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Full text of "The cotton yarn spinner : showing how the preparation should be arranged for different counts of yarns"

THE 



Cotton + Ysrn + Spinner 

SHOWING 

How tie Preparation sionlil le kmmi 



-FOR- 



DIFFEReNT COUNTS OF YARNS, 



-BY A- 



System more uniform than has hitherto been practiced ; by 

having a Standard Schedule from which we 

make all our Changes. 



-BT(- 



-:e^xgt3la.:e^jd okoss. 



PUBLISHED BY THE AUTHOR, 
No. 1717 North Fbont Stbkbt, Philxsslfhia. 

1882 



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the year 1882, by 

RICHARD CROSS, 
In the Office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 



CONTENTS. 



Mixing, . 

Opening, 

Regulator, 

Top Flat Card, . 

Under Flat Card, 

Revolving Top Flat Card 

Roller Card, 

Railway Head, . 

Drawing Frame, 

The Slubber, 

Slubbingy 

Intermediate Frame, . 

Roving Frame, 



INDEX TO TABLES. 



Flat Carding Table, 

Roller " 

Coarse Slubber, " . 

Fine 

Intermediate Frame Table, 

Fine Roving " 

Coarse " " " . 

Spinning " " 

Miscellaneous. " 



UOKKILL BBOTHnM, 

STEAM-POWER PRINTERS, 
133 Soath Third St. 

PHn.iDuniu, 



PREFACE. 



TN introducing this work to the reader, it is earnestly re- 
quested of him to have patience to read the introductory re- 
marks, before he attempts to peruse its general contents, so 
that the may obtain a previous knowledge of why, and how, 
the writer desires he should become acquainted with the object 
of bringing before the Public such a book. * 

By a long experience with the machines, and the variety of 
yarns that can be made on them. I wish to show in a very 
concise manner, how they are made to perform such actions, 
by a thorough practical system of arranging and adjustments, 
which will produce in the first trial precisely what you want to 
do, and make, under the disposition of a competent man, for 
this work is not intended for Theorists, but men, who are per- 
fectly acquainted with the machines, and Tyro's who are train- 
ing under the discipline of their overseers, for it is dangerous 
and impolitic to the work and machinery to tolerate the un- 
acquainted meddling with important and expensive ma- 
chines, which should be handled by a mechanic, and not by 
empirics, who have the assumption to dictate and know more 
in a few months, than those who have labored a whole lifetime 
to secure a higher position, by the knowledge they have acquired 
so assiduously. 



6 PREFACE 

I have often wished for some one to introduce a more im- 
proved system of making different counts of yarn, by which 
the manufacturer can make his changes, from a schedule, hav- 
ing become impatient by the want of such a formula 1 under- 
took the task myself, in which you will find extracts from the 
general schedule put in a table form to suit the machine, and 
a place for it in the book. 

When looking over these tables for the purpose of changing 
your counts, you will soon discover how consistent, is the prep- 
aration to the Numbers of Yarn. 

Now this being the object, which induced me to write this 
work, that every manufacturer, individually and collectively, 
might, if he chooses, adopt this method, if he finds it the near- 
est and most economic manner, out of the many different 
wajrs of producing the numbers required, for there is only one 
way that is perfect under every advantage, and this we are try- 
ing to emulate, and in so doing, it is my earnest wish and de- 
sire that you will give this method a fair trial, that you may re- 
alize and be honestly convinced of its merits. If I am fa- 
vored with such results that you feel confident of its success, 
there will be one more who has conceived the intelligent man- 
ner, which this system exhibits, and I feel confident will be- 
come general, that being so will be the climax of my ambition ' 
for it is natural I should feel so, having spent a lifetime in this 
business, acquiring knowledge by the experience and oppor- 
tunities afforded me, am willing now, for the benefit of those 
who are inclined to be progressive, to turn over this accumula- 
ted capital for the general welfare of machinists and spinners, 
hoping they will invest it with as much care as I have used in ac- 
quiring it, trusting that the interest which will be derived from it 
may assume the proportion of my wishes. 



PREFACE 7 

With a view of reducing the price of this book, I have 
omitted the drawings and illustrations of various machines 
represented, they not being necessary for those whom this 
book is intended ; also, the lengthy calculations which 
are superfluous in a book of this kind, but have given 
the RULES, so that any question may be solved on the slate 
in a very brief and reliable manner, showing in every in- 
stance how the work has been epitomized, where it could be 
admitted for the benefit of the purchaser, and yet it contains 
as much useful information to those who have the responsi- 
bility of making the yarns, and more practical suggestions that 
have not been given in other works on the same subject; sub- 
mitting the same to your own judgment, by a strict perusal of 

its contents. 

RICHARD CROSS. 



MIXING. 

TN commencing to write on the subject of making Yarns, 
■*■ our starting point will be from the bales of cotton we 
have received, these should be examined after taking the 
hoops and bandage off, spreading them open and selecting 
from them such as has been already classified according to 
the kinds of yarn you intend to make, for in making warp 
your stock will require to be of a more even staple, viz.: 
in length, and if you should have some bales that are not 
so good, but of about the same length, you may in making 
your mixing, put a certain percentage of this class, but not 
so much as to reduce the strength of your yarn too much. 
You will first take from No. i bale and spread out on the 
floor, occupying about as much space as you need for the 
quantity you intend to mix. Then take from No. 2 bale 
of another quality and spread on the top of the first layer, 
and so on alternately, but if you have selected three kinds 
for your mixing, then you will take and spread them from 
Nos. I, and 2, and 3, then from Nos. i, and 2, and 3, and 
so on, keeping in view the space you have at command. 
This mixing must be regulated by the capacity of your 
mill and it would be well if you did not exceed over 
5 feet in height, so that in taking it from the mixing to the 
opener you will be able to handle it much better, as it 
should be taken from top to bottom so that the classes may 
be kept proportionately mixed. Now this mixing is sup- 
posed to be for making warps, for which I proposed an 
average length of staple, and not to exceed in length the 
kind you intend to use generally and regularly. 



lO MIXING. 

Having once made your mind up as to the numbers you 
intend to spin, your class of cotton can then be determined 
on, to secure uniformity of thread and the adjusting of the 
preparatory machines. You will find out by this mode of 
mixing that it will give the cotton a better chance of spread- 
ing and opening out by its elasticity and absorbing atmos- 
pheric moisture, and if need be, sometimes a little artificial 
will do no harm to strengthen if not used too soon after 
employing it. But these are measures not easily dealt with 
if not cautiously attempted, but act disastrously if not 
done expertly and by a trustworthy person, on whom you 
can rely for doing it properly, according to your instruct- 
ions, but really should be made under your supervision if 
time will admit. I would also prefer cotton that has been 
baled for a length of time, for new cotton does not work so 
well as old, everything being equal, new cotton being too 
lively and elastic, or lofty, which makes it difficult to 
prepare, on account of its non-condensing quality which 
is a great art in preparing cotton. 

This artificial mode of moisture I have already spoken 
of, is, by using water, put on each layer of cotton when 
mixing by a sprinkling can having a very fine rose, and, 
if by a strict measure to a certain area, you will be able to 
ascertain just the right quantity after a few exact trials, 
being governed by its facility of working and quality of 
production, you can determine by its results what kind of 
a specific it really is, to adopt when necessary. 

There are other modes of mixing cotton besides this, 
but they are not so good and useful in their eff'ects : for 
instance, if you take a bale of cotton and run it through 
the opener and make it into laps on the spreader, then take 
another bale and do the same, and so on. Then you put 
one of each kind on Lapp machine, which is a very ready 



MIXING. II 

method of mixing ; but you lose the most important part, 
before mentioned, and which I wish to impress on your 
minds as very essential and an active principal in mixing 
cotton. It may not appear to those who have adopted the 
latter mode of mixing, of having the economy which they 
claim, by dispensing with mixing on the floor, but I main- 
tain that the first plan I explained is the best, both for the 
machines, and the better for it being ready of itself for 
manipulating. Here you see we gain two points over the 
other plan and will be better cleaned, for it is here in this 
room that we expect to leave all the trash and dirt, for 
what is done here should be well done, and not leave it to 
be carried on to another machine or card, before all the 
hard and tough substances have been driven out by the 
beaters, so as not to injure the card wire when it has pro- 
gressed so far. This is a most important point and is the 
compound of the other two points, giving us a cleaner and 
firmer lap, saving waste and labor in not having to carry 
back the waste made from broken and sticky laps being 
made too hurriedly, allowing no time for the fibres to 
expand after being released from the great pressure which 
was on it in the bale, but pitched right on to the machine 
in lumps, to be ripped and torn from the feed rollers, hav- 
ing more pressure on them than where it leaves them 
almost without being beat at all, by being so unevenly 
spread on the apron and passing under the feed rollers 
thick and thin, or solid and puffy, which is complete mur- 
der. Hence the rough and reckless laps, which could have 
been avoided by a proper mixing being done according to 
an approved system of long standing, and evidently the 
best plan when exhibited by experiment, showing clearly a 
claim which I prefer. 

On the other hand, by No. 2 plan, it is claimed they are 



12 MIXING. 

less liable to damage by fire, hence the premium on insurance 
will be less. Now I have some doubts respecting an allow- 
ance being made on that account, and whether the 
theory it presents before the Insurance Agent, is not 
a delusion, taking a prima-facia view of it, as they 
generally do, and whether it will stand as secure 
against fire as No. i plan will, after a proper inves- 
tigation. It is very seldom a fire takes place, only by 
some foreign matter of an iron or flinty nature, being 
struck by the beaters, which must certainly have escaped 
detection by the handling of the cotton before passing 
under the feed rollers. Now such an accident might hap- 
pen by either plan, but if this be the chief cause of fires, 
I am fully convinced that No. i plan of mixing will have 
the preference, from the very fact of its having a better 
chance of being detected by its greater handling, shaking 
and tossing in laying the mixing on the floor, and then 
being taken up again to spread on the feed apron. I will 
submit to the contrary only — if any Insurance Agent 
that has had great practice and opportunities of testing 
and averaging the numbers of fires and how they are igni- 
ted, whether from No. i or from No. 2 plan has had the 
least accidents by fire. 

Although it is safe to say having once got on fire, the 
damage is not so risky when the cotton is in the bale, as it 
is when spread out in a mixing ; yet, with the modern ap- 
pliances for extinguishing these fires, it would be a rare 
occurrence indeed, if it should make any headway during 
working hours, and it must happen then, taking our argu- 
ment through from a mixing point. But I am wandering 
away from my subject, for it is not the insurance I am 
treating on, but to look for a better class of yarn than is 
sent to market, which can only be made by clearing away 



MIXING. 13 

some of the novelties advanced in the present decade, 
which have deteriorated more than excelled in the manu- 
facturing of them, and more especially, at this part of it 
which we are now considering, viz : mixing and opening 
and the variety of devices employed on these machines to 
do it, but they are gradually wearing out, as well as the 
new ideas they promulgated in their favor, are vanishing, 
when meeting a more formidable and established practice, 
and entertained through long experience by being tested 
side by side with the facts on one side and the ideas on 
the other, have placed the former in a more permanent 
use by those who have experimented and chosen a more 
radical, than visionary view as to the choice of machines. 

I will again remark in choice of stock for making good 
warps, it must be an average length of staple when they 
are made by a continuous spinning — such as Ring & Flyer, 
and cap Frames, and the uniformity of the thread is in ac- 
cord with the uniformity of staple, of cotton, so it would 
not be very wise to use fly or short weak cotton in the 
mixing, unless they are very coarse yarns, and then very 
sparingly. 

Now, in mixing filling, or weft, or hosiery yarns the 
mixing may be more general in the use of different grades 
from the same class of cotton, according to the num- 
bers of yarn and its adaptability, for the filling for 
sheetings we could not pretend to use the same class 
of cotton as would be required for making hosiery 
yam, so it will be a matter of judgment how far 
you can encroach with the lower grades and keep your 
goods up to the standard, or having the same features one 
time as at any other time, by which if you have acquired 
a good sample, then hold on to that system, and you will 
surely succeed if you have made a moderate margin be- 



14 MIXING. 

tween the raw cotton and the goods. In your mixing for 
this kind of yarn you have an advantage over warp yarn 
in using inferior stock, and in the use of intermittent spin- 
ning, called the mule, which assists by a propensity belong- 
ing to it, to recover by this act of stretching the uneveness 
of the thread caused by a mixture of unequal fibres. In 
mixing for hosiery yarns, you should choose a clean and 
spiral natured class, so as to give it elasticity, and make it 
bulky ; the South American cotton is the best for this kind 
of yarns, such as Perus, Marahnams, Bahia and (New 
Orleans and good Mobile). I think the two latter will 
suit for the kind of hosiery yarns for this market, as the 
fineness is not absolute here so much as cheapness with the 
laboring class of people. 

The same class of cotton I would use for making fine 
watps, and for a coarser kind I would mix Tennessee and 
Middling, Upland and Texas, for i6's up to No. 20's warps. 
But in mixing for filling or weft, use Low Middling, Up- 
lands and Texas, and grade them according to numbers of 
yarn you are going to make, allowing a percentage of Fly, 
if you choose to use some of your own from double card- 
ing only. Also a per cent, of your waste which you will 
have to use up by putting in the mixing only, as it would 
be injurious to use it indiscriminately in the making of 
good yarns, or even salable yarns. This method of mix- 
ing promiscuous lots of cotton together, which I have been 
in the habit of seeing at various mills, is a complete 
slaughter of what would probably have been a salable 
article, if the mixing had been made with some kind of 
ordinary judgment, instead of rushing through anyhow, 
but which is usually done by the hands working in the 
department, being indifferent to the responsibility placed 
upon them for making good laps instead of seeing that 



OPENING. 15 



they are neat and well made, having smooth selvedges and 
properly condensed, so that no waste from that source re- 
turns to be battered up again to the loss of the manufact- 
urer, by weakening the staple and waste of time and 
labor by this repetition. 

OPENING. 

Now we will begin to open this cotton from the mixing 
already made, by taking it from top to bottom in your 
arms, and then spreading it on the apron of the machine, 
or in the funnel, according to the construction of the ma- 
.chines, of which there is a great variety, and this I will 
leave to your choice from your own good judgment to 
select, making preference to them that consume the least 
power, and leaves the cotton in a very loose and open con- 
dition, so that it will spread even under the feed rollers ; this 
can be done best by a cylinder that has teeth laid transversely, 
making it a revolving rake. This kind of a beater is not so 
rigid, and will tease the lumps out more easily at its first 
initiation, and loosen it out by passing over the grate bars 
which are set to suit the grade of cotton you are using, 
which can be closed or opened wider, by an attachment 
outside of the machine, and showing by an indicator their 
inclination. You will judge for yourself by examining 
the droppings if there is any loss of cotton by coming 
through them ; if there be too much cotton among them, 
the grate bars must be closed a little to prevent this waste, 
for in some mixing, there will be a great difference and 
should be inspected every day, and kept clear and clean, 
that all extraneous matter may not be retarded but allowed 
to be forced through by the force of the revolving rakes 
and their own gravity, and drop underneath and be carried 



l6 OPENING. 



away as often as it accumulates there, to prevent it from 
stopping up these useful appliances. The cotton is then 
allowed to pass on to the cylinder cages, either on the 
machine or else up through a wooden flue, extending across 
the room at the end, drawn by a fan by which during its 
passage, it tilts and dances over a false bottom made of 
lattice-work, under which are doors that can be unbut- 
toned, and taking out all the leaf, moats, and non-fibrous 
matter that has fallen from the loosened cotton on its way 
to the cage at the other end. This arrangement excels all 
previous devices, and is done automatically I may say, 
although not without power, as the fan requires consider- 
able, but the cotton leaves its residue without any beating 
whatever, in leaving the cages here it falls down an up- 
right trough or box which is made to conform with the 
feed-rollers, in such a manner as to become a self-feeding 
apparatus, and goes along under the feed roller, where it 
is subjected to a little more raking by the first beater, 
when it is now about prepared for the rapid beaters and 
made into a lap. These laps are then put on the finisher 
lap machine, the apron sides are made to receive three or 
four laps or doublings; here I would use only one beater, 
with two blades running 1300 revolutions, and the fan 
5500 feet per minute, and the speed of the cone or regu- 
lator or evener, should run about as many revolutions as 
will give the feed roller a surface velocity of seven feet per 
minute, so with a draught of three on this machine as a 
finisher, the surface velocity of lap roller will be eighteen 
feet per minute or six yards — equal to a lap of 26 lbs. at 
10-8 ozs. per yard in 6^ minutes, averaging 2000 lbs. of 
laps in 10 hours. This gives us some idea of the required 
weight, to be received from the opener or scutcher to keep 
the finisher supplied. Now the opener will require a less 



OPENING. 17 



number of revolutions on the first porcupine, (as they are 
often called), on account of there being more blades or 
rakes to it, and then again, the feed apron will require to 
be slowered at a rate of four feet per minute, and the feed 
roller five feet per minute, with a weight of 37.' ozs. spread 
on three feet of length of apron, unless fed automatically 
and then the weight will be the same. 

I have reason to believe that the ist beater or porcupine 
or cylinder will answer best with our cotton, with 6 of the 
rakes laid transversely on this cylinder running 800 revo- 
lutions per minute, this would give the fibres 4800 blows, 
equal to 100 licks to every inch delivered to it, and I 
should say that that is raking it pretty well for a start. 
As it advances to the next feed roller there will be another 
draught increasing in surface velocity, but the beaters here 
are two bladed with a constant speed of 1300 revolutions, 
reducing this beating as it progresses, to the lap, in ratio 
with the draught, and the speed of the lap roller is con- 
stant with the feed apron on this machine; it having no 
regulator attached to it. I may as well state here, that 
those who have charge of these machines should look to 
the grate bars being kept up to their places, they are usu- 
ally set about i inch from beater blades, and J^ inch apart 
although these distances are not to be considered perma- 
nent, but are meant as an approximate to what is required. 
You will also see that the fan is properly placed under- 
neath the cages, if it be an eccentric fan, then the longest 
radii of cover will be toward the feed roller and drive the 
air out toward the lap using an open belt for the fan and a 
strict attention to the draught regulators, so as to keep an 
evenly spread sheet before passing under the cages, seeing 
that all parts of the machine are made air tight, only what 
is necessary through the regulators for exhaustion by the 



l8 OPENING. 

fan, and this air should all pass through the grate bars and 
cages, the heavy substances being driven through the grate 
bars against the current of air going through them where 
the beater is dashing the cotton against the sharp edges of 
these bars, and making it into flakes and spongy fleeces, 
when passing along with the draught, it drops some of the 
lighter material, such as leaf, moat etc. , through the bars 
which are of alternate depths and kind of arched at the 
tops, this convex side being toward the beater it has just 
left, and underneath these bars must be a box fitted so as 
to exclude any air from passing through them; the dirt 
which accumulates should be let out by a door fitted under- 
neath, held up by two iron arched levers and retain their 
position by a weight being fastened on the same rod at 
right angles and by raising this up on the outside of ma- 
chine, the arched lever falls down and the door resting on 
them, letting all the rubbish fall on the floor, which should 
be repeated several times a day. Having passed through the 
cages it now comes to be calendered, which is a most essen- 
tial appliance for keeping good the work that has already 
been done, and securing to the laps a firmness ot texture so 
they will unroll without making waste, and this can be done 
best by the four rollers over each other, and lever weighted ; 
for spring and rubber attachments are a complete nuisance, 
for there is no regularity of pressure that can be obtained 
by them, and no solid substance can go under them with- 
out bursting them all up ; and besides, we require precision 
in the amount of pressure at each end of the calenders, 
which can be acquired exactly by leverage, and rendered 
free from accidents. I prefer sureties to notions and 
guesses in such parts of a machine where there is such power 
required, by giving strength and durability to its compo- 
nent parts, also simplicity of construction, with a view to 
its economy in the value of these machines. 



OPENING. 19 



Now, we will suppose the machine to be placed in pos- 
ition, by being set convenient and in line with the driving 
shaft, all the other drivings are supposed to be fixed and 
permanent on the machine by the maker, with regard to 
their speeds and draughts, so as to need no mechanical 
contrivances applied after leaving the machine maker, for 
the manufacturer has not the facilities at command, neither 
does he expect to spend any more money on them than 
for the belting to drive them with. After setting the 
beaters, the belts can be put on and the journals limbered 
up, so that they will run smooth and steady without heat- 
ing ; for, by pouring oil and ta'.low on to prevent heating, 
the grease gets inside of the bearing and runs on the 
grates and beaters, and if not cleaned off before putting 
cotton through, the laps will be spoiled, by having no 
regularity of surface, which has been caused by the beater 
blades or axle having lumps of cotton hanging to them on 
this grease. When you have made this all right, you may 
then adjust the levers on the fluted rollers, leaving them 
ample room for rising and falling in case any undue vari- 
ations to thickness may occur ; and when you have them 
right, see to making them secure, to prevent unequal pres- 
sure, then the calenders may be weighted, leaving a good 
margin for altering, as they cannot be made secure until 
you have made a few laps, and seen how they unroll them- 
selves at the card. When being satisfied that they are 
condensed enough only, for excess will require more 
power to drive them, you will then make the weight 
secure, so as not to slip on the lever. You see by this 
method of weighting there is no increase of weight on the 
calender if any hard substance should go under them, but 
simply rises and lets it go ; but where springs and rubbers 
are used, there is no relief, but extraordinary pressure, and 
increases in proportion to substance. 



20 OPENING. 



Then you will next examine the racks, and lap rollers, 
and friction pulleys that are enclosed on top of racks and 
see to their being perfectly free and easy, both racks work- 
ing up and down freely and dropping simultaneously on 
their bearings, so that the pressure on the ends of 
lap roller will be equal, and producing a lap in shape 
of a true, solid cylindroid in appearance ; there must 
also be strict attention paid to the brake before 
starting the machine, taking the precaution to set 
the weight on the end cf the friction lever, so that you 
can turn the shaft by hand, when the brake is applied at 
first, for sometimes it gets neglected, and then by extra 
friction being on, the lap roller gets sprung and the wheels 
break, causing a great expense to remedy, especially if 
your mill is a long distance from the machine maker ; but 
this can all be avoided by using the present advice. I 
may here state that it is much better to have a lap dish to 
roll your lap in when taking from it the roller, if the ma- 
chine is so placed as to leave room for drawing it out, 
because by taking a lap and dumping it on a block it very 
often loosens the roller ends, which are costly to fix again, 
besides the lap is handled much better when the roller is 
drawn out in the dish preventing rough and bad selvedges. 
You will next direct your attention to the feed apron, 
having previously set your feed roller to Beater blades 
about 3-16 inches off; you can then adjust your apron 
sides square with the machine, so that the apron will run 
free and keep the slats or lattices from catching at the 
ends and ripping off. There is an arrangement attached 
to the sides, by which, with the extension screws and bracket, 
will, by moving in or out the end of the apron roller, brmg 
it square and clear of catching ; it is also useful for giving 
the apron the right tension, as it will get a little slack at 



REGULATOR OR EVENER. 21 

times by the lattice belts stretching a little. We will now 
fasten the regulator to the machine, making the driving 
cone axle plumb, when in gear with the feed roller. In 
setting the evener for the weight of lap to be used there is 
a stud behind the cone box which can be moved ; or the 
regulating lever that moves the belt quadrant, has a long 
slot in it which can be lengthened or shortened to suit the 
variable weight, and by making the leverage shorter from 
the stud to the belt shifter, it is not so liable to run the 
belt oiT the cone, when the weight varies on the feed, 
although it does not work so sensitive, as when the lever- 
age is shorter on the other side over the screw. 

REGULATOR OR EVENER. 

The principle of the regulator is, that the apron is made 
to vary its speed according to the thickness of cotton 
spread on apron, that is intended to go between the feed 
rollers ; for if it goes through thick, the apron goes slower. 
The speed of driving cone is in proportion to the length 
moved by the belt shifter, these belt forks moving always 
to keep the belt at right angles with the cone shaft and the 
diameter of the two cones at the point where the belt is 
running, when added together will always be a constant 
sum. Now, leaving a certain weight of cotton on one yard 
of apron, will give a length equal to draught when the 
cone belt is in the centre of cones, and to get the thick- 
ness will be to suppose the lap to weigh so much to one 
(i) yard and to lose five per cent., then the weight and per 
cent, of loss will have to be spread on the apron ; in 
consequence, the top feed roller will be lifted up by 
the thickness of cotton, and that should be equal to 
centre of cone, or set so by long nut or by sett screws in 



22 REGULATOR OR EVENER. 

bracket at the end of lever; the weight lap can also be al- 
tered if you should require it, with the same draught by 
the resetting of cone belt in the centre, when the thick- 
ness of feed is under the rollers, the speed of apron is in 
inverse ratio to the thickness of cotton going through the 
rollers, or this multiplied by the revolution of the roller, 
geared in the driving cone will give the speed of apron. 
But generally in reviewing this evener for regulating, it 
simply amounts to this, that the lap roller velocity is con- 
stant, and the driving cone is constant, so when the cone 
belt is in the centre the draught is constant because the driv- 
ing cone is constant. Now suppose the lap should be a little 
too heavy,then the attendant goes and unscrews the long nut a 
little and that moves the cone belt from the centre, which cau- 
ses the driven cone to be slowered, hence, an increase in the 
draught and the weight of lap decreased; but by doing so he 
has left a greater margin on one end of cone, and shorter 
on the other end, which should not be, when you have got 
the desired weight, so he will just reduce the weight spread 
on the apron and screw the long nut up again until the 
cone belt runs in centre again leaving room for variations 
in feeding, caused by laps running out, and sometimes go- 
ing through double and single by which will be seen the 
utility of conjoining such a useful and almost indispensible 
piece of mechanism to the machine. In examining two of 
these machines, made by different firms I found the draught 
of Taylor and Langs to be {' 2I lo is =3-04 draught and 
Whitings to be r II II II tt = 2.53 draught. 

We have now got the draught of the machines so we will 
see how to get the right weight of lap, I will refer to my 
previous statement which was 37.2 ozs. spread on 3 feet of 
apron then 3.04)37. 2(equal 1 2. 23 minus ' per cent. equal 11.- 
61 ozs. the lap on first machine, we take 3 of these laps and 



REGULATOR OR EVEN£R. 23 

put them on the feed apron of finisher lap machine, this is 
termed doubling, so 3 x 11. 61 divided by 3.04 equal 11.45 
minus 5 per cent, equal 10.8 oz. lap to one yard in length, this 
being according to the schedule for a certain number of 
counts made from a 36 inch lap in width having ascertained 
now all the chief requisites for making good laps we can 
now start up and I will venture to say go ahead; and we 
will now leave these machines and go to its successsor which 
is called a card. 



24 



REGULATOR OR EVENER. 



FOB A 



36-Inch Top Flat Card.— The Cylinder 1250 feet per 
Minute. — Doflfer 420 Inches per Minute. 

SINGLE CARDING. 



Draught of Card 90. 



Nos. 1 


[ank 


Grains 


Weight 


Weight 


liver. 


Per Yard. 


of Lap. 


of Lap. 


4 


149 


56 


12. 


nO 


6 


154 


54 


11.8 




7 


157 


53 


11.7 




8 


160 


52 


11.57 


10 


164 


50 


11.36 


w 


II 


168 


49 


10.25 




12 


173 


48 


10.15 


12.9 


13 


177 


47 


10.05 


12.63 


14 


181 


46 


9.87 


12.36 


15 


185 


45 


9-7 


I2.I 


16 


189 


44 


9-45 


11.83 


17 


194 


43 


9.25 


11.56 


18 


198 


42 


9- 


11.29 


19 


203 


41 


8.8 


11.02 


20 


208 


40 


8.6 


10.8 



Draught of Card 112. 



Nos. 


Hank 


Grains 


Weight 


Sliver. 


Per Yard. 


of Lap. 


21 


,213 


39 


10.2 


22 


.218 


38 


10.07 


23 


.224 


37 


9.9 


24 


.231 


36 


9.65 


25 


.237 


35 


9-36 


26 


.245 


34 


9.1 


27 


.252 


33 


8.8 


28 


.260 


32 


8.55 


29 


.268 


31 


8.25 


30 


.276 


30 


8. 



TOP FLAT CARD. 25 



TOP FLAT CARD. 

The card is a machine that follows the Lap finisher, 
when the lap is supposed to be made in a uniform thick- 
ness and width, so as to get as even a sliver as possible. 

Before being presented to the carding process it should 
be understood what quality of cotton and how well it is 
prepared for the numbers of yarns you are going to spin, 
so that we may form some idea of the capacity of such a 
card to those counts ; it is economy to have such a fore- 
sight, so that we may know precisely how much work can 
be done (and not how little), also how well in accord 
with the quantity, for it is nearly time that some better 
system was, or should, be adopted, and this bragging 
stopped, of how much you are doing per day in excess of 
your neighbor ; it would be much better for all of us, by 
using some system approximating to a law, whereby we 
have through our practice and experience, proved that 
such (causes give such an effect) which substantially becomes 
a law, and must be referred to, so that we may more 
readily accomplish our work, which such a systematic course 
will enhance the value of it by its regularity, and its pro- 
duction by uniformity in price, with the numbers of counts 
made. I have considered this very often, and seriously ; 
and intend to make a schedule for the benefit of the 
manufacturer and his overseers, for reference, for it would 
be ruinous to the manufacturer to use the same material 
and carding for No. lo's that he is making for No. 20's, un- 
less he is paid more for the extra expense of preparation, 
and then it looks to be troublesome to change mixing and 
weight of lap, etc.; *' but this must be done " and adhere 
to the schedule at every point where there is shown to be 
a change of material and in the machines, making your busi- 



26 TOP FLAT CARD, 



ness more profitable and the goods more salable, by hav- 
ing a system which will show for itself, hyt being methodi- 
cal and in compliance to the schedule referred to ; how 
much easier it is when you get accustomed to it. Now the 
carding process is intended to attenuate, disentangle the 
fibres and place them in a more parallel position ; also to 
extract the non-fibrous matter from the genuine cotton, 
for the better it is cleaned and its fibres laid longitudinal, 
the nearer it approaches perfect carding, for that is all we 
expect from this machine, having made it evener and 
easier to elongate by the drawing roller in the next process. 
Now to accomplish this carding we have an iron cylinder, 
36 in. wide and 36 in. in diameter, with holes drilled in its 
surface to fasten sheets of card clothmg on. These holes are 
plugged with wood and made secure ; these sheets 
are then nailed on to the cylinder transversely ; they are 
about 3^ inches in width and 36 inches long. These are 
fastened on with tacks, causing an interstice of one inch 
between each sheet. The wire in these sheets should be 
bent at the same angle on the same card. The wire is then 
subjected to a grinding roller, to sharpen the points, which 
is done by running the cylinder in an opposite direction 
to that when it is carding; the doffer is speeded up a little, 
but its motion is not reversed. The grinding roller is then 
placed so as to touch them both lightly, and runs the same 
way as doffer, but at a less velocity; it is covered with 
emery. This should not be so fine in its numbers, because 
it does not get in the wire and grind the points properly, 
so as to take the cotton and let it go freely without hold- 
ing it in the body of the wire and choking it into a solid 
mass like a grindstone, and rolling the cotton on to the 
doffer in lumps, which you can see by looking underneath 
before being combed off, and the attendant has had the 



TOP FLAT CARD. 27 



audacity to say, " that's pretty good for a start." Now, 
it's my firm belief that a card will do its work best when 
it is sharp and properly enclosed, without having to wait 
a few days to get in working order. That is all bosh ; for 
as you lose your point of wire by working, so you lose the 
quality of work. It seems ludicrous to entertain such 
nonsense, yet it is said daily by those you have placed at 
the head of this department, and will even enter into some 
fallacious argument in defence of what his Uncle Tom 
told him thirty years ago, that such was the case after 
sharpening up the cards. I would like to know about 
what time or how long it takes to do the work the best, 
from such an argument ? Such sophistry is to be regretted. 
And let us hope for a more intelligent theory and brighter 
ideas respecting the grinding and the manner of sharpen- 
ing the wire so that we may have the best results in saving 
time and labor and doing the best work. 

I have been in mills where the card wire has to be 
ground every morning for a few minutes so as to enable it 
to do the work properly; and there has not, up to the 
present time, been found a better substitute to take its 
place. Now, if this be true, grinding is a very important 
act toward success, and should be understood scientifically 
as well as practically by those who are in charge of the 
carding, as to how the points can be best obtained and 
most durable in comparison with the time and labor spent 
on them. And the knowledge required to do this is not 
very abstruse, because the requisites are not difficult to 
obtain. The first is the selection of pure emery, and the 
second is the numbers or coarseness of it, to suit the 
numbers of wire required, and the third is the relative 
speed of the surfaces to be ground, with the speed of the 
grinding roller and this is not invariable with the same 



28 TOP FLAT CARD. 



wire for having ground a cylinder and doffer down to a 
smooth surface th$ grinding roller may finish what has 
been partially done, by increasing its lateral motion so as 
to bring their points more to a needle point, and all the 
surfaces to be ground should revolve at their normal speed 
whilst being ground in order that the wire retain its proper 
position in both cases and do not lay too hard on with your 
grinder, or you may make a point like the edge of a soft 
tempered knife which will be ragged, and not let the fibres 
off but get all felted in the wires, when such a thing hap- 
pens the best plan would be to run the wires into each 
other for a while or what is called facing them and grind 
over again with a little more care. Now if the carding is 
done according to the schedule for single carding, the 
grinding may be done every two weeks a little to secure 
sharpness, for this is absolutely necessary and must be kept 
so, no matter how often repeated, setting up your flats, as 
close to cylinder and presenting as much of their surface 
as possible to cylinder, without injuring their points. I 
would invariably use the roller when grinding, although 
the strickle must not be entirely dispensed with, for there 
are times when such an article will do for a make shift and 
that is all; the speed of grind roller for cylinder and doffer 
is generally about 458 feet per minute and the size of 
Emery No. 5's or 6's, make a very good roller. The size 
of wire used varies according to quality and quantity of 
work, but from 30's up to 32's and 400 to 500 points per 
square inch. 

The doffer is a cylinder in form made of iron, with holes 
drilled on the face one-half inch from edge, these holes are 
plugged v/ith wood and made secure; the diameters of these 
doffers are generally 15 inches bare, but with wire on they 
are 16 inches in diameter and 36 inches wide. 



TOP FLAT CARD. 39 



The card clothing used on these are called fillet of about 
i^ inches wide and in one length to suit; this would re- 
quire Jf equal 24 by 15 by ^ by 3.1416 equal "f equal 96 
feet long of fillet will cover it. The numbers of wire used 
are usually one number finer than those of cylinder; in 
putting this fillet on, the end is made taper, so as to con- 
form to a screw of i}4 inches pitch which it makes by be- 
ing wound on the surface of the doffer so taut as to almost 
break it, giving it an appearance of a solid mass of points, 
which are subjected to a proper grinding. 

The surface velocity of this doffer is according to schedule 
to be 420 inches per minute, and the cylinder will be 1250 
feet per minute, with the doffer comb at 420 by 1.3 equal 
5 46 strokes per minute of i . 05 inches length and the draught 
must be 112 for the weight of lap before mentioned to 
make one yard of sliver 40 grains in weight, this machine 
is termed a flat card, with automatic stripper, there are two 
substantial arches made of iron which fastens on to the 
iron frame sides, they are set concentric with cylinder 
and hold the whole paraphernalia, requisite to resist the 
action of cylinder while carding the cotton. On the top 
of these arches rest the ^a^s, these are made of nicely sea- 
soned white pine, on which the wire clothing is tacked, in 
an opposite direction to cylinder and doffer ; under the 
ends of these flats are iron shields, to rest on the screws, 
and help to prolong the wear and exact setting of these 
flats. One of these flats resting on four screws, two at 
each end, which are intended to bring the surface of the 
wire on flat parallel with cylinder surface, these sett screws 
are made to fit snug in the arch to prevent ever moving of 
themselves through vibration ; between these is a stud pin 
made fast in the arches, which act as guides by passing 
through a hole in the Jla^, always keeping them in a radial 



3© TOPFLATCARD 



and parallel position with the cylinder, there being from 
1 6 to 20 of these flats, and the cylinder having a continu- 
ous action on the fibres of cotton which are held by them, 
enabling it to pull and lay them in a state approaching 
parallelism ; on this account it is preferable for long cotton 
and making a sliver that is easier to draw by the fluted 
rollers, from the fact of it being already laid closer and 
solid by its fibres being parallel and longitudinal. I have 
also noticed that sheets made of other material than 
leather, leaves the web from doifer in holes or in a porous 
condition, whereas it should be left in one continuous 
fleece, if properly carded, and there are no kinds of cot- 
ton grown, but this make of card will manipulate and re- 
duce to a perfect fleece, or web of cotton carding in better 
condition than any other card extant up to the present 
time, it excels in quality, but not in quantity, as the roller 
card comes next, and first in quantity according to quality, 
for if we attempt to draw in a mass of cotton by the feed 
roller, on a flat card, you can imagine how the flats will 
be surcharged, and they not being able to retain and allow 
it to be teased out on account of there not being wire 
enough to hold this large supply ; for the cylinder is to a 
certain extent limited in its speed, "hence," the folly of 
trying to crowd too much work on this kind of a card ; 
it is necessary sometimes to speed up the cylinder, when 
you get a grade of cotton, that has a long and strong sta- 
ple, as it requires a greater velocity to give it the due 
amount of carding in the same time, but this change is 
not so readily done as imagined, nor yet is it proper to do 
it on the flat cards, on account of the increased velocity, 
by centrifugal force, throwing the fibres too forcibly 
against the flats and choking them up, making altogether 
too much waste, so you see we would lose by the operation, 



TOP FLAT CARD. 31 



SO instead we will slower the speed of doffer, and curtail 
the length delivered, and by this means we shall im- 
prove the carding at the expense of loss in production 
there are two things here of great importance, quantity 
and quality, and when one is required more than 
the other, it must be inversely to each other, but if both 
properties are essential, then it involves more cards whether 
you do it by single or double carding. I also believe, when 
the cylinder takes the cotton from the feed rollers we have 
better carding, because of its being held in a mass causing 
a greater tenacity of the fibres to be drawn out by the 
cylinder, although the wire gets more hard usage than 
when it takes it from lickerin. Yet the improved quality 
of the carding is more in favor than the damaging effects 
on the wire amounts to, for it is on this principle that the 
science of drawing cotton is carried out ; by the greatest 
velocity of surface, doing the teasing out of the fibres, 
securing them almost individually by the slow motion of 
feed rollers in contact with the cylinder or drawing rollers, 
it will be seen at once the difference between the cylinder 
and lickerin, for the latter has only half the surface velocity, 
consequently it is taken in by lumps and can not be held 
on its surface, but is received as such by the cylinder, fol- 
lowed by a deficiency at the expense of the lumps referred 
to. This is a consecutive course, which the carding is 
subjected right along, showing itself in clouds as the web 
leaves the doffer and but for the doubling that follows there 
would be an evil that could not be corrected only by being 
spun on the mule and stretching it out. 

Now these flats have to be ground on a grinder, a ma- 
chine made for that purpose : it is a cylinder or roller 
covered with emery, which has a constant rotary motion ; 
some are oscillating, others are traversing, over which these 



32 TOP FLAT CARD, 



flats are held in a frame having an alternate motion, mov- 
ing in SL tangential direction over the centre of grinding 
roller to insure a plane surface, they are then placed on 
the arches of the card according to their numbers and 
variety of wire nailed on them ; those having the coarsest 
wire being the first to take the cotton. They are all set 
close to cylinder, so are the feed rollers and the doffer too, 
but just to escape contact. You will then adjust the comb 
just to escape striking the wire on the doffer, and its nor- 
mal position giving the sliver its proper tension, as this is 
altered by rising or lowering the comb blade, and in col- 
lecting the web together before going through the calender 
rolls, I would recommend a Holland guide, and when a 
shield underneath is necessary, it should be set a couple of 
inches from the doffer, so that the leaves and seed husks 
will drop between on the floor. 

The calender rolls must not have any more surface ve- 
locity than the doffer has, because the thickness of sliver 
will create tension enough to carry it up to the calender 
rolls. 

We have now got all the relative speeds from the cylin- 
der, which will lead us on for a trial to prove by this in- 
ductive principle ; whether we can make good carding or 
not, as the web is being combed from the doffer, we must 
look for a full and clear fleece, taking care the edges are 
regular and smooth, for it spoils good carding to have 
ragged edges which can be prevented, by having the wire 
on the Flats exceed in width the cylinder wire. 

We will now suppose the sliver to be leaving the calen- 
der rolls in good shape, it will now be an economical 
choice and not of taste, which kind of process, whether 
that of coiling it in cans at each card, or by carrying the 
slivers by a belt up to a railway head : I would prefer the 



TOP FLA-T CARD. 33 



latter for its doublings and attenuating principles in com- 
bination with the cards, if there be not too many cards in 
a section 

We shall now refer to the schedule which says that the 
total weight of all the slivers shall approximate to 360 
grains, then according to that our card slivers we called 
forty grains to one yard, then '^'^=9 cards to one section, 
which are sufficient for one railway head, these number of 
ends 9 are carried on an endless belt, up to the railway 
head, forming one large sliver, being collected and laid of 
equal thickness before going through the rollers, and from 
the weight of sliver, we have decided on making on the 
card, will depend the weight of railway head sliver by the 
draught, for these are to be nearly constant. 

In order to make this single carding good and strong, 
we must dispense with the screens underneath the cylinder, 
to let the rubbish and short fibres drop on the floor, for 
these are injurious to the strength of the yarn, there may 
seem to be a loss by such a whim, which would assume 
large proportions monthly; but, the policy of this under- 
taking is to insure success, showing by the clamorous custo- 
mers the demand for your yarns, which more than counter- 
balances the small percentage of waste incurred, and even 
this is redeemed by the extra production, but the greatest 
of all is the contentment of mind, both at your mill and 
in the market, all hands meet you with a pleasant smile, 
and who would toil under disadvantages when the above 
precept will secure comfort. 

The connection between doffer and the feed rollers by 
the train of wheels, should be adjusted so that there 
will be no jirks or irregular motion of the latter, 
seeing that no cotton accumulates round their ends, 
to the detriment of the grip in holding the lap, and 



34 THE UNDER FLAT CARD. 

securing a uniform pressure obtained by the short levers 
and weight placed over their journals, which should be 
equal and permanent when the precise leverage has been 
determined on from the diameters of rollers and thickness 
of lap, and prevention of lumps being plucked in by the 
cylinder, which often is a trouble and serious evil. But 
this, to a certain extent, is due to irregular made laps, and 
must be remedied at once ; and before leaving this flat 
card, let me induce you to have the slivers arranged, side 
by side, on the belt in the railway trough, to insure an 
equal pressure by the top rollers of the railway head ; this 
being so, will require less leverage on them, although it is ^ 
necessary sometimes to have these slivers more compact, 
so as to condense and hold the fibres. This is very often 
the case in dyed cotton, which makes it difficult to draw, 
and will require more leverage on the rollers ; but use no 
more than just enough, or your rollers will soon be de- 
stroyed. I may remark here that the flat card would not 
be so profitable, requiring more attention and labor to keep 
in condition for the carding of colored cottons, which are 
not so easily disentangled as white cottons are. 

THE UNDER FLAT CARD. 

With due respect to the inventor of this card and those 
who are interested in the benefits from it, I feel deeply 
affected for fear I should give some off'ence, by describing 
to you my experience with them, having no desire to con- 
demn or denounce that which, we hope, will ultimately be 
improved, like all new machines are subject to in their de- 
velopment. I now seek your sympathy in such a task in 
giving to you my views held from experience ; and it is 
necessary, for the welfare of all and the machine, to point 



THE UNDER FLAT CARD. 35 

out such parts that may or may not be improved, as well 
as giving its estimable qualities, which is not required from 
me, but from those who have them in use all over the 
country, will testify. 

Now, this card being a more recent innovation, and one 
that has been a success by the demand for them, this 
popularity has extended far and near in such a short 
period, that they have not had a thorough investigation of 
its merits claimed over their predecessors. There are 
some doubts about these novelties being accessory to im- 
provement, when properly understood, for their construc- 
tion seems to be astray from carding principles, one being 
its manner of presenting the cotton to the cylinder 
from the lap with the two rollers. This application seems 
to be inevitable from the construction of card more than 
having any carding virtues; we must not retrograde know- 
ingly, for we want advancement in ideas and curtailing of 
expenses which have not been considered, but have fol- 
lowed the caprice of enthusiasm by the maddening effect 
of competition in the market, of who can do most, will 
get most, has been ringing in the ears of manufacturers. 
The under flat card which has been appreciated for its 
quantity of work over the ordinary flat card, which gives 
it an attractive advertisement, causing anxious inquiries by 
those who are desirous of making a change, would like to 
see and judge by its results how far they can venture more 
capital because others have done so. 

The card has not shown itself yet to be one of great 
advantage or capacity, not a desideratum by any means ; 
we have yet to learn how they get such strong yarn these 
cards are' said to make, when from test and experience it 
shows there is an excess of short fibres over an ordinary 
flat card more in proportion than the extra weight turned 



36 THE UNDER FLAT CARD. 

off, which exhibits itself when it comes to be twisted and 
is as good a test as any combing would be, if such could 
be ascertained with middling cotton from such a card ; its 
defects will be shown by the former twisting in its appear- 
ance on the bobbin, like a mixing of too much fly and 
waiste exhibits and th6 rollers requires to be set closer, also 
a greater amount of twist, and by the latter plan of comb- 
ing, we should get the exact amount of short fibres, show- 
ing by comparison an excess, it being a well-known fact 
that they reduce the strength of yarn and should be thrown 
out along with the leaf and other rubbish ; how is it to get 
out when the flats are right under the line of direction and 
under the centre line, covering Yi of surface of cylinder ? 
But these are not the worst features that card has a tendency 
to do, and does it without cessation, and that is, by the 
rapid revolutions of cylinder the fibres of cotton are lashed 
into the underflats, by an additional force of gravity, be- 
sides the sand and dirt they hold, which should be dropped 
on the floor, helps to surcharge the underflats, which is 
instrumental in making bad work, along with the extra 
labor required in setting them, there being difficulty in 
securing a person to do the work faithfully, for you know 
how dilatory they are in going about tedious and exact 
setting, unless they are paid a premium, but let them 
neglect them ever so slightly, and you will soon 
discover to your sorrow the evil ot having these flats 
any lower than the feed roller or centre line, for 
it is evident from the remarks previously stated that 
there must be an excess of mutilation which short- 
ens the much wanted fibres, this evil is not to be 
detected so well until it comes to be twisted ; it will all 
look very well while the card is just newly set and sharp. 
I will remark here an instance which proved to me how a 



THE UNDER FLAT CARD. 37 



person can he deceived by what seems to be first-class 
carding and drawing, which I happened to see in one of 
our large manufacturing establishments (this has no refer- 
ence to underflat card, but the mixing of short cotton,) 
being favoured by a permit and escort to go through ev- 
ery department ; after being through the card-room, I was 
taken down to the mixing room, and there I saw cotton 
that I thought was not fit to use even for No. 6's, let alone 
for finer numbers, although the mixing got a percentage 
of it. I was then taken to the ring spinning and bobbin 
winding room. I there picked up a bobbin, to examine 
the yarn, which was and might well be termed fearful. I 
could hardly believe it was all alike, so I got another one, 
and there was the same irregularity of the yarn. I was 
struck with astonishment, and it made me think seriously 
of the matter, and the conclusion I arrived at, was that it 
was caused by the diversity in length of fibre and weak- 
ness ; and now I will leave you to form your own judgment 
in this argument, and in addition to this look at the strip- 
pings from this card, and this you dare not do perfectly 
because the double stripping requires too much power, and 
would break the strippers constantly, which are costly to 
repair, taking everything into consideration with the gen- 
eral appearance of the card when working, it is untidy all 
around by stripping, etc., requiring more help to keep the 
room looking anything like neatness, leaving nothing at- 
tractive or desirable in such novelties. 

If utility and progress are the ideas of the age let us not 
have them stunted by such a speculation in that which 
is the reverse : we must let the mind go free and investi- 
gate the truth, for the benefit of those who have not the 
courage or desire to search into these things which are 
doubtful, and might destroy that which is desirable in 



38 THE REVOLVING TOP FLAT CARD. 

man, to arrive at perfection in all things. It is this view 
that I have taken in reviewing this under-flat card to speak 
the truth in every respect ; from the conviction arrived at 
by a diligent watch over its workings, and not from hear- 
say have I ventured a single assertion, but give my experi- 
ence with them. For it has been a benefit to the inventor, 
to the maker, and the machinist in giving them employ- 
ment, from which I hope they have all derived a reward, 
and will ultimately improve it, and make it a success. It 
has not been a sordid or inviduous attempt on my part 
toward the projectors, but really feel it my duty to say what 
I have done for the purpose of showing the manufacturers 
the necessity for such a class of machines, that will im- 
prove and earn them a name in the worlds market for 
making the best yarns, and hold ourselves as such against 
all competitors, of which there are many ; let us endeavor 
to improve our machines by making them simple by dis- 
pensing with, instead of adding more to, so that they will 
require less expense and labor, striving to excel in the 
quality of its production, at the same time showing that 
our ideas are progressive, having a more intellectual 
desire in our reform, comprehending that our changes 
shall blend the two elements together, and by so 
doing we are aiming at more than an ordinary novelty 
in our improvements retaining our prestige for genius and 
securing us a reward by the approbation which mankind 
will lavish on our inventive talent. 

THE REVOLVING TOP FLAT CARD. 

We have a revolving top-flat card, which does very good 
work 'and plenty of it, but its care and attention requires 
too much skill and labor to make it a desirable machine. 



THE REVOLVING TOP FLAT CARD, 



39 



KOR A 

40-Inch Roller Card.— The Cylinder 1500 feet 
per Minute. 







Draught 


OF Card 


90. 




Nos. 1 


lank 


Grains 


Weight 


Vel. 


Lbs. 


liver. 


Per Yard. 


of Lap. 


of Dofifer. 


per Day, 


4 


122 


68 


14.7 


1 107 


180 


6 


126 


66 


14.25 


1065 


166 


7 


128 


65 


14- 


1045 


163 


8 


130 


64 


13-8 


1034 


158 


lO 


134 


62 


13.38 


1000 


150 


II 


136 


61 


13.16 


985 


144 


12 


139 


60 


12.96 


970 


140 


13 


141 


59 


12.7 


955 


135 


H 


143 


58 


12.5 


940 


130 


15 


146 


57 


12.3 


925 


125 


i6 


149 


56 


12. 


910 


120 


17 


151 


55 


11.87 


890 


116 


i8 


154 


54 


11.65 


870 


113 


19 


157 


53 


11.44 


855 


108 


20 


160 


52 


11.22 


840 


104 







Draught 


OF Card 


[12. 




Nos. 1 


lank 


Grains 


Weight 


Vel. 


Lbs. 


liver. 


Per Yard. 


of Lap. 


of Doffer. 


per Day. 


21 


163 


51 


13.7 


830 


100 


22 


166 


50 


13-44 


805 


96 


23 


170 


49 


13.16 


790 


92 


24 


173 


48 


12.9 


775 


90 


^l 


177 


47 


12.6 


760 


85 


26 


181 


46 


12.3 


740 


80 


27 


185 


45 


12. 


725 


77 


28 


189 


44 


11.82 


710 


74 


29 


194 


43 


11.51 


690 


72 


30 


198 


42 


11.29 


675 


68 



4© ROLLER CARD, 



ROLLER CARD. 

The roller card which is the best for dyed cottons, and 
for quantity of work, will excel all others of which there are 
a great variety and choice, each of them having somepartic- 
ular claim, for the construction they have put upon them, and 
originality of design by which they intend should improve 
the carding, or displace some of the more primative methods 
by its obvious and pecuniary merits, which are deserving 
of particular attention, and should be encouraged in their 
efforts in trying to get at greater perfection of work, than 
a mere novelty oi gi?n-cracks to keep in repair, of which I 
am sorry to say there has been too many recently, in fact, 
to superfluity and would bring any manufacturer to ruin, if 
he would go to the expense of testing them by experiment, 
which always costs money and loss of time, when they are 
proved to be of more humbug than real service, and this 
leaves you to repent. We are apt to get confused by the 
many recommendations presented to us from individual 
manufacturers and large corporations who have endorsed 
by their signatures, and which these solicitous drummers 
are so ready of presentment to sanction what they repre- 
sent, and the anxious desire to get an order for their ma- 
chines and auxilliary appliances too numerous to mention. 
Now this roller card has instead of flats what are called 
workers and strippers, made in roller form and of iron, on 
which fillet is wound around in a spiral manner, like the 
doffer before described, their axles extending through and 
resting on bearings attached to the arches, and by the same 
can be adjusted by screws, bringing their surface in con- 
tact with cylinder and each other, and by having different ve- 
locities the cotton fibres are received and given out to be 
teased and torn asunder as the quality of stock requires, and 



ROLLER CARD. 4I 



advancing toward the doffer as they become loosened, and 
laid parallel by the action of the reciprocating rollers, in 
opposition to the greater force which the cylinder meets 
them, carrying with it the already prepared fibres which are 
stripped off by the doffer; the cards are usually supplied 
with a lickerin for the purpose of assisting the cylinder, 
which would have too much labor by so great a quantity 
of cotton being presented and put through the card, al- 
though this licker-in is objectionable in other respects (be- 
fore mentioned), for it is at this place where most of the 
carding could be done, if properly held, of which the licker- 
in has no claim; it has one; though of assisting in the re- 
moval of any dirt or hard knots which the beaters or 
scutchers have failed in doing, it being placed in such a 
favorable position, and rotating suitably for performing 
such work, and not until a better plan is brought out, can 
this licker-in be dispensed with altogether, the removal of 
moats might be accomplished by placing over the feed roller a 
few grate bars that can be set at any angle or distance, to 
suit the tangential force the cylinder may have which 
will be according to velocity of cylinder, this appliance 
would have to be carefully enclosed with a box to receive 
all the trash, and that would be almost all there was in the 
cotton, for this is the most available place on the card 
where such an appliance could be used. There is a roller 
and sometimes two, called dirt rollers, fixed over the lick- 
er-in to an ;wer this purpose, but they do not do the work 
effectually, their wires incline against those of the cylinder 
driving the leaf and shells into these from the cotton; 
these rollers revolve the same way as the cylinder, and 
their velocity like a worker, and sometimes slower; there 
is and has been a great many gim-cracks for this purpose, 
among these, also, may be included one of stripping un- 



42 ROLLER CARD, 



derneath with two rollers. I think a fancy would be more 
valuable in their stead underneath, and would help to keep 
the cylinder sharp and clean if properly applied; this idea 
of stripping underneath and being stripped in return, and 
then let go in again is a poor recommendation for making 
good yarns; there is a point of economy shown by it, but 
its worth is false, by making that which would have been 
good, is worthless. It will be in dull times that we shall 
see all these evils coming against us, and those that have 
guarded against them will be safe at all times, and demand 
their price regardless of the market. For our standard to 
quality must not be interfered with, nor depreciated by 
these everlasting novelties, unless they insure a guarantee 
of improvement of facilitating or economizing the same. 
Now the wire on this licker-in, cylinder, clearers and dirt 
rollers should be nailed on the same way as they revolve, 
the others all incline reverse to their revolving motion. 
The speeds of these rollers are generally calculated and 
made constant with the cylinder by the machine maker, 
but this speed is not to be invariably so. Yet they are 
seldom ever changed. The cylinder on this kind of card 
may have a greater surface velocity than the flat card has, 
• o that it may lash the fibres into the wire of those opposed 
to it ; exercising a greater amount of teasing and loosening 
of the fibres, when assisted by the doffer running slow and 
the workers moving fast, but this speed of workers and 
doffers should be inversely proportional to numbers of 
yarn, that is the higher the count the slower the speed of 
them both,|and a moderate draught that will assist in keep- 
ing the cylinder clean, so that the fibres may be saved by 
being elongated, and getting in the spaces of wire, instead 
of laying on the surface to be tortured, and made into fly 
for want of room amongst the teeth, which can all be 



ROLLER CARD, 43 



avoided by careful watching, in order to get the required 
velocities which are needed on the stock you are using 
preventing wire from being all choked up. 

From the schedule for this roller card the relative speeds 
are for a forty inch cylinder, 1500 feet per minute, and, 
the doffer 840 inches per minute, having 90 of a draught 
with a 11.22 oz. lap to one yard, making a sliver .16 hank, 
or 52 grains to one yard; these are especially for No. 
2o's yarn only, and the surface velocity of workers is 3/3 of 
the doffer, and the lickerin is one-half of the cylinder, 
the strippers is ^ of cylinder, and if a fancy is used under- 
neath it might run 1 700 feet per minute. 

We have found by experience if the cylinder as a greater 
velocity than the above, it gives out more fibres to be tossed 
in a turbulent manner over and around the rollers under 
the enclosed cover, which ultimately collects and forms in 
rolls and balls, at last dropping by their own gravity on 
to the rollers, and going through in that condition, making 
a cloud in the web, and often breaking it down, causing a 
thick place in the sliver which will show itself wiien made 
into any kind of a fabric, but it is often detected before 
being spun, for they cause a good deal of waste to be made 
by breaking down in the various machines it has to pass 
through, being a source of trouble all the time unless 
pulled out and thrown m the waste can, to be worked up 
over again. 

I would prefer doffers of large diameters, in order to 
have a less number of revolutions, and because of there 
being a greater surface presented to cylinder, taking more 
fibres with it when clearing the cylinder of its work, which 
will prevent in a measure too much fly and waste, and the 
cylinder from getting chocked up. I hold the same opin- 
ion regarding the workers, because the fibres of cotton 



44 ROLLER CARD, 



will be lashed in more ; it is also important to have the 
cylinder covered with filletting instead of sheets, causing 
less commotion of air under cover, for the sheets act as a 
fan when the cylinder has increased speed, we are also bene- 
fited by getting more wire on its surface by dispensing 
with the interstices between the sheets. 

But for a flat card, I don't think fillet is so good as 
sheets on account of there being no revolving action with 
flats, opposing the cylinder surface to start or raise the 
continuous fleece of cotton, which will accumulate and make 
neps and form in rolls for the want of something to start 
it like a fancy does, so it is obvious here the preferment 
to sheets over filletting, by the interstices which cause a 
start and allow the doffer to take its compliment of fibres 
regularly, and in ratio with the feed rollers after being 
attenuated to the extent of the draught. 

The card will do 104 pounds per day of \^n hours on 
this particular number of counts that is 20's yarn, and show 
greater strength of sliver with less condensing than any 
other card will, saving waste and facilitating its progress 
up to a certain point, and then the flat card supercedes it, 
because its fibres are laid more parallel and condensed, 
and making it more favorable for attenuating to firmness 
and producing a higher number of counts, everything else 
being equal, yet I believe up to these counts of yarn, the 
roller card would be found to have the most economy in 
it, and produce the best results, taking it altogether. 

We will compare their production, and show the diff"er- 
ence between the flat card and roller card : Flat card, 
doffer velocity, 420 inches per minute. Roller card, 
doffer velocity, 840 inches per minute ; the sliver of flat 
card weighing 40 grains equals . 208 hank ; the sliver of 
roller card weighing 52 grains, equals .16 hank. The 



ROLLER CARD. 45 



number of inches divided by 50, will equal number of 
hanks for lo hours, and number of hanks divided by hank 
sliver, equal number of pounds for 10 hours. Flat card, 
420 in. divided by 50, equal 8.4hanks divided by. 208, equal 
40 pounds. Roller card, 840 in. divided by 50, equal 16.6 
hanks divided by .16, equal 104 pounds per day. The 
ratio being 104 divided by 40, equal 2.6 flat cards for one 
roller card, this consuming y^ horse-power and the flat 
card, .25 horse-power, then Y equal .65 horse-power, so 
the difference in favor of roller card would be .65 minus 
.5 equal . 15 per cent, in power, according to equal quantity 
in weight in pounds per day. 

The investment will be less ; there will be a small per- 
centage in loss of time for stripping and cleaning, the cost 
of labor and incidental expenses, conjointly, will be more 
on the whole than the flat card will be ; its favor will 
only extend up to No. 20'syarn, for the preparation is not 
such that will warrant high speeds and larger draughts re- 
quired for finer counts, but on the whole you can spin the 
specified numbers cheaper with the roller card than other- 
ways, by the great amount of work which this card can 
produce by its {niodus operandi), giving us convincing 
proof when looking at the web, as it is combed from the 
rapid surface of doffer, both clean and well-collected, form- 
ing a sliver of great strength by the tenacity of its fibres 
which are the constitutive principles of this card, created 
by the revolving rollers and their relative velocities, caus- 
ing a contraction and then a distention of the volume of 
fibres, which are taken up successively by them from the 
cylinder and returned again to be repeatedly distended, 
and straightened out lengthwise amongst the wires, and 
those which have been driven by the centrifugal force 
on to the workers and not yet disentangled, revolve round 



46 ROLLER CARD, 



to be teased out, when they again come in contact with 
the wire points of a superior force, tearing and loosening 
them to be carried forward along with some that are still 
tortuous and short, for you will perceive that the fibres 
left floating on the surface of these rollers not already 
straightened, will conform to their own whims and become 
a little more tortuous than when they are kept under the 
scanty space of cylinder and flats, which give them a more 
positive distention. 

But the point at issue is this — that these short and tortu- 
ous fibres that have gone along, help, by a process of linking 
with each other towards giving the sliver that strength and 
tenacity before mentioned, we must bear in mind that we 
are working an inferior cotton, and that the sooner it gets 
out of the card the better, if cleaned and loosened enough 
for the straightening will be sufficient, for these counts and 
class of cottons required, which will not stand such an 
amount of carding, as the longer and strong fibre will. I 
have already set the dofl"er velocity at double the speed of 
a flat card doffer, when making this same counts, and will 
be found not overrated. Knowing at the same time that 
the shorter or le;s the length delivered by the doffer, is 
supposed to improve the quality of work or carding, it is 
also expensive to do so, and will not permit of it unless 
you are remunerated for your loss of time and waste in 
the price of your yarn. I think if you will refer at all 
times to the schedule, and work as close to it as possible, 
you will come out safe, although there are some kinds of 
cotton, which might cause a deviation from it, but this 
must be a secondary trial. I will give you here the diff'erent 
velocities from the cylinder and doff"er. 
The Cylinder goes 1937 in. for i in. of feed. 
The Lickerin, 968 in. for i in. " '' 

The Doff"er, 90 in. for i in. " " 



ROLLER CARD. 47 



The Comb i i-i6in. 1400 strokes per minute. 

The Doffer, 840 in. 

The Cylinder, 1500 feet " " 

" do 64 in. for i in. of worker. 

** do 21-5 in. for i in. of doffer. 

"do 4 in. for i in. of strippers. 

" do 2 in. for i in. of lickerin. 

" do I in. for 1-16 in. of Fancy. 

This cylinder is 40 in. x 40 in. and makes 143 revolu- 
tions per minute. Where this card is in use, and has two 
(2) rollers underneath the lickerin, the middle one may be 
set up to lickerin and cylinder, but the lower one should 
be covered with fancy wire, being the same numbers, or 
thickness ot wire as the cylinder, but not so closely set in 
the fillet ; this will help the carding materially, and it 
should have a good clearance to throw its brushings on the 
floor. I have been thoroughly convinced of the efficiency 
of this roller, by making two good points, and requires 
but little attention for the work it performs. I would also 
recommend good strong diamond-pointed wire for the 
lickerin, it being the most serviceable for doing such work 
at that velocity. You will see from the schedule that I 
have made a special draught to be used for all numbers 
imder 20's, and a special lap to be used for each number 
of counts. 

The speed of doffer varies with the counts also, but 
not in ratio with the numbers, as is usually done with cards 
having the coilers attached, which is done usually by pro- 
portion, by a change pinion having its motion direct from 
cylinder ; this change being modified from a compound 
of the weight and length to suit a constant draught, by 
which the manipulation will better correspond with the 
counts to be made by an alteration of weight of sliver and 



48 RAILWAY HEAD. 



lap, and the speed of doffer inversely to counts, and which is 
entirely too rapid for connecting a railway trough and head, 
the delivery being 840 in. per minute from the doffer on 
these No. 20' s, giving us double the length of the surface 
velocity of back roller which runs on the railway head ; 
"hence," we are compelled to use the coilers, if the 
quantity of work must be kept up according to the sche- 
dule ; so we will make no exception to this, and by 
dispensmg with railway head, if the usual two drawing 
heads are not sufificient in getting the sliver even and the 
fibres parallel, we shall be obliged to resort to an additional 
drawing head. We must examine this closely and see 
whether our stock or class of cotton will admit of this 
extra doubling or not, for it is here that you must decide 
to sink or swim from the effects at this point, which your 
preparation will have on the sliver, if it becomes lumpy, 
its value is irreparable. 

RAILWA y HEAD. 

Now comes the railway head, an auxilliary machine to 
the cards, for assisting and reducing the large volume of 
sliver so formed by a collective number of them going up 
to the back roller in mass. This roller must have a surface 
velocity equ:il to the doffer of flat card — 420 in. per 
minute, in order to keep the tension right. There are four 
lines of rollers on this head, having interstices 1*6 in. from 
fourth to third roller, and ii^ in. from third to second rol- 
ler, and I16 in. from second to front roller, with a draught 
of 3- 75 when belt is m centre of cones ; then, if the whole 
weight of slivers from cards is to be 360 grains for all 
numbers of yarn, we can easily find the number of cards 
to one section from the weight of card sliver, for No. 20's 



RAILWAYHEAD. 49 



is 40 grains, then ^% eqiuls 9 cards to i section, arriving 
at a system which will commend itself highly by giving us 
the proportionate doubling and draughts for the counts to 
be manufactured ; here is the sliver from railway head 
— 1^5 equals 96 grains to i yard. How simple and how 
good is this method, for this is a weight that is tenable with 
the leather rollers and with ordinary attention will hardly 
ever be seen to cut, by having a volume so well proportioned 
to its work. This sliver is expected to be made from a 
web having smooth selvedges, and the hole in trumpet to 
be of an oval shape that will prevent the sliver from being 
of a tape like form, and che condensing of it must have par- 
ticular attention, there being two things to be considered, 
one is to give it sufficient strength, and the other to allow 
the rollers in drawing ff ame to attenuate it without an ex- 
cessive weight on them. I have given the draught oi rail- 
way head 2,-TSy ^^'t '^^ i^ reasonable that you should know 
how I get at this and not let it be thought a guess. No; it 
is derived from a rule, which answers for four lines of rol- 
lers — sq. rt. of 64 multiplied by hanksliver to be made which 
is 96 grains equal .087 hank, so 64 by .087 and then extract 
the square root will give 2.4 draught for front and second 
rollers, and then multiply this 2.4 by 1.56 a constant num- 
ber for the other two {2) draughts, then the product will be 
2.4 by 1.56 equal 3.75 the whole draught and as the hank 
sliver varies so does the draught between the front and second 
rollers, the alteration being altogether with these two rol- 
lers coinciding with the action of the evener as the tension 
varies in the trumpet, moving the cone belt laterally to 
correspond with it and the required draught, so that the 
sliver may at all times be one weight of 96 grains, and to 
obtain this requires some precision for the instant the ten- 
sion acts on the trumpet, the dog should drop in the ratchet 



50 RAILWAY HEAD 



wheel and not have to keep struggling, as it were, by there 
being too much surface on the quadrant extending beyond 
the point of dogs, which will cause a difference of pressure 
on the trumpet to throw them in gear, leaving the change 
in sliver go, before the evener has acted at all, such blun- 
dering as this is a serious matter, and must be remedied 
by filing off these extensions on the quadrant, leaving such 
a distance (by the stripping off a light sliver with your 
fingers at the back), will allow the dog to drop in the 
ratchet, but do not be so precise as to leave the evener al- 
ways on a move. There is also a dog on the shaft to which 
the trumpet is attached, having two (2) points at right angles 
that come in contact with the front of roller beam, and the 
distance of these points from it, should only be such as 
will give the lever that angular velocity to allow the dog 
on the quadrant drop off, in the ratchet, leaving you only 
the nature of the atmosphere to regulate against. This 
machine has traces of evil as well as good qualities, there 
must be a portion of evil go through before it can be recti- 
fied and made good, for the former is the governor and will 
evidently show up its imperfections at a disadvantage when 
the changes are quick and transient, but other ways, its 
good qualities overbalances the evil ones and leaves us yet 
in favor of its usefulness and will hang on to it until some- 
thing better turns up as an improvement. Now if this 
change of tension could be given to evenerhtioxt it reaches 
the back roller, we might sanction it a complete machine 
and is worth trying to accomplish by its necessity, and 
any one would be amply rewarded for his genius, if pro- 
tected by patent right. The rollers of this machine are 
generally shell, covered with leather and weighted at the 
ends, having wood saddles, each one straddling (2) rollers ; 
over the centre of the interstice, hangs a stirrup on the 



RAILWAY HEAD. 51 



saddle, going through a hole in the beam and attached to 
a lever underneath, connected to that, is the other lever 
for the other (2) rollers, the whole weight being given by 
another lever attached, on which hangs the weight, and 
can be moved into different notches to give the required 
pressure, which should be about 240 lbs. altogether, on 
rollers. 

The condensing of the sliver is assisted by the calender 
rolls in union with the narrow slit of trumpet, being care- 
ful not to have too much pressure on these calendar rolls, 
which I previously remarked ; over these leathei rollers is 
placed a wood clearer covered with flannel to keep them 
clean, and loose fibres from lapping around them, there is 
also a clearer used underneath the first and second fluted 
rollers to prevent the loose loose fibres from lapping on 
them ; this is held up by a counter-weight, fastened to a 
lace whose other end is fast to clearer, and pulled up close 
by the velocity of front roller on which the lace rests, and 
in placing the dish for cotton can to stand in, let the inside 
edge of cati. when vertical, be under the centre of calen- 
der rolls, with a rotation of about 50 feet per minute, this 
motion ought to be very slow in order to prevent the sliver 
from twisting so when going under the roller of the next 
machine, which makes it troublesome at times on account 
of its volume being so large and turning on its edge, raises 
it off the other sliver that is under the same boss, and loses 
its traction going through in chunks. 

Under the roller card system we are obliged to use 
coilers, which are attached to the card for the purpose of 
conveying the sliver into a ca7i, as it leaves the doffer this 
arrangement, is a section of itself and independent of any 
contingencies that may happen to others beside it, and in 
this respect it is superior to the other plan. It is on ac- 



52 RAILWAY HEAD, 



count of the great length of sliver given out per min- 
ute from the doffer that we have to apply §uch a useful 
compact and neat machine, requiring little attention 
and packing it in the can in such beautiful coils 
preserving the fibre from any disturbing element also con- 
densing them and making the sliver in a better condition 
for drawing, but there is a little more labor attending to 
this system, by having to handle so many cans, they gen- 
erally being of smaller capacity, causing them to run out 
and fill up faster, hence the extra labor in removal. Now 
this coiler is capable of doing a large amount of work for 
which it is adapted, that of packing cotton into the 
cans, but it is not required here alone, the card only 
having to do about half the quantity, it does at the drawing 
frames. 

It will be necessary to explain how the can must be 
placed so that the coiler may fill this can to the best 
advantage, both in quantity and quality, with as little dis- 
turbance of the fibres, as possible. We will call the 
diameter of coiler 8 in., and from the centre to the inside 
of hole 2^^ in., adding to this ^ in. for the thickness of 
sliver, making the throw 3 in. altogether; after this has been 
ascertained, we will fit an inch strip of wood across the plate 
the coiler revolves in, and get the centre of coiler here, we 
must know the diameter of can, we will call it 9 in. inside, 
then the radii will be 4^^ in., and from this you subtract 
the throw of coiler, then 4^^ in., minus 3 in. leaves a differ- 
ence of i^ in. to be set out from the centre of coiler. We 
have already found the centre of coiler on this strip of 
wood, then measure off i^ in. from this centre towards 
the front, you will then bore a small hole through the 
strip at this point to admit of a string being passed 
through, on this is a plumb-bob below, giving you the 



RAILWAY HEAD. 53 



exact' centre of the can-dish which must be set perfectly 
level in order to give the can a true vertical position ; 
these cans are generally 3 feet long, but to give them a 
good clearance when removing them, you must let the 
dish be 3 feet i^ in. below the coiler; by doing this, you 
save the minder a great deal of labor. The coiler must 
have sixteen revolutions, for the can, one, or thereabouts ; 
it is usual for the machine maker to fix that, and it is well 
to know anyhow for future changes which may arise. This 
explanation will probably be sufficient for all practical 
purposes, without going into the abstract of this ingenious 
machine; it is admired by a majority for its labor-saving 
propensities, and disregarded by the minority, by having 
a surplus of mechanical appliances to the detriment of 
its work, and keeping in repair these superfluous devices, 
when the work can be done without them, but not so 
neatly as they do, with such little waste and less expense. 
It is like most other machines, they can use them best, 
that have been trained up to them; for it is the help when 
taking this view of it, that puts in a particular claim on 
its virtues. 



54 



RAILWAY HEAD. 



FOR A 







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21.9 


29.48 


214 


2.82 


6.18 


2.96 


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20.3 


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197 


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24.13 


178 


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19.38 


23-94 


180 


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6.62 


342 


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18.I 


22. 


173 


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Q 


16 


47 


17.6 


20.42 


227 


3.15 


6.86 


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19.8 


217 


3-18 


6.91 


3^75 


18 


49 


17. 


19. 


210 


3-2 


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3.82 


19 


5 


16.6 


18.43 


200 


3.24 


7.08 


3.91 


20 


51 


16.3 


18.12 


200 


3.28 


7^15 


3^98 


21 


51 


16.3 


17.32 


186 


3.29 


7.16 


3-99 


22 


52 


16. 


17- 


183 


3.3 


7.2 


4- 


23 


53 


15.9 


16.45 


175 


3-34 


7-3 


4.08 


24 


53 


15^7 


16. 


170 


3-35 


7.3 


4.14 


25 


54 


15.4 


15.6 


167 


3^37 


7^35 


4.22 


26 


55 


15.15 


15.24 


163 


3.4 


7.42 


4.28 


27 


55 


i5^i3 


14.76 


154 


3-4 


7.42 


4.29 


28 


56 


14.8 


14.37 


152 


3.43 


7.5 


4.38 


29 


56 


14.6 


14.15 


150 


3-44 


7^5 


4.45 


30 


57 


14-4 


13.78 


146 


3.46 


7^55 


4.5 



THE DRAWING FRAME. 55 



THE DRAWING FRAME. 

The drawing frame is the next machine in order in the 
manipulation, or what is termed in the preparation of 
middling counts, it is intended to draw and even the 
sliver by doubling 2, 4, 6, or 8 ends according to the fine- 
ness, and quality of yarn required, and then lengthened 
out by the roller to any amount desired, this is done by 
each successive roller revolving faster than the back roller, 
and producing a length approximating to the number of 
hank sliver, which is done by the draught. We have a 
variety in kind and construction, and you will have to 
decide which of them will best perform this drawing ; we 
have machines with 5 line of rollers, and 4 lines, and 3 
lines, their being a draught between every line of rollers. 
We have also a frame having 4 line of rollers, with only 
two draughts, that is the fourth and third line have a draught, 
it is then drawn through a guide made so, as to contract 
it a little before going through second roller, but has received 
no extension from third to second until the front roller 
gives it another extension or draught ; these are called 
double draughts. On the other frame of 4 line rollers, 
we have three draughts by them, all being set at proper 
intervals, and making a whole draught. Then there is the 
5 line of roller frame, which has three draughts, but 
similar to the 4 line, having double draughts in its working, 
and is a first-class drawing frame, and if this style of 
drawing frame was made so that the 4 line of rollers would 
start simultaneously, the drawing would be free from cuts 
in starting and stopping the machine, neither would there 
be any when it was running, there being only two rollers 
used for a sectional draught ; there is then a space of 
several inches intervenes before going through the front 



56 THE DRAWING FRAME. 

section ; in this space the web is collected and drawn 
through a traverse guide that condenses it ; there should 
be no draught at all in this space, but it is extended by the 
front section to the required draught, the product of the 
front and back sections making a whole draught, with an 
additional fraction by the calender rolls. The preference 
of this method over the other is this : Where there are 
several rollers and draughts connected with the whole 
draught, the preceding one interferes with the making of 
regular drawing, by its being attenuated and spreading on 
the rollers as it advances, causing the fibres to loose their 
tenacity, and by the interval being so great, causes the 
sliver to break, and through its dispersion makes irregular 
and cloudy drawing, because in the very act of drawing, 
the slivers volume increases at the moment it is suffering 
this extension, for the fibres rush out like rays of light, un- 
der the sudden action of drawing rollers, freeing themselves 
from the compact received by condensation, and if allowed 
to advance under another series of rollers, without being 
condensed, is simply ruinous to the sliver ; this is the great 
objection to a series of rollers, but it can be ameliorated 
some by reducing the preceding draughts to a minimum, 
and letting the front and second do the maximum, there 
is then an excess on these two rollers, and would be done 
much better by the double draughts, although this method 
is supposed to relieve these exceptions, by the loosening 
and better preparing it for the front roller, to execute this 
extra work imposed upon it, and may be seen at work in 
every cotton mill, there being a majority of these kind 
used, and almost universal. But that don't satisfy and 
break up my argument ; the public opinion, and their 
choice of these machines, gives no reason why I should 
not differ with everybody else, if I have found a more 



THE DRAWING FRAME. 57 

reliable theory, and practice to back me up, and that which 
I have before propounded and which I think is a part of 
the true science of drawing, and on this principle is the 
art of cotton spinning carried out, for by twisting we can 
conceive the idea of having the sliver condensed, showing 
how, by the friction of the fibres, they are held to be drawn 
out in a manner that is consistent with the principle of 
systematic drawing, and I think any other theory pro- 
pounded, will not give such satisfactory results, as the 
principle already explained, for by properly understanding 
this theory, as you can easily prove by experiment and will 
no doubt convince you that this is the key note to strike 
for making good yarns. Yes, it is a panacea for all its ills, 
when properly applied. But now we have come to the 
skill and judgement required in the application, or adjust- 
ments, of the intervals, and weights, and volumes, also the 
nature and state of the cotton to be manipulated so care- 
fully, these are the essential points, and can only be applied 
by them who are familiar with their workings, to place 
them in their true positions, so as to produce the desired 
effect, which is a cloudless and clear sliver, with the fibr s 
close and straight to each other, brought forth in a lucid 
like manner. The arranging of the draughts are to be 
considered also, and this depends how far the cotton has 
advanced in its riband-like process. For I presume to say, 
that we should have small draughts to commence with, 
when the cotton is not fairly straightened out, and must be 
done when it is an untwisted sliver in a careful manner, 
and by so doing we shall then be at liberty to increase 
the draughts all along in every progressive machine, 
having the greatest on the mule or spinning frame. 
I have endeavored to show you my view of the ma- 
chine, that would be most suitable to perform this 



58 THE DRAWING FRAME. 

elongation, but you must understand it is in a great 
measure depending how the functions of this most impor- 
tant machine are arranged and applied. It is not to be 
inferred, because you paid a big price for it, and was made 
by such an eminent and celebrated machine maker, that 
you are possessed of such a one that will insure you perfect 
drawing, without considering how the functions of this 
machine are to be adapted to the class of work it has to 
perform. It is generally supposed that the machine maker 
has furnished all that is necessary for making the drawing ; 
and I have found it just as customary, for those who have 
the charge and running of them, to think it an act of mal- 
feasance for any importune suggestions or casual remarks, 
as to making some change before you commence operating 
with it, no matter how beneficial they might be. It is 
utterly disregarded, for their confidence would be mis- 
placed by so doing, and the reverence they have for this 
particular machine, giving indisputable organization in all 
its parts, leaving no alteration on any account whatever to 
be done. Well, then, if this be so, shall we leave it in a 
passive manner, and submit cO this indisputable claim 
without investigating this pre-eminent authority and in- 
fallible right which they have inspired from some classic 
acquaintance, whose intimacy is probably of a binding 
and servile nature for better appointments. Excuse me, 
and let me expiate a little and say, What boy will not 
climb to get the cherry, if he does lacerate his body and 
tear his clothes. 

Now, here is a piece of bigotry, which I recently wit- 
nessed, that brought out these remarks above, and have 
frequently met with such persons and their sophistry. 

It is not unreasonable to think, by any one acquainted 
with the manufacture of cotton, that where the number of 



THE DRAWING FRAME. 59 

counts differ so inuch in their range, but it will effect the 
preparation on account of the change in class of cotton re- 
quired. I am now speaking of what should be done, and 
not what is usually done, that is, ramming all kinds 
through without any alteration, except in the number of 
hank roving, which makes it compulsory in extreme cases, 
and that itself seems to be little understood theoretically. 
But we must go farther back than that, and see whether a 
class of cotton with a disparity of fibres will, under the 
same treatment, bring out the same class of yarns, 
as a class of cotton with a uniform staple. This is 
what we are driving at ; but what astonishes me most 
is that the former, under the same gradation as the 
latter in preparation, makes an equal claim on the 
price of his goods with the latter, in the mar- 
ket, and using an inferior and cheaper cotton. Just 
let me say this, that it is impossible for any one to do it, 
unless at great expense of getting all the short fibres out, 
so as to get a uniform staple, and then it probably fails 
for want of strength in fibre. In the treatment of these 
would be to get the cotton out of the card quick, for this 
inferior kind, and have small draughts which means coarse 
numbers, also, to set the rollers closer than otherways, 
and reduce the breakage of draughts if it becomes a real 
necessity, in order to give cohesion to the sliver, and pre- 
vent spreading on the rollers, and will assist the weighting 
in a measure, which will require an additional pressure, 
the volume of sliver remaining the same. The doublings 
ought not to be so great as the other, for they entail large 
draughts, nor will they stand equal draughts with 
equal doublings repeatedly in the drawing frames, 
on account of the disparity of fibres and being in 
an untwisted sliver, also, not being able to set the inter- 



6o THE DRAWING FRAME. 

vals of rollers to suit all lengths of fibres, but as they be- 
come more parallel, they release themselves, and slip out 
better, riding along with them, the short fibres that cannot 
be reached, and forms in clots which by repeated drawing 
on this machine, begins to make a lumpy sliver, and would 
be better before going so far to turn it over to the slubber, 
and get some twist put in and get a closer bite with the 
rollers ; again, there can be two extra doublings by using 
an intermediate frame, which would cause a reduction of 
draughts in the three frames. I only mention this because 
it coincides with the drawing to be made, and must be un- 
derstood whether such is to be used, if so by referring to 
the schedule we find the finished drawing to weigh sixty- 
five grains to one yard, with five of a draught and four 
doublings, and the first head of drawing to weigh eighty- 
five grains sliver, with four doublings, calling the railway 
head sliver, ninety-six grains to one yard, and constant for 
all numbers or counts, when making warps from good 
middling cottons. But if the intermediate is dispensed 
with, the standard weight of finished drawing will be fifty- 
two grains to one yard, with five of draught on both 
heads of drawings, and four doublings on each head, call- 
mg the railway head sliver, eighty-four grains to one yard, 
and constant for all numbers under this preparation, and 
if using the regular four sliver roller drawing frame, having 
three draughts, I would propose 1.2 in. for first, and 1.3 
in. for second, and 3.2 in. for the front and second rollers, 
and if the doublings are required to be changed ; the front 
draught will be in proportion to the hank sliver, but keep- 
ing the breakage draughts at 1.56 in. I must here give 
you the ru/e for getting this draught, sq. rt. of 64 multiplied 
by hank sliver, then multiplied by 1.56 in. equals the whole 
draught. The intervals being i^^ in., i/j in., and ig in. 



THE DRAWING FRAME. 6l 



for front and second ; but if you should happen to have 
a three line roller drawing frame, tjien the rule is sq. rt. of 
128, multiplied by hank sliver, then multiplied by i.ii in., 
equals the whole draught ; this 1. 1 1 in. means the breakage 
draught for three roller frames, and the intervals, i^ in. 
each, and the weighting of top rollers to be from 50 to 60 
pounds on each roller having two bosses, but if using only 
one boss, a little lighter weight might do ; however, you 
can judge for yourself after giving this a trial, for an excess 
of weight ruins the leather rollers and should be avoided, 
but not to endanger the drawing. I shall give you another 
method here, of arranging the drawing for ordinary cot- 
tons, which works well, and may say, admirable. Here 
the railway head draught is t^.-i,, and the sliver weighs 100 
grains to one yard ; you only put two of these ends up at 
the first head of drawing, with a draught of 3.75)100 mul- 
tipliM by 2(equals 53 grains per yard. Then we will put four 
ends up at the second head of drawing, with a draught of 
four, making it 52 grains to one yard, which weight cor- 
responds with the other plan. This method having the 
principle of drawing in its favor, but not the doubling, 
which must be governed by the class of cotton. If using 
ordinary's, then this method will do, but for good midd's 
cotton I would prefer the extra doublings and draughts. I 
must impress on your mind here the importance of the 
draughts, which are not to be considered from the number 
of doublings but from the volume of cotton passing under 
the top rollers, and must be in the proportion of hank 
sliver being made. For instance, if four ends are put up 
weighing 50 grains each, equal 200 grains, we must not 
infer that if two ends are put up weighing 100 grains each, 
equals 200 grains also, that we are to change their draughts 
on account of their doublings. 



62 THE DRAWING FRAME. 

The production of these drawings from their respective 
weights of sliver, and velocity of front roller at 144 ft. per 
minute, will give us 216 pounds per ten hours. When 
making a 65 -grain sliver and when making a 5 2 -grain 
sliver, we shall get 1 75 pounds per day on each delivery, 
making a .13 hank and .16 hank respectively. I generally 
set the rollers at first, making the back roller 4 inches from 
front, that is, from centre to centre, it is then an easy 
matter to adjust the other two lines to suit the working of 
the material, and for the protection of the top leather 
rollers, it is preferable to have about 12 flutes to the circu- 
lar inch, and should be made so that the flutes will be 
irregular, to prevent the top roller lorming a surface cor- 
responding to the bottom roller, by the heavy pressure 
required to attenuate such large slivers, for if the leather 
becomes corrugated the damage to the drawing becomes 
inevitable, and must be replaced by smooth-surfaced ones 
immediately they are discovered, having always a reserve 
on hand sufficient to cover these emergencies, and if these 
shell rollers were made to suit the width of the doublings, we 
should not require any traverse, which is an evil on a draw- 
ing frame, we could then make our rollers shorter, which 
would be an advantage in the weighting, and holding the 
sliver more effectual. We should have four ends brought 
into one at the trumpet, then, with a less angle, this being 
repulsive, and the trumpet should have a bore of ig of an 
inch, and let the calender be lever weighted, so that the 
sliver can be condensed to suit circumstances, taking care 
to have no draught between them and the fluted rollers, 
only what the thickness of sliver would create, we must 
also have the guides to the back rollers as close up as pos- 
sible, so as to keep the slivers close together, and prevent 
thin places underneath the leather roller, this being a link 



THE DRAWING FRAME. 63 



in the chain of measure for good drawing, and for economy 
would use coilers on the first head, but on the second or 
finisher, it is necessary to see, that the drawing is made 
perfect, and kept untrammeled by any friction or excess of 
machinery that may injure it unseen, and bring us trouble 
that would be very expensive to remedy, therefore we will 
dispense with coilers, in this head of drawing, and let the 
sliver drop into ten in. cans, they revolving reciprocally en- 
abeling the sliver to leave the can without twisting it so, 
as it leaves the can, they will also have to be packed by 
pressing with your hand carefully, so that the fibres may 
be kept undisturbed, using every possible means of pre- 
vention, to secure the parallelism of these fine filaments, 
before becoming twisted, the necessity of this is explained 
as it progresses. The utility of this ingenious mode of nip- 
ping hold as it were, with the points of your fingers, and 
drawing out the fibres longitudinal, by their infinite num- 
ber and small points, in such an orderly and mechanical man- 
ner, being a decided improvement over the master-stroke of 
the points of card wire, which of themselves cannot nip hold 
of these innumerable points, but as they present themselves 
they are hooked off by their loops and spiral contortions, 
and carried into the meshes of wire to be lashed unravelled 
and tore, and straightened partially according to the capri- 
cious nature of the fibres, which are thus combed off m- 
differently compared with the masterly manner of these 
drawing rollers, it is as much superior to the card for draw- 
ing, as the comber is for cleaning. Thus showing how 
progressively arranged are the different manipulations 
which the cotton has to undergo, as it advances in its ca- 
reer towards the attainment of a perfect thread. 

And yet there are theories, visions and ideas advanced, 
that this machine is superfluous, and a complete deadhead. 



64 THE DRAWING FRAME. 

having it is said, been proved by microscopic investiga- 
tions, that the parallelism of the fibres are in better con- 
dition, before going through the drawing frame, and only 
becomes necessary here to reduce the sliver to a certain 
weight, and in performing this, it produces an uneven 
sliver, which can, be easily done if placed under such in- 
experienced treatment. Now such a statement as this, 
and to have come from a scientific investigation, whose 
authority runs pretty high among those persistant in- 
quirers where it originated, and they have had the audacity 
to bring before the public such startling results of their in- 
vestigations, which is calculated to do more injury than 
benefit the manufacturer, who is always ready to take ad- 
vantage of anything new that will aid him in doing his 
work in a more economical manner, although his former 
experience may have been extensive, having acquired a 
thorough knowledge of how this machine does its work, and 
with such precision, knowing that it is an indispensable 
machine, so far as he has proved the requirements neces- 
sary for making good yarns. He knows if this ma- 
chine is neglected, and should in any way get out of order, 
that his yarn becomes worthless, if it does not perform its 
functions by drawing and placing the fibres more parallel, 
and making it evener by the doublings than when it left 
the cards. Yet, in an idle moment, he picks up a pam- 
phlet to read a series of experiments, which are undergoing 
a severe test, by some of these scientific men, who pro- 
fesses to have discovered, and by their machinations to 
lead the public to believe by some new evolution, he cau 
dispense with this useful machine, and he being a contem- 
porary with Darwin, leaves it questionable with this in- 
quirer whether such an appendage, is not more of a nuisance 
than being useful. However, after reading the flowery 



THE DRAWING FRAME. 65 

statements at which these experiments brought forth, or 
as represented, he becomes sanguine of its merits, and 
rushes headlong into this artful device, he arranges his 
carding and railway head sliver to conform with the 
draught of the slubber, and through the excitement every- 
thing seems to run along satisfactory, until he comes to 
watch thje ring spinning, here his heart is bowed down, 
and wonders why it does not run so well here; after re- 
flecting deliberately, he thinks by altering so and so, will 
help it ; after a while, something else suggests itself, and 
there he goes making all these "changes, and still no better. 
At last he reconciles himself by thinking: oh, well, that is 
good enough, I have seen worse than that, and maybe it 
will come out all right after a while. He again returns 
to the card-room, and is delighted with the change, having 
dispensed with the drawing frame, and the help required 
to attend them, he could never think of going back to the 
old system. "No, that is too absurd altogether; I am a 
little ahead of my neighbors and competitors now; they 
are too slow in picking up these novelties, instead of tak- 
ing advantage of them right away. Don't talk to me 
about changing back again to be laughed at. No, sir. ' ' In 
a week or so the spooler complains, and the warper, and then 
the weaver who says it is impossible to weave it. It is now 
about time for one of these scientific men to bring along 
with him, a micrometre, and give us a little of his measur- 
ing experiments, showing us how many different numbers 
of yarn he can claim in ;^6 in. length more than by the 
old system, which I will warrant is double, if made into 
medium counts, but if very coarse, then the uneveness is 
not so easily seen, for it is when you begin to extend the 
draughts that the evil commences, by the reason of its 
fibres becoming twisted before they were laid parallel, and 



66 THE DRAWING FRAME. 

I may state here, affirming, that it is impossible to draw 
and keep an even thread from such a preparation, and I 
mean this as an admonition to those who have not had 
this experience, will benefit by it, and leave such a course 
alone. In reviewing the course of this drawing frame, it 
will be seen that the doublings are few, only being sixteen 
when using the railway head, and making middling counts; 
but for coarser numbers using the worker and stripper card, 
sixteen doubling will be sufficient, but if higher numbers 
are required, another drawing frame should be used, in the 
preparation using a more equable staple of cotton, if it is 
necessary for the articles from which your yarns are in- 
tended to make, whether it is to be a close, smooth and 
wiry thread, or a loose, bulky, fuzzy thread, this all de- 
pends on the doublings and parallelism of the fibres, and 
this drawing should be done very cautiously ; the amount 
of draughts used are to be compared with the state of the 
fibres, and will not admit of large draughts while in a 
confused state, and should never be attempted until the 
preparation is complete, and a portion of twist in it, and 
there the extension may be carried out according to 
schedule ; but the longer, and finer, and stronger the 
staple, so may the doublings and draughts be increased 
when spinning fine numbers, hoping these few hints may 
be productive of making good drawing. 



THE DRAWING FRAME, 



67 



FOR A 

fine: si«xjbbe:r. 









t3 




u 


<« i 




^ 






<nu 


p, 


• s 


c 


C/l 


X 







C rt 




1) 










V 


Ph 


v< 


t4-l 


_) 


Q 






Ph 














4 


.417 


20. 


22.5 


238 


2.96 


6.45 


2.6 


6 


•5 


16.6 


19.96 


230 


3-24 


7.08 


3^13 


7 


•54 


15^3 


18.6 


221 


3-37 


7-36 


^\ 


8 


.56 


15. 


17^53 


204 


3-41 


7-5 


3-46 


10 


.63 


13-15 


15-53 


192 


3-63 


7-95 


3-95 


II 


.64 1 


13-05 


14-33 


172 


3-67 


8. 


3-98 


12 


.67 


12.25 


14-3 


176 


3-75 


■ 8.2 


4.24 


13 


•7 


12. 


13.66 


174 


3-84 


8.4 


4-33 


H 


•73 


11.25 


13.08 


172 


3-92 


8.55 


4.62 


15 


•74 


II. 15 


12.63 


166 


3-95 


8.62 


4.66 


16 


.76 


II. 


12.18 


156 


4^ 


8.72 


4-72 


17 


.78 


10.68 


11.66 


157 


4.1 


8.85 


5.02 


18 


.81 


10.28 


"•33 


156 


4.12 


9- 


5.10 


19 


•83 


10.05 


10.95 


153 


4.17 


9.1 


5-17 


20 


.85 


9.8 


10.73 


153 


4-23 


9.22 


5-3 


21 


•87 


9.6 


10.3 


149 


4.28 


9-35 


5.41 


22 


.89 


9-45 


10. 1 


149 


4^33 


9.46 


5-5, 


23 


.90 


9.26 


9^783 


145 


4^34 


9-5 


5.56 


24 


.92 


9.05 


9^5 


142 


4-36 


9.61 


5-7' 


25 


•94 


8.9 


9.276 


140 


4.4 


9.72 


5.84 


26 


•95 


8.8 


9-03 


137 


4.46 


9.78 


§•97 


27 


•97 


8.6 


8.783 


136 


4-5 


9.85 


6. 


28 


•98 


8.5 


8.56 


134 


4-55 


9.9 


6.11 


29 


I. 


8.3 


8.4 


J 33 


4.6 


10. 


6.26 


30 


1.02 


8.16 


8.16 


130 


4.65 


10. 


1 6.45 



68 THESLUBBER. 



THE SLUBBER. 

The slubber is the next machine which takes and uses 
the drawing, and puts the first twist in, and is then called 
slubber roping; these machines have three lines of fluted 
rollers, and a number of spindles and flyers, varying ac- 
cording to the amount of work required, they are generally 
made from 40 to 80 spindles, whose length is also deter- 
mined by this amount ; there being one drawing sliver for 
each spindle, taken from the can at the back of frame, and 
carried over a roller which assists in lifting and keeping 
the sliver straight, it being brought out over the can 
to relieve the friction on the edges. This roller, conveys 
the sliver to the guide close to the back roller, under 
which it is drawn, this sliver has been carried up here by 
a motion having the same velocity as the back roller, to 
prevent it being torn and its fibres displaced and this im- 
portant feature will be assisted by having the cans made 
of such a diameter, that will be equal to half the length of 
roller box which brings the conductor guide in centre of 
can by which they can be placed in a more neat and reg- 
ular order making better work, and I believe less waste 
than when the cans are made larger and intended to save 
labor. Now this sliver is drawn through at a velocity in 
ratio with draught and speed of front roller which is 153 
revolutions of \]^ in. diameter, and the draught is 5.3 
and the diameter of back and middle roller one inch. 

Then 5.3)153(29 multiplied by ^l equals 36 revolutions 
of back roller and the draught between middle and back 
roller is equal to 10th of whole draught, or should be, and 
if this slubbing roping is intended to go to roving frame, 
then the hank slubbing for making 20' s yarn will be .85 
hank or 9.8 grains to one yard with 4.23 turns of spindle 



THE SLUBBER. 69 



to one revolution of front roller, thus giving 153 multi- 
plied by 4.23 equals 650 revolutions of spindles; we will 
now find out from these what quantity of work can be 
done, taking the front roller at 1.25 in diameter, we get 
1.25)16(12.8 a guage point for that size of roller, so by 
dividing 153 divided by 12.8 equals 12 hanks in 10 hours, 
if the machine never stops, we must allow about 25 per 
cent, taken off this 4)i2(equals 3 equals 9 hanks divided 
by .85 hanks equals 10.73 1^^- P^^ spindle and 10.73)175(16 
spindles to one delivery of drawing head. Thus showing 
how many deliveries and how many slubber spindles is re- 
quired to produce so many pounds per day, of 10 hours. 
In adjusting the fluted rollers for this .85 hank the dis- 
tance between the front and second roller called the inter- 
val vswxsX be set 1.27. inches from centre to centre, and the 
top roller will require 20 pounds weight using either solid 
or shell rollers and the roping laid- spirally around the 
bobbin should have 9. i layers to one inch in length, always 
keeping the traverse rail at its minimum speed but 
corresponding to the schedule and the hank roping 
being made for this. I may here give the rule, sq. rt. of .85 
multipled by 100 equals 9.1 layers and should be strictly 
obeyed ; there are also many other rules by which we get 
the answers to these questions abstractly or by cancellation. 
I previously stated that this hank roping must weigh 9.8 
grains to one yard ; now, to explain this, there are 840 
yards in i hank, and this measure weighs 7000 grains. 
Now what is the weight of one yard? it is 840)7000(8.33 
grains, one yard. You will now discover the simplicity 
of this rule, when I show you how I get the weight of one 
yard of any hank-roping in grains, we have called our 
slubbing roping-hank .85)8.33(9.8 grains. Again, it will 
be easily seen how to get the draught for the slubber 



70 SLUBBING. 



frame by 9.8)52 grains (5.3 draught, with the rollers. 
And the rule for getting the number of turns of spindles 
for one revolution of i^ roller is sq. rt. of 21 multiplied by 
.85 equals 4.23 turns of spindle, thus giving you a precise 
method of getting the number of teeth in twist wheel, 
draught wheel, lifting wheel and the cone wheel will be 
determined by the diameter of bobbin and diameter of 
front roller in conjunction with the system of gearing at- 
tached, and the rack change wheel is to let off such a 
length of move, that will coincide with the pressure given 
by the tension, number of layers per inch and thickness of 
roping. In making changes, the twist, lift, and rack are 
in geometrical ratio, except in the rollers, when the weight 
is in direct proportion to the number of teeth in the change 
pinion, but inversely to the draught, these being the gen- 
eral features of the machine, and leave this stubbing roping 
which is intended for roving frames. 

SLUBBING. 

We will now see what kind of slubbing roping is re- 
quired for number 20's, when using an intermediate frame 
by referring to the schedule it calls for .51 hank slubbing 
.51)8.33(16.3 grains to one yard, the drawing being .65 
divided by 16.3 equals four of draught, and the front rol- 
ler running 200 revolutions per minute, with 3.28 turns of 
spindle for one revolution of roller giving the spindle a 
speed of 200 multipled by 3.28 equals 656 revolutions per 
minute, this being a maximum speed for this coarse roping 
however, we will go by this schedule, then the number of 
hanks will be 200 divided by 12.8 equals 15.6 hanks, if 
the machine, never stops in ten hours, but we will take 40 
per cent, off, thus reducing it to 9.24 hanks per ten hours, 



SLUBBING. 71 



a production of .51)10(18.12 pounds for spindle, giving 
MS iiyi slubber spindles to one delivery on drawing frame. 
There seems to be a great increase in the weight turned 
off from the same number of revolutions on the spindle, 
still it is no exaggeration when you have proficient help, 
but the labor is increased with the production requiring 
some assistance when dofiing; toreduce the per cent, oflo.js, 
which would incur in these intervals, using all expedient 
measures to the starting up of the machine that we may derive 
the greatest benefit from it, for time is money, and if there be 
a deficiency in single help, and allowing the machine to 
stand, it is a waste of strength to the help and a loss to the 
proprietor which will eat like a cancer and assist in making 
his business unremunerative, for it is always the best to 
select machines of great productive powers, consistent with 
the more required merits of doing it well and such as are 
calculated to relieve the labor and expenses in repairs on 
the machine. I am in favor of this class of machines be- 
cause we reduce the quantity, for it is horrid to see this 
incumbrance of machinery and the production no greater, 
although it is necessary for the improvement of the work 
sometimes to use an auxiliary machine like the system we 
are now considering. We have already seen the benefit 
of reducing the draughts and the qua*itity of slubber spin- 
dles necessary for the same production by comparison, 
when not using this intermediate we require 7 per cent. 
less roving spindles and 80 per cent, more slubber spindles 
and 50 per cent, more draught altogether. The drawing sliver 
used for this slubber weighs 65 grains to one yard, which is a 
volume that is most practical to insure a regular and per- 
fect roping. Coinciding with the draught used, which 
will correspond at all times with the draught capable of 
being held with the top rollers by being kept in closer 



72 SLUBBING. 



contact with all its fibres, not allowing any portion of its 
section in advance of the whole, which often occurs when 
the sliver is too large, raising the top rollers so high as not 
to be governed with the edges of sliver exposed, and not 
retained to be teased out by the drawing roller. It is such 
little things as these that contribute toward defeating your 
purpose and detrimental to making a nice level thread. 
We shall have to increase the weight for top rollers on ac- 
count of this coarse sliver, to 28 lbs. on front roller, and 
the same on back and middle rollers. The breakage draught 
here is i-ioth of the whole draught, that is, if the whole 
be 4, then i-iothwiU be 4-10, so that leaves 4mmus.4, 
equals 3.6, iox front roller, plus .4 equals 4 draught, al- 
though it would be more correct to say 3.6)4.(1.11 equals 
for back and middle roller as all draughts are as their pro- 
ducts then the whole draught will be 2)-^ multiplied by i.i 
equals 4,the same. These top rollers are covered with leather, 
except the back is sometimes an iron-fluted roller, which 
is not so good, the flutes have a tendency to crimp the 
fibres and injure them, the hold being too rigid. These 
leather rollers are often varnished to make them more du- 
rable and prevent them from lapping ; this may be allowed 
on shell rollers, as each boss is independen*^, but where 
solid rollers are used, varnish with gritty substance in it 
should be discarded, as it wears off the flutes of steel rollers 
in a very short time and destroys them altogether, the shell 
rollers are preferable for the front when having suffi- 
cient weight on them, but solid rollers have greater 
tearing force, and will draw with a less weight, but not so 
regular. Now the front roller being i^ inches in diame- 
ter, will deliver 3.927 inches in one revolution, and the 
spindle 3.28 revolutions for the above, giving us 3. 28 revo- 
lutions, divided by 3.927 in. equal .8 of a turn per in. of 



SLUBBING. 73 



twist, and by cancellation issq. rt. of 51 multiplied by 1.13, 
equal .8 turns the same, the 1.13 being a G. P. for 
i}( in. rollers, this amount of twist being practical for 
middling cottons, rendering it tensible by the rollers in 
the next machine. We shall have to make the number of 
layersforthishanksq. rt. of.51 multiplied by 1 00, equal 7.15 
per inch in length on bobbin. After laying the first layer, 
the length of bobbin to be made, should decrease one 
layer every reversion, making a bobbin with conical ends, 
built in such a manner to prevent the roping from running 
over, by having a taper of such a bevel, made by this 
diminution in length of bobbin as it increases in diameter, 
and this builder wheel should be made changeable accord- 
ing to the number of laps round the presser, or the ten- 
sion of a spring, the greater the tension, and shorter is 
the move of rack, thus making a short taper and putting 
more length of roping on the bobbin, this is all right if 
the ends are smooth and a clean bevel. We have to take 
this tension off sometimes when the cotton is poor, by 
taking one lap off the presser, and by doing this the move 
of rack is increased, and then will make a longer taper 
and reducing the length of roping on the bobbin, hence a 
change of the tapering wheel. We must not allow any 
loss in production through this change, but if the twist 
requires increasing then it is unavoidable. 



74 



INTERMEDIATE FRAME. 



FOR AN 







,0"^ 




u 


en 




^ 




^ t.' 


^ j-i 


Oh 


. ^ LTV 


a 


i" 


^ 


O 


Han 
Slive 


Grair 
PerYa 


in CO 


Rev 
of Rol 
10 X 


:z;h 
<4-i 



-1 


bo 
Q 


7 


.64 


13 


1575 


200 


3-67 


8. 


3-44 


8 


.68 


12.25 


1474 


194 


378 


8.25 


3-51 


lO 


75 


II. I 


13.12 


182 


3-96 


8.7 


3-63 


II 


.78 


10.7 


12.06 


170 


4.1 


8.85 


3.68 


12 


.81 


10.28 


11.97 


172 


4.12 


9- 


371 


13 


.84 


10. 


11.5 


170 


4.2 


9.18 


376 


14 


.88 


9-47 


II. 


170 


4.3 


9.4 


3-«3 


15 


•9 


9.26 


10.62 


165 


4-34 


9-5 


3.«5 







13 




u 


U5 


. 


- 


• 


^ u 


!2 h 


. ex, 


k" !^ •^ 


c 




^ 





Han 

Slive 


CJ 4) 


inC/2 

1-1 <U 

P^ 




3^ 


(U 

1-1 


bo 






Pi 












1— i 


16 


.92 


9.05 


10.21 


205 


4.05 


9-^o 


3.89 


17 


.95 


877 


9.9 


200 


4.1 


978 


392 


18 


.98 


8.5 


9-5 


195 


4.17 


9.9 


3.96 


19 


I. 


8.3 


9.21 


^§0 


4.21 


10. 


4- 


20 


1.02 


8.17 


9.06 


188 


4.26 


10. 


4.02 


21 


1.04 


8. 


8.66 


180 


4.3 


10.2 


4.04 


22 


1.06 


7.86 


8.5 


180 


4.35 


10.3 


4.07 


23 


1.09 


7.64 


8.22 


175 


4.41 


10.45 


4.1 1 


24 


1. 10 


767 


8. 


170 


4-43 


10.68 


4.14 


25 


1. 14 


7.3 


7.8 


I/O 


4-5 


10.7 


4-17 


26 


1. 15 


7.2 


7.62 


167 


4-53 


10.78 


4.18 


27 


1. 16 


7.18 


7.38 


162 


4.56 


10.78 


4.2 


28 


1. 18 


7.06 


7.18 


158 


4.58 


10.86 


4.22 


29 


1.20 


7- 


7.07 


158 


4.62 


10.95 


4.24 


30 


1.22 


6.83 


6.89 


155 


4.67 


II. 


4.27 



INTERMEDIATE FRAME. 75 



THE INTERMEDIATE FRAME. 

The Intermediate Frame is next in order ; its purpose 
being to get more doublings and reduce the slubbir.g rop- 
ing to a finer roving. This machine has a creel in which 
the slubber bobbins are placed in a vertical position, hav-* 
ing a skewer through them on which they revolve by their 
ends resting in a smooth cup and the other ends going in 
a hole made to keep them upright. These creel rods or 
plates are made of iron, in which these holes, and cups, or 
countersinks are made, at such a distance as will allow full 
bobbins to revolve, but it is best to set half bobbins next 
to full bobbins, and so on alternately, all through the 
whole creel. These slubber ropings being .51 hank, two 
of these are put through one guide, which is called doub- 
lingy and attenuated by the rollers and converted into one 
roving by the twist, it being reduced from 2).5i(. 255 hank 
roping multiplied by the draught viz. .255 multiplied by 4.02, 
equals 1.02 hank roving for 20's yarn, requiring sq. rt. of 1 7.8 
multiplied by 1.02 equals 4.26 turns of spindle for one 
revolution of front roller, the number of revolutions being 
188 multiplied by 4.26 equals 800 revolutions of spindle 
per minute. The number of layers sq. rt.of 1.02 multiplied 
by 100, equals 10 layers per inch in length. The quantity 
of work turned off by this frame will be got from a new 
gauge point — roller \yi in.)i6.(i4. 2 G. P., a divisor for 
\% in. roller thsn we will get 14.2)188(13.24 hanks per 
10 hours without stopping, but for breakages and doffings 
we shall allow 33 per cent, deduction viz. 13. 2 multiplied by 
.67, equals 9.24 hanks per day. This is like the slubber, 
a maximum rate and will amount to 1.02)9.24(9.06 lbs. per 
spindle averaging two intermediate spindles to one slubber 
spindle, this being a proper ratio ; for this system of prep- 



76 INTERMEDIATE FRAME. 

aration which encourages a little more speed, for you are 
supposed now, to be using a better class of stock, with 
more doublings warranting an evener roving by the ap- 
proximation of its fibres, thus giving additional strength 
to the sectional and longitudinal portions of the thread, 
by which this excellent frame is so highly recommended. 
We shall be obliged to close our rollers up a little in this 
frame, making the interval between front and second, 
from centre to centre, 1.25 in., also increasing the weight 
for top rollers to 22 lbs. , our experience here being our guide, 
and guarantee this an average weight Irom one hank up to 
two hank roving, you see there are two ends under one 
boss, and four ends to a roller, this being weighted in the 
middle by a hook, which connects with the weight-wire 
and weight. The front top roller should have a diameter 
as large as the interval will allow, in any of these frames 
when used as a master drawing roller, giving it more 
traction surface on the rovings to be drawn and 
seeming altogether to have a beneficial influence on 
the fibres, while in the action of drawing, and 
whenever we see intuitively, these advantages should 
be mementos in our researches, which will be useful, 
endeavoring at all times to collect such information, 
whether it presents itself unlooked for, or acquired by ex- 
periment, must be retained for the benefit and progress of 
human achievements ; this machine here under our con- 
sideration is a representation of what has been done by 
the retentive powers and accumulated experience of those 
who have been persistant in their labors, and unceasing in 
their efforts to remove that which is unprofitable, by some 
new invention, whereby we can redeem ourselves by the 
quantity and quality this invention produces over our 
, primitive methods, each and every improvement contribut- 



INTERMEDIATE FRAME. 77 



ing towards the perfection of our machines, and reducing 
our labor. 

In reference to these drawing rollers on this machine, 
it is best to have a moderate draught like the one pre- 
scribed, for the task is more difficult on account of the 
coarse twisted roping, and the number of doublings under 
one roller, which makes it require such heavy weighting 
of the top rollers, unless relieved by a greater interstice of 
front and second rollers, which will be injurious to the 
roving if the extension exceeds the volume and staple, these 
two being the connecting links for the measure of inter- 
vals, and will be governed in some respects by the amount 
of twist previously put in these coarse ropings, which re- 
quires a little watchfulness by the overseer, for if the roping 
at times should partially stop the front top roller, and de- 
liver here at a velocity of middle roller, without being 
attenuated, it is evident then for you to relieve yourself 
from this dilemma by pursuing the above course ; then 
again if the coarse roping should be drawn through at a 
velocity equal to front roller without being attenuated, 
there is then a deficiency of weight on the back and mid- 
dle rollers or excessive twist, with too little breakage 
draught between these two rollers. We ar;; compelled at 
times to resort to indulgencies, regardless of its issue, when 
emergencies require immediate relief, so that the machinery 
may be kept running and prevent disorder in the room by 
the help. These frames having such heavy weights on the 
top rollers, endangers the necks of steel rollers by wearing 
them and the squares out so fast, particularly if the frame 
is too long by twisting the ends right off, they should not 
exceed 120 spindles, 8 in. by 4 in. bobbins, this being 
adequate for a 60 spindle slubber of 10 in. by 5 in. bob- 
bins, when the hank roving corresponds to the schedule. 



78 INTERMEDIATE FRAME. 

In getting the number of twist per inch for i^ diameter 
roller is to get number of turns of spindle for front roller, 
one revolution equals 4.26, divided by 3.53 circumference 
of roller, equals 1.19 twist per inch, showing that the 
number of turns are in direct ratio with hank roving, but 
inversely to number of teeth in the twist wheel, and there 
should always be sufficient twist put in the roving, to hold and 
retain it without any loss, until it reaches the rollers of the 
next machine ; sometimes you will discover when taking 
the flyers off the spindles preparatory to doffing, the roving 
will not break off as it should do, close to the bobbin on 
account of too much twist in the roving, and cannot be 
reduced if the machine has too great a speed on it, unless 
you bring it to the limit where the twist wheel is tanta- 
mount to the speed of spindle, which is the proper test for 
arriving at the greatest production of these machines, and 
which will maintain its maximum production, by having a 
system of doffing, like we have for spinning frames, which 
will reduce the loss in production by stoppages, for slubber 
and roving frames to twenty minutes for doffing and 
breakages for every sett of full bobbins made, according 
to the schedule. 



ROVING FRAME, 



79 



FOR A 

fine: roving FTi.A.TiLE. 







"d 




iJ 


(/) 




^ 


o 




si 

0) 




. 1^ 




m 

(I 

H-1 


bO 

3 

Q 






&H 












7 


1.45 


5.74 


5.25 


157 


5.08 


12. 1 


4.52 


8 


1.58 


5-27 


4.91 


157 


5-3° 


12.56 


4.65 


lO 


1.84 


4-53 


4-375 


157 


5.72 


13.6 


4-9 


II 


1.95 


4.27 


4.02 


150 


5.90 


139 


5- 


12 


2.08 


4. 


3-99 


155 


6.1 


14.4 


5.10 


13 


2.19 


3-8 


3.83 


155 


6.25 


14.42 


5.19 


14 


2.35 


3-55 


3.66 


157 


6.48 


15-32 


5-31 


15 


2.41 


345 


3-54 


156 


6.56 


15-5 


5-36 


i6 


2.51 


3-32 


340 


154 


6.7 


15.85 


5-43 


17 


2.62 


3-17 


3-3 


154 


6.82 


16.2 


5-51 


i8 


2.75 


3-05 


3.16 


153 


7- 


16.6 


5.6 


19 


2.82 


2.95 


3-07 


152 


7-1 


16.8 


5.65 


20 


2.92 


2.85 


3.02 


155 


7.21 


I7.I 


5-71 


21 


3.02 


2.75 


2.88 


151 


7-35 


174 


5-78 


22 


3-II 


2.68 


2.83 


151 


745 


17.6 


5-83 


23 


3.21 


2.58 


2.76 


152 


7-53 


17.9 


5-89 


24 


3-3 


2.52 


2.66 


150 


7.68 


18.2 


5-95 


25 


345 


2.42 


2.6 


152 


7.85 


18.6 


6.03 


26 


348 


2.40 


2.54 


150 


7.9 


18.7 


6.05 


27 


3-S5 


2.35 


2.46 


147 


7-96 


18.85 


6.1 


28 


3-65 


2.28 


2.39 


147 


8.08 


19.2 


6.15 


29 


3-75 


2.22 


2.36 


148 


8.19 


19.4 


6.21 


30 


3.83 


2.18 


2.30 


146 


8.25 


19.6 


6.25 



8o ROVING FRAME. 



THE ROVING FRAME. 

The Roving Frame, is the next machine using the inter- 
mediate bobbins, which are placed in a creel, by which 
they can be unwound in a systematic manner, by taking two 
of these rovings through one eyelet of traverse guide, 
forming one thread, termed doubling ; they are then atten- 
uated to the desired length and weight by this operation, 
which helps and assists in making a more uniform thread, 
being an element of the art of cotton spinning, whereby 
we have produced by previous arrangements and calcula- 
tions, a draught consistent with the hank roving, for it 
must not be supposed that any draught is right that will 
bring the doublings to the desired hank, or is sufficient, or 
that the counts of yarn shall be made from a hank roving 
that is inconsistent with them, produced either by an ex- 
tensive draught, or by a reduced one, such methods are to 
be deprecated. It having struck me years ago, that there 
ought to be a better way of doing this business, for in one 
mill they will have two hank roving, making numbers 
from 8's up to 20's, when I go to another mill, they are 
using 2^ hank roving, another mill will be using 2^^ 
hank roving, and another 2^ hank roving, and so 
on. Every one of them claiming to be beating his 
competitor ; I often wonder how such a variety of treat- 
ments will bring forth such charming results, for every 
individual manufacturer, under such different ways of 
obtaining it. Now it is the arranging of the draughts, 
that is paramount in forming a system by which we can 
refer to, these call for certain weights and measures to be 
obtained from correct rules. The ist being a rule to get 
the number of hank rovings from the counts to be made, 
which are No. 20'sj here this No. 20 is squared equals 



ROVING FRAME. 8l 



400 divided by 2, equals 200 ; extract the cube root of this, 
which gives us 5.85 hank roving, this being a roving 
to be doubled in the spinning for No. 20's, but if these 
No. 20' s are to be made from single roving, then 5.85 
divided by 2, equals 2,92 hank roving, which is the speci- 
fied number in the schedule from intermediate roving. 

In putting the rule more precise and arithmetical, it 
equals cub. rt. of (numbers squared divided by 2), equals 
hank roving used single. 

The rule for draught equals cub. rt. of 64 multiplied by 
2.93 equals 5.71 draught, this being the draught required 
for 2.92 hank roving made from 1.02 hank intermediate 
roving, and by this rule you can determine any other 
draught from the hank roving, which you can see are very 
moderate and will insure large productions by the machines, 
and all other portions of the schedule being kept up to, 
that, belongs to this number of counts. We must keep a 
close watch and adhere to every item prescribed in it, 
with a desire to learn from it a more methodical course 
by which we attain superior results. 

I shall now give a full description of the roving 
frame, and how to make the calculations lor the 
different motions, showing how simple it is for the 
solutions of questions relative to all these motions, 
in a very concise manner, but, which seem difficult. 
Now we require for No. 20's yarn a 2.92 hank roving, and 
the number of turns of spindle will be sq. rt. of 1 7 . 8, multi- 
plied by 2.92 equals 7.2 turns of spindle for one revolution of 
the front roller. And the draught will be 5.71, and the 
number of layers equals sq. rt. of 2.92, multiplied by 100 
equals 16.5 layer per inch on the bobbins, and the ratio of 
spindle to driving shaft being 3.05, and the ratio of ex- 
tremes of revolutions of bottom cone equals 3.05. I shall 



82 ROVING FRAME. 



describe from a machine that is most convenient to me, 
which I believe is one of Higgins & Sons. In timing the front 
roller I find it running i66 revolutions, this multiplied by 
7.2 turns of spindle for one revolution of front roller, 
equals 166, multiplied by 7.2 equals 1200 revolutions of 
spindle per minute, a good average rate of speed for a 7 in. 
by 3^ in. bobbin, and should not exceed this rate unless a 
much finer roving is made, when the lifting rail becomes 
reduced in its motions, also the capacity of the bobbins. 

The diameter of bobbins, i is in. multiplied by 3.1416, 
equals 4.5 in. circumference, and the roller is i}i diame- 
ter, multiplied by 3. 141 6, equals 3.534 in. in circumfer- 
ence, making the surface velocity of front roller equal 
3.534, multiplied by 166, equals 586 in. per minute, this 
being divided by the circumference of bobbin, equals 586 
in. divided by 4.5 in. equals 130 revolutions of bobbin 
in excess of spindle, equals 1200, plus 130, equals 
1330 revolutions of bobbin when making the first layer, 
and taking up, 130, multiplied by 4.5, equals 586 in. of 
roving per minute, which is just equal to the delivery in 
inches of front roller. Then 1330 divided by 3.05, the 
ratio of spindle to the driving shaft one revolution, equals 
436 revolutions of long sleeve, which I will denote as X 
at the first layer on bobbin. Now the roller is i}i in. diame- 
ter, divided by 3.5 in. diameter of full bobbin, equals 
.3214, multiplied by 166 revolutions of front roller, equals 
53.3 revolutions less when the bobbin is full, S£> 1200, 
plus 53.3 equals 1253, divided by 3.05, equals 407 
revolutions of X when bobbin is full. The spindle, 
1200 divided by 3.05, gives us the number of revolutions 
of driving shaft, equals 393 revolutions. 

Then X equals 436 minus 393, equals 43 revolutions to be 
given by the compound motion, this being equal to V> equals 



ROVING FRAME. 83 



21.5 revolutions of the stud or compound wheel, when 
commencing on an empty bobbin, its motion being con- 
trary to the driving bevel wheel, when the bobbin leads 
the flyer, and with a slower motion than this driving bevel, 
* 'hence' ' the X will have a speed equal to the sum of twice the 
revolutions of the compound and speed of driving shaft, 
equal to 393 plus 43, equals 436 revolutions of X, and by 
decreasing the speed with the cone, in proportion to the 
thickness of roving, will give a motion to the bobbin to 
suit the increasing diameter of the bobbin, and the mo- 
tions decrease as the bobbins diameter increases. 

So when the bobbin is filled the X is 407 minus 393, 
equals 2* equals 7 revolutions of compound wheel, a speed 
equal to a bobbin 3^ in. diameter, but when the flyer 
leads the bobbin the compound wheel is reversed in mo- 
tion only, the same rate of speed is retained, but 
by its motion being slower than the driving bevel 
wheel, and rotating the same way, the speed of bobbin 
is decreased at the first layer on the bobbin, but as 
the bobbin increases in diameter the speed of X in- 
creases at every change until the last layer when bobbin 
is filled. When you want to change the lead it is only 
necessary to reverse the motion of this compound wheel, 
and the flyer presser. 

yhe top cone has a velocity of of 166 multiplied by 
"0 Iheeij equal 308.3 revolutions per minute, the diam- 
eter of large end of cone equals 6 in. and the small end of 
cone equals 3^ in. equals s*5 equals 1.72 ratio multiplied by 
308.3 equals 530 revolutions of the bottom cone when 
driven by the large end, and on the contrary, will be 530 
divided by 3.05 equals 174 revolutions of the bottom 
cone. Then 530 minus 1 74 equals 356 revolutions for 3^^ in. 
bobbin or ^ multiplied by 30 in. the length of cone, 



84 ROVING FRAME, 



equals 20 in. the belt as moved for a 33^ in. bobbin, al- 
though this could be changed by using a different cone 
wheel, and would alter the travel of cone belt. When 
once the cone wheel is ascertained so that the tension of 
roving from roller to flyer is right, should never be 
changed at any future time on account of different hank 
rovings, for it is wrong and unnecessary. Now^j^ equals 1.75 
in. minus iigdividedby 2, equals .718, equals i.o3i25in. the 
depth of cotton on side section of the bobbin, the num- 
ber of layers per inch being 16.5 multiplied by i. 03125 
in. equals 17 layers in depth, but, the tension and pressure 
call for 4 times that multiplied by 1 7 equals 68 reversions for 
twice round the presser and 4.5 times that multiplied by 17 
equals 76.5 reversions for three times round the presser, how- 
ever, we will say twice round, then the number of revolutions 
at every change becomes 356 divided by 68 equals 5.2 
revolutions less, and 20 in. divided by 68 equals .29 in. 
move of rack, and i.oo in. divided by .29 equals 3.44 
moves in one inch in length of cone, and 3.44 multiplied 
by 5.2 equals 17.8 revolutions less per inch of travel giv- 
ing us 356 divided by 17.8 equals 20 in. travel of the cone 
belt, and 16.5 layersmultipliedby 4.5equals74. 25 in. toone 
in. in length on the empty bobbin and 7 times that equals 
520 in. length on. If 5 86 divided 74. 25 equals 7.9 in. length 
per minute laid, then 7.9 in. divided by 8^ in. circumfer- 
ence of lift wheel equals 9.57, revolutions per minute 
and 7 in. lift divided by 8}( in. equal .848 revo- 
lutions of lifting shaft. The number of extra revolutions 
of X 130 minus 53.3 when full equals 76.7 revolution less, 
equals one revolution for every reversion three times 
round the presser, and by 3.5 rnultiplied by 3.1416 equals 
II in. multiplied by 16.5 equals 181. 5 in. per inch in 
length, this multiplied by 4.12 in length, of last layer 



ROVING FRAME. 85 



equals 748 in. Then 586 in. divided by 181. 5 in. equals 
3. 228 in. per minute in. length and 68 layers divided by 16.5 
equals 4. 1 2 in. length of lift on last row. If the cone belt as 
20 in. travel then JS equals 68 reversions, and the length of 
extremes multiplied by the half of reversions will equal 
length of roving on the whole bobbin in yards. The first 
layer 520 in. on 7 in. in length, the last layer being 748 
in. on 4.12 in. in length, the sum of extremes being 1268 
multiplied by ^ equals 34 multiplied by 1268 equals 431 12 
divided by 36 equals 1200 yards of roving on bobbin. 
But if the roving be wrapped three times round the 
presser then the length will be equal ^'^i^.^^ divided by 840 
equals 1.6 hanks on the bobbin 7 in. by ^}4 in. And now 
I think we have got it pretty well understood so that we 
know what and when a change ought to be made. If the 
cone wheel is changed the rule is cone 2 : cone 2 : : Rack 
wheel required, for if the cone wheel requires to be larger 
it will draw the ends taut, and so will a larger rack wheel, 
but the cone and the rack wheels are inversely to each other, 
that is if I put a larger cone wheel on, I require a less rack 
wheel, and one tooth at the cone will equal one lap round the 
presser directly, and one tooth of change at the lift-wheel, 
will cause a change of two teeth of rack being in direct pro- 
portion to the lift-wheel. So, by putting a small cone-wheel 
on, we get more reversions, consequently, more cotton on 
the bobbin, and the more laps round the presser means 
more cotton on the bobbin, and the lifting-wheel should 
never be changed on the same hank-roving, which is often 
done. I will now explain, by the wheels on this machine, 
how we get the number of teeth in the cone-wheel, for a bob- 
bin il, in. diameter, for it is through the change of diame- 
ter of bobbin ?lon?, which infers a change of cone-wheel. 
nV'; wi-1 ot:'t at the co::.; ound-wheel, which has no teeth, 



86 ROVING FRAME, 



requiring 21.5 revolutions per minute, given by a pinion 
gearing into it of 14 teeth on this same shaft, is a 50 gear- 
ing into a 60, connected with this, is an 80 wheel gearing 
into cone- wheel, this bottom cone has a velocity of 530 
revolutions. I will now get the ratio of these wheels 
from cone wheel to compound wheel, which are seldom 
changed, Zfi equals 4.76 ratio. Now then, ""^^s^^r-", 
equals 21 cone-wheel required for a bobbin ijg in. diameter. 
The lifting motion or change wheel required for this ma- 
chine, is by taking a cancellation of the train of wheels 
from cone to lift shaft, and is simply 530 divided by 16.5 
equals 32, wheel on the end of long shaft going under 
frame. Now this 32 change whe^l for 2.92 hank roving 
is calculated from the use of the 35 and 76 teeth bevels in 
this train of gears. But these bevels are sometimes changed 
to 44 and 54 teeth bevels, which will alter the change 
wheel, by dividing change wheel, 32 divided by 1.76 ratio 
equals 18 wheel required on the end of long shaft, this 
being a ready mode of getting the change wheel on Hig- 
gins & Son's frame. 

I do not think it is necessary to go into a full detailed 
description of this lifting motion as every machine maker 
as a different train of gears from cone to lift shaft, and it 
would be superfluous in hunting up such an history of 
changes, and is not required by the overseers or manufac- 
turers, these calculations having been made by the ma- 
chine maker, before he sends the machines to the factory 
to be operated on, however, I have given you the rule how 
to get the number of layers per inch for any hank roving 
you wish to make, and from a trial on the machine which 
will show you how many layers per inch it is geared up 
for, this being compared with the one required, you can- 
easily determine by proportion what change wheel is 



ROVING FRAME. 87 



necessary, by actual demonstration. I have yet to ascer- 
tain what twist wheel is required to give us 7.2 turns of 
spindle for one revolution of front roller. There is a 
wheel on the end of -front roller of 130 teeth which gears 
into another of 70 teeth on the end of top cone shaft, on 
this same shaft, there is a wheel of 40 teeth that is geared 
with the twist wheel by a carrier, and the ratio of spindle 
with driving shaft is 3.05. So, then, by a little canceling, 
we can obtain the number of teeth in the twist wheel required 
from the data or wheels given „'*• t!**- ^f- equal 31 twist 
wheel. 

We have now to take the draught of the rollers from 
the wheels and diameter of fluted rollers generally used on 
the roving frame. We will commence at the front roller, 
which is i}i in. in diameter, and the back roller i in. in 
diameter, having a back roller wheel of 56 teeth, which 
gears in the change pinion. On this shaft is a stud wheel 
of 100 teeth, gearing into a 30 front roller wheel, and 
from these is*. 5:n. ^To equals nearly 37 pinion. The sche- 
dule gives the draught 5.71 requiring a 36 or 37 change 
wheel and is obtained very readily by canceling, thus : 
G. point 210 divided by change wheel equals draught. 
This method can only be used on this arrangement. But 
you can easily make gauge points for any system of gears 
used on other machines by the same mode of procedure. 
We get the ratio of spindle from the following wheels 
necessary to that result. On the driving shaft is a 42 teeth 
wheel which drives a 28 teeth on the end of spindle shafts, 
on these are wheels of 55 teeth driving 27 teeth on spin- 
dle, so ^. ^ equals 3.05 turns of spindle for the driving 
shaft one, and by turning this shaft round until you have 
made one revolution of front roller, you will discover that 
the spindle has made 7.2 revolutions in the same move- 



88 ROVING FRAME. 



ment, this being in ratio with a 31 twist wheel. I may 
also state that this wheel is coincident with the lifting wheel 
for any hank roving you wish to make. 

N. B. — These calculations are made from a frame run- 
ning 1200 revolutions of spindle. You must go by the 
schedule and not from this experiment. 



ROVING FRAME. 



89 



FOB A 

CO.A.FtS£: ROVINGr FFI.A.IMCE:. 






•A > 

Ky5 




tncn 


1-^ 
. ^ 

0) 

Vt-i 




C 
3 




«5 


Q 


4 


■93 


8.9 


6.76 


152 


4.07 


9.6 


4.46 


6 


1.22 


6.8 


5-99 


162 


4.67 


II. 


4.89 


7 


1-34 


6.2 


5.58 


161 


4.9 


11.55 


5- 


8 


1.46 


57 


5.26 


160 


5-1 


12. 1 


5.19 


10 


1-7 


4.9 


4.66 


157 


5.5 


13. 


5-4 


II 


1.8 


4.65 


4-3 


150 


5.67 


13.4 


5.56 


12 


1-93 


4-36 


4.29 


160 


5.85 


13.9 


5-7 


13 


2.03 


4.1 


4.1 


158 


6. 


14.2 


5.79 


H 


2.18 


3.85 


3.926 


162 


6.25 


14.8 


5.93 


15 


2.23 


3-74 


3-79 


157 


6.30 


14.9 


5.98 


16 


2.32 


3.6 


3-655 


155 


6.45 


15.2 


6.05 


17 


2.42 


3-45 


3.5 


153 


6.51 


15.5 


6.14 


18 


2.55 


3-3 


4.40 


157 


6.75 


16. 


6.24 


19 


2.62 


3-2 


3.286 


153 


6.85 


16.2 


6.3 


20 


2.7 


3-1 


3-22 


^5^ 


6.95 


16.45 


6.37 


21 


2.8 


3. 


3-09 


152 


7.08 


16.72 


6.44 


22 


2.9 


2.9 


3.02 


154 


7.2 


17- 


6.52 


23 


3- 


2.8 


2.935 


153 


7.3 


17.3 


6.6 


24 


3-1 


2.7 


2.85 


154 


7.45 


17.6 


6.67 


25 


3-2 


2.62 


2.783 


153 


7.58 


17.9 


6.74 


26 


3.22 


2.6 


2.71 


150 


7.6 


17.95 


6.76 


27 


3-3 


2.54 


2.635 


148 


in 


18.15 


6.81 


28 


3-36 


2.48 


2.568 


X47 


7.8 


18.32 


6.85 


29 


3-45 


2.42 


2.52 


147 


7.95 


18.6 


6.91 


30 


3-55 


2.35 


2.45 


140 


8. 


18.85 


6.97 



9© ROVINGFRAME. 



I will return now to the first system of making No. 20's 
yarn, by dispensing with an intermediate frame, and using 
the .85 hank slubbing roping on the roving frame, accord- 
ing to schedule which calls for a 2.7 hank roving, being 7 
per cent, coarser than the other method. The draught 
being cu. rt. of 96 multiplied by 2.7 equals 6.37 of a draught, 
requiring 210 divided by 6.37 equals 32 or 33 change pin- 
ion, reducing the weight from 9.8 grains to 3.1 grains per 
yard, with sq. rt. of 17.8 multiplied by 2.7 equals 6.95 turns 
of twist for one revolution of the front roller, and sq. rt. of 
2.7 multiplied by 100 equals 16.4 layer per inch in length 
on bobbin, and twist wheel of 33 teeth and a lifting wheel 
the same, ^^ teeth, and a cone wheel of 21 teeth, with a 
move of rack of .27 in. every change, which can be let 
off by using a 11 star wheel with a 30 fastened on it, and 
a change rack wheel of 48 teeth. The weights for the top 
rollers where there are four ends under one roller ought to 
have 18 and 20 pounds, and is sufficient up to four hank 
roving, and the interval between front and second rollers 
from centre to centre, should be i . 20 in. , and the front roller 
having a velocity of 155 revolutions per minute, with 6.95 
turns of twist for one revolution of front roller, making 
the spindle have 155 multiplied by 6.95, equals 1000 revo- 
lutions per minute, and producing 14.2)155(10.7 minus 17 
per cent, equals 8.69 hanks for ten hours, and a weight of 
2.7)8.69(3.22 lbs. per spindle, and 6.95 divided by 3.53, 
equals nearly two turns per inch, and the number of roving 
spindles required to one slubber spindle are 3.3, or the 
number of slubbing spindles can be determined upon by 
multiplying number of roving spindles by .3 equals the 
number of slubbmg spindles. 

I think we have got the rules for making the changes 



ROVING FRAME. 91 



when required, pretty well understood now, and I hope 
they have left an impression on your mind that will always 
induce you to act in no other way than those previously 
given, showing that you have a system about your busi- 
ness that makes it a science with you, by putting in practice 
every rule and law given in schedule, also with the knowl- 
edge of things which are here propounded and advised. 

It would also be a fit time now to say a word or two 
about the flyers before using them, as they have such an 
influence over the production of the frame, when running 
at such high speeds, by having the pressers put in proper 
shape, and should be kept so, which must be similar in 
shape, every one of them to be successful. Now I propose 
blocking every presser on the flyer before being put in 
use, this is dene by taking the flyer in the left hand and 
placing it in a block resting on the overseers bench ; this 
block is made in such a form, as to put the presser in a 
proper shape, and it also binds it on the flyer leg at the 
same_time, by giving the top block a blow with the ham- 
mer as you are holding it in place with your left hand. 
These pressers are easily put out of shape, and it becomes 
necessary to have these blocks at the bench, so that when 
one of them gets bent out of shape, it can easily and 
readily be fixed, even by the minder herself. The import- 
ance of this will be discovered by one who understands 
the cause of slack and taut roving. For when the drawing 
and slubbing, and roving are all even, there must be some 
other cause which will be found in the presser being out 
of shape. This block puts them all in one shape, causing 
them to press the roving so regular, and making every bob- 
bin have the same diameter, "hence good roving is the 
result, besides increasing the production by preventing 



92 



ROVING FRAME. 



Stoppages by broken ends, and changing wheels all the 
time; in fact they are indispensible when quality and 
quantity is considered, for any irregularity in such delicate 
work as making roving is destructive to all the previous 
manipulations of it, and will certainly be the cause of 
making weak and uneven roving." 

The principle of this block is to get all the pressers so 
that they will come into contact with the bobbin at a 
point on the presser, which will always get the same length 
of leverage from the flyer, producing an even pressure, 
and causing the tension of the roving between the bobbin 
and the roller on every end alike, and when once regu- 
lated it is done with, giving the minder less work, and 
making less waste, also saving the overseer the trouble of 
so much changing. These pressers are apt to get bent and 
broken, and replaced, by new ones being put on, and if we 
had not this block we should soon have them in all kinds 
of shape, for the eye cannot detect this small difference, 
and 'are often let go for want of evidence in not being able 
to distinguish such a small difference in their shape, and 
it is from that very thing, when you call the work running 
bad which produces it. There is also another point about 
this blocking, which prevents the pressers from getting all 
bruised and hammered up, for they leave this block with- 
out mark or blemish, securing a smooth roving, for when 
in the block it is put in the proper circle by a blow on the 
top block, which gives it by percussion the required shape, 
as it cannot be easily accomplished by any other pressure, 
for it acts like stretching by peening, and if they are done 
by pressing or squeezing it springs back again, and so far 
as my experience has been with all kinds of pressers, I 
would certainly prefer a single centrifugal to any other 



ROVING FRAME. 



93 



extant, by its being simple and requiring less repairs than 
double or spring pressers, although the latter will press 
more cotton on the bobbin, yet you cannot make two 
springs have the same pressure in this case, hence more 
twist or irregular roving is the result. The single centri- 
fugal are much better to handle by the minder, but they 
should be properly hung to the flyer, and of equal weight, 
being easily adjusted and replaced when one breaks, and 
should be so applied to the flyer, that when not rotating the 
finger will fall to the bobbin, and when in motion it should 
have no desire to fly back on account of the leg of presser 
not being in its proper position, for so soon as it receives 
motion, the weight of the leg of presser should obey the 
law of central force, by its flying out tangentially and its 
force increasing as its rotary motion increases in an oppo- 
site direction, by the finger of the presser being at right 
angle with the leg, and its centripetal force will be equal 
to momentum and the leverage of the finger ; see that they 
all hang loose and not to bind on the flyer round the bot- 
tom of the leg, or where it is hung. These flyers ought 
to be well dished out at the top, at such an angle that will 
give plenty of friction on the roving, and cause the twist 
to run up to the front roller, and the slot down the flyer 
leg should be twisted in order to prevent the roving from 
running into the slot, and all the time choking it up, for 
its tendency is to fly to the farthest point inside the flyer leg 
when running. We will now put the flyers on the spindles, 
taking care to have the front row reversed to the back row, 
as the single centrifugal presser get a little out of balance, 
as the finger is pushed out by the increased diameter of 
bobbin, and this should be strictly attended to, to secure 
stability of the machine, for if neglected, the great speed 



94 ROVING FRAME. 



at which they are run increases the danger, and ultimately 
loosens all the joints, causing wear and tear unnecessarily, 
and ruining the frame entirely ; this should be strictly at- 
tended to, for the minder is subject to doing as she has 
been taught, and that very indifferently with some, but any 
way this thing should not be allowed, for they are not aware 
of the consequences. Let the roller weights be hung with the 
1 8 pounds on the front rollers, and the 20 pounds for the mid- 
dle and back rollers, it is not compulsory to have the under 
clearers on, when the roving gets finer than two hank 
roving, but wherever they are used, do not forget to oil 
the lace where it rests on the front roller, for it creates 
great friction on the front roller if neglected. These 
twenty pound weights are sufficient for the volume of. this 
sliver, and so is the interval, which must not be altered on 
any account when using middling cotton, for this same 
volume or hank roving, which governs it altogether when 
using the same grade or staple of cottons. We will now 
see that the cone belt be properly joined by being cemented 
and keeping the surface perfectly even, which are reverse 
when laces, belt hooks, etc., are used, for this driving is 
very important and should run evenly on the top and bot- 
tom cones, without any jumping or pressing too hard 
against the belt shipper — this being in such a position as 
not to let the belt move laterally when in motion, and 
kept at equal distances and in line with the ends of cones. 
These cones are 30 in. long but we only get about 27 in. 
of moving surface when utilizing the whole of the cone, 
we have proved in our calculations that a 7 in. by 3^ in. 
bobbin only requires the cone belt to move 20 in. on the 
surface of cones, which would be much better if the cones 
were longer, but that would cause a change in the concave 



ROVING FRAME. 95 



and convexity, or hyperbolic curve of these cones. I have 
already seen cones ^6 in. long, utilizing 34 in. of the sur- 
face, making 7 in. by 3^ in. bobbins. Suppose now we 
had 34 in. divided by 68 reversions equals .5 in. move, 
instead of .29 in. this is a great advantage where such precis- 
ion is required in the motion of the bobbin. The driving 
of these machines should have such size of pulleys as is 
most conformable with the power required, as the machine 
is apt to have an irregular motion when there is not a bal- 
ance wheel large enough to prevent it, and this may have 
the balance of power, but the loss in time is against it, 
when there are sudden stops and starts to be made to fa- 
cilitate the piecing up of broken ends, and also in bring- 
ing the flyers to that particular position where the girl can 
get her hands in best between the flyers and bobbins. 
Now in place of large balance wheel I would prefer larger 
pulleys, so that the belt will have the regulating power as 
well as the motive power, by this change there will be less 
accidents to the diff"erent motions of the machines, and 
will also save a little of the expense of belting by requir- 
ing less in width. If we take yi off" and make the pulleys 
yi larger in diameter, we have just the same power. But 
it is the governing power that I refer to, more than the 
driving, for by its increased radius and traction there is 
less chance of slipping or twitching in its motive power, 
and enhancing its regulating power, whereby we ar- 
rive at a principle which should be consistent with 
the nature of the machine and the work it has to 
perform, and if this suggestion should increase the cost, 
it will be the least when compared with the dilatory and 
sluggish action of the smaller pulleys, in not answering to 
the wish of the operator when the belt will squeak and 



96 ROVING FRAME. 

jerk to the annoyance of all around. I have often wished 
for this unpleasant thing to be remedied, before com- 
ing to the mill, for it is no recommendation to have the 
change made there. Now, with regard to the power this 
machine requires, is a great consideration and should be 
brought to its minimum, by all and every means that can 
be applied or reduced, the steel rollers, and top rollers 
when weighted, seem to absorb a good deal of it, and it 
is a question with regard to the bearings in the stands 
which kind will reduce the power of those that are squared 
out, or those that are circled out, I should prefer the last 
named, because they will hold more lubricating material 
on their journals, resisting the friction caused by the 
heavy weights on the top rollers. But, which take the 
least power, I have not tested; nor the spindle shafts 
which run under centre of foot step, which I think 
is in a better position by dispensing with skew bevels alto- 
gether for driving the spindles. The hubs of the coup- 
lings bevels would be improved very much if they had a 
saw gate through one side, and then a collar slipped on 
with set screws in, would hold and keep the shafts true, 
dispensing with the other set screws which are troublesome 
and in the way, on top rail shaft when the guage 
is narrow. I must not forget the value of having the 
conductor rod as close as possible, and the eyes put 
pretty close together so that when the traverse is at its ex- 
tremes, it will let the outside eye overlap the inside one 
and keep the surface of the leather smooth and last longer, 
a feature to be courted. Now then if the overseer wishes 
to put a little of this theory into practice and find out 
whether this advice has come from a judicious and care- 
ful observer, as he argues to be, and whose experience 
has been varied and brought him to such conclusions, from 



ROVING FRAME. 97 



test and long trials that he feels ready to present them to 
the public, to be criticised by the (great schoolmaster) and 
when coming from such a desire, it behooves us to try and 
prove whether his figures and rules are consistent with the 
kind of yarns you intend to manufacture, that is low and 
middling counts to suit the general trade around us. It 
is expected from you in your experiments to adhere to the 
schedule in every branch of manipulation so that its tenets 
may be fully carried out, and measured by its results. It 
will be as well here to have something to say about the 
twist, which is one of the two things most essential in 
the science of cotton spinning equal twisthig and drawing. 
For the amount of twist required is economy, but when 
put in injudiciously it is extravagance, and will even- 
tually prove disastrous, where sharp competition meets 
us, then it behooves us to be diligent and wise in 
applying it both in just what is necessary, to give us both 
in length and strength its greatest quantity. The rule for 
twist (depends upon the length of fibre and the sectional 
area of the thread inversely), and with this motive in view, 
we will commence right here at the slubber, which is the 
first machine to give twist, there being 4.23 turns for one 
revolution of i^ in. diameter, front roller, and 3.927 in., 
circumference, which gives 1.04 in., twist per inch when 
divided into 4.23 turns of twist, for .85 hank slubbing, and 
the grade of cotton previously mentioned, this twist which 
is sufficient when your drawing has been properly prepared, 
and let there be no changing of this quantity, under any 
plea whatever, for excuses are ruinous, and are made 
chiefly when there has been some previous tinkering and 
tampering done, without any foresight as to the results. 
Carelessness and incompetence in this branch of the busi- 
ness, will bring in its course, all those complaints which 



98 ROVING FRAME. 



succeed in its onward progress to enormous proportions, 
by the labor and machinery it has to pass through, plac- 
ing you in a deplorable position, by not being able to 
present in the market, an article that will command a re- 
munerate price for your labor, and above all, the climax 
will be, that you have been unsuccessful. Now the rule 
given for this quantity of twist must be adhered to, for all 
roping made from i^ in., diameter of roller, but, when 
made from i^ in., diameter roller, it is 6.95 divided by 
3.53 equal nearly two twists per inch, plus the latent twist 
in theslubber roping equal J:"; equal .168 plus 2 equal. 2.168 
the whole twist in 2.7 hank roving, then the draught for 
No. 2o's equal 7.9, so 7.9)2. i68(. 274 plus 20.8 equal 21.- 
074 twist per inch, for No. 20's ring yarn. I hope these 
calculations will prove correct, when experimented on, 
for I don't believe in guess work, for a small fraction of 
increase twist, or one spindle stopped, will tend to increase 
the cost of production, and it is these things that seems 
small but they accumulate to large proportions in the long 
run, and if you. are not expert you will be some time in 
finding it out what the reason is, and where these discrep- 
ancies are, for you think you are on an equal footing 
• with your competitor, with regard to raw material and ma- 
chinery, and why should you not make as good an article 
and as much of it in the same time ? I say you can by 
strict attention to these small things, beat your neighbour 
if he neglects them, so you will now perceive the object 
of putting just the amount of twist, and how to get at it in a 
thorough, and mathematical manner, so that there can be 
no error made at this point. The weighting of these 
machines will be found in the schedule, and are already 
mentioned particularly, they are not to be excessive, 
because the; require more power to drive them, but 



ROVING FRAME. 99 



Still there must be sufficient to hold the cotton, and not 
allow it to be pulled through in chunks, neither should 
that object be relieved by greater intervals which would 
entirely spoil it, sometimes, it comes from the rollers 
undrawn, by being overtwisted, and the girl should al- 
ways piece her end up from the bobbin, and if the weight 
is not heavy enough when the interval twist and draught 
are put to the schedule it will be the best thing to do to 
make them heavier but not until you are fairly convinced 
that the above mentioned are right. You will observe that 
there may have been some mistake in the assortment of the 
cotton, which will prevent the schedule weight answering, 
and if this should be the cause, it will not be necessary to 
increase the weights, but resort to the next best thing, by 
relieving the weight on the middle roller, if it be twisted 
roving, and give it to the back roller, just enough to get 
out of the dilemma, but be sure to move the hanger back 
again, when the trouble is over. The slubber and roving 
frames must have dead weights, and should have back and 
front alike to prevent mistakes in hanging them on, and 
it should be distinctly understood, when ordering the ma- 
chines, that the numbers intended to be spun, should be 
specified, as the weights are governed by the Nos. in the 
schedule, and the hooks and saddles ought to be made 
to cause the least friction, no matter how it is prevented, 
whether they be wood, or iron, or brass, or any other 
metal, the one that is best is the cheapest at cost. I would 
prefer having the weights made after trying the machine, 
if the material be out of the general line, such as dyed 
cottons or merinos, etc., which requires them heavier than 
gray cotton does, and it would be cheaper to make them 
to order. The balance weights for the top rail should be 
sufficient when the bobbins are half full, (exclusive of 



lOO ROVING FRAME. 



friction), causing them to act favorably with the cone belt; 
and the weight for moving the driving belt, by shipper rod 
when necessary, should be ample, and act spontaneously, 
should there happen to be a mischange with the reversing 
shaft, and respond at once to the dogs, that unlatches the 
lever. Hoping that the importance attached to this weight- 
ing the rollers may be properly understood and made reli- 
able, to secure perfect tenuity at all times, without having any 
suspicions that the weighting is at fault, should there come 
any kind of a snag which appears to show imperfect draw- 
ing, let there be no surmise or doubt, "for the weighting 
depends on quality oi fibre and volume of sliver and inter- 
val." Thj draughts "depends on the parallelism of the 
fibres, with the volume of the sliver in conjunction with 
length and fineness of fibre and yarn." These are the 
consisting elements as to how far the extension of elonga- 
tion, and attenuation may be carried under these con- 
troling elements, which are according to a principle laid 
down, that demonstrates by actual experiments a result, 
approximating to perfect drawing. 

There are exceptions to be made from this general rule 
where the numbers often varies on the same machines, 
however, they ought to be strickly adhered to as close as 
possible, for this wavering and rambling away from estab- 
lished principles should be denounced whenever detected 
by those who are competent and have the power to dis- 
charge these duties, this being another of the small things 
I have referred to before, and causes trouble and worri- 
ment when your yarn proves bad and difficult to discover, 
where there is a large quantity of machinery, for this 
changing is usually done to remedy some previous neglect 
of the stipulated weighings. We must commence with 
small draughts, while the sliver is large and its fibres tortu- 



ROVING FRAME. lOI 



ous, but as they become attenuated by the excess of 
draughts over the doublings, they will also become closer 
and more parallel as the material advances, so shall the 
draught be increased through its whole progress, and while 
arranging these draughts, it is important to know that the 
pitch of the wheels used for drawing cotton with fluted 
rollers, should be as fine as the machine and work will 
permit of, and where there is carriers to be used, always 
place them over the rollers, and have them conveniently 
large, as small ones are injurious and inclined to twitter 
the rollers, a very serious action, and must be guarded 
against by adopting the above device, or any other that 
you may suggest, that will surely prevent the evil, and 
make a radical cure of it entirely. I believe when the 
roller stands are made to incline towards the front, will 
prevent the rolling in the necks or journals, and should 
be used on such machines that are not heavily weighted, 
corresponding with the fine teeth recommended for the 
draught wheels, which are limited by the power required 
for their strength. And the products of these draughts 
divided into the product of the doubling, will give a quo- 
tient equal to the counts or weights. The doubling " de- 
pends on the quality of fibre and directly to the length 
and strength, and {vice versa) to its shortness and weak- 
ness." It is intended to improve the uneveness of the 
sliver or roving, by getting an equal number of fibres in 
section of thread through its whole length, which is sup- 
posed ta be called a level thread, and giving it equal 
strength in every portion, by having got as many fibres 
equally distributed as possible in the thickness of it, being 
also better prepared to receive increased draughts, when 
the cotton is of such a quality to warrant it. But some- 
limes we get infeiior grade oi cotton laat will not stand 



ROVING FRAME. 



the doublings, consequently we cannot draw so much, 
** hence coarse counts. ' ' And if not very even, the strength 
is increased by the tortuous fibres being so linked with each 
other, that it modifies or helps a weak and short stapled 
cotton to a certain extent ; but if we attempted to 
make a fine thread from a twisted roving, whose 
filaments were crossed, we should surely fail, and 
especially if we endeavored to do it by drawing in the 
rollers, it can be done by being partially drawn and 
stretched in the spinning mule, but not alarmingly, al- 
though it will help to even it and make it more salable. 
It is in this machine (mule) only, that such kinds of cot- 
ton can best be spun, on account of it having the two 
functions at the same time, viz.: drawing and stretching, 
being free from any drags, attenuating and twisting it to 
the full extent of which its fibres will allow. Claiming 
this advantage over the spinning frame, of remedying by 
stretching what the latter needs, by doublings, also ena- 
bling it to work up a large portion of waste, which ought 
to be used sparingly when mixed with raw cotton to be 
spun on the ring frame, for it will surely show itself in 
puffs and spongy places, and the drawing utterly failing to 
accomplish the task of making the thread even by any of 
the machines it has to pass through. Now we will try to 
show how such stock, composed of such unequal lengths 
and diameters in their fibres, can be drawn. 

I mentioned, when treating on drawing cotton, that 
only two rollers were necessary to make a whole draught, 
but in this compound of material we are obliged to use 
auxilliary rollers and weights, at intervals and pressure in 
a ratio suitable to the unequalled fibres and proclivities of 
their inherent nature, of which we must partially under- 
stand before we attempt to adjust . these several require- 



ROVING FRAME. I03 



ments in excess of pure cotton drawing, or we attempt to 
do something more than we know, exhibiting a good sam- 
ple of ignorance in the experiments and producing noth- 
ing but a waste of time, I say this from my own experience, 
wishing that others may benefit from it and save them that 
labor and worriment which often enfeebles that energy of 
mind required, in emulating and trying to excel in ihis, 
over your competitor, by some novel or expeditious way 
of making an article equally as good at a lower price. 
While such is consistent with our ingenuity, yet it is even 
as deplorable to see the monomaniacs and gray-haired 
equally as prolific, by the assiduous labor and intense de- 
sire to make money faster than your neighbor and to there 
grave in double quick time, instead of keeping cool and 
acquiring knowledge, which tends more to your happiness 
than all your riches. In showing how this kind of material 
can be drawn, I will illustrate my method with some merino 
mixings, the short fibres we will call 1.25 in. long, and the 
longest 2 in. for example, we should by these have a geo- 
metrical mean of 1.6 in. this would be the interval between 
front and second rollers, I would then make the interval 
for third and fourth rollers 1.7 in., supposing this to 
be on a double draught drawing frame, on the first 
head, using a saddle that I can move the weight 
hook to and fro, as it seems best to draw, giving 
the feeding roller a chance to let them slip through by 
easing the weight off a little and moving the hook towards 
the drawing roller, just enough to obtain good drawing. 
We will call the whole draught four, making sq. rt. of 4 equal 
2 the geometrical mean for each draught, that is two be- 
tween front and second, and two between third and 
fourth rollers, and the second and third rollers having 
equal motions for between these two rollers there is a wide 



I04 ROVING FRAME, 



interval, so that the web can be collected and condensed 
in order that it will hold its fibres together better when 
passing through again, between the front and second 
rollers. Now in the second head I would have a double 
roller stand with three lines of rollers in the front section, 
so that you can approach the drawing roller, by having 
the front roller weighted separately, and the second and 
third by a saddle, that the weight hook can be moved at 
will, placing the weight where it is most useful, so that the 
long fibres will escape being torn, and the whole draught 
remaining the same, two in the back and two in front sec- 
tions of rollers, and using no coilers at all. It is now ready 
for slubber, with three lines of rollers, being weighted in 
the ordinary way, only a little extra weight on, and the 
second and third rollers with a saddle that the weight 
hook can be moved to suit the material, and the flutes of the 
rollers to have 50 flutes to i}i in. diameter, and to be cut 
irregular. The front and second roller can be set ig in. 
closer in the interval, and relieving the weight on each 
progressive machine, making the front and second rollers 
on each a little closer all the way through, keeping the 
draughts as low as possible, the velocity of drawing rollers 
being about 30 feet per minute, and the slubber spindles 
should be 50 per cent, slower than when using all cotton, and 
the other frames about 30 per cent, slower, the intention 
is to keep the long fibres from flying out when drawing and 
puttiftg the twist in. I will, at some future time give a full 
description of this kind of work, it being much different in 
its treatment, and will require a full treatise on the sub- 
ject. I only adverted to it for the sake of illustration in 
working these mixed materials. 



ROVING FRAME. 



105 



O 00-^ Os-f^ 



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UJtjOooooOto-f^^t^OOOO" CX3^ 00wco00QU)O\ 



Nos. 



Grains 
per Hk. 



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O — — to tOOJOJ-f^<-n OS"^ ^J vO O »- OJ -^ On^ O >-n 4^. O 00 



Lbs. 
Per Sp. 



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O "" to OJ -1^ <J^ O"^ OOVO O to OJ 4^ On 



Rev. 
of Roller 



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vjl +». U> to « ' vb bo~vl VJ^-KUJ'-' VO^J<-"-i^tO— vO"^tO 



to >.n vji >.n 



Fine 
Roving 
Draught 



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Coarse 
Roving 
Draught 



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Ring 
Twist 



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Reeled 
Yarn 
Twist 



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Sp, for 

I rov. 

F. R. 

No. of 
Sp. for 

I rov. 

C. R. 



Io6 ROVING FRAME. 



We have now arrived at the spinning machines, which 
converts the roving into yarn of any or every description 
required, according to the preparation and the kind of 
machine to spin it on. Our intention is to make No. 20's 
yarn, either from fine roving, equals 2.92 hank, or from 
coarse roving, 2.7 hank, which can be done by a small 
difference in the draughts of each, equals 7.9 for coarse 
roving and 7.4 for fine roving, these draughts correspond- 
ing with the different hank roving. The twist in the yarn 
of both being the same, equals 20.8 twists per inch, and 
weighing .416 grains per yard, or 350 grains to one hank 
or 840 yards, requiring 70.14 pounds to break one lea, 
made on a 54 in. wrap-reel. The speed of front roller 
to be 100 revolutions per minute, and the twist 20.8 
multiplied by 3.1416, multiplied by 100, equals 6540 revo- 
lutions of spindle averaging 1.7 pounds per spindle per week 
of 60 hours, on the ring frame, but, if spun on the mule, the 
production will be 20 per cent, less, equals 1.37 pounds, 
and the proportion of ring spindles required for one rov- 
ing spindle, equals 11.3 for 2.7 hank roving and 10.6 for 
2.92 hank roving. These speeds will prove to be, by a 
very little experience, about as good an average for quality 
and production that you can determine on, for realizing 
the most profit. When everything is taken in considera- 
tion, it is not very high speeds with smaller spindles alto- 
gether, that gives you the best results, it is a coalescence of 
every respective functional power which this machine will 
give from its construction, every motion claiming its proper 
ratio, from the main one, whose merits relatively combined, 
which must be obtained, in a certain measure, from the 
material and counts to be spun. I mean the centralization 
of its greatest powers, whereby we obtain the above men- 
tioned speeds, the results of great experience from all par- 



ROVING FRAME. I07 



ties who b' /e investigated this matter thoroughly, hoping 
that these remarks will prove of some service to you, by 
saving you the trouble and expense of having to repeat 
them, clinging to the precepts of the schedule from the 
start, your future will be a success. That is my object 
which I never lose sight of, when trying to describe to you 
the most direct route by which you can arrive at success, 
keeping in the path I have advised you, for if you begin 
to wander, either right or left, from the straight and given 
course, you will surely get lost, and get in such a labyrinth 
of ways that you will find it very difficult to extricate your- 
self from, leaving you an unsuccessful man, by deviating 
from the course you have been advised to. In setting the 
rollers for these ring frames, the interval should be one in. 
from front to second, that is from centre to centre, and 
the thread guide should be from 2 in. to 2^ in. to top 
of bobbin, this being generally fixed by the machine makers; 
and it is necessary, when adjusting the frames, always 
to set the rings concentric with spindle, and in doing so it 
requires the spindle rail to be moved in some cases, when the 
rail lifters have worn, and caused it to get out of centre. 
Having got these right, then the guide wires can be set 
with the spindle, taking care that the balance weights just 
exceed the rail, but when you make a doubling frame of 
it, the balance weights, and the twist, and the thread guide 
are reversed to the above. The ring frame seems to take 
the lead for continuous spinning, on account of it requiring 
less power than the cap or flyer frames, and the ends are 
pieced up much handier on the ring frame, reducing skilled 
labor to a minimum. The winding on of the thread is 
done by the little traveller slipping, and letting a little of 
of the twist go out at the same time, therefore, the twist 
is not perfect, and is injurious to one of the best elements 



I08 ROVING FRAME, 



in cotton spinning ; the speed of spindle and bobbin are 
constaiit with the drawing, when they are properly con- 
nected. In the throstle and cap frames, the twisting and 
drawing, and winding on are simultaneous with a constant 
speed, but the winding on is due to the bobbins slipping. . 
The throstle frame excels all other frames by making a 
nicer, smooth, and rounder thread, through being held 
and wrapped with the flyer leg, preventing its fibres from 
being whizzed out, as it travels from the drawing rollers to 
bobbin, as is not the case with the other two frames, but the 
cap frames on this very account will show more elasticity 
of thread than either flyer or ring frame, and by its whirl- 
ing the thread against the cap guides, send any loose moats 
or neps that are capable of being beat out with such force,* 
that they fall out by this rapid beating on to the floor, at 
the same time it makes the fibres of cotton to stand out 
like mule yarn, and giving it a wooly appearance, these 
machines have always been run at high speeds, requiring 
great power to drive them, and will turn as many hanks 
per day off as the ring frame, but generally the yarn is not 
so well spun, even from the same roving as on the other 
frames, although it is yet admired by some for certain 
kinds of goods for warp yarn, on account of its elasticity 
acting favorably with the reed, when striking the weft up, 
and in shedding also, its spongy nature makes it a desira- 
ble class of yarn for the filling up of certain cloths, de- 
riving a large percentage of gain over the wiry thread 
made on throstle frame, so you see the different methods 
of putting the twist in, makes different class of yarns, and 
all made from the same preparation, " hence the making 
of a warp by the mixture of these different yarns would' 
be simply ridiculous, showing us that the quality of the 
yarn is not to be determined altogether by the treatment 



ROVING FRAME. IO9 



it receives before it reaches the spinning process, still this 
good treatment must be held up as a prevailing 
po^Yer towards acquiring an even thread. For these 
frames can claim no power of making that over the 
preparation that has already been given it, there 
may some injury be done here, if the drawing and twisting 
be not strictly attended to, and it is the superior manner 
of twisting in the throstle frames that makes claim over 
every other kind of continuous spinning yet extant, and 
the flyers on the roving frames claim the same advantage, 
when running at a moderate speed, by excluding the ac- 
tion of the air on the soft twisted rovings, if not prevented 
will raise the loose fibres, and make them stand out at 
every angle imaginable and simultaneously with twist are 
fastened in that position, having the appearance of a bot- 
tle brush, when such roving is made and passed along to 
the spinning frame, you can imagine the kinks and cuts 
how they are made by the rollers when such a roving is 
presented. This evil has been fully demonstrated by the 
Dan forth list speeders, for in attenuating of such roving 
you will see as it leaves the front roller on the spinning 
frame these imperfections as the twist runs up, making 
thick and thin places, the twist running into this thread 
as the (square of the diameters inversely), therefore, making 
the evil still worse, and that is not all, it exhibits a want 
of knowledge of the business on those who have the man- 
agement under their care, and I hope these remarks will 
be suggestive of using every effort to contribute for the 
making of a smooth roving, with all the fibres laid long- 
itudinal, which will be conducive to making an even 
thread. Generally speaking evenness of a thread " depends 
on the amount of doublings subordinate to the equality of 
fibres and draughts, and the exacting of intervals." If, 



ROVING FRAME. 



these are the essentials for making a perfect even thread, 
then they form a rule, which we are to be governed by, 
and if we are " to believe that all things are not unrea- 
sonable, and to hope all things not impossible," then I 
think we can closely approximate perfection, in making 
an even thread, for this rule is the exact formula given through 
the whole procedure of this little work and by taking the 
advice as is given progressively you will obtain the qualites 
of a good even thread. We are pretty well satisfied on 
the whole, of the different machines in use for making 
warps, and the class of goods required in our market, that 
the ring frame is the most profitable one to use, its pro- 
duction in quantity and the class of yarn it makes, seems 
to answer our wants for which our kind of fabrics are 
made from. It being a kind of go between the throstle 
yarn and mule yarn, which suits us admirably either for 
warp or filling, and which this frame can easily be adapted, 
it being an invention of this country, and in its develop- 
ment has undergone a variety of improvements since the 
orignal prototype was first presented to the public, 
every device be it ever so trifling that has been 
attached to the frame, has been held as a claim by the at- 
tache, until some other novelty as superceded it, and so 
these improvements keep on according to the progressive 
ideas, and genius which our country produces, until we 
have arrived now at such excellence in the construction of 
them, that there seems to be but little difference now in 
the quantity of work turned off, as to who the machine 
maker may be, their choice being left to their own judge- 
ment, with regard to durability, and exactness in work- 
manship, which all tends to determine the cost of the ma- 
chine. Before leaving this frame, I must refer to the 
draught again, being 7.4 the breakage for back and middle 



ROVING FRAME. 



will be the quotient of minus ,o of the whole draught equal 
1. 12 multiplied by 6. 66 equal 7.4, and the gearing up of these 
draught wheels, should be placed all at the gearing end of 
front roller, to prevent lost motion, and the weighting of 
top roller in front, will be about seven pounds, and the 
same for back and middle rollers together, this will be 
sufficient for No. 20's yarn, for single boss rollers, and 
with respect to the number of traveller to be used, I could 
not specify, for you have to regulate them according to 
the material your yarn is composed of, and the construc- 
tion of the frame, be sure to have the ring rail free and 
steady, and the inside of guide wire over the centre of 
spindle, also the ring rail lifters to be at perfect right- 
angles with the rails, and preserving their equal distances, 
the latter. 

The mule is a spinning machine also, and is mostly 
used for making filling, or weft, this yarn has a soft, and 
downy appearance and feel, so well adapted for the filling 
up the web of cloth, and for the making of soft hosiery 
yarns, owing, this peculiarity to the manner by which the 
twist is put in the yarn, there being a striking contrast, 
with the same number of turns of twist betwixt this mule, 
and ring yarns. Yet I have heard of experts, that could 
not distinguish one from the other. I guarantee that 
any blind man can make a distinction in a piece of cloth, 
where half of warp is mule yarn, and the other ring yarn, 
if he has the sense of feeling in his fingers, and would give 
you convincing proof, by letting his finger stop within a 
shot of it. Now in taking the whole demand for yarns, 
this class is far greater than any other, and can be pro- 
duced cheaper, this, is a great advantage, and such a one 
that tells where there are a great numbers of spindles at 
work, especially when similar numbe/ of yarn can be made 



ROVING FRAME. 



from a lower grade of stock, having the propensity of stretch- 
ing, b}' the gain of carriage over the drawing rollers, which 
assists in making a uniform thread, by accomplishing what 
the drawing rollers fails in, where there are short and soft 
spongy places caused by the fibres not being held to be 
attenuated, and when issuing forth from the rollers, their 
lofty and bulky form resists the portion of twist, and 
consequently gives the thinner part of the thread more 
than its portion; therefore, when the carriage is made 
to travel faster than the circumference of front roller, 
these bulky portions which are rendered soft by not 
receiving their ratio of twist, become reduced by the in-^ 
creased tension and getting their portion of twist from 
the thinner parts of the thread, which had taken up more 
than was allotted to them, and will, by the tmie it reaches 
to the full stretch become a pretty uniform thread, but 
will not compare to the uniformity, of twisting given by 
the throstle frame. 

We must admit, that the mule can be adapted to a 
greater assortment of yarns than any other machine yet 
brought out, and will retain its supremacy,- as a more de- 
sirable machine for those who are spinning for the world's 
market, for these class of yarns are more in demand than 
any other, made by continuous spinning, which fails in 
fully accomplishing the task of imitating mule yarn. It 
has not been my intention in writing up this little work 
to describe fully the motions of these different machines, 
and their mechanical appliances which are necessary to 
their construction, but to render such information that 
will assist those who have the task of adjusting them, and 
the material from which they are to manipulate into what- 
ever they are calculated to produce, and helping to facili- 
tate, by working on a system already laid down in the 



ROVING FRAME. II3 



schedule to which can be referred to, until you have be- 
come thoroughly acquainted with the rules from which 
this schedule was originally prepared, and made in order 
to save time and labor, where sudden changes become 
necessary, and ought to be done scientifically, making you 
master of your situation, and not a mere tyro, but a journey- 
man, who theoretically and practically understands what 
every motion requires, without attempting to experiment, 
and this is the reason why the skilled artisan should be 
recompensed for his knowledge of the business he follows, 
over those makeshifts who are continually applying for 
these situations, and are often engaged, as a favor, but at 
a price consistent with their knowledge. This being an 
aggravation to every one who has to depend on the quality 
of his work, whether theirs will be remunerative. But, in 
the near future it will become necessary for the benefit of 
the employers, to ask from each overseer, a certified 
diploma of his capabilities, before engaging him, showing 
that he is no empiric, but a bona fide applicant, having 
been examined by a professor or expert, who shall make 
out his papers according to his capabilities for the situation 
he has so earnestly solicited, and for every applicant the 
professor must exact a fee corresponding with his position 
and extent of his examination, and by a system of this 
kind the employer will have no doubt of his theoretical 
knowledge, which can be relied on by the signature of 
the professor on his papers, he must also show some recom- 
mendation of his practical qualifications, that he is no 
impostor. 

I must resume the manner of calculating the twist and 
draught on the mule, as I have shown on the other machines, 
for example, I shall make use of the wheels usually sent 
on Parr's mules, but these are from an old mule ; however. 



IT4 ROVING B"RAME. 



they will answer our pupose so long as we can show the 
method by which we get the result, it makes no difference 
as to what kind of mule it is, they are all obtained in the 
same manner. We want to get the draught wheel, or 
change pinion, to produce 7.4 draught for No. 20's yarn, 
made from 2.92 hank roving. The front roller wheel is 
13 teeth, and the stud is 78 teeth, the back roller wheel 50 
teeth, and the back and front rollers being one in. in di- 
ameter so the -^4. \l, equals 40 change pinion ; this is exclu- 
sive of gain of carriage, which should have about ij4 in. 
for No. 2o's yarn, with an increase of ^ in. for every five 
Numbers. Thenumberof turns of twist per inch for No. 20's, 
called weft twist, equals 14.5 multiplied by 3.1416, equals 
45.57 turns for front roller, one revolution. On this front 

roller is a 120 wheel, which runs into a 32 wheel and 

required rim runs a 10 in. rim on the cylinder. The cylinder 
is 6 in. in diameter and the warve is J^ in. in diameter, so 
^fi 48> i2o> '1, equals 17.72 in. rim, number of turns, equals ^3", 
"i"> *7> equals 45.57 turns for one revolution of front roller, 
when divided by 3.1416, which means the circumference 
of unity or 3.1416)45.57(14.5 turns of spindle for one 
inch of yarn delivered by the Iront roller. The back 
shaft is driven by a 22 on front roller, into a 51 on men- 
doza wheel. On this is a 19, which drives a 58 on the 
back shaft, equals %, I2, equals 7 turns of front roller for 
back shaft, one revolution ; but the shaft makes three 
revolutions in one stretch and the length delivered by front 
roller, equals (>(} in., when the diameter of roller is i in. 
because seven revolutions multiplied by 3.1416, equals 
22 in., multiplied by 3 revolutions, equals 66 in., and 
calling the speed of carriage four stretch per minute, equals 
66 in. multiplied by 4, equals 264 in. per minute for inter- 
mittent spinning, and when multiplied by the number of 



ROVING FRAME, 



1-5 



turns per inch, it equals 14.5 multiplied by 264 in. equals 
3828 revolutions of spindle, this divided by the number of 
turns per spindle for one revolution of front roller, equals 
45.57)3828(84 revolutions of front roller per minute, giv- 
ing us a production in pound weight, by the rule, equals 
length in inches per minute multiplied by number of min- 
utes worked per week, this divided by number of inches in 
one hank multiplied by number of yarn. Then in the first 
place we must deduct about ten per cent, for stoppages, 
etc., equals 60 minus 6 equals 54 working hours nett, equals 
54 multiplied by 60 minutes, equals 3240 minutes, and the 
number of inches in 840 yards equals 840 multiplied by 
36 equals 30240 in. in one hank, so we get sm^xm's equals 
1. 41 pounds per week per spindle of- No. 20's weft twist 
yarn. It is evident now that if we had put the same num- 
ber of turns per inch in this yarn, our production would 
show 20 per cent, less than continuous spinning does, but 
this deficiency is made up when you take into consideration 
the investment, wages, finding, etc., and I think will 
maintain what I have previously stated, that we can spin 
for the market cheaper by the mule reckoning, on the kind 
of stock that can be used and the class of yarns made from 
it, will enter largely in making up the discrepancies, by 
reduced length with intermittent spinning. 



ii6 



ROVING FRAME. 



10 " — — >- — 

O 00 ON-f^ Is) O CC 0^u^ <ji4--^OJOJ (0 to " — 










b 

to 


Hanks 






to 
<J1 


to 


to 




Interval 


b O O b '"-1 '•-' '•-' -1 '-' '"-' '" '"- M K> to ►o io 
W+>- OsOOO K)4i.v^ O^-I OOVO O •- 10 -|i- On 


to di 
CO to 


OJ -P- -f^ 
OnO -F^ 


ixi 


10 ONlo^OvCUJ 10 \0 lo ccui oc -^ On 


« ON 

On 


Co 


ON- 


8^ 


Grains 
per Yard 




10 to 








On 



Weight 

on 
Roller 


O O to io^+»4^ O\O\0nO\0000000 O to lo 


ON-M -fu 4^ -^ 0\ to 4^ 


00 OJ 

ON" 










Draught 


00 CO CO 00\O vp vo p O — p 
O O v-n o-i C-k) CNV-n "^ \-n V-n 


p\p 
io do 

ON 










Hanks 
per 10 h. 


«-H — — lOtOW^-Ln^JO 


(^ CO 










Lbs. 
per Sp. 




ON-^ 






t 








Rev. 

of 
Roller 


oou)-;^-t-i^v^ onco co\o \o ^■~-i ooi. 

On OnOJ -K OJ COiji O <-n ^ O ^J o^ 


7x3;^ 8x4 10 


x5 


^^^OJOJljJfOtOtOtOtO — — — "•-1""- 

4» to "^ +^ — oo+>. (jj to — \o oo^j yi -P' 10 p 


00^ 

On' 








Layers 


^ _>-_>-' P p JO 4i. ON 

b\"^ -vj -Cj bo bo bo^b * b b On On 00 to 
--4 OJ On -P>- OO+k U) OnU) 
ori to — to 


Gauge 
Points 


to to tototo — ►- — — " — — "- — — — 
4^ U> iv) — O'^ CO-J osY^ (^ ^ Si- ^N^ 


Diam'tr 


~~1 ^J On On Onv^ K.nKj-i\j^4^4^^^<^{^{^ 

yi JO vp On 10 vp OnOj p OO-^j -:j 5:^ ^J^ ,:„ •„ 

-Fk tA) NO ^J ON-f^ -M — — " to 00 -f^ 

to \0 ^J -P>. " 

On 












Circum, 



ROVINGFRAME, I17 



We will now take a review of what has been said in this 
little work, respecting the mode of procedure by taking 
the schedule as a guide for the speeds, weights, measures, 
&c., which has been framed for the purpose of introducing 
into our cotton mills a system, which will show a more 
methodical manner of making our yarns, giving every 
manufacturer the same privilege of taking advantage of 
this course if he chooses, being one so unique in its mode 
of precedure and placing each individual manufacturer on 
the same footing as to how he should proceed to make any 
special number of yarn at the least cost, causing a uni- 
versality in the prices, bringing competitors on equal terms, 
that they may meet each other more agreeable in the mar- 
kets, and hasten a continued friendship which is more de- 
sirable than a wrangling disposition, eifdeavoring to crush 
each other by reduced prices, causing enmity and discord, 
but by adopting this schedule system it will alleviate this 
feeling in a measure calculated in the cost by wages, for 
these will have a constant tendency in making and pro- 
ducing them on equal grounds, and so with the buying of 
your cotton if you have money or credit. Then if your 
competitor takes advantage of you it will come from some 
other source, whereby he can reduce the general expenses 
of his mill, by a small attribute of acuteness, which is a 
very essential thing to have in the business. It is also 
necessary for your machinery to be able to produce the 
quantity of work per day as shown in the schedule for each 
machine, and that will be enough to keep you safe, and 
insure you a better quality, than an overproduction from 
increased speeds, for there is a limit to all the preparatory 
machines, which you cannot overcome with the machines 
now in present use. We often hear of great productions, 
but annual statistics will show them wanting, who has been 



Il8 ROVING FRAME. 



trying to jump the fence, for this boundary is one of our 
safeguards, to prevent trespassing outside of the limits of 
the schedule ; our experience has proved beyond doubt 
that these quantities herein specified, warrants the best and 
most satisfactory results, when compared with the most 
exaggerated productions, which are frail and faulty, by t^e 
excess, possessing little value for the amount of labor and 
power consumed. It may be inferred by some of our readers, 
that the spreaders and cards are not sufficiently taxed, and 
might as well do more than the quantity specified, which 
they presume is a dead loss to the manufacturer, and would 
bring him to ruin. Now I hold the reverse opinion, and would 
not increase the capacity given, for they will do no more and 
do it right. I have not specified the amount of work for 
underflat card, which claims to do double the quantity of 
an ordinary flat card, my experience with them has not 
proved it, by no means used at present, and these are 
what has aNvays produced good carding on every other 
kind of card in present use, I do believe this, if the un- 
derflats was dispensed with, and substitute workers and 
strippers in their place, would be a much superior manner 
of increasing the quantity, they would also get clear of 
the short fibres and rubbish which are held in by these 
flats, choking them all up to centre line, causing the card 
to make neps, by being surcharged, which cannot be 
avoided in their present position ; and I will venture to 
say that there would be more carding virtues in presenting 
the lap to the cylinder by the feed rollers on this card, 
than there is by the two rollers and the.underflats com- 
bined, I mean the principle by which good carding can 
be better attained, in lieu of two rollers to carry the cot- 
ton, and the underflats to hold the residue which should 
have dropped out. It would be a decided improvement 



KOVINGFRAME. II9 



if the lap was so presented, for it is the most availably 
place and position for the cylinder to execute such good 
work being better prepared for the flats to receive, for 
more of the extraneous matter would be driven out. for 
when you come to compare the slow motion of feed roll- 
ers, with the rapid revolving cylinder, in contrast, to the 
quicker surface speed of lickerin which has no hold on 
the filaments to allow them to be teased out like the feed 
roller has with the cylinder. So in its present state of 
construction I could not determine what its production 
would be of good carding. The revolving top flat card 
exhibits good principles of carding, and a greater quantity 
than ordinary flat card can do, but, requires great atten- 
tion, and skill to keep them in order, and this article being 
scarce or hard to keep at the price, they prove unsatisfac- 
tory and such a piece of ingenuity has to be forsaken on 
account of a more industrious class of help to attend them. 
The roller card still maintains its reputation which it has 
held for a century, and has no signs of becoming a martyr 
to any of the recent innovations which has been intro- 
duced of late, its proportion of quality to quantity has no 
other competitor where they approximate so nearly, ex- 
cept the revolving flat card which comes up pretty closely 
and proved itself a pretty good match in the race. But its 
no matter what kind of card it is, or how it is constructed, if 
it executes good quality of carding, with simple adjustments 
to produce it, that we may require less skilled labor to 
perform this task, for our object is to reduce the cost, but 
not altogether, at the risk of injuring our machines by en- 
gaging such help as are not competent of doing ordinary card 
room services it will be much better to employ skilled per- 
sons and increase the production, by better care and 
attention on them. The railway head has received some 



ROVING FRAME, 



improvements, and are acknowledged to be more complete, 
but not sufficient to warrant an even sliver. Yet we may 
look for some bright genius being struck with the idea be- 
fore long, of having invented a device by which the rollers 
will be ready in advance, to correct any inequality of 
slivers issuing from the trough up to back roller of railway 
head, this would be a great achievement, deserving all the 
eulogy and emoluments, which a manufacturing people 
could bestow, for such an improvement on this useful 
piece of machinery. The drawing frame stands where it 
did thirty years ago, and has received no substantial im- 
provement since the coiler was applied, with the exception 
of a few gim-cracks, whose novelties soon become a 
nuisance, and are taken off as bric-a-brac. I am glad to 
see that some of our machine makers, have of late, come 
to the conclusion, to place all the driving gears for the 
rollers at one end of drawing frame, a much wanted change 
necessary for the quality of the drawing sliver, which was 
deficient, caused by the lost motion and torsion, from a 
serpentine course of driving the rollers, from both ends of 
the frame, we are also deriving some benefit by the adop- 
tion of short frames, so that we can have our steel roller in 
•one continuous length, discarding with jointing by short 
rollers. There is also a hazard of ruining your sliver, by 
using calenders with grooves in for condensing them, I 
have repeatedly been forced to replace them with plane 
surfaced rollers on account of the fibres getting cut up by 
a lateral movement of the rollers and the trumpet getting 
out of place, and should consider certainty of more im- 
pctftance than risk, believing that you will keep a vigilant 
watch over this important machine, from what I have pre- 
viously stated about it, for you are sure to reap the benefit 
from the care and attention so earnestly desired, which, 
in a measure, gives you the profit and loss account here. 



ROVING FRAME. 



When we come to slubber, intermediate, and roving 
frames, we find an increase in production by having a more 
substantial spindle and bolster reducing the vibrations caused 
by the flyers getting out of balance, and the constant wear 
of spindle and bolster, by the incessant alternating motion 
of bobbin rail, which used to shake so violently when 
in its lowest position, making uneven roving at every 
revolution of flyer, by its eccentricity, it is seldom we see 
anything of that kind now, having improved the construc- 
tion of the machines, which insures firmness, with a de- 
sire for durability, being elegant in design, and elaborate 
in finish, leaving nothing more to desire, except in that 
they should have proper care and attention, by those who 
are in charge of them, keeping them cleaned and oiled en- 
abling them to turn off the required production, as well 
as giving them a (delightful appearance, and in making an 
effort to put in practice these useful hints, you will dis- 
cover, how much easier it is to accomplish the days work, 
by having everything in its place, and put in use at the 
proper time, showing that a masterly discipline over your 
help, puts confusion and irregularities at a discount, by 
the order and civility which your help have recognized 
the place to be an institute, wliere good conduct and de- 
corum is taught, tending to promote their welfare accord- 
ing to their industry, instead of a workshop of gabbling 
drivellers, whose habits bring disorder, making waste by 
their slovenly manner of working, bringing the machinery 
to rack and ruin, consuming more power, with less pro- 
duction. Such is the course of undisciplined help, and 
would be better to discharge those who are not capable of 
reform, in preference to making your room into a rag or 
junk shop, besides you are compelled to have the quantity 
of work off according to schedule in a proper manner, so 



ROVING FRAME, 



that the succeeding machines may be regularly supplied. 
With these few words of advice to those who feel inclined 
to adopt this system, hoping they will appreciate it for its 
economy and simplicity. I shall now leave you with my 
best wishes.