others. Histoire des Cordon- 
niers. Pr^cedee de I'histoire de la chaussure. 
1852. Ref. 

Many cuts of boots and shoes of all periods and countrVs, 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Page One Hundred Fifty-nine 



Menard, Rene. Le Chaussure. (In his La vie 
Priv6e des Anciens. 1881. v. 2. p. 322-30.) 

F913M53 

22 outline illustrations of boots and shoes. 

Redfern, W. B. Royal and Historic Gloves and 
Shoes. Illustrated and Described. 1904. 

Ref. 391R31 

32 plates (1 colored) of boots and shoes of various nations 
and times. 

Rhead, G. W. Boots, Shoes, and Other Coverings 
for the Feet. (In his Chats on Costume. 1906. 
pp. 279-301.) 391 B46 

Historical and descrir-t've. Wood-cuts and half-tone 



illustrations. 



France 



Allinson, Alfred. The Days of the Directoire. 
1909. 944 A43 

Chapter XI. Costume from 1795-99. 

Arnault, A. V. Vie Politique et Militaire de 
Napoleon. 2 v. 1822-26. Ref. FBN216Ar 

Lithographed plates, after original designs of the first 
painters of the French school. 

Bourgeois, Emile. France under Louis XIV. Tr. 
by Mrs. Cashel Hoey. 1897. Ref. 944B77 

Many of the copperplates show costume. 

Boutet, H. Les Modes Feminines du Dix-neuvieme 
Siecle. 1902. RF391B77 

100 colored plates. No text. 
Boutet de Monvel, Roger. Beau Brummell and His 
Times. With a chapter on dress and the dandies, 
by Mary Craven. 1908. BB893Bo 

Bridgens, Richard. Sketches Illustrative of the 
Manners and Customs of France, Switzerland, and 
Italy. 1821. R391B851 

Colored plates, with descriptive text. 
Bruyn, A. de. Costumes Civils et Militaires du 
XVr Siecle. 1872. Ref. F391B91 

33 photolithographic plates. 

Challamel, J. B. M. A. History of Fa.shion in 
France; or. The dress of women, from the Gallo- 
Roman period to the present time. Tr. by 
Mrs. Cashel Hoey and John Lillie. 1882. 

Ref. 391C43 

20 colored plates (80 figures). 

Chase, Mrs. Lewis. Vagabond Voyage through 
Brittany. 1915. 914.4C48 

Clouet, Janet. 300 French Portraits of the Courts 
of Francis I, Henry II, and Francis II. 2 v. 
1875. Ref. 741C64 

Auto-lithographed from the originals at Castle Howard. 



Cook, C. C. Costumes of the Time of the French 
Revolution, 1790-1793; together with English 
costumes, 1795-1806. Drawn from the collec- 
tion of Victorien Sardou. 1889. Ref. 391G95 

6.5 etchings, executed by Guillaumot fils, colored by hand. 
40 of French, 25 of English costume. 

D'Este, Margaret. Through Corsica with a Camera. 
1905. 914.59D47 

17 of the half-tones show costumes. 

Drumont, Edouard. Les Fetes Nationales a Paris. 
1889. RF944D79 

French costumes fiom 1389, illustrated in plates. Text 
illustrations of national ffites. 

Duplessis, G. Costumes Historique''. des XVI^, 
XVir et XVIir Siecles. 2 v. 1867. 

Ref. F391D93 

Full-page colored illustrations. 

Edwards, G. W. Brittany and the Bretons. 1910. 

914.4E263 

Colored plates. 

Egerton, M. M., Countess of Wilton. Toilette in 
France. (In her Book of Costume. 1847. 
pp. 192-270.) Ref. 391W75 

Numerous cuts of head-dress and costume. 

Garcia, G. Les Modes du Directoire et du Consulat. 
n.d. RF391G21 

Gostling, F. M. The Bretons at Home. 1909. 

914.4G68 

Colored plates and photographs. 

Gronoiv, G. W. Reminiscences and Recollections of 
Capt. Gronow, 1810-60. 2 v. 1889. 

* 920G876R 

References to and illustrations of French and English 
dress of period. Hand-colored, etched, and aquatint plates. 

Guillaumot, A. E. Costumes du XVIII'' Siecle, 
d'apres les Dessins de Watteau fils, Desrais, 
Leclerc, Cochin, etc. Ref. F391G95 

60 etchings. 

— Costumes of the Time of the French Revolution, 

1790-1793. 1889. R391G95 

Plates colored by hand. 

Iloyt, Eleanor. (Mrs. Brainerd.) In Vanity Fair; a 

tale of frocks and femininity. 1906. 914.4H86 

Janin, J. G. and others. Pictures of the French. 

1840. * 914.4J33 

230 engravings, from Gavarni, Monnier, and Meissonier, 

of French costume of 1840. 

Koppen, F. von. France. (In his Armies of Europe. 
Illustrated. 1890. pp. 46-53.) 355K77 

2 double colored plates (13 illustrations, includiT^g 3 
naval) and 6 text illustraujua of Frencn uniforms. 



Page One Hundred Sixty 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Lacroix, Paul. Dress and Fashions. (In his 
Eighteenth Century. 1876. pp. 452-89.) 

* 914.4L14 

10 colored plates, and many illustrations, of dress of the 
period. 

Lawrence, H. W. French Line Engravings of the 
I^te 18th Century. 1910. R769L42 

Pp. 89-102. Le monument de costume. 

Lechevallier-Chevignard, G. Costumes Historiqiies 
de Femmes du Quatorzieme au Dix-huitieme 
Sieele. 1889. RF391L45 

Contains colored plates. 

Lewis, George. A Series of Groups, Illustrating the 
Physiognomy, Manners, and Character of the 
People of France and Germany. 1823. 767L67 

60 etched plates. 

Mennechet, E. Le Plutarque Frangais; Vies des 
Hommes et Femmes Illustres de la France. 8 v. 
1835-41. RF920M54 

Contains colored plates. Index at end of Vol. 8. 

Menpes, Dorothy. Brittany. Illustrated by Morti- 
mer Menpes. 1905. 914.4M54 

About 50 of the 75 colored plates show Breton costume. 

Milioun, Francis. Rambles in Brittany. Illus- 
trated by Blanche McManus. 1906. 

914.4M66RB 

" Manners and customs," pp. 70-87. Many of the half- 
tone plates and wood-cuts show costume. 



Mnsgrave, George. Nooks and Corners of Old 
France. 2 v. 1867. 914.4M987N 

" Touraine caps," v. 1, pp. 225. 

Pauquet Freres. Modes et Costumes Historiques. 
?1865. Ref. 391P33 

93 colored plates of French costume, 493 a. d. to 1S64. 

Piton, Camille. Le Costume Civil en France du 
Treizieme au Dix-neuvieme Sieele. n.d. 

F391P68 

700 photographic illustrations. A few colored plates. 

Planta, Edward. New Pictures of Paris. 5 v. 
1827. * 914.4P71 

Vol. 1 contains 29 colored illustrations of the costumes of 
the lower orders in Paris. 

Price, J. M. Dame Fashion. Paris — London, 
1786-1912. * 391P94 

Includes 155 colored 



Quicherat, J. Histoire du Costume en France, 
jusqu'^ la fin du XVIIF Sieele. 1875. 

Ref. F391Q62 

481 wood-cuts of both male and female costume. 



Same. [In French.] 1891. 



Repository of Arts, Literature, Fashions, etc. By 
R. Ackerniann. Ser. 1, v. 3-6, 9-14; Ser. 2, 
V. 1-14; Ser. 3, v. 1-12. Jan., 1810— Dec., 1828. 

052R42 

Monthly letters on Paris '" female fashions." Colored 
steel plates. 

Robida, A. "Yester-year": ten centuries of toi- 
lette. 1891. 391R65 

29 colored plates and numerous wood-cuts of French 
female costume from the Middle Ages to about 1880. 

F391R65 

Roger-Miles, L. Le Costume et la Mode. n.d. 

R391R72 

Relates to the styles of the 8th- 19th centuries. 

Sloane, W. M. Life of Napoleon. 4 v. 1896. 

RBN216SL 
Smith, J. H. Troubadours at Home. 2 v. 1899. 

849S65 

See " Costume " in Index. A few cuts of costume. 

Uzanne, L. 0. Fashion in Paris: feminine taste and 
aesthetics, from 1797 to 1897. 1898. Ref. 391U99 

100 hand-colored plates and 250 text illustrations of both 
male and female dress. 

— Frenchwomen of the Century : fashions, manners, 
usages. 1897. Ref. 394U99 

Contains colored plates. 

Viollet-Le-Duc, E. E. Dictionnaire RaLsonne du 
Mobilier FranQais de I'Epoque Carlovingienne a 
la Renaissance. 6 v. 1858-72. Ref. F703V79 

Dress, personal jewels, toilet articles, v. 3 and 4. Many 
wood-cuts and a few colored plates. 

France, Military Costume 

Lewal. French Army. (In Armies of To-day. 
1893. pp. 161-215.) 355M57 

16 cuts of French and French Colonial uniforms of the 
period. 

Richard, Jules. L'Armee Fran^aise. 2 v. 1885- 
89. RFS55M22 

Colored plates and other illustrations. 



La Jeune Armee. n.d. 



RF355M22J 



Uniforms of the Armies of the Six Great Powers of 
Europe. (In Standard dictionary. Sup. 1903. 
pp. 2187.) Ref. 423F98Su 

Section of colored plate, showing 16 modern French 
uniforms. 

Zoghaum. R. F. France: war pictures in time of 

peace. (In his Horse, Foot, and Dragoons. 

1888. pp. 1-47.) 355Z85 

15 wood-cuts, plates, and text illustrations of modern 

French uniforms. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Page One Hundred Sixty-one 



France. See also Caricatures and Caricaturists 

Germany 

Avenarius, Tony. Historischer Festzug veranstaltet 
bei der Feier der Vollendung des Kolner Domes 
am 16. October, 1880. n.d. Ref. 750A95 

29 large lithographed plates of German costumes, 1248- 
1880. 

Bossi, Luigi. Costume Ancien et Moderne des 
Germains. (In Ferrario, G. Costume. 1824. 
Europe, v. 4. [v. 15.] pp. 173-816.) 

Ref. 391F37 

Over 40 colored copperplates of ancient and modern Ger- 
man costumes of all classes. 

Egerton, M. M., Countess of Wilton. Toilette in 
Germany. (In her Book of Costume. 1847. 
pp. 271-87.) Ref. 391W75 

Several wood-cuts of male and female costume. 

Grohman, W. A. Baillie. Land in the Mountains: 
past and present of Tyrol. 1907. 943.7G87 

" Costume of the Landesknechte," pp. 232-35. 

Guinot, Eugene. Summer at Baden-Baden. 1876. 

914.3G96 

6 colored plates of costumes. 

Hottenroth, F. Trachten, Haus-, Feld-, und Kriegs- 
gerathschaften der Volker alter und neuer Zeit. 
2 vols. n.d. G391H83 

120 plates and numerous wood-cuts. 

Johnson, A. C. Peasant Life in Germany. 1858. 

914.3J66 

See " Costumes " in Index. 

Kohler, K. Die Entwickelung der Tracht in 
Deutschland wahrend des Mittelalters und der 
Neuzeit. 1877. G391K77 

100 plates. 

Kretschmer, Albert. Costumes Nationaux Alle- 
mands; dessins originaux, avec texte explicatif. 
1870. RG391K92 

Numerous colored plates. 

Laugel, A. Costumes et Coutumes d'Alsace. 1902. 

RF914.3L37 

Colored plates. 

Lewis, George. A Series of Groups, Illustrating 
. . . the people of France and Germany. 1823. 

767L67 

60 etched plates. 

Schwind, Moritzvon. Schwind; des Meisters Werke 
in 1265 Abbildungen. 1907. G759W41 

Many portraits in 19th century German costume, and a 
number of cuts of historic German dress. 



Germany, Military Costume 

Dally, A. Uniforms de I'Armee Allemande en 1886. 
Illustrated by M. Roy. n.d. [Cahiers d'en- 
seignement. No. 13-16.] 

(3 Unbound Pamphlets) 

16 colored full-page illustrations, with a few cuts of Ger- 
man uniforms of 1886. 

Illustrated London News. April 26, 1913. 

Contains colored plates. 

Exner. German Army of To-day. (In Armies of 
To-day. 1893. pp. 97-160.) 355M57 

" Equipment and clothing," pp. 147-49. 14 cuts of 
modern uniform. 

Guinot, Eugene. Summer at Baden-Baden. 1876. 

914.3G96 

3 colored plates of uniforms of Baden. 

Koppen, F. von. German Army. (In his Armies 
of Europe, Illustrated. 1890. pp. 20-35.) 

355K77 

3 double-page colored plates (20 illustrations, including 
3 naval) and 8 text illustrations of uniforms. 

Landesknechte. (In Meyer's Konversations-Lexicon. 
6th ed. 1905. v. 12. p. 126.) Ref. G033M6lKo 

Brief historical article, and plate of 10 cuts, of German 
foot-soldiers, 15th-16th centuries. 

— Same. 4th ed. 1888. (v. 10. p. 469.) 

Sigel, G. A. Deutschlands Heer und Flotte in Wort 
und Bild. 1900. RG355S57 

Colored plates. Text in English and German. 

Uniforms of the Armies of the Si.c Great Powers of 
Europe. (In Standard dictionary. Sup., 1903. 
p. 2187.) Ref. 423F98Su 

Section of colored plates, showing 19 modern German 
uniforms. 

Zogbaum, R. F. Germany: a night with the Fourth 
Corps. (In his Horse, Foot, and Dragoons. 
1888. pp. 75-99.) 355Z85 

10 plates and cuts of German uniforms. 

Gipsy Costume 

Boner, Charles. Transylvania; its products and its 
people. 1865. 914.39B71 

Elate of gipsy group, with brief scattered references in text. 

Cuttriss, Frank. Romany Life. 1915. 397C99 

Gerard, E. The Land beyond the Forest: facts, 
figures, and fancies from Transylvania. 2 v. 
1888. 914.39G35 

2 photogravures and 5 wood-cuts of gipsy costume. 

McCormick, Andrew. The Tinkler-Gypsies. 1907. 

397M13 

Photo.graphic reproductions. 



Page One Hundred Sixty-two 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Morwood, V. S. Our Gipsies in City, Tent, and 
Van. 1885. 397M89 

Pennell, E. R. To Gipsyland; illustrated by J. 
Pennell. 1893. 914.39P41 

Frequent reference to gipsy dress. Many black-and- 
white illustrations of gipsy costume. 

Smith, F. B. Budapest: the city of the Magyars. 
1903. 914.39S64 

Illustrations include 17 half-tones of Hungarian gipsies. 

Yoxall, J. H. A Word on Gypsy Costume. (In 
Journal of the Gypsy Lore Society. New ser., 
V. 1, July, 1907, pp. 23-25.) 

Including 1 illustration and bibliographical notes. 

Gloves 

Beck, S. W. Gloves; their annals and associations. 
1883. 391B39 

Many wood-cuts. 

Redfem, W. B. Royal and Historic Gloves and 
Shoes, Illustrated and Described. 1904. 

Ref. 391R31 

46 plates (4 colored) of gloves, chiefly English and Scotch. 

Uzanne, L. 0. The Sunshade — the Glove — the 
Muff. 1883. Ref. 391U99S 

Historic and descriptive. Numerous photogravures. 

Greece 
Abrahams, Ethel B. Greek Dress. 1908. 391 A15 

54 half-tone illustrations. 

Becker, W. A. Charikles; or. Illustrations of the 
private life of the ancient Greeks. 1845. 

913B39CH 

Dress, pp. 159-71, 304-25; Shoes, pp. .326-31; Hair and 
beard, pp. 332-38. 1 plate and 9 wood-cuts of dress. 

— Same. 5th ed. 1880. 

Notes somewhat fuller than in earlier edition. See 
" Dress " in index. 

Blumner, H. Home Life of the Ancient Greeks. 
Tr. by A. Zimmern. 1893. 913B65 

" Costume," pp. 1-77. See also " Costume " in Index. 
Many wood-cuts. Brief bibliography. 

Choisseul-Gouffler, M. G. A. F., comte de. Voyage 

Pittoresque de la Grece. 2 v. in 3. 1782-1822. 

Ref. F914.95C54 

Many of the 325 copperplates show ancient and modern 
Greek dress. Descriptive text. 

Davis, R. H. Modern Greece. (In his Rulers of 
the Mediterranean. 1894. pp. 178-97.) 

910D26R 

8 cuts of modern Greek costume, several of peasants. 



Dupre, L. Voyage a Athenes et a Constantinople. 
1825. RF391D94 

Colored plates of modern Greek costume. Descriptive 
text in French. 

Egerton, M. M., Countess of Wilton. Toilette in 
Greece. (In her Book of Costume. 1847. 
pp. 388-407.) Ref. 391W75 

10 wood-cuts, mostly of modern costume. 

Evans, Lady M. M. Chapters on Greek Dres 
1893. 391E9 

74 cuts of classic dress. Bibliography. 

Ferriman, Z. D. Home Life in Hellas. 1910. 

914.95F39 
Furtwdngler, Adolf. Masterpieces of Greek Sculp- 
ture. Ref. 733F99 

19 photogravures and 200 wood-cuts show classic dress. 
Many text references to costume. 

Gironi, R. Costume Ancien et Moderne de la 
Grece. (In Ferrario, G. Costume. 1815-29. 
Europe. V. 1. pt. 1-2.) Ref. F391F37 

153 colored copperplates include ancient, Byzantine, and 
modern Greek costumes. 

Guhl, E. Life of the Greeks and Romans, Described 
from Antique Monuments. 1875. 913G94 

" Dress," pp. 159-84. 20 outline cuts. 

Gulick, C. B. Life of the Ancient Greeks. 1903. 

913G97 

" Clothing," pp. 153-78. " The Warrior," pp. 188-205. 
Many half-tones and cuts of dress. 

Harrison, J. E. Greek vase painting. 1894. 

Ref. 738H31 

Black-and-white illustrations, introducing classic dress. 

Hope, Thomas. Grecian costume. (In his Costume 
ot the Ancients. 1841. v. 1. pp. 16-38; v. 2, 
pp. 37-230.) Ref. 391H79 

Outline illustrations. 

Laurent, P. E. Recollections of a Classical Tour 
through Greece, Turkey, and Italy, in 1818 and 
1819. 2v. 1822. Ref. 914L38 

4 hand-colored plates, showing Greek ladies, Greek 
sailors, etc. 

Menard, Rene. Costumes de la Grece. (In his 



Vie Privee des Anciens. 

87.) 

22 outline illustrations. 



1881. 



pp. 271- 
F913M53 



St. John, J. A. History of the Manners and Cus- 
toms of Ancient Greece. 3 v. 1842. 913S14 

" Toilette, dress, and ornaments," v. 2, pp. 50-74. See 
also " Costume " in index, v. 3. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Page One Hundred Sixty-three 



Seymour, T. D. Life in the Homeric Age. 1907. 

913S52 

" Dress and decoration," pp. 153-77. " Homeric arms," 
pp. 629-82. 2 plates and 17 cuts of dress and armor. 

Smith, J. M. Ancient Greek Female Costume. 

1882. 391S65 

112 outline plates and many smaller illustrations with 
explanatory text. 

Timayenis, T. T. Greece in the Times of Homer. 
1885. 913T58 

" Dress and ornaments," pp. 226-40. 

Tucker, T. G. Life in Ancient Athens; the social 
and public life of a classical Athenian. 1906. 

913T89 
Dress, pp. 108-20, 167-74. Several cuts of costume. 

Uniforms of Greece. (In Koppen F. von. Armies 
of Europe, illustrated. 1890.) 355K77 

Section of colored plate, showing 5 modern Greek uniforms. 

Guatemala 

Domville-Fife, C. W. Guatemala and the States of 
Central America. 1913. 972.8D67 

FrancJc, H. A. Tramping through Mexico, Guate- 
mala, and Honduras. 1916. 917.2F82 

Maudslay, A. C. Glimpses at Guatemala. 1899. 

Ref. 917.28M44 

Occasional references to costume. Photogravures of 
costume and colored plates of native textiles. 

Haik. See Head-dress 
Hats. See Head-dress 



Hawaii 

Anderson, Mrs. Larz. The Spell of the Hawaiian 
Islands. 1916. 919A54 

Baldwin, C. W. The Geography of the Hawaiian 
Islands. 1908. 919.6B18 

Boyce, W. D. United States Colonies and De- 
pendencies Illustrated. 1914. 325B78 

Browne, G. W. Hawaii. (In his New America and 
the Far East. v. 1. 1907.) 910B882 

" Dress," pp. 30-31. 9 colored plates, including one of 
children, and many cuts of dress. 

Bryan, W. A. Natural History of Hawaii. 1915. 

996B91 

Castle,W.R.,J Hawaii: past and present. 1913. 

919.6C35 



Dunton, Larkin. The World and its People. 
Vol. 9. Hawaii; by A. S. Twombly. 1899. 

J910.7D92T 
GerouM, K. F. Hawaii: scenes and impressions. 
1.916. 919.6G37 

Goodrich, J. K. The Coming Hawaii. 1914. 

996G65 

La Farge, John. Reminiscences of the South Seas. 

1912. 919.6L15 

Musick,J.R. Hawaii : our new possessions. 1898. 

919.6M98 

2 plates of native costume. 

Olivares, Jose de. Our Islands and their People. 
2 V. 1899. Ref. 917.29B91 

Hawaii, v. 2, pp. 417-538. Many plates (some colored), 
and other illustrations of Hawaiian costume. 

Stevens, J. L. Picturesque Hawaii. 1894. 

* 919.6S844 

Head-dress 

Becker, W. A. Hair and Beard. (In his Charikles. 
1845. pp. 332-38.) 913B39Ch 

4 cuts of female hair-dressing of Homeric times. 

— Same. 5th ed. 1880. (pp. 453-61.) 

Ref. 913B39C 

Child, Theodore. Wimples and Crisping Pins: 

studies in the coiffures and ornaments of women. 

1895. 391C53 

Ancient Egypt to modern times. Many wood-cuts and 
half-tones. 

Description de Tons les Genres de Turbans et Coiffures 
Modernes d'Egypte, Syrie, Turquie, etc. (In 
Magasin Pittoresque. 1841. pp. 4-6.) 

F054M18 

16 wood-cuts of modern turbans. 
Dulaure, J. A. Pogonologia; or, A philosophical 
and historical essay on beards. 1786. 

Ref. 391D87 

No illustrations. 

Fairholt, F. W. Description of Head-dresses. (In 
Merrifield, Mrs. M. P. Dress as a Fine Art. 
1854. pp. 1-9, 53-60.) Ref. 391M56 

3 plates (43 figures) of styles of head-dress. 

— Head-dress. (In his Costume in England. 1846. 
(pp. 524-47.) 391F17C 

Illustrated by wood-cuts. 

— Same. 1885. (v. 2. p. 217-53.) 

— Same. 1896. (v. 2. p. 217-53.) 



Page One Hundred Sixty -four 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Genin, J. N. Illustrated history of the hat, from 
the earliest ages to the present time. 1848. 

391G33 

Jones, William. Crowns and Coronations; a history 
of regalia. 1883. 394J79 

Chaps. 1, 2, and 11. Cuts of crowns and coronets. 

Lichtcnfeld, J. Principles of Physiognomical Hair- 
dressing, n.d. 646L69 

21 illustrations, wood-cuts. 

Moler, A. B. Manual on Barbering, Hairdressing, 
Manicuring, etc. 1905. 391M71 

Musgravc, George. Nooks and Corners in Old 
France. 2 v. 1867. 914.4M987N 

" Touraine caps," v. 1, p. 225. 

Ortner, Jessica. Practical Millinery. 1892, 

646077 

Illustrated. 

Pauquet freres. Modes et Costumes Historiques. 
.?1865. Ref. 391P33 

The 96 colored plates are valuable for French head-dress, 
493-1864. 

Praga, Mrs. Alfred. What to Wear and 'Wlien to 
Wear it. 1903. 391P89 

Half-tones of head-dress and female costumes. 

Quigley, Dorothy. WTiat Dress Makes of us. 1897. 

391Q6 

Includes illustrated discussion of hairdressing and head- 
dress. 

Repton, J. A. Observations on the Various Fashions 
of Hats, Bonnets, or Coverings for the Head, 
Chiefly from the Reign of Henry VHI to the 
18th Century. (In Archteologia. v. 24. 1832. 
pp. 169-89.) Ref. 

8 steel plates, with many outline figures of hats, etc. 
Rhead, G. W. Hats, Caps, and Bonnets. (In his 

Chats on Costume. 1906. pp. 205-77.) 

391R46 

Cuts of all kinds of head-dress. 

Speight, Alexanna. A Lock of Hair: its history, 
ancient and modern. 1871. 391S74 

Stewart, James. Plocacosmos; or, The whole art 
of Hair-dressing. 1782. Ref. 646S84 

9 copperplates. 

Winter, F. Die Kamme aller Zeiten. ?1906. 

Ref. G391W78 

48 plates (about 300 figures^, with notes on combs, from 
the Stone Age to the present. 

Hebrew Costume. See Jewish Costume 
Herzegovina. See Balkan States 



Hindoostan. See India 
Holland. See Netherlands 
Hungary. See Austria-Hungary 

India 

Asiatic Costumes. 44 engravings, with a description 
to each subject. 1828. 391A83 

Engraved from drawings taken during a residence in 
India. 

Birt, F. B. Bradley-. Chota Nagpore; a little- 
known province of the Empire. 1903. yi5.4B61 

About 20 half-tone plates of costume. 

Conway, M. D. My Pilgrimage to the Wise Men 
of the East. 1906. 910C76 

7 half-tone plates of Indian costume, mostly religious. 

Crooke, William. Natives of Northern India. 1907. 
(Native races of the British Empire.) 572C94 

Frequent text references to costume. 32 plates of cos- 
tume. 



Things Indian. 1906. 

Dress, pp. 155-67; jewelry, pp. 287-91. 



915.4C94 



Curtis, Lillian J. Laos of North Siam. 1903. 

915.9C97 

Dress, pp. 108-1 1^, etc. Half-tone illustrations, showing 
costume. 

Curtis, W. E. Burma. (In his Egypt, Burma, and 
British Malaysia. 1905. pp. 251-348.) 

910C98 

6 half-tone plates of Burmese costume. 

Del Mar, Walter. Romantic East, Burma, Assam, 
and Kashmir. 1906. 915.9D33 

Costume of Burma, pp. 8-9. Several half-tone plates of 
costume. 

Ferrario, Giulio. LTnde, Appelee Indostan, et 
rindo-Chine. (In his Costume. 1815-29. Asie, 
V. 2.) Ref. F391F37 

92 colored copperplates of Hindoo, Burmese, Siamese, and 
other costumes. 

Grindlay, R. M. Scenery, Costumes, and Architec- 
ture, Chiefly on the Western Side of India. 1830. 

R915.4G866 

Colored engravings. 

Gurdon, P. R. T. The Khasis. 1907. (Ethno- 
graphical monograph, published under the orders 
of the Government of Eastern Bengal and Assam.) 

572G97 

8 colored and 11 monochrome plates. 

Hart, W. H. Everyday Life in Bengal and Other 
Indian Sketches. 1906. 915.4H32 

Illustrations include several half-tones of costume. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Page One Hundred Sixty-five 



Hodson, T. C. The Meitheis. 1908. (Ethno- 
graphical monograph, published under the orders 
of the Government of Eastern Bengal and Assam.) 

572H69 

9 colored and 7 monochrome plates, illustrating this 
" dominant race of Manipur." 

India and the War. 1915. 355139 

Has colored plates of military costume. 

Jacob, S.S. Jeypore Enamels. 1886. Ref. 748J15 

Colored frontispiece of Jeypore enamellers. 

Kelly, R. T. Burma, Painted and Described. 1905. 

915.9K29 

Several of the colored plates show costume. 

Koenigsmarck, Count Hans von. A German Staff 
Officer in India. 1910. 915.4K78 

Gives a few illustrations (not colored) of men in high 
rank. 

Malcolm, Ian. Indian Pictures and Problems. 
1907. 915.4M24 

\bout 20 of the 50 half-tone plates show costume. 

Marston,A.W. Children of India, n.d. 915.4M37 

Many wood-cuts of costumes. 

Menpes, Dorothy. The Durbar. Illustrated by 
Mortimer Menpes. 1903. 915.4M54 

Numerous references in text to dress. Most of the 100 
colored plates show costumes of all parts of India. 

Murray, A. H. H. High-road of Empire; water- 
color and pen-and-ink sketches in India. 1905. 

915.4M981 

Wood-cuts and colored plates, many showing dross. 

Norman, Henry. Peoples and Politics of the Far 
East. 1895. 915N54 

Half-tone plates of dress of Siam and Indo-China. 

— Same. 1904. 

Penfield, F. C. East of Suez (Ceylon, India, China, 
and Japan). 1906. 915P39 

Text references. A number of the plates show Indian 
costume. 

Penny, F. E. Southern India. 1914. 915.4P416 

Contains colored plates. 

Seesodia, T. S. J. The Rajputs. 1915. 954S45 

Shoberl, Frederic. World in Miniature. Hindoo- 
stan. 6 V. 1827. Ref. 915.4S559 

Illustrated by 103 colored engravings. 

— World in Miniature. Thibet and India beyond 
the Ganges. 1827. Ref. 915.18559 

12 colored plates of costume. 

Singh, S. N. India's Fighters. 1914. 355S61 

Photographs showing soldiers' costumes. 



Solvyns, B. The Costume of Indostan Elucidated 
by Sixty Colored Engravings, with Descriptions 
in English and French, taken in the Years 1798 
and 1799. 1804. Ref. 391S69 

Stack, E. The Mikirs. 1908. (Ethnographical 
monograph, published under the orders of the 
Government of Eastern Bengal and Assam.) 

572S77 

4 colored and 4 monochrome Illustrations of this tribe of 



Steel, F. A. India. Illustrated by Mortimer 
Menpes. 1905. 915.4S813 

Thompson, P. A. Lotus Land: account of the 
country and the people of southern Siam. 1907. 

915.9T47 

See " Dress " in Index. 7 plates, including 2 of children, 
of Siamese costume. 

Thurston, Edgar. Ethnographic notes in southern 
India. 1906. 572T54 

" On dress," pp. 520-31. 40 half-tone plates. 

Watson, J. F. The Textile Manufacturers and the 
Costumes of the People of India. 1866. 

Ref. 677W338 

Eight plates of costume illustrations. 

Young, Ernest. Siam. With 12 full-page illus- 
trations in color by E. A. Norbury. 1908. 
(Peeps at many lands series.) 915.9 Y71P 

" Food and dress," pp. 52-56. 

Yusef-Ali, Abdullah. Life and Labor of the People 
of India. 1907. 915.4A136 

Bridal dress, p. 271. Dress traditions, pp. 312-15. 
Colored frontispiece and 4 other plates of costume. 

Indians of North America 

Berlin. Royal Museum. North-west Coast of 
America: ethnological researches of the Royal 
Museums at Berlin, n.d. Ref. 

The lithographic plates include head-dress and masks. 
Photogravures of Chilkat blanket. 

Biart, Lucien. The Aztecs: their history, manners, 
and cu.stoms. 1887. 972B57 

Clothing, pp. 292-94. 

Bourke, J. G. Snake-dance of the Moquis of 
Arizona. 1884. 970.3B77 

See " Costume " in Index. 10 colored plates of Moqui 
and Navajo costume. 

Catlin, George. 0-kee-pa : a religious ceremony and 
other customs of the Mandans. 1867. 

Ref. 970.6C36 
Ceremonial dress, pp. 16-22. Seven of the colored plates 
show costume. 



Page One Hundred Sixty-six 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Catlin, George. Notes of 8 years' travel. With his 
North American Indian collection. 2 v. 1848. 

970.6C36N 

Many outline engravings from the author's original 
paintings of Indians. 

■ — Illustrations of the Manners, Customs, and 

Condition of the North American Indians. 

9th ed. 2 v. 1857. Ref. 970.1C36I 

Many notes on costume. 360 engravings from paintings 
by autlior. 

Curtis, Natalie. Indians' Book. 1907. 970.1C97 

Text does not treat costume. 22 plates from photographs 
of Indians and several colored plates, showing Indian pictures 
of apparel. 

Dellenbaugh, F. S. North -Americans of Yesterday. 
1901. 970.1D35 

" Weaving and costume," pp. 123-60. Many illustrations 
of Indian costume and ornament. 

Dodge, R.I. Our Wild Indian. 1882. 970.1D64 

" Clothing, finery, and personal adornment," pp. 297-310. 
6 colored plates and a number of wood-cuts of costume. 

Ferrario, Giulio. L'Amerique. (In his Costume. 
1815-29. Am^rique. v. 1.) Ref. F391F37 

Many colored copperplates of North American Indians. 

Harvey, Fred. First Families of the Southwest. 
1913. 970.6H34 

Contains colored illustrations of costume of various 
tribes of Pueblo Indians. 

Hind, H. Y. Explorations in the Interior of the 
Labrador Peninsula, the Country of the Monta- 
gnais and Nasquapee Indians. 2 v. 1863. 

917.19H66 

Chromo-lithographs and wood-cuts of trappers and 
Indians. 

— Narrative of the Canadian Red River Exploring 
Expedition of 1857 and of the Assiniboine and 
Saskatchewan Exploring Expeditions of 1858. 
2 v. 1860. 917.1H66 

Lithographs and wood-cuts of Canadian Indians and 
apparel (v. 2). 

Hodge, F. W. Handbook of American Indians 
North of Mexico, 1907. pt. 1, A-M. (U. S. 
Burea-a of Ethnology, Bulletin 30.) 

Ref. 970.1U58 

"Adornment," by Alice C. Fletcher, pp. 16-20; "Cloth- 



ing," by Walter Hough, 
raphies. 



3. 310-12. 22 cuts and bibliog- 



Hooge, Romeyn de. Costumes; a series of 43 copper 
engravings of the peoples and castes of different 
nations, n.d. Ref. 391H77 

Several plates of North American Indians. 

Howard, 0. 0. My Life and Experiences among 
our Hostile Indians. 1907. BH851H 

13 colored plates, showing dress and weapons. 



Humfreville, J. L. Twenty Years among our Savage 
Indians. 1897. 970.1H92 

See " Dress " in Index. 10 chromo-lithographs and 
numerous half-tone cuts of Indian costume. 

M'Kenney, T. L. History of the Indian Tribes )f 
North America. 3 v. 1838-44. 

Ref. 970.1M155H 

120 colored portraits from the Indian Gallery in the 
Department of War at Washington. 

Mason, 0. T. Aboriginal American Basketry. (In 
U. S. National Museum Report. 1902. pp. 
171-548.— U. S. Doc. Serial 4549.) Ref. 

248 plates, including 29 of Indian women. 



Indian Basketry. 2 v. 1904. 

The same work as the preceding. 



Ref. 689M41 



Schoolcraft, H. R. Information Respecting the 
History, Condition, and Prospects of the Indian 
Tribes of the United States. 5 v. 1853-56. 

Ref. 970.1U58S 

Costume, v. 3, pp. 65-6G; v. 4, pp. 58-59. 10 monotone 
lithographs of costume. 

— Same. v. 1-3. 1851-53. 

Several of the plates of costume in this edition are colored. 

Starr, Frederick. Indians of Southern Mexico. 
1899. Ref. 970.1S79I 

Photogravure plates, preceded by descriptions, mostly 
showing costume. 

Tout, C. Hill. British North America, v. 1. The 
Far West. 1907. 572T73 

Dress and personal adornment, pp. 63-88. Most of the 
33 half-tone plates show Salish and D6n6 costume. 

Tozzer, A. M. Comparative Study of the Mayas 
and the Lacandones. 1907. (Archseol. Inst, of 
America. Report of the Fellow on Amer. Archaeol. 
1902-05.) 970.3T75 

Costume, pp. 29-32. 

U. S. Census Office. 11th Census. Report on 
Indians Taxed and not Taxed in the United 
States (except Alaska), 1890. 1894. Ref. 

Statistical, historical, and ethnographic monographs by 
Rrinton, Donaldson, Lord, and others. Many colored and 
half-tone plates of costumes of all types of Indians. 



Same. (In U. S. Documents. Serial 3016.) 



Indians of South America 



Ref. 



(In 



Ferrario, Giulio. L'Amerique Meridionale. 
his Costume. 1815-29. Amerique. v. 2.) 

Ref. F391F37 

Many colored copperplates of South American Indians. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Page One Hundred Sixty-seven 



Schmidimeyer, Peter. Travels into Chile, over the 
Andes, in the Years 1820 and 1821. 1824. 

Ref. 918.3S35 

30 plates, including 11 in color. 4 show Araucanos. 

United States Astronomical Expedition to the Southern 
Hemisfhere, 1849-52. 1856. (U. S. 33d Con- 
gress, 1st sess. House exec, doc, 121. Serial 
728.) Ref. 

Note on Araucanian dress (v. 1, pp. 67-6S), with colored 
plate of chief. 

Wright, Mrs. M. R. Primitive Inhabitants of 
BoHvia. (In her Bolivia. 1907. pp. 439-50.) 

Ref. 984W95 

16 half-tones of modern Indian costume. 

Ireland 

Birmingham, G. A. (J. O. Hannay.) Irishmen 
All. 1913. 

12 illustrations in color. 

— The Lighter Side of Irish Life. 1912. 914.15H24 

16 illustrations in color. 

Bonwick, James. Our Nationalities. 1. Who are 
the Irish.' 1880. 572B72 

Brief historical notes of Celtic dress and ornament, pp. 
69-76. 

Egerton, M. M., Countess of Wilton. Toilette in 
Ireland. (In her Book of Costume. 1847. pp. 
186-89.) Ref. 391W75 

3 small wood-cuts. 

Harvey, William. Irish Life and Humor. With 
illustrations by ErskineNicol. 1904. 914.15H34 

Joyce, P. W. Social History of Ancient Ireland. 
2 V. 1903. 941.5J89S 

" Dress and personal adornment," v. 2, pp. 176-263. 
21 illustrations of apparel, mostly from ancient MSS. and 
sculpture. 

Meyrick, S. R. Costume of the Original Inhabitants 
of the British Islands. 1821. Ref. 391M61 

Including 6 colored plates of ancient Irish costume. 

0' Curry, Eugene. On the Manners and Customs of 
the Ancient Irish. Ed. by W. K. Sullivan. 3 v. 
1873. 913021 

Dress and ornament, v. 1, by Sullivan; v. 3, pp. 87-211, 
Historical summary. 

Sh-oberl, F. World in Miniature. England, Scot- 
land, and Ireland. Edited by W. H. Pyne. 4 v, 
1827. Ref. 914.2S559 

2 colored plates, in v. 4, of Irish costume. 

See also England 



Italy 

Allom, Thomas. Character and Costume of Turkey 
and Italy, with Descriptive Letter-press by Emma 
Reeve, n.d. Ref. 914.96A44 

12 lithographic plates of Italian costume of about 1840. 

Bridgens, Richard. Sketches Illustrative of the 
Manners and Costumes of France, Switzerland, 
and Italy. 1821, R391B851 

Plates, with descriptive text. 

Buonaiuti, B. S. Italian Scenery, Representing 
the Manners, Customs, and Amusements of Italy. 
1823. R914.5B94 

32 colored plates. 

Carmichael, Montgomery. In Tuscany. 1901. 

914.5C28 

11 small half-tones of costume. 

Egerton, M. M., Countess of Wilton. Costume in 
Italy, Sicily, and Malta. (In her Book of Cos- 
tume. 1847. pp. 315-34.) Ref. 391W75 

11 wood-cuts. 

Ferrario, Giulio. Costume des Italiens. (In his 
Costume. 1815-29. Europe, v. 3, pt. 1-2.) 

Ref. F391F37 

General sketch of the history of Italian costume. 141 
colored plates, mostly showing costume. Plates 79 and 
80 show uniforms of about 1820. 

Gifford, Mrs. A. H. Italy, Her People, and Their 
Story. 1905. 945G458 

Illustrated from portraits and famous paintings. 

Goiran, G. Italian Army. (In Armies of To-day. 
1893. pp. 311-58.) 355M27 

12 cuts of uniforms. 

Gordon, Lina Duff. Home Life in Italy. Letters 
from the Apennines. 1908. 914.5G66 

28 half-tone illustrations, chiefly of peasant life. 

Koppen, F. von. Italy. (In his Armies of Europe, 
Illustrated. 1890. pp. 42-45.) 355K77 

Double colored plates, (7 figures, including 1 of naval 
uniform) and 2 text illustrations of uniforms of the period. 

Molmenti, P. G. Venice, from the Earliest Begin- 
nings to the Fall of the Republic. Tr. by H. F. 
Brown. 6 v. 1906-08. 945M72 

" Costume," v. 2, pp. 1-22; v. 4, pp. 81-253; v. 5, pp- 
204-29. A few colored and many half-tone plates of 14th- 
18th century dress. 

Perl, Henry. Venezia. From the German, by Mrs. 
Arthur Bell. 1894. Ref. 914.5P45 

Many full-page and text wood-cuts of Venetian costume. 

Pinelli, Bartolomeo. Nuevo Raccolta di Cinquanta 
Costumi. 1816. RI391P65 

50 copperplates of Italian costume. 



Page One Hundred Sixty-eight 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Pinelli, Bartolomeo. Twenty-seven Etchings Illus- 
trative of Italian Manners and Costume. 18t4. 

R767P65T 



Sketch-book by an American in Venice. 1860. 



391S62 



22 plates, colored by hand. No text. 



Souvenir de St. Lazare, Venice, n.d. Ref. 271S72 

14 colored plates. 

Steiler, Karl, and others. Italy, from the Alps to 
Mount Etna. n.d. Ref. 914.5S85I 

Includes a number of wood-cuts of modern Italian 
costume. 

Strutt, A. J. Illustrations of a Pedestrian Tour in 
Calabria and Sicily, n.d. Ref. 914.5S92 

Book of etchings. 

Tuker, M. A. R. Rome, painted by A. Pisa. 1905. 

Ref. 914.5T91 

Peasant costumes, in color. 

Uniforms of the Armies of the Six Great Powers of 
Europe. (In Standard dictionary. Sup. 1903. 
p. 2187.) Ref. 423F98Su 

Vaughan, H. M. The Naples Riviera, n.d. 

914.5V36 

A few of the 2.5 illustrations in color, by Maurice Greiffen- 
hagen, show costume, painted in 1904. 

Zimmern, Helen. Italy of the Italians. 1906. 

914.5Z76 

A few half-tones of modern Italian costume. 



Japan 

Anderson, William.. Pictorial Arts of Japan. 1886. 

Ref. 709A5O 

Includes many colored plates, photogravures, and wood- 
cuts of costume by native artists. 

Arnold, Sir Edwin. Japonica. 1891. 915.2A75J 

Black-and-white illustrations of Japanese dress. 

Breton de la Martiniere, J. B. J. Le Japon. 4 v. 
1818. F915.2B84 

Contains 51 engravings. 

Browne, G. W. Japan. (In his New America and 
the Far East. 1907. v. 2-3.) 910B882 



Customs and costumes, v. 2, pp. 355-62. 18 plates (12 
colored) and many cuts of costume. 

— Japan: the place and the people. 1904. 

915.2B882 

Same text and plates as preceding work. 



Griffis, W. E. Th(- Mikado's Empire. 1876. 

952G85M 

Includes many references to and cute of costume. 

— Same. 1883. 

— Same. 1899. 

— Same. 9th ed. 1900. 

— Same. 10th ed. 1903. 

— Same. 11th ed. 1906. 

Hawks, F. L. Narrative of the Expedition of an 
American Squadron to the China Seas and Japan, 
1852, 1853, and 1854, under Com. M. C. Perry. 
V. 1. 1856. (U. S. 33d Cong. 2d sess' House 
exec. doc. v. 12. Serial No. 802.) Ref. 915.2U58 

Many wood-cuts and lithographed plates of Japanese 
costume. 

Holland, Clive. Things Seen in Japan. 1907. 

915.2H73 

50 half-tone illustrations. 

Knox, G. W. Imperial Japan; the country and its 
people. 1905. 952K74 

Numerous illustrative plates of Japanese women. 

Levati, Ambrogio. lies du Japon. (In Ferrario, 
G. Costume. 1815. Asie. v. 1. pp. 383- 
453.) Ref. 391F37 

6 colored copperplates of Japanese costume. 

National Geographic Magazine. Vol. 22. 

Ponting, H. G. In Lotus-land Japan. 1907. 

915.2P81 

Numerous colored plates and photographs. 

Salwey,C.M. Fans of Japan. 1894. Ref. 391S18 

10 colored plates and 39 other illustrations. 

Shoherl,F. Japan. 1827. R915.2S559 

20 colored engravings. 

Silver, J. M. W. Sketches of Japanese Manners and 
Customs. 1867. Ref. 915.2S58 

27 chromo-lithograph fac-similes of native drawings. 

Wilson, H. W. Japan's Fight for Freedom: the 
war between Russia and Japan. 2 v. 1904-05. 

Ref. 951W74 



Jewelry 

Luihmer, F. Ornamental Jewellery of the Renais- 
sance in Relation to Costume. 1882. 

R739L970 

Colored plates. No text. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Page One Hundred Sixty-nine 



Jewish Costume 

Abrahams, Israel. Jewish Life in the Middle Ages. 

1897. 296A15 

" Costume in law and fashion," pp. 273-90; " The Jewish 
badge," pp. 291-306. 

De Qnincey, Thomas. Toilette of the Hebrew Lady. 

(In his Collected Writings. 1890. v. 6, pp. 

152-78.) 828D42 

No illustrations. 

Levati, Ambrogio. Juifs. (In Ferrario, G. Costume. 
1817. Asie. V. 3. pp. 70-172.) Ref. 391F37 

3 colored copperplates of ancient Jewish costume. 

NowacJc, William, and others. Costume. (In Jew- 
ish Encyclopedia. 1901-06. v. 4. pp. 292- 
303.) Ref. 933S61 

Series of articles on Biblical to present-day Jewish dress, 
with bibliographical notes. Double-page colored plates 
(30 figures) and 17 wood-cuts. 

Pierotti, Ermete. Customs and Traditions of 
Palestine, Illustrating the Manners of the Ancient 
Hebrews. 1864. 915.6P61 

Costume, pp. 130-53. 

Stapfer, Edmond. Palestine in the Time of Christ. 
1885. 933S79 

" Clothing," pp. 190-201. 

See also Turkish Empire 

Korea 

Bishop, Mrs. I. B. Korea and Her Neighbors. 

1898. 915.1B62K 

See " Costumes " in Index. 5 half-tone plates of cos- 
tumes. 

Griffis, W. E. Corea; the hermit nation. 1882. 

915.1G85CE 

" Costume," pp. 81, 273-76. 2 wood-cuts. 

Hamilton, Angus. Korea. 1904. 915.1H21 

Costume in Seoul, pp. 35-40. Several half-tone plates of 
costume. 

Hulbert,H.n. Passing of Corea. 1906. 951H91P 

Many half-tone plates of costume. 

Lowell, P. Choson: the land of the morning calm. 
1888. 915.1L91 

" Costume," pp. 316-31. Wood-cuts. 

Norman, Henri/. Peoples and Politics of the Far 
East. 1895. 915N54 

Several half-tones of Korean costume. 

— Same. 1905. 

See also China; Japan 
Lapland. See Norway; Russian Empire 



Macedonia. 



Baijcan States 



Malaysia 
Hurgronje, C. S. The Achanese. Tr. by W. S. 



O'SuUivan. 2 v. 1906. 



919.2H96 



Dress, v. 1, pp. 25-30. See also "Apparel" in Index. 
Numerous wood-cuts and half-tones, showing male and 
female costume. 

Shoberl, Frederic. World in Miniature. The Asia- 
tic Islands and New Holland. 2 v. n.d. 

26 colored illustrations. ReF. 919S559 

Skeat, W. W. Pagan Races of the Malay Peninsula. 
2 V. 1906. 572S62 

I See " Dress " in Index. Many half-tones of natives. 



Maori Costume. 



New Zealand 



Marriage Costume. See Bridal Costume 

Medleval Costume 
Boutet de Monvel, M. Joan of Arc. Illustrated in 
. color. 1897. JBD214Bo 

Cutts, E. L. Scenes and Characters of the Middle 
Ages. 1885. Ref. 940C99 

Costume of the merchant class, pp.51 8-28. Many wood- 
cuts. 

Davies, A. C. Fox-. Art of Heraldry: an encyclo- 
paedia of armory. 1904. Ref. 929.2D25A 

Heraldic costume, pp. 12-32. Plates (5 colored) and 
wood-cuts, showing heraldic costume and armor. 

Gautier, Leon. Chivalry. Translated by Henry 
Firth. 1891. 394G27 

Numerous wood-cuts. 

Lacroix, Paul. Arts in the Middle Ages. n.d. 

Ref. 709L14 

10 colored plates and many wood-cuts of costume. 

— Costumes. (In his Manners, Customs, and 
Dress during the Middle Ages. n.d. pp. 509- 
54.) Ref. 940L14M 

Many colored plates and wood-cuts of costumf . 

— Military and Religious Life in the Middle Ages. 
n.d. " Ref. 940L14Mi 

Colored plates and wood-cuts of dress and armor. 

— Science and Literature in the Middle Ages. 1878. 

Ref. 940L14 

Most of the wood-cuts and colored plates show costume. 

Loemyer, J. F. N. Costume de Moyen Age. 1847. 
2 V. RF391L82 

Contains colored plates. 

Lonsdale, H. W. Illustrations of Mediaeval Cos- 
tume. 1874. Ref. 391L86 
50 plates. 



Page One Hundred Seventy 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Michaud, J. F. History of the Crusades. 2 v. 
n.d. Ref. 940M62H 

100 plates by Gustave Dor^. 
Munro, D. C. History of the Middle Ages. 1902. 

940M96 
Many of the half-tones and cuts show dress. 

Shaw, Henry. Dresses and Decorations of the 
Middle Ages. 2 v. 1858. Ref. 391S53 

From Anglo-Saxon times to end of 16th century. Special 
attention to English costume. Many colored plates and 
wood-cuts. 

Spalart, Robert von. Versuch iiber das Kostum der 
vorziiglichsten Volker des Mittelalters. 5 v. 
and atlas. 1800-11. RG391S73V 

Contains colored plates. 
Trumble, Alfred. Sword and Scimetar : the romance 
of the Crusades. 1886. Ref. 940T86 

Plates by Gustave Dor^, showing costume and armor of 
the Crusaders. A fuller collection of plates by Dore in 
Michaud's Crusades. 

Viollet-Le-Duc, E. E. Military Architecture. 1879. 

623V79 

Many wood-cuts of fortifications and weapons of the 
Roman and medieval periods. 

Weiss, Hermann. Kostiimkunde; Geschichte der 
Tracht und des Geraths im Mittelalter. 2d ed. 
1883. G391W42 

8 colored plates and 367 wood-cuts. List of sources. 

See also under the various countries 



Mexico 



917.2C32 



Carson, W. E. Mexico. 1909. 

Contains illustrations showing costume. 

Decaen, J. Mexico y sus Alrededores. Coleccion 
de monumentos, trajes y paisajes. 1864. [Span- 
ish and French text.] Ref. S917.2D29 

47 lithographs by Mexican artists; of value for costume. 

Ferrario, Giulio. Mexique. (In his Costume. 
1815-29. Am^rique. v. 1. pp. 501-625.) 

Ref. 391F37 

Colored copperplates of Indian and Spanish costumes, from 
Aztec times to 1820. 

Garcia Cubas, A. Republic of Mexico in 1876. 
1876. Ref. 917.2G21 

8 colored plates of Spanish and native types. 

Janvier, Thomas. Mexican Army. (In Armies of 
To-day. 1893. pp. 359-96.) 355M27 

14 cuts of Mexican uniforms of the period. 

Plummer, M. W. Roy and Ray in Mexico. 1907. 

917.2P73 

9 half-tone plates of modern costumes. 



Sierra, J. Mexico: its social evolution. Trans- 
lated from the Spanish by G. Sentinon. 3 v. 
1900-04. Ref. 972S57 

Many half-tones, some of which show costume and army 
uniforms. 

Starr, Frederick. Indians of Southern Mexico. 
1899. Ref. 970.1S79I 

Photogravures, preceded by descriptive text. 

See also Indians of North America 
Montenegro. See Balkan States 

Morocco 
Bensusan and Forrest. Morocco. 1904. 916.4B47 

Illustrations. Colored piates. 

Nepal. See Tibet 

Netherlands 

Boughton, G. H. Sketching Rambles in Holland. 
1885. 914.92B75 

Illustrations (wood-cuts), by Boughton and E. A. Abbey. 
More than 50 of costume. 

Edwards, G. W. Holland of To-day. 1909. 

914.92E26 

Contains colored full-page illustrations. 

Egerton, M. M., Countess of Wilton. Toilette in 
Holland. (In her Book of Costume. 1847. 
pp. 311-14.) Ref. 391W75 

3 wood-cuts. 

Ferrario, Giulio. La HoUande ou Batavie. (In 
his Costume. 1815-29. Europe, v. 6. pp. 23- 
172.) Ref. 391F37 

Colored plates (14 figures) of 17th century Dutch dress. 

Higinbotham, J. W. Three Weeks in Holland and 

Belgium. 1908. 914.92H63 

Jungmann, Nico. Holland. 1904. 914.92J95 



Many references to costume, 
plates show dress. 



Most of the 75 colored 



Koppen, F. von. Holland and Belgium. (In his 
Armies of Europe, Illustrated. 1890. pp. 69- 
70.) 355K77 

Colored plates (11 figures, including 4 naval) and 2 text 
illustrations of uniforms. 

Maaskamp, E. Afbeeldingen van de Kleedingen, 
Zeden, en Gewoonten in Holland. 1803-05. 

Du39lMll 

21 colored plates, with text in Dutch and French. 

Meldrum, D. S. Home Life in Holland. 1911. 

914.92M51H 

Costume illustrations at pp. 170, 176 and 180. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Page One Hundred Seventy-one 



Shoberl, Frederic. World in Miniature. The Neth- 
erlands. 1827. Ref. 914.92S55 

18 colored engravings, including Belgium. 

New Zealand 

Reeves, W. P. New Zealand. Painted by F. and 
W. Wright. Described by W. P. Reeves. 1908. 

993R33NW 

75 illustrations in color. 

Wakefield, Edward. New Zealand after Fifty 
Years. 1889. 919.3W14 

3 half-tone plates of Maoris. 

Normandy. See France 

Norway 

Bossi, Luigi. Costume des Norvegiens. (In Fer- 
rario, G. Costume, 1815-29. Europe, v. 6. 
pp. 260-91.) Ref. 391F37 

DuChaillu, P. B. Viking Age. 2 v. 1889. 

948D82V 

Dress of men, v.- 2, pp. 285-300; dress of women, v. 2, 
pp. 301-31. 128 wood-cuts of dress and ornament. 

Egerton, M. M., Countess of Wilton. Toilette in 
Norway. (In her Book of Costume. 1847. 
pp. 346-48.) Ref. 391W75 

2 wood-cuts. 

Eyne, C. J. C. W. Through Arctic Lapland. 1898. 

914.7H99 

Several half-tone plates of Lapp costume. 

Jungmann, Beatrice. Norway. Illustrated by Nico 
Jungmann. 1905. 914.8J95 

Scattered references to costume. About 30 colored plates 
show costume. 

Koppen, F. von. Sweden and Norway. (In his 
Armies of Europe. 1890. pp. 61-63.) 355K77 

Colored plates (6 figures) and 2 text illustrations of 
uniforms. 

Monroe, W. S. In Viking Land : Norway, its peo- 
ples, its fjords, and its fjelds. 1908. 948M75 

Consult Index under " Dress." Of the 48 half-tone plates, 
3 are definitely of costumes. 

Pritchett, R. T. " Gamle Norge " : rambles and 



scrambles in Norwav. 1879. 



914.8P90 



Frequent references to, and several illustrations of, 
national costume. 

Steele, T. S. Voyage to Viking-Land. 1896. 

914.8S81 

S half-tones of Norwegian and Lapp costume. 

Tonsberg, C. Udvalgte Norske Nationaldragter. 
1852. RD391T66 

15 colored plates. Text in Norwegian, German, and 
English. 



OCEANICA 

Brassey, Lady. Tahiti. 1882. 919.6B82 

Illustrations, from photographs, including G of costume. 

Elkington, E. W. Savage South Seas: 1907. 

919.3E43S 

Most of the 68 colored plates show native costumes. 

Ferrario, Giulio. Ocean ique. (In his Costume. 
1815-29. Asie. v. 4. pp. 285-585.) 

Ref. 391F37 

Many colored copperplates of costume. 

Grimshaw, Beatrice. From Fiji to the Cannibal 
Islands. 1907. 919G86 

Many half-tones, plates, and insets of costume. 

Shoberl, Frederic. World in Miniature. South 
Sea Islands. 2 v. n.d. Ref. 919S72 

Illustrated by colored engravings. 

Orders 

Lawrence- Archer, J. H. The Orders of Chivalry, 
English and Foreign. 1887. R929.7L42 

Colored illustrations of the'deeorations and insignia of the 
orders of Great Britain and Europe. 

Palestine. See Turkish Empire 

Peasant Costume 

Aria, Mrs. E. Of British Peasants. Of some for- 
eign pea.sauts. (In her Costume: fanciful, his- 
torical, and theatrical. 1906. pp. 115-46.) 

391A69 

2 colored plates and 10 half-tones. 

Colquhoun, A. R. Whirlpool of Europe; Austria- 
Hungary and the Hapsburgs. 1907. 943.6C72 

About 40 half-tones of costume. Peasant costumes have 
been given preference. 

Holme, Charles. Peasant Art in Austria and Hun- 
gary. 1911. 709H74PE 

— Peasant Art in Italy. 1913. 709H74Ps 

— Peasant Art in Russia. 1912. 709H74Pr 

Illustrations of peasant costume, in monotone. 

Lyall, Robert. Character of the Russians, and 
History of Moscow. 1823. Ref. 914.7L98 

3 colored plates of Russian peasants. 

Schild, Marie. Old English Peasant Costumes. 
1898. 391S33 

Persia 

De Lorey, Eustache. Queer Things about Persia. 
1907. 915.5L86 

" Persian women and their dress," pp. 103-10. 17 of the 
half-tone plates show costume. 



Page One Hundred Seventy-two 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Egerton, M. M., Countess of Wilton. Toilette in 
Persia. (In her Book of Costume. 1847. pp. 
432-40.) Ref. 391W75 

3 wood-cuts. 

Ferrario, Giulio. Costume Ancien et Moderne des 
Perses. (In his Costume. 1815-29. Asie. v. 3. 
pp. 382-596.) Ref. 391F37 

About 20 colored copperplates of ancient, medieval, and 
modern Persian costume. 

Jackson, A. V. W. Persia, Past and Present. 1906. 

915.5J12 

More than 20 of the illustrations show costume, mostly 
modern. 

Shoberl, Frederic. World in Miniature. Persia. 
3 V. n.d. Ref. 915.5S55P 

30 colored engravings. 

Shoemaker, M. M. Heart of the Orient. 1904. 

915S55H 

3 plates of Persian dress (half-tones). 

Sparroy, Wilfrid. Persian Children of the Royal 
Family. 1902. 915.5S73 

20 half-tone plates of costume. 

Wilson, S. G. Persian Life and Customs. 1895. 

915.5W75 

5 half-tone plates of dress. 



Peru 

Skinner, Joseph. The Present State of Peru. 
1805. 918.5S62 

20 colored plates of costumes, etc. 

Wright, M. R. The Old and the New Peru. 1908. 

Ref. 985W95 

Infantry uniform, p. 170; Marines, p. 173; Indians, 
chap. 36. 

Philippine Islands 

Browne, G. W. The Philippines. (In his New 
America and the Far East. 1907. v. 1-2.) 

910B882 

v. 1, pp. 208-19, contains many references to costume. 
3 half-tone plates and many cuts of native dress. 

Olivares, Jose de. Our Islands and their People, as 
Seen with Camera and Pencil. 2 v. 1899. 

Ref. 917.29B91 

Philippines, v. 2, pp. 549-768. A few colored plates, and 
many half-tones, of native dress. 

Russel, F. K. A Woman's Journey through the 
Philippines. 1907. 919.1R95 

Conault Index. 8 plates of costumes. 



Sawyer, F. H. Inhabitants of the Philippines. 
1900. 919.1S27 

Many references (pp. 201-375) to dress. Several half- 
tone plates of native dress. 



Worcester, D. C. The Philippine Islands and Their 
People. 1898. 919.1W91 

3 plates of dress. 

Wright, H. M. Handbook of the Philippines. 1907. 

9I9.1W94 

Dress, pp. 62-64. Half-tone plates, with small figures in 
costume. Several plates of children. 

Poland. See Russia 

Porto Rico 

Browne, G. W. Porto Rico. (In his New America 
and the Far East. 1907. v. 6.) 910B882 

4 cuts of costume. 

Olivares, Jose de. Our Islands and Their People. 
2 V. 1899. Ref. 917.29B91 

Porto Rico, V. 1, p. 257; v. 2, p. 416. Colored plates and 
half-tones show costume. 

Portugal 

Bradford, William. Sketches of the Country, 
Character, and Costume in Portugal and Spain. 
1812-13. R914.6B79 

Contains colored plates, including military costume. 

Egerton, M. M., Countess of Wilton. Toilette in 
Portugal. (In her Book of Costume. 1847. 
pp. 297-301.) Ref. 391 W75 

3 wood-cuts. 

Koppen, F. von. Spain and Portugal. (In his 
Armies of Europe, Illustrated. 1890. p. 66.) 

355K77 

Section of colored plates, showing 5 figures in uniform. 

Shoberl, Frederic. World in Miniature. Spain and 
Portugal. 2 v. n.d. Ref. 914.GS55 

27 colored engravings. 

Stephens, H. M. Portugal. 1891. (Story of the 
nations series.) 9iG.9S83 

Several of the wood-cuts show costume. 

Watson, Gilbert. Sunshine and Sentiment in Portu- 
gal. 1904. 914.69W33 

5 half-tone plates of costume. 

Quakers 

Gummere, A. M. The Quaker: a study in costume. 
1901. 391G97 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Page One Hundred Seventy-three 



Religious Costume 

Biedenjeld , F. L. C, Freiherr von. Ursprung, 
Aufleben, Grosse, Herrschaft, Verfall und jetzige 
Zustande sammtlicher Monchs- und Kloster- 
frauen-Orden im Orient iind Occident. 2 v. 
1837-39. G271B58 

Hand-colored plates of 77 religious orders (male and 
female) . 

Costume, Ecclesiastical. (In New International En- 
cycloptedia. 1902. v. 5. pp. 334-38.) 

Ref. 031I61GI 

Historical and descriptive, with plate (8 figures), 3 wood- 
cuts, and brief bibliography. 

Costume, Ecclesiastical. (In New International 
Encyclopedia. 1914. v. 6.) 

Currier, C. W. History of Religious Orders. 1894. 

271C97H 

Ilelyot, P. Album; ou. Collection complete et 
historique des costumes de la cour de Rome. 
1862. Ref. F391P47 

80 colored plates, mostly of ecclesiastical and monastic 
costume. 

Lacroix, Paul. Military and Religious Life in the 
Middle Ages and at the Period of the Renaissance, 
n.d. Ref. 940L14Mi 

" Monastic dress," p. 308. Many colored plates and 
wood-cuts of ecclesiastical dress. 



Monastic Costumes, n.d. 



R391M73 



A scries of plates, showing various monastic costumes. 
Each plate is accompanied by descriptive letter-press in 
Latin and Italian. 

Nainfa, J. A. Costume of Prelates of the Catholic 
Church, according to Roman Etiquette. 1909. 

247N15 

Many illustrations, not colored. Bibliography, pp. 195- 
198. 

Picart, Bernard. Ceremonies and Religious Cus- 
toms of the Various Nations of the Known World. 
6 V, in 3. 1733-36. Ref. 265P58C 

V. 1-2, Jews, Roman Catholics; v. 3-4, Idolatrous 
nations; v. 5-6, Greeks and Protestants, English, Moham- 
medans. Many copperplates showing religious costumes. 

Thurston, Herbert. Clerical Costume. (In Catho- 
lic Encyclopedia, v. 4. pp. 419-21.) 

Ref. 282C363 

Bibliography of 12 titles. 

— Pallium. (In Morris, John. Historical Papers. 
1892. V. 1. pp. 85-116.) 270M87 

9 wood-cuts. 
TijacJc, G. S. Historic Dress of the Clergy. 1897. 

247T97H 



Rome 



d\ Private Life of the Romans. 1808. 

913A74 

" Of clothing," pp. 154-2C0. 

Becker, W. A. Gallus; or, Roman scenes in the 
time of Augustus. 3d ed. 1866. 913B39 

Dress, pp. 98-109; Dress of thn men, pp. 408-30; Dress 
of the women, pp. 431-50. 4 wood-cuts of male and one of 
female attire. 

— Same. 9th ed. 1888. Ref. 913B39 

Costumi di Roma e dei contorni. 1846. RI391C84 

Colored plates. No text. 

Egerton, M. M., Countess of Wilton. Toilette in 
Ancient Rome. (In her Book of Costume. 
1847. pp. 335-45.) Ref. 391W75 

5 wood-cuts. 

Friedlander, L. Moeurs Romaines du Regne d'Au- 
guste a la fin des Antonins. 2 v. 1865-67. 

937F91 

Costume and armor of gladiators, v. 2, pp. 273-80. 

Guhl, E. Life of the Greeks and Romans, Described 
from Antique Monuments. 1875. 913G94 

" Dress," pp. 476-501. 11 outline cuts. 

Hope, Thomas. Costumes of the Romans. (In his 
Costume of the Ancients. 1841. v. 1. pp. 39- 
50; V. 2, pi. 232-300.) Ref. 391H79 

Historical and descriptive. 69 outline plates. 

James, Constantin. Toilette d'une Romaine au 
temps d'Auguste. n.d. F391J27 

Historical and descriptive sketch of Roman costume. 
Without illustrations. 

Levati, Ambrogio. Costume Ancien et Moderne des 
Remains. (InFerrario, Giulio. Costume. 1815- 
29. Europe, v. 2. pp. 221-606.) 

Ref. 391F37 

General historical sketch of Roman costume. Many of 
the 62 colored plates show ancient and mediaeval Roman 
costume. Several plates of Papal costume. 

Menard, Rene. Le Vetement. (In his Vie Privee 
des Anciens. 1881. v. 2. pp. 288-300.) 

F913M53 

12 outline illustrations. 

Perugini, G. Album; ou. Collection ... des Cos- 
tumes de la Cour de Rome. Deuxieme ed. 
1862. RF391P47 

80 colored plates of uniforms of the Papal Court and 
Roman Catholic religious costume. 

Saunders, C. Costume in Roman Comedy. 1909. 

391S25 

Monograph, with bibliography. No illustrations. 



Page One Hundred Seventj^-four 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Wright, T. The Celt, the Roman, and the Saxon. 
1852. 913W95C 

Dress of Romans in Britain, pp. 326-33. 3 cuts of orna- 
ments. 

RouMANiA. See Balkan States 

Russian Empire 

Atkinson, J. A. Picturesque Representation.s of 
the Manners, Customs, and Amusements of the 
Russians. 3 v. in 1. 1803. Ref. 914.7A87 

100 colored plates of all classes of Russians. Descriptive 
text in English and French. 

Breton de la Martiniere, J. B. J. La Russie; ou, 
Moeurs, Usages, et Costumes des Habitans de 
Toutes les Provinces de cet Empire. 6 v. 1813. 

F914.7B84 

Dohson, George. Russia, Painted by F. de Haenen. 
1913. 914.7D63R 

— St. Petersburg. Illustrated by F. de Haenen. 
1910. 914.7D63 

Egerton, M. M., Countess of Wilton, Toilette in 
Bokhara, Circassia, and Cashmere. (In her Book 
of Costume. 1847. pp. 441-48.) Ref. 391W75 

3 wood-cuts. 

— Toilette in Poland. (In her Book of Costume. 
1847. pp. 360-62.) 

4 wood- cuts. 

• — Toilette in Russia. (In her Book of Costume. 
1847. pp. 363-73.) 

7 wood-cuts. 

Eyries, J. B. B. La Russie; ou. Costumes, Moeurs, 
et Usages des Russes. (In his L'Angleterre. 
n.d.) Ref. F391E98 

Illustrated by colored engravings. 
Ferrario, Giulio. Costume Ancien et Moderne de la 
Russie d'Europe. (In his Costume. 1815-29. 
Europe, v. 6, pp. 1-162.) Ref. F391F37 

24 colored co^perplate3, mostly of costume. Plates 7 
and 8 show millitary uniforms. 

— Costume des Habitans du Caboul, du Tibet, 
Siberia, etc. (In his Costume. 1815-29. Asie, 
V. 4. pp. 1-282.) 

Colored copperplates of costumes of Kabul, Tibet, Cau- 
casia, Turkey, Turkestan, Bokhara, Siberia. 

— Costume des Polonais. (In his Costume. 1815- 
29. Europe, v. 6. pp. 162-181.) 

1 colored plate of Polish costumes (7 figures). 

Harding, Edward. Costume of the Russian Empire. 
1811. R391H26 

72 colored engravings. 



Holme, Charles. Peasant Art in Russia. 1912. 

709H74PB 

Peasant costumes. 

Koppen, F. von. Russia. (In his Armies of Europe. 
1890. pp. 53-58.) 355K77 

Descriptive notes. 2 double colored plates ^lo figures, 
including 1 naval), and 6 text illustrations of uniforms. 

Latimer, E. W. Russia and Turkey in the 19th 
Century. 1895. 947L35 

8 plates of costume. 

Logan, J. A., Jr. In Joyful Russia. 1897. 

914.7L85 

About 20 plates of Russian costumes and uniforms. 

Lyall, Robert. Character of the Russians, and 
History of Moscow. 1823. Rrf. 914.7L98 

3 colored plates of Russian peasant costume. 

Michell, Thomas. Russian Pictures. 1889. 

914.7M62 

Wood-cuts of costumes of the empire. 

Molloy, J. F. Russian Court in the 18th Century. 
2 V. 1905. 947M72 

'1 plates of costumss. 

Norman, Henry. All the Russias. 1902. 914.7N84 

Cuts of Finnish, Russian, and Asiatic types. 

Olufsen, 0. Through unknown Pamirs. 1904. 

915.8052 

" Clothing," pp. 63-72. 15 half-tone cuts of Pamir 
costume. 

Pallas, P. S. Travels through Southern Provinces 
of the Russian Empire in the Years 1793 and 1794. 
2 V. 1802. 914.7P16 

Has about ten colored plates. 

Picturesque Representations of the Dress and Manners 



of the Russiaiis. n.d. 



Ref. 391P61R 



64 colored engravings of various costumes of the empire, 
made 1776-1779. 

Rechberg-Rothenloewen, Karl, Reichsgraf von. Les 
Peuples de la Russie. 2 v. 1812-13. 

Ref. F914.7R29 

Colored plates of Slavic, Finnish, and Tartar types. 

Russian Army. (In Armies of To-day. 1893. pp. 
217-59.) 355M27 

13 cuts of modern Russian uniform. 

Seven Colored Plates of Russian Costumes of Various 
Trades. .^820. R391S49 

Each plate is mounted, and has a title in Russian, Ger- 
man and English. 

Shoberl, Frederic. World in Miniature. Russia. 
4 V. 1827. Ref. 914.7S559 

72 colored engravings of Slavs, Poles, Asiatics, etc. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Page One Hundred Seventy-five 



Singleton, Esther. Russia as Seen and Described 
by Great Writers. 1904. 914.7S61 

5 plates of costume. 

Spencer, Edmund. Travels in Circassia, Krim- 
Tartary, etc. 3d ed. 2 v. 1839. 914.7S74 

Colored frontispiece and several small cuts of dress. 

Stadling, Jonas. In the Land of Tolstoi: experi- 
ences of famine and misrule in Russia. 1897. 

914.7S77 

Many wood-cuts and half-tones of Russian costume, 
chiefly peasant. 

Steveni, W. B. Things Seen in Russia. 1913. 

914.7S84T 

Contains photographs of contemporary costume. 

Stewart, Ihigh. Provincial Russia. 1913. 

914.7S849 

32 illustrations in color and black-and-white, showing 
costume. 

Uniforms of the Armies of the Six Great Powers of 
Europe. (In Standard Dictionary. Sup. 1903. 
p. 2187.) Ref. 423F98SU 

Section of colored plates, showing IS Russian uniforms. 

Villari, Luigi. Fire and Sword in the Caucasus. 
1906. 947V72 

Half-tone plates of Cossack, Georgian, Armenian, and 
Tartar costume. 

Wibon, H. W. Japan's Fight for Freedom: the 
story of the war between Russia and Japan. 2 v. 
1904-05. Ref. 951W74 

Many half-tones, showing Russian uniforms. 

Samoa 

Churchill, L. P. Samoa 'Uma, where Life is Dif- 
ferent. 1902. 919.6C.56 

11 half-tone plates of Samoan costume. 

Hamm, M. A. America's New Possessions. 1899. 

910H22 

7 half-tones of Samoan dress. 

Olivares, Jose de. Our Islands and their People. 
2 V. 1899. Ref. 917.29B91 

Samoa, v. 2, pp. 539-47. Half-tones of costume. 

Turner, George. Samoa a Hundred Years Ago and 
Long Before. 1884. 919.6T94 

" Clothing," pp. 118-23. 2 wood-cuts of costume. 

Savoy 

Canziani, Estella. Costumes, Traditions, and Songs 
of Savoy. 1911. *391C23 

Illustrated with 47 colored plates, several of costume. 



Scotland 

Adam, Frank. Clans, Septs, and Regiments of the 
Scottish Highlands. 1908. 941A19C 

Has 13 plates illustrating Highland garb, and colored 
plates oftartans. 

— What is my Tartan.'* The clans of Scotland, with 
their septs and dependents. 1896. Ref. 941A19 

Descriptive notes on tartans, arms, badges, etc., of the 
various clans. 

Bonwick, James. Our Nationalities. Who are the 
Scotch.^ 1880. 572B72 

" Old Scotch dress," pp. 130-32. 

Browne, James. History of the Highlands and of 
the Highland Clans. 4 v. 1857-58. 941B88 

Colored plates, chiefly in v. 4, of principal tartans. 

Campbell, Lord Archibald. Children of the Mist; or. 
The Scottish clansmen in peace and war. 1890. 

941C18C 

Numerous notes on costume. Double-page frontispiece, 
showing Highland and English uniforms of 1745. 

— [Craignish tales, and others.] 1889. 398C187 

p. 84. Notes on the war dress of the Celt. With illus- 
trations. 

— Highland Dress, Arms, and Ornament. 1899. 

914.1C187 

Many half-tones and several photogravures of uniforms 
and arms. 

Egerton, M. M., Countess of Wilton. Toilette in 
Scotland. (In her Book of Costume. 1847. 
pp. 176-85.) Ref. 391 W75 

2 small wood-cuts. 

Gibb, William. The Royal House of Stuart, illus- 
trated from relics of the Stuarts. 1890. 

Ref. 920G438 

40 colored plates, some showing wearing apparel. 4 
plates show regalia of Scotland. 

Graham, H. G. Social Life of Scotland in the 18th 
Century. 2d ed. 1906. 914.1G73 

See " Dress " in Index. 

Grierson, E. W. Children's Book of Edinburgh. 
1906. 941G84 

9 colored plates of Scotch dress of various periods. 

Keltic, J. S. History of the Scottish Highlands, 
Highland Clans and Highland Regiments. 2 v. 
1875. Ref. 941K19 

Highland dress, v. 1, pp. 300-03. Illustrations include 
colored plates of clan tartans and several wood-cuts showing 
dress. 



Page One Hundred Seventy-six 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Levati, Ambrogio. Costume des Habitans des lies 
Britanniques. (In Ferrario, Giulio. Costume, 
1815-29, Europe, v, 6. pp, 1-178.) 

Ref. 391F37 

Colored copperplate (plate 30) shows 5 Scotch costumes of 
about 1820. 

Logan, James. Scottish Gael: or, Celtic manners 
as preserved among the Highlanders. 2 v, 1831, 

941L83S2 

" Dress of the ancient Celts and costume of the present 
Gael," V. 1, pp. 217-72; table of clan tartans, Appendix, 
V. 2, pp. 401-08. 

Mclan, R. R. Gaelic Gatherings; or. The High- 
landers at home, 1848. [reprinted 1900.] 

914,1L83 

21 colored plates of costume. 

Mackintosh, J. Story of Scotland from the Earliest 
Times to the Present Century, illustrated. 
1899. 941M15 



Milne, James. Gordon Highlanders, 1898. 



355M65 



Includes half-tones of Highland uniforms. 



Sanderson, William. Scottish Life and Character. 
1904, 914.1S21 

See pp. 86-88; 130-34. 12 plates of costume. 

Scottish Clans and their TaHans. 2d ed, 1892. 

941S42 

Colored plates of the tartans. 

— Same. 8th ed. 1906. 

Shoberl, Frederic. World in Miniature. England, 
Scotland, and Ireland. Edited by W. H. Pyne. 
4 V. 1827. Ref. 914.2S5o9 

4 colored plates, in v. 4, of Scotch costume. 

Stewart, David. Sketches of the Character, Man- 
ners, and Present State of the Highlanders of 
Scotland. 2 v. 1822, 355S84 

" Highland garb," v. 1, pp. 75-80, 11.5-20. 

Stuart, John S. S. The Costume of the Clans. 
1892, R391S93 

37 full-page plates, illustrating the history, antiquities, 
and dress of the Highland clans. 

Towry, M. H. Clanship aad the Clans. 1870. 

929T75 

" Highland garb and arms," pp. 12-16. 

See also England 
Serbia. See Balkan States 



Shaicespearean Costume 

Abbey, E. A. Drawings for Shakespeare: Midsum- 
mer Night's Dream, King. Lear, King Richard IL 
King John, Romeo and Juliet, King Richard III, 
Hamlet, Othello. (In Harper's new monthly 
magazine, vols. 91, 106, 107, 108 and 109.) 

051H29 

Bayard, Emile. Shakespeare's " As you Like It." 
With 12 illustrations. 1887. R822.3S52Asi 

Boocke, R. L. Shakespearian Costumes, 4 v, 
J 889-1892. 822.3B669 

Full-page wood-cuts, with color key. The library has 
onIv4vols.: " All's well that ends well "; " Twelfth night "; 
" Taming of the shrew " ; " Hamlet." 

hoydell, J. and J. Boydell's Graphic Illustrations 

of the Dramatic Works of Shakespeare, 1813, 

Ref, 822,3B78G 

Steel plates of characters in costume. 

Brereton, Austin. Shakespearean Scenes and Char- 
acters, 1886. Ref, 822,3B84 

30 steel plates and 10 wood engravings. 

Carter, Thomas. Stories from Snakespeare, n.d, 

822,3S52Sto 

16 full-page colored illustrations. 

Crane, Walter. Shakespeare's " Merry Wives of 
Windsor," in eight pen designs, 1894. 

R822.3C89 

Fitzgerald, Percy H. Shakespearean Representa- 
tion, its Laws and Limits, 1908, 822,3Fo5 

Gerdme, J. L. Scenes from Shakespeare. 1875. 

R822.3G37 

30 India proof engravings. 

GrUtzner, E. Shakespeare's " King Henry IV," 
two parts. 1887. R822.3S52H4Gi 

12 illustrations. 

Lacy, T. H. Costume Plates for the " Merchant of 
Venice." .^1862. R822,3L15 

Linton, Sir. J. D. Shakespeare's " King Henry 
VIII," 1892, R822.3S52H8LD 

12 illustrations. 

Shakespeare, William. Complete Works; rev, from 
the original editions, with introductions and 
notes by J, O. Halliwell and other eminent com- 
mentators, 9 V. n.d. 822.3S52WR 

Many steel engravings of actors in costume. 

— Dramatic Works; rev. by G. Steevens. 6 v, 
1802. Ref. 822.3S52Ds 

Plates practically the same as in Boydell. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Page One Hundred Seventy-seven 



Shakespeare, William. Tragedy of Hamlet, Prince 
of Denmark. 1897. 8^22.3S5^2Hac 

12 full-page illustrations by H. C. Christy. 



Shakespeare in Pictorial Art. 1916. 



S22.3S25 



Shakespeare's " Othello.'' Illustrated by Ludovic 
Marchetti. .^895. 822.3So^20tu 

Smirke, R., and others. Illustrations of Shake- 
speare's Plays, n.d. R822.3S641 

Fifty original designs by R. Smirke, T. Stothard, E. II. 
Corbould, etc. Engraved on steel. 

Stone, Melicent. The Bankside Costume Book for 
Children. 1913. 391S87 

Has 52 illustrations of Shakespearian men, women, and 
dress accoutrements. 

Wilde, Oscar. Truth of Masks. (In his Intentions 
and the Soul of Man.) 1908. 828W67I 

Essay on Shakespeare's interest in and use of costume. 

Wingate, C. E. L. Shakespeare's Heroines on the 
Stage. 1875. 822.3W76S 

52 illustrations, half-tones 

Shoes. See Foot-wear 
SiAM. See India 

South America 

Carpenter, F. G. South America, social, industrial, 
and political. 1900. 918C29s 

7 plates (half-tones) of costumes. 

Forrest, A. S. Tour through South America. 1913. 

918F72 

Marcoy, Paul. Journey across South America. 
2 V. 1873. Ref. 918.oS13 

Incidental notes on costumes. Many wood-cuts of native 
and Spanish costumes. 

Pritchard, H. V. H. Through the Heart of Pata- 
gonia. 1902. 918.2P94 

3 plates, in color and half-tone, showing Patagonian dress. 

See also Indians of South America 

Spain 

Adams, W. H. Spain and its People. 1872. 

9U.6A21 

Many wood-cuts of Spanish types. 

Bradford, William. Sketches of the Country, Char- 
acter, and Costume in Portugal and Spain. 1812- 
13. R914.6H79 

Contains colored plates, including military costume. 



Calvert, A. F. Spanish Arms and Armor. 1907. 

399C16 

3S0 half-tone illustrations of the collection in the Royal 
Armory at Madrid. 

— Valladolid, Oviedo, Segovia. 1908. 9U.6C16V 

Plates 156-165 give peasant costumes of the province of 
Segovia. 

Cuendias, Manuel de. L'Espagne; Pittoresque, 
Artistique, et Monumentalc. n.d. F914.6C96 

Colored illustrations, and others. 

Delineations of the Most Remarkable Costumes of the 
Different Provinces of Spain. 1823. R391D35 

Colored illustrations. No text. 

Egerton, M. M., Countess of Wilton. Toilette in 
Spain. (In her Book of Costume. 1847. pp. 
288-96.) Ref. 391\V75 

4 wood-cuts. 

Fitz-GeraU, J. D. Rambles in Spain. 1910. 

914.6F553 

Shows several costumes of peasants. 

Higgin, Louis. Spanish Life in Town and Country. 
1902. 914.6H63 

See " Costume " and " Dress " in Index. 7 half-tone 
plates of costume. 

Koppen, F. von. Spain and Portugal. (In his 
Armies of Europe. 1890. pp. 64-66.) 355K77 

Double colored plates and 2 text illustrations of uniforms. 

Penjield, Edward. Spanish Sketches. 1911. 

914.6P39 

Colored plates. 

Shoberl, Frederic. World in Miniature. Spain and 
Portugal. 2 v. 1827. Ref. 914.6S55 

27 colored engravings. 

Watts, H. E. Christian Recovery of Spain. 1894. 

946\V34 

costume, especially of the 13th 



Has illustrations show! 
century. 



1902. 914.6Vv'72 



Williams, L. Land of the Dons. 

13 plates showing national dress. 

Sweden 



Afbildningar af Svenska national drdkter. 1908. 

R391A25 

Colored plates. 

Bossi, Luigi. Du costume de la Suede. (In Fer- 
rario, G. Costume. 1815-29. Europe, v. 6. 
pp. 232-59.) Ref. 391F37 

2 copperplates (1 colored) of ancient Swedish costumes. 

— Le Costume Ancien et Moderne des Scandinaves, 
des Suedois, etc. 1827. *F914.8B74 

19 plates. 



Page One Hundred Seventy -eight 

Egerton, M. M., Countess of Wilton. Toilette in 
Sweden. (In her Book of Costume. 1847. 
pp. 349-0I.) Ref. 391W75 

3 wood-cuts. 

Holme, Charles. Peasant Art in Sweden, Lapland, 
and Iceland. 1910. 709H74P 

Illustrations in color and monotone. 

Koppen, F. von. Sweden and Norway. (In his 
Armies of Europe. 1890. pp. 61-63.) 355K77 

Colored plates (11 figures, including 3 naval) of uniforms. 

Steveni, W. B. Things Seen in Sweden. 1915. 

914.8S84 

About 21 of the .50 photographic reproductions are of 
costume. 

Thomas, W. W., Jr. Sweden and the Swedes. 
1893. 914.8T46 

8 plates and 3 text illustrations of ancient and modern 
Swedish costumes. 

Switzerland 

Bridgens, Richard. Sketches Illustrative of the 
Manners and Costumes of France, Switzerland, 
and Italy. 1821. R391B851 

Plates, with descriptive text. 

Egerton, M. M., Countess of Wilton. Toilette in 
Switzerland. (In her Book of Costume. 1847. 
pp. 302-10.) Ref. 391W75 

10 wood-cuts. 

Gauter, Henri. Histoire du Service Militaire des 
Regiments Suisses a la Solde de I'Angleterre, 
de Naples, et de Rome. 1902. F356G21 

10 colored plates, showing uniforms of Swiss mercenaries. 

Koppen, F. von. Switzerland. (In his Armies of 
Europe. 1890. pp. 67-68.) 3o5K77 

Colored plates (7 figures) of uniforms. 

Levati, Ambrogio. Costume Ancien et Moderne des 
Helvetiens ou des Suisses. (In Ferrario, G. 
Costume. 1815-29. Europe, v. 4. pp. 1-172.) 

Ref. F391F37 

16 colored copperplates of ancient and modern Swiss 
costumes. 

Schweizer Volkstracht; die Traehten der Cantone 
Aaran, Appenzell, Unterwalden, Glarus, Schaff- 
hausen, und Luzern, auf acht sehr .schonen 
Chromo-Lithographen dargestellt. 1840. 

R391S41 

Story, A. T. Swiss Life in Town and Country. 
1902. 914.94S88 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Yosy, A. Switzerland. With representations of the 
dress and manners of the Swiss. 2 v. 1815. 

Ref. 914.94Y65 

50 colored engravings of costume. 

Theatrical Costume 

Aria, Mrs. E. Of Theatrical Dress. (In her 
Costume; fanciful, historical and theatrical. 
1906. pp. 236-59.) 391A69 

2 colored plates and 7 half-tone illustrations. 

Ferrario, Giulio. Costume des Italiens. (In his 
Costume. 1815-29. Europe, v. 3., pt. 2.) 

Ref. F391F37 

Plates 120-22, p. 877, show costumes of actors and 
dancers of Italy. 

Galerie Dramatique. A Paris, chez Martinet. 1796- 
1843. R391G15 

50 copper engravings, in color. 

Guillaumot, A. E. Costumes de I'Op^ra, Dix- 
septieme au dix-huiti^me Si^cles. 1883. 

RF391G95C 

50 planches fac-simi'e & I'eau-forte en couleurs. 

Harrison, Charles. Theatricals and Tableaux Vi- 
vants for Amateurs. 1882. 793H31 

92 illustrations of stage costume, historical and fancy 
design. 

Jullien, A. Histoire du Costume au Theatre depuis 
les Origines du Theatre en France jusqu'a nos 
Jours. 1880. F391J94 

24 plates, partly colored. 

Kobbe, Gustav. Opera Singers : a pictorial souvenir. 
1904. 920K756 

Photogravures. " A series of costume and other por- 
traits of the grand opera singers best known to American 
opera-goers of to-day." 

Krehbiel, H. E. Chapters of Opera. 1908. 

782K92 

Of the 70 half-tone illustrations, 39 are from photographs 
of opera singers in costume. 

Lacy, T. H. Female Costumes, Historical, Na- 
tional, Dramatic. 1865. R391L152C2 

— Male Costumes, Historical, National, Dramatic. 
1868. R391L152C1 

Contains colored plates. No text. 

Lumm, E. C. Twentieth Century Speaker. 1898. 

808.5L95 

Colored and half-toneplates of costumes'and poses. 

Mackay, C. D. Costumes and Scenery for Amateurs. 
1915. 793M153C 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Page One Hundred Seventy-nine 



Mantzius, Karl. History of Theatrical Art. 5 v. 
1903-09. 792M29 

Plates of actors in costume. 

Mohisson, F. Costumes of the Modern Stage. 
1889-90. 391 M68 

Colored plates. 

Paul, Howard. The Stage and its Stars, Past and 
Present. A gallery of dramatic illustration and 
critical biographies of distinguished English and 
American actors, from the time of Shakespeare 
till to-day. 2 v. 1887. 

128 photogravure portraits and scones from steel plates 
and over 400 portraits in the text. Useful for costume. 

Scott, Clement. Drama of Yesterday and To-day. 
2 V. 1899. 792S42 

Illustrations of actors in costume. 

Seidl, Anton. Music of the Modern World. 2 v. 
1895. Ref. 780S45 

Many colored and half-tone plates of singers and operatic 
characters in costume. 

Stone, Milicent. The Bankside Costume Book for 
Children. 1913. 391S87 

Has 52 illustrations for representing historical plays, 
especially those of Shakespeare. 

Tibet 

Crosby, 0. T. Thibet and Turkestan. 1905. 

915.8C94 

Several of the half-tone plates show costume. 

Landor, A. H. Savage-. Tibet and Nepal, Painted 
and Described. 1905. 915L26 

Over 30 colored plates show costumes of Tibet and Nepal. 

Sherring, C. A. Western Tibet and the British 
Borderland. 1906. 915.1S55 

See " Dress " in Index. Many half-tones in text show cos- 
tume. 

Shoberl, F. The World in Mmiature.— Tibet and 
India beyond the Ganges. 1827. R915.1S559 

12 colored plates of costumes. 

Troubadours 

Rowbotham, J. F. Troubadours and Courts of 
Love. 1895. 914.2R87 

" Dress of the troubadours," pp. 108-70. 7 outline cuts 
of troubadour and minstrel costume. 

Smith, J. H. Troubadours at Home. 2 v. 1899. 

849S65 

" Their attire," v. 1, pp. 168-69. See also " Costume " 
in Index. A few wood-cuts of dress. 

TxJNis. See Africa 



Turkish Empire 

Addison, C. G. Damascus and Palmyra. 2 v. 
1838. ^ 915.6A22 

10 colored plates of costume. 

Allom, Thomas. Character and Costume in Turkey 
and Italy, n.d. R914.96A44 

10 lithographic plates of Turkish costume about the 
year 1840. 

Amicis, E. de. Constantinople. Tr. by Caroline 
Tilton. 1878. 914.96A51 

" Costume " [male], pp. 104-0.5; " Turkish women," pp. 
20G-37. 

Bell, G. L. The Desert and the Sown. 1907. 

915.6B43 

Colored frontispiece, by Sargent, of Bedouins and many 
half-tones of the different races of Palestine. 

Copping, Harold. The Gospel in the Old Testament. 
A series of Pictures by Harold Copping. With 
descriptive letterpress by H. C. G, Moule. 1908. 

Ref. 221C78 

24 illustrations in color. 

Costume of Turkey. 1802. 



R391C842. 

Illustrated with colored engravings, with descriptions 
in English and French. 

Dupre, L. Voyage k Ath^nes et h Constantinople. 
1825. Ref. 

Colored plates of costumes of Constantinople, with text 
in French. 

Egerton, M. M., Countess of Wilton. Toilette in 
Palestine and Syria. (In her Book of Costume. 
1847. pp. 465-75.) Ref. 391W75 

2 wood-cuts. 

— Toilette in Turkey, Wallachia, etc. (In her 
Book of Costume. 1847. pp. 374-87.) 

7 wood-cuts. 

Eyries, J. B. B. La Turquie, ou, Costume.-j, Moeurs, 
et Usages des Turcs. (In his L'Angleterre. n.d.) 

Ref. F391E98 

Illustrated by colored plates. 

Ferrario, Giulio. Costume des Peuples de I'Asie 
Mineure. (In his Costume. 1815-29. Asie. 
V. 3. pp. 263-348.) Ref. 391F37 

Colored copperplates of costumes of Phrygia, Troy, 
Lydia, Lycia, Cilicia, Pontus, Armenia, and other ancient 
districts of Asia Minor. 

Hamdi, Osman, bey. Les Costumes Populaires de 
la Turquie en 1873. RF391H21 

74 plates, illustrative of the costumes of people in Turkey 
in Europe, the isiund.s of the Ottoman Empire, and in Turkey 
in Asia. 

Howe, Fisher. Oriental and Sacred Scenes in Greece, 
Turkey, and Palestine. 1856. 915.6H85 

Text contains several references to costume. 6 colored 
plates of typical costume. 



Page One Hundred Eighty 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Jessup, H. H. Syrian Home-life. 1874. 915.6J58 

" Dress," pp. 28-3S. 3 wood-cuts. 

— Women of the Arabs. 1873. 915.6J58W 

Incidental notes on dress. A few wood-cuts of costumes, 
male and female, of Palestine. 

Kelman,J. The Holy Land. 1902. 915.6K29 

Including colored plates of Syrian peasants and Arabs. 

Koppen, F. von. Turkey and the States of the Bal- 
kan Peninsula, (in his Armies of Europe. 1890.) 

355K77 

Pp. 73-75. Section of colored plates (5 figures) and 4 text 
illustrations of uniforms. 

Latimer, E. W. Russia and Turkey in the 19th 
Century. 1895. 947L35 

Several portraits showing Turkish uniforms. 

Laurent, P. E. Recollections of a Classical Tour 
through Various Parts of Greece, Turkey, and 
Italy, in 1818 and 1819. 2 v. 1822. 

Ref. 914L38 

4 hand-colored plates,~showing Turkish women and girls, 
etc. 

Macbean, F. Sketches in Character and Costume 
in Constantinople, Ionian Islands, etc. 1854. 

R914.96M11 

No text except short descriptions of the plates. 

Magnetti, Carlo. Costume de I'Empire Ottoman. 
(In Ferrario, Giulio. Costume. 1815-29. Eu- 
rope. V. 1, pt. 3.) Ref. F391F37 

Nearly 60 colored copperplates of costumes, including 
the present Balkan States. 

Mayer, Luigi. Views of the Ottoman Domains in 
Europe, in Asia, and some of the Mediterranean 
Islands. 1810. Ref. 915.6M46 

Colored plates of costumes of the Turkish Empire, in- 
cluding also Sicily, Tripoli, and the Balkan States. 

Millingen, A. van. Constantinople; painted by 
Goble. 1906. 949.GM655 

Colored plates of Turkish costume. 

Monroe, W. S. Turkey and the Turks. 1907. 

949.6M753 

Consult " Dress " in Index. 16 half-tones show costumes. 

Neil, James. Everyday Life in the Holy Land. 
1913. 915.6N39 

Contains colored pictures. 

Picturesque Representations of the Dress and Manners 
of the Turks. Illustrated in 60 colored engravings, 
with descriptions, n.d. Ref. 391P61 

Turks, Albanians, Arabs, and Armenians. 

Rogers, M. E. Domestic Life in Palestine. 1863. 

915.6R72 

See " Costume " in Index. 



Shoberl, F. World in Miniature. Turkey. 6 v. 
1827. Ref. 914.96S55 

73 colored engravings, showing about 150 costumes of 
the Empire. 

Singleton, Esther. Turkey and the Balkan States, 
as Described by Great Writers. 1908. 949.6S61 

40 half-tone plates, many useful for costume. 

Spry, TV. J. J. Life on the Bosphorus. 1895. 

914.96S77 

34 portraits of caliphs and sultans, and other plates of 
costume. 

Van Lennep, H. J. Oriental Album. Twenty 
illustrations, in oil colors, of the people and 
scenery of Turkey; with an explanatory and 
descriptive text. 1862. Ref. 914.96V25 

Folio lithograph plates, showing Turkish and Armenian 
costumes. 

Wilkie, Sir David. Sketches in Turkey, Syria, and 
Egypt, 1840 and 1841. Drawn on stone by 
Joseph Nash. 1843. Ref. 741W68 

52 folio lithograplis, in monotone. 

Tyrol. See Austria-Hungary; Switzerland 

United States 

Avery, E. M. History of the United States. 16 v. 
1907. 973A95 

Fully illustrated. Vol. 6 is good for colored illustrations 
of Colonial costumes, military and civil. 

Earle, Alice M. Child Life in Colonial Days. 1899. 

390E12 

Many half-tones, from photographs, of children's dress. 

— Costume of Colonial Times. 1894. 391E12 

Historv of Colonial Dress, pp. 3-42; Dictionarv of Terms, 
pp. 45-264. 

— Dress of the Colonists. (In her Home life in 
Colonial Days. 1898. pp. 281-99.) 917.3E12 

6 cuts of costumes. 

— Two Centuries of Costume in America, 1620- 
1820. 2 V. 1903. Ref. 391E12T 

Many half-tone plates and wood-cuts of all kinds of 
costume. List of illustrations, with descriptive notes. 

Eggleston, Edward. Household History of the 
United States and its People. 1889. 973E29 

Colored plates of colonial costumes, uniforms of 1776- 
1864, and Confederate uniforms. Many vignettes of cos- 
tumes, 1492-1880. 

Goodunn, M. W. Colonial Cavalier; or, Southern 
Life before the Revolution. 1894. 917.5G65 



" His dress," pp. 75-£ 
dress. 



A few wood-cuts of Coloni; 



Harvey, Fred. First Families of the Southwest. 
1913. 970.6H34 

32 colored plates of Indians, their pottery, basketry, etc. 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 

Jennings, P. A Colored Man's Reminiscences of 
James Madison. 1865. BM182J 



Extra illustrations, 
fashions in Madison's 
Repository. 



i-ith 2fi colored plates, showing 
time. Plates from Ackermann's 



McClellan, Elizabeth. Historic Dress in America, 

1607-1800. With chapter on dress in the Spanish 

and French settlements in Florida and Louisiana. 

904. Ref. 391M13 

383 illustrations, colored plates, half-tones, and wood- 
cuts. Bibliography. 

— Historic Dress- in America, 1800-1870. 1910. 

R301M1^2H 

Continuation of the above. Includes a bibliography. 

Singleton, Esther. Costumes of Men. (In her 

Social New York under the Georges. 190^2. 

pp. 171-97.) 917.471SG1 

6 half-tones of articles of dress. 

— Dress of Women. (In Same. pp. 201-56.) 

917.471S61 

Several half-tones of apparel. 

Wharton, A. II. Social Life in the Early Republic. 
1902. 390W55S 

Colored frontispiece, and many half-tone portraits, of 
1790-1850. 

United States. Military axd Naval CosTL'iiE 

Archibald, J. F. L. Blue Shirt and Khaki. 1901. 

355A67 

Many half-tones of English and American soldiers. 

Bennett, F. M. L^niforms and Corps Devices of the 
Engineer Corps. (In his Steam Navy of the 
United States. 1896. pp. 713-31.) 359B47S 

Bolton, C. K. Private Soldier under Washington. 
1902. 973.3B69 

Uniforms, pp. 89-104, and double half-tone plates showing 
uniforms and plate showing hunting shirt. 

Eggleston, Edward. Household History of the 
United States and its People. 1889. 973E29 

2 colored plates of U. S. uniforms, 1776-1865, and 1 
colored plate of Confederate uniforms, with several vignettes 
of uniforms. 

Logan, J. A. Volunteer Soldier of America. 1887. 

355 L83 

Colored frontispiece, and several wood-cuts of uniforms. 

McClellan, Elizabeth. Uniforms in America, 1775- 
1800. (In her Historic dress in America. 190-t. 
pp. 340-77.) Ref. 391M12 

Half-tones of Continental uniforms of army and navy. 

Merritt, Wesley. Army of the United States. (In 
Armies of To-day. 1893. pp. 1-55.) 355M57 
4 cuts of uniforms of the period. 



Page One Hundred Eighty-one 

Nelson, H. L. Army of the United States. 1889. 

Ref. 355N42 

Same plates as in " U. S. army Q.-M. G. — Uniform of the 
Army of the U. S." 

Rodenbaugh, T. F. From Everglade to Canon with 
the 2d Dragoons. 1836-75. 1875. 355R68 

5 chromo-lithographs of cavalry uniforms, 1836-75, and 
4 wood-cuts of French cavalrymen. 

Smith, J. H. Historic Booke, to Keep in remem- 
brance the meeting of the Honourable Artillery 
Company of London and the Ancient and Honor- 
able Artillery Company of the Massachusetts, 
Boston, 1903. 1903. Ref. 358S65 

Plates and cuts, showing uniforms of 17th-19th centuries. 

Uniforms of the Army of the United States. (In 
Standard Dictionary. Sup. 1903. p. 2187.) 

Ref. 423F98SU 

Colored plates, showing 27 uniforms of 1903. 

United States Army. Quartermaster-general. Uni- 
form of the Army of the United States, 1882. 
1882. Ref. 355U58 

Lithographed plates of uniforms. Several cuts of details. 

United States Army. Uniform of the Army of the 
United States. Illustrated from 1774 to 1889. 
1890. Ref. 355U58U 

44 colored plates. Key to plates and descriptive text. 

United States Marine Corps. Uniform Regulations. 
Together with uniform regulations common to 
both U. S. Navy and Marine Corps. 1913. 

R355U58MU 

United States. Navy Dcpt. Regulations govern- 
ing the uniform of commissioned officers, warrant 
officers, and enlisted men of the Navy of the 
United States. 1880. Ref. 355U58N 

54 lithographed plates of uniforms. 

Wagner, A. L. L'nited States Army and Navy, 
from the era of the Revolution to the close of 
the Spanish-American war. 1899. 

Ref. 355W130U 

Lithographs of military a; d naval uniforms, 1776-1899. 

Walton, W. G., and others. Army and Navy of the 

United States, from the period of the Revolution 

to the present day, 12 pts. 1889-95. 

Ref. 353.6W24 

44 colored plates, mounted, with duplicate etchings, and 
many other etchings and photogravures of military and naval 
uniforms. 



Page One Hundred Eighty-two 



BIBLIOGRAPHY 



Zoghaum, R. F. Across Country with a Cavalry 
Column. And, With the Bluecoats on the 
Border. (In his Horse, Foot, and Dragoons. 
1888. pp. 100-17G.) 355Z85 

?,5 plates and cuts of uniforms of the period. 

Venice. See Italy 

Wales 

Bradley, A. G. Highways and Byways in North 
Wales. Illustrated by J. Pennell and H. Thom- 
son. 1898. 914.29B81 

6 wood-cuts of costume. 

Davies, D. John Vaughan and his Friends. 1897. 

914.29D255 

Several cuts of Welsh costume. 

Egerton, M. M., Countess of Wilton. Toilette in 
Wales. (In her Book of costume. 1847. pp. 
190-91.) Ref. 391 W75 

Rhys, John. Welsh People. 1900. 942.9R47 

Dress [ancient], p. 251; [modern], 565-70. ^ 

Trevehjan, M. Glimpses of Welsh Life and Char- 
acter. 1893. 914.29T81 

See " Costume " and " Dress " in Index. 



See also England 
Weapon.s. See Araior 

West Indies 

Henderson, John. The West Indies. Painted by 
A. S. Forrest. 1905. 917.29H49 

About 30 of the colored plates show costume, chiefly cf 
Jamaica. 

Paton, W. A. Down the Islands. 1890. 917.29P31 

Frequent references in text. Several illustratirra show 
costumes. 

See also Cuba; Porto Rico 



Zanzibar 

Lyne, R. N. Zanzibar in Contemporary Times. 
1905. 9G7L98 

2 half-tone plates of costume. 

Rente, Emily. Memoirs of an Arabian Princess. 
Tr. by L. Strachey. 1907. BR921S 

Female fashions of Zanzibar, pp. 85-91. 6 plates of Zan- 
zibar Arabs. 



\RTISTS WHOSE WORK HAS BEARING ON PERIOD 
FABRICS OR COSTUME 



ARTISTS WHOSE WORK HAS BEARING ON PERIOD 
FABRICS OR COSTUME 



Greek and Roman Sculpture. (See University Prints, Students' Series A.) 

Mosaic. Emperor Justinian and his suite. Byzantine, 6tli century, at Ravenna. 

San Vitale. 



ca. (circa) = about. 

Italian Painting 

Ambrogio da Predis (School of Milan), fl. 1482- 
1506. 

Bartolommeo Veneto (Venetian School), fl. 1505- 
1555. 

Bassano, L. da P. (Venetian School). 1557-1622. 

Bissolo, F. (Venetian School). 1464-1528. 

Botticelli, S. (Florentine School). 1444-1510. 

Bronzino, A. (Florentine School), ca. 1502-1572. 

Butinone, B. J. (School of Milan), ca. 1436- 
1507. 

Calisto Piazza da Lodi (School of Brescia), fl. 
1521-1562. 

Carnevale, Fra (School of Umbria and Perugia). 
15th century. 

Carpaccio, V. (Venetian School), ca. 1455- ca. 
1525. 

Cimabue (Florentine School), ca. 1240-1302. 

Conti, Bernardino de' (School of Milan), fl. 
1490-.= 

Cossa, F. (School of Ferrara). ca. 1435-1480. 

Crivelli, C. (Venetian School), ca. 1430-ca. 1493. 

Domenico Veneziano (Florentine School), ca. 
1410-1461. 

Duccio di Buoninsegna (School of Siena), ca. 
1260-1320. 

Ghirlandajo, D. and pupils (Florentine School). 
1452-1525. 

Giotto and pupils (Florentine School). 1266-1337. 

Giovanni di Paolo (School of Siena), ca. 1403- 
1482. 

Giovanni di Piamonte. fl. 15th century. 

Giovenone, G. (School of Vercelli). ca. 1490- 
1555. 

Jacobello del Fiore (Venetian School), fl. 1400- 
1439. 



fl. = flourished. 

Lorenzetti, A. and P. Follower of (School of Siena) 
fl. 1323-1348-^. 1305-1348. 

Mantegna, A. (School of Padua). 1431-1506. 

Maratti, C. 1625-1713. 

Masolino. (Florentine School.) 1384-ca. 1435. 

Moroni, G. B. 1520-1578. 

Palma Vecchio. Venetian SchcoL 1480-1528. 

Parmigianino (School of Parma). 1504-1540. 

Perugino, P. (Umbrian School). 1446-1523. 

Pesello, G. (Florentine School). 1367-1446. 

Piero di Cosimo (Florentine School). 1462-1521. 

Pinturicchio, B. (Umbrian School). 1454-1513. 

Pisanello. ca. 1397-1455. 

Pulzone, S. ca. 1562-ca. 1588. 

Roraanino, G. (School of Brescia), ca. 1485-1566. 

Rotari, P. dei, 1707-ca. 1762. 

Sellajo, J. del (Florentine School), ca. 1441-1493. 

Signorelli, Luca (Umbro-Florentine School). 1441- 
1523. 

Sodoma, II (School of Vercelli). ca. 1477-1549. 

Spinello, G. (Florentme School). 1387-1452. 

Stefano da Zevio (School of Verona), ca. 1393- 
1451. 

Titian (Venetian School). 1477-1576. 

Vasari, G. 1511-1574. 

Veronese, P. (Venetian School). 1528-1588. 

Verrocchio, A. (Florentine School). 143.5-1488. 

Vivarini, A. (Venetian School), fl. 1444-1470. 

Zuccaro, F. ca. 1543-1609. 

Masters dei Cassoni. 

Painting, Byzantine School. 

Painting, Florentine School. 

Painting, Italian School. 

Painting, North Italian School. 

Painting, Umbrian School. 16th century. 

Painting, Venetian School. 16th century. 

Painting, Venetian School. 



Page One Hundred Eighty-six 



LIST OF ARTISTS 



Dutch Painting 
Codde, P. 1610-1660. 
Cornelisz, J. 1475-1560. 
Cronenburch, A. van. 16th century. 
Cuyp, J. G. 1575-1649. 
Dou. G. 1613-1675. 
Hals, F., the elder. 1580-4-1666. 
Heist, B. van der. 1613-1670. 
Honthorst, W. van. 1604-1666. 
Jacobsz, L. 1494-1533. 
Janssen, P. 2d half of 17th century. 
Joest von Calcar, J. 1460-1519 
Ketel, C. 1546-1616. 
Keyser, T. de. 1596-1667 (1679?). 
Mesdach, S. 1st half 17th century. 
Metsu, G. 1630-1667. 
Mierevelt, M. J. 1567-1641. 
Molenaer, J. M. .?-1688. 
Moreelse, P. 1571-1638. 
Mostaert, J. 1474-1556. 
Mytens, D., the elder. 1590-1658. 
Palamadesz, A. 1601-1673. 
Ravesteyn, A. van. 17th century. 
Santvoort, D. D. 1610-1680. 
Steen, J. ca. 1626-1679. 
Ter Borch, G. 1617-1681. 
Troost, C. 1697-1750. 
Venne, A. van der. 1589-1662. 
Vermeer van Delft, J. 1632-1675. 
Verspronck, J. C. 1597-1662. 
Voort, C. van der. 1576-1624. 
Wilt, T. van der. 1659-1733. 



Painting, Dutch. 
Painting, Dutch. 
Painting Dutch. 
Painting, Dutch. 



14th century. 
15th century. 
16th century. 
17th century. 



Flemish Painting 
Bles, H. de. 1480-1550. 
Blyenberch, A. 1566-1625. 
Bouts, A. .M548. 
Bouts, D. 1410-1475. 
Campin, R., 1375-1444. 
Champaigne, P. van. 1602-1674. 
Claeissens, P., the elder. 1500-1576. 
Cleve, J. van, the elder, ca. 1485-1540. 
Coffermans, M. fl. 1549-1575. 
Cristus, P. 1400(?)-1473. 
David, G. 1450-1523. 
Dyck, A. van. 1599-1641. 



Eyck, J. van. ca. 1381-1440. 

Francken, F., the younger. 1581-1642. 

Geerarts, M., the younger. 1561-1635. 

Goes, H. van der. .?-1482. 

Heere, L. de. 1534-1584. 

Isenbrant, A. Before 1510-1551. 

Justus of Ghent ca. 1470? 

Mabuse, J. van. 1470-ca. 1533. 

Marmion, S. ca. 1425-1489. 

Massys, Jan. 1509-1575. 

Master of the Legend of St. Lucy, 15th century. 

Master of the St. Ursula Legend. 15th century. 

Memlinc, H. (Memling). ca. 1430(?)-1494. 

Moro, A. 1512-1576. 

Pourbus, F., the elder. 1541-1581 . 

Pourbus, F., the younger. 1570-1622. 

Pourbus, P., the younger. 1510-1584. 

Roymerswale, M. van. 1497-1567. 

Rubens, P. P. 1577-1640. 

Somer, Paul van. 1570-1621. 

Vos, C. de, the elder. 1585-1651. 

Weyden, R., van der. 1400-1464. 

Painting, Flemish. 16th century. 

Painting, Flemish, of Brussels. 15th century. 

German Painting 

Bruyn, B., the elder. 1493-1655. 

Bruyn, B., the younger, ca. 1530-ca. 1610. 

Cranach, L., the elder. 1472-1553. 

Dunwegge, H. and V. 1520-? 

Master of the Life of the Virgin, fl. ca. 1460-1480. 

Master of St. Bartholomew, ca. 1490-1510. 

Master of St. Severin. .''-1515. 

Multscher, H. ca. 1440-1467. 

Neufchatel, N. ca. 1527-1590. 

Pacher, M. 1430-1498. 

Pleydenwurff. 1450-1494. 

Ratgeb, J. 16th centiu'y. 

Ring, L. ca. 1521-1583. 

Roos, T. 1638-1698. 

Scheits, M. 1640-1700. 

Seisenegger, J. 1505-1567. 

Wolgemut, M. 1434-1519. 

Painting, German. 15th century. ^ 

Painting, German. 16th century. 

Spanish Painting 

Carreno, J. de M. 1614-1685. 
Coello, A. S. 1513(?)-1590. 
Gonzdlez, B. 1564-1627. 



LIST OF ARTISTS 



Page One Hundred Eighty-seven 



Goya y Liicientes, F. J. de. 1746-1828. 
Liano, F. de. 1556-1625. 
Pantoja de la Cruz, J. 1551-1609. 
Velasquez. 1599-1660. 
Vermejo, B. fl. ca. 1490. 
Zurbaran, F. de. 1598-1662. 
Painting, Spanish. 15th century. 
Painting, Spanish. 16th century. 
Painting, Spanish. 17th century. 
Painting, Hispano-Flemish. 1451. 

Russian Painting 
Ritt, A. 1766-1799. 

French Painting 
Bourdichon, J. 1457-1521. 
Clouet, Frangois. 1500-1572. 
Corneille de Lyon. ?-ca. 1574c 
Coypel, C. A. 1694-1752. 
David, L. 1748-1825. 
Drouais, F. H. 1727-1775. 
Dumont, J. 1701-1781. 
Fantin-Latour. 1836-1904. 
Favray, A. C. de. 1706-1789. 
Fouquet, J. ca. 1415-ca. 1480. 
Fragonard, J. H. 1732-1806. 
Froment, N. 15th century. 
Gandara, A. de la. 1862-. 
Gerard, F. P. S. 1770-1837. 
Greuze, J. B. 1725-1805. 
Hilaire, J. B. 18th-19th century. 
Huet, J. B. 1745-1811. 
Ingres, J. A. D. 1780-1867. 
Lancret, N. 1690-1743. 
Largilliere, N. de. 1656-1746. 
La Tour, M. Q. de. 1704-1788. 
Le Brun, (Mme.) Elisabeth Louise Vig^e. 
1842. 

Lefebvre, Jules Joseph. 1834-.? 
Lefevre, Robert. 1756-1830. 
Liotard, Jean fitienne. 1702-1789. 
Loo, C. A. van. 1705-1765. 
Manet. Edouard. 1833-1883. 
Mares, Pierre. 15th century. 
Master of Moulins. 15th century. 
Nattier, Jean Marc. 1685-1766. 
Oudry, P. 16th century. 
Pater, Jean Baptiste Joseph. 1695-1736. 
Perreal, Jean. fl. 1483(r)-1528. 
Pesne, Antoine. 1683-1757. 
Prud'hon, Pierre Paul, 1758-182? 



1755- 



Quesnel, FranQois. ca. 1544-1619. 

Renoir, Firmin Auguste. 1841- 

Rigaud, Hyacinthe. 1659-1743. 

Rioult, Louis Edouard. 1780-1855. 

Thevenot, Arthur Frangois. 19th century. 

Tocque, Louis. 1696-1772. 

Vestier, Antoine. 1740-1824. 

Watteau, Jean Antoine. 1684-1721. 

Painting, French. 15th century. 

Painting, French, of Amiens. 15th century. 

Painting, French, of Amiens. 16th centuryc 

English Painting. 
Beechey, Sir W. 1753-1839, 
Closterman, J. 1656-1713. 
Corvus, J. 16th century. 
Cotes, F. 1726-1770. 
Gainsborough, T. 1727-1788. 
Hogarth, W. 1697-1764. 
Hoppner, J. 1758-1810. 
Jervas, C. 1675-1739. (Irish Pnt.) 
Lawrence, Sir Thomas. 1769-1830. 
Raeburn, Sir Henry. 1756-1823. 
Ramsay, Allan. 1713-1784. 
Reynolds, Sir Joshua. 1723-1792. 
Richardson, J., the elder. 1665-1745. 
Romney, G. 1734-1802. 
Sharpies, J., the elder, ca. 1750-1811. 
Talfourd, F. 1815-1874. 
Ward, E. M. 1816-1879. 
Painting, English. 15th century. 
Painting, English. 16th century. 

American Painting 
Badger, Joseph. 1708-1765. 
Blackburn, J. B. 1700-1760. 
Copley, J. S. 1737-1815. 
Feke, R. 1724-1769. 
Frothingham, J. 1786-1864. 
Greenwood, J. 1729-1792. 
Inman, H. 1801-1846. 
Jarvis, J. W. 1780-1834. 
Morse, S.F.B. 1791-1872. 
Osgood, C. 18th-19th century, 
Pratt, M. 1734-1805. 
Smybert, J. 1684-1751. 
Stuart, G. 1755-1828. 
Sully, T. 1783-1872. 
Trumbull, J. 1756-1843. 
Waldo, S.L. 1783-1861. 




From a colored cover design by Brunelleschi. 



Courtesy of Har-per't 



INDEX 



INDEX 



Accessories, 6 

Acroi>olis, 103 

Action, 10 

Adam school, 97 

Advertising, department store illustrated, 49 

Advertising, magazine, half-tone, 57 

Advertising, magazine, illustrated, 51 

Advertising, magazine, pen and ink illustrated, 53 

Advertisement, magazine illustrated, 46 

Age, Golden, 103 

Age of Pericles, 103 

Air brush, illustration, 35 

Alfred the Great, 106 

Analogous harmony, 62 

Anatomy, Preface, 13, 23 

Animal arrangement, illustrated, 94 

Anne of Brittany, costume illustrated, 112 

Anne, Queen, 97 

Anne, Queen, of England, 117 

Applying color, 9, 70-71 

Armorial dress, 110 

Armorial dress, illustrated, 93, 109 

Arms, 14 

Arms, illustration, 21 

Arthur, King, 106 

Artists whose work has bearing in period fabrics or 

costume, 131-133 
Asp, Egyptian, 102 

Austria, Anne of, Queen of France, 116 
Avery, Claire, 54, 59 

Background, 65 

Back view, form illustrated, 1, 2, 3, 4 

Balance, 65 

Balance, of figure, 22 

Barbier, George, 42, 54, 72 

Barry, Countess du, 87, 117 

Basquine, 113 

Batchelder, Ernest A., 30 

Baviere, de Isabeau, 95 



Beardsley, Aubrey, 42 

Beardsley, Aubrey, illustration, 54 

Beer, 6 

Ben Day, 31, 39, 40 

Ben Day color, illustrated, 62 

Ben Day, illustrated, 33, 49, 55 

Ben Day, magazine, illustrated, 50 

Betrothal of Saint Catherine, 95 

Bibliography, 127-128 

Binary colors, 61 

Birch, 16 

Bliaud, 108 

Blocking in, 10 

Boots, musketeer, 116 

Box plaits, 38 

Braie, 110 

Bristol board, kid finish, 43 

Bristol board, plate, 43 

British or masculine costume illustrated, 119 

Brittany, Anne of. 111, 112 

Brummel, Beau, 78 

Brunelleschi, 42, 54, 134 

Brush, air, 32 

Brush work, 52-53 

Brush work, illustrated, 40, 45, 46, 53, 54 

Brushes, 71 

Brushes, for wash work, 48 

Buddhism, 91 

Bustle, 123 

Buttons, illustration, 5 

Byzantine influence, 107 

Callot, Sceurs, 6 

Carlyle, 45 

Catalogue, ink work, illustrated, 46 

Catalogue page, illustrated, 30, 31, 35 

Catalogue, pattern work illustrated, 52 

Catalogue, wash, 50 

Catalogue work illustrated, 47, 51 

Charlemagne, 107 



Page One Hundred Ninety -two 



INDEX 



Charlemagne, daughters of, 94 

Charles I, King of England, 86, 114 

Charles II, King of England, 86, 116 

Charles VI, 95 

Charles X, 121, 122 

Charles the Simple, 95 

Chart, color, 65-66 

Checks, illustrated, 41, 42 

Chemise, 108 

Cheruet, 6 

Chicing, 10, 13 

Chiffon, 37 

ChiflFon, illustrated, 9 

Children, 59 

Children, illustrated, 13, 16 

Children, lay-out illustrated, 41 

Children, proportions, 16 

Children, proportions illustrated, 17 

Chinese influence, 97 

Chinese ornament, 98 

Chinese white, 37 

Chiton, Doric, 103 

Chiton, Greek, 103 

Chiton, Ionic, 103 

Chlamys, Greek, 103 

Circle, construction, 36 

Classic Period, Greek, 103 

Clifford, Period Furnishings, 96 

Cloak, Egj^ptian illustrated, 102 

Cloaks, Egyptian, 101 

Colbert, 97, 98 

Collar, flat, 116 

Cold color, 63 

Collection, documents, 36 

Collection, swipe ,36 

Color, 61-71 

Color, applying, 9, 70-71 

Color, binary, 63 

Color chart, 65-66 

Color, complementary, 63 

Color, Dr. Frank Crane, 67-70 

Color, intensity or chroma, 62 

Color, materials, 65, 70, 71 

Color, normal, 63 

Color, primaries, 63 

Color scale, 63 

Color schemes, 67 

Color, significance, 66, 67 

Color sketch, 6 

Color, tempera, 9 



Color, theory, 63 

Color, tone, tint, shade, hue, 63 

Color, value, 66 

Color, warm, 63 

Color, water, 9 

Color, with wash, 50 

Colors, tertiary, 63 

Compass, 36 

Cetnplementary colors, 63 

Complementary harmony, 65 

Composition, 30, 52, 53 

Composition, reference books, 30 

Construction, head illustrated, 17 

Construction of figure illustrated, 15 

Construction, toothpick, 22 

Consulate, 121 

Consulate fashions, illustrated, 120 

Convention, 121 

Coptic design, 91 

Copying, 10, 37 

Corset, illustrated, 39 

Corsets, 114, 120, 122 

Costume, Consulate, 120 

Costume Design, Preface 

Costume, Directoire, illustrated, 119 

Costume, Egyptian, 101-102 

Costume Egyptian, illustrated, 101-102 

Costume, 18th century, illustrated, 117, 118, 119 

Costume, First Empire, illustrated, 120 

Costume, Gallic, illustrated, 105 

Costume, Gallo-Roman, illustrated, 105 

Costume, Greek, 103-104 

Costume, Homeric, 103 

Costume, illustration. Preface 

Costume, Louis XIV, illustrated, 115 

Costume, Louis XV, illustrated, 117, 118 

Costume, Louis XVI, illustrated, 119 

Costume, Ix)uis XVIII, illustrated, 121 

Costume, Louis Philippe, illustrated, 121 

Costume, masculine, British or English, 120 

Costume, INIinoan or Mycenaean, 103 

Costume, Pre-Hellenic, 103 

Costume, Restoration, illustrated, 121 

Costume, reference books, 127, 128 

Costume, Roman, 104-105 

Costume, Romantic Period, illustrated, 121 

Costume, Watteau, illustrated, 117 

Costumes, Restoration, illustrated, 121 

Costumes, 2d Empire, illustrated, 122 

Cotte, 110 



INDEX 



Page One Hundred Ninety -three 



Crane, Dr. Frank, color, 67-70 
Crayon, pencil, 48, 50, 51, 124 
Crepe, illustrated, 5 
Cromwell, Oliver, 116 
Cromwcllian period, 86 
Crown, red, 102 
Crown, white, 102 
Crusades, 95, 108 

Dancing girls, Egyptian, 102 
Dark Ages, Egyptian, 101 
David, Jacques Louis, 87 
Decorative detail illustrated, 44, 45 
Decorative fashion work illustrated, 44, 45 
Decorative half-tone, 56 
Decorative p>en and ink, 40 
Decorative pen and ink, illustrated, 53 
Decorative treatment, 38 
Department store advertising, 39 
Design, adaptation illustrated, 91, 75, 76 
Design, costume, 75-79 
Design, fundamentals of, 65 
Design, influences, 91 
Design, primitive, 91 
Design, sources, 76-78 
.Design, symbolic significance, 91 
Designers, 6 

Detail, decorative, illustrated, 44, 45 
Detail, illustrated, 42 
Details, 5-6 

Diana, Dutchess of Valentinois, 113 
Directoire, 98, 120, 121 
Directoire and Empire design, 98 
Directoire costume, illustrated, 119 
Directoire period, 97 
Directorate, 87 
Directory, 121, 122 
Documents, 36, 86 
Documents, use illustrated, 37-38 
Dominant harmony, 62 
Doric chitoU; 103 
Dotted materials, 37 
Double complementary harmony, 65 
Doublet, 114 
Dow, Arthur, 30, 52, 53 
Drapery, 38 
Drapery, illustrated, 85 
Drawing, without models, 13-23 
Drecoll, 6 
Dress and History, 3d to 11th Century, 106-107 



Dress, Consulate, 120 

Dress, 18th century, 117-121 

Dress, 18th century illustrated, 117, 118, 119 

Dress, Egyptian, 92, 101, 102 

Dress, 11th century, 108 

Dress, First Empire illustrated, 120 

Dress, 14th and 15th centuries illustrated, 110 

Dress, loth century, 111 

Dress, Greek, 92 

Dress, Louis XIV, illustrated, 115 

Dress, Louis XV, illustrated, 117, 118 

Dress, Louis XVI, illustrated, 119 

Dress, Louis XVIII, illustrated, 121 

Dress, Louis Philippe, illustrated, 121 

Dress, 19th century, 121 

Dress, parti-colored 93, 109, 110, 

Dress, Restoration illustrated, 121 

Dress, Roman, 93, 104, 105 

Dress, Romantic Period, illustrated, 121 

Dress, second Empire, illustrated, 122 

Dress, 16th century, 113, 114 

Dress, 17th century, 116 

Dress, 12th century, 108 

Dress, 13th and 14th centuries, 110 

Dress, Watteau, illustrated, 117 

Drian, illustration. Frontispiece 

Drian, 47, 54 

Dryden, Helen, 16, 47, 54 

Dryden, Helen, illustration, 16, 24 

Du Maurier, George, 88 

Dunlop, J. M., Preface, 14 

Diirer, Albert, study of hands, 19 

Durer, Albrecht, 38 

Diirer, Albrecht, illustration, 85 

Duval, Preface 

Dyes, ancient, 92 

Early fabrics and designs, 91 

Early Renaissance costume, illustrated, 112 

East India Company, 97 

East, influence of, 91, 93 

Eastern character, 97 

Eastern design, 91 

Editorial, magazine, 56 

Editorial, magazine, illustrated, 44, 45 

Editorial, magazine color, illustrated, 62 

Editorial, newspaper, 46 

Editorial, pen and ink, 38, 39 

Egyptian costume, 101, 102 

Egyptian costume illustrated, 92, 101, 102 



Page One Hundred Ninety -four 



INDEX 



Egyptian dress, 92, 101, 102 

Egyptian emblems, 102 

Egyptian fabrics, 91, 92 

Egyptian, Old Kingdom, 101 

Egyptian symbols, 102 

Eighteenth century, 86, 88 

Eighteenth century, costume reference books, 116, 123 

Eighteenth century costume illustrated, 117, 118, 119 

Eighteenth century dress, 117-121 

Eighteenth century, late, illustrated, 119 

Eleventh century costume, illustrated, 107 

Eleventh century dress, 108 

Elizabeth, Queen of England, 97, 113 

Elizabethan collar, 86 

Elizabethan era, 85 

Ellipse, constructing, 36 

Ellipse, construction illustrated, 37 

Emblems, Egyptian, 102 

Embroidery, illustrated, 42 

Embroidery, wash work, 38 

Empire, 88, 122 

Empire costume, 98 

Empire, 1st, 123 

Empire, 2d, 122 

Empire style, 87 

Enlarging, illustrated, 29 

Ert6, 42, 47, 54 

Ert6, illustrations, 44, 45 

Etching, 54, 60 

Fabric, classification, 96 

Fabric, documents, reference to, 131-133 

Faces, 16-18 

Fans, 116 

Feathers, realistic treatment, illustrated, 47 

Feature cut illustrated, 50 

Feet, 19 

Fichu, 107 

Fifteenth century, 84, 85 

Fifteenth century dress. 111 

Fifteenth century dress, illustrated, 110 

Fifteent century reference books, 111 

Figure, 13-23 

Figured material, illustrated, 5 

First Empire, 123 

First Empire fashions illustrated, 120 

Flowered, material, illustrated, 5 

Flowered materials, 37 

Fontange headdress, 116 

Fontange headdress, illustrated, 115 



Fontanges, Mile, de, 97, 116 
Fourteenth century dress, 110 
Fifteenth century, reference books. 111 
Fourteenth and fifteenth century, dress illustrating, 

110 
Formal arrangement, illustrated, 94 
Forms, 1-3 
Forrester, Fern, 54 
Francis, 6 
Francis I, 95 

Francis I, King of France, 113 
Fragonard, 86 
Franks, 107 

Front view, form illustrated, 1, 2, 3, 4 
Fur, 38 

Furs, decorative illustrated, 45 
Furs, realistic method illustrated, 47 

Gainsborough, 86 

Gallic costume illustrated, 105 

Gallo-Roman costume illustrated, 105 

Gathers, 38 

Gathers, illustration, 5 

Gauls, costume, 105, 106 

Gauls, history and dress, 105, 106 

Gauls, reference books, 106 

George I, George II, and George III, 117 

George III, 87 

George IV, 121 

Girdle, Greek, 103 

Globes, Egyptian, 102 

Gloves, 107 

Gold thread, use of, 95 

Golden Age, 103 

Gorget, illustrated, 83 

Gothic architecture, 84 

Gothic tapestry, illustrated, 84 

Greek Classic Period, 103 

Greek costume, 103, 104 

Greek costume, illustrated, 103, 104 

Greek Doric dress illustrated, 92 

Greek dress, 92 

Greek girdle, 103 

Greek history and dress, 103, 104 

Greek Influence, 91 

Greek Law, 6, 27, 28 

Greek Law, illustrated, 27 

Green, Elizabeth Shippen, 16 

Greenaway, Kate, 16, 87 

Greenaway, Kate, style illustrated, 87 



INDEX 



Page One Hundred Ninety-five 



Hair, 18 

Hair, illustration, 18 

Half-tone, see Wash references. 

Handkerchiefs, 107 

Hands, Frontispiece, 8, 19 

Hands, illustration, 7, 18, 19, 20 

Harmonies, 62-63 

Harmonies of difference, 65 

Harmonies of likeness, 62 

Harmony, 65 

Hat, design illustrated, 75 

Hats, 6 

Hats, designing, 78, 79 

Hats, illustration, 8, 24, 79 

Hatton, Richard G., Preface 

Head, 13, 14 

Head, illustrated, 17 

Heads, 16, 17 

Heads, children, 16 

Headdress, Fontange, 116 

Headdress, Fontanges, illustrated, 115 

Headdress, hennens, 110 

Headdress, horned, 83 

Heading, illustrated, 54 

Headings, 42 

Hem, illustrated, 27 

Hennin, headdress, illustrated, 110 

Hennins, 110 

Henry II, 97 

Henry VIII, 85 

Henry VIII, King of England, 111 

Heraldic forms, 95 

Himation, Greek, 93, 103 

Hispano-Moresque fabrics, 95 

Historic costume, 101-123 

History and dress, Gauls, 105-106 

History and dress, Greek, 103-104 

History, Roman, 104 

History, 3d to 11th century, 106 

History, 11th century, 107-108 

History, 12th century, 108 

History, 13th and 14th centuries, 108-110 

History, 15th century, 110-111 

History, 16th century, 111-113 

History, 17th century, 114-116 

History, 18th century, 117 

Hogarth. 96 

Holbein, Hans, 85 

Holbein, Hans, illustration, 86 

Hollar, 86 



Homeric costume, 103 
Hoop, 117 
Horizontal lines, 65 
Houppelande, 96, 110 
Houppelande, illustrated, 84, 110 
Hue, 61 

Imagination, 77 

" Impossibles," costume illustrated, 119 

" Incroyables," costume illustrated, 119 

" Incroyables," "uniniagineables," " merverilleuses' 

and "impossibles," 121 
Indian lawns, 122 
Indian shawl, 98 
Individuality, 43, 45, 52 
Influences in design, 91 
Ink, 42 

Intensity, laws governing, 65 
Interregnum, 116 
Ionic chiton, 103 
Italian 14th century costume illustrated, 93 

Jabot, 116 

Jackets, 123 

Jacobean, 97 

James I, 86 

James I, King of England, 114 

James II, King of England, 116 

Japanese prints, 44, 47 

Jeanne d'Arc, 96 

Josephine, 121 

Jumping, illustrated, 22 

Kerchiefs, Egyptian, 102 

Lace, illustrated, 42 

Laces, 37-38 

La Valliere, Louise, 97 

Lawns, Indian, 122 

Lawrence, 86 

Laws for use of color, 65 

Lay-out, illustrated, 41 

Lay-out, finished, illustrated, 30-31, 35, 41, 47, 51 

Lay-outs, 29, 30 

Lay-outs, rough, illustrated, 29 

Leaping, illustrated, 22 

Legs, 14 

Lepape, George, 42, 54, 80 

Lettering, book on, 36 

Line cut, see Pen and ink references. 



Page One Hundred Ninety-six 



INDEX 



Lines, 45 

Lord, Harriet, 34 

Lotus, EgjTptian, 102 

Louis Philippe, 121, 122 

Louis Philippe costume illustrated, 121 

Louis XI, 95 

Louis XIII, King of France, 116 

Louis XIV, 117 

Louis XIV, King of France, 86, 96, 97, 116 

Louis XIV costume illustrated, 115 

Louis XV, 87, 97,98, 117 

liouis XV, costume illustrated, 117, 118 

I^uis XVI, 87, 97, 98, 117, 120 

Louis XVI, costume illustrated, 118, 119 

Louis XVI, period of, 98 

Louis XVin, 121, 122 

Louis X\TII, costume illustrated, 121 

Lutz, E. G., Preface, 8 

Magazine, advertising, 57 

Magazine, advertising illustrated, 53 

Magazine, editorial, 56 

Magazine, editorial illustrated, 62 

Magazine, pattern drawing, 57 

Maintenon, Madame de, 97, 116 

Mantles, 118 

Margins, 6 

Marie Antionette, 87, 98 

Marie Antionette, strips, 98 

Marie Louise, 121 

Marshall, Preface 

Martial and Armand, 6 

Materials, black, 37 

Materials, color, 65, 70, 71 

Materials, for crayon pencil work, 51 

Materials, wash, 48 

McQuin, 47, 54 

Medici, Catherine de, 97, 113 

Medicis, Marie, 113 

Memling, Hans, painting of, 95 

Meredith, Owen, 88 

*' Marveilleuses,"costume illustrated, 119 

Method, catalogue wash method llustrated, 58 

Method, decoration illustrated, 44, 45 

Method of reproducing two colors, 68, 69 

Method, realistic illustrated, 39 

Method, realistic treatment illustrated, 40, 46 

Method, textile designing, 54-59 

Monochromatic harmony, 62 

Montespan, Madame de, 97, 116 



Monvel, Boutet de, 96, 111 
Mosaic, Byzantine, 6th century, 131 
Moyen age, 83 
Munsell, A. IL, 61 

Museum, Cooper Union, Coptic designs, 92 
Museum, Metropolitan, as a source of design illus- 
trated, 76 
Museum, Metropolitan, Coptic room, 92 
Museum, Metropolitan, period dolls, 88 
Museum Metropolitan, tapestry from, 84 
Musketeer boots, 116 
Muslins, 122 
Mycenaean costume, 103 

Napoleon, 87, 98 

NajKjleon Bonaparte, 121 

Napoleon, Louis, 122 

Napoleon III, 121, 122 

Nattier, 86 

Neilson, Kay, 42 

Neutralization, 65 

New empire, Egyptian, 101, 102 

Ninth and tenth centuries costume illustrated, 107 

Nineteenth century, 87, 88 

Ninteenth century dress, 121, 123 

Nocturne by Whistler as inspiration, 77 

Normal color, 61 

Ogival forms, 94 

Old Kingdom, Egyptian, 101 

One mode harmony, 62 

Openings, 4 

Oriental characteristics, 97 

Oval, construction, 13, 14 

Paenula, Roman, 104 

Paintings, having bearing on costume, 131-133 

Paintings, having bearing on fabrics, 131-133 

Paisley shawl, 98 

Palla, Roman, 104 

Panier, 117 

Paper, carbon, 32 

Paper, frisket, 32 

Paper, graphite, 32 

Paquin, 6 

Parasol, illustrated, 38 

Parsons, Frank Alvah, 30 

Parti-colored costume, 110 

Parti-colored costume illustrated, 109 

Parti-colored dress, 95 



INDEX 



Page One Hundred Ninety-seven 



Parti-colored dress illustrated, 93 

Pattern drawing, magazine, 57 

Pattern drawing, newspaper, 39 

Pattern work, magazine illustrated, 50 

Pattern work, newspaper illustrated, 48 

Pen and ink, 38-47 

Pen and ink, black detail work illustrated, 40 

Pen and ink, black material illustrated, 40 

Pen and ink, catalogues, 40 

Pen and ink, catalogue illustrated, 52 

Pen and ink, decorative, 40 

Pen and ink, decorative work illustrated, 53 

Pen and ink, illustrated, 46 

Pen and ink, magazine advertising illustrated, 53 

Pen and ink, magazine work, 39-47 

Pen and ink, pattern work illustrated, 40, 52 

Pen, ruling, 36 

Pens, 43 

Pencil crayon, 48 

Pencil, crayon, 50, 51 

Peplum, 116 

Period fabric design, 91-98 

Period, how influenced, silhouette, 83-88 

Periods in designing, 77, 78 

Periods, painting as references, 131-133 

Persian verdure, 96 

Personal characteristics, 75 

Personality, 79 

Pericles, age of, 103 

Perneb, 101 

Petit Trianon, 120 

Phrygean bonnet, 108 

Pilgrims, 86 

Plaids, 37 

Plaids, illustrated, 41 

Plaids, shepherd, 37 

Plaids, shepherd's, illustrated, 42 

Pleating, illustrated, 5 

Plaits, box, 38 

Plaits, side, 38 

Pleats, Watteau, 118 

Poiret, Paul, 6 

Pompadour, Marchioness de, 87, 98, 117 

Pompadour stripes, 98 

Poor, Henry A., 30 

Pre-Hellenic costume, 103 

Premet, 4 

Priests, 102 

Primaries, colors, 61 

Primitive design, 91 



Problem, 45 
Puritans, 86 

Quaker, 86 

Raeburn, 86 

Red, crown, 102 

Reducing, illustrated, 29 

Reference books, Egyptian, 102 

Reference books, Gauls, 106 

Reference books, 3d to 11th century, 107 

Reference books, 11th century, 108 

Reference books, 12th century, 108 

Reference books, 13th, 1 tth, and 15th centuries. 111 

Reference books, 17th century, 116 

Reference books, 18th century, 116, 123 

Reference books, 19th century, 123 

Regency, 117 

Religious orders. 84 

Rembrandt, 79 

Renaissance, 85, 97 

Renaissance costume, late, illustrated, 113, 114 

Renaissance, early, costume illustrated, 112 

Reproduction, two color process, 68, 69 

Republic, French, 122 

Restoration, 122 

Restoration, costume illustrated, 121 

Reta Sanger, illustrations, 13, 43, 62 

Revolution, French, 98, 120 

Reynolds, Sir Joshua, 86 

Rhythm, 65 

Richter, Preface 

Roman costume, 104, 105 

Roman costume illustrated, 104 

Roman costume reference books, 105, 106 

Roman dress, 93 

Roman history, 104 

Roman palla, 104 

Roman poenula, 104 

Roman toga, 104 

Roman tunic, 104 

Romantic period, 122 

Romantic period, costume illustrated, 121 

Romney, 86 

Ross board, 31 

Ross board, illustrated, 33 

Royal gardens, 97 

Rubens, 86 

Ruff, 114 

Running, illustrated, 22 



Page One Hundred Ninety-eight 



INDEX 



Saint Catherine, betrothal of, 95 

Scale, in design, 79 

Scale of color, 61 

Scroll motif, illustrated, 94 

Sculpture, Greek and Roman, 131 

Second Empire costumes, illustrated, 1?2 

Senger, Reta, 13. 43, 54, 64 

Seventeenth century, 86 

Seventeenth century costume illustrated, 114 

Seventeenth century dress, 116 

Shade, 61 

Shakers, 87 

Shawl, 122 

Shawl, Indian, 98 

Shawl, Paisley, 98 

Shawls, 123 

Shepherd kings, 101 

Shepherd plaid, 37 

Shoes, 19, 22 

Shoes, illustrated, 7, 18, 34, 35 

Side plaits, 38 

Significance, color, 66, 67 

Silhouette, 34-36 

Silhouette, fashion, 83 

Silhouette, half-tone, illustrated, 43 

Silhouette, illustrated, 36, 87 

Silhouette, period illustrated, 86 

Silhouette, value of, 83 

Silks, oriental, 122 

Silver print, 32 

Sixteenth century, 85-86 

Sixteenth century costume illustrated. 111, 112 

Sixteenth centur j"^ costume reference books. 111 

Sixteenth century dress, 113, 114 

Sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, 97 

Sketch, dressmaker's, 9 

Sketch, manufacturer's, 9 

Sketching, 10 

Sketching, for manufacturer , 4 

Sketching, garment, -5 

Sketching, life, 7 

Sketching, memory, 4 

Slashed costumes, 113, 114 

Sleeves, 88 

Smith, Jessie Wilcox, 16 

Soulie, 54, 124 

Spatter work, 31,32 

Spatte- work, illustrated, 33 

Split complementary harmony, 65 

Sport suit, 54 



Spotting, 53 

Squares, ruled, 32 

Standing illustrated, 22 

Steinmetz, 55 

Steinmetz, E. M. G., illustration, 56, 60 

Stipple, 34 

Stipple, illustrated, 34 

Stitching, 38 

Stitching, illustration, 5 

Stock, 116 

Stockings, 110 

Straps, Egyptian hanging, 102 

Stripes, 37 

Stripes, illustrated, 5, 41 

Stripes, Marie Antoinette, 98 

Stripes, Pompadour, 98 

Surcot 110 

Surcot, illustrated, 95, 109 

Swastika, 91 

Swipe collection, 36 

Swipe collection, illustrated, 37, 38 

Symbols, Egyptian, 102 

Syrian weavers, 93 

Tapestries, Gothic, 83, 84 

Theatrical illustration, 6 

Theory, color, 63 

Third to eleventh century dress, 106, 107 

Thirteenth and fourteenth century costume illus- 
trated, 109 

Thirteenth century dress, 110 

Thirteenth century reference books, 111 

Technique catalogue illustrated, 30, 31, 35, 41 42, 
47,51,52,58 

Technique, color, 9 

Technique, crayon pencil, 50 

Technique, crayon pencil illustrated, 7, 59, 124 

Technique, decorating, 40 

Technique, decorative, illustrated, 44, 45, 53 

Technique, decorative half-tone illustrated, 56 

Technique, detail, 37-38 

Technique, detail, illustrated, 42 

Technique, mechanical, see Ben Day, Air Brush, 
Silver Print, Ross Board, etc. 

Technique, pattern pen and ink, 40 

Technique, pen and ink, 38-41 

Technique, pencil, 3 

Technique, realistic, illustrated, 35, 42, 47, 51 

Technique, silhouette, 34-37 

Technique, sketching, 3-10 



INDEX 



Page One Hundred Ninety-nine 



Technique, stipple, 34 

Technique, wash, 47-50 

Tempera, show card colors, 71 

Tertiary colors, 61 

Textile designing, 54-57 

Textile designing, illustrated, 55 

Texture, of paper, 32 

Textures, 37, 38 

Tint, 61 

Toga, Roman, 104 

Tone, 61 

Toothpick construction, 22 

Toothpick construction, applied, 23 

Torso, 14 

Tracing, 32 

Transferring, 32 

Transaction, period, 97 

Treatment, decorative, 38 

Triad harmony, 65 

Triangular erection, 101 

Trianon, Petit, 120 

Trimmings, 37 

Trimmings, illustrated, 5 

Trunk motive, illustrated, 94 

Tucks, 38 

Tucks, illustration, 5 

Tulle, illustrated, 9 

Tunic, Roman, 104 

Twelfth century, costume illustrated, 109 

Twelfth century, dress, 108 

Underwear, illustrated, 52, 64 

Valliere, Mile, de la, 116 

Value, 62 

Value, color, 66 

Values, 52 

Vanderpoel, illustration, 20, 21 



Vanderpoel, J. H., Preface, 19 
Van Dyke, 86 
Valasquez, 86 
Vertical lines, 75 
Vertugale, 113 
Vest, 116 
Victoria, 121 
Vignette, illustrated, 39 
Vulture, Egyptian, 102 

Waist, normal, 122 

Waistcoat, 116 

Walking, illustrated, 22 

Warm color, 61 

Wash, advertising, 47-48 

Wash, catalogue, 48 

Wash, decorative, 48, 50 

Wash, editorial, 47 

Wash, layout illustrated, 41 

Wash, materials, 48 

Wash, methods, 49-50 

Wash, pattern, 47 

Wash, pattern work, 48 

Wash, realistic, 48 

Wash, sketching, 48 

Wash work, 47-50 

Watteau, 86 

Watteau costume, illustrated, 117 

Wattean plait, 118 

Watteau styles, 120 

Weaving, 93 

W^eeks, illustrated, 3 

White, Chinese, 37 

White, crown, 102 

William IV, 121 

William the Conqueror, 107 

Wimple, illustrated, 83 

Women, Egyptian, 102 



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