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Full text of "Cotton, pickers, cotton cards, drawing rolls, railway heads and drawing frames, combers, fly frames."

Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2010 with funding from 

NCSU Libraries 



http://www.archive.org/details/cottonpickerscotOOscra 



INTERNATIONAL 
LIBRARY OF TECHNOLOGY 



A SERIES OF TEXTBOOKS FOR PERSONS ENGAGED IN THE ENGINEERING 

PROFESSIONS AND TRADES OR FOR THOSE WHO DESIRE 

INFORMATION CONCERNING THEM. FULLY ILLUSTRATED 

AND CONTAINING NUMEROUS PRACTICAL 

EXAMPLES AND THEIR SOLUTIONS 



COTTOIN 

PICKERS 

COTTON CARDS 

DRAWING ROLLS 

RAILWAY HEADS AND DRAWING FRAMES 

COMBERS 

FLY FRAMES 



SCRANTON: 
INTERNATIONAL TEXTBOOK COMPANY 

TO 



Copyrigrht, 1906, by International Textbook Company. 



Entered at Stationers' Hall, London. 



Cotton: Copyright, 1901. by Christopher Parkinson Brook-S. Copyright, 1905. by 
International Textbook Company. Entered at Stationers' Hall, London. 

Pickers, Part 1: Copyright, 1898, 1899, by Christopher Parkinson Brooks. Copy- 
right, 1905, by International Textbook Company. Entered at Stationers' 
Hall, London. 

Pickers, Part 2: Copyright, 1899, by Christopher Parkinson Brooks. Copyright, 
190.5, by International Textbook Company. Entered at Stationers' Hall, 
London. 

Cotton Cards: Copyright, 1899, by Christopher Parkinson Brooks. Copyright, 
1905, by International Textbook Company. Entered at Stationers' Hall, 
London. 

Drawing Rolls: Copyright, 1899, by Christopher Parkinson Brooks- Copyright, 

1903, by International Textbook Company. Entered at Stationers' Hall, 

London. 
Railway Heads and Drawing Frames: Copyright, 1899. by Christopher Parkinson 

Brooks. Copyright, 1905, by International Textbook Company. Entered at 

Stationers' Hall, London. 
Combers: Copyright, 1899, by Christopher Parkinson Brooks. Copyright, 1905, 

by International Textbook Company. Entered at Stationers' Hall, London. 
Fly Frames: Copyright. 1899, by Christopher Parkinson Brooks. Copyright, 

1905, by International Textbook Company. Entered at Stationers' Hall, 

London. 



All rights reserved. 



PrintkI) in the United States. 



PREFACE. 



The International Library of Technology is the outgrowth 
of a large and increasing demand that has arisen for the 
Reference Libraries of the International Correspondence 
Schools on the part of those who are not students of the 
Schools. As the volumes composing this Library are all 
printed from the same plates used in printing the Reference 
Libraries above mentioned, a few words are necessary 
regarding the scope and purpose of the instruction imparted 
to the students of — and the class of students taught by — 
these Schools, in order to afford a clear understanding of 
their salient and unique features. 

The only requirement for admission to any of the courses 
offered by the International Correspondence Schools, is that 
the applicant shall be able to read the English language and 
to write it sufficiently well to make his written answers to 
the questions asked him intelligible. Each course is com- 
plete in itself, and no textbooks are required other than 
those prepared by the Schools for the particular course 
selected. The students themselves are from every class, 
trade, and profession and from every country; they are, 
almost without exception, busily engaged in some vocation, 
and can spare but little time for study, and that usually 
outside of their regular working hours. The information 
desired is such as can be immediately applied in practice, so 
that the student may be enabled to exchange his present 
vocation for a more congenial one, or to rise to a higher level 
in the one he now pursues. Furthermore, he wishes to 
obtain a good Avorking knowledge of the subjects treated in 
the shortest time and in the most direct manner possible. 

iii 



iv PREFACE 

In meeting these requirements, we have produced a set of 
books that in many respects, and particularly in the general 
plan followed, are absolutely unique. In the majority of 
subjects treated the knowledge of mathematics required is 
limited to the simplest principles of arithmetic and mensu- 
ration, and in no case is any greater knowledge of mathe- 
matics needed than the simplest elementary principles of 
algebra, geometry, and . trigonometry, with a thorough, 
practical acquaintance with the use of the logarithmic table. 
To effect this result, derivations of rules and formulas are 
omitted, but thorough and complete instructions are given 
regarding how, when, and under what circumstances any 
particular rule, formula, or process should be applied; and 
whenever possible one or more examples, such as would be 
likely to arise in actual practice — together with their solu- 
tions — are given to illustrate and explain its application. 

In preparing these textbooks, it has been our constant 
endeavor to view the matter from the student's standpoint, 
and to try and anticipate everything that Avould cause him 
trouble. The utmost pains have been taken to avoid and 
correct any and all ambiguous expressions — both those due 
to faulty rhetoric and those due to insufficiency of statement 
or explanation. As the best way to make a statement, 
explanation, or description clear is to give a picture or a 
diagram in connection with it, illustrations have been used 
almost without limit. The illustrations have in all cases 
been adapted to the requirements of the text, and projec- 
tions and sections or outline, partially shaded, or full-shaded 
perspectives have been used, according to which will best 
produce the desired results. Half-tones have been used 
rather sparingly, except in those cases where the general 
effect is desired rather than the actual details. 

It is obvious that books prepared along the lines men- 
tioned must not only be clear and concise beyond anything 
heretofore attempted, but they must also possess unequaled 
value for reference purposes. They not only give the maxi- 
mum of information in a minimum space, but this infor- 
mation is so ingeniously arranged and correlated, and the 



PREFACE V 

indexes are so full and complete, that it can at once be 
made available to the reader. The numerous examples and 
explanatory remarks, together with the absence of long 
demonstrations and abstruse mathematical calculations, are 
of great assistance in helping one to select the proper for- 
mula, method, or process and in teaching him how and 
when it should be used. 

Six of the volumes comprising this library are devoted to 
the subject of textile manufacturing. This volume, the first 
of the series, considers the cotton fiber and the processes 
through which cotton fibers have to pass before they can be 
spun into yarn. After describing the growth, characteristics, 
and the various classes of cotton, together with the action of 
the cotton gin, bale breakers, and pickers, consideration is 
given to the judging and mixing of cotton. Next, the 
important subject of cotton cards is taken up; a detailed 
description is given of card clothing and the action of the 
various parts of a cotton card. Several types of cotton cards 
are described, also the grinding and setting of these machines. 
Drawing rolls, which play such important parts in all these 
processes, are considered in detail, as regards both construc- 
tion and setting. Then come drawing frames with their 
various stop-motions, combers, and finally fly frames. Of 
the latter, English as well as American types are shown and 
detailed information presented as regards calculations for 
producing the required hanks and twists. 

The method of numbering the pages, cuts, articles, etc. is 
such that each subject or part, when the subject is divided 
into two or more parts, is complete in itself; hence., in order 
to make the index intelligible, it was necessary to give each 
subject or part a number. This number is placed at the top 
of each page, on the headline, opposite the page number; 
and to distinguish it from the page number it is preceded by 
the printer's section mark (§). Consequently, a reference 
such as § 16, page 26, will be readily found by looking along 
the inside edges of the headlines until § 16 is found, and 
then through § 16 until page 26 is found. 

International Textbook Company 



CONTENTS 



Cotton Section Page 

Cotton Cultivation 14 1 

Structure of the Cotton Fiber 14 5 

Cottons of the World 14 9 

Cotton Used in America 14 12 

Tables of Cotton Characteristics .... 14 16 

Ginning and Baling 14 16 

Marketing Cotton 14 27 

Selection and Classification 14 27 

Cotton Markets of the United States . . 14 32 

Exportation of Cotton 14 34 

Pickers 

Yarn-Preparation Processes 16 1 

Processes Employed for the Production of 

Cotton Yarn 16 2. 

Cotton Mixing 16 6 

Bale Breaker 16 10 

Picker Rooms 16 13 

Arrangement of Machines 16 14 

Feeding and Opening 16 17 

Cotton Pickers 17 1 

Construction and Operation of the Breaker 

Picker 17 5 

Intermediate and Finisher Picker .... 17 23 

Measuring Motion 17 32 

Adjustments 17 34 

Gearing 17 37 

Care of Pickers 17 39 

iii 



iv CONTENTS 

Cotton Cards Sectioji Page 

Card Construction 18 3 

The Revolving-Top Flat Card 18 3 

Gearing 18 33 

Speed Calculations '. . 18 39 

Former Methods of Card Construction . , 19 1 

Stationary-Top Flat Card 19 2 

Roller-and-Clearer Card 19 5 

Double Carding 19 8 

Card Clothing 19 9 

Teeth 19 11 

Method of Clothing Cards 19 22 

Care of Cards 19 29 

Stripping 19 32 

Grinding 19 36 

Setting 19 56 

Management of Room 19 70 

Drawing Rolls 

Common Rolls 20 1 

Top Rolls 20 4 

Covering Top Rolls 20 6 

Varnishing 20 13 

Metallic Rolls 20 15 

Setting and Weighting Rolls 20 18 

Rules Governing Setting 20 18 

Weight-Relieving Motions ....... 20 32 

Clearers and Traverse Motions 20 33 

Railway Heads and Drawing Frames 

Railway Heads 21 1 

Principal Parts of the Railway Head ... 21 3 

Drawing Frames 21 17 

Gearing 21 33 

Management of Drawing Frames .... 21 35 

Combers 

Combing Equipment 22 1 

Sliver-Lap Machines 22 3 



CONTENTS V 

Combers — Contimied Section Page 

Ribbon-Lap Machines 22 8 

Single-Nip Comber 22 13 

Combing Operation by the Half Lap . . 22 22 

Piecing-Up Motion 22 25 

Combing by the Top Comb 22 34 

Delivery of the Stock 22 37 

Gearing 22 41 

Variations in Construction 22 45 

Double-Nip Comber . . , 22 47 

Setting and Timing 23 1 

Setting 23 2 

Timing .'23 17 

.Management of the Comber Room ... 23 25 

Fly Frames 

General Construction of Fly Frames ... 24 1 

The Slubber 24 4 

Passage of the Stock 24 4 

Method of Inserting Twist 24 16 

Winding the Roving on the Bobbin ... 24 17 

Gearing 24 24 

Dimensions of Fly Frames 24 27 

Principal Motions of Fly Frames .... 25 1 

The Combs 25 13 

Builder Motions 25 14 

American Type of Builder 25 16 

English Type of Builder 25 20 

Methods of Driving Bobbin Shafts ... 25 22 

Stop-Motions 25 26 

Creel 25 28 

Management of Fly Frames 26 1 

Starting Fly Frames 26 9 

Care of Fly Frames 26 15 

Common Defects 26 21 

Sizing 26 23 



COTTON 



COTTON CULTIVATION 



INTRODUCTION 

1. Principal Species. — Cotton is a vegetable fiber — 
the fruit of a plant belonging to the order of the Malvaceae, 
to which belong the mallow, the hollyhock, and the okra. 
The cotton plant belongs to the genus Gossypiiini, and the 
number of species from a botanical point of view is variously 
stated as from four to eighty-eight, according to different 
botanists. The principal species of the cotton plant cultivated 
for commercial purposes are: Gossypiiim herbaceian, Gossypiiim 
arboreum, Gossypiuvi hirsutum, and Gossyphun Barbadense. 

The species known as Gossypiiim lierbaceuin grows 
from 2 to 6 feet high and is found native or exotic in 
Northern Africa and in Asia; it is also largely cultivated in 
the United States of America. 

The Gossypiiini arboreuni grows to the height of 15 or 
20 feet, whence it derives the name of tree cotton. The 
seeds are covered with a short green fiber. While the plant 
is found in Asia, it is most largely cultivated in Central and 
South America. 

The Gossypiiini liirsiitiini is a shrubby plant, its maxi- 
mum height being about 6 feet. The young pods are hairy; 
the seeds numerous, free, and covered with firmly adhering 
green down under the long white wool. 

The Gossypiuni Barbadense attains a height of from 
5 to 10 feet. The seeds of this plant are black and smooth 
and the fiber the longest known to commerce. The name is 

Far notice of copyright, see page immediately following the title page 
HI 



2 COTTON § 14 

derived from the fact that the plant is a native of the Barbados, 
or has been cultivated there for a long time. The sea-island 
cotton plant of the United States belongs to this species. 

Cotton fiber is known to commerce under the simple name of 
cotton in English-speaking countries, although by some people 
it is spoken of as cotton wool. Its German name is baum-wolle; 
in French, its name is coton; in Spanish, it is called algodoii. 

2. Growth aud Development. — In cultivating cotton 
in the United States, the time of planting the seed varies 
according to the latitude of the district in question, but 
occurs in April in the majority of districts. In some of the 
favored districts of Mississippi, Louisiana, and Texas, where 
the season is abnormally long, the seed is planted in the latter 
part of March. In the heart of the cotton belt, April 1 is 
accepted as a suitable date; in North and South Carolina and 
Tennessee it is considered unwise to plant before April 15; 
while in the extreme northern edge of the belt, as in Virginia, 
planting is deferred to the last days of April or early in May. 

Germination occurs rapidly after the sowing of the seed, 
the first appearance of the plant above the ground being 
from 4 to 14 days after sowing. From the germination 
period until the middle of the summer the stalk and foliage 
of the plant are developed until the plant attains its max- 
imum size; during this period hot, humid weather with fre- 
quent showers is favorable. From the middle of summer 
and onwards the bearing season of the plant occurs, when 
more heat and less moisture are desirable. 

Usually about 40 days after the plant shows above the 
ground there appears the first square, or bud. From the 
formation of this bud 24 to 30 days elapse before the appear- 
ance of the flower. The flower on the first day of the open- 
ing of the bud is yellowish white and has five petals. One 
peculiarity of the cotton plant is in the change of color of 
the flower. This, which on the first day is of a shade vary- 
ing from a dull white to a yellow, is found on the second day 
to be of a distinctly pink or reddish hue; the flower drops off 
on the succeeding, or third, day. 



§ 14 COTTON 3 

After the petals fall, there remains the small boll envel- 
oped in the calyx; this develops until it becomes about the 
shape and size of an egg, and finally bursts from 50 to 60 days 
after the appearance of the flower. 

When the boll bursts, it exposes from three to five cells 
divided by membranous walls; each cell contains seeds, 




Pig. 1 



which are attached by filaments to the membrane of the boll. 
The filaments ultimately disappear, leaving the seed loose 
in the cavity and covered with cotton. Each seed is entirely 
enveloped by the cotton fibers attached to it just as the 



COTTON 



§14 



human hair is attached to the head. The seeds vary in number 
from thirty-two to thirty-six in each pod, or boll. The view 
at a, Fig. 1, shows an empty pod, or capsule; b is the seed 
cotton out of one cavity of the pod just as it appears after it 

has been removed by 
the fingers of the cot- 
ton picker; c shows 
the individual seeds 
and fibers of which 
the mass b is com- 
posed. The next 
view, Fig. 2, is a 
reproduction of sec- 
tions of these seeds 
with the fibers radi- 
ating in all directions, 
each attached at one 
end to the seed. Bot- 
anists differ as to the 
exact cause of the 
bursting of the boll, 
but it is probably due to the increased space occupied by the 
fiber as it ripens and dries and the contraction and splitting 
of the pod from the same cause. 




Fig. 2 



3. The operations of cotton culture on land that has been 
previously cultivated, and on well-managed farms, may be 
summarized as follows, varying according to the latitude of 
the cotton field: Breaking up, burying vegetation, broadcast 
manuring, and harrowing, December and January; bedding 
up, February; fertilizing, March; sowing seeds, April; chop- 
ping out to a stand and throwing soil up to the root. May; 
(considerably more seeds are sown than plants required; 
the excess of plants are chopped out with hoes); cultivating 
by plow and hoe, or cultivator, latter part of May or in June; 
period of rest, part of July and part of August; picking, 
August, September, October, November, and if the season 
is an open one, December and even January. 



§14 



COTTON 



STRUCTURE OF THE COTTON FIBER 

4. The cotton fiber, which to the naked eye appears to be 
a fine, smooth, and solid filament, exhibits a somewhat com- 
plicated structure when examined under a microscope. A 
microscopic view of cotton fibers is shown in Fig. 3. Each 
fiber appears to be a collapsed tube with corded edges, twisted 
many times throughout its 
length and having the ap- 
pearance of an elongated 
corkscrew. This semi- 
spiral construction assists 
in the formation of a strong 
thread from such a com- 
paratively weak fiber as 
cotton. In the formation 
of a thread, the convolu- 
tions interlock with one 
another and help to resist 
any tension put on the 
yarn. These convolutions ^'°- ^ 

are less and less frequent as the fiber is less matured, and 
are almost altogether absent in the immature fiber, which 
has merely the appearance of a flattened ribbon when exam- 
ined under a microscope. The immature fiber is transparent 
and has a glossy appearance, so that when it exists in any 
quantity in a bale of cotton it can readily be detected with 
the naked eye. It has the feature of not taking dye so 
readily as ripened cotton. 

If examined under a more powerful microscope, the cotton 
fiber is found to consist of four distinct membranes, or layers 
of matter. Ignoring the removable foreign matter contained 
in raw cotton, such as sand and other mineral substances, 
leaf, pieces of boll, or stalk, and considering the fiber as 
being entirely cleared from this, it is found to be composed 
of cellulose, permeated by a small amount of mineral mat- 
ter, and that each fiber is surrounded by soluble substances 
present to the extent of from 1 to 2 per cent. The small 




6 COTTON § 14 

amount of mineral matter may be liberated by burning the 
fiber, the inorganic matter remaining as an ash retaining 
more or less the formation of the fiber and being about 
1 per cent, of the original weight. 

Cellulose is the largest constituent of the cotton fiber; in 
fact, it is the chief constituent of almost everything of veg- 
etable origin, but is found with its most characteristic 
features in such commercial fibers as cotton, ramie, flax, 
and so on. It is a carbohydrate, so called because it is 
composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen, the hydrogen 
and oxygen being present in the same proportion as in 
water. It is this cellulose that absorbs and retains moisture, 
the cellulose in the cotton fiber, when in an air-dry condition, 
containing about Ti per cent. 

The soluble substances present in the cotton fiber, princi- 
pally located on the outside, are waxy or oily substances 
permeated with other material and amounting in the aggre- 
gate to from I2 to 2 per cent, of the weight of raw cotton. 
The nature of these materials is, as yet, more or less 
obscure; the portion that is removable by scouring with a 
weak solution of soda ash is commonly spoken of as cotton 
wax, while others removable by prolonged boiling in dis- 
tilled water are given the name of zvaier extract. 

5. The amount of removable foreign matter in cotton 
varies greatly with the variety, and even in diliferent growths 
of the same variety. It is present to the extent of from 1 per 
cent, in carefully cultivated sea-island to 6 per cent, or more 
in coarse, negligently cultivated East Indian cotton. Assum- 
ing 2 per cent, as a fair average, the following data repre- 
sent the constituent parts of what is commercially known 
as raw cotton: Cellulose, 87 per cent.; waxy, or other easily 
soluble substances, 2 per cent.; ash, 1 per cent, (giving 
90 per cent, of fiber if absolutely dry); removable foreign 
matter, 2 per cent.; moisture, 8 per cent. Of course no two 
analyses give the same result and these figures only repre- 
sent what would be found in an average of American-grown 
cotton in an air-drv condition. 



§ i-k COTTON 7 

6. The property of containing and retaining moisture, 
even when in an air-dry condition, or hygroscopicity , is com- 
mon to most of the commercial textile fibers, although cotton 
possesses this property to a smaller extent than most other 
fibrous materials. There is a quantity of water always 
present in cotton that cannot be driven out by a moderate 
heat, and which, even after it has been expelled by excessive 
heat, is replaced by moisture from the atmosphere when the 
superheated cotton is allowed to stand in the open air. 
When in an air-dry state, under ordinary atmospheric con- 
ditions, cotton contains about 8 per cent, of moisture. 

The expression air d>y is used to describe the condition 
of cotton after it has been exposed to the atmosphere for 
such a length of time and under such conditions as will 
cause it to lose all excessive moisture or regain deficient 
moisture, so as to be in a normal condition. The expres- 
sion absolutely dry cotton means cotton that has been heated 
to such a high temperature and under such conditions that 
all the moisture has been expelled and the sample being 
tested will cease to lose weight. 

Moisture is necessary to the satisfactory manipulation of 
the fiber in spinning, and if for any reason a portion of this 
natural moisture is driven out, the spinning of the yarn 
is rendered more difficult until it is replaced. Frequently, 
from 1 to la" per cent, of excessive or artificial moisture 
is found in cotton beyond the amount named. The amount 
of moisture in raw cotton depends largely on the treatment 
of cotton after picking and before baling, on the age of the 
cotton, and where it has been stored. The largest amount 
of natural moisture in cotton is found immediately after it 
has been picked from the cotton plant, especially in the case 
of cotton picked early in the season. In some districts, 
especially in the sea islands, it is customary to spread the 
newly picked cotton in the sun, to ripen and dry it, before 
ginning; but in the main cotton belt no such care is taken, 
the result being that the cotton is ginned while moist, tend- 
ing to gin damage; but the planter ignores this in his anxiety 
to have it baled with as little loss of weight as possible. 



^ COTTON §14 

The determination of the amount of moisture present 
is commonh^ spoken of as conditioning. The accurate mean- 
ing of this expression is the testing- of raw stock, yarn, or 
fabrics as to what should be their true weight if the normal 
regain of moisture were added to their absolutely dry 
weight. From this expression, the name conditioning houses 
has been derived to indicate those establishments, very com- 
mon in Europe, where fibrous substances are tested as to their 
hygroscopic conditions. At all these, the standard of moisture 
in cotton is what is known as an '^\-per-cent. regain. This 
does not mean that every 100 pounds, or other units of weight 
of cotton, when in an air-dry condition contains 8i units of 
water; the meaning of the term is that if a sample of cotton 
has been subjected to sufficient heat to render it absolutely 
dry, each 100 parts by weight when exposed to ordinary 
atmospheric conditions will regain 8^ parts. Thus, in an 
absolutely dry condition, such a sample of cotton would contain 
7.834 per cent, of water, which is the relation of 82" to IO82. 

7. Measurements of the Cotton Fiber. — Cotton fibers 
even from the same seed vary considerably in length and 
in diameter, and only approximate measurements can be 
given. The diameter of a cotton fiber varies from .0004 to 
.001 inch, and the length of the fiber from \ inch to 2i inches. 
Doctor Bowman is the authority for stating that there are 
140,000,000 fibers in a pound. The general average measure- 
ments for cottons of the United States are given in the 
United States Government Tenth Census Reports as follows: 
Length, 1.10 inches (27.89 millimeters); diameter, .00091 inch 
(.023 millimeter); strength, 125.6 grains (8.14 grams). 

The strength of individual cotton fibers varies from 75 to 
300 grains, according to the kind of cotton, the distance 
between the points of suspension in making the test, and the 
portion of the fiber selected for the test. Usually the long- 
stapled, fine cottons break with the least strain, and the short 
coarse cottons stand the greatest strain. The ordinary 
American cottons have a breaking strain of from 120 to 
140 grains. 



§ 14 COTTON 9 

8. Testing Yarns and Fabrics Containing? Cotton. 

It is sometimes necessary to determine whether or not a 
fabric or a yarn is made of cotton, and while the experienced 
maniifacturer is usually able to detect this by the appearance 
of the fabric, there are several tests that can be applied. In 
the first place, a microscope is useful, as the appearance of 
the cotton fiber when highly magnified is different from that 
of silk, linen, or wool, the wool fiber being covered with 
overlapping scales, silk being smooth like a glass rod, 
and linen showing the vascular fiber bundles that make up 
the complete fiber. In addition to the microscopical test, 
another may be made b}^ burning a small portion of the yarn 
or fabric. Cotton will be found to burn with a flash, leaving 
a very light ash, while animal fibers, such as silk and wool, 
burn more slowly, emitting an offensive odor and leaving a 
curled bead, or globule, of carbonized matter. Chemical 
tests may also be made b}^ which the nature of the fiber may 
be determined without anv doubt. 



COTTONS OF THE WOKLD 

9. Quantity and Quality Produced. — While the cotton 
crop of the United States is the most important and most 
useful in the world — being of such importance, in fact, that 
the price of American cotton practically controls the price of 
other cottons — there are numerous cotton fields in various 
parts of the world where extensive crops are raised and the 
product used for purposes for which American cotton cannot 
be utilized. The most important cotton-growing countries, 
other than the United States, are India, Egypt, China, and 
Brazil. Fig. 4 shows the proportion of cotton raised in sev- 
eral countries to the world's crop in 1900-1901. 

Sea-island cotton of the United States represents the 
highest quality, and is spun into the finest yarn, being used 
very largely for thread, laces, and fine cambrics. Next in 
fineness of quality and length of staple is the brown Egyp- 
tian cotton, so called because of its brownish tinge, which 
is a distinctive feature of this fiber; this is very largely used 



10 COTTON §14 

tor fine cotton yarns and goods of all varieties. Among 
other long-staple cottons that are not important commercially 
are the Tahiti sea-island, the Peruvian, the white Egyptian, 
and Egyptian Gallini cottons. The next grade of cotton of 
any importance is known as Brazilian; it has a staple rather 
longer than the average American cotton, but is some- 
what rough in appearance and touch. The American cottons 
form the next class, as regards quality, varying from the 
fine Mississippi cottons. Peelers, and benders, to the short, 
clean uplands cotton. 



World's Crop 15,127,000 Bales of 500 Pounds 
United States of America 10,546,000 
India 1,981,000 
China and Corea 1,100,000 

Egypt 1,075,000 

■ 

South America 225,000 

■ 

Other Crops 200,000 

Fig. 4 

Next to the United States, China produces one of the 
largest crops of cotton, which is almost all consumed in 
that country. It is a beautiful white cotton, somewhat 
harsh to the touch, but, unfortunately for its commercial 
importance, is comparatively short-staple, being about the 
length of the shortest American uplands cotton. The East 
India crop is also large, but is regarded as being both the 
dirtiest and the shortest-staple cotton produced. 

10. Productive Regions. — Owing to the long seasons 
of considerable heat required in order to bring cotton to 



§14 



COTTON 



11 



maturity, this fiber can only be profitably cultivated in 
certain regions bordering north and south of the equator. 
This is usually described as being the regions bounded by 
the lines of latitude 45° north and 35° south of the equator, 
but no such arbitrary divisions can be made, as the isother- 
mal lines must be taken into account. For instance, a line 




Fig. 5 

drawn along 45° north latitude includes such districts as New 
England and portions of Canada, where it is impossible to 
grow cotton under natural conditions, while if the lines were 
drawn about 38° north latitude, Avhich is the northern limit of 
cotton-growing districts in the United States, it would exclude 
portions of Turkestan, Southern Italy. Greece, and other 



12 COTTON § 14 

districts where it is possible to cultivate the cotton plant 
with success. Thus, an isotherm must be followed along^ 
the lines of equal temperature in the northern hemisphere, 
and another isothermal line in the southern hemisphere. 
This practically embraces in North America all the southern 
portion of the United States, including all of Georgia, South 
Carolina, Alabama, Mississippi, Texas, Louisiana, and 
Arkansas, and parts of Virginia, North Carolina, Tennessee, 
Indian Territory, California, and Florida; Mexico and 
Central America; and in South America, Peru, the Argentine 
Republic, Brazil, Venezuela, and Guiana. In Europe, the 
islands of Malta, Sicily, southern portions of Spain and 
Italy, and parts of Greece and Turkey are included, while 
the Asiatic countries are Arabia, Persia, Turkestan, India, 
China, Japan, and some of the islands in the Malay Archi- 
pelago. In Africa, a very large region is suited to the 
cultivation of cotton, but at present it is cultivated only in 
Egypt, in some of the countries on the western coast, and to 
a small extent in South Africa. In Australasia, it can be 
cultivated in Queensland and the Fiji Islands. 

Fig. 5 shows the relative length of staples of the following 
leading growths: (a) American sea-island, (d) Peruvian, 
(c) Brazilian, (d) brown Egyptian, {e) American, (/) Indian, 
ig-) Chinese, {h) Japanese. 

Tables I, II, III, and IV show the relative importance, 
according to the quality, of cottons raised in various countries. 



COTTON USED IN AMERICA 



SEA-ISLAND COTTON 

11. Sea-island cotton is the name used commercially 
to indicate the United States sea-island cotton. This is 
grown on Edisto, St. Helena, Port Royal, James, and John 
islands off the coast of South Carolina, St. Simon and 
Cumberland islands oflf the coast of Georgia, and others. 
It is recognized as being the best cotton that is grown in any 



§14 COTTON 13 

part of the world. Very careful attention is given to its 
cultivation and ginning, quality being considered before 
quantity, and thus sea-island cotton has a long, fine, strong 
and silky fiber with comparatively regular convolutions, of 
a diameter from .0004 to .0006 inch, ranging in length from 
1 1 to 21 inches. The sea-island cotton crop is about 93,000 
bales per annum; Charleston, South Carolina, is the leading 
market for it. 

Sea-island cotton is largely used for thread and lace-making 
purposes, and is regularly spun into from 150s to 400s yarn, 
and occasionally, even for commercial purposes, as high 
as 600s. It is said that 2,150s yarn was spun from sea-island 
cotton at the exhibition of London in 1851. Where great 
strength is required for heavy goods, sea-island cotton is 
sometimes used, even for coarse yarns; as, for example, the 
linings of bicycle tires, sail cloth, and so on. 

The variety of so-called Florida sea-island cotton is grown 
on the mainland of Florida from sea-island seed; this is 
somewhat inferior to the sea-island proper, but is a very 
useful cotton for making yarns of a little better quality than 
those made from Egyptian cotton. It has a white, gloss3% 
strong fiber, a little coarser than the strictly sea-island, and 
is not quite so carefully cultivated. It is suitable for yarns 
from 150s to 200s. 

AMERICAN COTTON 

12. While the sea-island cottons just described are 
American, this name is seldom applied to them, but is used 
to indicate the typical cotton of the world, which is grown in 
the Southern States of the United States and used wher- 
ever cotton-spinning mills exist. The cotton described 
commercially as American is suited to medium numbers 
of yarn; is usually clean, fairly regular in length of staple, 
satisfactorily graded, and consequently is one of the most 
reliable and useful cottons for a manufacturer's use. The 
quantity is greater than that produced in all other parts 
of the world together, and consequently the price of 
American cotton in Liverpool, which is the greatest market 



14 COTTON § 14 

for it, greatly influences the price of cotton throughout the 
world. 

American cotton may be divided into three important 
classes; namely, gtdf cotton; upla7ids, or boweds; and Texas 
cotton. 

13. Gulf, or New Orleans, cotton usually consists 
of cotton raised in the basin of the Mississippi River, inclu- 
ding the states of Louisiana, Mississippi, parts of Arkansas, 
and Alabama. The name gulf cotton is generally used in 
America and originates from the fact that most of this cotton 
is shipped from states bordering on the Gulf of Mexico. In 
Europe, the name New Orleans is usually applied, and is 
derived from the shipping port of that name. Gulf cotton is 
from 1 inch to li inches in length of staple, from .0004 to 
.0007 inch in diameter, and is generally used for yarn from 
28s to 44s warp and from 50s to 70s filling or ply. This 
style of cotton may be subdivided into others, known as 
Memphis, benders, Allan-seed, Peelers, and so on. These 
names were originally intended to represent certain kinds of 
cotton, but have been very much misapplied of late years. 
The benders, or bottom-land, cotton is supposed to be grown 
at the bends of the Mississippi River, which are occasionally 
flooded and consequently well fertilized by the silt of the 
river. It is one of the better grades of gulf cotton, and 
is used for the higher numbers named above. The best 
qualities of gulf cotton are known as Allan-seed and Peelers. 
These are used for fine yarns, often for fine combed yarns, 
and by some spinners are preferred to Egyptian. The color 
is bluish-white rather than cream-colored, and somewhat 
resembles short Florida sea-island. 

14. Uplands cotton is grown in the undulating country 
between the ocean and the mountains in the states of 
Georgia, North and South Carolina, Virginia, and Alabama. 
It is generally used for filling yarns below 40s, although it 
may be spun higher if required. The length of the staple is 
from f to 1 inch and the fiber is from .0006 to .0007 inch in 
diameter. This cotton is usually very clean. 



§ 14 COTTON 15 

15. The cultivation of Texas cotton is largely on the 
increase, and for coarse warp yarn it is the most suitable 
cotton. In dry seasons, it is apt to be somewhat harsh and 
brittle and cannot be relied on as much as gulf or uplands 
cotton. The staple is usually from « to 1 inch in length 
(sometimes exceeding this), and from .0005 to .0007 inch in 
diameter. Up to 26s and 32s warp yarns and 32s and 40s 
filling yarns are often made from Texas cotton, although it 
is eminently useful for warp. Indian Territory and Okla- 
homa cottons are of the Texas style. 

Local circumstances often affect the use of cotton in the 
Southern States. A North Carolina mill may use an uplands 
cotton both for warp and filling, because of its being grown 
in the vicinity of the mill, although it is really a filling 
cotton; while a Mississippi mill may use local cotton for 
both warp and filling, although it is really too good for the 
latter, and so on. 

BROWN EGYPTIAN COTTON 

16. The cotton used in American mills is almost entirely 
grown in the United States, but in the fine-spinning districts 
a quantity of bro%vn Egyptian cotton is used, and in the 
woolen mills some long, rough-stapled cotton, such as rough 
Peruvian, is in demand. The brown Egyptian cotton is 
generally used for warp yarns from 50s upwards, and 
filling yarns from 60s upwards intended for use in fine- 
woven cotton goods. Some of this cotton is also used for 
hosiery yarns and for the manufacture of Balbriggan under- 
wear; in this case it is spun into lower numbers than those 
just mentioned. 

Almost all the Egyptian cotton used in the United States 
is combed. The features of brown Egyptian cotton are the 
length of staple and fineness of the fiber, it being very silky 
and delicate in structure. The Egyptian cotton now grown 
is almost entirely of the so-called brown Egyptian type, 
being of a very light brown color. 



16 COTTON § 14 



TABLES OF COTTON CHARACTERISTICS 

17. Four tables are printed herewith that have been 
gradually compiled during the last 20 years; they are the 
result of exhaustive observation and investigation. They 
give all the known cottons under their trade names and 
state where the cotton is grown, the length of the staple, 
the diameter in 10,000ths of an inch, the characteristics and 
appearance of the cotton, the numbers of yarn into which it 
is usually spun, and whether these yarns are for warp 
(twist), filling (weft), or ply yarns (doubling), with other 
information. 

These tables are intended to indicate the numbers of yarns 
usually spun for commercial purposes. For special yarns 
that must be strong or of a high grade, the cotton may be 
used for lower numbers; or for special or local reasons, it 
may possibly be spun into higher numbers, or into warp, 
filling, or ply yarn, where not so specified, but these 
are unusual cases, and are not considered in formulating 
the tables. 

The cottons are divided into four kinds: long-stapled, 
medium- to long-stapled, medium-stapled, and short-stapled. 



GINNING AND BALING 

18. Art. 3 gave a summary of the processes necessary 
for the cultivation of cotton, including cotton picking; but 
after it is picked, and before shipment to the mill, it must be 
ginned and baled. Seed cotton as it is picked contains about 
two-thirds of its weight in seeds; that is, out of 3 pounds of 
seed cotton, only about 1 pound is fiber. 



THE SA^V GIX 

19. The gin commonly used in America for removing the 
fiber from the seed, except in the case of sea-island cotton, 
is the one known as the saw gin. Its construction may be 
briefly described as a series of revolving circular saws with 



§14 



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COTTON 



19 





E 

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American seed 
Some very weak and high 
color 

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from (iuiana 

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20 



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COTTON 



23 



fine teeth, so placed that an arc of their circumference pro- 
jects through a grid into a receptacle containing the seed 
cotton. The lint is torn from the seed and carried through 
the grid by the saws, from which it is removed by a brush 
and carried to a condenser. 

Fig. 6 is a section through a gin, one of the saws being 
marked d. The seed-cotton receptacle, or seed box, is 
marked a; r is the saw cylinder on which the saws are fixed; 
e shows the grate through which the saws project, known as 




Fig. 6 

the breast, or grate fall. The chamber a is full of seed and 
seed cotton. The seed cotton is on the outside of a core of 
seed and is thus brought within the operation of the saws. 

The seed cotton, having been fed into the chamber a, 
passes around on the outside of the mass of seed. The 
teeth of the saws, projecting through the grid about 2 or 
4 inch, tear the fibers from the seeds nearest to them. The 
quick speed of the saws (about 350 revolutions per minute) 
sets up a rolling motion of the mass of seed, for which 



24 COTTON § 14 

reason the chamber a is sometimes called the roll box. New 
seed cotton is continually being brought under the action of 
the saws, being fed in at p, while the seed when freed 
from its fiber drops, at q, to the floor. The fibers are car- 
ried forwards by the revolution of the saws and are removed 
by a rotary brush. 

The circular brush, shown at /, Fig. 6, is an important 
part of the machine; it should be filled with heavy bristles 
and the framework and ribs should be strongly constructed 
and well bound together. The brush makes four or five 
times as many revolutions per minute as the saws, in the 
direction indicated by the arrow below it, Fig. 6, and the 
cotton is either blown into a lint room, on the old system, 
or, where a condenser is used, the fibers are drawn forwards 
by the air-current to the surface of wire-covered drums or 
screens; by passing between these screens they are delivered 
in the form of a sheet, being deposited on the floor in the 
case of gins that are not connected to a conveyer. 

The gins most frequently used have from sixty to eighty 
saws, which are either 10 or 12 inches in diameter. The 
highest speed that 12-inch saw cylinders should be driven 
for good work is 300 revolutions per minute, although they 
are frequently detrimentally run up to 400 revolutions per 
minute and above. A suitable production for a 60-saw gin 
is one bale of 500 pounds per hour. 



THE ROLLER GIN 

20. A type of gin used both for long- and short-stapled 
cotton in many parts of the world — as exemplified by its 
almost exclusive use in Egypt, where long-stapled cotton is 
grown, and in India, where the cotton is almost all short- 
stapled — is the roller gin. There is not much doubt that 
the roller gin separates the fiber from the seed with a very 
much easier action than the saw gin, but it has not been 
adopted in the United States to so large an extent as it 
should, being used principally in the sea-island districts, and 
even there only to a limited extent. The reason for this is 



§ 14 COTTON 25 

that the production of the machine is not so great as that 
of the saw gin. 

There are at least two distinct types of construction of 
roller gins in general use, but both of them depend on the 
same principle for the removal of the fiber from the seed, 
which is to draw the fiber between a rapidly revolving roll 
and a sharp knife edge resting against this roll, so that the 
fibers are cut ofT near the point of attachment to the seed. 
The usual method is to place the seed cotton on a table 
or hopper, from which it is gradually fed into a seed box 
and presented to a roll covered with heavy hide that 
has a roughened surface. A stout knife extends across the 
machine near the revolving roll, its edge being parallel 
with the shaft on which the roll is mounted. The fine 
fibers adhere to the leather covering of the roll, and are 
drawn between it and the knife until the seed is pulled 
against the edge, when the fibers are severed from it. The 
same seed is continually drawn against this knife edge by 
different fibers attached to its surface, until it is entirely 
stripped, when it falls down and another seed takes its place. 
The cotton is being constantly removed from the surface of 
the leather roll. 

In order to agitate the seeds and aid in the removal of 
the fibers as they pass between the knife and the roll, two 
methods are adopted, and this difference of construction 
characterizes the leading types of roller gins. 

21. In what is known as the knife-roller gin, a roll 
with Y-shaped or angularly set knives is rotated in front of the 
leather roll, and on account of the angle at which the knives 
are set, pushes the seeds from side to side and agitates them 
sufficiently to aid in stripping the fibers from them by 
presenting new surfaces of each to the stripping knife, until 
it is absolutely stripped of fiber. 

22. In another type of gin, known as the Macartliy 
gin, a vertical knife mounted on a connecting-rod attached 
to a crank is given a reciprocating motion, and thus effects 
the same object. In what is known as the double Macarthy 



26 COTTON §14 

gin there are two of these knives operated by a double crank 
below the machine. 

23. All roller gins require considerable care in opera- 
tion, especially with regard to maintaining a true surface on 
the leather rolls and an even pressure of the stripping knife 
on the roll at all points, as well as a proper adjustment 
of the blades of the knife roller in the knife-roller gin, or of 
the vertical knives in the Macarthy gin. The Macarthy gin 
has a production of about 350 pounds of ginned cotton 
in a day of 10 hours from the single gin, or 500 pounds 
in a day of 10 hours from the double gin, and absorbs 
from 1 to I2 horsepower. The knife-roller gin has a pro- 
duction of 800 to 1,000 pounds in a day of 10 hours, and 
requires 2a horsepower to drive it. 



BALING 

24. After ginning, the cotton is baled. This is done by 
enclosing it in a baling press with an outside wrapper of 
coarse burlap, in which it is pressed into comparatively 
small compass and held by iron ties. 

The bales as they come from the farms or the cotton gins 
are too large for economical shipment either by railroad or 
steamship. Consequently, at every inland city and seaport 
in each cotton state there are compresses. These are power- 
ful steam baling presses, in which the cotton bale can be 
reduced to smaller dimensions. 

Previous to compressing, the exporters affix a tag to each 
bale by which to identify it, and take from each bale a sam- 
ple, which is numbered the same as the tag. The samples 
are then graded and assorted into lots of low middling, mid- 
dling, good middling, and so on, as will be explained, and 
then shipped (usually in lots of 100 bales) either to Northern 
mills or to Europe. 



§ 14 COTTON 27 



MARKETING COTTON 



SELECTION AND CLASSIFICATION 

25. The selection of cotton from samples, or the judging 
of cotton, is a matter of considerable importance. In order 
to become thoroughly proficient, a long- period of practice is 
required to produce the trained eye and hand necessary to 
distinguish the gradations and differences in quality that add 
to, or detract from, the market value of the fiber. This is 
not of so much importance in the Southern markets, where 
the bales are usually on hand to be referred to in case of 
dispute, but in the Northern states, and in any country where 
cotton is largely purchased from samples, it is of the utmost 
importance. 

26. Samples. — Cotton is seldom, if ever, purchased 
from the examination of the bale, but from parcels containing 
small pieces of cotton from each bale, technically known as 
papers of samples. It is customary in well-managed mills 
to take samples of each new lot of cotton that arrives at the 
mill, sometimes a sample from every bale, and at other mills 
only from a certain number of bales out of each hundred. 
The samples are then compared with the buying samples to 
see if the cotton is equal to the quality purchased. 

27. Points to Be Considei*ecl in Judffins Cotton. 

In judging cotton from a sample, or in selecting cotton from 
a sample with a view to purchasing it, the first thing to do is 
to investigate the authenticity of the sample. The points 
then determined are: (1) the grade of the sample, (2) the 
staple, (3) the color, (-4) the amount of sand, (5) the amount 
of dampness, (6) whether the cotton is even running or not. 
These points are arranged in order of their usual importance. 
This is not necessarily accurate enough for some purposes; 



28 COTTON § 14 

for instance, in cotton to be used for filling yarns, the color 
is more important than in cotton for warp j^arns. As the 
warp yarn has to be sized, the appearance of a good-colored 
cotton is somewhat spoiled, while on the other hand defects 
of a dull-colored cotton are hidden. In either case, the 
length of staple may be the most important point to con- 
sider where it is desired to produce a strong yarn without 
regard to its appearance. 

28. Grade. — American cotton is usually graded accord- 
ing to a standard agreed on in all the leading cotton markets 
of the world, the highest grade being {air, followed by six 
other grades, the lowest being ordinary; cotton of lower 
grade is called inferior. The seven full grades of American 
cotton are fair, middli^ig fair, good middling, middling, low 
middling, good ordinary, and ordifiary. 

This gradation is not sufficiently fine for the cotton 
merchant, and consequently each grade is subdivided into 
what are known as half grades and quarter grades. By this 
means a list is made up giving twenty-six different grades of 
cotton. This list is as follows: 

Fair, barely fair, strict middling fair, fully mid- 
dling fair. 
Middling fair, barely middling fair, strict good 

middling, fully good middling. 
Good middling, barely good middling, strict 

middling, fully middling. 
Middling, barely middling, strict low middling, 

fully low middling. 
IjO'w middling, barely low middling, strict 

good ordinary, fully good ordinary. 
Good ordinary, barely good ordinary, strict 

ordinary. 
Ordinary, low ordinary, inferior. 
Those terms having the word strict are the half grades, 
while those having the words barely and hilly are the quarter 
grades. The full grades are printed in bold-face type. 

Grade really means the appearance of the cotton as 



§ 14 COTTON 29 

regards cleanliness, and the above system of grading 
depends on the appearance of the cotton as to its freedom 
from leaf and other impurities. Some graders take into 
consideration what is known as bloom, or brighiness, of the 
cotton, which adds to the grade; also, discoloration, known 
as off color, or tinges, which detracts from the grade. 

29. Staple. — After determining the grade, the next 
thing to do is to find the staple. The word staple usually 
means the average length of the bulk of the fibers forming 
the bale assessed, and is found by taking a small portion of 
cotton in the way hereafter described, preparing a tuft of 
fibers from which the very short fibers have been removed, 
and then measuring the average length of fibers remaining. 
Cotton is spoken of by the length of staple; thus, 1-inch 
cotton, li-inch cotton, and so on. There is something more 
that is usually implied by the word staple — strength of the 
fiber. This is determined by holding one end of the tuft 
between the first finger and thumb of each hand and break- 
ing it. The word staple may therefore be taken to mean the 
average length of the fibers forming the bale, and may also 
be understood to include the strength of the fibers; thus, the 
expressions lengtJi of staple and strength of staple are obtained. 

An expert cotton sampler or buyer will often judge cotton 
by simply taking a tuft and giving it one pull, judging it by 
the amount of drag or cling that must be overcome in pulling 
it apart. He thus tests both the length and strength of the 
staple at the same time. This skilfulness comes only with 
experience, but is the most rapid method of judging cotton. 

30. Sand and Dirt. — After the staple has been deter- 
mined, it is necessary to discover the amount of sand and 
dirt in the cotton. This is often done by raising the cotton 
from the paper that holds it and noticing the amount of sand 
remaining on the paper, this sand having fallen out by the 
repeated handling of the cotton. It is, perhaps, better 
to hold the handful of cotton as high as one's head and 
shake it so that the sand, if there is any, can be seen to fall 
from it. 



30 COTTON § 14 

31. Dampness. — Another test is that for dampness. 
This can only be detected in the sample paper if the samples 
are newly drawn, in which case it can be felt by the hand. 
If the samples have been in stock for some time, the water 
originally contained in them will have evaporated and cannot 
be ascertained unless it has previously been so great as to 
cause a slight formation of mildew on the cotton, in which 
case it is indicated by the smell. 

32. The rich, bright, creamy appearance that cotton has, 
especially in the early part of the year, is called the blooin. 
This bloom is only found on certain growths of cotton and 
adds somewhat to its value, especially where it is to be used 
for making weft, or filling, yarn, or where the goods into 
which it is to be made are to be sold in their unbleached 
or undyed state, technically known in Europe as hi the gray ^ 
and in some parts of America as brotv7i goods. 

Tinges, high color, or off color, should be looked for. These 
are caused where the cotton has become tinged while on the 
plant, through rain stains, or by having fallen on the ground 
and become mixed with some of the red clay of the cotton field. 
These bales should be avoided, and in case of purchasing from 
a sample containing indications of having come from tinged 
bales, an agreement for a reduction in price on the bales 
ought to be arranged, or a condition made that these bales be 
thrown out before shipment of the quantity purchased. 

33. The last point, and one that is important, is to see 
that all bales are somewhat alike. Usually a sample paper 
is made up of a handful of cotton from each of the lot of 
bales; by testing first one sample and then another it is dis- 
covered whether the lot of cotton is even running. Occa- 
sionally, however, if not graded properly by the cotton factor, 
a lot of cotton is found to be mixed; some bales may be higher 
grade than others, some may be longer-stapled than others, 
and even in the same bale an abnormal variation in length and 
strength of staple may be found. Cotton of this kind should 
be avoided altogether, as it is almost impossible to make satis- 
factory yarn out of cotton mixed in this manner. 



§ 14 COTTON 31 

34. As has been stated, constant practice is necessary to 
become a good judge of cotton. Even experienced cotton 
graders and cotton buyers improve year by year in their 
judgment of the fiber, until some of them, by a quick glance 
or the slightest touch, can determine at once whether the 
cotton is suitable for their purposes or not. It is not an 
unusual thing for a cotton buyer in a market like Liverpool 
to become so expert as to be able to examine in a single 
day type samples representing tens of thousands of bales. 

Usually the grade is mentally determined; then a small 
handful of cotton is grasped by both hands, having the 
thumbs uppermost, and pulled apart. One-half is thrown 
away, and the ends of the fibers that project from the other 
piece are grasped between the thumb and the first finger of 
the right hand, and the left hand is employed in removing 
short fibers, or hid, from the tuft. The tuft of cotton, now 
much lessened in size, is grasped by holding the other ends 
of the fibers in the left hand, while the right hand removes 
more short fibers, or fud. By these few quick movements 
an experienced cotton sampler has arrived at a small tuft of 
fibers laid parallel, which can first be measured, usually with 
the eye only, and afterwards grasped firmly between the first 
finger and the thumb of each hand, the thumbs being upper- 
most, and broken by a short, strong pull. By always taking 
the same amount of cotton in the hand at once, and redu- 
cing it to the same-sized tuft, the cotton sampler fixes a 
standard of length and strength for himself, by which he can 
assess the value of almost any kind of cotton. 

An accurate judgment of the length of staple can only be 
acquired by experience and practice, and a uniform method 
should be cultivated. By removing all short fibers and 
retaining only the longest ones for measurement, too long 
a measurement is obtained. This is often done by those 
interested in the sale of the cotton. By throwing out the long 
fibers and measuring the shortest ones, the length obtained 
does not fairly represent the staple of the cotton. A cotton 
sampler who wishes to give an impartial judgment will throw 
out all the shortest fibers, or the fud and the waste, and also 



32 COTTON § 14 

the longest fibers, which are evidently unrepresentative of the 
bulk of the cotton, leaving a bunch of fibers fairly even in 
length and typical of the majority of the fibers in the bale. 
These fibers are then measured. 

35. After the grade and staple have been determined in 
the manner just named, a test is made for sand and for 
uneven running; the appearance as to bloom, color, and 
evidences of gin damage is then noticed, completing the 
test of the cotton, by which time a cotton expert should 
have made a mental estimate of its value. 

In regard to gin damage, it should be stated that this often 
occurs when cotton is ginned on the saw gin while damp; it 
is also caused if the gin is operated at too high a speed. 
Cotton in this condition can be recognized by being curled 
and stringy, with the fiber broken or cut. 

Another point to be noted in this connection is that local 
circumstances often affect the judgment on a lot of cotton; 
for instance, a good north light is the best in which to judge 
cotton, as this light is more regular than any other. Cotton 
should not be purchased from a sample wrapped in paper 
with a blue lining, unless it is removed for examination, as 
this causes the cotton to appear better than it really is. 



COTTON MARKETS OF THE UNITED STATES 

36. The largest crop in any of the states is raised in 
Texas, and this makes Houston one of the most important 
interior markets of the United States. In the season of 
1899-1900, 550,000 bales of cotton were sold in this market, 
which amount was excelled only by the gulf port New 
Orleans, where 1,002,000 bales were sold in the same season. 
Memphis, on the Mississippi River, is a market of importance 
and is a great center for long-stapled cotton. In the season 
referred to, 477,000 bales were handled at Memphis and 
267,000 at Augusta, Georgia. 

Among other important cotton markets are Savannah, 
Georgia; Charleston, South Carolina; Mobile, Alabama; 
St. Louis, Missouri; Shreveport, Louisiana; Vicksburg 



§ 14 COTTON 33 

and Columbus, Mississippi; Macon, Columbus, and Rome, 
Georgia; Selma, Montgomery, and Eufaula, Alabama; and 
Nashville, Tennessee. 

MILL. PURCHASES OF COTTON 

37. The cities of Boston, Providence, New Bedford, and 
Fall River are important markets for cotton, as many of the 
Southern factors have agents or branch offices at these points. 
In the fall, the salesmen of these houses, together with spe- 
cial agents who are sent from the cotton belt, are very busy 
in ofifering cotton to the manufacturers, who buy large quan- 
tities from October until March. The treasurers of the mills 
are usually the cotton buyers, and they select cotton from 
the samples that have been sent from the cotton factor,- show- 
ing the style of cotton that he is offering. Practically the 
whole of the cotton required for a year is purchased in the 
period named above, and very frequently it is shipped North 
immediately after the sale takes place. Arrangements are 
occasionally made for the shipment of so many bales per 
month. 

Money can be borrowed at very much lower rates of 
interest in New England than in the South, and consequently 
it is much cheaper to carry or hold cotton in the North, as in 
most cases the parties hold it on behalf of the banks that 
have loaned money to enable them to carry it. For this 
reason most of the large cotton-manufacturing establish- 
ments of New England have very large storehouses con- 
nected with their mill buildings, and the winter is usually 
a very busy time in receiving this cotton, and weighing, 
sampling, and storing it for future use 

The terms on which Northern manufacturers buy cotton are 
very simple. Usually the cotton is sold on cash terms, with 
no discount being allowed and no allowance being made for 
bags or ties, the gross weight being invoiced. The cotton 
is usually purchased delivered in Boston or an equivalen. 
point, a freight rate allowance being made by the shipper 
equal to the amount that the manufacturer pays for the 
freight on arrival of the cotton. It will be seen that the 



34 COTTON § 14 

above system requires that a very large stock of cotton be 
kept at the mills for a considerable portion of the year. 

While the above system is a general one, there are 
special cases in which the cotton is purchased as needed; 
in these cases it is not unusual for manufacturers to send 
mail orders to reliable Southern houses that know what grade 
of cotton they are accustomed to use, specifying the length 
of staple, grade, and style of cotton, and leaving it to the 
Southern merchant to ship the quality of cotton desired. In 
cases of this kind, cotton is said to be bought on descrip- 
tion; that is to say, the mill will purchase cotton, simply 
stating that it is to be of a certain grade and certain length 
of staple; for instance, 100 or 1,000 bales good middling 
li inches. 

EXPORTATION OF COTTON 

38. The exports of cotton and its products from the 
United States in the fiscal year ending 1901 exceeded the 
export value of any other class of exports, averaging 
$1,000,000 per day throughout the year. The actual figures 
are as follows: 

Cotton, raw $313,673,443 

Cotton manufactures . . 2 0,2 7 2,4 1 8 

Cottonseed oil 1 6,5 4 1,3 2 1 

Cottonseed meal 1 3,1 1 9,9 6 8 

Cotton waste 1,4 3 1,6 4 

Cottonseed 3 6 6,9 5 3 

Total , . . . $3 6 5,4 5,7 7 



PICKERS 

(PART 1) 



YARN-PREPARATION PROCESSES 



INTRODUCTION 

1. Condition of Stock. — The condition in which the 
raw cotton reaches the cotton mill is that of a compressed 
bale. In a few sections in the United States and in some 
foreign countries where cotton mills are located in close 
proximity to the cotton fields, the cotton is delivered to the 
mill in a loosely packed bale that has not been compressed, 
and in some cases even as loose cotton taken from the cotton 
gin to the mill without baling. Instances of this kind are 
very rare, however, compared with the general method of 
delivering cotton in the form of a compressed bale, which 
is the condition that will be accepted as a standard. A com- 
pressed bale of cotton is a matted mass of innumerable 
fibers lying in all directions, with which are intermixed 
sand, broken leaf, sticks, broken seed, and other foreign 
matter. The fibers themselves, although approximately of 
the same quality, are not, even in the same bale, exactly of 
the same length, nor are they all ripened to the same point 
of maturity, while some of them may have been cut by the 
action of the gin, or rolled into iieps; that is, into small 
bunches of closely matted and tangled fibers that have the 
appearance of specks in the cotton and, while varying in size, 
are generally very minute, rarely being larger than an ordi- 
nary pin head. 

For notice of copyright, see page immediately following the title page 
I 16 



2 PICKERS §16 

2. Object of Cotton -Yarn Mills. — From this mate- 
rial, it is the object of the cotton-yarn mill to produce a 
clean, smooth, even thread from which all foreign matter 
has been removed, and which consists only of the perfect, 
or approximately perfect, fibers, the neps and excessively 
short fiber having been thrown out. In order to produce 
a comparatively strong thread, the fibers not only must 
be cleaned, but must be arranged approximately parallel 
to each other and assembled by a system in which a loose 
strand or ribbon of fibers is produced, which is gradually 
attenuated until it arrives at the correct fineness, when it 
is twisted to give it strength, and in that condition is spoken 
of in the cotton manufacturing business as yarn. This, 
then, in general, is the object of the cotton-yarn mill — to 
produce from the bale of raw cotton as large a percentage 
as possible of cotton yarn, which should be smooth, clean, 
even, and strong. 

One pound of cotton must be spun into yarn of which 
there is seldom less than 1 mile to a pound, usually 10 miles 
or even a greater length than this; and in some cases, for 
special purposes, there may be 100 miles or more. The 
problem is not only a mechanical one, but one involving 
a constant study of economy and also aiming at an excel- 
lence of production as far as is consistent with the proper 
economical operation of the yarn mill. 



PROCESSES EMPIjOYED FOR PRODUCTION 
OF COTTON YARN 

3. In order to produce cotton yarn, the fiber is passed 
through a number of processes, varying from ten in a mill 
manufacturing coarse yarns to fifteen in one making fine 
yarns. These processes may be divided into three classes, 
as follows: (1) mixing; (2) cleaning; (3) parallelizing and 
attenuating. In this classification, those processes that 
follow the spinning are of course ignored, although in a 
mill making yarn for sale, a fourth class might be made of 
processes for preparing the yarn for the market. 



§16 PICKERS 3 

4. Yarn is spoken of as being coarse, medium, or fine, 
according to the thickness of the thread, and this in turn is 
determined by the number of hanks to the pound. A hank 
of cotton yarn contains 840 yards, and the size of the yarn is 
indicated by the number of these hanks required to weigh 
1 pound; thus, 10s yarn would contain 10 hanks, or 10 X 840 
yards, making 8,400 yards, in a pound; 40s yarn would con- 
tain 40 hanks, or 33,600 yards, in a pound. The higher the 
numbers, that is, the greater the number of hanks in a 
pound, the finer is the yarn. 

No arbitrary rule can be given for determining which is 
coarse yarn, which is medium, or which is fine, as a manu- 
facturer accustomed to making only coarse yarn might 
consider 30s fine, while another manufacturer engaged princi- 
pally in the use of fine yarns would consider 30s coarse. A 
general classification would be to consider yarns below 30s 
as coarse; from 30s to 60s as medium numbers; and above 
60s as fine yarns. The expression lozv munbcrs is sometimes 
applied to coarse yarns, and high njir,diers, to fine yarns. 
The number of a given yarn is commonly spoken of 
as its counts; thus, it is said that the counts of yarns 
are 10s, 12s, 36s, etc. 

5. The processes adopted in different mills vary accord- 
ing to whether the mills are intended for coarse, medium, 
or fine yarns. A mill making medium yarns, for instance about 
32s, would in most cases use the following machines: auto- 
matic feeder, opener, breaker picker, intermediate picker, 
finisher picker, card, first drawing, second drawing, third 
drawing, slubber, intermediate, roving frame, spinning frame. 
In cases where the railway head is used, it comes between 
the card and the first drawing; in this case the third draw- 
ing is omitted. Where the bale breaker, or cotton puller, is 
used, it takes a position before the automatic feeder. Where 
the mule is used, it takes the place of the spinning frame. 

For coarser numbers, the above list is changed by omitting 
one or more of the parallelizing and attenuating processes, 
and sometimes adding a cleaning process. In changing the 



4 PICKERS § 16 

list to suit finer yarns, the reverse is the case; one clean- 
ing process, or more, is omitted and attenuating processes 
are added, but for very fine yarns, a cleaning process, 
namely, combing, is added. 

Below will be found combinations of machinery suitable 
for mills making various numbers. 

6. The machinery for yarn mills making 10s and below 
is as follows: automatic feeder, opener, breaker picker, 
intermediate picker, finisher picker, card, first drawing, 
second drawing, slubber, roving frame, spinning frame. The 
railway head may be used instead of the first drawing process. 

The machinery used in yarn mills making about 100s is as 
follows: automatic feeder, opener, breaker picker, finisher 
picker, card, sliver-lap machine, ribbon-lap machine, comber, 
first drawing, second drawing, third drawing, fourth drawing 
(optional), slubber, first intermediate, second intermediate, 
roving frame, mule. Sometimes a drawing process is used 
between the card and the sliver-lap machine. Where four 
processes of drawing are used, the roving frame is not 
necessary, and where four processes of fly frames (slubber, 
first intermediate, second intermediate, and roving frame) 
are used, it is not always necessary to have more than three 
processes of drawing. 

The machinery used in yarn mills for making 200s is as 
follows: automatic feeder, opener, breaker picker, card, 
sliver-lap machine, ribbon-lap machine, comber, first draw- 
ing, second drawing, third drawing, fourth drawing, slubber, 
first intermediate, second intermediate, roving frame, mule. 

The names given to the fly frames vary in different sec- 
tions, and in some places they are known as slubber, inter- 
mediate, roving frame, and jack frame. 

7. What are known as do2ible-cnrdiiis; processes were for- 
merly very often employed, but are now going out of use 
both for coarse and fine yarns. Any of the preceding com- 
binations can be converted into double-carding combinations 
by adding after the card the names of derby doubler and 
finisher card. 



§ 16 PICKERS 5 

8. It is advisable to carefully study the combinations 
just given, noticing the difference between one combination 
and another, and becoming thoroughly familiar with the 
order in which the machines are mentioned, so that a 
knowledge of the accurate sequence of processes may be 
obtained. While the foregoing combinations of machinery 
are reliable and may be considered as the standards for the 
class of w^ork to which they refer, it occasionally happens 
that mills are found using different layouts. This may be 
because the mill is intended to make a lower or a higher 
grade of yarn than is customary for the numbers referred 
to, or because it is a mill that has been changed over from 
other numbers and the old machinery has been retained; or 
there may be many other reasons. 

Different opinions are held among millmen and mill engi- 
neers as to the proper equipment for mills. In this connec- 
tion, as \vell as in regard to all other statements concerning 
cotton-mill machinery — especially as to its construction and 
operation — it may be said that there is perhaps no industry in 
which so much variety of opinion will be found regarding the 
best methods of arriving at certain objects as in the cotton- 
mill business. Not only do differences of opinion arise 
among manufacturers, but a machine builder frequently looks 
at a problem from a point of view differing from that of a 
manufacturer. He looks on a machine or a process as a 
mechanical problem to be solved, while a manufacturer looks 
at it as a problem to obtain certain results effectively and 
economically. Again, American practice differs considerably 
in some respects from European methods. For these reasons 
it is almost impossible to give definite statements of the cus- 
tomary use and practice accepted by all millmen, and there- 
fore the statements made are in every case, as far as possible, 
either what has been found from experience to be correct, 
or what the majority of manufacturers would accept as being 
accurate, according to American practice. 

9. A thorough comprehension of the principles of cotton- 
yarn preparation can best be obtained by a careful study of 



6 PICKERS §16 

each machine or process in its proper sequence, including 
the objects of the machine, the principle on which it is con- 
structed, and the mechanism employed to arrive at its 
objects; and by considering the operation and management 
of the machine not only theoretically, but from actual obser- 
vation. In doing this, the desired knowledge will be obtained 
sooner if the combined objects of all cotton-yarn-preparation 
machines are borne in mind: (1) the separation of the 
matted mass of fiber into loose flakes and the removal of 
the heavier and more bulky impurities, which objects are 
principally attained in the opening and picking processes; 
(2) the further cleansing of the stock from light and minute 
particles of foreign matter by such means as are adopted 
in the carding and combing processes; (3) the parallelizing, 
evening, and attenuation of the fibers, as performed in the 
carding and drawing processes, in the fly frames, and in 
the spinning process; (4) the strengthening of the product 
by twisting, as exemplified in ring or mule spinning. 



COTTON MIXING 

10. Receipt of Cotton at the Mill. — If cotton is 
received at the mill in large quantities, as is usually the 
case, it must necessarily be stored until it is required for 
use. Before storing, however, it should be carefully ascer- 
tained whether the quality of the cotton in each bale is equal 
to the quality of the sample from which it was bought. 
After this has been accomplished, all the bales of one kind, 
grade, and staple (approximately) should be placed together 
in the storehouse, irrespective of their original marks. 

11. Objects. — When a new lot of cotton is to be used, 
as many bales as it is desired to mix at one time are taken 
from the storehouse to the mixing: room, where the cotton 
is mixed. The objects of mixing the cotton from a number 
of bales are: (1) to allow the cotton to assume its normal 
condition; (2) to establish an average quality of grade in 
the lot. As regards the first object it should be understood 
that cotton when compressed is subjected to great pressure — 



§16 PICKERS 7 

so much so that the space occupied by seventy uncom- 
pressed bales is often equal to that occupied by one hundred 
that are compressed. Cotton, when in this compressed state, 
cannot be worked so advantageously as when in its normal 
condition, and for this reason should be allowed to stand 
for some time after being opened before it is used. 

As regards the second object of mixing, it may be stated 
that, theoretically, to make a perfect product, all the fibers 
should be of the same length, diameter, strength, cleanli- 
ness, and color; in other words, they should be equally 
matured and grown under the same conditions. 

It is impossible, however, to obtain a large quantity of cot- 
ton that will not vary in quality, because the lot is made up of 
cotton collected from various plantations, which are probably 
some distance from each other and subject to different cli- 
matic conditions, different methods of cultivation, different 
seed and soil. The result is that the cotton from the planta- 
tion where the conditions were most favorable is in a higher 
state of maturity than that raised on the other plantations. 
Even in bales from the same plantation a variation is found. 
An experienced cotton sampler can find points of difference — 
slight in many cases, but still variations — in almost every 
bale of each lot of cotton. In order to neutralize this varia- 
tion as much as possible and insure a continuance of a supply 
of even-running stock over as long a period as possible in the 
mill, mixing the bales is resorted to. 

12. Size of tlie Mixinj?. — The quantity of cotton used 
in a mixing should be as large as possible; for the larger the 
mixing, the easier it is to keep the work regular for a consider- 
able length of time. The reason for this is that no two mix- 
ings are alike, this being due not only to the variation found 
in different bales of the same kind, but also to atmospheric 
changes that affect the cotton, especially in regard to mois- 
ture. In addition to securing regularity, another reason for 
having large mixings is to give cotton from compressed bales 
an opportunity to expand. By making a large mixing and 
allowing it to stand for some days in a room, the temperature 



8 PICKERS §16 

and humidity of which are about the same as those of the room 
in which the cotton is to be worked, it will be found that the 
stock will run much more evenly, make less waste, and pro- 
duce a stronger yarn than when used directly from the bale. 

13. Metliod of Mixing. — Mixings when made by hand 
should occupy a considerable amount of floor space. The 
first bale should be spread over all this space, the second 
bale spread to cover the first, the third to cover the second, 
and so on. By this means the mixing is built up of layers 
from each bale of cotton. When a mixing is used, the cotton 
should be pulled away in small sections from the top to the 
bottom of the mixing so as to obtain portions of each bale. 

It is a good plan when using bales of different marks, 
to average the mixing so that no two bales of the same 
mark shall come in contact with each other. The following 
rule is used to find the number of sections that should be 
made in order to obtain the correct proportion of each mark 
in a section. 

14, Rule. — To find the mimber of sections of which a mixirig 
should consist, find the largest -number that zvill exactly divide the 
miniber of bales of each mark. Thoi, to find the number of bales 
of each mark that there should be in each section, divide the num- 
ber of bales of each mark by the member of sections in the mixing. 

Example. — Find a suitable order for mixing 100 bales, the mixing to 
consist of 40 bales marked ABC; 20, G H I; 10, J K L; and 30, D E F. 

Solution. — 10 is the largest number that will exactly divide 
40, 20, 10, and 30; therefore, the mixing should be made up of 10 
sections, and in order to prevent any two bales of the same mark 
coming in contact with each other, they could be arranged as follows: 



• 10 times. Ans. 



GH I 


DEF 


A BC 


J KL 


DE F 


A BC 


GH I 


A BC 


DEF 


A BC 



§16 PICKERS 9 

15. It is the practice in some mills to go over the covers 
of the bales after the cotton has been removed and pick off 
the loose pieces of cotton adhering to them. This is a prac- 
tice that should only be encouraged to a small degree, as the 
amount of cotton obtained is hardly suflficient to pay for the 
time occupied in its removal, and there is also a liability of 
jute fibers from the burlap becoming mixed with the cotton 
and causing poor work in the subsequent processes. 

16. Mixing Different Varieties of Cotton. — The sub- 
ject as it has been treated refers only to mixings where the 
cotton of different marks is all approximately of the same 
grade. Where it is desired to blend cotton of different vari- 
eties for special purposes, it is not necessary that it should 
be done in the mixing. For example, where it is desired to 
mix exact proportions of different varieties, as American with 
Egyptian, or where dyed stock of one color, or more, is to 
be blended with white, the cotton may be blended to better 
advantage at some of the subsequent processes. 

Different growths of cotton are sometimes mixed together 
for special purposes. Thus, American cotton is mixed with 
Egyptian in order to cheapen the mixture, Egyptian cotton 
usually being higher priced than American. By this means 
a yarn is produced that practically has the qualities of a pure 
Egyptian yarn; and yet the cost is less than that of pure 
Egyptian. Brazilian cotton is sometimes mixed with Amer- 
ican in order to increase the strength of the yarn, as Brazilian 
has a strong, wiry staple; while rough Peruvian cotton is 
mi^ed with Egyptian in order to give the latter woolly 
qualities, the Peruvian being of a harsh, crisp nature. 

Although cotton is often mixed in this way, it must be 
understood that there is a certain limit to the mixing of harsh 
and soft cottons, as they do not give the same results under the 
same treatment in the subsequent processes; nor is it practical 
to mix long- and short-stapled cotton, as the machines of the 
later processes are set according to the length of the staple, 
and if set for one length of staple will either damage cotton 
of a different length or cause an imperfect product. 



10 PICKERS §16 



BALE BREAKER 

1 7. Description. — A machine known as a bale breaker 

is sometimes used in mixing cotton. Its object is to sepa- 
rate the matted masses of cotton as they come from the bale 
and to deliver the cotton in an open state to the mixing bins. 
This machine, consequently, does the work that is performed 
by hand in hand mixings. When using a bale breaker for 
mixing cotton, a good method is to have about six bales 
open around the feed-end of the machine and to take a 
layer of cotton in rotation from the top of each bale. The 
principle employed to attain the object of the bale breaker 
is to have three or four pair of rolls, each pair revolving at 
a higher rate of speed than the preceding pair. The cotton 
fed to the pair that is revolving at a slow speed, is pulled 
apart when it comes under the action of the pair revolving 
at a faster speed. Fig. 1 shows a view of a bale breaker 
with conveying aprons attached, while Fig. 2 gives an illus- 
tration of the different sets of rolls that act on the cotton and 
constitute the principal mechanism of this machine. Refer- 
ring to these two figures, the cotton is taken from the bales 
and placed on the horizontal apron a, which is moving in the 
direction shown by the arrow. As the cotton reaches the first 
set of rolls, it is gripped and carried forwards to the next set, 
each pair of rolls having a greater circumferential velocity 
than the preceding pair, the circumferential velocity of the 
second pair being about twice that of the first pair, while the 
circumferential velocity of the third pair is about four times 
that of the second, and the last pair about five times that 
of the third. The first set of rolls usually makes between 
5 and 6 revolutions per minute. 

The space between the different sets of rolls will be found 
to vary with different makes, but usually from the center of 
one pair to the center of the next is about 9 inches. The 
upper roll of each set rotates in bearings having a vertical 
movement, but held down by means of strong springs /' 
connected with the upper rolls by means of the rods c. By 
this means the upper rolls are allowed to give when an 



§16 



PICKERS 



11 




12 



PICKERS 



§16 



excess of cotton passes between' the rolls. In the bale 
breaker shown in these illustrations, the pair of rolls far- 
thest from the feed-end of the machine is the largest, being 
nearly 9 inches in outside diameter, while all the other rolls 
are Ti inches in outside diameter. These rolls will be found 
to vary in construction, in some cases being solid with flutes 
their whole length, while in other cases they are made up 
of rings having projecting spikes and placed side by side on 
a core in such a manner that when a spike breaks it is simply 
necessary to replace the ring containing the broken spike. 




Fig. 2 

A somewhat different arrangement of the rolls is shown in 
Fig. 3, in which a series of nosed levers d are made to take 
the place of the lower roll of the first set. 

The cotton as it leaves the last set of rolls drops to 
the lower apron <?, Fig. 1, which conveys it to the lifting 
aprons/,/,. These lifting aprons have their inner surfaces 
moving in the same direction and sufficiently close together 
to prevent the cotton dropping down. The aprons are built 
of wooden laths, with rounded edges, fastened to endless 
leather belts. It is customary to construct the elevating 



§16 



PICKERS 



13 



aprons with laths at intervals that project higher than the 
rest, and thus convey the cotton more positively than if all 
are of the same thickness. From these elevating aprons 
the cotton is delivered to horizontal aprons, which carry the 
stock to the different mixing bins. 

18. Care of Bale Breakers. — There are several points 
that should receive attention in the care of bale breakers. 
The cotton should not be fed in too thick layers, since this 




Fig. 3 

is liable to strain the rolls; all the dirt from underneath the 
machine, which consists chiefly of sand and other foreign sub- 
stances that drop from the cotton as it is pulled apart, should 
be removed periodically; and what is more important, the 
machine should be properly oiled. The aprons should also 
be adjusted so that they will not come in contact with each 
other at any point. 



PICKER ROOMS 

19. The room containing the machinery through which 
the cotton passes during its first stages of manufacture is 
known as the picker room, and its equipment for medium 
counts generally consists of an automatic feeder, opener, 
breaker picker, intermediate picker, and finisher picker. 



14 PICKERS §16 

Where the bale breaker is used, that, also, may be found 
in this room, although it is usually in the mixing room. 
Other machines, in some cases, may also be found in this 
room, such as waste openers and waste breakers. In mills 
using long-stapled cotton and producing fine yarns, either 
the intermediate or the intermediate and finisher pickers 
would be omitted from the above list in order to lessen the 
beating action. 

20. Liocation of Picker Rooms. — The picker room is 
sometimes located in a building some distance from the main 
mill, but if it is a part of the main building, it should be 
separated by a fireproof partition or wall. The machinery 
located in this room being a heavy type of cotton-mill machin- 
ery and running at a very high rate of speed, also dealing 
with stock in a very unclean condition, necessitates these 
precautions, since, if the swiftly moving parts of the machin- 
ery come in contact with any foreign matter of a hard 
nature, a fire will in almost every case occur and spread 
throughout the cotton. Fires occur more frequently in the 
earlier processes of the manipulation of the raw stock than at 
any other time. Therefore, the planning of the rooms and the 
arrangement of the machinery in them must be given very 
careful attention. 

ARRANGEMENT OF MACHINES 

21. In large mills, usually two rooms at least are 
devoted to the mixing and picking, the mixing, feeding, and 
opening being generally carried on in one room, while the 
breaker, intermediate, and finisher pickers are located in 
another room. Fig. 4 shows such an arrangement. With 
the machines arranged as shown in this figure, the cotton will 
be opened on the first floor and then fed to the automatic 
feeder a, passing from this to the opener b and then by 
trunking c to the breaker picker d, which is located on the 
second floor. From the breaker picker, the cotton passes to 
the intermediate picker <?, while the finisher picker / takes 
the cotton from the intermediate. In case a bale breaker 
were used with this arrangement, it would be situated in the 




^ I 



§16 PICKERS 17 

opening room .^ and aprons would be so arranged that the 
cotton would be carried from the bale breaker to mixing 
bins situated in such a position behind the automatic feeders 
that the cotton could be conveniently handled. 

22. Fig. 5 shows a very similar arrangement to that 
shown in Fig. 4. In this figure, however, a different method 
of connecting the breaker picker and opener is adopted. 
The feeder is shown at a and the opener at b. From the 
opener the cotton is conveyed to the breaker picker d by 
means of a horizontal trunk c. The intermediate picker e 
takes the cotton from the breaker, and the finisher picker / 
takes it from the intermediate. 

Many different arrangements of these machines will be 
found in mills. In some cases, the bale breaker, together 
with the automatic feeder and opener, is located on the 
second floor and connected by trunking with the pickers, 
which are on the first floor. In other cases, all the machines 
are in one room. In Figs. 4 and o, a dust room // is shown 
under the opening room j^. This is usually constructed in 
the basement, and to it are conducted the dust trunks i. The 
ends of these trunks are usually provided with automatic 
closing dampers /, which remain closed when the machine 
from which the dirt comes is not in operation. By this 
means, a draft in the trunks is prevented in case of fire, and 
any back draft that would cause dust and particles of dirt to 
reenter the cotton is also avoided. 



FEEDING AND OPENING 



AUTOMATIC FEEDER 

23. Principle. — The automatic feeder is the first 
machine that receives the cotton after it has been mixed, and, 
as its name indicates, is used for the purpose of automat- 
ically supplying or feeding another machine. 

Formerly, the opener or breaker picker was fed by one of 
three methods: (1) by spreading the cotton on a feed-apron 
by hand, the amount depending on the judgment of the 



18 PICKERS §16 

operator; (2) by weighing a -certain amount of cotton and 
spreading it by hand on a measured space on a feed-apron; 
(3) by presenting a portion of cotton to an opening in a 
pneumatic tube and allowing it to be drawn in by the air- 
current. With these methods it was very difficult to obtain 
a uniform feed. 



Fig. 6 

The principle employed in the automatic feeder is that of 
having an apron with projecting spikes carry away from a 
mass of cotton a larger quantity than is required, the excess- 
ive amount being removed by suitable mechanism and only 
that portion which is required being allowed to pass forwards 
to supply the next machine. Fig. 6 is a perspective view of 
the automatic feeder, while Fig. 7 shows a section. The 



§16 



PICKERS 



19 



cotton is fed by the operator to the hopper a, which should 
be kept at least half full. The bottom apron a^ tends to 
carry the whole mass toward the lifting^ apron a^, the cot- 
ton being retarded slightly by friction with the sides of the 
hopper. The spikes in the lifting apron fill with fiber from 
the base to the point, and often retain comparatively large 
bunches of stock. After filling, they continue to move 
upwards, and the tendency for so large a number of points 




Fig. 7 



acting on the mass of cotton is to impart a rolling motion 
to it. The stripping roll b acts continuously on the cotton 
carried by the lifting apron as it arrives at the point nearest 
to the stripping roll. The surface of this roll, moving in the 
opposite direction from the lifting apron and only about 1 inch 
from the point of the spikes, strikes off the excess cotton. 
The cotton remaining on the lifting apron is the amount 
necessary to supply the machine to which the feeder is 
attached, and must be removed from the pins carrying it. 



20 PICKERS § 16 

This is done by the doffer beater r, the surface of which 
moves in the same direction as the part of the apron near- 
est to it, but at a greater speed. The fibers removed from 
the lifting apron are in small tufts, and a certain quantity of 
sand, etc. is thrown out by the centrifugal force of the doffer 
beater or drops by its own weight. This passes through the 
bars of the grating d into the chamber n. The cotton passes 
forwards and through the passage e. 

A feeder is sometimes used to take the place of the bale 
breaker previously described. This feeder is constructed on 
practically the same lines as the one illustrated here, although 
the parts are made much heavier in order to withstand the 
greater strain that is brought on them on account of dealing 
with stock directly from the bale. In some mills running fine 
counts, the bale breaker is dispensed with and two automatic 
feeders used, the cotton as it comes from one being fed into 
the other. In such cases the cotton, of course, must be 
opened and mixed to a certain extent by hand. 

24. Liiftiiig Apron. — The lifting apron of the automatic 
feeder as generally constructed consists of an endless can- 
vas sheet mounted on leather belts, to which it is fastened 
by copper rivets. On this canvas sheet wooden laths are 
fastened \\ inches apart. Set in the laths about 1 inch apart 
are steel spikes that project from the laths about 1 inch. It 
is these spikes of the lifting apron that convey the cotton to 
the point desired as it is presented to them by the feed-apron. 

25. Stripping Device. — Fig. 8 {a) and {b) shows detail 
views of the stripping device found on the feeder shown in 
Fig. 6. It consists of two rolls b, b, of wood mounted on an 
iron core. An endless leather apron g passes around the 
rolls; on the inside of the apron are secured strips of wood 
that engage with grooves in the rolls, so that the apron ^ 
and roll />, are positively driven by b. These rolls are not 
exactly alike in every respect, as the one nearer the lifting 
apron carries pins that project through elongated holes in the 
apron, as shown in this figure. At the point // the pins strike 
the excess cotton from the lifting apron back into the hopper, 



§16 



PICKERS 



21 



while that which adheres to the pins is removed as the roll 
revolves and the pins are drawn throu^jh the apron. In {fi) 
are shown the adjustments provided for regulating the dis- 
tance from the pins of the stripper comb to the lifting apron, 
and thus regulating the amount of excess cotton removed; 
the adjustment for regulating the tension of the apron is also 
shown. In order to regulate the distance between the roll b 
and the lifting apron, the casting that supports the bearings 




Fig. 8 

of this roll is made so that it may be moved on the frame- 
work by loosening the bolts at k and turning the screw p. 
The tensionof the stripping apron is regulated by the screw/, 
wfiich holds the bearing of the roll d, in position. 

A stripping device that differs in construction from that 
shown in Fig. 8 is shown in the two sectional views, Fig. 9 
(a) and (d). It consists of a metal shell that contains two 
shafts a, (I,, which have bearings in the circular ends of the 
shell and are capable of being moved in these bearings. 
These shafts carrj'^ castings d,d,, known as trailitig levers. 
On the end of each trailing lever are studs c, <r, that work 



22 



PICKERS 



§16 





in a cam -course d. The 
cam is on the outside of 
the shell, while the trailing 
levers are on the inside; 
slots e, e^ are provided in 
the end of the shell for the 
studs to project through, 
and also in order that they 
may have a certain free- 
dom of movement. 

Supported from the 
shafts a, a-, by means of 
the brackets /, /,, of which 
there are several in the 
length of the shell, are the 
shafts ^,<^.. Each of these 
shafts carries a series of 
^ pointed rods hji^ that pro- 
i£ ject through the surface 
of the shell. As the shell 
revolves and the cam re- 
mains stationary, an oscil- 
lating motion is imparted 
to the shafts a, a^; motion 
is^ also given to the shafts 
g.gy., which results in one 
end of the pointed rods 
projecting from the shell 
during a part of its revolu- 
tion, while at other times 
they are within the shell. 
In Fig. 9 {a) is shown a 
handle/ by means of which 
the position of the cam 
may be regulated. If it 
is desired to feed more 
cotton, the position of the 
cam is changed so that 



§16 PICKERS 23 

the points will not project so far at the point where they are 
nearest the lifting apron. If it is desired to feed less cotton, 
the position of the cam is so changed that the points will 
project farther from the shell when nearest the lifting apron 
and thus strike ofif more cotton. The cam, after being 
placed in the correct position, is secured by a setscrew. 

In Fig. 9 id) it will be seen that when one end of a pointed 
rod is projecting, the other end has been withdrawn into the 
shell. By this means, any cotton adhering to the rod is 
removed and falls back into the hopper. 

26. Doffer Beater. — The doffer beater dififers in con- 
struction in different makes of machines. In some cases it 
consists of a cylinder carrying four rows of teeth that project 
about 2f inches from the cylinder, each row containing as 
many teeth as there are teeth in one row on a slat of the 
lifting apron. Such a doffer is so placed that one of its 
teeth will project between two of the teeth of the lifting 
apron and be just half way between them. By this means, 
as the doffer revolves, it removes the cotton from the lifting 
apron and drives it downwards through the passage pro- 
vided. In other cases the doffer, instead of having spikes to 
remove the cotton from the lifting apron, has strips of heavy 
leather projecting about 2 inches and secured to horizontal 
pieces of wood mounted on a central shaft, while in still other 
cases the doffer beater is constructed in such a manner that 
rows of spikes will alternate with strips of leather. 

Fig. 10 shows a perspective view of an automatic feeder 
combined with an opener, while Fig. 11 shows a sectional view 
of a similar arrangement. The feeder shown in these illus- 
trations differs from that previously described principally in 
regard to the manner in which it regulates the amount of 
cotton fed. By referring to these figures it will be noticed 
that the lifting apron is driven by a pair of cones, the ends 
of which are shown in Fig. 11. The belt guide that regulates 
the position of the belt on the cones is shown at,f^. By turn- 
ing the hand wheel /, Fig. 10, the belt is moved on the cones 
and the speed of the lifting apron regulated as may be 



24 



PICKERS 



16 




26 PICKERS §16 

desired. The connection between the cones and the lifting 
apron is described later. This method of regulating the 
feed is frequently resorted to, as it affords a ready means 
of making the necessary change. It will be seen that, if the 
stripping roll should be moved too far from the lifting apron, 
the cotton would be liable to be fed in lumps and thus w^ould 
not be sufficiently opened. On this account it has been found 
to be advisable, in ordinary cases, to increase the speed of the 
lifting apron when it is desired to feed more cotton, and for 
this reason most feeders, as now built, have some method by 
which the speed of the lifting apron may be regulated, either 
by the cone drive, as illustrated above, or by change pulleys, 
change gears, or step cones. The regulation of the speed of 
the lifting apron, as well as the position of the stripping roll 
to give a required weight of cotton fed, is a matter of experi- 
ment and observation and depends entirely on the stock used. 
The passage provided in this machine for the dirt that is 
struck from the cotton by the doffer beater consists of a grid d 
made of metal bars set with a slight space between, them. 

27. Gearing. — The gearing of the automatic feeder 
shown in Figs. 10 and 11 is as follows: The doffer beater is 
driven from the countershaft or main shaft of the machine 
that the feeder supplies and runs at a speed of from 400 to 
500 revolutions per minute. On the shaft of the doffer beater 
is a 6-inch pulley that drives a 16-inch pulley on the bottom 
cone. The two cones are 6 inches in diameter at their larger 
ends and 3 inches in diameter at their smaller ends. On the 
shaft of the top cone, a gear of 16 teeth drives a gear of 
69 teeth on a shaft that extends across the feeder. A gear 
of 17 teeth on this shaft drives a clutch gear of 58 teeth on 
the top carrier roll of the lifting apron. This top carrier roll 
is 9 inches in diameter. The feed-apron is driven from the 
bottom bearing shaft of the lifting apron, on which there is a 
sprocket gear of 18 teeth, which drives, by means of a chain, 
a sprocket gear of 28 teeth on a roll supporting the feed- 
apron. This roll is 3 inches in diameter. The wooden roll, 
feed -apron and feed -rolls of the opener shown in these 



§J6 PICKERS 27 

illustrations are driven by means of a chain and sprocket gears 
from the shaft of the top carrier roll of the lifting apron. 

28. Capacity. — The capacity of automatic feeders is 
very great, but since the amount of work they do is gov- 
erned entirely by the requirements of the machine they feed, 
they are rarely run at their full capacity. Usually about 
3,000 pounds in 10 hours is the maximum amount run 
through a feeder. 

29. Care of Feeders. — In order that feeders may per- 
form their best work, they should be kept well oiled. The 
dirt should be removed periodically; the aprons should be 
kept taut b\^ the tension screws provided for this purpose; 
and the hopper should be kept at least half full, since the 
less cotton there is in the hopper, the greater is the liability 
of the lifting apron securing an insufficient amount, thus 
causing the weight to vary. It is customary for one man to 
attend to about ten feeders in large mills. In smaller mills 
the work of feeding is combined with other duties. 

The feeder requires from I2 to 2 horsepower, and occupies 
a floor space of about 6 feet 4 inches by 6 feet 6 inches. 



OPENER 

30. The oi>ener is not used in all mills, as the auto- 
matic feeder is sometimes connected directly to the breaker 
picker, but in mills where this machine is used it generally 
forms a combination machine with the automatic feeder, as 
shown in Fig. 10. Technically, the automatic feeder ends 
with the doffer beater, or, as it is sometimes called, the pin 
beater. Fig. 11. 

The opener has for its objects the cleaning of the heavy 
impurities from the cotton and the separating of the cotton 
into small tufts that are light enough in weight to be influ- 
enced by an air-current generated by a fan in the succeeding 
machine. It attains these objects by presenting a fringe 
of cotton to a beater that makes from 1,200 to 1,800 revolu- 
tions per minute. This beater usually has two blades, and 
consequently for every revolution delivers two blows to the 



28 PICKERS §16 

fringe of cotton. By this means anj^ foreign substance will be 
struck from the fringe of cotton as it is held by the feed-rolls, 
and knocked through the grid bars shown in Fig. 11. The 
tufts of cotton will also be removed from the fringe as soon 
as they are released from the bite of the feed-rolls, and thus 
they will be sufficiently light to be acted on by the air-current 
that conveys the cotton to the next machine. 

The cotton after being acted on by the doffer beater of the 
automatic feeder falls on a feed-apron, and being separated 
into small tufts, occupies so much space that the wooden roll 
and feed-rolls, shown in Fig. 11. are used to condense its 
bulk before being presented to the beater of the opener. 

The opener alone occupies a floor space of about 5 feet by 
6 feet 6 inches, and when connected with a feeder occupies a 
space of 11 feet 4 inches by 6 feet 6 inches. It requires about 
3 horsepower to drive it. Openers are rarely run at their full 
capacity, the amount of cotton they are made to deliver depend- 
ing on the amount required to supply the breaker picker. 



TRUXKIXG 

31. The cotton from the opener is carried along a ti-unk 
to the next machine by means of an air-current that is gen- 
erated by a fan. This fan exhausts the air in the trunk, and 
thus the air in the room containing the feeder enters through 
the openings between the grate bars in the opener, and carries 
the cotton with it as it passes through the trunk to the fan. 

The various forms' of trunks are as follows: (1) plain 
conducti7ig triaiks, (2) horizo7ital cleaning trunks, (3) inclined 
cleaning trunks. 

32. A plain condiictinja: trunk consists of a circular 
tube of sheet metal from 10 to 13 inches in diameter. It 
should have easy curves wherever the tube bends, and should 
contain sufficient doors for cleaning purposes. The inner 
surface should be smooth, so as to cause as little friction as 
possible in the transit of the cotton. These trunks are 
used simply to conduct cotton from one point to another. 

Horizontal cleaning: trunks are constructed of wood 
and contain doors for the removal of the dirt, also grids 



30 



PICKERS 



§16 



through which the dirt falls. They may be built either 
shallow and wide, or narrow and deep. 

Inclined cleaning ti'unks are of the same construction 
as horizontal cleaning trunks, but have an inclined position. 

33. Fig. 12 {a), (d), and (c) shows a horizontal cleaning 
trunk supported by rods / placed about 10 feet apart on each 
side of the trunk. In the center of the trunk are connec- 
tions for sprinklers ?-. A section of this trunk is shown 
in Fig. 12 (d). The upper part is a clear passage, along 
which the cotton is carried over a grating a. During this 
passage of the cotton, any foreign matter that is too heavy 
to be carried along with the cotton by the force of the air- 
current, will drop through the grating a into, the pockets d. 




Fig. 13 



The portion of the trunk containing the grating is called a 
cleaning trunk and does not extend the entire length of the 
trunk, the remainder being simply a conducting trunk. 
Forming the bottom of each pocket d are doors c hinged at d, 
below which is another passage e, which has a door at each 
end. Connecting with this passage ^ is a trunk /, which 
extends to the dust room and contains a fan ^. 

When it is desired to remove the dirt that has fallen 
through the grating, the breaker picker is first stopped; the 
springs that hold the doors are released; and the doors 
fall, delivering the dirt into the passage e. The doors c are 
then closed by means of the handles 7, and the doors at each 



§16 



PICKERS 



31 




32 PICKERS §16 

end of the passage e opened. The fan g creates a current 
of air in the passage <?, which carries the dirt to the dust 
room. The positions that the doors assume at various times 
during this process are shown in Fig. 12 (c). 

If the breaker picker were not stopped during this process, 
the air-current of this machine would tend to draw the dirt 
back into the cotton when the doors c were opened. The 
air-current of the breaker picker would also act against the 
air-current of the fan g if both were running. 

34. Another style of horizontal trunk is shown in Fig. 13. 
The passage for the cotton and the grating are constructed 
on the same principles as those just described; but the 
trunk / for removing the dirt, instead of being at the end, 
extends along the side of the main trunk. When it is desired 
to remove the dirt, the doors c, which are made of wood and 
supported by the latch .r, are dropped by pulling the ringx,, 
thus causing the latch to be pulled off its support. This 
forms an incline down which the dirt slides into the trunk /. 
In order to prevent the dirt from falling off the sides of the 
door c when it is lowered, there are boards k that form sides 
as the door c drops between them. 

35. One style of an inclined cleaning trunk is shown in 
Fig. 14 {a) and {b). This trunk contains the usual grating a, 
over which the cotton passes, while the dirt and other foreign 
substances fall through this grating into the pockets b. The 
bottom of these pockets is formed by c, which is capable of 
being raised or lowered by the lever /. The position that 
the bottom ordinarily occupies is shown in Fig. 14 (a); 
when, however, it is desired to remove the dirt from the 
pockets b, the lever j is brought into the position shown in 
Fig. 14 {b) . In this case the bottom c is lowered into the 
position shown, causing the dirt from the different pockets 
to fall out into the chamber e and slide, by its own weight, 
down the incline into the dust chamber. 



PICKERS 

(PART 2) 



COTTON PICKEKS 



BREAKER PICKERS 



METHODS OF FEEDING 

1. The breaker picker is the first machine that deals 
with the cotton after it leaves the opener. This machine 
may receive the cotton either directly from an automatic 
feeder, or from an opener through a trunk; in the latter 
case, the cotton first comes in contact with either a con- 
dejiser and gauge box or a cage section. When the breaker 
picker is fed directly from an automatic feeder, the cotton is 
generally dropped on an apron, from which it is taken by the 
feed-rolls of the picker. 

2. The Condenser and Gaugre Box. — The manner of 
feeding the picker by means of a condenser and jjaujre 
box, when the cotton is conveyed through a trunk from the 
opener, is shown in Fig. 1. The air-current that draws the 
cotton from the opener through the trunk a is generated by 
a fan b. After leaving the trunk, the cotton first comes in 
contact with a cylinder of wire netting known as a cage, 
shown at c. About two-thirds of the inner circumference of 
this cage is protected by a cradle d of sheet metal, which 
prevents the cotton from being drawn to this protected par*- 

For notice of copyright, see page immediately following the title page 



PICKERS 



§17 



of the cage, the air-current passing out through the ends of 
the cage and down the passage ^,. The cradle d remains 
stationary, but the cage c revolves in the direction shown by 
the arrow, and thus the cotton, which is drawn to that part 
of the cage that is not protected by the cradle, is brought 
around until it comes under the action of the stripping 
rolls /,^, which remove it from the cage. The roll / is held 




Fig. 1 

in position in pivoted bearings by the lever h, so that it wall 
be as close to the cage as the bulk of cotton passing will 
permit. The cotton then drops into the gauge box j and on 
to the apron k, from which it is removed by the feed-rolls /, /,, 
of the breaker picker. 

The condenser is usiially understood to consist of the upper 
part of the arrangement shown in Fig. 1, including the parts 
marked c, d, f,g, and h. 



§17 PICKERS 3 

3. The cotton that passes through the picker is wound in 
the form of a sheet on a lap roll v, shown at the front of the 
machine in Fig. 1, the lap that the cotton forms being 
marked x. When the lap is removed, the feeder that supplies 
this machine is usually stopped and also all parts of the breaker 
picker except the beaters, fans, and revolving parts of the 
condenser. Since the fans continue to run during this 




Fig. 2 

period, the cotton that is in the trunk a \\\\\ be delivered to 
the picker. It is the object of the condenser and gauge box 
to take care of this stock and thus prevent the passage from 
becoming blocked, by the cotton coming from the trunk. 
With the arrangement shown in Fig. 1, the cotton collects, 
while the picker is stopped, in the gauge box j until it is 
completely filled, when any more cotton coming from the 



PICKERS 



§17 



trunking will fall over the top of the partition m; it can then 
be removed by means of the door n and returned to the 
mixing. When the picker and feeder are restarted, the 
amount of cotton that is in the gauge box j will supply 
the feed-rolls /, K of the picker until sufficient cotton is 
coming through the trunk a. 

Fig. 2 is a perspective view of a picker with a condenser 
and gauge box. 

4. Cage Section. — A sectional view of a breaker picker 
that receives the cotton by means of a cage, or screen, section 




Fig. 3 

is shown in Fig. 3, while Fig. 4 is a perspective view. An 
air-current generated by a fan b draws the cotton from an 
opener through a trunk a to two cages, or screens, <:,<:,. 
These cages are protected so that as the air-current passes 
out through their ends, down the flue bi to the dust room, 
the cotton is drawn to the portions of their circumferences 
nearest the delivery end of the trunk a and, as the cages 



§17 



PICKERS 



revolve in the direction shown by the arrows, is condensed 
in a sheet between them; it is removed by the stripping 




Fig. 4 



rolls /,^ on to a stripping plate r, from which it is removed 
by the feed-rolls /, h of the picker. 



CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION OF THE 
BREAKJZR IMCKER 

5. Objects of the Breaker Picker. — The objects of 
the breaker picker are: (1) To remove foreign matter, 
especially the heavier and larger impurities, such as dirt, 
pieces of seed, leaf, etc.; (2) to separate the tufts of cotton 
so that they may be more easily manipulated at the next 
process; (8) to form the cotton into a layer and wind it on 
a roll in a cylindrical form known as a lap. 



^17 PICKERS 7 

The method used to attain these objects is to have a rapidly 
revolving beater strike a fringe of cotton, which is presented 
to it by a slowly revolving pair of feed-rolls, thus breaking 
up the sheet of cotton into small tufts and striking off any 
foreign matter in the cotton. The process of cleaning is also 
aided by an air-current, which draws dust from the cotton 
through screens, or cages, to which it is being drawn. These 
cages revolve and deliver the cotton in a sheet ready to be 
wound into a lap by means of a lap liead. 

6. Pickers are known as pickers in single section or pickers 
in doxible section according to whether they give a single or 
a double beating action to the stock passing through them. 
Breaker pickers in single section are shown in Figs. 1, 2, 
3, and 4. The passage of cotton through breaker pickers in 
single section, whether they are fed by a condenser and 
gauge box, as in Fig. 1, or by a cage section, as in Fig. 3, 
is the same. Referring to Fig. 1, after the cotton delivered 
by the feed-rolls /, /^ has been struck by the rapidly revolving 
beater a^, it passes over grid bars c. in order that any dirt or 
other foreign matter may be separated and fall through the 
spaces between the bars. Then it is carried over inclined 
cleaning, or grate, bars / so that other foreign matter, too 
heavy to be carried by the air-current, may have an oppor- 
tunity of dropping through the spaces between the bars. This 
cleaning process is continued while the cotton collects in a 
layer on the surface of two revolving cages, or screens, ^, d',, 
through which a current of air is drawn by a revolving fan k. 
The cotton, now in the form of a sheet or layer, is removed 
by stripping rolls p, and allowed to pass over a stripping 
plate r, between smooth calender, or presser, rolls 5, 5,, ^,,53, 
between rolls s^ and /, and around the lap roll v that rests on 
the fluted calender rolls /, /,, thus forming the lap x. 

7. Fig. 5 shows a section through a breaker picker in 
double section with what is known as a porcjipine beater. 
This picker is connected directly to an automatic feeder 
by means of an apron, a portion of which is shown. In 
case a picker in double section is fed by trunking from 



PICKERS 



§17 



an opener and feeder combined, the cotton is delivered to 
a cage section similar to that shown in Fig. 3, while a 
beater of the type shown at «,, Fig. 5, usually replaces the 
porcupine beater. 

Referring to Fig. 5, as the cotton is delivered to the 
picker by the feed-apron, it is taken by feed-rolls b, b^, from 
which it is struck by a beater a that is rapidly revolving in 
the direction shown by the arrow. It then passes over grid 
bars <r, through which dirt and other foreign matter fall; then 
over inclined cleaning, or grate, bars / to cages ^, ^i, from 
which it is delivered in a sheet to rolls //. These rolls 
deliver it to a stripping plate //,, from which it is taken by 




Fig. 6 

rolls y and delivered to a beater a^, which strikes it down 
over grid bars /. It then passes over cleaning bars m to 
cages ;/, ?/,, which deliver it in a sheet to rolls p, from 
which it passes over a stripping plate r; then between 
rolls 5, 5,; 5^,, s.,; s., S:,; under roll ^4, over roll /, and is finally 
wound in the form of a lap on a lap roll v. 

8. Types of Beaters. — There are several types of 
beaters, that known as a porcupine beater being shown in 
elevation at a, Fig. 5, and in perspective in Fig. 6; it con- 
sists of steel projections riveted to circular metal plates. 
This style is a special make and is most frequently found on 
openers. A carding beater is shown in section in Fig. 7, 



§17 



PICKERS 



9 



and in perspective in Fig. 8; this beater has been adopted in 
recent years. It consists of three wooden lags a^ a, a that are 
securely fastened to the arms b, b, b of the beater, which is 
mounted on the shaft c. Steel pins d, d, d, arranged spirally, 
project from the lags, those pins that first come in contact 
with the cotton being shorter than the others, as shown in 
Figs. 7 and 8. With this arrange- 
ment, the pins penetrate and break 
up the cotton, and as they enter 
it gradually, the strain incident to 
the operation of picking is almost i], 
equally distributed among them, 
causing the beater to combine a 
carding and a beating action. 
The carding beater is used to 
the greatest extent in breaker 
pickers and sometimes, though 
not often, in intermediate pickers. 

Another type, and one that is more commonly met with, 
is known as the ordinary knife, or rigid-blade, beater. 
A two- and a three-blade beater of this type are shown in 
perspective in Figs. 9 and 10, respectively. The edges of 
the blades should not have a knife edge, neither should they 

4 




Fig. 7 




be too blunt. As soon as the edges wear, the beater should 
be turned around so that the other edges of the blades will 
come in contact with the fringe of cotton. When both 
sides are dull, suflficient metal should be planed from the 
blades to give two new edges on each. Sometimes, beaters 



10 



PICKERS 



17 



are constructed with hardened steel edges fastened to the 
blades; these edges may be replaced when necessary. 

9. Action of the Beater. — The action of the beater is 
the most important part of picking; for it is desired not only 
to clean the cotton, but also to do this with as little injury 




Fig. 9 

to the fibers as possible. The speed of the beater must 
therefore be so regulated that the blades will not strike the 
cotton too often and thus injure the staple; neither should 
the speed be so low that they will not strike the cotton often 
enough and thus not clean it sufficiently. Beaters as a rule 
should not strike more than about 60 nor less than 20 blows 
per inch of cotton fed. 

The speeds of beaters vary considerably, but the following 




Fig. 10 

are about the maximum and minimum for the different 
machines and types: 

Porcupine beater, 30 inches in diameter, in opener, 500 to 
600 revolutions per minute; 18-inch, two-blade, ordinary knife 
beater in breaker, 1,400 to 1,600 revolutions per minute; 
20-inch, three-blade, ordinary knife beater in breaker, 850 to 



§17 



PICKERS 



11 



•1,050 revolutions per minute; 16-inch, two-blade, ordinary 
knife beater in intermediate or finisher, 1,250 to 1,500 revo- 
lutions per minute; 18-inch, two-blade, ordinary knife beater 
in intermediate or finisher, 1,200 to 1,450 revolutions per 
minute; 18-inch, three-blade, ordinary knife beater in inter- 
mediate or finisher, 800 to 950 revolutions per minute. 

10. The fnvUl bars through which the beater knocks the 
impurities are important agents in the cleaning of the cotton. 
They are triangular in section and extend from one side of 




Fig. 11 

the machine to the other. There are a sufficient number of 
them to occupy an arc of a circle extending for about a 
quarter of the path of the beater. When using 1-inch 
American cotton, the bar nearest the feed-roll is usually set 
in such a manner that the beater blade in revolving will be 
about 2 inch from it when at its nearest point, while the last 
bar should be about f inch from the beater blade when at its 
nearest point. Thus, the arc of the circle formed by the 
bars is not concentric with that formed by the path of the 
beater blade. The reason for setting the bars in this manner 



12 



PICKERS 



§17 



is that the cotton expands and tends to fly from the beater 
blade, as the beater revolves, and thus would come against 
the bars if they were too near. The angle at which the bars 
are set, as well as the distance between them, also form 
important points in the setting of this part of the picker. 
The bars close to the feed-roll should have more space 
between them than those more distant. For 1-inch American 
cotton, there is usually about 2 inch from edge to edge of the 
first three bars, while the lower bars are about t inch apart. 




Fig. 12 



11. An adjustment for setting the grid bars is shown 
in Fig. 11. The upper six bars a are of the ordinary pattern 
and through these the heavier forms of leaf and dirt are 
ejected by the action of the beater. The dirt that passes 
through these bars falls into a separate chamber, and, as the 
small capacity of this chamber will prevent any strong cur- 
rent issuing in the opposite direction through the bars, the 
impurities are prevented from returning. This advantage is 
further augmented by arranging the last five bars b so that 
they are adjustable. By this means an almost perfect regu- 
lation of the current of air passing upwards through the 
bars a can be obtained; for, the more air passing through 
the bars /', the less will pass through the bars a. The bars b 



§17 



PICKERS 



13 



are also arranged to prevent by their shape, as far as possi- 
ble, any return of dirt that may be driven through them by 
the beater. The adjustment is made by means of sliding 
plates b,, into which the lower parts of the bars loosely fit. 
These plates can be moved backwards or forwards by a 
handle c, which, when set correctly, can be firmly fixed in 
position. The division plate d is an important factor and 
must be set accurately to obtain the best results. 

12. Stripping Rail. — As soon as the cotton is released 
from the feed-rolls b, b,, Fig. 5, it is acted on by the beater 
and then by an air-current that is generated by the fan d. 




Fig. 13 

This fan exhausts the air in the passage between the beater «■ 
and the cages e, e^, and thus the air rushes in from the room 
through the opening shown in the side of the picker, passes 
through the grid bars r, through the passage to the cages, 
out at the ends of the cages, and down a flue to the dust 
room. By this means the cotton is carried through the 
passage over the cleaning bars / to the cages e, <?,. The top 
of the passage projects to some extent toward the beater 
and supports what is known as the stripping rail, one type 
of which is shown in Figs. 12 and 13 at a. It is the function 
of this rail to remove any cotton that has adhered to the 
beater instead of being carried to the cages. In some cases 



14 PICKERS §17 

the stripping rail cannot be moved, while in other cases it is 
capable of being adjusted. The type of stripping rail shown 
in Fig. 12 is an adjustable one, as the rail a is entirely 
separate from its support b. The adjustment for the strip- 
ping rail is shown in Fig. 13. Although the stripping rail is 
described in connection with a porcupine beater, it is gener- 
ally and more appropriately used in connection with two- or 
three-blade beaters. 

13. Inclined Cleaning Bars. — The bottom of the 
passage between the beater and the cages is formed by the 
series of cleaning bars /, Fig. 5, known as the inclined 
cleaning, or grate, bars. These bars are so placed that 
any foreign matter that is too heavy to be carried along by 
the air-current will drop of its own weight through them and 
thus be prevented from reentering the cotton. Every fifth 
bar is a deep one, in order to prevent the dirt that drops 
between the bars at a point nearest the cages from sliding 
down the incline. If this were not provided for, considerable 
dirt would accumulate at the lowest point of the incline and 
make it possible for a portion, at least, to reenter the cotton, 
as underneath these bars is a door.^, Fig. 5, that is held in 
place by a weight on a lever, a portion of which is shown 
at ci\. This door can be lowered, in order to remove the 
dirt that has accumulated, but the picker should be stopped 
when this is done so that the air-current will not enter the 
passage to the cages through the grate bars and thus take 
some of the dirt with it into the cotton that is being drawn 
to the cages. 

The cages e,e^. Fig. 5, on which the cotton is delivered 
from this passage, are similar in construction to those that 
have been described, and are usually about 22 inches in 
diameter; in some cases, the top one is larger than the 
bottom one, or vice versa. 

14. At a point ^.. Fig. 5, is a block that prevents air or 
cotton from being drawn to the surface of the upper cage 
beyond this point; the framework ^^ accomplishes the same 
object for the bottom cage. These cages are also usually 



§17 



PICKERS 



15 



protected at the ends and other places so that the cotton 
cannot be drawn to any point but that nearest the passajje. 
The cages aid in the cleaning of the cotton, since, as it is 
brought with some force against them, dust and foreign 
matter small enough to go through will be carried to the 
dust room. In addition to this, the cages, by revolving, 




Fig. 14 

form the cotton into a layer, which is taken by the stripping 
rolls h and delivered on the stripping plate //,. 

The cotton next passes over this stripping plate and is 
gripped by the feed-rolls j; in passing from these to the 
stripping rolls p, it is treated in the same manner as during 
its passage from the feed-rolls b, b, to the stripping rolls //. 



16 PICKERS §17 

In this section of the picker, however, there is a different 
type of beater, and the air-current is generated by the fan k, 
the air passing in through the grid bars /, and carrying the 
cotton over the cleaning bars m on to the cages w,?/,, from 
which it is stripped by rolls p and delivered on to the plate r. 
The cotton passes from the plate ;-, between the rolls ^ and 5,. 
then between s, and s^, between s. and s^, and under the 
compression roll s^. The object of the last roll is to further 
condense the cotton. It has no bearings, being held in 
position by the rolls ^3, t and receiving motion by frictional 
contact with them; this roll is also shown at ^4, Fig. 14. 
The rolls s,s^,s.,S:, are known as smooth calendei* rolls, 
and their purpose is to condense the layer of cotton. Their 
bearings are held in vertical slides, so that they are capable 
of being separated slightly when an excessive amount of 
cotton passes through. If they were held in fixed bearings, 
considerable strain would be brought on them at such a 
time. Two of these rolls that are not adjacent are con- 
structed with collars, so that the four rolls fit into each other, 
as shown in s,s.,,s.,S:,, Fig. 14. In addition to their own 
weight, downward pressure is exerted at each end by a 
weighted lever attached to two rods, one suspended from 
each side of a saddle resting on the bearings of the 
upper roll. 

15. Lap Roll. — Between and resting on the fluted calen- 
der rolls /, ty is the lap roll i\ which is held in position as 
shown in Fig. 5. This roll is revolved by frictional contact 
with t and /,, and serves to roll the cotton into a cylindrical 
form known as a lap. When the lap has reached the desired 
size, the lap roll is withdrawn and the lap removed from the 
machine. The lap roll, which is also shown in Fig. 14 at v, 
is built in two styles; sometimes it is solid, and when the lap 
is used at a succeeding process a rod is pushed through the 
opening thus made, while in other cases it is hollow, so that 
a rod having a large, flat head may be inserted while the lap 
is still on the lap roll and thus be in position when the roll is 
withdrawn from the lap. 



§17 



PICKERS 



17 



16. Lap Rack.— In order to build a solid lap, a device 
known as a lap rack is employed, the construction of which 
is shown in Fig. 15 (a) and {d), Fig. 15 (a) being a side 




Fir,. 15 



elevation and Fig. 15 (d) a plan view, partly in section. At 
each end of the lap roll v is the lap rack a, the upper part of 
which has a bearing on the lap roll; the lower part has teeth 
that engage with a gear /? on the shaft r. Fixed to the shaft c 



1^181 



Caffe 



Bottom Stripping Roll 



Top 




S3 



i'Oia 



IS Dia. 



[| 



37 



33- j :: i Bottom Feed Roll 2 "Dia. 



y 



Beater 1450 R.PM. 



18t 




LlJ Bottom Stripping Roll 



Top 




t^ 



Top Calender Roll 5'/^" Dia. 



2nd 



3rd 



90 HS 



17. 



'^ 



Bottom „ 



-39 
.23 



1=^30 






Cross Sfiaf l 



2lMs 

27 



^ [- 



Back Fluted CalenderRollOiyia. 



Front 



^2* 
22 
'24 



§17 PICKERS 19 

is a gear d that meshes with a gear ^ on a sleeve on the 
stud n. This sleeve also carries another gear / that meshes 
with the gear g loose on the shaft c and compounded with 
the friction pulley in. Pressing against this friction pulley 
is a strip of leather, which is held against it with considera- 
ble pressure by means of the weight p on the lever / ful- 
crumed on ;/. 

As the lap increases in size on the roll v, it must overcome 
the total resistance of the friction pulley and the friction of 
the gearing; by this means it is made comparatively firm. 
When it is necessary to remove the lap, the friction is 
released by depressing the end of the lever /, opposite to 
the weight p, with the foot. The cotton then has a tendency 
to expand, which will lift the racks a, to some extent, but 
they are further raised by means of a hand wheel, shown 
at >', Figs. 2 and 4, and which is on the shaft c. Fig. 15 {a). 

17. Gearing. — Above the machine in Fig. 5 is shown a 
framework carrying a countershaft x. The speed of the 
beater is so high that it cannot be driven directly from the 
main shaft of the room without using very large pulleys; for 
this reason, the countershaft is used and the beater driven 
from it as shown in Fig. 5. In some cases instead of being 
on the machine the countershaft is attached to the ceiling. 

A plan of gearing for a picker in single section having a 
cage section is shown in Fig. 16. On one end of the beater 
shaft a are two pulleys «,, a.\ a^ drives the fan that pro- 
duces the air-current for the cages nearest the lap head, 
while a^ drives the fan that produces the air-current neces- 
sary to draw the cotton from the trunking to the cage section. 
These pulleys are 6 inches in diameter and drive pulleys on 
the fan shaft 8 inches in diameter; therefore, when the beater 
shaft a is making 1,450 revolutions per minute, the speed of 

each fan is — ^-^ — — — = 1,087.5 revolutions per minute. 
8 

On the other end of the beater shaft is a 4-inch feed- 
pulley a., driving an 18-inch pulley compounded with a 
15-tooth gear, which, through two gears connected, or 



20 PICKERS § 17 

compounded, by a clutch arrangement, drives a cross-shaft b, 
from which the fluted calender rolls receive motion. At the 
other end of the cross-shaft from the 12-tooth gear driving 
the fluted calender rolls is a gear of 14 teeth, driving a gear 
of 50 teeth, which is compounded with a gear of 27 teeth. 

The method by which the calender rolls, stripping rolls, 
and top cage are driven from this gear of 27 teeth may be 
readily traced. The bottom cage is driven from the top 
cage. The 14-tooth gear on the cross-shaft b drives a 
30-tooth gear on the end of another cross-shaft c through 
the 50-tooth gear. The shaft c, by means of bevel gears, 
drives a shaft extending along the side of the picker. The 
feed-rolls receive motion from this shaft, and the stripping 
rolls, together with the cages of the first cage section, are 
driven from the bottom feed-roll. 

18. The cross-shaft /' that carries the gear of 14 teeth is 
driven through the 18-inch pulley by a 35-tooth gear, a clutch 
gear, and a 17-tooth gear meshing with one of 90 teeth on 
the cross-shaft. When the clutch is disconnected, the lap 
head and the feed-rolls will stop, but the beater and fans will 
continue to run. When it is desired to remove a lap, this 
clutch is disconnected. 

The reason for this construction is that the beater and 
fans, owing to their high speed, could not be stopped imme- 
diately when it was desired to remove a lap without putting 
an excessive strain on the beater; neither would it be advis- 
able to start the beater and fans from a standstill each time 
the feed was started, since too much time would be required 
for these parts to acquire their maximum speed. By this 
construction, however, the cotton may be stopped or started 
through the picker almost instantly. 

19. Draft of a Breaker Picker. — The draft of a 
breaker picker is usually a little less than 2. and is figured 
from the fluted calender rolls to the feed-rolls. The draft 
of the picker shown in Fig. 16 is 

9 X 24 X 12 X 30 X 24 X 28 X 33 ^ j g^r, 
24 X 53 X 14 X 24 X 28 X 37 X 2 



§17 PICKERS 21 

20. Floor Space of a Breaker. — The floor space of a 
breaker varies according to the style and make of the machine. 
One type of a single-beater breaker with a cage section occu- 
pies a floor space of 13 feet 9 inches by 6 feet 8^ inches, 
allowing for trunk connections. A double-beater machine, 
other particulars as above, occupies 19 feet 10 inches by 




Fig. 17 



6 feet 82 inches. Where a condenser and gauge box are used 
instead of a cage section, from 7 to 9 inches may be deducted 
from the length given above. These measurements are for 
pickers that make laps 40 inches wide. 

When in single section, breaker pickers require about 
4i horsepower; when in double section, about 7 horsepower. 



§17 



PICKERS 



23 



The production depends on the speed, width of lap, and 
weight of lap pei" yard. A common production is about 500 
pounds per hour, or 25,000 pounds for a week of 50 hours 
actual running time, as about 8 hours is allowed for 
stoppages. 



INTERMEDIATE AND FINISHER PICKERS 

21. Intermediate and finisher pickers are prac- 
tically alike in construction and differ very little from a 
breaker picker in single section. Their objects are the same 
as those of the breaker picker; the lap that they produce, 
however, is of a more uniform weight per yard. 

Fig. 17 shows a perspective view of a finisher picker, while 
Fig. 18 shows a section through the same machine. Four 




Fig. 19 

laps taken from the previous picker are placed on the apron a, 
and thus the advantage gained by doubling is secured. 

22. Fig. 19 shows how the laps pass under each other 
on the apron that conducts them to the feed-rolls. Rods 
passing through the centers of these laps and being in contact 
with the brackets a^, a„., a^, a^, Fig. 18, hold the laps in position. 

The laps, shown in Fig. 19, vary in diameter. This is 
necessary in order to keep four layers of cotton supplied to 
the feed-rolls at all times. If all the laps were of the same 
diameter, they would run out at the same time, and thus 
there would be a liability of the cotton running through 
the machine before all the new laps were supplied, as well 
as a tendency to irregularity through four piecings coming 
near together. 



24 



PICKERS 



17 




§17 



PICKERS 



25 



EVENER MOTIONS 

23. After it is delivered by the feed-rolls, the cotton is 
treated in the same manner as in the breaker picker, but the 
manner in which it is fed into the intermediate and the 
finisher pickers is somewhat different from that in a breaker 
picker, as indicated by the curved section plate d above the 
roll r, Fig. 18. This section plate is a portion of a motion 
known as the evener 
motion, the object 
of which is to regu- 
late the speed of the 
feed-roll in accord- 
ance with the weight 
of cotton fed so that 
a uniform weight will 
be presented to the 
beater. 

Fig. 20 is a com- 
plete view of all the 
attachments of an 
evener, while Figs. 21 
and 22 are portions 
of side elevations. 
A shaft b. Fig. 20, 
carries rolls b^, which give motion to and support the feed- 
apron a. Fig. 18, while c, Fig. 20, is a feed-roll, or evener 
roll, extending across the machine. 




Fig. 21 



24. Scale Box. — Fig. 20 shows eight sectional plates d, 
each of which is about 5 inches in width, and carries a pro- 
jection d^ that passes inside a box known as the scale box e. 
The plates are connected in pairs by four short saddles ^,. 
Each pair of these saddles e^ is, in turn, connected by a larger 
saddle e.,, while the centers of e.. are connected by a still 
larger saddle ^^. 

Extending from the center of the saddle e^ is a pin <"., 
which projects out of the scale box and forms a bearing for 



26 



PICKERS 



§17 



a lever / at A. The fulcrum of the lever is at /^ and is 
formed by a bracket fastened to the scale box. At the 
other end of the lever, fastened at /a, is a vertical rod ^ 
that is connected to a short shaft ,^i at the side of the 
picker. At the opposite end of this shaft is fastened a 
segment //, the teeth of which engage with a gear /i^. This 




Fig. 22 

gear is on a sleeve with a gear /i^, the sleeve being sup- 
ported by a stud that projects from a bracket bolted to the 
framework under the apron. Supported from this same 
part of the machine are bearings /, /, that hold a rack k in 
position. The teeth of this rack engage with the teeth of 
the gear /i^. 



§17 PICKERS 27 

25. Connected to the rack k is a belt guide k, that 
controls the position of the belt on the cones and thus regu- 
lates the speed of the driven cone. A rod /, that extends 
downwards from the bearing j\ and then horizontally through 
a projection on the belt guide serves to steady the guide. 

26. Feed-Roll. — The manner in which the feed-roll is 
driven through the cones may be seen by reference to 
Figs. 21 and 22 in connection with Fig. 20. On the beater 
shaft m is a pulley w, driving a pulley w^ on a shaft w that 
extends across the picker. The lower-cone shaft is driven 
from the shaft 7i by the gears w,, w„ while motion is imparted 
to the top-cone shaft by a belt that passes around both cones. 

On one end of the top-cone shaft is a spiral gear/, Figs. 20 
and 22, that drives a spiral gear p^ on a short shaft g. At the 
other end of this shaft is a double worm r that drives a 
worm-gear r, of 78 teeth. Compounded with the gear r, is a 
gear r^, which is of extra width so that it drives a gear 7\ on 
the feed-roll and also a gear )\ on the apron shaft h. 

27. Opei'ation. — The manner in which this evener regu- 
lates the speed of the feed-roll in accordance with the weight 
of cotton fed is as follows: The sectional plates d, Fig. 20, 
are pressed dow^n on the roll c by the weight /., shown on the 
lever /, through the connection made by e^ and the saddles. 
The distance that these plates are raised from the roll c is 
governed by the amount of cotton that passes between them 
and the roll; and, by following the connections, it will be 
seen that the distance these plates are raised will govern the 
position of the belt on the cones, and, consequently, the 
speed of the roll c that feeds the cotton. 

When the proper weight of cotton is being fed uniformly 
throughout the length of the feed-roll r, the plates are raised 
the same distance from the roll c and the belt should be 
exactly in the center of the cones. If, however, a portion of 
cotton 1 inch thicker than the average thickness comes under 
the section plate at the extreme left, this section plate will 
be raised 1 inch from its normal position. The result of this 
will be that the end of the lever Ci resting on this plate will 



28 



PICKERS 



§17 



be raised 1 inch, which in turn will raise the end of the lever e. 
connected to e^ \ inch. The end of the lever e^ that is 
connected to this lever e^ will therefore be raised \ inch, 
which, by causing the pin e^ to be raised & inch, will result in 
the lever / being raised h inch at the point /,. 

As the lever / cannot rise at A, its other end must rise 
and, through the rod g, turn the shaft g^. The segment h 




Fig. 23 

wall therefore be moved, and through the gears //,, lu and 
the rack k, the belt will be guided on to the smaller part of 
the lower, or driving, cone, thus decreasing the speed of the 
feed-roll and reducing the weight of cotton fed. As soon as 
this heavier portion of cotton has passed and the correct 
weight is fed, the parts will be brought to their normal 
positions by means of the weight on the lever /. 



SI- 



PICKERS 



29 



In this illustration, an extreme case has been taken, as it 
is seldom that an extra portion of cotton 1 inch thicker than 
the average comes under one of the section plates; but the 
belt would be moved the same distance if a portion of cotton 
H inch thicker than the average should come under all the 
section plates. If four of the plates are raised i inch from 




Fig. 24 

their normal position, it will have the same effect as raising 
each plate i inch. It is therefore obvious that the arrange- 
ment is designed to insure an average weight of cotton being 
fed regardless of the number of plates that are affected. 

28. Another type of evener is shown in Figs. 28 and 24. 
Extending across the machine between the apron roll and 



§17 PICKERS 31 

the feed-rolls is a plate a, Fig. 23, that has a sharp edge on 
the top. Bearing on this are eight sectional plates a. that 
are in a position to be affected by the cotton just before it 
passes to the feed-rolls b, /$>,. The lower feed-roll is smaller 
than the upper one, and thus the plates are allowed to lie 
under the upper one and so come very close to the bite of 
the rolls. Arms a^ extend from these plates under the feed, 
or lap, apron, as shown in Figs. 23 and 24, and are connected 
in pairs by means of bridges c, c, which, in turn, are connected 
to a large bridge c, by means of two other bridges <:,,<:,. 
Fulcrumed at ^ is a lever d^ that contains a screw d^ having a 
bearing on the large bridge c^. Extending from this lever d^ 
is a rod e that connects with shaft / having bearings at A 
and A. At the end of the shaft / nearest the bearing f, is 
attached a segment ^, the teeth of which engage with a 
rack gy that governs the position of the belt h^ on the 
cones //,//,. 

The bottom cone h is driven by gearing from the side 
shaft j, which receives motion from the lap head. The top 
cone hi, driven by the bottom cone, drives the feed-rolls by 
means of a worm-drive; consequently, any movement of the 
belt on the cones will alter the speed of the feed-rolls and 
thus affect the weight of the cotton fed. 

When the proper weight of cotton is being fed, the plates 
are all depressed the same distance; but, if a portion of 
cotton heavier than the average weight passes over a plate, 
this plate will be further depressed. As the plate is ful- 
crumed on a, this will cause the outer end of the arm a^ to 
rise, which will result in the lever d^ being raised through 
the connections made by the bridges c,c-,,c^. The raising of 
the lever d^ will impart motion to the shaft / by means of the 
connecting-rod e, which will cause the segment g to move 
the rack g^ in such a manner that the belt h. will be moved 
to the small end of the driving cone. When the heavy 
portion of cotton has passed, the plate will be returned to 
its normal position by the weight of the arm a,, together 
with the weight of the bridges, lever, and connecting-rod. 
If less than the average weight of cotton is presented to the 



32 PICKERS §17 

plates, the arm a., and the lever ^/,, together with the bridges, 
will fall, because of their weight, and the result will be that 
the belt will be moved to the larger end of the driving cone, 
thus increasing the speed of the feed-rolls. 

29. A picker with another type of evener motion attached 
is shown in Fig. 25. The scale box and its connections with 
the segment resemble those in Fig. 20. The rolls of this 
evener, however, instead of being driven merely through 
cones, are driven by a combination of two cones, a drum, 
and a roll. 

The manner in which this method of driving is arranged 
can be readily traced. A side shaft /, Fig. 25, that carries 
a drum k at one end receives motion from the lap head. 
A belt / from the drum k passes first over a roll ni and then 
around the cones «,,«. The feed-rolls receive their motion 
through a worm-drive from the top cone n. 

It is possible to attach eveners to automatic feeders, 
although this is not commonly done, since the effect of the 
evener on the uniform weight of cotton is destroyed to some 
extent during its passage from the feeder to the breaker 
picker, especially if an opener is used and the cotton is con- 
veyed from it to the breaker picker by trunking. 



MEASURING MOTION 

30. The measuring motion is used to a greater extent 
on intermediate and finisher pickers than on breaker pickers. 
Its object is, when a definite length has been wound on the 
lap roll, automatically to stop the feed-rolls, the smooth 
calender rolls, and in some cases the fluted calender rolls, 
while the beater shaft and fans continue to revolve. 

A view of a measuring motion, the value of the gearing of 
which is given later in this Section, under Gearing, is shown 
in Fig. 26; a represents the end of the bottom calender roll, 
carrying a worm b, which through a worm-gear c drives a 
shaft <:, carrying a bevel gear d, which drives a bevel gear e. 
The gear e, together with a dog /, is loose on a stud g and 
carries a projection e^, the dog / also carrying a projection /,. 



§17 



PICKERS 



33 



The dog, if allowed to do so, would fall because of its own 
weight so that its point would be down, but as the gear e 
receives motion from the bottom calender roll, the projec- 
tion e^ on the gear e comes in contact with the projection /, 
on the dog / and thus continually forces the dog around 
ahead of it; consequently, when the projection e^ is at its 
highest position, the parts mentioned occupy the position 
shown in Fig. 26. 

As the gear e continues to revolve, the dog / will be 
brought in contact wath a projection on a lever h that is 




Fig. 26 

connected to the starting levei h^ fulcrumed at h._. Con- 
nected to //i is a rod j. Figs. 22 and 26, that runs along the 
side of the picker and connects with a double worm r, Fig. 22. 
A bracket k, Fig. 26, is also attached to the rod h^, while 
attached to this bracket is a rod k^ that connects with the 
clutch /, Fig. 27, through which the lap head is driven. 

31. When the picker is running, the cut-out, shown in 
dotted lines, in the lever h. Fig. 26, has a bearing on a cast- 
ing, and thus the starting lever /^, is held in such a position 
that the worm r, Fig. 22, is in contact with the worm-gear r,, 



34 PICKERS § 17 

the clutch /, Fig. 27, being closed. When, however, the 
gear c. Fig. 26, has made one revolution and has brought the 
dog / into contact with the lever h, any further movement 
causes the dog / to force the cut-out on // from its bearing. 
This causes the starting lever h^ to drop, disconnecting the 
clutch /; the worm ;' is also thrown out of gear, causing the 
calender rolls and the feed-rolls to stop. 

In some cases, the gearing is so arranged that only the 
smooth calender rolls and the feed-rolls stop, while the fluted 
calender rolls continue to run, thereby resulting in the lap 
of cotton being broken away from the sheet of cotton 
held by the rolls that have been stopped. In other cases 
the fluted calender rolls stop and the lap is broken from 
the cotton in the machine by giving it a partial revolution 
with the hands. 

After the lap has been thus separated, the racks described 
in connection with Fig. 15 are raised, the roll v withdrawn, 
and the lap is removed from the machine. The starting 
lever //,, Fig. 26, is then raised until the cut-out rests on the 
casting, thereby throwing the clutch /, Fig. 27, and the 
worm r. Fig. 22, into gear, and starting the cotton through 
the machine. The lap roll is then placed in position and the 
layer of cotton started around it by hand, after which the 
foot is placed on the lever /, Fig. 15, allowing the racks to 
descend by their own weight and hold the lap roll in posi- 
tion. This operal;ion is repeated each time the gear ^ makes 
one revolution and releases the lever //, Fig. 26. 



ADJUSTMENTS 

32, The distance between the blade of the beater and 
the feed-rolls when in closest proximity is an important 
point in a picker. If this distance is too great, the fringe of 
cotton will not receive the full benefit of the beating process, 
and thus the impurities will not be properly removed or the 
cotton separated into sufficiently fine pieces. On the other 
hand, if the beater blade is set too close, the fibers of the 
cotton will be injured. 



§17 PICKERS 35 

An adjustment is therefore provided for moving the feed- 
rolls nearer to, or farther from, the beater. The reason for 
moving the feed-rolls instead of the beater is that, as the feed- 
rolls revolve much more slowly than the beater, they would 
not be injured as much if, after changing their position, 
their bearings were not exactly in line. The distance 
between the blade of the beater and the feed-rolls is depend- 
ent principally on the length of the staple being run, the 
diameter of the feed-rolls, and the thickness of the cotton 
being delivered to the beater. 

The longer the staple, the smaller the diameter of the 
feed-rolls, and the thicker the cotton being delivered, the far- 
ther the feed-rolls should be set from the beater. With 
3-inch feed-rolls, and using 1-inch American cotton, the dis- 
tance between the blade of the beater and the feed-rolls 
should be from ttb to t^ inch. 

33. Evener Adjusting Screw. — Near the top of the 

rod g, Fig. 20, is shown an adjusting screw ^2. Sometimes, 
owing to atmospheric changes and other conditions, the 
weight of the cotton will vary; that is, it may feed a little 
heavier or a little lighter one day than another. This causes 
the weight of the lap per yard to vary also. As the same 
weight of lap per yard is usually required each day, an 
adjustment must be provided by means of which the variation 
may be reduced to a minimum. If the lap is delivered too 
heavy or too light per yard, a change, of course, can be made 
in the draft change gear, but in case the variation is very 
slight, a change of 1 tooth in the draft gear will probably 
cause too great an alteration. For this reason, therefore, 
the adjustment is provided on the rod g and, by turning the 
screwy, up or down on this rod, the belt may be moved on 
the cones, thus making a very slight change in the speed of 
the feed-rolls. All evener motions are provided with some- 
what similar adjustments. 



Draft dears 

V\ m 




tr^^=Jt=^ 



Beaipr 1450 R.RM. 



S 



Car/c 



czzf 



Top 




Top CulencIerRoU 5'/2"Dia. 



2 "J/ 



1= 3':^ 



Bottom 



Cross Shaft 



O'Din.Lap CalpnderRotl 



C 9" 



cd Bottom StrippinffRotI 




27 



Fig. 27 



17 PICKERS 37 



GEARING 

34. The gearing of a picker equipped with the evener 
motion illustrated in Fig. 20 is shown in Fig. 27. The beater 
shaft m is driven from a countershaft, as explained in con- 
nection with the breaker picker, and carries the usual pulleys 
for driving the fan and feed-rolls. 

The feed-pulley Wi drives a pulley i?i^ on a shaft ?/ extend- 
ing across the picker. From this shaft, the cones and the 
feed-rolls, together with the feed-apron, are driven. As the 
feed-apron is driven through the cones, its speed will always 
be in accordance with that of the feed-rolls. The lap head, 
cages, and stripping rolls are driven through a side shaft p, 
which receives its motion from the shaft ?i. The driving plan 
of the picker shown in Fig. 25 is given in Fig. 28. 

The measuring motion is provided with change gears, 
by means of which different lengths of laps can be procured. 
When finding the length of lap, the number of revolutions 
made by the bottom calender roll while the knock-off gear is 
revolving once should first be determined; this result multi- 
plied by the circumference of the roll will give the length of 
lap. Referring to Fig. 26, the bottom calender roll a is 
7 inches in diameter, b is a. single worm, and the worm-gear c 
is the change gear; the gear d has 21 teeth, while the knock- 
off gear e contains 30 teeth. 

The length of lap delivered when using a 45-tooth change 

30 X 45 

gear is as follows: = 64.285 revolutions of roll to 

21 X 1 
one revolution of gear e. 64.285 X 7 X 3.1416 = 1,413.704 
inches. 1,413.704 inches ^ 36 = 39.269 yards, length of lap. 
This example could also be expressed as follows: 
30_Xi.3_X 7 X 3.1416 ^ 3^ ^e yards 
21 X 1 X 36 
A constant for the measuring motion may be obtained by 
omitting the change gear or considering it a 1-tooth gear. 
This constant, multiplied by the number of teeth in any 
change gear, will give the length of lap delivered when using 
that gear, and consequently the gear for producing a certain 



38 



PICKERS 



17 



16 



-4'e" 



6S 1 



■ \ 



Apron Roll 



EvenerRoll 



Feed Roll 2V8"Dia. 



Beater 1300 R.RM. 



Cage 



Stripping Roll \:z^i 



CalenderRoll 



1 



76^ S 



73 



^ =13? 



9"Fluled/CalenderRoll 




m Draft Gear 



37 



Fig. 28 



§17 PICKERS 39 

length may be found by dividing the length of lap required 
by the constant. The constant is obtained as follows: 
30x (1) X 7 X 3.1416 



21 X 1 X 36 



= .8726, constant 



35. Draft of Intermediate and Flnislier Pickers. 

The draft change gears are shown on both plans, Figs. 27 
and 28. In the machine shown in Fig. 27, there are two change 
gears Wi, //, so that if the proper draft cannot be obtained by 
changing one gear, the other may be changed. The draft of 
an intermediate picker is usually about 4.25 and that of a fin- 
isher picker about 4.50, when there are 4 laps up at the back. 

The total draft of the machine shown in Fig. 27, with a gear 
of 55 teeth on the lower-cone shaft meshing with a gear of 
35 teeth, and wath the belt in the center of the cones, is 
as follows: 

9 X 24 X 12 X.17 X 18 X 27 X 55 X 9 X 78 X 24 ^ ^ ^^^ ^^^^^ 
24 X 53 X 96 X 60 X 27 X 35 X 9 X 2 X 12 X 3 

The total draft of the machine shown in Fig. 28, with a 
20-draft gear and the belt in the center of the cones, is as 
follows: 
9 X 18 X 14 X 14 X 30 X 54 X 3.25 X 85 X 28 X 12 



37 X 73 X 76 X 20 X 40 X 10 X 1 X 20 X 16 X 2i 
draft 



= 4.275, 



CARE OF PICKERS 

36. Regulation of Air-Current. — The air-current that 
draws the cotton to the cages should be regulated to draw 
the cotton to them in such proportions that the upper cage 
w^ill receive an amount slightly in excess of that which the 
bottom one receives, since, if the stock is drawn to the cages 
in equal amounts, the sheet delivered at the front of the 
picker will be formed of two layers of practically the same 
thickness, and when run through the next machine, will be 
liable to split. Pickers are constructed with dampers in 
the flue so that the required adjustments may be made. 
The making of a good lap is an important point. It should 
be perfectly cylindrical when removed from the machine, 



40 PICKERS §17 

and should feel as firm at one point as at another. It should 
be built so that the layers will unroll easily at the next proc- 
ess without sticking- together. This defect, which is known 
as splitting, or licking:, is due to various causes; such as 
excessive fan speed, improper division of the air-currents, 
oil dropping on the cotton, etc. 

If the air-current is stronger on one side than on the other, 
the side having the weaker current is usually soft. The 
velocity of the air-current is also responsible for the amount 
of waste removed. If the air-current is too strong, it prevents 
good cotton from being struck through the bars, but at the 
same time prevents all the dirt from being removed, since 
the current is strong enough to carry it forwards. On the other 
hand, if the current is so weak that the dirt drops readily, 
good cotton may also drop with it, causing excessive waste. 
A medium air-current must therefore be found that will allow 
the removal of the greatest amount of dirt with the least 
amount of cotton. The setting of the grid bars also aids in 
this, and the matter of keeping all the parts clean cannot receive 
too much attention. In some cases it is found necessary, in 
order to avoid an excessive amount of air entering through 
the grid bars and preventing the removal of the dirt, to 
admit air through the ends of the beater cover or through the 
casing that extends over the passage between the beater and 
the cages. 

The laps delivered should be as near a uniform weight as 
possible. Each lap from the finisher picker is usually 
weighed, and a variation of i pound in either direction is 
allowed; that is, if laps weighing 35 pounds are delivered 
when they are the correct weight per yard, any laps weigh- 
ing between 341 and 352 pounds are allowed to pass. Laps 
weighing outside this range should be put back and run over 
again, and if too many of these laps are uniformly heavy or 
light, the regulating screw on the evener should be adjusted. 

37. Causes of Uneven Tjaps. — When laps are found to 
be weighing unevenly, the fault may be at several places. 
The feeder may be feeding unevenly; the evener, either on 



§17 



PICKERS 



41 



the intermediate or finisher lapper, may be out of order, 
possibly through not being cleaned and oiled properly or 
through using a stiflE evener driving belt. This should be 
perfectly pliable and have good piecings. Cotton may also 
remain in the trunks or over the inclined cleaning bars 
because these are not kept clean. 

Another cause for uneven laps is often found in the posi- 
tion of the cone belt on the cones of the evener motion. If, 
when the proper amount of cotton is passing through the 
picker, the cone belt is running at one end of the cones, it 
will not allow the belt to be shifted far enough toward the 
nearest end of the cones to correct any considerable varia- 
tion requiring a movement of the belt in that direction. The 
different parts of the evener motion should be so adjusted 
that the belt will run at the center of the cones when the 
correct amount of cotton is passing through the machine. 
This will give the cone belt one-half of the cones to work on 
for regulating either light or heavy laps. 

Below is given a table showing for what numbers of yarn 
certain weights of lap are generally used: 



Numbers 


-)f Yarn 


Weight of Lap per Yard 
From Finisher Picker 








Ounces 


IS 


to 


lOS 


14.0 


IDS 


to 


20s 


13-5 


20S 


to 


30s 


13.0 


30s 


to 


40s 


12.0 


40s 


to 


50S 


II-5 


50s 


to 


60s 


I i.o 


60s 


to 


70s 


1 1.0 


70s 


to 


80s 


1 1.0 


80s 


to 


90s 


10. 


90s 


to 


lOOS 


10. 


lOOS 


to 


I20S 


9-5 


I20S 


to 


I5OS 


9.0 



42 PICKERS §17 

A good production for an intermediate or finisher picker 
is about 12,500 pounds per week, allowing from 6 to 10 hours 
for stoppages. A finisher picker for making 40-inch laps 
occupies a floor space of about 16 feet by 6 feet 82 inches 
and requires about 4 horsepower to drive it. 

38. Cleaning and Oiling:. — Pickers should be kept 
well cleaned and oiled. All oil holes, wherever possible, 
should be covered in order to keep grit and sand from the 
bearings. In oiling, care should be taken not to allow the 
oil to get on the inside of the casings where the cotton 
passes. The beater, grid bars, inclined cleaning bars, and 
cages should be picked clean of cotton daily and kept free 
from dirt and oil. All air passages and pipes from fans 
should be kept clean, but the covers of the doors of these air 
passages or pipes should not be removed while the machine 
is running. 



COTTON CARDS 

(PART 1) 



INTRODUCTION 

1. The lap of cotton as it leaves the picker consists of 
cotton fibers crossed in all directions, together with a small 
amount of foreign matter, consisting more especially of 
lighter impurities such as pieces of leaf, seed, or stalk, and 
thin membranes from the cotton boll. Such material is of 
too light a nature to be removed by the action of the beaters 
or to drop through between the grid or inclined cleaning 
bars of the pickers, so that it is carried forwards with the 
cotton and into the lap. In order to remove this foreign 
matter, machinery of an entirely diiTerent character from the 
cleaning machinery previously used must be adopted, and 
for this purpose the cotton card is employed, the process 
being known as carding:- .Carding is regarded by many 
manufacturers as one of the most important processes in 
cotton-yarn preparation. In addition to cleaning the cotton, 
it is also the first step in the series of attenuating processes, 
which gradually reduce the weight of cotton per unit of 
length sufficiently to form a thread. The lap from the 
picker is comparatively heavy, and must be reduced consid- 
erably in weight at various machines in order to give the 
weight per unit of length required in the j^arn. The carding 
process is the one that follows the picking operations in all 
cotton mills, whether coarse or fine, and whether making 
carded or combed yarns. 

2. Objects of CardinjT. — The objects of carding are: 
(1) The disentangling of the cotton fibers, or the separation 

For notice of copyright, see page immediately following the title page 



2 COTTON CARDS §18 

of the bunches, or tufts, of fiber into individual fibers, and the 
commencement of their parallelization; (2) the removal of 
the smaller and lighter impurities; (3) changing the forma- 
tion of cotton from a lap to a sliver, accompanied by the 
reduction of the weight per yard of the material. A sliver 
is a round, loose strand of cotton without, or almost without, 
twist, and usually from 40 to 80 grains per yard in weight. 
It is generally coiled in a can, and is made at the carding, 
drawing, and combing processes. 

3. Principles of Carding. — In order to arrive at the 
previously mentioned objects, the principle of combing the 
fibers between sets of closely arranged wire teeth is adopted; 
one set may be fixed and the other moving, or each set may 
be moving in the opposite direction to the other, or both 
may be moving in the same direction but at different speeds. 
In any case, the sets of wire teeth are in close proximity to 
one another. The first and second objects — the disentan- 
gling of the cotton fibers and the removal of the impuri- 
ties — are attained by this means, as the fibers forming the 
small tufts are drawn apart and the lighter impurities 
are caught between the wires, where they remain until 
removed by special means. Use is also made of the cen- 
trifugal force of a cylinder covered with wire teeth and 
revolving at a high speed in attaining the first and second 
objects of carding; the ends of the fibers are thrown against 
stationary or moving points of wire and the fibers thus 
combed out, while heavier impurities such as sand, dirt, and 
dust are thrown out, owing to the high speed of the cylinder. 
Another method of arriving at the second object is that 
of arranging knives or bars partly around the revolving 
portions of the card, to clean and throw off the dirt, sand, 
and dust from the fibers as they are drawn past such 
obstructions. The third object is attained by adopting the 
principle of drafting, the attenuation of the material being 
produced by revolving cylinders covered with wire teeth, 
instead of by the usual method of rolls, which are used in 
this machine only at the feed and delivery. 



§18 COTTON CARDS 3 

Carding is really a combing or brushing action, the fibers 
being operated on by a series of wire teeth, which has the 
same effect as loosely holding a few fibers at a time and 
striking them with a comb; the process, however, must not 
be confused with that technically known as combing, which is 
an entirely separate process and used only in the manufac- 
ture of fine yarns. The machine employed in carding is 
usually spoken of as a card, or sometimes as a cardi?ig 
engine; this latter name, however, is used more commonly in' 
England than in the United States. 



CARD CONSTRUCTION 



THE REVOLVING-TOP FLAT CARD 



PRINCIPAL PARTS 

4. The card that is most commonly used and now 
almost universally adopted for new cotton mills is known as 
the i-evolving-top flat card, sometimes spoken of as the 
revolving Hat card, or the English card. Views of it are 
shown in Figs. 1 and 2, Fig. 1 showing one side of the card, 
with the machine in condition for operation, while Fig. 2 
shows the other side as it is seen when stopped and without 
any stock passing through. A section through the same 
card from back to front is shown in Fig. 3. The various 
parts of the card are lettered the same in all three figures, 
and reference letters should be referred to on Fig. 3 espe- 
cially; but it is also advisable to refer to Figs. 1 and 2 for 
the same parts, in order to identify them and ascertain their 
relations to one another. The same letters are used in other 
figures throughout this Section in accordance with the follow- 
ing list. All parts of a single motion or section of the card 
are designated by the same letter, which in some instances is 
followed by a figure, known as the subscript, to distinguish 
the particular part for which it is used from related parts 
having the same reference letter. 



COTTON CARDS 



§18 




IS 



COTTON CARDS 




MJ 



§18 



COTTON CARDS 



5. 



The principal parts 6f the machine are as follows: 



a, Lap roll. 

rto, Lap that is being carded. 
a«, vSpare lap. 
rte, Lap plates. 

b, Feed-plate. 
^,, Feed-roll. 

^3, Weights for feed-roll. 

c, Licker. 

r,, Licker screen. 

d, di, Mote knives. 

e, Cylinder. 

c^, Back knife plate. 

^s, Cylinder screen. 

Cn, Lower front plate. 

fg, Door at front of cylinder. 

f,,, Front knife plate. 

r,j, Tight pulley on cylinder. 

^,3, Loose pulley on cylinder. 

/, Flats. 

g. Arches of card. 

h. Flexible bend on which a 



//,, //s, //s, Pulleys for support- 
ing flats. 

y, Flat-stripping comb. 

k, Flat-stripping brush. 

/(",, Hackle comb for cleaning 
flat stripping brush. 

/, Card sides. 

/,, Cross-girts. 

/-, Doors in frame of card. 

ni, Doffer. 

;;z4, Doffer bonnet. 

jUa, Barrow gear. 

wzjs, Side shaft. 

n, Doffer comb. 

o, Trumpet. 

<7,, Top calender roll. 

^2, Bottom calender roll. 

0^, Can in which sliver is 
coiled. 

p. Cover of coiler. 

/>i, Coiler calender rolls. 



portion of the flats rests. 

Figs. 4 and 5 show a revolving flat card of another style 
of construction, but all essential parts are the same and are 
lettered as in Figs. 1, 2, and 3. 

6. Feed-Roll and Feed-Plate. — At the back of the 
card in Fig. 1 is shown the lap «,, which has a rod a^ passed 
through its center and rests on the lap roll a, shown in Fig. 3. 
The lap a^ is the one being carded, a spare lap «< being shown 
above it in Fig. 1, resting in a s.and a^,. The lap roll a is 
constructed of wood and is either fluted or has a rough sur- 
face, sometimes produced by covering it with a coat of paint 
mixed with sand, in order to cause the lap to unroll by friction 
with the lap roll and without any slippage. 

The cotton is drawn over the feed-plate b. Fig. 3, by the 
feed-roll b^, the single layer, or sheet, leaving the lap at the 



COTTON CARDS 



§18 




§18 



COTTON CARDS 



9 



point rts. As it passes from the lap to the feed-roll, each 
outer edge of the sheet comes in contact with a lap guide — a 
wedge-shaped piece of metal bolted on the inside of the 




plate ae. This guide turns up the edges of the sheet to a 
small extent, making it slightly narrower as it approaches 
the feed-roll. This tends to prevent the outer edge of the 



10 



COTTON CARDS 



18 



cotton from spreading and producing a ragged edge. The 
feed-plate b extends under the feed-roll b^, with its nose pro- 
jecting upwards in front of the feed-roll almost to the teeth 
shown on the circumference of the licker c. The feed-roll b^, 
which revolves in the direction indicated by the arrow, is 
fluted longitudinally and is sufficiently large in diameter to 
resist any tendency to spring or bend when a thick piece of 
cotton passes beneath it. Its ends rest in slides and it is 
weighted at each end by means of a weight b:,. Figs. 1 and 2, 
on a lever that has, as a fulcrum, a lug on the feed-plate. 
The lever has a bearing on a bushing on the feed-roll and 
thus produces the pressure of the feed-roll on the sheet of 

cotton on the feed-plate, 
the extent qf which may 
be regulated by moving 
the weight b^ along the 
lever. If the pressure 
is too light, the action 
of the licker will pull the 
cotton from the feed- 
roll before it should 
be delivered. This is 
known as plucking, and 
results in cotton being 
taken by the licker in 
large and tangled flakes 
that have not been 

Fig. 6 , , . 

opened, thus causmg un- 
even work and requiring the finer parts of the card to perform 
the heavy work, which should be done by the licker. 

Above the feed-roll rests a small iron rod b. that is revolved 
by frictional contact with this roll and, since it is covered 
with flannel, collects any fiber or dirt that may be carried 
upwards over the surface of the feed-roll and thus acts as a 
clearer. It also serves to prevent any air-current from pass- 
ing between the feed-roll and the licker cover. 

The lap roll a is positively geared with the feed-roll /', in 
such a manner that the feed-roll takes up exactly the amount 




§18 



COTTON CARDS 



11 



of cotton delivered by the lap roll, without any strain or 
sagging, and as it revolves, carries this cotton over the nose 
of the feed-plate so that a fringe is brought under the action 
of the licker c in the man- 
ner shown in Fig. 3, and 
on a larger scale in 
Figs. 6, 7, 8, and 12. The 
upper end of the nose of 
the feed-plate is rounded 
so as not to damage the 
cotton resting on it and 
pressed against it by the 
action of the licker. 



7. The important dif- 
ference in various feed- 
plates is in the distance 
from the bite of the feed- 




FlG. 



roll to the lower end of the face, indicated by the arrow in 
Figs. 6, 7, and 8. By regulating this distance in accordance 
with the length of staple being worked, the entire length of 

staple is so supported that 
it receives the full benefit 
of the cleaning and dis- 
entangling action of the 
licker, which reduces the 
work on the finer parts of 
the card. The distance 
between the bite of the 
feed-roll and the lower 
edge of the face of the 
feed-plate should be from 
-\t to i inch longer than 
the average length of the 
cotton being worked, as 
it is necessary that the 
fibers should be free from the bite of the feed-roll before the 
action of the teeth of the licker exerts its greatest pull, which 




Fig. 8 



12 



COTTON CARDS 



§18 




Fig. 9 



is at the lower edge of the plate; otherwise, the fibers would 

be broken. The fringe of cotton is shown in Fig. 9. The 

feed-plate shown in 
Fig. 6 is suitable for 
sea-island cotton, as 
it has a face that 
makes it possible for 
the long fibers to 
hang down; the feed- 
plate shown in Fig. 7 
is the style common- 
ly used in America, 
being adapted for 
the various grades 
of American and 
Egyptian cottons. 
A feed-plate with a 
shorter face, as 

shown in Fig. 8, is sometimes made for very short-stapled 

cottons, such as those grown 

in India and China. 

8. Two-Roll Method of 
Feeding. — Some cards, in- 
stead of having the feed- 
roll and feed-plate, are con- 
structed so as to feed the 
licker by means of two feed- 
rolls, as shown in Fig. 10. 
This is an older form of 
feeding and is not so desir- 
able. The disadvantage of 
this method is that a fourth 
of the diameter of the 
lower feed-roll is covered 
with loose cotton before it 
reaches the point where it comes under the action of the 
teeth of the licker, thus tending to increase the possibility 




Fig. 10 



§18 



COTTON CARDS 



13 



of the licker plucking large tufts of cotton before the cotton 
ought to be delivered. This system is also inferior on 
account of the brief opportunity given for the licker to 
operate on the fringe of cotton, as compared with the roll 
and feed-plate system, where a long fringe of cotton is 
presented to the licker, thus giving a much better oppor- 
tunity for combing and removing the dirt. In fact, the 
combed fringe of cotton in a card using the feed-plate 
can be arranged to be about three times the length of that 
in a card using the two-roll method of feeding. 

9. Licker. — The object of either of these feeds is to 
feed a regular supply of cotton to the licker c, shown in 




=ls 






'//. 



'i 



(c) 



Fig. 11 

Fig. 3, sometimes called the leader, taker-i7i, or licker-in. 
The licker consists of a hollow metal roll about 9 inches in 
diameter. On the outside of the shell, or curved part, of the 
roll, and extending from one end to the other, are spiral 
grooves into which rows of teeth are inserted. Fig. 11 {a) 
is a view of the teeth of the licker as they appear when 
looked at from above, and also shows the fibers being carried 
by them from the feed-roll, thus indicating the manner in 
which the lap of cotton is separated almost into individual 
fibers by the operation of the licker, which revolves so 
rapidly, compared with the amount of cotton delivered, 
that about 2,000,000 teeth pass the nose of the feed- 
plate while 1 inch of cotton is being delivered. It will be 



14 COTTON CARDS §18 

seen from Fig. 11 (a) that the teeth are scattered, or 
staggered, over the shell of the roll in consequence of the 
spiral arrang-ement, and thus one tooth does not strike 
the fringe of cotton exactly where the previous one struck. 

Fig. 11 (r) is a section of a portion of a licker showing 
.the construction of the wire from which the teeth are formed, 
and also the method of fastening it securely in the roll. 
The teeth are punched out of a narrow, fiat, strip of steel, or 
wire, carrying a thickened rib along one edge. This rib is 
forced into the grooves prepared in the shell of the licker, 
and the teeth project, as shown in Fig. 11 {b) , the dotted 
line indicating the depth to which the rib is sunk into the 
shell of the licker. Several separate spirals are laid side by 
side, the distance between two rounds of any one spiral 
being 1 inch, and there are either five, six, seven, eight, 
nine, or ten spirals side by side, according to the class of 
work for which the card is intended. This results in the 
distance between the centers of two consecutive spirals 
being either i, i, t, i, i, or -iV inch apart, while the points 
of the teeth are usually \ inch apart lengthwise of the wire. 

The shell of the licker c is shown in section in Figs. 3 
and 12, which also show the relative position of the licker to 
the contiguous portions of the card. Below the feed-roll b^, 
clearer b.,, and feed-plate b are seen the sections of two 
knives d,dy, which are known as mote knives. These 
knives extend across the card in the position shown, with 
the blade of the knife near the teeth of the licker; their 
object is to remove such impurities as hulls, husks, bearded 
motes, etc., or in other words, all portions of matter other 
than cotton. 

At the nose of the feed-plate, the licker is moving in a 
downward direction and the teeth are pointing in the direc- 
tion of its revolution. Since the fringe of cotton is held by 
the roll, it will be disentangled as the teeth pass through it. 
When the cotton is released from the bite of the feed-roll, 
it will be taken by the teeth of the licker. Any short fibers, 
however, that are not sufficiently long to be secured by the 
licker, will fall through the space between the mote knives. 



§18 



COTTON CARDS 



15 



The cotton that drops in this manner is known as fly, and 
its loss is beneficial since it leaves the cotton that passes 
forwards in a more uniform condition as regards its length 
of staple. The licker has a surface speed of about 1,000 feet 
per minute, and thus, as it revolves with the cotton, the 
portions of the fibers that are not in contact with the teeth 
will be thrown out by centrifugal force, so that the impurities 
that project from the fibers on the surface of the licker will 




come in contact with the blades of the mote knives and be 
removed, dropping into the cavity below the knives. 

In the usual construction of cards there are two of these 
mote knives, although one may be used. The knives are 
rigidly held in suitable supports, and in the style under 
consideration their correct angle is decided by the machine 
builder, the arrangement being such that this angle cannot 
be changed. They are sometimes, however, made adjustable, 
either by being placed in a swinging frame or, as in Fig. 12, 
by being provided with setscrews iL, and locknuts ^Z,, by 



16 COTTON CARDS §18 

means of which either knife may be moved closer to or 
farther from the Hcker and then locked in position; or the 
entire bracket d^ that carries both knives, may be moved 
farther from or closer to the feed-plate by loosening the 
screw d^, sliding the entire bracket d^ on the frame of the 
licker screen, and then relocking it. 

10. Licker Screen and Licker Cover. — Underneath 
the licker is a casing Cx known as the licker screen. This 
casing, which is shown in Figs. 3 and 12, is made of tin and 
extends across the card. The portion of the screen directly 
under the licker is composed of transverse bars r,, triangular 
in shape with rounded corners and set with their bases 
inverted, the remainder of the screen being plain metal. As 
the licker revolves, whatever heavy impurities were not 
previously taken out will be thrown through the openings in 
the screen, due to the action of centrifugal force. The cotton 
will also come in contact with the screen as it did with the 
mote knives, and thus additional impurities will be removed. 

The top of the licker is protected by a metal cover c^ 
known as the licker cover", or bonnet, which is curved to 
correspond to the curved surface of the licker. This cover 
is held in position by two disks, one at each end, through 
which the shaft of the licker projects. These disks are held 
in position by flanges attached to them, which rest in the 
licker bearings attached to the framework of the card. The 
licker cover is screwed to these disks, and thus the licker is 
completely enclosed. The points where the shaft passes 
through the disks should be kept clean and well oiled; other- 
wise, the points of contact will become heated and tend to 
bind the shaft. 

11. Card Cylinders. — Situated about midway between 
the back and front of the card, and a prominent feature in its 
construction, is the cylinders, mounted on the shafts,. This 
cylinder is usually 50 inches in diameter, while its width 
depends on the width of the card, being usually 36, 40, or 
45 inches. Formerly card cylinders were made of wood, but 
it is now the universal practice to construct them of cast iron, 



§18 COTTON CARDS 17 

as metal resists the changes of temperature and humidity- 
better than wood, which is Hable to warp and twist and thus 
prevent accurate setting of the card. When metal cylinders 
were first used, the shell ^,, Fig. 3, was constructed in two 
pieces, which were bolted together, but the best and most 
modern method is to make the shell in one casting, with a 
sufficient number of longitudinal and sectional ribs on the 
interior of the shell to make it strong and rigid. This shell 
is mounted at each end on a spider e^, which consists of a 
heavy rim cast in one piece with a series of strong supporting 
arms. The hubs of the spiders are accurately bored for the 
reception of the shaft of the cylinder, while the rims are 
turned to a true shape and size and accurately fitted to the 
ends of the shell. 

The cylinder should be mounted on its shaft as rigidly as 
possible, to avoid the possibility of its becoming loose. The 
method adopted in the card under consideration is as follows: 
A shaft long enough to pass through the shell and project 
sufficiently beyond to rest in the bearings and also carry the 
necessary pulleys for driving the cylinder and various parts 
of the card is forced into its position through the hub of each 
of the spiders by means of a powerful screw press. It is then 
secured to the spiders by means of two large taper dowels, 
one at each end of the cylinder. These dowels are driven 
into holes drilled through the hubs of the spiders and through 
the shaft. 

The complete cylinder should be turned and afterwards 
ground while resting on its own bearing, not on a mandrel, 
so as to produce an absolutely true surface when in opera- 
tion. As these cylinders are intended to run at a high speed, 
they are also balanced so as to insure even running, and 
when their construction is complete the ends are cased in 
with sheet iron to prevent dust or fiber from entering the 
cylinder and to avoid accidents that would be liable to result 
if they were rotated at a high speed with uncovered arms. 
In Figs. 1 and 2, the letter e applies more directly to these 
end casings, although it is used to indicate the cylinder 
as a whole. 



18 COTTON CARDS §18 

THe surface of this cylinder is covered with card clothing, 
which is a fabric with teeth embedded in it and projecting 
through it at an angle. The addition of the clothing to the 
cylinder increases its diameter to about 50f inches. Refer- 
ence to Fig. 3 shows the teeth on the surface of this cylinder 
pointing in the direction of its motion, as indicated by the 
arrow shown on the shell of the cylinder. A point on the 
surface of the cylinder travels about 2,150 feet per minute. 
The teeth of the wire are set very closely in the fabric, there 
being about 72,000 points to the square foot and more than 
3,000,000 points on the entire cylinder. A fuller description 
of this clothing, together with the manner in which it is 
applied, is given later. 

12. The description of the licker and its operation on 
the cotton has been carried far enough to explain how the 
heavier impurities are removed from the fringe of cotton 
projecting over the feed-plate and driven downwards into 'the 
space beneath the card, and also how the fibers are removed 
from this fringe when they project downwards sufficiently to 
be released and are carried along on the ends of the teeth of 
the licker at a speed of about 1,000 feet per minute. These 
fibers are now transferred to the surface of the cylinder, 
which is rendered possible by the respective directions of 
motion of the cylinder and licker and by the direction in 
which their teeth are pointing. At the point where the 
licker and the cylinder almost come in contact, both are 
moving in the same direction and have their teeth pointing 
upwards. The teeth on the licker are comparatively coarsely 
set, while those on the cylinder are finely set and have a 
much greater tendency to hold and to retain the minute fibers 
than the teeth of the licker. The cylinder is also revolving 
at more than double the surface speed of the licker, and con- 
sequently the fibers are swept off the surface of the licker 
where the surfaces of the licker and cylinder are in closest 
proximity and carried upwards on the surface of the cylinder. 

Fig. 13 shows the relative positions and the respective 
styles of construction of the licker and the cylinder at the 



18 



COTTON CARDS 



19 



point where they approach each other, while Fig. 14 shows 
an enlarged view of the teeth. 

In Figs. 3 and 18, a metal plate designated as a cover is 
shown in connection with the licker 
cover. This cover e^, which is 
known as the back knife plate, 
protects the cylinder at this point 
and prevents an air-current from 
being formed by the motion of the 
cylinder. A wedge-shaped piece 
of wood Ct covered with flannel is 
usually placed in the receptacle 
formed by the junction of the licker 
cover with the back knife plate, 
in order to prevent any possible 
chance of an air-current. 



13. Flats. — Above the cylin- 
der and partly surrounding its 
upper portion is a chain of flats /, 




Fig. 13 



as shown in Figs. 1, 2, and 3. 



These are the parts that give 
the name renolvhig- 
top flat card to the 
card. They are made 
of cast iron, approxi- 
mately T-shaped in 
section, and are part- 
ly covered with 
card clothing about 
\f, inch wide. They 
are usually li inches 
wide and slightly 
longer than the width 
of the cylinder, but 
are covered with 
clothing only over the 
portion of their length that corresponds to the width of the 
cylinder. This clothing is of a finer wire, with the teeth more 




20 



COTTON CARDS 



§18 



closely set, than that on the cylinder, and is usually fastened 
to the flat by clips on each side of the flat. There are from 
104 to 110 flats on a card, but as they are in proximity to the 
cylinder for only about one-third of its circumference, only 
from 39 to 43 flats are presented to the cylinder at one time. 
Fig. 15 (a) gives an end view of a flat, while (d) shows a 
section. Each end is drilled and tapped to receive a set- 
screw, which passes through a hollow stud carrying links, 
and as each link extends from one flat to the next and each 

end of each link encircles 
one of these hollow studs, 
the flats are connected in 
an endless chain. The 
screw that is inserted is of 
special construction, right- 
hand screws being used on 
one side of the card and 
left-hand screws on the 
other, so that the motion 
of the flats will tend to 
tighten rather than to 
loosen the screws and thus 
avoid the possibility of 
their becoming loose and 
allowing a flat to come in 
contact with the cylinder, 
which would cause con- 
siderable damage. 

The flats must be so ar- 
ranged that they will be supported immediately above the 
cylinder without coming in contact with it or without their 
supports interfering with its rotation. This is done by 
means of two arches ^, Figs. 1 and 2, which are strongly 
constructed castings resting on the framework of the card, 
one on each side, and securely bolted to it. Each arch 
carries five brackets //,, which are composed of several 
pieces. One portion of each bracket projects upwards suf- 
ficiently to carry a pulley that serves as a support for those 




§18 COTTON CARDS 21 

flats that are not performing any carding action and that 
are passing backwards over the cj^linder, while another 
portion of each bracket serves as a support for the flexible 
bend // and provides a ready means of adjusting it in order 
to move the wire teeth of the flats that are at work nearer to 
or farther from the wire teeth on the surface of the cylinder. 
A fuller description of the arrangements for adjusting the 
flexible bends will be given in the description of setting cards; 
it is sufficient to state here that the flexible bends can be 
moved farther from, or nearer to, the cylinder shaft at any 
one of five setting points on either side of the card, and by 
this means the upper edges of the bends can be adjusted so 
as to be practically concentric with the circumference, or 
wire surface, of the cylinder. 

About forty of the flats rest on the flexible bend at each 
side of the card; the portions that are in contact with the 
Dends are the two surfaces ^ and f^, Figs. 15 and 16. The 
chains are placed as near the flexible bends as possible, since 
if they are too far away, the pull and weight of the chains 
will cause a deflection in the flat. It is absolutely necessary 
that the chains on each side shall be exactly alike and work 
with the same tension, as the smallest variation will pull the 
flats out of their proper positions over the cylinder, and their 
accurac}^ will thus be destroyed. Chains are now so made 
that the whole variation from the standard is not more than 
sV inch. The flats are, of course, linked together on each 
side of the card by an exactly similar arrangement, except 
that, as has been previously stated, left-hand screws are used 
on one side and right-hand screws on the other. 

14. Another representation of flats at work is given in 
Fig. 16, which shows them resting on the flexible bend, and 
held so that the points of the wire on their surfaces are 
almost touching the points of the ware on the cylinder. The 
exact distance between the wire on the flats and that on the 
cylinder is adjustable, and is usually about i i n o inch. The dis- 
tance between the wires, however, is not the same at each 
point in the width of the flat, as will be seen by referring 



22 



COTTON CARDS 



§18 




Fig. 16 



to Fig. 16. The wire of the flat at the point /= is closer 
to the cylinder than at the point /« in each case. The end 
view of the flat in Fig. 15 (a) shows that the metal compos- 
ing the flat end is cut away more on the side f, than on the 
side /j; consequently, when this flat is turned over and rests 
on the flexible bend, the side /, will drop closer to the cylin- 
der than the side /j, 
and the wires on the 
side /s will drop lower 
than the wires on the 
side /s, thus making a 
slightly wedge-shaped 
space between the 
wires of the flat and 
the wires of the cylin- 
der. The side /s of the flat, which is nearer to the cylinder, 
is known as the heel, while the side that is farther from the 
cylinder, namely, /«, is known as the toe. Flats are always 
constructed with this heel-and-toe formation, and it should 
be preserved throughout the life of the card. 

The chain of flats is not stationary, but moves at a very 
slow speed, those flats nearest the cylinder moving toward 
the front of the card, while of course, the flats that are not 
working are carried backwards over the top of those that are 
at work. The means of imparting motion to the flats, which 
will be described in connection with the gearing of the card, 
results in a steady, smooth movement usually at the rate of 
about 3 inches per minute, although this may be changed to 
either a faster or slower speed, according to whether it is 
desired to remove more or less waste, respectively, from the 
cotton. The object of giving a movement to the flats is 
to carry toward the front of the card those flats that have 
become filled with impurities, so that they may be stripped 
and brushed out before they become too full of leaf and other 
foreign matter to perform the duty of carding the cotton. 



15. The method of supporting the flats that are not at 
work is shown in Figs. 1, 2, and 3. They are supported at 



§18 COTTON CARDS 23 

the front by two pulleys /,, one at each end of a shaft that 
has its bearings in two brackets, one on each side of the 
card. On the same shaft with these two pulleys are two 
sprocket gears, the one shown being marked /«, the teeth of 
which mesh with the ribs on the back of the flats, and as this 
shaft is driven by means of worms and worm-gears, the 
sprocket gears drive the flats. The portion of the chain of 
flats directly above the cylinder and resting on the flexible 
bends revolves in the same direction as the cylinder, namely, 
toward the front. The flats that are not at work move back- 
wards, in the opposite direction to the cylinder, and rest on 
pulleys //j, //s, //g supported by brackets h^ attached to the arch 
of the card and duplicated on each side. The ends of the flats 
rest on these pulleys and impart motion to them by frictional 
contact. Two of these pulleys //« at about the center of 
the card are connected by a shaft //,o that extends across the 
card. The pulleys lu, which are directly over the licker, form 
the turning point of the flats. Those that have been cleaned 
and carried along over the top turn and pass over the cylin- 
der to perform their work, while those that have just 
finished their work, being charged with impurities, pass 
around the pulleys at the front and are cleaned. The 
bracket //,, which supports the pulley //», is so constructed 
that the pulley may be raised or lowered to take out the sag, 
or slack, in the chain of flats or to allow sufiflcient slack for 
the flats to revolve freely. 

16. As previously explained, the cotton is transferred 
to the face of the cylinder from the licker at the point where 
the two surfaces nearly touch each other, and is carried 
upwards and forwards by it until brought to the point where 
the flats and cylinder are brought into close proximity. 
When the cylinder reaches the first flat, the cotton on its 
surface has a tendency to project from it on account of the 
centrifugal force of the cylinder, and comes in contact with 
the teeth at the toe of the first flat. The stock is gradually 
drawn through the teeth of the flat, receiving more and more 
of a combing or carding action, until the heel of the flat is 



24 COTTON CARDS §18 

reached, where the teeth of the flat and the cylinder are in 
the closest proximity, and where the cotton consequently 
receives the greatest carding action. 

Some of the fibers that have not projected sufficiently may 
not have received any carding action, and the cylinder carries 
them forwards to the next flat. Those fibers that have been 
carded once may be carded again, with such additional fibers 
as are brought under the action of the succeeding flat, and 
so on throughout the entire series. The flats are set a little 
closer to the cylinder at the front, or delivery end, than at the 
back, or feed, end, of the card, and this method combined with 
the heel-and-toe arrangement of the flat insures a gradual and 
effective carding of all the fibers before they have passed 
under the last flat. The small impurities are left behind, 
since they are forced between the teeth of the wire on the 
flats or cylinder and remain there until the wire is cleaned, or 
stripped, as will be explained later. Thus the short fibers 
and impurities are retained, while the long, clean fibers are 
passed forwards. 

17. Flat-Stripping Combs. — At the front of the card 
in Figs. 1, 2, and 3 is shown a comb j supported by two 
arms /d/s. This comb consists of a thin sheet of steel 
attached to a shaft and having its lower edge made up of fine 
teeth. It is capable of adjustment so as to be moved closer 
to, or farther from, the wire on the flats. The comb is given 
an oscillating motion by means of a cam acting on the arm /a, 
Fig. 2, and at each stroke strips from a flat a portion of the 
short fiber, leaf, and other impurities that adhere to its face. 
With the arrangement shown in Figs. 1 and 2, a close setting 
between the comb and flats is not possible owing to the 
difficulty in giving a backward movement to the comb with- 
out damaging the clothing of the flats. 

Fig. 17 {a) represents a method of actuating the comb / 
that differs somewhat from that adopted on the card shown 
in Figs. 1 and 2. Fig. 17 {b) is a front view of the comby 
with bearing jr. and actuating lever /,. This comb has two 
motions; namely, an oscillating motion, which it receives 



§18 



COTTON CARDS 



25 



through the arm j^ from the cam j^, by letting the arm j^ 
swing around the point j-, as a fulcrum, and a turning motion 
in its bearings 75, received through the lever /« from the 
cam y'e. The teeth of the flats / are stripped while they are 
pointing downwards by a downward stroke of the comb, 
governed by the cam j^. As the comb lifts, it is traveling in 
a direction opposite to that in which the teeth are pointing, 
and to prevent injury to the wire the comb is turned away 




from the flats by means of the cam j^. By the use of this 
arrangement, a closer stripping action is obtained without 
damaging the wire. 

18. Briisli. — After the waste, known as Hat strippings, 
has been removed by the comb y, the flats are brushed out 
by means of the brush k, shown in Fig. 17 {a) and also in 
Figs. 1, 2, and 3. This brush consists of a wooden barrel 
around the surface of which bristles are inserted in four spiral 
coils, the bristles being long, for a short distance at each end 



26 COTTON CARDS §18 

in order to brush the ends of the flats, and shorter in the 
middle so as to just reach into the wire of the flat clothing. 
It is possible to adjust the position of this revolving brush 
so as to remove from the flats any impurities that were not 
taken out by the comb. The brush after it has operated on 
the flats is cleaned by means of a hackle comb /^,, Figs. 1, 2, 
and 3, the teeth of which project into the bristles of the brush 
and remove impurities. The hackle comb is periodically 
cleaned by hand. The flat strippings are either allowed to 
fall from the stripping comb on the steel covers m^,e^ or are 
collected on a round rod /^,, Fig. 1, which is suspended 
directly below the comb and rotated by frictional contact 
with the flats, thus collecting the strippings as they fall 
from the flats. These strippings, whether allowed to drop 
on the steel cover or wound on the surface of the rod, are 
removed periodically by hand. 

19. Cylinder Screen. — Beneath the cylinder is placed a 
screen e^. Fig. 3, known as the cylinder screen. This con- 
sists of circular frames on each side of the card, practically 
corresponding to the curvature of the cylinder and connected 
by triangular cross-bars e^. As shown, the cylinder screen is 
constructed in halves, which are held together at e-,. It is so 
supported that it may be set closer to, or farther from, the 
cylinder, while at the same time it retains practically the same 
curvature as the cylinder. As the cylinder revolves, the fibers 
that project come in contact with the screens, and thus the 
dirt and other foreign substances will be struck off or thrown 
through the openings in the screens, and cannot be drawn 
back. The screens also aid in preventing the good cotton 
from leaving the cylinder. A screen of a similar character 
was mentioned as being placed below the licker; the licker 
screens and cylinder screens are usually connected so as to 
form one complete adjustable undercasing beneath both 
licker and cylinder. 

20. Card Frame. — The entire mechanism thus far 
described is supported on the framework of the card. This 
consists of two strong and solid card sides /, which are 



§18 . COTTON CARDS 27 

connected by cross-girts K with the ends accurately milled 
and securely bolted to the card sides, thus forming- a large 
rectangular frame. To this is attached a partition /,, Fig. 3, 
that separates the dirt and fly produced by the mote knives 
from the licker and cylinder fly. In the card under descrip- 
tion, this partition only projects downwards for half the 
distance between the licker screen and the floor. In some 
styles, however, the partition extends down to the floor and 
has a door in the center so that access can be obtained to the 
rear of the cylinder screen and space below. Around the 
framework of the card are doors h that can be removed for 
the purpose of removing fly, setting undercasings, or exam- 
ining the under parts of the card. There are four of these 
doors on each side of the card in addition to one at the front 
and one at the back. 

21. Doffer. — Directly in front of the cylinder, in Figs. 1, 
2, and 3, is seen the dofifer m, which is supported by the 
doflfer shaft w, and is constructed on the same principle as the 
cylinder. It consists of a perfectly rigid cylindrical shell w, 
carried at each end on a spider Wa with six arms, to which it 
is firmly secured, the whole being rigidly attached to the 
doffer shaft. The doffer is covered with card clothing in a 
similar manner to the cylinder, except that the wire on the 
doffer is more closely set and somewhat finer. The doffer 
is the same width as the cylinder, but is of a much smaller 
diameter usually about 24 inches, but sometimes 27 inches. 
A large doffer is to be preferred, since it gives the same pro- 
duction with a lower speed or a larger surface speed with the 
same number of revolutions, and also gives the cylinder a 
better chance to deliver the fibers on account of its presenting 
a larger wire surface, although the advantage is not very 
great in either case. The doffer revolves in the opposite 
direction to that of the cylinder, the respective direction of 
motion at the place where they most nearly approach one 
another being shown by arrows in Fig. 3. At this place also 
the teeth of the cylinder and doffer point in opposite direc- 
tions. As the teeth of the cylinder point in the direction in 



28 COTTON CARDS §18 

which it moves and were pointing upwards at the place where 
they took the cotton from the licker, they consequently 
point downwards at the front of the card, while the teeth of 
the dofifer at this place point upwards. The surface speed of 
the dofifer, which varies from 44 to 107 feet per minute, 
is much less than that of the cylinder. As the cylinder 
approaches the doffer its surface is covered with separated 
fibers of cotton. Since it is set within about .005 inch 
from the doifer and the dofifer is revolving so much more 
slowly, the fibers of cotton are deposited by the cylinder on 
the face of the doffer. They are condensed considerably 
from their arrangement on the surface of the cylinder because 
while spread over from 20 to 40 inches on the surface of the 
cylinder, they are laid in the space of about 1 inch on the 
surface of the doffer. The amount of this condensation varies 
according to the relative speed of the cylinder and dofifer. 

It does not necessarily follow that all the fibers are taken 
from the cylinder by the dofifer the first time the cotton 
passes the point where the transfer is made, as they may not 
be in the proper position to become attached to the dofifer. 
In this case, they may be carried around by the cylinder a 
second time and be more efifectively carded. The doffer 
may be considered as merely a convenient means of removing 
the fiber from the cylinder. It is not intended to have any 
cleaning action, as the cleaning on the card is practically 
completed when the cotton has passed the fiats, but as a 
matter of fact, it does remove some short fiber and light 
impurities that adhere within the interstices of the wire. 

There is no screen beneath the dofifer, as it is unnecessary, 
but placed above it is a protection consisting of a metal 
cover m^ known as the doffer bonnet and shown in Figs. 1, 
2, and 3, while another view is given in Fig. 18. This 
metal cover extends over the upper surface of the dofifer, 
protects it from injury, and forms a portion of a receptacle 
to hold flat strippings in case no other method of gathering 
them is provided. At the point vi^ it extends to, and is 
almost in contact with, a plate of steel e^ placed over the 
front part of the cylinder that performs the same duty 



§18 



COTTON CARDS 



29 



for the cylinder; namely, protecting* it from damage and 
forming a part of the receptacle for the fiat strippings. 
This plate e^ extends upwards until a loose portion e^ is 
reached, which forms a door, the position of which, when 
closed, is shown in Fig. 18 in dotted lines. This door swings 
on arms r,o so constructed that it can be thrown forwards and 
rest on the doffer bonnet; it is shown in this position in 
Fig. 18. Immediately above the space formed by the open- 
ing of this door is another plate e^, which extends from the 




Fig. 18 



door up into the space between the flats and the cylinder, 
almost in contact with both of them. This platen,, is known 
as the front knife plate. It is also the object of these 
covers, or plates, mentioned in connection with the cylinder, 
doffer, and licker, to guard against accidents to the opera- 
tives, the licker being especially dangerous. 

A draft strip, or making-up piece, Wg is usually placed in the 
recess formed by the doffer bonnet and the plate c», so as to 
fit the angle between the doffer and the cylinder and thus 
prevent dirt from entering the space between these two 



30 



COTTON CARDS 



18 



parts. It also prevents draft and thus does away with fly, 
which would otherwise gather and come through in lumps. 

22. Doffer Comb. — The cotton is carried around by the 
doffer on its under side until it reaches the doffer comb ;/, 
Fig. 3, which is directly in front of the doffer and has an 
oscillating motion of about 1,800 or 2,000 strokes per minute. 
One of the bearings of the comb is an ordinary bearing, 



2 ma. P, Pjf. 




q- 




FiG. 19 



while the other is in a box known as the eonib box, which 
contains the eccentric that gives the motion to the comb. 
The position of these bearings can be altered by adjusting 
screws in order to obtain the proper distance between the 
comb and the surface of the doffer. The comb, as shown in 
Figs. 1, 2, and 3, consists of a thin sheet of steel attached to 
a shaft by a number of small arms; its lower edge is com- 
posed of fine teeth resembling somewhat the teeth of a fine 



§18 COTTON CARDS 



31 



saw. The teeth of the doffer, which were pointing upwards 
when in position to receive the cotton from the cylinder, are 
pointing downwards at the point nearest the comb. The 
downward strokes of the comb are in the same direction that 
the teeth of the doiTer are pointing and in close proximity 
to them, thus making the operation of removing the cotton 
very easy. 

The cotton, when it leaves the doffer, is in the form of a 
transparent web of the same width as the doffer. The next 
work required of the card is that of reducing the web to a 
sliver. This is attained by passing the cotton through a 
guide and then through a trumpet o, on the other side of 
which are two calender rolls o,, o„ Figs. 1, 3, and 19. The 
bottom roll is 4i inches wide and 3 inches in diameter, and 
by means of a gear drives the top calender roll, which is self- 
weighted, being 4 inches in diameter. The object of these 
rolls is to compress the sliver so that it will occupy a com- 
paratively small space. 

23. Coiler.— From the calender rolls o„o, the cotton 
passes through a hole in the cover p of the upright frame- 
work, known as the coiler liead, the connections of which 
are shown in Fig. 19. It is drawn through the hole in the 
cover by two coiler calender rolls, the one shown being 
marked/),, which further condense it, and is then delivered 
into an inclined tube A on a revolving plate A- The end of 
the tube that receives the cotton is in the center of the plate, 
directly under the calender rolls />,, while the end of the tube 
from which the cotton is delivered is at the outer edge of the 
plate p:,. At the bottom of the coiler head is a plate g on 
which rests the can that receives the sliver. In consequence 
of the sliver being delivered down the rotating tube A, it will 
describe a circle and be laid in the can in the form of coils. 
The circle described by the bottom of the tube p, is little 
more than half the diameter of the can. If the top of the 
tube p, were directly over the center of the plate g on which 
the can rests and if the can did not turn, causing the laying 
of the sliver to depend entirely on the rotation of the coiler 



32 



COTTON CARDS 



§18 



tube, the sliver would be placed in a series of ascending 
coils, which would have as a center the center of the can, 
while the outside edges of the coils would be placed some 
distance from the side of the can. The result of this would 
be that only a very short length of sliver could be laid in the 
can and the coils would become entangled, causing the sliver 
to be broken as it was drawn out. In order to overcome this 
difficulty the top of the tube p^ is slightly beyond the center 
of the plate q, while q is revolving in the opposite direction 
to that of the tube p^, but very slowly as compared with the 
speed of this tube, p^ making about 26 revolutions to 1 of q. 

As a result of this 
arrangement each 
coil of sliver that is 
placed in the can is 
in contact with the 
side of the can and 
no one coil comes 
directly above the 
preceding coil. A 
top view of the sliver 
as it appears when 
placed in the can in 
this manner is shown 
in Fig. 20. 

The cover for the 
coiler head is now 
constructed so as to be held in position by a hinge, on which 
it can be raised and held open, without breaking the sliver. 
This gives an opportunity for inspection and oiling. 

Formerly coiler' heads were so constructed that it was 
necessary to remove the sliver from the coiler or break the 
end of sliver in order to oil the bearings, which necessarily 
caused additional waste and loss of production. Occasionally 
the sliver breaks and collects within the coiler, causing what 
is called a biing-iip. 

One feature of the coiler head for the card under descrip- 
tion is the use of the swinging calender roll in place of the 




§18 COTTON CARDS 33 

old-style calender roll, which revolved in fixed bearings and 
caused considerable trouble in case of a bung-up in the coiler 
head. The calender roll that receives motion from the 
upright shaft revolves in fixed bearings, while the other one 
is mounted on a swing, or hinge, bearing. The weight of the 
roll and bearing is sufficient to keep it in contact with the 
fixed roll. It receives motion from the other roll by means of 
two spur gears, one on the shaft of the roll revolving in fixed 
bearings and the other on the shaft of the swinging roll. 
When the coiler tube chokes, the sliver collects around the 
top of it and forces the swinging roll up, thus throwing it 
out of gear with the fixed roll and preventing any more 
cotton from entering the coiler. When a lap forms on either 
roll, the increasing diameter of the roll forces up the swing- 
ing roll and thus prevents the cotton from winding so firmly 
around the roll. This arrangement is also very convenient 
because of the fact that the swinging roll can be moved out 
of the way in removing the cotton that has lapped around one 
of the rolls, thus making it very easy to remove the lap, 
whether it has formed on the swinging roll or on the stationary 
roll. It also does away with the strain on the bearings and the 
necessity of using a knife to cut the lap from the roll, and thus 
prevents the surface of the roll from being damaged by the 
careless use of a knife. 

GEARING 

24. In describing the method of driving the different 
parts of the card reference will be made to Figs. 21 and 22, 
but in order to more fully identify the parts, the plan of the 
gearing, Fig. 23, and also those figures that show the parts 
of the card assembled, such as Figs. 1 and 2, should be con- 
sulted, especially for those parts that cannot well be indicated 
on Figs. 21 and 22. Referring first to Fig. 21, which shows 
the main driving side of the card, the tight pulley ^„ on the 
end of the cylinder shaft receives motion from the driving 
belt ^,4, which is driven from the pulley either on the main 
shaft or a countershaft of the room. On the other side of 
the cylinder, as shown in Fig. 22, is placed a pulley with four 



34 



COTTON CARDS 



§18 



separate faces, the face ^,5 carrying- the crossed belt that 
drives the pulley c^ on the licker c. Referring again to Fig. 21, 
on the other end of the licker is a pulley <:« that drives the 
barrow pulley ?;^ by means of a crossed belt. Compounded 




vith this pulley is the barrow gear ;;;«, which drives the doffer 
gear m^ on the end of the doffer shaft. 

Reference should now be made to Fig. 22, which shows 
the other side of the doffer. On this side is a bevel gear w,o 



§18 



COTTON CARDS 



35 



driving a bevel gear w,. on the side shaft w.^, which carries 
at its other end a bevel gear b^ driving a gear l\ on the end 
of the feed-roll. On the other end of the feed-roll, as shown 
in Fig. 21, is a gear l\ that drives by means of two carrier 
gears the lap roll a. Referring again to Fig. 22, the pulley e^s, 
by means of the band ;/=, drives the pulley n^, that is com- 
pounded with another pulley n^\ this, by means of the band ?^3, 
drives a pulley n^ on a short shaft carrying the eccentric that 
gives motion to the dofifer comb. A third pulley e^, on the 
end of the cylinder shaft, as shown in Fig. 22, drives by 




Fig. 22 

means of the belt /« the pulley /,„, which is on the same shaft 
as the worm /,, gearing into the worm-gear /,2. On the short 
shaft with the worm-gear /.^ is a worm /„ driving the worm- 
gear /i4, which is mounted on a shaft carrying two sprockets 
that gear directly into the ribs on the back of the flats. 

The coiler connections are driven as follows, reference 
being made to Figs. 19 and 28: The large gear vi^. Fig. 23, 
that is on the end of the dol?er and receives motion from 
the barrow gear, drives by means of two carrier gears a 
gear ^^ on one end of the calender-roll shaft o^. On the 
other end of this shaft is a bevel gear o^. Fig. 19, that drives 



13 ^ I — 



ni-f- 



6 Dill 



2i''Dia. 



9 Dia 



r,0 Dhi 



24 Dill. 



Fig. 23 



120 



I 



t! 



16 



D 



y- 



m,3 



^Q 



o 

□ 



Lmii 



40 

m„ 




2 Dia. 



§18 COTTON CARDS 37 

the bevel gear o^ on an upright shaft. At the upper end of 
this upright shaft are two gears, the gear/>5 driving the gear;!'^ 
on the coiler plate, while the bevel gear p^ drives the bevel 
gear p., on the coiler calender-roll shaft. The can table g is 
driven by means of a number of gears at the bottom of the 
upright shaft and in a rather circuitous manner, which is 
rendered necessary in order to obtain the slow motion at 
which the can table should travel. The gear g^ is fast to 
the upright shaft ^,, while the gears g^, g^ are loose on the 
same shaft but compounded by means of a sleeve. The 
gear g^ drives the gear g^, which is compounded with 
the gear g^, both gears working loosely on a short upright 
stud. The gear g^ drives the gear g^, and since g^ and g^ are 
compounded, the gear g^ on the can table will receive motion 
through the carrier g,. 

25. When it is desired to stop the card from delivering 
the cotton and yet not break down the end at the coiler, the 
catch h, Fig. 24, is released. This figure shows one method 
of driving a doflfer; it will be seen that as the feed-roll, calen- 
der roll, and all coiler connections are driven from the dof- 
fer, they will stop when the catch U is released, throwing the 
gear w, out of contact with the doffer gear w^. By this 
method it is a simple matter to stop the delivery of the cot- 
ton very suddenly if necessary and at the same time allow 
the swiftly revolving parts, such as the cylinder and licker, to 
remain in motion. Another advantage of this arrangement 
is that no waste results when the delivery is stopped. When 
the gear vu is again meshed with the gear m^, the portion of 
the doflfer that was presented to the cylinder when the dof- 
fer was stopped will contain an excessive amount of cotton. 
This excess will cause a thick or uneven place in the sliver, 
which should be removed. This arrangement is sometimes 
called the barrow motion, and the gear We the barrow gear. 

The gear w, is usually a change gear, so that the doflfer 
may be driven at any required speed, as the production of 
the card depends on the speed of the doflfer. In decreasing 
or increasing the speed of the doflfer by changing the 



38 



COTTON CARDS 



§18 




^18 COTTON CARDS 39 

gear m^, the draft of the card and, consequently, the weight 
of the sliver delivered, are not affected, since the feed-rolls, 
lap roll, and all coiler connections receive motion from the 
dofTer and therefore have the same relative speed, whether 
Ws is a large or a small gear. 

Another method of stopping the delivery of the cotton 
without breaking down the end at the coiler is to break the 
connection at the doffer by moving the side shaft w,„ 
Figs. 22 and 23, and also break the connection between the 
doffer and calender rolls by turning the handle on the carrier 
gear w,3, Fig. 24. The shaft w.. carries a gear at each end, 
the gear b, driving the gear b, that is on the end of the feed- 
roll, while the gear w„ receives motion from the gear w,„ on 
the end of the doflfer shaft. By means of the movable bear- 
ing ?;/,^, it is possible to move the shaft w,, outwards at its 
front end and thereby disconnect the gears w,„, w„ and 
thus stop the feed, while by throwing out the gear m,^ the 
calender rolls are stopped, thus allowing the cotton that is on 
the dofifer to fall between the doffer and the calender rolls. 
This method of stopping the delivery of cotton by the 
card allows the doflfer to run without making an uneven 
and cut sliver when restarting. 



SPEED CALCULATIONS 

26. If the driving shaft makes 340 revolutions per min- 
ute and carries a 10-inch pulley, the pulley <?.„ Figs. 21 and 
23, which is 20 inches in diameter, will be driven as follows: 

340x10 ,„^ 

20 = I'O revolutions per mmute 

As the cylinder is 50f inches in diameter, allowing | inch 
for clothing, its surface speed will therefore be as follows: 

170x501x3.1416 o o-q ^-o x 

T^ = z,Joo.b/y feet per minute 

27. Licker.— On the end of the cylinder opposite that 
of the pulley r,, is the pulley ^,s. Figs. 22 and 23, which is 
connected to the pulley c^ by means of a cross-belt and thus 



40 COTTON CARDS §18 

drives the Hcker. The diameter of if, 5 is 18 inches and that 
of Cs is 7 inches, so that when the cyhnder makes 170 revolu- 
tions per minute, the revolutions per minute made by the 
licker will be as follows: 

— — = 437.142 revolutions per minute 

7 

As the licker is usually 9 inches in diameter, its surface 
speed will be as follows: 

437.142 X 9 X 3.141 6 ^ 29.993 feet per minute 
12 

28. Doffer.— The 4-inch pulley c^, Figs. 21 and 23, on 
the end of the licker drives the 18-inch barrow pulley m,, 
which is compounded with the doffer change gear nis. This 
gear, for the purpose of calculation, will be assumed to have 
22 teeth; the gear on the end of the doffer contains 190 teeth. 
With the licker making 437.142 revolutions per minute, the 
speed of the doffer will be as follows: 

437.142 X 4x 22 n oiq w 

~ — — — = 11.248 revolutions per mmute 

18 X 190 

As the doffer is 24-f inches in diameter, allowing I inch 
for clothing, its surface speed will be as follows: 

11.248 X 241 X 3.1416 -o cqw . 

— ^-^ = < 2.881 feet per mmute 

12 

On some cards there is an arrangement for driving the 
doffer at two different speeds, the slow speed being used 
when piecing up an end. One method of construction for 
driving at different speeds is to have two pulleys of different 
sizes on the licker shaft and to have two belts extending 
to W7. At 7)1. there are three pulleys, the center pulley being 
loose, while the other two are fastened to the shaft; conse- 
quently, when one belt is on the loose pulley, the other is 
on one of the fastened pulleys. The belts are shifted by 
means of a shipper handle. 

29. Flats. — With the cylinder making 170 revolutions 
per minute; diameter of e^, Figs. 22 and 23, 5 inches; 
diameter of /,„, 10 inches; /,i, single-threaded worm; /,„ 



§18 COTTON CARDS 41 

16 teeth; /„, single-threaded worm; /„, 42 teeth; and diam- 
eter of pulley driving- flats, 8 inches; the speed of the flats will 
be as follows: 

170_X5X1X1X8X3^16 ^ 3^79 .^^^^^ ^.^^^^ 
10 X 16 X 42 

30. Draft. — The following examples illustrate the man- 
ner of finding the draft: 

Example 1. — Find the draft between the lap roll and feed-roll, 
referring to Fig. 23 for data. 

2 5 X 48 
Solution. — ^ — v^^ = 1.176, draft. Ans. 
b X 1/ 

Example 2. — Find the draft between the feed-roll and doflfer, using 
a 16 change gear at d^. 

^ 24 X 40 X 120 ^o A u a 

Solution.- ^ ^ ^q ^ ^^ - '2, draft. Ans. 

Example 3. — Find the draft between the dofifer and bottom cal- 
ender roll. 

„ 3X 190 , ^., , ,, . 

Solution. — -- — 7- = 1.13, draft. Ans. 

*-4: X — I 

ExAMPLE 4. — Find the draft between the bottom calender roll and 
coiler calender rolls, referring to Fig. 19 for data. 

2 X 24 X 18 X 27 , n-o ^ .. a 
Solution.- 3 ^ 24 x 18 X 1 7 = ^■^'^' '^'^^'- ^°^- 

Example 5. — Find the total draft of the card shown in Fig. 23, 
figuring from the coiler calender rolls />,, Figs. 19 and 23, to the lap 
roll a, Figs. 21 and 23, and using a 16 change gear at d^. 

„ 2X24X18X27X190X40X120X48 ,^,,00^ r. 

Solution.- -6^ x24X18X17x21X40X16x17 = 101-433. draft. 

Ans. 

Proof. — To prove that intermediate drafts equal total 
draft, 1.176 X 72 X 1.130 X 1.059 = 101.325. 

31. Waste. — In the passage of the cotton through the 
card there are several places where waste is made. There is 
a certain amount under the licker and the cylinder, and also 
between the wires of the clothing on the flats, cylinder, and 
doffer. This amount of waste should not as a rule exceed 
5 per cent., and the work of the card should be closely 
watched, especially with regard to the waste under the 



42 



COTTON CARDS 



18 



cylinder, which should be examined at frequent intervals to 
see if it contains too much good cotton. 

32. Prodviction. — The production of the card varies 
according to the class of work, a good production on low 
numbers being from 700 to 1,000 pounds per week, while 
for fine yarns it is much lower. The weights of delivered 
sliver suitable for certain classes of work are as follows: 



Variety of Cotton 


1 

Numbers 


Weight per Yard 

Grains 




IS to IDS 


70 




IDS to 15s 


65 


Average American ... 


15s to 20s 


60 




20s to 30s 


55 




30s to 40s 


50 




1 40s to 60s 


50 


Allan-seed and Peelers . ■ 


60s to 70s 


45 




70s to IOCS 


40 




40s to 60s 


55 


Egyptian " 


60s to 70s 


50 




70s to lOOS 


45 


Sea-Island 


70s to IOCS 

loos upwards 


35 
30 



33. Wei§:ht and Horsepower. — The weight of a single 
revolving flat card is about 5,000 pounds. It requires from 
I to 1 horsepower to drive it after the initial strain of start- 
ing, which requires much greater power. 

34. Uimensions. — A 40-inch revolving flat card with a 
24-inch doffer occupies a space about 9 feet Hi inches by 
5 feet 4 inches. Extra allowance must be made for the diam- 
eter of the lap. When the doffer is 45 inches wide, 5 inches 
must be added to the width in the above dimensions, while 
3 inches must be added to the length when the doffer is 
27 inches in diameter. 



COTTON CARDS 

(PART 2) 



FORMER METHODS OF CARD 
CONSTRUCTION 

1. While the machine described in Cotto7i Cards, Part 1, 
is the one that is now almost universally adopted for cotton 
carding, it does not by any means adequately represent the 
different methods of carding that are, or have been, used. 
The method of carding cotton before the era of machinery 
was by means of hand cards, which consisted merely of pieces 
of wood about 12 inches long and 5 inches wide to which a 
handle was attached. A piece of leather through which a 
number of iron wires had been driven was attached to the 
surface of the board and two of these hand cards were used, 
the operator holding one in each hand. The cotton, after 
being picked and cleaned, was spread on one of these cards, 
and the other was used to brush, scrape, or comb it until the 
fibers of cotton lay comparatively parallel to one another. 
From this were obtained soft fleecy rolls about 12 inches 
long and f inch in diameter, called cardings. These cardings 
were pieced together and spun on the hand spinning wheel. 
Later developments resulted in the introduction of the 
principle of carding by means of a cylinder carrying wire 
teeth operating against a stationary framework carrying wire 
teeth, this being the first style of mechanical card. From 
this was ultimately developed a card used very largely in 
America under the name of stationary-top flat card, and to a 
limited extent in Europe, under the name of the Wellman 
card. This stationary-top flat card was used in almost every 

For notice of copyri^hl. see page immediately following the title page 
219 



2 COTTON CARDS §19 

American cotton mill until within the last 10 years, and is 
still used occasionally. 

The most popular style of card in Europe prior to the 
development of the revolving-top flat card was that known 
as the roller-and-clearer card, sometimes called the worker-and- 
stripper card. This roller-and-clearer card was constructed 
with either one or two cylinders, being known respectively 
as a single or a double card. Sometimes a combination card 
was built with rollers and clearers on the back cylinder and 
flats on the front; combination cards have also been built 
with single cylinders having flats at the front and rollers and 
clearers behind. For special purposes cards have been built 
with three cylinders. The system of carding cotton by 
rollers and clearers, or workers and strippers, somewhat 
resembles the methods now in use for carding purposes in 
the woolen industry. 

Owing to the world-wide tendency now to adopt the revolv- 
ing-top flat card in the cotton industry, considerable space 
has been devoted to thoroughly describing that style of 
construction, but as there are still in use a number of station- 
ary-top flat cards and also a number of the roller-and-clearer 
cards, a brief description of each of these styles of construc- 
tion will be given. 

STATIONARY-TOP FliAT CARD 

2. The stationary-top flat card, shown in Fig. 1, is a 
smaller and less substantial machine than the revolving-top 
flat card, but is very similar to it in the principle of carding 
the cotton, differing mainly in the method of stripping the 
flats. The machine consists of the usual framework sup- 
porting the cylinder and doffer together with the various 
parts common to all cards, while above the cylinder are 
placed a number of flats. In the older cards these are con- 
structed of wood, as shown in Fig. 1, but in the newer cards 
they are made of iron. Iron flats are usually made If inches 
wide with a strip of clothing \\ inch wide, and it is possible 
to have 40 of them extending over an arc equal to about two- 
fifths of the circumference of the cylinder. When wooden flats 



19 



COTTON CARDS 



are used it is not possible to have so many. The functions 
of these flats are the same as of those in the revolving flat 
card previously described. The flats rest on the arch of the 
card and are so constructed as to preserve the proper angle 
with the card wire on the cylinder. Each flat is set inde- 
pendently of any other by means of threaded pins secured 
by nuts. 

The peculiarity of this card consists in the method of 
stripping the fiats. An arrangement is shown above the 




machine in Fig. 1 by which any one flat may be raised from 
its seat suflficiently to allow a stripping card to be passed 
beneath it and drawn across its face, removing the impurities, 
which are retained in a wire framework; immediately after 
the stripping is completed the mechanism lowers the flat to 
its position. As this one piece of stripping mechanism has 
to clean each flat, it is necessary to have it so constructed 
that it may be moved from one flat to another; this is 



4 COTTON CARDS §19 

provided for, as shown in Fig-. 1, by means of a small gear, 
which is a part of the stripping mechanism, meshing with 
a semicircular rack arranged on the arch of one side of 
the card; as this gear revolves the mechanism is moved 
from flat to flat. This can be arranged either to strip 
the flats consecutively, thus the first, second, third, fourth, 
and so on, or to strip them alternately, thus stripping the first, 
third, fifth, seventh and returning to strip the second, fourth, 
sixth, eighth, etc.; or in the improved quick stripper it may 
be made variable in its action, in order to strip the flats 
nearest to the feed-rolls oftener than those nearest to the 
doffer. This stripper lifts, strips, and replaces a flat in less 
than 4 seconds. The stationary-top flat cards are usually 
made with all parts smaller than either the revolving-top flat 
cards or the roller-and-clearer cards. The main cylinder is 
not usually more than 42 inches in diameter and the dofEer 
not more than 18 inches, while the width of the card is not 
generally more than 37 inches. The construction of the 
stationary-top flat card made it especially suitable to be used 
in sections of a number of cards that delivered the slivers to a 
traveling lattice. The latter conveyed them to a railway 
head, a machine that combines all the slivers into one sliver 
which it deposits into a can in suitable form for the next 
process. This method was, and is still to some extent, used 
where double carding is resorted to; however, owing- to the 
comparatively small amount of the production for the floor 
space occupied and the difflculty of arriving at accurate set- 
tings and adjustment, especially where wooden flats are used, 
it is now largely replaced by the revolving-top flat card. 

A modern construction of a stationary-top flat card occupies 
9 feet 6 inches by 5 feet 6 inches with a coiler, and 8 feet 
2 inches by 5 feet 2 inches without a coiler. When making 
a 60-grain sliver with the doffer making 10 revolutions it 
cards about 60 pounds per day; it of course produces more 
than this on coarse work with a heavier sliver and the doffer 
running more quickly, and less for fine work with a slower 
doffer speed and lighter sliver. 



§19 COTTON CARDS 



ROLL.ER-AND-CLEARER CARD 
3. The I'oller-and-clearer card, a section of which is 
shown in Fig. 2, although rarely used in America, is employed 
to some extent in certain parts of Europe. The machine 
consists primarily of a cylinder d, 45 inches in diameter, 
which is covered with fillet card clothing and rotates at a 
surface velocity of about 1,600 feet per minute. Placed over 
this cylinder are a number of rollers e about 6 inches in 
diameter, sometimes known as workers, and also a num- 
ber of clearers / about 3i inches in diameter, some- 
times called stri Pliers. Both the workers and clearers are 
covered with fillet card clothing, the former rotating at a 
surface velocity of about 20 feet per minute and the latter at 
a circumferential speed of about 400 feet per minute. The 
clearers are set in close proximity to the cylinder, and the 
workers are adjusted both to the cylinder and to the clearers. 
These settings are obtained by means of screws and setting 
nuts with which the poppet heads g that support the shafts of 
the workers and clearers can be adjusted. The clearers are 
driven from a pulley d^ on the cylinder shaft by means of a 
belt, or band, d., passing over pulleys on the clearer shafts 
and also around a binder pulley //. The workers are usually 
driven by a pulley on the doffer shaft that drives a belt, band, 
or in some cases a chain passing around pulleys or sprockets 
on the shafts of all the workers. The card is equipped with 
an S-inch licker r, which is covered with fillet and rotates at 
a surface velocity of about 700 feet per minute; a doffer j of 
the ordinary construction is also employed. 

In operation, a lap «, is placed in stands at the back of the 
card and, resting on a rotating wooden roll a, is fed to the 
card by means of a fluted feed-roll l\ and a feed-plate b. As 
the licker c rotates downwards past the feed-plate, its 
teeth take the cotton that is fed to it and carry it to the 
cylinder d. The points of the teeth on the cylinder moving 
rapidly past the backs of the teeth on the licker results in 
the former taking the cotton from the latter and conveying 
it to the doffer. In its passage from the licker to the doffer, 



§19 COTTON CARDS 7 

however, the cotton is subjected to the action of each of the 
workers. The stock is held loosely and projects somewhat 
from the teeth of the cylinder, which rapidly pass the workers 
and operate point against point with the teeth of the latter. 
The result of this is that the cotton is carded and opened out 
and deposited on the workers, where it remains until the 
rotation of the worker brings it under the action of the 
clearer. Since the teeth of the clearer work with their points 
against the backs of the teeth on the worker, they take the 
cotton from the latter and convey it back to the main cylin- 
der, which by virtue of its speed and the direction of inclina- 
tion of its teeth, strips the cotton from the clearer. The 
expressions point against point and point against back, when 
referring to the card teeth of the various rolls, should not be 
construed to mean that the teeth of any two rolls are in 
actual contact, as these expressions refer only to the rela- 
tive inclination of the card teeth. It will be noticed that the 
first eight workers are arranged in pairs, each pair being 
stripped by a single clearer, but that the last two workers are 
each stripped by a separate clearer. Sometimes the entire 
complement of workers and clearers are arranged as are the 
last two in the illustration. The cotton is taken from the 
cylinder by the doffer j in the ordinary manner and passed 
to the coiler m through the trumpet k and calender rolls /, /,. 
This form of card is apt to make a considerable amount of 
flyings on account of the speed of the various parts, and in 
order to prevent these from flying from the card the latter is 
enclosed with a wooden cover n. 

This method of carding results in the stock being thor- 
oughly opened and cleaned, and it is claimed that it does 
less damage to the fibers and that a yarn 5 per cent, stronger 
can be produced than by the methods in more common use 
at the present time. As this card, however, requires more 
help to operate it and does not produce as much work as the 
more recent card, its use is not considered profitable. 



COTTON CARDS §19 



DOUBLE CARDING 

4. Formerly in order to obtain a high-grade yarn it was 
considered necessary to adopt the principle of double card- 
ing; viz., that of carding cotton first on a breaker card and 
then, after having taken a number of the slivers and by means 
of a lap head formed them into a lap, putting this lap through 
a finisher card. Since the revolving flat card has been 
improved so greatly that it does almost as good work as was 
done with the old system of double carding, and since the 
introduction of the comber, which produces work superior to 
either double carding or revolving flat card products, double 
carding is going out of practice. 

5. Forniatioii of the Lap. — The cards employed in 
double carding are similar to those already described and 
need no further mention. The formation of the lap for the 
second process of carding may be accomplished in several 
ways: (1) Where the breaker cards deposit slivers in cans, 
the lap is usually formed by means of a Derby doubler. 
(2) Where the first carding is arranged in sections of six, 
eight, ten, or twelve cards connected by a railway trough, 
the slivers may be passed through a railway head, in which 
they are deposited in a can, and afterwards passed through a 
lap head. (3) The slivers from the section of a railway 
trough may be guided directly into a lap head and the lap 
formed in this manner. 

The first method, that of using a Derby doubler, is an 
arrangement by which a number of cans from the breaker 
cards, varying from twenty to sixty, are placed behind a 
long Y-shaped table and the sHvers from them passed through 
rolls, forming at the front one wide sheet, which may be any 
width from 10 to 40 inches. The lap is wound on a roll in 
somewhat the same manner as a lap is formed in the picker 
room. This lap is then placed on the lap roll at the finisher 
card and recarded. 

When it is desired to form a lap for the finisher cards 
without the intervention of the railway head or can system 



§19 



COTTON CARDS 



9 



for each card, the slivers from the railway trough are guided 
around rolls at such an angle as to arrange for slivers from 
two or more lines of breaker cards to be guided into a lap 
head and there wound into a lap usually half the width 
necessary to supply the finisher card. 



CARD CLOTHING 



CONSTRUCTION 



FOUNDATION 

6. Card clothing: is the material with which the cylin- 
der, doflfer, and flats of the card are covered and by means of 
which the cotton is opened and the fibers straightened and 
laid parallel to each other. 
It consists of wire teeth 
bent in the form of a staple 
and inserted in a suitable 
foundation material. The 
teeth in addition to being 
bent in the form of a staple, 
also have a forward bend, 
or inclination, from a point 
known as the knee of the 
tooth. Fig. 3 is an en- 
larged view showing the 
shape of a single card tooth 
and the method of inserting it in the foundation y. The 
knee of the tooth is shown aty^, while y^ indicates the portion 
of the tooth, known as the crown, that is on the back of the 
foundation after the tooth has been inserted in it; y, are the 
points of the tooth, each tooth of course having two points. 

7. Although the teeth of the clothing do the actual card- 
ing, much depends on the character of the foundation, since 
if the former are not held with considerable firmness and yet 
allovv^ed a certain freedom of motion, the best results in carding 




Fig. 3 



10 COTTON CARDS §19 

cannot be obtained. The foundation material must also be 
such that it will not stretch after it is applied to the card, 
for if the clothing becomes loose it will rise in places, or as 
is commonly said, will blister. When this happens not only is 
the thoroughness of the carding deteriorated, but there is also 
great liability of the clothing itself being damaged by coming 
in contact with the clothing on other parts of the card. In 
addition, if the clothing is slack, the teeth will not be held up 
to their work properly but will be forced backwards by the 
strain in carding the cotton; this will result in neutralizing 
to a certain extent the effect of the forward bend of the 
tooth, making the clothing act more like a brush and allow- 
ing the cotton to pass without being properly carded. 

The foundation material generally used is a fabric woven 
from cotton and woolen yarns, although sometimes cotton 
and linen are employed, the linen being used on account of 
its strength and freedom from stretching. The woolen yarn, 
however, is well adapted for this purpose, as it possesses a 
certain elasticity that, while holding the tooth in place with 
sufficient security, allows a certain freedom of movement; 
this is very desirable, since if the card teeth are held too 
rigidly, there is some liability of their becoming bent or 
broken. The foundation is generally woven three- or four- 
ply, in order to obtain the required strength and the thick- 
ness that is necessary to secure the teeth. A very good 
foundation consists of a two-ply woolen fabric inserted 
between two cotton fabrics, the latter imparting the requisite 
strength and the former giving a firm but elastic grip on the 
teeth. Sometimes the surface of the foundation is coated 
with a veneer of india-rubber, but in this there are disad- 
vantages as well as advantages. The rubber has a yielding 
grip on the tooth that allows it enough freedom to move 
when the strain of carding is on it, and at the same time it is 
of a tough nature so that the movement of the tooth does 
not work a large hole in the foundation, which would render 
the teeth loosely secured so that the full benefit of the 
elasticity of the wire could not be obtained. The india- 
rubber-covered clothing is also much easier to strip, but on 



§19 COTTON CARDS 11 

the other hand is not so durable as clothing made with the 
ordinary foundation. The rubber deteriorates with age, 
becoming hard and stiff and cracking between the points 
where the teeth pass through it. This deterioration is much 
more rapid if the clothing is in a hot room or subjected to 
the direct rays of the sun, and many times it has been found 
that the foundation of rubber clothing was totally spoiled 
before the wire was appreciably worn. 



TEETH 

8. The wire teeth actually do the carding, separating 
the cotton, fiber from fiber, and rearranging it in a homo- 
geneous mass in which the fibers lie more or less parallel; 
they are therefore of even more importance than the founda- 
tion in which they are inserted. The material from which 
the wire is made, the number (diameter) of the wire, the 
angle at which the wire passes through the foundation, 
the angle at the knee of the tooth, the relative height of the 
knee and point, and the method of insertion in the founda- 
tion are all important considerations when card clothing 
is to be purchased for general or special uses. 

Clothing is set with many different kinds of wire, such as 
iron, brass, mild steel, tempered steel, tinned steel, etc., but 
for cotton carding hardened and tempered steel, which 
makes a springy, elastic tooth that will not easily be bent 
out of place or broken, is the best material. Mild-steel wire 
wears too easily, losing its point and requiring frequent 
grinding to keep the card in good working condition. On 
the other hand it is easily ground, while tempered steel, 
although necessitating less frequent grinding, is harder to 
grind and requires a longer time to secure the required point, 
since if the grinding operation is forced the wire is liable to 
become heated and the temper drawn. The strength, elas- 
ticity, and durability of the tempered steel, however, make 
it much more desirable than any other material. 

The wire generally employed is round in section, but 
various other shapes have been used at different times; one 



12 COTTON CARDS §19 

of these was the elliptical form obtained by slightly flatten- 
ing the round wire by passing it through heavy rolls. While 
this form gave great strength to the tooth, it was objection- 
able because the teeth had a tendency to work holes in the 
foundation. After round wire has been set in the foundation 
it is ground to a point, and this alters the form of the 
section of the tooth at the point, or in some cases as far 
down as the knee, although the part of the tooth that passes 
through the foundation is always round in section. There 
are three methods of grinding the clothing, which give to it 
the following names: (1) top-ground; (2) 7ieedle-, or side-, 
ground; (3) plozv-ground. 

9. Top-ground wire is obtained by an emery grinding 
roll having a very slight traverse motion, so that the point 
of the tooth is ground down only on the top, producing what 
is known as a flat, or eliisel, point. 

In the needle-, or side-, ground \vire the thickness of 
the tooth is reduced at the sides for a short distance from the 
point, and the wire is also ground down at the top. This 
form of point is known as the needle point and is produced 
by a comparatively narrow emery grinding wheel that, in 
addition to having a rotary motion, is rapidly traversed back 
and forth across the clothing. 

Both top and needle grinding are practiced in the mill, the 
former being accomplished with the so-called dead-roll and the 
latter with the traverse grinding roll, but plow grinding 
is usually done by the manufacturers of the clothing. With 
this method of grinding, the thickness of the wire is 
reduced by grinding down each side from the point of the 
tooth to the knee. This is accomplished by means of emery 
disks that project into the clothing to the knee of the 
tooth. To aid in this method of grinding, the teeth are 
separated by means of plows, or guides, so that the emery 
disk will pass between the wires and not knock down the 
teeth, hence the name plow-ground. A plow-ground tooth 
is the best, since it is not only strong, elastic, and easily 
kept in good condition, but also gives a wedge-shaped space 



§19 



COTTON CARDS 



13 



between the teeth, which can more readily engage with the 
cotton, and at the same time does not reduce the number of 
points per square foot. It should be understood that plow 
grinding alone does not give the necessary keen point to the 
tooth, as it simply reduces the section of the tooth from the 
knee up by grinding the sides fiat; consequently, after 
the wire has been plow-ground it must be either top-ground 
or needle-ground, in order to bevel the tooth and bring 
it to a point. 

10. Diameter of Wire. — The diameter of the wire 
varies according to the class of cotton to be carded, since 
fine cotton requires clothing with a large number of points 
per square foot, while coarse work requires fewer points; and 
in the former case fine wire must be used, while in the latter 
case wire of a large diameter is more suitable. As will be 
explained later, it is customary to set the clothing with a 
certain number of points per square foot for a certain diam- 
eter of wire. There are two gauges employed for number- 
ing wire; namely, the Birmingham, or Stubbs, which is the 
English standard, and the Brown & Sharpe, which is the 
American standard. The following table shows the com- 
parative diameters, expressed in decimal parts of an inch, 
of. different numbers of wire of each system: 

TABLE I 



Birmingham 
Diameter in Inches 


Number of Wire 


American 
Diameter in Inches 


.014 


28 


.012641 


.013 


29 


•01 1257 


.012 


30 


.010025 


,010 


31 


.008928 


.009 


32 ■ 


.007950 


.008 


33 


.007080 


.007 


34 


.006305 


.005 


35 


.005615 


.004 


36 


.005000 



14 



COTTON CARDS 



§19 



For an average grade of cotton, No. 33 wire (American 
gauge) for the doffer and flats and No. 32 for the cylinder 
will give good results; for coarse work the wire is propor- 
tionally increased in diameter, and for finer work proportion- 
ally decreased. The cylinder should always be covered with 
wire one number coarser than the doffer and fiats, which 
should have wire of the same diameter. 



11. In regard to the shape of the tooth and the angle at 
which it is inserted in the foundation, several important points 
should be noted. The knee of the tooth should be located 
about four-sevenths of the length of the tooth from the crown 
and three-sevenths from the point. If the knee is placed 
higher the tooth will be stronger and have a harsher action 
on the cotton, while if the knee is lower the clothing will be 
more flexible and have a more brush-like action. The tooth 
should penetrate the foundation at an angle of about 75°, to 
offset the bend at the knee, so that the point of the tooth will 

not be too far forwards. 
The angle of insertion in 
the foundation and the 
bend of the knee should 
be such that the point of 
the tooth will just touch or 
very slightly pass a per- 
pendicular line drawn 
from the point where the 
tooth emerges from the foundation. Should the' forward 
inclination be such that the tooth passes the perpendicular to 
any great extent, the point of the tooth will rise when it is 
moved back by the strain of carding. This is more clearly 
shown by reference to Fig. 4. Suppose that the shape of the 
tooth is such that its point is inclined forwards past the per- 
pendicular y^, I's, as shown at .r^; then when the strain comes 
on the tooth, the point will be moved back to ye, owing to the 
flexibility of the tooth and the freedom of motion allowed by 
the foundation. The point, therefore, in swinging through the 
arc ^3^6 will rise through the distance x, which in the case of 




Fig. 4 



§19 



COTTON CARDS 



15 



a close setting might be sufficient to make the wire strike the 
clothing on other parts of the card. This action of the tooth 
is also aggravated by the tendency to straighten at the knee, 
so that even if no contact results, the setting will be made 
much closer and many fibers will be broken. On the other 
hand, if the inclination of the tooth does not carry its point 
past the perpendicular, the tendency of the tooth in moving 
backwards under the strain of carding will be to depress the 
point, making the setting more open and reducing the strain. 



Four Crowns Per Inch 




Fig. 5 



CALCULATIONS 

12. Card clothing for cotton cards is made in long con- 
tinuous strips 1, li. li, II, and 2 inches in width known as 
fillet, or filleting, and in narrow sheets known as tops; the 
former is used for covering the cylinder and doffer, while the 
latter is used for the flats. Fillet clothing is made in what is 
known as rib set; that is, with the crowns of the teeth. 



16 COTTON CARDS §19 

which are on the back of the clothing, running in ribs, or rows, 
lengthwise of the fillet. Fig. 5 shows the appearance of the 
back of a piece of li-inch rib-set fillet, the horizontal lines 
indicating the crowns of the teeth and showing the method 
in which they are inserted. The teeth are set into tops so 
that the crowns of the teeth on the back side of the founda- 
tion are twilled; that is, they are set in diagonal lines like 
a piece of twilled cloth. Fig. 6 shows the appearance of the 
back of a top, the horizontal lines showing the method of 
twilling the crowns. 




Four Crowns Per Inr.'' 

Fig. 6 

All card clothing in America, unless especially ordered, is 
made with 4 crowns in 1 inch on the back of the clothing, or 
8 points in 1 inch on the face, and is known as 8-crown cloth- 
ing. From this it will be seen that a 2-inch fillet will have 
8 ribs on the back and a li-inch fillet, 6 ribs, etc. It should 
be noted that the actual width of the foundation of fillet 
clothing is about -?w inch greater than the width of the wire- 
covered space; thus, a 2-inch fillet is actually 2tV inches in 
width. Sometimes in special cases where a large number 
of points per square foot are desired, the clothing is made 



§19 COTTON CARDS 17 

10-crown; that is, with 10 points per inch in width on the 
face of the clothing, or 5 crowns per inch on the back of 
the clothing. 

The term iiogg, which is used in connection with card 
clothing, refers to the distance between the first tooth of one 
line of twill and the next line. It will be noticed in Fig. 6 
that there are 6 teeth to a nogg and 8 noggs per inch, while 
in Fig. 5 there are half as many teeth per nogg and 16 noggs 
per inch. Owing to the manner in which the teeth are set in 
fillet clothing, there are always one-half the number of teeth 
per nogg and twice the number of noggs per inch as in cloth- 
ing for tops with the same number of points per square foot. 
The number of noggs per inch always governs the number 
of points per square foot in the clothing. If more points per 
square foot are wanted, the noggs per inch are increased, 
while if fewer points are wanted, the noggs per inch are 
decreased, the crowns always remaining the same. 

13. To find the points per square foot in card clothing: 

Rule. — Muliiply the crowns per hich by the points per tooth 
(2), by the teeth per nogg, by the noggs per inch, aiid by the 
number of square inches in a square foot (144). 

Example 1. — Find the points per square foot in the sample of card 
clothing shown in Fig. 5, the crowns per inch being 4, the teeth per 
nogg 3, and the noggs per inch 16. 

Solution.— 4 crowns per in. 

2 points per tooth 
8 points per in. 

3 teeth per nogg 
24 

1 6 noggs per in. 

24 

3 8 4 points per sq. in. 
1 4 4 in. per sq. ft. 



153 6 
1536 
3^4 

5 5 2 9 6 points per sq. ft. Ans. 



18 COTTON CARDS §19 

Dividing the points per square foot by the noggs per inch, 
thus, 55,296 -=- 16 = 3,456, it will be noticed that with 8-crown 
fillet (4 crowns per inch) each nogg increases the points per 
square foot by 3,456. From this it will be seen that in order 
to find the points per square foot in 8-crown fillet clothing, 
it is only necessary to multiply the noggs per inch by 3,456. 

Example 2. — Find the points per square foot in the sample of card 
clothing shown in Fig. 6, the crowns per inch being 4, teeth per 
nogg 6, noggs per inch 8. 

J Solution. — 4 crowns per in. 

2 points per tooth 
8 points per in. 
6 teeth per nogg 

4 8 
8 noggs per in. 
3 8 4 points per sq. in. 
144 



153 6 
1536 
384 

5 5 2 9 6 points per sq. ft. Ans. 

Dividing the points per square foot by the noggs per inch, 
thus, 55,296 ^ 8 = 6,912, it will be noticed that with 8-crown 
twill-set clothing each nogg increases the points per square 
foot by 6,912. From this it will be seen that in order to 
find the points per square foot in twill-set clothing it is only 
necessary to multiply the noggs per inch by 6,912. 

In Table II is given the number of points per square 
foot of 8-crown, rib-set fillet (4 crowns per inch) with 3 teeth 
per nogg and with from 10 to 27 noggs per inch, and also 
shows the numbers of wire (American gauge) generally used 
in each case. 

In Table III is given the number of points per square 
foot of 8-crown, twill-set clothing with 6 teeth per nogg and 
with from 5 to 13 noggs per inch and also shows the numbers 
of wire (American gauge) generally used in each case. 

For an average grade of cotton the doffer should have 
20 or 21 noggs per inch and the flats 10 or lOl^ noggs per 



19 



COTTON CARDS 
TABLE II 



19 



Noggs per Inch 


Points per Square 
Foot 


American Number 
of Wire 


10 


34,560 


28 


1 1 


38,016 


28 


12 


41,472 


29 


13 


44,928 


29 


M 


48,384 


30 


15 


51,840 


30 


i6 


55,296 


31 


17 


58,752 


31 


i8 


62,208 


32 


19 


65,664 


32 


20 


69,120 


33 


21 


72,576 


33 


22 


76,032 


34 


23 


79,488 


34 


24 


82,944 


35 


25 
26 


86,400 
89,856 


35 
36 


27 


93,312 


36 


TABLE III 


^ 


Noggs per Inch 


Points per Square 
Foot 


American Number 
of Wire 


5 


34,560 


28 


6 


41,472 


29 


7 


48,384 


30 


8 


55,296 


31 


9 


62,208 


32 


lO 

n 

12 


69,120 
76,032 
82,944 


33 

34 
35 


13 


89,856 


36 



20 



COTTON CARDS 



§19 



inch, which in each case would give 69,120 or 72,576 points 
per square foot. For the main cyUnder 18 or 19 noggs per 
inch are suitable, which would give 62,208 or 65,664 points 
per square foot. The number of points may of course be 
varied to suit the class of work, but it is generally desirable 
to have the same number of points in the dolifer and flats, 




Fig. 7 



while the main cylinder should have a slightly smaller num- 
ber than either. 

14. English Method of Nmiibering Card Clothing:. 

English card clothing was formerly made with the teeth 
inserted according to a method known as the plain-, or 
open-, set, in which the crowns, or backs, of the teeth over- 
lapped each other exactly as bricks in a wall, as shown in 
Fig. 7. The teeth were inserted in sheets 4 inches in width, 



§19 COTTON CARDS 21 

and the clothing- was made with 5 crowns on the back, or 
10 points on the face, in 1 inch lengthwise of the sheet, or 
crosswise of the card after the sheet had been applied to the 
same; that is, it was 10-crown clothing. Plain-set clothing 
is not often used in America, and although rarely used in 
England today, it forms the basis of the whole English 
system of numbering clothing. The English system desig- 
nates card clothing by the counts, a term that indicates 
the number of points per square foot on the face of the 
clothing absolutely, but which gives no clue to the method 
of inserting the teeth, whether plain-, rib-, or twill-set; that is, 
lOOs-count card clothing indicates a definite number of points 
per square foot and nothing else. 

As stated, the English system of numbering card clothing 
is based on the 10-crown, plain-set clothing, the term counts 
indicating the number of noggs in 4 inches, which was the 
original width of the sheets. Thus, if a sheet of plain-set, 
10-crown clothing had 60 noggs in its width, it was 60s-count, 
or if it had 100 noggs in the width of the sheet, it was 
lOOs-count clothing, etc. As plain-set clothing was invari- 
ably made on the 10-crown basis, the number of noggs 
in the width of the sheet, or the counts, always indicated a 
definite number of points per square foot. For example, in 
lOOs-count clothing, as there are 100 noggs in 4 inches, then 
in 12 inches, or 1 foot, there are 300 noggs, and as in 
plain-set clothing there are 2 teeth per nogg, there are 
300 X 2 = 600 points crosswise of the sheets. Since 
10-crown clothing has 10 points per inch, there are 
10 X 12 = 120 points in 1 foot lengthwise of the sheet, 
which multiplied by 600 points per foot crosswise of the 
sheet equals 72,000 points per square foot. From this it 
will be seen that as lOOs-count clothing contains 72,000 
points per square foot, each count increases the points per 
square foot 72,000 -^ 100 = 720 points. Therefore, to find 
the points per square foot in card clothing of any counts, it is 
only necessary to multiply the counts by 720; and inversely, 
to find the counts of any card clothing, divide the points 
per square foot by 720. 



22 



COTTON CARDS 



§19 



Although plain-set, 10-crown clothing has been largely- 
superseded in both England and America by 8-crown, twilled- 
set clothing for the flats and 8-crown, rib-set clothing for the 
cylinder and doffer, the English system of numbering cloth- 
ing is still based on the plain-set clothing, in which each 
count is equal to 720 points per square foot. Table IV 
shows the points per square foot in card clothing of various 
counts and also the number of wire (American gauge) that 
is usually used. 

TABLE IV 



English Counts 


Points per Square 
Foot 


American Number 
of Wire 


60s 


43,200 


28 


70s 


50,400 


30 


80s 


57,600 


31 


90s 


64,800 


32 


IOCS 


72,000 


33 


lies 


79,200 


34 


I20S 


86,400 


35 


130s 


93,600 


36 



METHOD OF CEOTHING CARDS 



CLOTHING FLATS 

15. The clothing for the flats is made in sheets with a 
1-inch space between the sections of wire; these are after- 
wards cut up to form the tops. Formerly one of the most 
difRcult probleins for cotton-card builders and manufacturers 
of card clothing was to attach satisfactorily the top to the 
flat. The first method employed was to drill holes in each 
edge of the flat and secure the clothing by rivets. This 
method, while it held the clothing securely, had a tendency 
to weaken the flats, causing them to deflect; and in addition, 
the cotton occasionally caught on the rivets until a bunch 
was formed, which would pass into the card again and form 



§19 COTTON CARDS 23 

a nep in the web. Another method was to sew the top to 
the flat, but this was not entirely satisfactory. 

The present method is to employ a steel clamp of the 
same length as the clothing and bent in a U-shape. One 
edge of this clamp in some cases is serrated, so as to grip 
the foundation, while the other edge engages the edge of 
the flat, holding the clothing and flat securely together. The 
foundation of the card clothing is pulled toward the edges of 
the flat and clamps applied simultaneously to both edges, 
so that the clothing is fastened while under tension. After- 
wards end pieces are usually fastened on in order to make 
the clothing absolutely secure. The flats should be ground 
after the clothing is applied, so as to make them perfectly true. 



CLOTHING CYLINDER AND DOFFER 

16. Both the cylinder and doffer, which are covered with 
filleting, have parallel rows of holes drilled across them, 
which are plugged with hardwood. The fillet is wound 
spirally and secured by means of tacks driven in the hard- 
wood plugs. Cylinders are usually covered with 2-inch, and 
doffers with li-inch, filleting. Formerly it was customary to 
give the surface of the cylinder a thin coat of paint or cover 
it with calico before applying the clothing, buf the present 
practice is to wind the fillet on the bare cylinder. The plugs 
should be flush with the surface of the cylinder, which should 
be smooth, free from rust, and perfectly dry before the cloth- 
ing is applied. Since the fillet is wound spirally, it must be 
tapered at each end of the cylinder or doflfer, so that it will 
not overlap. 

17. There are several methods of shaping the tail-ends, 
as they are called, but the best is that known as the inside 
taper, since it is stronger and neater than any other. 
Fig. 8 (rt) shows the method of cutting the fillet for an 
inside taper. Three lengths ;*:, ;c,, x., each equal to one-half 
the circumference of the cylinder or dofTer, as the case may 
be, are first miarked out on the end of the fillet; in the case 
of a 50-inch cylinder these distances x, x,, x^ would be 



24 



COTTON CARDS 



§19 



'j~m'\ 




§19 COTTON CARDS 25 

6.545 feet each. For the first distance x, the fillet is cut 
exactly through the middle; for the second distance ,v,, it 
is tapered from half the width of the fillet to the full width; 
for the distance .v,, a cut is made on the opposite side of the 
fillet exactly half way through it and the fillet tapered out to 
its full width again. The dotted lines in Fig. 8 (a) indicate 
the original width and shape of the fillet, while the full lines 
show the shape of the tail-end when cut. Fig. 8 (d) shows 
the method of winding the fillet on the cylinder and the way 
the tail-ends are fastened. After one tail-end is cut, the end 
of the fillet is tacked to the plugs in the cylinder and the fillet 
wound around the cylinder spirally, as shown in Fig. 8 (b) 
and (c); the other tail-end is then cut and fastened to the 
cylinder in the same manner as the first tail-end. Care 
should be taken in cutting each tail-end to have the straight, 
or uncut, edge of the fillet x, x, coincide with the edge of the 
cylinder. Fig. 8 {c) shows the opposite side of the cylinder 
shown in Fig. 8 (<^). 

18. To find the length of filleting to cover a cylinder, 
doffer, or other roll: 

Rule. — Mtdtiply the diameter of the roll by its width {both 
expressed i?i inches) ayid by 3.1416 and divide the product thus 
obtained by the width of the fillet midtiplied by 12. The result 
thtis obtaijied will be the required munber of feet of filleting. 

Note. — An allowance must be made for tapering the tail-ends, g:en- 
erally a length equal to the circumference of the roll being sufficient. 

ExAMPLK. — What length of 2-inch filleting is required to clothe a 
cylinder 50 inches in diameter and 40 inches wide? 

„ 50 X 40 X 3.1416 _, ^ ^^ 
Solution. — ^^ = 261.8 ft. 

Adding a length equal to the circumference of the cylinder, which 
is 13.09 ft., the length required will be 274.89 ft. Ans. 

19. Filler-Winding Macliine. — Before applying the 
fillet, it should remain for several days in the room in which 
it is to be used; otherwise, it will have a tendency to expand 
after being fixed on the cylinder, which causes it to rise in 



26 



COTTON CARDS 



19 



places. The fillet is applied to cylinders or doffers by means 
of special winding machines; formerly it was wound by hand. 
Fig. 9 shows a good type of fillet-winding machine, which 
consists primarily of a carriage a that slides on a bed b. 
Sufficient motion is imparted to the carriage, by means of a 
rotating screw c that engages with a gear r, on a shaft, to 
guide the spirals of fillet close to each other. The gear r, 
is prevented from turning, after the position of the machine 




Fig. 9 

is once adjusted with the crank c^, by a lever r,, which 
operates a screw that secures its shaft. The fillet when being 
wound is usually placed in a basket, or other receptacle, from 
which the end is taken and passed through the trough d to 
what is known as the cone drum e, around which it is wrapped 
three times. The fillet emerges over the roll / and is guided 
on the cjilinder to be clothed by the rod g. The fillet must 
always be passed through the trough d so that the teeth will 



§19 COTTON CARDS 27 

point in the opposite direction to its motion; otherwise, they 
will be injured. 

The tension is obtained in the following manner: The 
drum e, which revolves as the fillet passes over it, is made 
in three sections — the first 6^ inches, the second 7 inches, 
and the third 1\ inches in diameter. The section with the 
largest diameter is covered with leather, so that this portion 
of the drum and the fillet revolve together; and as it requires 
a greater length of fillet to cover this surface than it does to 
cover either of the smaller sections, the fillet is drawn over 
these at a speed greater than that of their surfaces, which 
will have the same effect as if the smaller sections were 
working in a direction opposite to that of the larger section. 
The friction between the fillet and the drum produces the 
tension on the former, the amount of which may be regulated 
by the brake // on the drum shaft and also by a thumbscrew/ 
that presses the die k down on the fillet, which is drawn over 
a spring cushion in the trough d. About 200 pounds ten- 
sion may be obtained by means of the brake h alone, the 
rest being obtained by means of the thumbscrew j. For 
main cylinders wound with 2-inch fillet, a tension of 270 to 
300 pounds is about right; narrower fillet requires less ten- 
sion. Dofifers may have fillet applied with about 175 pounds 
tension. The amount of tension with which the fillet is being 
wound in this machine is indicated by a finger / on the dial f^. 
This is accomplished by arranging the roll / to press against 
a strong coil spring Z^, connection being made with a rack A 
and pinion A, so that the motion of the roll when acted on 
by the tension of the fillet is communicated to the finger and 
indicated on the dial. 

In using this machine, it is essential that for each revolu- 
tion of the cylinder being covered the carriage shall move 
along the bed a distance corresponding to the width of the 
fillet. This is accomplished by gearing the screw that 
imparts the traverse motion to the carriage from the cyl- 
inder being covered, the train of gears being so arranged 
that one tooth of the change gear moves the carriage isV inch 
to each revolution of the cylinder being covered. From this 



28 COTTON CARDS §19 

it will be seen that 1^-inch fillet will require a 48-tooth gear 
and 2-inch fillet a 64-tooth gear. In actual practice, however, 
a 49-tooth gear is used for H-inch and a 66-tooth gear for 
2-inch fillet, since the fillet is wider than the nominal width 
and measures I32 inches and 2tV inches, respectively. A 
crank arrangement is usually applied to the cylinder and 
dofiEer so that they can be turned by hand while the clothing 
is being applied. 

After cylinders are covered with fillet they should be 
allowed to stand for 8 or 4 hours in order that the fillet may 
become adjusted, when it should be tacked crosswise of the 
cylinder. 



COTTON CARDS 

(PART 3) 



CARE OF CARDS 



INTRODUCTION 

1. The method of managing a card room very materially 
affects the quality of the product of a cotton mill, as in order 
to insure satisfactory results it is very essential that the card- 
ing process shall have careful attention. Care should espe- 
cially be given to several important operations that must be 
performed at intervals. 

Those parts of the card that are clothed — the flats, the 
cylinder, and the doffer — are constantly collecting waste from 
the cotton that is being operated on. This waste, consisting 
of short fiber and foreign matter that fills up the interstices 
of the card wire and prevents the card from doing its best 
work, must be removed at intervals from the clothing, the 
process being known z.s stripphig. Fig. 1 is a view of a card 
showing arrangements applied for stripping the doffer and 
fiats. 

As the points of the card wire become dull, on account of 
the constant friction, and consequently do not card the cotton 
as satisfactorily as when sharp, they must be sharpened by 
means of emery rolls; this is accomplished by the process 
known as grinding. A view of a card, w'ith arrangements 
applied for grinding the doffer and cylinder, is shown in 
Fig. 2. 

When two wire surfaces are presented to each other, there 

For notice of copyright, see page immediately following the title page 



30 



COTTON CARDS 



§19 




19 



COTTON CARDS 



31 




32 COTTON CARDS §19 

is sometimes too much space between them, caused by parts 
of the card moving slightly out of position or by the shorten- 
ing of the wire by the grinding process. The operation of 
regulating the distance between the two wire surfaces is 
known as setting. 

In common with all machinery, the oiling of the parts 
must be periodically attended to, as well as the cleaning of 
the machine and the removal of fly from below^ the card. 
Very little more attention is necessary in connection with 
carding cotton with the revolving-top flat card other than 
keeping the machine supplied with laps and removing the 
cans when full. 

STRIPPING 

2. Methods of Stripping. — Various methods of strip- 
ping cards have been adopted. One of the earliest methods 
used in cotton carding, and one that is now in use in connec- 
tion with w^oolen carding, was by means of a flat board from 
4 to 6 inches wide and as long as half the width of the card, 
on the upper part of which a handle was attached, while a 
piece of card clothing was nailed on the lower part with the 

safe' 




Fig. 3 



points projecting toward the operator. The cylinder was 
slowly turned by hand, after it had been partly uncovered 
at the front, and the stripping card pressed into the wire of 
the cylinder and alternately pushed backwards and drawn 
forwards, the latter movement removing the waste from the 
cylinder. A similar operation cleaned the waste from 
the doffer. 



§19 COTTON CARDS 33 

A much better method of stripping the card and the one 
now commonly adopted is by means of a stripping roll, such 
as is shown in Fig. 8. This roll consists of a wooden cylin- 
der mounted on an iron shaft and having wire clothing wound 
around it so as entirely to cover its surface, although on 
some rolls a narrow space without teeth is left from one end 
to the other. The clothing used for the stripping roll carries 
a very much longer tooth than that used to cover the cylinder 
or doflPer, and the wire teeth are not set so closely together. 

3. Frequency of Strii^ping. — The number of times 
that a card should be stripped within a stated period will be 
found to vary, but it may be said to depend on two factors. 
One is that the greater the weight of cotton that is put 
through the card per day, the more frequently it should be 
stripped; the other is that in fine work the clothing should 
be kept as free as possible from short fiber and particles of 
foreign matter, so that when running fine work the card should 
receive more frequent stripping, notwithstanding the fact 
that a lighter weight of cotton is being put through the card 
than in coarse work. It may be stated as a common practice 
that for fine work the card should be stripped three times a 
day unless a very large production is being obtained, when 
it is advisable to strip four or even five times per day, while 
with a medium production and where a very high grade of 
work is not called for, it is not necessary to strip the cylinder 
and dof?er more than twice a day. 

To stop a card for stripping purposes necessarily means a 
reduction in the amount of product, but by carefully planning 
so that the card will not be stopped any longer than neces- 
sary before it is stripped, and by getting it in operation 
again immediately after stripping, the loss can be reduced 
to a very small amount. In stripping cards two men are 
usually employed, since one cannot readily handle the long 
stripping roll; and time can also be saved by having one 
man preparing the next card for stripping while the other 
man is performing the operation of restarting the card pre- 
viously stripped and removing the strippings from the 



34 COTTON CARDS §19 

stripping roll. Since it is the usual practice to strip the 
cylinder before stripping the dofifer, time may also be saved 
by starting the feed while the dofiEer is being stripped. In 
this manner the cylinder will be filled and the sliver will be 
ready to be pieced up as soon as the stripping action is 
completed. In order to economize in the amount of strip- 
pings removed from the card, the feed-roll and calender 
rolls should be stopped a short time before the card is 
stopped, thus allowing the good cotton to run through the 
card and drop on the floor in front of the doffer; it is then 
removed and returned to the mixing room. 

4. Operation of Stripping. — The operation of stripping 
is as follows: The card is first stopped by shipping the 
driving belt from the tight to the loose pulley. The feed- 
roll should have been previously stopped by disengaging the 
side shaft Wi,, Fig. 2, at the dofifer, and the gear ;;;,3, Fig. 1, 
should also have previously been thrown out of gear by 
means of the handle, thus stopping the calender rolls and 
coiler and allowing the good cotton to run through the card 
until exhausted, as previously stated. As the cylinder is the 
first to be stripped, the cover, or door e^, that protects the 
cylinder at the front and is hinged on the arms r,o, is lowered 
so as to leave the cylinder bare at that point. The stripping 
roll is now placed in the upper set of bearings 7\ and a band 
run from the outer groove of the loose pulley of the card to 
the grooved pulley on the end of the stripping roll. This 
band should be crossed in order to give the correct direction 
of motion to the stripping roll. With the stripping roll in 
this position its teeth should project a slight distance into 
the wire of the cylinder, usually about i inch, and should 
point in the direction of revolution of the roll. At the 
point where the roll is in contact with the cylinder, the teeth 
of both are pointing in the same direction and the surface 
speed of the roll is greater than that of the cylinder, thus 
making the stripping possible. The driving belt of the 
card is now moved suflficiently on to the tight pulley 
to turn the cylinder slightly and at the same time leave 



§19 COTTON CARDS 35 

enough of the belt on the loose pulley to give the necessary 
power to drive the stripping roll. 

It is advisable for the operator to be able to control the 
speed of the stripping roll at all times and to stop it sud- 
denly if necessary. On this account the band that runs from 
the loose pulley to the stripping roll is not usually tight, the 
stripper creating sufficient tension to drive the stripping roll 
by pressing his hand on the band. By this means the wire 
teeth on the rapidly revolving stripping roll remove the 
waste from the spaces between the teeth of the card wire 
on the cylinder, thi's waste adhering to the surface of the 
stripping roll. In performing this operation, care should be 
taken that the cylinder does not attain a greater surface 
speed than the roll, since in this case the excess surface 
speed of the cylinder will cause the waste to be taken from 
the roll by the cylinder. 

After the cylinder has made one complete revolution, the 
band that drives the stripping roll is removed and the strip- 
ping roll taken from the stands j\ and cleaned and then placed 
in lower stands at the doffer, as shown in Fig. 1. A band 
somewhat longer than the one previously used is then run from 
the loose pulley of the card to the grooved pulley on the 
stripping roll r. This band is also crossed, and the operation 
of stripping the doffer is performed in the same way as that 
of stripping the cylinder. It is the practice in some mills, 
especially those making coarse counts, to run the card 
while stripping the doffer. This, however, is not good 
practice, since the stripping roll throws out considerable 
dirt, a good part of which is liable to drop into the web and 
be carried through into the finished sliver. 

5. Cleaning the Stripping Roll. — After stripping the 
cylinder of each card, and also the doffer, the strippings 
retained by the stripping roll should be removed from the 
stripping roll. These strippings may be removed by a hand 
card or by placing a finger in the narrow space that is 
without wire teeth, when one is left in the stripping roll, 
breaking the circular web at this point, and unrolling it from 



86 COTTON CARDS §19 

the roll. Another method of removing the strippings from 
the stripping roll and one that is used in a large number of 
mills is to employ a box that is placed on wheels. This box 
is usiially about 18 inches wide, 3 feet deep, and long enough 
to allow the clothed part of the stripping roll to rest between 
its ends, while the ends of the shaft rest in V-shaped grooves 
in the ends of the box. A strip of wood about 4 inches wide 
covered with card sheets is fixed between the ends of the 
box in such a position below the stripping roll that the wire 
teeth of the roll will just enter the wire of the sheets when 
the shaft of the roll is set in the grooves in the ends of the 
box. When cleaning the roll, it is turned by hand with a 
backward and forward movement, which causes the strip- 
pings to be removed and dropped into the box. This method 
is quicker and better than the hand card and provides a place 
for keeping the roll. The box also serves as a receptacle for 
the strippings. 

It will be noticed that a card immediately after being 
stripped produces a sliver slightly lighter in weight, w^hich 
is due to the spaces between the teeth of the clothing filling 
up again with fiber. In mills where it is desired to make 
exceptionally even yarns it is not advisable to strip at one 
time all the cards supplying one subsequent machine, but 
to take them in sections of either two or four supplying 
dififerent machines. 

GRINDING 



GRINDING ROLLS 

6. Grinding is the process of sharpening the teeth of 
the card wire on the cylinder, dofifer, or flats by means of 
rolls called grindinjj: rolls, and is of great importance in 
connection with carding. Formerly when mild-steel wire 
was used grinding had to be performed frequently. The 
clothing, however, that is almost universally used at the 
present time is made of hardened-and-tempered-steel wire 
that is ground on the sides after having been inserted 



§19 



COTTON CARDS 



37 



through the foundation; consequently, the tooth is almost 
wedge-shaped, so that even when the extreme point is worn 
away there still remains a comparatively sharp tooth. Grind- 
ing is therefore required less frequently 
than formerly, not only because the hard- 
ened -and -tempered -wire retains its point 
longer, but also on account of the shape 
of the tooth. 




7. Dead Kolls. — Grinding rolls are 
of two kinds — the dead foil and the traverse 
grinder. The dead roll is shown in Fig. 4. 
It consists principally of a hollow shell s 
mounted on a shaft s^. This shell is cov- 
ered with emery fillet wound spirally on its 
surface. At the ends of the shell, where 
the fillet tapers to a point it is passed 
through slots, one of which is shown at s-^, 
• and is firmly fastened by means of a steel 
■ clip setscrewed to the inner side of the 
shell. A dead roll suitable for grinding 
purposes on a 40-inch card is about 42 
inches long and 6f inches in diameter. 

When grinding, the dead roll is given a 

slight traversing motion and grinds the 

back of the teeth with a slight tendency 

toward grinding the sides. The traversing 

motion is obtained in the following manner: 

The shaft that carries the shell s projects 

beyond both ends of the shell sufificiently 

to carry at one end the worm ^4 and at the 

other end the pulley ^,, through which the 

roll receives its rotary motion; this pulley 

is driven by a band that passes around the 

grooved pulley on the end of the cylinder 

shaft of the card. The worm s^, which is fast to the shaft s,, 

drives a worm-gear ^5 that carries a pin s^ set away from the 

center of s^ and loosely connected to the rod s-,, the other end 




^ 




38 COTTON CARDS . §19 

of the rod being connected to the bracket ^e, which is loose on 
the shaft s^. Connected to the bracket Ss by means of a short 
rod is another bracket s^, that is loose on the shaft 5.. The 
two brackets Ss, s^ enclose a brass bushing- 5,„ that rests in 
one of the bearings for the grinding roll when the roll is in 
position, while a similar bushing on the other end of the 
shaft rests in the other bearing. Pins on these bushings 
project into holes provided in the bearings and thus hold the 
bushings firmly in one position. These bushings are loose 
on the shaft s,; consequently, the shaft is free to revolve 
and also to move laterally. With this construction, it will 
be seen that as the worm s^ drives the worm-gear s^, the 
latter, acting as an eccentric because of the position of 
the pin s^, will tend to impart a reciprocating motion to 
the brackets Ss,s^ through the connecting arm j-,, but will 
be prevented from doing so on account of these brackets 
being held in one position by means of the bushing Sio- 
Since the brackets are stationary, the rod s, and the pin Se 
that connects it with the gear s, can have no lateral move- 
ment; consequently ^5, by its eccentric movement around Se, 
will, through its bearing in the gear-cover, a portion of 
which is shown broken away in Fig. 4, and through the 
collars on the shaft at each side of the cover, impart a 
traversing movement to the shaft s, and the roll .?. Dead 
rolls are used for grinding the flats of the card, but seldom 
for grinding the cylinder or doffer, it being the custom to 
grind these two parts with the dead roll only when they 
have been newly clothed or when their surfaces become 
very uneven. 

8. The Traverse Grinder. — The second type of 
roll, known as the traverse grinder, or sometimes as 
the Horsfall grinder, is shown in Fig. 5. It consists of a 
roll t about 4 inches wide covered with emery fillet and 
mounted so as to slide on a hollow barrel, or shell, of large 
diameter. Inside the barrel is a shaft containing right- and 
left-hand threads connected at the ends. A fork /, fits into 
these threads, and a pin that projects from it passes into 



40 COTTON CARDS §19 

another pin /« that projects into a straight slot in the outer 
barrel and enters the roll. There are two pulleys, one of 
which /o is on the inner shaft, while the other t^ is on an 
extended portion of the barrel. With this construction the 
barrel is rotated when t^ is driven; the pressure of the edge 
of the slot against the pin t^ when the barrel is revolved 
causes the grinding roll also to revolve. A traverse motion 
is also imparted to the roll / by driving the pulley /;,, which 
causes the fork /, to be moved from side to side, changing 
from one thread to the other at each side of the card. Since 
the grinding roll presses against the clothing, the result of its 
traverse motion is to cause the teeth that are in contact with 
it to be bent, or inclined, toward the side of the card to which 
the roll is moving. The result of this is that the sides of the 
points of the teeth are ground down slightly, as well as the 
top of the points. In consequence of the roll being so 
narrow, it requires a longer time to grind the card with this 
mechanism than with the dead roll, other conditions being 
the same, but the results are so much better that it is very 
largely used. There is an unavoidable dwell on each side, 
which tends to grind down the sides rather more than the 
center; this is the only other important disadvantage in the 
use of this grinder. 

Grinding rolls, whether traverse grinders or dead rolls, are 
usually covered with emery fillet; this is a tape 1 inch wide 
covered on one side with emery, and is supplied in lengths of 
about 300 feet. It can be obtained with emery of different 
degrees of coarseness or fineness, the kind generally used 
for card grinding being known as No. 40. 



PREPARATION FOR GRINDING 

9. All grinding is usually performed by a man known as 
a grinder, who in large mills has from twenty to sixty 
revolving-top flat cards under his charge. The cards are 
usually ground in turn, unless some accident or defect neces- 
sitates some card to be ground out of the regular order. 
Before the grinding takes place, however, the card must be 



§19 COTTON CARDS 41 

prepared for this purpose, and the operation is somewhat as 
follows: The lap is either broken off at the back and the end 
allowed to run through, or more usually the side shaft ;;/,2, 
Fig. 2, is disengaged and the feed-roll turned backwards by 
turning the plate bevel gear b^ in the opposite direction from 
that in which it usually revolves. This rolls up the sheet 
and takes the fringe of cotton away from the licker. Any 
cotton in the card is allowed to run through and the cylinder 
and doffer are then stripped clean of short fibers, care being 
taken that no cotton remains on the part stripped. The 
card is then started and the flats allowed to run bare of all 
strippings; this takes from 25 to 40 minutes, according to the 
speed of the flats and nature of the cotton being carded. The 
card is then stopped and the fly taken out from under the 
card and from between the sides of the cylinder and frame- 
work and between the sides of the doffer and framework, 
where it collects. Card makers have in late years greatly 
lessened this space and in so doing partly reduced the amount 
of fly at these points. This waste is sometimes called 
cylincler-eiid >vaste, and is removed from these parts by 
means of a long, thin hook usually made from a bale tie. 
Fly also collects around the shaft that connects the sprocket 
gears that drive the flats. Care should be taken to remove 
all loose fly from around and under the card before grinding 
is commenced. If any remains there is great danger of fire, 
as sometimes the grinding roll strikes sparks. 

After making certain that the gear ;«,3, Fig. 1, and the 
side shaft, w,,. Fig. 2, which where thrown out of gear 
before stripping, are well out of contact, disengage the 
doffer and barrow gears by throwing up the front end of the 
catch /«, Fig. 1, which will drop the lever L that supports 
the barrow gear. The licker belt, flat belt, and comb bands 
may then be removed. In some cases, when grinding, it is 
necessary to remove the pulley on the shaft with the worm 
that drives the flats, in order to accommodate the bands that 
are placed on the card for grinding, but where this is not 
necessary the flats should always be run with their driving 
belt reversed, so that when the direction of rotation of the 



42 COTTON CARDS §19 

cylinder is changed for grinding, as described later, the flats 
will move in the same direction and at the same speed as 
when carding. If the flats are stationary during the grinding 
process they will be filled with dirt by the cylinder, and the 
first cotton that is put through the card after grinding will 
have to be considered as waste on account of the unclean 
condition of the flats. 

During grinding, the cylinder is driven at the usual speed 
but in the opposite direction to that in which it is driven for 
carding purposes. It is necessary to reverse its direction in 
order that the back of the tooth may be presented to the 
grinding roll when grinding. If the front of the tooth were 
presented to the grinding roll, the tooth would be beveled off 
at the front, which is directly the reverse of what is desired; 
in addition to this, the grinding roll acting on the front of the 
tooth would tend to raise it from its foundation and cause 
it to stand higher than it should. In order to reverse the 
direction of the cylinder it is necessary to cross the driving 
belt, if it was previously open; but if the belt for driving the 
cylinder when carding was crossed, it is simply necessary to 
have the belt open when grinding. If it is necessary to cross 
the belt when grinding it will be somewhat tight; to avoid 
this it is sometimes the custom to use an extra belt of the 
right length, which is carried from card to card by the 
grinder, although the same belt is more often used for both 
grinding and carding. In this case, if the belt was crossed 
when carding it must be taken up when used for grinding. 
This is accomplished by punching two holes in a line cross- 
wise of the belt and two holes similarly placed but a short 
distance from the first holes and inserting a lacing of horse- 
hide, thus forming a loop in the belt. The distance between 
these two pairs of holes depends on the amount of slack that 
it is necessary to take up in order to drive the cylinder with 
an open belt. 

The dofifer when being ground is driven in the same 
direction as for carding purposes, but at a higher speed, by 
a special belt u, Fig. 2, from a pulley on the cyHnder shaft. 
By these arrangements both the cylinder and doffer revolve 



§19 COTTON CARDS 43 

with the wire pointing in the opposite direction to the direc- 
tion of motion. 

10. After making sure that everything is clear of the 
cylinder and doflfer and that the belts for driving them are 
properly adjusted, the card is started. The cylinder and 
doffer are then brushed by means of a brush about 2 feet long 
and 3 inches wide, which is held in contact with the cylinder 
and doffer wire by the operative and moved from side to 
side of the card, thus removing all dust from the interstices 
of the wire. The card is then allowed to run a few minutes 
to remove from the fiats the dust that has lodged there when 
brushing the cylinder and doffer. 

Next the card is stopped and the grinder removes such 
covers and bonnets as are necessary to be removed. The 
grinding roll for the cylinder is then placed in the stands v, 
Fig. 2, with the pulley that gives the traversing motion to 
the roll on the same side as the main driving belt of the 
card. A band for giving the rotary motion is put on the 
pulley /a, Fig. 5, of the grinding roll and around one of 
the grooves of the pulley e^^, Fig. 2, on the cylinder shaft. 
The grinding roll for the doffer is now placed in position in 
the stands Vt in the same manner as the cylinder grinding 
roll. A band is passed around the pulley /a, Fig. 5, and 
around the other groove of the pulley e,e on the cylinder shaft. 

The pulley Z^, Fig. 5, on the opposite end of the grinding 
roll imparts the traversing motion to the roll /. A band 
that passes around the grooved pulley compounded with the 
tight pulley on the cylinder shaft passes around the pulley /, 
on the doffer-grinding-roll shaft and also over the pulley /, 
on the cylinder-grinding-roll shaft, thus imparting motion to 
the latter by slight friction only. In some cases an extra 
pulley is placed on the shaft of the doffer grinding roll and 
a band passed from this pulley around one of similar size on 
the shaft of the cylinder grinding roll, thus giving a more 
positive traversing motion. The former method of impart- 
mg the traversing motion to both rolls is not very satisfac- 
tory, as the cylinder roll does not receive as positive a 



44 COTTON CARDS §19 

motion as it should, owing to the small portion of the pulley 
that comes in contact with the band. 

It is possible to use one bracket for carrying both the 
stripping and the grinding rolls, but it is very inconvenient, 
as the wire of the stripping roll should project a short dis- 
tance into the wire of the cylinder or doffer, while the surface 
of the grinding roll should only lightly touch the points of 
the wire on the cylinder or doflEer; consequently, the distance 
from the center of the shaft to the surface of the roll will 
be different in each case. Even if the two rolls are arranged 
at first so that the necessary distances are obtained, the wire 
on the stripping roll will wear down more quickly than the 
emery on the grinding roll, and thus it will be necessary to 
adjust the brackets when changing from one roll to the other. 
Consequently, it should be ascertained which bracket must 
be used for each purpose, and in operating the card this fact 
should be remembered. 



OPERATION OF GRINDING 

11. Grinding the Cylinder and Doffer. — After 
having placed the grinding rolls in their stands, and usually 
before the proper bands are adjusted, the grinder proceeds 
to set the grinding roll to the wire on the cylinder and 
doffer. In performing this operation it is generally first 
necessary to use a card gauge, in order to make sure that 
neither grinding roll is pressing too heavily on any part of 
the cylinder or doffer. After this the proper bands are 
adjusted, the card is started and the grinder determines the 
actual setting of the grinding rolls to the wire by placing his 
ear as close as possible to the point at which the grinding 
roll comes in contact with the wire and judging by the 
amount of sound that is made whether either grinding roll 
is in its correct position. In light grinding, which is 
preferable, only a light buzzing sound should be distin- 
guished, and care should be taken that this is the same at all 
points on the cylinder or doffer. When setting the grinding 
rolls, the brackets that support them are adjusted by means 
of nuts and setscrews provided for that purpose. 



§19 COTTON CARDS 45 

During- the grinding operation, the grinding roll of both 
the cylinder and the doffer is rotated at a speed of from 
800 to 900 feet per minute; the cylinder is making about 
2,150 feet per minute, while a point on the surface of the 
doffer will move about 1,866 feet per minute in the card 
under consideration. The direction of the rotation of the 
cylinder and the doffer, and the inclination of the teeth are 
such that the grinding roll grinds the back of the teeth. At 
the same time, because of its traversing motion, it also 
grinds the sides as has been explained. The grinding roll 
does not merely touch the wire but produces a slight pres- 
sure on it, which tends to force the point of the wire 
forwards toward the foundation of the clothing; conse- 
quently, if the roll grinds on one portion longer than the 
other, the wire will be lower in this place. This is more 
liable to occur with the traverse rolls at the edges of the 
cylinder and doffer, where the rolls have a slight dwell 
during the reversing of the traverse. If possible this 
reversing should take place almost beyond the edges of the 
cylinder and doffer, and grinding stands are now set wide 
enough to allow a longer roll to be used, which permits the 
disk to traverse almost off the wire while reversing. After 
the card is ground, the grinder removes the grinding rolls 
and brushes out the cylinder and doffer clothing, for the 
purpose of removing all small pieces of steel or emery 
caused by the grinding. After stopping the card, the grinder 
removes the belt driving the doffer, makes the necessary 
settings, changes the driving belt, and replaces all belts, 
bands, and parts that were either removed or changed in 
position to prepare the card jEor grinding; he then puts on a 
lap and starts up the card. 

The length of time required for grinding depends to a 
great extent on the condition of the wire, since if the points 
of the teeth are dulled considerably, a longer time will be 
required than if the clothing is in comparatively good condi- 
tion. The degree of coarseness of the emery on the grinding 
roll also governs to some extent the time required for 
grinding, since coarse emery cuts much faster than fine 



46 COTTON CARDS §19 

emery. The time required for grinding is also governed by 
the amount of pressure exerted by the grinding roll on the 
clothing. If the grinding roll is set so that it presses heavily 
on the wire, the grinding will be accomplished in less time, 
although there is more danger of injuring the wire; such 
grinding is known as heavy grinding. If the grinding roll 
presses only lightly against the clothing, a greater time will 
be required to secure the proper point on the teeth, but there 
is less danger of injuring the wire; this method of grinding 
is spoken of as light gririding. 

The temper of the wire with which the card clothing is set 
also affects the length of time required for proper grinding, 
since hardened and tempered wire grinds more slowly than 
soft wire. 

As a general rule it may be stated that from one-half 
to one working day, or from 5 to 10 hours, is the usual 
time required for properly grinding the cylinder and dofTer of 
a card. 

The interval between the times of grinding depends some- 
what on the product of the card, the condition of the wire, 
and the opinion of the person in charge. Generally speaking, 
it is advisable to grind frequently and lightly for a long time 
rather than at more remote intervals and heavily for a short 
time, as the former method is not so liable to heat the wire 
and to take out the temper. If the cards are turning off an 
average production for medium counts, grinding the cylinder 
and doffer once in every 20 or 30 days will be found suffi- 
cient. In many mills they are not ground so frequently. 

12. Grinding a New Card. — A card that has been 
newly clothed requires grinding before being used for card- 
ing purposes, and this first grinding operation will be found 
to differ somewhat from the usual method of grinding, the 
object being to render the surface of the cylinder and doffer 
perfectly level at all points. If the fillet is not put on with 
a regular tension it is liable to rise, or blister, at places, and 
if the tacks that hold it have not been driven with care the 
wires around them will be high. Sometimes the edges of 



§19 COTTON CARDS 47 

the fillet are allowed to overlap slightly or the fillet is 
crowded too closely, thereby causing the wire to be higher in 
some places than in others. If the card is carefully clothed 
these faults should not occur to any extent, but when they do 
those wires that are higher than the others must be ground 
level with the rest of the surface. A newly clothed card is 
first ground with dead rolls, which are left on until the 
surface of the wire on the cylinder and doffer is perfectly 
smooth; this takes from 3 to 10 days. After the wire has 
been ground level by means of the dead rolls, the traverse 
rolls are used for the purpose of putting a point on the wire 
and are left on about a similar period, the length of time 
depending on the temper of the wire and also on the length 
of time that the wire has been ground by the dead rolls. 

13. Grinding tlie Flats. — The card wire on the flats 
requires grinc|ing periodically, and while some portions of 
the preceding description and remarks apply to grinding in 
general and can be applied to the grinding of the flats, .there 
are special features in connection with this process that 
make it differ somewhat from the grinding of the cylinder 
and doffer. The fact that the flats are arranged in an endless 
chain and slide for a portion of their movement on a smooth, 
circular arc, while at another portion of their circuit they 
are carried over rolls on which they are suspended, prevents 
their being driven past the grinding roll at the same speed 
as the card wire on the cylinder or doffer. On this account 
and also because there are, during the running of the card, a 
number of the flats that are performing no actual work for 
a considerable length of time, it is customary to grind the 
flats while the card is in operation and with the flats moving 
at their working speed, which saves a loss of time and pro- 
duction. This slow movement of the flats, since only one 
flat is ground at a time, causes considerable time to elapse 
before all the flats can be brought under the action of the 
grinding roll. The dead roll is almost always used for 
grinding the flats and is placed in brackets on each side of 
the card. These brackets are so adjusted that the roll, 



48 



COTTON CARDS 



§19 



when resting in them, will lightly touch the wire of the flats 
as they pass from the front to the back of the card; that 
is, it grinds the flats while they are suspended by the bracket 
over which they move. An arrangement is adopted to 
firmly support the flat while it is being ground, and at the 
same time hold it in such a position with relation to the 
grinding roll that the heel of the flat will not be ground off. 
When the flats are at work the heel is closer to the card wire 
on the cylinder than is the toe, and if this relative position 




Fig. 6 

were preserved with regard to the grinding roll, the wire at 
the heel would be ground off before the wire at the toe was 
touched by the grinding roll. 

14. One type of grinding apparatus is illustrated in 
Figs. 6 and 7; Fig. 6 shows the grinding apparatus in posi- 
tion, while Fig. 7 is a perspective view of some of the 
essential parts. The bra'cket a that supports the different 
parts is firmly attached to the side of the card, there being a 
bracket on each side. Resting against the inclined sur- 
face a, of the bracket a is a casting b that carries the 



19 



COTTON CARDS 



49 




Fig. 



bearings b^ for the grinding roll c. Attached to this casting 
is a finger b^ that serves to lock the grinding roll firmly in 
position. The casting b is firmly secured to the piece d and 
can be adjusted by loosening the nut b^ and turning the set 
nut b^, thus moving the grinding roll nearer to or farther 
from the teeth of the 
flats, as may be de- 
sired. A pin di that 
is carried by d may 
be set in either of 
the slots «2, «3 cast 
in the bracket a. At 
its lower part the 
piece d carries the 
former d^, which is 
so shaped that if it 
is pressed firmly 
against the end of 
the flat, the wire surface of the flat will be presented in such 
a position to the grinding roll that the flat will be ground 
evenly across its width. These parts are, of course, dupli- 
cated on the other side of the card, and rods that serve to 
connect the two sides at the points d^, d^ extend across the 
card, the entire mechanism being known as the cradle. 

The parts mentioned form the principal parts of this 
mechanism and its operation is as follows: When the cradle 
is in position for grinding, the pin d^ on d projects through 
the slot as of the bracket a, but it should be clearly under- 
stood that during grinding, d is not supported by the bracket, 
since the weight of all the parts is made to bear on the ends 
of the flats, which during this time are supported by the 
bracket ia^, attached to the bracket a. In this manner, 
each flat during its movement from the front to the back of 
the card is brought between the bracket a^ and the former d^, 
against which it will be rigidly held; the former d^ is milled 
in such a manner as to cause the flat to assume its correct 
position in relation to the grinding roll and to be held in this 
position until it has passed entirely from under the action of 



50 



COTTON CARDS 



19 



the grinding roll. When this grinding arrangement is not in 
use it may be raised and the pin d^ inserted in the slot a^, thus 
bringing all the parts out of contact with the flats; or when it 
is desired, all the parts may be removed to another card for 
the purpose of grinding. 

15. Another device for holding the flats in the correct 
position for grinding is shown in Figs. 8 and 9; Fig. 8 shows 
the mechanism as it appears when looking at the side of the 
card, while Fig. 9 shows certain of the parts as viewed from 




Fig. 8 

the inside; coasequently, one view is the exact reverse of the 
other. These parts are duplicated on each side of the card, 
but as they both work exactly alike only one will need a 
description. The grinding roll c is placed directly over the 
center of the cylinder and rests in the bearing b,, supported 
by the stand a, which is firmly attached to the framework of 
the card. In the illustrations, the bearing b^ and stand a are 
indicated by dotted lines in order to leave an unobstructed 
view of the interior parts. Pivoted to the stand a at the 
point a, is a casting d., the upper part of which projects 



§19 



COTTON CARDS 



51 



sufficiently to come directly over the outer ends of the flat, 
and constitutes the former d,. If the flat is forced against this 
projecting piece, or former, the teeth will assume the correct 
position for grinding. Pivoted to the casting d at the point d, 
IS a lever e^ that carries at its outer end a weight ^,, while 
the inner arm e of this lever bears against the under side of 
the flat. Pivoted to the bracket a at the point d^ is a lever / 
that carries a shoulder A that bears against a projection on 
the casting d. At its other end, the lever / has a projecting 
finger /, that bears against the cam g. Compounded with 




Fig. 9 

the cam^ is a sprocket gear^,, the teeth of which engage 
with the ribs on the backs of the flats. 

The operation of this mechanism is as follows: The flats 
move continuously, the upper line being face up and moving 
in the direction indicated by the arrow. The movement of 
the flats causes the sprocket gear g, to revolve on its stud, 
and since the cam g is compounded with the sprocket gear, 
it will revolve also. The projection /, of the lever / is held 
in contact with the face of the cam by the pressure of the 
casting of on the shoulder/.; consequently, as the cam revolves 



52 COTTON CARDS §19 

and one of the high portions of its face comes in contact with 
the projection /,, it will force the projection /^ downwards, 
and allow it to rise again when one of the low portions of 
the face of the cam approaches. This movement of the 
lever / causes the casting d and former d^ to be alternately 
raised and lowered to a slight extent. 

As the flats move in the direction indicated by the arrow, 
a portion of the rib of each comes in contact with the upper 
surface of the arm e, which tends to raise each flat but is 
prevented from doing so by the former d^, consequently, the 
flat is practically locked between these two parts, although 
its movement in the direction indicated by the arrow is not 
prevented. As the former d^ is raised the flat that is thus 
locked is carried upwards until it assumes its proper posi- 
tion for grinding, which is controlled by the cam g and the 
former ^Z^. After the flat has moved suflficiently to be free from 
the action of the grinding roll r, the former d^ and arm e are 
lowered to allow another flat to be brought into position to 
be raised and ground. This operation is continued through- 
out the grinding of each flat in the entire set. The lowering 
of the former and arm allows each flat to be brought into 
position before being raised in contact with the grinding 
roll, thus insuring that each flat will occupy its proper posi- 
tion before coming under the action of the grinding roll. 

16. Owing to the fact that the flat when performing its 
carding action is supported at each end only, and also on 
account of its length being so much in excess of its width, 
there is a tendency for the flats to bend downwards, or deflect, 
in the center. The rib forming the back of the flat is so 
shaped as to reduce the amount of deflection to a minimum, 
but it cannot be altogether overcome. It will thus be seen 
that if the flats are ground perfectly level when the wire is 
upwards, the surface when reversed, that is with the wire 
downwards in position for carding, will be slightly convex 
and consequently the ends of the flats cannot be set so close 
to the cylinder as their centers. To overcome this difficulty 
and also to avoid dirt and pieces of emery dropping on the 



§19 



COTTON CARDS 



53 



cylinder, which sometimes occurs when the grinding takes 
place above the cylinder, the flats are sometimes ground in 
their working position. Such a method is shown in Fig. 10. 
In this case, the grinding apparatus is placed at the back of 
the card and the flats are ground with their faces downwards 




""O^ 



"=o" 



Trrr Tnr 



while in the same relative positions as they occupy when 
carding. The face of the flat being underneath partly^ 
prevents broken wires, pieces of steel, and emery from 
lodging in the wire and thus being carried around into the 
carded cotton and incurring the risk of injuring the clothing. 
The grinding roll c is supported by bearings lu that form a 



54 COTTON CARDS §19 

part of the bracket b, which is fastened to the lower part of 
the former d by means of a setscrew b^. The bracket that sup- 
ports the bearings is adjustable and may be altered to bring 
the grinding roll into its correct position by loosening the 
setscrew b, and turning the adjusting nuts on the setscrew b^. 
The upper part of the shoe, or former, d, is so shaped as to 
give the correct position to the fiat, and at its lower end 
is pivoted on the stud «,. Pivoted on this same stud and 
connected with the former, is a lever e that is connected to 
another lever e^, by means of the link e^; the lever e^ is 
pivoted at e^ and carries at its outer end the weight e^. 
When the weight is thrown back in the position shown by 
the full lines in Fig, 10, it raises the former together with 
the bearings for the grinding roll, causing the former to 
bear against the end of the flats and thus give each flat the 
correct position for grinding as it is brought around by the 
sprocket g. When the grinding apparatus is not in oper- 
ation, the weight is thrown forwards. By this means the 
former, together with the bearings for the grinding roll, is 
lowered, and no part is in contact with the flats. The posi- 
tions assumed by the different parts when the weight is 
thrown forwards are shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 10. 
The length of time given to grinding the flats varies for 
the same reasons as those given in connection with grinding 
the cylinder and doffer, but the intervals between grindings 
are longer. It is considered sufficient to grind the fiats every 
4 or 6 weeks. It is advisable, but seldom the practice, for a 
mill to own a machine for grinding the fiats of the revolving- 
top flat cards. When a mill is in possession of such a 
machine, it is customary at least once a year to remove the 
fiats from each card and to grind them all to exactly the same 
gauge, thus insuring that no fiat differs from any other in the 
same card owing to the unequal wear either of the wire or of 
the ends that rest on the bends. 

17. Grinding the Liicker. — The licker seldom requires 
grinding, generally only after an accident has happened to it. 
When it is necessary to grind the licker, the solid emery 



§19 COTTON CARDS 55 

or carborundum Trlieel should be used. The licker and 
wheel are revolved in such a way as to cause the wheel to 
run against the points of the teeth of the licker. After 
grinding, the motion of the licker is reversed and the end of 
a board moistened with oil and sprinkled with powdered 
emery is pressed against the teeth. By this means the teeth 
are made smooth. Other methods are sometimes used, such 
as applying a soft brick or a piece of sandstone to the back 
of the teeth while the licker is revolving in an opposite direc- 
tion to its working one. 

18. Bnrnisliing. — The card-wire manufacturers supply 
what is known as a burnishing brvisli, which is now used 
in some mills. The action of plow grinding or side grind- 
ing in the manufacture of wire tends to leave the wire rough 
at the side, and it is always burnished very carefully before 
leaving the factory. As it wears down, parts of the wire are 
reached that have either become rough or were not acted on 
by the burnishing brush in the manufacturing of the wire. 
The burnishing brush is therefore used in the mill to burnish 
the wire on the cylinder, doflEer, and flats. It is somewhat 
the same as the stripping roll, but has absolutely straight 
wire about f inch in length set loosely in the foundation. 
The brush rests in the stands usually occupied by the grind- 
ing roll. It is set into the card wire about i inch and makes 
about 600 revolutions per minute; its outside diameter is 
7 inches. It is usually left in operation for a whole day or 
even longer. 

When burnishing the wire on both the cylinder and the 
doflfer it is customary to run them at a very slow speed. 
This is accomplished in the card under description as follows: 
A band pulley 14^ inches in diameter having three grooves 
on its face is compounded with a 20-tooth barrow gear 
by means of a sleeve. The regular barrow pulley and 
barrow gear are removed from the barrow stud and the 
band pulley and gear substituted. The main driving belt 
runs on the loose pulley, on the edge of which is a 
groove 20 inches in diameter. In this groove a band is 



56 COTTON CARDS §19 

placed that drives the band pulley on the barrow stud at 
about 220 revolutions per minute. The additional grooves 
in this pulley, by means of bands, drive the burnishing 
brushes. The speed of the doffer by this method is about 
23 revolutions per minute, and as it carries a pulley 11 inches 
in diameter that drives an 18-inch pulley on the cylinder 
shaft, the cylinder will rotate at about 14 revolutions per 
minute. The circumferential speed of the burnishing 
brushes is about six times that of the cylinder. 



SETTING 



19. The setting of the different parts of the card requires 
careful attention and is one of the most important points in 
the management of the card room. Owing to the wear of 
the wire in grinding and the wearing of the journals of the 
shafts carrying the cylinder, doffer, and licker, there is a 
constant tendency for the wire teeth of the different parts of 
the card to separate and thus increase the distance between 
their surfaces. This calls for a readjustment of the various 
parts, which is known as setting. 

The principal places where setting is required are as fol- 
lows: between the cylinder and the flats, between the licker 
and the cylinder, and between the doffer and the cylinder. 
Other places for setting are between the mote knives and 
the licker, between the feed-plate and the licker, between the 
cylinder screen and cylinder, between the licker screen and the 
licker, between the back knife plate and the cylinder, between 
the front knife plate and the cylinder, between the fiat-strip- 
ping comb and the flats, and between the doffer comb and the 
doffer. In order to determine when these parts require set- 
ting, it is sometimes necessary to remove certain covers or 
bonnets and insert gauges, while in other cases the proper time 
for setting is determined by examining the work delivered by 
the card, a method requiring an experienced eye. The 
intervals at which cards are set vary in different mills, but 
the parts that contain the clothing are usually set directly 
after grinding, while the time for setting the other parts is 



§19 COTTON CARDS 57 

governed largelj'^ by the amount of work done by the card 
and the stock being used or to be used. 

20. Gauges. — The exact setting, or distance between 
certain parts, of the card is determined by the use of gauges; 
two, and in some cases three, kinds are used. The first one 
is about 9 inches long and If inches wide and contains four 
leaves pivoted together. These leaves are made of thin 
sheet steel and are usually tt^, tijW, to oir, and liwo inch 
thick, respectively. The second gauge, which is used exclu- 
sively for flat setting, consists of a strip of sheet steel about 
2i inches long and li inches in width bent at right angles 
about 2 inch from one end, with a handle attached to this 
end. The other end is the part used for setting and is 
usually Tofo", 1000, or io*oo inch thick. The third gauge 
consists of a quadrant or semicircle mounted on a shaft and 
is used for setting the top of the cylinder screen to the cylin- 
der and licker, and also in some cases to set the licker screen 
to the licker. The curvature of this gauge corresponds to the 
curvature of the licker. Card gauges are spoken of in the mill 
as being of a certain number, thus a gauge toVo inch thick 
is termed a No. 7 gauge, while a gauge looo inch thick is 
termed a No. 10 gauge. 

Since the leaf and fiat gauges are very thin, they are 
easily damaged, and in this condition are of little use, pro- 
ducing faulty settings; consequently, great care should be 
used to prevent the faces becoming dented, bent, or injured 
in any way. As the efficiency of the card depends on the 
proper settings, it will be seen that any defect in the gauge 
will injure the quality of the production of the card. In 
many cases poor work results from faulty settings or 
poor gauges. 

21. Setting the Flats. — In order to make it possible 
to set the teeth of the flats the required distance from the 
teeth of the cylinder it is necessary that some means be 
adopted by which the flats may be raised or lowered as 
desired. The manner of accomplishing this will be found to 
differ on different makes of cards; one method is shown in 



58 



COTTON CARDS 



§19 



Fig. 11. In this figure a portion of the cylinders of the card, 
the arch g, and the fiats / supported by the flexible bend h are 
shown. It should be understood that there is a flexible bend 
similar to h on the other side of the card and that the ends 
of the flats rest on this bend in a similar manner to that 
shown in Fig. 11. The bend h is supported by brackets, 
which in some cases are composed of two parts h^Ji^. In 




Fig. 11 

Fig. 11, the outer portion h^ is shown in dotted lines. The 
inner portion //, is so made that a projecting lug h^ fits into a 
hole in the bend and securely holds it in position. The 
part h^ is supported by a screw that passes through the 
rib^i of the arch and carries two set nuts h^Ju, one above 
and one below the rib. The bracket is also further held in 
position by means of the screw //,, which passes through a 
slot in the bracket and enters the arch of the card. It is by 



§19 COTTON CARDS 59 

raising or lowering the bend // by means of the bracket //, 
that the flats are raised or lowered as desired. There are 
five of these brackets on each side of the card, and when 
setting the flats care should be taken that all the brackets 
are properly adjusted. When setting the flats, the screw /^ 
and nut Ju are loosened and the flats raised or lowered by 
turning the nut Ju either down or up, respectively. After 
the flat has been set in the desired position, the screw h^ and 
the nuts //s, h^ are firmly secured, thus holding the bracket 
and bend securely in their proper positions. 

22. Another arrangement for setting, or adjusting, the 
flats is shown in Fig. 12 {a) and {b) , of which {a) is a plan 
view, partly in section, and {b) a sectional elevation. The 
flats are supported by the flexible bend in the usual manner, 
but the method of supporting the flexible bend is a radical 
departure from the one just described, the only resemblance 
being that both have five setting points on each side of the 
card. The shell of the cylinder covered with fillet is shown 
at w, while w^ represents the flat, which is supported by the 
flexible conical bend w^, and this in turn is supported by 
the rigid conical bend W:, instead of brackets. The bend w^ 
rests on the arch w^ of the card. It can be seen by referring 
to the figures that the under surface of the flexible bend is 
beveled and rests on the beveled surface of the rigid bend; 
consequently, when the bend w^ is forced in toward the cylin- 
der the bend w^ must rise, while on the other hand if w^ is 
forced outwards the bend w^ must fall, thus raising or lower- 
ing the flats as may be desired. The bend w^ is operated 
by a screw w^ that projects through this bend into the arch of 
the card and is held in place by the binding nut w^. On the 
inner side of the bend W:, is a toothed nut w, that serves as 
a binding nut and also as a device for forcing the rigid bend 
away from the cylinder. On the outer side of the bend 
is a nut w^ that serves as an index nut, a binding nut, and 
also as a device for forcing the rigid bend in toward the 
cylinder. The toothed nut w., is operated by a key w^ that 
has a fluted, or toothed, portion to fit the teeth of the nut w,. 



60 



COTTON CARDS 



§19 




§19 COTTON CARDS 61 

When it is desired to lower the flats, or set them closer to 
the cylinder, the key w» is inserted in a hole in the rigid 
bend and engages with the teeth of the nut w,. The index 
nut is moved out on the screw and then the toothed nut is 
tightened by means of the key, thus forcing out the rigid 
bend and binding it firmly in position. When it is desired 
to raise the flats, the toothed nut is loosened and the index 
nut moved in, thus forcing the rigid bend in until the desired 
position is reached, after which the toothed nut is again 
tightened. The index nut is provided in order that the 
person making the adjustment may tell at a glance just how 
far the flats are moved. 

23. The flats are set by means of the flat gauges 
described, while the card is stopped, and preferably when 
other machinery in the room is also stopped, so as to pre- 
vent any vibration of the floor. In order to provide a blank 
space in which to insert these gauges, it is necessary to 
remove certain flats from the chain of flats above the cylin- 
der. Two methods of removing these flats are followed, 
depending on the method of setting that it is intended to 
adopt. In those cards constructed with five setting points 
on each side of the card, it is common to use five flats for 
setting purposes, a flat being selected that stands almost 
immediately above each setting point. The flats on each 
side of the setting flats, as they are called, are removed, 
making it possible to slip in a gauge on either side of the 
setting flat; thus, there are ten flats in all removed. A short 
shaft carries the worm-gear /,2 and the worm /,3, Fig. 2, 
through which the flats are driven; on this shaft a crank is 
placed and used to turn the flats while setting. By means of 
this crank the flats are turned until each of the five setting 
flats comes directly above a setting point, and they remain in 
that position until the setting of the flats is completed. 

Another method is to remove a flat on each side of one 
setting flat only, or sometimes two setting flats. This gives 
but one or two flats that are used for setting purposes, and 
as there are five setting points on the flexible bend, the chain 



62 COTTON CARDS §19 

of flats must be turned several times in order to bring these 
setting flats directly over the places where the gauges are 
inserted. Advantages are claimed for each system, but on 
the whole there is less work and quicker setting when using 
five setting flats. 

The side of the flat used for setting purposes is the heel, 
which is the side nearest the wire on the cylinder, being about 
ToT inch nearer than the toe. Having brought the setting 
flats into the correct position over the setting points, the 
gauge is inserted first between the flat and the cylinder above 
the central setting point, and the proper adjustment made, as 
has been described. In setting a flat it is only possible to 
set one end at a time. The end that is being set, however, 
should be held firmly in position on its bearings with one 
hand while the gauge is moved back and forth across the 
card between the flat and the cylinder with the other hand. 
Owing to the width of the card it is impossible to move the 
gauge the entire length of the flat; consequently, one side is 
set temporarily and then the other side is set in a similar 
manner, after which the first side set should be tested and 
also the second side set to make sure that the flat is in the 
proper position. When both ends of the central flat have 
been set, the flat at the extreme front of the card is usually 
set next, at both ends; then both ends of the flat nearest the 
rear of the card are set, and then the two intervening flats. 
In setting flats there should be a certain amount of friction, 
or resistance, felt when moving the gauge along between the 
flat and the cylinder. 

The settings mentioned are only temporary settings, and 
after the adjustment of the flats the brackets should be 
seciired and the settings again tested, in order to make sure 
that the proper spaces exist between the cylinder and the 
flats. The cylinder should now be slowly revolved, the flats 
at the same time being moved, and if any rustling sound 
is heard it is an indication that the wire surface of the flats is 
coming in contact with the wire surface of the cylinder at 
some point, in which case the flats should be set farther from 
the cylinder at that point. 



§19 



COTTON CARDS 



63 




64 COTTON CARDS §19 

The flats are usually set about il uu inch from the cylinder at 
the heel of the flat. The flats at the front of the card should 
be set the closest to the cylinder, while the space between 
the flats and the cylinder should gradually increase toward 
the back. If a No. 10 gauge is used, the flats at the back 
are set loosely to the gauge; those at the top and center, a 
little closer; while those at the front are set still closer. 

24. Setting the Liicker. — The licker is mounted on 
movable bearings ti'.o resting on and secured to the frame- 
work, or base, of the card as shown in Fig. 13. There is a 
lug zc\t on the arch of the card, through which an adjusting 
screw Z£'i2 for adjusting the licker to the cylinder is passed. 
By loosening the nuts ze'.s, z^'ie, which securely hold the 
bearing to the framework, and by operating the adjusting 
nuts tt',3, tt',4 on the adjusting screw 7i\2, the licker may be 
moved nearer to or farther from the cylinder, as desired. 
The leaf gauge is used for this setting and the licker is 
generally set to the cylinder with a No. 10 gauge. 

25. Setting tlie Doffer. — The doffer is also mounted 
in movable bearings Wi,, Fig. 14, which rest on the frame- 
work of the card and are securely fastened to it by the bolts 
and nuts u\s, u\^. An adjusting screw u\_o connects the 
bearing of the doffer with a lug ti'^, on the arch of the card. 
When it is desired to set the doffer, the nuts u\s, u\^ are 
loosened, and the doffer can then be set to the desired 
position by means of the adjusting screw zc^c and the 
nuts a'22, zfas. The doffer is usually set to the cylinder with 
a No. 5 or No. 7 leaf gauge by inserting the gauge 
between the doffer and the cylinder where they are in 
closest proximity. When a No. 7 gauge is used, the doffer 
is usually set tight to the gauge. After attaining the proper 
distance between the doffer and the cylinder, the nuts zi\^, u\^ 
are tightened, as well as the adjusting nuts w^., ^',3. The 
position of the doffer with relation to the cylinder is an 
important matter and should receive careful attention. If 
the doffer is set too far away from the cylinder, a patchy 
or cloudy web will result, owing to the doffer not taking 



19 



COTTON CARDS 



65 




Fig. 14 



66 COTTON CARDS §19 

the fiber from the cylinder regularly and thus allowing the 
wire of the cylinder to fill up. 

The mote knives are carried by two brackets, one at either 
end, and can be adjusted in regard to the relative distance 
between their blades and the surface of the licker as 
described in connection with the construction and operation 
of the various parts of the card. These knives are set to 
the licker by means of the leaf gauge and the number of the 
gauge varies from 12 to 17. 

26. Setting the Feed-Plate.— The feed-plate b rests 
on the frame of the card, as shown in Fig. 13, and is fastened 
to it by means of the bolts and nut x. When it is desired 
to set the feed-plate b to the licker c, the nut x is loosened 
and the plate moved nearer to or farther from it by means of 
the adjusting screw x^ and the nuts x^, x^. The screw x^ 
passes through a lug x^ on the framework of the card and 
into the feed-plate. The leaf gauge is also used to make 
this setting and is inserted between the licker and the face of 
the feed-plate. The number of the gauge varies from 12 to 20. 

27. Setting the Cylinder Screen. — The cylinder 
screen is made in two sections in the card under description 
and these sections are fastened together by two staple-shaped 
bolts, one on each side of the card. These bolts pass through 
the framework of the card near the floor. Inside the frame- 
work of the card on each side is a thin metal arch adjusted 
so as to be in close proximity to the end of the cylinder. 
When the screen is in position, it is between, and attached 
to, these arches, thus forming a casing for the lower portion 
of the cylinder. The screen is held in position by a number 
of bolts passing through the side arches of the screen. There 
are a number of slots in the circular arches of the screen 
through which the gauge can be inserted in order to obtain 
the proper distance between the cylinder and the screen. 

The nuts on the bolts that hold the screen in position are 
on the outside of the arches. When it is deemed necessary 
to set the screens, the doors on the sides of the card are 
removed to give access to the nuts on the bolts and to allow 



§19 COTTON CARDS 67 

a gauge of the proper thickness to be inserted in any of the 
slots of the screen arch. The screen is raised or lowered to 
the proper position as determined by the gauge and the nuts 
are then tightened, thus holding the screen in position. The 
screen is set farther from the cylinder at the front than at 
any other point, the distance being about .25 inch, while the 
screen at the center and back is set about .032 inch from the 
cylinder. This arrangement prevents the ends of the fibers 
that have been thrown out by centrifugal force from coming 
in contact with the front edge of the screen and thus being 
removed from the cylinder as fly. 

28. Setting the Thicker Screen. — As the licker and 
cylinder screens are very close to each other at their nearest 
point, and as the front end of the licker screen must be set 
only a short distance below this point, it is nearly impossible 
to make an accurate setting with the licker in position. The 
best method is to remove the licker and use a quadrant 
gauge, the curvature of the outside surface of which should 
correspond exactly to the curvature of the surface of the 
licker. This gauge is mounted loosely on a shaft of exactly 
the same bore as the licker shaft. The ends of the shaft 
rest in the licker bearings and the screens are set to the 
proper distance from the quadrant gauge by sliding the 
quadrant along the shaft. The front edge of the licker screen 
at the point where it is hinged to the cylinder screen is usu- 
ally set about .011 inch from the licker. The nose, or por- 
tion of the licker screen with which the fibers first come in 
contact, is set iV to i inch from the teeth of the licker, 
according to the amount of cleaning action desired at this 
point and the staple of the cotton being used. Setting the 
screen farther from the licker at the nose than at the front 
allows the fibers to be drawn gradually into a more compact 
space and presents a more even layer of fibers to the action 
of the wire on the cylinder. 

29. Setting: the Back Knife Plate. — The back knife 
plate ^«, Fig. 13, extends from the licker cover, or bonnet, 
upwards to the fiats and corresponds in curvature to the 



68 COTTON CARDS §19 

curvature of the cylinder. This plate is fastened to a circu- 
lar bend x^ by means of two screws at each end, and the 
bend is attached to the adjustable bracket of the licker by 
means of two setscrews Xo, x-,; consequently, when the licker 
is adjusted the back knife plate is adjusted, or it can be 
adjusted independently by means of the setscrews x^, x-,. 
The plate is set to the cylinder to about a No. 17 leaf gauge 
at the lower edge and a No. 32 at the upper edge. This 
allows the fibers to free themselves and stand out a little from 
the cylinder before coming in contact with the flats. 

30. Setting the Front Knife Plate. — The front knife 
plate ^11, Fig. 14, extends from the cylinder door above the 
dofier to the point where the flats first leave the cylinder. 
The amount of flat strippings depends to a great extent on 
the setting of this plate. The plate is fastened to a circular 
bend x^ by means of two screws at each end, and can be 
adjusted by means of the bracket ^-9, the adjusting screw jt',o, 
and nuts ;f„, x^^; or it can be adjusted to a certain extent by 
the setscrews jr,,, x^^. The screw x^^ passes through an 
arm x,^ of the circular bend x^, while both screws ;i:,3, x^,. 
come in contact with the arm x^^ of the bracket x^; thus by 
loosening one screw and tightening the other the plate can 
be adjusted. The front knife plate is also set with the leaf 
gauge, its distance from the cylinder at the lower edge being 
about .017 inch. The space between the upper edge of the 
plate and the cylinder depends on the amount of waste that 
it is desired to remove as fiat strippings, but the usual 
setting is about .032 inch. If the plate is set farther from 
the cylinder, more and heavier strippings will be made, and 
if moved too far away, the strips will form one continuous 
web instead of being connected by merely a few fibers. If 
the plate is set too close, some of the short fibers and dirt 
removed from the cotton by the flats will in turn be taken 
from the flats by the knife and carried around by the cylin- 
der, thus producing bad work. 

31. Setting the Stripping Comb. — The flat stripping 
comb is mounted on two arms, as described in connection 



§19 COTTON CARDS 69 

with the construction and operation of the various parts of 
the card. There is one nut on each side of the comb at each 
end. The comb is set by adjusting the nuts on the arms 
when it is at the lowest part of its swing, with its teeth 
opposite the toe of the flat. Sometimes it will be necessary 
to try two or three flats before the comb is set in its proper 
position. The distance between the toe of the flat and the 
comb is determined with the leaf gauge and is usually about 
.007 inch; although this setting should be close enough to 
allow the comb to remove the strippings from the flats, it 
should not be so close that the comb will strike the wire 
and damage it. 

32. Setting tlie Brusli and Hackle Comb. — The 

brush for stripping or brushing out the dust, etc., from 
between the interstices of the flats is set so that the ends of 
the bristles do not quite reach the foundation of the fillet on 
the flats. The brush has longer bristles near its ends, in 
order to brush the ends of the flats where they rest on the 
flexible bends, so as to keep them clean and preserve the 
accuracy of the settings. 

The hackle comb is set so that the needles, or teeth, of 
the comb project for a short distance into the bristles of the 
brush, in order that all the waste may be removed from 
the brush. 

33. Setting the Doffer Comb. — The doffer comb is set 
in a manner similar to that in which the doffer and licker are 
set. The comb is mounted on sliding bearings fastened to 
the framework, or base, of the card by means of bolts. A 
setting screw is fastened to the bearing of the comb at each 
side and passes through a lug that is fastened to the frame- 
work of the card. When it is desired to set the comb, the 
nuts on the bolts that attach the bearings to the framework 
are loosened and the comb drawn nearer to or farther from 
the doffer by means of the adjusting nuts on the setting 
screws, as described in connection with the setting of the 
doffer and feed-plate. When the proper distance is obtained, 
all the nuts are tightened. The comb is usually set to the 



70 COTTON CARDS §19 

doffer at the point where they are in closest proximity with 
a No. 7 leaf gauge. 

The doffer comb, in addition to being adjustable as to its 
distance from the doffer, is adjustable as to the position of 
its stroke, which is changed by altering the relative positions 
of the comb and the eccentric from which it receives its 
motion. If the web should follow the doffer instead of being 
removed by the comb, the position of the stroke should be 
lowered; while if the web sags between the doffer and the 
trumpet, as it sometimes does, owing to atmospheric changes, 
etc., the position of the stroke should be raised. 

The settings given are used only as a basis. The settings 
of the various parts of the card vary according to the stock 
being used, the quality and kind of finished work, and the 
opinion and judgment of the superintendent or overseer in 
charge. 

It is sometimes desirable to make a setting for which 
there is no gauge of the proper thickness at hand. In such 
cases it is customary to use in combination two or more 
of the leaves of the leaf gauge; for instance, if it is desired 
to set the mote knives to the licker with a 17 gauge and 
no such gauge is available, the 10 and 7 leaves of the leaf 
gauge can be used together. 



MANAGEMENT OF ROOM 

34. In the management of cards many points should be 
watched, but more especially those that have for their 
objects: (1) the production of good work; (2) turning off 
as large a production as is consistent with the quality of the 
work required; (3) economy by avoiding unnecessary waste 
and keeping down the expenses of wages, power, supplies, 
etc.; (4) maintaining the machinery in good condition. 

35. Quality of Production. — With reference to the 
first requirement, it may be said that good work is usually 
judged by examining the web from the front of the doffer. 
By withdrawing a portion of it as the card is running and 



§19 COTTON CARDS 71 

holding it to the light, the foreign matter and also the neps 
remaining in the cotton can be observed. If it is the opinion 
of the overseer that from the grade of stock being used and 
from the speed of the card such work is not suilficiently good, 
the card should be examined to ascertain whether it requires 
grinding or setting. An allowance should be made if the 
card is examined just before the time for stripping, as at 
that time the card wire is usually so full of dirt that more or 
less necessarily passes through, although this is to some 
extent an indication that stripping should be performed more 
frequently. In order to test whether wire requires grinding, 
or in other words whether it is sufficiently sharp to do its 
work, it is customary to rest the fingers of one hand on the 
face of the wire when the card is stopped and by drawing 
the thumb against the points judge of their sharpness by 
the amount of resistance that is felt. Dull wire allows 
the thumb to pass with the least resistance. Should the wire 
show a glistening surface or appear bright on the end of 
each point, it may generally be considered dull, although 
this is not an infallible test, owing to the direction in which 
the light strikes the wire. 

The cotton should leave the doffer in a level sheet, free 
from cloudiness and having good sides. The intermittent 
clouded effects and flock sides formerly so common are not 
met with so frequently in revolving flat cards. Sometimes 
these defects are caused by cotton lodging in some part of 
the card, more especially in connection with the screens or at 
the point where the cylinder and the doffer meet, until there 
is sufficient to be pulled through in one lump by the wire. 
Another test is to examine the fly underneath the card and 
if it is found to contain an appreciable amount of good fiber, 
it indicates that the screens need adjusting. In case of the 
feed-plate, and more especially where two feed-rolls are 
used instead of a feed-plate and a feed-roll, plucking some- 
times occurs and causes a cloudy effect. Cotton lapping on 
the doffer instead of being stripped off by the comb is trouble- 
some, more especially when the rooms are allowed to get 
cold during frosty weather. 



72 COTTON CARDS §19 

36. Quantity of Prodiiction. — The second point of 
management is that of obtaining as large a production as 
possible. This can be obtained by reducing to a minimum 
the time when the card is stopped for stripping, grinding, or 
setting, also by the attendants putting on the new lap as 
soon as the old one has run off and by not allowing the card 
to remain stopped on account of the end having broken 
down in front. When these economies of time have had 
attention, the only other method of increasing the produc- 
tion is to speed up the card, which is usually done by 
increasing the size of the barrow gear. The increase in 
the speed of the doff er is in direct proportion to the increase 
in the size of the gear. There are many cards at work pro- 
ducing 1,000 pounds per week of 60 hours, and the produc- 
tion of a card varies from this down to 200 or 300 pounds 
per week. A good speed for American cotton when intended 
for 32s yarn, carding 800 pounds per week, is about 122 
revolutions per minute of a 24-inch doffer for a 60-grain 
sliver. When carding Egyptian cotton intended for 60s to 
90s yarn and carding about 500 pounds in a week of 60 
hours, a good speed for a 50-grain sliver is about 10 revolu- 
tions per minute. With sea-island cotton intended for yarn 
finer than 100s, carding 250 to 300 pounds per week and pro- 
ducing a 35-grain sliver, a good speed for the doffer would 
be about 6i to 8 revolutions per minute. With a 27-inch 
doffer the number of revolutions would be proportionally 
smaller. The maximum average stoppages during a week 
for stripping, grinding, cleaning, and all sundry repairs 
around the card ought not to exceed 10 per cent., and with 
care this might be reduced to li per cent. 

37. Economy. — The third point in the management of 
card rooms is that of economy; this is most important in 
respect to the amount of waste produced. The largest per- 
centage of waste in any part of a card is in flat strippings and 
amounts to about li per cent. The next is the amount of 
fly from beneath the licker and cylinder, amounting to an 
average of 1 per cent. The cylinder and doffer strippings 



§19 COTTON CARDS 73 

together amount to about I per cent., making a total loss at 
the card of about Si per cent., or somewhat over Si per cent.* 
if the card sweepings are taken into account. No allowance 
is here made for the unavoidable loss in the weight of the 
cotton due to its drying in the hot card room. For fine 
yarns or particular work these figures may be increased, and 
for coarse yarns and inferior product, decreased. 

In order to secure economy in the flat strippings the front 
plate should be set in such a manner that the flats will not take 
out any good cotton. When it is set otherwise, the strippings 
from the flats seem to be connected by a thick film of good 
cotton that is generally sold together with the strippings as 
waste. As previously described, this film can be reduced 
until the strippings cling together by means of a few fibers 
only. Beyond this point the only method of reducing the 
amount of flat strips is to lessen the speed at which the flats 
move, although this is not advisable, as it deteriorates the 
quality of the work by not removing so much foreign matter 
from the cotton. The flats will also be connected by a thick 
strip of cotton if the heel and toe are not preserved in grinding. 
The principal method of reducing the percentage of the 
cylinder and doffer strippings is to reduce the number of strip- 
pings, which is undesirable unless it is desired to lower the 
quality of the work. The fly beneath the card can either be 
increased or decreased according to the style and setting of 
the screens under the card and the setting of the mote knives. 
Tests have been made with cards without screens and it is 
found that they make about ten times as much fly as cards 
with screens. Both the knives and the triangular bars that 
form the screens should be so arranged that they will give 
free passage for any dirt that tends to lodge there and also 
to allow the ends of the fibers to be combed or brushed over 
the edges of the knives, but the spaces between the bars of 
the screens should not be so large as to allow the fibers 
themselves to be driven through. 

38. Proper Care of Macliinery. — The fourth point in 
the management of cards, namely, keeping the machinery in 



74 COTTON CARDS §19 

good condition, necessitates first of all proper oiling. All 
parts of the card that are in contact with swiftly moving 
parts, such as the mechanism in the comb box, the cylinder- 
shaft bearings, and licker-shaft bearings, should be oiled 
twice daily; certain other parts that do not revolve so rapidly, 
for instance the doffer, calender-roll shaft, side shaft, coiler, 
and all idler pulleys and gears, should be oiled daily; while 
once a week, generally Monday morning, every moving 
part of the card should be oiled. Cylinder, licker, and doffer 
bearings should be filled with tallow, having a small hole in 
the center so that it will allow the oil to run directly on the 
shafts and provide a reserve of lubrication that will melt in 
case of a hot bearing. In oiling the bearings of the doffer 
and cylinder, care should be taken not to allow the oil 
to get on the heads of the cylinder or doffer, since in this 
case it is apt to come in contact with and spoil the clothing. 
Care should also be used in oiling the traverse grinder that 
the oil does not fly on to the clothing. 

The cards should be kept free from fly and dust and it is 
usually the custom to clean them after the stripping process. 
An opportunity should be given at least once a week, 
usually on Saturday morning, for the cards to be stopped 
2 hours for cleaning purposes, at which time a more thorough 
cleaning is given to all parts than can be given while the 
cards are running. About once a month the coiler should be 
taken apart and cleaned, the feed-roll taken out and cleaned, 
the licker picked free of all foreign substances, and all belts 
carefully looked over. The belts should be cleaned and 
dressed as often as it is necessary. Fly from under the card 
is generally removed twice a week, and any cotton or fly 
attached to the screens should be picked or brushed off at 
the same time. The roll on which the lap rests should not 
be allowed to wear too smooth, but should be painted with 
some rough composition, such as paint mixed with sand, that 
will give it a rough surface and prevent the slipping of the 
lap. The cylinder and licker screens should be taken out 
periodically and cleaned, a good practice being to polish them 
well with black lead, which makes them dry and smooth. 



§19 COTTON CARDS 



75 



The inside faces of the front and back knife plates and the 
bonnets of the doffer and licker should also be polished with 
black lead. 

After disturbing the settings of a card in any way, the 
cylinder and licker should be turned around by hand to make 
sure that there are no parts rubbing. After setting or grind- 
ing, and whenever there has been occasion to loosen screws, 
nuts, or other parts of the card, these parts should all be 
gone over to make sure that they are tight before starting 
the card. 

39. The speeds of the different parts of the machine are 
taken by a speed indicator. The doffer, however, has so 
few revolutions per minute that its speed can be ascertained 
by watching a point on its circumference and counting the 
number of revolutions it makes. 

There should be only sufficient draft between the lap roll 
and feed-roll, the doffer and the bottom calender roll, the 
bottom calender roll and the calender roll in the coiler to 
take up any slack that may occur between these parts. Any 
excessive draft causes the sliver to be unevenly drawn, thus 
making thick and thin places in the yarn. 



DRAWING ROLLS 



COMMON ROLLS 



BOTTOM ROI.I.S 

1. Introduction. — The principle of roll drafting is the 
most important feature of parallelizing and attenuating 
machinery and in the production of good yarn. Therefore, 
the construction of drazving rolls and various points 
pertaining to them justify a detailed description. Dl•a\^^ing 
rolls, of which there are two kinds — common and metallic — 
are placed in pairs one above the other, the lower ones being 
driven positively by means of gears; the upper ones, when 
common, are driven by frictional contact from the bottom 
rolls, while those that are metallic are driven positively, as 
will be described later. 

2. Construction. — Fig. 1 shows a set of common 

rolls consisting of three pairs, a being a bottom roll and a, 
a top roll. The bearings of the bottom rolls rest on stands b 
that are bolted to the roll beam c. The construction of the 
bearings for the rolls and the method of adjusting them in 
order to obtain the desired distance between any two pairs is 
fully explained in later pages. Fig. 2 shows a cross-section 
of the bottom roll a. Fig. 1. These rolls are almost 
always constructed of steel, and are fluted; that is, grooves 
are cut lengthwise in the surface of the rolls at certain 
intervals. These flutes aid the bottom rolls in obtaining a 
better grip on the cotton as it passes between them and the 
top rolls. The grooves, as shown in Fig. 2, are not perfectly 

For notice of copyright, see pa£e immediately following the title page 
§20 



DRAWING ROLLS 



§20 



wedge-shaped, nor do they end in a knife edge, although the 
face of the roll carries almost a square corner on each side 
of a flute. A groove is a little less in width at the bottom 




xu'*^v-i 



Fig. 1 

than at the top, while the number of flutes for the various 

rolls increases with the diameter of the rolls and with the 

fineness of the work for which 
the machine is intended. For 
example, a roll li inches in 
diameter will contain more 
flutes than a roll 1 inch in diam- 
eter, while a roll intended to be 
run on a machine that deals with 
the stock in the later processes 
will contain more flutes than a 
roll of the same diameter that is 
intended to be run on a machine 
dealing with the stock in the 

earlier processes, since the cotton in the former case is not 

in as bulky a condition. 

Rolls are often made with the flutes unevenly spaced; that 

is, the distance between two flutes in one place is different 




Fig. 2 



§20 DRAWING ROLLS 3 

from the distance between two flutes in another part of the 
same roll. This is done in order to prevent the cutting of 
flutes in the top leather roll that would correspond with those 
of the bottom roll, which would be detrimental to good work. 
It is also necessary to have these rolls refluted at times, since 
the constant action of the cotton on the flutes will wear them 
very smooth on the edges and thus prevent their gripping 
the fibers. It is important not to have the roll stands for the 
bottom rolls too far apart, since in this case the roll, due to 
the weight of the top rolls and other weight placed on it, 
will be deflected out of a straight line, causing the roll to 
run untrue and resulting in poor work. 

The bottom rolls are almost always case-hardened in the 
necks, or bearings, and in some cases throughout. They are 
thus rendered stiffer and stronger, which makes them more 
capable of resisting torsion, the necks wear longer, and the 
flutes are not so liable to become damaged by an accident or 
by carelessness. The preservation of the necks is also 
assisted by inserting brass bearings into the roll stands. 

3. Method of Connecting Sections. — The bottom 
rolls are built in sections varying from 13 to 24 inches in 
length, each section being joined to the next by means of a 
squared end of one section fitting into a squared recess in 
another section. It is of the utmost importance that these 
ends shall fit into their sockets accurately, and if they become 
worn, as is sometimes the case with the older makes of rolls 
composed of soft metal, they should be resquared. It will 
easily be seen that in a frame 20 or 30 feet long having a 
number of these joints in each roll, a minute fraction of play 
at each socket will become an important item in the whole 
length of the frame and tends to produce what is technically 
called ad yarn. When the rolls are removed in sections, 
care should be taken that each section is replaced in the 
position from which it was taken. In order to make this 
convenient, the end of each section is numbered, the num- 
bers generally running consecutively from the driving end 
of the machine. 



DRAWING ROLLS 



20 



TOP ROI.LS 

4. Construction. — Top rolls are constructed of iron 
and are made in short lengths, a portion of their circumfer- 
ence being afterwards covered with cloth and leather. That 
part of the roll that is used for drawing the cotton, which in 
common top rolls is the leather-covered portion, is known 
as the doss and is always of a larger diameter than the 
remainder of the roll. Top rolls may be made with one or 





two bosses, being known as si?igle-boss and dotcble-boss, 
respectively; the boss in both single- and double-boss rolls 
may be detachable. When the boss of a roll is detachable, 
the roll is known as a loose-boss, or shell, roll; when the boss 
is not detachable, the roll is known as a solid roll. In loose- 
boss rolls the part that is detachable is known as the shell of 
the roll, while the part on which the shell rests is known as 
the arbor. 



§20 DRAWING ROLLS 5 

Fig. 3 shows the different styles of top rolls. A solid roll 
having a single boss is shown at (a), a longitudinal section 
of this same roll being shown at (d); a solid roll with a 
double boss and a longitudinal section of the same roll are 
shown at (c). A loose-boss roll having only one boss and a 
longitudinal section of the same roll are shown at (d) and 
((?), while a loose-boss roll with a double boss and its 
longitudinal section are shown at (/) and {£-). 

5. Single- and Double - Boss Rolls. — In certain 
machines that utilize drawing rolls there is one roll to 
every delivery; that is, all the fibers passing one roll are 
gathered together into one sliver at the front; therefore, for 
these machines the single boss is preferred. In certain 
other machines there are always two or more ends coming 
from each roll, so that the tloxible-boss construction is 
preferable. Sometimes one end comes from one boss; in 
other cases two ends come from one boss; while in still 
other cases three ends are found coming from each boss of 
a double-boss roll, making six from the roll. 

The advantage of double-boss over single-boss rolls is 
due to the fact that there are less weights, hooks, and wires 
on a machine equipped with double-boss rolls and, therefore, 
the machine can be better and more easily cleaned. The 
cost of construction is also less with double-boss rolls, and 
the weighting is simpler. It also requires less oil, thus 
reducing the probability of staining the cotton. Another 
advantage that is claimed for double-boss rolls with the 
loose boss is that any slight variation in the diameter of 
either boss, as compared with the other, is offset to a certain 
extent, on account of the independent motion of each boss. 

One great advantage that the single-boss roll has over 
the double-boss roll is that more even yarn is produced with 
the former, as each end or group of ends is treated inde- 
pendently of the others. 

6. Solid- and Loose-Boss Rolls. — Solid-boss rolls 

are gradually passing into disuse except for the back rolls 
of frames, being replaced by rolls with loose bosses. With 



6 DRAWING ROLLS §20 

a loose-boss roll only the shell revolves, consequently the 
neck and ends do not need oiling. When it is desired to oil 
the roll, the shell is removed and a few drops of oil placed 
on the arbor. With such a construction, especially when 
such thorough lubrication can be obtained, it is very easy for 
the shell to revolve and there is also little danger of oil get- 
ting on the cotton. 

The portion of the arbor enclosed by the boss is barrel- 
shaped, being large at the center and tapering off toward 
each end. This construction reduces the friction by reducing 
the bearing surface of the shell on the arbor, and the oil 
tends to run toward the thickest portion of the arbor, thus 
insuring proper lubrication and preventing the leakage of oil. 

Rolls are also constructed on this principle with the shell 
having ball bearings on the arbor. 



COVERING TOP ROLLS 

7. As two metal rolls revolving in contact would tend to 
crush the delicate cotton fibers, a leather covering is pro- 
vided for the top rolls of the common type. The iron sur- 
face of the roll is first covered with a specially woven woolen 
cloth, which is cemented to the roll, giving a good, elastic 
foundation. When a thin leather covering that fits very 
tightly is drawn over this foundation, the roll is capable of 
gripping the fibers and, owing to the yielding quality of the 
leather and cloth, does not damage them. 

In order to secure the best results, the greatest care should 
be exercised in covering the roll, and the best stock should 
be used. The production of an even thread depends more on 
the quality of the cloth and the leather, the manner in which 
it is applied, and the care of the rolls in the machine than 
on any other factor in the process of manufacture, with the 
exception of the grade of cotton used. Various substitutes 
for woolen cloth and lambskin or sheepskin have been tried 
from time to time, but none have been adopted to any great 
extent. Woolen cloth and lambskin have been used for over 
100 years for covering rolls. In fact, the first frame built 



§20 DRAWING ROLLS 7 

for spinning had top rolls that were covered, the skin being 
used without any cloth. The uncovered roll known as the 
metallic roll is the only one that has displaced these materials 
to any great extent. 

8, Roller Clotli. — The cloth that lies underneath the 
leather should be made of the finest and best wool. The 
wool should be carefully carded, so that every piece of for- 
eign matter will be removed, and the weaving and the 
finishing of the cloth should also receive very close atten- 
tion. It should not be possible to detect by the hand the 
slightest variation of thickness in any portion of the cloth. 
American and English roll cloths are used in covering rolls. 
They vary considerably in weight; the American cloth is 
figured on a width of 54 inches, while English cloths are 
figured 27 inches in width. It should be remembered, there- 
fore, in ordering roll cloth that an American 32-ounce, for 
example, is the same as an English 16-ounce. 

In mills covering their own rolls, the old leather should be 
removed and the cloth carefully examined. If it shows any 
evidence of disintegration, or wear, or an uneven surface, it 
should be condemned and removed. The old cloth may be 
removed by soaking it in water, after which the roll should be 
cleaned thoroughly. When rolls are sent out to be covered, 
it is considered advisable to cut the cloth with a knife in order 
to prevent the same cloth being used again, thus avoiding 
the danger of having old cloth covered with new leather. 

9. Metliod of Putting on Clotli Covering:. — In cover- 
ing rolls, the cloth is cut into strips slightly narrower than 
the boss of the roll. A strip of this cloth is then laid fiat on 
a table and a clean roll, the boss of which is covered with 
glue, is placed on the end of the strip and the cloth wound 
on the roll. The roll during this operation should be neither 
hot nor cold — simply warm. The cloth is cut with a sharp 
knife at the point where it begins to pass around the roll the 
second time, and the seam is then pressed into place. 

Another method of covering rolls with cloth is to lay a 
number of strips of cloth of the required width in a miter box 



8 DRAWING ROLLS §20 

and cut them to a gauge of the required length, thus giving 
15 or 20 pieces of the exact size required to cover one roll. 
In this way the cloth ma}' be put on the rolls much faster 
than when cutting each piece on the roll. After the cloth is 
put on and the seam pressed together with the fingers, the 
roll should be put into evening, or smoothing, rolls for the 
purpose of smoothing out any lumps or foreign matter that 
may have been in the glue, thereby producing a perfectly 
true and even surface. 

10. Lieatlier Covering for Rolls. — In yarn-prepara- 
tion machinery it is the duty of a pair of rolls to maintain a 
firm grip on the fibers of cotton as they are passing between 
them, and yet the fibers must not be damaged in any degree. 
The rolls at the time are revolving in some cases at a high 
rate of speed, and therefore the material with which they are 
covered should be of such a nature that it will resist a 
certain amount of wear. The substance that has been found 
most suitable to meet these requirements is the skin of 
the lamb or the sheep, or the skin of the goat, which, like 
the skins of most animals, consists of more than one layer. 
The outside layer is very thin and tough, and, while horny, 
is very elastic. 

Fig. 4 is a section of sheepskin very much enlarged; 
c represents sweat ducts and d the epidermis. This is the 
part that withstands the wear when at work. It consists of 
a horny layer above the Malpighian nets, or inside layer, and 
is commonly called the grain. A fibrous tissue e binds the 
true skin / to the epidermis d. This fibrous tissue is formed 
of multitudinous fibers bound together by a soft, milky, gela- 
tinous substance. Hollow, loose skins result if this sub- 
stance is improperly treated during manufacture. 

On the character of the fibrous tissue, which is directly 
beneath the grain, depends the strength of the skin; the 
larger the size of the skin, the coarser and weaker it will be. 
The explanation of this is that there are a certain number of 
fibers in the tissue at the birth of the lamb that increase in 
thickness but do not increase in numbers with the growth of 



5 20 



DRAWING ROLLS 



the animal. The spaces between these fibers are filled in 
with a quantity of the gelatinous substance mentioned, much 
of which is dissolved in the process of manufacture. There- 
fore, as the strength of the skin depends on the number of 
fibers, and since in 1 square inch of lambskin there are more 
fibers than in 1 square inch of sheepskin, the younger skin 
will be the stronger. 

Beneath the mass of muscular fibers is the layer / that is 
next to the flesh of the animal. This layer is composed of 




Fig. 4 

cellular matter and varies in thickness in different parts of the 
skin. If a roll were therefore covered with a skin of natural 
thickness, some rolls or parts of the same roll would vary in 
thickness. In order to make the skin the same thickness 
throughout, a process known as shaving: is employed. 

As skins are usually thicker over the spine from the tail to 
the neck, a test can be made after the shaving process to 
determine whether they are the same thickness throughout 
by making a pile consisting of 50 or 60 skins. If the pile is 



10 DRAWING ROLLS ^20 

higher in the center than at any other portion, the shaving 
process has not been performed properly. 

11, The color should also be taken into consideration 
when selecting a skin. English skins usually have a color 
known as the natural oak-bark color, which is a light brown, 
while others are given a reddish color by means of dye. 
American skins are usually of a dark-cream color. The red 
color is preferred by some spinners, who claim that because 
of the color they can more readily see when the cotton is 
absent from the rolls, but as the rolls get to be somewhat of 
the same color after being used a few days, the red does not 
possess an advantage in this respect for any length of time. 
The darker the shades, however, the more the grain defects 
are hidden from view. 

The size and color of skins depend on the size and age of 
the animal from which they are obtained. Lambskin is used 
for the more delicate work, as it is finer than sheepskin, 
while sheepskin (especially that which is old, being thick and 
coarse) is used for the coarser work. A top roll is really a 
cushion that will only yield enough to prevent crushing the 
fibers and yet maintain a pressure against the steel roll. As 
the covering for rolls on coarse work must yield to a greater 
extent than that of rolls on fine work, it is evident that the 
thicker skin and the heavier cloth should be used on rolls for 
coarse work. 

12. Selection of Skins. — The skin from which the 
largest number of roll coverings can be obtained is the most 
economical to use, and the number of coverings that can be 
obtained from a skin should be estimated when purchasing. 
A cot is the piece of leather intended to cover one boss of a 
roll, cut to a rectangular shape with two of its edges after- 
wards joined together so that the leather will form a tube. 
The skin should be purchased by the minimum measurement; 
that is, it should be measured at its shortest parts. The 
diagram shown in Fig. 5 will serve to illustrate this point. 
A parallelogram aaaa, which indicates the area of the 
number of leather tubes, or cots, that may be cut, is placed 



20 



DRAWING ROLLS 



11 



on the skin and, if the skin is shorter than the distance b b 
or narrower than the distance cc, the skin is below the 
minimum measurement. The neck should not be measured, 
as it is not suitable for roll covering. 

The shape of the skin shown in Fig. 5 is the best for roll 
skins. If there are any defects, such as knife cuts, or any 
evidence of overshaving on the flesh side, the skin is not of 
the first quality and can only be used on coarse work. 




Fig. 5 

Another serious defect is the presence of fine hairs, and if 
such are detected the skin should be condemned. 

A hard-grained skin, in which the firmness is introduced by 
the method of finishing the skin, will not act successfully as 
a cushion. The grain side of the skin should feel smooth 
and firm, yet be pliable and capable of expansion and com- 
pression, while the flesh side should have a nap as fine as 
cloth. The effect of handling the whole skin should be the 



12 DRAWING ROLLS §20 

same as handling a kid glove, allowing for the difference in 
substance. The skin when placed under tension and examined 
by a magnifying glass should show an unbroken surface with 
no cracks on it. 

13. Method of Putting on Leatlier Covering. 

When placing the leather covering on rolls, the skins are cut 
up into strips rather wider than the boss of the roll so as to 
allow for burning off the ends. The strips are next cut 
into small pieces just sufficient to fold around the boss of 
the roll, and their ends are beveled so as to make a joint that 
will not be perceptible to the touch. Beveling machines are 
used for cutting the bevel, the skin being placed in the 
machine so that the knife enters at the flesh side. The 
beveled ends are next joined together with cement, great 
care being taken in performing this operation. The leather 
tube, or cot, is placed in a press for a short time in order to 
insure a perfect joint. Hand or power presses are now 
constructed in which cots may be made and pressed. 

The next operation is to draw the cot over the boss of the 
roll — an operation somewhat similar to drawing the finger of 
a glove on the finger. The roll is then revolved at a high 
rate of speed and any part of the leather that projects over 
the boss is burned off by friction with a hard piece of 
wood. The charred portion of the skin forms a collar at the 
ends of each boss. 

With long rolls it is diiScult to make a cot of exactly the 
same diameter throughout and draw it on the roll with the 
same tension in every part. This difficulty is overcome by 
some roll coverers by taking a long strip of leather and 
winding it around the roll spirally, attaching it with cement 
as they wind it on. The skins in this case are cut into 
strips from 1 inch to H inches wide. 

The extra cost of covering and the extreme care that is 
necessary in order to keep the roll true are the disadvantages 
of this method. It is also claimed by some that the cushion 
effect of the leather is destroyed by this method of covering, 
as a hard piecing extends completely around the roll 



§20 DRAWING ROLLS 13 

throughout its entire length; while on the roll covered with 
a cot, there is one hard piecing straight across. 

Among the precautions that should be observed is the 
manner in which the roll is placed in the machine. It should 
be placed so that it will not run against the joint, and in 
some cases the way the lap runs is marked by a dot of ink 
on the grain side of the skin. In putting cots on double- 
boss rolls care should be taken that the bevels run the same 
way and that the cots are of the same thickness. 



VARNISHING 

14. It is the general practice in almost all mills to varnish 
the rolls that perform the heaviest work; namely, the rolls of 
the railway head, drawing frame, comber, sliver lap, ribbon 
lap, and in some cases the slubber. The reason for this is 
that the grain of the leather wears away and becomes broken, 
on account of the high speed at which the rolls revolve and 
the heavy work that they have to do compared with rolls in 
other frames. It is therefore necessary that something 
should be used as a substitute for the natural grain of the 
leather, which gives the roll its drawing properties, and a 
varnished surface has been adopted as the most practical. 

Varnished rolls should present a smooth, hard surface that 
has dried without cracking and that does not cause fiber or 
dust to adhere to it. Too much glue in the varnish gives 
the rolls the appearance of a highly polished surface, which 
has a tendency to crack when dry, while too little allows 
the varnish to wear away very quickly. Almost every mill 
has its own system of preparing varnish, while roll coverers 
have for sale various compositions for this purpose. 

15. Recipes for Roll Varnisli.— Three recipes for pre- 
paring varnish are given: 

1. 9 ounces of fish glue; 2 quarts of acetic acid; 2 tea- 
spoonfuls of oil of Origanum. This mixture should stand for 
about 2 days in order that the glue may be thoroughly dis- 
solved, after which it may be thickened with fine powdered 
paint of any color that may be desired. 



14 DRAWING ROLLS §20 

2. lo" pounds of fish glue; i pound of gum arable; i pound 
of powdered alum; 2 pounds of acetic acid; 4 pounds of water. 
This mixture should be thoroughly dissolved over a slow 
fire, after which it may be thickened with paint in the same 
manner as in the first recipe. 

3. 1 ounce of ordinary glue; i ounce of fish glue; i ounce 
of gum arable. This mixture should be dissolved in 22 gills 
of water and allowed to simmer for 1 hour over a slow fire, 
after which 6 ounces of thoroughly ground paint of any color 
may be added to thicken it. 

In mixing any varnish it should be done in a regular 
melting pot In order that It may not be burned. After the 
varnish is made it may be kept in stock for any length of 
time, but should be put away in a covered receptacle; it is 
advisable to have this cover air-tight, although it is not 
absolutely necessary. If when it is desired to use the 
varnish it is found to be too thick to spread properly on 
the rolls, it may be thinned by adding a little vinegar, or 
acetic acid; while on the other hand if it is found to be too 
thin, a little paint may be added to thicken it. 

16. Method of Apjilying the Tarnish. — The methods 
of putting the varnish on the rolls differ. One method is to 
apply it with a brush the same as in painting a round stick, 
taking care to spread the varnish evenly over the surface of 
the leather so that when it is dry it will have a true, smooth 
surface. Another method is to have a board made a little 
longer than the roll and about as wide as the roll is long. 
The upper part of the board is covered with woolen cloth, 
the cloth being pulled tightly and tacked at the edges. The 
varnish is put on the cloth with a brush and the roll moved 
over the surface of the cloth by placing the palm of each hand 
on the bushing of the roll and moving it backwards and 
forwards until the varnish is spread over the whole surface. 

In some cases before the roll is varnished it is ground. In 
order to insure its being the sam.e diameter throughout its 
length. This is a practice that should not be encouraged, as 
it shortens the life of the leather. 



§20 DRAWING ROLLS 15 

The rolls are generally given one coat of varnish, although 
sometimes where fine numbers are required they are given 
two coats. New, or newly covered, rolls are given two or 
even three coats before they are put into the frame, one coat 
being allowed to dry before another coat is put on. Care 
should be taken that the rolls are perfectly dry before they 
are put back into the frame, since if this is not done the 
cotton wall stick to them, making it almost impossible to run 
the frame. The rolls, if not dry, will also become fluted. 



METALLIC ROLLS 

17. For many years inventors have endeavored to 
substitute something for the common, leather-covered top 
rolls, principally because the covering of these rolls is an 
item of considerable expense in the production of yarn, and 
also because they are troublesome in certain conditions of 
the atmosphere or for certain kinds of stock, especially 
colored or bleached stock, on account of their licking and 
causing bad work. The most practical of the substitutes 
that have been tried is to have flutes in the top steel roll 
corresponding to those in the bottom roll. The flutes of the 
rolls mesh together, but in order to prevent the teeth of one 
roll from reaching to the bottom of the spaces between the 
teeth of the other roll, the rolls are held somewhat apart 
by collars. 

There is a wider space between the flutes of metallic rolls 
than there is between the flutes of the common bottom steel 
rolls, the spacing being the same for both top and bottom 
rolls of the same pair. There are, however, different spa- 
cings in different pairs of rolls and, as now applied, wider 
spacings are used for back than for front rolls. 

18. Construction. — A mounted section of a set of 
metallic rolls is given in Fig, 6, while Fig. 7 represents a 
portion of a pair of these rolls. Fig. 8 is a cross-section of 
the same pair, b, b, are the fluted portions of the rolls and 
a, a, the collars, which prevent the rolls from coming into 



16 



DRAWING ROLLS 



§20 



too close contact. The flutes of the back rolls are always of 
a coarser pitch than those of the front rolls, owing to the 
greater bulk of cotton that comes under the action of the back 




Fig. 6 



rolls. The back rolls for drawing frames as now constructed 
have 16 flutes on their circumference for each inch of diame- 
ter. The third roll has 24 flutes, while the front and second 




Fig. 7 



have 32 flutes. They are therefore known as rolls with a 16 
pitch, 24 pitch, and o2 pitch, respectively. 

On a 16-pitch roll the diameter of the collars is .07 inch 



§20 



DRAWING ROLLS 



17 



less than the diameter of the fluted section, and as both rolls 
are the same, the amount of overlap is .07 inch. With a 
24-pitch roll the collars are .06 inch less in diameter than the 
fluted section, and on a o2-pitch roll they are .044 inch less. 
Thus, the amount of overlap with 24-pitch rolls is .06 inch 
and with 32-pitch rolls, .044 inch. This amount of overlap 
is sufficient to grip the sliver as shown in Fig. 8. 




m„„„„„.,.„„„ ,,,,,,,,/^ 



Fig. 8 



It will be seen that the cotton does not follow a straight 
line, as it does with common rolls, but is crimped to some 
extent, and if the collar did not keep the rolls partly sepa- 
rated, the fibers would be damaged by the contact of the 
flutes. The amount of the overlap is so small that it merely 
grips the fibers enough to attain a draft and does not dam- 
age them to any appreciable extent. 

19. Advantage of Metallic Rolls. — The top rolls 
of a metallic set are positively driven by the flutes of the 
lower roll meshing with the flutes of the upper roll, and 
consequently a more positive draft is obtained than with the 



18 DRAWING ROLLS §20 

common rolls. The cost of roll covering and subsequent 
varnishing is saved, and the bad work that arises from imper- 
fectly varnished rolls is entirely obviated. 

It is claimed that, as metallic rolls run on collars, friction 
is greatly reduced; that licking, from the presence of elec- 
tricity and atmospheric changes, is prevented; that consequent 
waste is avoided; and that the product of each frame equipped 
with metallic rolls is greater than a machine equipped with 
common rolls running under the same conditions, because of 
the curved path taken by the cotton. It is further stated that 
metallic rolls produce work that is equal in quality to that 
produced by common rolls and that there is no necessity of 
keeping extra rolls in stock. However, metallic rolls at the 
present time are not used to any large extent except on rail- 
way heads, drawing frames, sliver-lap machines, and slubbers. 



SETTING AND WEIGHTING ROLLS 



ruIjES governing setting 

20. One of the most important points in relation to cotton 
machinery is the relative position of one pair of rolls to 
another, which position is governed by the length of the 
staple and bulk of cotton being used. The bad work that 
will result from the improper setting of rolls can never be 
remedied. In setting rolls, there is one broad principle that 
must always be followed: the distance between the centers 
of each pair of rolls must always exceed the average length 
of the staple of the cotton being used. If this were not so, 
the fiber would come under the action of the forward pair of 
rolls before it was released by the preceding pair, and since 
the speed of the rolls increases with each pair that is nearer 
the front of the machine, this would result in the fiber being 
strained and broken. 

In addition to the length of staple being run, there are 
several other principles that should be considered in setting 
rolls. Rapidly revolving rolls require wider settings than 



§20 DRAWING ROLLS 19 

those having slow speed, since with a slow speed the rolls 
could be set closer together and still the fibers would be 
given a sufficient length of time to be drawn away from the 
mass of cotton without being strained. From this statement 
the conclusion should not be drawn that, since the front pair 
of rolls in any frame revolves faster than the back pair, the 
front rolls should be set farther from the middle rolls than the 
back rolls; for this is not so, as other circumstances, having 
to be considered, overbalance that of the speed of the rolls. 
Since the speed of the rolls increases with each pair that is 
nearer the front of the machine, the cotton as it passes 
through the roll is greatly diminished in weight per yard 
from back to front, and since it is much easier to draw the 
fibers past each other when there is only a comparatively 
small number of fibers than when there is a large number, 
two pair of rolls that are near the front would have a less 
space between them than two pair of rolls at the back. 
For this reason the space between each two pair of rolls in 
a set increases from delivery roll to feed-roll. For example, 
if the staple of the cotton being used on a drawing frame is 
1 inch, the distance between the front and second pairs of 
rolls might be li inches; between the second and third, 
If inches; and between the third and^ back, H inches. 

When the ends put up at the back are heavily twisted, the 
settings are wider on the same machine than when the ends 
fed are slightly twisted. This is due to the fact that it is 
more difficult to draw the fibers past each other in the former 
case than in the latter. Harsh, wiry cotton requires wider 
settings than smooth, silky cotton, because it does not draw 
so easily. 

As the rolls are set according to the staple of the cotton 
used, it is therefore evident that the rolls intended to run 
on coarse counts, which is made from short-staple cotton, 
must be smaller in diameter than those intended to work 
long-staple cotton, in order that the centers of the rolls may 
be brought near enough together. Sometimes the middle 
roll is made smaller than the front and back, where three 
pair of rolls are used, so that a close setting may be made. 



Shorf- 5/-c3p/e 




Intermediate 




Rov/na frame 




2pirtnin^ Frame 



Medium SMp/e 





Rovini^ Trame 




Spinninif rmme 
Selfvveighted t>ack 
and middle Top rolls i 




Lopi^ Staple 




Jack Royin^ Frame - Dead Weighted 

Self iveiahted l>ack 
and m/dal^_Top rolls , 





Jack Roving Frame 




Fig. 9 



Fig. 10 



Fig. 11 



20 



DRAWING ROLLS 



21 



The diagrams that are included in Figs. 9, 10, and 11 show 
the settings and diameters for different kinds of cotton, 
with the method of measuring distances from center to 
center of rolls; they will vary, however, according to condi- 
tions, as already stated. 

The following settings for American cotton of about 1-inch 
staple are taken from actual measurements in a mill making an 
average of 32s: 

TABLE I 







^ t^^ 


Distance Between Centers 




0) OS 
4, t- O 

o 












Front 
and Second 


Second 
and Third 


Third 
and Back 


First drawings . 


411 


68 grains 


IT^ 


nches 


li inches 


It inches 


Second drawings 


4ir 


68 grains 


lA 


nches 


if inches 


if inches 


Third drawings . 


411 


68 grains 


if 


nches 


if inches 


if inches 


Stubbing .... 


I(J2 


68 grains 


li 


nches 


if inches 




Intermediate . . 


M3 


.57-hank 


II^ 


nches 


if inches 




Roving 


ii6 


i.6i-hank 


li 


nches 


iT% inches 




Spinning .... 


125 


5-hank 


111; inches 


if inches 





Each case of roll setting must be judged by its require- 
ments. Table I shows ordinary settings on the inter- 
mediates, roving, and spinning, and excessively wide settings 
on the drawing and slubber on account of the unusually 
heavy sliver and high speed; but in the mill in question, 
after numerous experiments were made, it was found that 
under the circumstances the best yarn was made with the 
above settings. A more ordinary setting for a 60-grain 
sliver, 350 revolutions per minute at the drawings, would be 
li. If, and 1 2" inches, with the same cotton. 

21. Adjustingr Points. — On all the attenuating machines 
of a cotton-yarn mill, adjustments are provided by which the 
distance between the rolls may be regulated. In Fig. 12, b is 
shown as one of the roll stands that support the rolls, this 
being a stand for three pair of rolls. The bearing b^ of the 
front roll is cast solid with the main support b, and con- 
sequently the front-roll bearing cannot be moved. Separate 



22 



DRAWING ROLLS 



20 



bearings, which are adjustable, are provided for the other two 
lines of rolls; b^ is the bearing for the center line of rolls and 
is capable of sliding on b,, while ^3, which is the bearing for 




Fig. 12 




Fig. 13 



the third line, can sHde on b^. Fig. 13 shows a roll stand that 
differs somewhat from that shown in Fig. 12, although the 
letters of reference will be found to apply to the same parts. 



§20 



DRAWING ROLLS 



23 



When it is desired to set the rolls, the set of top rolls that 
is at the end of the frame is removed, together with other 
sets of top rolls at frequent intervals, usually at every other 
stand. The screws b^ that secure the bearings of the bottom 
rolls are then loosened throughout the length of the frame. 
The required distance between the bites of the rolls should 
next be determined, and from this, together with the 
diameter of the rolls, the distance between the bosses of 
each pair may be learned, after which gauges of the correct 
thickness are selected. For example, suppose that the dis- 
tance between the centers of the front and second bottom 
rolls is to be 1 inch, and the front roll is 1 inch in diameter 



^ r^"' 



kica 



D 



[/ 



and the second roll i inch. Then the space occupied by the 
rolls themselves would be the sum of one-half of the diameter 
of each roll, which is tV -f A, or if. Since the distance from 
center to center is to be 1 inch, the space between the 
bosses of the rolls would be 1 — il, or tg inch; therefore, a 
-iVinch gauge would be selected in setting these rolls. 
These gauges are inserted between the bosses of the rolls, 
after which the rolls are drawn up until the gauge sets 
snugly, when the binding screws b^ are tightened. This 
operation is repeated at every stand where top rolls have 
been removed. The gauges used are generally made of 
wood, brass, or iron and are about 2 inches long, i inch 
wide, and of various thicknesses, in order to suit the work. 

22. Cap Bars. — The top rolls have their bearing on the 
bottom rolls and are held in position by ap arrangement of 
cap bars, one of which is shown in Fig. 14. The cap bars 
are constructed in such a manner that the top rolls may be 



24 DRAWING ROLLS §20 

removed easily, it also being possible to readily turn the cap 
bars away from the bottom rolls. 

The manner of supporting the cap bars is shown in 
Figs. 12, 13, and 14. A shaft e runs lengthwise of the frame 
and is supported either by brackets e^. Fig. 12, which are 
fixed to the roll stand, or by the bearing of the back roll, as 
shown in Fig. 13. On this shaft, at various intervals, are 
brackets e.,, Fig. 14, that carry a long finger e^ shaped so as to 
fit the hole in the casting e^; on this finger are the nebs e^ 
that keep the top rolls in position. The nebs are secured 
to the finger, and as the holes are made to fit the peculiar 
shape of the finger, they are prevented from turning. 

23. Setting Top Rolls. — When setting the top rolls, it 
is usual to have all the rolls in position and by using the 
correct gauges to set these rolls so that they will come 
directly over the bottom rolls. In order to move the top 
rolls so that they will occupy the correct position, it is 
simply necessary to loosen the screws that hold the nebs, 
after which the nebs may be moved to any desired position. 
In some cases it is the practice to insert the gauges between 
the nebs, although this practice is not to be recommended, 
since if the nebs are not of the same thickness, the rolls will 
not be properly in line. 

In connection with Fig. 13 it should be noted that with 
the stands constructed in the manner shown in this figure, 
the bearings for the back top roll are moved together 
with the bearings for the bottom back roll; consequently, 
when the bottom back roll is set, the top back roll will 
always be in its correct position. This is the more modern, 
and is usually considered the better, arrangement. 



TOP-ROI.L WEIGHTING 

24. In order to maintain a grip on the fibers, the top 
rolls must have a constant pressure on the bottom rolls. 
The pressure of the top roll on the bottom roll is maintained 
by means of weights, light weights being applied to slow- 
running frames and heavier ones to frames where the rolls 



§20 DRAWING ROLLS 25 

run at high speeds, which cause considerable vibration and 
tend to jerk the top rolls. The system of weighting is 
classed as follows: (1) Self-iveighting; (2) dead-weighting, 
which may be subdivided into {a) direct dead- weighting and 
{b) weighting with the intervention of springs; (3) lever- 
weighting, which may again be subdivided into {a) direct 
weighting and {b) weighting by saddles and bridles. 



SELF-WEIGHTING 

25. The method known as self-weighting consists of 
having the top roll heavy enough to maintain the necessary 
pressure on the fiber, and is used on the center and back 
rolls of fine roving frames, spinning frames, and mules 
intended for very fine spinning. The middle roll, which is 
usually \ inch in diameter, weighs from 2 to 4 ounces, while 
the back roll, which is from 2 to 2i inches in diameter, 
weighs from \\ to 2i pounds. This method is shown in 
Fig. 11, where the back and middle rolls of one of the jack- 
frames, the mule, and the spinning frame are self-weighted. 

Since in spinning fine numbers the rolls generally have a 
slow speed, this amount of weighting is sufficient to give the 
necessary grip on the fibers. The method of self-weighting, 
however, cannot be applied to all classes of work, since, 
where the work is coarse and the top rolls require consider- 
able weight, if they were made large enough to give this 
weight, they would be too bulky for use. On coarse work 
the rolls revolve rapidly and the vibration caused would 
prevent satisfactory use of self-weighting systems. 



DEA1>-^VEIGIIT1NG 

26. The method known as dead-weigliting is shown in 
Fig. 15. The rolls a, b illustrate direct dead-weighting, one 
weight serving for one roll; but by using a saddle d., and 
bridle ^3, as shown in Fig. 16, one weight can be used for 
two rolls, which reduces the number of weights on a machine. 

The system of dead-weighting in which a spring inter- 
venes between the weight hook and weight is shown on the 



26 



DRAWING ROLLS 



§20 



rolls c, d. Fig. 15. The object of adopting this construction 
is to have the spring tend to neutralize the effect of any 
slight shock that the roll may receive 

6. 




Fig. 15 



If, in the case of Fig. 15, the rolls are single-boss rolls» 
then there will be a weight similar to w suspended from 
each end of each top roll; consequently, if the weight is» 



§20 



DRAWING ROLLS 



27 



say, 14 pounds, each top roll will exert a pressure of 
28 pounds on the bottom roll. If the top rolls are double-boss 




Fig. 16 



rolls, there will be one weight suspended from the center of 
the roll, each boss having a bearing point on the bottom 



28 



DRAWING ROLLS 



20 



roll, and if the weight zv weighs, say, 20 pounds, each boss 
will exert a pressure of 10 pounds on the bottom roll. 

In the case of Fig. 16, the weight w will be distributed 
somewhat differently. If the top rolls are single-boss rolls, 
there will be weights similar to 7v at each end of the roll, and 
if these weights weigh, say, 20 pounds, there will be a pres- 
sure of 10 pounds on the end of each top roll, giving a total 




Fig. 17 

pressure of 20 pounds on each roll. If the top rolls are 
double-boss rolls and the weight is, say, 30 pounds, then there 
will be a pressure at the center of each roll of 15 pounds, caus- 
ing each boss of one top roll to exert a pressure of 7i pounds 
on the bottom roll. 



LEVER-WEIGHTING 

27. The principle of lever-^v^eigliting is that of 
exerting pressure by means of a weight acting through 
a lever. By this means a smaller weight may be used and 



§20 



DRAWING ROLLS 



29 



the same pressure obtained as when a larger weight is 
employed in the sj-stem of dead-weighting. The pressure 
can also be very readily varied by moving the weight on 
the lever. 

A method of lever-weighting is shown in Fig. 17. A sad- 
dle d^ has a bearing at its forward part on the top front roll, 
and also another bearing on the smaller saddle at g. The 
small saddle has bearings on the back and center rolls. 
Suspended from d. is a rod d^ linked to a rod j. This rod 
passes through a hole in the roll beam and supports the 
lever //, which is fulcrumed 
under the roll beam at /. The 
lever // carries the weight u\ 
the position of which may be 
varied and thus different pres- 
sures obtained on the rolls, as is 
desired. The method of obtain- 
ing the amount of pressure 
exerted at any point by lever- 
weighting is somewhat more 
complicated than in the case of 
dead-weighting, and in order to make this somewhat clearer, 
reference is made to Fig. 18, together with the following 
data: The weight of w is 4 pounds; the distance of iv f is 
Ti inches; p{,\ inch; j k, f inch; /: /, If inches; /w, \ inch; 
myi, \\ inches; /;/, 1 inch; j I, 2 inches. The total pressure 
will equal 
Weight X Ti!' / _ 4 X 7i 




Fig. 18 



P{ 



40 pounds, total weight on all rolls. 



Part of this 40 pounds will be distributed on j and the 
remainder on the point g. 
The pressure on j will equal 
/^/X 40 ^ 11 X 40 
jl 2 



= 271 pounds 



The pressure at g equals 40 — 272 = 12i pounds, or the 
pressure at g will equal 



y/feX40 ^ f X40 
jl 2 



= \1\ pounds 



30 



DRAWING ROLLS 



§20 



The pressure at n will equal 
/ m X 12i i X 12i 



= 4.166 pounds 



m n li 

The pressure at m will equal 12^ — 4.166 = 8.33 pounds, or 

the pressure at m will equal 

/^Xm IX 12i „^_ , 

= — TT — = 8.33 pounds 

m n \^ 

28. In Fig. 19, a system sometimes used for weighting 
the rolls of a spinning frame is shown. This method differs 
but slightly from that shown in Figs. 17 and 18. The 




Fig. 19 

weight w is supported by the lever //, which at the point / is 
inserted in a hook fastened to the roll beam. Connected to 
the lever h is a hook d^, that is supported by the saddle d^, 
which has a bearing on the front top roll and on the saddle g. 
The saddle^ has a bearing on the back and middle top rolls. 

29. Metallic rolls do not require so much weight as com- 
mon rolls; usually a weight of about 14 pounds is used on 
each end of the four rolls of a drawing frame, although this 
sometimes differs and a weight of 10 pounds is used for the 
front, 12 for the second, 14 for the third, and 16 for the 
fourth. In experimental cases, metallic rolls have been run 



§20 DRAWING ROLLS 31 

with as low a weight as 6 pounds. Some prefer to have the 
heaviest weight on the front roll, claiming that as this roll 
revolves at the highest speed it therefore requires more 
weight to keep it steady. The following list of weights, 
which was taken from machines running medium counts, 
will give a general idea of the relative weights on the rolls 
in different machines, but it should be understood that the 
weights given here will serve simply as a guide, since the 
weights that are used are largely dependent on the ideas of 
the builder, the ideas of the purchaser, the construction of 
the machine, and the class of work to be run. 

On the drawing frames using single-boss metallic rolls 
there was a weight of 18 pounds on each end of the front 
rolls, giving a total of 36 pounds pressure on the front roll. 
The second roll carried 16-pound weights, giving a total of 
32 pounds. The third and back rolls carried 14-pound 
weights, giving a pressure of 28 pounds on each roll. All 
of these were dead-weighted. 

On the drawing frames using single-boss common rolls the 
front rolls carried 22-pound weights at each end, the second 
rolls 20-pound weights, the third rolls 18-pound weights, and 
the back rolls 16-pound weights, giving a total weight of 
44, 40, 36, and 32 pounds on the front, second, third, and 
back rolls, respectively. 

On the slubbers using double-boss common rolls the front 
rolls were dead-weighted and carried a weight of 12 pounds, 
thus giving a pressure of 6 pounds on each boss. The 
middle and back rolls supported a saddle from the center of 
which was suspended a 12-pound weight, giving a pressure 
of 3 pounds on each boss of both middle and back rolls. 

On the first intermediates using double-boss common rolls 
the front rolls were dead-weighted and carried a weight of 
16 pounds, giving a pressure of 8 pounds on each boss of the 
roll. The middle and back rolls carried a saddle from which 
was suspended an 18-pound weight, thus giving a pressure 
of 4i pounds on each boss of both rolls. 

The second intermediates using double-boss common rolls 
were dead-weighted throughout and carried weights of 18, 



32 DRAWING ROLLS §20 

14, and 12 pounds on the front, middle, and back rolls, 
respectively, thus giving a pressure of 9 pounds on each boss 
of the front rolls, 7 pounds on each boss of the middle rolls, 
and 6 pounds on each boss of the back rolls. 

On the roving frames the front rolls were common double- 
boss rolls, being dead-weighted, and carrying a weight of 
8 pounds, thus giving a pressure of 4 pounds on each boss. 
The middle and back rolls were self-weighted. 



weight-reijIeving motions 

30. It is necessary to use every precaution to keep a 
leather-covered roll as perfectly round and smooth as 
possible, in order to insure good work; and, for this reason, 
weiglit-relieving motions are applied so that there will 
not be any pressure on the rolls when they are to stand idle 
for any considerable length of time. If the pressure were 
maintained on the rolls during the time that they were 
stopped, a depression would be formed at the point where 
the steel roll was in contact with the leather of the top roll, 
because of the yielding properties of the leather, and when 
the machine was again started there would be a slightly 
eccentric running of the roll, which would produce irregu- 
larity in the work. 

In some cases where there is not a weight-relieving 
motion, it is necessary to remove the hooks from each 
weight by hand. An arrangement that makes this operation 
easier and more simple is shown in Fig. 15. The weights w 
are suspended from the rolls, as shown, each weight having 
a hole in it through which an eccentric ^ passes. By turning 
the handle s^ until that part of the eccentric which is farthest 
from the center of the shaft that supports it is at the top, 
the weights will rest on the eccentric, and thus the pressure 
on the rolls is relieved. With this method an eccentric must 
be provided for each set of weights. 

An arrangement by which two eccentrics serve for a 
number of sets of weights is shown in Fig. 16, and consists 
of bars e, d that run lengthwise of the machine and pass 



^20 



DRAWING ROLLS 



33 



through holes ih the hooks /, /, supporting the weights w. 
These bars have a bearing at each end on an eccentric 5 and 
thus, by turning the eccentric by means of the handle s,, the 
bars, and consequently all of the weights supported by the 
hooks through which the bars pass, are raised. 



CLEARERS AND TRAVERSE MOTIONS 



CLEARERS 

31. In order to prevent the accumulation of dirt and 
fibers on the rolls, what are known as eleai-crs are utilized. 
The construction of a clearer used on railway heads, drawing 

A:, 




Fig. 20 



frames, and fly frames is shown in Fig. 20. It consists of a 
piece of flannel a supported from a piece of wood /; by 
means of rods r, and spikes c; b is held in position by means 
of screws, similar to h, which pass through a slot in a 



34 DRAWING ROLLS § 2C5 

bracket £- attached to the roll cover k. By this means the 
wood b may have a vertical movement. As the flannel is 
pressed against the rolls by the weight of the wood, the 
rolls are effectively cleaned. If clearers of this type are not 
cleaned as often as necessary, the clearer waste will gather 
at the points <?,, e. and eventually drop into the cotton that is 
passing through, causing bad work at the next process. 

When cleaning by hand, it is necessary to lift the cover, 
which is hinged at /, and remove the waste; to obviate this 
operation, self-cleaning clearers are sometimes attached. 
There are several styles of self-cleaning clearers; one that 
is being used to a very large extent consists of an endless 
apron of very heavy cloth that passes around two rolls, one 
of these rolls being situated above the back roll of the frame, 
while the other is situated over the front roll. The back 
roll of this clearer motion is driven by gearing and has a 
very rough surface, thus causing the cloth to revolve, while 
the front roll is driven by the friction of the cloth passing 
round it. These rolls are so placed that the cloth will press on 
the top rolls of the frame, thus cleaning them while the cloth 
itself is cleaned mechanically by a comb. 

Another type of clearer is shown beneath the rolls in 
Fig. 20. This type may be applied underneath at the spaces 
between any two lines of rolls, as it is on drawing frames. 
On fly frames, however, it is usually put between the first 
and second rolls only. It consists of a piece of wood / as 
long as the box of each frame. Two faces of the clearer are 
curved in such a manner that they correspond with the 
curvature of the rolls. This clearer is covered with flannel 
and is held in position by two pieces of lacing, one at each 
end, similar to w. These lacings pass over the front roll 
of the two with which the clearer is in contact, and 
have weights n at their ends. By this means the clearer 
maintains a pressure on the rolls and consequently cleans 
them. 

Another style of clearer used underneath the rolls has a 
wooden roll covered with coarse woolen cloth, and is held 
against the bottom roll by springs. This clearer is revolved 



§20 



DRAWING ROLLS 



35 



by frictional contact with the roll, and thus, whenever an end 
breaks, the clearer winds the cotton on itself and prevents 
its getting on the steel roll. This type of clearer is applied 
underneath the front roll. 



TRA AVERSE MOTIONS 

32. Traverse motions in one form or another are used 
in connection with leather-covered drawing rolls, and have 
for their objects economy in roll leather and better quality of 
product. If the strand of cotton were permitted to pass 
between the leather roll and steel roll at one point continually, 
a groove would form around the rolls, and consequently they 
would soon lose their grip on the fibers. To prevent this, a 
motion is applied xvhereby the sliver, or roving, is given a 
traversing motion along the boss of the roll. In its simplest 
form the motion usually consists of a traverse bar /, Fig. 21, 



mg^ 




that carries guides or is drilled with small holes t^ through 
which the strand of cotton is passed before entering the back 
rolls. Attached to the traverse bar is a connecting-rod e that 
is connected to the crank-stud c,. The crank-stud is con- 
nected to a casting /, which is connected to the worm-gear c 
by the stud A and nut /., thus causing r, to be eccentric with 
reference to c. The worm-gear is on a short shaft and is 
driven by the worm r, on the back roll. As the back roll 
revolves it gives a traversing motion to the traverse bar / 
by means of the worm-drive and crank-arrangement. 



36 



DRAWING ROLLS 



§20 



Most traverse motions are supplied with some means of 
lengthening- or shortening the length of the traverse. With 
the construction shown in Fig. 21 it is possible, by loosening 
the nut /. and swinging the casting / on the stud A, to bring 
e^ nearer to or farther away from the center of the gear c, 
thus decreasing or increasing, respectively, the length of the 
traverse. 

In some cases the traverse bar has attached to it a lever 
carrying a stud that is kept in contact with a heart-shaped 
cam by means of a spring. The cam receives motion in the 
same manner as the crank described, and as it revolves it 
forces the lever in one direction during a part of its revolu- 
tion, while the spring serves to draw the lever in the opposite 






Fig. 22 



direction during the remainder of the cam's revolution. The 
crank-arrangement is more positive than the cam and spring, 
but at the points of change, or where the crank-stud <?i is at 
its dead centers, the motion of the traverse guide is slower 
than at any other part of the traverse, thus causing the 
strand of cotton to produce a greater amount of wear at these 
places. The extent of the traverse given with a cam- or 
crank-motion is shown in Fig. 22 (a). 

The main principle of construction that has been sought in 
traverse motions is to have a variable traverse; that is, to 
have different lengths of sweep so that the traverse will not 
be continually changing at the same point on the circum- 
ference of the roll. An arrangement that gives a variable 



20 



DRAWING ROLLS 



37 



traverse similar to that shown in Fig-. 22 {b) is shown in 
Fig. 23, in which {a) is a front view and (^) an end view, 
partly in section. 

The back roll t^ carries a worm 4 driving two worm-gears 
c, c, that vary slightly in the number of teeth. Forming a 
part of the worm-gear c^ is an eccentric d^, while the eccentric 

4, ,t. 




d is, di part of the worm-gear c. The 
worm-gears c,Cy are mounted on a 
stud c, that is supported by a bracket 
attached to the roll beam. Connected 
to the eccentric ^ is a lever / that is 
attached at its other end to a stud h^ 
connected to the lower end of the 
bracket g. The eccentric d^ also car- 
ries a lever e, which is connected to 
a stud h that is also carried by the 
bracket^. The bracket^ is connected 
by means of the stud g, to the trav- 
erse bar /. As the worm-gears <r, c^ 
have different numbers of teeth and 
are driven by the same worm, the two eccentrics that form 
part of these two worm-gears will have their relative posi- 
tions changed; thus, at one time the eccentrics may coincide, 
in which case the levers e, / will be moving the bracket g in 
the same direction and the traverse rod t will be receiving 
its shortest traverse. At another time the highest parts of 




38 



DRAWING ROLLS 



§20 



the eccentrics d, d, will be brought diametrically opposite 
each other, in which case the lever e will be moving in one 
direction as far as possible, while / will be moving in the 
other, resulting in the traverse guide receiving its maximum 
traverse. 

9 




The slot g^ in the bracket g allows this bracket to be 
raised or lowered, thus shortening or lengthening the 
extreme length of the traverse, as may be desired. When 
the traverse guides t^ are at the center of the boss of the rolls, 




Fig. 25 



the bracket g should be exactly perpendicular, and in order to 
accomplish the settings of the different parts, slots are pro- 
vided in the bracket^ at the points where the studs //, h^ are 
situated, thus allowing the bracket to be placed in its correct 
position. 



§20 DRAWING ROLLS 39 

33. Doiible-Bai" Traverse Motion. — With the traverse 
motions just described, it will be observed that as the cotton 
is passing through the guides /., Fig. 24, the strand nearest 
the neck^, or where the weight is applied, is under a greater 
pressure than the strand under the opposite boss, owing to 
the distance from the weight. It will be seen then that there 
is only one point in the traverse where the weight is equally 
divided between the two strands; viz., the center. 

To overcome this, a motion known as the double-bar 
traverse motion, Fig. 25, has been introduced. With this 
motion the strands under each boss are operated by separate 
bars rt, «!, which move all the strands of cotton toward the 
necks of the rolls at the same time, thus maintaining an 
equal distance between all the strands and the necks of the 
rolls and causing the weight to be equally divided at every 
point of the traverse. 

SCOURING ROLLS 

34. The cleanliness of the fluted rolls, as well as the 
leather-covered rolls, is an important question, since if the 
dirt and other foreign matter that collects in the flutes and 
bearings of the rolls is not removed, considerable waste and 
consequent loss of production and bad work will result from 
the cotton adhering to and winding around the rolls instead 
of being delivered at the front of the machine. The cotton 
collecting in the bearings of the rolls will also cause the 
rolls to bind, and thus wear out the bearings and cause con- 
siderable strain on the gearing that drives the rolls. 

The rolls should be removed periodically from the dif- 
ferent machines in order to properly clean the bearings, 
necks, and fluted parts, which operation is known as 
scouring. The time for scouring depends largely on the 
amount of work and the kind and speed of the machine, as 
well as on other circumstances. The rolls in machines 
used for carded work should be scoured oftener than those 
used for combed work, and those for coarse work oftener 
than those for fine work. The rolls of the drawing frame 
should be scoured about once a month, while those of the 



40 DRAWING ROLLS §20 

roving frame require scouring: only about every 6 months. 
The times of cleaning the rolls of the frames intervening 
between the drawing frame and roving frame should be in 
proportion to the amount and quality of the work that they 
are producing. 

When the bottom rolls are removed for scouring great 
care should be taken, especially when the rolls are very long, 
that they do not become bent or strained, since if they are 
replaced in the machine in this condition they are liable to 
bind in the stands and produce cut work. In removing the 
rolls two or three persons are usually employed in lifting 
them from their bearings and placing them on stands, 
horses, or brackets suitable for the purpose. 

After the rolls have been removed they should be rubbed 
with a piece of card fillet in order to remove any dirt, hard 
oil, or other substances that may collect in the flutes. After 
cleaning the roll in this manner it should be covered with a 
paste made of oil and whiting and thoroughly scoured by 
rubbing with another piece of card fillet, care being taken 
not to rub around the circumference of the roll but length- 
wise, so that the wires of the card fillet will follow the 
grooves of the flutes and clean them. 

After this the roll should be wiped with a piece of dry 
waste, covered with dry whiting, in order to thoroughly dry 
the flutes before the rolls are replaced. In some cases 
dry whiting is used in place of the paste. Care should be 
taken not to allow any of the whiting to collect in the 
flutes or bearings of the roll. 

After the rolls have been scoured they should be examined 
in order to ascertain if there are any rough places; and if 
such are found they should be smoothed by using a piece of 
pumice stone, a piece of very fine emery cloth, or a fine 
fluted file. In most cases the pumice stone or emery cloth 
will be found sufficient, and the file should not be used unless 
absolutely necessary. 

The stands or bearings of the machine should be thor- 
oughly cleaned with a piece of dry waste and examined to 
ascertain if there are any bearings that are badly worn; if 



§20 DRAWING ROLLS 41 

there are, they should be replaced, care being taken that the 
new ones do not stand higher than the others. If any loose 
joints are found in the roll, the portion containing the same 
should be removed from the remainder and taken to the 
machine shop to be repaired. The same care should be used 
in replacing the rolls that was taken in removing them. 

It is advisable after the rolls have been replaced to place 
a small portion of grease on the necks of all the rolls before 
the top ones are replaced. This insures a perfect lubrication 
of the bearings and lasts longer than oil; it also avoids the 
necessity of frequent oiling, although the rolls should be 
oiled at least once a week. 

If leather-covered top rolls are used in a machine these 
should be thoroughly cleaned and revarnished and the 
bearings oiled before being replaced, while if metallic top 
rolls are used they should be cleaned in a manner similar 
to the bottom rolls. 



RAILWAY HEADS AND 
DRAWING FRAMES 



RAILWAY HEADS 



INTRODUCTION 

1. A machine in use in some of the older cotton mills of 
the country but fast passing into disuse is that known as the 
railway lieatl. At one time it was the custom to arrange 
stationary flat cards in sections of from six to twelve, and 
instead of having a coiler at each card, as is now customary 
with the revolving fiat card, a long trough was placed in 
front of each section of cards, so that the sliver was 
deposited on an apron in the trough, or railway, and car- 
ried to the head end of the section. At this head end, or 
delivery end, was placed a machine, called a railway head, 
from its position at the head of the railway, into which the 
slivers from the cards were drawn and combined into one 
sliver. This must not be confused with a somewhat similar 
arrangement in mills making double-carded yarns, by which 
the slivers from one section of cards are combined into a 
lap or portion of a lap to be recarded. Both of these 
arrangements are now passing out of use, the most popu- 
lar and most satisfactory method of preparing carded yarns 
being to use the revolving flat card, at which the sliver is 
deposited in a can by means of a coiler; the full can is then 
carried directly to the back of the first drawing frame. In 
some cases, the sliver is taken from the card to the back of 

For notice of copyright, see page immediately following the title page 
2 21 



2 , RAILWAY HEADS §21 

a railway head of modern construction, which takes the 
place of the first drawing frame. 

The older style of railway heads, which are combined 
with a section of cards, will be only briefly described; but 
a full description will be given of those that are used 
entirely separate from the cards. In the older type, when 
the cotton sliver leaves each card it is delivered into a 
trough on to an endless apron, about 12 inches wide, that 
consists of canvas covered with a layer of rubber. At 
intervals along the trough are sets of wooden rolls, the 
upper ones resting on the cotton and condensing the slivers, 
while the lower ones support the apron; both the top and 
bottom rolls are driven by friction. After passing the point 
where the last card delivers its sliver into the trough, all 
the slivers pass between two solid steel rolls, which con- 
dense the slivers into a still more compact mass; these rolls 
are positively driven and the lower roll drives the apron. 
The assembled slivers, after leaving the apron, form a com- 
pressed sheet of cotton, thicker in the center than at the 
edges, and pass to the back roll of the railway head. The 
slivers are delivered into the trough in such a manner that 
more will lie in the center of the apron than at the edges. 
Thus, the whole of the cotton is more liable to remain on 
the apron than if it were as thickly distributed at the edges 
as in the center. 

It is obvious that coilers and cans are not needed at each 
card, the product from a whole section of six, eight, ten, or 
twelve cards being delivered to one railway head, which 
deposits it in a can about 20 inches in diameter. In prin- 
ciple this type of railway head differs in no way from those 
used at the present time, and in construction resembles that 
described in Art. 10 and illustrated in Figs. 7, 8, and 9. 

2. Objects. — The objects of the railway head are as 
follows: (1) To even the sliver as far as possible; (2) to 
parallelize the fibers of the sliver. The methods by w^hich 
these objects are attained are: (1) doubling, or combining 
several slivers into one; (2) using an evener attachment; 



§21 AND DRAWING FRAMES 3 

(3) drafting, which causes the fibers to lie more nearly 
parallel. 

It will be noticed that no mention is made of any cleaning 
action; in fact, in the ordinary layout of cotton mills the 
cleaning of the fiber from impurities ends with the card. 
This is not always true, however, because in mills making 
very fine or high-grade yarn a cleaning process, known as 
covibing, is introduced, but this is seldom used in mills making 
any other class of yarn. It may be accepted as generally true 
that any machine subsequent to carding is not intended as a 
cleaning machine. 

PRINCIPAI. PARTS OF THE RAILWAY HEAD 

3. Front and back views of a railway head that takes the 
sliver from the cans filled at the card are shown in Figs. 1 
and 2, respectively, while Fig. 3 shows a plan view of the 
same machine with covers and certain parts removed. The 
usual number of cans placed at the back of this machine 
is eight, although it is also constructed for other numbers. 
Referring to Figs. 1, 2, and 3, the slivers from the cans at the 
back of the machine pass through the guides a, over the 
spoons b, there being one spoon to each sliver, and then to 
the back rolls c. The slivers are then subjected to the drafting 
action of four sets of rolls, and passing from the front rolls r, 
are combined into one sliver at the trumpet d, from which 
they pass to the calender rolls c, c^, through a coiler, and 
into a can, the coiler and can arrangement being very similar 
to that found at the card. 

Railway heads are built in two styles, single and double. 
Fig, 1 illustrating what is known as a single railway head. 
Double railway heads are constructed much the same as 
single railway heads, the principal difference being that in 
the former case two machines are combined into a single 
machine having two heads and, consequently, two deliveries. 
By this means a slight saving in floor space is effected, by 
slightly reducing the length as compared with two single 
heads, and also by reducing the number of passages among 
the machines; there is also a slight economy of power. 



RAILWAY HEADS 



§21 




Fig. 1 



21 



AND DRAWING FRAMES 




Fig. 2 



6 



RAILWAY HEADS 



§21 



Stop-motions are provided on railway heads to stop the 
machine when a sliver breaks or runs out at the back, when 
the sliver breaks at the front, and when the can at the front 
becomes too full. Since all these motions are similar to 




Fig. 3 

those serving the same purpose on the drawing frame, which 
will be fully described later, a description of them is not 
given here. One motion, however, that is found on the 
railway head but is not applied to drawing frames, namely, 
the evener motion, is given a complete description. 



§21 AND DRAWING FRAMES 



EVENER MOTION 

4. The object of the evener motion of a railway head 
is to so regulate the draft of the machine by means of cones 
that, in case the total weight of the slivers fed in a given 
time varies, the weight per yard of the sliver delivered 
remains the same. These cones may be placed either under 
the machine or at the side, the latter method being adopted 
in the machine illustrated in Figs. 1, 2, and 3, where the cones 
are shown at e^,e^. Referring to Fig. 1, the pulley /, on the 
shaft / is driven from the main shaft or countershaft of the 
room. On the shaft /is another pulley Z^, which drives the tight 
and loose pulleys Z^, /,. Both the tight pulley and the cone ^, 
are fast on the end of the front roll f,, so that the speed of 
these parts is the same and constant. The cone ^,, by means 
of a friction belt e, drives the cone c. This friction belt 
simply forms a ring that passes loosely around the cone e^, 
and is capable of being shifted from one position to another 
by means of a belt guide. These parts are more clearly 
shown in Fig. 3. Fast to the shaft with the cone e. is the 
gear £', Figs. 2 and 3, that drives the back rolls c by means 
of suitable gearing. The back roll drives the third roll; 
consequently, the draft between these two rolls is always con- 
stant, provided that the gears on the ends of these rolls are 
not changed. This is also true of the front and second rolls, 
since the second roll is driven from the front. Thus the 
break draft in this case is between the second and third rolls, 
so that if the back and third rolls are speeded faster or slower, 
the break draft and, consequently, the total draft of the 
machine will be changed. Thus it will be seen that the 
position of the friction belt between the two cones regulates 
the draft of the machine. For example, if the friction belt 
is between the large end of the driving cone e, and the small 
end of the driven cone c, then the cone e^ will be driven at 
its maximum speed, which in turn will drive the back rolls at 
their highest speed, thus increasing the feed and diminishing 
the draft of the machine, since the speed of the front rolls 
remains the same. On the other hand, if the friction belt is 



RAILWAY HEADS 



21 



shifted to the small end of the driving cone and the large end 
of the driven cone, then the cone e^ will be driven at its 
lowest speed, which in turn will drive the back roll at 
its lowest speed, decreasing the amount of stock fed in and 
increasing the draft. This is the method adopted on railway 
heads to regulate the weight of the sliver delivered; that is, if 
the weight fed is too heavy, the draft is increased, whereas 
if the weight fed is too light, the draft is diminished. 

5. In all railway heads, the principle adopted to control 
the movement-of the belt on the cones consists of passing the 




Fig. 4 

sliver through a trumpet-shaped guide attached to one end 
of a lever that is pivoted near its center and carries at its 
other end an adjustable weight. This weight is so placed 
on the lever that it exactly balances the downward pull of 
the sliver when the correct weight is passing through the 
trumpet; consequently, if the sliver is too light, the trumpet 
rises, while, on the other hand, if the sliver is too heavy, the 
trumpet is depressed, the belt in either case being moved to 
the correct position on the cones to restore the sliver to its 
correct weight. 



§21 



AND DRAWING FRAMES 



In describing the method of regulating the position of 
the friction belt between the cones, reference is made to 
Fig. 4, which shows a front view, and Fig. 5, which shows a 
side view, partly in section, of the parts of this motion; as 
most of these parts are also shown in Fig. 3 and are lettered 
the same in each figure, reference should be made to all three 
figures. The trumpet d is situated on a long lever d^ pivoted 
at d^ and connected at its rear end to a rod //, which in turn is 
connected to a rod h, running diagonally across the machine 




Fig. 5 



from back to front, as shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 3. 
Connected to the rod //, at the front of the machine is a vertical 
rod h,, which is connected to a shield j that nearly covers a 
gear /,. The top part of this shield is cut away in order to 
expose the teeth of the gear /, for a short distance. The 
weighty, simply serves to steady the shield. Worked by an 
eccentric -^ is a rod k^ that extends across the front of the 
machine and is connected at its other end to an upright rod X',, 
which imparts a horizontal oscillating motion to the pawls r, ; ,. 



10 RAILWAY HEADS §21 

On the shaft with the gear /, is a gear ^ that meshes with the 
teeth of a rack Si, which carries the belt guide s^ that governs 
the position of the friction belt e. 

The action of this mechanism is as follows. The weight da 
is so placed on the lever d^ that when the correct weight of 
cotton is passing through the trumpet d, the pawls r, r, rest 
on the outside of the shield j and the friction belt is at the 
center of the cones. If, however, the cotton passing through 
the trumpet is too heavy, the trumpet is pressed down, which 
action will raise the back end of the lever d^, causing the rod /i 
to be lifted. The rod /i in being lifted brings with it the back 
end of the rod //,, thus causing its forward end to be lowered, 
which in turn lowers the rod //,, turns the shield to the left, 
and exposes the gear j\ to the action of the pawl r. As the 
gear j\ is turned, the gear s is turned, moving the rack and 
the belt guide in such a direction as to shift the friction belt 
toward the large end of the driven cone, thus causing less 
cotton to be fed in and decreasing the weight of the sliver 
delivered at the front. This allows the weight to bring the 
trumpet and the parts connected with it to their normal posi- 
tions, causing the shield to again prevent the pawls from 
acting on the gear/i. In case the sliver passing through the 
trumpet at the front of the machine is too light, the action of 
the different parts will, of course, be the exact reverse of that 
described. It is possible to so alter the throw of the eccen- 
tric k that the action of the pawls will give a change as small 
as 2 grain to the yard for each motion of the pawls, or as 
great as li grains to the yard. 

6. The chief criticism that can be made on a railway head 
is that it does not act on the stock passing through it until at 
least a part of the faulty stock it is supposed to correct has 
passed beyond the action of the evener motion. For example, 
the evener motion illustrated here is actuated by the trumpet, 
which is at the front of the machine, while it regulates 
heavy or light work by changing the speed of the back 
rolls; consequently, any sliver that is heavy or light enough 
to cause the trumpet to change its position will have already 



§21 AND DRAWING FRAMES 11 

passed into the can before the draft of the machine is 
changed, and the weight of that part of the sHver at least 
will not be remedied. On some railway heads, the draft of the 
machine is changed by the evener motion altering the speed 
of the front rolls, but the same criticism still holds good. 

The evener motion of a railway head is the most difficult 
part of the machine to keep in good running condition, and 
care should be taken that all of its parts are always clean 
and that all the moving parts are well oiled and carefully 
adjusted. There should be no backlash or slippage in any 
parts that will prevent the friction belt from being immedi- 
ately moved when too heavy or too light a sliver is passing 
through the trumpet. The trumpet should be carefully regu- 
lated so that it will be in the correct position when the 
desired weight of sliver is passing through, and after it has 
once been balanced, care should be taken to keep it in its 
correct position. 

In extreme cases in the North, there is a slight contrac- 
tion in the trumpet during the night in winter, which affects 
the sliver slightly when first starting up in the morning, 
causing it to be a little lighter than the night before. This 
trouble is not experienced in the South, as the temperature 
is more even. 

7. The draft of a railway head generally slightly exceeds 
the doublings. The gearing of the machine that has been 
illustrated is shown in Fig. 6, and the draft between the 
back roll and calender roll would be as follows with leather- 
covered top rolls, supposing the belt to be at the center of 
the cones: 

2 X 32 X 24 X 100 X 60 



24 X 45 X 24 X 30 X If 



= 8.619, draft 



8. The floor space occupied by a single railway head, 
such as has been illustrated, is 3 feet 32 inches by 5 feet 
3 inches, while a double railway head occupies 6 feet 
41 inches by 5 feet 3 inches. These dimensions allow for 
the space occupied by the cans placed at the back of the 
machine. The type of railway head illustrated weighs, 



12 



RAILWAY HEADS 



§21 




Fig 6 



§21 



AND DRAWING FRAMES 



13 



941 



approximately, 1,200 pounds per delivery, while about 
1 horsepower is required to drive three deliveries. 

9. The speed of the front roll of a railway head may be 
from 300 to 500 revolutions per minute for a It-inch roll. 
The production at 
400 revolutions with 
a 50-grain sliver, ma- 
king an allowance of 
20 per cent, for stop- 
pages, is about 165 
pounds in a day of 
10 hours; with a 60- 
grain sliver, about 
200 pounds; and with 
a 70-grain sliver, 
about 285 pounds. 

10. Another type 
of evener motion, and 
one that is more com- 
monly found on rail- 
way heads, has the 
cones situated under 
the roll beam. These 
cones, which are con- 
siderably larger than 
those in the railway 
head previously de- 
scribed, are about 13 
inches long, 7\ inches 
in diameter at the 
large end and 5 inches 
at the small end, 
although they vary in 
different makes. Fig. 7 shows the gearing of the machine 
under description. The driving pulley is on the shaft with 
the top cone, while on the other end of this shaft is a gear 
that drives the front roll by means of carriers; consequently, 




OiangeGear 



%- 



Fig. 



14 



RAILWAY HEADS 



§21 



the front roll is always driven at a constant speed. On the 
end of the bottom-cone shaft is a bevel gear driving another 
bevel on an upright shaft that drives the back roll. The 
third and second rolls are driven from the back roll. 

The calender rolls and coiler are driven from the front 
roll, while the cone belt is required to drive the second, third, 
and back rolls. Since these rolls are driven through the 
cones, their speed will depend on the position of the cone 
belt on the cones and, as in this motion the amount of fric- 
tion on the trumpet determines the position of the belt on 




Fig. 8 

the cones, the second, third, and back rolls are driven at 
varying speeds, in order to regulate the weight of the sliver 
delivered. 

Fig. 8 shows a side view of the trumpet and its connec- 
tions, while Fig. 9 shows two views of the cones and their 
connections, (a) being aback view and (d), a side view. The 
cone belt a, Fig. 9 (a), is moved along the cones b,b, 
by means of a shipper fork c that is cast with a hub <:,, 
which contains a coarse thread to engage with the thread 
of the shipper, or evener, screw c^. Any motion given to 
this screw will therefore alter the position of the cone belt 



§21 



AND DRAWING FRAMES 



15 



on the cones. The evener screw has a bearing, or support, 
in brackets attached to the framework and carries at one end 
a small gear r,, Fig. 9 (a) and (d), that is driven by a gear d 
operated by the pawls e,e,, which are mounted on the arm e, 
of a casting e.. that is pivoted at e,. Another arm e. is con- 
nected by means of a crank-motion to the gear /, which is 




Fig. 9 

driven from the gear ^ on the bottom-cone shaft. As the 
gear / revolves it causes the crank-motion to impart an 
oscillating motion to the bracket, or casting, e„ thus causing 
the pawls to rock back and forth. When the weight of the 
sliver is running even, the pawls are kept out of contact with 
the gear d by means of the guard plate d^. 



16 RAILWAY HEADS §21 

Referring- to Fig. 8, the bracket //,, that is attached to the roll 
beam, supports the trumpet /?, which is pivoted at the point h^. 
Thus the amount of friction caused by the sliver passing 
through the trumpet is allowed to regulate the relative posi- 
tion of the trumpet with regard to the calender rolls /, /,. 
When the trumpet is drawn forwards by the friction of the 
sliver, the lug h^ on the trumpet comes in contact with the 
lug y, on the shaft /. As the amount of friction increases or 
decreases, the lug /z, will exert more or less pressure on /,, 
thus giving a slight motion to the shaft j. 

As the arm k is setscrewed to the shaft j, any motion of 
the shaft will be imparted to the arm, thus causing the lower 
end of the arm to swing. A balance arm k.^ fastened to k 
by a shoulder k^ carries balance weights k^, k^. The latter, 
which is adjustable, can be moved along the arm k.^ to regu- 
late the weight of the sliver to be delivered. At its lower 
end, the arm k is connected to a rod /, Fig. 9 {b), that is con- 
nected at the point /, to the arm c/^, the latter being a part 
of the casting carrying the guard plate d^. When the shaft / 
is moved by the movement of the trumpet, it will move the 
lower end of the arm k in or out, and thus give a rocking 
motion to the casting carrying the guard plate d^, which is 
pivoted at ^3. 

When the sliver is too light, the trumpet will fall away 
from the calender rolls and cause the arm k to move out- 
wards, thus exposing the teeth of the gear d to the action 
of the pawl ^,, which will cause the evener screw r, to move 
the belt to the large end of the top or driving cone, thus 
increasing the amoiuit of cotton fed in and making the 
sliver heavier. When the sliver is too heavy, the action 
will be reversed. 

The floor space occupied by a single head of this type is 
about 8 feet 2 inches by 5 feet 10 inches, allowing for the 
space occupied by the cans at the back. The weight is 
about 1,150 pounds, and I horsepower is required to drive it, 
while a double head occupies a space of about 6 feet 3 inches 
by 5 feet 10 inches, the weight being about 2,000 pounds, 
and about \\ horsepower is required. 



§21 AND DRAWING FRAxMES 17 

Owing to the objects and construction of railway heads 
and drawing frames being somewhat similar, the manage- 
ment of railway heads resembles that of drawing frames. 
Information on this subject can be obtained later in this 
Section, where the management of drawing frames is fully 
dealt with. 



DRAWING FRAMES 



INTROD IICTION 

11. The drawingr frame is the last machine in which 
any extensive correction of the unevenness of the sliver takes 
place. It usually follows the railway head in mills that use 
the latter machine, except when the stock is to be combed, 
in which case it follows the comber. In the most common 
arrangement of machines, the railway head is omitted and 
the drawing frame follows the card, except when combed 
yarn is being made, when it follows the comber. 

The objects of the drawing frame are: (1) to lay the 
fibers parallel; (2) to correct, as far as possible, any uneven- 
ness in the sliver. These objects are accomplished: (1) by 
drafting, which by pulling the fibers past one another tends 
to make them lie in a parallel position; (2) by doubling, 
Avhich has a tendency to even the resulting sliver. 

12. Number of Drawing Processes. — At least two 
processes of drawing will be found in almost every mill; 
that is, a number of cans of sliver that are made at the front 
of one drawing frame will be placed at the back of another 
frame and run into one sliver at the front of this second 
frame. The number of drawing frames through which the 
cotton is passed is governed by the class of work to be pro- 
duced and the number of preceding processes through which 
the cotton has passed. If the sliver comes direct from the 
cards there are usually two processes for coarse counts, three 
for medium counts, and four for fine counts. If the sliver 
has passed through the railway head, each of the above 



18 RAILWAY HEADS §21 

number of processes is reduced by one process. If the 
sliver has passed through the sliver- and ribbon-lap machines 
and the comber, there are generally only two processes unless 
for very high counts, when three, and even four, are used. 

When four processes of drawing are used, the machine 
that receives the sliver first is called the breaker, while the 
others are named in order first intermediate, second inierrne- 
diate, and finisher. With three they are called breaker, inter- 
mediate, and finisher, while two are designated as breaker 
and finisher. The four processes are also known as first, 
second, third, and fourth drawings. 

13. Arrangement of Drawing Fi*anies. — Drawing 
frames are generally placed directly in front of each other, 
the usual method being to place the cans from the card, 
comber, or railway head, as the case may be, at the back of 
the breaker drawing frame, and as the sliver is delivered at 
the front, the full cans are taken and placed at the back of the 
next drawing frame, this system being followed through- 
out the processes of drawing. Where the floor space is limited, 
the frames may be placed in a line instead of in front of each 
other, in which case the alternate drawing frames face the 
same way. For instance, where three processes of drawing 
are used, the cotton is passed through the breaker drawing 
frame situated at the end of the line. The cans from the 
breaker are then taken to the intermediate, which is facing 
in a direction opposite to that of the breaker drawing frame, 
while the cans from the intermediate are taken to the third 
drawing frame, which is at the other end of the line and has 
its delivery on the same side as the delivery of the breaker 
drawing frame. 

GENERAIi CONSTRUCTION 

14. Fig. 10 shows a view of the front of a drawing frame, 
the construction of which very closely resembles that of a 
railway head, with the exception that no evener motion is 
attached. One complete drawing frame is called a head. 
Several heads, however, may be connected by one shaft and 



21 



AND DRAWING FRAMES 



19 




20 RAILWAY HEADS §21 

still be called a drawing frame, or more accurately, a line of 
drawings. Each head consists of a number of deliveries, 
while each delivery has its own coiler and its own set of 
drawing rolls, which receive a number of slivers at the back, 
subject them to the desired draft, combine them into one 
sliver at the front, and deposit it in a can. For example, if 
four, six, or eight slivers side by side are passed through 
four sets of rolls and combined at the trumpet at the front 
of the machine into one sliver, that part of the machine is 
called a delivery, and a number, or set, of these deliveries 
is called a head. 

A line of drawings usually consists of three heads, while a 
head may contain from four to eight deliveries. Fig. 10 
represents a drawing frame with one head of six deliveries; 
if, however, the lower shaft were extended and another 
pulley mounted on it to drive another set of gearing, which 
in turn governed six other deliveries, it would represent 
a line of drawings consisting of two heads with six 
deliveries each. 

Fig. 11 represents a cross-section of one delivery of the 
machine shown in Fig. 10; the arrows in this figure indicate 
the direction in which the stock passes through the machine. 
Usually six cans similar to a are placed behind each delivery, 
each sliver passing through the guide b, over the plate r, and 
the spoon d, there being one spoon for each sliver. The 
slivers next pass over another guide plate e and then to the 
four sets of rolls /, /,, Z^, /a, where the necessary draft is 
inserted. From these drawing rolls the slivers pass to the 
trumpet g, where they are combined into one, then through 
the calender rolls //, //,, through the coiler tube z, and to the 
can y. The guide b consists of a number of fingers, between 
each two of which a separate sliver passes; in this manner 
the sliverr are prevented from licking or splitting. The 
plate c is highly polished, thus preventing the fibers from 
adhering to it, while it also forms a cover for the working 
parts beneath. The guide e consists of a casting carrying 
two projecting lugs, the distance between which is about 
equal to the width of all the slivers passing through the 



22 RAILWAY HEADS §21 

delivery. This guide is secured to the plate ^, by two screws 
similar to e^. 

The drawing rolls are of the ordinary type; leather-covered 
top rolls are shown in this illustration, although for coarse 
work metallic rolls are generally preferred. The length of 
the top rolls for each delivery varies from 15 to 18 inches, 
while each bottom roll is generally made in one length for 
the whole head or, as in more modern construction, in 
sections pieced together so that they revolve as one roll. 
The top rolls are weighted in the manner usually adopted 
for weighting leather-covered rolls on drawing frames. The 
weighting arrangement is equipped with a weight-relieving 
motion, as shown at /, /,, /j, h. The draft inserted in the 
sliver by these rolls, though not arbitrary, is usually about 
equal to the number of doublings, thus producing a sliver at 
the front of about the same weight as each end fed in at 
the back. 

The trumpet g is supported by the lever g^ and derives its 
name from being trumpet-shaped. It occupies a nearly 
upright position, having the smaller part of the hole at the 
delivery end. The sliver enters the larger end of the trumpet 
and is condensed by being drawn through the smaller part. 
The calender rolls //, //i are smooth steel rolls extending 
along the machine parallel to one another, and to the front 
rolls. The rear roll //, is about 2 inches in diameter, while 
the front one h is slightly larger. These rolls are solid and 
self-weighted, and serve to condense the sliver and draw it 
through the trumpet g. Their surface speed is just sufficient 
to prevent any slackness of the sliver as it comes from the 
front rolls. The coiler connections at the front of the draw- 
ing frame are very similar to those attached to the card. 
The oblique tube / is connected to the plate /,, which has 
teeth on its rim and is driven by the gear ?'=; the gear i^ is 
compounded with the bevel gear /a, which is driven by the 
bevel gear /« on the shaft i^. This shaft extends the entire 
length of the machine and has at each delivery a gear similar 
to z*, which drives the gears that give motion to the coiler 
for that delivery. 



§21 AND DRAWING FRAMES 



23 



15. The diameters of the cans into which the sliver is 
delivered at the front vary from 9 to 12 inches, advancing by 
inches, those generally used being 10 inches in diameter. In 
former years they were made wholly of tin, but those now 
used are generally made of a paper pulp, which has the 
advantage of being lighter and cheaper. Although lighter, 
they are more durable than the metal cans, and seldom show 
the principal defects of the latter type of can; namely, ragged 
edges and loosened or detached bottoms. 



STOP-MOTIONS 

16. The principal parts of a drawing frame that call for 
a somewhat more detailed description are those connected 
with the various stop-motions. If one of the cans at the 
back should become empty or if one of the slivers should 
break before reaching the back rolls and the machine should 
continue to run, the reduced weight of the sliver delivered at 
the front would tend to produce unsatisfactory work at the 
later processes. As it is of vital importance to have the 
sliver that comes from the drawing frame of a uniform 
weight, devices are applied to stop the machine when an end 
breaks or runs out at the back. Additional motions are also 
applied to stop the machine when the sliver breaks between 
the front rolls and calender rolls, when the cans at the front 
of the machine become full, and in some cases when any 
part of the cotton laps around the calender or the draw- 
ing rolls. There are two general classes of stop-motions 
applied to drawing irsime?,—mecha7iical and electrical. As the 
mechanical stop-motions are older and more commonly met 
with, they will be described first. 



MECHANICAL STOP-MOTION 

17. The method adopted to automatically ship the belt 
from the tight to the loose pulley and thus stop the machine 
will be described with reference to Figs. 11, 12, and 13, 
Fig. 12 being a plan view and Fig. 13 a sectional elevation, 
taken on line x x oi Fig. 12. The driving belt runs on the 



24 



RAILWAY HEADS 



21 



tight and loose pulleys z/, //,, Fig. 12, and is governed by the 
belt guide r, which is fastened to the rod q and extends out- 
wards above the spring ^ and shaft k^. Working loosely on 




. Fig. 12 

this rod is the casting q^, which is kept pressed against the 
belt guide by means of the spring s, one end of which is 

fastened to the bracket /, while 
the other end is connected to the 
arm q. of the casting q^, this arm 
working loosely on the shaft k^. 
By this means the casting q^, un- 
less held in position by some 
other mechanism, will force the 
belt guide r in such a direction 
that the belt will be shipped from 
the tight pulley ii to the loose 
pulley Ui. 

The method adopted to hold 
the casting q^ in position when 
the belt is on the tight pulley is 
Pivoted at the point p^ is 
the casting p, which carries two arms p^, p^. When the 
machine is started by means of shipping the belt from the 




Fig. 13 

more clearly shown in Fig. 13 



§21 AND DRAWING FRAMES 25 

loose to the tight pulley, the belt guide r, Fig. 12, carries 
the casting </, along with it as the shipper and rod move. 
The projection on the casting g^ is beveled off on the side 
that comes in contact with p^ when the belt is being shipped 
to the tight pulley. Thus the outer end of p is raised until 
the projection on g^ passes the arm ^3, when it falls and 
allows p:, to hold the casting securely in position. Set- 
screwed to the shaft k^ is the knuckle-jointed lever ?/. The 
upper end ;/,. of this lever contains a slot ?/,, in which works 
a pin Wi, which is a part of, and revolves with, the gear w. 
Thus, as the gear revolves, the pin ;;/, moves the upper end of 
the lever alternately backwards and forwards, which imparts 
an oscillating motion to the shaft k,, provided that this shaft 
is free to oscillate, since under these conditions the fulcrum 
of the lever will be at the point at which it is attached to the 
shaft. If, however, the shaft X', is prevented from oscillating, 
the fulcrum of the lever will be at the point n^, and as the 
part 71^ is forced out by the pin w,, the arm 713, which is a 
part of Wj, will be forced against the arm p^, pushing up the 
casting/", since it swings on/,, and allowing the arm />3 to 
release the casting g,. 

18. Drawing frames equipped with the mechanical 
stop-motions automatically stop when the sliver breaks or 
runs out at the back, when the sliver breaks in front, and 
when the cans at the front become full. 

The manner in which the machine is stopped when a sliver 
at the back breaks or runs out is described with reference to 
Figs. 11, 12, and 13. Referring to Fig. 11, it will be noted 
that each sliver passes over a guide d, known as a spoon^ 
that is supported at the point d.. but is free to swing up and 
down, its lower end being slightly heavier than its upper 
end. The weight and tension of the sliver in passing over 
the spoon is sufficient to lower the upper end of the spoon. 
Should the sliver break or run out, however, the spoon will 
be released, its lower end will drop, and the projection di 
will engage with a projection on the arm k, which being set- 
screwed to the shaft /(.', oscillates with that shaft. As the 



26 RAILWAY HEADS §21 

projection </, engages with the projection on the arm k, the 
shaft ky is prevented from oscillating, thus causing the arm «3, 
Fig. 13, to be forced against /j, bringing ^^ out of the path 
of ^., and allowing the spring s. Fig. 12, to force the casting 
against the belt guide, shipping the belt from the tight to 
the loose pulley and stopping the machine. 

19. The mechanism that stops the machine in case the 
sliver breaks between the front rolls and calender rolls is as 
follows, reference being made to Fig. 11. A lever g^ that 
is pivoted at g^ carries a weight g^ that tends to lower the 
outer end ^9. At its forward end the lever ^3 carries a lug^s 
that bears against the lever g^, which in turn bears against 
an adjusting screw g., carried by the lever g^ that supports 
the trumpet g. In case the sliver is running through the 
trumpet properly, the weight and tension of the sliver is 
sufficient to cause the lever g,. to hold down the lever g^; and 
since this lever rests on the lug g^, the weight g^ will be 
prevented from lowering the outer end g^ of the lever g^. 
On the other hand, if the sliver breaks at the front of the 
machine, the outer end of the lever ^3 is forced down by the 
weight, and the part g^ comes in contact with the front of 
the projection k^ on the arm k, which action prevents the 
shaft k, from oscillating and stops the machine in the manner 
previously described. 

20. When the can /, Fig. 11, is filled, the sliver gradually 
presses the plate /. up, forcing the upper end of the tube i 
against the lever ^e, which allows the weight ^4 to forceps 
into the path of the projection k., thus stopping the machine 
in the same manner as when the sliver breaks at the front. 



ELECTRIC STOP-MOTIONS 

21. Introcliictory. — A principle that has been exten- 
sively applied to drawing frames is that of automatically 
stopping the machine through the use of electricity. But in 
considering electric stop-motions it will first be necessary 
to give some attention to certain laws of electricity that 



§21 AND DRAWING FRAMES 27 

make it possible to apply this class of stop-motions to cotton- 
mill machiner3\ 

The electric current must always be generated by some 
suitable apparatus, which for stop-motions on drawing 
frames generally consists of a dynamo placed above the 
frames. If suitable connections are made, an electric current 
will flow from one part of the dynamo through the con- 
nections and back again to the dynamo, forming what is 
known as a circuit. In order to have a current of electricity, 
there must always be a complete route, or circuit, from the 
source of the electric current through the various connections, 
and back again to the place from which it started. If there is 
more than one route that the current can follow, it will divide 
into two or more separate currents, but the maximum current 
will always flow through the path of the least resistance. 
If for any reason the circuit is broken, the flow of electricity 
will stop. The two ends, at the place where the circuit is 
divided, are known as terminals, one of which is termed posi- 
tive and the other negative. That terminal from which the 
current would flow, if connected with the other terminal, is 
called positive; while the terminal into which the current 
would flow from the positive terminal is called negative. 

Substances are divided into two classes as regards the resist- 
ance they offer to the flow of electricity, and are known as 
conductors and non-conductors, the former consisting of 
those substances through which an electric current can read- 
ily pass, while the latter comprises substances that offer great 
resistance to the flow. When two conductors come in con- 
tact, the current readily flows from one to the other. If it is 
desired to prevent this flow, the bodies must be insulated; 
that is, they must be separated by some substance that is a 
non-conductor. Metals are good conductors, while glass, silk, 
cotton, etc. are poor conductors. Thus, if a current of elec- 
tricity is passing from one piece of metal to another, as, for 
instance, the top and bottom rolls of a drawing frame, and 
some non-conducting substance, such as cotton, is brought 
between the points of contact of the two pieces of metal, the 
circuit will be broken and the current stopped. 



28 RAILWAY HEADS §21 

If a piece of soft iron is surrounded by coils of wire through 
which an electric current passes, the iron becomes magnet- 
ized and has the power of attracting certain other metals, 
such as iron and steel. A piece of iron magnetized in this 
manner is known as an electromagnet. 

22. Operation of tlie Electric Stop-Motion. — Fig. 14 
is a section of a drawing frame equipped with the electric 
stop-motion, while Fig. 15 is a portion of a front view of the 
same machine. The electric current passes from the dynamo 
through the rod a into and through the several parts of the 
machine and leaves it through the rod a^ to enter the dynamo. 
As far as possible, the path that the current takes through 
the drawing frame has been indicated by means of arrows. 
Otherwise, those parts that are connected with the positive 
terminal of the dynamo are indicated by being cross-hatched 
in two directions, when in section, and by a dark surface 
shading, when not in section. Those connected with the 
negative terminal are shown in the ordinary manner. 

It will be noticed that, with few exceptions, the whole 
frame of the machine with all the rolls, except one, are nega- 
tive; this positive roll is marked m. Among the positively 
charged parts the most important are the cover />,, back 
plate >^3, connecting piece X%, roll w, rod k^, and springs /, 5. 

It is of importance that the positively charged parts shall 
be electrically insulated from those negatively charged. This 
is attained by interposing plates or disks of insulating mate- 
rial between them. The presence of these insulating parts 
at any place is indicated in the drawings by means of full 
black surfaces. The action of the stop-motion depends on 
devices by means of which connections are made between 
the insulated parts, in order that an electric current may pass 
from one to the other. 

The path of the electric current through the machine is as 
follows: From the rod a through the electromagnet b, bi, 
then through the parts /, /, k, and the rod ki that extends 
across the frame. Electrically connected with this rod are 
two springs s, t, these springs being duplicated at each 



30 RAILWAY HEADS §21 

delivery. From the rod k^, the current passes through the 
connecting piece k^ that extends to the back of the frame and 
forms a connection with the back plate k^. From here the 
current passes to the cover /», and roll yn. 

It should be noticed that as long as the various parts are 
kept insulated from each other no electric current will pass 
through. It is only in case any one of the insulating plates 
is, as it were, bridged over that a current will flow. The 
current in all cases makes its start through the electromag- 
net b, bi', this will therefore always be set in action first 
and will attract the small finger c. As this finger is pivoted 
at c, its lower part swings over, coming in contact with a 
dog d that is a portion of /, which, although loose on the 
coiler shaft d^, ordinarily revolves with it, being driven by 
frictional contact with the part g, which revolves with the 
shaft rt'i, since the surfaces of. these parts that are in contact 
are at an angle with the shaft. The part .^ is on a keyway 
on the shaft d^; consequently, it must revolve with the shaft, 
but is capable, however, of being pushed lengthwise of the 
shaft. As d and / are stopped by the finger c, the part g, con- 
tinuing to revolve, will be pushed lengthwise of the shaft 
because of the shape of the parts f,g. This action of g 
throws the lever e to the right, which, since e is fastened to 
the shaft e^, gives the latter a partial revolution. Setscrewed 
to the shaft e^ is a casting e., an arm of which works in a slot 
in the upright rod ^3, which controls the shipper rod e^ to 
which the belt shipper is attached. As the shaft e^ is turned 
by the lever e, it throws the casting e^ over to one side, 
moving the rod <^3 and, consequently, the shipper rod e^ in 
such a direction that the belt will be shipped from the tight 
to the loose pulley. 

The action of the rod // should be noted in this connec- 
tion. As the lever e, to which it is fastened, is forced over 
by^, it brings with it the rod h, which is so shaped that it 
forces the finger c out of contact with the revolving dog d, 
thus placing these parts in their initial positions. 

Drawing frames equipped with the electric stop-motion 
shown in Figs. 14 and 15 stop when the sliver breaks or 



32 RAILWAY HEADS §21 

runs out at the back, when laps form on the top or bottom 
front drawing rolls, when the sliver breaks in front, and when 
the cans at the front become full. 

23. The rolls m,n are known as the top and bottom pre- 
venter rolls, respectively; they are also sometimes called 
detector rolls. They are frequently found applied to both 
railway heads and drawi-ng frames, and are considered an 
advantage both in working the stop-motion when an end 
breaks or runs out at the back and in making a piecing at 
the back. With these rolls, the tension on the sliver is more 
even, thus keeping the spoons in their correct position and 
causing the stop-motion to act more quickly. A piecing at 
this place is desirable since, as it does not require tall help to 
run the frames, small boys, girls, or women may be employed, 
whereas when the piecing must be made close to the back 
rolls taller help is required. 

As shown in Fig. 14, the roll m is positive, while n is 
negative; consequently, if these rolls are allowed to come in 
contact, a circuit will be formed and the machine stopped. 
The lower roll n extends the entire length of the machine, 
while the top roll vi is made in shorter lengths, there being 
one of these rolls for every two slivers at the back. As long 
as the slivers are passing between these two rolls they are 
prevented from coming in contact. Should either sliver 
break or run out, however, the end of the roll under which 
it passes will drop and, coming in contact with the lower 
roll 11, will form a circuit and stop the machine. By referring 
to Figs. 14 and 15, it will be seen that the drawing rolls 
are negative and the covers positive. The front top roll 
rests in bearings and is capable of being raised if any 
obstruction comes between it and the bottom roll. Fastened 
to each cover of the drawing frame are two adjustable 
screws, similar to p, that are so set that they will not come 
in contact with any part of the rolls so long as the cotton is 
running through the machine properly. If the cotton laps 
around either the top or bottom roll, the increased size of 
the bulk of cotton between the two rolls will cause the top 



^21 AND DRAWING FRAMES 33 

roll to be raised in its bearings until it comes in contact with 
one of the screws p, when a circuit will be formed and the 
machine stopped. 

The back calender roll r, extends the entire length of the 
frame, while the front calender roll r is made in sections, 
each of which is only long enough to serve for two deliveries 
and rests in inclined bearings. As long as the cotton is 
passing between the rolls, the thickness of the sliver will 
push the roll r up slightly in its bearings. However, should 
either sliver that passes between any one of the front 
calender rolls and the back calender rolls break, the end of 
the front calender roll that was supported by that sliver will 
drop and come in contact with the spring s. As one of these 
parts is negative and the other positive, a circuit will be 
formed and the machine stopped. 

As the can at the front of the machine becomes full, the 
pressure of the sliver in the can raises the top of the coiler 
until it comes in contact w'ith the spring /, when the machine 
will be stopped, owing to a circuit being formed by the 
contact of these two parts, one of which is positive and the 
other negative. 

GEARING 

24. Each head in a drawing frame is driven separately 
from any other head in regard to its individual gearing, but 
all the heads are driven by what is called the lower or main 
shaft, which runs underneath the frame; this shaft is shown 
in Fig. 10, and also in Fig. 16, which is a plan of the 
gearing of the machine similar to that shown in Fig. 10. 
At each head is a pulley that is connected with a tight-and- 
loose pulley on the front roll of that particular head by 
means of an open belt. The lower or main shaft is driven 
from the main shaft or countershaft of the room. 

Referring to Fig. 16, a gear of 24 teeth on the front roll 
drives, by means of suitable gearing, the calender rolls and 
the coiler connections. Another gear of 24 teeth, situated 
on the front roll, drives the back roll. The gear of 26 teeth 
on this back roll drives the third roll. Thus, the draft 



34 



RAILWAY HEADS 



§21 



between these two rolls is constant, provided that the gears 
connecting the rolls are not changed. The wide-faced gear 
of 60 teeth on the back roll drives, by means of a carrier, 
the gear m, shown in Fig. 13 but not in Fig. 16, The gear 




100 33 



MaJTh Shaft 




Fig. 16 

of 20 teeth on the front roll drives the second roll, and con- 
sequently the draft between these two rolls is constant, pro- 
vided that the gears connecting them are not changed. 
Thus it will be seen that the break draft of this machine 
comes between the second and third rolls. 



§21 AND DRAWING FRAMES 35 

The draft of a drawing frame with common rolls, and 
geared as shown in Fig. 16, would be as follows, the draft 
being figured from the calender roll to the back roll: 
2 X 30 X 24 X 100 X 60 



24 X 45 X 24 X 44 X It 



= 5.509 



MANAGEMENT OF DRAWING FRAMES 

25. The arrangement of the cans at the back of the frame 
is an important point to be considered. The usual practice 
is to place full cans of sliver behind the breaker drawing 
frame. This is all right for the breaker, as there is never the 
same amount of sliver in the different cans, due to the cards 
or combers being separate; therefore, the cans will be 
emptied at different intervals, thus insuring that no two 
piecings will come together and that the frame will not 
remain stopped for any length of time waiting for the 
attendant to piece more than one end. This, however, is not 
the case wath the first and second intermediates and finisher, 
since in this case if a sliver breaks the whole head is stopped, 
and consequently when one can is full they are all full, if 
empty cans were inserted at the front at the same time; and 
if they are all taken out at once and fed immediately to the 
next machine at the same time, it is evident that they wnll all 
be emptied at about the same time, necessitating several 
piecings in a short length of sliver. To remedy this defect, 
it is better to feed the frames in sections so that some of the 
cans at the back of any drawing frame wall be full, others 
three-fourths full, still others half full, and so on. 

26. The relative weight per yard of the sliver delivered 
to the weight per yard of each sliver fed, depends on the 
relation of the number of ends fed, or doubled, at the back 
of one delivery to the total draft of the machine. It is the 
general plan in the drawing frame not to have the draft 
exceed the doubling. That is, if 6 ends are put up at the 
back of each delivery, the draft is not generally more than 6. 

27. Both top and bottom metallic rolls should receive 
careful attention to prevent licking, which is frequently 



36 RAILWAY HEADS §21 

caused by the flutes collecting and holding the dirt. On 
this account metallic rolls require cleaning oftener than 
common rolls. 

Where common top rolls are used, they should be relieved 
of the weights if a stoppage occurs for more than 48 
hours. This helps to prevent the leather top rolls from 
becoming fluted. 

28. Before the leather top rolls are put into the drawing 
frame, they must be varnished, the frequency of subsequent 
varnishing depending on the varnish used, the weight of 
sliver produced, and the speed at which the rolls are run. 
Any roughness on the surface of these rolls causes licking, 
and careful attention should therefore be given to them, as 
licking produces waste, light sliver, and loss in production 
•through stopping the head to remove roller laps. Any top 
roll that shows impressions of the flutes of the bottom 
steel rolls on the leather, or becomes fluted, as it is called, 
should be immediately recovered. 

29. Sometimes in changing from coarse to fine work, or, 
in other words, from a heavy to a light sliver, the trumpet 
must be changed. This is on account of the sliver being 
so light and the small end of the trumpet so large that the 
friction and weight of the sliver will not be sufficient to keep 
the trumpet in its proper position, thus causing the frame to 
be stopped continually. 

30. There should be very little waste made at the drawing 
frame, so that if a large amount is made it may be taken as 
an indication that some part of the frame is not properly 
adjusted, or that the operators are not attending to their 
work as they should. The drawing frames should be kept 
free from dirt, dust, and short fiber. Oil should not be 
allowed in places where it is not required. In order to 
insure clean work the tenders should wipe or brush the 
frames about every two hours; this takes very little of their 
time but greatly helps to improve the quality of the yarn. 
A thorough cleaning of all parts of the frame should take 
place twice a week. 



§21 AND DRAWING FRAMES 37 

All bolts, nuts, screws, etc. should be looked after and 
kept tight. Stop-motions should be kept in working order, 
as otherwise a great deal of bad work will result. All 
quickly moving parts, such as the top and bottom rolls, 
lower shaft, etc., should be oiled twice a day, and every 
moving part of the frame should be oiled once a week, care 
being taken not to get the oil on any surrounding parts that 
do not require oiling. The boxes of the lower shaft should 
be partially filled with tallow. 

31. Weighing the sliver at the finisher drawing frame is 
a very important matter and should be done at least twice a 
day, while in fine work three, and sometimes four, times a day 
is advisable. If the weight of the sliver is properly adjusted 
at this point, there w'ill be fewer changes in the subsequent 
processes. It is also best to have the stock running evenly as 
early as possible. The sliver is generally prepared for 
weighing by what is known as the measuring board, which 
usually consists of two boards 6 inches wide and 36 inches 
long hinged together on one of the side edges. One head 
of the frame is stopped and the cans at the front taken out. 
After it has been ascertained that all the ends are up at the 
back, the head is again started and run until about li or 
2 yards has been delivered. The machine is then stopped 
and the ends of the slivers gathered together with one hand, 
while with the other hand they are broken ofif at the top. The 
slivers are now placed on one of the measuring boards, care 
being taken to have each sliver straight; the boards are then 
closed and the ends of the slivers projecting over the two 
ends of the board cut with a pair of shears or a sharp knife. 
The slivers are now taken from the board and weighed on a 
pair of scales. This weight is divided by the number of 
deliveries in a head, the result being the average weight of 
a sliver for that head. A variation of more than 2 grains 
over or under the standard for each sliver should not be 
allowed, and if this amount of variation is on the same side 
of the standard for two weighings, the draft gear should be 
changed. Sometimes the sliver from each delivery is 



38 RAILWAY HEADS §21 

weighed separately instead of being taken as in the method 
previously described. 

32. In connection with drawing frames equipped with an 
electric stop-motion care should be taken that all the metallic 
connections are screwed tightly together, in order that a 
circuit may be made and the machine stopped under any of 
the conditions previously mentioned. The preventer rolls 
should be kept free from oil, since if sufficient oil at any 
time collects on either of these rolls, it will form a film over 
the surface of the roll, and if under these conditions an end 
should break, thus allowing the top roll to come in contact 
with the bottom roll, the frame would not stop, as oil is a 
non-conductor and prevents the flow of the current. The 
contact springs between the calender rolls and coiler top 
should be kept clean and free from oil, in order that the current 
may not be prevented from flowing from one part to another 
when they come in contact. Care should be taken that posi- 
tive and negative parts of the frame do not come in contact 
with each other when the cotton is passing properly through 
the machine, since the current will then return to the dynamo 
without passing through the proper channels, in which case 
the current is said to be short-circuited. Under this condition 
the stop-motion will not accomplish its purpose, and one of the 
two following things will happen: If the frame becomes 
short-circuited before the current reaches the magnet box, the 
stop-motion will not operate when an end breaks, since the 
current will be returned through the frame to the dynamo 
without passing through the magnet box. If the frame 
becomes short-circuited after the current has left the magnet 
box, the machine will be stopped, although the sliver may be 
running through the machine correctly. In order that the 
stop-motion shall operate quickly, which is very desirable, the 
finger that comes in contact with the revolving dog should 
be within iV inch of the dog when the machine is running. 

33, Care of Drawing Frame. — The steel rolls should 
be carefully scoured at least once a month. Leather top rolls 
should be examined periodically so that the frames will not 



§21 AND DRAWING FRAMES 



39 



continue to run with rolls that are fluted, channeled, or other- 
wise defective. Steel rolls that are not running true may 
occasionally be found by raising the top clearers and noticing- 
whether any of the top rolls are jumping. The top rolls 
should be examined frequently to see that the varnishing is 
not neglected. The back of each frame requires watchful- 
ness on the part of the one in charge to see that the right 
number of ends are being fed. Spoons should be examined 
periodically to see that they are well balanced and that the 
lower end drops immediately when the end of the sliver 
breaks or even when it comes through very light; the spoons 
should always work easily. Bad piecings should be looked 
out for, more especially those that are too long. If the 
drawing frame piecing is made 6 inches too long at the 
back, that amount of extra material will extend through 
many yards of the finished yarn. The guides at the back of 
the drawing frame should always be arranged so that the 
ends at the back will be separated as widely as the rolls will 
allow; bad drawing results if the ends are not spaced suffi- 
ciently far apart and one end rides on another. 

Occasionally, drawing-frame tenders have been known to 
pass cans of material forwards without putting it through the 
frame. Where the frame that is skipped has a draft equal to 
the number of doublings, this does not make much difference 
to the ultimate weight of the yarn, but if the frame is one 
where a considerable alteration is made in the weight of the 
sliver, the omission becomes serious and causes irregular 
work. In any case, the practice should not be allowed. 

The covers over the rolls should be examined daily by the 
one in charge— or even several times a day— in order to 
make sure that the tenders are picking off the clearer waste; 
this should be done every hour, for if the waste is left on the 
clearer, it is apt to be drawn forwards with the sliver and 
cause dirty slubs in the roving and unsatisfactory work at 
the future processes. The tenders should not be allowed to 
run the cans too full. 

It should be remarked in connection with the drawing 
frame, as in connection with almost every other machine in 



40 RAILWAY HEADS §21 

the mill, that high speeds do not always pay. There is a 
limit to the capacity of every machine, beyond which the work 
done deteriorates, or the excessive number of stoppages, 
through breakages and stock running out, prevents any 
advantage being gained by an excessively high speed. 

In some cases, experiments have been made in connection 
with drawing frames in the direction of using fewer processes 
of drawing, in order to save labor cost. Drawing is not an 
expensive process as regards labor cost, and for this reason 
it is not advisable to use less than two drawing frames for 
numbers lower than 16s, unless the railway head is also used; 
not less than three drawing frames, or one railway head and 
two drawing frames, for numbers 16s to 70s; and not less 
than four processes of drawing for numbers finer than 70s, 
unless the sliver-lap and ribbon-lap machines are used in 
connection with the comber. These arrangements are not 
absolute and depend on the quality of the yarn desired. 

In other cases, experiments have been made with a view to 
using extra processes of drawing so as to reduce the number 
of processes of fly frames where the labor cost is higher, but 
satisfactory results have not always been obtained. 

34. The floor space occupied by a drawing frame simi- 
lar to the one described and consisting of one head of six 
deliveries, is about 10 feet 6 inches by 5 feet 8 inches, allow- 
ing sufficient space for six cans at the back of each delivery. 
Drawing frames weigh, approximately, 700 pounds per delivery 
and, although the horsepower required to drive a frame varies 
somewhat with the class of work being run, it may be stated 
as a fair estimate that between four and five deliveries 
require 1 horsepower. 

The speed of the front roll of a drawing frame may be 
from 250 to 700 revolutions per minute for a If-inch roll. 
The production at 350 revolutions per minute with a 50-grain 
sliver, making an allowance of 10 per cent, for stoppages, 
is about 168 pounds in a day of 10 hours; with a 70-grain 
sliver, about 235 pounds; and with an 85-grain sliver, about 
285 pounds. 



§21 AND DRAWING FRAMES 41 

35. It should be understood that the machines that have 
been described do not cover all the makes of railway heads 
and drawing- frames, nor do the stop-motions and evener 
motions described in connection with the machines illus- 
trated include all the different methods adopted to accom- 
plish the same objects. However, it may be stated that 
the general principles of the different motions will be 
found to be similar, and if the descriptions given are fully 
understood, there should be no difficulty in tracing the action 
of any part of these machines that may be met with under 
different circumstances. 



COMBERS 

(PART 1) 



COMBING EQUIPMENT 



INTRODUCTION 

1. When a cotton yarn is to be manufactured, it is first 
essential to select the grade of cotton that is suitable for 
the quality of yarn desired, after which it is necessary to 
determine the different processes that the cotton must pass 
through in order to obtain the required product. This usually 
means deciding whether or not the cotton shall be combed. 

A lot of cotton, even if of the same grade, will never be 
found to contain an absolutely uniform staple, and the fibers 
that are below the average length will weaken the yarns 
spun from this lot. For very fine yarns, or for a high grade 
of yarn even when of coarse numbers, it is customary to 
adopt the processes of coinbiiij>: and those incidental to it; 
while for coarse or medium yarns, or yarns that are not 
required to be of superior quality, the picking and carding 
processes are usually considered sufficient for cleaning pur- 
poses. In these processes a large portion of the short fibers 
remain, but their presence in coarse and medium warp and 
filling yarns does not injure the quality to any great extent 
so long as the cotton selected is suitable; that is, generally 
speaking, in warp yarns that are not finer than 45s and 
filling yarns not finer than 90s. 

2. Object of CoinbiiipT. — For fine yarns it is essential 
that the short fibers should be removed, and to accomplish 

J^or notice of cofiyright. see paee immediately followine the title page 

i22 



2 COMBERS §22 

this the process known as combing is introduced. There- 
fore, for warp yarns finer than 45s and filling yarns finer 
than 90s, or even for coarser numbers than these when a 
high grade of yarn is required, it is customary, in addition to 
the selection of the proper stock, to remove by the process 
of combing all fibers that are not of the required length. 
Combing, however, is an expensive operation, as consider- 
able waste results from this process, and it is only profitable 
to comb when high-grade work is required. 

3. In order to distinguish the different processes through 
which the cotton has passed, yarns are termed carded 
yarns and combed yarns. When yarns are spoken of as 
being carded, it may mean that they have been subjected to 
one process of carding or that they have been double-carded. 
Combed yarns may be single-combed or double-combed, and 
in either case they may have been carded once or twice, but 
double carding and double combing are not practiced to any 
considerable extent. 

The process of combing is usually performed immediately 
after carding and before the drawing process, although in 
some cases one drawing process is used between the carding 
and the combing process. With the combing process a 
higher grade of yarn than that obtained with the carding 
process alone can be made from the same stock, or the 
same grade of yarn can be produced from a lower quality 
of stock. 

4. A combing equipment usually includes three kinds 
of machines: (1) the sliver-lap machine, which has for its 
object the making of a lap from a number of card slivers; 
(2) the ribbon-lap machine, the object of which is to combine 
several of the laps from the sliver-lap machine into a firm 
and even lap; (3) the comber, the object of which is to 
remove all fibers that are under a length suitable for the 
yarn required. 

When the drawing frame is introduced, the combing 
equipment generally consists of drawing frames, sliver- 
lap machines, and combers. 



§22 



COMBERS 



SLIVER-LAP MACHINE 



CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION 

5. Before the cotton can be combed, it must be placed in 
a suitable form for the combing machine, and for this pur- 
pose it is taken in cans, either from the card or drawing 
frame, to the sliver-lap niacliine, an illustration of which 
is given in Fig. 1. 




Fig. 1 



From fourteen to eighteen cans of sliver are placed at the 
back of this machine, the number being governed by the 
width of lap required, which is usually Ih 84, or IO2 inches. 
The slivers pass from the can, through a guide plate, over 



COMBERS 



§22 



spoons that operate a stop-motion, and then through a suit- 
able conductor to the drawing rolls. In Figs. 1 and 2, a is the 
guide plate, b the spoons, and <: the conductor. The drawing 
rolls d consist of three pairs of rolls, and are similar in con- 
struction to those of drawing frames. From the drawing 
rolls, the sheet of slivers passes between two pair of smooth 
calender, or presser, rolls e, where it is pressed into a uni- 
form sheet. These rolls are solid and are usually 5 inches 
in diameter; the top rolls are weighted by means of weights 




Fig. 2 

and levers. The bearings of the top rolls are in vertical 
slots, thus allowing them to rise if an excessive amount of 
cotton comes between them and the bottom rolls. From the 
smooth calender rolls the cotton passes over a polished 
guide plate / with adjustable sides, and is then wound on a 
wooden roll, or spool, //., which rests on the fluted calender 
rolls g, and between the two plates h. 

The wooden spool is made the width of the lap required, 
with a diameter of about 4 inches, and is held in position by 
a spindle passing through the hubs of the plates. On one 



§22 COMBERS 5 

end of this spindle is a double thread, which screws into a 
similar thread on the hub of one of the plates. On the 
other end of the spindle is a collar and hand wheel, the 
distance from the collar to the thread being such that when 
the spindle is passed through the plates and spool and 
screwed up tight, the spool will be held firmly between the 
plates. The plates are supported by racks /, /,, Fig. 1, the 
teeth of which engage with gears on the shaft j. The gear 
on the shaft / that engages with the rack /, is fastened to 
the shaft, while the gear engaging with the rack / is mounted 
on a sleeve that carries the disk /,, This disk is secured to 
the casting j^ in such a manner that it is adjustable, while 
the casting j^ is keyed to the shaft j. This method of con- 
necting the different parts provides a means of adjusting 
the rack / with relation to the rack z,. When the racks 
are down in position, the spool rests between the upper 
parts of the calender rolls g and is in contact with both 
of them. The spool is usually made tV inch longer than 
the rolls, so that the plates will not bind on the edges of 
the rolls. As the fluted calender rolls revolve, the spool 
and plates revolve with them; by this means the sheet of 
sliver is wound on the spool and the lap formed. The 
diameter of the plates is greater than that of the full lap 
required, and, being in contact with the ends of the spool, 
the lap is built up the same width as the spool, with 
perfect sides. 

A full lap should be from 12 to 14 inches in diameter, 
should have straight, smooth sides, and be hard and firm. 
To remove a full lap the friction is released by pressing 
down on the friction lever j^ and the racks slightly raised by 
the hand wheel 7, on the shaft j. The spindle is then 
removed by unscrewing it from the plate and withdrawing it 
from the spool, allowing the lap to be rolled on to the table r. 
The firmness of the lap is governed by the amount of friction 
placed on the friction motion of the racks; the smoothness 
of the sides, by the position of the conductor c and the 
adjustable sides of the guide plate /. The sides of the con- 
ductor c should be so adjusted that the sheet delivered to 



6 COMBERS §22 

the calender rolls will be somewhat wider than the lap 
required. A selvage is formed on each side of the lap by 
the guide plate / and the circular plates //. 

6. Stop-Motions. — There are two stop-motions, one to 
stop the machine when an end of sliver breaks at the back 
and the other to stop the machine when the lap is full. 

7. The sliver stop-motion consists of unevenly bal- 
anced spoons b, the bottom ends of which are heavier than 
the top. Each spoon is so adjusted that the weight of the 
sliver holds down the upper part. When an end breaks and 
passes over a spoon, the spoon is released and the lower end 
comes in contact with a tumbler, or rocker. The shaft is 
stopped, and a catch on a shipper rod being released, a 
spring forces the rod outwards, causing the belt to be 
shipped to the loose pulley. 

8. The full-lap stop-motion is operated as follows: As 
the rack is raised by means of the increased diameter of the 
lap, a dog on one of the racks comes in contact with a rod 
that extends back and connects with the catch on the shipper 
rod. As the dog passes the rod, it causes it to be moved 
backwards and releases the catch on the shipper rod. The 
dog is adjustable on the rack, so that different sizes of laps 
may be made. 

9. Settings. — The setting points and adjustments on a 
sliver-lap machine are as follows: The proper adjustment of 
the stop-motion spoons, so that the spoon will act immedi- 
ately when an end breaks; the regulation of the distances 
between the centers of the drawing rolls; the proper adjust- 
ments of the sliver conductor and guide plates so that a good 
selvage will be made; and the proper adjustment of the racks 
so that they will be perfectly plumb and level, since, if the 
racks are out of level, it will cause the plates to bind on the 
edges of the fluted calender rolls and will make an imperfect 
lap. The brake shoe on the friction motion also needs 
attention, and care should be taken not to allow oil to get 
on it. 



^ BackRolf 

/h'Dia. 



22% 



SecoHfl 



4" 



Front 



33 



41B P 26 



21 
21 
21 



r,o 



3 "Dia. 
S/noof/i Calender Roll 



5 'Dia. 
Smooth CalenderRoll 



12% 



/2"Dia. 
Fluted CalenderRoll 



12"Dia. 
riided CaleruferRoll 



Fig. 3 



8 COMBERS §22 

10. Fig. 3 is the plan of gearing for a sliver-lap machine; 
the draft, figured from the front fluted calender roll to the 
back drawing roll, is as follows: 

12 X 21 X 12 X 72 X 21 X 26 X 24 X 64 



21 X 72 X 29 X 21 X 50 X 41 X 33 X H 



= 1.954 



The amount of draft is usually from 1.75 to 2.5. The 
weight per yard for a 72-inch lap for medium numbers is 
from 230 to 300 grains if it is to be used on the ribbon-lap 
machine, and from 200 to 250 grains if for use on the comber. 

The 5-inch calender rolls of the sliver-lap machine make 
from 50 to 100 revolutions per minute, and the machine pro- 
duces from 400 to 950 pounds per day, allowing 10 per cent, 
for stoppages. The weight of a sliver-lap machine is about 
2,200 pounds, while the floor space occupied is about 5 feet 
32 inches by 3 feet 1 inch. About 1 horsepower is required 
to drive it. 

RIBBON-LAP MACHINE 



CONSTRUCTIOM AND OPERATION 

11. Object. — It is not absolutely necessary to use a 
ribbon-lap macliine in the combing process, as the laps 
from the sliver-lap machine may be taken directly to the 
comber. If, however, the lap from the sliver-lap machine 
is unrolled for about a yard and held to the light, it will be 
seen that the slivers merely lie side by side, and that the lap 
is uneven, showing both thick and thin places. Therefore, 
to have a more even lap, the ribbon-lap machine is used. 
The usual doubling on the ribbon-lap machine is 6 into 1, 
and the laps fed are generally 1 inch narrower than the laps 
to be made for the comber. 

12. A view of a ribbon-lap machine is shown in Fig. 4; 
Fig. 5 (a) and (b) shows sections through the machine. The 
laps from the sliver-lap machine are placed on the wooden 
rolls a, a,, Fig. 5 (a), and the sheet passes over the plate d, 
which acts both as a guide and stop-motion. On the under 



10 



COMBERS 



§22 



side of this plate is a hook that acts similarly to the bottom 
part of the spoon described in connection with the sliver-lap 
machine. There is a slight draft between the wooden lap 
rolls and the back drawing rolls, and as the sheet of cotton 
passes over the plate by the tension serves to hold it down. 
If the lap breaks or the spool runs empty, the plate rises and 
stops the machine. 

The sheet passes from the plate b through the guides c to 
the drawing rolls d, </,, d^, d^. The cotton then passes through 




these drawing rolls, of which there are usually four pair, 
the diameter of the first, third, and fourth, counting from the 
front of the machine, being \\ inches, and that of the second, 
If inches. The draft between the front and back drawing 
rolls usually about equals the doublings. The drawing rolls 
are constructed similarly to the rolls of dra;wing frames. 
The top rolls are weighted by dead-weights, two weights 
being used on each roll. 



§22 COMBERS 11 

From the front drawing roll, the sheet of cotton passes 
over a curved plate c. Figs. 4 and 5, to the table /, along 
which it passes at right angles to the direction in which it 
passed through the drawing rolls. The cotton, in passing 
from the curved plate to the table, passes between the 
calender rolls g, which are known as the table calender 
rolls. In front of each pair a guide finger is placed on 
each side of the table to prevent the sheet from spreading. 
Each sheet, in passing from the driving end of the machine 
to the lap head, is carried under the sheet that is next to 
it in the direction of the lap head. The table calender rolls 
serve to condense the several layers of cotton into one sheet 
and to pass it forwards. From the last pair of table calender 
rolls, the sheet passes to the smooth calender, or presser, 
rolls of the lap head. 

The curved plates e, over which the cotton passes from the 
drawing rolls to the table, are very highly polished. In 
some cases the plates are nickel-plated, and in others they 
are covered with thin sheet brass,' sheet brass taking a 
better polish than cast iron, of which the plates are made. 
It is necessary that these plates be kept clean and polished, 
as the least particle of dirt or oil on the plates will cause the 
ends to break, and as there is no stop-motion on this part of 
the machine, it will continue to run until stopped by the 
attendant, thus causing uneven laps and considerable waste. 

The lap head is constructed similar to the one on the sliver- 
lap machine, and the passage of the cotton through it is 
exactly the same as in the sliver-lap machine. 

It is necessary that the table calender rolls, table, and lap 
head be perfectly level and in line; if they are not, there will 
be some difficulty in getting the several sheets to run to the 
lap head properly. 

13. Settings. — The points of adjustment and setting 
are the same as on the sliver-lap machine. The plate for 
the stop-motion should be correctly balanced; the distances 
from center to center of the drawing rolls should be properly 
regulated; the guides should be so adjusted as to make the 



12 



COxMBERS 



§22 








]l0ii-i^pu9injpaini 



Csl 






'Ufff„C 

not/ J'>m''>itK) 




lion 



^ japuJiUQ 




§M 



¥ 



§22 - COMBERS 13 

sheets of the desired width; and the racks and friction 
motion of the lap head should be set correctly, as mentioned 
in connection with the sliver-lap machine. 

14. The speed of the 5-inch calender rolls of the ribbon- 
lap machine is from 80 to 110 revolutions per minute. The 
production varies from 600 to 1,100 pounds per day of 
10 hours with 10 per cent, allowed for stoppages. This 
machine weighs about 4,500 pounds with all w&ights attached, 
and requires 1 horsepower to drive it. The floor space 
required is about 14 feet 2 inches by 4 feet. 

15. Fig. 6 is the plan of gearing for a ribbon-lap machine; 
the draft, figured from the front fluted calender roll to the 
back drawing roll, with a 50-tooth draft gear, is as follows: 

12 X 30 X 21 X 14 X 20 X 68 X 100 X 70 



30 X 50 X 21 X 40 X 72 X 25 X 50 X I2- 



= 5.923 



SINGLE-NIP COMBER 



CONSTRUCTION AND OPERATION 

16. The comber is employed to select, from cotton that 
has been carded, the fibers suitable for the class of yarn 
required. In addition to removing the fibers that are below 
the standard length, it combs the fibers to be used and makes 
them lie in parallel positions. It also takes out neps, dirt, 
and foreign matter that were not removed in the previous 
processes. The combing machine commonly used, which 
depends on a combination of somewhat intricate movements 
for the attainment of its objects, was invented by M. Heil- 
mann, of Mulhouse, in Alsace, German}^ Although numer- 
ous improvements have been added by other inventors, it is 
still spoken of as the Heilmann comber. 

A comber is divided into several sections, called heads; 
and as now constructed usually contains six or eight heads, 
although it may be constructed with a larger or smaller num- 
ber, as required. Each head is complete in itself and receives 



14 COMBERS §22 

one of the laps deliv^ered by the ribbon-lap machine, but the 
motions for all the heads derive their power from the same 
source. While each head is complete in itself, correspond- 
ing parts of each head must act at the same time, the results 
obtained depending on the accuracy with which the corre- 
sponding parts of each head work together. 

17. Passage of the Stock. — Briefly stated, the laps 
from the ribbon-lap machine are placed on lap rolls and are 
fed intermittently by a pair of feed-rolls. When the laps 
from the ribbon-lap machine are used, they should not weigh 
more than 300 grains per yard, and when laps are used that 
come directly from the sliver-lap machine, they should not 
be heavier than 260 grains per yard. The fringe of cotton is 
gripped by a pair of nippers, which holds it in such a posi- 
tion that it will be acted on by a cylinder having a portion 
of its circumference covered with steel points. These points, 
or needles as they are called, remove short fibers, neps, and 
foreign substances that were not removed in the previous 
processes; this waste is then taken from the needles by a 
revolving brush and ultimately arrives at the waste can. 

During this operation, the fringe of cotton that is being 
combed is entirely separate from the fringe of cotton previ- 
ously combed, and therefore, in order to have the product 
delivered in a continuous sliver, it is necessary to detach the 
newly combed fibers from those not combed, and also to 
bring back a portion of the cotton previously combed so that 
it may be pieced up with the fibers that have just undergone 
the combing operation. After piecing-up has been effected, 
the cotton just combed is carried forwards and the rear ends 
of the fibers receive a combing action by means of a top 
comb, which tends to remove still more short fibers. This 
cycle of operations is then repeated with a new group of 
fibers, resulting in the production of a continuous web of 
combed fibers, which is drawn through a trumpet that con- 
denses it into a sliver and is then delivered on a table, 
together with similar slivers from the other heads of the 
comber. From the table the cotton passes through a 



I 



JL 




Fi 



I 



"I i — 



t 



§22 COMBERS 15 

draw-box and then through a trumpet that condenses all the 
slivers into one, which is placed in a can by a coiler similar 
to that used on the card. 

18. Principal Motions of the Comber. — The several 
actions of a comber must necessarily work intermittently, as 
it would be impossible to run a lap of cotton continuously 
and to draw a comb through it. For this reason the tuft of 
cotton being combed must be held firmly at the time of the 
combing, first at one end and then at the other, and in order 
to do this, the feed must be stopped. The various motions 
may be summarized as follows: (1) The feed-motion, by 
which the lap is fed to the machine; (2) the nipper motion, 
which holds the cotton during the combing operation; (3) the 
combing operation by the half lap; (4) the backward and 
forward motion of the delivery roll, or the piecing-up motion; 
(5) combing by the top comb; (6) the delivery of the stock 
to the calender rolls, draw-box, and coiler. 



FEED-MOTION 

19. Views of a comber are given in Figs. 7 and 8, and 
a sectional view is shown in Fig. 9. It will also be of advan- 
tage in studying the different parts of the comber to make 
frequent reference to Fig. 27, which shows a plan of the gear- 
ing of this machine. In describing the comber it will only be 
necessary to deal with one head, as each head performs the 
same work. The lap b, Fig. 9, is placed on the lap rolls a, a,, 
and, as it unrolls, the sheet passes over the apron a^ to a pair 
of feed-rolls r. r,. The apron a^ rests at an angle of about 45° 
and terminates a little above the nip of the two feed-rolls c, c,. 
The apron may be so adjusted that it will assume a greater 
or less angle, and it is also possible to regulate its dis- 
tance from the feed-rolls. This apron is usually made of 
sheet iron, its upper surface being polished or tinned so that 
there will be as little friction as possible on the cotton. The 
lower edge of the apron carries a brush, the ends of the 
bristles of which just touch the bottom feed-roll and keep it 
clean. This brush is adjustable in such a manner that the 



16 



COMBERS 



22 



correct contact of the ends of the bristles and the bottom 
feed-roll may be maintained as the brush wears. 

20. Feed-Rolls. — The lower feed-roll c is constructed 
in one piece and is long enough to serve for all the heads. 
It is fluted in sections corresponding in number to the 
number of heads of the comber. Each section, or head, has 
a top roll f,, which is slightly longer than the width of each 
lap. This top roll is made of steel and is fluted to corre- 
spond with the flutes of the lower roll. It resembles a 




metallic roll, with the exception that it has no collars; its 
flutes also have a little finer pitch. It is held in direct 
contact with the bottom roll by means of an arm r^ and a 
spring ^3, as shown in Fig. 9, and receives motion from 
the lower roll. The lower feed-roll is usually about f inch 
in diameter. The objects of these feed-rolls are: (1) To 
revolve and deliver a certain length of cotton to the combing 
mechanism; (2) to stop revolving after the desired length 
has been delivered and to remain stationary while the 
combing action takes place. 



^22 COMBERS 17 

The method by which the feed-roll receives an intermittent 
motion is shown in Fig. 10. The feed-roll receives its 
motion from the cylinder shaft o^y in the following manner. 
The gear b is fast to the cylinder shaft and carries a disk 
plate To from which a pin <-« projects. A short distance from 
the center of the cylinder shaft is a stud carrying a star 
gear c^. The pin d engaging with the teeth of this star gear 
turns it during a part of a revolution of the cylinder shaft. 
The star gear is so constructed that after the pin has 
engaged with one tooth and turned it, the next tooth will be 
in position to engage with the pin at the next revolution 
of 0^. Compounded with the star gear c^ is a gear c^ that 
meshes with a gear c on the lower feed-roll c. Thus, it will 
be seen that for every revolution of the shaft Os the feed-roll 
is turned a portion of a revolution and the cotton fed to that 
extent. This intermittent action of the feed-rolls is trans- 
mitted to the lap rolls, as the lap rolls are driven from the 
lower feed-roll. 

NIPPERS 

21. The fringe of cotton that is fed by this intermittent 
action of the feed-rolls passes forwards to the mechanism 
that holds it during the combing process, which is known as 
the nippei's. By a combination of levers, the nippers are 
made to act in such a manner that they open to receive the 
cotton delivered from the feed-rolls and then close and grip 
the cotton after it has been passed to them. They again 
open and release the cotton after it has been combed by the 
half lap and remain in this position until the next portion of 
cotton has been delivered to them. The nippers and their 
attached levers are shown in Fig. 11, reference being made 
to this figure and also to Fig. 12 in the following description. 

22, Cusliion Plate. — The nippers are composed of 
two separate parts, both capable of being moved. The 
lower part // consists of what is known as the cushion 
plate, Fig. 11. It consists of a flat metal plate slightly 
longer than the width of the lap. The round nose //, of 
the plate. Fig. 11, is usually covered with a strip of leather 



18 



COMBERS 



§22 



similar to that used for covering rolls, and is fastened by 
metal strips h^, h,. This leather acts as a cushion and 
prevents the fibers from being injured when pressed against 



f^ww 




the plate. The cushion plate is made fast to the frame i by 
means of three screws, which are inserted on the under side 
of the plate; one of these screws //^ is shown in Figs. 11, 12, 
and 13. In some cases the cushion is applied to the nipper 



^22 



COMBERS 



19 



knife in place of the plate. When this is done a strip of 
leather about -A inch thick and f inch wide is used, and is 
fastened to the nipper knife by a strip of steel and small 




^i! ^ ^ 1 1^; cg^ 



screws, the lower part of the steel strip acting as the over- 
hanging lip of the nipper knife. 

23. Nipper Knife.— The upper part dd., of the nippers 
in Fig. 11, is known as the nipper knife. It consists of a 



20 COMBERS §22 

flat bar of steel; the lower edge is usually fluted and has an 
overhanging lip di. The nipper knife is supported by two 
arms e, Fig. 11, which are connected to the frame / by the 
shaft Ci. Two stands and brackets /, /,, Fig. 11, support 
the Jrame i by means of studs i^. As the cotton must be 
gripped between the nipper knife d and the cushion plate h, 
it is evident that these parts must have a movement that will 
change their position from that shown in Fig. 11. This is 
accomplished by the movement of the nipper knife. 

As shown in Fig. 11, the arms e extend beyond e^ in the 
direction opposite to that of the nipper knife. This forms a 
connection for the rod g, Fig. 12, that is connected to the 
lever g^, while this lever is connected to the shaft g^. 
Extending from the shaft g. is an arm g^, the end of which 
carries a cam-bowl that works in the cam-course of the 
cam g^ on the shaft/, known as the cam-shaft. The shaft g^ 
runs the entire length of the heads, and the nipper rods g 
for each head are connected to it by the method shown. 
The shaft g^ receives an oscillating motion from the cam 
and, in turn, imparts a similar motion to the shaft (?, of each 
head. The arms e being connected to this shaft, the nipper 
knife will rise and fall, its lowest and highest positions being 
indicated by the full and dotted lines in Fig. 12. 

When the nippers receive the cotton, they are in the posi- 
tion shown in Fig. 11, but as soon as the proper amount has 
been fed, the nipper knife descends, through the action of 
the cam, and firmly grips the fringe of cotton between itself 
and the cushion plate, the cushion plate at this point being 
in the position shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 12. When 
the knife has securely gripped the fringe of cotton, however, 
the cushion plate is not in the proper position to allow the 
cotton to be combed, and it must be lowered so that it will 
assume the position shown by the full lines in Fig. 12. In 
order to accomplish this, the knife, which has not reached 
the full extent of its travel when it comes in contact with the 
cushion plate, is forced farther down by the cam and carries 
the cushion plate with it. The cushion plate is capable of 
being forced down, since it is suspended by the studs z^, 



I 



22 



COMBERS 



21 



Fi<j. 11, which project from the frame / and have bearings 
on the bracket /. connected to the stand /. Thus, the entire 
frame / can swing on the studs /, and cause the cushion 
plate // to come nearer the cylinder. By this movement the 
cushion plate and the front lip of the knife are brought close 
to the needles, thus enabling the cotton to be combed very 
close to the grip. 

As the nipper knife is raised by the action of the cam, the 
swing frame / is brought back to its original position by 
means of the springs /s, Fig. 11. These springs are always 




tending to pull the cushion plate up, but when the knife 
moves downwards, the tension of the springs is overcome by 
the positive motion of the knife received from the cam. The 
position of the cushion plate when the knife is not pressing 
on it is governed by the distance that the setscrew ?3 projects 
through the bracket /,. The setscrew comes in contact with 
the stand / and prevents the swing frame from moving any 
farther, but the knife continues to rise and thus the nipper is 
opened and the fringe of cotton released. 

24. As the needles o-, shown in Fig. 15 pass through the 
fringe of cotton projecting beyond the nippers, there is a 



22 



COMBERS 



22 



tendency of the lap to spread, which is also increased by the 
operation of the feed-Tolls. In order to avoid this spreading, 
a device is used on the cushion plate, a view of which is given 
in Figs. 13 and 14. It consists of a plate /u placed at each 
end of the cushion plate. These plates carry two projecting 
pieces h,, h^, between which the nipper knife descends, 
/?, being curved so that the knife will not come in contact 
with it. By this means, it is practically impossible for the 
lap to spread when being combed. 




Fig. 14 



COMBING OPERATION BY THE HALF LAP 

25. Cylinder. — The cylinder consists of three principal 
parts — the central stock, or barrel, Oi, Fig. 15, the half 
lap Oi, and the fluted segment o^ — the other parts o^ and ^5 
being known as niaking-up pieces. The central stock is 
secured to the cylinder shaft 0^ by means of screws. The 
outside of this stock is shaped so as to receive the half lap 
and the fluted segment, which are secured to it by screws, as 
shown in Fig. 15. The half lap is composed of two parts — 
the comb stock and the matrices. The comb stock is formed to 
receive a series of matrices, or strips, 0^, to which are fastened 
seventeen rows of needles o, made of round steel tapered to a 



§22 



COMBERS 



23 



point. These needles are so spaced that their number varies 
from thirty to ninety per inch, while the diameter decreases as 
the number per inch increases; thus, the needles in the front 
row of the half lap — that is, those that come in contact with 
the cotton first — are the most widely spaced, and are also of 
the largest diameter; the number of needles in the succeed- 
ing rows increases, until the finest spacing, that is, the 




largest number per inch, occurs in the seventeenth row, in 
which there are ninety needles per inch, the needles in this 
row being also of the smallest diameter. For medium work, 
the number of rows of each number of wire from which the 
needles are constructed is as follows, commencing with the 
front row of the half lap and following in the order named: 
Four rows of 20s, three rows of 22s, two rows of 24s, two 
rows of 26s, two rows of 28s, three rows of 30s, and one row 
of 33s. For very fine work, the arrangement of the needles 



24 COMBERS §22 

is sometimes as follows: Six rows of 22s, three rows of 24s, 
two rows of 26s, two rows of 28s, two rows of 30s, and two 
rows of 33s. 

When setting the needles they are placed in a gauge, point 
down. The matrix to hold them is placed against the row of 
large ends while the needles are in the gauge and they are 
then soldered to the matrix, after which the gauge is removed. 
The matrices to which the needles are attached are usually 
made of brass and planed and shaped so as to lie accurately in 
their proper positions, in order to give the needles the correct 
angle when they are secured by the setscrews that hold them 
to the comb stock. By having the half lap constructed in this 
manner, it is a simple matter to remove it from the machine 
when a row of needles becomes injured, and then by remov- 
ing the matrix the damaged needles may be readily replaced. 
In addition to having the rows of points of the needles in the 
half lap concentric, each row of needles should be exactly par- 
allel with the cylinder shaft. The width over all of each row 
of needles is usually a little in excess of the width of the lap, 
so that the edges of the lap will receive an effective combing. 

As the cylinder shaft on which the half lap is mounted is 
constantly revolving, it will be seen that each fringe of cotton 
gripped by the nippers will be subjected to the action of the 
half lap. This action takes place immediately after the 
cotton has been gripped by the nippers and the cushion plate 
has been forced down by the nipper knife. The half lap is 
placed on the cylinder in such a position that the largest and 
heaviest needles are caused to act first on the fringe of cotton 
to be combed, in order that they may do the heaviest work 
and make it easier for the finer needles that follow and give 
a more effective combing. Any fibers that are not held 
firmly by the nippers are combed from the fringe of cotton, 
so that only fibers of sufficient length are left. In addition 
to these short fibers, dirt and neps are also removed, while 
the fibers held by the nippers are combed out and laid parallel. 

The short fibers and foreign matter that are removed from 
the fringe are carried by the needles of the half lap until the 
brush p. Fig. 9, removes them and deposits them on the 



§22 COMBERS 25 

doffer r, which works at a much slower speed than the brush. 
The doffer has its surface covered with a clothing, composed 
usually of leather, having heavy wire teeth inserted in it at 
an angle. The doffer is not in direct contact with the brush, 
but as the brush revolves, the centrifugal force throws out 
the short fibers, and the needles of the doffer are thus enabled 
to secure them. 

26. The Doffer Comb. — As r revolves, the waste is 
stripped from it by means of a comb r^ that acts on the 
same principle as the doffer comb of a card. The waste 
then drops into a can, there usually being one can for two 
heads. In some cases, however, the waste is wound on a 
roll. At the back of the cylinder, brush, and part of the 
doffer there is a tin cover />3, Fig. 9, which is of a special 
shape, made in one piece and called the brush tin. Another 
cover, known as the waste chute, covers the cylinder and 
brush on the other side, and is shown at />«. These covers 
prevent the escape of waste and also act as a protection 
against any foreign substance coming in contact with the 
moving parts. 

PIECING-UP MOTION 

27. After the cotton has been combed and the nippers 
opened, the fringe of cotton comes under the action of the 
pieciiig-up uiotion. It should be understood that the 
fringe of cotton being combed is not connected to the cotton 
previously combed, and in order to have a continuous sliver, 
each fringe of cotton is pieced up to the cotton immediately 
in front of it. In order to accomplish this, a portion of the 
previously combed cotton must be returned, while the fringe 
must be in a position to be attached to it and carried forwards. 

It is the object of the fluted segment, which is a part of 
the cylinder, to support the fringe of cotton that has just 
undergone the combing action. The finely fluted surface of 
the segment is at such a distance from the center of the 
cylinder shaft that it can come in contact with the under 
side of the combed fringe and thus support it until it is 
detached. A view of the segment supporting the fringe is 



26 



COMBERS 



§22 



shown in Fig. 16. When the fringe is held in the position 
shown, the operation of piecing-up and detaching is per- 
formed by three rolls q, s, t; g is sometimes termed the 
leather detaching ?vll; s, the steet detaching jvll; and t, the 
brass roll. In other instances t is called the piecing roll. In 
this Section, however, g will be known as the leather detach- 
ing roll; s, the delivery roll; and /, the top roll. These 
names are strictly in accordance with the duties and positions 

of the rolls, as g de- 
taches the cotton, and, 
although 5 assists in 
this operation, its 
chief function is to 
deliver the cotton 
after it has been de- 
tached. The roll / 
also aids in delivering 
the cotton, and as it 
is directly above the 
delivery roll, it may 
be termed the top roll. 

28. The delivery 

roll ^ is made in one 
piece long enough 
to serve for all the 
heads. Opposite 
each head is a fluted 
section, the flutes 
usually being spaced 
differently from those 
of the feed-roll. When a lap 82 inches in width is used, the 
fluted section is generally 11 inches wide and contains about 
fifty flutes for each inch of diameter. The diameter of the 
roll is usually f inch. The roll revolves in bearings on the 
framework and is in such a position that it is just clear of 
the needles of the half lap and the segment. The parts of 
the bearings in contact with the roll are usually made of brass. 




Fig. 16 



§22 



COMBERS 



27 



29. The leather detaching: roll q. Fig, 17, is in con- 
tact with the delivery roll. The leather portion of the 
detaching roll is slightly wider than the fluted segment of the 




Fig. 17 



cylinder and resembles a top roll of the common type, being 
shown in Fig. 18. The boss of the roll is generally about 



r-Htnrto 



' Fig. ]8 

10^^ inches in length and It inch in diameter. The skins 
used for covering should be of the finest quality, as so few 



28 



COMBERS 



22 



fibers are dealt with that any irregularity of the roll produces 
bad work. This roll has brass bushings q,. Fig. 18, for 
bearings, which are supported by the blocks Z^, Fig. 17. 






is shown in this figure. 



The bushings are held in place 
against the blocks by means of 
weight hooks q., connected to the 
weights, as shown in Fig. 19, the 
hooks having a direct pressure on 
the brass bushings of the leather 
detaching roll. This keeps the 
leather portion of the detaching 
roll pressed against the delivery 
roll, and when the comber is to be 
stopped for any length of time, 
the pressure should be relieved by 
placing the arms q^, Fig. 19, of the 
hooks ^2 on a rod that extends the 
length of the heads. This prevents 
the leather from becoming injured 
during the time that the machine 
is not in action. The blocks h, 
Fig. 17, with which the bushings 
are in contact, are supported by 
means of brackets /j, one of which 
Each head requires two of these 



brackets, which are fast to the shaft /,, which is long enough 



I 



§22 COMBERS 29 

to serve for two heads and consequently to support four 
brackets. The shafts have bearings on the framing of the 
comber and are capable of being moved. The brackets, with 
their connections, are known as the horschcad, or lifter. 

30. The top roll /, Fig. 17, is generally constructed of 
brass and contains flutes that correspond to the flutes of the 
delivery roll. The fluted section, however, is usually a little 
shorter than the fluted section of the delivery roll. This roll 
is supported by brackets /,, fast to the shaft A, and, as the 
bearings of the roll are pivoted at /a, the top roll is always in 
contact with the delivery roll. 

31. Operation of the Kolls.— In order that these rolls 
may detach the combed cotton from the remainder of the 
lap, they must be close enough to the fluted segment to 
secure the cotton at the time of detaching. The position of 
the rolls when detaching is shown in Fig. 16. By a compari- 
son of this figure with Fig. 15, it is obvious that if, during 
the combing operation, the detaching roll were in the position 
that it occupies when detaching, the needles of the half lap 
would come in contact with the detaching roll." It is there- 
fore necessary that the position of the detaching roll should 
be alternately changed so that the roll will be near enough 
to the segment to secure the fibers when detaching and also 
be out of the path of the needles during the combing action. 
In order to effect this change in the position of the detaching 
roll, it is necessary to give the shaft /,, Fig. 17, which is 
primarily the support for the roll, a partial revolution. As 
shown in Fig. 17, there extends from the short shaft /, an 
arm k^, which, with other connections, serves to connect /, 
with the shaft k. The connection between /, and k is 
jointed at k^ and k,,; consequently, if /■ revolves it will 
turn /, without tending to lift it in its bearings. There 
are three of these connections for a comber of six heads, 
there being one for each shaft /,. The shaft k is similar 
to the shaft g^ shown in Fig. 12 and extends the entire 
length of the heads. Fig. 9 shows the relative positions 
of these shafts. 



30 COMBERS §22 

Extending from the shaft k is an arm X%, Fig. 17, which 
carries at its other end a cam-bowl that runs in the course of 
the lifter, or horsehead, camyi. This cam is on the shaft with, 
and very close to, the nipper cam g^ shown in Fig. 12. As the 
cam-shaft/ revolves, the shaft k receives an oscillating motion 
that is transmitted to the shaft h by means of the connections 
previously described. This motion of /, swings the horse- 
head with /, as a center and thus brings the leather detaching 
roll q in contact with the fluted segment, as shown in Fig. 16. 
The range of movement of the horsehead is shown by the 
full and dotted lines in Fig. 17. The full lines show the posi- 
tion of the horsehead and rolls during the combing process, or 
when the roll is out of the path of the half lap, while the dotted 
lines show the position of the horsehead and rolls when the 
detaching roll is in the position it assumes when in operation. 

As previously stated, the detaching roll q is supported and 
its motion governed through being held firmly against the 
blocks L of the brackets /„ Fig. 17, by the weights q^. 
Fig. 19. When, however, the horsehead is moved back to 
the limit of its motion, shown by the dotted lines in Fig. 17, 
the blocks h are so far back that they are not in contact with 
the brass bushings of the detaching roll. The leather por- 
tion of the roll, however, has a bearing directly on the fluted 
segment, as shown in Fig, 16. As the weights q^, shown in 
Fig. 19, are holding the detaching roll against the fluted 
segment, it is obvious that the fringe of cotton will be effect- 
ively gripped between them. The detaching roll is at all 
times in contact with the delivery roll, around which it moves 
with the action of the horsehead. As the top roll is connected 
to the shaft /,, it also has a movement similar to the detach- 
ing roll, and consequently moves around the delivery roll 
and assumes the position shown in Fig. 16. A clearer t^. 
Fig. 17, which is above the top roll and serves to keep it 
clean, is also supported by the bearings that support the 
top roll and has a motion similar to this roll. 

32. In addition to the rolls being placed in the required 
positions, they must also have a rotary motion in both 



§22 



COMBERS 



31 



directions in order to carry back a portion of the cotton pre- 
viously combed, to which the detached portion must be con- 
nected in order to deliver the cotton in a continuous line. 
The mechanism by means of which the delivery roll derives a 
motion in both directions is shown in Figs. 20,21, and 22. 
This motion is also imparted, by means of frictional contact, 
to the detaching- roll and top roll. The mechanism shown in 
these figures consists of a cam s, situated on the cam-shaft J, 
which also supports the nipper cam and the cam for placing 




Fig. 20 

the detaching roll in position. Running in the cam-course 
of Si is a bowl s^ fastened at one end of a lever v, the lever 
being pivoted on a shaft z', borne by the frame of the machine. 
The other end of the lever has a pawl v^ hinged to it at zu, 
which is connected to an auxiliary lever v^,; z-n also carries 
a bowl V, in contact with a cam s^, which is in a position adjoin- 
ing 5,. It wall be seen, therefore, that the action of the pawl z\ 
will be governed by the two cams Si, s^, through the levers v, v^. 
The pawl v., is shown as being over the gear v^. It is held 
in this position by an arm similar to v situated on the other 



32 



COMBERS 



§22 



side of the gear z\. This second arm does not have any 
cam-bowl but, being connected to the other, forms a good 
support for the pawl v^ that engages with the teeth of the 
gear z\. The construction of the gear v^ is shown in Fig. 20. 
This gear is fixed to the shaft 7',, on which z' is pivoted. On 
the same shaft with the gear i\ is an annular gear lu enga- 
ging with a gear on the delivery roll s, the relative position 
of which with the cylinder o is shown in Fig. 20. The back- 
ward and forward motions required of the delivery roll must 
be imparted by the pawl v. through the gears z\, zu and the 




gear on the delivery roll, the extent of the movement of the 
delivery roll being governed by the movement of the gear z\ 
and the relative number of teeth in the gears by which the 
delivery roll is driven. 

33. The manner in which the pawl acts on the gear v^ 
may be seen by reference to Figs. 20, 21, and 22. The 
pawl z'j is always tending to be drawn toward the gear zu by 
two springs Vs, only one of which is shown. These springs, 
however, cannot bring the pawl into connection with the 



§22 COMBERS 33 

gear until they are allowed to do so by the cam 5,. As the 
cam-shaft revolves and the portion of the edge of the cam 
that is nearest its center comes in contact with the bowl z',, 
the pawl hinged at v^ will be drawn down by the springs until 
it is in contact with one of the teeth of the gear v^. 

The cam 5, will also be moving during this time in the 
direction indicated by the arrow, and the bowl will come in 
contact with that part of the cam nearest the center. This 
position is shown in Fig. 21. Changing the position of the 




Fig. -ll 

cam from that shown in Fig. 20 to that shown in Fig. 21 
results in moving the gear v^ in the direction shown by the 
arrow. The delivery roll j- will receive a similar motion and 
carry back a portion of the cotton previously combed. 

The further rotation of the cam 5, will cause the cam- 
bowl ^4 to be forced from the center j and this will cause the 
pawl z'j, and consequently the gear zu, to move in an opposite 
direction to that first described. The positions that these 
parts assume during this motion are shown in Fig. 22. It is 
therefore evident that the delivery roll v.'illhave two motions, 



34 COMBERS §22 

one of which returns a portion of cotton previously combed 
while the other delivers the cotton that is detached. After 
the latter movement has taken place, the cam s^ having moved 
sufficiently far will remove the pawl from the gear zu. When 
the pawl is next allowed to engage with the gear zu, it will 
be in such a position that it will drop into the next tooth 
beyond the one with which it previously engaged. 

The delivering movement of the delivery roll is about 
double its movement in the opposite direction, and the length 
of cotton actually delivered is dependent on the amount that 
the former exceeds the latter. 

34. The operation of piecing-up may therefore be briefly 
stated as follows: It is necessary to detach a combed fringe 
of cotton from a lap and connect it to cotton already combed. 
The combed fringe of cotton is supported by the fluted seg- 
ment O3, as shown in Fig. 16. In order to connect this 
fringe the cotton immediately in front of it is brought back, 
by turning the delivery roll in the desired direction, and falls 
in a space between the half lap and the fluted segment. After 
the required amount of cotton has been returned, the detach- 
ing roll is brought in contact with the fluted segment so that 
it will grip the cotton to be detached. The delivery roll 
is then revolved in the opposite direction to that by which it 
returned the cotton previously combed, and at the same time 
the detaching roll and the segment detach the cotton from 
the layer brought forwards by the feed-rolls. During these 
motions the forward ends of the fibers detached are placed 
above and upon the rear ends of the fibers that were returned, 
and thus they are joined together between the detaching roll q 
and the delivery roll s, after which the detaching roll is moved 
out of the path of the half lap so that it will not interfere 
with the operation of combing the next tuft of cotton held 
by the nippers. 

COMBING BY THE TOP COMB 

35. Another operation performed in connection with that 
of detaching is the combing of that portion of the fibers 
held by the nippers when the half lap is in action and 



22 



COMBERS 



35 



which, consequently, cannot be combed by the half lap. 
This portion of cotton is combed by the action of the top 
comb shown at the lower end of the plate ii. Fig. 23. This 
comb is constructed with one or two rows of needles soldered 
to the plate, it being claimed on the one hand that two rows 
of needles give a more effective combing, while on the 
other hand it is stated that dirt collects between the two 
rows of needles and afterwards drops back into the cotton. 
Another disadvantage of two rows of needles is that they 
are more liable to come in contact with some of the moving 
parts during the oper- 
ation of piecing-up be- 
cause of the small space 
between the nippers and 
the detaching roll. It 
is also more difficult to 
straighten the needles if 
they become bent or 
hooked than when a 
single row is used. 
When made with two 
rows, there is usually a 
coarse row with 30 teeth 
per inch and a finer row 
with 60 teeth per inch. 
The plate, or blade, 
to which the needles are 
soldered is supported by 
brackets z/,. Fig. 23, there being two for each comb, or 
head. These brackets are connected to the shaft u^, which 
extends the length of the heads and supports the brackets 
for each head. At one end of this shaft is a lever ti^ 
carrying a cam-bowl Ut, which is in contact with the cam u« 
on the cylinder shaft o». As the cylinder shaft revolves, 
the top comb will be alternately raised and lowered by the 
action of the cam. The comb is given this movement 
because when the half lap is combing, as shown in Fig. 15, 
the top comb must be up out of the way so that it will not 




Fig. 23 



36 



COMBERS 



§22 



interfere with the action of the half lap. The top comb is 
lowered immediately after the half lap has passed and before 
the operation of detaching takes place. It is shown almost 
in position in Fig. 24, where the half lap has just passed; 
while in Fig. 16 it is shown in its combing position. As the 
fibers are detached by the detaching roll and segment the 
top comb is in its lowest position and the fibers that were 
held by the nippers are drawn through the comb by the 
detaching roll and segment; in this manner dirt and any 




fibers too short to be held by the segment and detaching 
roll are removed, after which the comb is raised so that it 
will not interfere with the action of the half lap. The 
matter combed out by the top comb that is not retained by 
the fringe projecting from the feed-rolls drops into the 
space on the cylinder between the fluted segment and the 
half lap. The matter retained by the fringe is removed by 
the half lap during its next combing operation. 



22 COMBERS 37 



DELIVERY OF THE STOCK 

36. Calender Rolls. — The cotton when freed from the 
action of the top roll and delivery roll is delivered into a 
pan made of tin and shaped somewhat like a right triangle 
with its base adjoining the delivery roll. A side 'view of one 
of these pans is shown at w, Fig. 9. Each pan is from about 
Ih inches to 2 inches deep, its bottom being perforated so 
that any foreign substances that fall from the cotton will pass 
out of the pan and thus be prevented from entering the 
cotton again. At the end of the pan farthest from the deliv- 
ery roll is a trumpet, as shown in Fig. 9, which has its larger 
end in the pan. The cotton when delivered in the pan is in 
the form of a transparent web nearly as wide as the leather 
portion of the detaching roll. It is drawn through the 
trumpet by the table calender rolls, which are shown at n 
and «,, Fig. 9. By this means the web is condensed into the 
form of a sliver and delivered on a table, as shown in Fig. 25. 

37. The table and the table calender rolls for a 

comber of six heads are shown in Fig. 25. The lower 
calender rolls are on a shaft that extends the length of the 
heads, while the upper ones, which are self-weighted, receive 
motion by frictional contact with the lower rolls. These rolls 
revolve continually at the required speed to take up the excess 
amount of cotton delivered by the delivery roll over that 
carried back for piecing-up, or in other words, the net amount 
delivered by the delivery roll. As these rolls are revolving 
continually in one direction, and as the delivery roll some- 
times moves in the same direction and at other times in an 
opposite direction, the web of cotton in the pan is alternately 
slack and tight, which gives a wavy motion to the web. The 
web at any time should not be so slack that it will fall to the bot- 
tom of the pan, nor should it be so tight that it will be strained. 
The table on which the slivers are delivered is about 
7 inches wide. Its surface is polished in order to present 
the least possible resistance to the slivers as they pass over 
it. Guides are placed on this table at various distances from 



^22 



COMBERS 



39 



the calender rolls so that the different slivers will be guided 
on the table and lie in a position side by side instead of 
crowding on one another. In this manner, the slivers are 
drawn along the table by the back rolls of a set situated in 
tlie draw-box shown in Fig. 25. 

38. The Dra^v-Box, — Up to this point each lap and the 
sliver formed from each lap is treated individually. All the 
slivers are, however, drawn into the clra\v-box together. 
The draw-box has three pair of rolls, which may be either 
of the common or metallic types, and these rolls give to the 
sliver a slight draft, although the principal draft of a comber 
is between the feed-rolls and the table calender rolls. 




Fig. 26 

39. The slivers after being subjected to the draft of the 
drawing rolls are drawn through a trumpet by a pair of cal- 
ender rolls and are thus condensed into one sliver. The 
calender rolls that draw the slivers through the trumpet are 
different in construction from most calender rolls; they are 
shown in Fig. 26. The bottom roll ec has a groove into 
which the small end of the trumpet projects, while the top 
roll ?£',, which is driven by frictional contact, has a collar that 
fits into the groove of the bottom roll. As the sliver runs 
in the groove of the lower roll it will be effectively con- 
densed by the top roll, which is self-weighted. 

From these calender rolls the sliver passes to a coiler, 
which is similar to the coilers described in connection with 
other machines. 



40 COMBERS §22' 



SUMMARY 

40. As the operation of a comber is somewhat compli- 
cated, which is due to the many different mechanisms that are 
brought into action, a short summary will be given here, as 
an aid to the understanding of the operations as a w^hole. 

In order to bring the cotton into a position to be combed, 
it is first necessary that a certain length should be delivered 
by the feed-rolls. After the cotton has been fed by these 
rolls, the nipper knife descends and not only grips it firmly 
but also, by depressing the cushion plate, brings the fringe 
of cotton into a suitable position to be acted on by the 
needles of the half lap. The cylinder is in such a position 
that, when the nipper knife has completed its downward 
motion, the first row of needles on the half lap enters the end 
of the fringe of cotton, and, as the cylinder revolves, the 
successive rows of needles remove all the fibers that are too 
short to be retained by the nippers, as well as the neps that 
have been left in the cotton. After the needles on the half 
lap have passed the fringe of cotton, the ends of the fibers 
fall into the gap left between the needles and the segment, 
and the nipper knife, together with the cushion plate, begins 
to rise. When the cushion plate has reached its uppermost 
position, the further lifting of the nipper knife releases the 
fibers at this point. During this operation the portion of the 
cotton previously combed has been brought back and is now 
ready to be pieced up with the cotton that has just undergone 
the combing operation by the half lap. 

The cylinder having revolved until the fluted segment is 
in the desired position, the detaching roll descends and grips 
the cotton firmly between itself and the fluted segment. The 
further revolving of the fluted segment, together with the 
detaching roll, draws away the fibers that are not held by 
the grip of the feed-rolls, and since the top comb has by 
this time dropped into such a position that it protrudes into 
the end of the lap just in advance of the portion that has not 
been cleaned by the needles of the half lap, it efficiently 
combs this portion of the fibers. At the beginning of this 



§22 COMBERS 41 

operation the forward ends of the fibers being combed are car- 
ried forwards sufficiently to overlap the r^ar ends of the fibers 
that were returned; consequently, the forward rotation of the 
delivery roll, which occurs while the detaching roll is in contact 
with the segment, assists in piecing up the fibers just detached 
to those previously combed, and delivers them into the pan. 

It should be clearly understood at this point that all the 
fibers do not project from the feed-rolls to the same extent 
at one time. For example, some of the fibers may not be 
gripped by the feed-rolls at all, while other fibers may pro- 
ject beyond the feed-rolls a quarter of their length, some 
half of their length, and some three-quarters of their length; 
consequently, when the detaching action takes place, only 
those fibers that project entirely beyond the feed-rolls are 
gripped and drawn forwards by the action of the detaching 
roll and fluted segment, while those fibers that project 
only partly beyond and are still gripped by the feed-rolls 
form a fringe of cotton that is always present in front of 
the feed-rolls. At the next delivery of the feed-rolls those 
fibers that previously projected only partly beyond the rolls 
may now project entirely beyond the rolls, and consequently 
at the next detaching operation these fibers will be drawn 
forwards in a manner similar to those previously detached. 

From the delivery roll, the cotton passes into the pan, 
through the trumpet, between the table calender rolls, and 
is delivered on to the table, along which it is drawn together 
with the other slivers that have been delivered by the various 
heads. From the table the slivers pass to the draw-box, 
where they are given a slight draft, after which they pass 
through a trumpet and between a pair of calender rolls, 
where they are condensed into one sliver. From the calen- 
der rolls the sliver passes to the coiler and then to the can. 



GEARING 

41. A plan of the gearing of a comber is shown in 
Fig. 27. and from this figure the manner in which the vari- 
ous mechanisms receive their motions may be seen. The 



42 COMBERS §22 

pulley 5-, is driven from the shafting of the room. This 
pulley is firmly keyed to the short shaft z, which is carried 
by the framing and steadied in its motion by the balance 
wheel z„ in order to prevent a variation of speed, which 
might be caused by the intermittent actions of some of the 
parts of the comber. 

On the shaft z is fixed a pinion of 21 teeth, which drives 
a gear of 80 teeth on the cylinder shaft o^. Meshing with 
the gear of 80 teeth on the cylinder shaft is a gear of 80 teeth 
on the cam-shaft j; consequently, the cam-shaft and cylinder 
shaft revolve at the same speed. On the cam-shaft, the 
positions of the various cams are shown, these being the 
nipper cam g^, the cam 7, for placing the detaching roll in its 
required position, and the cams ^i, s^, Fig. 20, these two 
latter cams being situated at the extreme right of the cam- 
shaft in Fig. 27. The shaft supporting the lower table cal- 
ender rolls is driven from the cam-shaft as shown. 

Combers were first constructed with a short cam-shaft, and 
the cams were placed nearer the driving end of the machine. 
The connections to the shafts from which the nippers receive 
motion and from which the detaching roll is placed in posi- 
tion were at one end of these shafts. When constructed in 
this manner, the torsion on the shafts was such that the 
parts for each head that received motion from these shafts 
did not work simultaneously. The first remedy was to make 
the shafts larger, but later the combers were constructed 
with the nipper and lifter cams in the center of the comber, 
so that the connection was made to the centers of the shafts 
that they operated. 

The disk containing the pin from which the feed-roll 
receives motion, as shown in Fig. 10, is attached to the gear 
of 80 teeth on the cylinder shaft. The star gear c^ of 5 teeth, 
shown in Fig. 27, is on a short shaft, the other end of which 
carries the draft change gear fe, which drives a gear c-, on 
the feed-roll. At the other end of the feed-roll is a gear 
that, by means of the shaft x, drives the lap rolls a,a^. 

The brush p, which cleans the needles of the half lap used 
in the combing process, is driven from the shaft z through 



44 COMBERS §22 

a carrier gear, change gears being provided for driving the 
brush shaft at different speeds. The cylinder shaft at its 
end opposite to that of the gear of 80 teeth has a gear that 
drives the doffer by means of the shaft ra, and also the 
drawing rolls of the draw-box and the calender rolls by 
means of the shaft u\. From this end of the cylinder shaft, 
the coiler is driven by the gear of 60 teeth, change gears 
being provided so that the speed of the coiler may be altered 
in order to have the coiler properly take up the sliver. The 
comb for removing the waste from the doffer is not shown 
in the figure, but it is driven by a simple crank-motion, the 
stud that turns the crank being at the extreme inner end of 
the shaft 2. 

42. The draft for the gearing shown in Fig. 27, with an 
18-tooth draft change gear, figuring from the 2-inch coiler 
calender roll to the 2f-inch lap roll at the back of the comber, 
is as follows: 

2 X 16 X 16 X 60 X 5 X 38 X 22 X 55 X 47 _ 23 579 
16 X 16 X 69 X 1 X 18 X 23 X 20 X 35 X 21 

As the comber removes a very large percentage of waste 
from the cotton that passes through it, it is not possible to 
figure accurately the weight of the sliver produced by simply 
taking into consideration the weight per yard of the lap fed 
in, the number of doublings, and the draft of the machine. 
An example will make this point clearer. 

Example. — Suppose that a comber with a draft of 23.579 has six 
laps up at the back, each lap weighing 260 grains per yard, and it is 
desired to find the weight per yard of the sliver delivered. 

Solution. — Multiplying the weight per yard of the laps fed in by 
the number of laps, and dividing by the draft gives 66.1605 grains as 

the weight per yard of the sliver delivered; " ,^ = 66.1605. If 20 per 

cent, of the cotton that passes through the machine is taken out as 
waste, the result obtained above must be diminished by 20 per cent., 
in order to obtain the actual weight per yard of the sliver delivered; 
20 per cent, of 66.1605 is 13.2321, which deducted from 66.1605 gives 
52.9284 as the grains per yard of the sliver produced. Ans. 



J 



§22 



COMBERS 



45 



VARIATIONS IN CONSTRUCTION 

43. Quadrant Motion. — A different mechanism for 
imparting the rotary motions to the delivery roll is shown in 




Figs. 28, 29, and 30, and is applied to combers that have their 

other parts constructed in a manner similar to those described. 

This mechanism consists of a cam s, known as the 

giiadra7it cam, which is fast on the cam-shaft/. Working in 



46 



COMBERS 



§22 




Fig. 29 



lever v^ that is centered at v-. 



the cam-course is a bowl s^ that is supported by the lever s, 
centered at s^. The other end of this lever contains teeth, 
and it is from the shape of the lever that the name quadrant is 

derived. The toothed por- 
tion St, Fig. 30, of the lever ^, 
connects with a gear 5e loose 
on the delivery roll s. At one 
end of the gear ^e is one part 
of a clutch that, when brought 
in contact with the other 
part s^ that is fast to the 
delivery roll s, will impart 
any motion of the gear s^ to 
the delivery roll. The cam Vi, 
Fig. 30, which is also on the 
cam-shaft, by means of the 
moves the part of the clutch 
that is loose on the delivery roll into, and out of, contact with 
the other part. It will be seen 
that with this construction the 
delivery roll will receive motion 
from the cam s^ during the time 
that the parts of the clutch are 
held in contact by the cam i',. 
When in action, the clutch is first 
connected by means of the cam z-', 
acting on the lever v.,, Fig. 30, 
the clutch corresponding to the 
pawl Vi in the mechanism pre- 
viously described. 

The delivery roll then begins 
to turn back as the bowl of the 
cam 5, leaves the line o, Fig. 29, 
and approaches the line o^. At 
the line o^, the cam-bowl com- 
mences to move from the center of the cam-shaft, thus 
reversing the motion of the delivery roll. This reverse 
motion ceases when the clutch is disconnected by means of 




Fig. 30 



§22 COMBERS 47 

the cam i\, Fig. 30, which occurs at the time that the cam- 
bowl Js is about to enter that part of the cam-course that is 
nearly concentric with the cam-shaft. The points at which the 
clutch is connected and disconnected will govern the character 
of the piecing in the same manner as the action of the pawl 
described in connection with Figs. 20, 21, and 22, 

44. Another method of lifting the leather detaching roll 
is shown in Fig. 28. On the lifter shaft k is an arm k^ that 
carries a stud on which works loosely a square block k„; on 
the shaft / is an arm X^, on the lower end of which is a cut- 
out into which the square block k. fits. As the arm k^ is 
moved by the action of the lifter cam, it, in turn, moves the 
arm k:, and shaft / and so lifts and lowers the leather detach- 
ing rolls. One point of improvement claimed for this method 
is that there is less lost motion^ and therefore a more accurate 
setting of the leather detaching roll is obtained. 

Another method of lifting the leather detaching roll is to 
connect the shafts / directly to the lifter cams, using a sepa- 
rate cam for each shaft, w^hich usually operates the rolls for 
two heads. 

DOUBLE-NIP COMBER 

45. Purpose. — In order to obtain a greater production 
than is obtained with a comber constructed as previously 
described, machines known as double-nip combers are 

built. These combers act on two portions of cotton during 
each revolution of the cylinder, whereas in a single-nip 
comber only one portion of cotton is treated for every revo- 
lution of the cylinder. 

46. Construction. — The cylinder of a double-nip 
comber contains two half laps and two fluted segments, but 
the half laps have only thirteen rows of needles in place of 
the seventeen of the single-nip comber, since two half laps of 
seventeen rows each would occupy too much space. The 
segments are also made correspondingly narrower. The seg- 
ments and the half laps are arranged alternately on the cylin- 
der with shght spaces between them, in order that the cotton 



48 COMBERS §22 

may assume the positions shown in Fig. 16 and thus be 
properly pieced up. A sectional view of a double-nip comber 
equipped with a clutch and quadrant is shown in Fig. 28. 

In order that a portion of cotton shall be presented to each 
half lap, or that the feed-rolls shall receive motion twice for 
every revolution of the cylinder, another pin is placed on the 
disk plate, shown in Fig. 10, in such a position that the two 
pins will be exactly opposite each other. The other inter- 
mittent motions of the machine must therefore have two 
movements for each revolution of the cylinder shaft; this is 
provided for by having the gearing arranged in such a manner 
that the cam-shaft receives two revolutions for every revolu- 
tion of the cylinder shaft, thus causing the parts that receive 
their movement from the cams on the cam-shaft to perform 
their work twice during this time. 

47. A comber with a double nip gives a greater produc- 
tion than a comber with a single nip, but does not, however, 
clean the cotton so well, because of the smaller number of 
needles acting on the fringe. Another disadvantage of the 
double-nip comber as compared with the single-nip comber is 
due to some of the parts running at such a high speed that 
they not only wear out more quickly but easily get away 
from their proper settings and timings, thus producing 
bad work. 



COMBERS 

(PART 2) 



SETTING AND TIMING 



INTRODUCTION 

1. Aside from the general construction of a comber, two 
subjects closely related to the machine and very important to 
the success of the combing process that should be considered 
in this connection are setting and timi7ig. The setting of a 
comber implies regulating the distance between its working 
parts by gauges. Timing is a process that has arisen from 
the fact that a comber is intermittent in its action and that 
it is therefore necessary to time the motions of its various 
parts so that they will be performing their work when some 
working part that is taken as a basis for timing is perform- 
ing a certain operation. 

Although the range within which these settings and timings 
can be regulated and worked successfully is very limited, it is 
very seldom that two persons in charge of combers will agree 
on these questions. The principal points to be taken into 
consideration, however, are the length of the staple of the 
cotton to be used, the weight of the lap fed, the kind of cotton 
used, the quality of the work required, and, as a consequence 
of the last, the amount of waste to be combed out. 

It is obvious that a different combination of settings and 
timings will be required when cotton with li-inch staple is 
being used than when the cotton has a If-inch staple. This 
is also true in connection with medium or low grades of 
combed yarn as compared with fine yarns, since it is not nec- 
essary to take out so much waste in the former case. 

For notice of copyright, see page immediately following the title page 
?23 



COMBERS 



§23 



SETTING 

2. Gauges. — The several kinds of gauges used in setting 
a comber are shown in Fig. 1, and include the regular comber 
gauge (a), the step gauge {d), the finger gauge (c) , the 
quadrant gauge (d) , the cradle gauge {e) , and brush gauge (/) . 

1. Cofuber Gauge. — There are several gauges similar to 
a, the blades of which vary from No. 12 to No. 28 in thick- 
ness. They are numbered according to a wire gauge and 
decrease in thickness as the numbers increase, a No. 20 



X 






1^ 



(^) 



(a) 



X 




i^ 




:a 



^ 



(f) 



Fig. 1 



meaning that the gauge is equal in thickness to a No. 20 
wire. These gauges are about f inch wide, and usually 
about 4^ inches long. Each really consists of two gauges, 
one at each end; for example, the one shown in Fig. 1 {a) 
has a No. 20 gauge at one end and a No. 21 gauge at the 
other end. For settings finer than a No. 23 gauge, strips of 
paper are sometimes used, although this method is not as 
reliable as the use of the regular gauges. 

2. The step gauge {b) is composed of one piece with steps, 
each step being iV inch thicker than the preceding one. The 



i 



23 



COMBERS 



first step is generally i inch in thickness. The width of this 
gauge is about i inch. 

3. The finger gauge (c) is measured from the arrowhead 
on the curved portion to the arrowhead on the straight end 
and varies from Is inches to 2 inches in length; it is about 
-1% inch in thickness. 

4. The quadrant (d) is used for determining the angles 
of top combs. 

5. The cradle gauge {e) is used to hold the top comb in 
position while it is being fastened to the comb arms. 

6. The brush gauge (/) is used for setting the brush shaft 
parallel to, and at the required distance from, the cylinder 
shaft. 

Assuming that a comber has merely been set up and that 
the cylinders are loose on the cylinder shaft, the parts that 
require setting with gauges and the gauges used for making 
each setting are given in Table I. 



TABLE I 



Parts to be Set 



Delivery roll from segment 

Front flute of segment from delivery 

roll 

Feed-roll from delivery roll 

Cushion plate to nipper knife .... 
Distance of setscrew /a from stand 

when d is down, Fig. 3 

Cushion plate from delivery roll . . 
Distance of nipper from half lap 

when nipper is in its lowest position 

Brush to half lap 

Top comb set at angle of from 

25° to 30° 

Top comb from fluted segment . . . 
Distance of blocks A, Fig. 8, from 

bearings of detaching roll when 

resting on segment 

Top roll from leather detaching roll . 



Gauge 



Comber 

Finger 
Finger 
With paper 

Step 
Finger 

Comber 
Brush 

Quadrant 
Comber 



Size of Gauge 



No. 23 

\\ inches 
According to staple 

i to f inch 
According to staple 

No. 20 



No. 20 or 21 



Comber I No. 23 
Comber I No. 21 



4 COMBERS §23 

3. Setting the Various Parts. — 1. In making any set- 
ting in any machine, some one point, usually a shaft, is taken 
as a basis. In the comber, the cylinder shaft is primarily the 
base of all settings, from the fact that the cylinder, which is 
used to set from for certain settings, is centered on that shaft; 
but as the delivery roll is a more convenient point from 
which to work when making certain of the settings, it is 
given a true and accurate setting with a certain definite 
relation to the cylinder, and after being certain that it will 
revolve freely in its bearings, these bearings are secured, 
and the delivery roll becomes the base of certain of the set- 
tings of the comber. 

The cylinder shaft and delivery roll of the comber revolve 
in bearings that do not have any motion during the various 
operations of the comber, and which after the first setting 
have a definite relation to each other as to distance. The 
fact that the cylinder can be moved on the cylinder shaft 
does not affect the distance between the faces of the segment, 
or the half lap of the cylinder, and the face of the delivery 
roll. 

In order to have the cylinder and delivery roll in their 
proper relative positions, it is first necessary to line up the 
delivery roll, which is done by presenting each fluted segment 
of the comber to the delivery roll and moving the bearings 
of the delivery roll until the space between the surface of this 
roll and the surface of each fluted segment is equal to a 
No. 23 comber gauge. The distance should be tested at 
both ends of each segment. When this has been done, the 
cylinder shaft and all parts carried on the cylinder shaft have 
a definite relation as to distance from the delivery roll, and 
although certain settings are made from either base, they 
do not conflict with one another. 

2. Front Flnte of Segment From Delivery Roll. — After 
setting the delivery roll and being positive that it revolves 
very freely in its bearings, the index gear (which will be 
described later) should be placed at 5, after which the cylin- 
ders are fastened on the cylinder shaft. One cylinder is 
first secured so that the front edge of its fluted segment 



§23 COMBERS 5 

approaches within a certain distance of the face of the delivery 
roll, after which each of the other cylinders of the comber 
is set with its fluted segment the same distance away. 
When this has been done, the first flutes of all the seg- 
ments across the comber will be in one straight line. A 
finger gauge li inches long may be used, but care should 
be taken in making this setting that the position of each 
segment is accurate, since the perfect alinement of these 
parts is vital to the quality of the product. 

When making this setting, the curved face of the finger 
gauge is placed on the flutes of the delivery roll and the 
cylinder turned on its shaft until the front part of the seg- 
ment comes in contact with the opposite face of the gauge. 
The space between these two parts should first be tested at 
one end of the segment, and when this end is in its correct 
position the cylinder is secured by means of a setscrew to 
the shaft at this end, after which the gauge is passed along 
the length of the segment to make sure that it is the correct 
distance at all points from the delivery roll; the cylinder is 
then fastened at its other end by means of a setscrew. The 
same method is adopted with each of the other cylinders, 
care also being taken to have all the cylinders exactly in the 
centers of the heads. 

3. Feed-Roll Fro^n Delivery Roll. — Setting the feed-roll 
from the delivery roll is accomplished by moving the bear- 
ings of the feed-roll. This is a very important setting, since 
if these rolls are not exactly parallel, there will be a strain 
on the fibers at one side and only a partial detachment of the 
fibers on the other side during the operation of detaching. 
The feed-roll must also be parallel to the cylinder, otherwise 
one side of the lap will be combed more than the other. If 
any of these faults exist, a cloudy and uneven web will be 
produced. The finger gauge is used for this setting; its 
curved face should be on the flutes of the delivery roll, while 
the opposite face should be in contact with the flutes of the 
feed-roll, but these rolls should not be set so close that the 
gauge cannot have an easy upward movement. The distance 
should be tested at both ends of each fluted section. 



COMBERS 



§23 



This setting of the feed-roll varies according to the staple 
and nature of the stock, as shown in Table II. 

TABLE II 



Cotton 


Length of Staple 

Inches 


Size of Gauge 

Inches 


American 

Egyptian ....... 

Egyptian and sea-island 


About IT 

Up to li 

1 2 and longer 


IT6 to IT6^ 

itI to lH 

ItI to 2 



4. Cushion Plate to Nipper Kiiife. — Before setting the nip- 
pers, the cushion plate must be adjusted so that the nipper 
knife, when down, will be in contact with the cushion plate 
at an even pressure throughout its entire width. If it does 
not touch along its entire edge, the fibers will be held tightly 
at one side, while on the other side they will be held loosely. 
The cotton that is not held securely by the nippers will be 
pulled out by the half lap and eventually arrive at the waste 
can, causing a waste of good cotton. 

The efficiency of the half lap also depends on this setting. 
Care must also be taken that the nose, or front edge, of the 
cushion plate is evenly and properly covered, in order that it 
may present a perfectly even surface along its entire length. 
In setting the parts, two strips of ordinary writing paper, 
one at each end of the knife, should be placed between the 
front part of the cushion plate and the overhanging lip of the 
nipper knife, and the setting between these parts made as 
close as possible and yet allow the two strips to be easily 
drawn from between the lip of the knife and the round nose 
of the cushion when the knife is in contact with the cushion 
plate. The same test is then made in the center and between 
the ends and the center. The fluted edge of the knife should 
be set so that a narrow strip of paper will be held firmly 
between the cushion plate and the nipper knife when the 
knife is pressed down on the cushion plate. 

Setting the cushion plate to the nipper knife is performed 
by loosening three screws similar to Jk, Fig. 2, and moving the 



23 



COMBERS 



plate to the knife by screws similar to h^. After the proper 
setting has been secured, the screws //., are screwed as tightly 
as possible. 

5. Distance of Setscrew From Stami. — Before the cushion 
plates are set to the delivery roll, the setscrew z,. Fig. 3, 
should be adjusted. In making this setting, it is a good 
plan to have the screw project through the arm i^ so that 
when it is resting against the stand /, the arm i^ will be 
in a perpendicular position. This can be accomplished by 
holding a level on the front face of the arm i. and turning 




Lx^ 



Fig. 2 



the screw ?3 until the arm i^ is in the required position. 
This should be done at each head. The only object of this 
setting is to have each head set alike and thus have some 
definite basis to work from when making future settings. 
6. Cushiofi Plate From Delivery Roll. — It is now necessary 
to set the cushion plates the desired distance from the delivery 
roll. The position of the cushion plates with relation to the 
portion / and the nipper knife has been determined and must 
not be disturbed; therefore, in order to adjust any one of the 
cushion plates to the delivery roll, the whole nipper mecha- 
nism must be moved. In making the setting between the 



COMBERS 



23 



cushion plate and the delivery roll two operations are 
employed. In the first case a general setting is made by 
loosening the bolts (not shown in Fig. 3) that attach the 



^^rrr] 




Fig. 3 



nipper-mechanism stands / to the framework, and moving 
this mechanism on the framework nearer to, or farther from, 
the delivery roll until the cushion plate is exactly the same 
distance from the delivery roll at each end, which insures 



§23 



COMBERS 



the delivery roll and the nose of the cushion plate being 
parallel. Afterwards a more accurate setting is made by 
means of the setscrews 2\. 

The entire operation is as follows: After loosening the 
'bolts that attach the nipper-mechanism stands / to the frame- 
work, the finger gauge is placed with its curved face on the 
delivery roll and the nipper mechanism moved forwards 
until the round nose of the cushion plate is against the 
straight face of the gauge. This distance is tested at each 
end of the cushion plate and at intervals between. When 
the cushion plate has been set parallel to the delivery roll, the 
nipper mechanism is tightly secured on its seat by means of 
the bolts. Next, the gauge is again inserted at each end 
of the cushion plate and at intervals along the plate, and 
by means of the setscrew i^ the setting is made so close 
that the gauge cannot have an easy vertical movement. 

As the bracket i that carries the arm /^ swings on the 
center i^, the effect that is produced on the nipper mechanism 
by moving the setscrew i^ can readily be seen. The settings 
of the cushion plate are governed by the length of the staple, 
the class of cotton, and the weight of the lap used. General 
settings for this part of the comber are given in Table III. 

TABI.E III 



Cotton 


Length of Staple 
Inches 


Size of Gauge 

Inches 


American .... 

Egyptian 

Sea-island .... 


li 

li to IT 

Over li 


li to lA 
11% to IT 
IT to 11^6 



7. Distance of Nipper From Half Lap Wheji Nipper is in 
Its Loivest Position. — The setting of the nipper to the half lap 
is performed by the sliding bracket /., Fig. 3, and setscrew /.. 
The bolt holding the sliding bracket /, should be loosened 
and a step gauge placed between the end of the setscrew /, 
and stand /. The object of inserting a step gauge at this 



10 COMBERS • §23 

place is to swing the nipper mechanism on the center /^ until 
the nipper knife is in exactly the same position that it 
assumes when the cotton is being combed by the needles on 
the half lap. A step gauge must therefore be selected that 
gives the exact throw to bring the nipper knife into the 
required position. During this setting, however, the nipper 
knife is pressed down on the cushion plate and the lip d^ 
projects beyond this plate. The setting is made by inserting 
a No. 20 comber gauge, Fig. 1 {a), between the edge of the 
nipper knife and the needles of the half lap. The cylinder 
shaft should be turned so that the points of the needles 
come directly under the edge of the nipper knife. Each end 
of the nipper is then accurately adjusted by either raising or 
lowering it by means of the setscrews A. The cylinder 
shaft should then be turned and the gauge inserted between 
each row of needles and the nipper knife. 

When the setting is completed, it should be possible to 
move the gauge the entire width of the nipper without too 
much resistance. In passing the gauge between the nipper 
knife and the needles, it is a good plan to slide the gauge on 
the edge of the knife, that being a smooth surface. When 
this setting has been completed, the bolts that hold the 
sliding brackets A to the stands / should be tightened. The 
springs z's should next be put on and adjusted to the proper 
tension. This may be done by the nuts on the spring screw. 
This method of setting is of course adopted at each head on 
the comber. 

8. Setting the Top Comb. — One of the top combs should 
next be set at an angle of from 25° to 30°. When making 
this setting, the detaching roll should be on the fluted seg- 
ment in position to detach, and particular care taken to have 
the top comb set so that it will not come in contact with the 
nippers or leather detaching roll. The brackets ti^. Fig. 4, 
should be loose on the shaft u^ so that they will allow the 
adjustment of the comb. The screws holding the comb to 
the brackets //, should also be loose. The quadrant gauge 
is used in making this setting, it being so constructed that 
its lower part fits over the blade of the comb, to which it 



23 



COMBERS 



11 



is secured by a thumbscrew. The comb is so set that the 
plumb-bob on the gauge will fall in a position to give the 
correct angle, which can be learned from the scale on the 
gauge. When the top comb is at the correct angle and 
not in contact with either the nippers or leather detaching 
roll, the screws that fasten the comb at each end to the 
brackets id, Fig. 4, should be secured. 

After one comb has been placed in position with the use 
of the quadrant gauge, the remaining top combs to be set 
are in some cases placed in position by what is known as a 
cradle, Fig. 1 (^), which 
consists of a casting 
having two bearing 
points for the comb to 
rest on and two set- 
screws that bear against 
the blade of the comb. 
By moving these set- 
screws, the comb may 
be held at any desired 
angle. Having set one 
comb, the cradle is set 
on the fluted segment, 
the base of the cradle 
being curved to con- 
form to the curvature of 
the segment. The top 
comb, which has been 
set by the quadrant gauge, is then lowered on to the cradle 
and the screws of the cradle regulated so that they just bear 
against the blade of the comb. After having regulated 
the screws of the cradle, it is merely necessary, when it is 
desired to set another top comb, to place it in the cradle 
and then place the cradle on the fluted segment and secure 
the comb to the brackets ?^, Fig. 4, while the comb is held in 
position, after which the cradle is removed. 

The quadrant gauge of course could be used for each 
head, but it saves time and is sufficiently accurate to use the 




Fig. 4 



12 COMBERS §23 

cradle gauge after the top comb of the first head has been set, 
especially when a large number of combers have to be set. 

9. Top Comb From Fluted Segme?it. — When the top comb 
has been set to the proper angle, the distance between it 
and the fluted segment is regulated by means of the 
screws Wa, Fig. 4. A No. 20 gauge may be used and the 
comb adjusted so that the gauge will pass between it and the 
fluted segment without too much resistance. In passing 
the gauge between the top comb and fluted segment, it is a 
good plan to slide the gauge on the fluted segment and drop 
the comb so that the points of the needles can be felt as the 
gauge passes under them. The same method of setting the 
top comb is then employed at each head of the comber. 
When the top combs have all been set the proper distance 
from the fluted segment, the brackets tc^ should be secured 
to the shaft ii^ and the screws u^ adjusted. To accomplish 
this, the cam u^ on the cylinder shaft is turned so that the 
bowl «7 will be on the part of the cam nearest the center. A 
gauge about the thickness of a No. 18 comber gauge is 
placed between the bowl and the cam, and the brackets «« 
secured to the shaft u^ while it is held in this position. The 
setscrews iis should now be set so that a piece of paper can 
be drawn between the ends of the screws and the projections 
on the brackets u^. These screws should be adjusted so that 
the paper will be drawn out at an even tension at each head. 
Care should be taken while this is being done that the 
screws u, are resting on the stands /. After all these brackets 
have been set, the gauge should be removed and the lever tie 
raised by hand; by watching carefully, it may then be ascer- 
tained whether or not the top combs move exactly together. 

The last two settings mentioned in Table I are more readily 
made after certain of the timings have been made, and will 
be described later. 

MINOR SETTINGS 

4. Adjusting the Nipper Rods. — The connections 
may now be made between the nipper cam and the brackets e, 
Fig. 3, that operate the nipper knife. To accomplish this, 



§23 



COMBERS 



13 



disconnect the cam-shaft from the cylinder shaft by sliding 
the gear on the cam-shaft out of gear with the one on the 
cylinder shaft with which it meshes. The cam-shaft should 




then be turned until the cam-bowl operated by the nipper 
cam ^., Fig. 5, is in the position that it should occupy when 
the cushion plate is at its lowest position; that is, the 
cam-bowl will be at the toe of the cam, or the point farthest 



14 COMBERS §23 

from the center of the cam, as shown in full lines, Fig. 5. 
When the cam-bowl is in this position, place the step 
gauge between the end of the setscrews i\ and the stands /, 
Fig. 3, and connect the rod g, Fig. 5, to the bracket g^ 
and nipper bracket e, Fig. 3, commencing with the rod 
nearest the driving end of the machine and setting that 
rod in each head. These rods should be so adjusted by 
the nuts at the bottom of the rods that the step gauge 
may be moved between the stand and the screw /'a with- 
out a great amount of resistance. When this has been 
accomplished, the other rods of each head similar to g may 
be connected and adjusted in like manner. After this is 
done, the step gauge should pass between the ends of all 
the screws /a and the stands / with the same resistance. 

The step on the step gauge to be used between / and /a 
depends on the distance that the cushion plate has to be 
depressed in order to bring it in the proper position for 
combing; a i-inch or f-inch gauge is generally used. 

The cam-shaft and cylinder shaft may now be connected. 
Before this is done these two shafts should be placed in 
their correct relative positions. First, the cam-shaft should 
be in the same position that it occupied in making the 
previous setting; that is, the cam-bowl on the nipper cam 
should be in a position farthest from the center of the 
cam. Next, the cylinder shaft should be turned so that 
the pointer will stand at 17 on the index gear. The gear on 
the cam-shaft may then be placed in gear with the gear 
on the cylinder shaft and secured by bolting it to the flange 
of the sleeve on the cam-shaft. 

5. The Revolvina: Brush. — The revolving brush p, 
Fig. 6, that cleans the needles on the half lap should be set 
so that the ends of the bristles will just touch the brass bars 
that hold the needles. This setting is governed by the extent 
to which the brush cleans the needles. If it is noticed that 
waste remains on the half lap after the needles have been 
brushed, the brush should be set closer, although no attempt 
should be made to set the brush so near to the half lap that 



— , .j — 






V::«'5r 





o 



§23 COxMBERS 15 

those small portions of cotton that become wedged in the 
spaces between the bars holding the needles will be removed, 
since these small portions are held so firmly that it is usually 
necessary to pick them out with a piece of sheet metal. 

The bearings of the brush shaft are held in slides in upright 
supports, and when it is desired to set the brushes the nuts 
that hold the bearings of the brush shaft are loosened and 
the position of this shaft regulated by screws similar to the 
screw pi, Fig. 6. These screws are connected to the brackets 
that support the brush shaft and their heads are in contact 
with projections on the framing. An adjustable gauge some- 
times used for setting the brush shaft is shown in Fig. 1 (/), 
and is composed of two parts, one having a slot through 
which a bolt passes, thus allowing the gauge to be made 
longer or shorter and held at any desired length by the bolt. 
One part of the gauge has a curved face similar to the finger 
gauge, while the other part is brought to a point at one end. 
When it is desired to set the brush shaft closer, the gauge is 
set so that the length from the center of the curve to the point 
is slightly less than the distance between the circumferences 
of the brush shaft and cylinder shaft. The curved face of 
the gauge is then placed on the brush shaft and this shaft 
moved nearer the cylinder shaft until the point of the gauge 
comes in contact with the latter. The gauge should be 
tried at both sides of every head. The brushes of the heads 
are all on one shaft, and consequently in setting them care 
should be taken not to set one so much out of line with the 
others that the shaft will bind in its bearings. 

6. Tlie Doffer. — The doffer r. Fig. 6, which receives the 
waste cotton from the brush, should be set about iV inch 
from the brush. The bearings of the doffer shaft are moved 
by means of screws similar to the one shown at r,. Fig. 6. 
The doffers for all of the heads are carried on one shaft, 
and in setting them care must be taken to see that this shaft 
can revolve freely in its bearings. The bearings of the 
doffer-comb shaft are attached to the bearings of the doffer 
shaft, so that the relative positions of the doffer and doffer 



16 COMBERS §23 

comb are not changed when the dofifer shaft is set closer to 
the brush shaft. Adjustments are provided, however, for 
setting the doffer comb to the doffer by having slots in the 
brackets that support the comb. The comb should be set 
about iV inch from the doffer at the lowest point of its 
stroke and at an angle of about 30° from the perpendicular 
at the upper part of its stroke. 

7. Top Feed-Roll. — The top feed-roll is now placed in 
position and adjusted so that it will be parallel with the 
bottom feed-roll and in such a position that the ends of the 
arms c^. Fig. 6, will not come in contact with the ends 
of the nipper bracket. The adjustment is made by moving 
the stud on which the arms c, are pivoted. The springs f, 
should now be put on and adjusted so that the tension will be 
equal on both ends of the roller. 

The tins that cover the brushes and cylinders should be set 
square and true and in such a position that they will not be 
in contact with the cylinders, brushes, or doffers. The lap 
apron should be placed in position and adjusted so that it is 
level and true and exactly in the center of the head. The 
brush for cleaning the feed-roll, which is adjustable on the 
lap apron, should be so set that the ends of the bristles will 
just touch the flutes of the bottom feed-roll. 

8. Sliver Pans. — The sliver pans should be placed in 
position and adjusted so that they set squarely on the shaft A, 
Fig. 6, and so that the trumpets are in their proper positions 
relative to the calender rolls. 

9. Draw-Box. — The rolls of the draw-box should be set 
the proper distances from center to center according to the 
staple being run. The description of other settings will be 
better understood after the timing of certain parts has been 
considered, and therefore will be given kiter. 



I 



23 COMBERS 17 



TIMING 

10. After all the parts are set, the cams must be adjusted 
so that they will operate the different motions, or place in posi- 
tion the different parts that they control, at exactly the right 
moment when they are required to perform their work. In 
order to regulate this timing and indicate the time when each 
operation should be set in motion or each part in position, it 
is necessary to take some revolving part of the comber as a 
basis from which to work and to time all parts in relation to it. 
The cylinder is taken as a basis, as all the intermittent move- 
ments of the comber are completed within the time occupied 
by one revolution of the cylinder. It is furthermore neces- 
sary to have some means of indicating in what position the 
cylinder should be when each individual motion takes place 
or each individual part arrives in its proper position. 

For this purpose, a gear of 80 teeth, on the cylinder 
shaft, is divided into twenty equal parts, or sections, which 
are numbered on the rim of the gear from 1 to 20, each 
section containing 4 teeth. This gear is known as the 
index gear. A vertical index finger is placed on a station- 
ary part of the comber directly over the cylinder shaft, 
pointing upwards, and indicates by its relation to the posi- 
tion of the index gear the position of the cylinder. 

The numbers are so placed that as the cylinder revolves, 
No. 1 is first brought opposite the index finger, then No. 2, 
No. 3, and so on up to 20. Each section of the index 
gear is spoken of as a whole number, and each tooth in a 
section is spoken of as i; that is, if the cylinder has revolved 
until the comber is said to be at 51, it indicates that the 
index finger is at the second tooth beyond the section 
marked 5 on the index gear, or 22 teeth from the section 
marked 20. It is sometimes the custom in a mill to read 
as a clock is read, the position of the gear with reference 
to the index finger; thus, the above timing would be read as 
half-past five. If the index is at 7, or if it is said to be 
7 o'clock, it means that the cylinder has been revolved until 
seven sections, or 28 teeth, have passed the index finger. 



18 COMBERS §23 

From this description it will be seen that if the motions of 
a comber are listed according to their precedence and the 
timing of each indicated according to the position of the 
index gear with relation to the index finger, the timing will 
be indicated by continually increasing numbers, and a com- 
parison of the timings will show at a glance the relation 
between the different motions and the relative time that will 
elapse between them. 

The actions to be timed are: (1) The motion of the feed- 
rolls; (2) the motion of the nippers; (3) the placing of 
the detaching roll and top roll in position for detaching; 
(4) removal of detaching roll from detaching position; (5) 
motions of the delivery roll; (6) movement of the top comb. 

11. Timing the Feed. — The time when the feeding 
begins to take place varies from 41 to 6, owing to the fact 
that more waste is taken out of some cottons than others, 
and the later the feed the more waste is taken out. When 
combing Egyptian cotton, the feeding is done comparatively 
early, as the fibers of this cotton do not vary much from the 
average length, thus requiring the least waste to be removed; 
consequently, this cotton is the easiest to comb. The fibers 
of the sea-island cotton vary from the average length more 
than the fibers of other cottons that are combed, so that sea- 
island is fed late; Peelers and other American cottons occupy 
about a central position between these extremes. 

When timing tlie feed the cylinder is turned to the 
desired position and the pin c^, Fig. 7, so placed that it will 
just enter the star gear. The position of the disk c^ that 
carries the pin may be changed in relation to the index gear b 
by means of the slot Cs, so that the time that the pin enters 
the star gear may be altered. 

12. Timing tlie Nippers. — In order to time the nip- 
pers, set the index gear at 9 and loosen the nipper cam, 
which is bolted to a sleeve on the cam-shaft. This sleeve 
carries a disk that has a slot similar to c^, Fig. 7, and the 
cam is fastened to the sleeve by means of a bolt passing 
through the cam and entering the slot, thus allowing the 



§23 



COMBERS 



19 



cam to be moved on the sleeve. This cam should be fixed 
on the sleeve in such a position that it will cause the screws ?\, 
Fig. 3, just to leave the stands when the index gear is at 9. 
By placing a slip of paper between the screw zVand the stand 
and pulling on it lightly, at the same time turning the 
driving shaft of the machine, the time when the paper is 
released will denote the time when the screws Za are leaving 
the stands. 

If it is not possible to have the screws z, leave the stands 
when the index gear is at 9, because of the relative positions 




Fig. 7 

of the cylinder shaft and the cam-shaft, the gear on the 
cam-shaft may again be moved out of gear and the cam- 
shaft turned until the nipper cam is in the desired position, 
when the gear may again be meshed with the index gear. 
In order to avoid the liability of having to move the cam- 
shaft when timing the nippers, the gears on the cam-shaft 
and cylinder shaft may be meshed when the index gear is 
at 17 and the bowl on the nipper cam is in the position it 
should be when the rods g, Fig. 5, are set. The relative 



20 COMBERS §23 

positions of the cylinder shaft and cam-shaft will then be 
such that the motions received from the cam-shaft may be 
adjusted by slightly altering the positions of the cams on 
their respective sleeves, which are keyed to the cam-shaft. 

The nipper knife should leave the cushion plate at 
about 42; this can also be set by placing paper in the nippers 
and noting when it is gripped as the driving shaft of the 
machine is turned. If, after having set the cam so that the 
screws z'a. Fig. 3, leave the stand at 9, the knife does not 
leave the cushion plate at exactly the proper time, a further 
adjustment of the nippers may be made by means of the 
screws ^6, g^-, Fig. 5. 

The lever g^ gives motion to the nipper shaft g^ through 
the casting^, by means of the screws ^s, ^s. If, therefore, 
the nipper cam is not placed in position for the screws z'a. 
Fig. 3, to leave the stands when the index gear is at 9, the 
screws on the casting g^ may be adjusted, changing the rela- 
tive positions of the nipper shaft g^ and the cam. These 
adjustments may be made until the relative position of the 
nippers with the cam-bowl in the cam-course is correct when 
the cam-bowl is at any point in the course. 

13. Placing the Detaching Roll and Top Roll in 
Position for Detaching. — The lifter cam/,. Fig. 8, which 
controls the leather detaching roll q, next requires adjusting. 
This cam is mounted and fastened in the same manner as 
the nipper cam and should be placed in position so that the 
leather detaching roll will come in contact with the fluted 
segment when the index gear is at 6f. This may be tested 
by placing strips of paper on the fluted segment and observ- 
ing when they are held between the segment and the roll. 

14. Distance of Blocks From Bearings of Detach- 
ing Roll When Bearing on Segment. — The two last set- 
tings mentioned in the list of settings may now be made. 
The lifter cam should be in such a position that, when the 
roll touches the segment, the blocks 4, Fig. 8, will not be in 
their lowest positions, but will continue to move down as 
the cam revolves. When the blocks L are in their lowest 



23 



COMBERS 



21 



positions, there should be a space between them and the brass 
bushings of the leather detaching roll equal to a No. 23 
comber gauge. The blocks may be adjusted by the screws 
/«, Fig. 8, so that the distance between them and the brass 
bushings may be regulated when the cam has lowered the 




Fig. 8 

blocks as far as possible. When this setting has been made 
as described, it is certain that the detaching roll is properly 
in contact with the fluted segment. 

15. Setting the Top Roll From Leather Detaching 
Roll. — When the detaching roll is properly in contact with 



22 COMBERS §23 

the fluted segment, the top roll should be set from the 
detaching roll with a No. 21 comber gauge. This is accom- 
pHshed by loosening the setscrews that hold the supports 
for the bearings of the roll to the shaft /,. 

16. Removal of Detaching Roll From Detaching 
Position. — The lifter cam should now be in position so 
that, in addition to causing the detaching roll to come in 
contact with the segment at 6f and moving the blocks the 
required distance from the bushings, it will also remove the 
detaching roll from the segment at Oi. This can also be 
tested by paper placed between the segment and the roll, 
which should release the paper at 9h If the cam is in its 
proper position when the detaching roll touches the segment, 
but is not in a position to remove the detaching roll at the 
proper time, it can be remedied by an adjustment provided 
on the lever k^, Fig. 8, similar to the one described in con- 
nection with the lever ^3, Fig. 5. This adjustment is for the 
purpose of regulating the position of the lifter shaft k in 
relation to the cam, so that the latter may be in a position 
to place the roll in the correct positions at the given times. 
Any adjustment made by the screws k, will change the dis- 
tance between the blocks /^ and the brass bushings on the 
leather detaching roll. 

17. Timing the Motions of the Delivery Roll. — The 

cam that gives to the delivery roll the rotary motion, which 
is transmitted to the detaching roll and the top roll, should 
be set so that when the index finger is at about I2, the 
cotton will be started back to be pieced up and, when the 
index is at about 6, this motion should be reversed and 
the cotton delivered. The cam that places the pawl of this 
motion in and out of contact with the gear 2%, Fig. 9, is 
joined to the cam that imparts the rocking motion to the 
pawl and, when the latter cam is set, the former is usually 
very near its correct position. It is capable of being 
adjusted independently, however, so that it will correctly 
govern the time that the pawl is placed in, and taken out of, 
contact with the gear v^. The pawl is allowed to come in 



23 



COMBERS 



23 



contact with the gear when the index gear is at about li, the 
time that this pawl is placed in contact with the gear and 
taken out of contact governing the amount of overlap in the 
piecing. The usual amount of overlap is about f inch, or 

practically halt the length of the fibers. 

18. Tlie Toi^ Comb. — The time when the top comb 
should first be do\\-n varies from 5 to 6. The top comb 
should always be down when the detaching commences. 
The timing of the comb may be regulated by moving the 



'^^-''. 




Fig. 9 

cam Hi, Fig. 4. which is on the cylinder shaft and imparts 
motion to the top-comb shaft «,. 

19. In regard to settings and timings it may be stated 
that more waste may be removed by feeding at a late period, 
by nipping later, by closer settings of the nippers and top 
combs to the cylinders, and by increasing the angle of the 
top comb. The following are good settings and timings 
for a comber running a lap of 260 grains of Egyptian cot- 
ton with a staple of 1| inches and removing about 16 per 
cent, waste: 



24 COMBERS §23 

Feed-roll from delivery roll . . iH-inch finger gauge 

Cushion plate from delivery roll Ins-inch finger gauge 

Distance of screws /a from stands i-inch step gauge 

Distance of nipper from half lap No. 20 comber gauge 

Angle of top comb 28° 

Top comb from fluted segment . No. 20 comber gauge 

Distance of blocks h from bear- 
ings of detaching rolls .... No. 23 comber gauge 

Top roll from leather detaching 

roll No. 21 comber gauge 

Feeds at 5, index gear 

Nipper knife leaves cushion plate 

at 42, index gear 

Nipper knife touches cushion 

plate at 8f , index gear 

Leather detaching roll touches 

segment at 61, index gear 

Leather detaching roll leaves 

segment at 91, index gear 

Delivery roll reverses at .... 2, index gear 

Delivery roll delivers at ... . 62, index gear 

Top comb down at 6, . index gear 

20. Because of the difference in construction between 
double- and single-nip combers, there is a slight difference in 
timing. This is shown by the following comparison of these 
types when equipped with the quadrant motion. This timing 
is for sea-island cotton. Single-Nip Double-Nip 

Feeds at 5 4i and 14i 

Nippers close 91 91 and 194" 

Leather detaching roll touches 

segment 6f 6f and 16f 

Delivery roll reverses .... 20f 20f and 10| 

Delivery roll delivers 6 61 and I64 

Top comb down Si 42 and 142 

Clutch thrown in 20i 20i and lOi 

21. In some cases where especially fine yarns are to be 
produced, the percentage of waste taken out by the combing 



§23 COMBERS 25 

is not considered sufficient and double combinff is per- 
formed. Where this process is used, the cans of sliver 
delivered from the combers may be placed at the back of the 
sliver-lap machine and the entire process repeated, or as is 
more often done, the cans may be placed at the back of a 
ribbon-lap machine that, instead of having lap rolls, has 
a back similar in construction to that of the sliver lap, each 
delivery, however, being fed only 8 or 10 ends. The laps 
from this machine are then placed on the lap rolls of the 
comber. After the combing operation the cotton is sub- 
jected to the drawing processes, whether it has been combed 
once or twice. 



MANAGEMENT OF THE COMBER ROOM 

22. Important Points. — As the comber room uses 
only the best cotton, from which the finest and the special 
grades of yarn are produced, there are a great many important 
points to be looked after, especially those in relation to 
economy. 

1. The needles on the half lap should receive careful atten- 
tion and any that are bent or crooked should be straightened 
by a pair of special pliers provided for this purpose. If 
there are too many bent or broken needles, the half lap should 
be taken out and new needles put in. Extra half laps are 
usually provided so that the machine will not have to remain 
idle during the time that a half lap is being repaired. 

If the several matrices to which the needles are attached 
are not carefully joined to each other, there will be a large 
accumulation of waste, which will become so strongly fast- 
ened that the brush will not be able to remove it. These 
collections of cotton should be removed by hand at the back 
of the comber. 

2. The brushes that clean the half laps should have the 
waste removed from their bristles about once a month. 
When performing this operation, a rake, shown in Fig. 10, 
is used. When cleaning the brushes, the feed-roll should be 
thrown out of gear and the ends allowed to run through so 



26 



COMBERS 



23 



that the dust will not get into the good cotton. The laps 
should also be protected by a cloth. 

As the bristles on these brushes wear down, they should 
be readjusted so as to be kept in contact with and clean the 
cylinder needles. As the brushes become smaller by the 
bristles being worn down, it is sometimes found necessary 
to change the speed of the brush shaft. Through continued 
wear and readjustment the bristles become short and soft 
and the old brushes should then be replaced by new ones. 
When replacing the old brushes with new ones, a complete 
new set should be used and care should be taken that they 
are all of equal diameters, as all the brushes for the heads of 
a comber are mounted on one shaft. 

3. The condition of the leather detaching roll has much to 
do with the quality of the work. This roll should be per- 
fectly true and should be varnished about once a week. 




Fig. 10 



Care should also be taken in oiling this roll to see that suffi- 
cient oil is put on its bearings to give them proper lubrication, 
and at the same time that the amount is not so large that 
the oil will run out on the web and cause bad work. Thick 
and thin places in the web are sometimes an indication that 
the detaching roll is in poor condition, that is, improperly 
covered or varnished, or that the bearings of the roll are not 
properly lubricated. This defect may also be caused by the 
detaching roll not touching the segment at the proper time. 
4. Top combs should be looked after very carefully, since 
if the needles are bent, hooked, or broken out, the web of 
cotton will be stringy when it enters the pan, due to the fact 
that the cotton passing through is not properly combed by the 
top comb. These should be brushed out twice a day with a 



§23 COMBERS 27 

stiff brush furnished for this purpose. They should also 
be looked over once a week, when the needles should be 
straightened and smoothed or, if in the opinion of the one 
looking them over, their condition is not good enough, the 
top comb should be taken out and reneedled. If the points 
of the needles are only slightly damaged, they may be 
remedied by being rubbed with a piece of fine emery cloth 
fixed to a board. 

5. The table, table calender rolls, and top of the coiler should 
be cleaned and polished with whiting twice a week and all 
dirt kept from these parts of the machine. 

6. The payis should be wiped out with whiting at least 
once a week and should always present a bright appearance; 
all dirt should be kept out of the flutes of the feed-rolls, 
delivery rolls, and top rolls. 

7. While cleaning the front of a comber the machine 
should be stopped, because all loose fly, dirt, and dust that 
have been taken out of the cotton and have accumulated on 
the parts to be brushed are liable to return to the combed 
cotton. When starting the comber, the end should be 
broken at the coiler and allowed to run about half a minute 
before it is pieced up, to insure that no dirty cotton passes 
through with the good cotton into the can. 

The ceiling should be brushed and hangers and pulleys 
cleaned at a time when the combers are not running. When 
the combers are started again after the ceiling has been 
cleaned, the ends should be broken at the coiler and all dirt 
brushed from the front of the comber before the end is 
pieced up. 

8. In the comber, single and double should be looked out 
for. If an end breaks on the table or in one of the pans and 
the other five ends continue to run through the draw-box, it 
makes the resulting sliver too light. Whenever an end is 
seen to be broken, it should be pieced up and the sliver that 
has been delivered into the can for the period that the end 
has been broken should be removed. In the case of double 
— that is, where one end has broken on the table and after 
a time has doubled on itsslf and been drawn along by the 



28 COMBERS §23 

friction of the other slivers — the amount of sliver delivered 
into the can during that period should also be removed. 

23. Oiling and Cleaning. — In the comber, as in every 
other machine in a mill, certain parts must be oiled; this 
should be periodically attended to. All the more important 
parts ought to be, and generally are, oiled by one whose 
special duty it is to attend to this. These parts consist of all 
the gearing and motions that need oiling in the headstock of 
the comber, all the cam-courses and cam-bowls and the loose 
pulleys. If the cam-courses and cam-bowls are allowed to 
become dry, the bowls will wear away very quickly and 
become too small for the course, thus causing bad work. 

About once or twice a year all the working parts of the 
comber should be taken down, thoroughly cleaned, and any 
parts needing repairs should be attended to, such as cushion 
plates recovered, needles repaired, new brushes put in, or 
the fillet on doffers replaced. When this has been attended 
to, the parts should be put together and set as previously 
described. 

24. Waste. — The amount of waste being removed by 
the various machines combing different kinds of cotton should 
be ascertained often enough to insure that the proper percent- 
age of waste is being taken out. This is done as follows: 
After making certain that the laps are all right and that the 
comber is working properly, the waste cans at the back are 
removed and boards placed on supports in such positions that 
the waste will be delivered from the doffers on the boards. 
The boards generally used for this purpose are about I inch 
thick and have their tops varnished in order to obtain a 
smooth surface. The comber is then operated until the 
doffer comb is at the lowest part of its swing, after which the 
waste at the back is all removed and the sliver broken at the 
point where it is leaving the front calender rolls. The com- 
ber is next started and allowed to run untiK it has made 
about 40 nips. The cotton delivered by the front calender 
rolls is then kept as one portion, while the waste delivered on 
the boards is taken as another portion. These two portions 



§23 



COMBERS 



29 



of cotton are placed on a pair of scales, Fig. 11, which, instead 
of denoting weight, denotes the percentage of waste. 

Another method for finding the percentage of waste is 
to weigh each portion and add the weight of waste to the 
weight of combed cotton and divide this result into the 
weight of the waste. If the comber is taking out too much 
or too little waste, any of the settings and timings that have 
been described as regulating the amount of waste may be 
changed. The amount of waste will vary under the very 




best circumstances from 1 to 3 per cent., and due allowance 
should be made for this. 

Example. — If 60 grains of sliver is delivered from a certain comber 
in a given number of nips and the waste amounts to 15 grains, what 
percentage of waste is being removed? 
Solution. — 60 gr. weight of sliver 
15 gr. weight of waste 
75 gr. total weight 
15 -f- 75 = .20, or 20 per cent. Ans. 

25. Speed of Combei'. — In speaking of the speed of a 
comber it is said to make so many nips per minute and not 
revolutions per minute, as in the case of the other machines 
that have been described. By this is meant that every time 



30 COMBERS §23 

the nipper jaws close a nip is made, which in the case of a 
single-nip comber is one for each complete revolution of the 
cylinder shaft. In the double-nip machine the comber makes 
two nips to every complete revolution of the cylinder shaft. 
A good working speed for a single-nip comber is about 
85 nips per minute, while a double-nip comber produces 
good work when running 120 nips per minute. 

26. The weight of a comber with six heads is about 
3,500 pounds, and with eight heads 4,500 pounds. A single- 
nip comber with six heads requires f horsepower and with 
eight heads I horsepower, while a double-nip comber of 
six heads requires I horsepower and with eight heads 
8^ horsepower. The floor space occupied by a single nip 
6-head machine for Sf-inch laps, and also for an 8-head 
machine of the same type is about 13 feet by 3 feet 5 inches 
and 16 feet by 3 feet 5 inches, respectively. 

The production of a single-nip comber varies from 
225 pounds to 450 pounds per week of 60 hours, while the 
production of a double-nip varies from 300 pounds to 
550 pounds per week of 60 hours. 



FLY FRAMES 

(PART 1) 



GENERAL CONSTRUCTION OF FLY 
FRAMES 



INTRODUCTION 

1. After the sliver has been formed at the card and its 
structure improved at the drawing frames or perfected by the 
use of combing machinery, much foreign matter and impuri- 
ties have been removed from the raw stock, the fibers have 
been carded, straightened, and laid parallel to one another, 
and the sliver has been evened throughout its whole length, 
but it is still in too bulky a form and must be further 
attenuated before it is sufficiently fine to be run through the 
machine that completes the operation of making it into yarn. 

In addition to attenuating the sliver until the required 
weight per yard is obtained, the opportunity is also taken, in 
several machines, to multiply the number of doublings, which 
not only tends to retain the evenness of the sliver produced 
at the drawing frames, but also to improve on it. The sliver, 
as it is attenuated by the processes that follow the drawing 
frames, is known as roving; an idea of the extent to which this 
roving is drawn out before it is considered suitable to be spun 
into yarn by the mule or spinning frame may be gained by 
considering that a common weight for sliver at the drawing 
frame is 60 grains to the yard, from which roving weighing 
1.19 grains to the yard is commonly made before being spun 
into yarn, the sliver thus having been reduced in weight in 
about the proportion of 50 to 1. For finer work a sliver of 

For notice of copyright, see page immediately following the title page 
g24 



2 FLY FRAMES §24 

45 grains to the yard might be made into a roving of .3 grain 
to the yard or an attenuation in the proportion of 150 to 1. 
It would be impossible to properly perform this attenuation 
by one process, and consequently the cotton must pass 
through three or four machines before going to the mule or 
spinning frame. 

The machines used in modern mills to effect this attenua- 
tion are known collectively as fly frames, although some- 
times called speeders. The expression fly frames should 
be applied generally to all these frames as at present con- 
structed, since the term speeder really refers to a machine 
that is not now made and is only in use to a very small 
extent. It is probable, however, that the term has obtained 
such a hold in some manufacturing districts that it will never 
pass into disuse. Fly frames are divided into slubbers, hiter- 
mediates, and roving frames where three frames are used 
between the drawing and spinning frames. Where four 
frames are used they are generally known as the slubber, 
intermediate, roviyig frame, and jack frame; in this case the 
word jack is used to indicate a fine roving frame, sometimes 
called a jack roving frame. The frame following the inter- 
mediates is sometimes called a fine frame. A much better 
method of naming the machines, which is used in some parts 
of the United States and should be uniformly adopted, is to 
speak of the first machine after the drawing as the slubber; 
the last machine before the spinning as the roving frame; 
while the intermediates, if more than one in number, are 
spoken of as the first and second intermediates, respectively. 

All the machines classed under the head of fly frames are 
practically of the same type of construction, the only differ- 
ences being in the details. One point to be noted, however, 
is that since the roving is gradually drawn finer at each 
succeeding process, it is necessary that certain parts of 
the intermediate frame should be smaller than the same 
parts of the slubber, in order to accommodate themselves 
to the decreasing size of the roving; the same is also 
true in regard to the roving frame as compared with the 
intermediate. 




J 24 



§24 FLY FRAMES 3 

2. Fly frames have as their objects: (a) the reduction of 
the thickness of the sliver, (d) the evening of the product, 
{c) the twisting of the roving, (d) the winding of the roving 
on a bobbin. The attenuation of the sliver renders the third 
object necessary, since, as the sliver is reduced in size, it 
naturally becomes weaker and must be twisted in order to 
enable it to hold together in passing to the next process. 
Twisting the sliver is followed by winding it on a bobbin, 
since the reduced sliver must be laid in such form as will 
allow it to be rapidly revolved around a spindle. The 
last two objects will be found to be far more difficult of 
attainment than the first. 

The principles adopted to obtain the objects mentioned 
are: (a) roll drafting; (d) doubling; (c) securely holding 
the roving at two points, viz., the bite of the delivery rolls 
and the bobbin on which the roving is wound, and also 
passing it through what is known as a f/yer, which revolv- 
ing rapidly inserts the necessary twist; {d) having either 
the surface speed of the bobbin exceed the speed of the 
flyer or the speed of the flyer exceed the surface speed of 
the bobbin, the excess speed of one part over the other in 
either case being sufficient to take up the roving delivered 
by the delivery rolls. Although these are the four main 
principles, several minor mechanical problems present them- 
selves in the construction and operation of fly frames and 
are solved by the adoption of other mechanical principles, 
as will be observed later. 

As previously mentioned, slubbers, first and second inter- 
mediates, and roving frames differ very slightly in construc- 
tion, the principal point that would be noticed by a person 
looking at the different machines being in the manner of 
feeding. With the slubber, the cans from the drawing 
frames are placed directly behind the machine and the sliver 
fed from the cans, while with the fly frames that follow the 
slubber, creels are provided in which to set the bobbins of 
roving, which is the form in which the cotton is delivered 
by all of these machines. 



FLY FRAMES §24 



THE SLUBBER 



PASSAGE OF THE STOCK 

3. As the slubbei* may be considered the simplest form 
of fly frame, and as it is the first machine in the series, it 
will be referred to in giving a general description of the con- 
struction of these machines. Fig. 1 shows a front view of a 
portion of a slubber, while Fig. 2 gives a view of the back 
of the same machine; Fig. 3 is a cross-section through the 
essential parts of the machine. Referring to Fig. 3, the 
cans a that come from the finisher drawing frame are placed 
behind the slubber and the sliver b passed to the guide 
board c. In the slubber, which in this respect is unlike any 
of the other fly frames, no doubling takes place, each end 
of sliver being treated individually. From the guide board c, 
the sliver passes over the lifter roll d, through the traverse 
guide e, and then through three sets of rolls /a, /,,/,, which 
insert the necessary draft. From the drawing rolls, the 
sliver passes through the upper part of the flyer g- and then 
out at its lower part, where it is wound around an arm sup- 
ported by the flyer. From this arm, the cotton, which having 
been reduced in size by the drawing rolls of the slubber is 
now known as roving, passes to the bobbin //, on which it is 
compactly wound. The flyer g is supported, by the spindle /, 
while the bobbin h rests on a flange that forms the upper 
part of the gear //,. The gear //, is known as the bobbin 
gear and revolves loosely on the bolster k, Fig. 9. In Fig. 3, 
two ends are shown at the front, although for convenience 
only one sliver is shown at the back. Each end shown at the 
front is produced from a separate sliver fed behind the frame. 



PRINCIPAI^ PARTS 

4. The guide board c through which the sliver passes as it 
comes from the can is simply a long board with guide holes 
cut in it at suitable intervals, to prevent one sliver from 
coming in contact with another. The lifter roll d extends 




224 




' o o o o o 

o o 



i 



§24 FLY FRAMES 5 

the entire length of the frame. At one end it carries a 
sprocket gear driven by a chain that derives its motion from 
a sprocket gear on the bottom back drawing roll. The lifter 
roll revolving in the direction in which the sliver is moving 
serves to reduce the strain that would be brought on it should 
it be drawn up by the action of the drawing rolls alone. 

The traverse guide e, by guiding the sliver first to one 
part of the drawing rolls and then to another, prevents con- 
tinual wear on any one part of the rolls. As the objects of 
traverse motions as well as their different constructions 
have been dealt with, no further mention of them need be 
made here. 

The drawing rolls of a slubber may be either of the metallic 
or of the common type, although when running very fine 
work the common rolls are almost universally used. In the 
fly frames that follow the slubber, which deal with the stock 
after it has been attenuated considerably, common rolls are 
almost wholly adopted. There are usually three sets of 
drawing rolls in fly frames, and whether metallic or com- 
mon, they are similar in construction to those in a drawing 
frame. Clearers are also provided for both top and bottom 
rolls, although it is frequently the custom to run intermediate 
and roving frames without bottom clearers. 

5. The Flyer. — A view of the flyer, to which the cotton 
passes from the front drawing rolls, is shown in Fig. 4. It 
consists of a boss g^ that contains a hollow portion g^ into 
which the spindle projects, two downward projecting arms, or 
legs,g3,g^, and a presser g^. The upper portion of the boss of 
the flyer is carefully rounded and smoothed and at its top con- 
tains a hole that extends downwards and has an opening g^ 
on each side. The projecting leg g^ is solid and serves 
simply as a balance for the other leg ^4. The leg g^ is 
hollow and carries two lugs, or projections, ^7, .^r that act as 
bearings for the presser. The presser, or as it is sometimes 
called, the presser {inger, is, as shown in the figure, a round 
rod hooked at its upper end and bent to a right angle at its 
lower end. The hollow leg g^ is slightly tapered at its 



FLY FRAMES 



§24 



lower end, and the presser is so shaped at this point that it 
forms a circular clamp through which the lower end of the 
leg g* is passed. The inner part of the presser is flattened 
out into a palm, or paddle, g^ and is formed with a guide eye. 
The horizontal part of the presser is of such a length that the 
guide eye in the palm always comes about opposite the cen- 
ter of the bobbin when the bobbin is empty. The roving in 








Fig. 4 



coming from the delivery rolls passes into the hole at the 
top of the boss of the flyer and out through the opening at the 
point ge, as shown in Fig. 4. It is then wound partly around 
the boss, passes down the hollow leg g^, and is wrapped 
around the horizontal part of the presser once or twice. 
It then passes through the guide eye in the palm to the 
bobbin, on which it is wound. Wrapping the roving twice 



§24 FLY FRAMES 7 

around the horizontal arm of the presser is the more com- 
mon practice, although when flyers are new and compara- 
tively rough once around will be found to be sufficient. If 
the leg gt of the flyer were made perfectly tubular, it would 
be difficult to thread the roving through it in case of break- 
age. Therefore, the hollow leg is not completely closed, but 
an opening remains from top to bottom, shown slightly 
curved in Fig. 4, through which the end of roving may be 
passed. As this slot is curved it prevents the roving flying 
out when the flyer is revolving at a high speed. Sometimes, 
especially for coarse work or machines that are not intended 
to run at a high speed, the slot is straight. 

The flyers are carefully constructed of such a quality of 
material as will take and maintain a high polish, as it is 
necessary that all the parts of the flyer with which the cotton 
comes in contact shall be perfectly smooth. Otherwise, 
there is a tendency to develop undesirable friction as the 
roving passes through the eye and down the leg of the flyer, 
and in some cases small lumps of cotton are thus formed, 
which pass forwards at intervals, deteriorating the quality of 
the yarn. 

Certain parts of the flyer have an important bearing on the 
hardness or softness of the bobbin that is made. By this is 
not meant the hardness or softness of the roving itself, 
which is determined by the amount of twist inserted, but the 
feel of the completed bobbin. If the roving were wound on 
the bobbin without the application of any pressure, the result 
would be a soft, loosely wound mass of material. To pre- 
vent this the flyer is so constructed that the palm g^ exerts a 
slight continuous pressure on the bobbin as the roving is 
being wound thereon. This is done by making the vertical 
rod of the presser sufficiently heavy to tend to fly outwards 
as the flyer revolves, which it does at a high speed. The 
result of this is to throw the palm g^ inwards, since tlie 
vertical rod is capable of swinging partially around the 
leg g*. There is some tendency also for the palm itself to 
fly outwards due to centrifugal force, but the excess weight 
of the vertical rod and its greater distance from the spindle 



8 FLY FRAMES §24 

I are sufficient to overcome the centrifugal force of the 
palm g^ and bring a slight pressure constantly to bear 
on the bobbin. 

By altering the relative weights of the vertical rod 
and the palm, almost any degree of firmness of the 
full bobbin can be obtained, but this is a point for the 
machine builder to experiment with and decide on before 
building the frame, and should not be changed after the 
machines are installed in the mill unless so advised by 
the builders. 

Bobbins can be made harder by inserting more twist 
in the roving, as well as by increasing the pressure of 
the palm on the bobbin. 

6. Tlie Spindle. — The spindle, as shown in Figs. 3 
and 5, is a long steel rod. Its upper end, which is 
tapered, extends into the hollow part g^, Fig. 4, of the 
3 flyer, where it comes in contact with a wire pin that is 
fitted into holes bored in the sides of the flyer. This 
pin fits into the slot in the upper end of the spindle and 
in this way the two parts are made to act as one. At 
its lower end the spindle is slightly reduced in diameter, 
and at its extreme end tapers to a point. This end of 
the spindle rests in a footstep, which is generally a 
recess in a bracket, except on English types of frames, 
where it is a removable piece of metal. 

Spindles are made of hardened steel and ground to 
exact dimensions. They vary from f inch to \ inch in 
diameter according to the frames for which they are 
intended, being of smaller diameter and shorter on 
roving frames and of greater diameter and longer on 
slubbers. The spindles in all fly frames are arranged 
in two rows, one behind the other. The spindles in 
the back row do not come directly behind those in the 
front row, but are generally set in such a manner that a 
spindle in the back row will come half way between two 

tof the spindles in the front row, as shown in Fig. 6; this 
figure gives a view of five spindles, flyers, and bobbins 

Fig. 5 



24 



FLY FRAMES 



9 



as they would appear when looked at from above. It is 
customary to describe the gauge of the spindles, that is, the 
distance from the center of one spindle to the center of 
the next spindle in the same row, as so many inches; for 
instance, 6 inches, etc. Another method is to state the 
number of spindles in a certain number of inches; for 
instance, if the distance from the center of one spindle to 
the center of the next spindle in the same row is 6 inches, 
then the frame is spoken of as having 6 spindles in 18 inches, 
there being two rows of spindles and the spindles in each 




Fig. 6 



row being spaced alike. The total number of spindles in a 
frame varies and is dependent on the gauge of the spindles 
and the length of the frame. Fly frames as a rule do not 
often exceed 36 feet in length, and are seldom built less than 
20 feet in length. 

7. The Footstep. — The footstep bearing, or foot- 
step, y» in which the base of the spindle rests is shown in 
Figs. 3 and 7. These steps are bolted to the step rail /, 
that extends the entire length of the frame, very near the 
floor; a cross-section of the step rail is shown in Fig. 8. It 



10 



FLY FRAMES 



§24 



will be noticed that both sides of the rail are made alike 
and will thus allow the footsteps to be placed on each side; 
the two rows of spindles necessitate this arrangement. At 
frequent intervals along the step rail are set footsteps that 
carry a bearing for the spindle shafts p. The two spindle 
shafts, one for each row of spindles, carry gears p^ that 
drive gears y, setscrewed to the spindles, and thus give 
the spindles their motion. The spindle shafts, spindle 
steps, step rails, and the gears both on the spindles and 





Fig."? 



Fig. 8 



on the spindle shafts are completely enclosed in order to 
prevent any dirt or loose cotton from collecting on the 
various parts. 

8. Tlie Bolster. — As the spindles are of considerable 
length, it is absolutely necessary that some bearing be pro- 
vided for them in addition to the support formed by the step, 
in order to support them in a vertical position, and so that 
they may run true. This is accomplished by having a 
bolster, shown in Fig. 9, through which the upper part of 
the spindle projects. The bolster consists of a collar k, 
through which the spindle passes, the upper part being bored 
to such a diameter as will just fit the outside diameter of the 
spindle. At the lower part of the bolster is a shoulder k^, 
that fits a recess in the bolster rail, to which it is firmly 
bolted. The bolster rail, a cross-section of which is shown 
in Fig. 10, is made alike on both sides, in order to provide 
for bolsters for each row of spindles. 



§24 



FLY FRAMES 



11 



At one time, the collars used to support the spindles verti- 
cally were rather short, not projecting much above the bolster 
rail, but it is now the universal custom to use long collars, 
such as that shown in Fig. 9. The advantage of the short 
collar was in being able to use a 
bobbin of less outside diameter and 
thus have more stock wound on it, as 
the shortness and small diameter of the 
collar did not require as great an open- 
ing, or hole, in the bobbin; consequently, 
allowing the outside diameter of the 
bobbin to be less in proportion. The 
disadvantage of the use of the short 
collar was due to the fact of its support- 
ing the spindle at a point a consider- 
able distance from its upper end, even 
when the bobbin rail was at its highest 
position. As the bobbin rail moved 
downwards this defect was accentuated, 






Fig. 9 



Fig. 10 



and since the spindle and flyer ran at high speed and had no 
support at any point in the upper half of the length of the 
spindle, this tended to develop vibration and wear. In using 
such a collar as is shown in Fig. 9, the bearing part that sup- 
ports the spindles is placed a considerable distance above 



12 



FLY FRAMES 



24 



the bolster rail and several inches nearer the top of the 
spindle, which is conducive to steady running of the spindles. 
The spindle has a bearing only in the upper part of the 
collar, for about 2 inches, the lower part being bored out to 
a larger diameter than that of the spindle. This 
method of construction reduces the amount of 
friction that would take place should the spindle 
bear against the entire length of the collar. 

9. The Bobbin. — Fig. 11 shows a cross- 
section of a long-collar bobbin used on fly 
frames. Such bobbins are usually constructed 
of wood, although sometimes made of paper or 
corrugated metal. The cheapest bobbins are 
those made of plain wood without any protec- 
tion whatever, but it has been found an advan- 
tage to have the lower end of the bobbins 
protected by a wire placed in a groove, or even 
by a metal shield surrounding the base of the 
bobbin and partially embedded in it. The 
cost of a bobbin constructed in this manner 




(TTll 


, ( 


^K 






\ 




i h, 




^^ 


mi 

). !, 


f 



Fig. 11 



Fig. l:^ 



is higher, but breakage and wear and tear of the bobbin 
are very much less. 

When the bobbin is in position on the frame, the smaller 
hole at the top of the bobbin receives the spindle and the 
larger opening encloses the collar, which is thus entirely 
covered by the bobbin. 



14 



FLY FRAMES 



24 



The bobbin gear, shown in Fig. 12, rests on a projection X-,, 
Figs. 3 and 9, carried by the bolster. It is not fastened in 
any manner to the bolster and is thus free to revolve loosely 
around the long collar that furnishes a bearing for the 
spindle. Motion is imparted to the bobbin gear Zfi by means 
of a gear h^ setscrewed to the bobbin shaft /;., which is 
supported by bearings fastened to certain of the bolsters. 
As shown in Fig. 12, the bobbin gear carries a flange / on 
which the bobbin rests. A projection l^ on this flange 
extends into one of several slots in the base of the bobbin, 
and thus drives the bobbin. In case 
long collars are used on bolsters, the 
collar extends for some distance into 
the bobbin, and it is very essential that 
the bobbins on any fly frame should be 
well constructed to exact dimensions, so 
as to grip the bobbin gear well and fit 
the spindle and collar as closely as pos- 
sible without binding. Bobbin gauges 
are now made by several manufacturers 
of fly frames to test accurately the 
inside and outside diameters of a bob- 
bin, and it is advisable to have a set of 
these gauges with which to test new 
bobbins before they are run. 

The bobbin gears, the gears on the 
bobbin shafts, the bobbin shafts, the bob- 
bin rail, and the lower ends of the bol- 
sters are completely enclosed, in order to prevent as far 
as possible any fly or dirt from collecting on the various 
parts. Fig. 13 shows the connection between those parts of 
a fly frame that have been described, such as the footstep, 
spindle, bolster, bobbin rail, step rail, flyer, etc. It will be 
noticed that two rows of spindles are shown, many of the 
parts in one row being shown in section, while the parts in 
the other row are shown in full. By comparing this figure 
with those that show the different parts separate, a good 
idea will be obtained of the relative position of each part. 



/ l\ 




N % 



LZJiZ] 

Fig. 14 



§24 



FLY FRAMES 



15 



The manner in which the roving is built up on the bobbin 
is shown in Fig. 14. It is wound in close spirals around the 
empty bobbin until the entire length of the bobbin, with 
the exception of about i inch at the top and 1 inch at the 
bottom, is covered; the complete length of roving that 
extends from the bottom to the top of the bobbin is known 
as a layer. It is the object to build up the bobbin with 
cone-shaped ends, as shown in Fig. 14; consequently, each 
succeeding layer on the bobbin must be a little shorter than 
the preceding one, this being continued until the distance a b, 
Fig. 14, is reduced to the distance c d. 




Fig. 15 

10. Hank Clocks. — Fig. 15 shows an instrument known 
as a hank clock, which is attached to all fly frames. The 
object of the clock is to register the number of hanks of 
roving that pass the delivery rolls. This clock is usually 
situated at the foot end of the frame and has attached to it a 
worm-gear that is driven by a worm situated on the end of 
the front roll. By considering the diameter of the front roll 
and by having a suitable number of teeth in the worm-gear 
and the gears forming the clock, the exact length that passes 
the delivery rolls will be indicated on the hank clock, the 



16 FLY FRAMES §24 

length, however, being expressed in hanks. This clock is 
read on the same principle as most clocks or indicators. 
The short hand indicates the number of hanks, while the long 
one indicates the fractions of a hank in one-hundredth parts. 



METHOD OF INSERTING TWIST 

11. It is necessary to insert a small number of turns 
per inch in the roving after it leaves the front drawing rolls, 
in order to enable the fibers to hold together and withstand 
the strain of being wound on the bobbin and unwound at the 
next process. In common with all cotton-yarn-preparation 
machines where twist is inserted in a strand of material, the 
strand is held at one point while it is revolved at another. 
Strictly speaking, the strand is also held at this point, but 
by a revolving mechanism. In fly frames, the roving is 
gripped between the bottom and top front rolls as it is being 
delivered, and is also held by the bobbin on which it is 
being wound, although as the roving passes through the 
hole in the boss of the flyer and down the hollow leg, the top 
of the boss of the flyer practically forms the termination of 
the grip of the roving at this point. Consequently, the 
roving may be considered as being firmly held here, and 
since the spindle and flyer are making from 600 to 1,400 
revolutions per minute, the roving is being twisted all 
the time. 

The rolls of course are constantly delivering roving and 
the bobbins taking it up as fast as it is delivered, so that 
while the roving that is being twisted at any one time is 
in a suitable position to receive the twist, a new supply 
is constantly being brought under the twisting operation, at 
a regular and uniform rate of speed, and that portion 
already twisted is passing from the influence of the twisting 
mechanism and on to the bobbin. In ascertaining the 
amount of twist per inch inserted in the roving, it is there- 
fore necessary to obtain data as to the number of inches of 
roving delivered by the rolls during a certain period, and the 
number of turns made by the spindle during the same period. 



§24 FLY FRAMES 17 

If, for example, the flyer makes 25 revolutions while the rolls 
deliver 12^- inches of roving, then there will be 25 -^ 122 = 2 
complete turns put into an inch of the roving delivered. 



WINDING THE ROVING ON THE BOBBIN 

12. The front rolls of a fly frame rotate at a constant 
rate of speed while the machine is in motion; hence, a 
uniform length of roving is being constantly delivered. 
Suitable means must be provided for winding this roving on 
to the bobbin as fast as it is delivered, but at the same time 
the mechanism for winding must be such that the roving 
will not be broken or strained. As shown in Fig. 13, the 
flyer is supported by the spindle, which also imparts a rotary 
motion to it, while the bobbin, although placed on the 
spindle and rotating on the same center as the flyer, is 
driven by an entirely separate mechanism. The roving is 
wrapped around the bobbin because of the difference in 
the velocity of the bobbin and the flyer eye, since if both 
revolved in the same direction and at the same speed the 
roving could not be drawn through the eye of the flyer and 
wound around the bobbin. In considering the action of the 
flyer and bobbin in winding the roving about the latter, it 
will be found that there are several possible methods by 
which this may be accomplished. 

1. A uniform rotary motion may be imparted to the flyer 
alone, the bobbin remaining stationary. This method, how- 
ever, is not practicable, because as the roving is wound 
around the bobbin the diameter of the latter increases, and 
therefore a greater length of roving will be required for 
each successive revolution of the flyer; hence, if a uniform 
amount of roving is delivered by the drawing rolls the 
strain on it will quickly increase until sufficient to cause it to 
break. This difficulty might be remedied by uniformly 
decreasing the speed of the flyer as the diameter of the 
bobbin increases, but as the speed of the flyer governs 
the amount of twist in the roving, a variation in the turns 
per inch would ensue in this case. 



18 



FLY FRAMES 



§24 



2. A rotary motion may be given to both the flyer and 
the bobbin, the speed of the flyer being just sufficiently in 
excess of that of the bobbin to wind the roving on to the 
latter as fast as it is deHvered by the drawing rolls of the 
frame. Since in this case the flyer is moving faster than 




DO" 

Fig. 16 




TO 



Fig. 17 



the bobbin, or leading it, the arrangement is known as a 
flyer lead, and a frame thus equipped is called a flyer-lead 
frame. Fig. 16 illustrates the relative positions of the flyer, 
bobbin, and roving in a flyer-lead frame. In considering the 



§24 , FLY FRAMES 19 

operation of this arrangement it will be remembered that in 
a given length of time the front drawing rolls of the frame 
deliver a definite length of roving. Assume, for the purpose 
of illustration, that this definite length is 6 inches. Then, in 
order to wind this length of roving on to the bobbin in a 
flyer-lead frame, the eye of the presser on the flyer must 
move just 6 inches farther than a point on the surface of the 
bobbin during the length of time that it takes for the draw- 
ing rolls to deliver 6 inches of roving. This gain, or lead, 
of the flyer over the bobbin is independent of the actual 
velocities of the flyer and bobbin, both of which are of 
course rapidly rotating in the same direction. Flyer-lead 
frames were formerly very popular, but are not used to a 
great extent at the present time. 

3. There is another method of winding the roving on 
to the bobbin in which the bobbin rotates at a speed just 
sufficiently in excess of that of the flyer to cause it to 
wind on the roving as fast as it is delivered by the draw- 
ing rolls. This is the arrangement that is almost always 
adopted on modern fly frames, and since in this case the 
bobbin rotates faster, or leads the flyer, it is known as the 
bobbin-lead viethod, fly frames thus equipped being known 
as bobbin-lead {tames. Fig. 17 shows the position assumed 
by the bobbin, flyer, and roving in a bobbin-lead fly frame. 
The front rolls always deliver a uniform length of roving 
in any given length of time, and for the purpose of illus- 
tration it may also be assumed in this case that the length 
delivered in a given period of time is 6 inches. Then, in 
order to wind this length of roving on to the bobbin in 
a bobbin-lead frame, a point on the surface of the bobbin 
must move just 6 inches farther than the eye of the flyer 
presser during the length of time that it takes for the draw- 
ing rolls to deliver 6 inches of roving. This gain, or 
lead, of the bobbin over the flyer is independent of the 
actual velocities of the bobbin and flyer, both of which are 
of course rotating rapidly in the same direction, as was the 
case in the flyer-lead frame, only in this case the bobbin has 
the greater speed. * 



20 FLY FRAMES §24 

13. In both flyer-lead and bobbin-lead fly frames, the 
speed of the delivery of the roving and the speed of the 
flyers are constant. This is necessary, because if the speed 
of the drawing rolls were made variable the production of 
the frame would be altered, and also because, in order to 
produce an even roving, the sliver should be drawn at a 
regular and uniform speed. A variable speed of the flyers is 
impracticable, because this would produce a variation in the 
amount of twist in the roving. In order, therefore, to com- 
pensate for the constantly increasing diameter of the bobbin, 
a variation must be made in its speed, so that the tension on 
the roving during the winding will be the same whether the 
bobbin is empty or full. If the bobbin did not increase in 
diameter as it filled with roving, the speeds of the flyer and 
bobbin could be easily regulated so that the exact amount of 
roving delivered would be taken up. The conditions are 
more difficult than this, however, because one revolution of 
a full bobbin requires a much greater length of roving to 
make one turn around the bobbin than does one revolution 
of an empty bobbin; in other words, the circumferential speed 
of the bobbin must be the same, no matter what its diameter 
is, whether full, empty, or in any intermediate condition. 
For example, suppose that the diameter of an empty bobbin 
is 2 inches and of a full one 4 inches; then in the first case 
only 2 X 3.1416 = 6.2832 inches of roving will be required 
to make one turn around the bobbin, while in the latter case 
4 X 3.1416 = 12.5664 inches will be required to accomplish 
the same result. Thus, as the length of roving delivered is 
a constant quantity, and as the difference in the circumferen- 
tial speed of the bobbin and of the flyer must also be constant, 
the speed of the bobbin must be constantly varied as the 
winding progresses. 

In a flyer-lead frame, since the flyer rotates at a speed 
greater than that of the bobbin, the latter must have its 
slowest speed when empty and its greatest speed when 
filled, and must constantly and uniformly increase in the 
number of revolutions per minute between these two 
extremes. This is the principal objection to a flyer-lead 



§24 FLY FRAMES 21 

frame — the larger and heavier the bobbins become, the 
faster they must be driven, hence the greater the amount 
of power required to drive the machine. 

In a bobbin-lead frame, however, since the speed of the 
bobbin is greater than that of the flyer the bobbin must 
rotate at its greatest speed when empty and at its slowest 
speed when full, and must constantly and uniformly decrease 
in the number of revolutions per minute between these two 
points. For this reason the bobbin-lead frame is preferred 
to the flyer-lead, since in this case as the bobbins grow 
large and heavy, it is not necessary to drive them so fast, and 
the consumption of power is therefore more uniform. 

Although the mechanism for producing this variable speed 
of the bobbins is described later, it will be of advantage to 
note that with the introduction of cones it is possible, by 
making use of suitable gearing, to alter the speed of the 
bobbins. 

14. Traverse of Bobbins. — It will be remembered 
that the lower end of the bolsters, the bolster rail, the bobbin 
shafts, and the toothed portion of the bobbin gears are com- 
pletely enclosed. These parts combined form what is known 
as the carriage, which is given a vertical reciprocating 
motion in order to give the necessary traverse to the bobbins. 
As the bobbins are placed over the bolsters and rest on the 
bobbin gears, which form a part of the carriage, they receive 
a vertical reciprocating motion in addition to their rotary 
axial motion received from the bobbin gears. As the flyer 
eye continues to revolve in one plane during this traverse of 
the bobbin, the spindle rail being stationary, the roving is 
wound on the bobbin in coils, which vary in pitch according 
to the velocity of the vertical movement of the bobbin. 

Fig. 3 illustrates one method of imparting the vertical 
motion to the carriage. The legs r support the various parts 
of the frame, their number varying according to the length of 
the frame. These legs are known as sampsons, and have on 
one face a groove in which a portion of a rack r, slides. As 
the rack r, has an up-and-down motion, the groove in the 



22 FLY FRAMES §24 

Sampson serves to steady and guide it in order that it may 
mesh properly with the gear r^ setscrewed to the shaft ^3, 
which extends the entire length of the frame. The racks 
are connected to the carriage by means of arms r* securely 
bolted to the bolster rail s. As the gear f\ revolves first in 
one direction and then in the other, the carriage is given a 
vertical reciprocating motion for a certain distance, which is 
regulated by the period of rotation of the gear i\ in either 
direction. In addition to 'the steadying of the carriage by 
the racks, there is a slide connection between the head and 
foot Sampsons and the corresponding ends of the bolster rail 
that helps to steady and guide it, and if properly adjusted 
insures a free and perfect motion of the carriage. As the 
carriage has considerable weight, it is balanced by suitable 
mechanism, the usual method being to hang weights by 
means of chains at each sampson. Referring to Fig. 3, the 
weight t is supported by means of a chain /, attached to a 
bracket, the chain passing around a pulley r\ attached to the 
rack r, and also over pulleys /a, t^ attached to the sampson; 
the weight is arranged to balance the rail when the bobbins 
are half full. 

Another method of balancing the carriage is shown in 
Fig. 18. Weights t are suspended from a chain /, that 
passes around pulleys t^, t^ and is attached to a drum r^ 
on the shaft re, which carries a gear meshing with teeth in 
the lever r^. The forward end of this lever bears directly 
against the under side of a small pulley carried by a bracket 5, 
that is attached to the bolster rail s. This method prevents 
any possibility of the racks binding in the slides, which some- 
times happens with the other method, unless a great deal of 
care is taken with the racks and slides. 

The latest method of overcoming the weight of the car- 
riage and bobbins is by means of a self-balanced carriage. 
With this motion the carriage is divided at the center of its 
length into two equal parts, and when one section is descend- 
ing the other is ascending; consequently, one section counter- 
balances the other. The carriage is supported and guided 
by means of racks and pinions, as shown in Fig. 3, with the 



24 



FLY FRAMES 



23 



exception of the weights. The racks r. for one section of 
the carriage face in the direction shown in Fig. 3, while the 




Fig. 18 



racks for the other section face in the opposite direction; 
consequently, as the back shaft r, revolves, one section of 



24 FLY FRAMES §24 

the carriage will ascend and the other descend, thereby bal- 
ancing each other. 

Since the carriage is divided into two parts, it is necessary 
to use a second mechanism in order to drive the bobbins of 
the second section. This mechanism is situated in about 
the center of the frame and is driven from the first by 
means of a long shaft that extends from the head of the 
frame to the second section. This shaft carries a gear at 
the head end that is driven from a gear placed on the 
sleeve between the gears h^, h^, Fig. 19. At the opposite 
end of this shaft is a gear that drives the second mechanism 
by means of a carrier gear. By adopting this last method, 
the carriage is accurately balanced at all times during the 
building of the bobbins, while with the other motions the 
carriage is only accurately balanced when the bobbins are 
half full. 

The description of the method of reversing the direction of 
motion of the gear t\, Fig. 3, and the different mechanical 
arrangements that are necessary in order to allow the car- 
riage to rise and fall and still have the driving arrangement 
of the bobbin shafts intact, will be given in detail later. 



GEARING 

15. Method of Driving the Dra^wing Rolls. — Fig. 19 
gives a diagrammatic view of the gearing for a slubber. 
The parts are not in all cases shown in the exact position 
that they occupy in the frame, since the method of gearing 
could not then be clearly indicated. On the shaft m, which is 
known as the jack-shaft and is the main driving shaft of the 
frame, are placed the tight-and-loose pulleys Wi, Wj, respect- 
ively, which are driven either from the line shaft of the room 
or from a countershaft belted to the line shaft. On the end 
of the jack-shaft m is a gear w,, known as the t%vist gear, 
which through the intermediate gear w* and gear^z, drives the 
top cone shaft n. This shaft carries at the head, or driving, 
end a gear n^ that drives a gear / on the bottom front roll /,. 
The method of driving the two back rolls from the front roll 
is shown in Fig. 19. 




tnp 9T 



26 FLY FRAMES §24 

16. Method of Driving the Spindles. — On the end of 

the jack-shaft that carries the tight-and-loose pulleys is a 
gear vi^ that, through an intermediate, or carrier gear, w„ 
drives a gear p^ that is on the spindle shaft p. Gears on 
this shaft similar to p.^ drive the gears j^ that are setscrewed 
to the spindles j. It will be remembered that there are two 
rows of spindles in all fly frames; consequently, there must 
be two spindle shafts similar to p. Only one shaft is shown 
in Fig. 19, as the two shafts are placed one directly behind 
the other. The one shown is the back spindle shaft, which 
always receives its motion direct from the jack-shaft of the 
frame. Gearing with the gear /, is a gear on the end of the 
front spindle shaft by which this shaft receives its motion. 

An important point to be noted in this connection is that 
since the gear on one shaft is driven directly by a gear on the 
other shaft without the use of any intermediate gear, the two 
spindle shafts must revolve in opposite directions. If with 
this arrangement the gears on each spindle shaft were con- 
nected to the gears on the spindles that they drive in exactly 
the same manner, the two rows of spindles would revolve in 
opposite directions. In order to overcome this difficulty the 
gears on one spindle shaft are placed on one side of the gears 
on the spindles that they drive, while the gears on the other 
spindle shaft are placed on the opposite side of the gears 
on the spindles that they drive, as shown in Fig. 13. 

17. Metliod of Driving the Bobbins. — Referring 
again to Fig. 19, it will be noticed that a gear m-, is set- 
screwed to the jack-shaft. This gear through the gears h,, h„ 
drives the gear h^, which is setscrewed to a sleeve that is 
loose on the jack-shaft. This sleeve carries another gear //s, 
which through a carrier gear //» drives the gear h^, on the 
back bobbin shaft L.. The bobbin shaft carries bevel gears //, 
that drive the bobbin gears /;,. These bobbin gears are 
illustrated in Fig. 12 and carry a flange, a projection of 
which engages with a slot in the bottom of the bobbin and 
thus causes the bobbin to revolve with the bobbin gear. A 
gear on the front bobbin shaft is driven directly from the 



§24 FLY FRAMES 27 

gear Z/,, Fig. 19, on the back bobbin shaft, and since these 
shafts revolve in opposite directions, it is necessary, in order 
to have all the bobbins revolve in the same direction, to place 
the gears on one bobbin shaft on one side of the bobbin 
gears that they drive, while the gears on the other bobbin 
shaft must be placed on the opposite side of the bobbin gears 
that they drive. This arrangement is also shown in Fig. 13. 



DIMENSIONS OF FLY FRAMES 

18. Fly frames are spoken of not only according to the 
name of each kind of frame, but also by the number of 
spindles, the length of the bobbin that the first layer of roving 
covers (known as the traverse of the bobbin), and the diam- 
eter of the full bobbin. Thus, a frame spoken of as a 
96-spindle 9 in. X ^\ in. indicates that the frame has two 
rows of spindles, 48 in each row; that the greatest possible 
traverse on the bobbin is 9 inches in length; and that when 
the bobbin is full it cannot exceed 41 inches in diameter. 
The traverse of a bobbin used on slubbers is usually from 10 
to 12 inches; on first intermediates, from 8 to 10 inches; on 
second intermediates, from 7 to 8 inches; and on roving 
frames, from 5 to 6 inches. The reason for this gradual 
reduction in the traverse of the bobbin is that as the roving 
becomes reduced in size it is necessary to wind it on a 
smaller bobbin, so that the bobbin will not be too large to 
be pulled around by the roving when placed in the creel of 
the succeeding machine. 

The diameter of the full bobbin that can be made depends 
on the distance between the spindles, which is so arranged 
as not to make too large a bobbin, for the same reason 
as that given above. In most cases the diameter of the full 
bobbin is one-half the length of the traverse; for example, a 
12-inch traverse frame makes a 6-inch bobbin, usually written 
12 X 6. Other sizes are referred to as 10 X 5, 9 X 4i, 
8x4, 7 X Si, 6x3, etc. There are exceptions to this rule 
in very fine frames, where the bobbin is often made smaller in 
diameter, as, for example, a 6 X 22 frame. In this connection 



28 



FLY FRAMES 



24 



it should be noted that the diameter of a full bobbin made 
on a fly frame is not equal to the space between two spindles 
in the same row. For example, on a 12 X 6 frame the 
space between the spindles in the same row is 10 inches, 
although the diameter of the full bobbin is only 6 inches. 
This allows sufficient space for clearance of the flyers while 
revolving. 

The following table gives the standard sizes of frames 
as made by one machine builder: 

TABLE I 



Frame 



Slubber . . 
Slubber . . 
Slubber . , 
Slubber . , 
Slubber . , 
First intermediate 
First intermediate 
First intermediate 
First intermediate 
First intermediate 
First intermediate 
First intermediate 
Second intermediate 
Second intermediate 
Second intermediate 
Second intermediate 
Second intermediate 
Second intermediate 

Roving 

Roving 

Roving 



Size 
Inches 



12 X 

12 X 

II X 

10 X 

9X 

10 X 

10 X 

9X 

9X 

8X 

8X 

8X 

8X 

7 X 

7 X 

7 X 

7X 

6X 

6X 

5 X 

4iX 



6 
6 

5* 

5 

4* 

5 

5 

4i 

4i 

4 

4 

4 

3i 

3i 

3^ 

3 

3 

3 

2i 
2i 
2i 



Space 
Between 
Spindles 

Inches 



ID 

9i 

9 
9 

7i 
8 

7i 
7 

6i 
6 

si 

5i 

sl 

5 
4i 

4i 

4i 

4i 

4i 

4 



Number of 
Spindles 



24 to 68 
24 to 68 
28 to 72 
32 to 76 
30 to 96 
40 to 104 
42 to 108 
48 to 114 
48 to 1 14 
48 to 136 
48 to 136 
66 to 132 
56 to 144 
64 to 152 
64 to 152 
72 to 160 
72 to 160 
80 to 168 
88 to 176 
96 to 184 

I 12 to 200 



§24 



FLY FRAMES 



29 



Fly frames are not usually constructed over 36 feet in 
length, as the torsion on the rolls and shafts would be 
excessive if this length were increased to any g-reat extent. 
The modern tendency is to use frames of about this length, 
and Table I is prepared on this basis. 

The main driving pulley, or the pulley on the jack-shaft, 
of the frame is usually about 16 inches in diameter with a 
2-inch face, although pulleys are used that range from 12 to 
16 inches in diameter, with faces from li to 2i inches in 
width. 

The weights of the frames vary considerably according 
to the make, the number of spindles, and the gauge; a 
72-spindle slubber will weigh about 7,800 pounds; a 120-spin- 
dle first intermediate will weigh about 10,750 pounds; a 
144-spindle second intermediate, about 9,250 pounds; and a 
200-spindle roving frame, about 9,780 pounds. 

The horsepower required to drive a frame varies con- 
siderably; therefore, no table can be given that will be accu- 
rate under all conditions, as various matters affect the amount 
of power required. The following table may be used as a 
guide to determine the amount of horsepower required. 

TABIiE II 



Frame 


Gauge 
Inch 


Spindles per Horsepower 


Slubber 

First intermediate . 
Second intermediate 
Roving 


9 

7 

si 

4i 


35 
6o 

75 
95 



FLY FRAMES 

(PART 2) 



PRINCIPAL MOTIONS OF FLY FRAMES 



MECHANISMS FOR CONTROI^I^ING SPEED 
OF BOBBINS 



DIFFERENTIAL, MOTIONS 

NoTK. — In this Section the bobbin-lead type of fly frames will be 
dealt with exclusively. 

1. Introductoi'y. — In order to wind the roving on the 
bobbin it is necessary that the excess circumferential speed 
of the bobbin over the flyer shall be equal to the circumferen- 
tial speed of the front roll, so as to take up the roving as fast 
as it is delivered by the front roll. If the bobbin made the 
same number of revolutions per minute continually, it would 
gradually strain and break the roving as the bobbin increased 
in diameter; therefore, some arrangement must be adopted 
by which the number of revolutions per minute of the bobbin 
may be gradually reduced as the bobbin grows larger. The 
speed of the bobbin is regulated and controlled by two 
mechanisms that act in combination. One is known as the 
ditferential motioyi, more commonly called the compo^ind in 
America, while the other consists of two cones and connec- 
tions. The object is to provide a ready means of automat- 
ically reducing the number of revolutions per minute of the 
bobbin in exact proportion to the increase in its diameter. 

For notice of copyright, see Page immediately following the title page 
225 




SSI G 15 





5% 



LJ=i 






Sft 




?^§ © Ecmnr 



§25 FLY FRAMES 3 

2. Referring to Fig, 1, the gear in., on the jack-shaft 
drives the bobbins, its motion being imparted through the 
gears 7^, h» to the gear //s, which is on a sleeve with h^. The 
gear h^ drives the bobbin shaft h through the gears lu, h^, 
the bobbin receiving motion from this shaft by means of the 
gear //, and bobbin gear h^. The speed of the gear m., is con- 
stant, but by a peculiar arrangement of the gears //«, h,, //«, //« 
it is possible to alter the speed of the gear h^ independently 
of ?«,; this in turn alters the speed of the gear //s and con- 
sequently that of the bobbins. This alteration in the speed 
of the gear /;« is obtained by imparting motion to the gear h^ 
by an entirely independent mechanism. Dealing first with the 
method of driving the gear h», it will be noticed that the top 
cone shaft w carries a cone «» that, by means of a belt ii^, 
drives a bottom cone 7i^. At the beginning of a set, that is, 
when the first layer of roving is being wound on the bobbins, 
the cone belt is at the large end of the top cone and at the 
small end of the bottom cone, but as the bobbins gradually 
grow larger the belt is moved along the cones, until at the 
finish of a set, that is, when the bobbins are full, the belt is at 
the small end of the top cone and the large end of the bottom 
cone. As the top cone is the driver, any parts receiving 
motion from the bottom cone will have their highest speed 
at the beginning of a set and their lowest speed at the finish. 
The manner in which the cone belt is moved along the cones 
as the bobbins are built will be fully explained later. 

Referring again to Fig. 1, it will be noticed that a gear on 
the end of the bottom-cone shaft drives, through suitable 
gearing, the gear ««, which meshes with the gear h,; conse- 
quently, as the belt is moved from the small to the large end 
of the bottom cone, or, in other words, as the bobbins become 
full, the speed of the gear We and therefore that of the gear //« 
will be lessened. The gears //e, //,, //«, h^, vi^ form the coni- 
pouiid, or differential motion, and in order that the effect 
of lessening the speed of the gear «« may be fully under- 
stood, reference will now be made to Fig. 2, which is a view 
of the compound alone. The large gear //» is known as 
the Sim gear and supports the two bevel gears //,, hy, by means 



FLY FRAMES 



§25 




of studs on which these 
gears work loosely, as 
shown in Fig. 2 {b). 
Thus, if the gear h^ re- 
volves it carries with 
it the two bevel gears 
h,, hg, which at the 
same time are free to 
revolve on the studs 
on which they are 
mounted. The action 
of these gears is as 
follows: The gear m, 
being fixed to the jack- 
shaft 7?i drives the 
gear //« through the in- 
termediate gears //,, h^. 
The gear h, performs 
the same work as h^ 
and for present con- 
sideration may be 
imagined as not exist- 
ing, being used merely 
to balance h^ and cause 
the whole arrangement 
to revolve more uni- 
formly. The gears 
m-,, he are of the same 
size, and consequently 
if h» were held still, or 
prevented from revol- 
ving, 7)1 ^ would drive he 
at the same speed as 
the shaft in, but in the 
opposite direction. If, 
however, //« is made to 
revolve in the same di- 
rection as he, the latter 



§25 FLY FRAMES 5 

makes not only the number of revolutions that it derives 
through being driven by w,, but an additional number of 
revolutions caused by the acceleration that h^ gives it. 

3. One not acquainted with mechanics may be surprised 
that h^ causes h^ to be accelerated 2 revolutions for each 
revolution that //g makes. Since, however, this is a well- 
known fact, no mathematical proof will be given, but if the 
privilege of experimenting with a compound in a mill can be 
obtained it can easily be proved that by holding m^ still and 
turning h^ around once //« will revolve twice. Another test 
may be made with an ordinary yarn wrapping reel, in which 
a similar contrivance is used. It will be found that the reel 
makes two revolutions when the handle is turned once, 
although each of the gears that form the compound has 
the same number of teeth; the handle of the reel acts the 
same as gear he,. Fig. 2. 

To take an actual example, suppose that the jack-shaft ni 
makes 400 revolutions per minute. If lu is held still, Ju will 
make just 400 revolutions per minute, but in the opposite 
direction to w,. Supposing that h^ is now caused to revolve 
20 times per minute in the same direction as //«, it will be 
found that h^ makes 440 revolutions per minute, since 
400 + (20 X 2) = 440. Suppose that without stopping the 
frame, the number of revolutions of h^ is automatically 
reduced to 15; then it will be found that lu makes 430 revolu- 
tions; thus, 400 -t- (15 X 2) = 430. Suppose, again, that the 
speed of h^ is decreased to 10 revolutions per minute; then //« 
will make 420 revolutions, but always in the opposite direc- 
tion to m,\ thus, 400 + (10 X 2) = 420. If the train of gears 
between the gear Ju and the bobbins is so arranged that the 
bobbins make 1\ times as many revolutions as the gear //s, 
which is on the same sleeve as Ju, then in the first case the 
bobbins will make 440 x 2^^ = 1,100 revolutions, while in the 
last case they will make 1,050 revolutions, so that it will be 
seen that their speed has been automatically reduced from 
1,100 to 1,050 revolutions per minute as the bobbin has 
increased in size. 



6 FLY FRAMES §25 

It will thus be seen that this arrangement provides the 
varying conditions necessary for the building of a bobbin. 
When the roving is being wound on an empty bobbin, the 
latter must be rotated at its highest speed in order to wind 
on the roving delivered; this speed is attained by having the 
cone belt at the large end of the driving cone and the small 
end of the driven cone. As the roving is wound on the bobbin 
and the bobbin increases in size, a gradual reduction of the 
speed of the bobbin is required, so that it may revolve at its 
slowest speed when the bobbin is full. By this time the cone 
belt has been moved along the cones until the small end of the 
driving cone is driving the large end of the driven cone. As 
the speed of the driven cone gradually diminishes, that of the 
gear n^ decreases also, since it is driven from the bottom cone. 
Consequently, the gear h^ will be driven more slowly, as well 
as the' gear //e and the gears that drive the bobbins, since 
these are driven from the gear h^, which is on the same 
sleeve as the gear h^. 

4. The compound just described is an old type and is 
found on most of the older frames. The one great objection 
to it is the unnecessary strain on the cone belt on account of 
the friction caused by the sleeve that carries the gears ^e, h^, 
and also the one that carries the sun gear h^. These sleeves 
and gears revolve in an opposite direction to that of the jack- 
shaft m. The compounds shown in Figs. 3, 4, and 5 are built 
to avoid this fault and are so constructed that all parts revolve 
in the same direction. Although these styles differ in construc- 
tion, they all have the same objects in general; that is, they are 
all constructed to drive the bobbins at a varying speed in 
order to effect winding, and in the last three types are con- 
structed to reduce the strain on the cone belt by reducing the 
amount of friction and thereby reducing the liability of its 
breaking. The amount of oil consumed is also reduced to a 
minimum. As far as possible, the parts in Figs. 2, 3, 4, and 5 
that perform similar work have the same reference letters. 

Fig. 3 shows a compound that is peculiar in construction 
but very simple and accurate in its workings. On the main 



§25 



FLY FRAMES 



shaft in is a boss, or 
cross-piece, q for the 
reception of, and to 
form a bearing for, the 
small cross-shaft q^ that 
carries the two bevel 
gears h-,, h». Loose on 
the shaft vi is a bell, 
or, as it is sometimes 
called, socket, gear //j, 
which through its con- 
nections drives the 
bobbins. Attached to 
the gear h^ is a bevel 
gear h^. Beyond the 
cross-shaft and fast on 
a sleeve is the gear h^, 
which is driven from 
the bottom cone by a 
train of gears. On the 
opposite end of this 
sleeve, which is loose 
on the shaft vi, is a 
bevel gear m^ that 
meshes with the larger 
bevel gear h^. The 
shaft m being posi- 
tively driven at a con- 
stant speed, imparts 
motion to the bell 
gear 7^5, since the cross- 
shaft q^ and the parts 
connected with it turn 
the bevel gear h^ of 
which hs is a part, and if 
it were not for the ad- 
ditional speed imparted 
through the gear h^. 



rrrx 




8 FLY FRAMES §25 

the gear //s would make the same number of revolutions as m; 
ht, however, is positively driven in the same direction as r?i 
through the cones, while w,, being on the same sleeve with h^, 
drives h^ and consequently //, on the other end of the cross- 
shaft. As h, meshes with //«, the latter and also h^ receive 
an accelerated motion in addition to that derived through the 
motion of the shaft 7n. 

The effect of the combined forces acting on h^ is to cause 
it to revolve at such an accelerated speed that, when winding 
is being performed at the beginning of a set of bobbins, the 
empty bobbins revolve so much faster than the spindles as 
to wind on the roving delivered by the rolls. As the 
gear h^ is driven from the bottom cone and the speed of this 
cone is reduced in the usual manner, the speed of h^ is 
gradually reduced as the bobbins are built up, resulting in 
the diminishing of the speed of h^ and /u; the speed of these 
gears, however, is not reduced at any time so as to be 
less than the speed of the shaft ?n, thus always insuring that 
the bobbins revolve faster than the spindles and that winding 
is constantly taking place. 

In this compoiind, all the gears that are loose on the 
shaft m revolve in the same direction as the shaft; thus, the 
power required to drive them is greatly reduced in compar- 
ison with the old-style compound, since there is only a very 
slight amount of friction between the gears and the shaft. 
An advantage over the older form of compound will be 
readily seen in the saving of power and the lessening of the 
strain on the working parts, especially on the cone belt, 
where the strain is lessened to a very great degree. In this 
compound, the revolution of the shaft in becomes a help to 
the cone belt instead of an obstacle, as in the old form of 
compound. The greatest strain put on the belt is no more 
than is required to revolve the bobbins at their maximum 
speed of about 100 revolutions per minute beyond those run 
by the spindles. The shaft helps to the extent of the num- 
ber of revolutions that it drives the spindles, and the balance, 
which varies from 100 revolutions to none, is easily obtained 
with little strain on the cone belt. It is obvious that with 



§25 



FLY FRAMES 



the strain thus reduced, the cone belt will almost entirely 
cease to be a trouble or the cause of bad work. 

5. Fig. 4 (a) and (d) shows views of a compound widely 
different from those described. It uses spur gears instead 
of bevel gears, thus reducing the amount of friction. The 
gear ka is on a sleeve that carries at its opposite end a 
gear m,; this sleeve is loose on the jack-shaft m and revolves 
in the same direction. The gear /i» is driven by the cones 




in the usual manner, its speed depending on the position of 
the belt on the cones, while the gear ;//, causes the gears /i,, //« 
to revolve on their axes. The annular gear /le, which is 
fast to the jack-shaft m and revolves with it, gives motion 
to the disk k,o simply because the gears /i,, /is, which are 
on studs fastened to the disk, mesh with its teeth. The 
gears //,, /is have two motions; they revolve on their axes and 
also around the annular gear k^. Thus, the disk //,o is caused 



10 FLY FRAMES §25 

to revolve at a greater speed than the jack-shaft, and as 
it is on the same sleeve as the gear //s, it causes h^ to 
revolve and give motion to the bobbins. When the speed of 
the gear h^ is reduced by the cones, it reduces the speed of 
the gear ;;^,, and consequently that of the gears h.,, hg, as well 
as that of the gear h^, thus driving the bobbins more slowly. 
The sleeve that carries the gear hs and the disk //lo is outside 
of the one that carries the gears h^, m,, but it revolves in the 
same direction; thus there is a sleeve within a sleeve, form- 
ing what might be called a double, or compound, sleeve. The 
gearing in this compound is protected from dust and dirt by 
a shell or casing, which also forms an oil chamber so that 
the gears and sleeves are well lubricated at all times. 
Fig. 4 {a) shows the compound closed and in working posi- 
tion, while Fig. 4 ((5) shows it open with the internal parts 
exposed to viev^^. 

6. A compound that is novel, compact, and very effective 
is shown in Fig. 5 (<?) and {b); («) is a plan view partly in 
section, while {b) is a sectional elevation. The jack-shaft m 
carries the twist gear m^ and the spindle gear vi^, while the 
compound is situated between these two gears. Loose on 
the jack-shaft is a sleeve carrying the gear h^ and the 
cam //lo. The cam is circular and has a beveled face, as 
shown in the elevation {b) . Inside the shell, or bell, por- 
tion of the cam is the bevel gear m-, fast to the jack-shaft in. 
Bearing against the face of the cam h-,a is a circular disk q^ 
that revolves freely on a spherical bearing q^. This disk 
has 36 teeth on each side, as shown at ^3 and q^; ^3 meshes 
with m.,, which has 32 teeth, while q^ meshes with the bevel 
gear h^, which has 36 teeth and is fastened to a long sleeve 
that is loose on the jack-shaft and carries the spherical bear- 
ing ^5 and the gear h^ that drives the bobbins. As the jack- 
shaft revolves, it carries the bevel gear in., with it; and as m., 
meshes with q^, it causes the circular disk to revolve on the 
spherical bearing. Since q^ forms a part of the circular disk, 
it will revolve with the disk and impart motion to the bevel 
gear //« and the bobbin gear h^, because q^ meshes with h^. 



25 



FLY FRAMES 



11 





12 FLY FRAMES §25 

At the beginning of a new set of bobbins, the bobbin 
gear Ju makes the same number of revolutions per minute 
as the jack-shaft, and drives the bobbins at the required speed 
to wind on the correct amount of roving. As the gear //, 
is driven from the cones, it is the only medium for altering 
the speed of the bobbins. When commencing to wind a new 
set of bobbins, this gear makes the same number of revolu- 
tions per minute as the jack-shaft; consequently, for the 
present the cam may be considered as not existing, as it 
maintains the same relation between the gears m-,, ^3, q*, h^, 
thus allowing them to act as clutch gears, because the same 
teeth of the gears mesh with each other for the time being, 
and cause h^ to make the same number of revolutions as the 
jack-shaft. 

At the completion of each layer of roving on the bobbins, 
the cone belt is moved along the cones, thereby decreasing 
the speed of the gear h^ and the cam //i„. As the speed of the 
cam is decreased, it causes the circular disk to oscillate on 
the spherical bearing and change the points of contact of the 
gear m., with ^3, and q^ with h^. This oscillating motion of 
the disk causes q^ to roll around the gear w„ and as m., is 
smaller than q^, it causes a direct loss of speed to the 
circular disk, because it requires more than one revolution 
of the gear w, to give ^3 one complete turn. Since the 
speed of the disk is reduced, the gears Ju, h^ are affected in 
a similar manner, which causes the bobbins to make fewer 
revolutions per minute. The gradual reduction in the speed 
of the bobbins in a bobbin-lead frame is necessary in order 
that the bobbins may retain their proper circumferential 
speed, as their diameters increase with each new layer of 
roving. 

This entire motion is protected by a shell, or casing, 21 and 
may be thoroughly oiled by means of the oil hole 7^, which 
extends through the boss of the casing and the sleeve of the 
spherical bearing to the jack-shaft, and there connects with 
a passage in the sleeve of the spherical bearing. This pas- 
sage ends at a chamber u., that is in the spherical bearing. 
A hole in the bearing allows the oil to be distributed on the 



§25 FLY FRAMES 13 

face of the bearing and to pass into the large chamber, where 
it is distributed by the projections u^ on all of the remaining 
parts, thus insuring a perfect lubrication at all times. 



THE CONES 

7. Any one of the four types of compounds described 
provides a method of controlling the speed of the bobbins 
and gradually reducing it as they increase in diameter, if the 
speed of the controlling gear of the compound itself is suit- 
ably reduced. The action of the compounds shown in 
Figs. 2, 3, 4, and 5 is governed by the gears lettered h^ in 
each case. If in any one of these compounds the speed of 
this gear is reduced, the speed of the bobbins is reduced. 
To secure the suitable reduction of the speed of the control- 
ling gear in compounds on fly frames, a pair of cones is 
always introduced between the source of power applied to 
the machine and the compounds. These cones as used in 
combination with the ordinary type of compound are shown 
in Fig. 1; the top cone n^ is concave and has a diameter of 
62 inches at one end and 3i at the other, while the lower 
cone is convex and has a diameter of 6i inches at the large 
end and 3i at the small end. These cones are connected by 
a belt, by which the upper cone drives the lower cone; this 
belt is gradually moved from the larger end of the top cone 
to the smaller end during the filling of the bobbin, a slight 
movement being given to it each time that the traverse of 
the frame is changed. This movement is so proportioned 
as to bring the cone belt to the small end of the upper cone 
by the time the bobbins are filled. 

As the length of roving wound on the bobbin always 
equals the excess surface speed of the bobbin over the flyer, 
if a bobbin starts with a certain number of revolutions per 
minute, its rotary movement in excess of that of the flyer 
must be decreased in direct proportion to its increase in 
diameter. If the diameter of the full bobbin is four times 
that of the empty one, which is common in fly frames, the 
excess speed must be reduced to one-quarter. For instance, 



14 FLY FRAMES §25 

if the empty bobbin is 1 inch in diameter and the full bobbin 
4 inches in diameter, this means that the diameters of the 
cones must be arranged to give a reduction of 4 from one 
extreme to the other. The diameters suitable for this and 
such as are generally adopted are those mentioned, and it is 
obvious that the lower cone will revolve four times as fast 
when driven from the large end of the upper cone as it will 
when driven from the small end; thus, 62 -^ Si = 2; Si -^ 62 
= .5; 2 -- .5 = 4. 

Formerly cones were made with a straight surface, dimin- 
ishing equally from the large to the smaller end of the cone, 
but it has been found in practice that a concave upper cone 
and a convex bottom cone give more even winding, and they 
are now usually so constructed. When the belt is on the 
large end of the top cone and driving the small end of the 
bottom cone, the roving is being wound on the bare bobbin. 



_ BUILDER MOTIONS 

8. There are several very important points that should 
be considered in connection with the winding of the roving 
on the bobbin. It is customary to have each succeeding 
layer of roving slightly shorter than the preceding one, thus 
forming a taper at both ends of the bobbin. Thus, as is 
shown in Fig. 6, the first layer of roving that is placed on the 
bobbin extends from a to b, while the last la^^er extends only 
from c to d. Consequently, it becomes necessary to intro- 
duce some mechanism by means of which the traverse of the 
carriage may be shortened each time one complete layer of 
roving has been placed on the bobbin. It might naturally be 
supposed that since the traverse is shortened as the bobbin 
grows larger, the time occupied by the carriage in making 
the traverse will be lessened; but this is not so, since with 
each layer of roving the diameter of the bobbin is increased 
and consequently, although the part of the bobbin that is 
covered by the layer is less, there is actually a greater length 
of roving. Still another point to be noted is that in order to 
make a well-wound bobbin it is necessary that there should 



§25 



FLY FRAMES 



15 



be only a slight space between any two adjacent coils in the 
same layer of roving, and that this space should be main- 
tained throughout the building of the bobbin. It will be 
seen that the distance between two adjacent coils of roving 
will depend on the speed at which the bobbin is traversed. 

It would be a comparatively simple matter to so regulate 
the speed of the carriage that the roving would be wound 
correctly for one layer, but the principal difficulty in building 
the bobbin lies in the fact that the correct speed of the car- 
riage for an empty bobbin is not the correct speed for the 
bobbin after it has had several layers of 
roving wound on it. That this is so may 
be readily seen if it is considered that 
with each additional layer of roving the 
bobbin is increased slightly in diameter 
and that consequently it takes a greater 
length of roving to form one complete 
coil around the bobbin. Therefore, in 
order that the same space may exist 
between two consecutive coils in any 
layer throughout the filling of the bob- 
bin, the speed at which the carriage, and 
consequently the bobbin, traverses up 
and down must be lessened as the 
bobbin becomes larger. 

Referring again to Fig. 1, the shaft n.,, 
which is driven from the bottom cone, 
carries a bevel gear n^ that drives the 
bevel gear n^ on an upright shaft. 









\'.— .. ' 1/a 



LUi: 



Fig. 6 

At the lower end of this 
upright shaft is a bevel gear v that by means of the gears v^, v,, 
the action of which will be explained later, gives motion to 
the shaft v^. The gear lu on the end of this shaft drives, 
through suitable gearing, the shaft r,, which carries the 
gear r, that imparts motion to the rack r,. Since the motion 
of this train of gears is derived from the bottom cone, the 
rack and, consequently, the carriage will be driven at a speed 
that is uniformly decreasing as the bobbins are becoming full, 
which is the result desired. 



16 FLY FRAMES §25 

AMERICAN TYPE OF BUILDER 

9. In order to shorten the length of the traverse with 
each layer of roving placed on the bobbin and also to reverse 
the direction of the traverse, the builder motion is applied 
to all fly frames. A view of a builder motion that illustrates 
the style generally used on American-built frames is given 
in Figs. 1 and 7. Its parts are as follows: Attached to the 
carriage, and consequently rising and falling together with it, 
is a bracket x, Fig. 7, carrying a casting that supports a central 
shaft Xi on which right- and left-hand threads are cut. The 
upper thread carries the jaw x^, and the lower thread the 
jaw x,; therefore, by turning the shaft x, in the proper direc- 
tion the two jaws can be brought closer together, the upper 
jaw X2 projecting beyond the lower jaw .1-3 and being capable 
of sliding outside, as shown in the illustrations. The upper 
part of the shaft Xi is made square and projects through a 
gear Xt supported by a bracket. As the gear x^ is not set- 
screwed to the shaft x^, any vertical movement of one will 
not affect the other, and yet on account of that part of the shaft 
that projects through the gear being square, and the aperture 
in the gear being of such a shape as to fit the shaft, any rotary 
motion of one will be communicated to the other. In study- 
ing this motion it should be understood that as the bracket x is 
raised and lowered by the carriage it takes with it the shaft Xi 
and the jaws x^, X3. Another upright shaft w, known as the 
tumbler shaft, carries a dog 7e\ having two arms w^, w^. At 
the bottom of the tumbler shaft is a circular disk y^ with two 
lugs, shown in plan in Fig. 7 (b), against each of which, in 
turn, a lever y, is pressed by means of a strong spring in such 
a manner as to tend to move the shaft a small portion of a 
revolution. At the upper end of the shaft is a gear w^ com- 
posed of four sections, also shown in plan in Fig. 1 (d); two 
of these sections that are directly opposite each other have 
13 teeth each, while the other two sections are blank. 

10. The action of this part of the mechanism is as follows: 
Suppose that the parts are in the position shown in Fig. 7; then 



§25 



FLY FRAMES 



17 



the spring acting on one of the lugs on the disk at the foot 
of the shaft w is tending to give this shaft a partial revolu- 




FiG. 7 



tion but is prevented from doing so by the arm w^ bearing 
against the jaw x,. The carriage when the parts are in this 



18 FLY FRAMES §25 

position is moving up, and when it has risen sufficiently so 
that the jaw x^ is raised above the arm w^, the spring is 
allowed to act on the shaft u> and turn it until the gear ?i,o on 
the end of the top-cone shaft engages with the teeth in one 
of the sections of the gear w^. These two gears continue to 
engage until a blank section on the gear w^ is presented 
to Wio, at which point the spring at the foot of the shaft 7v 
will act on the second lug and further turn the shaft until the 
arm w^ comes in contact with one of the jaws. The entire 
motion of the shaft w at any one time is thus equal to half a 
revolution. It should be noted that although the carriage at 
the time these actions take place is sufficiently high to allow 
the arm w^ to pass under the jaw x,, the arm w^, owing to 
its being situated in a higher plane than zfo, will come in 
contact with the jaw X3, and as the carriage is lowered, with 
the jaw x^ also. When the motion of the carriage is down- 
wards, the arm w^ is bearing against the jaws, and as the 
jaw Xi is brought low enough to free this arm the shaft w is 
given a half revolution in the same manner as that described. 
In making this half revolution, the tumbler shaft accom- 
plishes a change in three parts of the frame at the same 
time: (1) The carriage is driven in an opposite direc- 
tion, that is, if it was going up before, it is going down 
after the shaft has turned; (2) the belt is moved along the 
cones for a short distance; (3) the length of the traverse is 
shortened. Dealing with these points separately and in the 
order given above, when the tumbler shaft is given a half 
revolution it turns the cam )u situated at its lower end, a plan 
view of which is shown in Fig. 1 (c). This action results in 
giving the rod y, Fig. 1, a longitudinal motion. This rod is 
jointed to the rod v^ in such a manner that the latter is 
allowed to revolve without in any way affecting the former, 
and yet any longitudinal motion of one will affect the other. 
On the rod zs are shown two gears z\, v., the teeth of which 
face each other; these are known as the twin sjears. They 
are so adjusted on the rod that a movement in either 
direction of the rod y causes one or the other of the two 
gears to come in contact with the bevel gear v. It will be 



§25 FLY FRAMES 19 

seen that the direction in which the shaft v^ rotates will 
be periodically reversed; i. e., if it were turning from right 
to left before the tumbler shaft turned, it will be turning from 
left to right afterwards. As the carriage is primarily driven 
by the shaft v^, the direction of movement of the carriage 
will thus be reversed at every turn of the tumbler shaft. 

On the tumbler shaft is placed a gear j, that through a suit- 
able train drives the gear y^ gearing into the rack j^^, which 
carries at one end a belt guide y^, Fig. 1; consequently, as the 
tumbler shaft is revolved, the gear y^ will turn j/^, thus giving 
motion to the rack y^, and through the belt guide y^ moving 
the belt a short distance toward the small end of the top cone. 

As the rack is moved, it imparts motion to the gear x^ 
which through the gear x^ turns the gear x^ and consequently 
the shaft x^. The movement of the shaft x^ brings the 
jaws x^, Xs closer together, which allows the arms za^y w, to 
escape the jaws when the carriage has made a shorter 
traverse than was previously necessary. 

11. Change Gears. — In connection with this builder 
motion there are the following very important change gears, 
reference being made to Fig. 1: the lay gear v^, the tension 
gear y^, the taper gear x^, and the rack gear y^. The lay 
gear v^ forms part of the train of gears that regulate the 
speed at which the carriage moves up and down, and con- 
sequently the distance between any two consecutive coils of 
roving on the bobbin. In case the correct distance is not 
maintained between the coils, this gear is the one that is 
changed. The tension gear y^ regulates the distance that the 
cone belt moves along the cones at each reversal of the 
traverse of the carriage, and consequently controls the tension 
of the roving between the delivery rolls and the flyer, since if 
the belt is moved a shorter distance along the cones, it causes 
all the motions controlled by the cone belt to tend toward 
winding more quickly and thus increase the tension of the 
roving, while on the other hand if the cone belt is moved a 
greater distance, the reverse will be true. The taper gear x^ 
regulates the distance that the jaws of the builder motion will 



20 FLY FRAMES §25 

be brought toward each other at each reversal of the car- 
riage, and consequently regulates the taper on the bobbin. 
The rack gear y^ regulates the distance that the rack moves at 
any one time, and consequently also regulates both the tension 
and the taper at the same time. By changing the rack gear 
to a smaller gear the rack is moved a shorter distance, thus 
causing the jaws of the builder to come together more 
slowly and the belt to be moved along the cones more slowly. 



ENGLISH TYPE OF BUILDER 

12. Fig. 8 {a) and {b) shows a style of builder motion 
that is found on English-built frames. Fig. 8 {a) shows 
this motion as it appears on the frame, while Fig. 8 {b) 
shows the motion with certain of the parts removed in order 
that its action may be more clearly explained. Attached to 
the carriage of the fly frame is a bracket x that has a slot x^ 
cast in it. A stud x^ that works in this slot carries a bar x^, 
known as the poker bar, that passes through a cradle a 
loose on the shaft b. Attached to the bracket x is an arm y that 
has connected to it at y^ a cradle c centered at <:,. It should 
be carefully noted that as the carriage traverses up and down 
it will carry with it the bracket x and thus cause the poker 
bar X3 to give a rocking motion to the cradle a. At the same 
time the cradle c will also receive a rocking motion, due to 
its being connected to the bracket x by the arm y. A vertical 
shaft d carries the two gears y., d^. The gear y. engages 
with the rack y^ that carries the belt guide, while the gear d^ 
engages with the gear d^, which is fastened to the shaft b. 
Fastened to the same shaft are the gears e,e^, the gear (?, 
engaging with teeth on the under side of the poker 
bar X3 while the gear £> is a ratchet gear and has work- 
ing in its teeth the stop-pawls ^,,^3. At the top, or head, of 
the vertical shaft ^ is a drum d^, on which is wound a chain / 
carrying a weight g; this weight exerts a constant pull on 
the chain, and were it not for the engagement of the stop- 
pawls e.,e^ with the teeth of the ratchet gear <?, would cause 
the shaft d to revolve until the chain was entirely unwound 
from the drum. The cradle h, which is loose on the shaft b, 




1 afo II II II ii 



I I i \[p~',\ ii I'll 1 
I ! '7 il II I' iij 



ii 1.^1 ,1 ii 

Ji_lL±!_'i J, 




fa) 



F.'G. ! 




(f>) 



)2S> 



§25 FLY FRAMES 21 

carries at its lower end a stud j, and bracket y, which has two 
projecting armsy.,/,, while at its upper end the cradle has 
three projections //,, h^, h^. The projection /;. forms a shoulder 
against which the two pigeon levers k, k^ are kept in contact 
by means of the spring k^ that passes under the stud b and is 
connected to the levers at k^, /C%, respectively, thus exerting 
a continual pull on the levers k, ^, in a downward direction 
toward the shaft b. The levers k, k^ are centered on studs k.,, k^ 
that are secured to the frame. Directly above the points c^, c, 
of the cradle c are two hooks m^, m^ that form part of the 
rods ;;/, Wi, respectively. The rod w has the weight 7i 
attached to its lower end, while at its upper end it passes 
through the projection h^ of the cradle h. The rod m^ is 
connected to the cradle h in exactly the same manner and 
carries the weight ?^,. Consequently, if the weights are not 
supported at the points c^, c^ by means of the hooks m„ w,, 
they will be suspended from the projections //j, h^. 

13. The operation of the parts is as follows: Assuming 
that the carriage is ascending, as indicated by the arrow, 
carrying with it the poker bar x^ and raising the right-hand 
side of the cradle c, as the rail ascends, the point c^ descends 
until the rod ;;z with weight n is resting entirely on the end h, 
of the cradle h; the weight 7i tends to pull h., downwards but 
is prevented from doing so by the lever k being in contact 
with the shoulder h^. When the carriage has ascended far 
enough, the setscrew a^ that is attached to the cradle a forces 
down the lever k at its outer end, thus releasing the shoulder h^ 
and allowing the cradle h to be pulled over by the weight n, 
which as previously stated was hanging from h^, due to the 
descent of c. Not only does the ascent of r^ allow the rod rn 
attached to the weight 7i to rest on Ii^, but it simultaneously 
raises the rod ;«. attached to the weight n^ from the projec- 
tion //a, by raising the point r, and allowing the weight to be 
borne by the cradle c at this point, thus avoiding any pull of 
?ii on hi and also allowing the cradle // to rock freely. The 
cradle h carries at its lower extremity the bracket /; there- 
fore, if the center of motion is at b, any movement of //a will 



22 FLY FRAMES §25 

cause the shoulder /?, to swing in a similar direction and thus 
transmit to / a like movement, but in an opposite direction. 
The downward movement of h^ causes the shoulder //, to 
swing to the left, and j to swing to the right. In doing so, the 
arm j-, forces the pawl e^ out of contact with the ratchet e and 
allows the weight g to rotate the vertical shaft d until the 
pawl e^ engages with the ratchet e; since e^ and e^ are connected 
by the spring e^, which has a tendency to draw them together, 
€., will therefore engage with the ratchet e after it has turned 
half a tooth. The rotation of the shaft d will communicate 
motion to the rack y^ by means of the gear y,, thus moving the 
belt along the cones for a short distance. At the same time, 
the gear <?, will move the poker bar slightly to the left, thus 
bringing the stud .r, nearer the cradle a; consequently, on the 
next traverse the setscrew a^ will force down the lever k^ when 
the carriage has moved a shorter distance than on its previous 
traverse. Attached to j^ is an arm p that is centered at P-,. 
Connected to the lower end of this arm is a rod q that is 
jointed to the shaft carrying the twin gears. As j^ is forced 
one way or the other by the action of the cradle h, it swings 
the arm p, which, acting on the rod q, causes the opposite twin 
gear to engage and thus reverses the direction of motion of 
the carriage. 

METHODS OF DRIVING BOBBIN SHAFTS 

14. Horse-Head Motion. — Referring again to Fig. 1, it 
will be remembered that the gear //s, which is carried by a 
sleeve on the jai:k-shaft m, drives, by means of the inter- 
mediate gear //*, the gear h^ on the end of the back bobbin 
shaft. An important point to be noted in connection with 
this drive is that the jack-shaft, which carries the gear h^, 
revolves constantly in the same position, while the gear //, 
on the bobbin shaft, which is driven from the gear Ju, is 
receiving a vertical reciprocating motion, since the shaft 
carrying this gear forms a part of the bobbin carriage; 
consequently, some special device must be adopted to keep 
the three gears h^, h^, h, constantly in mesh with each other. 
Fig. 1 shows simply a diagrammatic view of the gearing of 



§25 



FLY FRAMES 



23 



a fly frame, and consequently the device adopted in this 
connection is not shown; but by referring to Fig. 9 the 
method adopted to compensate for the rise and fall of the 
bobbin shaft can be understood. This construction, which is 
very frequently adopted on fly frames, is commonly known as 
the liorse-head motion. The three gears //s, //«, //, corre- 
spond to the same gears in Fig. 1. Swinging loosely on the 
bearing that carries the jack-shaft m is an arm z that carries 
at its other end a stud on which the intermediate gear h^ 
revolves. Swinging loosely on this same stud is an arm z^ 




Fig. 9 

that is attached at its opposite end to the bearing of the back 
bobbin shaft, on which shaft is the gear //a. This connection 
is similar to that between the arm z and the bearing of the 
jack-shaft. Since the length of the two arms is always con- 
stant and this length is just sufficient to allow the teeth of 
the three gears to mesh properly, it will readily be seen 
that as the bobbin shaft rises and falls it will necessarily 
take the intermediate gear with it and hold it in the correct 
position for the teeth of the three gears to mesh properly. 

15. Vertical and Angle Shaft Motion. — Another 
method of obtaining the same result is shown in Figs. 10 
and 11; it is known as the vertical and angle sliaft 

motion. The parts of this motion are as follows: A ver- 
tical shaft a extends from the under side of the roll beam 
almost to the floor, having its lower end pointed and resting 
in a footstep and its upper end resting in a bearing that is 



24 



FLY FRAMES 



§25 



secured by bolts to the under side of the roll beam. On this 
shaft is a sleeve b that extends into the gear-box at the head 
of the carriage and is supported by a bracket c and flange b,. 




Fig. 10 



The sleeve b is key-seated to the vertical shaft, and conse- 
quently as the shaft revolves will receive a rotary motion; it 



25 



FLY FRAMES 



25 



is, however, free to be moved up and down on the shaft a 
as may be desired. It will be seen from the construction 
that as the carriage receives its traversing motion it takes 
with it the sleeve b, fastened to which is a gear d that gears 
into the gear e on the back bobbin shaft. Setscrewed to the 
upper end of the vertical shaft <7 is a bevel gear / receiving 
motion from the bevel gear g at the upper end of the angle 




Fig. 11 



shaft //. At the lower end of this angle shaft is another 
bevel gear driven by the beveled bobbin gear h^ on a sleeve 
on the jack-shaft. By this means the vertical shaft a, which 
receives motion from the jack-shaft through the train of 
gears just described, is constantly imparting motion to the 
gear d on the sleeve b, although this sleeve traverses up and 
down the shaft together with the bobbin rail. 



26 FLY FRAMES §25 



STOP-MOTIONS 

16. The full-bobbin stop-motion of a fly frame is 
very simple and is found on most fly frames. The shipper 
rod a, Fig. 12 {a), extends the entire length of the frame and 
passes through the eye of the knock-off lever d, which is 
pivoted to a bracket attached to the roll beam. The knock- 
oflf lever carries an arm d^ that supports a heavy weight d^, 
while near the lower part of the lever is pivoted a knock-off 
latch c that passes through an opening in one of the samp- 
sons; this Sampson carries a bracket r, that is engaged by a 
slot in the latch, thus holding the latch in position. The 
rack d, which carries the belt guide e, also has a knock-off 
dog dr attached to it by means of a setscrew. A perspective 
view of this knock-off dog is shown in Fig. 12 (b). 

During the building of the bobbin the cone belt is moved 
along the cones by the movement of the rack, which moves 
slightly toward the foot end of the frame at the completion 
of each traverse. When the bobbins have become full the 
belt is at the small end of the top cone and the rack has 
moved some distance to the right; consequently, on account 
of the position of the knock-off dog on the rack, this dog 
passes under the knock-off latch and raises it, thus allowing 
the weight di to throw the upper end of the knock-off lever d 
to the left so that it strikes the ball «, attached to the shipper 
rod. As the lever continues its movement it moves the 
shipper rod toward the head end of the frame and ships the 
driving belt from the tight to the loose pulley. 

The frame can be set to knock off whenever the bobbins 
have attained their correct size. This is accomplished by 
moving the knock-off dog on the rack so that it will pass 
under the latch and release it when the bobbins are of the 
desired size. 

17. A great deal of trouble and bad work results on fly 
frames from the cone belt breaking. In Fig. 12 (a) a patent 
knock-off motion is shown, which stops the frame and at the 
same time prevents the ends from breaking down at the front 



28 FLY FRAMES §25 

when the cone belt breaks. The lower cone is supported by 
a frame that swings on the back shaft / and is capable of 
being raised or lowered; the shaft / is the one that imparts 
motion to the racks that actuate the carriage. The chains g,gi 
and the rod g^ form a connection between one of the bearings 
of the bottom cone and the knock-off latch. The shipper e 
carries two belts ^,, e^. The wide belt e^ is the main cone 
belt and is used to drive the bottom cone. The belt e^ is a 
little longer than <?i, so that it will not come in contact with 
the bottom cone when the frame is running properly. When 
the belt ^, breaks, the lower cone falls until it comes in con- 
tact with the auxiliary belt e^, which is long enough to allow 
the lower cone to drop sufficiently to release the latch c by 
means of the chain-and-rod connection. When the latch c is 
released the knock-off lever forces the shipper rod toward the 
head of the frame, so that the belt is moved from the tight 
to the loose pulley. The auxiliary belt keeps the lower cone 
in motion until the frame has stopped, and thereby prevents 
the ends from breaking down at the front. 



CREEL 

18. Although the slubber has been taken to illustrate the 
construction of fly frames, it will be found that the descrip- 
tions given will apply equally well to any of the machines 
grouped under the head of fly frames. Outside of the differ- 
ence in the size of the parts of the different frames, the only 
noticeable difference between the slubber and the other 
frames is in the manner of feeding the cotton at the back. 
As the slubber takes the sliver from the cans that are filled 
at the drawing frames, these cans are placed behind the slub- 
ber in a similar manner to that adopted at the drawing frames 
and other machines to which the cotton is fed from cans. On 
the other hand, the roving comes to the later fly frames on 
bobbins, and it is consequently necessary to provide some 
means by which these bobbins may be supported and yet 
allowed to revolve freely as the roving is being unwound 
from them. Any arrangement in cotton-mill machinery that 




Pig. 13 



30 



FLY FRAMES 



§25 



serves to support bobbins or spools is generally termed a 
creel. Fig. 13 shows the creel, together with other parts, 
of a first intermediate fly frame. The creel consists of a 
framework that extends the entire length of the machine at 
the back and is built up of the required number of wooden 
rails a, a^, a^, a,, which are supported by brackets d that are 
setscrewed to the rods c and are capable of being 
adjusted up or down in order to have the desired 
space between any two. On their upper sides the 
rails, with the exception of the top ones, carry glass 
cups, or steps, while directly over each cup is a metal 
eye d fastened to the rail above. The rods c to which 
the brackets d are setscrewed are supported by brack- 
ets e bolted to the roll beam; these rods, in addition 
to carrying the brackets d, also support small 
brackets / through which the rod £■ passes. This rod 
serves as a guide for the roving as it is unwound 
from the upper bobbins. 

In placing the full bobbins in the creel wooden 
skewers are used. These skewers are shown at A, 
Fig. 13, a skewer alone being shown in Fig. 14. 
They are slightly longer than the bobbins and, as 
shown in Fig. 13, pass completely through them, the 
lower end of each skewer resting in the cup on the top 
of the rail, while its upper end passes through the eye 
inserted in the edge of the rail above. A shoulder at 
the lower end of the skewer prevents the bobbin 
from dropping below this position, and as it is prac- 
tically only the friction of the bottom point of the 
skewer in the glass cup that must be overcome, the 
bobbins revolve with a minimum of resistance. 
The top of the creel is of sufficient width to sup- 
port full bobbins, and it is the custom to place them side by 
side and from two to three tiers high along the entire top of 
the creel. This provides for a sufficient number of full bob- 
bins to take the place of those already in the creel when they 
become empty. 



Fig. 14 



FLY FRAMES 

(PART 3) 



MANAGEMENT OF FLY FRAMES 



CALCULATIONS 

1. In connection with fly frames there are numerous 
calculations that it is necessary to understand. Many of 
these refer to speeds and drafts, on which general informa- 
tion and rules have been given in dealing with mechanical and 
draft calculations; examples of all necessary calculations are 
given in this Section, but the rules dealing with speeds and 
drafts are omitted. The examples apply to the gearing 
shown in Fig. 1, and to a bobbin-lead type of frame. 

Example 1. — Find the speed of the jack-shaft when the main shaft 
makes 300 revolutions per minute and carries a 20-inch pulley driving 
a 16-inch pulley on the jack-shaft. 

300 X 20 „„. • f • 1 u f. A 

Solution. — — — = 3/5 rev. per mm. of ]ack-shaft. Ans 

lb 

Example 2. — Find the revolutions per minute of the top-cone shaft 
when the jack-shaft makes 375 revolutions per minute and carries a 
38-tooth twist gear driving a 48-tooth gear on the top-cone shaft. 

375 X 38 

Solution. — — — = 296.875 rev. per min. of top-cone shaft. 

48 

Ans. 

Example 3. — Find the revolutions per minute of the front roll when 
the top-cone shaft makes 296.875 revolutions per minute and carries an 
86-tooth gear driving a 120-tooth gear on the front-roll shaft. • 

296.875X86 „^^ _ . . 

Solution.— r-^- = 212. /6 rev. per ram. Ans. 

I^or notice of copyright, see page immediately following the title page 
§26 




^^ I J 



§26 FLY FRAMES 3 

Example 4. — Find the length of roving delivered per minute by the 
front roll when it is 1.25 inches in diameter and makes 212.76 rev- 
olutions per minute. 

212.76X1.25X3.1416 „ ^^^ . . . 

Solution. — ^-, = 23.208 yd. per mm. Ans. 

DO 

Example 5. — Find the number of revolutions of the spindles to 
1 revolution of the jack-shaft when the jack-shaft carries a 42-tooth 
gear driving a 42-tooth gear on the spindle-gear shaft, which carries a 
46-tooth gear driving a 24-tooth gear on the lower end of the spindle. 

1 X 42 X 46 

Solution. — — r;^ — = 1.916 rev. of spindles to 1 rev. of jack- 

42 X 24 

shaft. Ans. 

Example 6. — Find the revolutions per minute of the spindles when 
the jack-shaft makes 375 revolutions per minute and the spindles make 
1.916 turns to one of the jack-shaft. 

Solution. — 375 X 1.916 = 718.5 rev. per min. of spindles. Ans. 

2. To find the twist, or turns, per inch: 

Rule \.— Divide the revohitions per minute of the spindles by 
the lejigth of rovijigy in inches, delivered by the frojit roll in the 
sa7)ie time. 

Ex.\mple 1. — Find the turns per inch being placed in the roving if 
the spindles make 718.5 revolutions per minute and the front roll 
delivers 23.208 yards per minute. 

Solution.— 23.208 X 36 = 835.488 in. per min.; 718.5 -^ 835.488 
= .859 turn per in. Ans. 

Rule II. — Taking i^ito coiisideration all the gears, with the 
exception of the carrier gears, ff^om the front roll to the spindles, 
assume that the front-roll gear is a driver. Multiply together 
all driving gears aiid divide by the product of all the driven 
gears. Divide the guotiejit thus obtained by the circumference of 
the fro7it roll. 

Ex.\mple 2. — Find the turns per inch being inserted in the roving 
with the following arrangement of gears: the front roll is 1.25 inches 
in diameter; front-roll gear has 120 teeth; gear on end of top-cone 
shaft, 86 teeth; top-cone gear, 48 teeth; twist gear, 38 teeth; jack-shaft 
gear, 42 teeth; spindle-shaft gear, 42 teeth, gear on spindle-shaft dri- 
ving spindle, 46 teeth; gear on spindle, 24 teeth. 

120 X 48 X 42 X 46 „ „„„ 3.378 

Solution.- -^^^^^^^^^,^^^^- = 3.3/8; YMx^Jim '' '^^ ^"^" 
per in. Ans. 



4 FLY FRAMES §26 

3. To find the constant for twist: 

Rule. — Apply ride II, in Art. 2, tor {i?idhig the twist, con- 
sidering the twist gear as a 1-tooth gear. 

ExAMPLK — Find the constant for twist, using the train of gearing 
given in example 2 in Art. 2 for finding the twist. 

^ 120 X 48 X 42 X 46 i„q o^n 128.372 

Solution.- -86xO<l2x2r = l'^'^^^; 1.05 x 3.1416 = ^'•^^^- 

constant dividend for twist. Ans. 

The constant dividend divided by the twist gear equals the twist 

per inch; thus, 32.689 -^ 38 = .86, twist per in. Ans. 

4. To find the speed of the bobbins: 

Rule. — Find the amoimt of roving ivound on the bobbins per 
mimcte and divide by the circjimference of the bobbifi. Add the 
result thus obtained to the speed of the spindles per minute, and 
the atiswer is the speed of the bobbins per minute. 

Example 1. — Find the speed of the bobbins at the beginning of a 
set when the diameter of the bobbin is 1.75 inches; the speed of the 
spindles, 718.5 revolutions per minute; and the front roll delivers 
835.488 inches per minute. 

835 488 
Solution. — r-=^ — ' .,,-,,, = 151.967 rev. per min. of bobbins over 
1.75 X 3.141b 

speed of spindles. Speed of the spindles, 718.5 rev. per min.; speed 

of bobbins over that of the spindles, 151.967. 718.5 + 151.967 = 870.467, 

speed of bobbins at beginning of set. Ans. 

Example 2. — Find the speed of the bobbins at the finish of a set 
when the diameter of the full bobbin is 6.125 inches; the speed of the 
spindles, 718.5 revolutions per minute; and the front roll delivers 
835.488 inches per minute. 

835 488 
Solution.— » ^^i J. o -.A^a ~ 43.419 rev. per min. of the bobbins 

over the spindles. The number of revolutions per minute of the 
spindles is 718.5; the speed of the bobbins over that of the spindles is 
43.419. 718.5 + 43.419 = 761.919 rev. per min. of bobbins at the finish 
of a set. Ans. 

The reduction of the speed per minute of the bobbins 
from an empty bobbin to a full bobbin in the above case is 
870.467 - 761.919 = 108.548 revolutions. 

5. Drafts. — The draft of a fly frame is calculated in the 
usual manner. 



§26 FLY FRAMES 5 

Example 1.— Find the total draft of the rolls shown in Fig. 1, using 

a 44 draft gear. 

1.25 X 100 X 56 Q Q-7 . . 1 ^ .. A 
Solution. — — ., ^^ , . ^^ , — = 3.9^7, total draft. Ans. 
40 X 44 X 1 

The constant for draft is found in the same manner as 
the total draft, except that the draft gear is considered as a 
1-tooth gear. 

Example 2. — Find the draft constant for the rolls shown in Fig. 1. 

1.25 X 100 X 56 _^ ^ ^ . 

Solution. — — —r — — lib, constant. Ans. 

4U X 1 X 1 

Example 3. — Find the draft between the second and third rolls. 

1 X 25 

Solution. — ~ = 1.086, draft between second and third rolls. 

Zo X 1 

Ans. 

Example 4. — Find the draft between the front and second rolls if 
the draft gear contains 44 teeth. 

1.25 X 100 X 56 X 23 o .>r^ ^ r ,. 
Solution. — — <r> .. <■ .. or .. -• — = 3.659, draft between front 
40 X 44 X 25 X 1 

and second rolls. Ans. 

6. Cliaiige Gears. — In addition to the calculations given 
there are several in connection with fly frames that apply- 
particularly to the gears that should be used to produce 
satisfactory work. It will readily be understood that if a 
frame is running on a certain hank roving and it is desired 
to change to a different hank, certain gears must be changed 
in order that correct results may be obtained. In changing 
from one hank to another some or all of the following gears 
must be altered (the reference letters apply to Fig. 1): 
(1) the twist gear ;;?3, which alters the speed of the rolls 
and regulates the t.urns per inch placed in the roving; (2) the 
tension gear js, which regulates the movement of the belt 
along the cones; (3) the draft gear /, which alters the hank 
of the roving delivered; (4) the taper gear x^, which alters 
the taper of the bobbin; (5) the lay, or traverse, gear zu, 
which alters the speed of the traverse of the carriage. 

These are the American names for these gears; the English 
builder motion is different from the American and the 
English name for tension gear is rack wheel, for taper gear 
is taper wheel, and for lay gear is lifter wheel. 



6 FLY FRAMES §26 

The most important change to make is in the draft change 
gear, which regulates the size of the roving. It is generally 
customary at the same time to change the twist gear, because 
this should vary with every change in the hank of the roving. 
The tension gear is also frequently changed. It is not custom- 
ary, however, to change the lay gear unless the change in 
the hank of the roving is extensive. If the slubber roving is 
changed .3 hank, the first intermediate roving .5 hank, the 
second intermediate roving .75 hank, or the finished roving 
a whole hank, the lay gear will ordinarily be changed. 

It is seldom that the taper gear is changed in the mill, 
since the gear that is placed on the frame by the builders 
usually serves for the range of different hank roving that the 
frame is intended to make. 

It is important to bear in mind whether an increase or 
decrease in the size of a gear must be made to produce 
certain results. On the usual construction of American-built 
frames, in making a change to produce finer work the draft 
gear, the twist gear, the lay gear, and the tension gear would 
be changed to smaller gears; on the other hand, if the frame 
must be changed to make coarser work, they would be 
changed for larger gears, if required to be changed at all. 

The same statement is correct with regard to English-built 
frames, or American-built frames having an English type of 
builder, with the exception of the tension gear, which in case 
of changing the frame finer, would be changed to a gear 
having a larger number of teeth, or in case of changing the 
frame coarser, to a gear having a smaller number of teeth. 

The following rules apply to the method of figuring the 
different change gears when the gears that are on the frame 
and the hank roving being produced are known. From the 
calculations previously given it is possible to obtain the draft 
and twist gears without this data, but for the tension and lay 
gears this data is always necessary, since the correct gear 
for starting up a frame was obtained by the builders largely 
by experiment and not by calculation. Even when the gear 
to use for a certain hank roving is known, the calculated 
gear for another hank does not always give satisfactory 



1 



§26 FLY FRAMES 7 

results, since the changing of these gears is largely a matter 
of experience and observation, owing to a number of dif- 
ferent points affecting the results produced b\^ them, such as 
the amount of twist put in the roving, the condition of the 
cone belt, the number of times that the roving is wound 
around the presser on the flyer, and so forth. 

7. To find the draft gear to be used for a certain hank 
roving when the draft gear that is on and the hank roving 
that it produces are known: 

Rule. — Multiply the draft gear being used by the hank 
roving that it produces^ and divide the result by the hank roving 
that is to be made. 

Example. — If 4-hank roving is being produced with a 32-tooth draft 
gear, what draft gear will a 6-hank roving require? 

Solution.— 32 X 4 = 128; 128 ^ 6 = 21.333, or practically a 
21-tooth draft gear. Ans. 

8. To find the twist gear to be used for a certain hank 
roving when the twist gear that is on and the hank roving 
that is produced are known: 

Rule. — Multiply the square root of the hank being made by 
the twist gear, a7id divide by the square root of the hank required. 

In examples in which the diameter of the roving affects 
the size of the gear to be used it is necessary to consider the 
square roots of the hanks, since the diameters of rovings 
vary inversely as the square roots of their hanks. 

Example. — If .36-hank roving is being made with a 54-tooth gear, 
what twist gear is required for a .64-hank? 

Solution.— -^m - .6; \C64 = .8;. 6 X 54 = 32.4; 32.4 ^ .8 = 40.5. 
Either a 41-tooth or a 40-tooth gear may be used. Ans. 

9. To find the tension gear to be used for a certain hank 
roving when the tension gear that is on and the hank roving 
that is produced are known, the frame having the American 
type of builder: 

Rule. — Multiply the sqtiare root of the hank being made by the 
tension gear, and divide by the sqjiare root of the ha^ik required. 



8 FLY FRAMES §26 

Example. — If .36-hank roving is being made with a 50-tooth tension 
gear, what tension gear is required for a .64-hank? 

Solution.— V^6 = .6; V764 = .8; .6 X 50 = 30; 30 -=- .8 = 37.5. 
Either a 37-tooth or a 38-tooth gear may be used. Ans. 

To find the tension gear to be used for a certain hank 
roving when the tension gear that is on and the hank roving 
that is produced are known, the frame having the English 
type of builder: 

Rule. — Multiply the square root of the hank required by 
the iensio?i gear, a?id divide by the sqtcare root of the hank 
being made. 

Example. — If .36-hank roving is being made with a 20-tooth tension 
gear, what tension gear is required for a .64-hank? 

Solution.— V73'6 = .6; 4m = .8; .8 X 20 = 16; 16 -^ .6 = 26.666. 
A 27-tooth gear would be used. Ans. 

10. To find the lay gear to be used for a certain hank 
roving when the lay gear that is on and the hank roving that 
is produced are known: 

Rule. — Multiply the square 7'oot of the hank being made by 
the lay gear, and divide by the square root of the hank 
reqtdred. 

Example. — If .36-hank roving is being made with a 33-tooth gear, 
what lay gear is required for a .64-hank? 

Solution.— <M = .6; \^ = .8; .6 X 33 = 19.8; 19.8 ^ .8 = 24.75. 
A 25-tooth gear should be used. Ans. 

11. Production. — To find the production of a fly 
frame, in pounds: 

Rule. — Multiply the hanks per spiiidle, as indicated by the 
hank clock, by the member of spindles, and divide by the hank 
roving. 

Example. — A clock on a 72-spindle frame registers 75 hanks of 

.5-hank roving turned off in a week. What is the production in 

pounds? 

75 X 72 
Solution. — ^ — = 10,800 lb. production. Ans. 



§26 FLY FRAMES 9 

12. Average Hank.— To find the average hank, or 
average number, of the roving when several hanks are 
being run: 

^xx\Q.— Multiply the Pounds of each hank produced by the 
number of the hank, and divide the total of the products thus 
obtained by the total of the poimds produced. 

ExAMPLE.-If 1,800 pounds of .50-hank, 700 pounds of 1.50-hank 
850 pounds of 2-hank, 800 pounds of 2.25-hank, 750 pounds of 4-hank' 
and 700 pounds of 10-hank are produced in a week, what is the average 
hank of the roving? ^ 

Solution. — 

1800X .5 0= 900 

700X 1.5 0= 1050 

8 5 X 2.0 = 17 

8 X 2.2 5 = 18 

750X 4.0 0= 3000 

700 X 1 0.0 = 7 

Total, 5 6 pounds 15 4 5 hanks 

15,450 - 5,600 = 2.758, average hank. Ans. 



STARTING FLY FRAMES 

13. Draft.— In starting fly frames, one of the first 
points to be considered is the arrangement of the drafts in 
the different frames. As a general rule, the drafts in the 
mtermediate frames should be less than the draft in the roving 
frame and slightly greater than that in the slubber. It is not 
always possible, however, to arrange a series of fly frames 
so as to give the best theoretical drafts, since one process 
must keep up with another, and it is customary for those in 
charge to change the drafts until the production of one 
nicely balances that of the other; that is, if the slubbers are 
making too many bobbins for the intermediates, the draft 
of the slubber is increased so as to make a finer roving, and 
the draft in the intermediates decreased because finer r'o'ving 
IS fed at the back, thus making the same hank at the fron't 
as in the former case but using a greater length of back 
roving. Speaking generally, it may be said that on coarse 
work or in mills making below 36s yarn it is best to arrancre 



10 FLY FRAMES §26 

the draft of the slubber about 4, intermediate about 5, and 
the roving frame about 6. The following is an organization 
used when starting fly frames for 28s warp and 36s filling. 
A 55-grain sliver at the drawing frame (equal to about 
.151 hank) and 4.5 draft at the slubber gives .68-hank 
slubbing; 5.5 draft at the intermediate, doubling 2^ gives a 
1.87-hank roving; and a 6.5 draft at the roving frame, doub- 
ling 2, gives a 6.07-hank roving. Other organizations are as 
follows: For a 4.5-hank roving at the roving frame, a .5-hank 
roving is usually produced at the slubber and a 1. 5-hank 
roving at the intermediate, with a draft of 6 at both the 
intermediate and roving frames. For a 10-hank roving, the 
following are good drafts: slubber, 4; first intermediate, 4.5; 
second intermediate, 5; roving frame, 5. For a 20-hank 
roving, the following are good drafts: slubber, 4.5; first 
intermediate, 5; second intermediate, 6; roving frame, 6.5. 

In connection with the drafts in the different fly frames, 
an important point always to be taken into consideration is 
the production that different drafts will give. In making any 
change of hank, it should be clearly understood that chan- 
ging to finer roving means reduced production, not only on 
account of the reduced weight per yard of the roving, but 
also because the speed of the front roll must be reduced in 
order to obtain the extra twist that is required for the finer 
hank. Sometimes the experiment is tried of putting a 
small pulley on the frame so as to bring the speed of the 
front roll up to the original speed and increase the speed 
of the spindles, but this is not often advisable, as too great 
speed makes the work run badly and consequently reduces 
the production. 

14. Tavist. — Having obtained the correct drafts for the 
different frames, the next important point to be considered 
is the twist to be placed in the roving. In this connection, 
it should be distinctly understood that the amount of twist 
in the roving depends on the relation that the speed of the 
spindles bears to that of the front rolls. Twist may be 
increased in roving either by decreasing the speed of the 



§26 



FLY FRAMES 



11 



delivery rolls or increasing the speed of the spindles. The 
spindles of each kind of fly frames in a mill are usually run 
at a certain number of revolutions per minute, which has been 
found most desirable in practice, and any great increase over 
this number causes the work to run badly. On this account, 
whenever it is desired to insert more twist in the roving, it 
is the usual practice to decrease the speed of the front rolls. 
This, however, decreases the production of the frame, and 
consequently no more twist should be placed in the roving 
than is absolutely necessary to allow it to draw off well at 
the next process without stretching and breaking. Not only 
does any twist above this amount decrease the production, 
but it also makes the roving draw badly and is liable to 
damage the leather top rolls on the next frame. The amount 
of twist placed in roving varies according to the hank being 
produced and the stock being used. It has been found prac- 
tical to insert a number of turns per inch that is equal to the 
product of the square foot of the hank and certain numbers 
used as constants. The following table gives the constants 
that are commonly used for American, Egyptian, and sea- 
island cotton on the slubber, first intermediate, second inter- 
mediate, and roving frames. 



TABLE I 



Cotton 


Slubber 


First 
Inter- 
mediate 


Second 
Inter- 
mediate 


Roving 
Frame 


American . . . 
Egyptian . . . 
Sea-island • . . 


I.O 

•9 

•7 


I.I 

1.0 

.8 


1.20 
1. 10 

.90 to .95 


1.3 
1.2 
1.0 



It is generally assumed that a good test for determining 
whether sufficient twist is being placed in the roving is to 
feel each bobbin to see that it is not too hard or too soft, 
although it should be borne in mind that a hard bobbin may 
be formed from roving having less than the standard twist if 
a presser with a heavy vertical rod is used. 



12 FLY FRAMES §26 

15. Speed. — It has been stated that the spindles on fly 
frames are run at a uniform speed, but in this connection it 
may be well to consider what speeds are best for the different 
frames. The speed of the spindles on a slubbing frame may 
slightly exceed 600 revolutions per minute; on a first inter- 
mediate frame 900 revolutions per minute is a good speed; 
on a second intermediate, 1,200; and on a roving frame, 
1,500 revolutions per minute. These speeds, of course, are 
often exceeded in many mills. In some cases it would be 
more accurate to give the speeds at 800, 1,000, 1,300, and 
1,600 revolutions, respectively, for the four machines. 
Experience, however, has demonstrated that in fly frames 
high speeds, particularly when the cotton is not up to the 
standard, are objectionable. No definite number of revolu- 
tions per minute can be given for the spindles of fly frames, 
since this is dependent largely on circumstances. It may 
sometimes be advisable to run more slowly than the speeds 
given above, since old frames, coarse work, or inferior stock 
will necessitate slower speeds than new frames, fine work, 
or good stock. 

When once the correct ratio of speed between the front 
roll and the spindle has been found, the only way of increas- 
ing production is to increase the speed of the whole frame. 
Theoretically, every time the frame is speeded up the produc- 
tion ought to increase, although in practice this is not found 
to be so, since there is a limit to the speed of every machine 
beyond which it is not advisable to go, because an excessive 
speed causes unnecessary wear and tear to take place and 
results in a large number of ends breaking; this is an espe- 
cially important matter in connection with fly frames, since 
the whole frame must be stopped to piece one broken end. 

16. Build of Bobbin. — After deciding on the draft to 
be used in the frame and the number of turns per inch to be 
inserted in the roving, a few bobbins may be placed in the 
creel, considering that one of the frames other than the 
slubber is being dealt with. The ends of roving from two 
bobbins are passed through the drawing rolls and pieced at 



§26 FLY FRAMES 13 

the front. One layer should then be run on the bobbin and 
the length of traverse adjusted so as to obtain a layer of as 
great a length as possible without the finger of the presser 
striking the ends of the bobbin. The proper lay gear may 
also be chosen at this point. In order to obtain a well-built 
bobbin, the coils in the first layer should be laid so that the 
wood of the bobbin can barely be seen between them. Should 
the first experimental bobbin show the coils either closer or 
farther apart than this, the lay gear should be changed 
accordingly. The correct lay gear is largely a matter of exper- 
iment and experience, and different millmen have different 
ideas as to the correct gear that should be used. For accurate 
work, it is advisable to count the number of coils per inch 
that are made on the bare bobbin, when satisfactory results 
are obtained, for various hanks of roving. From these records 
a table of constants can be prepared, which can be used for 
reference. It is found in practice that the most suitable 
number of coils per inch varies from seven to ten times the 
square root of the hank roving being produced, the smaller 
multiplier being used for slubbers and intermediates and 
the larger one for roving frames. For example, in case of 
making 4-hank roving, the square root of which is 2, if 10 is 
used as a multiplier, 20 coils per inch will be placed on the 
bare bobbin. Other factors enter into the question as to the 
spacing of these coils; for instance, the amount of twist 
placed in the roving, the grade of cotton being used, and 
whether the stock has been carded or both carded and combed, 
all have an effect on the number of coils per inch that can 
be advantageously placed on the bobbin. 

17. Tension. — By referring to Fig. 1, it will be noted 
that on the end of the bottom cone is a gear driving, by 
means of suitable gearing, a gear on the compound. When 
starting up a new frame, it should be carefully noted whether 
the roving is running at the correct tension; and if it is not, 
this cone gear should be changed until the right tension is 
obtained. A gear of fewer teeth will drive the bobbins more 
slowly, causing less tension on the ends, while a gear of 



14 FLY FRAMES §26 

more teeth has the opposite effect. In some cases, instead 
of changing the cone gear, the proper tension is obtained by 
starting the belt at a different position on the cones. This, 
however, is not good practice and should not be allowed. 
The belt should always be started at the end of the cones 
when winding the first layer on the bobbin, and the cone gear 
be of such size as to give the proper tension with the belt in 
this position. This cone gear should be changed only when 
the frame is being started for the first time, and after the 
correct gear has once been obtained it should not be changed 
unless the diameter of the empty bobbin is changed. It is 
very important to have the tension properly adjusted, since 
a difference of from 10 to 15 per cent, in the weight of the 
roving on the full bobbin may be made by not having the 
correct cone gear, besides causing the frame to produce 
unsatisfactory work. 

18. Creelinjr. — After the different gears have been put 
on and the length of the traverse has been adjusted, the frame 
may be considered ready for starting up. The next process is 
creeliiijr; that is, placing the bobbins of roving in the creel 
at the back of the frame and passing the ends of roving from 
them to the rolls. In this connection, it is important to note 
that all the bobbins placed in the creel at one time should not 
be of the same size, since in this case they would all become 
empty at about the same time and thus cause the tender to 
replace empty bobbins with full ones in so short a period of 
time that it would either necessitate stopping the frame or 
result in certain bobbins running empty before full bobbins had 
been put in their place. In creeling, it is good practice to put 
up two rows of full bobbins and two rows of half-filled bob- 
bins, having the roving from one full and one half-filled 
bobbin run together, thus causing only a part of the bobbins 
to become empty at one time and obviating the difficulty that 
arises when the bobbins all run empty at the same time. 

Other points to be noted in creeling are that bobbins 
should not be inserted that will touch the next bobbin, since 
this prevents the easy unwinding of the roving. Sometimes 



§26 FLY FRAMES 15 

bobbins unwind too freely, resulting in what is known as 
overrunning. To prevent this a little piece of cotton is 
sometimes inserted under the foot of the skewer to cause 
friction and thus retard the rotation of the bobbin. On the 
other hand, bobbins containing roving that is too soft are 
sometimes placed in the creel at the back of the frame, in 
which case the roving breaks instead of unwinding. To 
remedy this difficulty the skewers are taken out and sharp- 
ened at the bottom so as to lessen the friction. 

19. Having pieced up all the ends, the frame may be 
started. During the time that the first set is being filled the 
different parts of the frame should be carefully watched, espe- 
cial notice being taken of the tension on the roving and the 
build of the bobbin. Frames vary somewhat in their capacity 
for making a w'ell-built bobbin, but as a rule the taper of the 
ends of a full bobbin should not be too great, since, if the 
slant is too great, it prevents the winding of a sufficient 
length of roving on the bobbin and necessitates too fre- 
quent creeling at the succeeding processes. On the other 
hand, the ends of the bobbin should not be built in such a 
manner that they will be almost at right angles with the bob- 
bin, since in this case the ends are liable to run under during 
winding and thus cause unnecessary breakage of ends. 



CARE OF FliY FRAMES 

20. Sinsrle and Double. — After the frames have been 
well started, several points in the management need careful 
attention. Perhaps the most important points are what 
are technically known as sinarle and double. These may be 
caused in several different w^ays. For example, in fly frames 
'that follow the slubber, where two ends are run into one at 
the back, it frequently happens that only one end passes 
through the guide eye of the traverse rod, while the end that 
should be joined to this one runs through a guide eye with 
two other ends; thus, instead of having two ends in each 
case, in one case there will be a single end and in the 
other, three ends. Again, it frequently happens that 



16 FLY FRAMES §26 

certain of the ends as they leave the delivery rolls at the 
front of the frame break, and the strong current of air set up 
by the rapidly revolving flyers causes these ends to become 
twisted in with an end running on to another bobbin. If the 
tender does not notice this at the time it occurs, there is a lia- 
bility of several layers of roving being wound on the bobbin 
that contain double the thickness that they should. In still 
other cases, when an end breaks as it comes from the delivery 
roll, it may happen that only part of the roving is twisted in 
with the adjoining end, while the other part winds around 
one of the rolls, forming what is called a roll lap. All 
these cases occur frequently on fly frames and are the 
cause of bad work. As will be seen, when double, which is 
greater than the required size, for the reasons just given, is 
wound on the bobbin, the diameter of the bobbin will be 
increased out of its regular proportion, thus causing the 
roving to be strained; while on the other hand, in case of 
single, which is less than the required size, the diameter of 
the bobbin is not increased in its correct proportion, causing 
the roving to run slack. When single or double occurs on fly 
frames, it is necessary for the tender to stop the frame and 
unwind the defective roving from the bobbin. In some cases 
so much imperfect roving has been wound on the bobbin that 
the correct diameter of the bobbin cannot be obtained in that 
set. It then becomes necessary to break out the ends fed to 
it, thus causing a spindle to be unproductive throughout the 
filling of the rest of the set, and consequently the production 
of the frame to be lessened. This is a practice that should 
not be allowed, and tenders should be required to watch their 
frames carefully for single or double rovings and correct the 
defect immediately. If the single or double roving is not 
removed from the bobbin, it passes forwards to the next 
process and there working in with a perfect end produces 
roving or yarn of the wrong number. 

21. Piecing:. — The piecing of roving, when broken at 
the front, is accomplished as follows: The frame is stopped 
and the tender unrolls an arm's length of roving from the 



§26 FLY FRAMES 17 

bobbin, twisting it slightly by" rolling it between the palms of 
the hands in order to give it greater strength. The roving 
is then inserted in the hollow leg of the presser by holding 
the loose end in one hand and with the other hand sliding the 
roving along the slot in the side of the leg. That part of 
the roving that passes from the bottom of the hollow leg to the 
bobbin is now wound around the presser as many times as 
necessary and inserted in the eye of the presser, while the 
upper, or loose, end is passed partly around the boss of the 
flyer, through the hole in the side of the boss, out at the top, 
and overlapped and twisted with the roving projecting from 
the front roll. In piecing the roving by twisting in this 
manner long piecings should be avoided, since they cause 
the yarn to be too thick for some distance. Moreover, hard 
piecings should be avoided, since they do not draw well in 
the drawing rolls of the next process. After a piecing has 
been made, the frame is started slowly; very frequently it 
will be found that the end will remain slack for some time. 
In such cases it is sometimes the practice for the tender to 
retard the motion of the top front roll by pressing it with 
the finger or thumb, in order to cause the roving to become 
tight. This is not advisable, however, as it causes the 
roving for some distance to be thicker than usual; it is pref- 
erable to so adjust the bobbin before starting the frame that 
there will be as little slack as possible. 

22. Doffing. — After a set of bobbins has been filled, it 
becomes necessary to remove the full bobbins and replace 
them with empty ones. This is known as doffing, and 
before the frame is stopped for this operation everything 
that is possible should be done to lessen the time to be 
devoted to this operation, since it causes a loss of produc- 
tion. Such points as having the empty boxes ready for the 
full bobbins must be looked out for before stopping the 
frame; also where it is possible, as in the case of the slubber 
or first intermediate, the empty bobbins should be laid on 
the carriage of the frame between the spindles, so that they 
will be ready to be placed on the spindles. The operation 



18 FLY FRAMES §26 

is then as follows: After the frame has stopped, the cone 
belt is slackened by raising the bottom cone, so as to reduce 
the speed of the bobbin — when the frame is started again — 
to the same speed as the flyer and thus prevent any more 
roving from being wound on the bobbin; the frame is then 
run for an instant in order to cause a few coils of roving to 
form at the top of the flyer. The front row of flyers is then 
taken off and laid on the top of the top clearer covers, care 
being taken not to break the ends of the roving. The full 
bobbins are then removed from the front row. of spindles 
and each replaced by two empty bobbins, the bottom one 
being intended to remain on the front spindles and the other 
to be subsequently placed on the back spindles. After 
doffing the front row of spindles, the tender doffs the back 
row of spindles by lifting the flyer, and replacing the full 
bobbin with the extra empty bobbin previously placed on the 
front row of spindles. The flyers for the front row of 
spindles are then placed in position. The end of roving is 
now laid on each bobbin and wound around in such a way 
that the outside coils will bind the inner ones, the coils of 
roving previously formed at the top of the flyer giving suf- 
ficient length to wind around the bobbins to make a new 
start. The cone belt is wound back to the other end of the 
cones by means of the rack and tightened by lowering the 
bottom cone, when the frame is ready to start. 

23. Breaking Out. — In some cases, where a very radical 
change is made in the number of the yarn to be spun from 
the roving, it becomes necessary to make a considerable 
change in the hank of the roving being produced by the 
different frames. When any considerable change is made in 
fly frames, it is generally the custom to run the bobbins that 
are in the creel until half of them are almost empty and then 
remove all the bobbins from the creel, working them up in 
other frames. The creels are refilled with new bobbins of 
the correct hank, care being taken that half of them are half 
bobbins and that the other half are full bobbins, and the 
ends from these new bobbins pieced up to the ends of the 



§26 FLY FRAMES 19 

old roving projecting from the back roll. These piecings 
should be run through to the front and on to a set of empty 
bobbins, after which the short lengths should be removed 
from the bobbins so as to avoid any piecings or incorrect 
roving going forwards to the next process. This entire 
operation is technically known as breaking out and is an 
expensive process, since it is one that reduces production 
very largely; in many mills it is customary when making 
only a small change, say from 4-hank to 5-hank or from 
10-hank to 12-hank, to do so by merely changing the neces- 
sary gears, thus avoiding this process. 

24. Oiling. — In order to keep the machines in good 
condition, oiling should be carefully attended to; in large 
mills, there is usually some person who makes the oiling of 
machines his sole occupation. In small mills, it should be 
in charge of one of the section hands and not left to the 
tender. The rolls or gearing revolving at about the same 
speed as the front roll should be oiled every day; the bearings 
of the top and bottom cones, the jack-shaft, the horse head, 
certain parts of the compound, and all bearings around the 
compound, about twice a day. About once a month, the com- 
pound should be opened up — that is, slipped apart — and oiled 
and cleaned. When high speeds are employed, tallow should 
be used on the internal gears of the compound. The amount 
of oiling required by the spindle footsteps depends on their 
construction, but should be done at least once a month, while 
the upper bearings, or bolsters, should be oiled about once 
a day. All revolving parts not mentioned should be oiled at 
least once a week. 

25. Care of Rolls. — The bottom drawing rolls on fly 
frames should be scoured at least once in 6 months. 

The replacement of old top rolls with new ones is an impor- 
tant matter, and it is usual to allow so many rolls a week per 
frame or per hundred spindles in the room. This is something 
for which no definite rule can be given, as the condition of 
the frames, the care of the rolls, the stock being run, and the 
hank of the roving all make a difference as to the number of 



20 FLY FRAMES §26 

rolls that should be allowed. Generally speaking, coarse 
roving requires more rolls than fine roving, and old frames 
more rolls than new frames. In one mill on medium num- 
bers, it is customary to allow three new rolls weekly to each 
slubber and each intermediate frame, and four new rolls 
weekly to each roving frame. In this connection, it should 
be understood that the number of spindles in a roving frame 
is about double that in a slubber. 

When solid top rolls are used, the rolls that are taken out 
of the front row should be moved to the second row and the 
rolls from the second row moved to the back row, the rolls 
in the back row being taken out to be recovered. In case 
the front rolls are shell rolls, which is usual with fly frames 
constructed at the present time, new shells replace the old 
ones that are taken out to be recovered, while new rolls are 
placed in the second row and the rolls taken out of the second 
row placed in the back row, the rolls in the back row being 
taken out to be recovered. Owing to the fact that the front 
rolls revolve at a much greater speed than the back rolls and 
that the larger part of the drafting is accomplished between 
the two front pairs of rolls, it is possible to run poorer rolls 
on the back row without injuring the stock. 

26. In order to obtain the best results on fly frames, it is 
absolutely necessary that all parts should be kept as clean as 
possible. The creels should be brushed out twice every day 
and flyers should be wiped at every doflE when running 
medium counts; when running fine roving, this should be 
done even more frequently. Twice a week the head-end 
covers should be taken off and the gearing cleaned. About 
once a month, the covers should be taken off the spindle 
and bobbin gears and all the waste picked off the gears 
and shafts. The head of the flyer should be kept clean and 
also the slot in the top of the spindle, so that the pin 
will fit accurately in it. Particular care should be taken to 
keep the rolls, roll beams, and clearers clean. If the steel 
rolls are allowed to become dirty or lapped with cotton they 
will produce bad work, frequently resulting in lumpy and 



§26 FLY FRAMES 21 

uneven roving and causing the ends to break at the succeed- 
ing processes. In general, it may be said that the floors of 
the room should be kept clean. Waste should be put in its 
proper place and not allowed to drop on the floor. Boxes 
and baskets should be provided for the empty and full bob- 
bins, and should always be kept in their proper places. 



COMMON DEFECTS 

27. The following are some of the defects frequently 
met with in fly frames, together with their remedies: 

1. Breaking oi ends between the front roll and the bob- 
bins sometimes results from the following causes: twist 
gear, draft, or other roll gears slipping or breaking; top- 
cone gear slipping; cones becoming loose; cone belt break- 
ing; rolls breaking at the joints; spindle- or bobbin-shaft 
couplings becoming loose; driving gears at the head of the 
bobbin or spindle shafts breaking or becoming loose; bob- 
bin, bobbin-shaft, spindle, or spindle-shaft gears breaking 
or becoming loose; any obstruction preventing the proper 
traverse of the carriage. 

2, Slack ends on American-built frames are sometimes 
caused by the tension gear being too large. In trying the 
tension of the roving it is customary to place the forefinger 
under the roving as it is being delivered from the front roll 
to the flyer and draw it up slightly until it is tight, judging 
the tension in this way. A better way is to get the eye on 
a level with the flyer and by glancing from the boss of the 
flyer to the front roll note the slackness in the roving. If 
there is not quite enough tension, the roving will run all right 
for a short length of time, but will then partially curl around 
the boss of the flyer, afterwards running along all right again. 
If a greater amount of tension is needed, the roving will wind 
round the boss of the flyer and break, although this is some- 
times caused by the end breaking in the flyer. The tension 
of the roving is an important matter and should be carefully 
watched at all times, as there are several points that will 
affect it. For example, the cone belt may slip because it is 



22 FLY FRAMES §26 

too slack or too heavily loaded; because the spindle bolsters 
are not properly oiled or are allowed to become clogged with 
dirt or cotton; because the bolsters are not properh^ adjusted 
or are not plumb, thus causing the bolster rail to run hard; or 
because the racks bind in the slides. As the lifting motion 
is driven through the cones, any drag on the bobbin rail is 
liable to cause the belt to slip and thus afiEect the tension. 

3. Incorrect Traverse. — Sometimes the clutch gear between 
the twin gears becomes loose or has been set wrong, in 
which case there will either be no traverse given to the 
carriage or the traverse will be imperfect and the roving 
that is being delivered will be wound on the bobbin in one 
place, thus producing a ridge on the bobbin. 

4. Rzinyiing over and under of the roving on the bobbins 
is a serious defect, and every means should be adopted to 
prevent it. The following are some of the precautions that 
should be taken: All gears from builder to carriage must 
be in their places and firm on their individual studs and 
shafts. The spring at the bottom of the tumbling shaft 
must exert its proper tension. If it has not enough tension 
to pull the tumbling shaft around so that the teeth on the 
gear fixed at its upper end come in contact with the top-cone 
gear, it will cause either running over or under of the roving. 
The clutch gear situated between the twin gears must be 
tight and properly adjusted; the twin gears must also 
be properly adjusted and tight on their shaft. Running 
over or under is also frequently caused by the carriage not 
being perfectly level during its entire traverse. Individual 
bobbins are spoiled by the bobbins not being correctly fitted 
or not resting properly in their places. At times the pin 
breaking in the boss of the flyer will cause the roving to run 
under or over either because of the flyer settling down or 
because of centrifugal force causing the flyer to rise. 

5. Imperfect Flyers. — It is very important that flyers should 
be smooth inside and outside at all points where cotton passes 
and should fit well on the tops of the spindles so as to obviate 
the necessity of hammering them down and thus making them 
rough at the top. When the presser on the flyer leg works 



§26 FLY FRAMES 23 

stiffly and consequently does not exert enough centripetal 
pressure on the bobbin, it causes soft bobbins and a weak 
roving that will often break when being unwound at the 
next process, thus causing annoyance and bad spinning at 
the final operation. 

6. When the small bevel gear that drives the bobbins is 
not properly meshed with the bobbin gear, or when either 
gear is worn, it will cause the bobbin to jump and will 
break the end or stretch the roving. This may be obviated 
by having a systematic inspection of these gears and requir- 
ing that such cases be reported at once. Sometimes the 
same effect is produced when a bobbin shaft is crooked or 
strained, or when a section of the shaft works loose and 
slides slightly in its bearings. In this case it will affect 
several bobbins. The same is also true of the spindles, in 
which case the spindles will jump up and down, instead of 
the bobbins. 

Sometimes the help after neglecting to piece up an end 
promptly, find that the bobbin is too small in diameter to 
take up all the roving that has been delivered by the rolls. 
In order to remedy this and not to be blamed for running 
an empty spindle, they will pack cotton under the weight 
hook to cause extra friction on the top roll and reduce its 
speed, or they will hold the top roll with one thumb to 
attain the same object. This causes two or four ends to be 
heavier than the others that are being made, to the extent 
of as much as 30 or 40 per cent, for a short distance, which 
obviously causes undue variation in the numbers of the yarn at 
the spinning room. 

SIZING 

28. It is customary to test the numbers of roving, or in 
other words to size rovinf^, by reeling of? a standard length 
from bobbins. The length usually taken in case of slubber 
and first intermediate roving is 12 yards; for second inter- 
mediate or fine roving, 24 j^ards. The bobbin is placed on a 
skewer in a frame usually adjustable for large or small bob- 
bins, the end passed through a guide eye to the reel, which is 



24 FLY FRAMES §26 

18 or 36 inches in circumference, and the desired length 
measured off. When this is done the end is broken, the 
roving weighed on a small pair of scales known as roving 
scales, and the hank of the roving calculated. 

In some cases the roving is sized at the drawing frame, 
while in other cases the slubber is taken as the starting 
point; the roving delivered is weighed two or sometimes 
three times a day, two bobbins being taken from a doff. 
Twelve yards are reeled off each bobbin and weighed and the 
average taken. If the average varies considerably either way 
from the correct weight of that number of yards of the hank 
being made, the draft gear is changed. These averages are 
kept in a special book for this purpose, which can be referred 
to at subsequent dates. The bobbins from frames finer than 
the slubber are weighed generally once a day, two or even 
more bobbins being taken from each frame. Where there is 
a difference from the standard of 22 grains in hanks from 
1.5 to 4, or a difference of 2 grains in hanks from 4 to 12, a 
change is made. After the roving has been weighed, in mills 
where a high standard is maintained, a certain number of 
bobbins, usually 16, of the different hanks of roving is taken 
to the spinning room and the yarn made from them sized and 
tested for strength, a record being made and a copy sent to 
the overseer of carding. This is the method adopted in fine- 
yarn mills; in other mills, the bobbins are not sized so often. 

Care should be taken in selecting the bobbins to be sized 
that they contain no single or double. Where more than 
one frame is on a certain hank or grade of work, the differ- 
ent frames should be sized in their turn. If the gear on one 
frame is changed on a certain hank or grade of work, all the 
frames running under similar conditions should be changed. 
This not only applies to roving frames, but to all machines in 
a mill where changes must be made. 

There are various systems of keeping numbers and various 
limits set for the number of grains that roving should be 
allowed to vary from either side of the standard before 
changing the draft gear. The one explained may be taken 
as a basis. 



INDEX 



Note.— All items in this index refer first to the section and then to the pagre of the 
section. Thus, "Brush 18 25" means that brush will be found on page 25 of section 18. 



Adjusting points 

screw, Evener 

the nipper rods 

Adjustments, Beater and feed- 
roll 

Air-current, Regulation of 

America, Cotton used in 

American and British wires . . . . 

cotton 

type of builder 

Angle shaft and vertical motion . 

Apron, Lifting 

Arboreum. Gossypium 

Arrangement of drawing frame . . 

machines 

Automatic feeder 



Average hank. Rule to find . . . . 
B 

Back knife plate 

Setting the . . . 

Bale breaker 

breakers. Care of 

Baling and ginning cotton 

cotton 

Barbadense, Gossypium 

Barrel. Central 

Bars, Grid 

Inclined cleaning 

grate 

Beater, Action of the 

and feed-roll adjustments 

Doflfer 

Beaters. Types of 

Blocks, Distance of. from bearings 

of detaching roll 

Bloom of cotton 

Bobbin, Build of 

The 

Winding the roving on the 



Sec. 


Pa^ee 


20 


21 


17 


35 


23 


12 


17 


34 


17 


39 


14 


12 


19 


13 


14 


13 


25 


16 


25 


23 


16 


20 


14 


1 


21 


IS 


16 


14 


16 


17 


16 


26 


26 


9 


18 


19 


19 


67 


16 


10 


16 


13 


14 


16 


14 


26 


14 


1 


22 


22 


17 


11 


17 


14 


17 


14 


17 


10 


17 


34 


16 


23 


17 


8 


'>3 


20 


14 


30 


26 


12 


24 


12 


24 


17 



Sec. Page 



Bobbins, Mechanisms for control- 
ling speed of 25 

Method of driving the . . 24 
" Rule to find the speed of 

the 26 

shafts. Methods of driv- 
ing 25 

Traverse of 24 

Bolster, The 24 

Bottom rolls 20 

Box, Comb 18 

Scale 17 

Breaker, Bale 16 

Floor space of a ... . 17 

picker 17 

Draft of a ... . 17 

pickers 17 

Breakers, Care of bale 16 

Breaking of ends 26 

out 26 

British and American wires . ... 19 

Brown Egyptian cotton 14 

Brush 18 

and hackle comb 19 

Burnishing 19 

tin 22 

Builder, American type of .... 25 

English type of 25 

motions 25 

Build of bobbin 26 

Burnishing 19 

brush 19 



Cage sections 17 

Calculations, Card cloth 19 

Change gear 26 

relating to fly frames 26 

Speed 18 

Calender rolls 22 

" Smooth 17 



Vll 



VIU 



INDEX 



Cam-shaft 

Capacity of automatic feeders . . 

Carborundum wheel 

Card cloth calculations 

clothing 

English method of 

numbering . . . . 

Noggs and points in 

construction 



cylinders 

frame 

gearing 

Grinding a new 

Production of the ... 
Roller-and-clearer . . . 
room, Management of 

Setting the 

Carding 

beater , 

Double 

Cards, Care of 

Cotton 



Dimensions of 

Method of clothing .... 

Stripping 

Weight and horsepower of 

Care of cards 

drawing frame 

feeders 

f^y frames 

" machinery, Proper . . . . 

" pickers 

" rolls 

Causes of uneven laps 

Central barrel 

stock 

Change gear calculations 

gears 



Chisel-point wire 

Chute, Waste 

Classification and selection of 

cotton 

Cleaning and oiling pickers .... 
the comber . . 

bars, Inclined 

the stripping roll . . . . 

Clearer-and-roller card 

Clearers and traverse motions . . 

Clocks, Hank 

Cloth covering. Method of putting 



Sec. 
22 
16 
19 
19 
19 

19 
19 
18 
19 
18 
18 
18 
19 
18 
19 
19 
19 
18 
17 
19 
19 
18 
19 
19 
18 
19 
19 
18 
19 
21 
16 
26 
19 
17 
26 
17 
22 
22 
26 
17 
25 
19 
22 



on 



Roller 



Pase 
20 
27 
55 
15 
9 

20 
19 

3 

1 

16 
26 
33 
46 
42 

5 
70 
56 

1 



29 
1 
1 
29 
42 
22 
32 
42 
29 
38 
27 
15 
73 
39 
19 
40 
22 
22 
5 
37 
19 
12 
25 

27 
42 
28 
14 
35 
5 
33 
15 



Sec. Page 

Clothing, Card 19 9 

cards. Method of .... 19 22 
Cylinder and dofTer ... 19 23 
English method of num- 
bering card 19 20 

Noggs and points in card 19 19 

flats 19 22 

Coiler 18 31 

" head 18 31 

Comb box 18 30 

Combing by the top .... 22 34 

Doffer 18 30 

22 25 

Setting the doffer 19 69 

" stripping .... 19 68 

"top 23 10 

Timing the top 23 23 

Comber, Construction of double- 
nip 22 47 

Construction of single- 
nip 22 13 

construction of. Varia- 
tions in 22 45 

Double-nip 22 47 

Gearing of a 22 41 

Management of the ... 23 25 

" Oiling and cleaning the . 23 28 

Principal motions of the 22 15 

Purpose of double-nip . 22 47 

Single-nip 22 13 

Speed of 23 29 

Combers 22 1 

23 1 

Setting various parts of 23 4 

Size of gauge settings for 23 3 

Combing by the top comb 22 34 

Double 23 25 

equipment 22 1 

operation by the half-lap 22 22 

Combs, Flat-stripping 18 24 

Common rolls 20 1 

Compound motion 25 3 

Condenser and gauge box 17 1 

Conductors, Electric 21 27 

Cones, The 25 13 

Connecting sections. Method of . . 20 3 

Constant for twist. Rule to find . . 26 4 

Constants, Twist 26 11 

Construction, Card 18 . 3 

Former methods of 

card 19 1 

of card clothing . . 19 9 
"double-nip 

comber .... 22 47 

" drawing frames 21 IS 

" fly frames .... 24 1 



INDEX 



IX 



Sk. 
Construction of singrle-nip comber 22 
sliver-lap ma- 
chine 22 

sliver-lap ma- 
chine 22 

the breaker picker 17 
Variations in 
comber ... .22 

Controlling: speed of bobbins ... 25 

Cotton 14 

American 14 

at the mill, Receipt of . . . 16 

Baling 14 

Bloom of 14 

Brown Egyptian 14 

cards 18 

" 19 

" 19 

characteristics, Tables of 14 

Classification of 14 

cultivation 14 

Dampness of 14 

Dirt and sand in 14 

Exportation of 14 

Fair 14 

fiber, Measurements of . . 14 

Structure of the ... 14 

Ginning and baling .... 14 

Grade of 14 

Growth and development of 14 
Gulf, or New Orleans ... 14 

Judging 14 

Long-stapled 14 

Low middling 14 

Marketing 14 

markets of the United 

States 14 

Medium-stapled 14 

to long-stapled . . 14 

Middling 14 

AI ill purchases of 14 

mixing 16 

Varieties of .... 16 

Ordinary 14 

pickers 17 

Principal species of ... . 14 
Quantity and quality of . . 14 
regions. Productive .... 14 

" samples 14 

Sea-island 14 

Selection of 14 

Short-stapled ........ 14 

Staple of 14 

stock. Condition of .... 16 
Testing yarns and fabrics 
containing 14 



Page 
13 



45 
1 

1 
13 

6 
26 
30 
15 

1 

1 
29 
16 
27 

1 
30 
29 
34 
28 

8 

5 
16 
28 



17 

28 
27 

32 

20 

18 

28 

33 

6 

9 

28 

1 

1 

9 

10 

27 

12 

27 

21' 

29 

1 



Sec. Page 

Cotton, Texas 14 15 

Uplands 14 14 

used in America 14 12 

yarn mills 16 2 

" Production of .... 16 2 

Cottons of the world 14 9 

Counts 19 21 

Cover, Licker 18 16 

Covering for rolls. Leather ... 20 8 
Method of putting on 

cloth 20 7 

Method ofputtingon 

leather 20 12 

top rolls 20 6 

Cradle 23 11 

Creel i-s 28 

Creeling 26 14 

Cultivation, Cotton 14 1 

Cushion plate ". . 22 17 

settings 2;? 9 

Cylinder 22 22 

and doffer. Clothing ... 19 23 

Grinding the . 19 44 

end waste 19 41 

screen 18 26 

Setting the ... . 19 66 

Cylinders, Card is 16 

D 

Dampness of cotton 14 30 

Dead rolls 19 37 

Deadweighting 20 25 

Defects of fly frames 26 21 

Delivery of the stock 22 37 

roll 22 26 

Timing the motions 

of the 23 22 

Detaching, Placing rolls in posi- 
tion for 23 20 

position, Removing de- 
taching roll from . . 2:? 22 
roll. Distance of blocks 
from bearings of . . 23 20 
Development and growth of cotton 14 2 

Device, Stripping 16 20 

Diameter of wire 19 13 

Differential motions 25 1 

Dimensions of cards 18 42 

tiy frames 24 27 

Dirt and sand in cotton 14 29 

Doflfer 18 27 

18 40 

and cylinder. Clothing ... 19 23 

Grinding the 19 44 

beater 16 23 

comb 18 30 



INDEX 



Sec. 

Doffer comb 22 

" Setting the 19 

" Setting the 19 

23 

Doffing 26 

Double-bar traverse motions ... 20 

boss rolls 20 

" carding 19 

combing 23 

nip comber 22 

Draft 18 

gear, Rule to find 26 

in fly frames 26 

of a breaker picker 17 

intermediate and finisher 

pickers 17 

Drafts of fly frames 26 

Draw box 22 

" Setting 23 

Drawing frame, Arrangement of . 21 

Care of 21 

" " gearings 21 

Space occupied 

by a 21 

frames 21 

and railway 

heads 21 

" " Management of . 21 

" processes. Number of . 21 

rolls 20 

" Method of driving 

the 24 

" " of a slubber .... 24 

" Settings of 20 

Driving bobbin shaft.s 25 

the bobbins 24 

" drawing rolls 24 

" spindles 24 

E 

Economy of management 19 

Egyptian cotton, Brown 14 

Electric conductors 21 

stop-motion 21 

Emery wheel 19 

Ends, Breaking of 26 

•' Slack 26 

English counts 19 

" method of numbering card 

clothing 19 

type of builder 25 

Equipment, Combing 22 

Evener adjusting screw 17 

motion 21 

motions 17 

Exportation of cotton 14 



Page 

25 

69 

64 

15 

17 

39 

5 

8 

25 

47 

41 

7 

9 

20 

39 
4 

39 
16 
IS 
3S 
33 

40 
17 

1 
35 
17 

1 

24 
5 
21 
22 
26 
24 
26 



F Sec. 
Fabrics and yarns containing cot- 
ton. Testing 14 

Fair cotton 14 

Feeder, Automatic 16 

16 

Feeding and opening machine . . 16 

pickers, Methods of . . . 17 

Two-roll method of . . . 18 

Feed-motion 22 

" plate 18 

" Setting the 19 

" roll 17 

" 18 

and beater adjustments . 17 

Operation of 17 

" Setting the top 23 

settings 23 

rolls 22 

" Timing the 23 

Fiber, Measurements of the cotton 14 

Structure of the cotton . . . 14 

Fillet 19 

winding machine 19 

Filleting 19 

Finisher and intermediate pickers 17 
and intermediate pickers. 

Draft of 17 

Flat card, Revolving-top 18 

Stationary-top .... 19 

point wire 19 

stripping combs 18 

Flats 18 

18 

" Clothing 19 

Grinding the 19 

" Setting the 19 

Floor space occupied by drawing 

frame 21 

of a breaker 17 

Fluted segment 22 

Flyer, The 24 

Flyers, Imperfect 26 

Fly frame. Rule to find production 

of 26 

" frames 24 

25 

26 

Care of 26 

Defects of 26 

Dimensions of 24 

Draft in 26 

Drafts of 26 

Gearing 24 

Horsepower required 

to drive 24 

Management of .... 26 



Page 

9 
28 
17 
26 
17 

1 

12 
15 



34 

27 
16 
6 
16 
18 
8 
5 
15 
25 
15 
23 

39 
3 

2 

12 
24 
19 
40 
22 
47 
57 

40 
21 

22 

5 

22 

8 
1 
1 
1 

15 
21 
27 
9 
4 
24 

29 
1 



INDEX 



XI 



Ser. Page 

Fly frames, Oiling 26 19 

Principal motions of . 25 1 

Speed of 26 12 

Starting 26 9 

Footstep bearing 24 9 

Formation of the lap 19 8 

Frame, Arrangement of drawing . 21 18 

Card 18 26 

Care of drawing 21 38 

Frames, Drawing 21 17 

Fly 24 1 

^lanagement of drawing . 21 35 

Frequency of stripping cards ... 19 33 

Front knife plate 18 29 

" Setting the ... 19 69 

Full-bobbin stop-motion 25 26 

" lap stop-motion 22 6 

G 

Gauge box and condenser 17 1 

" settings for combers, Size 

of 23 3 

Gauges 19 57 

Table of A m e r i c a n and 

British wire 19 13 

used in setting combers . 23 2 

Gear calculations. Change .... 26 5 

" Index 23 17 

" Twist 24 24 

(iearing 17 19 

Card 18 .33 

Fly-frame 24 24 

of a comber 22 41 

of a picker 17 37 

of the automatic feeder . 16 26 

Gearings, Drawing-frame 21 33 

Gears, Change 17 37 

25 19 

Twin 25 18 

Gin, Knife-roller 14 24 

■■ Macarthy 14 25 

" Roller 14 24 

•• Saw 14 16 

(Winning and baling cotton 14 16 

Good middling cotton 14 28 

ordinary cotton 14 28 

Gossypium arboreum 14 1 

barbadense 14 1 

herbaceum 14 1 

hirsutura 14 1 

Grade of cotton 14 28 

Grate bars. Inclined 17 14 

Grid bars 17 11 

Grinder. Horsfall 19 38 

Traverse 19 38 

Grinding 19 36 



Grinding a new card 

Operation of .... 

Plow 

Preparation for . . 

rolls 

the flats 19 

•' licker 19 

Growth and development of cotton 14 

Guide, Traverse 

Gulf, or NewOrleens, cotton 

H 

Hackle comb and brush. Setting 

the 19 

Half lap 22 

Hank clocks 24 

Rule to find average .... 26 

Head. Coiler 18 

Principal parts of the rail- 
way 21 

Herbaceum, Gossypium 14 

Hirsutum, Gossypium 14 

Horsehead motion 25 

Horsepower and weight of cards . 18 
required to draw fly 

frames 24 

Horsfall grinder . 19 



Sec. 


Page 


19 


46 


19 


44 


19 


12 


19 


40 


19 


36 


19 


47 


19 


54 


14 


2 


24 


5 


14 


14 



Imperfect flyers 

Incorrect traverse 

Index gear 

Indicator, Speed 

Inserting twist. Method of 



Intermediate and finisher pickers 17 
finisher pickers, 
Draft of ... 17 



Jack-shaft 24 24 

Judging cotton 14 27 

K 

Knife beater 17 9 

" Nipper 22 19 

" plate. Back 18 19 

Front 18 29 

" Setting the 19 67 

roller gin 14 25 

Knives, Mote 18 14 



Lap, Formation of the 

'■ Half 

" head 

" rack 

" roll 



Weight of 1' 



17 


7 


17 


17 


17 


16 


17 


41 



Xll 



INDEX 



Laps, Causes of uneven 

Lay gear. Rule to find the 

Leather covering for rolls 

Method of put- 
ting on ... . 

detaching roll 

detaching roll. Setting the 

top roll from 

Lever-weighting 

Licker 



cover 

Grinding the 

screen 

Setting the .... 

Setting the ^ 

Licking 

Lifting apron 

Long-stapled cotton 

Medium to 

Loose-boss rolls 

Low middling cotton 



Sec. 
17 
26 
20 



M 

Macarthy gin 

Machine, Feeding and opening . . 

Fillet-winding 

Ribbon-lap 

Sliver-lap 

Machinery, Proper care of . . . . 

Machines, Arrangement of ... . 

Setting of sliver-lap . . 

Settings of ribbon-lap . 

Making-up pieces 

Management, Economy of .... 

of card room .... 

" " drawing frames . 

" " fly frames .... 

" the comber room 

Marketing cotton 

Markets of the United States, Cot- 
ton 

Measurements of cotton fiber . . . 

Measuring motion 

Mechanical stop-motions 

Mechanism for controlling speed 

of bobbins 

Medium-stapled cotton 

to long-stapled cotton . . 

Metallic rolls 

Method of driving the bobbins . . 
the drawing 

rolls 

the spindles . . 

" feeding. Two-roll . . . 

" " inserting twist 



Pase 
40 



Sec. Page 

Method of mixing 16 8 

Methods of driving bobbin shafts . 25 22 

stripping cards .... 19 32 

Middling cotton 14 28 

fair cotton 14 28 

Mill purchases of cotton 14 33 

" Receipt of cotton at the ... 16 6 

Mills, Object of cotton-yarn ... 16 2 

Mixing cotton 16 6 

Method of 16 S 

Size of the 16 7 

varieties of cotton 16 9 

Mote knives 18 14 

Motion, Compound 25 3 

Double-bar traverse ... 20 39 

" Evener 21 7 

Horsehead 25 22 

Measuring 17 32 

Piecing-up 22 '25 

Vertical and angle shaft . 25 23 

Motions, Builder 25 14 

Clearers and traverse . . 20 33 

Differential 25 1 

Evener 17 25 

of fly frames 25 1 

" the comber 22 15 

" delivery roll. 

Timing the . . . 23 22 

Traverse 20 35 

Weight-relieving .... 20 32 

N 

Needle-ground wire 19 12 

point wire 19 12 

New card, Grinding a 19 46 

Orleans, or Gulf, cotton ... 14 14 

Nipper knife 22 19 

rods. Adjusting the .... 23 12 

Nippers 22 17 

Nogg 19 17 

Noggs and points in card clothing 19 19 

Non-conductors 21 27 

Numbering card clothing 19 20 

Number of drawing processes . . 21 17 

O 

Object of combing 22 1 

Objects of carding 18 1 

Oiling and cleaning pickers .... 17 42 

the comber . . 23 28 

fly frames 26 19 

Opener 16 27 

Opening and feeding machine ... 16 17 

Operation of feed roll 17 27 

" grinding 19 44 

'■ ribbon-lap machine . 22 8 



INDEX 



Xlll 



Operation of single-nip comber . . 'Ji 
" sliver-lap machine . . '21 
" stripping cards ... 19 
" the breaker picker . . 17 
" ■' electric stop-mo- 
tion 21 

Operations of the rolls -2 

Ordinary cotton 14 



P 



Pans. Setting sliver 
Passage of the stock 



Picker. Breaker 

Draft of a breaker 

Gearing of a 

Objects of the breaker . . 

rooms 

Pickers 

" Breaker 

Care of 

Cotton 

Draft of intermediate and 

finisher 

Intermediate and finisher . 
Methods of feeding .... 

Pieces, Making-up 

Piecing of roving 

" up motion 

Placing detaching and top rolls in 

position 

Plate, Back knife 

Cushion 

Front knife 

Setting of the back knife . . 

Plow-grinding 

Points, Adjusting 

and noggs in card clothing 

Poker bar 

Porcupine beater 

Position, Placing detaching and top 

rolls in 

Preparation for grinding 

Principal species of cotton 

Principles of carding 

Production of a fly frame 

" the card 

Quality of 

Quantity of 

Purchases of cotton. Mill 

Purpose of double-nip comber . . 

Q 

Quality and quantity of cotton . . 

of production 

Quantity of production 

and quality of cotton . . 



Sfc. PaRf K Sec. Page 

22 13 Rack, Lap 17 17 

22 3 Rail, Stripping 17 13 

19 34 Railway head, Pr in c i pal parts of 

17 r> the 21 3 

heads and drawing frames 21 1 

Recipes for roll varnish 20 13 

Regulation of air-current 17 39 

Revolving brush 23 14 

top flat card IS 3 

Ribbon-lap machine 22 S 

machines, Settings of 22 11 

Rigid-blade beater 17 9 

Rods. Adjusting the nipper .... 23 12 

Roll, Cleaning the stripping .... 19 3-5 

Delivery 22 2t) 

" Lap 17 IH 

Leather detaching 22 27 

" Top 22 29 

varnish. Recipes for 20 13 

Roller-and-clearer card 19 -5 

cloth 20 7 

" gin 14 24 

Rolls, Advantage of metallic . . 20 17 

Bottom 20 1 

Calender 22 37 

Care of 1f> 19 

Common 20 1 

Covering top 20 6 

Dead 19 37 

Double-boss 20 .5 

Drawing 20 1 

Grinding 19 36 

Leather covering for .... 20 8 

Loose-boss 20 ,5 

'■ Metallic 20 15 

Method of driving the draw- 
ing 24 24 

of a slubber. Drawing ... 24 .5 

Operations of the 22 29 

Rules governing setting of . 20 is 

Scouring 20 39 

Setting and weighting ... 20 IS 

top 20 24 

Settings of drawing .... 20 21 

Single-boss 20 .t 

Smooth calender 17 16 

Solid-boss 20 5 

" Top 20 4 

Room, Management of the comber 23 2.5 

Rooms, Location of picker .... 16 14 

Picker 16 13 

Roving on the bobbin. Winding 

14 9 the 24 17 

19 70 " Piecing of 26 16 

19 72 " Running over and under 

14 9 of the 26 22 



XIV 



INDEX 



Sec. Page 

Roving scales 26 24 

Tension of 26 13 

Rule to find average hank 26 9 

" find production of a fly 

frame 26 8 

" find the constant for twist 26 4 

" find the draft gear .... 26 7 

" find the lay gear 26 8 

find the length of filleting 

for cylinder dofTer .... 10 2.5 
" find the number of sec- 
tions of a mixing .... 16 8 
" find the points per square 

foot of card clothing . . 19 17 
" find the speed of the bob- 
bins 36 4 

" find the tension gear ... 26 7 

'■ find the twist gear 26 7 

Rules governing setting of rolls . . 20 IS 
to find the twists or turns 

per inch 26 3 

Running over and under of the 

roving 26 22 

S 

Samples, Cotton 14 27 

Sand and dirt in cotton 14 29 

Saw gin 14 16 

Scale box 17 2.5 

Scales, Roving 26 24 

Scouring rolls 20 39 

Screen. Cylinder 18 26 

Licker 18 16 

Setting the cylinder . ... 19 66 

" licker 19 67 

Screw, Evener adjusting 17 35 

Sea-island cotton 14 12 

Sections, Method of connecting . . 20 3 

Segment, Fluted 22 22 

Selection of cotton 14 27 

■■ skins 20 10 

Self-weighting 20 25 

Setting and timing combers .... 23 1 

" weighting rolls .... 20 is 

combers 23 2 

draw box 23 16 

of rolls. Rules governing. 20 18 

sliver pans 23 16 

the back knife plate .... 19 67 

" brush and hackle comb 19 69 

" card 19 .56 

" cylinder screen .... 19 66 

" doffer 19 64 

23 15 

comb 19 69 

" feed-plate 19 66 



Setting the flats 

" front knife plate . . . . 

" grid bars 

" licker 

screen 

" stripping comb . . . . 

" top comb 

" top feed-roll 

"top roll from leather 
detaching roll .... 

" various parts of comb- 
ers 



Sec. 


Page 


19 


57 


19 


68 


17 


12 


19 


64 


19 


67 


19 


68 


23 


10 


23 


16 



23 21 



top rolls 

Settings, Cushion plate 

Feed-roll 

for combers. Size of 

gauge , 

Minor 

of drawing rolls 

" ribbon-lap machines . 

" sliver-lap machines . 

Shafts. Methods of driving bobbin 

Short-stapled cotton 

Side-ground wire 

Single-boss rolls 

nip comber 

Size of gauge settings for combers 

" the mixing 

Sizing 

Skins, Selection of 

Slack ends 

Sliver 

lap machine 

" machines, Settings of . . 

pans. Setting 

stop-motion 

Slubber, Drawing rolls of a ... . 

The 

Smooth calender rolls 

Solid-boss rolls 

Speed of fly frames 

Spindles, Method of driving the . . 

Splitting 

Species of cotton. Principal .... 

Speed calculations 

indicator 

of bobbins. Mechanisms for 

controlling 

" comber 

" the bobbins 

Speeders 

Spindle, The 

Staple of cotton 

Starting fly frames 

Stationary-top flat card 

Stock, Central 



23 


4 


20 


24 


23 


9 


23 


6 


23 


3 


23 


12 


20 


21 


22 


11 


22 


6 


25 


22 


14 


21 


19 


T? 


20 


5 


22 


13 


23 


3 


16 


7 


26 


23 


20 


10 


26 


21 


18 


2 


22 


3 


22 


6 


23 


16 


22 


6 


24 


5 


24 


4 


17 


16 


20 


5 


26 


12 


24 


26 


17 


40 


14 


1 


18 


39 


19 


75 


25 


1 


23 


29 


26 


4 


24 


2 


24 


8 


14 


29 


26 


9 


19 


2 


22 


22 



INDEX 



XV 





Sec. 


Page 


stock, Condition of cotton .... 


16 


1 


Delivery of the 


22 


37 


Passage of the 


22 


14 


" " 


24 


4 


Stop-motion, Electric 


21 


26 


Full-bobbin 


2,'i 


26 


Full-lap 


22 


6 


" " Operation of the elec- 






tric 


21 


28 


" motions 


21 


23 




25 


26 


Sliver 


22 


6 


Stripping cards 


19 


32 


comb. Setting the .... 


19 


68 


device 


16 


20 


rail 


17 


13 


roll. Cleaning the .... 


19 


35 


Structure of the cotton fiber . . . 


14 


5 


T 






Table of American and British 






wire gauges 


19 


13 


'i cushion plate settings . 


23 


9 


" dimensions of fly 






frames 


24 


28 


" English counts 


19 


22 


" feed-roll settings .... 


23 


6 


" " gauge settings for com- 








23 


3 


" " horsepower required 




to draw fly frames . . 


24 


29 


" long-stapled cotton . . 


14 


17 


" medium-stapled cotton 


14 


20 


" " " to long-stapled 






cotton . . . 


14 


18 


" " noggs and points in 






card clothing . . . . 


19 


19 


" " settings of drawing rolls 


20 


21 


" short-stapled cotton . . 


Xi 


21 


" twist constants .... 


26 


11 


'" " weights of lap 


17 


41 


Tables of cotton characteristics 


14 


16 


Teeth 


19 
26 


11 


Tension gear. Rule to find the . . 




of roving 


26 


13 


Testing yarns and fabrics contain- 






ing cotton 


14 


9 


Texas cotton 


14 


15 




o-^ 


17 


and setting combers . . . 


23 


1 


the feed 


23 


18 


" motions of the delivery 






roll 


0-^ 


22 


" nippers 


23 


18 


" top comb 


23 


23 


Tin, Brush 


22 


2P 



Top comb. Combing by the .... 

Setting the 

Timing the 

ground wire 

roll 

" in position, Placing the . . 
" from leather detaching 

roll, Setting the 

" weighting 

rolls 

Covering 

" Setting 

Traverse grinder 

guide . 

Incorrect •. 

motions ... 

" " Double-bar . . 

of bobbins 

Trunk, Horizontal cleaning .... 

Plain conducting 

Trunking 

Trunks. Inclined cleaning . . 
Turns or twists per inch. To find 

Twin gears 

Twist 

gear 

Rule to find 

Method of inserting .... 

Ru,le to find the constant for 

Twists or turns per inch ..... 

Two-roll method of feeding .... 

Type of builder, American .... 

English 

Types of beaters 

U 

Uneven laps. Causes of 17 

United States, Cotton markets of 

the 14 

Uplands cotton 14 



Variations in comber construction 22 
Varieties of cotton, Mi,xing differ- 
ent 16 

Varnishing 20 

Vertical and angle shaft motion . . 25 

W 

Waste 18 

23 

chute 22 

Cylinder-end 19 

Weight and horsepower of cards 18 

relieving motions 20 

'Veighting and setting rolls .... 20 



Sff. 


/'age 


22 


34 


23 


10 


23 


23 


19 


12 


22 


29 


23 


20 


23 


21 


20 


24 


20 


4 


20 


6 


20 


24 


19 


38 


24 


5 


26 


22 


20 


35 


20 


39 


24 


21 


16 


28 


16 


28 


16 


28 


16 


30 


26 


3 


25 


18 


26 


10 


24 


. 24 


26 


7 


24 


16 


26 


4 


26 


3 


18 


12 


25 


16 


25 


20 


17 


8 



XVI 



INDEX 



Weighting:. Top-roll 20 

Weights of lap 17 

Wheel, Carborundum 19 

" Emery 19 

Winding the roving on the bobbin 24 

Wire, Chisel-point 19 

Diameter of 19 

Flat-point 19 

Needle-ground 19 

point 19 



Sec. Page Sec. Page 

24 Wire, Side-ground 19 12 

41 " Top-ground 19 12 

55 Wiregauges, British and American 19 13 

54 World, Cottons of the 14 9 

Y 

Yarn-preparation processes ... 16 1 
Production of cotton ... 16 2 
Yarns and fabrics containing cot- 
ton, Testing 14 9 



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