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By the REV. JOHN A. NAINFa7s. S. 

Piolenor of Church Hiitory and Liturgy, 
St Mary*t Seminary, Baldmore, Md. 

/ hav€ lov^d, O Lord, the btauty nf Tky houee, and 
the piaee where Thy glory dwMeth.'—Tn. xxr. 8. 






Itnptf matut : 

gg Jacobus^Gard. Gibbons, 

ArchUp. BaUimormi. 

Baltiiumub, Fbbb. 18. 1900. 



OomioHTlMi \ ^ 


Hommage d'affectueux respect. 

J. A. N. 


PART I— General Principles. Paob 

Chapter I. — Prelature 11 

Chapter II. —Materials 82 

Chapter III. —Colors ....# 86 

PART II— Different ParU of the Prelatical Coptnme. 

Chapter I. —Cassock or Soutane 88 

Chapter II. — Simar * 47 

Chapter III. —Roman Collar 60 

Chapter IV. —Cincture 62 

Chapter V. —Cloak 66 

Chapter VI. —Rochet 69 

Chapter VII. — Mozzetta 68 

Chapter VIII.— Mantelletta 67 

Chapter IX. — Mantellone 71 

Chapter X. — Cappa Magna 74 

Chapter XL —Hats 81 

Chapter XII. — Biretta 86 

Chapter XIII.— Calotte or Skull-cap 90 

Chapter XIV.— Stockings 94 

Chapter XV. —Shoes 97 

PART III— Some Other Articles Pertaining to the Prelatial Dignity. 

Chapter I. —Pectoral Cross 100 

Chapter II. —Ring 106 

Chapter III. —Mitre 110 

Chapter IV. —Crosier 116 

Chapter V. —Hand-Candlestick 121 

Chapter VI. —Heraldry 128 

Chapter VII. —Use of the Pontificals by Prelates not Invested 

with the Episcopal Character 148 

Chapter VIII.— Some Practical Rules of Etiquette 161 


Doctors 168 


Documents 167 

Bibliography 196 

Synoptic Table 199 

Alphabetical Index 202 


The contents of this little book will be new^ doubtless^ to 
most readers. Indeed, the first reason that prompted its 
composition was the fact that there is not in the English 
language any other work on this subject. 

Really, if we except the important writings of Mgr. Bar- 
bier de Montault, we find scarcely anything treating ew 
prof 6880 of this matter. The works of this learned Prelate 
deserve the reputation they enjoy ; for they are a mine of 
erudition. The information they furnish is, as a rule, 
remarkable for its accuracy. It seems, however, that a 
serious lack of order, numerous and useless digressions, 
and the aggrcfssive tone in which these works have been 
written, have proved a serious hindrance to their popu- 

* To this first reason, rather negative, for its publica- 
tion, I might add a second, that of positive utility. With 
the exception of Italy, there is no other country in which 
the proportion of Prelates is larger than in the United 
States. Now these Prelates would naturally desire to 
have their official costume conform as far as possible to 
the rules and prescriptions of the Church with regard to 
its color, shape, trimmings, etc. They will find this manual 
at least useful aB a book of reference in matter of the cos- 
tume which they are privileged to wear. 

Such a manual seems almost a necessity when we re- 
member that tailors, in making ecclesiastical costumes, 
very often follow their own tastes, fancies, or designs, 
instead of the very clear and precise rules of ecclesiastical 
etiquette. With this manual in hand, they would have 
no longer an excuse for the mistakes they make. 

Even our good Sisters and pious ladies, who so kindly 
and generously shower Christmas presents on the Clergy, 


in the shape of birettas, ^'rabbis/' surplices, cottas, and 
other articles of clerical dress, need to be informed that 
the material, color, shape, trimmings, etc., of these objects 
are regulated not by the rich taste, generous liberality or 
devotion of the giver, but by ordinances of the Church. 

May I not hope, then, that this little book, in spite of 
its shortcomings and imperfections, will prove useful to 
those interested, and be a guide where needed in the 
making up of ecclestical costumes? 

With regard to the various costumes worn by Prelates, 
the will of the Church has been that modifications, how- 
ever excellent and, in some way. Justifiable, should not be 
left to private fancy ; for she clearly foresaw that, after a 
short lapse of years, such toleration would practically do 
away with a unity at once beautiful and instructive. 

Therefore has she laid down for all these costumes pre- 
cise regulations that should not be lightly put aside. Two 
Boman Congregations, the Congregation of Bites and the 
Congregation of the Ceremonial, are especially commis- 
sioned to watch over the exact observance of these rules 
and to secure their preservation. 

It is to the decrees of these two Congregations that I 
have chiefly had recourse in compiling this manual. The 
decrees of the Congregation of Bites are quoted from the 
Collections of Gardellini and Muhlbauer. As to the 
Decrees of the Congregation of the Ceremonial, as there 
exists no official Collection, I have had to rely on the 
authors who quote them. To the decrees, I have joined 
the prescriptions of the Ceremonials, and especially of 
the official books of the Church, the Missal, the Cere- 
monial of Bishops, and the Boman Pontifical, which con- 
tain a wealth of interesting and instructive Bubrics. 

Finally, for the interpretation of decrees and rubrics, 
and for the modern adaptation of all these rules, I have 
consulted authors generally considered the best, who have 


devoted their lives to original research in this matter, 
such as Mgr. Martinucci — **Rew CcieremofUariorium'' — 
Mgr. Barbier de Montault, the Bev. Fr. Haegy, G. S. Sp., 
in his new edition of '^Les C6r6monies Pontificales" of the 
learned Father Levavasseur, etc. 

As to matter that is not to be fonnd in books, I have 
invariably followed Roman Tradition, the only one of 
authority on this point as on all others. 

It goes without saying that I have not failed to mention 
lawful customs where these exist. 

Before closing these few remarks, it is my duty to 
acknowledge my debt of gratitude to all who have in any 
way been a help to me in rendering this small volume less 
unworthy of its readers. They have my sincere thanks. 

I add that I shall gratefully accept any suggestions that 
might aid me to improve this first essay, and declare that 
all the contents of this book, both in general and particu- 
lar, are respectfully and cheerfully submitted to the Judg- 
ment of ecclesiastical authority. 

J. A. Nainfa^ S. S. 

Baltimore, February 18, 1909 





§J. i. Meaning of ths wards Prelate and Prelature, 
2. Origin of Prelature. S. Costume of Prelates. 4. An 

§//. Different classes of Prelates: The Pope; — Car- 
dinals; — Patriarchs; — Archbishops and Bishops; — Reg- 
ular Prelates; — Prelates of the Roman Court. 

§1. Prblatubb. 

1. The word ** Prelate'^ (from prwferre, to put before) is 
a general name for an ecclesiastical dignitary who has 
jurisdiction in foro externa, whether he be a member of 
the secular or of the regular clergy; his jurisdiction not 
being delegated, but inherent to the office he holds.^ 

Prelature (or Prelacy) is the status of a Prelate. This 
term applies to the honor given to a dignitary on account 
of the jurisdiction with which he is invested. 

This is the canonical sense of the words Prelate and 
Prelature. In a wider sense, these designations are ex- 
tended to other dignitaries of various kinds who have no 

*Bbnbdict XIV., De ayn. dioeo,. Book II., ch. XI. — Bonix^ De EfHto, 
Tom. I., pp. G86, seq. — Taunton, The Law of the Church, art. PRiLAn, 
p. 499. 


special jurisdiction, but are personally granted the title 
and honors of Prelates, namely the memters of the Pope's 
Ck>urt and Household. In this sense, the words Prelate 
and Prelature mean nothing else than a superiority of 

In this manual, we use the word Prelate particularly in 
a liturgioal sense. By Prelate^ we understand a digni- 
tary of the Catholic Church, who is entitled to wear a 
special costume, and whose rank deserves special honors, 
lK>th in every-day life and in liturgical functions. 

2; The teaching of the Council of Trent is that the 
Hierarchy* of the Church is, by divine institution, com- 
posed of three elements, Bishops, Priests and Ministers.* 

This simple division having been found insuflScient in 
proportion as Christianity spread, the Church was led to 
create intermediary oflSces which, without interfering with 
the primitive division, constituted supplementary degrees, 
with the view of making the external administration of 
thft Church easier and more effective. For instance, we 
see the institution of Metropolitans,^ of Patriarchs,* the 
gradual growth in the importance of the Sacred College,* 
etc. Thus, alongside of the Hierarchy of Order, divinely 
instituted, grew up the Hierarchy of administration, or of 
Jurisdiction^ as it is called. Both together, harmoniously 

^Freqmntly, avthon qm the words PrtUtwr^ and Pretaoy to designate 
all Prelates taken as a body. 

«TlM word HnaAicHT la taken here In Its proper canonical meanlnf of 
• tody a/ atanfv •/ d^ftrent rente •r •rd«rt» en/dytoy eooleetattlosl p e i e i ' i 
mtmHtif^ te their etveral def re t e . Th% coauMmlj recelTed meanlnf of the 
void JTiersrahy* aasMly that of *nhe hody of the Bishops of a coontiy,** 
Is IncocfocC* 

•**f/ snytni say ihmt, *» the Qis t he W o Oharoh, thsre It net a Merarohy^ 
metlHited hw divine sntheHty^ «tMch een tlt le e/ Mehepe« iVIe tle, nn d 
JTInietera* let Mm he anal fc ewe .**— (ConncU of Trent, Seeslon XXni^ 

«PBiLun, Du drelt MoltolsiUfna, Tom, lU P- 6S. 

•FxtLura, ep^ dl, Tonu lU PP* S6. eeq.— CooncU of NIcca, een, VI. 

Hi^a^aia, Mhilethem, art. Csrdhialet. 

Pbblaturb. 18 

combined, form that admirable organization, the Catholic 
Hierarchy.* i # •. 

Moreover, Popes, desirous of showing their satisfaction 
or good will towards certain members of the Clergy, in- 
vested them with the title and honors of a higher rank, 
without however investing them with the functions per- 
taining to that rank, as, for instance, the Latin incum- 
bents of the Eastern Patriarchates, the titular Arch- 
bishops and Bishops, the honorary Prelates of the Papal 
Court, etc, 

3. When a man is raised to an ecclesiastical dignity, the 
only rule of conduct proper for Catholics to follow is to 
recognize the new dignitary as such, and to give him the 
honors due to his rank. 

But this rank must be indicated in some manner, so 
that the faithful may recognize it and pay it due honor. 
For this purpose, the Church has assigned a special cos- 
tume to various Prelates. Now, the obligation of a Prel- 
ate is correlative. Since it is the duty of the faithful to 
pay due respect to his dignity, the Prelate is reciprocally 
bound to make his digni^ known by wearing the proper 
costume. Owing to personal sentiments of humili^, one 
may sometimes be opposed to this solemn display ; but the 
example given by great saints like the noble Cardinal St. 
Charles Borromeo, and the holy Bishop, St. Francis de 
Sales, who were scrupulously faithful in observing the 
least prescriptions of the Ceremonials, proves that such 
humility has no legitimate foundation. 

4. If an objection is raised on the score of the anti- 
democratic appearance of the Church dignities, our only 
answer is that dignities are not in opposition to the 
democratic spirit of a people if they are within the reach 
of all. Such is the case for the dignities of the Church, in 

^Taunton, The Law of the Cfhureh, Art. HmuLBCHT, pp. 868, 869. — Fn- 
RARiB, Bihlioiheoa cawmioa, art. Hierarohia eooleeiaetha. 


14 GosTUMB OF Prblatbs. 

which ^^the son of a peasant may reach the pontifical 
throne^ as well as a prince who has the prestige of wealth 
and noble blood.'" 

§11. Pbblatss. 

The different classes of Prelates who are the subjects pf 
this preliminary chapter are: The Pope, who is the sn- 
pi?eme Prelate; the Cardinals, Patriarchs, Archbishops 
and Bishops, Regular Prelates and Prelates of the Roman 

Thb Popb. 

Every Catholic knows who the Pope is and the high rank 
he holds in the Church. He is the ^'Bishop of Bishops/'* the 
^'Prelate of Prelates." He possesses supreme and infal- 
lible authority to teach and govern the Church. He is 
a^ve laws and canons/ and, though he has been despoiled 
of his temporal power, he is still recognised as a Sovereign 
by nearly M civilized nations. 

In the present study, we have but to remark that the 
Pope, being the Supreme Prelate, wears a special pre- 
latical costume, and that certain materials and colors are 
reserved for him, as we shall note later. 

Thb Cardinals. 

The Cardinals are those Prelates who form the Senate 
of the Church. Their name, from the Latin word cardo (a 
hinge), seems to indicate that the government of the 
Church rests on them as a door on its hinges.* 

«Thto is strikingly ezempUfled In the penon of our beloTed PontlB, Hla 
HollnMi Piua X^ whose hnmhlo origin te well known to alL 
*P. A. Baabt, The B9 mm m Oamri, p. 88S. 
*mnuLLiAH« De 9m4Mtlm, I., 6. 

«CoiincU of the Vatican, Const AmIst MtsmiM, e. S, 8, 4. 
•SOQUA* IntUtuUomm kirU pmklM, Part II., |41, and others. 

Cardinals. 16 

They are divided into three classes : Cardinal-BishopSy 
Cardinal-Priests and Cardinal-Deacons;^ bnt this distinc- 
tion does not proceed from their ordination; an Arch- 
bishop as, for instance, the Archbishop of Baltimore, is li 
Cardinal-Priest; and a simple cleric may be a Cardinal- 
Deacon : the distinction originates in their titles; for the 
cardinalitial dignity does not belong to the Hierarchy of 
Order, but to that of Jurisdiction.* i 

The title of a Cardinal is taken from the diocese or the 
church to which he is appointed as Cardinal; but ordi- 
narily the word HitW^ is used only to mean the churches 
assigned to Cardinal-Priests. The episcopal sees of Cardi- 
nal-Bishops are usually called ^^suhurhan diooeseaJ'* 

These dioceses, located in the suburbs of Rome (hence 
their name) form the Roman metropolitan province. They 

OsTiA and Vblbtbi^ the Bishop of .which is the Dean of 
the Sacred College ; 

Porto and Santa Rufina^ a see reserved for the Bub- 
Dean of the Sacred College; 

Sarin A, which is not a city, but a territory ; 

Palbstrina^ the Bishop of which is entitled Prwnesti- 
nus Episcopus; 

Frascati^ formerly Tusoulum, a name which has been 
preserved in the title of the Bishop, who is styled Tusou- 
lanus Episcopus; 

Albano^ Albanensis Episcopus. 

Each Cardinal-Priest has for title one of the churches 
of the cily of Rome, which was formerly a parish church. 
The title of a Cardinal-Deacon is also a church, but gener- 


>SooLiA, ibid, — Bonix^ De curia romana, p. 1, etc 
*Fbrrabi8^ BibUoiheoa canoniea, ad art, Oardinal€9, II. 
"SooLiA, op. et too, oil. — Bouiz, loo. oit 


ally one which has been used as the chapel of a hospital or 
asylumi the deacons' functions consisting in providing 
for the necessities of the poor. This ''title" is, even at the 
present day, called Diaoonia (Deaconry).^ 

As a body, the Cardinals are known as the Sacred Col- 
lege. The College is headed by the Dean, who is the first 
of the Cardinal-Bishops in order of seniority, and always 
Bishop of Ostia and Veletri. 

The Cardinals' functions generally consist in acting as 
advisers' and auxiliaries to the Sovereign Pontiff in the 
administration of the Church. They also govern the 
Church during the vacancy of the Holy See and elect the 
new Pope.* 

Their oflScial title is **Eminentis8imuB et Reverendisri- 
inus Dominus/^ and their dignity gives them a right of 
precedence immediately after the Pope and over all those 
who are not Cardinals.* 

They enjoy a great many special privileges which are 
noted in all handbooks of Canon Law.* 

Patbiaechs and Primatis. 

Although, by divine institution aqd ordination, Bishops 
are all equal, yet Ecclesiastical Law has introduced cer- 
tain modifications in episcopal authority, by virtue of 
which, some Bidiops are superior to others, exercising 
over them a real authority, a participation, as it were, of 
the supreme Prelacy of the Sovereign Pontiff. Such are 
PoMarcha, Primates, Archbishops' or Metropolitans.^ 

»ftU4Eis« BaUoth€om» art OmrMm^im, I.— Sixrus V., ConsUt. Po9i- 

(Dm. 8, 1686). 

H3wBi€ll of Trent, SmbIod XXV^ Chapt I^ 0« rt/ormaNoiie. 

•Oi^ DM pmrie,, $. D« alMl im $\ 

«Dteiw of Pope UaB4M VIII. (June 10, 1680). 

qtoom lYn Oonttlt. Nm matfloorl 

«Bootj;» D9 murim rt wam. — 8ooua« /mMI imr. pnkL, part II., ate. 

«Pm nu Oonatlt. MmHrnanm (July 9, 1867). 

Patriarchs. 17 

Literally, the word Patriarch means a "Chief of Fath- 
ers." The appellation is very ancient. The title of the 
early Bishops being that of "Father/' their leaders were 
quite naturally called "Patriarchs." 

This title of Patriarch was first given to the Bishops of 
Rome, Alexandria and Antioch, three episcopal, sees the 
foundation of which is ascribed to St. Peter.^ 

To these three patriarchal sees were soon added the 
bishopric of Jerusalem, on account of the life, death, and 
resurrection of our Lord, and the bishopric of Constanti- 
nople, on account of the new importance given to the city 
as the residence of the Roman Emperor.' 

But since the cities, in which the Eastern patriarchal 
sees were established, have fallen under the domination of 
infidels or schismatics, the Popes, in order to keep alive 
the memory of these illustrious sees, have continued to ap- 
point Latin Patriarchs, who enjoy not only the titles of 
these sees, but the prerogatives and privileges of the patri- 
archal rank as well. However, they have no jurisdiction 
over the territory of their patriarchates. These great 
Prelates are called "Titular Patriarchs."* Pius IX. made 
an exception to the usual practice, when he allowed the. 
Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem a residence in his patri- 
archal city, and invested him with metropolitan jurisdic- 
tion over Jerusalem and its vicinity.^ 

Besides these Latin patriarchs, there are, in the East, 
Catholic patriarchs of the different rites, all of them hav- 
ing over their subjects tlie same traditional authority as 
the ancient patriarchs of the Eastern Church. Such are : 
the Patriarch of Antioch for the Melchites, residence at 
Damascus; the Patriarch of Alexandria for the Copts, 

residence at Cairo (Egypt) ; the Patriarch of Antioch for 


'Phillips^ Du droit eooUHaBiique, Tome II., p. 25. 

^Phillips, loo. eit 

"BiNNBTTts, Privil, 8. Petri, p. 134. — Phillips^ op, dt. Tome II., p. 45. 

K!oiiiUt. Nittttt oelehrior, July 22, 1847 (Pius IX.). 

18 OosraifB or 

the MmnmUet, leridence at Bikorchi (LdMUMMi) ; the Fa- 
triarA €i Antiodi for the Syrtoiu^ leridoiee also at 
BikMchi; the Patriaidi of Babylon for the Cfkmldemmi, 
gfuMmce at Monol (Meaopotaniia), and the Batriardi of 
(Slicia tor the Armematu, reridenoe at OonstantiiM^le.^ 

Betcral Bidiqpe in the Western Ghnrdi have also heat 
gmted the title and honors ni Patriarcha. These are the 
Fatriardi ai Voiice (Italy) ; the Fatriarch of lisbcm 
(F»tBgal) ; the Patriarch of the West Indies, who is the 
flfcaplain Major of the Spanish Army (at ^resoit the 
ArdkMatoip of Toledo, Bpidn) ; and the Patriarch of the 
Eut Indies, idio is the Archbishop of Cioa in India.' 
These are known as '^inor Patriarchs." 

Ptimmiet were Bishops having authority or jurisdiction 
Offer the Ardibishops ni a country or of a considerable 
portion ai a country. Nowadays, the jurisdicton of Pri- 
nates has practically ceased, ^ug|i some Bishops have 
kept the titie, a merely honorary one. Such, for instance, 
are the Archbtdiop of Armagh, ^'Primate of All Irdand;" 
the Archbishop of Dublin, "O^rimate of Ireland;" the 
AifUMkap of Lyons, ''Primate of Oaul;" the Ardibiflhop 
€i Gran, 'HMmate of Hungary," etc* 

In the Eastmi Church, the corresponding title was ttat 

Primates haye no special pririlege with regard to the 
prdatical costume; but Patriarchs possess a certain num- 
ber d distinctions which mark externally tiieir hi^ dig- 
nity: — All Patriardis are Assistants at the Pontifical 
thnme; they rank immediately after Cardinals, and have 
the iniTilege of wearing, even in Rome, the fmoiamttm over 
the m m rn ten etta; their winter cloaks are adorned with a 
bord^ of gold ; etc In Rome, they have the prerogative of 

toe. eU., p. 47. — nAn4mns, •^ ell 
D» Mpim^ Part IT^ sect. 1. cte^ 2. 

Abchbishops and Bishops. 



^. h. 

\^ r 

MMropolitaii CroM. 

consecrating Bishops, if there is no Car- 
dinal at hand to perform the ceremony.^ 

Archbishops and Bishops. 

This is not the proper place to treat of 
the origin of the archiepiscopal dignity. 
SnfiBce it to say that an Archbishop is a 
Prelate invested with the episcopal char- 
acter, and holding a rank immediately 
superior to that of simple Bishops. 

An Archbishop is also called a ''Met- 
ropolitan/' from the ancient custom of 
calling the Bishop of the capital {metrop- 
olis) of a Roman province metropoli- 
ta/nus* The title of Metropolitan is not 
given to titular Archbishops, since they 
have no ordinary jurisdiction over an 
ecclesiastical province. 

The proper insignia of a Metropolitan 
Archbishop are tiie pallium* and the 

The pallium (or pall) consists of a cir- 
cular band of white lamb's wool, from 
which hang two pendants of the same 
material, one of which is meant to fall 
down the middle of the back, and the 
other over the center of the breast. Six 
little black crosses are embroidered on 

>GrimaldIj Let Oongr4gaUan$ romaine$, eh, IX., 
p. 131. — Mgr. BfABTiNUCCty Man, Oaer,, V., ch. 11. 

'Council of NIcea, can. IV. — Bouix^ De Bpito,, 
Tom. I., pp. 460 €t $eq. 

■Pontificals Romano m, De paUio. — Oaer, BpUo., 
I,, XTl. — ICANN, lAvee of lh« Pope*, Tom. I., Ap- 

*Olefn, t, De privUeoiie, — Thomassin, De vet, ei 
nova Bccl, dUeipl, {in loco). 

20 OonuHB or Pbblatm. 

the band and Its lappets. The palllnm Is worn over the 
chasuble at solemn High Mass, on certain days deter- 
mined by the Ceremonial of Bishops. 

The "metropolitan cross," commonly, though improp- 
erly, called "archieplscbpal cross," is mnch like the pro- 
cessional cross,* and is held or carried by a Subdeacon, or 

a member of the Prelate's honsehold, in such a way that 
the crucifix is always turned towards the Prelate.* 

The pallium and the cross, being tokens of jorisdictioD, 
should not be nsed outside of the Pro?ince over which the 

■TUi eroM •boold not b« double-irmtd. 

Vmt. Bpitc. I., 11. 4.— I., W. 1.— n., rtll. ST.— II., nil, 8.— I, IT. «.— 
Il|r. UUTiKDCCi, Ifa*. Oatr., V^ tb. Ill, n. 60, eto. 

Archbishops and Bishops. 21 

Archbishop has authority.^ For this reason, titular Arch- 
bishops can not make nse of the cross and pallium, since 
they have no territorial jurisdiction. 

A Bishop (a word derived from the Qreek iwCatcowoi 
^^overaeer'^) is an ecclesiastical « dignitary who has re- 
ceived, through his consecration, the full priestly char- 
acter, and has the special charge of governing a deter- 
mined portion of the Christian flock under the supervi- 
sion of the Sovereign Pontiff.' 

An Archbishop or a Bishop is called residential when 
he occupies a see canonically erected, with residence in 
and ordinary jurisdiction over the limited territory an- 
nexed to the city from which the see takes its name. 

He is styled titular when he has no ordinary jurisdic- 
tion over the diocese of which he bears the title, his episco- 
pal or archiepiscopal see being under the domination of 
infidels or schismatics.* Formerly, Titular Bishops or 
Archbishops were also styled ^'Bishops (or Archbishops) 
in partihus infidelium/' (in the countries of infidels) ; but, 
yielding to the protests of the schismatic Greeks, under 
whose domination most of these titular sees are located. 
Pope Leo XIII. abolished the title of ^'Bishop in partibus 
infidelium/' and decreed that henceforth only the title of 
"Titular Bishop (or Archbishop) of N. in N." (the name 
of the episcopal city, with that of the ancient Roman 
province to which the city belonged) should be used: Thus 
"Right Reverend N. N. N., Titular Bishop of Rosea in 

Archbishops and Bishops, when promoted to the rank of 
"Assistants at the Pontifical Throne," become members of 
the Papal household. They obtain the privilege of a spe- 
cial place at the Papal '^chapels/'^ where they act as book- 

>(7op. 4, De avot, et U9u polIK. 
*Oan, Qui Bpiaoopatum, 11, oau9. 8, quae$t. 7. 

"Bbnbdict XIV., De »yn, dioeo.. Book II., ch. ▼!!. — Lno XIII., Constlt. 
In Suprema (June 4, 1882). 
^Decree of the Propaganda (Febr. 27, 1882.) — Lno XIII.'b Oonet eit 
*A "ohapeV it a religious lerylce at which the Pope offldatet or ftMlata. 


bearer and candle-bearer, and have the right of celebrating 
High Mass in presence of the Pope. Together with the 
brief of appointment, they receive firom the Secretariate of 
Briefs a diploma written on parchment, giving the fnll 
list of their rights and privileges, many of which have 
fallen into disuse, especially tiiose regarding the con- 
ferring of benefices.^ 

As members of the Papal Court, the Assistants at the 
. Pontifical Throne are entitled to wear its insignia, name- 
ly, silk clothes in summer. But that privilege is conceded 
only for the time which they actually spend in Borne; 
their title of '^Assistants" giving them no right of pre- 
cedence or distinction among the other Bishops, except at 
the Boman Court.* 

The title is very seldom granted motu praprio, because 
the Boman Court wishes the precept retained : ^'Ask and 
you shall receive." But, if a Bishop makes application, 
the title is bestowed upon him without the slightest difiS- 

Together with the title of '' Assistant at the Pontifical 
Throne," the Bishop generally receives that of Roman 
Count, that is ^^Count of the Apostolic Palace and of the 
Lateran Court J^^ 

Bbgulab Pbblatbs. 

In Canon Law, the title of *^Regular Prelate'' is given to 
a religious superior having over his subjects a quasi-epis- 
copal jurisdiction." 

>Orimaldi« op. oit, ch. v., pp. 61, 62. — Fisqubt^ OirhnonieB de Borne 
ipoBMim). — Baron Qbbaicb^ VMt to Rome, p. 156. — ^T. Fove, Holy Week 
in the Vatican, p. 852. 

*Mgr. Babbibb db Monti ult^ Le coetume et lee ueagee eoolSeiaeUquee, 
Tom. I., p. 54. 

•OaiiCALDi^ op. dt,, oh, V,, p. 62. 

*Mgr. Babbibb db Montault^ Traits pratique . . . Tom. I., p. 478. — 
Qbimaldi, loo, oit,, op, oit,, ch. xxyii., p. 484. — Mgr. A. Battandibb, An- 
nuaire pontifical (1899, p. 865). 

•(7/. Suabbb, De ReUg,, tract, VIII., lib, II., oop. II., iiMin 7. — Fbbbarib, 
BihUotheoa, art. Praelatue regularie and Regularee, 

Bbgular Prelates. 23 

Here, we take the title as that of a Prelate (in the 
broad, liturgical sense of this word) belonging to a Re- 
ligious Order; and this practically includes only Cardi- 
nals, Bishops and Abbots. 

The Cardinals and Bishops who are taken from a 
Religious Order still remain substantially bound by their 
religious vows, as far as these are not in opposition to 
their duties and dignity as Prelates.^ 

According to Common Law, they should continue to 
wear the habit of their Order. However, the custom of 
using the same form as that of the secular Prelates' cos- 
tume is tolerated. The color of the prelatical dress is 
the same as that of the religious habit, unless otherwise 
determined by the traditions of the Order (as, for in- 
stance, the Franciscans), or by special concessions of the 
Holy See.» 


The different costumes of Prelates taken from Religious 
Orders have been regulated as follows: 

OlericB Regular, t. e. those who have adopted the new 
type of religious life inaugurated in the sixteenth century, 
as Theatines, Barnabites, Jesuits, Oratorians, Passionists, 
Bedemptorists, Paulists, etc., when appointed Cardinals 
or Bishops, adopt the costume of secular Prelates,* be- 
cause they are looked upon as such ; with this restriction, 
however, that they have no right to make use of silk, 
except for the trimmings and accessories of their cos- 

Cardinals and Bishops belonging to the Orders of St. 
Basil, of Vallombrosa, and of the Regular Canons and 

>SuARBZ, De RtMg,, traoi. VIII., lib. III., oh, XVI. — Cap, Si ReUffioBU9 
tt, D€ •leol. In «*. — S. C. C, Decemb. 7, 1680. 

*Oap, €llerici, IS, De vita et honeHate cleric, — Fbbraris^ Bihliotheea, art. 
Bpieeopue. VII. — Oaer, Bpiac. I., 1., 4. 

HJaer, JVpito. I., 111., 4. — Mabtinucci^ Man, Oaer,, V., ch. 11. 

^ABBIBB DB MoMTAULT, Trait6 pratique . . . Tom. II., p. 524. — 
Martinucci^ loo. cit, VI. Appendiw, — Qrimaldi. op. c<t., ch.* y\\V«^ ^. YW. 

24 GosTUMB OF Pbblatbs. 

Hermits of St. Augustine {Augustiniana) wear an en- 
tirely black costume.^ 

The prelatical dress of the Benedictines is black with 
red lining and trimmings. The cloak (ferraiolo)^ however, 
should be entirely black.* 

The monks of St. Sylvester, when promoted to Prelacy, 
dress in a beautiful blue costume. 

The Camaldules, the Premonstratensians, the members 
of the Orders of Our Lady of Mercy and of the Holy 
Trinity, and the Olivetans, wear a prelatical costume 
entirely white. 

The Cistercians, and the Reformed Cistercians (Trap- 
pists), wear cassock, simar, cincture, collaro and stock- 
ings made of white material; but the mozzetta, mantel- 
letta and cloak (ferraiolo) are black. The oappa magna 
is also black, with a cape of ermine in winter and of 
white silk in summer. The color of the trimmings con- 
forms to that of the different portions of the costume.* 

The Prelates belonging to the Order of St. Dominic 
dress in the same colors as the Cistercians, but the trim- 
mings, lining and buttons are all white, even for the 
black portions of the costume. 

Franciscans, when promoted to Prelacy, lay aside the 
brown, or black material of their habit, and vest in a 
dress of ash-colored gray (a color which contemporary 
paintings ascribe to the habit worn by St. Francis). The 
cappa magna of these Prelates is of the same color, and is 
furred, in winter, with vicunia's skin. 

^Babbibb db Montadlt, op. dt., Tom. II., p. 528. — BfASTiMUCCi^ loo. oit. 

*Gbimaldi« op. dt., eh. VIII., p. 114 ; ch. XXIX., p. 614. 

*The costume here described is the one worn In Rome and In Italy by 
the Prelates of the two branches of the Cistercian Order. Outside of 
Italy, custom prevails that the Prelates of the Reformed Cistercians wear 
a prelatlal costume entirely white. 


Abbots. 26 

Alone in the Franciscan family, the Capuchins do not 
change the color of their dress when becoming Prelates. 
The winter cape of the cappa magna is made of otter's 

Carmelite Prelates retain in their costume the two 
colors, brown and white, of the religious habit of the 
Order. The cassock, simar and cincture aire brown; the 
mozzetta, mantelletta, ferraiolo and cappa magna, white. 
The Cardinals belonging to the Order have the privilege 
of wearing this costume lined and trimmed in purple, with 
purple stockings and a purple cincture. 

All Cardinals, both secular and regular, wear the 
proper insignia of the Cardinalate — hat, biretta, and skull 
cap of scarlet silk — without regard to the color of their 

Likewise, Bishops, whatever their origin, are all en- 
titled to wear the hat with green cordons and tassels,* the 
purple biretta' and skull-cap,^ these being the proper in- 
signia of the episcopal oflSce. 



There are two classes of Abbots, the Abbots nulUua and 
the Abbots regiminis or ''Simple Abbots." 

The Abbots nullius dioeceseos (i. e., belonging to no 
diocese), usually called Abbots nulUii8, are those who 
have full jurisdiction over a certain territory and its in- 
habitants, with absolute exemption from the authority of 
any Bishop.* 

■Gbbgobt XIV., Const. SaneiitHmui. — ^Battandibb^ Annuaire Pontifical 
(1008), p. 859. 

*Oaer. Epi9c, I., 1., 4. — MABTiifDCCi^ Man, Oaer. V., ch. II., n. 19. 

*Lbo XIII., Const. Praeolaro divinae graiiae, 

*PiDS IX., Const. BeoUMiarum omnium, 

*Bbnbdict XIV., De 9yn, dioec. Book II., ch. XI. — FEUtLAtuB, BibUoiheoa, 
art. Addot. 


tiim^ Abbots are those who have jurisdiction in 
Ab«Mr NMMiastery and its annexed territory, though tiiis 
t^ritMMn is within the limits of a diocese, the Bishop of 
wnbkh has a right of supervision, pr^^edence and inter- 
toaenee in the monastery itself.^ 

Both classes of Abbots, though not invested with the 
episcopal character, possess the privilege of using the 
"^ntiflcals,"* with this difference, that the Abbots nul- 
ltu$ are allowed their use at all times and without restric- 
tions, while the privilege of simple Abbots is limited by 
law and by the presence of the diocesan Bishop. In an 
Abbey nvlliuB, a Bishop is always considered '^outside of 
his diocese," even if the territory of the Abbey is enclosed 
in his own diocesan territory ; while, on the contrary, in a 
simple Abbey, the Bishop, in whose diocese the Abbey is 
located, is in his diocese.* 

Abbots regiminis, as well as Abbots nullius, add to their 
monastic habit the pectoral cross and the ring.^ 

They have also the privilege of vesting in the mozzetta 
when acting within the limits of their territory, and the 
mantelletta when they live outside. The mozzetta and 
mantelletta are of the same color as the religious habit.* 
Begularly speaking, they should not make use of the 
rochet; but ordinarily this. is conceded by special favor 
of the Holy See.* 

An Abbot nullius in his territory may wear the oappa 
magna' of the same shape and color as the Bishops belong- 

^SiBABTiANSLLi^ Dc per§(mi9, p. 350, n. 297. — FmtSABis^ loc. oit, 

*Pi08 VII., Constit. Deoet Romanum PonUfUsem, July 28, 1823. 

HJop, Cum ptfrtofiae. — Cap. Bi Papa, De privil^U, in $*. — Bmtrav. An- 
hiUoMae, De rebu9 BoeleHae non alienandU, etc — S. R. C, February 7, 

«Pina VII., Oonet oil— BxtenslTe decree of the S. R. C, Sept. 17, 1669. 

Tadmton, The Law of the Church, Art. "Abbat./* p. 8, n. 10. 

•S. B. C, Decree of Septemb. 17, 1659, n. 9.— Battandibe^ Annuoire 
(1900), p. 421. 

*BAiBnn Di MOMTAOLT^ Le eo»tume et let ueagee ecciUiaeti^uee, Tom. I., 
p. 875. 

Roman Prblatbs. 27 

ing to the Order; but this vestment, if not personally 
conceded, can not lawfully be worn by simple Abbots. 

All Abbots, without regard to the color of their mo- 
nastic habit, are free to wear a black hat with cords and 
tassels of the same color, and also a black biretta and a 
black skull-cap. They place their black hat over their 
armorial shield. 

Abbots General have, as a rule, the same honorary 
privileges as the Abbots nulUiis; but they have no terri- 
torial jurisdiction, their authority extending only over 
the monks of the Order. 

The Prblatbs of thb Roman Court. 

The Pope, Cardinals, Patriarchs, Primates, Archbishops, 
Bishops and Abbots are properly and canonically called 
^'PrelatesJ^ But, besides these, there is, in the Roman 
Church, a class of ofiScials invested by the Pope with the 
title and dignity of Prelates, who are commonly entitled 
^'Roman Prelates,'* or "Prelates of the Roman Court," 
Romanae Curiae Antiatites. 

Formerly, these Prelates were simply the oflScers of the 
Papal Court, composing the household of the Sovereign 
Pontiff, or filling different offices in the "Congregations." 
Little by little, especially during the last century, the 
number of these Prelates was largely increased by the con- 
ferring upon priests the title and honors attached to these 
offices, without, however, granting these new dignitaries 
any part in the general administration of the Church. 

These honorary dignities, bestowed upon a priest, give 
him the title and honors attached to them, with a deter- 
mined precedence over certain other classes of ecclesias- 
tics ; but do not affect his jurisdiction. 

The papal household is composed of two classes of Prel- 
ates: the Prelates di mantelletta and the Pi^\a.\!^ ^ 

28 CoflTUMi OF Philatib. 

mamtelUme^ so called from the kind of oflScial garment 
they wear. The Prelates di mantelletta are really <Trel- 
ateSy" their title is personal and their appointment is for 
life* Their Prelatnre is something permanent, and they 
ean be dismissed only for nnworthiness or crime, after a 
regular trial, or motu proprio, by a positive act of the 
Borereign Pontiff. 

The Prelates di mantellone enjoy the title and honors 
of Prelates, though they are not Prelates in reality. Their 
Prelatnre is simply an office or an honor attached to an 
oiBce, and it does not affect their personality. Their ''Prel- 
atnr^' is not permanent, though they are not dismissed 
except for cause. However, they lose their title and their 
office on the Pope's death, because they are regarded as his 
personal officers, and his successor is not bound to keep 
the same attendants. 

When the new Pope is elected, they may apply for a re- 
newal of their Prelacy, and the favor is generally granted 
without any difficulty. But, during the vacancy of the 
Holy See, and until they are reinstated by the newly- 
elected Pope, they must faithfully abstain from wearing 
the costume proper to the dignity which they have lost. 

The Patriarchs, Archbishops and Bishops Assistants at 
the Pontifical Throne, and the Prelates di mantelletta, 
essentially constitute the household of the Sovereign Pon- 
tiff, hence their general title of '^Domestic Prelates." 

If the Prelates di mantelletta belong to a ''College/'^ 
they bear the title especially attributed to the members of 
that College; if they do not belong to a College, they are 
simply given the general title of Domestic Prelates. 

The different Colleges of Domestic Prelates are : 
The Patriarchs. 

*The word "College" means a group or assembly of Prelates Invested 
with the same title, enjoying the same honors and privileges, and per- 
forming the tame functions at the Roman Court. 

Roman Prblatbs. 29 

The Archbishops and Bishops Assistants at the Pon- 
tifical Throne* 

The ProtonOtaries^ Apostolic. 

The Auditors of the Bota. 

The Clerks of the Bev. Apostolic Camera. 

The Prelates voting and referees of the Signature. 

The Abbreviators of the Major Park. 

After these Prelates, come those who do not belong to a 
College, styled in general ^^Domestio Prelates.'^ 

There are four classes of Protonotaries Apostolic: 

1. The Protonotaries Apostolic de numero partidpan- 
Hum, i. e., of. the number of the participating, generally 
reckoned as "Protonotaries Apostolic di humero/' who 
form a "College" of seven Prelates, acting as oflScial 
Notaries to the Sovereign Pontiff. 

2. The Protonotaries Apostolic Supernumerary, who 
obtain their title from being appointed Canons of certain 
Roman Basilicas. 

3. The Protonotaries Apostolic ad instar participant 
tium (or, more usually, ^^ad instar'^), who may obtain 
their title either by their appointment as Canons of cer- 
tain Cathedrals, the Chapter of which have been granted 
such privilege, or — and this is the general rule — ^from be- 
ing raised to that dignity by the Sovereign Pontiff. The 
Prelates, known as "Protonotaries Apostolic" in this coun- 
try, belong to this third class of Protonotaries. 

4. The "Titular (or Honorary) Protonotaries Apos- 
tolic," also called "Black Protonotaries," are not mem- 

>Throughout this treatise the word Protonotary Is spelled without the 
"h," which Is usually Inserted. Protonotary Is derived from proio$, 
first, not from prothot. The Latin, Italian, French, Spanish languages 
retain proio In protonotary, just as In protomartyr and similar compound 
words. Can any good reason be given for writing prothonoiarp, except 
that some one else has done It? — P. A. Baast^ TM Roman Court, Preface. 

30 CosTUMB or Phblatbs. 

bers of the Pontifical Household; they enjoy the privi- 
leges of the prelatical rank only outside of the City ot 
Rome, and, as will be said later, their prelatial dress is 
entirely black, without any addition of red or purple. 

Such Protonotaries are nowadays very seldom directly 
appointed. But, since 1905, the title and honors of Titu- 
lar Protonotaries Apostolic belong, plena iure, to the 
Vicars General of Bishops, and to the Vicars Capitular of 
vacant dioceses, if these dignitaries are not Prelates 

The important privileges peculiar to thedi£Ferent classes 
of Protonotaries Apostolic have been recently modified, 
and are all expressed in the Constitution Inter multi- 
pUces, issued motu propria by Pope Pius X., on February 
21, 1905. Therefore, all manuals treating of the subject 
should be corrected according to the regulations of that 

The other Prelatial Colleges consist of Prelates who 
hold ofiBces with practical functions in Roman Congrega- 
tions and Tribunals and who are bound to reside in Rome. 

After these, come those Prelates di mantelletta, who 
have been much increased numerically in these last years, 
who belong to no College, and who, therefore, are simply 
called ^'Domestic Prelates.'' 

As has been said, the Prelates di mantellone are the 
attendants on the person of the Holy Father. They belong 
to two di£Ferent classes, Chamberlains and Chaplains. 

Those who have to fulfill real functions in the Vatican 
Palace are styled "participating" or "di numero," the 
others are honorary. 

Their order of precedence is as follows : 

Private Chamberlains participating. 

Private Chamberlains supernumerary. 

^Thif Important document !■ given In full In Appendix II. 

Roman Pbblatb& 31 

Private Chamberlains of honor in ahito paonazzo.^ 

Private Chamberlains extra Urhem (outside the city) • 

Private Chaplains participating. 

Private Chaplains of honor. 

Private Chaplains extra Urhem (outside the city). 

The Six Common Chaplains participating. 

Common Chaplains supernumerary. 

All these Prelates wear the same costume, and are given 
the same marks of honor. Those entitled extra Urhem, 
that is, "outside the City of Rome," are never allowed to 
make use, of their prelatical privileges in Rome. They 
could, however, do so in the presence of the Pope, should 
he happen to take up his residence outside of Rome, as 
was quite often done before the invasion of the Pontifical 
States by the House of Savoy. 

All that regards the costumes of these Prelates will be 
found hereafter in the Chapter which treats of the Man- 

The classes of Prelates are so numerous that, though 
only a few lines have been devoted to each, this chapter 
has taken on unusual length. This, however, was neces- 
sary, as in the succeeding chapters, constant allusions and 
references will be made to these various classes of Prel- 
ates, allusions and references which would not be easily 
understood without the general notions Just indicated. 

«"In purple habit 


32 Costume of Philatis. 


i. Different Kinds of Materials. — 2. Velvet Reserved for 

the Pope. — S. Other Materials Proper for the Pope. 

4. Watered Silk. — 5. Plain Silk. — 6. Cloth and 

Other Woolen Materials. — ^7. Seasons. 

1. The various materials used for the ecclesiastical cos- 
tume are, velvet, watered silk, plain silk, cloth and other 
woolen materials, as serge, merino (^^drap d^iti^^)^ etc. 

2. Velvet is exclusively reserved for the Pope. No 
ecclesiastic, whatever may be his dignity, is allowed to 
have any part of his costume made of this material.^ It 
is hardly necessary to remark that this principle is op- 
posed to the practice of wearing a velvet biretta, and of 
ornamenting the cassock with a velvet collar or velvet 

Some old ceremonials, or other books dealing with 
ecclesiastical etiquette, generally of French or German 
origin, assert that velvet cuffs on the purple cassock of 
Bishops are a privilege of the '^Assistants at the Pontifical 
Throne;" but this assertion has no foundation in law or 

3. Besides velvet, the Pope makes use of silk, either 
watered or plain; but, among silk materials, satin like- 
wise is exclusively reserved for him. In winter, he lays 

^Babbibb db Montadlt, Le oo9iume et let u$age9 eoolMa9tique$, Tom. 
I., p. 53, seq. — The only exception is found In the costume of traln-bearera ; 
these wear a purple cassock with buttons and trimmings of black velvet ; 
but this cassock Is rather a livery-garment than a piece of ecclesiastical 

Materials. 33 

aside his silk dress, and wears a light one of fine cloth. 
Both in winter and summer, he wears a dress of serge on 
penitential days.^ 

4. Watered silk is reserved for Cardinals. They make 
use of this rich and beautiful material for the choir- 
cassock, cappa magna and mozzetta during summer. In 
winter, their cassocks and mozzette are of cloth.* 

5. Plain silk is the material of which the costumes of 
the Papal Court and Household are made." In summer, 
the Prelates di mantelletta and the Prelates di mantel- 
lone, whether they live at the Roman court or outside of 
the City, must wear a cassock of plain purple silk, and, 
respectively, a mantelletta or a mantellone of the same 
material. Cloth replaces silk in winter.^ 

Those Bishops who have received the title of Assistants 
at the Pontifical Throne belong to the Papal Household 
and are, therefore, entitled to wear a silk costume, but 
only when they actually live in Rome. Outside of the 
papal city, they are not allowed to wear a dress different 
from that of other Bishops." 

6. According to the Ceremonial of Bishops, cloth audi 
other woolen materials only are allowed to be used in 
making the costumes of the Cardinals who belong to Re- 
ligious Orders, of Archbishops, Bishops and Clergy. For 
them all, etiquette prescribes cloth in winter, and some 
lighter material, as merino, in summer.* 

>Barbibr db MoNTAULT^Ioacit — Battandibr, Annuaire Poniifloal (1002), 
p. 104. — GniMALDi^ op, cit,, ch. I., p. 6, neq. — Baron Gbbamb^ Visit to 
Rome, pp. 08-104. 

9ABBIBB DB MONTADLT^ Op. cit, Tom. I., p. 54. GBIMALDI, Op. Cit, Ch. 

v., p. 60. 

*8ame references. 

<Same references. ^ 

"Barbibb db MontaulTj ibid. — Gbimaldi^ op. cit, ch. V., pp. 61, 62. 

Kfaer, Epiac. I., 1., 1. — I., 111., 1. — Cap. Olerid, 45. De vita et Hon. Oler. — 
Bbmbdict XIII., Const. OuBtodet (March 7, 1725). — ^Un Eveqne Suffragan!^ 
Le O^imonial de» Bv€que8 commenti et esBpliqui, Liv. 1., Ch. I., p. 2. 

84 OosTUMi OP Pbilatmu 

Although Archbishops and Bishops are not allowed to 
wear a silk dress, yet they may use that material for the 
accessories of their costumes, as collaro, skull-cap, cinc- 
ture, stockings, etc. ; but the silk must be plain ; nobody, 
except Cardinals, being permitted to wear watered silk. 
A fortiori, velvet must be avoided. 

7. There are but two seasons in the year with regard to 
ecclesiastical dress, ivinter and summer. No rule, how- 
ever, has been determined for the beginning or the end of 
these seasons. It is the Bishop who has to regulate this 
for his own diocese. Generally speaking, summer is sup- 
posed to begin about Easter, and winter, about All Saints' 



1. Colors Used. — 2. Regulars. — S. Black. — 4. Purple. — 

5. A Very Common Error. . . . — 6. White. — ^7. Boar- • 

let Red. — 8. Am^iranth Red. — 9. Other Colors. 

1. The colors adopted for the ecclesiastical costume 
are: White, Red, Purple and Black. To these colors 
proper for the secular clergy, must be added the di£Ferent 
colors fixed for the Religious Orders by their respective 

2. We have previously remarked that when a member 
of some Religious Order is promoted to the Cardinalate or 
episcopal dignity, he must retain, for his prelatical cos- 
tume, the color used for the habit of the Order to which he 
belongs. However, he may adopt a finer material and the 
shape of the costume of secular Prelates. We speak here 
of the Religious Orders properly so-called only, as Bene- 
dictines, Carmelites, Franciscans, Dominicans, etc. The 
Clerics Regular, as Jesuits, Redemptorists, Theatines,etc., 
when promoted to prelatical rank, adopt for their costume 
that of secular Prelates, without, however, being allowed 
to use silk, except for the cincture, skull-cap and other 
small accessories.* 

3. Since the seventeenth century, tlack is the obligatory 
color for the clothing of the secular clergy of second rank 
in all the Western Church.* There is no exception to this 
general regulation, save for the clergy of tn)pical coun- 
tries, who are permitted to wear white clothes on account 

>B*NiiDiCT XIII., OoMt cii, — Fbbbaris^ Bihlioiheoa, lart Bpi»oopu$, 

*Oaer. Epi»o., I., 1., 4. 

"Decree of Pope Urban VIII. (Novem. 26, 1624). 

86 CosTUMi OP Pbilatis. 

of the exceedingly hot climate; and for seminariang and 
members of the Bishop's household, who should wear a 
purple cassock. 

Prelates, Bishops and the members of the Sacred Col- 
lege also use black^ for their everyday costume (and 
their street-dress in Catholic countries) ; but their block 
dress is trimmed icith red or purple, according to their 
rank in the hierarchy, and the different seasons of the 
ecclesiastical year, as will be explained further on. 

4. Purple, or violet, is a sign both of Prelature and of 
livery. It especially characterizes the Prelature and the 
Episcopacy; but as it is an ofiScial dress, it can be worn 
only in church and on certain well defined occasions. 

Purple is the proper color to be used by Cardinals in 
times of penance and mourning, while Bishops should, at 
such times, make use of black only. The general rule 
holds good, that when Cardinals exchange their red cos- 
tume for purple. Bishops exchange their purple for black.* 

5. It is an error to suppose that a purple cassock is ex- 
clusively a prelatical privilege. It is likewise the color 
reserved for ecclesidstical Livery. 

First of all, it is the color used by the whole Pontifical 
Household.' With the exception of the Bussolanti, who 
are clad in red, all others, no matter what their rank, dig- 
nity or employment at the Papal Court, Prelates, ushers 
of the palace, chanters, clerics, acolytes of the Papal 
chapel, chamber valets, etc., all wear purple as a distinc- 
tive sign of their rank, dignity or office.* 

Secondly, purple is the color of the episcopal Livery. 
Thus, according to rules laid down by the Ceremonials,* 

*Cf. Un ET6que Suffragant, O^Smanial de$ BvSques oommenii ei em- 
pliqu€t p. 18. 

*Babbibb db Montault^ op, di., Tom. I., p. 58. 

"Gbimaldi^ Lea oongr^gation$ rotnatnea, ch. V. 

^Babbibb db Montadlt, op. cii., Tom. I., p. 58. 

•Oaer, BpUo. I., v., 4.— S. R. C, February 29, 1868— Dec. 14, 1804. 

Colors. 37 

Masters of Ceremonies of the cathedral church, the train- 
bearer of the Bishop/ the cross-bearer of the Metropolis 
tan,* all the members of the diocesan Seminary, as well as 
the employees of the cathedral, namely, sacristans, ushers, 
chanters, etc., all wear purple. 

The use of purple for the collaro, belt, and stockings, is 
an exclusive prelatial privilege, and the purple skull-cap 
and purple biretta are exclusive episcopal insignia. There- 
fore, those who may wear a purple cassock as a livery cos- 
tume are never allowed to wear a purple collaro, or purple 
stockings, much less a purple skull-cap or a purple 

6. White is reserved for the Pope. He uses it for his 
cassock, simar and other ordinary clothing. But he uses 
red for his cloak, mozzetta, hat and shoes.' 

7. Scarlet red is proper for Cardinals.^ 

8. Bishops and the Prelates di mantelletta may use 
amaranth red for the trimmings of their black dress, such 
as buttons, buttonholes, lining, etc. The trimmings of 
their purple dress are of crimson red. At all times, the 
same accessories must be purple in the dress of the Prel- 
ates di mantellone; and, for Bishops, in penitential sea- 
sons and on occasions of mourning. 

9. Other colors that may be met with in some places are 
worn through special privileges granted by the Sovereign 
Pontiff, or in virtue of immemorial customs. 

^LaYAYASSBUB-HABOT, FonotionB Poniiflcale9, II., p. 278. — S. R. C, Aug. 
2, 1608.— Jan. 24, 1660. 

'Lbtayassbub-Habot, F<moUon9 Poniifioalea, II., p. 805. 

"All Ceremonials in loco, — ^Barbibb db Montault^ op. cit, Tom. I., p. 57. 
— Baron Qbbamb^ Vi9tt to Rome, Letter X., pp. 08-104. — Fisqubt^ Oiri- 
monie» de Rome (paeHm). 

^Decree of Innocbnt IV. (1244). — Decree of Bonifacb VIII. (1248). 
— Barboba^ lurie eoolee. univ.. Lib. I., Cap. III., n. 8. 




In this Second Part, all the different pieces of the j^re- 
latical dress will be studied snccessively, each one furnish- 
ing the subject of a short and substantial chapter. 


Cassock or Soutane. 

Cassock. — Prescription of. Councils. — Two Kinds of Pre- 
latial Cassocks. — Ordinary Cassock. — Choir Cassock. 

The Cassock (or Boutane, Vestis, Vestis talaris, Sub- 
tanna, Suhtanea) is the principal part of the ecclesiasti- 
cal costume. It is a long, close garment covering the 
entire body from the neck to the feet, hence its Latin 
name, Vestis talaris/SL garment reaching to the heels.^ 

All the decrees of Councils, legislating upon ecclesiasti- 
cal attire, prescribe that the cassock is to be worn by all 
clerics in sacred Orders in the place of their residence.' 

The decree of the Third Plenary Council of Baltimore is 
as follows :''... Volumus itaque et praeoipimus ut 
omnes Ecclesiae legem servent, domique agentes vel in 

'Rubric of the MIbbeI, Rit 9erv, in eeleh, Mi$9,, n. 2. 
*Cr>unctl of Trent, SesB. XIV., Cap. VI., De Reform. 

Ordinary Cassock. 39 

templo, veste talari, quae clerioo propria est, semper utan- 
fur/'— III., 77.^ 

The obligation of "wearing the cassock is the same for 
Prelates, Priests and other clerics ;* but here we treat only 
of the cassock as worn by Prelates, and we distinguish 
two kinds of prelatial cassocks : 

1. The ordinary or every-day cassock. 

2. The choir cassock. 

Article I. 
Ordinary Cassock. 

1. Its Bhape and Use. — 2. Pope. — S. Cardinals. — 4. Arch- 

bishops, Bishops and Prelates di Mantelletta. — 5. 

Prelates di Mantellone. — 6. Canons. — ^7. Belig- 

ioiM. — 8. Clerics Regular. 

1. The ordinary cassock is that worn by Prelates in 
daily life, at home and in church, at private ceremonies, 
such as the celebration of Low Mass, etc. In Catholic 
countries, it is worn out of doors. ^ 

This cassock should not be mistaken for the ^'simar," 
which will be dealt with in the following chapter. 

The model of the ordinary cassock, according to Roman 
etiquette, is the same as that universally adopted in this 
country. It must be noted, however, that the front part 
should be made of only one piece dropping from the neck 
to the feet,' and not of two pieces (widst and skirt) sewed 
together, as is often done. 

>".... We wish, therefore, and we command that all [ecdeal- 
astlcfl] keep the Law of the Church, and, whether at home or In church, 
always wear the cassock, which Is the proper garb for clerics.*' 

"Council of Trent., Sess. XIV., Dwrei de Reform, ProowUmm. 

*Babbibb d* Montaolt^ op. oitt Tom. I., p. 78, seq. 

40 Conuui or Piblatsb. 

The ileeves ure wide, and an timed op with plain cnflFa 
without buttona. 

Prom the neck to the 
feet, the front part ia 
faatned with a row of 
amall ronnd hattona 
covered with ailk. 

The collar (a atand- 
ing collar) ia cnt in 
froDt, to order to ahow 
the Roman collar. 

This caaaock haa no 
train ; ita bottom is cat 
round, the front and the 
back being of eqnal 
length. The train ia the 
diatiactiTe charaeteria- 
tic of the choir caa- 

The garment haa two 
pocketi, one on each 
aide. Interior pockets 
uiaj be added at will, 
but there shoald be no 
exterior pocket for tlie 
watch, Roman etiquette 
forbidding any metallic 
ornament otiher than 
the chain of the pec- 
toral crosa. The watch 
maybe put inthepocket 
of the vest, or in a spe- 
cial pocket on the in- 
side of the cassock. 

The ordinary cassock 
varies in color, accord- 

■BiaBiia ■>■ HoMTADUi, Im. M. — QitHAUi, «p. dt., p. S8. 

Ordinary Cassock. 41 

ing to the different degrees of the ecclesiastical hier- 

2. The Pope's ordinary cassock is entirely white, with- 
out trimmings of any color. The material for this cas- 
sock is brilliant silk satin, in summer, and fine cloth in 
winter. White watered silk is ordinarily reserved for his 
choir cassock.^ 

3. The ordinary cassock of Cardinals is made of black 
woolen material lined and trimmed with scarlet red silk.' 

4. Archbishops, Bishops, and the Prelates di mantel- 
letta wear the same ordinary cassock as the Cardinals; ex- 
cept that the trimmings and lining are of amaranth red 
silk, instead of scarlet.* 

5. The Prelates di mantellone wear also the same cas- 
sock, but with purple trimmings and lining.* 

6. Some Canons (for instance, those of Montreal, Can- 
ada,) are allowed a special cassock with red or purple 
trimmings (purple for those of Montreal) ; but this cas- 
sock should never be worn outside of the limits of the 
diocese in which the Chapter is constituted. 

7. Religious, when promoted to Cardinalate or to the 
episcopal dignity, lay aside the habit of the Order and 
wear the cassock; but for them there is no difference of 
color between the ordinary cassock and the choir cas- 

>Oriicaldi, op. oit, Ch. I. — Babbibb db Montault, op. dt., 1?om. I., p. 
276. — ^Baron Qbbamb, YiBit to Rome, Letter X. — J. di Nabvom, Lion XHL 
iniime, p. 186. 

*Un Eyeque Saffragant, op. cit, p. 13. — ^Babbibb db Moxttault, op. cit, 
Tom. I., p. 84. We may re&iark here, once for all, that the trimmings of 
the prelatical dress consist of a number of small ornaments, the color 
of which is ordinarily different from that of the principal parts of the 
costume. These are buttons, buttonholes, cords, stitchings, cuffs and two 
small strips or strings, on the back of the cassock, destined to support the 
sash. The lining of the garment is of the same color as the trimmings, 
and of the same material, plain silk. 

"Pius X., Constlt. Inter multiplices (1905), nn. 16, 17. 

*PiVB X., same Constit., n. 79. 

42 Ck>firrnMB or Pbilatbb. 

sock ; both cassocks are of the same color as the habit of 
the Order^ as was said in the preceding chapter.^ 

8. Cardinals and Bishops taken from Religions Congre- 
gations or Orders of Clerics Begnlar follow, as regards 
their ordinary cassocks, the rnles laid down for Prelates 
belonging to the secular clergy. 

Abticlb II. 
Choib Cassock. 

1. Its Use. — 2. Its Shape.'-rS. Pope. — 4* Cardinals. 
Archbishops and Bishops. — 6. Prelates di Mantel- 
letta. — ^7. Prelates di Mantellone. — 8. Chap- 
ters. — 9. Livery. — 10. Religious. 

1. The choir cassock is so called because it is worn by 
Prelates in choir,^ at the public ceremonies of the Church. 
It may be worn also on some certain specified occasions 
on which a Prelate is called upon to vest in his choir 

2. The shape of the choir cassock, according to Roman 
etiquette, is almost the same as that of the ordinary cas- 
sock. The only exception is that the choir cassock has a 
train, which may be let down on occasions determined by 
the Ceremonial.* 

The materials and colors of choir cassocks differ, and 
thus mark the different degrees in the ecclesiastical hier- 

3. The Pope, whenever he has to appear in his choir 
habit, puts on a cassock of white watered silk, over which, 
for ecclesiastical functions, ^'chapels,'' consistories, he 

Wam". Epito. I., i;, 4. — Cap, OlerM, 15. de vita ei ftonetl. olerloortim. — 
Fbrrabzs^ Bibliotheca, Art. BpUoopu^, YII. 

*The ohoir Is the part of the church where the clergy geat when as- 
•isting at some church ceremony. 

"Babbibb db Montault^ op. oit., Tom. I., p. 276. 


Choir Oassock. 43 

puts the falda, a kind of large skirt of the same color and 

■H. FiBQDOT, Otrfmontai da Kama, pp. 8S, 44, OB, 191, SOO. . . . — 
BiBxuB Da MONtciULTj ap.'(><(., Tom. I., p. 2TD. — Uo BrCqns Snltrafattt, 
Of. at., p. Hi. — Lbbobii (edlttm) 1902. levlaed bj A. Tlcmnl, 8. 8.), 
AbrioS du Maitii«l lAUirtitite, Part T., Ch. V., p. e02. 

CoSTDUi or Pbilatbs. 

PnUU wlUi tha 

4. The choir cassock of 
the Oardinals is scarlet red 
at ordinary times; purple 
in penitential aeasons, aod 
on occasions of moaming, 
like the racancyof the Holy 
See or vhen they attend a 
funeral ; and rose-cotored 
on the third Sunday of Ad- 
vent {Oaudete) and the 
fourth Sunday of Lent 

Both the red and pnrple 
cassocks must be made of 
watered silk for summer, 
and of flue cloth for winter. 
The rose-colored casaock is 
always of watered silk, 
though both Sundays on 
which it is worn occur dur- 
ing the liturgical winter.* 

fi. As is well known, the 
ordinary choir cassock of a 
Bishop is purple, with lin- 
ing, cnffs and trimmings of 
crimson red silk.' But the 
cassock itself most be ez- 
clnsively made of woolen 
materitU, as cloth in win- 
ter and merino in summer,* 
unless the Bishop has re- 
ceived the title of Assistant 
at the Pontifical Throne. 

'Fbbubib, Btbtiothtca, Art. OonHnalM. 

•BlABIXX Dl MOHTADtT, Op. Ml,, TOEO. I^ p. 3T0. 

Vatr. Bptto, I., 111., 1. 
•Can' Bplto. I., 1-, I. 

Ohoir Cassock. 45 

We say ''the ordinary choir cassock/' because, on peni- 
tential days and occasions of mourning, funerals, etc., the 
Bishop ought to wear a black cassock, trimmed with 
purple silk.^ As already noted, this black choir cassock 
should not be mistaken for the every-day cassock, which, as 
was said in the preceding article, is black, without a train, 
and trimmed with red silk. 

The days on which the Bishop may wear his purple cas- 
sock are indicated by the Ceremonial of Bishops, Book I., 
chapter II.* 

As the black cassock prescribed for penitential days is 
not used by the members of the Papal Oourt, the Bishops 
who have been honored with the title of Assistants at the 
Papal Throne must wear, when actually living in Rome, 
their purple cassock, regardless of the paragraph of the 
Ceremonial of Bishops just alluded to. The only occa- 
sions on which they wear the black choir cassock in Rome, 
are upon the vacancy of the Holy See,* and onQood Friday. 

6. All the regulations concerning the wearing of the 
choir cassock by Bishops apply to the Prelates di mantel- 
letta; but, both in Rome and elsewhere, these Prelates 
always rank as members of the Pontifical Court and 
Household, and, as such, follow the same etiquette as is to 
be observed by the Assistants at the Pontifical Throne 

Waer, BpUo, 1,, iii., 2. 

*".... Videiieet a die NativiiatU Domini et per totam Ooiavam 
Epiphaniae, a die dominioa ReeurreoUonii ueque ad dominioam 88. Trini- 
iatie; item per Ooiavae feeiorum 88, 8aoramenti, AeeumptUmie glorioeae 
Virtfinie Mariae ei heaiorum ApoetolorMm Petri et Pauli, et Omnium Bane- 
torum, Titularie Eooleeiae Oathedralie et Banoti Patroni oivitatie, ao 
Dedioationie propriae Soolesiae; item in anniveraarii9 eleotionie ipeiue 
Bpiecopi; die adventue aUeuiue magni Principie, vel cum oelebratur lOiqua 
publiea laetitia; in dUie vero Ootavie, ut Nativitatie glorioeae Virginie, 8. 
loannie Baptietae, 8, Laurentii, diee tantum Ootavarum emsipiuntur: 
similiter omnia feeta duplioia, quae per annum ineidunt emtra Adventum, 
Septuageeimam et Quadrageeimam, eed Annuntiationie festo, etiamei infra 
Quadrageeimam ocourrat, veetihue violaoeie uti debet, {jOaer, Bpieo, I,, 
m„ 2.) 

*Babbibb db Montault, op, cit, Tom. I., p. .276. — Gbimaldi, op, oit, 
Ch. V. 

46 Ck>firruMB or Pbblatm. 

when in Borne, that is, they wear a purple choir caaBOck of 
silk in summer, and of fine cloth in winter, trimmed, like 
that of Bishops, with crimson red silk, without regard to 
the liturgical season; these Prelates being forbidden to 
wear mourning, except at the Pope's death, until the elec- 
tion of his successor, and on Qood Friday.^ 

7. The Prelates di mantelUme do not wear mourning at 
the Pope's death ; because they are appointed for his life- 
time only and lose their Prelacy at his death. Nor do they 
wear the penitential costume, for they belong to the Papal 
Court Therefore, they make use of only one choir cas- 
sock of purple silk in summer, and of purple cloth in win- 
ter, as is prescribed for all members of the Pontifical 
Household. But their cassock differs from that of Bishops 
and of the Prelates di mantelletta inasmuch as it is 
without train, and is not trimmed with red, but with 
purple silk of a lighter hue than that of the cassock.' 

8. Certain Chapters enjoy the privilege of wearing in 
choir a red or purple cassock. When such a privilege is 
granted by the Sovereign Pontiff, precise regulations ac- 
company, the indult of concession as to the material, shape 
and color of the cassock, and the occasions on which it is 
to be used. It is the duty of the Ordinary to care for the 
exact observance of these prescriptions. 

9. The purple cassock, which is worn as a livery gar- 
ment, is made like that of the Prelates di mantellone. It 
has no train, and is trimmed with purple of a lighter hue. 

10. Religious promoted to episcopal dignity or to the 
Cardinalate wear a choir cassock shaped like that of 
secular Bishops and Cardinals, but of the same color as 
the habit of the Order to which they belong; the cassock 
of the Franciscans being ash-colored gray, as already said. 
Members of religious Congregations, or Clerics Regular, 
vest like secular Prelates. 

^Babbisb dm Momtault, op. oit, Tom. I., p. 276. 

'/Md.— S. B. C, June 17, 1678->March 80, 1675— Sept 12, 1840— 
July 21, 1855. 

BiMAB. 47 



1. Name. — 2. Use. — S. Shape. — 4. Different Sorts. — 5. A 
Sign of Jurisdiction. — 6. Removable Rectors. — ^7. The 

^^Zim^rra'^ of Seminarians. 

1. Encyclopedias are generally very incomplete, often 
inexact, in their articles on the Catholic Ohurch. Since 
the sixteenth century, the English tongue has been mainly 
Protestant. Hence, the necessity of recurring to foreign 
or improper terms when we wish to speak of certain 
things pertaining to the Liturgy of the Church. 

We see this exemplified in the case of the ecclesiastical 
garment of which we are treating in this Chapter. For 
lack of a proper English word, the terms cassock and 
zimarra have been adopted by ecclesiastics and tailors. 
The former designation (cassock or ''home-cassock'') is 
not exact, this garment being somewhat different from the 
cassock properly so-called. The word ''zimarra" is the 
Italian name of this garment, and has the same etymology 
and all the different meanings of the English word svmar. 
So let us take at least this opportuni^ of doing away 
with an improper and a foreign word, and of adopting the 
English word simar, with its Catholic meaning of an 
ecclesiastical vestment resembling the cassock, but differ- 
ing from it in that it is adorned with short, buttoned false 
sleeves and a small unclosed cape adhering to the collar. 

2. Strictly speaking, the "simar" should be a house 
garment, a kind of ecclesiastical morning gown. How- 
ever, during the past century, it became customary to 
wear it outeide of the house, and even at Papal audi- 

48 OosTUMB OP Prelates. 

ences.^ Prelates may wear the simar at home, and even, 
in Catholic countries, outside as a street dress.^ But it 
should not be worn in church, especially for public serv- 
ices, the cassock only being the proper vestment for the 

Nevertheless, a certain custom admits the simar to be 
worn in the church, not, however, for public functions. It 
may be worn also, for the celebration of Low Mass, both in 
the private chapel of the Prelate and in church.* 

3. The shape of the simar is the same as that of the 
ordinary cassock, with the few aforesaid exceptions. It 
never admits of a train, and is always, with the exception 
of the Pope's, black, and of woolen material. 

4. The Pope's simar. is white. He generally wears it 
all day, except when he puts on his choir habit. The many 
portraits of Pius IX., Leo XIII., and Pius X. have made 
the shape of this garment familiar to us. 

The Cardinals' simar is black with scarlet trimmings. 

The same black simar, trimme4 with amaranth red, is 
also worn by Bishops and by the Prelates di mantelletta 
on ordinary days. But Bishops and the Prelates di man- 
telletta, on penitential or mourning days, and the Prelates 
di mantellone at all times, wear a black simar trimmed 
with purple. 

Religious properly so-called, when appointed Cardinals 
or Bishops, adopt a simar of the same color as that of the 
religious habit of their Order, an exception being made 
for the Franciscans, who, then wear an ash-colored simar 
like their cassock. 

Olerioa Regular wear a simar like that of secular Prel- 

*Un Eydque Suffragant, op. oitt pp. 18, 14. 

'tbid. — In this country, clerical tailors call "timarra" a sort of surtout, 
which partakes of the simar and of the oyercoat or "douillette," but has 
nothing In common with proper etiquette. 

*Ba]ibibb db Montault^ op. oii., pp. 89, 00. 

HiMAB. 49 

6. Certain dignitaries wear an entirely black simar 
as an external sign of ordinary jurisdiction or authority. 
These are the Vicars Oeneral, the irremovable parish- 
priests, and Rectors of Seminaries.^ 

6. Removable Rectors of Churches, Curates and other 
priests are by no means entitled to wear a simar.^ 

7. According to Roman etiquette, Seminarians should 
wear a purple cassock in church and even, in Catholic 
countries, out of doors. But in the Seminary, they wear 
as their ordinary dress a simar peculiar to them, which 
has no false sleeves, thus indicative of inferior dignity. It 
is understood that this simar must be the regular house 
garment and not a kind of winter overcoat. 

*The simar of these priests being a token of dignity or Jurisdiction and 
not simply a house dress, they may wear it in church, but never with the 
choir-habit or for sacred functions. This simar must be of black woolen 
material. A silk simar would be in opposition to the most elementary 
rules of etiquette. It is understood that, if they are Prelates otherwise, 
they wear the simar trimmed with red or purple, according to their 
rank in the Trelature. 

*It is, therefore, a mistake to consider the 8itnar as a "cassock for 
priests," as is done in some dioceses of Great Britain, where seminarians 
wear an ordinary cassock, and, as soon as they are ordained, put on a 
simar. — (C/r. the decree of the Council of Westminster, quoted by Taun- 
ton in The Law of the Church under the heading "Habit.") 

60 GosTUMB or Pbblatus. 


Roman Collar. 

/. I8 Our Collar a ^'Roman Collar t'^ — 2. A Practical Re- 
mark. — S. Sign of Prelacy. — i. Colors. 

1. Ecclesiastics who have lived or studied in Rome may 
have noticed that what we usually call a ''Roman Collar" 
is a collar indeed, but not Roman. 

Our Roman Collar, so-called, consists of two parts, a 
starched circle of white linen — ^the collar, and a- piece of 
cloth or silk, to which the collar itself is fastened by means 
of buttons, hooks, etc., and has been given the somewhat 
strange name of ''rabbi." 

Now, it may be a surprise to many, but it is none the 
less true, that what is familiar to us under the name of 
"rabbi" is the true Roman collar, called in Rome collaro. 

The Roman collaro is made up of a loose breast-piece 
and of a rigid circle of the same material. The rigid part 
is properly the collar, and is maintained stiff by slipping 
into it a piece of light cardboard or leather. In order to 
keep the collar clean, a changeable band of white linen 
(collaHno) is placed over it and fixed behind with two 
silver clips. It is that small band of linen which has 
grown into the stiff affair now worn, and has usurped 
among us the name of "Roman collar." 

And so well has it succeeded in its usurpation, that it 
has been adopted almost universally, not only in this 
country, but elsewhere, and even in Italy, as the new form 
of the Roman collar. In Rome now nobody objects to its 
use. And if we consider that this new form of the "Roman 
collar" renders it easier to wear as a part of the civilian 
dress of ecclesiastics, we have every reason not to change 

Roman Collar. 61 

what may be regarded as the universal custom on this 
point. The only change that might be suggested to ecclesi- 
astics and tailors would be to do away with that i>eculiar 
Jewish word ''rabbi/' which is certainly out of place here, 
and could be advantageously replaced by the Italian word 

2. Though treating exclusively of the prelatial cos- 
tume, it may not be useless to remark here that the col- 
laro, for priests and: for other members of the inferior 
clergy, must be made entirely of woolen material, silk be- 
ing reserved for the collaro of Prelates and of such digni- 
taries as have received a special indult to that effect. A 
fortiori, velvet is never allowed, nor even conceded. 

Therefore, good sisters and pious ladies who, at Ohrist- 
mas time, overwhelm priests and seminarians with gifts 
of ''rabbis," should take notice of this rule and offer only 
woolen collari. 

3. The collaro is essentially a sign of Prelacy, when it 
is made of another color than black.' Those who wear 
the red or purple cassock by privilege or custom, without 
being Prelates, should never wear a red or purple col- 
laro, unless it is expressly granted by an Apostolic indult. 
The same rule applies to all who wear a purple cassock as 
a livery dress. 

4. The Pope's collaro is white, like the main parts of 
his official dress. That of the Cardinals is scarlet; of 
Bishops and other Prelates, purple.* When a Chapter 
have received the privilege of wearing red or purple ooU 
lari, they are not allowed to wear them outside the limits 
of tiieir diocese.^ 

>The '*9inffle hand Roman collar/' which seems to be In favor In some 
parts of the country, and is advertised as a "specialty'* by certain clerical 
tailors, should be left to the clergymen of the "Bpiscopal Church." 

*Cong. of Bps. and Reg., 1848. Amalphltan. — Gregory XVI.*s Brief, 
BeotesioBtiooi vk'OB, Not. 17, 1848. 

■Religions Prelates should wear a ooUaro of the same color as the 

fPecrees quoted above. 

52 CosTniia op Pbblatm. 



i. TuDO Kinds of Cinctures.— 2. Vac—i. Who are Entitled 
to Wear a Cincture? — i. Irremovable Parish Priests. 
— 5. Prelates Belonging to Religious Orders. — 
6. Indult to Canons. — ^7. Livery. — 8. 

Altar Boys. 

1. Thei'e are two kinds of cinctures^ one used in ordi- 
nary daily life, the other reserved for church ceremonies 
and whenever the choir habit is required. 

The former, five inches wide, is proi>erly adorned with 
fringes at both ends. The latter, a little wider, should 
terminate with tassels or tufts. Both are exclusively 
made of silk.^ 

2. The cincture, belt, or sash (called fascia in Cere- 
monials and other Latin documents),' is for the Olergy a 
sign of jurisdiction, and for Prelates a mark of their 

. The cincture may be worn over the cassock or over the 
simar. But there is no obligation to wear it at home in 
private. The Prelate wears it at home only on extraor- 
dinary occasions, for instance, when receiving formal 
visits, etc. 

*Babbibs db Montadlt^ op. oit., Tom. I., pp. 91, seq., 285, 286. — Ac- 
cording to general principles, the cinctures of the Pope and Cardinals are 
made of watered silk. The other Prelates should content themselves 
with cinctures of plain silk. 

*Cfr. for inst. Pius X.'s moiu propria "Inter muliiplioe*," given in Ap- 


3. The Pope, at all times, whether in home dress or in 
choir habit, wears a cincture of white watered silk with 
gold fringes or tassels. 

The Cardinals, over the ordinary black cassock or over 
the simar, wear a red cincture of watered silk adorned 
with red fringes or tassels. The cincture which they use 
with the choir cassock matches the color of the cassock, 
red, purple, or rose-colored, but always has gold tassels 
at the ends, this being the special privilege of the Pope 
and Cardinals. 

At ordinary times, Bishops and the Prelates di manteh 
letta are entitled to wear a purple cincture of plain silk 
over the choir cassock, the ordinary black cassock and 
the simar. When they wear mourning (black cassock 
with purple trimmings), they put on a cincture of plain 
black silk with fringes or tufts of the same color.^ The 
cincture of the Prelates di mantellone is of no other color 
than purple. 

4. Irremovable parish priests, as a sign of ordinary 
jurisdiction, and Rectors of Seminaries as a sign of 
authority, are privileged to wear a black cincture of plain 
silk with fringes at the bottom. 

5. Cardinals and Bishops belonging to Religious Or- 
ders make use of a cincture, the color of which matches 
that of the cassock, unless special regulations or the tradi- 
tions of the Order are in opposition to this general rule, 
as is the case for the Carmelite Cardinals, who wear a 
purple cincture. Whatever be the color of the cincture, 
its material is silk, the cincture being one of the acces- 
sories of the costume, in which silk is permitted to Re- 
ligious Prelates. 

6. The cincture is conceded by special favor to some* 
Chapters. But in this case as in that of all other insignia 

^Bahbiib di MoxfTAULT, op, oit, Tom. I., p. 286. 

64 OosTUMB or Pbblatbs. 

granted to Ohapters, the express terms of the concession 
must be observed strictly, and, unless determined other- 
wise, the use of the cincture is not i>ermitted outside the 
limits of the diocese. 

7. All who wear a purple cassock as a sign of Livery 
or domesticity, should wear also a purple cincture. The 
only exception is in the case of Seminarians,^ because 
these wear over their purple cassock an upper garment 
called soprana, much like the mantellone. 

8. The Sacred Congregation of Rites forbids the wear- 
ing of a cincture by altar boys.* 

Waer, BpUo, I., v., 2, 8. — 8. R. C, April 8, }900. 
*S. R. C, July 9, 1869. 

Oloak. 66 


1. Use. — 2. Material and Shape. — S. Cloak of Simple 
Priests and Other Inferior Clergy. — 4. Cloak of Prel- 
ates. — 5. Cardinals. — 6. Winter Cloaks. 

1. The Boman cloak, which is given, by our clerical 
tailors, its Italian name of ferraiolo or ferroAolone,^ is the 
necessary complement of the ecclesiastical habit, and is 
worn by all members of the clergy. 

In this country, it can hardly be worn, except on solemn 
occasions, when the full clerical costume is required and 
admitted, for instance, at banquets, entertainments, re- 
ceptions of distinguished guests, academic solemnities, 
etc., etc. 

The Boman cloak is required also for the priest or Prel- 
ate who delivers a funeral oration;' for the judges of the 
episcopal court* and the examiners of the clergy, whenever 
they have to discharge the duties of their office. 

Priests and Prelates acting as mourners at a funeral 
take their place in the procession in the mourners' rank, 
wearing the Boman cloak. 

'There exists a difference between the ferraiolo and the ferraioUme, The 
ferraiolo is the cloak: which is worn in the streets of Rome and other cities 
of Catholic countries, while the ferraioUme, whicli is larger and more 
solemn, is reserved for public occasions. — The word **ferraiolo" should not 
be corrupted into **feriola," as is often done in catalogues of clerical 

*Oaer. Bpieo, I., xxU., 6. — II., xi., 10. — ^Un Brdque Suffsagant, op. eit, 
p. 205. 

■Unless it is provided otherwise by diocesan statutes. 

CosTuui 07 Pbrlatis. 

The Chaplains (Famit- 
tares) of the Blahop, at 
Pontifical Haas and other 
aolenin Berrices, shonld 
eerve in black casBOCk 
and cloak, not in anr- 

2. The cloak must be 
made of light material. 
It 18 very large, so that 
it falls in graceful folds 
abont the body from the 
shoalders to the feet. At 
the neck, it is tied with 
two ribbons, and a large 
stiff collar folding back 
over the shoalders gives 
a complete finish to the 
garment. The cloak 
shonld bare no lining, 
except at the collar. 

3. The cloak of simple 
priests and other mem- 
bers of the inferior 
clergy, is always black 
and made of light woolen 

4. The cloak of the 
Prelates di mantellone is 
ezclnsively made of black 
silk, as well as that of 
Bishops and Prelates di 
mantelletta, when they 
wear their black cassock, 
trimmed with pnrple.* 

^Oaer. BpUo. I., il., 2-12. — 1., xv., 2, — I^itatibsid*, FonoUoni Ponllfi- 
cala (Edition 1S04), p. 2SS. 

•Wben walklns In iirlvftta, CRCdlnali, Blabopi twd Prelate* cammwilr 
wear *□ nrdlnarr cloak of black woolen naterlal (/•rralola), 

OnOIHAKI Caiiock. CINi 

E. B7 

At other times, Bish- 
opa and Prelates d* man- 
telletta wear a pnrple 
cloah made of plain 

6. Cardinals have two 
different cloaks; one, of 
scarlet watered silk, tor 
ordinary occaaions; the 
other, purple, worn dar- 
ing penitential seasons 
and in timea of inoani> 
Ing. Batthispnrpleclook 
differs from that of Biah- 
opa in that it is made of 
watered atlk and trink- 
med with red ailk.* 

The cloak of Prelates 
belonging to Beligiona 
Orders is of the same 
color as the onter part 
of the religioaa habi^ as 
was indicated in the 
chapter treating of the 
cassock. There ma; be 
fonnd exceptions to this 
general mle, for the cos- 
tume of Beligiona Prel- ' 
ates is regulated by local 
traditions rather than 
by strict etiquette; but 
the rule given here is 
that followed at the Bo- 
man Court and adopted 
by nearly all Beligiona 
Prelatea oataide of ^me. 

■Tbli cloak Bhould be ot plain purple atlk, witbout red trlmmlDft. 
•BUBIR* om HOHMDLT, Of). o4t., ToiB. 1.. pp. lOT, lOS.— OiliUtAi, oy. 

tit., cb. Tin., p. lis. 

B8 Costume op Prblatbs. 

6. In winter. Prelates may use a large cloak with a cape 
attached, over which cape the collar of the cloak is folded 
back. This cloak is not a garment of etiquette, it is worn 
only for protection from cold/ That of the Pope is made of 
red clot^. All other Prelates wear the same, made of 
cloth, red or purple for Cardinals, according to the sea- 
son, purple or black for Bishops and Prelates di mantel- 
letta, also according to the season, and black for all 

The winter cloak of the Pope, Cardinals and Patriarchs 
is bordered with gold. 

^Babbibr db MoNTAUi/r, op. dt,, Tom. I., p. 108. — ^ThUi cloak is the one 
which our clerical tailors call sometimes "confesslooal cloak/' and some- 
times "simarra;" it should not haye a yelyet collar, and should be of the' 
same length as the c%s>ock. 

'According to often repeated principles, the winter cloak of Religious 
Prelates is of the same color as the outer part of the habit of the Order. 




1. Description. — 2. A Sign of Jurisdiction. — S. Religious 

Prelates. — 4. Rules DetemUnmg the Use of the 

Rochet. — 5. Canons. — 6. Cotta Worn Over 

the Rochet. 

1. The rochet is a close-fitting garment of linen/ some- 
thing like a surplice, but with tight sleeves. The opening 
for the neck should be cut square, like that of the cotta; 
the bottom, the shoulder-pieces, and the extremities of the 
sleeves, ornamented with lace.* Under the lace, at the 
shoulder-pieces and sleeves, is put a silk lining, visible 
through the lace. This lining is of the same color as the 
trimmings of the choir cassock, that is, white for the 
Pope, scarlet for Cardinals, amaranth red for Bishops 
and Prelates di mantelletta. In penitential seasons, and 
on occasions of mourning, the lining of a Bishop's rochet 
is purple.* On the same occasions. Cardinals do not 
change the color of the lining of their rochets, because 
the trimmings of a Cardinal's mourning dress are scar- 
let. The Prelates di mantelletta always use red lining at 
the rochet, because there are for them no other occasions 
of mourning than the vacancy of the Holy See and the 
services on Qood Friday, and tiien they wear rochets with- 
out lace. 

Canons who have the privilege of wearing the rochet 
are not regularly entitled to have in their rochet any 

Waer, Apito. I., i., 2, 8. 

*Pius IX., Brief SaeerdotaUa indumenta (May 14, 1868). 
"The same regulations apply to the albs worn by Prelates when cele- 
brating Mass. 

60 (TosTUMB OF Prelates. 

other lining than black, unless the choir cassock granted 
them be red or purple, in which case, thej are permitted 
to wear the rochet lining of the same color as the cuffs of 
their sleeves. 

When a Prelate di mantelUme is granted the use of the 
rochet, he is allowed in his rochet purple lining only. The 
rochet of '^black Protonotaries'' and Vicars General, ad- 
mits of no other lining than black. 

The rochet has, on the breast, a vertical slit, which may 
be bordered with lace, and is tied near the neck with two 
ribbons of silk, which are not necessarily white, but may 
be of the same color as the lining of the rochet. 

A plain rochet without lace is a sign of official mourn- 
ing; such a rochet is worn by all Prelates residing in 
Bome from the day of the Pope's death until the election 
of his successor, and at services on Good Friday. The 
ordinary rochet must have lace and be tastefully plaited. 

2. The uncovered rochet is a sign of Ordinary Jurisdic- 
tion. Therefore, the Pope and Cardinals all over the 
world, Archbishops in their provinces. Bishops in their 
dioceses, alone have the right to wear the rochet uncov- 
ered.^ Practically the rochet is always partly covered 
with some other vestment. However, a Cardinal at Bome, 
a Bishop outside of his diocese, and all the Prelates who 
have the privilege of wearing the rochet witiiout having 
"ordinary jurisdiction,'' should entirely cover the rochet 
with the mantelletta.* Bishops in their dioceses. Arch- 
bishops in their provinces, and Cardinals everywhere, ex- 
cept at Bome, wear the mozzetta over the rochet.' 

3. Cardinals and Bishops belonging to religious orders 
do not wear the rochet, but only the mozzetta.^ For 
sacred functions, they take off the mozzetta and put on 

Waer, Bpiao, I., ill., 1. 
*Oaer. Bpi90. I., 1., 1. — I., ly., 7. * 
•Oaer, SjtUo. I.» i., 1. — I., lll.» 1. 
*0a9r, SpiBo, I., i., 4. 

Rochet. 61 

ihe surplice.^ This rule does not apply to Bishops be- 
longing to Orders of Clerics regular or to Religious CSon- 

4. The Pope, Cardinals and Bishops have a particular 
right to use the rochet. It is the principal part of their 
choir-habit. The Rubrics of the Missal direct them to 
keep the rochet on under the alb when they vest for 
Mass.' Bishops may use the rochet for the administra- 
tion of the sacraments, for the pastoral visitation and 
for Confirmation given without solemnity. According to 
the Ceremonial of Bishops, they should wear the rochet 
when receiving the Viaticum.^ 

The Protonotaries Apostolic of the first three classes 
wear the rochet without any other restriction than the 
obligation to cover it with the mantelletta^ The same rule 
holds good for all ihe Prelates di mantelletta who belong 
to a Prelatial College. The Prelates di mantelletta, who 
do not belong to a college, i. e., tiiose who are simply 
appointed as ''Domestic Prelates," are not permitted to 
wear the rochet in Rome, unless they are granted that 
privilege by a personal indult. But they are free to wear 
it outside of Rome.* 

The Prelates di mantelUme are not entitled to wear the 
rochet, unless they have received a personal indult to do 
so. At no time are they allowed to wear it in Rome. 

Since the motu propria of Pope Pius X. (Feb. 21, 1905), 
Titular Protonotaries Apostolic have the privilege of 

Waer, BpUo, I., 1., 4. — Rub. Mi$$. — S. B. C, Dec. 8» 1701. — Oaer, JVptoo. 
II., xl., IB.y—Poni Rom., De confirm,; De ordin, oonf. — ^Thls rule Is now 
hardly obserred on account of the nnmerons priyileges granted as per- 
sonal exceptions. When a religions is made Cardinal or Bishop, he ordi- 
narily receives, at the same time, the prlTllege of wearing the rochet like 
secular Prelates. The same priyllege is generally granted to Abbots. 

*Oaer, Bpiae. 1., i., 4. 

*Rvh. Mi9B. (Ritus 9erv, in eel. Mi9»., n. 2). — Pont. Rom. (pa99im). 

*Oaer. EpUc. II., xxxylil., 8. 

*PiU8 X., Constit. Inter multiplioe$ (1905), nn. 8, 16, 45. 

*Bab9ibb pb MoiraAULT, op. cit, p. 855, 

62 GosTuiiB OF Pbblatbb. 

wearing the rochet under the black mantelletta. But aa 
they are merely diocesan Prelates, they are never allowed 
to wear their prelatial costume in Rome.^ 

5. Ordinarily, Canons are granted the use of the rochet, 
but only within ihe limits of the diocese. 

6. If Canons have the privilege of the canonial oappa 
magna, their summer costume in choir consists in wearing 
tiie cotta over the rochet; unless they have obtained also 
the privilege of a summer oappa (a cappa without 
fur). In both cases, they put on the cotta over the 
rochet when they have to administer a sacrament.' 

. The cotta is worn over the rochet by the Prelates di 
mantelletta for ecclesiastical functions and the adminis- 
tration of sacraments.' This rule applies to the Prelates 
di mantellone who have obtained the privilege of wearing 
the rochet. Bishops wear the cotta over the rochet when 
performing ecclesiastical functions in presence of the 
Pope, and especially when they receive holy communion at 
the Pope's hands on Holy Thursday.* 

>PiDS X.'8 Const. Inter mulUpHoe9 (1905), n. 64. — Before the motu 
propria of Pius X., they had a right to wear the rochet under the 
mantelletta, but In church ceremonies only ; now, they have the same right 
as the other Prelates, to wear the rochet under the mantelletta every- 
where and on every occasion, except In Rome, or In any other place 
where the Pope might actually reside. 

*S. B. C, Nov. 24, 1625— Nov. 11, 1641— May 14, 1644— April 16, 1842 
. — July 18, 1675 — January 16, 1677, etc., etc. 

HJaer, Epieo, III., yi., 1. — Fisqdbt^ O^^oniee de Rome, pp. 48, 188, 
198, 229. 

*Un Bydqae Suffragant — OSrSmonial dee Eviquee comments, p. 18. 





1. Description. — 2. A Sign of Ordinary Jurisdiction. 
Pope. — 4. Cardinals. — 5. Bishops. — 6. Abbots. — ^7. 
Mozzetta Over Mantelletta. — 8. Gannons. 

1. Mozzetta is an Italian word derived from mozzo, 
which means cut short. The mozzetta is an ecclesiastical 
vestment, a short cape, which covers the shoulders, is but- 
toned over the breast, and to which a small hood is at- 

2. The mozzetta is by itself a sign of jurisdiction.' 
Therefore, it can lawfully be worn only by the Pope, Car- 
dinals and — ^within the limits of their jurisdiction — ^by 
Archbishops, Bishops and Abbots. 

The mozzetta is made of different materials and colors 
according to the different grades of the Sacred Hierarchy. 

3. The Pope's jurisdiction being unlimited, he may wear 
the mozzetta everywhere throughout the world. His moz- 
zetta is of crimson red velvet bordered with ermine.' 
In summer, the velvet mozzetta is replaced by one of red 
silk and without fur. In penitential seasons, the Pope 
lays aside velvet and silk, and wears a mozzetta of cloth or 
serge. From Holy Saturday until the Saturday after 
Easter, his mozzetta is of white damask.^ 

^Thls small hood is a vestige of a larger one which was still in use* in 
some places, in the eighteenth century. 

HJaer. BpUo. I., 1., 1. 

*Babon Gbramb, Visit to Rome, p. 104, and others. — In summer Pitts IX. 
used to wear a mozsetta of red silk, bordered with eiderdown. 

^FiSQUBT^ OSrSmonie^ de Rome, p. 87, and paeeim, — A. Battamdiib, An- 
nuaire PonUfioai (1901), p. 77. 

64 Ck)8Tui>;E OP Prelates. 

4. Cardinals having also a aniversal jurisdiction, as 
counsellors to the Holy See, may wear the mozzetta every- 
where. Their mozzette are made of scarlet or parple ma- 
terial, according to the liturgical season. Both their red 
and purple mozzette are made of cloth in winter, and of 
watered silk in summer. On the third Sunday of Advent 
(Oaudete) and the fourth Sunday of Lent {Laetare), 
etiquette prescribes that Cardinals wear a mozzetta of rose- 
colored watered silk. 

5. Bishops should wear a mozzetta of woolen material 
(cloth in winter and merino in summer), silk never being 
permitted.^ It is true Bishops who are Assistants at the 
Pontifical Throne are permitted to wear a costume of silk, 
but only when they actually live in Rome, and then, they 
do not wear the mozzetta.^ 

The color of the mozzetta of Bishops must match that 
of the choir cassock. It is, therefore, purple,' except dur- 
ing penitential seasons and on days of mourning, when it 
is, like the cassock, black with purple stitchings, buttons, 
buttonholes and lining. The Bishop's purple mozzetta is 
trimmed with crimson red silk.^ 

As a rule, the mozzetta being a sign of jurisdiction, a 
Bishop is allowed to wear it only within the limits of his 
own diocese." The Ceremonial of Bishops (Book I.) gives 
the different occasions on which a Bishop may wear his 
mozzetta, namely, when he presides over a religious meet- 
ing; for the examination of candidates for Orders, etc. He 
may wear it when assisting at religious services cele- 

Waer, Bpi»o. I., iii., 1. 

*The only Prelates entitled to wear a purple silk mozzetta are the 
Patriarchs, as the mozzetta Is an Integrant part of the costume they 
wear In Rome ; they are ew of/ioio Assistants at the Pontifical Throne, and, 
therefore, wear a mozzetta of the same material as the other parts of 
their costume of Assistants. 

*Oaer Bpiao., ibid. 

*S. R. C, April 17, 1827. 

*Oaer, Bpiso. I., 1., 3. — S. R. C, Sept. 6, 1895. 


brated without solemnity ; but in such cases he should not 
sit upon his throne; the Ceremonial directs that tbe Ordi- 
nary vested in the mozzetta should sit in the first stall of 
the choir. He wears it also when he attends a Provincial 
Council, because all the members of the council are sup- 
posed to exercise episcopal jurisdiction per modum unitia 
over the province.^ But outside of Provincial Councils, 
even in his own diocese, a Bishop should not wear his 
mozzetta in presence of his Metropolitan,' except over the 

When a priest receives the official news of his appoint- 
ment to an episcopal see, should he actually be in the ter- 
ritory of the diocese to which he is appointed Bishop, he is 
allowed immediately the use of the mozzetta over the 
rochet.' If he is not within the limits of his diocese, he 

wears the mantelletta over ihe rochet.^ 


Bishops belonging to Religious Orders properly so- 
called, who, according to the Ceremonial of Bishops, are 
not permitted the use of the rochet,' indiscriminately wear 
the mozzetta,' which is not for them an exclusive sign of 
jurisdiction. The mozzetta is, like all the other parts of 
their prelatial costume, of the same color as the regular 
habit of the Order.^ 

6. Abbots, in the places where they have jurisdiction, 
may wear a mozzetta, the color of which must conform to 
that of their religious habit. 

Waer, BpUe, I., 111., 1. 

>S. R. C, 1668. 

*Oaer» BpUo., I,, !.» 8. 

*Oaer. Bpito, I., 1., 1. — In both cases, he abtains from wearing the pec- 
toral cross and the ring before his consecration. 

■I say, "according to the Ceremonial of Bishops," because there are in 
practice so many exceptions, that this mle Is now hardly observed, even 
In Rome. — ^Battandibb^ Annuaire Pontifical (1009), p. 421. 

*Oaer. Bpiso, I., 1., 4. 

Waer, Bpi»e,, ibid. — As a rule, the color of the Inozsetta Is the same as 
that of the outer part of the religious habit. 

66 GoSTUliB OF Pbblatbs. 

7. In his own diocese, a Bishop, in presence of a Car- 
dinal, or of his Metropolitan, or of the Apostolic Delegate, 
must put on the mantelletta over his rochet, and the moz- 
zetta over the mantelletta.^ If the Cardinal is at the same 
time a Legate a latere, the Bishop is not allowed the use 
of the mozzetta, but should content himself with the man- 
telletta over tiie rochet* 

8. In Rome, through respect for the presence of the 
Sovereign Pontiff, Cardinals wear the rochet covered with 
the mantelletta, and the mozzetta over the mantelletta; 
but in their titles, and outside of Rome, they wear the 
mozzetta immediately over the rochet. 

Residential Patriarchs, when outside the boundaries of 
their Patriarchates, and Titular Patriarchs, wear, as the 
distinctive sign of their high dignity, the mozzetta over 
the mantelletta.' 

8. Certain Chapters enjoy the privilege of the mozzetta. 
This canonical mozzetta may have a peculiar shape and 
color, or be the same as that of Bishops. But, in no case 
are Canons entitled to wear the canonical mozzetta out- 
side of the diocese to which they belong as Canons. The 
same rule applies to all canonical insignia.^ 

Waer, BpUo, I., Iv., 7. — S. B. C, 1663. — Oaer, BpiBo. I., 1., 4. — S. R. C, 
Sept. 18, 1666. 

*Oaer. Epiao. I., Iv., 7. 

•Babbibb db Montault^ op. dt,, T. I., p. 336.— A. Battandibb, An- 
nuaire Pontifical (1898), pp. 66-69. — Gbimaldi^ op. oit., ch. IX., p. 181. — 
It Is understood that, when they are within the limits of their Jurisdic- 
tion, they wear the mozzetta directly over the rochet, like other Bishops. 

«The Sacred Congregation of Rites has frequently insisted on the obser- 
vation of the above rules. Ordinarily, the indults of the Holy See, grant- 
ing a canonical costume to a Chapter, state that the insignia must not be 
worn outside the diocese. Formerly, Canons were not permitted to wear 
their insignia, as individuals, even outside of the church which was the 
seat of the Chapter. During the last few years, this discipline has been 
slightly modified, so as to allow a Canon to vest in his insignia in all 
parts of the diocese, though alone, and separated from the body of 
Canons. But the prohibition against wearing the insignia outside of the 
diocese has never been withdrawn. 

Mantbllbtta. 67 



1. Description. — 2. A Sign of Non-Jurisdiction and High 
Prelature; Materials and Colors. — S. Religious Prel- 
ates; Titular Protonotaries and Vicars General 
and Capitular. — 4. Mantelletta of Canons. 

1. The mantelletta (that is short mantle)^ is a sleeve- 
less garment of silk or woolen material, reaching idmost to 
the knees, used by Prelates to cover the rochet The ma- 
telletta is open in front and fastened at the neck with a 
hook, and its collar fits round the collar of the cassock; 
two vertical slits permit the insertion of the arms. When 
extended, it forms a complete circle. The trimmings of 
the mantelletta (lining, stitchings, etc.) are all of silk, and 
a silk strip should be sewed around ihe armholes in order 
to prevent them from tearing. It is to be remarked tiiat 
the lining and trimmings of the purple mantelletta should 
be crimson red, and never purple, as is often seen. 

2. The mantelletta is a symbol of restricted jurisdiction, 
or of non-jurisdiction, or of high Prelacy. A Prelate, who 
possesses full ^'ordinary jurisdiction," does not, as a rule, 
wear this garment within the limits of his jurisdiction.^ 

The Pope does not make use of the mantelletta, because 
his jurisdiction is universal. Cardinals do not wear it 
outside of Rome ; but they wear it in Rome on account of 
the Pope's presence.' However, in their own titles, where 
their jurisdiction is not limited, they do not make use of 
the mantelletta.' 

Waer, BpUo, I., 1., 1. — I., !▼., 7. 

IJn Byfiqae Suffragant, op. cit., p. 4. — Babbiib di Montault, op. oit, 
Tom. I., p. 8B1. — Gbimaldi^ op. di., ch. VIII., p. 112. — Other authors. 
*The same references. 

CoSTuui or Pbiutu. 

An Archbishop or a Bish- 
op, outside of the teirltory 
of his jnrisdictioa, should 
not wear the rochet, unless 
it is covered with the man- 
telletta.* Therefore, all Tit- 
ular Archbishops and Bish- 
ops, as well as Residen- 
tial Bishops outside of their 
own dioceses, should not ap- 
pear in their choir-habit 
without the maDtelletta.' 
Eren Id his own diocese, a 
Bishop sometimes wears the 
mantelletta, namely in the 
presence of a Cardinal,' of 
the Apostolic Delegate, or 
of the Metropolitan^ In 
SDch cases, he puts on 
the mantelletta under the 
mozzetta; but, if the Car- 
dinal be a Legate a latere, 
the Bishop pnts aside the 
mozzetta and keeps onl; the 
mantelletta over the rochet.* 
In no other case should the 
mantelletta be worn bj a 
Bishop within the limits of 
bis own diocese.' 
As a symbol of high Prel- 
ature, the mantelletta is 
uuitaDito vota by those Prelates who 
jMt occupy the first rank at the 

■Can-. EpUe. I., I., 2, S. — I. 

•S. R. C, S«pt. 28, IMS, In 

*oa«r. BpUo. 1., It., 2, 3, 7. 

'Oaar. BpUo. I., It., 7. 

•S. B. C, S«pt. 18, lese, m Ore$Um. 

All aottioM. 

Mantbllotta. 69 

Roman Court and are, for that very reason, called 
^^Prelates di mantellettaJ^ Such are the Protonotaries 
Apostolic di numero, supernumerary and ad inatar; the 
Auditors of the Bota; the Clerks of the Reverend Apostolic 
Camera; the Voters and Referees of the Signature; the 
Abbreviators of tlie Major Park; and such Domestic 
Prelates as do not belong to a "College?"^ 

3. The mantellette of the Cardinals are of three dif- 
ferent colors, red, purple, and rose-colored, agreeing with 
the colors of their cassocks. The red and purple mantel- 
lette are of cloth in winter and of watered silk in sum- 
mer. The rose-colored mantelletta, as well as the cassock 
of that color, is reserved for the Sundays of Oaudete and 
Laetare, and should be of watered silk. 

Silk is not permitted as the material for the mantel- 
letta of Bishops,' unless they be ^'Assistants at the Pon- 
tifical Throne.'' The ordinary episcopal mantelletta is of 
cloth or merino, according to the season, and purple or 
black, as may be called for by the Liturgy. The same 
rules hold good for the color of the mantelletta as for that 
of the choir cassock. The purple mantelletta is always 
trimmed and lined with crimson red silk ; and the black 
mantelletta, with purple. 

The Bishops Assistants at the Pontifical Throne, while 
living in Rome, and the Prelates di mantelletta, both in 
Rome and outside, wear the costume prescribed by the 
etiquette of the Papal Household, which includes a silk 
mantelletta in summer and one of woolen cloth in winter. 
The color of this mantelletta is always purple, except 
during the vacancy of the Holy See, and on Qood Friday, 
when it is replaced by a black cloth mantelletta, trimmed 
and lined with purple silk.* 

>A. Battandibr, Annuaire Pontifical (yearly). — "Gerarohia" (yearly). — 
Baabt, The Roman Court, p. 277. — Qrimaldi, op. oit,, ch. V., pp. 68, aeq. 
*Oaer. EpUo. I., 1., 1. — I. 111., 1. 
*Barbibr dm Montault, op. cit., Tom. I., p. 862, n. 4. 


4. Cardinals and Bishops who belong to Religious 
Orders wear a mantelletta of a color like that of the outer 
part of the habit of the Order.^ Abbots generally follow 
the same rule. 

The Titular (or Honorary) Protonotaries Apostolic 
have the privilege of wearing the mantelletta; but their 
mantelletta is exclusively of black woolen material, lined 
and trimmed with black silk, purple being absolutely pro- 
hibited to them, as they are but diocesan Prelates.' Before 
the motu proptio of Pius X. (February 21, 1905), they 
had no right to make use of the rochet, and consequently 
they wore the mantelletta directly over the choir cas- 
sock; but, by that motu propria, Pius X. conceded them 
the privilege of wearing the rochet under the black man- 
telletta. By the same act, the Pope entitled all the Vicars 
General and Vicars Capitular of dioceses, during the time 
they are in office, to the rank, costume and privileges of 
Honorary Protonotaries Apostolic (^^Black Protono- 
taries") ; the choir dress of these dignitaries consists, 
therefore, of a black choir cassock, the rochet, and the 
black mantelletta; unless they hold higher rank in the 
Prelature, in which case they wear the costume proper 
for the class of Prelates to which they belong.* 

6. Some Chapters have obtained the special privilege of 
wearing the mantelletta;^ but, in this case, the mantel- 
letta is not a sign of Prelacy; it is only a part of their 
insignia as Canons. As such, it can not lawfully be worn 
outside of the diocese, nor should its use be extended be- 
yond the express terms of the indult of concession. 

^Oaer, BpUo. I., 1., 4. 

'Const. Inter multiplicea (Feb. 21, 1905), n. 64. 
'Const. Inter multiplioea, n. 62. 

*The chapter of the Cathedral of Rodez (France) and several Chapters 
in Italy have been granted that privilege. 

Mantbllonb. 71 



1. Description. — 2. Prelates di Mantellone. — S. A Tran- 
sitory Dignity. — 4. Cappa of the Prelates di 


1. The mantellone^ is a kind of long pnrple mantle cov- 
ering the cassock and reaching to the feet. It is open in 
front; and its collar, which fits around that of the cassock, 
is fastened with a hook. Two lateral openings permit the 
insertion of the arms, and two strips or bands, of the 
same material as that of the mantle, hang on the back 
from the shoulders down to the heels. These strips simply 
recall the sleeves which were formerly attached to the 
vestment. It may be that the mantellone was frequently 
thrown over the shoulders, instead of being put on as a 
coat, and so, the sleeves became a sort of useless ap- 

The mantellone is always of purple material, plain silk 
in summer, and light cloth in winter. Its lining and trim- 
mings should never be red, but purple. Custom, however, 
permits that they be made of a different shade of purple.* 

2. The mantellone is the proper garment of those Prel- 
ates who hold a secondary rank at the Papal Court, and 
are called, on account of the costume they wear, ^Trelates 
di mantclloney The complete list of the different classes 
of these Prelates has been given iif the first chapter of this 
book. It comprises the ecclesiastical chamberlains and 
chaplains of the Sovereign Pontiff, all of whom, with the 

*An Italian word meaning **a large fnanile,** 

*Grimaldi, OonorSgations romaineM, Chap. VII., p. 85, and note. — A» 
Battandiir^ Annuaire Pontifical, years 1899 and 1900. 
*Grimaldi, loo, eit. 

72 OosTUMB OF Prblatbs. 

exception of those styled ^* extra Urhem^' (outside the 
city); are allowed to wear their prelatial costume both in 
Borne and outside. 

Those ^^extra TJrhem" are never allowed to wear their 
prelatial habit in Rome, nor called, while there, 
'^Monsignor." They have all these rights only outside the 
Oity of Rome, **extra VrhemJ' 

As a rule, the Prelates di mantellone are not granted 
the use of the rochet. They put on the mantellone directly 
over the purple cassock. This constitutes the costume of 
etiquette of these Prelates when on duty in the Vatican 
Palace, and their choir-habit elsewhere, outside of the 
Papal Ohapels. 

When they want to perform ecclesiastical functions or 
administer sacraments, if they are not granted the use of 
the rochet, they lay aside the mantellone and put on a 
cotta over the purple cassock. If they have the privilege 
of wearing the rochet, they vest in the rochet and put 
the cotta over it.* 

3. As was remarked, the appointment of the Prelates di 
mantellone lasts only during the life of the reigning Pon- 
tiff. When he dies, they ipso facto lose their Prelacy. But 
they are readily reinstated by the new Pope, if they make 

The title of these Prelates is not that of ^^Reverendisai- 
mils'' (Right Reverend) , like that of the Prelates di mantel- 
letta; but only that of '^Admodum Reverendus^' (Very 
Reverend ).• 

Though their stockings, and the cords of their hats, 
should be black, according to strict etiquette; a custom, 

^H. FiSQDBT^ 0^€monie$ de Rome, pp. 48, 188, 189, etc — The mantel- 
lone must be laid aside for ecclesiastical functions because it Is not a 
liturgical garment. The mantellone is a livery-garment and, so, naturally 
should not be worn with liturgical vestments, such as the rochet or the 

*Battandibb, Annuaire Pontifioal (1905), p. 486. 

*Baabt, The Roman Court, pp. 277, 278. 



Mantbllonb. 73 

approved by Pope Clement VIII., allows them to wear 
purple stockings, and also purple cords around their hats, 
but outside of Rome only. The cloak (ferraiolone) is 
always black.^ 

4. This chapter being devoted to the Prelates di man- 
tellone, we must mention here a peculiar garment worn by 
these Prelates on certain occasions— the special cappa 
which they wear in official ceremonies. 


This cappa consists of a large outer dress, open in 
front, reaching to the feet, with ^de, short, cuffed sleeves. 
The collar is fastened in front with a hook, and over the 
shoulders is placed a plain closed cape of ermine. This 
cape is of peculiar shape, different from that of a Bishop's 
or a Canon's cappa magna. It consists of two superposed 
capes, the lower of which is some inches longer than the 
upper. Formerly both capes were made of ermine, but as 
this fur is expensive and warm, the lower cape is now gen- 
erally made of silk, with only that part covered with 
ermine, which is visible to the eye. The upper cape is 
entirely of ermine, and covers the hood, which is attached 
to the lower cape, permitting merely the top of the hood 
to be seen. During summer, these capes are replaced by 
others of the same shape, but entirely made of red silk. 

This cappa is of scarlet woolen material, with lining, 
trimmings and cuffs of am$tranth red silk. The cappa of 
Consiatorial Advocates, which has nearly the same shape, 
is purple with red trimmings. 

•The cappa of the Prelates di mantellone is worn directly 
over the purple cassock. It is used only in the City of 
Rome, at the Papal Chapels, consistories, etc., and, out- 
side of Rome, when the Prelate acts as the special dele- 
gate of the Sovereign Pontiff; for instance, when he is 
charged to deliver the red biretta to a newly-appointed 
Cardinal living outside of the Roman Curia. 

>Gbimaldi^ loe. cit 



Oappa Magna. 

L Origin of the Name. — 2. Deaoriptlon. — S. Differewt 

Kinds. — 4. The Pope. — 5. Cardinals. — 6. Bishops. — 

7. Religious Prelates. — 8. Use. — 9. Oappa of 


1. '^Cappa magna" literally means a large cope or cape. 
The word ^^cappa" is a term of low latinity^ said to be 
derived from ^^caper&^ (quia capit totum hominem — ^^^be- 
cause it covers the whole person") ^ and was originally 
used by ecclesiastical writers to denote the pluiHale or 
cope, as appears from Durandus and Honorius.^ 

There is no English word translating ^^cappa." The 
only proper word would be ^'cope/' and, as a matter of 
fact, ^^cope" was derived from '^cappa;" but since this 
word is reserved, in ecclesiastical terminology, for the 
liturgical vestment, which the Rubrics call ^^pluviale/^ it 
is necessary to have recourse to the foreign term ^'cappa." 

2. The cappa magna is a large mantle with a long 
train. It is entirely closed, with the exception of a ver- 
tical opening over the breast, and completed with a 
furred cape closed in front, slightly opened at the back, 
and fastened at the back of the neck with a hook.' To the 
cape a hood is attached, the use of which is determined by 

^DuBANDUS Mi&fATBN.^ Rationale divinorum offMorum, Book III., ch. i., 
n. 18. — H0NOBIU8 AuousTODUNBN., Opwa liturffioa. Book I., ch. 227 (tn 
Mlgne, P. L., vol. 172, col. 612). — Catholic Dictionary, art "Cappa 

'LByAYASSEDB-HABQT, Fonotiona Pontifloale8, Tom. I., p. 439 (edition 

Cappa Magna. 76 

the Ceremonial of Bishops.^ When not in nse^ this hood 
is caught up on the right shoulder.' 

In summer, the fur is removed, and replaced by a cape 
of silk of the same shape.* 

Some tailors put armholes on each side of the cappa 
magna. This should not be done, as these slits are proper 
only to the ma/ntelletta. ^ 

When the Prelate walks, he lifts up the fore part of the 
cappa magna over his arms ; when seated, he lets it down, 
but may pass his hands through the vertical opening in 
front, if necessary. 

3. There are two kinds of cappas, the one fully un- 
folded, the other folded and curtailed. 

The former — ^the one above described — is the cappa 
which we are accustomed to see worn by a Bishop in his 
diocese. This cappa is a sign of jurisdiction and au- 
thority; therefore, it is worn by the Pope and Cardinals 
everywhere; by a Metropolitan Archbishop, in his prov- 
ince; by a Bishop, in his diocese.^ When the Prelate is 
sitting, the vestment is fully unfolded and gracefully 
draped around him, ^'covering the whole person." When- 
ever the Prelate walks, the train of the cappa must be 
carried by a train-bearer." 

Waer. Spisc. II., ▼., 1. — II., xxll., 8, etc. 

'Formerly, the entire garment was lined with far in order to protect 
from the cold; about the thirteenth century, hoods assumed a cape form 
by being allowed to fall back on the shoulders, whereby the fur lining be- 
came outermost. 

*Oaer, Bpisc. I., ill., 8. 

^Barbibb db Montadlt^ op. cit, Tom. I., p. 861.-^8. R. C.» Npvemb. 22, 

■The train-bearer (caudatariua) may be a Seminarian, or a member of 
the Prelate's household, or an altar-boy; but there should be only one. 
The Pope having only one train-bearer, no other Prelate is entitled to have 
more. The dress of the train-bearer Taries according to the different 
occasions on which he performs his duties. When accompanying a Cardi- 
nal to the papal "chapel," he vests In a purple cassock of sjlk, with trim- 

76 Oosfrvum or Prilatis. 

The other cappa, curtailed and folded, is worn by 
Bishops and certain Prelates di mantelletta when attend- 
ing the Papal ^^Chapels/' and also by Canons, to whom it 
is conceded by a special indnlt of the Pope. 


This cappa has the same cape as the other; but the 
vestment itself is so curtailed that it is reduced to a wide 
plaited band hanging on the back and ending in a short 
train. This train, however, is never let down, for the 
flowing train is a mark of jurisdiction; it is lifted up, 
twisted and tied with a purple ribbon, with which it is 
suspended from the left side of the cape. Thus twisted 
and tied up, this train symbolizes a restricted jurisdic- 
tion, or absence of jurisdiction.^ 


Formerly there was no difference between these two 
oappae; this is why the regulations laid down fpr the use 
of the one apply also to the other. 

4. The Pope's cappa magna is not white, as some may 
believe, but red. He wears it only when attending the 
Matins of Christmas, the Office of the Dead, and the Tene- 

mlngs and buttons of black yelyet ; he weara a parple silk cincture and a 
purple coUaro ; over the caaaock, he puts the oroifia, a aurtout of peculiar 
shape, made of purple cloth or serge, lined and trimmed with purple 
silk. When the Pope officiates, the Cardinals yest in the sacred yestments 
of their orders — cope for Cardinal-Bishops, chasuble for Cardinal-Priests 
and dalmatic for Cardinal-Deacons; the train-bearers then put a cotta 
oyer the crocia, and throw on their shoulders the vimpa, a long humeral 
yell of light silk with which they hold the Cardinals' mitres. When a 
Cardinal officiates outside of the papal "chapels," his train-bearer does not 
wear the crocia, but the cotta oyer his purple cassock; and, when the 
Cardinal assists in cappa magna at a ceremony, the train-bearer weara 
oyer his purple cassock the ferralolo of black allk. The train-bearer of the 
diocesan Bishop does not wear the crocia, which Is a garment used only at 
papal "chapels ;" but he wears the purple cassock with the black ferralolo 
when the Bishop is yested in cappa magna, and the cotta oyer the purple 
cassock when the Bishop is dressed in his pontificals. In no case should 
he wear gloyes or a blretta. — 8. R. C, Aug. 2, 1608 — Jan. 24, 1660 — March 
18, 1770. — Mabtinucci, Manuale Saorarum Oaeremantarum, Book V., ch. 
IV., n. 10. — Qbimaldi, op. oit, ch. VIII., p. 115 (foot-note). 

^Barbibr db Montault, too. oit — FiSQUBT, op. dt, passim. 

Gappa Magna. 77 

brae. On Christmas night, his cappa magna is of red vel- 
vetf and of red serge for funeral services and Tenebrae.^ 

6. Cardinals wear a silk cappa magna during the entire 
year, except on Good Friday, when they should wear a 
cappa of woolen material.' Their cappa magna, red atordi- 
nary times, is parple daring tlie penitential season, on 
days of mourning, and when attending funeral services.* 
In Rome, Cardinals wear the red cappa magna in their 
titles and when attending the Papal ^'chapels," held in 
the Pontifical Palace.^ Should the Papal chapel be held 
outside of the Pontifical Palace, etiquette would require 
that Cardinals wear the purple cappa magna. 

When at Rome, Cardinals have a special train-bearer 
belonging to the ^'Conf ratemity ot Train-Bearers."' 

6. The Ceremonial of Bishops contains full information 
on the use of the cappa magna by Bishops. The episcopal 
cappa magna is exclusively made of woolen material and 
always purple, even in penitential season (ut siwt 
[cappae] .... laneae et violaceae et non alterius coh 
oria).^ No custom authorizes the use of a silk cappa 
magna by a Bishop. 

.7. Cardinals and Bishops belonging to Religious Orders 
are not allowed the use of a red or purple cappa magna. 

>Uii Ey^ae Soffragant, op, dt, pp. 845-846. 

*Babbibb db Montault^ op. cii., T. I., pp. 861-862. 

H)n the third Sunday of Advent {Gaudete) and on the fourth Sun- 
day of Lent iLaetare)t when Cardinals wear a chqrch'^ress of rose 
colored silk, they wear the purple cappa magna. 

'A "chapel" is a religious ceremony performed or presided oyer by the 
Pope. When the Pope officiates, he has, as Assistant Priest, the senior 
Cardinal-Bishop; as Deacon, one of the Cardinal-Deacons; and, as Sub- 
deacon, one of the Auditors of the Rota. 

"The train-bearers of Cardinals in Rome belong to a confraternity 
which has a Cardinal-Protector, and the prefect of which is the train- 
bearer of the Pope. They have charge of the church of San Salvatore in 
oampo. — Babbibb db Montault, Traits de la Construction, Tom. II., p. 
581. — Gbimaldi, op. dt, ch. VIII., p. 115 (text and foot-note). 

*Oaer, Bpiso. I., iii., 8. 

78 OosTUMB OF Pbblatbs. 

Their cappae, made of woolen material, are of the same 
color as the outer part of the habit of their Orders. The 
cape is sometimes of ermine, namely, when the lining of 
the prelatial dress is white; but, as a rule, it is made of 
other furs, matching the color of the cappa, as those of 
the yicunia, otter, northern cat, or Russian blue fox. For 
these furSf silk of the same color is substituted in sum- 

Abbots who have the privilege of wearing the cappa 
magna ought to follow the same rules, unless this conces- 
sion includes special regulations. 

Bishops belonging to Religious Congregations or to 
Orders of Clerics Regular may wear the same cappa 
magna as secular Prelates.' Cardinals belonging to the 
same Congregations or Orders are not permitted to wear 
a silk cappa magna like secular Cardinals; but special 
and personal exceptions to these rules are often granted. 

8. The Bishop must be vested with the cappa magna 
when he goes to the cathedral on feast days; and, where 
the cathedral is canonically constituted, having a Chap- 
ter, the Bishop vested in cappa magna has a s&ict right 
to be escorted by the Chapter as a body, and to have as 
assistants two Canons.* If he does not wear the cappa 
magna, he has no right to these honors. When vested with 
the mozzetta, he takes his seat in the first stall of the 
choir ;^ but, when he wears the cappa magna, he sits upon 
his throne." 

The hood of the cappa magna is used to protect the 
head from cold when the Prelate assists at Matins — a 

>S. R. C, 1628. — Mabtimucci, Man. Oaer., Book V., chapt. II., pp. 12-18. 
— Babbibb db Montault^ op. oit. Tome I., p. 260. 

*Oaer. Bpiso, I., 111., 4. 

•S. B. C, Sept. 2, 1597— Jan. 18, 1646— Sept. 18, 1646— Jan. 12, 1647— 
March 22, 1862 — March 22, 1894. — Oaer, Bpi»o., I., iv., 7. 

«S. B. C, July 24, 1688. 

*Oaer. Bpiao, II., Ix., 4. 

Cappa Maqna, 


rather rare occarrence in oar days — and, as a Bign of 
mourning, when he goes to chnrch, the last three days 
of Holy Week.^ When giving hia hlesBing from the 
throne, the Bishop covers his head with his biretta, or 
with the hood of tiie cappa, as a eign of aathority. An- 
other occasion, on which the hood of the cappa is ased, is 
when the Prelate 
wears the pontifl- 
cal hat, as tiiia hat 
is not worn direct- 
ly over the head, 
but over the hood 
of the cappa 

Id Borne, at 
Papal "chapels" 
held in the Apos- 
tolic Palace, Car- 
dinals wear the 
unfolded cappa 
magna J Bishops 
and certain Prel- 
ates,* the folded 
cappa ; and the 
Prelates di man- 
tellone, the special 
cappa described at 
the end of the preceding chapter.* As Oardinals are 
privileged to let down the train of the cappa magna 
in presence of the Pope, they have a train-bearer, whose 
duty it is not only to carry the train of the Cardi- 
nal's cappa, but also to hold bis biretta, his breviary, 

'Oaer. BpUe., II., uU,, 8. 

■Tbeae Prelate* are, the 
Andltore ol Rota, CI 
Blgnatnre, and Mln 
o4t.. Tome I,, p. 3TT 

■H. FmOBT, Oiri 

H flooh»tH, Protonotarlei Apoitoltc, 
lerka at the BeTerend Apoetolle Camera, Relereea of the 
Btera of the papal chapel. — BuniBK Dl Hohtadlt, op. 

Imodlsf de Borne, pp. 48, 138, 189, ISB, S2(, etc. 

80 OOSTUMB OP Prblatbs. 

papers, etc., when necessary. A Cardinal never wears his 
biretta in presence of the Pope, so the train-bearer holds 
it all the time at Papal ^^chapels." Those who wear the 
folded cappa at Papal ^'chapels" never let down its train, 
except on Good Friday at the adoratipn of the Otobb ; and, 
when these Prelates perform some litnrgical function at 
the ^'chapel," they do not wear the cappa, but pnt on the 
cotta over the rochet ; Bishops, who serve the Mass of the 
Pope, or receive holy communion from his hand on Holy 
Thursday, observe the same rule.^ 

9. Canons, who wear by privilege the cappa magna, are 
not entitled to wear the episcopal cappa. It is under- 
stood that the cappa conceded to Canons is the folded one ; 
and they are never allowed to let down its train, except 
for the adoration of the Cross on Good Friday, as was 
mentioned for the Prelates attending Papal ^^chapels;" 
and, as regards the occasions on which to wear the cappa, 
they are expected to follow faithfully the terms of tiie 
indult. The cappa, with an ermine cape, is a winter gar- 
ment, as was said ; therefore, Canons should not wear it in 
summer, but should substitute the cotta for the cappa 
over the rochet, unless they have received the very explicit 
privilege of using a summer cappa, that is the same 
cappa with a cape of silk instead of fur, in which case 
they wear the cape of fur in winter and the cape of silk in 
summer.^ Moreover, as the cappa is a choir ornament and 
not a liturgical garment, if a Canon has to perform eccle- 
siastical functions, or to administer some sacrament, he 
should leave aside his cappa and wear instead the cotta 
over the rochet,* 

* *Un Bydque Soffragant, op. dt, p. 18. 

*Many decrees of the Sacred Congregation of Rites have been Issued on 
this point. 

*S. B. C, Noyember 29, 1866, and many otlier decrees. 



■w ^^^Hll 

ImB^^^'J ^n 



It Jll 




1 Vsi'iii:'' l^^^l 


Canoh vetTiD IN Hii Canonical Cappa. 

Hats. 81 



i. The Usual Clerical Hat. — 2. Pontifical Hat — S. Semi- 
Pontifical Hat. — 4. Heraldic Hat. 

1. The usual ecclesiastical hat is not worn in our 
country, because it requires the full ecclesiastical dress, 
of which it is the complement.^ It is actually worn in 
Catholic countries: Italy, France, Spain, Belgium, etc. 
In LoWer Canada, the clergy wear the clerical hat, except 
in a few dioceses, where the statutes direct priests to 
wear a high silk hat. 

Roman etiquette prescribing the ecclesiastical hat, the 
Bishops of this country wear it in Rome, when making 
their visits ad limina. 

The usual clerical hat is round, with low crown and 
broad brim. It is generally made of beaver hair; but, in 
summer, some lighter material may be adopted. 

Formerly, Roman etiquette required the clerical hat to 
be three-cornered, like the hats generally used in the seven- 
teenth and eighteenth centuries; but now this etiquette is 
no longer observed, and the Roman hat has a flat brim. 
It is adorned with a silk cord, or band. To the cord are 
attached tassels, while the band is enlarged where the 
ends meet. The cord is now universally in use. It is red, 
entwined with gold for Cardinals ; green, with gold, for 
Patriarchs; green' for Archbishops and Bishops; 
amaranth red, or rose-colored, for Protonotaries Apos- 

^In Great Britain, ecclesiastics wear this bat, when they do not make 
make use of the high silk hat. 

*Oaer. Episo. I., 1., 8. — The prevailing custom is that the cordon of the 
Archbishop's hat be entwined with gold. Even many Bishops use the same 
cordon, owing to the difficulty of finding a merely green cordon. 

82 CosTuui OF Pbilatdb. 

tolic di numero, $upemumerary and ad inatar;^ pnrple (or 
Prelates di mantelletta ererywhere,' and for ^«lates di 
mantellone ontside of Rome; black for all other eccleai- 

The lining of the hat should be red forCardinala; green,* 
for Prelates invested with the episcopal character; ama- 
ranth red, or rose-colored, for Protonotariea; parple, for 
other Prelates ; and black, for the simple clergy. 

Til* Pop**! Hat. 

The Pope, when taking a walk in his gardens, wears a 
red ecclesiastical hat, with gold cord and taasela, the 
brim being raised and held on both sides with small gold 

Besides the black hat, the Cardinals hare also one that' 
is red, bordered with gold. They wear this when they go 
to charch in the red or pnrple cassock.* This hat formerly 
was their everyday hat ; it is distinct from the pontifical 

2. The erery-day hat must not be mistaken for the pon- 
tifical hat. The former is an ordinary head-coreHng, 

'Constlt. Inter mttlKpHoM, FcbrnmTy 21, 190B, nn. IS, IT. 

■Oon.(. oil., n. 7». 

•<7arr. Bpt»a. I., 1., 3. 

•BlBBiam DB MOHTADLT, Op. oil., TtUO. I., p. 338. — J. DB NlUON, UlHt 
Xin. tnllna, ch. IV., p. 182.— And Otber (otllilT*. 

•BlBBIBB DB UONTAOLT, Op. dt., TOtD. I., p, 4S6. — QBIIULDI, «p. ott, ch. 
VIIL, p. 115. 

"Pontifical Hat/' 83 

without any symbolical meaning; while the latter is a 
token of digni^ or jurisdiction.^ The former is used as 
an outdoor head-covering; the latter, in official cere- 
monies. The latter is now very seldom used. 

Before the occupation of Rome by the King of Piedmont, 
this hat was used by Cardinals and Prelates for The caval- 
cades held on the occasion of the inauguration of the Pope 
and in other Papal pageants. It was also used for the 
inauguration of Cardinals, for the solemn entrance of a 
Bishop into his episcopal city, and when a Bishop went 
solemnly to his cathedral on feast days.' 

Nowadays, the custom of wearing the pontifical hat 
has almost entirely ceased among Bishops outside of 

The pontifical hat has such a very low crown, that it 
has to be attached with tasseled cords under, the chin. 
The cord around the crown also has tassels. 

The Pope's pontifical hat is made of red velvet.* 

The hat of the Cardinals is also red, but made of cloth 
and lined with silk. It is this hat which is properly the 
sign of the cardinalitial dignity. Cardinals were con- 
ceded this red hat by Pope Innocent IV., at the first 
council of Lyons, A. D. 1246.^ It is solemnly conferred 
by the Pope upon the newly-appointed Cardinals, at one 
of the consistories that follow their appointment At the 
death of a Cardinal, his pontifical hat must be placed at 
the foot of the catafalque, and, afterwards, suspended 
from the ceiling above his tomb. 

Cardinals have another hat of a peculiar form, very 
large and with a small crown, made of red silk and bor- 
dered with gold. It is called in Italian ^^capellone" 

Waer, Epiao, 1., Hi., 5. 

*Caer, Bpi$o. I., it, 1. — H. Fisqubt, C^r^monies de Rome, poatim. 

*H. FiSQUBT, C^r^monles de Rome, ptuaim, 

^Fbbbabis^ Bililiotheca canonica, art. 0ardinale9, II. 

84 GosTUMB OF Pbblatbs. ' 

(large hat). It is supposed to be used to protect the 
Cardinal from the sun when he walks bareheaded in pro- 
cessions, a valet holding it over the Cardinal's head. In 
fact, it is never used, except as a mark of dignity, on great 
occasions, as, for instance, the ceremonies of canoniza- 
tions, when it is carried behind the Cardinal by the decano 
(dean) of his household, who holds it suspended from his 
left arm.^ 

The pontifical hat of Archbishops and Bishops is made 
of green silk, with strings and tassels of the same color. 
The strings of the hat of Patriarchs are green, entwined 
with gold.' 

Strict etiquette seems to require that the upper part of 
the hat of Patriarchs, Archbishops and Bishops should be 
made of black cloth,* and the under part, of green silk; 
but this prescription has hardly ever been observed, so 
that the pontifical hat of Bishops is entirely green. 

The Bishop's green hat is a sign of jurisdiction, and, 
consequently, not to be worn outside the limits of his 

On the Bishop's death, his pontifical hat is placed at 
the foot of the catafalque, and, after his burial, is sus- 
pended above his tomb." 

According to a decree of the Sacred Congregation of 
Bites,* the pontifical hat of the Protonotaries Apostolic 
of the first three classes is made of black cloth, with 

'FiSQUBT^ C6r6inonle8 de Rome, p. 199. 

*The "Regent of the Chancery," though not Inyested with the episcopal 
character, is privileged to wear a hat similar to that of a Bishop. 

*Oaer. Bpiso. I., i., 1. — I., iii., 5. 

«S. R. C, Sept. 23, 1848. 

*Oaer. BpUo. II., xxxviii., 18. — Babbikb db Montault^ op, oit., Tom. II., 
p. 351. 

•S. R. C, Febr. 7, 1707.— Pius IX.'s Constit. Apo9tolicae BedU (1872).^ 
Pius X.'s Const. Inter multiplioe$ (Febr. 21, 1905, n. 16). — Barbibb pb 
MoiiTAULT, op. dt., Tom. II., p. 351, 

"Pontifical Hat/' 85 

lining, borders, cords and tassels of rose-colored (or 
amaranth red) silk.^ At the funeral of the Prelate, this 
hat is placed at the foot of the catafalque. 

3. Besides the pontifical hat, the Protonotaries Apos- 
tolic of the first three classes have the privilege of wearing 
the '^SemipontificaV^ or Prelatial hat, which differs from 
the preceding only in this, that it has a narrower brim.' 

This hat is conceded also to the Prelates Referees of the 
Signature, and to the Masters of Ceremonies of the Apos- 
tolic Palace. But while the semipontifical hat of the Pro- 
tonotaries Apostolic is trimmed with rose-colored (or 
amaranth red) silk, that of the Referees and Masters of 
Ceremonies is trimmed with purple. 

Both pontifical and semipontifical hats are worn onlj 
when the Prelate is vested in the cappa magna; he puts 
the hood of the cappa on his head and the hat over it, 
then he ties the strings under his chin, the tassels hanging 
over his breaat. 

4. The pontifical and semipontifical hats being tokens 
of dignity, are usually placed over the coats-of-arms of the 
Prelates,' as will be seen further on. 

>Thl8 hat was conceded to the Protonotaries Apostolic by Pope Clement 
X., Aug. 6, 1674. — Annaleota luriB Pont, 8d. S., col. 699. 

*S. R. C, April 16, 1644. 

*lNNOCBNT X.'s ball, MiUtanii9 Eocleslae (1644). — Pius X.'s Constlt. 
Inter mulUpUce9 (1905), nn. 18, 68, etc.,- etc. 

86 GosTUMi or Pbilatbs. 



1. Shape. — 2. MateriaU. — S. Colors. — 4. Concession of the 
Purple Biretta hy Leo XIII. — 5. Cardinals. — 6. Prel- 
ates; Concession Made hy Pope Pius X. — ^7. Final 


1. The biretta (beretta, hiretum, hirettum) is an eccle- 
siastical cap, square in shape, having three ^'homs" or 
projections on top, with a tuft {^^pompon") of silk (not a 
tassel) attached where the three horns meet in the middle. 
In wearing the biretta, the part which has no horn should 
be to the left. 

The form here described is the Roman, and the one gen- 
erally adopted in this country. 

2. The biretta is made of thin cardboard, covered with 
some light material, the color and quality of which are 
settled by rule. 

This material must always be woolen in birettas of 
priests and clerics of lower rank. 

Cardinals and Bishops have the use of two birettas, one 
covered with silk for summer, the other covered with 
light cloth for winter. 

All Prelates, either di mantelletta or di mantellone, 
wear throughout the year a biretta covered with silk.^ 

8. The color of the biretta varies according to the rank 
and dignity of the wearer. 

*A biretta of yelvet Is In opposition to these principles, as has been 
already remarked. 


BiRBTTA. 87 

Until the Pontificate of Leo XIII., the biretta of Car- 
dinals was red, and that of all the other members of the 
clergy was uniformly black.^ 

4. However, as a large number of Bishops, Prelates 
and Canons had presumed to wear the purple biretta 
under different pretexts, Leo XIII., desirous of estab- 
lishing a well-marked difference between Prelates in- 
vested with the episcopal character and those who were 
simply priests, granted the exclusive privilege of wearing 
a purple biretta to all Patriarchs, Primates, Archbishops 
and Bishops, no others having the privilege.' 

The letter *^Praeclaro divinas gratiae/^ granting that 
favor, was issued on February 3, 1888. According to the 
terms of that document, the biretta is one of ordinary 
form, entirely purple; and no mention being made of red 
cords, such ornaments should not be added. In Rome, 
where official samples are carefully kept by hatters and 
tailors, these cords are unknown, and the tuft is of purple 
silk. From answers given by the Sacred Congregation of 
Rites, we gather that, if such cords are added, they must 
be of the same color as the biretta.' 

As will be said when speaking of the Doctors' cap, the 
episcopal biretta should not be made with four horns, for, 
though a Bishop is a Doctor of Divinity, his purple biretta 
is not a sign of his theological attainments, but of his 
episcopal character.* 

5. Cardinals wear a red biretta at all times, no matter 
what the season of the year or the liturgical occasion. The 
Cardinal's biretta differs from the others in that it has 
no tuft; at the point where the three horns meet there is 
a small loop of silk string. 

Waer. Epi9e, 1., i., 4. 

'Const. Praeolaro divitiae graiiae, February 8, 1888. 

*S. R. C, Sept. 6, 1896, in B. lac. de OhUe. {Bireium formae ordinariae 
ao coloriB violacei, oum flocoulo ei funioulis eiusdem ootoria — a biretta of 
the ordinary form, and of purple, with tuft and cords of the same color.) 

«S. R. C, Dec. 7, 1844, in VenuBina, — Sept. 6, 1895, in 8, lao. de Chile, 

88 GosTUMB OF Pbelatba. 

The biretta that Cardinals wear is not the one they 
received from the Pope, as a token of their dignity, imme- 
diately after their promotion to the Gardinalate. Through 
respect for its origin, they do not wear this biretta sent 
by the Pope, but place it on a credence-table in their ante- 
chamber, between two candlesticks.^ 

6. With regard to the biretta of those Prelates who are 
not invested with the episcopal character, new regulations 
have been issued by Pope Pius X. in his motu propria of 
February 21, 1905. Bpeaking of the Protonotaries Apos- 
tolic of the first three classes, he says : '^ . . . . ges- 
tare valent .... nigrum hiretum, fiocoulo omatum 
coloris ruhini/^ ("they may wear a black biretta orna- 
mented with a red-colored tuft").* As to the other Prel- 
ates, they have acquired by virtue of the same motu pro- 
pria the privilege of ornamenting their black birettas, with 
a purple tuft :".... nee alio uti colore quam iHo- 
laceo in hireti flocculo/'^ 

7. The present chapter may be closed with the follow- 
ing remarks: 

a) When a privilege is granted to a class of dignitaries, 
each one of them is considered as bound to make use of the 
privilege ; otherwise, he wrongs the body of which he is a 
member. Moreover, he has no right to refuse a privilege, 
the concession of which has been made rather to the body 
than to him individually. 

Now, Pope Leo XIII. has granted to all Bishops the 
purple biretta to be worn at all times. Consequently, all 
Bishops are supposed to use this privilege, and to wear 
the purple biretta, even when wearing the black cas- 
sock or simar. The purple biretta does not necessarily 

iBabbieb db Montault, op, oit, Tom. I., pp. 282-288. — Un Bvfique Suf- 
fragant; op. oii., p. 5. — Gbimaloi, op. oii.» cb. VIII., p. 119. 
'Constitution Inter multiplice9 (Febr. 21, 1905), nn. 16, 45. 
•Constitution Inter multipHoet (Febr. 21, 1905), n. 79. 

BiRBTTA, 8h 

require the wearing of the purple cassock. It is the only 
biretta granted to Bishops^ and should be worn at all 

h) The lining of the biretta, though apparently a trifling 
matter, is, however, regulated by etiquette. A Cardinal's 
biretta is lined with scarlet red; and that of a Bishop, 
with green. Crimson red lining is reserved for the Prel- 
ates di mantelletta. Custom allows the Prelates di man- 
tellone to use a biretta lined with purple; but the biretta 
of priests and ecclesiastics of lower rank should have no 
other lining than black. 

'The biretta of a Bishop belonging to a Religious Order is purple, no 
matter what the color of his cassock. 


tO GosTUMi OF Pbilatbs. 

Gaix)ttb OB Bkull-Gap. 

1. Name; Shape; Materials. — 2. Cardinals. — S. Bishops. — 
4. Prelates. — 5. Altar Boys. — 6. Liturgical Use. — 

7. The Pope's ^'OamauroJ* 

1. The skull-cap (called also calotte or zucchetio) is a 
small cap used by Catholic clergymen to cover the ton- 
sure. It is called in Latin documents ^^pileolus." 

Strictly speaking, it should not be of any other material 
than cloth in winter and silk in summer, for all ecclesias- 
tics, even Regulars; but, in practice, the silk calotte is 
permitted throughout the year. 

2. Every ecclesiastic may wear a calotte; it is not 
reserved solely for Prelates. However, a calotte of an- 
other color than black is not permitted to priests and 
ecclesiastics of lower rank, as it is one of the insignia of 
the Prelacy. 

The red skull-cap is one of the proper insignia of the 
Cardinalate, together with the red hat and the red biretta. 
And it is so exclusively reserved for Cardinals that the 
Pope, when granting, by special favor, to a Bishop the 
privilege of wearing a Cardinal's robes without making 
him a Cardinal, always excepts the use of the red skull- 
cap. Moreover, Cardinals taken from Religions Orders, 
whatever be the color of their cassocks, are entitled to 
wear the scarlet zucchetto, as well as the red hat and the 
red biretta, these being the proper marks of their dignity. 

3. By the Brief Ecclesiarum omnium (June 17, 1867,) 
Pope Pius IX. granted to all Patriarchs, Archbishops and 

BkulitCap. 91 

Bishops, the privilege of wearing the purple calotte, as an 
exclusive sign of the episcopal dignity.^ 

Soon after the Brief of Pius IX. was published, tailors 
and hatters, in making calottes, went beyond the conces- 
sion, and began to add extra ornaments that are not men- 
tioned in the Pontifical document. According to the offi- 
cial sample fixed at the time of the concession, the episco- 
pal calotte should be entirely purple, without any addi- 
tion of red cords or of red stitchings; there should be no 
cords, while the stitchings should be purple. The lining is 
of red leather. 

4. Before the appearance of Pope Pius X.*s motu pro- 
prio ^* Inter multiplicea/^ all Prelates not invested with the 
episcopal character, or at least Bishops-elect, were allowed 
to wear only a black skull-cap ; but Roman etiquette per- 
mitted that the lining be red for the calotte of the Prelates 
di mantelletta, and purple for that of the Prelates di man- 
tellone. Pius X., by the above-mentioned motu proprio, 
granted to the Protonotaries Apostolic di numero, super- 
numerary and ad instar, a special skull-cap, black, with 
cords of amaranth red silk along the seams, and stitchings 
of the same color. By the same act, the other Prelates 
were conceded a like calotte, but with the said trimmings 
in purple. 

5. The use of the calotte having been introduced for no 
other purpose than to cover the tonsure, in order to pro- 
tect the head from cold, it follows that those who are not 
clerics are not entitled to wear this cap. For this reason, 
the custom of allowing sanctuary boys to wear the calotte 
has been frequently condemned by the Sacred Ck)ngrega- 
tion of Bites. 

6. The use of the calotte by Bishops is determined by the 
following rules : A Bishop is privileged to wear his skull- 

il^eo XIIT. made an exception to this rule when he conceded the use of 
the purple calotte to the Abbot of Solesmes And his successors forever. 

92 C!o8TUMB or Prblatis. 

cap not only at home, but also in church, even when assist- 
ing at services and celebrating Mass. He always wears it 
under the mitre, in order to prevent the hair from soiling 
the inside of the mitre.^ 

When assisting at Mass in cope, he wears the calotte 
all the time, except during the consecration and eleva- 
tion;' but, when assisting at Mass in choir habit {oappa 
magna, mozzetta or mantelletta) , he removes his skull-cap, 
also at the reading of the Gospel and when he is incensed.' 

Bishops are privileged to wear the skull-cap while cele- 
brating Mass, except from the Sanctus until after com- 
munion. In this case the Bishop's skull-cap is taken oflF 
his head (at Low Mass by one of his servers, at High Mass 
by one of the oflScers) after he has recited the Sanctus, 
and replaced after he has taken the ablutions. 

On all other occasions, the Prelate himself should remove 
and put on his calotte. 

The wearing of the skull-cap is never allowed in pres- 
ence of the Blessed Sacrament exposed; and Prelates are 
directed to remove the skull-cap every time they perform 
some external act of private devotion, as, for instance, 
kissing the crucifix or the relics of a saint.^ 

The same regulations hold good for Cardinals ; but Car- 
dinals alone have the privilege of wearing the skull-cap in 
presence of the Sovereign PontiflF; all other Prelates re- 
main bareheaded in his presence in sign of obedience and 
respect, and even Cardinals, while bowing to him, remove 
their skull-caps. 

7. The Pope makes use of a white skull-cap, similar in 
shape to that of other Prelates; but he has besides the 

Waerem, Bfiisc, p<M«im. 
*S. B. C„ June 14, 1846 — Decemb. 5, 1848. 
•S. R. C, May 20, 1890. 

«A Bishop should not wear the skull-cap while imparting the blessing 
with a relic of the True Cross. 

Thb Popb^s ''Camauro/' 93 

privilege of wearing a cap special to him, called in Italian 
''camauro." The material for this cap is red velvet, with 
a border of ermine. During the octave of Easter, the red 
camauro is replaced by one of white damask. This cap 
has probably retained the primitive shape of the biretta. 
This would explain why the Pope does not make use of a 
biretta like other members of the Prelacy and clergy.^ 

>Cfr. the Interesting study of Mgr. A. Battandibb in the "Annualre 
Pontifical" for 1901, pages 76 et 9eq, 

94 GosTUMB or Pbblatbs. 



1. Two Different Sorts of Prelatical Stochmga. — 2. Ordi- 
nary Stockings. — S. A Sign of Prelacy. — 4* Altar 
Boys. — 5. Liturgical Stockings. — 6. Where 
and When to Put Them Ont 

1. There are two kinds of prelatical Stockings : 

The ordinary stockings, worn by Prelates in their daily 
life, which are of a color significative of the Prelate's 
rank, and the liturgical stockings, worn by Bishops, and 
other Prelates having the privilege of the pontificals,^ 
when they celebrate the solemn Pontifical Mass. 

2. The ordinary stockings are knit of black, purple, red, 
or white silk, each Prelate wearing stockings that match 
the color of his choir cassock. Therefore, the Pope's 
stockings are white; the Cardinals', red; Bishops' and 
Prelates di mantelletta's, purple; other members of the 
clergy wear black. Prelates belonging to Religious Or- 
ders wear stockings of the same color as their cassocks. 

Formerly, the color was changed, like that of the cas- 
sock, according to the liturgical season; but the present 
etiquette prescribes the wearing of the same color in 
stockings throughout the year.^ 

>The "pontificals" are marks of dignity that Cardinals and Bishops 
use when oflSclatlng at solemn High Mass. These are the stockings, 
sandals, ring, gloves, pectoral cross, mitre, crosier, tunics, hand-candle- 
stick and gremlal. — Ofr, ViaousBL-NAiNFA^ A Synthetical Ifatitfcl of 
Liturgy, pp. 67, 68. 

^Babbibb db Montault, op. oit,, Tom. I., pp. 61, 62. — On Good Friday, 
Cardinals are directed to wear purple stockings, and all other Prelates, 
black. — IBattandibb^ Annuaire Pontifioal (1903), p. 861. 

Liturgical Stockings. 96 

These stockings regularly cover the feet and the legs up 
to the knees, and are fastened above or below the knee 
with a garter ; but, as it is very inconvenient to wear them 
under the ''pantaloon," they may be substituted, in this 
country, by socks of the same material and color. 

3. Purple or red stockings are, among the clergy, a 
mark of Prelacy. Therefore, no ecclesiastic who is not a 
Prelate has any right to wear other stockings than black ; 
unless he has obtained a personal privilege, as is the case 
for certain Chapters in Europe.^ 

4. Though altar boys are vested in red or purple cas- 
socks, they are not entitled to wear stockings of these 
colors under the pretext of matching the different parts 
of their church dress. If special stockings are given them 
for their functions in church, these stockings should 
be black. The same rule applies to all who wear a purple 
cassock as a livery-dress, including the Prelates di mantel- 
lone.* .. ' 

5. Liturgical stockings are those prescribed by the 
Rubrics and the Ceremonial of Bishops for the celebra- 
tion of Pontifical High Mass.' They differ from ordinary 
stockings, because they have preserved the antique form 
of stockings. 

They are made of silk material, not knitted, but woven, 
and their color is the one required by the ofBce of the day, 
white, red, green, or purple.^ Such stockings are not used 
at Requiem Mass.' 

>S. R. C, April 11, 1840. — S. C, Blsh. and Reg., 1848. — Brief of Gregory 
XVI., June 8, 1841, etc. 

'Clement VIII. granted to the Prelates di manielUme the privilege of 
wearing purple stockings outside of Rome. 

*Oaer, Bpi$o, I., z., 2. — II., Till., 7. — Rubric of the Missal. 

*PtX3B VII.'s Const. Deoei Rom, Pont (1823). 

*Oaer, Bpi$o. II., xl., 2. 



96^^ CosTUMB OF Prelates. 

All who, in virtue of their Orders, or by special privi- 
lege, are entitled to celebrate Pontifical High Mass, wear 
these stockings. Those of the Pope and Cardinals may be 
embroidered with gold. Those of Archbishops, Bishops, 
Protonotaries Apostolic di numero and supernumerary, 
are made of plain silk and bordered with a gold strip.^ 
Those of the Protonotaries ad instar, of Abbots, Canons, 
etc., may be trimmed with a strip of yellow silk only.' 

The Prelate, while vesting for Pontifical Mass, puts on 
these stockings over his ordinary stockings or socks, and 
has them fastened to his leg with a ribbon or silk string 
fixed at the top of each stocking. As nothing is pre- 
scribed concerning the height of these stockings, they may 
be made hardly higher than ordinary socks, which makes 
them easy to wear with the "pantaloon." 

5. Cardinals, Prelates invested with the episcopal char- 
acter, Abbots and the seven Protonotaries Apostolic di 
numero, put on the liturgical stockings at the throne or 
at the faldstool, while reciting the prayer ^*Oaloea,Domine, 
pedes meos . . . ."• 

Prelates, Canons and other ecclesiastics who may have 
received the privilege of celebrating Pontifical High Mass, 
are not permitted to put on their liturgical stockings at 
the faldstool, but only in the sacristy.* 

>Ba£Bibb di Montault, op. oit, Tom. II., p. 263. — Pius X.'s Const. 
Inter multiplioee (1005), n. 27. 
*PiU8 X.'B Oonat. oit, n. 47. 
"Rubric of the Missal. 
«Piu8 VII.'s Const. Deoet Bom. Pont. (1823). 

SbOBS. 97 



1. Ecclesiastical Sfcoe«.— 2. Cardinal Shoes. — 3. The 

Pope's Slippers. — 4. Liturgical Sandals. — 5. Cross on 

the Upper of Sandals. — 6. Liturgical Stockings 

and Sandals go together. — ^7. Where and 

When to Put Them On. 

1. Ecclesiastical shoes can hardly be worn in this conn- 
trjy as long as our civilian dress remains as it is. These 
shoes are shaped like those which we see in paintings 
and engravings that show the dress of the beginning of 
the last century — ^a low shoe with a large buckle in f ront.^ 

Shoes of this kind, according to Roman etiquette, should 
be worn by all members of the clergy, and by those who 
have to discharge any ecclesiastical functions in church, 
as chanters, sacristans, etc. 

The buckles of the shoes, for the inferior members of 
the clei^ and the officers of the church, are made of pol- 
ished steel ; and for priests, monks, and Prelates belonging 
to Religious Orders, of silver. Gold or gilded silver buckles 
are reserved for secular Prelates.* 

2. The Cardinals' ordinary shoes are black, with a red 
border. When a Cardinal vests in his red cassock and 
cappa magna, he may wear shoes of red leather. Etiquette 

'Barbibr db Montault, op. dt, Tom. I., p. 69. — Prelates might wear 
such shoes when attending ceremonies, or when going to church to pontifi- 
cate. Some of our Bishops do so, and this practice Is quite generally fol- 
lowed In Great Britain, Ireland and Germany. 

*Babbibb db Montault, loo, dt 

98 GosTUMB or Pbblatbs. 

prescribes it at Borne on solemn occasions, for instance, 
when Cardinals attend solemn Pontifical chapels or con- 

3. It is well known that the Pope wears for every-day 
shoes, red, thin-soled and flat-heeled .slippers, made of 
cloth or silk, according to the season. On the vamp of 
these shoes a gold cross is embroidered, which faithful 
Catholics, admitted to a private audience, kiss after hav- 
ing made three genuflections, according to etiquette. 

. • • 

4. A few principles must here be laid down concerning 
pontifical sandals (vandal ja^ oompagi). These are the 
footwear used at Pontifical High Mass by Bishops and all 
who have, by law or special concession, the privilege of 
using the "pontificals.'" 

The shape of these sandals is that of low shoes, with a 
thin sole and a fiat heel. They would be even more cor- 
rect, and more in conformity with etiquette and tradition, 
if they had no heel at all. They are fastened with silk 
ribbons or strings, to the end of which arie attached small 
gold tassels if the Prelate is a Cardinal, a Bishop, or a 
Protonotary Apostolic di numero or supernumerary; 
tufts or tassels of silk, if he is of a lower rank. 

The Bubric prescribes that the color of the sandals 
should match that of the vestments, that is the color 
required by the ofQce of the day ; but at Bequiem Masses 
the ofQciating Prelate does not wear the sandals. 

These sandals should be made of silk; no Prelate is 
allowed sandals of velvet or of gold cloth, and the Pope 

'Barbibr di Momtault^ op. dt,, Tom. I., p. 70. — Mabtinucci^ op. cii,. 
Book v., p. 505. 

*Oaer, Epi90, II., vlli., 7. — Rubric of the Missal. — Pontifical, De ordin, 

Sandals. 99 

and Cardinals alone have a right to wear sandals em- 
broidered with gold or silver. Bishops and the Proto- 
notaries Apostolic di numero and aupernumerwry may 
wear sandals bordered with a gold or silver strip ;^ bnt 
other Prelates who may have the privilege of the ^^pontifi- 
cals" should wear sandals with no other ornament than a 
border of yellow silk. 

5. We sometimes see Cardinals and Bishops wearing 
sandals with a gold cross embroidered on the upper; and 
even some handbooks dealing with litur^cal matters 
seem to give this practice as legitimate; but it is a 
usurpation or a mistake against which all serious authors 
protest; the cross embroidered on the sandals being a 
special and personal privilege of the Sovereign Pontiff.' 

6. The pontifical sandals, as well as the liturgical 
stockings, are to be used only at High Mass pontifically 
celebrated; they go together and are prescribed by the 
same Rubric. A Prelate is no more permitted to waive this 
Rubric under the pretext of simplicity, than to celebrate 
Mass without the proper vestments. 

7. The privilege of putting on the stockings and sandals 
at the throne or at the faldstool belongs to the Pope, Car- 
dinals, Bishops, Abbots and the seven Protonotaries 
Apostolic di numero. The other Protonotaries, Prelates, 
Canons, etc., who may have been granted the privilege of 
the ''pontificals," must put on their sandals in the 

There is only one prayer to be said by the Prelate while 
putting on his stockings and sandals, the prayer ^(Caicea, 
Domhie, pedes meos . . ." It is not required to repeat 
it twice.* 

'Plus X., Const. Inter muliiplices (1905), n. 27. 

*A11 authors in loco, — Ofr., especially Mabtimucci, op. dt. Book VI., 
Appendix, p. 648, note (b). 

*Pin8 VII., Const. Deoei Rom. Pont (1828). — Pins X., Const, /titer 
mulUplio€$ (1006), n. 27, 47. 

Klaer, BpUo, II., Till., 7. — Rubric of the Missal. 




Pbctoral Gross. 

1. Etymology. — 2. Two Different Pectoral Croaaea. — S. 
Ordinary Croaa. — 4* Pontifical Croaa. — 5. Vae of the 

Pontifical Croaa. — 6. Canona. 

1. The pectoral croaa derives its . name from pectua 
(breast), because it is worn hanging over the breast. It 
is a mistake to call it ''pastoral cross,'^ as is sometimes 
done. This expression is incorrect, because the pectoral 
cross is not a sign of jurisdiction, as might be implied by 
the term "pastoral," but a sign of order.* 

2. There are two different sorts of pectoral crosses, the 
ordinary croaa and the pontifi,cal croaa, the former being 
worn in ordinary daily life, the latter in the cere- 
monies of the Church, and especially in the celebra- 
tion of solemn Pontifical High Mass. Very often, this 
distinction is not strictly observed in practice, Bishops 
using the same cross both in their daily life and in 

>We read In certain old ceremonials that a Bishop, outside the limits 
of his Jurisdiction, should conceal his pectoral cross. This Is a mistake. 
The pectoral cross Is a sign of order, not of Jurisdiction. At the Vatican 
council, Pope Pius IX. ordered the Bishops to wear ostensibly their pec- 
toral crosses even In his presence. **Fuori le crooii" he said, when notic- 
ing that some Bishops concealed their pectoral crosses, as he entered the 
hall where they were assembled. 

Pbctoral Gross. 


church. In Italy, France, Ireland, Germany, England, 
etc., this distinction is generally observed. 

3. It is now the universal practice to wear the ordinary 
pectoral cross suspended at the neck with a gold chain. It 

should be simple, without pre- 
cious Stones, and it is not neces- 
sary that it contain relics of 
martyrs. It must be of Latin 
form, that is the upper part and 
the arms of equal length, and the 
lower part longer. An exception 
is made in favor of the Archbish- 
op of Armagh, 'Trimate of AH 
Ireland,'' and the Patriarch of 
Lisbon ; both are entitled, in vir- 
tue of an immemorial custom, to 
wear a pectoral cross with a dou- 
ble traverse. Other Prelates wear 
a similar cross, but their right to 
do so is not officially recognized.^ 

The ordinary pectoral cross may 
be worn over the civilian dress 
and over the cassock and simar; 
it is also tolerated over the man- 
telletta and mozzetta; but, in 
spite of a very general practice, 
no pectoral cross is permitted to 
be worn over the cappa magna.' 

All Prelates invested with the 
episcopal character are free to 
wear the ordinary pectoral cross ;" 
also Abbots, in virtue of an im- 
memorial custom ;^ and, by a spe- 

Tit »A * 


Ordinary Pectoral CroM. 

^Annalecia iuria poniifMi, 1896, col. 344. 
*Bahbibr dh Montault, op. dt, Tom. I., p. 408. 
*Martinucci, Man. Caer., Book V., ch. IV., n. 10. 
^Fbbbarib, Bihlioiheca canonica, art. Abbab. 

CoBTDui or Pbblatbs. 

cial grant of Pope Pins X., Cardinals vbo bare not re- 
ceived ttie episcopal consecration.' 

1. Wliile tlie ordinary cross may be worn by Bishops 
and some Prelates in daily iife; the pontifical croM is re- 

served for chnrch ceremonies and especially for tbe cele- 
bration of Pontifical High Mass, and as such, is per- 
mitted not only to Bishops, but to all who have received 
the privilege of officiating in the ponfi/icals. 


Pbctobal Gboss. 


This includes, besides Bishops, Cardinals, Protonotaries 
Apostolic, mitred Abbots and a great number of Canons. 

The pontifical cross is suspended from a rather heavy 
cord, which may be fitted around the neck with a slide, 
and from th^ end of which hangs a tassel over the back. 
This cord is of gold for the Pope, Cardinals and Patri- 
archs; of green silk, entwined with gold^ for Arch- 
bishops, Bishops, Prelates nullius and Abbots General; 
of red silk, entwined with gold, for Protonotaries Apos- 
tolic di nAimerof of plain red silk for Protonotaries Apos- 
tolic supernumerary;^ and of purple silk for Protono- 
taries Apostolic ad inatar.* For Canons, the color is 
determined in each case by the indult of concession ; gen- 
erally it is black, entwined with 
gold. For the pontifical cross of 
simple mitred Abbots, the color of 
the cord is determined by the tradi- 
tions of the Order. 

The pontifical cross is of Latin 
form; it must be hollow, fbi* the 
prayer recited by the Prelate, when 
he puts it on, supposes that it con- 
tains relics of Saints, '^ . . 
hano cruoem stmctorum tuorum 
reliquiis refertwm."^ Through re- 
spect for these relics, and on ac- 
count of the solemn occasions on 
which this cross is used, it is made 
of gold. That of the Pope, Cardi- 
nals, Bishops and Prelates nullius, 
may be studded with diamonds and 
other precious stones; that of Ab- 
bots and Protonotaries Apostolic 

Pontifical Peetoral CroM. 

*llARTiNUCCi, Ifait. Oaer., Book V., ch. I., p. 6. 
^Const Inter mtilKpUoet (1905), n. 8. 
'Contf. clt., n. 27. 
^Cont f. cit., n. 47. 
"Rubric of tlie Missal. 

104 CosTUMia OF Prblatbs. 

di numero should be adorned with one gem only {cum 
unica gemma). ^ Other Prelates and Canons, who are 
privileged to pontificate, wear a cross of plain gold.' 

5. The Ceremonial of Bishops and the Rubrics of the 
Missal prescribe that the Prelate put on the Pontifical 
cross over the alb, after having put on the cincture, and 
before taking the stole. It is precisely on account of the 
pectoral cross that the Prelate does not cross the stole 
over his breast. If he had to say Mass and had not at 
hand his pectoral cross, he should wear the stole crossed, 
as simple priests do. 

The Sacred Congregation of Bites several times forbade 
the wearing of the pectoral cross, and even of the very 
tassel of the cordon, over the chasuble. 

Protonotaries Apostolic, when they come to church 
for the sake of celebrating Pontifical Mass, may wear the 
pectoral cross over the mantelletta^ 

6., The privilege of the pectoral cross has been granted 
to a certain number of Chapters, both in Italy and else- 
where. Moreover, when a Chapter is favored with the 
concession of the pontificals, the indult always determines 
the time, circumstances and right of using them, and the 
"Ordinary" has the duty to prevent the express terms of 
the indult from being exceeded. 

Wonst cit, n. 8. — Some ceremonials teach that Cistercian Abbots should 
use pectoral crosses of wood ; but this Is against the universal practice of 
the Church and the real traditions of the Order. 

'Const, oit., n. 27 and 47. 

•Const. ''Inter multiplioetf' (Feb. 21, 1005), n. 1, 20, 40, 47. 



1. Who Haa the Right to Wear a Ringf — 2.Different Sorts 

of Rings. — S. Pope. — 4- Cardinals. — 5. Bishops. — 6. 

Abbots. — 7. Prelates. — 8. Canons. — 9. Doctors. — 

XO. Hand-Kiss. 

1. The ring, symbolizing the spiritual marriage of a 
Itishop and hla charch, has always been considered as one 
of the principal insignia of the episcopal rank.* 

However, the privilege of the ring has been granted to 
other dignitaries not Invested with the episcopal char- 
acter, namely, Cardinals, Abbots,* Roman Prelates,' 
Canons* and Doctors.' 

By all these dignitaries, the ring must be worn on the 
ring-finger of the right hand. 

2. Let OS first distinguish three 
classes of ecclesiastical rings, viz. : 
Pontifical, Gemmed rings, and 
Simple rings. 

The pontifical ring, denoted as 
Annulus cordis by the Rnbric of 
the Missal, is the one nsed for the 
celebration of the solemn Pontifi- 
cal Mass. It should be large 

■PoHTir. Boh., De Oeit*ecrall«ne eleoM In BpUimpum. 

■BcTeral bull! of Pope Ubbah II. (eleventh centuT;). 

■8. R. C. Ufttcb S, 1674, etc. — Crait Dvcel Ban. Ponl. — ConlL ipM- 
loUeat SaHj. — ^Conit. Inter miilllpllcea, etc., etc. 

•In Italy, alniMt all Cuioni wear a tins- 

*S. R. C, Hay 28, 1846. etc. — A. Battindiib, ^nnunlre PtnUfieat 
(1006), pp. 449, leq. 

106 CSosTUMB or Prblatis. 

enough to be put on easily over the gloved finger/ and 
ornamented with a beautiful large stone. 

The gemmed (or ordinary) ring is the one habitually 
worn by Bishops and Prelates. It is adorned with a 
simple gem, or with a large stone surrounded by bril- 
liants, according to the rank of the dignitary. 

The simple ring is one without gem, haying a plain gold 
bezel, on which a coat-of-arms or initials may be carved, 
that it may be used as a seal. Such is the Doctors' ring 
given by the Roman XTniversities.' 

The Ceremonial of Bishops and the Pontifioal suppose 
that Prelates wear several rings: ^^Ewtractisque • . • 
annulis, lavat manusJ'^ ^^Depositis annulis et ohirotheois, 
larat manus, reassumit annulos . . ."^ And though the 
present discipline is in favor of only one ring, there is no 
written law opposed to the quoted pas- 
sages of the Ceremonial and Pontifi- 

3. The Pope makes use of the pontifi- 
cal ring when he ofSciates at solemn 
High Mass. His ordinary ring is adorned 
with a cameo or carved gem, which is the -i^^^^^^JlS^^ 
Pope's exclusive privilege." * 

Another ring, peculiar to the Pope, is the Fisherman's 
ring, with which the Briefs are sealed. This ring has a 
large bezel on which is engraved a figure of St. Peter fish- 
ing, with the name of the reigning Pope in this form: 
Pius X. Pont. Max. This ring is put on the Pope's finger 

Waer. J^piao. II., Tlii., 11. 

*Babbibb db Montault, op. ott,, Tom. I., p, 160. — A. Battandibb, An- 
fitfoire Pontifioal (1906), p. 449. 
•Oaer. Bpiso. II., Yiil., 10. 
^Roman Pontifical, De ord. confer. 
"Babbibb db MontaulTj op, oit., Tom. I., p. 161, n. 6. 



' BioM (iebal liu}. 

as soon as he accepta bia election to the Papacy; then, he 

immediate!; tahefl it off and gives it to the Master of 

Ceremonies, to hare bis new name 

engraved on it. The iftuter of 

Cluimber is entitled to keep this 
ring, which is 
the Pope's pri- 
vate seal. Bnt I 
the Secretariate I 
of Briefs has a 
duplicate of it, 
so that the ring 
kept by the Mas- 
ter of Chamber 
is seldom nsed.* 
On the Pope's death, the Fisherman's ring is solemnly 


i. The Cardinals, besides the pontifical and ordinary 
rings, bare a peculiar one, which they receive from the 
Pope when promoted to the Cardinalate. This ring is 
adorned with a sapphire (a stone reserved 
for Cardinals) and has the arms of the 
Pope engraved inside. 

This ring is fnrnished by the Propa- 
ganda, to which the newly-promoted Car- 
dinal must pay 600 scudi (abont 3,000 
H.H '*'"®' ^' ♦SOO), whereby he acquires the 
(Not* thccw^ right of making his will. Otherwise, his 
umi Id tha P(M property is inherited by the Reverend 
wnndinM^t^ ^i^pogtolic Camera.* 

When a Prelate, having already the right to wear a ring, 
is created Cardinal, Roman etiquette prescribes that he 

■Busies di Hohtidlt, loo. ott. — Gbihaldi, op. oil., eh. IV., p. 49; eh. 
XXVII, p. 471. 

•E^BKAua, BlbUatheca, art. Annulut (4). 
■BUtaiH ■>■ HOHCIDDT, op. c<(., Tom. I., p. 102. 

108 CosTUMB OF Prblatbs. 

take off his ring and remain without one till he receives 
from the Pope a Cardinal's ring.^ 

5. Bishops, in virtue of their consecra- 
tion, wear the pontifical ring when they 
officiate vested in their pontificals. In or- 
dinary life, they wear a ring adorned with 
a large stone surrounded by brilliants. 
This stone may be of any kind, except 
A BUhop'tordinary xiny. Sapphire, which is reserved for Cardinals. 

6. Abbots have the same rings as Bishops, except that 
the ordinary ring has but a single gem.^ 

7. Besides all these dignitaries, two classes of Roman 
Prelates are entitled to wear the ordinary ring. These 
are the seven Protonotaries Apostolic di numero and the 
Abbreviators of the Major Park, but the ring which they 
are privileged to wear has but one stone, ^^cum unica 
gemma J^^ The seven Protonotaries Apostolic di numero 
wear also the pontifical ring when they officiate in their 
pontificals.^ The Protonotaries Apostolic supernumerary 
and ad inatar use the pontifical ring when they celebrate 
Pontifical Mass; but they are not habitually allowed to 
wear a ring.' 

8. Canons must follow the rules laid down by the indult 
granting them the favor of wearing the ordinary or pon- 
tifical ring. 

9. According to Roman usage. Doctors have the right 
to wear a ring. Ordinarily the ring delivered by the 

*Barbieb ds Montault, loo. cit. — "Ei notandum quod novi Oardinalet, 
etiamsi antea erant praelati, non detent portare annulos antequam habeant 
annulum a Bumrno Pontifioe" (Bom. Oerem). This regulation applies only 
to Prelates living in Rome at the time of their appointment as Cardinals. 

^Decrees of Albxandbb VII. and Bbnbdict XIV. — Pius VII., Oonat. 
Deoet Romanum Poniifloem (1828). 

*Pius X. Const. Inter multiplioee (1905). n. 4. 

*PiVB X. Const, ctt., n. 6. 

•Piys X. Oonnt. dt., n. 27, 81, 47, 49. 

Ring. 109 

Roman Universities is of plain gold, with the word "ROMA" 
engraved on the bezel. But this is only a local custom. 
No written law, custom or ceremonial prohibits Doctors 
from wearing a more elaborate ring, adorned with one or 
several gems.^ 

The use of a Doctor's ring is strictly reserved for civil 
life, teaching, and academic solemnities. The Sacred Con- 
gregation of Rites has frequently forbidden the use of the 
doctoral ring during ecclesiastical ceremonies, even in the 
celebration of Low Mass.* 

We may remark here that a Protonotary Apostolic ad 
instaVy though not granted a ring as Prelate, may, how- 
ever, wear one as Doctor.* 

10. With regard to kissing a Bishop's hand, it is to be 
noted that it is the ring, and not merely the hand of the 
Bishop, which is kissed, his ring being the symbol of his 
close union with his church,^ as well as the sign of his 

Should one bend the knee when kissing a Bishop's 
ring? Yes, if the Bishop is within the limits of his own 
diocese, as it is an acknowledgment of his jurisdiction as 
Ordinary, Outside of his own diocese, etiquette requires 
that he should only allow a low bow due to his character 
as a Bishop. 

According to principles frequently laid down in this 
manual, it is proper to bend the knee to a Cardinal every- 
where, to an Archbishop in his province, and to an Abbot 
in his monastery. 

>Mgr. Battandisb^ Annuaire Pontifical (1006), p. 449. 

*S. R. Cm May 22, 1612— February 18, 1625— Not. 20, 1628— May 28, 
1846 — June 80, 1880, etc. 

*A11 Protonotaries Apostolic are Doctors. 

^PoNTiFiCALB RoMANUM, De Cotisecraiione elecii in Bpiscopum. — Duban- 
Dus MiM.^ Rationale, Book III., ch. XIV. — Honobius Auo.^ Opera litur- 
ffioa. Book I., ch. 210 (In Mignb P. L., yol. 172, col. 609). 

110 GosTUMB or Prblatis. 



1. History. — 2. Shape. — 3. Kinds of Mitres. — J^. Incorrect 
Expressions. — 5. An Abuse. — 6. Deceased Prelates. — 

7. Mitre of Eastern Bishops. 

1. There is no documentary evidence that the mitre was 
in general use before the tenth century. Before that time, 
it seems to have been the special headdress of the Pope 
and of the principal members of the clergy of Rome. In 
the eleventh century^ certain Popes began to grant the 
privilege of wearing the mitre to Bishops whom they in- 
tended to honor in some special manner.^ But the mitre 
does not appear in history as one of the episcopal insignia 
before the twelfth century. From that time on, Bishops 
are always represented as wearing the mitre; the bronze 
doors of the Cathedral of Benevento, which were wrought 
about 1150 A. D., represent, among other subjects, the 
Archbishop of that city with his twenty suffragan Bishops, 
all wearing the mitre. 

Abbots adopted the mitre in the same century,' in spite 
of the objections of some rigid observants, like St. Ber- 
nard, who inveighed against the wearing of this new orna- 
ment by Abbots, as breathing worldly vanity. But these 
pious protests were of no avail, and, very shortly after St. 
Bernard's death, the wearing of the mitre became the 
privilege of Abbots as well as of Bishops. 

*St. Lho IX. In 1040, gave the '*Roman mitre/' with the tlUe of Pri- 
mate, to Bbebhabdt^ Archbishop of Treves. This is the first Instance 
Imown of the concession of the mitre. Some other instances are recorded 
before this, but the texts which mention them are of doubtful authen- 

*Accordhig to Mabillon^ the first concession of the mitre to an abbot 
was made by Albxandsb II. In 1061; this abbot was BLoaaxNua, Abbot 
of St. Augustine's, Canterbury; but there are Instances of earlier conces- 



2. The essential parts of the mitre are two flat pieces 
terminating in point, sewed together at tite lower part of 
their lateral sides ; with two flaps, called "fanoiia," meant 
to fell from It behind over the shoalders of the wearer. 
Originally these "fanons" may have been strlnga or strips 
destined to secure the mitre on the head of the Prelate b; 
being tied ander the chin. 

Artists and manufacturers of ecclesiastical vestments 
often lose sight of the traditional ornamentation of the 
mitre, which shonld essentiallj consist of two bands called 
respectively droulus and titulua. The drculua is a l>aQd 
which encircles the lower part of the mitre, so as to form 
a crown around the forehead of the Prelate ; the titulua is 
the band which is perpendicular to the drculus.^ Often, 
though incorrectly, a cross, or 
floral designs are embroidered on 
mitres instead of these tradi- 
tional bands. In the last quarter 
of a century, there has been a 
universal movement towards the 
revival of the graceful shape Etnd 
decoration of the medieval mitre. 
The figures which illustrate tjiis 
chapter show the pentagonal 
shape and thecircuIiM and titulua 
of the medieval mitre. The mitre 
thus shaped was the only one in 
use until the end of the sixteenth 
century ; at that time, a new form 
of the mitre crept into use, and 
was soon pretty generally adopt- 
ed; it is what is known as the 
"seventeenth century mitre," or 

(NotB thg titiiiiic^e "Italian mitre." It is ogival in 

S':Sb;5S^™tt.fjg;:;Sr'" shape, a cnblt long, and the titu- 

112 GosTUMB or Prblatbs. 

lus and the oiroulus are in most cases omitted. Tliis Iiigh 
mitre is not only ugly and out of proportion, but is heavy 
and inconvenient to wear. These defects have prompted 
many Prelates to revert to the pre^renaissance form of the 
mitre, the '4ow mitre/' as it is called, which is more tradi- 
tional in its shape and decoration, much less heavy, and 
perfectly secure on the head. 

3. There are three kinds of mitres — mitra pretioaa, 
mitra auriphrygiata, and mitra simplex.^ 

The precious mitre (mitra pretiosa), as its name indi- 
cates, should be as richly adorned as possible. It is made 
of fine white silk or silver cloth tastefully embroidered 
with silk and gold, and may be studded with precious 
stones. On its ^^fanons," which end in gold tassels or 
fringes, the coat-of-arms of the Prelate should be embroid- 
ered in proper colors. 

The orphreyed mitre (mitra auriphrygiata) is less rich 
than the mitra pretiosa. According to the etymology of 
its name, this mitre should be ^'embroidered with gold." 
Since the eighteenth century, custom seems to have pre- 
vailed to make it of plain gold cloth; but many Prelates 
have recently come back to the old ^^auriphrygiata/' and 
wear it as a white silk mitre, with the titulus and circulus 
^^appliqu^" or embroidered with silk and gold. 

The simple mitre (mitra simplex) is entirely white, 
made of silk or linen cloth, without embroidery, and its 
fanons terminate in red fringes. The simple mitre of the 
Pope is of silver cloth, bordered with a strip of gold. This 
style of mitre is a special privilege of the Sovereign Pon- 
tiff, which no other Prelate is ever allowed to wear. The 
simple mitre of Cardinals and Bishops is of white 
damask. Abbots, Protonotaries and Canons, who have the 
privilege of the pontificals, should use a simple mitre of 

Waer, Episo, 1., xyH., 1. 

Thrbb Kinds of Mitrbs. 113 

linen.^ The mitre of linen is the only one allowed to 
Bishops when they dress in their pontificals in presence 
of the Pope ; on snch occasions^ the simple mitre worn by 
Cardinals is the mitre of white damask.' 

Sometimes the Ceremonial of Bishops designates the 
orphreyed mitre as ^^mitra simplex," and the simple mitre 
as ''mitra simplex alba;" but, in both cases, the style des- 
ignated is made clear by the context 

Cardinals and Bishops may make use of the three kinds 
of mitres, according to the directions given by the Cere- 
monial.' Abbots are entitled to use only two mitres — 
the auriphrygiata and the simplex aXba,^ unless they have 
been granted a special privilege; and the same regula- 
tions must be observed by the seven Protonotaries Apos- 
tolic di numero.^ By his constitution Inter multiplicea, 
Pius X., granted to the Protonotaries Apostolic supernum- 
erary the privilege of wearing a special mitre, which cor- 
responds to the ^^auriphrygiata" of higher Prelates; this 
mitre is made of white silk, bordered with gold, and its 
fanons end in gold tassels or fringes. It is worn by the 
Prelate at such times as the Ceremonial directs the Bishop 
to put on the precious mitre.' 

The Protonotaries Apostolic ad inatar participantium 
are entitled to wear only one mitre, the simple mitre of 
white damask without any embroidery, the fanons of 
which end in red fringes.^ 

*Thi8 Is the general rule; but there are manj exceptions to it, as is in- 
dicated further. 

The color of the mitre is now invariably white (gold cloth standing 
for white). There are instances of mitres of different colors, proving that 
the present discipline on this point was not so strictly adhered to in 
ancient times. — Cfr. Woodwahd^ EcoleHoBiioal Heraldry, p. 08. — Battam- 
DiBB^ Annuaire (1900), pp. 180-7 — (1001), pp. 102-8. 

*Caer. Bpiso, I., zrii., 2, 8. 

*Cap. Ui Apostolicae, De priyllegils, in 0*. — S. R. C, July 20, 1000. 

*Pius X. Const Inter multipHoee (1905), n. 9. 

"Pius X. Oonet eit, n. 27. 

*PiU8 X, Oomt oit, n. 47. 


CosTUUB or Fhblatbb. 

i. From the abore priociplea it follovs that the mitre 
does not exclusively beloog to BishopB; therefore, ex- 
preseiona in which the word "mitre" la tidcen flguratively 
for "episcopate" or "diocese" are incorrect; it can not 
mean "episcopate/' because the mitre is not a sign of 
order; or, "diocese," because it is still less a sign of jarls- 


A OtaA Blttxro TMtad Id M* pontiaaJ*. 

5. Another abuse, which is quite common in Europe — 
but fortunately is almost unknown in this country — con- 
sists in wearing the mitre, inetead of the biretta, as a com- 
plement of the choir dress; while the mitre should be 

MiTBB. 116 

worn only when the Prelate is ^'paratus/' that is, clad in 
his pontificals.^ 

6. All Prelates who are entitled by law to wear the 
mitre — Cardinals, Bishops and Abbots — should be buried 
with the mitre on; those who wear it by general or spe- 
cial privilege, as Prelates and Canons, should not be laid 
out and buried with the mitre on, but with the biretta.' 

?• The mitre of Oriental Bishops is very different from 
that worn by the Prelates of the Western Church, for it 
looks like an Imperial crown. This shape, which is uni- 
versal in the Eastern rites, is very ancient, as we find it 
mentioned in the writings of Sophronius, Patriarch of 
Jerusalem, who died in 638. Some Oriental rites, how- 
ever, have given up the use of the Eastern mitre and 
adopted the Occidental; such are the Maronites, Copts 
and Syrians. Among Armenian Bishops, there is no uni- 
formly of usage on this point; some wearing the Latin 
mitre, while others remain faithful to Oriental tradi- 

Waer» JVptoo. II., 1., 4. — II., Till., 21. — Roman Pontifical, pa$9im, — In 
some cases, the Bishop may wear the mitre without being Tested In his 
pontificals; It Is when he performs consecrations without solemnity, or 
when administering confirmation prlrately. 

*See chapter VIII., of the same part. 

"Battandisb, Annuaire Poniiftoal (1900), pp. 198-0. 




1. Description. — 2. Use. — S. Crosier of Eastern Bishops. 

1. The crosier or pastoral staff {haoulus pastoralis) is 
an ecclesiastical ornament which symbolizes the pastoral 
authority of Bishops and Abbots. Its symbolical mean- 
ing was felt very early in the history of the church, but 
its real origin is probably to be traced back to the ordi- 
nary walking sticks, which the Apostles used in their 
long journeys.* 

The crosier consists of a long stafiF, curved at the top, 
and pointed at the bottom. When not in use, it may be 
divided into sections and kept in a box.' 

According to strict etiquette, the crosier should be of 
gold or gilt silver for Cardinals and Patriarchs, and of 
silver for Bishops and Abbots;* but this point of disci- 
pline is hardly ever observed, and most crosiers are more 
modestly made of gilded brass. 

Some authors say that the Abbots belonging to the 
Order of the Reformed Cistercians (Trappists) should 
make use of a crosier of wood; but this is an exaggera- 
tion of severity, peculiar to one branch of the Order, which 

>P. HOBRiSBOi, OroBier (In Oatholio Bnouolopedia, IV., 616-6). — W. 
Smith and S. Chbhtam^ Diet, of OhrUtian Antiq., art. "Paatoral Btaff." 

*The form, use and BymboUcal meaning of the crosier are Indicated in 
the following mnemonic verses: 

. In haouU forma, praetul, datur haeo tihi norma, 
Attrahe per ourvum, medio rege, punge per imum; 
Aiirahe peooaniee, rege juetoe, punge vaganiee; 
Aiirahe, euetenta, etimula; vaga, morlttda, lento. 

(Cap. Oum veniseet. De Sacra unct.) 
>Babbub di Hontadlt^ Le ooeiume ei lee ueagee eoolMaetiques, II., 808, 

Obosibb. 117 

has no foundation in the general law of the 
Church or even in the traditions of the Cister- 
cian Order ; St. Bernard, the great Cistercian 
Abbot, founder of Olairvaux, and a strong 
supporter of the old monastic discipline, 
made use of a metallic crosier. 

2. Cardinal-Bishops, Cardinal-Priests, Prel- 
ates invested with the episcopal character, 
and Abbots, are entitled by law to use the 
crosier; and Abbesses have pretty generally 
usurped the same privilege. Other Prelates, 
who may have been granted the use of the pon- 
tificals, are not allowed that of the crosier, 
unless an individual exception is made, as was 
the case for the celebrated Mgr. de S^gur.^ 

Early monuments testify that, up to the 
tenth century, the Roman Pontiff made use 
of the crosier like other Bishops. How this 
practice ceased is not known ; but it was soon 
forgotten, and legendary as well as symboli- 
cal reasons were ventured in order to explain 
the present-day usage. One of the most 
commonly found is that the curved top of the 
crosier is a symbol of a limited jurisdiction, 
and, therefore, can not suit the Pope, whose 
jurisdiction is universal.' 

^MarquiB de SteUB, Vie de Mgr, de Bigur, I., 280. 

'Another well known reason is thus given by Pope IN- 
NOGKfT III. : '*The Roman Pontiff does not nse the ims- 
toral staff because St. Peter the Apostle sent his staff to 
Eucharlus, the first bishop of Treves, whom he appointed 
with Valerius and Matemus to preach the Gospel to the 
German race. He was succeeded In his bishopric by 
Blatemus, who was raised from the dead by the staff of 
St. Peter. The staff Is, down to the present day, pre- 
served with great veneration by the church of Treves.*' — 
(INNOCBNT III., De Baoro AliarU Myeterio, I., 62. — Mionb^ 
P. L., ccxvll., col. 796). — St. Peter must have repeated 
Crosier. more than once the sacrifice of his pastoral staff, for sev- 

eral places claim to have it. 

118 GosTUMB or Prblatis. 

The crosier, being a token of jurisdiction, is nsed b; 
Cardinals in Rome in their titles, and everywhere out- 
side of Rome; by Archbishops, in their provinces; by 
Bishops, in their dioceses ; and by Abbots, in their monas- 
teries. The diocesan Bishop may allow a stranger Bishop 
to use the crosier in his diocese; but it is better not to 
do so, especially when the outsider oflSciates in presence 
of the diocesan, so as to preserve a well-marked diflFer- 
ence between the Ordinary and the visiting Prelate. An 
Abbot can not lawfully use the crosier outside of his 
monastery, and a Bishop has not the power to grant him 
that privilege ;^ to do so, a Papal indult is necessary. 

The proper way to carry the crosier is to hold it with 
the left hand at the handle, just below the knob, which 
connects the crook with the stafiF, the curve being turned 
forward.' The Prelate should not hold the crosier lifted, 
but alternately raise it and rest it on the floor, as he 

Some Ceremonials of foreign importation and anti- 
quated scholarship teach that an Abbot in his monastery, 
and a Bishop when permitted to use the crosier outside 
of his diocese, should turn the curve backward. There 
never existed such regulations. The difiFerence in the 
direction of the curve in the crosier of a Bishop and that 
of an Abbot is marked only in Heraldry, as will be men- 
tioned in Chapter VI. 

Whenever a dignitary uses the crosier, whether it be by 
right or privilege— or even without right or privilege — 
he should always turn the curve forward. If the crosier- 
bearer is directed by the Ceremonial to carry the crosier 
so that its curve be turned backward, it is not in order to 
mean that he has no right to use the crosier, but in order 
that it be correctly turned when he hands it over to the 
Prelate. At processions, when the Ordinary does not 

»S. B. C, Sept. 27, 1659. 
*Oaer, Bpi9o, II., Tili.. 02. 



0„„te. ot OriwUl Blthop^ 

120 CosTUMB OF Prblatds. 

carry his crosieri he may have it carried before him by the 
crosier-bearer, who, in this case, holds it raised in both 
hands and the curve turned forward.^ 

Cardinals and Ordinary Bishops use the crosier at High 
Mass, Vespers, solemn processions, and generally at all 
pontifical functions, except on Good Friday and at 

A Bishop outside of his diocese may use the crosier 
when performing functions which imply its use, as, for 
instance, ordinations, consecrations of churches, etc.* 

As was remarked for the mitre, the crosier supposes 
the full pontifical dress ;^ therefore, a Bishop should not 
use the crosier when vested in cappa magna or mozzetta.* 

3. The crosier of Eastern Bishops is diflFerent from the 
Latin crosier. Instead of a crook, the top of the Oriental 
crosier consists in a cross in the form of a '^" (cruw 
decuaaata) . This form of the pastoral stafiF is exceedingly 
ancient, and was used not only in the Greek, but some- 
times also in the Latin Church, as it is often found in the 
old monuments of the West. It points very distinctly 
to the primitive use of the staff as a support (fuloina- 
torium, sustentaculum, reoUnatorium) or a walking stick. 
Often the arms of the ''T'^ are twisted so as to represent 
two serpents opposed.* 

*Oaer, BpUo, I., xril., 6. 

*Oaer. Bpiao. (pcisHm), 

*Oaer, BpUo. I., xvii., 5. — On such occasions, the Pope uses the ferula, 
a long staff or sceptre with a cross at its top. This cross Is not triple- 
armed, as is often believed and represented, but is an ordinary cross 

*Mitra et haouluM in epiaoopo $unt correlativa (Oaer, BpUo. I., xvii., 8). 

*(7aer. Epiao. II., ii., 11. 

*Cahibb et Mabtin^ M^langea d'arohSologie, IV., 152, seq. — Battandibb. 
Annuaire Pontiflcal (1898, p. 110-1; 1900, p. 291-2). 





i. Description. — 2. The Pope. — 5. Concession of Pius X. 

1. The hand-candlestick, called by Bnbrics and cere- 
monials hugia, palmatoria or scotula, is a low candlestick, 
with a long handle. It is held near the book by one of the 
attendants of the Prelate whenever the latter reads or 
sings something from the book. 


According to the Ceremonial, it should be made of gold 
or gilt silver for Cardinals and Patriarchs, and of silver 
for all other Prelates; but this distinction is hardly ever 
observed in practice. 

2. The Pope does not make use of the hand-candlestick ; 
the Bishop Assistant at the Pontifical Throne, who acts as 
candle-bearer to the Pope, holds instead an ordinary wax 

3. Until 1905, only Prelates invested with the episcopal 
character and those who enjoyed the privilege of the pon- 

122 CosTUMB OF Prblatbs. 

tifioals were allowed to use the hand-candlestick. Others 
who used it did so in virtue of personal indults. 

Pope Pius X, by his "motu proprio" Inter multiplioes 
(1905) granted all Prelates, even Titular Protonotaries 
Apostolic (and thereby the Vicars Oeneral, if they are not 
Prelates otherwise) to use the hand-candlestick not only 
at High Mass, but also at Low Mass celebrated with some 
solemnity, at Vespers and other ofSces, provided they do 
not oflSciate in presence of another Prelate invested with a 
higher dignity. 

The terms of this concession can be read in the motu 
proprio given in full in Appendix II. 

Hbraldby. 123 


Jf. Notion. — 2. Heraldry is a Science. — S. Prelates are 
Nohle. — 4. A Principle. — 5. Arms. — 6. Shield or Es- 
cutcheon. — ^7, Heraldic Style. — 8. Tinctures. — 9. 
Furs.— 10. Rule Often Violated. — 11. Exter- 
nal Ornaments of the Escutcheon. — 12. 
Motto. — IS. Use of the Ooat-of-Arms. ' 

1. Heraldry is the art, practice or science of recording 
genealogies, blazonning arms or armorial ensigns, and 
also of devising coats-of-arms. It is said also to be the 
science which teaches one how to blazon, that is, explain 
in proper terms, all that belongs to coats-of-arms.^ 

2. Heraldry is a science, inasmuch as it lays down 
correct principles, and draws conclusions which prop- 
erly flow from them. 

Since Prelates use armorial ensigns, it will be useful to 
lay down some practical rules for guidance in their selec- 

^Consolt: Guillbh, Diaplaif of Heraldry (1610). Mbnbstriib, S. J., La 
nouveUe miihode du hUuon (Lyoni, 1696). — O. di Ginouiliac, l/ari 
USraldique (Paris, 1889). — Simon di Boncoubt^ Orammaire du Bla$<m 
(Paris, 1886). — John Woodward^ A TreaUae on BooleaUuHoal Heraldry 
(London, 1894). — F. B. Hulmb^ The History, Prinoiplee and Praotioe of 
Heraldry (New York, 1898). — P. db Chaionon La Rosb, BooleeiaaUoal 
Heraldry in America (two articles In "OhrieHan Art," May and NoTem- 
ker, 1907), etc., etc. — See also Snoyolopediae, at article "Heraldry." 

"Whether It [heraldry] be Indeed the *'noble science," as one of Itsenthnsl- 
astic Totaries has termed it, or, as a later writer has affirmed, "the 
science of the fools with long memories," may be a more or less open 
question; but as it Is guided by posltlye rules, which can not with Im- 
punity be violated, so long as it is employed at all, either in the restora- 

124 CosTUMB OF Pbblatis. 

3. A coat-of-arms being a privilege of nobility. Bishops/ 
and Prelates bear one, for they are regarded as nobles. 

The episcopal character of Bishops, the eminent dignity 
of Cardinals, even if they are not of noble descent, places 
them on a par with the ^'rulers of this world." By their 
appointment to this high position, they take rank among 
the ^^princes of the people," a rank which has never been 
called in question. 

The oflSces of the Prelates of the Roman Gonrt were 
formerly reserved for persons of noble blood. At present, 
though the above rule is far from being so absolute, these 
dignities, however, remain ''noble offices." Therefore, 
Roman etiquette, faithful to tradition, requires that such 
Prelates as have no hereditary right of nobility prepare 
for themselves an escutcheon, if not as a sign of nobility, 
at least as a symbol of high dignity and prelatical func- 
tions. In this way, all Prelates will appear equal, and 
there will be no external distinction between Prelates 
who fire of noble birth and those who are not. 

4. Since Bishops and Prelates have an escutcheon bear- 
ing their arms, it may prove interesting to know how to 
explain these arms, and also, occasionally, to know how to 
compose a coat-of-arms without sinning against the rules 
of heraldic science. 

tlon of old buildings, illumination, glafls-palnting, or any other field of 
art, it can only be properly employed after some little attention has been 
paid to requirements which, though arbitary in their character, have re- 
ceived the sanction of centuries; and it is not a sufficient reason for the 
violation of these rules to deride the study as obsolete and absurd, for if 
the thing be introduced at all, it must be rightly done. — (F. E. Hulhi^ 
The History, Prinoiple$ and PraoUoe of Heraldry, ch. I., p. 2). , 

'The arms are personal to the Bishop, and do not belong to his See, as 
is often believed. Formerly, when the diocese was a feudal corporation, 
the Bishop ''impaled" his personal arms with those of his diocese. Such 
is still the case for the Episcopal Sees of the Anglican church. But this 
practice has ceased to be observed In the Catholic church. Therefore, a 
newly-appointed Bishop should not use the seal of his predecessor. 

Hbraldbt. 126 

To avoid mistakes, it is well to start out with the prin- 
ciple that a coat-of-arms is not and need not be symboli- 
cal.^ A coat-of-arms is only a distinct personal mark or 
sign. Any or every sort of drawing can not be used as a 
heraldic bearing ; it must conform to the laws of Heraldry 
in regard to shape, colors, disposition, etc. ; but a ''mean- 
ing'' is not necessary. 

5. Heraldic bearings are called ''arms," because they 
were first worn at war and tournaments by military men, 
who had them painted on their shields and embroidered 
on their banners. They are also called "coats-of-arms" 
from the custom of the mediaeval knights to have them 
embroidered on the coats they wore over their armors. 

Among the difiFerent sorts of arms^ those of Prelates, in 
this country, may be "arms of family," if the Prelate is of 
noble descent, or "assumptive arms," if he adopts them 
when receiving his appointment.' 

6. The figures that make up the coat-of-arms are repre- 
sented on a "field," or ground, cut in the shape of a shield, 

^"Heraldry appears as a science at the commencement of the thirteenth 
century; and although armorial bearings had then been In existence un- 
doubtedly for some time previous, no precise date has yet been dlscoyered 
for their first assumption. In their assumption the object of the as- 
sumers was not, as it had been generally asserted and believed, to sym- 
bolise any yirtue or qualification, but simply to distinguish their persons 
and properties, to display their pretensions to certain honors or estates, 
attest their alliances, or acknowledge their feudal tenure.'* — PlanchA, 
Pursuivant of Arma, — "It can not be too clearly emphasized that, at a 
period when one warrior cased in mall, with lowered ylsor, was practi- 
cally indistinguishable from another similarly habited, the primary, essen- 
tial, function of the heraldic charges, on his shield and banner, was 
simply to 'identify' him to his followers. And, therefore, today, if a 
shield of arms is so decorated with fitting heraldic forms, as to dis- 
tinguish it from other shields, it fulfills the only requirement that the 
most exacting herald can legally demand of it, *Arma $unt dUUnguendi 
cau»a,*" — PiBBRB DB Chaionon La Rosb^ Soole$Uutioal Heraldry in 
America, in "Chbistiam Art^" May, 1907, pp. 64-65. 

*A Prelate belonging to a Religious Order "impales" his own arms with 
those of his Order, or puts the arms of the Order "in chief over his 
own bearing. 

126 CosTuiii or Prblatis. 

and called for that reason shield or esoutohean (in Iiattn, 
scutum or Btemina)^ for, as is said above, these mariui 
were originally painted on bucklers or shields. For most 
of these flgnres, there is a traditional, conventional shape, 
and a proportional size, which mnst be adhered to. 
^^Landscape arms," so much in favor in the eighteenth cen- 
tury, and still to be seen in some diocesan seals, should be 
forever put aside, as opposed to the accepted principles 
and traditions of Heraldry.^ 

7. English Heraldry has a peculiar vocabulary, chiefly 
derived from the old French, owing to the fact that Her- 
aldry was developed in England especially after the con- 
quest of that country by William, Duke of Normandy. 
The terms used in Heraldry may be easily found in 
Manuals treating of that matter, and in Dictionaries and 
Qyclopaedias under the heading ''Heraldry.'^ 

8. The various colors of arms, which are common both 
to shields and their bearings, are called titwtures. There 
are ordinarily but seven tinctures in armory, of which two 
are metals, the other five are colors. 

The metals are: Qold, termed Or, and Silver, termed 

The colors are: Azure (blue). Chiles (red). Vert or 
Sinople (green). Sable (black), and Purpure (purple). 
Purpure is very seldom used. English Heraldry admits 
two other colors, viz.: Tenny (orange) and Sanguine 
(blood-color) ; but, they are to be found only in British 
bearings, and even there but rarely. 

Engravers should not ignore the fact that since the 
sixteenth century there is a conventional system of dots 
and lines to represent the tinctures in monochrome en- 
gravings and drawings. This system is universally 
adopted and must necessarily be used ; otherwise it is 

sSome of these "landacape amiB" could be given a heraldic form bj a 
slight modification of the design. 




! I 




Hbraldbt. 127 

impossible to know from a black drawing what are the 
colors of the bearing. The system is this : 

Or (gold) is represented by dots. 

Argent (silver) needs no mark and is, therefore, plain. 

Azure (blue) is represented by horizontal lines. 

Gulea (red), by perpendicular lines. 

Vert (green) 9 by diagonal lines from dewter to sinister .^ 

Pur pure (purple) , by diagonal lines from sinister to 

Sable (black), by horizontal and perpendicular lines 
crossing each other (a combination of Azure and Oules). 

Ten/ny (orange), by diagonal lines from sinister to dex- 
ter, crossed by horizontal lines (a combination of Pur- 
pure and Azure). 

Sanguine (blood-color), by diagonal lines crossing 
each other from dexter to sinister and vice versa (a combi- 
nation of Vert and Purpure) . 

9. Besides the metals and the colors, several furs are 
used as tinctures, those most generally used being ermine 
and vair. Ermine is white, with black spots of conven- 
tional shape. (The counter-ermine is black, with the 
same spots in white). Vair is expressed with blue and 
white skins, cut into the form of little bells ranged in 
rows and opposite to each other, the base of the white be- 
ing always next to that of the blue. When the base of the 
blue pieces is next to that of other blue pieces, the fur thus 
represented is called counter-vair. If other colors than 
blue and white are used, they must be expressed, this way, 
for instance : "Vairy Or and Gules." 

'The shield, being supposed to be carried by a man, the right side of 
the drawing, as you look at it, is called $iniBier (left), and the left side is 
called dernier (right). 

128 C!o8TUMB OF Pbblatbs. 

The British nobility lias adopted a certain nnmber of 
other fnrs which are not used in other nations. 

The colored plate illustrating these principles shows, on 
the right of each '^tinctured" shield, its equivalent in 
black; and the complete armorial bearing of a Bishop, 
printed here in color and in black, shows how easy it is to 
represent, in a monochrome design, all the diflFerent tinct- 
ures of a real shield of arms. Anyone may, with the help 
of these few principles, easily find out the actual tinctures, 
not only of the shields which illustrate this chapter, but of 
all other heraldic bearings properly designed. 

10. A rule too often violated, in making a coat-of-arms 
for a Prelate, is that ^^Color should never he used upon 
color, or metal upon metah or fur upon furJ^ (Purs may 
be used both upon colors and upon metals). When an 
exception is made to this rule, it is a mark of high dis- 
tinction, and the motive prompting its concession is, as a 
general .thing, historical. Such an exception can hardly 
be found elsewhere than in the arms of concession granted 
by a Sovereign on a particularly important occasion, the 
remembrance of which he wishes to perpetuate. 

The rule does not apply to small accessories like the 
langue (tongue) of the lions, the talons of birds of prey, 

It is important also to mention that the simplest arms 
are the best. Complicated bearings are very often diflS- 
cult to interpret, to draw or engrave, and the nnmber of 
pieces being greater, the chances of error are thereby mul- 
tiplied. The most ancient bearings are as a rule very 

'Few persons are really capable of composing a correct coat-of-arms ; and 
an Incorrect coat-of-arms is, in the eyes of the man who knows Heraldry, 
something not less ridiculous than a page written in a pretentious style 
and full of misspellings. Therefore, when a Prelate chooses a heraldic 
bearing, he should take care to have it designed by some person thor- 
oughly acquainted with the principles of Heraldry. 



11. Aronnd the escntcheoo are placed the different 
marks or insignia of dignity, vhich dutracteriee the rank 
of the Prelate, both civil and ecclesiastical, snch as, pon- 
tifical hat, cross, crosier, mitre, decorations of Orders, etc. 
• A very ancient 

and almost nniver- 
sal CDstom allows 
Prelates, who are 
in poBsesHion of a 
title of nobility, to 
place over theshield 
and under the hat 
the coronet, which 
symbolizes their 

However, as the 
Cardinalitial digni- 
ty is considered su- 
perior to any other 
save the Papal and 
royal, etiquette for- 
bids Cardinals to 
place over their 
shields any insignia 
of a secular rank.* 
As marks of their 
eminent dignity, 
Cardinals place 

>Tha aomui dwi« li to pat do othar mark of dignity than tba hat and 
tha eroM , but thara ta no tait of law or eeremaolal opposed to the pnc- 
tlee of placing a crown Over tba acclaalaattcal abield. A. prohibition ailata 
for Cardinal a onl; 

The ball UtHtantU EeelMUit at Innocent X. (A. D. 1644) forbida 
Cardlnala to make uae of aecnlat hialgnla In decoratbif their arms. When 
tbey recelTe the ted bat, tha nawl; appointed Caidlnala take an oath o( 
obedience to that law Han; dlapenaattona have been given, aapeclallj to 
Cardinal! belonsing to ro;al famlllea, who were daalrooa of keeping otm 
■ their ahlelda tba Inatgnia of "prlncea of the rojal blood ;" alao to Canllnala 
who ware "prlncea of the Hoi; Homan Bmplre." 

130 CoSTuui or Pbilatm; 

over their ahielda the pontifical red hat,* with its scar- 
let strings, tastefnlly intertwined, aymmetrically hang- 
ing on each side of the shield, and ending with fifteen 
tassels disposed in five rows. If the Cardinal is invested 
with the episcopal character, he places behind the shield 
a gold cross, the foot 
of which Is risible at 
the bottom of the 
shield, and the arma 
and head over it. If 
the Cardinal is, or 
was, an Archbishop, 
custom allows him to 
place there a doable- 
armed cross. 

This cross is not an 
ornament fixed on the 
top of the shield, bnt 
it ia supposed to rep- 
resent the cross which 
is borne before an 

chbishop in prot 
sions, and ahoald be 

designed as placed behind the shield. When the shield 

is colored, the cross is painted in gold. 

Formerly, this double cross was the proper mark of the 
Patriarchal dignity, and Archbishops placed behind their 
shields an ordinary processional cross of gold, while 
Bishops — who do not make use of the cross in processions 
and liturgical functions— did not place it in their bear- 
ings. But about the seventeenth century, Archbishops be- 

Ttali hkt muit be of the pontlflctl foroi, tbat !■ larBe, with k low 
ertmo and flat brim. Deitgnen and enKraTers iboald take cmre that It be 
In proiMTtlon vltb the dimenilone of the ibleld, lo at to constitute a 
well balanced deelgn. The lame remark appliea to tbe hati placed OTer 
tbe ihield of Blabapa and other Prelates, tor heraldic hats do not dltTer In 
form, but onlj tai ooloc and In the Dumber at tbair taaieli. 



gao to place in their arms the double cross; and Bishops, 
the ordinary cross which was hitherto reserved for Arch- 
bishops. This practice has now become nDiversal. It is 
to be noted, however, that the double cross, with which 
Archbishops "timber" their arms, does notsignifythatthey 
1 tlie right of having anch a cross carried before 
them in processions. 
The cross which is 
borne before a Metro- 
p o 1 i t a n Archbishop 
does not differ io 
shape from the ordi- 
n a r 7 processional 
cross; and Archbish- 
ops, who are not Met- 
ropolitans, though 
privileged to timber 
their arms with the 
double cross, do not 
make use of the erchi- 
episcopal cross in lit- 
urgical functions.* 

The arms of a Patri- 
arch are timbered with 
the double cross and 
the green pontifical 
hat, with its strings 
terminating in fifteen 
tassels on each side, 
disposed in five rows.* 

■Another dISerence between tbe heraldic crosa and the croee carried be- 
fore a Hetropolltan la tbat the toTmer doea not beat the Ogart of ont 
Lord, while the latter la a "emdllz." 

This la the newl^-accepted etlgaette on thli pafct Dp to theae last 
jeare, Patriarch! placed over their ahlelda the aamt bat aa Arehblahopl. 
Tbe ratrlareb of Llibon placea the tiara orer hia ghlald, hat not the keyi, 
which belong eiclQilt'elr to the Pop* ; and even the reaaona itTen by Uie 
Fatrlarchi of Uabon for their aaaumptliHi of the tiani fall to Ond aopport 
among hlatorlana. 

132 OoKTUMS or Pbiuth. 

The arma of an Archbishop are the same as a Patri- 
arch's; but the green Pontifical hat has only ten tassels 
on each side, disposed in fonr rows. Under the hat, and 
passed behind the shield, is seen the double cross, now a 
sign of the arcbiepiscopal dignity. 

Bishops place behind their shields an ordinary proces- 
sional cross of gold, snrmoiiDted by the green pontifical 
hat, with its green 
strings, each terminat- 
ing in six tassels, dis- 
posed in three rows.* 

The Prelates of the 
Boman Court who are 
not invested with the 
episcopal ctiaracter are 
not entitled to timber 
their arms witii the 
cross or with the mitre, 
though they may have 
the privilege of wear- 
ing the latter daring 
certain ceremonies; bnt 
they are free to piace 
over the shield the coro- 
net significative of their 
title of nobility (if they 
have one), and, at any 
rate, the pontifical hat 
of the same shape and 
with the same strings and tassels as that of Prelates be- 
longing to the episcopal order, the color, however, being 
The four Prelates di fiochetti — the Vice-Gamerlengo of 

>niB "Begoit of tba CbvuMTj," thaush not InTMted with tha aplaeopal 
ebarmcter, bu the priTllese at placing OTer hli shield a btmd hmt ilmUar 
to that of a Blahop ; bat aliice ha la not BUho[>, ba doea not place tba 
eroM behind hli ahleld. 

Anna of an AiehUahop. 

Dt I PnUU "dl BochrttL" 

I. 188 

the Roman Qhurch, the 
Auditor-Qeneral of the 
RevereDd Apostolic 
Camera, the Treaaurer- 
GenerBl of the Bever- 
end Apoatolic Camera, 
and the Majordomo of 
His HolineBB — areprivi- 
leged to place over their 
shields a purple pontifi- 
cal liat, with rose-color- 
ed, or, rather, amaranth 
red, strings, each ending 
in ten tasBela of the 
same color, disposed 
like those of the Arch- 
bishop's hat 

Protonotaries Apos- 
tolic have the privilege 
of the same pnrple hat, 
with the same red 
strings and taesels, but 
the tassels are only six 
in number on each side, 
and disposed in three 

The other Prelates 
timber their arms with 
a purple pontifical bat, 
from which hang two 
purple strings, each 
ending with only six 
tassels of the same col- 
or, disposed in three 
rows like those of the 
Bishop's hat. 

CosrnuB or Phbuthl 

oolr dlffannc* U in tha ci 


rrTTf ¥11 

"Black ProtoDotaries," 
Vicars General, Abbots, 
Snperiors General of Be- 
ligions Orders and Con- 
gregations, and all priests 
having a permanent and 
extensive ordinary Jaris- 
diction, timber their es- 
cutcheons with a hat of 
the same shape and with 
the same strings and tas- 
sels as that of Bishops 
and Prelates; bnt, tbe 
bat, its strings and its 
tassels are black, even 
when the religions habit 
of the dignitary is of a 
dififereat color. 

The hat which the 
Prelates di mantellone 
should place over their 
arms is purple, with pur- 
ple strings ending in 
three tassels disposed in 
two rows. Often they 
place over their arms 
the same bat as the Prel- 
ates di mattteUetta, but 
such practice is not in 
accordance with the pres- 
ent niles of etiquette. 

Outside of Italy, there 
Is a very general prac- 
tice which consists in 
placing above the shield 
of Archbishops, Bishops 
and Abbots, the crosier 

UIBT. 18S 

and the mitre. This prac- 
tice is nearly nniversal, and 
is even more ancient than 
the r^nlation about the 
pontifical hat. When, in 
the sixteenth centniy, the 
Roman practice of placing 
the pontiflcal hat above tlie 
shield tiecame general, the 
old custom vas retained, 
inasmuch as the pontiflcal 
bat was placed above the 
mitre and crosier. Angli- 
can Bishops, having sepa- 
rated themselves from the 
Roman Church before the 
use of the pontifical hat in 
armorial bearings became 
general, never adopted it, 
and still today timber their 
arms with a mitre, adding 
sometimes a crosier and a 

Thongh there is no text 
of law prohibiting the mitre 
and the crosier below the 
pontiflcal hat, yet it would 
be advisable not thus to 
place them, since it is not 
in conformity with the Ro- 
man usage. Bnt, if this old 
practice is retained, it 
should be regnlated in ac- 
cordance with the princi- 
ples of Catholic Ecclesias- 
tical Heraldry. Therefore, 
the mitre should not be 
placed in the middle be- 

136 CosTUMB or Prblatbs. 


1. Hat of a priest with a permanent appointment. 

2. Hat of a Canon. 

3. Hat of a Prelate di mantellone. 

4. Hat of an Abbot ; Superior General ; Vicar General ; 
Protonotary Apostolic Honorary, etc. 

5. Hat of a Prelate di mantelletta. 

6. Hat of a Protonotary Apostolic of one of the first 
three classes. 

7. Hat of a Bishop; and of the '^Regent of the Chan- 

8. Hat of an Archbishop. 

9. Hat of a. Prelate di fiochetti. 

10. Hat of a Patriarch, according to the new etiquette. 

11. Hat of a Cardinal. 

HlRAIABT, . 187 

tween the cross and the crosier; bat the cross should be 
placed in the middle, the mitre o& the left and the crosier 
OD the right. Like the cross, the crosier should be repre- 
sented as placed behind the shield. 

Abbots do not place a crose behind the shield, since 

this is a privilege of Prelates invested with the episcopal 

character; but they may place, belov the pontifical hat, 

the crosier passed behind the right side of tiie shield, and 

the mitre resting on the 

top of the shield on the 

left side; or simply, as is 

done in Bome, the crosier 

in the middle. 

In the case of Archbish- 
ops and Bishops, the carve 
of the crosier is tamed to- 
wards the right; while in 
the arms of Abbots, it is 
turned towards the left. 

All priests who have a 
permanent appointment, 
like Canons, irremovable 
Hectors of parishes. Supe- 
riors of Seminaries, etc., 
may timber their arms 
with a hat. This hat is 
shaped like that of Prel- 
ates, but is of no other color than black, and its strings 
terminate with three tassels on each side for Canons, and 
one tassel only for other dignitaries. 

"The clerical members and ofSclals of any Order of 
Knighthood are entitled to use its ribbon and badge as an 
external ornament of their shield of arms. If they belong 
to the lower classes of the Order, and so are only entitled 
to wear the ribbon and badge at the buttonhole, or on the 
left breast — then the cross is suspended by its ribbon from 



the base of the shield. But if they have higher rank, 
which entitles them to wear the ribbon en sautoir — ^that is 
by a ribbon passing round the neck and supporting the 
badge at the neck or middle of the breast — then they have 
also the right to surround the escutcheon with the rib- 
bon of the Order supporting its pendant badge, and 

(according to circum- 
stances) to place their es- 
cutcheon upon the Cross of 
the Order."* 

Books treating of Her- 
aldry may give different 
rules concerning the vari- 
ous points here treated, es- 
pecially concerning the col- 
ors of hats and the number 
of their tassels; but they 
are either ill-informed or 
antiquated. The directions 
here given are all in con- 
formi^ with the present 
ceremonial of the Roman 

Arms of a priMt haying m pennan«nt Church, and are, therefore, 
appointmrat to be preferred to the teach- 

ing of heralds, who may 
know secular heraldry very well, but who are often imper- 
fectly acquainted with ecclesiastical etiquette. 

12. Persons ignorant of heraldic principles, when see- 
ing the arms of a Prelate, generally look first for the 
motto, which they think a very important part in an 
armorial bearing. They should know that the motto has 
comparatively little importance in secular arms, but has 
none whatever in ecclesiastical Heraldry; moreover. Bo- 
man usage, widely accepted in Italy, admits of no motto 
in the arms of ecclesiastics. 

^J. Woodward, BcoUsiattical Heraldry, pp. 06*7. 

The motto, if nsed, should oot be placed on the shield 
itself, but below it, on a ribbon termed heraldicallr the 

13. The coat-of-arms 
is a personal, distinc- 
tive sign of a Prelate, 
both as a dignitarr of 
the Church and pri- 
vate citizen. From this 
principle all its prac- 
tical uses are derived. 

First of all, the coat- 
' of-arms constitutes the 
principal part of the 
Prelate's seal. A Prel- 
ate invested with a per- 
manent oflSce, like a 
Cardinal, a Bishop, a 
Secretary of a Congre- 
gation, etc., has at least 
two different seals; one, the oflScial seal, is made up of 
the coatof-arms rounded with the name and titles of the 
Prelate, in Latin, and in abbreviation if necessary ; for in- 
TITUL. CAESARIEN." The other, 
much smaller, is reserved for private 
use, and consists only of the coat-of- 
arms within a circle. The Prelates 
who do not make use of the offlcial 
seal, may well use a private seal 
with their arms engraved. 

The terms "arms" and "seal" are 

^ ^ often incorrectly used as synony- 

A Bubop*. Print. Mid. „^,^g jjj f^gj^ tijg coat-of-arms is 

independent of the seal, though the seal includes the coat- 

of arms as its principal part. 

UO GomnuB or Pbilath. 

As a aign of Jarisdiction and authority, the coat-of- 
anuB of a Bishop should be printed on the top of all 
chancery docnments, like letters of ordinations, diplomas, 
testimonial letters, celebrets, etc. In sach cases, the coat- 
o(-arms sbonld be of a rather large scale, and all its details 

Pii»HjlM with tha oost^- 

neatly printed with the conventional dots and lines indi- 
cating the colors. Under the coat-of-arms, the names and 
the ecclesiastical and civil titles of the Prelate are printed 
in full; and, at tiie foot ot the document, at the left of 
the Prelate's signature, the official seal is alBzed. 

The Bishop's coat-of-arms is also printed, as a sign of 
jurisdiction or of high patronage, on the cover and title 

Hdbaldby. 141 

page of all diocesan publications, as a diocesan bulletin, 
documents printed by order of the Bishop, acts of synods, 
diocesan statutes, pastoral letters, conferences, etc. 

In church, the canopy of the episcopal throne should be 
decorated with the Bishop's coat-of-arms embroidered in 
colors, as well as sacred vestments, chasubles, stoles, 
mitres, copes, etc., personally belonging to him or pre- 
sented by him. 

It is also a Roman usage to decorate with the embroid- 
ered coat-of-arms the front part of the drapery covering 
the prie-dieu of a Prelate. 

In his own house, the Prelate marks with his coat-of- 
arms everything which belongs to him personally, and 
is fit to receive such a decoration — his plate (both sacred 
and common), china, tapestries, hangings, rugs, cushions, 
etc. His arms should be painted on both doors of his car- 
riage; and a wood panel, bearing the coat-of-arms painted, 
should be placed, as a sign of propriety and jurisdiction, 
over the entrance door of the Bishop's house and over the 
doorway of the cathedral.^ 

Finally, custom places the arms of a Prelate, printed in 
black or in colors, on the top of the letter paper used by 
him, or, in his name, by his secretaries; and the same 
arms, a very artistic piece of decoration as they are, 
should be made use of whenever it is possible to do so; 
for instance, on programmes, menu cards, engrossed ad- 
dresses, etc., when a Prelate is interested in the occasion. 

*Hae sUnte commimi consuetudlne, ae pene tmiyersali um, insignia, 
arma, sen stemmata ponendl In altarlbus, capellis, parletlbiM, tnrribns 
templomm, et In alUs lods ecdeslamm, sen etiam In ecclesiastlcls oma- 
mentls, candelabrls, lampadlbus, callcibus, planetis, etc., dlclmns licitum 
Mfle, si quis Id faclt, legltlmo lore et Insto fine agat, aut, ut alios ex- 
emplo suo ad templa et altarla constmenda, restauranda, yel adomanda 
attrahat. . . . Bpiscopus non debet amoyere arma, sen Insignia, et 
monumenta, sen memorias suorum praedecessonim ab ecclesla, yel palatlo 
eplscopall, mazlme si fuenint constnicta propriis Ipsomm ezpensls. — 
FuttABis, BihUotheea Oanonioa, art Arma, 20. 


OoBTUui or Pbilath. 

In all cases above meotioned, if the arms are not 
painted or printed in colors, the conventional syatem of 
dots and lines, signifying the real colors of the shield and 
its flgnrea, is rigorously required. 

Pontificals of Cardinals and Abbots. 143 


UsB OF TUB Pontificals by Prblatbs Not Invbstbd With 

THB Episcopal Charactbb. 

Borne Prelates, not invested with the episcopal charac- 
ter, have, by law or by privilege, the right of celebrating 
Pontifical High Mass, and of receiving special honors at 
Low Mass. Bnch are : 

The Cardinals who have not I'eceived the episcopal con- 

All mitred Abbots. 

The seven Protonotaries Apostolic de numero partici- 

The Protonotaries Apostolic supernumerary. 

The Protonotaries Apostolic od instar participantium. 

The Canons of certain ^Basilicas and Cathedrals. 

/. Cardinals. 

Cardinals, even those who are not consecrated Bishops, 
have the right to officiate pontiflcallj at the throne every- 
where, except in presence of the Pope. The Bishop Ordi- 
nary of the place is bound by canon law to give np his 
throne to a Cardinal, unless he himself is a Cardinal. 

The ceremonies to be observed are the same as are pre- 
scribed for the Pontifical Mass celebrated by a Bishop 
having ^'ordinary jurisdiction." 

//• Mitred Abbots. 

Abbots and Prelates nullius have, within the limits of 
the territory submitted to their jurisdiction, the same 
right as diocesan Bishops to officiate in pontificals. 

144 GosTUMB OF Prblatbs. 

The use of the pontificals by simple mitred Abbots is 
regulated by a well-known decree of the Sacred Congrega- 
tion of Bites, issued September 27, 1659, by order of Pope 
Alexander YII., which may be summed up as follows : 

An Abbot celebrating Pontifical High Mass has no right 
to the seventh candlestick. His throne has but two steps ; 
it is not permanently fixed, but is erected for the occasion, 
fiind its drapery and canopy should not . be of costly 
material. The Abbot is authorized to pontificate only 
three times a year, and never at Requiem Mass. He is 
forbidden to make use of his pontificals outside of his 
monastery, except when invited, at a solemn funeral, to 
impart one 6f the five absolutions. 

In presence of the diocesan Bishop, the Abbot officiates 
at a throne erected on the Epistle side ; and an episcopal 
throne, with three steps, is erected for the Bishop, at the 
usual place, on the GospKBl side. 

At Low Mass and other offices, as well as in the admin- 
istration of the sacraments, an Abbot should not differ 
from a simple priest, except in the wearing of the pectoral 
cross and the ring. 

These rules bind all Abbots in general; but there have 
been granted very numerous privileges to individuals or 
communities, so that the restrictions imposed by the de- 
cree of Alexander VII. are very seldom observed to the 

///• Protonotariea ApostoUo. 

Two decrees of Pope Pius X. have regulated the honors 
and insignia of Protonotaries Apostolic and other Prel- 
ates of the Boman Court. These decrees have consider- 
ably changed the hitherto vague and uncertain discipline 
on this point. 

The first decree was issued by the S. Congregation of 
Bites on March 9, 1904. Its object was to extend the 

Pontificals of Pbotonotaribs. 145 

privileges of the Protonotaries Apostolic on the occasion 
of the granting by Pope Pius X. of the title and rank of 
Protonotaries to the Canons of the Cathedral of Treviso, 
his native diocese. 

The second decree (Constitution Inter multipUces) was 
a motu propria of the same Pope, February 21, 1905, reg- 
ulating in detail all that pertains to the dignity, rank, 
costume and privileges of the Prelates of the Roman Court. 
The text of that important and lengthy document is to be 
given hereafter in Appendix. 

This second decree has somewhat modified the disposi- 
tions of the decree of 1904, as regards Protonotaries Apos- 

1) Protonotaries Apostolic denumero participantium. — 
These are seven Prelates composing the College of Pro- 
tonotaries. Their principal privileges are the following: 

They are free to wear the ordinary ring at all times, 
even at Low Mass and at other Church Ceremonies. 

They are permitted to celebrate High Mass at the fald- 
stool with the same ceremonies as are to be observed by 
a Bishop celebrating Pontifical Mass outside of his juris- 
diction; with the restriction, however, that they are for- 
bidden to say Paw vohis after Gloria in excelsis, and Sit 
nomen Domini and Adiutorium nostrum before giving the 
blessing to the people. The blessing they impart is that 
of a priest, with a single sign of the cross ; but they are 
permitted to sing it. In presence of the Ordinary, they 
must abstain from giving the blessing. 

In Rome, they are not permitted to celebrate pontifl- 
cally, but they have the right to do so elsewhere with the 
permission of the Ordinary of the place. 

When going to the church where they are to pontifi- 
cate, they are vested in purple cassock, rochet and purple 
mantelletta, and wear the pectoral cross suspended from 

146 OosTUMi OF Prblatbs. 

a cord of amaranth silk, entwined with gold, or from a 
gold chain. They may be received at the door of the 
church by a master of ceremonies and two clerics. 

The mitres which they use during Mass are the auri- 
phrygiata and the simple mitre of white silk. 

When celebrating Low Mass on some solemn occasion, 
they may make the preparation and thanksgiving, vested 
in their prelatical habit, and kneeling on a prie-dieu 
which should not be draped, but furnished with two 
purple cushions. They vest at the foot of the altar, and 
may be assisted by a cleric in sacred Orders and two 
other inferior ministers. They make use of the canon, 
hand-candlestick, ewer, basin and towel. 

At daily Low Mass, they do not diflFer from other 
priests, except that they are allowed to wear the ring and 
to use the candlestick. 

Their privilege of pontificating is not restricted to 
Mass, but extends to all pontifical offices which do not 
require the episcopal character. 

2) Protonotaries Apostolic Supernumerary. — Their 
privileges are much less extensive than those of the mem- 
bers of the preceding class. 

They are not allowed to wear the ordinary ring, but 
wear the pontifical ring when officiating pontiflcally. 

Like the Protonotaries de numsro, they may officiate 
at the faldstool at High Mass, Vespers, and other func- 
tions which do not require the episcopal character; but 
only with the explicit permission of the Ordinary, who is 
free to refuse the favor or to determine the days on which 
the Prelate may use his privilege. 

In pontificating, they are bound to observe the fol- 
ing restrictions: 

No embroidery is allowed on their gloves, sandals and 
stockings, which may be bordered with a gold strip. 

Pontificals of Pbotonotaribs. 147 

The pectoral cross must be of plain gold without gems, 
and suspended from a cord of amaranth silk, or from a 
gold chain. 

The pontifical ring has but one gem. 

The mitreSy which they use at Mass, are a special white 
mitre of silk, bordered with gold, and the simple mitre of 
linen, alternately, as is indicated in the Ceremonial of 

They wash their hands only once, at Lavabo. 

They do not say Paw vobis, or impart the blessing like 
Bishops, but sing the form of the priest's blessing, Bene- 
dioat V08 omnipotens Deus, etc. 

When celebrating in presence of the Ordinary, they use 
only the linen mitre, do not give the blessing, and stand 
head uncovered when the Ordinary goes through the 
sanctuary. The same regulations hold good when the 
Protonotary officiates in presence of a Prelate superior to 
the Ordinary, as, for instance, the Metropolitan or a Car- 

In Rome and elsewhere, when celebrating Low Mass 
with some solemnity, they may make the preparation 
and thanksgiving before tiie altar, vested in their pre- 
latic habit, without the pectoral cross and the ring, kneel- 
ing on an undraped prie-dieu, furnished with two purple 
cushions. They vest at the foot of the altar; may be as- 
sisted by a cleric in major Orders and two other minor 
clerics, and use the canon, candlestick, ewer, basin and 
towel. But they do not wash their hands after Com- 

At ordinary Low Mass/ they do not differ from other 
priests, except in the use of the candlestick. 

3) Protonotaries Apostolic ad instar partioipantium. — 
This class of Protonotaries is the only one having repre- 
sentatives in this country. 

148 GosTUMi OF Pbblatbs. 

All that concerns their costume has been treated above 
in the different chapters dealing with the costume of the 
Prelates di mantelletta. 

Like all Prelates and Canons, they have, in choir, the 
right to be incensed with two swings of the censer, to 
receive the blessing standing, and to bow, instead of genu- 
flecting, to the cross of the altar. 

Their right of precedence is the same as that of the Pro- 
tonotaries Apostolic supernumerary; as such, they rank 
before all Clerics, Priests, Canons, Dignitaries of Chap- 
ters and Superiors of Religious Orders who have not the 
privilege of the pontificals. But they rank after the 
Vicar General of the diocese. Abbots, and the Chapter of 
the Cathedral. 

Outside of Rome, with the permission of the Ordinary, 
and the consent of the Superior of the church, if the 
church is ''exempt," they may celebrate Pontifical High 
Mass, on such days and occasions as may be determined 
by the Ordinary.* They are never permitted to pontificate 
at Requiem Mass. 

Their right of pontificating is the same as that of the 
Protonotaries Apostolic supernumerary, limited, however, 
by the following restrictions : 

They are not permitted to sit on the faldstool, nor to 
make use of the gremial. They sit on the bench, as other 
priests do at High Mass. Their gloves, sandals and stock- 
ings are not embroidered, but bordered with a strip of yel- 
low silk. 

They use only one mitre — the simple mitre — of white 
damask, with red fringes at its fanons. 

^There !■ a current opinion that Protonotaries haye a right to pontifi- 
cate four times a year; but this opinion is unfounded. The Protonotary 
may pontificate as often as it pleases the Ordinary, but never without 
the consent of the Ordinary. 

Pontificals of Pbotonotaribs. 149 

Besides Deacon and Bubdeacon, they may have an As- 
sistant Priest in cope; but they are not entitled to that 
honor if they pontificate in a Cathedral Church, or in 
presence of the Ordinary or of a Prelate superior to the 

When officiating pontifically, they never let down the 
train of the cassock. 

They wear a plain pectoral cross without gems, sus- 
pended from a cord of purple silk or from a gold chain.^ 

They read or sing nothing at the bench. 

They wash their hands only once, at Lavaho. 

They do not say Pax vohis, and they sing the ordinary 
blessing of a priest, which they impart with a single sign 
of the cross. 

When going from the altar to the bench, and vice versa, 
while sitting, washing their hands, being incensed, and 
giving the blessing, they wear the mitre. 

If they pontificate in presence of the Ordinary or of a 
Superior Prelate, they do not give the blessing, and they 
stand, head uncovered, while the Prelate is standing or 

With the permission of the Ordinary, they may cele- 
brate Pontifical Vespers, but sitting on the bench, and 
not giving the blessing at the end. They may also use 
their pontificals when giving the benediction of the 
Blessed Sacrament; at solemn processions; and at solemn 
funerals, if they are called upon to give one of the five 
absolutions. For all these functions, the special authori- 
zation of the Ordinary, and the permission of the Su- 
perior of the church, if the church is "exempt," are, of 
course, required. 

'On account of the pectoral cross which they wear, they do not cross the 
stole, when Testing for Pontifical Mass. 

160 GosTUMB OF Prblatbs. 

In Borne, when they celebrate Low Mass with some 
solemnity, they enjoy the same privileges as the Proto- 
notaries Apostolic supernumerary. Outside of Rome, they 
enjoy these privileges when commissioned by the Ordinary 
to say a Low Mass on some solemn occasion. 

At their ordinary High Masses, and at Low Masses cele- 
brated publicly, they may use the hand-candlestick. 

IV. Canons. 

When Canons have obtained the concession of the pon- 
tificals, they must observe the rules laid down for the 
Protonotaries Apostolic ad itistar participantium; unless 
special dispositions are contained in the indult of con- 

No Protonotary Apostolic or Canon should be buried 
with his mitre on ; nor should the mitre be placed on his 
coffin at his funeral. 

These dignitaries are also prohibited from placing the 
mitre over their coats-of-arms. 

'OEiQUILIBRIUli/^ 161 


SoMB Practical Bulbs of Etiquette. 

1. ^^ Equilibrium J^ — 2. Prelates Assisting at a Funeral. — S. 

The Preacher of a Fungal Oration. — i. Use. of the 

Cloak. — 5. ^'Academic Dress f^ Audiences of 

Kings; '^ Etiquette Dress J^ — 6. Rules 

for Laying Out the Remains of 

a Deceased Prelate. 

Some of the rules of clerical etiquette to be dealt with 
iu this chapter are of frequent applicatiou, but are either 
ignored or too easily overlooked. Borne others are not 
of daily practice, but it is well to know them, so as to 
observe them when occasion requires it 

1. The first to be mentioned is called by Liturgists and 
Ceremonials the rule of ''equilibrium" in the prelatial 
dress. According to this rule, a Prelate should not have 
the main parts of his dress differing from each other in 
material or color. For instance, a Bishop should not 
wear a purple mozzetta over a black cassock ; a Cardinal 
should not wear a red silk mozzetta over a winter cas- 
sock of red cloth ; a Domestic Prelate should not put on a 
woolen mantelletta over a silk cassock, etc., etc. The 
only exception to this general rule is in the cappa magna 
of Bishops — ^the cappa magna is always purple, whatever 
be the color of the cassock. Prelates should also take care 
that the hue of the purple be the same in the mozzetta or 
mantelletta as in the cassock. 

2. Another rule of etiquette, which is frequently lost 
sight of, is that concerning the choir dress of Prelates at- 
tending a funeral service. According to the Ceremonial, 


Cardinals, Archbishops and Bishops should, for such an 
occasion, put on mourning; therefore a Cardinal should 
vest in purple, trimmed in scarlet ; while Archbishops and 
Bishops should wear the black cassock and the mantel- 
letta (or mozzetta, as the case may be) of the same color, 
all the parts of this choir dress being lined and trimmed 
in purple. 

Only the Prelates di mantelletta and di mantellane 
should wear purple at a funeral service, because they do 
not put on mourning, except on the death of the Sovereign 
PontifiF and on Qood Friday. 

This rule may be a surprise to people who think that 
purple is the ^'episcopal color,''^ and are shocked at seeing 
a Bishop in black, while an inferior Prelate is clad in 
purple; but, in this case, the black dress means higher 
rank, since the inferior Prelate has no right to wear it. 

3. Connected with this, is the rule concerning the 
preaching of a funeral eulogy. All know that the Prelate 
or priest who delivers such an oration does not put on his 
choir habit. But the cassock does not by itself constitute 
a complete ecclesiastical dress; and a Prelate or a priest 
should never appear before the public without being com- 
pletely and correctly dressed. Now, as, in this case, the 

>It ii generally belieyed that the "episcopal color" is purple; accord- 
ingly, when one or several Bishops are to attend some celebration, the 
persons who ha?e charge of the decoration secure as much "purple** as 
possible to drape the seats and kneelers of the Bishops, and to hang the 
church or the hall; they adorn with a purple ribbon the menu-cards, the 
engrossed addresses, etc.. This is a mistake. Purple is the color of the 
Bishop's clothes only, and of the livery-garments of his ecclesiastical 
household. The true "episcopal color" — the one to be used for decora- 
tion purposes — Is not purple, but green. The drapery of the Bishop's 
throne, that of his prie-dieu, the canopy over his coat-of-arms, and other 
pieces of decoration, should be green. The throne and the prie-dieu 
should be draped in purple only on penitential days and on occasions of 
mourning. The same rule applies, of course, to Archbishops and Patri- 
archs ; but, for a Cardinal, scarlet should be used instead of green. When 
the Ordinary officiates, his throne should be draped in the "color of the 


orator, though speaking in church, is not authorized to 
vest in his rochet or surplice, he should throw on his 
shoulders the ecclesiastical cloak {femUolo or ferraio- 
lone) J which completes the clerical costume in default 
of the choir insignia. Therefore, if the orator is a 
priest, he should wear a black cassock and a black cloak 
of woolen material; if a Prelate, a black cassock, or 
simar, trimmed with purple, a black cincture and a black 
silk cloak. Should it happen that a Cardinal delivers 
such a sermon — a rather rare occurrence — ^his cassock 
should be black with red trimmings ; his cincture, purple ; 
and his cloak, purple, with scarlet trimmings. 

4. In some parts of the country, owing to the influence 
of Bishops and priests who have sojourned or studied in 
Rome, the wearing of the Roman cloak becomes more and 
more frequent. Such tendency is most correct and de- 
serves encouragement. Clergymen should know that the 
cloak is the necessary complement of the ecclesiastical 
dress outside church ceremonies, and has, besides, the ad- 
vantage of being very elegant. Prelates and priests would 
do well to take the habit of wearing it, whenever it is 
possible for them to do so. Some occasions, on which it is 
proper for ecclesiastics to wear the cloak were mentioned 
in the chapter of this book, where the rules concerning the 
making up and wearing of this garment are especially 
dealt with. 

5. There is another dress of Bishops and Prelates which 
is not commonly known ; it is the ''academic dress." This 
should be worn by a Prelate when he assists at academic 
solemnities, as college or university graduations, founda- 
tion of university chairs, inauguration of the Rector of 
a college, of a seminary or of a university, the solemn 
reception of the Prelate himself as a member of a Roman 
academy, etc. 

As his ''academic dress," a Cardinal wears the scarlet 
cassock, and the cincture with gold tassels, over which 
he does not put on the rochet, but the mozzetta, the pec- 

164 OosTUMB OF Prblatto. 

toral cross suspended from its gold chain, and the red silk 
cloak (ferraiolone) y the small hood of the mozzetta being 
thrown back over the collar of the cloak. With this cos- 
tume, the Cardinal should wear gloves of red silk, with 
the cardinalitial ring over the gloved fourth finger of the 
right hand, low shoes of red morocco leather, with gold 
buckles, and the ordinary ecclesiastical hat of red felt, 
with band and tassels of red silk, entwined with gold. 

An Archbishop, within the limits of his province, and 
a Bishop in his diocese, wear the same costume, but in 
purple — cassock, cincture with purple tufts, mozzetta, 
pectoral cross and cloak; black shoes, with gold buckles; 
purple gloves of silk, ordinary ring, and black hat, with 
green band and tassels. 

The '^academic dress" of an Archbishop outside the 
limits of his province, or . of a Bishop outside of his 
diocese, consists of the purple cassock, purple cincture 
with tufts, the mantelletta and the pectoral cross; black 
shoes, with gold buckles, purple silk gloves, ordinary ring, 
and black hat, with green band and tassels. 

A Prelate di mantelletta wears the same ^'academic 
dress" as a Bishop outside of his diocese, except that he 
does not wear the pectoral cross, and the band and tas- 
sels of his hat are red or purple according to his rank in 
the Prelature. He wears the ring, if entitled to do so. 

For the Prelates di mantellone the costume is the same 
as for the other Roman Prelates, but they put on the man- 
tellone instead of the mantelletta. 

If Cardinals, Bishops or Prelates have not an ecclesi- 
astical hat — as is often the case in this country — ^they may 
wear instead the prelatial biretta, scarlet for Cardinals, 
purple for Bishops, and black with a colored tuft for other 
Prelates ; but the hat is more proper. 

According to strict ecclesiastical etiquette, Cardinals, 
Bishops and Prelates should wear this costume when re- 

^^EnQuvm Dbmnsu^' 1S5 

ceived in public or private audience by a Sovereign; but 
the court regulations may be different, and one has to com- 
ply with them, and to act according to the directions given 
by the high officers who have charge of the court cere- 
monial. As a matter of fact, this costume has become an- 
tiquatedy and is often replaced for such occasions by the 
'^etiquette dress/' which consists of the black cassock or 
simar, trimmed in red or purple — ^according to the rank of 
the wearer — cincture, cloak, black hat, witii colored band 
and tassels, low shoes with buckles, and silk gloves of the 
same color as the cloak. If the Prelate is entitled to wear 
the pectoral cross and the ring, he puts on the pectoral 
cross, suspended from its gold chain, under the cloak ; and 
the ring over the gloved finger, if the ceremonial of the 
court does not forbid the wearing of gloves in presence of 
the Sovereign. 

The ''etiquette dress'' is the one prescribed for the audi- 
ence of the Pope; but, before being introduced, the vis- 
itor must leave his hat in the room of the Bussolanti, and 
take off his gloves, which he may keep in his pocket. 

6. This chapter will be concluded with a few remarks 
concerning the laying out of the remains of a deceased 

The law of the Ohurch is that a dead ecclesiastic should 
be laid out vested in the insignia of the office or dignity 
which he held while living; but this principle must be 
rightly understood. 

As the priestly or episcopal character is what is the 
most important in the person of an ecclesiastic, and, ac- 
cording to the teaching of the Church, is destined to last 
forever, the law is that the body of a dead priest or 
Bishop should be dressed in his sacerdotal or episcopal 
vestments. There are indeed exceptions, but, in this case, 
they can be said to confirm the rule. By sacerdotal or 
episcopal vestments, we mean such ornaments as the 
Prelate or priest should put on while preparing for the 

156 CosTUMB OP Pbblatbs. 

celebration of solemn High Mass, which is the greatest 
act that a Prelate or priest can perform. 

These vestments should be of purple color. Therefore, 
the body of a deceased priest will be vested in his ordi- 
nary cassock ; amice, alb, cingulum ; purple maniple, stole 
and chasuble; shoes will be put on his feet, and the 
biretta on his head. A pi*evailing abuse consists in plac- 
ing a naked chalice between the clasped hands of the de- 
ceased; this is indeed a touching symbol, but such prac- 
tice should not be retained ; the chalice being necessarily 
placed perpendicular to the body, such a disposition looks 
very awkward and unnatural; and, moreover, it is op- 
posed to the spirit of the Church to expose sacred vessels — 
especially the chalice — to the public gaze; finally, the 
Church directs that a crucifix should te placed between 
the hands of the deceased ecclesiastic. 

When a Cardinal dies in Rome, his body is laid out 
vested in the choir dress which Cardinals usually wear 
while in Rome ; but, if the Cardinal is, at the same time^ a 
residential Bishop and dies outside of Rome, the regula- 
tions to be followed in laying out his remains are the 
same as for an ordinary Bishop. 

When the Bishop has breathed his last and his body 
has been properly embalmed, his attendants vest him in 
his mourning choir cassock — black, trimmed in purple, 
for an Archbishop or a Bishop ; purple, trimmed in scar- 
let, for a Cardinal. The train of the cassoqk should not be 
unfolded, for this is regarded as a sign of jurisdiction, and 
all jurisdiction ceases at the death of the Prelate. Over the 
cassock, they put the cincture — ^black for a Bishop, purple 
for a Cardinal — and the rochet. They then vest the Prel- 
ate in his pontificals of purple — stockings and sandals, 
amice, alb, cingulum, pectoral cross without relics, stole, 
tunic and dalmatic, gloves, chasuble and maniple. On the 
fourth finger of the right hand they put the ring, clasp his 
hands on his breast and place between them a crucifix, 

, -!-:-:i]r 



^:^5s^|^^. •^' 



**'-'* -fe^/i'Ji 

» ^ 




^ y 



168 OosTUMB or Pbilatbb. 

tying them with a purple Bilk ribbon to hold them in 
place, if necessary. 

If the Prelate was a Metropolitan— or otherwise en- 
titled to wear the pallium — they place the pallium over 
his shoulders, if he is laid out within the limits of his 
territorial jurisdiction ; if outside, the pallium should be 
placed under his head. If he has been the incumbent of 
several archbishoprics, the palliums of his previous sees 
should also be placed under his head. 

The crosier, as being the main sign of jurisdiction, 
should not be placed in the dead Prelate's hands, or along- 
side of his body, or even in the room where the remains 
are laid out. 

On his head, the attendants place the skull-cap— red or 
purple — and the simple mitre of white silk. At the foot 
of the bier they hang the pontifical hat, red for a Cardi- 
nal, green for an Archbishop or a Bishop. 

The room where the body of the Prelate is laid out 
should be furnished with chairs or benches, so as to 
accommodate the clergy, who ought to recite there the 
"Office of the Dead." 

A crucifix, between two lighted candles, is placed on a 
credence-table, with a black stole and a black cope, the 
holy-water vessel and the censer. 

It would be proper also to erect a temporary altar, so 
as to have Masses celebrated in the room. Requiem Masses 
^Hn die oMtus'^ may be celebrated there for the deceased 
Prelate, as long as the body remains exposed, except if the 
day is a "double of first class," or excluding the celebra- 
tion of a feast of first class. 

The clergy recite the Office of the Dead, and, at the end 
of each Noctum, of Lauds, and of Vespers, the senior 
member of the clergy puts on the stole and the cope and 
gives the absolution. 

Laying Out thb Bbmainb of a PsBLAim 169 

The cofl9n should be lined in purple, and, on its lid, a 
metallic plate should bear engraved the name and coat-of- 
arms of tiie Prelate, with the date of his death. 

The practice, which is in vogue in some parts of the 
country, to veil or drape in black the throne of the de- 
parted Bishop, should be abandoned. The throne should 
be hung in purple and used by the presiding Prelate, if 
this is a Cardinal or the Metropolitan of the deceased 
Bishop. The practice of veiling the throne and leaving it 
unoccupied is an old French importation, and, as such, 
opposed by decrees of the plenary councils of Baltimore, 
which prohibit any foreign customs from being intro- 
duced into the liturgy of this country.^ 

The remains of Prelates inferior to Bishops are laid out 
vested in the purple cassock and priestly vestments. If 
the dead Prelate had the privilege of the pontificals — ^as is 
the case for Protonotaries Apostolic — ^he may be vested in 
his pontificals; but the mitre should not be put on his 
head ; his proper headdress is the prelatial biretta. 

After the burial of a Cardinal, or of a Bishop, his pon- 
tifical hat is suspended to the ceiling of the church, above 
the place where the body is interred. 

Wonoih Plen, BalUm, 1., nn. 86, 42, 44. — Oonoil, Plen. BalUm, II., 
nn. 210, 218, 216, 218. 




1. Privileges. — 2. Title. — S. Biretta. — 4* Ring. — 5. Dignities 

Reserved for Doctors. 

1. The Doctorate (from docere, to teach) is an aca- 
demic distinction giving th^ right of publicly teaching 
the subject in which one has obtained this degree. 

However, if the doctorate confers a rights it does not 
confer a mission, and, as is well explained in the diplomas 
delivered by the Roman universities, a doctor can not 
teach without having been positively appointed by his 

The doctorate creates a presumption de jure in favor 
of the candidate for teaching, so that his Bishop can not 
require from him an examination before appointing him 
to a chair. But, this presumption exists only when it is 
question of teaching, since a doctor as such is not ex- 
empted from the other examinations prescribed by canon 
law, if they are exacted in the diocese to which he be- 

The privilege of teaching is the very basis of the doc- 
torate. There are, however, other honorary privileges at- 
tached to the degree, as that of wearing a four-horned 
biretta and a gold ring. Some important dignities and 
offices in the Church are likewise reserved for doctors. 

2. The title of Doctor is given by a university which 
has received from the Holy See the power of conferring 
academic degrees. Degrees conferred by other than apos- 
tolic authority are not recognized by the Ohurch, and the 
recipients of such degrees are not entitled to any canonical 

164 OoSTUliB OF PBBLATni. 

The titles most commonly granted to priests are those 
of Doctor of Theology, Doctor of Philosophy, Doctor of 
Bacred Scripture, Doctor of Oanon (or Civil) Law, Doctor 
of both Laws {in utroqiie). 

These titles may be written in fun after the Doctor's 
name, or be indicated by initials. These initials are the 
following : 

Doctor of Theology: D. D, (Doctor Divinitatis) , or S. 
T. D. {8acr<ie Theologiae Doctor). 

Doctor of Philosophy: Pl\, D. {Philosophic^ Doctor). 

Doctor of Canon Law : D. C. L. {Doctor of Canon Law), 
or J. C. D. {Juris Canonici Doctor). 

Doctor of Civil Law: J. C. D. {Juris Civilis Doctor) , 
and LL. D. {Doctor of Laws) . 

Doctor of both Laws: J. U. D. {Juris Vtriusque Doc- 

Doctor of Sacred Scripture: S. S, D. (Sacrae Scripturae 
Doctor) . 

3. The principal mark of a Doctor's dignity is the four- 
horned biretta. This is not a choir cap; therefore, it 
should not be worn with the choir habit, or in church func- 
tions. A Doctor is allowed to wear his cap oniy when 
he acts as Doctor, namely, when teaching, attending 
academic solemnities, etc.^ 

The doctoral biretta given by the Roman universities is 
entirely black. Some other universities have adopted dif- 
ferent designs of doctoral biretta. Thus the biretta of 
Louvain is black, with a tuft of a color proper to each 
department of sacred sciences, The Doctors of Theology 
of the Catholic University of Ainerica, Washington, D. C, 
wear a doctoral biretta of black velvet, with red silk lin- 
ing, trimmings and tuft. 

>S. B. C, Decern. 7, 1844, in Venuaina. — "Neo uU posse, in eoolesiastiois 
funotiandms, tali hireto." 


All Bishops have the title ''D. D." But this title does 
not carry with it the right of wearing a purple four- 
horned biretta. The purple biretta has been granted by 
Pope Leo XIII. as an exterior mark of the episcopal char- 
acter, not as a sign of any academic distinction.^ The 
biretta conceded is a choir biretta, therefore, three-horned, 
and its shape can not be changed. Moreover, even 
with only three horns, this biretta is sufficient to indicate 
that the Bishop is a Doctor, since it is understood that all 
Bishops are Doctors. Again, a Doctor must wear no other 
doctoral biretta than that conferred on the Doctors of the 
university of which he is a graduate. Now, no university, 
to my knowledge, includes the purple biretta among the 
insignia of its Doctors. 

Finally, the Archbishop of Santiago (Chile) having 
asked whether he might use a four-horned biretta, the 
Sacred Congregation of Rites answered in the negative.' 

Although the clerical biretta and the doctoral cap are 
very similar in shape, they differ as to the origin and 
meaning, and, therefore, should not be confounded. No 
one is ever allowed to wear his doctoral biretta with his 
choir habit, or to add one more horn to his choir biretta 
under the pretext of manifesting his doctorate. . 

4. Another mark of the Doctorate is the gold ring. For 
doctors of the Roman College it is a plain ring, with the 
word "ROMA" carved on the bezel." In other universities, 
the doctoral ring is adorned with a gem. There is no 
written law prohibiting a doctor from wearing a gemmed 
ring. If he is a doctor in several branches, he may even 
wear several rings, one for each doctorate.* 

The doctoral ring is wora on the same finger as the 

'Const. Praeclaro divinae gratiae, Feb. 8, 1888. — S. R. C, Dec. 7, 1844. 

*S. R. C, Sept. 5, 1805. 

*A. Battandibr, Annuaire Pontifical (1906), p. 440. — Barbirb dr Mont- 
iULT, op. cii.» Tom. I., pp. 150, 171, 172. — Grimaldi, op. cit., ch. XXIII. 

^Cfr. the Interesting discussion of this point In Battandier*s Annuairt 
Pontifical, loo. cit. 

166 OosTUHB or Pbilatib. 

prelatical ring, namely, on the fourth finger of the right 

Doctors may wear the rin^ everywhere, at all times, ex- 
cept when saying Mass or when performing ecclesiastical 
functions. The Sacred Congregation of Bites, on several 
occasions, has given explicit and categorical answers to 
questions on this point.^ 

5. Besides these privileges, the doctorate is also desir- 
able, because, according to the discipline of the Council 
of Trent, some ecclesiastical dignities and offices are re- 
served for Doctors. Such are the dignities of Chapters,' 
the functions of a Vicar Capitular,' those of an Archdea- 
con,^ the office of Examiners of the clergy.' Above all, the 
doctorate is required in the candidates for the episcopacy.* 

However, for all these dignities, the licenciate is ac- 
cepted as a substitute for the doctorate. Candidates may 
be dispensed even from that requirement of the Council. 
Ordinarily, they obtain a dispensation if they are not 
doctors, or they receive from Bome a doctor's diploma, to- 
gether with their bulls of institution. 

'S. R. C, May 22, 1612— Febr. 18, 1625— Not. 1628— March 8, 1674 
—May 28, 1846, etc. 
*Bbnbdict XIII., Const. PaaioraiU oifMi (May 19, 1726). ' 
•Council of Trent, Sees. XXIV., cb. XVI. 
^Council of Trent, Seas. XXIV, cb. XII. 
•Council of Trent, Seas. XXIV, cb. XVIII. 
•Council of Trent, Seaa. XXII., cb. II., De Reformaiione, 




PIUS pp. X. 

Db Pbotonotariis Apostolicis^ Prablatis Urbanib^ 


Qui Nonnullib Pbivilbgiib Prablatobum Pbopriib 


Inter multiplices curas, quibuB ob oflScium Nostrum 
apostolicum premimur, ilia etiam imponitur, ut venera- 
bilium Fratrum Nostroram, qui episcopali charactere 
praefulgenty pontificales praerogativas, uti par est, tuea- 
mur. Ipsi enim Apostolorum sunt Successores; de iis 
loquitur Gyprianus (ep. 69, n. 8) dicens, Epiacopum in 
Ecclesia esse et Ecclesiam in Episcopo; nee ulla adunatur 
Ecclesia sine Episcopo suo, imo vero Spiritus ipse Sanctus 
posuit Episcopos regere Ecclesiam Dei {Act XX, S8.) 
Quapropter, Preshyteris superiores esse Episcopos, iure 
deflnivit Tridentinum Concilium {Bess. XXIII, c. 7). Et 
licet NoSy non tantum honoris, sed etiam iurisdictionis 
principatum supra ceteros Episcopos, ex Ohriste disposi- 
tione, tamquam Petri Successores, geramus, nihilominus 

168 CosTUMB OF Prblatbs. 

Fratres Nostri sunt Episcopi, et sacra Ordinatione pares. 
Nostrum ergo, est, illornm excelsae dignitati sednlo pros- 
picere, eamqne pro viribns coram christiano popnlo extol- 

Ex quo praesertim Pontiflcalium nsns per Decessores 
Nostros Romanos Pontiflces aliqnibus Praelatis^ episco- 
pali cbaractere non insignitis, conecssus est, id saepe acei- 
dit, nt, vel malo hominum ingenio, vel prava aut lata 
nimis interpretatione, ecclesiastica disciplina baud leve 
detrimentnm ceperit, et episcopalis dignitas non parum 

Qnnm vero de bninsmodi abnsibns ad banc Apostolicam 
Sedem Episcopornm qnerelae delatae sunt, non abnuerunt 
Praedecessores Nostri instis eornm postnlationibus satis- 
facere, sive Apost. Litteris, sive B. Rit. Congr. Deci*etis 
plnries ad rem editis. In id maxime intenderunt Bene- 
dictus XIV, per epist. B. R. Congr. d. d. 31 Martii 
MDCCXLIV, "fiffifmti* Dominua Noater/' iternmqne idem 
Benedictns, d. 17 Febniarii MDCCLII '</n throno iuatir 
tiaef Pius VII, d. 13 Decembris MDCCCXVIII ''Cum in- 
numeri/' et rursus idem Pius, d. 4 lulii MDCCCXXIII 
''Decet Romanos Pontifices/^ et Pius IX, d. 29 Augusti 
MDCCCLXXII ''Apoatolicae Sedis offlciumJ' E sacr. Rit. 
Oongregatitone memoranda in primis Decreta quae se- 
quuntur: de Praelatis Episcopo inferioribus, datum die 
27 mensis Beptembris MDCLIX et ab Alexandro VII con- 
flrmatum ; dein Decreta diei 22 Aprilis MDCLXXXIV de 
Canonicis Panormitanis ; diei 29 lanuarii MDCCLII de 
Canonicis Urbinatibus; diei 27 Aprilis MDCCCXVIII 
de Protonotariis Titularibus, a Pio PP. VII approbatum ; 
ac diei 27 Augusti MDCCCXXII de Canonicis Barensi- 

Hisce tamen vel neglectis, vel ambitioso conatu, facili 
aufugio ampliflcatis, hac nostra aetate saepe videre est 
Praelatos, immoderate insignium et praerogativarum usu, 
praesertim circa Pontificalia, viliores reddere dignitatem 
et bonorem eorum, qui sunt revera Pontifices. 


Qnamobrem, ne antiqniora posthabeantur sapienter a 
Praedecessoribns Nostris edita documenta, qnin imo, ut 
lis novum robnr et efflcacia adiiciatnr, atqne insuper 
praesentis aevi indoli mos inste geratur, snblatis omnibus 
consuetudinibus in contrarium, nee non amplioribus priv- 
ilegiis, praerogativis, exemptionibus, indultis, concessioni- 
bus, a quibusvis pcrsonis, etiam special! vel specialissima 
mentione dignis, nominatim, collective, quovis titulo et 
iure, acquisitis, assertis, aut praetensis, etiam Praedeces- 
sorum Nostrorum et Apostolicae Bedis Constitutionibus, 
Decretis, aut Rescriptis, conflrmatis, ac de quibus, ad hoc, 
ut inflrmentur, necesse sit peculiariter mentionem fieri, ex- 
quisito voto aliquot virorum in canonico iure et liturgica 
scientia peritorum, reque nature perpensa, motu proprio, 
certa scientia, ac de Apostolicae potestatis plenitudine, 
declaramus, constituimus, praecipimus, ut in posterum, 
Praelati Episcopis inferiores aliique, de quibus infra, qua 
tales, non alia insignia, privilegia, praerogativas audeant 
sibi vindicare, nisi quae hoc in Nostro documento, motu 
proprio dato, continentur, eademque ratione ac forma, 
qua hie subiiciuntur. 

A. — De Protonotariis Apostolicis. 

1. Quatuor horum habeantur ordines: I. Protonotarii 
Apostolic! de Numero Participantium, septem qui Col- 
legium privative constituunt; II. Protonotarii Apostolic! 
Supranumerarii ; III. Protonotarii Apostolici ad instar 
Participantium ; IV. Protonotarii Apostolic! Titulares, 
seu honorarii (extra Urbem). 

I. — ^Protonotarii Apostolici db Numbro Participantium. 

2. Privilegia, iura, praerogativas et exemptiones quibus, 
ex Summorum Pontiflcum indulgentia iamdudum gaudet 
Collegium Protonotariorum Apostolicorum de numero 
Participantium, in propriis Btatutis nuperrime ab ipso- 

170 Ck>8TnMB or Pulatm. 

met Ck)llegio inre reformatis inserta, libenter conflrma- 
mxjLB, pront determinata inveniuntur in Apostolicis Docu- 
mentlB inibi citatis, ac praesertim in Ck>n8titntione 
''Quamvia peouliaris^' Pii Pp. IX, diei 9 mensis Febniarii 
MDOOCLIII, panels exceptis, qnae, uti infra, moderanda 
statnimns : 

3. Protonotarii Apostolici de numero Participantinm 
habitn praelatitio rite ntnntnr, et alio, qnem vocant 
pianum atqne inslgnlbns pront infra nnmeris 16, 17, 18 

4. Habitn qnotldiano incedentes, caligas, collare et 
pilenm nt ibidem n. 17 gestare potemnt, ac insnper An- 
nnlnm gemmatnm, qno semper inre ntnntnr, etiam in pri- 
vatis Missis aliisqne sacrls functlonlbns. 

6. Qnod vero circa nsnm Pontiflcalinm insigninm, 
Xystns V in sua Constltntlone ^^LauddbUia SediaApos- 
tolicae sollioitudo/^ dlel 6 mensis Febmarii MDOLXXXVI, 
Protonotariis, Pa^icipantibns, concessit: ^'Mitra et qui- 
bnscnmqne aliis Pontiflcalibns insignibus, etiam in Cathe- 
dralibns Ecclesils, de illorum tamen Praesnlnm, si prae- 
sentes sint, si vero absentes, absque illorum consensu, 
etiam ills irrequisitis, extra curiam uti," in obsequium 
praestantissimae Episcoporum dignitatis, temperandum 
censuimus, ut pro Pontiflcalibns, extra Urbem tantum 
agendis, luxta B. B. C. declarationem quoad Eplscopos 
extraneos vel Titulares, diei 4 mensis Decembris MCMIII, 
ab Ordinario loci venlam semper exquirere teneantur, ac 
inmiper consensum Praelati Eccleslae exemptae, si in ea 
rit celebrandum. 

(L In Pontiflcalibus peragendis, semper els inhlbetur 
iims throni, pastoralis baculi et cappae; item septimi 
emdelabri super altari, et plurium Diaconorum assist- 
eatla; FU^torio tantum utentur, apud quod sacras 
i mIi m i assumere yaleant. Pro concessis enim in citata 
XJjrsti y Oonstitutione, ^^quibuscumque aliis pontiflcalibus 
lBa|giiUm8»'' non esse sane intelligenda declaramus ea, 

(Constitution ^'Intbb MuiiriPLicBS.^^ 171 

quae ipsis Episcopis extra Dioecesim sunt interdicta. 
Loco Dominus vobiscum numquam dicent Paw vobis; 
trinam benedictionem impertientur numquam, nee versus 
illi praemittent Bit nomen Domini et Adiutoriumj sed in 
Missis tantum pontiflcalibus, Mitra cooperti, cantabunt 
formulam Benedioat vos, de more populo benedicentes ; a 
qua beijedictione abstinebunt, assistente Episcopo loci 
Ordinario, aut alio Praesule, qui ipso Episcopo sit maior, 
ad quem pertinet eam impertiri. 

7. Ad Eccleslam accedentes, Pontificalia celebraturi, ab 
eaque recedentes, habitu praelatito induti, supra Mantel- 
letum Crucem gestare possunt pectoralem, a qua alias ab- 
stinebunt ; et nisi privatim per aliam portam ingrediantur, 
ad fores Ecclesiae non excipientur ut Ordinarius loci, sed 
a Caeremoniario ac duobus clericis, non tamen Canonicis 
seu Dignitatibus ; seipsos tantum aqua lustrali signabunt, 
tacto, aspersorio illis porrecto, et per Eccleslam pro- 
cedentes populo numquam benedicent. 

8. Crux pectoralis, a Protonotariis Participantibus in 
pontiflcalibus functionibus adhibenda, aurea erit, cum 
unica gemma, pendens a funiculo serico rubini coloris 
commixto cum auro, et simili flocculo retro ornato. 

9. Mitra in ipsorum Pontiflcalibus erit ex tela aurea 
(numquam tamen pretiosa) quae cum simplici altemari 
possit, iuxta Caerem. Episcop. {I, XVII, nn. 2 et S) ; nee 
alia Mitra nisi simplici diebus poenitentialibus et in ex- 
sequiis eis uti licebit. Pileolo nigri coloris sub Mitra 
dumtaxat uti poterunt. 

10. Romae et extra, si ad Missam lectam cum aliqua 
solemnitate celebrandam accedant, habitu praelatitio in- 
duti, praeparationem et gratiarum actionem persolvere 
poterunt ante altare, in genuflexorio pulvinaribus tantum 
instructo, vestes sacras ab altari assumere, aliquem cleri- 
cum in 8acri8 assistentem habere, ac duos inferiores min- 
istros. Fas erit praeterea Ganonem et Palmatoriam, 
Ureeum et Pelvim cum Manutergio in lance adhibere. In 

1T2 CosTUM ■ or Pshjitm. 

allls Missis lectis, a simplici sacerdote ne dUteranti nisi in 
usn Palmatoriae. In Missis antem com cantn, sed non 
pontiflcalibnSy uti potemnt etiam Canone et Urceo cum 
Pelvi et lance ad Mannterginm. 

11. Testimoninm antem exhibere cnpientes propensae 
volnntatis Nostrae in perinsignem hunc coetum, qui inter 
cetera praelatomm Ck>llegia primns dicitnr et est in Bo- 
mana Curia, Protonotariis Participantibus, qui a locorum 
Ordinariis sunt exempt!, et ipsis Abbatibus praecedunt, 
facultatem facimus declarandi omnibus qui Missae ip- 
somm intererunt, ubivis celebrandae, sive in oratoriis pri- 
vatis, sive in altar! portatili, per eiusdem Missae audi- 
tionem diei festi praecepto rite planeque satisfleri. 

12. Protonotarius Apostolicus de numero Participan- 
tium, qui ante decimum annum ab adepto Protonotariatu 
Ck>ll^um deseruerit, aut qui a decimo saltem discesserit, 
et per quinque alios, iuxta Xysti V Ck>nstitutionem, iisdem 
privilegiis gavisus fuerit, inter Protonotarios ad instar eo 
ipso erit adscriptus. 

II. — Photonotabii Apostolici Supranumbrabii. 

18. Ad hunc Protonotariorum ordinem nemo tamquam 
privatus aggregabitur, sed lis tantum aditus flet, qui 
Canonicatu potiuntur in tribus Capitulis Urbis Patri- 
archalium, id est I^ateranensis Ecclesiae, Yaticanae ac 
Liberianae; itemque lis qui Dignitate aut Canonicatu 
potiuntur in Capitulis aliarum quarumdam extra Urbem 
ecclesiarum, quibus privilegia Protonotariorum de numero 
Apostolica Bedes concesserit, ubique fruenda. Qui enim 
aut in propria tantum ecclesia vel dioecesi titulo Pro- 
tonotarii aucti sunt, aut nonullis tantum Protonotario- 
nun privilegiis fuerunt honestati neque Protonotariis 
aliisve Praelatis Urbanis accensebuntur, neque secus babe- 
bnntur ac illi de quibus hoc in Nostro documento nn. 
80 et 81 erit sermo. 

Ck)N8riTUTI0N ^'IntBB MUl/riPUCBS.'^ 173 

14. Canonici omnes, etiam Honorarii, turn Patriarch- 
alinm Urbis, turn aliarum ecclesiarum de quibns supra, 
tamquam singulis insignibns et inribns Protonotariorom 
ne fmanttir, nee gaudeant nomine et honore Praelatomm, 
nisi prins a Bnmmo Pontiflce inter Praelatos Domesticos 
per Breve adscripti sint, et alia servaverint quae infra 
num. 34 dicuntur. Protonotarius autem ad instar, qui 
Canonicis eiusmodi accenseatur, eo ipso privilegia Proto- 
notarii Bupranumerarii acquiret. 

15. Protonotarii Apostolici Bupranumerarii subjecti re- 
manent proprio Ordinario, ad formam Concilii Tridentini 
{8es8. 24, 0. 11), ac eorum beneflcia extra Romanam 
Curiam vacantia Apostolicae Sedi minime reservantur. 

16. Habitum praelaiitium gestare valent coloris vio- 
lacei, in sacris f unctionibus, id est caligas, collare, talarem 
vestem cum cauda, nunquam tamen explicanda^ neque in 
ipsis Pontiflcalibus celebrandis : sericam zonam cum duo- 
bus flocculis pariter sericis a laeva pendentibus, et Pal- 
liolum, sen Mantelletum supra Rocchetum; insuper nigrum 
biretum flocculo omatum coloris rubinA: pileum item 
nigrum cum vitta serica, opere reticulato exornata, eius- 
dem ruhini coloris, cuius coloris et serici erunt etiam 
ocelli, globuli, exiguus torulus collum et anteriores ex- 
tremitates vestis ac Mantelleti exornans, eorum subsutum, 
itemque reflexus (paramani) in manicis (etiam Boccheti). 

17. Alio autem habitu uti poterunt, Praelatorum pro- 
prio, vulgo piano, in Congregationibus, conventibus, sol- 
emnibus audientiis, ecclesiasticis et civilibus, idest caJigis 
et collari violacei coloris, veste talari nigra cum ocellis, 
globulis, torulo ac subsuto, ut supra, ruhini coloris, serica 
zona violacea cum laciniis pariter sericis et violaceis, per- 
amplo pallio talari item serico violaceo, non undulato, 
absque subsuto aut ornamentis quibusvis alterius coloris, 
ac pileo nigro cum chordulis et sericis flocculis ruhini 
coloris Gommuni habitu incedentes, caligas et collare 
violacei coloris ac pileum gestare poterunt, ut supra 

174 GosTUMB or Pbilatku 


18. Propriis indgnibus sen stemmatibiui imponere po- 
terunt pileum cnm lemniscis ac flocculus duodecim, sex 
hinc, sex inde pendentibus, eiusdem rubini coloris, sine 
Cruce vel Mltra. 

19. Habltum et insignia in choro Dignltates et Oa- 
nonicl Protonotarii gerent^ prout Capltulo ab Apostolica 
Bede concessa sunt; poterunt nlhllominus veste tantum 
uti ylolacea praelatitia cum zona sub choralibus Inslgni- 
bus, nisi tamen alia vestis tamquam Inslgne chorale sit 
adhibenda. Pro usu Boccheti et Mantelleti in choro at- 
tendatur, utrum haec sint speciali indulto permissa ; alias 
enim Protonotarius, praelatitio habitu assistens, neque 
locum inter Canonicos tenebit, neque distributiones lucra- 
bitur, quae sodalibus accrescent. * 

20. Cappam laneam yiolaceam, pellibus ermelllni hi- 
bemo tempore, aestivo autem rubini coloris serico oma- 
tam, induent in Cappellis Pontiflciis, in quibus locum habe- 
bunt post Protonotarios Participantes. li vero Ganonici 
Protonotarii qui Praelati non sunt, sen nomine tantum Pro- 
tonotariorum, non yero omnibus iuribus gaudent, ut nn. 
13 et 14 dictum est, in Cappellis locum non habebunt, 
neque ultra limites pontiflciae concessionis habitu prae- 
latitio et piano, de quibus nn. 16 et 17, uti umquam po- 

21. Habitu praelatitio induti, clericis quibusvis, Pres- 
byteris, Ganonicis, Dignitatibus, etiam coUegialiter unitis, 
atque Praelatis Ordinum Begularium, quibus Pontifl- 
calium privilegium non competat, antecedunt, minime vero 
Vicariis Generalibus vel Gapitularibus, Abbatibus, et Ga- 
nonicis Gathedralium coUegialiter sumptis. Ad Grucem 
et ad Episcopum non genuflectent, sed tantum sese in- 
clinabunt: duplici ductu thuriflcabuntur : item si sacris 
vestibus induti functionibus in choro adsistant. 

22. Gaudent indulto Oratorii privati domi rurique, ab 
Ordinario loci visitandi atque approbandi, in quo, etiam 

Constitution "Intbb Mui;riPLiCB8.^^ 176 

solemnioribns diebns (exceptis Paschatis, Pentecostes, As- 
sumptionis B. M. V., SS. Apostolomm Petri et Pauli, nee 
non loci Patroni principalis festis) celebrare ipsi Missam 
potemnt, vel alius Sacerdos, in propriam, consanguine- 
omm, afflnium, familiarium et cohabitantium commodita- 
tem, etiam ad praeceptum implendum. Privilegio antem 
altaris portatilis omnino carere se sciant. 

23. Licet iisdem acta conficere de cansis Beatificationis 
et Oanonizationis Servomm Dei, quo tamen privilegio uti 
non poternnt, si eo loci alter sit e OoUegio Protono- 
tariomm Participantium. 

24. Bite eliguntur in Conservatores Ordinnm Begalarium 
aliommqne piomm Institutorum, in Indices Synodales, in 
Commissarios et Indices Apostolicos etiam pro cansis 
beneflcialibns et ecclesiasticis. Item apnd ipsos profes- 
sionem Fidei recte emittnnt, qni ex officio ad eam adignn- 
tnr. Ut antem inribns et praerogativis, hie et nnm. 23 ex- 
pressis, fmi possint Oanonici Protonotarii in S. Theologia 
ant in inre Oanonico doctoral! laurea insigniti sint 

26. Extra ITrbem, et impetrata venia Ordinarii loci, 
cni erit arbitrinm eam tribnendi qnoties et pro qnibns 
Solemnitatibns volnerit, atqne obtento etiam consensu 
Praelati ecclesiae exemptae, in qua forte celebrandnm sit, 
pontificali ritn Missas et Vesperas aliasqne sacras fnnc- 
tiones peragere poternnt. Qnod fnnctiones attinet col- 
legialiter, sen Capitnlo praesente, celebrandas, a propriis 
Constitntionibns, de Ordinarii consensu, provideatur, 
inxta Apostolica Documenta. 

26. Ad ecclesiam accedentes, Pontificalia celebraturi, 
ab eaque recedentes, habitu praelatitio induti, supra Man- 
telletum Crucem gestare possunt pectoralem (a qua alias 
abstinebunt) : et nisi privatim per aliam portam ingredi- 
antnr, ad fores ecclesiae non excipientnr ut Ordinarius 
loci, sed a Oaeremoniario et dnobns clericis, non tamen a 
Canonicis sen Dignitatibus : seipsos tantum aqua lustrali 

176 OosTUMB or Prelates. 

signabunty tacto asperaorio sibi porrecto, et per ecdesiam 
procedentes popnio numquam benedicent. 

27. Pontificalia agent ad Faldistorium, sed vestes sacras 
in sacrario assument et deponent, quae in Missis emnt: 
a) Caligae et sandalia serica cum orae textn ex auro; h) 
Tunicella et Dalmatica ; o) Crnx pectoralis sine gemmis, e 
chordnla serica ruhini ex integro coloris pendens, auro 
non intertexta, simili flocculo retro ornata; d) Ghirothe- 
cae sericae, sine ullo opere plirygio, sed tantum orae textu 
auro distinctae; e) Annulus cum unica gemma; /) Mitra 
ex serico albo, sine ullo opere phrygio, sed tantum cum 
orae textu ex auro, et cum laciniis similiter aureis, quae 
cum simplici ex lino alternari poterit, iuxta Caerem. Epis- 
copor. (l, XVII, nn. 2 et S); haec vero simplex, diebus 
poenitentialibus et in exsequiis una adhibebitur ; g) Oanon 
et Palmatoria, a qua abstinendum coram Ordinario seu 
maiori ; h) Urceus et Pelvis cum Mantili in lance ; i) Ore- 

28. In Vesperis solemnibus (post quas benedictionem 
non impertientur) aliisque sacris functionibus pontifl- 
caliter celebrandis, Mitra, Cruce pectorali, Annulo uten- 
tur, ut supra. Pileolus nigri dumtaxat coloris, nonnisi 
sub Mitra ab eis poterit adhiberi. 

29. In pontiflcalibus functionibus eisdem semper inter- 
dicitur usus throni, pastoralis baculi et cappae ; in Missis 
autem pontiflcalibus, septimo candelabro super altari non 
utentur, nee plurium Diaconorum assistentia; Presby- 
terum assistentem pluviali indutum habere poterunt, non 
tamen coram Episcopo Ordinario aut alio Praesule, qui 
ipso Episcopo sit maior; intra Missam manus lavabunt 
ad Ps. Lavabo tantum. Loco Dominus Vohiscum, nunquam 
dleent Paso vobis; trinam benedictionem impertientur nun- 
quam, nee versus illi praemittent Sit nomen Domini et 
AdAutorium, sed in Missis tantum pontiflcalibus, Mitra 
coopertii cantabunt formulam Benedicat ros^ de more 

ipolo benedicentes : a qua benedictione abstinebunt as- 
rfmta Episcopo loci Ordinario aut alio Praesule, qui 

Constitution "Intbb MUiiriPLiCBs.^^ 177 

ipso Episcopo sit maior, cuius erit earn iinpertiri. Ck>ram 
lisdem, in pontiflcalibus celebranteSyMitra, simplici solum- 
modo utantur, et dum illi sacra sumunt paramenia, aut 
solium petunt vel ab eo recedunt stent sine Mitra. 

30. De special! commissione Ordinarii, Missam quo- 
que pro defunctis pontificali ritu celebrare poterunt Pro- 
tonotarii Bupranumerarii, cum Absolutione in fine, Mitra 
linea utentes ; numquam tamen eamdem Absolutionem im- 
pertiri illis fas erit, post Missam ab alio celebratam; quod 
ius uni reservatur Episcopo loci Ordinario. 

31. Bomae et extra, si ad Missam lectam cum aliqua 
solemnitate celebrandam accedant, habitu praelatitio in- 
duti, praeparationem et gratiarum actionem persolvere 
poterunt ante altare in genuflexorio pulvinaribus tantum 
instructo, vestes sacras ab altari assumere (non tamen 
Crucem pectoralem et Annulum) aliquem clericum in 
8acri8 assistentem habere, ac duos inferiores ministros; 
Canonem et Palmatoriam, Urceum et Pelvim cum Manu- 
tergio in lance adhibere ; sed ante v. Communio manus ne 
lavent. In aliis Missis lectis a simplici Sacerdote ne dif- 
ferant, nisi in usu Palmatoriae: in Missis autem cum 
cantu, sed non pontiflcalibus, uti poterunt etiam Canone, 
Urceo cum Pelvi, ac lance ad Manutergium, nisi ex statues 
vel consuetudine in propria ecclesia haec prohibeantur. 

32. Ganonico Protonotario Apostolico Supranumerario 
pontificalia peragere cum ornamentis ac ritu superius 
enunciatis fas non erit, nisi infra terminos propriae dioe- 
cesis; extra autem, nonisi ornatu et ritu, prout Protono- 
tariis ad instar, ut infra dicetur, concessum est 

33. Cum tamen Canonicos trium Patriarchalium Urbis, 
ob earumdem praestantiam, aequum sit excellere priv- 
ilegiis, eo vel magis quod in Urbe, ob Summi Pontiflcis 
praesentiam, Pontiflcalium privilegium exercere nequeunt, 
illis permittitur, ut in ecclesiis totius terrarum orbis, im- 
petrata Ordinariorum venia, ac Praesulum ecclesiarum 
exemptarum consensu, Pontificalia agant cum ritu atque 

178 CkMrruMB or Prblatbs. 

omamentis nn. 27, 28, 29 recensitis. Inmiper, lioet aliqnis 
ex ipsis inter Praelatos nondnm fnerit adscriptus. Pal- 
matoria semper, etiam in privatis Missis nti poterit. 

34. Becensita hactenns priyilegia ilia sunt quibus dum- 
taxat Protonotarii Apostolici Snpranumerarii fmuntnr. 
Vemm, cum eadem collective coetui Canonicomm confer- 
antur, Canonici ipsl, tamqnam singnli, lis nti neqnibnnt, 
nisi Praelati Urbani fueHnt nominati et antea suae ad 
Oanonicatnm vel Dignitatem promotionis et anspicatae 
iam possessionis, atqne inter Praelatos aggregationis, at 
num. 14 dicitnr, testimonium Collegio Protonotariorum 
Participantium exhibuerint; coram ipsius Ck>llegii De- 
cano, vel per se vel per legitimum procuratorem, Fidel pro- 
fessionem et fldelitatis iusiurandum de more praestiterint, 
ac de his postea, exhibito documento, proprium Ordina- 
rium certiorem fecerint. Quibus expletis, eorum nomen 
in sylloge Protonotariorum Apostolicorum recensebitur. 

36. Canonici ecclesiarum extra Urbem, qui ante Nostri 
huius documenti Motu Proprio editi publicationem, priy- 
ilegia Protonotariorum, una cum Canonicatu, sunt asse- 
quuti, ab expeditione Brevis, de quo supra, num. 14, dis- 
pensantur; iusiurandum tamen fldelitatis coram Ordi- 
nario suo praestabunt infra duos menses. 

36. Collegialiter tamquam Canonici pontificalibus func- 
tionibus, iuxta Caeremoniale Episcoporum, sacris vestibus 
induti adsistentes non alia Mitra utantur, quam simplici, 
nee unquam hoc et ceteris fruantur Protonotariorum in- 
signibus et privilegiis extra propriam ecclesiam, nisi in 
diplomate concessionis alitor habeatur. Canonicus tamen 
qui forte ad ordinem saltern Subdiaconatus non sit promo- 
tus, neque in chore cum aliis Mitra unquam utatur. In 
functionibus autem praedictis inservientem de Mitra non 
habebunt, prout in Pontificalibus uni Celebrant! competit. 
Qui in Missa solemni Diaconi, Bubdiaconi aut Presbyteri 
assistentis munus agunt, dum Dignitas, vel Canonicus, aut 
alter Privilegiarius pontificaliter celebrant, Mitra non 

Ck>N8riTUTioN ^^Intbb Mui;riPucB8.^' 179 

ntentur; quam tamen adhibere potemnt Episcopo solemn- 
iter celebrante, ut dictum est de collegialiter adsistenti- 
bus, quo in casu, cum ministrant, aut cum Episcopo oper- 
antur, maneant detecto capite. 

37. Protonotarius Bupranumerarius defunctus efferri 
aut tumulari cum Mitra non poterit, neque haec eius fere- 
tro imponi. 

38. Ne autem Protonotariorum numerus plus aequo an- 
geatur, prohibemus, ne in posterum in ecclesiis, de quibus 
supra, Canonici Honorarii, sive infra, sive extra Dioecesim 
degant, binas partes excedant eorum^ qui Capitulum lure 

39. Qui secus facere, aliisve, praeter memorata, priv- 
ilegis et iuribus uti praesumpserint, si ab Ordinario semel 
et bis admoniti non paruerint, eo ipso, Protonotariatus 
titulo, honore, iuribus et privilegiis, tamquam singuli, 
privatos se noverint 

40. Sciant praeterea, se, licet forte plures una simul, 
non tamquam unius ecclesiae Canonici, sed tamquam Pro- 
tonotarii conveniant, non idcirco Collegium praelatitium 
constitueri; verum quando una cum Protonotariis de 
numero Participantium concurrunt, v. gr. in Pontiflcia 
Cappella, tunc quasi unum corpus cum ipsis effecti cen- 
sentur, sine ullo tamen amplissimi Collegii praeiudicio, ac 
servatis eiusdem Cappellae et Familiae Pontiflciae consue- 

41. Si quis (exceptis Canonicis trium Patriarchalium 
Urbis) quavis ex causa Dignitatem aut Canonicatum di- 
mittat, cui titulus, honor et praerogativae Protonotarii 
Apostolici Supranumerarii adnexa sint, ab eiusmodi 
titulo, honore et praerogativis statim decidet. Qui vero 
Pontificium Breve inter Praelatos aggregationis obti- 
nuerit, horum tantum privilegiis deinceps perfruetur. 

180 GosTUMB or Prelates. 


42. Inter Protonotarios Apostolicos ad inatar Partici- 
pantinm illi viri ecclesiastic! adnnmerantnr, qnibus Apos- 
tolica Sedes hnnc honorem conferre voluerit, ac praeterea 
Dignitates et Canonici alicuins Gapituli praetantioris, qui- 
bus collegialiter titulus et privilegia Protonotariomm^ 
cum addito ad inatar, ubique utenda, fuerint ab eadem 
Apostolica Sede collata. Canonici enim qui aut in propria 
tantum ecclesia vel dioecesi titulo Protonotarii aucti sunt, 
aut nonnulis tantum Protonotariorum privilegiis fuerunt 
honestati, neque Protonotariis aliisve Praelatis Urbanis 
accensebuntur, neque secus habebuntur ac illi de quibus 
hoc in Nostro documento nn. 80 et 81 erit sermo. 

43. Qui Protonotarii Apostolici ad inatar tamquam 
singuli iuribus honorantur, eo ipso sunt Praelati Domus 
Pontificiae ; qui vero ideo sunt Protonotarii quia alicuius 
ecclesiae Canonici, Praelatis Domesticis non adnumeran- 
tur, nisi per Breve Pontificium ut num. 14 dictum est. 
Omnes Protonotarii ad inatar subiecti remanent, ad iuris 
tramitem, Ordinario loci. 

44. Beneficia illorum, qui Protonotarii ad inatar titulo 
et honore gaudent tamquam Canonici alicuius Capituli, si 
vacent extra Komanam Curiam, Apostolicae Sedi minime 
reservantur. Beneficia vero eorum, qui tali titulo et 
honore fruuntur, tamquam privata persona, non poterunt 
nisi ab Apostolica Bede conferri. 

45. Quod pertinet ad habitum praelatitium, pianum et 
communem, stemmata et choralia insignia, habitum et 
locum in Pontificia Cappella, omnia observabunt, uti 
supra dictum est de Protonotariis SupranumerariiSi nn. 
16. 17, 18, 19, 20. 

46. lisdem iuribus gaudebunt, praecedentiae, privati 
oratorii, conficiendi acta Beatificationis et Canonizationis, 
passivae electionis in Conservatores, ceterisque; item re* 
cipiendae Fidei professionis, reverentiae ad Crucem,thuri- 
flcationis, quibus omnibus fruuntur Protonotarii Supra- 

Constitution ^'Intbb muia^iplicbs.^^ 181 

nnmerariiy ut supra nn. 21, 22, 23, 24, ac iisdem sub condi- 

47. De venia Ordinarii et Praesulis consensu ecclesiae 
exemptae, extra Urbem, Missas, non tamen de requie, pon- 
tiflcali ritu et ornatu celebrare poterunt, prout supra 
notatur, ubi de Protonotariis Supranumerariis, nn. 26, 26, 
27, 28, 29; verum his legibus: Nee Faldistorio nee Ore- 
miali unquam utantur, sed una cum Ministris in scamno, 
cooperto panno coloris diei, sedeant; caligis et sandaliis 
utantur sericis tantum, cum orae textu item serico flavi 
coloris ornato, et similiter sericis chirothecis sine alio or- 
namento ; Mitra simplici ex serico damasceno, nullo orna- 
mento, ne in oris quidem distincta, cum rubris laciniis ad 
vittas. Extra Gathedrales Ecclesias tantum, assistentem 
Presbyterum habere poterunt pluviali indutum, dummodo 
non assistat Episcopus Ordinarius aut alius Praesul ipso 
Episcopo maior. Crucem pectoralem auream sine gemmis 
gerent, appensam funiculo serico violacei ex integro 
coloris, auro non intertexto. Omnia, quae in Missa can- 
tanda vel legenda sunt, nunquam ad scamnum, sed ad 
altare cantabunt et legent. Manus infra Missam lavent 
tantum ad Ps. Lavabo. 

48. Poterunt insuper, pariter extra Urbem, de venia 
Ordinarii et cum Praesuli ecclesiae exemptae consensu, 
Mitra, Cruce pectorali et Annulo ornati, ad scamnum, 
more Presbyterorum, celebrare Yesperas illius festi, cuius 
Missam ipsi pontiflcaliter acturi sint, vel peregerint (abs- 
que benedictione in fine). Iisdem ornamentis eodemque 
ritu uti licebit, de speciali tamen commissione Ordinarii, in 
Vesperis festi, cuius Missa in pontificalibus ab alio quoli- 
bet Praelato celebretur, itemque in benedictione cum Sanc- 
tissimo Sacramento solemniter (non tamen trine) imper- 
tienda, in Processionibus, et in una ex quinque absolu- 
tionibus in solemnioribus exsequiis, de quibus in Pontifi- 
cali Romano. 

49. Bomae Missam lectam aliqua cum solemnitate cele- 
brantes, si praelatitio habitu sint induti, ea retineant, quae 

182 OoCTUMi or PuLAm. 

de Protonotariis Supranumenurils n. 31 donstituta sunt; 
extra Urbem, de speciali tamen commiesione Ordinarii, 
eodem modo se gerent; aliia in Miaaia et functionibua, tarn- 
quain Praelati Domeetici, ut n. 78, Palmatoriam tantum, 
ai velint, adhibeant. 

50. Qui Ganonicornm coetni adacriptua, cui hactenus 
recensita Protonotariomm od tMtor priyilegia conceaaa 
aint, tamquam privata peraona iiadem uti velit, priua 
Breve Pontiflcium, ut didtur nn. 14 et 43, de aua inter 
Praelatoa Domeeticoa aggregatione, aeryatia senrandia, ob- 
tineat, simulque suae ad Canonicatum vel Dignitatem pro- 
motionis, initaeque posaeeaionia ac inter Praelatoa aggre- 
gationis testimonium Ck>ll^o Protonotariomm Partici- 
pantium exhibeat. Tum coram ipaius Ck)llegii Decano, vel 
per se vel per legitimum procuratorem, Fidel professionem 
ac fidelitatis iusiurandum, de more, praestet; de hia 
denique exhibito documento proprium Ordinarium cer- 
tiorem faciat. Qui vero tamquam privata persona huius- 
modi titulum rite fuerit consecutus, non ante privilegiis 
eidem titulo adnexis uti poterit, quam legitimum suae 
nominationis testimonium memorato Collegio exhibuerit, 
Fidei professionem et fidelitatis iusiurandum, uti supra, 
ediderit, de bisque omnibus authenticum documentum suo 
Ordinario attulerit. Haec ubi praestiterint, eorum nomen 
in sylloge Protonotariorum recensebitur. 

61. Qui ante has Litteraa, motu proprio editaa, iuribus 
gaudebant Protonotarii ad instar, tamquam alicuius ec- 
cleslae Ganonici, a postulatione Brevis, de quo in su- 
periori numero, dispensantur, quemadmodum et a iure- 
iurando, ut ibidem dicitur, praestando, quod tamen pro- 
prio Ordinario infra duos menses dabunt. 

62. Habitum et insignia in chore Dignitates et Canonici 
Protonotarii gerent, prout Capitulo ab Apostolica Sede 
concessa sunt ; potenint nihilominus veste tantum uti vio- 
lacea praelatitia cum zona sub choralibus insignibus, nisi 
tamen alia vestis, tamquam insigne chorale sit adhibenda. 
Pro usu Roccheti et Mantelleti in choro attendatur, utrum 

Constitution ^'Intbb mui/tipucbs.^' 183 

haec sint special! indulto permissa; alias enim Protono- 
tariuSy habitu praelatitio assistens, neque locum inter 
Canonicos tenebit, neque distributiones acquiret, quae 
sodalibus accrescent 

63. Collegialiter tamquam Canonici pontiflcalibus func- 
tionibus iuzta Gaeremoniale Episcoporum, sacris vestibus 
induti assistenteSy non alia Mitra utentur quam simplici, 
nee unquam hoc aliisve supra memoratis insignibus et 
privilegiis extra propriam ecclesiam, nisi in concessionis 
diplomate aliter habeatur. Oanonicus tamen, qui forte 
ad ordinem saltern Subdiaconatus non sit promotus, ne in 
choro quidem cum aliis Mitra unquam utatur. In func- 
tionibus autem praedictis inservientem de Mitra non habe- 
bunty prout in Pontiflcalibus uni Celebranti competit. Qui 
in Missa solemni Diaconi, Subdiaconi aut Presbjteri as- 
sistentis munus agunt, dum Dignitas, vel Ganonicus, aut 
alter Privilegiarius pontificaliter celebrant, Mitra non 
utentur; quam tamen adhibere poterunt, Episcopo sol- 
emniter celebrante, ut dictum est de collegialiter adsis- 
tentibuSy quo in casu, cum ministrant, ietut cum Episcopo 
operantur, maneant detecto capite. 

64. Protonotarius ad instar defunctus efferri aut tumu- 
lari cum Mitra non poterit, nee eius feretro ipsa imponi. 

66. Ne autem Protonotariorum numerus plus aequo au- 
geatur, prohibemus, ne in posterum in ecclesiis, de quibus 
supra, Canonici Honorarii, sive infra, sive extra Dioecesim 
degant, binas partes excedant eorum, qui Capitulum iure 

66. Qui secus facere, aliisve, praeter memorata, privi- 
legiis et iuribus uti praesumpserint, si ab Ordinario semel 
et bis admoniti non paruerint, eo ipso, Protonotariatus 
titulo, honore, iuribus et privilegiis, tamquam singuli, pri- 
vatos se noverint. 

67. Sciant praeterea; se, licet forte plures una simul, 
non tamquam unius ecclesiae Canonici, sed tamquam Pro- 
tonotarii, conveniant, non idcirco Collegium Praelatitum 

184 CosruMB OF Pbblatbs. 

constituere ; verum^ quando una cum Protonotariis de 
numero Participantium concurrent^ v. gr. in Pontiflciis 
GappelliSy tunc quasi unum corpus cum ipsis censentur, 
sine ullo tamen amplissimi Oollegii praeiudicio, ac servatis 
eiusdem Oappellae et Familiae Pontiflciae consuetudini- 

58. Bi quiSy quavis ex causa. Dignitatem aut Ganonica- 
tum dimittat, cui titulus, honor et praerogativae Protono- 
tariorum ad inatar adnexa sint, statim ab iisdem titulo, 
honore et praerogativis decidet. Qui vero Pontiflcium 
Breve inter Praelatos aggregationis obtinuerit, horum tan- 
turn privilegiis deinceps perfruetur. 

ly. — Pbotonotabii Apostolici Titulabbs sbu Honorabii. 

59. Gum Apostolica Bedes, non sibi uni ius reservaverit 
Protonotarios Titulares sen honorarios nominandi, sed 
Nuntiis Apostolicis, Gollegio Protonotariorum Participan- 
tium et forte aliis iamdiu illud delegaverit, antequam de 
eorum privilegiis ac praerogativis aliquid decernamus, 
leges sen conditiones renovare placet, quibus rite hone- 
steque ad eiusmodi dignitatem quisque Gandidatus valeat 
evehi, iuxta Pii PP. YII Praedecessoris Nostri Gonstitu- 
tionem "Owm innumeri/' Idibus Decembr. MDGGGXVIIl 

60. Quoties igitur de honorario Protonotariatu asse- 
quendo postulatio praebeatur, proferantur, ab Ordinario 
recognita, testimonia, quibus constet indubie: (1) de hon- 
esta familiae conditione; (2) de aetate saltem annorum 
quinque et viginti ; (8) de statu clericali ac caelibi ; (4) de 
Laurea doctoris in utroque, aut canonico tantum iure, vel 
in S. Theologia, vel in S. Bcriptura; (5) de morum hon- 
estate et gravitate, ac de bona apud omnes aestimatione; 
(6) de non communibus in Ecclesiae bonum provehendum 
laudibus comparatis; (7) de idoneitate ad Protonotar la- 
tum cum decore sustinendum, habita etiam annul census 
ratione, iuxta regionis cuiusque aestimationem. 

Ck)N8riTnTiON ^'Intbb mudtipucbs.^' 185 

61. Quod si huiusmodi Protonotariatns honor alicni 
Canonicoriim coetui collective ab Apostolica Sede confera- 
tur (quod ius, collective Protonotarios nominandi, nemini 
censeri posse delegatum declaramus), eo ipso, quo quis 
Dignitatem aut Canonicatum est legitime consequutus, 
Protonotarius nuncupabitur. 

62. Pariter, qui Vicarii General is aut etiam Capitularis 
munere fungitur, hoc munere dumtaxat perdurante, erit 
Protonotarius Titularis; hinc, si Dignitate aut Gaiioni- 
catu in Cathedral! non gaudeat, quando choro interesse 
velit, habitu Protonotarii praelatiO; qui infra describitur, 
iure utetur. 

63. Protonotarii Apostolici Titulares sunt Praelati extra 
Urbem, qui tamen subiecti omnino manent locorum Ordi- 
nariis, Praelatorum Domus Pontiflciae honoribus non gau- 
dent, neque inter Bummi Pontiflds Familiares adnumer- 

64. Extra Urbem, dummodo Summus Pontifex eo loci 
non adsit, in sacris functionibus rite utuntur habitu prae- 
latitiOy nigri ex integro coloris, idest veste talari, etiam, si 
libeat, cum cauda (nunquam tamen explicanda), zona 
serica cum duobus fiocculis a laeva pendentibus, Boccheto, 
Mantelleto et bireto, absque ulla horum omnino parte, sub- 
suto aut omamento alterius coloris. 

65. Extra Urbem, praesente Summo Pontiflce, descripto 
habitu indui possunt, si hie tamquam chorale insigne con- 
cessus sit, vel si quis uti Vicarius adfuerit. 

66. Habitu praelatitio induti, omnibus Clericis, Pres- 
bjteris, etiam Ganonicis, singulatim sumptis, praeferan- 
tur, non vero Ganonicis, etiam Gollegiatarum, collegialiter 
convenientibus, neque Vicariis Generalibus et Gapitulari^ 
bus, aut Superioribus Generalibus Ordinum Begularium, 
et Abbatibus, ac Praelatis Bomanae Guriae; non genu- 
flectunt ad Grucem vel ad Episcopum, sed tantum se in- 
clinant, ac duplici ductu thuriflcantur. 

186 GosTUMB OF Prblatbs. 

67. Super babitu quotidiano, occasione solemnis con- 
yentnSy audientiae et similium, etiam Romae et coram 
Snmmo Pontiflce, zonam tantum sericam nigram, cum 
laciniis item nigris, gestare poterunt^ cum pileo cbordula 
ac fioccis nigris ornato. 

68. Propriis insignibus, seu stemmatibus, pileum im- 
ponere valeant, sed nigrum tantummodo, cum lemniscis et 
sex hinc sex inde flocculis pendentibus^ item ex integro 

69. Si quis Protonotarius Titularis, Ganonicatus aut 
Dignitatis ratione, choro intersit, circa habitum se gerat 
iuxta normas Protonotariis ad inatar constitutaB, num. 52, 
vestis colore excepto. 

70. Sacris operantes, a simplicibus Sacerdotibus mi- 
nime differant; attamen extra Urbem in Missis et Ves- 
peris solemnibuSy pariterque in Missis lectis aliisque func- 
tionibus solemnius aliquando celebrandis, Palmatoria tan- 
tum ipsis utenda conceditur, excluso Ganone aliave pon- 
tifical! supellectili. 

71. Quod pertinet ad acta in causis Beatiflcationis et 
GanonizationiSy et ad passivam electionem in Gonserva- 
tores ac cetera, iisdem iuribus gaudent, quibus fruuntur 
Protonotarii Supranumerarii, uti nn. 23 et 24 supra dic- 
tum est. 

72. Beneflcia eorum qui, tamquam privatae personae, 
Protonotariatum Titularem assequuti sunt, non vero qui 
ratione Yicariatus, Ganonicatus sive Dignitatis eodem 
gaudent, ab Apostolica tantum Sede conferantur. 

78. Noverint autem, se, licet forte plures una simul, non 
tamquam unius ecclesiae Ganonici, sed tamquam Proto- 
notarii, conveniant, non ideo Gollegium constituere. 

74. Tandem qui Protonotariatu Apostolico honorario 
donati sunt, tamquam privatae personae, titulo, honori- 
bus, et privilegiis Protonotariatus uti nequent, nisi antea 

Ck)N8TiTUTioN ^^Intbb mudtiplicbs.'^ 187 

diploma suae nominationis Ck)llegio Protonotariorum Par- 
ticipantium exhibnerint, Fideique professionem, ac fldeli- 
tatis iusiurandum coram Ordinario, aut alio viro in ec- 
clesiastica dignitate constitnto emiserint. Qui vero ob 
Ganonicatum, Dignitatem, aut Yicariatum, eo potiti 
fuerint, nisi idem praestiterint^ memoratis honoribus et 
privilegiiSy quae superius recensentur, tantummodo intra 
propriae dioecesis limites uti poterunt. 

75. Qui secus facere, aliisque, praeter descripta, privi- 
legiis uti praesumpserint, si ab Ordinario semel et bis ad- 
moniti non paruerint, eo ipso honore et iuribus Protono- 
tarii privatos se sciant: quod si Protonotariatum, tam- 
quam privata persona adepti sint, etiam titulo. 

76. Vicarii Qenerales vel Capitulares, itemque Digni- 
tates et Ganonici nomine atque honoribus Protonotariatus 
titularis gaudentes, si, quavis ex causa, a munere, Digni- 
tate aut Ganonicatu cessent, eo ipso, titulo, honoribus et 
iuribus ipsius Protonotariatus excident. 

B. — De Ceteris Praelatis Romanae Curiae. 

77. Nihil detractum volumus honoribus, priyilegiis,prae- 
emimentiis, praerogativis, quibus alia Praelatorum Ro- 
manae Guriae Gollegia, Apostolicae Bedis placito, exor- 

78. Insuper concedimus, ut omnes et singuli Praelati 
Urbani sen Domestici, etsi null! Gollegio adscripti, ii 
nempe, qui tales renunciati. Breve Apostolicum obtinu- 
erint, Palmatoria uti possint (non vero Ganone aut alia 
pontiflcali supellectili) in Missa cum cantu, vel etiam 
lecta, cum aliqua solemnitate celebranda ; item in Vesperis 
aliisque solemnibus functionibus. 

79. Hi autem habitum, sive praelatitium sive quem vo- 
cant planum, gestare poterunt, iuxta Romanae Guriae con- 
suetudinem, prout supra describitur nn. 16, 17 ; numquam 

188 CosTUMB OF Pbblatbs. 

tamen vestis talaris candam explicare, neque sacras vestes ex 
altari assumere valeant, nee alio uti colore, quam viola- 
eeOy in bireti floceulo et pilei vitta, opere retieulato die- 
tineta, sive chordulis et flocculis, etiam in pileo stemmati- 
bus imponendo ut n. 18 dictum est, nisi, pro eornm aliquo, 
constet de maiori particulari privilegio. 

C. — De Dignilatibus, Canonicis et Aliis, Qui NonnulUs 

lis Praelatomm Propriis Fruuntur* 

80. Ex Bomanorum Pontiflcum indnlgentiai insignia quae- 
dam praelatitia aut pontificalia aliis GoUegiiSy praesertim 
Ganonicorum^ eorumve Dignitatibus^ quocumque nomine 
nuncupentur, vel a priscis temporibus tribui consuever- 
unt; cum autem eiusmodi privilegia diminutionem quam- 
dam episcopali dignitati videantur affere, idcirco ea sunt 
de iure strictissime interpretanda. Huic principio in- 
haerenteSy expresse volumus, ut in pontiflcalium usu 
nemini ad aliquod ex supra memoratis Gollegiis pertinenti 
in posterum ampliora suffragentur privilegia, quam quae, 
superius descripta, competunt Protonotariis sive Bupra- 
numerariis, sive ad inatar, et quidem non ultra propriae 
ecclesiae, aut ad summum Dioeceseos, si hoc fuerit con- 
cessum, limites; neque ultra dies iam designates, aut de- 
terminatas functiones; et quae arctiora sunt, ne augean- 

81. Quoniam vero de re agitur baud parvi momenti, 
quippe quae ecclesiasticam respicit disciplinam, ne quis 
audeat arbitraria interpretatione, maiora quam in con- 
cedentis voluntate fuerint, sibi privilegia vindicare; quin 
potius paratum sese ostendat, quatenus ilia excesserint, 
minoribus coarctari ; singulis locorum Ordinariis, quorum 
sub iurisdictione vel quorum in territorio, si de exemptis 
agatur, aliquis ex praedictis coetibus inveniatur, demand- 
amus, ut, tamquam Apostolicae Bedis Delegati, Apostoli- 
carum Goncessionum documenta ipsis faventia, circa me- 
morata privilegia, infra bimestre tempus, ab hisce Nostris 

Constitution ^'Intbb mudtiplicbs.'' 189 

Ordinatiouibns promulgatiSi sub poena immediatae amis- 
sionis eoram quae occultaverint, ad se transmitti curenti 
quae intra consequentem mensem ad Nostram 88. Bitlium 
Congregationem mittant. Haee autem, pro suo munere, 
omnia et singula hisce Nostris dispositionibus aptans, de- 
darabit et decemet, quaenam in posterum illis competant. 

Haec omnia rata et flrma consistere auctoritate Nostra 
Yolumus et iubemus; contrariis non obstantibus quibus- 

Datum Bomae apud S. Petrum, die 21 Februarii MOMV, 
Pontiflcatus Nostri anno secundo. 





PIUS pp. IX. 

Ad perpetuam rei memoriam. 

Ecclesiarum omninm curam et sollicitudinem ex su- 
premo Apostolatus officio divina Providentia commisso 
gerenteSy maximo quidein solatio perfundimur, cum ad 
sacrum episcopalem ordinem oculos Nostros mentemque 

Sacri enim per orbem Antistites, pastoralis muueris 
Nostri consortes in tanta temporum difficultate, atque in 
tot malorum procellis, quibus Ecclesia iactatur, omnem 
adhibent alacritatem ac studium in custodiendo vigilias 
noctis super gregem suum, in Ecclesiae iuribus adserendis, 
atque in Christiana sibi concredita plebe divinae Legis 
praeceptionibus erudienda, ut hoc scilicet instructa muni- 
mine, facilius a malo declinet atque ambulet in viis 

Ipsi propterea nullum discrimen detrectantes, opponunt 
murum pro domo Israel; interque ipsos, non pauci, perse- 
cutionem passi propter iustitiatn, illustria suae fldei et 
fortitudine exempla ediderunt. 

Quo autem obsequio, quo devotionis studio iidem Vener- 
abiles Fratres prosequantur beatissimi Petri Gathedram, 
in qua integra est christianae religionis ac perfecta soli- 
ditaSy et ad quam^ propter potiorem principalitatem 

Brief ^'Ecclbsiarum omnium/^ 191 

necesse est omnem convenire ecclesiam, innnmerae amoris 
ac pietatis significationes, etiam typis consignatae et nun- 
quam intermissaey pro ipsius incolumitate et exaltatione 
in snis dioecesibus preces, excitatique fldeles ad rerum 
angustias quibus premimur, data stipe, recreandas, deni- 
que singularis eorum in Urbe Nostra f requentia Inculentis- 
sime testantur. 

Quare, in coinmuni omnium ordinum laetitia ob saecn- 
larem memoriam martyrii sanctorum Apostolorum Petri 
et Pauli solemniter celebrandam, et ob nonullos Ecclesiae 
heroes sanctorum coelitum fastis adscribendos, gratum 
Nobis est eosdem Yenerabiles Fratres, in pastorali Nostro 
exercendo munere socios atque adiutores, debito exornare 
laudis praeconioy eisdemque, per aliquam honoris adiec- 
tionem, propensi animi Nostri^ ad dilectionisexhibere testi- 

Itaque, auctoritate Nostra Apostolica, harum littera- 
rum vi, omnibus et singulis Gatholicae Ecclesiae Patri- 
archis, Archiepiscopis et Episcopis, tam praesentibus 
quam f uturis, concedimus atque indulgemus ut ipsi in pos- 
terum, a primis tamen vesperis proxime futuri festi Sanc- 
torum Apostolorum Petri et Pauli, pileolo violacei coloris 
uti libere ac licite possint et valeant. 

Non obstantibus constitutionibus et sanctionibus apos- 
tolicis, ceterisque quamvis speciali et individua mentione 
ac derogatione dignis in contrarium facientibus quibus- 

Datum Bomae, apud Sanctum Petrum, sub annulo Pis- 
catoris, die xvii lunii MDCOCLXVII, Pontiflcatus Nostri 
anno vicesimo secundo. 






Ad perpetuam rex memoriani. 

Praeclaro divinae gratiae mnnere effectnm est^ ut sacer- 
dotalis Nostrae consecrationis diem qninquagesimo anno 
redeuntem, freqnenti Episcopornm Venerabilium Fratrum 
Nostrorum corona septi, innumero fldelinm coetn stipati, 
qnin et nniverso christiano orbe gestiente^ celebrare po- 
tuerimus. Oni tantae celebritati faBtiginm impositum est 
maioribns coelitnm honoribus^ quos^ divino Bpiritu adspi- 
rante, suprema auctoritate Nostra nonnullis eximiae sane- 
titatis viris solemn! ritn attribuimus. Quae quidem omnia 
non nno Nobis nomine grata et perincnndafnerunt. Primo 
enim in spem adducimnr foreutfldelium precibnsacnoven- 
silium sanctorum intercessione propitiatus Deus, tot tan- 
tisque, quibus humana premitur societas, malis opportuna 
afferat remedia, optatamque mundo pacem ac tranquili- 
tatem largiatur. Deinde vero ex eo laetamur quod innum- 
erabiles observantiae et obsequii signiflcationes, quibus 
Nos toto orbe fldeles unanimi consensione prosecuti sunt, 
tum ostendunt et antiquam pietatem et Apostolicae Sedis 
amorem christianis pectoribus alte manere deflxum, tum 
in summa Venerabilium Fratrum sacrorum Antistitum 
laudem cedunt, quorum opera ac virtute in populis sibi 

Baisr ^Trabclaro divinab gratiab/' 198 

commendatis et concreditis in tanta temporum perversi- 
tate ita viget ac floret catholicae religionis cultus et huic 
Bed! ac Romano Pontiflci sunt animi addicti atqne con- 

NoSy ne fansti hnins eventus memoria intercidat, atqne 
nt pnblicnm aliqnod benevolentiae Nostrae testimoninm 
Venerabilibns Fratribns exhibeamus, externo honoris in- 
signi nniversos terramm orbis Antistites exornandos cen- 

Qnare, hisce litteris, Apostolica auetoritate Nostra, per- 
petnnm in modnm coneedimns ut nniversi Patriaitdiae, 
Archiepiscopi et Episcopi birreto violacei coloris, hoe 
fnturisqne temporibns, nti libere et lieite possint et val- 
eant. Hoc ita illis proprinm volnmns, ut alius qui epis- 
copali dignitate non sit insignitus, eiusmodi ornamento 
nnllatenus potiri qneat. 

Non obstantibus constitutionibus et sanctionibus apos- 
tolicis ceterisque omnibus, licet speciali et individua men- 
tione ac derogatione dignis, in contrarium facientibus qui- 

Datum Bomae, apud Sanctum Petrum, sub annulo Pis- 
catoris,die iii Februrarii MDCCCLXXXVIII, Pontiflcatus 
Nostri anno decimo. 



This does not profess to he a complete bibliography of 
the subject, but a list of works which may be usefully 
consulted on the various points treated in this book. 

Baabt (Rev. P.), The Roman Court. (Cincinnati, 1895.) 

Babbibb db Montault (Mgr. X.)yLe Costume et Us usages 
eccUsiastiques seUm la tradition Romaine. (Paris, 

Babbibb db Montault (Mgr. X.), Oevi/ores com/plites. 
(Poitiers, 18891902.) 

Babbibb db Montault (Mgr. X.), Traiti pratique de la 
constru<)tion, de Vomeublement et de la decoration 
des 6gUses. (Paris, s. d.) [1899.] 

Babbosa^ luris ecclesiastici universi libri tres. (Lyons, 

Babgilliat^ Praelectiones iuris canonici. (Paris, 1893.) 

Battandibb (Mgr. A.), Annuadre pontifical catholique. 
(Paris, yearly.) 

Baudot, O. S. B., Le Pallium. (Paris, 1909.) 

BocK^ OeschAchte der liturg. Oewander. (Bonn, 1856-62.) 

BoNA^ Rerwn liturgicarum libri duo. (Turin, 1745.) 

Bouix^ De Curia Rom4ina. (Paris, 1874.) 

Bouix, De Episcopo. (Paris, 1873.) 

Bouix^ De Papa. (Paris, 1869.) 

Bbanchbbbau^ Politesse et convenances eccUsiastiques. 
(Paris, 1892.) 

196 GosTUMB OF Pbblatbs. 

Gahibr and Martin (S. J.)) M4lange8 d'arcMologie. 
(Paris, 1856.) 

Oatalani^ Caeremoniale episooporum. (Borne, 1744.) 

Gatalani^ Pontifioale romanum. (Borne, 1850.) 

GHifiNBAu (B. S.), Ewplanation of the Oatholio Liturgy for 
the Laity. (Baltimore, 1907.) 

GoHBLLO^ Notitia Oardinalatus. (Borne, 1653.) 

Gox (J. Gharles), English Church Furniture. (London, 

Danibl^ Codex liturgious. (Leipzig, 1847-53.) 

Druitt^ a Manual of Costume a^ illustrated by monu- 
mental Brasses. (London, 1906.) 

DuRANDus (Episcopns Mimatensis), Rationale divinorum 
officiorum. (Lyons, 1612.) 

Fabrb (with OoYAU and PjAratiA), Le Vatican. (Paris, 

Favrin^ Prams solemnium functionum episcoporum, cum 
appendicibus pro abhatibus nUtratis et protonotariis 
apostoliciSj iuwta ritum romwnum. (Batisbon, 1906.) 

Fbrraris^ Bibliotheca canonica. (Borne, 1682, 1885, 1896.) 
FiSQUBT^ Les dr&monies de Rome. (Paris, 1871.) 
Flbury (J. Bohanltde), La me^ae. (Paris, 1889.) 
Gardbllini^ Decreta authentioa 8. C. R. (Borne.) 
Gbramb (Baron), Visit to Rome. (Philadelphia, 1840.) 
^^Oerarchia/' (Bome, yearly.) 

GoYAu (with FAtoB and P^iratA), Le Vatican. (Paris, 

Grimaldi, Les congregations romaines. (Sienna, 1890.) 
(On the Index.) 

Harvby (A.). (See Gox.) 

Hbrdt (J. B. de), Praxis pontificalis. (Louvain, 1892.) 

Bibliography. 197 

HuLMB^ The History, Principles and Practice of Heraldry. 
(New York, 1898.) 

Ebnbick (Archbishop), Form of the Consecration of a 
Bishop. (Baltimore, 1866.) 

Kraus (Dr. F. X.), Oeschichte der christlich^en Kunst. 
(Freibnrg-im-B., 1897.) 

Eraus (Dr. F. X.), Real-Encyklopddie des christlichen AU 
terthumer. (Freibnrg-imB., 1882-86.) 

Eraus (Dr. F. X.), KirchenUxicon. (Freiburg-im-B., 


Lbrosby^ Manuel liturgique. (Paris, 1890.) 

Lbvavassbur^ O4r4monial selon le rite remain. (Paris, 

Lbvayassbur^ FonctUms pontificales. (Paris, 1904.) 

Macalistbb^ Ecclesiastical Vestments. (London, 1896.) 

Hacklin (H. W.), The Brasses of England. (London, 

Marriott^ Vestiarium christianum. (London, 1868.) 

Hartjjnb^ O. S. B. (Dom E.), De antiquis ecclesiae riti- 
bus. (Antwerp, 1784.) 

Martigny, Dictionnaire des antiqmtis chritiennes. (Paris^ 

Martinucci (Mgr. Pio), Manudle sacrarwn caeremoni- 
arum. (Rome, 1879.) 

Mt^HLBAUBR, Decreta authentica Oongregationis sacrorum 
rituum. (Munich, 1863.) 

Nainfa (J. A.), A Synthetical Manual of Liturgy (Vigou- 
rel). (Baltimore, 1907.) 

Narfon ( Jnlien de), Lion XIII intime. (Paris, s. d.) 

Narfon (Julien de). Pie X. (Paris, 1905.) 

PiiRATA (with QoYAU and Fabrb), Le Vatican. (Paris^ 

Phillips^ Kirchenrecht. ( 1845-72. ) 

198 CosTUMB OF Pbblatis. 

Flatus^ {8.J.)jDe Oardinalia dignitate et officio. (Borne, 

PoPB (Thomas, Canon) , Holy Week in the Vatican. (Dub- 
lin, 1871.) 

PuGiNy Oloaaary of eccleaiastical Ornament (London, 

Bbussbns^ EUmentB d'arcMologie chr4tienne. (Paris, 


RoHAULT DB Flbury^ La Messe. (Paris, 1889.) 

Rock (Dr.), Hierurgia or the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass. 
(Revised and edited by W. H. J. Weale) . (London, 

Rock (Dr.), The Church of our Fathers. (London.) 

Shahan^ etc.. Catholic Encyclopedia. (New York.) 

SiMON^ de Boneourt, Qrammaire du Blason. (Paris, 1885.) 

Smith (S.), Notes on the Second Plenary Council of Bah 
timore. (New York, 1874.) 

Smith and Chbbtam^ A Dictionary of Christian An- 
tiquity. (Hartford, 1880.) 

SoGLiA^ Institutiones iuris puhlici ecclesiastici. (Rome, 

Taunton, The Law of the Church. (London, 1906.) 

Un EvtQUB SuFFRAGANT, drimonial des 6v6ques expliqu4. 
(Paris, 1856.) 

ViGOUBBL, S. S. (Adrian), Manuel synthitique de liturgie. 
(Paris, 1906.) 

WiLPBRT (Mgr.), Un cajritolo di storia del vestiario. 
(Rome, 1899.) 

WiLPBBT (Mgr.), Die Oewandung der Christen in der 
ersten Jahrhunderten. (Cologne, 1898.) 

WooDWABo, Manual of Ecclesiastical Heraldry. (London, 

Wuschbr-Bbcchi, Ursprung der papstlichen Tiara (reg- 
num) und der MshofUchen Mitra. (Rome, 1899.) 

Synoptic Tablb. 























i i 
















IS ! 

I i I 






I I ! 






CosruMi or Pbii<atb8. 




















i t 


••^ d J diU ill iiU 

iiiJ Lii ll-ii |J|£ Hi 
,.., i.« I... la^^ iii^ 



II ^1 



i I 







• J 







1^ V. 

I l« 

Ij IJ 




Stnoftic Tablb. 




















III ^1 






. JJ \i 




t : j I I I j 






t I 



J ! VeVgll 














Abbots, 23. 

Different classes, 26, 26, 27. 

Wear the mozzetta, 68, 66. 

Wear the mantelletta, 70. 

Their pontifical stockings, 96. 

Their pontifical sandals, 09. 

Pectoral cross, 101, 103. 

Ring, 106. 

Genuflection to an Abbot, 109. 

Wear the mitre, 110, 113. 

Use the crosier, 116, 117, 118. 

Coats-of-arms of Abbots, 137. 

Pontificals of Abbots, 143. 
Abbots Genebal, 27. 
Abbots nullius, 26, 27, 103, 143. 
Abbots regiminis, 26, 27, 103, 143. 
Abbbbtiatobs of the Major Park, 

29, 69, 106. 
Academic solemnities, 66, 163. 
Acolytes of the papal chapel, 36. 
Admodum Beverendu$ (a title 
given to Prelates di mantel- 
lone), 72. 
Adtooates Consistorial, 73. 
Albano (Cardinal-Bishop of), 16. 
Alexanbbia (Patriarchs of), 17. 
Altab-Boys should not wear cinc- 
tures, 64. 

Should not wear skull-caps, 91. 

Should wear black stockings, 
Amabanth bed, 37, 41, 48, 69, 81, 

86, 133. 
Annulit 106. 
AnnuluB cordis, 106. 
Apostolio Gameba, 107. 
Abohbishop, 19, 132. 
Abohdeacon, 166. 
Abmagh (Archbishop of), 18. 

Primate of All Ireland, 18. 

Wears a double-armed pectoral 
cross, 101. 

Abmobs, 126. 

Assistants at the Pontifical 
Throne, 21, 29. 

Auditobs of the Rota, 29, 69, 79. 

Augustinians, 23, 24. 

AzuBE (Blue in Heraldry), 127. 

Babylon (Patriarch of), 17. 

Baltimobb (Ooundls of), 38, 169. 

Babbieb de Montault (Mgr.), 7. 

Basil (Monks of St), 28. 

Benedictines, 24. 

BiKOBOHi (Residence of the Sy- 
rian Patriarchs), 18. 

BiBETTA, 86-89. 
Bibetta of Cabdinals. 

Of red watered silk In sum- 
mer, and red cloth in winter, 
86, 87. 

Has no tuft, 87. 

Cardinals do not wear biretta 
sent by Pope, 88. 
Bibbita of Bishops. 

Is purple and of no other color, 
87, 88, 89, 192, 193. 

Has but three "horns," 87, 166. 

Has a purple tuft, 87. 
Bibettas of Pbelates, 86. 

Conceded by Pius X., 88. 
Bishop, 19, 21. 

Residential, 21. 

Titular, 21. 

Assistant at the Pontifical 
Throne, 21, 22, 29. 

Religious, 28, 24, 26. 

Should wear clothes of woolen 
material, 33. 

Has a right to wear the rochet, 

Wears the mozzetta in his dio- 
cese, 63. 

Wears the mantelletta out- 
side of his diocese, 68. 



Bishop, 19, 21. 
Wears mantelletta in his dio- 
cese in presence of higher 

Prelates, 68. 
Wears unfolded cappa magna 

in his diocese, 75. 
Wears folded cappa in Rome, 

His hats, 81, 82, 88, 84. 
Purple biretta, 87, 88, 192, 198. 
His biretta should have only 

three "horns," 87, 165. 
Purple skull-cap, 91, 92, 190, 

Purple stockings, 94. 
His pontifical stockings, 96. 
Shoes, 97. 
His pontifical sandals should 

have no cross on the upper, 

98, 99. 
His pectoral crosses, 100-104. 
Uses two sorts of rings, 106, 

Wears three different mitres, 


Oriental Bishops have peculiar 

mitres, 114, 115. 
Uses the crosier, 116, 117, 118, 

119, 120. 
Uses the hand-candlestick at 

all services, 121. 
He is regarded as noble, 124. 
His coat-of-arms, 133, 135, 139, 

140, 141, 142, 159. 
His throne and prie-dieu should 

be draped in green, 152. 
His "academic dress," 154. 
His "etiquette dress" (aUto 

piano) t 155. 
The laying out of his remains, 

156, 157, 159. 
Black, the color of the gar- 
ments of the clergy, 35. 
Blazon, 123. 

Blub fox fub, 78. 
BoBBOMBO (St. Charles), 13. 

Bottom of Cassocks is round or 
terminates in a train, 40, 41, 

Bbibfs of the Pope are sealed 
with the Fisherman's ring, 
106, 107. 

BUCKLEBS, 125, 126. 

Bulletin (diocesan), 141. 

BussoLANTi are clad in red, 36. 
An ecclesiastic admitted to an 
audience of the Pope must 
leave his hat in the room of 
the Bussolanti, 155. 

Buttonholes are trimmed with 
silk of the color of the lin- 
ing, 41. 

Buttons, 41. 

Caibo (Bgypt), Residence of the 
Patriarch of Alexandria for 
the C!opts, 17. 

Calotte or Skull-Cap, 90-93. 

Camaubo, a special cap of the 
Pope, 93. 

Cameo, carved gem adorning the 
Pope's ordinary ring, 106. 

Camera Apoatolioa, 107. 

Camaldules, 24. 

Canada, 31, 41. 

Canons, 41, 46, 54, 59, 60, 62, 66, 
70, 80, 103, 104, 108, 112, 134, 

Cape, 73, 74. 

Capellone, 83. 

Cappa of Prelates di mantellone, 

Cappa Magna, 74-80. 

Capuchins, 25. 

Cabdinalate, 129. 

Cabdinals, 14. 
Three classes or orders, 15. 
"Titles" of Cardinals, 15. 
Dioceses of Cardinal-Bishops, 

Cardinal-Deacons, 15, 16. 
Cardinals belonging to Religi- 
ous Orders, 23, 24, 25. 
Materials of their garments, 
32, 33, 34. 



Gabdinals, 14. 

Colors of their garments, 35, 
86, 37. 

Ordinary Cassock, black, with 
scarlet trimmings, 41. 

Choir Cassock, red, purple, or 
rose-colored, 42, 43, 44. 

Simar of Cardinals, black, 
with scarlet trimmings, 48. 

Red collaro, 51. 

Cincture, with fringes of silk, 

Cincture, with gold tassels a 
privilege of Cardinals, 53. 

Cloak, red, purple, black, 56, 

They have a right to wear the 
rochet, 61. 

They wear the mozzetta every- 
where, 63. 

They wear the mantelletta in 
Rome, 67, 69. 

Cappa Magna, red or purple, 

They have a train-bearer, 75, 
76, 77. 

Their hats, 81-85. 

The scarlet blretta one of the 
insignia of the Cardlnalate, 

Cardinals do not wear the 
biretta sent by the Pope, 88. 

Red skull-cap one of the in- 
signia of the Cardinalate, 90. 

Their ordinary stockings are 
red, 94 ; purple on Good Fri- 
day, 94. 

Their pontifical stockings are 
embroidered with gold, 96. 

They wear special ecclesiastical 
shoes, black, bordered with 
red, 96. 

They wear shoes of red mo- 
rocco, 97, 154. 

Their pontifical sandals are 
embroidered with gold, 99. 

Cardinals wear the pectoral 
cross, 101, 102, 103. 

Cabdinals, 14. 

They have a special ring, 
adorned with a sapphire, 

Genuflection before a Cardinal, 

Cardinals use three kinds of 
mitres, 113. 

Use the crosier when pontifi- 
cating, 118. 

Use the hand-candlestick at all 
offices, 121. 

They are nobles; princes of 
the Church, 124. 

Their coats-of-arms should not 
be "timbered" with a coronet, 

Heraldic hat of Cardinals, 130, 

A Bishop bound to give up his 
throne to a Cardinal, 143. 

Cardinals officiate at the throne 
everjrwhere, 143. 

Harmony of their costume, 151. 

The dress of a Cardinal as- 
sisting at a funeral, 152. 

A Cardinal delivering a funeral 
oration, 153. 

"Academic dress" of a Cardi- 
nal, 153, 154. 

"Btiquette dress" (aM to p^aito) 
of a Cardinal, 155. 

Laying out the remains of a 
deceased Cardinal, 156, 157, 
158, 159. 

The red hat should be sus- 
pended above the Cardinal's 
tomb, 83, 159. 
Cabmelitbs, 24. 
Cabbiaoe of a Bishop, 141. 
Cassock (ordinary), 39. 
Cassock (choir), 42. 
Cat (Northern), fur for black 

cappa magna, 78. 
Catafalqxte, 84, 85, 157. 
Cathouo Uztivebsitt of Amsb- 

lOA, 164. 
Cavalcades, 83. 



Chaldeans (Patriarch of the), 

Ohambsblains of the Pope, 80, 

71, 72, 73. 
Ohanoeby papkbs, 140. 

0HANT1B8, 36, 87. 

Chapels (papal), 21, 77. 
Chaplains of the Pope, 80, 71, 

72, 73. 

Chaptebs. (See Canons). 

ClNOTUBB, 52-54. 

CiLiciA (Patriarch of), 18. 



104, 116. 
Clement YIII., 95. 
Clebics Regulab, 28, 42, 46, 48, 

Clbbks of the Rer. Apostolic 

Camera, 29, 69, 79. 
Cloak (ferraiolo), 24, 55, 56, 57, 

58, 153, 154. 
Cloth, 33. 
Coats-of-Abms, 123. 
Collab (Roman), 50, 51. 
collabino, 50, 51. 
Collabo, 50, 51. 
College (Roman), 165. 
Collbqb (Sacred), 16. 
CoLOBS in Heraldry, 126, 127. 


Consistobt, 42. 
Constantinople (Patriarch of), 

Cope, 74. 

Copts (Patriarch of the), 17. 
Copts use the Western Mitre, 

CoBDS of hats, 81, 83, 84, 85, 129, 

130, 131, 132, 133, 134, 135, 

COBONET, 129, 132. 
Cotta, 62. 
Worn oyer the rochet, 62, 80. 
Worn over the crocia by the 

train-bearer, 76. 
Councils of Baltimobe, 88, 159. 
Council of Tbbnt, 12, 166. 

Council (Pbovinoial), 65. 

Count (The title of Roman 
Count is given to Assistants 
at Pontifical Throne), 22. 

Coubt (Judges of the episcopal), 

Cbimson, 87. 

Cbooia, special mantle of the 
train-bearer, 76. 

Cbosieb, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120. 
Crosier of Abbots, 116, 118. 
Crosier of Bastern Bishops, 

Cboss (Metropolitan), 19, 20. 

CxTFFS of Cassocks, 82, 41. 

Damascus, Residence of the Pa- 
triarch of the Melchites, 17. 

Dean of the Sacred College, 15; 

Deacon (Cardinal-), 15, 16. 

DEACONbT (Title of a Cardinal- 
Deacon), 16. 

Deoano, Dean of a Cardinal's 
household, 84. 

Dezteb, the left side of a heral- 
dic design, 127. 

Diocesan pubuoations, 141. 

DooTOBS, 163-166. 
Their birettas, 165. 
Their rings, 165, 166. 

Dominican Pbelates, 24. 

Domestic Pbelates, 28, 29. 

Dots and Lines in heraldic de- 
signs, 126, 127, 140, 142. 

Dublin (Archbishop of), 18. 

Bishop of Mende), 74, 109. 

Bast Indies (Patriarch of the), 

Eminentisaimus et Reverendiaai- 
fnu8 Domiwus (or Prinoepa), 
a title belonging exclusively 
to Cardinals, 16. 

Bngbavebs, 126, 127. 

Bnsigns Abmobial, 123. 

Bpisoopact (Doctorate a requi- 
site for), 166. 



A for of prelatial garments. 

78, 74, 78. 
A heraldic fur, 127. 
BsoBOLL, ribbon on which the 
motto is written, 129. 


Btiquettb (Rules of), 151-169. 
BxAMiNKBS of the clergy should 
wear the ferraioUme, 06. 

BXABOH, 18. 

Bwtra Urhem, 31, 72. 

Faloa, an ornament of the Pope, 

Faldstool, 96, 99, 146, 146. 
FanUUares, chaplains of the 

Bishop at Solemn Pontifical 

Mass, 66. 
Febraiolo. (See Gloak). 
Fkbraioloivb. (SeeOLOAK). 
Fisherman's Ring, 106, 107. 
FlacculuB, "pompon'* of the bi- 

retta, 88, 173, 180, 187. 


Fox (Russian blue), a fur for 

blue cappa magna, 78. 
**FuoH le crodr 100. 
Fbanois de Sales (St), 13. 
Fbanoiscan Pbelates, 24, 46, 48. 
Fbasoati (Oardinal-Bishop of), 

Fbiday (Good), 46, 46, 69, 69, 77, 

80, 94, 162. 
FuNEBAL Sebmon, 66, 162. 
FUB, 24, 26, 76, 78. 
Fur of cappa magna, 76, 78. 
Fur of the cappa of Prelates 

di mantellone, 73. 
Heraldic furs, 127, 128. 
Gaudete (Sunday of), 44, 64, 69, 

Gems, 106, 108, 147, 149. 
Genuflbotioii before a Prelate, 

GoA (Archbishop of), Patriarch 

of the Bast Indies, 18. 
Gban (Archbishop of), Primate 

of Hungary, 18. 

Gbbgobt XIV., 26. 

Gules, heraldic term for red, 

HABrr, 23, 24, 26, 26, 36, 42, 46, 

48, 67, 68, 66, 70, 78. 
Hand-Candlestiok, 121, 122, 146, 

147, 160. 
Hand-Kiss, 109. 
Pontifical Hat, 81, 82, 83, 84, 

86, 129, 130, 168, 169. 
Semi-pontifical Hat, 84, 86. 
Ordinary Hat, 81, 82, 164, 166. 
Heraldic Hats, 129, 130, 131, 

132, 134, 136, 136, 137, 138. 
The Pope's Hat, 81, 82. 
Hebaldbt, 123-142. 
HiERABOHT, 12, 13. 

Holt Thubsdat, 62, 80. 
HoNOBius AuousTODUNENSis (Hon- 

orius. Bishop of Autun), 74, 

Hood, 63, 74, 76, 78, 79, 86. 
How the hood became a cape, 

76 (note). 
Hook, 71, 74. 

HuNOABY (Primate of), 18. 
Indies (Patriarch of the Bast), 

(Patriarch of the West), 18. 
Innocent IV. gave the Cardinals 

the privilege of the red hat, 

Inter miUHpHces (Motu proprio), 

Ibeland (Primate of), 18. 
IBELAND (Primate of All), 18, 

IBBBMOVABLB Reotobs, 49, 62, 63, 

Jebusalem (Patriarch of), 17. 
Jesuit Pbelates, 23, 36. 
Judges of the Bishop's court, 66. 
JuBisDicTioN (Hierarchy of), 12, 

Kneblino-dbsk (or pbib-dieu), 

140, 162. 
Lactate Sunday, 44, 64, 69, 77. 



Laztque (heraldic term for 

tongue), 128. 
Lboatb a latere, 06, 68. 
Lbo XIII., 87, 88, 91, 165, 102. 


LiNKZT (material for the rochet), 

LmiNO, is of the same material 
and color as the trimmings, 
41 (note). 
Lining of the costume of Reg- 
ular Prelates, 24, 25, 85. 
Of the ordinary cassock, 41. 
Of the choir cassock, 44. 
No lining to the cloak, except 

at the collar, 56. 
Lining of the rochet, 59, 60. 
Of the mozzetta, 64. 
Of the mantelletta, 67, 69. 
. Of the mantellone, 71. 
Hood of cappa magna lined 

with fur in winter, 74, 78. 
Lining of ordinary hat, 82. 
Of pontifical and semi-pontifical 

hats, 83, 84, 85. 
Of the biretta, 89. 
Of the skull-cap, 91. 
Lisbon (Patriarch of), 18. 
Wears a double-armed pectoral 

cross, 101. 
'Timbers" his coat-of-arms 
with the tiara, 131 (note). 
LiVEBT, 36, 37. 

Lyons (Archbishop of), Primate 
of (^aules, 18. 
(Council of), (1245) ; at this 
council the red hat was con- 
ceded to the Cardinals by 
Innocent lY., 83. 
Mantelletta, 67-70. 
Mantellone, 71-73. 
Mabonites (Patriarch of the), 
Their Bishops use the Western 
mitre, 115. 
Mastbb of Chambeb keeps the 
Fisherman's ring, 107. 

Mastebs or Cebemonies wear 

purple cassock, 37. 
Matexulb, 82, 33, 34. 
Melohitbs (Patriarch of the), 

Mebot (Order of our Lady of), 

Metals in Heraldry, 126, 127, 

Mbtbopoutans, 19, 20, 65, 68. 
Mitbb, 76, 110, 111, 112, 113, 114, 

116, 120, 158. 
MiTBS of Oriental Bishops, 115. 
MoNTBEAL (Canons of), 41. 
MossuL, Residence of the Patri- 
arch of Babylon, 18. 
Motto, 138, 139. 
NOBTHEBN Cat's fur, for black 

cappa magna, 78. 
NiUlius Pbelates, 26, 27, 103, 143. 
Olivetans, 24. 
Ob, heraldic term for gold, 126, 

"Obdinaby Bishop," 63, 67, 75, 

109, 118, 154, 156, 158, 159. 
Obnaments or metal prohibited 

on prelatial dress, 40. 
Ostia and Yeletbi, Episcopal See 

of the Dean of the Sacred 

Ck)llege> 15, 16. 
Otteb's ruB, for the cappa magna 

of Capuchin Prelates, 25, 78. 
Palestbina (or Pbeneste), one 

of the auhurhan dioceaea, 15. 
Pallium, 19, 20, 158. 
Papal Chapels, 21, 77. 
Papal Coubt, 27, 28, 29, 30, 31, 

33, 36, 69, 155. 
Partihua infidelium (Bishops <n), 

21. (This title is suppressed). 
Patbiabohs, 16, 17, 18, 58, 64, 66, 

81, 84, 103, 131, 136. 
Peotobal cboss, 40, 100, 101, 102, 

103, 104, 145, 146, 147, 149, 

153, 154, 155, 156. 
Pileolua, Latin name of the skull- 
cap, 90. 



PukiN BILK, 88, 41, 45, 46, 52, 66, 
64, 60, 77. 

l^ATR, I4l. 

Pluviale, Latin name of the cope^ 

Pockets of the cassock, 40. 

PonTmoALU, 76, 04, 08, 102, 104, 

105, 106, 118, 114, 115, 121, 

122, 148, 144, 145, 146, 147, 

148, 140, 160, 156, 160. 
Pope, Supreme Prelate, 14. 
Material of his dress, 82. 
Ck>iors of his dress, 87. 
His ordinary cassock, 41. 
His choii* caMock, 42^ 48. 
His simar, 48. 
His collar, 51^ 
His cihctnres, 68. 
His cloak, bS. 
His rochet, 60. 
Wears the rochet nncotered 

everywhere, dO, 6l< 
His inoszettii, 68. < 

He does hot weilr the inahtel- 

letta, 67. 
His cappa mtigha is red, 76. 
His hats, 82, 83. 
IM skull-cap lis white, 02. 
He does hot t^ealr the foiretta, 

The "camauro,'^ 03. 
He wears white Stockings, 04. 
His pohtiflcUl stockings, 06. 
His every-day slippers, 08. 
His tx>ntifical sandals, 08, 00. 
His pectoral cross, 103. 
tie uses the pontifical ring, 106. 
His. ordinary ring is adorned 
, with k cameo, 106. 
The Fisherman's ring, 107. 
He ha^ a special ''sihit>le mitre," 

He doeil hot make use of the 

crosier, 117, 120. 
His arms lire "timbered*' with 
. the tiara ahd the keySi 181. 


episcopal see oi thd Silb- 

Dean of the Sacred College, 

Praeclaro divinae ffratlae, 87, 165, 

Pbblaot, 11. 

Pbblate, 11. 

Pbelatbs di maHtelletta, 27, 28, 

20, 80, 60. 
Pbelatbs di nianiellonet 28, 80, 

31, 71,72,73. 
Pbelatbs niUHus, 26, 27, 103, 148. 
Pbblatubbb, 11-81. 
PBiE-DiEn, 140, 162. 


Pbimates of IBELANDi 18. 

PIiopaoaiidA, 107. . • 

PbotonotabieU Apo^touo, 20, 80, 
81, 84, 103, 188, 144, 160, 160. 

Pbotinolal Ck)uNotL, 66^ 

PuBPLB, a preiatial color, 86. 
Color of ecclesiastical Livery, 

86, 87. 
Is not the "episcopal color/' 
152(note)4 • \. 

PuBPUttB, heraldic term for pur- 
ple, 126. 

"RABBI," 8, 60, 61. 

REtrroBS or PaiushBs, 40, 62, 53, 

Reotobs of Seminabies, 40, 63. 

Red, a prelatial color, 37. 
Three shadeH of red: Scarlet, 
ambranth, crimson, 87. 

Redemptobists, 23, 85* . ; 


70, 86. : , , 

RkGBNT OF THii Ohanoebt, wesrs 
a Bishop'lt hat, 84, 182. 

Re6ulab Pbblati!s, 22-27. 

Regulab Clebics, 23, 85, t ■ 

Relios of SahttH, 02, 101, 103. 

Residential Bishops, 21. 

ReverendUaitnua, title of Prel- 
ates di mdntelletiOi^ 72. . 

Reverendus (Admodum) , title of 
. Prelatefei di nkantellonet 72. 

Ring, 105-100, 154, 155, 165. 

Rites (S. Congregation of), 8. 



RooHST, 69-62. 

lioDBz, the canons wear the man- 

telletta, 70. 
"ROMA" (this word is carved on 

the ring of Roman Doctors), 

109, 165. 
Roman cx>llab, 60, 61. 
Roman College, 166. 
Roman Counts, 22. 
Rose-color, 44, 64, 69, 77. 
Rota (Auditors of the), 29, 69, 

Rugs, 141. 
Russian blue vox's fur for blue 

cappa magna, 78. 
Sabina (Cardinal-Bishop of), 16. 
Bable, heraldic term for hlaok, 

Saobistans, 86, 87. 
Sandals, 08, 09, 166. 
Sanguine, heraldic term for hlood- 

color, 120. 
Santa Ruhna. (See Pobto). 
Sapphibe, blue stone reserved for 

the ring of Cardinals, 107, 

Satin, a silk material reserved 

for the Pope's garments, 32. 
Scutum, Latin word for shield, 

Secbetabiate of Bbiefs, 107. 
Semi-pontifical Hat, 84, 85. 
Sebmon (funebal), 65, 152. 
Shoes, 97-99, 156. 
Silk. (See Plain Silk). 
Watered silk reserved for the 

garments of Cardinals, 32, 33. 
SiMAB, 47, 48, 49, 63. 
SiNiSTEB, the right side of a her- 
aldic design, 127. 
SiNOPLE, heraldic term for green, 

Skull-cap, 90, 91, 92, 93, 158. 
Slippebs of the Pope, 98. 
SoLESMEs (Abbot of), has the 

privilege of wearing a purple 

skull-cap, 91. 
Soutane (see Cassook), 38. 

Stemma, Latin word for coat-of- 

arms, 120. 
Stockings, 94, 95, 96, 166. 
Stole, 104. 

Stones (Pbecious), 103, 106, 108, 

147, 149. 
Sububban dioceses, 16. 

SUMMEB, 34. 

Sylvestbians, 24. 

Symbousm in Hebaldbt to be 
avoided, 125. 

Sybians, 18, 115. 

Talaris Vestia, Latin name of the 
Cassock, 38. 

Tassel of the pectoral cross, 103. 

Of heraldic hats, 129-139. 
Of pontifical hats, 83, 84, 86. 
Of cinctures, 62, 63. 

Ten NY, heraldic term for orange- 
color, 126. 

Theatines, 23, 35. 

Thbone (Episcopal), 78, 79, 162. 

TiNGTUBES, heraldic term for col- 
ors, 125, 126. 

TrruLAB Bishop, 21. 

TiTULAB Patbiabohs, 17. 

TiTULAB Pbotonotabies Apostolig 
(Black Protonotaries),29, 30. 
61, 62, 70, 122, 134, 136, 184. 

Toledo (Archbishopof), Patriarch 
of the West Indies, 18. 

Tbain, a sign of Prelacy, 42. 
Of the cassock, 42, 43, 44. 
Of the cappa magna, of Cardi- 
nals and Bishops, 74, 75, 77. 
Of the canonical cappa magna, 

Tbain-bbabeb, 32, 76, 76, 77. 
His different costumes, 75, 76. 
Confraternity of Train-bearers, 

Tbappists, see Cisteboians (Re- 

Tbent (Council of), 12, 166. 

Tbimmings, 41 (note). 

Tbinity (Order of the Holy), 24. 

Tufts of cinctures, 52, 53. 



Tufts of birettas, 80, 87, 88, 164. 
TusouLUM, see Fbasoatl 
Degrees of civil universities not 
recognized by the Church, 
Romnn universities give a ring 

to their Doctors, 100, 166. 
University of Louvain gives its 
Doctors a biretta, with color- 
ed tuft, 164. 
Biretta of the Catholic Univer- 
sity of America, 164. 
Ubban VIII., 16. 
UsHEBS of the Apostolic Palace, 

Ushers of the Cathedral, 86. 
Vaib, a heraldic fur, 126. 
Vallombbosa (Order of), 23. 
Veletbi, see Ostia. 
A material reserved for the 

Pope's garments, 32. 
Velvet buttons of the train- 

l)earer*s cassock, 32, 75, 76. 
Velvet biretta prohibited, 32,86. 
(/nssocks should not have vel- 
vet cuffs or collars, 32. 

Venice, a patriarchal See, 18. 

Vkbt, heraldic term for ffreen, 

Vestis talaris, Latin name of the 
cassock, 38. 

Viatioum received by Bishops, 61. 

VioAB Capitular and Vioab Gsn- 
KRAL, see Titular Protonot- 


Viounia's ruR for the cappa of 

Franciscan Prelates, 24, 78. 
Violet, 126. 
Voters of the Signature, 20, 70, 

Watch, should be put in a inside 

pocket, 40. 
Watebed silk, 32, 33. 
West Indies (Patriarch of the), 

White, color reserved for the 

Pope, 37. 

WiNTEB, 34. 

WiNTEB CLOAK, 57, 58. 

Woolen matebials, 33. 

"ZiMARRA," 47, 58. 

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