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THIS volume goes forth to our patrons the result of months of arduous, 
unremitting and conscientious labor. None so well know as those who 
havevbeen associated with us the almost insurmountable difficulties to be met 
with in the preparation of a work of this character. Since the inauguration 
of the enterprise, a large force has been employed — both local and other — 
in gathering material. During this time, most of the citizens of both coun 
ties have been called upon to contribute from their recollections, carefully 
preserved letters, scraps of manuscript, printed fragments, memoranda, etc. 
Public records and semi-official documents have been searched, the newspa- 
per files of the counties have been overhauled, and' former citizens, now living 
out of the counties, have been corresponded with, all for the purpose of 
making the record as complete as could be, and for the verification of 
the information by a conference with many. In gathering from these nu- 
merous sources, both for the historical and biographical departments, the con- 
flicting statements, the discrepancies and the fallible and incomplete nature 
of public documents were almost appalling to our historians and biographers, 
who were expected to weave therefrom with some degree of accuracy, in pano- 
ramic review, a record of events. Members of the same families disagree as 
to the spelling of the family name, contradict each other's statements as to 
dates of birth, of settlement in the counties, nativity and other matters of 
fact. In this entangled condition, we have given preference to the prepon- 
derance of authority, and while we acknowledge the existence of errors and 
our inability to furnish a perfect history, we claim to have come up to the 
standard of our promises, and given as complete and accurate a work 
as the nature of the surroundings would permit. Whatever may be the 
verdict of those who do not and will not comprehend the difficulties to be 
met with, we feel assured that all just and thoughtful people will appreciate 
our efforts, and recognize the importance of the undertaking and the great 
public benefit that has been accomplished in preserving the valuable histor- 
ical matter of the counties and biographies of many of their citizens, that 
perhaps would otherwise have passed into oblivion. To those who have 
given us their support and encouragement, and they are many, we ac- 
knowledge our gratitude, and can assure them that as years go by the book 
wili grow in value as a repositoi\y not only of pleasing reading matter, but 
of treasured information of the past that will become a monument more 
enduring than marble. THE PUBLISHERS. 

August, 18S3. 




Algonquiiis, The 10 

Customs, Indian :!6 

Delawares, The 21 

tlovernmcut, Indian 36 

Indians, The 15 

Laws, Indian 'M 

Lord's Prayer — in Cherokee and English 40 

Mianiis, The 2o 


Moiind-15uiIders n 

Pottawatoniics, Tlie 20 

Religion and Mythology, Indian -tl 

Vocabulary, A Short 18 


Ovornian, .ludgc N. R 27 

Overman, Mrs. Mary .J 42 



Acts of County Commissioners, First 47 

Agricultural Society i'O 

Anti-Horse-Thiet' Society '.tl 

Assessment of Property 50 

Board of Health ." 70 

Crimes and ( 'asualties , 92 

Common Roads T-> 

Concluding Remarks '.lO 

Drainage 71 

IClections, First 47 

(i ravel Roads 74 

Library, County ii5 

Lynching 03 

Medical Fraternity 83 

Murder Case OS 

Newspapers S5 

( tflicers of ( 'ounty , From Organization 50 

< irganizatiou 43 

Population of County 50 

Public Ruildings •j>i 

I vail roads lO 

Richardville Circuit Court 05 

Schools in Howard 77 

Surface of Country 43 

Water-Coursos 4-1 

Military IIistoev 101 

P>eginning of Hostilities 105 

Bounties, First 120 

Bounties, 'i'bc Matter of 125 

Bounty JCxpeuditures 192 

Call to Arms, The 100 

Causes of the Uebellion 104 

Chase After Moi-gan 121 

Close of the Struggle 127 

Departure of the Boys 109 

Draft, First 121 

Draft, Second 124 

ICleventh Cavalry, Company B 122 

Fnlistment, Final 120 

Fifth Cavalry, Company A 117 

First Company, The 107 

Men of 1812...." lOt 

Militia Companies I !2 


MOitia Enrollment 120 

Othcers' Record 132 

Party Dissension 120 

President's Assassination 12S 

Record of the Thirteenth Regiment Ill 

Regimental Representation, Howard's 131 

Regiment, Thirty-fourth 113' 

Regiment, Thirty-ninth 114 

Regiment, Fifty-seventh 115 

Regiment, Seventy-fifth 117 

liegiment. Eighty-ninth 117 

Regiment, One Hundred and Thirty-fifth... 124 
Jteginaent, One Hundred and Thirty-seventh 124 
Regiment, One Hundred and Forty-second, 

Company 1 125 

Relief for Shiloh 117 

Result of the War 130 

Roll of Honor 139 

War with Mexico 103 

Welcome Home 129 


City uk Koicomo 144 

Bar and Courts 170 

Births ., 151 

Churches 158 

Deaths 151 

(ieneral Prosperity 170 

Incorporation of the Town 152 

Knights of Pythias 17S 

Location of the City 148 

.Masonry 173 

Medical Profession 172 

Naming the Town 14() 

Odd Fellows 174 

Officers, City 1-55 

Organization of City Government 143 

Schools .and Education 167 

Settler, First 144 

Centre TowNsiiir 177 

Cemeteries 179 

Churches 17!) 


I»A(i K. 

t .ravel Koads 1^1 

Manufactories !><- 

Mills 179 

Newspapers 179 

I'ast ami Present 182 

ropiilatiou lf*l 

I'roporty l^il 

I'ublif Institutions 181 

Settlers, ICarly IT- 

Soil and Timber 17.S 

Wild Animals 1"S 

JlONICY Cltr.KK ToWN-SIIIl- 182 

JJar, The -'U3 

< luuehes l'.i2-20O 

l>eutistry 20:! 

(irand Army of the Ucimblic 200 

Improvement of Lauds 189 

Lauds Entered 180 

Manufacturing 190 

Marrin^re, lirst 188 

Masonic (trder 199 

Medical Prulessiou 20;i 

Mirehauts, Leadina' 190 

Mills 190-197 

Murder, The iiinns 204 

N(!w spapers, The 20:! 

Odd Fellows 19S 

I'olitics 194 

I' Office 197 

Itailroads 194 

Kussiaville 195 

.Sliools 191 

Schouls in Itussiaville 19S 

Settlers, First 185 

■faxes, First 186 

Transfer of Honey Creek Township 190 

MoNiiOE Township 205 

business Houses 210 

Churches , 209 

I'unkards, The 209 

IClection, First 207 

Masonic Order, Tlie 210 

Medical Profession, The 210 

New London Village 207 

Sehools 20S 

Settlers, I'irst 206 

-Society of Friends 209 

Teachers, Present 210 

I1aui;i<on Townshii' 210 

Alto, Town of 216 

Hirth, First 214 

< abin in the Clearing (Poetry) 211 

''hurches and Schools 215 

l>escription of Township 212 

Cus Well 218 

Lef,'isliitiou, Early 217 

Marriage, First 214 

Medicine, Law and Politics 216 

Middleton Flouring Mill oji) 

Mills, Saw and tirist 215 

Origin of Name 212 

Population 220 

Ueminiscenees, lOarly 21:! 

Settlers, First ". 212 

Taxes 220 

AVest ^fiddleton. Town of 219 

T.wi.dR TowNsiiiv 221 

< hurcUes oSi 

I'rainagc 221 

FUctio'is, Karly 229 

Faiiiield Vilhige 229 

Improvements, (ieueral 226 

Mills, Grist and Saw 227 

officers 229 

liailroads ' 228 

Sebool and Teacliers -"3;! 

Settlers, Farlv ' oo 

Soil, The .". '.'.'.'.'.'.'.'.'. 221 

Tampico Village 232 

Terre Hall \'illage ..." 2:32 

Turnpikes 22s 

T'nion Township 237 

Hirth, First 246 

i 'burehes 250 

I'eath, I'irst '..'...'. -"qc 

Jerome Village 247 

Marriage, First 246 

Mills, Saw and (irist 245 

Pioneer Settlement 239 

Primitive Farming 239 

Roads 245 

Schools 25:! 

Soil, Timber, etc 238 

West Liberty Village 249 

Jackson Townshii' 254 

Births, Farlv 259 

Church History 260 

l>eaths, l^arly 259 

Educational 258 

Elections, Earliest 258 

Marriages, Early 259 

Pioneer Settlement 255 

Roads 259 

Saw Mills 2611 

Soil and Drainage 254 

Sycamore Village 262 

Liberty Township 262 

Churches 277 

Condition of County, Early 268 

Death, First ". 271 

Elections, Early 272 

(Jreentown Village 273 

Improvements, Early 270 

Marriage, First 271 

Officers, ICarly 272 

Pioneer Settlement 264 

Plevna Village 27(! 

Itoads 271 

Schools 276 

Topography and Productions 263 

HowAKD Township 2So 

Birth, First 285 

Cassville Village 290 

Cemetery, First 286 

Churches 287 

Election, First 285 

Marriage, First 285 

Schools 2S6 

Settlers, First 2S1 

Vermont Village.... 291 

Clay Township 292 

Drainage 295 

lOarly Events 29;: 

Miscellaneous Notes 294 

Settlers, First 292 

Tax Statistics.... 295 

Trustee Meetings, Early 294 

Ervin Township 296 

Churches :!0i) 

Improvements, Early 29S 

Ministers, First '. :'.ui» 

i'hysicians. First :iOO 

Pioneer Settlers 297 

Schools ::01 

Settlers, Later 299 

Streams, etc 29!i 

Trustees, Fii'st :iiHi 


Centre Towusliip ;i74 

Harrison Township .'!99 

Honey Creek Township :i82 

Jackson Townshiji 4:!9 

Kokomo City ::o;! 

Liberty Township 153 

Monroe Township :>94 

Taylor Township 109 

Uni07i Township 117 


Armstrong, A. F., between pages 148, 151 

tiarrigus, Milton, between pages 98, ii»l 

Johnson, L C, between jiages 182, 185 

Kirkpatriek.Capt. Thomas M., between pages 80 83 

Moulder, J. McL., between pages 200, 20:! 

Philips, T. ('., between pages... 62, 65 

Piichmond, Coi-ydou, between pages 41. 47 




Agricultural Society iO 

Circuit Court 11 

(.'ommon Pleas Court 16 

Court Houses and Jails 18 

Drainage, County 24 

Educational Statistics 20 

Election, First 7 

Events Prior to County Organization 1 

Finances, County 44 

Grange Association 21 

Justices of the Peace 17 

Land, First Pui'chase ol' 2 

Legal Practitioners 2S 

Marriages, Early 23 

Medical Societies 27 

Miscellaneous Items 20 

Jlurder Trials IG 

Officers, County 42 

Organization oi' County 9 

Paupers 25 

Pioneer Society 36 

Politics, County 37 

Population of County 23 

Press, County ,.. 31 

Probate Court 14 

Railroads 24 

Roads, County and State 23 

Roads, (iravei 24 

Seminary and Library 30 

Settlement, Subsequent 3 

Table of Taxable Property in l.ssl 47 

Township Boundaries, Subsequent IS 

Voters at First Flection S 

Military Record 4S 

Calls for Volunteers .il-oS 

Capt. Montgomery's Recruits 53 

Death of Adjt. Evans 60 

Death of Lieut. I. M. Runisey 61 

Feeling at tlie Outbreak of the War 49 

Knights of the (jolden Circle 57 

List of Officers and .Men 63 

One-Hundred Day Men 58 

Organization of First Company 50 

Organization of Second Company 5T 

Organization of Third Company." .52 

Organization of Fourth Company : 52 

Picnic and Speeches 54 

Start lor the I'ront .50 


Town 01' Tii'TON 90 

Court House, First 94 

Educational 103 

Incorjidration 100 

Laying out the Town 92 

Leading Industries 108 

Location of Town 9X 

Mail Service 95 

Merchants, Pioneer ^ 95 

Mills and Manufactures 110 

Professions, The 113 

Public Sale of Lots 93 

Religious 105 

Secret Societies 107 

Situation in 1.S4.S-49 97 

Situation from 1.S50 to 1855 98 

Situation from 1856 to 1870 99 

Summary 113 

Taverns, Early 94 

» ICKRO Towx.siup 114 

Amusements 125 

Bridges 124 

Drainage 116 

Elections, Early 129 

Fight with Wolves 126 

First Session of County Board 115 

Game Hunting 124 

Habitations, Early 120 

Independence Village 136 

Industrie's, 128 

Jackson Station 134 

Officers, l^arly \2'.) 

Parker's Mill i.if, 

Parrotsville 13."; 

Products and Markets i:;4 

Retrospective y.m 

Roads 123 

Schools 130 

Settlement, First : 117 

Taxation, Statement of 129 

N'alue of Lands 12!) 

West Kiuderhook 135 

Wild C.*.t Townsiiii- 137 

Birth, First 147 

Boundaries v>S 

Cemeteries 147 

Crime 1.14 

Deaths, Early 147 

Fire, A Big..'. 1.55 

Oeneral Description i;(S 

Incorjjoration of Windfall 154 

Life in the Woods 144 

Pioneers, The 141 

Press, The 153 

Religious History 149 

Roads, etc ." 146 

Schools 14S 

Secret Societies 153 

Water-Courses i.3,s 

What Thirty Years Have Done 155 

Windfall Village 151 

LiiiERTY Township... i5(j 

Church History ifio 

Death, First 15!) 

Elections, Early 1C9 

(ieneral Description I5t) 

Indian History i.jii 

Marriage, Eai-ly 159 

Nevada Village 1C8 

Organization^ Township 170 

Retrospect and Prospect I7i 

Roads, County 170 

Schools, Early IGO 

Settlers, Early 157 

sharpsville Village 1G3 

War Record 170 

Prairik Township 171 

Burials 178 

Churches 179 

(iroomsville 1S3 

Life in the Backwoods 178 

Marriages 178 

Masonic Lodge -82 

.Schools and Education 182 

Settlement i7;j 

Jefeeksox To\vxship 184 

Cemeteries 197 

Churches 204 

ICkin Village 202 

Goldsmith Village 202 

How the Settlers Lived 192 

Improvements, ICarly 195 

.lericho ^'illa^e 199 

Keniiiton Village 20O 

lyiarket Places, Early 197 

.Marriages, Early .". 197 

Nonuauda Village 200 

Pioneer .Vmuscments 194 

Pioneer Settlements 1S5 

Schools 203 

Tetersburg Village 199 

Voting Places 198 

Madlson Township 2O6 

Cemeteries 220 

Curtisville Village 219 

IHections, IJarly 2I6 

(ieneral Improvements 214 

Hobbs Village 220 

Miscellaneous Matters 224 

New Lancaster Village 216 

Religious History 220 

■Schools 222 

Settlement 209 




( icero Township 267 

.lefferson 'J'ownship 377 

Liberty Township 334 

Aradison Township 419 

I'rairle Township 349 

Town of 'I'ipton 225 

Wild Cat Township 293 


Alexander, 1). II., between passes 13S, 141 

(ireen, John, between pages 32, 35 


Jaclcsou, C. T., between pages 442, 445 

Jessup, J. T., between pages 424, 427 

Kemp, David, between pages 386, 389 

Lilly, (Jreen, between pages 416, 419 

Miner, W. J., between pages 206, 209 

iMontgoniery, ('apt. I. II., between pages 66, 69 

I'ershing, M. W., between pages 120, 123 

I'itzer, A. li., between pages 110, 113 

Shank, Joseph, between pajj-es 100, 103 

Shank, Marinda, between pages 100, 103 

Smith, John D., between pages 216, 219 

Van Buskirk, Jehu, between pages 188, 191 

Ward, L. R., between pages 404, 407 








rpHE history of a county should contain little else than a faithful 
-L- record of the settlement, development, caste and condition of her 

Howard and Tipton Counties, although now rich in fertile fields and 
gardens, schools and churches, furnishing to the world more than a pro- 
portionate share of commerce, with an educational development and ad- 
vancement that proudly stand in the front ranks, are yet in their infancy 
There are now living among us a few faithful pioneers who saw the dense 
forests first broken, the fields first opened to Anglo-Saxon civilization 
^ducation and religion. To write of and about such a people is certainly 
delightful. To able and faithful hands has been assigned this pleasant 
duty, but to me m this opening chapter is referred the sadder task of 
pronouncing the funeral notes of two widely different peoples, who once 
occupied and cultivated portions of the soil of each county-first the 
Mound Builders, secondly, the Indians-the former extinct many gener- 
ations before Europe opened her eyes upon America, the latter now 
'reading their doom in the setting sun." 

Upon the discovery of America, nearly four hundred years a^o the re- 
mains of their ancient earthworks, mounds, moats and forts were" scattered 
from Mexico all along the Mississippi and Ohio Valleys, and thence to 
the lake regions north. The Indians knew nothing of their age, purpose 
or cause of construction. Outside of a few vague and conflicting super- 
stitions, they had no well-defined tradition with reference to them 

The city of St. Louis was a city of mounds, while on the opposite side 
of the river more than two hundred were counted, among which was the 
great Lahokia mammoth mound of the Mississippi Valley. Before the 
desecrating hand of the white man despoiled this magnificent temple it 


rose in height ninety feet ; in shape it was at the base a parallelogram, 
the sides at the base measuring seven hundred by five hundred feet. On 
the southwest there was a terrace 160x300 feet-the top being level and 
constituting a platform 200 feet wide by 450 feet long, upon which could 
congregate thousands and thousands of people, at an elevation of nearly 
one hundred feet above the surrounding country. 

The mounds at Grave Creek, Marietta, Miami and Vincennes, with 
many others, are but little less immense, massive and imposing. The 
walls and embankments in the vicinity of Newark, Ohio, are said to meas- 
ure more than twenty miles in length. Similar walls and circles are 
found all over Indiana and several other States, one of the best preserved 
in this State being about three miles east of Anderson ; another near the 
confluence of Bear and Duck Creeks with White River. The latter is the 
only circle in the State having the moat or ditch on the outside. The 
walls have been almost razed to the ground by the invading plow, yet 
fragments of highly polished pottery-ware are found in almost every shovel 
of dirt thrown from the walls of this ancient metropolis. These immense 
works of man required the joint labor of hundreds for years and years. 
They must have had a governmental head, settled life and agricultural 
pursuits, differing widely from the wild, wandering and erratic tribes of 
North American Indians, who had no settled homes, save a few rude vil- 
lages constructed of poles and covered over with the skins of wild animals, 
which could, in a few minutes, be piled upon the backs of their wives and 
squaws and transported to distant happier hunting homes in the forest 
The Indians of Peru and Mexico had' reached the highest elevation and 
advancement. There, doubtless, was the seat of empire of this unknown 
race that occupied and cultivated the soil of Howard and Tipton Counties. 
There the ruins of great cities, beautiful edifices and magnificent temples 
lie buried in the debris of untold centuries. These remains display a civi- 
lization and science, immense toil and industry, but little less than that 
displayed by the ruins of Nineveh, or the wonderful pyramids of Egypt. 
From this metropolis and center of civilization, the Mound-Builders radi- 
ated, and reached almost every part of the continent. 

The rivers, streams and rivulets constituted .their national highways 
and channels of commerce. Upon the banks of these streams they built 
their cities, towns and villages and cultivated fields and farms extending 
far inland. Upon these waters they transported emigration and floated 
their commerce. The copper ore mined on the shores of Lake Superior 
has been found in a manufactured condition in all parts of the Ohio and 
Mississippi Valleys, and in Mexico, Central and South America ; and in 
return Gulf shells and volcanic obsidian and other Southern products, are 
found all along these valleys and channels of commerce to the Great 


Lakes of the North — thus binding together by commercial laws, if not 
by government, a populous and widely extended people. 

The Mississippi, with its tributaries, directed the course of emityration 
and settlement. They seem to have followed this great water-course, from 
the Gulf shore to the very source of each rivulet that empties its waters 
into this grand continental basin. It is possible that rude canoes, con- 
structed with fire and implements of stone from trunks of forest trees 
grown here upon our own soil, were moored upon the VVild Cat and Cicero 
Creeks, consigned to, freighted for, and landed upon the shores of Mexico 
and Central America. It is true this pre-historic ship differed widely 
from the floating palace propelled by steam, or the huge ship of war 
freighted with a hundred guns, and manned by armies, that now traverses 
the waters of the globe ;' yet man, then as now, was the master of the 
world, guided by intellectual superiority ; huge reptiles, mammoths and 
monsters, were obedient to his will. It is probable that at the confluence 
of the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers, two widely diverging lines, the Mound 
Builders met in solemn council to give laws, adjust and determine difii- 
culties between settlements and States. The Ohio, with its tributaries, 
constituted the highways of pre-historic man in Indiana, and several other 
States and parts of States. More than twelve hundred inclosures and ten 
thousand mounds have been counted in Ohio. Indiana, too, is but little 
less fertile in these antiquities. 

Professor Cox says : " Only a small portion of this State has so far 
been examined in this respect, yet the results accomplished are in the 
highest degree gratifying." Prof. Collett, in his report of Knox 
County, says : " Perhaps the seat of a royal priesthood, their eff"orts essayed 
to build a series of temples, which constituted at once capital and holy 
city — the Heliopolis of the West. Three sacred mounds thrown upon, or 
against the sides of the second terrace or biufl", east and southeast of Vin- 
cennes, are the result, and in size, symmetry and grandeur of aspect rival, 
if not excel, any pre-historic remains in the United States." 

The Wabash, Whitewater and White Rivers and their tributaries con- 
stituted the leading lines of navigation in this State. The Wabash 
formed the great artery of communication between the Ohio River and the 
Northern lake regions ; and its whole valley bears evidence of a once nu- 
merous people. 

Tipton County, a water-shed, mostly level and uninviting to these peo- 
ple, is not, however, without her evidences of a pre-historic man. From 
the Wabash they followed up the Wild Cat to its head-waters, in the north- 
east part of the county, and there established a colony, and cultivated 
the soil. A mound and numerous rough and polished stone implements 
have been found. The southeast part of the county was still more densely 


populated. From their metropolis and ancient circle at Strawtown on 
White River, they followed up Duck Creek, and formed a contmuous line 
of settlement on its banks, and inland, through that portion of the ^oun^y^ 
There- a stone circle, several sacrificial and burial mounds, with highly 
polished implements, bear evidence of their ancient existence. Again we 
find the remains of that strange people in the southwest part of the 
county, on the banks of Cicero Creek, another diverging line, near Center 
Grove Church, where humble Christiansnow meet to supplicate and thank 
the God of revelation ; they, too, built a church, the pyramidal foundation 
of which was siity-four feet in diameter, and yet stands out in bold re- 
lief after the lapse of untold centuries. v, m- . •„ 
Howard County is no less fertile, and probably more so, than Tipton in 
pre-historic remains. I have examined some very fine specimens of rough 
Ld polished stone implements found in the county. A broken tube of 
quartz rock handed me by Mr. Moon, displays the very highest skill in 
lessing stone by pre-historic man. There are a number of mounds along 
Wild Cat Creek, and doubtless many others in the county, that have not 

been examined. .„ , 

And here let us pause to meditate upon this unknown race. We know 
that Howard and Tipton Counties, as well as the entire Ohio and Missis- 
sippi Valleys, were many centuries ago inhabited by these unknown peo- 
ple with settled and agricultural pursuits, antedating and far excelling 
in art, industry and civilization the North American Indians. Relics ot 
the spinning wheel, the weaver's loom and lapidary's art are found in 
almost all parts of both counties. Much of our land now in use and generally 
believed to be only recently farmed, was thousands of years ago cleared 
and cultivated. Corn, potatoes, tobacco and other agricultural products 
^ere grown upon the same soil. Since their extinction, great forests of 
trees have successively grown, died away and re-grown. No history, no 
tradition reflects a single ray of light upon these semi-civilized people. 
Long centuries have forever closed to the vision of man their true name, 
their history and religion, their immigration, stay and extinction. 

But through the persevering efforts of antiquarians, collecting, compar- 
ing and contrasting their implements of husbandry, industry and art ; their 
mounds, moats and forts, much of their nature, habits, religion and civiliza- 
tion is being developed, yet the great cycles of time have so completely veiled 
in darknessand night the gloomy silence of the past, that the most sanguine 
antiquarian does not hope to measure by years or centuries the time ot 
their existence in this country. Perhaps when these strange people were 
.atherin^r around their sacred fires, living, loving and worshiping their 
Great Spirit, the Pharaohs of Egypt were erecting the Cheops, the Vocal 
Memnon or some other colossal statue in honor of their gods. 



When, where or how man first made his appearance in the Western 
World is wrapped in darkness and dispute, and probably will remain for- 
ever a perplexing and profound secret. Various conjectures and specu- 
lations have been promulgated as true, and written as history, which have 
little or no foundation in proof, truth or reason, such theories reflecting 
the anxiety, ignorance or egotism of the author, or prejudice of the ances- 
tor. That they came by the way of Behring Strait from Kamtchatka, 
has little if any evidence to support it; that they came from Europe, Asia, 
or Africa by sailing from island to island is possible, but not at all probable; 
that they descended from the ancient Israelites is absolutely absurd and 
foolish. Science, reason and research are fast developing new truths and 
demonstrating new facts, and it now may be well said that if Americans 
were not born in America, the period of their separation from the parent 
stock was so exceedingly remote as to more confuse and confound us than 
to acknowledge their separate existence and independent originality. 

Volney, the learned French traveler, while visiting America, explained 
to the great Miami Chief, Little Turtle, that many believed his people 
were descendants of the Tartars, and on a map showed him the near con- 
nection of Asia and America. To this Little Turtle replied : " Why 
should not these Tartars, who resemble us, have come from America ? Are 
there any reasons to the contrary ? Or why should we not both have been 
born in our own country ?" 

A white man accosted an Indian as brother. The red man inquired 
with an expression of surprise, how they came to be brothers. The white 
man said, " Oh, by way of Adam, I suppose." The Indian replied, " Me 
child of Great Spirit, me no kin to Adam." 

Be these opinions or prejudices as they may, we now know that a peri- 
od of three thousand years, in the absence of amalgamation and miracles, 
make no perceptible change in the types of mankind. The original pict- 
ures and paintings carved upon the ancient pyramids of Egypt repre- 
sent different types of the human race, as distinctly marked as they exist 
to-day, which features and physical developments have been substantially 
stamped and fixed upon them in every climate and condition in life. 

Schoolcraft, who has used every effort in his exhaustive work to prove 
that they are of transatlantic origin, says : " But whenever visited, 
whether in the 9th, 10th or 15th century, or late in the 16th, when Vir- 
ginia was first visited, the Indians vindicated all the leading traits and 
characteristics of the present day. Of all races on the face of the earth, 
who were pushed from their original seats, and cast back into utter bar- 
barism, they have apparently changed the least ; and have preserved their 
physical and mental type with the fewest alterations. They continue to 


reproduce themselves, as a race, even where their manners are compara- 
tively polished, and their intellects enlightened, as if they were bound 
by the iron fetters of an unchanging type." When unmixed with other 
languages, the dialect of a people are enduring muniments of their identi- 
ty. Bancroft says: "Another and more ceitain conclusion is this, that 
the ancestors of our tribes were rude like themselves. It has been asked 
if our Indians were not the wrecks of more civilized nations. Their 
language refutes the hypothesis; every one of its forms is a witness that 
their ancestors were, like themselves, not yet disenthralled from nature. 
The character of each Indian language is one continued, universal, all- 
prevading synthesis. They to whom these languages were the mother 
tongue, were still in that earliest stage of intellectual culture where reflec- 
tion has not begun." 

Were a few English families isolated from the remainder of mankind, 
and during long periods of time should propagate and people a continent, 
thousands and thousands of years would hardly suffice to change every 
word and combination of words as now used by them. Yet the different 
dialects of the Indians upon the discovery of America were wholly and 
totally different from every known language of the old world. 

Upon the discovery of America, this hitherto unknown race of men 
was scattered from the Atlantic to the Pacific ; from the Arctic Archipela- 
go to Terra del Fuego ; from east to west more than three thousand 
miles ; from north to south more than seven thousand miles ; thus 
occupying every clime, condition and variation of the globe, they 
roamed over the mountains and through the valleys, and with their bark 
canoes navigated the great lakes and rivers, creeks and rivulets of both 
continents. The Fuegians and Esquimaux were as passionately fond of 
their ice-built huts and homes as were the Aztecs of Mexico of their ter- 
raced gardens, sacred altars and imperial thrones. 

The condition of these native tribes differed as widely as the climate 
and soil over which they were scattered, extending from the lowest depths 
of barbarism through various shades and grades of civilization. Early 
observations led to the belief that they were all one family or tribe of 
people. Schoolcraft, in his able treatise on the aborigines, says : " It is 
an adage among travelers in America, that he who has seen one tribe of 
Indians has seen all — so closely do the individuals of this race resemble 
each other, notwithstanding their immense geographical distribution and 
those differences of climate which embrace the extremes of heat and cold. 
The Fuegian in his dreary climate and barren soil has the same general 
cast of lineaments, though in an exaggerated degree, as the Indians of 
tjie tropical plains ; and these also resemble the tribes inhabiting the 
region west of the Rocky Mountains, those of the great valley of the 



Mississippi, and those again which skirt the Esquimaux on the North. 
All possess, though in various degrees, the long, lank black hair, the heavy 
brow, the dull and sleepy eye, the full and compressed lips, and the salient 
but dilated nose." Continues our learned author : " A similar conformity 
of organization is not less obvious in the cranial structure of these people. 
The Indian skull is of a decidedly rounded form. The occipital portion is 
flattened in the upward direction ; and the transverse diameter, as measured 
between the parietal bones, is remarkably wide, and often exceeds the 
longitudinal. The forehead is low and receding, and rarely arched as in 
the other races — a feature that is regarded by Humboldt, Lund and other 
naturalists as characteristic of the American race, and serving to dis- 
tinguish it even from the Mongolian. The cheek-bones are high, but 
not much expanded ; the whole maxillary region is salient and ponderous, 
with teeth of a corresponding size and singularly free from decay. The 
orbits are large and squared, the nasal orifice wide, and the bones that pro- 
tect it arched and expanded. The lower jaw is massive, and wide be- 
tween the condyles ; but, notwithstanding the prominent position of the 
face, the teeth are for the most part vertical. I have had opportunities 
for comparing upward of four hundred crania of tribes, inhabiting almost 
every region of North and South America, and have found the preceding 
characteristics, in greater or less degree, to pervade them all. This re- 
mark is equally applicable to the ancient and modern nations of our con- 
tinent ; for the oldest skulls, from the Peruvian cemeteries, the tombs of 
Mexico, and the mounds of this country, are of the same general type as 
the most savage existing tribes." 

Notwithstanding this first impression, arising from the uniform appear- 
ance of the natives, a more thorough acquaintance soon disclosed that 
they were divided into numerous clans, families, tribes and confederacies. 
The language of some was totally distinct from other tribes ; by many, 
widely different, yet having some words, or roots of words, allying them 
to a parent stock. The Ottawas could no more understand the Choctaws 
than an illiterate Englishman could a Dutchman. Their different dialects 
have guided their classification, which has by no means been uniform. 
That adopted by Bancroft has usually been acquiesced in. 

Lord Kaimes, a writer of great good sense, has not omitted to say 
something on this subject. He very judiciously asks those who maintain 
that America was peopled from Kamtchatka, whether the inhabitants of 
that region speak the same language with their American neighbors on 
the opposite shores. That they do not, he observes, is fully confirmed by 
recent accounts from thence; and ''whence we may conclude, with great 
certainty, that the latter are not a colony of the former." We have con- 
firmation upon confirmation that these nations speak languages entirely 






















different; and for the satisfaction of the curious, we will give a short vo- 
cabulary in both, with the English: 

English. Kamtchatka. Aleontean. 









A man. 

The nose. 

The tribes inhabiting the United States, east of the Mississippi, were 
the Algonquin (Al-zhon-kwin), Huron-Iroquois (^rokwah), Catawba, 
Cherokee, Uehee, Natchez and Mobilians ; west of the Mississippi, the 
Dakotah or Sioux, and their kindred. The territory east of the Mississippi 
was principally occupied by the three great families, or confederacies — the 
Algonquin and Iroquois, in the North, and Mobilian in the South, the other 
four having small tracts of territories surrounded by the Algonquin and 
Mobilian tribes. The Iroquois were distributed around Lakes Erie and 
Ontario, and were surrounded by the Algonquins. They were a confed- 
eracy of five free and independent tribes, often called the " Five Nations," 
consisting of the Senecas, Cayugas, Onondagas, Oneidas and Mohawks. 
The Iroquois excelled all other Northern Indians in the arts of war, gov- 
ernments and agriculture. Knowing well the advantages of their position 
on the great water-ways, which led to the interior of the continent, they 
made themselves feared by all their race. From Canada to the Carolinas, 
and from Maine to the Mississippi, Indian' women shuddered at the name 
of the Ho-de-no-saii-nee, while even the bravest warriors of other tribes 
went far out of their way, in the wintry forests, to avoid an encounter 
with them. Within sixty years from their first acquaintance with white 
men, the Iroquois had exterminated the Ilurons — their own nearest kin- 
dred and bitterest foes — the Eries and Neutrals, about Lake Erie, and the 
Andastes, of the Upper Susquehanna, while they had forced a humiliating 
peace upon the Lenape, or Delawares, the most powerful of the Algon- 
quins, and had driven the Ottawas from their home upon the river which 
bears their name. Though now at the height of their power, they num- 
bered only 1,200 fighting men of their own race ; but they had adopted 
a thousand young warriors, from their captives, to fill the vacancies made by 
war." Their government and laws, similar to those of the United States, 
guaranteed to the people of the tribes (States) the right to manage their 
local affairs in their own way subject only to the general and foreign 
polity of the confederacy. Their union was based upon pure principles of 
friendship and voluntary adhesion. One of their chiefs, Canassatego, in 


1774, delivered a speech to the Commissioners of Pennsylvania, Virginia 
and Maryland, which is worthy of a Grecian sage in the brightest days 
of that republic. It would bear perusal by modern American politicians. 
" Our wise forefathers," he said, " established union and amity between 
the Five Nations. This has made us formidable. This has given us 
great weight and authority, with our neighboring nations. We are a power- 
ful confederacy, and by observing the same methods our wise forefathers 
have taken, you will acquire fresh strength and power. Therefore, I coun- 
sel you, whatever befalls you, never to fall out with one another." 


were a numerous family of North American Indians, once spread over all 
the northern part of the Rocky Mountains and south of the St. Law- 
rence. Their language was heard from the bay of Gaspe to the valley of 
the Des Moines ; from Cape Fear to the land of the Esquimaux ; from 
the Cumberland River of Kentucky to the western banks of the Missis- 
sippi. It was spoken, though not exclusively, in a territory that extend- 
ed through sixty degrees of longitude and more than twenty degrees of 
latitude. All the tribes of New England were Algonquins ; the tribes in 
Maine, the great tribe of the Delaware Indians, the Creeks in the region 
of the Great Slave Lake, and the Ottawas, Pottawatomies and Miamis, in 
Michigan, claimed the same origin. Traces of the primitive Algonquin 
language appear in the names of places, such as Alleghany, Connecticut. 
At present the Algonquins do not number more than two hundred war- 
riors, included in the tribe of the Chippewas." 

The States of Ohio, Indiana, Illinois and Michigan, with slight excep- 
tions, were originally occupied by them. The Iroquois called them 
Adarondah, which meant bark-eaters. At the first settlement of this 
country, they were composed of the following tribes : Delawares — Len 
no Lenapi, Loups ; Shawnees — Oshawano, Chats ; Miamis — Omamees, 
Twe Twee ; Peorias, Kaskaskias, Weas, Piankeshaws — Illinese ; Ottawas 
— Atawas, Atowawas; Chippewas, Missisawgees — Nepersinians, Nipiseing, 
Odjibwa, Santeaux, Chibwa ; Kickapoos, Miscotins, — Miscatins, 
Prairie Indians, Muscodanig ; Pottawatomies — Poux ; Sacs — Osawkees ; 
Foxes — Misquekee, Reynards. 

At later periods : Kenistenos, Crees ; Muskegos, Tete Boulcos, Gens 
de Terres, — Nepemings ; Munsees — Delawares ; Stockbridges, Mohegans ; 
Brothertons — Pequots, etc. ; Wabunakies — Various Eastern tribes. The 
local Indian history of Howard and Tipton Counties is chiefly confined 
to the Miamis, the Delawares and Pottawatomies, who for years occu- 
pied the same territory on terms of friendship for hunting grounds. 



had for a long time been encroaching upon the ancient possessions of the 
Miamis, had established themselves in considerable numbers in the north- 
western portion of the State, had crossed the Wabash and were familiar 
to the early settlers of both counties ; hence, they became an important 
factor in our local Indian history. 

" At the beginning of the seventeenth century, they occupied the Lower 
Peninsula of Michigan, apparently in scattered bands, independent of each 
other, there being at no period of their history any trace of a general authority 
or government. They were hunters and fishers, cultivating a little maize, 
but warlike and frequently in collision with neighboring tribes. They 
were finally driven west by tribes of the Iroquois family, and settled on 
the islands and shores of Green Bay, and the French established a mission 
among them. Perrot acquired great influence with the tribe, who soon 
took part with the French against the Iroquois. Onangnice, their chief, 
was one of the parties to the Montreal treaty of 1701 ; and they actively 
aided the French in the subsequent wars. They gradually spread over 
what is now Southern Michigan and Upper Illinois and Indiana, a mission 
on the St. Joseph's being a sort of central point. The Pottawatomies 
joined Pontiac and surprised Fort St. Joseph, capturing Schlosser, the 
commandant, May 25, 1763. They were hostile to the Americans in 
the Revolution and subsequently, but after Wayne's victory joined in the 
treaty of Greenville, December 22, 1795. The tribes comprising the 
families or clans of the Golden Carp, Frog, Crab and Tortoise, was then 
composed of the St. Joseph's, Wabash and Huron River bands, with a large 
scattering population generally called the Pottawatomies of the Prairie, 
who were a mixture of many Algonquin tribes. From 1803 to 1809 the 
various bands sold to the Government portions of lands claimed by them, 
receiving money and annuities. Yet in the war of 1812 they again joined 
the English, influenced by Tecumseh. A new treaty of peace was 
made in 1815, followed rapidly by others, by which their lands were al- 
most entirely conveyed away. A large tract was assigned to them on the 
Missouri, and in 1838 the St. Joseph's, band was carried off" by troops, 
losing 150 out of 800 on the way by death and desertion. The whole 
tribe numbered then about 4,000. The St. Joseph, Wabash and Huron 
bands had made progress in civilization, and were Catholics ; while the 
Pottawatomies of the Prairie were still roving and pagan. A part of the 
tribe was removed with some Chippewas and Ottawas, but they eventual- 
ly joined the others or disappeared. In Kansas, the civilized band, with 
the Jesuit mission founded by De Smet and Hoecken, advanced rapidly, 
with good schools for both sexes. A Baptist mission and school was 
more than once undertaken among the less tractable Prairie band, but was 


finally abandoned. The Kansas troubles brought difficulties for the In- 
dians, made the Prairie band more restless, and the civilized anxious to 
settle. A treaty, proclaimed April 19, 1862, gave individual Indians a 
title to their several tracts of land under certain conditions, and though 
delayed by the civil war, this policy was carried out in the treaty of Feb- 
ruary 27, 1867. Out of the population of 2,180, 1,400 elected to be- 
come citizens and take lands in severalty, and 780 to hold lands as a 
tribe. Some of the Prairie band were then absent. The experiment met 
with varied success. Some did well and improved ; others squandered 
their lands and their portion of the funds, and became paupers. Many 
of these scattered, one band even going to Mexico. In 1874, the Prairie 
band still under the Indian department numbered 467, on a reservation of 
17,357 acres in Jackson County, Kan., under the control of the Society of 
Friends, who had established schools and reported some improvement. 
There were then sixty Pottawatornies of the Huron in Michigan on a little 
plot of 160 acres, with a school and log houses, 181 in Wisconsin, and 
eighty in Mexico or Indian Territory." 


The Delaware Indians are a tribe of the Algonquin family, dwelling, when 
they were first known by the whites, in detached bands, under separate 
sachems, on the Delaware River, and calling themselves Renappi, meaning 
a collection of men, sometimes written Lenape or Leno Lenape. The 
true meaning of the word Lenape has been the subject of various inter- 
pretations. It appears to convey the same meaning as Inabee, a male, in 
the other Algonquin dialects ; and the word was probably used nationally, 
and with Europeans, in the sense of man. For we learn from their tra- 
ditions that they regarded themselves, in past ages, as holding an eminent 
position for antiquity, valor and wisdom. And these claims appear to 
be recognized by the other tribes of this lineage, who apply to them the 
name of Grand Father. To the Iroquois, they apply the term Uncle, and 
this name is reciprocated by the latter, with Nephew. The other tribes 
of the Algonquin family, they call brothers, or younger brothers. 

The Delawares claim to have come from the West, with the Minquas, 
after having driven from the Ohio the Allequewi. The Minquas soon re- 
duced the Delawares to a state of vassalage, and when they were conquered 
by the Five Nations they were styled women. They formed three clans, 
the Turtle, Turkey and Wolf. 

During the early Virginia settlement at Jamestown, supply ships bound 
for the colony stopped at various places. Upon one of these came Lord 
De la Warre, who put into the mouth of the river upon which these In- 
dians were settled ; hence the name of river and tribe. The Dutch settle- 


ments traded with these clans, the most important of which was the 
Saukhicans, at the falls of the Delaware River. These traders bought 
lands of the Renapi, who had to strike inland for game to supply furs. 

In 1744, during the progress of the treaty negotiations at Lancaster, 
Penn., the Iroquois denied the Delawares the right to participate in the 
privileges incident to the treaty, and refused to recognize them as an in- 
dependent nation entitled to sell and transfer their lands. The Iroquois 
chief on that occasion upbraided them, in public council, for having at- 
tempted to exercise any rights, other than such as belonged to a conquered 
people. In a strain of mixed irony and arrogance, he told them not to 
reply to his words, but to leave the council in silence. He ordered them 
in a peremptory manner to quit the section of the country where they 
then resided, and remove to the banks of the Susquehanna. They de- 
parted from the council, and, erelong, left forever their happy hunting 
grounds on the banks of the Delaware, and turned their faces Westward, 
humiliated and subdued, except in the proud recollections of their former 
achievements. Again, in 1751, after having endured the dangers incurred 
by the whites, and the tomahawk of their former enemies, the Iroquois, 
they took up their march toward the setting sun. They settled on the 
White River of Indiana. Here a missionary effort was set on foot among 
them, but was broken up by the Prophet, brother of Tecumseh, during 
his popular career of jugglery and imposition. 

In the war with Great Britain, the Delawares refused to join Tecumseh, 
but maintained their fidelity to the States. They joined the United States 
in a peculiar treaty, at Greenville, July, 1814, which gave peace to the 
hostile tribes. In 1818, they again took up the burden of emigration, and 
moved Westward, this time locating on the White River of Missouri, to 
the number of 1,800, leaving only a small band in Ohio. Another change 
soon followed. Some went to Red River, but the mass of the nation was 
settled by treaty on the Kansas and Missouri. They numbered about 
1,000, and were brave, enterprising hunters on the plains, cultivated the 
soil, and were friendly to the whites. The Baptists and Methodists had 
mission schools among them, and built a church, but they suffered severely 
from the Sioux and lawless whites. The Delawares were unaffected by the 
Kansas troubles, and during the civil war, when they numbered 1,085, 
they sent 170 out of their 210 able-bodied men, and proved efficient 
soldiers and guides to the Union army. 

In 1866, their reservation was cut up by the Pacific Railroad, and they 
finally sold it to the Government and removed, and settled on lands near 
the Verdigris and Cane, in 1868, where they still remain. They are not 
regarded as a tribe, but have a code of civil laws, and are acknowledged 
as United States citizens. 



The Miamis were a leading and powerful branch of the Algonquin fam- 
ily. The tribe has been known by various names, of which the first or 
generic name was probably " Twa twas." They are frequently referred 
to in history as the " Twe twees," and sometimes as the Twightwees, 
Omees, Omamees, Aumamias, and finally Miamis. Bancroft says they 
were the most powerful confederacy in the West, excelling the Six Na- 
tions (Iroquois). Their influence reached to the Mississippi, and they 
received frequent visits from tribes beyond that river. Mr. La Salle says: 
" When the Miamis were first invited by the French authorities to Chi- 
cago in 1670, they were a leading and very powerful Indian nation. A 
body of them assembled near that place for war against the powerful Iro- 
quois of the Hudson, and the still more powerful Sioux of the Upper 
Mississippi. They numbered at least 3,000, and were under the lead of 
a chief who never sallied forth but with a body-guard of forty warriors. 
He could at any time call into the field an army of from 3,000 to 5,000 

The Miamis were first known to Europeans about the year 1669 in the 
vicinity of Green Bay, where they were visited by the French missionary 
Father Allouez, and afterward by Father Dablon. From there they 
passed south and eastward around the southern shores of Lake Michigan, 
occupying the regions of Chicago, and afterward establishing a village 
on the St. Joseph, another on the River Miami, from which tribe it de- 
rived its name, and another on the Wabash. The territory claimed by 
this confederacy is ably and clearly set forth by their chief, Little Turtle, 
in a speech delivered by him at the treaty of Greenville on the 22d of 
July, 1795. He said : " Gen. Wayne, I hope you will pay attention 
to what I now say to you. I wish to inform you where your younger 
brothers, the Miamis, liv^e, and also the Pottawatomies of St. Joseph's, 
together with the Wabash Indians. You have pointed out to us the 
boundary line between the Indians and the United States, but now I take 
the liberty to inform you that that line cuts off from the Indians a large 
portion of country which has been enjoyed by my forefathers time imme- 
morial, without molestation or dispute. The print of my ancestors' houses 
are everywhere to be seen in this portion. I was a little astonished at 
hearing you and my brothers who are now present, telling each other what 
business you had transacted together at Muskingum concerning this coun- 
try. It is well known by all my brothers present, that my forefather 
kindled the first fire at Detroit; from thence he extended his lines to the 
head-waters of the Scioto ; from thence, to its mouth ; from thence, down 
the Ohio to the mouth of the Wabash River, and from thence to Chicago on 
Lake Michigan ; at this place I first saw my elder brothers, the Sbawnees. 


I have now informed you of the boundary lines of the Miami Nation, where 
the Great Spirit placed my forefather a long time ago and charged him 
not to sell or part with his lands, but to preserve them for his posterity. 
This charge has been handed down to me. I was much surprised to find 
that my other brothers differed so much from me on this subject, for their 
conduct would lead one to suppose that the Great Spirit, and their fore- 
fathers, had not given them the same charge that was given to me ; but on the 
contrary, had directed them to sell their land to any white man who wore 
a hat as soon as he should ask it of them. Now, elder brother, your 
younger brothers, the Miarais, have pointed out to you their country, and 
also our brothers present. When I hear your remarks and proposals on 
this subject, I will be ready to give you an answer. I came with an ex- 
pectation of hearing you say good things, but I have not heard what I ex- 

In 1765, the Miami confederacy was composed of the following branches: 
The Twightwees, situated at the head of the Miami River with 250 
warriors ; and the Ouiatenons, in the vicinity of their village, Ouiatenon 
(pronounced We-ot-e-non). They were situated on the north side of the 
Wea Plains, on the South Branch of the Wabash, a short distance below 
the present city of La Fayette, and had 300 warriors. This village of 
Ouiatenons at one time had a population of 5,000 inhabitants, and was the 
metropolis of the Indians of the Wabash Valley. It was nearly four miles 
in length and a half mile in width. It was destroyed in the year 1791 
under the command of Gen. Charles Scott. The Piankeshaws, on the 
Vermilion, had 300 warriors. In the early Indian wars, the Miamis 
were the enemies of the English and the friends of the French. After- 
ward, in the trouble between the king and the colonies, they were gener- 
ally the allies of the English and the foes of the States. They looked 
upon the approach of the white man with the deepest distrust, fearing deg- 
radation, destruction and ultimate extinction. They loved their native 
forests, worshiped freedom, and hated restraint. They feared the ad- 
vance of invaders, and abhorred the forms of civilization. It is said the 
Miamis were early and earnestly impressed with a fearful foreboding of 
ultimate ruin, and therefore seized upon every opportunity to terrify, de- 
stroy, and drive back the invading enemy. Their chiefs, their officers and 
warriors were found in the fiercest battles in the most desperate places. 
They bared their savage forms to civilized bullets and bayonets, and died 
without a murmur or a groan. In their treatment of the whites, they 
were as brutal as they were brave, and they often murdered the defense- 
less pioneer without regard to age, sex or condition, with the most brutal and 
shocking savagery. Not only men, but helpless women and children were 
burned to death, or cut to pieces, in the most painful manner, while the 



warriors and squaws, in fiendish ferocity, gloated over the misery and suf- 
ferings of their helpless victims. 

As against Anglo-Saxon armies, no tribe on earth did more to stay the 
tide of civilization, to stop the flow of emigration into their venerated 
forests, and none records so many brilliant victories, with so few defeats. 
Their love for the land of their fathers, of home, friends and country, 
burned in their barbarous bosoms with an intensity that pleads their ex- 
cuse for the most savage acts of cruelty. They were a leading power in 
defeating Gen. Braddock in 1755, and from that on almo^ every battle- 
field was moistened with the blood of the Miamis. The following sketches 
are taken from Drake's Indians of North America : We now pass to a 
chief far more prominent in Indian history than many who have received 
much greater notice from historians. This was Mishikinakwa (by no 
means settled in orthography), which, interpreted, is said to mean Little 
Turtle. In the different works bearing his name, we find these spellings : 
Meshekunnoghquoh, Meshekunmoghquoh, Mashekanohquah, Mesheken- 
oghqua ; and were we disposed to look into all the authors who have used 
the name, we might nearly finish out the page with its variations. 

Little Turtle was chief of the Miamis, and the scenes of his warlike 
achievements were in the country of his birth. He had in conjunction 
with the tribes of that region, successfully fought the armies of Harmar 
and St. Clair ; and in the fight with the latter, he is said to have had the 
chief command ; hence a detailed account of that affair belongs to his life. 
The Western Indians were only emboldened by the battles between 
them and detachments of Gen. Harmar's army in 1790, and under such a 
leader as Mishikinakwa, they entertained sanguine hopes of bringing the 
Americans to their own terms. One murder followed another in rapid 
succession, attended by all the horrors peculiar to their warfare, which 
caused President Washington to take the earliest opportunity of recom- 
mending Congress to adopt efl5cient measures for checking these calami- 
ties ; and 2,000 men were immediately raised and put under the com- 
mand of Gen. St. Clair, then Governor of the Northwest Territory. He 
received his appointment the 4th of March, 1791, and proceeded to Fort 
Washington by way of Kentucky, with all dispatch, where he arrived on 
15th of May. There was much time lost in getting the troops collected 
at this place, Gen. Butler with the residue not arriving until the middle 
of September. There were various circumstances to account for the delays, 
which it is not necessary to recount here. Col. Drake proceeded immediately 
on his arrival, which was about the end of August, and built Fort Ham- 
ilton on the Miami in the country of Little Turtle ; and soon after Fort 
Jefferson was built, forty miles further onward. These two forts being 
left manned, about the end of October the army advanced, being about 


2,000 strong, militia included, whose numbers were not inconsiderable, 
as will appear by the miserable manner in which they not only confused 
themselves, but the regular soldiers also. 

Gen. St. Clair had advanced but about six miles in front of Fort 
Jefferson, when sixty of his militia, from pretended disaffection, commenced 
a retreat; and it was discovered that the evil had spread considera- 
bly among the rest of the army. Being fearful that they would seize upon 
the convoy of provisions, the General ordered Col. Hamtramck to pursue 
them with his regiment and force them to return. The army now consist- 
ed of but 1,400 effective men, and this was the number attacked by Little 
Turtle and his warriors, fifteen miles from the Miami villages. 

Col. Butler commanded the right wing, and Col. Drake the left. The 
militia were posted a quarter of a mile in advance, and were encamped in 
two lines. The troops had not finished securing their baggage, when they 
were attacked in their camp. It was their intention to march immediate- 
ly upon the Miami villages and destroy them. The savages being ap- 
prised of this, acted with great wisdom and firmness. They fell upon the 
militia before sunrise, November 4. The latter at once fled into the main 
camp in the most disorderly manner ; many of them having thrown away 
their guns, were pursued and slaughtered. At ihe main camp, the fight 
was sustained some time, by the great exertion of the officers, but with 
great inequality, the Indians under Little Turtle amounting to about 1,500 
warriors. Cols. Drake, Butler and Maj. Clarke made several success- 
ful charges, which enabled them to save some of their numbers by check- 
ing the enemy until flight was more practicable. Of the Americans, 593 
were killed and missing, besides 38 officers ; 242 soldiers and 21 officers 
were wounded, many of whom died. Col. Butler was among the slain. 
The account of his fall is shocking. He was severely wounded and left 
on the field. The well-known and infamous Simon Girty came up to him 
and observed him writhing under severe pain from his wounds. Girty 
knew and spoke to him. Knowing that he could not live, the Colonel 
begged of him to put an end to his misery ; this Girty refused t9 do, but 
turned to an Indian and told him that the officer was the commander of 
the army, upon which the Indian drove his tomahawk in the Colonel's 
head. A number of others then came around, and after taking off his 
scalp, they took out his heart, and cut it into as many pieces as there 
were tribes in the action and divided it among them. All manner of brutal 
acts werecommitted on the bodies of the slain. It need not be mentioned 
for the information of the observer of Indian affairs, that land was the main 
cause of this, as well as all other wars between the Indians and whites ; 
and hence it was very easy to account for the Indians filling the mouths 
of the slain with earth after this battle. It was actually the case, as re- 
ported by those who visited the scene of action and buried the dead. 

-^'IS^ y^jrx' 


Gen. St. Clair was called to account for this disastrous campaign 
and was honorably acquitted. He published a narrative in vindication ''of 
his conduct, which, at this day, few will think required. What he says 
of his retreat we will give in his own words : " The retreat was, you may 
be sure, a precipitate one ; it was in fact a flight. The camp and the ar- 
tillery were abandone<l, but that was unavoidable, for not a horse was 
left to have drawn it off, had it otherwise been practicable. But the most 
disgraceful part of the business is, that the greatest part of the men threw 
away their arras and accouterments, even after the pursuit, which contin- 
ued about four miles, had ceased. I found the road strewn with them for 
many miles, but was unable to remedy it ; for, having had all my horses 
killed, and being mounted upon one that could not be pricked out of a 
walk, I could not get forward myself, and the orders I sent forward, either 
to halt the front, or prevent the men from parting with their arms 
were unattended to." The remnant of the army arrived at 
Fort Jefferson the same day, just before sunset, the place from which 
they fled, being twenty-nine miles distant. Gen. St. Clair did every- 
thing that a brave General could do. He exposed himself to every danger, 
having, during the action, eight bullets shot through his clothes. In no 
attack on record did the Indians discover greater bravery or determination. 
After giving the first fire, they rushed forward with tomahawk in hand. 
Their loss was inconsiderable ; but the traders afterward learned amoncr 
them that Little Turtle had 150 killed and many wounded. They rushed 
on the artillery, heedless of their fire, and took two pieces in an instant. 
They were again retaken by our troops ; and whenever the army charged 
them, they were seen to give way, and advanced again, as soon as they 
began to retreat, doing great execution, both in the retreat and advance. 
They are very dexterous in covering themselves with trees ; many of them 
however, fell, both of the artillery and infantry. Six or eight pieces of 
artillery fell into their hands, with about 400 horses, all the baggage, am- 
munition and provisions. 

Whether the battle-ground of St. Clair was visited by the whites, 
previous to 1793. I do not learn ; but in December of that year a de- 
tachment of Gen. Wayne's army went to the place, and the account 
given of its appearance is most truly melancholy. This detachment was 
ordered to build a fort there,, which having done, it was called Fort Re- 
covery. Within a space of about 350 yards, they found 500 skull bones, 
the most of which were gathered up and buried. For about five miles in 
the direction of the retreat of the army, the woods were strewn with 
skeletons and muskets. The two brass cannon, which composed St. 
Clair's artillery, one a three, the other a six pounder, were found in a creek 


This terrible defeat disappointed the expectation of the General Gov- 
ernment, alarmed the frontier inhabitants, checked the tide of emigration 
from the Eastern and Middle States, and many fearful, frightful and 
horrible murders were committed upon the white settlers. St. Clair re- 
signed the oflfice of Major General, and Anthony Wayne, a distinguished 
officer of the Revolutionary war, was appointed in his place. In the 
month of June, 1792, he arrived at Pittsburgh, the appointed place of 
rendezvous. On the 28th of November, 1792, the army left Pittsburgh, 
and moved down the Ohio, about twenty miles, to a point called Legion- 
ville, where they remained until April 30, 1793, and then moved down 
the river to Fort Washington (Cincinnati), and encamped near the fort at 
a place called Hobson's Choice. They were kept here until the 7th of 
October, and on the 23d of the same month they arrived at Fort Jefferson, 
with an effective force under Wayne's command amounting to about 
3,680 men, together with a small number of friendly Indians from the 
South. On the 8th of August, 1794, they arrived at the confluence of 
the Rivers Auglaize and Maumee, where they built Fort Defiance. It was 
the General's design to have met the .enemy unprepared in this move, but 
a fellow deserted his camp and notified the Indians. He now tried again 
to bring them to a reconciliation, and from the answers which he re- 
ceived from them, it was some time revolved in his mind whether they were 
for peace or war, so artful was the manner in which their replies were 
formed. At length, being fully satisfied, he marched down the Maumee, 
and arrived at the Rapids on the 18th August, two days before the 
battle. His army consisted of upward of 3,000 men, 2,000 of whom 
were regulars. Fort Deposit was erected at this place for the security 
of the supplies. They now set out to meet the enemy, who had chosen 
their position upon the banks of the river, with much judgment. The 
troops had a breastwork of fallen trees in front, and the high rocky shore 
of the river gave them much security, as also did the thick woods of 
Presque Isle. The force was divided, and disposed at supporting distances 
for about two miles. When the Americans had arrived at a proper dis- 
tance, a body was sent out to begin the attack, with orders to rouse the 
enemy from their covert, at the point of the bayonet ; and, when up, to 
deliver a close fire upon their backs, and press them so hard as not to give 
them time to reload. This order was so well executed, and the battle at the 
point of attack so short, that only about 900 Americans participated in it. 
But they pursued the Indians with great slaughter through the woods to 
Fort Maumee, where the carnage ended. The Indians were so unexpect- 
edly driven from their stronghold, that their numbers only increased their 
distress and confusion ; and the cavalry made horrible havoc among them 
with their long sabers. Of the Americans there were killed and wounded, 


about 130, The loss of the Indians could not be ajcertained, but must 
have been very severe. The American loss was chiefly at the commence- 
ment of the action, as they advanced upon the mouths of the Indian 
rifles. They maintained their coverts but a short time, being forced in 
in every direction by the bayonet. But until that was effected the Amer- 
icans fell fast, and we only wonder that men could be found to thus ad- 
vance in the face of certain death. 

It has generally been said, that had the advice of Little Turtle been re- 
garded at the disastrous fight afterward with Wayne, there is but little 
doubt that he would have met with as ill success as St. Clair did before 
him. He was not for fighting General Wayue at Presque Isle, and rather 
inclined to peace than fighting him at all. In a council held the night 
before battle, he argued as follows : " We have beaten the enemy twice 
under separate commanders. We cannnot expect the same good fortune 
always to attend us. The Americans are now led by a chief who never 
sleeps ; the night and day are alike to him. And during all the time he 
has been marching upon our villages, notwithstanding the watchfulness of 
our young men, they have never been able to surprise him. Think well 
of it. There is something whispers me it would be well to listen to his 
off"ers of peace." For using this language he was reproached by another 
chief with cowardice, which put an end to all further discourse. Nothing- 
wounds the feelings of a warrior like the reproach of cowardice, but 
Little Turtle stifled his resentment, did his duty in the battle, and its 
issue proved him a truer prophet than his accuser believed. His resi- 
dence was upon Eel River, twenty miles from Ft. Wayne, where our Gov- 
ernment built him a house, much to the envy of his countrymen. There- 
fore what had been bestowed upon him to induce others to a like mode of 
life by their own exertions, proved not only prejudicial to the cause, but 
engendered hatred against him in the minds of all the Indians. He was 
not a chief by birth, but was raised to that standing by his superior tal- 
ents. This was the cause of so much jealousy and envy at this time, as 
also a neglect of his counsel heretofore. Drake says that Little Turtle 
was the son of a Miami chief by a Mohegan woman. As the Indian 
maxim, with regard to descents, is precisely that of the civil law in rela- 
tion to slaves, that the condition of woman adheres to the offspring, he 
was not a chief by birth. 

Little Turtle died in the summer of 1812 at his home, but a short time 
after the declaration of war against England by the United States. His 
portrait, by Stewart, graces the walls of the war office of our nation. The 
following notice appeared in public prints at the time of his death at 
Fort Wayne, in July, 1812: " On the 14th inst. the celebrated Miami 
Chief, Little Turtle, died at this place at the age of sixty-five years. Per- 


haps there is not left on this continent one so distinguished in counsel and 
war. His disoi'der was the cjout. He die<l in camp, because he chose to be in 
the open air. He met death with great firmness. The agent for Indian 
affairs had him buried with the honors of war and other marks of dis- 
tinction suitable to his character. He was generally in his time, styled 
the Messissaso Chief, and a gentleman who saw him soon after St. Clair's de- 
feat says he was six feet high, about forty-five years of age, of a very sour 
and morose countenance, and apparently very crafty and subtle. He was 
alike courageous and humane, possessing great wisdom." The author 
before quoted says : " There have been few individuals among ab- 
origines who have done so much to abolish the rites of human sacrifice. 
The grave of this noted warrior is shown to the visitor near Ft. Wayne. 
It is frequently visited by the Indians in that part of the country, by 
whom his memory is cherished with the greatest respect and veneration." 
The following is taken from the Howard County Atlas, published by 
Kingman Brothers, a few years ago : 

The treaty of Greenville (in Darke County, Ohio), in 1795, followed, 
and the United States obtained large bodies of their lands in that and 
various other treaties. In the war of 1812, they again fought the United 
States and were whipped by the forces under Lieut. Col. Campbell on the 
18th of December, 1812, in the southern part of what is now Wabash 
County, being the last battle, of any note, with the Miamis in this region. 
The expedition against them was resolved upon by Gen. Harrison in 
November, 1812. Six hundred mounted men and a small company of 
scouts and spies were accordingly sent out from Greenville, Ohio, in 
December, under Lieut. Col. John B. Campbell, who reached the north 
bank of the Mississinewa, near the mouth of Josina Creek, December 17, 
1812, and surprised an Indian village there, destroying it, killing eight 
warriors and taking forty-two prisoners. The troops then destroyed three 
other villages further west on the river and encamped for the night. 
While holding a council of war, on the morning of the 18th, they were 
attacked by the Indians, under Little Thunder, in considerable force. The 
fight lasted about an hour, and the Indians were defeated, leaving fifteen 
dead upon the field and carrying many away in their retreat. 

A portion of the tribe were then friendly to the United States, but 
they could not control the hostile portion. In 1818, a treaty was made 
with them, and again another, on the north side of the Wabash River, 
just east of the city of Wabash, on the 2t)th day of October, 1826, by 
Gen. John Tipton, then Indian Agent, assisted by Gen. Cass and James 
B. Ray. The place was called "Paradise Springs." 

The tribe which, under Little Turtle, sent 1,500 warriors to the field, 
had, in 1822, dwindled down to between 2,000 and 3,000 people, all told. 


They had acquired a burning desire for liquor, and drunkenness led to 
innumerable lights among the members of the tribe, and it is estimated 
that as many as 500 were killed in eighteen years in these broils. In the 
treaty of October, 1826, the Indians gave up large quantities of land, 
but reserved some valuable tracts, among which was a reservation begin- 
ning two and one-half miles below the mouth of the Mississinewa, extend- 
ing five miles up and along the Wabash, and north to Eel River, includ- 
ing the present site of Peru. In payment for this they received |31,000 
in goods ; $30,000 immediately, and §26,000 in goods and $35,000 in 
cash, in 1827 ; $30,000 in 1828. and |25,000 annually thereafter. In 
1838, the Aliamis numbered but 1,100, and in this year they sold to the 
Government 177,000 acres of land in Indiana for $335,680, among which 
was a seven-mile strip off the west side of the "Reserve," in what is now 
Cass, Howard and Clinton Counties, which was by the United States 
transferred to the State of Indiana and by it the proceeds were used for 
the completion of the Wabash & Erie Canal, from the mouth of the Tip- 
pecanoe River, down. A five-mile strip had also been used in the same 
way, five miles wide along the Wabash River on the south side, to con- 
struct said canal to the mouth of the Tippecanoe. 

William Marshall, of Jackson County, Ind., helped negotiate with the 
Miamis in the treaty of November 28, 1840, at the '' Forks of the 
W^abash," in which they finally relinquished the tract known as the 
"Miami Reserve," being all their remaining lands in Indiana, to the 
United States for the consideration of $550,000 and several smaller items, 
such as reservations, houses for the chiefs, etc. Three sections of this 
kind of reservation lie in Howard County, one being the site of Kokomo. 
Previous to this, the Wea and Piankeshaw bands, 384 in number, had in 
1834-35 removed to the south side of the Kansas River. By the treaty 
of 1840, the remainder agreed to leave at the expense of the United 
States, in five years ; but their departure was delayed until 1847, 
in which year they were removed to the Marais des Cygnes, in the Fort 
Leavenworth Agency. The Kansas Miamis at the time of their removal 
numbered only about 250 souls, each individual receiving an annuity of 
about $125. They were removed to the Quawpaw Reservation in the 
year 1873, and now number about 150. A large number of Miamis 
have renounced their tribal relations and draw the interest on their money 
held for them by the United States through G. A. Crowell, of Peru, 
Special Indian Agent, The greater part of these are known as the 
•' Miamis of Indiana," numbering 339 people. The remainder are the 
remnant of the Eel River band, nineteen in number. The former re- 
ceived, in 1875, each $32.73 as their individual share of the interest on 
their money, while the payment to the Eel Rivers was $57.89 per capita, 


in tlie shape of an annuity. The total sum disbursed yearly to the 
Indians at Peru is $12,000. The births are less frequent than the deaths, 
and so they are going gradually to the " happy hunting grounds," and 
will soon all be gone. These Indians are scattered over the country from 
Grant County on the south to Grand Rapids on the north, and from Na- 
poleon, Oliio, to the Indian Territory on the west. The largest number 
who live in any one locality are on the Me-shin-go-me-sia Reservation, 
embracing ten sections of land in Grant and Wabash Counties. Besides 
these there are a number of other Indians settled on individual reserva- 
tions, some OAvninfj as much as four or five hundred acres of land, well 
improved, with fine residences. The Me-shin-go-me-sia Reservation was 
held in common until 1873, but in may of that year a partition was made 
in which all of the Me-shin-go-me-sia band participated. 

The Indians were not gathered from Howard and Tipton Counties for 
removal until 1846. They went north to Peru, then, via Cincinnati, to 
their Western home beyond the " Father of Waters. " 

Ricliardville, the Miami Chief, for whom Howard County was originally 
named, was the successor of Little Turtle. His other name was Pee-jee- 
wah. He was the party who signed "by his X mark" at the-treaty of 
August, 1795, made with Gen. Wayne, at Greenville, Ohio, by the 
sachems of the Miamis, Eel Rivers, Wyandots, Delawares, Shawnees, Ot- 
tawas, Chippewas, Pottawatoniies, Weas, Kickapoos, Piankeshaws and 

The Miami tribe of Indians are frequently seen at Marion, Peru and 
Wabash on business or on pleasure. They have pretty generally adopted 
the dress, language and habits of the whites, but occasionally a " Lo " is 
in full Indian costume; and in many of their families they still speak the 
Shawnee dialect. 

It is said there were four brothers, Kokomo (Black Walnut), Shock-o- 
mo (Poplar), Me-shin-go-me-sia (Burr Oak), and Shap-pan-do-si-a (Sugar 
Tree), all of whom were Indian chiefs. Exactly how this was and the 
full signification of their appellations we do not know — old settlers differ. 
Then there were in Howard, Jim Sassafras, and Pete Cornstalk, who is 
buried on Pete's Run. Kokomo was headquarters in Howard County, 
as it is now, and there were Indian villages south of Greentown and Cass- 
ville, and " traces" or paths led from Kokomo down Wild Cat, via N. P. 
Richmond's farm in Ervin Township, to Frankfort and Thorntown ; from 
Kokomo via Greentown, to " Squirrel Village" (Meshingomesia's), and 
from Kokomo to Peru, via Cassville. These were well worn and much 

From 1840 to 1845, there were about two hundred Indians along Wild 
Cat Creek and in different parts of this county. 


There were Indian villages or settlements at different places as herein 
stated, and Kokomo was a sort of headquarters for them, especially just 
before and after the United States made payments to them. They went 
to the forks of the Wabash, about two miles this side of Huntington, to 
make treaties and get their annuities there. There were about forty traders 
who dealt with them, and Wash. Ewing and D. Foster, of all these, suc- 
ceeded best. 

Nip-po-wah lived at Vermont, Shoc-co-to-quaw at Greentown, Pete 
Cornstalk at Indian Suck, near the southeast corner of Ervin Township, 
Ma-shock-o-mo one and a half miles south of Greentown, Shap-pau-do- 
sho (Through-and-Through) was at Cassville, and Kokomo at our county 
seat. From here they branched off in hunting parties, and trails led 
from one village to each of the others. 

The Indian Reserve was originally thirty-six miles square, as follows ; 
Commencing near the town of La Gro, on the Wabash, where the Sala- 
monie unites with the Wabash, running thence through Wabash and 
Grant Counties into Madison County, its southeast corner was about four 
miles southeast of Independence at the center of Section 27 : thence 
running south of west, parallel with the general course of the Wabash 
River, across Tipton County and through the town of Tipton, and cross- 
ing the west line of Tipton County about three miles from its southwest 
corner to where it intersects a line running north and south from Logans- 
port, which is the western boundary of Howard County, one mile west 
of range line number one east ; thence north to Logansport ; thence up 
the Wabash to the mouth of the Salamonie, then embracing parts of 
the Wabash, Grant, Madison, Tipton, Clinton, Carroll and Cass Counties, 
and all of what was Richardville and is now Howard, and containing 
about 930,000 acres. By treaty, a strip was taken off the north side, five 
miles wide, to build the Wabash & Erie Canal. The United States gave 
it to Indiana to use the proceeds in that way from the State line in Ohio 
to the mouth of the Tippecanoe River. Then to complete the canal from 
the mouth of the Tippecanoe down, another strip seven miles wide off the 
west side of the Reserve was obtained by the United States of the In- 
dians in the same way, and given to the State, who disposed of its pro- 
ceeds in the same manner. This last strip included all of Ervin and 
Monroe and nearly all of Honey Creek Townships, and they were conse- 
quently opened to settlers, and were settled by whites before the other 
portions of Howard County. 

Within a historic period, there never was an Indian village or battle 
on the territory constituting the county of Tipton. In the early part of 
the present century, it constituted the joint hunting grounds of the 
Miamis, Delawares and Pottawatomies. An old settler says that he 


was told by Mr. Samuel McClure, of Marion, Ind., that the Cicero 
country was once famous for the great number of black bears infesting the 
present territory of the county. The Indians, far and near, when wishing 
to "tackle" or capture an ugly bruin, pitched their tents in this territory. 
In several parts of the county Indian bones have been exhumed, though 
to no considerable extent. These deaths probably occurred from acci- 
dent, violence or sickness, while temporarily camping for hunting pur- 
poses. Hence the county is without an Indian history, other than that 
t) be gathered from their relics and remains found slumbering in the 
ground. There is a melancholy legend of these people, connected with 
the weeping elm that rears its drooping boughs seventy feet in the east- 
ern part of Tipton, but it is too vague for publication. 


The Indians of North America, except the Mexicans, were emphati- 
cally a free people. Their powers and privileges were purely democratic. 
Their laws, like the ^'•Lex non Scripta" of England, consisted in usages 
and customs consented to and acquiesced in by the tribes. No man's 
property or services could be commanded, without his consent; war could 
not be declared, peace made or treaties concluded, only through their 
councils, in which women as well as men exercised rights. This freedom 
antedated the discovery of America, we know not how long, probably 
since the mastery of the Mound- Builders by these free but ferocious fam- 
ilies of the forest. The seeds of liberty were sown among the rude 
savages of the United States, and by them transmitted to their Anglo- 
Saxon conquerors. The tree has grown to immense grandeur, bearing 
on every branch the proud motto, "''Liberty, Justice, Equality" 

The government of Mexico was imperial, but all others were pure 
republics. Unlike the Oriental barbarians, the Occidental savages could 
not be enslaved. An Indian chief, on being asked whether his people 
were free, answered, " Why not^? — since I myself am free, although their 

A tribe of Indians is a body of kindred, subdivided into the clan, 
the gens and the family. The gens constitutes an organized band of re- 
lations, the family the household. The name of the mother follows the 
children and fixes the line of kinship. 

If her father was a chief, her son inherits the honor. In their domes- 
tic relations, she is the head of the family, and through her blood all prop- 
erty, political and personal rights, must descend. If she was a "Turtle" 
the name of all of her children is "Turtle" and they are known as the 
Turtle gens, clan or family. An Indian man or woman may marry 
a cousin on the fathers side, but not on the mother's. The father^ 


though a chief and crowned with a hundred victories — though he has 
lined his wigwam with the scalps of enemies, cannot cast upon his kin his 
property, his fame or name, and though he be Wolf, Beaver, Bear or 
Hare, the children are all "Turtle," Big, Black or "Little Turtle," as 
fancy may direct. 

When we reflect that the unwritten but fixed and immutable laws of 
God have stamped upon the offspring the type of the mother, and bound 
them together by the most consecrated law of love, who dare say that the 
Indian rule is wrong or that the civilized rule is right? In moans, groans 
and misery, the woman gives life to the world. In painful anxiety and 
eager suspense, she guards every want, wish and motion of her offspring; 
by day and by night she prays for its health, for its happiness, its safety 
and success. She prays, not as the Pharasee prays, but from her ver^^ 
soul she breaths forth deep, ardent, earnest, practical prayers, such as 
none but a mother can pray. Her offspring possesses her, and misery 
or misfortune to them is to her excruciating sorrow and pain. She divides 
not her last morsel of food or raiment with her child, but gives it all. 

Marriage. — A man seeking a wife usually consults her mother, some- 
times by himself, sometimes through his mother; when agreed upon, the 
parties usually comply, making promises of faithfulness to the parents of 

Polygamy is permitted, but practiced little. Wife number one re- 
mains at the head of the family while wife number two is the servant. 
Divorces occur, but not often, however. 

Marriage and divorce are well illustrated by the following anecdote^ 
"An aged Indian, who for many years had spent much time among the 
white people both in Pennsylvania and New Jersey, one day, about the 
year 1770, observed that the Indians had not only a much easier way of 
getting a wife than the whites, but also a more certain way of getting a 
good one. 'For,' said he in broken English, 'white man court — court — 
maybe one whole year! maybe two years before he marry! Well — may- 
be then he get very good wife — but maybe not — maybe very cross! Well, 
now, suppose cross! Scold so soon as get awake in the morning! Scold all 
day! Scold until sleep! All one — he mus keep him! White people have laws 
forbidding throw away wife he be ever so cross — must keep him always! 
Well, how does Indian do? Indian, when he sees industrious squaw, he go to 
him place his two forefingers close aside each other,make two like one — then 
look squaw in the face — see him smile — this is all one, he say yes! So 
he take him home — no danger he be cross! No, no — Squaw know too 
well what Indian do if he cross! Throw h-im away and take another! 
Squaw love to eat meat — no husband, no meat. Squaw do everything to 
please husband, he do everything to please squaw — live happy.' " 


Rights. — Each clan is protected in its mode of painting the face, and a 
peculiar badge of office worn by the chief and council women. The coun- 
cil of the tribe assigns to the gens a particular tract of land for cultiva- 
tion. The woman council carefully divides and distributes this tract of 
land among the heads of the families who are responsible for its cultiva- 
tion. The crops are planted, cultivated and gathered by the squaws. 
The wigwam and all articles of the household belong to the woman, and, 
at her death, descend to her eldest daughter or nearest of female kin. 

Each individual has a right to freedom of person and security from 
bodily harm. Like a patentee, they have the exclusive right to use a 
particular charm, and their religious rights are well illustrated by the 
following anecdote : 

" In the year 1791, two Creek Chiefs accompanied an American to 
England, where, as usual, they attracted great attention, and many 
flocked around them, as well to learn their ideas of certain things as to 
behold the savages. Being asked their opinion of religion, or of what 
religion they were,one made answer that they had no priest in their country, 
nor established religion, for they thought that upon a subject where there 
was no possibility of people's agreeing in opinion, and as it was altogether 
matter of mere opinion, it was best that every one should paddle his 
canoe his own way." 

Qriminal Code. — Adultery is punished, in the first offense, by crop- 
ping the hair; repeated offenses, by cutting off the left ear. If the mother 
fails to inflict the penalty, it is done by the council of women of the gens. 

Theft is punished by twofold restitution. It is tried by the council 
of gens, from which there is no appeal. Maiming is compounded, and 
the trial the same. Murder is triable by the gens, but an appeal lies to 
the council of the tribe ; technical errors in the prosecution are proofs 
positive of the defendant's innocence; if found guilty, the friends of the 
accused must pay for the dead man, and on failure to do so, the friends 
of the deceased may kill the murderer at pleasure. 

Witchcraft is punished by death, by tomahawking, stabbing or burn- 
ing ; an appeal lies from the grand council of the tribe to the holy 
ordeal by fire. A circular fire is built, and if the accused can run 
through it from east to west and from north to south without injury, he 
is adjudged innocent. Treason is punished with death, and consists in, 
first, giving aid or comfort to the enemies of the tribe; secondly, in re- 
vealing the secrets of the medicine men. With them, as with us, the 

Doctors are held in high esteem. "The daughter of a Patagonian 
chief came in carrying a child that was crying very loudly. A messen- 
ger was dispatched for the wise man, who soon came, and brought with him 
his magic medicines rolled up in two pieces of skin. These were laid on 


the ground, and the doctor squatted by the side of them, fixing a steady 
gaze on the child, who presently ceased crying. Encouraged by this suc- 
cess, the wise man ordered a clay plaster to be applied. This was done. 
Some yellow clay was brought, moistened until it was like paint, and with 
this substance the child was annointed from head to foot. The clay 
seemed to have but little good effect, for the child began to cry as badly 
as ever. The two mysterious packages were now untied, and out of one 
the doctor took a bunch of rhea sinews, and from the other a rattle. The 
doctor then fingered all the sinews successively, muttering something in 
a very low tone of voice, and after he had muttered for some five minutes 
or so, he seized his rattle and shook it violently. He next sat in front of 
the patient, and stared at him as he had done before. After an interval 
of silent staring, he turned to the chief and asked whether he did not 
think that the child was better. A nod and a grunt expressed assent, 
and the mother on being asked the same question gave a similar response. 
The same process was then repeated — the silent stare, the painting with 
clay, the fingering of the sinews, the muttering of inaudible words, the 
shaking of the rattle, and the concluding stare. The treatment of the pa- 
tient was then considered to be complete. The chief gave the doctor two 
pipefuls of tobacco by way of fee. This was received gratefully by the 
man of skill, who gave his rattle a final shake by Avay of expressing his 
appreciation of the chief's liberality, and went his way. As soon as he 
had gone, the child resumed its crying, but the parents were satisfied that 
it was better." 

No Organized Crovernment. — The system of laws here introduced is 
based upon that of the Wyandot branch of the Iroquois family, which rep- 
resents the highest type of Indian government in North America, ex- 
cept perhaps the Mexicans ; yet, m modified degrees and less definite forms, 
similar customs and usages prevailed in many if not the most of the 

There is a distinction to be drawn between Indian laws and govern- 
ment. Except that of Mexico, it might be said they had no organized form 
of government. There were certain customs and usages consented to and 
acquiesed in, granting to the party injured, or his relatives, redress for 
the wrong but that redress was not afforded by governmental aid. If one 
stole from another the party aggrieved might by force or otherwise take 
two-fold from the thief. Bancroft says : " Unconscious of political prin- 
ciples, they remained under the influence of instincts. Their forms of 
government grew out of their passions and wants, and were therefore 
everywhere nearly the same. Without a code of laws, without a distinct 
recognition of succession in the magistracy by inheritance or election, 
government was conducted harmoniously by the influence of native gen- 


ius, virtue and experience. Prohibitory laws were hardly sanctioned by 
savage opinion. The wild man hates restraint, and loves to do what is 
right in his own eyes." " The Illinois," writes Marest, '• are absolute 
masters of themselves, subject to no law." The Delawares, it was said, 
" are, in general, wholly unacquainted with civil laws and proceedings, 
nor have any kind of notion of civil judicatures, of persons being 
arraigned and tried, condemned or acquitted." As there was no commerce, 
no coin, no promissory notes, no employment of others for hire, there 
Avere no contracts. Exchanges were but a reciprocity of presents, and 
mutual gifts were the only traffic. Arrests and prisons, lawyers and 
Sherifts were unknown. Each man was his own protector, and, as there 
was no public Justice, each man issued to himself his letter of reprisals, 
and became his own avenger. In case of death by violence, the departed 
shade could not rest till appeased by a retaliation. His kindred would 
" go a thousand miles for the purpose of revenge, over hills and mount- 
ains, through large cane swamps full of grape vines and briers ; over 
broad lakes, rapid rivers and deep creeks ; and all the way in danger of 
poisonous snakes, exposed to the extremes of heat and cold, to hunger 
and thirst. And blood being once shed, the reciprocity of attacks in- 
volved family in mortal strife against family, tribe against tribe, often con- 
tinuing from generation to generation. Yet mercy could make itself 
heard even among barbarians; and peace was restored by atoning presents, 
if they were enough to cover up the graves of the dead." 

The Lord's prayer, as translated into the Cherokee language: 


Our Father 0-gi-do-da 

Who art in heaven Ga-lo-la-di-e-hi 

Hallowed Ga-lo-zuo-di-yu 

Be Ge-se-sti 

Thy name De-tsa do-v-i 

Thy Kingdom Tsa-go-wi-yai--hi-ge-so 

Come (makes its appearance) Wi-ga-na-nu-gs-i 

Thy will Ha-da-no-te-sko 

Be done (take place) Wi-ni-gi-li-sta 

(Here) on earth A-hni-e-lo-hi 

As it is done Na-ski-ya tsi-ni-ga-li-sti 

In heaven Ga-lo-la-di 

Our food O-ga-li sta-yo-di 

Daily Ni da do da gui so 

Give to us Ski-v-si 

This day Go-hi-i-ga 

Forgive us Di-ge-ski-v-si-quo 

Our debts De-ski-dw-go-i 

As we forgive Na-ski-ya-tsi-di-ga-yo-tsi-ne-ho 

Our debtors Tso-tsi-du gi 

And do not A-le-tle-sti 

Lead us into Wi-di-ski ya di-no-sta-mo 

Temptation N da le na sti yi 

But deliver us from Ski-y-da-le-gi ske-sti-quo-shi-ni 

Evil W-yo-ge-so-i. 



Their pictography, implements and customs are child-like and simple, 
their reasoning and reflective powers feeble and infantile. The instinct 
of love leads them to form friendships and families ; and that of aifection, 
marriage, parents and offspring. Resentment of wrong, and self-preser- 
vation, with them as with us, are the first laws of nature. The infant 
instinctively strikes the child who has struck him ; the belligerent cannon 
reverberates in the nation that's threatened. A reverence for the dead 
and respect for his relatives, is sublime, solemn and courteous. Although 
a famine, food is furnished the pilgrim spirit until it reaches its happy 
hunting grounds, and his implements for hunting are buried with his body, 
and so careful are they of the feelings of his friends that they will not 
mention his name in their presence. The word father is avoided in the 
presence of orphans for fear of grieving the children. They disbelieve 
in the resurrection of the body, but carefully preserve their bones. 

Their heaven abounds in buffalo, beaver and bear; ours in angels? 
saints and golden streets. Thus we differ in detail, but agree in the hon- 
est hope of happiness hereafter. While they venerated the dead, they 
feared not death on the battle-field, and often spoke prophetically of their 
own loss of life. They regarded self-destruction a shameful cowardice, 
but to endure death, disaster and torture without a murmer, moan or 
groan, the highest type of manhood. The family training is an educa- 
tion of endurance, by practical exposure. The children are almost as 
free as the parents, punishment being rarely ever resorted to. As soon 
as large enough, they are taught the art of fishing, hunting and trapping, 
and their first success is celebrated by a family feast. Like themselves, 
every insect, bird, beast and fish has its tutelary God, which crawled out 
of, or came from the earth, air, water or sky. These great Manitous 
mold and control the destiny of their descendants. These myths and 
superstitions exist in countless numbers, some gross, senseless and insig- 
nificant; others beautiful, simple and conducive of good. A Swedish 
minister, having assembled the chiefs of the Susquehanna Indians, 
made a sermon to them, acquainted them with the principal historical 
facts on which our religion is founded ; such as the fall of our first par- 
ents by eating an apple; the coming of Christ to repair the mischief; his 
miracles, suffering, etc. When he had finished, an Indian orator stood 
up to thank him. " What you have told us," said he, " is all very good. 
It is indeed bad to eat apples ; it is better to make them all into cider. 
We are much obliged by your kindness in coming so far to tell us of 
those things, which you have heard from your mothers." 

He then told the missionary one of their legends. He said : "A 


beautiful woman came down from the skies, and sat on the ground ; she 
was very hungry, and the Indians brought her food in abundance, and, 
to reward them for their kindness, she caused corn to grow where her 
right hand had touched the earth, beans where her left hand rested and 
tobacco where she sat." The missionary treated it with contempt, and 
said : " What I told you were sacred truths ; what you tell me is fiction, 
fable and falsehood." The Indian was indignant, and replied: "My 
brother, it seems your friends have not done you justice, in your educa- 
tion. They have not well instructed you in the rules of common civility. 
You see that we, who understand and practice those rules, believe all your 
stories; why do you refuse to believe ours?" They were faithful to a friend, 
but ferocious to an enemy. Dare we, however, compare the cruelty of 
these savages with that of the Anglo-Saxons? It is true they killed 
witches and wizards ; but, at the same time the Rev. Drs. Cotton Mather, 
Stoten and other ministers, were killing, hanging and murdering the 
purest people of Massachussetts for the same imaginary offense. It is 
true they sometimes offered human sacrifices to appease, or propitiate 
their great Manitou, but during the same time the infamous Inquisition 
and auto-da-fe, burned to death over 82,000 innocent men, women and 
children to appease the wrath of the meek and lowly Jesus. It is true 
they often massacred and murdered defenseless women and children who 
had invaded their country ; but for cold-blooded iniquity and horrid 
atrocity, these crimes sink into insignificance compared with the Portu- 
guese in Brazil, who deposited the clothes of scarlet fever and small-pox 
patients on the hunting grounds of the Indians, thereby spreading these 
malignant maladies among the simple natives. They are men and 
women, child and children, like ourselves. They are now the dying in- 
fants of the continent, we their invading conquerors ; in Heaven's name, 
let no act of wrong be done against them. 









HOWARD COUNTY is a part of what was, at one time, known as 
the Indian Reserve, owned by the Miami Indians. The reserve 
was situated south of the Wabash River. On the east was Grant County, 
on the south, Hamilton County and on the west Clinton and Carroll, and 
on the north Cass and Miami Counties. A portion of the reserve was 
attached to Miami County; another portion, with a strip off of Hamilton 
County, forms Tipton County, and the portion between Tipton and Miami 
Counties forms Howard County. 

The county is eleven miles wide by twenty-seven miles long, and is 
consequently bounded on the north by Miami and Cass Counties, on the 
east by Grant County, on the south by Tipton and Clinton, and on the 
west by Clinton and Carroll. 

The Indian Reserve was about thirty miles square, and was selected by 
the Indians on account of its good qualities of soil, timber, game, fish, 
etc., and was highly prized by them and cherished as their home. But 
they were finally induced to part with it, and the Government became the 


The face of the country is what would be termed level, having no high 
hills, but is gently undulating, and was originally covered with a dense 
forest of valuable timber, such as white oak, burr oak, red oak, yellow 
poplar, black walnut, white walnut, hickory, elm, the various kinds of 
ash, hard and soft maple, and sycamore, which last grew all over the 
county, and not, as in other localities, confined to the immediate vicinity 
of water-courses. 

The value of the timber of this country has been great, and during the 
hard times, culminating in 1873, and on till 1876, was what furnished the 
principal resource of the people for paying debts and buying the neces- 
saries of life. 



The principal stream in the county is Wild Cat Creek, which has one 
of its principle branches, called Mud Creek, heading in the northwest 
part of Tipton County, running a northeast direction, until, near the east 
end of the county, it turns north, and, uniting with a branch called Grassy 
Fork, forms the Wild Cat, which runs nearly west, through the middle of 
the county. Lilley Creek empties in near Jerome ; Kokorao Creek 
empties in one and a half railes below the city of Kokorao, and Little 
Wild Cat about seven miles, and the Honey Creeks still lower down. The 
last three are all on the south side of the main stream. Springsthat supply 
abundance of good water abound throughout the county. On the north 
side of the county are the heads of Deer Creek and Buck Creek, which 
empty into the Wabash River. So that it may be said the county is 
well watered. 

In the first settlement of the Eastern portion of the county, and in 
fact the whole of it, the settlers found a great deal of the land, for a good 
portion of the year, under water, which formed what were called sloughs 
and slashes. This was owing to the great amount of down timber, in an 
unbroken forest, so dense that the sun had little chance to penetrate to the 
ground to dry it, and the extensive obstructions to the flow of the water 
caused it to accumulate in low places, and for years it never dried out. 

The difference in the appearance of the county now and thirty-five 
years ago is great, brought about by the industry and perseverance of the 
inhabitants, who early learned the value of draining by ditches. Further 
on we shall say more on the subject of drainage. 


The General Government, having purchased from the Indians the lands 
composing the reserve, would come into possession of them about the year 

The State Legislature, in view of the near approach of the time when 
the State would be entitled to assume jurisdiction over the territory thus 
acquired, at their session, in the winter of 1843-44, passed a law, in order 
to the formation of the reserve into counties, which was done by defining 
the boundaries of the counties of Howard and Tipton, and changing the 
boundaries of surrounding counties as heretofore alluded to. 

The county was organized under the name of " Richardville," which 
was the name of a prominent member of the Miami tribe of Indians. 
The act of the Legislature provided, by appointment. Commissioners to 
locate the county seat, as follows : John Moulder, John Armstrong and 
S. H. Colip. They were required by the act to meet at the house of 







John Harrison, on the second Monday in May, 1844. They met on that 
day, and at once proceeded to examine the various points that had been 
proposed as suitable for a county seat. After a careful inspection of the 
various locations and propositions for donations, they finally determined 
on the location upon which Kokomo is situated. 

This location is situated in the northwest corner of an individual Indian 
reservation, made by Lafontaine, one of the principal men of the Miami 
tribe. It was purchased by David Foster, who was a considerable trader 
among the Indians. 

Mr. Foster agreed to donate, as a site for a county seat, forty acres, 
and pay the expenses of the Locating Commissioners, which he did, and 
delivered the deed for the land, on December 5, 1844, to the County 


The first election ever held in what is now Howard County was while 
the western portion of it Avas attached to Carroll County, and was held in 
the year 1840, at a Presidential contest, and at the house of John Har- 
rison, when twenty-four votes were cast — twelve Whig and twelve Dem 

The first election, under the county organization, was held May 27, 
1844, at which all the county officers were elected, as follows : John 
Lamb, Benjamin Fawcett and David Bailey, Commissioners : Franklin 
S. Price, Clerk ; Benjamin IS'ewhouse, Auditor ; Austin North, Recorder ; 
Harless Ashley, Treasurer; and John Harrison, Sherifi". 


The County Commissioners held their first meeting, commencing June 
17, 1844, at the house of John Harrison, at which but little business 
was done. 

They divided the county into three townships. The west one was 
named Monroe, the middle one Kokomo, and the east one. Green Town- 
ship. They met again in called session, on the 17th day of Au- 
gust following, to receive the report of the Locating Commissioners, when, 
after the formal acceptance of said report, they adjourned to meet at 
David Foster's, in Kokomo, on the first Monday in September. 

At the September term, 1844, Peter Gay was appointed County Agent, 
and other subordinate oflSces were filled by appointment, so that the county 
machinery was ready for business. 

The first tax levy was made at this meeting, of 25 cents on each $100 
valuation, and 25 cents on each poll. Austin C. Sheets was appointed 
County Surveyor, and proceeded without delay to survey and plat the town 
of Kokomo. 


At the December term, 1844, the Commissioners acted upon the first 
road petition. Isaac Price, Jonathan Hayworth and J. C. Barnett were 
appointed Viewers ; and made the following report : " In pursuance of the 
order of the Board, they have viewed and laid out a road of public utility, 
to wit : Beginning at the forks of Honey Creek, and running the 
nearest and best route in the direction to Peter Duncan's tavern, on the 
Michigan road, ending at the county line." 

At this meeting, Charles J. Allison was granted a license to retail in- 
toxicating liquors for f 10 ; this was the first license granted in the county, 
and Mr. Allison was the first person who was indicted for violating the 
license law. Charles Price, who had been appointed Assessor for the 
county, was allowed $34.50 for that work — rather a small sum, when 
compared with the present. The board ordered elections in each of the 
three townships, for the election of one Justice of the Peace in each, to 
to be held on the third Monday in January, 1845. The price of liquor 
license was put at |50 after this year. 

At the March term, 1845, the board took the preliminary steps for the 
building of a court-house. They decided that it should be twenty-four 
feet square, and two stories high, to be built of hewn logs, and covered 
with boards three feet long, showing one foot to the weather. David Foster 
and Dennis McCormack were appointed to let the job, which was taken 
by Rufus L. Blowers at $28. Arrangements were also commenced for 
building a jail. This was built of hewn timbers, twelve inches square, 
throughout walls, floor and ceiling, the logs notched down close, and 
boarded on the outside, with double doors of two-inch oak plank. The 
lock to the door was made by Judge Thomas A. Long ; the key was about 
ten inches long, and weighed about four pounds. The building was to be 
eighteen feet by twelve feet in the clear. 

The report of T. A. Long, one of the Commissioners appointed by the 
Legislature to view and locate a State road from Burlington, in Carroll 
County, by the way of Kokomo, to Marion, in Grant County, was made 
to the board — this being the first State road through the county. At 
this session, the several townships were divided into road districts, and 
Supervisors appointed. Most of the time of the board was taken up in 
making orders directing various ofl^cers and other persons to perform cer- 
tain services for the public good, and in appointing various petit officers 
in the different townships, where the rapidly increasing settlement of the 
country seemed to render such action necessary, and looking after the 
safety of the public property, as is evinced by the following : 

" It appearing to the satisfaction of the court that H. C. Stewart has 
taken from the court house eight pieces of plank, and that others have 
done the same, it is ordered that David Foster be requested to call on all 


such persons as have taken lumber and require them to return it in fif- 
teen days." 

It was no uncommon thing in those days for persons to use any lumber 
found lying around loose. Lumber was very scarce and in great demand 
in fitting up houses to live in, and only one slow-going saw-mill within 
many miles. Doubtless the lumber was returned, as we hear nothing 
more of it. Two State roads were located, one from Kokomo to Michi- 
gan town, and one to Peru, in Miami County, at the September term. 

At the December term, the court house was accepted of the contract- 
or, R. L. Blowers, after deducting ^2 for some deficiency in the 
work. The office of County Auditor was declared vacant, but for what 
cause is not shown, and Austin C. Sheets was appointed to fill the 

During the early history of the county, much of the time of the Board 
of Commissioners was taken up in ordering the location of roads through 
the trackless wilderness of the county, and also in hearing reports of such 
roads as were located. A specimen of these reports, and a curiosity in 
its way, is the following, out of a number quite similar. J. C. Barnett 
and J. C. Chitwood were appointed Viewers of a certain proposed road, 
and they report: "We viewed the same, commencing near the south- 
west corner of Section BO, in Town 24 north, of Range 2 east; thence 
northeast to the south end of Abram Brubaker's lane ; thence through 
said lane to the north end of the same ; thence northeast to the quarter 
post between Judge Ervin and William CuUum's farms ; thence north to 
Judge Ervin's fence; thence northeast along said fence to the mouth of 
Judge Ervin's lane; thence through said lane; thence northeast to the 
northeast corner of Section 29, and so on, and report the same of public 
utility." Of course, in a few years this road was lost, and could not be 
relocated by the description. Another county road was located by Rich- 
Staunton and George Taylor, as follows : Commencing at New London ; 
thence with the Delphi and Muncie State road to Mr. Walls : thence east 
via Miles Judkin's lane to James Shanks, on Little Wild Cat ; thence 
east to Laomi Ashley's; thence east to a schoolhouse near McCune's. 

At the June term, 184G, Harles Ashley, County Treasurer, made his 
annual statement of receipts and expenditures for the year, as follows : 
Received during the year ending June 1, $1,021.44, and paid out for same 
time $984.51; balance in treasury, $36.93. He was paid $125.25 for his 
services for collecting and paying out the sura above stated. 

The board received the jail of James H. Johnson, contractor, for 
which they paid him $178.10. The assessment of personal property this 
year, 1846, amounted to $60,143, this, added to the real estate, made a 
total valuation of $118,838. 


At the December term, 1846, the board made an appropriation of • 
toward building a bridge across Wild Cat at Kokomo, on the west side of 
the town, where the gravel road bridge now is. This was the last meeting of 
the board, under the name of " Richardville," the Legislature having, 
on the 28th day of December, 1846, changed the name of the county to 
Howard, in honor of Tilman A. Howard, a popular Democratic politician 
of the State. At this term, the county was divided into townships, as fol- 
lows : Ervin, Monroe, Harrison, Clay, Centre, Taylor, Howard, Jackson 
and Green. These townships were divided into road districts at the 
March term, 1847. 

At the June term, 1847, the Treasurer reported receipts for year end- 
ing June 1, 11,210.74, and paid out $1,115.33, showing but a slight 
difference between this year and the last. 

At the September term, N. R. Linsday was appointed County Agent, 
and Austin C. Sheets, County Surveyor. 

At the December term, on account of the frequent depredations of 
wolves upon the few sheep owned in the county, the board offered a 
premium of 50 cents on Avolf scalps. 

It appears that in June the board had taken forty shares of $25 
each in the capital stock of the Peru & Indianoplis Railroad, which it 
was proposed to build through the county, and ordered $2 on each share 
to be paid. 

At the March term, 1848, A. C. Sheets resigned the office of County 
Surveyor. The board subscribed sixty additional shares to the Peru k 
Indianapolis Railroad, and ordered $2 on each share to be paid. 

At the June term, 1848, Andrew V. Apperson was appointed a student 
to Wabash College. Treasurer's report of receipts for the year, |2,197.86; 
paid out during the year, $1,685.97. 

The property valuation of 1849 was $148,390. Number of polls, 888. 
Treasurer's receipts, $2,892.03; expenditures, $2,450.56. 

The above figures show a gradual increase in the taxables of the county. 
This is owing to the fact that most of the settlers were men of quite limited 
means when they came into the county, and any increase must have been 
mada from the ground by the persistent labor of the hands, and that, 
too, from land covered by a heavy forest that had to be, at least in part, 
removed before anything could be raised. This necessarily made accu- 
mulation tedious and laborious. It was also attended with privation and 
hardships that persons who never went through such scenes know noth- 
ing about. The men thus brought together with limited means and limit- 
ed opportunity for anything but hard work, were the men who had all 
the public business also to attend to in addition to making clearings and 
securing the means to pay for their lands when the time came to make 


their entries. Coming together from different localities, and many of 
them having never engaged in any kind of public business, it was to be 
expected that some embarrassment would attend the performance of duties 
they were comparatively unacquainted with, and as a consequence many 
things were done in a crude and imperfect manner, so that much that was 
done proved but temporary and often useless ; but as the years went by 
these irregularities and imperfections were corrected, and they glided 
easily and readily into a more systematic mode of doing business. 

The business of the board was necessarily of a routine character, yet 
there was much that for the first time claimed their attention and called 
forth the best efforts of the men selected by the people for that purpose. 
During these early days of our history, men in office were not so easily 
nor were they so likely to be influenced by cliques and rings which have 
become the bane of public business everywhere of late years. 

September term, 1850 : some time before this the board had subscribed 
to the capital stock of the Peru & Indianapolis Railroad, amounting to 
^4,000, and at this term they made an order for issuing bonds of the 
county for that sum, to run ten years, but they might be redeemed in 
eight years if the board so desired. 

For the June term, 1851, the following order was issued by the board : 
Ordered, that the Sheriff be required to notify G. W. Poisal, C. & 0. 
Richmond, N. R. Linsday and C. D. Murray, to meet this board at its next 
meetinor to settle with said board for office rent of the court house. At 
this meeting Rev. John Dale and C. Richmond, who had been appointed 
by the board for the purpose, reported the purchase of $99.50 worth of 
books for the County Library. The board, at this meeting, adopted rules 
for the management of the library and the use of the books, and James 
H. McCool was appointed Librarian in place of A. North, resigned. 

On the 21st day of August, 1851, the Peru & Indianapolis Railroad 
Company, by William J. Holman and C. D. Murray, presented a propo- 
sition to the County Board to subscribe to the capital stock of said com- 
pany, $10,000, and in payment, issue county bonds, provided, that 
other counties on the line of the road should subscribe the balance of 
$50,000. The board took the matter under consideration until the next 
day, when they expressed a willingness to accept the proposition of the 
railroad company, and issue said bonds, provided they were or could be 
indemnified against loss by any defalcation of said railroad company, 
when the following persons entered into a written obligation indemnifying 
the county against loss, with the provision that the guarantors were to 
have all the privileges and benefits conferred on the county : 

Wm. J. Holman $4,000 

C. Richmond 500 


JohnBohan 1,000 

Austin North 500 

William Brown 500 

George Deffenbaugli 500 

John Dale 500 

J. D. Sharp 1,000 

F. S. Price 1,000 

J. i\J. Skein 500 

Whereupon tlie board directed the Auditor to subscribe for 400 shares 
of ^25 each, and that county bonds bearing 10 per cent interest, and to 
run for ten years, be issued to the amount of $10,000. The bonds were 
subsequently issued and signed by Tence Lindley, Richard Nixon and 
John Knight. Certificates of stock were issued on delivery of the bonds. 

At the December term, 1853, C. D. Murray, agent of the Peru & 
Indianapolis Railroad Company, came before the board and presented a 
motion that they make an order, surrendering the above-named certificates 
of stock for i^l0,000, and that said certificates be canceled and the guar- 
antors be released. The order was m.ade in accordance with the motion. 
but the railroad company still held to their agreement to pay interest and 
principal as they came due. The immediate reason for the above pro- 
ceeding was, that the Peru & Indianapolis Railroad, and the Indianap- 
olis & Madison Railroad Companies had consolidated their interests, 
which was considered to be a sufficient guaranty for the payment of the 
bonds and interest. The view taken of the matter was that the issuing 
of the bonds wns a loan of the credit of the county to the railroad, and 
was not intended as a subscription to the capital stock of the company. 
The reason given for asking the board for help in this manner was this : 
The railroad company, as such, could not sell its bonds, because the 
company had no credit in the market, but county bonds could be sold. 
The company lacked $50,000 to finish the road and could do no more 
unless the}'' could raise that amount. This being the condition of the 
company, they determined to apply to the counties for aid, by getting 
them to issue bonds as above described. Miami, Hamilton and Howard 
Counties went into the arangement and raised the money, and the road 
was finished. The Peru k Indianapolis Railroad was, in the greater 
part, built through a new and unimproved country, that could furnish but 
a limited amount of business, at a time when the road needed it the most, 
and the expense of running it constantly increasing, so the company 
was unable to keep up running expenses and pay 10 per cent interest on 
so large a debt. They had to give it up ; the company became bankrupt, 
and the road was sold. The failure of the railroad company caused the 
county to pay the balance remaining unpaid at the time the company 
went under, which, of principal and interest, amounted to about $6,000. 


Some complaint was made on account of the action of the board in re- 
leasing the guarantors from their liability, but at the time that it was done, 
there appeared good reason for thinking that the railroad company would 
perform their part of the agreement ; but, if there had been no special reason 
for thinking so, they had secured the completion of the road, which caused 
the rapid development of the country, and greatly increased its wealth and 
the prosperity of its inhabitants. Most men, on reflection, regarded the 
action of the board in releasing the guarantors as correct ; that it would 
be unfair to require a few individuals, who were no more benefited than 
others, to make good a few thousand dollars, when to the general public 
it was worth many times the amount paid by the county. 

Al the June term, 1852, C. D. Murray, C. Richmond and A. C. Sheets 
were appointed by the board to superintend and let to contract the erec- 
tion of public county offices. This they did by getting up the plans and 
specifications, advertising and letting. The work was let to D. C. Hur- 
ley, Jesse x\rnold and H. C. Stewart, for $975. There were two 
buildings of brick, one story each, 18x86 feet, two rooms in each build- 
ing ; they were built on the north side of the square, leaving space between 
them for a court house to be built subsequently. The offices on the east 
side were occupied by the Auditor and Treasurer, and those on the west 
by the Clerk and Recorder. These buildings remained until the present 
court house was built. In putting in the foundation of these offices, 
William Albright was employed as a stonemason; they had procured a large 
stone from the quarry south of town, out of which to make a corner stone ; 
the old gentleman had worked faithfully and carefully for nearly two days 
in the dressing of this stone, and had it about completed; after inspecting 
it carefully, he observed a small spot that appeared to require a little im- 
provement, and he began carefully to pick it with his hammer, when the 
stone fell into a large number of pieces, to the utter disgust of Mr. Al- 
bright. Raising himself up to an erect position (he was a tall man), he 
threw down his hammer and stood contemplating the complete destruction 
of his labor ; was about to give expression to highly wrought feelings, but 
just then, remembering that he was a preacher of the Gospel, he conclud- 
ed to call on some one else to give expression to what he conceived to be 
due to the occasion. He sang out at the top of his voice, " Where is Mike 
Craven ? Run here, everybody ; here is some swearing to be done, and 
I dare not do it. Where is Mike Craven ?" 

In 1853, Green and Jackson Townships were divided, forming between 
them a new township, which was named Union. 

At the March term, 1853, the report of the first Coroner's inquest was 
made. Calvin McCoy, Coroner, held an inquest on the body of Elisha 
McCool, who came to his death in consequence of injuries received at the 


hand of Henry Shank. Dr. C. Richmond, assisted by Drs. Amos Petti- 
john and J. H. Kern, made the post mortem examination. The jury 
was composed of James Ellis, Noah Freed, Philip Ramseyer, Sr., Jonathan 
Pickering, Clinton Gray, Jack Gray, Joseph Coats, Miram Beard, Philip 
Ramseyer, Jr., Levin Young, Sylvester Edwards, James Brooks ; and 
James Creason, Elijah McCool, William Morrison and Samuel Mulkins 
were 'j'itnesses. 

At the June term, 1854, total valuation of property returned for taxa- 
tion was $1,784,530, and the number of polls was 1,256. A petition to 
incorporate the town of Kokomo was presented, and an election ordered 
for October 1, which resulted in sixty- three votes for and three votes 
against, and it was incorporated. 

At the September term, agents were appointed in the several town- 
ships to sell intoxicating liquors. 

At the March term, 1857, the board purchased 165 acres of land of 
Thomas S. Gatewood, Avhich was designed for the County Asylum ; a 
small portion was sold to Col. Blanche at the same term. 

At the June term, 1858, Samuel Woody and Elijah Johnson presented 
to the board a petition of sundry citizens of Clinton County, asking to 
be attached to Howard County. Said petition was referred to the next 
meeting of the board for further action. 

At the September term, 1858, the petition of sundry citizens of Clin- 
ton County was taken up and considered, and the prayer of the petition 
granted, and Sections 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27, 28, 29, 32, 33, 34, 
35 and 36, in Township 23 north, Range 2 east, and Section 1, 2, 3, 4 
and 5, in Township 22, same range, were attached to Howard County^ 
and formed into a township and named Honey Creek. 

September, 1860, the board ordered the grading and macadamizing 
of the street around the public square, to be completed November 1, 

December, 1860, the board sold the Poor Farm to Nelson Purdum for 
$3,472.50, and at a special session in January, 1861, they purchased of 
J. H. McCool eighty acres off of the west side of his farm west of town, 
for $2,800. In April following, they contracted with James Linville to 
build a house on the farm for $369. Then again, in March, 1865, they 
contracted with William Chadwick to build another house on the farm, 
the building to be two stories in height, 20x36 feet, with a wing running 
back 16x36 feet, one-story high, price, $1,800. This house was in- 
tended for the use of the superintendent of the farm, and the keep- 
ing of the paupers of the county. It would be difficult to construct a 
house more illy adapted for the purpose than this one, and in a few years 
the board becoming satisfied of its bad arrangement and unhealthfulness, 


determined to build one better, which they did. (See public buildings.) 
In June, 1861, there was 'a surplus in the treasury, which the board set 
apart as a fund to be used in building a new court house, and the 
money was deposited in the bank for that purpose. 

In July, 1862, at a special session, the board made an appropriation of 
$5,000 for the benefit of the families of volunteers in the Seventy-fifth 
Regiment Indiana Volunteers, then forming. At the special session, 
December, 1863, they appropriated $3,000 for the benefit of soldiers' 
families. At the special session, February, 1865, they appropriated 
$98,000 to pay bounties to fill the county's quota under the call for 300,000 
men, and in June, 1865, they appropriated $3,000 more for the benefit 
of soldiers' families, and placed it in the hands of the Township Trustees 
for distribution. 

In July, 1865, the board ordered the letting of a contract to build a 
new jail in place of the old log jail. The conti'act was let to J. W. Coff- 
man for $9,600. This jail was built on the southwest corner of Washing- 
ton and High streets, in a bad location. The prison part was supposed 
to be sufficient to prevent any escape from it possible, but a few years dem- 
onstrated the fact that it was more insecure than the old wooden jail 
had been. 

At the June term, 1867, the New London Gravel Road Company was 
organized. These roads will be described in a separate article. 

In September, 1867, the board conveyed to the city of Kokomo what 
is known as the Old Cemetery j^ and also confirmed the enlargement of the 
city limits. 

In August, 1870, the board ordered bonds issued amounting to $22,000 
to complete the court house, and in November following additional bonds, 
amounting to $10,000, for the same purpose. 

At a special session, April, 1871, on petition, an election was ordered 
on the question of appropriating $52,000 toward building the Evansville, 
Crawford sville, Kokomo & Toledo Railroad, which was defeated. At this 
session the board ordered the issuing of bonds running five years, draw- 
ing ten per cent interest, for $18,000, for the purpose of funding the 
debt of the county. These bonds were sold to Francis Smith, of Indian- 

From this time on the board has been engaged most of the time in 
superintending the arrangements for the construction of ditches and 
gravel roads. There are now in the county eleven gravel roads completed, 
and a number of others ready to commence as soon as the board can le- 
gally furnish the means. There are also about 150 public ditches that 
cost from $300 to $15,000 ; to this should be added the tile drains, over 
which the board have no control, and they amount to 600,000 rods, or 


even more. A general and particular account of these public improve- 
ments is given under the heading of " Gravel Roads and Drainage." 


Previous to the census of 1850, we have no accurate account of the pop- 
ulation, but in that year the census was taken, and is put down at 6,657 ; 
in 1860, it was 12,524 ; in 1870, it was 15,874 ; and in 1880, it was 
19,400 ; showing a very creditable increase from one decade to another, 
or about 500 each year. 


For 1860, P,145,351 ; number of polls, 2,090. For 1870, $5,287,500; 
number of polls, 2,618. For 1880, $6,061,541 ; number of polls, 3,492. 


Circuit Court Judges. — John W. Wright, from 1844 to 1845; Horace 
P. Biddle, 1846 to 1850; R. H. Milroy, 1851 ; John U. Petit, 1852; J. 
M. Wallace, 1853 to 1857; J. S. Buckles, 1858 to 1865; H. A. Brouse, 
1866; John Davis, 1867 to 1869; James O'Brien, 1870; C. N. Pollard, 
1871 to 1879; N. R. Overman, 1879 to 1883, whose term expires 1885. 

Associate Judges. — Thomas A. Long and Robert Ervin, from 1844 to 
1850, when j^ssociate Judges were dispensed with. 

Probate Judges.— 'N. C. Reals, 1844 to 1845; B. Lesoura, 1846 to 
1850; N. C. Beals and Robert Ervin, 1850 to, 1851, when the Probate 
Court was dispensed with. 

Common Pleas Judges. — E. S. Stone, 1852 to 1855; N. R. Linsday, 
1856 to 1859; John Green, 1860 to 1863; William Garver, 1864 to 
1873, when the Common Pleas Court was dispensed Avith. 

Prosecuting Attorneys. — Silas Colgrove, 1844 ; William Z. Stewart, 
1845; D. Dunn, 1846; J. G. Patterson, 1847 ; H. D. Johnson and John 
Green, 1848 ; William Potter, 1849 to 1851 ; I. M. Harlan, 1852 to 
1855; C. S. Parish, 1855; Isaac DeLong and C. D. Murray, 1856 to 
1857 ; David Nation, 1858 ; David Moss, 1859 to 1860 ; J. A. Harrison, 
1861 to 1863 ; L. W. Gooding, 1864 to 1865 ; N. Vanhorn, 1866 ; Will- 
iam O'Brien, 18'37 to 1868; J. F. Elliott, 1869 to 1872; R. B. Beau- 
champ, 1873 to 1874; J. F. Vaile, 1875 to 1879; J. E. Moore, 1880 to 
1882; C. C. Shirley, 1883. 

Clerks of Cowri.— Franklin S. Price, 1844 to 1853 ; Adam Clark, 
1854 to 1861 ; David C. Metsker, 1860 to 1865 ; H. H. Winslow, 1866 
to 1873; John W. Cooper, 1874 to 1883; H. M. Sailors, 1883. 

Sheriffs. — John Harrison, 1844 to 1846 ; Adam Clark filled out Har- 
rison's term, by appointment, Harrison's death having made a vacancy ; 


J. D. Sharp, 1846. to 1849; G. W. Poisal, 1850; T. M. Kirkpatrick, 
1851 to 1852 ; David Hatfield, 1853 to 1855 ; Samuel Lamb, 1856 to 
1859; N. B. Brown, 1860 to 1864; N. Prime, 1864 to 1867; Joseph 
Taylor, 1868 to 1869 ; John S. Trees, 1870 to 1872 ; Willis Blanche, 
1873 to 1874 ; John H. Terrell, 1875 to 1876 ; D. 0. Freeman, 1877 to 
1878 ; A. H. Duke, 1879 to 1880 ; James W. Dehaven, 1881 to 1882 ; 
Luther McReynolds, 1883. 

Auditors. — Benjamin Newhouse, 1844; John Bohan, 1845 to 1855 ; 
Harles Ashley, 1856 to 1858 ; James A. Wildman, 1859 to 1866 ; L. S. 
Gray, 1867 to 1873 ; J. C. Ware filled the last year of Gray's term ; H. 
L. Moreland, 1874 to 1883 ; W. H. Sellars for succeeding term, 1883 on. 

Treasurers.— R. Ashley, 1844 to 1846 ; Adam Clark, 1847 to 1855 ; 
Hiram Newlin, 1856 to "^1857 ; H. W. Jones, 1858 to 1860; L. F. 
Springer, 1861 to 1864; John W. Lovin, 1865 to 1868; J. N. Under- 
wood, part of 1868, and died ; Harvey Brown filled out his term by ap- 
pointment ; I. W. Rayburn, 1869 to 1872 ; I. C. Johnson, 1873 to 1877 ; 
David C. Spraker, 1879 to 1882 ; B. B. Johnson, 1883, present incum- 

Recorders.— Anstin North, 1844 to 1848 ; James McCool, 1849 to 
1857 ; D. C. Metsker, 1848 to 1862 ; D. J. Kemp, 1863 to 1867 ; Sam- 
uel Richey, 1868 to 1873 ; C. S. Edwards, 1874 to 1878 ; L. Rich, 1879 
to 1883 ; Seth Slyter, 1883, present incumbent. 

Coroners. — William P. Judkins, 1844 to 1845; Andrew Barngrover, 
1846 to 1850 ; Calvin McCoy, 1851 to 1855 ; John C. Linsday, 1856 to 
1858; John Jimmison, 1859 to 1862; John Stewart, 1863 to 1865 ; 
John W. Slider, 1866 to 1868 ; Jesse Leeka, 1869 to 1871 ; Edward 
Freeman, 1872 to 1874 ; John H. Ross, 1875 to 1879 ; J. C. Wright, 
1880 to 1882 ; R. H. Smith, 1883, present incumbent. 

Count// Surveyors. — Austin C. Sheets, G. A. Gordon, C. Richmond, 
John Newlin, J. L. D. Hannah, B. F. Fields, Silas Stout, John B. Miller, 
A, T. Wright, W. F. Mann, present incumbent. 

County Commissioners. — First District, John Lamb, Charles 0. Fry, 
George H. Taylor, Richard Nixon, James Brown, Jacob Tucker, B. W. 
Gifford, Robert Coat, John Moulder, H. S. Moreland, John Rodkey, 
Josiah Beeson, Robert M. Long, William Gordon, present incumbent. 
Second District, B. Faucett, A. Randolph, John Knight, Willis Blanche, 
David Greeson, T. M. Kirkpatrick, D. B. Hendrickson, S. Stratton, G. P. 
Pitzer, David Smith, G. H. Francis, Charles Wilson. Third District, 
David Bailey, John M. Jones, S. J. Good, Tence Lindley, M. B. Gold- 
ing, Harvey Brown, William Woods, Jerome Brown, James A. Ellis, 
Daniel Barrett, re-elected. 

Representatives to General Assembly in a Joint District. — A. L. Rob- 


inson, of Carroll County, 1844 to 1840 ; William S. Palmer, of Cass 
County, 1846 to 1847 ; Dr. C. Richmond, Howard County, 1847 to 
1848; G. W. Blakemore, Cass County, 1848 to 1849; C. D. Murray, 
Howard County, 1849 to 1850 ; D. D. Pratt, Cass County, 1850 to 1851; 
Dr. I. W. Parker, Tipton County, 1852 to 1854 ; C. D. Murray, Howard 
County, 1854 to 1856 ; M. P. Evans, Tipton County, 1856 to 1858 ; 
Samuel Woody, Howard County, 1874 to 1876 ; William H. Thompson, 
Howard County, 1876. Hoivard County as a Full District. — Thos. 
J. Harrison, 1858 to I860; D. D. Lightner, 1860 to 1862; J. M. 
Leeds, 1862 to 1864 ; S. T. Montgomery, 1864 to 1866 ; Willis Blanche, 
1866 to 1868 ; J. A. Wildman, 1868" to 1870 ; T. M. Kirkpatrick, 
1870 to 1874; Dr. J. M. Darnall, 1874 to 1876 ; M. Thompson, 1876 
to 1878 ; T. M. Kirkpatrick, 1878 to 1880; N. R. Linsday, 1880 to 
1882 ; M. Thompson, 1882 to 1884. 

State Senators. — The following citizens of Howard County have been 
elected State Senators from the district of which this county forms a part: 
C. D. Murray, 1856 to 1860 ; N. P. Richmond, 1864 to 1868 ; A. F. 
Armstrong, 1870 to 1874 ; M. Garrigus, 1878 to 1882. 


Public buildings will include court house, jail, county asylum and 
orphans' home. In March, 1868, the board ordered that bids for build- 
ing a court house be advertised, to be considered at a special session, on 
the 15th day of April following. They reserved the right to reject 
any or all bids if they were not found to be satisfactory, on inspection. 
The bids received on that day were all rejected, the board coming to tlie 
conclusion that they could do better by undertaking the job themselves. 
Having decided upon a plan of operation, they appointed one of their own 
number, Samuel E. Stratton, as Superintendent, with full power to con- 
tract for work and material, as he might deem best for the interest of the 
county, the building to be under the general supervision of the architect, 
Mr. Rumbaugh, and to be finally approved of by the board. Under this 
plan of operations, the house we now have was built at a cost of $110,000, 
including the improvements around it, and heating apparatus. The final 
report on completion of the building was made December 3, 1870, and 
shows that the whole cost of the building was $97,548.40. But several 
allowances afterward ran the expense up considerably above these figures. 

The court house is two stories high, besides the basement, and is 
eighty-two by eighty-six feet, and one hundred and twenty-six feet to top 
of the tower, which has a clock in the top section. The court room is 
fifty-one feet by eighty-two, and thirty-eight and one-half feet in height 
between floor and ceiling. There are five offices on the lower floor, twenty- 


two by twenty-four feet, except the Sheriff's, which is twelve by fourteen 
feet. On the upper floor, besides the court room, there are four other 
rooms, used as jury rooms, and one is occupied by the County Super- 
intendent, for an office. The lower rooms are occupied by the Clerk, Re- 
corder, Auditor, Treasurer and Sheriff. In the basement is placed the 
heating apparatus ; the whole building is heated by steam, the machinery 
for which was put in at a cost of $5,000. 

The building is substantially built, of good, durable material, and has 
within it fire proof vaults for the different offices in which to store the 
records and valuables belonging to the county. The square upon which it 
is built was filled up several feet, so that it appears to stand on high ground ; 
there is surrounding the grounds an iron fence, with stone foundation, and 
a heavy guard chain, entirely around outside the sidewalk, which is well 
paved. All the walks leading to the building are paved with large cut 
stones. It is a fine appearing house, and when the forest trees that have 
been planted around it are sufficiently grown, it will be a beautiful place. 
A clock in the tower gives to the inhabitants of Kokomo the time of 

The building on the county farm intended as a home and asylum for 
the poor of the county, was so entirely worthless for that purpose the 
board determined to build a house that would not only accommodate the 
occupants comfortably, but should be a credit to the county. After pro- 
curing plans and specifications that met their approbation, they proceeded 
to advertise a letting for the erection of the building. Bids were re- 
ceived May 24, 1881, and of those that put in bids David 0. Freeman 
had the lowest one, and the contract was awarded him ; he associated 
with him Mr. Peter A. Sassaman, and they together entered into a con- 
tract for the completion of the building and furnishing all material, and 
were paid for it $14,965.85. G. W. Bunting, of Indianapolis, was 
architect and superintended the erection of the building. This house is 
well adapted to the use for which it was erected, and it is a credit to the 
county. It is an enduring structure, of good material, well built and 
arranged for comfort, health and convenience. The building is two stories 
high above the basement, is 136 feet in length and forty-five feet in width, 
and is divided into forty-five rooms. There are several rooms in the 
basement, in one of which is the apparatus for heating the whole build- 
ing by steam. The water is supplied by a well and large cistern. Those 
who have examined the asylum pronounce it an excellent one. A sep- 
arate house of brick near by is used for the care of the insane. The 
asylum and farm are under the management of Mr. White, who has had 
it for several years, which amounts to saying that he is appreciated in the 
position, as a suitable man for the place. The farm for the use of the 


asylum is composed of 158|^ acres of excellent quality of soil, situated 
one and one-half miles west of Kokomo, on the Petes Run pike. 

The first jail was a log house, built on the same lot on which the pres- 
ent one is situated, and it can be said of that jail that no prisoner ever 
escaped from it ; but it was a log house and must needs give place to a 
more costly and respectable one. To this end, in 1865, the board let 
the contract to build a brick and stone jail to J. W. Coflfman for $9,600. 
The front part is a residence for the Jailer's family, and is of brick ; the 
prison part is back of this and attached to it so that the entrance to the 
prison is through a hallway in the dwelling. The prison part is built of 
s tone and the cells of iron. It has a well inside by which the prisoners are 
supplied with water, and on one occasion furnished an outlet by which 
several prisoners escaped by digging from the well out under the wall. 
The location of this prison is very objectionable from its not having good 
sewage, and is rapidly becoming untenantable and is not a secure place 
and cannot be made secure. The board came to the conclusion that a 
new jail was absolutely required, and in 1880 began to arrange for the 
building of a prison that would be efficient and so situated as to be healthy. 
For this purpose they purchased a piece of ground at the south end of 
Main street on the bluff of Wild Cat, where there could be ample sewage 
and a dry soil on which to build. In 1882, the contract was let to Mc- 
Cormack and Sweney at a cost of $34,314. The building is 103 feet 
five inches in length, and the front or residence is thirty-seven feet nine 
inches wide and the prison portion is forty-three feet seven inches wide. 
It is two stories above the basement. In the basement is placed the 
steam heating apparatus, and also two or three dungeons built of stone, 
each stone forming the entire side, end or bottom or top of the room. Cells 
are built on the first floor and at a distance from the outer walls, so that 
communication from without will not be possible. Accommodations are 
provided for different classes of prisoners and a hospital room for the sick 

The building which is the Orphans' Home is situated one-half mile 
south of Kokomo. In 1868, the ladies composing the Ladies' Union ■ 
Missionary Society, having come to a definite conclusion with regard to the 
idea of a home for orphan children, arranged for and gave a festival, 
October 22, 1868, in aid of the project, and were successful in realizing 
$125 in money, which sum was placed in the First National Bank and 
set apart for the purpose, and to which they added from time to time by 
the same and similar efforts. In January, 1873, a number of these ladies 
who had actively interested themselves in the work, formed and incorporated 
an association called the Orpans' Home Association of Howard County. 
Under the direction of this organization, they continued to hold festivals 
and systematically solicit donations to their funds, so that at the close of 


the year 1873, they had in bank and notes close on to $1,200. The ob- 
ject of the association, as its name indicates, was to provide wavs and 
means by which the orphan and destitute children of the county might be 
provided a comfortable home, clothing and food, and also to bring them as 
far as possible under the influence of good, moral training, leading them 
into habits of industry, and extending to them the hygienic benefits of 
cleanliness and fresh air, and finally procuring homes for them in good 
families. Having amassed a fund deemed sufiicient to start with, and feeling 
confident in the beneficial influence of an illustration of their work by open- 
ing a home, they, on the 1st day of November, 1873, rented a house and 
secured the services of Mrs. Sarah A. Street as Matron, who took charge 
with five children. Miss Anna Street acting as teacher. The efforts of 
the association. were not relaxed, but were constantly but forth to increase 
their material resources. The first opening of the home was in the west 
end of the city, but its increasing demands made it necessary to secure 
more ample accommodations, and a larger house was rented on North 
Union street, where they remained until their new home was completed. 

During the year 1874, it became very manifest that other and more 
extensive accommodations were needed, as demands were constantly com- 
ing to the managers for the admission of children. The management had 
also extended the sphere of their design, and now had in view the re- 
moval of all small children from the County Infirmary, regarding it as 
an unsuitable place for rearing the young, and also to remove from them 
in after years the odium of having been paupers. The association was 
limited in means, but determined to procure if possible a site on which to 
erect a building that would be ample in its capacity for years to come. In 
canvassing for this object, a committee of the association visited Mr. Peter 
B. Hersleb, who resided half a mile south of the city, for the purpose of try- 
ing to purchase ground of him ; Mr. Hersleb refused to sell them the 
ground, but gave them one acre of land and $300 in money, and after- 
wards gave them $500 more, besides many other things that were of value 
'';0 them. They continued their efforts to increase their means so that 
they could commence to build, and among other efforts made application 
to the County Commissioners for assistance, but could get none for the 
reason alleged that there Avas no law authorizing them to make donations 
for such purposes. However, after much importuning, they gave them 
$15, and at their next term they gave $20, at the next $35. 

Conceiving that benefit would accrue to the Home if recognized as a 
county institution, they procured the services of Judge James O'Brien in 
the preparation of a bill to be laid before the Legislature, which was passed 
and became a law in 1875, by which they were authorized to take orphan 
and destitute children into their home, and receive for each child 25 cents 


per day toward its support. Another effort made was the opening of 
a dining hall at the county fair, by which they netted ^200, P. B. Hoss 
giving them $25 for one meal. The Sigourney Band of young ladies of 
Kokomo generously donated $125. Individuals gave various amounts, 
ranging from $1 up to $100, In addition to these was a bequest of Elicum 
Boggs, deceased, of $800; of this amount $600 was in city bonds. With 
the amount of funds now secured, the association felt justified in com- 
mencing their building ; the contract was let to J. W. Coffman, and 
during the summer the building was put up and finished so that they 
occupied it October, 1857. The building is a two-story brick with base- 
ment, and 40x46 feet, and thirteen rooms, all heated by a furnace in the 
basement, all costing $4,000, 

The following have been the most active and continuous workers in 
the interest of the home from the beginning : Mrs, Emma E. Dixon, 
Mrs. Eva Davis, Mrs. Jane Turner, Mrs. Dr. Dayhoff, Mrs, Hendry, 
Mrs. Mariah Leach, Mrs, Lizzy Hasket, Mrs. L. B. Nixon, Mrs. J. 
Coffman, Mrs. L. W. Leeds and Electa Lindley; of these some five or 
six are still active members, some have moved away and two of them, 
Mrs. Lindley and Mrs. Eva Davis are deceased. Others came into the 
organization afterward, as follows: Mrs. Adison Armstrong, Mrs. 
Sarah Davis, Mrs. N. R. Linsday, Mrs. T. C. Philips, Mrs. Dash, Mrs. 
Dr. Mavity, Mrs. Kraus, Mrs. Rosenthal, Mrs. Dr. I. C. Johnson and 
others, some of whom remain ; others have moved away and one, Mrs. 
Philips, is dead. There are remaining of active members about fourteen. 


President, Mrs. Mary Armstrong ; Vice Presidents, Mrs. Mavity and 
Mrs. Dash ; Recording Secretary, Mrs, L, B. Nixon ; Corresponding Sec- 
retary, Mrs, E, E, Dixon ; Treasurer, Mrs. Dr. Johnson ; Matron, Mrs. 
Celia Hocket, who also acts as teacher. At present they have no gov- 
erness, but will have as soon as a suitable one can be had. The number 
of children now in the home is twenty, and the average number is about 
twenty. In the ten years of the home, there have been over 200 children 
provided with good homes in good families, thus securing them from 
want, neglect, ignorance and possible pauperism and degradation. We 
are justified in saying that through the efibrts put forth by this organiza- 
tion it was that the present law was enacted by which young children 
are taken from the county poor-houses and cared for properly until good 
homes can be secured for them, thus saving many from becoming not only 
paupers, but criminals. With the twenty-five cents per day, given by 
the county for each child, they are enabled to keep the home in active 
operation, paying the matron from $20 to $25 per month, and a govern- 



ess $12 per month, and the cook $2 per week. People from the country 
also often bring them donations of eatables and sometimes articles of 


For the purpose of procuring a county library, the Board of County 
Commissioners appropriated ten per cent of the funds arising from the 
sale of lots belonging to the county. This fund was allowed to accumu- 
late until it amounted to $100, when John Dale and C. Richmond were 
appointed to purchase books to that amount. They purchased $99.50 
worth of books and made report of the same in June, 1851. Individual 
donations of books were made from time to time, and occasional purchases 
as funds accumulated. There was also secured a donation from what was 
known as the McClure Library, in all making a collection of several 
hundred volumes. J. M. Vaughan was first put in charge of the library ; 
he left, and Austin North was appointed in his place and had charge until 
June, 1851, when James H. McCool was appointed; at the same time the 
boiird adopted rules for management and use of the library. But few 
persons availed themselves of the benefits of the library, and it stood com- 
paratively useless for several years. In December, 1854, the board 
divided the county into six districts and distributed the library among 
them, giving it in charge of the Trustees. The number of volumes in 
township libraries in 1882 was 1,386, and 12-i volumes were used during 
the year. 


The first term of the Richardville Circuit Court was held, commencing 
on the 7th day of November, 184-4, at the house of John Harrison, in what 
is now Ervin Township. In May preceding, an election had been held, 
at which Thomas A. Long and Robert Ervin were elected Associate Judges 
for the Circuit Court for the county; Franklin S. Price, Clerk, and John 
Harrison, Sheriff. These officers constituted the court at this term, the 
President Judge, John W. Wright, of Cass County, being absent. In or- 
ganizing the court, Silas Colgrove was appointed Prosecuting Attorney 
pro tern. 

The first grand jury was composed of the following persons, selected 
by the County Commissioners in June preceding, to wit: William P. 
Judkins, John P. Wright, Robert Walker, David Iseley, Peter Gay, Jonas 
Deselm, Joseph Clark, Thomas M. Kirkpatrick, Christopher Cromer, David 
Lambert, Thomas Kenneday, David Bailey, Ethan Birch, John Ford, 
William S. Rodman, John Rine, John W. Wright and John B. Miller. 
The following persons composed the first petit jury for this term, to wit : 
Job Garner, Thomas McClure, John Jones, Ephraim Bates, Joseph Coats, 
George Taylor, Benjamin Newhouse, Jason Clark, William Grant, 


Joseph Skein, James Fortner and Andrew Barngrover. There being no 
business for the petit jury, they were discharged. On the third day of 
the term, the grand jury returned into court twenty-five indictments for 
various minor ofi'enses. Of these causes, but two were tried this term. 
The first cause tried was the State u«. C. J. Allison, for retailing. The 
defendant pleaded guilty, and was fined $2 and costs. The second cause 
was also for retailing — State vs. John Harrison — who pleaded not 
guilty, and was acquitted. Court adjourned to meet at court house in 
Kokomo. The Clerk made his first entry of the receipt of public laws and 
documents for the county, on April 25, 1845. 

The second term of the Circuit Court was held at the log court house 
in Kokomo, commencing on the 6th day of May, 1845. Richardville 
County was now included in the Eighth Judicial Circuit, with John W. 
Wright, of Cass County, as President Judge, T. A. Long and Robert 
Ervin, Associates; F. S. Price, Clerk; John Harrison, Sheriflf', and W. 
Z. Stewart, Prosecuting Attorney. Several State cases were tried at this 
term, resulting in the conviction of two for assault and battery, and one 
for surety of the peace. At this term, the court ordered the Clerk to pro- 
cure a metallic seal for the use of the Circuit Court, with a device on the 
face thereof of a man on horseback on a chase after wolves in the distance, 
with his hounds in pursuit, the horse to be represented on the lope, and 
the words, "Richardville County, Ind., Seal, A. D. 1844," engraved on 
the face, and until this is procured the clerk will use a scroll, thus : 
[R. C. C.]. The grand jury returned into court several indictments, but 
the record fails to state the number or for what ofienses. 

The court house in which this second and many subsequent terms of 
court were held was built of hewed logs, was twenty -four feet square, and 
two stories high, covered with boards three feet long, called clapboards. 
The upper room was fitted up for a court room, having a rough board 
rostrum for the Judges' seat, a large table for the use of the Clerk and at- 
torneys, and slab seats for the audience. In this room all public meetings 
were held for several years. 

The lower room was divided by board partitions into office rooms, one 
of "which was occupied by the clerk, one was used by H. B. Havens as a 
saddler shop, and another was occupied by G. W. Poisal as a tailor shop, 
and also by Dr. C. Richmond as a doctor's office. While occupying this 
room as an office, an incident occurred which, to the observers, was very 
amusing, but somewhat disagreeable to the principal actor. The Doctor 
had among his bottles one in which he kept whisky for the preparation 
of tinctures. He noticed that the contents of the bottle were disappearing 
rather mysteriously, when, on inquir3% it transpired that a certain car- 
penter, living on Taylor street, was in the habit of visiting the office every 


morning, loafing about, and taking a drink out of the bottle. When this 
was d.scovered, the Doctor dissolved a few grains of tartar emetic in 
water and poured it into the bottle, and left it standing as before Next 
morning the customer came in as usual and took his dram. Poisal who 
was present and on the watch, noticed that the fellow began to spit rather 
more frequently than common, and that directly he took another .ood 
drink In a short time he was observed to get up suddenly and'pass 
rapidly out of the door, and immediately he was seen holding on^vith both 
hands to a large stump near the corner of the court house, where he with 
much effort and many tears, deposited his breakfast. This performance 
was repeated atseveral stumps on his way home, where, after getting there 
he remained quiet the remainder of the day. He was not seen to ente; 
the court house for a long time afterward, and the Doctor's whisky re- 
mained undisturbed thereafter. ^ 

At the November term, 1845, the first civil suit was docketed. There 
were several appealed cases in this court, the first of which was John 
Wright vs. Austin North, in which plaintiff recovered the sum of $6 The 

eredtlT.' Z '''' ""'"'"" "' ''' ^^^^'"^^' ^" ^^^^'^^ P^-"^^^ -cov- 
ered ^L95. There was one suit in chancery commenced at this term be- 
tween Peter Long lois and William G. Coffin; this cause was determined 
at t e May term, 1846. The first case of larceny was tried at this term 
fine oflsO. """'"' ""''""' ''"'^^^" ^" *^^ penitentiary and a' 

Nothing of interest transpired in court until November term 1846 
when Peter Hersleb who was a native of Denmark, was naturalized- 
the hrst case of the kind in the county. 

On December 28, 1846, the Legislature passed the law changing the 
name of the county to Howard, and the law was filed in the office of the 
Clerk of the (.ircu.t Court on February IS, 18i7, when the law took 

September term, 184T, we meet with the first jury trial; this was in 
a case of grand larceny, the State vs. Moses Crumwell, which resulted 
in his acquittal. ^e.uiLcu 

iMayterm, 1848 a ^vnt ol ad guod damnum was issued in favor of 
Dame McClure and Jacob Rhodes vs. Samuel Hofi; to prevent him build 
ing a dam across Wild Cat Creek at the point where the P., C & St L R 

fto7oTHof "'"'''' '"""""' "' '^"^°"°' "'"'='' ^''^ fi"'>"^ ^^^^^ i" 
February, 1849, Adam Millman applied for a writ of haiea, corpus 

mant Z^-^ '''"" '^ '^ ^»«' ^^-"'- ^^'"^^ -"ing in i^. 
At the May term, 1849, the first divorce case was tried, before Judge 



H P Biddle. and resulted in divorcing James Ralston and Emily Ral- 
ston The next divorce case was tried in May, 1850, by which Joseph 
Alvord and Elizabeth Alvord were divorced. During these years the 
divorce business was not very great; but in a few years after this, there 
was seldom a court passed, that there were not several cases disposed of. 
and, indeed, so frequent were these applications to the courts for release 
from the marriage relation, that there were good grounds for the conclu- 
sion that that relation was falling into disrepute, and was lightly re- 
crarded by manv. The laws of the State were so framed as to warrant an 
application upJn slight and trivial causes, which causes could be easily 
multiplied and magnified until they made success sure. Indiana has suf- 
fered <.reatly in her reputation on account of her divorce laws, persons 
from other States frequently coming into this State for the sole purpose 
of .rettinc divorced, because our laws made it quite easy for them to suc- 
cee" when in their own State they could not succeed. But the feeling 
of opposition to this state of things finally began to manifest itself, and 
developed in 1873, in the modification of the law, so that it is not now 
quite so easy to set aside the marriage relation. 

On the 7th of September, 1850, John Broughard was arrested and 
had a preliminary examination before H. B. Havens, Justice of the Peace, 
who bound him over to court, in the sum of $800, to answer to the charge 
of manslaughter. This charge was finally dismissed, and he was then 
charged with an affray, found guilty and fined p. In this affray, Jim 
Lane was killed by a blow in the stomach, struck by Broughard 

May term, 1851, State of Indiana. The case of Sarah Jane Kei- 
zer vs. John Haas, for bastardy, was tried; judgment against defendant for 
$300 This was the first case of the kind tried in this court. 

Murder Oase.—'Lewi Mills, Justice of the Peace, held a preliminary 
trial of Henry Shanks on the 24th day of January, 1853, and recognized 
him in the sum of $2,000, to appear in court and answer to the charge of 
murder in the second degree. At the first term of court after this, the 
cause was continued to the next term in November, when it was again 
continued to the May term, 1854, when it was tried. The jury took the 
case on the 27th day of the month, and on the 29th they returned a ver- 
dict of guilty, and "made his punishment two years in the penitentiary. 
Motion for new trial was made and time given till next term to present the 
reasons. November terra, motion to set aside the verdict of the jury and 
grant a new trial was heard and sustained. At the May term the cause 
was again continued, and at the November term, 1855, the Prosecuting 
Attorney refused to prosecute the case any further, when the court decid- 
ed that he go acquit. So ended the first murder trial in Howard County. 
This trial grew out of the results of a difficulty arising between Henry 


Shank and Elisha McCool, at a gathering of the neighbors, at which 
Shank was not invited ; but in the evening he went to the place where 
they were assembled. The two young men got into an altercation, stand- 
ing on opposite sides of a fence, when, because of some remarks made 
by Shank, McCool started to cross the fence, and wliile in the act of 
crossing, Shank struck him with a pocket-knife in the right breast, divid- 
ing the fourth rib through its cartilaginous attachment to the breast bone, 
and dividing a small artery on the inner and under edge of the rib, from 
which he bled to death, living sixteen days after the injury was received. 
The following are the names of the jury trying H. Shank : James 
Combs, Daniel Cline, Henderson Johnson, Jonathan Dunkle, David Den- 
nison, C. C. Richardson, David Endicott. Oscar Todd, John Aulteru, 
James M. Hays, Charles Newlin and David McEntire. 

During vacation, after the November (1854) term, S. S. Wilson was 
arrested for assault with intent to commit murder, and was admitted to 
bail for his appearance at the next term of court. in the sum of §1,500, 
with the following persons as his bondsmen : J. D. Sharp, I. H. Hauck, 
T. V. Kimble, F. S. Price, W. C. Jones, John Bohan, C. D. Murray, 
Thomas J. Harrison, H. Ashley, John M. Harland, R. D. Markland, J. 
J. Wills, C. J. Allison, William Grant and M. P. Young. Sam was 
tried at the next term of the Circuit Court, in May, by the foIlowimT 
jury : Allen Carter, Henderson Johnson, T. N. Crothers, L. D. Bennett, 
Jacob Applegate, John Knight, Hayden Reyburn, T. A. Long, Reuben 
Waldern, Reason Hardesty, John Pollock and Reuben Hawkins, with 
Thomas R. Calhoon, Bailiff. Sam was acquitted. S. S. Wilson was a 
native of Kentucky, had emigrated to Indiana some years before this, 
living in the southern part of the State until he came to Howard County. 
Entertaining ideas in harmory with his early education of the exalted 
state of the white over the colored race, he was disposed to regard the 
negro as not suited to him as an associate. He was also in the habit of 
mdulging rather freely at times in the use of intoxicating drinks ; 
when this was the case, he was especially severe on his colored fellow-cit- 
izen. So, when an old colored man made his appearance among us, Sam 
concluded that, as he was a Kentuckian, it became his special duty to rid 
the neighborhood of such people. Taking his gun, he commenced follow- 
ing the old man around, acting as though he was trying to get a good 
chance to shoot him ; the old colored man became badly frightened, and 
made for the corn-field and got away— and thus did Samuel get into trou- 
ble — but he never liked the " niercrer." 

But the further relation of incidents of the Circuit Court would not 
be interesting to the reader, as all the cases there tried are separately 
described under the head of crimes and casualties and will not therefore 
be pursued any further here. 



The law creating State, county, city and town boards of health is com- 
paratively a new one in Indiana, and although but a little over one year 
has elapsed since its passage, the physicians are fast becoming familiar 
with its operations and are highly appreciating the work contemplated in 
the law. 

The organization of the Howard County Board of Health was per- 
fected as provided in the statutes of this State, January 2, 1882. The 
County Commissioners, William F. Gordon, G. P. Pitzer and Isaac Reed, 
constitute the board, and they elected J. McLean Moulder, M. D., as 
their Secretary and executive officer. The board was re-organized in 
January, 1883, with the same officers. 

It becomes the duty of these boards, far as is in their power, to pre- 
vent the spread of all contagious diseases or diseases that are dangerous 
to public health ; to keep the people posted as to the locality of epidemic 
or contagious diseases; to make investigations as to the effects of alcohol, 
adulterated food, sewers and drainage, contagious diseases, temperature, 
location, and in fact anything which has a tendency directly or indirectly 
to influence the length and strength of the life of our people ; to report, 
tabulate and keep a record of all matters pertaining to sanitary science ; 
to be a means by which all nuisances that influence public health can be 

From a careful study of the statistical reports filed in this office dur- 
ing the past year, it is appalling to notice the deaths reported that are 
due "wholly to causes that are preventable. Prominent among these are 
bronchitis, whooping-cough and pneumonia. These diseases can all be 
accounted for upon scientific principles, and it is the work of health 
officers to ferret out the causes and acquaint the people with them. 

The following facts are taken from the records in the Health office of 
this county for the year 1882 : 


Males 284 

Females '256 

Total 540 

Whites 531 

Colored 9 

Twins 5 

Illegitimate 10 

Age of oldest father 62 years 

Age of oldest mother 45 years 

Age of youngest father 17 years 

Age of youngest mother 15 years 

♦Contributed by J. McLean Moulder, M. D, 



Males 64 

Females 98 

Total 162 

The greatest mortality was in the month of August. 


Prominent among these may be mentioned bronchitis, pneumonia, 
still birth, whooping cough, pulmonary consumption and cholera infantum. 


Number reported 32 

Diphtheria 2 

Typhoid fever 13 

Small-pox 8 

Cerebro spinal meningitis 5 

Measles 14 


Number reported 200 

Whites 199 

Colored 1 

Native brides 200 

Native grooms 198 

Foreign grooms 2 

Age of oldest groom 77 years 

Age of oldest bride 66 years 

Age of youngest groom 19 years 

Age of youngest bride 15 years 

The year 1882 was the healthiest ever known in Howard County, and 
what is most gratifying to all, is the knowledge of the gradual fading 
away of diseases that owe their origin to malarial or miasmatic influences ; 
the time is not far distant when chills, biliousness and malarial fevers 
will be unknown to the citizens of Howard County, as the swamps, ponds, 
marshes, and low, wet and uncultivated lands, which were such a prolific 
source of these dreadful diseases, have given way, under the intelligent 
system of underdraining of our farmers, to fields, yielding an abundant 
harvest of what is much more desirable, fruits and cereals. 


We have had occasion several times in this history to speak of the face 
of the country ; the condition it was found in when first settled ; that 
much of the land was extremely wet, and from the nature of the ob- 
struction to the flow of water, would remain so until the land should be 
cleared. But this alone was found to be insufiicient to bring the land into 
a condition that would develop its productive capacity to the fullest ex- 
tent. From the nature of the subsoil it was found that surface draining 
did not remove all the water necessary to dry the ground so that the 
crops would grow to perfection. Beneath the top soil there is generally a 
stratum of compact yellow clay, and beneath that another of blue clay. 


very close and hard, through which the water makes its way very slowly, 
so that in a moderately wet season there is always abundance of water to 
be found in from two to three feet of the surface ; the majority of wells 
dug were from ten to twelve feet deep except on the banks of the creeks. 
Farmers were led to investigate this condition and were induced to adopt 
some mode of getting rid of the water. Drains of various kinds were 
made and it was soon found that any kind of deep underground drain was 
beneficial. Some of the drains were made of sawed timber laid in a ditch 
dug for the purpose and then covered over ; others were made with poles 
laid in the bottom of the ditch, while others were made by placing green 
brush in the bottom of the ditch, and covering up with leaves, etc., and 
also dirt. After a time tile ditches were introduced, and proved so bene- 
ficial that they multiplied rapidly. On their first introduction the sizes 
used were as a general thing too small, and would soon fill up with roots 
and dirt. Of late years the size of tile used has been increased, and but 
little that is less than six inches is now used. 

The latest estimate of the amount of tile drain ditches as founded on 
the last census reports is fully 500,000 rods in the county worth |500,- 
000. The eifect of this large amount of drainage has been a marked 
benefit to the land, increasing its producing capacity in a wonderful de- 

In years gone by, it was thought that wheat could not be raised here 
to any profit ; now it is as good and as sure a crop as any other, and the 
opinion now prevails that this is destined to be a good wheat-growing 
county. The efiiciency of our system of tile drainage is greatly in- 
creased by the construction of a large number of large open ditches that 
look like canals running through the country. They furnish ample 
outlets for the tile drains and greatly assist in draining the land, as well 
as carrying off" the surface water. There are twenty-five tile mills in the 

Company Ditches. — The conviction grew upon the minds of men from 
year to year that there was a lack in the drainage of the county that 
could only be supplied by the combined action of the land owners in 
forming ditch companies and constructing long lines of open ditches of 
sufficient size to carry off" the surface water in a general wet time, and 
would also furnish outlets to the tile drains. 

In the commencement of these improvements, the laws regulating the 
proceeding were imperfect, and as a consequence underwent many 
changes, and were from time to time amended or repealed, but under 
each of them some good was effected. 

The first movement of this kind was begun in October, 1859, when 
a company known as the Prairie & Slough Ditching Company was or- 


ganized and presented their articles of association to the Board of Com- 
missioners, asking for the appointment of Viewers. This was under the 
law of March 4, 1859, and T. A. Long, Tence Lindley and William B. 
Smith were appointed Viewers. This ditch was constructed and the re- 
sult was a wonderful transformation of the country through which it 

Since that time numerous other ditches have been made ; there is 
seldom a meeting of the board but there are one or more ditch compa- 
nies organized. The estimate of the number of ditches of this kind in 
the county, founded upon the records of the Auditor's and Clerk's offices, is 
about 150, and the cost of them ranges all the way from §300 to $15,000, 
a moderate average would be $4,000 each, which w^ould make $600,000 
expended in open ditches, and the end is not yet reached ; many more 
will be constructed as the years roll on. 


In the bewinnino: there were no roads. The inhabitants of the coun- 
try were Indians, and they only needed paths, or traces, to enable them 
to get from one locality to another ; their modes of locomotion were 
either on foot or on horseback, and a path was all the convenience in the 
way of roads that they needed. But the white man, as a general rule, 
when he moves has a little property to take along for the use and comfort 
of his wife and children; he therefore must have such modes of convey- 
ance as necessitate the making of roads, especially in a densely wooded 
country. The coming to this county was not of itself a very great un- 
dertaking, but the making a road by which to get here amounted to 
quite a job. From the time you struck the wilderness until you arrived 
at your destination, the ax was, or had to be, in constant use. You could 
seldom move a wag-on a rod without having to cut oif or cut down some ob- 
struction. All the roads that we had through this region for several 
years were made in this way. They were to be found running to all 
points of the compass, and if you should strike into one' with which 
you were not familiar, you could not be certain where it would lead you 
until you reached the end of it, which might be a long way off in the 
woods, and nobody there ; then all you had to do was to turn around and 
go back and take another road. Sometimes the settler would go and 
blaze out a road ; that is, he would determine on the course he wanted to 
go, and then on that course blaze the trees that were in the line or near 
it on that course. To blaze a tree is to cut off a strip of bark on oppo- 
site sides of the tree, looking to and from the course you wish to go. 
After blazing out a route, it was necessary to cut out the underbrush and 
cut off and roll out the logrs that were too large to run over. 


When neighborhoods began to form, more elaborate roads became 
necessary and more possible, because of the increased number of hands 
to work them. Finally, when the county was fully organized, and its 
machinery in full operation, regularly laid out roads were resorted to. 

To improve them, the hands in a given district were notified by a Su- 
pervisor to meet on the road, when they would first cut out the under- 
brush and cut off and roll out the logs, and deaden the green trees that 
stood in the road — that was to be. When the trees died, the sunshine 
could get to the ground and dry it out some, but as the soil was soft and 
louray, and frequently wet by heavy rains, it took but little travel over it 
to make it desperately muddy. Such were the roads all over the county 
for many years. The condition of the roads was but little improved until 
the farmers generally commenced to drain their land by tile drains and 
public or company ditches which carry off the water rapidly. It is true that 
clearing off the timber and opening up the country did do some good, 
but until the ditching commenced the improvement was slow. Some sea- 
sons the roads never got dry and solid. 

Over these mud roads all our travel went, year in and year out ; our 
mails had to be carried over them until the opening of the P. & I. R. R. 
in 1854. In winter, it often happened that for weeks we were without 
mails, because of the bad condition of the roads. The citizens, many 
times, would club together, raise |10, and hire a man to go to 
Tipton for our mail. The mail carrier could get that far, but with a 
heavy load, could go no further. We had a mail from Burlington, Carroll 
County, but little of our mail matter came that way after the first two 
years. At this time, 1882, our common roads are quite passable for the 
greater part of the year. Three railroads furnish as many mail routes 
over which we have daily mails ; there are also several short routes to 
neighboring villages that carry a mail two or three times a week. 


The New London & Kokomo Gravel road was the first of the kind 
built in the county. It was commenced in 1867, and completed in 1870, 
and cost about $27,000. The road is ten miles in length, and in its 
course passes through Middleton and Alto. This is a good road, is kept 
in good repair, and has good iron bridges. The leading citizens interested 
in getting up and managing it were Capt. B. Busby, Dr. E. W. Hinton 
(now in Kansas), Isaac Ramsey (Kansas), Josiah Beeson, S. Stringer, 
Samuel Stratton, C. S. Wilson, Joseph Stratton, Hiram Newlin (Kansas) 
and Richmond Terrell. It is the only road in the county organized under 
the law of 1865. 

The Kokomo & Petes Run Gravel road was begun in 1869 and com- 


pleted in 1871 at a cost of $33,058. This road leaves Kokomofrom the 
west end of JefiFerson street, and runs directly west on a section line, and is 
eleven miles in length. The persons who were prominent in getting up this 
enterprise were PI. W. Smith, James McCool, Israel Brubaker, Michael 
Price, S. D. Hawkins, D. B. Hendrickson, T. M. Kirkpatrick and others. 
The road is a good one and accommodates a large scope of country, pass- 
ing through a part of Centre, Clay and Ervin Townships. 

The Wild Cat Gravel road was begun in 1869, and completed in 
1871. It leaves Kokomo from the west end of Sycamore street, and runs 
westward in the near vicinity of Wild Cat, through Centre, Clay and 
Ervin Townships, ten miles, and ends on the bank of the creek opposite 
Brubaker's mill. This road cost $22,000. It was started under the 
management of N. R. Linsday, William B. Smith, N. P. Richmond, Isaac 
Hauk, Silas Grantham, S. E. Overholser and Thomas Dimitt. This 
road was enjoined from the collection of taxes, and the Legislature 
repealed the law under which it was operated; the result Avas to 
cripple the organization, and as a consequence the road ran down, and 
also, suffering damage from overflow along the creek, the resources of the 
road failed, and the management was finally induced to abandon the 

The Kokomo, Green town & Jerome Gravel road was begun in 
September, 1869, and is the leading road running east from Kokomo, 
via Vermont and Greentown to Jerome, passing through Centre, Howard, 
Union and Liberty Townships, and is twelve miles in length ; was com- 
pleted in 1871, and cost $38,000. The active friends of this road are, 
in part, David Smith, Andrew Patterson, C. C. Willetts, R. Gray, James 
Brunk, B. Learner, D. S. Farley, J. S. Trees, J. Covalt, E. P. Gallion, 
W. M. Sims, J. R. Curlee and M. Garrigus. This is a good road and 
has been of great value to the country through which it runs. The 
management of the road has been good, and has resulted in some profit to 
the owners, who have kept it in good repair. 

The Deer Creek Gravel road was commenced in the early part of 
1873, and finished in the fall of 1875, at a cost of $15,000. This road 
passes through a level, rich farming country ; starting from the north end 
of Smith street, in Kokomo, it runs through part of Centre and Clay 
Townships, to the north county line, between Howard and Miami Counties, 
and is five miles in length. It was abandoned as a company road in 1882, 
and steps taken to make it a free gravel road. Among its early support- 
ers were William Kirkpatrick, John Davis, J. M. Leeds, Jesse Swisher, 
William Mills, J. B. Early, John Lovin, Mahlon S. Reeves and others. This 
is a much needed road to the neighborhoods of Cassville and Galveston. 

The Kokomo & Greentown Gravel road is built on the south side 


of Wild Cat Creek, starting from the south end of Union street in Ko- 
komo, and running to Greentown, eight and two-third miles. It was com- 
menced inl869 and finished in 1871, at a cost of |23,218. Those who 
took the lead in getting up the enterprise and managing it were R. Vaile, 
Noah Carter, J. W. Smith, W. T. Manring, V. Goyer, Paul Miller, C. 
S. Boggs, N. J. Owings and others. The route of this road is through 
a thickly settled region and well-improved farms. The road, however , has 
not been a paying road, but is kept in good repair, and is worth a great 
deal to the people living along its course. It is parallel to the K. G. & 
J. G. R. and less than a mile from it. 

The Albright Gravel road was commenced in 1878 and finished in 
1879, at a cost of $14,751,77. It runs south through Centre and Tay- 
lor Townships and stops one and a half miles east of Fairfield. 

The Rickets Gravel road was commenced in 1878 and finished in 
1879 and runs south from Kokomo on the range line between Ranges 
2 and 4 to the county line between Howard and Tipton Counties, 
and was built at at cost of $13,946.62, This is a good road, in good re- 
pair, and is located in a well-improved section of the county and is a very 
great convenience to many persons. 

The Peter Touby Gravel road was built in 1882, runs from Kokomo 
in a northeast direction to Deer Creek, and up that stream into the Omish 
settlement. This Avas a much-needed road, as the country throilgh which it 
runs is quite level most of the distance, and in a wet time extremely 
muddy ; it was built at a cost of $28,860,20, and is about eight miles in 

The J. L. Smith Gravel road was built in 1882, and runs in a north- 
west direction from Kokomo, and is in the beginning connected with the 
Harlan Gravel road for about three-fourths of a mile, when they diverge 
and again unite some four miles out. The Smith road continues on from 
there west to Poplar Grove, fourteen miles from Kokomo. This road 
starts from the west end of North street. 

The Harlan Gravel road was built in 1882, is four miles and some- 
thing over in length, runs three-fourths of a mile in connection with the 
Smith road, then diverges to the north for some distance, then turns west 
and again intersects the Smith road. It was built at a cost of $19,990.27. 


The Peru & Indianapolis Railroad was chartered in 1846, and Will- 
iam J. Holman was its first President ; afterward, John Burke, E. W. 
H, Ellis, J. D. Defrees and David Macy. Work upon the road com- 
menced at the south end in 1849, and in two years twenty-one miles of 
flat bar track was laid, which was subsequently replaced by the T rail. 


The road was completed to Peru in 1854, and an extension of it was 
built to Michigan City in 1871. Through the instrumentality of this road, 
Howard County was greatly benefited. For a number of years it has done 
a large business. 

The Cincinnati & Chicago Air Line Railroad, now known as the P., C. & 
St. L., or Pan Handle, also passes through the county, and connects Rich- 
mond, Ind., with Chicago. This road also does a good business in the 
county, and the road is being put in first-class condition. 

Growing out of several projects for building railroads in this region, 
we have the Toledo, Cincinnati & St. Louis Narrow Gauge Railroad ; 
it is a new road, and from Kokomo to Frankfort it takes the place of the 
F. & K. road. The F. & K. Railroad, twenty-six miles in length, was 
built as a standard gauge road, but sold out to the Narrow Gauge Com- 
pany, and the track was reduced. This road runs through the county 
from the northeast to the southwest, and connects us with Toledo, Cin- 
cinnati and St. Louis by the narrow-gauge system. 


The schools of Howard County were commenced on the primitive 
order of things. In each neighborhood, where a school of a dozen to 
twenty children could be collected, arrangements were soon made 
to start a school; if no house could be found, a cabin would be built, and 
fitted up with puncheon seats, paper windows, and a large fire-place for 
heating ; wood was handy, and large fires were in order. A teacher who 
could read, write and cipher a little would be employed, who would teach 
for a certain price per day, or so much per scholar — what was called a 
subscription school — and would " board around." Within the first ten 
years, the school lands belonging in the county were sold for about $20,- 
000, and the proceeds put out on interest. This interest was all the 
tuition fund that was available, and the expenses of schools, over and 
above that, had to be raised by taxation. Each Congressional township 
being a separate school corporation, was managed by three Trustees, a 
Clerk and Treasurer. A School Commissioner filled about the place oc- 
cupied by the School Superintendent of to-day ; he had charge of and 
loaned the school funds of the county, and distributed the proceeds to 
the different townships. As the school system of Indiana developed in 
after years, nearly all the features of the old order of things were 
changed, and some dispensed with. Now one trustee in each township 
and a director for each school attend to the interests of the school while 
in operation. The County Superintendent and the Trustees form the 
County Board of Education, and have control of the schools of the county, 
hire teachers, fix their salaries, locate houses, adopt text books, and 


establish all rules and regulations for the government of schools. The 
system includes the holding of institutes, which are intended for the ben- 
efit and improvement of teachers, and it is made their duty to attend 
them. As a rule, the teachers in this county attend these institutes, and, 
judging from reports published of their transactions, we conclude that 
they are productive of great good, both to teachers and schools. 
Under the benign influence of our school laws, the development of our 
schools has been rapid. The eflSciency of both teachers and schools is 
steadily on the increase. Howard is a comparatively small county, hav- 
ing but 2951^ square miles ; yet we have ninety-nine schoolhouses — forty- 
three brick and fifty-six frame — and as fast as new houses are required 
they are replaced by substantial brick edifices, of a size sufficient to 
accommodate the district in which they are located. The size of districts 
is so arranged that the school is convenient to all the scholars, a conven- 
ience that the early settler was mostly deprived of, pupils often having to 
travel two, three or four miles morning and evening along some path 
through the woods, carrying their dinner with them. 

The first departure from the old routine of teaching was introduced 
by Prof. Baldwin in 1859. He procured the use of the old Chris- 
tian Church building in Kokomo, in which he commenced operations, 
adopting what is known as the Normal method of teaching. He suc- 
ceeded in gathering quite a large number of students, and for about three 
years labored zealously and succeeded in effecting quite a revolution in 
the mode of teaching and management. Numbers of those who attended 
his school went out to teach in the surrounding country, thoroughly im- 
bued with the new ideas of what school-teaching was and what schools 
ought to be. These new ideas and modes about schools were canvassed 
by the people, and as a general thing were at once adopted and as fast as 
possible put into active operation. A Normal school building was built 
in Kokomo by subscription, participated in by persons all over the county. 
The design was a school to prepare teachers who would be thoroughly 
prepared in all respects to conduct successfully the schools of the county. 
Before the building was completed, the war of the rebellion commenced 
and many teachers and scholars threw down their books and shouldered 
the musket or rifle and went forth to do battle for their country — some 
of them never to return. After the war, the Hon. M. B. Hopkins and 
his son, A. C. Hopkins, organized Howard College at Kokomo, occupy- 
ing the Normal building ; this school was continued by them until M. B. 
Hopkins was elected State Superintendent of Public Instruction. 

The Normal building was finally purchased by the city of Kokomo 
and erected into a high school by the City Trustees, where, year by year, 
from September until June, a large and efficient school is going on. [For 
a description of city schools, see city of Kokomo.] 


Statistics. — Number of teachers required to carry on the schools of 
the county, 129 ; one county institute held in Kokomo, commencing 
August 29 and continuing five days with three evening lectures ; at- 
tendance, males, 52 ; females, 37 ; cost of institution, $60 ; number of 
private institutes in the county for 1882, two, one held in Kokomo and 
one in Russiaville, conducted by J. W. Barnes, County Superintendent, 
and J. C. McCormack ; number of teachers employed, 5 ; session of 
seven weeks, with an attendance of 48 males and 59 females, total 107 ; 
number of schoolhouses in county — brick houses, 43 ; frame houses, 56; 
total, 99; value of houses, $102,300; value of apparatus, $3,105; num- 
ber of children between six and twenty-one years — white males, 3,360 ; 
white females, 3,058 ; total, 6,418 ; colored males, 79 ; colored females, 
67 ; total, 146 ; grand total, 6,564. Children between ten and twenty-one 
that can neither read or write — males, 3 ; females, 4 ; total, 7. Whole 
number of teachers employed during the year 1882 — white males, 84; white 
females, 48 ; colored male, 1; total, 133. Wages paid teachers — in town- 
ship, males, $2.33; females, $2; in towns, males, $2.63; females, $2: 
in cities, males, $2.81 ; females, $2.11. 


On hand September 1, 1881, $12,759.90 

Amount received January 1, 1882 14,393.65 

Amount received June, 1882 14,130.56 

Amount received, miscellaneous 832.75 

Total $41,616.86 


Amount on hand September 1, 1881 $10,116.60 

Amount received since September I, 1881 11,192.26 

Amount from other sources 546.38 

Total $21,855.24 

Tuition Fund 41,616.86 

Expended during year 45,398.53 

Total on hand $18,073.57 

For the purposes of comparison of the different decades of the 
progress of the schools in the county, the data at hand and obtainable are 
not sufficiently accurate to be reliable, and are therefore omitted. But the 
character and efficiency of our schools are satisfactory, and under the 
efficient management of our County Superintendent, John W. Barnes, 
they are likely to increase in usefulness. 



A considerable number of attorneys have from time to time attended 
the courts of this county ; a number of them, however, never becoming 
residents of the county. Of the resident members of the bar, Nathaniel 
R. Linsday is the oldest, having attended the first term of the court ever 
held in the county, and being the only one that has since remained in 
the county. Zachariah Pucket lived in the county but a short time. 
Besides the two above named, there were present at this term, Isaiah M. 
Harland and Silas Colgrove ; Mr. Colgrove was appointed by the court 
as Prosecuting Attorney for the term. 

At the next term the following attorneys were present and admitted: 
William S. Palmer, S. D. Maxwell, J. F. Suit, H. P. Biddle, G. W. Blake- 
more, J. Forsee and W. Z. Stewart — all foreigners, who never resided 
in the county. 

At the November term, 1845, Williamson Wright, of Logansport, was 
present and admitted to the bar, as was also C. D. Murray, who was then 
a citizen of Kokomo, and continued to be until he died, and John Wren, 
and Williamson Wright. At the May term, 1846, D. M. Dunn, 
Prosecuting Attorney, and J. W. Wright, President Judge, were present. 

In November, 1846, William F. Brady, of Tipton, was present and ad- 
mitted. And in April, 1847, Charles B. Lasselle, J. W. Wright and 
Thomas S. Shephard were admitted. Shephard was a resident of the 
county for a few years. 

Hadley Johnson, who resided here a few years, was admitted May, 
1848. John Green, of Tipton, was admitted November, 1848, and ever 
since has been frequently in attendance in our courts — a genial, hearty 
good fellow, though now well up into the seventies. 

In May, 1851, George A. Gordon, a resident, and D. D. Pratt, of 
Logansport, were admitted. Mr. Gordon was elected a member of the 
constitutional convention, in 1851, from this county. He remained in the 
county a few years and left. In November, 1851, R. D. Markland and 
Thomas J. Harrison, of Howard, and Hiram Allen, of Carroll, were ad- 
mitted. In May, 1853, John U. Petit, Judge, and J. M. Connell were 
admitted. Some time before this, but not of record, Leonidas Sexton 
spent some time here, but, not satisfied with the prospect, soon left. 

November, 1854, J. W. Robinson was admitted, 

William Brown, H. A. Brouse, R. Vaile, William M. Waters and 
N. P. Richmond were among the early resident attorneys. 

As the court records fail to give the appearance of all the attorneys, 
we are under the necessity of giving a list of the resident practicing attor- 
neys without the date of their admission: 


N. R. Linsday, N". P. Richmond, M. Garrigus, James O'Brien, 
Milton Bell, J. F. Elliott, J. E. Moon, John Ingels, B. F. Harness, 
W. E. Blacklidge, I. E. Kirk, D. A. Woods, A. C. Bennett, C. C. 
Shirley, A. C. Merick, H. A. Brouse, Rawson Vaile, C. N. Pollard, 
J. H. Kroh, C. E. Hendry, John W. Kern, L. J. Kirkpatrick, J. C. 
Blacklidge, Josiah Stanley, A. N. Grant, Freeman Cooper, N. B. 
Smith, J. F. Morrison, W. 0. Purdum, C. M. Walter, A. B. Kirk- 
patrick, Milton Hanson, now living in Hamilton County; Nelson Purdum, 
Arthur Bell and Millard McDowel, S. M. Con, J. D. Johnson — these 
last five are dead. N. Vanhorn, Mahan and Smith lived here a short time 
and practiced in our court. 

The bar of Howard we think will compare favorably with that of 
other counties. They have lately organized a bar association of which 
most of the attorneys are members. They hold stated meetings at which 
legal questions are thoroughly and intelligently discussed, evincing that 
the spirit of investigation and research is actively at work among them. 


Before the central portions of the county were settled, the people liv- 
ing upon the borders were under the necessity of traveling long distances 
for their physicians. On the western border, medical aid was procured 
from Burlington, in Carroll County. Drs. Anderson, purry and Darnall 
did most of the practice in this part of the county up to 1845. In 1844, 
the county seat was located, and the town of Kokomo laid out, and lots 
sold, but no immigration to it, that amounted to much, took place until 
the spring of 1845, when it became considerable. Dr. Corydon Rich- 
mond arrived in Kokomo, with his family, on the 28th day of March, 
1845, having in November and December previous, in company with N. 
R. Linsday and Dr. J. L. Barrett, built houses. Some time in the sum- 
mer following, Dr. Orsemus Richmond moved in and went into practice 
with his brother. In 1846, Drs. Stoneman and Wickersham located in 
New London, Avhere they practiced several years. Some time later, Dr. 
J. F. Henderson located there. 

About the same time. Dr. W. C. Jones, from Grant County, located 
in Kokomo, and in 1848 Dr. J. A. James settled here. In 1849, Dr. 
Barbee came, and remained only four years. Dr. Jacob Kern settled in 
Alto, and Dr. King at Cassville. In 1853, Dr. A. F. Dayhoff located 
here, and connected himself with Dr. James in the practice. Without 
being able to give the dates of the arrival of quite a number, we append 
a list of all who came into the county subsequently : 

Dr. Pettyjohn, New London ; W. J. Morgan, Greentown ; J. M. 
Erlougher and Cochran, of Jerome; E. A. Armstrong and Shirley, 


Russiaville. E. A. Armstrong and Horace studied medicine in Kokomo, 
and graduated in the Ohio Medical College. Of the foregoing list, but 
a few remain. 0. Richmond, J. A. James, Horace Armstrong and W. 
J. Morgan are dead. Those who remain are A. F. DayhoiF, A. E. Arm- 
strong and Shirley. C. Richmond is still here, but out of the practice, 
in consequence of disability from protracted rheumatism. Then, follow- 
ing those gone before, we have Drs. L. D. Waterman, J. D. Linsday, I. 
C. Johnson, A. B. Taylor, Kokomo ; Nathan Mendinthal, S. D. McCann, 
New London; J. W, Clark, E. W. Hinton, L. Kern, Theodore Kern, 
Alto. In July, 1854, the physicians then resident in the county formed 
what is still in existence, the Howard County Medical Society, with nearly 
all the doctors in the county members. For a few years, the society did 
not do much in the way of improvement, but still kept up its meetings, 
with limited attendance. In 1865, the society was re-organized, and 
quite an addition to its active members was the result. Among those 
added were Drs. Darnall, W. K. Mavity, E. W. Hinton, L. Kern, 0. H. 
Martin, H. C. Cole, R. H. Buck, L. McAllister, William Scott, J. S. 
Benson, M. Saville, H. Armstrong, W. T. Akins, J. J. Saville, G. Scott, 
L. 0. Miller, E. W. Smith, H. C. Lester, S. T. Murray, J. C. White, 
J. W. C. Eaton, A. A. Covalt, W. B. Cooper, J. V. Hoss, C. M. Ware, 
L. Marrill, J. H. Ross Simpson, L. Prater, J. 0. Garr, C. J. Kirk, R. 
Q. Wilson, J. A. Ellis, I. W. Martin, D. W. Moore, J. McL. Moulder, 
J. T. Scott, D. S. Caylor, W. H. Homiday. Dr. William Loraax, of 
Marion, is an honorary member. 

In 1865, the physicians of the city of Kokomo formed a City Medical 
Society, with thirteen members, and continued to operate under this 
organization until June, 1866, when a new constitution and a new name 
were adopted. From that time it has been known as the Kokomo Acad- 
emy of Medicine. This form of organization, as the name would indi- 
cate, was intended to change the mode somewhat in the investigation of 
medical subjects. The members are assigned some particular branch of 
medicine, upon which they are expected to write an essay or give a lecture. 
This has been found to be very much better than the old mode. Since its 
organization, the academy has been actively engaged, especially during 
the winter season, and much greater interest is manifested by the mem- 
bers than formerly, and the benefits are manifest. The profession in this 
county occupy a respectable standing in the community, and are recog- 
nized abroad as intelligent and worthy members of the profession. But 
few cages are met with where foreign aid is called in to assist, but among 
us are men prepared for any emergency likely to occur. We have one 
homoeopathic physician, Dr. Sawyer, who is enthusiastic and very ener- 
getic in his profession, and in that school is well qualified. The Doctor 


is doing quite an amount of business, and has the reputation among his 
customers of being quite successful. We have also one eclectic, Dr. 
Cooper, who maintains a fair standing among those who favor that school 
of medicine, and is doing his share of business. 


Kokomo Saturday Tribune. — In tracing the history of this paper it 
will be necessary to go back to 18-18, when the first newspaper was pub- 
lished with the appropriate name of The Pioneer., in New London, and 
edited by Dr. Moses R. Wickersham. It was a sixteen-column sheet and 
was published as a Free-Soil paper for one year. After this, by an ar- 
rangement with the editor, the Whig and Democratic parties were each 
given a page of the paper for the advocacy of their distinctive political 
views. The Whigs elected Charles D. Murray as their advocate, and 
the Democrats selected Dr. J. F. Henderson. Wickersham managed the 
balance of the paper to suit himself. The Pioneer was published reg- 
ularly until 1850, when the office was sold to John Bohan and Harles 
Ashley and moved to Kokomo, and on the 30th day of October, 1850, 
the first number of the Hoivard Tribwie was issued, published by James 
Beard and edited by Hon. C. D. Murray, both now deceased. It was 
published for one year and then for a time discontinued. In 1852, C. B. 
Hensley, a Logansport printer, bought the office and became editor and 
publisher ; he continued the publication of the paper until 1856, when 
the office was sold to T. C. Philips, Hiram Newlin and J. H. Young. 
Mr. Newlin was a Quaker, and Mr. Young was a Kentuckian, with strong 
pro-slavery ideas, andas tbe proprietors could not agree upon political and 
temperance measures, acompromise was effected and resulted in giving to T. 
C. Philips the exclusive control of the paper. In the edition o^tlieTribune 
of January 14, 1857, Mr. Philips presented his salutatory. The Tribune 
continued as a six-column folio paper until 1858, and has been changed 
three times since. From 186-1 until 1876, it was published as a nine- 
column folio, and in 1876 it was again enlarged to a six-column quarto, 
in which form it has continued until the present time. The office of the 
Pioneer was located in a small rude hut, situated on the corner of Ilio-h 
and Main streets, where Mrs. Martha McGool now lives. 

The first issue of the Howard Tribune was from the building known 
as the "'old dead-fall. " The office was subsequently removed to a build- 
ing owned by Crowley & Armfield, and used by them as a furniture 
store. The entire outfit of the office at this time was not worth more 
than §600. After several years, the office was moved to a two-story brick 
block on the southeast corner of the public square. In 1862, a tornado 
overthrew a three-story brick block, which was in processof being finished 


by Messrs. James, Armstrong & Co., upon the building in which the Trib- 
unp- office was located, totally destroying it, from the ruins of which 
only |60 worth of property was recovered. Mr. Philips declined the 
offer of four gentlemen to furnish the money, and only asked that one 
thousand subscribers should advance one year's subscription ; this number 
was raised in just four days and the publication of the paper was resumed 
July 31, 1862, in the second story of a frame building on the east side 
of the square, owned by J. M. Leeds. The patronage and business of 
the paper continued to increase, and in 1868 a new cylinder press and 
jobber were added to the outfit of the office. In 1869, the business of 
the paper had increased to such proportions that a building of its own was 
commenced, and in November of the same year the office was moved to 
its new quarters, where it has since been published. The office building is 
large and commodious. The lower room is occupied as a business office 
in front and the back part as a press room ; the upper story is divided, 
and the rear room is the composing room ; the front is arranged in a neat 
and comfortable manner as editorial rooms. 

Mr. Philips remained in control of the paper until 1878, when he 
died. He had associated with him, at different times, several different 
persons, among them S. T. Montgomery, James A. Wildman, A. F. and 
C. H. Philips ; the last two were admitted to an interest in the paper in 
1872, under the firm name of T. C. Philips & Sons. After the death of 
Mr. Philips, T. C. Philips' sons continued the publication until 1881, 
when C. H. Philips died. This left A. F. Philips to continue the pub- 
lication of the paper alone. In February, 1888, he associated his younger 
brother, William R. Philips, with him, under the firm name of A. F. & 
W. R. Philips. 

The history of the Tribune is a fair illustration of what may be ac- 
complished by talent, perseverance and industry. From a very small be- 
ginning, and in a locality where the conveniences and material of such an 
institution were difficult to obtain, it has increased in its capacity and in- 
fluence until it is not surpassed by any county paper in the State. Its 
literary character has been excellent, and through the efforts of C. H. 
Philips, he succeeded in bringing to its aid not only the best of home tal- 
ent, but a long list of foreign contributors of recognized ability as writers 
both in prose and poetry. T. C. Philips was an editor of the aggressive 
kind ; he had opinions and the courage to express them, and as a polit- 
ical writer was up to the standard of the times, and often made himself 
felt in the political contests through which he passed. C. H. Philips was 
a pleasant writer, and gave promise of greater attainments if his life 
had been spared him, but his career was suddenly checked in the midst of 
his aspirations for fame and usefulness. 


The Tribune, under its present management, bids fair to maintain its 
reputation for usefulness. It adheres to the political faith of the Repub- 
lican party, and will put forth its best efforts in sustaining it. It now 
has a list of subscribers numbering over 2,000. Among the many con- 
tributors that have favored the Tribune vf'ith. special articles, the following 
is a partial list : J. C. Walker, Maurice Thompson, Crawfordsville, Ind.; 
J. W. Riley, Lee 0. Harris, Greenfield, Ind. ; Miss M. H. Krout, Mrs. 
Mary Hartwell Catherwood, Oakford, Ind. ; Mrs. L. V. Boyd, Dublin, 
Ind. ; Mrs Amy E. Dunn, Indianapolis, Ind. ; Mrs. Kitty Knox, New- 
ark, N. J. ; L. N. Cushman, West Meridan, Conn. ; Mrs. M. E. Har- 
man, Oshkosh, Wis., and many others. 

Kokomo Dispatch. — This paper also came up through great tribulation 
in its early life and history to finally attain to prominence and influence. 
The starting of a Democratic paper was, under the circumstances, rather 
a bold undertaking ; the Democrats in Howard County had but a feeble 
organization at that time, and did not know to what extent they could 
depend on the rank and file of the party to stand by them in this risky 
undertaking. The starting point of the Dispatch was a paper called the 
Radical Democrat. William J. Turpin, of Tipton, who had published 
the Tipton Times, and, having sold that paper, came to Kokomo in the 
early spring of 1870, full of the idea of founding a Democratic paper in 
the unpromising regions of Howard County. The first number of his 
paper was published on the 18th day of May, 1870, and when his bold 
venture Avas launched before the public he received the encouragement of 
many prominent, but not hopeful. Democrats ; and their fears were not 
to be made light of, when it was known that the majority against them 
was from 1.000 to 1,200, they casting but little over 1,000 votes in the 
county. But notwithstanding all these discouragements, Mr. Turpin 
started with a few hundred subscribers. A temporary contract was made 
with the then Kokomo Journal, a Republican paper, to do the com- 
position of the new venture, and another with the Tribune to do the press 
work. But little hope was entertained that the Democratic infant would 
survive the campaign of 1870. Thus, without a type, press or a dollar, 
the Radical Democrat was given to the world. 

Mr. Turpin was assisted in his editorial labors by John W. Kern, who 
was that year the regularly nominated candidate of the Democratic party 
for Representative. After the first number was issued, it was decided to 
drop the word Radical from the name of the paper, and in subsequent 
issues it was simply the Democrat. 

On the 3d of August, Mr. Turpin withdrew from the paper as editor, 
and was succeeded by Mr. John M. Goar, then of Tipton, but now editor of 
the Newcastle Democrat. On October 27, after the close of the campaign. 


Mr. Goar retired from the editorial control of the paper. A joint-stock 
company was at once formed of ^1,000 capital, to continue the publica- 
tion of the paper, and Dr. John F. Henderson was elected editor and 
manager. A second-hand press and some type were purchased, and 
for the first time the Democrat was considered a fixed fiict. The party 
now began to have faith in the perpetuity of their organ in Howard 
County. Faith grew into confidence and the experiment of only a few 
months ago was now a realization. As the liabilities of the concern be- 
came due, Dr. Henderson paid them out of his own private funds, and in 
a short time, without any purpose on his part, he became sole owner of 
the paper. In April, 1871, the name of the paper was again changed to 
that of the Kokomo Dispatch. It was now Dr. Henderson's ambition to 
place the paper on a sure and paying basis, even at the cost of several 
thousand dollars. He was determined that a Democratic paper should 
be sustained in Howard County. The Democracy of Howard County 
are to-day indebted to Dr. J. F. Henderson for the existence of a Demo- 
cratic paper; the Doctor was willing and did make the sacrifice necessary 
to establish it, else most likely they would have no paper in the county. 

On January 9, 1873, J. 0. Henderson, then fresh from college, was 
admitted as an editorial writer and part owner in the concern. In 
September, 1873, the Dispatch moved into its present commodious quar- 
ters in the Opera House. Dr. Henderson had in mind a permanent 
home for his paper, and conceiving the project of the Opera House, he, 
in connection with other citizens, proceeded to build it. After attaining 
the object of his desire in regard to the paper, and feeling satisfied that 
its life was assured, on May 21, 1874, the Doctor formally retired, giving 
up his interest in the management of the paper, and was succeeded by H. 
E. Henderson. The Doctor, in turning over the paper to his sons, did it 
by bidding his patrons and the public farewell in a very original and 
characteristic valedictory. 

One of the first things done by the "boy editors," as the new pro- 
prietors were called, was to thoroughly refit the office throughout, and en- 
large the paper to a nine-column folio sheet ; they purchased new type, 
book, news and job, two new job steam presses for the paper, capable of 
printing 1,500 impressions per hour. They expended $2,500 at the out- 
set, and paid every dollar of it out of the profits of the office before their 
obligations became due. On January 27, 1876, the name of the paper 
was again changed to the Kokomo Dispatch, the name it has ever since 
borne. On December 11, 1879, the form was changed from a folio to a 
quarto, its present form. 

The life of the Kokomo Dispatch has been an eventful one, commenc- 
ing with doubtful prospects, and a very few hundred subscribers; it now 


has an assured foundation to rest upon, with over 2,000- subscribers, and 
the reputation of being one of the best Democratic papers in the State, 
and bids fair to be of extended and lasting usefulness to its party and the 
cornmunity. The "boy editors" are deserving of great credit for their 
energy, tact, and perseverance in the conduct of their paper ; they have 
without doubt made the paper a power in its field of operation. 

Kokomo Gazette. — This paper was established in October, 1879, by 
William Gause and Ed E, Russell, editors and proprietors. Mr. Russell 
in a short time went out of the concern, and Gause continued it alone for 
several months. He then associated with him F. M. Gideon ; they to- 
gether ran the paper until some time in 1880, when Gause withdrew from 
it, and Gideon continued it alone for a short period, when Omar Maris 
was taken in as a partner. They continued it together for some time and 
Gideon retired, leaving Maris to run it alone for another short period. 
Subsequently Ed Prichard took au interest in this paper, and in a few 
weeks bought out Maris, and he continued it alone, until some time in 
1881. In July, 1881, Mr. L. C. Hoss became a partner, under the firm 
name of Prichard & Hoss, and so continued until September, 1881, when 
Prichard sold his interest to J. M. Runk, and Hoss & Runk continued it 
until November, 1882, when Hoss purchased Runk's interest, since 
which time Hoss has continued it alone. 

The G-azette has ample facilities for doing job work, having recently 
added a new Gordon jobber. They have a cylinder press which is run by 
steam, upon which the paper is printed. Before Maris & Prichard took 
charge of the paper, its criculation was small ; they succeeded in increasing 
it to about 1,500. Up to about the time they got the paper, the press-work 
was done at the Dispatch office. They procured a cylinder press, and the 
paper started on a new era of prosperity, Mr. Prichard being the lead- 
ing spirit in its progress. Since the Gazette has been under its present 
management, the circulation has been increased to over 2,000, 

The Gazette is a newsy, readable paper, thoroughly Republican in poli- 
tics ; the ambition of its editor is to make it a permanent, creditable and 
reliable paper. During its history, it has twice for a short time been run 
as a daily — first by Gause & Gideon, and afterward by Prichard. The 
paper is now a six-column quarto, and well printed. 

The Russiaville Observer — Is published in Russiaville, Howard Coun- 
ty. This paper was founded in December, 1881, by Abram Cosand. After 
several other journalistic efi"orts had been abandoned, Mr. Cosand has 
succeeded in establishing his paper upon a good, sound, financial basis, and 
has also secured a good paying subscription and good job business. By 
pluck and industry, he will doubtless succeed. 

Following is a list of some of the defunct papers published for a short 


time in Kokomo : Hoivard County Citizen, Home Journal, Tndependenty 
Daily and Weekly Herald, Western Independent, Kokomo Journal, the 
Republican, the Kokomo Granger. 


Agi-icultural fairs were held at an early day in the county, but the 
history of the efforts in this direction are extinct, and nothing remains 
but the indistinct remembrance of them. The success attending their 
early life was varied by alternate tailure, but nevertheless some good fol- 
owed each effort, as was evident from the increase of quantities and qual- 
ity of products, and the manifest spirit of improvement aroused among 
the producing communities. The apparent want of success that still at- 
tends them is by many attributed to the kind of management introduced. 
There is no doubt but some things, intended to render the exhibitions 
more attractive, have been of very questionable propriety and many have 
ceased to patronize them on that account. 

In 1869, there was a society organized, with Col. W. Blanche at the 
head. This organization obtained the use by lease of the present site of the 
fair grounds, from David Foster, for ten years, with the privilege of buying 
it at any time for flOO per acre. This organization was upon a life 
membership plan, and was not a success. Since then a joint-stock 
company has been formed, and named " Howard County Agricultural 
Association ; " it purchased the fair grounds of Mr. Foster, in all about 
thirty-three acres. The object in view was to render the association per- 
manent in its character, so as to bring to its aid an increased and general 
interest in its prosperity and usefulness. Its success up to the present 
time has been variable. 

There can be no doubt of the good effects that have resulted from its 
influence, although it has had to contend against many discouragements, 
some of which have grown out of the management of the concern. There 
can be no question of the propriety of continuing this association, and in 
order to correct any mistakes or improper proceedings, more of the men 
and women of the county should take a more active part in it. 

That the efforts put forth, first and last, by the association have 
been productive of benefit can scarcely be doubted. We have only to 
look over the county to get the evidence of it, in the character and ex- 
tent of the improvement that has been made and is now making in farms, 
stock, grain and everything raised in the county. But a few years since 
a good horse was hard to find; now one man ships a car load of fine 
horses from here every month ; and has been doing it for two years or 
more, and still there are plenty of good horses in the county. The same 


is true of cattle and hogs. Finer stock of all kinds than is here raised in 
abundance is hard to find. 

But now, in the wind-up of this matter, we are under the necessity of 
recording the fact that the association failed to keep their grounds, hav- 
ing mortgaged them for the purchase money, and, failing to pay, the mort- 
gage was foreclosed, the land sold at Sheriff's sale and was purchased 
by Walter Hooper, who leases it to the association when they use it. 


The Patrons of Husbandry was first instituted in this county at Ver- 
mont Schoolhouse, Howard Township, July 25, 1873. Since then, 
some thirty-six granges have been established, and for a time they ap- 
peared to be prosperous and doing a good work among the farmers. 
Some seven or eight of the granges built themselves good houses in 
which to hold their meetings, and were for a time prompt in their atten- 
tioFn to the interests of the institution, but the newness wore off and the 
interest flagged, and now most of the granges are about dead, or at least 
not doing anything and only have a nominal existence. 

With an intelligent understanding of the objects and aims of such an 
organization, and a desire for improvement in the various directions that 
it afforded, and especially the material and social features of it, a vast 
amount of enduring good might be the result. The young men of the 
country might be developed into an intellectual and moral standing, that 
many of them will never attain without something of the kind to lead 
them on. This consideration alone is sufficient, if properly viewed, to 
induce the older men with boys growing up to exert themselves to sustain 
an institution of the kind in every neighborhood. The farmers of this 
county should have an ambition for their sons that looks farther than the 
daily routine of labor on the farm. The acquisition of wealth is not the 
only or greatest object of an intelligent mind in the pursuit of what will 
make for his greatest happiness, or secure a recognition in society or ren- 
der him a useful member of a community. Money is but a poor substitute 
for merit, which alone gives character that is desirable. Granges, when 
conducted properly within their legitimate sphere, would redound greatly 
to the benefit of all who participated in them. 

There are still one or two granges in operation in the county, and 
these might be made a rallying point from which to revive the benefits of 
the organization generally. 


A company for the detection of horse-thieves presented their articles 
of organization to the board and were recognized as a legally constituted 


body. This occurred in September, 1858. In September, 1871, L. 
Kern and others organized the " Wild Cat Horse-Thief Detective Com- 
pany," and on presenting their articles of association were recognized as a 
legally constituted body. Since that time, nothing further has been re- 
corded of them. 


The history of crime in Howard has nothing in it that is especially 
diiferent from crime in other localities ; the amount of it is not any 
greater here than in the average communities around, and in presenting 
it we shall not attempt anything more than a simple statement of the 
graver cases : 

The first killing, and perhaps the least objectionable one, was that of 
Jesse Lane by- John Brohard, in an affray. Lane was struck in the 
region of the stomach by Brohard, and died in a few minutes. Brohard was 
acquitted on a charge of manslaughter, but fined on a charge of an 

The next case was the killing of Elisha McCool by Henry Shank, 
about the 8th day of January, 1853. The trial of the cause was protracted 
from time to time. The accused was once convicted of murder in the 
second degree, but, obtaining a new trial, was finally acquitted for want 
of prosecution. [This case is related more in detail in the Circuit Court 
record.] In the fall of 1866, N. C. Allen was killed by H. C. Cole, who 
met Allen at the door of the post office and shot him four times, killing 
him instantly. Cole was arrested, had a preliminary trial, and was com- 
mitted without bail, but after some weeks he was admitted to bail. When 
court came on, he took a change of venue to Tipton County, where he 
was tried and acquitted on a plea of insanity, when that plea was so pop- 
ular that few murderers failed to make it. 

On November 18,1869, for an alleged provocation, Daugherty shot and 
killed Joseph Vanhorn, for which he was arrested. He also took a change 
of venue to Tipton County, whete he was tried and acquitted ; upon what 
grounds was never certainly known ; some say one thing and some 
another ; by many, the trial was regarded as a farce. 

March 31, 1876, Jesse Kelly and Charles Hawkins had a diflBculty at 
the " Junction" and fought. During the fight, Hawkins stabbed Kelly with 
a dirk knife in the right side, the knife entering to some distance into the 
liver, from the effects of which Kelly died some time afterward ; Hawkins 
was tried and convicted of manslaughter and sentenced to prison for four 

May 21, 1875, a Mr. Slyter killed a man named A. P. Jones, in the 
east end of the county ; Slyter was tried and acquitted on a plea of self- 


October 4, 1879, Alexander Combs shot and killed George W. Olinger 
for alleged intercourse with Combs' wife. Combs was tried, found guilty 
and was sentenced to ten years in the penitentiary. 

August 22, 1877, Michael Gillooley shot and killed Thomas W. Lan- 
non at the "Junction " for the alleged interference in his relations with 
some youhig woman of the neighborhood. Giving way to strong drink 
and yielding to the taunting and jeers of a vile gang called the MoUihan 
gang, who mostly congregated about the " Junction, " he became desper- 
ate and shot Lannon dead, for which he was arrested and tried for murder 
in the first degree, found guilty and sentenced to hang, but upon the 
representation made to Gov. Williams, his sentence was commuted to 
imprisonment for life. 

On the night of September 19, 1881, Dr. Henry C. Cole, Mayor of 
the city of Kokomo at that time, was shot and killed at the Spring Mills 
in Kokomo, by a Sheriif's posse. 

In 1860 or 1861, an old man by the name of Davis resided in Fair- 
field ; he and his son, J. W. Davis, had some trouble, when the son 
struck his father with a stick of wood, and fractured his skull, of which 
injury the old man died. What was done with young Davis I am unable 
to find out. 


On June 7, 1863, two men came riding into Kokomo on stolen 
horses, and rode up to the livery stable of John and Nelson Cooper, on 
the north side of the public square. N. Cooper, and H. H. Stewart, 
Deputy Sheriff, were on the lookout for these men and horses, and as soon 
as they rode up, Nelson Cooper took hold of the bridle of the horse of 
the forward man, who drew his revolver and shot Cooper dead, and then 
attempted to shoot Stewart, but missed him, the ball taking effect in the 
body of Rev. John Low, Sr., an old citizen and a worthy, highly respected 
man, who happened on the ground just as the men came up. Stewart 
had attempted to secure the other man and horse but failed, and they 
both turned there horses and fled. Henry Stewart, who happened to be 
home from the army, and was on the street at the time, drew his revolver 
and fired on the murderer as he rode off, the ball taking effect in the 
man's hip, when he fell from his horse and was captured ; the other man 
made his escape, though hotly pursued, but was afterward captured, 
taken to Indianapolis and sent to the penitentiary. 

This horrible tragedy stunned the community for a time ; the men 
killed were highly respected and valuable citizens, and the feeling ran 
deep. Mr. Low lingered for some hours before he died, and every 
hour increased the excitement ; men from the surrounding country came 
into town, consultations were numerous, and it soon became manifest 


that some decisive action was contemplated. Mr. Cooper was buried ; 
a large crowd was assembled ; among them arrangements were made, 
and when night came on they assembled at the jail, and by force secured 
the keys, opened the jail door and took out the prisoner and conducted 
him to the public square, where arrangements were speedily completed for 
the purpose of hanging, and the prisoner was told to say his prayers, but 
instead of doing this he put the rope about his own neck and defied the 
crowd to do their worst and expressed regret that he had not killed others 
while he was about it. 

While he was taunting the crowd, some one kicked the boxes from 
under him upon which he stood and he swung by the neck, and was left 
there until the next morning, when he was cut down and buried. He 
never divulged his name, and it is not known yet. He alleged that 
liquor was the cause of his being in that situation. 

In 1849, a man by the name of Brewer was supposed to be, and most 
likely was, killed by lynching. One Elijah Tyre had married a woman 
to whom this Brewer had paid some attentions, but had left the country 
for a time. He some time after returned and made efforts to re-establish 
his former relations with the woman. To this Mr. Tyre objected. 
Brewer and the woman met one night at David Garinger's, when it was 
imagined they were arranging to elope. Tyre got some friends to help 
him, and after masking themselves they repaired to the house of Garinger, 
where they found Brewer, seized him and conveyed him to some distance 
from the house and tied him to a tree, and, as is supposed, literally 
whipped the man to death, as quite a number of switches were found near 
the tree badly worn from use, and bloody. The man Brewer has never 
been heard of since. 

The next case of lynching was perpetrated on the night of April o, 
1881, by the hanging of Richard Long. On Saturday night previous, Mr. 
Ed Prichard's little three-year-old daughter was taken from its cradle 
and carried into the back yard, where an outrage was attempted upon her 
person ; she returned into the house and awoke her mother, who cared for 
the child, but made no discoveries until morning, when, from the com- 
plaining of the child, it was discovered she had in some way been injured. 
This man Long had been around and acting strangely, and by his con- 
duct excited some suspicion. He was finally arrested and put in jail on 
Sunday. All sorts of rumors were in circulation, and diligent search and 
inquiry were instituted to get evidence to convict him of the outrage upon 
the child. The news of the occurrence spread rapidly, and a large crowd 
was assembled near the jail most of the day on Sunday, and it was thought 
the attempt to lynch him that night would be made. But the crowd 
assembled, or that portion of it that contemplated the lynching, had not 


succeeded in imbibing a sufficient amount of artificial courage, and con- 
cluded to- await until the next night. During Monday, other criminal 
acts of Long were developed, and added to the excitement. Men from 
Rochester came down and identified a horse, a watch and a pair of boots, 
as stolen property. This fact settled the character of Long in the minds 
of the crowd, and added to what was alleged as connecting him with the 
outrage on this child, settled the question. 

On Monday afternoon the excitement seemed to subside, but it was 
noticeable that those who favored lynching were frequently seen together, 
holding whispered consultations. It was more and more evident that 
extreme measures were contemplated. Soon after midnight, a masked mob 
assembled at the jail and proceeded to cut the lock oft" of the door with a 
cold chisel, and thus effected an entrance. The prisoner was secured and 
marched to the iron bridge at the foot of Main street. The mob took 
possession of the bridge and would not allow any to pass but their own 
crowd, except Mr. McCune, the minister of the Congregational Church, 
who talked to and prayed with the prisoner. J. F. Vaile made a stirring 
appeal to the mob to desist, but to no purpose ; they had come to hang 
the man and were not to be diverted from their purpose. Before Long 
was swung oft", he asked to be allowed to sing a song, which was granted 
him, when he sung, in a clear and distinct manner and voice, two or three 
verses of the song, "Keep my grave green," after which the supports 
upon which he stood were removed, and he hung there by the neck until 
dead. After he was dead, he was cut down and carried to the court 
house, and next day buried. 

Other Tragedies. — On the night of February 27, 1868, a Mrs, Binns, 
living in Russiaville, while sitting in her room at work, was shot and 
fatally wounded, but lived ninety days before death. Her husband, from 
whom she had been separated sometime, was suspected of committing the 
crime, and was finally arrested, tried and convicted, but got a new trial ; 
was brought back from prison and again tried and convicted, and again 
got a new trial, and was again convicted, and is now in the penitentiary. 

November 3, 1875, David Robinson, living in the east end of the 
county, presumably when in a state of mental derangement, attempted to 
kill his family. He succeeded in killing tw^o of his children, and badly 
wounding the third child and also his wife. He then came to Kokomo, 
and boarded a train going south, and somewhere beyond Fairfield jumped 
from the train and was killed. 

February 10, 1875, John Sprunce, living in Kokomo, was killed by 
his son William, who beat him on the head with a wagon felloe ; William 
made his escape and was never tried for his crime. 

A man named John W. Moore was attacked upon the street of 


Kokomo, and struck with a sand bag, from the eifects of which he died 
soon after. Strong suspicions were entertained against several persons, 
but on trial nothing conclusive was proven. This occurred on the 14th 
day of August, 1878. 

October 14, 1875, near Tampico, Jacob Warwick got in trouble about 
a saw mill, with James D. Pratt and Abraham Garr, which culminated in 
the shooting of Warwick by Pratt and Garr. They were both tried for 
the murder, but through some quirk and ledgerdemain practiced upon 
the jury, both were acquitted ; but Warwick was dead notwithstanding. 

June 18, 1880, Jacob Vogus, an old man who resided in the south- 
west part of the county, came to town ; his son James was also in town. 
They met at Jake Maas' saloon, when James asked his father for mone}^ 
but the father refused; some words passed, when James drew his revolver 
and shot his father two or three times, of which injuries he died the next 
day. James Vogus was arrested, tried, convicted and sentenced to the 
penitentiary for life. 

May 20, 1882, two miles south of Kokomo, Leander Carter 
(colored) was attacked by Elijah Martindale (colored), who beat him over 
the head with a board, from the effects of which he died soon after. 
Martindale made his escape. 

Suicide. — Many years ago one Scott Mitchel resided here, and 
was a hard-working man when not drinking; he got tired and discouraged 
with the conflicts and turmoils of life and concluded to try the realities 
of the unknown, which he did by blowing his brains out with a shot-gun. 

In connection with the foregoing, it is proper to mention that several 
persons have been found dead upon the railroad track, northwest of the 
junction. The theory of their death given out was that they had 
laid down and went to sleep, and a passing train had killed them ; but 
there were such appearances about some of them that precluded that idea; 
although an investigation failed to develop any other cause, there evi- 
dently was some other cause, although it could not be brought to light. 
A desperate gang of fellows that were in the habit of lounging around 
the Junction, called the Mollihan gang, were supposed to be concerned in 
these cases, and since Mollihan has been run off, no more cases of this 
kind occur. The gang, after losing their leader, have mostly dispersed, 
and have ceased their depredations. 


In conclusion, we look back over the history of the county and feel 
that we, as a people, have a right to have some pride in view of our prog- 
ress during the thirty-eiglvt years we have been here. Coming in when 
it was all a howling wilderness, cutting away the brush to get room to 


camp on for the night, cooking our meals at a log-heap, and eating off the 
ground for a table and the cold earth for a bed. getting a drink from the 
branch or slough, and no neighbor anywhere near that we knew of, with 
the weird and mournful hooting of the owl and the croaking of the mill- 
ion of frogs, the annoying hum of the musquito to put us to sleep, we 
feel that we have the right not only to feel proud, but to be glad that we 
are out of the woods. 

The first settling of new countries is in most instances very much the 
same everywhere since t|ie days of Indian fighting, and our experi- 
ences were not remarkable in most that transpired. Cabins of various 
dimensions and forms were built up all through the woods, and finally 
formed into neighborhoods or settlements, and intercourse with each 
other was gradually established and extended until the pleasures of social 
life were appearing among the people. Social intercourse in those days 
meant something ; it was heartily enjoyed and highly appreciated. Each 
one was ready to go to the aid of his neighbor in sickness or to give him 
a lift at his log-rolling or house-raising without grudging the time or the 

Occasionally families would get together and enjoy a day of vis- 
iting, recounting the trials and privations of life in a new country, but at 
the same time taking encouragement from the prospect ahead of a good 
fiirm, comfortable houses and plenty around to live on and make the bal- 
ance of life pleasant and happy — and many are now in the enjoyment of 
these anticipated blessings ; others have succumbed to the burden of 
labor, exposure and disease, and have passeil away to a life where priva- 
tions, disease and death are no more. 

The first settlement of a new country is generally attended with quite 
an amount of sickness; especially is this the case in the Western country ; 
that this is true, many living in Howard County can testify, so far as this 
locality is concerned, at least. 

A person may go into the dense forests of this region, clear out 
the underbrush, build a cabin "just big enough to hold Queen Mab in," 
and live there for years and not get sick; but let him commence and clear 
off the heavy timber and open up the ground to the unrestrained action of 
the summer sun, and before the summer is ended he will shake with the 
ague, and year after year, as the process of clearing progresses, the ague 
in some form will hang on ; he will work and shake, then shake and 
work, get discouraged and conclude that as soon as he and his family are 
well enough he will leave for more genial climes. But as winter comes 
on and the ague mostly quits, he thinks better of it and concludes it 
would be too much of a sacrifice to lose all he has done, so he determines 
to try it another season. Next summer and fall he is likely to have 


more ague, but it is not quite so persistent in its attacks, and he has 
more time in which he can hibor and raise the necessaries of life. He 
also finds his land very productive and easily tended, and thinks the 
ague will quit, which it will, and he gives up the idea of leaving, goes on 
with his work, succeeds in making a farm that produces all he wants and 
a nice surplus for sale ; and now you find him a well-to-do-farmer, with 
all the comforts of life around him, and in his old age taking his ease. 
But the clearing and cultivation of the ground is not all that he has 
brought about in the improvement in the healthfulness of the country. 
At an early day, the farmers became aware of the benefits to be se- 
cured by draining the wet lands. To this end the creeks and branches 
were cleared of obstructions to the rapid flow of water, securing by 
this means an outlet to other drains that were to be made artificially. 
Of this kind of work, an immense amount has been done. So extensive 
is the drainage of the county that you can scarcely find a twenty-acre 
lot that is not more or less thoroughly drained by tile drains. 

At an early day, much of the land was regarded as swamp land, so much 
so that, when all the land was entered up at $2 per acre that men were 
willing to take, the balance was all returned as swamp land and sold as 
such. But to-day you will have to hunt a good while to find any swamp 
land in Howard County. It is regarded as a low estimate that of tile- 
drains there are 600,000 rods, and of public or company ditches there 
are 150, that cost from $300 to $15,000, and more going on. This is 
what has improved the health of the county so much, as well as the pro- 
ductiveness of the soil. 

From being an indifferent wheat-growing region, it is now one of the sur- 
est and best crops raised. It is also a good fruit-growing county ; some or- 
chards have been damaged by severe winters, but as a general thing we have 
abundance of fruit and of a good quality. Farmers have selected the very 
best kinds of fruit found to be suitable to this climate. 

We found the early settler living in a diminutive cabin, chinked 
and daubed with mud, with a stick chimney, puncheon floor and an 
old quilt for a door, paper windows that admitted but little light, 
with other conveniences to match, all inclosed in a small opening in 
the big woods. To-day you find many of them living in fine brick 
residences, furnished with all the modern improvements, large barns, a 
good-sized farm clear of stumps and well fenced, and abundance of stock 
of all kinds, with everything about them to make life comfortable. Some 
live in tasty frame cottages or commodious frame dwellings, while others 
have yet to live in their comfortably fixed hewed-log houses, until a few 
more crops are raised and sold, and then the new house is sure to go up. 

We found Howard County in 1811 a howling wilderness, with less than 



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Wsstern BlogI Pub Co. 

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300 inhabitants ; now, in 1883, there are over 20,000. Then there was 
not a farm in the county that could properly be called a farm; now there 
IS a farm to every quarter-section ; then there were no schools, now there 
are 100 ; then there were no churches, now they are found in every 
neighborhood ; and we might name many other things in the same man- 
ner. But we have extended this article to a greater length than at first 
intended, and will close by announcing a conclusion long since arrived at 
to wit, that Howard County is destined to be one of the best counties in 
the State, considering its size. 



This county is one of the youngest in the State, and having been 
organized as late as 1844 has no war history prior to the war with Mexico. 
Whether any soldier of the war of independence ever made his home in 
this county or not is unknown to the writer. An old man by the name 
Barngrover, who lies buried in a field two miles southwest of Kokomo, 
on the Alto Gravel road, is said to have been a hero of that war, but of 
this there is nothing definite. Certain it is that he was very old at the 
time of his death, which occurred many years ago. The heroes of the war 
of 1812, who in after years came to this county to find a last resting 
place, have all yielded to the frosts of time, with but one exception, and 
the story oftheir eventful lives can never be fully placed upon historic 
pages. So far as can be ascertained, there were eight who were residents 
of this county at the time of their death, besides the one who still survives. 
The story of their lives as gathered from friends and family records is as 
follows : 

THE MEN OF 1812. 

Alexander G. Forgey settled in Howard County in 1842, and died in 
1855, aged seventy-five. Israel Ferree wag born in Virginia about the year 
1775. He was stationed for a considerable portion of his enlistment at Nor- 
folk, Ya. He came to this county in 1850 and died in 1863. Daniel Hea- 
ton, or Eaton, was born in Pennsylvania August 27, 1780. While quite 
young, he formed a strong liking for frontier life, and leaving his home 
came westward and purchased land in what is now Preble County, Ohio. 
The town of Eaton, the county seat of this county, was afterward 'named 
in his honor. Here he married xMary Furgeson, who bore him eleven 
children. It is probable that he resided at the place at the time of his 
enlistment. Whether he was Captain of the company to which he be- 
longed at its first organization is not known, but that 'he held this office 
afterward, and by successive promotions was finally made Colonel, is well 
known. He was stationed part of the time at Fort Wayne, and partici- 


pated in the battle of Tippecanoe with Gen. Harrison, to whom he was 
ever afterward greatly attached. After the war, his desire for Western 
life brought him to Indiana, where he engaged in hunting, trapping 
beaver and trading with the Indians. In this pursuit he made several 
trips as far westward as Iowa, on horseback. In 1841, he came to 
Howard County and settled on Little Wild Cat Creek, in Harrison 
Township, six miles southwest of Kokomo. He was a member of the 
Masonic order and at the time of his death was the oldest member in the 
county, having belonged to the order nearly fifty years. The sword that 
he carried, during the war of 1812, he presented to the Masonic lodge 
in New London. He was an ardent and enthusiastic Union man during 
the war of the rebellion, and a great admirer of Lincoln. He firmly 
believed that the administration would finally be triumphant, although he 
did not live to see it. The Tribune of April 23, 1861, has this to say 
of him : " Col. Heaton, the veteran soldier, eighty-one years old, was in 
town on Sunday. He wants to volunteer. He says a man had better say 
his prayers, make his will and prepare to go to hell than to speak against 
our country in his presence." Col. Heaton was small of statute, ener- 
getic and active, positive in his nature and a great reader, especially of the 
current literature of the day. He was married three ;imes and had six- 
teen children, eight boys and eight girls. On the 11th day of January, 
1863, when the rebellion had grown to gigantic proportions, when the 
fierce winds of midwinter were howling without, and all nature seemed 
agitated, his life went out with the storm. His funeral rites were said 
by the Rev. Mr. Keeler, a Baptist minister, and his remains were laid 
forever at rest in the little burial ground at Alto. 

Samuel -Giles was born in Lexington, Ky., in 1792. He enlisted 
in his native State and served under Col. Richard M. Johnson. He 
was in the battles of Tippecanoe and the Thames. He came to this 
county in 1861, and died in 1866. 

Robert Morrison, also a soldier of 1812, died in 1868. 

John Miller was born in Westmoreland, County Penn., Octo- 
ber 13, 1794. His father died when he was seventeen years old. 
He, in company with his brother, George Miller, moved to Warren County, 
Ohio, near Lebanon, about the year 1811, which was then almost a 
wilderness. In 1814, he helped to organize a company, which was being 
recruited at the military post at Dayton, Ohio. This company was sent 
to Fort Meigs, on the Maumee. He was sent from this place to Hamilton, 
Ohio, as a recruiting officer. His regiment was transferred to the com- 
mand of Gen. Brown, and took part in the battle of Lundy's Lane. He 
also helped to defend Fort Erie against the repeated attempts of the British 
to take it. The siege lasted more than six weeks, when the British were 



repulsed. After the war, Miller resided for a time in Darke County, near 
Fort Jefferson, famous in history as the place to which St. Clair retreated 
after his defeat by the Indians at Fort Recovery. In 1826, he married 
Sarah Broderick. In 1850, he moved to Howard County, three-quarters 
of a mile north of Jerome, where he resided -until his death, which 
occurred February 22, 1873. His wife survived him five years. The 
ashes of both repose in the Jerome Cemetery on the banks of Wild Cat, 
where rest many of the pioneers of Howard County. John Miller Avas an 
industrious citizen, identified with all the early improvements of the 
county, and a firm friend of education and free schools. 

William Apperson was born in Culpeper County, Va., April 
12, 1786, When the war was declared, he was living in Washing- 
ton County, Va. He enlisted in Capt. Byers' Company and served his 
full term. He came to Clinton County, Ind., in 1843, moved to 
Howard County in September, 1844, and settled on and pre-empted the 
farm now owned by his son, E. S. Apperson. He died December 20, 1874. 

Henry Jackson, born in Fleming County, Ky., in 1795, enlisted 
in his native State in 1813, serving nine months and participating in 
the battle of the Thames. In 1843, he emigrated to this county and 
settled in Clay Township. He died in 1853, and was buried in the Bar- 
nett Graveyard, about eight miles west of Kokomo. 

Peter Gray was born in Kentucky in 1780 or 1781. He enlisted 
in his native State, and served five years in the regular army. He was 
under Gen. Jacob Brown, and helped to gain the brilliant victory at 
Lundy's Lane. In this fierce contest, he received three wounds, one in 
the forehead, and one in the breast by saber strokes, and one, a musket 
ball, in the leg, which he bore with him to the grave. He died and was 
buried at Russiaville in 1879. 

John Rivers is the only survivor of this war of more than half a cen- 
tury ago, who now lives in Howard County. He was born in North 
Carolina September 5, 1795. He enlisted when only seventeen years of 
age as a soldier from that State. He came to this county about the vear 
1841, and settled two miles southwest of Russiaville. He has ever been a 
quiet citizen, a peaceful neighbor and an industrious farmer, who has 
many friends and few enemies. He became blind about twenty years ago, 
and has since resided with his children. The time is not far distant when 
this aged veteran, our only living representative of our second and last 
war with England, will be gone from among us. 


In 1846, when the war with Mexico was declared, this county had 
only a few settlers, and consequently no thought of raising a company 


was entertained by any of its citizens. However, there was not wanting, 
even then, that patriotic spirit, that devotion to duty which has ever char- 
acterized the people of Howard, and that only a few years after sent 
hundreds to do battle for a principle in human government. 

Company A, of the First Indiana Regiment, was formed at Delphi, by 
Capt. Milroy, and the following are the names of those who joined it from 
this county : Barnabas Busby, Boston Orb, Andrew J. Forgey, Thomas 
Kennedy, William Gearhart, George Ervin, John Gearhart, Edward 
Ervin, Andrew Gearhart, James A. Forgey, Samuel Gearheart, Isaac 
Landrum, Daniel Isley, Thomas Landrum, William Harrison, Samuel Ya-- 
ger, John Barngrover, Samuel Gay, James Barngrover, William Judkins and 
Anthony Emley ; Andrew Park also went from this county, but probably 
not in the same company. Among those who volunteered in other coun- 
ties and have since become residents here, were the following : B. F. 
Voiles, Pollard J. Brown, John Myers, James A. Haggard, John Twinum, 
Charles M. Fifer, Irvin Tennell, Job Tennell, Michael Craner, William S. 
Reeves, Norvell Fleming, Paul Miller, Daniel Barnhart, Calvin Carter, 
James L. Bailey (dead), William Vandenbark and David Randall. Of those 
who went from this county only six or seven served their full term of enlist- 
ment, and these were Barnabas Busby, Andrew J. Forgey, John and James 
Barngrover, William Judkins and Anthony Emley. The others either 
died or were discharged. John Gearhart was the first man from this 
couty to die, as he was also the first in his regiment. 


To give a complete summary of the causes which led to this " war of 
the States" would occupy more space than is allowable in a work of this 
kind, besides it is unnecessai-y, since they have been so ably set forth in all 
the numerous histories of our country by illustrious writers. 

The story of this, one of the greatest wars the world has known since 
the dawn of the Christian era, is yet green in the memories of the noble 
boys who were engaged in it and who survived the conflict. It will never 
be forgotten by those who bade fathers, husbands, brothers and sons 
good bye, and watched and waited in vain for their return. 

Between the North and the South, for many years had been raging a 
controversy of principle. The North was for freedom, the South was for 
slavery. The North favored freedom of discussion ; the South repressed 
it with the tar-brush and the pine fagot. Discussion strengthened the 
North and weakened the South. While the North was growing conscious 
of the popularity of its principles, the South was growing desperate 
over what must be the final result. It had become enamored of slavery, 
and feared that the North would prevent its extension and cause its 


death. The South violently denounced free labor as degrading and dis- 
graceful, and treated with scorn and contempt the honest triumphs of 
the poor man who boldly worked, his way to independence. The 
North and the South represented two classes that early peopled this 
country ; the one came to the bleak shores of Massachusetts in the 
Mayflower — a band of bold, conscientious, industrious laborers ; the 
other landed at Jamestown in 1G07 — a band of idle, improvident fellows, 
who knew nothing of honest labor, but styled themselves gentlemen ; 
and even at this time had English or German slaves, known as '' ap- 
prenticed servants," to do their bidding. They were well prepared to 
welcome the Dutch slaver that steamed up the river in 1619, and en- 
tailed a curse upon them that was to blight their growth for more than 
two hundred and fifty years. When, in 18G0, the people chose Abraham 
Lincoln President, the work of secession began at once in South Caro- 
lina. So threatening became the attitude of the South, that near the 
4th of March, 1861, Mr. Lincoln had to steal in disguise through 
Baltimore on a midnight train to avoid assassination. And why ? 
Because, in the language of Gov. Vance, of North Carolina : " It is 
totally unbearable that the chivalry should be ruled over by a com- 
mon, low bred, Illinois lawyer." Had it not been for the precautions 
of the veteran Scott, it is doubtful whether the President's inauofuration 
could have been accomplished. So great was the danger, that men 
held their breaths, and felt, when the ceremony was over, that they 
had escaped a great danger. No man knew whom lo trust, and four- 
fifths of the ofiicers of the Government were rampant rebels. Let any 
one glance back at the state of things on the 4th of March, 1861, 
and if he has the pride of a true American, he will thank God that 
his country has escaped such great dangers. 

About this time, three representative men of this county, who had 
been viewing with alarm the gathering storm-cloud that was already 
hanging like a pall over the country that they loved, met in Kokomo, 
and after a short and hurried discussion of the threatening aspect of 
the Southern States, they shook hands and pledged their manhood and 
their sacred honors, each to the other, that sliould the alarm become 
a reality and the country be plunged into civil war, they would go to- 
gether to the defense of the Union. These men were Thomas J. 
Harrison, Thomas M. Kirkpatrick and Barnabas Busby. How well they 
kept their words is recorded elsewhere in these pages. 


The conciliatory measures of President Lincoln, and his declaration 
in his inaugural address that he had no purpose or inclination to interfere 


with slavery where it already existed, and his further statement that he 
had "no lawful right to do so," had no effect on the hot-headed Southern 
leaders, who claimed that loyalty to their particular States was more bind- 
ing than their obligations to the General Government. So affiiirs went 
rapidly from bad to worse, until finally, on Thursday, April 12, at 
1:30 P. M., the roar of a mortar, quickly followed by the 
rushing shriek of a shell, gave notice to the world that the final step was 
taken, and war, with its grim visage, was upon us. It was the signal- 
rocket, fired away into night and lost, but its blaze illuminated tlie whole 
North, and aroused every freeman to arms. When the news of the fall 
of Fort Sumter swept over the country, the most intense excitement 
prevailed everywhere ; a few weeks before, the South had many 
sympathizers in this county, and many angry words had been spoken. 
Now the plain first intention of the Southern traitors was seen. The Tribune 
at this time said : " Let all old party lines be obliterated and all angry 
words of other days be forgotten. These are not the times in which to 
remember former difficulties. A dark cloud hangs over the country. 
All the world looks on amazed and anxious. Already has our Govern- 
ment been disgraced, and wherever civilization is known the people are 
awaiting in astonishment to see whether or not the American Union is 
what it has been represented, or no Government at all." 

The people in the country left their farms and flocked to Kokomo in 
great crowds to hear the news. If a man dared to raise his voice in 
sympathy with the South, he was pounced upon and beaten and driven 
from the city. Men forgot their daily employment and thought and 
talked only of war. Over the wires came the President's call for 75,000 
men to serve for three months. 


Following close upon this came the following proclamation by the 

Governor of Indiana : 

Whereas, An armed rebellion has been organized in certain States of this Union, 
having for its purpose the overthrow of the United States ; and 

Whereas, The authors and movers in this rebellion have seized by violence var- 
ious forts and arsenals belonging io the United States and otherwise plundered the 
Government of large amounts of money and valuable property ; and 

Whereas, Fort Sumter, a fortress belonging to the United States, the exclusive 
possession and jurisdiction over which were vested in the General Government, by the 
Constitution of the United States, has been besieged by a large army, and assaulted by a 
destructive cannonade, and reduced to submission, and the national flag hauled down and 
dishonored ; and 

Whereas, The President of the United States, in the exercise of the power vested 
in him by the Federal Constitution, has called upon the several States remaining true to 
their allegiance to aid him in the enforcement of the laws, the recovery of the national 
property and the maintenance of the rightful authority of the United States; 


Now, therefore, I, Oliver P. Morton, Governor of the State of Indiana, call upon 
loyal and patriotic men of this State, to the number of six regiments, to organize them- 
selves into military companies, and forthwith report the same to the Adjutant General, in 
order that they may be speedily mustered into the service of the United States. The 
details of the organization are set forth in the instructions of the Adjutant General, here- 
with published. Oliver P. Morton, Governor, 

These earnest appeals from the President and Governor met with a 
hearty wave of response from the loyal citizens of this county. They 
felt that the final test had come, and that the ancient devil — slavery — 
already banished from every country in Europe, had taken its last stand 
among our foes. The Tribune of April 16 contained the first call : 
" Dr. C. Richmond and other citizens request us to call a meeting at 
Richmond & Leeds' Hall to-night for the purpose of considering the 
duties of citizens in the present crisis. Turn out, patriots. Volun- 
teers are being offered all over the country. All parties agree now." 
Although only a few hours elapsed between the appearance of the notice 
and the meeting, it was well attended. Fiery speeches were made and 
ringing resolutions were passed, and preparations immediately begun for 
the organization of a company. 


William R. Philips, who was one of the first to fall in defense of his 
country from this county, headed the list of volunteers. In less than one 
week nearly two hundred names were enrolled. On Friday evening, 
April 19, the company met in Richmond & Leed's hall and elected the 
following officers : Thomas J. Harrison, Captain; Thomas Herring, First 
Lieutenant, and William R. Philips, Second Lieutenant. 

On the Saturday afternoon following, posters were put out calling a 
meeting at the Methodist Episcopal Church in the evening, for the pur- 
pose of securing a fund for the support of the families of volunteers who 
were about to start in the service of their country. Accordingly, at an 
early hour the house was filled to overflowing. Mr. Charles Murray was 
made chairman, and on motion of Mr. James W. Robinson, the following 
persons were appointed as an executive committee : J. W. Robinson, 
Thomas Auter, Herman Keeler, Benjamin R. Norman and Samuel 
Rosenthal. Thomas Jay was elected Treasurer. The books were opened 
for subscriptions, and never did citizens of any place respond more 
nobly. It was headed by Jay & Dolman, with a subscription of $200. 
Nearly every citizen present gave something. The amounts varied 
from $200 down to $5. One man gave a lot in the city of Ko- 
komo and several farmers subscribed 100 bushels of corn each. The total 
subscription amounted to over $2,000. Some one suggested that the cit- 
izens should furnish the volunteers with blankets. Here again was a 


great rush to see who shouhl have the privilege. Gentlemen offered " all 
they had," together with comforts, to answer until the volunteers could 
get where they could buy blankets, and $25 to buy them with. This was 
the spirit of the people, and in five minutes over 100 blankets were 
provided. Flannel shirts and drawers were also named ; as the boys were 
to leave on Monday morning, it was suggested that, as the company would 
remain a week or two at Indianapolis, these could be made and shipped 
down to the care of Capt. Harrison. This was agreed upon, when 
immediately ladies offered a dozen each, gentlemen offered bolts of flannel, 
others came up and handed in money, and in a few minutes the whole 
company was well provided for. 

The following persons were appointed a committee to solicit further 
aid in Centre Township: Worley Leas, R. F. Kennedy and George W. 
Hocker. By a motion, the people in each township were requested to 
act immediately and secure a large fund for the support of the families of 
volunteers. Messrs. Thomas Jay, Samuel Rosenthal and — Chapin were 
appointed to receive and distribute blankets on Sunday. After several 
short speeches were made, the meeting adjourned, the most patriotic feel- 
ings pervading the entire assembly; 

Sunday, April 21, was a memorable day. In the issue of the Trib- 
une of April 23, 1861, appeared the following in regard to it: " The 
streets were crowded early in the morning. The people from all parts 
of the country came in by scores and fifties. Both churches were filled 
at the usual hour of holding meeting. At the Methodist Episcopal 
Church, a first-rate sermon and devout prayers for the safety of the 
country were listened to with close attention. At the Christian Church, 
Francis O'Dowd addressed a large audience in the most patriotic style, 
pledging his all at the close for the Government. Meanwhile, volunteers 
were constantly enrolling their names. About noon, the fife and drum 
were heard and most of the afternoon the companies were under drill. 
At 3 o'clock P. M., the volunteers marched out the East Road and met 
a tremendous procession coming in that direction. There was a large 
number of four-horse wagons and a large procession of horsemen. In 
the crowd were many volunteers coming down to leave for service. When 
the two multitudes met, thundering cheers for the stripes and stars were 
heard for miles around. The procession, about a quarter of a mile in 
length, returned to the public square, where Prof. Baldwin addressed the 
assembly most eloquently. So great was the enthusiasm that Prof. Bald- 
win himself and all the teachers and pupils who were old enough enlisted, 
so that the school was discontinued for some time. The dry goods stores 
were kept open and such things as were needed by soldiers were freely 
given without a cent of pay. Money was distributed for use while in 


camp, and every want that could be thought of was provided for. Such 
a Sabbath never was or perhaps never will be Avitnessed in Kokomo as this 
one was." As the evening shadows thickened into night, the bells pealed 
forth a strange, sweet music to those who were to leave on the morrow. 
The churches were crowded again and many fervent prayers were oiiered 
for the flag of our country and for those who had pledged themselves to 
stand by it against every foe. 


At sunrise on the morrow, the town was full of wagons and horses, 
and from 6 o'clock until train time an immense multitude thronged all 
the streets about the depot. The time had now come when the first com- 
pany of soldiers ever organized m Howard County were waiting to de- 
part for a service of which no one at that time had the least conception. 
There were hundreds of tearful eyes as the last farewells were said. It 
was the parting of parents with their children, husbands with their wive-j, 
brothers with sisters, and lovers with each other with pledges to be 
true till war's desolation was over. The thought of it being the last 
good-bye paled many a cheek and moistened many an eye unused to tears. 
As the train steamed up, not a word of complaint was made ; it was a 
firm pressure of the hand, a warm look of encouragement, a "God bless 
you," and they were gone. The Tribune of the next day contained this 
patriotic sentiment from the able pen of Mr. T. G. Philips : 

The times that will try men's souls are upon us. Every man, every woman, every 
person able to work has important duties to perform. Let us begin now. There must 
not be an idle person. A large crop must be raised, and fewer men than usual must 
raise it. Every acre of ground must be tilled. Patriots are in demand, and, thank 
Heaven, they are ready. Thousands of strong men will be needed in defense of our 
country, and they are presenting themselves asking to serve in that defense. Every one 
left at home can do the work of two. In the days of the Revolution, women performed 
the labor of men, and men did double labor. The days of '76 are present with us in '61. 
The battles must be fought over again. An army of rebels ten times worse than the tyrants 
who denied us liberty in '76 would now wrench that liberty from us and drag the flag 
of our country and our fathers in the dust. Arouse, freemen ! If patriotism ever was 
needed, that time is now. Let there be no influence against the enlisting of your son in 
the cause. Ask God's blessing on him and let him go. We heard, a day or two since, a 
man offer to furnish the family of a volunteer all the flour needed until he should return. 
"But," said another, "if he never returns ?" " While I live the contract shall be kept 
inviolate," was the answer. That is the true spirit. May the people be imbued with a 
spirit of true patriotism, and may those who remain at home do their whole duty. Those 
who go away we know will do theirs. 

When the company arrived at Indianapolis, it took quarters at Camp 
Morton, and was immediately organized. It was found that there were 
nearly enough men for two companies, so the boys organized a new com- 
pany and Dr. C. Richmond, who, it seems, was a most zealous worker in 


the cause, hurried home and procured a sufficient number of men to 
complete the second company. So energetic were our boys that in one 
week from the day the first meeting was called in Kokomo, the first 
company was mustered into the service and succeeded in obtaining a 
place in the Sixth (three months') Regiment. They were the first mus- 
tered in in this State for the war of the rebellion. (Five regiments 
had been raised for the war with Mexico.) 

The following is the oath which each man was required to take, 
and which all volunteers and regulars mustered into the service of the 
United States are required to take before their final enrollment. " I 
do solemnly swear that I will bear true allegiance to the United States 
of America, that I will serve them honestly and faithfully against all 
enemies or opposers whatsoever ; that I will obey the orders of the 
President of the United States and of the other officers appointed over 
me, according to the rules of the armies of the United States, so help 
me God." This company designated themselves the " Howard Rifles," 
and was known as Company " D " in the regiment. 

The Indianapolis Journal paid them the following tribute on the day 
they were mustered in : " Capt. Harrison, who was a member of the 
Legislature in 1858, arrived yesterday with his company, the Howard 
Rifles, and took quarters at Camp Morton. His men are of those who 
can pick squirrels out of the tops of the tallest trees and rebels from the 
secession ranks as far as a Sharp's rifle will carry." Thomas M. Kirk- 
patrick and Barnabas Busby, both being farmers, did not get their affairs 
arranged in time to join the first company, but, true to their vows, 
hastened to Indianapolis and joined the second company. In the election 
of officers, Mr. Kirkpatrick was chosen Captain, Mr. Busby, First Lieu- 
tenant, and N. P. Richmond, Second Lieutenant. Kirkpatrick's company 
was made Company C, in the Twelfth Regiment, and, after failing to get 
in for three months, was transferred to the Thirteenth Regiment as Com- 
pany " E," and was stationed at Camp Sullivan. 

While Capt. Harrison's company had the honor of being in the first 
three months' regiment organized in the State, Capt. Kirkpatrick's com- 
pany had the distinguished honor of being in the first three years' regi- 
ment. During the stay in camp at Indianapolis the men were in active 
preparation for war, drilling almost constantly. Many little incidents, 
however, occurred to break the monotony of camp life, and when, on the 
30th of May, the Sixth was ordered to the front, they were in high spirits. 
They loft for Western Virginia via Cincinnati and Parkersburg. They 
had been fully equipped, armed and clothed, and presented a gay appear- 
ance. Their passage through Indiana and Ohio was a grand ovation. 
The Cincinnati Enquirer of May 31, has this to say of them : 


The attendance at the depot yesterday when Col. Crittenden's command arrived was 
very large, and all along the entire length of the march through the city the throngs on 
the sidewalks and street corners were immense, and, as the bi-ave Indianians marched 
along, the cheers that greeted them were vociferous. The gallant troops made a fine 
appearance, and were applauded by everybody for their soldierly demeanor. The regi- 
ment was brought to a halt and a front-fi.ce when opposite the residence of Larz Ander- 
son, Esq. Col. Anderson advanced to the curbstone, and was greeted by a present arms 
and a salute from the officers, with a remark from Col. Crittenden that the salute was a 
compliment from the Sixth Regiment of Indiana Volunteers. Col. Anderson replied, 
"I thank you, gentlemen: God bless and protect you." The column then wheeled 
inio line and as the troops marched by the hero of Sumter, they rent the air with enthu- 
siastic cheering. 

On the 2d of June, the regiment arrived at Webster, Va.. and was 
marched, with other troops, the same night through a drenching rain a 
distance of fourteen miles, and on the morning of the 3d of June took 
part in the first battle of the war, at Philippi. It participated in the 
march to Laurel Hill, and the engagement with Garnett's rebel command 
at Carrick's Ford on the 12th of July. It returned to Indianapolis on 
the 25th of July and was finally discharged x\ugust 2, 1861. 


The Thirteenth Regiment, in which was Capt. Kirkpatrick's company, 
left Indianapolis on the 4th of July, 1861, and on the morning of the 
10th joined McClellan's forces at the foot of Rich Mountain in Western 
Virginia, where, on the following da}', it participated in battle. In this 
battle William Rifile was killed. On this day, for the first and the last 
time, he heard the shrill blast of the bugle calling to battle. Obeying the 
hurried call to arms, he heard the thunder of the cannon, the roar of the 
musketry and the clash of resounding arms ; but as the banner of his 
regiment went forward to victory William Riffle went down to death — 
Howard County's first martyr for the preservation of the Union. From 
this time onward, the Thirteenth was in active campaign work for the en- 
tire three years. It took part in the numerous skirmishes at Cheat 
Mountain Pass; and, on the 12th and 13th of September,1861, in the engage- 
ments on Cheat Mountain Summit and Elkwater, supported Howe's Bat- 
tery, Fourth United States Artillery. At Greenbrier, on the 3d of Oc- 
tober, and during the remainder of October, it was engaged in scouting 
expeditions along the Holly and Kanawha Rivers. After this, it marched 
to Alleghany under Gen. Milroy, and participated in the battle there on 
the 13th of December. It wintered at Green Spring Run. Gen. Shields 
took command of the division in the spring, and under him the regiment 
moved to Winchester, and then scouted up the valley to Strasburgh, re- 
turning to Winchester. It participated in the battle of Winchester 
Heights March 22, 1862. Two or three months were now employed in 


marching up and down the valley giving chase to the rebels, and in the 
latter part of June the regiment embarked at Alexandria for Harrison's 
Landing, on the James River, where it arrived July 2. In August, it 
marched to Fortress Monroe, and thence to the valley of the Nansemond 
River, where it remained nine months, engaging in numerous operations 
in that region of country, making three reconnoissances to Black River, 
fighting the battle of the Deserted Farm on the 30th of January, 1863, 
defeating Longstreet in his attempt to seize Suffolk, from April 10 to 
May 3, 1864; and in tearing up and bringing off about forty miles of 
track from two railroads from the 13th to the 19th of May. In these op- 
erations tlie regiment marched over 400 miles. On the 2Tth of June, the 
regiment left Suffolk. It participated in the operations on Morris Island 
during the siege of Forts Wagner and Gregg, and was the first regiment to 
enter Fort Wagner in the assault on the 7th of September. The Thirteenth 
participated in nearly all the operations of Gen. Butler's army south of 
Richmond, and was conspicuous in the engagement at Wathal Junction, 
Chester Station, and the charge on the rebel rifle pits near Foster's farm ; 
in all of which the loss was about 200. It joined the Army of the Po- 
tomac in June, 1864, marching with this army to Cold Harbor, where, 
there being no field oflicers present for duty, Capt. Kirkpatrick assumed 
command. The regiment was actively engaged in the battle at that place, 
and in all the operations in the vicinity of the Chickahominy until June 
12, when it returned to Bermuda Hundred. On the 15th, it crossed 
the Appomattox River, and was engaged in the assaults on the rebel 
works in front of Petersburg. On the 18th, Capt. Kirkpatrick's com- 
pany, having served the full term of its enlistment, was ordered from the 
skirmish line, and on the 19th left for Indianapolis, arriving on the 24th 
of June. They were mustered out of the service July 1, 1864. About 
one-half of the company afterward veteranized. 


In May, 1861, the boys of Kokomo, from twelve to eighteen years of 
age, catching the military spirit that pervaded the county, organized a 
company under the name of the " Wild Cat Rangers." Said the Trib- 
une: " We learn that the officers have reported their company to the Gov- 
ernor, have purchased a part of their musical instruments, made arrange- 
ments for caps, etc., and will begin to drill regularly at an early day." 
The names of many of these boys appear on the regular muster rolls of 
regiments that were formed in later years. 

In the latter part of June, 1861, the first company of the Howard 
County Regiment of the Indiana Legion was formed at Kokomo. 



The following letter from the Adjutant General shows how the com- 
pany was organized : 

Indianapolis, Ind., June 13, 1861. 

The Union Tigers, a volunteer militia company, organized at Kokomo, in Howard 
County, Ind., under the military laws of said State, having complied with the require- 
ments of said laws, are hereby authorized and ordered to elect officers at their armory 
in Kokomo, on Tuesday evening, the 18th day of June, 1861 : and John Bohan, Thomas 
Jay an<l J. F. Hendej'son are hereby appointed to receive and count ballots cast at said 
election (in the presence of m honisoever may be deputized to preside at such election), 
and to make return of such election to this office without delay. 

Lvz's Noble, Adjt.Oen. Vol. Militia. 

Mr. T. C. Philips was delegated authority by the Adjutant General 
to preside at the meeting of the Union Tigers, and the election resulted 
as follows : James Bailey, Captain ; James A. Wildman, First Lieuten- 
ant ; William S. Snow, Second Lieutenant. 

At various times after this, other companies were formed in all or 
nearly all the townships, and were known as : Union Wild Cat Rifles, 
The Union Legion, Harrison Guards, Howard Guards, Fairfield Guards, 
Wild Cat Rangers, Cassville Guards, Honey Creek Legion, Liberty 
Guards, Noble Guards, Ervin Guards and Wild Cat Rifles. The field 
ofiicers and staff" of this legion were : John M. Garrett, Colonel (after- 
ward entered United States service); N. P. Richmond, Colonel; James 
A. Wildman, Lieutenant Colonel ; Charles E. Disbrow, Major ; Samuel 
W. Thornton, Adjutant ; Morgan A. Chestnut, Quartermaster ; Ruben 
King, Surgeon ; John W. Cooper, Judge A.dvocate : Thomas Lytle, Pay- 


In the latter part of August, 1861, Dr. Jacob S. White, who had 
succeeded in raising a company in this county, left for Anderson, where 
a regimeat for this Congressional district was forming under Col. 
Asbury Steele. The Tribune had this to say of the departure of this 
company : "A very large multitude assembled at the C. & C. depot 
last Wednesday to see the boys of Dr. White's company off" to camp at 
Anderson. Some of the partings brought tears to the eyes of many. 
The grief of some was manifested in loud cries, but the deepest feeling 
was quieter. Husbands left their wives and babes with emotions that 
cannot be described. One gentleman, Mr. Clarke, of Ervin, got married 
on Sunday evening, on Monday volunteered, and left on Wednesday. 
One wagon with six horses came in from Western Howard loaded with 
young ladies and other decorations. Banners floated, and music was 
furnished of the best kind. The little cannon was out, and after fifty or 
sixty thundering discharges, it bursted. Squire Norman was touched on 
the leg, but was not hurt. No injury was receiv ed by any one, but how 
the people escaped we cannot tell." In the organization of the regiment, 


Dr. AVhite was appointed Surgeon, and Thomas S. Terrell was elected 
Captain. This, the Thirty -fourth Regiment, participated in the siege of 
Vicksburg, the battle of Port Gibson, Champion Hills, the siege of Jack- 
son and many encounters. As in the Sixth (three months') Regiment, 
Howard County boys had the honor of participating in the first battle of 
the war, so Howard County boys in the Thirty-fourth, more than two 
thousand miles from Philippi, engaged in the last battle at Palmetto 
Ranche, on the 13th of May, 1865. This battle was fought partly on 
the old Palo Alto battle-ground, where Gen. Taylor first encountered the 
Mexicans on the 8th of May, 1846. It is quite a coincidence that the 
first battle of the Mexican war and the last battle of the great rebell- 
ion were fought on the same ground, and that the respective dates of the 
month only differed five days. 

The work of organizing a company of 101 men for an independent 
regiment of sharpshooters, authorized by the War Department, began 
here about the time of the departure of Dr. White's company. This 
company filled up rapidly, and in a few days seventy names were down 
for still another company. Prior to leaving, the company organized by 
electing the same officers that had served in the first company organized 
here, viz.: T. J. Harrison, Captain; Thomas Herring, First Lieutenant, 
and W. R. Philips, Second Lieutenant. The company left on Wednes- 
day, August 28, 1861, for Indianapolis. In the regimental organization, 
Capt. Harrison was made Colonel, John Bohan, Quartermaster, and Dr. 
L. D. Waterman (now of Indianapolis), Surgeon. After Capt. Harri- 
son's promotion, Herring and Philips were promoted by the unanimous 
approval of the company ; Stephen D. Butler was elected Second Lieuten- 
ant. This regiment left for Kentucky early in September. It marched 
with Buell to Nashville, then to the Tennessee River, and was in the battle 
of ShilohontheTth of April, 1862, where Lieut. W. R. Philips, who had 
formerly been associated with his brother, T. C. Philips, in editing the 
Tribune^ was killed. The regiment took part in the battles of Stone 
River December 31, 1862, and January 1 and 2, 1863. Through the re- 
mainder of the campaign of 1863, it served as mounted infantry. On 
June 6, 1863, it had a sharp fight with Wheeler's cavalry near Mur- 
freesboro, took part in the skirmishes at Middleton and Liberty Gap, and 
during the movement upon Chattanooga engaged the enemy at Win- 
chester. On the 19th and 20th of September, it participated in the 
battle of Chickamauga, and on the 15th of October, 1863, was re-organ- 
ized as the Eighth Cavalry. The regiment re-enlisted as a veteran organ- 
ization on the 22d of February, 1864. It participated in the McCook 


raid around Atlanta, and the Kilpatrick raid in Georgia, and at the battle 
of Lovejoy Station led the charge of the left wing, riding over Ross' 
division of rebel cavalry, capturing his artillery and four battle flags. It 
was in the battle of Jonesboro and Flint River, and in the campaign 
through Georgia was in the following battles and skirmishes : Waynes- 
boro, Buckhead Church, Browne's Cross Roads, Reynold's Farm, Aiken, 
Bentonville, Averysboro and Raleigh. It whipped Hampton's entire 
force at Morrisville, and thus had the honor of fighting the last battle 
in North Carolina. The regiment was mustered out of service on 
the 20th of July, 1865, reached Indianapolis the last week of July, and 
was finally discharged early in August. This regiment had in all 2,500 
men on its rolls, and had nine officers killed in battle. It lost about 
three hundred in prisoners, and captured from the enemy over fifteen 
hundred men, one thousand stand of arms, three railroad trains, fourteen 
hundred horses and mules, many wagons, fourteen pieces of artillery, four 
battle flags, besides destroying many miles of railroad. It was also en- 
gaged in many raids and skirmishes of which no mention is here made. 
In September, 1861, the County Commissioners appropriated ^750 out 
of the county funds for the relief of the families of those who had vol- 
unteered. On the evening of October 31, the Ladies' Union Aid As- 
sociation was organized for the purpose of making underclothing for the 
boys who were far away in open tents, and who would soon be exposed 
to the rude blasts of winter. Many a " God bless the noble women of 
Howard" went up to Heaven that winter, and each succeeding winter, 
till the war was over, from Howard County boys in every Southern State. 


The company that was forming at the time Capt. Harrison's com- 
pany departed, organized by electing Willis Blanche, Captain, Timothy 
H. Leeds, First Lieutenant, and John L. Hall, Second Lieutenant. Another 
company was also partly organized in this county with William K. Hoback, 
Captain, Joel H. Hoback, First Lieutenant, and Lewis S. Horn, Second 
Lieutenant. These companies proceeded to Richmond in November, 1861, 
where they were organized as companies G and H, respectively, of the 
Fifty-seventh Regiment. On the 10th of December, the regiment moved 
to Indianapolis, where it remained until December 23, when it took its 
departure for Kentucky, where it spent the winter without engaging 
in battle. The regiment marched to Nasliville, Tenn., arriving there 
early in March. It started for Pittsburg Landing on the 21st of March, 
and was in hearing of the battle of Shiloh on the 6th of April, but did 
not arrive till the afternoon of the 7th, when it immediately engaged in 


battle. During the siege of Corinth the regiment was actively employed. 
After this, it marched into Northern Alabama, and in July, 1862 to Middle 
Tennessee where it remained till September, making many arduous marches 
and undergoing great hardships. It took an active part in the campaign 
against Bragg, engaging in the battle of Perryville, Ky., with only slight 
loss. After this, it went to Nashville, December 1, 1862. At the battle 
of Stone River, the Fifty -seventh suffered severely, losing seventy-five 
men out of about 350 engaged. Here the regiment greatly distinguished 
itself. During the remainder of the winter and the spring of 1863, it re- 
mained in camp near Murfreesboro, drilling constantly and doing severe 
picket work. It took part in the "eleven days' scout" of Maj. Gen. 
Reynolds, and in the battle of Mission Ridge it bore a conspicuous part. 
The campaign in East Tennessee during the winter of 1863 and 1864, 
was probably unequaled during the whole war for hardships and privations ; 
of these the Fifty-seventh suffered a full share. On the 1st of January, 
1864, the regiment almost unanimously re-enlisted as a veteran organ- 
ization. It took part in the initial operations of the campaign against 
Atlanta, and during the summer was almost constantly engaged in battle 
or in skirmishing. It was in the assault on Rocky Face Ridge, near Dal- 
ton, Georgia, May 9th, at Resaca, and in the action near Adairsville 
it took an active part. On May 27, it lost severely in the battle near 
New Hope Church on the Altoona Mountains. It was under fire every 
day from this time until June 8, losing many men. In the terrible 
struggles and skirmishes around Kenesaw it bore a full part. On the 27th 
of June, the regiment, then commanded by Col. Willis Blanche, formed 
the skirmish line in front of the assaulting column of the Fourth Corps ; 
its loss was heavy. It participated in the battle of Peach Tree Creek 
July 20, and from this time until the 25th of August lay in the trenches 
in front of Atlanta. The regiment was slightly engaged in the battle of 
Jonesboro, August 31. After the occupation of Atlanta the Fifty- 
seventh was sent to Chattanooga. It helped to drive Hood into Alabama, 
and afterward formed a part of the army of Gen. Thomas which re- 
sisted the invasion of Tennessee. It was engaged at Franklin November 
30, 1864, where it sustained severe loss. On the 15th and 16th of De- 
cember it participated in the battle at Nashville, where Col. Blanche was 
wounded. After the pursuit of Hood's army, the regiment lay in camp 
at Huntsville, Ala., some months, moving into East Tennessee as far 
as Bull's Gap in April, 1865. It then went to Nashville and was trans- 
ferred to Texas, where it remained until mustered out of the service. The 
Fifty-seventh saw much arduous service, its losses in battle were heavy, 
and its marches severe, but it behaved with great gallantry on every oc- 
casion, and achieved an enviable record and an honorable fame. In its 


commanding officers it was particularly fortunate, one o whom, Col. 
Blanche, of this county, being a soldier of distinguished merit. 


When the news reached our citizens of the great battle of Shiloh, a 
meeting was hastily called and a surgeon was immediately dispatched to 
the sufferers, together with money, lint and bandages and whatever was 
thought would aid in their relief This movement was connected with 
an authorized organization at Indianapolis and it was a noble work at the 
right time. 


In July, 1862, another company was organized here, which elected Fran- 
cis M. Bryant, Captain, James C. Metsker, First Lieutenant, and Irvin Pol- 
son, Second Lieutenant. It was mustered into service as Company C, of the 
Seventy-fifth Regiment, at Wabash, on the 19th of August, 1862. This 
regiment proceeded to Kentucky, where it took an active part in the cam- 
paign, marching to Scottsville and Gallatin and then back to Cave City 
in pursuit of Morgan's forces. The v/inter was passed mostly in camp at 
Gallatin, and in January the regiment moved to Murfreesboro, where it 
remained till June 24, 1863, when it started toward TuUahoma, and on 
the march engaged in the battle at Hoover's Gap. It was the first reg- 
iment to enter the rebel works at Tullahoma about the 1st of July. It 
participated in the battle of Chickamauga on the 19th and 20th of Sep- 
tember. It then returned to Chattanooga, engaging in the battle of 
Mission Ridge on the 25th of November. The Seventy-fifth passed the 
winter of 1863-64 in the vicinity ©f Chattanooga, and in the spring of 
1864 moved to Ringgold, Ga. During the Atlanta Campaign it was ac- 
tively engaged, participating in the battles of Dalton, Resaca, Adairs- 
ville, Dallas, Kenesaw Mountain, Peach Tree Creek and Jonesboro. In 
October, it marched in the campaign against Hood, and returned to Atlanta 
in time to start with Sherman's army on the 16th of November, in its 
famous march to the sea, reaching Savannah in December. In January, 
1865, it marched through the Carolinas to Goldsboro, in North Carolina, and 
participated in the battles of Bentonville and Fayetteville. After the 
surrender of Johnston's army, it marched to Richmond, Va., and thence 
to Washington, D. C, where on the 8th of June, 1865, it was mustered 
out of service. 


In the month of August, 1862, three more companies were raised 
in this county. The first was officered as follows : William Burns, 
Captain ; B. F. Haven, First Lieutenant, and John T. Stewart, Second 
Lieutenant ; the second, John E. Williams, Captain ; G. Markland, 



First Lieutenant ; William Styer, Second Lieutenant; the third, B, W. 
Gifford, Captain ; William A. Hunt, First Lieutenant ; William T. 
Hutchinson, Second Lieutenant. These companies were rendezvoused at 
Wabash, and were organized with other companies into the Eighty- 
ninth Regiment, at Indianapolis, August 28, 1862. The companies 
were lettered F, D and G, respectively. In the organization of this reg- 
iment, Charles D. Murray was made Colonel and J. F. Henderson, Sur- 
geon, both of Kokomo. In the October following, Harles Ashley, also 
of Kokomo, was appointed Quartermaster. Proceeding to Kentucky, the 
regiment re-enforced the garrison at Munfordsville. After a long and 
stubborn resistance, it was compelled to surrender to superior numbers on 
the 16th of September. The officers and men were paroled and after a 
furlough to their homes, the regiment re assembled at Indianapolis on the 
27th of October. The order for their exchange being received, the regi- 
ment, on the 5th of December, proceeded to Memphis, and on the 21st of 
December was placed on duty at Fort Pickering, where it remained until 
the 18th October, 1863. It was then transferred to the city of Memphis, 
where it was engaged on picket duty until the 26th January, 1864, when 
it left on transports for Vicksburg, reaching there on the 31st of January. 
From this point it moved on the Meridian raid, skirmishing with the 
enemy at Queen's Hill and at Meridian, where it arrived on the 14th of 
^February. After tearing up the Mobile & Ohio Railroad track, it pro- 
ceeded to Marion, camped a few days and then returned by way of Can- 
ton to Vicksburg, reaching there on the 4th of March. The Eighty-ninth 
left Vicksburg on the 10th of March, for the mouth of Red River, reach- 
ing Semmesport on the 12th, and on the next day assisted in assaulting 
the fort, which was captured on the 14th. It moved from here to Alex- 
andria, thence to Henderson's Hill, and there captured 270 rebels and 
four pieces of artillery. The Eighty-ninth bore a conspicuous part in 
the battle of Pleasant Hill, on the 9th of April, 1864. On the 7th of 
May, the regiment met the enemy at llayou La Mourie, and after a sharp 
engagement charged and repulsed him. Resuming march toward the 
Mississippi, the regiment repulsed the enemy near Marksville, in a slight 
engagement, and on the 18th, at Smith & Norwood's plantation, had a 
severe contest and repulsed the enemy with great slaughter. On the 
19th, the regiment embarked for Vicksburg, arriving on the 24th of 
May. It remained here till June 4, when it embarked for Memphis, 
leaving this point for Collierville. It now escorted a wagon train to Mos- 
cow, and then moved to LaGrange, Tenn. Here it remained till the 5th 
of July, and marched to Pontock, Miss., arriving there on the 11th. 
Moving from here it engaged in the battle of Tupelo on the 14th of July. 
The regiment then returned to Memphis, where it remained till Septem- 


ber, excepting a short expedition into Northern Mississippi in pursuit of 
Forrest, made in August. On the 19th of September, the regiment 
landed at Jefferson Barracks, Mo., and on the 2d day of October, started 
in pursuit of the rebel Gen. Price. In this expedition, the regiment 
marched seven hundred and fifty miles, and was in no engagement, but had 
the misfortune to lose Quartermaster Ashley, who, with two other officers, 
stopped to take dinner at a country house. Falling behind the column a 
short distance, they were captured by guerrillas and murdered almost im- 
mediately after, near the village of Greenton, Mo. This long march ended 
at St. Louis, where the regiment remained till the latter part of Novem- 
ber, and then took steamer for Nashville, where it arrived on the 30th, 
and on the 15th and 16th of the following month participated in battle 
near that place. On the 17th, starting in pursuit of Hood's army, it 
marched to the Tennessee River, and on January 1, 1865, was transported 
to Eastport, Miss. Here it remained till February 9, when it pro- 
ceeded by steamer to Vicksburg, and thence to New Orleans, arriving 
there on the 21st of February. From there it moved on transports to 
Dauphin Island, near Mobile, on the 8th of March, and on the 19th up 
Mobile Bay by steamer to the mouth of Fish River, and thence to Doris 
Mills, where it remained till March 25. It then marched to a point 
between Spanish Fort and Blakely, and participated in the siege until 
the rebel fortifications were taken. The regiment now went to Montgom- 
ery. Ala., thence to Providence, and there took transports to Mobile, 
where it was mustered out of service on the 19th of July, 1865. During 
its term of service, the Eighty-ninth marched 2,363 miles on foot, trav"- 
eled by steamer 7,112 miles, and by rail 1,232 miles ; making the total 
distance traveled 10,707 miles. 


Early in August, 1862, J. C. P. Negly received authority from Col. 
Pettit to recruit ten men at Tipton for cavalry. This number enlisted 
in a few hours, and finally thirty-five were raised without any difficulty. 
The company departed for Wabash, and from there to Indianapolis, and 
was organized as Company A, of the Fifth Cavalry. This regiment was 
in twenty-two battles and skirmishes, and during the month of June, 1864, 
in Georgia, was engaged in skirmishing nearly every day. It marched', 
during its term of service, 2,400 miles, and was transferred 1,000 miles 
by water. It captured 640 prisoners during its term of service. It was 
mustered out of service June 16, 1865, and was publicly welcomed home 
at Indianapolis, June 21. 




At a special session in July, 1862, the County Commissioners had ap- 
propriated $5,000 as a bounty to volunteers, and at their regular meeting 
in September following, |^5,000 more was appropriated. To raise this 
fund, a tax of iJO cents on each $100 of taxable property was levied. 
This action was strongly criticized by soldiers in the field who had 
gone at the first call, without bounty, and were now taxed for a fund 
that was to increase the pay of those who enlisted more than a year 
afterward, and which, to the amount of their taxes, at least, diminished the 
pay of those first enlisting. The first week in September, the enrollment 
of the militia was completed. The Enrolling Commissioner, R. Vaile, 
Esq., with C. Richmond, Examining Surgeon, J. W. Cooper, Provost 
Marshal, and the eleven Deputy Commissioners in each township in the 
county, met at the County Clerk's office to decide on applications for 
exemption from the draft. The attendance was large, and the examina- 
tion lasted several days. 

The following table shows the number enrolled in each township, the 
number exempt, the number now in service, and also those conscientiously 
opposed to bearing arms : 




No. Volun- 

No. Consci- 














Er vin 




Honey Creek 










The above shows that at least one third of the population liable to bear 
arms were already in the field. 

In the month of September, Capt. Herring, of the Thirty-ninth Regi- 
ment, and Hoback, of the Fifty-seventh Regiment, returned to Kokomo, 
and opened a recruiting ofiice, and enlisted quite a number of men for 
their respective regiments. 


From this time on to the close of the war, many enthusiastic Union 

meetings were held in the county, at which the most stirring speeches 

were made, and patriotic resclutions adopted, commending the boys in 

blue, the Governor of the State and the Administration, but severely 


denouncing the enemies of our country, whether traitors in arms, or 
tories, or sympathizers at home. As a natural consequence, much bitter 
feeling began to exist between those in favor of a vigorous prosecution of 
the war and those who were directly or indirectly opposed to it. The 
terms, "Abolitionists," "Nigger-lovers," " Butternuts " and "Copper- 
heads" now became very common, and many a pugilistic combat settled 
arguments between disputants on our streets and at public gatherings. 
These fierce encounters were not always confined to the males, but fre- 
quently were participated in by the females, who even got so far ad- 
vanced in the art as not to confine it solely to a hair-pulling. 


On the morning of July 10, 1863, the following telegram, was re- 
ceived here from the Governor : 
T. C. Phillips, Kokomo, Ind.: 

I want all the available force from your coiiniy brought to this city at the earliest 
possible momeut. Come organized, if possible. Organization, however, can be completed 
here and arms furnished. PleHse send runners over the county and inform all the 
people. Answer what you can do. BriDg blankets. Oliver P. Morton. 

This telegram was received at 10 o'clock, A. M., on Friday morning, 
and at 1 o'clock over 100 men got aboard the train for Indianapolis, and 
about 300 followed on Saturday. After organization was completed at 
Indianapolis, it was learned that Morgan had crossed into Ohio. When 
the Indiana troops were asked if they were willing to follow the rebels 
into another State, every man from Howard responded in the affirmative. 
Had the troops been hastened forward immediately, the Howard County 
boys might have had the honor of helping to capture the guerrilla chieftain 
at Hamilton, Ohio, but when they arrived at that place, they learned that 
Morgan had crossed the railroad at Glendale only an hour before. They 
proceeded to Cincinnati and arrived at home Friday evening, having ac- 
complished nothing. 


On Monday, October 6, 1862, the first draft took place in this county, 
under the supervision of Commissioner R. Vaile, as follows : Ervin 
Township, 18 men ; Liberty Township, o men ; Clay, 1 man ; total, 24 

Those who were conscientiously opposed to bearing arms, having been 
excused, though able-bodied, from actual military service, were regarded, 
so far as the draft was concerned, as separate communities, and were re- 
quired to furnish the same per cent of the whole number of able-bodied 
men as had been furnished by other citizens of the Government. The 
average number of volunteers and men drafted for actual service was 
about forty per cent of the whole number of those not exempt from actual 


military service. Consequently, the Government saw fit to draft forty per 
cent of the conscientious ones, and assessed the commutation fee at 
$200 each. Their names were placed in a separate hox and drawn 
as follows : Ervin Township, 17 ; Monroe Township, 23 ; Harrison 
Township, 4 ; Taylor Township, 3 ; Howai'd Township, 8 ; Liberty 
Township, 14 ; Union Township, 6 ; Jackson Township, 1 ; Honey 
Creek Township, 9. Total. 75. 

Under the call of October 17, 1863, for 300,000 men, the total quota 
of the State was 18,507. Of this number, Howard County was required 
to furnish 158 men, which was accomplished without resorting to draft. 


Late in the fall of 1863, a company was recruited in this county, 
under the call of September 14 of that year — John M. Grarrett, Captain; 
William PL Sumption, First Lieutenant, and Jesse A. Cate, Second 
Lieutenant. This company became Company E, of the Eleventh 
Cavalry, One Hundred and Twenty-sixth Regiment, which perfected its 
organization at Indianapolis, March 1, 1864, the command being given 
to Robert T. Stewart. On the 1st of May, the regiment left Indianapolis, 
and moved by rail to Nashville, Tenn. It arrived there on the 7th of 
May, aiid remained until the 1st of June, when it marched to Larkins- 
ville, Ala., and was placed on duty along the line of the Memphis & 
Charleston Railroad. The regiment was kept on this duty until the 16th 
of October, when it marched back to Nashville, where it was mounted 
and sent to the front. It was actively engaged in the campaign in front 
of Nashville in November and December, and after the defeat of Hood's 
forces pursued him as far as Gravelly Springs, Ala. It was then dis- 
mounted and placed on duty until February 7, 1865, when it crossed 
the Tennessee River to Eastport, Miss., and i-emained there until the 
12th of May. In obedience to orders, the regiment embarked on a 
steamer for St. Louis, arriving May 17. After being re-mounted, it 
marched to Rolla, Mo., and from there to Fort Riley, Kan., arriving on 
the 8th of July; from there it moved to Council Grove, Kan., where it 
was engaged in guarding the Santa Fe route across the plains, with 
headquarters at Cottonwood Crossing. From this place it marched to Fort 
Leavenworth, arriving September 11. On the 19th of September, the 
regiment was mustered out of service in compliance with telegraphic 
orders received from the General commanding the Department of Missouri. 
It arrived at Indianapolis on the 26th of September, partook of a sump- 
tuous dinner, and was publicly welcomed at the State House. The regi- 
ment was then marched to Camp Carrington, paid oft" and discharged. 



During the winter of 1863 and 1864, the One Hundred and Thirtieth 
Regiment was recruited from the Eleventh District, with headquarters at 
Camp Stilwell, Kokomo. This camp was located on the beautiful grounds 
just east of the C & C. Railroad, and south of the residence of M. Gar- 
rigus. T. N. StUwell, of Anderson, was appointed Commander of the 
Post. Company A, of this regiment, was composed wholly of Howard 
County volunteers, who elected Elijah W. Penny, Captain ; John B. 
Littler, First Lieutenant, and William S. Birt, Second Lieutenant. This 
regiment left its camp in Kokomo, on the 16th of March, for Nashville, 
Tenn. On the 5th of April, it marched from this place to Charleston, 
Tenn., where it arrived on the 24th. On the 3d of May, it broke camp, 
and on the 9th first came into the presence of the enemy at Rocky Face 
Ridge. From this time until the 15th of May, the regiment was engaged 
in a continual series of skirmishes, terminating in the decisive battle of 
Resaca, during which the regiment repelled a charge of the enemy. 
After the battle, it joined in the pursuit; skirmishing was constant, as day 
followed day. The rain fell in torrents, and the men were destitute of 
shelter, and for a lonoj time short of rations. On the I7th of June, the 
regiment was engaged with the enemy at Lost Mountain, and on the 22d 
at Pine Mountain, On the 27th, -it drove the rebels into their works at 
Kenesaw Mountain. It next encountered the enemy near Decatur, 
drove him beyond its limits, and destroyed the railroad. It took a full 
share in the siege of Atlanta, and on the 29th of August was engaged in 
the battle of Jonesboro. From the 4th of October, the regiment was in 
pursuit of Hood until the 15th of December, when the battle took place 
in front of Nashville, lasting two days and resulting in the extinction of 
Hood's army. Joining in the pursuit, the regiment pushed on rapidly 
until the 27th, when it went into camp at Columbia. On the 5th of 
January, 1865, the regiment marched to Clifton and embarked for Cin- 
cinnati, Ohio, and thence to Washington City by rail Embarking on 
steamer at Alexandria, the regiment sailed to Fort Fisher, N. C, and dis- 
embarked. From Fort Fisher, the regiment embarked for Morehead City, and 
thence went by rail to Newbern, N. C. On the 8th of March, the enemy was 
encountered at Wise's Forks, and abandoned the field in great confusion. 
The One Hundred and Thirtieth took a prominent part in this engage- 
ment, and moved immediately after its close to Kingston, and on the 20th 
of March moved to Goldsboro. Leaving this place, it went to Smithfield, 
and thence to Raleigh, where it arrived April 14. From Raleigh, the regi- 
ment moved to Greensboro, thence to Charlotte, where it went into camp. 
During the summer and fall of 1865, the regiment was employed in 
guard duty at Charlotte. On the 2d of December. 1865, the regiment 


was mustered out of service at this place, and arrived at home on the 13th. 
Upon its arrival, it was greeted with a public reception. Its members, on 
receiving final payment and discharge, left for home. 

On the 28th of April, 1864, Mr. T. C. Philips received the following 

teleffram : 

Twenty thousand vohinteers to serve one liundreJ days in the army of the United 
States are called for from Indiana. Will you please consult with the patriotic citizens 
of your county, and take such steps as will insure the raising of the men as speedily as 
{lossible. Plan of organization by mail to-day. By order of the Govenor. 

William. H. Schlatkr, Col. and Military S^'.c. 


Harrison Stewart, who had been one of the first to volunteer in the 
three months' service, immediately began to recruit a company under this 
call. Failing to raise a full company, the men from this county were 
consolidated with a part of a company from Montgomery County, and be- 
came Company I, of the One Hundred and Thirty-fifth Regiment. Mr. 
Stewart was commissioned First Lieutenant, This regiment departed for 
Tennessee in the latter part of May, 1864. 

In a few days after the organization of the above company, anothei* 
full company reported ready for service, Avith B. Busby, Captain ; Milton 
Garrigus, First Lieutenant, and Daniel G. Wilkins, Second Lieutenant. 
This company proceeded at once to Indianapolis, and became Company C, 
of the One Hundred and Thirty-seventh Regiment. In the organization 
of the regiment, Mr. Garrigus was promoted Adjutant.' This regiment 
also proceeded to Tennessee. Both regiments,- on arriving at Nashville, 
were assigned to duty along the lines of the railroad used by Gen. Sherman 
for the transportation of supplies to his army, then advancing on Atlanta. 
Both these regiments served beyond the period of one hundred days, 
and returned to Indianapolis, where they were finally discharged from 


On the 26th and 27th of October, 1864, a second draft took place at 
Kokomo, for six townships. The following was the result by town- 
ships, being double the number of men necessary to fill the quota of each: 
Clay, 18 men ; Honey Creek, 28 men ; Jackson, 22 men ; Liberty, QQ 
men ; Monroe, 68 menj Union, 78 men ; Howard and Taylor Town- 
ships were exempt from this draft, having more than their quota of men 
in the field. Centre, Harrison and Ervin, though in arrears, were not 
drawn at this time., and in a few days they raised a sufficient sum of 
money (about $10,000 each) by voluntary subscription to procure substi- 
tutes, and thus filled their quotas and were freed from the draft. 



At the expiration of his term of service in the One Hundred and 
Thirty-seventh Regiment, M. Garrigus at once set about organizing an- 
other company, with headquarters at Indianapolis. A few men from this 
county joined this company, which, when organized, became Company I, 
of the One Hundred and Forty-second Regiment,which enlisted for one year 
under the call of July, 1864. Mr. Garrigus was commissioned Captain 
and Timothy Scott Second Lieutenant. 


A meeting was held at James' Hall, in Kokomo, on Saturday after- 
noon, January 7, 1865, and organized by calling Michael Thompson, of 
Jackson Township, to the chair, and appointing A. B. Walker, of Center, 

At this meeting, the following resolutions were adopted, with slight op- 

Whereas, The President of the United States has called for 300,000 more men and 
has limited the time of raising them by volunteering to the 15th of February next, and 

Whereas, The Governor of Indiana has permission to raise eleven new regiments in 
this State, and the time for raising same has been limited to the 7th of February next, and 

Whereas, The citizens of other counties are moving actively in the matter by paying 
liberal bounties, by appropriation from their County Commissioners, thus securing for 
themselves the available men who are in their own midst as well as in other localities , 
thereby rendering it entirely out of the question and impossible for those counties not 
paying a local bounty to secure any credits whatever, thus leaving all such counties one 
way only to fill their quotas, and that by draft, and 

Whereas, It, is the opinion and sense of this meeting th'it, it is the surest, most reli- 
able, equitable and expeditious way of raising a fund to pay a local bounty, to have our 
County Commissioners make an appropriation. Thus making the burden of this work in 
which all should be interested, Ml equally upon all in proportion to the ability of each 
individual to pay. Therefore, be it 

Resolved, By this meeting, that we hereby request our County Commissioners to make 
an appropriation of a sufficient amount of money to pay a local bounty of .$800 to each 
and every volunteer necessary to fill the quota of this county. 

In a few days after this meeting, the County Commissioners were 
called together by the Auditor, but after a consultation adjourned with- 
out taking any action whatever, excepting to adjourn till February 6. 
In the meantime, the Governor had extended the time for raising the re- 
quired number of troops, a few days. Large bounties were being paid in 
adjoining counties, and our boys were leaving and volunteering elsewhere. 
The people were becoming thoroughly aroused and alarmed, and on Mon- 
day morning, February 6, the day appointed by the Commissioners to 
meet again in special session, at a very early hour the people began to 
flock into Kokomo in great numbers, highly excited over the prospect oi 
the draft. They saw that Howard County would be depopulated, and 


preferred taxation rather than that their farms should lie uncultivated for 
want of help. A meeting of the people convened at an early hour in 
James' Hall, the largest in the city, and it was crowded to its utmost 
capacity. Upon a vote being taken, only four persons voted against pay- 
ing a county bounty. The Commissioners were present at this meeting 
and seeing that the people were almost of one mind, at once held a meet- 
ing and placed upon record the following order: 

It is this day ordereil by the Commissioners of Howard County, Ind., that an appro- 
priation of $08,000 be and the same Is hereby made and ordered for the purpose of 
mining a local bounty of $400 to each and every volunteer who may enlist in the military 
service of the United States under the call of the President of the United States for 300,- 
000 men, bearing date December 19, 18G4. 

This appropriation shall be made in county orders, signed and issued by the Aud- 
itor of said county, and in sums ranging from $10 to flOO each. Said orders to be 
paid within one year, or as soon thereafter as the money to pay the same can be col- 
lected for that purpose by taxation. This appropriation to be paid to the several 
towuirhips in proportion to llie number of men required from each township to fill 
said call. And if the entire quota of said county shall not be filled by volunteers, 
then the number that have volunteered to be apportioned to the several townships 
in proportion to the number of men required from each. 

It is further ordered that the County Auditor aforesaid shall issue said county or- 
ders to regular appointed agents of each and every township of the county, when 
they shall deposit with the Auditor a certificate or receipt that money enough has 
been collected to cover the amount of the order or orders, called for by said town- 
ship, provided, however, that if volunteers wish to take orders in lieu of money they 
have that privilege. 

It is further ordered that all volunteers obtained from other than Howard County 
are to be credited to the several townships in proportion to the quotas required. It 
is further ordered that Ithamer Russel be appointed to receive said funds and dis- 
burse the same whenever certificates are presented, showing that volunteers have been 
received and mustered into service and credited to Howard County, under this call. 

Signed, David Greason, 

Jerome Brown, 
John Moulder, 

County Comviissioners. 


After the adoption of the above, the last company raised in the coun- 
ty was recruited by Harrison Stewart. This was Company H, of the 
One Hundred and Fifty-third Regiment. The officers were Harrison 
Stewart, Captain; Aquilla Myers, First Lieutenant, and Henry B. Stew- 
art, Second Lieutenant, This regiment was organized at Indianapolis on 
the 1st of March, 1865, and left on the 5th for Nashville, but was stopped 
at Louisville by order of Gen. Palmer, and sent to Russellville, where it 
was sent out in detachment to Hopkinsville, Bowling Green and other 
points in that section of country. Company H was at different times 
engaged in fighting guerrillas, but sustained no losses. On the 16th of 


June, the regiment returned to Louisville and was assigned to duty at 
Taylor Barracks, where it remained until September 4, 1865, when it 
was mustered out of service. It was publicly welcomed home at Indian- 
apolis on the 6th, in the capitol grounds. Speeches were made bv Gen. 
Mansfield, Hon. John H. Farquar and Col. Nelson Trusler. 


On the 4th of March, 1861, when Mr. Lincoln was inaugurated Pres- 
ident of the United States, he stood in the midst of frowning traitors, with 
open rebellion staring him full in the face. Hands were already clutching 
the banner of our country, ready to drag it to dishonor, and the people 
stood aghast with fear. Now four years, the most eventful years the na- 
tion had ever known, had rolled away, and in 1865 the 4th of March had 
come again, and the plain, care-worn Illinois lawyer was once more inau- 
gurated in that office, which, in spite of all rebellion, is still the proudest 
and noblest office on earth. This time he had stolen through on no mid- 
night train to avoid assassins. He was surrounded by no small guard 
trembling with fear, but a magnificent army Avas at his bidding, warm 
friends stand where traitors stood before. The hand of treason had been 
stricken from our banner and the "flag of the seas" flaunted its colors on 
every ocean. Grant, with a powerful army, was battering down the last 
walls of rebellion in front of Richmond ; a black smoke rising to the skies 
marked the track of the army, famous for its great "march to the sea;" 
while Sheridan, the fearless hero of Murfreesboro, Chickamauga and 
Missionary Ridge, was thundering down the Shenandoah Valley, spread- 
ing ruin and desolation. On the morning of the 2d of April, the stars 
and stripes waved over Richmond and Petersburg. On the 9th, over- 
taken and seeing no hope of, escape, Lee agreed to surrender. On the 
morning of the 10th, the story of Appomattox reached Howard County 
and fairly set the people wild with joy. The Tribune of April 13, 1865, 

Last Monday was that "happy clay" that the people have been siu^ing about for 
several years. It was the happiest day that the people of this generation ever experi- 
enced. The enthusiasm extended over the entire country, and the people everywhere 
rejoiced. Our town was all ablaze on Monday night. Bonfires lighted up the streets; 
thou.sands of burning candles were in the windows. Old and young were on the streets; 
gentlemen congratulated each other. Old enemies met and buried the past. Ladies 
sang patriotic songs, and Rev. Mr. .Jenkins, Elder Hobbs and others made brief speeches. 
Everi body felt good, glorious and festive. At a late hour, the greater number of those on 
the streets began to move homeward, feeling just as happy as they well could feel, while, 
many went in out of the cold and kept up their rejoicing until the early hours of morn- 
ing. It was indeed a glorious day and evening, made glorious by the brilliant achievements 
of our gallant army on Sunday, April 9. Hurrah for the Fourth of July, the 9th of 
April, Yankee Doodle and Yankee army ! 



" The brightest joy brings sometimes deepest sorrow." While the 
nation was still rejoicing, he who had stood proudly at the helm through 
all the perils of the long, dark night of war, and was just now beginning 
to see the sunlight of peace dawn once more on a distracted land, was 
vilely shot by a half-mad actor named John Wilkes Booth. He was 
dead, but his words, " With malice toward none, with charity for all, 
with firmness in the right, as God gives us to see the right, let us strive 
on to finish the work we are in, to bind up the nation's wounds, * * * 
to do all which may achieve and cherish a just and lasting peace among 
ourselves and all nations," will live forever, and stamp him the most gea- 
erous conqueror the world ever knew. 

On the 19th of April, 1865, the day set apart by the Governmeut 
for the funeral ceremonies of this great and good man, the Rev. C. Mar- 
tindale was selected by the people of this community to preach a befitting 
and appropriate sermon, which he did in the Methodist Episcopal Church 
in Kokomo, choosing the following text: "Clouds and darkness are 
"round about him, righteousness and judgments are the habitation of his 
throne — " (Psalms xcvii, 2). In his closing remarks, he said: 

On this memoi'iible occasion, we should resolve to live for God and humanity. Let the 
memory of Lincoln aud Washington arouse us to action; let the blood of the heroes of 
'76 and '61-64 cry in our ears ; let the dangers and struggles of the past teach us lessons 
of wisdom. Especially let the munier of our b.doved Chief Magistrate, Abraham Lincoln, 
arouse us to crush treason and slavery, and to teach us to trust the living God, as the 
Ruler of our great nation. Four years ago Mr. Lincoln left his quiet home in the West to 
assume the great duties required at his hands, appealing to heaven for help and asking 
the prayers of the pious. Assassins sought his life then, but God protected him till his 
work was done. Now he returns to his boyhood home again ; though fallen, he goes a 
conqueror. He has freed 4,000,000 bondmen and saved a nation, and now, amid sor- 
rows such as were not felt at the death of Washington, he goes to his long, last repose 
where the boom of the cannon, the tramp of the armed host, the groan of the bondman 
or the hand of the assassin shall not disturb his repose. Peaceful be his rest, quiet 
his repose. Softly whisper the winds of the West around the grave of Abraham Lin- 
coln, the second Washington of America and the worlds great liberator. 


Tuesday, July 4, 1865, was the day set apart for extending a 
formal welcome home to our brave boys after a service of four years in 
the army of the Union. Great preparations had been made to make 
this a happy day to citizen and soldier. At 5 o'clock in the morning, a 
loud report from the cannon on the public square reminded the people 
that the glorious day had dawned. Soon the city was astir ; some vil- 
lain had spiked the gun in the night or the exercises would have begun 
an hour sooner. By 9 o'clock, the streets were crowded with people ; at 



10 o'clock, a large procession of soldiers, under command of Col. Blanche, 
marched to the grove on the east of the city, followed by the artillery 
squad and a large concourse of citizens. Col. Richmond, the Chief Mar- 
shal, called the assemblage to order and introduced Rev. Mr. Martindale, 
who announced the old familiar hymn, " Am I a Soldier of the Cross," 
which was sung with much spirit; Mr. Martindale then led in prayer, 
and was followed by a national air by the band ; then the gallant Mets- 
ker, of the old Seventy-fifth, stepped forward and, in a loud voice, read 
the Declaration of Independence. Elder Hobbs was then introduced to 
the audience, and delivered an eloquent oration. The Tribune, of July 
6, complimented the oration as being one of the finest ever delivered in 
this city. Elder Hobbs paid a glowing tribute to the memory of those 
who had fallen in defense of our liberties ; and to those who had been 
spared to return he gave cheery welcome, and said : " For all the grand 
results of the past four years, under God, we are indebted to the armies 
and navies under the stars and stripes. The soldiers have suffered much 
in battle, in loathsome prisons and dreadful marches, but God gave them 
victory at last." The speaker then concluded his address by repeating 
the following lines of- welcome, which he had hastily composed for the 

occasion : ,„, . , *i, u v • ui 

inrice welcome the brave bovs in blue. 

With your banners all torn, yet true, 

Welcome ye sons of patriot sires — 

Now rekindle the sacred fires. 

From year to year renew the flame 

Until fair Columbia's name 

Shall be in every land revered, 

And shall on ev'ry sea be feared. 

Welcome, thrice welcome all ye braves. 

This the land of our fathers' graves. 

A goodly land, by them blood-bought, 

Came to us unearned, unsought. 

But now, bravely thro' freedom's war 

You've borne their flag, nor lost a star. 

After this eloquent address, dinner was announced. Baskets of luxuries 
had been prepared in nearly every loyal home in Howard County, and 
the committee had tastefully arranged the tables in the public square, so 
that all could be accommodated. The soldiers and their families were 
first given places, and afterward the citizens. This was a sumptuous repast, 
and all partook freely, and though hundreds were served, there was enough 
left for as many more. After dinner, the crowd re-assembled at the 
grounds, and speeches were made by Judge Linsday and Capt. M. Garri- 
gus. In the evening, there was quite a display of fire-works, and the 
cannon sent its echoes far into the night. Everybody felt happy when 
the day was done. 



The great civil war was now at an end — '' a war," says Alexander 11. 
Stephens, in his History of the United States, " waged by the Federals, 
with the sole object, as they declared, of maintaining the Union under the 
Constitution ; while by the Confederates it was waged with the great object 
of maintaining the inestimable sovereign right of local self-government 
on the part of the peoples of the several States, ft was the most lament- 
able, as well as the greatest of modern wars, if not the greatest, in some 
respects, 'known in the history of the human race.' It lasted four years 
and a little over, as we have seen, with numerous sanguinary conflicts 
and heroic exploits on both sides, many of which will live in memory and 
be perpetuated as legends, and thus be treasured up as the themes for 
story and song for ages." 

This opinion we freely grant Mr. Stephens, and further state that the 
war, which was the nation's blessing in disguise, has forever 
swept away the great first cause. The United States has taken a great 
stride forward. Our flag has been avenged, and, though it cost much blood, 
we have freely welcomed back under its folds those who madly fought to 
destroy the proud monument of their fathers. Though they got ruin — 
desolation — the death of countless thousands and the destruction of mill- 
ions of property, they got a blessing, for " upward through the blood 
and ashes spring afresh the Eden flowers." They have been baptized, as 
by fire, into a new life, and though they may never build up their old 
homes and their old civilization, they can and they will build better of 

Four years of war demonstrated that intelligent, peaceful citizens of 
a free republic make the bravest of soldiers ; and now eighteen years of 
peace have demonstrated that the same brave soldiers make the best of 
citizens. In this county, the oflfices of trust and honor have been placed 
largely in the hands of our citizen-soldiery since the war, and they have 
never been dishonored. In all public enterprises, the former soldiers freely 
bear their part. They are charitable and benevolent, nor do they forget 
their fallen comrades and brothers who now slumber in our cemeteries, 
but annually, on Decoration Day, do they go, 

" Lovingly laden with flowers," 
no matter whether in storm or in sunshine, and strew those silent tokens 
of love and affection upon the graves, and over and over again recount the 
strange, sad story that makes those lives glorious, even in death. A 
beautiful circular mound in Crown Point Cemetery has been dedicated 
to our fallen heroes, and some day, in the near future, we hope to see 
erected upon it a monument that shall have inscribed upon it the name of 
every soldier that fell in defense of his country, with room enough left 



for the names of those who. still surviving their comrades, will, one by 
one, as the years go on, be borne to the tomb. 

In conclusion we cry all hail to our heroes, to our nation, and our 
banner, the stars and stripes ! Under that flag, Washington conquered 
at Yorktown and Jackson at New Orleans; under that flag, McDonough 
and Perry humbled the haughty pride of Britain on Erie and Champlain ; 
under that flag, Jones and Decatur swept the sea. And never shall that 
bright flag that was flaunted by Taylor on the heights of Monterey, and 
by Scott over the Halls of the Montezumas — that flag that was borne to 
victory, backed by more than a million loyal hearts and bristling bayonets 
from 1861 to 1865 — be surrendered, but shall live to the end of time to 
wave in triumph over a prosperous and united people. 

Howard's regimental representation. 

The following are the regiments in which Howard County soldiers 
were represented: 6th, 8th, 12th, 13th, 15th, 20th, 21st (1st Heavy 
Artillery), 26th, 34th, 36th, 39th (8th Cavalry), 46th, 47th, 51st, 57th, 
60th, 63d, 73d, 75th, 77th (4th Cavalry), 79th, 86th, 87th, 89th, 90th 
(5th Cavalry), 99th, 126th (11th Cavalry), 130th, 131st (13th Cavalry), 
135th, 137th, 140th, 142d, 153d, 155th, 28th (Colored), 8th (U. S. 
Colored) and 17th Battery. 

The following table is a statement of quotas and credits in Howard 
County under calls of February 1, March 14, and July 18, 1864, as 
shown by the Adjutant-General's reports: 
























>» h 










c3 aj 






























































































H arrison 




Honey Creek 






















































The following is a statement of quotas and credits in Howard County, 
under call of December 19', 1864, for 300,000 men, as shown by the Ad- 
jutant General's reports : 












































X! . 















i^ a 
'■5 S 






































































Honey Creek 


































Amount expended for local bounties, for relief of soldiers' families, 
and for miscellaneous military purposes by the county of Howard and 


Howard County 

Center Township 

Clay Township 

Ervin Township 

Harrison Township 

Howard Township 

Honey Creek Township. 

Jackson Township 

Liberty Township 

Monroe Township 

Taylor Township 

Union Township 


Grand Total. 











201 ,365 















The following list contains the name, rank and promotion of each 
officer that went to the army from this county. Also the number of the 


regiment, the letter of the company, the date of commission and the time 
when mustered out of the service : 

Sixth Infantry (three months) — Thomas J. Harrison, commissioned 
Captain April 20, 1861 ; mustered out at expiration of term ; re-entered 
service as Colonel of the Thirty-ninth Regiment (Eighth Cavalry) ; date 
of commission, August 28, 1861 ; mustered out January 15, 1865 ; bre- 
vetted Brigadier General January 31, 1865. Thomas Herring, com- 
missioned First Lieutenant of Company D April 22, 1861, and 
mustered out at the expiration of term ; re-entered service as Cap- 
tain of Company D, Thirty-ninth Regiment; date of commission, 
September 2, 1861 ; promoted Major March 5, 1864: ; promoted Lieu- 
tenant Colonel January 20, 1865, and mustered out with regiment. 
William R. Philips, commissioned Second Lieutenant April 22, 1861, 
of Company D, and mustered out at expiration of term ; re-entered service 
as First Lieutenant of Company D, Thirty-ninth Regiment ; date of com- 
mission, September 2, 1861 ; killed, April 7, 1862, at Shiloh. 

Tivelfth Infantry (three years) — Alfred B, Taylor, commissioned 
Assistant Surgeon August 7, 1862; mustered out June 8, 1865; term 

Tkirteenth Infantry (three years) — Thomas M. Kirkpatrick, com- 
missioned Captain Company E April 25, 1861 ; mustered out August 22, 
1864 ; term expired. Barnabas Busby, commissioned First Lieutenant 
Company E April 25, 1861 ; resigned December 4, 1862. Nathaniel 
P. Richmond, commissioned Second Lieutenant of Company E April 25, 
1861 ; promoted Lieutenant Colonel of the First West Virginia Cavalry. 

Twentieth Regiynent (three years) — Charles D. Murray, commis- 
sioned First Lieutenant Company A July 23, 1861 ; resigned, and re- 
entered service as Colonel of the Eighty-ninth Regiment ; date of com- 
mission, August 28, 1862; dismissed April 18, 1865; restored by War 
Department April 28, 1865 ; mustered out with regiment. John W. 
Yanderbank, commissioned Second Lieutenant of Company I June 6, 
1863 ; promoted Captain of Company K of the Twentieth (re-organized) 
Regiment ; date of commission, December 2, 1864 ; mustered out with 

Twenty-firBt Regiment (First Heavy Artillery) — Tipton D. Clary, 
commissioned Second Lieutenant of Company L December 23, 1863 ; 
promoted First Lieutenant and commissioned September 9, 1864. 

Thirtyfourth Regiment — Jacob S. White, commissioned Surgeon, 
September 13, 1861 ; resigned December 23, 1862. Daniel W. Taylor, 
commissioned Assistant Surgeon September 25, 1861 ; promoted Sur- 
geon December 24, 1862 ; . resigned July 5, 1865. William W. 
Stephenson, commissioned Second Lieutenant of Company H April 5, 



1862; promoted First Lieutenant; date of commission, September 1, 
1862 ; then promoted Captain of Company G ; date of commission, Sep- 
tember 20, 1868; transferred as Captain of Company H; date of com- 
mission, September 20, 1863 ; resigned April 12, 1865. John 0. Har- 
desty was commissioned Second Lieutenant of Company H February 3, 
1863 ; promoted First Lieutenant September 20, 1863 ; promoted Cap- 
tain ; date of commission, April 13, 1865; resigned as First Lieutenant 
June 28, 1865. Thomas S. Terrell, commissioned Captain of Company 
H September 16, 1861 ; died July 26, 1863, at Memphis, Tenn. Har- 
rison Shannon, commissioned First Lieutenant of Company H August 1, 
1865. Joseph E. Libby, commissioned Second Lieutenant of Company 
H September 1, 1862 ; resigned February 2, 1863. Aaron Welty com- 
missioned Second Lieutenant Company H August 1, 1865. 

Thirty-ninth Regiment (Eighth Cavalry) — Thomas J. Harrison, 
commissioned Colonel August 28, 1861 ; mustered out January 15, 
1865 ; brevetted Brigadier General January 31, 1865. Thomas Herring, 
commissioned Captain of Company D September 2, 1861 ; promoted 
Major March 5, 1864 ; promoted Lieutenant Colonel ; date of commission, 
January 20, 1865 ; mustered out with regiment. Matthew C. Mill, com- 
missioned Adjutant March 5, 1864; mustered out January 1, 1865. 
John Bohan, commissioned Quartermaster August 30, 1861 ; mustered 
out October 4, 1864 ; term expired. Josiah Stanley, commissioned Sec- 
ond Lieutenant, Company D April 20, 1862 ; promoted Captain May 1, 
1864; mustered out January 1, 1865; term expired. Stephen D. 
Butler, commissioned Second Lieutenant of Company D September 2, 
1861 ; promoted First Lieutenant; date of commission, April 20, 1862; 
killed at Chickamauga September 20, 1863. Edward W. Scott, com- 
missioned First Lieutenant of Company D March 1, 1865 ; mustered 
out as Sergeant with regiment. George T. Ogden, commissioned Second 
Lieutenant of Company D March 1, 1865 ; promoted Captain of same 
company ; date of commission, August 1, 1865 ; mustered out with regi- 
ment. William D. Ward, commissioned Second Lieutenant of Company 
B August 1, 1865 ; mustered out with regiment. John Pearson, com- 
missioned as Captain of Company D March 1, 1865 ; mustered out with 
regiment. Noah Downs, commissioned Second Lieutenant of Company 
I March 1, 1865 ; mustered out with regiment. 

Fifty-first Regiment — Marion Anderson, commissioned Second 
Lieutenant Company D April 30, 1862; promoted Captain ; date of com- 
mission, December 11, 1862; resigned, June 16, 1865. Evan E. Sharp, 
commissioned First Lieutenant Company D April 30, 1862 ; honorably 
discharged March 24, 1865, under Circular 75, War Department. 

Fifty-seventh Regiment — Willis Blanche, commissioned Captain 


Co.,pa„y G October 80, 1861 ; promoted Major; date of commission, 

Jut"7l86S ' 'Tn'^f I--'--' Colonel ; date of commission 

July _», 1863; promoted Colonel; date of commission, June 24 1864- 
resigned May 1, 1865; cause, disability. Tnnothy Leeds, commissioned 
F,rst L.eutenant of Company G October 80, 1861; promoted Captain of 
same company; date of commission, February 21, 1863; promoted 
Major; date of, May 3, 1865; promoted Lieutenant Colonel • 
date o commission, June 1, 1865. John H. Terrell, commissioned Adiu- 
tant May 3, 1865. Joim S. Summers, con,missioned First Lieutenant 
of Company I January 24. 1863; promoted Captain; date of comrais- 

1865 W-ll' '*^'', P™r"^-^ M^J"; '1* of commission, June 1, 
1865. Wilham K. Iloback, commissioned Captain of Company H Oc 
ober .0, 1861; resigned March 20, 186.3, to accept a Cha'^laincv ; 
date of commission, February 20, 1868 ; resigned October 26, 1868 ^ 
cause, disability. James Leonard, commissioned Chaplain April 5,' 

H n: I i7\ of' <"'"'">'«^'°'"^'l Second Lieutenant of Company 
H November 14,1 62; promoted Captain ; date of commission, March 
^1, 1863; resigned June 17, 1864; cause, disability. William T Sew- 
ar,l commissioned First Lieutenant of Company A September 1, 
1864; promoted Captain; date of commission, March 19 1865- re 
signed June 11, 1865; cause, personal business. Joel H. Iloback, 'c„m- 
ZTof 1^6? ^"'"'^»;"' Company II October 80, 1861; resigned 
Marlil 78.1 '*"'°' ''"'f '"'y^ ^«^i« commissioned First Lieutenant 
luarch Zl, 1863; promoted Captain June 18, 1864. Robert T Becket 
commissioned Second Lieutenant Corap.,ny I January 21 1862- re' 
signed March 27. 1862 ; cause, disability. Enoch R. Adams'on, commis- 
sioned Second Lieutenant of Company G December 13, 1862; promoted 
iirst Lieutenant; date of commission, February 12. 1863- resigned 
November 22 1864; cause, disability. Benjamin' F. Rhoad; cZis 
sioned First Lieutenant of Company G December 17, 1864; promoted 
Captain; date of commission. June 18. 1864, John W. Garner com 
missioned First Lieutenant of Company G May 3, 1865. John L ' Hall 
commissioned Second Lieutenant of Company G October 30 1861 • re- 
signed December 12, 1862; cause, disability. William E. Todhumer 
commissioned Second Lieutenant February 12, 1863; resigned Septem! 
ber 25, 1864; cause, disability. Samuel G. Woodfill, commissioned 
Second Lieutenant of Company G June 1, 1865 

SMeth Eeifiment-ChavhsM. Murray,' commissioned Second 
Lieutenant Company K January 20, 1862 ; promoted First Lieutenant 
of same company April 3, 1863; promoted Captain of same company; 
date of commission, December 6, 1863; mustered out December 31, 
1864, on consolidation of regiment. Michael B. Cramer, commissioned 


First Lieutenant of Company K January 20, 1862; resignedJuly 3,1862. 
Sixti/-tJnrd Regiment — William Curlee, commissioned Second Lieu- 
tenant of Company K May 1, 1865 ; mustered out with regiment June 
21, 1865. 

Seventy-third Regiment — Wilson Daily, commissioned Second Lieu- 
tenant Company K July 24, 1864 ; mustered out with regiment. 

Seventy-fifth Regiment — James C Medsker, commissioned First 
Lieutenant of Company C July 28, 1862; promoted Adjutant; date of 
commission, August 20, 1862 ; mustered out with regiment. J. C. P. 
Negley, commissioned Assistant Surgeon August 20, 1862, but de- 
clined. Robert H. Buck, commissioned Assistant Surgeon Sep- 
tember 16, 1862; resigned April 23, 1863; re-entered service as 
Surgeon of the One Hundred and Eighteenth Regiment ; date 
of commission, September 19, 1863; mustered out when term ex- 
pired. Francis M. Bryant, commissioned Captain of Company C 
July 28, 1862 ; died December 2, 1863, of wounds received at Missionary 
Ridge. Irvin Poison, commissioned Second Lieutenant of Company C 
August 21, 1862 ; promoted First Lieutenant; date of commission, Au- 
gust 2, 1863 ; promoted Captain ; date of commission, November 26, 
1863 ; mustered out with regiment. Daniel D. Downs, commissioned 
Second Lieutenant of Company C July 28, 1862 ; promoted First Lieu- 
tenant; date of commission, August 21,1862; resigned August 1, 1863. 
George W. Holton, commissioned Second Lieutenant May 1, 1865 ; 
mustered out with regiment. 

Seventy-ninth Regiment — William C Shortridge, commissioned 
Quartermaster August 11, 1862 ; resigned April 23, 1863. 

Eighty-ninth Regiment — Charles D. Murray, commissioned Colonel 
August 28, 1862 ; dismissed, April 18, 1865 ; restored by War De- 
partment April 28, 1865; mustered out with regiment. Jesse T. Cox, 
commissioned Assistant Surgeon February 15, 1865 ; mustered out with 
regiment. Harles Ashley, commissioned Quartermaster November 3, 
1862 ; killed November 1, 1864, by guerrillas. John E. Williams, commis- 
sioned Captain of Company D August 9, 1862; resigned November 5, 1864. 
Garah Markland, commissioned First Lieutenant of Company D August 
9, 1862 ; promoted to Captain; date of commission, November 6, 1864; 
mustered out with regiment. Oliver P. Moulder, commissioned First 
Lieutenant of Company D December 14, 1864 ; mustered out with regi- 
ment. William H. Styer, commissioned Second Lieutenant of Company 
D August 9, 1862 ; resigned October 20, 1863 ; William Burnes, com- 
missioned Captain of Company F August 13, 1862 ; resigned January 15, 
1863. John T. Stewart, commissioned Second Lieutenant of Company 
F August 13, 1862; promoted First Lieutenant December 26, 1862; 


promoted Captain ; date of commission, January 16, 1863 ; mustered 
out with regiment. Benjamin F. Havens, commissioned First Lieutenant 
of Company F August 13, 1862 ; resigned December 25, 1862. James M. 
Armantrout, commissioned Second Lieutenant December 26, 1862 ; 
promoted First Lieutenant ; date of commission, January 16, 1863 ; 
died February 17, 1863, of disease. Hugh Willits, commissioned 
Second Lieutenant of Company F January 16, 1863 ; promoted First 
Lieutenant; date of commission, February 24, 1863; died in hospi- 
tal at Nashville February 17, 1865, of disease. Hezekiah H. Winslow, 
commissioned Second Lieutenant Company F February 24, 1863 ; 
promoted First Lieutenant February 15, 1865 ; mustered out with reg- 
iment. Bedford W. Gifford, commissioned Captain of Company G Aug- 
ust 16, 1862 ; killed in battle of Yellow Bayou, La., May 18, 1864. 
William A. Hunt, commissioned Captain Company G, May 19, 1864 ; 
killed by guerrillas, June 23, 1864. Jeremiah P. Brown, commissioned 
Second Lieutenant Company G August 16, 1862; promoted First Lieu- 
tenant ; date of commission, December 26, 1863 ; died of wounds re- 
ceived in action June 3, 1864. William M. Gifford, commissioned First 
Lieutenant Company G December 26, 1864 ; discharged as Sergeant 
March 17, 1865, on account of wounds. 

Ninetieth Regiment (Fifth Cavalry) — Jacob P. C. Negley, commis- 
sioned First Lieutenant Company A August 13, 1862 ; commissioned 
Assistant Surgeon of the Seventy-fifth Regiment August 20, 1862, but 
declined, and was honorably discharged November 25, 1863. Ferdi- 
nand Dorsch, commissioned Second Lieutenant August 13, 1862 ; super- 
numerary ; mustered out by order of the War Department, May 16, 1863. 

One Hundred and Eighteenth (Six Months' Regiment) — Joseph Bald- 
win, commissioned Captain of Company B July 28, 1863 ; mustered out 
when term expired. Benjamin Norman, commissioned Captain of Com- 
pany D July 4, 1863 ; mustered out, term expired ; re-entered service as 
Captain Company F, One Hundred and Fifty-fifth Regiment ; date of 
commission, April 11, 1865 ; mustered out with regiment. Harrison 
Stewart, commissioned First Lieutenant of Company D July 4, 1863 ; 
mustered out, term expired ; re-entered service as Captain Company H, 
One Hundred and Fifty-third Regiment ; date of commission, February 
23, 1865 ; mustered out with regiment. William J. Fallsner, commis- 
sioned Second Lieutenant of Company D July 4, 1863 ; mustered out 
when term expired. Samuel Richey, commissioned Second Lieutenant 
of Company I September 3, 1863; mustered out when term expired. 

One Hundred and Twenty-sixth Regiment (Eleventh Cavalry) — Abram 
C. Barnhart, commissioned Chaplain April 8, 1864 ; mustered out with 
regiment. John M. Garrett, commissioned Captain of Company E 


December 23, 1863 ; resigned February 20, 1865. William H. Sump- 
tion, commissioned First Lieutenant of Company E December 23, 1863 ; 
promoted Captain ; date of commission, March 1, 1865; resigned August 
14, 1865. Jesse A. Cate, commissioned Second Lieutenant Company E, 
December 23, 1863; promoted First Lieutenant; date of commission 
March 1, 1865 ; promoted Captiiin ; date of commission, August 15, 
1865; mustered out with regiment. William L. White, commissioned 
Second Lieutenant of Company E March 1, 1865; mustered out with 

One Hundred and Thirtietli Regiment — Elijah W. Penny, commis- 
sioned Captain of Company A January 20, 1864; promoted Major; date 
of commission, September 1, 1861; promoted Lieutenant Colonel; date of 
commission, April 1, 1865; mustered out with regiment. George W. 
Pattison. commissioned Assistant Surgeon March 1, 1861 ; promoted 
Surgeon; date of commission, July 20, 1861 ; mustered out with regiment. 
John B, Littler, commissioned First Lieutenant January 20, 1861 ; pro- 
moted Captain ; date of commission, September 1, 1861 ; mustered out 
with regiment. William S. Birt, commissioned Second Lieutenant Janu- 
ary 20, 1861; promoted First Lieutenant; date of commission, September 
1, 1864; resigned September 18, 1864. Edwin R. W. Truax, commis- 
sioned Second Lieutenant September 1, 1864 ; promoted First Lieuten- 
ant ; date of commission, March 1, 1865 ; mustered out with regiment. 

One Hundred and Thirty-first Regiment (Thirteenth Cavalry) — Rob- 
ert H. Buck, commissioned Surgeon June 30, 1864 ; resigned February 
4, 1865. Levi Hillis, commissioned First Lieutenant of Company G 
February 27, 1864; promoted Captain ; date of commission, October 1, 
1865 ; mustered out with regiment. 

One Hundred and Tliirty-fifth Regiment — Harrison Stewart, com- 
missioned First Lieutenant May 21, 1864; mustered out witii regiment. 

One Hu7idred and TJiirty-seventh Regiment — Barnabas Busby, com- 
missioned Captain of Company C May 12, 1864 ; mustered out with regi- 
ment. Milton Garrigus, commissioned First Lieutenant May 12, 1864 ; 
promoted Adjutant; date of commission, May 25, 1864; mustered out 
with regiment. Daniel Wilkins, commissioned Second Lieutenant May 
12, 1864 ; promoted First Lieutenant ; date of commission. May 26, 1864; 
mustered out with regiment. Samuel W. Thornton, commissioned Second 
Lieutenant May 26, 1864 ; mustered out with regiment. 

One Hundred and Forty-second Regiment — Milton Garrigus, com- 
missioned Captain Company I November 3, 1861 ; mustered out with 
regiment. Timothy Scott, commissioned Second Lieutenant Company I 
November 3, 1864; mustered out with regiment. 

One Hundred and Fifty-third Regiment — Isaac C. Johnson, com- 


missioned Assistant Surgeon March 7, 1865; mustered out with regiment. 
Harrison Stewart, commissioned Captain of Company H February 23, 
1865 ; mustered out with regiment. Henry B. Stewart, commissioned 
Second Lieutenant February 22, 1865 ; mustered out with regiment. 
Aquilla Myers, commissioned First Lieutenant February 22, 1865 ; 
mustered out with regiment. 

"How sleep the brave, who sink to rest 
By all their country's wishes blest! 
When spring, with dewy fingers cold, 
Returns to deck their hallowed mold. 
She there shall dress a sweeter sod 
Than Fancy's feet have ever trod. 

By fairy hands their knell is rung; 
By forms unseen their dirge is sung; 
There Honor comes, a pilgrim gray, 
To bless the turf that wraps their clay; 
And Freedom shall awhile repair, 
To dwell a weeping hermit there." 

Thirteenth Infantry — William H. Bates, died at Indianapolis July 14, 
1861 ; Thomas Bogue, killed at Allegheny December 13, 1861 ; John 
Burns, died June 6, 1862, of wounds received at Allegheny; Francis 
M. Hardesty, died at Cheat Mountain Pass September 3, 1861 ; Daniel 
Helms, died at Suffolk, Va., November 3, 1862 ; Mark Helms, killed at 
Winchester March 23, 1862; Jonathan Hockstedler, killed at Win- 
chester March 23, 1862; William Honner, died at Folly Island Janu- 
ary 26, 1864; Eleazer Jones, died at Cheat Mountain Pass September 
19, 1861; William Rader, killed at Winchester March 23, 1862; Will- 
iam Riffle, killed at Rich Mountain July 11, 1861 ; George L. J. Ring, 
died at Beaufort, S. C, October 4, 1863; Benjamin Seward, killed at 
Foster's farm May 20, 1864 ; William Shirley, died February 19, 1862, 
of wounds received at Allegheny ; John M. Simpson, died June 7, 1864, 
of wounds received at Cold Harbor. 

Thirty-fourth Infantry — John Brown, died at Nelson Barracks, Ky., 
February 22, 1862. Henry Brown, died at Buffalo, Ky., February 
11, 1866. Adam Ferrell, died at Vicksburg July 26, 1863; Will- 
iam Albertson, died at St. Louis July 22, 1863; George Burns, died 
at Louisville, Ky., March 20, 1862; Theodore P. Butcher, died 
while on furlough. May 16, 1862; John Hale, died at Buffalo, Ky., 
February 11, 1862 ; Silas A. Hoover, died at Louisville, Ky., February 
26, 1862; William J. Johnson, died at St. Louis, Mo., February 12, 
1863; Willianj Linvill, killed at Champion Hill May 16, 1863; Tobias 
M. Overholser, killed at Champion Hill May 16, 1863; David Proud, 


died at Nelson Barracks, Ky., February 15, 1862 ; Thomas S. Terrell, 
died July 26, 1863, at Memphis, Tenn.; Hiram Van Horn, died at St. 
Louis, Mo., October 13, 1862 ; Thomas P. Winterode, died at New Or- 
leans September 30, 1864. 

Thirty-ninth Regiment (Eighth Cavalry) — William R. Philips, killed 
at Shiloh April 7, 1862 ; Stephen D. Butler, killed at Chickamauga 
September, 20, 1863. Jacob Brown, died in prison at Florence, 
S. C, January 20, 1865; Elijah F. Colter, killed at Fairburn, Ga., 
August 19, 1862 ; Henry B. Colter, killed at Cannelton, Ga., Sep- 
tember 10, 1864 ; Benjamin C. Davis, died September 5, 1864, of 
wounds; James P. Davis, died at Louisville, Ky., December 31, 
1861; Herrick Hoback, died of wounds April 14, 1862 ; Milton Jones, 
died of wounds September 9, 1863, at Stone River; Fauzy Julien, died 
January 23, 1863, of wounds received at Stone River; Thomas F. 
Julien, died at Nashville, Tenn., September 14, 1862 ; William H. Bin- 
der, died April 27, 1862, of wounds received at Shiloh ; George Mc- 
Kinsey, died at Nashville July 11, 1864 ; Nicholas Mulvany, died at 
Savannah, Ga., March 16, 1865 ; Erwin W. Richardson, killed at 
Pulaski September 27, 1864; Richard J. Ricks, died at Louisville 
December 4, 1864; Charles Robertson, died at Nashville September 5, 
1863 ; John W. Shilling, died of wounds received at Stone River ; AVill- 
iam Stanley, died January 9, 1863, of wounds received at Stone River; 
Uriah Snyder died at home May 5, 1864 ; Ausborn E. Thompson, died 
at Louisville February 28, 1862 ; Henry H. Thornburg, died at Hub- 
bard's Cove August 31, 1862 ; William F. Tyler, died at Nashville Sep- 
tember 22, 1864; Jeremiah Washburne, killed by bushwhackers Septem- 
ber 14, 1863; Nathaniel F. Whitaker, died at Murfreesboro June 16, 
1863; Samuel P. Witherow, died at Louisville, Ky., January 19, 1862. 

Fortieth Infantry — John M. Baly, died at JefFersonville, Ind., Jan- 
uary 7, 1865 ; William Burt, died at Camp Irving, Tex., August 14, 
1865; Levi Ellis, died at Huntsville, Ala., February 21, 1865; Louis 
W. Jones, died at Nashville December 16, 1864 ; Joel Law, died Janu- 
ary 23, 1865 ; Henry A. Pickering, died at Nashville March 24, 1865 ; 
Samuel Scales, died at Louisville February 18, 1865; William Smith, 
died of wounds at Nashville December 1, 1864. 

Fifty-seventh Infantry — John Adamson, killed in battle at Stone 
River December 31, 1862 ; John W. Adamson, veteran, killed in battle 
at Kenesaw June 23, 1864; Joseph Arnold, died at Kokomo, Ind., May 
18, 1862; Isaac Browning, died at Paducah, Ky., May 26, 1862; 
George Campbell, veteran, died at Big Shanty, Ga., July 29, 1864; 
John L. Colvin, died at Camp Irwin, Tex., October 14, 1865 ; William 
Dimitt, veteran, died at Chattanooga July 24, 1864. David H. Doug- 


lass, veteran, died at Memphis, April 28, 1865 ; Melvin C. Endecott, 
died at Corinth, Miss.; Robert A. Gordon, killed at Resaca, Ga., 
May 15, 1864; Andrew J. Harding, died November 16, 1862; John 
Hawkins, died at Quincy, 111., March 12, 1863 ; Joseph Higgins, killed 
at Pine Mountain, Ga., June 15, 1864; Willis Hilton, died at Nash- 
ville March 29, 1862 ; Andrew J. Langly, died at Chattanooga, Tenn., 
March 10, 1864; Samuel Mathers, veteran, killed in battle at Kenesaw 
June 18, 1864 ; Peter W. McReynolds, veteran, died at Louisville, Ky., 
August 24, 186 i; Stephen A. Miller, veteran, died at Chattanooga July 
5, 1864, of wounds ; Lewis Pike, veteran, lost on Steamer Sultana, April 

27, 1865; George T. Pike, veteran, killed near Nashville December 
16, 1864; Henry Ravel, died at Bardstown, Ky., March 30, 18^2; 
Andrew Rhoads, killed in battle at Stone River December 31, 1862; 
Lewis Snoddery, died of wounds in 1864 ; James Weaver, died at Mur- 
freesboro, Tenn., April 13, 1863; George D, Winders, died at Nash- 
ville January 13, 1863 ; James Yount, died June 4, 1863. 

Seventy-third Infantry — Henry H. Thornton, killed at Stone Riv- 
er December 31, 1862. 

Seventy -ffth Infantry — Emsly Bright, died at Nashville, Tenn., 
October 15, 1863 ; Francis M. Bryant, died December 2, 1863, of 
wounds received at Missionary Ridge ; Eli Burris, died at Gallatin, 
Tenn., February 20, 1863 ; John G. Coate, died at Chattanooga, Tenn., 
February 27, 1865 ; David M. Cox, died at Richmond, Va., February 
16, 1864; James Ellet, died at home February 20, 1863; John Fay, 
died at Louisville, Ky., December 7, 1863; George W. Hender- 
son, died at Murfreesboro, Tenn., March 26, 1863; Jacob Hin- 
kle, died at Gallatin, Tenn., January 20, 1863; John M. Hodson, died 
at Nashville, Tenn.; Benjamin Huff, died at Nashville, Tenn., Novem- 
ber 21, 1863; Henry Jones, died at Scottsville, Ky., January 5, 1863; 
Samuel McClure, died at Bowling Green, Ky., December 11, 1862; 
Henry Myers, died at Lebanon, Ky., September 5, 1862; Allen M. 
Paff, died at Louisville, Ky., October 11, 1862 ; John Smiley, died at 
New Albany, Ind., October 30, 1862; Hiram Stephens, died at Galla- 
tin, Tenn., February 23,1863; Thomas J. Stringer, died at Murfrees- 
boro, Tenn., March 6, 1863; Richard Templin, died at home February 

28, 1864; James Thorington, died at Richmond, Va., February 21, 
1864; Reuben Waldron, died at Gallatin, Tenn., February 17, 1863; 
James B. Whisler, died at Atlanta, Ga., November 1, 1863. 

Eighty- ninth Infantry — James L. Armantrout, died February 17, 
1863 ; Francis M. Beard, died in Howard County, October 27, 1862 ; 
William H. Bishop, killed at Yellow Bayou, May 7, 1864; Will- 
iam R. Brener, died at Jefferson Barracks, Mo., October 20, 1863 ; Jer- 


emiah P. Brown, died June 3, 1864, wounds ; John Carpenter, died 
March 1, 1863; William J. Carter, died near Canton, Miss., March 1, 
1864 ; Wesley Defenbaugh, died at Fort Pickering, Tenn., June 22, 

1863 ; Nathan M. Elmore, died of wounds received at Yellow Bajou, 
La., May 18, 1864 ; Harvey Earley, died April 10, 1863 ; Tilghman A. 
Farlow, died at Memphis, Tenn., June 20, 1864; Alexander Fleming, 
died June 25, 1863 ; William II. Fritz, died July 29, 1863 ; Bedford W. 
Gilford, killed May 18, 1864, at Yellow Bayou, La.; Thomas Gordon, 
died at Fort Pickering, Tenn., February 23, 1863; Hugh Heathcoat, 
killed at Munfordsville, Ky., September 14, 1862 ; Nicholas Hughes, 
died at Fort Pickering, Tenn., July 8, 1863; Richard M. Hughes, died 
at home January 10, 1863; William Hughes, died at Jefferson Barracks, 
Mo., December 17, 1864 ; William R. Hulse, died at Memphis, July 10, 

1864 ; William A. Hunt, killed June 23, 1864, by guerrillas; Henry T. 
Jennings, killed at Yellow Bayou, La., May 18, 1864 ; Reuben E. John- 
son, died at Nashville, Tenn., December 8, 1864; John M. Kane, died at 
New Albany, Ind,, September 28, 1862 ; Ulysses P. King, died at Fort 
Pickering, Tenn., August 10, 1862 ; George E. Knoble, died January 19, 
1863; Lewis Long, died at Memphis, Tenn., December 16, 1862; Allen 
McDannel, died August 15, 1864 ; Robert McReynolds, died at Memphis, 
Tenn., January 18, 1864 ; John F. Martin, died at Memphis, Tenn., 
March 16, 1864 ; David Morris, died at Fort Pickering, Tenn., August 
30,1863; La Fayette Morris, died at Woodsonville, Ky., October 24, 
1862 ; Francis M. O'Dowd, died in Andersonville Prison August 9, 1864 ; 
Benjamin F. Oiler, died at Fort Pickering, Tenn., May 26, 1863 ; Simon 
Peters, died at home December 28, 1862 ; James W. Plougbe, died at 
Andersonville, Ga., September 2, 1864 ; William H. Poif, died near 
Memphis, Tenn., December 12, 1862 ; Allen Ramsey, died at Memphis, 
Tenn., August 3, 1863 ; Erastus Ross, died at New Orleans June 22, 
1864, of wounds; Jesse Sanders, died at Memphis, Tenn., September 
23, 1864 ; Daniel Sheets, died July — , 1864 ; Adam Shepard, died 
November 15, 1862 ; John S. Springer, died at Memphis, Tenn., June 
5, 1864 ; Daniel W. Straugn, died September 18, 1863 ; William R. Tow, 
died August 9, 1864 ; Elijah E. Thrailkill, killed at Fort Pickering, Tenn., 
April 27, 1863 ; Charles N. Tyler, died at New Orleans March 11, 
1865 ; Nathan Wickersham, died at home, August 7, 1863 ; Hugh 
Willits, died February 17, 1865, of wounds in hospital at Nashville, 
Tenn.; William T. Wilson, died at home, October 18, 1862 ; William 
Yates, died May 18, 1863. 

Ninetieth Regiment (Fifth Cavalry) — John V. Champion, killed in 
East Tennessee, by bushwackers'in 1864 ; John S. Holler, died in An- 
dersonville Prison in 1864 ; Augustus Q. Myers, killed at Rheatown, 


Tenn., October, 1863; Jeremiah A. Starr, killed at Rheatown, Tenn., 
October, 1863. 

Ninety-ninth Infantry — Noah Gate, died of wounds received August 
15, 1864. 

One Hundred and First Regiment — Wiley Bagwell, died at Bacon 
Creek, Ky., November 20, 1862 ; Tidell Rush, died at Danville, Ky., 
October 25, 1862 ; Barrett Spray, died at Munfordsville, Ky., December 
16, 1862; George Sumption, died at Marietta, Ga., October 6, 1864. ' 

One Hundred and Eighteenth Infantry — Richard Bodle, died at Camp 
Nelson, Ky., January 5, 1861 ; Jefferson W. Carr, died at Camp Nel 
son, Ky., December 7, 1863 ; James L. Golding, died at Tazewell, Tenn. 
December 14, 1863 ; Ezeriah Hutson, died at Knoxville, Tenn., De 
cember 10, 1863 ; William J. Purois, died at Tazewell. Tenn., January 12 
1864, of starvation ; Emory Russell, died at Cumberland Gap, Tenn 
December 14, 1863 ; Milton E. Reiley,died at Powell River, Tenn., Jan 
uary 26, 1864 ; Ovid Youngs, died at Indianapolis, Ind., September 6, 

One Hundred and Twenty-sixth Regiment (Eleventh Cavalry) — Daw- 
son M. Brown, died at Nashville, Tenn., November 6, 1864 ; George 
W. Crewtherd, died at Indianapolis, Ind., March 31, 1864 ; Isaac Car- 
penter, died at Louisville, Ky., February 12, 1865 ; John W. Cochran, 
died at Indianapolis, Ind., March 5, 1864 ; Enoch Dale, died at Nash- 
ville, Tenn., December 26, 1864 ; James Hutlo, died at Louisville, Ky., 
May 2, 1865 ; Moses Hinkle, died at Nashville, Tenn., December 26, 
1864; James Hodson, died May 14, 1865; William King, died at 
Bellefonte Station, Ala., July 7, 1864; William Lindley, died at 
Kokomo, Ind., May 3, 1864; Henry M. Long, lost on Sultana, April 
27, 1865; Albert N. McCoy, died at Larkinsville, Ala., June 20, 
1864 ; Lloyd Pennington, died at Jeffersonville, Ind., January 12, 1865 ; 
George B. Pennington, died at Nashville, Tenn., March 13, 1865 ; 
Andrew J. Pierce, died at Nashville, Tenn., November 6, 1864 ; Israel P. 
Pool, died at Nashville, Tenn., October 22, 1864; Jacob Pool, died at 
New Albany, Ind., March 4, 1865 ; Charles L. Summers, died at Nash- 
ville, Tenn., December 22, 1864, of wounds; Robert Steward, died at 
Louisville, Ky., February 6, 1865. 

One Hundred and Thirtieth Infantry — Thomas N. Armstrong, died 
November 28, 1864, of wounds; Thomas H. Endicott, killed near 
Atlanta, Ga., August 5, 1864 ; William Elliot, died at Atlanta, Ga., 
October 18, 1864 ; George Boffman, died at Louisville, Ky., April 17, 
1865 ; John H. Denman, died at Nash^lle, Tenn., December 15, 1864 ; 
Joseph Godfrey, died at Kingston, Ga., August 15, 1864 ; William F. 
Havens, died at home February 29, 1864 ; Albert W. Hoke, killed by 


accident April 3, 1864 ; Nathan Maudlin, died at Chattanooga, Tenn., 
June 4, 1864 ; Thomas O'Neil, died at Knoxville, Tenn., September 16, 
1864; William T. Rolston, died at Chattanooga, Tenn., November 8, 
1864 ; John T. Shepherd, died at Kingston, Ga., June 5, 1864 ; Ruben 
J. Smith, killed at Nashville, Tenn., December 15, 1864 ; Jesse Swinger, 
died at Marietta, Ga., September 1, 1864 ; William White, Jr., died at 
Marietta, Ga., August 20, 1864. 

One Hundred and Thirty-first Megiineni (Thirteenth Cavalry) — 
George M. Burns, died at Cahaba Prison, Ala., January 5, 1865; Nich- 
olas Tow, died at Mobile, Ala., October 5, 1865. 

One Hundred and Thirty-fifth Infantry — Baker BofFman, died at 
Bowling Green, Ky., June 20, 1864. 

One Hundred and Fortieth Infantry — Jonathan Berry, died at New 
Albany, Lid., December 3, 1864, 

One Hundred and Forty-second Infantry — John H. Golding, died 
at Nashville, Tenn., April 17, 1865. 

One Hundred and Fifty- Third Infantry — William M. Floyd, died at 
Russellville, Ky., August 1, 1865 ; Levi Seward, died in Tipton County, 
August 18, 1865. 

Note. — Since the foregoing was written and placed in type, action has been taken by 
the Common Council of Kokomo in relation to the Cenotaph, which action will be found 
described in the following extract: 

Ata special meeting of the Common Council on Tuesday evening, June 12, 188:i, G. 
D. Tate introduced a resolution ceding to the county the round plat in Crown Point Cem- 
etery, known as the Cenotaph ground, on condition that a suitable memorial monument 
be erected thereon, which shall record the names of all soldiers who died in the Union 
service in the late war. The County Commissioners voted on yesterday $5,000 in equal 
installments to apply to the purchase of the proposed Cenotaph. The proposed Cenotaph 
is to be erected at a cost of not less than |10,000. It is proposed to raise the additional 
$5,000 by private contributions. The monument will be an honor to the county, as well 
as a grateful tribute to the dead who died for the old flag. Let the good work go bravely 
on. — The Kokomo Dixpatch. 



The present site of the beautiful city of Kokomo was first visited by 
a white man in the early part of the year 1842. In the spring of 1842, 
David Foster came here from Burlington, Carroll County, and in the 
center of Main street, near the Wild Cat, he erected a log cabin. This 
was a double cabin, in one end of which he and his family lived, and in 
the other of which he kept his supply of goods. He was then a full- 
fledged Indian trader. He thus became our first merchant, and uncon- 


sciously the founder of the city of Kokomo. A more unpromising place 
to build a town cannot well be imagined. A dense underbrush covered 
the earth so thick that the sunlight could not penetrate. To add to the 
unfavorable circumstances under which those old pioneers labored when 
commencing to clear away the dense forest, was the fact that the ground 
during all the wet season of the year was covered with water. Where the 
Essex House and Price's livery stable now stand, the water was three and four 
feet deep in the spring of the year. When the timber had been cut into 
logs, the passengers on foot would jump from one log to another to keep 
out of the mud and water. 

Mr. Foster lived in the log cabin first built by him until 1852, when he 
built the large frame house where he died, now owned by Mrs. Walsh. 
The next man who came here was Benjamin Newhouse, who became the 
first Auditor of Howard County, being elected in the fall of 1844. 

Benjamin Newhouse built his house on the southwest corner of Main 
and High streets, being the second house built in the town. A part of 
this house still stands as a reminder of " Auld Lang Syne." On Novem- 
ber 20, 1844, Corydon Richmond, Judge N. R. Linsday, Lewis Snell 
and James L. Barrett arrived in town. They had come by the " over- 
land ox team route " from Alexandria, Madison County. They came to 
provide homes for their families. As their experience was that of the 
ordinary pioneer, it will be given in part, that we may know how they 
fared. The first thing they did was to provide a place of shelter while they 
might remain. Their house was made of four posts in the ground, " clap- 
boards " on end for weather-boarding, and "clapboards" to cover the 
cabin. The door also served them for a table. They had no stove and 
no candles. A large log heap was kept burning in front of the shanty, 
day and night. This served them for both light and fuel. Dr. Rich- 
mond was unanimously elected cook, Judge Linsday "boss," and Snell 
and Barrett general work hands. The house of Lewis Snell was built at 
the corner of Union and Sycamore streets, where the Wills' property now 
stands ; Barrett's house was built where E. C. Scoven's property now 
stands ; Judge Linsday's property was on the west side of Union street, 
half-way between Sycamore and High streets ; Dr. Richmond's house, 
which was a little more aristocratic, was a story and a half log building. 
To show the amount of labor expended on one of the houses, it is but 
necessary to say that the house of Lewis Snell was 16x16 feet. The roof- 
ing material was ready, and on Monday morning the foundation was 
laid, and on Tuesday evening the house was ready for occupancy by 
his family. The house-building of this quartette closed by the building 
of the house of Dr. Richmond. It was here that they had a grand feast. 
Dr. Richmond himself tells the story, so it must be true. To the feast 


were invited David Foster and their Indian friends. A large kettle had 
been borrowed of Mr. Foster, and into this kettle were put a half bushel 
of potatoes, a fore-quarter of pork and a fore-quarter of venison, 
and ten or fifteen pounds of beef. All were thoroughly boiled, 
and then the door of their tent was taken down to serve as a 
table. The potatoes were piled upon the table and dinner was 
ready. The kettle held the post of honor, and we have been 
assured it was a royal feast. On December 31, the four gentlemen started 
for Madison County on foot. The next day, January 1, 1845, Capt. 
John Bohan arrived in town and cast his fortunes with our infant city. 
He is now the only man living of all those whom he found here. He is 
one of our responsible and honored citizens. 

In the spring of 1845, Linsday, Richmond and Barrett moved here 
with their families ; Mr. Snell soon sold his property, as he did not care 
to brave the hardships of a pioneer's life. 

In the fall of 1844, Charles Ellison built a double log store-room 
where Darby's dry goods store now stands. He lived in one end of the 
building and sold intoxicating liquors in the other. This was Kokomo's 
first saloon. During the winter of 1844 and 1845, Austin North had 
erected a store-house where the "mammoth corner" now is, and stocked 
it with boots and shoes, dry goods, groceries, etc. The contractor was 
John T. Penny, father of Col. E. VV. Penny, of our city. This was the 
first frame building erected in our town. The first brick building erected 
in our town was by Harles Ashley for Thomas Kimball, in 1848, and 
this is now used by 0. V. Darby as a dry goods store. Kimball after- 
ward sold his building and goods to Thomas Shepherd and went to 

The early merchants of our town were Austin North, John Bohan, 
Samuel Rosenthal, J. D. Sharp; N. R. Linsday was the first lawyer; 
Corydon Richmond was the first doctor; Austin North was the first 
Postmaster, receiving his commission from President James K. Polk ; J. 
M. Harlan and John T. Penny were the first carpenters; Harlese 
Ashley, John Albright and S. T. Mills, the first brick-masons ; George 
W. Poisal, the first tailor ; H. C. Stewart, the first plasterer, and Riley 
Altum, the first blacksmith. 


Kokomo is an Indian word meaning "she bear." The name 
was given to it in honor of Kocoman, a celebrated chief of the Miamis, 
for his many acts of kindness and humanity to the early settlers. At the 
time of naming the town, there was a difference of opinion as to the or- 
thography and pronunciation. Some argued in favor of spelling the word 
Cocomo, and accenting the second syllable ; but the majority favored the 


present style of orthography and pronunciation. On the 15th day of 
January, 1844, an act was passed by the General Assembly of Indiana, 
organizing the county of Richardville. The name was soon after changed 
to Howard in honor of Gen. T. A. Howard. When a county had been 
organized, a seat of justice was necessary in which to transact the official 
business of the new county. The following-named gentlemen were se- 
lected by the General Assembly to perform this arduous and responsible 
task : Samuel Caleb, of Hamilton County ; John Armstrong, of Carroll ; 
Oliver Raymond, of Wabash ; Hiram Mendenhali, of Miami ; and John 
Moulder, of Parke, the latter now an honored citizen of Russiaville, this 
county. These gentlemen were served with notice of their appointment 
and the time and place of meeting by the Sheriff of Carroll County. 
The time of meeting had been arranged for the second Monday in May, 
1844. Each man had to come on foot or horseback through interminable 
woods and over almost impassable swamps, and yet, on the second Mon- 
day in May, 1844, all were present at the house of John Harrison, in 
Ervin Township. The farm is now owned by T. A. Harrell, Esq. 

The most of the cleared land in the county was then in the western 
part of the county. Some of the Commissioners favored the Harrison 
farm as the place for the county seat; others argued that this was too 
near the western boundary of the county. The next place where there 
was any cleared land east of the Harrison farm was about five miles east 
of there, at the boundary line on the Wild Cat pike. Near here was the 
old Cromwell Mill, around which there had been made a little clearing. 
This was next visited by the Commissioners. The place found favor in 
the sight of some, but still the majority argued in favor of a point nearer 
the center of the county, from east to west. The Commissioners had been 
invited by David Foster to visit him, and inspect the country round 
about here. Therefore, from the Cromwell Mill, they took the path 
through the woods for this place. There was no road except the path, 
which was just wide enough for persons to pass on horseback in single 
file. There was a small patch of ground cleared around the cabin of 
Mr. Foster, and also a small clearing, amounting to two or three acres, 
south of Wild Cat, which had been cleared by the Indians. The land 
south of the creek was a much more eligible site for the building of a 
town than the present one ; but Mr. Foster — as this land was fit for 
nothing else — could well afford to donate a part of it for a town. The 
land south of the river was better drained, and, therefore, was of some 
value for agriculture. The Commissioners remained at Foster's two days, 
trying to induce him to donate land south of the river, but he remained 
firm, and an agreement was finally reached by which the present site was 
chosen. On his part, Mr. Foster agreed to donate forty acres of land 
for a town site, to put up a court house, in size 24x24 feet, put in a punch- 


eon floor, and arrange proper receptacles for the public records. This 
building was completed in a short time, according to contract. 


The city is situated on the Lafontaine reservation, being a section of 
land granted to one Lafontaine, a celebrated chief of the Miami Indians. 
His father was a Frenchman, and his mother the daughter of a chief. 
This land had been given to Lafontaine by the Government because of 
his many acts of kindness and generosity to the early settlers of our 
State. David Foster had purchased this land from Lafontaine. Austin 
C. Sheets, who had been appointed Surveyor, surveyed and made the 
original plat of the town, now city of Kokoino, Ind. There were 
100 lots in the original plat, numbered from 1 to 100. Peter Gay had 
been appointed County Agent for this county in August, 1844. The 
first public sale of lots was held on the 18th day of October, 1844, at 
which he disposed of twenty-nine lots, the price averaging about $30 
apiece. One-third of this amount was paid cash, and, upon the other, 
time was given. The infant city grew very slowly for several years. 
The heavy timber and underbrush, and the swampy condition of the sod, 
combined to retard the growth and prosperity of the town. When the 
timber was cut down, so that the sunlight could penetrate to the earth, 
vegetation became very profuse and luxuriant. This decaying vegetable 
matter created chills and fevei', ague and incidental diseases. For many 
years, quinine was an article as staple as flour. 

It was no uncommon thing for all the members of a family to be con- 
fined to the bed at the same time. Many moved away, because of sick- 
ness, and others feared to come, from the same cause. In 1852, the 
number of inhabitants of the town was only 152, after eight years of 
existence. All this has been happily changed. Now, no city in Indiana 
can boast of better streets, better merchants, better health. The report 
of Dr. John B. Moore, a careful, painstaking physician. Secretary of the 
Board of Health, for the city, for 1882, shows this to be true. Dr. 
Moore's report is as follows : 

To the Mayor and the Common Council of the City of Kokomo, Ind,: 

Gentlemen : I come to you, after some delay, with a report despite my best efforts 
slightly defective in one or two particulars, yet I am persuaded that the report, as it is, 
will not prove wholly valueless nor entirely devoid of interest. In view of the fact that 
a winter season, accompanied with much snow and ice, is peculiarly favorable to the 
deposit of large amounts of filth and garbage in our streets and alleys, it is obvious to any 
one that in the near future there will be plenty of work for your Board of Health, and we 
deem it not out of place here to hint to your Honorable body that without your aid we 
are next to powerless in our efforts to put the city in a good sanitary condition. This, we 
believe, will be forthcoming, as it has never, so far, deserted us. But allow us to suggest 
that you take measures to supply to the Street Commissioner ample means to insure the 
thorough cleaning of the streets and alleys in the shortest possible time consistent with 




your power in that direction. We consider the Street Commissioner, with his labor 
force, a very substantial auxiliary in our work. I am glad to be able to report to you 
that during almost the entire year our city has been free from contagious diseases of 
serious import, and at the present time we are almost entirely clear of all diseases known 
as contagious. The following is my statistical report of the year that has just closed, as 
compiled from the monthly statements of the physicians of the city. 












November . 

Total . 


































Total. '^°^\^y 







Percentage of births to population, 25. 

Apoplexy, 1 ; cancer, 3 ; congestion of brain, 2 ; congestive chills, 1 ; cystitis, 1 ; 
croup, 1 ; congestion of stomach, 2 ; dysentery, 4 ; hernia, 1 ; jaundice, 1 : leucocythemia, 
1 ; meningitis, 2 ; inanition, 1 ; inflammation of bowels, 2 ; puerperal fever, 2 ; pulmonary 
consumption, 6; pneumonia, 4 ; premature delivery, 2 ; rheumatism,!; still-born, 8; 
small-pox, 1 ; scarlet rash, 1 ; typhoid fever, 2 ; whooping-cough, 1 ; not classified, 1 ; 
total, 56 ; exclusive of still-births, 50. Average age of males, 20| years ; average age 
of females, 19 years. Still-births — males, 3; females, 5. Died under one year of age, 
18 ; died under five years of age, 25. On a basis of 5,0C0 as the population of the city, 
the death rate from all causes is 11.2 per thousand. According to sex, the deaths were 
males 25, females 35. 





















Leaving out the January report, of the correctness of which I have some doubt, the 
lowest rate of mortality is found to be in July and November, with two deaths each, 
while May shows the highest rate, with eleven deaths. It is very unpleasant to note the 
deaths that occur from what are termed preventable causes. Fortunately, but few deaths 
occurred in the city during the past year from what are called preventable diseases. 
Among these diseases are classed pneumonia, bronchitis and the contagious diseases. By 
the exercise of even ordinary care, very few people will contract pneumonia, bronchitis or 
croup. The latter is about always in some way the fault of those having the care ot the 
young. A large proportion of cases of acute inflammation of the throat, lungs, kidneys 
and brain are due to needless exposure to cold and damp and to insufficient clothing of 
the person. Allow me to call attention, briefly, to a few points in the statistical report : 
By reference to Dr. Moulder's report to the County Commissioners, we find that seventeen 
still-births have occurred in the county. It will be noticed that my report credits eight 
of these to the city. Is it any wonder that we have so much concern for our little ones, 
when we have staring us in the face the appalling fact that of the fifty-six persons re- 
ported as dying in this city in the last year, thirty-three were under five years of age, 
and even excluding the still-born, nearly one-half failed to reach the fifty years of life. 
Eighteen of the twenty-five born alive did not live one year. It is not too much to say 
that correct habits of life on the part of parents would cause a favorable modification of 
this rule. But correct habits, to be efi'ective, should begin early in life ; it will not do to 
live recklessly up to the time of setting about the business of rearing a family, and then 
begin to live exemplary lives. It will be noted that the percentage of births in the city 
is small as compared with the county at large. Some other points deserve discussion^ 
but I must not ask any more of your time. John B. Moore, 

Secretary Board of Health. 

The city, as we have said, progressed but indifferently until about 
the period of the commencement of the late war, when it grew very 


At the June term, 1855, of the Commissioners' Court of Howard 
County, Judge Henry A. Brouse, on behalf of the citizens of Kokomo, 
petitioned for its incorporation. He recited the facts in his petition that 
there had been a survey made of the town, and an accurate map made 
thereof; that the census had been taken, and the same had been deposited 
in the office of the Treasurer of Howard County, on the 7th day of May, 
1855. He further stated, that the number of inhabitants was found to be 
620 ; that his petition was signed by sixty-nine of the legal voters of the 
town, which he said were a majority ; that the following were the true 
boundaries : Commencing at the southeast corner of the town, on the 
north bank of Wild Cat Creek, thence along the line between the lands 
of Faulk and the land of Ward, thence northeast on said line tV the 
Cincinnati & Chicago Railroad at a point opposite Walnut street, on 
a line dividing the land of Foster and Brown, thence on the south line of 
said railroad to the south line of Andrew Kennedy's land, thence west 
with said line to the southeast corner of Clarke's land, thence north 
on the line between the land of Clarke and Kennedy to the Cincinnati 
& Chicago Railroad, thence- northwest along the south side of said 


railroad to a line described on said map dividing the land of Mills, thence 
due east and west on the south side of town, thence west with said 
line to a line described on the map on the west side ot town, thence south 
with said line to the south side of the Burlington & State road, thence 
east along the south side of said road to the northwest corner of the land 
belonging to Young, on a line dividing the lands of Dale and Young to 
the southwest corner of Young's land, thence east along the line dividing 
the land of Young and Dale to Washington Street, at the southeast corner 
of Lot 101, thence south to the State road, running from Kokomo to 
Michigantown, thence southwest to the north bank of 'Wild Cat Creek, 
thence east with the meanderjngs of said stream to the place of beginnino-, 
containing 166 acres. 

This petition having been duly made in compliance with the require- 
ments of the statute for the incorporation of towns, an order was issued, 
requiring proper notice to be given, and that an election be held on the 
22d day of June, 1855, at the oifice of the County Clerk. The election 
was not held at the time specified, so that on the first day of the Septem- 
ber term of the Commissioners' Court, J. W. Robinson, on behalf of the 
citizens, asked for an order extending the time for the election and fixing 
the time for holding the same, the 1st day of October, 1855. 

Accordingly, the election was held on the 1st day of October, for on 
the first day of the December term of the Commissioners, we find the 
following: Now comes Henry C. Johnson and makes the following report 
of the corporation election in the town of Kokomo : " We, the under- 
signed inspectors of the corporation election of the town of Kokomo, 
Howard Co., Ind., held on the 1st day of October, 1855, at the Clerk's 
office of said county, report that the following is a true and correct state- 
ment of votes cast for and against the corporation : 

The whole number 'of yeas cast for said corporation is 62 

The whole number of nays cast against said corporation is 3 

Total (35 

The report is signed Elihu Hunt, Daniel Harris and Henry C. 
Johnson, Inspectors. 


At the February meeting, 1865, of the Board of Trustees of the 
town of Kokomo, Ind., Matthew Murden, on behalf of the citizens of 
Kokomo, presented a petition signed by 155 legal voters of said town 
praying for the incorporation of said town as a city. It was further 
shown that the petitioners constituted more than one-third of the le^al 
voters of said town, and therefore the prayer of the petitioners was 
granted, and it was ordered : That the Marshal proceed to take the cen- 


8U8 of all voters within the town corporation who had been residents for 
forty days before the order, and that said Marshal appoint necessary 
assistants, with the concurrence of the Board of Trustees. At the 
March term of the Board of Trustees, A. J. Norton, who had been ap- 
pointed an assistant, reported that he had made a full and true census of 
the town of Kokomo, and that there were 2,044 inhabitants in said town. 
The Board of Trustees, therefore, ordered an election to be held on the 
31st day of March, 1865, " to determine whether or not said town should 
be incorporated." In the First Ward, William Markland was Inspector; 
B. Johnson and John C. Lindley, Judges ; Jacob Sims, Clerk. The 
votes for incorporation were eighty in number ; the votes against incor- 
poration eleven ; majority for incorporation, sixty-nine. 

In the Second Ward, the Inspector was William H. Traut ; Judges, 
William Tolley and J. W. Lovin ; Clerk, H. S. Cloud ; votes for incor- 
poration, thirty-five; votes against incorporation, one; majority in favor, 

Third Ward — Inspector, S. Longfellow ; Judges, William Wilson 
and Philip Thompson ; Clerk, J. H. Welsh ; votes for incorporation, 
thirty; votes against incorporation, four ; majority in favor, twenty-six. 

Fourth Ward — Inspector, N. B. Brown ; Judges, John W. Slider 
and James A. Haggard; Clerk, S. P. McClure ; votes for incorporation, 
thirty ; votes against incorporation, one ; majority in favor, twenty-nine. 

Fifth Ward — Inspector, Samuel McNutt ; Judges, J. A. Coffin and 
J. M. Scotton ; Clerk, I. N. Pattison ; votes for incorporation, thirty- 
six ; votes against incorporation, none; majority in favor, thirty-six. 

The whole number of votes cast was 228 ; in favor of incorporation, 
211; against incorporation, seventeen. 

The Board of Trustees met on the 1st day of April, 1865, and de- 
clared the town of Kokomo a duly "incorporated dity." David Brown, 
Orsemus Richmond and Richard Nixon were the first School Trustees 
of the city of Kokomo. The Board of Trustees met on the 28th day 
of April and appointed Tuesday, May 2, as the day for the election of 
city officers. On the 3d day of May, the Inspectors of the election, 
James A. Haggard, William C. Markland and Isaiah M. Floyd, re- 
ported the vote to have been as follows: Mayor, 1865 and 1866, Nel- 
son Purdum, 123; A. J.Norton, 122. City Attorney— C. N. Pollard, 135; 
J. H. Kroh, 112. Marshal— John E. Williams, 166 ; R. N. Collings- 
worth, 81. City Clerk— Alpheus Coffin, 142 ; A. Auten, 1 ; M. E. 
Pleas, 103. Treasurer— P. B. Kennedy, 153 ; D. D. Downs, 90. As- 
sessor — William Styer, 122 ; Tence Lindley, 119. Engineer — Corydon 
Richmond, 132. Councilmen, First Ward — N. R. Linsday, 46 ; J. A. 
James, 45 ; Second Ward— I. N. Pattison, 41 ; Matthew Murden, 26 ; 


Caswell Sharp, 65; Third Ward— H. Davis, 54; A. F. Armstrong, 73; 
Samuel T. Mills, 58. 


Following are the names of the officers of the city government of 
the city of Kokomo from 1865 to 1884 : 

1865 and 1866— Mayor, Nelson Purdum; Clerk, J. A. Coffin; 
Treasurer, P. B. Kennedy ; Marshal, John E. Williams ; Attorney, 
Clark N. Pollard ; Councilmen, First Ward, N. R. Linsday and J. A. 
James; Second Ward, I. N. Pattison and Caswell Sharp; Third Ward, 
A. F. Armstrong and Samuel T. Mills. 

1867 — Mayor, Corydon Richmond; Clerk, R. M. Click; Treasurer, 
S. C. Moore ; Marshal, John E. Williams ; Attorney, Milton Bell ; Civil 
Engineer, Benjamin F. Fields ; Chief Fire Engineer, J. M. Leeds ; 
Street Commissioner, John W. Slider ; Assessor, William Styer ; Coun- 
cilmen, First Ward, J. A. James and J. A. Haggard ; Second Ward, I. 
N. Pattison and Elijah White ; Third Ward, S. T. Mills and A. F. Arm- 
strong; Fourth Ward, W. R. Michener and G. W. Pearson. 

1868 — Mayor, Corydon Richmond; Clerk, R. M, Click; Treasurer, 
S. C. Moore ; Marshal, John E. Williams ; Attorney, Milton Bell ; Civil 
Engineer, Benjamin F. Fields ; Chief Fire Engineer, J. M. Leeds; Street 
Commissioner, J. W. Slider; Councilmen, First Ward, J. A. James and 
John A. Haggard ; Second Ward, Elijah F. White and C. Sharp ; Third 
Ward, S. T. Mills and A. F. Armstrong ; Fourth Ward, G. W. Pearson 
and T. Rayl. 

1869— Mayor, J. W. Cooper; Clerk, R. M. Click; Treasurer, W. 
A. Beeks ; Attorney, C. N. Pollard ; Marshal, A. H. Duke ; Civil En- 
gineer, Benjamin F. Fields ; Assessor, Ed A. Moore ; Street Commis- 
sioner, J. W. Slider ; Chief Fire Engineer, J. M. Leeds ; Councilmen, 
First Ward, J. A. James and N. P. Richmond ; Second Ward, W. R. 
Kistler and E. C. Leach ; Third Ward, A. F. Armstrong and L. W. 
Leach ; Fourth Ward, T. Rayl and George W. Pearson. 

1870— Mayor, John W. Cooper; Clerk, J. F. Elliott; Treasurer, 
W. A. Beeks ; Attorney, C. N. Pollard ; Marshal, A. H. Dukes ; Civil 
Engineer, Benjamin F. Fields ; Assessor, E. A. Moore ; Street Commis- 
sioner, J. D. Pitzer; Chief Fire Engineer, H. C. Cole; Councilmen, First 
Ward, J. A. James and John A. Haggard; Second Ward, E. C. Leech 
and A. J. Norton ; Third Ward, A. F. Armstrong and T. Jay; Fourth 
Ward, G. W. Pearson and W. E. Robinson. 

1871 — Mayor, John W. Cooper ; Clerk, D. Shewmon ; Treasurer, 
W. A. Beeks ; Attorney, John W. Kern ; Marshal, C. J. Becktel ; Civil 
Engineer, C. Richmond ; Assessor, E. A. Moore ; Street Commissioner, 
I. M. Floyd ; Chief Fire Engineer, H. C. Cole; Councilmen, First Ward, 


John A. Haggard and G. W. McCool ; Second Ward, A. J. Norton and 
N. P. Richmond ; Third Ward, T. Jay and George D. Tate ; Fourth 
Ward, W. E. Robinson and G. W. Pearson. 

1872 — Mayor, John W. Cooper; Clerk, Joseph D. Johnson ; 
Marshal, George R. Hutto ; Attorney, J. W. Kern ; Treasurer, W. A. 
Beeks ; Civil Engineer, A. C. Hopkins ; Assessor, E. A. Moore ; Street 
Commissioner, H. H. Stewart; Chief Fire Engineer, H. C. Cole; Coun- 
cilmen, First Ward, John A. Haggard, A. B. Walker; Second Ward, N. 
P. Richmond, J. F. Reagan ; Third Ward, George D. Tate, T. A. Davis ; 
Fourth Ward, G. W. Pearson, W. E. Robinson. 

1873— Mayor, N. P. Richmond; Clerk, W. D. Kistler: Attorney, 
J. W. Kern ; Marshal, George R. Hutto ; Treasurer, W. A. Beeks ; 
Street Commissioner, H. H. Stewart ; Assessor, W. W. Hughes ; Civil 
Engineer, I. C. Ware ; Chief Fire Engineer, H. C. Cole ; Councilmen, 
First Ward, John A. Haggard, John M. Leach ; Second Ward, E. S. 
Ludlow, J. M. Darnall; Third Ward, George D. Tate, T.A.Davis; 
Fourth Ward, W. E. Robinson, James H. Watson. 

1874— Mayor, N. P. Richmond ; Clerk, W. D. Kistler ; Attorney, 
J. W. Kern ; Marshal, George R. Hutto ; Treasurer, W. A. Beeks ; 
Street Commissioner, H. H. Stewart; Assessor, W. W. Hughes; Civil 
Engineer, A. T. Wright ; Chief Fire Engineer, D. P. Davis ; Council- 
men, First Ward, J. M. Leach, E. C. Scoven : Second Ward, E. S. Lud- 
low, J. M. Darnall ; Third Ward, G. D. Tate, T. A. Davis ; Fourth 
Ward, W. E. Robinson, J. H. Watson. 

1875— Mayor, N. P. Richmond: Clerk, W. D. Kistler; Attorney, J. 
D. Johnson; Marshal, Joseph Kelly; Treasurer, W. A. Beeks; Street 
Commissioner, A. W. Lehman; Assessor, W. W. Hughes; Civil En- 
gineer, C. Richmond ; Chief Fire Engineer, D. P. Davis ; Councilmen, 
First Ward, E. C. Scoven, J. F. Henderson ; Second Ward, R. Q. Wil- 
son, J. Johnson ; Third Ward, T. A. Davis, C. A. Jay ; Fourth Ward, 
W. E. Robinson, W. H. Sellers. 

1876— Mayor, N. P. Richmond : Clerk, W. D. Kistler ; Attorney, 
J. W. Kern ; Marshal, Joseph* Kelly ; Treasurer, W. A. Beeks ; Street 
Commissioner, A. W. Lehman ; Assessor, W. W. Hughes ; Civil En- 
gineer, M. Murden ; Chief Fire Engineer, D. P. Davis ; Councilmen, 
First Ward, E. C. Scoven, J. F. Henderson ; Second Ward, R. Q. Wil- 
son, J. Johnson ; Third Ward, T. A. Davis, C. A. Jay ; Fourth Ward, 
W. H. Sellers, G. W. Price. 

1877— Mayor, N. P. Richmond : Clerk, G. W. Duke ; Attorney, 
John E. Moore ; Marshal, Joseph Kelly ; Treasurer, E. F. White ; Street 
Commissioner, J. W. Slider ; Assessor, Alvin Coffin ; Civil Engineer, M. 
Murden ; Chief Fire Engineer, D. P. Davis ; Councilmen, First Ward, 


E. C. Scoven, H. A. Brouse ; Second Ward, M. Garrigus, J. M. Darnall ; 
Third Ward, H. C. Cole, G. D. Tate; Fourth Ward, G. W. Price, C. E. 

1878— Mayor, N. P. Richmond; Clerk, G. W. Duke; Attorney, 
John E. Moore; Marshal, Joseph Kelly ; Treasurer, E. F. White; Street 
Commissioner, J. W. Slider; Assessor, Alvin Coffin; Civil Engineer, M. 
Murden ; Chief Fire Engineer, D. P. Davis ; Councilmen, First Ward, 
E. C. Scoven, H. A, Brouse ; Second Ward, M. Garrigus, Joseph Dol- 
man ; Third Ward, H. C. Cole, George D. Tate; Fourth Ward, C. E. 
Hendry, G. I. Gordon. 

1879— Mayor, J. M. Darnall; Clerk, G. W. Duke; Attorney, F. 
M. Gideon ; Marshal, William Kennedy ; Treasurer, E. F. White ; Street 
Commissioner, J. W. Slider ; Civil Engineer, M. Murden ; Chief Fire 
Engineer, D. P. Davis; Councilmen, First Ward, E. C. Scoven, W. S. 
Armstrong; Second Ward, J. C. Dolman, E. S. Hunt; Third Ward, H. 
C. Cole, E. G. Jackson ; Fourth Ward, G. I. Gordon, M. M. Reeves. 

1880— Mayor, J. M. Darnall ; Clerk, G. W. Duke ; Attorney, F. 
M. Gideon ; Marshal, William Kennedy ; Treasurer, E. F. White ; Street 
Commissioner, J. W. Slider; Civil Engineer, M. Murden; Chief Fire 
Engineer, D. P. Davis ; Councilmen, First Ward, W. S. Armstrong, L. 
Kern ; Second Ward, E. S. Hunt, John B. Ellis ; Third Ward, H. C. 
Cole, E. G. Jackson ; Fourth Ward, B. F. Voiles, M. M. Reeves. 

1881 — Mayor, Henry C. Cole, W. S. Armstrong ; Clerk, Charles F. 
Springer ; Attorney, I. E. Kirk ; Marshal, William Kennedy ; Treasurer, 
Henry B. Lowe; Street Commissioner, John W. Slider; Civil Engineer, M. 
Murden; Chief Fire Engineer, D. P. Davis; Councilmen, First Ward, W. 
S. Armstrong, L. Kern, H. A. Brouse ; Second Ward, E. S. Hunt, John 
B. Ellis ; Third Ward, George D. Tate, Charles A. Jay ; Fourth Ward, 
John S. Butler, H. G. McGlone. 

1882 — Mayor, W. S. Armstrong ; Clerk, Charles F. Springer ; At- 
torney, I. E. Kirk ; Marshal, William Kennedy ; Treasurer, H. B. Lowe; 
Street Commissioner, John W. Slider ; Civil Engineer, M. Murden ; 
Chief Fire Engineer, D. P. Davis; Councilmen, First Ward, Samuel 
Waggaman, H. A. Brouse; Second Ward, E. S. Hunt, John B. Ellis; 
Third Ward, Charles A. Jay, George D. Tate; Fourth Ward, H. G. 
McGlone, John S. Butler. 

1883 — Mayor, W. S. Armstrong ; Clerk, Charles F. Springer ; Treas- 
urer, Henry B. Lowe ; Attorney, John W. Kern ; Marshal, Albert 
Burns; Street' Commissioner, George R. Stewart; Civil Engineer, W. B. 
Ray ; Chief Fire Engineer, D. P. Davis ; Councilmen, First Ward, 
Samuel Waggaman, H. A. Brouse ; Second Ward, John B. Ellis, E. S. 


Hunt ; Third Ward, George D. Tate, William Cooper ; Fourth Ward, 
H. G. McGlone, John S. Butler. 

1883-84— At the election held May 1, 1883, the following officers 
were elected to serve for two years : Mayor, W. S. Armstrong ; Marshal, 
Albert Burns; Clerk, Charley Springer; Treasurer, H. B. Lowe; City 
Attorney, John W. Kern. Councilmen (1883), First Ward, Samuel 
Waggaman ; Second Ward, John B. Ellis ; Third AVard, George B. 
Tate ; Fourth Ward, H. G. McGlone. (1884), H. A. Brouse, E. S. 
Hunt; Will Cooper, M. D., W. H. Butler. 


The early settlers of Kokomo, fortunately for its future success, 
were men who believed in religion and education. It seems neces- 
sary to full success in the affairs of earth that religion and education 
should go hand in hand. Soon after the first settlement of the town, the 
religious and intellectual parts of man's nature were looked after. The 
first church organization was that of the Methodists. 

The Methodist Church.^ — The doctrines of the Methodist Church do 
not belong to any new system of philosophy, ethics or theology, but are 
as old as the Christian era. It was not John Wesley who founded Meth- 
odism, so much as it was Methodism which founded John Wesley. John 
Wesley first gave utterance to the doctrines of the religious organization, 
and is one whom all Methodists love to honor as their first preacher. 
About forty years after John Wesley began his evangelical work in Eng- 
land, the first society of Methodists was formed in New York, in a car- 
penter shop of one Philip Embury, an humble, pious man, whose only 
ambition was to do good in the world. This society was composed of only 
four or five persons, who formed the nucleus of one of the greatest organ- 
izations for doing good the world has ever seen. Only little more than a 
century has elapsed since Philip Embury's carpenter shop held all the 
Methodists in the United States, and to-day the Methodist Church claims 
over three million souls within its folds, with twice that number who re- 
ceive instruction from its pulpits. The tide which has borne the church 
in this wonderful career has been a most remarkable one. True to the 
natural impulses that guided the primitive leaders of this sect, it was left 
for them to establish the first religious society that was organized in this 
section of the country. This was done in 1841. What is known now as 
Howard County was then one vast wilderness, unorganized, and uninhab- 
ited except by Indians, with now and then a few white families, who had 
pushed their way into this new territory to make for themselves a home. 
This church was organized at what was known as Spice Run, in a little 
log hut, two and one-half miles west of the court house. The only sur- 

*Prepared by J. McLean Moulder. 


viving members of this church are Hon. Thomas M. Kirkpatrick and 
wife. They afterward moved their membership to the Methodist Epis- 
copal Church of Kokomo, where they still affiliate. About three years 
afterward, in 1844, the old pioneer Methodist preacher of this section of 
Indiana, Rev. Jacob Colclazer, organized the first Methodist Church 
proper, and in fact the first religious organization ever effected in Koko- 
mo. The house of the late David Foster was used as a place of worship 
until a log church could be built. The members of this embryo church 
were Adam Clarke and wife, Elizabeth Foster, Hon. N. R. Linsday and 
wife, Thomas Lamburn and wife, Dennis McCormick and wife, and Mrs. 
Joseph Skeen. From the most reliable information that can be gathered, 
the trustees of the church were N. R. Linsday, Thomas Lamburn and 
Adam Clarke. Hon. N. R. Linsday is the only survivor of this humble 
band of worshipers, and it is but justice to Judge Linsday to say in this 
history of the Methodist Church of Kokomo that his services to the 
church have been valuable, and always highly appreciated, and there has 
been no man ever connected with the church who has responded more lib- 
erally to the demands of the church than has he ; and even now, though 
failing in that physical strength that was once his pride, he is one of the 
pillars of the church. During the year 1844, a log church was built just 
east of where the old jail now stands, and the following year a Sabbath 
school was organized with Adam Clarke as Superintendent. This Sab- 
bath school had an average attendance of about fifteen, and was continued 
for about six months of each year. The old church house was used as a 
place of worship and for Sabbath school services until the year 1851, 
when a frame church house was built upon the site of the present com- 
modious brick. Hay den Rayburn, Joseph Sharp and N, R. Linsday 
were leading spirits in this enterprise, and stood nobly to the work until 
it was completed in 1852. Rev. M. S. Robinson was pastor during the 
erection of this building. The old log church and grounds were sold for 
$75, and the money applied toward the erection of the new building. 
The church being prosperous, the frame building was soon too small to 
accommodate the growing congregation, and in the year 1864 it was 
deemed necessary to build the present large brick edifice. Rev. Charles 
Martindale was pastor at the time, and rendered the church valuable as- 
sistance during the erection of the building. N. R. Linsday, J. W. Cow- 
ley, C. Sharp, Worley Leas, Eli Weaver, H. Rayburn, John Jamison, 
David Hazzard and Dr. Buck were among the most liberal members, and 
paid largely toward the erection of this house. It was not long after the 
brick church was completed, before it was thought desirable by some of 
the more progressive members to introduce an organ into the church serv- 
ices. This, to some, seemed to be quite an innovation upon the time-hon- 


ored usages of the Methodist Church, yet it gradually grew in favor until a 
regular church choir was organized in the year 1868, with S. C. Moore as 
leader, and Miss Emma Mason as organist, and the Misses Hazzard, 
Moore and Linsday, and Messrs. Elliott, Lowe, Kistler and Moulder, 
singers. This was the first church choir organized in Kokomo, and for 
awhile was quite a novelty in the church services. In 1873, the building 
was remodeled at a cost of |4,500, while Thomas Stabler was acting as 
pastor. Bishop Bowman re-opened the church in June of the same year. 
The following is a complete list of the ministers and the years during 
which they served the Methodist Church of Kokomo : 

Jacob Colclazer, 1844 ; James Burnes, 1845 ; Allen Skillman,1846 ; 
J. F. Fennemore, 1847 and 1848 ; William Forbes, 1849 and 1850 ; 
Rev3. Rodgers and Turman, 1851 ; M. S. Morrison, 1852 ; J. C. Meds- 
ker, 1853 T H. H. Bailey, 1854 ; W. E. Edmundson, 1855 ; H. J. 
Lacey, William Anderson and William Vigus, 1856 and 1857 ; A. S. 
Kinman, 1858 ; S. T. Stout, 1859 ; W. S. Birch, 1860 ; A. Eddy, 
1861; Rev. Mr. Birch was pastor during the erection of the present 
parsonage. Rev. Mr. Eddy was promoted to a position as Presiding 
Elder, before the close of this year, and C. W. Miller filled the 
unexpired term ; S. Lane, 1862 ; Charles Armstrong, 1863 ; Charles 
Martindale, 1864 and 1865 ; W. R. Kestler, 1866 and 1867 ; V. M. 
Beamer, 1868 and 1869; William Wilson, 1870; S. N. Campbell, 
1871; Thomas Stabler, 1872, 1873 and 1874; H. J. Meek, 1875, 
1876 and 1877; E. Holdstock, 1878 and 1879; L. A. Retts, 1880, 
1881 and 1882 ; C. G. Hudson, 1883. The Methodist Church of Ko- 
komo has gradually grown from the small band of worshipers of 1844, 
until to-day its spiritual as well as financial interests are in a most pros- 
perous condition. The church owns property of the value of $20,000, 
with no indebtedness. The present Trustees of the church are James 
O'Brien, President ; J. McL. Moulder, Secretary ; C. C. Sollenberger, 
Treasurer; and N. R. Linsday, William Styer, J. F. Elliott, I. C. Johnson, 
A. N. Grant and Sheridan Cox. The Sabbath school, under the superin- 
tendency of George 0. Roach, is pre-eminently the largest school in How- 
ard County, having at present an attendance of about four hundred pupils. 
Edgar Meek, as chorister of the school, has secured an orchestra, com- 
posed of the following well-known musicians : Mrs. Lucy Moulder, organ- 
ist ; Miss June Reed, violin ; Thomas A. Ogden, cornet ; Prof. Manning, 
viola, and A. H, Lehman, trombone and flute. With these to lead three 
or four hundred voices, the music is an attractive feature. The present 
membership of the church is about four hundred. This is a fine showing 
for the zeal and energy of the ministers of this denomination during the 
past forty years. Fathers Rayburn, Linsday, Beeks., Saylors, Sharp, and 


their families have stood by the Kokomo Church from its infancy to the 
present time, and the fruits of their labor must be peculiarly gratifying to 
them. All the members of the church are devoted to its success and 
welfare and the future of the church is bright with hope. 

Baptist Church. — In the year 1847, a Baptist Church was organized 
in Kokomo, with seven members. The last recorded meeting was held 
August 26, 1858. At that time the church had about 100 members. Of 
these, Corydon Richmond, Matthew Murden, Rev. Denton Simpson and 
families survive. Many futile eifortswere made at revivino; this orcraniza- 
tion until 1874, when the effort was successful. A mission Sunday school 
had been previously formed with a view to facilitate the reorganization. 
The school met in the old Third Ward school building, with W. A. Stuart, 
Superintendent, andR. L. Upton, Secretary, and prospered greatly. Soon 
a weekly prayer meeting was organized. A teachers' meeting began also 
with the organization of the Sunday school, and has met weekly ever 
since. The Rev. Joseph Brown, Secretary of the. Baptist State Conven- 
tion, visited Kokomo in the middle of January, 1875, and with him pres- 
ent on the 7th of February, 1875, it was decided to organize " The First 
Baptist Church of Kokomo." At this meeting. Dr. Richmond, James W. 
Fisher and wife, John Bateman, James W. Griffith, W. A. Stuart and 
wife, Mrs. Naomi A. Upton, Mrs. Sarah C. Gray, Miss Winnie B. Fish- 
er and Dillie Rickard voted. Eig^ht of these organized as the First 
Baptist Church of Kokomo, on the 18th day of February, and on the 18th 
day of March following, they were recognized by a council of delegates 
from sister churches as regular in doctrine and government. This coun- 
cil convened in the worst snow-storm that ever occurred in this latitude in 
March. Part of the council was against the recognition, and but for 
Grandpa Thomas, of Galveston, the decision might have been against the 
organization. Of the eight who organized the church, six were confined 
at home by sickness. Daily preaching was continued for ten days by 
Revs. P. O'Dell and J. C. Burkholder, and eight were received into the 
church by baptism, including one entire household. Weekly services were 
held until November of that year, when Rev. S. S. Cornelius, D. D., 
accepted the pastorate and remained until October 31, 1877. The mem- 
bership under him increased from twenty-four to eighty-eight. April 26, 
1878, Rev. Norman Carr became pastor, and remained until September 
25, 1882, when he became Financial Agent of Franklin College. Never 
has any pastor done grander work than did Rev. Mr. Carr. In four years 
and five months, the society increased from 88 to 212 members. 
The church had meanwhile lost 100 members by death and removal. A 
debt on the church of $1,200 had been paid and a parsonage costing 
$1,000 had been purchased. On the 10th day of January, 1833, Rev. 


N. C. Smith became pastor of the church, with every prospect of useful- 
ness and success in his efforts to build up the spiritual structure. He has 
caused the full payment of the mortgage on the parsonage to be made, 
and has matured other plans for keeping the membership in daily work, 
as well as in daily bread. The first trustees of the church were R. L. 
Upton, James W. Griffith, and James W. Fisher, James W. Fisher Clerk ; 
Deacons, James W. Fisher and W. A. Stuart ; Treasurer, Annie B. Lew- 
ellen ; Sexton, W. G. Leeds ; Superintendent of Sunday School, W. A. 
Stuart. The church has continuously maintained Sabbath services, weekly 
prayer and teachers' meetings, Sabbath school, and monthly covenant meet- 
ings, notwithstanding it has been without a pastor, at intervals, for one and 
one-half years. This church is the outgrowth of faith ; it has had to work 
with a band of untrained workers ; its members have not been among the 
rich or among those highest in social circles ; its success can only be 
attributed to Him who uses the weak things of earth to manifest His power 
and glory. The Baptists hold many views in common with other evan- 
gelical denominations of Christians. They believe in a personal God; of 
infinite perfection ; the fall of man ; the atonement through Christ's 
death ; the resurrection from the dead ; the final judgment; the everlast- 
ing blessedness of the righteous and the everlasting punishment of the 
wicked. The central supremely characteristic doctrine of the Baptists is 
their belief in regenerated church membership. As baptism symbolizes 
regeneration, that is, spiritual death and resurrection through faith in the 
death and resurrection of Christ, so nothing but the immersion of the 
believer represents the truth symbolized by Scriptural baptism. They 
believe in the Lord's Supper, as it is a credible evidence of the continu- 
ation of spiritual life, as baptism is of regeneration. 

Friends Church. — While many of the early settlers of Howard County 
were members of the Friends' Church, there was no effort made to estab- 
lish a church in Kokomo until the spring of 1865. At that time there 
were only eleven members living in Kokomo, viz., Robert Coate, Richard 
Nixon and their families, W. S. Wooten and William Moore. The first 
meeting was held in a private house, James Owen, a minister of New Lon- 
don, being present. The numbers increasing, James' Hall was rented 
and the meetings held there for years. By the close of the year, 
the membership had doubled, by the addition of W. H. Butler, Jesse T. 
-Turner, and their families with a few others. The membership continued 
to increase until the year 1870, when an effort was made to build a church 
house, which resulted in the erection of the present church building, a 
good, substantial brick, 40x66 feet, with a stone foundation and costing 
about $6,000. From the time of the completion of this building in 1872, 
until the present time, the meetings have been held in it. Frequently, 


ministers from abroad have conducted services, but much of the time, until 
1874, the church was without a minister. In that year, Robert Coate 
and W. H. Butler were recorded ministers. Robert Coate soon went away, 
leaving W. H. Butler minister of the church ; he still remains. There 
have been some other ministers for short periods of time. R. W. Doug- 
las, now of Wilmington, Ohio, was with the church about nine months. 
C. W. Kirk was a minister here for about two years. He is still a member 
of the church, but has been working as a missionary among the Indians 
for the past five years. The church is in a healthful condition, both spirit- 
ually and financially, having about 200 members. Many of the most 
solid and substantial business men are members of ohe Friends' Church. 

Congregational Church. — The Congregational Church in the city of 
Kokomo was founded in the early part of the year 1863. Rev. Joseph 
E. Roy had been sent out by the American Home Missionary Society to 
organize societies of the Congregational Church. The Congregational 
Church is one branch of the Presbyterian, consequently he found many 
ready and anxious to aid him in establishing the society. Mr. Roy found 
here Mr. Moses R. Andrews and family, who had been Congregationalists 
before leaving New England, and after the church organization had been 
decided upon, the services of the Rev. J. L. Jenkins were secured, who 
formally organized the church, and meetings were held. There were four- 
teen charter members, of whom only Moses Andrews and wife are living. 
Rev. Mr. Jenkins remained with the church for two years, and under his 
ministrations it prospered. While he remained, the present beautiful 
church edifice was begun, but had not been completed when his services 
terminated in September, 1865. After the departure of the Rev. Mr. Jen- 
kins, there were no services held here for about six months. At the end of 
that time, the church had secured the Rev. C. H. Richards, a graduate of 
Andover Theological Seminary. His labors were successful, and during 
his stay the church building was completed. He remained here for two 
years, and was succeeded by Rev. George Hicks, who stayed but a year. 
The Rev, A. S. Walsh succeeded Mr. Hicks, and did much to revive the 
lagging energies of the church. At the close of his labors, the church 
was in better condition than it had ever been. Rev. D. J. Baldwin re- 
mained but a year, and was followed by Rev. A. S. Wood. He added 
new life to the church. The house was renovated, refitted, a fine new 
pipe organ added, and, best of all, the memb^ship of the church was in- 
creased. Eventually, the Rev. Wood, much to the regret of his parish- 
ioners, severed his connection with the church and removed to Michigan. 

The Christian Church. — The religious movement which resulted in 
the organization of what is known as the Church of Christ, Christian 
Church or Disciples of Christ, may be said to have its origin early in the 


present century with Thomas Campbell, who removed to America, in 
1807, and his son Alexander, who came over in 1809. It is not claimed, 
however, that their work resulted in the organization of a new church, 
but simply in a restoration of Christianity to its primitive simplicity as 
established by Christ and Apostles. The Campbells, after a careful study 
of the Scriptures, were convinced that the faith required by the Gospel of 
Christ is not mental assent to metaphysical subtleties, nor the reception 
of opinions elaborated by associations, conventions, conferences or synods 
into precise formula, but is the sincere reliance of the soul upon Jesus as 
the life, the truth, and the way. In short, that the object of the Chris- 
tian faith is a divine Person, not a system of dogmas and tenets ; that so 
long as a person is right about Jesus, believing he is the Son of God, the 
Savior of sinners, One having '"all authority in heaven and on earth," in 
the matter of human redemption, it is comparatively indifferent as to 
whether he should agree with all others in minute inferential particulars. 
Christianity, therefore, as taught by the Church of Christ, and first enun- 
ciated in this century by the Campbells, may be considered, in brief, as a 
system of facts, principles, precepts and promises, looking to the production, 
development and guidance ofa new life. This movement to restore primitive 
Christianity may be said to rest on the following principles : 1st. Chris- 
tianity as conceived by its Author and delivered to us, by those divinely 
qualified for the work, is a complete system of salvation, suited to the 
wants of the human family. 2d. Whatever evils aff'ect the religious 
world, have resulted from a departure from that perfect system of truth. 
3d. The true remedy, therefore, for all the ecclesiastical ills of Christen- 
dom, is a complete return to primitive Christianity. In view of the 
foregoing, they take the Bible as their only guide, believing, 1st, "That 
the only authoritative creed of the Church of Christ is, that Jesus is the 
Christ, the Son of the living God; " that the Bible is divine in origin 
and formulation, is fundamental to the church, before the church in time 
and unchangeable. 2d. Whoever will subscribe to this creed, heartily 
accepting the Holy Scriptures as the rule of faith and conduct, by a 
public profession of faith in Christ, and a true repentance is entitled 
to baptism, that by faith he may rest in the promise of the pardon of his 
past sins and gift of the Holy Spirit. 3d. All immersed believers are 
entitled to instant membership in the church, without subscribing to any 
formula of opinion or any human theory or philosophy of religion ; they 
assemble every Lord's Day for services, and to celebrate the death of 
Christ by partaking of the Lord's Supper. They are not " close com- 
municants," but all who believe themselves fit to partake. of the Lord's 
Supper are invited, each being his own judge as to his fitness. They or- 
ganize churches according to the New Testament, with Elders or Bishops 


and Deacons. Each church selects its own minister and retains him as 
suits each party. Any minister is free to engage in any field where he 
may be called. 

The Christian Church of Kokomo was organized February 21, 1851, 
by Elder Thomas Shepherd and Lewis Anderson with seven members, 
viz.: Lewis Anderson and wife, Thomas Shepherd and wife, John C. 
Linsday and wife and Edward Shepherd. All of these are now dead or 
have removed from here. Shortly after this, Hon. Thomas A. Armstrong 
and family, Martin M. Preble and family and Alfred H. Ploughe and 
family moved here and united with this congregation. From this time 
the church rapidly increased ; meetings were held in the houses of mem- 
bers. In 1854, the lot where the old Christian Church now stands was 
purchased for $30. In 1857, the old house was erected and in 
this the congregation worshiped for twenty-two years, from 1858 to 1880. 
In 1875, the lots on Main street were purchased for $3,000. On the 26th 
day of February, 1876, plans were submitted for the new church build- 
ing. The plans being approved, the foundations of the building were laid 
the same year. In 1877, the walls were erected and the roof put on. Noth- 
ing was done in 1878. In 1879, the plastering was done, temporary 
doors and windows put in, and the audience room seated, and on the first 
Sunday of February, 1880, the congregation held the first services in the 
new church. The cost of the building completed will be $30,000. It is 
120 feet in length, 69 feet in width, height of tower 85 feet, seating ca- 
pacity 900. The style of architecture is Gothic. Since the organization 
of the church here, more than 1,000 persons have held membership, 
many of whom have gone to claim their reward. The present member- 
ship of the church is 372. Since the organization in 1851, the eldership 
of the congregation has been as follows : Lewis Anderson, deceased ; 
Thomas Shepherd, removed; Thomas A. Armstrong, still serving; Mar- 
tin M. Preble, still serving ; Thomas Auter, deceased ; Henderson 
Johnson, removed ; J. M. Darnall, still serving ; Aaron Walker, still 
serving; John Nicholson, removed; Lewis W. Marts, removed. 

The following ministers have served the church as regular pastors : 
Thomas Shepherd, Lewis Anderson, Elder Garrett, George Campbell, 
William Grigsby, W. S. Winfield, 0. E. Brown, Thomas Bernard, Rich- 
ard Roberts, A. I. Hobbs, R. E. Pearre, B. M. Blount, Joseph Franklin, 
E. L. Frazier, Aaron Walker, J. M. McCullough, J. W. Conner, H. C. 
Lyle, Milton B. Hopkins, C. M. Robertson, J. L. Parsons and George 
Edward Walk, the present pastor. 

The present board of oflicers is as follows : Elders, Thomas A. Arm- 
strong, Aaron Walker, Martin M. Preble and J. M. Darnall ; Deacons, 
A. F. Armstrong, A. B. Walker, E. A. Moore, J. M. Scotton, T. J. 


Hanna and J. B. Moore ; Trustees, A. B. Walker, A. F. Armstrong 
and J. M. Darnall ; Clerk, A. B. Walker ; Treasurer, D. W. Moore ; 
minister and ex oflScio member of the board, George Edward "Walk. 
Under the ministrations of Rev. George E. Walk, the church is 
prospering greatly. Fifty-one persons have united with the church since 
January 1, 1882. The pastorship of Mr. Walk fully answers the 
question, " Can a young man be successful in charge of a large city congre- 
gation ? " The Sunday school, under the superintendency of N. B. 
Smith, is also prosperous. The movement to restore primitive Christian- 
ity commenced by the Campbells seventy-one years ago, now known as 
the Christian Church, has a membership of 1,500,000, about 1,000,000 
of whom are in the United States. 

The Catholic Church. — The doctrine of the Catholic Church is, in 
brief: They believe in the Apostles' creed, in one God and three divine 
persons, the Father, the Son and the Holy Ghost ; in seven sacraments 
as instituted by Christ the Lord for the salvation of men ; in the ten 
commandments given by the Almighty Father ; and in the tradition 
and the Bible as the word of God, as explained by an infallible teacher, 
the Church of Christ on earth. 

The first Catholic settlers who came to this county or town were 
seven families, among whom were Cornelius McCarthy and wife (Thomas 
Mooren was the first one who came, and he still lives here, though a very 
old man; he never married) ; John Coughlin and wife, and Mike Quinn 
and wife. In 1859, the church came under the pastorate of Father 
Hamilton, a missionary from Logansport. He visited this place once each 
month. In 1859, a small frame building was erected on the northwest 
corner of Washington and Broadway as a place of worship. It was 20x40 
feet. There were at that time about fifty members here of the Catholic 
faith. In 1869, a twenty-foot addition was built to the old house, it becom- 
ing necessary to meet the growing demand of the church. The church 
in 1869 secured the services of Father Frauly, who remained in charge 
about eighteen months. He was the first regular pastor. Prior to 
Father Frauly, the church had been taught by missionaries, who came 
monthly. These were Fathers Force, B. Kroeger, L. Lamour, M. Haley, 
F. Wichman and T. Borg. After Father Frauly, Father O'Brien 
came for six months, and was succeeded by Father Grogan, who remained 
until 1873, when Father Lordemann assumed control of the church. It 
is believed that no man connected with a church in Kokomo ever accom- 
plished so much good in so short a time as Father Lordemann. In 1859, 
there were sixty members of the church ; in 1869, there were ninety 
members ; in 1883, there are 200 members. Father Lordemann found 
here an old, tumble-down house, with no parsonage. In 1874, the pres- 


ent beautiful parsonage was built, costing $1,800. In 1875, he purchased 
a lot just south of his residence on Washington street and moved the old 
church upon it. In 1876, the present grand temple of worship was 
commenced. Bishop Dwenger, of Fort Wayne, Ind., kid the corner 
stone on the 29th day of October, 1876, the ceremony being witnessed 
by b,000 people. Bishop Dwenger was assisted by the clergy of several 
of the neighboring cities. The house was so nearly completed on the 25th 
day of December, 1877, that divine services were held therein on that 
day. On the 8th day of September, 1878, the church buildin-. was ded- 
icated by Bishop Dwenger and others. The edifice is 115°feet lon<. 
54 feet wide, and 40 feet to the ceiling; its cost was about $17,OOo! 
Ihere is no more beautiful church property in the city, and its congrega- 
tion IS out of debt. lu 1875, Father Lordemann opened the Catholic 
school with thirty-five pupils. He secured the services of Miss Lizzie 
bheridan in 1877, who for six years has labored earnestly and zealously 
for the success of her undertaking. Her labors have been crowned 
with the best results. She is recognized by all who know her as a 
teacher of jBuch tact and ability. In the same year that he organ- 
ized the school, 1875, Father Lordemann started the Father Matthew 
Temperance and Total Abstinence Society. This organization has done 
much good and is in a flourishing condition. Father Lordemann is but 
thirty-three years of age, and he has the right to feel that he has been suc- 
cessful m his pastorate. He is beloved by his church, and in its future 
one can see nothing but prosperity. 


As has been said, religion and education were correlative forces in 
the upward movement of Kokorao. In 1844, the Methodists had built a 
little log building, on the east side of Washington street, just east of 
the old jail, for the purposes of worship. Soon it was appropriated jointly 
for school purposes. Here, in November, 1845, Adam Clark onened the 
first school ever taught in what is now the city of Kokomo. There were 
enrolled sixteen pupils, among whom were the present Mrs. Harrison 
Mrs. Leeds and Mrs. Markland, of this city. Mr. Clark taught, also, the 
winter terms of 1846 and 1847. He was an impressive teacher, and did 
not believe in that old maxim of barbarism, " Spare the rod and spoil the 
child," and consequently there was but little whipping done. He pos- 
sessed the love of all his pupils, and now, after thirty-seven years, his 
many virtues are still fresh in their minds. Adam Clark was succeeded 
in 1847 and 1848 by John 0. Heaton, now living in this city. The 
third teacher was the Rev. Denton Simpson, who resides near Tampico, 
this county, and is one of our most worthy citizens. He tauc^ht in the 


winters of 1848 and 1849. There were about thirty-eight enrolled pupils 
from the town, and these, with those from the surrounding country, made 
a total attendance of about fifty pupils. Mr. Simpson received $2 per 
pupil, making $100 for his winter's labor. Denton Simpson was followed 
in 1849-50 and 1851 by T. J. Harrison, who came here in the spring of 
1849, and afterward served his country in the war of the rebellion, rising 
to be a Brigadier General. The winter term of 1851 and 1852 was 
taught by Mrs. Julia Barrett. In the winter of 1852 and 1853, George 
A. Gordon taught the last term of school in the old log church house 
which was ever taught there. The house had been too small for some 
time, so in the summer of 1853 a school building was erected, on the 
west side of Washington street, midway between Sycamore and Walnut 
streets. This house has since been remodeled, and is now the residence 
of Newton Graves, Esq., and stands on the southwest corner of Washing- 
ton and Walnut streets. In this building. Judge Truman H. Palmer, 
now a leading citizen and lawyer of Frankfort, taught the winter terms 
of 1853-54 and 1854-55. 

In 1855, the town of Kokomo having been duly incorporated, the first 
enumeration of children was taken, and those of school age found to be 
163. James A. Wildman taught the winter of 1855-56, having an en- 
rollment of 149 pupils. James A. Wildman was elected Auditor of 
Howard County in the fall of 1856. 

Prof. Joseph Baldwin opened a school in the fall of 1859, in the pld 
Christian Church, on Mulberry street. Advanced methods of instruc- 
tion were employed by him, and his pupils were filled with his own en- 
thusiasm and fervor. He soon had a prosperous school, and many pupils 
flocked to him for instruction. He introduced normal methods of instruc- 
tion, and thus furnished Howard County with many good teachers. His 
school flourished until 1861, when the tocsin of war sounded in the far- 
away South. 

To Prof. Baldwin, more than to any one person, do we owe the erection 
of our present high school building. He urged that the project was 
feasible, and easily accomplished, if a united eff"ort were made. A joint- 
stock company was organized, called the Normal School Association, and 
N. R. Linsday made President, and Rawson Vaile, Secretary. The 
stock was divided into shares of |20 each, and these were bought by citi- 
zens of Howard and adjoining counties. Centre Township subscribed 
$3,000, on condition that the four lower rooms should be sacred to free 
schools. Prof. Baldwin, though largely instrumental in the building of 
the new schoolhouse, did not remain until it was finished, but removed to 
Logansport, where he resided a few years, when he took charge of the 
Kirksville (Mo.) Normal College, having been made its President by 


the State Board of Education, at a salary of |2,600. The first school 
taught in the new building was in the winter of 1863-64, by Prof H. 
K. Curtis. Prof. Curtis remained but one year, and was succeeded by 
Prof. E. N. Fay, who controlled the school until 1867. In 1865, Koko- 
mo was made a city, and the first Board of School Trustees was elected by 
the City Council. Richard Nixon, Gabriel McCool and John Bohan 
were elected, but McCool and Bohan declined to serve, and David Brown 
and Orseraus Richmond were chosen to fill the vacancies. There had 
never been any system of grading in the schools, and they had been under 
the control of a Board of Town Trustees and the Township Trustee. 
The trustees and teachers had done their whole duty, but had only met 
with partial success. From 1867 to 1869, B. M. Blount, George C. 
Hicks, Edward Taylor and J. Fred. Vaile had been the Principals of the 
Kokomo Schools. 

Howard College was organized in 1869, with Milton B. Hopkins, 
President. There were six teachers, and in 1870 there were sixty-nine 
students. The city having no high school, the advanced pupils were sent 
to the college, and their tuition paid out of the common school revenues. 
Elijah F. White, Alfred B. Ploughe and Samuel C. Moore were elected 
a Board of School Trustees in 1871. The board organized with E. F. 
White, President; Samuel C. Moore, Treasurer, and Alfred B. Ploughe, 
Secretary. These men went to work, and soon a new order of things was 
manifest. They organized the high school, built the Fourth Ward and 
Third Ward Schoolhouses, and elected a Superintendent of City Schools. 
The Fourth Ward is a fine brick building, two stories high, and seats 300 

Milton B. Hopkins was elected in the fall of 1872 State Superin- 
tendent of Schools. With him the propelling power ceased in Howard 
College and it soon closed its doors. Then the Board of Trustees erected 
a high school building at the corner of Taylor and Clay streets, and J. 
F. Vaile was selected as Principal of the High School. The Board of 
Trustees purchased the present high school building, in the spring of 1873, 
of the Trustees of the Indiana State Normal School. The building was 
refurnished throughout and was placed in readiness for the opening of the 
high school in the fall of 1873. Before this, Sheridan Cox, of Logans- 
port, had been elected Superintendent of our city schools. He was a man 
of good executive ability and much experience in city school work. At 
once the wheels of the high school machinery began to move without a 
jar or discord. Mr. Cox has remained with us until he is apparently a 
part of our city school machinery. 

There is a school building, a neat frame, in the northeastern part of 
the city for the accommodation of colored pupils. This school has been 



taught mostly by colored teachers and is in a prosperous condition. J. 
F. Vaile, A. J. Youngblood, Mrs. B. G. Cox, C. M. Harrison, W. H. 
McClain, Mr. Hitt, J. W. Barnes, A. C. Hopkins and H. G. Woody 
have been Principals of the High School. 

There are at present seventeen teachers in the different schools of the 
city, not including the Superintendent. The teachers now engaged are : 
Prof. H. G. Woody, Principal ; Mrs. B. G. Cox, Assistant Principal ; 
Miss Sara L. Ellis, A Grammar ; Mr. J. C. Leach, B Grammar ; Miss 
Sarah Kirkpatrick, C Grammar; Miss Irene Reeves, D Grammar. Primary 
Departeraent: Miss May S. Davis, A Primary; Mrs. Lizzie Trusdell, B 
Primary; Miss Jessie Day huff, 1st C Primary ; Miss Josie George, 2d 
C Primary ; Miss Sadie Clendening, D Primary. Fourth Ward School : 
Mr. Allen Shewmon, Principal ; Mrs. Mollie McKorkle, A ; Miss Sallie 
Jeter, B ; Miss Nellie Holton, C. Colored School, Charles Hick ; Miss 
Anna Cooper, Teacher of Music. 






y „ 





















V- g s 













































































$ 50 00 

200 00 

200 00 

3,200 00 

3,200 00 

20,700 00 

20,700 00 

20,700 00 

20,700 00 

39,275 00 

20,200 00 

20,200 00 

20,500 00 

20.500 00 






























i 359 


1 155 25 
197 60 
1,143 70 
1,186 16 
3,858 90 
4,537 19 
4,357 95 
4,000 00 
3,412 30 
3,516 00 
3,628 00 
3,818 48 


























The bar of Howard County has always been distinguished for its 
ability, honesty and courtesy. There is no bar in the State where there 
is less wrangling and jealousy. Space will not permit entering very ex- 
tensively into details in regard to it, however. The first term of court 
convened on the 7th day of November, 1844, at the house of Capt. John 
Harrison, in the western part of what is now Howard County. The farm 
now owned by T. A. Harrell. The county was then called Richard- 


ville, and Kokomowas in an embryo state. Franklin S. Price, was Clerk ; 
John Harrison, Sheriff, and John Chitwood, Deputy Sheriff. The first 
grand jury were John P. Wright, Foreman, William P. Judkins, Robert 
Walker, David Iseley, Peter Gay, Jonas Deselon, Joseph Clarke, Thomas 
Kirkpatrick, Christopher Cramer, David Lamber, Thomas Kennedy, 
David Bailey, John Ryan, John W. Wright and John B. Miller. They 
returned into open court true bills as follows, to wit : State of Indiana 
vs. Charles J. Allison, retailing ; State of Indiana vs. John Harri- 
son, retailing; State of Indiana vs. John Harrison, retailing; 
State of Indiana vs. George Snodgrass, refusing to list prop- 
erty ; State of Indiana vs. Jesse Barnett, unlawfully acting Sheriff; 
State of Indiana vs. Daniel Heaton, assault and battery ; State of In- 
diana vs. Benjamin Newhouse, trespass ; State of Indiana vs. William 
Trader, failing to list property ; State of Indiana vs. Wright Maudlin, 
adultery ; State of Indiana vs. Martha Maudlin, adultery ; State of In- 
diana vs. Watson G. Fitzpatrick, affray ; State of Indiana vs. 

Parks, losing ; State of Indiana vs. William Smith, losing ; State of In- 
diana vs. William Smith, betting ; State of Indiana vs. Jesse Barnett, 
oflScial negligence ; State of Indiana vs. William Smith, betting ; State 
of Indiana vs. William Smith, betting ; State of Indiana vs. Horatio 
Cagwood, winning ; State of Indiana vs. Horatio Cagwood, winning ; 
State of Indiana vs. William Wolf, assault and battery ; State of Indiana 
vs. William Smith, losing. The jury having completed its work, was 
discharged, having been in session three days and returning twenty-one 

The first case that was tried was that of Indiana vs. Charles J. Allison, 
on an indictment for selling one quart of whisky to one Joseph Heaton, 
to be drunk about his house. At the same time was tried a similar case 
against John Harrison. These cases were both determined by the court, 
the petit jury having been discharged. T. A. Long and Robert Ervin, 
Associate Judges, held court in the absence of Judge Kilgore, of Delaware 
County ; John Davis was the Prosecutor, but he was absent, and Silas 
Colgrove was appointed for the term and allowed $30 for his services. 
On November 9, 1844, court adjourned to meet at the court house at Ko- 
komo, the county seat of Richardville County. 

The first term of the court held in Kokomo was the 6th day of May, 
1845 ; John W. Wright, T. A. Long and Robert Ervin were the Judges. 
The Prosecuting Attorney was W. Z. Stuart, afterward Judge of the Su- 
preme Court of Indiana. W. Z. Stuart, Samuel D. Maxwell, James F. 
Suit, Horace P. Biddle, James Forser and George W. Blakemore were 
admitted as attorneys. At this term the indictments against Benjamin 
Newhouse, trespass ; John Harrison, unlawful sales of whisky ; George 


W. Snodgrass, refusing to list his taxable property ; Jesse Barnett, offi- 
cial negligence ; David Heaton, assault and battery, were all dismissed 
or the indictments quashed. In all the other cases where indictments had 
been found, except in the case of Wright Maudlin and Martha Rowlet, 
charged with adultery, the cases were nolled. The Maudlin and Rowlet 
cases were sent on a change of venue to Grant County. 

There have been many cases upon our criminal docket of much im- 
portance and where public feeling was aroused. The case of the State of 
Indiana vs. Jonathan Binns, for the murder of his wife, was one of the 
most exciting. Binns was three times granted a new trial, and on the 
fourth and last, as well as upon each of the preceding ones, he was sen- 
tenced to the penitentiary for life, Avhere he now is. The Nestor of the 
Kokomo bar. Judge N. R. Linsday, has about retired from the practice. 
He is weak in body, but as strong mentally as he has ever been. In many 
a well-fought contest he has proved a victor, and th^ lawyer who vanquished 
the Judge in the professional arena did so because the law and evidence 
were with him. His special excellence consisted of his defense of men 
accused of crime. The members of the Kokomo bar ai'e N. R. Linds- 
day, Rawson Vaile, H. A. Brouse, Milton Garrigus, Milton Bell, James 
O'Brien, James F. Elliott, Jacob H. Kroh, John W. Kern, Charles E. 
Hendry, John E. Moore, L. J. Kirkpatrick, J. C. Blacklidge, John In- 
gels, Freeman Cooper, W. E. Blacklidge, B. F. Harness, A. N. Grant, 
Will C. Purdum, N. B. Smitb, A. C. Bennett, C. C. Shirley, A. B. 
Kirkpatrick, James F. Morrison and D. A. Woods. N. R. Overman, of 
Tipton, Ind., is Judge, Luther McReynolds, Sheriff, and John W. Cooper, 
Clerk, C. C. Shirley, Prosecuting Attorney. 


The physicians of Kokomo are a jolly set of practitioners. No city of 
its size can boast of a more intelligent class of physicians than can 
Kokomo. All are sober, educated gentlemen. For some years Kokomo 
had to depend upon doctors outside of Howard County. The oldest 
physician here is Dr. Corydon Richmond, who located here in 1845. 
In the fall of 1845, Dr. Orsemus Richmond came here, following his 
brother Corydon, who had come in the spring of 1845. Orsemus Rich- 
mond continued to live here in the active practice of his profession until 
his death in 1868. In the fall of 1845, Dr. Barrett also located here. 
In 1846, W. C. Jones arrived, and in 1848 J. A. James came. In 1849, 
Dr. Busbee came, and remained about four years, when he left. Others 
had left, and thus there remained only C. and 0. Richmond and J. A. 
James. Dr. A. F. Dayhuff came in 1853, and he is still among us, en- 
joying a large practice. Dr. E. A. Armstrong, now one of the leading 


physicians of Kokomo, settled first in Russiaville, but subsequently re- 
moved to Kokomo. 

The first medical society was organized here in July, 1854, with J. M. 
Erlougher, Corydon Richmond, William J. Morgan, Amos Pettyjohn, 
J. A. James and James Cochran as members. The next year L. D. 
Waterman, Orsemus Richmond, J. D. Linsday, I. C. Johnson, A B. 
Taylor, Nathan Mendenhall, L. D. McCann and J. W. Clark became 
members. The society soon ceased to hold meetings, and nothing was 
done for nearly ten years. The society was then re-organized, and H. C. 
Cole and 0. H. Martin, of Kokomo, were elected members. The or- 
ganization of the Howard County Medical Society has ever since been 
maintained. The Howard County Medical Society holds its meetings 
quarterly, and they are largely attended. 

The Kokomo City Medical Society was organized in 1865. The 
physicians who organized this society were L. McAllister, Corydon Rich- 
mond, Orsemus Richmond, I. C. Johnson, 0. H. Martin, W. K. Mavity, 
A. F. Armstrong, E. A. Armstrong, H. C. Cole, R. H. Buck, J. M. Dar- 
nall, John Anderson and William Scott. There were regular meetings 
held for some time, and in June, 1866, the name of the society was 
changed to the Kokomo Academy of Medicine. The society meets 
weekly, commencing its meetings the first Saturday night in October, and 
closing the last Saturday night in March. Each physician is assigned to 
some chair, as Dr. R. Q. Wilson, Theory and Practice ; Dr. E. A. Arm- 
strong, Surgery, etc. Each physician is expected to deliver two lectures 
upon his subject during the winter term. These meetings have proved 
of great benefit to the profession. The physicians of the "regular" or 
" old school " of practice all belong to the Academy of Medicine. They 
arc Corydon Richmond, A. F. Dayhuff, E. A. Armstrong, W. K. Ma- 
vity, I. C. Johnson, R. Q. Wilson, John B. Moore, Lewis Kern, J. M. 
Moulder, Theodore Kern, William Scott, J. H. Berst and Dr. Lovett. 
Dr. William Cooper, a graduate of the Cincinnati Eclectic Medical College, 
is a physician of learning and experience, and commands a large practice. 
Dr. E. W. Sawyer, homoeopathist, has also a large and growing 


Kokomo Lodge, No. 93, F. & A. M., was organized on the 20th day 
of October, 1849, and was given its charter by the Grand Lodge May 
29, 1850. The first ofiicers were as follows: Corydon Richmond, 
W. M.; G. W. Bissell, S. W.; Orsemus Richmond, J. W.; S. Wagner, 
Treasurer ; C. D. Murray, Secretary ; Arthur Williams, S. D.; H. B. 
Havens, J. D.; H. C. Stewart, Tiler. In March, 1867, the building in 
which the lodge had met was destroyed by fire, and many valuables 


consumed. At the organization of Howard Lodge, No. 370, in 1867, 
twenty-six members of Kokomo Lodge withdrew to become members of 
the new lodge. The officers were N. P. Richmond, W. M.; John 
Bohan, S. W.; George W. Pattison, J. W.; James A. Wildman, Treas- 
urer; D. C. Metsker, Secretary; Simon Stern, S. D.; T. L. Coblentz, 
J. D.; James F. Davis and R. H. Buck, Stewards. This weakened 
the old lodge. In June, 1879, the Kokomo and Howard lodges were 
consolidated under the name of Howard Lodge, No. 93. There 
are now forty-nine members of Howard Lodge, many having been 
suspended for non-payment of dues. The Treasurer has in his hands 
^175 belonging to the lodge. The following are the present offi- 
cers of the lodge : A. S. Ellis, W. M.; Robert Orchett, S. W. ; 
A. E. Hoon, J. W.; Tence Lindley, Treasurer ; C. C. Sollenberger, 
Secretary ; Henry Grantham, S. D.; William H. Hendrickson, J. D.; 
D. L. Robins, Tyler ; Josiah Beeson and J. H. Benke, Stewards. 


Kokomo Lodge, No. 133, I. 0. 0. F., was chartered on the 20th day 
of July, 1853. This is the oldest and wealthiest lodge in the city. Its 
membership is now sixty-five. It owns the hall where it meets, at the cor- 
ner of Main and Walnut streets, and has funds in the Treasurer's hands to 
the amount of $3,000 or $4,000. The organization has expended in 
round numbers $2,000 for relief of its members, widows and orphans, 
who have claims upon it for charity. One of its members, Col. N. P. 
Richmond, has enjoyed the distinction of being Grand Master of the 
Grand Lodge of the State of Indiana ; also of being Representative to the 
Sovereign Grand Lodge of the United States. The present ofiicers are 
William H. Murphy, N. G.; J. C. Leach, V. G.; M. A. Chestnut, 
Recording Secretary ; B. F. Redmond, Permanent Secretary ; Alf 
Mote, Treasurer. 

The second organization of I. 0. 0. F.'s in the city was Kokomo 
Encampment, No. 61, the same being composed of Royal Purple degree 
members, or patriachs of the highest branch of the order. The Encamp- 
ment numbers about forty in its ranks, and has $1,500 in its treas- 
ury. The present officers are : Alf Mote, Chief Patriarch ; M. A. 
Chestnut, Senior Warden; L. Foreland, Junior Warden; L. H. Hillis, 
High Priest ; B. F. Redmond, Scribe ; Walter Hooper, Treasurer. 

On November 20, 1867, a new lodge, known as Wildman Lodge, No. 
295, I. 0. 0. F., was chartered, and has always been known as the 
" Young Men's Lodge." Its membership is now about sixty-five. It has 
paid as benefits to sick members, widows and orphans and other charities, 
more than $2,000, and has on hand now from $1,000 to $1,200. 


The present officers are as follows : W. B. Ray, N. G.; J. E. 
Vaile, V. G.; L. L. Fellows, Per. Sec; A. N. Grant, Rec. Sec.;' Walter 
Hooper, Treas. Each of the Lodges and Encampments pays $50 funeral 
benefits on the death of a brother, and $25 on the death of a brother's 
wife; also each of these Lodges pays $4 per week sick benefits and the 
Encampment pays $3 per week. 

The fourth and last I. 0. 0. F. organization in the city of Kokomo 
is a company of Uniformed Patriarchs, recently organized by the selec- 
tion of the following officers : A. M. Grant, Chief Captain ; John W. 
Cooper, Subordinate Captain ; L. H. Hillis, Junior Captain; Barnabas 
Busby, Standard Bearer ; Webb B. Ray, Secretary ; D. T. Reiff, Treas- 
urer. This company is drilling from one to two evenings each week, and 
is making commendable progress. The company will soon be a credit to 
the city and to the order to which it belontrs. 


The first organization of the Knights of Pythias took place on the 31st 
day of May, 1873, when Washington Lodge, No. 29, was organized. 
There were twenty charter members. 

H. H. Winslow, A. F. Philips, A. J. Wimmer, John Nicholson, E, 
S. Ludlow, W. Legg, J. H. Anderson, F. L. Porter, A. Cline, E. F. 
Murden, Jim Henry, A. F. Brown, George Frazee, Joseph D. Johnson, 
Nick Vanhorn, L. Deffenbaugh, J. J. Pearson, J. Chambers, Sam 
Richey and W. D. Kisller. 

The lodge soon after had completed for its accomodation a handsome 
hall in Armstrong, Pickett & Co.'s new building, but the lodge never 
prospered as it should have done, and its charter was surrendered. 

On the 15th of August, 1879, the present lodge was organized, and 
took for its name. Good Intent Lodge, No. 29. There were twenty-seven 
charter members— C. A. Jay, 0. N. Davis, D. F. Bell, George W. Duke, 
C. B. Hauser, N. L. Hollowell, W. R. Ploughe, W. H. Gearhard, James 
Henry, C. H. Philips, A. M. Moore, H. J. West, D. W. Ulrick, R. M. 
Cain, A. Y. Comstock, D. C. Spraker, Byron Haskett, Will Kennedy, 
Will Ganse, Ed R. Wilson and W. A. Irvin. The officers were John m! 
Ray, C. C. ; Will Ganse, V. C. ; A. N. Grant, Prelate ; C. A. Jay, P.' 
C; D. F. Bell, K. of R. & S. ; H. J. West, M. of F.; D. C. 
Spraker, M. of E. 

There are now eighty-five active working members, and the lodge is 
in a very prosperous and healthful condition. They are comfortably 
quartered and the treasury is well supplied with funds. There has been 
but one death in the order, C. H. Philips. The present officers are as 
follows : 

G. F. Andrews, P. C. ; Will P. Vaile, C. C ; Charles A. Scott, V. 


C. ; Rev. Robert McCune, Prelate; Ed Russell, K. of S. & K. ; 0. E. 
Shepherd, M. of F. ; Luther MoReynolds, M. of E. On the 20th of 
August, 1881, there was organized the Uniform Rank, Knights of 
Pythias. This rank has become one of the most noted in the country. 
They received the second medal at Detroit, in August, 1882, when com- 
peting against old companies, and but a few weeks since were recognized 
as third-best at Cincinnati. Our citizens are justly proud of this cele- 
brated company. 

When the Uniform Rank was organized, J. E. Kirk was chosen Sir 
Kt. Com.; C. A. Jay, Sir Kt. Lieut. Com.; E. W. Klunn, Sir Kt. 
Herald ; J. M. Ray, Sir Kt. Rec. ; H. C. Davis, Sir Kt. Treas. ; Ed 
R. Wilson, Sir Kt. Guard ; N. L. Hollowell, Sir Kt. Sentinel. The 
boys are hard at work under the efficient training of their Commander, 
C. A. Jay, and intend to bear oflf first prize at the great World's Tourna- 
ment at New Orleans in 188-4. 


The city of Kokomo has a population of 6,000 at this time. May 15, 
1883, and no city in the State can boast of more advantages. We are 
surrounded by a good class of farm lands, and intelligent, thrifty farmers. 
Our trade is drawn from miles around. No city in Indiana is blessed 
with a more liberal, wide-awake, enterprising class of merchants, hence 
trade comes from Carroll, Cass, Miami, Grant, Madison, Tipton and Clin- 
ton Counties. The place has never been cursed by a few men of wealth, 
owning and controlling the commercial interests of the town. Kokomo 
has always been fortunate in her business men. Three railroads, the 
Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific, the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati & St. Louis and 
the Toledo, Cincinnati & St. Louis Railroads, give Kokomo the neces- 
sary facilities for cheap and speedy markets. Three newspapers, the 
Dispatch, the Tribune and the Qazette furnish the people with the local 
events and general news. No city in Indiana can boast of three better 
newspapers. They show the dash and energy of " the Kokomo man." 
In fact, if there is one thing the city possesses, it is the spirit of push ; 
wherever one goes, Kokomo has a reputation already established, and her 
citizens are always known to be able to take care of themselves. The 
professional men of Kokomo are acknowledged to be intelligent and honor- 
able. Kokomo has five large dry goods stores with plate glass fronts," 
and all carry large and well selected stocks of goods. The firms are 
Ruddell Bros. & Co., 0. V. Darby, S. Davis & Sons, Parry, Haines & 
Co. and Block & Thalman. There are seventeen groceries, seven drug 
stores, three hardware stores and four millinery stores. There are several 
machine shops where many hands are employed ; also three stores where 
sewing machines are sold. There are many good business blocks in the 


city, among which may be mentioned Armstrong, Pickett & Co.'s hard- 
ware store, and the Comstock Block. 

There is a bright prospect in the future for the city of Kokorao. It 
is hoped that in the year 1900, she will have 25,000 inhabitants. Many 
of the citizens of Kokomo have given the writer information and practi- 
cal aid in the writing of this short sketch of the city. Only those who 
have had experience in such work can have any idea of the amount of 
labor necessary to even approximately reach one's ideal in such a task. 
The early history of the town is now mostly tradition, and it is almost 
impossible to arrive at the truth. 



This township is now, as it has always been, the most important in 
the county, containing in its center one of the most flourishing towns of 
its size in the State of Indiana. This is the county seat of Howard 
County. The township was originally included in the limits of Kokomo 
Township, but at the December term of the Board of County Commis- 
sioners in 1846, was made into the township which it now is. It took its 
name. Centre Township, from the fact that it is almost exactly in the 
center of the county, and also very near the central point of the State. 
When first organized as a township, it was in Richardville County, the 
county name being changed to Howard County later on in honor of Til- 
man A. Howard, one of the oldest pioneers of the county. The town- 
ship as it now is lies on either side of Wild Cat Creek. The soil is very 
fertile and the ground slightly undulating, containing everything to make 
the farms situated thereon most profitable. Centre Township is bounded 
by Clay, Howard, Harrison and Taylor Townships— Clay and Howard 
on the north, east and Avest sides, and Harrison and Taylor on the south, 
east and west sides. After its organization as a township, and when in 
Richardville County, farms were admitted by petition, as in the case of 
the farm of Thomas M. Kirkpatrick, which was admitted from what was 
then known as Clay Township. 


Among the early settlers a hard time was had to provide the necessa- 
ries of life for their families. Rude log cabins served as the primitive 
dwelling houses on the same land where now stand massive structures. 
Joseph Skeen was about the first to take up his abode in this township, 
he moving here in 1840. Ethan Burch came a short time afterward 
and settled on a tract of land just south of what is now -Judi^e N. R. 


Linsday's farm, and just north of the present fair ground site. The 
south part of the township soon became sparsely settled, and among the 
early settlers there were John Ford, John Morrow and his father, Will- 
iam Rodman and Willis Blanche. The latter became one of the most in- 
fluential and able men of the county, and also one of Indiana's most 
brave soldiers, serving as a Colonel in the late unpleasantness, and at the 
present time taking a most active part in all leading questions of the day. 
In the northern portion of the township, Eli, John and Michael Lock 
early battled with the fates for subsistence, and came up inch by inch 
until they stood with the foremost of our citizens. Kember McLann, 
also settled in the northern part of the township, and though beset by 
difficulties, soon made his way to the top. In the west, William Graves, 
Elwood Modlin, William Grant and Gabriel McCool took a formidable 
lead among the early settlers, while Thomas Faulkner and William Dor- 
man took up their abode in the eastern part of the township. It is also 
necessary to speak of David Foster who is properly the father of Centre 
Township and of the city of Kokomo, he moving here in 1842. Mr. 
Foster's land embraced what is now known as the original plat of the 
city of Kokomo, although it was for many years before he had any of 
the luxuries of life. Many stories of the hardships and the Indian trad- 
ing of former times in this locality have amused our people when Mr. 
Foster told them in his quaint and droll way. John Bohan moved here 
in 1844, and is now one of the leading men of the city. Among others 
of the early settlers now living are, Judge N. R. Linsday, Peter B. Ken- 
nedy, Dr. Corydon Richmond, H. C. Stewart and Peter B. Hersleb, 
while C. D. Murray, David Foster, Harles Ashley and others have long 
since passed away. 


Polecats, a class of animals to be sincerely avoided, are said to have 
been very thick during the early history of the township. George II. 
Holding, an early settler, went out one night to see what was the cause of 
the disturbance among his chickens ; he found out, but had to bury his 
clothes. Polecats are now very scarce, but the early settlers tell 
many a humorous anecdote like the above about them. Deer were 
seen in the early days, but not frequently ; they are entirely exter- 
minated at present. Rattlesnakes were also plentiful, but now one is sel- 
dom seen. Mr. Lerner, an early settler, reports that he saw a panther 
one night, and his story is confirmed by many neighbors. 


Along the course of the Wild Cat, the land is slightly hilly, while 
away the ground is almost perfectly level, especially so on the divides or 


table-lands. At first the "reserve" was all swamps, sloughs and mud, with 
which the early settlers had much trouble, as they were a terrible impedi- 
ment to cultivation, travel and clearing; but these have been overcome by 
being drained and graded, until Centre Township is now one of the best 
in the county, with an abundance of fine farm lands, ditches and gravel 
roads; in fact, there is now no portion too wet to be cultivated. The soil 
is very fertile, and peculiarly adapted to raising corn, oats, rye, hay, 
fruit, vegetables, wheat — in fact, all the cereals and other productions of 
Northern Indiana. Gravel beds of considerable extent are found along 
Wild Cat and other streams, in many localities, sufficient for building 
gravel roads, and for all other practical purposes. Good limestone 
quarries of substantial rock exist near Kokomo, containing a plentiful 
supply of building stone, and all very near the surface. Petroleum is 
found in the limestone formation and at one time was worked up, but it 
existed in such minute quantities that it proved of no economic value. 

The township, when settled, was covered with a dense growth of de- 
ciduous timber, among which was a very large proportion of walnut, 
poplar, oak, hickory, ash, maple and many other valuable varieties ; the 
settlers, not then knowing its value, destroyed much of it. Some families 
even used black walnut timber for fuel in the early days, little dreaming 
that it was the most valuable of any of the timber growing here. Some 
years since, 6,000,000 feet of black walnut were exported annually out 
of the county, and a goodly portion came from this township. At pres- 
ent, there is not much black walnut timber left ; a considerable extent of 
ground has lately been set out in walnut trees, however, so that some 
forty years hence they may be more dense than ever. Vast sugar or- 
chards, or groves of sugar trees, once grew in all parts of the township, 
and at the present time many sugar camps are profitably worked. Indeed, 
the soil and timber of Centre Township cannot be excelled. 


The first burial place was on the north bank of Wild Cat Creek, about 
one half mile from the present site of Kokomo, immediately west of the 
present location of the Pan Handle Railroad. It contained one acre, and 
was donated for this purpose by Thomas Faulkner, heretofore mentioned 
as one of the early settlers. This graveyard is now an old-time landmark, 
and is but seldom used. Heavy rainfalls have washed away the ground 
bordering on the creek, the fence having been moved back twice, and it is 
only a question of time when all traces of this cemetery will have disap- 
peared. Many quaint epitaphs can be seen on the moldy tombstones, 
some fallen and others now rotted away, while nearly all the graves are 
sunken many feet. 


The first death in the township is not definitely known, John Crow- 
saur's child and one of Avery Chase's children dying about the same time, 
both being the first two interred in this graveyard. The first marriage 
was that of James Comer, of this township, to a Miss Wright, of New 
London. James M. Foster, son of David Foster, was the first white child 
ever born in Centre Township, his birth occurring in November, 1842. 

The first schoolhouse was built in 1845, the site being opposite what 
is now known as the old jail in the city of Kokomo. It cannot be ascer- 
tained who was the first teacher, although some years afterward James H. 
Wildman, formerly Auditor of State, now Postmaster at Indianapolis, 
wielded the birch rod there, as well as Gen. Thomas J. Harrison, now de- 
ceased. Some of the old settlers say that Adam Clark, who later on was 
Clerk and Auditor of the county, was the first school teacher, but of this 
they are not certain. When the school was first opened, there were but 
three pupils. This number gradually increased, and when Wildman was 
teacher there were fourteen scholars, which comprised all the children who 
lived near enough to possibly attend. 

The first practicing physician was Dr. C. Richmond, who lived in 
Kokomo, but who practiced in the township. 

The first post office was located in Kokomo, and this has been the only 
post office in the township since. Austin North was the first Postmaster. 

The first grist mill was built by William Grant, the site being near the 
present fair grounds site, south of the city. He later on built a saw-mill 
adjacent, and for the first time the settlers used boards for the floors and 
doors in their log cabins, which was quite a good substitute for the old-time 

The first religious society formed in this settlement was organized by 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, two miles and a half west of where the 
city of Kokomo now stands. This was about the year 1841, and prior to 
the settlement of Kokomo. Rev. Frank Taylor was preacher in charge of 
the circuit in the year 1843. T. M. Kirkpatrick and wife were members 
of that society, and after the war they removed their membership to the 
M. E. Church, of Kokomo. David Foster's house was the first place in 
the township where the preaching of the Gospel was ever heard. The 
members of this society were Adam Clark and wife, Elizabeth Foster, N. 
R. Linsday and wife, Mrs. Joseph Skeen, and Dennis McCormick and 
wife. N. R. Linsday is the only surviving member of this the first 
church society ever organized in the township. A log church was built 
in 1844, on a lot just east of where the old jail now stands. 

The first newspaper issued in the township was published on the 30th 
day of October, 1850, with James Beard and Charles D. Murray as editors. 
It was published for one year, and was then discontinued. 



The first census of the township, as well as the county, was taken in 
June, 1850, and gave the township a population of 954 whites, no colored 
people being here then. 

The Assessors made an appraisement in 1853, which showed the value 
of real estate to be $121,751; personal property, $109,140; poll, 

At the election held in 1860, Centre Township cast 541 votes, includ- 
ing the city of Kokomo. 

The first deed ever recorded for land sold was given by David Foster 
to Peter Gay, agent for the County Commissioners. It was for forty 
acres, and took in the land between Washington and Union streets, east 
and west, and between High and Taylor streets, north and south, in the 
now city of Kokomo, the consideration being $140. Howard County has 
one lot out of this forty acres left, and it is worth to-day, $1,200. 

The first mortgage against a piece of property was filed October 4, 
1845 ; drawn by Samuel Scott and John Vaughn, in favor of Peter Gay, 

The County Poor-Farm, or Infirmary, is situated in Centre Township, 
about two miles west of the city. It is a massive structure, and was built 
in 1881. The old poor-farm, adjacent to the new one, was purchased by 
the county in 1857. 

The Orphans' Home is situated one mile south of the city, and is a 
fine brick building. All the homeless waifs are taken there, and at the 
present writing, fourteen orphans are instructed and fed in the insti- 

In the matter of schoolhouses. Centre Township compares favorably 
with any other in the county. Outside the city are eight schoolhouses, 
all brick, and at the June, 1882, enumeration, there were in attendance 
153 male whites ; 135 female whites ; 8 colored males ; 4 colored females ; 
making a total of 300 pupils. 

There is but one church in the township outside of the city, its de- 
nomination being the New Light. It is a frame structure, and is located 
about two miles south of the city. 


It will be seen that this township is a formidable competitor with any 
other township in the State in the matter of free and toll gravel roads or 
pikes, and the good business of the city that it supports, is mainly due to 
the pikes running in all directions through the township. Ten gravel 
roads run from end to end, six free pikes, and four toll, as follows : Deer- 
creek, Touby, Harlan, Wild Cat, Albright and Rieketts, free pikes ; Ko- 


komo & Greentown ; Kokorao, Greentown & Jerome ; Pete's Run, 
and the Kokonao & New London, toll pikes. These pikes are all in 
first-class condition, the Harlan and Touby being completed last year. 


Centre Township does not contain many manufactories outside of the 
city, for the township is not very large, and the business facilities of Ko- 
komo are such that nearly all are located there. There are three brick- 
kilns, and two tile-drain manufactories, however, employing an average of 
sixty-three hands during the year, and paying out to the employes $11,000 
wages. The brick-kilns furnish all the brick for the building material of 
Kokorao, while the tile drains send a great deal of their product outside 
of the county. 


To look back on this spot forty, or even thirty years ago, one would 
have seen a vast forest, growing out of a swampy soil, with a sluggish 
stream dividing it into halves, and here and there a rude hut, erected and 
occupied by some settler who had wandered here in search of 
fortune, with nothing to carve out a name for himself but his trusty 
ax. Every other day he and his family would shiver with that dread 
scourge, Indiana ague, and he had no one to administer to his wants but 
the few Indians remaining here of what was once a large tribe. Soon 
more settlers came, and day by day the forests were cleared away and 
some new improvement made. Notwithstanding every obstacle with 
which they had to battle, they steadily climbed the road to prosperity, 
until to-day the township is the picture of public health. Fine farms 
perfectly drained, handsome residences and flattering prospects now stand 
on the debris of less than half a century ago. One of the most thriving 
towns in the State graces its center. Looking into the past, we can only 
see a swampy desolation ; but scanning the present, the scene has changed 
to a most thriving township. 



The section now known as Honey Creek Township, Howard County, 
was, when first settled and organized, a part of Clinton County. Its or- 
ganization dates back to the year 1842, during which year the first election 
ever held in the township occurred. The election was held for the pur- 
pose of choosing one Representative, one County Commissioner, one School 
Commissioner and one County Coroner. The following is a list of the 


voters and officers conducting the election. Samuel Scott was the In- 
spector, and Josiah Lamb, William Morrison, Edom Garner and J. F. 
Simms, were the Judges; only twenty-three names were on the poll- 
book (which consisted of one sheet of foolscap paper). John Rivers, who 
still resides in this township, headed the list of voters, which was as fol- 
lows : J. Waggaman, Alexander Thatcher, J. S. Morrison, Jonas Rivers, 
David Frazier, J. Morrison, George W. Swither, Levi Haworth, James 
McCowen, William Beard, Charles Hatch, Watson Fitzpatrick, Aaron 
Casto, Julian Frazier, Josiah Lamb, Edom Garner, John F. Simms, 
William Morrison, Samuel Scott, James Purdum, Jonathan Merideth 
and William Hughes. The returns of this election were made out on 
common foolscap paper and carried to the county seat, on horseback. 
Another election was held some time near this date at the residence of 
Julian Frazier, at which the following officers were elected : Martin 
Burton, Justice of the Peace, and Nelson Purdum, Constable. 


It is said that Joseph C. Taylor and family were the first white inhab- 
itants of Honey Creek Township. They came here during the year 1839. 
Mr. Taylor had left his home near Peru in the fall of 1838, and came 
here to build his little log cabin, into which he moved in March, 1839. 
It is also claimed for Mr. Taylor that he, in company with George Taylor, 
Isaac Price and Robert Walker, were the first white men who inhabited 
Howard County. The first year of Mr. Taylor's stay in this township, was 
very lonesome, as his was the only family in the present limits of the 
township. The first to come to share in the hardships of the dreary 
pioneer life was a man by the name of McCrery, who settled on a tract 
of land just w'est of the present site of Russiaville, which tract is at 
present owned by Jonathan Hodson. 

About the first part of the year 1843, the settlement began to increase 
in numbers, and among the pioneers of that early date, very few of whom 
are living here yet, were the families of John and Julian Frazier, John 
Rivers, John Blanche, William Hughes, Vincent Garner, Edom Garner, 
Daniel R. Jones, Alexander Suit, Henry Stuart, John P. Wright, Dr. 
L. H. Oilar, D. D. Lightner, Martin Burton, Benoni Fortner, John Wag- 
gaman and Jesse Ratcliff ; also the Woodys, Runks, Moulders, James 
Vaughan, John Wilson, Dr. D. J. Shirley, George Thompson, Ira Bishop, 
Jacob Vogus, Stephen lies, John Lybrook, Smith Chambers and Allen 
Middleton, and a great many others of more recent settlement, who have 
done a great deal toward making the township what it is, and whose 
names must be remembered as well as the older pioneers. Among them 
may be mentioned Luke Fry, T. E. Trueblood, David Middleton, 


William Aaron, Benjamin P. Cosand, Madison and Miles Hart, the 
Hodsons, Ratcliifs, Johnsons and Talberts. 


On October 4, 1842, a great deal of the public land was sold ac the 
great land sales held at Peru and Crawfordsville. In looking over the 
old records of these land entries, which records were taken from the 
original books at the different land offices, it is known that the follow- 
ing-named persons purchased or entered lands in this township, as 
follows : October 4, 1842 — Nicholas Trobaugh, 160 acres, in Section 21 ; 
Edward Hemphill, 160 acres, in Section 21; John P. Wright, 240 
acres, in Sections 22 and 23 ; Edom Garner, 160 acres, in Sections 23 
and 26 ; Julian Frazier, 160 acres, in Sections 22 and 23 ; Joseph C. 
Taylor, 160 acres, in Section 26. Also, on April 22, 1843— Martin 
Burton, 80 acres, in Section 26. October 28, 1843 — James Vaughan, 80 
acres, in Section 27. December 15, 1843 — Allen Middleton. 160 acres, 
in Section 25. November 29, 1843 — John Moulder, 160 acres, in Sec- 
tion 36. October 25, 1842 — D. D. Lightner, 80 acres, in Section 24. 
October 5, 1842 — John Rivers, 80 acres, in Section 28. December 12, 
1844 — Sarah Carson, 80 acres, in Section 27. Among the above-named 
persons who entered the lands described, only a very few are the owners 
of the same land at the present time. John Moulder and Sarah Carson 
still hold the same tracts entered by them in 1843 and 1844. 


The whole of Honey Creek Township, as it was in 1845, then more 
than double its present size, was only assessed so as to pay $141.81 taxes 
on the real estate and personal property then in the township. Below 
are given the taxes paid by a number of the old settlers in 1845, the first 
taxes that are on record as having been paid in the township : Dr. L. H. 
Oilar, on 80 acres and $100 personal property, paid |1.50 ; Nicholas 
Trobaugh, on 80 acres and $102 personal property, paid $2.12 ; John P. 
Wright, on 240 acres, paid $2.92 ; Edom Garner, on 80 acres and $140 
personal property, paid $2.21 ; Julian Frazier, on 160 acres and $138 
personal property, paid $3.01 ; Joseph C. Taylor, on 160 acres and $252 
personal property, paid $3.29 ; Martin Burton, on 80 acres and $85 
personal property, paid $1.90 ; James Vaughan. on 80 acres, paid $1.84; 
John Rivers, on 80 acres and $57 personal property, paid $1.09 ; D. D. 
Lightner, on 80 acres, paid 55 cents ; John Moulder, on 160 acres 
and $220 personal property, paid $3.03; Solomon B. Fortner, on 80 
acres and $161 personal property, paid $3.25. The Fraziers and several 
others paid taxes the same year, ranging in amounts from 80 cents to 


$3.01. It is a notable fact that we now have men in the township who 
pay more taxes in one year, at the present time, than all the men who 
paid taxes in 1845, and the township was then much larger. But the 
taxes then were perhaps even harder to pay than they are to-day, owing to 
the extreme scarcity of money of those days, and the lack of ways to get 
hold of it. The early pioneers had very little to sell, and what they had 
could not be sold for money. Wild game and wild honey seem to have 
been the principal articles offered in exchange for the necessary com- 
modities of life. Up to the year 1842, there was no trading point nearer 
this section than Burlington, Carroll County, which was ten miles distant, 
and to this point all the primitive Honey Creekers had to wend their 
way through almost an unbroken expanse of thickly-wooded country, tak- 
ing the paths made by the Indians, sometimes on horseback, but more 
frequently on foot. This very inconvenient state of affairs only lasted 
about three years, when Burlington, as the principal trading point, was 
abandoned for one nearer home. Old Uncle Henry Stuart, as he is now- 
known, and who at the present time is a resident of Kokomo, some time 
during the year 1842, purchased a stock of goods and opened a store near 
the present site of Russiaville. His stock was, of course, of a very limited 
character, but almost endless in variety, for it consisted of all kinds of 
goods needed by the early settlers — dry goods, groceries, hardware, 
crockery, glassware — in fact it was what is now denominated a general 
store, a headquarters for all kinds of goods. His usual places of laying 
in a supply of goods were La Fayette, Cincinnati and Chicago ; the goods 
had to be transported from these points in wagons, and new supplies were 
consequently not very frequent in their appearance. Mr. Stuart, in 
order to accommodate his customers, made arrangements for the exchange 
of venison, wild honey, roots and herbs, and the skins of the fur-bearing 
animals, for the commodities he kept for sale. This gave employment 
for the women and children in digging ginseng, yellow root, and several 
other indigenous roots and herbs, thereby furnishing them with a great 
many articles of apparel that they could not have otherwise obtained. 
The hams of deer seem to have been the principal circulating medium 
between the men and the store-keepers. Mr. H. G. Woody, in his history 
of this township, as written for the County Atlas, states that "at one 
time Mr. Stuart had 100 ' saddles ' (pairs of deer hams) piled 
up in his cabin store." Mr. Woody also states that the first wagon 
ever at Kokomo was loaded with goods belonging to Henry Stuart. The 
young Indians never having before seen a wagon, thought it some stranore 
animal, and would take to their heels immediately when the horses hap- 
pened to move it. It took two days to make the trip, only halting a 
short time at an Indian town. A further history of the commercial and 


mercantile interests of the township will be given, as fully as space will 
permit, in that part of this sketch which relates to the town of Russia- 


Could we, who are on the stage of action at the present, accustomed 
to seeing marriages in high life, accustomed to the brilliant weddings of 
to-day, look back and be a witness of the marriage ceremonies as con- 
ducted by the pioneers of Honey Creek Township over forty years ago, we 
would think it a terrible hardship to have to undergo that happiest ordeal 
in man's existence under such circumstances ; but in contrasting the sur- 
roundings of the pioneer wedding — the bride, in a cheap calico or home- 
spun dress, and groom in buckskin breeches, flax-linen shirt and jeans 
coat — with the modern brilliant wedding, the high contracting parties 
decked out in the height of prevailing fashion, and surrounded by costly 
wedding presents from loving friends, we must not forget that a marriage 
under the former circumstances was generally the happy consummation 
of a genuine affection, and, as a rule, fewer ill-assorted matches occurred 
in those days. 

Some time in the early part of the spring of 1842, Joseph Skeen, who 
now resides in this township, paid his attentions to Miss Nancy Rivers, a 
daughter of John Rivers, with the intention of making her his wife. 
Joseph happened along one day when Samuel Scott, the acting Justice of 
the Peace at that time, was at work at the sugar camp. Mr. Scott know- 
ing of the expected marriage, jokingly spoke to Mr. Skeen, telling him 
that he (Mr. Scott), was practicing the ceremony in the woods every day, 
that whenever he came across two nice, thrifty trees standing close together, 
he united them in marriage. He also told " Uncle Joe " that he wanted 
some rails made and would take his fee in that way. So in a few days, 
Samuel Maxwell, Clerk of the Court, was sought, a license obtained, and 
on the 13th day of March, 1842, Joseph Skeen and Nancy Rivers were 
before Esquire Samuel Scott, to have the hymeneal knot tied ; " Uncle 
Joe " made the remark to the Squire that he was ready to split the rails. 
and this was the first marriage ceremony performed in Honey Creek 
Township. (Some claim, however, that one or two marriages occurred 
before this, but there is no record of them.) 

In looking over the record, we found the names of several persons who 
are still living who started in wedded life from this place. Joe Tay- 
lor and Eliza Rawson obtained license on the 14th day of March, 1845; 
the ceremony was performed by Martin Burton, Justice of the Peace. 
The next were William Wright and Arminda Taylor, on the 31st day of 
July, 1^45; John Frazier and Hannah Ratcliff, on the 4th day of 
August, 1845 ; Coleman Moss and Sarah Wright, February 15, 1847 ; 


Edom Ratcliff and Nancy Bishop, May 15, 1847 ; Thomas Chandler and 
Phoebe Enable, May 23, 1848 ; Zimri Nixon and Elizabeth Moulder, 
September 15, 1848 ; Daniel R. Jones and Catharine Taylor, October 2, 
1848. Several other marriages occuiTed during these early years, but 
space will not permit further mention. 


No further back than forty-five years ago, the lands now known as 
Honey Creek Township, were densely covered with forest, and not a few 
buttonwood ponds. The Indians and the wild beasts were the monarchs 
of all they surveyed. The country in its physical features was not un- 
like many other tracts of flat wooded lands, the flatness being almost uni- 
versal throughout the township, with the slight exception of the few and 
small hills along the course of the two branches of Honey Creek, known 
as the East and West Forks of Honey Creek, which streams run diagonally 
through the east and west center of the township. The township derived 
its name from this creek. The first road, or, rather, path, that was 
traveled was what is now known as the Honey Creek road, running di- 
rectly east and west through the township. The road had been surveyed 
some time before, but had not been cut out. 

The first important dwelling house was erected on the north bank of 
Squirrel Creek, a little stream that crosses the present site of the town 
of Russiaville, as has been before mentioned. Joseph C. Taylor arrived 
here in the year 1838. His cabin home was the first white habitation in 
the township, but it was not long until several log cabins dotted the banks 
of Honey Creek. The structures were of a very primitive character, 
having only one room, the floors consisting of hewed puncheons, the 
door of a very rude pattern, with wooden hinge and latch. If a 
window graced one side of the building, it was usually very small. The 
roofs were of clapboards held on by long poles. The first improvement 
in the lands commenced around the cabins. The sturdy pioneers began 
to clear the soil of the timber in order to prepare it for cultivation, a few 
acres at a time, until they cleared enough to raise their vegetables, wheat 
and corn. Shortly there began to appear small patches of cleared land, 
and these gradually increased in size and shape until large and beautiful 
fields, covered with their wealth of grain, greeted the toil-worn farmer as 
a recompense for his early labors. That the soil of Honey Creek Town- 
ship is rich and fertile is clearly evinced by the great increase in the 
agricultural interests, and what was once a howling wilderness is now 
one of the best and most beautiful farming communities in the State. 
Farms that once raised a few bushels of corn and wheat, now produce 
equal to the best farms. Farms that were once worthless on account of 


the superabundance of water, held in nature's reservoirs without an out- 
let, now have beautiful buildings on them, and where the ponds existed, 
fertile fields yield their abundant harvests. Not much attention was paid 
to improvement in the way of drainage until the rapidly increasing value 
of the land induced the owners of wet lands to fit them for cultivation. 


For several years the people of Honey Creek Township felt it their 
right, and sought the privilege of being changed into Howard County. 
All of the township, except about two sections, belonged tp Clinton County 
until the year 1859. The citizens readily recognizing the fact that, being 
80 much nearer the county seat of Howard, they would possess much 
greater advantages if they were attached, manifested their desires to Col. 
C. D. Murray, who was then representing the county of Howard. He 
secured the passage of a bill which provided for the detaching of border 
townships. One of the requirements of this law was, that a petition must 
be signed by a majority of the voters living in the territory to be detached, 
with a proviso in the law that said detachment should not reduce the area 
of the county to less than four hundred square miles. Several of these 
petitions were prepared. One, the first, divided the school districts too 
unevenly, and the people objected to it ; the second conformed to the de- 
sires of the citizens in this particular, but called for too much territory, 
and consequently failed. But the third fulfilled all the requirements of 
the law, secured a majority of the voters as petitioners, and at the March 
term of the Commissioners' Court of Clinton County, in 1859, the grant 
for the change was made. John Moulder, Daniel R. Jones and Hon. 
Samuel Woody, deserve great praise and the hearty thanks of the 
people for their untiring eff'orts in bringing about this change. It is claimed 
by some that the political aspirations of two men, one to the judgeship in 
Howard County, and the other to the same office in Clinton County, had 
somewhat to do with the makino; of this change. It was in this wise : 
Honey Creek Township was largely Republican in its politics, and by 
taking it off" of Clinton County it made that county solidly Democratic, 
and by adding it to Howard it fixed Howard up for the Republicans. 
These two aspirants conferred together, compared notes, and concluded to 
aid the matter, thereby insuring their own election. 


The first saw mill was erected on West Honey Creek by John P. Wright, 
and was afterward owned and managed by Mose Spray. The lumber 
in those days was not much of an item in the way of price. Men look 
back now, and almost invariably exclaim, '• Why didn't we know the value 


of our timber ?" — men who have since sold enough timber from their 
lands to more than pay for it, and who burned up enough, if they had it 
now, to make them rich. They finally learned its value, and almost every 
section in the township has on it the marks of a saw mill, where millions 
of feet of lumber have been manufactured. The only saw mill now, out- 
side of the town of Russiaville, is in the extreme east end of the township, 
and is owned and managed by Isaac Hollingsworth. He has in connection 
with it a first-class planing mill, and does a pretty extensive business in 
both branches of his establishment. 

The manufacturing of draining tile was not commenced in this town- 
ship until the year 1873, when James Thompson & Sons (Robert and 
John) opened up that branch of industry about two miles southwest of 
Russiaville, by building a pretty extensive kiln, and putting in the neces- 
sary machinery. Their first building was burned, but they rebuilt a more 
extensive establishment, which is now owned and managed by William R. 
Hodson, a son-in-law of Mr. Thompson. One other tile factory was 
opened on Clark Gilford's farm, three miles south of Russiaville, by John 
and Arthur Gifibrd, in 1879, and is still in operation. The other manu- 
facturing interests of the township will be given in the history of Rus- 


The first schools were taught in log houses. The first schoolhouse 
was a cabin which stood near the present residence of Nathan Ratclifi", 
one quarter of a mile southwest of Russiaville. The first school was 
taught by D. D. Lightner, in the year 1842 ; this was one of the first, 
if not the first school taught in Howard County. At the west end of 
Main street, in Russiaville, stood an old two-story building which was af- 
terward known as the " Old Bowl Machine." It was in the second story 
of this building that Mr. Lightner taught his second school. The first 
house erected for school purposes in the township was a log structure, in 
the extreme southwest corner. The location has been changed several 
times since to different farms, which fact gave it the name of the." Run- 
away Schoolhouse ; " the second building was one mile southeast of Rus- 
siaville. After the change in the law governing school districts, the 
township was re-districted and then consisted of six districts (afterward 
five). New houses were then erected in all the districts ; the one at Rus- 
siaville was a two-stoi'y brick of four rooms, which, at the time it was 
built was considered a big thing, and the best in the county outside of 
Kokomo. It has since been condemned by architects as unsafe for school 
purposes. The following in regard to schools is from H. G. Woody 's his- 
toi'v of the township written in 1876 : " The result of the teaching done 
in the six original school districts of this township has been immense and 


is the pride of the people. It is thought that no other township in the 
State has, in proportion to its size and population, produced so many 
teachers ; such is theboMSt of the township ; I can only append the facts : 
District No. 1 has produced eighteen teachers; No. 2 (Russiaville) six, 
No. 3, five; No. 4, one ; No. 5, six, and No. 6, twenty-eight; total, six- 
ty-four. Of these, twenty-eight are ladies (this was written seven years 
ago, and the number of teachers from the above districts has been largely 
increased, especially the Russiaville School, which has furnished at least 
forty teachers since that time). The above speaks volumes for the public 
schools. Not a few of these teachers, however, have added to the educa- 
tional foundation received at home, and the instruction of the better col- 
leges and normal schools of the State and United States. The above 
given results are not mere 'happen so's,' nor can they be attributed to 
a predominance of brain-power in Honey Creek over her sister townships. 
Certainly much is due to the training received from the early teachers, 
the principal of whom were D. D. Lightner, T. E. Trueblood and Dr. T. 
M. Moulder ; the name of D. D. Lightner is mentioned because he taught 
the first school and many schools in the township, and because he was a 
man of more than ordinary ability. The name of T. E. Trueblood is se- 
lected because he has taught more schools in Honey Creek Township 
than any other person, and because he is one of the ablest teachers she 
ever had. He did most of his work in Districts No. 1, 5 and 6, which, 
it will be noticed, placed the most teachers in the field. D. D. Lightner 
is now up near Lake Michigan in the fancy gardening business. T. E. 
Trueblood is a wholesale and retail grocer of Kokomo and Dr. T. M. 
Moulder is a reputable and successful practitioner of medicine in the town 
of Russiaville." 


For several years, the pioneers, who were religiously inclined, held 
divine services in the log schoplhouses situated in different parts of the 
township. The first church building erected in the township was by the 
Society .of Friends, and was built in the year 1853, two miles east of Rus- 
siaville, and was called Lynn Meeting House. A new frame building 
now occupies the old site, and still retains the original name. A school- 
house bearing the same name stands close to it. This church organiza- 
tion and the building of the church edifice was the result of the energy 
and enterprise of the Cosands, the Butlers and the Pickerings. Some of 
the prominent members now belonging to that monthly meeting are the 
Cosands (Benjamin, William and John), also, John T. Lindley, Jesse 
RatcliiF, Hannah Moulder, Benjamin King, David Middleton, Lemuel 
Middleton and their families. They hold regular monthly meetings, also 
regular services on Sabbath, and one day during the week. The Lynn 


neighborhood is noted for the wealth and education of its people, and as 
being one of the civilest, quietest neighborhoods in the county. 

A large congregation of the " Separate Baptists " have a church or- 
ganization in the southwest corner of the^ township, where they meet in a 
house formerly used as a schoolhouse, but now owned and used by them. 
The organization was established in 1874, by Jackson Graham, who was 
pastor of the church for two years. He succeeded in arousing a great and 
lasting interest in his church, and secured the co-operation of quite a 
number of influential citizens, death closing his labors at the end of his 
two years work in the church. Robert Sharp was then secured as pastor, 
holding the position two years, after which the present pastor, George W. 
Turner, took charge of the church. The present membership is about 
seventy, and the church is in a flourishing condition. 

Regular Baptists. — This church has had an organization in this town- 
ship over a quarter of a century. In the year 1855, John A. Thompson, 
a son of Wilson Thompson, who was recognized as one of the greatest and 
brightest lights known in that church, in the State, or perhaps, in the 
United States, organized a church, known as the Honey Creek Baptist 
Church, with the following membership : James L. Thompson and wife, 
John A. Thompson and wife. Smith Chambers and wife, Mrs. Luke 
Fry, and a few others. They held their first meeting in the Fortner 
Schoolhouse, one and a quarter miles west of Russiaville, which place 
they occupied for a number of years, and in the year 1878 they 
bought the house they now occupy, which is a schoolhouse, two miles 
south of Russiaville. The pastors of the church have been (in the 
order named) John N. Thompson, David Kirkpatrick, John M. Thomp- 
son, and John Daily, the last one named being the present pastor. 
The principal members at this date are Luke Fry and wife, 
Thomas Giff"ord and wjfe. Miss Hester Giffbrd and Mrs. Alex Bishop. 
In 1870, it was understood by several of the members of this church that 
the organization was to be disbanded, and they united with the Providence 
Church, in Tipton County, but the other members of Honey Creek Church 
continued the organization, which caused a hardness of feeling, and a con- 
sequent split in the church. The result of this misunderstanding was the 
forming of an arm, or branch, of the Providence Church, and in the fall of 
1871, a nice frame church was erected, two and three-quarter miles south- 
east of Russiaville, at a cost of over $1,000. The house was built by the 
contributions of only six individuals, namely : E. J. Chambers, R. W. 
Thompson, P. H. McCann, Ira Bishop, Clark Giftbrd and Margaret 
Chambers. The present pastors are Elder Jackson and Robert W.. 
Thompson. The membership is not large, consisting principally of R. 
W. Thompson and wife, E. J. Chambers and wife, Ira Bishop and wife» ^ 


Olark Gifford and wife, J. Hendrix and wife, Benton Frier and P. H. 
McCann. The Regular Baptists have held their conference meetings in 
this township, with a very large attendance. 


The political history of Honey Creek Township is pretty nearly a one- 
sided matter. Of late years, she has been particularly noted for her 
rousing and steadily increasing Republican majorities, the present vote 
st.inding about 220 Republican and only 55 Democratic. Ever since 
the organization of the party, she has been enthusiastically Repub- 
lican. Before the advent of Republicanism, she was noted far and near as 
being a stronghold of abolitionism. During the dark days before the war, 
Russiaville was known as one of the stations of the famous "underground 
railroad," and the Friend Quakers were the most zealous workers in the 
carrying on of the enterprise, but it is well known that they had strong 
advocates and hard workers outside of that denomination. D. D. 
Lightner was loud in his denunciation of slavery and helped to conduct 
the ''railroad." Daniel R. Jones, who is still a citizen of Russiaville, 
vfks considered as one of the craftiest and ablest conductors on the road, 
and it is a fact that a great many of the Southern slaves and their fami- 
lies were the happy recipients of assistance in the way of provisions and 
transportation on their flight from their accursed bondage from these 
advocates of the abolition of slavery in Honey Creek Township. 

Honey Creek Township has been successful in two elections, in hav- 
ing the honor of representing the county in the State Legislature. In 
1860, Daniel D. Lightner, who has figured pretty extensively in this history, 
was elected, and served one term to the honor of himself and the credit of 
his constituents. In 1874, Samuel Woody, one of the most thorough and 
zealous workers in the Republican ranks, was elected as Joint Representa- 
tive and filled the office in a very creditable and satisfactory manner. 
The following-named gentlemen hatre served the township as Trustees 
since the change in the law requiring only one Trustee instead of three. 
Thomas E. Trueblood, Thomas Shilling, Dr. Hornaday, Dr. T. M. Moul- 
der, John T. Lindley, Benjamin King and William H. Bishop. The 
present officers in the township are John T. Ratcliff and B. B. Richards, 
Justices of the Peace; Benjamin King, Trustee; Philip Lybrook, As- 
sessor ; John Denton, Roadmaster, and S. P. Hodson and A. D. Nolan, 


One railroad crosses the township from east to west — the Toledo, 
Cincinnati & St. Louis Narrow Gauge, which has been a great benefit 
to the farmers in the way of furnishing a convenient and good market for 
^their produce, of which more will be said in the history of Russiaville. 



Prior to 1844, the most thickly settled portion of Honey Creek Town- 
ship was on the west side of the West Branch of Honey Creek. Durini? 
this year, it was decided to start a town and a survey was made, on the 
east bank of West Honey Creek, and thus the town of Russiaville had its 
birth. The town's first houses were rude log cabins of the most primitive 
fashion, a very few of which remain in situ to the present day. The 
growth of the village was slow and its importance very limited until the 
advent of the railroad (F. & K.), which was built in 1873-74. But the 
town took a start for the better about 1856, when there was a railroad 
surveyed and a part of the grade made through this place ; and when 
the road was abandoned the growth of the place was again stopped, New 
London, two miles north, being the principal town in this section. Up to 
the year 1874, the population did not exceed two hundred, since which 
time the town has rapidly increased in dimensions and population until 
it has become one of the most thriving business points in the State for its 
size. New streets are being opened every year and new buildings by the 
score have been and are being erected. Three new additions have been 
laid out this spring (1883), viz.; Hodson's on the northwest, Bowles' on 
the southwest and Chandler's on the southwest. 

The town recieved almost a death-blow on the morninf^ of the 20th 
day of January, 1881, when four of the best business houses of the place 
were totally destroyed by the relentless fire fiend. About 3 or 4 
o'clock on that awful and eventful morning, the fire was discovered at the 
rear of Bishop & Orr's Block. James W. Cooper, Jr., gave the alarm 
of fire, soon arousing the whole town to action. By almost superhuman 
efforts, a great many of the goods were saved, and the fire confined to the 
four two-story business houses, thus saving the adjacent buildifigs. The 
principal losers in this conflagration were Bishop & McCann, John 
Orr, John Gennebeck, B. B. Richards, H. Fritz, H. C. Fellows, Charles 
Baldwin and Grifiith & Evans. John Gennebeck and B. B. Richards 
lost everything they had, having no insurance. As was stated, this 
was almost a death-blow to the business and growth of the place, and bid 
fair to be a permanent disaster, for right at the same time a chant^e was 
contemplated in the railroad matters and men were on a stand, and 
would not rebuild until it was settled. The railroad change becoming 
finally adjusted, the burned district was cleared of the debris and two 
large two-story brick blocks were erected on the old site. The west 
block was finished below for store rooms, with full plate glass fronts and 
the best inside finish in the county. The Odd Fellows and Jared Marshall 
were the proprietors. Bishop k McCann, John Orr and John Genne- 
beck erected the east block, the lower story consisting of three business 


rooms, and the upper of offices and an opera house, furnished with a 
good stage and appropriate scenery, having a seating capacity of 
400. Since the fire, no less than fifty buildings have been erected, 
and at present the population will probably reach 700, The census 
of 1880 gives a population of 450, since which time the town has 
rapidly increased in population, and the prospect for future growth is 
very flattering. 


It has been mentioned that Henry Stuart was the first man to offer 
merchandise for sale in this township, but his store was not a part of the 
village of Russiaville. Martin Burton, who is now a resident of Indi- 
anapolis, started the first store in the town. He erected his store room 
on the corner of Liberty and Main streets. This was also the first build- 
ing ever erected on the original plat of Russiaville. (Mr. Burton and 
Edom Garner owned the land composing the plat, and are considered as 
the originators of the town.) This store building was very small, and of 
course the amount of goods for sale could not have been large. A man 
by the name of Bishop was the second man who sold goods in the place, 
but from this very meager beginning the business of Russiaville has 
grown to be something worth more than a passing mention. The prin- 
cipal merchants who followed these were George W. Thompson, Hiat & 
Johnson, W. M. Waters, Thomas Shilling, Richard Shilling, Robert 
Shilling, Thomas E. Ratcliff, Thomas Wadman & Son, T. T. Whitiker, 
R. T. Chandler, William H. Bishop, and several others. At present the 
following is a list of the merchants and their business. There are three 
firms selling dry goods, clothing, notions etc., namely, 0. G. Coffin, 
G. E. Allison and P. H. McCann (sucessor to Bishop & McCann), all 
doing an extensive business. Several firms are engaged in the grocery 
trade, as follows : L. W. Coffin and Tyner & Chamber.^, are the largest 
dealers in this line, and Frank Fortner and F. E. Fanchier, sell groce- 
ries in connection with their restaurants. There is one furniture store, 
kept by A. Cline. Three houses are in the drug trade — R. T. Chand- 
ler, G. W. Topping & Co. and John Gifford. Mr. Chandler has been in 
this trade in this place for nearly twenty-five years. There are also 
two millinery establishments owned by Mrs. K. E. Chamberlain and Miss 
Lida Vandenbark ; also two shoe shops ; the finest and best suite of 
dental parlors in this part of the State ; one barber shop, one meat- 
market, a livery stable, one of the best hotels in the county, a jewelry 
store, a tailor shop, and a large harness establishment. But the most 
extensive business carried on in the place, is the hardware and agricult- 
ural implement house of Griffith & Evans. This is one of the largest 
houses of the kind in the county, and occupies a block of three buildings, 


one of which is 132 feet in length ; the firm also deals very extensively 
in live stock, Mr. Evans managing that part of the business. 

Among the many privations of the early settlers of this place was 
the lack of convenient mail advantages. During the first few years of 
the history of Russiaville, the pioneers had to go from six to eight miles 
to get the little mail they received from their friends. In the year 1847, 
the citizens of this place succeeded, through a private mail route enter- 
prise, in getting their mail sent to New London, which reduced the distance 
to only two miles, but in a few years Russiaville secured a post office. 
Martin Burton was instrumental in establishing the first mail route to this 
place. In 1848 or 1849, the first Postmaster, D. D. Lightner, was ap- 
pointed, and Russiaville was blessed with a post office. In those days the 
citizens thought themselves quite fortunate to get their mail one day in each 
week, and now they are not entirely satisfied with the twenty-one 
mails that come to Russiaville Post Office each week. The business 
of the post office has increased from a mere pittance as a compen- 
sation, to a comfortable salary, and takes all of one man's time to 
run it. Mr. John Gennebeck is the present Postmaster, from 
whom it is learned that during the last quarter, ending March 31, 
1883, there were over 6,000 letters mailed at his office, besides nearly 
2,500 postal cards and about 2,000 circulars. The further history of the 
post office, in regard to mail matter distributed, speaks volumes for the 
intellect of the community, as there are over 1,000 newspapers and peri- 
odicals coming regularly through this office every week to citizens of this 
town and vicinity. Among the Postmasters who have served since the office 
was established are George W. Thompson (second Postmaster, 1849), R. 
L. Shilling, Thomas Shilling and William H. Bishop (who served eleven 


The first grist mill was built out of logs, by Edom Ratcliff, on Squir- 
rel Creek, near the present site of the cemetery, and was a mere corn- 
cracker ; but it seemed to answer the purpose then, as there was nothing 
but corn to grind. In 1852, Martin Burton built the first flouring mill 
in Russiaville. It was run by water-power and only run a few years 
until a spring freshet so injured the water privileges that the mill was 
changed to a steam mill. In 1870, the mill was totally destroyed by fire, 
and was then the property of G. W. and M. G. Haun. These men were 
not able to rebuild, and the citizens assisted them in building the flouring 
mill which now stands on Union street. The mill has passed through 
several hands, but is at present owned and managed by the original own- 


ers, George W. and M. G. Haun. We also have a large planing mill, 
saw mill and furniture factory combined, owned by Augustus Cline, and 
an extensive saw mill and felloe factory, run by George Durrer. For 
several years, James W. Cooper & Sons were engaged in the manufacture 
of wooden bowls, in a two-story building, now torn down, and which is 
remembered and spoken of as the " Old Bowl Machine." This was the 
only factory of the kind ever in the State, and the ware was sold over 
several States. 

The first school taught in Russiaville was taught in 1842. in a cabin 
on the place now owned by Nathan Ratcliff, which was one of the first 
schools organized in the county. This school and several subsequent 
terms were taught by Daniel D. Lightner. In 1843, the school was 
moved into the upper story of the " Bowl Machine," which building was 
used for school, and as a public hall for several years. In 1872, Dr. W. 
H. Hornaday, the Trustee at that time, built a two-story brick house 
with four rooms for a graded school building. The house was very poorly 
constructed and has recently been condemned as unsafe to hold school in. 
Before the new house was erected, it had been talked of for some time 
and strongly opposed by one element in the township and advocated as 
strongly by another, which resulted in the springing-up of an independ- 
ent candidate for Trustee, known as an Anti-Schoolbouse Candidate. 
The election settled the difficulty by the choosing of Dr. Hornaday, who 
built the house. Charles C. Duncan was selected as the Principal of the 
first school taught in the new house, and under his management the 
educational interest in Russiaville took a decided start in the right direc- 
tion. In 1874, the school was given into the hands of Freeman Cooper, 
and during the next summer it was extensively advertised as a Normal 
School and bid fair to become the best school in the county, having quite 
a number of non-resident pupils. Mr. Cooper then went into the study 
of law, and the school passed to the hands of H. C. Fellow, and subse- 
quently to J. C. Comstock, the present Principal. It is thought by many 
that Mr. Comstock has been more successful as an instructor than any 
teacher for several years past. The future of the school cannot be pre- 
dicted on account of the terrible condition of the school building. An 
effort was made to issue bonds and build a new house, but the County 
Commissioners failed to grant the privilege, on account of the indebted- 
ness of the township. 


Russiaville Lodge, No. 105, I. 0. 0. F., was instituted on the 26th 
day of March, 1852. The following were the charter members : Daniel 
Smith, Henry Weaver, George W. Thompson, Jacob Gray and Barney 


Busby. The first oflScers were : Daniel Smith, N. G.; Henry Weaver, 
V. G.; George W. Thompson, See.; Jacob Gray, Treas. On the 26th 
day of November, 1852, just eight months from the date of the charter, 
the hall, the charter and all the lodge furniture and fixtures were de- 
stroyed by fire. A new charter was granted January 19, 1853. In 
1860, the order in connection with the Methodist Episcopal Church built 
a large hall, the Methodists using the lower story and the Odd Fellows 
the upper. In 1882, the following men were appointed to erect a new 
hall : Martin Allison, John T. Ratcliff, Dr. I. N. Cook, John R. Grif- 
fith and W. W. Fry. The committee purchased ground on the corner of 
Main and Union streets, and in connection with -Tared Marshall erected 
the largest and finest brick block in the town. It is two stories high and 
is forty feet wide in front, and eighty feet long. The order owns the 
west half of the building; their business room is finished with French 
plate glass front, and is elegantly furnished inside. The hall is finished 
and furnished to compare with the rest of the building. The cost of the 
new building was $4,000. There have been admitted to membership since 
the organization of the lodge over 300 persons, and at present the active 
membership numbers about sixty. The present oflicers are : Adam 
Ridnour, N. G.; George A. Borders, V. G.; F. M. C. Hart, Treas.; J. 
C. Comstock, Recording Sec; Dr. I. N. Cook, Permanent Sec; G. W. 
Thompson, Lodge Deputy. 

Hope Encampment, No. 112, meets in the same hall and consists of 
about twenty members. There is also a Rebecca Lodge in connection 
with the order. 


Russiaville Lodge, No. 82, A. F. A. M., was established in 1853, 
the charter being granted May 26 of that year. The Russiaville Masons 
formerly belonged to New London Lodge, but the hall at that place 
was burned in 1852 and Russiaville Lodge, No. 82, was then organized. 
Martin Burton, William Morrison, D. D. Lightner, George Hart, Alexander 
Black and William Frost were the charter members, the following named 
filling the three principal oflSces : William Morrison, W. M. ; Martin 
Burton, S. W. ; Daniel D. Lightner, J. W, Russiaville Lodge has been 
the mother of 'several neighboring lodges. The last set of members that 
withdrew established Prairieville Lodge, about six miles southeast of 
Russiaville. The order held their meetings for some time in the upper 
story of the old "Bowl Machine, " but finally purchased the present hall 
on Union street. The lodge is now owner of a hall, the lot on which it 
stands, nice furniture and a good set of solid silver emblems, or jewels. 
The present membership numbers about fifty. The present oflScers are : 
George Francis, W. M. ; Dr. J. C. Wright, S. W. ; John M. Denton, J. 
W. ; R. T. Chandler, Secretary, and John R Griffith, Treasurer. 



A post of the Grand Army of the Republic has been established re- 
cently in this place with a membership of about forty. The name of the 

post is Henry C. Coulter Post, No. , named in honor of a deceased 

soldier by that name. They hold their meetings in old Odd Fellows 
Hall over the Methodist Church. 


Methodist Church. — The Methodist Episcopal Church was established 
in the very early settlement of the township, at the Fortner Schoolhouse, 
three-fourths of a mile from Russiaville. The first class meeting was 
held there, and also the first quarterly meeting. Solomon and Benoni 
Fortner and their mother and some of the Rivers family formed the first 
class. Rev. Colclazier and Elder R. D. Robinson were the first Meth- 
odist preachers that visited the neighborhood. The first quarterly meet- 
ing was presided over by Elder Richard Hargrave, a prominent pioneer 
Methodist preacher. The church building was erected in 1860 by the 
following-named building committee : John Frazier, William RatclifF, 
Jonathan Lamb, Robert Wilson and William Graham. It was finished 
and dedicated in 1861, Rev. J. J. Cooper preaching the dedicatory ser- 
mon. Recently the church has been refitted and refurnished in modern 
style, the inside work being donated principally by the ladies of the church. 
The church is at present in a flourishing condition. 

Christian Church. — The following, from the first record of this church, 
speaks for itself : " State of Indiana, Lord's Day, Jane 25, 1848. This day, 
the following-named persons who have formerly belonged to the Church 
of Christ in different parts of the country, came together and gave each 
other the right hand of fellowship, pledging themselves to the Lord and 
to each other, to keep the Commandments of God and the Lord Jesus 
Christ, to take the New Testament as their only rule of faith and practice, 
and to renounce all the traditions of men. To be known as the Church of 
Christ, at Russiaville, Howard County, Indiana. (Signed) Elder Benjamin 
Jones, Elder Adam Conrad, William Draper (Deacon), Jonathan Spealman, 
Eli Avery, Enoch Avery Jonathan Styles, James McKown, Andrew 
Pennington, Nicholas Trobaugh, Mary Jones, Catharine Conard, Nancy 
Draper, Margaret Spealman, Dorcas Avery, Louisa Fox, Cela Draper, A. 
E. Beard. " These persons constituted the first organization of the Church 
of Christ in Russiaville. The church house was erected in 1858, by 
Thomas E. Ratcliff. Nicholas Trobaugh and Adam Conard, building 
committee. The church is the largest in the place, having a seating 
capacity of about five hundred. Preaching services are held once a month, 
and social meetings every Lord's Day morning. A prosperous Sunday- 
school meets every Sunday afternoon. The school has a fine organ. 




Society of Friends was organized here in 1878. In 1877, a nice church 
building was erected by Jared Marshall, Zimri Newlin and Eli Carter, 
the building having been put up one year before the organization. The or- 
ganization is known as the Russiaville Preparative Meeting. The present 
oflScers are 0. G. Coffin, Clerk, and Cyrus Lee, Treasurer; this church 
has rapidly increased in membership until there are about seventy-five 
members at present ; this meeting belongs to the New London Quarterly 
Meeting and the Western Yearly Meeting. 


The first resident doctor that ever gave a dose of calomel or bled a 
patient in the township was Dr. L. H. Oilar, who is still living two miles 
west of Russiaville, having retired from the practice to enjoy a comfortable 
old age in peace and plenty ; the first Russiaville pill vender was a man 
by the name of Armstrong, who was only here a few months. Dr. D. J. 
Shirley was the first established physician in the town ; after him came 
Dr. E. A. Armstrong, Dr. Hornaday, Dr. T. M. Moulder, Dr. lies, Dr. 
J. C. Wright, Dr. G. W. Kemp, Dr. L. A. Beeks, Dr. M. C. Menden- 
hall and Dr. James Cook. Four of the above form the present corps of 
physicians — Moulder, Mendenhall, lies and Kemp. 

Russiaville has not been overstocked with lawyers since her organiza- 
tion. W. M. Waters, admitted to the bar in 1858, was the first and only 
lawyer here for several years ; he had a large and lucrative practice in 
Howard and surrounding courts, and at one time in 1878 came within 
a few votes of being elected Prosecuting Attorney for Howard and Tip- 
ton Counties, the Republican candidate being elected by only eight ma- 
jority. Mr. Waters stood high in his profession, and dealt honorably 
with all his clients. He died March 12, 1879. Freeman Cooper took 
Mr. Waters' practice after his death, and remained here two years. W. 
R. Payne came here in 1882, and is in practice here at present. 


Dr. I. N. Cook has been engaged in the practice of dentistry for 
about twenty years. In 1879, Dr. J. C. Wright entered into a partner- 
ship with Dr. Cook. The firm dissolved at the end of one year, each 
member starting an office. In May, 1882, Dr. Wright bought Dr. Cook 
out, and now has the finest suite of dental rooms in the county. 


Freeman Cooper started the first newspaper in Russiaville. It was 
published chiefly in the interest of his normal school, then in full blast. 


He called it the Examiner. H. J. Cooper, James Pinkerton, Alva 
Smith, H. C. Fellow and William Herrington, followed as editors and 
publishers of Russiaville papers of different names. The Standard 
office was destroyed by the big fire in January, 1881, being then the prop- 
erty of H. C. Fellow, and consisting of a good Washington press, a fine 
job press, and a good office outfit generally. This left the town without 
a paper until the Observer made its appearance, edited and published by 
A. T. and Mary Cosand. Mr. Cosand purchased a full office outfit at 
a large expense, and has furnished us the best paper ever published in the 
town. He also has a job office connected with the Observer. 


The history of Russiaville would be very incomplete without a men- 
tion of that terrible tragedy commonly known as the " Binns Murder." 
On the night of the last day of January, 1870, about half past 9 
o'clock, a sharp report of a gun broke the stillness of the night. The 
shrill, piercing screams of a woman in distress were next heard. In a 
few moments the cause of the trouble was painfully apparent to the 
citizens who turned out in the cold night to ascertain the locality of the 
terrible sounds. On the corner lot where now stands the Bishop & Orr 
brick block stood a very small building, occupied by a poor woman and 
three little children. The children were in bed, and the woman, Mrs. 
Binns, was fixing the fire in the stove before retiring for the night. She 
was stooping over with her face to the window, dressed in her night 
clothes, and while in that stooping posture a dastardly, sneaking coward 
approached the window, aimed at the stooping form of Mrs. Binns, and 
fired the shot which ended her life on the last day of March, or just two 
months from the time of the shooting. Jonathan Binns, the husband of 
the woman, with whom she had not lived for some time, had threatened 
her life on account of an estate that was coming to Mrs. Binns. He had 
tried to get it into his hands, and she, refusing to let him have it, incurred 
his displeasure. The neighbors learned from Mrs. Binns that she sus- 
pected her husband of committing the deed. Immediate search was made 
for him, and he was captured. A preliminary trial was held, and the 
circumstances were so strong against him that he was bound over to court. 
Mrs. Binns and her children were taken to the hotel then kept by W. A. 
Ratcliff, where she received the best of care until her death. The people 
were so indignant over the matter that, if it had been possible, Jonathan 
Binns would have suffered death at the hands of a mob ; but he was 
closely guarded. The following are a few of the principal points in 
the circumstantial evidence which convicted him of murder, and sent him 
to the penitentiary for life. He was seen by Jonathan Dixon on the 


Honey Creek road, within a mile of Russiaville, and walking in that 
direction, on the same evening of the murder. He rode with William 
Seward in a wagon on the Honey Creek road toward Russiaville, and 
was identified at the trial by these men as the same person. There was 
snow on the ground the night of the shooting, and the next morning 
he was tracked in a southeast direction to where he climbed over a rail 
fence into Thomas Wadman's orchard. In jumping down off the fence, 
he jumped into a wagon wheel, his leg running through or between the 
spokes. At the trial, his leg was examined, and a " tell-tale " bruise and 
sore was found where his leg struck the wheel. He was further identi- 
fied by the track a crooked foot made in the snow. These points, in con- 
nection with the threats he had made, and several other convincing 
features, convicted him of murder. On account of technicalities, he was 
granted two new trials, but was remanded to prison for life each time. 
The cost to the county of these three trials was thousands of dollars. 
The last trial was held in Clinton County on a change of venue. W. M. 
Waters, Russiaville's attorney, was one of the State's attorneys in the 
case, and made one of the best efforts in his life in his speech before the 



Monroe Township is the smallest township in the county, as Ervin 
is the largest. It contains only about eighteen sections of land. It lies 
in the western part of the county, about midway north and south. The 
township was named in honor of James Monroe, the fifth President of the 
United States, and one of the Revolutionary heroes. The township is bounded 
on the north by Wild Cat River and Ervin Township, on the east by 
Harrison Township, on the south by Honey Creek Township and Clinton 
County, and on the west by Carroll County. 

The township possesses a variety of soil, much of which is well adapted 
to purposes of stock-raising. There are hills, level lands, and a few small 
prairies within the limits. There are several streams of water running 
through the township, the most important of which is the Wild Cat. 
These streams afford sufficient water-power for all purposes, and there 
are several mills upon them. Stonebraker's Mill, as it has long been 
called, in the western part of the township, is one of the most widely 
known in this county. This township is part of what has always been 
known as "The Seven-Mile Strip "—land ceded by the United States to 
the State of Indiana, to be used for canals. This was in the day of 
great excitement concerning internal improvements. 


The first settlers of the townsliip came in about 1837, the first being 
Mr. Landrum, who settled on the old Manasseh Woods farm, just west of 
Stonebraker's Mill. This farm is now owned by Jonas Brubaker and 
the widow of Manasseh Woods. The work done by Mr. Landrum was 
insignificant, but yet it was a beginning, and as such is now regarded as 
the beginning of the settlement of Howard County. Mr. Landrum 
erected a log cabin, of the most primitive character, and moved his family 
into it as soon as finished. For some time previous, he had resided in 
Burlington, Carroll County. While living in Burlington, he had as a 
neighbor David Foster, who afterward had much to do with the settle- 
ment of Howard County. 

In February, 1839, Robert Walker, .Joseph Taylor, George Taylor, 
his son, and Isaac Price settled in Monroe Township, on the north side of 
Wild Cat. When these old pioneers located here and commenced the 
work of clearing away the timber whereon to erect for themselves a 
home, they found miles of unbroken forest in every direction. It was 
simply a dot upon the surface. It is not necessary to give a further descrip- 
tion of the work of these early settlers upon the north side of the river, 
as the same has been described under the head of Ervin Township, to 
which all this land, lying north of the Wild Cat, now belongs. 

In the fall of 1839, John B. Miller came from East Tennessee and 
settled a little south of the Stonebraker Mill. Here he lived for many 
years. His son, Matthew W. Miller, died there in 1878. Matthew W. 
was largely engaged in the raising of stock, having a farm well adapted 
to this business. About the time that the elder Miller settled here, John 
Morrison Errlox, Gideon Vernon and William Coate settled in various 
parts of the township. In 1840, came John P. Wright, Joel Hollings- 
worth, Jacob Wright, Job Garner, Thomas Stubbs, Jesse George, 
Reuben Edgerton, and John and Jonathan Lamb. It is said that John 
P. Wright came from his home in Illinois on horseback, guided only by 
the blazed trees on the way. Those were the dark days in the history of 
the early settlement of this county ; but it was a history incident to the 
early settlement of all counties. Job Garner was one of the first petit 
jurors of the County Court, then held at Capt. John Harrison's place. 
We are told that there was a warm time among the early settlers of the 
county upon the framing of a new county. The western part of Howard 
belonged originally to Carroll County, Monroe and Ervin Townships thus 
belonging to Carroll, and Honey Creek to Clinton. Many favored 
remaining with Carroll County, as it was so far in advance of Howard, 
that taxes would be lighter for improvements of all kinds. Those who 
favored joining Howard, finally gained the day, and it was accomplished. 

Barny Busby came to the township in the spring of 1842, and purchased 


the farm, on a part of which stand Shanghai and the Quaker Church. 
He is now a resident of Kokomo, and among its best citizens. He also 
once owned the land where the Dunkard Church building now stands. 
Capt. Busby has served his country faithfully, having been in the Mexi- 
can war, and also in the rebellion, in the latter part of which he was 
promoted to the rank of Captain. 

From 1841 to 1846, many of the old settlers moved into the township, 
some of whom are still left, but the majority have passed away. Among 
them are mentioned the names of Henry Oiler, Manasseh Woods, Austin 
North — who was the first Recorder of the county — Snead Thomas, H. 
Loomis, Joe McCoy, James Fortner, Absalom Hollingsworth, William 
Giiford and Christian Fritz. Mr. Fritz died a short time since one of the 
most prosperous farmers in the county. 


The first township election in Monroe (now Ervin) was in 1840, for a 
Justice of the Peace. There were two candidates — Theophilus Bryan and 
Isaac Price. There were twenty-eight votes cast, of which each candi- 
date had fourteen. We are told that several more of the " sovereign 
lords" were present, but as they had imbibed too freely of " Harrison's 
best," they did not take sufficient interest in the election to deposit their 
ballots. The next spring Bryan was elected over Price by a vote of 
fifteen to fourteen. 

For many years after the early settlement of all western Howard, the 
chief commercial point was Burlington, just across the Carroll County 
line. Here our early settlers went to do all their trading, and they were 
compelled for some time to go to Adams' mill, about seven miles below 
Burlington, for their milling. This mill was situated on Wild Cat, and 
was run by water-power. When the water gave out, the pioneer fathers 
would then go to Delphi or Logansport. The first mill built in what is 
now Howard County was built in the year 1840. This was east of New 
London, on Honey Creek. In the year 1848, what is now known as 
the Stonebraker Mill was erected. By subsequent changes, additions and 
improvements, it has long been a valuable property. The mill is now 
owned by Carey & Harrell. In these primitive days there was not such 
a scrambling as now to get work to do, but the trouble was to find 
persons to do the work. 


New London is the only town within the township. The town is well 
located on a high piece of ground, and would be a splendid location for 
a town of any size. John Lamb and Reuben Edgerton were the founders 
of the town, which was laid out in the year 1845. At this time there 


were three houses or cabins in the town. Among the inhabitants Jona- 
than Haworth had engaged in the sale of dry goods and groceries. He 
was succeeded by Isaac Ramsey. Soon after the organization of the 
town, Richard Nixon (now of Kokorao) came to the town and engaged 
in the mercantile business. He remained there many years. Nathan 
Hunt carried the first mail to New London, he having the first contract. 
The post office was established in 1846, with a weekly mail. The first 
paper published in the county commenced its existence here in 1848. It 
must have been a curious looking sheet. The three parties of that day 
were all represented, each side of the paper conducted by its own editor — 
the Free-Soil, Wickersham and Albertson, editors ; Democrat, Dr. Barrett ; 
Whig, C. D. iMurray. 

This paper, the Pioneer, soon died of financial exhaustion, and 
the press and types were sold and moved to Kokomo, where they aided 
in the establishment of the present Tribune. New London prospered for 
some years, but it has long since attained its growth. 


The majority of the church members of Monroe are Quakers, and 
wherever they have congregated in large numbers, good schools will 
nearly always be found. They have many members in and around New 
London. New London has long been noted for its excellent schools. In 
1844, the Friends had erected a house for worship and for school purposes, 
etc. This house was burned in 1851, and in 1852 the old schoolhouse was 
erected, which was used from that time until 1876. During that year the 
Trustee erected the present school building. This building is an honor to 
any town of its size. The citizens are interested in securing nothing but 
good teachers, and for many years they have been successful. H. G. 
Woody, the present Principal of the Kokomo High School, had charge of 
the school as Principal for many years, and to him is largely due the 
present efficient condition of this school. His years of work here show 
what can be done by one man remaining for a period of years at one 
place. It is a sufficient answer to the question, " Should we have a fre- 
quent change of teachers?" 

The schools in the township outside of town have always been good. 
There are schools in the township outside of t\\e New London school 
where there are four teachers. 

The first school in the township was taught by Thomas Stubbs, a 
New Yorker, who taught in a little house just north of the Friends' 
Church, on the land now owned by Benjamin Thompson. He taught but 
one term here, but afterward taught another elsewhere. Some time in 
1842, there was a schoolhouse built near the northern part of the town- 


ship. Here William Miller taught the first school. There were but two 
log schoolhouses in the township in 1853. 

The first School Board was composed as follows : James Fortner, Isaac 
Bates and Thomas Easterling. 


The first minister of the Gospel was Job Garner, a New Light 
preacher. He was one of the early pioneers of the church. He com- 
menced his ministry in 1840. Next in order of time was William Wil- 
son, a Methodist minister. The house of Jacob Price was selected as the 
one at which to hold his first meeting in the township. He had a large 
audience for so meager a settlement. As has already been remarked, 
the Friends far exceed all other denominations in numbers. There are 
now five hundred members of this church in this township. The first 
meeting held in this township by them was in a grove west of New Lon- 
don ; but six members of the church were present. The first minister 
was James Owen. The Friends have a large, commodious house for wor- 
ship in the town of New London. They are generally free from debt as 
a body of people. 


The Dunkards or German Baptists also have a very large church 
house, situated on a hill just about one mile west of the old Stonebraker 
Mill. Many of the communicants live across Wild Cat in Ervin Town- 
ship, but a large number of them live in Monroe. This church was once 
very strong here, having an organization of 400 people who worshiped at 
this church ; but a few years since there was a schism in the church 
generally, which affected this organization. They teach that all must 
have clothes of the same pattern and not made like those of the " world." 
They do not believe in Sabbath schools, organs in churches, an educated 
ministry or any new-fangled ideas, as they term them. One branch of 
the order came to the conclusion that too many of these innovations upon 
the ancient order of the church were being pushed into the order, hence 
their withdrawal. Those seceding have taken upon themselves the name 
"The Old Order of the German Baptist Church," the others call them- 
selves "Conservatives." 


The "New Lights" have a large and flourishing congregation, who 
worship in the house at " Sugar Grove." 

The Quakers also have a house of worship about two miles northwest 
of New London, at a place called "Pleasant Hill." 

The Methodists also have a church building erected in the town of 
New London, as have the Adventists. These congregations are all in a 


flourishing and healthy condition. In fact, there has always existed a 
high standard of morality in the township. 


The first disciples of Esculapius were Drs. Stoneman, Barrett and 
Wickersham, who located in the town of New London in the year 1864. 
They remained a few years and then all left to seek other spheres of 
action. Dr. John F. Henderson came to New London at an early day, 
and commenced practicing his profession. He soon commanded a very 
large and lucrative practice, and remained in New London actively en- 
gaged in his profession until his removal to Kokomo in the year 1861. 

The physicians who are now engaged in practice in the township are 
Drs. Shirley, and Newlin & Newlin. They all reside in New London. 
Dr. Beeks, a physician of much more than average ability and pros- 
pects in his profession, has lately abandoned the profession and has be- 
come a regularly ordained minister of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 


The first lodge of Freemasons organized in this country was estab- 
lished in the town of New London in the year 1846. This organization 
was so unfortunate as to lose all its papers and lodge room by fire a few 
year afterward. This was not remedied until 1862, when the lodge was 
re-established, since which time, it has been prosperous. 

On December 28, 1870, an I. 0. 0. F. Lodge was organized in the 


The teachers for the past winter were the following : 
The Trustee of the township is Clarke Haworth, an excellent man 
for the place. John Stiffler and Ellis Grubbs are the Justices of the 

Hiram Fritz is the only dealer in dry goods in the town. His business 
is extensive. Newlin & Tucker are conducting a drug store and grocery. 
The flouring business is conducted by Manly Thompson, at the old Thomp- 
son Mill west of New London. 



With what fond recollections do we look back to the past history of 
our lives and read the great tale of the by-gones in the wilderness. But 
few of the aged veterans remain to weave the historical fabric of facts 
with the thread of personal incidents. The silent dust of the sleeping 


pioneer whispers on the winds his hardships and his trials, and we list 
and we hear the echo come back from the forests of the long ago. Those 
who are spared paint on the canvas of a treacherous memory, as best 
they can, the picture of their lives. The aged hand trembles like the 
aspen of the wood as it tries to depict the hills and valleys, the ups and 
downs of pioneer life. With what pride can he point to the broad acres 
of cleared land that extend far and wide, and say, " I was the first to 
make it thus." How we love to hear the pioneers' stories of how they 
raised their cabins, rolled their logs, husked their corn, killed the deer 
and trapped the otter and the wild cat. It falls like the tale of another 
world upon the ears of Young America. The days when they rocked 
their babes in a sugar trough and reared them on hog and hominy are past. 
How the old veterans love to look back through the gray mists of years 
and read the picture we pen in the following lines : 


' Tis the cabin in the clearing 

By the little patch of corn, 

With its silken tassels waving 

In the breezes of the morn. 

How I love that ancient cabin, ■ 

With its rafters bending low 
With the seed-corn and the pumpkin, 
From the little field below. 

See, above the smoky mantel. 

Hangs the winter's store of meat 
Of the venison and turkey — 

Fitting food for kings to eat. 

See the crane, Within the chimney, 

Swinging in the roaring blaze, 
Bearing to and fro the kettle 

Filled with simmering snowy maize. 

In the forks, above the doorway. 

Lies the flintlock, loaded well 
For the prowling wolf and wild cat, 

Of the deep sequestered dell. 

Here I hear the merry music 

Of the spindle and the wheel. 
With the clatter of the shuttle 

And the creaking loom and reel. 

But that cabin's gone forever, 

Ajel its tale has long been told. 
And its dust adown the river, 

Mingles with the island mold. 



Harrison Township is situated in the southwestern part of Howard 
•County, and contains nearly twenty -one and a half sections of land. The 
surface is somewhat undulating, especially through the central and north- 
ern part. Of the Little Wild Cat Creek, the West Fork begins near 
the Tipton County line in Section 26, flows through Sections 23 and 15 
in a northwesterly direction to a point near Greeson's saw mill, south of 
Alto, where it meets with the East Fork that flows north of west through 
Sections 24, 13 and 14 to the conjunction. Thence the creek flows north 
of west through Sections 15, 16, 17, 8 and 7. Along on each side are 
frequent affluents of small spring branches. The Big Wild Cat forms a 
part of the northern boundary, flowing in a westward direction in a very 
irregular manner through Sections 4, 5 and 6. This portion of the 
" Reserve" was once covered with a very fine growth of maple, white 
oak, poplar and black walnut, but the woodman's ax has made great in- 
roads in the rich forests. Along the streams there are large deposits of 
gravel and sand ; and in the southern part of the township a clay forms 
a subsoil for a rich black loam, thus making it one of the best tracts in 
Howard County for agricultural purposes. The history of this section 
extends back over a period of forty-four years, while the organization 6f 
the township will date back to 1846. It is probable that no histories of 
this section extend farther back and are any more interesting than those 
of Judge T. A. Long and James Brooks. 


From Mr. Long it is learned that when the township was laid out it 
was named in honor of John Harrison, at whose house the first election 
in the county was held. Although James Brooks, one of the pioneer 
hunters and trappers, came to the reserve in 1838, the first man that we 
have any knowledge of who settled in this township is Martin Crist, who, 
in company with Judge Long in the fall of 1840, came to search for 
homes in the wilderness. As it was long before the land was for sale, 
Crist took a claim on the north half of Section 7, of which the present 
farm of Walker Thorn forms a part. This claim he marked by notching 
four logs and making a pen out of them. Mr. Long went across the 
•creek into Clay Township and bought a claim of a man by the name of 
Heart. Mr. Heart had cleared out some four acj-es and built a brush 
fence around the same and erected a small cabin on the quarter for an 
Indian, but as the Indian would not pay Heart the $100 required for 
making such improvements, Long took the claim and paid the money. 
Later in the season of 1840, Joseph W. Heaton, Thaddeus Baxter and 
Thomas McClure came from Kirklin, Clinton County, and took up 


claims. The next spring, they erected cabins on their claims and moved 
■with their families to them. Now began the great rush for homes in the 
rich region along the Wild Cat. During the season of 1841, David 
Bates, James Hamilton and Charles Harmon arrived, and following them 
in rapid succession came Bernhart Lerner, Ephraim Bates, William Coats, 
Philip Ramseyer, James Scott, Nathan Comer, Clinton Gray and Bland 
Jones. But a few more years had passed till the Thorns, the Hollings- 
worths, Pitzers, Greesons, Middletons, Stringers, Wilsons, Waggamans 
and many others had commenced to hew out their fortunes in the wilds. 
In 1845, Mr. Long sold his claim and purchased the tract where his sons, 
Bobert and James, live, and some years afterward moved to Harrison 
Township and bought where he now lives. 


Of the histories of the old pioneers who plied their vocation as trappers 
along the Wild Cat, that of "' Uncle Jim " Brooks is the most important. 
James, at the age of twenty-seven, and his father left Hamilton County 
in the fall of 1838 and followed an Indian trail through to the reserve and 
camped with a party of land-hunters soutii of the present site of New Lon- 
don. In a few days, they built some bark wigwams on Little Honey 
Creek and trapped during the winter. The products of their toils were 
the skins of seventy otter. During the summer of 1839, they caught 140 
coons on Shaw's Prairie. In the fall of 1840, they built some bark huts 
on the land afterward owned by Foster, near Kokomo, and trapped above 
the town extensively. They caught a great many coons and wild cats. 
It being very cold, they frequently found coons frozen in the snow. One 
evening the father, returning from up the creek, found a frozen turkey, but 
before he got home dropped it near a buttonbush pond where the court 
house now stands. James, going out to look for it, found it in the clutches 
of a wild cat, so he set two otter traps and the next morning went out 
and found that he had caught the wild cat. The next spring they found 
five bee-trees in an Indian sugar-camp ; these they cut down and by the 
use of moss strained out seventeen gallons of fine honey, and this with a 
lot of sugar- ^vater they boiled down to a sugar. Undoubtedly this is the 
sweetest part of " Uncle Jim's " recollections. In that day, wolf hides 
sold for 75 cents and scalps for $1.50. Wild cat hides sold for $8, otter 
hides from $6 to |9, and deer hides from 50 cents to $1 apiece. 

From the history of Judge T. A. Long, we take a few of his early 
reminiscences, and place under this head. Mr. Long, in that day, was 
called " Old Specks " by the Indians, on account of his wearing glasses. 
Sometimes a " big Injun, me, whoop ! " would get mad at him and " cuss " 
him in this way: "Old Specks, he heap good man, maybe d — n rascal." 


Mr. Long erected a little shop near his cabin, and for several years re- 
paired guns for the Indians. Across the creek from his shop stood Fos- 
ter's trading house, where the Indians would take their skins, and buy 
blankets, and " lots heap good whisky," and then would go and get Long 
to fix their guns. Foster would frequently interpret and vouch for them, 
and Long would charge the bill to Foster, and Foster would charge three 
or four times as much up to the Indians. Long had a nice little horse, 
worth some $50, which Foster wanted; but, being afraid of making 
the price too high, asked him what he would give. Foster replying he 
would give $65, agreeably surprised Long at his generosity, and conse- 
quently got the horse. Foster kept the same for ten days, and sold it for 
$250 to an Indian. Uncle Tommy being rather surprised, a second time 
concluded he could sell a horse, which his father-in-law owned, for a good 
price. As the horse would lay down and let its rider mount, the feat 
greatly pleased the Indians, and Foster sold it to one for $400. The 
next autumn the Indian brought the horse back to be put in order, and 
for doing so was charged the sum of $200 by the trader, Foster. Mr. 
Long having several cattle, and needing some brass to make bells for them, 
was informed that he could get it of the old chief, Kokomo. He went to 
chief's wigwam, and was introduced by a Mr. Barnett to his dusky high- 
ness, as a Kentuckian. The chief began to act strangely, went out and 
painted himself, returned and told Barnett that he had scalped several 
Kentuckians, and would scalp the new-comer; but Long told Barnet that 
Kokomo had better not try that game, or he would shoot him on the spot. 
The Indian being told of Long's intent, permitted them to go to the squaw 
camp, get their brass, and depart unmolested. An Indian, Shapendocia, 
once tried to get away with Mr. Long, for some work done, but as he 
was informed Long would sell the gun he had repaired, the Indian get- 
ting afraid, sent his mother, the old squaw, Manson Zequa, with the money, 
who paid the bill and took the gun. 

The first birth in the township was that of Benjamin F. Lerner, born 
of Mr. and Mrs. Bernhart Lerner, May 29, 1842. How many times had 
Thadeus Baxter and Samuel Waggaman, dressed in their homespun, 
trudged along an Indian trail, through the deep, unbroken forest, to the 
cabin where the Heaton girls lived, and there, before the great fire, 
essayed to woo and win, with lays of love, the pioneer maids of the forest. 
Not long did the boys thus court under difficulties, for Baxter was mar- 
ried to Miss Lavina Heaton in February, 1843, and Mr. Waggaman and 
Malinda Heaton were joined in the bonds of wedlock March 5, 1843. 
They procured a magistrate from Kirklin, twenty miles away, who, after 
he had ridden on horseback through the swamps and performed the cere- 
mony, was compensated with $1 for services rendered. The hardy yeo- 


men needed shoes and leather aprons, so they took the hides of various 
animals to a man by the name of Judkins, who ran a small tannery near 
where the Mount Zion Church stands, and when tanned, to Bernhart 
Lerner, the first shoe-maker, to be made into the articles desired. 


The first saw mill in this township was built in 1846 by John Test 
on the banks of the Little Wild Cat, on the place formerly owned by 
A. C. RatcliflF. The mill was afterward owned by the Rels Bros. & 
Bates, and in 1848 was purchased by Jonathan and Samuel Stratton and 
Richard Bates, and was traded in 1852 to Isaac Hollingsworth. The 
Strattons then purchased a small mill down the creek, which had- been 
recently erected, and this they ran some four years. In 1856, Mr. 
Samuel Stratton purchased the former site and erected a grist mill in 
connection with the saw mill. In 1848, Stephen Brooks built a small 
corn-cracker and wheat mill south of Alto. A part of the frame is yet to 
be seen ; the bolting box is now being used by Mr. George Greeson as a 
grain bin. In 1853, the Fred Bros, built a mill on the creek, near where 
George Greeson's house stands. 


Most all the families who settled in the Reserve were those who tena- 
ciously held to the religious dogmas of some sect, and they early felt the 
need of a place of worship. The pioneers living in the vicinity of Twin 
Springs started to work at building a large log church house, each member 
agreeing to furnish so many logs on the ground. When the walls were up 
ready for the roof, the project was abandoned and a large log church 
house was erected in Alto, and here the people met for some time 
and sang their psalms in common meter, unmolested by the savage war- 
whoop of the dusky denizen of the forest. But a short time after the 
church at Alto was built, one was erected by the Baptists and Methodists 
in the west end of the township on Martin Crist's place. 

In this building was taught the first school in the township. The 
first structure, however, especially for school purposes, was erected in the 
year 1844 or 1845, not far from the present site of the Mount Zion 
Church. The school in those days, when they sat on the flat site of a 
backless pole bench, and conned their Bible and worked their sums by the 
light of the sun shining leaden-like through the windows of greased 
paper, was one taught only by subscription, and lasted but a month or so 
in the winter. The first improved school furniture was some rough desks 
made by ex-Judge Palmer, of Clinton County, who was teaching school 
at Alto in 1856. The money to buy the lumber was made up by sub- 


scription, Shadrach Stringer doing the soliciting, and Palmer making 
the desks at night and teaching in the day-time. Palmer then lived in a 
little hut across the road from Stringer's tile mill. Among the early 
preachers we find the names of Frank Taylor and John D. Hopkins, 
while Charles Price and Thomas Stubbs were about the earliest teachers 
in the township. 


The list of professionals, though not lengthy, was yet all sufficient. 
L. McGrary served in the capacity of the first Justice of the Peace, and 
Vaughan and Stoneman as the first dispensers of physic. Charles Allison, 
as early as the spring of 1844, built the first trading house in the town- 
ship, on the tract afterward owned by L. Bates. And near this building 
in 1844 the first county convention met. The first election held in the 
township was in 1848, the polls for voting being in an old hut on the 
place now owned by Widow Thorn, east of G. P. Pitzer's. At this 
occurred a disgraceful fight and one of the two murders ever perpetrated 
in the township. In the township election held August, 1849, two men 
by the name of Brahard and Lane, having an old grudge, agreed to go to 
the election and fight it out. They formed a ring, appointed seconds, 
and commenced in dead earnest. After a few rounds, Brahard struck 
Lane in the side, thus bursting a blood-vessel and causing almost instant 
death. A trial was held, and Brahard acquitted on the ground of self- 
defense, as Lane had urged the fight upon him. 


The first plat of any town in the township was that of Beuna Vista, 
laid off at the rapids of the Little Wild Cat, one-half a mile west of the 
present site of Alto. The survey was made on the last day of April, by 
a Mr. Snodgrass, but the next day Stephen Brooks quietly had Alto sur- 
veyed and, as soon as possible, before Snodgrass had completed the plat 
of Beuna Vista, Brooks hurried to Indianapolis, the shortest way pos- 
sible, and had the plat of Alto recorded in the Land Office Records. 
Snodgrass, somewhat chagrined, then abandoned his scheme. The first 
addition to the town was laid out in that year. The young village being 
in the midst of a rich agricultural region soon sprang into considerable 
commercial importance. Before the year had closed, there were three 
stores, three cabinet shops, a blacksmith shop and a boot and shoe shop. 
During the first two years of its existence, as much trade was done there 
as in Kokomo during the same time. The first physician was Dr. J. H. 
Kern ; the first merchant and Postmaster was R. Cobb ; the first cabinet- 
maker was W. B. Judkins, while Miles Judkins stood at his post keeping 
soles in a state of redemption. The town has never been cursed by a 


saloon, the attempt to start one having been frustrated by the means of a 
long shank auger in boring into and emptying the whisky barrels. The 
short terms of subscription school were held in the log church until 1856, 
when a hewed-log school was erected. Concerning the later improve- 
ments of the place, we will speak of them further along. We now produce 
a few facts gleaned from the old township records which will be of interest 
to readers. 

The nice little village of Alto contains, at present, sixty-five inhabit- 
ants. They have one of the finest country stores in this part of the State, 
owned by Allen Quick. Mr. Quick is also the very accommodating Post- 
master at this place. There is also one blacksmith shop, one shoe shop, 
one carpenter shop, one saw mill, and one of the finest tile factories in 
Howard County, belonging to John T. Stringer, Esq. He has some 
$2,500 invested in machinery and apparatus, and turns out 12,000 rods 
of excellent tile per year. The village has excellent school and church 
edifices, both built of brick. The church is of the Methodist Episcopal 
denomination, and is presided over by Rev. Mr. Powell. They have also 
excellent physicians in the persons of Drs. Kern and Miller. 


The first meeting that the records make mention of is of the three 
Township Trustees held at Alto April 11, 1853. The Trustees were 
John Knight, David Greeson and R. D. Bates. At a meeting of the 
Board of Trustees of Harrison Township, held at Alto, April 30, 1853, 
it was ordered : That 4 cents on each $100 worth of taxable property, 
real and personal, should be levied to defray township expenses ; also, 
that there be a tax of 8 cents on each $100 worth of real and per- 
sonal estate subject to tax for road purposes ; also, that the Clerk ad- 
vertise a meeting of the voters of the township to meet at Alto, on the 
first Saturday in June, to take a vote for or against the Trustees levying 
a tax for the support of the common schools. 

At a meeting held July 23, 1853, it was ordered, that on the 20th 
day of August, 1853, there be a special meeting of the voters of Harri- 
son Township, Howard County, Ind., for the purpose of voting for or 
against a school tax of 20 cents on each $100 worth of taxable prop- 
erty in said township. 

The vote for the school tax, as ordered, was as follows : For tax, 33 ; 
against tax, 29. Thus was ushered into existence under difficulties 
the system of free schools in Harrison Township. 

September 10, 1853, Silas Scott, James L. McCrary and 0. H. P. 
Hanna reported a change in the Michigantown & Kokomo State road, 
as follows : " We, the undersigned, have viewed the within proposed 


change and find the same to be a practicable route for said proposed 
change, and that it will not be any material disadvantage to the traveling 
community." As reported to a meeting of the trustees at Alto, Feb- 
ruary 4, 1854, we find an opinion on the same subject expressed in the 
following pointed language. Going west, however, in a " gradual curve 
round " is a "sum"' thai beats the modern "problem." The report 
says : " We, the Viewers met, and after being sworn, went upon the pro- 
posed route and place of beginning. After viewing the route and taking 
into consideration the convenience and inconvenience of the road, we be- 
lieve it to be of public utility. We viewed west in Reese's and Kyger's 
lane of a gradual curve round, giving room sufficient for a road until we 
struck line and the south end of the lane." 

The allowances for the year ending April 8, 1854, were as follows: 
James Creson was allowed $12 for services as Township Clerk ; John 
Knight, $7, Trustee; Joseph Burk, $4, Trustee ; David Greeson, $5.50, 
Trustee. On September 8, 1854, Zimri Simpson was allowed $12.50 
to be expended on a bridge immediately west of Clinton Gray's old shop. 

On June 2, 1855, it was ordered " That Samson Lett be paid $2 for 
money drawn by him and depreciated on his hands." At this meeting 
the Trustees made the following order of a division of the school funds : 
*' Ordered, that the different sites in the township receive the following 
sums annexed to the different numbers: No. 1, $3.78; No. 2, $93.45 ; 
No.3, — ; No. 4, $80.95 ; No. 5, $82.45 ; No. 6, $98.15 ; No. 7, $22.45 ; 
No. 8, $42.53." At the same meeting Samson Lett was elected Deputy 
Superintendent of School No. 4. 

At a meeting held March 8, 1856, it was was ordered: " That the 
Treasurer of the township receive an order from this board authorizing 
him to present the same to the County Treasurer and draw $37.50, if he 
can do it, for the purpose of paying tuition." 

At the term held at Alto, June 12, 1857, the following teachers were 
allowed wages: David Hodson, District 6, $73; D. J. Bowman, District 
1, $40 ; Flemming Johnson, District 2, $60."77 ; Frederick Ramseyer, 
District 8, $61.64; Alfred Riley, District 3, $66.11; William Creason, 
District 5, $43.96. There not being enough money in the treasury, D. 
J. Bowman was allowed his balance of $7.89, at the July special term. 
On May 29, 1858, it was ordered " That Charles Thorn be paid $2.50 
for his service as Supervisor to fill the vacancy of John Lortts." The 
first choice of a regular Trustee, was at the April election of 1859, when 
Davis Riley was elected Trustee of Harrison Township. 


The mineral deposits of the township consist alone of bog iron, which 


is found in considerable quantity along the creek. The greatest natural 
curiosity is that of a gas well, situated on the farm of George Greeson. 
In 1871, while some hands were digging and boring a well, at the depth 
of fifty-five feet they struck a gas vein, when a report like the whistling of 
an engine, came from the well. Quite a commotion was cau^d amonor 
the diggers, doubtless some thinking they had struck the regions of Pluto. 
Mr. Greeson repaired to the scene, and told the men there was no danger, 
and they went to walling up the well. Mr. Greeson, going down into 
the well, thought he would try the gas by lighting a match and putting it 
at the top of the bottom stock. . There was a tremendous flash, making 
Greeson feel that he was blowing his well out by the roots. He sank an 
iron tube, and on the top placed a gas burner, and this was used, to some 
degree, for lighting purposes, for some five years. If a receiver for the 
gas could be put in, it could probably be used to better advantage. 


The enterprising little town of West Middleton is situated on the T., 
C. & St. L. R. R., six miles southwest of Kokomo. It was laid out by 
Mr. William Middleton, in the year that the F. & K. Railroad was com- 
pleted, and since then has grown to considerable commercial importance. 
Mr. Middleton's foresight and business tact has brought about, to a great 
extent, the present flourishing condition of the place. It has an excellent 
brick high school building, one store, one grain dealer, one doctor, and 
one Justice of the Peace. The town is in the midst of a rich agricultural 
region, and furnishes a good market for grain. The principal business 
enterprise of the place is a large merchant flouring mill, a description of 
which is given below. There is an active lodge of the I. 0. 0. F., both 
here and at Alto. The order of the Grange at one time had a prosperous 
lodge in West Middleton. 


Right at the door of every family in Harrison Township stands one of 
the finest merchant steam flouring mills in the State. About the 1st of 
June, 1882, Messrs. Samuel and Joseph Stratton and Amos C. and 
John Ratcliff" formed a company and commenced the erection of a mill at 
West Middleton. The body ot the building is 36x48 feet and is four 
stories high, including the basement, making it fifty feet, from the lowest 
floor to the top of the texas. The basement walls are of stone and are 
twenty inches in thickness, while above the walls are of brick and 
eighteen inches thick. The pillars for the support of the floors stand 
directly above one another, thereby greatly relieving the strain on the 
walls. The floors are made of the best oiled hardwood lumber laid 


diagonally across the building, thus strengthening the structure. The 
engine-house, which is of brick and is 14x28 feet in dimensions, joins the 
south wall of the mill and contains the boiler and pumps, while within 
the basement room is situated the engine proper, of forty-horse-power 
capacity, and the main line of shaft for running the machinery. 

A large bin, holding 120 bushels, receives the wheat for the elevators, 
and there is also a smut mill for cleaning the wheat. On the next floor 
are found four sets of large double rollers for making the new-process 
flour, and these work in connection with four of the very best buhrs from 
the Richmond Machine Works. Two of the buhrs grind wheat, one 
middlings and one corn. Here also is a flour chest, with a capacity for 
holding four thousand pounds ; also a grain sink mounted on a fine pair of 
Fairbanks scales. The sink has a capacity of sixty-two bushels, and the 
scales register the weight in pounds and bushels at the same time. Both 
the sink and flour chest are made of hackberry wood and nicely varnished. 
On the next floor are two large flour purifiers of Nos. and 00. From 
the rollers the flour is transferred to these, where the dust is separated 
and thrown into the dust room above. Also here are two large bins for 
holding wheat and bran. Ample storage room is furnished on this and 
the floor above for 13,000 bushels of grain. On the next floor there is a 
large bolting machine, consisting of six large reel bolts fourteen feet long, 
arranged in pairs one above the other, and all are run by a pulley at the 
top connected with a pulley below with a long chain belt. The cost of 
the silk covering the reels alone was $300. The apparatus was all built 
at home. On the top is the texas, into which extend the tops of five 
elevators. The elevator tubes and the spouting are all put together with 
screws. There is more than a half mile of tubing in the mill. The 
entire mill cost some $10,000, and has a capacity of 75 barrels of flour 
per day. It was planned by Mr. Samuel Stratton. The proprietors are 
all men of tact and means and carry on the business successfully. 


The tax duplicates of 1882 show the value of the lands in Harrison 
Township to be $226,995, while the value of the improvements amounts 
to $44,545, making a total of $271,540, The records show the value of 
personal property to be $95,730. Tax in toto for the year 1882 was 
$6,426.13. In the township there are 247 voters. There are five church 
edifices and eight school buildings in the township. There are 347 schol- 
ars reported. The special school tax for 1882 amounted to $931.48; while 
that of 1868 was $858.93. The special tuition for 1882 was $1,803.09, 
while that of 1869 was $996.85. The township funds for 1882 amounted 
to $369.41. Mr. Walker Thorn is Trustee of the township at the present 



Taylor Township is No. 23 north, Range 4 east, of the Congres- 
sional Survey, and dates its formation from the year 1844, when Howard 
was known as RichardvMlle County. Its original outline is described 
upon the records as follows: "Beginning at the northwest quarter of 
Section 18, Town 23 north, Range 4 east ; hence, south to the county 
line ; thence east with the said line to range line, dividing Ranges 4 and 5 
east; thence north with said range line to the township line dividing 
Towns 23 and 24 north; thence west to the northwest quarter of Sec- 
tion 4, Town 23 north. Range 4 east; thence south to the northwest 
corner of Section 16, same town and range; thence west to place of be- 
ginning." Various changes have been made in the outline during the 
last thirty years, and at the present time the township comprises twenty- 
four and a half sections with the following boundaries : Centre and 
Howard Townships on the north, Liberty and Union on the east, Harri- 
son on the west and Tipton County on the south. 

The country is well watered and drained by a number of streams which 
traverse it in various directions, the principal of which is Kokomo Creek. 
This water-course flows through the central part of the township in an 
easterly direction, crossing the eastern boundary in Section 13, and leav- 
ing from Section 18, about one mile from the western border. It is, next 
to Wild Cat, the largest stream in the county, and receives in its course 
several small affluents, all of Avhich play an important part in the drain- 
age of the country. Little Wild Cat flows through the southwest corner 
of the township and is a stream of some importance to that locality. 
Pete's Branch has its source in Section 10, flows a northwesterly course 
through Section 9, and leaves the township from Section 4 of Town 24. 
There are several other creeks in the township in addition to those men- 
tioned, the majority of which are small and designated by no particular 


The face of the country is comparatively even, except along Kokomo 
Creek, where the surface in some places is somewhat irregular, though 
there are no undulations sufiiciently large to be termed hills. The soil is 
of excellent quality, a dark, rich loam and well adapted to all the crops 
indigenous to this latitude. The township is almost exclusively agricult- 
ural, and on all sides can be seen farms which will compare with the 
best in any section of the county — the beautiful residences and commo- 
dious buildings with which they are furnished bearing testimony to the 


general prosperity of the owners. The whole surface of the township 
was originally covered with an almost unbroken forest of the varieties of 
timber indigenous to Northern Indiana, and a dense undergrowth in many 
localities that completely obscured the soil from the sun's rays, making all 
other vegetation impossible. As a consequence, the ground remained 
"wet and slushy during the greater part of the year, and proved a fruitful 
source of much of the ague and other malarial diseases with which the 
early settlers were afflicted. On account of its wet nature, much of the 
land was looked upon by the pioneer as comparatively worthless, and it 
was not until recent ye:irs that large tracts of this low ground were re- 
claimed by a successful system of drainage. 

The early history of Taylor is similar to that of many other town- 
ships in the county, and its experience the experience of all early settle- 
ments. With all the exciting scenes and deprivation of frontier life, 
and the gradual unfolding and development of a community, complete 
in its organization, distinctive in its character, and rich in the higher ele- 
ments of civilized life, the pioneer moves into the forests, with his few 
household goods around him, and rises a king and conqueror. Here he 
erects his altar, builds his cabin, levels the forests, calls down the sunlight 
to thrill with life the sleeping soil, and adorns its surface with the bloom 
of vegetable life, while nature, in her supreme loveliness, matures and 
yields to him the ripening fruit, the richest treasures of her bosom. Here 
is laid the keystone in the arch of a new social structure above which are to 
cluster and unfold all the arts and elements of the highest civilization. 
Hence we see the importance of collecting, in successful order, all the 
scenes and events of a community's growth, from the earliest settlement, 
its first germ, to its full organization and most recent form, together with 
the influences, local characteristics, and other combinations that may have 
modified or directed its development. 


The first settlement within the present limits of Taylor was made in the 
winter of 1842, by William Rodman, who located in Section 20, about 
one mile northeast of Fairfield Village. Rodman was a native of New 
York, but immigrated to this State in an early day, settling in Marion 
County, near Indianapolis, when that city was but a mere niche in the 
surrounding forest. In the fall of 1840, he made a tour of observation 
through the newly formed county of Richardville, for the purpose of se- 
lecting a home, and being pleased with this part of the country he obtained 
permission of the Indians to make a settlement. A claim was accordingly 
marked out and a rude pole shanty constructed, to which the family of 
our pioneer was moved a few months later. The journey of the family to 


their new home was made in the face of many serious difficulties, chief of 
which was the intense coldness of the weather, and the entire absence of 
anything like a well-defined roadway. Much of the way led through an 
unbroken forest where roads had to be cut out, and great difficulty was 
experienced in finding the little cabin on account of the deep snow, which 
rendered traveling well-nigh impossible. The little mansion was finally 
reached and the family safely domiciled, when an inventory of their stock 
of provisions revealed the unwelcome fact that there was barely sufficient 
to last a week. This made a return trip necessary, and Rodman started 
back for a fresh supply and was absent about eight days. During that 
time the family remained alone in their forest home, with no neighbors nearer 
than ten miles, except the Indians, who treated the new-comers with the 
most profound respect. By the most frugal economy, the good wife managed 
to make her scanty store hold out until the husband's return, after which 
there was plenty in the little household. Rodman remained on his original 
claim about five years, when he sold his improvements and moved a short 
distance north, in the present township of Centre, where he entered a tract 
of land where Col. Blanche lives. He afterward disposed of this place 
and moved to Missouri, where he remained a few years, when he again 
itecame a resident of this county, settling the second time in Harrison 
Township, on the Chase farm. He sold this farm and moved to Kansas 
a number of years ago. 

In the year 1842, Alexander Thatcher settled in Taylor, on what is' 
now the Elson farm, where he took a claim and made a few temporary 
improvements. He remained at this place but a short time, afterward 
moving a little further west on the Albright farm, where he erected a com- 
fortable log house and cleared a small farm. He afterward sold his claim 
to Reuben Thomas and moved to Porter County. 

Allen Sharpe came to the county in the latter part of 1842 and took 
a claim in Section 17, on land at present owned by Capt. Pierce. lie 
occupied this place until the year 1851, at which time he sold to 
Edom Garner and moved to Porter County, and later to Iowa, where his 
death occurred several years since. 

Among other early settlers in the same locality were Laomi Ashley, 
and his son, Harles Ashley, both of whom located on the Dyar farm. 
The former was one of the pioneer preacliers of the county, and assisted 
in the organization of the first religious society in the township. He ap- 
pears to have been a man of considerable prominence, and was untiring 
in his efforts to spread the cause of his Master in the sparsely settled 
neighborhoods of Howard County. Harles Ashley became a prominent 
citizen of the county, and was called to fill several official positions, the 
duties of which he discharged with marked ability. He was killed in 
Missouri during the war of the rebellion. 


David Thatcher, a brother of Alexander Thatcher, was an earlv set- 
tler, and made his appearance in the spring of 1843, settling on the Hutte 
farm, near the northern boundary of the township. Job and Henry Gar- 
ner came about the same time, the former locating on Section 18, where 
Benjamin Field lives, and the latter settling a short distance east of 
Tampico, on land at present owned by Rev. Denton Simpson. They both 
earned the reputation of being good men and were residents of the toAvn- 
ship for a period of about twenty years. Other settlers, whose dates of 
arrivals cannot be ascertained, were Elias Wilson, who settled where 
James Mugg lives, Thomas Miller, Isaac Miller, Matthew and William 
Poff, N. C. Beals and Samuel PoflF. 

Thomas Miller settled on the Garr farm, where he took a claim and 
made a few improvements. Being a man of roving tendencies, he remained 
but a short time in one place, taking claims in various parts of the county, 
which he sold to settlers, as the population increased. He sold his first 
claim shortly after his arrival, and made a second settlement on J. E. 
Duncan's farm, which he disposed of a few months later. He afterward 
pre-empted land a short distance east of Fairfield, on the Henry Thomas 
farm, which he left about the time the land came into market. Isaac Miller 
located on Section 21, on the Henry Neal farm, where he lived for a 
short time. He was a man of no particular note, and proved no advan- 
tage to the community in which he resided. 

The Poffs settled in the eastern part of the township, and were men of 
character and influence in the community. Bailes settled near Fairfield, 
and took claim where Enos Neal lives. He came from Hamilton County, 
and appears to have been a man of some prominence, being one of the 
first Associate Judges of the county. He built the first mill in the town- 
ship, of which a more extended notice will be given in a following page. 
Prominent among those who came prior to 1845 was William Apperson, 
father of Albert Apperson. He was a native of Virginia, served in the 
war of 1812, and participated in many of the battles of that struggle. In 
an early day, he moved to Clinton County, Ohio, where he resided until 
his immigration to Indiana in the summer of 1844. He purchased the 
claim of Isaac Miller, on which he erected a comfortable hewed-log house, 
and raised one crop before the arrival of his family. He entered this land 
in 1847, and retained it in his possession until 1874, at which time his 
death occurred. A son lives on the old place, and is one of the leading 
citizens of Taylor. 

Another settler deserving of special mention was Lemuel Shoemaker, 
whose arrival dates from the year 1845. He was a native of Ohio, but 
had lived for a number of years in Illinois prior to his immigration to 
this State. He was a preacher of the "New-Light " Church, and had a 


number of appointments in Howard and adjoining counties during the early 
years of the country. He took a claim near the Dyar farm, which he 
traded two years later to Alexander Thatcher for an improvement about 
one mile and a half east of Fairfield, on the Enos Scott place. In the 
year 1855, he sold this place to Vanham, and moved to Clinton County. 
One daughter, Mrs. Hatton, is living at the present time in Tampico. 

Mordecai Overman came in 1844, and settled near the western part 
of the township, where he lived until 1856, when he sold his farm to 
John Layman, and moved to Missouri. He erected the first brick house 
in the township, in the year 1854, which is still standing. Peter Kirk- 
man came in 1844, also, and was joined the latter part of the same year 
by Robert Bracken. Kirkman settled in the western part of the town- 
ship, where his widow still lives. He was a prominent citizen, and died 
in the year 1879. Bracken settled on Section 30, on the farm where 
Cann Spurlin lives. He remained about eight years, when he sold to 
Thomas Miller, and left the county. 

Robert Morrison came to the township in 1844, and took claim in 
Section 19, where he lived until 1847, when his improvements were pur- 
chased by Jacob Applegate, who entered the land one year later. Mor- 
rison afterward pre-empted a piece of land in Section 30, which was his 
home for a period of twenty-four years. The farm is owned at the pres- 
ent time by Asbury Kelly. Another early settler in the western part of 
the township was Reason Lackey, who located near the Union Baptist 
Church, in the year 1845. He remained at this place but a short time, 
when he sold to Francis Jones, and moved to Hamilton County. A 
daughter died while the family lived in this locality, which was one of the 
earliest deaths in the township. 

Washington Baumgardner moved to the county in 1845, and selected 
a claim in Section 30, where he purchased a claim of James Lane. He 
has been identified with the township ever since, and is justly considered 
one of its best citizens. Among other early citizens who came in an early 
day can be named Peter Daniels, who settled on the Morrison place ; 
Jacob Baumgardner, a brother of Washington Baumgardner ; James 
Smith, who located the Kelly place ; John Albright and his father, Ed- 
mund Albright, both of whom selected homes near Kokomo Creek, in 
the northern part of the township ; John Dillman, who settled in the 
eastern part of the township, where he still resides ; Joseph Skeen, who 
located near the Rodman place. 

During the year 1847, entries were made in different parts of the town- 
ship by William Mugg, Edward C. Albright, John Moulder, Thomas Beard, 
Ezekiel Parker, Asa Parker, Myron Beard, William Hughes, Jesse 
Thatcher and Ephraim Trabue. The following year's entries were made 


by Thomas Kimball, Arch Gilson, David Foster, William Coons, John 
Goyer, J. G. Templin, William Helms, John G. King, Henry Ryan, 
Silas Andrews, David Sawyer, John Ingles, William Morton, John Street, 
John Lindley, Theophilus Manuel, Simeon Mugg, John Spencer, W. G. 
Elliott, R. C. Cobb, Jacob Applegate, Gideon Stevens, Ezra Pierce, 
Luther Hall, John Hastie, John Wetty, James Surry, Robert Kingsley, 
John Seawright, Jos. Seidner, Jeremiah Bassett, William Currens, George 
Duinette, George Plankenstaver, Thomas Plankenstaver and others. 


We, of the present day, who are surrounded by the latest modern 
improvements, can have but a faint idea of the slow and tedious process of 
settlement in this country forty years ago, nor appreciate the difficulties 
and discouragements by which it was attended. Especially is this the 
case with the early settlement of Taylor — an interminable wilderness, 
without roads, and with but indifferent facilities for communication, to- 
gether with the scarcity of the necessaries of life, and the general poverty 
of the inhabitants, a condition which they accepted for the purpose of 
securing homes for themselves and their posterity. They did their work 
cheerfully and well, and the present condition of the country is a monu- 
ment to their devotion and industry. 

One lady who is still living relates that when her family moved to the 
country, they were obliged to cut roads through a dense forest to their 
claim, on which not the slightest improvement had been made. The 
wagon, containing the few household goods, was driven beneath the 
boughs of a large tree, which served the purpose of shelter, until a cabin 
could be erected. The husband immediately went to work, felling the 
trees for logs, which the good wife dragged to the place of building with a 
yoke of oxen. The few scattering neighbors were apprised of the fact 
that a house would be erected, and two days later the work was completed, 
but none too soon, as a heavy rain began falling before the roof was 
finished. Into this unfinished structure, without floor, fire-place, or win- 
dows, the family were moved, and felt as proud of their new home as 
a prince in his palace. 

Mr. Baumgardner states that he spent an entire day in searching for 
his cabin, which had been built in the depths of a thick forest a couple of 
months prior to his moving to the country. It was in midwinter, when 
the search was made, and the snow lay thick and heavy on the trees and 
ground, rendering going about almost impossible. The little cabin was 
at last found, but so cheerless did it appear, with its warped puncheon 
floor, unfinished roof, and cracks through which a " cat could be thrown," 
that Baumgardner was three days deciding whether to move into it or not. 


As time was precious and no other house available, the decision was re- 
luctantly made in favor of moving, and the few household articles were 
transferred to the little domicile. This was in the winter of 1845, a 
time of great scarcity in the new settlements, as the provisions had al- 
most given out, and it was very difficult to obtain new supplies. It is said 
that a man drove through the settlements with a seed load of corn which 
he disposed of to the citizens for the modest little sum of $10 per bushel; 
when asked where he obtained the corn, the shrewd trader refused to 
answer, and with a knowing wink that there was plenty more where his 
load came from, moved on to drive a sharp bargain at the next cabin. 
One of the settlers, bent on discovering the source of supplies, followed 
the sled tracks back about twenty miles to an old settlement in Hamilton 
County, where corn was afterward obtained at more reasonable figures. 

For a number of years, many serious obstacles were experienced by 
the pioneers, and it required hard work and close economy to keep the 
hungry wolf from the door. The soil, though rich and fertile, was very 
difficult to till, owing to its wet nature, and the stumps stood so thick 
on the ground that a person could almost cross the little fields by 
stepping from one to the other. Long distances had to be traveled to 
obtain breadstuffs, groceries and dry goods, all of which were paid for by 
produce at exceeding low prices. As time passed, these and many other 
difficulties were gradually overcome. Larger farms were cleared, ditches 
were run and better houses took the places of the rude log structures 
which everywhere dotted the country. Roads were laid out, improved 
farming implements introduced, schools and churches established, and a 
general spirit of thrift took possession of the settlers ; as a consequence, 
the general development of the country has been almost phenomenal. As 
early as the year 1847, brick was burned on the Neal farm, and about 
one year later a second kiln was made by Hiram Beard on the place 
where Mr. Jackman lives, two miles east of Fairfield. 

The first mill in the township was a small affair operated by hand. It 
was constructed by N. C. Beals, and stood on the Neal place, a short dis- 
tance northeast of Fairfield. The buhrs were made of " nigger-heads " 
found near by, and the hoop in which they worked was manufactured out 
of hickory bark fastened at the ends by leather and rawhide thongs. 
The building was a rough shed, about 15x20 feet in size, resting upon 
forks driven in the ground. The mill ground corn only, and was erected 
merely for family purposes, although it Avas used by the general neigh- 
borhood for a number of years. In 1850, a saw mill was erected at the 
village of Fairfield by Lee & Macy and by them operated four or five 


years. It did a very good business and was afterward purchased by other 
parties and moved from the place. 

Jacob Cable and William Osborne began the erection of a saw mill at 
Terre Hall in the year 1855; but, being unable to complete it, took in a 
third partner by name of Thomas McCune. Thomas Beard afterward 
purchased Cable's interest, and the people donated liberally to the new 
enterprise; corn-buhrs were attached, and the mill supplied a long-felt 
want in the neighborhood. It passed through the hands of several par- 
tics and was finally purchased by the Hercules Brothers, who moved it to 
Michigantown, where it is still in operation. 

The Fairfield Steam Flouring Mill was built in the year 1858, by Jo- 
seph Haskett. The enterprise proved very remunerative to the proprie- 
tor and early achieved a reputation of being the best mill in the county, 
a reputation which it still sustains. An addition was built to the original 
structure a few years after its erection, and new improved machinery has 
been added from time to time. The building is frame, two stories and a 
half high, and, with new machinery lately added, is valued at about 
$15,000. There are three runs of buhrs, two sets of rolls, by means of 
which about 100 barrels of flour are made every twenty-four hours. It is 
operated at the present time by Harry Allen. 

The first tile factory in the township was started by Braden & Byers, 
a short distance southeast of Fairfield, in the year 1866. It was operat- 
ed by Frederick Youngman, the pioneer tile-maker of Indiana. 
Youngraan purchased the factory some time later, and has operated it 
very successfully ever since. He has built up a large, lucrative busi- 
ness, and acquired considerable wealth from the sale of tile, of which 
he manufactures more than any other factory in Northern Indiana. 

A saw mill was built in the southern part of the township, 
about the year 1855, by John Griswold, who operated it until the 
time of his death one year later. William Hazel afterward became the 
owner, and moved it across the line into Tipton County. A shingle 
machine was started at the same place in 1861, by James Hoss, 
who moved here from Marion County. He operated it for about two 
years, when it was moved to Fairfield by John Camerer, who disposed 
of the machinery two years later to Peter Hoss. It was afterward pur- 
chased by Gloss Rubush and by him moved to Morgan County. One 
of the largest saw mills in the township was brought to the village of 
Tampico in the year 1876, by the Hercules brothers, who did a large 
lumber business until 1882, when it was moved to Frankfort. At the 
present time, Adam Ide is operating a saw mill in that village. 


The first legally established highway in Taylor was the Peru State 


road, which ran south from Kokomo to Shieldville. It was surveyed by 
N. C. Beals in the year 1845, and passed through the western part of 
the township in an irregular course to the county line. The orig- 
inal route was long since abandoned for a more eligible roadway a 
little further east. The State road runninjj; east and west through the 
southern part of the township was established in an early day, and is 
still one of the principal highways in the southern part of the county. 
The Albright gravel road was constructed in a northerly course 
through Sections 17 and 20, and was made as a free pike by taxation. 
(See County History). The Rickett's gravel road forms the western 
boundary of the township. It was constructed as a free pike also. 

In the year 1883, a free gravel road was made from the Albright 
pike east through Tampico, near the central part of the township. It was 
constructed by voluntary contribution of the real estate owners through 
whose lands it passes, and is known as the Tampico free pike. These 
pikes are all kept in good condition and have proved of great advantage 
in the general development of the country. 

Passing through the western part of the township from northwest to 
southeast is the Indianapolis Division of the Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific 
Railway, or the old I., P. & C. road. The first survey for this road was 
made some time prior to 1849, but it was not completed until a few years 
later. Of its general efi"ect upon the country, we refer the reader to the 
railroad chapter in the county history. The P., C. & St. Louis railroad 
passes through the central part of the township in a southwesterly direc- 
tion, and has been the means of developing the country in a very marked 
degree. It passes through a rich agricultural district and furnishes two 
market places in the township, i. e., Tampico and Terre Hall. 


The first township election tooK place August 26, 1848, when the 
following Board of Trustees was elected: Alexander Thatcher, Adam 
Kellison and Ezra Pierce. Of these x\dam Kellison was chosen Treas- 
urer, and Ezra Pierce Clerk. At this election about seventy votes were cast. 
Other early township officers were E. G. Apperson, William Helms. 
Eli Spencer, T. M. Ham, Nathan Beals, E. Comer and James H. Hatton. 
Since the year 1859, the following persons have served as Trustees : W. 
W. Garr, N. C. Beals, W. H. Thompson, R. C. Foor, William C. Kemp, 
Stephen Kirkpatrick, J. H. Braden, Lemuel C. Boyd, James T. Dyar, 
J. A. Petro, J. E. Duncan, S. B. Purvis and Samuel Crumley, the last 
named being the Trustee at the present time. 


This modern Jerusalem, the wonder of the nineteenth century, was 


laid out by one John J. Stephens in the year of our Lord one thousand 
eight hundred and forty-nine. The circumstances which led to its growth 
were the I., P. & C. Railroad, which had been surveyed through the 
county some time previous, and the desire on the part of the energetic 
proprietor of making a fortune out of the sale of lots. The promising 
location, together with the rich agricultural region surrounding, gave 
every indication of future greatness, and the metropolis was soon on the 
high road to prosperity. As soon as the railroad was completed, the 
place became a prominent shipping point and sustained its reputation as 
one of the best market places on the road between Peru and Indianapo- 
lis for a number of years. It became the market for a large scope of 
country east and west, but on the completion of the P., C. k St. 
Louis Railroad on the east, and the building of pikes leading to Kokomo 
on the west, the fortunes of the town began to wane, and it has never been 
able to regain its original prosperity. Among the first persons to locate 
in the village were Reuben Thomas, William Osborne, Lee and — Macy. 
The first store was kept by Bundy & Robinson in a little house which 
stood a short distance west of the railroad, on lot at present owned by 
William Weaver. They did a fair business on a stock of general merchan- 
dise valued at about $500, and were in the village two years, when they 
sold to other parties. The next store was started by Overman & Stout, 
in the east end of the Thomas building, the house at present owned and 
occupied by Joseph Haskett. They afterward erected a small storeroom 
north of the railroad, where Shelton & Parsons' store now stands, to 
which their goods were moved soon afterward. They Avere in business 
about two years, when they closed out their stock and moved from the 

The third store building was erected by Foor & Hatton, in the year 
1854, and is still standing, south of the Martin building on Main street. 
They did business about two years, when the partnership was dissolved and 
the goods taken from the village. William Kirkman erected the large two- 
story frame building just south of the railroad, in the year 185-4, and 
used a part of it for a store, while the other part was used for a hotel. 
Isaac Price purchased Kirkman's business and operated a store and 
boarding house for a couple of years, doing a good business in the 
meantime. It was afterward occupied by Thomas Brookbank who con- 
ducted a fair business until the time of his death in 1860. He was 
succeeded by a Mr. Davis, who was afterward killed by his son in a 
drunken dispute. 

Other early merchants were Nate Prime, who kept in a little 
building which stood where Mrs. Needham's house now stands ; Thomp- 
son & Evans, who ran a large store soutl) of the railroad opposite the 


Martin building. This firm kept the largest stock of goods that was 
ever brought to the place, and for a nuoaber of years did as large a 
business as any other store in the county. Williams & Boyd did busi- 
ness in the village several years, but becoming financially embarrassed, 
they closed out their stock and retired from the place. 

The large brick building occupied by J. H. Martin & Son was erected 
in the year 1870, by Frank Hancock, one of the most enterprising mer- 
chants of the town. It was afterward purchased by L. L. Bennett, who 
formed a copartnership with Steele Catherwood. They carried on a suc- 
cessful business for some time, when the entire stock was purchased by 
Bennett. J. H. Martin bought an interest in the store in the year 1879, 
and succeeded to the entire business at Bennett's death some time later. 

An early drug store was kept by Joseph Shelton in the Martin build- 
ing. He did a good business for several years, when he left the village 
and went to Russiaville. The same building was occupied by McCoy & 
Berry with a miscellaneous assortment of merchandise from the year 
1880 to 1882, when, on account of a business failure. Berry stepped 
down and out. McCoy remained some time longer and left the village in 
the spring of 1883. 

The first warehouse was built by Bundy & Robinson, and stood west 
of the railroad, in the southern part of the town. A second grain house 
was built by Jacob Cable some time afterward, and stood near the same 
place. The present warehouse was erected by Evans & Fortner. It was 
afterward operated by Evans & Thompson, who ran it in connection with 
their large mercantile business. It is owned at the present time by Joseph 

Reuben Thomas kept the first hotel in what is now the Haskett build- 
ing. An early hotel and boarding-house was kept by William Hughes in 
a large building which stood on the opposite side of the street from the one 
mentioned. The business of the town at the present time is represented 
by one large general store kept by J. H. Martin & Son ; one drug and 
grocery store, by Shelton & Parson ; one flouring mill, by Joseph Has- 
kett. There is one church, schoolhouse, cooper shop, wagon shop, barber 
shop, meat shop, blacksmith shop. Frank Yager keeps the village hotel, 
and to his credit be it said that a better stopping place it is difficult to 

Of the character of the town and its inhabitants, we can speak only 
in a general way. There are no saloons. The people are all moral, up- 
right and religious. The Sabbath is well remembered, street loafing 
being entirely unknown,while the church is overcrowded each Lord's Day 
by earnest and sincere Christians. In such an atmosphere, profanity, vul- 
garity and gossip can find no possible encouragement, consequently every- 


thing is conducted on a high moral plane. The population of the town 
at the present time is about one hundred and fifty. 

Napthalia Lodge, No. 389, A., F. & A. M., was organized in Fairfield 
May 25, 1869. The first officers: Peter E. Hoss, Master; Samuel B. 
Boyd, S. W.; J. H. Braden, J. W. The elective officers at the 
present time are George Applegate, W. M.; B. W. Applegate, S. W., and 
J. H. Martin, J. W. Meetings are held in hall belonging to J. H. Martin. 

Garfield Lodge, I. 0. 0. F., No. 597, was instituted January 24, 1883, 
with the following charter members, to wit : E. C. Rice, F. A. Kelly, T. J. 
Kemp, Robert J. Chase, Henry R. Weaver, John Chasteen, J. S. Carpenter 
and George Scherer. The officers are E. C. Rice, N. G.; J. S. Carpenter, 
V. G.; T. J. Kemp, Secretary ; F. A. Kelly, Treasurer ; John Chasteen, 
Warden ; George Applegate, Conductor ; R. J. Chase, Guard ; Thomas 
Carr, R. S. N. G. George Scherer, L. S. N. G.; Clark Shelton, Host, 
Henry Weaver, P. G. The hall in which the lodge meets belongs to 
to Clark Shelton, and was furnished at a cost of $300. The organization 
is young, numbering but eleven members, but its future is very promising. 


This little town is situated on the P., C. & St. L. R. R., in Sections 
15 and 22, and was laid out in the year 1852 by Ephraim Trabue. The first 
store was kept by Spencer Lattly, who commenced business soon after the 
village was surveyed. He was succeeded by Thomas Ingalls, who remained 
two or three years, and was in turn followed by Robert Dungan. Other 
merchants came in, from time to time, among whom can be named Phil- 
potts, John Howell, Joseph Dunfee, John Lamaster, Thompson, Thom- 
as Manuel, S. M. McCoy, J. B. Skinner and Taylor Jackman. The pres- 
ent merchants are S. B. Purvis, who keeps a large general store, and Mad- 
ison Warwick, who makes groceries a specialty. There are, in addition to 
the stores, two warehouses, operated by Mr. Purvis, a blacksmith and 
wagon shop, by Mr. Jackman, and a saw mill run by Adam Ide. There is 
a fine brick schoolhouse and a church, the history of which will be given 
on another page. 

The following medical gentlemen have practiced their profession from 
Tampico at different times : Drs. Armstrong, Mote, Scott, Byers and John- 
son. The present physician is Dr. J. B. Kirkpatrick, who has a large 


This little hamlet was surveyed in the year 1852, by John Newlin, for 
Asa Parker, proprietor. It is situated in Section 26, near the southern 
boundary of the township, and was an outgrowth of the P., C. & St. L. 
R. R. The first store was owned and operated by Cable & Osborne, who 


kept a miscellaneous assortment of merchandise, including a generous 
supply of Johnson County Bourbon, " rot gut," " tangle leg and lay 'em 
straight," which was dealt out in quantities according to demand. In 
connection with their mercantile business, the firm operated a steam saw 
mill, which they afterward disposed of to Thomas Beard. Cable & Os- 
borne were succeeded by James Foresythe, who was in turn followed by 
Thomas Miller, by whom the stock of goods was moved from the place. 
An early merchant was William Carpiner, of whom but little is known. 
There is one store in the village, at the present time kept by Mr. Cole ; a 
blacksmith shop, a shingle machine, post office and church. 


The first school in Taylor Township was taught by one Thomas Stubbs, 
at the old Lower Kokomo Church building, near the residence of James 
T. Dyer. The second term at the same place was taught by Levi Mills. 
The citizens of the township early took an active interest in educational 
matters, and at the election to decide whether the school section should be 
sold or not, fifty-eight voted in favor and three against the project. This 
election took place in 1849, and the total amount received by the township 
at that time for educational purposes was $160. 18f. Among early teach- 
ers were the following: Thomas Beals, David E. Stephens, S. J. John- 
son, Anna L. Gordon, John W. Carter, Harrison Horine, Robert W. 
Morritt, J. C. Anderson, J. M. Chew, William Mott, Seth Beals, A. M. 
Livey, John Stewart, Harriet Brown and H. W. Thompson. There are 
eight good brick schoolhouses, one of which, the Fairfield building, is 
arranged for a graded school. There was paid for tuition during the 
school year (1882-83) the sum of $2,444. The teachers for the last school 
year (1882-88) were J. W. Troyer, Anna Smith, 0. C. Smith, Fleetwood 
Ault, T. N. Jenkins, J. M. Jessup, C. Wolfe, B. W. Cox and Arvilla Dyer, 


The first religious services in the township were held at private resi- 
dences by the Christian denomination known as New Lights. They organ- 
ized a society as early as the year 1843, at the residence of Laomi Ashley, 
one of their ministers, who lived on what is now the Dyar farm. A log build- 
ing was erected about two years later, and the organization took upon it- 
self the name of the Lower Kokomo Church. The society continued 
with a good membership for a number of years, but was finally aban- 
doned, part of the members joining the Upper Kokomo Church, in the 
eastern part of the township. The early preachers were Laomi Ashley, 
Lemuel Shoemaker and Samuel Poff. 

The Upper Kokomo Church was organized July 10, 1847, by Samuel 


Poff and Lemuel Shoemaker, with a flourishing membership. Among 
the early members were Samuel McCune, H. Garner, Eunice Garner, John 
R. Colvin, J. J. Poft', John Garner, Elvira Garner, Elias Wilson, Nancy 
Wilson, M. Ryan, Nancy Garner, Rebecca Garner, Mary L. McCune, 
Joseph Garner, Miles Gibson, Jane Gibson, Barbara Pendegrass, M. 
Spencer, Catherine Poff, Sarah Poff, Elizabeth Cole, Francis Poff, Asa 
Parker, Eliza Parker, John Beamer, Peter Beamer, W. H. Poff, W. J. 
Poff, Marietta Rodman and Eli Spencer. Meetings were held at Samuel 
Poff's residence for several years. A house of worship was afterward erected 
about one mile northeast of Tampico. It was a log structnre, and was 
used by the congregation until the year 1879, at which time the church 
purchased the Methodist building in Tampico, which has been the meet- 
ing place since. The following parties have had charge of the society at 
different times : Thomas Whitman, H. Johnson, Isaac Johnson, Laorai 
Ashley, Ammon Cook, E. Ashley, J. J. Poff, Daniel Lewellen, Vinson 
Roberts, J. 0. Kirby, R. Hultz, J. Comer, J. Dunfee, L. L. Gibson, G. 
Hurlbert, the Rev. Mr. Williams, L. W. Hercules, John R. Kob and the 
Rev. Mr. Jaynes. At the present time, the church is without a regular 
pastor. On the records are the names of about forty-five members in 
good standing. 

The Union Separate Baptist Church was organized in the spring of 
1846, by Elders Jacob Baumgardner and Uriah McQueen. The first 
meeting was held at a little log schoolhouse, which stood on the farm of 
Charles Harmon in Harrison Township. The original membership con- 
sisted of the following persons : Peter Kirkman and wife, G. W. Baum- 
gardner and wife, Jacob Baumgardner and wife and Charles Harmon 
and wife. The schoolhouse was used for a meeting place about three 
years, when a house of worship was erected in this township near where 
the present building stands. It was a small structure, 18x20 feet, built 
of rough logs, and stood on ground donated for the purpose by Reason 
Lackey. It served the congregation until the year 1862, at which time 
it was decided to build a more commodious structure, and work on the 
new house besran at once. The old house was removed, and a frame 
building, 30x36 feet, erected in its stead, at a cost of $400. The first 
pastor was Jacob Baumgardner, who remained with the church a part of 
one year. He was succeeded by Elder Josiah Randolph, who exercised 
pastoral control at intervals until 1871. Other pastors and stated sup- 
plies were John Layman, the Rev. Mr. Sharpe, James Hamilton, Andrew 
White, William Randolph, G. W. Baumgardner, George W. Turner 
and Wilfred Spurlin. The church is in good condition at the present 
time, and has about eighty members. A Sunday school is sustained dur- 
ing the spring and summer seasons, with an average attendance of fifty 
scholars. John Morrows is the efiicient Superintendent. 


Albright Chapel Methodist Church dates its history from the year 
1847, and was organized at the residence of John Albright, with the fol- 
lowing seven members : John Albright and wife, E. C. Albright and wife, 
Elizabeth Ford, Emily Rodman and Nancy Skeen. Among those who 
joined the church shortly after its organization were William Albright, 
Elizabeth Albright, E. S. Apperson and wife and William xlpperson and 
wife. For eleven years, public worship was held at private dwellings, 
schoolhouses and barns. The present neat house of worship was 
erected in the year 1858, on land donated by William Albright. The 
building is of brick, 35x45, was erected by John Albright at a cost of 
^1,500. Present membership of the church is about 275 persons. 

In October, 1849. an ecclesiastical council convened at the house of 
Simeon Mugg, ea^t of Tampico, for the purpose of organizing a church. 
The council was composed of William Lewis, Jesse Thatcher, Henry 
Cobb, Thomas R. Cobb, I. Hip, F. Kizer, J. Wright, A. Leach, 
William Golding, and M. B. Golding. Elder Leach was chosen 
Moderator, and M. B. Golding, Clerk ; Simeon and Lucinda Mugg, 
James K. Mugg, Nancy J. Mugg, William A. Curran, Rebecca Curran, 
Hannah Hall, William Mugg and Jemima Mugg presented their letters 
and were organized into a society, under the name of Bethany Missionary 
Baptist Church, and attached to the Judson Association. Elder H. Cobb 
was chosen pastor, a position he filled very acceptably for two years, 
when he resigned. The church licensed Simeon Mugg to peach in 1851. 
Elder A. Leach served the church from 1851 to 1853, at which time 
Simeon Mugg was called as pastor. For six years meetings were held 
at the residence of Simeon Mugg, who opened his door and took the little 
flock in and fed them both spiritually and temporally. In July, 1854, 
the church changed its place of worship to the Christian Meeting-House, 
which was used until the year 1858, when a frame edifice was erected in 
the village of Tampico, at a cost of ^300. In the year 1855, Rev. Denton 
Simpson was called as assistant pastor, and later as pastor, .in which ca- 
pacity he served until the year 1866, when he resigned his charge, and was 
succeeded by Elder Cobb. The latter remained with the church until 
1868, when Simpson again took charge and served until 1870, being 
succeeded at that time by Rev. J. E. Ellison, who preached one year. 
Simpson was called for the third time in 1871, and has been with the 
church ever since. A new house of worship was erected, in the year 1882, 
a short distance northeast of Tampico, near where the old Kokomo church 
formerly stood. It is a neat brick structure, and an ornament to the 

The Fairfield Christian (New-Light) Church was organized in the 
year 1853, at a little cabin which stood on the northwest corner of the 


Youngman farm. The organization was brought about mainly through the 
labors of Elder Hiram Westbrook and Thomas Cole. Among early mem- 
bers were J. B. Fletcher, Thomas Cole and wife, Thomas Beard and 
wife, Nathan Comer and wife. The organization was moved to a little 
abandoned cabin on the farm of Benjamin Neal, where services were held 
one summer, after which the schoolhouse was used as a meeting place. 
A regular house of worship was erected some years ago. It is a frame 
building, with a seating capacity of about 250 persons. The society was 
kept up for a number of years, but was finally abandoned, and at the 
present time no organization is maintained. 

The Methodist Church of Tampico was organized November 5, 1857, 
with the following members : John T. Armstrong and wife, Samuel 
Whistler and wife, Moses Adamson and vrife, James S. Currens and wife 
James Bennett and wife, E. S. Apperson and wife, Sarah Eaton, Mrs. 
C. S. Wilson, R. S. Lattey, A. S. Kinnear and wife, T. W. Banks and 
wife and Richard Landon. H. J. Lacy was the first pastor, and served 
two years. A. S. Kinnear served during the year 1858 ; S. T. Stout, 
1859 ; W. S. Birch, 1860 ; Augustus Eddy, 1861 ; C. W. Miller and 
George Havens, 1862, and James Black, 1863. The last pastor 
was Rev. C. E. Disbro. Public worship was held in the village ware- 
house and private dwellings until the year 1862, at which time a temple 
of worship was erected, which is still standing. The building is frame, 
26x44 feet, cost the sum of $850, and stands on ground purchased of 
Elizabeth Trabue. In the year 1871, the organization, by mutual con- 
sent, was abandoned, and in 1880 the building was sold to the New- 
Lights, who use it at the present time. 

The Fairfield Christian Church was organized at the village school- 
house in the year 1860, by Elder Aaron Walker. The first members were 
Miletus Shirley and wife, Aaron Walker and wife, Stephen Kirkpatrick 
and wife, William Kirkpatrick, Henry Weaver and wife, W. T. Johnson 
and wife, James Duncan, John Newton and wife, Mrs. Newton, T. G. 
Anderson and wife, Louie Anderson, Alice Anderson and Parmela 
Anderson. The first Elders were William Kirkpatrick and T. G. 
Anderson. Miletus Shirley and Stephen Kirkpatrick were the first 
'Deacons. The congregation held services in the schoolhouse for about 
one year, when a more commodious audience-room was fitted up in the ware- 
house belonging to T. G. Anderson. The present house of worship was 
commenced in the year 1863, and completed one year later. It stands 
in the north part of the village, on ground purchased of Joseph Lowry, and 
represents a capital of about $1,500. Aaron Walker preached for the 
church about ten years, and was instrumental in building up quite a 
flourishing congregation. The next regular pastor was Elder George E. 


Flower, who remained with the church one year. During his pastorate, a 
large revival was held, which resulted in a number of accessions to 
the congregation. Flower was followed by Elder A. J. Kerr, who 
preached acceptably for two years. Then came Elder William Welsh, who 
supplied the pulpit regularly for the same length of time. Daniel Patter- 
son preached one year, and was in turn followed by Elder Charles 
Blaekman, whose pastorate closed in 1882, since which time the church 
has been without a regular preacher. The organization at the present 
time is in a very dormant state, numbering among its members many 
nominal Christians with but few active workers. A good Sunday school is 
maintained during the greater part of the year, with a large attendance. 
The present Superintendent is G. N. Berry. 

Friendship Baptist Church is an offshoot of the Bethany Baptist 
Church of Tampico, and was organized January 17, 1877, with seven 
members, to wit : James Mugg, B, F. Mugg, William Mugg, Joseph 
Mugg, Catherine Mugg, Elizabeth Thatcher and Rachel E. Mugg. The 
society met for worship at the residence of James Mugg for several months, 
when the organization was moved to the Terre Hall Schoolhouse, which 
served as a meeting place until 1878, at Avhich time a log church was 
erected. This building was used until 1881, when the present neat 
temple of worship was built. The house is about 32x40 feet, and was 
erected at a cost of |1,500. The first pastor was Rev. I. J. Langdon, of 
Muncie, Ind., who preached one year. J. L, Matthews was the next 
pastor and remained with the church for three years, being followed by 
Rev. J. W. Saunders, who ministered to the congregation about one year. 
The pastor at the present time is Rev. J. F. Crews. The membership is 
about twenty-five. 


Union Township occupies the southeast corner of Howard County 
and comprises thirty-one and a half square miles of territory bordering 
on Grant County on the east, and Tipton County on the south. Liberty 
and Jackson Townships on the north, and Taylor Township on the west. 
It was originally included in the territory of Green Township, and was 
set off as a distinct division at the March term , 1853, of the Board of County 
Commissioners. Topographically, the surface may be described as prin- 
cipally of even face in the northeastern, southeastern and southwestern 
portions, with occasional undulations of somewhat irregular character in 
the central part, while adjacent to the streams the land is more uneven, 
though in no place is it too broken for farming purposes. The town- 
ship is well watered and drained by several streams, which flow throuu^h the 


country in various directions, the chief of which is Big Wild Cat. This 
water course passes through the central part of the township in a north- 
westerly direction, and aiibrds tlie principal drainage of the eastern part 
of the county. It has three divisions, known as the Grassy, Middle and 
South Forks, which unite, as a single stream, near the central part of the 
township in Section 18. Lily Creek rises near the northwestern part of 
the township, flows through an irregular channel in an easterly direction, 
and empties into Wild Cat in Section 10, near the village of Jerome, Ko- 
komo Creek, the second stream of importance in the county, flows through 
the western part of Union. It enters the township from the west, about 
one-half mile from the southern boundary, takes a northeasterly course 
through Sections 80, 20 and 19, and leaves from Section 18. A small stream 
known as Prairie Creek rises near the south-central part of the township 
in Section 27, from whence it flows a northwesterly course through Sec- 
tions 22 and 15, crossing the northern boundary in Section 16. 


The soil in all parts of Union is the fine black loam common in the 
eastern part of the county, and which has given to this township its pe- 
culiar advantages as an agricultural region. It is very deep, and rests 
upon a stratum of clay, thus rendering artificial drainage comparatively 
easy where sufiicient outlets can be obtained. When first seen by white 
men, this part of the county was covered with dense forests of the finest 
timber, the principal varieties being black and white walnut, maple, beech, 
hickory, ash, oak, hackberry, linn, elm and sycamore in the low grounds 
along the water-courses. So thickly interwoven were the branches that 
the sun's rays were completely excluded from the soil beneath, which con- 
sequently remained wet during the greater part of the year. .This damp 
condition of the ground, with the abundance of decaying vegetable matter, 
proved the fruitful source of much of the fever and ague with which the 
first pioneers were afflicted during the first few years of the country's 
settlement. By a successful system of underdraining, however, all the 
surface water is now easily gotten rid of and in no part of the county is 
there a more healthy locality than Union Township. Union has the rep- 
utation of being a fine farming section, a claim which is well founded. 
While some portions of the county may show as rich a soil, and others 
may be better adapted to some specialty, yet we believe that no other 
township can lay claim to all the advantages of soil, water, timber and 
health fulness than are justly claimed for this. For a number of years, 
the natural advantages of this region were scarcely appreciated, as the 
farming was carried on in such a manner as to obtain results far below 
what are now realized. Better farm machinery, improved methods of 


planting and cultivating, and the adoption of crops better suited to the 
soil, have brought great and favorable changes. In an especial manner is 
this true in regard to harvesting and taking care of products. 


The way our fathers performed their farming operations is so little known 
to this generation, who depend almost entirely on machinery, and require 
horses to do all the work which men, women and children formerly did, 
that a description of the old way, gathered from conversations with those 
who know whereof they speak, may be of interest to the young farmers of 
the present day. Banish all such modern improvements as self-binders, 
mowers, corn planters, sulky plows, horse rakes, threshing machines, 
riding cultivators, and some conception may be formed of the primitive 
way of farming. The following was the mode of planting corn : A.fter 
the ground had been broken with a "bar shear, " plowed and scratched 
over with a harrow in which short wooden pins were used for teeth, the 
little shovel plow and single horse were used for marking ruts both ways. 
After marking was done children, big and little, the men and women, 
went into the field, and while the children, with tin basins, or small baskets, 
dropped the grain in the crossings, the others, with heavy iron hoes, fol- 
lowed and covered it with dirt. After the planting came the hoeing, now 
superseded by the improved cultivator. The tending by single shovel 
plows was the common method until a few years ago, and many of them 
are still in use. Harvesting wheat, oats, rye and grass was formerly a 
laborious process. Even within the recollection of comparatively young men, 
the scythe and cradle were looked upon as improved implements of husbandry. 
The hand sickle and reap hook were the implements used in our grandfathers' 
time, and several days were required to harvest a field of grain which 
could be done with one of our modern self-binders in as many hours. 
The manner of cleaning wheat from the chaff, after it had been trampled 
out by horses or oxen, was by pouring it slowly out of a bucket or half 
bushel measure, for the win<l to blow the chaff away ; next came the " con- 
cave thresher" and the old fan mill turned by hand. But now the per- 
fected thresher not only cleans and separates the wheat from the chaff 
and straw, but sacks and counts the number of bushels. Other improved 
methods of farm labor have kept pace with the modern machinery 
mentioned, and the advance which this township has made in an agricult- 
ural point of view since its first settlement has been almost phenomenal. 


The political condition of a people depends largely upon the tenure of 
land. If a settler could call land his own, in the same sense that a iiorse 


or a gun is his, the region couhl not be retarded in its development, or 
such embarrassments arise as have been experienced in older countries. 
The land tenures in this county were perfect, hence its prosperity was 
placed upon a solid basis. There were no "grants " in those early days 
when the price of land was put up to enrich the seller. The land in this 
region was put in mai'ket for the benefit of the State by attracting per- 
manent settlements. 

The first settler who located in Union Township as it is at present 
designated, was David Bailey, the exact date of whose arrival was not as- 
certained, though it is supposed to have been prior to the year 1842. 
He located near the forks of Wild Cat, about two miles southeast of 
Jerome, where he erected a small cabin and cleared a patch of ground, 
though he did not remain there very long. There was a large family of 
the Baileys, several of whom settled near Greentown, in Liberty Town- 
ships where they took and disposed of a great many claims, accumulating 
thereby considerable money, which enabled them to enter land when it 
came into market. In the year 1843, Jesse Lancaster came to the town- 
ship and settled a short distance north of the present site of Jerome, on 
land at present owned and occupied by Isaac Reed. At that time, the 
land was still in possession of the Indians, from whom Lancaster obtained 
permission to settle and make improvements. When the land came into 
market, he laid claim to 160 acres, but not having sufficient means to pay 
the Government price, he sold the claim, which was an eligible site, to 
Clem Murphy, for money enough to enter the adjoining quarter. Lan- 
caster came here from Wells County, and seems to have been a man of 
some prominence in the little pioneer community. He was quite a me- 
chanical genius, being a millwright by occupation, and found abundant 
opportunities for exercising his skill in making chairs, tables, plows and 
other articles for the early settlers. He improved a good farm and set 
out the first orchard in the township, many trees of which are still stand- 
ing. In 1858, he sold this farm to John Shaughan and moved to Wayne 

A son-in-law of Lancaster, Charles Baldwin, came about the same 
time and selected a site for his home a short distance west of Jerome, 
near a large spring, where he erected a rude pole shanty. This structure, 
which cannot be dignified by the term house, was constructed in a few 
hours, while the wind was blowing a still' breeze and the snow Avas flying 
thick in tlie air. The large cracks were stuff'ed with moss, which, with 
sheets hung around the interior, served to keep out the cold winter winds. 
A fire on the ground near the central 'part of the domicile, there being no 
floor, answered for heating and cooking purposes, while smoke was allowed 
to make its escape as best it could through a small opening in the brush 


and hay roof. The following spring, a more comfortable and convenient 
cabin was built, but the members of the family never forgot their expe- 
rience in the rail-pen during the cold winter of 1843-44. Baldwin was 
a native of England, a man of more than ordinary intellectual culture, 
and, as a teacher, was for several years identified with the early schools of 
Union. He afterward became the possessor of a good farm, lying about 
one mile east of Jerome, where Albert Farrington now lives. He sold 
this place and moved into Jackson Township a number of years ago. 

During the year 1844, the following settlers located within the 
present limits of the township : Charles 0. Fry, William Jones, Joseph 
Brown, Thomas Moorman, John Farrington and John Husted. The first 
named settled a short distance southwest of Jerome, near Big Wild Cat, 
on land which he "pre-empted" when it came into market. He erected 
his first cabin near an Indian sugar camp, which so exasperated the red 
men who were in no wise friendly toward the settler, that serious results 
very nearly followed. The savages looked upon Fry's action as an en- 
croachment, and gathering a number of their braves together they rode 
through the country, tore down a number of newly erected but unoccu- 
pied cabins, burned fences and seized the stock belonging to several set- 
tlers. Fry and Joseph Brown visited the Indian camp to make repara- 
tion for the offense committed, which was rather more easily accomplished 
than they expected. The chief said that all would be well and no fur- 
ther depredations be committed, providing the white man (meaning Fry), 
would procure them a load of hay for their ponies. Brown and Fry 
•were compelled to go to Marion for the hay, an undertaking attended 
with many difiiculties, as they were compelled to cut their road through 
the woods for almost half the distance. The hay was unloaded at the 
Indian village in due time, and thereafter all was peace and harmony be- 
tween the redskins and settlers. Fry was a native of Wayne County, 
but moved to this part of the country from Grant, where many years be- 
fore he figured as a prominent pioneer. He was a zealous member of the 
Methodist Church, and it was at his cabin the first religious services in 
the eastern part of the county were held. He remained in this township 
about three years, when he traded his claim to Henry Bailey for a claim on 
the present site of Greentown, to which he moved his family in the sum- 
mer of 1845. 

William Jones came from Grant County, and " squatted " about one- 
half mile north of Jerome, on Lily Creek. Here he erected a diminutive 
cabin, around which was cleared a small patch of ground, and for several 
years did teaming for the neighborhood. He was the owner of a large 
yoke of oxen, with which he made regular trips to Jonesboro for the pur- 
pose of hauling the settlers' grain to mill, and doing their marketing. He 


generally took half the grain for his trouble, which was not looked upon 
as exorbitant pay, considering the almost impassable roads over Avhich he 
was obliged to travel. Jones sold his possessions to Henry Hoover in 
1848, and moved from the township. 

Joseph Brown, the oldest inhabitant of the township living at the present 
time, was a resident of Grant County previous to his settlement here. He 
first saw this part of the country in 1843, while on a hunt for cattle be- 
longing to his employer, Mr. Tyler, and, liking the appearance of the land, 
determined to locate here. He selected a spot for his cabin about 
one-half mile northeast of Jerome on Lily Creek, and soon had a habita- 
tion ready for occupancy. His family was soon transferred to their 
new home, and since that period Mr. Brown has been prominently 
identified with the growth and development of the township. At the 
present time, he is operating a mill very successfully at the village of 
Jerome. Moorman located near West Liberty, and was soon afterward 
joined by Elliott Mason, who settled in the same vicinity. They both 
came here from Grant County^ and for many years were residents of 
Union. John Farrington settled on the south bank of Wild Cat, one 
mile southeast of Jerome, where he took a claim. He traded this 
claim two years later to Ephraim Bates, who lived north of the creek, 
on the old Bailey place. He was a man of considerable energy 
and rare business qualifications, and became the possessor of a fine tract 
of real estate, which, at the present time, is in possession of his de- 

James Husted was an odd character, who achieved quite a reputation 
among the early settlers as a successful bee-hunter and trapper. He was 
an unmarried man, and lived entirely alone, in a little rail pen, which he 
built about two and a half miles east of Jerome. He made no improve- 
ments, but spent all his time in the woods, trapping during the fall and 
winter season, and hunting wild honey in the summer time. From the 
sale of his furs and honey, he realized considerable money, which he hoard- 
ed away with miserly care. He remained in this part of the country until 
the game became scarce, when he packed his few household goods, and 
with them upon his back, departed for more congenial quarters further 

Among other early settlers who came in about the same time, or per- 
haps a little later, were Elias Brown, brother of Joseph Brown, who lo- 
cated on Lily Creek, one mile north of Jerome, where he entered land in 
1847, and Jefferson Horine, who settled about midway between West 
Liberty and Jerome, on the East Fork of Wild Cat, where his son, Samuel 
Horine, lives. Horine was a native of Kentucky, and proved a valuable 
acquisition to the community where he settled. He was the first physi- 


cian in the township, and early achieved quite a reputation for the suc- 
cessful manner in which he treated the chills and ague, so common in 
pioneer times. 

Reuben Hawkins was another early settler deserving special notice. 
He came the latter part of 1844, and settled east of Joseph Brown's 
place, on Lily Creek, where he built the first mill in the eastern part of 
the county. He manufactured the buhrs for this mill out of two large 
" nigger heads " found near by. The machinery was operated by water- 
power, ground very slow, but made a very fair article of meal. Hawkins 
afterward attached a turning-lathe, and, being an expert workman in 
wood, soon had all the work he could do making tables, stands, chairs, 
and various other articles of furniture, which he sold to the settlers of this 
and adjoining townships. He was a resident of Union about twenty-five 
years, dying in 1869. 

Another early settler of note was Hampton Brown, father of Joseph 
and Elias Brown, whose arrival in the township dates from the year 1846. 
He was a native of Indiana, but passed his youth in Warren County, 
Ohio, where his father moved in an early day to escape the ravages of the 
Indians, who at that time were very troublesome in the southern part of 
the State. After attaining his majority, he moved back to Indiana and 
settled near Richmond, when that city was a mere hamlet of a half dozen 
cabins, and remained there until he immigrated to this county in the year 
mentioned. He made an entry of land in Section 11, and built his cabin 
on the present site of Jerome, of which village he was the proprietor. He 
was a resident of Union until the year 1871, and did as much toward the 
general development of the township as any other man within its bounda- 
ries. He died in the above year at a ripe old age, and left a large estate, 
which is in possession of his descendants. Harvey, Eugene, Jerome, Joel 
and Napoleon B. Brown, sons of Hampton Brown, came about the same 
time and located in the vicinity of Jerome. The first named resides in 
the township at the present time, and is justly considered one of its lead- 
ing citizens. William Trader came in 1846 and located near the forks of 
Wild Cat, where he entered a quarter-section of land one year later. He 
was a person in whom were combined many of the elements of the suc- 
cessful business man and shrewd farmer, although his name cannot be 
placed in the calendar of saints by any means. It is said that he always 
had an abundance of pork for sale, although he never raised any hogs of 
his own. How this meat came into his possession is accounted for by 
the fact that all the early settlers' swine were allowed to run at large. 

Additions were made to the township's population from time to time. 
Among the arrivals were Dr. Fisher, Philip Barkdull and his sons 
Albert and Joseph, George Jones, Dennis and Francis Cash, Nathan 


Freeman and Jesse Dennis. In the years 1847 and 1848, after the lands 
came into market subject to entry, the following persons secured homes 
in Union : John Hogsdon, Daniel Eikenberry, Bernhard Hook, John 
Fellow, James Elmore, John Crousore, Thomas Ireland, Sanford Hestor, 
Theodore Hestor, Richard Parker, George M. Riffe, John M. Tennell, 
Reuben McKay, Pleasant Parker, Caleb Steeth, David Cox, Joseph 
Graves, Simon Davis, William Dickey, Benjamin Lewellen, Isaac Macy, 
John Barr, Benjamin Pickering, Dempsey Bailey, John Reese, A. 
Wright, David Seward, Archibald Leach, Jackson Pumphrey, Calvin 
Newton, William Reeves, William Rosier, John Henshaw, Silas Mitchell, 
S. A. Fletcher, Robert Wiley, Warner Brewer, Ezra Davis, Milton Bar- 
rett, Alexander Williamson, Robert L, Ward, Joseph Dillon, Levi Husten, 
Thomas E. Osborne, Riley Flora, Jonah Pierce, John Conner, Jesse 
Ware, William and David Boywell, Anson Courtright, Isaac Burns, Isaac 
Templin, John Shirley, James Cuthrell and John Allen. 

Like the early settlers in all new countries, the pioneers of this town- 
ship were compelled to endure many hardships and dangers. While it is 
true there were no hostile Indians to encounter, with the single exception 
alluded to, and no very ferocious beasts to guard against, yet the new 
condition of the country made it difficult to obtain wearing apparel, gro- 
ceries, breadstuffs and other articles necessary to convenience and com- 
fort. The pioneers practiced self-denial, for they left behind them the 
comforts and abundance of their old homes. They were few at first in 
numbers, but strong in their faith and courage. They developed a char- 
acter of which their descendants and successors need not feel ashamed. 
Their necessities made them ingenious, their perils made them brave and 
their fewness made them sociable. Their community of wants and dan- 
gers made them sympathetic and helpful of each other. However scanty 
their fare, it was shared with the neighbor or stranger with a free-hearted- 
ness that gave a relish to the plain repast. However small and unsightly 
their cabin, its room and bed and genial warmth were divided with a 
cordiality that sweetened the welcome. Their social life was adorned 
with the graces of liberality and true friendship. They did wisely and 
well their peculiar work of laying the foundations that we might build 
upon them. 

The greater amount of trading during the early days was done at 
Marion, Jonesboro, Peru, Logansport and Noblesville, some of the first 
settlers going as far as Indianapolis for their merchandise. Flour and meal 
were obtained from those places in the summer time, but during win- 
ter seasons when the condition of the early roads precluded the pos- 
sibility of travel, many families manufactured their own breadstuff by 
hand, crushing the grain in a rude mortar made by hollowing out the top 


of a round stump. As the community increased in wealth and impor- 
tance, the people enlarged their facilities for living more comfortably and 
with less toil and privation. 


The first mills in the township were those of James Lancaster and 
Reuben Hawkins, erected prior to 1846. Lancaster's stood a short dis- 
tance northwest of Jerome, on Lily Creek. It was a very rude affair, 
operated by hand with a little help from the water of the creek. The 
grain was crushed with a pestle and mortar, and the proprietor took half 
of the grist for toll. A notice of Hawkins' mill will be found on a previ- 
ous page. 

In the year 1847, the Brown Brothers erected a water mill on Big 
Wild Cat, just south of the village of Jerome. It was a combination mill, 
did sawing and grinding, and was in operation until the year 1860, at 
which time it was torn down and the machinery used in the construction 
of the present mill which occupies the same spot. The original building 
was about 30x40 feet, two stories high and had two run of buhrs. 
The present mill is a large three-story frame building, 40x56 feet, with 
three run of buhrs, and a grinding capacity of about 100 bushels of grain 
per day. It is operated by Joseph Brown, present proprietor. 

In the year 1875, William Jessup moved a steam flouring mill from 
Kokomo to the village of West Liberty, which proved a valuable acquisi- 
tion to that part of the country, Jessup sold it before its completion to 
— Carr, who operated it a short time, when it was purchased by William 
McConnell. It passed through several hands and was finally bought by 
Mr. Covalt, the present owner, who has remodeled it and added new and 
improved machinery. A saw has been attached and certain days of 
each week are devoted to the lumber business. 

A number of saw mills have been operated in various parts of the 
country from time to time, the majority of them being portable mills, and 
remaining but a few seasons in the same locality. The most important 
saw mill was erected near the western part of the township a number of 
years ago by Mr. Chandler, and is still in operation. It is one of the 
largest mills of the kind in the county. 


It has been asserted, and wisely so, that the avenues of communica- 
tion are an undoubted evidence of the state of society. The history of 
the world, from its earliest days, furnishes indisputable proofs of this now 
universally admitted truth ; as civilization progresses, inter-communica- 
tion increases and the channels of trade are improved, while the convey- 
ance of products and the movement of armies requii'e an unobstructed 


highway. Of the Eastern nations who comprehended the truth of this 
statement, the chief were the Romans, whose broad highways and ruined 
arches still remain to remind us of those masters of the Avorld. While 
in the Western Hemisphere, Mexican causeways and Peruvian stone-roads 
attest the vigor of a national life centuries departed. The first trails 
through the forests of this part of the country, ample for the aborigines of 
Indiana, and withal, equal to their capacity, have given place to a net-work 
of highways, which, though not comparable to the military roads of the 
Romans or ancient Mexicans, and perhaps inferior to the turnpikes to be 
seen in the older States, are yet, at least, equal to the requirements of a 
civilized people. 

The first road in Union extended from near Jonesboro, in Grant 
County, to the forks of Wild Cat, near the central part of the township. 
It was cut out in 1843, by C. P. Baldwin, James Lancaster, C. 0. Fry, 
Thomas Moorman and Elliott Mason, who cleared away the brush and 
blazed the trees, thus marking the way so that travelers could find the 
route. The first legally established highway was known as the " Wabash 
trail," or Wabash and Strawtown State road. It led from Strawtown to 
Wabash, and crossed the township a short distance north of Jerome, and 
ran via Xenia and Somerset. It was never very extensively traveled 
and has of late years been entirely abandoned. 

Anothei: early road led from Jonesboro to Kokomo via Jerome and 
Greentown. It was surveyed in 1847, by Dr. Richmond, and viewed by 
Joseph Brown, Tence Lindley and John Sharpe. Joseph Brown was 
elected the first Supervisor about this time. His force of hands consisted 
of twelve men, who were compelled to work over a district six miles in 
length, two miles being in Grant County. The Tipton & Xenia road 
was laid out north and south through the central part of the township in 
the year 1849. Like many other roads, it has undergone various changes 
during the last thirty years, and is still one of the leading highways in 
the eastern part of the county. 

The Kokomo, Greentown & Jerome pike, which was completed in the 
year 1870. is the only gravel road in the township. It extends from 
Jerome in a northwesterly direction, and has proved a great benefit to 
the citizens of this part of the country. Its history will be more fully 
given in another chapter. A railroad line from Marion to La Fayette 
was run through this township in 1863, but no work was ever done. The 
original survey of the C, C. & I. C. Railroad passed through Union from 
east to west, but was abandoned for the more eligible route further west. 


The first child born within the present limits of the township was a 


child of Philip Barkdull. This event occurred in the year 1846, a short 
time after the family located in the community. Another child was born 
about eighteen months later to the same family, and was the second birth, 
as far as known. The earliest marriage traceable was solemnized in the 
year 1846, the contracting parties being Albert Barkdull and Miss 
Hawkins, daughter of Reuben Hawkins. The ceremony was performed 
by Levi Bailey, the first Justice of the Peace, who became so confused 
that considerable difficulty was experienced before the knot was tied. 

The first burying i):round was laid out near the mouth of Lily Creek, 
west of Jerome. The ground was selected by Joseph and Elias Brown, 
in the year 1846, and the first interment took place shortly afterward. 
The first burial was a child of Philip , Barkdull, whose death occurred 
in the year mentioned. The second person buried in this cemetery was 
a stranger, whose name cannot be learned. He appears to have been a 
Mormon missionary, and died here while on a preaching tour. The 
Jerome Cemetery was laid out in an early day, on ground deeded for the 
purpose by William M. Laden. Among its somber shades on crumbling 
marble can be seen many names mentioned in these pages, while others, 
as prominently identified with the county's development, lie in the 
graves unmarked by the simplest epitaph. 


The chief cause which led to the founding of the village was a general 
desire on the part of the community for a trading point, there being no 
town nearer than Jonesboro on the east, and New London and Russia- 
ville on the west. The immediate outgrowth of the demand was the 
establishment of a small store and blacksmith shop, as early as the year 
1847, which formed the nucleus around which several families located. 
Hampton Brown, actuated by motives in harmony with the general desire 
and with hope of bettering his financial condition, laid out the village in 
December, 1847, and called it Jerome, in compliment to his son of that 
name. It is situated in the southwest quarter of Section 11, on Big 
Wild Cat, and occupies one of the finest locations in the entire county. 
The site is high and undulating, and surrounded by one of the most 
fertile farming districts in the township — a fact which made the village an 
important trading place during the early years oi its history. 

The first sale of lots was made to Smith Todd and Thomas Banks a 
short time after the town was platted. Todd erected a blacksmith shop 
near the central part of the village, and worked at his trade until 1848, 
when he sold out to James Gardner. The latter continued in the village 
until the time of his death, in 1873. Banks built a storehouse and resi- 
dence in the western part of the town, and was the first merchant in the 


place. He stocked his room with a miscellaneous assortment of merchan- 
dise, to the amount of about $500, and sold goods for three years, when 
the stock was purchased by Joel and C. Murphy. The latter parties con- 
tinued business about two years, when, meeting with some financial re- 
verses, they closed out and left the village. 

Goflf & Allen erected a hewed-log building near the central part of the 
town, in 1853, and engaged in merchandising soon thereafter. They did 
a large business, with a stock valued at $3,500, and were identified with the 
town about four years, when they sold out to Harvey Brown. The latter 
erected a more commodious store room immediately after his purchase, to 
which his stock of goods were at once removed. This building is still 
standing, and at the present time is occupied by the store of James 

Brown continued in business very successfully for some years, when 
he sold to John Griffin, who in turn disposed of the stock to John Stone, 
a short time afterward. Biglow Jordan erected a large two-story business 
house about the year 1858, which he stocked as a general store. The 
upper story of the building was finished and furnished by the Good 
Templars, who fitted it up for a hall and used it for a number of years. 
Their organization was at one time the most flourishing of any in the 

Among other old business houses of the place may be named the drug 
stores of B. Jordan, Daniel Moorman, Samuel Hawkins, Richard Free- 
man, J. J. Grifiin and Milton Davis, who appeared in the order 

The first physician who located in the town was Dr. John Summers, 
who came to the place soon after the survey was made, and re- 
mained about nine years. He was followed by Dr. Jenkins, who came 
soon afterward. The other physicians who have practiced here from time 
to time were Drs. John Airlocker, Blaze, Smith, Goodrich, Eaton, Ellis 
and Kepley. The present physician is Dr. S. T. Murray. 

In the year 1847, Francis Galway, a son-in-law of Hampton Brown, 
settled in the village and started a tan-yard. The enterprise proved very 
remunerative to the proprietor, who operated it successfully for a period 
of twelve years. It was purchased, in 1859, by John Willitts, who 
ran it about four years, when it was allowed to go down. 

A stave and heading factory was built in the village in 1868, by 
Messrs. Allen & Patterson, who operated it but one year. It was after- 
ward purchased by other parties and moved from the place. In the year 
1880, the Worley Brothers moved a large steam saw mill to the village. 
It is in operation at the present time, and doing a fair business. 

At one time there was a flourishing Masonic Lodge in the village,. 


■which owned a good hall. It was disbanded several years ago, and, 
at the present time, there are no secret societies in the town. 

During the early days of the county, Jerome was a prominent bus- 
iness place, and sustained its reputation well until within a few years. It 
wa3 incorporated in the year 1877, and maintained a town organization 
for about three years, when the project was abandoned. Efforts were 
made by the citizens of the village and surrounding country to induce the 
Toledo, Delphos & Western Railroad to run through the town, but with- 
out avail. The road was constructed a couple of miles north, and, to- 
gether with the growing village of Greentown, proved a serious blow to 
the business interests of Jerome, as it began to wane from that time. 
Merchants moved their stores to more eligible places, shops were closed, 
mechanics sought more remunerative fields of labor, and a general decay 
has fastened itself upon the once prosperous village. The business of the 
place at the present is represented by two stores, kept respectively by 
James Stanley and Branson Turner, one harness shop, one blacksmith 
shop, one grist mill, one aaw mill, and one good hotel. 


This little thriving town is situated in Section 19, near the south- 
west corner of the township, and dates its history from the year 1849. 
The land on which the village stands was entered in 1847 by Israel 
Zentmyer, who erected a residence and blacksmith shop one year later. 
Moses Jones purchased the land of Zentmyer in the spring of 1849, and 
erected a large water mill northeast of the present village plat, which, with 
the blacksmith shop mentioned, gave the place quite a local reputation. 
Jones had the village surveyed the latter part of 1849, and immediately 
placed the lots in the market. One of the first residences was erected by 
John Barr, a son-in-law of Jones, and stood in the northwest part of the 

The first business house was a little log building, about 16x20 feet, 
erected by Moses Rich as early as 1850, Rich did a good business with 
a stock valued at about $1,000, and was connected with the village as a 
merchant for twelve years, when he sold out to Mr. McQuillis, who 
moved the goods away. The second store building was erected by David 
Macy, and is still standing in the southwest part of the town. Macy was 
a prominent merchant, and operated an extensive store for about five years, 
when he closed out and left the place. Among other early merchants 
were Lewis Sharpe, who occupied the Macy building for two years ; Allen 
& Goff, and Jacob Harvey, all of whom did business between the years 
1856 and 1866. 

Hood & Beckett built a large frame storehouse some time prior to 


the year 1860, and stocked it with a miscellar:eous assortment of merchan- 
dise, to the amount of several thousand dollars. They afterward sold to 
Mr. Conway, who in turn disposed of the store to Irvin Tennell about 
the year 1863. The building stands in the southeastern part of the town, 
and at the present time is used for a blacksmith shop. One of the largest 
stores in the place was kept by Beckett & Weaver, who handled a stock 
of goods estimated at about $10,000. They did a very extensive business 
for some time, and finally closed out on account of financial embarrass- 
ments. Lester, Covalt k Curtes succeeded them. 

D. S. Swan erected the Simpson building in the year 1868, and was 
for several years identified with the business interests of the village. 
Simpson and Lee formed a copartnership in 1878. The entire interest 
was afterward purchased by Simpson, who at the present time is the leading 
merchant of the place. He keeps a general assortment of merchandise, 
including ready-made clothing, boots, shoes and drugs. Mr. Curtes 
keeps a general store also, and is doing a fair business. 

Jones' mill, to which reference has been made, was a large three-story 
frame building, with two runs of buhrs and saw attached. It was in oper- 
ation until the year 1862, at which time it was completely destroyed by 
fire. A furniture shop was started in 1859 by William Barr, who 
continued the business with moderate success for several years. 

The earliest physician was Dr. Augustus Weaver, who located at the 
village in the year 1855. Since that time the following medical gentle- 
men have practiced their profession in the town and surrounding country : 
Drs. Ransom, William Wilson, C M. Ware, James Simpson and Dr. 

The village is situated in one of the wealthest farming communities in 
the eastern part of the county, and at the present time boasts of a population 
of two hundred persons. It commands a large country trade, and its 
future outlook is bright and prosperous. 

The history of Christianity in Union Township may be ternled coeval 
with its settlement, the majority of the pioneers being active members of 
different religious organizations. The earliest preachers of whom there 
is any authentic account made their appearance as early as the year 1844, 
and were of the Methodist denomination. The first public services were 
held at C. 0. Fry's residence, which served as a meeting place during 
the time he remained in the township. Meetings were held at different 
settlers' houses from time to time, and in groves when the weather would 
admit of out-door services. Among the pioneer soldiers of the cross can 
be named Revs. Evans, Colclazer, Lowe, Garrigus, Doyle, Cobb and 
Morrison, all of whom were men of ability and marked piety. 


The first church edifice in the township was a little log structure built 
by the Quakers near the forks of Wild Cat in the year 1848, It was the 
meeting place for a large Society of Friends which flourished for a 
number of years during the early history of the county ; the organization 
was well maintained for some time, but owing to deaths and removals it 
was finally abandoned, the remaining members identifying themselves with 
societies of other places. The earliest preachers were Jesse Dennis and 
Hannah Mason. The old building stood until the year 1871, at which 
time it was torn away, and nothing remains to mark its location but a 
pile of rubbish and decayed logs. 

Jerome Methodist Episcopal Church was organized in the year 1847, 
with a small but energetic membership. The services were held for a 
couple of years at residences of the different members, and afterward at 
the village schoolhouse, which was the regular place of meeting until 
the re-organization in 1853. The class was brought about chiefly by the 
labors of Rev. M. S. Morrison and Jacob Colclazer, both of whom worked 
diligently to place the society upon a firm basis. At a meeting held at 
the schoolhouse in 1853, a re-organization was effected under the labors 
of Rev. S. V. Rhodes and M. Mahin, v/ith the following members : 
William L. Reed and wife, Isaac Reed and wife, Philip Hawkins, Sr., 
and wife, .Reuben Hawkins and wife, Dr. J. M. Everlougher and wife, 
M. M. Addington and wife and Miss Lydia Reed. The schoolhouse 
served as a place of worship until the year 1857, at which time a sub- 
stantial building, 30x40 feet, was erected in the east part of the village, 
on ground purchased of Hampton Brown. This house stood until 1874, 
when it caught fire and was completely destroyed. A second house of 
worship was built on the same spot immediately afterward, at a cost of 
about $1,200. This building is a neat frame structure, 30x45 in size, and 
will comfortably accomodate three hundred persons. The pastors who 
have ministered to the society at different times are given as follows : 
Revs. Morrison, Colclazer, Forbes, Rhodes, Marks, Gorrell, Hoback, 
Templin, McElwee, Shackleford, Miller, Peck, Curry, J. W. Miller, 
Lewellen, Watkins, Harrison, Bearaer, Fish, John McElwee, Baker, and 
Wilcox, the present incumbent. The present oflBcers of the church are : 
O. T. Florea and H. D. Kepler, Trustees; 0. T. Florea, class leader. 
A flourshing Sabbath school, numbering from forty to eighty scholars, is 
among the most interesting and progressive features of the church. E. 
S. Lancaster is the Superintendent and also one of the earnest workers of 
the congregation. 

New Hope Friends' Church was orgalnized in the 3^ear 1858, at the resi- 
dence of Jesse II. Ellis, with a membership consisting of Edmund Peelle and 
wife, Jesse H. Ellis and wife, Joel iVdams and wife, together with the chil- 


dren of their respective families. Public worship was conducted at Ellis* 
residence for a period of one year, and afterward for about the same length 
of time in an old unoccupied frame dwelling which stood in the vicinity. 
A few years later, a log meeting-house was built near the site of the pres- 
ent church edifice, and used by the congregation until the year 1871, at 
which time it was abandoned and a structure more in keeping with the 
growing church erected. This house is a neat frame building, and stands 
in the southern part of the township on ground donated for the purpose 
by Edmund Peelle. During a period of eight years following its organiza- 
tion, the society had no regular preaching, although services were held 
each Lord's Day, conducted by different members, while many of their 
meetings were held in silence, a custom peculiar to the denomination. At 
the close of the period referred to, Mary J. Peelle began speaking in 
public, and was soon acknowledged as a minister of more than ordinary 
abilities. She supplied the pulpit at intervals for several years, and by 
her untiring efforts did much toward establishing the church upon its 
present substantial basis. Endowed with superior intellectual powers and 
a spirit of rare Christian fervor, her whole life was a grand poem of con- 
secration to the cause of her Master, and the influence of her eloquent 
words and blameless example will always live in the community where 
she was instrumental in directing many souls to the higher life. It is 
under the influence of such persons that stern men of the world, who have 
squandered life and innocence without a sigh, are compelled to admit 
the truthfulness of the Christian religion and conform their conduct to 
its pure teachings. 

Following the example of Mrs. Peelle came other ministers, among 
whom were Edmund Peelle, James Ellis, Hammer Ellis and Jefferson 
Jackson, all of whom are men of prominence in the country. To the work 
of Hammer Ellis is the church especially indebted for much of its present 
prosperity, as he has watched over its growth with a fatherly interest ever 
since the original organization. 

In this connection it will not be out of place to speak of the temper- 
ance cause which has made substantial progress in this part of the county 
under the leadership of Mr. Ellis, whose best energies are devoted to its 
success. Notwithstanding the unfavorable auspices under which the society 
was founded, it has done a good work and increased its membership until 
at the present time it numbers 250 communicants. A good Sabbath 
school is sustained during the entire year. 

Centre Grove Baptist Church was organized March 21, 1869, by 
Elder Jari Randolph, assisted by Elders Hamilton and Baumgardner. A 
revival was held immediately after the organization, at the close of which 
sixty-five persons assumed the responsibility of membership, a number 


which has decreased somewhat during the last ten years. Elder Ran- 
dolph preached for the society one year and was succeeded by Elder Gra- 
ham, who continued in charge about four years. After Graham came Elders 
Baumgardner, Hamilton, Spurlin, White and Turner, in the order named, 
the last being the pastor at the present time. The house of worship, which 
is a neat frame structure, was built in 1869, and stands about three miles 
south of the village of Jerome. There are at present about forty -five 
belonging to the society. 

The Christians, or Disciples, as they are more familiarly known, have 
a flourishing church at the village of Jerome. The house of worship is a 
beautiful frame structure situated in the southern part of the village, and 
was erected in the year 1860, at a cost of about $1,500. Elder Blount is 
the present pastor. 


Mr. Brown reports that the first school ever taught in Union was in 
the year 1845, by Mrs. C. P. Baldwin, at her residence, about one and a 
half miles east of Jerome Village. The few neighbors living in the vicin- 
ity sent their children and made a school of about eight pupils. The second 
school was taught about three years later, in a vacant dwelling which 
stood on the North Fork of Lily Creek, a short distance north of Jerome, 
and numbered twenty scholars. The next in order was at the village of 
Jerome, taught by L. F. Springer, who used for the purpose a small log 
store building which had been vacated some time previous. The date of 
the term was the winter of 1849-50. These were pioneer schools, and, 
considering the circumstances, were very good indeed. The only Latin 
they ever taught was to make their pupils pronounce the letter Z, " izzard." 

The people of those days, compared with the present, had some very 
healthy ideas about education. They believed a school was a place of 
training in the three " R's," and that its usefulness stopped with the " rule 
of three." It was some time before the rudest log schoolhouses were 
erected. The people were sparsely scattered through the neighborhoods. 
They were poor in this world's goods, as a rule. Teachers were scarce 
and so were books. There were a goodly proportion of the grown people 
who failed to appreciate the benefits of education, hence did not realize 
the importance of teaching their children to read and write, in onier to 
prepare them for what was soon to follow, namely, mail facilities, cheap 
postage and abundant and cheap literature. 

The first house built especially for school purposes stood a short dis- 
ance north of Jerome. It was a comfortable hewed-log structure, with 
slab seats, and was erected in the year 1850. It was first used by Charles 
Baldwin, who taught in the winter of 1850-51, and the following year 
Jonathan Grifiin wielded the birch in the same place. The building stood 


about five years, when it was replaced by a two-story frame house, the 
upper story of which served as ;r Masonic hall. The latter building was 
the first frame schoolhouse in the township, and served its purpose until 
about the year 1862, at which time it was completely destroyed by tire. 
Among the early teachers in the village are remembered Patterson, Plants 
and Van Winkle. 

The township is well supplied now with twelve good buildings in which 
schools are taught about seven months in the year. 


Jackson Township originally embraced the greater part of the present 
township of Liberty, and extended east from range line 4 to Grant County, 
and south from Miami County to the line dividing Congressional Town- 
ships 23 and 24, including in all forty-eight square miles of territory. In 
the original organization of Richardville County, it formed a part of 
Green Township, and was reduced to the limits described in the year 
1846. Seven years later it was reduced to its present dimensions, four 
by six miles, by the formation of the townships of Union and Liberty. 
The surface of the country is very level, and was originally wet and 
slushy, consequently was not settled as early as other portions of the 
county further west. The soil is a deep, black loam, very fertile, and well 
adapted for general farming purposes, producing in abundance all the 
grain and fruit indigenous to Northern Indiana. 

For a number of years after the first settlement of the township, great 
difficulty was experienceil in farming the soil, on account of its wet nature ; 
but as time passed, large ditches were dug through the country, by means 
of which the surface water was carried off, and much valuable land re- 
claimed. By a successful system of tile drainage portions of the county, 
formerly looked upon as worthless, have been brought under cultivation, 
and at the present time there is as little waste land in Jackson as any 
other township in the county, a fact which gives it precedence over many 
others as an agricultural region. The entire face of the country, at the 
time of the first settlement, was covered with a dense forest growth, which 
from time immemorial had been the home and hiding place of numerous 
wild animals, such as bears, wolves, deer, etc. Here the red man erected 
his rude bark wigwam, and amid the thick forest shades hunted the game 
and found fish in the streams by which the country is traversed. With 
the advent of the whites, the Indians removed from their ancestral hunting 


grounds and went further west, and their existence now is but a remem- 
brance. The tribes that then roamed over the lands now covered with 
well-tilled fields of waving grain and comfortable homes have forever dis- 
appeared, and another race are the undisputed possessors of the soil. 

The principal water-course is Little Pipe Creek, which flows a north- 
erly course through the eastern part of the township. It affords ample 
drainage for that part of the country through which it passes, and furnishes 
an exhaustless supply of stock water, an important factor to the farmers 
of northern Jackson. There are several other streams of minor impor- 
tance in the township, which, with the large public ditches traversing the 
country in different directions, furnish ample outlets, thus rendering arti- 
ficial drainage comparatively easy. 


The early history of Jackson is similar to that of the adjoining town- 
ships, especially in these facts, which are matters of record. The pio- 
neers who first sought homes in the thick forests of this part of the 
county were not adventurers, but plain, matter-of-fact men, who were al- 
lured to the new country by the advantages it offered in the way of cheap 
lands, which could be secured at that time for the Government price of $2 
per acre. To make a home in the woods was an undertaking attended 
with difficulties of which we of the present day can form but a faint concep- 
tion. Settlers two and three miles apart were not regarded very dis- 
tant neighbors, and met together at the same log-rollings, house-raisings, 
and at the same meeting for local organization and to elect township of- 
ficers, and to co-operate in all matters of public improvement, such as lay- 
ing out new roads, building bridges, and establishing schools. 

The earliest recorded settlements Avithin the present limits of Jackson 
appear to have been made in the northern part of the township as early 
as the years 1845-46, and in the southern part a few years later. Among 
the very first pioneers may be mentioned Joseph Hockett, who moved here 
from Grant County in the latter part of 1845 ; Turner Sullivan, who 
came in one year later ; and Samuel Darby, a native of Butler County, 
Ohio, whose arrival dates from the fall of 1846. These were all men of 
considerable prominence. By their industry they soon had comfortable 
cabins erected on their respective claims. They located in the northeast- 
ern part of the township, and were prominently connected with the coun- 
try for a number of years. A little later came William Braden, Garner 
Bryant and W. W. Braden, all of whom were natives of the Buckeye 
State, and located claims near where the first-named settlers located. 

In the years 1847-48-49, a number of settlers secured homes in the 
northeastern part of the township, among whom are remembered Will- 


iam Ebright, William Taylor, David Stanfield, R. Shinn, Stephen Peters, 
Frank Shinn, Hugh Means, Abram Wrightsman, Solomon Burris, Asa 
Marine, Samuel II. Riggs, Thomas Addington, Meredith Maple, H. Mil- 
ler, C. Miller, James Holingshead, John Cook and George Linsieum, all 
of whom became permanent residents, securing the patents for their lands 
from the Government. 

Prominently connected with the northeast settlement, was Zila Ma- 
rine, who built one of the first cabins in the township as early as the fall 
of 1845. He was a man of more than ordinary energy, and did as much, 
if not more, toward the general welfare of the township than any other 
citizen living within its limits. A man of public spirit, he took an active 
part in establishing highways, building schoolhouses and running ditches, 
and to him is the county indebted for much of its present prosperity. He 
was a resident of Jackson until about the year 1871, at which time he 
sold his possessions in the township and moved to Xenia, Miami County, 
where he still lives, an honored representative of the pioneers of forty 
years ago. 

Jonathan Reeder, another settler of some note, settled in Section 25 
in the spring of 1846, locating on the James Allison farm. He came 
here from Madison County and was identified with the township about 
two years, when he sold his claim tj Henry Burris and moved to Centre 
Township, and later to the city of Kokomo. He was a prominent mem- 
ber of the Methodist Church, and early took an active part in introduc- 
ing Christianity into the pioneer communities of Howard County. In 
the year 1847, William Hatfield came to the township and took a claim 
where Clark Gate lives, near the eastern boundary. He afterward sold to 
Michael Thompson and moved to another part of the county. 

John McClellan came about the same time and selected a claim in 
the northwest corner of the township, being the first to settle in that lo- 
cality. He came from Henry County and is still a resident of Jackson. 
Another early settler deserving special mention was Ezra Reynolds, who 
located in the northeast settlement about the year 1846. He pre-empted 
a very desirable claim which he entered two years later, and was an hon- 
ored citizen of Jackson until the time of his death about six years ago. 
A number of des3endents of this old pioneer are living in the township 
and are considered among its most worthy citizens. 

Lemuel Powell settled near Sycamore Corners in the year 1847, and 
made his first improvement on what is known as the Warnock farm, where 
his son still lives. Like many of the first settlers, he came to the country 
with but little of this world's goods ; but, being a man of great industry 
and business tact, soon acquired a competency and became the owner of a 
valuable tract of real estate. His death occurred many years ago. Will- 


iam Golden and Jonathan Wright settled' in the eastern part of the town- 
ship near the county line about the year 1847 and entered land the year 
following. They were both men of some note as hunters, and subsisted 
principally on game, from the sale of which sufficient money was realized 
to keep their respective families in such articles of clothing and groceries 
as were needed. 

In the year 1847, P. S. Maxwell came to the county on a tour of ob- 
servation and passed through the southern part of Jackson. Being fa- 
vorably impressed with the country, he marked out a claim a short dis- 
tance north of Sycamore* Corners, on what is known as the Samuel P. 
Thompson farm. He afterward sold this claim and entered the land 
where he still resides in the year 1848. He is one of the oldest citizens 
of the township living at the present time. 

Other early settlers in the southern part of the township were John 
S. Garrigus and William Hatfield, who came in 1848, R. Turner, John 
McCormick, Daniel Gate, William B. Morris, Janathan Reeder, Smith 
Todd, Isaac and Thomas Jessiop, all of whom came the latter part of the 
same year or in the spring of the year following. Among others whose 
arrival dates from about the same time were Joseph Fleek, James Hog- 
land, Andrew Hart, William C. Miller, C. Brunk, Valentine Somers, J. 
H. Reeder, John Gate, Joseph Bates, Eugene Brown and Jacob Brunk. 
Later came Alexander Rhea, Asa Gossett, H. Somers, P. W. Gossett, 
George Grutherd and Clevenger. Among those who entered land in an 
early day were Alexander McCullouch, James R. Thompson, Restori 
Shinn, Garner Bryant, Ghristopher Armacost, Samuel Riggs, William 
Brandon, Samuel Hamilton, Jesse Elliott, George Wetherow, Gharles 
Waddell, Emanuel Huler, William Turner, Spencer Moon, Jesse Moon 
and several of the pioneer settlers already alluded to. It is impossible to 
fully realize the hardships, privations and struggles of the early settlers 
in the forests and sloughs of Jackson. They were in the midst of an 
immense woods without society, far removed from villages where anything 
could be purchased, and oftentimes destitute of the means to purchase, 
with a number of miles of almost impassable roads to travel before a grist 
mill or store could be reached. They were in a sickly country, where 
fever and ague was the common lot of nearly every one, and no physician 
near, the wolf without and sometimes the wolf of hunger within. All 
these things conspired to make the pioneer's lot one of trial. The little 
produce raised could find no market, as there were no transportation facil- 
ities, and each settler supplied his own wants. As a result, little money 
was in circulation, and all groceries were paid for in produce at extreme- 
ly low rates, as the storekeeper must find a mai'ket over nearly impassa- 
ble roads. But happily these difficulties have all passed away. The 


country is now nearly all improved, is reasonably healthy and as produc- 
tive and well cultivated as the surrounding townships and considerably 
ahead of some. Societies have been organized, church edifices erected 
and schools established. Stores are now convenient, mills abundant and 
every convenience at hand to make the citizens of Jackson a happy 
rural people. 


At the organization of the township in 1853, the voting place was 
fixed at the residence of Henry Burris, which was used for that purpose 
several years. Elections were afterward held at Jacob Brunk's residence, 
and later at the Mattock Schoolhouse, which was used until the Honey 
Creek Schoolhouse was permanently fixed upon. The first election in the 
township was held in the year 1847, at the residence of George H. Golden. 
The first election after the division of 1853 was held at Burris' residence, 
and the following Township Board elected : Eugene Brown, Jacob Brunk 
and Abraham Wrightsman, Trustees ; J. S. Garrigus, Treasurer ; and 
William B. Morris, Clerk. The present Trustee is Mr. Gossett, who is 
serving his first term. 


It is not positively known who taught the first school in Jackson Town- 
ship, though it is supposed to have been a man by the name of Stanfield. 
From the most reliable information at hand, it is safe to say that Stanfield 
taught a term as early as the year 1849, in a little abandoned cabin which 
stood in Section 5, near the northeast corner of the township. This build- 
ing was a very diminutive affair, about 12x16 feet in size, and had been 
fitted up by the neighbors for school purposes with the least possible out- 
lay of money and labor. There were a few rough puncheon benches 
which rested on a floor of the same material, and a large stick fire-place 
in one end of the room which could accommodate logs of almost any 
dimensions. There were no desks for the pupils' accommodation, little 
and big being compelled to sit on the narrow pole benches from 8 A. M. 
until 5 P. M., with nothing to rest their aching backs against. School 
books were in keeping with the house and its furniture, and the curriculum 
of study embraced reading in the old English reader and Testament, arith-, 
metic, and writing about twice a week. The first schoolhouse appears to 
have been used but once. It was torn down and replaced by a more com- 
modious structure the following year. The fate of Schoolmaster Stan- 
field was to be drowned in the Iowa River about the year 1860. The 
first house built eigpecially for school purposes stood near Sycamore Cor- 
ners, and was first used by Charles Somers, the date of whose term can- 
not now be ascertained. Other early teachers were Z. Rider, Asa Gossett, 
William B. Morris, B. Ladd, W. C. Miller, William R. Parker, Edward 


Morris, Davis, Joseph Fleeks, Jonathan Wrightsman, Lewis and J. F. 

There are at the present time six good schoolhouses, all frame but one, 
which is brick, and all in fair condition. The present corps of teachers 
consists of J. M. Davis, George M. Horine, Henrietta Powell, G. Lind- 
ley, George M. Allison, C. L. Gate and 0. W. Outland. For the school 
year 1882—83, there was expended for tuition the sum of $1,493. 


The first road through Jackson was the old Wabash trail, which 
crossed the township in an irregular direction from northeast to south- 
west. It was laid out in the year 1845, but was never traveled, the orig- 
inal route being afterward changed on petition of the people. The Je- 
rome & Xenia road was cut out through the township in 1848, by P. S. 
Maxwell, at that time Supervisor. It passes through the western part of 
the township, from north to south, and is a well traveled highway. An- 
other early road runs east and west through the southern part of the town- 
ship, leading from Sycamore to Kokomo. It was surveyed in the year 
1850 by Dr. Richmond. 

In the year 1853, the township was divided into four road districts 
under the following Supervisors : William Detamore, Jacob Brunk, Will- 
iam Hatfield and Eugene Brown. The number of hands employed 
at that time was fifty. The township at the present time is well sup- 
plied with roads, which intersect each other at proper intervals, the ma- 
jority of them being regularly established on section lines. The absence 
of gravel precludes the possibility of making pikes ; consequently, the 
most of the roads are almost impassable during certain seasons of the 
year, on account of the mud. This difficulty is being overcome some- 
what by large ditches along the various highways, by means of which the 
road-beds are efi'ectually drained, thus rendering them reasonably com- 

There is one railroad in the township — the Toledo, Delphos & St. 
Louis — which was completed in the year 1881.' It passes along the 
southern border, and has been the means of improving the township by 
increasing the value of land and affording shipping facilities for the prod- 
uce of the country. 


Among the first deaths in the township was Emily, wife of Stokes Max- 
well, who died about the year 1850. Another early death was J. Gillen, 
father of John Gillen, who died some time prior to the above year. Riley 
Maxwell, son of P. S. and Emily Maxwell, was one of the early birtlis, 


being born in the year 1848, a few months after the family moved to the 
township. Among the early marriages were those of James Marshall and 
Rachel Turner and Hubert Somers and Amanda Turner. The ceremo- 
nies which united the above-named parties were performed by Mr. Max- 
well, an early Justice of the Peace. 

A question which perplexed many of the pioneer farmers of Jackson 
was, " What shall we do to get rid of so much superfluous timber ?" For 
several years, every means that could be devised was resorted to, in order 
to destroy the forest growth, which proved such a hindrance to the success 
of the husbandman. In this ruthless destruction, much fine walnut and 
poplar timber was destroyed, which, if standing at the present time, 
would represent a value equal to the farm lands of the township. As 
time passed, however, the growth and development of the country created 
a demand for lumber, and saw mills were located at various places in the 
fine forests of the country. 

The first saw mill was built near Sycamore Corners, in the year 1851, 
by Daniel Gate and Joseph Fleeks, who operated it very successfully for 
a number of years. Much lumber was manufactured and shipped from 
this point, especially walnut, from the sale of which the proprietors of the 
mill realized considerable wealth. The mill passed through several hands, 
the last owners being David and James McClellan, who ran it until its 
destruction by fire several years ago. 

The second mill of which we have any knowledge was erected in the 
northwest corner of the township, in an early day, by Alman McClellan 
and John Needham. It was a steam mill, and was operated but a few 
years at the original location, being afterward removed to the southern 
part of the township, to a place called Lynn Corners, about one-half 
mile north of Sycamore, where it is still standing. It is owned at the 
present time by Armstrong, Pickett & Co., of Kokomo. Another saw 
mill was built a short distance east of Sycamore, several years ago, by 
Messrs. Lee & Peters, who ran it but a short time. A. number of mills 
have been in operation in the township at difierent times, and the lumber 
business was an important industry. The greater portion of the timber 
has now been cut and shipped away, however, and consequently the mills 
have removed to more eligible localities. 


It is difiicult at this distant day to accurately determine where and by 
whom the first religious services in the township were held, and the 
circumstances which led to the same. Many of the pioneers were mem- 


bers of the Methodist Church, and it is reasonable to suppose that min- 
isters of that denomination were the first to preach the Gospel in the 
sparsely settled communities of Jackson. One of these early pioneers of 
the cross was Rev. Alfred Thorpe, who preached at the residence of Jo- 
seph Hockett, in the northern part of the township, at an early day, the 
date of which cannot be ascertained. A society of the Wesleyan Method- 
ist, the church to which Thorpe belonged, was organized at Mr. Hockett's 
house, with a good membership, and was well sustained for a number of 
years. Thorpe preached for this and neighboring societies, and appears 
to have been a man of more than ordinary abilities. Other early preach- 
ers who ministered to this society were T. L. Garrigus, father of Milton 
Garrigus, Daniel Worth, Elliott E. Brookshire, Joseph Shackelford and 
William Gladden, all of whom were men of fervent piety and untiring 

The Missionary Baptists conducted public worship at the residences of 
diiferent settlers in an early day, but do not appear to have had an organiza- 
tion. Among the early preachers of this denomination is remembered Rev. 
Jean Baptiste Brouilette, a French Indian, of the Miami tribe. He was 
one of the first of his tribe to embrace Christianity, and commenced 
preaching soon after his conversion, and was instrumental in establishing 
several cTmrches among his fellows. He was a noble specimen of his 
race, being over six feet in height, endowed with the strength of a Her- 
cules, and possessing a fervid eloquence, by means of which he exercised 
great influence among the Indians with whom he came in contact. 

It is related of him that while preaching on one occasion in the early 
days of his ministry, he was greatly annoyed by several Indians who 
came to church for the avowed purpose of creating a disturbance. One 
of them taunted him with being a pale face, while another called him a 
squaw — a great insult — to which he paid no attention further than to re- 
quest them to keep quiet. Seeing their attempts to throw him off his 
guard by words had no effect, one of the Indians stepped in front of him, 
and deliberately spit at his face. Instantly all the fury of his wild nat- 
ure was aroused, and with one hand he seized the luckless persecutor by 
the throat and a large stick of wood, lying near by, with the other. He 
raised the club and was about to brain his tormentor, when he checked him- 
self, saying aloud, " My Master suffered death at the hands of his enemies 
without a murmur, and shall I not bear this slight persecution for His 
sake? " Loosening his hold, he returned to the desk, and finished his 
sermon with no further annoyance. The crest-fallen savages, seeing the 
mettle the preacher was made of, retired abashed, and from that time he 
received no more trouble. He died about sixteen years ago, greatly re- 
spected by both whites and Indians. 


There are at this present time two church organizations in the town- 
ship, Curry's Chapel in Section 1, near the northern boundary, and Pop- 
lar Grove, in the southwest corner. The first-named is a Methodist Epis- 
copal society, with a large membership and a good house of worship. The 
church is well sustained, and numbers among its members many of the 
leading citizens of the community. Poplar Grove Church is sustained 
by the Protestant Methodists, and for a number of years has been a 
flourishing society. This house of worship is a neat frame structure, 
representing a value of about $1,200. It was erected in the year 1873, 
on the farm of Isaac Jessiop. 


This live little town was founded, in the year 1881, by 0. P. Hollings- 
worth. During the intervening years between that time and the present, 
it has attained quite a position of mercantile importance, and is recog- 
nized as a permanent trading point. It was the immediate outgrowth of 
the narrow-guage railroad, and is one of the best shipping points on that 
line. The first stock of merchandise was opened for sale by Allen Quick 
and Frank Hoon, who fitted up the old frame schoolhouse for a store room 
shortly after the railroad was completed. Hoon afterward purchased the 
entire interest, and conducted business very successfully for about one 
year, when he sold out and left the place. He returned later, erected a 
new building on the west side of Main street, and is in business at the 
present time. The promising opening soon attracted other merchants, 
and several other stores were in successful operation within a few months 
after the village was platted. At the present time there are four general 
stores, one drug store, one blacksmith shop, a saw mill, stave factory and 
warehouse, and a population of about 100. There is a good brick school- 
house, where a church organization and a temperance society also hold 
their meetings. The growth of the village has been quite rapid, and its 
outlook is flattering. 


Among all grades of history, none is more instructive, or sought after 
with greater eagerness, than that which truthfully delineates the rise and 
progress of the State, county, or even township in which one lives. 
There is pleasure as well as profit to every well educated and inquiring 
mind, in contemplating the struggles of the early settlers in all portions of 
the great West ; how they encountered and successfully overcame every 
species of trial, hardship and danger incident to a life in the wilderness. 
But these things strike us more forcibly, and fill our minds with more 


immediate interest, when confined to our own little county, where, per- 
chance, we can yet meet with some of the gray-haired actors in those early 
scenes — actors with whom life's rugged day is almost over, whose bravery 
in encountering troubles and misfortunes in the backwoods has borne an 
important part toward making our country what it now is, and whose acts, 
in connection with hundreds of others in the first settling of our vast do- 
main, have compelled the civilized world to acknowledge that the Amer- 
icans are an invincible people. 

It may appear to some a rather small and insignificant work to record 
the history of so small a portion of the earth's surface as is embraced within 
the limits of a township, but it will be remembered that our vast republic 
is composed of States that are made up of counties, which, in turn, are 
subdivided into smaller divisions, each of which contributes its share to the 
general history of the country. Though occupying but a small part of 
Howard County, Ind., the township, to which the following pages are de- 
voted, has a history peculiarly its own, and fraught with interest to all 
her citizens at least, besides many others whose early homes were located 
within its territory. 


Liberty Township originally formed a part of Jackson and Green 
Townships, and dates its history as a separate division from the year 1853, 
at which time it was set oif with its present boundaries. It occupies ter- 
ritory in the northeastern part of the county, having a geographical area 
of thirty-one and a half square miles, being eight miles long from north 
to south, and four miles from the eastern to the western limits. It is 
bounded on the east by Jackson Township and a part of Union, on the 
south by Union, on the west by Taylor and Howard Townships, on the 
north by Miami County, and is composed of portions of Congressional 
Towns 23 and 24 north, Range 5 east. 

The distinguishing characteristics of Liberty are its fine undulating 
farm lands, which in point of fertility and productiveness are unsurpassed 
b^ any similar amount of territory in the county. The northern and 
central portions are very level, and in -certain places contain some low, 
marshy land, but the great majority of its acres are susceptible of a high 
degree of cultivation, as is attested by the rank which the township takes 
as an agricultural district. In the southern part, adjacent to Wild Cat, 
the surface is more irregular, but in no place is it too broken or uneven 
for tillage. The soil is a deep, black loam, mixed with clay in certain 
localities, and very fertile. It rests upon a clay subsoil, which renders 
artificial drainage easy. The township is well watered and drained by 
several streams which traverse the country in various directions, the chief 


of which is Big Wild Cat. This water-course enters the township near 
the southeast corner, flows a northwesterly direction through Sections 10, 
9, 5, 4 and 32, and crosses the western boundary from Section 31. It 
passes through a very fertile region of country, and receives several small 
tributaries, which are not designated by any particular names. 

The surface of the township was originally covered with dense forests, 
which afforded a natural home for many kinds of wild animals, and their 
scarcely less wild companions, the red men. The productions of these 
forests were at one time the source of considerable wealth to those who 
settled in the timber and made the lumber busines sa specialty. At the 
head of these forest products, stands the black walnut, a tree unequaled 
in the United States for its many uses in cabinet-making. Vast quanti- 
ties of this timber were found in the woods of this township, mucli of it 
being ruthlessly destroyed by the pioneer settlers, who had no adequate 
idea of its value. Next in value is the poplar, which affords the princi- 
pal amount of lumber for all practical purposes to the farmers of this part 
of the country. Another of the forest raonarchs is the elm, which grows 
to gigantic size in the low lands, along the water-courses. Beech, linden, 
ash, hard and soft maple, hackberry, buckeye and several species of oak 
are found growing in abundance. There is also a luxuriant undergrowth, 
consisting principally of spicebush, papaw and dogwood. 

Agricultural productions of every kind indigenous to this latitude are 
certain of a rapid growth and large returns, as is shown by the wealth 
that has been drawn from the bosom of the soil during the past forty 
years — a wealth Avhich has covered the township with beautiful homes, 
and contributed toward feeding the hungry millions of other lands. Wheat 
and corn are the staple products, to which the soil seems peculiarly adapted. 
Of the former, as high as forty bushels per acre have been produced in favor- 
able seasons, although the average will fall considerably short of that amount. 
Other cereals are raised, particularly oats, which return abundant and 
well paying harvests almost every year. Apple orchards are beginning to 
be extensively cultivated, and fruits of the finest and hardiest varieties 
yield abundantly and are being produced in large quantities, while tjie 
already large area of orchards receives yearly additions. 


The first settlement within the present limits of Liberty Township 
was made by Henry Bailly, on the site of Green town, about the year 
1843. He was accompanied by several sons and sons-in-law, all of whom 
moved into a small tent with the Indians, with whom they resided until 
their cabin was erected. The Baillys moved to this locality from what 
is now Union Township, where they made their first improvements, nt 


the village of Jerome, as early as the year 1842. They appear to have 
been men of roving tendencies, remaining but a short time at one place, 
but they always managed to better their condition with each move they 
made. Like many early settlers in a new country, they were men of 
moderate means, but by taking eligible claims and afterward selling 
their improvements as the settlements increased, became in time the pos- 
sessors of some wealth. It is said that twenty-seven pre-emptions were 
taken by the family at different times during the period of their residence 
in this and adjoining townships. They were residents of the county until 
about the year 1850, when they sold out and moved to Iowa, in which 
State the old gentleman's death occurred several years ago. A son-in- 
law of Bailly, by the name of Anderson, came to the township about the 
same time and settled in the same locality. He was a man of no particular 
note, and made but few improvements, spending the greater portion of 
his time hunting, from which he derived his principal means of subsistence. 
Robert Felton, another son-in-law, joined the family shortly after their 
arrival, and was identified with the township in the capacity of a citizen 
until the year 1847. 

In the year 1844, Joshua Freeman settled about one mile south of 
Greentown, in Section 5, where he took a claim and cleared a small 
patch of ground. He was a noted hunter and trapper, and passed over 
almost every acre of ground in the eastern part of the county in his quest 
of game, which, in that early day, Avas abundant and easily procured. He 
afterward disposed of his improvements to a Mr. I >imb and left the town- 

An eccentric character, by the name of Hopkins, squatted near 
the Freeman claim in the latter part of 1844. He erected a rude 
pole shanty in the woods, lived entirely alone, and subsisted on game, 
roots, bark and such articles of food as the settlers saw fit to give him 
during his ramblings over the country. He appears to have been at one 
period of his life a man of strong intellect and considerable culture, but 
at the time of which we write he was sadly demented and passed the 
greater part of his time roving about the country, preaching, singing and 
reciting original poetry whenever he could find an idle crowd to give him 
audience. Among his eccentricities are remembered the habit of carry- 
ing a bed, an ax and a rooster with him in all his ramblings, also a long 
string of red peppers, which he wore around his neck as a charm for 
warding off the influence of the evil one. 

Prominent among early residents of Liberty was Charles 0. Fry, who 
moved to Howard County, about the year 1842, and settled in Union 
Township, near the present site of Jerome Village, where he took a claim 
and made considerable improvements. In 1845, he traded this claim to 


Henry Bailly, and moved where the latter lived in this township, on Sec- 
tion 4 — land which he entered in 1847. Fry was a man of considerable 
note in the community where he resided, and took a lively interest in all 
movements calculated to develop the country's resources. He was the 
chief mover in the laying-out of Greentown, and it is to him as much 
as to any other man that the village is indebted for its success and 
prosperity. In addition to farming. Fry gave some attention to stock- 
raising, and was one of the first citizens of the township to make that 
industry a success. He was identified with the township for a period of 
sixteen years, when he sold his real estate to Stephen Kirkpatrick and 
moved to Marion County, near Indianapolis, where he died in 1876. 

The same year that saw Fry locate in Liberty witnessed the arrival of 
James Morton, William Cox, John Sharpe and Matthew Golden. The 
first named settled about one-half mile east of Greentown, on land where 
a few improvements had formerly been made by Stephen Comer, of 
whom the claim was purchased. Morton was a native of Virginia, a man 
of considerable energy, and soon had a goodly number of acres under suc- 
cessful cultivation. He became a prominent farmer and stock-dealer, and 
earned the reputation of being a public-spirited citizen during the period 
of his residence in the township. He died in the year 1849. The 
place on which he first settled is owned and occupied at the present 
time by Henry Brunk. Cox located about one and a half miles south- 
east of Greentown, in Section 10, where he entered land a few years 
later. He came here from Wayne County, and resided in Liberty until 
1858, at which time he sold to Stephen Kirkpatrick and moved to 
another part of the county. Sharpe located in Section 3, near the eastern 
boundary of the township, where he lived until 1850, when he sold his 
farm to Benjamin Wood and moved to Clay County. He was a man 
of more than ordinary education and culture, and served several terms 
as a teacher in the early schools of the township. Golden took a claim 
a short distance east of Sharpe's place on land at present owned by 
Jesse Ware. He came to this locality from Shelby County and be- 
came a man of some note in the community, being elected one of the 
first Justices of the Peace in the township. He resided on his fiirm until 
the year 1856, when he sold to W^illiam Hatfield and moved to one of 
the Western States. 

Another early settler deserving of special mention was James Lind 
ley, whose arrival in the township dates from the year 1845. He was 
a native of Wayne County, N. C. Reared upon a farm, his early 
life was passed in the usual routine of farm labor, and he grew to 
rugged manhood amid the bracing airs of his Southern home, where he 
was taught the dignity and nobility of labor and those lessons of economy 


and frugality which so well fitted him for the difficulties incident to the 
life of a pioneer. Having determined to move where land could be easily 
obtained, he left his native State in the year 1811, and emigrated to In- 
diana, settling in the southern part of the State, near Richmond. When 
the land in this county came into market, he made a tour of inspection 
through the eastern townships for the purpose of selecting a home. Be- 
ing pleased with the appearance of a piece of land lying about two miles 
north of Greentown, he determined to locate there, and immediately took a 
claim. He entered this tract of land in October, 1847, and resided upon 
it about four years, when he moved to Clinton County, Ohio. Several 
sons of this old pioneer accompanied him to this country, of whom two, 
Tence and William, are still living in the county, the former at Kokomo 
and latter at Greentown. Jesse Osborne, a son-in-law of Lindley, came 
about the same time and located on the present site of Greentown, of 
which he was one of the proprietors. He became a prominent citizen 
and was several times elected Justice of the Peace, besides serving the 
township as Trustee shortly after its organization. Two other sons-in- 
law, John Arraantrout and Jacob Elliott, came a short time afterward. 

In 1846, the population of the township was increased by the arrival 
of Absalom Lamb, a native of North Carolina, who located south of 
Greentown, on a claim purchased of Joshua Freeman. Ira Thorpe, Benja- 
min Young, E. Pickering, Stanton Bailey, all of whom settled in the 
southern part of the township. Jacob Davis and his sons, John and Jacob, 
Jr., came about the same time as the foregoing, and selected their homes 
in the western part of the township on the Kokomo & Jonesboro road, 
where Uncle "Jack," as he was familiarly called, opened a public house 
for the accommodation of such travelers as saw fit to accept his hospital- 
ities. In this primitive tavern the bill of fare consisted of choice venison 
steaks, corn dodgers, stewed pumpkin, flapjacks, etc., with a generous 
supply of the liquid which maketh the heart merry and the head light, 
consequently there were always plenty of paying guests. The foregoing 
list comprises the majority of settlers who located within the present 
limits of the township prior to 1847. 

Prior to 1847, the settlers obtained their claims by " pre-emption, " but 
in that year the land was put upon the market, subject to entry at the 
Government price of $2 per acre. This served to attract a number of 
persons to the new country, and during the year mentioned we find the 
population of the township increased by the following settlers, who ob- 
tained patents for their land from the Government : Thomas L. Smith, 
Section 3 ; Luther Segraves and Josiah Beeson, Section 9 ; Jacob Elliott, 
Aaron Elliott, Tence Lindley and Benjamin Carr, in Section 31 ; Charles 
Lindley and James Lindley, in Section 32 ; Robert Fair, Section 4 ; 


William Fulwider, Section 5 ; Daniel Nordyke, in the same section, and 
Tarver Segraves in Section 33. During the year 1848, the following per- 
sons entered land in the township, several of whom had purchased claims 
some time previous : Thomas Thatcher, Timothy L. Garrigus, Nathan 
Simmons, A. L. Hestor, R. W. Smith, Arch Moorman, Jacob Schrock, 
Joseph Kendall, James A. Wright, Henry Schrock, Joseph Troyer^ 
Emanuel Hochsteadler, John Webb, Martin Chamness, Henry Cook, 
Thompson Simmons, Peter Kingseed, M. D. Miller, Daniel Gerber, M. 
Shultz, A. J. Simmons, Boze Manner, John Shute, R. M. C. Martin, Henry 
Thomas, Benjamin Abertson, Peter Davis, A. W. Lewis, Daniel Stone, 
John Tira, Joseph Shaffer, George Wade, Benjamin Seese, James Cook, 
Lewis Summers, Jacob Brememan, John Hart, C. Willitts, Horace Sum- 
mers, Baltzer Lybrook, Robert Simpkin, James M. Loop, Jonathan 
Fisher, D. W. Johnson, Epperson Painter, Hardy Johnson, John Shock ey, 
Harvey Martin, Dempsey Thornburgh, James Osborne, Jacob Ray, Will- 
iam Jones, Tence Howell, Elias Fouts, George Golding, John Arnett, 
Davis Pegg, John Linville, Elam Johnson, Joseph Bates, George Stevens, 
James Swope, David Bagley, Moses Rich. Other early settlers were 
John Winslow, P. S. Maxwell, George Tru third. Resetter Gray, Eli 
Hockett, P. Costlow, John Healton, R. H. Stanley, William Woods, 
Thomas Gallian, A. N. Goff, Joel Stephenson, William Y. Stephenson, 
Noah Westerfield, L. F. Springer, E. P. Gallian, William Morgan, Isaac 
Vankirk, Andrew Zeek. Many others entitled to a mention could be added 
to the names enumerated did not the limits of the article forbid. 

During the years 1849 and 1850, the influx of population was steady 
and constant, and by the year 1851 all the available land was taken up 
and improved. 


One cannot write history as a blind man goes about the street feel- 
ing his way with a stick. The facts are transparent, and through them 
we catch gleams of other facts, as the rain-drop catches light and the be- 
holder sees the splendor of a rainbow. We are to speak of common men, 
whose lot it was to plant civilization, and who in so doing displayed the 
virtues which render modern civilization a boast and a blessing. Those 
early times cannot be reproduced by any prose of the historian. The 
pioneers had a thousand years behind them, and in their little space of 
time they made greater progress than ten centuries had witnessed. Theirs 
was a full life. They did so much, it is hard to recognize the doers. Of 
their constancy one can judge by the fact that but few went back to their 
ancestral homes. 

The first settlers in Liberty found no royal highway to affluence, and 
for many years hard work and manifold inconveniences were the common 


lot of those who carved for themselves homes in the forests. Their early 
struggles and hardships are but a repetition of those experienced by all 
other settlers in a new and uninhabited country. The first year was 
generally the most difficult, as houses had to be erected and ground cleared 
for a crop — an undertaking attended by many difficulties, considering the 
wet condition of the soil and the dense forest growth to be removed. The 
little stock of provisions frequently gave out, and many hardships were 
endured in order to obtain the necessaries of life from the older settle- 
ments and distant market places, but after the first crop was harvested 
there was generally a plentiful supply for home consumption, stored away 
and husbanded with scrupulous care. The forest supplied the meat from 
the bountiful store of game, in quantity and quality, according to demand. 
Deer were every where abundant and afforded the chief means of subsistence 
to many families during the first two and three years' sojourn in the woods. 

Jonathan Fisher states that in one year he killed one hundred and 
twenty-five within a few miles of his home. A man by the name of Ray 
was a hunter of considerable note, and frequently killed four and five 
deer a day, of which he kept nothing but the hams and hides. The other 
parts of the carcass were given to any one who desired them, or left in 
the woods to be devoured by the wolves. Wild turkeys were so plentiful 
as to be no rarity, and were considered game not worth the ammunition re- 
quired to kill them. An occasional bear was seen, but the majority of 
these animals had disappeared several years prior to the first settlement 
by the whites. A large one was killed a short distance east of Green- 
town about the year 1846, which weighed over four hundred pounds. 
This was the only one ever killed in the township, as far as can now be 
learned. Wolves infested the woods in great numbers, and proved very 
destructive to stock. Farmers were obliged to build tight pens for their 
hogs and sheep, yet despite all their precautions an occasional lamb and 
porker would fill a prey to the gaunt scourges of the forests. In time, 
these animals disappeared, many of them being killed by the early settlers 
for the reward offered by the State for their scalps. 

As settlers increased in numbers, a common cause was made in meet- 
ing the wants of each other, helping for help again. The idea of assist- 
ing another for a pecuniary consideration never intruded itself into the 
mind of the pioneer in those early days. If a cabin was to be raised or 
clearing " rolled, " all the occasion demanded of the neighbors near and 
remote was a knowledge of the time and place, distance being a second- 
ary consideration, and other less pressing work had to succumb in order 
to render the needed assistance. Every man's cabin was his castle. The 
"latch string always hung out, " and the traveler was assured of a kind 
welcome and a place at the frugal board, as hospitality was a virtue culti- 


vated to a rare degree by the pioneer settlers of Howard County. Those 
old times are gone, buried in the dead past, but with them are gone a 
world of pleasant memorijs. Many frosty haired veterans, whose youth 
was passed amid the stirring scenes of those early days, recall them as the 
most enjoyable period of their lives and regret the days that can never return. 


The early settlers of Liberty were obliged to travel long distances over 
almost impassable roads for their groceries and breadstuffs. For several 
years, Peru, Logansport, Marion, Jonesboro, and, later, New London and 
Russiaville, in the western part of the county, were the nearest places 
where those supplies could be obtained. Money, in those early days, was a 
scarce article and many families were compelled to deny themselves the 
luxuries which to-day are considered necessities. Deer skins, ginseng, 
and maple sugar, of which large quantities were made every spring, were 
articles of commercial importance by means of which many families kept 
themselves supplied with groceries, dry goods, etc. 

The first mill in the township was erected in the year 1849 by Luther 
Segraves, and stood about one mile south of Greentown on Big Wild Cat. 
This was a combination mill which sawed lumber and ground grain, and 
supplied a long- felt want in the community. During the erection of this 
mill, a very distressing accident occurred, in which the proprietor, Mr. 
Segraves, lost his life by falling through the building. The enterprise 
was afterward taken up by Mr. Jennings, who operated the mill very suc- 
cessfully for a number of years. It did a good business, being well pat- 
ronized by the citizeris of this and adjoining townships, and was in oper- 
ation until about the year 1863. 

William Lindley erected a saw mill in the southern part of the town- 
ship on Wild Cat, about the year 1850, which he sold to a man by the 
name of Dorman ; five years later, Dorman built an addition to the origi- 
nal building, put in two runs of buhrs and did a very fair business for sev- 
eral years. It is still in operation, and at the present time is owned by 
Abraham Curlee. Ira and 0. P. Hollingsworth built and operated a steam 
saw mill at the village of Greentown about the year 1852. This was 
what is known as a "muley-saw." It gave employment to a number of 
hands, and was in successful operation until about the year 1859. Val- 
entine Somers operated a steam saw mill at the village also during the 
years 1853 and 1854. It was purchased by other parties and removed 
from the township a number of years since. A number of other mills 
have been built, from time to time, the majority of them being portable 
saw mills which remained but a short time in one place. 



The first roads through Liberty were not laid out with any reference 
to section lines. Each settler took the shortest route across the country 
in order to arrive at his destination as quickly as possible, and as a result 
there are a number of zigzag roads which have been a source of consid- 
erable annoyance to land-owners through whose farms they pass. Eflfbrts 
have been made, however, to have all the roads properly established, and 
in time will be effected. 

The first legally established highway was the Jonesboro & Kokomo 
road, which passes through the southern part of the township from east 
to west. It was surveyed and laid out about the year 1848, and is at the 
present time one of the most extensively traveled highways in the eastern 
part of the county. It was graveled in the year 1870, and is now known 
as the Kokomo, Greentown & Jerome pike. [For further particulars 
concerning this road, see chapter on general county history.] The Marion 
& Kokomo State road, which passes through the central part of the town- 
ship from east to west, was an early road also, having been established 
some time prior to 1858. The original line was surveyed by Dr. Rich- 
mond, but, during the past twenty years, many changes have been made 
and it no longer runs on the old route. 

The Kokomo & Greentown gravel road extends through the western 
part of the township from Greentown to the western boundary. It was 
commenced in 1869 and completed in the year 1874. It runs parallel 
with the Kokomo, Greentown & Jerome pike, one- half mile south, and, with 
the last-named road, has been the means of developing the resources of 
the township to a remarkable degree. 

The Toledo, Delphos & St. Louis Narrow-Gauge Railroad passes 
through the southern part of the township in an easterly direction. It 
has proved a great benefit to the citizens of the township by affording 
ample facilities for shipping their grain and live-stock, and bringing a good 
market into their midst. It was completed in the year 1871. 


It is difficult to determine at this distant day which of the early settlers 
was first summoned away by death, though it is supposed to have been 
Mrs. Benjamin Lamb. She died in the year 1846, and was interred in 
the Lamb Graveyard, about one mile southwest of Greentown, on the 
south bank of Wild Cat. This cemetery was laid out by Absalom Lamb 
on his farm, and is one of the principal burying grounds in the east part 
of the county. Another early death was Curtis Morton, son of James 
Morton, who departed this life in the early part of 1847. He was buried 
about one mile east of Greentown, on the farm now in possession of Jesse 


Ware. Several other interments were made in this graveyard, but it 
was finally abandoned and the remains removed to other burying places. 
The Lindley Graveyard was laid out in the year 1847 by James Lindley 
on his farm in Section 32. The first person laid to rest in this cemetery 
was the wife of John Lindley, whose death occurred in the latter part of 
the year mentioned. 

An early burying ground was laid out a short distance south of Green- 
town, but was abandoned after being used a few years. Among the first 
burials at the place was Mrs. P. S. Maxwell, a daughter of Matthias 
Golding, one of the pioneers of the township. 

Cupid's first victims in this township were Dr. Harvey and Elizabeth 
Morton, whose marriage was solemnized about the year 1847. Other early 
marriages were Samuel Lindley and Lillis Cook, James Howell and Rosetta 
Cook, and Ira Tharpe and Widow Harvey, all three of which occurred in 
the year 1848. 


The first election in the township of which Liberty originally formed 
a part, was held at the farm of W. Cox, a short distance south of Green - 
town. The ballots were cast on a large stump, and, when counted in the 
evening, numbered just eighteen. At this election, Levi Bailly was unani- 
mously chosen Justice of the Peace, an office which he filled with all the 
dignity of a Supreme Judge. Many laughable incidents are related of the 
manner in which he discharged the duties of his onerous position, and of 
the credit he took to himself as an exponent of the law. It is related 
of him that, upon one occasion, he was in a town in an adjoining county, 
when quite a riot occurred upon the street. Rushing into the midst of 
the crowd, he commanded the mob to disperse, telling them at the same 
time that he was an officer of the law and speaking with authority. 
Being questioned as to his authority, he replied, " Sir, I am a Justice of 
the Peace." "Where from?" " From Howard County, sir." '• Well, 
sir," finally retorted his interrogator, " does your jurisdiction extend over 
the whole d — d State ?" Other early Justices of the Peace were Fisher, 
Rosetter, Gray, John Smith, Charles Pindley, Eli Hockett, M. B. Golding 
and John Golding. 

The first Board of Trustees were L. F. Springer, Tence Lindley and 
T. W. Sanders. The date of their election is not known. The second 
board was composed of Almon Cook, Charles Willits and Thomas 
Sanders. Since 1859, when the law providing for one Trustee instead of 
three went into effect, the following-named gentlemen have had charge of 
the office : R. Gray, Luther Gray, E. P. Gallion, J. T. Scott, William 
Nusser, William C. Warnock, William Johnson, an I C. M. Fifer, the 
present incumbent. 


Among the citizens of Liberty who were called to fill county offices 
at difi'erent times were L. F. Springer, who served as Treasurer ; William 
Woods, Tence Lindley, M. B. Golding and David Smith, County Com- 
missioners ; Samuel Lamb, Sheriff, and Luther Gray, Auditor. 

This thriving little town is situated in the southern part of the town- 
ship, and dates its history from April, 1848, at which time the plat was 
placed upon record. The principal causes which led to the origin of the 
village was the outgrowth of the neighborhood's demand for a trading 
point. Coupled with this was the desire on the part of the proprietors for 
a big profit, which they thought could be easily realized from the sale of 
lots, as the location promised much for the welfare of the future city. It 
was laid out on the site of an old Indian town, known as Green's Village, 
from which the name Greentown is derived. From the county record we 
copy the following description, which will give the reader a good idea of 
the city : 

" Greentown is laid out due north and south and east and west; 
occupies an elegant situation in Section 4, Township 23 north, Range 
5 east, in Howard County, Ind. The township line, dividing 23 and 
24, forms the base line of the town, and passes through the center of 
Main street, the open line in Section 4 running at a variation of fifty de- 
grees and ten minutes to the left of the magnetic variation north, and 
intersecting the township line at right angles, forms the meridian of the 
town and passes through the center of Meridian street. The lots are 
fifty by one hundred and fifty feet, and point uniformly north and south. 
Main and Meridian streets are each eighty feet wide. Green and Howard 
are each sixty feet wide. The alleys are each ten feet wide, dividing each 
whole square into blocks of three lots each. The whole town is of a uni- 
form bearing, and was surveyed February, 1848. All that part of the 
town which lies in Section 4 was laid out by Charles 0. Fry. All that 
part which lies in the southwest quarter of Section 33 was laid out by 
Jesse Osborne, and all that part which lies in the southeast quarter of 
Section 33 was laid by T. Segraves." 

The first lot purchased in the new town was by Dr. James Barrett, 
who immediately improved it by erecting thereon a small dwelling. This 
was a small log structure, and stood on the corner of Main and Howard 
streets, near the spot occupied by the store building of Templin k 
Powell. The second building was a log storehouse erected by L. W. 
Bacon, on the northeast corner of Main and Meridian streets. Shortly 
after the village was laid out. Bacon stocked his storeroom with a miscella- 
neous assortment of merchandise to the amount of about ^1,000, and sold 


goods for two years. A second store building was erected some time later 
on the southwest corner of Main and Meridian streets, where the Star 
Hotel now stands, by C. 0. Fry, who was one of the early merchants of 
the village. Dr. Barrett purchased an interest in Fry's store, and to- 
gether they continued in business for several years. 

In the year 1852, Joel Stephenson built a storeroom on the north- 
east corner of Main and Meridian streets, in which he sold goods for 
about three years, when he disposed of his stock' to Lytle & Winslow. 
This firm was afterward changed to Lowder & Winslow. An early firm 
was Vankirk & Winslow, who did business in the Fry building until the 
year 1854, with a large stock of goods. C. 0. Fry and R. Gray formed a 
partnership in the year 1854, and continued in business together until 
the year 1858, at which time Lindley purchased Fry's interest. Fry & 
Lindley sold goods about one year, when the entire stock was purchased 
by William Canady. Among other merchants who have transacted bus- 
iness in the village at different times during its history can be named S. 
G. Hall, William Walker, Charles Willits and Mr. Goff. 

The business of the town at the present time is represented by the fol- 
lowing exhibit : Two large dry goods and general stores kept by Corne- 
lius Powell and Walter Templin ; two drug stores by R. Gray, and the 
firm of Manring & Manring, and one grocery store kept by Lindley & 
Brother. The first blacksmith who worked at his trade in the village 
was Crawford Fair; later came "Dick" Dormer, J. S. Woods, B. F. 
Beeson, Turney D. Hendrickson and Nehemiah Ellis, the last named 
being the only smith in the town at the present time. The early carpen- 
ters were R. H. Stanley, L. F. Springer, 0. Free, J. and W. Stephen- 
son, R. D. Bowman, Charles and Oliver Osborne, Timothy L. Garrigus. 

There have been several mills in the village at different times, but to 
these reference has already been made in a previous page. A planing 
mill was erected in 1880 by William Jennings, which is in operation at 
the present time, and doing, a flourishing business. Jay & Dolman erect- 
ed a large elevator shortly after the completion of the T., D. & St. L. 
Railway, which is one of the largest grain houses on the line of that 
road. Many thousand bushels of grain are shipped from this point 
every year, and this is one of the best market places in the county. 

The first physicians who located in Greentown were Drs. L. W. Ba- 
con and James Barrett. Since their departure, the following medical 
gentlemen have practiced the healing art in the village and surrounding 
country : John Spell, William J. Morgan, William Scott, R. W. Smith, 
Dr. Collett, H. Beeson, Dr. Ross, D. S. Caylor, J. H. Stover, James T. 
Scott, G. B. Scott, William White, Dr. Watson and J. W. C. Eaton. The 
present physicians are J. T. Scott, who has been practicing in the com- 


munity constantly during the past twenty years, G. B. Scott, A. A. 
Covalt, L. A. Bagwell and B. Payton. 

In the year 1873, after a spirited contest, the village took upon itself 
the dignity of an incorporated town. The first municipal officers were : 
R. Gray, Mayor; William Segraves, Marshal; G. W. Rice, Clerk; 
James T. Scott, Henry Lamb and Hugh Courtney, Councilmen. Ciiief 
among the several reasons urged in favor of incorporation was the general 
desire of the citizens to improve the streets, sidewalks, etc., which could 
not have been accomplished without such a measure. A laughable cir- 
cumstance is related of the first arrest made after the town organization. 
The chief party in the transaction was a "drummer" who committed the 
daring crime of hitching his team to a shade tree. The Marshal, proud 
of the authority vested in him, very promptly marched the guilty of- 
fender before His Honor the Mayor, who soon ascertained that no ordi- 
nance had as j^et been passed providing punishment for such misdemean- 
ors. Here was a dilemma. What should be done? Should the culprit 
be liberated to make a lauo'hino'-stock of the town which had a citv or- 
ganization with no ordinances to govern it ? No ! such an idea could not 
be entertained for a moment. At this critical juncture, a happy thought 
struck the Mayor which suggested a way out of the difficulty, and at the 
same time enabled him to preserve the dignity of his court. Excusing him- 
self for a short time, he went out on the street and got a bystander to go 
and advise the prisoner to " skip." The man discharged his errand and 
the commercial tourist "skipped " accordingly. The town officers at the 
present time are G. W. Price, Justice of the Peace and Mayor ; Joel 
Lindley, Marshal ; Willard Woods, Clerk ; Henry Thrasher, Treasurer ; 
Charles Fifer, President of the Board of Councilmen; John Woolen, 
Henry Lindley and Henry Thrasher, Councilmen. 

The Masonic fraternity and Odd Fellows both have good lodges in the 
village. Greentown Lodjje, No. 341, A., F. & A. M., was organized 
May, 1867, with a considerable membership. The first officers were Ezra 
Gallion, W. M.; Joseph H. Woolen, S. W., and Theodore F. Hazzard, J. 
W. The officers in charge at the present time are Amos Powell, W. M.; 
H. C. Lamb, S. W.; William Elliott, J. W.; A. A. Covalt, Sec, and 
William Wooters, Treas. Meetings are held in the hall, which be- 
longs to the organization. Present membership, about thirty-three. A 
former lodge liad been in existence a number of years before the one re- 
ferred to, but no particulars concerning it have been learned. 

Greentown Lodge, No. 328, I. 0. 0. F., was instituted May, 1869, 
with eight charter members, whose names appear as follows : Milton Gar- 
rigus, Jonathan Covalt, William T. Manring, Austin S. Freeman, J. S. 
Summers, W. M. Simms, Amos A. Covalt and Henry H. Ray. The 


first officers were W. T. Manring, N. G.; Milton Garrigus, V. G.; A. A. 
Covalt, Sec, and John Summers, Treas. Meetings were held in the 
Stephenson Hall until the year 1881, when the lodge erected a hall of its 
own, over the storeroom of Cornelius Powell, on Meridian street. This 
hall is large, well finished, and represents a capital of $1,100, The 
present membership is about twenty-seven, and the lodge is reported in 
good working order. The following comprises the present list of officers: 
William Wooters, N. G.; Charles Wooters, V. G.; J. T. Scott, Sec, J. H. 
Hinkle, Treas.; N. D. Stanbraugh, Warden; A. J. Griffin, Conductor; 
John Pearce, I. G.; A. A. Covalt, R. S. N. G.; B. Hall, L. S. N. G. 

The present population of the town is 550. Its growth since the 
completion of the T., D. k St. L. Railway, which gave the business inter- 
ests of the place new impetus, has been steady and substantial, and its 
future outlook is very encouraging. 


Plevna is a small village, situated about four miles and a half north- 
west of Greentown, in Section 9. It is but a mere hamlet, containing 
two general stores, a blacksmith shop, post office, and about nine or ten 
residences. There is one physician in the village, Dr. Miller, who has 

a lucrative practice. 


The first school in Liberty was taught by Miss Lillis Cook in a dimin- 
utive log shanty which stood about one and one-half miles northwest of 
Greentown, on the claim of William Cox, who erected it. It was used 
by Cox as a residence for several years, but was afterward abandoned. 
The neighbors fitted it up for school purposes, and it was in use only dur- 
ing the one term. The date of the school was the winter of 1848—49. 
The first schools were supported by subscription, and generally lasted 
about three months. Among the early pedagogues of the township were 
L. F. Springer, P. F. Peters, Milton Garrigus, George Hazzard, R. 
Gray, B. Moon, H. Deyo, Luther Gray, John Power, William Styer, 0. 
Free and Alexander Hopkins. The township was supplied with public 
schools in 1853, at which time the school land was sold, and the citizens 
taxed for educational purposes. The first public schoolhouse in the 
township was a hewed-log structure, which stood a short distance east of 
Greentown. It was in use for a number of years, and answered the two- 
fold purpose of school and meetinghouse. There are at the present time 
nine good, substantial buildings in the township in which schools are 
taught from five to seven months in the year. Five of these houses are 
frame and four brick; the Greentown Public School building is the finest 
structure in the county outside of Kokomo, and cost about $3,000. It 


has four rooms, all of which are well finished and furnished. It stands 
in the southern part of the village, and is an ornament to the town and 
township. The village schools at the present time are under the efficient 
management of Prof. L. M. Herrington, Principal; Charlton Bull, teach- 
er of the intermediate ; and Miss Amanda Turner, who has charge of the 
primary department. The other teachers in the township are Belle 
Wooters, Cora Powell, 0. P. Kemp, W. 0. Nelson, D. C. Peters, D. W. 
Garrison, W. B. Woods and W. D. Hamer. The amount of money ex- 
pended for tuition for the school year of 1882-83 was $2,565.76. 


Several healthy religious organizations, with as many substantial tem- 
ples, are the most convincing evidence of the existence of high moral prin- 
ciples and a sense of religious duty on the part of the citizens of Liberty. 
Many of the early settlers were members of different denominations, and 
public services were held from house to house for several years. At those 
early meetings all met on a common level, and left their sectarian pecul- 
iarities at home. Among the early preachers were John Evans and 
Benjamin Cobb, ministers of the Baptist Church, who conducted public 
worship at the residences of Thomas Golding, Benjamin Woods and Ben- 
jamin Young. A flourishing society of this church was organized in an 
early day, and was kept up with good success until about the year 1850. 
Another early preacher was Rev. Jacob H. Stover, of the U. B. Church, 
who preached at different places throughout the township as early as the 
year 1848. Thn New Salem, or Friends' Church, was organized in the 
spring of 1848, at the cabin of George Lamb. In the following summer, 
the place of meeting was changed to John Healton's residence, which 
served as a meeting place until the fall of 1848, when a hewed-log build- 
ing, 24x24 feet, was erected. In the construction of this house of wor- 
ship but little money was used, the work being done gratuitously by the 
members and neighbors. In a few years, this building proved much too 
small for the increasing congregation, and another building of the same 
size was built, adjoining the first, by means of which a large audience 
room, 24x48 feet, was secured. The original society consisted of fifteen 
families, whose names appear as follows : Absalom Lamb, Isaac Rat- 
cliffe, Naaman Colyer, John Rich, William Rich, Richard Hodson, Zach- 
ariah Hodson, Nathan Hodson, Nathan Freeman, Sr., Nathan Freeman, 
Jr.; also the single members, Moses L. Rich, Benjamin F. Lamb, Mrs. Abi- 
gail Flockett and Rachel Carr. The total membership, young and old, was 
seventy-five. The society continued to worship in the log structure until 
the year 1874, at which time the present commodious brick house was 
finished. It was commenced in the fall of 1873, and completed the fol- 


lowing year, and cost |?1,827. The present membership is 112. During 
the greater part of the first twenty years the church was without any 
regular pastors, the pulpit being supplied at intervals by different minis- 
ters. Of late, Amos Kenworthy, William Healton and Milton Cox have 
preached for the congregation. 

It is impossible to give anything like a complete history of the Meth- 
odist Church of Greentown, because, as one of its members states, Meth- 
odism sets little value on the formalities of organization. Its methods are 
simple ; those who desire a home in her communion are enrolled as a 
class, and some one of the number appointed leader. No official minutes 
of the transactions are kept or recorded except incidentally on the class 
books. The Greentown class was organized about the year 1848, and 
held its meetings at private residences until the schoolhouse in the village 
was built, which was used as a place of worship for a number of years. 
The place of meeting was afterward changed to the Stephenson building, 
which served the congregation until the present house of worship was 
erected in 1854. Among the first members of this class were Charles 
0. Fry and wife, Joel Stephenson and wife, Luther Segraves and wife, 
Tarver Segraves and wife, Mrs. Jones, Lemuel Gray and wife and Reason 
Summers and wife. Luther Segraves was the first class reader. Amons: the 
pastors and stated supplies of the church since its organization were Revs. 
M. S. Morrison, Jacob Colclazer, Forbes, Rhodes, Marks, Garrell, llo- 
back, Templin, Shackleford, Miller, McElwee, Peck, Curry, J. W. Miller, 
Lewellen, Watkins, Harrison, Beamer, Baker, Fish, John McElwee, and 
Mr. Wilcox, the present incumbent. The house of worship was erected in 
the year 1854, on ground donated by C. 0. Fry. It is a frame structure, 
34x50 feet, and cost the sum of $1,200. It has been frequently remod- 
eled and at the present time has a very commodious audience room, capa- 
ble of seating about 300 persons. The present officers of the church are 
Jesse Ware, Cornelius Powell, W. A. Powell, A. Willits and J. T. Scott, 
trustees, and N. D. Stanbrough and W. 0. Nelson, class leaders. There 
are at this time seventy-five active members. A large, flourishing Sun- 
day school is maintained throughout the year, Avith an average attend- 
ance of about ninety scholars. It is at the present time under the effi- 
cient superintendency of Dr. James T. Scott. 

*The Greentown class of the church of the United Bretiiren in Christ 
was organized August, 1856, by Rev. Cyrus Smith, preacher in charge- 
At the first meeting, the following named persons were enrolled as orig- 
inal members : George H. Snow and wife, L. S. Gray and wife, Sophia 
Osborne, Naomi Stanley and Susannah Woods. Dufing the ensuing 
conference year, the society increased to about forty members, which has 

*Prepare(t by Luther S. Gray. 


been about the average number from year to year. At present there are 
about fifty names enrolled on the class book, including seekers under the 
watch care of the church. For a series of years, the Methodist and 
United Brethren labored together in sustaining a Sabbath school on union 
principles, each church reporting its interest therein. The following is a 
list of the ministers who have at different times served as pastors of this 
charge : Revs. Cyrus Smith, B. F. Morgan, J. S. Wall, J. Rutherford, 
J. Stanley, B. R. B. Holcomb, William Hall, Eli Hoover, R. B. Beaty, 
M. Gronendyke, A. P. Stout, S. Bias, W. E. Mosier, J. Y. Demunbrun, 
A. Rector, S. Huff and Irvin Cox. The pastor in charge at the present 
time is Rev. C. Smith. Meetings are held in the Methodist Church. 

The Christian Church of Greentown was organized in the year 1868 
by Elders James Comer and John L. Puckett, with an organized member- 
ship of about thirty. The village schoolhouse was used by the congrega- 
tion as a meeting place for one year, when the organization was moved to 
the wagon shop belonging to Elder Puckett. This building was used 
about eighteen months, when steps were taken to provide a more commo- 
dious place of worship for the constantly increasing audiences. A build- 
ing committee was appointed to purchase ground and draw up specifica- 
tions for a house of worship. T. Segraves, Daniel Carr, Hardy Johnson, 
Henry Pickett and Riley Lindley composed the committee. An eligible 
site in the eastern part of the village, on Main street, was purchased of 
Jonathan Covalt, and work on the building commenced at once. The 
house was completed in 1872, and represents a capital of about ^1,800. 
Its dimensions are 40x55 feet, the audience room being sufficiently large 
to accommodate 450 persons. The first regular pastor of the church was 
Elder John L. Puckett, who preached very acceptably for three years. 
He was succeeded by Abraham Culbertson who exercised pastoral con- 
trol one year, and was in turn followed by Elder John R. Kob, who re- 
mained the same length of time. Elder D. W. Fowler was the next pas- 
tor ; he ministered to the society one year, and was succeeded by Elder 
William Winegardner, who supplied the pulpit two years. The present 
pastor is Elder L. Ryker, who is in his first year's labor. The member- 
ship of this church is constantly increasing, and the congregations and 
Sunday school rank with the first in the township. There are at the 
present time the names of 135 communicants on the church book. Mary 
Johnson is Superintendent of the Sunday school, which is maintained 
throughout the entire year. 

The Missionary Baptists organized a society at Greentown in the 
year 1851, which was kept up about five years. Among the preachers 
during that time were Revs. Henry Cobb, Simeon Mugg and William 
Golding. They used the schoolhouse for a place of worship, and at one 


time had a considerable membership. The organization was finally 
abandoned on account of the majority of members removing from the 

A society of the Christian Church was organized at an early day at 
the Lindley Schoolhouse, a short distance northwest of Greentown. The 
organization became very strong during the first five years of its history, 
but from various causes was finally abandoned. 

A Wesleyan Methodist class was organized at the same place, also 
with a good membership. It was kept up for several years and numbered 
among its members many of the best citizens of the community. It 
ceased to exist a number of years ago. 

The United Brethren have a flourishing class in the northern part of 
the township, which meet for worship at the schoolhouse in District No. 
4. It was organized in 1882, and at the present time numbers about 
forty members. Rev. Cyrus Smith is pastor. 

The Wesleyan Methodists have a society in the northeast corner of 
the township, with a membership of about twenty. Murphy's School- 
house in District No. 1 serves the congregation as a place of worship. 


Howard Township comprises thirty square miles of territory, lying 
in the north-central part of the county, and is designated as Town 24 
north, Range 4 east. It is bounded on the north by Miami County, on 
the east by Liberty Township, on the south by the townships of Taylor 
and Centre, on the west by Centre and Clay. It was named in honor of 
Hon. T. A. Howard, a man well and favorably known among the early 
citizens of the county. Big Wild Cat is the largest Avater-course by 
which the country is traversed, and affords the principal drainage. It 
flows in a westerly direction through the southern part, entering the 
township in Section 6, near the southeast corner, and crossing the western 
boundary from Section -33. It passes through one of the oldest and 
most highly cultivated regions in the eastern part of the county, and was 
the principal attraction to the early settlers of Howard. In the north- 
west corner of the township is Deer Creek, which affords ample drainage 
to that portion of the country. It enters the township from the west, 
flows in an easterly course for about one mile, when the current is de- 
flected to the northwest. It receives South Deer Creek near the north- 
west corner of the township, and crosses the northern boundary from Sec- 
tion 6. 

The surface of the country is, in the main, quite level, especially in 


the northern and central portions, while in the southern part, along Big 
Wild Cat, the land is more undulating, and in some places considerably 
broken. When the pioneers made their first appearance, the township 
was covered with an almost unbroken forest of the finest timber, the prin- 
cipal varieties being black walnut, white walnut, several species of oak, 
poplar, maple, ash, elms of various kinds, sycamore along the creeks, and 
a dense undergrowth, consisting chiefly of spicebush. The most difficult 
task, which the settler had to encounter, was getting rid of so much su- 
perfluous forest growth, and various means were resorted to to eff"ect its 
destruction. Much valuable timber was ruthlessly destroyed, which, if 
standing at the present time, would represent more value than the land 
would bring at the highest market price. The soil of the township is of 
great depth and consists of the fine black mold common to this part of 
the country. It is clay-mixed in certain localities, very fertile and well 
adapted to all the cereals and fruits indigenous to Northern Indiana. As 
an agricultural district, Howard Township takes no second rank and can 
probably boast of as many well-improved farms as any other division of 
the county. Next to the agricultural interests, stock-raising is the most 
important industry, a business in which a number of persons have en- 
gaged quite extensively. The richness of the pastures and the presence 
of water in abundance have won for the township an enviable reputation, 
and her stock-farms are among the largest and best improved in the county. 


The settlement of Howard Township by the whites dates back to the 
year 1840, at which time the first pioneer, a man by name of Kimball, 
made his appearance and located on Wild Cat, a short distance south of 
David Farley's farm. The country at that time was in possession of the 
Indians, with whom Kimball lived for several years. He adopted their 
mode of dress, passed the greater part of his time at their camp, partici- 
pated in their hunting excursions, and was to all intents and purposes a 
savage himself. He remained here until about the year 1843, when, be- 
coming restive under the increasing civilization, he took his departure 
and joined his red companions in the West. Several other transient set- 
tlers, whose names were not learned, came about the same time with the 
foregoing, and located temporarily near Cassville. They associated with 
the Indians also, and took their departure about the same time the latter 
quitted the country. 

In the year 1842, George Spitzenberger, a native of Ohio, came to 
the township and erected a temporary habitation on Wild Cat, about a 
quarter of a mile south of the Lerner farm. He was attracted to the lo- 
cality in quest of game, and obtained permission of the Indians to hunt 


and trap along the stream. He was a true type of the backwoods hunt- 
er, went clad in a peculiar garb of deer skin, and shunned all intercourse 
with society, for the usages of which he entertained the most profound 
contempt. He remained here until the year 1844, when he sold his few 
improvements and went to Illinois. 

In the year 1842, Jacob Good settled within the present limits of the 
township, and obtained permission of the Indians to clear and cultivate 
a small patch of ground. near Wild Cat, on land at present owned by 
David Smith. The agreement between Good and the red men was kept 
in good faith, and a crop of corn was raised the following year, being the 
first attempt at agriculture in the township. Good was a native of Vir- 
ginia, left his early home when a young man and went to Sullivan Coun- 
ty, Tenn., where he remained until his immigration to this State, some 
time prior to 1840. His first settlement in Indiana was made in Henry 
County, where he lived until 1841, at which time he made a tour of ob- 
servation through Howard County for the purpose of selecting a home. 
He took a claim in what is known as the " Float " Section, which he en- 
tered when the land came into market five years later. He appears to 
have been a man of considerable influence in the community, and did 
much in a quiet way toward the moral improvement of his neighborhood. 
His death occurred in the year 1851. One daughter, Mrs. Templin, 
wife of Timothy Templin, resides in the township at the present time. 
Salathiel Good, son of the preceding, came to the township in company 
with his father and took a claim in Section 35, on land at present owned 
and occupied by Mr. Sale. He made a good farm here and built his first 
cabin on the spot where the Hopewell Methodist Episcopal Church now 
stands. When the first school was organized in 1845, Good was elected 
teacher, and for a number of years thereafter was identified with the ed- 
ucational interests of the township. He sold his farm many years ago, and 
moved to Wisconsin and later to Nebraska, where he at present resides. 

In the latter part of 1842, the Garringers — Alexander, David, Abner 
and Isaac — moved to the township and selected claims in the southern part 
along Wild Cat. They came fi'om Delaware County, and unlike many 
early settlers were men of means. The father, Alexander, settled 
near Hopewell Church, on the farm at present owned by Jonah Beeson, 
where he lived until the year 1851, at which time his death occurred. 
Martin Smith, a son-in-law of Jacob Good, came the same year also, and 
settled near an Indian village on Wild Cat. For several years the red- 
skins were his nearest neighbors, between whom and the pioneers the 
most friendly relations were maintained. Smith entered land in 1847, 
and resided in the township until the year 1852, when he disposed of his 
farm and moved to Wisconsin. 


In 1843, the Tyler brothers — David, James, Frank, J^athaniel and 
Joseph — selected homes in the township near the Garringer and Good 
settlements. They were natives of Ohio and proved no particular ad- 
vantage to the community in which they resided, being of that thriftless 
class generally found on the outskirts of civilization. Ephraim Bates 
came in the year 1843 also, and took a claim where David Farley lives, in 
Section 27. He afterward entered this land and was a resident of the 
township until 1850, when he joined a company of gold-seekers and went 
to California. He died in the latter State, of cholera, soon after his ar- 

Among the early settlers who came in prior to 1844 may be named 
Christian Loffer and his sons Daniel and Simon L., all of whom settled 
a short distance west of the Farley farm, where they made small improve- 
ments. They moved to this county from Ohio and were identified with 
the township for a few years, when they sold out and moved to Iowa. 

During the year 1844, the population of the township was increased 
by the following additions : Bernhart Lerner, Henry Loop, John W. 
Lewis, Wilson Brewer and a man by the name of Dix. Lerner came to 
the county in the year 1841 and settled in Harrison Township, where he 
took a claim and worked at the shoemaker's trade. Thinking to better 
his condition, he moved to this township three years later, and purchased 
a portion of his present farm, where he has since resided. In company 
with several others, among whom was Ephraim Bates, he went to Cal- 
ifornia during the gold excitement of 1850, and remained in that State 
about two years. While absent, a distressing accident occurred at home, 
in which his wife was killed by the falling of a burning chimney. He 
afterward married the widow of Bates. He is the oldest settler living in 
the township at the present time. 

Henry Loop came from Ohio and located near the western boundary 
of the township. He took a claim and cleared a small farm but did little 
toward tilling the soil, depending upon his rifle for his chief means of sub- 
sistence. He achieved quite a reputation as a bee-hunter also, and real- 
ized many dollars from the sale of wild honey, which he marketed in 
large quantities. He was daring almost to foolhardiness, and would climb 
the loftiest trees in his search for honey, and appeared as much at home 
among the branches as he did on terra firma. On one occasion he fell 
from a tree a distance of forty -five feet, and sustained injuries from which 
he never entirely recovered. In later years, he manufactured half bushel 
measures, a business which proved very remunerative, and which he fol- 
lowed until the time of his death in 1875. 

John Lewis located in the southern part of the township on Big Wild 
Cat, where he entered land in 1848, and Brewer took a claim in Section 


16, where Peter Touby lives. Dix settled in the northern part of the 
township on the John Barnes farm, where he took a claim and made a 
few improvements. He is remembered as a noted backwoodsman, whose 
greatest delight was hunting and trapping, which he followed very suc- 
cessfully. By the sale of deer skins, venison hams and wild honey, he 
managed to supply his family with what groceries and few articles of 
wearing apparel they needed, while hcAveut clad in the conventional buck- 
skin garb common among the pioneer hunters forty years ago. In the 
year 1848, he sold his claim to John Oakey and moved to one of the 
Western States. 

Other early settlers were Henry Hemker, who located in Section 27, 
where his son still lives ; the Martin family, consisting of several sons, 
all of whom made temporary settlements on the Jacob Brunk farm, and 
a man by name of Freeman who took a claim in the same vicinity. In 
the year 1845, James Bell, William Stanley, Edmund Wright and John 
Haas selected land in the township, and moved to their claims soon after. 
William Hutson, James Stevens, Thompson Simmons, Andrew Caldwell, 
Thomas Ralston and James Caldwell came in 1846. 

Prominent among those who came in that year was Rev. Jacob Stover, 
a minister of the United Brethren Church and one of the pioneer preach- 
ers of Northern Indiana. He was a native of Augusta County, Va., 
where he lived until his marriage in 1835, at which time he came West 
and settled in this State, near the city of Richmond. In one of his preach- 
ing tours, he passed through Howard County, and being favorably impressed 
with the country he determined to make it his future home. He took a 
claim in this township near Wild Cat, on the Eli Lock farm, to which he 
moved his family a few weeks later, occupying a little deserted cabin 
near by until a more comfortable habitation could be erected. At that 
time he had charge of a number of churches in Howard and adjoining 
counties, and spent the greater part of his time traveling to and from his 
different appointments. His wife relates that during one of his preach- 
ing tours, which was extended longer than usual, on account of a long, 
spell of stormy weather, the family stock of meal gave out, and they were 
compelled to do without bread for a period of ten days. Later in his 
life, Stover took up the medical profession and secured an extensive practice 
among the pioneer communities of eastern Howard, He was a resident 
of this township for twenty- eight years, when he sold his real estate and 
moved to Kokomo. His death occurred in Centre Township about six 
years ago. 

During the year 1847, the following persons entered lands in the town- 
ship : Larkin Meyers and Samuel Lewis, in Section 11 ; John Evans, 
in Section 8 ; John D. Lockridge, in Section 12 ; George Stewart, in 


Section 13; Carey Brown, in Section 21; Smith Chambers, in Section 
24 ; John Wright, in Section 28 ; Phineas W. Johnson, in Section 33. 
Among those who came in 1847 was Timothy Templin, a native of High- 
land County, Ohio, and one of the oldest settlers living in the township 
at the present time. He moved to Henry County, this State, in an early 
day, where he married a daughter of Jacob Good. He settled in the 
southeast corner of this township in the year mentioned and has been for 
thirty-six years prominently identified with the growth and development 
of the country. 

During the year 1848, entries were made by Harrison Archer, Andrew 
Bray, Patrick Costlow, Vespasian Goyer, VV. B. Wilt, Noah Carter, 
Brinton Webster, John Terrell, John Kane, Samuel CofFman, J. W. Jack- 
son, Charles Thomas, Clerwell Pickett, Charles Elliott, Peter Shook, 
William McCormick, W. J. Brewer, Dennis Truax, Jesse Slider, Jacob 
Albright, John F. Russell, W. W. Thompson, George Rarey, William 
Webb, Lewis Odom, C. V. Justice, John Swift, James Davidson, G. 
Tirey, Thomas Watkins, William Bradbury, John F. Tate, Washington 
Garrell, Alfred Farlow; John Tribbett, William M. Stark, 0. Kizer, 
Thomas Hill, Michael Brownson, William Huston, Caleb Lane, Samuel 
King, Robert D. Palmer, Z. W. Baker, John W. Clements, Newton 
Mills, James Bell, William Brookbank, S. A. J. Brisey, and others 
of whom limited space forbids mention, 


The first election in the township was held at the residence of Carev 
Brown,near the Prairie Schoolhouse, in the year 1848. At this election the 
following township officers were elected: Daniel Martin, Salathiel Good and 
Timothy Templin, Trustees ; James Pollock, Clerk ; Whalen Todhunter, 
Treasurer; Andrew Caldwell and Wesley Jackson, Justices of the Peace. 


The first white child born within the present limits of Howard was a 
daughter of John Kane, whose birth occurred in the spring of 1848. 
Another early birth was in the family of James Tyler a few months later. 
A son of Bernhart Lerner was born about this time also. 

The first marriage in the township was solemnized in the year 1847 
by Rev. Mr. Skillman, the contracting parties being Larker North and 
Martha Dix. Their laudable example was soon afterward imitated by 
Patrick Dix and Elizabeth, daughter of David Tyler. Other early mar- 
riages were John Haas to Jane Stanley, H. Smith to Miss Templin, 
•J. Lee to Mary A. Strode and Jacob Templin to Delilah Fonts. 



The first burying ground in the township was laid out by Bernhart 
Lerner in the year 1848, and is known as the Salem Cemetery. It is 
situated in Section 27, and is one of the principal burying places in the 
township. The first interment in this cemetery was Catherine Bates, 
whose death occurred in 1848. Among others laid to rest here in an 
early day were Alexander Garringer, Mrs. Tyler, Mrs. Bernhart Lerner 
and Mrs. Kane. The Hopewell Cemetery was laid out about the same 
year, and the first interment therein was Jacob Good, one of the 
township's earliest pioneers. 


The citizens of Howard Township displayed an early interest in ed- 
ucational matters and among the pioneer institutions of the country may 
be noted the old log schoolhouse. The first settlers coming as they did 
from older States, where education was the rule, the majority of them 
were men and women of intelligence. The first building used for school 
purposes was a small cabin which had been previously occupied by the 
family of a squatter. It stood in the northern part of the township on 
Bernhart Lerner's land and was first used in 1845. The room was furnished 
-with a few rough benches made of logs split once and hewed smooth with 
a common chopping ax. These rested upon an uneven floor of the same 
material, which required no sweeping ; a broad board extended around the 
apartment next to the Avail and served the purpose of a writing desk 
during certain hours of the day ; a large fire-place occupied the greater part 
of one end of the building, in the construction of which neither brick 
nor stones were used, a bank of earth being merely thrown against the 
logs to keep them from taking fire. A small rough stand for the teacher 
completed the interior arrangement of the room, the whole lighted by a 
single window in which greased paper was used instead of glass. The first 
pedagogue who wielded the birch in this primitive structure was Salathiel 
Good, who is remembered as an able instructor. His school continued 
three months, numbered about fifteen pupils and was supported by sub- 

The second schoolhouse was built about the year 1848 and stood on 
Christian Loffer's place, a short distance west of David Farley's residence. 
It was a log house also, but a decided improvement on the one described, 
and was in use about seven years. Among the early teachers at this place 
were Salathiel Good, Anna Gordon and Harriet Smith. In 1850, a school- 
house was erected on Wild Cat, near the present residence of David 
Smith, and used the same year by Salathiel Good. Isaiah Roberts taught 
school about the same time in a house which stood a short distance north 
in Section 16. 


The first public schoolhouse was built on Timothy Teraplin's farm in 
the year 1854. It was a comfortable hewed-log structure, and served its 
purpose well for many years. Good taught the first term in this building, 
and was followed by C. Pettijohn, Thomas Armstrong and Richard 
Templin, in the order named. Other early teachers of the township were 
David Evans, Daniel Martin, Warren Truax, Isaac Whittaker, Joseph 
Dixon and William Styer. As time passed the number of schoolhouses 
increased ; the little log cabins gradually disappeared and were replaced 
by the more comfortable and commodious brick and frame buildings. 
There are at the present time ten good school buildings in the township, 
all of which are well supplied with the latest improved furniture and 
fixtures. The following list comprises the teachers in charge at the 
present time : J. N. Loop, John E. Lock, Robert L. Myers, Jacob C. 
Sipe, H. W. Fisher, Melissa Troyer, Ada Hemper, RoUa A. Trees, John 
A. Miller and Mattie Lovejoy. 

The early church history of Howard is involved in considerable ob- 
scurity, and many dates and interesting facts relating thereto have faded 
from the memory of the oldest inhabitants. The early settlers were a 
church-going people, and held public services from house to house for sev- 
eral years. These early meetings were attended by all, far and near, and 
served to bring remote settlements into social contact. Many of the pio- 
neer preachers were men singularly gifted with a powerful eloquence, 
which fired the hearts of their hearers, and many converts were gathered 
into the different churches. It is not positively known who preached the 
first sermon in the township, but, as near as can be ascertained, it was a 
Methodist minister by the name of Burns. He conducted a series of 
meetings at the residence of Bernhart Lerner, as early as 1845, and 
preached at intervals thereafter for two or three years. A class was or- 
ganized at Lerner's house, in the year 1848. by Revs. Brooks and Fenni- 
more, and the following names recorded as members : Bernhart Ler- 
ner and wife, Phebe Bates, Salathiel Good and wife, Martin Smith and 
wife, Timothy Templin and wife, Polly Thrailkill and Mrs. Hays. For 
one year, the little congregation had no house of worship, and held their 
public services, protracted and quarterly meetings, in private dwelling 
houses and groves. 

"No silver saints, by dying miserj given, 
Here bribed the rage of ill-requited Heaven, 
But such plain roofs as piety could raise, 
And only vocal with the Maker's praise." 

At a meeting held at Lerner's residence, in the latter part of 1849, 
steps were taken to erect a house of worship, and ground was selected for 


the purpose. Salathiel Good donated a half-acre of his farm, south of 
Wild Cat, in Section 35. A comfortable hewed-log edifice, 25x30 feet, 
was soon built thereon. At one of their early meetings, the society 
adopted the name Hopewell Methodist Episcopal Church, by which the 
class should be designated — a name which it still retains. The first pas- 
tor was Rev. Henry Badley, at that time in charge of the Kokomo Cir- 
cuit, to which this charge was attached shortly after its organization. 
Badley served the church very acceptably for two years, and was suc- 
ceeded by Rev. Forbes, who remained one year. After Forbes came 
Morrison, under whose labors the society was made amission of the Koko- 
mo Circuit. Since its organization, the church has been ministered to by 
the following pastors: Joseph Doyle, Samuel Rhodes, Moses Marks, 
Abraham Gorrell, Mr. Hoback, Nathan Shackleford, Joseph Shackleford, 
L. Miller, William Peck, Mr. Curry, Mr. Wadkins, John W. Miller, 
Casey, Bearaer, Lewellen, Baker, Samuel McElwee, John Harrison, Fish, 
John McElwee and L. J. Templin. The pastor in charge at the present 
time is Rev. Mr. Wilcox. The congregation, at a meeting held in the 
year 1874, resolved to build a new house of worship, and a considerable 
sum of money was at once subscribed ; work commenced and the result 
was the present building, which was completed and dedicated in the win- 
ter of 1874. It is a neat brick structure, with a seating capacity of 
about 300, and represents a capital of $2,500. It stands opposite the 
old building, on ground donated by William S. Sale. 

On the 6th day of August, 1845, Elder Laomi Ashley held a meeting 
at the residence of Thomas Martindale, near the present site of Cassville, 
and organized a society of the Christian, or "New Light" Church. A 
sermon was preached upon the occasion, and the following persons re- 
ceived into membership: John Hicks, Rebecca Hicks, Thomas Martin- 
dale, Francis Martindale, Jonathan Martindale, Elizabeth Martindale, 
William Stanley, Nancy Stanley, William Pearson, Mary Pearson, Ke- 
ziah Garrett and Elizabeth Dale. For several years, Martindale's resi- 
dence was used as a meeting place, and the society increased in numbers 
under the earnest labors of Ashley, and his successor. Elder Isaac John- 
son. Amcng the early pastors was Abraham Sneethen, who deserves 
more than a passing notice. He was a native of Virginia, and a man of 
unblemished character, and was considered quite a noted preacher in his 
day. At an early age, he moved to Ohio, when that State was on the 
outskirts of civilization, and settled with his parents near Cincinnati. 
He entered the ministry while yet a young man, and preached at Cincin- 
nati Avhen that city was a mere hamlet of a dozen houses. From Ohio 
he came to this State, where he became widely and favorably known as a 
pioneer evangelist. He was a sincere Christian, whose life was spent in 


*' going about doing good." 'Tis true, his oratory was not what could be 
termed classic, nor were his scholastic acquirements of that profound type 
considered so essential to the success of the modern divine ; yet he was 
endowed with a strong, practical mind, well furnished with plain, unvar- 
nished facts. He preached the Gospel of Christ with but few adorn- 
ments of rhetoric, and was untiring in his efforts to establish the cause of 
his Master among the sparsely settled localities of the new country. 
Several churches in this and adjoining counties were established through 
his instrumentality, for which he preached a number of years. His death 
occurred several years ago, in one of the Western States. Under Snee- 
then's labors, the church was re-organized March 27, 1853, with eleven 
members, whose names are as follows : David Truax, Sarah Truax, John 
M. Pearson, Dorothy Pearson, Benjamin Balinger, Nancy Balinger, 
Phebe Roberts, Cordelia Martindale, Elizabeth Kuowles, Delilah Martin- 
dale, Thomas Martindale and Francis Martindale. The Martindale 
Schoolhouse was used for public worship until tlieyear 1860, when ground 
was purchased in the village of Cassville, and a frame building erected. 
This house was a comfortable edifice, about 40x55 feet, and cost the sum 
of $1,500. It was used until 1866, when it was purchased by the town- 
ship for a schoolhouse. The present building was erected in the year 
1870. It is a frame structure about 40x60 feet, and will comfortably 
seat 300 persons. Among the pastors and stated supplies of the church 
during the last twelve years were N. Myers, B. D. Hays, Dr. John L. 
Puckett, John R. Kob, Lute Hercules and Rev. Mr. Ryker, present in- 

The Salem United Brethren Church was organized at the residence 
of Rev. Jacob Stover, in the year 1848, with twelve members, to wit : 
John Goyer and wife, John Oakley and wife, David Rarey and wife, Ja- 
cob Stover and wife, Vespasian Goyer and wife, and Erastus Welsh and 
wife. Services were held at Stover's residence for two years, when the 
organization was moved to the Loffer Schoolhouse. This house was the 
regular preaching place for about eight years, when it was given up for 
the Loop Schoolhouse, the latter being larger, and more suitable for 
church purposes. In the year 1871, the present neat temple of worship 
was erected at a cost of $2,500. It is a beautiful brick structure, and 
stands near the Salem Cemetery, in Section 27. The pastors who have 
ministered to the church at different times during its history are the fol- 
lowing: Revs. Mr. R. King, B. Witt, F. Morgan, George Mooth, William 
Ballon, Jonah Perkins, C. Smith, Gronendyke (under whose labors the 
building was erected). Bias, DeMumber and Joseph Mosier. The present 
pastor is Rev. Thomas Evans. The church at the present time numbers 
about twenty communicants. A good Sunday school is maintained. 


The Cassville Methodist Episcopal Church was organized about the 
year 1849, with a strong membership. Their first house of worship was 
built in 1856, but was not completed until three years later. It was used 
until the year 1874, at which time their present edifice was erected. This 
is a large, commodious brick building, the finest in the county outside of 
Kokomo, and cost the sum of $4,000. The church at the present time 
has a large membership, and is in a flourishing condition. 

The Vermont Methodist Episcopal Church is an oiFshoot of the Hope- 
well Methodist Church, and dates its history from the year 1875. The 
principal cause which led to its formation was the difficulty experienced 
by the members living north of the creek in reaching their place of wor- 
ship during inclement seasons. The class was organized with a member- 
ship of twenty-five, and attached to Jerome Circuit. A beautiful temple 
of worship was erected shortly after the organization, on land donated for 
the purpose by James Miller and Jacob Brunk. The building is brick, 
cost the sum of $2,500, and is the best church edifice in the circuit. The 
present membership is about thirty. Rev. Mr. Wilcox is pastor. 


Cassville is situated in the northeast quarter of Section 6, near the 
county line, on the Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railway. It was laid 
out September, 1848, by William and Nathan Stanley, and at one time 
achieved quite a reputation as a trading point. The circumstance which 
led to its origin was the surveying of the I., P. & C. R. R. through the 
country, an enterprise which promised much for the future welfare of our 
city. Among the first to purchase and improve lots in the village were 
David Evans, John Hicks, B. Martin and Patrick Ilarten. The last named 
started a saloon soon after his arrival, which gave the place an unsavory 
reputation always. This dram shop was of the vilest type, and proved a 
plague spot to the vilage and community as long as it remained. 

The first stock of goods was brought to the place by John and David 
Evans, who erected a good frame storehouse near the railroad. They did 
business very successfully about four years, when their stock was pur- 
chased by Samuel Martindale, who continued for a short time. The fol- 
lowing merchants sold goods in the village at different times : Josiah Hite, 
Daniel Martin, Martin & Lewellen, Mr. Goodson, Hill & Fortner, Miller 
& Logan, Mr. Stutler, William Petty, James Smallwood, N. Rader and 
Jonathan Small. The only business house in the place was burned in 
1882, and at the present time there is no store of any kind in the village. 

The following list comprises the medical gentlemen who have practiced 
their profession fi-om Cassville : Drs. A. Walter, Reuben King, McKen- 


zie, Davis, Flower, Ward, Bryant, Smith, Morrell, Langston, Bitler, 
Maughan, and Puckett, the present physician. 

The close proximity of the village to Kokomo, Miami and Bunker 
Hill has proved a serious hindrance to its growth, and at the present time 
it is but a mere hamlet of about a dozen houses. 


In the year 1845, Milton Hadley, a native of Ohio, came to the 
township, and settled near the southeast corner, where he took a claim. 
He made a treaty with the Indians, and secured from them a valuable 
tract of land in Section 7, in which he laid out the village of Vermont 
four years later. Hadley appears to have been a man of some energy 
and forethought. He platted his town for the ostensible purpose of secur- 
ing the county seat, but the selection of Kokomo for that purpose proved 
a death-blow to the village, and put an effectual check upon its develop- 
ment. One of the first houses in the town was erected by Charley Elli- 
son, and used by him for a grocery store and dram shop. His saloon 
was the general resort for the hard characters of the surrounding country, 
a fact which caused the place to be looked upon as a rough locality. An 
early merchant was Benjamin Jackson, who sold goods for about three 
years, when he disposed of his stock to John Colescott. The last store 
was kept by Charles Lindley. Joshua Galway started a tan-yard in the 
village about the year 1850, and kept it up five or six years. It proved 
a paying venture, and was conducted very successfully. Galway had a 
blacksmith shop also, which he operated in connection with his other busi- 

The city of Kokomo on the west and Greentown on the east absorbed 
the business interests of Vermont to such an extent that the town plat was 
finally abandoned, and of the city of large pretensions nothing now remains 
but a plowed field. On the completion of the Toledo, Delphos & St. Louis 
Narrow-Guage Railroad through the township in 1880, a station was es- 
tablished near the original village, and a good business house erected. 
There is a good store at the present time kept by James Miller, a 
grain house belonging to Russell, Dolman & Co., of Kokomo, and a post 




Clay Township is situated in the northern part of Howard County, 
and is bounded on the north by Cass County, on the east by Howard 
and Centre Townships, on the south by Centre and the Big Wild Cat, and 
on the west by Ervin. It was formerly a part of Kokomo Township, 
but was set oif and organized under the acts of 1851 and 1852, and 
named in honor of the great champion of American rights, Henry Clay. 
It contains about twenty-seven sections of excellent land, somewhat low 
and level in the nothern part, and considerably of a rolling or broken 
nature in the southern part of the township. 

The Wild Cat and its many small tributaries in the southern part, and 
several large open ditches through the central and northern part, form the 
drainage system of this section. The soil consists mostly of a rich black 
loam, and is capable of a high state of cultivation. The history of this town- 
ship extends back over a period of forty-four years, when the waters of the 
Wild Cat only eddied to the splash of the Indian oarsman, and the deer, 
bear and wild cat held undisputed sway in the gloomy solitudes of the un- 
broken forest. 


In 1838, a man by the name of Taylor, desiring to locate himself in 
the " Seven Mile Strip," took a claim on a tract now known as the Sim- 
mons farm. Finding himself out of the bounds of this strip, he deserted 
this claim, and moved over into the present limits of Honey Creek. The 
Taylor claim T. A. Long obtained possession of two years later, paying 
a man by the name of Heart for the same the sum of $100. The cabin 
on this claim stood west of Simmons' barn, while Long's little gun- 
smith shop stood in the front yard, not more than thirty feet from the pike. 

In the summer of 1841, it is thought, the first patch of corn in the 
county was raised on this place ; some two years after Long put out on 
this place the first nursery in the county. In 1840, a man by the name 
of McHone settled near a prairie in the northern part, which tract after- 
ward bore the name of " McHone Prairie." The next year, Peter Gay 
and Chris Cromer and a Mr. Linden settled in the southern part of the 

In ' 1842, tliose who settled in this part were Samuel McClellan, 
Harvey Johnson, Jason Clark, James McCalley, David Ilowser, David 
Lambert, S. B. Lambert and Warwick Johnson. The next year wit- 
nessed the arrival of W. H. Conwell, Capt. T. M. Kirkpatrick, 


Thomas Dimitt, Adam Smith, W. B. Smith, George Dimitt, Holeman 
Dimitt, Jacob Holeman, M. W. Carr, Daniel Richards, John Gar- 
den, Thomas M. Carrothers, Crawford Griffith, James Thompson, 
George W. Smith, Moses Scott and Sampson Allen. This was during 
the time that David Foster had his trading house on the Seven Mile 
boundary, some twenty rods north of the crossing of the Wild Cat pike 
and the road running on the east side of W. W. Smith's farm. The 
house was contructed of logs and stoutly built, with port holes in the 
walls. The store room was on the Seven Mile territory, while the 
counter over which he sold goods was in the Reserve. It is thought that 
this peculiar location was chosen to evade the law in selling whisky to 
the Indians on Government territory. This was at a time when cucum- 
bers sold for $1 a dozen, needles $1 a piece, and no woman in this part 
of the State other than the good wife of Foster could " sit down on a 
half bushel of silver dollars." 


The first religious meetings were held in private families, while the 
first preaching we have any account of was done by Frank Taylor, in 
1842. After him, the Gospel was preached to the pioneer settlers by 
David Rush, George W. Smith, Jacob Colclazer, Lewis Johnson, and 
others. In 1845, the Methodists built a log church on Spice Run, near 
Capt. Kirkpatrick's house, and in the same year a log schoolhouse was 
built on the Long farm. Among the pedagogues of birchen fame are the 
names of Julia Chaffin, David Rush, Silas Baldwin, David Lambert, W. 
B. Smith, Robert McClelland and Charles Price. 

The first post office was in the house of George W. Smith, near Bell's 
Prairie, on a route from Kokorao to Logansport. Before the township 
was organized, Capt. Kirkpatrick served as Justice of the Peace. 

The first election after the organization of the township was held at 
the house of David Ridgeley, and resulted as follows : Thomas M. Carro- 
thers, A. M. Reeves and W. Daley, Trustees; L. Scott, Treasurer; J. 
W. Campbell, Clerk ; T. A. Long and S. S. Crail, Justices of the Peace ; 
A. Brown and B. B. Preble, Constables. 

On T. A. Long's place was the great carnping-ground of the Miami 
Indians, who came from along Deer Creek and Pipe Creek to trade with 
Foster. There yet remains in a ravine on the south side of this place an 
old Indian spring, nicely walled with stone, while a great many stone 
implements are also found here. On this place, southeast of the house, 
are three large sinks, all in a line. Two of these are perfectly round, and 
each some forty feet across, while the third and larger one is a little more 
oblong, and is about 120 feet across. On account of being situated on a 


high bluff, these sinks could not have been the work of beavers, and we 
are therefore inclined to believe them to be the work of Mound-Builders. 
It was in the old orchard west of the run, on this same place, that Pete 
Cornstalk, the peace chief, murdered an Indian brother for a slight prov- 
ocation. In different parts of the township are evidences of the exist- 
ence of iron ore, and also the finest deposits of gravel in Howard County. 


The first meeting of the Township Board of Trustees took place on 
April 11, 1853. The report says: "The Board of Trustees of Clay 
Township met April 11, and organized by choosing A. W. Daily, Presi- 
dent, and not being in possession of the laws defining the duties of Trust- 
ees, they adjourned to meet April 30, 1853." The first order of the 
board was made April 30, 1853, when it was ordered, " that the County 
Auditor be notified that the Board of Trustees of the township have levied 
a tax of 5 cents on each f 100 for road purposes, and a tax of 10 cents on 
each $100 for township purposes." On August 6, 1853, it was ordered 
" that school-house No. 1 be located in the neighborhood of T. A. Long; 
No. 2 in the neighborhood of John Miller ; No. 3 in the neighborhood of 
Josiah Marcum ; No. 5 in the neighborhood of Jacob Holeman. The 
schoolhouses are to be built of hewed logs, twenty feet square, with shingle 
roof — that is, Nos. 1, 2 and 3. Tax payers may put in work in lieu of 
paying the money by the 1st of November. The work for repairs on 
schoolhouse No. 5 will be taken by that time. Wages, 65 cents per day." 

On March 25, 1854, the following badly spelled order was made: 
" Now comes Moholan S. Reaves, School Teacher in District No. 4, and 
files his Report by an Afadaved to the Township Clerk, for the Terra of 
Forty-Foure days, at the rate of sixty Dollars per quarter, witch Report 
was alowed By the Board of Trustees." 


The first brick house in the township was built by H. W. Smith in 
1859. The township is traversed by four excellent gravel roads, and a 
division of the Pan-Handle Railroad, all running into Kokomo. On the 
railroad is located a small town and post office, which bears the name of 
Jewell, although no plat of a town was ever made. 

The principal church in the township is that of " Shiloh," erected in 
1874, under the direction of the Trustees, Daniel Spraker, James H. 
Kerlin and John Hamilton; and Treasurer, William W. Smith. The 
church was dedicated in June of the same year. The estimated cost was 
$1,700. The society is in a flourishing condition under C. E. White as 
pastor. There is also a small church at Jewell. 


The Shiloh Cemetery is on a nice lot of ground just west of the 
church. The first interment was made in 1864. The first Trustees 
were J. W. Lanham, William W. Smith and Willard Johnson. 

There are eleven school districts in the township, each of which is 
supplied with a good frame or brick schoolhouse. 

The principal occupation of the laboring class outside of farming is that 
of the saw milling business, there being several saw mills located in different 
parts of the township. A mercantile and blacksmithing business is car- 
ried on at Jewell. 

The township is somewhat Democratic on the State election. It has, 
however, elected a Republican Trustee (Mr. B. B. Preble) the last two 
elections. The vote for Secretary of State for 1882 was as follows : 134 
Republican, 147 Democrat, and 25 National. 

The value of the land in the township amounts to $237,820, while 
the improvements on the same foot up |64,825. Of personal property, 
the records show a grand total of $79,200, making a total of taxable 
property of $381,845. The total tax for 1882 amounted to $7,510.39. 

In comparing the history of Clay Township of 1873 with that of 
1882, we find that there have been many marked changes in the popula- 
tion, taxation and drainage. Although there were a less number of 
school districts in 1873 than in 1882, yet the enrollment of children be- 
tween the ages of six and twenty-one, in 1873, is 519, while the list for 
1882 only foots up to 405. The common school revenue for 1873 was 
$1,113.66, against $473.39 in 1882. The special school tax for 1873 
lacked $296.37 of equaling that for 1882, the amount for the first date 
being $494.96, and for 1882, $791.33. The township tuition tax shows 
a falling ofi" of $451.02, the showing for 1873 being $661.39, and for 
1882 only $210.37. Thus, we have a total of school fund moneys of 
$2,270.01 for 1873, against $1,475.09 for the year of 1882. 

The road tax for 1873 was $365.89, while in 1882 the amount was 
only $67.57, thus showing a falling off of nearly $300. The township tax 
for 1873 was $21.35, and for 1882, $96.92. The dog tax for 1873 was 
$72.80, and for 1882, $59.11. The license fund of the township for the 
year 1882 was $92.46. 

The census of 1880 showed a population in the township of 1,340. 


The drainage system of the township up to 1873, was very meager 
compared with what it is at present. But a few small open ditches then 
helped to carry the water away from the marshy districts of the township, 
while now there are nearly a half score of large county ditches in the 
township and several more under comtemplation. The first ditching 


companies formed in Clay for the purpose of making better the drainage 
system were organized under the law of 1873, as the Clay Union and 
also the Howser Drainage Association. Under the acts of 1875, the 
county began its work of constructing public ditches. Now we have the 
McReynolds ditch extending from Clay into Ervin, constructed at a 
cost of $7,285 ; the Bulk ditch of some seven miles in length, cost- 
ing $5,294.25 ; the James E. Kidder ditch, costing $2,708.84 ; the 
Levi Conwell ditch, costing $1,920 ; the John Locus ditch, costing $1,- 
112.71 ; the William Conwell ditch, constructed at a cost of $3,346.73 ; 
and the Huston ditch, at a cost of $2,127. The estimated cost of the 
John Davis ditch is $4,064.50. Probably the longest and most expens- 
ive ditch in this part of the State, called the Tate & Harness ditch, will 
run through a good part of Clay. The length of this ditch will be about 
eleven miles and will cost $15,038.94. Besides those mentioned, the 
John M. Fossett and Harlan ditches are now constructino-. 



Ervin Township is the largest township in Howard County, and is 
situated in the northwestern part of the county. It is seven miles north 
and south and six miles east and west, thus containing forty-two square 
miles. It is bounded on the north by Cass County, on the east by Clay 
Township, on the south by Monroe Township and Wild Cat River and 
on the west by Carroll County. This township is part of the land ceded 
by the General Government to Indiana, and from her to the Wabash & 
Erie Canal for its construction. The eastern and northeastern portions of 
the township are very low and swampy ; the northwestern and southern 
parts of the township are sufficiently undulating to make fine agricultural 
lands with but little underdraining. No better soil can be found any- 
where than is possessed by Ervin Township. It is a black sandy loam, the 
soil being very deep and almost inexhaustible. It can be farmed for years 
without rest or change and still be productive. 

The great drawback to much of the land in Ervin for agricultural use 
was the fact of its being so low and swampy. Crops were ruined by the 
rain whenever the spring season proved a little wet. The land lying in 
such large quantities needing drainage, the underground drains were 
impracticable. Therefore the farmers have taken to the construction of 
open ditches — great canals for the discharge of this surplus water. 
These now thread the township in every direction and much land 
which a few years ago was deemed almost valueless, is now among the 


most productive to be found in the township. These drains have also 
been instrumental in carrying away the water formerly stagnant in ponds 
all over the township. Soon after the rainy season closed in early sum- 
mer, this water, gathering in pools, caused much malaria. Chills and 
fever were the scourge of the day, commencing the latter part of 
August and lasting until cold winter froze the ague out of the people, 
as it were. Many times all the members of a family would be stretched 
upon beds of sickness at the same time, no one being able to wait 
upon any other. Quinine was a staple article of commerce. The writer 
has known many families who purchased the drug at wholesale, as it 
was thus obtained much cheaper. Those days have happily passed, and 
now there is no more healthy part of the country. 


The early settlers of Ervin Township were from Ohio, Pennsylvania and 
Virginia. They Avere a hardy, economical hard-working people, sober and 
religious. No community was ever blessed by a better class of immigrants. 

The township was named Ervin in honor of Robert Ervin, an earlv 
settler, and one of the first Associate Justices of the early county of 
Richardville, now Howard. He settledon the old John Young farm, now 
owned by Tom Ridgeway. 

Robert Walker, who lived in Miami County, near Peru, came into 
Ervin Township in the early part of 1838. He remained here some six 
or eight weeks, hunting and fishing. He was much pleased with what he 
saw, and in the early fall of 1838 he sold his little possessions near Peru 
and started for what is now Ervin Township. He induced Isaac Price, 
Joseph Taylor and his son, George Taylor, to accompany him to the 
forests of Ervin. When they arrived, they fell to preparing homes for 
themselves and families. Soon the pioneer's cabin was ready for the re- 
ception of its humble occupants. Isaac Price and his family settled on 
the farm now known as the Col. Richmond farm. Here Mrs. Price gave 
birth to a daughter, Mary C. Price, on the 15th day of August, 1839, 
being the first white child born in Ervin Township. The mother never 
fully regained her health, and in the fall of the same year, she died here, 
making the second death in this county. 

In the latter part of 1838, the father of George W. Brown settled in the 
northwestern part of Ervin Township, and commenced making for himself 
a home in the forest. The old Brown farm is now one of the best in the 
township. George W. Brown still lives in the township, near the west 
end of the Pete's Run gravel road. 

In 1839, Capt. John Harrison, an old soldier of the war of 1812, set- 
tled in Ervin, on the farm now owned by T. A. Harrell. He was the 



first Sheriff elected by the people of the new county, and the election was 
held at his house, this, also, being the first election held in the county. 
Soon after this, Joshua Barnett erected the first store in the township, 
and also erected a saw mill, and attached a corn-cracker thereto. This 
proved a great convenience to the pioneer fathers, as it enabled them to 
get their corn meal near at home. Previous to this, they were compelled 
to go fifteen and twenty miles for this prime necessity. The old mill is 
now known as Cromwell's mill, being on the west side of the boundary 
line, on the Wild Cat pike. 

David Foster established a trading post on the boundary line, in 1840, 
for the purpose of trading with the Indians. To say that poor Lo never 
got the best of him in a trade, would be stale, as his cunning has become 
proverbial in this county. The old settlers never weary of recounting his 
wonderful exploits. 

In 1841, Jacob Price and his family followed their son, Isaac. This 
year also came David Bates and William Y. Gearheard. Uncle Billy 
Oearheard died but a short time ago, at the advanced age of ninety- 


David Bates was the first blacksmith to set up a shop in the county. 

The first post office in the township was at Poplar Grove, in the north- 
western part of the township. This is a small village, if it is of sufficient 
importance to be denominated such, and is the only one in this large and 
flourishing township. There is nothing there now but the post office and 
a blacksmith shop. 

The other two post offices are " Ervin " and " Ridgeway." Dr. I. 
W. Martin is Postmaster at Ervin, and has been since its establishment 
in 1862. He is also one of the pioneer physicians and old settlers. 
When the sickly seasons would begin, in the " auld lang syne," then the 
jolly Doctor would reap a harvest. He delighted in giving a fellow 
quinine, and then laughing at him for swearing it was bitter. Daniel 
Booerholser is the Postmaster at Ridgeway. At Ervin and Ridgeway, 
there are country stores kept by the Postmasters. 

William Butcher erected the first brick house in the township in 
1854 ; he had moved here from Decatur County, Ind. The house still 
stands in a perfect state of preservation, and is now inhabited by John 
Wilson, Esq., his son-in-law. It was here that Uncle Billy died. Uncle 
Bobby Coate built the first flouring mill in the township, in the year 
1846, at Poplar Grove. He also erected a saw mill, which proved to be 
a valuable property, as the township was now being very rapidly settled, 
and sawed lumber was in great demand. 



Pete's Run and Deer Creek are the only streams of water in the 
township. Pete's Run was named in honor of Peter Cornstalk, a cele- 
brated Miami chief. He was buried on the farm of Dan Flora, and there 
his bones rested in peace until the spring of 1878, when Dr. W. L. Price^ 
now of Windfall, without the fear of disturbing his soul, resurrected his 
bones and found a hunting knife, powder horn and flask. The Doctor 
now has the skeleton in his office. Pete's Run rises in the eastern part 
of the township, runs in a southwesterly direction, and empties into the 
Wild Cat, near the southwestern part of the township. Deer Creek rises 
in Clay Township on the east of Ervin, and flows in a northwesterly di- 
rection until it leaves the township ; it finally empties into the Wabash. 

Those who came at an early date found plenty of work in making 
their farms. The township was covered with a dense growth of very 
heavy timber. All the different varieties of timber native to this county 
were there in great profusion. Timber was destroyed in order to get rid 
of it, that would now bring ^100 per tree. Walnut, poplar, oak, elm 
and other varieties were growing in great quantities. The township is 
now in the vanguard of Howard's progress. There are magnificent 
farms, schoolhouses, churches, gravel roads, and everything necessary to 
comfort and happiness. The most approved agricultural implements are 
employed in the cultivation of the land, the stumps have been mainly 
taken out of the fields, so that farming is now a pleasure as well as a 
profit. Nearly all of the land within its borders is now in shape to be 
cultivated, and is valuable, appraising from $40 to |100 per acre. 


The early settlers of the township, aside from those already named, 
were Alexander Forgy, James McCool, James Burnett, Daniel Smith 
and Alif Henly. These came in the years 1842 and 1843. After this, 
people commenced coming in very rapidly, and among them were Blu- 
ford Hawkins, Abraham Brubaker, John Flora, Jacob Early, Sr., John 
B. Early, James Forgy, Daniel Lambert, Charles Standiford, Joel Brower, 
Levi Beckner, Jackson McDowell, James Ridgeway, Sr., Ephraim Woods, 
J. L. D. Hanna, Capt, John Harrison, Amos Bates, Samuel Bortsfield, 
Francis M. Power, Jacob Lawrence, Ralph French (afterward for many 
years Township Trustee), John Rider, Henry H. Gillam, William Ma- 
laby, Burrell Bell, Silas Baldwin, Benjamin Tucker and Abram Flora. 
Of the above, only a few are still living, the others having gone to the 
better world. 



There are six church houses in the township at present. The Friends 
have a house of worship a little way east of Poplar Grove, with quite a 
number of communicants. 

In the northeastern part of the township is the house of the United 
Brethren, near the old Ralph French farm. The same denomination 
have a beautiful church building just south of Poplar Grove. There is 
a Baptist Church, about two miles east of Ervin Post Oflfice, called Judson. 
The Christian Church has a good building on the Wild Cat gravel road, 
near the west end of the pike, as has also the old order of German Bap- 
tists, on the farm of Peter Miller, near the end of the same pike. This 
is a beautiful new building and is supported by a wealthy class of wor- 
shipers. In fact, all these different denominations are in a flourishing 
state. The colored folks are quite numerous in this township, and have 
a school of their own, generally taught by a person of color, and there 
is also a church of the same people of the Baptist faith. Richard Bas- 
sett is their pastor. 


When it became necessary to choose county officers, the first election 
in the county was held at Capt. John Harrison's, on the farm now owned 
by T. A. Harrell. The building in which this election was held was 
built for Capt. Harrison by Mr. Penny, father of Col. E. W. Penny, of 
Kokomo. The same building still stands, and the original roof turns 
water quite well yet. There was not then as much interest manifested 
as now in politics, and the election was a very quiet one. 

In 1844, there was an assessment made upon the township. Charles 
Price, son of Isaac Price, one of the very first settlers of the township, 
was the Assessor. 

The first church was built by the Quakers at Poplar Grove, in the 
year 1848. The same place claims the honor of the first schoolhouse, and 
Robert Coate was the first teacher. The first Justice of the Peace was 
Daniel Cline, Esq., and Daniel Flora, David Smith and William King 
were the first Trustees. 

Dr. James M. Darnall and Mr. Anderson, of Burlington, were among 
the earliest physicians to practice in this township. Doctor A.nderson 
still resides in Burlington and practices his profession. Dr. Darnall has 
been a resident of Kokomo for some time, where he is held in high esteem 
by all its citizens. Dr. Martin has been for many years the principal 
physician of the township. He is still in the enjoyment of a large 


One of the first, if not the first marriage in the county, was that of 
William Walker to a step-daughter of Isaac Price. Certainly, it was 
the first marriage in the township. This was in January, IS-tl, four 
years before Kokomo was selected as tbe county seat of the new county. 

H. Hamilton, one of the early preachers of the township, is still alive 
at an advanced age. He was a man of remarkable power, and was one 
of the most able backwoods preachers in the State of Indiana. Other 
preachers were Harper Hanna, Daniel Flynn, John Low and Benjamin 
Underwood. Rev. Joel Brower has been a minister of the Gospel for 
many years. He is still in the enjoyment of good health at the age of 
seventy-five. Alif Henly and George W. Harness Sr., lived to a great 
age. Henly died at the age of one hundred and ten years, while Mr. 
Harness was considerably past one hundred years. George W. Harness, 
Jr., is now living in the township at an advanced age. 

Ervin Township did her full duty toward supplying Howard's quota 
in the field during the war of the rebellion, and no soldiers ever did bet- 
ter service. Joseph Bright, an old pioneer, sent five sons to the front, 
who remained until the war closed. Of the five. Peach and Isaac were 
drowned by the explosion of a boat on the Mississippi River, while on 
their way home after the war had closed. Sault T. Butcher, George 
Butcher, Isaac N. Butcher, John B. Butcher and A. P. Butcher, five 
sons of William Butcher, Esq., served in the war of the rebellion, and all 
were so fortunate as to get home alive. 

The following are the present officials of Ervin: John B. Butcher, 
Trustee ; Cornelius Rice and Judge Markland, Justices of the Peace. 


The schools of Ervin have ever been noted for their efficiency and high 
standing. Some of the best country schools to be found anywhere are 
in Ervin. Much credit is due to the old teachers, who have been en- 
gaged in the work for years, among whom may be mentioned John B. 
Miller, Luther McDowell, Noah Whisler and Alvin McDowell. The 
teachers for the past winter were as follows : Henry C. Miller, Elmer 
Bryan, Jordan Tucker, George Miller, Luther McDowell, William 
H. Thompson, Alvin McDowell. 



THOMAS A. ARMSTRONG, one of the pioneers of Howard County 
and one who has assisted by energy and means in advancing the city of Ko- 
komo to its present prosperity, was born in Bucks County, Penn., February 
14, 1795. His parents, Abraham and Nancy A. (Geary) Armstrong, were 
also natives of Pennsylvania, and moved to Pittsburgh when he was in his 
infancy. He was reared and attended school in the latter city until he 
was sixteen years of age. He then went to Philadelphia and entered the 
law office of an uncle, Thomas Armstrong, with whom he remained four 
years. In 1814, he was admitted to the bar and practiced his profession 
in Philadelphia until 1820. He then located in Pittsburgh, where he wag 
admitted to practice in the Supreme Courts, and remained engaged in the 
active duties of his profession for a short time only. He then emigrated 
to Ohio and located in Clinton County, where, for a number of years, he 
resided, engaged in the practice of his profession, subsequently re- 
turning to Pennsylvania, where he resided for. three years. Mr. Arm- 
strong, in 1851, came to Kokomo and purchased forty acres of land, upon 
which part of the city is now located. At this period, there were but few 
inhabitants, and the land purchased by him worth only about $15 per acre. 
Here he has since resided ; he practiced law for a few years and was in- 
terested in general merchandising, which business was conducter' by 
his sons for several years. He then abandoned active business life, his 
son, Thomas S. Armstrong, taking the goods to Tipton, where he is still 
engaged and conducting a successful business. After abandoning mer- 
cantile pursuits, Mr. Armstrong was elected Justice of the Peace, the du- 
ties of which office he satisfactorily administered for four years. Mr. Arm- 
strong was united in marriage in Clinton County, Ohio, July 1, 1824, to 
Miss Sallie E. Grant, a native of Virginia. They have reared a family of 
eight children, seven boys and one girl — Thomas S., a resident of Tipton, 
Edward A., Horace A. (deceased), Charles G., Addison F., Alexander 
C, Walter S. and Lizzie A. Of this family they have every reason to 
be proud ; of the sons, each has attained high standing in professional, 
mercantile, political and social spheres, and are men of unblemished 
reputations. Thomas A. Armstrong is now living with his faithful wife in 


retirement at his pleasant home in the northwestern portion of the city, 
and although well advanced in the " sere and yellow leaf," his eighty- 
eight years sit lightly upon him. His wife, now eighty-three years of 
age, is also bright and active. Mr. Armstrong has been a faithful mem- 
ber of the Christian Church for over forty years, and has been an Elder 
for many years. All the members of his family are also connected with 
this church ; they have all been liberal in their support and active and 
faithful workers in upholding this faith in Howard County. 

E. A. ARMSTRONG, M. D., one of the old and successful practition- 
ers of Howard County, is a native of Clinton County, Ohio, where he was 
born December 25, 1827. He received the education such as the common 
schools of that period afforded until he was qualified to teach ; this he fol- 
lowed at intervals, assisting upon the farm until he was about twenty-three 
years of age. He then decided upon the medical profession as his life work, 
and went to Pittsburgh, where, under the tutelage of an uncle, Dr. Charles 
Armstrong, he remained about three years. In 1851, he came with his 
parents to Howard County, and the following year he entered the Rush 
Medical College of Chicago, attending lectures one term. He then com- 
menced the practice of his profession at Russiaville, where he remained 
ten years, engaged in active and successful practice. In 1857, he attended 
the Ohio Medical College, located at Cincinnati, and graduated from that 
institution in 1858. In 1865, he removed to Kokomo, and soon after 
formed a partnership with Drs. Johnson & Cooper. In 1875, he formed 
his present professional partnership by admitting Dr. J. McLean 
Moulder, who had been a student with him for a number of years. Dr. 
Armstrong has been-^in continuous practice in Howard County for over 
thirty years, and has established a remunerative business. He is well read 
and keeps up with the advancement of the times, in all matters, as well as 
in his profession. In the field of surgery. Dr. Armstrong ranks high 
among the operative surgeons of Indiana. His long experience and 
especial study of this most important branch eminently qualify him, and 
the remarkable success attending his operations has given him the lead 
over all his professional brethren in this work. Dr. Armstrong is a 
member of the State and County Medical Societies, and of the Kokomo 
Academy of Medicine. Of the county society and academy, he has 
served as President. Dr. Armstrong is also a member of the hard- 
ware firm of Armstrong, Pickett & Co., one of the largest mercantile 
houses in the county, and is interested in considerable farming land 
in Howard and Tipton Counties. He was united in marriage, in 1861, 
to Miss Sarah J. Ratcliff, of Russiaville. She died in 1863. Dr. Arm- 
strong is an influential member of the Christian Church, and has taken 
a leading interest and aided largely in the construction of the new 


church edifice. He is a progressive member of the Democratic party and 
one of the most respected citizens of Kokomo. 

DR. HORACE A. ARMSTRONG (deceased) was born in Clinton 
County, Ohio, December 25, 1829, and was reared on a farm, receiving a 
good common school education of that day. In 1849, he removed with 
his father's family to Pittsburgh, Penn., where he commenced the study 
of medicine with his uncle, Charles L. Armstrong, M. D. In 1851, he 
removed to Kokomo, Ind., and engaged in farming, teaching and pre- 
paring for his chosen profession. In 1856, he formed a partnership with 
Dr. J. A. James, both in the practice of medicine and in the hardware 
trade, and continued a member of the hardware firm of James, Armstrong 
& Co. (now the firm of Armstrong, Pickett & Co.), for ten years, but 
gave his time and attention to the practice of medicine, having graduated 
in 1858, at the Medical College of Ohio, with the highest honors of his 
class. During his practice in Howard County, he stood at the head of his 
profession. Dr. Armstrong died in 1868, having led a consistent life in 
the Christian Church, leaving an example well worthy of imitation. In 
February, 1861, Dr. Armstrong was married to Ella C. Mathers, of 
Meadville, Penn., who, previous to her marriage, was a teacher of elocu- 
tion in the Allegheny City College. She was a woman of rare intellect- 
ual ability, and a prominent member of the Christian Church. Mr. 
Armstrong left two children, A. Buell and E. Armor, both young at the 
time of their father's death. 

A. F, ARMSTRONG, one of the representative business men of In- 
diana, is a native of Clinton County, Ohio, where he was born April 1, 
1835, and where he received a common school education. In 1849, he 
came to Kokomo, and has made it his home up to the present time. In 
1856, he, with Dr. J. A. James and H. A. Armstrong, founded the pres- 
ent business house of which he is still the head, and the remarkable suc- 
cess of which is due, in a great measure, to his skillful management and 
able financiering. For about thirty years, Mr. Armstrong has been act- 
ively engaged in the mercantile business, persistently carrying out the 
fixed purpose of his life. His career has been one of continuous prosper- 
ity, the result of industry, integrity, and fair, honorable dealing. Mr. 
Armstrong helped to organize the city of Kokomo, and was a member of 
the first Council, in which capacity he served eight consecutive years. 
He has assisted all progressive measures for the improvement and ad- 
vancement of the material wealth of Howard County, and in all works of 
charity and benevolent societies he is a liberal supporter. In politics, 
Mr. Armstrong has always been an ardent and influential Democrat. 
He was elected to the State Senate in 1870, and held that position until 
1874, serving three terms, and through the special session of 1872. His 


genial and gentlemanly deportment has always made him popular in his 
district, and in 1876, when candidate for Congress from the Eleventh 
District, he reduced the Republican majority from 3,100 to 1,400. In 
1878, when a candidate for the nomination as State Auditor, he received 
nearly as large a vote as the numerous candidates combined, with the ex- 
ception of Gen. Manson, who received the nomination. He has held 
various minor offices in the county, all of which have been discharged 
with fidelity and honor. In educational matters, Mr. Armstrong has 
always taken a progressive interest, and has served upon the School Board 
of Kokomo. In June, 1863, Mr. Armstrong was united in marriage 
with Miss Mary S. Brandon, daughter of Montgomery and Martha 
Brandon, of Kentucky, who were pioneer settlers of Indiana, settling in 
this State in 1834. Mr. B, died in Kokomo in 1880, surviving his be- 
loved wife only a few months. Mr. Brandon was for many years promi- 
nently identified with the progress of the State, and a respected citizen. 
Mrs. Armstrong is foremost in all good deeds, and has given much atten- 
tion to public and charitable works, such as President of the Orphans' 
Home, of the Suifrage Club, and the Ladies' Lecture Association, besides 
taking an active interest in the cause of temperance and all good works. 
They have been blessed with two children, Jennie and Sherman, who 
died in infancy. In religion, Mr. and Mrs. Armstrong are influential 
and leading members of the Christian Church, being members for many 
years. Mr. Armstrong has aided largely and been instrumental in clear- 
ing off the church debt, and in giving freely his time, means and energy 
to the upbuilding of the same. He helped to organize the first church of 
this faith in Howard County, and assisted in rearing its first edifice. In 
all of his business, social and political relations, Mr. Armstrong has always 
pursued an honorable and conscientious course, and is universally regarded 
as one of the citizens of whom Howard County is justly proud. 

W. S. ARMSTRONG, Mayor of Kokomo, is a native of Clinton 
County,Ohio, where he was born in 1838. At the age of thirteen, his parents 
moved to Howard County, Ind, Here he was reared and educated, re- 
ceiving good educational advantages. In 1862, he removed to Tipton 
and engaged in the hardware trade with his brother, remaining in that 
business four years. In 1866, he was appointed Auditor of Tipton 
County, and later in the same year was elected to that office. At the 
expiration of his term, he was re-elected in 1870, serving two terms, 
honorably and faithfully. He then removed to his fiirm adjoining Tip- 
ton, upon which he resided four years, engaged in stock-dealing and 
farming. In 1878, he returned to Kokomo, where he has since resided. 
Upon coming to Kokomo, he engaged with his brothers in the hardware 
business, continuing with them until the fall of 1880, when he was elected 


Mayor of Kokomo, to succeed Dr. Cole, deceased. This oflSce, Mr. 
Armstrong is still administering. He served two terms as member of the 
Common Council, resigning while serving the last term, to accept the 
office of Mayor. In politics, Mr. Armstrong has always affiliated with 
the Democratic party, but is not a partisan in his views, being conserva- 
tive and liberal. He is one of the leaders of his party in the county. Mr. 
Armstrong is progressive in his ideas and advocates all measures of im- 
provement. He is a liberal supporter of all works of charity and be- 
nevolent associations, and ranks as a citizen of worth. In the discharge 
of the duties of the office in which he is now serving, Mr. Armstrong 
has been wise and judicious, and meets the approval of his fellow-citizens. 
He is a member of the A., F. & A. M., I. 0. 0. F. and the K. of P. 
Mr. Armstrong was married in 1869 to Miss Mattie Winfield, a native 
of Ohio. They have four children — Walter Winfield, Horace Howard, 
Jessie and Merle. Mr. and Mrs. Armstrong are members of the Chris- 
tian Church of Kokomo. He was re-elected Mayor of the city of Ko- 
komo on the 1st day of May, 1883, for the period of two years. 

A. B. ARMSTRONG, son of Dr. Horace A. Armstrong, is a native 
of Howard County and was born in Kokomo December 31, 1861. He 
was educated in Kokomo, graduating from the schools of that city in 
1881. He also is a graduate of Bryant & Stratton's Commercial Col- 
lege of Indianapolis. After finishing his education, he entered the hard- 
ware store of Armstrong, Pickett & Co., of Kokomo, and was for some 
time an active and efficient assistant. He still retains an interest in this 
firm. He is now engaged in the boot and shoe trade, his location being 
upon the east side of the public square. Mr. Armstrong carries a large 
and elegant stock of goods and has established a good trade. As a busi- 
ness man, he possesses superior qualifications, and he bids fair to become 
one of the leading merchants of the city. He was married in Kokomo, 
February 7, 1883, to Miss Dora McBride, of Michigan City, Ind. 

ARMSTRONG, PICKETT & CO., the leading mercantile house 
of Howard County, wholesale and retail dealers in hardware, implements, 
stoves, etc. In the spring of 1856, Messrs. J. A. James, H. A. Arm- 
strong and A. F. Armstrong commenced business in the village of Ko- 
komo, in a building on the east side of the public square. They occu- 
pied this place two years, when they found their business assuming such 
proportions as compelled them to seek more commodious quarters. Ac- 
cordingly, they removed to the Bohan & Ashley corner, into a room 
16x80 feet, at that time the second largest room in the village. In 1862, 
their business demanding more room, they purchased a lot on the east 
side of the square and commenced the erection of a three-story structure; 
but before it was completed, it was destroyed' by a tornado, and in the 


downfall, carried with it the store occupied by the firm. The firm, how- 
ever, immediately began to rebuild, completing the new building the 
same year. In 1867, their block was destroyed by fire, and the same 
year rebuilt, with only a two-story structure. In 1867, Dr. James re- 
tired from business and was succeeded by Mr. Josiah Beeson, the firm 
name being Armstrong, Beeson & Co. The following year, Dr. H. A. 
Armstrong died, and his interest was purchased by Dr. E. A. Armstrong. 
Two years later, Mr. Beeson sold his interest to Messrs. Zimri Nixon 
and Isaac Ellis, when the firm became Armstrong, Nixon & Co. In 
1873, Mr. Nathan Pickett purchased the interest of Isaac Ellis, the firm 
name remaining the same. In 1874, another change was produced in the 
firm by the death of Mr. Nixon. The members composing the new firm 
were A. F. Armstrong, E. A. Armstrong, Nkthan Pickett and George 
W. Landon, under the firm title of Armstrong, Pickett & Co. In 1875, 
the new firm, to accommodate their increasing business, began the con- 
struction of a block on the southeast corner of the public square. It is 
four stories and basement, 44x132 feet, is complete in all its appoint- 
ments, and fire-proof. The basement is used for storing bulky goods, 
and the first floor,which is sixteen feet between joists, is the general sales- 
room. Upon the west side is a platform, 16x100 feet, suspended from the 
ceiling, used for storing woodenware. In the front of the room between 
the doors is the ofiice, elevated and surrounded by plate-glass, and is con- 
venient and commodious. The second floor in front is divided into oflices, 
and is now occupied by I. E. Kirk, attorney at law ; S. T. Kirk, dentist; 
Armstrong & Moulder, physicians. Back of these are the stove and tin- 
ware rooms. The third floor contains the general stock — stoves, 
plows, cultivators, grain drills, etc. Over the west side is another sus- 
pended platform, where doors, sash and blinds are kept, and in the rear 
of the room is the stove-fitting department and tinshop. In the loft are 
stored spokes, hubs, hand-rakes, shovels, etc. Fine broad stairways give 
access to all the floors, while there is also an elevator in the rear of the 
building. Their block is lighted by gas, and a cistern, containing 500 
barrels, is constructed within the building, to be used in case of fire. The 
building is of brick, upon stone foundation ; the walls are eighteen inches 
thick, and altogether it is one of the finest buildings in Northern Indi- 
ana. The members of the firm are live, energetic business men, gentle- 
manly and accommodating, and well worthy of the patronage they have 
80 meritoriously received from Howard and adjoining counties, and the 
business house which they have established is one of the most reliable 
and prosperous in the State. In 1876, Nathan Pickett transferred his 
interest to his son, J. C. Pickett, who has since taken an active interest 
in the business, the firm name remaining the same. 



PROF. JOHN W. BARNES, Superintendent of Schools of How- 
ard County, is a native of Highland County, Ohio, born in 1847. He 
is the son of William W. and Eliza J. (Littler) Barnes, natives respect- 
ively of Connecticut and Ohio. John W. received a good education, at- 
tending the common schools until 1864; when, a youth of sixteen, he en- 
listed In Company G, One Hundred and Forty-ninth Ohio Volunteers, 
and served as a private four months, when he received an honorable dis- 
charge. With his regiment he participated in the battle of Monocacy 
Junction, Md. In the fall of 1864, his parents removed to Howard 
County, settling in a log cabin in Howard Township. Here, for two 
years, he was an assistant of his father in the saw mill and lumber busi- 
ness. He commenced teaching in Howard County in a log schoolhouse 
in Howard Township, and followed this occupation until the spring of 
1869, when he entered Asbury University, located at Greencastle, gradu- 
ating in the classical department in 1874. Upon his return to his home, 
his health being impaired, he assumed the management of his father's 
farm, conducting it two years. He then resumed teaching, having charge 
of a school in Ervin Township one term, subsequently becoming Princi- 
pal of the High School of Greentown. In May, 1878, he was elected 
Superintendent of Schools of the county, to fill the vacancy caused by 
the resignation of Milton Garrigus, who had been elected to the State 
Senate, and this position he has retained since, filling the office with abili- 
ty and to the satisfaction of the people. During his term of service, he 
has elevated the schools of the county to a superior grade ; has adopted 
the system of paying teachers according to the general average of the 
grade of license, "and has established a system of according diplomas of 
merit to proficient teachers. Prof. Barnes is one of the leading Repub- 
licans of the county, and has served as Chairman of the County Central 
Committee. He was one of the Board of Examiners, held at Marion, 
to select a cadet, for the cadetship at West Point. He is a Mason, and 
belongs to Uniform Rank, No. 6, K. of P. Prof. Barnes was united in 
marriage, January 10, 1879, with Miss Wyoma A. Brandon, daughter of 
C. C. and Nancy (Woods) Brandon, of Kokomo. Mrs. Barnes is a high- 
ly accomplished lady, and prior to her marriage was a teacher in the 
public schools of Kokomo. 

JOHN BATEMAN, a native of Washington County, Penn., was born 
February 26, 1811, and at the age of seven moved with his parents to 
Muskingum County, Ohio, where two years later his father died. The 
following year he worked for a farmer, after which he served an apprentice- 
ship at the tanner's trade for three years ; then he began boating, first on 
the Ohio, and later on the Mississippi River. He then served as Captain 
for fifteen years on the Ohio Canal, and the most of the time was owner 


of his boat. For the next five years, he was contractor and builder on 
the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, between Zanesville and Cambridge, Ohio, 
In 1833, he began to manufacture salt on the Muskingum River, con- 
tinuing three years, after which he engaged again in boating on the Ohio 
Canal. During the same time, he erected a water-power saw mill, which 
he ran for twelve years. In 1852, he bought 180 acres, which he farmed 
for twelve years, when he sold it at $60 per acre, in the spring of 1865, 
and came West, locating near Indianapolis, Ind. The following September, 
he bought a farm in Carroll County, Ind., on which he lived until 1874, 
when he sold out and located in Kokomo, where he is enjoying the fruits 
of a well-spent life. He started in life penniless, and only through in- 
dustry and economy has he been successful, having accumulated property 
worth about $30,000. During his youth, his education was neglected, 
but through his own efforts he has acquired a good practical education. 
He has filled the office of Justice of Peace for six years in Ohio, and six 
in Carroll County, Ind. In 1832, he cast his first vote for Henry Clay, 
and voted with the Whig party until the Republican party was organized. 
He was married, January 25, 1835, to Miss Ann Maria Grosh, who was 
born of German parents in Washington County, Md., in 1813. She be- 
came the mother of nine children, four of whom still live — Samuel, in the 
employ of the Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, at Zanesville, Ohio ; Sarah, 
the wife of William Bowers, of Kokomo; Ann, the wife of Henry White, 
of Howard County, farmer ; and John G., an engineer and sawyer in Ko- 
komo. Samuel was a soldier two years in the late war, joining the Sev- 
enty-eighth Ohio Volunteer Infantry ; John G. was in the 100-day service. 
Mrs. Bateman, after having been a true, faithful wife and devoted mother for 
forty-seven years, died at the age of sixty-nine, a devout member of the 
Baptist Church. Mr. Bateman, since 1840, has been a member of the 
Baptist Church, and he is a member of the I. 0. 0. F. He is the son 
of John and Mary Bateman. His mother lived with him the last thirty 
years of her life, dying in 1872, at the age of ninety and one-half years. 
MILTON BELL was born in Clinton County, Ind., February 13, 
1835. His mother, Nancy (Endicott) Bell, was a native of Pennsylvania. 
His father, Nathaniel Bell, a former citizen of Kokomo (now deceased), 
was born in Ohio, and was a pioneer of Clinton County, Ind. The edu- 
cational facilities afforded Milton Bell in early life were at first meager, 
and ill health afterward thwarted his plans ; yet despite all, he moved 
steadily on to success. Having gained a knowledge of the common 
English branches in the district schools, by attendance only during the 
winter terms, he entered Antioch College in 1854, at the founding of that 
institution. Remaining but one year, because of failing health, he re- 
turned home, and became a salesman in his father's store in Clinton 


County, and also engaged in teaching a district school. In the fall of 
1856, his father removed to Cincinnati, and became a member of the silk 
and millinery firm of Doherty, Franklin & Bell, and Milton was employed 
as one of their salesmen. There he remained some two years, and in 1860 
returned to Clinton County, Ind., and entered into partnership with his 
father in the mercantile business. In this he was successfully engaged 
until August, 1862, when he raised a company and joined the Eighty- 
sixth Indiana Volunteers. This regiment went into camp at La Fayette, 
and was sent to the Army of the Cumberland. After taking part in the 
pursuit of Bragg and the battle of Stone River, Capt. Bell was compelled 
to resign, because exposure had brought on his old malady, hemoptysis, 
thus unfitting him for service. While teaching school, he had purchased 
a number of legal works, and some time after his return from the army 
he entered the office of McDonald & Roach, Indianapolis, as a student of 
law. On being admitted to the bar (in 1865), he commenced practicing 
in Kokomo. Events soon showed that he had found his true calling. 
Recognized as a promising young lawyer, he was, in 1867, elected City 
Attorney, and served in that capacity two years. Hard study and native 
talent wrought their unfailing results in an increase of clients and impor- 
tant cases. In 1873, in partnership with his brother, Arthur S. Bell 
(now deceased), H. H. Winslow and J. F. Henderson, he built Opera 
Hall, a fine structure costing ^40,000. Mr. Bell cast his first vote for 
Stephen A. Douglas, and has ever since been connected with the Demo- 
cratic party. With respect to his religious affiliations, he joined, in boy- 
hood, the old Christian Church, but his theological views are somewhat 
liberal, and he attends the various churches in Kokomo, without distinc- 
tion of creed. He was married, February 26, 1867, to Miss Belle Pur- 
dum, daughter of the late Nelson Purdum, a prominent lawyer of Kokomo, 
and the first Mayor of that city. Their only child, May, was born Janu- 
ary 5, 1868. His success as a lawyer is due in great measure to his can- 
dor with clients. He has ever made it an invariable rule never to tell a 
man he has a case, and lead him into litigation, unless the facts warrant 
such an action. He excels as a counselor, and in general is deemed one of 
the best attorneys in Howard County. He also has superior business 
abilities, as shown by the result of his investments. There is much in his 
character worthy of commendation, and he has attained a high place in the 
popular regard. 

JOSIAH BEESON was born in Guilford County, N. C, January 
28, 1818. His parents, Hezekiah and Merab (Reynolds) Beeson, also 
natives of North Carolina, moved to Wayne County, Ind., about 1823, 
and there Josiah was reared and there learned the saddler's trade. He 
worked as a journeyman at Economy and Hagerstosvn a few years, and 


then bought a house and lot at Economy and there worked at his trade 
three years, and then moved to Williamstown and manufactured on his 
own account for eight or nine years. In 1852, he came to Howard County 
and purchased 200 acres of wild land near Greentown, which he improved 
and worked thirteen years, and then came to Kokorao and engaged in the 
hardware trade, under the firm name of Armstrong, Beeson & Co. In 
1866, the firm were burned out, when Mr. B. sold his interest and pur- 
chased a farm in Monroe Township, which he worked until 1876, when 
he returned to Kokomo, purciiased an interest in the planing mill and 
lumber trade of Hunt Bros. & Co., which he retained two years, and 
then started his present business as dealer in furniture, etc., of which he 
carries a mammoth stock ; he is also prepared to do custom work and to 
fill orders for anything in his line. He was married, in Henry County, 
Ind., to Elizabeth Lamb, a native of North Carolina, who died in 1854; 
subsequently he married a native of this county. Charity Lamb, his present 
wife, who has borne him three children — Norvill, Luella and May. Mr. 
Beeson is a Freemason and votes the Republican ticket. 

JOHN BOHAN was born October 26, 1820, in Ireland, and was the 
elder of two children born to Patrick and Elizabeth (McGinnis) Bohan. 
They emigrated to America in 1823, locating in Westmoreland County, 
Penn., where they forged from the forest a good home, and reared their 
family. John Bohan was left an orphan at twelve, and consequently re- 
ceived less than three months' schooling, but through his own industry he 
has acquired a good practical education. In 1836, he came West to Mad- 
ison, Ind., where he began as a common laborer on a railroad; but he soon 
went to Indianapolis, where he was a stage-driver for three years. He 
then moved to Anderson, and in 1844 he moved to Kokomo, when the 
town consisted of three or four log cabins. He brought with him $300 worth 
of general merchandise, the first stock brought to the town, and continued 
in business with success until 1861, when he sold out and enlisted in the 
United States service. He was Quartermaster of the Thirty-ninth Reg- 
iment Indiana Volunteer Infantry, but this regiment was re-organized into 
the Eighth Regiment Indiana Volunteer Cavalry. One year after, he 
was placed on detached duty, serving as Quartermaster for Gen. R. W. 
Johnson, as one of the main staff, until he was honorably discharged in 
October, 1864. This regiment belonged to the First Division of the 
Fourteenth Army Corps. At the battle of Perryville, Ky., Mr. Bohan 
was taken prisoner, and was held about two hours, when he took shelter 
under an old mill, and when the army moved on, he came from his hiding 
place and made a rapid retreat. He had charge of the ammunition train 
at the battle of Chickamauga, where he was ordered to bring fifteen wagons 
of ammunition to the front. He acted promptly and here he was wounded 


in both hands in less than five minutes, but during his afiliction he was 
not oflF of duty a single day. In the fall of 1864, he returned home and 
engaged in the grocery business until 1876, when he sold out and retired 
from active business. Mr. Bohan served as County Auditor from 1845 
to 1856. In 1880, he was elected Justice of the Peace, which office he 
is now filling. He cast his first Presidential vote for Gen. Harrison in 
1840, and has been a stanch supporter of Republican principles ever 
since. Mr. Bohan was married, in 1845, to Miss Mary E. Myers, of 
Madison County, Ind. She was born in 1828 in Ohio. Three children 
have blessed their union — Julia E., the wife of Stephen E. Ludlow ;, 
Patrick H., a carriage trimmer and painter; and Mary E., the wife of 
E. S Long. Mrs. Bohan is a member of the Christian Church, and Mr. 
Bohan is a member of the Grand Army of the Republic. He has always 
been in the advance upon all public matters tending to the improvement 
of the county, and has aided all measures of charity and benevolence. 

JUDGE H. A. BROUSE, a native of Stark County, Ohio, was born 
January 1, 1820. He assisted his father on the farm until he was sev- 
enteen years old, when he began clerking in a dry goods store ih Lewis- 
burg, Preble County, where he attended night school. At twenty, he read 
law under Judge Crane for two years, when he removed to Wayne Coun- 
ty, Ind., where, in 1845, he was admitted to the bar ; subsequently, in 
1847, he was admitted to practice in the Supreme Court. He 
practiced in Centreville until September, 1818, when he located in 
Howard County, one mile south of Kokomo where he lived two 
years. In 1849, he opened a law office in Kokomo, where he has 
been practicing ever since. He is a member of and assisted to organ- 
ize the Republican party in this county. In 1866, he was appointed 
Circuit Judge of this district, comprising Madison, Hamilton, Howard 
and Tipton Counties. He served three years, and then he resumed 
his practice of law. When Kokomo became a city, he was elected 
Town Councilman, and has served a number of terms in the City 
Council since. Mr. Brouse is a public-spirited man ; he took a large 
share of stock in the Kokomo Normal School building, and canvassed the 
county in its behalf, and has always taken an active part in all public en- 
terprises. He was married, in 1844, to Miss Elizabeth Leopold, of 
Montgomery County, Ohio. She is of French descent, and was born in 
February, 1825. This marriage has been blessed with nine children, 
seven of whom are still living — Rilla, wife of C. J. Becktel, of Muncie, 
Ind.; Laura L., wife of A. B. Southard, of Chicago; Emma; Lucy, wife 
of W. H. Davis, of Kokomo; Dora D., William 0. and Macy A. 
George C. and Charles P. are deceased. Judge Brouse and wife are now 
enjoying the fruits of a well-spent life. 


SAUL T. BUTCHER was born March 28, 1835, in Decatur, Ind., 
and is the sixth of thirteen children born to William Butcher, a native of 
Virginia, and of German descent, and Sarah (Love) Butcher, a native of 
Scotland. He and his father came to this county in the fall of 1853, 
and located in Ervin Township, in the forest. Mr. Butcher assisted his 
father on the farm until he was twenty years of age, and received a good 
education. His father rewarded him for his labors with eighty acres of 
land. He sold this some time since, and engaged in the general grocery 
business in Kokomo, where he has a trade of $6,000 annually. He en- 
listed in the service of his country in the fall of 1861, under Col. Steele, 
and was in the following hard-fought battles : Siege of New Madrid, 
siege of Island No. 10, siege of Vicksburg, and the battles of Champion 
Hills, and Jackson, Miss., and was mustered out in the fall of 1864. 
Mr. Butcher was married, February 15, 1855, to Miss Dorothy Shoe- 
maker, a native of Indiana, and the eldest of three children born to Elias 
and Elizabeth (Pruitt) Shoemaker, of German and Anglo-Saxon descent. 
Four children crowned this union — Ellis A. (deceased), born February 
20, 1858; Frank D., born March 16, 1860; Nola M., born September 
9, 1871, and one infant (deceased). Mr. Butcher has always voted the 
Republican ticket, and is one of its stanch advocates. He is an energetic, 
wide-awake business man ; is a member of the United Order of Honor, 
and the Masonic fraternity. 

JOHN W. COOPER, Clerk of the Circuit Court, was born in Rush 
County, Ind., July 18, 1837. He is the son of Stanley and Lucinda 
(Ward) Cooper, both natives of Kentucky. They are still residents of 
Rush County, living on the same farm. John W. was reared on the farm, 
and received a fair education in the common schools. He also studied 
three terms at an academy. When he left the farm, he read law with J. 
C. Green, of Shelbyville, Ind., for one year, and in 1859 he was admitted 
to the bar. The following year he remained at home and pursued the 
study of law. November 6, 1859, he was married to Miss Fannie M. 
Simmons, born October 14, 1840, daughter of Augustus Simmons, of 
Rush County. The result of this union has been one son — Horace M.; 
and two daughters — Flora H. and Linea A. Mr. Cooper began the prac- 
tice of law in Howard County, in October, 1860, and continued in active 
practice until 1875, when he took the office of Clerk of the Circuit Court, 
having been elected on the Republican ticket in 1874. He was re-elect- 
ed in 1878, and has served nearly eight years. He was Mayor of the 
city of Kokomo four years — from 1869 to 1873. He has been an active 
politician all his life, and has been Deputy Internal Revenue Collector. 
He came here with limited means, but, through strict attention to his pro- 
fession, he has accumulated good city property, and is in good circum- 


Stances. He is a leader in all public enterprises and improvements, and 
belongs to the Masonic and I. 0. 0. F. fraternities. 

WILLIAM COOPER, M. D., is a son of James and Delilah (Baker) 
Cooper, who were both natives of Virginia, and pioneer settlers of Ohio. 
The subject of this sketch was born in Preble County, Ohio, August 21, 
1839. When fifteen years of age, his parents removed to Cass County, 
Ind. Mr. Cooper received a good education, and was a teacher for near- 
ly four years in Cass and Miami Counties. Deciding upon the medical 
profession as his life work, he entered the office of his brother. Dr. John 
Cooper, and began the study of this most important science ; under the 
tutelage and instruction of his brother, he remained nearly four years. 
He then entered the Eclectic Medical College of Cincinnati in 1866, and, 
in 1867, graduated from that institution. At Burlington, Ind., he com- 
menced business, and remained in active and successful practice ten 
years, extending his labors in the counties of Cass, Howard, Carroll and 
Clinton. In 1876, Dr. Cooper removed to Kokomo, intending to retire 
from practice; but the eminent reputation attained by him has forced 
him to continue, and he is now attending to a large and lucrative patron- 
age. As a physician, Dr. Cooper keeps up with the advancement of his 
profession; as a citizen, he is libei'al minded and public spirited; and 
socially is a cultivated and genial gentleman. He is a member of the 
A., F. & A. M. and I, 0. 0. F. fraternities, and a member of the Board 
of Health. Dr. Cooper was united in marriage with Miss Eliza A, New- 
comb, daughter of John and Emily (Bradenj Newcomb. Mrs. Cooper is 
a native of Ohio, born in Darke County in 1845. By this union there 
are four children — Sarah F., wife of Dr. Lovell, Anna L., Armintie A. 
and Ronoldes M. 

E. W. CONWELL, book-keeper for L. Snider, was born in Wayne 
County, Ind., April 20, 1857, and is the son of J. B. and Mary C. 
(Tharp) Conwell, both natives of Indiana. J. B. Conwell moved from 
Wayne County, Ind., just after the war, and lived in Indianapolis two 
years, when he came to Kokomo, where he still lives, and where Mrs. Con- 
well died in 1880. He has been making his home with his son, his only 
child, ever since. E. W. Conwell attended the common schools until he 
came to Kokomo with his parents, when he entered the hif^h school, 
graduating in the class of 1877. He taught school the following winter, 
and afterward clerked in a book store. July 1, 1880, he entered the 
office of L. Snider as book-keeper, where he has faithfully discharged his 
duty ever since. He was married, September 2, 1880, to Miss Ella H. 
Bowers, of Kokomo; she was born October 30, 1858, and is the daui'h- 
ter of William and Sarah Bowers, both natives of Ohio. Mr. Conwell 

is a member of the Congregational Church. 



SHERIDAN COX, A. M., Superintendent of city schools at Ko- 
komo, was born in Harrison County, Ohio, December 20, 1833. He is 
the son of Elijah and Christina (Shepler) Cox, who were natives respect- 
ively of Maryland and Ohio. Elijah Cox was a millwright, but spent 
the latter part of his life upon a farm. Sheridan Cox, when quite young, 
was taken by his parents to Coshocton County, Ohio, where he worked on 
the farm during the summer and attended the district schools in the win- 
ter ; he commenced teaching in 1854 ; taught district schools four winters, 
attending preparatory schools during the summers, two of which were 
spent ac the McNuley Normal School of Ohio. He entered the Ohio 
Wesleyan University in 1858, from which he graduated in 1862. He 
was distinguished while in college for proficiency in mathematics, receiv- 
ing the degree of A. M. in 1865. He removed to Illinois in 1862, 
where he taught Latin and Greek one year in Marshall College ; in 
1863, he returned to Ohio and superintended the Roscoe Graded Schools; 
in 1864, he superintended the Canal Dover Union Schools ; he removed to 
Indiana in 1865, and taught the Winchester Seminary one year ; was Prin- 
cipal of the Logansport High Schools in 1866 ; in 1867, he was made 
Superintendent of all the Logansport Public Schools, which he organized 
and graded, and remained there seven years, during which period the 
number of teachers increased from eleven to twenty-three, and the num- 
ber of pupils from 500 to 1,600 ; in 1873, he took charge of the Kokomo 
Public Schools, where he is still meeting with eminent success. He was 
married at New Philadelphia, Ohio, October 11, 1866, to Mi3s Bessie 

0. V. DARBY, merchant, has a complete line of dry goods and 
carpets, doing a good business of $45,000 to $50,000 per year, and is 
now one among the leading merchants of Kokomo. E. V. Darby was 
born in Jackson Township, Howard County, January 3, 1853, and 
assisted his father upon the farm until he was sixteen years of age, when 
his father died. Soon after, he entered Wabash College at Crawfordville, 
Ind., for one year. He then returned home and assisted his elder 
brother, J. K., on the farm for one year. Mr. Darby then entered a dry 
goods store in Logansport as a clerk, at a salary of $3 per week. This 
was shortly increased to $10. In eighteen months, he changed to the 
Bee-hive Store, where he remained four years. He then took charge of a 
stock of goods owned by William Dolan, of Logansport, for three years. 
Mr. Dolan then began business in Kokomo with a branch stock with Mr. 
Darby in charge. Three months later, Mr. Darby and his brother, J. K., 
purchased this stock of dry goods and groceries, occupying two rooms on 
Main street, where they did an extensive business under the firm name of 
0. V. Darby & Brother, until August 1, 1882, when J. K. Darby retired 


and 0. V. Darby became successor to the firm, and is now conducting a 
large and successful dry goods and carpet trade. Mr. Dai'by started in 
life a poor boy, being left an orphan when but seventeen years of aofe, 
but by being industrious and economical, starting on $3 per week, he has 
accumulated a fair competency and is now receiving a good income. He 
was married, in 1879, to Miss Eveline Vinnedge, of Kokomo. One daugh- 
ter, Anna E., blesses this union. Mrs. Darby is member of the Congre- 
gational Church. Mr. Darby is a member of the I. 0. 0. F. and one of 
the enterprising public-spirited business men of Kokomo. 

Dr. JAMES M. DARNALL, President and book-keeper of the 
Kokomo Milling Company, was born in Jessamine County, Ky., June 28, 
1817. He was the eldest of eight children born to Zenas and x^o-nes 
(Bridges) Darnall, both of English descent. His perents were reared in 
Kentucky, and were married in 1816. In 1822, they moved North to 
Decatur County, Ind., where his father bought a partially improved farm. 
Here he lived a few years, when he sold his land and bought IGO acres 
near by. He afterward sold this and moved into Shelby County, 
thence into Boone County in 1854, where he purchased a farm, on 
which he lived until his death in 1857, at the age of sixty-nine years. 
His wife died in Decatur County, aged fifty-four years. Both were 
prominent members of the Christian Church. Dr. Darnall assisted his 
father on the farm until he was twenty years old, when he entered 
Hanover College, Avhich he attended at intervals for three years. He 
also taught school part of the time, after which he studied medicine 
for two years at Connersville, Ind., with Dr. Brown, teaching in 
the meantime. In the spring of 1812, he located at Burlington, Carroll 
County, where he began to practice medicine \^ith Dr. Anderson. Dr. 
Darnall remained at Burlington twenty- two years, twenty of which he 
had been practicing for himself. He met with good success, having a large 
practice. His health failed him and he was induced to come to Kokomo 
in 1864. He practiced here two years, when he entered the drug 
business with his brother and J. M. Scotton. The firm of Darnall, 
Scotton & Co. continued in business until 1873, when Simpson B. 
Darnall died, and the firm of Darnall & Scotton became successors, con- 
tinuing five years, when our subject retired from the drug trade, and 
soon after became owner of one-third of the stock in the Kokomo Mill- 
ing Company, and has been superintending since. He has been a 
lively, energetic business man, and has been eminently successful 
through life. Mr. Darnall was married, in 1845, to Miss Mary Gwinn, 
of Carroll County, Ind. She was tlie daughter of Samuel and Magdalene 
Gwinn, and was born in December, 1823. They have one adopted daugh- 
ter, Mary E. Mr. Darnall was in early life a Whig, and later a Repub- 


lican. He has been City Councilman and Mayor. In 1874, he was 
elected as Representative of Howard County. He is a member of the 
I. 0. 0. F. and he and wife are both members of the Christian 

Dr. henry DAVIS is a native of Miami County, Ohio, and 
was born August 18, 1811. His father, John Davis, was a native of 
Georgia, and his mother, Lydia (Coate), was born in South Carolina. 
These were married in Ohio, and they reared a family of four sons and 
one daughter, the mother dying in 1826, and the father in 1852. Dr. 
Davis was reared on the farm and went three miles to the common school. 
He taught some during his youth, and upon reaching manhood began 
the study of medicine, after which he practiced for about eighteen years, 
when he became disgusted with his profession, and leaving a good prac- 
tice, he engaged in the mercantile business in West Milton, untilJanuary, 
1863, when he removed his stock of goods to Kokomo, where he, togeth- 
er with his sons, was among the leading merchants, doing a business of 
from ^75,000 to $150,000 per year. In 1875, he sold out to his sons 
and has since lived a retired life, except superintending a well-stocked 
farm near town. He is a strong temperance man and a member of the 
Republican party. In 1876, he was elected Township Trustee of Centre 
Towmhip. He cast his first Presidential vote for Henry Clay, in 1832. 
He was married, December 11, 1838, to Miss Eve H. Newman, of Mun- 
cie, Ind. She was born August 10, 1816. They had four sons — Or- 
lando M., Theodore A., Edwin L. and Omar N. Mrs. Davis was a true 
mother and loving companion. She was a member of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church from childhood, and was one of the prominent workers 
in the Orphans' Home Association, of which she was President for a 
number of years. She died January 3, 1883, aged sixty-six years. 

SAMUEL DAVIS, of the firm of S. Davis & Sons, was born 
August 2, 1813, in Miami County, Ohio. At the age of thirteen, being 
left an orphan, he began the battle of life for himself. He worked at 
whatever his hands found to do until 1829, when he secured a clerkship 
in a general store, working six months at $6 per month, after which he 
worked on the farm for a year, when he learned the blacksmith trade. 
He worked at this eighteen months at $6.50 per month, saving from his 
labors $102.50. With this money, he walked eighty miles, and made an 
entry of eighty acres of wild land in Miami County, Ohio, having but 
18 cents left on his return. Soon after, he commenced clerking in a dry 
goods store. Shortly after he traded his land, which was valued at $200, 
and gave bond for a deed when he became of age. He then clerked in 
Richmond one year, and in the spring of 1834 became a partner in a 
dry goods house, owning a one- third interest. He made numerous 


changes until 1839, when he began the study of law. In January, 1840, 
he was married to Miss Sarah McConnell, of Hamilton, Ohio, daughter 
of Jesse McConnell. Six children have blessed this union, the four old- 
est dying young (one daughter and three sons). Two sons — Henry 
C. and Walter H. — are still living. Mr. Davis taught school six months 
at $16 per month, and kept hotel in Milton, Ohio, for eighteen months. 
In 1844, he began the mercantile business again, continuing for a num- 
ber of years. In 1857-58, he built and took a one-third interest in a 
distillery, which he sold the same year, clearing $5,000 during this year's 
business. He was always enterprising and bought anything that came 
into market that he could handle, and in 1860 he was worth about 
$20,000. He removed to Tippecanoe City, Ohio, where he was elected 
Probate Judge of Miami County in 1860. The same year he located at 
Troy, where he took his seat in 1861. He was re-elected in 1863, and 
served six years. During his oflRcial life, he had a half-interest in the 
largest dry goods house of Troy, a half-interest in a boot and shoe store 
and a two-thirds interest in a warehouse. He was worth $75,000 when 
he came to Kokomo in 1872, and started a dry goods store. He has been 
an active merchant ever since, but the last few years he has depended 
upon his sons, Henry M. and Walter C, to conduct the business. Mr. 
Davis is one of the largest real estate owners in Kokomo, and is a stock- 
holder in the Howard National Bank, of which he is one of the Direct- 
ors. He was admitted to the bar in 1843, in Adams County, Ind., but 
he never practiced law. He is a Master Mason, and has occupied all the 
chairs in the I. 0. 0. F. Mrs. Davis is a member of the Presbyterian 
Church. Mr. Davis is a liberal supporter of all benevolent and business 
enterprises, and the firm of S. Davis k Sons is one of the leading busi- 
ness firms of Kokomo, and is represented by a capital of about $100,000, 
A. F. DAYHUFF, M. D., was born in Orange County, Ind., in 
1827. He is the son of Daniel and Rachel (Smith) Dayhuff, natives 
of Maryland and Pennsylvania. His father was one of the pioneers of 
Indiana, and settled in an early day in Paoli, Orange County, where he 
remained until his death, which occurred January 27, 1863. His motlier 
died in 1839, and subsequently his father married the second time. 
Daniel Dayhuff served as Sheriff of that county for twenty-one years, 
after which he kept a hotel. He was a member of the Masonic fra- 
ternity. The subject of this sketch was the second of a family of six 
children, and received a good common school education, after which he 
attended the State University at Bloomington, Ind. He then clerked 
in a mercantile store in New Albany nearly a year, but on account of 
his health, returned home. He began reading medicine with Dr. Will- 
iam Sherrod, of Paoli, remaining with him four years. Sebsequently 


he went to Chicago and took a full course of medicine and surgery in the 
Rush Medical College. In May, 1853, he came to Kokomo to obtain 
rest, was induced to begin practice here, and formed a partnership with 
Dr. James, with whom he remained about three years. He has been in 
active practice ever since, and has been in partnership with Drs. Savill, 
Richmond and Martin. He has always had a very extensive practice in 
the city and county; has also been one of the most extensive real estate 
dealers in the city, and was the originator of the Dayhuif, Sharp & Arm- 
strong Block. He has owned valuable farming lands, but through the 
panic he lost a large fortune which had been accumulated by years of 
labor. Dr. Dayhuff is a member of the State and County Medical So- 
cieties, and of the Kokomo Academy of Medicine. He was married, 
November 1, 1855, to Miss Addie Frazier, of New Albany, Ind., born 
in Lawrence County, Ind., January 26, 1834, This union has been 
blessed with six children — Sallie, wife of Byron Haskett; Daniel F., now 
in the Pension Office at Washington, D. C; Jessie F., Mollie P., Mattie 
(deceased), and Julia (deceased). Dr. Dayhuff is an active politician in 
the Republican ranks, and Avas appointed by the Government as Pension 
Examiner in March, 1881, in which position he is still serving. He 
ranks high among the enterprising and public-spirited citizens of Howard 
County, and is an esteemed and honored gentleman. 

JAMES W. DeHAVEN was born in Greene County, Ohio, March 
17, 1833, and is the second of the nine children born to John and Athal- 
iah DeHaven, natives of Virginia, who, about 1820, settled in Greene 
County, where the father followed milling for about twenty-five years. 
James W. learned the business of his father and at the age of eighteen 
years found ready employment at various points in Ohio, Indiana and 
Illinois. October 19, 1861, he enlisted in Company F, Seventy-fourth 
Ohio Volunteer Infantry, and was soon appointed Sergeant; in the fall 
of 1862, he was discharged, and the following spring was commissioned 
Second Lieutenant in the State militia, which commission he resigned in 
July, 1863, and settled in Howard Township, this county, farming for 
two years ; for the ten years following, he was engaged at milling in various 
parts of the county. He next held the position of Tollmaster on the 
Kokomo, Greentown & Jerome pike, and in 1880 was elected Sherifl" 
of the county, which office he held one term. In Greene County, Ohio, 
April 17, 1863, he married Miss Mary V. Crouse, a native of 
Berkeley County, Va., who died July 8, 1880, the mother of four chil- 
dren — Charles A., Nora, John F. and Addie (the last deceased). During 
his shrievalty he was very unfortunate, losing his wife and child and con- 
siderable property. He is a Freemason, and a member of the G. A. 
R., and a Republican, and for twenty-five years has been a member of the 
^Icthodist Church. 


ALEXANDER H. DUKE is of the firm of Duke Bros.' bakery and 
confectionery, which was established in 1860. He is a native of Ross 
County, Ohio ; was born September 15, 1840, and when but an infant 
his parents located at Delphi, Ind. His father, David D., was a native 
of Pennsylvania and of German descent. His mother, Jane Duke, was 
born in Kentucky, of Irish parents. They reared a family of nine chil- 
dren, Alexander H. being the eldest. D. D. Duke was a miller by trade, 
and has for the past twenty years been proprietor of a bakery and con- 
fectionery store, now located at Silver Lake, Ind. A. H. Duke acquired 
a good common school education. He assisted his father in the mill 
until he was twenty years of age, when he enlisted in 
Company C, Forty-sixth Regiment Indiana Volunteer Infantry, 
in the Thirteenth Army Corps and Fourth Division, Avhich formed 
a part of the Army of the Gulf He participated in the following 
hard-fought battles: St. Charles, Ark., Grand Gulf, Magnolia Hill, 
Raymond, Miss., Champion Hill, Vicksburg, Jackson, and then with 
Gen. Bank's division, and during this raid his regiment was defeated for 
the first time. He served for three years and four months, and was hon- 
orably discharged December 10, 1864. During the second year of his 
service, he was promoted as First Duty Sergeant. After he was discharged, 
he returned to his home in Kokomo and engaged in the business which 
he has since followed. He was elected City Marshal in 1868 and in 1878 
he was elected Sheriif of Howard County, serving one term. He is a 
Republican, and has been an active politician and a liberal supporter of 
of public enterprises. Mr. Duke was married, in 1869, to Miss Louisa 
Clattabuck, of Eaton, Ohio. They have two children. May and 
Georgia. Mr. Duke is a prominent member of the Masonic fraternity. 

ROBERT DUNGAN is the fifth of six children born to William 
and Elizabeth (Dawson) Dungan, both natives of West Virginia and of 
English descent. His parents came to Indiana in an early day, locating 
in Fayette County, where Robert was born December 15, 1834. He re- 
mained with his parents until he was twenty-one years of age, working 
on the farm and attending the district schools. He began working at the 
plasterer's trade when he was fifteen years of age, and his first work was 
to plaster the Fayette County Court House. He came to Howard County 
in 1860 and located in the village of Tampico. Here he opened a gen- 
eral store, and in connection with this bought grain and wood. In the 
spring of 1871, he came to Kokomo and is at present working at his trade. 
Mr. Dungan was married in the spring of 1851, to Maria J. Halsey (de- 
ceased), a native of Ohio. Two children crowned this union, Laura and Alice, 
both deceased. He was married, April 13, 1857, to Sarah A. Halsey, 
a sister of his fii'st wife. They have had four children — Martha C. (de- 


ceased), born July 12, 1858 ; Sornitia B. (deceased), born October 28, 
1860; Robert E., born December 31, 1861, and one infant (deceased). He 
and his son Robert E. are both engaged working at the plasterer's trade, 
and are contracting very extensively. His son is also an* expert at his 
profession. Mr. Dungan cast his first vote for the Democratic party, but 
is now one of the most active workers in the Republican ranks. 

JAMES F. ELLIOTT is a native of Preble County, Ohio, was born 
May 6, 1840, and is the son of S. and Mary (Hornaday) Elliott, 
both natives of North Carolina, and of Irish descent. His parents moved 
to Grant County in 1848. Here the son worked on the farm until 1860, 
when he left home, and employed his time teaching and attending school 
at Logansport, Ind., until the fall of 1861, when he enlisted in Company 
I, Eighth Regiment Indiana Volunteer Infantry, as a private. This reg- 
iment formed a part of the Army of the Southwest, and later of the 
Army of the Tennessee. The first battle he engaged in was at Pea 
Ridge, Ark., and afterward he participated at Magnolia Hill, Jackson, 
Miss., Champion Hill and lUack River Bridge. Finally, during the 
siege of Vicksburg, Mr. Elliott was shot through his right arm by a mus- 
ket ball, causing the amputation of his arm on the fifth day after he was 
wounded. He remained in the hospital at Evansville for two months, 
when he came home on a furlough. Late in the fall of 1863, he made an 
application for a discharge, which was granted him. He then began 
teaching — going to school at intervals — until the fall of 1865, when he 
entered the sophomore class in Asbury University, where he graduated 
in the classical course in 1868. He then began the study of law, and, 
during the winter of 1868-69, he attended the law school at Ann Arbor, 
Mich., and in the following April he came to Kokomo, and entered the 
law office of C. N. Pollard as a student, remaining the rest of the year, 
during which time he was admitted to the bar. In January, 1870. he 
began the practice of law in Howard County, and, being an active Re- 
publican, the next fall he was elected Prosecuting Attorney, and was re- 
elected in 1872. He has been actively engaged in his practice ever since 
in civil courts. He was married, in 1870, to Miss Sarah Conarroe, of 
West Elkton, Ohio, and daughter of Caleb and Anna (Carter) Conarroe. 
Mr. and Mrs. Elliott have two children — Mary D. and Earl C. Mr. El- 
liott is a member of the Knights of Pythias, and he and his wife are both 
active members of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 

ANDREW ELLIS was born in the village of Economy, Wayne Co., 
Ind., September 17, 1841. His father, Samuel Ellis, was of English, 
and his mother, Abigail Key, of English and German descent. Both 
were natives of East Tennessee. Soon after their marriage, they immi- 
grated to Indiana, and were among the early settlers of Wayne County, 


locating at Economy, where the father followed his trade — blacksmith! ng 
— until the year 1850, when, with his family, he removed to Union 
Township, Howard County, where he remained till his death, which oc- 
curred Septeifiber 1, 1866. During the ten years following their arrival 
in Howard County, A. Ellis, who was one of the younger members of 
the family, attended the common schools of the county, and assisted his 
older brothers in clearing up a farm, from what was then an almost un- 
broken wilderness. In 1861, he attended high school at New London, 
under Prof. Lewis Estes, and in 1862 the State Normal School at Koko- 
mo, under Prof. J. Baldwin. These completed his school studies. Feb- 
ruary 15, 1863, he was married to Miss Armina Jones, youngest daughter 
of Moses and Eunice Jones, who were pioneers of eastern Howard Coun- 
ty. During the same year, he built a house on his father's farm, and 
commenced housekeeping. Here, on May 11, 1864, was born Miss Belle 
Ellis, their only child. In the fall of 1865, he removed with his family 
to Livingston County, Mo., where he taught school during the winter of 
1865-66, and in May, 1866, returned to Indiana, stopping at Windfiill. 
During the three years following, he taught in the public schools of How- 
ard and Tipton Counties. In the summer of 1869, he turned his atten- 
tion to the study of telegraphy, and, upon the resignation of W. H. H. 
Lancaster, he was appointed agent for the P., C. & St. L. R. R., at Wind- 
fall, and took charge of the office November 1, 1869. December 15, 
1881, he was transferred to the agency of the same road at Kokomo, suc- 
ceeding Mr. John M. Ray. Mr. Ellis is thoroughly qualified for the po- 
sition, and is a favorite with the community. 

WILLIAM B. ELSON, proprietor of the Farmers' Hotel in Koko- 
mo, and a farmer, is a native of Marion County, Ind., and was born 
March 2, 1838. He is the son of Nicholas and Lucy (Orme) Elson, na- 
tives of Kentucky. His parents were married in Kentucky, and settled 
in Marion County, Ind., in an early day, and were among the pioneers 
of Indiana. They resided in Marion County until their deaths, that of 
the father occurring October 21, 1851, and the mother October 22, 1855. 
Mr. Elson, Sr., held the office of Sheriff of Lewis County, Ky., and was 
a soldier in the war of 1812. He held the rank of Fourth Sergeant un- 
der Capt. Logan, of the Kentucky militia. The subject of this sketch 
was the ninth son and youngest child. He was reared on a farm in his 
native county, where he remained until 1860, with the exception of two 
years, when he traveled as collection agent for an Indianapolis firm. In 
December, 1860, he came to Howard County, and located in Taylor 
Township, upon 111 acres of land, which he purchased. Here he re- 
mained until 1865, when he removed to Centre Township, upon a farm of 
100 acres. He, in 1880, returned to Taylor Township, and farmed until 


December, 1882, when he purchased the hotel of which he is the present 
proprietor. He also owns 100 acres of fine farming land in Taylor 
Township. Mr. Elson was married in December, 1862, to Miss Flor- 
ence Garr, a native of Kentucky, who lived in Howard County at the 
time of their marriage. This union has been blessed with four children 
— Charles 0., Belle, Otto and Pearl. Mr. Elson is a worthy citizen, and 
a prominent member of the. Masonic fraternity. 

LEWIS L. FELLOWS was born in Wells County, Ind., September 
29, 1853, and is the son of George C. and Mary J. (Hutchinson) Fel- 
lows, natives respectively of Vermont and Pennsylvania, and early settlers 
of Wells County, this State. About 1863, the family removed to Ver- 
million County, 111., where Lewis was educated and reared to ma- 
turity, when he removed to Fithian, III., learned telegraphy and was 
appointed ticket agent and operator for the Indianapolis, Bloomington & 
Western Railroad Company ; four years later, he was stationed at James- 
town, Ind., where for four years longer he filled the same position ; 
he next located at Kokomo, where he is now officiating as agent for the 
Wabash, St. Louis & Pacific Railroad Company. He was married in 
Jamestown, Ind., October 15, 1879, to Miss Anna M. Piersol, who 
was born in Reading, Penn., October 19, 1858, and who is a daughter 
of John and Sarah (Hull) Piersol. Mr. Fellows is a member of the F. 
& A. M., and in politics is a Republican. 

DAVID FOSTER (deceased), one of the earliest pioneers of How- 
ard County, was born in Albemarle County, Va., July 30, 1808. At the 
age of nineteen, he settled in Johnson County, Ind., and learned the 
cabinet-making trade. After acquiring his trade, he went to Moores- 
ville, Morgan County, and was there married to Miss Elizabeth M. Grant, 
January 17, 1832. This union was blessed with eleven children. In 
1835, Mr. Foster moved to Burlington, Carroll County, and began to 
trade with the Indians. In March, 1840, he located in Ervin Township, 
this county, where he opened up a trading post, but in the fall of 1842, 
he removed to Center Township and took possession of the cabin 
erected by the Indiana chief, Kokomo. Here he opened a trading 
post, and for many years dealt largely with the Indians. Mr. Foster was 
an active factor in the organization of the county, and gave largely to 
public improvement and the advancement of religion and education. 
Before the location of the county seat, the Commissioners told Mr. 
Foster that they would locate the county seat here if he would donate 
forty acres and build a log court house 24x24 feet, put in puncheon 
floors and seat it with benches. This he agreed to do, and Kokomo, 
the county seat, was laid out. At this time, Mr. Foster was the only 
white resident in this locality. He also donated the ground for the 


Methodist Episcopal Church and parsonage, and Normal School build- 
ing. Mr. Foster died November 27, 1877, aged sixty-nine years, having 
survived his wife only a few years. Thus passed from earth another 
landmark, another pioneer, a man largely identified with the material 
progress of the county whose birth he had witnessed, and whose growth 
he had assisted and watched for thirty-three years. 

HON. MILTON GARRIGUS was bo'rn September 27, 1831, in 
Centre Township, Wayne County, Ind. His paternal ancestors were 
natives of France. His grandfather Garrigus was a soldier in the 
American Revolution, and his father, Timothy Lindley Garrigus, a native 
of New Jersey, served in the war of 1812, under Gen. Harrison. He 
became one of the leading pioneer ministers of Indiana, and was widely 
known for his power and earnestness. He was a prominent Abolitionist 
and Free-Soiler, nominated as such for Representative from Wayne 
County in 1844, and for Senator, from Howard County, in 1852, but as 
the third party was not then in the majority, he was not elected. He was 
in full sympathy and accord with the people, and when the memorable 
struggle between freedom and slavery occurred, in 1856, on the plains of 
Kansas, he promptly shouldered his Sharpe's rifle and hastened toward 
the scene of strife. On his way, he was fatally stricken with pneumonia 
at Omaha, and there he sleeps on the banks of the Missouri River. His 
son Milton inherited many of his traits. After alluding to his father's 
calling (the ministry) in that early day, from 1820 to 1849, it is super- 
fluous to add that Milton "enjoyed no royal road to learning," but by 
a natural aptitude and a great deal of painstaking industry he has de- 
veloped into a fair English scholar of a large and liberal reading. It 
is a treat and pleasure to gain access to his large and valuable law and 
private library, the law library being much the largest in Kokorao. Thus 
he has indulged his tastes and become very familiar with ancient, 
modern and current history, and evened up by teaching school for seven- 
teen terms, which was a mutual educational aflair for teacher and pupils. 
Since his twenty-first year, he has been a resident of Howard County, 
where he varied life by staking out a claim in the " Indian Reserve " 
February 23, 1847, and staying there, keeping " bachelor's hall " for nine 
months in a primitive log cabin until his father's family came from Wayne 
County. By virtue of his long experience as school teacher, he came to 
be regarded as a practical educator, and was School Examiner of his 
county in 1859, 1860 and 1861, and County Superintendent of Schools 
in 1875, 1876, 1877 and 1878, when he resigned to accept the position 
of State Senator for Howard and Miami Counties, to which position he 
was elected in October, 1878, by 433 majority over Mr. Bell, the most 
popular Democrat in the district ; and he received 194 majority over Mr. 


Bell in Centre Township, in which Kokomo is situated, where they each 
then resided, and where they still are citizens in the legal profession. 
During his term as School Superintendent, teachers from far and near 
flocked to Howard County for examination. The examinations were more 
practical than technical, and a certificate or license signed by Milton 
Garrigus was everywhere received as the best pi-oof of the bearer's fitness 
for teaching. He was many years a member of the State Teachers' 
Association. He was a farmer until 1858, when he was appointed Post- 
master at Greentown and removed to that village and engaged in the 
study and -practice of law. He was admitted to the bar in 1859. In 
1870, he entered into partnership with the late Col. C. D, Murray, of 
the Eighty-ninth Indiana Volunteers. He was afterward senior of the 
law firm of Garrigus & Ingels, and for a term of about five years he 
•was associated with Judge James O'Brien until the fall of 1880, since 
which time he has had no law partner. He resided on his farm from 
1865 to 1870, when he removed to Kokomo, and devoted his time to his law 
practice. In August, 1861, he resigned the post office to enlist as a private 
in Company D, Thirty-ninth Indiana Infantry, afterward the Eighth 
Indiana Cavalry. At the special request of his Captain, he served as 
company clerk while in that company. With 400 others he was made 
prisoner at Perryville, Ky., in October, 1862, but was paroled by Gen. 
Kirby Smith, at Nicholasville, a few days later. In May, 1864, while 
at home with his regiment on veteran furlough, he, with Capt. B. Busby, 
recruited Company A, One Hundred and Thirty-seventh Regiment In- 
diana Volunteers, for the 100 days' service, was at once commissioned 
Second Lieutenant, then First Lieutenant, and on May 25, 1864, at the 
organization of the regiment, he was chosen and commissioned Adjutant, 
serving as such until September 20, 1864, when the regiment was mustered 
out by reason of expiration of term of service, also serving much of said 
term as Post Adjutant, at Tullahoma, Tenn., and also for a time as A. 
A. A. G. of the brigade. He then enlisted a number of men for the 
One Hundred and Fortieth Indiana Regiment, and also Company I, One 
Hundred and Forty-second Indiana Volunteers, and continued on the up- 
grade by becoming its Captain; mustered as such November 3, 1864; they 
hurried forward to Nashville, Tenn., to oppose the northward march of 
Gen. Hood. After the battle of Nashville, from December, 1864, to July 
26, 1865, he served as Inspector of the Second Brigade, Fourth Division, 
Twentieth Army Corps, having been selected to the position through com- 
petitive examination by an officer of the regular army. This promotion 
assigned him to the staff of Gen. E. C. Mason, a graduate of West Point, 
and formerly Inspector in the Army of the Potomac. At the close of 
his army service near the 1st of August, 1865, he received many flatter- 


ing testimonials from the officers of his brigade, including the General 

commanding, a portion of which we are permitted to copy : 

Nashville, Tena., August '2, 1865. 
Catt. Milton Garrigus (late) Assistant Inspector General : 

Sir : '" * ■•' * * i can now say what it would not have been proper for 
me to say while we were together — that is — that I always considered you an officer of 
rare ability. I have known many officers in the Inspector's Department. You were the 
most active, correct and faithful, in short — the best inspector I have ever known There 
was not an officer on my staff I held in higher esteem, and whose services I will feel the 
need of more in my new field of duty. ***** it will give me much pleasure 
to hear from you often. If at any (ime you think I can promote your interest in any 
way, command me. lam, Captain, very truly and respectfully your friend, 

E. C. Mason, Brigadier General. 

While on parole in the winter of 1862-63, he organized the Union 
League in the eastern part of Howard County, made war speeches and 
exposed the Knights of the Golden Circle, which made him bitter enemies, 
some of whom have never forgiven him. While in the army, he was war 
correspondent for several newspapers. Soon after the war, he became 
Commander of a Post of the Grand Army of the Republic. December, 
1881, he was elected Commander of Thomas J. Harrison Post, No. 30, 
G. A. R., Department of Indiana, for the year 1882, and has now, April 
1883, been re chosen for the year 1883. Jones Military Lodge, U. D., 
of Freemasons, was organized in and accompanied the Thirty-ninth In- 
diana Regiment during most of its service, and he was its Secretary for 
more than two years. In 1859, he was commissioned D. D. G. W. C. T. 
of the order of Good Templars, and employed to canvass the northern 
half of Indiana in the interests of that order and the temperance cause. 
He entered on his work zealously and successfully, but the breaking-out 
of the civil war prevented its entire execution. In 1877, he was elected 
as Councilman in the Second Ward of the city of Kokomo, and served 
two years. In the Legislature of 1879, he was a member of the follow- 
ing Senate committees : Public Buildings, Congressional Apportion- 
ment, Ditches and Swamp Lands. In the Legislature of 1881, he was 
chairman of the Senate Committee on Corporations, and a member of the 
Committee on Railroads. He has long been an Odd Fellow, and for the 
last twelve years a member of the Christian Church, as are also his wife 
and two daughters. He contributed over $1,100 toward the erection of 
their new church building in Kokomo. His mother, Elizabeth Alison 
Garrigus, was a Virginian, and expert with the rifle. For sixty years 
she was a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church. She died at the 
house of her son Milton, with whom she lived, November, 1878, aged 
near seventy-nine years. Milton Garrigus was married to Susan M. 
Whiteneck, in Greentown, on the 24th day of February, 1853. Nine 
children have been born to them, six of whom — Louisa A., Ada A., Ed- 


win J., Allen C, Victor L. and Myrtle M. — are now living. Capt. 
Garrigus was early a director and life member of the Howard County 
Agricultural Society. At the Centennial Celebration, July 4, 1876, he 
was chosen Orator of the Day, and addressed a gathering of near 15,000 
people at the fair grounds near Kokomo, numerous organizations attend- 
ing. His eifort was highly spoken of, and the occasion will long be re- 
membered with pleasure by all who participated. Mr. Garrigus is a 
stalwart Republican of long experience. He is an affirmative man on all 
subjects and occasions. He has opinions and expresses them. His first 
Presidential vote was cast for Gen. Scott in 1852, then he voted for 
Fremont in 1856, and for every Republican President chosen since. He 
has been a central committeraan ever since the Republican party was or- 
ganized, except only while he was in the army. He was chairman of 
the County Central Committee in the campaigns of 1874, 1876, 1880 
and 1882, and having given probably more time and money in that direction 
than any man in the county, he by his enthusiasm and power of organ- 
ization has done much to make and maintain the large and increasing 
Republican majorities in his county. He has burned the midnight oil — 
helped to clear three heavily timbered farms for his father and one for 
himself — is public spirited in all things and has contributed hundreds of 
dollars, by subscription, to help build railroads through Howard County. 
He helped organize and build the Kokomo, Greentown & Jerome Gravel 
road and was for years its Secretary. In 1883, he was nominated by 
President Arthur as Collector of Internal Revenue for the Eleventh 
District of Indiana, and although recommended by the Governor, the 
State and his County Central Committee, the city officers of Kokomo 
and many of its business men, most of the county officers, the Judges 
of the Circuit and also of the United States Courts, the leading: men of 
nearly every county in the district, and numerous representative men from 
different portions of the State, by every Republican member of the 
Legislature, many Democrats uniting, yet by one of the uncertainties 
and mutations of political life, no action was taken on his nomination by 
the sub-committee, to whom it was referred, and finding that no report 
would be made in the closing days of the session of 1883, he withdrew 
his name, presenting and supporting the name of T. M. Kirkpatrick, of 
Howard County, who was appointed and confirmed. In the campaign of 
1882, the State Central Committee sent him forth through the State to 
make Republican speeches, although he was and is chairman of the 
committee in his own county. There have been numerous bolters and 
some difficult campaigns while he has been at the head of his party in 
Howard County, but he has invariably organized victory instead of de- 
feat, and has thus received the plaudits again and again of the Repub- 


licans of Indiana, and especially of Howard and surrounding counties. 
He is still hale and in the prime of his powers, undaunted in the battle 
of life, and bids fair to add many years of future usefulness to those al- 
ready past. 

A. N. GRANT was born in Butler County, Ohio, August 27, 
1848, and was one of nine children. His father, John M,, was a native 
of Ohio and of Scotch descent ; his mother, Catharine Grant, came from 
Pennsylvania, and was of German parentage. John M. Grant moved to 
Carroll County, Ind., in 1851, locating in the dense forest, where not a 
tree had been cut, and there erected his cabin home. He experienced 
many of the privations of the early settler. His farm is located near 
Burlington, on which he has resided ever since, having cleared 400 acres 
of heavy timber ; he now owns over 700 acres of well-improved land, 
and is one of the leading farmers in his county, A. N. Grant assisted 
his father in clearing the land, going to school during the winters until he 
was fourteen years of age, when he joined the patriotic boys and enlisted 
in the spring of 1864, in Company D, One Hundred and Fifty-fourth 
Regiment Indiana Volunteer Infantry, as a private. He was honorably 
discharged in August, 1865. When he returned home, he worked on 
the farm and attended school during 1865-66, and each successive winter 
taught and attended school for nine years. In 1874-75, he was Super- 
intendent of the Camden High School. In the winter of 1875-76, he 
attended the law school at Ann Arbor, where he graduated in the follow- 
ing spring. He was admitted to the bar in Carroll County and com- 
menced the practice of law in Howard County, in the fall of 1876, 
when he became a resident of Kokomo. During 1880-81, he was 
in partnership with B. F. Harness, in law practice, and in an abstract 
office. He is an active member of the Republican party, and a member 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church. Mr. Grant is an enterprising citi- 
zen, and has been identified with all public enterprises of the city since 
he became a resident of it. He was married September 28, 1876, to Miss 
Mary L. Darnell, of Greencastle, Ind. One daughter — Fern Etta — blesses 
this union. He is a member of the Grand Lodge of the I. 0. 0. F., of 
the Masonic Order in the Blue Lodge, of the Knights of Pythias, of 
the United Order of Honor and Grand Army of the Republic. 

R. T. GROVES is the son cf James A. Groves, a native of Ken- 
tucky, and Mary (McCarty) Groves, born in Maryland. His parents 
came to Indiana in an early day and settled at Indianapolis. Mr. Groves 
was a brick and stone mason by trade, and built the old State House at 
Indianapolis, and the Madison Depot, the first in that city. He was a 
pioneer at La Fayette, and helped clear the ground that the public square 
now occupies. He made and laid the first brick in the city of Craw- 


fordsville, Ind., and contracted and made the Government improvements 
for the Godfrey tribe of Indians in Miami County. He took an active 
part in developing the early railroads centering into Indianapolis, and 
took large contracts in many of the internal improvements of this State. 
After a long and useful life, he quietly passed away on April 12, 1876, 
aged seventy-seven years. Robert T. Groves, was born in La Fayette, 
Ind., January 24, 1833, and six years later removed with his parents to 
Rushville, Ind., and in a short time was taken to Noblesville, where he 
received the benefits of the schools until seventeen years of age. He 
then removed with his parents to Lebanon, Ind., where he finished his 
education, after which he was employed by his father on the Indianapolis 
& Cincinnati Railroad. Later, he engaged in the live-stock trade, after 
which he followed pork-packing five years at Cincinnati, and one year at 
La Fayette. In 1874, he came to Kokomo, where he has since been en- 
gaged in the livery and sale stable business. He was married in Kokomo 
in July, 1878, to Miss Rebecca Luillin, of Kentucky. By this union 
they have two children — Franklin E. and William D. Mr. Groves is 
one of Kokomo's leading citizens ; he has served as City Councilman, and 
is an active member of the Republican party. 

DR. J. F. HENDERSON, a native of Pennsylvania, was born near 
Lancaster November 23, 1820. of English-Irish parents. He was the 
second of a family of seven children, and passed his early life on a farm. 
In 1833, the family moved to Indiana, coming through in wagons, and 
camping one night near the site of the old State house. They located in 
Tippecanoe County, and for many years his father kept a wayside inn; he 
paid some attention to farming, and successfully conducted a cooper shop, 
in which all his sons worked. Dr. Henderson worked in the shop, 
and attended the common schools. As soon as he was able, he began 
teaching, and, through economy, he was soon enabled to pursue the high- 
er branches in the academ}'^ at Jeffersonville. At the age of twenty-two, 
he was married to Cynthia Ann Whitson. They had seven children, five 
of whom are living He began the study of medicine at the age of nine- 
teen, and in 1847 he began to practice in New London, where he also 
conducted a dry goods and drug store. In 1855, he graduated from the 
Ohio Medical College with the honors of his class. His thesis on that 
occasion was subsequently largely quoted in "King's Work on Obstet- 
rics." He helped to found the Pioneer, the first newspaper established 
in the county. He was a Democrat, and in slavery days a Free-Soiler. 
His influence and labors are thought to have elected Hon. J. E. McDon- 
ald to the Lower House over Hon. H. S. Lane, the Whig candidate. In 
1860, Dr. .Henderson was sent by the Democracy to the National Con- 
vention at Baltimore, when Stephen A. Douglas was nominated for the 


Presidency. In 1861, he removed his family to Kokomo, and when the 
war broke out, he volunteered his services. He was elected Surgeon of 
the Eighty-ninth Regiment Indiana Volunteer Infantry, and lor several 
years was Acting Brigade Surgeon of Fort Pickering, Memphis, Tenn. 
On his return from the war, he founded the City Book and Drug Store, 
which he conducted until 18t58, when he sold out to besin the erection of 
the Clinton Hotel, in which Jay, Russell & Dolman took a half-interest. 
Dr. Henderson was the founder and for a few years the editor of the Ko- 
komo Dispatch, and, in 1872, ambitious to build a permanent home for 
the newspaper, conceived the idea of erecting the Opera House. In con- 
junction with M. Bell and H. H. Winslow, the building was completed 
and opened to the public in September, 1873. • Dr. Henderson now lives 
on his farm in Monroe Township, having retired from politics and active 
business. He has made many improvements in the city of Kokomo. 
He was Postmaster at New London under President Polk, and for two 
terms served as a member of the Common Council of the city of Koko- 
mo from the First Ward. Dr. Henderson is truly a self-made man, and his 
monument is the improvements he has made to the community in which 
he was for nearly half a century so active a factor. 

JOHN 0. HENDERSON, the senior editor of the Kokomo Dispatch, 
was born on the 1st day of September, 1847, in the town of New Lon- 
don, this county. His father and mother are both living, to rejoice in 
the success of their son. His father, John F. Henderson, is one of the 
old settlers of this county and a pioneer physician of much more than 
ordinary ability. His mother's maiden name was Cynthia A. Whitson. 
New London is noted for its good schools. Here the youthful editor 
of the Dispatch received much more than ordinary advantages in 
education. In 1861, he removed to Kokomo with his parents, where 
he has ever since resided. He attended the city schools from 1861 
until 1865, when he commenced clerking in his father's drug store, 
where he remained until 1868. He taught two terms of district 
school, between 1865 and 1868, and is thus a member of that grand 
army of men who began a successful career in life by starting as " a 
common school teacher." In the fall of 1868, he entered Asbury 
University, then under the Presidency of Bishop Bowman, where he was 
graduated in 1872. In the summer of 1873, he purchased an interest in 
the Kokomo Democrat, a little sheet founded by his father, as the organ 
of the Democratic party of Howard County. The paper was struggling 
for an existence on the journalistic sea. There was a party majority 
against the paper of 1,200. The Tribune, at that time, was at the zenith 
of its power, edited by T. C. Philips, one of the brightest, most trenchant 
and powerful writers ever upon the Indiana press. Here, our youthful 


editor had to contend for success or failure, with a foeman worthy of any 
man's steel. He could not have had a better schooling. It was 
soon seen that he had made no mistake in his choice of a pro- 
fession. The paper at once began to show signs of improvement. In 
August, 1875, the paper was greatly enlarged and its name changed 
to the Kokomo Dispatch. From the time that J. 0. Henderson's 
name appeared as one of the editors, he has been the chief writer 
for the paper. The office and job rooms are all well supplied with 
best materials, and the facilities for first-class work are the best. To- 
day, no list of leading weekly papers would be made without plac- 
ino- the Kokomo Dispatch near the top of the list. Mr. Henderson 
is everywhere recognized as one of the most polished and brilliant 
of the young editors of the State. In the campaign of 1876, he 
made his paper felt as a power upon the Democratic side of that fierce 
contest. In each campaign since that, the Dispatch has been regarded 
as the leading political paper of this Congressional district. During the 
last campaign, the Dispatch articles written against L. P. Milligan, in the 
Huntington-Wells Senatorial district, were widely copied. Oscar Hen- 
derson is a thorough newspaper man, popular with the craft. As a 
writer, he is vigorous and powerful. He has the humorous strongly 
developed in his nature, and he has the faculty of hitting oflF an oppo- 
nent in a few humorous sentences, which prove more effective than a 
labored article would be. He recognizes the duty he owes to jour- 
nalism, and no man is more thoroughly discriminative in his duties 
as an editor, and his relations as a friend. He never allows his social or 
business relations to interfere with his duties as a journalist. One thing 
can be said of him, that he is no trimmer, and no stickler for the favor of 
public opinion. Some of the best known writers of Indiana journalism 
commenced their careers as authors in the columns of the Dispatch. In 
May, 1879, he was married to Miss Mary George, daughter of William 
W. George, who resides a few miles west of this city, and is a prominent 
farmer of Clay Township. One boy, about one year old, has come to 
brighten their home. 

HOWARD EUGENE HENDERSON, the junior editor of the Ko- 
komo Dispatch, has long been recognized as the financial man of the firm. 
To Howard E. Henderson, more than to any and all other persons, is due 
the credit of making the paper what it is in a financial point of view. He 
became a half-owner of the paper, then the Kokomo Democrat, in 1874. 
The paper has since been owned by J. 0. k H. E. Henderson, who are 
its editors and publishers. Howard found a small paper, poorly equipped 
facilities, few subscribers, and loaded down with debts. As soon as he 
became an owner of the paper, he became its local editor and financial 


manager. Order was soon evolved out of chaos. It was the determina- 
tion of its financial manager that the paper should be made to pay. The 
subscription list was low, advertising rates low, and job work not plenti- 
ful. At once subscriptions were solicited, new type was added to the fa- 
cilities, and all was changed. As early as 1876, the Dispatch became 
known as a wide-awake, sprightly Democratic paper. Soon the debt was 
paid off, the paper was enlarged, and a new Baxter engine was added, so 
that the old hand presses were thrown aside, and the paper has since been 
run by steam. Since the campaign of 1876, the Diapatch has taken an 
active part each year. Howard E. Henderson was born in the town of New 
London, Howard Co., Ind., on the 22d day of December, 1849. Here he 
spent the first twelve years of his life, moving to Kokomo with his par- 
ents in 1861. Here he attended the city schools until 1869, when he 
entered Asbury University, remaining two years, but did not graduate. 
He was foreman of his father's lumber yard for six years. In 1873, he 
was married to Miss Belle Williams, of Alto, Ind., daughter of Rev. 
Thomas Williams. He is the father of two children — the elder, Frank, 
and the younger, Eva, He has been for some time the manager of the 
Kokomo Opera House, and has shown himself, here as elsewhere, a com- 
petent business man. He has elevated the standard of our amusements 
until Kokomo is recognized abroad as a town where people know what 
good acting is. During the last year we have had some of the best com- 
panies ever before the footlights. 

DAVID HEXTER, son of Levi and Barbara Hexter, was born in 
Germany February 24, 1844, and came with his parents to Cleveland, 
Ohio, in 1849, At the age of thirteen, he went to Pittsburgli, Penn., 
where he learned butchering, and then went into business for himself. In 
1861, he enlisted in Company B, Second West Virginia Infantry, and 
was three years in active service, taking part in the engagements at Phil- 
ippi, Garrett's Ford, Rich Mountain, Monterey^ Cross Keys, Cedar 
Mouiitain, second Bull Run, Antietam, Flat Rock, Rocky Gap, Lynch- 
burg, etc; he was discharged in August, 1864, when he returned to 
Pittsburgh, In 1870, he came to Kokomo and engaged in the grocery 
and butcher business; he now carries a stock valued at .^2,000, and his 
transactions in 1882 amounted to $28,000, May 23, 1867, he married 
Miss Barbara Mayer, also a native of Germany, and to their union four 
children have been born — Isador, Max F,, Hattie and Samuel J, Mr, 
and Mrs. H. are members of the Hebrew Church, and he is also an Odd 
Fellow. Politically, he is identified with the Democratic party. 

WALTER HOOPER was born in England, November 29, 1829, 
and is the son of Thomas and Jane (Mitcheld) Hooper. Thomas 
Hooper came to America in 1832. He, in a few years, went back to 


Enirland, but crossed over to America and settled in New York. Here 
Walter grew to manhood, receiving a common school education. He 
worked at intervals for his grandfather, Thomas Chappell, an engineer. 
At the age of twenty-one, he came west, stopping in Porter County, Ind. 
Having some knowledge of the blacksmith trade, he soon found employ- 
ment in Valparaiso, but in a few months he went to Aurora, 111., where 
he remained until 1858. He then went to Montgomery, Ala., and 
worked at his trade until the fall of 1860, when he located at Troy, N. Y. 
On the day that saw the beginning of the civil war, he came to Indian- 
apolis, Ind., and in 1865 located at Kokomo. He was then worth $6,- 
000. He bought property here and erected a small blacksmith shop and 
began to make buggies. During his first year's business, he sold $1,665 
worth of new work, and, eight years later, $14,516. He manufactures 
a full line of buggies, carriages and spring wagons, and his work is all 
first-class. In 1869, he built a livery stable, cost $3,000 ; in 1870, a 
business room, for $3,000; in 1872, two brick business rooms, for $6,- 
000; in 1874, a brick residence, cost $7,000, and in 1882, one brick bus- 
iness room, at a cost of $25,000. Mr, Hooper owns what is known as 
Hooper's Block. He employs seven workmen and is doing a good busi- 
ness. He is a supporter of all public improvements, and has done as 
much as any one man in the building up of Kokomo. He has been 
Treasurer of the Agricultural Society for six years. He has been an 
Odd Fellow for twenty years, and Treasurer of the Wildman Lodge 
twelve years in succession. Mr. Hooper was married in the fall of 1860 
to Miss Christiana England, a native of Germany, but whose parents 
brought her to this country in her youth. Mr. and Mrs. Hooper are 
members of the Congregational Church. 

HON, MILTON B. HOPKINS (deceased), late Superintendent of 
Public Instruction of Indiana, was born in Nicholas County, Ky., April 
4, 1821. His father, Joseph Hopkins, was a talented lawyer of that day. 
After his father's death, his mother married a farmer and came with her 
husband and son to Indiana and settled on a farm in Rush County. At 
the age of fifteen, feeling an innate and strong desire for knowledge, he 
appealed to his step-father for assistance. This being refused, he left 
home, determined to work his own way and procure an education. He 
worked in a livery stable and spent all his earnings going to school. As 
soon as he was competent, he began to teach, with marked success, in the 
country schools. He studied Greek and Latin in private. At the age 
of twenty, he began to preach the Gospel and advocate Christianity, lo- 
cating in Milroy, Rush county; thence he moved to Frankfort, Ind., and 
six years later to Noblesville. Here, from his anxiety to understand the 
legal profession, he abandoned the ministry and studied and entered upon 


the practice of law. He was fast gaining the reputation of a hiwyer of 
more than ordinary efficiency when, being persuaded to return to the 
ministry, he established a superior reputation as a preacher. After living 
there about five years, he was induced to unite with Benjamin Franklin, 
of Cincinnati, Ohio, editor of the American Christian Mevieiv, in the 
publication of that paper. He moved to Cincinnati and entered upon the 
work, preaching at the same time in Cincinnati, Louisville and Covington. 
But his health failed and he was obliged to return to farming. In 1858, 
he located in Chilton County, Ind., and founded Farmers' Academy, 
which soon wielded a powerful influence in the community and attracted 
a patronage from adjoining counties. While living there, he was nomi- 
nated by the Democratic party for Superintendent of Public Instruction, 
but he declined the nomination. After remaining there about four years, 
he moved to Boone County and took charge of the Lebanon High School. 
Desiring still greater opportunities for the exercise of his educational 
powers, he made arrangements to take charge of Ladoga Academy, in- 
tending ultimately to convert it into a college. This institution soon 
gained a wide reputation and commanded a patronage from other States. 
After teaching there, and preaching at the same time in various parts of 
the State, for about six years, and finding better encouragement and fa- 
cilities in Kokomo, Howard County, for the establishment of a college, he 
moved to this place and, in connection witli his sons, the eldest two of 
whom had finished their course of study in the Kentucky University, he 
founded Howard College, under his own Presidency. This institution 
soon attracted a patronage that compared fiivorably with other colleges in 
the State, when his nomination by the Democratic party in 1870 for the 
office of Superintendent of Public Instruction, and his subsequent elec- 
tion, prevented him from being more than a nominal president of the col- 
lege and thus checked its progress. He now devoted all his energies and 
abilities to the duties of his office, and with such success that in 1872 he 
was re-elected by a handsome majority. Upon entering his second term, 
he abandoned Howard College. But a few months before the expiration 
of his second term, the whole State was shocked at the announcement of 
his sudden death, which occurred at his residence in Kokomo August 16, 
1874, at the age of fifty-three. The obsequies were attended by the of- 
ficers of State. At the funeral discourse, Gov. Hendricks said: "No 
man ever died in the State who received the honors this man will receive." 
" Happy will it be with his fellow-officers," said Lieut. Gov. Sexton, "if, 
when they are called upon to render their accounts, it shall be as svell 
with them as it is to-day with Milton B. Hopkins." In 1842, Mr. Hop- 
kins was married to Jaalah Rebecca Stallard, daughter of James Stallard, 
a pious, pioneer Methodist preacher. They had five children — Alexan- 


(ler C, Professor in the Danville, 111., College ; John 0. (deceased), late 
Professor of Greek in Butler University ; James I., Principal of the Kirk- 
lin Schools ; M. Jennie, wife of Prof. A. J. Youngblood, of Eureka, 111.; 
and Mary Belle, wife of P. 0. Updegraff, of Kokomo. Mr. Hopkins and 
family were members of the Christian Church. As a preacher, he ranked 
among the ablest of his church. As a teacher, he gradually rose from 
the district schools of Rush County to Superintendent of Public Instruc- 
tion. " He gave the school system of Indiana," says Gov. Hendricks, 
"a national reputation." At the close of his first term, Indiana had a 
larger school fund, by $2,000,000, than any other' State in the Union. 
Mr. Hopkins was a close student all his life. He was a true lover of his 
country, and was greatly devoted to the great State in which he lived. 

LOllA C. HOSS, editor and proprietor of the Kokomo Gazette^ was 
born in Marion County, Ind., January 16, 1859. His parents, Peter E. 
and Sarah (Ringer) Hoss, were of German descent. His mother died 
before he was two years old, and he was reared by his father's parents. 
They removed to Howard County, and located near Fairfield in 1865. 
Here L. C. attended the country school during the winter, and assisted 
his grandfather on the farm during the summer months. In 1874, he 
entered Butler University at Irvington, Ind., a suburb of Indianapolis. 
He attended college three years, after which he spent one year in Kan- 
sas, where in the summer he assisted his cousin in breaking prairie sod, 
and during the winter months taught a common school in the country. 
In 1878, he returned home, and again entered Butler University, gradu- 
ating with honors in 1881, in the regular classical course. He then came 
to Kokomo, and July 25 took a half-interest in the G-azette. He is now 
sole proprietor of this paper. He has enlarged it and built it up, until 
now it is one of the best local papers in the State, and has an increasing 
circulation. Mr. Hoss is a stanch Republican, and has done much to 
build up the party in this county, through the columns of his worthy pa- 
per. He is an active member of the Christian Church, of the Knights 
of Pythias, and the Phi Delta Theta fraternity. 

E. S. HUNT, of the firm of E. S. Hunt & Co., was born December 
13, 1841, in Henry County, Ind., and was one of nine children born to 
Nathan and Caroline (Hosier) Hunt. His father was a native of North 
Carolina, and his mother was born in this State. The parents moved to 
New Lebanon, Monroe Township, this county, when their son was but 
three years of age. His father was a carpenter. Witli- the aid of his 
sons, he improved forty acres of timber land. E. S. Hunt was taught 
the use of tools while young, and, when he was thirteen years old, he ac- 
companied his father at carpentering, and at eighteen was a competent 
mechanic, and at this age he built the largest barn then in Howard Coun- 


ty. This barn contained 111 sticks of square timber, which was scored 
and hewed from the tree. He continued at his trade until August, 
1862, when he enlisted in Company G, Eighty-ninth Regiment Indiana 
Volunteer Infantry. He served as a private in this regiment one year, 
when he was transferred and promoted as Quartermaster Sergeant of 
the Third United States Colored Heavy Artillery. A few months later, 
he was promoted to First Lieutenant, and later he was transferred to the 
First Tennessee Colored Militia. He was Captain of this company dur- 
ing the remainder of the war. After serving faithfully for over three 
years, he was honorably discharged. On reaching home, he worked at 
his trade for a short time, when he bought an engine and threshing ma- 
chine, and engaged in this business for seven successive seasons. In the 
meantime, he and his brother were running a planing-mill at New Lon- 
don. They continued this business until 1875, when they moved their 
machinery to Russiaville, where they operated with marked success for 
one year. They exchanged this for the furniture factory owned by A. 
Kline, to which they added new machinery, making a planing mill, and 
sash and door factory, at a cost of about $16,000. The company of H. 
& E. S. Hunt added a lumber yard to their mill, and continued in busi- 
ness until February, 1882, when E. S. exchanged his interest in the fac- 
tory for H. Hunt's interest in the lumber yard. Mr. E. S. Hunt has 
since given his attention to the wholesale and retail trade of hard and 
soft wood lumber. Their yard is well filled, they having $50,000 in- 
vested in stock. Mr. Hunt started in life a poor boy, and by hard work 
and economy he now owns 201 acres of well-improved land in Howard 
Township, worth $12,000, besides good city property, and a fourth inter- 
est in the lumber yard of E. S. Hunt & Co., of which he is manager. He 
has never been an aspirant to oifice, but he has served two terms as Jus- 
tice of the Peace in Monroe Township, and has been one of the City 
Councilmen of Kokomo for four years. He is a live, energetic business 
man, and is a Republican in principle. He was married in May, 1861, 
to Miss Mahala Ratcliffe, of Howard County. She was born September 
11, 1841, and was the daughter of William and Mary A. Ratcliffe. The 
result of this union is eight children — Elzir, Mary C, E. Delia, William 
M., Emma F., Lillie, Exie Elmore and Glen G. 

NORMAN HURD was born October 80, 1820, in New Hampshire. 
He is the son of Stephen and Naby (Wilcox) Hurd, both natives of New 
Hampshire, and of English descent. In 1837, this family moved into 
Western New York, where they lived until 1813, when they moved west 
into Peoria County, 111., and four years later into Marshall County, where 
the parents lived during the remainder of their lives. Nohman lived at 
home, going to school until he was thirteen years old, and working on the 


farm. His education was limited, but by his own efforts he has acquired a 
good practical education. In the fall of 1864, he enlisted in Company F, 
Forty-second Regiment Illinois Volunteer Infantry, and was honorably 
discharged June 15, 1865. He participated in the battles of Spring Hill, 
Franklin and Nashville. He was fortunately not wounded, but when he 
returned to his ftither's farm in Marshall County, Ohio, he was broken 
down in health from exposure and over-exertion. In 1867, he was com- 
pelled to leave the farm, so he located at Walton, Cass Co., Ind., where 
he engaged in the lumber business. He engaged in this business seven 
years, when he returned to Marshall County, 111., where he improved a 
farm and tilled it for three years. In the spring of 1877, he came to 
Kokomo and engaged in the manufacture of hardwood lumber, car, bridge 
and wagon timber. He is doing a good business of $40,000 per annum, 
employing thirty-five hands. He located his mill and lumber yard near 
the Junction. Mr. Hurd started in life a poor boy, but through his own 
effort, with economy, he has accumulated good property. He is a Repub- 
lican in politics. July 12, 1843, Mr. Hurd was married to Miss L. D. 
Hurd, who was born in New Hampshire, April 19, 1821. She was the 
daughter of Permenius and Sophia (Dean) Hurd, both natives of New 
Hampshire, of English descent. Three children have been born — 
Oliver S., Dexter N., of the firm of Hurd & Co., and Mariam A. Mr. 
and Mrs. Hurd are members of the Congregational Church, and are ac- 
tive workers and liberal supporters of their church. 

AUSTIN JAY, dealer and shipper of butter, eggs and poultry, came 
to Kokomo in 1870 and was employed by Jay & Jay, in the grocery and 
produce business, for three year^. He then went to Grant County, Ind., 
and embarked in the grocery and bakery business, which he conducted 
two years. He then engaged in the produce business there, buying, and 
dealing in butter, eggs and poultry ; this he followed until 1878, when he 
returned to Kokomo and transferred his business here. He has established 
a large and lucrative trade and is an extensive shipper of produce to New 
York and Chicago. Our subject is a native of Grant County, Ind., 
where he was born in 1854. His parents were Samuel and Mari s (Ev- 
ans) Jay ; his father was a merchant, and died in 1878 ; his mother is living 
with her son in Kokomo. Mr. Jay is a member of the K. of P., and 
in politics is a Republican. 

DR. I. C. JOHNSON was born in Indianapolis, Ind., September 26, 
1829. He is the son of Isaac Johnson, a native of Vermont, and Bar- 
shebah (Helvey) Johnson, born in North Carolina. His parents were 
married in Indianapolis, and his father died at the age of thirty. In 1835, 
our subject was sent to live with his uncle, Joel Helvey, in Huntington 
County, Ind., where he remained until he was eighteen years of age, at- 


tending the common schools of that district. He was sent to learn the 
millwright's trade in Wabash County, and in 1846 went with his brother- 
in-law to Grant County and engaged in the milling business. In the fall of 
1855, he commenced the study of medicine in the office of Drs. W. & C. 
Lomax, of Marion, Grant County. After remaining there one year, he 
read two years with Dr. D. W. Taylor, in Grant County. He attended 
lectures during the winter of 1860-61 at the Rusli Medical College at 
Chicago, and in 1863 again entered that institution, graduating the fol- 
lowing spring. He commenced practice in Kokomo in May, 1863, and in 
the spring of 1864 he entered the army as Contract Surgeon in a hospital 
in Nashville, and the following February received the commission of Acting 
Assistant Surgeon in the One Hundred and Fifty-third Regiment Indiana 
Volunteer Infantry, and served in that capacity until the close of the war, 
when he returned to Kokomo and resumed his active practice. In 1874 
he was elected County Treasurer, serving two terms. His administra- 
tion was eminently satisfactory, and was characterized by dignity, effi- 
ciency and perfect integrity. Since the close of the term of office, he has 
been actively engaged in his extensive practice, and ranks as one of the 
leading physicians in the county. He has served as President of the Ko- 
komo Academy of Medicine, and is now President of the Howard County 
Medical Association. He is a prominent member of the I. 0. 0. F., 
and has passed all the chairs in that lodge. Dr. Johnson was married in 
1857, to Miss Adelaide Swope, a native of Wayne County, Ind. This 
union has been blessed with four children, only one of whom is living — 
Minnie. Dr. Johnson is a member of the Methodist Episcopal Church, 
and his political principles are those of the Republican party, with 
which he has been connected since its organization. He has been 
active in promoting the prosperity of Kokomo, and takes a leading part 
in whatever promises to benefit the city and county. Dr. Johnson has 
been a student all of his life, and keeps pace with the advancement 
of his profession. He is a man of solid worth, courteous, temperate, 
upright, and possesses superior business and social attributes. 

BENJAMIN B. JOHNSON, Treasurer of Howard County, is a na- 
tive of Ohio, and was born in Stark County September 2, 1852. He is 
the fifth of nine children born to Jesse and Martha (Butler) Johnson, 
both natives of Virginia, and of English and Welsh descent. His parents 
removed to this county in September, 1866, and located in the city of 
Kokomo. Mr. Jesse Johnson was a farmer during his early life, but 
when he came to this county he entered into mercantile pursuits, which 
he followed for a few years. He then retired from business, and was an 
invalid for years before his death, in March, 1879. The subject of this 
sketch spent his early boyhood days on a farm, having access to the com- 


mon schools, and finished his education in the Kokomo High School. At 
the age of sixteen years, he began clerking in the news stand, and in 
March, 1868, became Deputy Postmaster. He held this office until 
November, 1871, when he became book-keeper in the First National Bank, 
where he remained until January, 1877. He then accepted a position 
as clerk in the Legislature, during a regular and special session. After 
this Mr. Johnson opened an abstract and loan office, in company with Mr. 
L. 0. Moroland, continuing until November, 1878, at which time he en- 
tered the Treasurer's office as Deputy. He was elected County Treasur- 
er on the Republican ticket in November, 1882. He is a live, energetic 
business man, and has taken an active part in the political circle. Mr. 
Johnson was married, July 4, 1875, to Miss Clara C. Albaugh, of Ko- 
komo. She was born September 8, 1855, and is the daughter of Aaron 
and Susanna Albaugh, of Kokomo. Mr. and Mrs. Johnson have had 
three children, two of whom are living — Edna and Fred. 

JAMES D. JOHNSON is a son of Jesse and Martha (Butler) 
Johnson, the former a native of Virginia, the latter of Ohio. He was 
born in Stark County, Ohio, January 18, 1860, where he was reared un- 
til six years old. His parents then removed to Kokomo, Ind., where 
James D. was brought up and educated. He clerked at intervals during 
his school-boy days, and completed his studies in 1877, in the High 
School of Kokomo. He accepted a position with Moreland & Johnson, 
dealers in real estate, loans, and abstracts of titles, which he filled with 
competency until 1878. At the death of Mr. Moreland, he, with his 
brother, purchased an interest in the concern. The business was con- 
ducted under the firm of B. B. Johnson & Co. It was successfully car- 
ried on till 1881, when he purchased his brother's interest. He is now 
prosperously conducting a general loan, abstracts of title and insurance 
business. In the insurance line, he represents the "Franklin" of Phil- 
adelphia, "Lancashire" of England, "Connecticut" of Hartford, and 
the "Fireman's Fund" of California. In 1881, he was appointed agent 
for the "Adams" and "American" Express Companies, which position 
he still fills. In 1882, he was qualified Fire Warden of Ward No. 3, 
where he is faithfully discharging his duty. Mr. Johnson was married 
in Kokomo, Ind., October 20, 1881, to Miss Maud A. Anderson, of Ko- 
komo. She was born January 15, 1863, and is a daughter of Joseph 
and Sarah J. (Richmond) Anderson. By this union they have one 
child — Edith. Mr. Johnson is a polite and genial gentleman, and bids 
fair to become one of Kokorao's prominent business men. His political 
sympathies are with the Republican party. 

JOHN W. KERN, one of the first lawyers of this Eleventh Congress- 
nal District, and one of the most brilliant lawyers of his age in the 


State, was born at Alto, Howard County. He was born on the 
20th day of December, 1849. When he was still very young, his 
parents moved to Warren County, Iowa, where John lived the life of 
many another farmer's lad, who afterward achieved success and fame 
in his chosen calling in after life. Here John attended his first 
term of school, in a schoolhouse alike in all things to the average 
schoolhouse of the pioneer period. He attended school in the winter 
and aided upon the farm in the summer. When he was fourteen years of 
age, his parents returned to Alto, and since that time Mr. Kern has al- 
ways been a resident of this county. About this time, John became fired 
with an ambition, always pleasant to see ; he determined to become ed- 
ucated. For two years, he attended the school in this city, coming from 
his home each raornincj, and back ao-ain in the eveninoj, on horseback. 
When but fifteen years of age, he taught his first term of school, at the 
home schoolhouse in Alto. His second and last term of school was 
taught at the Dyar Schoolhouse in the winter of 1866 and 1867. It has 
been said that poets are born, not made by study ; whether true or not, 
it is true that the subject of this sketch was a lawyer by nature. We do 
not mean by this that he did not prepare himself thoroughly for the 
success he has since obtained, but we mean that he naturally drifted into 
the legal profession. He entered the University of Michigan in the spring 
of 1867, and took a special course of study ; in the fall of the same year, 
he entered the law department of the same university as a junior, and 
was graduated therefrom in the spring of 1869. In May of the same year, 
before he was twenty years of age, he opened an office in this city and 
commenced the practice of his profession. While young in years, he 
offset any disadvantage because of his youth by superior diligence and 
energy in his practice, and he soon commanded a large business and 
took a leading place in his profession, which he has ever since maintained. 
While he is an antagonist to be feared in any cause in which he embarks, 
it is as a "criminal lawyer" that he especially excels ; kind and sympa- 
thetic by nature, his heart goes out to those in trouble. He seems to 
divine by intuition the strong points of a defense, and this, together with 
his matchless oratory, makes him a redoubtable antagonist in the defense of 
persons charged with crime. Soon after he commenced practice, he was 
engaged toassist in the, prosecution of Dougherty, who was indicted for kill- 
ing Van Horn. The case was tried at Tipton. Col. Charles D. Murray, 
Col. N. P. Richmond and Charles E. Hendry were also employed in the 
prosecution. All were men of ability and experience. The defendant 
was represented by one of the most able corps of attorneys ever engaged 
in the defense of any man, Gov. Thomas A. Hendricks, Maj. Jonathan 
W. Gordon, of Indianapolis, Judge Linsday, of Kokomo, and Hon. N, 


R. Overman, of Tipton. The defendant was acquitted, but the trial of 
this case showed, despite his youth, that Mr. Kern could cope successfully 
with the best men in his profession. From the time of that trial to the 
present. Gov. Hendricks has always been Mr. Kern's warm friend and 
admirer. Soon after this, Mr. Kern defended one Jones, for the killing 
of Miles Slyter ; he was acquitted. He assisted in the defense of Garr' 
and Pratt for the killing of Warnick ; both were acquitted. In the winter 
of 1880, he was employed to prosecute Doles for the killing of Perry 
White. The first trial came off in March, 1881, and the jury stood eleven 
for conviction and one for acquittal ; thus they were discharged ; the 
second trial took place in March, 1882, and Doles was sentenced to twenty- 
one years in the penitentiary. Mr Kern's closing argument for the 
State was one of the most powerful arguments ever delivered before a 
Tipton County jury. When closing his argument, he summed up all the 
evidence against the defendant and closed with one of the most thundering 
perorations ever heard in a court of justice. Many otlier cases of im- 
portance in which Mr. Kern was employed might be given, but they would 
be superfluous. In 1871, Mr. Kern was elected City Attorney, by a 
Republican Council, and subsequently re-elected twice, thus serving until 
1877, when he refused longer to fill the office ; he was elected at the last 
election. May, 1883i, to till the office of City Attorney of Kokomo two 
years. Each of these elections was by a Republican Council. In politics, 
Mr. Kern is a Democrat of the most pronounced character, but he is not 
an ultra partisan, and in local elections remembers his friends. In the 
fall of 1870, the Democrats nominated him for the Legislature, and he 
was beaten by less than 250 votes, when the county went Republican by 
1,000 ; his opponent was Captain Kirkpatrick, then as now a strong man 
in his party. In 1874, Mr. Kern was defeated for Prosecutor by 234 
votes, and in 1880 he was defeated by 505, when Garfield carried the 
county by 1,200 maj ority. It is very safe to say that the political life of Jolin 
W. Kern has just commenced. Mr. Kern married Miss Annie Hazzard, 
m 1870. They have but one child, Fred. He is a member of the Meth- 
odist Church and is a Freemason and Odd Fellow. His mother died in 
1859. His father, Dr. Jacob H. Kern, resides near Botetourt Springs, 
Va. Mr. Kern is the only son. He has a sister, who also resides in 

LEWIS KERN, M. D., is a native of Botetourt County, Va. ; was born 
in 1831, and is the son of Jacob Kern, a native of Pennsylvania, and 
Delpha A. (Stanley) Kern, born in Virginia. His fiither was a black- 
smith, and removed in 1839 to Shelby County, Ind., with his family, 
and resided there until his death in 1842. His mother died in 1836, 
leaving five children, our subject being the youngest. Dr. Lewis Kern 


received common school advantages, working on a farm and in a saw-mill 
until about fourteen years of age, when he went to Warren County, Ohio, 
and attended school six months. The ensuing winter, he taught school in 
Shelby County, Ind., and in 1845 came with his brother. Dr. J. H. 
Kern, to Howard County — then Richardville County — and located where 
Alto now is. In 1846, he returned to Shelby County, where he taught 
school one term, and in 1849 ao-ain located in this countv and commenced 
the study of medicine with his brother, Dr. J. H. Kern. After having 
been under his tutorage three years, he commenced to practice with his 
brother at Alto. In 1853, his brother went to Iowa, and our subject went 
to New London, where he practiced one year. He then returned to 
Alto, where he soon attained a large practice, and in 1879 he came to 
Kokomo with his son and entered the drug trade, at the same time con- 
tinuing his practice. After two years, he sold out, and with his son en- 
gaged in the practice of medicine. In December, 1882, this partnership 
was dissolved, and he is now practicing alone. Dr. Kern has a large 
practice, and ranks as one of the eminent physicians of the county. Dr. 
Kern is a graduate of the Indiana Medical College, is a member of the 
Howard County Medical Association, and has been President two terms 
of the Academy of Medicine of Kokomo. He is a member of the State 
Medical Association, and is an honorary member of the Grant County and 
Tipton County Medical Societies. He is a member of the I. 0. 0. F. 
and Masonic fraternity, and has served as City Councilman from the 
First Ward of Kokomo. Dr. Kern was married, in 1853, to Vii-ginia C 
Pitzer, who was born in 1833 in Fayette County, Ohio. By this union 
they have one child, Theodore. Dr. Kern is one of the oldest physi- 
cians in active practice in the county. He is an old settler in Harrison 
Township, and has assisted in the development and has been identified 
with the progressive interests of his township, county and State. He is 
one of the best-qualified physicians in the county, and has had a wide 
experience. He is ever ready to assist in benevolent enterprises, and he 
and wife are both members of the Methodist Episcopal Church in good 

THEODORE KERN, M. D., one of the rising young physicians of 
the State, is a native of Indiana, and was born in Howard County 
in 1855. He is the only child of Lewis and Virginia C. (Pitzer) 
Kern. He received good educational advantages, and in 1873 
commenced the study of medicine with his father. He graduated 
in 1876 at the Indiana Medical College, taking ad eundem degree in 
1877. He then returned to his home and entered into practice with 
his father at Alto, Harrison Township, remaining there one year. 
He then went to Fairfield and commenced practice alone, remaining there 


fifteen months, when he came to Kokomo and in connection with his 
father was engaged two years in the drug trade. He then, in partnership 
with his father, engaged in the practice of medicine until December, 1882, 
when he resumed practice alone. Dr. Kern is a member of the Indiana 
State Medical Association, of the Howard County Association, and Ko- 
komo Academy of Medicine. He was married, in 1876, to Miss Viga 
Sharp, of Sharpsville, Tipton County., by which union they have one 
child, Nettie. Dr. Kern is a hard student and well read in his profession. 
He has established a good practice and holds a high rank among the 
successful practitioners of Howard County. 

DR. S. T. KIRK, dentist, was born in 1838 in Union County, Ind., 
and is the son of Israel Kirk, a native of Pennsylvania, and Sarah (Test) 
Kirk, born in New Jersey. His parents were married in Ohio, and had three 
children, our subject being the second. His father was a miller, and died in 
1842, and his mother was subsequently married to William Beard, who soon 
after died. His mother is still living in Kokorao. Dr. Kirk learned 
the carpenter's trade in Richmond, Ind., and worked at that four years. 
He taught writing school two years, and then began the study of his 
profession. At the death of his step- father he had to go upon the farm 
in Hendricks County, where he remained until 1864. He studied dentistry 
while on the farm, and later, while on a trip to Minnesota, continued 
his studies. He then came to Thorntown, Ind., and studied under 
Dr. Mendenhall nearly a year, and in the spring of 1867 came to 
Kokomo, where he commenced his practice. Here he has since re- 
mained and has established a large and successful practice. He has all 
the appliances to do any kind of dental work, and is a genial and ex- 
cellent artist in his profession. He is one of the trustees of the Indiana 
Dental College, and is a member of the Indiana State Dental Associa- 
tion. Dr. Kirk was married, in 1869, to Miss Loretta Macy, of Kokomo. 
She died in October, 1874, and in 1876 Dr. Kirk was married to 
Sarah F. Sullivan, who was then teaching school at Kokomo. This 
union has been blessed with two children — Wilfred D. and Maud A. 
Dr. Kirk is a member of the Masonic fraternity, and he and wife are 
both members of the Society of Friends. 

CAPT. THOMAS M. KIRKPATRICK, Collector of Internal Reve- 
nue for the Eleventh District, is one of the representative pioneers of Indi- 
ana. He is a native of Ohio, where he was born in Brown County May 2, 
1820. His father, James Kirkpatrick, was a native of West Virginia. His 
grandfather, Andrew Kirkpatrick, was born in Scotland, and, emigrating 
to America, with two brothers, before the Revolution, participated in the 
struggle for independence, one of the brothers (David) being killed at the 
battle of Bunker Hill. Andrew married, in Maryland, Elizabeth Bowen^ 


and removed to West Virginia, subsequently becoming a pioneer of Ohio. 
Here, in the war of 1812, James, with several brothers, enlisted, and 
served in the campaign on the Ohio border. James subsequently was 
married to Mary Kincaid, the daughter of another Ohio pioneer, and re- 
mained a resident of Brown County until his death in 1828. In 1834, the 
mother of Thomas, with six children, emigrated to Indiana, Montgomery 
County, where lived Absalom Kirkpatrick, a brother of James. Thomas 
received educational advantages, such as the pioneer times afforded, and as- 
sisted his uncle in farming. After spending several years in various 
occupations, chiefly farming, he was married, April 1, 1841, to Miss Mar- 
garet J. Baldwin, who was born January 27, 1824, her parents being 
William A. and Amy (Crooks) Baldwin. In August, 1843, our subject 
came to explore the "Reserve," and after a thorough examination he 
decided to fix his claim upon the land upon which he now lives. Here 
he built a log cabin, and on the 13th of November of the same year, 
he brought his young wife. Upon this land he has resided up to the 
present time, clearing up a large farm, which he has improved, 
until to-day it is one of the most valuable in Howard County. Capt. 
Kirkpatrick has assisted in the development and improvement of the 
county, as much as any man living within its borders. He took a lead- 
ing interest in the organization of Pete's Run Gravel road, and has acted 
as Secretary of this association since its organization, and is at the pres- 
ent time its heaviest stockholder. He subscribed $500 for the first rail- 
road enterprise, when heavily involved for his land, and was a contractor 
upon this road, clearing the timber for the track. Having been for the 
greater portion of his life engaged in agricultural pursuits, he has 
taken active interest in the County Agricultural Society, and advocates 
progressive ideas upon this most important of all industries. Until 1874, 
his farm was included in Clay Township, but upon petition, he was set ofi* 
into Centre Township. While a resident of Clay Township, he served in 
various offices of trust, being Trustee several terms. Capt. Kirkpatrick 
has been a Republican in politics since the organization of that party, 
and has been honored by many offices by his fellow-citizens. In 1852, 
he was elected Sherifi" of the county, and in 1865 and 1866 he 
served as County Commissioner, and for three terms has represented 
Howard County in the State Legislature, from 1870 to 1874, during 
which the re-districting of the State was defeated by the Republicans, and 
he also supported the resolution in regard to the amendment of the constitu- 
tion, prohibiting future legislation concerning the bonds of the "Wabash 
& Erie Canal;" this was passed by the House, and subsequently by 
the vote of the people was carried. In 1878, he was again elected, and 
served one term. In 1883, Capt. Kirkpatrick was appointed by President 


Arthur as Collector of Internal Revenue for the Eleventh District, and 
was promptly confirmed by the United States Senate. He entered upon 
the duties of this office the 31st of March, 1883. In all of the instances 
when his name has been mentioned for public offices, it has been done un- 
solicited by him, and his 'success is due to the fact that through the long 
years of his residence in the county, he has been true to the highest 
principles of honest integrity. Capt. Kirkpatrick resides upon his pleas- 
ant farm, with his faithful wife, who has ably assisted him in all the 
struggles and trials of his life. Nothing can be more appropriate to 
close this sketch than a brief outline of the gallant service of Capt. Kirk- 
patrick during the late war. Before the outbreak of the rebellion, 
Thomas J. Harrison, Barnabas Busby and himself had met at Kokomo 
and mutually pledged each other that, if the threatened cloud of war 
should break, they would each go together, regardless of pay or position. 
Upon learning of the fall of Fort Sumter, Capt. Kirkpatrick hastened 
to Kokomo, but found that Harrison had already surrounded himself with 
150 men. Kirkpatrick and Busby would have been equally prompt, but 
being busy upon their farms, did not receive the intelligence as soon as 
Harrison. Capt. Kirkpatrick and Busby went with Harrison to Indi- 
anapolis, and there being too many men in the latter's company, it was 
divided, and Harrison and Kirkpatrick elected Captains. Associated with 
the latter was Busby as First Lieutenant, and N. P. Richmond as Sec- 
ond Lieutenant. Capt. Kirkpatrick received his commission to date 
from April 23, 1861, and May 12 his company (C) was assigned to 
the Twelfth Indiana Volunteer Infantry. In order to enter the three 
years' service, he was, by permission of Gov. Morton, transferred to the 
Thirteenth Indiana Volunteer Infantry, fifty-five of his men following 
him ; they were formed, with recruits, as Company E, June 18, being 101 
strong, and were mustered in for three years' service. Space will not 
permit us to relate of the many battles and engagements of this regi- 
ment, but througli this long period Capt. Kirkpatrick led his company 
gallantly, often having command. He participated in all of the engage- 
ments of his regiment, which has a record that the pages of history will 
forever perpetuate. At the close of his service, he returned to his home, 
receiving an honorable discharge. Soon after, in April, 1865, he was 
asked by Congressman Stillwell to organize the One Hundred and Fifty- 
third Indiana Volunteer Infantry from this district (Eleventh), as Colonel; 
this he hastened to do, but upon arriving at Indianapolis the sur- 
render of Lee prevented the fruition of this plan, and Capt. Kirkpatrick 
returned to his home, rejoicing, as did every true American, at the close 
of this gigantic struggle. Capt. Kirkpatrick had, early in the spring of 
1865, been appointed Lieutenant Colonel of the One Hundred and Forty- 


seventh Indiana Volunteer Infantry, which he declined. To the im- 
portant office which he has now been appointed, Capt Kirkpatrick takes 
the entire confidence of his fellow-citizens. All honor to the brave sol- 
dier and the man who has been true to all public and private trusts. 

LEX J. KIRKPATRICK was born in Rush County, Ind., Sep- 
tember 6, 1853, and when but four months old, his parents, Stephen and 
Rebecca (Jackson) Kirkpatrick, who are both natives of Rush County, 
Ind., removed to this county, locating near Greentown. Five years 
later, they removed into Taylor Township, where the son assisted his 
father upon the farm until fifteen years of age, when he entered Oska- 
loosa (Iowa) College for one year. The family then moved to Kokomo, 
and in January, 1871, L. J. entered Howard College, remaining until 
June, 1873, Avhen he became a law student in the office of Hendry & 
Elliott. The following winter, he taught school six months, in How- 
ard Township. He then studied law in the same office until October, 
1874, when he entered the Central Law School at Indianapolis, graduat- 
ing from that institution in June, 1875. He and Mr. Thomas, of Rush- 
ville, represented the class at this commencement. He then returned 
home, was admitted to the bar, and soon after formed a partnership with 
James F. Elliott, of Kokomo, and has since been practicing law in How- 
ard and adjoining counties. In the fall of 1881, he was appointed Master 
Commissioner, by Judge N. R. Overman, of the Thirty-sixth Judicial 
Circuit, which position he is filling now. He is Secretary of the Demo- 
ocratic Central Committee, and he is also a member of the I. 
0. 0. F. September 22, 1881, he was married to Miss Emma M. 
Palmer, of Adrian, Mich., the daughter of Stephen and Lucretia (Sa- 
ville) Palmer. Stephen Palmer was a native of New York State, and 
his wife of Indiana. Both were of Scotch descent. Mr. Kirkpatrick 
has been an active member of the bar each term of the Circuit Court 
since he commenced practice. He has been a member ot the Christian 
Church since January, 1868, and was an active worker in the Young 
Men's Christian Association for a number of years. 

A. B. KIRKPATRICK, attorney, is the second in a family of five 
children born to William and Sarah (Walker) Kirkpatrick, the former a 
native of Union County, Ind., the latter of North Carolina, and of Eng- 
lish and Scotch extraction. Mr. A. B. Kirkpatrick was born in Hen- 
dricks County, Ind., March 17, 1855, and was reared upon the farm. 
He graduated at Butler University in the summer of 1878, and in the 
spring of 1880 received his diploma in the Central Law School of Indi- 
ana. He began the practice of his profession in Kokomo, Ind., where 
he is still located. He is also one of the editors of the Kokomo Qazette. 


JOHN M. LEACH is a son of Elijah C. and Annis (Bird) Leach, 
and was born in Litchfield County, Conn., June 19, 1844. When quite 
young, he removed with his parents to Highland County, Ohio, where 
his father was employed by the Cincinnati & Marietta Railroad Company, 
for about two years. In 1854, the family came to Indiana, and settled 
in Kokomo, where John M. matured to manhood, and was educated. 
Upon the breaking-out of the war, he was appointed Veterinary Sur- 
geon, by E. M. Stanton, Secretary of War. He served in that capacity 
until the close of the rebellion, being discharged at Fort Leavenworth, 
Kan., in 18G5. He returned to Kokomo and engaged in the livery and 
brick trades with H. J. Owings. They continued business about 
seven years and then dissolved partnership. Mr. Leach became asso- 
ciated with another partner, under the firm of Hinton & Leach, in the 
livery, brick and ice trades, continuing for two years, when the firm dis- 
solved. Since that time, Mr. Leach has been carrying on the brick and 
ice business alone. He is doing a prosperous trade, and is one of the 
progressive business men of Kokomo. He has served upon the City 
Council for two years. Mr. Leach was married in Kokomo, Ind., De- 
cember 9, 1867, to Miss Mary E. Pitner, of Pennsylvania. She died 
March 25, 1875, leaving two children — Nettie R. and Howard H. Mr. 
Leach is a member of the I. 0. 0. F., and politically he is a Democrat. 

TENCE LINDLEY, Ditch Commissioner, was born in Clinton Coun- 
ty, Ohio, June 11, 1809. His parents, James and Susanah (Stout) Lind- 
ley, natives of North Carolina, were of German descent. A few years 
after their marriage they came to Ohio, and in 1811 located in Wayne 
County, Ind., finally locating on Green Fork Creek, where they entered 
land. This Mr. Lindley sold, and entered land on West River, where 
he was the only settler, having no neighbors for miles around. In the 
spring of 1847, he removed to this county and again began a pioneer life. 
He died in 1857, at the age of seventy-two years. His wife survived 
only a short time, dying within two or three years. Tence Lind- 
ley was reared on the frontier, receiving a limited education from the 
pioneer schools. He assisted his father on the fiirm until he was married 
in 1829, to Miss Martha Baltimore, of W^ayne County, Ind., but a native 
of Ohio, when he moved into a log cabin on a farm of forty-six acres. 
He remained there twelve years, when he sold and located in Henry 
County, where he tilled the soil until 1845 ; in February, he moved with 
his family six miles east of Kokomo, purchased a claim of 145 acres for 
$120, and experienced most of the privations of a new country. He in- 
creased his farm to 200 acres, having 100 improved. Later, he sold and 
located six miles west of Kokomo, on what is known as the Twin Spring 
Farm, and four years later, renting his farm, he removed to Kokomo, 


where he has since lived. For years after this, he was proprietor of a 
livery and sale stable. During the war, he did an extensive business, 
after which he retired from this business and since has been dealing in 
real estate. In 1849, he was elected County Commissioner, serving six 
years. He was elected the third time, but resigned. He has been Citv 
Commissioner for years. In May, 1882, he was appointed Ditch Com- 
missioner by the court, which position he is now holding. Mrs. Martha 
Lindley died in 1851, leaving four children — Ashbury, a farmer of St. 
Joseph County, Ind., Susanna, the wife of Snyder White, of Kokomo, 
Mary J. and Joseph, both deceased. Mr. Lindley was next married in 
1852, to Mrs. Margaret Honey, of Kentucky. She died in two years, 
leaving one son, John F., who was killed near La Porte by the cars, while 
employed as brakeman. His third marriage was to Mrs. Electa Living- 
ston, who died in 1874, after which he married his present wife, Mrs. 
Harriet Comstock, of Kokomo. 

JUDGE N. R. LINSDAY was born March 4, 1815, in Ononda^ra 
County, N. Y., and when but four years old, his parents moved to Law- 
renceburg, Ind., and one year later his father settled on Government 
land in Madison County, where he lived until his death in 1823. His 
mother then settled in Dearborn County, where she reared her family of 
six children. Judge Linsday, when but twelve years old, went to Madi- 
son County and lived with his grandfather, Nathaniel Richmond, an old 
Revolutionary soldier and pensioner. Here Mr. Linsday worked on the 
farm in the summer and went to school during the winter until he was 
eighteen years of age. In 1833, he learned the plasterer's trade, and 
worked at this and farming a number of years. March 10, 183G, he was 
married to Miss Rachel Shaul, daughter of Aaron and Anne Shaul, of 
Madison County, Ind. In 1839, Mr. Linsday was elected Justice of the 
Peace of Fall Creek Township, Madison County, which office he held 
until 1843, Avhen he resigned, and accepted the nomination by the Whig 
party for Representative of Madison County, but was defeated by the 
Democratic candidate in a Democratic county. During these last years, 
he had studied law and taught a few terras of school. In 1842, he pur- 
chased his first law books, four volumes of Blackstone. In the fall of 
1844, he came to this county on horseback, and while here attended 
the first court of Howard County, held six miles west of Kokomo, at the 
residence of Thomas H. Harrison. Long and Ervin were the Judt^es. 
He returned home, but soon came back in company with Dr. Richmond 
and Dr. James Barrett. They purchased a few lots in Kokomo and built 
three log cabins, finishing them on the last day of December. The fol- 
lowing May, Mr. Linsday moved his family to Kokomo. He wrote the 
first deed ever given east of the boundary line. In 1845. he opened a 


law office, and in the May term of court, he acquitted himself well, win- 
ning for himself a wide reputation. He gained each suit in his first 
court, and soon became the leading lawyer of Howard County. After 
the county was surveyed, he pre-empted 130 acres of land, which now 
forms a part of the city of Kokomo. In 1851, he was elected by the 
Whig party as Representative of Howard and Tipton Counties, and 
served in the first session six months, under the present constitution. In 
1852, he was nominated for Senator from Howard, Cass and Pulaski 
Counties, but was defeated. In 1856, he was elected by the Republican 
party as Circuit Judge of Howard, Tipton and Hamilton Counties, and 
was re-elected in 1864, but soon after resigned. His wife, Rachel, died 
in 1856, having been the mother of eight children, four of whom are still 
living — Lovisa E., widow of Col. Thomas Harrison ; Martha C, wife of 
Moses Childs, of Kokomo; Harry A., now a soldier in the regular army 
at Washington, having served three years in the late war; and Electa E., 
wife of Thomas A. Deland. In December, 1856, Mr. Linsday was mar- 
ried to Mrs. Julia A. Foudray, of Indianapolis, Ind. She died in 1869, 
and January 2, 1876, Mr. L. was married to his present wife, Mrs. Mal- 
vina F. Fowler, of Kokomo. Mr. L. practiced law until 1880, when he 
was elected to the State Legislature by the Republican party. He intro- 
duced fourteen bills before the House, eleven of which became laws. Mr. 
L. is now living west of the city, on forty acres of land, having retired 
from business. 

J. N. LOOP, son of Joseph M. and Margaret Loop, was born in 
Preble County, Ohio, September 25, 1845. He lived in his native county 
on a farm until he was eight years old, when he removed with his parents 
to Howard County, and located on a farm near Greentown, where his 
father still resides. He early learned the hardships of a life in the wilder- 
ness, but he availed himself of all the educational advantages of his time. 
He was a student in the common schools, in the Kokomo High School, 
and in the Northwestern College at Naperville, 111. He was an earnest 
seeker for knowledge, and having acquired a good education, began life as a 
teacher in the common schools of Howard County in 1866. He has taught 
successfully seventeen terms of school, and ranks among the oldest and best 
teachers of the county. He early learned from his father the trade of 
making grain measures. This business he has folloAved during almost 
every summer season for twenty years. He is now engaged extensively 
in this business at Kokomo, and is sole proprietor and manufacturer of 
the Hoosier Brand of Measures. During the years of 1873 and 1874, 
he traveled all over the West for the Western Publishing House of Chicago. 
Mr. Loop was married, May 30, 1878, to Miss Emma A. Johnson, daugh- 
ter of Dr. H. Johnson, of Howard County. He has always been a strong 


Republican, and he and his wife are active members of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. 

JACOB MAAS is a native of Bavaria, Germany. He emigrated 
to America in 1853, and soon after located at Council Bluffs, Iowa, where 
he sold goods. He then went to Cincinnati, Ohio, where for eleven years 
he was engaged in merchandising. In 1866, he located in Kokorao, 
where he has since resided. Mr. Maas first engaged in butchering, which 
business he continued nine years. He then carried on farming, together 
with the nursery business, in Centre Township, at which he was engaged 
nearly four years. He then returned to Kokomo and entered in the liquor 
business, wholesale and retail, which he is still running, Mr. Maas has 
in connection with his business a summer garden, in which he has a fine 
collection of rare birds and animals, embracing deer, alligators, and the 
largest bear in the State. Mr. Maas owns sixty acres of land in Union 
Township, and is one of the enterprising citizens of Kokomo. In 1866, 
he was united in marriage with Miss Jette Stern ; they have one child, 

LUTHER McREYNOLDS, Sheriff of Howard County, was born 
at New Castle, Ind., September 12, 1855, and is the son of Samuel and 
Maria (Deffenbaugh) McReynolds, natives of Ohio. His parents returned 
to Ohio when our subject was but a small boy, and in 1866 the family 
came to Howard County, locating in Kokomo. Here Mr. McReynolds 
entered the high school, where i)e studied until he was twenty years of 
age. He then entered the Sheriff's office as Deputy under John E. Terrill, 
and later served as Deputy for David 0. Freeman. The third term he 
was Duputy under Alexander H. Duke, and in the spring of 1882 was 
nominated as a candidate for the office of Sheriff by the Republican par- 
ty, and was elected after a hard struggle. Mr. McReynolds is undoubt- 
edly the youngest Sheriff in the State. He is an active politician in the 
Republican party, and is an energetic young man, full of ambition, and 
ever ready to assist in all public enterprises. He is a worthy citizen in 
this community, and is a prominent member of the Good Intent Lodge, 
No. 29, Knights of Pythias. 

WILLIAM F. MANN, County Surveyor, is the younger of two 
children born to John Mann, a native of Monroe County, W. Va., and 
Barbara (Fattic) Mann, a native of Shenandoah County, Va. His parents 
came to this county in 1849, and located a half mile north of Jerome, 
where they now reside. William F, Mann was born in this county July 
16, 1852, and spent his boyhood days working on the farm and attending 
the district schools. At the age of twenty, he entered the academy at 
Spiceland, where he attended school three years, graduating in the class 
of 1877. He taught five terms of six months school, teaching in the 


winter, and studying law in the summer under Judge O'Brien and Milton 
Garrigus. This he continued for about fifteen months, after which he 
attended the Michigan University at Ann Arbor, graduating in the class 
of 1882, after which he came home and was nominated for County Sur- 
veyor on the Republican ticket ; he was elected in the following fall by a 
good mnjority. Mr. Mann is a proficient officer, a worthy citizen, and an 
active member of the Republican party. 

J. M. MATER is a son of John C. and Abalunie (Winkler) Mater, 
and was born in Germany August 2, 1833. He was educated in his na- 
tive country. He learned the tailor's trade, which he followed until 1853. 
Hoping to better his fortune, he came to America and first located in 
Cincinnati, Ohio, where he worked at his trade one year. He then re- 
moved to Winchester, Ind., and followed his trade one year. He returned 
to Cincinnati and worked at his trade ten years. He then came to Koko- 
mo, Ind., and became a partner with D. Friday, conducting merchant 
tailoring and gents' furnishing goods for four years. He sold his interest 
and was employed by Friday as cutter and salesman for thirteen years. 
In February, 1883, after thirty years' experience, he opened his present 
establishment, where his tables are filled with the finest fabrics, con- 
sisting of all the latest styles in French, English and American goods. 
Mr. Mater is skilled in the art and his work is guaranteed. He was mar- 
ried in Cincinnati, Ohio, in 1857, to Miss Eliza Herman, a native of 
Germany. They have had eight children — Christia H., George H., Eliza, 
Annie, Clara, Ida, Nora and Nellie. Mr. M, is a member of the I. 0. 0. 
F. Politically, he is independent in his views, voting for the man, not the 

J. B. MICHENER, proprietor of the Star Machine Works, was born 
July 20, 1838, in Columbiana County, Ohio, and was the seventh of 
eight children born to James and Eliza (Rakestraw) Michener, both na- 
tives of Pennsylvania. J. B. Michener went to the common schools and 
worked on the farm until he was fifteen years old, when he began 
to learn the machinist trade, working as an apprentice three years. In 
the fall of 1859, he came to Howard County and started a saw mill. In 
1861, he enlisted in Company G, Thirty-ninth Regiment Indiana Vol- 
unteer Infantry, as a private. His regiment wintered in Kentucky, and 
in the spring he was honorably discharged on account of disability, when 
he came home to recruit. In the spring of 1865, he assisted in recruit- 
ing Company G, One Hundred and Sixty-second Regiment Ohio Volun- 
teer Infantry, and went out as Captain with Col. E. Ball in charge. He 
was one who received a meritorious letter from President Lincoln. He 
served until the close of the war, when he returned to Canton, Ohio, and 
the following fall came back to Kokomo, and engaged in the machine 


business, until 1870, when he went to Anderson and was one of the 
p! ties that established the Michener Machine Wovks. In 1874 he 
returned to Kokomo and established his present busmess in which he 
now employs twelve hands and does a business of |25 000 per annun. 
Mr. Mi!hener was married, in 1851., to Miss Mary Dunbar, of Stark 
County, Ohio. She was born January 12, 1841. Th,s un.on has been 
blessed with nine children, three of whom are living-Mol .e, F orence 
and Aceneth. Mr. and Mrs. Michener are members oft'-^Un.ed Order 
orHonor, and Mr. Michener is a memberof the I. 0. 0. ^. and Kn.ghts 
of Honor He had always been a Republican, until after Hayes elect.on 
when he joined the National party. In 1882, he was on th.s 
Ticket for County Clerk, and was defeated by 247 votes, agamst the usual 
majority of 1,000 or 1,300. Mr. Michener is one of the enterpr.smg 
bu iness men of Central Indiana, and is building up an extended trade. 

dTotEL W. MOORE was born March 7, 1836, in Bartholomew 
County Ind. He is the son of 8. H. Moore, a native of Kentucky 
and Pemilia H. (Gaines) Moore, a native of Virginia, both of English 
descent D W. Moore moved with his parents to this county, April, 
1846, where his father entered land in Centre Township. Here the son 
worked until his fathers death, in 1855, when he took charge of the farm 
until the fall of 1862. He had, during his youth, had access to the com- 
mon schools held in the pioneer schoolhouse, and by close app .cation to 
his books, he was able to teach school, beginning in the year 1857, and 
continued Bve winters, attending to the farm in the summer. He assisted 
in clearing 160 acres of land. The family suflered many of the priva- 
tions of pLeer life. The family consisted of four e^ldren thre^ sons 
and one daughter, Daniel W. being the eldest. In August 18t,2 George 
and Edwin A. enlisted in the Fifth Indiana Volunteer Cavalry, and shortly 
after D W., with his mother and sister, moved to Kokomo, where Mr. 
, Moore engaged in the furniture business with R. H. Porter, and later 
with P Downs and H. Bowman, continuing in this busmess fo. three 
years when he sold out and went into the boot and shoe business. In 
May 1867, he purchased the marble works of John Welch, where he has 
been doing a business of $5,000 to $6,000 a year ever since, having steady 
employment for five men. He is the only marble man in the county, and 
his work is seen in all the border counties. He has served as Township 
Assessor two years, and Township Trustee two terms. ■ He has been one 
of the leading men in public enterprises, and an active member of the 
Republican party. Mr. Moore was married. September 8, 1863, to Miss 
Mary E. Terrell, daughter of Richard Terrell, one of the pioneer farmers 
of this county, and now seventy-three years of age. T^e result of his 
union was five children-Eva B., Cora A.. Maide M.. <>-«-/,. and 
Rollie W. Mr. and Mrs. Moore are members of the Christian Church. 


HENRY L. MORELAND, County Auditor, was born in Franklin 
County, Penn., August 8, 1824. His parents, David and Isabella (Lang) 
Moreland, were both natives of Pennsylvania. Henry L, went to school, 
and helped his father on the farm, until he was twenty-three years old, 
when he moved west to Xenia, Ohio, where he learned the cooper's trade, 
and worked for eighteen months. He then located in Middletown, Henry 
County, Ind., and worked seven years at his trade. In ]851, he moved 
to Grant County, Ind., and two years later located in Howard Township, 
this county, where he followed farming until 18ti4, when he bought eighty 
acres of land in Ervin Township. This he improved and farmed until 
1872, when he sold it, and purchased property in Kokomo. He bought 
A. J. Norton's cooper shop, employed a number of workmen, and began 
to work again at his trade. He has been interested in this business ever 
since. In the spring of 1866, he was appointed to fill a vacancy as County 
Commissioner. He was elected in the fall to fill the unexpired term. 
He was re-elected in 1877, and served four and a half years, during 
which time the present court house was built, and many other county im- 
provements were made. He was elected in 1874, and re-elected in 1878, 
to the office of County Auditor, where he has given perfect satisfaction , 
and has proved an able and efficient officer. He is a liberal supporter of 
all public enterprises, an active member of the Republican party, and a 
member of the I. 0. 0. F. and Masonic fraternity. In May, 1849, 
Mr. Moreland was married to Miss Almira J. Burr, daughter of C. H. 
Burr, of Middletown, Ind. Mrs. Moreland died in 1870, leaving five 
children, two of whom are now living — Addie E. and Henry L. In Sep- 
tember, 1870, Mr. Moreland married his second wife, Mrs. Mary M. 
Neil, of this county. Four children bless this union, two of whom are 
now living — Olive L. and Willie M. 

DR. J. R. MORGAN, dentist, was born in 1856, in Monroe County, 
Ind., and is the son of Lewis R. and Lu A. (Boyd) Morgan, both natives of 
Indiana. His father was a merchant and resident of Monroe County 
until his death, in 1857. His mother is living in Kokomo, and Dr. Mor- 
gan is the only child. He received a good academic education, and was 
engaged in mercantile pursuits until he was twenty years of age, when he 
commenced the study of dentistry at Bedford, Lawrence Co., Ind., with 
Driscoll & Glover. He continued two years as a student, since which 
time he has been engaged in the practice of his profession in Bedford, Ind., 
Bellefontaine, Ohio, and in 1882 came to Kokomo. He purchased the 
dental office of Frank Andrews, where he has since been doing a large 
and increasing business. Dr. Morgan is well versed in his profession, and 
is an exemplary young man and a worthy member of the Christian 


RICHARD NIXON was born in North Carolina September 1, 1820, 
and was the seventh of a family of eight children born to Jacob and Je- 
mima (Walker) Nixon, both natives of South Carolina. They were reared 
in North Carolina, and there were married in 1804. They lived there 
until 1830, when they moved to Wayne County, Ind., and the following 
fall located in Henry County. Of the family of eight children, only two 
are living — Richard, and Jesse, a druggist of New Castle. Jacob Nixon 
spent the last ten years of his life with his son Richard. He died April 
21, 1874, at the age of ninety-two. His wife died July 25, 1844, aged 
fifty-eighf. They lived consistent Christian lives. Richard Nixon worked 
on his father's farm and attended the common schools until he was nine- 
teen, when he taught a terra of three months. He was married, Septem- 
ber 23, 1841, to Miss Asenath H. Wickersham, of Henry County. She 
was born in Wayne County January 2, 1821. Two children blessed 
this union — Louisa, and Mary E., wife of John A. Ellis, of Kokomo. Mr. 
Nixon farmed in Henry County until September, 1845, when he located 
at New London, Howard County, where he erected a business room, 18x44, 
in which he placed a general stock of goods, worth §64.00. He contin- 
ued increasing his stock and remained in business until 1861, increasing 
his business to over $10,000 per year. Afterward he lived in Richmond 
one year, and in 1865 located in Kokomo, engaging in the dry goods 
business in company with his brother, under the firm name of R. Nixon 
& Co., with a stock of $17,000. In 1869, Richard Nixon became suc- 
cessor to this firm, with a stock of $24,000, where he continued until 
1871, when he sold out and then purchased a $12,800 farm, one mile 
east of Kokomo. He afterward engaged in the boot and shoe business 
for two years, with his son-in-law, and in 1873 retired from business, and 
took charcre of his brother's estate, as administrator. He is now a stockholder 
in the Howard National Bank, and has 240 acres of good farm land, together 
with good city property. He is worth $30,000. He was County Commis- 
sioner of Howard County one term, and has been Trustee of the Kokomo 
City Schools eleven yeax's. He is Vice President of the Howard National 
Bank and a Director of the same. He cast his first vote for Gen. Harrison, 
in 1840. He is a Republican, and he and his family are members of the 
Friends' Church, and his daughter Emily is a recorded minister in this 
church. Mrs. Nixon is the daughter of J. and Mary Wickersham, both 
natives of North Carolina. This family located in Wayne County, Ind., 
in 1816, and in 1823 moved to Henry County, where Mr. Wickersham 
died. His wife spent the latter part of her life in Howard County, and 
died in 1855. They reared a family of five children, four of whom are 
yet living. 

HON. JAMES O'BRIEN was born in Brown County, Ohio, in 1828, 
and assisted upon the farm until he became a man. He was the son 


of John and Eleanor (McClugen) O'Brien, natives of Virginia and Penn- 
sylvania, and of Scoth descent. James had access to the schools 
in the country, and received a good common school education. At 
the age of eighteen, he began teaching, which profession he followed 
at intervals for six years. In 1849, while teaching, he began the study 
of law, and three years later he was admitted to the bar in Madison 
County. His parents moved to Hancock County, when he was but a 
child, and in 1830 they removed into Marion County, near Indianapolis. 
Jiimes began the practice of law in Madison County, in 1852, and in 
the same year removed to Hamilton County, where he remained for nine- 
teen years, practicing all the time, except during the four years from 1855 
to 1859, when he filled the ofiice of Clerk of the Court, having been 
elected on the Republican ticket. In 1871, he located in Kokomo, hav- 
ing been appointed to fill the vacancy of Judge Davis, of Anderson, in 
February, 1871, and served as Circuit Judge for three years, after which 
he resumed the practice of law. He has been one of the leading attor- 
neys of Howard County ever since. He pleaded for the defense on two 
of the prominent murder trials of this county. He was a member of the 
State Legislature in 1863, from Hamilton and Tipton Counties. In 1880, 
he was one of the State Electors, that cast a vote for James A. Garfield. 
He has been an active politician all his life, casting his first Presidential 
vote for John C. Fremont. He was married. May 8, 1854, to Miss 
Charlotte L. Lindsey of Noblesville, Ind. Six children have blessed 
this union — Lucy, the wife of Dr. Moulder; John L., book-keeper and 
painter, at Santa Fe, Kan.; Jessie, deceased ; William Grant, civil 
engineer ; Margaret E. and James A. Mr. and Mrs. O'Brien are mem- 
bers of the Methodist Episcopal Church, and Mr. O'Brien is a Royal 
Arch Mason. 

THEOPHILUS C. PHILIPS (deceased), one of Indiana's leading 
journalists, was born in Wayne County, Ohio, February 5, 1827, and 
was the fourth of eleven children born to farmer parents. He received 
a good common school education, which was supplemented by a college 
course at Delaware, Ohio, where he graduated when scarcely out of 
his teens. In 1848, he settled in Hamilton County, Ohio, where he 
engaged in the drug business. He was married in Hamilton July 
81, 1849, to Miss Frances Julia Freeman, and in 1852, with his 
family, removed to Wayne County, where for one year he was engaged at 
farming. He then returned to Hamilton and traveled for a Cincinnati 
house for about one year. In 1854, Mr. Philips removed to Howard 
County, and established a grocery store in Kokomo, which he conducted 
until 1856, when he was elected Justice of the Peace. In 1857, he em- 
barked upon his journalistic career, which he never relinquished until his 


dying hour, and in which he attained a fame which extended all over the 
adjacent States. January 14, 1857, the first "-^er of the ff.»..^ 
cLm Tribune was issued, with Mr. as sole ed.tor Th„ pape 
soon became a power in directing the affairs of the town of Kokomo and 
Howard County, and subsequently was admitted to be one of the lead ng 
iournals of the State. It was from time to time enlarged, and all the 
Lee and vigor of its editor were expended upon its columns 
all public enterprises calculated to promote the growth and develop the 
county and State in which he had made his home. The he.ght to 
Mr Philips attained was in some degree remarkable, and was only ob- 
tained by unwearying attention and devotion to his chosen profess.on He 
Ira stron. partisan, but retained and commanded the respect of h>s 
political adversaries. In 1861, Mr. Philips was appointed Postmaster of 
Kokomo by President Lincoln, which ofBee he held untd 18bb, when he 
e tn™ to'accept the Special Mail Agency of the State o Ind.ana, 
position was tendered him by Postmaster General Randall. Th,s pos.t^n 
he filled until 1868, when he resigned. Daring these yea«, he was st.ll 
interested in the Tribune, and a constant writer for ,ts columns. A a 
politician, he enjoyed a deservedly high reputat.on and «- »- » f; 
eaders of the Republican party in the county and State. At the t,me ot 
his death he was one of the oldest editors in continuous m U e 
State and his ability was everywhere recognized and respected Mi. 
Philips, in personal address, was genial, courteous and unvaryingly con- 
siderate He was a member of both the Masonic and Odd Fellow fVa- 
ternities, but not ,an active worker during his later years. Atnong the 
n y ar icles from his pen, those entitled " Town Talk "By the Way- 
"de" and "What shall we do with the Girls," gave h„n a wme reputa- 
tion, and were extensively copied by the press of Indiana and other Staes. 
It is but justice, right and truth to say that every ™F°™7"Y.f , "' 
educatiomd interest. reUgious and charitable undertakmg, fo^d " ^'» 
a constant and true champion, and that h,s ah, were capable of 
assuming the chief editorial chair of any metropolitan daily ne»spape. 
in the c^untrv. Jlay 25, 1875, Mr. Philips was stricken w,th paralysis 
but his vigor^s constitution baffled death, and he soon recuperated He 
re.«raedWs editorial work, which was foithfuUy continued untd July 4 
1878, when he was again attacked and passed quietly »"'' P^:><=^f" •' 
awav. His wife died December 4, 1876. Mr. and ^I-- P'""?' l-J 
four' children-A. F., Mary, Cl.arles H. (deceased) and William R. 

A F PHILIPS of the Kokomo Satwdaij Tribune, is a native ot 
Ohio,' where he was born in 1850. He received his early education in 
the common schools, and later entered his fiither's printing office in Koko- 
mo wliere he learned the practical duties of the " art preservative, soon be- 


coming an assistant editor. In 1866, he was appointed in the railroad 
mail service as route agent from Indianapolis to Peru, which position he 
held for two years. In 1870, ho was admitted and became assistant 
editor of the Tribune. In 1871, he received the appointment of Post- 
master of the city of Kokomo, retaining this office for six years, when 
he resigned and accepted an appointment as special agent of the Post 
Office Department; this position he held until 1878, when he resigned, 
on account of the health of his father, and with his brother, C. H. Philips 
devoted his time to the exclusive management of the Tribune. His 
brother dying in 1881, Mr. Philips became sole editor and proprietor, 
and conducted the paper alone until December, 1882, when he admitted 
his brother, W. R. Philips, and the business has since been conducted 
under the firm name of A. F. & VV. R. Philips. Mr. Philips is a fluent 
and ready writer, and under his management the Tribune has flourished 
and retained the prominence attained for it by his father. He is a lead- 
ing member of the Republican party, and belongs to the Masonic and 
K. of P. fraternities. Mr. Philips was married in 1870 to Miss Irena 
Bailey, daughter of James L. Bailey, of Kokomo ; they have four children 
living — Grace, Jessie, Julia and Maggie — and one deceased — Freddie. 

CHARLES PIOWARD PHILIPS, whose brilliant life went out in 
its morning, was born in Kokomo June 6, 1856. He received a good 
education, and inheriting a taste for journalism from his father, he entered 
the printing office in his childhood. When but thirteen years of age, he 
began editing and publishing The Junior, which lie continued until 1871, 
when he became a partner with his father, and junior editor of the 
Tribune, which position he retained until his death. During the Con- 
gress of 1874-75, he was appointed clerk of the Senate Committee on 
Pensions, and held this position during the term. He was a journalist 
of more than ordinary force, and in many respects a reflex of his father, 
his individuality being strongly marked, and in his love for his profession 
giving his whole soul to its requirements. His views were broad and he 
gave an impetus to State literature that will not soon be forgotten. The 
"Home Department" of the Tribune was established by him, and 
through his earnest efforts many of the leading writers of the day became 
contributors. He was a brilliant Avriter, and that he would have attaine 
to the foremost rank in journalism and literature, the high position 
accorded him full well attests. His desire to retain the high character, 
established by his father, of the Tribune, led him to confine himself too 
closely, and his constitution soon became weakened. In July, 1880, he 
was prostrated by fever, from the eff'ects of which he never recovered. 
October 17, 1878, he was united in marriage with Miss Kate Kennedy, 
a lovely and accomplished young lady, daughter of Peter B. Kennedy, 


one of the pioneers of Howard County. This union was a most happy 
one, and there lives were passed in perfect trust. In the fill of 1880, 
our subject, with his wife, went to Florida, thinking the climate might 
prove beneficial. Here a child was born to them, but at the fearful sacri- 
fice of the mother's life, who died March 9, 1881. With this terrible 
shadow upon his life, he returned to his home with his child, and on May 
31, 1881, the child rejoined its mother. Under his bereavements he 
bore up bravely, but consumption had fastened upon his weakened system 
and November 5, 1881, a life went out that was beautiful with all the 
graces that adorn manhood. 

CAPT. W. W. PEARCE is a son of John P. and Maria (Noon) 
Pearce, the former of Cornwall, England, the latter of South Wales. 
They came to America, in 1819, and settled in Vermont; from thence 
they went to Ohio, and finally to Indiana in 1852. Capt. Pearce was 
born in Vermont September 26, 1819, where he was reared till twelve 
years old, when he removed with his parents to Cuyahoga County, Ohio. 
He completed his studies at Newburg, in 1838, after which he was a 
sailor on Lake Erie for one year. He was then employed as mate on the 
Ohio River for two years, running from Louisville, Ky., to New Orleans. 
He then purchased and ran a canal boat on the Wabash & Erie Canal 
for about fifteen years. He sold out and located at Peru, Ind., and en- 
gaged in the liquor trade for about ten years. In 1875, he came to 
Kokomo, and has since been carrying on the liquor business. He is also 
engaged in farming. His estate lies four miles south of Kokomo, and 
contains 101 acres of fine improved land. He was married at Attica, 
Ind., January 15, 1855, to Miss Eliza Holbrook, of New York, She 
died October 17, 1878. He married his present wife, Miss Maggie E. 
Petley, October 30, 1879. Capt. Pearce is a stanch Republican, and is 
a member of the F. & A. M. 

COL. ELIJAH W. PENNY, one of Indiana's gallant soldiers, was 
born April 21, 1840, in Carroll County, Ind., and was the fourth of 
seven children born to John T. Penny, a native of South Carolina, and 
Deborah (Westfall) Penny, born in Ohio. His father came to Ohio in 
1816, when be Avas only eight years old, and in 1838 located in Indiana. 
He is a carpenter by trade, and now lives in Calhoun County, Iowa. Col. 
Penny came to Howard County in the fall of 1840. He lived on the 
farm until he was sixteen years of age, when he learned and worked at 
the carpenter's trade in this county. He traveled through the United States 
during 1859 and 1860, after which he returned to Howard, and 
enlisted in the Sixth Regiment Indiana Volunteer Infantry as a private. 
He served three months in West Virginia, when he re-enlisted in Company 
D, Thirty-ninth Regiment, August 2, 1861, serving three years as 


Sergeant. He raised Company A, One Hundred and Thirtieth Regiment, 
in the fall of 1863 ; was chosen First Lieutenant October, 1863 ; Captain 
January 20, 1864 ; Major, June 28, 1864 ; and Lieutenant Colonel, 
September 14, 1864. He served in the Department of the Cumberland, 
Twenty-third Army Corps, Army of the Ohio. He was wounded six times 
during the war ; four flesh wounds, and August 6, 1864, while on the 
right of Atlanta, Ga., in a charge, lost his right arm near the shoulder, 
and was wounded through the right side, the ball passing through the 
muscles of the back, fracturing one rib and the spine. Col. Penny was 
out of the field but sixty days with both wounds, when he returned to his 
regiment and served in front until the close of the war. He was present 
at the surrender of Joseph E. Johnston, at Greensboro, N. C, and 
commanded a post at Charlotte, N. C, after the surrender. He was in 
every battle and skirmish his regiment engaged in, and was discharged 
with his regiment, December 14, 1865. He was the only soldier from 
Indiana that kept the field with such severe wounds, for which the Gen- 
eral Assembly voted him thanks. He was in the following battles: Philippi, 
Laurel Hill, Cheat River, Munfordsville, Potato Hill, Buzzard Roost, 
Tunnel Hill, Dalton, Resaca, Smoky Creek Gap, Altoona Mountain, 
Cassville, Ga., Big Shanty, Burnt Hickory, Marietta, Decatur, siege 
of Atlanta, Stone Mount, Waverly, Centerville, Pine Creek, Nashville, 
and Kingston, N. C. Mr. Penny was married January 25, 1866, to 
Sarah J. Williams, daughter of John W. and Elizabeth Williams, His 
wife was born in Fulton County, Ind., March 20, 1848. He engaged in 
the livery business at Kentland, Ind., and in February, 1866, soldout and 
moved to Galveston, Cass County, where he carried on the tobacco trade. 
In 1872, he moved on a farm in Howard County, and in 1876 he located 
in Kokomo, where he has since been engaged in selling marble. Mr. and 
Mrs. Penny have two children — Edwin A., born January 17, 1867, and 
Rosella 0., born May 18, 1873. 

NATHAN PICKETT, President of the Howard National Bank, 
was born in Chatham County, N. C, October 26, 1818. When he was 
ten years of age, he removed with his parents to Parke County, Ind., 
where he was reared and educated. Later he was employed as clerk at 
Annapolis, Parke County, about five years, after which he turned his 
attention to farming. This he followed for about six years, when he 
opened a general merchandise store at Annapolis, and continued in busi- 
ness there for fifteen years. Mr. Pickett was a successful merchant, and 
did a thriving business. He again returned to farming, having purchased 
his father's place, and in 1875 was elected President of the First National 
Bank at Rockford, Ind., holding the position one year. In 1878, he 
located in Kokomo, and in July, 1878, the Howard National Bank was 


organized, with a capital stock of $100,000. Mr. Pickett was chosen as 
President of this bank, which position he has held since, proving himself 
an efficient officer. He was married in Parke County, Ind., November 
18, 1841, to Miss Harriet E. Carter, of North Carolina. By this 
union they have eight children. Mr. Pickett is the wealthiest citizen of 
Kokomo. He has accumulated a fine estate, owning a fine farm near 
Annapolis, also a farm in Morgan County, this State, besides his 
property in Kokomo. He is an old and worthy citizen, is a liberal con- 
tributor to all public improvements and benevolent enterprises, and is 
one of the most prominent members of the Society of Friends. 

J. C. PICKETT, of the firm of Armstrong, Pickett & Co., was 
born in Parke County, Ind., January 24, 1852. His father, Nathan 
Pickett, a banker and a capitalist of Kokomo, and his mother, Harriet 
(Carter) Pickett, are both natives of North Carolina. Mr. J. C. Pickett 
passed his early years in his native county, attending the schools of Parke 
County, subsequently completing his studies at Bloomingdale Academy, 
in 1870. After two years passed at agricultural pursuits, he, in 1872, 
came to Kokomo, and became a partner of the firm of Armstrong, Nixon 
& Co., now Armstrong, Pickett & Co., one of the leading hardware firms 
of Indiana. To this institution, Mr. Pickett has since devoted his en- 
ergies and business qualifications. He possesses superior business attri- 
butes, and is a valued member of the firm. Mr. Pickett was united in 
marriage, October 18, 1878, to Miss Louisa Lindley, daughter of Charles 
and Rhoda (Dyke) Lindley. They have one child — Emma. Mr. Pickett 
is a member of the I. 0. 0. F. and K. of P., and in politics a Repub- 

M. M. PREBLE is a native of Kentucky, and was born February 
7, 1805. He was the second of eight children born to Benjamin B. and 
Lucretia (Marshall) Preble, both natives of Maryland, and of English 
descent. His parents were married in Kentucky, in 1800, and in 1807 
removed north into Piqua County, Ohio, and ten years later moved to 
Preble County, Ohio, where they spent the remainder of their days. 
Benjamin B. died October, 1837, and his wife in 1826. M. M. Preble 
spent his boyhood days working on his father's farm, and going to the 
common schools. May 8, 1823, he was married to Miss Hannah 
Marshall, of Preble County, Ohio. She was born December 23, 1807, 
in Kentucky. Five children have blessed this union — Debora, Philip M., 
Benjamin B., Jr., Elizabeth and Magaret A. Soon after Mr. Preble 
was man-ied, he began farming on rented land, but two years later he 
purchased fifty-three acres of timber land, on which he erected a log 
cabin. Through industry this farm was improved and enlarged to 119 
acres, on which was erected a good brick house and barn. In 1853, he 


sold this land, and moved westward, again locating on wild land in Cen- 
tre Township, Howard County, Ind. This farm is now part of the city 
of Kokorao. This was his second start in life as a pioneer, and he was 
successful. He soon had a farm of eighty acres here, and 120 else- 
where. He has since sold both farms, and is now enjoying a quiet life at 
his home on West Washington street in this city. Mrs. Hannah Preble 
died in 1858, at the age of fifty-one. Mr. Preble was again married in 
1861, to Mrs. Hhoda E. (Collins) Gordon, who was born August 19, 
1818, in Preble County, Ohio. Mr. and Mrs. Preble are both prominent 
members of the Christian Church. Mr. Preble was first a Whig, and 
afterward joined the Republican party. He is a liberal supporter of all 
public enterprises and improvements. His first purchase of land cost him 
^15, and twenty years after he sold it for $186 per acre. 

JOHN L. PUCKETT, editor of the Christian Indicator, was born 
January 22, 1847, in Howard County, Ind. He was the third son of six 
children born to Henry L. and Elizabeth Puckett, both natives of Ohio, 
and of English descent. H. L. Puckett was married in Henry County, 
Ind., and in 1846 located near Russiaville, this county, where he worked 
at blacksmithing and farming. In 1864, he went West; spent two years 
in Iowa, then he located in Richland County, Wis., where he still lives 
and works at his trade. John L. Puckett assisted his father on the farm 
and in the blacksmith shop, going to school in the winter until he was 
thirteen years old, when he enlisted in Company E, Fortieth Regi- 
ment Indiajia Volunteer Infantry, at La Fayette, Ind., as a drummer 
boy, and later as a regular soldier. He participated in the battles of 
Shiloh and Perryville, and with the Army of the Cumberland ; he was in 
the battles of Stone River, Mission Ridge, Chattanooga, and at Kenesaw 
Mountain he was wounded by a gunshot. In 1865, he again joined his 
regiment at Iluntsville, Ala., when they went into Texas, where they re- 
mained until December, and in January, 1866, he was honorably dis- 
charged at Indianapolis, Ind.; upon his return home, he went to Tampico, 
Ind., and worked at brick-making in the summer and studied medicine in 
the winter. He, in 1872, entered the Indiana Medical College, and the 
following spring began to practice in Cassville, this county, establishing 
a good practice. In 1875, he went back to his medical college and com- 
pleted the course, graduating in the spring of 1876, when he again re- 
turned to his practice. Mr. Puckett has for the last ten years been pas- 
tor of the Christian Church at Cassville, with which denomination he 
has been connected for many years. Since December 1, 1881, he has 
been editing the Christian Indicator. This paper is published in the 
interest of the old Christian Church, and now has a circulation of 2,000 
copies. Mr. Puckett was married in 1866 to Miss Mary J. Golding, of 


Howard County. She was born December 6, 1849. Four children have 
been born to them — William 0., Cora May, Charles C, and Omer, de- 
ceased. I\Ir. Puckett is a Master Mason, a member of the Grand Army 
of the Republic, and one of the leading men of the county. 

W, B. RAY was born in Wabash, Ind., October 6, 1847, and is the 
son of Joseph H. and Mary P. (Myers) Ray, natives of Ohio, and early 
settlers of Wabash, where they still live. After a preparatory course in 
his native town, W. B. Ray entered college at Crawfordsville, where he 
completed his studies in 1866. He then for a year engaged in the book 
and stationery business at Wabash, but disposed of his stock and was soon 
after appointed Deputy County Auditor ; eighteen months later, he was 
appointed Deputy Recorder, and two years thereafter filled the position 
of Deputy Clerk of the Circuit Court, one term, and then, because of ill 
health, retired from active business for some time. In June, 1877, he 
located at Kokomo, where he has compiled a full set of abstract books, 
and now possesses the only complete set in the county. In February, 
1864, he enlisted in the Fourteenth Indiana Light Artillery and took 
part in engagements at Baldwin's Cross Roads (where he was wounded in 
the right temple) and Ripley, Miss.; ait Nashville, Franklin and Colum- 
bia, Tenn., and at Fort Blakeley and Spanish Fort, Ala. He was mar- 
ried at Wabash, Ind., to Louisa Phillips, of Ohio, daughter of Robert 
and Elizabeth (Medburg) Phillips, the former a native of Pennsylvania, 
and the latter of the Buckeye State. He has had born to him four chil- 
dren — Charles M., Clara M., JohnF. and Maud. Mr. Ray has taken an 
active part in developing the public highways of Howard County, and 
has made preliminary surveys of all its gravel roads ; he is a Republican, 
and is a member of the I. 0. 0. F. and of the G. A. R. 

LEVI P. RICH, County Recorder, was born September 27, 1848, 
in Hamilton County, Ind. He is the son of Thomas H. and Betsey 
D. (Peacock) Rich, both natives of North Carolina, and of English de- 
scent. Thomas Rich came to Hamilton County with his parents in 1833, 
where he lived until 1849, when he located in Monroe Township, Howard 
County. Here he cleared 120 acres of land, and reared a family of six 
children, Levi P. being the only son. In October, 1869, he moved to 
Kokomo, where he lived until his death, April 18, 1873. His wife (aged 
sixty-seven) still lives in this city. Levi P. Rich worked on the farm 
until he was twenty-one, when he had the misfortune to lose his left arm 
while working in Hunt Brothers' planing'mill, in New London. He had 
in his youth acquired a good common school education, and after he was 
crippled, he went to Earlham College at Richmond, Ind., intending to 
complete the course, but after a year's study he was called home by the 
failing health of his father. He then began to manufacture brooms, in 


which business he continued until 1878, when he was elected County Re- 
corder by the Republican party, with a majority of 896. Mr. Rich was 
married, December 30, 1873, to Miss S. Josie Heston, of Wabash, Ind., 
and daughter of George and Mary (Jackson) Heston, natives of Wayne 
County, Ind. Mr. Rich is a member of the I. 0. 0. F. and Knights of 
Pythias, and a member of the Society of Friends. He started in life a 
poor boy, but through labor, economy and temperate habits he has ac- 
quired a good home. Mrs. Rich acquired a good education when young, 
and at the age of sixteen began to support herself by teaching school, 
which she followed for several years. Mr. Rich has discharged the du- 
ties of the important office which he is now filling ably and acceptably 
and without any assistance, and has the confidence of the general public. 
CORYDON RICHMOND, retired physician and surgeon of Ko- 
komo, was born in Onondaga County, N. Y., November 22, 1808, and is 
the son of John L. and Lorana (Patchin) Richmond. His parents emi- 
grated to Ohio in 1817, locating fifty miles from Cincinnati, and the fol- 
lowing year at Newtown, ten miles east of that city. Dr. Richmond re- 
ceived but a meager education in the common schools, but this was in 
part supplemented by home instruction and influence, for his father was 
a physician and clergyman, and his mother possessed superior traits of 
character. He began the study of medicine in his father's office, and at- 
tended lectures in the Ohio Medical College at Cincinnati, during the 
session of 1831 to 1832, and at their close began practice in Pendleton, 
Madison Co., Ind., where he remained till 1838, and then removed 
to Indianapolis and entered the office of his father and Dr. G. W. Mears, 
who were in partnership. In 1844, he and N. R. Lindsay visited the 
Indian Reserve, as Howard County was then called, and after examining 
the country, both decided to settle there. Late in the season, they re- 
turned and built their cabins, and the next spring removed thither, where 
Dr. R. has since resided. In 1847, he was chosen to represent Howard 
and Cass Counties in the Legislature. He has been a member of the 
Masonic fraternity since 1844, and was the first AVorshipful Master of 
Kokomo Lodge, and has taken the order of High Priesthood. In 1863, 
he became Assistant Surgeon in Military Hospital No 3, Nashville, Tenn., 
and remained until failing health compelled him to return home. In 
March, 1865, he again repaired to Nashville and helped to care for the 
wounded, and to fit up the hospital for the colored troops. In 1867, he 
was elected Mayor of the city of Kokomo and served two years. In 
politics, he was formerly a Whig, and is now a Republican. Dr. Rich- 
mond was married, February 16, 1830, to Nancy Page Stockton, who died 
in September, 1833. He was next married October 6, 1836, to Fran- 
ces Hawkins, with whom he lived thirty-five years, when the union was 


broken by death October 5, 1871. He was united to his present wife, 
Mrs. Lydia E. Saxton, September 9, 1873. He has had four daughters, 
the result of the second marriage — Louisa W., wife of J. M. Leeds ; 
Sarah Jane, wife of Joseph Anderson (deceased); and Lucinda and Mar- 
garet, each of whom died at the age of six years. Dr. Richmond has 
shared the burdens, and in some degree, the success, of the people of 
Howard County from an early day, witnessing the gradual transforma- 
tion of the country from a forest to its present cultivated state, and un- 
dergoing all the privations of a pioneer physician. He established a large 
and extensive practice in Kokomo and the vicinity while in active busi- 
ness, and has always been a diligent, honest, charitable and useful citizen, 
respected in all his relations, both private and public. Dr. Richmond 
was appointed Justice of the Peace in 1880, and in 1882 elected, which 
office he is still holding. He is now retired from active business and en- 
joying well-earned leisure after a busy life. The chapter pertaining to the 
early history and organization of Howai-d County in this book is the 
work of his hands, and will descend to posterity, keeping for many gene- 
rations the memory green of the noble band of pioneers who were as- 
sociated with him in developing the material wealth of the now prosper- 
ous county of Howard. 

E. W. SAWYER, M. D. (Homoeopathic school), is a native of 
Maine, and was born in 1836. His parents, William and Fidelia (Hill) 
Sawyer, were also natives of the same State. His father was a prominent 
farmer and merchant, and occupied various public offices of trust, and is still 
living in his native State. His mother died when our subject was, an in- 
fant. He received good educational advantages, and until sixteen years 
of age was reared upon a farm, after which he traveled through several 
States, engaged in various occupations. Learning dentistry in Lawrence, 
Mass., he pursued this business in Boston, New York, Chicago, and for 
seven years in Memphis, Tenn. During his career as a dentist, he had 
been applying himself to the study of medicine, and in the winter of 1868 
and 1869 he entered Hahnemann Homoeopathic College, located at St. 
Louis, and attended one course. After leaving Memphis, he went to Se- 
dalia. Mo., and was in practice and study for several months, under the 
tutelage of a brother-in-law. He then went to Chicago with the intention 
of attending college, and in the disastrous fire of 1871 he lost all the prop- 
erty he had accumulated by years of labor. Daring the winter of 
1871-72, he attended college in Chicago, and in March, 1872, came to 
Kokomo, where he located and began practice, and where he has estab- 
lished a very successful business. In the spring of 1882, he graduated at 
the College of Homoeopathy of Chicago, after taking special courses. 
Dr. Sawyer makes a specialty in his practice of all chronic and blood 


diseases, and has successfully treated and cured many cases of cancer by 
his constitutional treatment, not calling into service the art of surgery. 
Dr. Sawyer is a member of the State Homoeopathic Society, and is a 
Knight Templar in the Masonic fraternity. He was united in marriage 
in 1869 with Miss Antoinette M. Smith, of Batavia, N. Y. She was a 
lady of much culture and intelligence. She died in 1878, leaving 
two children — Eugene W. and Antoinette. In May, 1882, Dr. Sawyer 
was united with his present wife, Miss Laura A. Bettes, of Kokomo, and 
a native of Howard County. 

WILLIAM SCOTT, M. D,, is a native of Greene County, Ohio, and 
was born in 1831. He is the eldest of a family of nine children born to 
Charles and Sarah (Bloxsom) Scott, who were natives respectively of Penn- 
sylvania and Virginia ; they were married in Ohio, where they were 
pioneer settlers. Charles Scott was a school teacher, and remained in 
Ohio until about the year 1840, when with his family he emigrated to 
Indiana, locating in Jay County, where he engaged in farming and stock- 
dealincr. He subsequently removed to Grant County, and later to Stark 
County, where he engaged in stock-dealing, and resided until his death in 
1859. The mother is still living and residing in Howard County. Our 
subject received a common school education until, when about eighteen, he, 
attended a seminary and high schools for four years, teaching in the mean- 
time. He then studied civil engineering and followed it for about one year, 
upon the Pan Handle Railroad. In 1852, he entered the office of Dr. Lo- 
max, of Marion, and commenced the study of medicine, remaining under his 
instruction two years. He removed to Greentown, Howard County, in 1856 
and commenced practice with Dr. Morgan, remaining with him two years; 
in 1857-58, attended the Ohio Medical College at Cincinnati, one course. 
He graduated from the Rush Medical College in Chicago in 1862. In 
1863, he entered the service, and for one year was Contract Surgeon of 
Hospital No. 14, at Nashville, Tenn. Returning home, he was appointed 
Examining Surgeon of drafted men, but soon entered the field again, 
receiving an appointment as Assistant Surgeon of the Eighty-Ninth 
Indiana Volunteer Infantry, and in three months was promoted to Sur- 
geon. He remained with his regiment until they returned home in 
August, 1865. They were in the Army of the Cumberland and Tennes- 
see. Upon his return. Dr. Scott located in Kokomo, and has been in 
constant and successful practice there up to the present writing. In 1870, 
he entered the Bellevue Medical College of New York and graduated 
therefrom. Dr. Scott is one of the progressive physicians of the day ; 
he has had years of valuable experience and has availed himself of all 
means to add to his store of knowledge. He is a member of the How- 
ard County Society, of which he has been President, and also of the 


Kokomo Academy of Medicine ; he is a member of the State Medical 
Society, and is now Vice President of the Eleventh Congressional Dis- 
trict Medical Association. He is one of the Faculty of the Ft. Wayne 
Medical College, as Professor of Diseases of the Throat and Respiratory 
Organs. Dr. Scott is a Chapter Mason, Medical Director of the G. A. 
R. of Indiana, and Surgeon of the Wabash and T., C. & St. Louis Rail- 
roads. Dr. Scott was united in marriage, in 1854, to Miss Sarah R. 
Tharp, of Grant County, Ind. ; she died in 1869. Three of their chil- 
dren are now living — James A., a graduate of the Indiana Medical Col- 
lege, and Charles A., who has also been a student of medicine, both now 
engaged in the drug trade in Kokomo ; Amanda Etta, a student of Glen- 
dale, Ohio. Dr. Scott was married to his present wife, Miss Jennie 
Snorf, a native of Ohio, in 1871. They have three children — Georgie 
A., William I. and Julia A. Dr. Scott and wife are both members of 
the Methodist Church. Dr. Scott has been considerably interested in 
real estate in Kokomo, having laid out one addition to the city, and built 
the Commercial Block. He has always aided the advancement of public 
measures of improvement, and is a public spirited and respected citizen. 

C. C. SHIRLEY, District Attorney, was born at Russiaville, this 
county, November 28, 1859, and is the son of Dr. D. J. and Waitzell 
(Seaward) Shirley, natives of Kentucky and Ohio respectively. The fam- 
ily moved to New London when our subject was still a youth, and there 
he was reared. He was educated at the common schools of that town, at 
the high school of Kokomo, and at Asbury University, Greencastle, Ind. 
In 1879, he entered the law department of Ann Arbor (Mich.) Uni- 
versity, from which he graduated in 1881, when he settled in Kokomo, 
and was soon after admitted to the bar. He is now associated in prac- 
tice with Judge James O'Brien, an eminent lawver of Kokomo. Mr. 
Shirley was elected to his present office of District Attorney in 1882, and 
is the youngest man ever elected in the county to fill that position. He 
is an active leader in the Republican party, and is a member of the 
K. of P. 

R. H. SMITH, M. D., a native of Howard County, is th'e fifth of 
eight children born to William B. Smith, a native of Ohio, and Sarah 
E. Smith, of Kentucky. His father came to Howard County about 
the year 1844, being one of its pioneer settlers. He first located in Clay 
Township, on land which he entered, and has followed farming since. He 
has improved over 600 acres of land, and is now living a retired life on 
a farm in Centre Township. He now owns over 600 acres of good farm 
land. He and his wife are both members of the Baptist Church, in good 
standing. The subject of this sketch was born in 1846, and received a 
common school education, supplemented with an academic course. He 


first clerked in a dry goods and grocery store, and then went into the 
drug trade at Galveston, Cass County, where he remained two years. He 
then came to Kokomo an<l started the drug store now owned by Wood & 
Harbster. He continued in business there ten years, and during that 
time was in partnership with Dr. James, Dr. I. C. Johnson and Dr. J. 
W. Wherrett ; he had commenced the study of medicine about 1860, 
studying with Dr. DayhufF about eighteen months. While he was in the 
drug store, he studied under Dr. James and Dr. Johnson, and after ending 
this business, he went to Montgomery County, Ind., where he practiced 
one year. He then returned to Kokomo and entered the Medical College 
of Indiana, from which institution he graduated in 1880. He returned 
to Kokomo and formed a partnership with Dr. Ross, which continued six 
months ; since then he has practiced alone. He is a member of the State 
Medical Association, the Kokomo Academy of Medicine, and is Treas- 
urer of the Howard County Association. He has been a member of the 
Board of Health, and is the Clay Township Physician. He was elected 
Coroner in 1882, which office he is now filling; he is also a member of 
the I. 0. 0. F. Dr. Smith was married, in 1867, to Miss Miranda A. 
Freeman, a native of Indiana. This union has been blessed with six 
children — Lillie, Byron K., Mary P., Freeman, Fred and Gussie. 

L. SNIDER, manufacturer of heading and staves. His factory 
was established in 1878, and the first year turned out $10,000 worth of 
work, and in 1882 $75,000. He employs about seventy-five men, and 
ships nearly all the heading and staves to New York and Philadelphia. 
He now ships the timber that he works from the adjoining counties. He 
uses all the improved machinery, and has a heading saw in Hamilton 
County which does a good business. Mr. Snider was born in Mont- 
gomery County, Ohio, December 25, 1851. He was the fifth of twelve 
children born to A. B. and Martha (Lowe) Snider, both of German 
descent. They still reside upon their farm in Montgomery County, 
Ohio, enjoying the fruits of a well-spent life. Our subject had a limi4;ed 
education in the common schools, and at the age of sixteen began to work 
out with his brother, for wages, in a stave factory. In 1878, he came 
West, with limited means, and engaged in his present business, expending 
$3,500 in building. He has been adding nearly every year since, and now 
has buildings and machinery to the amount of $8,000. He has $18,000 
worth of stock on hand, and is the leading manufacturer of Howard 
County. Mr. Snider was married, April, 1875, to Miss Clara A. Constan- 
tine, of Madison County, Ind. She was born in Illinois April 2, 1857. 
They have two children — Maggie E. and Martin A. Mr. Snider is a 
Republican in principle, but quite liberal in his views. His wife is a 
member of the Christian Church. 


DAVID 'C. SPRAKER is the son of Daniel and Martha (Miller) 
Spraker, and was born February 15, 1848, in Decatur County, Ind., 
where he attended school until 1860, when he came to Howard County, 
lived with his uncle, John Miller, attended school five years, and then 
entered the high school at New London. ,His first business experience 
was had in that town, where he clerked for some time, and then engaged 
in the drug business on his own account. In 1877, he sold out, and in 
the spring of 1878 was nominated, and in the fall elected, County Treas- 
urer, and re-elected in 1880, on the Republican ticket. He served both 
terms with credit to himself and to the county. He has taken a leading 
part in politics, and has served as delegate to the State Conventions. He 
is a member of the F. & A. M., I. 0. 0. F,, and K. of P. fraternities, 
and is a Director of the Howard National Bank. He is the owner of 
two farms, comprising 183 acres of finely improved land, and also owns 
a half-interest in a tile factory, but leads a comparatively retired life. 

WILLIAM STYER, of the Spring Mills, was born in Delaware 
County, Ohio, November 25, 1832, and is the son of Joseph C. and 
Rachel Styer. Joseph C. was a native of Pennsylvania, and his 
wife of New Jersey. William Styer worked on the farm, and went 
to school in the winter until he was sixteen, when he began to teach 
school at $13| per month, boarding around. He taught at intervals for 
ten years, until 1856, when he and his brother Henry engaged in the 
grocery business in Kokomo, continuing for two years, when William 
took charge of Russell & Dolman's elevator for three years. In 1862, 
he was commissioned Second Lieutenant of Company D, Eighty-ninth 
Regiment Indiana Volunteer Infantry, and was mustered in at Indianapo- 
lis, when they went South, and engaged in battle at Munfordsville. In 
December, 1863, Mr. Styer resigned his commission on account of dis- 
ability. He engaged in the sale of maps and charts throughout Indiana 
for a year, when he clerked awhile in a grocery, and then quarried stone, 
and took contracts for stone work two years. He was then interested in 
the grain and hardware business for three years, and in 1872 he and his 
brother Henry established the City Book Store, which is doing a business 
of $15,000 per annum. Mr. Styer gave his entire attention to the book 
store until 1881, when he took charge of the Spring Mills, owning one- 
half interest, and leasing the other half. The mill property is worth 
$9,000, has five sets of buhrs, two sets of rolls, and a capacity of 200 
bushels of wheat and 100 bushels of corn per day. This business he 
has since successfully managed. Mr. Styer was School Trustee and Town 
Clerk for a number of terms. He is an active member of the Repub- 
lican party. He was married, in 1857, to Miss Susannah Deffenbaugh, 
of Howard County. She was born November 25, 1836, in Madison 


County, Ohio. They have two children — Charles A., clerk in the book 
store, and Carrie M. Mr. and Mrs. Styer are members of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, and Mr. Styer is a member of the I. 0. 0. F. and 
G. A. R. 

W. H. SUMPTION is a son of John and Mary (Ward) Sumption, 
and was born in Randolph County, Ind., October 12, 1840. His mother 
died when he was very young, and when he was but ten years of age he 
lost his father, when he was placed under the guardianship of his uncle, 
Thomas Ward. After receiving a few months' schooling, he was appren- 
ticed to a harness-maker ; he next worked a year at carriage trimming, 
and then engaged in various pursuits until the spring of 1862, when he 
entered Company F, Fifty-fifth Indiana Volunteer Infantry, as Orderly 
Sergeant, and served until September of the same year. He then en- 
gaged in the harness trade in Kokomo until October, 1863, when, being 
commissioned Recruiting Ofiicer, he assisted in raising Company E, Eleventh 
Indiana Cavalry. He was soon after commissioned First Lieutenant of 
this company, and in May, 1864, was promoted to the Captaincy, which 
position he held until mustered out at Indianapolis, with honors, in 
September, 1865. He then engaged in business at different points for 
two or three years, when he returned to Kokomo and resumed harness- 
making, continuing until 1870, when he engaged in his present business 
of manufacturing carriages, buggies and spring wagons. Since 1881, the 
firm name has been W. H. Sumption & Son. The firm have a large 
trade and keep constantly at work ten men. Mr. Sumption was married 
at Kokomo, June 30, 1863, to Elmira Welch, of Pennsylvania, and to 
this union have been born three children — William, J. Ward and John 
F. Mr. Sumption is a member of the A., F. & A. M. and the G. A. 
R., and in politics is a Republican. 

GEORGE D. TATE, wholesale dealer in walnut, ash, poplar, oak and 
cherry lumber, was born at Lawrenceburg, Ind., January 11, 1838. His 
father, William Tate, was a native of Massachusetts and of Scotch de- 
scent. His mother, Anna (Kincaid) Tate, was a native of New York 
and of English descent. George D. Tate had access to the common 
schools of Lawrenceburg, attended College at Cincinnati, acted as book- 
keeper at intervals for his father, who was a lumber dealer, and also 
clerked in a dry goods store. When seventeen years of age, he learned 
the blacksmith's trade, at which he worked three years. He then enlisted 
in Company F, Thirty-seventh Regiment Indiana Volunteer Infantry, 
as a private, in the fall of 1861, and was soon marched into Kentucky, 
thence into Tennessee, participating in a number of skirmishes. After 
being in the service one year, he was commissioned Quartermaster of the 
Eighty-third Regiment of the Fifteenth Army Corps, which formed a 


part of the Army of the Tennessee. He accompanied Gen. Sherman on 
his march to the sea, and around to Washington, where Mr. Tate was 
discharged, after which he returned to Dillsboro, Ind., where he en- 
gaged in farming for one year. The fall of 1867, he removed to Koko- 
mo, where he soon after engaged in the lumber trade, having but two 
loads of lumber in his yard to begin with. Now he handles upward of 
four million feet per year. He started in life a poor boy, but by living 
within his means, and being attentive to his business, and of late years 
dealing in real estate, has acquired a large amount of property, having 
city property in Indianapolis worth $50,000, besides city property in Ko- 
mo and 260 acres of good farm land in Howard County. In the 
summer of 1882, he raised on one 180-acre farm, 1,300 bushels of wheat, 
2,000 bushels of corn and sixty tons of hay. He has this farm well- 
stocked and uses all the improved machinery. He has been one of the 
leading and active politicians in the Democratic ranks, serving as Ghaii'- 
man of the Central Committee for years. Though a Democrat he has 
been elected in a Republican ward successively for the last ten years as 
a member of the City Council. He is now worth about $100,000. He 
was married in May, 1863, to Miss Helen Kincaid, of Ripley County, 
Ind., daughter of Warren Kincaid, now deceased. Mr. and Mrs. Tate 
have had three children, two of whom are now living, Henry F. and 

RAWSON VAILE, attorney at law, was born May 28, 1812, in 
Bennington County, Vt. He worked on the farm and went to school 
until he was grown, when, in 1834, he entered Amherst College, and 
worked his own way through, by teaching school, until he graduated with 
honors in 1839. The following spring he came to Wayne County, Ind., 
and taught two years, when he was employed in the County Seminary at 
Centerville, Ind., until 1848. In the meantime, he had taken up the 
study of law, and was admitted to the bar in 1844. In 1848, he was in- 
duced to enter the editor's sanctum in Centerville, and published the 
Free Territory Sentinel. He was a Free-Soiler and anti-slavery man, ad- 
vocating the free homestead law. In 1852, he edited the Free Democrat 
in Indianapolis ; in 1854, when this paper united with the Journal, 
Mr. Vaile continued as one of the editors. The Free Democrat was 
the only Free-Soil paper that survived, although many were established. 
This paper continued until 1854, when the Free-Soilers joined the Repub- 
lican party. In 1855, through failing health, he abandoned the editorial 
profession, and the next year began to practice law. In 1857, he removed 
his family to Kokomo, and opened a law office, and has been for years a 
leading practitioner of this county. In 1867, he was elected School Ex- 
aminer, and served until 1872. He served as Town Trustee one term, 


and was one of the primf movers in establishing the free school system, 
and much was done by him in behalf of the Kokomo Normal School, as he 
was a stockholder, as well as one of the leaders in prosecuting the work. 
Mr. Vaile was married April 16, 1840, to Miss Anna E. Pope, of Spencer, 
Mass., who bore him five children — William P., cashier of Howard Na- 
tional Bank, Kokomo; Sarah L., deceased ; Joel Fred, a graduate of Ober- 
lin College, and attorney at law, Denver, Colo.; Joseph E., book-keeper 
and insurance agent; and Charles S., a graduate of Oberlin College, and 
a Con<zre£cational minister at Santa Barbara, Cal. Mrs. Anna Vaile 
died January 11, 1852, and Mr. Vaile married his second wife, Mrs. 
Rebecca G. Robinson, of Indianapolis, in April, 1854. She gave birth to 
two children, Emma and George R. In 1876, Mrs. R. G. Vaile died, 
and December 12, 1882, Mr. Vaile married his present wife, Mrs. Minerva 
Montgomery, of Howard County. 

WILLIAM P. VAILE, cashier of the Howard National Bank, is a 
son of Rawson and Anna E. (Pope) Vaile. He was born December 27, 
1840, in Richmond, Ind. When young, his parents moved to Center- 
ville, Wayne County, where his education was commenced. In 1853, he 
attended school at Indianapolis, and upon coming to Kokomo, in 1859, 
finished his studies in the schools of the city. In 1862, he was appointed 
Deputy Auditor, which position he held about four years. He then ac- 
cepted a situation as book-keeper in the First National Bank, and subse- 
quently became cashier of that institution. The latter position he held 
until 1877, when he engaged in the loan and insurance business, contin- 
uing one year. In 1878, he accepted the position of cashier of the How- 
ard National Bank, which position he has held up to the present writing. 
Mr. Vaile possesses splendid business qualifications, and is one of the 
leading citizens of Kokomo in all matters of progress. He is a member 
of the I. 0. 0. F. and K. of P., and in politics a Republican. In 1864, 
he enlisted in Company C, One Hundred and Thirty-seventh Indiana 
Volunteer Infantry, and served until October, 1865. Mr. Vaile was 
united in marriage with Miss Julia M. Andrews, July 3, 1872. She is a 
native of New York, and a daughter of Moses R. Andrews, Esq., of 

DANIEL A. WOODS is a native of Preble County, Ohio, where he 
was born September 24, 1854. His parents, Josiah and Sarah (Miller) 
Woods, removed with a family of five children to Howard County, in 
September, 1859. Daniel A. received a good education, commencing in 
the country schools of Howard County, and subsequently attending the 
educational institutions of Lebanon, Ohio. He commenced the study of 
law with O'Brien & Garrigus, of Kokomo, and subsequently graduated 
from the law school of Ann Arbor, Mich. In the fall of 1878, he began 



to practice in Kokomo, and has succeeded in establishing a prominent 
position among the attorneys of Howard County. He is now in practice 
in association with Charles E. Hendry. In politics, he is a Democrat, 
is an active worker, and takes a leading interest in all the political ques- 
tions of the day. Mr. Woods is a close student and a great reader. He 
has accumulated a large and valuable library of choice books, and is still 
adding to it many new publications. He is a fluent and polished writer, 
and in this field we predict for him a brilliant future. July 9, 1877, he 
was united in marriage with Miss Sarah R. Fagley. They have one child, 
Roxy June, born May 9, 1880. 

JAMES H. WATSON is a native of Darke County, Ohio, where he 
was born January 1, 1841. His parents, James H. and Sarah (Menden- 
hall) Watson, were natives of Pennsylvania, and followed farming in Ohio. 
His father died in 1843 ; his mother subsequently re-married and came to 
Indiana, where she died in 1854. James H. was reared upon a farm, 
and at the age of fifteen he learned the cooper's trade in Grant County, 
Ind., which occupation he followed for three years. In the spring of 
1862, he came to Kokomo, and engaged in the lumber trade, representing 
H. Morgan, of Cincinnati, buying lumber for this firm for five years. He 
then ent°ered the lumber yard of Dr. Henderson, conducting his business 
for two years, and also with Tate & Henderson one year as foreman. He 
then embarked in business for himself, buying a saw-mill in Clay 
Township, and contracted to saw 3,000,000 feet of lumber. This, with 
other business in the line, occupied him two years, achieving remarkable 
financial success. He then accepted a situation as foreman in the lumber 
yards of George Tate, with whom he remained until August, 1882. He 
then was engaged for a few months as bridge contractor. February 1, 
1883, he bought the Clinton House saloon, which he has enlarged and 
refitted, and has now the finest rooms in the city. Mr. Watson keeps a 
strictly first-class place, and deals in the best and purest articles in his 
line. He owns eighty acres of improved land in Centre Township, and 
valuable town property. He is a Mason, and in politics a Democrat ; 
has served upon the City Council two years, during which period the 
streets were improved. Mr. Watson was married, March 27, 1861, to 
Miss Melinda C. Nelson, a native of Clinton County, Ohio. They have 
three children — Ida, Thornton and Guy. 



JOHN ALBRIGHT is the third of twelve children born to William 
and Elizabeth (Snoderly) Albright, natives respectively of North Caro- 
lina and Tennessee. His parents came to Howard County in 1847 and 
located in Taylor Township, Our subject was born May 18, 1822, in 
Anderson County, Tenn., and removed with his parents to Preble County, 
Ohio, when but twelve years of age. He attended the public schools and 
worked on his father's farm until he was twenty-one. He then formed a